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Edward William Lane's ARABIC -ENGLISH LEXICON 
Book I contains all the classical words, their derivatives, 
and their usages. It appears in eight separate volumes 
and took the author more than thirty years to compile. 

Book II, which Dr Lane contemplated and which was 

to contain rare words and explanations was incomplete 

at the time of his death in 1876 and therelore never 

In describing Lanes Lexicon. Dr. G. P. Badger wrote. 
This marvellous work in its fullness and richness, its 
deep research correctness and simplicity of arrangement 
lar transcends the Lexicon of any language ever pre- 
sented to the world. >• 

P..oied .» Ltb.oor b. OFFSET CONROGRAVURF 

























Since the Fifth Part of this work was published, the hand that wrote it has become still. After 
thirty-four years of labour at the Lexicon, Mr. Lane died, on the tenth of August, 1876. 

It was his special wish that the work which had occupied so large a part of his life should 
be completed by me, and that wish absolves me from the charge of presumption to which I 
might otherwise be exposed. To complete it as it has been begun is indeed beyond the power 
of any living Orientalist : but I hope that, so far as knowledge of my Uncle's methods of work 
and jealous love for his memory may avail, I may not prove altogether unworthy of the great 
trust he reposed in me. 

Informed of my purpose, Her Grace the Dowager Duchess of Northumberland immediatcly 
offered to continue to the work that generous support which she had given during my Uncle's life. 

A careful examination of the manuscripts and notes which my Uncle had accumulated convinced 
me that there was more to be done than I had at first supposed. I found articles in three 
different stages : some consisting only of Mr. Lane's own notes, without any reference to the 
original authorities ; others written, but needing to be collated with one or two manuscripts acquired 
later; and some completely written and ready for the press. The difference is explained by the 
fact that Mr. Lane was of necessity obliged to write in the order of the Sihah, and that as the 
printers gradually approached him he finished those articles which were likely to be speedily 
wanted : for he began to print when he had written rather more than half the work. The notes 
of his own were simply the results of his long experience in the language, and were to be inter- 
woven with the translations from the original authorities when the articles came to be written. 

At the time of his death my Uncle was engaged on the article jJS • Up to this point eveiy 
article is ready for the printers. Of the rest the majority are written, but some need collation. 

In these circumstances I think it best to publish in Part VI. only to the end of the letter u3 . 
A part of the following letter is not completed, and to fill the lacunae would delay the publication 
of the volume. The present Part therefore contains only c- and c_j. Up to p. 2386 the proofs 
were corrected by Mr. Lane ; after that, by myself. The next Part, which I shall bring out so soon 
as is compatible with sound work and careful printing, will contain jf , C-) » J » /* 5 an d the last, 
tiJ , i , j , ls • After the publication of Part VIII., I shall begin to prepare Book II., comprising 
the rare words and dn-af Xeyo/xo'a, which Mr. Lane estimated as two Parts, or one thick Part. 

The appearance of this Part has been delayed by the difficulties presented in the composition 
of the Memoir which is prefixed. I have had to tell the story of a' life spent, partly on account 


of ill health, but mainly for the sake of work, in seclusion/ Few men knew Mr. Lane personally in 
his later years, and as time wont on and the improbability of his living to finish his work became 
more and more apparent, his unwillingness to see anyone beyond his family circle and a few special 
friends became stronger than ever. Thus I have had no assistance from the recollections of friends. 
Nor have I derived the smallest help from letters. Mr. Lane had a deeply-rooted objection to 
the publication of letters meant only for private friends, and he took care to have all his own 
letters from Egypt destroyed; whilst after his return to England he hardly ever wrote one 
except on questions of scholarship which he was asked to decide. 

Thus the only materials I have had for the foundation of the Memoir have been (1) the MS. 
of the "Description of Egypt," which contains a certain amount of personal incident; (2) certain 
note-books kept by Mr. Lane during his first and second visits to Egypt; (3) his published works ; 
(4) his sister's journal, kept during the third visit to Egypt, and certain passages in her " English- 
woman in Egypt." I should add that Mrs. Lane, my Grandmother Mrs. Poole, and my Uncle 
Reginald Stuart Poole, have aided me greatly with their recollections. For the last ten years 
I can of course write from my own intimate relations with my Great^Uncle. 

The diary of Mr. Lane's second visit to Egypt I have thought it well to reproduce almost 
in cxtemo. As the daily jotting-down of what he called his " idle moments " it reveals something 
of himself, and as the record of the changes which nearly ten years had brought about in the 
country it will be acceptable to students of the history of Europeanizing in Egypt. 


July, 1877. 


«-* . io ^ rii-. ■ -» 

Thb present Part completes the publication of the MS. materials which Mr. Lane left for the 
continuation of his Lexicon. The incompleteness of these materials has already been explained in 
the Preface to Part V. My original intention was to compile the missing articles from Mr. Lane's MS. 
copy of the Taj-el-'Aroos, with the addition of such notes as he had himself prepared during the 
progress of the work. This intention, however, was modified when tbe publication of the Taj-el- 
'Aroos at Boolak deprived Mr. Lane's MS. copy of its peculiar importance. The text can now be 
consulted by any scholar for himself, aud to offer a bare translation of it, in a Lexicon intended 
mainly for the use of scholars, would be superfluous. The great value of Mr. Lane's work lies 
not so much in his translations from standard works of Arabic lexicography, as in the 
comments and explanations which he was able to add from his own profound knowledge of the 
language and its literature. Any scholar can translate the Taj-el-'Aroos : but none could have 
elucidated the obscurities of the native lexicographers with the precision and illumination which 
characterize Mr. Lane's commentary. The translation from the Taj-el-'Aroos has therefore been 
abandoned, and the Supplement appended to the present Part, instead of containing all the articles 
omitted from Parts V.— VIII., includes only such notes as Mr. Lane had made from time to time 
with a view to the eventual writing of these articles. These notes are not to bo accepted as the 
final decision of their writer, far less as finished or even approximately complete articles. They 
have not enjoyed the benefit of his revision, and many of them are clearly the record of con- 
temporary speech, which he would doubtless have excluded from a Lexicon of the classical 
language. Nevertheless, Mr. Lane's habitual accuracy and caution are sufficient guarantees that 
these notes were not made without careful deliberation. They contain many significations which 
are not to be found in the ordinary dictionaries; and the numerous cross-references, which I have 
verified, will prove of service, and to some extent supply the want of more complete explanations, 
especially for the commonest meanings of words. The notes refer chiefly to tho less common 
meanings, and those most familiar to the student will often be found missing. 

With regard to the " Book II." which Mr. Lane contemplated, and which was to contain 
rare words and explanations, I am obliged to admit that the materials are wanting. Some few 
articles are partly prepared, but are not sufficient to warrant any prospect of this part of tho 
work being completed. It is the less needed since the publication of the late Professor Dozy's 
valuable Supplement. 

Fifty years have passed since Mr. Lane undertook to write this Lexicon, and thirty 
since the first Part appeared. If there has been considerable delay in the production of the 
recent Parts, I must plead that the collation, revision, and verification of about two thousand 
columns of this work represent no little labour; and this duty has had to be done in the midst 
of other and no less pressing occupations. 

1st January, 1893. 




The life of a great scholar should not be suffered to pass away into forgetfulness. The Arabs have indeed a 
proverb, « He who has left works behind him dies not ■ : but although so long as there are students of the life 
and the literature of the East, the memory of Lane cannot die, the personality of the great Orientalist is 
rigidly excluded from his writings; they reveal almost nothing of himself. If -to stimulate the endeavour, 
of others by the example of a chief of their kind, to encourage fainter hearts by telling them of the strength 
aud devotion of a master, be one of the ends of biography, this brief and inadequate memoir of perhaps the 
truest and most earnest student this century has seen will not be deemed superfluous. As the record of 
half a hundred years of ceaseless labour, crowned with a perfection of scholarship to which even Germany 
avowedly yields the palm of undisputed supremacy, the life of Lane must needs be written. 

Edward William Lane was born at Hereford on September 17th, 1801. He was the third son of 
the llev. Theophilus Lane, LL.D., a Prebendary of Hereford; and his mother was Sophia Gardiner, a niece 
of Gainsborough the Painter. At first his education was conducted by his father, after whose sudden 
death in 1814 he was placed successively at the grammar-schools of Bath and Hereford, where he 
distinguished himself by his unusual power of application and by an almost equal mastery of classics and 
mathematics. The latter formed his principal study, for his mind was bent upon taking a degree at 
Cambridge, and then entering the Church. This desire to devote himself to a religious profession may 
have had its origin in the training of his mother, under whose influence his education was completed. 
Mrs. Lane was a woman of no ordinary mould. Gifted with high intellectual powers, which she had 
spared no pains to cultivate, she possessed a strength and beauty of character that won not only admira- 
tion but affection from all who were privileged to know her. It is easy to understand how great and 
how good must have been the influence of such a mother upon Edward Lane. He was wont to say 
that he owed his success in life to her teaching, and the saying, characteristic in its modesty, was doubtless 
partly true. His success was the result as much of character as of intellect. 

The Cambridge project was never carried out. Lane indeed visited the university, but did not enter 
his name on the books of any college. A few days' experience of university life as it was in the first 
quarter of this century was sufficient to show him that in living in such society as he was then intro- 
duced to, and in conforming to its ways, he would be sacrificing what was to him dearer than all 
academic distinctions. That his mathematical training had been thorough is shown by the fact that im- 
mediately after giving up the idea of Cambridge, Lane prooured a oopy of the honour papers of the 
year and discovered that he could without difficulty solve every problem save one ; and, as he has often 
told me, going to bed weary with puzzling out this single stumbling-block, he successfully overcame 
it in his sleep and, suddenly waking up, lit his candle in the middle of the night and wrote out the 
answer without hesitation. 


The plan of Cambridge, and with it the Church, being giv*en up, and his later training being too 
exclusively mathematical for him to think of Oxford, Lane joined his elder brother Richard (afterwards 
renowned for his skill in lithography, which was recognized by the Royal Academy in the election to 
an associateship) in London, where he spent some time in engraving. Although this profession was also 
shortly abandoned, the years devoted to it were not thrown away. The taste for art which he had 
inherited with the Gainsborough blood and which his mother, who had spent a great part of her girlhood 
in her uncle's studio, spared no endeavour to foster, aided by the mechanical training of the graver, 
was afterwards turned to admirable results in Egypt. Side by side with his engraving, however, was 
the growing passion for Eastern things. Lane could not by his nature be idle for a moment, and the 
hours unfilled by his art were given up to hard reading. To such an extent was this zeal for study 
carried, that he began to grudge the time necessary for food and exercise. The result of inattention 
to the ordinary rules of health was a state of weakness that could offer but a faint resistance to the 
attaek of typhus fever which now assailed him. With difficulty escaping with his life, he found his 
health unequal to the sedentary habits of the engraver. A man who was so weak, partly from the 
exhaustion of chronic bronchitis, and partly from the effects of the fever, that he sometimes could not 
walk along a street without clinging for support, was not fit to bend over copper-plate all day. He 
therefore determined to adopt some other way of life. 

As early as 1822, Eastern studies had more than merely attracted Lane's interest. A manuscript 
grammar of colloquial Arabic in his handwriting bears this date : and he must have been studying some 
time before he could attempt a grammar of Arabic, even though it is only an abridgement of other works. 
From this year or earlier dates that severe devotion to the language and character of the Arabs which 
lor more than half a century filled every moment of his studious life. 

It was this taste for Oriental matters, seconded by his weak health, which could ill withstand a 
northern winter, that determined Lane to visit Egypt. Another motive may have been the hope of a post 
in the service of the British Government, which, he was informed by those who were qualified to speak, he 
stood a good chance of obtaining if he made himself well acquainted with Easterns at home. Whatever 
the motives, in 1825 Lane left England for the first of his three visits to the land of the Pharaohs. 



The " Description of Egypt." 

On Monday the 18th July 1825 Lane embarked on board the brig "Findlay," 212 tons, bound for 
Alexandria, and on the 24th he lost sight of the coast of England. The voyage, which occupied two 
months, was not altogether uneventful. On the 2nd September the "Findlay" nearly foundered in a 
hurricane off Tunis. The master seems to have been an incapable person, and no one else of the crew 
understood navigation. The night was starless; the sea ran so high that the heavy storm-compass in the 
binnacle could not traverse and was unshipped at every lurch; and, driven along between a lee shore and 
a dangerous reef, without compass, and the main topmast carried away, the ship seemed doomed to destruc- 
tion. It was at this critical moment that the captain entreated Lane to take the helm. Fortunately 
navigation had formed part of his mathematical studies: but he was little more than a boy and this was 
his first voyage ; he might well have shrunk from the responsibility. But he went at once to the 
wheel, where he had to be lashed, or he had been washed overboard by the seas that swept momently over 
the deck. He had noticed the bearings of the lightning, and by the flashes he steered. At last the moon 
rose, and by her light the wreck was cleared away and steering was less hazardous. As day dawned the 
wind abated, and Lane was able to bring the ship safely into Malta harbour on the morning of the 4th. 
Here she remained six days for repair; and meanwhile the crew mutinied, seemingly not without reason; 
and Lane was aroused one morning with a shot through his pillow. He had come prepared for 
dangers in Egypt, and these accidents by the way did not discompose him. On Monday the 19th September 
the shores of the Delta came in sight: first the ruined tower of Aboo-Seer rose above the horizon; then 
"a tall distant sail," which proved to be the Great Pillar of Alexandria; then high hills of rubbish, 
crowned with forts; and at last the ships in the Old Harbour. The "Findlay" was ordered to enter the 
New Harbour, and there cast anchor in the midst of a shoal of Rosetta boats. 

Although it was late in the afternoon and little could be seen before dark, Lane was too impatient 
to wait for the next day. He landed filled with profound emotion, feeling, he writes, like an 
Eastern bridegroom about to lift the veil of his as yet unseen bride. For his was not the case of an 
ordinary traveller. "I was not visiting Egypt merely for my amusement; to examine its pyramids and 
temples and grottoes, and after satisfying my curiosity to quit it for other scenes and other pleasures: 
but I was about to throw myself entirely among strangers, among a people of whom I had heard the 
most contradictory accounts; I was to adopt their language, their customs, and their dress; and in order 
to make as much progress as possible in the study of their literature, it was my intention to associate almost 
exclusively with the Muslim inhabitants." 

The first sight that met his eye was singularly impressive. It was the time of afternoon prayers, and 
the chant of the Mueddin had just ceased as they landed. Muslims were performing the ablutions at the 
sea, or, this done, were praying on the beach, with that solemn gravity and with those picturesque and 
striking attitudes which command the respect of all standers-by. Lane always felt a strong veneration for 
a Muslim at his prayers, and it was a singularly auspicious moment for an enthusiastic Englishman to set 


foot on the Egyptian soil. As he walked on, till he reached one of the principal streets, his delight and wonder 
grew at every step. The peculiar appearance of the narrow street and its shops, the crowded passengers 
of every nation bordering on the Mediterranean, the variety of costume and countenance, the "bearded 
visage of the Turk, the Moor, and the Egyptian,— the noble and hardy look of the sunburnt Bedawee 
enveloped in his ample woollen sheet or hooded cloak,— the mean and ragged clothing of many of the 
lower orders, contrasted with the gaudy splendour or graceful habit of some of their superiors, — the 
lounging soldier with his pipe and pistols and yataghan, — the blind beggar, — the dirty naked child, and 
the veiled female," afforded a picture beyond even what his dreams of the land of the Arabian Nights 
had conjured up. It is true the shady side of the scene was somewhat forcibly disclosed a few paces 
further on, by a brawl, a murder, and a decapitation, all occurring in the space of a few minutes 
before the eyes of the young traveller. And as he examined Alexandria at leisure, he began to feel 
disappointed with it, and to long for Cairo. Notwithstanding the characteristic sights that first greeted 
him, the city was not Eastern enough, and he would have found his stay there wearisome but for the 
kindness and hospitality of Mr. Salt, the British Consul-General, who received him like an old friend, 
although they were strangers to each other, and gave him a room in his country-house near the Bab- 
e8-Sidr. Lane found a "delightful retreat" in Mr. Salt's garden, and plenty of entertainment in the 
company that visited the Consul. One of these friends, M. Linant, the indefatigable cartographer of 
^Rypfc. proposed , that Lane should join his party to Cairo, an offer which, as a stranger and as yet 
unprovided with a servant, he gladly accepted. 

On the 28th September the Reyyis and crew chanted the Fat'hah, the beautiful prayer which opens 
the Kur-an, and M. Linant and his party, accompanied by Lane, set sail on the Mahmoodeeyeh canal 
for the " El-Kahirah the Guarded." The voyage was in no wise remarkable. Lane made his usual 
careful notes of every thing he saw, from the sarab to the creaking of the sakiychs and the croaking of 
the frogs. He described each village or town he passed, and observed the ways of the people working on 
shore or bathing in the Nile; and watched the simple habits of the boatmen, when the boat was made 
fast and their day's work was over, grouped round the fire on the bank, smoking and singing, and blowing 
their terrible double-pipes and making night hideous with their national drums; and then contentedly 
spreading their mats, and, despising pillow and covering, falling happily asleep. On the 2nd October Lane 
had his first distant and hazy view of the Pyramids, and about five o'clock the boat was moored at Boolak, 
the port of Cairo, and the Reyyis thanked God for their safe arrival — " El-hamdu li-llah bi-s-scliimeh." 

They rode at once to the city to tell the Vice-Consul of their arrival, that rooms might be made 
ready for them in Mr. Salt's house. The first view of Cairo delighted Lane even more than he had 
expected, and here at least, where all was thoroughly Eastern and on a grand scale, no after disap- 
pointment could be expected. When he saw the numberless minarets towering above the wilderness of 
flat-roofed houses, and in turn crowned by the citadel, with the yellow ridge of El-Mukattam in the back- 
ground, Lane took heart again and rejoiced in the prospect of his future home. The next day he took 
up his quarters at the Consulate, abandoned his English dress and adopted the Turkish costume, and set 
out to look for a house. He soon found one near the Bab-el-Hadeed, belonging to 'Osman, a Scotsman in 
the employ of the British Consul, who proved a very useful neighbour and a faithful friend. The furniture, 
after the usual native pattern, ^always a simple affair in the East, was quickly procured and the house 
was soon ready for his reception. 

These matters took up the first five days in Cairo: but on the 8th October, every thing being in a 


fair way to completion at the house, a small party of Europeans, with Lane among them, made an 
excursion to the Pyramids. It was only a flying visit, to take the edge off his ardent curiosity, for he 
meant to go again and make careful drawings and measurements. He explored the Great Pyramid, and 
then in the night climbed to its summit and enjoyed a sight such as one hardly sees twice in a lifetime. 
The cold wind sweeping up the sides, with a sound like the roar of a distant cataract, echoed the weird 
feeling of the place and the time, with which the vaguely vast outline of the Second Pyramid, faintly 
discernable, and the wild figures of the Bedawee guides were in full harmony. Then the moon rose and 
lighted up the eastern side of the nearer pyramid with a magic effect. Two hours more and the sun had 
revealed the plain of Egypt, and Lane had been already amply rewarded for the dangers and trouble 
of his journey from England by one of the most wonderful views in the world. 

After two months spent in Cairo, in the study of the people and their language, and in seeing the 
thousand beautiful things that the most picturesque of cities could then show, Lane again visited the 
Pyramids, this time for a fortnight, armed with stores and necessaries for living, and with materials 
for drawing and surveying, above all the camera lucida, with which all his drawings were made. 

He took up his abode' in a tomb of an unusually luxurious kind. It had three holes for windows, 
and was altogether about eight feet wide by twice as long, with a partition wall in the middle. 
Before the door was the usual accumulation of bones and rags, and even whole bodies of mummies : 
but the contemplation of these details gave Lane no unpleasant sensations; he merely observed that 
the skulls were extraordinarily thick. Into this cheerful habitation the baggage was carried, and though 
at first the interior looked "rather gloomy," when "the floor was swept, and a mat, rug, and mattress 
spread in the inner apartment, a candle lighted, as well as my pipe, and my arms hung about upon 
wooden pegs driven into crevices in the wall,"— the paintings had been effaced long before,—" I looked 
around me with complacency, and felt perfectly satisfied." He was waited on by his two servants, an 
Egyptian and a Nubian, whom he had brought from Cairo, and at the door were two Arabs hired from the 
neighbouring village to guard against passing Bedawees. All day long he was engaged in drawing and 
describing and making plans; and then in the evening he would come out on the terrace in front of 
the tomb, and sit in the shade of the rock (at Christmastide), drinking his coffee and smoking his long 
chibook, and "enjoying the mild air and the delightful view over the plain towards the capital." 

"In this tomb I took up my abode for a fortnight, and never did I spend a more happy time, 
though provided with fewer articles of luxury than I might easily and reasonably have procured. My 
appearance corresponded with my mode of living; for on account of my being exposed to considerable 
changes of atmospherio temperature in passing in and out of the Great Pyramid, I assumed the Hiram 
(or woollen sheet) of the Bedawee, which is a most convenient dress under such circumstances ; a part 
or the whole being thrown about the person according to the different degrees of warmth which he may 
require. I also began to accustom myself to lay aside my shoes on many occasions, for the sake of greater 
facility in climbing and descending the steep and smooth passages of the pyramid, and would advise others 
to do the same. Once or twice my feet were slightly lacerated; but after two or three days they were 
proof against the sharpest stones. Erom the neighbouring villages I procured all that I wanted in the 
way of food; as eggs, milk, butter, fowls, and camels' flesh; but bread was not to be obtained anywhere 
nearer than the town of El-Geezeh, without employing a person to make it. One family, consisting of a 
little old man named Alee, his wife (who was not half his equal in years), and a little daughter, occupied 
a neighbouring grotto, guarding some antiquities deposited there by Caviglia. Besides these I had no 


nearer neighbours than the inhabitants of a village about a mile distant." The solitude, however, was 
broken two days after his arrival by the appearance of a young Bedawee, who frankly confessed he had 
deserted from the Pasha's army and could not enter the villages, and claimed Lane's hospitality, which was 
of course immediately granted. The young fellow used to amuse his host in the evening, while he 
smoked his pipe, by telling the famous stories from the romance of Aboo-Zeyd, all the while exciting the 
indignation of the Egyptian servant by his contempt for the Fellaheen. He stayed till Lane left, and 
when the latter asked him where he would find protection now, he replied with characteristic reliance 
upon providence, "Who brought you here?" 

After a fortnight in his tomb at the Pyramids of El-Gcczch, spent in making drawings and plans of 
the pyramids and the surrounding tombs, Lane returned to Cairo on New Year's Eve. Here for two 
months and a half he devoted himself to the study of the "Mother of the "World" aud her inhabitants. 
Already possessed of an accurate knowledge of the modern Arabic language; being conformed to tho 
customs of the people in all such external matters as dress and manners and outward habit of life; and 
l>cing of that calm and self-possessed nature absolutely necessary to one who would be intimate with 
Easterns, and moreover of a cast of countenance resembling so closely that of a pure Arab family of Mekkch 
that an Egyptian, though repeatedly assured of the mistake, persisted in his belief that the reputed Ingleezcc 
was a member of that family; Lane was able, as scarcely one other European has been, to mix among 
the people of Cairo as one of themselves, and to acquire not only the refinements of their idiomatic speech 
and the minute details of their etiquette, but also a perfect insight into their habits of mind and ways 
of thought. The Spirit of tho East is a scaled book to ninety-nine out of every hundred orientalists. 
To Lane it was transparent. He knew the inner manners of the Egyptian's mind as well as those of his 
outer life. And this was the result of the many years he lived among the people of Cairo, of which 
these few months in 1826 were the beginning. 

His life at this time, however, was not wholly spent among Easterns. There was still a European 
side. lie was one of the brilliant group of discoverers who were then in Egypt : and young as he 
was he was received among them with cordial welcome aud unfeigned appreciation. Within the charmed 
circle to which Lane was now admitted were men such as Wilkinson and James Burton (afterwards 
llaliburton), the hieroglypliic scholars; Linant and Bonomi; the travellers Humphreys, Hay, and Fox- 
Strangways; the accomplished Major Felix, and his distinguished friend Lord Prudhoc, of whose noble 
appreciation of Lane's work much will presently be said. With such friends and in such a city as Cairo, 
the life of the young orientalist must have been enviable. 

But the time had now come for the first Nile-voyage. The journey from Alexandria to Cairo had 
not damped the enthusiastic longing with which Lane looked forward to the upper country — Thebes and 
Philae and Dcnderah. He determined to ascend to the Second Cataract, a limit further than most 
travellers then ventured and beyond which travelling was almost impossible. In March 1820 he hired a 
boat, for twenty-five dollars a month, manned by a crew of eight men, who were to find their own 
provisions, and on the 15th he embarked, set his cabin in order and sailed. 

Lane's plan was, in the up-voyagc to see in a cursory manner everything that could be seen, and in 
the down-voyage to make the notes and drawings from which he intended to construct his "Description 
of Egypt." In the up-voyage we see him sailing from one place of interest to another, with as little 
delay as possible; spending the whole day in waUring to some ruin at a distance from the bank, and so 


the next day, and every day, so long as there was anything worth visiting on shore. As a sightseer in 
Egypt Lane* was indefatigable. He wpuld walk on the hot plain, with the thermometer at 112" in the 
shade, till his feet were blistered, and he had to throw himself on his back to relieve them from the 
burning of the sand. When there was nothing to take him on shore, he would smoke his pipe on deck, 
and witch the people in the villages as he passed, or rest his eyes on the long lines of palms and dom 
and nabk trees that fringe the bank. Sometimes a compulsory variety was made by the wind dropping, 
when the boatmen would turn out and drag the tow-rope. Or the boat was kept for days in an un- 
interesting place by a wind against which towing was vain labour. A sandstorm would now and then 
cause an unpleasant diversion, not only keep Lane in his cabin, but follow him there and fill every 
crevice. It was quite another matter, though, with the sand-pillar; which was the work of an 'Efreet, who 
stirred up the dust in his flight, and, being an 'Efreet, might be amenable to persuasion. Lane en- 
countered one of these pillars of sand in one of his walks, and following the instructions of his guide 
he accosted the 'Efreet with the cry of "Hadeed" ("iron"), and the sprite passed at a respectful distance. 
The modern life of Egypt claimed the traveller's attention no less than the ancient. He visited the tombs 
of the Sheykh El-Hareedee and the Sheykh Abd-el-Kadir El-Geelanee, and went through the usual cere- 
monies with a precision in which no Muslim could find a fault; he received the calls of the various 
dignitaries on the way with the utmost courtesy, although he was obliged to decline the presents of Abys- 
sinian girls and nargcelehs which they were fond of offering; and he seldom missed an opportunity of 
strolling through an Arab town, or watching an encampment of Bedawees, and learning something more of 
the ways of the people. 

At Denderah, near the end of April, Lane met James Burton, and together they suffered from the 
Khamasecn winds, and found they could make no drawings nor leave their boats. On the 6th of May the 
Treat Propylamm of Thebes came in view ; on the 15th at Philae, they found Linant, who had left Cairo 
a couple of days earlier. After going on to Aboo-Simbel, and then to the Second Cataract, Lane turned 
his boat and prepared to descend the Nile. Lane seems to have spent his time during the whole 
of this return voyage in drawing and measuring and describing, often sitting under an almost vertical 
sun, his thermometer occasionally bursting at 150°, and withino other protection from the scorching heat 
than a single tarboosh. At Philae he again found Linant, waiting for the rising of the river to pass the 
Cataract, and during the eight days they spent together there Strangways made his appearance, went to 
Wiidee Halfeh, and then came back to them; and in company with him Lane continued his way down 
the river. Seventy-three days (July 30 to October 11, 1826) were spent at Thebes, where ho met Hay, 
in making a minute survey of the tombs and temples. Here he lived in three different houses. The first 
was Yani's house, among the tombs on the western side; then he moved to a ruined part of the first 
propylseum of El-Karnak; and for fifteen days he lived in one of the Tombs of the Kings, for the sake 
of its comparative coolness. In the former abodes the thermometer ranged from 90° to 108° in the 
shade; but in the Tombs of the Kings it did not rise above 87°. 

Coming back to Cairo, Lane went among the people as before, busy in preparing his account of their 
manners and customs, and his description of their city. After several months thus spent, -he again started 
for the Nile, again ascended to the Second Cataract, and stayed forty-one days (November 1 to December 12, 
1827) at Thebes, completing his survey of the temples. And, having accomplished the great object of his 
travels, having prepared a complete description of Egypt and Lower Nubia, the country and the monuments 
and the people, he came back to Cairo in the beginning of 1828, and after a short stay at the capital, 

111 MEMOIR. 

and a final visit in the spring to the Pyramids of El-Geezeh and Sakkarah, in company with Hay, he 
returned to England in the autumn of the year. 

These three years of the first visit to Egypt had not been years of idleness. Lane was not the typical 
traveller, who travels for amusement, and perhaps writes a book to record his sensations for the gratification 
of an admiring public Lane's object was a far different one. He travelled, so to say, to map the 
country. And his was a propitious time. Egypt had but recently been opened up to explorers, and 
no one had yet fully taken stock of her treasures. Hamilton, indeed, and Niebuhr had broken the 
ground with their books; but no systematic account of the country, its natural characteristics, its people, 
and its monuments, had yet been attempted. Successfully to perform such a work demanded long and 
unceasing labour and considerable abilities. Lane never shrank from voil of any kind, and he possessed 
just those natural gifts which were needed by one who should do this work. Lord Brougham once 
said, " I wonder if that man knows what his forte is ? — Description : " and Brougham was right. Very 
few men have possessed in an equal degree the power of minutely describing a scene or a monument, 
so that the pencil might almost restore it without a fault after the lapse of years. This power is eminently 
shown in the "Description of Egypt." Every temple or tomb, every village, every natural feature of 
the country, is described in a manner that permits no improving. The objects stand before you as 
you read, and this not by the use of imaginative language, but by the plain simple description. Lane 
had a vehement hatred of "fine writing," and often expressed his dislike to those authors who are 
credited with the habit of sacrificing the truth of their statements to the fall of the sentence. He 
always maintained that the first thing was to find the right word to express your meaning, and then to let the 
sentence fall as it pleased. It is possible that in his earliest work he carried this principle a littlo too far ; 
and in his most finished production, the notes to "The Thousand and One Nights," considerable care may 
be detected in the composition. But in every thing he wrote, the prominent characteristic was perfect 
clearness, and nowhere is this more conspicuous than in the "Description of Egypt." But further, to 
prevent the scant possibility of mistaking the words, the work was illustrated by 101 sepia drawings, 
made with the camera lucida, (the invention of his friend Dr. Wollaston,) and therefore as exact as 
photography could make them, and far more pleasing to the eye. Those whose function it is to criticise 
artistic productions have unanimously expressed their admiration of these drawings. And though Lane 
would always say that the credit belonged to his instrument and not to himself, it is easy to see that 
they are the work of a fine pencil-hand, and could not have been done by any one who chose to look 
through a camera lucida. Altogether, both in drawings and descriptions, the book is unique of its kind. 

It has never been published. And the reason is easily seen in the expense of reproducing the 
drawings. Lane himself was never a rich man, and could not have issued the book at his own ex- 
pense, and no publisher was found sufficiently enterprising to risk the first outlay. An eminent firm, 
indeed, accepted the work with enthusiasm, but subsequently retracted from its engagement in consequence 
of the paralysis of trade which accompanied the excitement of the Reform agitation. It is needless, 
however, to refer to affairs that happened nearly fifty years ago, although they were a cause of much 
annoyance and disappointment to the author of the "Description of Egypt"; who naturally was ill- 
disposed to see the work of several years wasted, and who could not forget the high praises that had 
been passed upon the book and the drawings by all who were competent to form an opinion. There 
can be no doubt in the mind of any one who has studied the manuscript and the drawings, that 
travellers in Egypt have sustained in this work a loss which has not yet been filled up, and is not 
likely to be, unless the "Description of Egypt" should yet be published. 



We have seen Lane in a phase of his life distinct from all the remainder. The years 1825—28 are 
the only time in which he could he called a traveller. Even then the traveller Dent on the enjoyment 
of the wonders of a new land is swallowed up in the student intent on understanding the monuments 
of a marvellous antiquity. But after this first visit all traces of the traveller disappear, and the serious 
laborious student becomes everything. Once again in after years did Lane ascend the Nile as far as 
Thebes, and live the old life in his tomb; but it was to avoid the Plague, and his visit there was still 
devoted to study. Henceforward we shall see, not the enterprising and often daring explorer, climbing 
flat-faced cliffs, swinging down a mummy-pit, crawling in the low passages of tombs and pyramids, but 
a scholar at his desk, a learned man honoured in learned circles, the highest authority on matters 
Arabian to whom England or Europe could appeal. 




For some time after his return to England, Lane was occupied in working his Egyptian notes 
and diaries into the form that the manuscript of the " Description of Egypt " now wears. It has 
already been said that the negotiations with the publishers for the production of the book fell to 
the ground. But before this happened, Lane had separated from the body of the work his 
account of the modern inhabitants of Egypt, which it was thought would appear to greater advantago 
and be more widely read as a distinct book. This part of the "Description" was shown to Lord 
Brougham, who at once recognised its high merit, and recommended it to the Society for the Diffusion 
of Useful Knowledge, of which he was a Member of Committee. It was in consequence of the accept- 
ance of the work by the Society that Lane determined to visit Egypt again, in order to enlarge 
and perfect his account of the people. This is an instance of that thoroughness which is shown in 
every work of his. Whatever came to his hand to do, he did it with all his might. He would never 
condescend to anything approaching slovenly work; and thought little of crossing the Mediterranean and 
staying two years at Cairo in order to bring nearer to perfection a sketch of the manners and customs 
of the inhabitants of Egypt, which to an ordinary writer would have seemed to stand in need of no 
revision. Without hesitation he went over the whole ground again, verified each statement, and added 
much that had been omitted from the earlier and more concise work. During the two years he spent 
in the Egyptian metropolis, scarcely a day passed without his going out among his Muslim friends and 
accustoming himself more completely to their manners, or witnessing the various public festivals of the 
year. Every day's experience was carefully recorded in a little library of note-books, all written in his 
singularly clear and neat hand, except where here and there an Egyptian friend has scribbled his own 
statement in Arabic. One of these note-books appears to have been kept for recording the moro im- 
portant scenes that Lane witnessed, and is fortunately dated, so as to form an intermittent diary. As 
this is this is the only journal he ever kept, to my knowledge, except a brief account of his first Nile-voyage, 
it is here reproduced. Besides the necessary suppression of a few passages relating to family matters, certain 
long passages have been omitted, since they occur verbatim in Lane's published works. It is not 
often that the pages of a diary can be transferred to a finished book like "The Modern Egyptians" 
without even verbal alteration. But it was the same with everything Lane wrote. If he was asked a 
question by letter, his answer was always fit for publication, both in style and in accuracy of matter. 

London, 25th Oct., 1833.— Engaged my passage to Alexandria 
on board the merchant brig Rapid, Capt. Phillips, 162 tons, for 
30 guineas, to be found with all necessary stores, poultry, &c. — 
6th Nov. Embarked at St. Katharine's Dock.— 7th. Sailed.— 
25th. Passed Gibraltar.— 5th Dec. Passed Malta.— 13th (1st of 
Shaaban, 1249). Arrived at Alexandria. 

It had rained almost incessantly, and very heavily, during the 
three nights previous to our arrival at Alexandria ; and the streets 
were consequently in a most filthy state. The general appearance 
of the people was also far more miserable than when I was here 
before. The muddy state of the streets doubtless confined most 

well-dressed persons to their houses ; but it is rather to the severe 
oppression of late years, and to repeated conscriptions, which have 
deprived many parents of the support they received from the 
labour of their sons, that I attribute the difference which I 
remarked in the general aspect of the population of this place. 
A few days before my arrival, some parsons from Constantinople 
had brought the plague there. They were put into quarantine; 
and the disease had thus been confined within tho Lazarctte, which 
was surrounded by a cordon of soldiers. There hud been 87 cases, 
and 23 deaths.— I dined and slept at Mr. Harris's country-house, 
which is in an angle of the garden in which the house that 



Mr. Salt resided in is situated, where I stayed during my first 
visit to Alexandria. A part of this garden is converted into a 
hurial-place for the English. Mr. Salt is buried there. — Alexan- 
dria is rapidly increasing towards the site of the old city : several 
large and handsome buildings have lately been erected in that 

14th. Removed my luggage from the brig to a boat on the 
Mabmoodeeyeh ; and in the afternoon set sail for the Nile. 
Paid 45 piasters for the voyage to the Nile. — 15th. Arrived 
before sunrise at the Foom, or the mouth of the canal, where it 
communicates with the Nile. A bridge with gates has lately 
been constructed across the mouth, to retain the water in the canal 
during the season of low Nile. — I here had to engage another 
boat, on the Nile. Bargained for 80 piasters for the voyage to 
Masr (or Cairo). Proceeded to Fooweh ; but could not continue 
our voyage in consequence of a violent contrary wind. The air 
was very thick ; and I could hardly fancy myself in Egypt. The 
river still very turbid. There were many boats here conveying 
Turkish pilgrims on their way to join the Egyptian Caravan to 
Mekkeh. Fooweh seems to be falling to utter ruin and to be 
inhabited by the most squalid miserable people I ever beheld. 
I am told that I shall remark the same at all the villages we have 
to pass ; and the reason is this :— all the best-looking young men 
have been picked for the army or navy, and their wives and lovers 
have mostly followed them ; but being parted from them on their 
arrival at the metropolis have there betaken themselves to prosti- 
tution ; and Masr now absolutely swarms with prostitutes. Thus 
the villages have been half desolated ; and seem to be peopled in 
general with the most wretched, ugly, old, and haggard paupers,. 
I see scarcely one good-looking young woman among a hundred ; 
or scarcely one where I used to see a score ; and almost all are in 
rags. — 10th. In the afternoon, though the wind was still very 
high and from the S.W., we proceeded. Stopped for the night 
under the west bank, a little below Shubra Kheet. Several 
heavy showers of rain fell, accompanied with violent gusts of 
wind, which obliged many boats, loaded with Turkish pilgrims, to 
stop at the same part. From a boat next above ours, during a 
shower of rain, there poured forth a number of these pilgrims, 
each with his ewer in his hand, to perform the ablution prepara- 
tory to prayer; and some of them aged and decrepit. While 
meditating on their zeal and the hardships which awaited them 
and admiring their grave and venerable aspect, I was surprised to 
see six of them, and among these some of the most aged, run to a 
taboot (a kind of water-wheel used for irrigation), and, with shouts 
such as their children would have used on a similar occasion, 
amuse themselves by exerting what little strength they had to 
perform, all the six together, the work of one cow ; and turn, which 
they could only do very slowly, the stiff and creaking wheel. A 
few minutes after, they performed their devotions, all of them 
together, with the utmost solemnity and decorum, ranged in ranks, 
four abreast, under the partial shelter of some durah about 12 
feet high : one acted as Imam, in the first rank ; and having 
previously chanted the addn, recited the prayers, chanting the 
/arrf-prayers in a high key and loud voice.— To-day I began to feel 
the effect which is often produced by first drinking the water 
of the Nile, and by the cool air of the night ; my cabin being 
only furnished with blinds, like those of an English carriage, 
to the windows, I was much exposed to the night-air. — 17th. 
Advanced to Shubra Kheet. The weather being boisterous and 
rainy, and my reiyis determined to proceed, I made a new agree- 

ment with him ; to pay 20 piasters a day, and to stop when and 
where I desired. Accordingly I remained the rest of this day, 
and the following night, at Shubra. Kheet.— 18th. Of the pru- 
dence of the new arrangement which I had made for my boat I 
received a strong proof in information brought me to-day that a 
boat which I had first hired at the Foom, about the same size 
and on the same terms as that in which I now am, but afterwards 
left for the latter boat in consequence of an order that vessels 
there should take their departure according to the order in which 
they lay, had been capsized in the night : the crew and passengers 
were saved ; but remained shivering in their wet clothes for many 
hours ; no village being near. Had this been my case, in my pre- 
sent indisposed state, I should probably have lo6t my life ; or, if 
not, my books &c. would have been lost or spoiled. My informant 
thanked God for my preservation ; and I most heartily joined him. 
— 19th. Proceeded to Shaboor: the wind still very violent and 
contrary : on the 20th, to Nadir ; 21st, to Zawiyet Razeem, by the 
tow-rope ; having scarcely a breath of wind. — 22nd. Calm. Pro- 
ceeded, by towing, to Wardan — 23rd and 24th. As the wind was 
violent and contrary during the greater part of each of these days, 
my reiyis absented himself from the boat. I punish him by deduct- 
ing two days' pay. — 25th. Arrived within five miles of Boolak. 

26th. Arrived at Boolak about noon. Sent for a janisary from 
the Consulate to pass my luggage at the custom-house, and rode 
up to my old friend 'Osman, who had made preparations for my 
reception in a house belonging to him and next to that in which 
he resides. This house I have engaged for the period of my 
intended stay in Masr. It is situated in the most healthy part of 
the town, near the N.W. angle ; and to me, who have suffered 
from ophthalmia, it is a desirable residence, as it has glass windows. 
I have no doubt that ophthalmia in this country is generally tho 
effect of suppressed perspiration, which is most commonly induced 
by the night-air (the windows of almost all the houses in Masr and 
the other towns being merely of wooden lattice-work) ; and that it 
is aggravated by the habit of keeping the head too warm, and the 
feet too cool. 

The aspect of Masr, as seen in tho approach from the port, has 
been much improved since the period of my last visit by tho re- 
moval of many of the mounds of rubbish which rose along that 
side, and by most of the space which these unsightly objects occu- 
pied being converted into gardens. A short time ago, European 
travellers, if habited in the Turkish or Egyptian dress, were not 
allowed to enter the gates of Masr without a passport (called 
tezkereh), which was shown to the guard. This custom is now 
dispensed with. It was adopted in order to ascertain the number 
of the population ; and to insure that no one of the natives might 
be unknown, and so escape paying the firdeh or poll-tax. In 
the interior of the metropolis I observe more ruined houses than 
when I was last here ; and in the appearance of the lower orders, 
more wretchedness. No change has taken plaoe in the stylo of 
the costume of the natives; but the military officers, and the 
Turks in the employ of the Basha, have adopted the Nizamee dress, 
which was becoming common among them before I last quitted 
Masr. The head-dress (being merely a tarboosh, without the 
muslin or Kishmeeree shawl wound round it) has lost its elegance ; 
and the whole dress is less becoming and graceful than the Mem- 
look costume which it has superseded ; though it is more convenient 
for walking and any active exertion. Formerly, a grandoo of 
Masr, with his retinue of twenty or more well-mounted men, clad 
in habits of various and brilliant hues, and with splendid accoutre- 



ments, the saddles covered with embroidered velvet and plates of 
gilt and embossed Bilver, and the bridles, headstalls, and other 
trappings ornamented in a similar manner and with rows of gold 
coins suspended to them, presented a strikingly picturesque and 
pompous spectacle. Sights of this description are no longer wit- 
nessed in the Egyptian metropolis. Even the Basha, when he 
occasionally rides through the streets, is followed by only three or 
four attendants, and is not more distinguished by the h'abits than 
by the number of his retinue. As dark colours, and particularly 
black, are now fashionable among the Turks, and their dresses are 
generally embroidered with silk, instead of gold lace, there is much 
less contrast and variety observable in the costumes of the pas- 
sengers in the crowded streets ; but at present there is a little 
more variety and bustle than is usual, from the number of Turkish 
pilgrims resting here on their way to Mekkeh. 

My old acquaintance the sheykh Ahmad (or scyd Ahmad, for 
he is a thereef) called on me as soon as he had heard of my arrival. 
He has resumed his old habit of visiting me almost every day ; 
both for the sake of getting his dinner or supper, or at least 
tobacco and coffee, and to profit in his trade of bookseller. I wish 
I could make a portrait which would do justice to his singular 
physiognomy. For many years he has been nearly blind : one of 
his eyes is quite closed: the other is ornamented on particular 
occasions, as the two great festivals, &c, with a border of kohl ; 
though he is a shocking sloven at all times. He tells me that he 
has taken a second wife, and a second house for her ; but that he 
is as poor as ever ; and that my usual yearly present of a dress 
will be very acceptable.* He has a talent for intrigue and cheat- 
ing, whioh he exercises on every opportunity ; being lax in 
morals, and rather so in his religious tenets. Notwithstanding 
these defects, and sometimes in consequence of his having the 
latter defect, I find him very useful. Much of the information 
that I have obtained respecting the manners and customs of his 
country men has been derived from him, or through bis assistance ; 
as he scruples not to be communicative to me on subjects respect- 
ing which a bigoted Muslim would be silent. He has just 
brought me a mush a/ (or copy of the Kur-an), which he wishes 
me to purchase ; but he thinks it necessary, as he did on former 
similar occasions, to offer some excuse for his doing so. He 
remarks that by my following or conforming with many of the 
ceremonies, of the Muslims I tacitly profess myself to be one of 
them; and it is incumbent on him to regard me in the most 
favourable light. " You give me," says he, " the salutation of 
' Pence be on you 1 ' and it would be impious in me, and directly 
forbidden by my religion, to pronounce you an unbeliever ; for He 
whose name be exalted hath said in the Excellent Book, — ' Say 
not unto him who greeteth thee with peace, Thou art not a 
believer' (ch. iv., v. 96) — therefore," he adds, "it is no sin in 
me to put into your hands the noble Kur-an : but there are some 
of your countrymen who will take it in unclean hands, and even 
put it under them and sit upon it ! I beg God's forgiveness for 
talking of such a thing : far be it from you to do so : you, praise 
bo to God, know and observe the command ' None shall touch it 
but those who are clean.' " (ch. lvi., v. 78 : these words are often 
stamped upon the cover.) He once sold a mushaf on my appli- 
cation to a countryman of mine, who, being disturbed just as the 
bargain was concluded by some person entering the room, hastily 

* Here follows tho story of Sheykh Ahmad's mother, told in the pre- 
face to The Modern Egyptian*, p. zviii. (5th Ed.) 

put the sacred book on the deewan and under a part of his dress, 
to conceal it : the bookseller was much scandalized by this action ; 
thinking that my friend was sitting upon the book, and doing so 
to show his contempt of it. There was only one thing that I had 
much difficulty in persuading him to do, during my former visit 
to this country ; which was to go with me to the mosque of the 
Hasaneyn, the burial-place of the head of the Prophet's grand- 
son, El-Hoseyn, and the most sacred of the mosques of Masr. 
On passing with him before one of the entrances of this building, 
one afternoon in Ramadan, when it was crowded with Turks, and 
many of the principal people of the metropolis were among the 
congregation, I thought it a good opportunity to see it to the 
greatest advantage, and asked my companion to go in with me. 
He positively refused, in the fear of my being discovered to be an 
Englishman, which might so rouse the fanatic anger of some of 
the Turks there as to expose me to some act of violence. I there- 
fore entered alone. He remained at the door ; following me with 
his eye only (or his only eye), and wondering at my audacity j 
but as soon as he saw me acquit myself in the usual manner, by 
walking round the bronze screen which surrounds the monument 
over the spot where the martyr's head is buried and then going 
through the regular attitudes of prayer, he came in and said his 
prayers by my side. — The principal subjects of the conversations 
which my other Masree acquaintances have held with me sinoe 
my return to their country have been the oppression which they 
suffer under the present government, the monopolies of the Basha, 
and the consequent dulness of trade and dearness of provisions, &c. 
The sheykh Ahmad is less querulous : he praises the Basha for 
including booksellers among persons of literary and religious pro- 
fessions, from whom no firdeh is exacted. He and another book- 
seller, who is his superior, are agents for the sale of the books 
printed at the Basha's press, at Boolak They have a shop in 
the principal street of the city (nearly opposite the entrance to 
Khan El-Khaleelee), which will be a convenient place for me to 
repair to on the occasions of public processions. 

Friday, 10th of January.— Last day (29th) of Sbaaban. — In the 
afternoon of this day I went to the booksellers' shop to see the • 
procession of the Ley Let er-llooyeh, or Night of the Observation of 
the new moon of Ramadan, the month of abstinence. Soon after 
the 'atr, the shops were mostly shut, and the mastabah* occupied 
by spectators, old and young. The foremost persons in the pro- 
cession, a company of Nizam infantry, passed the place where I 
was Bitting (within ten minutes' walk of the Kadee's house, 
whither they were destined) about an hour and a quarter before 
sunset. The whole procession consisted of nothing more than 
several companies of Nizam troops, each company preceded and 
followed by bearers of mesh'als, to light them on their return, 
together with small parties of members of those trades whioh 
furnish the metropolis with provisions : a group of millers follow- 
ing one party of soldiers ; a group of bakers, another : after ail of 
whom came the Mohtesib, with attendants.- The soldiers were 
accompanied by drummers and fifers, and one band. The members 
of trades who took part in the procession, with several fakeers, 
shouted as they passed along — " ! Es-taldh I Es-saldh I Salloo 
'ala-n-Nebee ! ' aleyhi-sseldm ! " (0! Blessing! Blessing 1 Bless 
ye the Prophet ! On him be peace !). After every two or three 
companies there was an interval of many minutes : so that about 
an hour elapsed before the procession had passed the place where 
I sat. After waiting some time at the Kadee's, the information 
that the new moon had been seen was brought there ; and the 



soldiers and other persons who had formed the procession thither 
divided themselves into several companies, and perambulated dif- 
ferent quarters of the town j shouting Ta ummata Iheyrx-Uana'm, ! 
Siya'm ! Siya'm ! (0 followers of the best of the creation ! Fasting ! 
Fasting 1). The mosques were all illuminated within ; and lamps 
hung at their entrances, and upon the galleries of the mad'nehs. 
— When the moon is not seen, the people are informed by the cry 
of Ohadd, mm thakri SAaaba'n I Fttdr! Fitdr! (To-morrow is of 
the month of Shaaban ! No fasting 1 No fasting !).— The people 
seem as merry to-night as they usually do when released from the 
miseries of the day's fast.* 

11th of January.— 1st of Ramadan.— Instead of seeing, as at 
other times, most of the pussengers in the streets with the pipe in 
the hand, we now see them empty-handed, or carrying a stick or 
cane ; but some of the Christians are not afraid, as they used to 
be, of smoking in their shops during this month. The streets in 
the morning have a dull appearance, many of the shops being 
shut; but in the afternoon they are as much crowded as usual, 
and all the shops are open. A similar difference is also observable 
in the manners and temper of the people during the day-time and 
at night : while fasting, they are generally speaking very morose : 
in the evening, after breakfast, they are unusually affable and 
cheerful. As Ramadan now falls in the winter, the fast is com- 
paratively easy; the days being short, and the weather cool: 
therefore thiret is not felt so severely. The period from the com- 
mencement of the fast (the imdi), which is at this season within 
two hours of sunrise, to the time when it ends, or sunset, is now 
(in the beginniug of the month) 12 hours and 12 minutes : at the 
end of the month it will be 12 hours and 47 minutes. Servants 
who are fasting (as mine, and most others, are), if they have to 
bring a pipe to a person who is not keeping the fast, will not draw 
the smoke as usual at other times, but put a live coal upon the 
tobacco, and blow upon it, or wave the pipe through the air ; and 
then present it. I take my principal meal now at sunset, in 
order that it may serve as a breakfast to any friend who may call 
on me in the evening, at or before that time. Towards evening, 
and for some time after sunset, the beggars in the streets are now 
more than usually importunate and clamorous. I often hear the 
cries of Falooree 'alej/h yd Rabb ! (My breakfast must be thy 
gift, Lord 1)— Ana deyf Allah »a-n-Ne6ee (I am the guest of 
God and the Prophet !) —and the following, whioh exhibits a 
union (not uncommon in similar cries) of the literary and popular 
dialects of Arabics — Men fattar ta'im luk agrun da'im (Who gives 
breakfast to a faster will have an enduring recompense). The 
coffee-shops are now much frequented by persons of the lower 
orders ; many of whom prefer to break their fast with a cup of 
coffee and a pipe. Parties assemble at these shops a little before 
sunset, and wait there to hear the evening call to prayer, which 
announces the termination of the day's fast. Some of the coffee- 
shops offer the attraction of a reciter of tales, or poetical romances, 
during the nights of Ramadan. It is also a custom among some 
of the 'Ulama of Masr to have a Zikr performed in their houses, 
by a numerous company of fakeers, every night during this 
month.f My almost daily visiter, the sheykh Ahmad, the book- 
seller, tells me that he cannot spend much time with me this 
month ; as he sleeps half the day, and breakfasts, and takes part 
in a Zikr, every evening, at the house of the late sheykh 
El-'Arooaee, who was one of the four great sheykhs of Masr, 

Cp. Mod. Eg. p. 472. 

t Cp. Mod. Eg. pp. 474—0 

presiding over the Hanafeeyeh, of whom he was also the 
muftee.— As I was sitting at the booksellers' shop to-day, the 
Basha, Mohammad 'Alee, rode by, on his way to say the after- 
noon prayers in the mosque of the Hasaneyn, followed by only 
four attendants ; the first of whom bore his seggadeh (or prayer- 
carpet), in an embroidered kerchief, on his lap. The Basha was 
very plainly dressed, with a white turban. I should not have 
known him, had I not been informed that it was he; for he 
appears much older than when I was lost in Egypt; though he 
looks remarkably well. He saluted the people right and left as 
he passed along : all rising to him.— It is the general fashion of 
the principal Turks in Masr, and of many of their countrymen, 
to repair to the mosque of the Hasaneyn in the afternoon during 
Ramadan, to pray and lounge ; and on these occasions, a number 
of Turkish tradesmen (called Tohafgeeyeh, or Tohafjoeyeh) 
expose for sale, in the court of the meyda-ah (or tank for ablution) 
of this mosque, a variety of articles of taste and luxury suited to 
the wants of their countrymen ; such as porcelain, glass, gold, 
silver, brass, and copper ' wares ; cutlery ; mouth-pieces of pipes 
and pipe-sticks ; and many other commodities, chiefly from Con- 
stantinople, or other places in Europe. The interior of the 
Hasaneyn during the afternoon in Ramadan is one of the most 
interesting sights in Masr; but from the circumstances which 
render it so, and particularly from its being the most sacred of 
all the mosques in Masr, none but a Muslim can enter and 
witness the scene which it presents, unless accompanied by an 
officer of the government, without imminent risk of being dis- 
covered, violently turned out, insulted with scurrilous language, 
and perhaps beaten or spit upon. I only once ventured into Una 
mosque on such an occasion ; and then was careful to perform till 
the usual ceremonies. Many persons go to the mosque of the 
9asaneyn to offer up their petitions for particular blessings, in 
the belief that the sanctity of the place will ensure the success of 
their prayers. 

A man was beheaded to-day, for stealing several pipes and 
drinking-cups, belonging to the Basha, in the Citadel. 

Feb. 9th.— Last day (30th) of Ramadan.— Ramadan has passed 
away with scarcely any incident to relieve its dulness, excepting 
the usual merry-making of the lower orders of the people at night 
in the coffee-shops, where smoking tobacco or hemp, playing at 
some kind of game, or listening to a story-teller, were their ordi- 
nary amusements. I have not observed funerals to be more 
numerous than usual during the latter part of the month, as is 
the case when Ramadan falls in the warmer seasons ; but the 
people have not seemed less out of humour with the fast. Weari- 
ness and moroseness are the predominant effects of the observance 
of Ramadan ; and if people are seen at this time more than 
usually occupied in mumbling portions of the $ur-an, I think 
their motive is rather to pass away the time than anything else. 
I am told that many more persons break the fast now than did 
when I was last here. Even the $adee told an acquaintance of 
mine, a few days ago, that it was his custom only to keep the first 
two and last two days of the fast. By the poor, in general, it is 
still rigidly kept ; and, by them, most severely felt, as they can 
seldom relax from their ordinary labours. There is now living 
in this city an old man who fasts every day in the year, from 
day-break to sunset, excepting on the occasions of the two 'Eeds 
(or festivals), when it is unlawful for the Muslim to fast. At 
night he eats very sparingly. He keeps a shop in the shoe-market 
called Klasabat Rudwan, where he is generally seen occupied in re- 



citing the Kur-fin and handling his beads. It is said that there are 
several other persons here who fast in the same austere manner. — 
The weather during the month which is just expiring has been of 
an unusual kind : several very heavy showers of rain have fallen ; 
and the streets have seldom been dry more than two or three days 

In the afternoon of this day (at the hour of the 'oar) the guns 
of the Citadel announced the termination of the period of the fast : 
the new moon having been seen. The fast is, however, kept till 
sunset. In the evening, the guns fired again. With sunset, the 
' Eed commences. The people are all rejoicing : swings and 
whirligigs are erected in many parts of the town, and in its 
environs; and several story-tellers and reciters of poetry have 
collected audiences in various places. 

10th. — First day of the 'Eed. — At day-break, all the mosques 
were crowded with worshippers, to perform the prayers of the 
'Eed ; and now, every minute, friends are seen in the streets con- 
gratulating, embracing, and kissing, each other. Many of the 
people (all who can afford) are seen in complete new suits of 
clothes : others, with a new 'eree, or tarboosh and turban, or, at 
least, a new pair of red or yellow shoes. Most of the shops are 
■hut, excepting those where eatables are sold. The people are 
mostly occupied in visits of congratulation ; or repairing, particu- 
larly the women, to the tombs of their relatives. Donkeys laden 
with palm-branches, for the visiters of the tombs, obstruct the 
streets in many places. The guns of the Citadel are fired at noon 
and in the afternoon (at the '««■) on each of the three days of the 

12th.— Last day of the 'Eed.— This day I accompanied my 
neighbour 'Osmau to visit the tomb of the sheykh Ibraheem 
(Burckhardt), in the cemetery of Bab en-Nasr, on the north of the 
city, to see that the monument was in good repair, and to pay to 
the memory of the lamented traveller that tribute of respect 
which is customary on the occasion of the 'Eed. The principal 
part of the burial-ground, directly opposite the Bab en-Nasr, was 
occupied by dense crowds of persons who had collected there for 
their amusement, and presented a most singular scene. Vast 
numbers of tents were erected ; some, for the reception of idlers ; 
but most, for the visiters of the tombs ; many of whom, conspicu- 
ous by their palm-branches, were, like ourselves, making their 
way with much difficulty through the multitude. A woman who 
had fallen down here on the first day of the 'Eed was trodden to 
death. Being mounted on donkeys, we got on better than some 
others ; but our palm-branch, borne before us, and showing our 
pious intention, had not the effect of inducing any one to move 
out of our way. A large space was occupied by swings and 
whirligigs, all in rapid motion, and loaded with boys and girls : 
the principal objects of attraction to persons of maturer age were 
conjurors, musicians, dancing- girls, and dancing-men. Having 
passed through the most crowded part of the cemetery, we soon 
arrived at the tomb of the sheykh Ibraheem. It is a plain and 
humble monument of the usual oblong form, constructed of the 
common-, coarse, calcareous stone of the neighbouring mountain- 
range of Mukattam, with a stela of the same stone, roughly cut, 
and without any inscription, at the head and foot. Numerous 
fakeers resort to the cemeteries during the three days of the 'Eed, 
to perform, for the remuneration of a piaster or two, the service 
usual on those occasions when visiters arrive ; consisting of the 
recital of, at least, one of the longer chapters of the Kur-an, and 
afterwards of the Fat'hah, which latter the visiters recite with 

him. One of them was employed to perform this service by my 
friend. He did it very rapidly, and without much reverence, 
seated at the foot of the tomb. This being finished, and the palm- 
branch broken in pieces and laid on the tomb, a fee was given to 
the guardian of the tombs, and we returned. — 'Osman performed 
the pilgrimage in company with the sheykh Ibraheem. He pre- 
sented me a few days ago with the certificate of Ibraheem's 
pilgrimage. It is a paper of the size of a small quarto leaf: the 
greater part occupied by a representation of the temple of Mekkeh, 
drawn with ink, and ornamented with red, yellow, and green, and 
with silver leaf : beneath which picture is written the document 
of which the following is a copy. — " Praise be to God, who hath 
made the pilgrimage to be rightly accomplished, and the intention 
rewarded, and sin forgiven. To proceed. — The respected ha-gg 
Ibraheem hath performed the pilgrimage, according to the divine 
ordinances, and accomplished all the incumbent ordinances of the 
Prophet, completely and perfectly. And God is the best of wit- 
nesses. The halt was on the 9th day of the month of El-Heggeh, 
in the year 1229." 

15th. — Witnessed the procession of the Kisweh, which I have 
described in one of my note-books.* 

17th. — The Magician 'Abd El-Kadir came to me. His per- 
formances unsuccessful. 

18th. — A man was beheaded yesterday; and another to-day. 
One was for entering a house to rob, and for attempting to murder 
the owner. He locked the latter in one of the rooms, and then 
proceeded to rifle the house. On descending, he saw the owner at 
a window, calling for assistance ; and fired a pistol at him. — Tho 
crime of the other, who was a Turk, a kowwas of the Basha, was 
robbing and murdering a Turkish pilgrim. He arrested the pil- 
grim on the canal of Alexandria, under pretence of his being 
required to answer some charge preferred against him before 
Moharram Bey, the Governor of Alexandria. After conducting 
him some little distance towards Alexandria, he murdered him, 
and threw his body into the pit of a sakiyeh. The companions 
of the unfortunate man, some days after, being surprised at hear- 
ing no tidings of him, applied to Moharram Bey ; and finding 
that he knew nothing of the circumstance, searched for and appre- 
hended the murderer. — Bobberies have become very frequent here 
of late : crime, as might be expected, increasing with the oppres- 
sion and misery of the people. — News arrived to-day of a number 
of Ahmad Basha's horses having been stolen, by a party of 
Bedawees, from the Feiyoom, where they had been sent for the 
clover season. 

20th. — The Magician came again, in the evening. His per- 
formances I have described in one of my note-books. f 

27th. — Went to the Hasaneyn, to see the Kisweh, the 
Burko', &c, previously to their being packed up and dispatched 
with the caravan to Mekkeh. .The sewing of the Kisweh was 
not quite completed : several men and women were at work upon 
it in the great hall, or portico. I asked for, and obtained, for a 
trifling present, a piece of the Kisweh, a span in length, and 
nearly the same in breadth. In sewing the several breadths 
together, it is necessary to cut off some small strips ; and these 
are Bold, or given, to persons who apply for them ; being con- 
sidered as amulets. In the saloon of the tomb, I found several 
pious visiters ; and, among them, a poor man, standing before the 
bronze screen which surrounds the monument, and praying aloud, 

• Cp. Mod. Eg. p. 480. 

t Cp. Mod. Eg. pp. 268, ffi 



with uplifted hands, for food ; saying—" Bread, Lord I I pray 
for hread : I do not ask for dates : I only pray for bread."— After 
I had recited the Fat'hah, according to custom, at the shrine of 
Hoseyn, I went to a small apartment adjoining the mosque, in 
which were placed the Burko', the covering for the Makam 
Seydna Ibraheem, the covering of the Mahmal (which were 
partly unfolded for me to see), the Hegnb (or Mushaf), of 
the Mammal, and the embroidered green silk bag in which is 
kept the key of the Kaabeh. As soon as I had gratified my 
curiosity by inspecting these sacred objects, and again recited the 
Fat'hah, by desire of the persons who showed them to me, and 
who did the same, I was overwhelmed with applications for pre- 
sents by about a dozen ministers and inferior servants of the 
mosque. Three or four piasters satisfied them ; or at least silenced 
them. — On my way to the Hasaneyn, I passed through the 
great mosque El-Azhar. I was obliged to send my servant by 
another way because he was carrying my pipe, which could not 
with propriety be taken into the mosque, though several persons 
were carrying about bread and other eatables in the great court 
and in the place of prayer, for sale to the mugawireen (or 
students) and the other numerous frequenters of this great temple 
and university. The weather being not warm, the court was 
crowded with groups of students and idlers, lounging or basking 
in the sun ; and part of it was occupied by schoolmasters with 
their young pupils. The interior of this mosque always presents 
a very interesting scene, at least to me, from its being the prin- 
cipal centre of attraction to the votaries of religion, of literature, 
and of other sciences, throughout the Muslim world. The 
college has just been disgraced by one of its members having been 
convicted of a robbery ; and this morning several of the learned 
community, having heard that eight men were just about to be 
hanged, were in a state of alarm lest their guilty associate should 
be one of that number. A brother of this culprit was pointed out 
to me, conversing, with apparent apathy, with another person, 
who, turning to me, asked me if I knew of any case on record of 
a member of the 'Ulama being hanged.— Shortly after I had 
quitted the Hasaneyn, the eight men above-mentioned were 
hanged ; each in a different part of the town. The member of 
the college was not among them. In crossing the principal street 
of the city, I saw one of them, hanging at the window of a sebeel, 
or public fountain. He was a soldier. His crime was robbery 
and murder. Another of the eight was hanged for a similar 
crime. He entered the house of a rich Jewess, ostensibly for the 
purpose of taking away the dust ; murdered her, by cutting off 
her head ; put her remains into a large zeer (or water-jar), and 
having thrown some dust in the mouth of the jar, carried it away ; 
out it was broken at the bottom, and some blood dripping from it 
attracted the notice of passengers in the street, and caused his 
apprehension. Some jewels which had belonged to the murdered 
woman were found upon his person. 

3rd of March. — 22nd of Showwal. — Saw the procession of the 
Mahmal. It differed from the last which I saw, seven years 
ago (in 1827), in being attended with less pomp. First, about 
two hours and a half after sunrise, a small field-piece (for firing 
the signals for departure after the halts) was drawn along. This 
was followed by a company of Baltageeyeh (or Pioneers), and the 
Basha's guards, with their band at their head. Then came a 
train of several camels with large stuffed saddles, upon the fore- 
part of which were fixed two small flags, slanting forwards, and 
a small plume of ostrich-feathers upon the top of a small stick 

placed upright. These camels wore dyed red, with henna ; and 
had housings ornamented with small shells (cowries) : some were 
decorated with palm-branches, fixed upright upon the saddle: 
some had a large bell hung on each side ; and some bore a pair of 
the large kettle-drums called nakakeer, with the man who beat 
them. The takht'ratca'n of the Emeer El-H&gg (or Chief of the 
Pilgrims) followed next, borne by two camels. Then came 
numerous groups of darweeshes, with the banners of their several 
orders (flags, poles, nets, &c.) : some of them repeating the name 
of God, and nodding their heads ; and some beating, with a 
leather strap, a small kettle-drum, which they held in the left 
hand. Among these groups were two swordsmen, who repeatedly 
engaged each other in a mock combat ; two wrestlers, naked to 
the waist, and smeared with oil ; and the fantastical figure 
described in my account of the procession of the Kisweh,* 
mounted on a horse, and clad in sheep-skins, with a high skin 
cap, and a false beard. The darweeshes were followed by the 
Mahmal; which has but a poor appearance this year; the 
covering being old, and its embroidery tarnished. The people 
crowded to touch it with their hands, or with the end of a shawl ; 
several persons unwinding their turbans, and women at the 
windows taking off their head-veils, for this purpose. I had been 
freely allowed to examine and handle it when it was deposited in 
the mosque of the Hasaneyn. The half-naked sheykh whom I 
have mentioned in my account of the procession of the Kisweh, 
and in that of the former procession of the Mahmal, followed 
the sacred banner, as usual, mounted on a camel, and rolling his 
head. Some soldiers, with the Emeer el-Hagg and other officers 
who accompany the caravan, closed the procession. In less than 
an hour, the whole procession had passed the place where 

I sat. 

Many of the shop-keepers in the principal Books (or bazars) 
are painting their shops in a rude kind of European style, 
decorating the shutters, &c, with flowers and other ornamental 
devices, painted on a light blue ground. The appearance of these 
streets may now be compared to that of an old Oriental garment, 
remarkable for the peculiarity of its form and work, patched over 
with pieces of European printed calico. I am sorry to observe 
that Masr is not only falling to decay, but that it is rapidly losing 
that uniform and unique style of architecture which has so long 
characterized it. Most of the new houses of the grandees and 
even of persons of moderate wealth, are built in the style of Con- 
stantinople ; with shelving roofs and glass windows.— One of my 
friends here remarked to me that the painting the shops blue was 
a sign of some heavy calamity being about to befal the city : blue 
(but really of a very dark shade) being the colour of mourning. 
Another observed that these shops resembled the person who 
recommended their decoration (the Basha) ; being fair without, 
but mean and dirty within. 

There has been much talk here for some weeks past (ever since 
my arrival) of a project which the Basha is about to put in execu- 
tion, and which was at first said to be nothing less than the 
obstruction of the river by a dam to be thrown across it a few 
miles below the metropolis, in order to throw the whole tide of 
the river into the canals, and so to irrigate Lower Egypt more 
effectually s but latterly the real intention of the Basha has 
become better known. The two brunches of the Nile which 
enclose the Delta are to flow under two bridges, to be constructed 

• Cp. Mod. Eg. pp. 481, ff. 



a little below the point where the river divides, each in the neck 
of a peninsula formed by a bend of the river ; across which neck 
or isthmus a new bed for the water is to be made as soon as the 
bridge is completed ; after which the old bed surrounding the 
peninsula is to be filled up. These two bridges are to be connected 
with each other, and with Es-Suweys (or Suez) on \ho one side 
and Alexandria on the other, by a rail-road. The difficulty of 
the undertaking is immense ; for these bridges are to withstand 
the tremendous tide of the inundation, and occasionally to be 
closed by flood-gates, so as to increase the height of the river 
above sufficiently to cause it to fill all the small canals by which 
the Delta and the adjacent provinces are irrigated. A similar 
undertaking was projected by Bonaparte, when here. 

18th April.— 9th Zu-1-Heggeb.— This is the Day of the Pil- 
grimage ; that is to say, of the six-hours' journey from Mekkeh 
to Mount Arafat, which gives to each person who performs it the 
title of Pilgrim, and without the performance of which he would 
not obtain that title even if he had journeyed to Mekkeh from 
the most remote part of the Muslim world. The halt upon 
Mount Arafat happening this year on a Friday, the Sabbath of 
the Muslims, has made several of my friends express great regret 
that they have been unable to perform the pilgrimage under such 
a propitious circumstance. 

19th. — The 'Eed el-Kebeer. — Nothing unusual to remark upon. 
May 25th. — We were somewhat alarmed to-day, about an hour 
after noon, by a shock of an earthquake. I was three times, with 
less than a moment's intervention, rather violently shaken on my 
seat; and several long cracks were opened in the walls of the 
house in which I am living. I have heard of no house having 
been thrown down or much injured by it. It is supposed to 
have shown its greatest violence (that is, to have originated) in 

June 7th.— During the week which is now closing all classes of 
courtesans, including the ghaic&zec (or public dancing-girls), have 
been suppressed in the metropolis and its neighbourhood. This 
measure has been talked of, as about to bo put in execution, for 
some months past. The courtesans had become extremely 
numerous, and wore scattered in every quarter of the town ; some 
of them living in houses almost fit to be the residences of 
grandees ; and acquiring considerable wealth. 

July 29th.— Went to the Pyramids of El-Geezeh. Stayed in 
" Caviglia's Tomb." 

30th. — We again experienced a shock of an earthquake, more 
violent than the former, at about half-past nine p.m. Heard of 
no injury done. 

Aug. 2nd. — Returned from the Pyramids. 
5th.— The dam of the Canal of Masr cut. I have given an 
account of this in another note-book.* 

12th. — Last night, Seleem Bey, a general in the Basha's service, 
hired a large party of fikees, to perform a recital of the Kur-an, 
in his house in this city; and then went up into his hareem, 
and strangled his wife. He had written to Ibraheem Basha, 
accusing this woman (who was the daughter of a Turk in high 
office) of incontinence ; and asking his permission to punish her. 
He received for answer, that he might do as he pleased. He then 
sent Ibraheem Basha's letter to Mohammad 'Alee, asking the 
same permission of the latter; and received the same answer. 
The case presents a sufficient proof of Mohammad 'Alee's ideas 

• Cp. Mod. Eg. pp. 493—8. 

of justice and humanity. Had he wished to indulge his creature 
with permission to exercise the utmost severity of the law, he 
could only have said — " If you can produce four witnesses against 
your wife, or if you can swear that you have witnessed her crime 
by the oath ordained in cases of this kind, and she will not take 
the same oath that . the accusation is false, let her be stoned to 

Sept. 17th. — My 33id birth-day. I have completed, as far as I 
can see, my notes on the manners and customs of the Muslims of 
Egypt. I have only to look over them ; and to ask a few ques- 
tions respecting the Copts.* 

Oct. 27th. — I generally pay a visit to the shop of the Basha's 
booksellers on the mornings of Monday and Thursday, when 
auction-markets are held in the street where the shop is situated, 
and in the neighbouring bazar of Khan El-Khaleelee (the chief 
Turkish bazar) which occasion the street above-mentioned to be 
much crowded, and to present an amusing scene : but I am often 
more amused with the persons who frequent the shop where I 
take my seat. When I went there to-day, I found there an old 
man who had been possessed of large property in land ; but had 
been deprived of it by the Basha, and been compelled to become a 
member of the university, the great mosque EI-Azhar. This 

man, the Hagg , is a celebrated character. He 

rendered great assistance, both by his wealth and by active 
service, to Mohammad 'Alee, in his contest with his predecessor, 
Ehursheed Basha, when the latter was besieged in the Citadel. 
The greater part of his property was confiscated by the man he 
had thus served, through fear of his influence. He thus shared 
the fate of most of those who had rendered eminent services to 
Mohammad 'Alee ; but he contrived to hide much of his wealth ; 
and has since employed friends to trade with it privately on his 
account, so that he has still a large income ; but the third part of 
his receipts he always gives to tho poor. The elder of the two 
booksellers was relating his having just purchased a house. There 
lived next-door to him, he said, a fikee, a member cf the Azhar, 
and of some repute ; to whom 1 4 keerats (or 24th parts) of tho 
house in which he (the fikee) lodged belonged: the other 10 
keerats of this house belonged to a tailor. The bookseller's house 
was entered, from the roof, and plundered, three times, of wheat, 
butter, &c. The fikee was accused by the bookseller of having 
committed these thefts ; and confessed that he had ; urging, in 
palliation, that he had only taken his food. The bookseller caused 
him to be imprisoned in the Citadel ; and, after he had been con- 
fined there many days, offered to procure his liberation if he would 
sell him the above-mentioned share of bis house. This was done ; 
it was sold for six and a half purses. The bookseller then wanted 
to procure the tailor's share ; and proposed to him to repair or 
separate or sell : for the house was in a ruined state. The tailor, 
refusing to do either, was summoned to the Kadee's court, and 
compelled to sell his share ; for which he demanded five purses. 
Having received this sum of money, he met, on his way home, a 
friend, whom he told what he had done. " You fool " — said his 
friend — "you might have asked ten purses, and it would have 
been given." The tailor threw down the purse in the middle of 
the street ; kicked off his shoes ; and for several minutes continued 
slapping his face, and crying out, like a woman, — " my sorrow I " 

* Here follows an account of the nine days' festival which took place 
on the marriage of the sister of Ahmad Basha ; cp. Mrs. Poole's English- 
woman in Egypt, vol. iii. pp. 61 — 77. 



He then snatched up the purse, and ran home with it, crying in 
the same manner all the way ; and leaving his friend to follow 
him with his shoes. — Soon after the bookseller had told this story, 
there joined us a Persian darweesh, whom I had often met there 
before, and a fat, merry-looking, red-faced man, loaded with 
ragged clothing, showing the edge of a curly head of hair below 
his turban, and carrying a long staff. Everybody at the shop, 
excepting myself, kissed his hand : he offered me his hand, and, 
after taking it, I kissed my own, and he did the same. I was 
informed that he was a celebrated saint. He took snuff; smoked 
from my pipe ; and had a constant smile upon his countenance ; 
though he seldom spoke : almost the only words he uttered were 
a warm commendation of an answer which I gave to the Persian : 
on his (the Persian's) asking me why I had not already departed 
from Musr as I had intended, I said that the servant of God was 
passive and not elective ; and this sentiment, though common, 
seemed much to please the welee : he repeated it with emphasis. 
— There next joined us a man of a very respectable and intelligent 
appearance, applying for a copy of the sheykh Rifa'ah's visit to 
France, lately printed at Boolak. Asking what were the general 
contents of this book, a person present answered him, that the 
author relates his voyage from Alexandria to Marseilles ; how he 
got drunk on board the ship, and was tied to the mast, and 
flogged ; that he ate pork in the land of infidelity and obstinacy, 
and that it is a most excellent meat ; how he was delighted with 
the French girls, and how superior they are in charms to the 
women of Egypt ; and, having qualified himself, in every accom- 
plishment, for an eminent place in Hell, returned to his native 
country. This was an ironical quizz on the sheykh Rifa'ah for 
his strict conscientious adherence to the precepts of El-Islam 
during his voyage and his residence in France. The applicant 
for this book had a cataract in each of his eyes. I advised him to 
seek relief from the French surgeon Clot Bey ; but he said that 
he was afraid to go to the hospital ; for he had heard that many 
patients there were killed and boiled, to make skeletons : he after- 
wards, however, on my assuring him that his fears were ground- 
less, promised to go.— While I was talking with him, there began 
to pass by the shop a long funeral-train, consisting of numerous 
nkees, and many of the 'Ulama. On my asking whose funeral 
it was, I was answered, " The sheykh El-Menzelawee," sheykh of 
the Saadeeyeh darweeshes. I was surprised ; having seen him a 
few clays before in apparently good health. Presently I saw him 
walking in the procession. I asked again ; and was answered as 
before. " Why," said I, " praise be to God, the sheykh is walking 
with you, in good health :" I was then told that the deceased was 
his wife. Some Saadeeyeh in the procession were performing a 
zikr as they passed along ; repeating " Allah ! " When the bier 
came in view, I heard the women who followed raising their 
zag/ia'reet, or cries of joy, instead of lamenting. The deceased 
was a famous saint. She was the sister of the late sheykh of the 
Saadeeyeh ; and it is believed that her husband, the present 
sheykh, derived his miraculous powers from her. It is said that 
she prophesied yesterday the exact hour of her death this day. 
The women began to lament when the corpse left the house ; and, 
as usual when this is done at the funeral of a saint, the bearers 
declared that they could not move it : as soon as the lamentations 
were changed to the cries of joy, the bearers pretended to find 
their work quite easy.* 

* Cp. notes to the Thousand and One Nights, 2nd ed., ii., p. 64. 

Nov. 6th. — To-day, as I was sitting at the booksellers' shop, a 
reputed welee, whom I have often seen, came and seated himself 
by me, and began, in a series of abrupt sentences, to relate to me 
various matters respecting me, past, present, and to come. His 
name is the sheykh 'Alee el-Leysee. He is a poor man, sup- 
ported by alms: tall and thin and very dark; about thirty 
years of age ; and wears nothing, at present, but a blue shirt 
and a girdle, and a padded red cap. " Efendee ! " he 
said, "thou hast been very anxious for some days. There is 
a grain of anxiety remaining in thee yet. Do not fear. There 
is a letter coming to thee by sea, that will bring thee good 
news. [He then told Lane that all his family were well except 
one, who was then suffering from an intermittent fever, which was 

proved afterwards to be true.] I wanted to ask thee for 

something to-day ; but I feared: I feared greatly. Thou must be 
invested with wilayeh " (i. e. be made a welee) : " the welees 
love thee; and the Prophet loves thee. Thou must go to the 
sheykh Mustafa El-Mun&dee, and the sheykh El-Bahaee ! " 
(These are two very celebrated welees). " Thou must be a welee." 
He then took my right hand, in the manner which is practised on 
giving the covenant which admits a person a darweesh, and 
repeated the Fat'hah ; after which he added, •« I have admitted 
thee my darweesh." Having told me of several circumstances 
relating to me, some of which he had doubtless learned of persons 
acquainted with me, and which I could not deny, and some which 
time only will prove true or false, he ventured at a further pro- 
phecy and hazardous guessing; and certainly his guessing was 
wonderful ; for he informed me of matters relating to my family 
which were perfectly true, matters of an unusual nature, with sin- 
gular minuteness and truth ; making no mistake as far as I yet 
know. He then added — " To night, please God, thou shalt see 
the Prophet (Mohammad) in thy sleep, and El-Khidr, and the 
seyd El-Bedawee. This is Regeb ; and I wanted to ask of thee — 
but I feared— I wanted to ask of thee four piasters, to buy meat 
and bread and oil and radishes. Regeb ! Regeb 1 I have great 
offices to do for thee to-night." Less than a shilling for all that 
he promised was little enough. I gave it him for the trouble he 
had taken; and he muttered many abrupt prayers for me* — 
It is just a year, to-day, since I embarked in London for this 

7th. — I saw, in my sleep, neither Mohammad nor El-Khidr 
nor the seyd El-Bedawee ; unless, like Nebuchadnezzar, I cannot 
remember my dreams. The welee, therefore, I fear, is a cheat. 

11th.— The Turkish pilgrims are beginning to arrive, in con- 
siderable numbers.— Four men were beheaded to-day, for repeated 
robberies and murders. 

18th.— Went to the Moolid of the Seyyideh Zeyneb ; which I 
have described in note-book no. 8.f 

20th.— About a hundred boys, from about 11 to 14 years of 
age, were conducted by my house this evening, to be enlisted. 
The mothers of many of them followed, screaming, and with their 
heads, faces, breasts, and the fore part of their clothing, plastered 
with mud. 

22nd.— The government has given orders, which are being put 
in execution, to pull down the mastabahs and the safceefehs, or 
coverings, of matting, in almost all the sooks, or bazars, and 
most of the thoroughfare streets. The former are not to be 
rebuilt in the more narrow and more frequented streets, and in 

• Cp. Thousand and One Nights, i., p. 212. t Cp. Mod. Eg. pp. 407,8. 



most other parts are only to be made about two spans wide. The 
sakeefohs are not to be replaced unless constructed of wood. The 
reason for pulling down or altering the mastabahs is to afford 
more room for the passengers, and particularly for the Basha's 
carriages, and for carts which are to be employed to remove dust 
and rubbish. The appearance of the city is rapidly changing, 
and losing its Arabian aspect. 

24th. — The sheykh 'Alee told me to-day that I should not yet 
set out on ray voyage home. In the evening news arrived of the 
plaguo having broken out in Alexandria, which prevents mv going 
us I had intended by a ship now loading. I was packing to leave 
Masr. I fear I shall be detained here until next spring or 

28th.— Witnessed the festival of the Mearag, described in note- 
book no 3.* 

1st December. — The shopkeepers are decorating (as they call it) 
their shops ; and most of the larger private houses, and many 
others, in the thoroughfare streets, are undergoing the same opera- 
tion, by order of the government, in honour (it is said) of Ibraheem 
Rashu, who is soon expected in Masr, from Syria. Most of the 
shops and houses are daubed with red and white, in broad, hori- 
zontal stripes ; which, being very ill done in general, must be 
called in truth the reverse of decoration. Others are daubed in 
a more fanciful and more rude style, with lines, spots, &c, of red 
upon a white ground ; and some, with grotesque representations 
of men, beasts, trees, boats, &c, such as very young children in 
our country would amuse themselves by drawing. 

26th. — I have been in Cairo just a year. I begin now to write 
out the fair copy of my work on the Modern Egyptians. The 
plaguo continues at Alexandria. 

4th January, 1835. — The plague has spread beyond Alexandria, 
and to-day a Maltese, from Alexandria, died here, in the Frank 
quarter, of this disease. I prepare immediately to go to Thebes, 
to bo secure from the plague, as it is expected now to spread in 
Cairo. Mr. Fresnel is to accompany me. 

5th.— Engaged a large boat to take us to Thebes, for four 
hundred piasters. 

8th. — Embarked for Thebes, in the afternoon. Proceeded to 
Masr el-'Ateekah. 

9th. — Contrary wind. Remained at Masr el-'Ateekah. 

10th. — Fine wind. Passed Rikkah in the evening. 

11th. — High N. wind. Arrived at Benee Suweyf at noon. 
Nero some fakeere, thinking us Turkish pilgrims, came and 
recited the Kur-an, for alms, by our boat. Proceeded. 

12th. — Passed El-Minyeh after sunset. 

13th. — Stopped before the grottoes of Benee Hasan at night. 
Early next morning landed to walk to the Specs Artemidos, which 
I had not hitherto seen. Took with me one of my servants 
(Khaleefeh, a young man), a Copt whom we had taken as a 
passenger to Thebes ('Abd el-Mellak), and two boatmen ; one of 
these two boatmen was a very fine man, the other an old, fat, 
inactive fellow. Put my pistols in Khaleefeh's girdle ; and 
myself carried nothing but my sword. A little above the grottoes 
above-mentioned is a ruined and deserted village by the river. 
About a mile further is another ruined village partly inhabited ; 
and about the same distance beyond this is a third village, wholly 
inhabited, with palm-trees. We passed the first and second 
villages. A little beyond the hitter wo turn towards the moun- 

• Cp. Mod. Eg. pp. 4C8— 70. 

tains, and find a wide ravine or valley, in the right or southern 
side of which are several grottoes along the lower part of the 
rock. As we approached this ravine, several groups of people 
came out from the second village, with nebboots ; and some with 
guns and pistols : two groups, about a dozen altogether, followed 
us : we saw that we were in danger, but it was too late to retreat. 
The men came to us. Some went back ; others came ; and soon 
there came another group from the third village, with a man in 
a clean blue gown, melayeh, and white turban : these sat a while 
at the entrance of the ravine, while we were within, with the 
other men, who spoke civilly to us, but looked exceedingly 
treacherous and savage. A boy who accompanied them whis- 
pered to my servant and the younger boatman to keep close to 
me; for that the men with him had come to take them for 
soldiers. As it was now impossible to escape, I began to examine 
the line of grottoes, and prepared to make a drawing ; merely 
that they might not be deceived by my dress, and take me for a 
Turk; as Europeans are more protected now in Egypt. — Soon 
after I had begun to make a sketch of this excavation, for the 
purpose before mentioned, the party that was at the entrance of 
the ravine came to us ; and while my back was turned, they seized 
my servant and the younger boatman : the pistols were snatched 
from the servant and discharged and carried away and one of 
them broken, and the two prisoners were hurried off, while two 
men held me to prevent my drawing my sword, which, as they 
truly enough said, would have been the cause of my being imme- 
diately killed. As soon as the men who had taken my servant 
and boatman had proceeded a few hundred yards towards the 
principal village, the others left me with my two remaining 
attendants. As quickly as I could, I gathered together my 
instruments, and then pursued the party who had taken my two 
men. On my approaching them, three of them turned back 
(one of these, the chief, with the white turban, &c), and desired 
me to return. I said I should follow them to the village, and 
there liberate the prisoners. Upon this, they attacked with their 
long staves ; and I received from the chief a blow on my chest, 
which obliged me to retreat, or I should without doubt have been 
killed. A boy who was with them followed me ; brought back 
my pistols ; kissed them twice, and, kneeling on the ground, 
presented them to me. The flints were taken out. My servant 
and the boatman, as I learned afterwards, were taken before the 
governor of the district that same day. A woman followed my 
servant, with feigned lamentations, crying, " Why do you say you 
are not my son ? Is not that decorated house the house of your 
father? and are not those palm-trees your father's palm-trees P 
and have not you eaten the red dates ? " This was to make the 
governor think that he was a young man of the village, and not 
stolen : for a number of men had been required from the village 
for soldiers ; and the people of the village had been employing 
themselves in taking passengers instead. They took five others 
that same day ; and one of these, who attempted to escape, they 
shot, in the presence of my servant. — I returned to my boat, with 
the intention of applying immediately to the governor (ma-moor) 
of the district. We were informed that he was at the village of 
Sakiyet Moosa, a few miles higher up the river, on the opposite 
(or western) bank. On arriving there, we found that he was at 
the opposite village of Esh-sheykh Timaee. The wind was so 
violent that we could not cross over with safety until the evening. 
We then landed there, about an hour after sunset. Accompanied 
by Mr. Fresnel, I went to his house. He was Bitting with a 



number of attendants, in an open- fronted room fa male 'ad) facing 
a court, and, after the day's fasting (it being Ramadan), was 
amusing himself by listening to the chanting of a public reciter 
of poetry. We entered with an abrupt and consequential manner, 
necessary to be assumed on such an occasion ; and the governor 
rose to us, returned us the Muslim salutation, and gave up his 
own place to me ; for I, having to make the complaint, was fore- 
most. He handed me the snake of his sheesheh ; and coffee was 
brought. I then made my complaint, with an air of assumed 
pride, shewed our firmans, which nobody present could read, and 
demanded the restoration of my servant and boatman, and the 
punishment of the men who had assaulted me ; particularly of 
him who had struck me. The ma-moor did not confess that the 
servant and boatman had been brought to him that day at Benee 
Hasan, which was the case ; but promised that they should be 
restored, and that he would soften the feet of the men who had 
assaulted me. — On the following morning the servant was 
brought and given up to me ; but the persons who brought him 
declared to the ma-moor that the boatman had made his escape, 
and that the men who had assaulted me had fled. So that I 
failed in my object of punishing them and gained but half what 
I wished. I found afterwards that the mau who struck me was 
the sheykh of Benee Hasan : had I known this before, I could 
have insisted upon his being punished ; as they could not have 
had the impudence to say that the sheykh would run away from 
his superior officer. 

14th. — Having obtained the liberation of my servant, proceeded 
to Mellowee. Remained there the following day. — 15th. Pro- 
ceeded to Gebel El-Kuseyr. — 17th. Becalmed under Gebel 
El-Kuseyr. Towed a little. — 18th. Passed Menfeloot after 
sunset. — 19t.h. Arrived at Asyoot at 1 p.m. Proceeded in the 
evening.— 20th. Passed Aboo Teeg at 1 p.m. — 21st. Passed 
Akhmeem in the afternoon. — 22nd. Arrived at Girga. This 
town is much ruined since I was last here : it has suffered much 
from the river. Proceeded about noon. Made but little way. 
Saw a crocodile. — 23rd. Calm. Thermometer 73°. Proceeded by 
towing. Approaching the neighbourhood of Farshoot, saw nine 
crocodiles together, and shortly after, nineteen more. — 24 th. Ar- 
rived at Hoo at sunset.— 25th. To Dishneh.— 2Gtb. Saw nine 
crocodiles on two sand-banks opposite Dendara." Arrived at Kine 
at night.— 27th. Passed Kuft at night— 28th. Saw about forty 
vultures (most of them rakhams, but many nisrs) on a sand-bank, 
in the morning, near the skeleton of a crocodile : afterwards, many 
pelicans and cranes. Proceeded a little way by towing, and after- 
wards by sail.— 29th. Last day of Ramadan. Arrived at El- 
Kurneh about 1 p.m. 

It was our intention to take up our quarters in a tomb which 
had been converted into a convenient dwelling by Mr. Wilkinson 
and Mr. Hay. We found Mr. Gosset occupying one apartment of 
it : I have taken possession of another apartment, separated from 
the former by a low wall with a door; and Mr. Fresnel has 
settled in a tomb just below, which was occupied by Bonomi and 
other artists in the employ of Mr. Hay. Our abode is in the Hill 
of the Sheykh, overlooking the whole plain of Thebes. A man 
named 'Owad has the charge of it; and Mr. Gosset and I pay him 
each 15 piasters a month for his services. 

April 3rd.— The Basha has paid a visit to this part of Egypt ; 
went as far as Isna; and has just passed us on his way down. 
It is said that he came to inspect the state of the agriculture and 
to inquire into the conduct of the local governors; which he has 

not done. He has caused the villages of Erment to be destroyed ; 
and the sheep &c. of all the inhabitants and of strangers who 
had sent their cattle &c. thither for pasture to be confiscated ; 
because many of the peasants of these villages could not be made 
to pay their taxes. 

17th. — Good Friday. — A man of this place died to-day of the 
plague, taken by wearing the clothes of a Nubian boatman, who 
was landed here five days ago, ill of this disease, and placed under 
the sycamore at the landing-place to die ; where he did die very 
soon after. The man of this place who died to-day was a relation 
of ray guard ; whom, as he has had intercourse with the family of 
the dead man, and, I am told, attended the funeral, I am obliged 
to dismiss for a time. Put ourselves in strict quarantine. 
M. Mimaut, the French Oonsul-General, who is staying at Luxor, 
put a stop next day to all communication between this side of 
the river and the opposite ; but is to send us meat &c. every two 

20th. — Another man of this place, a relation of the one above- 
mentioned, and father of Mr. Gosset's guard and water-carrier, 
died of the plague to-day, taken by wearing the clothes of the 
Nubian boatman. 

May 9th. — No more deaths by plague having occurred here, we 
gave up our quarantine this day ; having confined ourselves three 
weeks. The plague is said to be very severe in Alexandria ; and 
becoming so in the metropolis. 

June 25th. — The plague is said to have almost ceased in the 
metropolis and Alexandria in the beginning of this month. The 
French Consul has received intelligence that 75,000 persons have 
died by it in Masr ; and that 6000 houses are completely desolated 
by this disease, and closed. AVe sent yesterday to Kine, for a 
boat to convey us to Masr, — and Mr. Gosset left yesterday. 

Our messengers came back from Kine without having pro- 
cured a boat; finding the demands for boat-hire very high, on 
account of the number of pilgrims on their return from the 
Hegaz. We sent again ; and procured a large dahabeeyeh to 
convey us to Masr, for 650 piasters ; of which I am to pay half. 

30th. — Our boat arrived last night. Wo embarked to-day, and 
commenced our voyage at about 1 p.m. — 1st July. Arrived early 
at Kine. Went to the remains of Dendara: found the first 
little temple destroyed ; a great portion of the portal before the 
great temple, and part of the great temple itself, the upper part of 
the middle of the east side. In and about the temple were many 
fellaheen, hiding themselves, in the fear of being taken to work 
in making a new canal, or of being pressed for the army. Two 
or three cases of cholera had occurred at Kind : I heard of three 
deaths by this disease here: it is said to be also in the Hegaz. 
Continued our voyage in the afternoon. — 3rd. Arrived at Girga 
in the forenoon. — 4th. Passed Akhmeem, at night — 5th. Stayed 
most part of the day at Gezeeret Shenduweel. — 6th. Stopped 
at Tahta. — 7th. To Aboo Teeg. — 8th. Arrived at Asyoot, at 
10 a.m. — 9th. Arrived at Menfeloot, at 9 a.m. Proceeded at 
noon. Menfeloot has lately been much ruined by the inundations, 
towards the river. — 10th. Passed Tell el-'Amar'neh at sunset — 
11th. Passed El-Minyeh after sunset — 12th. To Aboo Girga. 
— 13th. Passed Benee Suweyf, at night — 14th. Saw the Pyra- 
mids of Dahshoor in the evening. — 15th. Arrived at Masr el- 
'Ateekah, at 8 a.m. : landed, and took up my abode in my former 

A few deaths by cholera have happened iu the metropolis and 
its neighbourhood. Some persons say that the plague has not yet 



quite ceased here. It has destroyed a third, or more, of the popu- 
lation of the city ; about 80,000 persons ; chiefly young persons, 
between 10 and 25 yean of age ; and most of these females. It 
has also been particularly fatal to Franks and other foreigners. 
6000 houses here have been desolated by it ; and are closed. In 
riding through the whole length of the metropolis, from south to 
north, I saw so few people in the streets compared with the 
number I used formerly to see, and so few shops open, that I 
should have thought that more than half the inhabitants had been 
destroyed. Thio is partly to be accounted for by the fact of many 
persons having fled to the country to escape the plague. — Last 
Friday, a number of persons spread a report that many of the 
victims of the plague had been buried alive (in trance), and 
numerous women, children, and others, went out to one of the 

great burial-grounds to disinter their relations and friends, taking 
with them bread, water-melons, &c, for them. Several tombs 
were opened. Some ignorant people even believed that the 
general resurrection was to take place on that day. The plague 
is still in Alexandria ; but slight ; two or three coses a day. 

16th. — To-day, being Thursday, when lamentations are renewed 
for persons not long dead, I was awoke early from my sleep by 
wailings in several houses around me. A few persons still die of 
the plague here. These cases are of persons attacked by the 
disease some days ago ; a week or more. No new cases are 
heard of. 

20th. — Exaggerated reports are spread respecting the cholera 
here. It makes but little progress : the deaths not ten a day. 
The plague is very severely raging at Dirayat. 

The journal ends with two stories of the Plague noted on August 1st and 2nd. Shortly after 
this Lane returned to England, carrying with him the manuscript of certainly the most perfect picture 
of a people's life that has ever been written, his " Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern 


" The Modern Egyptians." 
"The Thousand and One Nights."— " Selections from the Kur-dn." 

The first thing that occupied Lane's attention on his return to England was naturally to put the final 
touches to his hook and to see it through the press. What with the ordinary delays of printers, and the 
time needed for the preparation of the wood-cuts, which he drew with his own hand on the blocks, the 
work was not published till December, 1836, by Mr. Charles Knight, who had bought the first edition from 
the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

Those who had advised the Society in the matter had no cause for disappointment in the success of 
the lwok. The first edition, in two volumes, was wholly bought up by the booksellers within a fortnight 
of its publication. The second, the Society's, was to be much cheaper, and was therefore held back until 
the market was entirely cleared of the first. In 1837, however, it was brought out and stereotyped, with 
a first impression of four thousand copies, which were speedily disposed of. Two thousand five hundred 
copies in addition were struck off from the plates, and continued to be sold long after other and better 
editions had been issued. A third and revised edition, also in two volumes, was published by Mr. Knight 
in 1842. In 184G the book was added to the series of " Knight's Weekly Volumes." Five thousand copies 
were printed, and half this largo issue was sold by 184.7. In 1860 my father, E. Stanley Poole, edited the 
work again, in a single volume, for Mr. Murray, with some important additions ; and from this, which must 
be regarded as the standard edition, a reprint in two small volumes was produced by Mr. Murray in 1871, 
and is now almost exhausted. Altogether, nearly seventeen thousand copies of the "Modern Egyptians" 
have been sold, a sufficient evidence of its popularity in England. If it is added, that a German trans- 
lation was almost immediately produced, with the author's sanction, and that editions have been published 
in America, some idea will be formed of the European and trans-Atlantic repute of the book. 

The reviewers, who do not always echo the popular sentiment, were in this case singularly unanimous 
in their praise. A feeble but well-meant critique in the "Quarterly Review" could find no fault except 
with Lane's way of spelling Oriental names, which the reviewer travestied and then pronounced pedantic : 
the substance of the book met with his unqualified admiration. So it was with, I think, all the criticisms 
that appeared on the work. It was universally pronounced to be a masterpiece of faithful description. 

Oriental scholars, it need hardly be said, received it with acclamation. The distinguished Arabist, Fresnel, 
after a long residence in Egypt, wrote to Lane from Cairo in 1837 : " I have read with a great deal of interest 
some of your chapters on the Modern Egyptians and felt immensely indebted to you for making me 
acquainted with so many things of which I should have remained eternally ignorant, had it not been for your 
Thesaurus." The following extract from my father's preface to the fifth edition explains very clearly in what 
the value of the work lies. If they are the words of a near kinsman, they are also those of an accomplished 
Arabic scholar and one who had lived long in Egypt. 

" Of the Modern Egyptians, as the work of an Uncle and Master, it would be difficult for me to speak, 
were its merits less known and recognised than they are. At once the most remarkable description of a 


people ever written, and one that cannot now be re-written, it will always live in the literature of England. 
With a thorough knowledge of the people and of their language, singular power of description, and minute 
accuracy, Mr. Lane wrote his account of the " Modern Egyptians," when they could, for the last time, be 
described. Twenty-five years of steam-communication with Egypt have more altered its inhabitants than had 
the preceding five centuries. They then retained the habits and manners of their remote ancestors : they now 
are yearly straying from old paths into the new ways of European civilization. Scholars will ever regard it as 
most fortunate that Mr. Lane seized his opportunity, and described so remarkable a people while yet they were 

11 A residence of seven years in Egypt, principally in Cairo, while it enabled me to become familiar with the 
people, did not afford me any new fact that might be added to this work : and a distinguished English as well 
as Biblical scholar, the Author of ' Sinai and Palestine,' not long ago remarked to me, * The Modern Egyptians 
is the most provoking book I ever read : whenever I thought I had discovered, in Cairo, something that must 
surely have been omitted, I invariably found my new fact already recorded.' I may add that a well-known 
German Orientalist [Dr. Sprenger] has lately visited Cairo with the express intention of correcting Mr. Lane's 
descriptions, and confessed that his search after mistakes was altogether vain."* 

After the " Modern Egyptians " had been published, and his time was once more his own, Lane employed 
himself in that favourite amusement of learned men, attending the meetings of societies. These bodies, 
however, had more life in them forty years ago than now, and their proceedings had not yet approached 
that debatable border line between learning and futility which has now been successfully crossed. The 
Asiatic Society, which still produces some good work, was then under the inspiriting influence of 
the Earl of Munster, and the Oriental Text Committee and the Translation Eund were bringing out 
that long series of works of which many are still most valuable, although eome have deservedly died the 
death. At the meetings of these societies Lane was a prominent figure. Lord Munster regarded him as 
his right hand and would have his advice on everything connected with the work of the Committee and 
the Asiatic Society ; and any problem in Arabic literature, any inscription that defied Prof. Shakcspear 
and the other Orientalists of the Society, was referred to Lane and generally decided on the spot. But he 
was not a man to remain long contented with a sort of learned kettledrum- tea existence. He was 
wishing to be at work again; and the opportunity came very quickly. In the "Modern Egyptians" 
he had referred to the "The Thousand and One Nights," or "Arabian Nights" as they are commonly 
called, as forming a faithful picture of Arab life : and the remark had drawn more attention to 
the work than when it was merely regarded as a collection of amusing and questionably moral tales 
to be given to children with due caution. Lane was asked to translate them afresh. In his prospectus he 
showed that the ordinary English version was taken from Galland's Erench translation, which abounds 
in perhaps every fault which the most ingenious editor could devise for the destruction of a hated author. 
It is thoroughly inaccurate in point of scholarship; it misunderstands the simplest Arab customs and 
turns them into customs of India or Persia; it puts the whole into a European dress which destroys the 
oriental glamour of the original; and it mixes with the true Arabian Nights others which do not belong 
to the collection at all. Our English versions, based upon this, only magnified each vice and extinguished 
the few merits the work possessed in the Erench. 

• £. Stanley Poole, Editor's Preface to 5th [Standard] Ed. Modern Egyptians. 


In these circumstances there could he no question that a new translation was necessary; and 
there was no man hetter able to translate a work illustrative of Arah life than the author of "The Manners 
and Customs of the Modern Egyptians." Cairo in Lane's time was still emphatically the Arab city. It 
had become the sovereign centre of Arab culture when the City of Peace was given up to the Tatar 
barbarians and Baghdad was no longer the home of the Khaleefehs. Under the Memlook Sultans, Cairo, 
and with it Arab art, attained the acme of its splendour; and the kings who left behind them those 
wonderful monuments of their power and culture in the Mosques of El-Kahirah left also an established 
order of life, stereotyped habits of mind, and a ceremonious etiquette, which three centuries of Turkish rule 
had not yet effaced when Lane first visited Egypt. The manners, the dwellings, and the dress ; the 
traditions and superstitions, the ideas about things in heaven above or in the earth beneath, of the actors 
in "The Thousand and One Nights" were those of the people of Cairo under the Memlook Sultans: 
and Lane was fortunate enough to have seen them before the tide of European innovation had begun 
to sweep over the picturesque scene.* 

Lane resolved to make his translation of "The Thousand and One Nights" a cyclopaedia of Arab 
manners and customs. He added to each chapter a vast number of notes, which are in fact monographs 
on the various details of Arabian life. Never did he write better or bring together more happily the results 
of his wide oriental reading and of his long Eastern experience than in these Notes. The translation itself 
is distinguished by its singular accuracy and by the marvellous way in which the oriental tone and colour 
is retained. The measured and finished language Lane chose for his version is eminently fitted to re- 
present the rhythmical tongue of the Arabs: and one cannot take up the book without being mysteriously 
carried into the eastern dream-land; where we converse gravely with wezeers and learned sheykhs, or join the 
drinking-bout of a godless sultiin ; uncork 'Efreets and seal them up again in their bottles with the seal 
of Suleymiin, on whom bo peace ; follow Haroon-er-Rasheed and Jaafar in their nightly excursions ; or die 
for love of a beautiful wrist that has dropped us a kerchief from the latticed meshrebeeyeh of the hareem. 
Those who would know what the Arabs were at their best time, what were their virtues and what their vices, 
may see them and live with them in Lane's "Thousand and One Nights." 

The book came out in monthly parts in the years 1838 to 1840. It was illustrated profusely by 
W. Harvey, who succeeded in some slight degree in catching the oriental spirit of the tales; though 
his work is decidedly the least excellent part of the book. After the first edition, in three volumes, 
1840, two others were produced in which the publishers sought to popularize the translation by 
restoring the old ignorant spelling of the heroes' names. All recognized the value of Lane's work, 
but they still had a prejudice in favour of their old acquaintances Sinbad and Giaffer, and could 
not immediately get used to the new comers Es-Sindibad and Jaafar. Moreover they missed Aladdin, 
who even under his reformed name 'Ald-ed-deen was not to be found in Lane at all. To obviate 
these objections, the publishers produced an emasculated edition reviving all the old mistakes and adding 
the inauthentic tales. Lane, however, immediately made a strong protest and the edition was withdrawn 
from circulation. In 1859 my father brought out the second and standard edition of the work, and 

» I do not wish this to be taken as a defence of oriental abuses. There always comes a time when picturesque rottenness must 
Kive way to enlightened ugliness. But surely it is possible to reform the Turkish niisgovernment of Egypt without pulling down the 
mosques and the beautiful palaces of Memlook Beys which are still to be found in old corners of Cairo. Is it really a matter of necessity 
for a reforming Turk to wear a tightly-buttoned frock-coat ? But Easterns seem to be able to copy only those peculiarities of Europeans 
which rightly make us a laughing stock to the judicious savage. 


this has sinco been several times reprinted; a new issue having been required this year. Although 
from the size and cost of the book,— a cost due mainly to the illustrations, which (as Lane himself 
thought) might well be dispensed with,— it cannot in its present form entirely drive out the miserable 
versions that preceded it, and that stili live in the nursery: yet it is on all hands acknowledged to be 
the only translation that students of the East can refer to without fear of being misled. Every oriental 
scholar knows that the Notes are an essential part of his library. 

After this translation was finished, Lane, since he could not be idle, arranged a volume of " Selections 
from the Kur-an," with an introduction, notes, and an interwoven commentary. The book did not appear 
till 1843, when its author was in Egypt and unable to correct tho proofs. Consequently it is defaced 
by considerable typographical errors, and its publication in that state was a continual source of annoyance 
to Lane. The notion was an excellent one. He wished to collect together all the important doctrinal parts 
of the Kur-an, in order to show what the religion of Mohammad really was according to the Prophet's own 
words : and he omitted all those passages which weary or disgust the student, and render the Kur-an an 
impossible book for general reading. The result is a small volume which gives the ordinary reader a very 
fair notion of the contents of the Kur-an and of the circumstances of its origin. In this latter part of 
the subject there is, however, room for that addition and improvement which thirty years of continued 
progress in oriental research could not fail to make needful: and such alteration will be made in the new 
edition which is presently to be published. 

The " Selections " were but a wapepyov. Lane . was already embarked in the great work of his life, a 
work to which he devoted thirty-four years of unintermitting labour. 



Lane had seemingly exhausted modern Egypt. He had described the country, drawn a minute picture 
of the people's life, and translated their favourite romances. But there remained before him a still 
greater work, one indeed not bounded to any one country but concerning the whole Mohammadan world, 
and yet, like his other works, having its roots in Egypt. It was no longer a popular book that 
he was engaged upon : it appealed only to the narrow circles of the learned. But it is the work by 
which his name will ever be remembered, and by which England may claim the palm of Oriental scholarship, 
even above Germany, the home of Eastern study in Europe. 

It was impossible for Lane to acquire his intimate knowledge of Arabic without perceiving the lamentable 
deficiencies of the materials for its study then existing in European languages. Especially weak were the 
dictionaries: for Grammar could boast the magnificent works of De Sacy and Lumsden; whereas in the 
dictionaries of Golius and Freytag, if there were signs of learning and industry, there was also a dearth of 
material and a want of scholarship to interpret it, still more a lack of knowledge of Eastern minds, 
which resulted in statements calculated as much to mislead as to instruct the student. So long as the 
young Orientalists of Europe were reared upon the meagre food thus afforded to them, the standard of 
scholarship would be low and the number of students limited. Lane was well aware that it was not 
necessary to submit to this state of things from a want of the means of reforming it. On the contrary he 
knew that in Cairo there existed the richest materials the Arabic lexicographer could desire; and he 
determined himself to work the quarry and to produce a thesaurus of the language, drawn from original 
sources, which should once and for all supersede the imperfect productions of Golius and Freytag and bring 
the labours and learning of the Arab lexicographers within the reach of European students. 

The field into which Lane was about to throw all his energy was a peculiar one. The materials for com- 
posing such a work as he contemplated were singularly perfect. For the exceptional history of the Mohammadan 
Arabs had produced a nation of grammarians and lexicologists. The rapid spread of the tide of Muslim 
conquest had threatened the corruption and even the extinction of the language of the Kur-iin ; other 
tongues were beginning to intermix with the pure Arab idiom ; and it was foreseen that, were the process 
suffered to continue undisturbed, the sacred book of the Muslims would soon become unintelligible to the 
great body of the Faithful. 

" Such being the case, it became a matter of the highest importance to the Arabs to preserve the knowledge 
of that speech which had thus become obsolescent, and to draw a distinct line between the classical and 
post-classical language. For the former language was that of the Kur-an and of the traditions of Mohammad, 
the sources of their religious, moral, civil, criminal, and political code, and they possessed in that language, 
preserved by oral tradition, — for the art of writing in Arabia had been almost exclusively confined to the 
Christians and Jews, — a large collection of poetry consisting of odes and shorter pieces, which they 
esteemed almost as much for its intrinsic merits as for its value in illustrating their law. Hence the vast 
collection of lexicons and lexicological works composed by Arabs and by Muslims naturalized among the 
Arabs ; which compositions, but for the rapid corruption of the language, would never have been undertaken. 


In the aggregate of these works, with all the strictness that is observed in legal proceedings, .... the 
utmost care and research have been employed to embody everything that could be preserved or recovered 
of the classical language, the result being a collection of such authority, such exactness and such 
copiousness as we do not find to have been approached in the case of any other language after its 
corruption or decay." • 

The earlier lexicographers and commentators constitute the authorities from whom all later 
writers have gathered their facts. They speak either of their own authority or they cite a statement — 
a word or a signification — illustrated often by a proverb and more frequently by a couplet, for all 
of which they produce what may be called a pedigree, so rigidly do they seek to exclude chance 
of error. " Most of the contents of the best Arabic Lexicons was committed to writing, or to the 
memory of students, in the latter half of the second century of the Flight, or in the former half 

of the next century From these and similar works, either immediately or through the 

medium of others in which they are cited, and from oral tradition, and, as long as it could be done 
with confidence, by collecting information from the Arabs of the desert, were composed all the best 
lexicons and commentaries on the classical poets, &c."t The information these lexicons impart is conveyed 
after the strict rules of the science of lexicology. Probably no original authorities are so thoroughly original 
as the works written in accordance with its rules. The writer of such a dictionary frequently says, — "I 
have heard an Arab of such a tribe say so-and-so," in support of a word or phrase. If he quotes from 
contemporaries, or from what constituted his original authorities, he always gives the source whence he 
gets his information. He is scrupulous not to assign undue weight to a weak authority. An authority 
was weak either because he lived after the classical age, or because he belonged to a tribe who spoke 
a corrupt dialect; or he might, if otherwise qualified, be known to be careless or otherwise inaccurate. 
The chronological limit of classicality was easily fixed. The period of classical Arabic does not extend 
much beyond the end of the first century of the Flight, except in the case of isolated tribes or rarely 
gifted men ; but such are always quoted with caution. They were post-Mohammadan. Even poets (and 
poetry is the mainstay of the Arab) born during the Prophet's lifetime were of equivocal authority. 
The unquestioned Arab — he who spoke the pure and undefiled tongue — was either a contemporary of 
Muhammad's (i. e. born before but living during his time), or he altogether preceded him and belonged 
to the "Times of Ignorance." The purest of the recognized tribes were generally considered to be those 
who dwelt between the lowlands of the coast tracts and the inhabitants of the mountains, or as Aboo-Zeyd 
somewhat vaguely expresses it, "the higher of the lower and the lower of the higher." + 

Thus the great Arabic dictionaries were gradually compiled. To enumerate them or to attempt to 
distinguish their several merits is beyond my present object. § It is enough to say that rather more than a 
hundred years ago a learned dweller in Cairo, the Seyyid Murtada, collected in a great lexicon, which he called 
the Taj-el-Aroos, all that he deemed important in the works of his predecessors. lie took for his text 
a celebrated dictionary, the Kamoos of El-Feyroozabadee, and wrote his own vast thesaurus in the form 
of a commentary upon it, interweaving the results of all the great authorities (especially the Lisan-el 
'Arab) and adding from his own wide learning much that is valuable. The Taj-el-Aroos is, in fact, a 

• Preface to Lexicon, viii. t Preface, xi., xii. 

t Cp. an excellent review of Lane's Lexicon, Part I., in " The Times " of March 26, 1864, written by a known hand. 

§ A full account of them is given in the Preface to Lexicon, Part I. 


combination of all the leading lexicons, and as such, and being compiled with great care and accuracy, 
is unquestionably the chief and best of native Arabic dictionaries. 

During his former residence in Egypt Lane had become aware of the existence of copies, or portions 
of copies, of this Thesaurus in Cairo ; and the thought had come to him that herein lay the opportunity 
for constructing an Arabic Lexicon of a fullness and accuracy never yet dreamt of. To compose a work 
in English from the Taj-el- Aroos would be, he saw, to provide the scholars of Europe with an authority 
once and for ever, from which there could be no appeal. But to attempt such a work would require 
another residence in Cairo, tedious and expensive transcribing of the Taj, long years of toil, and the 
wearisome labour of proof-sheets. And when done, who could be found to venture to publish so vast a 
work, involving peculiar printing at ruinous cost ? 

The days of patronage were over : authors no longer waited in the vestibules of great men with 
odes and dedications. But the spirit that prompted the finest patronage still existed. There were 
those among the noblemen of England who were ready to devote their wealth to the cause of 
culture and learning, and who were emulous of promoting a great work that could not advance 
without their help. In his first visit to Egypt Lane had met Lord Prudhoe and from that time 
something closer than mere acquaintance had sprung up between them. Few could know Lane 
without seeking to be his friend : and his worth was not that of an uncut diamond ; the courtesy and 
grace of his manners were conspicuous. Lord Prudhoe found a delight in his society which did not vanish 
when they returned to England. He would constantly come to the house in Kensington, bringing some 
choice tobacco — the only luxury Lane indulged in — and there he would sit in the study, talking over old 
Eastern scenes they had witnessed together, and discussing the work then going on, "The Arabian Nights," 
and Lane's plans of future study and writing. It was during these frequent meetings in London that 
the idea of the Lexicon was talked over. Lord Prudhoe entered zealously into the project; offered to 
provide Lane with the means of collecting the materials in Cairo, and eventually took upon himself the 
main expense of the production of the work. To understand in any degree the generosity and public 
spirit evinced in this, it must be remembered that it was no ordinary book, costing a few hundred 
pounds, that was thus to be produced. It involved the employment for thirteen years of a learned 
scholar in Cairo, to transcribe the manuscript of the Taj-el-Aroos ; it required peculiar type to be designed 
and cast ; it demanded skilled compositors of special acquirements ; and finally, it was not a work of ordinary 
size, but one of eight large quarto volumes with three columns in the page, reaching when completed 
probably to four thousand pages. To give more precise details of the expense of the work would be an 
impertinence to the princely generosity that took no count of the cost. From first to last the Lexicon 
was the care of Lord Prudhoe. In 1847 he succeeded his brother as fourth Duke of Northumberland, but 
the serious addition to his duties caused by this and by his- acceptance of a place in the Cabinet brought 
about no change in his interest in Lane's work. He would come almost yearly to "Worthing to see my 
Uncle and learn from himself how " the great book " went on. Of the many who regretted His Grace's death 
in 1864, few lamented it more deeply than Lane. It was the severing of a long friendship, and a friendship 
which the generosity of the Duke, instead of destroying, as is the manner with the meaner sort of men, had 
cemented. But the bright example of the Duke created its own reflection. That support which for nearly 
a quarter of a century, "with a kindness and delicacy not to be surpassed," he had accorded to Lane's 
great undertaking was at once and at her own express wish* continued by his widow, Eleanor, Dowager 
Duchess of Northumberland; and to Her Grace's munificence it still owes its further publication. 

* On the death of Duke Algernon, his successor, formerly Lord Beverley, expressed a strong wish to continue the support of 
the work; and his son, the present Duke, has shown an equal interest in it. 

xxxii MEMOIR. 

The financial difficulties of the work being now overcome, Lanp resolved on an instant departure for 
Egypt. Ilis two previous visits had been solitary: but now he went surrounded by his family, — his wife, 
a Greek lady whom he had married in England in 1810, and his sister, Mrs. Poole, with her two sons, 
to whom he ever bore himself as a father,— just as he did twenty-five years later to two nephews of 
the next generation. A great sorrow had lately come upon them in the death of Lane's mother. In 
old age her intellect was as bright, her character as firm and tender, as they had ever been. To her 
sons and daughter she was as an angel from heaven. Over her youngest son, though he had lived among 
strange peoples and passed through dangers by sea and by land and was now a man on whom the 
eyes of the learned waited, this gentle woman still exercised that supreme influence which had inspired 
him when a boy with the noble principles and pure aspirations of the Higher Life; and to the last he 
rendered her the same love and obedience he had given as a child. It was this sore trouble that decided 
Mrs. Poole, who had lived in lato years always with her mother, on accompanying her brother to Egypt, 
and from this time to his death she never left him for more than a few days at a time, unless sum- 
moned by the illness of her own sons. 

In June 1842 the little party of five returned to London from Hastings, whither they had removed 
in the autumn of the preceding year ; and on July 1st they sailed for Alexandria in the Peninsula and 
Oriental Company's Steamship "Tagus," in itself an agreeable contrast to the small sailing vessels in 
which Lane had hitherto travelled, but still more pleasant in consequence of the special instructions of 
the Directors of the Company as to the comfort of their distinguished passenger. On July 19th they 
reached Alexandria, whence after a day or two they sailed up -the Mahmoodecyeh for Cairo. At first the 
whole party, but especially the two boys, then only twelve and ten years old, were so ill that it became 
doubtful whether a return to England were not the only remedy. The seasoning sickness, however, passed away, 
and on arriving at Boolak on July 27th Lane began again to look for a house, taking up quarters mean- 
while at the General Consul's residence, which Col. Barnet (like Mr. Salt on a former occasion) had courteously 
placed at his service. It was not till three weeks later that a suitable house could be found, and from 
the one they then entered, in the Darb-el-Gcmel, their servants, and therefore themselves, were driven, 
after a determined resistance of two months, by a series of extraordinary sounds and sights, which the 
Muslim servants attributed to the haunting of the place by a Saint and an 'Efreet, and which have 
not yet received a satisfactory explanation.* Being at length fairly expelled, like many people before 
and after them, they took refuge (in January 1813) in a house in the Hirat es-Sakka-een, where they 
remained till the beginning of 1845, when they once more removed, to the Kawadces, where they lived 
till their return to England in 1849. 

It was a pleasant little society they entered into, for the seven years of their stay in Cairo: but 
it was too changing for strong friendships. There were it is true some kindly people always living in 
Cairo: such as the English Missionary, Mr. Lieder, and his good-natured wife; the English physician 
Dr. Abbott, to whose friendly services Lane owed much, and not least the Consul Mr. Walne. And for 
a lono- time Eulgence Ercsncl was in Cairo and constantly with his fellow Orientalist, for whom ho felt 
tho affection of a brother. Mr. James Wild, too, the greatest authority on Arab art, was a very welcome 
addition to the little circle of friends, and it was perhaps partly his long association with Lane that 
opened his eyes to the beauty of Arab, as distinguished from Moresque, architecture. And the latter part 

• For an account of tho really curious phenomena exhibited in this house see Mrs. Poole's Englishwoman in Egypt, i. pp. 70-78, 109—204 ; 
ii. pp. 1—2. 


of their stay was brightened by the accession of two special friends, — Sir James Outram, the Bayard of India, 
who was never tired of coming to the house in the Kawadees ; and the Hon. Charles Murray (now the 
Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Murray, K.C.B.), who had succeeded Col. Barnet as Consul-General, and who from 
the moment of his arrival exerted himself in every way to shield Lane from the importunate visits of passing 
travellers and to find amusement for my father and uncle, to whom he showed unvarying kindness. 
Among the Alexandrians, too, who constantly visited Cairo, Lane had found good friends, especially 
in the late Mr. A. C. Harris, Mr. Alexander Tod and his wife, and Mr. and Mrs Batho. 

But with these exceptions the society around them was ever on the ebb and flow, as the season for 
visiting Egypt went and came again. Of the many travellers who came to see the country, or passed 
through it on the way to India, not a few had introductions to Lane, and the acquaintance once made 
was not likely to be dropped so long as they remained in Cairo and the Friday receptions at Lane's 
house continued. This day, the Sahbath of the Muslims, was set aside for receiving the calls of 
his Muslim and other friends, and his wife and sister used to sec the Europeans who came, in the 
Harecm rooms; so that on this day there was always a double reception. On different Fridays many 
of the most distinguished Orientalists of Europe and learned Easterns might be found in Lane's study — 
Lepsius, Wilkinson, Dicterici, DAbbadie, Frcsnel, Pruner, and others; with Sheykh Mohammad Eiyad, 
the Sheykh Rifd'ah, Hftggec Hasan El-Burralee, the poet, and other literati of Cairo, who delighted 
to converse with the Englishman who had more than once decided the moot-points of the Ulama of the 
Azhar; whilst the less exclusively Oriental friends, and the few ladies who visited Cairo, such as 
Harriet Martincau, would betake themselves to the other side of tho house, where Mrs. Lane and Mrs. 
Poole were "at home." 

Except on Fridays Lane denied himself to everybody, unless unusual circumstances made the inter- 
ruption a necessity. On Sundays he never allowed himself, however much pressed for time, to continue 
his week-day work; nor did he like Sunday visitors. On all other days he devoted himself uncom- 
promisingly to the preparation of his Lexicon. From an early breakfast to near midnight he was always 
at his desk, the long hours of work being broken only by a few minutes for meals — he allowed himself 
no more— and a scanty half-hour of exercise, spent in walking up and down a room or on the terrace 
on the roof. For six months together he did not cross the threshold of his house ; and during all 
the seven years he only once left Cairo, and that was to take his wife and sister for a three days' 
visit to the Pyramids. At first he used to devote a short time every day to the classical education 
of his nephews, but even this was taken off his hands after a time by the kindness of the Rev. 
G. S. Cauflcy and the ready counsel of Mr. Charles Murray. But Lane continued to direct their 
studies, and it was by his advice that the elder devoted himself to the subject of modern Egypt and thus 
became a distinguished Arabic scholar, whilst the younger turned his attention to the ancient monuments, 
and, twice ascending the Nile and annotating Lane's earliest work, laid the foundations of his 
reputation as an Egyptologist. 

The Lexicon was indeed begun in earnest. The first thing to be done was the transcription of 
the Taj-cl-Aroos, and for this purpose Lane before leaving England had already consulted Fresncl, who 
was then living in Cairo, and who, after careful investigation, recommended the Sheykh Ibraheem Ed- 
Dasookce for the work. The copyist must be able to do more than merely write the Arabic character, 
it need scarcely be said; he must understand the original as a scholar, and he must hold such a 
position among the learned of Cairo that he can be trusted with the manuscripts from the Mosques. 

xxxiv MEMOIR. 

Such a man was the Sheykh Ed-Dasookee ; ill-tempered and avaricious, hut still the right man for the 
work. Lane at first hoped to obtain the loan of at least large portions of the manuscript from the 
Mosque of Mohammad Bey. The Pasha himself, Mohammad 'Alee, was anxious to further the work by 
any means in his power, and the Prime Minister, Arteen Bey, called upon Lane with the view of dis- 
covering in what manner the Government could assist him. But the loan of manuscripts from the Mosques 
was a request beyond the power even of Mohammad 'Alee to grant ; and Lane had to submit to the 
tedious process of borrowing through his Sheykh a few pages at a time, which were copied and then 
exchanged for a few more. Thus the transcription went on; and much of Lane's time was occupied in 
collating it with the original and in reading and annotating it in the company of the Sheykh Ed-D&sookec. 
But meanwhile there were other materials to be collected. It is true the main basis of the coming work 
was to be the Taj-el-Aroos : but this was founded upon many other lexicons, and Lane determined so far 
as might be possible to verify its quotations and to take nothing at second-hand which could be obtained 
from the original source. Hence it was a matter of great consequence to gather together any manuscripts 
that could be bought in Cairo. Fresnel gave him three most valuable manuscripts, Mr. Liedcr another; 
and by a careful watch on the book-market, by means of his old ally Sheykh Ahmad, he was fortunate 
enough to accumulate more than a dozen of the most renowned lexicons ; and thus ho was able to 
test the accuracy of the Taj-el- Aroos, and to add greatly to the perfection and authoritativeness of his 
own work. 

After a preliminary study of Arabic lexicology, — a science complicated by technical terms of varying 
meaning, — and so soon as a portion of the Taj-cl-'Aroos was transcribed, Lane began to compose his own 
Lexicon from the Taj and from the other dictionaries he had collected. Thus from year to year the 
work went slowly on; collating, collecting, composing filled each day, each month, each year. At length 
the materials were gathered, the Tiij was transcribed up to a sufficiently advanced point, and Lane felt 
he need stay no longer in Egypt. So leaving Mr. Liedcr to keep the Sheykh to his work of copying, — 
which, now it is finished, fills 24 large volumes, — Lane and his family bade farcAvell to the friends who 
had risen around them, and reaching Alexandria on the 5th October, 1849, sailed on the lGth for England, 
where they arrived on the 29th. 

Such is the brief account of Lane's third visit to Egypt, and the beginning of the Lexicon. It was 
a time of unremitting exhausting labour : but it was a happy time. Lane had his wife and sister with 
him, and his home was brightened by two young faces, full of the excitement and delight of their new 
and marvellous surroundings. A cloud had fallen upon them, indeed, in 1844, when they heard of the 
death of the eldest brother, Thcophilus Lane; and some days of deep anxiety had befallen Lane when 
both wife and sister lay dangerously ill with cholera and typhus fever. But on the whole the seven years 
had been years of happiness. His sister had gained for herself a place in literature by her "Englishwoman 
in Egypt," his two nephews had each marked out for himself a career as an Orientalist ; he himself had 
accomplished his purpose and gathered together the materials and begun the composition of the great 
work of his life. 

The Arabic Lexicon. returned to Europe in 1849 the acknowledged chief of Arahic scholars. As the author ot 
••The Modern Egyptians" his fame as the authority upon Egypt had hcen established; and his translation 
of the Arabian Nights had gained him the well-earned repute of accurate scholarship. But when it 
became known on what work he was now engaged and when specimens had shown how thoroughly that 
work would be done, all who had a care for learning were eager to offer their homage. As early as 
1839 the Egyptian Society had enrolled him among their honorary members. In 1846 the German Oriental 
Society elected him a corresponding member, and in 1871 raised him to their highest rank, that of Eliren- 
MiMied- and the example of Germany was followed, at a distance, by England, in the elections to the 
Honorary Membership of the Royal Society of Literature (1858) and of the lloyal Asiatic Society (1800). 
In 1864 a vacancy occurred in the Academic Acs Inscriptions et Belles-Lcttres of the Institut de Prance, 
by the promotion of De Wittc, and Lane was unanimously elected a Correspondent' in his place; and in 1875, 
on the occasion of its Tercentenary Festival, the University of Leydcn accorded to him the degree ot 
Honorary Doctor of Literature (Philosophiac Theoreticae Magister, Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor)-tho only 
University degree he ever accepted, though not the only one offered to him. Those singular decorations, 
chiefly of military origin, which learned men are sometimes pleased to receive from their Sovereign, were 
by Lane decidedly though respectfully declined. 

It was not, however, only in the matter of diplomas that a strong interest was shown in the great 
work my Uncle was preparing. So soon as the immense cost of the production was known, and before 
Lord Prudhoe had taken upon himself the expense of printing it, efforts were made, though not by 
the author, to obtain for it the support it needed. The Chevalier Bunsen exerted himself in a most 
friendly manner to gain the help of the English Universities: but it need hardly be said m vain. On 
the other hand, Germany was anxious to obtain the distinction of supporting it. At the instance ol 
Bunsen, Lcpsius, and Abeken, seconded by many others, it was agreed to offer to publish the Lexicon at 
the joint expense of the Prussian Government and the Berlin Academy of Sciences; and in 18i(> Pro! 
Dietcrici was sent by the King of Prussia to Cairo to consult Lane's wishes. There were, however, con- 
ditions named to which Lane "could not willingly accede"; and moreover the arrangements for publishing m 
England were, by the zealous exertions of his brother Bichard, nearly completed. In 1848 Lord John Russell, 
then Premier, made the first of a series of annual grants from the Fund for Special Service, which Lord 
Aberdeen continued in 1853 ; and in 1803 the grant was changed into an annual Pension on the Civil List. 

On his return to England Lane soon settled down into his old routine of work. The composition 
went slowly on, and the manuscript of the Taj-el-'Aroos was gradually completed and sent over. At 
last when he had been twenty years at the work Lane felt he might begin printing. In 1803 the 
First Part appeared, and in two years' time the Second followed. The Third was published in 1807, 
and the Fourth was printed in 1870, but the whole edition of one thousand copies was unfortunately 


burnt before it reached the publisher, with the exception of 'a single copy, and the entire Part had 
to be printed again, and therefore did not appear till 1872. After the necessary two years' interval 
Part V. was published in 1874. The Sixth Part was half-printed (as far as p. 2386) when its author died; 
and it has taken me a year to finish it (1877). Two Parts remain to be published, besides the Second 
Book, which may be estimated at one or. perhaps two Parts more. 

The publication of the Lexicon more than confirmed the high expectations that had been formed 
of it. As Jules Mohl well said, each article is a perfect monograph recording all that can be recorded 
on the subject. Each statement is followed by initials indicating the authorities from which it was 
derived, except where Lane has interwoven, within brackets, his own remarks and criticisms. Thus the 
work is, in point of authoritativeness, as sufficient for the student as if he possessed all the original 
manuscripts from which it is compiled. And whereas in the native writers method is unknown and 
meaning follows meaning in no settled sequence, Lane has succeeded in arranging each article in 
logical order, distinguishing between primary and secondary meanings, and making the various significations 
of each root a connected whole, instead of a chaotic congeries of inexplicable contradictions. The value 
of the manner as well as of the matter was instantly recognized by the Orientalists of Europe. There 
was no question of rivalry: all and each were agreed absolutely to submit to an authority which 
they saw to be above dispute. The greatest Arabist of Germany used to send Lane from time to time 
monographs of his own inscribed with the words " Unscrem Grossmeister " and the like; and his homage 
is but an example of the reverence felt by all for the " Schatzmcister dcr arabischen Sprachc." 

But this universal appreciation of his work did not induce Lane to slacken for a moment the severe 
tension of his monotonous toil. He never rested on his laurels for a single day. lie felt that it was 
a work demanding more than one lifetime, and he determined to leave as little undone as he could. 
After a year at Hastings he moved to the milder climate of Worthing, and during the twenty-five years 
he lived there he left the place but once, going to Brighton to sec his old friend Outram; and nothing 
but severe illness could compel him to take a day's rest. 

These years at Worthing were a time of constant unvarying labour,—" Of toil unsevcr'd from tran- 
quillity, Of labour that in lasting fruit outgrows Far noisier schemes, accomplished in repose, Too great 
for haste, too high for rivalry." My Uncle would go to his desk after an early breakfast and work 
for three or four hours in the morning. An early dinner then made a necessary interruption, but 
afterwards he would begin again without a moment's delay, and continue writing till about four o'clock, 
when if the weather were fine and he in fair health he would walk with some of his family for an 
hour or so. Then he would come back to tea, and from six to ten would again bury himself in 
manuscripts, when a simple supper would end the day. At first his afternoon walk extended to three 
or four miles; but as his strength waned he gradually shortened the distance, till in his last year he 
could only saunter gently up and down some shady road for half-an-hour, and even then found himself 
exhausted. So too he was at last induced by the entreaties of his family to close his books at nine 
o'clock instead of ten ; but even then he accomplished eight hours of study in the day. Nothing was 
allowed to interfere with these hours of "work. Visitors who asked for him were strictly denied, and 
it was only by calling on his wife or sister that it was possible to see him, and then only if he was 
at a point in his composition where interruption would not entail a serious delay. Yet these rare 


moments were sufficient to win for him the lasting affection of a small circle of friends, who were never 
weary of offering him every attention in their power, and far from taking amiss his rigid seclusion 
endeavoured in aU ways to shield him from the intrusion of strangers. He never called anywhere ; hut 
sometimes he would take his afternoon stroll in the gardens of Warwick House, where the bright 
society of his kindly hostesses was a delightful relief after his arduous hours of study. 

One day in the week Lane closed his books. His early training had led him to regard Sunday as 
a day to be set apart for the things of religion, and his long sojourn in the East had in no wise 
weakened this feeling. In Egypt he had frequently attended the prayers at the Mosques and there 
comported himself in all outward appearance as a Muslim: but this was only because without thus 
conforming to the ways of the people he could never have acquired that knowledge of their character 
which he afterwards turned to so great an account. To the last he preserved the simple earnest faith 
of his childhood. His acquaintance with the original languages of the Old and New Testament and Ins 
insight into Semitic modes of thought had certainly modified his views on some of the minor points, but 
in the essential doctrines of Evangelical Christianity his belief never changed. But his religion was not 
a mere matter of intellectual adhesion to a given series of dogmas : he carried it into his everyday life. 
The forms of grace at meals, to most people purely ceremonious, were to him realities, and he never 
began his day's work without uttering the Arab dedication Biamirlldh-" In the name of God." No one 
who came within the reach of his influence, however great the disagreement in opinion, could fail to 
be impressed with the earnestness of Lane's convictions ; and few talked with him without going away 
better men than they came. His high and pure soul shone in his countenance, in his manner, in his 
every word. In his presence a profane or impure speech was an impossibility : yet no one was ever 
more gentle with that frailty for which the world has no pity. He was a Christian Gentleman, of a fashion 
of life that is passing away. 

Sunday was to Lane a day of religion rather than a day of rest. In the morning or afternoon he 
would, if he were well enough, attend the office of the Church of England. The remainder of the day 
he spent chiefly in Biblical study, for Which as a Hebrew scholar he possessed a critical knowledge that 
most of our divines might have envied. But it was not as a philolqgical amusement that he pursued 
his researches. To him the Bible was the guide of his life; and he used his every endeavour to 
understand each doubtful passage, to emend each ignorant rendering, to interpret by the light of 
Semitic thought those dark sayings which the Aryan translators comprehended not, and not least to discover 
the harmony of Scripture and science. Thus his Sundays were not a time of thorough rest, such as the 
severe character of his week-day work required them to be. His Biblical reading often tried him more 
than a day's work at the Lexicon, and the parallel lines of ordinary print weakened eyes accustomed to the 
flexuous writing of Arabic manuscripts. 

So the years wore on. Day followed day, and year year, without seeing any change in the monotony 
of Lane's life. Manuscript was written, proofs came and went, volumes were published, with unvarying 
regularity. The Lexicon was Lane's one occupation. The review and the essay, the offspring of the idle 
hours of learned men, had no attraction to a man who could not boast an idle moment. The only con- 
tributions he ever sent to a journal were two essays that appeared in the " Zeitschrift der deutschen 

xxxviii MEMOIR. 

morgenldndischen Gesellschaft." * With these exceptions Lane never allowed any literary pursuit to divert 
him from Ids work. Even the revision of new editions of his earlier works demanded more time than 
ho would spare, and he therefore left it to his nephews. 

In 1867 Lane experienced one of the great sorrows of his life. lie had seen hoth his sister's sons 
well advanced in their several careers: but he was destined to lose the one whom he had regarded as 
his own successor, the continuer of his life-work and the heir to his fame. My father's early death 
struck a heavy blow at Lane's love and hope. It was as the loss of an eldest son. Twenty-seven 
years before, he had taken to his home his sister and her sons ; and now, with the same unselfish 
readiness, he opened his door to the three children whom my father's death had left orphans. From 
this time my Uncle's house was home and he was a second father to me. It was no slight sacrifice 
to admit three children to his quiet life: but he never let us know that it was a sacrifice at all. I 
can never forget the patience with which he suffered all our childish waywardness, the zealous sympathy 
with which he entered into our plans and pleasures, his fatherly counsel and help in our boy troubles, 
his loving anxiety in sickness. Tho few moments that he could spare from his work, which he 
might well iiave devoted to his own recreation, were given to us. lie delighted to lead us to the studies 
he had loved himself, and would bring from the stores of his memory that scientific knowledge which 
had formed the favourite pursuit of his boyhood. And when I had chosen for myself the same field 
of study to which he had devoted his life, he gave me daily that help and advice which no one could 
give so well; read and revised everything I wrote; and at length, when his health was failing, gave 
me a last proof of his trust by confiding to me the completion of his own work. 

The life of the great Orientalist was drawing to its close. Frequent attacks of low fever, added 
to the exhaustion of chronic bronchitis, had seriously weakened a frame already enfeebled by excessive 
study. I seldom left my Uncle for a few weeks without the dread that I should never see him again. 
It was a marvel how that delicate man battled against illness after illness, never yielding to the 
desire of the weary body for rest, but unflinchingly persevering with the great task he had set before 
him. His own knowledge of his constitution, acquired by long residence in places where medical help 
was not to be had, served him in good stead ; and his life was ever shielded by the devoted care of his 
wife and sister, and the friendly attention of Dr. Henry Collet, who for many years afforded my Uncle 
the great advantage of his constant advice ; a service of love which was continued after Dr. Collet's 
death, with the zeal of long affection, by his son, Mr. A. H. Collet. 

But the time came when there was no longer strength to withstand the approach of death. At 
the beginning of August, 1876, my Uncle was suffering from a cold, which presently showed signs of 
a serious nature. He went on with his work till Saturday the 5th; and then a decided change came 
over him. The weakness increased to such a degree on Sunday that he allowed me to support him about 
the house, though never before would he accept even the help of an arm. That evening we induced him 
to go early to his bed : and he never again rose from it. Two days passed in anxious watching. Everything 

• The first of these is entitled " Ucber die Lexicographic der arabischen Sprache," and appeared in Bd. III. SS. 90 — 108 (1849). It is in the 
form of a letter to Prof. Lepsius, and treats of the principal Arabic Lexicons, and gives specimens of Lane's own work. The other article was 
" Ueber die Aussprache der arabischen Vocale und die Betonung der arabischen Worter," an excellent treatise on the pronunciation of the Arabic 
Vowels and on the accent (Bd. IV. SS. 171— 18G, 1850). 


that love could prompt, or the affection and skill of the doctor could suggest, was done. On Wednesday 
evening he seemed better: it was hut the last effort. Early on Thursday morning the hravo loyal spirit 
fought its last battle, and the mind that had endured the strain of fifty years of ceaseless toil, and yet 
had never known decay, at last found rest. 

So ended the Scholar's life. It was begun, continued, and ended, without hope of reward. For famo he 
cared little ; money, beyond what sufficed for his modest wants, he desired not. Pure love of knowledge 
was the motive of his work, and to learning, unsoiled with baser aims, ho dedicated a long and studious 
life, rich in fruits. To the world Lane must be the ideal scholar. With us who knew him his memory will 
live in the sweeter thought of the noble and pure heart that wrapped us in its love. 


[Book I.] 


Thefftcenth letter of the alphabet : called jU : it 
is one of the letters termed g jj t t - [or vocal, i. e. 
pronounced with the voice, and not with the 
breath only] ; (TA ;) and of the letters termed 
£y^, ('Eyn, Mgh, TA,) from 'jiJj\, which is 
the place of the opening of the mouth: ('Eyn, 
Mgh, TA on the letter *. :) its place of utterance 

is from the extremity of the tongue [extended so 
as to reach] to the part next to the [lateral teeth 
called] l _ r »tj-il ; and it is more usually pronounced 
from the left side than from the right : the vulgar 
[sometimes] pronounce it as Mb, making its place 
of utterance to be between the extremity of the 
tongue and the central incisors, which pronun- 
ciation is peculiar to a dialect, as mentioned by 
Fr on the authority of El-Fadl : he says [also] 
that some of the Arabs substitute it for Mb, saying 
jyA for^yfc ; but that the doing thus, though allow- 
able in speech, is not allowable in the reciting of the 
Book of God, which follows the rule, or usage, of 
the Prophet: (Msb in art iyo-.) or its place of 
utterance is from the foremost part of the edge of 
the tongue and the part next to the ^Aj^\ ; and it 
has no sister [or analogue] accord, to Sb ; but 
accord, to the 'Eyn, it is a sister of 5 and «i>, and 
these three letters are termed iO [or gingival], 
because proceeding from the gum ; the substitution 
of any of these, however, for another of them, 
vitiates prayers : (Mgh :) it is of the class termed 
3 (U . Th « M «.>jjaJI : (L in art. $yb i) and is a letter 
peculiar to the Arabs, (L and K in that art.,) 
accord, to the general and correct opinion ; (TA 
in that art. ;) [whence the saying of Mohammad, 
jUJy i flaj &* «. rf>M U / am the most chaste in 
speech qftlwse mho have pronounced the letter did; 
i. e., of the Arabs, agreeably with another saying, 
ascribed to him, mentioned voce J^;] or it is 
a letter rarely occurring in the language of 
any other people. (L in that art.) __ It is always 
a radical letter ; and is [said to be] not substituted 
for another letter; (L in art. yyb ;) [but it is so 
substituted in some cases of>l&;t, as, for instance, 
for the J of the article J), and in cj-cu for 
pj-^ky and the like ; and] it is sometimes sub- 

' i .a a 

stituted for KJ o, as in iiUjJI SJ bLk tor C^t, as 
Ibn-Osfoor says, and Kb mentions ^U* for 
i^U* ; (TA ;) and also for J, as Ibn-Malik says 
in the Tes-heel, an instance of which is j--rj J^' 
Bk. I. 

for jlLL, mentioned by J ; (MF, TA ;) and 
sometimes it is changed into J, as in the instance 
of £aJa)t for »al J rt . p l. (S and L &c. in art. M^o.) 
= [As a numeral, it denotes Eight hundred.] 


yoyo : see the next paragraph but one, in two 

places, a Also The bird called J^tl [q. v.] : (O, 
K:) so says ISd: but IDrd doubts its correct- 
ness. (TA.) 

: sec die next paragraph. 

&£o (S, O, K) and * I^ilA and t % yoyo 

and t lyiyo (O, K) and accord, to ISd • liLo, 

which is of an extr. measure, (TA,) Origin, root, 

* ' * 
race, or stock; syn. J*»l: (S, O, K:) and die 

place in which a thing originates; syn. gjuu : 
(K :) hence, in a i&L of Aboo-Talib, Jb J^LlI 

of Aboo-Talib, all j 

yio* j - oJ S} jjt« i. e. [Praise be to God, who 
made us to be of the offspring of Abraham and of 
the seed of Ishmael and] of the stock of Ma" add 
[and -of the race of Mudar]: and ,>• rrj^i 
to* £ f O. ' ~i>, occurring in a trad., i. e. There shall 
spring from the stock, or race, of this ; or, as some 
relate it, it is [»^oLo,] with the unpointed vjo, 

which means the same : and you say J> jus » -n*aj 

j «' »{'t J t~ * *'*' ~ 

and Jjuo 'yoyo [An excellent origin or race] : 

(TA :) [see an ex. voce IjL, in art. L : and see also 
>Cho :] or £j-o£-o Sec signify multitude, and abun- 
dance, of qffsjrring or breed; (K, TA ;) whence 
the v yoLo of sheep. (TA.) 

tU>Li, [in the CK U>UJI is erroneously put 
forjutljl,] as also * tlbyo (0,K,TA) and 
\joyb, (CK,) [which belong to art. yb and the 
last of which is mentioned in the K in art. ^oyb,] 
The voices, cries, or slwuts, of men, (AA, O, K, 
TA,) in war;orJight. (O, K, TA.) 

Moyb : see the next preceding paragraph. 

[which is mentioned in the K in art. ubyb, but 
in the CK there written ^yeJt,] (TA,) applied 
to a man, Crying out, shouting or clamouring. (K.) 

jJL&, and JjL, (?, M, O, K,) like Jjjjj and 

j^j, (S, O, K,) the latter mentioned by IJ, (M,) 
but tlie former die more usual, (S, M,) Calamity, 
or misfortune: (S, M, 0,K:) [it is said that] 
jjj and J^Lo are the only instances of the 

measure ,Ji*» : (K :) but accord, to Th, there is 
no word of this measure in the language ; there- 
fore, if these two have been heard, they are extr., 
unless, as Ibn-Keysan says, the • be augmentative 
[and there is no reason for supposing it to be so as 
there is no known unaugmented word from the 
root J--o] : (S, O :) jJLe, however, with yjo, 
has been mentioned in the K, as having the same 
meaning, and is said to be of the dial, of Dabbeh, 
but not so well known as J-i-s, with ^o ; and 
IB mentions Jj&, meaning [likewise the same, 
or] " incubus," or " nightmare :" [but one of 
these four instances may be excepted ; for] it is 
said in the K [in art.^jtj] that j^tj may be incor- 
rect. (TA.) 

J / i fir- 

£foyb*» or yjoytxA, (accord, to different copies 
of the K,)the former app. the original of the latter, 

1. jUo, aor. * , inf. n. jU> and jto, He deviated 
from the right course ; or acted unjustly, wrong- 
fully, injuriously, or tyrannically; (K;) like 
jUi, aor. jycu and j~qj. (TA.) ^ ai*. »jU>, 

(K,) aor. - , inf. n. jU and jU, (TA,) [but the 

latter is probably a mistake for jU>,] He deprived 
him, or defrauded him, of a part, or the whole, of 
his right, or due : (K :) he refused it to him ; or 
withheld it from him : (TA :) like »L>I »jU>, aor. 
i'j^cu (S* and K* and TA in art. }~b) and »jyo^, 
(K* and TA in art. jyb.) 

(JtfU: ) 

see what here follows. 


L £pU i»-J, and T ^jjyi, and » ^U, (K,) 
the first mentioned by AZ (S in art. j^o) and 
IAar, (TA,) and the second by Fr (S ubi supra) 
and IAar, (TA,) and the third by Fr, (8 ubi 



supra,) A defective, (]£,) or an unjust, (TA,) 
division : (£, TA :) as also \Jjr° (I Aar, $) and 
&y*. (IAar,TA.) 


1- Ji^» [aor.-',] (£,M,0,Msb,$,) inf.n. aJU. 
(S, M, O, Msb) and ii}£, ; (Msb ;) and t J,UJ; 
(M, Msb, K;) //e, or it, [accord, to the S and 
O app. said of a man or of a man's body, and 
accord, to the Msb said of a thing,] was, or 
became, small in body, or small, and lean : (S, O, 
Ms b :) or small, slender, or thin, and despicable, 
abject, or ignominious ; and also [simply] lean, or 
spare : (M, K :) and in like manner * JUx«il : 
(M :) [or lean, or spare, and weak : or weak, 
small, and slender, or thin : (see the part n., 
J^Ub:)] or iij>-i signifies the tony fain, or 
emaciated ; and (ate, abject, or despicable. (TA.) 
Accord, to AZ, (S, O, TA,) jj-o, said of a man, 

(TA,) or *i\j Jy-o, (S, 0,) signifies He was, or 
became, small, or /ittfo, [in estimation,] and weak 
in judgment. (S, O, TA.) 

3. eJmsiS J.U., (M , TA,) [in the O, and in 
copies of the K, JUi, but the former is the right,] 
He made his person small, (M, O,* £> TA,) in 
order that he might not appear. (TA.) Zuheyr 

,> *« «# - - - - - - — -- 

'- J -■ • ' 

.^11 JJ5 JJ l~i • 

• • - i < 

[AW n'At'Zc roe were driving the wild animals, our 
young man crme, creeping, and hiding his person, 
and making it small]. (M, TA.) 

6. JiUcu : see 1. In a verse of Aboo-Khirash, 
LJ » — lyJ JUu [meaning My Wy became lean, 

or it/id r<?, fry reason of it,] occurs for JtUu : or, 
as AA relates it, he said lyJ J'Uxi, with idgh&m. 

(M.) Also J/e became small, or tAt'n; Ae 

shrank, or became contracted; (O,* TA, and 
Ham* pp. 653 and 658 ;) by reason of abasement, 
(TA,) or from fear : (Ham p. 658 :) he hid his 
person, sitting, and shrank, or became contracted. 
(M, K, TA.) And It (a thing) shrank, became 
contracted, or drew itself together. (TA.) AHn 
has used it [in this sense] in relation to a herb, or 
leguminous plant. (M, TA.) 

8. jUJ.1 : see 1. 

a£i, (S, O, TA,} like Yi'p, (O, TA,) in the 
copies of the K <Vyo, but the former is the right, 
(TA,) an epithet applied to a man, (S, O,) Lean, 
or spare : (8 :) or weak, (£, TA,) lean, or spare, 
and despicable, abject, or ignominious. (TA.) 
[See also Je~£.] 

O^b* *&■ >*» ( M » E> TA >) witn damm, 
(TA,) [in the Cl£, erroneously, 0"&**>] '<% or 
it, is a burden upon him ; syn. J^». (M, K, 
TA.) — And o^l-i *e** **->•■ -H" grounds of 
pretension to respect, or Aowour, are a catue o/" 
reproach to him. (M, TA.) 

Jel^> (also pronounced [by some] Jtyi, like 

^-*i [for ^e*-> <!• v.], Ham p. 129) Small in 

* * * t 4 * 

iorty, ami /can; (Msb;) or so ,*-»JI J-i-i, 
applied to a man : (S, O :) or small, slender, or 
thin, and despicable, abject, or ignominious : and 
also [simply] lean, or spare: and so t Jiiueu», 
(M,K,) in both senses: ($:) or /<:«n, or spare, 
and weak: (TA:) or weak, small, and slender, 
or thin : (Lth, TA :) and * JJUli [likewise] 
signifies thin, or slender ; applied to a man ; syn. 
cJLi : (§, O, TA :) the pi. o?J£± is V%* and 
JlL»(M,?:,TA) and oA~* : ( TA and *• 
fem-'isiieii. (M,TA.) 

aieli fem. of J^i. (M,TA.)_Also [as a 
subst.] A slender serpent : (S, 0, 1£ :) or a 
serpent resembling the viper. (M.) — And The 
?y [or urw/a]. (Th, M, $.) 

J*Uo«: sec J-i-o. 

JjLaiB : see J^U». _ It is also applied as an 
epithet to the weaving of a coat of mail [app. as 
signifying Delicate, or fine ; or small, or con- 
tracted, in the rings]. (TA.) 

1. i)l«)l «^~>U> J *et apart tAe *Aeep [from the 
goats]. (Az, TA, and K in art >**.) One says, 

2Jjju>jju>\j iULo ^Ubt (Srf apart My sheep from 
the goats, and set apart thy goats from the slteep. 
(Az, TA.) 

4. o^'j (?> M> ¥>) 8a ' d of a man, (S,) or of a 

* - 

party of men, (M,) His, or their, &\£ [or «n«ep] 
became numerous. (S, M, K.) 

OU(S, M, Msb, £) and t £u (S, M, ?) 
and t i^Lo, (S, M, Msb, ]£>) which is also pro- 
nounced t ,j^6, with kesr to the first letter 
because of the kesr following, agreeably with a 
general rule applying to a word [of the measure 
,J-je] having any faucial letter [for its second 
radical], and ♦ i>e«& and t &#£, which are men- 
tioned by IAar, without ., and therefore extr., 
(M,) [Sheep;] such as liave wool, of w/tat are 
termed ^i ; one of which is called ♦ ^U. ; 
(Msb ;) [i. e.] they are pis., (S, £,) or [radier] 
quasi-pl. ns., (M,) of T O^^i (?, M, K,) which 
signifies one that has wool, (M,) or the opposite 
of J*Uj (S, 5>) of what are termed j^k: (M, 

K:) ^jUi is of the fem. gender; (IAmb, Msb;) 
and has for its pi. o^-*' [properly a pi. of pauc] 
(IAmb, M, Msb) and i>el, which occurs in 
poetry, and is formed by transposition from 
Op.1 : (M :) the fem. of * oil* is ilSU ; (S, 
M, Msb, ^ ;) the pi. of which is ifyyb. (S, M, 
K.)^yjLo also signifies A certain species of 

[the lizards called] vC* [p'> •' «r~^3 > opposed to 
the j*U. (TA.) And A certain species of jerboas, 

also called i£>u£ ; (T voce i£>«ji, <\. v. ; and 
TA in *xt.jk£',) differing from the yf* thereof. 
(T and TA in art. j->.) 

[Book I. 


^jU> : see the next preceding paragraph. 

• • * • • J- 

i^e-o and i>«<0 : see ^Ui. 

iit-6 vl [ring for tlie nose of a camel, such as is 
termed] i*l>»-, wnen 77iarfe o/* nnew. (Sh, K.) 

•» ** . 

[But see i>Ui, in art. 0>^-J 

Ljii-o is an extr., distorted, rel. n. [from O^]- 
(M.) You say A .. l «j ^>«-« Coafe Mat Aeep to 

# * * * ■ 

tAe ^jU. [or sheep]. (M.) And ^^m? *uL .1 
wta«, (M,) or large, (]£,) «/r/n, o/" tAc hide of a 
sheep, (M, K,) in which [milk such as is termed] 
w-jij u churned. (K.) 

o and 

see ^>Us. 

^U : see i>l£, in three places. ._ It is also 
used as an epithet : one says ^jjLo ^£~£> [ a PP- 
meaning ^1 ram: i£~£a alone having several 
meanings]. (M.) — And it signifies also I Weak : 

• * 

(K, TA :) [opposed to j*U :] or a soft man, as 
though he were a ewe : (M, TA :) or one who 
ceases not to be goodly in body while a scanty 
eater : (M, KL :•) or soft and flaccid in the belly. 
(M, K.*) — And | Such as is while and broad, 
of sands. (?, TA.) 

1. ^^9, aor. - , (]£,) inf. n. ^^i, (S, $,) He, 

or it, clave to the ground: (S,*K:) [like Ci> :] 
this is the primary signification. (S.)__And, 
aor. and inf. n. as above, It flowed : (K, TA :) 
like ^jiLf. or it flowed gently, or scantily; as 
blood when it does not drop, or issue in drops, so 
as to require the repetition of the ablution for 
prayer : (TA :) or it is only said of blood .and of 
saliva : (K :) or, aor. as above, inf. n. 

said of water and of blood, it flowed. (S.) And 

and *r>yr°, 

, aor. as above, inf. n. 
His lip flowed with blood, from a tumour Sec. 
(TA. [See also another meaning in what fol- 

II is gum flowed with 
: and in like manner, 

(A :) and ^3 J^L'j 

I left his gum 

lows.]) And Uj «i3 C« 
blood: (S:) or>jJli wU 

»jj [his hand or arm] 

3 ' * - . - 
>jJt ^>« -r~i*->, mf. n. 

flowing with blood. (TA.) <u-J C~-o, aor. as 

above, inf. n. v^, means 27m yum watered, or 
flowed with saliva. (TA.) And one says, «V 

a3U3 ^— oj ij'jj I [Such a one came with his gums 
watering] (S, A*) \j£=>$ I J& [for such and suck 
things], (A,) when the person spoken of is vehe- 
mently eager, or greedy, for a thing, (§, A,) or 
when he is affected with very inordinate desire 
to eat, or with vehement lust, or carnal desire, or 
with vehement eagerness, or greediness, for the 
accomplishment of an object of want. (L, TA.) 
Bishr Ibn-Abee-Khazim says, 

~s) «* •*£# Jt 0** 

t [And the sons of Temeem, me have found, of 
them, horsemen whose gums water for tpoU] : in 

Book I.] 

which y«A3 is said by AO to be formed by trans- 
position from j>w. (S.) [See another ex. in a 
verse cited voce J*jl.] Another poet says, 


J-.U, ,UiJI Ji. ijA. J* 

+ [ We disallow, we disallow, that your gums should 

water for virgin*, or bashful virgins, like gazelles, 

> > * a - 
and for camels], (T A.) One says also, A*i 

aor. as above, inf. n. *,—, e, meaning His mouth 

i - 
watered, or flowed with saliva : (TA :) and yA< 

»ji I [ //w moa/A »a<m] is said of him who is 
vehemently eager, or greedy, for a thing. (A,TA.) 
__ i^UJI C-. j , aor. as above, inf. n. *->y*>o, means 
7V tea.?/ ttay wAife running. (T A.) = See also 
4, in five places. = v~i> said of a boy, or male 
child, XTe became ayouth, or youngman; he attained 
to the state termed ^Ci. (TA.) = ii£l\ c-li, 

aor. as above, (Msb, K,) inf. n. y>« and ^>y^o, 
(IS.,) 77te /»/; became affected with the disease 
termed ^^o. (Msb, K. [See also another meaning 
in what precedes.]) sss^U>, (S, IS.,) sec. pers. 
c4r*i (TA,) aor. - , inf. n. *^~-o, said of a 
camel, lie became affected with the disease termed 
vma (S, K) in his ,>->* [i. e. in his foot, or tlie 

extremity of hi* foot]. (S.) = jJJl C<~£>, (ISk, 

?») or 4>.j^l c4*i, aor. '-; and C-^-i; (K;) 
[instances of reduplicative verbs preserving their 
original forms;] and ▼*,—»!, (S,) or J..,jl ; 
(Msb, K;) The country, or land, abounded with 
[the lizards called] .— >Co, pi. of > T — i. (S, Msb, 

K.)^i5U! 4-i, aor. *, (S, O,) inf. n. »**i,(0, 
£,) 7/e milked the camel with five fingers [i. e. witfA 
his thumb and four fingers together] : (S, O :) or 
with the wlwle hand: (K.: or this mode of milking is 

termed ULo : TA :) or by putting his thumb upon 
the teat and turning the fingers over the thumb and 
the teat together : (Fr, S, O, K : this is done when 
the teat is long : when it is of middling length, 
the mode termed j>y, is adopted, with the joint of 
the fore finger and the extremity of the thumb : 
and when it is short, the mode termed jOai, with 
the extremity of the fore finger and the thumb : 
TA :) or by taking the two teats together in the 
hand : (K : [or this mode of milking is termed 

oui :] and the milking with a hard squeezing is 
termed t i-i : TA :) or by contracting the 
hand upon the udder, and putting the thumb 
in, or upon, (,j*,) the middle of the palm. (L, 
TA.)=c[^-b and * «t~-0, each probably fol- 
lowed by y^*t seem to signify sometimes It 
covered a thing, and became intermixed with it : 

the inf. ns. yy Atl (which I think to be a mis- 

4 a 
transcription for v .«a»)and <,« t! ADl are expl. in 

the TA as signifying " the covering a thing, and 
the entering of one part, or portion, of it into 
another:" see two explanations of each of these 
verbs, followed by ^^le, voce ^~ el.] 

2: see above, last sentence: — and see 4, in 
two places. ■ * r ~oi\ ^JU « r ~o He moved about 
his hand at the mouth of the hole of the [Heard 

called] s r ^o, in order that it might come forth 
tail-foremost, and he might lay hold upon its tail. 

(TA. [See also ^-^-l) » vO • v**i (?> 
^f sb, $,• TA,) and »^JUJt, (TA,) I He put [or 
affixed] a i~b [q. v.] upon the door, (S, Msb, K,* 
TA,) and upon the wood (TA.) And «liNI v * * 
t He made a ili for the vessel (Msb.) And 
4-li)b ajU-I ^.^ f He clamped his teeth (U.C) 

roft/t *t/»er. (Mgh.) _- [»^*~ej also signihes 
The putting the numeral r or r &c. over each of 
two words, to indicate that the latter of those 
words is connected with, or refers to, the former 
ofthem.]=a^yJoi\ ^^JL* He fed the child with 
~[q.V.]. (S,K.)' 

*• i^r 1 u** s**' H* *<!P'» or c ' rt »«» to a 
thing, and did not quit it : (TA :) and U^k» * r ~b\ 
7/e Ae/rf, or c/o»c, /o swcA a one, and did not quit 
him : (K :) and juJU w—il J/e retained htm, 
detained him, or Ae&£ him in custody : (AZ, K, 
TA :) and ajj^ ^-i U > T ~6l ife grasped, or Aep< 
ZioW o/*, //<a< which was in his hands; like L-bl 
and ijLaI. (TA in art. U-6.) And the first of 

these phrases, (TA,) inf. n. wjt-it ; (K, TA ;) 
as also ♦ %r~b, [aor. , ,] (TA,) inf. n. ^~i ; (£, 

TA ;) and t ^^i, (TA,) inf. n. y^jj ; (K, 

»r» ret ' 

TA ;) signifies <iJU- i^^-' [i. e. J/e grasped it ; 
got, or gained, possession of it; took it, got it, or 
held it, within his grasp, or in his possession : or 
it comprised, comprehended, or contained, it]: 

(K, TA :) and •^i ^jA* t v*«> inf. n. ^»o, J?e 
tooA, seized, or grasped, a thing with the hand: 
(TA j but only the inf. n. in this case is there 
mentioned:) and .^yi ^^U f y^i, mf. n. ^^.< u , 
2/e too*, seized, or grasped, a thing violently, or 
firmly, lest it should escape from his hand. (ISh, 
O, TA. [See also 1, last sentence.]) — [It is 

said that] <»JLc t^uet also signifies i/e 7t>a.s at the 
point of getting possession of it, namely, a thing 
(O, 5) that he sought, or desired. (IS..) [But 
it seems from a passage in the TA, in which is an 
evident mistranscription, that this is a mistake, 
originated by Lth, for ^^sl.] = iU-JI ^-~cl The 
skin shed, or poured forth, its water, from a seam, 
or suture, (»jj^,) therein, (K,JTA,) or from a 

cut. (TA.) [And ^—£1 app. signifies He had a 

bleeding of the gums: for] Lot Jlj U [app. 

s j 
v l^ib*] occurs in a trad, said of one whose gums 

bled [incessantly] when he spoke. (TA.)^ 
S,U!1 lJ, ^—il 7/e arose, anc2 wwrfc a Afw^'fc 
incursion : (TA :) or v~*'> al° ne » ^* maae « 
hostile incursion. (K.) And >^iJI «,m«I 77w 
people, or party, rose, or rose a?ki hastened and 
went forth, all together, to do a thing. (O, K.) _- 
^t^ '^--e' ?V^ dispersed themselves to seek such 
a on«: and jtfjH ^j >yUI w~ol The people, or 
party, dispersed tfiemseloes in search of their stray 
beast. (T, TA.) And^iiJI ^b\ The camels, or 
cattle, approached, or came, in a scattered state. 
(%.) A e U I^Al r/iey multiplied against him. (S, 


0.)— u*j^' <Z***o\ The land became abundant in its 

I TAe Aat'r 
0I / 


plants, or herbage. (£. [But the only meaning 
of this phrase commonly known is one which 
will be found indicated below.]) Accord, to Ibn- 
Buzurj, (TA,) one says, OUJW <jojj' w^.Ai, 
meaning The land put forth all its plants, or 
herbage. (O, TA.) And ^i£ll 

became abundant, or toucA. (^51.) 

made it to flow; namely, water, snd blood. (S.) 

And *£J vr—ol He made his gum to flow [with 

blood]. (S, O.) And ^~*\ He spolte; (AZ, 

S, O, IS. ;) as though meaning he made speech to 
issue : (S, O : [in both of which it is implied that it 
is app. from what here next precedes :]) or hespoke 
uninterruptedly : (TA :) or he talked loudly ; as 

also ♦ C— b [ aor - -- ] : ( A. A , T A in art. y < i t : 
[but it will be seen in what follows that both of 
these verbs have also a contr. meaning :]) and he 
called out, or cried out, (IS,, TA,) and raised a 
clamour, or confused noise. (TA.) And ^^—61 
^»yUI Tlie people, or party, spoke, one to another: 
(TA :) or */»Ae ; and entered, or launched forth, 
into discourse, or were profuse therein: (AHat, 
TA :) or spoke all together. (Har p. 643.) And 
a ■■■•.'» ^y U ^~ol 2/e uttered, or expressed, what 
was in his mind. (As, TA. [See also the same 
phrase with .-I* after the verb in what follows.]) 
Also, (TA,) inf. n. vC^'; (S>TA;) and 

t 4-i, (TA,) [aor. ,,] inf. n. i^5 ($, TA;) 
He was silent. (£, TA. [Thus both of these 
verbs have two contr. meanings.]) And y^l 
>yUI T/te people or party, were silent, and 
abstained from talking. (AHat, TA.) And ^—bl 
l(J £j| jjie, and ▼ yi ; and aj ^^ol ; i/« roa* 
*«'/<!«< respecting the thing [ami concealed it] : like 
Lei. (TA.) And aJS Jt U Ju »^*l //« 
was silent respecting that which was in his mind : 
(As, S, ^ :) like fet. (S.) And ^ Jii 4*-*' 
aJJ ,-4 J/e concealed rancour, malevolence, 
malice, or */?t'te, t'» Aw A«ar^. (S, O.) And ^ms! 
»^ij| T/e hid, or concealed, t/te thing. (£,• TA.) 
^^o^AJI >^moI TAe cfoiMU covered [tlie earth]. 

(TA.) And^-&l said of a day, (S, O, Msb, 

K:,) and c4*il said of the sky, (A, TA,) Tit 
became cloudy, or misty, with w>U«£> [q. v.]. 
(S, O, Msb, K, TA.) = jJut ^~At and C-l-il 
^j^l : see 1, latter half. 

5. ^«y*J t He (a child) became fat, and his 
armpits became chajrped, or cracked, (c.i,;«>l,) [in 
<A« crca.?e»,] anrf Aw necA became short : (S :) or 
t Ae (a child) /;<v/an to grow fat : (A, TA :) and 
accord, to AHn, it is said in this sense of a camel 
as well as of a human being. (TA.) 

.»<# • * 

10. t^Mtwl U j±. Take thou what is easily 
attainable; what offers itself without difficulty. 
(AA, TA in art. v^O 

R. Q. 1. y»q|A He bore rancour, malevolence, 
malice, or spite; or hid enmity, and violent 
fiatred, in his heart. (0, TA.) 

^^s [A species of lizard; termed lacerta 
caudiverbera, from its habit of striking with its 
tail; (seei^j^;) Forskal (Descr. Animalium, 



p. 13,) terms it lacerta Aegyptia; referring to 
Hnsselquist, p. 302; and adds the following 
description : " femora teretia sine verrucis : cauda 
vcrticillata non longa : squamae paten tes, subconicae, 
mucronatoe : corpus nudum, rugosum : "] a certain 
reptile, or small creeping thing, (S, TA,) of those 
termed OlJJu., (TA,) well known ; (K, TA ;) 
resembling the Jjj [q. v., but not so long] : (TA :) 
or resembling the Oj^j— fa" v > °f which there 
are two species, one of the size of the Oii>*"> an d 
one larger : (Msb :) accord, to 'Abd-El-Klahir, 
of the size of a little young crocodile ; having a 
tail like the tail of the latter : it assumes various 
colours when exposed to the sun, like as does tlie 
chameleon; lives seven hundred years ; drinks not 
water, being satisfied with the air ; voids one drop 
of urine in every forty days ; its teeth consist of 
one curved piece ; when it lias quitted its hole it 
knows it not ; and it lays eggs, like a bird : so say 
I Kh and Dmr and others : AM says, the Jjj is 
of a lank make, with a long tail ; the latter 
resembling that of a serpent ; and the length of 
somo exceeds two cubits ; but the tail of t lie y^ 
is jointed, and its utmost length is a span : the 
Arabs deem the Jjy a foul and filthy thing, and 
do not eat it ; but they are eager to hunt and eat 
the vr—o : this animal has a rough tail, serrated 
with jags resembling vertebral; its colour inclines 
to a blackish dusty hue ; and when it becomes fat, 
its breast becomes yellow ; it eats nothing but [the 
locusts called] .^jL*., and young locusts before 
their wings liave grown ((/i), and herbage, not 
venomous or noxious reptiles; whereas the Jj^ 
cats scorpions and serpents and chameleons and 
beetles : its flesh is an antidote against poisons, 
and women grow fat upon it : (L, TA:) it is the 
longest, of the animals, in retaining the, remains 
of life: (O:) [see also *-lLo :] the fern, is with 
(S, O, Msb, £ :) and the pi. [of pauc.] is 
if and [of mult.] ^>Co (S, O, Mgh, Msb, 

K) and ^j(~°, (K,) which last Lh particularizes 
as used to denote a great number, but ISd sees 
no reason for this distinction, (TA,) and [quasi- 
pl. n.] * iliui, (O, K,) like as il ,.1« is of JL~£, 
(O,) thislaston the authority of As, as heard byLim 

from more than one of the Arabs. (TA.) Hence 

t . 8 , • j , 
one says ^~- i w-^- cJ*-J t \A ver U deceitful or 
mischievous, and] an abominable, guileful, ireful 
man : (TA :) or a very deceitful or mischievous 
or wicked, and guileful man : (S :) likened to the 
[lizard called] *^~o on account of his guilefulncss : 

nnd in like manner, A~o <U». i\y>\. (A, TA.) 

«fl* » « » i 
And w— oJI ^>o pJ^I More guileful than the 

4~o: (A,TA:) a prov. (TA.) And ^y, jk\ 

w^«i [More undutiful to kindred tlmn a yui] ; 
because the s—«i often eats its Jy~, m. [or young 
ones when they have just come forth from the 
eggs] : another prov. : (S :) J— ». ^1 is a sur- 
name of the «-—«>■ (TA.) One says also J^A>I 
^oAll i_y» JUi, anotlier prov. [expl. in art. •«*&]. 
(O.) And yd ±y» >-»-t, which is likewise a 
prov. [expl. in art. j^]- (Har p. 100.) And 
Ut %,-eif tJ+Wl, another prov. [expl. in 

a ,i 

art. «£>»■]. (TA.) And o^J ^y- *■**>> "9 
Jj'iLaJI J^NI ^jl ,_,» » r «ijl [J will not do it until 

the ^,^6 utters a yearning cry at tlie liccls of the 

camels returning from water] : and ^ym. jJjljI •>) 
J j « •• - 

w --fiM ju [J wi// not <zo t7 w«C'7 </jc *^-o comes to 

water : i. e. I will never do it :] because the yk« 

does not drink water. (S, O.) yaJt u^ 
[means Tlie paw of the yus] : to this the Arabs 
liken the hand of the niggard when he fails to give : 
(TA :) and it is also applied by way of com- 
parison to t & niggard himself: and to denote 
Ishortncss ami littleness. (A,TA.)__[Hcncc also,] 
t Rancour, malevolence, malice, or .yrite, (S, A, O, 
Msb,K,TA,) latent inthe/ieart; (A,TA;) like the 
[lizard called] yo hiding itself in the furthest 
extremity of its hole : (A :) and anger, wrath, or 
rage : (K.:) or rancour, &c, or vehement rancour, 

&c, and enmity, : (TA :) and » ^^e signifies 
the same : (K :) the pi. is ^Lj, and [app. *^~-i> 

also, for] the phrase 4U*.LcJ w~~i J-«U. tov~° J^ 3 

[Each of tlicm a bearer of latent rancours &c. 

towards his fellow] occurs in a trad. (TA.)^ 

Also A certain disease in the lip, (S, O, Msb, 

K,) in consequence of which it flows with 

blood, (S, O, Msb,) or swells, and becomes liard, 

or dry and hard, and flows with blood. (TA.) 

— And A tumour in the breast of a camel. 

(O, K.) _ And A tumour (S, O, K) in the u»»-, 

(so in copies of the K [i. e. foot], in the TA owl 

[which is, I doubt not, a mistranscription],) or 

in the \J->j», [which means the same, or the 

extremity of t/ie foot,] (S, O,) of the camel. (S, 

0,K.)_ And A disease in the elbow of a camel; 

(K, TA ;) mid to be its cutting into his skin [by 

rubbing against it] ; or its being distorted, and 

falling against his side, so as to gall it. (TA.) _ 

f * * 
And A chapping, or cracking, (JUiil,) [wj the 

crease] of the armpit [of a child, or of a camel], 

and abundance of flesh: (S, O, TA:) El- 

'Adebbes El-Kinanee gives the same explanation, 

and says that this is what is also termed Axili. 

(TA. [Sec 5.])= Also The £& [i. e. the spadix, 

or the spa the,] of the palm-tree: pi. ^U-o : (S, 

O :) or * JLyj signifies, (K, TA,) and so y^, 
(TA,) [but the latter seems to be a coll. gen. n., 
and the former its n. mi.,] a ixlb [meaning 
spathc of a palm-tree] before it cleaves open (K, 

T A) from [around] the ^iy*- [or spadix], (TA.) 

^y-o : sec the next preceding paragraph, latter 
half. ' 

*~a [an inf. n. un. of ^w : as such signifying] 
A single bleeding of the gum [&c.]. (Ham pp. 28 
and 274.) _ See also 1, last sentence but one. 
= Also A single [lizard of the species termed] 

^So [q. v.]. (S, O, Msb, K.) And Tho skin 

of a [lizard of the species termed] < T ~£, tanned for 
clarified butter (K, TA) to be put into it. (TA.) 
_ And t A broad piece of iron with which a door 
(or wood, TA) is clamped or strengthened (^^-iu) : 
(S, Mgh, O, K, TA :) or a piece of iron or brass 
or the like, with which a vessel is repaired : (Msb :) 
[a word still used in these senses ; commonly ap- 

[Book I. 

plied to a fiat piece of iron or the like, which is 
nailed across a crack in a wooden vessel or a similar 
thing : and a band of metal which u affixed around 
a cracked vessel: (see an ex. voce «y*a« :) also to 
a kind of wooden lock, figured and described in 
the Introduction to my work on the Modern 
Egyptians:] what is first described above is so 
called because it is broad, like the reptile so 
termed ; and also i uL I ^-> , because it is broad, like 
a uU£» [or shoulder-blade] : (AM, TA :) pi. Ol««o 
(A, Msb, TA) and LC*. (A,TA.) The ali of 

a knife is The Stj*. [thereof; app. meaning a 
ferrule, or similar thing, affixed around the handle, 
next the blade, like the band of metal thus called 
which is affixed around a cracked vessel (as 
mentioned above) ; though »>j*. generally means 
the " handle " itself] : thus called because it 

strengthens, or binds, the handle (v>-aJI J^)- 

S , 

(A, TA.) __ Sec also w—i, last sentence. — — And 




w>Ci [3fist; i. e.] moisture ({JJ>>), (A, Mgh, 
Msb, K,) like cloud*, (A, K,) or like dust, covering 
the earth in tke early mornings : (Mgh, Mfb, 
TA :) or 'thin clouds, like smoke : (A, If. :) or 
thin clouds; so called because they cover the 
horizon : n. un. with 5 : (TA :) or pi. of iyC«i, 
[but it is rather a coll. gen. n., and iuLlo'is its n. 
of un.,] (S, Mgh, O,) and this latter signifies a 
cloud that covers the earth, resembling smoke : 
(S, O :) or a vapour rising from the earth in a 
rainy, or cloudy, day, like a canopy, 2>rcventing 
vision by its darkness. (TA.) 

«r>yM0 A beast that stales while running. (K.) 
__ And A ewe, or she-goat, having a narrow 
orifice to the teat, (O, K,) whose milk will- not 
come forth but with difficulty. (O.) 

v~:~£> The point, or edge, (syn. ja., [in an. ex. 
in the O, the former is meant by it,]) of a sword ; 
(O, K ;) and so t Sli. (El-Khattabee, TA.) 

Clarified butter, and rob (vj)> which 
are put into a shin (2£*),for a child, that he may 
be fed with it. (S, ^.) 

i~_i> OUj [app. <U«~0 Ob ; the latter word, 

dim. of 4~6 ;] A sjweies [or variety] of the [lizards 
called] vW-* [p'- of *,ȣ]. (Ham p. 01.) 

^..rftjjt Fat, as an epithet ; (K ;) and so 
[without i] applied to a woman: (TA:) and 
t .^moUa, applied to a man, short and fat. (S, O.) 
And Very foul or obscene, and bold or daring ; as 
also ♦ v ~-iU-i: (K:) the latter thus expl. by 
IDrd : (O :) die former applied to a man, and 
with 5 applied to a woman, accord, to AZ, bold, 
or daring, in deed: (O.TA:) and proud; or 
bold, or daring, in wickedness : and with 5, a 
woman bold, or daring ; who glories over Iter 
neighbours. (TA.) 

>^MoUi : see the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. Also, applied to a man, Strong; 

epithet to a camel. (TA.) 

' '*, «•« 

s—»t, lem. iUo, A camel affected with the 

disease termed 4~* (S, KL) t'n <Ae Ji*. ($) or in 

the ^ji. (S.) [See ^.] 

y »< u : see 4, in the former half, 
see the next paragraph. 



A piece of land abounding with [the 
lizards called] w)Uo [pi. of v~°] : P 1 - <r>&» ■ 

you say, w>Uuo ^ Uijj [ We found ourselves in 
pieces of land abounding with yjLe]. (S, O.) And 

alki uijf, (K,) or t alii, (S, IAth, Mgh, 
Msb,) and * il<-6, (S, K.,) the last being one of 
those [reduplicative] words that preserve the 
original form, (S,) A land abounding with *->l~o. 

(S, IAth, Mgh, Msb, K.) = See also ^J,, [of 

which it is a quasi-pl. n.,] in the former half of 

the paragraph. 

1 1 , i „ , 

v; < > < A hunter of the [lizard called] +,-*>, 

who pours water into its hole, in order that it may 

come forth and he may take it : (S, O :) or one 

who seeks to catch the y^ by moving about 

his hand at its hole in order that it may come 

forth tail-foremost and he may lay hold upon 

its tail. (£.) 


*' ' » - 

1. U-o, (As, S, K,) aor. i , inf. n. L< and 

•X-o, (K,) He (a man, TA) clave to tlie ground, 
(As, S, K, TA, [like <^~6,]) or to a tree : (TA :) 
or i^ej^i L-£, aor. and inf. n. as above, he clave 
to the ground, and hid, or concealed, himself: and 
in like manner one says of a wolf, meaning he 
clave to the ground; or he hid, or concealed, him- 
self in a covert of trees, or in a hollow in the 
ground, to deceive, or circumvent : (M :) and L-i 
alone, he hid, or concealed, himself; (M, K ;) as 
also t l; K .< j l : (K. :) and the former, lie concealed 
himself '(]£, TA) in a covert of trees, or t'n a hollow 
in the ground, (TA,) to deceive, or circumvent, (£, 

TA,) the game, or prey : (TA:) you say, olli 
yo/9' (^, inf. n. as above, I hid, or concealed, 
myself in the land, or country. (AZ, S. [See also 

U^.J) _ aJI ot-o / had recourse, or betook 
myself, to him, or it, for refuge, protection, or 
covert. (S, O, £.*) __ And l^, alone, He came 
forth from a place unexpectedly, and ascended 
[upon an eminence], (O, K, TA,) to look. (TA.) 
_ <u« l~o ZTe ma; abashed at, or «/iy o/) or he 
shrank from, him, or it ; (M, K, TA ;) as also 
* Lkit. (TA. [See also Usui!.]) = <o oui 

^j^t J made Atm to cleave to the ground. (As, 

(IDrd, 0,K ;) and so JkjJkf. (IDrd, :) or ' their minds. (M.) And i( ^lj1 ^,1* L-il 2Ze was 
short, and very foul or obscene : or Aarrf, or hardy, silent respecting the thing, (S, M, O, K,) and con- 
and strong: ($:) and sometimes applied as an ceal£d iL (S, O.) And i,jkU)l JU 1^1 t.o. 

v~-=' [i. e. Zfe was silent respecting the calamity], 
(S, O, K.) _. And ±i^i J>U,J* I**!, (M, 
TA,) or, accord, to Lh, <u jJ . J U Uol, like 
(> _j~ol and v^'j (TA,) .He 'grasped, or «e;>< AoU 
o/| that which was in his hands. (Lh, M, TA.) 

8. Uxol : see 1, in two places. 

•\j"!*> Cleavi"- »o the ground, (M, K, TA,) or 
to a tree; applied to a man. (TA.) 

* - 
,^Ue [act. part. n. of 1, Cleaving to the ground: 

&c. :] expl. by El-Harbee as meaning a sports- 
man concealing himself. (TA.)__Also Ashes; 
(M, K;) because they cleave to the ground. (TA.) 

iX/Lo : see the last paragraph. 

L-i< A place where one conceah himself, (S, 
TA,) t'» a covert of trees, or in a hollow in the 
ground, to deceive, or circumvent, the game, or 
prey : pi. ^liJ. (TA.) 

<u \ y Ja* Made to cleave to tlie ground. (As, S.) 

• » j §^ , * 
^yUt, (O,) or iijLo-e, (K, [and so in the O 

in an instance mentioned in what here follows, in 
the next sentence,]) and t ii^\^, (TA, as from the 
K, but not in the Cl£ nor in my MS. copy of the 
I£,) A [large sack such as is called] ij\jt. tluxt 
oppresses by its weight, and conceals, him who 

carries it (O, £, TA) beneath it. (O, TA.) 

The second of these words is also applied in a 
poem recited by [its author] Aboo-Hizam El- 
'Oklee, to ISk, to the said poem, which is one 
abounding with hemzehs [and difficult to pro- 
nounce]. ((VTA.) 


i»C*'-] — And a£l)1, (5,) or ol^l iili, (A, 
TA,) is the name of A certain brand, upon a 
camel, (A, K., TA,) in the form of a ring with 
some lines before and behind: (A, TA:) it is on 
the side of the thigh. (TA.) 

- see 

«Lui The nails of the lion. (K,*TA.) [Seo 

also i-jlii.] And iCi», (O, £, TA, in the 

C£ itJjl, but it is) like v'>, (TA,) [is a 
name of] The lion ; as also t i^lajl, and • * i* M . 
and t j.^AJI, and • j^kl^lt. (O, Kl.) 

iSli t 4 she-camel of which one doubts 
whet/ier she be fat, and which one therefore feels 
with the hand: (S, A, £:) and so h^U> iJU. 
(S and K. in art. CJub.) _ i^Jjl : see hCj. 

U^Uo 5/ron</ t'n </tc ^nwp ; applied to a man ; 
and in like manner to a lion. (O.) And i&l~£, 
(O, K, TA,) with damm, and with teshdeed to 
the ,j, (TA, [in the C$ without teshdeed,]) A 
fore arm (plj'i) big, broad, and strong. (O, £.) 

w-^Ui [act. part. n. of 


4. AmJu ^ji U Vf^l He concealed what was in 
his mind: (?,• TA :) or ^» U ^ ^yi\ t^j) 
^v~*j\ the people, or party, concealed what wot in 

L.£ si--, (S, K,) aor.-, (K,) inf. n. 
(S,) He grasped, seized, or laid hold upon, him, 
or it, with his hand; as also ♦ w..h,«?t : (S, K :) 
or, accord, to an explanation of the inf. n. by 
Ibn-Es-Seed, he did so with the utmost vehemence, 
or strength : (TA :) or he grasped, seized, or laid 
hold upon, and took, him, or t'( : (8h, TA :) or 
dule w~-o has the first of these meanings ; (A, 
L ;) as also *U~e : (A :) and *v >2*v* signifies 
he seized him violently, or laid violent hands upon 
him. (A, TA.) _ Also, i. e. <o vi~-o, aor. and 
inf n. as above, He applied his hand to it, 
namely, a thing that he w,as making, or doing, 
diligently, earnestly, or with painstaking. (TA.) 
_ And a£mo He beat, struck, or smote, him, 
namely, a man. (K.)_And He felt, for the 
purpose of testing, him, or it, with his hand. 
(TA.) One says, of a she-camel, w~-oi, mean- 
ing She is felt with the hand, when one doubts of 
her fetness. (S, A, K.) 

8. *f w~l»-ol : see the preceding paragraph. 
: see C~£ : — and see also «i»U*». 
A grasp, or seizure. (O, TA.) [See also 

]. une says, 

^"bj^a w-A'* *il^»v» «£*J J [A man like a 
lion, seizing violently hi* adversaries, and making 
sport with their souls]. (A, TA.) 

w>Uel [as though pi. of £L«, q.v.,] Grasps; 
syn. w»tiu5. (S, K[ : but in copies of the K 
OUaJ.) So in the following words of a trad. : 
-ijft**l Oti Wlilj^ ^i^ejy ^ [i. e. T% «/ta// 
not invoke Me wlien sins are in tlteir grasps] ; (S* 
TA ;) meaning, while they are still bearing tho 
burden of their sins, not desisting therefrom : said 
by revelation to David: but it is also related 
otherwise, with ^ [i. e.^it^l]. (TA.) 

• - • » » # ■ , , 

see w-jUu> : __ and 6L0. 

A camel marked with tlie brand men- 
tioned above, voce Z2~b. (A, K.) 

*i> A «a-« The nails, or claws, (S,A,K,)of the lion : 
(S, A :) a pi. having no sing., or its sing, is 
[i. e. t &£*]. (TA.) [See also ^ti.] 

3 * • » 

sec «^U^. 

1. J^LlI c .fc; i , (AO, S, O, K,* [in the £ 
^>,]) aor. -', (^,) inf. n. 1^> (AO, S, K) and 

r**°> (?») '• q- » " -t* ' », >• e. [7%* Aor*» breathed 
pantingly, or Aarrf, rot'tA a .wuwi /rom the chest ; 
or] 7naa^ the breathing to be heard when running : 
(S, O:) [or breathed laboriously, when fatigued; 
and in like manner one says of camels ; for] ■». \'b 
signifies the breathing of horses and of camels 
when fatigued : (Suh, TA :) or caused a sound to 
be heard from their mouths, different from neigh- 
ing, and from the sound termed ^, r t - , (K, 
TA,) in their running : (TA :) [or it signifies also 

the horses neighed; for it is said that] ~U^JI is 


also tyn. with Jej«a)l : (TA :) or, [but probably 
only with the former of the two inf. ns. mentioned 
above,] ran a pace lest quick tlian that which is 
termed *fij*i : (S, TA :) or t. q. *Z-*~o> (AO, 
S, O, TA,) which means they stretched forth their 
arms, (AO, TA,) going along, (AO, S,* 0, TA,) 
or running: (AO, TA :) accord, to I'Ab, one 
docs not say ty) C* >«b except in speaking of a 
dog or a horse : [he app. means that this verb is 
used thus only as denoting the uttering of a sound, 
or a manner of breathing:] some of the lexi- 
cologists say that those who use it in relation to a 
camel make ~«o to have the meaning of *~£. 

(TA.) _ l^i, (L, TA,) inf. n. £& (S, A, O, 
L, £, TA,) as meaning He, or it, uttered a cry, 
or sound, is also said of the fox, (S,* A,* O,* L, 
£,• TA,) and of the hare, and of the serpent 
called >y-A, and of the owl, and of what is termed 
IjutiJI [which see, for it is variously explained] : 
(L, TA :) and is also cxpl. as meaning -»-J [he 
barked, &c.]. (TA.) — And J*ytfl £ *m .. i », aor. 
ns above, inf. n. —~°, t The bow [twanged, or] 
made a sound. (TA.) __ And «_~o is also used 
as. meaning t He cried out, and entered into an 

altercation for a person who had given him 

j» * * * 
money. (I£t, O,* TA, from a trad.) m tSm ■ <> 

j&\, (S, O, £, TA,) and J-U», aor. - , inf. n. 
-. -*■>, (TA,) The fire, and tlie tun, altered it : 
(T A :) or altered its colour : (T, TA :) or altered 
it, but not in a great degree; (S, O, R, TA ;) 
namely, a thing, (1£, TA,) such as a stick, and 
an arrow, and flesh-meat, ice. (TA.) And t m •• £< 
•LIjI/, aor. ' , inf. n. -—-o, He altered it in colour 

by fire ; namely, an arrow : and he burned it in 
a portion of its upper parts ; namely, a stick, 
and flesh-meat, &c. (L, TA.) And -_*o is expl. 
by AHn as meaning The act of roasting, broiling, 
or frying. (TA.) 

3. \m j\<a» The act of mutual reviling, or 
vilifying, and encountering, (]£, TA,) and contend- 
ing, or striving, to repel. (TA.) 

6. -.-vtaJ [It tent forth a sound], (Ham p. 

615 [q. v. : it is there said to be from ■...All 

t » a *- 

meaning o^-aJI].) 

7. «_; -r\''\ It became altered, (I£, TA,)j>r altered 
in colour, (TA,) but not in a great degree, by fire, 
(K, TA,) and by the sun. (TA.) And *# _~»l 
His, or its, colour became altered a little towards 
blackness, (6, TA.) 

«~~o, (so in three copies of the S, and in the 

O,) or t •— -», with kesr, (so accord, to tlie !£,) 

Ashes : (S, O, IjL :) so called because of the altera- 
tion of their colour. (TA.) 

m^i : see what next precedes. 

A cry of a fox [&c. : an inf. n, un.]. 


l'm r u*^ A bow upon which fire has taken 
effect (#, TA) to at to alter its colour : (TA :) 

like iC^e. (TAinart. 

[See also what next 

-.- ; ... j » An arrow qltered in colour [by fire] ; as 

also * ~.f..A*. (TA. [See an ex. of the latter in 
a verse of Tarafeh cited voce J*,*. * : and see also 
what here next precedes.]) It is also applied, (S, 
O,) in the same sense, (O,) to roasted flesh-meat. 
(S, O.) [And Freytag explains it as meaning, in 
the Deewan of Jcreer, '• Cutis nigra, usta vul- 

-->U> A man raising his voice in reading or 
reciting : pi. f->\y±, which is anomalous, like 

J,/^ [pi. rfj^tf]. (TA.) — And y<^ &L 
Horses stretching forth tfieir arms in their going 
along: (A:) or running velicmently ; like pt^yo. 
(TA in art. *—*.) 

m.y,<i* : sec >*.<■ _ Also The stone that is 
in tlie [kind of ground called] Sjm- [q. v.] : because 
of its blackness. (TA.) And a^~cu> Stones from 
which one strikes fire, (S, O, JS.,) appearing as 
though burnt. (S, O.) 

m.j\^>* [a pi- of which the sing, is most probably 

9-t-A*] Frying-pans. (AHn, TA.) 

1. jLi, (S, A, Mfb, K,) aor. - , inf. n. j~b (A, 

Msb, 1£) and Ob^>> (?>)'-"* (a horse, S, Msb, 
1£, and a person having his legs shackled, K, in 
running, TA, or a horse having his legs shackled, 
A) leaped with his legs put together ; (S, M, A, 
Msb,l£;) and so too, accord, to Zj, 'j+H, said 
of a horse : (O :) or he ran : (TA :) or j*o 
signifies a horse's leaping, and alighting with his 
fore legs put together. (As, TA.) — — Also, (S, 
A, K,) aor. as above, (S,) inf. n.j~o, (S, K,) He 
made books, or writings, into a bundle : (S, A, 
£:) and t^, (A,TA,) inf. n. ^3, (£,) 
signifies the same : (A :) or he collected together 
(K, TA) bookB, or writings, (A, TA,) &c. (TA.) 
And the former verb, He collected toget/ier an 
army for war. (S, T A.) And j A* * } \ aJIc j-r-i, 
(S, A, K,*) aor. as above, (S, TA,) and so the 
inf. n., (K,TA,) He piled up the rocks, or great 
masses of stone, (S, K,) upon him, or it. (S.) __ 
j~o also signifies The act of binding, or tying, 
firmly, fast, or strongly. (IAar, TA.) — And 
[hence, app. , as inf. n. of j*o], (TA), and eoj t . <u [as 
inf. n. of T >»«o], (?[> TA,) The being very compact 
and strong in the bones, and compact and full in 
flesh, (K,TA.) [SeeJ^.]) 

2 : see the preceding paragraph, in two places. 

4 : see 1, first sentence. 

•• ' ■ /• i • i * ' f ' 

j~o an inf. n. used as an epithet : see j y.<< *- 

:ms Also f A company of men engaged in a war- 
ring, or warring and plundering, expedition, (S, 

0, 1£, TA,) on foot. (TA.) And Footmen [app. 

If * * 
meaning foot-soldiers] ; syn. iJU-j [quasi-pl. n. of 

J^lj]. (TA.)_ Also [The musculus, or testudo ; 

a machine made of] skin covering wood, (Lth, 

[Book I. 

0, K,) within which are men, (!£,) and which is 
brought near to fortresses, for the purpose of fight- 
ing, (Lth, O, K,) i. e. for fighting the people there- 
of: (Lth, O :) pi. j«li, (Lth, O, K,) which means 
what are termed O^Vi : (Lth, A, O : [see i^j :]) 
[or it is a coll. gen. n. ; for it is said that] one 
such thing is called S^li'. (TA.) = Also [The 
species of nut called] the wild jy* (J-JI j^*»)> 
which is a hard sort of jp?, not the wild pome- 
granate, for this is called the &• : (S, O :) or the 
tree of what is called jJ\ jy*. ; as also " j^a : (K. :) 
or, accord, to [AHn] Ed-Deenawarec, each of 
these words, the latter being a dial. var. of the 
former, is applied to the tree of a sort of jy* 
found in the mountains of the Sarah (5lj_JI), 
which blossoms, but docs not organize and compaci 
any fruit ( jJLxj "^) ; and the n. un. is " ij~o [and 
Ij^e] : he says also that the^-o was described to 
him by an Arab of the desert, of Sarah, as a 
great tree, as big as the great walnut-tree, having 
round leaves, as big as the hand, and very nume- 
rous. (O.) And the>Li is [also] What is called 
\"£ j'yl. [i. e. the nutmeg] : (K :) IAar says that 
it is what the people of the towns and villages call 
\# 'j'^. (O.) ssa And i. q. jii [Poverty, In.]. 
(IAar, TA.) 

j~6 The armpit : (0, K, TA :) and so &*o : 
thus says Ibn-El-Faraj. (TA.) 

" ' -i ••* 

-~i ; and its n. un., with • : sec j«-o. 

j^e, applied to a horse, (S, O, K,) and to a 
lion, (0,) and to a man, (TA,) That leaps much : 

(S,0,K:) andso^jfc. (0.) — Sec also ^Li. 

,C-b and iUi Hooks, or writings : [each a pi.] 
without a singular. (K.) [See also »jW-cl.] 

jy*6 A lion ; as also t j*£, and ^ j^» : (^ :) 
or a lion that leaps much to tlie animals upon' 
which lie preys. (O.) 

• « • - 

}t ~6 Hard, firm, or strong; syn. ^Ai; 

(Ibn'-'Abbad,0,K;) and so t^. (TA.)' — 

And (hence, TA) The penis. (Ibn-'Abbad, 


h&> /j, (S, O, ¥.,) or aaII ^ SjCi ji, 
(TA,) A man having firmness of make : (S, O :) 
or liaving compactness and firmness of make: 
(]£:) and so *>»jC» an d T <UjC« applied to a 
lion ; (£ in this art.;) the>» in these being aug- 
mentative, accord, to Kh ; (TA ;) or the former 
of them, thus applied, strong in make ; (S in art. 
jij^e;) or the former of them signifies o lion, 
(ISk, K and TA in that art.,) as also i>jCi, (ISk, 
TA ibid.,) and so the latter of them; (K ibid. :) 
and the former of them, applied to a man, 
courageous; (ISk, TA ibid. ;) or each, (5 ibid.,) 
or the latter of them, (TA ibid.,) thus applied, 
bold against the enemies. (1£ and TA ibid.) 

Sjt-b and «jU-i: see Sjt-ol, m tour places. — 

'jiK^b is pi. of the former [or of each] : (Mgh, 
Msb :) and, as though pi. of the former, signifies 
Companies of men in a state of dispersion. (TA.) 

.lU>l t. q. ijLl\, q. v. (T in art.>l.) 

Book I.] 

jl*4 A sort of tree resembling very nearly that 
of tlus bJS, [i. e. tlie oak,] (AHn, 0, $,) the 
wood of which is good as fuel, like that of the &•: 
its fresh firewood, when kindled, sends forth a 
sound like that of Jj jU-o [pi. of J|>-«, q- v.] ; 
and therefore they use it to do so at tlie thickets 
wlierein are lions, which flee in consequence : 
(Aljn, O :) the n. un. is with i. (A£n, O, £.) 

• # j t. , i f ' ' 

^>jl?~3 and i-ojUj : sec «jW~?. 

••• « • * 

_j~-i : see /at/ At 

\]Co\ t A bundle (iiji., Lth, Mgh, Msb, KL, or 
iiCil [q. v.], S, O) of books or writings ; (Lth, 
S,Mgh, O.Msb.Kl;) as also Jjllil, ($,) and 
t |JU«b : (Lth, Mgh, Mfb :) or of arrows : (Lth :) 
and ♦ SjCo signifies a bundle [absolutely] ; as 
also t 5jll«b: (0,KL:) Lth alone explains i^Co 
as applied to a bundle of books or writings ; others 
saying ljV«l : the pi. of SjU^I is >eA-et ; (S, 
Mgh, O, Msb,^;) and that of t SjUo is 'j}Ci>. 
(Mgh, 0,Msb.) 

\~-e\'~ : see the following paragraph in three 

* * * 
places : — and see also jy~o. 

■wtki A camel very compact and strong in the 
bones, and compact and full in flesh; as also 
fj^iJt: (KL:) or both signify compact in make, 
and smooth : (Lth,» TA :) and JI»J1 ">-o* a 

horse /rm in wtaA« : and |>UJt " *j H > * the same 
applied to a she-camel: (S:) and ^^i a horse 
compact in make ; an inf. n. used as an epithet. 
(M ? b.) 

Qaati jtjfi 

• .' ' 8* •* * 
>jl~0 and iojL-i: see art. j~o. 

1. Ii»li-, (Lth, IDrd, S, Msb, K,) aor. r, 
(M ? b, MS, PS,) or < , (TA, TK1,) inf. n. O 
(IDrd, Msb, £) and ifcW^, (£,) Jfe /tcp< ti, 
preserved it, guarded it, maintained it, or took care 
of it, (Lth, S, Msb, Kl,) namely, a thing, (Lth, S,) 
with prudence, precaution, or good judgment, 
(Lth, S, $,) or effectually: (Msb:) and hence, 
f /«« managed its affairs (namely, the affairs 
of a country &c.,) thorougldy, soundly, not im- 
perfectly: (Msb:) [he managed it ; namely, an 
affair, and his soul or self, his disposition or 
temper, &c. :] he kept to it inseparably, or con- 
stantly, namely, anything: (Lth:) lie took it, 
or held it, or retained it, strongly, vcltemcntly, or 
firmly: (IDrd:) and <ui* ix~6 [has this last 
signification, likewise ; or signifies simply he de- 
tained it, or withheld it, or restrained it, or the 
like;] i. q. *^*-, namely a thing. (TA.)__ 

*xjz HJL4 "") Cf& [° r **¥+i *$] 1 ' <i " clt a one 
does not, or will not, act vigorously in his work, 
or employment, which is committed to him ; 
syn. *rf>j*i "$ ( T A.) And '<£>\ i^b [He 
managed his affair thoroughly, or well]. (A 

> — lx«-o 

in art. J^, &c.) [And lx~b alone, He (a camel) 
was strong to work or labour: and he (a man 
and a camel) was strong, or powerful. (See the 
act. part. n.)]_JU«lyj ix-iu •>) yk [or \ia^ai *)] 
X He does not, or will not, perform well [or ac- 
curately] his reading, or reciting. (TA.) — 
[LtuJ jji f^ -, or <UJL^, t He fixed tlie pronunciation 
of a word; by adding the syllabical signs, which 
mode is termed J£iJl/ J»~a, and C>l£»>»Jy> and 
jj£}\i ; or by stating it to be similar in form, or 
measure, to another word which is too well 
known to admit of doubt, which mode is termed 
jd^ AyJ>; or by adding the measure, which 
mode is termed Qjy iu-i.J — Jsu«o also signi- 
fies f B* registered, or recorded, [a name, or] a 
matter of science, [or any other thing,] in a book 
or the like ; syn. .**» ; (L in art. ±& ;) i. q. t^o^l 5 
(Jel in xxxvi. 11, and Bd and Jel in lxxviii. 
29;) and ^£*. (Bd in lxxviii. 29.) — '' 
■jfc) i A pain seized him. (TA.) _— 
^ij^l iThe land mas rained upon. (IAar, ^, 
TA.) [See also i^-ai.] =i ±*±, aor. - , (S, 
Msb,) inf. n. iLLi, (Msb,) He was, or became, 
ambidextrous ; he worked with each of his hands. 
(S, Mfb.) IDrd knew not this verb. (TA.) 

5. -u'j.1 He took it with detention and force. 

j £ j * 

(EL, TA.) — (jt-alt C»J»»*3 ^Ae *Aec^ obtained 
somewhat of herbage: or hastened, or were ^uic/t, 
in pasturing, and became strong (K, TA) and fat. 

(TA.) The Arabs say, cJ^i o^' C « C» 'i' 
JyNI [WAcn /Ae <Aeep ofttoin somewhat of herbage, 
or hasten, &c, <Ae camels become satiated with 
food]: for the former are called the smaller 
camels, because they eat more than goats ; and 
when the former become satiated with food, men 
[and camels] live [in plenty], by reason of the 
abundance of the herbage. (IAar.) 

inf. n. of 1. — [It is often used as signi- 
fying t Exactness; correctness; honesty; and 
faithfulness : and particularly in an author or a 

j -a i 

A certain game of tlie Arabs ; (KL, 
TA ;) also called C^\ and Ijl.>JI. (TA. [See 
the last of these words.]) 

jyt^jU Jblli <}»•) t A man having much care, 
prudence,' or precaution, [or good judgment,] with 
respect to [the management of] affairs ; (TA ;) 
[a man who manages affairs with much care, &c] 

^jk^-i : see the next paragraph. 

£uli> [Keeping, preserving, guarding, maintain- 
ing, or taking care of, a thing, with prudence, pre- 
caution, or good judgment, or effectually : (see 1 :) 
and hence,] tone who manages his affairs with pru- 
dence, precaution, or good judgment ; or soundly, 
taking the sure course therein, and exercising caution, 
or care, that they may not become beyond his power 
of management : (S, T A :) [keeping to anything in- 
separably, or constantly : (see, again, 1:)] taking, 
holding, or retaining, a thing strongly, vehemently, 
or firmly ; applied to a man ; as also " ^ h»<i : 
(IDrd :) or the latter of these, (S,) which is like 


, (BI, [in some copies of the K erroneously 
written without tenween,]) the ^ being augmen- 
tative, to render the word quasi-coordinate to 
J^.yL ; (S ;) or both ; applied to a man and to a 
camel; (KL;) strong, or powerful: (S,KL:) or [a man] 
great in might, or valour, and power, and body: (T, 
TA:) and the former, a camel strong to work or 
labour: and in like manner, applied to a man,i»jU> 
jy»*)\ t tlie strong [andresoluteorjirm-minded] in the 
performance or management of affairs. (TA.) See 
also £*■*). — [It often signifies + Exact ; cor- 
red ; or accurate ; (like Ji m «, with which it is 
said to be syn. in Har p. 254 ;) and lionest ; and 
faithful : and particularly as applied to an author 
or a relater.] = As a conventional term, i-f^o, 
(Msb in art J*»,) or ▼ ikjU>, pi. tyy*, ( T A,) 
is syn. with »j*li, (Msb,TA,) signifying t A uni- 
versal, or general, rule, or canon: (Msb:) or 
a i^Ui is one </mi< comprises subdivisions of one 
class only ; whereas a 5 «*tli comprises [sometimes] 
subdivisions of various classes. (Hull, p. 290.) 

aty < 'b A place in land, or in the ground, to 
which the rain-water flows, and which retains it ; 
syn. a&lli. (TA.)™See also i^U, last sentence. 

L''b \ [More, and most, strong, or firm, of hold]. 
It is said in a prov., Jji j>« Ja*£l [More strong, 
or ,/Jrm, o/ hold than a little ant] : because it 
drags along a thing several times larger than 
itself, and sometimes both fall from a high place, 
and the ant does not let go the thing. (KI.) And 
Jis. o* &^* O* £**'» (£0 80 ^cord. to 
Hamzeh and Abu-n-Neda; but accord, to El- 
Mundhiree, *L*£ ; (Sgh;) [More strong, or firm, 
of hold than 'Aisheh thesonof'Athm; or than 
'Abiseh;] because he laid hold of the tail of a 
young she-camel, and pulled her by it out of a 
well into which she had fallen. (KL.) And ioLi\ 
\j£*)\ j>» [More strong, or firm, of hold than 
tlie blind]. ' (TA.) — Ambidextrous; who works 
with each of his liands ; (S, Mgh, Mfb ;) i. q. 
'jl^i 'j~l\ ; (Mgh. Msb ;) who worlts with his left 
hand like as lie works with his right ; an explana- 
tion given by the Prophet; as also that next 
following; (A0,TA;) wlio works with both his 

hands : (AO, Kl :) fern, llkli- (§•) — ^>^ 
The lion; (KL;) who makes use of his left paw 
like as he makes use of his right ; but some say 
that he is so called because he seizes his prey 
vehemently, and it hardly, or never, escapes from 
him ; (TA ;) as also t Ljlil, (Kl.) <U»U is 
also applied as an epithet to a lioness ; and to a 
she-camel. (TA.) 

\ty iU [pass. part. n. of h^o in all its senses. 
__ In the present day often used as signifying 
Well-regulated ; exact ; correct ; honest ; and 
faithful.] Applied to a book, or writing, t Having 
its defects, faults, or imperfections, rectified. (TA.) 
[Applied to a word, t Having its pronunciation 
fixed, by any of the means described above in 
one of the explanations of the verb.] — jJj 
jU',11; by~e* X A country covered by the rain : 


•o in the A : in the O, Iky*** ^6^ I land rained 
vpon in common, or throughout its whole extent. 
(TA.) [See also 1, near the end of the paragraph.] 

1. *»**, aor. S (S,K,) inf. n. £**, (T£,) 
2Z« (a man, S) stretched forth towards him (ano- 
ther man, S) hit upper arm (a*j«o), for the pur- 
pose of striking. (§, 1£.) A poet says, 

i. e. [And tttere sfiall be no peace] until ye stretch 
forth towards us your upper arms with the 
swords and we stretch forth our upper arms 
towards you : or, accord, to AA, until ye stretch 
forth [towards us] your upper arms for the 
making of peace and the joining of hands [and we 
do tlie same]. (S.) And one says, aJI »ju jl~6 
o» f) Wi meaning He stretched forth his arm 
towards him with the sword. (1£.) And .J* «~o 
jyj, (S,» $,) inf. n. as above, (TA,) He stretched 
forth his upper arms for the purpose of uttering 
an imprecation against such a one : (S,* $, TA :) 

* * * 

and hence, %^o is metaphorically used to signify 
t the act of supplicating or imjrrecating ; because 
the person supplicating or imprecating raises his 
bands and stretches forth his upper arms : and 
cC-i, also, [app. an inf. n. of ▼ *yti,] signifies 
the raising the hands, or arms, in supplication or 

Jl / 00 

imprecation. (TA.) And J-^JI C~x*^, and 
J/jM, (S, Msb, ¥,) aor. -' , (S, Msb,)'inf. n. £i 
(8, K) and LLa and o 1 *^- (£,) The horses, 
and <Ac camels, stretched forth tlieir arms (l^*ll«©l, 
8, Msb, £, i. e. UjUjtl, S, Msb) tn </tctr (/ot«^ 
along ; (S, Msb, $ ;) as also * C «»■>«■>, inf. n. 
*~-aJ : (8, K :) in [a copy of] the A expl. as 
meaning lyiLcl Ojk [stretched forth t/ieir necks; 
but this is probably a mistranscription, for Ojm 
UjLotlJ : (TA :) C«*u^ said of horses is like 
Ctm^m, ($, TA,) which is a dial. var. : (TA :) 
and >r.«j^> said of a she-camel, inf. n. ft-a, sig- 
nifies the same as * £,*><£<, as also ♦ <^>\, on 

the authority of I£{t:'(TA:) [or,] accord, to 

• • * 
As, £~i> signifies the lifting, (S,) or bending 

(TA,) of the hoof, (8, TA,) by a horse, and the 

lifting of the foot, by a camel, (TA>) towards tlie 

arm : (§, TA :) or it signifies the running a pace 

above that which is termed -fij»2 : (O, £ :) or 

«--c> said of a camel signifies he hastened, or was 

quick, (£, TA,) in pace, or going : (TA :) or he 

went along sliahing his arms. (K.) -■ » ; ,c also 

signifies He (a camel) took him (another camel) 

by his arms, and threw him down. (L in art. 

•»-ac, and T A in the present art.) __ t Vr" lyil^, 

(&,TA,).and iLiukjb; (TA;) or Jl 1^6 

-_U»)1 ; and l>*^>, inf. n. «--o ; (Et-Toosee, 

TA ;) TVwfy inclined to peace, (Ef-Toosee, ¥., TA,) 
and the joining of hands; t/iey desired peace, &c. 
(TA.) __ J^l U 1^, (8, ?,) or J^ill ^, 

inf. n. %^o,(TA,)Theygaveusasliareoftlteroad: 
(§, £ :) so says ISk : (8 :) and in like manner one 

says, lL> U U»> (TA.) And «^l)l I 
(5, TA,) or ij^ilt l >», (TA,) 77u?y ^a»e a share 

of the thing (£, TA) to every one. (TA.) 

And £s-i, (K,) inf. n. ili, (TA,) iTe (a man) 
acted wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or tyranni- 
cally : (£:) on the authority of Aboo-Sa'eed. 
(TA.) = da*0, aor. - , inf. n. «*«o (S, K) and 
<* , « .;■« ? ; (S,* ft • [this latter is said in the TA, on 
the authority of IAar, to have been used by an 
Arab of the desert in relation to a woman ; and 
is, accord, to the S, app., a simple subst. ;]) and 

" Cm^ m*, (S, K,) and * Cjytwl ; (K;) She 
(a camel) desired (S, J£) vehemently (S) /Ac stallion. 


2 : see above, in two places. = ti^ii «I«o J7e 
intervened between him and the object at which he 
desired to shoot or cast. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K.) = 
And »~o, inf. n. « g »<J, He was, or became, 
cowardly, or weak- hearted : (Lth, K:) thus say 
the vulgar; derived by" them from £--all, because 
this beast becomes still when one comes in upon 
it, and then it goes forth. (Lth, TA.) 

3. (J^e-Jv ^^*W^-o We stretched forth our 
arms towards them with the swords, they stretching 
theirs forth towards us [therewith] : so in the 
"NawAdir" of AA. (TA.)_See also 1, in 
the former half. — [The inf. n.] ijuUuo also sig- 
nifies The joining of hands; syn. iUJU«. (TA.) 

4 : see 1, near the middle of the paragraph : = 
and also the last sentence of the same. 

8. cLiui^t, which the circuiter round the 
House [of God, i. e. the Kaabeh,] is commanded 
to perform, (S,) or in the case of the jtjUt, ($,) 

is Tlie putting tlie [garment called] Ay, under 
one's right armpit, and turning back the extremity 
tliereof over his left [shoulder], exposing to view 
his right shoulder [and arm] and covering the left ; 
(S, £, TA ;) like the man that desires to labour 
at a thing and prepares himself for doing so; 
(TA ;) thus termed because of exposing to view 
one of the two upper arms : (S, 1£ :) or the putting 
one's garment (Mgh, Msb) under his right arm, 
(Mgh,) or wider his right armpit, (Msb,) and 
throwing [a portion of] it upon his left shoulder : 
(Mgh, Msb :) or tlie taking the /j\, or tlie }Jt, 
and putting tlie middle of it under one's right 
armpit, and throwing the extremity thereof upon 
his left slioulder, over his breast and his back: 

(IAth, TA :) ik/UI and £-&pl likewise signify 
the same : so says Az : (Msb :) and so says As 
of the former : (S :) and it is also written cti^t. 

(Thus in the TA in explanation of £$1.) You 
say, ±ijrt £~U«0l [He attired himself with his 
garment in the manner described above]. (Mgh, 
Msb.) And t^li\ £Ja*ot He put tlie thing under 
his upper arms. (TA. [But accord, to the Mgh, 
the verb is trans., correctly, only by means of »,*.]) 

10. see 1, last sentence. 

*--£> The j-ae. [i. e. upper arm of a human 
being, and arm of a quadruped], (S, Mgh, O, 

[Book I. 

M?b, £,) altogether: (K :) or the middle thereof, 
(Lth, Mgh, 0, S,) with itt flesh : (O, $ :) and 
the inner side thereof: (Mgh:) or (so in some 
copies of the 1£, but in others "and,") the armpit: 
or the portion, of the upper part of the jJ^, tliat 
is between the armpit and the lialfof the former : 
(]£ :) it is of man and of other than man : (TA :) 
pi. st-ol. (S, Msb, K.) One says, <4ju-6 j^\, 
[expT. in art. j^,] speaking of a man praying. 

(O, TA.) And 4^lil JU* o# {jh±i ^>& 

• »• f j t « » " 

and VM-^¥ ^>»J^», meaning i" seized the middle 

of the upj>er arms of such a one [and did not 

relinquish him]. (Lth, O, TA.) And <v.n;iy ^ jj*. 

t He raised him, or set him up, and rendered hit 

name famous : and in like manner, y ; ji; j^.1, 

and rtfrV = V jL«. (TA.) = Also Any [hill such as 

is termed] <L«=>t that is black and somewhat oblong. 
(IAar, K.) = UJ U-J» 4y 1**} means ^tl/ 
[i. e., app., He took it away with a false pretence ; 
or in play, or sport] ; (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K, TA ;) 
namely, a thing; (O, TA;) l*J being an imitative 
sequent. (TA.)ssSce also *~&. = And see 
what here next follows. 

0# £^ J> & (8, O, K) and o^* * *U 
and ,j^i " a~o (K) We were in tlie protection, 
or quarter, (J A , and S«--0,) of such a one. (S, 
0, 1$. : but in the £, ^t» is put in the place of 

^^» %r± ^ji U=> : see what next precedes. 

£U (S, Mgh, O, Msb, ^) and t ^, (M s b, 
K,) the former of the dial, of Keys and the 
latter of the dial, of Temeem, (Msb,) [The female 
hyena; or the hyena, male and female ;] a certain 
animal of prey, (*-->, [but see whatfollows,])(^[,) 
well known, (S, O,) the worst, or most abominable, 
of ct-., (Mgh,) resembling the wolf, except that, 
wlien it runs, it is as though it were lame, where- 
fore it is called iUyjOl : it flees from him who 
holds in his hand a colocynth : [and they assert 
that] the dogs bark not at him who retains with 
him its teeth : if its skin is bound upon the belly 
of her that is pregnant, she casts not her young : 
if seed is measured in a measure covered with 
its skin, the seed-produce is secure from tlie banes 
thereof: and the application of its gall-bladder as 
a collyrium sharpens the sight: (K:) it is not 
reckoned among the hostile animals to which the 
appellation of «-w is applied, wherefore the 
Sunneh allows that its flesh may be eaten, and 
requires that a compensation be made for it [by 
the sacrifice of a ram] if it be smitten [and killed] 
in the sacred territory by a person in the state of 
ihram : (TA voce «-- :) the word is of the fem. 
gender, (S,* Mgh,* 0,* Msb, £,•) and is [said to 
be] applied peculiarly to Hie female; (Msb ;) the 
male being called * J**o , (S, Mgh, O, Msb, £,) 

of which the pi. is o^C^ ; (S, O, M?b, $ ;) but 
AHat disapproved this pi. ; (O ;) and tlie female is 
called [also] * iiU~6, of which the pi. is oUuo; 

(S, O, K ;) or H\jLo has not been heard applied 

Book I.] 

to the female, but «-«b only, and it seems that J 
has mentioned ivilo as applied to the female 
from his having supposed oCul-i to be pi. of 
<UU~0, whereas it is pi. of &£*■£, being like 
O^U-j and O^l*^: (IB in a marginal note in 
one of my copies of the S :) but some say that 
m'.'c. or %^o is applied to the male; and the 
female is termed i*~i, thus with a quiescent 
letter: (Msb:) or, accord, to Ibn-'Abbad, the 
female is termed i*li, and its pi. [or rather the 
coll. gen. n.] is \LSb ; (O, K ;) or i*~i is not 
allowable: (S,K:) the pi. of gJa or jli is 
£$, ($,) a pi. of pauc, (TA,) and £Cj>, (K,) 
or the former is pi. ofvi, (Msb,) and the latter 
is pi. of *Li, (Mgh, Msb,) and is of the male 
and of the female, (S, K,) and £**, ($,) as 
though this were pi. of ct-e, (AAF, TA,) and 
«^«e [a contraction of %~&] (K) and OU~o and 
\\*y^b (TA [in which it is indicated that this last 
is pi. of %*£>]) and [quasi-pl. n.] ♦ <uu^o. (O, 
1£.) One says jj^l ♦ (J**!-*> ( in l " c ^K, erro- 
neously, jjliui,] meaning, [A male hyena] in- 
flated in the rides, bin in tine belly : or, accord, to 
some, wliose rides are defiled with earth, or dust. 

(S.) And *~a» jW. Jt-i A torrent tliat drams 
forth the i^bfrom its den; (0,K; in the CK, 
^uJci\ jl»» ;) hence meaning t a torrent produced 
by vehement rain. (TA.) And g~a}\ AaJj [The 
night-journeying of the hyena]; because the «--» 
goes round about until midnight. (O, K.) And 
•lilt ,-U iXJi j_5**4 I* [That is not unapparent 

to tlie hyena] : because the *~o is deemed stupid. 

• •" * * ' • \ 
(TA.) *~o)t ,>• Jk«*>l [Afcwe stupid than the 

hyena] is a prov. (Meyd.) And ^ei\ ^i£s\ 

t [The hyena devoured them] is said of such as are 
held in mean estimation. (TA.) [But this may 
be otherwise rendered, as will be seen from what 
follows.] The saying of a poet, 

shoulders, and that upon the club, of ttyOI : and 
the name of cL<a)l j^l is given to [The stars 
B, i, k, and \, app. with some other faint stars 
around these, of liootes; i. e.] the stars upon the 
left, hand and fore arm, and wliat surround tlte 

hand, of the faint stars, of »<yjl. (Kzw.) — 
%~o)\ also signifies J The year of drought or 
sterility or dearth; (S, IAth, O, Msb, K, TA ;) 

that is destructive ; severe : of the fem. gender. 

(TA.) So in a verse cited in art. Ul [voce Ut, 

and again, with a variation, voce Ul]. (S, O. [But 
it is here said in the TA that *~^JI in this 
instance means the animal of prey thus called.]) 
[Hence also,] it is related in a trad, of Aboo- 

Dharr, that a man said, a~o)l UU3I <tDt J^wj u 
l[0 Apostle of God, the year of drought lias con- 
sumed us] : and he prayed for tliem. (TA.) [See 
also two other exs. voce >_-J) j.] _ Also J Hunger. 

(Ibn-'Abbad, O, TA.) Ami t Evil, or mischief. 

(TA.) El-'Okcylecyeh said, " When a man whose 
evil, or mischief, we feared removed from us, we 
used to light a fire behind him :" and being asked 
« Why ?" she said, 'Jc. iili Jy^?, i- e. t In 
order that his evil, or mischief, might go away 
with him. (IAar, TA.) 

pm » > ■ 

* LyJ CJLiJ \-0)-> ^5-0-^ W^>U 

[ Jify *Aecp, or goats, dispersed themselves, one day, 
and I said in relation to them, O my Lord, set 
upon them the wolf and the hyena], is said to 
mean an imprecation, that the wolf might kill the 
living of them, and the hyena devour the dead of 
them : or, as some say, it means that the speaker 
prayed for their safety ; because, when both fall 
upon the sheep, or goats, each of them is diverted 
from the sheep, or goats, by the other ; and thus 

means the saying, l*>ij U^-p^^Ul [O God, send 
a hyena and a wolf] : but the more probable 
meaning of the poet is an imprecation, the con- 
sequence of his anger and fatigue ; and the word 
hJU imports a notification of this meaning. (IB, 
TA.) — [The pi.] cUaJt is applied to t Nume- 
rous stars below ^jw Oty: (O, BL:) or [the 
stars 0, 7, >, and ft, of Bootes; i. e.] the star 
upon the head, and that upon [each of] the 
Bk. I. 

~£> A shc-camcl desiring [vehemently (see 1, 
last sentence,)] the stallion; (Lth,K[;) as also 
'it-iu: (L, TA:) pi., accord, to the copies 
of the K, cl—o and ,>l~£ ; but in the L, ,«fiW>o 

and .jfcU^ : (TA :) and sometimes it is used in 
relation to women. (I£.) 

^buo ; and its fem., with » : see v«, in three 

xjLo A she-camel stretching forth her arms 

(l^*ll«£l, S, K, i. c. UiLitl, S) in going along : 
(S, I£:) or lifting her foot towards Iter arm in 
going along : so accord, to an explanation by As 
of the former of the two following pis. : (TA :) 
the pi. is y<^o (Lth, As, TA) and £li. (TA.) 
And A horse that runs ve/ietnently ; (O, K, TA;) 
like LjCo, of which the pi. is '^ifyo ■ (TA :) or 
that runs much : (Lth, O, TA :) or that bends 
his hoof towards his arm : (TA :) or that inclines 
tmvards (lit. folknvs) one of his sides, and bends 
his neck. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, £.) 

"** * * • * i. i/. i 

x~&\ i. q. ^ r -ae-\ [q. v.] : formed from the 

latter by transposition. (TA.) 


1. <w^>, aor. ; , inf. n. ^>-3, He put htm, or 
it, (i. e. a man, or another tiling,) above his i >«A 
[q. v.]. (TA.) [See also what next follows.] 

4. A^&l He put it in his ^i, (S, Y>, TA,) or 
on his &~i>; (TA;) or he took it beneath hit 
sj~b, i. e. hit O^ 1 ^ [° r '* c P art oetween fits arm- 
pit and flank]: (A'Obcyd, TA :) and ▼ Uu.1 
signifies the same. (S, ^L, TA.) _ And He strait- 
ened him, or it, (K, TA,) by putting him, or it, 
beneath his side. (TA.) 

The portion of flesh that is beneath the 
armpit, in the fore part. (O, K.) as See also 
il~6 [of which it is a quasi-pl. n.]. 

: see 

A she-camel whose breast is prominent 
and whose arms recede. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, ]£.) 

• j • - • 

ry h-j l f~- An ass devoured by the «--o [or 
hyena] : (0, K :) or [an ass which may the hyena 
devour, for] accord, to some it means an impre- 
cation that the »-«» may devour him. (TA.) 

8. 4uJa*el : see 4. _ Also He took him, or if, 
with his hand, and raised him, or it, to a little 
above his navel. (TA.) 

^yt^ The part between the armpit and tlie 
~JJ> [or flank] ; (S, K, TA ;) or the i>i»- 

[which generally means as above] ; (A'Obeyd, 
TA;) [or] the part, of the side, between the armpit 
and tlie v >o» [which is here evidently used as 

syn. with «. ■?,*■>] : (S :) or the armpit [itself] : 
so says Ibn-El-Faraj : like j--o : (TA in artj*^ :) 
or the armpit and tlie part next to it : or the 
uppermost part of the side : or the part beneath 
the *....& [or flank] and beneath the armpit : or 
the part between the S^U. [or flank] and tlie 

head [or crest] of tlie hip. (TA.)^_ [Hence,] 

, • , , i 

f A side of a road : one says, £y» j>~j ^ J^l 

i ' ' ' '* . tt 

JjjJaJI f He took a side of the road : pi. oW* 1 - 
(TA.) — And ijyj ^>-i ,«i 1a means f He is 
ift the quarter, or protection, of such a one ; as 
also t azLo (j*. (TA.) [The pi.] oC*' sig- 
nifies also { The narroiv places (JmUx«) of tho 
J-o»- [an evident mistranscription for J*** i. e. 
mountain]. (TA.) _ And f Places abounding 
with beasts of prey : (K, TA :) sing. &~o. (TA.) 

And j>%i0l signifies t That [place, or ground,] 

which renders people impotent, or helpless, to dig 
it. (K.) 

a Deficiency, or a falling short. (1£, TA.) 
s £)\SL» A narrow place. (S.) 

• '* ' I"* ' /• ti 

2u~b and i~-b : see what next follows. 

i-~i and t aL^ (S, K) and T 3J~o and t 3u~o 
(K) The household, or family, (S, K, TA,) of a 
man, (S,) and [his] relations, or servants, or other 
lUipcndcnts : (TA :) or the cattle, and household, 
or family, that are under one's authority, and 
which lie minds, or to which he attends, and the 
maintenance whereof is incumbent on him. (IAth, 
TA.) And A traveWng-companio:\, or travelling- 
companions, in whom is no profit, or adoantage, 
(K,TA,) being only such as he who travels with 
him, or them, has the burden of supporting. (TA.) 
= See also , 

rt.l..j. : see the next preceding paragraph. 

<LiU« [app. iiCo, like iili^, which is one of 
its syns.,] A man's particular, or special, intimates, 
friends, or associates, and his aiders, or assistants, 
and kinsfolk. (TA.) 


u »-?<> '• see art. k^o. It is mentioned in the 
IjL and by Sgh both here and in art. J»-«6. 

y*-c or 

1. Jul ^,(§,M,¥,)«du^»»,(M,)aor.' f 

[or - ,] inf. n. £i, (S, £,) or [^i, (M,) or 
both, (I$t{, TA,) Tl* fire, (S,M,$,) and tAe 
*un, (M,) altered [in colour], and roasted, broiled, 
or/tied, him, or it : (S, £:) or burned, or scorched, 
him, or <7. (M.) = *JI CJ> 7f« had recourse, or 

* ft 

betook himself, to him, or it, for refuge, protection, 
or covert ; ($:) a dial. var. of %£. (TA.) 

4. jj^ol i. j. JX~«t : (M, YL :) so in the phrase, 
ajju ^ U ^i* J».yi ,j««ol [lite man grasped, 
or A-c/jt AoM <;/', t/tat w/u'e/t «'a.i in his hands] : a 
dial. var. of %M : (Lh, M :) like ^~£\. (TA in 
art. L-b.) — — And <cJic tjt-o^ He was, or became, 
at the point of gaining possession of it; (Ks, T, 
S, K ;) namely, a thing. (Ks, S.) __ And He 
concealed it, and mas silent respecting it. (IKtt, 

TA. [ App. a dial. var. of L-ol.]) wmm And i. q. %ij 
[He raised; &c.]: so in the K : but in the Tekmileh 
ilj [he, or it, fell; &c.]. (TA.) = And I q. 
^5^-il [but in what sense is not shown]. (K.) ss 
jil)l.w ^j-ol The journey faUed of fulfilling its 
promise to them in respect of what they hoped to 
obtain in it, of gain, and profit, or advantage. 
(El-Hejeree, M, $.•) 

w-U Ashes. (S,K.) 

stL», (M, and thus in a copy of the S,) or 
lCL», (thus in a copy of the S, [and Freytag 
states it to be thus accord, to IDrd, but accord, 
to the § to be 1&6, which is evidently a mistake,]) 
or \\, 2h», with dninm, (K, and said in the TA to 
be thus written in copies of the S,) A cake of bread 
baked in hot ashes: (S, M, $ :) thus called by 
some of the people of El-Yemen: but [ISd says, 
respecting 2Uu as thus expl.,] I know not how 
this is unless the thing be named by the name of 
the place. (M.) 

_jUv« [a pi. of which the sing, is most probably 
;>-] Frying-pans: like p iU«. (AHn, T A in 
art. »«^ » .) 

1. Li, aor. ,, inf.n. £»*-i (L,Msb,TA) 

and Li and *-lL* 'and »-L*> the last on the 
authority of Lh, (L, TA,) [and the last but one 
is said in one place in the L and TA to be a subst. 
from **X&,] He cried out, or vociferated : (L:) 
or he cried out, or vociferated, calling for aid, or 
succour : (AA :) or he cried out, or vociferated, 
and raised a clamour, or confused cries or shouts 
or noises, being frightened at a thing: (Msb:) 
or JL h r signifies the crying out, or vociferating, 
on the occasion of some disagreeable occurrence, and 
in difficulty, or distress, and inability to bear 

what has befallen one, or impatience : (Kitab el- 
Ghareebeyn:) or *tj»~£t, inf. n. »C-^'. signifies 

they cried out, or vociferated, and raised a clamour, 
or confused cries or shouts or noises : and 'j-it r, 
aor. ;, inf^i. «.. j ^. <» , [as meaning </u>_j/ cW *o] 

nrAen unable to bear a thing that had befallen them, 
or impatient, and overcome, (A'Obeyd, S, K, TA,) 

and frightened. (TA.) And one says also, Li 
t * • £ 

^«Jt, (A, L,) inf. n. pt^- b, (L,) [TVjc caw*/ 

uttered a cry, i. e. grumbled,] jL«ll »>• [<« 

consequence of the load]. (A. [See 1 in art. _>*}.]) 

And j/»j »>ji ~~o ,jl [// A« grumble, add to him 

a load] : a prov. (A.) The poet El-BLandnee uses 

the phrase *■. <**, At for &*..£ »:.> <£i ; and it is 
cited by 8b as an ex. of the incorporation of Z> 
into j.,*. (O.) 

" . • *' 

2. fp+ *>, inf. n. m t% J&, He went away : or 

he inclined, or declined. (O, K.) = And He 
poisoned a bird, or a beast of prey. (O, K.) 

3. ilU, (S, O,) inf. n. LLCJ, (S, O, £) and 

«^»e, (S, K,) He acted with him in an evil 

manner; treated him with enmity, or hostility; 
(S, O, K, TA ;) and contended in altercation with 
him. (S,*0,»K,*TA.) 

4 : see 1. b [Reiskc, as mentioned by Freytag, 
explains «—ol also as a trans, verb, meaning 
" Fatigavit, molest ia affecit."] 

o, a subst., signifying A crying out, or 
vociferating : (L :) or a clamour, or confusion of 
cries or shouts or noises, of a people or party. 

«p.lL° a subst. from <t»-Ui ; [as such signifying 
Evil, or inimical, conduct; and contention:] (S, 

L, TA :) [and] compulsion. (K., TA.) [Also] 

an inf. n. of 1, sometimes used as an epithet, 
[meaning That cries out, or vociferates, &c.,] 
applied to a man : pi. ■*.*■■• ? ■ (L.) [Freytag 
explains it, from the Deewan of Jereer, as meaning 
" Vanus, nefas."] a Also i. q. «.W [as meaning 
-4 kind of bracelet] ; (T, O, K, TA ;) which is 
like the j\y* of a woman. (O, TA.) — — And A 
kind of bead (»jj±-), (O, K, TA,) used by women 
in their attracting [of men]. (TA.) _ See also 
the next paragraph. 

, -jfc f A certain gum which is eaten (O, K, 

TA) in its moist state : when it has become dry, it 
is pounded, then formed into lumps, and made 
potent with potash, and one mas/ies with it t/ie 
garment, or piece of cloth, which it cleanses like 
soap. (O, TA.) And The fruit of a certain 
plant ; or a gum ; with which women wash tlteir 
heads : written by IDrd with fet-h [i. e. * ~.\L-o], 

but by AHn with kesr. (TA.) _ And (as AHn 
says in one place, O, TA) Any tree with which 
birds, or beasts of prey, are poisoned. (O, I£, TA.) 

r jui -=» A she-camel that cries out when being 
milked, and is impatient. (S, O, K.) 

[Book I. 

' ' *' 
and, by poetic license ■■ » M t 

[meaning Very evil or inimical conduct kc.,] is a 
phrase likejeli^ii. (TA.) 

e 1 c 

1. j»~e, aor. - , (S, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) inf. n. 
' ; (S, Mgh, Msb ;) and 1jZ~*> J (A, Mgh, 

Msb, ^L;) He was vexed, or disquieted by grief: 
(S:) or, followed by <u*,(A, Mgh, Msb, £,) and 
by a/, (A, £,) he was vexed, or disquieted by grief , 
at it, or by reason of it, and by distress of mind, 
and complained : (Mgh :) or he was grieved at it, 
or by reason of it, (A, Msb,) and distressed in 
mind, (A,) or vexed, or disquieted, (Msb,) and 

complained : (A, Msb :) or he was disgusted (j>j»i, 
A, KL) at it, or by it, and was vexed, or disquieted, 
(K,) by grief. (TA.)_ And j^-i He (a camel) 
cried, or grumbled, much : (S :) and Oja <£> she 
(a camel) cried, or grumbled, (A, K,) much, (A,) 
o/i being milked, (A, K,) being distressed thereby. 
(A.) In a verse, (of El-Akhtal, TA,) 'jmJ> is 
contracted into j*~o ; like as J 
is contracted [into Juf»j]. (S, TA.) 

among nouns, 

4. ojjw-il lie caused him to be vexed, or 
disquieted by grief (S, Mgh) and by distress of 
mind, and to complain: (Mgh:) or he caused 
him to grieve, (<Uo at it, or by reason of it,) and 
to be vexed, or disquieted, and to complain: (Msb :) 
or lie caused him to be disgusted, and vexed, or 
disquieted, (K.,) by grief. (TA.) 

5 : see 1, first sentence. 

i : see the next paragraph. 

a A man vexed, or disquieted by grief: (S :) 
or grieved, (A, Msb,) and distressed in mind, (A,) 
or vexed, or disquieted, (Msb,) and complaining : 
(A, Msb:) or disgusted, (j>j£», A,^,)and vexed, 
or disquieted, (K,) by grief: (TA :) and 1j+ ■ * , : ,> 
signifies the same: (A:) and so, but in an intensive 
manner, t ijLu> : (TA :) and * jja~0 is also an 

epithet [in this last, intensive, sense,] applied to 
a man : (S, Msb :) accord, to Aboo-Bekr, jm~e, 
signifying straitened, or distressed, in mind, is 
from the same word in the sense here next follow- 
ing. (TA.) — A narrow place ; (Aboo-Bekr, 
XL;) asalsot^Li. ($.) 

ijm. r Grief, and distress of mind, with com- 
plaint: (A:) or disgust (j*r?, A, K!) and vexation, 
or disquietude, (£,) arising from grief (TA.) 
[SM supposes Z to have said that it is syn. with 
jm r'* : but this is a mistake.] = Also A certain 
small bird: (Aljat, O, !£:•) as though [so called 
because], by reason of its disquietude, not remain- 
ing in one place. (TA.) 

««-»: seej^-A. 

jj^ 'r : p?"jr. ■(• Alari A she-camel that cries, 
or grumbles, (A, K!,) much, (A,) on being milked, 
(A, 1£>) being distressedthereby. (A.)— It is said in 
a prov., applied to a niggard from whom property 
is obtained by degrees, notwithstanding his nig- 

Book I.] 

gardliness, ^JuJ ji ' J9 L~±}\ o' [Verily the die- 
camel that grumble* (or that grumble* much) on 
being milked i* sometimes milked]. (A'Obeyd.) 

j^-at act part n. of 4 : pl. j ».l, A « and j-»-Ux«. 


1. £*— »> aor. c , inf. n. £4~° and e^<, [-He 
/<2y uyxm At* aide; or] Ae laid hi* *ide upon the 
ground; [and simply he lay; and he slept;] as 
also * £*JL£t, ($, Msb, K, TA,) which is also 

expl. as syn. with>U, [which has the second and 
third of the meanings mentioned above,] and with 
. J&Lll, [which has the third of those meanings,] 
(TA,) the 1» being substituted for the O of p +XM , 

(Ltb, S, Msb,) and ♦ '%^M, (S,M f b, K,) and 
t '%LU\, (S, L, K, in the CK [erroneously] 
4^_£l,) the ,> in teJ^I being changed into J, 
which is the letter nearest in sound thereto, 
because the combination of two such letters as „je 
and J» is disliked, (8, L,) the same change occur- 
ring in aI^JI for jl^i), (Az, TA,) though this 
change is anomalous ; (L ;) and t *»~ol likewise 
signifies the same as *§* J> ; (Msb ;) [and] so does 
♦ **moj1, (K, TA,) as quasi-pass, of the trans. 
verb *«~0l. (TA.) — . [And accord, to Freytag, 
it occurs in the Deewan of the Hudhalees as sig- 
nifying He declined from tlie way.] — *«~i> 

' • * .— . 

j^Ji\ means \ [Tlie star, or asterum, or the 

Pleiade*,] inclined to letting ; as also ' *a~o, (K, 

TA,) inf. n. fj^JJS. (TA.) And J^lll ai +J * 

is a dial. var. of * c-*a»-o, (TA,) which means 
I The tun approached the setting; (S, K, TA ;) 

like c-i^i. (S, TA.) — yit ^ ^J> life 
»a«, or became, weak in hi* affair; as also 
V *a»~o1 ; and so f *--~ ? , like >-ji [in measure], 
on the authority of IKtt. (TA. [See also 2, 
and 5, and 6.]) And <otj ^y f*- -o [ I10t a ni ' s_ 
transcription for ta~0, as is shown by its part, n., 
q. v.,] I He mat, or became, weak in his judgment, 
or opinion. (TA.) 

8 : see above, in two places. j^t ,J «j..^, 

(Mgh, $,) inf. n. J«*J»5, (S,) \ He fell *hort of 
doing what wo* requisite, or due, in the affair ; 
(S, Mgh, ]£, TA ;) and rxu, or became, weak 
therein. (Mgh.) [See also »j*\ ^j £■—£, and 

see 0, and 6.] — Hence, «£lt ^Jt * t +M\ f 7%e 
wavering, or vacillating, in intention, and not 
making if to take effect. (Mgh.) 

3. *a-»U, (S,TA,) inf.n. iiluki, He lay 
upon ki* tide, or simply he lay, or slept, with him. 
(TA.) And V—-U, (Msb, TA,) inf. n. as above, 
(Msb,) JK» fay, or «fept, «ri*A A«r, (Msb, TA,) 
namely, his girl, or young woman, (TA,) in, or 
on, one bed, (Msb,) or in one innermost garment. 

(TA. ) _ And hence, J^ I a**-U. I Anxiety clave 
to him. (TA.) 

<j>- »j 

4. ii^ii, (S, Msb, K,) inf. n. £U-il, (TA,) 
I laid' him upon hi* tide; (S,*Msb;) I laid hi* 
tide upon the ground. (K.) — And J J lowered 
it, or depressed it, namely, a thing. (K, TA.) 

J>*£jl ^~*j)I fa— it t [app. The spear made 

the thrusting to be in a downward direction], 
(TA.) __ **)<>»» *»~o' t -H"« emptied his *ack, 
it being full. (O, K.) _ fV-o'jf' » n relation to 

the vowel-sounds is I like ilUNl and 4 >»i»J1. 
(K,TA. [See arts. J~» and ,>UA..]) ■= See 
also 1, in two places. 

*>• >»*^1 u* **"& I H e fold back in tlie affair, 
(S,K', TA,) and did not undertake it. (S, TA.) 
[See also 1, and 2, and 6.] _ And w>laJl)1 ***■ ** » 

J Tlie clouds continued raining (vjO tn *• P^ 1 *^ 

6. IJ^aj l*£» j^l t>« f*-Uu t He feigned him- 
self unmindful, or heedless, of such and such an 
affair. (Z, TA.) [See also 1, and 2, and 6.] 

7 : see 1, first sentence. 

« » j> • * , z * * » • 

8. &aJeuot, and its vara. jt«— il and teJaJt : 

see 1, first sentence. _ j jl -11 ^y cUJa^^l is 

t Tlie not drawing up tlie body from tlie ground in 
prostration [in prayer] ; (Mgh, TA ;) the con- 
tracting oneself, and making the breast to cleave to 
the ground, tlierein. (K., TA.) [See also its part 
n., below.] 

mn« [The specie* of glasswort, or kali, called] 

J>»U, for [masking] clothes : n. un. with S : 
(I£ :) accord, to IDrd, the gum of a certain plant, 
or a certain plant [itself], with which clothes are 
waslied: (O :) of the dial, of El-Yemen : (TA :) 
and, (O, K,) accord, to Ed-Deenawaree, (O,) 
i. e. AHn, (TA,) a certain plant, (K,) resembling 
small cucumbers, (0, I£, TA,) [or] in shape like 
asparagus, (TA,) but thicker (O, K, TA) hi a 
great degree, (O, TA,) four-sided in tlie stalks, 
(O, K, TA,) and having in it an acidity (O, 
TA,) and a bitterness (»j'j-o O) or a taste between 
sweet and sour (ij\j* TA) : it is cruslied (»••)»£■> O) 
or cut into slices {r-ji-i TA) and its juice is ex- 
pressed into milk such as is termed »r-5lj [q. v.], 
which in consequence becomes pleasant, (O, IS., 
TA,) and somewhat biting to the tongue ; and its 
leaves are put into sour milk, like as is done with 
tlie leaves of the mustard: (0, TA :) it is good as 
an aphrodisiac. (O, $, TA.) 

*a>~0 f Inclination : (O, ]j£ :) so in the phrase 
Cfj* JJ yjfti im f [The inclination of such a 
one is towards tuck a one], (O,) or jJt [towards 
me]. (£.) 


trouble or inconvenience, and toil or fatigue; as 
alsotiilJ,. (TA.) 

ZxmJb One whom people often lay upon hit 
side [or throw down]. (K, TA.) — [And app., One 
who lays others on tlie side, or prostrates them; 
as is implied by what here follows.] — + A 
disease: (K1,TA:) because it lays the man upon 

his bed. (TA.) See also 3*L~i>, in two places. 

*' ' ' 

_ And see i*a»-o. 

A tingle act of lying, upon tlie tide or 
otherwise, or of sleeping: (IAth, O,* TA :) a 
deep. (K, TA.) — _ And t Weakness in judgment ; 
(O, £, TA ;) as also t ii^J,. ($.) One says, 

iteMt *j\j jji I In his judgment is weakness. 
(0, TA.) — And J Ease ; repose ; freedom from 

A mode, or manner, of lying upon tlie 
side [or in any posture], (S, O, Msb, !£,) or of 
sleeping. (TA.) _ And f Sluggishness, laziness, 
or indolence. (£, TA.).— Also, for 3U s> A Oli, 
t A bed. (JM. [See also pJLi.]) It is said in 
a trad, that"* the i*L-6 of the Apostle of God 
was of skins, (IAth, JM, TA,) stufied with fibres 
of the palm-tree : (IAth, TA :) meaning his bed. 

ixL-o a gen. n. (O, K) in the sense of cU. K . 6 I 
[i. e. The act of lying upon the side, or in any 
manner; and of sleeping], (O.) 

b, (S, O, If,) and, accord, to the £, 

, but this [as an epithet] has the meaning 

first assigned to it above, (TA,) and T l t m + » ° 

and T >B»m~ A and ▼ ^*+*> and T (J «»-o, (O, K,) 

the last two [in the CK, erroneously, L? ««..^>, but] 

like jjJJjw and £$JJ*, (O,) and ♦ *«-U>, (K,) [or 

this last is a simple part, n.,] J A man who lie* 
upon his side [or in any manner, or sleep*,] much, 
or often : (S, O, K, TA :) tluggiih, lazy, or 
indolent : (S and O in explanation of the first, 
and K in explanation of all :) or who keep* to tlie 
house or tent ; seldom, or never, going forth ; nor 
rising and speeding to do a generous deed: or im- 
potent and stationary : (K, TA :) [or,] accord. 

to IB, t **»l£ and V LJ «*~o and ♦ >J ««.,A 
signify one who is content with hit poverty, and 
betakes himself to his house or tent. (TA.) 

*•■».*• . . . 

L5 »»~Ni and ..«■. <> : see each in two places 

in the next preceding paragraph. 

b and 


c j a. ^ 1 A water-skin (i>*) ^Aat makes the 
drawer of water to lean by reason of its Iteaviness. 
(Ibn-'Abbdd, O, K.)^A wide j3i [or leathern 
bucket] ; (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K ;) as also * la^U. 

(Ibn-'Abbad, O.) J A cloud (iJlH) Aw % 

reason of the abundance of its water. (IDrd, O, 
K,TA.) — A well (^) hollowed in the sides, 
the water having eaten its interior. ( AA, O, K.*) 
_ A she-camel that pasture* aside. (A'Obeyd, 
O, K.) — A wife contrarious to the husband. 

(Ibn-'Abbad, O, K. [See also p~£\.]) And 

JA man weak in judgment ; (IDrd, O, K;) as 
also f cyL. ^ c (K.) 

g*!~o [A bedfellow], A* t m ,i> means He wko 
lies, or sleep*, with thee; (S, O, Msb;) i. q, 
▼ dijufl a .c ■ (K;) which latter is likewise ap- 
plied to a female ; as also **&-* '• and you say, 



H «e ^-A y* meaning He is he who lies, or sleeps, 
with her in one innermost garment; and ^Jk 
i !mtm* k She is site who to lie*, or sleeps, with him. 
(TA.) And [hence] one Bays, cyLlI » t »,All j^w 
J [ Fery e»t/ it the bedfellow, hunger], ( t A.) 

£*>l^ Lying upon hit tide [or in any manner ; 
and sleeping ; gee its verb] ; (S, Msb, K ;) as 
also * ftpLJm (TA) and * pmJ»y». (Msb.) 

See also <ui^, in two places. — t Stupid, 
foolish, or unsound in intellect : (IAar, O, £, 
TA :) because of his impotence, and his cleaving 
to his place. (TA.) __ £a*-U y* A leathern 
buchet that it full, (IAar, ISk, O, $,) to that it 
leant in rising from the well by reason of its 
heaviness. (ISk, O, £.) See also f-y*~o. — 
And **r-\-° \ A star inclining to letting: pi. «*-l^-o : 
(O, K, TA :) [or] *+.\yet\ signifies [or signifies 
also] the fixed start. (Ham p. 364.) — And 
1 Inclining as in the saying rj^S Jf\ U»U> Jljl 
J [J jee (/*«« inclining towards such a one], (O, 
TA.) _ And t A place of bending of a valley : pi. 
£^.t^-i. (O, K.) __ Also, applied to a beast, 
+ Worthiest; in which is no good. (TA.) [But] 
Mi AjufcLo^^t means Numerous sheep or gwato ; 

ns also * <u4— ». (Fr, S, O, K.) And Jv« 

i«».Li and ^'3-0 t Camels keeping to the plants 
called ymj* ; remaining among them. (TA.) 

iju»-Ub as a subst. f. 7. jlj y^t ; (AA, T, O, 
jS, TA; [app. meaning The place where the 
water flows into it, of a valley ; for] Az adds, in 
the T, os though it were a i*»-j, [see j.£jjyi a-*-j 
in art. »r-»-;, ] then, afterwards, it takes a straight 
direction, and becomes a valley (>tj): pi. *+\yo. 

(TA.)_ *+-\yo [which is likewise pi. of *»U] 

also signifies [Hills such as are called] w>lii» 
[pi. of i--a*] ; (S, O, |f ;) and is said to have no 
sinjr. [•" this sense] : occurring in a verse of En- 
Niibighah Edh-Dhubyanee : (S:) but ISk says 
that, in this instance, it is the name of a certain 
place. (O.) 

L>UJI %»~£>\ I Having the central incisors in- 
clining; (0, 1£,TA;) applied to a man: (O :) 
pi. £»— o. (TA.)__And **~a\ signifies also 
Contraiious to hit wife. (O, £• [See also 
m jt p ,^.]) — For a meaning of its fern., Aij. ,«?, 
see *^Up, last sentence but one. 

*»~ o-» A ^/«r e t'n which, or on which, one lies 
upon his side [or t* any wanner, or sleeps] ; (O, 
Msb, £ ;) as also * ajJH : (O, $ :) [a tea"; 

and Me «Ae.] pi. £*-<-ki : (Msb,TA:) which 
means sometimes places of sleep, or of passing the 
night : (Bd in iv. 38 :) and fterf*; or other things 
spread upon the ground to lie upon. (Jel ibid., 
and Bd in xxxii. 1(5.) — [Hence] the pi. is used 
as meaning t Wives, or women : so in the saying, 
» »l rfi t H v -c» 3* it e. f 7/e /mm well-born wives or 

women; like ^UJI Jrtf*>- (TA.) And 

C~»JI «^Uu means J 7%e />/aroi of falling of 
rain. (O, £, TA.) One says, yA^'jjl cJlJ 

w«c*U *».Uem I [27ie meadows were during the 

night placet of the falling of rain]. ( A, T A.) 

• • t • » 

*» A s : see *».Lj>, first sentence. 

• * t * • * • 

?i*< « * * : see oj^ ,J>, last sentence. 

m>Ia« : see » .a..o. 

• # * #» ■ » ■« 

» ^ K . a « : see t^M, __ It is also used as an 

inf. n. (Har p. 664) 

»j» !>■<>« : see Mh-Lo, first sentence. — — [It is 

said that] \ n m \ n<\ » ^JU means I He prayed 
lying upon his right side, [or app., inclining towards 
that side,] facing the kibleh. (TA. [But see 8.]) 

1. j*~6, (MA,?,) aor. - , (?,) inf. n 
(MA, %,*) It was, or became, distorted, or 
crooked; said of the mouth; (MA, £ ;) and in 
like manner one says of the side of the mouth ; 
and of the lip ; and of the chin ; and of the neck : 
(£ :) and likewise, J of a well : and I of a wound. 
(5,TA.) [See J^-i below.] 

B,jf t t Xii [He was, or became, distorted, or 
crooked, in the mouth : (see its part, n., below :) 
and so, accord, to Golius, f^ -' and *JoU~e>1. 
— And] J «. q. JfcL\ : (S, K, TA :) so in the 

"aytog.^w^Jj^'^^'t [ r/ '« affair, or case, 
wat, or became, complicated, intricate, or con- 
fused, to as to be a subject of disagreement, or 
difference, between tliem], (S, TA.) And hence 
the saying, >a ^.UJ iC-^l [for^^-Uab] i. e. \Jfem 5 
[meaning J Names are dissimilar, diverse, or 
various]. (TA.) 

9 and 11 : see the next preceding paragraph. 

JU~^ »nf- ". of^-i [q. v.] : (MA, K:») [as a 
simple subst.,] Distortion, or crookedness, (S,K,) [in 
an absolute sense ; and particularly,] in the mouth ; 
and in the side of the mouth ; and in the lip ; and 
in the chin ; and in the neck : (K :) and in the 
nose ; (Lth, TA ;) its inclining towards one side 
(Lth,S,TA) of the face: (S, TA :) and in one 
of the shoulders : (S, TA :) and, accord, to the 
M, in the bill [for Ja*. in the TA (an obvious 
mistranscription) I read ^J*±.] of the male 
ostrich : and sometimes in the mouth together 
with the nose : (TA :) and in like manner \ in a 
well : and t in a wound. (K, TA.) 

A certain small creeping thing (juj^j) 
of fold odour, (K, TA,) that stings, or bites. 

* * * f 9V » ' * * * 

jel~i>\ Having tlte quality termed ^m^o, expl. 
above: (£:) [or, particularly,] having the nose 
inclining towards one side of the face : (S :) [fem. 
<W« : and pl.^^^o.] And [lience],^L«bl w«a3 
t A well having a crookedness in the wall that 
surrounds its interior : or that is not dug in a 
straight, or an even, direction : pi. ^.m h yJil. 
(TA.) El-'Ajjaj has applied the phrase ^Ji 
ji*~b to % Wide wounds ; as likened to the wells 
thus termed. (TA.) _ And [the pi.] ^ j sig- 
nifies also f Men who eat much. (IAar, TA.) 

[Book I. 

• ' 'i 

j»* loS * Distorted, or crooked, in the mouth, 


R. Q. 1. m im i t» , [inf. n. jm, At 6, which see 

below,] said .of the v'j-* [or mirage], It wat, or 
became, in a state of commotion ; or moved to and 
fro; as also f ., im M. (S,If.)-_-And, (?, 
TA,) said of an affair, (TA,) It wat, or became, 
manifest, evident, or apparent. ($,* TA.) 

R. Q. 2 : see the preceding paragraph. 

m*A The tun: (S, O,?:) and (?) the light 
of the sun, (Lth, A, O, KL,) n»/«rn it has possession 
of tlte ground : (Lth, O, TA:) or the light of the 
sun upon tlte surface of the ground ; sunshine ; 

cqntr. of Jt : ( AHeyth, T, 0, TA :) accord, to 
AHeyth, originally *— e>.j, the j being rejected 
and a >. added to the radical >. ; but correctly, it is 
Originally i^~o, from U ~*Z}\ C.f. .A [app. a 
mistranscription for ^...'H c~»— »] : (TA ; as 
from the T :) also land, or ground, tliat lies open 
and exposed (K, TA) to tlte sun : (TA :) and 
what it shone upon, or smitten, by tlte tun : (K, 
TA :) it has no pi. in any of these senses. (El- 
Fihree, TA.) It is said in a trad., 0>***tf V 

(S, A) I [ A r on<; 0/ you </taU tit between the tun- 
thine and tlte tluxde,for it it tlte sitting-place of tlte 
devil] ; meaning half of him in the sun and half 
of him in the shade. (TA.) And one says, (U. 
t-i^i 9-*elv O^* I Such a one came with, or 

brought, that upon which the sun had risen, and 
tliat ujwn which the witid had blown; (S, If., TA ;) 
meaning, abundance, or much; (S, A;) or much 
property, or many cattle : (TA :) [F asserts that] 
one should not say yA Hft (K,) i. e. > ..lllj 

wjll^ : (TA :) this die vulgar say, but [J 
aHiiins that] it is nought : (S :) several, how- 
ever, assert that «. t ,A)l is correct: (MF:) [and 

the author of the K, who disallows it in this art, 
authorizes it in art. « t ,j , q. v. :] Kr, also, is 

related to have said that mJI signifies " the 

sun" and "its light;" and is said to signify 

" what is exposed to the sun :" and a poet says, 


[/l«<i the sun in tlte abyss of sunlight] : Aboo- 
Mis-hal, moi-eover, mentions, in his " Nawadir," 
the saying, ^.^Jl^ ^,-all ^J* 0^* J-yii-t 
[meaning t Such a one was employed at manager 
of much property]. (TA.) j-Jj'j £-AM O* ***» 
occurring in a trad., is rendered agreeably with 
the explanation of the saying in a trad, mentioned 
above, and means I He died leaving much pro- 
perty. (TA.) And it is said of the Prophet, in a 
trad., t-jjJIj £~^!1 ^ O^-i H* wiU be exposed 
to the heat of the sun and the blowing of tlte winds ; 
meaning, accord, to Hr, t he will be attended by, 
or in tlte midst of, numerous Itorsemen and military 
forces. (TA.) 

Book I.] 

• '. * * 

t , . > . 


■ and 

o : see what next follows. 

<i <> ■> ,«S> and ▼ - Jmi a and * t --- r The 

running of the v!/-* [° r mirage, along the surface 
of the ground, like water : see R. Q. 1]. (K.) 

fX l— * Shallow water ; (S, A, TA ;) and 
hence metaphorically applied in a trad, to (a 
shallow part of hell-fire: (TA:) or water little in 
quantity ; as also ▼ ■■ Ai ,.o : or water reaching 
to the anhlet : or reaching to the middle of the 
thin : or in which there it no being drowned: (K :) 
or water little in quantity, in a pool left by a 

torrent, $c. (TA.) And Many, or much; 

in the dial, of Hudheyl ; (AA, O, K ;) not known 
to others : (TA : [see also J-Lb :]) accord, to 
As, it is applied to sheep or goats, and to camels, 
as meaning many, or numerous: and also as 
meaning scattered, or dispersed, over the surface 
of the land, but, notwithstanding, few. (TA.) 


t The clouds light- 

ened. (S, O, K, TA.) Hence the usage of the 
verb in a trad, cited voce <£>j*L5. (O, TA.) __ 

■ri— a 

», (S, MA, O, Msb,K, &c.,) and some 
say C-**~», with kesr to the ,>, (TA, as from 
the K, [but not in the Cg nor in my MS. copy 
of the K,]) to agree with the vowel of the -. 
because the latter is a faucial letter, and this is 
a correct dial. var. of which similar instances 
are mentioned, and .?>■> ,^» also is said to be a 
well known dial. var. of AmJk, (TA,) aor. r , 
(S, O,) inf. n. iU-^ and iU-J, (S, MA, O, Msb, 

K, KL) and &Jb, (S, MA, O, K, KL,) the first 
of which is the superior form, (IDrd, O,) [the 
second and third being contractions thereof,] and 
>u*~0, (S, O, K, KL,) and if you said ■■'*.. J» it 
would be agreeable with analogy, (Az, TA,) He 
lauglied; (MA, KL, PS.TK;) contr. of J$i 
(TK :) [see also 6 :] i L jjt is well known, as 
meaning the expanding of the face, and diiplaying 
of the teeth, by reason of happiness, joy, or 

gladness ; and^—JI is the beginning thereof: thus 
in the Towsheeh and other works : (MF, TA :) 
and in like manner in the Mufradat [of Er- 
Raghib]; in which it is added that it is also 
used as meaning simply t/ie being liappy, joyful, 
or glad: and sometimes as meaning simply the 
wondering [at a thing] ; and this is the meaning 
intended by him who says that it is peculiar to 
man : (TA :) [i. e.] . f li ,. o , said of a man, sig- 
nifies also he wondered ; syn. •^■m.'c ; (O, K, TA ;) 
with ^ja preposed to the object of wonder : (TA :) or 
he was frightened; or he feared. (K,TA.) You say, 
*i» > i lm. « & and Ay, both meaning the same, (8, 
O, Msb,) i. e. He laughed at him ; derided him ; 
or ridiculed him : or tie wondered at him. (Msb.) 
And a^JI A m. , 6 [He behaved laughingly, or 
cheerfully, towards him]. (IDrd and K in art. 
J^. [See a) J*.]) — Said, of an ape, He 
uttered a cry or cries: (K :) or one says of 
the ape when he utters a cry or cries, '*> h;, 
(8, TA,) meaning he displays his teeth, or grim. 

And jj^U\ fU ,.o i. e. J [The pool of water left 
by a torrent] glistened by reason of its fulness. 
(TA.) — [And £i5 JU~o f His front teeth, 
or his teeth, glistened by reason of his laughing ; 
meaning he laughed so as to show his front teeth, 
or Am teeth.] __ And JijJI iwJ. { The flowers 
[looked gay, or] were as though they were laughing. 
(TA.) And ,>/}" eJm, ,i J The earth, or land, 
put forth its plants, or herbage, and its flowers. 
(TA.) And _jU$l ^ J>ty &£—£ \Tlie 
meadows, or gardens, displayed the flowers. (TA.) 
— _ And Urn J I t ZJ m m i X The palm-tree put forth 

[or disclosed] its dCi ; as also * C&Lil ; (TA ;) 
[i. e.] the spathe of the palm-tree, (Skr, O, TA,) 
that covered the *jS> [or spadix], (0,) burst 
open. (Skr, O, TA.) And jjlfcJt ,'U .1 J The 
jJJ» [here app. meaning the spathe of the 
palm-tree] split, or clave, open; and so J, "? 
(TA.)^ — And, as some assert, (ISd, TA,) 
'"■'»■» signifies also t She menstruated; said 
of a hare ; (ISd, Z, O, Msb, TA ;) accord, to 
some, from the JULi [meaning the interior] 
of the 4aU» [of the palm-tree] when it bursts 
open; (ISd,TA;) and hence, (K, TA,) said 
also in this sense of a woman, (O, Msb, K, 
TA,) accord, to Mujahid, (0, TA,) and some 
others, (TA,) in the Kur xi. 74, (O, K, TA,) 
where some read < z£mJ& , which is said to be 
a well-known dial. var. ; (TA ;) and likewise, 
accord, to some, said in this sense of the hyena, 
(O, TA,) when she sees blood, or as IAar says, 
when she eats the flesh of men and drinks their 
blood : (TA :) [it is commonly asserted by the 
Arabs that] the hare menstruates like women: 
(Kzw :) but with respect to this meaning as 
assigned to the verb in the Kur xi. 74, Fr 
says that he had not heard it from any person 
deserving of confidence ; (O, TA ;•) and Zj says, 
that it is nought: both say that the meaning 
there is, she laughed by reason of happiness: 
(TA :) and some say that there is an inversion 
in this case, what is meant being Jm lb fojJ ^j 
Cfifc^ i : (Fr, O, TA :) or the meaning is, she 
wondered; so says I'Ab; and so Er-Raghib, 
who adds that it is confirmed by her saying, 
"shall I bring forth a child when I am an 
old woman, and this my husband is an old man ? 
verily this is indeed a wonderful thing :" and that 
C « < > U* which is inserted by some of the expositors 
after jA > . <d is not an explanation of this expres- 
sion, as some of them have imagined it to be, but 
is the mention of [a fget which was] a sign that 
the announcement was not that of an event 
improbable : or the meaning is, she was fright- 
ened; so says Fr.: (TA :) and with respect to 
the meaning of this verb when said of the hyena, 
mentioned above, it is rejected by AHat and 
others: (TA:) IDrd says, on the authority of 
AHat, respecting the following verse of Taabbata- 


* Jjjjk ^yiiJ pit] ,iu M • 

J-r-i M v-kJi ks*3 

that the meaning is \The hyena displays her 
teeth, or grins, on account of the slain [of 
Hudheyl], when she sees them, like as they 
say of the ass when he plucks out the [plant 
called] <U&© ; (O, TA ;) or, as others say, 
t the hyena snarls, displaying her teeth ; and 
sees the wolf raising his voice in calling the 
[other] wolves to them, i. e. to the slain : (0, 
TA:*) Abu-1- 'Abbas says that the meaning is, 
it/ie hyena displays her teeth, because the wolf 
contends witli her over the slain : and some say 
that the poet means, f the hyena rejoices because 
of the slain. (TA.) _ One says also, £&Jt 
<>*-JI, meaning f The ij+* [or gum-acacia-tree] 
flowed with its gum : from C~C«.^j meaning 
" she menstruated." (Bd in xi. 74.) 

3. afiLlJM [inf.n. of i^-U] signifies [The 
contending, or vying, in laughing, with another; 
or the laughing with another; or] the laughing 
together. (KL.) — [Hence,] one says, j'Jjt 
w+m .iWla-j f [Tlie flowers vie in brightness 
with the sun]. (TA.) — And JUlij i$J £t 
O^ f . fj l J [Verily thy judgment makes sport with 
ambiguities] ; said to him to whom confused and 
dubious things are apparent and known. (TA.) 

4. &~i\, (S,0,K,) inf.n. JUil, (KL,) 
said of God, (S, O,) or of a man, (K,) He 
made him, or caused him, to laugh. (8,* (),• 
K,*KL, PS.) — [Hence,] ^4>l iX^>\, said 
of blood, (TA,) or of the sword, (O, TA,) 
+ [It made the hyena to display her teeth ; or 
to snarl, displaying Iter teeth : or to rejoice : 
(see 1, latter part:) but explained as meaning] 
t it made t/ie hyena to menstruate. (TA.) _ 
And t*»$«J! ^ U ,ol : He filled the watering- 
trough so tliat it overflowed: (O, TA:) its 
glistening being likened to laughing. (TA.) __ 
See also 1, near the middle of the paragraph. 

5 : see the next paragraph. 

6. jltti J and * Jim m [are both mentioned in 
the K and TA as though syn. with each other and 
withJi^J,: and accord, to the KL, the former 
signifies He lauglied: but accord, to the TK, the 
latter signifies he manifested laughing: or] 
the former is syn. with ♦ ,l m 'r~ A [app. as 
meaning he affected to laugh, or laughing : or, 
more exactly, agreeably with analogy, like the 
contr. ^WS and ^^J, the former signifies 
thus; and the latter, he desired to laugh]. (S.) 
— And you say also, ^j£i.u£J £ [meaning 
T/iey laugh together, one with another]. (K.) 

10 : see the next preceding paragraph. 

o [originally an inf. n., a contraction of 
>,] The appearance, or appearing, of the 
central incisors [or of the front teeth] by reason 

of happiness, joy, or gladness. (TA.) And 

hence, (TA,) Wonder. (K, TA.) = [As an 
epithet,] A man whose teeth are white. (Aj, O, 
TA.) cm [And as a subst., properly bo termed,] 


White front teeth. (As, O, S .) — And f Honey : 
(S :) or white honey; (Ibn-Ee-Seed, TA;) likened 
to the front teeth because of its intense whiteness: 
(A A, O, TA:) or honey in its comb; syn. jy£>. 

(5.) And, (0,^,) some say, (O,) f ***■* 

fttrftor. (O, SO And t Snow. (O, SO — And 

t Blossoms, or fionert, or wAite blossoms or flowers; 
syn. jy : (0, and so in copies of the K :) or light; 
sy n. jy . (So in a copy of the K.) __ And t The 
all* [or spadix] of the palm-tree when its envelope 
bursts open from it ; (S f * O,* S ;) in the dial, of 
Belharith Ibn-Kaab : (O :) accord, to Th, what 
is in the interior of the iiit [here meaning spat he 
of the palm-tree]: as AA says, the A»J> or »Jj, 
[thus differently written in two different places in 
the TA,] of the *U» [or spathe of the palm-tree], 
which is eaten; as also ♦ iuLi. (TA.)— -And 
t The middle of a road; (S, TA ;) and so, accord. 
to the K, t i)L— b ; but, correctly, this should 

• • <• 

have been there mentioned as syn. with > M—« > 
in the sense next preceding. (TA.) 

Ummtk A single act ofJkmJi [or laughing; i. e. 

a laugh]. (S, 0.) = [The pi.] ilC»U> signifies 
t The best of everything : and <-»ji*)l Ol£Le, 
*n« &«< of possessions, or wealth, and of children : 
so says Aboo-Sa'eed. (TA.) 

isl ,J> A thing, (Lth, TA,) or a man, (8, O, 
T A ,) that is laughed at, or ridiculed; i.e. MmJmj 
«u» : (S, 0, 5, TA & n epithet importing more 
discommendation than Urn m S. (SO — See also 

\'ym '<?, (8, O, Mfb, S,) an epithet importing 
discommendation, (SO and * **— *! (Ibn-'Abbad, 
•O, SO and *-iN—^> (Msb, ?0 an epithet im- 
porting commendation, (TA, [but the contr. is 
implied, or rather plainly indicated, in the SO) 
and OyLi, (SO >nd OuLi*, (8,0, SO 
which last is [also] applied to a woman, (§, 0,) 
One w/io lauglis much (iU...o)l ^»). (S, O, 
Msb, SO 

fl*^ 'c : sec the next preceding paragraph. 

> : see iS-m. -b. — [Also] A man cheerful 
in countenance. (O.) — And t A wide road : (8, 
* > : ) or I a distinct, an apparent, or a conspicuous, 

• A ** 

jvviiZ ; as also t JWawA : pi. of the former (in this 
sense, TA) Ju~i. (S, TA.) 

j>U r : see ilm .A : — and see iU. .« ? , last two 
sentences : — — and Jl j— «> . 

IlU-U. Laughing; [&c.;] (KL ;) act. part. n. 
of ii*—i. (Msb, S) — Also applied to clouds 

(—t \ m ■'•)) meaning J Appearing, or extending side- 
ways, in the horizon, and lightening. (S, O, TA.) 
__ [And to the tooth (J>1h, used as a gen. n.) : 
thus in the phrase .>J1 ii— U>, meaning \Laugk- 
ingly, so as to display the teeth.] — See also iwU. 
— Also, [or perhaps JiU-li y»^-,J t Fery ru/n'te 
jtfona appearing in a mountain (IDrd, O, S» TA) 
of any colour, as though laughing. (IDrd, O, TA.) 
__ One says also (jlj, meaning \Judgment 

that is plain, or perspicuous, (TA,) not confused 
or dubious. (O, TA.) — And, [using ,iU.L» as 
a gen. n.,J J^fluLi j&l U \ [How numer- 
ous are the bursting spathes of your palm-trees !]. 
(TA.) _» [And an instance of «iWU applied to 
a woman, without », meaning f Menstruating, is 
cited by fid, in xi. 74.] 

a^fcU, (S, 0, SO or * ■SftA, (Msb,) or both, 
(Mgh,) t The foo<A neart behind tlie »^li [or canine 
tooth] ; (Mgh, Msb ;) [i. e. the anterior bicuspid;] 
any one of the four teeth that are between the v^' 
and the ^Ji^b, : (S, O, S or an V o" 6 of the teeth 
that are in front oftlie ^j-b\ that appear on the 
occasion of laughing: (SO pl« <&*»\yo. (S, Mgh, 
O, Msb, SO *^*i V*-*J*> (O^TA,) a phrase 
occurring in a trad., (0,) means f They smiled. 

• - j *J 

a«Uj^ r 1 [A laughable thing;] a thing at which 

one laughs: (O, S.TA:) and T a£a... a .< signifies 
[in like manner o cause o/" laughter;] a thing at 
which one laughs, or which one ridicules: pi. of 
the former Al^ul. (TA.) [See also Cri&bJi*.] 

[iW-o* lit. .4 pface o/" laughing : the yron/ 
lee<A; because they appear in laughing; like 
l^LU : pi. JJU-Uu>.] One says, «£».ULo Ojj 

and t a^CbLs and [in like manner] rt , t „iU ^ +[//w 
yron* teeth appeared, by his laughing]. (TA.) 

8fcs»«An : see May* ^'- 

CASm -a* [pi. of AC— A>] 1. 17. jily [as mean- 
ing Extraordinary things or sayings, particularly 
such as cause laughter : see also i£»^»^i\]. 

• ' • tA' ' 

jj\m As : see *£■..« ? ■ 

1. J^J>, (O, SO aor.s, (SO said of water, 
J* n>o», or became, shallow, (O, S» TA,) and 
ZtMfe in quantity. (TA.) And said of a pool of 
water left by a torrent, Its water became little in 
quantity. (SO 

4. j)jt». Jw ■"! Lo means aJit u [1. e. f How 
little, or scanty, is thy goodness, or bounty, or 
beneficence'.]. (TA.) 

Q. Q. 4. J^rft, (?, O, S») mentioned in the 
K in a separate art., its author, and some others, 
holding the j» to be radical, but most of the lead- 
ing authorities on inflection hold it, with J [and 
Sgh and Fei], to be augmentative ; (TA ;) and 

jLJjm\, (S, O, Msb, SO of the dial - of the Kila - 
bees, mentioned by AZ, formed by transposition 
of the>»; (S, 0,TA;) and Z>L~eL\, (S,) formed 
by substitution, mentioned by Yaakoob ; (TA ;) 
It (a thing, S, O) went away; (S, O, Msb, SO 
and came to nought. (Mfb.) — And said of 
clouds (w)U~ >), They became removed, or cleared 

off. (S, O, Msb, SO And «'• ?• J~J\ [* he - 

came untied, or undone, &c.]. (SO 

[Book I. 

jl~b A small quantity of water, (S, M, O, SO 
upon the ground, (M,SO fallow, (M,) not deep; 

(SO *'•?• »»<««>» ■*; (?>0;) or the latter *"* a 

more general meaning, applying to little or much: 

(TA:) accord, to some, such that the bottom of 

it appears : (MF, TA :) or a small quantity of 

water in a source, or fountain, and in a well, and 

in a lint spring, and the lilte ; or in a pool left by 

a torrent, and tlie lilte : or water little in quantity; 

• » »s 
or near in place : (TA :) pi. [of pauc] JU~ol 

and [of mult.] J>«~0 and JU-p. (SO — 
Hence, (S, O,) J-LiJI oti (S,0,S) >-e. A 
mass of rock of which part is covered by the 
water and part is protruding ; (0 ;) expl. [more 
fully and variously] in art. ^1 {(SO 80 called 
because the water does not cover it by reason of 
its paucity. (S, 0.) — [Hence also,] one says, 
JJLJj jj^i. (j| •« e- [t Verily thy goodness, or 
bounty, or beneficence, is] little. (TA.) 

J».Ui y m Jl« A pool, left by a torrent, the mater 
of which has become shallow and has then gone 
away. (Sh, TA.) 

Jb-1* The place of a jU> : (M, TA :) or a 
place in which is little water: (O, K :) the mirage 
( v l^) is likened thereto: (TA :) pi. J^-Ui; 
(O, TA to which Ru-beh, (O,) or El-'Ajjaj, 
(TA,) likens clouds. (0,» TA.) 


1. JyiaJI U-i, (S, SO aor - 3r*~*i' (?>) inf - "• 
yL~b, (S, and so in the CSO or .*•—*> ( so ' n 
other copies of the S a "d in the TA,) like y*, 
thus accord, to ISd and ISW, (TA,) and 


* * * 

(TA as from tlie S» [ bu t not in the CS nor in 
my MS. copy of the SO) The road appeared, or 
became apparent, (S, SO to a person: so says 
AZ: (S:) [and so, app., signifies ^*~*, aor. 
for] As says, jjl ^jill O* ^« —&»j 
i. e. [It is approved as a quality 
of the Iwrse] that his o 1 *^ [°.- v v a word 
variously expl.,] appear. (S, TA.) _ » r - t i . o 
4JUUI The night was, or became, cloudless. (TA.) 
__ ^jAlt i«»~» 2Hi Aorsc rww, or became, white. 

(TA.) ifli Ci t J7c Acd 1 (S» TA :) it 

[properly] means his shade, or shadow, became 
sun : and when a man's shade, or shadow, 
becomes sun, he himself becomes nought. (I Amb, 

TA.) And U-i and [f~b, aor. of each 

ijLJxi, inf. n. yLSb, (S, TA,) or, accord, to 

the M, ^Ji>, (TA,) and fj*-*, He, or it, was 
smitten by tlie sun ; or tlie sun came, or fell, upon 
him, or it : (S,TA:) or ^f~±, aor. L5 »2-a 1 f, inf. n. 

i m f.. nnrl U~0, aor.ji rfij, inf. and j - ,< > , 
Ac, or if, was smitten by the heat of the sun. 
(Ham p. .626.) Hence, in the S ur ["• 1M]» 
1 ^7 ^ ^ Oii "^ [77w« *AaZ< no< thirst 
therein nor shalt thou be smitten by the sun] j 
i. e., thou shalt be preserved from the heat of the 

ewa. (TA.) — And U— i, inf. n. jm and y»^ 

inf. n, 

Book I.] 

and i5»— », B« «*»' /ort/i to <Ae sunsltine ; (1£ ;) 
as also tr-^JJ * ■ .■..AT.J ; (TA ;) [and app. 
t jm! also ; see Har p. 296, where, for JjjJI, 
in i r -o- ' -U JjjJI as an explanation of ^j*~bd\, I 
think we should read jjjJI :] or u ..«ii>l w - .^ ■«£ > , 

i ; and c- t » A also ; aor. of each 

I ; I went forth to the sunshine. (S.) •»— <M 

[the imperative of " .^ ,Al] occurs in a trad., 
accord, to the relators thereof: but As says that 
it is [correctly] •>— ol, with kesr to the 1 and fet-h 

to the w- ; from C-jfc.A ; being a command to go 

forth to the sunshine. (S.)_And ,«»~A, (S, 
$,) inf. n. (j^-e [or Im], He (a man, S) 
sweated. (S, £.) 

2. jfjVfA is like j&IU* *«o [i. e. it signifies 
Wig Crt me to *Aem tn <Ae <«'?nc o/ tAe morning 

called (jlJjl] : (TA :) and * »U.lA, ($, TA,) 

inf. n. SU-L&*, is similar to oljle and **-jtj, 
meaning, (TA,) He came to him in the time 

catted ^ylijl. (?,TA.)_>il ^i> He 
pastured tfie sheep, or goats, in the time called 

U^-AM ; (S, $, TA ;) and in like manner, JyNI 
t/te camels. (TA.) And jjJI ,j* J*St C^— «j 
I pastured tlie camels with the [morning-pasture 
called] » .U— o, *o <Aat <Aey w?V//<< co»t« to tAe 
water having satisfied themselves with food : and 
in like manner, <uc V"t'* " I pastured them with 
the [evening-posture called] .lift," &c. (A, TA.) 

_ [Hence,] <l^~6, inf. n. a .-. AJ , //«/ Am tn 
j * 

i7w <iw« fflBerf jj^-AM : (£, TA :) or I fed him 
with the [morning-meal catted] Aj£, at any time 
[of the morning] ; but more commonly known as 

meaning, in the time catted ^jm All : and the 
verb primarily relates to camels [and sheep or 
goats] : or <uyi ls*""" means lie fed his people, or 
party, with the [morning-meal called] Jjl ; or 
he invited litem [tliereto, i. e.] to his »uL£. (TA.) 
_ IAth says, when the Arabs, in their journey- 
ing, or migrating, passed by a piece of land in 

which was herbage, one of them said, U» r *^l 
•«*Oj> meaning [Now] be ye gentle with tlus camels 
" > _^i A7 > ^_j^»- 1. e. tn order that we may obtain 
of this Iterbage ; then <U_o3! was applied to 
mean the being gentle in order that the camels 
may reach tlte place of alighting [app. tn the 
morning] having satisfied tltemselves with food: 

and then * ..■■ A3 was said of anyone as meaning 

- i f 4 

he ate in tlte time called [^t ..all or] - l m nil 

(TA.) One says, ,^JI g>* C^-^ fl was 
gentle, or I acted gently, with the thing. (S.) 
And j**)\ ij* \j*~o t He acted gently, or de- 
liberately, in the affair : and so <Ue \J&~ (A, 
TA.) And ij^j £^, (S,A,TA,) a prov., 
(A,TA,) meaning \ Hasten thou not; (S,TA;) 
from }j^\ jjx J^NI ft^ ».A?: [see the third 
sentence of this paragraph :] or meaning be thou 
patient a little while : (TA :) or the meaning is, 
slaughter thou, or sacrifice thou, [deliberately, 
leisurely, or] without haste: (Meyd:) [fbr]_ 

and LJ «»— b 
b, inf. n. i t m AJ, signifies [also] He slaugh- 
tered, or sacrificed, the [victim termed] 1 +m M, tn 

the time called ^^^oll : and hence, by reason of 
frequency of usage, he did so in any time of what 
are termed Ji^iJl >W • (Msb :) and (^a— i 
Pit, (§, Mgh, Msb, ?,) or tp. jl J&, (Mgh,) 
Ac slaughtered, or sacrificed, a sheep or flroaf, (S, 
Msb, ^,) or a ram or o<Aer [victim], (Mgh,) tn 

t/ie time called LJ l-lll (Mgh, K) o/ tfo rfay ca«ed 
^l«e^l >»jj ; and afterwards said of him who 
has done so [at any time, even] in the last part 
of tlie [said] day. (Mgh.) = See also 4. = And 
see 5. 

3- j!W' C-*-'-' The countries, or lands, be- 
came exposed to the sun, and their herbage conse- 
quently dried up. (TA.) as »U.U> : see 2, first 

4. - *M 2fe (a man, TA) entered upon the 
, i 
time of morning catted ■« — ^ H, (?L,* TA,) or t/te 

<twc ca/Ze<i S^msII, (TA,) [or <Ae /wne catted 

.U~a)t, for] you say, C- t» > ■ol ,j^ O^-^W w~P'> 

from I'r^ AH [and therefore meaning I remained 
in the place until I entered upon tlie time called 

r'r All], like as you say c*^el from »-l~o)l. 

(S, TA.) Hence the saying of 'Omar, l^~ol 

1)1 r&l, (S,) or t -iJjl i!^, (TA,) i.e. 


thy affair, or case: sointheM. (TA.) — (j^-ol *9 
ilU* UJ ixiT is a deprecatory phrase [lit. 3/ay God 
not catue <Ay shadow to become sun to us : mean- 
ing f may God not deprive us of thee by death : 

ii - - 
(see aJJ» Im :) or it may be similar in meaning 
x » ' ' »•<» 

to the phrase here following]. (TA.) U » A? V 

illli J>* [lit. JlfaA« to fio( to ^ /ortA into tA*' 

*un from thy shadow] means t withdraw not 

from us the shadow of thy compassion : the verb 

being made trans, by means of ,>& because the 

phrase implies the meaning of Am* Im w 4 V3 "9 : and 

JJ» being here used metaphorically. (Har p. 4.) 

5. ^~£> : see 1, latter half. __ And see 2, 
in two places. It [generally] means He ate in 

tlte time of morning called td» w*H : (K or '** 
ato f Ac [morntn^-tneai called] Ajs- ; syn. [^^i3 : 
(S, TA :) and ♦ ^5*-* also has the former [or 
the latter] meaning. (ISd, TA.) 

10 : see 1, latter half. 

see the next paragraph. 

«i, also written U—s, held by some to be 

Perform ye tlte prayer of the time catted ^^ oil 
at its [proper] time : do not delay it until the 

time called •U~A)I has become advanced : (TA :) 

or do not perform that prayer when the time called 
„ 4 
m All has become advanced. (S.) __ And you 

say, life JiiS o# u— *l> ( S > M » ^») l» ke M 
you say I Jfe J*Aj Ji» ; (S ;) meaning Such a 
one became occupied, or engaged, in the time called 

■ ^wAtl tn doing such a thing: (M, J£, TA :) or 
did such a thing in the first part of the day, 
(IKtt, TA.) __ [This phrase often means also 
Such a one became occupied, or engaged, in doing 
such a thing ; betook, set, or applied, himself to 
doing such a thing; set about, or commenced, 
doing such a thing ; or began to do such a thing; 
like L^b\ and ji &c. And, like these verbs, followed by an aor., or by a part. n. in 
the accus. case, often requires to be rendered 
simply He, or it, became : see an ex. in a verse 
cited voce £s*>-] — (j*-*' also signifies He 
performed the supererogatory act of prayer 

(iliU!) in the time called yjL~el I. (TA.) 

See also 1, last sentence but one. — One says 
also, ja*)\ o* (.j*-* »'> meaning X He withdrew 
himself far from the affair. (T A. [See also 
another meaning of this phrase in what follows.]) 

And »U)t O* i£~a>! ^» I The birds calkd ^ 
go far from water. (TA^tBn*,^!)! ^y*— b\ He 
made apparent, showed, or revealed, the thing. 

(5, TA.) And ^o^l o* T \J*~° He made tlt * 

affair, or case, apparent, or manifest: and [so 
.>•< * •» • * »« 

orf ijh Al, for] one says, i)y>\ { j» ^y *~o\, 

with fet-h to the », meaning J/aAe manifest to me 

of tlie measure J«i, and by others to be [ori- 
ginally i&*~A i. e.] of the measure Lf U*, of 
the former measure accord, to Mbr, and of the 
latter accord, to Th, (MF,TA,) [The early 
part of the forenoon, after sunrise: accord, to 
some, wAen the sun is yet low : accord, to others, 
wA«n the sun is somewhat high:] i.q. " S y A , 
accord, to most authorities: (MF, TA, and so 
in one place in the KL:) or this latter signifies 
the period of the day after sunrise : (S :) or 
this signifies the advanced state of the day 
(j^JI cU3jl [which is said by the doctors of 
the law in the present day to mean when tlte sun 
has risen the measure of a «-«j, q. v., or more]) ; 
as also tja ,f> and ▼ *f» «A : (K :) and the ^ 1 A 
is after the iyLSo (S,?L) a little, (K.,) wlten 
tlte sun shines brightly: (§:) or from sunrise to 
the time when the day is advanced and very 
white: thus in the M: (TA:) or it is the 
spreading of tlte sun [upon the earth], and the 
extending of the day: and the time [thereof] 
is thus named : (Er-Raghib, TA :) or ,j»»-o is 
pi. of t Y^LJo, like as ^ is of dJji ; and its 
sing, is like ▼ !U~£, which means the extending 
of the day, and is of the masc. gender, as though 
a name of the time [thereof] : then . j » » became 
used as a sing., and the time was thus called : 
(Mfb :) it is fem. and masc. : (S, K :*) he who 
makes it fem. holds it to be pi. of " tgm A ; 

and he who makes it masc holds it to be [a 

* * * i-i ** * . 
sing.] noun of the measure J*>, like ^0 and 

jjU : (S :) its dim. is • ^5*— », without I j (Fr, 
Msb, K;) for they disapproved the affixing the 
S lest it should be confounded with the dim. of 
fla A. (Fr, Msb.) Using it as an adv. noun, 
you say, i^~~b *~*)> when you mean [/ met 
him] in the ^»~A of this day ; without ten ween. 
(S, TA.) See also l^LJ>. [See also De Sacy's 
Chrest. Ar., sec. ed., i. 162 — 167, respecting the 
prayer that is performed in the time thus called, 


i. e. the prayer termed ,«•»■<») I »%o, mentioned 
# at 

above, voce jj»— bl.] — Abo The sun : (M, 

M|b, K :) because of its appearing in the time 
thus called. (M,TA.) One says, ,jL~it\ c-iiijl, 
meaning The tun became high. (Msb.) __ And 
j^-lijl l _ J a»J> T7<c %A< </ fA« tun: thus is 
e'zpl. xci. 1 of the Kur. (TA.) — *V&3 U 
- - means t His tpeech, or language, hat no 
perspicuity : thus in the M and K. : but in the A, 

-, m # * 00 90 * *v * • ' •» < • H 

[//c recited to me poetry] in which not no 
[sweetness nor] plainness of meaning. (TA) 

iym~±: see the next preceding paragraph, 
in three places. You say, iy*+. A >tt^3l, meaning 
[ / came to thee] in a [time called] t ,.» «c> [or 
rather i^], (K,* TA,) with ten ween, unless 
you mean of this day [in which case you say 
i ) m , ^ , without tenween, like as you say in the 
latter case ■ •••■*]. (TA.) 

[Book I. 

( e L,4 and iL»~o ferns, of .«a»~£l [q. v.]. 

• - • - 

^jlf. ,«?, which should by rule be ^1 
Anything exposing ittelf, or fcetry exposed, to 

the tun. (IJ, TA.) ail^-^ <U3 means [A 
mountain-top] exposed to the tun : (S, K :) occur- 
ring in a saying of Taabbata-sharra. (S.) And 
iu\,,m..& Lac A /i<ojf, or .rftcA, growing in the tun 
so at to be matured thereby, and extremely hard. 
(TA.) — See also (j»~el. — Also A man who 
eatt in the time called j> .till : fern, with i. (K.) 

tU~6, with medd, (S, Hr, Msb, TA,) and 
fet-h, (Hr, Msb,TA, [erroneously written in 
copies of the K with damm,]) The period [of 

the forenoon] next after that called .,■. At I ; 
i.e. When the day it at the highest: (S :) or 
the period near midday I (K :) or the period 
of the day when the tun fiat risen to the fourth 


part of the shy : (TA :) see also id»—A, in two 
places. — And hence, The [morning-meal called] 
.ijkt ; because it is eaten in the time thus called. 
(S, TA.) [And also applied to Pasture eaten 
in that time :] see 8, third sentence. 

dim. of ■ «■>—», q. v. (Fr, Msb, K.) 

: see 

and see also a^.cl. 

--U> [part. n. of 1, Appearing, &c] __ You say 
*■■ • * * 

SU> ^lx* A» outer, exterior, or exposed, 
• - - • •< 
place: (S:) and i^lo ^jl Zan<£ no< *wr- 

ronnded by a wall. (TA in art. i»>a».) [And 

particularly A ^toc« exposed to the tun.] — _ 

[Hence,] JJLill a^Ui SjUU [A aVterf, or wateriest 

<fe«r(,] having no shade or thadow ; and i«».Lo 

J^LLjl [having no shades or shadows], (TA.) 

And JJoJW «L»-l-» Jt^J< [if not a mistake for 

JJill i^-U>] A tree having no shade. (Har 

-I, , ,. 

p. 4.] _ And <lwIj jj^Uv Ijl/ [//« appeared 

with, or Ae *Aowefi,] the tide of hit head. (TA.) 

[See also the next paragraph.] 

i^-Li An outer, exterior, or exposed, side or 
rejTton or i*rart of anything : [pi. r-\y° '• whence] 

M . j 1/ ll *" 

one says, (J »-t)-a)l OoLr** .** [*«*y aftpA*, or 

abide, in the exterior tracts]. (S.) [Hence also,] 

>jjj)I i^.\y± The exterior districts of the Greeks. 

(K.) And ^1 o^ i^UJI TTAat are m <Ae 
open country, of the palm-trees that imbibe with 

their roots, without being watered: opposed to 

t ft •» j«* ft 
Jji-JI j>« fasUul : (AO, S in this art. and in art. 

• a a 

^>»rf>, q. t. :) and J»~JI j>« .^.lytfJI what are 

outside of the town-wall, of the palm-trees : thus 

used, ^j».l^-a)l is an epithet in which the quality 

of a subst. is predominant (TA.) And LJ ».l^j> 

^jS TVtase [of Kureyth] who abide outside of 

Mehkeh. (TA.) And a^.ljjl ^il ^ i* i/c 

w of the people of the desert. (TA.) j^^l^-sdl 
also signifies The parts, of a man, <Aa< rfana" ow<, 
or are exposed, (K, TA,) <o the sun, (TA,) such 
as tlte s/toulder-blades, and the shoulders : (K, 
TA :) pi. of i^.U. (T A.) And The sides of a 
watering-trough. (K.) And The lieavens. (S, K.) 

00 S0 00 

__ [Hence also,] <L».to <dai //c <i;</ ?V openly. 

(S, A,^.) JUJI ii»U means The cattle, (£,) 

or sheep or jjroato, (TA,) tA<x< drink in the time of 
morning called ^jm. (I£, TA.) 


(Msb :) and by j_j»~i^)l when it is made masc 
is meant that day. (Fr, S, Msb.) 

• < • 

t, applied to a horse, i.q. ^-v- 1 [Qr a 

colour in which whiteness predominates over 

blackness; &c] : fern. iUL-o : (S, K :) or zL»~a)l 

was, (K,) or was also, (S, and so afterwards in 

the K,) the name of a certain marc, belonging to 

'Amr Ibn-'Amir (S, K) Ibn-Rabee'ah. (S.) 

And fC**J> iii, (S, K,) and L«^i> with the short 

I, both mentioned by ISd, (TA,) and ♦ i3t^il, 

(S, K,) and t |l»^j accord, to the K, but [SM 

says] I have not found any mention of this last, 

[meaning except in the K,] and probably the 

right word is * t jl.»... o l, as in the books of strange 

*" - * 
words together with iiL*— p\, and accord, to the 

" Irtishaf ed-Darab " of AHei one says [also] 

♦ j£m*J»\ with fet-h, (TA,) A bright night, (S, 

5, TA,) in which are no clouds : (S, TA :) and in 

like manner, * ^-m ,o\j>yi, in the K, erroneously, 

i\ ^ L < i, a bright day, in which are no clouds, as 

in the M ; or bright with the brightness of the 

^i i.t>, accord, to .Er-Itaghib ; or [simply] blight, 

and so t ^j\fL .,£, which is likewise applied in 

this sense to a moon, as also * l jUt>«-o1, and to a 

lamp, or its lighted wick. (TA.) __ And Slj^t 

iL^tMO A woman whose hair of her lite will not 

grow forth; (K, TA ;) as though her iiU, being 

bare of hair,had no shade upon it (TA.) = 
00 000 a it »t 

yk ,! ; ■» tfvl l ^1 \Jlji\ U is a saying mentioned by 

Az in art j^yl* as meaning I know not what one 
of mankind, or of the people, he is. (TA.) = 

' ** 
■ ji igl [a coll. gen. n., of which the n. un. is 

% * 0% 03 I 00 00 

»U~ol] : see I>n +1. Hence, ^jt—o^ >^> [The 
day of the victims; which is the tenth of Dhu-1- 
H'jjeh] ; (S, Mgh, ?,• TA ;) so says Yaakoob ; 
(TA ;) or ^j^-o^l juc [the festival of the victims] : 

i tpmmi A : see the next preceding paragraph. 

% i 1 

<* * H an d oW"» "gl> &nd the former with • : 

•* 0* , 

see ^jfc-^il, in five places. _ ^jL^—iNI is also 

the name of A certain plant, (JC, TA,) resembling 

tlie ijt^afeil [or chamomile] in appearance. (TA.) 

M •! 

■yi .ol, (As, S, Mgh, Msb, K,) of the measure 

90 j»l 00 i «i 

ilyol [as though originally <uj». .f>l], (Msb,) and 

iLgm .o\, (As, S, Msb, K,) pi. [of each] ^j*-^' ; 
and * ftft— «*| of which the pi. is bLL«3 ; and 
Sl^el, of which the pi. is * ( _ J »~ot, (As, S, Mgh, 
Msb, K, [in copies of the ]£ and in my copy of 
the Mgh written ,«t»~ol, but it is properly speak- 
ing a coll. gen. n. of which SL^el is the n. un., 
and is therefore with tenween,]) like SLbjl and 
^jLjl ; (As, S, Mgh, Msb ;*) A jAeep or goat (S, 
K, KL) &c. [i. e. meaning also a camel and a 
bull or cow] (KL) <Aa< m slaughtered, or wm- 

feed, (S, K, KL,) t» the time called ^.m Al l, 
(K,) on <Ac aoy called ^two^ll j»y> [the day of 
the victims, which is the tenth of Dhu-l-Hijjch], 
(S, K,« KL.) 

e\m Yit ,joj\ A land from which the sun is 
hardly, or never, absent; (K, TA;) i.e. an ex- 
posed land. (TA.) 

* t~-^0 and t m—imt* and * «. A....* A man 

entering upon the time of morning called 

\e.,~ tt \ see what next precedes. 

■ 4\t 0000 ', ' 

1. j,****, [aor. '- ,] (S, Msb, ?,) inf. n. 
(S, Msb, TA,) accord, to the copies of the K 
J^-i, but this is wrong, (TA,) and L*W~6, (S, 
Msb, K,) It, or he, was, or became, large, big, 
bulky, (§,* Msb, K,) or thick : (S :) or large in 
body, portly, or corpulent, and fleshy. (K.) 

4. ii^^-il (Ibn-'Abbdd and K» voce Ju>f) 

[t. 17. *) JtVJUl] f //c «poAe te Aim in a rough, 
harsh, coarse, rude, uncivil, or ungentle, manner. 
(TK in art. uUj.) 

Jli (S, Msb, K) and t^J, (K) and tjlli 
(S, K) and 1^LX\, (K,) which last is also with 

teshdeed of the final letter, (S, K,) i. e. *^~i'', 
in poetry, (S, TA,) for there is no word [properly] 

1 0M M. i • 

of the measure JjuI, and IJ mentions T ^ , ■.,« ? ), 

[evidently in the same sense,] like .^jyl [in 
measure], (TA,) iar^e, %, ftwtty, (S,* Mfb, ^,) 
or tAtrA ; (S ;) applied to a thing (Msb, K) of any 
kind: (K:) or large in body, portly, or corpulent, 
and fleshy : (K :) pl.>li-6 ; (S, Mfb ;) like>V- 

pi. of^- : (Msb:) fem. l«tU , (S, Msb,) applied 
to a woman ; (Msb ;) pi. C>L>~o, with the •. 
quiescent, (S, Msb,) because it is an epithet (S.) 

Book I.] 

See also^>— a*. — It was said to a man, <tU 0} 
UiJ [app. meaning " Verily thou hast wealth "] ; 
and he replied, £jA\j t m~o Jt *. J*-i [app., I x ea, 
iir^« meabA] ; which is tropical. (TA.) And 
one says, J^J> *iy* *)' f [He kas great lordship 
or dignity], and ^>~o J^i [yreat no&t/ify], and 
^rn A v^li [yrea< importance or ranA]. (TA.) 
^- r applied to a road means t Wide. (K, 
TA.) — And applied to water, % Heavy. ($, 

_1 A : see the next preceding paragraph. 

a t -^ t, applied to a woman, I Fiery wide, or 
wtde and fat, (i-ajjl Uu »e,) and *o/r, or tender. 

t • ' 

: see 

^t r'- see ^ .«?. — One says [also], ijj* 
aU >i mI [TAw it larger, bigger, &c, <Aan ft, or 

*•]• (?) 

i - »« s - • • • » 

^- M ana^o^-ot : see^fc A 

3 Tjf H A woman's <UUȣ [or tAtny resembling 
a pillow], (8, K, TA,) roftA wAfeA «Ae makes 
herself [to appear] large behind her waist [or pos- 
teriors]. (TA.) 

^,- k«, as an epithet applied to a chief, or 
lord, X Noble, and portly, or corpulent; (]£, TA;) 
as also t**~e. (TA.)^And, applied to a 
man, (TA,) I Vehement in dashing himself against 
another; and in striking, or beating. (1£, TA.) 

1. tjuo, (AZ, K,) first pers. «2j juo, [aor. - ,] 
inf. n. juo, Zfe overcame him : ( AZ, L :) and 
also, (AZ, L,) or 3u,y^Jj\ J> »jui, (K,) 7/e 
overcame him in litigation, altercation, or COn- 
tention. (AZ, L, K.) __ And *i* »juo JJe 
averted him ; turned him, or sent him, away, or 
oacA ; or caused him to return, or go back, or 
revert ; from it : (L, K[ :) i. e., a thing, or an 
affair : (L :) and prevented, or hindered, him 
from doing it; (K;) by gentle means: (L, K:) 
as also «jw» : heard by Aboo-Turab from Zaideh. 
(L.)_i£lll lo, (S,£,) aor. *, (8,) inf. n. 
juo, (AA, S,) He filed the water-skin. (8, $.) 

3. ouo, (inf. n. >jUm, Mfb,) //<>, or it, was, 
or became, contrary, opposed, or repugnant, to 
him, or ft; (AHeyth, S,* L, K;) said with 
respect to two men when one desires what is 
long, and the other, what is short ; or one, dark- 
ness, and the other, light ; or one, to pursue one 
course, and the other, to pursue another: 
(AHeyth, L :) or Ae, or it, was, or became, 
separated from him, or it, by contrariety, oppo- 
sition, or repugnance: (Mfb:) [or, accord, to 
the explanation of ,^1 jLiie in the Mfb, it was, or 
became inconsistent with it.] 

4. j~b\ He (a man, 8) was, or became, angry. 
(S,£.) It is not, as some assert it to be, a 

Bk. I. 

'$ ' * ' ' . **£ 

quasi-pass, [of ejuo], like as yi>1 is of <u£>. 

6. [IjUoj They two were, or became, contrary, 
opposed, or repugnant, each to ' the other : or, 
accord, to the explanation of ^1 jU»io in the Msb, 
they two wire, or became, inconsistent, each with 
the other.] 

juo (S, L, Msb, El) and * ju juo (S, L, $) and 

t ijoj^o (Th, M) The contrary, or opposite, 
(AA,IAar,S,*M,Msb,E:,) of a thing: (AA, 

Msb :) or •,-£ jui signifies lAal ro/itcA is repug- 
nant to a thing, so that it would overcome it ; as 
black is to white, and death to life : (Lth, L :) 
[or, accord, to the explanation of ,j!.>U»JU in the 
Msb, that which is inconsistent with a thing :] pi. 
of the first jljuol. (S, Msb, &c.) One says also, 

Jjuo yk and » J j»j j-i He is contrary, or opposed, 
or repugnant, to thee; as when thou desircst what 
is long, and he, what is short ; or thou, darkness, 
and he, light; or thou, to pursue one course, and 


he, to pursue another. (AHeyth, L.) And juo 

is sometimes a pi., (K,) or sometimes denotes a 
collective body ; (Akh, S, L ; ) as in the phrase 

'*•? j*& o£&> (S» 3L, ?>) » n ^e £ur [xix. 
85], (S, L,) meaning They shall be adversaries, 
or enemies, to them: ('Ikrimeh, Jel:) or helpers 
against them. (Fr, Jel.) One says also, j»^i\ 

J»>lj jus ^yU, meaning The people are assembled 
together against me in contention, or altercation, 

with me. (L.)__ j~b in lexicology signifies A 
kind of jfjsi* [or homonym] ; being a word that 
has two contrary meanings; as ±jy*-, which 
means both "black" and "white;" and Ji»-, 
which means both " great " and " small :" pi. as 

above. (Mz, 26th cy.) [juo is itself a word of 
this kind, as is shown by what here follows.] 
— Also, (AA, Th, S, L, Msb, K,) and t jj jJ,, 
(8, L,5,) The like, or equal, (AA,Th,S^L, 
Msb,?:,) of a thing. (AA, Msb.) Thus they 
have two contrary meanings. (T£.) One says, 

4) juo *i) and a) * jaju» y T/iere is no like, or 
equal, to him, or it. (S, L.) And j>jii\ ^U 
Jo*jljuol The people, or party, found, or met, 
their equals, or fellows. (L.) 

* , , i » 

a juo : see jLo. 

jujuo : see juo, in four places. 

!* ' ■ ^ 

» jjjuo : see j«i, first sentence. 

jLo, or t »Lo and ♦ jjue One who filh 
vessels for people when they seek, or demand, 
water: pi. 4 juo, [which is anomalous,] on the 
authority of AA. (L.) 

>»lo : see what next precedes. 

^Ijuiio 1«a They two are contrary, opposed, 
or repugnant, each to the other : (8,* L, K :) or 
they, two are inconsistent ; or such as cannot be, 
or exist, together; as night and day. (Msb.) 


1. JjLo, (S, A, M?b, ?,) and ^ ji, (?,) 
aor. i, (Msb,) inf. n. j^,; (8, Mfb,$;) and 
* *J^> [which see also below,] (§1, A, Mfb, K,) 
inf. n. sfuU (Mfb, $) and jt^o ; (A, Mfb, ? ;) 
and t tj*\, (5,) or <u ▼ J«b1, (Mfb,) or both, inf. n. 
jtj-s>1 ; (TA ;) He, or it, harmed, injured, hurt, 
marred, mischief ed, or damaged, him, or it; contr. 
of<u£ ; (S, A, K. ;) did to him, or ft, an act that 
was evil, or disliked, or Aated. (Mfb.) — aJI «j-6 : 
see 8. — j4»- *jlg i*j>^ ^ t iVo camel will be 
more sufficient for thee than lie ; syn. i> jj}> ^ : 
and J*-j aJLc j^ "^ J [ A r o man wi'W fte more 
sufficient for thee than he ; or] *Aou wilt not find 
a man who will be more sufficient for thee than 
Ae; i.e. U* jj* U ,_J* aWfc jWj J-«J ^ 
a^UOl ^* jlf.J\ : (ISk,S:) and J^ bj±i U 

j>~o v^oll I iVo animal that is hunted is more suf- 
fcientfor thee than the <^> ; and so Jj^cu U : 
and ijjU. l^JLc jjj-ii U | JVb ot'W, or young 
woman, is more sufficient for thee than she ; syn. 
1)juj3 U : (A :) and £l 4u J^ U I JETe, or 
ft, w nor at all more sufficient for thee than he, or 
ft; syn. ^X>jj U. (IAar, TA.) =^>, [sec. pers. 

app. Oj^e, and aor. ye-i,] inf. n. Sjlj- , t He 
was, or became, blind : part. n.J/^e [q. v.]. (MA.) 

3. »jLo, inf. n. 5jLo« and jl^-o, 7/e harmed 
him, injured him, or Aurf Aim, in return, or m 
requital: whence the saying in a trad., 1^ ^ 
>»^luiNI ^y j1>« ^jj 27jere *Aa# 6e no harming, 
injuring, or hurting, of one man by another, t» 
the first instance, nor in return, or requital, in 

Elrlsldm : (Mgh, TA :*) jlj-o is <yn. nutA S,Ua« : 
(S:) or, accord, to some, it is syn. mithjj~b; and 
in the phrase in a trad, mentioned above, is added 
as a corroborative. (TA.) Seo also 1. »juk* 
in the case of a testament is the not executing it ; 
or the violating it in part ; or the bequeathing to 
any unfit person or persons ; and the like ; con- 
trary to the si*. (TA.) mm He disagreed with, 
or differed from, him ; dissented from him ; was 
contrary, opposed, or repugnant, to him ; or Ae 
acted contrarily, contr ariously, adversely, or tn 
opposition, to him ; syn. <uUU.. (K.) And hence, 
accord, to some, the saying in a trad., (O, K,) 
relating to the seeing God on the day of resur- 
rection, (O,) AijJ ^ o£& Vt (0>&) i.e. 
Ye will not differ, one from another, nor dispute 
together, respecting the truth of tAe seeing Him ; 
(Zj,0,*TA ;) because of his manifest appearance : 

(Zj, TA :) or the meaning is, &y»liS •& (§, $,) 
and thus some relate it, (TA,) meaning ye will 
not draw yourselves together, (K, TA,) and straiten 
one another ; one saying to another " Show me 
Him," like as people do in looking at the new 
moon, but each will by himself have the Bight of 

Him : (TA :) or, as some say, it is t ^jjUqJ *$ 

[originally iJ2jl&3], meaning ^j^UJ ^|, [which 

is the same in signification as ^y«UsJ *)], i. e. 
with fet-h to the O : (TA, and so in one of my 



copies of the 8:) and some »ay, Oju^ *^» fr° m 
jt*i\ ; (Mgh, TA ;) [i. e. ye will not be hurt ;] 
meaning ye mill not hurt one another : (M in art. 
yo :) and some, ^j^tki y, from ^1-a"- (Mgh, 
TA.) mb See also 4 ; and the phrase .JU »-3jJJ 

jjUx, yOAXye. 

4. «f-ot and «v _^-6l : see 1, first sentence. M 
• » »» •>» " 
^•*^" i£** »>-»l -We compelled him against hi* mill 

to do thething. (Sgh, K.) [See also 8.] =^>t, 
intrans., t /* (anything) approached so near as 
to harm, injure, or A«r< ; (TA ;) or so near as to 
straighten, or incommode. (L.) You say, <o ye\, 
meaning J Jt approached very near to him, so 
as to annoy him : (TA, from a trad. :) or J he 
drew very near to him: (S, A:) or I he clave, 
or stuch, to him. (A.) And JijLiii^6\ \He 
approached the road, but was not upon it. (TA.) 
And i #jM\ jtytyJ^ jVJi y4 \ The sons of such a 
one are on the travelled trach. (A.) And ye\ 
JUSUJI ,>• J+J\ f T/ie torrent drew near to the 
wall: and i>j^1 ^ v*"*-" <&> cfou<& to the 
earth. (K.) __ «*U j-ol J 2f« importuned him ; 
plied him; plied him hard; pressed him ; pressed 
him hard; was urgent with him ; persecuted him, or 

harassed him. (A.)— ^Ujjjl^tt^i* J*y\i,ye\ 
X The horse champed the ^M [q. v.] of the bit ; 
(A'Obeyd^S, A ;) and so>il. (S.) — o# ye\ 
.ij-OI j~-i\ jjU f Such a one bore patiently 
hard journeying. (TA.) ■■ Also, (Msb,) inf. n. 

jl^*l» (?>) -B* too* 'o himse{f a wife while having 
another wife : (As, S, Msb, TA :) [and so, app., 
▼jtA: (see >.*:)] or he gave [a woman] t'n 
•marriage to a man having at the time another 
wife. (TA.) =i }£i yi\ (S, $,• TA) signifies 
He hastened (S, £, TA) somewhat in running, 
accord, to A'Obeyd; (S,TA;) but Ef-Toosee 
says that this is a mistake, and that it is correctly 
'y\. (TA.) 

5. jyei fie woj [harmed, injured, or A«r* ; 
or] afflicted, grieved, or ricA ; and he experienced 
straitness, pressure, or inconvenience. (KL.) 

6. OA) 1 -^ *$ [originally OA) 1 ^ 1 ] : 8ee 3- 

8. life ,Jl £k-il It, (a thing, or an affair, 
TA,) or he, [a man, or God,] necessitated, con- 
strained, compelled, forced, or drove, him to have 
recourse to, or to do, such a thing ; or impelled, 
or drove, him, against his will, to it, or to do it ; 
(Msb,£;) so that he had no means of avoiding 
it; as also aJjI * »j-o : (Msb:) ti made Aim (o 
«!««<, or be in need of, such a thing : (]£, TA :) 
from jye signifying "narrowness," or "strait- 
ness." (TA.) [See also 4. Hence the phrase, 
.tULal yj\ &jL±y, expl. in art. J-ot. See also 

tin' Kur ii. 120, and xxxi. 23.] life ,J\yLe'\ 

He was, or became, necessitated, constrained, com- 
pelled, forced, or driven, to have recourse to, or to 
do, such a thing ; or was impelled, or driven, against 
his will, to it, or to do it : (§, K :) he wanted, or was 
or became in need of, such a thing. (K.) 

ye : see the next paragraph, in two places. 

ye Harm, injury, hurt, mischief, or damage; 


conir. of &a) ; as also lye, (A, K.,) or this is an 
inf. n., (S, Msb, ]£,) and the former is a simple 
subst. ; (ADk, Msb, $ ;) and *jye [which is 
now the most common] : (S, Mgh, Msb, TA :) 
or an evU state or condition ; (ADk, T, S, L, 
Msb, K ;) as also ^ jyo and ♦ Sj-oj and * iyai ; 

($ ; for the 'right reading in the K. is ly* jye)\j 
JUJI, as in the L, &c. ; not JU-JI .^wj jyei\^ ; 
TA ; [but in some of the copies of the J£, and 
in the TA, this signification is assigned to ye 
instead of ye ; and in the latter, its pi. is said to 
•*>*•»]) mdpoverty; and bodily affliction: but 
the contr. of *ij is termed lye, with fet-h: 
(ADk,T,M ? b,TA:«) [see also iye and tU 
and i\j^> and »jjj>«i and JljjjLs, all of which have 
similar meanings :] and disease; (A, Msb j) thus 
in the £ur xxi. 83 : (Msb :) or leanness : (S, A, 
TA :) the state, or condition, of him wlio is termed 
y.yo [q. v.]. (TA.) = See also the next para- 
graph, in two places. 


j-e The taking a wife in addition to another 

w /e; (?;) a subst from »jj>. (!£.) You say, 
jj-* ^_5^* »!/*ll C «fc^Li 37/e woman was taken to 
wife in addition to a former wife. (S.) And, 
accord, to Aboo-'Abd-Allah Et-Tuwal, C^Z'd 
>» i,^ »W ai, d 'j-o [i" <ooA <Ae woman to 
wife'in addition to another wife], (S.) And L^fi 

ye ^jl* and ' yb i. e. t JjUk, meaning jffe mar- 
ried so as to have two or three wives together. (^.) 
And Kr mentions the phrase, jJU 5t>^JI C ^jjj 

lyJ t^ 9 >« [* '°°^ ' '"i/e <A« woman in addition 
to others who were Iter fellow-wives] : and if it be 
so, ye is an inf. n. [used in this instance as an 
epithet, and therefore applicable to a pi. number 
as well as to a single person], formed by the 
rejection of the augmentative letter [in its verb, 
i. e. ,^-61], or it is a pi. that has no sing. (TA.) 
= One says also j\ye\ ye J*.J (K, TA) i. e. 
A man [who is] a strong one of strong ones ; 
like as one says J>»<»l J*» and J^Uol J*J>: 

(TA :) or very cunning (*e*b) in his judgment, 
or opinion. (K, TA.) 

iye [Necessity, or need;] a subst. from 8: 
(5, TA:) hardness, distresxfulness, or afflictive- 
ness, of state or condition : and annoyance, moles- 
tation, harm, or hurt. (Sgh, K!.) See also [ye, 
and] jye, and l\ye, and ij^ye. := A woman's 
husband's wife; her fellow-wife : (S, Msb, K:) 
an appellation disliked by the Muslim; »JU. 
being used in preference to it; accord, to a trad.: 

(TA:) pL jjlji (Msb,?) and l,\ye; (Msb;) 
the former extr. [with respect to rule]; (TA;) 

the latter regular. (Msb.) [See also iU.] 

Hence, sing, of y^ye signifying t Discordant 
things or affairs; likened to fellow-wires, who 
will not agree. (TA.) — And [hence also, app.,] 
Q\jye)\ is a term applied to f The two stones of a 
mill. (S, M.) = The.^MA of the £yo [or udder] : 

[Book I. 

(S:) or the udder (eye) altogetlier, ($,TA,) 

except <Ae >U»I [or <car«], roAcn containing milk, 
but not otherwise : (TA :) or the base of the 
*>£, which is never, or scarcely ever, without 

milk in it: (TA:) or the base of the ^jju [or 
breast] : and i. q. Jul*, [q. v.]. (K.) One says 
lJj£* iye, meaning A full iye : (S in this ah. :) 
or a iye having much milk. (S in art.^£i.) __ 
-*V^' *v-« *»* portion of flesh that is beneath the 
thumb, which is what corresponds to the iJI in tlie 
hand: (S:) or iye)\ signifies t/ie portion of tine 
palm oftlie hand extending from beneath tlte little 
finger to tlie wrist : (Zj, in his " Khalk el-Insan :") 
or tlie inner side oftlie luind, ($, TA,) over against 
the little finger, corresponding to the iJI in the 
hand : (TA :) or the portion offlcsli beneath the 
thumb : (K :) or the root thereof [i. e. of the 
thumb] : (TA :) and that part of the flesh of tlie 
sole of tlie foot upon which one treads, next tlie 

great toe. (K.) [See ^Jt.] The pi. of lye 

(in all the senses expl. above, TA) is y\ye, (£, 
TA,) which [as said above] is extr. (TA.)_ 
And (jUj-oll signifies The buttocks, on each side 
of the bone thereof: (K:) or the two flabby 
portions of flesh, on each side. (M, TA.) ^ Also 
Much property, (S,) or many cattle, (S,* TA,) 
exclusive of money : (TA :) or projxtrty, or cattle, 
( JU,) upon which one relies [for his maintenance], 
but belonging to anotlier, or others, (K, TA,) of 
his relations : (TA:) and a detached number of 
cattle, of camels, and ofs/teep or goats. (K, TA.) 

•a j '9' 

iye : see l]ye. 

•-- 3' . 

jyb: see ye, in two places Also Defect, 

deficiency, detriment, or loss, (Msb,K,) and so 

▼ iye and f ij\ye, (TA,) tliat happens to a thing, 
(]£,) or to articles of property. (Msb.) You say, 
*1U ^ jye *tM cJ*"> [Defect, deficiency, 
detriment, or loss, came ujx>n him in his pro- 
perty, or cattle]. (TA.) And yjL jye yi yk 
[He is in a state of defective, or little, prosjterity]. 
(TA.) See also iye. ——Also Narrowness, or 
straitness. (A'Obeyd, S, K.) You say ^i j£» 
/ye A narrow place. (A'Obeyd, S.) And ^ 

■iXAs- jye and " Sj^jUi *) and " 5j-aJ ^) [app. 
No straitness shall befall thee: or no evil: or no 
adversity: or «o wanf], (S.) — And Narrow. 
(K~) You say jj-6 ^ICi ^1 narrow place. (TA.) 
And jj-£> JU Water in a narroio place. (IA^r.) 
— And The brink, or edge, of a cave, or cavern. 
(AA, O, K.) One says, jyei\ IjJL ^ Ji^ "^ 
[TTaWt not thou on this brink, or edge, of a cave]. 
(AA, O.) 

jiye i. q. SjLeb* [i. c. Injurious conduct, either 
in tlie first instance or in return or requital: &c : 
see 3] : (S, A, I£ :) a subst in this sense : (TA :) 
but it is mostly used in the sense here next fol- 
lowing. (S, TA.) X Jealousy. (S, A, £.) 

One says, l^J* tjiye Jul U X How great is his 
jealousy on Iter account ! (S, A.) And ^ JJ Ait 
*j1w«l ,Jlft ij|d t Verily lie is jealous on account 
of his wife. (TA.) — Ako Spirit (J-ii), and 

Book I.] 

remain* of stoutness of body (jr** &t) • (?, £ 
or, as some say, remains of spirit (wi» *«*/)• 

(TA.) One says y mi Z> «£>li &ti A she-camel 
strong in spirit, slow in becoming fatigued : (S, 
TA:) also expl. as meaning that injures tlte 
[other] camels by the vehemence of her pace, or 
the hardness of her journeying. (TA.) And 
U^jjJ) jQ, referring to camels, is expl. by As 
as meaning Whose strength is lasting. (TA.) — 
Also Patience, (S, K,) and endurance. (S.) 
One says, y.y& ^JJ *j' Verily he lias patient 
endurance of evil : (TA:) and ,^1* jty*6 $ JJ ajI 
sjJbl^ vUI Verily he has patient endurance of 
'evil and hardship ; (As, S,» TA ;) a phrase used 
in relation to a man and to a beast (TA.)sss 
Also [an epithet] signifying Anything intermixed, 
or mingled, with"j^b [i. e. harm, injury, &c.] ; and 
sotjj^ki. (K.) — t Blind; (S,K;) [a more 
respectful epithet than ^j**!] ; pi. J'j«e1 : (K. :) 
+ harmed by the loss of an eye, or by a constant 
and severe disease: (Msb:) \ diseased: (A, K :) 
and t lean, or emaciated : (K :) affected with a 
malady of long continuance; or crippled, or 
deprived of the power to move or to stand or to 
walk, by disease, or by a protracted disease : 
(TA:) fcm. with i: (A,J£:) and pi. as above. 
(TA.)__And Persevering, and strong. (TA.) 
[Thus having contr. meanings.] — And Very 
patient (AA, S, ]£) in endurance of everything ; 
applied to a beast, (AA, S,) and also to a man. 
(TA.) as Also The brinlt of a valley; (S,K;) 
the side thereof: one says, «A*.I .Jle ,j>j JjJ 
l£*'V' \£>i*°> meaning [Such a one alighted] 
upon one of the two sides of the valley : (S :) pi. 
s)»e1. (TA.)_[Freytag has explained it also, 
from the Deewdn of the Hudhalees, as meaning 
The last part of a journey.] 

y\^b Persons in want, needy, or poor. (S.) 

Also pL of Tj±, [q. v.,] (Msb, JS., TA,) in 

various senses. (TA.) 

5j[f^>: see /j*%: and t[^e, in two places.^ 
Also + Blindness. (S, K, TA.) [See 1, last sen- 
tence, where it is mentioned as an inf. n.] 

ijjyb Necessity, necessitude, need, or want; 
(Lth, S, Msb, £;) as also * MjU (S,$) and 
♦ jjjli and *<t,' 3 jU and tsj-i: (]£,TA:) pi. 
l>\))j*. (TA.) You say, ^ l#j*l\ ^jW 
IJk^j t,i=» [JVeceMftj/ urged me to do such and 
such things]. (Lth.) And ♦ e,jjU> ji J»y and 
Jjj>i A man in want. (S.) [And hence ^ 

5.« j-o)l as meaning 7n </ic caw of necessity in 
poetry or verse : and i^yo by necessity ; meaning 
by poetic license. See also ijpj*b.] _ And 
Difficulty, distress, affliction, trouble, incon- 
venience, fatigue, or weariness. (Mjb.) [See 

I * M - -a - 

also^-o, and «^-6, and l\j*o-\ 

jOjj-6 [JVeceMory knowledge] ; as opposed to 
.\ -£»i [natural, bestowed by nature, in- 
stinctive, or] n«cA a* <A« creature hat by [divine] 

appointment ; and, as opposed to ^*^>i-l, [tn- 
tuitive, immediate, axiomatic, or] such as origi- 
nates without thought, or reflection, and intellectual 
examination of an evidence or a proof (Kull.) 

[See also { jyiJ^.] — [*ij3j*° as an epithet 
applied to a proposition means Qualified by the 
expression Sj^JbJl/ {by necessity). — And the pi. 
oCjj^-A means Necessary, or indLymisable, 

[ijjSj^o Necessity. (See also »j^j-e.)_As fem. 
of the epithet \Jj3^, see this latter word.] 

lljj. A hurtful state or condition; (IAth;) 
contr. of l\jL : (IAth, Msb :) or hardship, dis- 
tress, or straitness of condition [or of the means 
of subsistence, or of the conveniences of life] ; 

(AHeyth ;) t. q. Sj£ ; (S, A, K ;) as also {C^, 
like which it is a fem. n. without a masc. ; and 

accord, to Fr, j*b\ and u -^ 1 mav DC u8ed as P ls - 
of these two ns. : (S :) or, accord, to Az, f that 
[evil] which relates to tlie person; as disease: 
whereas .IwV is that which relates to property ; 
as poverty : (Bd in ii. 172 :) or detriment, or 
loss, with respect to property and with respect 
to persons ; (A, K. j) aa also " ij-e, or ▼ i^o, 
(accord, to different copies of the K.,) and 
▼ sJ|>-A : (K :) and [hence] poverty : and punish- 
ment : and drought, or barrenness ; or velicment, 
or intense, drought : (TA : [see also itj^jti :]) 
and t disease of long continuance; or «<c/t a* 
cripples, or deprives of tlie power to move or to 
jtana' or to walh ; (A, K ;) as also * j>«£, as used 
in the Kur iv. 97 : or, accord, to Ibn-'Arafuh, 
the latter there means fa hurtful malady that 
cuts one off from serving in war against un- 
believers and the like; as also VSj\j*6; relating 
to sight, <$r. (TA.) = [Also, accord, to Freytag, 
Tangled trees, in a valley : but the word having 
this meaning is correctly l\j-^>, belonging to art. 
3j~i> and ij>>0, q. v. And he explains it also 
as meaning a bare, or an open, place; and the 
contr. i. e. a place covered with trees ; referring 
to the " Kitab el-Addad."] 

jlj-6 [That harms, injures, hurts, &c, much], 
(TA in art. jJU..) 

jti [act. part. n. of 1 ; Harming, injuring, 

hurting, ice. ; or that harms, &c. ; noxious, in- 

i a i i 
jurious, &c.]. jUbJI *JU)I, an appellation of God, 

means He wlio benefiteth and who harmeth whom- 
soever He will, of his creatures. (TA.) 

j^jU : see iji^o. 

ejjjto : see jj-j ; and »j}j*o, in two places. 

jtjjjl£ Drought: and hardship, distress, or 
adversity. (KL.) See also »;.}>«£. [And see j-o, 
and l\j-a-] 

**'. — *' »a • ** , , 

\}o.\,\xJ\ JJuo t. </. iuiJU. <ULo i. e. J. natural 

quality; opposed to ojj\^m.\.] 


«lo3 and iyi3: see >* : and for the former see 
also jj~o- 

j£* Approaching (^, TA) to a thing: and 
approaching so near as to harm, injure, or Awn*. 
(TA.) j -fit w>U~l means Clouds approaching the 
earth. (S, A.) = Also A man having two wives, 
(S, ]£,*) or having [several] wives at the same 
time. (Msb.) And a woman having a fellow-wife, 

(TA,) or having fellow-wives; (S, Msb ;) fcnriftjl 

•a j 
a fellow-wife, or two fellow-wives ; as also Sj-a«. 

(K.)sst And A man having a i^e [q.v.] of cattle: 

(TA :) or who lias a l£ of cattle that return to 

him in the afternoon, or evening, from the place of 

pasture. (S, TA.) 

ijtcU A cause, or means, of harm, injury, hurt, 
mischief, or damage; contr. of U&i : (S, TA :) 
[and simply] Aam, injury, hurt, ice. ; syn. jy-e : 
pl.jUi. (Msb.) 

jtj*it» A woman, and a she-camel, and a mare, 
that takes fright, and runs away, and goes at 
random, ((£!*£> s-%5^ jU3,) by reason of brish- 
ness, liveliness, or sprightlincss. (IAar, K.) 

jjjmcm : sec jij~o. 

ji~ f>,'t ijj, which is forbidden in a trad., is of 

two kinds : one is 77ie *afe r/iat one is compelled 
to contract against his will ; and this is null : the 
other is the sale to which one is necessitated to con- 
sent in consequence of a debt that he has incurred 
or of a burden that has come upon him, so that he 
sells at a loss that which is in his possession ; and 
this kind of sale is valid, though disapproved by 
the people of knowledge. (IAth, TA.) 

1. I^i, uor. -, , (S, 0, 5, &c.,) inf. n. v>*» 
(S, O, &c.,) [He beat, struck, smote, or hit, him, 
or ft;] and ♦ <tjj-o [signifies the same in an in- 
tensive sense, i. e. he beat, ice, him, or ft, much, 
or violently; or in a frequentative sense, i.e. 
several, or many, times: or rather «->j-o is used 
in relation to several, or many, objects, as will 
be shown in what follows] : (£ :) accord, to 
Er-Raghib, ^fj»m\ signifies tlte making a thing 
to fall upon anotJicr thing; and, as some say, 
the making it to fall with violence, or vehemence. 
(TA.) You say, 4y t^jmo [He struck him, or ft, 
with it], i. e. with a sword, (A, Mgh, Msb), &c. 
(A, Msb.) And jj^ joj^. ^ <t>j^ [Thou 
beatest upon cold iron] : a prov. [expl. in art. 
j*.]. (liar p. 633.) And l&^ IjJ) c4>**> 
meaning 1>>— • [i. e. I struck Zeyd with a whip], 

or lay. ^iyo [a stroke of a whip] : (M in art. 
]»^w, q. v. :) and hyi ajU> &jj~o [He struck him 
a hundred strokes of the whip]. (S and K in art. 
J*~», &c.) And a*-c <^-tyi [I smote hts neck, 
meaning / beheaded him] ; and JUt^l ~ -^-a-o 
[I smote the necks, meaning / struck off tlte 
heads] ; the teshdeed denoting muchness [of the 



action] or multiplicity [of the objects] : AZ lays 
that, when the object is one, the Arabs use only 
the former verb, without tesbdeed; but when 
there is a plurality of objects, either of the verbs ; 
(Msb ;) [so that] one says, jtyV^S \ytj*o [They 
smote their necks, or beheaded them], and j»»l 

w>liJ1 " «Mko^ [He gave the order to smite 

* * * * * * •* * 

the necks, or to strike off the heads] : (A :) y^e> 

w'Ij^JI in the Kur xlvii. 4 is originally \yij-ite 

\^o v^i" [meaning Then do ye smite the necks, 
i. e. strike off the heads] ; (Bd ;) the inf. n. being 
here put for its verb. (Jel.) [Respecting the 
phrase .iX^-oJI yk, see 1 in art. cju»-.]_[ Hence 
a variety of meanings and phrases here following.] 
— jl«JI ^ji* <uii» v^ t [-#« oca< > or «w- 
ciplined, or trained, his dog for the purpose of the 

j 00 # • *• * 000 

chase] : whence tho phrases *J»»- *J* «-><0 aQ d 

ft' ft# ft # ' ' l J# " *"• * * # * ft 1 

o-ju 5jj»- ^jm? and *«t ijl}j*- <^>y*> [expl. voce 
«_)>»-]. (Z, and TA in art. j>»-.) — w>^> "i) 
J*.Ut a3yj ^Jl »fl ^S1 ><M t CaroeJs sAatf 
wot be ridden, save to three mosques : [namely, 
that of Mckkeh, that of £1-Medccneh, and that 
of El-Aksa at Jerusalem:] a trad. (TA. [See 

also 4 in art. J-»e.]) — [^j^l <V t>j~°> 1'' ■ -"« 
smote with him, or i7, the ground ; meaning f he 
cast, thretv, or flung, him, or t<, t//>on tA« ground. 
And i^/^l ** ' ••* VJ-* t -Hi ww* forth his 
excrement, or ordure, upon the ground.] And 
[hence] u*y*i" <->-' im( l iuWI J -Me voided 

excrement, or ordure; (A, TA;) and so OU«Jt. 

'•' »* * * * i 

(TA.) [t^»j*^l <uJU| w>^ 8ee ex P'- in ™> l att er 

half of this paragraph.] — w^^V ^yUl C«*>-e 
7 struck the string of the bow with the wooden im- 
plement [or mallet] used in separating cotton. 
(Msb.)«_ jydl w>-» [-We struck the chords of 
the lute ; meaning he played upon the lute ; and 

so iymiif V>"*]- (§•)— •*?i JI *r»J-»> aor - an ^ inf - n - 
ns above, He beat [or knocked or struck] tlie 
tent-peg, or state, so that it became firm in the 
ground. (Lh, TA.) And [hence] i^Ii-ll ^j^i 
J He pitched tlie tent, by knocking in its pegs with 
a mallet : (Kull p. 231 :) or he set up tlie tent. 
(MHb.J—^jjJI *->j-o, aor. and inf. n. as above, 
J lie struck, coined, or minted, the dirlicm, or 
p/cc« o/ money. (TA.) And <l»-i! ,__j-U- «->o 
f [He struck, coined, or minted, money in his 
name], (ISd, TA in art. jy*-.) — ^yU ^J-* 
wij-ijl J 7/e sealed, or stamped, tlie writing. 
(A,* TA.) [And alu ^6 t St erased it ; 

" 00 M 

namely, anything written.] _ j_yU ^jJai\ vv* 
jljt^JI t [ //'' stuck, or applied, the mud upon the 
waU, as a plaster]. (TA.) — Hence, accord, to 

>5- *» J ft- * i ft 9 

some, the phrase ilJJl ^Jlt C-yj-i, in the Kur 
ii. 58, considered as meaning + Vilencss was made 
to cleave to them : or the meaning is, f encom- 
passed them, like as the tent encompasses him 
over whom it is pitched. (Ksh, Bd.) And [in 

like manner] one says, i-jj-o >»«** «£«»>«» I ^1« 
impost, of the tax called i»j*-, &c, was imj>oscd 
upon them. (A,* Mgh, Msb.*) And j_ji* w->o 
Sjlist ju*!l J //f imposed upon the slave the tax 

according to a fixed time. (TA. [See io^-o.]) 
And w«. « . J I ji * 0M <^>j-° t Jt/ic fretn^ sent to </t<? 
.war was appointed them and imposed upon them 
as an obligation. (Mgh in art. w«*j.) — ■ *->j*i> 
jj\i>}\ Jls a£»JI f JJe cast tAc net ou<?r tAe i/jra* : 

(Mgh :) and j5l£jl (^yU lil ^^ I [The snare 
was cast over the bird], (A, TA.) _ J-JJt L>Ji 
**U)V t[*»« night cast its folds of darkness ;] 
meaning the night came. (TA.) [And t The 
night became dark, or was dark ; as appears from 
the following verse.] Homeyd says, 

" vj<-» J*wb J>5" u*^ J-» l5j-» * 

• ^ tl ... J *l£> JL» > ;.<Jlj AiljjW * 

t [He went on in his night-journey, like tlie pulsing 
of the vein, while the night was casting its folds 
of darkness over the earth, and t/ic dawn had 
almost risen]. (TA. [See also vj 1 -^]) Y °u 
say also, C^-- *<J* vj-» t [He put, or let down, 
a veil, or curtain, or covering, over him, or it]. 
(TA.) And .xw l+yi.j vjj-i f [^1 barrier mas set 
betmeen them two], (A in art. jw.) jju W^£ 
^'i 1 [in theKurxviii. 10] means \Wc prevented 
t/ieir sleeping; (K, TA;) as though by putting 
a covering over their ears ; a metonymical [and 
elliptical] mode of saying me made them to sleep 
by preventing any sound from penetrating into 
their ears, in consequence of which they would 
have awoke : (Zj, L, TA :) or ^liT ^ic ^££ 
means f he poured upon them sleep so that they 
slept and did not amalte: and one says also, 

^il j_j*ft J>y*\ <Z*u»o [meaning f I poured sleep 
upon him by closing his ear]. (Msb.) „_ O^i-i, 
*rlr** ,l > (A, Kl,* TA,) aor. and inf. n. as above, 

(TA,) XTlie scorpion stung. (A,K:,»TA.) 

[ ^J" **0-* t The wind beat it, or blew upon it; 
namely, herbage, and water, &c] And <oJJ> 
jjjl (IKtt,K,TA) \The cold smote it so as to 
injure it ; namely, herbage ; and in like manner 
one says of the wind: (IKtt, TA:) and f «v>«e>l 
ijj\ (A, TA) I The cold smote it by its vehemence, 
so tliat it dried up ; and in like manner one savs 
of the wind: (TA:) and ^/^l 4-O-aH t ^j-o\ 
t T/ie hoar-frost, or rime, fell upon the land, so 
that its lierbage became nipped, or blasted. (AZ, 
TA. [See also «-»£•]) -^"^ **J*V VJ-* \He 
was smitten with a trial, or an affliction. (L, 

TA.) — XJLi >.wi i^jJ. u aJlo jj^i t [7%c 

road to Mekheh, not a drop of rain has fallen 
upon it this year]. (A, TA.) _ J»JUt CJy£ 
i5UI, (S, A,» Msb, ?,• TA,) aor. - , (TA,)inf. n. 
^>\^i> (S, A, Msb, K) and «,j^e also, accord, to 
Fr, but this latter, though agreeable with analogy, 
is disallowed by Sb and Akh, (TA,) \The 
stallion leaped the she-camel; (Msb, TA ;) i. e. 
(TA,) compressed (A, £, TA) her. (TA.) ^(y* 

J^aJI is used ellipticajly for J^»JI w^lj-i ,J^j 
J TAe Aire of the cameVs leaping the female : the 
taking of which, as also the taking of the hire of 
any stallion for covering, is forbidden in a trad. I 

[Book I. 

(TA.) __ t^i^f f^yllt v>^> I He mixed the 
[one] thing with the [other] tAi'n^; (A, r>;) as 
also t «Vj-o, (K,) inf. n. %fjj>a5 : (TA :) accord, 
to some, said peculiarly in relation to milk; 
(MF, TA ;) but [SM says,] this I have not found 
in any lexicon. (TA.) »ul)l ^ J>JIM Lfro 
means t xii*. [i. e. He collected the miUt in the 
shin, and poured fresh milk upon that which was 
curdled, or thick, or upon that which was churned; 
or he poured the milk into the skin, and kept it 
therein that its butter might come forth]. (A.) 
In the L and other lexicons it is said that 
j-JI ^y jtYtt Ooj-b means / caused them to 
become confused [or i" invoiced them] in evil or 
mischief. (TA. [And ^y^ C~tj~6 has a similar 
meaning : see 2.]) And I J£s ^jAj Sllll cji«i 
means 77jc sAcc/i, or (/oat, was intermixed with 
such a colour. (L, TA.) _ ^i^jstf jm> ill vi^ 
u^j^l (.5* [TVtc trees strurA tAcir roots into tAe 
eartA]. (A and TA in art Jj*.) __ [Hence, 
the saying,] ^,1 ^J J^»v i*^ «V w-J>-i »• e. 
4_^L-3I ; (S and TA in the present art, and in like 
manner, in both, in art. v*- 1 '; with the addition 
of (^i before ^USI ;) t [«PP- meaning .SkcA a 
woman implanted, or engendered, in him a strain, 
i. e. a radical, or hereditary , qualify, of a dubious 
kind: or the pronoun in xJ relates to a family, 
or people; for it is said that] the meaning is, 
sucA a woman corrupted their race by her bring- 
ing forth among them : or, as some say, £*3jC 
•* .•« • • *#)# 

*y* Jjt ^yJ [i. c. C-SpC, or, accord, to more 

• ,.ti 
common usage, c~5>tl, i. c., implanted, or engen- 
dered, among them, or in them, an cril strain, or 
radical or /lercditary disposition]. (TA. [This 
saying is also mentioned in the A, as tropical, 
but is not expl. therein.]) _ --IjJUb «_>>«_>, -(S, 

Mgh, $,) and llJJUl 1^, (A, TA,) XHe 

turned about, or shuffled, (Jl»».l,) tAc arrows, [in 
tlte SrfQj (q. v.), in tAc game called j^g^\,] ( J* 

jj>»Ji [/or tAe slaughtered camel]. (Mgh. [See 

• *• j 

i^»>».]) [And f -He played with the gaming- 

arrows ; practised sortilege with arrows, or witA 

tAe arrows.] You say, ^y— t> >>«)l ^-* <i*ij>b 

t I practised sortilege with the people, or party, 

witA an arrow; syn. j)C( r < >L;. (Msb.) And 

• * • * * *■ 
^ Sj ft WJtf y Vj-* 1 7/e practised sortilege with tlte 

two arrows ; one of which was inscribed with the 
sentence " My Lord hath commanded me," and 
the other with " My Lord hath forbidden me:" 
a person between hope and despair is likened to 
one practising this mode of sortilege, which was 
used by the people of the Time of Ignorance 
when they doubted whether they should under- 
take an affair or abstain from it (Har pp. 465 

ft* ft # #■ * * 

and 553.) One says also, >(r ^ j^J*-" ■«* *r>-» 

meaning f He obtained a share, or portion, of the 
slaughtered camel. (Mgh.) And hence the saying 
of El-Hareeree, ^j/mij UU>* ^y Cyjȣ) t [And 
I obtained a share of its pasture]. (Mgh.) And 
the lawyers say, «±JlL)(*- <»-J w>^ '■ °- t He shall 
take thereof somewhat, according to what is due to 
him, of the third part. (Mgh.) They say also, 

Book I.] 



l**-* *ll* ^ «r>^ '• e - t -ff« assigned [a share, 
or portion, of his property] : and thus is cxpl. the 

saying of Aboo-Haneefeh, a) ^y*^^ v/^i ^ 

j& * * * * * 
>i-«X3l (jJLft jlj l««» t -We *Aatf not assiijn, or <;iw, 

to the legatee, aught of more than the third part ; 

the true objective complement being suppressed. 

(Mgh.) — . Aij^t L>\± [lit. lie heat with his 

arms; meaning -fhe moved his arms about, or 

to and fro ; brandished, tossed, or swung them] : 

you say, *£L* ^ Cyiajfcj ajjLi «l>i t [Se 
swung his arms, and moved them about, in his 
manner of walking]. (TA in art. >_ij*.. [Sec 

m+ + * + Os* 

<**j~-.]) And t LoJI .y ^j-o [*iJ?i being under- 
stood after the verb] t He swam. (K.) _ *->j^o 
J^w (j)l »J*i \ He made a sign, or pointed, with 
his hand, towards a thing. (TA.) And «-J/-e 
[alone] t He made a sign, or pointed. (K.) And 
Ijis ,^11 sjLrf >->-i t ■//<! 2?«< ybrtA Am /tanrf 
towards such a thing, to take it, or to point, or 
make a sign. (TA.) And I jib J^t .Jt »-»j w>j-o 
t [.flfl applied his hand to the doing of such a 
thing]. (Lth, TA.) [And JUJt ■«» 4 J* «1>^ 
a phrase cxpl. to me by IbrD as meaning f i/c 
busied his hands with the projmrty, in the giving, 

or dispensing of it.] ejj ,J* »_>j-o + [7/c 

struck his (i. c. another man's) hand; meaning] 
he struck, or »»«</<;, the bargain with him; or 
ratified the sale with him : for it is a custom, 
when two persons arc bargaining together, for 
one of them to put his hand upon the other's 
in ratifying the bargain. (TA, from a trad.) 
__ And J He prohibited, or prevented, or hindered, 
him, from doing a thing, or from doing a thing 
that he had begun : (TA :) and [in like manner] 

*iJ>i (.A* -r'j-o I he withheld, or restrained, him, 
or it. (K, TA.) And (i. c. the former phrase) 
\He (the judge, A, Mgh, TA) prohibited, or in- 
terdicted, him from the using, or disposing of, his 
property according to his own free will. (S, A, 
Mgh,Msb,TA.) — Also t He corrupted, vitiated, 
marred, or disordered, his affair, or case, or state. 
(A, Msb, TA.) — due. ^J^b f He turned away 
a person or thing from him [or ft] ; as also 
* »r>"ol : (TA:) [or] <uc t w>j«ol signifies, (S, 
M?b,) or signifies also, (TA,) and (Msb, TA) 
so does djs. ^JJo, (Msb, K, TA,) [the latter 
app. for 4-c a_«j w>j«o,] t -Z/c turned away from, 
avoided, shunned, or left, him, or ft; (S,» Msb, 
K,* TA ;•) namely, a person, (TA,) or a thing. 
(Mfb.) U^uo j£o jJI _^£c Vj-^S in the Kur 
[xliii. 4], is said to mean f Shall we then neglect 
you, and not teach you what is incumbent on you ? 
the phrase being taken from a rider's striking his 
beast with his stick when he desires to turn him 
from the course that he is pursuing: or the 
meaning is, f shall we then turn away the Kur-dn 
from you, and not invite you thereby to the 
faith, turning away ourselves from you ? (TA.) 
One says also, \mtJL s <uc Cy^e meaning f I 
turned away from him and left him. (S and TA 
in art. «Ju» : see 1 in that art) See also the 
saying a-I^-I ^J> a-1»».I ^^ voce 

' *'i •*•* • f J f» • fl 

And br ii,jui'^ U>Ls«.1 vj-^i U^ •' Bee vocc 

— ^#1 «J* ^i, (?,) inf n. vj-6, (TA,) 

[lit. He smote with himself the ground; and hence, 

t he cast, threw, or flung, himself upon the ground; 

app. often used in this sense; (a phrase similar 

' 1 # * , 

to uof$\ A/ w*j*0 cxpl. before ;) and hence,] t he 

remained, stayed, or abode; (K ;) and so * w>j-et 

(AZ, ISk, S, K, TA) as used in the phrase *rij-b\ 

o~JI ^ji jJj»vJI t 7V(e ?nan remained, stayed, or 

abode, in t/ic tent, or house, (AZ, ISk, S, A, TA,) 

no< quitting it: (ISk, A-, TA:) and [in like 

manner] aJJ^ w^-i, [(jij'i)! being understood,] 

t He stayed, or abode, and remained fixed. (K 

in art. w~ii- [See also other explanations of this 

last phrase in a later part of this paragraph.]) 

And Ijib Jj.-q-' jJ^)t «-><0 I //« remained, 

stayed, or abode, [lit., struck the tent-peg,] in such 

a place of alighting. (A.) And ,_k*^l >Z~i>-o 

* tt * 

O^^tt [u^j^l being understood after J/})l,] 

t The camels lay down [in a i>lace by the water] : 
(S in art. v >Lc :) or satisfied themselves with 
drinking and then lay down around the water or 
by the watering-troughs, to be brought again to 
drink another time : (lAth, TA in that art. :) and 
[hence,] ^j^ju j-UI *jij-o, occurring in a trad., 
t The people'* camels satisfied themselves with 
drinking until tkey lay down and remained in 
t/ieir place [at the water] : (TA in the present 
art. :) or the people satisfied their thirst and then 

abode at the water. (K in art. i>kt.) w>o 

^y^l 4Sijkj X He was cowardly; and feared; 
(A, 0,*K, TA;) and clave to tke ground: (O, 
TA :) or he was, or became, affected with shame, 
shyness, or bashfulness. (A, TA.)^_a) _)j-eu 

lyJLSs ^j^l [lit. He beats for it the whole land, 
i. c. in journeying,] means t he seeks it through 
t/te whole land: so says AZ in explanation of 
the phrase here following. (O, TA.) -j j j 
jck-oJI t He seeks to gain, or obtain, glory : (O, 
K :) or he applies himself with art and 

to gain glory, ( <c . ~X< ,) and scelis it through the 

whole land. (AZ, TA. [Sec also 8.])' >_. >-i 

^^JJI, (A,) or ,>JUI, I 7/e made [or moulded] 
bricks. (MA.) And ^UJI v^-* t -We made, 
fashioned, or moulded, the signet-ring. (TA.) 
[Hence one says,] IJjk *1£ (J i* ajj-oI i. e. 
t [Malte thou it, fashion it, or mould it,] accord- 
ing to the model, make, fashion, or mould, of 
this. (IAar, O and K. in art. *J».) And « Juk 

\e^ *r>° (j? 1 *-rf> < »> a "d W«> and V/-o 
alone, [for 1^11* v^*] meaning i»t [i. e. + This 
is his nature, with an adaptation, or a dis- 
position, to which he was moulded, or created; or 
to which he was adapted, or disposed, by creation]. 
(Lh.TA.) And>Jai (Ji* o*& «^ J [Such a 
one was moulded, or created, with an adaptation 
or a disposition, to generosity; or was adapted, 
or disposed, by creation, or nature, to generosity]. 
(A.) _ $Lo ^^-e (S, A, O, &c.) \ He rcliearscd, 
propounded, or declared, a parable, a similitude, 
an example, or a proverb ; said of God [and of a 
man] : (S,* O* Msb, TA :) or lie mentioned, or 
set forth, a parable, &c. : or he framed a parable : 
thus expl., the verb has but one objective com- 
plement : or the phrase signifies he made [such a 
thing] an example, or the subject of a parable or 

similitude &c. ; and so has two objective com- 
plements : in the saying in the Knr [xxxvi. 12] 
<uyUI wjU~oI "jLU^ vj-'I} + [And propound 
thou to them a parable, the people of the town] 
i. e., the story of the people of the town, [or make 
thou to them a parable, or similitude, or an 
example, the people of the town;] yJU may be in 
the accus. case as an objective complement, 
ajjJUI ^iUmoI being a substitute for ")ll« ; or 
ajjJUI >_jU— ol may be regarded as a second 
objective complement [i. c. second in the order of 
the words, but first in the order of the sense] : 
the phrase is differently expl. on account of tho 
different meanings of the verb ^-a; which sig- 
nifies he described, or rehearsed; and lie declared, 
propounded, or explained; and he made, caused 
to be, or constituted; &c. : accord, to some, it is 
taken from the phrase ^jJJI ^j-o [q. v.] ; 
because of the impression which a parable or the 
like makes upon the mind : accord, to some, from 
v-^j-' signifying "a like;" because the first 
thing is made like the second : accord, to some, 
from jl JwmJI jJLc ^>~tOI w>j«o [q. v. ; because the 
mud, applied as a plaster, conforms to the shape 
of the wall] : and accord, to some, from -jj^ 
^JUJI [q. v.] ; because of the correspondence 
between a parable or the like and the object to 
which it is applied, and the correspondence be- 
tween the signet -and its impression. (TA, from 

the M and L &c.) Jiufj JLm aXiI L>^L, in 
the Kur [xiii. 18], means t God likeneth, or com- 

parcth, truth and falsity. (TA.) One says also, 
$00 000 
"}Ju« aj ^j-o t [lie made him, or it, a subject of 

a parable, a similitude, an example, or a proverb ; 
lie propounded, or framed, a parable, &.c., resect- 
ing him, or ft]. (TA.) And lj& Jijl v_r=« 
[The proverb, &c, is applied to, in relation to, or 

to the case of, such a thing], (Mcyd Sec, passim.) 

$ j. 000 
__ ^loh.1 a) w>>»i 1 1I» specified, or notified, to, or 

for, him, or it, a term, or period. (Mgh, Msb.*) 

* 030 • * 

__ UjjJ» j*) w>i t He assigned to them, or 
made for them, a way ; syn. Jj«»-. (MA. [App. 
from a phrase in the Kur xx. 70, q. v.])__ 

«_>j«a)1 as a conventional term of the accountant?, 
or arithmeticians, means The multiplying a 
number by another number; (Mgh, Msb;) as 

S '■ - - 000 

when you say, [aw ^j <<„,,■. ^j^J He multU 

plied five by six ; and] /^J^^ iw -i h, t i 
[F'we multiplied by six U thirty], (Mffb.)_ 

w>o [is often intrans., and thus] signifies also 

0_ m 

j)jmJ [i. e. t It was, or became, in a state of 
commotion, &c] : (K :) [see also 8, which is more 
commonly used in this sense:] or, so with strength, 
or force. (TA.) [And hence several phrases 
here following.] —Sj*i I vj-o (A,TA,) inf. n. 
y^tj-o and uW/*», (TA,) J TTie veinjmlscd, or icai, 
(A, TA,) and throbbed: (TA :) and ^>jlb, inf. n. 
(jl^j«o, I ft (the vein) pained, and was, or became, 
in a state of strong commotion. (TA.) And 
£j4j| vj-»» inf- "• CiQi-*> (?» A, Msb,) : The 
wound [throbbed; or] pained violently : (A, Msb :) 
and so Jv*ol\ t [the tooth]. (A, TA.) C^t'jJt 

i»UI, (A, K,) or, as in some lexicons, ^oU^JI, 
(TA,) J 27j« she-camel, (A, K,) or <Ae pregnant 


camel, (TA,) raised her tail, and smote her vulva 
with it, (A,K, TA,) and then went along. (K, 

TA.) «jt^. jj* «^b \He (a camel) took 

friijht, and ran away at random, (S, A, L, TA,) 
and ceased not to gallop and leap until he had 
thrown off all his furniture, or load. (L, TA.) 
—j^j *->j-oj <W t He came hastening [with 
mischief, or] in an evil affair. (A.) It is said 
in a trad, of 'Alee, When such and such things 
shall happen, (mentioning faction, or sedition, or 
the nkr,) aJJu i>jjJI w>j—xj w>-», meaning, 
accord, to AM, f The leader of the religion shall 
hasten to go away through the land, fleeing from 
the faction, or sedition : or, as some say, shall go 
away hastily through the land, with his followers. 

(O, TA. [But see v*— ■* : an( ' 8ce n ' 80 ****i0) 
And you say also, i*~JI ji <^>j-=, (Msb,) inf. n. 
*r>«*> (?>) 1 1 hastened in journeying. (S,* Msb.) 
And yi^JI J> vji, (S, A, Mgh, Msb, $,) 
aor. ; ,'(TA,) inf. n. IJ^e (S, K, TA) and ZjyeU 
(S, TA) and J,Cj-*, (K, TA,) t lie journeyed in 
the land (!■!, Mgh, Msb) seeking sustenance, (S,) 

and for the purpose of traffic: (Mgh:) [and *->j*o 
j^ej^t, as shown above, has a similar meaning:] 
or J he went forth in the land as a merchant ; 
(A, K ;) or warring and plundering, (K,) or so 
nS)\ J~— ^j *->}■£> [meaning in the cause of 
God]: (A:) or he hastened through tlie land: 
(A, K:)- or he arose, and hastened in his journey 
through the land: (TA:) or he went, or went 
away, in the land: (A, K:) or lie traversed, or 
journeyed through, the land. (TA.) The verb is 
[similarly] used in relation to almost all employ- 
ment*: you say, S.UJI .J < T > >d t [-H* travelled 

for the purpose of traffic] ; (TA :) and ij* iJ Ol 
» * »«• »* •« , '«• * _ ' ' 

l^iO^ji (JUI i. e. v>>» [Verdy I have to make 

a journey for the salte of, or on account of, a 

thousand dirltenu]. (S, TA : but in my copies of 

tho S, ^J is omitted.) And ^iJI Co^i, aor. as 

above, t The birds went, or went away, [or 

migrated,] seeking sustenance. (K, TA.) _ VJ-" 

snid of time, t It went, passed, or passed away. 

00 • J A * * 

(K.) And *il(yb ,>• >kjJI v>*> or » accord, to 
ono reading, *£>-o j>*, occurring in a trad., t 27*e 
lime in part passed ; [the time pursued a part of 
its course;] or a part of the time passed. (TA.) 
And iljj-i JaJji «_>j-i> t Fortune, or <tm«, pro- 
duced, or brought to pass, its events : (IKtt, TA :) 
a phrase liko »LiiJt ,j^ (j-oS. (S, L, TA.) And 

* , * , * * * at ** * • '* a ,, " ' ' 

[[Fortune, or <j'me, brought to pass, among its 
events, that such and such things happened]. (A, 
L, TA.) And ££ jijJI ^b I Fortune, or 
time, separated us : (AO, A, TA :) or made a 
wide separation between us; syn. jjy. (K.)-_ 
Also f It was, or became, long : (K, TA :) so in 
the saying, ^X* J^UI ^ye + [TAe ni#A< w», 
or became, long to them], (TA.) — And vj-=" 
aJI f J* inclined to it. (TA.) [One sayB, ^fbj 

>tjjl iJI t It inclines to blackness, and ,jJt 

Jt to redness, &c. : often occurring in the 

i +* + + if* . * 

lexicons.] b <u>-a» ajjL3, aor. of the latter - : 

sec 3. BB»ja C^^o t. q. \jj*o jU. [meaning 
Excellent, or /tow excellent, is his hand, or arm, ] 
in beating, striking, smiting, or hitting ! a phrase 
similar to »ju Oy«j]. (K.) = ^-o, (IKtt, A, 
K,) aor. - , (K,) inf. n. w»>^> said of herbage, 
t it w<w marred, or jpoi'ft, o# /Ac ro/</: (A :) or 
it was smitten by the cold, (IKtt, K, TA,) and 
injured thereby, and by the wind. (IKtt, TA.) 
And Ja } *)\ C^j-i, inf. n. w>-o, t The land was 
smitten by hoar-frost, or rime, and its herbage was 
nipped, or blasted, tliereby : (AZ, TA:) and 
C-ij-o [in like manner] t it (i. c. land) was smitten 
by hoar-frost, or rime; or had hoar-frost, or 
rime, fallen ujton it. (S, A, TA.) 

2 : sec 1, first sentence ; and in two places in a 

* A • A 

sentence shortly after that. — tLJ i)b «^i)l *->j^ : 
see 1, in the second quarter of the paragraph. __ 
[Hence,] >>yUI ^ C-i>^" t The exciting dis- 
cord, or strife, or animosity, between, or among, 
the people, or party. (S, TA.) — — And w>-i, 
inf. n. w«jj-oj, signifies also t -7-f " excited, incited, 
urged, or instigated, and roused to ardour, a 
courageous man, in war, or battle. (TA.) _ 
Hya^\ <~>yb, (S, Mgh, Msb,) inf. n. as above, 
(TA,) He sewed (S, Mgh, Msb) [meaning 
quilted] with cotton (Mgh, Msb) the Zjj-o* 

J >l* 

[q. v.]. (S, Mgh, Msb.) a <U-* O^-i J/m eye 
became depressed in hii head. (K.) = «_)j-i>, inf. n. 
as above, also signifies f i/e cxjwsed himself, 
or became exposed, (^bjiu,) to the snow, (K, TA,) 
i. e. </m? s^ij0b [which signifies also, and more 
commonly, hoar-frost, or rime]. (TA.) = And 
He drank what is termed yo^i, (O, K, TA,) 
i.e. the milk thus called, (O,) or j^i [meaning 
honey, or honey in its comb, or honey not expressed 
from it* comb]. (TA.) 

J • 00 J 

3. aoU», (S, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) inf. n. a^jLa* 
(Msb, TA) and vlr^> ^ contended with him in 
beating, striking, smiting, or hitting ; he beat him, 
&c, being beaten, kc, by him; (TA;) [he re- 
turned him beating for beating, blow for blow, or 
blows for blows ; he bandied, or exchanged, blows 
with him : and] he contended with him in fght. 
(S, TA.) One says, ♦ *o-^> <4jL*, aor. of the 
latter verb '- , (K, TA,) agreeably with the gene- 
ral rule respecting verbs signifying the surpassing, 
or overcoming, in a contest, (MF,TA,) He con- 
tended with him in beating, &c, and he surpassed 
him, or overcame him, therein. (K,*TA.) See 
also 6. — [Golius says, as on the authority of 
the KL, that Vj^ signifies also "Coivit camclus ;" 
and Freytag, as on the authority of the K, that it 
signifies " inieit camclus camelam :" but in the 
KL it is only said that <^\fJ> is an inf. n. of a 
verb having this meaning; and its verb in this 
sense, as is said in the S and A and M?b and K, 
is wJj-i, which has been thus expl. in the first 
paragraph.] __ JUI ■»* Vj^ an( l J^W» inf. n. 

*00 J * * '" 

cUjLa«, means I He trafficked with the property. 
(A.) And 2 vj 1 -* (A, Mgh, K) *JU J>, (A, 
Mgh,) or JUJI ^ <4>;<-o, (?») inf. n. as above, 
(S, A, Mgh,) means t B* trafficked for him with 
his property [or with the jtroperty]; (A, Mgh;) 

[Book I. 

because he who docs so generally journeys in the 
land seeking gain ; (Mgh;) npp. from ,-» * r >j0oi\ 
ubj*)\ [the journeying in the land] for the pur- 
pose of seeking sustenance: (TA:) and is syn. 
with <U>Jl5, (S,* Mgh, K,» TA,") he gave him of 
his property for the purpose of his trafficking 
tlwrewith on the condition that the gain should be 
between them, (wo or that the latter should luive a 
certain share of the gain : and accord, to En-Nadr, 
ajjUj is said of him who does thus and also of the 
person thus employed. (TA.) 

4. aillll jL»i\ w>j-sl, (S.) and iiUI w*^. 

JJjUl, (A,TA,) inf. n. J.ljil, (TA,) \ He 

made the stallion to leap the site-camel. (S,* A,* 

•( it, , 

TA.) IJ£» j*^) U.U. w>ol I He disposed, or 

accommodated, and subjected, himself to such a 

thing, or such an affair. (A, TA.) _ vj-'' 

&\J>^li\ t The j>yr* [or hot. wind] caused the 

0t§ i. ,tt 
earth to imbibe the water (i^»j"j)l A/Liil). (K.) — 

LoJU. a. ..Ll w>j-£l \[He caused a signet-ring to be 

made, fashioned, or moulded, fur himself]. (A, 

TA. [Sec also 8.]) __ jjjl a^l : and >T >"='' 

J°f)\ tr-ircM '• 8CC 1> '" ,nc former half of the 

' -» e I 

paragraph. — — [Accord, to the TA, Cy^ol (there 
written U^-ot) seems to signify 1 1 l"c were smitten 
by hoar-frost, or rime : or our land, or herbage, 
was smitten tlurrcby : thus resembling U jlU.1 and 

'ff # l . ' 090 • t 

UjuLsI : but perhaps the right reading is U^-61 : 
for']=>^JI Jj-il, (K, TA,) inf. n. v!/^J» 
(TA,) signifies t The people, or party, had 
hoar-frost, or rime, fallen upon them. (K» TA.) 

>lij. w^ 1 + The hread ( K » TA ) •• e - tn0 

bread baked in hot ashes (TA) became thoroughly 
baked, (K, TA,) and in a ft state to be beaten 
with a stick and to have its ashes and dust sltaltcn 
off. (TA.) a^s. «_>>»»t : sec 1, near the middle 

* t 

of the paragraph, in two places. [ v»"^t i>0 _>~il 

'. '•- -s- 

is expl. in a copy of the A as meaning <Uc <~Jj&, 

and in the TA, (probably from that copy of the 
A, as I have reason to believe that it was used 
by the author of the TA,) is expl. by <Uc ±Jje ; 

but the right reading is indubitably a-* >-'>*. 
with the dotted j ; meaning t He turned away 
from the thing, or affair; a signification given 
in the first paragraph : it is said in the A to be 
tropical. And a-c w>^sl also signifies t He 
digressed from it ; made a digression, or tran- 
sition, from it; namely, a subject of speech or 
discourse : and particularly f he turned from it 

0' J j A 

and retracted it.] — C-~)l ^5* J*vll VtA^' : 
see 1, in the latter half of the paragraph. _ 
■~jj0b\ signifies also I He was silent; he spoke 
not : or he lowered his eyes, looking towards the 
ground: syn. fjjH\. (S, TA.) 

5. v>^ [He beat, struck, smote, or Air, Aint- 
self much, or violently ; or several, or many, 
times]. One says, tgim IW «r>^ [He smote 
himself much with pebbles], (K in art. m '■' ft > > ) 
and wiljijb [with earth, or dust, as a man 
sometimes docs in vexation]. (L ibid.) _ See 
also 8, in two places. 

Book I.] 

6. \ii}\^i, (A, MA, Mgh, Msb, £, in the S 
l,PjLa3,) and * \^L^>\, (A, Mgh, Msb, 1£, in the 
S \ijU»b\,) and I I^j,U, (£,) [7%ey contended in 
beating, striking, smiting, or hitting, one another; 
and particularly, in fight ;] tAey *mote one anotlier 
rcj'tA the sword. (MA.) One says, ijtjuaJI "^jluol 
yu^o*Jb, meaning 77ie <wo x/aves 6ca< eacA otAer 
witA tAc <too */tc/«, or staves. (Mgh.) 

8. wjjk-il : see 6, in two places. The inf. n. 
is w>lj.l»-il, of which the dim. is tyo^c, the )o 
being changed [back] into O because the ^o 
becomes movent. (S and O in art. J»U».) — 
[Hence, said of a thing, Its several parts col- 
lided ; or were, or became, in a state of collision : 
and hence,] i. q. i)jmJi (S, Msb, K) and »-U ; 

(K ;) [but more significant than cither of these ; 
meaning he, or more generally ft, was, or became, in 
a state of commotion, agitation, convulsion, tumult, 
disturbance, or disorder ; was, or became, agitated, 
convulsed, or unsteady; struggled; floundered; 
tossed, or shook, about, or to and fro; moved, 
or went, about, or to and fro, or from side to side ; 
wabbled; wagged; quivered, quaked, trembled, 
or skivered; fluttered; flickered; and tlie like;] 
and ▼ -Jj^J signifies the same. (K. [»->>-=> u ' s0 > 
is sometimes used in the sense of i)jm-3, as 
mentioned before.]) One says, w>LuL; »-><JI 
T/ie wove* [rfagA togetlter, are tumultuous, or] 
(eat one another. (S.) And l >k i l^ jJ^ll wj^lxol 
[TVie cAi'/a" n*w, or became, in a state of com- 
motion in the belly]; (A;) And .ji ♦ »_y-aj 
t>kJI [which means the same]. (TA.) And 

w>l»_JI ^ JjjJI w>la-bl 77<e lightning was, or 

became, in a state of commotion in the clouds ; 

[or it flickered therein ;] syn. i)jmJi. (TA.) And 

*\y*\ ■«£ w>k«il 7/e «vm< to n»r/ //-o occupied 

in his affairs for the means of subsistence : (Mgh :) 
and w^lausl, alone, signifies Ac sought to gain; 
or applied himself with art and diligence to gain; 
syn. ^wMJfcl ; (K, TA;) and is used by £1- 
Kumeyt with J+ ,11 as its objective complement. 
(TA. [See also JJLjl vj-^J, in the latter half 
of the first paragraph.]) And yWpl *->jla*b\ 
t The man was tall, and therewithal loose, lax, 
flabby, uncompact, slack, or shaky, in make, 
or frame. (K,* TA.) And ^»yl*». w^Jeuot [pro- 
perly, Their rope was shaky, loose, or slack ; 
meaning] f their word, or sentence, or saying, 
varied, or rms discordant : (K :) or tActr words, 
or sayings, [conflicted, or] varied, or were aw- 
cordant : and so J^yJlyl [tAcir sayings], (Kull 

p. 5G.) And <ulj ^jJx^t t [//»'* opinion was, 
or became, confused, weak, or w/wounrf]. (TA 
in art. »-,.) And aiift w>jJa*el + [Z/w ?>/.7W, 
or intellect, was, or became, disordered, confused, 
or iiwiuii?]. (K, in art. ay.) And sj-ol w^Jeual 
\ His affair, or «<ate, was, or became, dis- 
ordered, unsound, or corrupt ; (S, K ;*) syn. 
ji*-l ; (S, £;) [it was, or became unsound, or 
unsettled; as is indicated in the TA in art. 

Jj :] and jy»*$\ C-jjia-ol f ^Ae affairs were, or 
became, complicated, intricate, confused, discordant, 


* * t 

or incongruous; syn. CAUAl : (Msb:) and 

j*f~> y*"^\ ^>p9uol t [The affair, or case, was, 
or became, complicated, intricate, or confused, so 
as to be a subject of disagreement, or difference, 
between them], (Msb voce j**~*, q. v.) as 
UjU. wJ/Jx-il f i/e asked, or ordered, that a 
signet-ring should be made, fashioned, or moulded, 
for him : (K.,* TA : [see also 4 :]) occurring in 
a trad. (TA.) _— j^'^ll ^ vlf «_>pa«el occurs 
in a trad, as meaning f He set up a structure upon 
.sialics driven into tke ground in the mosque. (TA.) 

10. C-ffiSaA t She (a camel) desired the 
stallion. (K.) __ And '£*L> a/j^u^I He desired, 
or demanded, of him a stallion to cover his she- 
cameh ; like ^U»i aijiaJi^]. (TA. in art. Jyio.) 
= J— *JI w^-alwl 7%e honey became *->j*o ; (S ;) 
i. c., became thick; (A ;) or became white and 
thick : (S, ^C :) the verb in this sense is similar 
to Jy£->t in relation to a he-camel, and C-...., : . T . r .,,rt 
in relation to a she-goat. (S.) 

3 an inf. n. used in the sense of a pass. 
. • j • .. 
part. n. ; (TA ;) i. q. * «_>jj-a-o [Beaten, struck, 

&c] : (K, TA :) in some of the copies of the 
K, it is made the same as >->j-o signifying " a 
species " &c. : but this is a mistake. (TA.) One 
says w>i l*ji t [A. coined dirkem]; using the 
inf. n. as an epithet, as in the phrases j^c !U 
and ^JCi :U. (S.) And ^•^1 vS-^vJi '^> 
in which w>j-i may be thus put in the accus. case 
as an inf. n., [the meaning being ^jj IJuk 

^-e^l -r^-i V.5J-*" ^ ^"'*' ! '•' a dwhem coined 
with the coining of the prince,] which is the 
most common way. (L, TA.) _ t A light rain ; 
(S, K, TA ;) or so .->>•* >*** : (A i»ii signifies 

" a lasting, or continuous, and still, rain ;" and 

• • ^ %* 

■~>+>b, a little more than <l»j>, or a little above 

this : and f &(j-b [as the n. un.] signifies a fall, 

or shower, of light rain. (As, TA.) — _ + A make, 

form,' fashion, mould, or cast; syn. 4ju-o. (S, 

TA.) — t-^ *""<» ° r species; (S, K;) as also 

T^-oj-i ; (K ;) and accord, to some copies of the 

# -» a ' 

K wJjj-o-e, but this is a mistake : the pi. of the 
first is «->jj-°* (TA.) __ Also J A ///«; [of a thing 
and of a person]; (ISd, A, K, TA;) and so 
t ^jj-o, as related on the authority of Z ; (TA ;) 

and t y^*iy& ; (I Aar, S, A, TA ;) as in the phrase 

t ^£)l ■*rirb tke like of tke thing, (S, TA,) and 

^j^li s^fjjto O^* ,suc ^ a onc ** *•• '*'' e of such a 
one : (I Aar, TA :) or «_>j-» signifies o ItU »'n 
stature and make : (I Aar, TA :) its pi. is ^^yo ; 
(TA ;) and the pi. of * 1,-iyb is i^\jlo (S) and 
ilj^-o, this latter occurring in a trad., in the phrase, 

»^C*-o) IJJb w^b> 7'/tM went away, and the likes 

tf * * * 
of kirn. (TA.) One says also <«Jy w>«i [meaning 

t Zn r/te /t'/te o//«« saying ; referring to a saying 

ft * # • # 

in the Kur-dn, &c. ; a phrase similar to <J«* ♦»-']• 
(AZ, T voce ^1 in several places.) sss A man 
penetrating, or vigorous and effective; light, or 
active, in the accomplishment of an affair or of 
a want; (K, TA ;) not flaccid, or flabby, in flesh. 
(TA.) And (K) a man (S, TA) light of flesh, (S, 


A, K, TA,) lean and slender. (TA.) The p/. is 
V>>o ; or, accord, to IJ,this may be pi. of " wjjj-o. 
(L, TA.) = The last foot of a verse : (K* TA :) 
pi. [of pauc] w>j«ol and [of mult.] VJU^' C^A.) 
= Sec also »_>-?. — [Reiske, as mentioned by 
Freytag, explains it also as meaning Sour milk : 
but this is app. a mistake for w>«o, with the 
unpointed ye.] 

« T »^i : see the next preceding paragraph. 

V,^ (?, A, Msb, IjC) and t w»j-^» l* 111 tne 
former is the better known, (K,) Thick Iwney : 
(A:) or white honey: (Msb, K.:) or thick white 
honey: (S:) or, as some say, wild honey: and 
* 4*>j-b signifies the same : or a portion thereof: 
(TA :) w)j-i is mnsc. and fcm. : (S :) [for] it is 
said to be pi. of ▼i^»-o, or a coll. gen. 11., which 
is in most cases masc. [but is also fern.]. (Msb.) 

w>j~0 : see "-jj-o- 6 - — Also t Herbage smitten 
and injured by tlie cold, and by the wind. (TA.) 
And I Herbage smitten by hoar-frost, or rime. 

(TA.) And «v>-« w<»jl t Land smitten by hoar- 
frost, or rime, so tliat its herbage is nipped, or 
blasted, thereby. (AZ, TA.) 

ajj-o [inf. n. un. of w>-o ; ^1 *i/i///c act 0/ 
beating, striking, ice. : a blow, strofie, Sec]. __ See 
also w>«i, fourth sentence. — — »»x»-lj i.'^-b means 
t^Lt one time; once. (Mgh, Msb.) So in the 
saying, 'i'jsJ 3 i/^i, ^| i&* J I U JI.T ^ f [^ 
;<;('// not ta/(e n7tat t« ^/ka to me on thy part save at 

" I'm* 

onetime, or 'once]. (Mgh.) _y«5UJI i^>«, which 
is forbidden, is t Tlie saying of tke dicer for pearU, 
to tke merchant, I will dive for thee once, and what 
I shall bring up shall be thine for such a price. 

ijj-o : see Vj-»; m tw0 places. 

and see *->yo, near the end. 

* > . * ' • 

^tjj^i: sec 

<^-if6 i. q. t ^jtcu, [Beaten, struck, &c.]. 
(K, TA.) _ A tent-peg, or stake, .«t /•«<•/( jo «.< to 
be firm in tlie ground; as also * w>j>^«- (Lb, 
TA.) -_ See also «_>«i, in three places. ^ Also, 
(As, ISd, K:, TA,) or J*Jj\ ^J*, accord, to 
Aboo-Nasr, f it/t/A qf which some is milked upon 
ot/ier : or, accord, to some of tho Arabs of the 
desert, milk from a number of camels, some of it 
being thin, and some of it thick : (S :) or milk of 
which some is poured upon otlier : (As, TA :) or 
»mcA as is millied from a number of camels (ISd, 
K, TA) into one vessel, and mixed together, not 
consistittg qf less titan the milk of three camels : 
(ISd, TA:) or milk upon which otlier has been 
milked at night, and other on the morrow, and 
which has been mixed togetlier. (TA.) [See also 

^j^.] Ami What is bad, of the kind of 

plants called yA,*. : or what is broken in pieces, 
thereof. (K.) = Sec also .-><a«. _ [Hence,] 
t The person who is intrusted, as deputy, with [the 
disposal of] tlie gaming-arrows [in the game 
called j... ,; -oJI] : or the person who shuffles those 
arrows, or who plays with tliem; («r>*4 ^JJI 


£.1jJUl£ ;) as also ♦ <^>J*o : (?0 or DOtn of these 
epithets signify the person who shuffles those 
arrows (-.IjJUO y^>yiu i<JJI) ; and he is the 

person who is intrusted, as deputy, with [the dis- 
jwsal of] them : (S :) the former is of the measure 

J*»* in the sense of the measure J*l» : (Sb, TA :) 
...... t * * i 

and the pi. is i^j-e. (S, A.) You say, ^j*ij~Z> y», 

meaning \ lie is my playfellow with the yarning- 

* * * t t * • # 
arrows { { j>-» fljJUl w>-fiy ,>•). (A, TA.)^ 

And ^^JsJI is a name of + The third arrow of 
those used in the game called j.,. , t \ \ : (K,* TA :) 
that arrow is thus called by some: by others 
Vw" [<!• v< ] : 't has three notches; and three 
port ions arc assigned to it if successful, and three 
fines if unsuccessful. (Lh, L, TA.)_ [Hence, 
app.,] w>J>-i signifies also f A share, or portion. 

(K.) Also f Hoar-frost, or rime; (S, K;) 

like j~U- and ia^Li : (S in art. jJ*- :) and f ■ snow. 
(K.)__ And t The head: (K:) so called because 
often in a state of agitation. (TA.) = And t. q. 
*>yw [i. c. honey, or honey in its comb, or honey 
not expressed from its comb] : and *~*iyb J— c 
honey becoming, or become, white and thick. (TA. 

• j» 4 

[Seo also ^-o.])s:= Also Dig-bellied, {^jj^, [in 
some copies of the K ^^laj,]) [as an epithet] of 
men, ($, TA,) and of others. (TA.) 

Arf^i A man, (K,) or anything, (T, S,» TA,) 
iitmu? or dead, (T,TA,) struck, or smitten, with 
the sword: (T, S, If, TA:) the J is affixed, 
though the word lias the meaning of a pass, 
part, n., because it becomes numbered with substs., 

like i»~k> and \%£s\. (S.) [And also] The 

place [or part] upon which the blow, or stroke, 
falls, of the body that is beaten, or struck. (Ham 
p. 120.) __ And Wool, or [goats'] hair, separated, 
or plucked asunder, with the fingers, and then 
folded together, and bound with a thread, and 
spun: (S: [more fully expl. voce <UUL<:]) and 
wool that M beaten with a mallet : (TA :) or a 
portion of wool: (K :) or a portion of cotton, and 

of wool: (TA:) pi. ^>}^b. (S.) Also X An 

impost that is levied, of tlie poll-tax or land-tax 
and the like, (S, A, Mgh, O, Msb, K, TA,) and 
of [the tolls, or similar exactions, termed] jLojl : 
(S, O, TA :) pi. as above. (S, A, Mgh, &c.) 
And ^hence, TA) t The iU [as meaning the 
income, or revenue, arising from the service] of a 
slave ; (S, ?, TA ;) i. e. ju«JI loj-e means 
what the slave pays to his master, of the im- 
post that is laid upon him : <uj >j*o being of the 
measure ilgai in the sense of the measure ilyti*. 
(TA.) — And I A nature; or a natural, a 
native, or an innate, disjmsition or temjwr or the 
like : [as though signifying a particular cast of 
constitution, moulded by the Creator :] syn. i*~Jo, 
(S, A, ]£,) and !mJ«: (S:) pi. as above. (A, 

TA.) You say, A^-all^^fe o*£» [t Such a one 
is generous in respect of nature] ; and i^j-bJ) ^JJ 

A J j* M 

[tmean &a] ; (S;) and ^Ij-oJI ^ji) Ail 
[t Verily he is generous in respect of natural dis- 

positions] : and ^jiw v*''/"'' tJ** cw^I v^*- 


[J/en are created of diverse natures &c.]. (TA.) 

__ See also 


• a - • » • 

wj'j-«: see w^-a<. 

«_>iL^ [Beating, striking, smiting, or hitting : 
&c. :] act. part. n. of «_»>«i [in all its senses]. 
(K, TA.) __ A she-camel that strikes kcr milker : 
(S, K :)»or one which, having been submissive, or 
tractable, before conceiving, afterwards strikes her 
milker away from before her : or [the pi.] <->j\yo 
signifies she-camels tkat resist after conceiving, 
and become repugnant, so tkat one cannot milk 

them. (TA.) Also, and £jU, (K, TA,) the 

former a possessive epithet [i. c. denoting the 
possession of a quality], and the latter a verbal 
epithet [i.e. an act. part, n.], (TA,) JA she- 
camel that raises her tail, and smites with it her 
vulva, (K, A, in which latter only the pi. is men- 
tioned,) and then goes: (K:) pi. «-»ilj-i. (A, 
TA.) And the former is like -,_ > \j £3, [i. c. 
■ wil^aj, as appears from what follows,] expl. by 
Lh as meaning + A she-camel that has been 
covered by tlie stallion, [and app. that raises her 
tail in consequence thereof,] but respecting which 
one knows not whether she be pregnant or not: 
(TA :) or t w»lj-iJ signifies a she-camel recently 
covered by tlie stallion [and therefore often raising 
her tail]. (Mz, 40th cy.) The former (l>jli>) 

signifies also t Swimming, (S, TA,) in water. 
(TA.) Dhu-r-ltummch says, 

i + #•* * ■» a£* 

^-jJ S^e* ^ji w^jLo ^l^» 

[In the nights of diversion he calls me and I follow 
him as though I were swimming in a deep water, 
sporting therein]. (S, TA.) — — ^j^yajJo J Birds 
seeking sustenance: (S, A, TA:) or birds tra- 
versing the land, [or migrating,] in search of sus- 
tenance. (L, TA.) — _ See also w»j>«. — Vj 1 -^ 
also signifies fA dark night: (K:) or a night 
of which the darkness extendi to the right and left, 
and fills the world. (S, O. [So in my copies of 
the S and in the O and TA : but accord, to 
Golius, as from the S, " yet not filling the air."]) 
See the verse of Homcyd cited in the first para- 
graph. [J cites as an ex. of the last of the mean- 
ings expl. above, and so does Sgh in the O, the 
verse in the sentence here next following.] __ 
t Anything long : applied in this sense to a night: 
thus in the following verse : 

* - * * f * * 

t [And that she lielped me in lifting and putting 
on the loads, beneath the darkness of a long night, 
with a plump fore arm and a hand dyed with 
Ainnd]. (TA.) __ f A place, (S,) or a depressed 
place, (K, TA,) and a valley, (TA,) in which are 
trees. (S, K, TA.) And f A piece of rugged 
ground extending in an oblong form in a plain, or 
soft, tract. ($, TA.) And f The like of a <£j 
in a valley [app. meaning where the water flows 
into it from its two sides : see art. v*"j] : P^ 

[Book I. 

* ' ' 

w)^jL6 [an irregular instrumental noun, like 
t * * 
^j^»-U» and some other words of the same 

measure,] J. A snare for catching birds. (A,TA.) 
y^jjt^o dim. of * t >\ j )b~o\, inf. n. of 8, q. v. 
-r'^j-^> : see w>;Ui, former half, in two places. 

Vj-a-o is an inf. n. (Ham p. 120.) [Seo the 
... •* *** 

sentence explaining the phrase ijij'^l ^i >->j-6 x 

and also the sentence next following it, towards 
the close of the first paragraph.] _ And it is 
also a noun of place [and of time, like - .'j^it, 
which is the regular form], (Ham ibid.) See 
the next paragraph, in five places. 

VJ-*- L an, l " t>^*> <1- v -»] ^1 place, or time, 
[the latter, as is said in the explanation of a 
phrase mentioned in what follows,] of beating, 
striking, smiting, or kitting :_and also, -fa 
place, or time, of journeying. (KT. J -. 'j-ti* 
(^jLpjtJI means + The line, or long mark, upon 
the face of the animal called Ql^jli [as though it 
were a place upon which it had been struck], 
(TA in art. w»^J», q. v.) — And w>j-ai, fA 
place where a tent is pitched, or set up. (Msb.) 
Sec also w>a«. — Also, (thus in the TA in 

^ • 

art. \J^t, as from the A,) or " «->j-a<, (thus in a 
copy of the A in the present art.,) t i. q. i>L_« 
[meaning A space, or tract, or an extent, over 
which one journeys ; as being a place of beating 

1 1-1 •! • . 9 » §J0»0 

the ground] : so in tlie saying, juju » ■_ i^-A-.^^ji 
[or *_y-cuo, i. e. t Between them is afar-extending 

space to be traversed]. (A.) [ille «_>>•»• iB a 

euphemism for f The place of injection of spcrma: 
and hence it means + the source from which one 
springs; origin, ancestry, or parentage; &c] 

00 t j' j al 

One says, iL-t w>^* ^ «->jtl U (S, A) mean- 

ing *5l^tl [i. e. I / know not the sources (or the 
source) from which he has sprung ; or hit ancestry, 
or parentage]: (S:) or ill* *->y^ a) cyu U 
t JVo source or origin [or parentage], nor people, 
nor ancestor or fatlier, nor nobility, pertaining to 
him, is known. (M, K, TA.) And &*j>ii U 


000 t * * «^ 

ii— t w>>io (S, A, in tlie latter jl> J,) i. c. J [SucA 
a one has no source] of kindred (>^>„ ,i), nor o/" 
ca<//<; or property (JU). (S.) And j^J^ *il 
wi>Ja«JI t [Verily lie is generous in respect of 
origin]. (A, TA.) [See also ifjj^.] _ One says 

* o * 00 >~a 0I 

also, lyjj-a-o j-yl* i»UI C*5I, meaning f ?%c 

ske-camel arrived at the time [of year] of Iter 
being leajted by the stallion ; making the time to 
be like the place. (S.)...^^^*, (S, A, O, and 

so in the M in art.>»,,) or * vj-a«> (K,* TA,) 
with fet-h to the^, (K, TA,) and to thcj also, 
(TA,) [but this is app. a mistake, as the weight 
of authority is in favour of the former,] \ A bone 
in which is marrow : (S, O, K :) or a bone that 
u broken and from which marrow is extracted [or 
sought to be extracted]. (M in art. j>j.) One 
says, of a sheep or goat, (S, A,) that is emaciated, 

(S,) vj-* ^*0°ji •• I [Not a bone of her tkat 

is broken for its matron contains any marrow] ; 
i. e. when a bone of her is broken, no marrow 

Book I.] 

will be found in it. (S,A.) — And ^~>y-o* (?, 

Msb, K) and t w>i* (Msb, K) and * ii Jo* (S, 

Msb, £) and t i^, (Msb, K) and * l^Li (Sb, 
TA) signify The part of a sword, Wi<A which one 
strikes: (Msb, and Ham p. 129:) or [the part] 
about a span from the extremity: (S, TA :) or 
the part exclusive of, or below, the <Ub [q. v.] 

(<LUt &/i): (TA:) or the edge (jL) thereof; 
(J£, TA ;) thus cxpl. by several of the leading 
lexicologists: (TA:) and so » a-jj-o : which last 
also signifies a stvord : (K :) [i. c.] a sword 
itself is sometimes thus called, ns ISd says : 
(TA :) the pi. of *->yo-* is y<Uu. (Ham ubi 

" ' J * 

supra.) _-[Jio «->**> means + The secondary 
idea, or thing, signified by a parable or proverb, 
and compared to the primary idea, or thing ; the 
thing, or case, to which a parable or proverb is 
applied : correlative of jli ij^» : pi. «_>jUm.] 

— And [the pi.] wJjLa* signifies f Stratagems 
in war. (IAtir, TA.) 

Vj-^* [part. n. of .— >~il, q. V.J. You say, 

\^xc if*, oolj (S, TA) and ajj-o* (TA) J 7 
«M! n serpent still, not moving. (S, TA.) 

• # • 

w^a-o [JL fVt/'wj «•»'</» 7i7(/r/t one iea/.«, strihes, 

smites, or A//.*;] a M»m// ■««>/. ro/ttt/t f/ic ortw« 
termed «->>-a)l ?> performed ; as also ▼ «_>l^-a*. 
(K.) .4 wooden instrument [a hind of mallet] with 
which the bow-string is struck in the operation of 
separating cotton. (Msb.)_And, (S,A,K,)asan 
epithet applied to a man, (S,A,) it signifies jujJi 
»->-a)l [One who beats, strikes, smites, or hits, 
vehemently] ; (S, O ;) or w>j-«)l jJ£s [one who 
beats, &a, wiur/t] ; as also t w>j^-» (A, K) and 
♦ v!/-" (A) and ♦ »,-ij-6 (K, TA) and ♦ .-y-^- 
(O, K, TA. [But in none of these lexicons is this 
signification mentioned in such a manner as to 
show that it necessarily relates to any but the 
first of these words, namely, *-jj-o* : that it docs 
so, however, is indicated by the measures of all 
of them.]) — Also, (O, K, TA,) or ♦ v>ii, 
with fet-h to the j» and kesr to the j, (Mgh,) 
[thus] written like yX+i * by MF, and pro- 
nounced by the vulgar +->j*cl», but both of these 
are [said to be] incorrect, (TA,) A [tent such as 
is called] iJ : (Mgh:) or a great [tent of the 
hind called] l,Ukli ; (O, K, TA ;) the LIL_J of 
a king : (TA :) pi. ^jUki. (Mgh, TA.) 

<L/j*a* and duj~ix<> and Htj*a* : see «->«". 

• a - j 

Vj-^ Sewed [meaning quilted] with cotton : 

applied in this sense to a i>Uy [or thing that is 
spread like a carpet, flee.]. (Mgh, Msb.) 

*' a '. ' 

i^j^x» [a subst. signifying A quilt ; a quilted 

garment and the like : sec 2]. (S, Mgh, Msb.) 

w>!j-** The </»«// [i. e. plectrum] with which a 

lute (}}*■) m struck [or played] : (S :) pi. ^ ttk*. 

(TA in art. .->!».) [See an ex. voce —jj±>. 
Bk. I. 

The plectrum commonly used for this purpose in 
the present day is a slip of a vulture's feather, and 
is termed <L2-jj : see the chap, on music in my 
" Modern Egyptians."] _— See also 

w>3j-o« : sec w^-= ant * *r*ij*>> ''"' litter "' 
two places. Dhu-r-Kummeh says, speaking of a 
cake of bread (Sj**.), 

" t) " * " + + * o i » 9 * * 

[Many a thing (meaning many a cake of bread) 
beaten for tw offence, free from blame, I have 
broken for my companions in haste, with a vigorous 
breaking], (TA, after explaining the phrase 

jlaLlI w>j~ol [q. v.].)_. Also -f Staying, abiding, 
or remaining, [fixed, or settled,] in a tent, or 
house. (TA.) 

• * ■* 

wjjLao One who is employed by another to 

tra£ic for him with his (the latter'*) property, on 
the condition of their sharing the gain together: 
and also one who employs another to traffic for 
him with his (t lie former's) property, on that con- 
dition : thus cxpl. by En-Nadr; and Az also 
allows the use of the word in these two senses. 

w^la-cL* may mean wij^fauol [i. c. it may be 

used as an inf. n. of .-j^-* 1 (<!• v, )> agreeably 
with a general rule] :_ and it may mean A 
place of wjI^JmI : (Ham p. 142 :) [thus used it 
often means a place in which one goes to and fro 
seeking the means of subsistence : and simply a 
place in which one seeks gain : see ^ wjjJouoI 

6jyt\ : and sec also the syns.^lj-a (in two places) 

and jj£U.]_[lt is also a pass. part. n. : and 
hence the phrase ^iU^JJ OlfrJ fcA *, meaning The 
things that arc desired to be gained for sub- 
sistence, or sustenance : see w-*|^«.] 

• f • 9 

ftjhJx* [A thing having its several parts in a 
state of collision : and hence, a thing, and a man, 
in a state of commotion, agitation, convulsion, 
&c. : sec its verb, 8]. — One says, w>^ h , ji<i jU. 
tjLaJt [lit. He came with quivering rein] ; mean- 
ing lie came discomfited, or put to flight, and alone. 
(K.) And JUUJI w)jla.<\< J«>j X A man incon- 
gruous, unsound, faulty, or weak, in respect of 
make: (A, TA :) tall, and [loose, lax, flabby, 
uncompact, slack, skaky, or] not strong of make. 

(TA.) And jlUjI i^yiJu i~;j^. -M <m- 

rfjVwn unsound, faulty, or wea/i, »'« respect of tke 

authority upon which it rests, or to which it is 

& * • j 
traced up or ascribed; syn. J. T jI.o. (S, TA.) 

1. J^>, (S, O, L, £,) aor. , , (O,) or ^ , (L,) 
• • « 
inf. n. »->^, (O, L,) He split it, slit it, or rent it 

asunder or open ; (S, O, L, K ;) and so » a».^9 
[but app. in an intensive sense, or said of a 
number of things, inf. n. ^j^cj] ; namely, a 

garment, &c. (L.) [Hence,] jUI ~.j*> i. q. ~j 


Ux ly) [i. e. He made an opening in tlie live coals 
of the fire, in order that it might burn up well]. 
(AHn, TA.)__And He smeared it, daubed it, 
or defiled it; (O, L,K;) and so * aJ^> [but 
app., in this case also, in an intensive sense, or 
said of a number of things]; namely, a garment, 
(A, L,) flee., (L,) with blood, (A, L,) or with 
something similar thereto, that was red, or with 
something yellow. (L.) __ And He threw it, or 

* A ft * m • * * * 

threw it down. (K.) ^ \J^~> <^-fj-o and C~o>»> 
[signify the same, i. c. She was choked with her 
cud; or she swallowed her cud with difficulty; 
the former verb being app. formed by transpo- 
sition from the latter ; but Cwi» seems to be 

better known than c~e^] ; said of a camel. 

(O, ta.; 

2 : sec above, in two places. __ One says also, 
j,jj <OJl p-j-9, (S, O,) or^jJlj, (K,) He made 
his nose to bleed. (S, O, K.) __ And v^' fj-»> 
(S, O, K,) inf. n. Li^, (S, O,) He dyed t/ie 
garment, or piece of clotk, of a red colour, (S, 
O, K,) making it less j 'idly dyed than that which 
is termed «.. ,t.«, and more so than that whick is 

termed ijy>. (S, O.) _ [Hence,] >»^LiOI jrj-o, 
(A, K,) inf. n. as above, (O,) life embellished 
the speech, (A, O, K,) and amjilijied it, (A,) as 
one docs in excuses, or pleas, ((_),) with truth, or 
with falsehood. (A, 0.)_ly~». w~*»j~0 She (a 
woman) hoscned her w^o. [or opening at the neck 
and bosom if her shift or the like, so that the edges 
were not drawn together, or buttoned]. (O, }£ :* 

in the latter, >_.,.^.)l ~j-=, inf. n. as above.) _ 
*> -. ^ 

jJ^Nt Ua^6 We urged on tlie camels, in making 

a hostile, or predatory, incursion. (O, K.*) 

5: sec 7, in four places prv-=j also signifies 

It (a garment, A, L) became smeared, daubed, or 
defiled, (S, A, O, L, K,) with blood, (S, A, O, 
L,) or with something similar thereto, that was 
red, or with something yellow. (L.) _ And 

>aJI »y-a3 J The cheek became red, (O, J£, TA,) 

on an occasion of shame. (O.) You say, o.T.»JL£> 

»lj*. K-j-oi> 1 1 spoke to him and his c/ieeks 

became red. (A,» TA.) And iljjl C^oJ 

t Tke woman displayed her finery, or ornaments, 
and beauties of person or form or countenance, to 
men, (A, O, K, TA,) and embellished herself 

7. 9->«ul It (a thing, or garment, flee., L) split, 
slit, or rent asunder or open; (S, O, L, KL;) as 
also 9-j-ail ; (TA in art. 9-j-b;) and so ♦ »v-Ju 
[but app. in an intensive sense, or said of a 
number of things] : (L :) the latter is said of a 
garment in the former sense; (TA ;) or as 
meaning it became much rent, or rent in several 
places. (L.) When the fruits of herbs, or lcgu- 

minous plants, appear, one says, \it. o«.j^ul 
* j " * > * • i * 

lyi^UJ and \y»\^s\ [i. e. Their envelopes, or jteri- 

carps, and their calyxes, rent asunder or open, so 
as to disclose them]. (A, TA. [And the like is 
said in the S and O.]) And one says also, 
AAiMi JaJI v>* " w*/ < J , meaning c* ■"■*■'' I [i. e. 



Tlie envclojm, or pericarps, of tlie herbs, or legu- 
minous plants, opened so as to disclose what was 
within them]. (S, O.) And Jyll t J^& The 
blossoms opened. (K.) And 'jLjJ\ p>-ail The 
buds of the trees burst open and the extremities of 
the leaves a]>peared. (L.) And t tfj^J said of 
lightning means JAiJ [i. c. It clave the clouds, 
and extended high, into the midst of the shy; or it 
was in a state of commotion in the clouds; or it 

spread wide and long]. (S, A, O, Jfc.) Also 

It was, or became, wide, or ample. (El-Muiirrij, 
S, O, £.) You say, JjjLi\ U c~. j+i\ The road 
was, or became, wide to us. (TA.) And *-j-aJl 
s>yti\ i^tf U The space between the people was, or 
became, far-extending : (As, S, O, K:*) and so 

*->^JI. (S in art. ~j-o.) 1>U«JI <£-»-j-aA Tlie 

eagle darted down upon the prey : (O, £ :) or 
bctooh itself, or advanced, to it : (0 :) or took a 
sidelong course to it. (O, K..*) 

• - 
».j*> A garment, or piece of cloth, smeared with 

a red, or yellow, colour; as also ♦ »Jj-el : ' or this 
latter is only [applied to a garment, or piece of 
cloth,] of [the kind called] ]L. (TA.) [And 
J^U^I *->£ means Having the ends of the 

fingers smeared, or defiled, by blood : see Ham 
p. 709.] 

*U-j-i and i*v-i ^1 species of bird. (TA.) 

w j-c j J* .4 vehement running, (S, K.) 

r-J^I ^4 yellow [garment of tlie kind called] 
X~£s ; (K ; ) a yellow sort of sLJs\ [pi. of .life] : 

* »■ 

(S, O :) or a .U£> macfc of excellent [down of tlie 
kind called] \£)*j+ : (TA :) or i-_£>l maaJe o/ 

f/jc fce*< o/" v^>*^4 : (Lth, O, TA :) and, (O, £,) 
accord, to Lh, (TA,) red [cloth of the kind called] 
jL: (<>, K,TA :) and ^^1 «Li»f signifies 
the 3Lt-£>\ ofredjL ; (A, TA ;) or of yellow "jL. 
(TA. See also «->6.) And »»£>«ot vy -^ # ar " 

»ne«< saturated with redness. (A.) And A red 

(/ye.- (O.K, TA:) so it is said to signify : and 
hence " *->«** oy [meaning vl garment, or piece 
p/" cfotf , r/ycrf o/" a raf colour in the manner expl. 
rocc t-j-'J- (TA.)aa And yl Aor*e f/<a< u .w//i 

a«<i excellent ; or awj/J, or excellent, in running ; 
(AO, 8, O, £, TA;) veliement in running; (S, 
O, T A ;) or having a large mane : (AO, TA :) 
or wide in the ^fy [or breast, or middle of ths 
breast]. (TA.) 

•.ja* : see its pi., ^U, below. 

i i - j * 


• a 

i a . j 

«y-o-»: see ^if~e\- — Chi J^-Jl £>-«-* 
J Having tlie clteeks made red. (A,* TA.) __ 
4->-aJI, (so in the O,) or * f-j-^O'j (so accord, 
to the K , there said to be like £>j**+,) The lion. 


r-j-ijl : sec what next precedes. 

Aa.jj»^uo ^^c yln eye wjrfe in </<c fissure : (S, 
O, $ :) a roitfe eye. (A.) 

efjUw* i. q. JU^ [i. e. Fissures ; lit. places of 

slitting: pi. of J*!*]. (O, K.) Ilimyan Ibn- 
Kohafeh Es-Saadee says, describing the tushes of 
a stallion-camel, . 

# " " * it t ' a - tl 

[That widened the fissures of the sides of his 
mouth], (O.)^Also Old and worn-out gar- 
ments, (A'Obcyd, S, O, ]£,) that are used for 
service and work, like what arc called jjlxo : 
sing. * l^L. (A'Obeyd, S, 0.) 

1. *i.^>, (S, O, L, K,) aor. - , (K,) inf. n. 
TV - *' (§» ^» ®> ^*») •"* removed it from its place ; 
put it away or a«</e ; pushed, or thrust, it away : 
(S, A,* O, L, K :) lie took it, and threw it away 
or aside: (L:) he puslied it, or thrust it, away 
with his foot : (Expos, of the " Amalee " of El- 
!KLalce :) [and] tfJ^^i v-j^ [if not a mistranscrip- 
tion for t,JiA\ v-yi] He threw [from him] the 
thing; and put it away or aside: and <uc ~-j-a 
w^ll He cast, off from him tlie garment. (A.) 
See also 4. [And see 8.] [Hence] i-* 0»-j-o 
>yUI »^ly^ t J invalidated tlie testimony of the 
people or party, or annulled its claim to credibility, 
(QL.jtf.,) and cast it from me, or rejected it : (S, 
A, O, £ :*) said by one against whom false 
witness has been borne, and who has shown its 

falseness. (A.) — And VV_g ijtjjt C^-j-i, (S, 
O, K,) aor. '- , (K,» TA,) inf. n. ^6 (S, O) and 
L\p6, (S,* O, £,) this latter from Sb, (TA,) [but 
it seems to be implied in the K that the verb 
with f-l>«0 for its inf. n. has its aor., as well as 

this inf. n., like that of «r~ ^-> , which I do not 
think to be the case,] Tlie beast kicked with its 

hind leg : (S, O, Tfc. :) or «>j^)t is with tlie fore 
legs ; and — - «pl , with the hind legs. (TA.) One 
says, <>-!^rf> ly*» [/< has a habit of kicking with 
the hind leg : or, with the fore leg] ; a phrase 
mentioned by I'Ab. (S.) — pf-&> (S, IC,) or 
\L->fA 9-j^, (A, Msb,) aor. -, (Mjb, TA,) inf. n. 

A*«*i ( s » ?>) He du o a £*** [q- v -]» (?, a, 

M f b,^,)c4Ju [/<"• the corpse]. (A,»K.)_ 

i->^>, inf. n. 9-f*>, also signifies [//e clave the 

ground ; (see *-iJ-» j) and] Ae «pZi<, slit, or rent 

asunder or open, anything ; like »-j*o> with »- : 

(TA :) but the phrase >j>JI l^^>«o, in a verse of 
Dhur-r-Rummeh, as some relate it, is expl. by 
AA as meaning We threw off the [garments called] 
jj jj : others relate it with m. ; and in this case 

he says that it means " we rent asunder " or 
" open." (Az, O, TA.) ^a v-yb [as though quasi- 

pass, of «<*y-o] signifies also lie, or it, was, or 
became, distant, or remote ; or removed to a dis- 

[Book I. 
tancc ; went far away. (L.) [See also 7.] — . 
And J^JI C-fc^, inf. n. *.^j-i (O, £, TA) and 

* * * rntA 

r-i-o> (TA,) 77ic market was, or became, stagnant, 
or rfufl, jc»t» re«/^c< <o traffic. (O, Kl, TA.) 

-* * i - $00 

3. 4».jLo ?'. </. ajL. and »lot, ; (0, K ;) i. C. 
Aa-jUi and ajL. and »Ulj arc [all] one [in signifi- 
cation, npp. meaning He reviled him, or vilified 
him, being reviled, or vilified, by him ; so that the 
last seems to be here used tropically]. (TA.) ^ 
And »'. q. A/jli [lie drew him near to him] ; (O, 

K ;) namely, his companion. (O.) — Also, inf. n. 

t * " *j 

itt-jUo*, lie, or it, resembled, and corresponded 

to, him, or it; syn. **jl«i and <J^li. (TA. [See 
< « i 

4. r-j-ol «• (?• J^l : (K :) you say, JUt «*>^6l, 
(so accord, to two copies of the S,) or t 4»^ol, 
(so in one of my copies of the S, [i. e. 4*>>bt, 

from <yo-^b, in my other copy of the S Aa- J ~o\, 
so that the correct form of the verb in this sense 
is doubtful,]) meaning »juul [i. c. Remove tliov, 
or put far away, him, or it, from thee]. (S.) 
[In the TA, it is also expl. as meaning iij, 
which is likewise a signification of Ljlo.] — 
And He corrupted, or vitiated, (O, K,) him, or 

it. (O.) __ And J^-JI C-^j-ot I made, or found, 
tlie market to be stagnant, or {lull, with respect to 
traffic; syn. 0juli>l. (O, £.•) 

7. pj-ail -ft wa«, or became, wide, or ample. 
(TA.) You say, ^^iJI ^ U -.j-oil 27*e jrpoce 
between the people 7cas, or became, far-extending : 
like £>-ail. (As, S.) — Also It split, slit, or 
rent asunder or open ; like jpj-oit. (TA.) 

8. U^li l j a. jh .ol TViey cast stick a one aside : 
(O,* L, TA : [seo also 1, first sentence :]) the 
vulgar say tj*.j£l, thinking it to be from LjU\, 
whereas it is from *.^aJl : or, accord, to Ai, it 
may be that, in l^».jil, the Z> of the measure 
Jj&I is changed into J», and ^J incorporated 
into- it. (L, TA.) 

•*'*/» r- /n 9»0*00 00 

£j-i inf. n. of 1. (S, A, fcc.)—^,^ }J i ti 

■y-j^> means Between me and them is a wide 

distance, and solitude. (TA.)sssAlso A skin. 

* ' ' J 3 . . *' ' r • i ». 

p-j-i <u> 2. 7. »J^«/ [ajip. meaning A distant, 
or remote, thing, or p/ace, </ia< is <Ae 06/ect 0/ an 
action or a journey : Sec] ; (O, I£ ;) as also »-jX 
&c. (O.) — p-j-i applied to a man, Bad, cor- 
r«p/, or vttwus. (El-Muamj, O, K.) =0 «.j»a)l 
is also used by poetic license for [tho inf. n.] 

^*«. (o.) 

plj-?, like jAisi, (K, TA,) is a verbal noun 
like gtjj, (TA,) meaning 1^1, (K, TA,) i. e. 
jo^l: you say, <ue r-l/^ ■Remove thou to a 
distance, or go far away, from him, or ft. (TA.) 

Book I.] 

^.ij-all, (O, %, TA,) or, accord, to Mujdhid, 

tw^ln, (0,TA,*) [The temple called) C^JI 

jj>i»»)t, (O, K,TA,) corresponding to, or oi?cr 
against, [i. e. directly over,] tlie Kaabeh, (O, TA,) 
t» Heaven, (O,) tn <Ae Fourth Heaven, (K., TA,) 
or n <Ae Seventh, or «t f/tc Sixth, and said to be 
beneath the \£j£, or in tlie First Heaven: (TA :) 
accord, to 'Alec, it is entered every day by 
seventy thousand angels. (0.) 

p-jj-3 ^-y -/l iow </*«' propeh the arrow with 

velienience; (S, A, £>*) as also *-3>A> [q. v.]. 

(S and and K in art. *>>!>.) And 9-jj-b &/\) 

A Iteast that kicks with its hind leg (S, K) [or 
with its fore legs: see 1], 

j—>t*> Distant, or remote: (S,^:) of the 

measure J««> in the sense of the measure Jy**-». 
(TA.) — Also A trench, or an oblong excavation, 
in the middle of a grave ; (S, A, Mgh, Msb, K ;) 
and so ♦ ia-it-b : (TA :) in this sense [likewise] 
of the measure ^xs in the sense of the measure 

JyuU: (Msb:) what is termed j«J is in the 
side: (S:) or a //rate (K, TA) altogether: 
(TA :) or a grave without a jJLi : (K, TA :) pi. 
Jlfci. (Msb.) One says, a»~>jJ> all jy (A, 


Quasi ij-i 
>jia*b\, as though from 3^ : sec 8 in art. 


3. jy>^\ OwjU> J J became experienced in 
affairs, and knew them. (T, TS.) = IjijU, 
(K,) inf. n. iwjUu and ,^-y-6 ; so in the Tek- 
mileh ; but in the M, ♦ \y.jCc3 ; (TA ;) I They 
warred, or fought, one against another, and 
treated one another with enmity, or hostility : 
1. aJ^b, (A, TA,) aor. - , (TA,) inf. n. ^*yo, (K, TA :) from ^ry-o, [inf. n. of u-j-6,] signify- 
(S, A, £,) He bit it : (TA :) or he bit it ing the '« being angry by reason of hunger." 


TA) i. e. [May God illumine] his grave. (TA.) 
__ Sec also -.Ij-oll. 

*' ' 

<U*J>rf> : sec the next preceding paragraph. 

■ « • # 3 ' f ' 

>.^a« .4 garment, or /;tece 0/ cfotft, or ofAer 

<Ami^, ««erf as a repository for clothes : pi. Lj\J> 
(O.) L ' 


A hawk, (S, A, 0, K,) and a vulture, 
(A,) having long wings; (S, A, 0,1£;) as also 
*" p^«* > (O, £ ;) but the former is the more 
common : ahawkof thisdescriptionisof an excellent 
kind : (TA:) and to the wings of the vulture of this 
sort is likened the extremity of the tail of a she- 
camel with the coarse hairs that are upon it: (Kf, 
TA :) or white, applied to a hawk and to a 
vulture; (A;) or thus, applied to a vulture; and 
sometimes, so applied, black : (Ham p. 95 :) or 
a vulture intensely red [or brown] : (AHat, O :) 
[and a hawk in which is redness ; otherwise it is 
not thus called: (so in the Deewdn of Jerecr, 
accord, to Freytag:)] or i. q. Jj^l and^li and 
yjtfe ■ (A'Obcyd, TA :) [it is mentioned in the 
IjL again in art. £j-su ; for,] accord, to some, 
the> is radical: (TA in art. £•>«-:) or, applied 
to a hawk, it means that darts down sideways ; 
or that thrusts the prey. (Ham ubi supra.) ^ 
[Hence,] J A chief, (S, A, O, $,) such as is gene- 
rous, or noble, ($,) or of ancient (A, O) and 

generous (O) origin. (A, O.) Also White as 

an epithet applied to anything. (I£.)^And 
I Tall, or long. ($,TA.) 

£ jkA» JtyB A thing cast aside. (S, K..) 

vehemently with the ^\j^\ [pi. of i^-y-o, q. v.] ; 
(S, A, 5 ;) as also » n-y-o : ( A :) or with tlie. ^j-j-e. 
(T, TA.) _ He (a beast of prey) chewed his flesh, 
(i.e., the flesh of his prey,) without swallowing 
it; (A;) as also t JLjLe. (A, TA.)_//c bit it 
(namely an arrow) to try it ; to know if it were 
hard or weak : (S :) lie marked it (namely an 
arrow) by biting it with hit v^j^ol, (M, A,) or 
with his teeth. (Az, TA.) — t He tried him with 
respect to his claims to knowledge or courage. 
(lAnr.) — wi^kaJ! a^j^o, inf. n. ^»j-e, I Things 
or affairs, or calamities, tried, or tested, him ; as 
also " tlmtfJt. ( TA.) — w>^^»JI 4^0/06, inf. n. 
ij->yi>, t Wars tried, or proved, him, and rendered 
him expert, or strong ; (TA ;) as also ♦ dZ*^, 
(§, A, K,) inf. n. J^15. (§, K.) — J,^. 
OUpl, (S, A, K,) inf. n. ^.j-i, (K,) : Fortune 
became severe, rigorous, afflictive, or adverse, to 
tliem; (S, A, K ;*) as also l^JLi. (A,TA.) 

\yf\j \j*y*b I She was evil in deposition : (TA :) 

* * ' 
and isV^s [alone] tlie being evil in disposition. 

(IAar.).^ w ^«o also signifies fThc biting of 
blame, or reprehension. (IAar.) _ And J The 
keeping silence during a day, until the night: 
(O, K, TA :) as though biting one's tongue. 
(TA.) — And ')4\ J£i, aor. ; (O, £, TA) 
and * , (TA,) inf. n. J-)4, (O, TA,) + He cased 
tlie well Tvith stones : (O, K, TA :) or, as some 
say, lie closed up the interstices of its casing with 
stones : and in like manner one says of any build- 
ing. (TA.) m '*i<L\ C-^fi, (S, ^,) aor. '- , (£,) 
inf. n. yj*j0b, (S,) His teeth were set on edge 
(c«w) by eating or drinking what was acid, 
or sour. (S, A,*K.) And jLj>\ J*jl> The man's 

teeth were set on edge. (TA.) It is said in a trad, 
of Wahb Ibn-Munebbih, that a certain bastard, 
of tlie Children of Israel, offered an offering, and 

it was rejected ; whereupon he said, ^J&l^ vj W 
». • • »«• ■ ft ft 1* »t, ,t* ', 0ft 

[0 my Lord, my two parents eat sour herbage, 
and are my teeth set on edge? Thou art more 
gracious than to suffer that] : and his offering 
was accepted. (O in art. ^i,*..) [Soc Jcr., 
xxxi. 29 ; and Ezek., xviii. 2.] __ Also u**A, 
inf. n. ^ry-o, t He was angry by reason of 
hunger : because hunger sharpens the (wll^l. 

(TA.) And w>^W \y->j^o 1 Thry persisted 

in war until they fought one another. (T, O, 


4. A-y-ol It (acid, or sour, food, or drink,) 
set his teeth on edge; (Ibn-'Abbad, K;*) syn. 
AJUll Qm\, (Ibn-'Abbad.) [And so, app., j^y-ol 

00 0»t 

ajUwI.] — . Also I He, or /'/, (an affair, or event, 
S,) disquieted him. (Ibn-'Abbad, S, 0,K,TA.) 
^And jt^S^\f Awj^il f He silenced him by 
speech. (Ibn-'Abbad, 0,K:.) 

5 : see what next follows. 

6. ^jUu, (S, A, K,) in the M t^j-Su, (TA,) 
J .ft (a building) 7vas, or became, uneven, (S, M, 
A, K,) and irregular, (A,) having in it what re- 
1^-ijUaJ : see 3. 

A. *%0jij0o, inf. n. ^— jj-oj : see «^, in five 
places, —.^^cu also signifies I An indentation, 
or serration, (Az, TA,) like ,^-ljJ.I, (TA,) in a 
sapphire (*5yU) and a pearl, or in wood. (Az, 

sembled ^AjM. (M.) 

^s>j~s t ia»J</ o/" »c/m'cA tlie licrbagc is here and 
there (IAar, T, O, K, TA) mud on which rain 
has fallen here and there: (IAar, T, TA:) and 
a portion of land vyxm which rain has fallen a 
day or part of a day. (TA.) _ See also u-ij-b. 

\j»j0o A tooth: (S, K :) pi. ,^iy«6l, and (some- 
times, S, Msb) yj*}y6 (S, Msb, K) and IJ ^j-o\ 
[which is a pi. of pauc, as is also, properly, the 
first of the pis. here mentioned] ; and quasi-pl. n. 
^ry-i [written in the TA without any syll. signs, 
so that it may be ^>j-o, or ^tyi (like the sing.), 
or ijtj-o] ; so in the M [of which I am unable to 
consult the portion containing this art.] : (TA :) 
or [a lateral tooth ; for] the ^j*o\ arc the teeth, 
except the central incisors: (Mgh:) or [this ex- 
planation, which I find only in the Mgh, is in- 
complete, and the word sometimes means the teeth 
absolutely, but properly] the molar teeth, or 
grinders, which are twenty in number, [including 
the bicuspids,] next behind the canine teeth : (Zj, 

in his " Khalk cl-Insan :") or I. q. SU.Jl : (§ and 

Msb and K, art .«•.< : [see .>* : and see also 
•' " • • . ' 

a^Wj Lfj-° is masc. ; (Mgh, K ;) and some- 
times fern. : (Mgh :) or what is thus called is 
masc. when thus called ; (S, Msb ;) but if called 

^j-*, it is fem. : (Msb :) or it is properly masc. ; 
and if found in poetry made fem., v j«* is meant 
thereby : (Zj, Msb :) but As denies its being 
made fem. ; (Msb, TA ;) and as to the saying 
ascribed to Dukeyn, 

t • • tf * •* % j* 

[And an eye was put out, and a tooth, or grinder, 
sounded], he says that the right reading is ^jby 
,jaj0oi\ [and the tooth, or grinder, sounded], and 
that he who heard these words understood them 
not. (TA.) What arc called j^l J*y\i't and 
^oJ*-" ^y-ol [The wisdom-teeth, and the teeth of 
puberty] are four: they come forth after the 



[other] teeth have become strong. (TA. [See 
J^Ai.])^ [Hence,] sing, of v"&~<> (%•) which 
signifies + The stone* with which a well is cased. 
(S, O, K.) _ And t A jJ [app. as meaning a 
peak, or the like,] in a mountain. (TA.) — And 
\A rough [hill, or eminence, or elevated place, 
such at is termed] <U=»'l (T, O, #, TA) and [such 
as is termed] * T .' A L\ : (T, TA :) or rough ground; 
written by Sgh * J4*^ : (IAar, TA:) or a por- 
tion of a [tract such as is termed] ±JS, somewhat 
e'evated, very rugged, rough to the tread, consist- 
ing of a single piece of stone [or rock], unmixed 
with clay, or toil, and not giving growth to any- 
thing : pi. ^yf!b. (TA.) Also t Light rain: 

(IAar, TA:) or a rain little in quantity: (S, O:) 
or a light rain: pi. ,^^-e: (£:) or &* ^>}y° 
j!la>+ means scattered rains : (As, TA :) or scat- 
tered showers of rain : (S, O :) and some say, 
»*. q. jjj»- [app. a mistranscription, probably for 
jj4>, which signifies rain; or clouds, or mist, 
and rain]: and [it is said that] ^j-o signifies 
also a raining cloud tliat has not [much] width. 
(TA.) ■■ See also ^j^», last sentence. 

^j-i A man having his teeth set on edge. (TA.) 
— And I A man angry by reason of hunger ; 
(AZ, £, TA ;) because hunger sharpens the 
t^tp**: (TA:) and * J-t^o signifies fvery 
hungry; (£,TA;) so tltat there it nothing that 
comes to him but lie eats it, by reason of hunger : 
(TA :) nl. of the latter ^\fh, like as ^'j*- is a 

pi. of 0<>- (K-) And J A man (ft A » °) 

refractory, untractable, perverse, stubborn, or 
obstinate, in disposition : ( Yz, S, A, 0, 1£ :) evil 
in disposition, or illnatured, and very perverse or 
cross or repugnant and averse ; syn. u-y-'- (?.) 
You say ^pS wj-b J*y- (Yz, S, A, O.) [See 
is'fj-d.] _ Sec also ^ye*, last sentence. 

iltj-e Ruggednett, and roughness. (TA.) 
^'j^> Toothache. (MA.) 

ifit-o [seems to signify, properly, A disposition 
to bite]. _ [Hence,] U-lj-o o~-t iJUM means 
t 77ifi she-camel it in the case of the recentness of 
her bringing forth, when she defends her young 
one ; from the epithet w-j>i ; (S, Meyd, O ; but 
in the S and O, J^k, referring to the she-camel, is 
put in the place of i»UI ;) and is a prov., applied 
to the man whose nature is evil on the occasion of 
his defending. (Meyd.) And one says, AJU1 J5I 
C— C-fr ^j* •_ meaning { Beware thou of the slie- 
camel in the case of the recentness of Iter bringing 
forth, and of her evil disposition towardt him wlio 
approaches her, by reason of her attachment to 
her young one. (A, TA.) [In the TA, in art. 0+, 
this saying is mentioned with Vf'j-f in tne P lace 
of V-lj-o : the former may perhaps be another 
reading; but I rather think that it is a mis- 
transcription for the latter. And in the present 
art. in the TA, it is added that Sgh has men- 
tioned (app. in the TS, for he has not done so in 
the O,) El-B&hilee's having explained ^-1^11 as 
meaning ji^jtf > * n d that it is likewise explained 

in the T as meaning jn* : but I know no* such 
word as ^e-— > ; nor do I know any word of which 
it is likely to be a mistranscription, though I have 
diligently searched for such. This word _ /ri -i has 
been altered by the copyist in each instance in the 
TA; so that it seems to have been indistinctly 
written by the author.] __ [Hence also] ^t^o 
V^JI t T/ie biting of war. (Ham p. 532.) 

u*}j-o A she-camel of evil disposition, (S, K,) 
that bites her milker : (S, A, K :) or that has a 
habit of biting to defend Iter young one. (TA.)__ 

• s 9*0 

[Hence,] wjj~i> -r>)— I Devouring, biting, war : 
(TA :) or vehement war. (Ham p. 87.) = And 
A she-camel wliose flow, or stream, of milh does 
not make any sound to be heard. (TA.) 

v-ij»e t Stonet resembling ,^Jj«ol [i. e. teeth or 
lateral teeth or molar teeth] : with such, a well is 
cased. (TA.) __ And t The vertebra of the back. 
(0, K.) as Also, and t L-^'jleU, + A well (^) 
cased with stones. (S, K.) — — See also t^j-=- 

m *t 1 » » ( 

u *yo\ an imitative sequent to w<j*>l as an 
epithet applied to a man. (S, K..) 

* s J 

tj-.^ptt* t A. sort of figured cloth or garment, 

(S, O, K,) having upon it forms resembling ^A^ 
[i. e. teeth or lateral teeth or molar teeth], (K,) 
or thought by IF to be thus called because 
having upon it such forms : (0 :) or, applied 
as an epithet to [the kind of garments called] 
J«jj, as meaning figured with the marlis of fold- 
ing : or meaning folded in a square form : or, as 
some say, iw>-ju> signifies a sort of clotlis, or gar- 
ments, upon which are lines and ornamental bor- 
ders. (TA.) _ And f An arrow tliat is not 
smooth, or even ; because it has in it what 

- e £ f*fl » t&0 

resemble u-l^ol. (TA.) __ And i_.j-a-<> Sj*. 

M. 90 9 

and " i-/jj-cu) f [A stony tract] in which are 
stones like the i U *\j*>\ of dogs. (A'Obeyd, S, 1$J) 
= Also J A man who has been tried, or proved, 
or tried and strengthened, by exj>ericnce; (A, TA ;) 
whom trials have befallen, as though lie Itad been 
bitten tliereby : (TA :) who has been tried, or 
proved, and rendered expert, or strong, by wars, 
(S, A,) and by affairs, or calamities : (A :) like 
jm. '- from J»-U : (A, TA :) or who has become 
experienced in affairs : (AA, S :) one who lias 
travelled, and become experienced in affairs, and 
fought ; as also 1 1^0 and f i^-j-e. (TA.) 

u -j'r t i\ The lion, that c/iews the flesh of his 
prey without swallowing it : (O, K :) or t/te lion ; 
so called because he does thus. (TA.) 

*0 > * » • - ., **',* 

iwjj-cuo : sec wife : and also i^a*. 

L i>i, aor.,; (S, M?b, $;) and i>>i, aor. £ ; 
(M?b ;) inf. n. i>i (S, M|b, K., in the Msb said 
to be of the latter verb,) and £>4 (Msb, K, in 
the Msb said to be of the former verb,) and iu^» 
and h\^>, (K,) or the last is a simple subst., 
(Msb,) [a coarse word, signifying] He broke 

[Book I. 

wind, i.e. emitted wind from the atius, with a 
sound. (S, K..) [When it is without sound, you 

00 * * A tm* ' » * 

say Ui.] Hence the prov., U»j-o "^1 jt*i\ [Ji^ 
The ass had no j>ower remaining except [that of] 
emitting wind from the anus, with a sound: 
(S, K :) applied to a vile, or an abject, person, 
and to an old man ; and in allusion to a thing's 
becoming in a bad, or corrupt, state, so that there 
remains of it nothing but what is of no use: (£:) 
the last word is in the accus. case as denoting a 
thing of a different kind from that signified by 
the preceding noun. (0.) And 0}jU«JI ,>* O***' 
Us^a [More cowardly than he who is exhausted 
by emitting wind from the anil*, with a sound]: 
another prov.: [its origin is variously related: 
sec Frcytag's Arab. Prov., i. 320:] or «_jjj^„)l 
&j~o [or U»j^>, for it is differently written in 
different copies of the K,] is a certain beast, 
between the dog and the cat, (K.) or between tlte 
dog and the wolf, (O,) which, irhen one cries out 
at it, emits wind from the anus, with a sound, 
by reason if cowardice. (Sgh, K.) 

2 : sec 4, in two places. 

4. il»>et, and t Jj,^, (S, O, ]£,) lie made 
him to emit wind from the anus, with a sound: 
(S:) or he did to him that which caused him to 
emit wind from the anus, with a sound. (0,K.) 
_ dj hj0b\ ; and <u> T J»j~s, (S, K,) inf. n. ixjj~aj ; 
(K ;) He derided him, and imitated to him with 
his mouth the action of one emitting wind from 
the anus, with a sound; (S;) he made to him 
with his mouth a sound like that of an emission 
of wind from the anus, and deriiled him. (5>* 
TA.) JiUW l»j-6l, said in a trad., of 'Alee, 
means He treated the ashcr with contempt, dit- 
approving wliat lie said ; he derided him. (TA.) 

9 00 

\3y-0 part. n. of J»j-o. (Msb.) 

4&J06 [inf. n. un. of 1 ; A single emission of 
wind from the anus, making a tound]. It is 
said in a prov., of him who has done a deed of 
which he has not done the like before nor after, 
J^^l aij-aib <u* w-il£» [There proceeded from 
him what was like the ibj~o of the deaf]. (Sgh> 

1>^J> An emission of wind from tlte anus, with 
a sound : (S, TA :) or the sound thereof: ($., TA : 

[in the CK, *jii\ Cjyo is put for ^4)1 £>yo :]) 

a subst. from 1. (Msb.) 

i»jj-e : see J»lj-e. 
}*ij00 : 

i\j0% and V lojj-o and * ^yj-» are all [inten- 
sive] epithets from 1 ; (£ ;) [signifying One who 
emits wind from the anus, with a sound, much, or 
frequently;] the last mentioned by Sb, and expl. 
by Seer. (TA.) 

k^j-i : see the next preceding paragraph. 

*Q0 * 

see LS i»i>-». 



i»j-bl : see »jje\, in art. iojh. 

SjU^JI ipxi + [as though signifying J/c wAo 
mate* the stones to emit souruk, from fear :] an 
appellation given to 'Amr Ihn-Hind, because of 
his strength and hardiness and courage, (S,) or 
because of the awe which he inspired. (A, TA.) 

same as c-c^-i and c-cj-i 
* $ _ , * < • ^ • I 

1. e^i, said of a lamb or kid, He took [rvith 
his mouth] the cjle [meaning dug] of his mot/ter. 
(TA.) [This seems to be regarded by some as 
the primary signification.] — And (TA) the 
same, (S, Msb, K,) said of a man, (S,) aor. - ; 
(Msb, KL ;) and c^e, aor. s ; and p^b, aor. * ; 
(£ ;) inf. n. (S, Msb, K) of the first (S, Msb, TA) 
and of the third (TA) fet^A, (S, Msb, K,) and (K) 
of the second (TA) tj-i ; (KL ;) He was, or be- 
came, lowly, humble, or submissive ; (S, IJL;) and 
low, abject, or abased; (S, Msb, K;) <»JI (K) 
and a) [fo /»«/»] : (TA :) or 'p^e and 'yyb signify 
Ac lowered, humbled, or abased, himself, (K, # TA,) 
[like s-y^J, which is more commonly used in this 
sense,] and made petition for a gift : (TA :) and 
'p'jlo, (Msb, ]£, TA,) inf. n. c^*, (Msb,) or 

itl^i, (TA,) /te wa«, or became, weak; (K, 
TA ;) and it is said that the verb in this last 
sense is from c yb in the sense expl. in the first 
sentence : so in the "Mufrad&t" [of Er-Raghib] : 
pye, likewise, like «-y [in measure], signifies he 
was, or became, weak in body, slender, spare, or 
light of flesh : and p$yb, [app. as an inf. n. of 
which the verb is *>£,] the being lean, or 
emaciated. (TA.) For another explanation of 
<UlJ~i>, see 5. — — [ c yb is made trans, by means 

of v '•] one 8avB > *•*/* ** £** Hi* harm humbled 
him, or abased him : (O, £, TA :) or, as in the 
L, overcame him. (TA.)_ <cu c>-e, said of an 
animal of prey, (Ilfrt, £, TA,) inf. n. psyb, 
($,) -H« approactted (I£tt, K, TA) Mm i. e. a 
man, (IKtt, TA,) or it i. e. a thing. (K.) _ See 
also the next paragraph. 

2. ?->j*£ signifies The drawing near, or ap- 
proaching, by little and little, in a deceitful, or 
guileful, manner, going this way and that, or to 
the right and left ; (Ibn-'Abb&d, O, K ;) as also 

♦ ejitf : ($ :) you say iyi and fybJ. (0, 

TA.) — And t^-ii" <**yo, (K,) inf. n. as above, 
(§,0,) \ Tlie sun approached the setting; (S, O, 
K;) [like C- » jfc.. g ;] and t C-*>« signifies the 
same; [like c» jt.,« ? ;] or the sun set; (K;) and 
4^-r^JI " C-C;U>, inf. n. iCjUo-e, signifies the 

j JJU1 C-eli i. <7. Jiji Jjl OU [i. e. Tlie cooking- 
po< approaclied, or attained, to the time of tlie 
cooking of its contents ; and so, app., " C*jUo, 
accord, to the TA, but the passage in which this 
is there indicated presents an obvious mistran- 
scription]. (S, 0, K, TA. [In the CK, JS } Jj is 
erroneously put for JjjJ.]) — And ^>ji\ pj-e 
[app. means Tlie rob, or inspissated juice, became 
nearly mature; or] the expressed juice was 
coolied, but its cooking was not complete. (O, £,* 

TA. [In the CKL, wJpl is erroneously put for 

w)>)l, and «_J» for -i-4?, and Aa»~l» ^ for 


3. acjtoi is *yn. roif/i AyfUU: (S, O, Msb:) 
accord, to Er-Raghib, its primary meaning is 
The sliaring [in a thing, or particularly in the 
p'yo, or udder], like iii>t>*, which is the 
"sharing in sucking." (TA.) You say <v*,U> 
7fc, or ft, 7-esembled him, or «Y ; «w.«, or became 
like him, or it. (If, TA.) And iJus>lj-» Urtrf 
^Ufc^l i6jUk*j ^Ifll [Between tliem two are 
the sipping of the wine-cup, and tlie resemblance of 
hinds; or compotation and congeniality] : said in 
the A to be from cj-o)l. (TA.) [See also an 

& %» •" ' ' 

ex. voce -JLa-3.]__ Also t. 9. i^U* [meaning 

The ajiproaching a thing]. (TA.) See 2, in 
two places. 

4. £*>ej0o\, said of a ewe or she-goat, Her milk 
descended [into Iter udder, i. c. she secreted milk in 
her wider, as is shown in the lexicons in many 
places, (see for instance, £»3y\, and «ij,)] a little 
before her bringing forth : (S, O, K:) and [in 
like manner] said of a she-camel, her milk 
descended from {^y» [a mistranscription for ^ 
i. e; into]) her udder near the time of bringing 
forth ; and the epithet applied to her is " ej-&« 
[without i] : or, as in the A, said of a she-camel 
and of a cow, Iter udder (\t-yo) became prominent 
before bringing forth : (TA :) or, said of a ewe 
or she-goat, she showed hemclf to be pregnant, and 
became large in her udder. (T in art. «>-•;.) And 

jJ^ll v*() .Jlft w~c>-»l [She secreted milk, or 
became large, in the udder, at tlie time of bringing 
forth, or when about to produce tlie young, like 

as one says /j^* ^j { J& iUi jjlfe expk in art. 
yjAjl, said of a ewe or goat. (S in arts, jloj and 
l ji i [in both of which the meaning is clearly 
shown] and in art. «ij [in which last see several 
sentences].) — [Hence, app.,] ^JU <ti <U0*j-b\ 
1 1 gave him liberally, unsparingly, or freely, my 
property. (O, £.*) — And ap^oI signifies also 
He, or ft, lowered, humbled, or abased, him. 
(S, O, ¥L.) Thus, in a trad, of 'Alee, itlT cj^>l 
J^jjj*. il/oy GW lower, or humble, or abase, 
your cheeks. (TA.) One says also, lykj* ^l£» 
iii)l ACj-olJ [i(e nro« proud, haughty, or insolent, 
and poverty lowered, or humbled, or abased, him]. 

6 ' ' t it t 

(TA.) And it is said in a prov., ^j^cj-61 ^yo^JI 
iU, (S, Meyd, A, O,) or jfii, (Meyd, O,?,) 


accord, to different relations, (Meyd, O,) [mean- 
ing Tlie fever abased me to tliee, or to sleep;] 
asserted by El-Mufaddal to have been first said 
by acertain man named Murcyr, to a Jinnee by 
whom he was carried off while sleeping under 
the influence of fever, after he had been making 
a fruitless search after his two brothers, Murarah 
and Murrah, who had also been carried off by 
Jinn: [his story is related at length in the O 
and TA, as well as by Meyd. ; and is given in 
Har p. 668, and in Freytag's Arab. Prov. i. 
pp. 364-5 :] the prov. is applied to the case of 
abasement on the occasion of need. (Meyd, O, 
TA.)— -One says also, VJ **>» i -^'j or ''» 
constrained him to have recourse to him, or ft. 

(TA.)^And <*-*M «Aj0t>\ Love rendered hi in 
lean, or emaciated. (TA.) 

5. cj-iu He lowered, humbled, or abased, 
himself: (0,K, TA:) or he addressed himself 
with earnest, or energetic, supplication : (TA :) 
syn. j£l, to God(i»rjl): (S,0,$:) or hi 

manifested * iclj^ i. e. severe poverty, (O, TA,) 
and want, (TA,) to God : (O, TA :) or 1. q. 

a^LJt s-XW J°J*> (£» TA ») or ^■ l * J, "*^*< ' 
(CKL ;) you say, '^U CW *V an* 1 <J>j*k >• c- 
Such a one came asking, or petitioning, to another 
for a thing tliat he wanted. (Fr, §, O.) [See 
also e>«3.] — Also He writ/ied ; and asked, or 
called, for aid, or succour. (TA.) — And, said 
of the shade, { It contracted, shrank, or decreased; 
or ft went away; syn. Jeii : (Il>n-'Abbad, O, 
1£, TA :) and e>^3 is a dial. var. thereof. — See 
also 2. 

\'yh a word of well-known meaning ; (TA ;) 
[properly and generally, the udder, but sometimes 
applied to the dug, or teat :] the pyb is of every 
female that has a cloven hoof, or of the she-camel : 
(S, O:) [i. e.] of each of these: (£:) or [of the 
former only; i. c.] of the sheep or goat and of 
the cow and the like; that of the camel being 
termed Jul*.: (Lth, O, K.:) it is, to the cloven- 
hoofed female, like the yjjh to tlie woman : 
(Msb :) or, to cattle, like tlte ^jJ to the woman : 
(Towshech, TA:) accord, to the IF, it is of tlie 
sheep or goat and of other animals : accord, to 
IDrd, of tlie sheep or goat [only] : AZ says, ft 
comprises tlie *Ukl, which are the wi^A^I, and tn 
which are the J%)1»1, which are the orifices for 
the passing forth of lite milk : (O :) the pi. is 
'^S. (O, Msb, K.) pi % gj 2 U [lit 
He has not seed-produce nor an udder] means J he 
has not anything: (TA :) or it means lie has not 
land to sow, nor a ewe or she-goat or she-camel or 
oilier animal having a f-r°- (0.) = See also 
the next paragraph, in two places. 

OJ06 A like ; a similar person or thing ; (I Aar, 
O, (}) as also t ej-o: (I Aar, TA in art. tyo:) 
and so cj-o (0, TA) and tyo. (O and £ and 
TA in art pyo.) — - And A sort, or species : and 
a state, condition, or manner of being: of a 


tiling: as also t cj-i: and so cj-o and c^. 
(TA in art. ej«e.) — And A strand of a rope : 
(0, $ :) and so £J* : (O :) pi. p£*. (O, K : 

and the C£ adds cj-il.) 

t • « 

«>-c Lowly, humble, submissive, or in a state of 

abasement ; [originally an inf. n., and therefore, 
as an epithet,] applied to a single person and to 
a pi. number: (O:) and t cjL* signifies the 
same, applied to a single person ; (O, Msb ;) as 

also t c^iu— • : ($,* TA:) accord, to Lth, one 
says, * cjU iljkl, (0,) and * c^\, which sig- 
nifies the same, (Ham p. 344,) and t ©jti A ; fr , 

[meaning, as is implied in the 0, Thy cheeh is 
lowly &c, and so thy side, and the like is said in 
the Ham p. 590,] and t Lli c-3l [Thou art 
lowly &c] : (O :) and the pi. of IjU is 3*^6 
and £)/*> : (TA :) or ? cjUi signifies, and so 
* £f-o> and [in an intensive sense] t «*,ji and 

» **■>*>, lowering, humbling, or abasing, himself: 
(£:) or 'Aim, an^ making petition for a gift: 
(TA :) and cj-o signifies iraaA; (§, Mgh, Msb, 
K ;) as also * Li ; (£ ; ) the former (M ? b, K) 
originally an inf. n. (Msb) [and therefore, as an 
epithet,] applied to a single person and to a pi. 

number: (£:) and 


and t e jLi small ; 

applied to anything: or small in age, wcah, (K, 
TA,) and lean, spare, or %/t< of flesh: (TA:) 
and^yl^JI ♦ ^U, (S,) and * i^*, (TA,) lean, 
spare, or fyA/ of flesh, and wcah, in the body ; 
(S, TA;) applied to a man: (S:) and c^i 
applied to a colt, not having strength to run, (K, 
TA,) by reason of the smallncss of his age. (TA.) 
Also + Cowardly, or weak-hearted : you say, 
£l-*> £)i i* [b°th app. meaning the same]. 
(TA.) And, applied to a man, t Inexperienced 

in affairs ; ignorant. ; or in whom is no profit nor 

tit * " 

judgment; eyn.j+i. (TA.) 

• * • - ' 

fr*>- see *yo, in throe places. 

? ** ** ** • *> *» % 

ic^-o : see ft-o- — It is also a pi. of e jU> [as 

... • » » 

mentioned above, voce cj«e]. (TA.) 

icj-i? i~w occurs in a trad, as meaning ^1 
reviler of men, who becomes like them and equal 
to tltem. (TA.) 

• i » f «<• 
£j^ : see £>*. 

£^i pi. of £Ji [q. v.]. (0, Msb, EI.) _ 
Also .4 «p««M of jrrajje, (AHn, O, K,) growing 
in the Sardh (Slj-JI), (AHn, O,) white, large in 
the berries, (AHn, O, £,) having little juice, 
great in the bunches, like t/ie sort of raisins called 
^AJti. (O.) — * It is also a pi. of I^li [as 

mentioned above, voce t-j~o]. (TA.) 
g^ and ii^i (IF, S, 0, $) and ? <uj^, 

c jUi : see cj-i, in seven places. _ 
f/ye means J Stars inclining to setting, or to the 
places of setting. (A and TA in art. «-e». .) 

* * ** •■» » ~.», 
cy*)\ : see e^e : = and for its fern., iU^, 

sec fij-O) in three places. 

• • j 

pj-a-» an epithet applied to a she-camel [and 

app. to a ewe or she-goat] : see 4. 

[zfi* part. n. of the intrans. verb tj-i. __ 
In the TA, voce ?>i-£», e/o«, which is evidently 
a mistranscription for ej-a*, is expl. as an cpitlict 
applied to a preparation of kil (q. v.) as meaning 
SucA a* Aa* become thick, or coagulated, and 
almost thoroughly cooked: on the authority of 
(O f £,) applied to a ewe or she-goat, Large in 

tht gpb [or udder] ; (IF, §, 0, £ ;) and in like W-a^l [as a conventional term of grammar] 

manner applied to a woman : (]£ :) or t the last 
is applied to a woman as meaning large in the 
breasts, and in like manner to a ewe or shc-gont: 
(IDrd, TA :) or, accord, to the L, the second 
and * third, as first expl. above, arc applied to a 
ewe or she-goat, and to a camel ; and the first 
is applied to a ewe or she-goat, as meaning goodly 
in the ayb. (TA.) =a Also, the first of these 
words, (0,K,) mentioned in the Kur lxxxviii. C, 
(O,) i. q. J>^£ ; (O, ^ which is A bad sort of 

pasture, upon which tlie pasturing cattle do not 


make («**»3 •})) fat nor flesh, and which renders 

them in a bad condition iftliey do not quit it and 
betake themselves to otlier pasture; (AHn,0;) 
or, accord, to lAth, the Jj^ii is a certain plant 
in El-Hijdz, having large thorns : (TA :) or, the 
plant called J^i that « dried up; (Fr, S, 0, 
K;) Jj+Z, being its appellation when it is in its 
fresh state; (Fr,K,TA;) the people of El-Hij;'.z 
call it gj*o in its dry state ; (Fr, TA ;) and it 
is [said to be] a plant which the beast will not 
approach, because of its bad quality : (K :) and 
(]£) wliat is dry of any tree ; (Ibn-' Abbiid, O, K ;) 
accord, to some, peculiarly, of the »-»/* and 

iU. ; (TA ;) or [any] dry herbage : (TA in art. 
C«fc^:) and, (K,) accord, to Lth, (O,) o certain 
plant in water that has become altered for the 
worse by long standing or the like, having roots 
that reach not to the ground: (O, K :) or a certain 
thing in Hell, more bitter than aloes, and more 
stinking than the carcass, and hotter than fire; 
(K, TA;) tlie food of the inmates of Hell; but 
this was unknown to the [pagan] Arabs : (TA :) 
and, (£,) as some say, (O,) a certain plant, (K, 
O,) green, (O,) thus in the L, but in the " Mu- 
fradat " red, (TA,) of fetid odour, cast up by the 
sea, (O, K,) light, and Iwllow : (TA :) and, (K,) 
accord, to Abu-1-Jowzii, (0,) the prickles of the 
palm-tree: (t),I£:) and, (K.,) accord, to IAar, 
(O,) the [tlurrny tree called] *—&■, in its fresh 
state. (O, £.) __ Also Wine : or thin wine : 

(K. :) or thin beverage. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K.) 

And the skin that is V]x»i the bone, beneath the 
flesh (Lth, 0, K) of tlie rib : (Lth, :) or the 
integument upon it. (TA.) 

[Book I. 

Tlce future tense ; [or rather the aorist ; for it is 
properly (lie present, and tropically the future :] 
so called because it resembles nouns in admitting 
the desinential syntactical signs. (TA.) 

• •<••; t # # 

t ja".„ i , « : sec p-j-o. 

Q. 1. Jlk&l C-Uj-i, [inf. n. iiij-i,] jTlus 
men of valour acted like lions ; as also t -c-^'rjM : 
(K. :) or, as some say, i*bpit\ and t^fej.l"ii g jg_ 
nity f the choosing of valiant men [nnp. as anta- 
gonists] in war, or battle. (TA.) And you say, 

V^-" }Jl ^*t V-a'V JU*y >r*r-a t [The men 
of valour attacked one another like lions in war, 
or battle]. (S, TA.) 

Q. *■ >»*j-o5 : sec what precedes, in two places. 

• »• •« » « 

vo*/-»> or^j-6 : sec the next paragraph. 

^eUj-o, (MA, K, and so in some copies of the 
S,) and " JUU^o, (MA, K, and so in other copies 
of the S,) and * ^j-o, (MA,) or *JU^, like 
jJuL, (K, TA,) The' lion : (S, MA, K :) or a 
lion accustomed to prey, strong, and bold. (TA.) 
_ And ^oU^-ail is also applied to t The con- 
stellation of the Lion. (Ham p. 110.) 

2*e\£-j*b : sce^eUj-o. _ Hence, as being likened 

to a lion, (TA,) t Courageous; (K, TA ;) as an 

epithet applied to a man. (TA.) _ And t A 

powerful stallion [camel]. (K.) _ And t A strong 

man ; (K, TA ;) as being likened to a lion. (TA.) 

__ And t>J» St* &«Ut_0 is said in the Nawadir 

/ * ' ' ' 

el-Aarub to mean Slime, or mire. (TA.) 

J 3 


jwp w~»j-s>, (S, M?b, K,) aor. -, (Msb, 
nf. n. ^j*> ; (Msb, T A ;) and ♦ JxtAurt, 


and [in an intensive sense] f 

K. ;) The fire became kindled; or it burned up, 

burned brightly or fiercely, blazed, or flamed; 

syn. C^y-Jt, (?, Msb,) or cJbUil. (^.) 

• 3 ' , 

And ijjiJl^j.0 The thing was, or became, intensely 
hot. (S, K.*) — And * r >j»*l\ <2~»j*e, and ♦ Combust, 

and [in an intensive sense] t O~o/>o3, t Tlie war 
was, or became, kindled; or it burned fiercely, or 
raged. (TA.) — And Jij-i, (S, Msb, K,) inf. n. 
as above, (Msb,) said of a man, (S, Msb,) X He 
was, or became, vehemently hungry : (S, Msb, K, 
TA :) or he burned with hunger : said by Z to be 

tropical : (TA :) and so Ify*. t^^-o*, syn. JJ!»J. 
(TA in art. Jj*-.) And one says of him who is 
vehemently hungry, oUi j>^b t [lit. His flies 
have become vehemently hungry, or burning with 
hunger]. (S in art ^JlI..)_ And>Uill ^j>jj>, 
(K,) inf. n. as above, (TA,) I He applied himself 
to the eating of tlie food vigorously, or with energy, 
not pushing ateajf aught thereof. (K, TA.) _ 
And 4*Ac>» >< o (Msb,* K) t His anger became 
violent [against him] : (Msb :) or he burned with 
anger against him; as also *gJU t^e^iJj (K;) 

Book I.] 

or the latter signifies lie became angered against 
him : (S, TA :) and &Ac t^ls-il he was, or 
became, angry with him. (TA.) __ And^j-i 
said of a horse, J He ran vehemently [or ardently] : 
and they say also JUiJjl _>oj-i>, [or perhaps correctly 
JISJJI 4j* j>t^,] meaning I He ran vehemently in 
a <rar< of soft ground: (TA :) and <uj*» '^o^iwl 
t [//« running was, or became, vehement, or 
art/cnf,] is likewise said of a horse. (As, S* and 
K* in art •_• .) 

2 : see the next paragraph. 

4. ;UM>^(S,Msb,K,)inf.n.>;it; (Msb;) 

and * \*j~o, (S, K,) hut this is with teshdeed to 
denote intensiveness [of the signification] ; (S ;) 
and t \y6pitSmA, (K,) in which the prefix is not 
meant to denote demand ; (TA ;) He hindled the 
frc; or made it to burn vp, burn brightly or 
fiercely, blaze, or flame; (S, Msb, K;) syn. 
Ujijt, (K,) or VLiil. (S in art J*£.) 

5 : sec 1, in four places. 

8 : sec 1, in four places. — One says also, 
^..'■■all >»jja~0t t Whiteness of the hair became 
glistening (Jnu, K, TA) and much in degree. 

(TA.) _ A.m\j^i t fj21\j>jix£\ t Ebu became ex- 
cited among them. (TA.) — [And^ktol is said 
of a stullion-cnnicl meaning f He was, or became, 
excited by lust, or by vehement lust : see its part, n., 

10 : sec 4. 

jt^e nnd>»j~0, (K,TA,) the former of which 
is that commonly known, (TA,) A species of tree 
or plant ( >»~£>) of sweet oilour, (K, T A,) found 
in the mountains of Et-fdif and El-Yemen, 
(TA,) the fruit of which is lihe the acorn, and 
the flower lihe that of the [species of marjoram 
called] £L, (K,TA,) fed upon by bees, (TA,) 
and the honey tltereoflias an excellent quality, (K, 

TA,) and it called 3U^ai\ jlt\: (TA: [t£i 
being the n. un. :]) or it is wliat is called in the 

ancient llreeh language l _ r >jjji>.jh ,1 [app. a 
mode of writing joi^aJoj, gen. of sot\at ; for it is 
applied in the present day to stoeclias, commonly 
called French lavender], (K, TA.) 

•' ' •" » . , • » 

j>^6 : sec <Uj-o, in two places : — _ and^l^-i. 

jij-6 [pnrt. n. of 1 : Becoming hindled; &c. — 
And hence, X Burning with hunger ; or] vehe- 
mently hungry; (Msb;) [or simply] hungering, 
or hungry : (S, K :) or [burning with anger ; or] 
violently angry. (Msb.) __ And t A beast of 
prey in a state of excitement by lust. (TA.) _ 
And t A horse that runs ve/iemently [or ardently] ; 

(S, K, TA ;) and so jjJill JL*. (TA.) And 

t The young one oftlie eagle. (S, K.) 

*" ' 

&*j£ A palm-branch with its leaves upon it, or 

a <U» t .it [i. e. plant of one of the species of worm- 
wood called *•«£>], Itaving fire [kindled] in its ex- 
tremity : (S, K :) pi. [or rather coll. gen. n.] 
*>j-». (S.) [Hence,] one sajs, io^-o JLiU I^Ui 

[in the CK &*h», and in my MS. copy of the K 
*+j~o, both of which arc wrong, There is not in it 

(namely, the house, j'jJI,) a blower of a 3l»j-o,] 
meaning, J anyone. (S, K, TA.) _ Also A live 

coal (K.) And Fin, (K, TA,) itself, as some 

say ; (TA ;) or so *>>>^, (Ham p. 77, and Har 
p. 27,) sometimes. (Ham ibid.) 

y>\j-o [is like the inf. n. jt^i used as a simple 
subst, signifying] A kindling, or burning up, 
burning brightly or fiercely, blazing, or flaming, 
of fire, (S, A, TA,) in [the species of high, coarse 
grass called] •UUU>, and the like thereof : (S, TA :) 
[and] the blazing, or flaming, of the [plant 
called] -j£ft [q. v.], (Mgh.) __ [Sec also a 
phrase mentioned voce o-'j-o.] — Also (S) Frag- 
ments, or broken pieces, offlrcwood, (S, K,) in 
which fire quickly kindles, or burns up, burns 
brightly or fiercely, blazes, or flames : (S :) or 
such as is weak and soft (K, TA) tliereqf: (TA :) 
such as has [i. e. leaves] no lice coals: (K, TA :) 
pi. of *>»^i ; which is cxpl. in the A as meaning 
slender firewood; (TA ;) or which means fire- 
wood, and what it thrown into fire [as fuel] : 
(Har p. 27 :) or>lj-o signifies firewood that has 
kindled, or burned vp, &c. : as also f a*\j*6. (K.) 

Joij-^ i. q. &.j~-, (?, A, TA,) [as meaning] 
Burnt with, or in, fire : (KL :) in the K, the 
word cxpl. as signifying \j±j*- is said to be like 
;,*«»., i. c. 1j>j~£. (TA.) _ And t Burning 
in tlie bowels. (TA.) 

•' » 

jtij± The #«»t <i/"a certain tree. (K.) 

§# * • ^ . . 

<UI^0: sec vatj-i, last explanation, s 

The terebinth-tree. (K.) 

i Also 


jsjLaxo f A stallion [camel] excited by lust, or 
by. vehement lust. (TA.) 

jj-o and ^Jj^o 
1. ^ fjj^, (S, M, Msb, 5,) aor. -, (S, Msb, 

K,) inf. n. i' s \r* (S, M, Msb, £) and lJ-6 (M, 
Msb, K) and Jj>J> and \t\r±, (K., TA, [the last 
in the CK written »|>-i,]) He was, or became, 
attached, addicted, or devoted, to it ; (S, M, K, 
TA;) and (TA) he habituated, or accustomed, 
himself to it, (M,* Msb, K,* TA,) so that lie 
could hardly, or tit nowise, withhohl himself from 
it ; (TA ;) and emboldened himself to do it or un- 
dertake it or the like : and Ite kept, or clave, to it ; 
and became attached, addicted, or devoted, to it; 
like the animal of prey to tlte chase. (Msb.) 
[And <uj-i> occurs in the M, in art. ^y>, in ex- 
planation of <u ^j-oJ, app. for *# j^j-«, in the 

same sense.] It is said in a trad., >^u>SJ ^' 
Jjtj«o i. e. Verily there is a habituating and an 
attachment of oneself to El-Isldm; meaning, one 
cannot withhold himself from it. (TA.) And 
in a saying, (S,) or trad., (M,TA,) of 'Omar, 

(S, M, TA) i. e. [Avoid ye these places where 
cattle are slaughtered and where their flesh is sold, 
for] there is a habituating of oneself to them, and 
a yearning towards them, like the habituating of 


oneself to wine; for ho who habituates himself to 
flesh-meat hardly, or in nowise, withholds himself 
from it, and becomes extravagant in his expendi- 
ture. (TA. [Sec also jj^J*.]) And one says 
of a dog, ju-dW <j?>i, (S, M, Mgh, K,) [in Har 
p. 579 j~gJ\ jji, which I do not find elsewhere,] 
aor. - , (S,) inf. n. S&4, (As, S, Mgh,) or ^j^ 
and f\j-o and VJ^, (M, K,) the last on the 
authority of AZ, (M,) He became habituated, or 
accustomed, to the chase. (S, Mgh, TA.J And 
J^Jli ijmJ\ C~ipo [The jar became seasoned with 
vinegar] and J*~JIj [with must or the like], (TA.) 

And Ju~JI jj5>6 The j*J became strong [by 
remaining several days in the jar or skin]. (TA.) 

= fe, (?. K,) aor. *■ , inf. n. xt+> ( S .) or i'r*> 
(K,) said of a vein, It sited blood: (S, K:) or, 
accord, to the T, it quivered, and gushed with 
blood or made a sound by reason of the blood 
coming forth : Z says that the form of the verb is 
altered because of the alteration of the meaning. 
(TA.) And J£, (M,K,) aor. ,, (K,) [like- 
wise] said of a vein, (M,) signifies // flowed, 
(M,K, TA,) and ran [with blood]; on tho 
authority of IAnr. (TA.) And lj-o, aor. * , said 
of a wound, It ceased not to flow [with blood]. 

(IAth,TA.) = And £i, inf. n. )yi [whether 

'* * Si j, , _ 1 __ 

}j~b or jj*o is not shown], said of a man, lie 

hid, or concealed, himself. (IKtt, TA. [Sec 

also 10.]) 

2. At «l>, (M, M?b, K,) inf. n. i^J ; (K ;) 

and v $\jjA ; (Msb, K ;) He caused him to be- 
come attached, addicted, or devoted, to it ; (M, 
K, TA ;) he habituated, or accustomed, him to 
it, (M,» Msb, K, # TA,) [so that lie could hardly, 
or tit nowise, withhold himself from it; (see 1, 
first sentence ;)] and emboldened him to do it or 
undertake it or tlie like. (Msb.) And ^j-i 

j^JjL. ^Jh\, (S,* Mgh,) inf. n. as above ; (S, 
Mgh;) and 44 *»UM, (S,Mgh,TA,») inf. n. 
*\j*o\ ; (Mgh ;) lie habituated, or accustomed, 
the dog to the cliasc ; (S, Mgh, TA ;) and incited 
him, or caused him to become attached or addicted, 
t/tcrcto. (S.) 

4: sec the next preceding paragraph in two 

j a ' » - » 

10. jLiii c-j »-Juwt I deluded, or circum- 
vented, tlte object, or objects, of the chase, at 
unawares. (S. [See also 1, last meaning.]) 

}j-6 : see- the next paragraph, in three places. 

3j& A dog, (M,) or young dog, (S, K,) such as 

is termed XA [i, e. habituated, or accustomed, to 

t 1 

the chase] ; (8, M, K ;) as also » fj^i : (K, 

TA : [in the CK, \j^ei\£» is erroneously put 

for (_j>a)l£»:]) the latter word is like ^j± : 
(TA :) the fern, of the former is with S : and the 
pi. [of pauc] j*>\ [originally jj-ol] and [of 
mult.] f\j*>. (§, M.)=And A taint ofj,\jJL 
[or elephantiasis] : (M, K :) occurring in a trad, 
in which it is said of Aboo-Bekr, J*rj *-* jial 


jt\jjf ,>• jj-o <v [He ate with a man in whom 

was a taint of elephantiasis] : it is from [the inf. n.] 

" * I 

i^l^-all ; as though the disease became attached, 

or habituated, to the person : (M, TA :) men- 
tioned by Hr in the " Ghareebeyn : " (M :) or, 
as some relate it, the word is with the fet-h, [i. e. 
▼ _)j-»,] and is from \j~b said of a wound, the 
meaning being tn whom was a wound liaving an 
incessant flowing. (TA.) as Also, and ♦ j>-6, A 
species of tree, of sweet odour, with [the wood of] 
which the teeth are rubbed and cleansed, and the 
leaves of which are put into perfume ; (M, TA ;) 
t. q . yJbwS [q. v.] ; so says Lth : (TA :) AHn 
says, tlie places of its growth are mostly in El- 
Yemen ; (M, TA ;) and some say that the jj-i 
is ihcjja^ [or terebinth-tree, or the fruit tliereof]: 
(M :) AHn says also, it is of the trees of the 
mountains, and it like tine great oah, (M,TA,*) 
having clusters [of berries] like those of the oah, 
but its berries are larger; its leaves are cooked, 
and, when thoroughly cooked, are cleared away, 
and the water thereof is returned to the fire, and 
coagulates, (M, TA,) becoming Hlie »U»~i [q. v.], 
(M,) and is used medicinally as a remedy for 
roughness of tlie chest and for pain of the fauces : 
(M, TA :) or the gum of a certain tree called the 

><V t A > [i. e. the cancamum-tree], brought from 
El-Yemen: (§:) or this is a mistake, for it is 
the tree so called, not its gum: (K:) [but] it is 
said in the T, on the authority of AHn, that 
yS-^=> signifies the bark (<Jj5) of the tree called 
jj-i : and some say that it is the resin (.ilic) of 

the j j«6 ; and in the Mohect of Ibn-'Abbdd it is 
said that>l£»£> signifies the bark (wiji, or, as 
some say, .UJ,) of the tree called yj^b, and is an 
aromatic perfume : (TA :) and (K, TA) IAar 
says, (TA,) the yyb is the .TjJ*- i-*. [or fruit of 
the terebinth-tree], (K, TA,) which is also some- 
times used for rubbing and cleansing the teeth : 
when a girl rubs and cleanses her teeth with a stick 
of the tree called }j*b, the saliva with which the 
stick is moistened from her mouth is like honey : 
(TA :) and the word is also pronounced * j^. 

jy-6 — Jud 

tioned after the last of the explanations here fol- 
lowing]. (M.) [See also i\^b, in art. yb.] __ 
[It is said that] it signifies also The hiding or 
concealing, oneself: (A A, K, TA :) [or] the walk- 
ing, or going along, in that which conceals one 
from him whom one beguiles, or circumvents. (M.) 

»\y-b, a pi. epithet, [of which the sing, is pro- 

bably * i~Syb,] Courageous: hence, in a trad., 
L" •" ' a 

4DI l\jj> Ui ^| [Verily among us are the cham- 
pions of God]. (TA.) 

a . *. 

\£yb : see j>^, first sentence. _ Applied to a 
vein, (8, M,K, TA,) J Flowing; as also *jUi: 
(M :) or flowing much; (TA;) of which tlie 
blood hardly, or tn nowise, stops ; (S, K, TA ;) as 
though it were habituated to the flowing. (TA.) 
— See also l\%-b. 

!lj-o A level tract of land in which are beasts of 
2>rey and a few trees : (M, K :) or a piece of land, 
or ground, that conceals one : (A A, TA :) and 
trees, <$•<:., that conceal one: (M:) or a thicket; 
or tangled, or luxuriant, or abundant and dense, 
trees; in a valley. (S, K.) One says, ^jly 
iptjH %\^b ,J> ^J* J^aJt [The game hid itself 
fivm me in the tangled, or luxuriant, or abundant 
and dense, trees of the valley]. (S.) And ^j^i 
iij-all u^-n, with fet-h, meaning Such a one goes 
along lurking among the trees that conceal him. 

(8.) And^JI 4 jC/i (T^Jjt 4 v>< >* [-H* 
creeps to him in the thicket, and wal/ts, or goes 
along, to him in the covert of trees] : said of a 
man when he deludes, or circumvents, his com- 
panion: (S:) but accord, to IAar, •1^0 here 
means a low, or depressed, place. (Meyd.) And 

«# a t * m * s * • 'j 

Hj-a)l si ^>j>i *n> ,j^li [app. meaning Tlie thicket 
will not be crejtt through to such a one : but men- 

tis Attacked, addicted, or devoted, to a tiling ; 
(TA;) habituated, or accustomed, thereto, (Msb, 
TA,) so as hardly, or in nowise, to withhold him- 
self therefrom ; (TA ;) and emboldening himself 
to do it or undertake it or the like : and keeping, 
or cleaving, thereto ; being attac/icd, addicted, or 
devoted, to it; like the animal of prey to the 
chase. (Msb.) [Hence,] jib *,-l=W, (S, Mgh,) 
or jl-oJW jl«* <n~^> ( M > K,) A dog habituated, 

or accustomed, to the chase : (S, Mgh, TA :) and 

**'•'•' 44 

&j Xb <LXs9. (S. [See also _jj-6, first sentence.]) 

• a - • ■ * 

[-x~o)li 1U0 y J Uh is also ex pi. in the TA by the 

* • « -a -- - 
words rt t «i 1 , 1 ^o*Lu I3I, app. meaning A dog 

liaving his appetite excited by tasting tlie flesh of 
the game.] j\yb [is pi. of jib applied to an 
irrational animal, and as such] signifies [Animals 
accustomed to pi'cy; rapacious, or ravenous, 
beasts; and particularly] lions. (TA.) And 

ij jLall i^l^l Tlie cattle that are in tlie habit 

of pasturing upon peoples' seed-produce. (Nh, 

TA.) And ^a*<UW j^» w>e/ vl Aokw, or ten/, »i 

which flesh-meat is habitually found so much that 

its odour remains in it. (TA.) And jUi itLi 
^a t * 

,>JU^, thus correctly, as in the M, but in [some 
' • a 

of] the copies of the 1$. 1 > -Jb, (TA,) A *Ai*n tn 

w/t/rA milk is long liept so that its flavour becomes 
good. (M, TA.) And k Ji J W Kj^> hi- an <I 
J--JU> [A Ja/* become seasoned with vinegar and 
KM mt«f or the like]. (M, TA.) i£>UJt lUNI, 
occurring in a trad, of 'Alee, is said to mean Tke 
jar t/iat runs [or lealts] ; and the drinking from 
it is forbidden because it renders the drinking 
troublesome: thus expl. by IAar: but it is also 
expl. as meaning the wine-jar that has become 

* ' * ' ' 
seasoned with icine {j+±A\i (J>«) > s ° that when 

S~J is put into it, it becomes intoxicating. (TA.) 

And jUi ijjB. means A vein shedding blood: (S, 

K, TA :) [or quivering, and gushing with blood or 

making a sound by reason of tlie blood coming 

forth : (see the verb :)] or flowing, or running : 

(TA: see ^j«e:) or accustomed to be opened, 
and therefore wlten tlie time for it ii come and it 
is opened, emitting its blood more quickly. (TA.) 

[Book I. 

1. £0, (S, O, ^,) an inf. n. of which the verb 
is ***, aor. * , (T$,) The breaking, or training, 
(S,) or training well, (IAar, O, K,) a he-camel, 
(IAar, S, O, K,) and a she-camel, not previously 
trained : (IAar, O, K:) or the saying to a camel 
? »-£> tn order that lie may become well trained. 


> * * & , 

It. Q. 1. lUuubs, (inf. n. 2juojl£, TK,) He 
threw it down, or pulled it down, [or rased it,] to 
the ground; (S, O, K;) namely, a building. (8, 

O.) _ And ^*jJ> *jib**> Time, or fortune, 
lowered, humbled, or abased him; (S, O ;) and 

it J A 4* • #* -.*« 1 ** * m * 

so jAjJI 4>v ▼ mJajLai. (TA.) [See also isuioiuo 

J*»4>* t 4» # • •« 

It. Q. 2. djlisjl wJt^uueu, referring to a 
building, i. q. oouail, (S,) i. e. [7i» angles, or 
corners, or ft* sm&(,] «anA i/onvj ; and became in 
a state of ruin. (PS.) _ And **a**b3 said of a 
man, (S| O,) ZTc roa», or became, lowly, humble, 
submissive, or abased; (S, O, K ;) [or he lowered, 
humbled, or abased, himself;] j±*) [to another], 
(S,) or .-ii) [to a rich person]. (O.) Hence, (8,) 
Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, 

1 , i , a < * ♦* 

[yln</ »»y constraining myself to behave with 
hardiness to t/iose wlio rejoice at my misfortune ; 
I show them that I will not humble myself to the 
evil accidents of time], (S,* O.) _ And He be- 
came poor: (O, KL:) as though from a«6: (O :) 
and *-aJuoj is a dial. var. thereof, on the autho- 
rity of Aboo-Sa'eed. (TA.) _ And He became 
weak, and light in his body, by reason of disease, 
or of grief. (T A.) __. And <UU mojcw His pro- 
perty became little. (TA.) _ See also R. Q. 1. 

«-= : see the first paragraph above. 

|4«> • # • t 

* * bj u c » : see c\Jox*e. 

ijuiaue inf. n. of *tu»M*6 [q. v.]. (TK.) _- 
And [as though inf. n. of a^aus] Lowliness, 
humility, or submissiveness : (TA, and Ham 
p. 3C9:) [as used in the present day, a state 
of depression ; languor; weakness; and poverty:] 
and hardship, or adversity. (TA.) 

cUoiuo llVd/j : applied in this sense to any- 
thing. (S, O, K.) — And A man without judg- 
ment, (S, O, K,) and without prudence, or pre- 
caution, or discretion; (O, K;) and * **ax*d 
signifies the same, (S, O, K,) being a contraction 
of the former word. (S, O.) 

%Juuji» [the part. n. of R. Q. 2, q. v.,] is used 
by the Arabs as meaning A poor man. (0.) 

1. J*u>, (S, O, Mfb,K,) and J^6, (O, Msb, 

Book I.] 



K,) the latter on tlic authority of Yoo, (0,) or of 
Lh, (L,) aor. of each i , (Msb, K,) «t»£ "• <Juu» 
and ouuo (S,» O,* Msb, K) (and app. <JuU> (q.v. 
infra) or this is a simple subst] and <u>uu& and 
rtfiU-i, (K,) all of which are inf. ns. of the former 
verb, (TA,) or the first, which is of the dial, of 
Kureysh, is of the former verb, and the second, 
which is of the dial, of Temeem, is of the lattei 
verb, (Msb,) He, or it, was, or became, tvealt, 

feeble, faint, frail, infirm, or unsound; ouuo 

**• * * ij ■» 

and uulo being the contr. of »y>, (S, O, Msb, 

K,) and of 3 h L # ; (Msb;) and both of them 
may be used alike, in every relation ; or, accord, 
to the people of El-Basrah, both are so used ; so 
says Az ; (TA ;) but some say that the former is 
used in relation to the body, and the latter in re- 
lation to the judgment or opinion. (O, Msb, K : 
but this is omitted in my copy of the TA.) — 

• it t 

t L gii\ ^c ui'ji means He Incited strength, or 
power, or ability, to do, or accomplish, or to bear, 
the thing ; [lie was weak so as to be disabled, or 
incapacitated, from doing, or accomplishing, or 
from bearing, t)ie thing;] syn. <uc j*~*, (Msb 
in art >*-c,) or «Jl»I»l .>* i*»*. (Msb in the 

• • - * J - 

present art.) — [See also ijyufc below.] s ouuo 
also signifies /< (a thing) exceeded; syn. >lj. (L, 

TA.) And you say, Jtyilt cJbut, (Lth, O, K,») 

•or.*, (O,) or - , (K, TA,) inf. n. JbU; (0 ;) 
[and app. ^eytM wJUuo, like as you say Ojj 
^^JU ;] 7 exceeded tlie people, or party, in 
number, so that I and my companions had double, 
or teteral-fold, the number that they had. (Lth, 
0,K.*) See also 3. 

**. ■ • «. 

2. tubus, inf. n. U ^iutf : see 4 : and see also 

.3 - . ' 

Jl. _- Also lie reckoned, or esteemed, him 
«© [i.e. weak, &c.] ; (O, K;) and 80*<OjucwI, 
(S, 6, Msb, K,) and * iu-bv : ( O , K: ) or t Juuuiu-I 
signifies he found him to be so ; (TA ;) or lie 
asserted him to be (<cbu».) so; (Msb;) or, as also 
t <Juuo3, he [esteemed him to be so, and therefore] 
behaved proudly, haughtily, or insolently, toward* 
him, in respect of worldly things, because of [hit] 
poverty, and meanness of condition. (IAth, TA.) 

ft 0*0 ft t •;» *, •»•» J ft •»» 

ouutui u-V -w^ J-**^- 1 f y j| J* 1 ury* 

X-*e* L^y"' >w* J^-'j [Twc peo/>fe of 
El-Koofeh have overcome me: I employ as 
governor over them tlie believer, and he is esteemed 
weak; and I employ as governor over them the 
strong, and he is charged with unrighteousness:] 
is a saying mentioned in a trad, of 'Omar. (TA.) 
_ And lie attributed, or ascribed, (0, K,) to 
him, i. e. a man, ((),) or J to it, i. e. a tradition, 
[&c.,] ouuo [meaning weakness, app., in the case 
of a man, of judgment, and in the case of a tra- 
dition &c., of authority]. (O, K, TA.) = And 
He doubled it, or made it double, covering one 
part of it with another part. (TA.) -_ See also 
the next paragraph, in two places. 

3. iiftU,(S,0,K,)inf.n.&ui; (S,Msb;) 
and t iu*, (S, K,) inf. n. oW»3 ; (S, O, Msb ;) 

and t luuet, (S, O, K,) inf. n. jGuil ; (S, Msb ;) 
all signify the same ; (S, K ;) i. e. He doubled it, 
Bk. I. 

or made it double, or twofold; (0,K;) [and 
trebled it, or made it treble, or three-fold; and 
redoubled it, or made it several-fold, or many- 
fold ; i. e. multiplied it ; for] Kh says, ouiuiuJI 
signifies the adding to a thing so as to make it 
double, or two-fold; or more [i.e. treble, or three- 
fold; and several-foul, or many-fold]; (S, 0, 
Msb ;) and so oU-oNI, and iicUOl ; (S, Ms b ;) 
and " djuuo, without teshdeed, signifies the same 
as <tAtLo. (Ham p. 257.) The saying, in the 

• •• • 000 00 m * * J 

Kur [xxxiii. 30], (J,.*j u o w>IJoOI ly) ousUov, 

(Mgh, (), K.) in which A A read * JuUJ, (TA,) 
accord, to AO, (Mgh, O,) means, The punish- 
ment shall be made to her three jmnUhments; 
(Mgh, O, K;) for, he says, she is to be punished 
once; and when the punishment is doubled two- 
fold, [or is repeated twice,] the one becomes 
three: (TA :) he adds, (O,) and the tropical 
meaning of wi^Uaj (witL^u jU~« [for which 
ou>Leu jU-« is erroneously put in the CK]) is 
two things' being added to a thing so that it 
becomes three: (0,K:) but Az disapproves this, 
saying that it is peculiar to the tropical and the 
common conventional speech, whereas the skilled 
grammarians state the meaning to be, she shall be 
punished with twice the like of the punishment of 
another; (Mgh ;) [so that it may be rendered the 
punishment shall be doubled to her, made twofold; 
and in like manner] Ibn-'Arafeh explains it as 
meaning she shall have two shares if punishment. 

(O.) ijt^ liUupt <J <UcUy.4 [And He will midti- 
ply it to him many-fold, or, as some read, AjULa-i 
tliat He may multiply it,] is another phrase 
occurring in the Kur [ii. 240]. (O, TA.) And 
one says, jtydi w>l>»JI " C-Aauol [I doubled, or 
multiplied, the recompense to the people, or party]. 

* * s * * * \ 

(Msb.) And >»yUI "ouuol The people, or party, 

had a doubling, or multiplying, [of their recom- 
pense, &c.,] made to them; (Msb;) [and so, 
app., bjAjuol ; (sec o u uo * ;)] t. c/. ^ ^i*y<>. 

4. aiuuoI lie, (God, Msb, or another, S,) or 
it, (disease, TA,) rendered him [i. e. weak, 

kc] ; (S, O, Msb, K ;) as also * A/bLp. (L, TA.) 

= And ouuol, said of a man, He became one 
whose beast was weak. (S, O, K.) = See also 3, 
first sentence, and last two sentences. 

5 : see 2, in two places, as [ouucu app. sig- 
nifies also He manifested weakness : see jyoj.] 

6. otfiusJ signifies ,jlib U ouuo jUo [i. e. 7/ 
became double, or two-fold ; and treble, or three- 
fold; and several-fold, or many-fold]. (O, K.) 

10 : see 2, in two places. 

ouuo an inf. n. of 1, like t ouuo, (S,* O,* 
Msb, K,) [both, when used as simple substs., 
signifying Weakness, feebleness, ice.,] but some 
say that the former is in the judgment or opinion, 
and the latter in the body ; (O, Msb, K ;) and 
' ouuo signifies the same, (IAar, K, TA,) and is 
in the body and also in the judgment or opinion 
and the intellect (TA.) oieJliJI JuU [Weak- 
ness of construction, in language,] is such a con- 

struction of tlte members of a sentence as is con- 
trary to the [generally-approved] rules of syntax; 
as when a pronoun is introduced before its noun 
with respect to the actual order of the words and 
the order of the sense [in a case in which the 
pronoun is affixed to the agent in a verbal pre- 
position] ; for instance, in the phrase, <u»^c w- 
ljuj [" His," i. c. Zeyd's, " young man beat 
Zeyd"]. (KT.) When the pronoun is affixed to 

the objective complement, as in j+t* <vj >-JU. 
[" 'Omar feared his Lord "] such introduction of 
it is common : (I'Ak p. 128 :) and it is [uni- 
versally] allowable when the pronoun is of the 

• • 1 tit ' *.' ••» t* 

kind called U UJI >~e-o, as in ->u juj Ail ; or 

<* i * * j i , $ t * tit * » 4 

Vj >t~°, as in <u\Ju ^*.j a^ ; or j+i )***>, as 

in iij "iU-j i^i. (Kull p. 56.) [In the CK, 

a signification belonging to ouuo is assigned to 

uuup : sec ouuo. M ouuo l >« in the Kur 
xxx. 53 means Of sperm. (O, K, TA.) AA, 
reciting before the Prophet, said ouuo o-* ; and 

was told by the latter to say ouuo &+, [i. e.] 
with damm. (TA.) 

t ^j^JI ouuo signifies 77t£ //'/(« o/* //<« thing, 
(AO, Zj, S, 6, Msb, K, TA,) tltat doubles it 
(XLusu) ; (Zj, TA ;) and «'l*iuo, twice tlte like of 

it ; ( AO, S, O, Msb, K ;) and liuuol, tlte lUtes of 
it : (S, Msb :) ouusJI in the [proper] language 
of the Arabs means the like : this is the original 
signification : (Az, Msb :) and (K, TA, but in 
CK "or,") then, by a later [and conventional] 
usage, (Az, Msb,) the like and more, the addition 
being unlimited: (Az, Msb, K:) one says, Ij* 
Ijjk ouuo i. c. This is the like of this : and o'«** 

tuuuo i. c. These two are twice the like of it : and 
it is allowable in the language of the Arabs to 
say, <uuu0 tjjk meaning This is twice the like [i. c. 
the double] of it, and thrice the like [i. c. tke treble] 
of it, [and more,] because the ou u o is an un- 
limited addition : (Az, Msb : [and the like is 
said in the O, on the authority of Az :]) and one 
says, <uuuo jii meaning Thou shalt have twice the 
like of it, (Zj, O, K,) using the sing, form, though 
the dual form is hotter, (Zj, O,) and meaning also 
tkrice tlie lilte of it, and more without limit : (K :) 
and J»tyt ouuo O^-*^' [>• c - o^*-'^" '•* tne double 
of J*4|l I] : (M and K in art. ^2 :) and if one say 

00 * • * > ml 

in his will, iCJJ) s-'g^' «Juuo e Jatl, twice the 
like of the share of his child is given to him ; and 
if he say *Juuo, thrice the like thereof is given 
to him ; so that if the share of the son be a 
hundred, he [the legatee] is given two hundred 
in the former case, and three hundred in the latter 
case; for tlie will is mado to accord with the 
common conventional language, not with the 
niceties of the [proper] language: (Az, Msb : [and 
the like is said, but less fully, in the Mgh :]) the 
pi. is oliii only. (TA.) pUuo iidXyj \\\ 
oCjl ouuoj SI^bJI, in the Kur [xvii. 77], means 

* m * * 

U~«4 U*. wjIJjOI uuuo, (S,) or ^\j^ ouuo 

•* * * ~ m 



wOl ylji wii-bj ile-JI, (0, Jel,) i. e. [/« 
that case we mould assuredly have made thee to 
taste] the like [or, as some explain it, the double] 
of the punishment of others in the present world 
and [the like or the double thereof] in the world to 
come: (Jel:) [Sgh adds, app. on the authority 
of Ibn-'Arafch,] the meaning is, the punishment 
of others should be made two-fold, or more, 
(u»*Ux;,) to thee, because thou art a prophet. 

(0.) In the saying, uUJ»)1 t\jM. J$ iU^jU 

ljJl»* Ur>, in the Kur [xxxiv. 36], by v_AjuoM is 

meant «_>1*«o"n)I [i. e. For these shall be the re- 
compense of the likes for wliat they have done] ; 
and it is most properly held to denote ten of the 
likes thereof, because of the saying in the Kur 
[vi. 161], " Whoso doth that which is good, for 
him shall be ten of the likes thereof." (O.) In 

the saying, Ubui l/li* JjjU, in the Kur [vii. 36], 

by UJLb is meant U*Uw [i.e. Therefore do Thou 
recompense them rvith a doubled, or a double, 
punishment] : uL«.<j ^>IJtc meaning a punishment 
as though doubled, one part of it upon another. 
(TA.) —. ^UOI «jLiLol means I The interspaces 
of the lines, (S, O, K, TA,) or of the margin, (S, 
O,) or and of the margins, (K, TA,) of the writing, 
or booh : (S, O, K, TA :) so in the saying, «ij 
4yU£s oU-6l ^ji o^* I [SWA a one made an 
entry of a note or postil or <A« like, or entries of 
notes kc, in the interspaces of the lines, kc, of 
his writing, or book] : (S, O, TA :) and t ^j^t «j 
^jUOl signifies the same as Ailjujl. (TA.) — 
And jn»ll Jl»«l \The limbs, members, or 

organs, (>U*1,) of the body: (O, K:) or tlte 
bones thereof: (A A, K:) or the bones thereof 
having flesh upon them : (TA :) sing. Juui. (K.) 
Hence the saying of Ru-bcli, 

i [And Ood is between the heart and the limbs, 

kc.]. (TA.) And it is said of Yoonus, [the 

prophet Jonah,] OjaJI wiliuel ^ J)l& J [lie 

was amid tlte members of the fish]. (TA.) 

t# * • • * 

ouuo : sec J»«. mm Also Garments, or pieces 

o/ e/o<A, m«(fe dou&fe (t Aiiub^). (Ibn-'Abb&d, 

IFcaAncM of heart, and littleness of intel- 
ligence. (TA.) 

-» 4 party, or company, or «na# company, 
(i.iJA,) o/ tb ylmfo. (TA.) -_ Also a pi. of 

'[q.v.]. (S&c.) 

(JUjLa : sec uUt. 

g yh t : sec tho next paragraph, in two 

(§, 0,M«h,K) and [in an intensive 

sense] ♦ <*>yL* (Ibn-Buzurj, O, K) and t ^jXksue 
(K) Weak, feeble, faint , frail, infirm, or unsound : 

(S,* 0,» Msb, K :•) pi. (of the first, S, 0, Msb) 
JlLi and fliiiand iiii, (S, 0,Msb,K,) which 
last is [said to be] the only instance of its kind 
except &L pi. of i-eji. [q. v.], (TA,) and l JJ*i f 
like ^j-v*. pi. of *-iji- '■ (Msb :) fem. t JyLi 
(Ibn-Burzurj, 0, K) and aJujus; pi., applied to 
women, CjULjco (K) and t_«jUJ> and *_sU-i. 
(TA.) l<L*i oLJ-JT JU.J (in the Kur [i v. 32], 
O) means [For man was created weak, or] subject 
to be inclined by his desire. (O, L, K.) And 
jjUj*-o)l [The two weak ones] means the woman 
and the slave: hence the trad., ,_» <U)1 jyul 
Cxs****"" [Fear ye Ood in respect of the woman 
and the slave]. (TA.) __ In the dial, of Himycr, 
Blind: and [it is said that] thus it signifies in 
the phrase U.a.o U-i JljJ [Verily we sec thee to 
be, among us, blind], (0, K,) in the Kur [xi. 93] : 
(O :) but Esh-Shihub rejects this, in the 'Inaych. 
(TA.)_[As a conventional term] in lexicology, 
applied to a word, [Of weak authority;] inferior 

to what is termed m-yf&, but superior to what is 
termed jiLu. (Mz, 10th cy.)__ Applied to verse, 
or poetry, [Weak;] unsound, or infirm; syn. 

J*U : thus used by Kh. (TA.) The saying 

of a man who had found a tiling dropped on the 
ground (iki) J^j), Ugiuo \^ijaf, means And I 
made it known in a suppressed, or low, [or weak,] 
voice. (Mgh in art. jij.") 

■ » 
*»ifiUi A cow having a young one in ««• belly ; 

(IDrd, O;) as though she were made double 
thereby : (TA :) but IDrd says that this is not 
of high authority. (O.) 

w* t« <aJ inf. n. of 2. (S kc.) l( ^l)1 JLeU3 

means T/ie doubles, or trebles, or multiples, of the 
thing ; (<u« tjuus La ;) in this sense, i_- t gl -p* has 

no sing., like^AU &c. (TA.) v UOI wi««U>5 : 

see Jb h *, near the end. _ As cxpl. by Lth, (O,) 

tl(«*yi signifies «U»JOt '\j%J*. [i.e. ff'Aai i« 
iMC<f as an alloy in chemistry or alc/iyiny], 

[Boos I. 

iuuu ^jl Xrtni upon which a weak rain has 

fallen: (Ibn-'Abbdd, 0, K:) and [in liko man- 

ner] ▼ \J^m.a< signifies a place upon which has 

fallen only a little, or rvcah, rain. (0 in art. Jj,) 

^wkm ^//r of the arrows used in the game of 

# - 
>»e«JI, that has no share, or portion, allotted to it; 

as though it were disabled from having a share 
(^r^cLi *) ,jy£j ,jl ^^* " Jaw «ulfe) : (TA :) 
the second of the arrows termed ^JiiJI, that have 
no notches, and to which is assigned [no portion 
and] no fine : these being added only to give 
additional weight to the collection of arrows from 
fear of occasioning suspicion [of foul play]. (Lh, 
M.) [Sec ^..AJI.] sss Sec also uuuj. 

A man having manifold good deeds. 


J) « < i «, applied to a thing, (S,) or to a man, 
(O,) Rendered o^uj [i. e. weak, kc] : (A A, S, 
O, K :) by rule it should be JuiL'e. (O, K.) A 
man weak in intellect: (IAar, TA :) or weak- 
hearted and having little intellect. (TA.) _ Sec 
also Ma iut yjo)\, above. 


A man wAom tea*/, (S, K, and Mgh in 

art. U£»,) or w/to« camel, (O,) « wcaA, (S, Mgh, 
O, K,) or untractable. (O.) Hence the saying 
of 'Omar, ±t\L-o\ ^i* j^l u»fc*^l [ifc whose 
beast is weak, or untractable, is ruler over his com- 
panions]; (0,K;) i. e. in journeying ; (O;) be- 
cause they go his pace. (O, K.) And the saying, 

in a tr:i(l. 7>n juU>-« ^*j^kjJL» yjt [cxpl. in art. 

jlA]. (Mgh in art. li£>.) s= o^^'Jr* ^"ib^ 
in the Kur [xxx. 38], means These are they who 
shall have their recompense doubled, or multiplied : 
(Az, Bd, TA :) or thoie who double, or multiply, 
t/icir recompense (Bd, Jel) and their possessions, 
(Bd,) by the blessing of their almsgiving : (Bd, 
Jel :*) but some read ^jU^.II. (Bd.)__ Juukjl 
also signihcs O/i&j iU ju^j c~ii ^>» [7/ic wAose 
property has become wide-spread and abundant]. 
(Ibn-'Abbdd, 0,L,K.) 

cj3 -d coat o/ mail comjwscd of double 

rings. (S, O, K.) _- ut»Ux« as a conventional 
term used by those who treat of inflection, 
Having a [radical] letter doubled. (TA.) 

iJu^juo J£» i-aJI jil [7Yi<! ?»«< /or 
Paradise is every weak person who is esteemed 
weak], (K, # TA. [In the CK, erroneously, 
u hiAU : and in the K, <UfJI J*l is omitted.]) 

1. U-i ZZc /dW, or concealed, himself. (ISd, £0 

<uu>, (S, K,) originally yui, or ^*-i, (accord, 
to different copies of the S,) the » being a substi- 
tute [for the _}], because of tho form of its pi. [and 
of the rcl. n.] ; or, as some say, the S is a substi- 
tute for an initial j, and it is mentioned also in 
art. £-05 ; (S ;) A species of ti-cc, (S, K, TA,) ta 

tlte desert : or it is [a plant] like the [species of 
jjanic grass called] j>\^ : (TA:) accord, to Az, 
a sjiccies of^\+i : (TA in art. _,Jj :) or another 
plant : and some pronounce it <uuo ; but this is 
in ^... tl l [or grounds of pretension to respect 
&c.], and does not belong to the present art. : 
(TA :) the pi. is Ol^ii. (S, TA.) [Golius says, 
on the authority of Mcyd, that it also signifies 
The reed of which writing-reeds arc made.] 

J]jyuo Of, or relating to, the ajuo above men- 
tioned. (S,K.) 

# 5 + t & -■ 

1. -I,— ) I vioui, aor. - , inf. n. w*«j, He col- 
lected together the thing: whence AAA signifying 
" a handful of herbs kc" (Msb.) Sec also 2. 
— And [hence,] C*jju»JI iii, (A,K,) aor. as 
above, (K,) and so the inf. n., (S,) J Me confused, 

Book I.] 

or confounded, [or related in a confused manner,] 
the tradition, or story, or the like. (S, A, 1£.) _ 
And ^yJ\ .iJti. I He washed tin garment, or 
piece of cloth, without cleansing it, (O, £, TA,) 
*> that it remained in a dubious state. (TA.) = 
J»UJt A>fci>, aor. as above, (£,) and so the inf. n., 
(S,) lie felt the cameTs hump in order to know 
whether it were fat or not : (S, 1£ :) and VJi«o lie 
felt her [i. e. a she -camel] for tliat purpose. (T A.) 
x— iJui, accord, to the K, [and the O, as on the 
authority of Fr,] is also said of a Jy, meaning 
Jt uttered a cry: but this is correctly with v 
[i.e.^JLi]. (TA.) 

2. ol~M »*Juo 2/e maiie <A« plants, or licrbage, 
wMt are termed i>Uuol [pi. of w*-o]. (A,TA.) 
_ [Hence,] illj «*JLo 1 -H* /wwrerf wafer «/»n 
Am head, and then divided tlie hair with his fingers 
into separate kamlfuls, in order that tlie water 
might reach to the shin. (L, TA.) [But see what 
follows.] It is said in a trad, of 'Aishch, wJlss 
£»»J ^Juai, (TA,) or \yJ\ 3 * iiiS, (so in the 
JM,) meaning She used to rub about tlie hair of 
lier head with Iter hand, in washing, as though 
mixing it together, in order that tlie water with 
which site washed might enter into it. (TA.) 

4. (> j^l «£J«-o1, said of a dreamer, J lie related 
tlie dream confusedly. (A, TA.) 

means J Complications of dreams ; (A ;) or med- 
leys of dreams, falsely resembling true dreams : 
(0, Msb :) or a dream of which the interpretation 
will not prove true, because of its confusedness : 
(ISh, S, £ :) or a false dream ; the pi. form 
being used to give emphasis to the meaning of 
unreality, or because the phrase comprehends 

.mi I ,* •! 

various things : (Bd in xii. 44 :) or UJjJI wJU-el 
means tlie terrors, or frightful things, of the dream. 
(Mujahid, O, TA.) One says also, «i>lLe>W W\ 
j£L*)\ o*, meaning i He brought us^ [various] 
sorts of news, or tidings. (TA.) «i-«-o means 
also t-4 deed that is of a mixed hind, not pure, 
or not sincere. (IAth and O, from a trad.) And 
j&3 t Speech in which is no good : pi. 

8. U*«0 hitikM lie collected a handful of 
herbage, fresh and dry mixed togetlier. (K.) 

■£nh£ The state of a thing's being confused, one 
part with another. (TA.) 

&X* A handful of lierbs, (AHn, S, A, Mgh, 
Mfb, £,) mixed together, (S, A, Msb, £,) fresh 
and dry : (S, Msb, ]£ :) or a handful of twigs of 
trees or shrvl>s ; (Mgh,* Msb ;) or of fruit-stal/ts 
of the raceme of a palm-tree : (Mgh, Msb :) 
originally, a number of twigs all having one root 
or stem : and afterwards applied to what is 
collected togetlier: (Msb:) or a thing that one 
collects togetlier, such as a bundle of [the species of 
trefoil called] <Cj»j ; and of what lias a stem, and 
grows tall: (Fr, TA:) or whatever is collected 
together, and grasped with the hand: (AHeyth, 
TA :) or a bundle of herbs mixed togetlier ; or of 
firewood: pi. ^U-bl. (TA.) In the £ur 
xxxviii. 43, it is said to mean A bundle of rusltes 
(J«ll, so in the Mgh and the O, in my copy of 
the Msb JJl [which I think a mistranscription, 
on account of what follows]), a hundred in num- 
ber, (O, Msb,) consisting of slender stalks witliout 
leaves, (Mgh, Msb,) w/iereof mats are made. 
(Msb.) See also a prov. cited and expl. voce 
ajljl. Hence, in a trad., «U ,>« ^Ui-e, meaning 
J Two bundles of lighted firewood. (TA.) And, 
in another trad., t&J L &l J^.^1 >n~*> meaning 
t Among tliem is lie who obtains somewhat of 
worldly goods. (TA.) — Also t What is confused, 
and without truth, or reality, [of dreams, and] of 
news, or tidings, and of an ailkir. (Sh, TA.) 
S%L\ £j&ub\, [occurring in the Kur xii. 44 and 

xxi. &,] of which the sing, is 

, (Msb,) 

ii&Jtl (TA.) 

<£>}Le, applied to a she-camel, i. q. «i>««o ; (S, 
]£. ;) i. e. Of which one doubts whether she be fat, 
and which one therefore feels with his hand ; (S ;) 
or of which one feels the hump, in order to know 
wlietker she be fat or not : pi. A AA. (TA.) And 
A camel's hump of which one doubts whether it be 
fat or not. (Kr, TA.) 

iXJuo A confused company of men. (0.) 

^-cU> One who hides himself in a thicket or 
tlie like, and frightens boys by a sound reiterated 
in his fauces : (S :) the author of the ]£, following 
Sgh in the T§ and O, and Az in the T, sayB that 
this is a mistake, and that the word is correctly 
written with v [i. e. ^M-i] ; but IF and IM 
and others write it as in the S. (TA.) 

j^*ij-ft Bain that moistens tlie earth and tlie 
herbage. ($..) 

HojJa, (S, Msb, K,) aor. c , (S, Msb,) inf. n. 
LjJo, (S, Mgh, Msb,) He pressed him; jmslicd 
him ; (S, Msb, K ;) squeezed him ; (Mgh,* Msb, 
£ ;) against (^1, S, Msb, £, [and ^A*,]) a 
thing, (£,) or a wall, (S, Msb,) aud the like, 
(S,) and the ground: (TA:)/u? straitened him: 
he overcame, subdued, or overpowered, him ; or 
he constrained him. (TA.) It is said in a trad;, 

ilnJI wA/ .J* i^Ukitti Ye shall assuredly be 

pressed, or pushed, against the gate of Paradise. 

*. m . . . 
(TA.) You say of a tight boot, xU-j Jmuo 

[It compressed, or pinched, his foot]. (K. in art. 

Jij*..) And you say also, a-Xc ieJub, and 

t JaiLil, (Lh, TA,) which latter, by rule, should 

be Jaituol, (TA,) t He treated him with hardness, 
severity, or rigour, with respect to a debt or the 
like. (Lh,TA.) 

3. IjkfcU, (£,) inf. n. i.U-o (IDrd, T, O, 
TA) and lii.U»i ; (IDrd, O ;) and * IjlaiUxJ ; 
(IDrd, O, ]£ ;) They pressed, pushed, crowded, 
or straitened, one anotlier; syns. \yt»-\j and 
\y^->j\. (IDrd, O, $.) You say, J-U1 t iilij 
^Waj^l [V [The people pressed, or pushed, 


one another in crowding together] ; and 1»U^> 
is like illiS. (T, TA.) 

6 : sec 3, in two places. 

7. iuuail [as quasi-pass, of 1, app. signifies 
He was, or became, pressed, pushed, or squeezed: 
and, accord, to a version of the Bible, as men- 
tioned by Golius, in Num. xx. (or xxii.) 25, 
lie pressed, or squeezed, himself, against (^J) » 
wall : and also,] + he (a man) was, or became, 
overcome, subdued, or overpowered; or con- 
strained; syn.^yiil. (TA.) 

8 : sec 1, last sentence. 

iJbjJa The pressure of the grave ; (S, Msb, 
K;) because it straitens tlie dead: (Msb:) its 
straitening. (Mgh.) _ It is also expl. by En- 
Nadr [ISh] as signifying ijt^t [app. a mistake 
for » jdkljLo, as meaning f The exertion of one's 
utmost jiower, ability, or endeavour, in contending 
with another : and in this sense it should perhaps 
be written * liJui]. (TA.) — See also iLJJ,, 
in two places. 

UtX* t Straitness ; difficulty; distress; afflic- 
tion; (S, Msb, £ ;) as also * iilS. (TA.) You 
say, iki-oll »Jjk Uc aijtJ^UI [0 Ood, withdraw, 

put away, or remove, from us this straitness, ice.]. 
(S.) __ t Force, constraint, compulsion; (Mgh ;) 

as also * aJoJU> : (TA : [in which one of the 
syns. is written jJ, evidently a mistake for j*l, 
one of the syns. of the former word in the Mgh :]) 
constraint, or compulsion, against the will of tlie 
object thereof. (§,*£.) You say, U$ oji.1 
iSJue fl treated such a one with hardness, 
severity, or rigour, to constrain him, or compel 
him, to do the thing against his will. (8.) And 

hence the trad, of Shureyh, ituuaJI )*?*->. y ^j\S» 
t He used not to allow tlie constraint, or com- 
pulsion, of one's debtor, and the treating him 
with hardness, severity, or rigour : or one's say- 
ing, I will not give thee unless thou abate some- 
7chat of my debt, to thee : or one's having money 
owed to him by another, who disacknowledges it, 
and comjiounding with him for part of what is 
owed to him, then finding the voucher, and 
exacting from him the whole of the property 
after the compromise. (Mgh.)— See also iiaJuo. 

K;«.«? A well having by the side of it another 
ivcll, (As, S, O, K,) and one of them becomes 
foul with black mud, (As, S, O,) or undone of 
them becomes choked up, and foul with black 
mud, (K,) so tliat its water becomes stinking, 
and it flows into the water of the sweet well, 
and corrupts it, so that no one drinks of it : 
(As, S, O, $:) or a well that is dug by tlie side 
of another well, in consequence of which its water 
becomes little in quantity : or a well dug between 
two wells that liave become choked up. (O.) ess 
And A man weak in judgment, (£, TA,) that 
will not be roused to action with the people : 

(TA :) pi. JojJb, (?, TA,) [like Jb^ &c.,] 
because it is as though it were [significant of 
suffering from] a disease. (TA.) 



idU — uL* 


1. '&Jb, (AZ, S, Msb,$,) aor. «, (M?b,K,) 

inf. n. *J»± (AZ, S, Msb, T A) and J>U, (AZ, 
TA,) or the latter is a simple subst., (Msb,) He, 
(S, $,) or t'l, i. e. one's bosom, (Msb,) was, or 
became, affected with rancour, malevolence, 
malice, or spite; (S, Msb, £ ;) or, said of a man, 
his bosom was, or became, affected therewith ; (KZ, 
TA;) *& against him. (S.) [See also l >if 
below.]' _ And, (IAar, S, If.,) aor. and inf. ns. 
as above, (TA,) lie inclined, (IAar,S,K,TA,) 
4>l towards him, (IAar, TA,) and **U against 
him, (TA,) and £jJI ^1 [iowarrfs </tc present 
world, or worldly things]. (S, £.) And C wt fc i i 
SUlt, inf. n. £>ii F I r/te 'l^r-shaft was, or 6e- 
ea»ne, crooked. (TA.) — Also, (£, TA,) aor. and 
inf. ns. as above, (TA,) He was, or became, af- 
fected with desire, or with yearning or longing of 
the soul. (£, TA.) 

8. £>£U3 The conceiving, or being affected with, 
mutual rancour, malevolence, malice, or spite. 
(KL, and Har p. 43.) You say, lyiUJ and 
t tyjik^t Tliey had, or AeW, in the heart, feelings 
of mutual rancour, malevolence, malice, or spite. 

8 : see what next precedes. __ One says also, 
ft^ft f. O*^* u** v>*^»' H e conceived, or con- 
cealed, [in his licart,] rancour, malevolence, malice, 
or spite, against such a one. (TA.) — And 
<Liik-jl J/e fooA if (i. e. a tiling, and weapon, 
S) beneath his t >-o^ [or tlie part between his 
armpit and flank, &c] : (S, sf :) and he carried 

(TA.) — (jUJa-i^l is also syn. with JC^i^l, 
which is The putting [a portion of] the garment 
beneath [and within] the right arm, [app. from 
behind,] and the other end beneath tlie lift arm, 
and drawing it [i. e. the garment] togetlier with 
tlie left hand. (TA. [But see ji£l.]) 

JkiU A slitting in the arm-pit of a camel, ] him (i. e. a child) tn that part, or in his bosom. 
(S, If.,) and abundance of flesh [in tliat part, 

pressing against tlie side] : (S :) and «. q. »-~ * : 
(S,£ ) or a thing like a bag : (TA:) a tumour 
in tlie armpit of a camel, like a bag, straitening 
him. : (Meyd : see iljju :) or skin collected to- 
gether : or the base of the callous protuberance 
upon the breast of a camel pressing against tlie 
place of the arm-pit, and marking, or scarring, 
and excoriating, it. (TA.) Accord, to IDrd, 
IkilJ, Aj j^jLf means A camel whose arm-pit 
comes in contact with his side so as to mark it, 
or scar it. (TA.) mm\A watcher, Iteejm; or 
guardian ; a confidential superintendent ; (S, \f ;) 
over a person ; so called because he straitens 
him ; (S ;) or over a thing. ($.) You say, 
^•jli ^ji Ux£U> aJL>jI I He sent him as a watcher, 
&c, over such a one. (S, TA.) And hence what 
is said in the trad, of Mo'udh, (S, L,) when his 
wife asked him, on his return from collecting 
the poor-rates in El-Yemen, where was the present 
which he had brought for his wife, and he 
answered, (L,) iiU ^J* jlfe [Tliere was over 

me a watclier], (S,) or £tU> ^yJ* o^» [Tliere 
was with me a watclier], meaning God, who 
knows the secrets of men ; or ho meant, by 
Ixe-Lo, the trust committed to him by God, which 
lie had taken upon himself; but his wife imagined 
that there was with him a watcher who straitened 
him, and prevented his taking to please her. (L.) 

6 [said by some to be an inf. n. : (see 1 :)] 
Rancour, malevolence, malice, or spite ; (S, Msb, 
If.;) as also f ii^ui : (S, If:) or both signify 
veliement rancour &c. ; and enmity ; and violent 
hatred: (TA :) the pi. of the former is { j\iuo\ ; 
(MA, Msb ;) and that of * the latter is ^yli-i, 

(MA,) and " ^y-k-e may be a pi. of <UJLo, [or 
rather a coll. gen. n.,] or the S may be elided 
by poetic license ; or these two may be dial. 

vars., like Jm»- and ii»- [accord, to some], and 

^>>l— i and <u»Q. (TA.) One says, when he has 

sought to gain a person's good will, or approval, 

^J^j ^>«-i wJUL< and " <aJLA [/ drew forth 

* * * 

tlie rancour, &c, of such a one]. (TA.) And 

a woman who hates her husband is said to be 

\**.jj ,ji* &i*o Oli [One who lias a feeling 

of rancour, &c, against her husband]. (TA.) 

_ And Difficulty of disposition in a beast : so 

in the phrase ^jJui Oli [A beast (<4tj) having 

a difficult disposition]. (TA.) Sec also the phrase 

^j ^-Jt-lr Ol3> applied to a shc-ass, in art. 
<t * * 
yiw. _- And Inclination. (S, K.) One says, 

£f$i iJI i<Juo My inclination w towards such 

a one. (S.) — . And Desire ; or yearning or 

longing of the soul. (K, TA.) One says Oli i»U 

(jjuo meaning A she-camel yearning towards, 

or longing for, Iter home, or accustomed place, 

(S, TA,) and her mates. (S. [Sec a verse cited 

voce (3^J-1) ^ n ^ sometimes ^>i-i> is thus used, 

metaphorically, in relation to women. (TA.) = 

Also A side; or a region, quarter, or tract; 

syn. a^».lJ. (K.)_— AndTheJvl [i. c. foot, bottom, 

or lowest part,] of a mountain : thus correctly, 

as in the " Nawadir :" in the copies of the K, 

J^JI is erroneously put for J~*JI. (TA.) 

tj-k—j Affected with rancour, malevolence, 
malice, or spite; as also t^ti. (Mgb.)__ 
And iiiuo SU5 I A crooked spear-shaft. (S, If, 
TA.)_ ' See also J>*U. 

Oy*-* A horse, and a mare, that rwis lilie him 
who reverts from tlie state in which he was, or 
from the course that he was following. (AO, TA. 
[See also ,j£Li.]) 

• • * • 

i^c*-o : see ,jju=. 

[Book I. 
K,TA;) and so ♦ oiSe. (S,« TA. [See also 

,j*Ub» One who treats, or regards, his brother 
with rancour, malevolence, malice, or spite, or 
with enmity, being so regarded, or treated, by 
him ; as also * ^ji&uxt. (TA.) 

ijJiL^Lo : sec what next precedes. 



see jj*-o, in three places. 

,...jl--JI The lion: (^, TA:) as though a 

— "' ' ' a > i • 

rel. n. from it.;.. i.^Jl : because he is very 

rancorous, malevolent, malicious, or spiteful. 


^li : see ^>*i>. — Also A horse that will 
not exert his power of running unless beaten ; (S, 

1. <uui, (O, K,) aor. '■ , inf. n. uus>, (0,) He 
collected it together. (O, K.) — - And uua, [app. 
for ajuUI JU,] (Fr, O, If,) aor. and inf. n. as 
above, (Fr, O,) said of one warming himself, He 
closed his fingers together and put them near to 
the frc. (Fr, O, £.) — And 3i\J\ JU, (S, O, 
K,) aor. and inf. n. as above, (TA,) He milked 
the camel with the wliole hand; (S, O, & TA;) 
because of the largeness of the dug ; mentioned 
by Az, on the authority of Ks; (TA;) a dial, 
var. of l^li : (S, O :) or, accord, to Fr, the doing 
thus is termed JLiil ; but ^-^Jl signifies " the 
putting one's thumb upon the teat and then 
turning his lingers over the thumb and the teat 
together:" or, as is said on other authority, 

J5ua)l signifies tlie clasping the tico teats together 
?vith the hand wlien milking : [but this is also said 
to be the meaning of ^Jci\ :] or, as Lh says, tlie 
grasping tlie teat with all one's fingers. (TA.) = 
>Uiil ^ >.yUI <JU, or tU»t, [aor. app. , or *, 

or both,] inf. n. wi-i and sjiLb, [see the latter of 
these below,] Tlie people, or party, pushed, 
pressed, crowded, or thronged, togetlier upon the 
food, or tlie water. (TK.) [Sec also what next 

6. ««ic lyUaJ They multiplied, or became 
numerous, (S, O, K,) and collected themselves 
togetlier, (O, If,) [and, accord, to an explanation 
of the part, n., by Lh, pushed, 2>rcssed, crowded, 
or thronged, together,] upon it, or at it ; namely 
water, (S, O, £,) &c; (O, £;) like l^iUJ. 
(TA.)-And lyUJ signifies also, accord, to 

but correctly, as 

a j> * » I • 5 ' 

the and K, Joyllja-I C— — , 

in the "Nawadir" of AZ, J^l'l^J [i.e. Tlieir 

possessions became scanty], (TA.) 

,_* j. Narrow, or strait, and liard : so in the 
phrase JUJI <J^o j4-j [A man whose state, or 
condition, is narrow, or strait, and hard] : (AZ, 
S, O, K :*) and one says also JUJ1 * i_«A-o J*y, 
and JUJI \£Lbj>£ ; but idgham is more proper. 
(Sb, TA.) = >»JL1h ili »& A ewe, or goat, 
whose stream of milk from tlie udder is wide. 

o«-i A little thing resembling the tick, of the 
colour of ashes and dust, the sting, or bite, of 
which causes the skin to break forth with the 
eruption termed yj£ [q. v.] : (Aboo-Malik, O, 
$:) pi. &Li, like 5<£f. (If.) 

Book I.] 

3Jui A single act of pushing, pressing, crowding, 
or thronging, together upon water. (S, O, K. [See 

9 * * 9 * 3 * J I' / ^ 9 * * 9 » 

ouui- 1) — . fi+&\ **«e ,J C-Xio and * >n / . ;«,. o 
(O, 5*) are phrases mentioned by Af (O, TA) 
and Lth (TA) as meaning I entered among tlie 
company, or collective body, of tlie people, or 

party. ((), K.*) And iiuo signifies also The 

first i*i) [i. e. rush, or quantity that pours forth 
at once or that is poured forth at once], or iaij 
[i. e. single act of pouring], (accord, to different 
copies of the K,) of water. (K.) = See also the 
next paragraph, in five places. 

1L> (T, S, O, Mgh, Mfb, K) and * 2L* (T, O, 

Mgh,'M?b, K) The side of a river (T, S, 0, Mgh, 
Mfb, K) and of a well : (Mfb :) aUi-i signifying 
tte (a river's) <roo «wfe« : (S :) and ^aiyi t uLo, 
or ^ojjIaJI, and «UiLo, </te two «'<&« o/ the valley, 
or o/ <«e J>}jt*- [i. e. breast, or c/mm<, &c] : 
(lAnr, K:) and j»~)l t *a-o [or a2uo] /Ac *Aorc 
o/ </i.e sea : (K :) and the dual of ♦ <U-i [or 
ii-b ?] occurs in a saying of 'Alee metaphorically 
used as meaning + the two sides of the eyelids: 
(TA :) the pi. of sLo is yjLo, (Msb,) or <J\JU, ■ 
(TA ;) and that of * £14 is OUi. (Msb.) 

The pushing, pressing, crowding, or 
thronging, together, of people, at, or fc/xm, water 
[to drink thereof or to water their beasts]. (S, 
O, K. [See also 1, last explanation.]) And 
Numerousness of tlie persons composing a family, 
or household i (S. O. V :) or, accord, to Lh, 
visitors and friends that come time after time ; 
and one's household, or family : or, as some say, 
i. q. jji^. [i. e. one's dependents, &c.]. (TA.) 
And The tahing of food with other people: (S, 
(), K:*) thus in a trad, in which it is said of 

** t 9*0 CJ 

the Prophet, uULe .Jlc *})l >,»J} >>- o-* ^** ^* 

[/7« rf/rf wo< satiate himself with tlie eating of 

bread and flesh-meat except in a case of tahing 

thereof with others], as expl. by a man of the 

desert in answer to a question put to him by 

Malik Ibn-Deenar: (S, O: but in the latter, 

lh~i sJ '■) or the case of tlie eaters' being too 

many for the food : (Th, O, K :) [or,] accord. 

to Kh, (S, O,) numerousness of the hands upon 

the food : (S, O, Msb :) [or,] accord, to Af, the 

case of the property's being little, and tlie devourers 

9 * * 
thereof many. (S, O.) [See also »■>*»■■] Accord. 

to AZ, (S, O,) Straitness, and hardness, or hard- 
ship : (8, 0, Mfb r) accord, to Fr, (S, O,) want. 
(8, O, Mfb, K.) [See two cxs. voce ou— .] Also 
Weakness. (Fr,O.K.) And Haste (Fr,S,0, 
Msb) in an affair : (Msb :) so in the saying, 

* * 90 J J JJ 

vJuui ^yU- a^aJ [ / met Aim, or found him, in 
a state of haute]. (Fr, S, O.) And A quantity 
less than will fill the measure, and less than any- 
thing that is filled. (Sh, O, $.) And Food, or 
the eating, less than satiates. (TA.) = See also 

w»U-6 [thus written without any syll. sign] 
The quality denoted by the epithet o^i-o applied 
to a she-camel or a ewe or goat. (TA.) 

i-i^i-i Having much milk, not to be milked save 
with tlie whole hand; (0, K ;*) applied to a camel, 
(O, K,) and to a ewe or goat : so in a verse cited 
voce \Jye, as some relate it ; but as others relate 
it, the word is oyLe, with ^. (TA.) — And 

9 i * 9 9* ,. 

[hence, app.,] «_iyui ^t t A source abounding 
with water. (TA.) 

Ueiij UMJ »>• J>$> (0> TA,) in the K yl 

UA-ifj ULi-i ,^«, but the former is the right 
order, (TA,) a saying mentioned by Aboo-Sa'ecd, 
(O, TA,) means Such a one is of those whom we 
associate with us, and those whom we congregate 
with its, wlten events befall us. (0, K,* TA.) 

ii\U>, (0,K,) without teshdeed, (0,) like 
iu\Lli, (K,) Devoid of intellect, or intelligence. 


I0 * 9 9 3* 

>: see iiu». 

Jyuu iti A water that is thronged [so that it 
has become little in quantity] ; (S, O, K ;) like 
«^LLo ; (S, O ;) to which many men and cattle 
have come : (Lh, TA :) occurring in a verse cited 
voce Sjt ju>, in art. j^a : (S, O, TA :) in that 
verse, Aboo-'Amr Esh-Sheybanee, instead of 
■.'j'ri 11 , read >_?j^h lt ; which means [the same, 
(K in art. uU*,) or] " occupied." (IB, TA.) — 
[Hence,] J^ij* J»j t A man exhausted of 
what he possessed [in consequence of much begging] ; 
like \^Ju : (S, O, TA :) [see also »yLL :] some 
say aJIc J yun , (TA.) 

Q. 1. c jjup, said of water, Jt Aarf tn t< c iliui 
[or/roj/*]. (0, K.) ss And, said of a man, He 
shrank, or became contracted; syn. t^oJLi: or Ae 
voided his excrement, or ordure; or </*m excre- 
ment ; syn. -Ju : or ne emitted ?oind from tlie 
anus, with a sound. (TA.) 

• » • ' o * 9 9 J 

c jJU. (S, O, Msb, K) and cjJLs and ajJuo 
(K) and c jJuo, (S, O, Mfb, K,) this last said by 

some, (S, O, Msb,) but most rare, or rejected, 
(]£,) disallowed by Kh and a number of others, 
(Mfb,) [for] accord, to Kh [and others] there are 
only four words of the measure JJUi in the 

* 9,09 •»••»• y» 

language, which are ^«*jd and tjiJt and »A«* 
and the proper name_^«X», (S, O,) [The frog; 
and app. also the water-toad;] a certain reptile 
(ftfb) of tlie rivers, (K, TA,) generated in the 
river, (TA,) tlie flesh of which, cooked with olive- 
oil, it [said to be] an antidote to the poison of 
venomous creatures, (K, TA,) when put upon the 
place of the sting, or bite : (TA :) and [a certain 
reptile] of the land, (K, TA,) [app. the land- 
toad,] that lives, or grows, in caverns and caves, 
(TA,) the fat of which is [said to be] wonderful 
for the extraction of teeth (K, TA) witliout 
fatigue, and of the skin of which, tanned, the 

m** 9 1& * 

skull-cap that renders invisible (*bukNt i-5lb [a 
vulgar term]) is made, as is said by the performers 
of legerdemain ; and the flesh of this species is said 
to be poisonous : (TA ;) the fem., (S, O, Msb,) or 
the n. un., (K,) is with 2 : and the pi. is ciUi> 

(S, 0, Mfb, K) [and iUi ; in the Mfb and K, 

00 t M 

l^iU-o; in the O, correctly, ^jU-oll is said to 
be a var. of cjCLa)1, like ^liSl and ^jitj^M of 

4-Ju3l and ^0J\M\] a^ cjUi cJi [lit 

Tlie frogs of his belly croaked] means t he was, or 
became, hungry; (0, K;) like <ula^^Uafi «i*. 

(O.) Jy^l ejJLbJt is a name of t The bright 

star [a] on tlie mouth of Piscis Australis; (Kzw, 
Dcscr. of Aquarius;) also called OjaJt^i: (Idem, 

Dcscr. of Piscis Australis:) and ^JDI ejJLall 
is the name of f The star on tlie southern fork of 
tlie tail of Cctus. (Idem.) And cjJUjt, (O, 

K,) thus only, (TA,) t A certain bone [or horny 

substance, which we, in like manner, call " tlie 

frog,"] in tlie interior of the liorse's hoof, (0, K,) 

in the sole t/iereof (O.) [See also j*J.] 

• » 1 . . 

oUjJuiu) Waters abounding with cjU-i [or 

frogs].' (S,0.) 

m 1. >i, (A, Msb, K,) aor. , , (Mfb, K,) inf. n. 
jiuo, (S, A, &c.,) He plaited, braided, or inter- 
move, (S,A,Mgh,K,) hair, (S, Mgh, K.) &c, 
(S,) or the like, (TA,) or a [lock of hair, such as 
is called] i^i, and a [girth of thongs such as is 
called] £-J, (A,) in a wide form; (S, Mgh;) as 

also tyU, inf. n.^U»3 : (S, TA:) lie made hair 
into jrfU-o, [pi. ofijJui,] each Sj-A-b consisting of 
three or more distinct portions. (Mfb.) __2fe 
twisted a rope or cord. (K.)—_ lijjii CijJlA, (S, 
TA,) aor. , , (TA,) inf. n. as above, (K,) said of 
a woman, (S, TA,) Slie gathered together Iter 
hair. (K, # TA.)_ And jii, from the same 
verb in tlie first of the senses expl. above, t He 
made, or constructed, a [dam of the kind called] 
5^4-6. (IAar.TA.)^.^!^ also signifies t The 
building with stones without [the cement called] 
yjJiSo and without clay. (K,» TA.) You say, 
*yt J^o. SjLfc-»J1 'jL± t [He built the stones 
around his house, or tent, without mortar or clay], 
(TA.) — wiiilje^tjii, (A,) inf. n.Jii, (K,) 
I He put the fodder into the mouth of tlie camel, 
(A> K,") against his will. (A.) And J*jii\ jk-i 
A-liJj, (A,) or Arfljdl^Li, aor. ,, inf. n.jii, 
(TA,) I He put the bit into the mouth of tlie 
horse, (A,) or of the beast. (TA.)«« Also>Li, 
aor. , , (S, Msb, K,) inf. n. jLb, (S, Mfb,) He 
ran; syn. Iji and [ ju,: (S, Mfb.K:) or lie 
hastened, or went quickly: or he bounded, or 
*pra»<7 .- (TA :) he leaped ( Af , K) in his running. 
(Af, TA.) 

2 : see the preceding paragraph, first sentence. 
3. 9jili He aided him. (A, Mfb.) [See also 6.] 

6. tjyiUoJ They leagued together, and aided one 
another, (Ibn-Buzurj, S,» A/ Mfb/ K,») ^ 
>&l to do the thing, (S)A,«K,) and yji Jk 
against such a one. (Ibn-Buzurj.) 

7. j*jL*JI >-ail The trco ropes became twisted 
together. (S.) 


• i * 

jiu> A camrft girth, of plaited [goats'] hair; 

(£,*TA;) as also »Jui: ($:) the girth of a 

camel $ saddle : (S : ) a wide girth of a camels 
saddle : aa also t^ii: pi. [of mult] (of the 

first. TA) )£& (?,TA) and [of pauc] jULil; 
(TA ;) and (ot the second, TA) * J kJ>. (£, TA.) 
_ See also J^i-i, in three places. _ Also t A 
great quantity of sand that has become collected 
together : or a quantity of sand that has become 
accumulated, part upon part ; (K ;) and (£) so 
♦ %JLi :(§,$:) pi. [of the former] )£* ; ($ ;) and 
[coll. gen. n.] of the latter Ijiue : (S :) or a long, 
broad, Uim [generally ex pi. as meaning a wind- 
ing tract] of sandf by Borne pronounced " jkmb: 
(Lth, TA :) [or] a UkW of sand is termed 
*#>U. (8.) 

%» • 

^Lb : see the last preceding sentence. 

>-6 and [its n. un.l SJLo: see jU. aaaiJUUs 

SJuo [in the TA i^U, evidently a mistranscrip- 
tion,] i. j. ilU^o [i. e. A full quiver], (S, O. 

[Freytag writes ijkA *j\i£», and explains it as 
meaning "Gens Cinanah impleta est:" but in 
my copies of the S and in the O, it is iiU£>.]) 

• * * •• ' 

jUui: sec^^Lo, first sentenoe. 

'jtL± A rope of [goats'] hair, (Mgh, Mfb, TA,) 
twitted ; of the measure J-*» in the sense of the 
measure Jy>JL*. (TA.)__And + The shore, or 
side, of the sea or of a great river ; (0, $,* TA ;) 

asalso # (^A. (TA.) 

i'sjJd ( Af, 6, M, A, Mgh, Msb, £) and *^ii, 
(S, M, A, Mgh, $,) the latter an inf. n. used as 
a subst. [properly so termed], (Mgh,) A single 
loch of hair: (M,Msb,$:) and (Msb) a [lock 

of hair such as is termed] i/ji, (Mgh, Msb,) or 
ij~+M>. and >fi±i, of a woman : (As, TA :) or a 
plaited, braided, or interwoven, iylji : (A, TA :) or 
[a plait of hair] consisting of three, or more, dis- 
tinct portions : (Msb ;) or i. q. Louie [q. v.] ; 
one says ^iS^JL© $, and * ^I^Lc-, meaning 

jJamJb ; (Yaakoob, 8 :) or the d^j^-° pertain 
to a man, not to a woman ; [though such is not 
the case accord, to modern usage ;] and j5l«*c, 

[pi. of »jj ■**,] to women ; and these are Sjyua* 
[i. e. plaited] : (AZ, TA :) the pi. of 5^U> is 
Jjui (A, Msb) and >U> ; (Msb ;) and the'pl. of 

~j*\>o is jy«-i>. (A.)^See also jkJ>, in two 
plaoes, _ »>JU> also signifies I A rfa/n, (IAar, 
8, A, Mgh, Mfb,) extending in an oblong form 
upon the ground, having in it wood and stones, 
(IAar, TA.) — And t A plain, or soft, tract of 
land, oblong, producing lierbage or the like, extend- 
ing [to the distance of the journey of] a day, or 
two days. (TA,) _ See also jJuq. 

~«JI u* ^UJI He mho twists, or plaits, 

(umjuu,) his hair during the performance of the 
pilgrimage. (TA.) 

1. (u>, aor. £a>, (8, Msb,) inf. n. *£b (S, 

s * * 
Mfb, K) and yui, (Mfb,) 7> (a thing, S, and a 

garment, §, Mfb) wa*, or became, complete, full, 

ample, or without deficiency. (S, Mfb, K.*) __ 

And It was, or became, much in quantity ; (8, 

£,* TA ;) said of property, or property consisting 

in cattle, (8, TA,) and of hair, and of wool. 

(TA.) [Hence,] one says, iojLdl <$» c-*-o, i. q. 
• a- ' ' 

w-»j [i.e. Wealth became abundantly bestowed 

upon him]. (M in art. yjj.) And J~*i\ U-i>, 

» -a 
meaning «— 31 [i. e. 7%<s means of subsistence be- 

cameamplc]. (Msb.) — Ami ^ylJI tiJo, (TA,) 
inf. n. yub, (K, TA,) The watering-trough over- 
sowed (EI,* TA) by reason of its fulness. (TA.) 
sib (ji-o 2Te (a man) became poor : mentioned 
by Az in art. J^e». (TA.) 

Uto A n<f« ; and alyui /m, or tto, <wo *uk*. 
(K.) [i*-b and SJci, also, have a similar meaning.] 

yub [an inf. n. of 1, q. v. : and as a simple 
subst.,] Wealth, or prosperity, and ampleness [of 
circumstances]. (TA.) [Sec also what next fol- 

i£e*Jt SyLe- An ea^y an<^ a plentiful state, or 
condition, of life. (]£, TA.) One says, ,«» ^^jU 
*JLx j>« Syuo [<S«cA a one is in an easy and a 
plentiful state, or condition, in respect of his means 
of subsistence], (S.) 

tjli ^»^i A garment that is complete, fill, 
ample, or without deficiency. (S, Mfb, Sl.*) And 
ve;..,)! Ljivo ^^i A horse full, or ample, in the 
* r «~-> [or Aair of the forelock or o/"<A« mane or o/" 

fAe tatTJ. (TA.) And ^.yi JiH jlfj A man 
having much hair of the /mad. (S.) And i»jj 
i-JUo A lasting, or continuous, or continuous and 
still, rain, in consequence of which the land becomes 
abundant with herbage. (TA.) And i-*LA yk 
i^jJuUI t [ife « abundant in excellence], (TA.) 


1. ciU, (8, Mgh,* O, Mfb,* ^,) third pers. 
ji, (Mgh, Mfb,) aor. , , (8, Mgh, O, Msb, ?,) 
inf. n. J-^i and i'tjti ; (S,«0,*Msb;) and 
cJlLi, (8, Mgh,' 0, Msb,* $,) third pers. as 
above ; (Mgh ;) the former of the dial, of Nejd, 
and the more chaste ; the latter of the dial, of the 
people of El-'Aliyeh, ($, Mfb, TA,) and of El- 
Hijaz, and Kr has mentioned cJULa for CJUL^ as 
heard from the tribe of Temeem ; (TA ;) I erred, 
strayed, or went astray; (Mgh, Msb;) deviated 
from the right way or course, or from that which 
was right ; missed, or lost, the right way ; or lost 
my way ; J"iLs> and 3i"^a signifying the contr. 
ofi&j, (S,0,TA,)and ^&. ($,TA.) [See 
Jtjuo below.] Hence, in the l£ur [xxxiv. 49], 

^-li JU jj\ UJU CJUU ol J* [Say thou, If 
I err, I shall err only against myself, i. e., to my 
own hurt]. (0, Mfb. [See also x. 108 and xvii. 

10 of the Kur.]) One uays also, aPJuc- ^b [app. 

[Book I. 

His error became error indeed ; a phrase similar 

to o j—- j*-, q. v. : or Aw erring passed away; 

sec 4, latter part]. (TA.) And jJ»i!l ^s. jj> 
He deviated from the right way or course. (TA.) 
And the verb is trans, as well as intrans. : you 

say, Jjjiai\ J-A, and <ut J-c, aor. ; and -, 
(Mgh, Mfb,) inf. ns. as above, meaning He erred, 
strayed, or went astray, from the road, or way ; 
(Msb;) he did not find the way to the road: 
(Mgh, Mfb :) and of anything stationary, if you 
miss the place thereof, you say <uULa and <u)ULj : 
(Az, Mfb :) or you say, J^^' c J *^ (^,) or 
■Jsji *sl1 ciU, and j'ljjl, (ISk, 8, O,) [/miwerf, 
or fo*<, <Ae riyAt way to the road, or fAe mosque, 
and <Ae Aotwe,] when you know not the place 
thereof: (ISk,S, O :) and in like manner, any- 
thing stationary, to which one does not find the 
way: (ISk, 8, O, K :) and AA says the like: 
but that one says of a thing that falls from his 
hand, and a thing that quits its place, * «uiJU>l, 
(IB, TA,) which means I lost it, and knew not 
its place ; meaning, for instance, a horse, or she- 
camel, or the like : (Az, Mfb :) [thus] one says, 
\Jjt*l «^JuLol [I lost my camel, and knew not 
his place,] (AA, ISk, S, IB, O) when his shank 
has been tied up to his arm and one does not find 
the way to him, and when he has been left loose 
and has gone away whither one knows not : (AA, 
IB, TA :) but Yoo differs from others respecting 
this case; for, accord, to him, one says, J-el 
***V 1)^ an(i a ^ s0 *3**> m the same sense ; (0, 
TA ;) and the like is said in the K : (TA :) and 
it is also said in the Bdri* that when you seek an 
animal and miss its place and find not the way to 
it, it is regarded as in the category of stationary 
things, and therefore you say tSXi. (Mfb.) _ 

J*i signifies also He was, or became, confounded, 
or perplexed, and unable to see his right course. 
(Ibn-Es-Seed, TA.) — Also, aor. , (S, O, $) and 
- , (£,) the pret. being like jj and ji, (TA,) 
inf. n. J^ui, It (a thing, §, O, TA) became lost ; 
[as though it went astray ;] it perished, came to 
nought, or passed away. (S, O, #, TA.) Thus in 
the phrase I J£» J£z J-i Such, a thing became 
lost from me. (Mgh.) One says to him from whom 
pieces of money have dropped, »U^c J nfc * j5 
[They have become lost from Otee], (TA.) And to 
him who has done a deed from which no profit 

has resulted, you say, J i^u J^ •*» I [Thy labour 
has been lost] : the like occurs in the £ur xviii. 104, 
meaning cU>. (TA, in two places.) _ And { He 
(a man, TA) died, and became dust and bones. 
(1£, TA.) In this sense the verb is used in the 
Kur xxxii. 9 : but some there read, in the place 
of liiU, Uiu '[q. v.], with ^ : (TA :) or the 
verb in that instance has the meaning hero next 
following, (S.) _ And t He, or it, (a man, 8, 
TA, or a camel, Msb, and a thing, TA,) was, or 
became, unperceived or imperceptible, unapparent, 
latent, hidden or concealed, or absent, (8, Msb, 
K,TA.) Hence the phrase, &Ji\ ^ &JI Jj, 
I [The water became unperceived, or concealed, in 
the milk], (TA,) One says of a road to which 
he has not been able to find the way, L5 ^c J-6 

Book I.] 

[It hat become hidden from me]. (K, TA.) And 
hence also the saying of a man, as is related in a 
trad., (S, 0, TA,) after his having charged his 
sons by saying to them, " When I die, burn ye 
me ; and when I shall have become ashes, pound 
me ; then scatter me in the water :" (0, TA :) 

4$lT i-it JU) (?, O, TA) i. e. t May-be, I shall 
be unperceived by God, or concealed from Him : 
(8 :) or may-be, I shall be hidden, or absent, from 
Gods punishment : (0,TA:) or, as El-'Otbee 
says, may-be, I shall escape God, and my place 
will be hidden from Him. (TA.) And Ji said 
of one forgetting means -[His memory became 
absent from him. (O, Msb, TA.) L>l J»-< J-f5 0'> 
or A*J o'» in the K ur ["• 282 1» accord - t0 dif " 
ferent readers, (TA,) in which instance o 1 * nd Oj 

are syn., (Mughnee, [see jjl, m P- *^s c °k' 1 

and 2,]) means 7/"on« of them twain [referring to 

women] be absent from her memory : or if the 

memory of one of them twain be absent from her : 

[or \fone of them twain err in her memory :] or, 

accord, to Zj, the meaning of the verb in this case 

is that which next follows. (TA.) — cJJ-o 

»*-t!l also signifies f I forgot the thing : whence 
"^ » •« -a* • a , 

one says of a woman, ly ^t — -»W cXo f [M<: 

forgot the days of her menstruation] ; and so 

t V^JU.' : (Mgh :) or u£» J-A t -H« was made, 

or caused, to forget such a one. (K> [In the CK> 

*,--i) is erroneously put for *?-. it.]) It is said 

that ^ J-*j •$, in the Kur xx. 64, means f 3/y 
Lord mill not be unmindful : or nothing mitt escape 
Him. (TA.) _ And one says, oW s jjXJ>, (Msb, 

K,) or *£» Jjlf JU* 0# ^jiti, (O,) meaning 
jSucA a on« went away from me, (O, Msb, K,) 
and I was unable to compass him [or to find him] : 

so in the Bari'. (Msb.) as J«e, as a verb of 
a s 

wonder : see J~b. 

2. i)uL», (S, MA, O, K,) inf. n. Jefis and 
J^ueJ, (&,) -f/e, or t'«, mait, or caused, him to 
pursue a course that led to error, or deviation 
from the right way: (]£: [see also 4:]) he, 
or it, led him astray; seduced him : (MA :) 
[or] he attributed, or imputed, to him error, 
or deviation from the right way. (S, MA, 
O.) ^ fl firf J$-b, a phrase used by a poet, means 
Error, or deviation from the right way, was at- 
tributed to their labour; because they did not 
reach their goal, (Ham p. 771.) _ [Hence,] one 
says, iUU jJjL* Send forth, or set free, thy cattle 
to pasture, or to pasture where they please, by 
themselves. (O.)— See also the next paragraph. 

4. ILot, inf. n. Jtt-o\, He, or it, made him, 
or caused him, to err, stray, or go astray; to 
deviate from the right way or course, or from that 
which was right; to miss, or lose, the right way; 
or to lose his way. (Az, TA.) [See also 2, first 
sentence.] J^LiSI is of two sorts: one of these 
is the consequence of erring, or straying ; either 
as in the case in which one says >-«JI c~U^»l 
(expl. above, see 1, former half) ; or the decreeing 
that one shall err, or stray, &c, because he has 
done so already, and this is sometimes the case 

when the J^Let of a man is attributed to God : 
the other sort is the embellishing [or commending] 
to a man that which is false, or wrong, or vain, in 
order that he may err, or stray, &c. : and God's 
J^L-el of a man is of two sorts ; one of which has 
been expl. above ; the other is God's so consti- 
tuting man that when he observes [and pursues] a 
certain course, or way, [of acting or the like], 
whether it be such as is commended or such as is 
discommended, he habituates himself to it, and 
esteems it pleasant, and keeps to it, and finds it 
difficult to turn from it, wherefore it is said that 
custom is a second nature. (Er-Raghib, TA.) — 
Also He, or it, made, or caused, him, or it, to 
perish, or become lost; syn. <ȣUl, (S, TA,) and 
i*lif, (El-Farabee, S, O, Msb,) or *j£* i (TA ;) 
[acU>I and <u«-«o signifying the same; and so 
aJU.1 and t<OJU>; whence,] .**•>*=> J**-i V 1 
.LlJtf ,-i, in the Kur cv. 2, means [Did He not 
make their plot to be such as ended] in a causing 
to perish, or become bst, (gt nfd ^,) and in an- 
nulment? (Ksh, Bd.) J^CJa J-*', »n the Kur 
[xlvii. 1 and 9, which may be rendered t He will 
cause their works to be lost, or to be of no effect], 
means, accord, to Aboo-Is-halj:, He will not recom- 
pense them for their good works ; the phrase being 

similar to the saying Ji^ui J-3 ji [expl. above]. 

(TA.) And J)i%A il)T fe\ f [May God make 
thine erring to be no more, or to come to an end,] 
is expl. by ISk as meaning may thine erring pass 
away from tltee, so that thou shalt not err ; and 
he adds that the saying iU^U ji means 4-*>i 

J^J $ Ji. it*. (TA.) Also t He buried, 

and kid, or concealed, him, or it. (K, TA.) You 

say, c4«H J-*' \Tk* dead was buried. (S, 0.) 

tii »s-« . __. .. 

The phrase m\ aj wJLsl, meaning J H w mother 

buried kirn, in a verse cited by IAar, is extr., 
or anomalous. (TA.) _ And He found him 
to be erring, straying, going astray; deviating 
from the right way or course, or from that which 
was right; missing, or losing, the right way; 
losing his way ; not rightly directed, or not finding 
the way to the truth : like as one says s^«»l, and 
tSdJ$. (TA.)-And you say, \$£o ylcl, 
meaning f ^A a thing was, or became, beyond 
my power, or compass. (IAar, Msb, TA.) — 
See also 1, near the end. 

5. JjLoJ It went away: so in the saying, 
j n »tj c««»J j>» *W J*A3 [The water went 
away from beneath the stone], (O, TA.) 

6. JUa3 He feigned himself to be erring, stray- 
ing, going astray ; deviating from the right way 
or course, or from that which was right ; missing, 
or losing, the right way; or losing his way. 

10. aJ^ui Jy-"- 1 His erring demanded that 
he should err [the more], so that he did err 
[the more: like as erring is said to be a cause 
of one's being made to err : see 4 : and see also 
dJ^L^ J*&, near the beginning of the art] : so 
in the saying of Aboo-Dhu-evb, 


.- • ** • t * J 

[T)ic heart beheld her, and Am erring demanded 
that he should err kc.]. (Skr, S, TA.) 

3 - * * » 

J-£ : see J^. — [Also, app. as meaning 
A lost state ; a state of perishing, coming to nought, 

or passing away;] a subst. from ,J»e signifying 
cU and iui. (S, TA.) _ And hence [its usage, 
in the manner of a proper name, in] the saying, 
J-9 £H jJ> j*, (S,) which means, (S, O, K,) as 
also t JU 'Jf j^ ^, (Ibn-'Abbdd, 0, K,) He 
is the unknown, the son of the unknown ; (S, Z, O, 
K ;) and in like manner, yJ^UJI ^ " J><a)t ; (S, 

;) and ji {j* J» : (TA :) or he is one in whom is 
no good : (K :) or he is one who persists in error. 
(M, K.) — [Hence also, perhaps, it is said that] 
Lo*JI <v ij^J U jJ> C [in the CK J-i] means 

»jJb b and aJM £ [i. e., app., the loss, or 
the coming to nought, of that by reason of which 
the mare El- Asa is running!]: (K, TA :) a 
prov.; said by Kascer Ibn-Saad to Jedheemeh 
El-Abrasli, when he went with him to Ez-Zebba ; 
for when they were within her province, he re- 
pented, and Kaseer said to him, " Mount this my 
horse, and escape upon him, for his dust will not 
be cloven [by the pursuer," i. e. he will not bo 
overtaken] : (TA : [but the mare is thus made a 
male:]) or it was said by Amr Ibn-Adee, when 
he saw El-'Asa, the mare of Jedheemeh, with 
Kascer upon her : >y is suppressed after b ; and 
t J^i is of the forms [of verbs] denoting wonder, 

originally JJlS, with damm, like •*>» in the 

' J a* .... * ** , . 

phrase O^** *i-"*'> originally *r~*- ; and the 

meaning of the prov. is, O people, what a case of 

perdition it that by reason of which El-'Asa it 

running! i. e., the death of Jedheemeh. (Meyd.) 

_ J"%e^ J~o [in CK J-6] means A vain, or 
futile, thing: (S, O, K:) [or a vain, misleading 
thing ; J*£-o3 being an inf. n. of jLo :] 'Amr 
Ibn-Shas El-Asadec says, 

- » » " 

[I remembered Leyla when it wot not a time for 
remembering her, the ribs having become bent by 
the bending of the back with age : it was a vain, 

. if 1 . 

misleading thing]. (S, O.) — J^MI J»o : see 


> J » i -t I J - »< i 

J~o ^ J-i yk : see J-j. _ J^uil J-o: see 

• a 


ilo Confusion, or perplexity, and inability to 
see the right course: (KO [° r error: for] one 
says, iU> iUi JjU iTe ^ui tAat t» error (^ 
aJ*ju>) : and £L& J^ii 7/t> nwnt away not know- 
ing whither he went : (TA :) and iLi \jf ) H O^* 
Such a one blames me wrongly : (S, O:) [or, behind 
my back, or in my absence : for] iJ-o signifies 


also speech respecting a person behind his back, or 
in his absence; relating to good and to evil. (M, 
K, TA.)i™[Freytag explains it as signifying also 
One in whom is no good, on the authority of Meyd.] 

2L0 Skill in guiding, or directing aright, in 
journeying. (Fr, K, # TA.) 

SU: see J& [Hence,] aLa) aZ~ yk 

I He is his son unlawfully begotten, or not true- 

born. ( AZ, A, K, TA.) it* iij »^*J % His 

blood went unrevenged, or without retaliation. (K, 

TA.) And aL> £j yi, (Th, O, K, TA,) with 

kesr to the O and to the ^o, (TA,) [in the CK, 
erroneously, i^S,] and iLi *J, (K, TA,) thus 

related by IAar, (TA,) but the former only accord, 
to Th, (TA in art. %£ t ) \ lie is a follower of 
women : (TA in that art.:) or he is one in whom 
is no good, and with whom is no good : (IAar, 
Th, TA:) or he is a very cunning man (<^*l>), 
one in whom is no good; (IAar, O, K, TA ;) and 
so alo «-J, (O, L, TA,) as some relate it ; (L, 
TA ;) and in like manner, J^U>) t J-6, (Lh, O, 

K, TA,) and Jtjlil * ji, ($> TA,) and j-> 

J^Lol, [q. v.,] which is with kesr only, (K, TA,) 

. .« i 

a phrase similar to %\j*\ j~b. (T A in art. yb. ) 

JJU: see J^-i._ Also Water (0,K) run- 
ning (K) beneath a rock, which the sun does not 
reach: (O, £:) one says JJLo JU: (O :) or 
running among trees. (K.) [See also Jib.] 

J^ui [an inf. n. of 1 : used as a simple subst.,] 
Error ; contr. ofi\ij, (S, 0, TA,) and of^jj* ; 
(K, TA ;) as also t U^i, (S, O, K,) and * ji, 
and ♦ jJ>, and ▼ aJU, and ▼ JJU>, and * lliJU, 
(K,) and * iLoU, (O, TA,) and t JjjUl, (K,) 
of which last the pi. is JejUl, (Lth,0, TA,) as 

in the saying jj>^t *sH!'"*' ls! t^*^ [He per- 
severed in the errors of love], (TA,) or J^Uil, as 
some say, has no sing., or its sing, is supposed, 

or has been heard, and is <UjJUil or J^JLot or 

JjU>l or some other form : (MF, TA :) the 

" j # ■ 

primary signification of J^-all is the going away 

from the right course, or direction: (Ham 
p. 357 :) or it signifies, accord, to Ibn-El-Kemal, 
the loss, or missing, of that which brings, or con- 
ducts, to the object sought : or, as some say, the 
pursuing a way that will not bring, or conduct, 
to that object: or, accord, to Er-E&ghib, the 
deviating from the right way : and it is said to 
be any deviation from that which is right, inten- 
tional or unintentional, little or much; because 
the right and approved way is very difficult; 
wherefore it may be used of him who commits 
any mistake whatever, and is imputed to prophets 
and to unbelievers, though between the J^ILo of 
the former and that of the latter is a wide differ- 
ence : and in another point of view, it is of two 
sorts; one 'is in the speculative departments of 
knowledge, as in acquaintance wfth the unity of 
Ood, and with the prophetic function or office, 
and the like, indicated in the Kur iv. 136 ; or it 


is in the practical departments of knowledge, as 
in acquaintance with the ordinances of the law, 
that is, religions services. (TA.) — — Also A state 
of perdition : so in the Kur liv. 24 : (S, O :) 
[and in like manner ♦ ii^e ; for] J*x)l il^jLo 
signifies Tlte annulled and lost state of work. 
(TA.) __ And Absence, or a state of concealment. 
(Msb. [This is there said to be the primary sig- 
nification.]) _ J^jbl &t J^Uill y* see cxpl. 

a j 

voce J-o. 

•. * « * - 

J>JU> : see JL0. 

•' t * * 1 * 

SJ^Ui: see *J%b, in the beginning, and near 

the end, of the paragraph. One says, il^LiJI .Jk 

4)%2\j; (S, O ;) in which the latter noun is an 

imitative sequent. (S and K in art. Jj.) 

« » 

,J-J-i A man (S, O) wko errs, strays, goes 

astray, or deviates from the right way or course, 

much, or often: (S, O, K:) or J who errs, &c, 

much, or often, in religion: (TA:) and ' jlJn«, 

(S, TA,) which in some of the copies of the S is 

written thus and also JX« a «, (TA,) signifies the 

same ; (S, TA ;) or one who is not disposed, or 

directed, to good; in the K, j~o-j \jyi ^ i^JJl, 

[or jt*~/ ^yi, as in the CK,] but correctly ^JJI 

Jt+J o*yi ^> ; or, as some say, a committer of 
errors, and of false, wrong, or vain, actions : and 
,J-JLo is also expl. as signifying one who will not 
desist from error. (TA.) Imra-cl-Kcys was 
called Jslidl JXIIJI [Tlie much-erring king], (S, 
O, K, TA, [in the CK, erroneously, J-JlJjt,]) 
and * JJUOl ^UUI. (K.) 

JL^ Erring, straying, or going astray; de- 
viating from the right way or course, or from 
that which is right ; misting, or losing, the right 
way ; or losing his way ; (S,* Msb, TA ;) and 

v J^JUs is syn. therewith ; (K ;) [or rather with 

jJLe, accord, to a general rule :] pi. of the former 

J>-o, [of which see an ex. in a verse cited voce 

J— j,] and i))Jl£: [in the Kur i. last verse,] 

some read 

[Book I. 

(Msb, TA,) like Zj^ pi. of ifo. (Msb.) It is 
said in a trad., jUI JjL o^W' %^ [ ex pl> in 
art. J,*.]. (TA.) And one says, a)U JjJmJl 
^>-«yoJI f [Wisdom is tlie object of persevering 
quest of the believer] ; meaning that the believer 
ceases not to seek wisdom like as a man seeks his 
stray. (TA.) 

J-aLo and t SXaLo, (As, S,) as though con- 
tracted from J-o^Lb [and aJLo^Li], (S,) or ^ijl 
▼ ajUaLo and J-iJU> [in the CK ti*S-Jt and 
J-kLo] and ♦ iUJJ. and t J-eJU (K) and 

* J-^^-4 (Lh, K) and liiJLi, (IDrd, K,) 
Bugged land or ground. (As, S, K.) And £l£» 
J-iLi, originally J«-o%i, A hard, stony place. 
(Fr, TA.) — Also, (so in the K,) i.e. (TA) 
J-oLi and t iJUaLi, accord, to Af , (O, TA,) 

or t aJLaU, (S, 0, TA,) [said to be] the only 
instance of its kind among reduplicate words, 
(S, O, TA, [in which last the same assertion is 
quoted from the T, app. in relation to the last, or 
last but one, of these words,]) and, as in the Jm, 

* iLcJU, (O, TA,) A stone, (As, S, O,) or stones, 
(K,) such as a man can lift from, the ground and 
carry : (As, S, O, K :) or, accord, to the T, 
ft I A > ..«j [thus in the TA, app. ▼ JJLAJL* or 

I "9j, to avoid the concurrence 
of two quiescent letters. (TA.) You say Jli 
JU ; (S, O ;) in which the latter epithet is an 
imitative sequent. (S and K in art. ,Jj.)^ 
[Also Becoming lost ; &c. _ And Forgetting. 
It is said that] J^UoJI v>o Ulj [in the Kur 
xxvi. 19] means f / being of those that forgot. 

(K, TA.) And i)Ui Slj-ol means f ^-l woman 
forgetting tlie days of her menstruation. (Mgh.) 

It ' 

aJU> an epithet in which the quality of a subst 

is predominant, (IAth, TA,) A stray; i.e. a 
beast that has strayed: (S, O, TA:) or a camel 
remaining in a place where it is lost, without an 
owner (K, TA) that is known : (TA :) or a lost 
animal (IAth, Mab, TA) or other thing, whatever 
it be : (IAth, TA :) applied to the male and to 
the female, (S, O, Msb, K,) and to two and to a 

pi. number: (TA;) and it has for its pi. J\y±, 

* lU kLi ,] signifies any stone such as a man can 
lift from the ground and carry, or above that, 
smooth, found in tlie interiors of valleys. (TA.) 

J«aA«0 : sec tlie next preceding paragraph. = 
Also, (IAar, O, TA,) in tlie K, erroneously, 
£jui4, (TA.) and t J^jLi, A skilful guide of 
tlie way. (IAar, 0, K, TA.) 

see J^luo. 

. rUrfUtf : see J-oJLi, in two places. _• J-o^Ui 

,WI, (0,K,) and iJLo>^, (O,) [said in the O, 
in this art., to be pis. of which the sings, arc 
JXiXj and aJUxU?, but the sings, are correctly 

# - # # J 9 - > j 

JUUmLA and SJLaLo, (see the latter of these two in 
its proper art.,)] The remains of water : (O, K:) 
so says Lh. (O.) , 

tiUJLA : sec J-aLj, in four places. 

%* * t 9 * * %s> * * 

iULAJLA : sec J^ILo : — — and iJUao : — and 
f * # 
J^oJLe, in three places. 

• # j % , * 9*1 

J~o^)uo : see J^aJLo : = and J^Uo. 

*- I el if t 

AJy-6l : see J>«6. 

Jtii ^ili ^» ^i, (Ks, S, O, K,*) «ke 

^r ' J.3 and iip* all imperfectly decl., (S, O,) 

and JiiS, (Ibn-Abbdd, O, K,) and JliS, with 

two fet-hahs, and jX^u, with two kesrehs, (Ibn- 

'Abbdd, O, TA,) meaning JfeUI [i. e. t He fell 
into that which was vain, unreal, nought, futile, 
or the like, and consequently, into disappoint- 
ment]: (Ibn-'Abbad, S, O, K, TA :) or, accord, 
to the A, JJLaS \£}\j .j* ly»Jj means I Zfoy 
perished. (TA.) 

Book I.] 

J-o- ifijf* A road that causes to go astray, 
or to deviate from the right course. (TA.) And, 
accord, to As, J-o* signifies A land (w*>jl) ' n 
roAicA one fo«et Am way. (TA. [See also the 
next paragraph.]) [Hence,] iJUx* <U3 means 
[A /rt'a/, or sedition, or discord, tec,] <Aar catuet 

men to yo astray, or to deviate from that which is 

i , 
right. (TA.) And [hence also,] J-cl»JI means 

TA* vli-* [° r «««»0«]. (TA.) 

• a » » t~ • » •« » »- 

ilLa* a subst like lifts** an d «*»• [i. e., as 

such, signifying A caiwe o/" erring, straying, 

going astray, or deviating from the right way or 

four.*; or from that which is right, &c] : (TA :) 

[and used in the manner of an epithet:] one says 

•a .. - ••( 

lfJx» i^jl .I land that causes one to err, tec. : 

(TA:) or, as also *iLi, (S, 0, Msb, $, TA, 

[in the CK ILL.,]) and * aJUJLi, (O, K,) a 
/and t'» roAicA one err*, or strays, from the [right] 
way ; (S, O, Msb, K ;*) in which one does not find 
the right way : and 2JLo« J^*. [.4 desert, or far- 
extending desert, &c, tn which one errs, &c] : it 
is used alike as masc. and fern, and pi. : but one 

says also O^Liv* o*4j'- ( t a 

see the next preceding paragraph. 

*tf ' ' I V 

J«La« : see J-i-i, in two places. 

■* - - ' * 2 

JUu* [part. n. of 6, q. v.]. One says, «*Xi1 

J//> »> ., a a »« ' 

Uu«JI i^jv "$•. JUa)l ^jjyj [Verily thou wilt 

direct aright the erring, kc, but thou wilt not 

direct aright him who feigns himself to be erring, 

fa.]. <S,0.) 

L ^ii, aor. '- , (S, O, Mfb, £,) inf. n. iJU, 
(8, O, Msb,) It, or f Ae, inclined, or declined : 
(8, O, £ :) ft, or t Ae, declined, or deviated, from 
that which was right, or true : (S, O, Msb, $ :) 
fAe acted wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or 
tyrannically. (§,*0,*#.) You say, <u» ijU 
I .He deviated, or turned aroay, /roin Aim, or ft ; 
or Ae did so, acting wrongfully, &c. : and *I4 
4-it fAe acted wrongfully, tec, against him. 
(TA.) And o"** £• ***^ (§>0,Msb,*£») 
t Thy inclining, (S, O, Msb, ]£,) and % foee, or 
desire, (S, O,) i» roiiA *ueA a one [i. e. in unison 
with that of such a one]. (S, O, Msb,* sj. :• in 
the Msb and K, <uu is put in the place of ** 

yii.) And i^JLi oi* a^JW &^£ii ytid •$ 

LjJi-., (S, O, $,) or <>l ? ; j [in the place of 
i£»^i\i], (Meyd,) [lit. Extract not thou the thorn 
by means of the thorn, or by means of the like of 
it, for its inclination is with it,] meaning, demand 
not aid, in the case' of thy want, of him who is 
more benevolent to the person from whom the 
object of want is sought than he is to thee: 
(Meyd :) a prov. : (S, Meyd, O :) applied to the 
man who contends in an altercation with another, 
and says, " Appoint thou between me and thee 
such a one ; " pointing to a man who loves what 
he [i. e. the opponent of the speaker] lovee : (S, 
Bk. I. 


0, $:) the author of the $ adds, it is said that 
it should by rule be JUJU, for they say '%U aJU 

0*}W, like ££*, [as though meaning Ae inclined 

with such a one,] but they have contracted it; 
which is wonderful, in consideration with his 
having mentioned shortly before, iJU, like iu, 

as signifying jC. (TA.) One says also, c^U. 
J^ie iUli olQ 0$ i. e. f [/ contended in an 
altercation with such a one and] thy inclining 

[was against me]. (S, O.) ij_i, aor. - , 

(Mgh, Msb, K,) inf. n. £jL*, (Mgh, Msb,) means 
It (a sword, K, or a thing, Msb) was, or became, 
crooked, or curved: (Mgh, Msb, £:) and 
* jLoJ may mean the same : (Ham p. 80 :) a 
poet says, (namely, Mohammad Ibn-'Abd-Allah 
El-Azdee, TA,) 

[And verily, or sometimes, or often, its owner 
bears the tried sword, notwithstanding crookedness 
in its broad side, U being sliarp] : (S, O :) and 
(K) £*■* signifies the being crooked, or curved, 
by nature; (S, 0,$;) as also IJU; whence the 
saying, iULLb o^*3y and iLLLi [/ rot// 
assuredly straighten thy natural crookedness]: 
(?. :) thus in the copies of the $ ; but this is a 
mistake, occasioned by the author's seeing in the T 

and M siUU, j^iej'J and JUJLi meaning iu.^, 
and his imagining both these nouns to be with 
u6 and to differ in the manner stated above: 
(TA :) you say, ^U>, aor. - , inf. n. £iu i. e. 
Ae, or it, was, or became, crooked, or curved, by 
nature : (S, O :) or »ii in the camel is like >U 
in horses or the like, [meaning the limping, or 
halting, or having a slight lameness, in the hind 
leg,] and the verb is pU,; and the epithet [or 
part, n.] is t £X4: (!£:) or this is rather the 
explanation of £jU*, with ii; (TA;) [or as Mtr 
^y 8 .] £** as meaning what resembles Jjc [or 
natural lameness] is correctly *iSi: (Mgh:) 
but when it (i. e. the crookedness, TA) is not 
natural, one says, £Ii, like ju*, (£, TA,) [but 
this seems rather to relate to the meaning of 
"limping," agreeably with what I have cited 
above from the Mgh,] and the inf. n. is «JU : 

(TA :) and the epithet [or part, n.] is * ili. 

(£0 »£^' f aor * * J inf * n> **^> Se (a man, 
S, O, Msb, [and app. also a horse and the like, 
see its part. n. j^-o,]) mas, or became, strong, 
or powerful; (S, 6, Msb, £ ;) and strong, hard, 
or firm, in the £&\ [or ribs]. (S, O, $. [The 
latter is said in Harp. 6 to be the primary meaning; 
and the former, metaphorical.]) =iLi as syn. 
with ^JUJ: see the latter. mm&$i iii lie 
struck such a one upon his pJub [or rib]. (JjL.) 

9: see 4, in two places. _ jC*^l %^Lai is 
said by some to mean f 2%« making deeds to 


deviate from the right, or direct, way or course : 
and by some to mean f *Ae making them heavy, 
or burdensome. (Har p. 77.) __»,j>~" r L ' t- 1 * 
signifies TTfo figuring the garment, or piece c/ 
cfotA, wt'M the form ofgjJ,\ [or rftw]. (§, O, ?.) 
[See also the pass. part, n., below.] 

4. ^d*l, (If ,) inf. n. £Ul, (S, O,) /:, or 
Ae, made it, or t Aim, to incline, or decline; (S, 
0,£j) [and so *i*JL«; for] e^jLiNI and 

g g^^ l signify «USt. (Har p. 77.) [And 

It, or Ae, made it, or Aim, to 6e crooked, or 
curced; and so * aaJU ; for] c^LiSt and % t lM\ 
signify also -_.^jtl)l. (Har ubi supra.) _ 

[Hence,] one says also, ^W II <uxLol, meaning 
t [^Jfair*, or t/reat or grievous affairs,] burdened 
him [as though making him to incline, or curving 
him]. (TA.) as See also 8. 

8. »LiJ : see 1, in the middle of the paragraph. 
— [Alio,] (S, O, £,) and t £u, like gU, (^,) 
said of a man, (S, O,) ife became filled, (8, 0, 
5>) or what was between his c^juol [or rift*] 
oecame yKfed, (TA,) with food, (S, O, $,) or 
drinA : (§, O :) or rot<A drinA so that the water 
reached his c"£«6l, (K, TA,) and they became 
swollen out in consequence thereof: (TA in ex- 
planation of the former verb:) and the former 
verb is also expl. as meaning Ae drank much, so 
that hit side and his ribs became stretched. (TA.) 

And >ULJI t>* aJLcJ He became filled with the 
food; as though it filled his ribs. (Msb.) 

8. Wjay^l is from fe^jLaH [inf. n. of »JU] 
meaning " the being strong, or powerful;" (ISk, 
S, O, and Har p. 391 ;) ,^W £&U^1 signify- 
ing The raising the thing upon one's back, and 
rising with it, and having strength, or power, 
sufficient for it. (Har ibid.) And you say, 
«l*aky »ltw l, meaning He had strength, or 
power, to bear it, or carry it. (Mgh, and Har 
p. 645.) [See also the part, n., below.] And 
t**yy » £*-ol i He had strength, or power, tuf- 
ficient for tlte affair; as though his ribs had 
strength to bear it. (Mfb.) 

*X£ : see f^-o, first sentence, 

* * *' 

£U> ^.sce aX«6, first and last sentences. 

«J-o The weight, or burden, of debt, tAat oendt 
<Ae oearer fAereo/. (IAth, O, £.) And Strength, 
or power; (As, S, O, M|b, $ ;) a subst. in this 
sense, from &1^; (Msb;) and the bearing, or 
endurance of that which is heavy, or burdensome. 
(As,S, O, $.) — Also inf. n. of iU [q. v.], 
(Mgh, Msb,?.) 

gJLA Crooked, or curoed, by nature. (S, O, 
TA.) And applied to a spear as moaning 
Crooked, or curved; not straightened: (TA:) 
or, so applied, inclining, or bending: (Ham 
p. 80:) and '£*^ and * »JU, so applied, 



[likewise] mean crooked, or curved. (TA.) — 
See also 1, in the last quarter of the paragraphs 

£Li*and * £L», (S, Mgh, O, M ? b, K,) the 
former of the dial, of El-Hijdz and the latter of 
the dial, of Temcem, (Msb, TA,) and " »JLe, 
which is the only form, or almost the only one, 
that is used by the vulgar, is said by MP to be 
mentioned by some one or more of the commen- 
tators, but not known in the lexicons, (TA j) 
[A rib;] a certain apjtcrtenance of an animal, 
(M>l>.) well known; (K ;) the curved thing of 
tlie tide ; (TA ;) a tingle bone of the bone* of the 
$ide : (Mgh, Msb :) of* the fem. gender, (Msb, 
£, TA,) accord, to common repute ; or, as some 
say, muse. ; or, accord, to some, whose opinion 
in thin case is preferred by Ibn-M&lik and others, 
of both genders : (TA :) pi. [of mult.] e>L> 
and [of pauc] 1*>M»1 (S, Mgh, O, Msb, K) and 
aLil, (O, Msb, "£,) and ilUI also is a pi. of 
iLb, or, as some say, of [its pi.] jLet. (TA.) 

oJuJI ii-i [and jJLjl] is [The rib] in the 
lowest part of the tide [of a man, i. e. the lowest 
rib ; and the hindmost rib in a beast] : (TA :) 
and signifies also A burn in the part behind what 
it thus termed. (O, "£, TA.) — Also fA piece 
of stick or wood; syn. jji; [erroneously sup- 
posed by Golius and Freytag to mean here the 
musical instrument thus called;] (IAar, O, K;) 
to in a saying of the Prophet to a woman, 
respecting a blood-stain on a garment, gJ*f* *t** 
f [Scrape thou it off with a piece of ttick] : (IAar, 
():) or f such at it wide and curved; as being 
likened to the *Li (O, K) of an animal (K.) 
__ And ; An oblong piece of a melon ; (O,* K, 
TA;) as being likened to the *Lo [properly 
thus called]. (O, TA.) — And I A trap for 
birds ; because of its gibbous shape : so in the 
saying, t^kU VaJL* <^Jx> [He setup a trap for 
the bird*]. (A, TA.) _ And The bate, or lower 
part, of a raceme of a palm-tree. (TA in art. 
k > t *-) — And t A line that it made on the 
ground, after which another line it made, and 
then the space between these two it town. (TA.) 
_ And f A small mountain apart from othert : 
(S, (),K:) or a small mountain, such as it not 
long : (TA :) or a low and narrow mountain, 
(Aboo-Nasr, 8, O, "£, TA,) long and extended: 
or, accord, to As, a small mountain, extending 
lengthwise upon the earth, not high. (TA.) And 
[the pi.] c>U> signifies J Curved tracts of ground : 
or tracks (JBl/i) of a [piece of stony ground such 
as is termed] tjL. (O, £, TA.) — Also i An 
island in the sea; pi. £M: or, as some say, it 
is the name of a particular island. (TA.)— - 
[In geometry, f A side of a rectilinear triangle or 
square or polygon. _ And f A square root ; 
called in arithmetic J*. : see J.\£, near the end 
of the paragraph.] — - One says also, ^>* ^*> 
|J}£ £U, (S, A, O, £, in the last of which, 

between^* and ,^U is inserted Ui»,) and t £lLo 
is allowable, (S, TA,) meaning t They are as- 
sembled against me with hostility : (A, TA :) the 


origin of which is the saying of AZ, one says, 
• » • » *-» *j • » • •', • .' • * ' 

j— l_j s-JI Ly U jjk [or j^t) ^Jl] and j»lj c.j-e 

and jk^lj aJLo, meaning as above. (TA.) 

i«JLo A, certain small fish, green (.1^ 
in the bone. (lbn-'Abbad, 0, $.) 

»), short 

*JLi : see »JLo : _- and see also c j JL A «, in 

three places Also, applied to a man, (S, O, 

Msb,) Strong, or powerful; (6, 0, M?b, "t£ ;) and 

strong, hard, or firm, in the c"3lue' [or ribs] : (S, 

O, K:) or, as some say, long in the t'il-bl, great 

in make, bulky ; applied to any animal, even to 

# • j * * » 

a jinnee: (TA:) pi. *JL», (!£,) or app., *JLo 

[of which the former may be a contraction]. 
(TA.) And, applied to a horse, Complete, or 
perfect, in make or formation, large in t/ie middle, 
thick in the [bones called] f\jH, having many 
sinews: (ISk, S, O, K". :) or, so applied, thick in 
the v-iyi; strong, hard, or firm, in the sinews: 
(Msb:) or, as some say, long in the ribs 
( c^La^)'), wide in the tides, large in the breast. 
(TA.) And ^Jbl *-JU> A man large in the 
mouth : (£t, O, £ :) or wide therein : (A'Obeyd, 
O, K:) expl. in the former sense, and in the 
latter, as applied to the Prophet; (0, TA;) 
width of the mouth, (I£t, O, £, TA,) and large- 
ness thereof, (TA,) being commended by the 
Arabs, and smallness thereof being discommended 
by them ; ("£t, O, $, TA ;) whereas the Persians, 
or foreigners, {jge\ "".) commend smallness 
thereof: (TA :) or having large teeth, closely and 
regularly set together; (Sh, O, ]$".}) and thus also 
expl., by 8h, as applied to the Prophet: (O, 
TA:) and bU3t i^JLi a man whose central 
incisors are thick. (TA.) 

«JU> Inclining, or declining: (TA: [like 
■Jlk :]) declining, or deviating, from that which 
is right, or true : acting wrongfully, unjustly, in- 
juriously, or tyrannically. (S, O, I£, TA.) _ 
See also *JU>. — And see 1, in the last quarter 
of the paragraph. 

•Jyi t Inclining with love or desire. (IAar, 

aJUjI, applied to a man, [and accord, to the 
CK to a beast (ijlj) also,] Whose tooth is like 
the **U [or rib] ; (Lth, 0, $ ;) fem. fuii [per- 
haps applied to the tooth, but more probably, 
I think, to a woman]; (TA;) and pi. *Li. 

(?.) Also, (O, [but accord, to the K " or,"]) 

Strong, thick, (O, "£, TA,) large in make. (TA.) 
_ And Stronger, or more powerful (O,* TA.) 

aJLo* A load heavily burdening, or overburden- 
ing,^, IAth, 0,5, TA,) to the £M [or ribs] ; 
(TA ;) as though leaning, or bearing, upon the 
tyJj>\ : (IAth, TA :) or a heavy load, which one 

C 1 * *7 ^ * ATT -- V 

is unable to bear; as also " £-^»-»- (? &r P- "'■) 

[See also ^.lll*.] And, JIl La l^b M 
calamity that heavily burdens, or overburdens, 

[Book I. 

and breaks, the o^L^t [or r»6*]. (TA.) — And 
aJLoI'l^b A fcarf wnose c*^u»l [or rti«] Aaw 
no* strength sufficient for the load. (Ibn-'Abbad, 
O, L, K.) See also ^lki»«. 

«Juk» A garment, or piece of cloth, figured 
with stripes, like thongs, or straps, (0, $, TA,) 
these being of^Liji\, or ofji, [i. e. n/A, or ram 

silk,] wide, like «%&l [or ribs]: (TA :) or 

[simply] figured: (Lh,TA:) or variously woven, 
and thin: (TA:) or partly woven and partly 
left unwoven. (ISh, Az, O, K, TA.) _ And 
laLk* il» [A ribbed dome or ca^o/a ; i. e.] having 

the form of £pA. (TA.) 

• ■ .» # • • > 

&JLm : see *JL»*. 

c^JUm Having the %Li [or rti] broken. 

(Ibn-'Abbdd, O.) And Aft^Ux* ^y A Oom 

) and 

t'n f/u; wooci o/ ro/tic/t are a bending (\ 

an evenness (jtyS, as in the O and Jfc., or^fi^sJ, 
as in the L), [app. towards each extremity,] the 
rest of it (UpC) being similar to its ju& [which 
means its middle part, or part where it is grasped 
with the hand, or part against which the arrow 
goes, &c, for it is variously explained] ; (O, "f£, 
TA;) so accord, to A?, (0,TA,) and Aflto; 
(TA ;) as also t ^li, (0, ?, TA,) and t li-U ; 

for which last, ic^LL* is erroneously repeated 
in the K ; [app. from its author finding it said 
in the O that such a bow is termed £eJLe and 

ic^jLLi ; and in the TK, IstiyL* is substituted 
for it :] f iaLu» ^£ is also expl. as meaning a 
thick bow. (TA.) 

•JJ£Jm is from i«'jLa)l [inf. n. of «JLb] : so in 
the saying, ^»"^l U^ sJJouo* ^>i i. e. Such a 
one is possessed of strength, or power, sufficient for 
this affair : so says ISk : and he adds that one 
should not say «JLk« : Aboo-Nasr Ahmad Ibn- 
Hatim says, one says **^l IJy c*" 0- ** and 
si iilLi [also]; c*iOx4^l being from ii^l 
meaning 1^*11; and £$&*)! being from ^lill, 

from the saying a^OI c-*U>l meaning lyjy* [1 
ascended upon the mountain, or mountain-road, 
termed i*i] ; i. e. he is one who has ascendancy 
with respect to this affair, who is master of it: 
(S,0,TA:) Lth expressly allows £Xk* for 
r 1 ^ n- by the incorporation of the ^A into the 
[letter that is originally] O, so that the two 
together become J» with teshdecd. (TA.) And 
j**)\ 1Jk»J ' juLk» yk means the same as «Ji»-a* 
as first expl. above, i. e. He is possessed of 
strength, or power, sufficient for this affair. (0, 
^. [In both, in this instance, IJ^J, not Uy ]) 

In the phrase *U- ^ UXiLiU o& ^i [^/* ^ 
6e possessed of power, or ability, to obtain his 
right, or due], it seems that UJLkuM is made 
trans, by means of , Jb because made to imply 
the meaning of \y& or lj jJU. ^Mgh.) f > W • » 

Book I.] 

likewise, signifies Having strength, or power. 

p i r~ ' : see what next precedes. 

* '», [aor. * ,] inf. a.^J>, lie drew it, put 

it, brought it, or gathered it, together; collected 
it; or contracted it. (Msb.) You say, K*& ^ 

»J^ Ji» (ft MA » w [aor - and] inf - "' M 

above, J/e drew, pu<, or brought, together [and 
joined or a$oin«d] a /Awiy to a thing. (MA, K.) 
And iCjJ^> is" i r ««** [/ drew Aim, or pressed 
him, to my bosom;] I embraced him. (TA.) 
And J»yil» jt-*> [Jn-"^' W°S a PP- understood, 
or perhaps it is correctly ^,] 7%e peopfc, or 
porty, collected themselves together, or became 
collected. (TA.) And ^^J^U^T^ill t God, 
compose what is discomjwsed, or diwrganized, [lit. 
oriny together what is scattered,] of my affairs. 
(K» and TA in art.>ii.) And ^ i^t»> 
y-Ul f[Conrrac< thy side from, men;] meaning 

be thou gentle, courteous, easy to deal with, or 

*f « • a j 
compliant, to men. (TA.) And « t ,U « r . . . ^ 

^•U^l TAe end* o/ tAe fingers were drawn 

together upon it. (Ham p. 21. [See also a 

[originally ^.U3] ; but some relate it other- 
wise, saying t j^UJ "^ ; and some, Or^ '> 
from^-aJI; (TA in this art.;) and some, *} 

^jUeu ; and some, Osf-** "> from >*-*■"• 
(TA in art. j«6 : for explanations, see 3 in that 
art.) See also 3 above. [Hence,] ^J> >Ua3 
i.jiAif\ ejjir '■ [lie drew himself together in his 
prostration and his sitting, in prayer]. (S,* and K 
in art. j*»-.) 

7. jg h H It was, or became, drawn, put, 
brought, or gatlicred, together; collected; or con- 
traded (Msb.) d^Jl ^ail is syn. with 4-oU>, 
q. v. (S,» MA, K.*') [And it signifies also He 
adjoined himself, got him or got himself, betooh 
him or betooh himself, repaired, or resorted, to 
him, or it. And <uic > *ix>\ It became drawn 
together upon it. \j& ^J\ jgix>\ is expl. in the 
TA as meaning ij:>kt : but I think that ^1 is 

evidently a mistranscription for ^y* ; and that 
the meaning therefore is, It infolded such a thing, 
or enclosed it, like xJ^ ^ l n^ l, q. v.] 

8. t l 2i\ J ^ui\ He drew, brought, or gathered, 
the thing to himself: (K :) the Jb is substituted 
for C> because of the ^jb. ( Az, TA.) — Hence, 
in a trad., »>uy ^l >n ^i% jje*e>\ [They drew 

similar phrase in what follows, with the verb in near, or close, one to another]. (TA. [See also 
the act. form, virtually meaning the same.]) — 
[Also He compacted it : and he compressed it. — 
And He, or it, comprised it ; or enclosed it : and 

he grasped it : as also *«ie >»"*> ' n Dotn °^ tnese 
senses.] You say, J^O^I <t~U c<«. <» 2«e end* 07 
<Ae fingers grasped it. (Ham p. 21. [See a 
similar phrase above.]) And ^UM ^A* j*° He 
took [or grasped] all the property. (TA.) And 
silt £y* j*b He took of his property. (TA.)_ 

[^ijmJ\^ -o, aor. and inf. n. as above, a conven- 
tional phrase in lexicology and grammar, He 
pronounced tfte letter with the vowel-sound termed 
J^£ : and he marked the letter with the sign of 
that vowel-sound.] 

3. JuiUi, (S, MA, K, TA,) inf. n. aJuLi, 
(TA,) He became, or drew, near, or close, to 
him ; he became conjoined with him ; (MA ;) i. q. 
4)jtjU>1; (S,'MA,K;*) andtjluj. (K.) 
And J4-JH C«»«C6 I continued conjoined with 
the man occupied in one affair. (TA.) And 
*L-£m jJI i,JL)I >t« 3T%e <Ainy became [adjoined 
to the thing', or] conjoined with the thing. (TA.) 
See also 6. 

4. (ji-l \J\ W^> <. <t rf»t [app. J made Atm, 
or it, to be accompanied by, or Z made t< to com- 
prise, a fetter to my brother]. (TA.) 

5. •'n^ I took it, or devoured it, altogether. 
(TA in art. ^-*.) [See also R. Q. 1.] 

6. Ij-tUJ T^iey became, or drew, near, or efoee, 
together, or one to another ; or became conjoined, 
one with another. (S, MA, TA. [See also 8 ]) 

Hence the saying in a trad., *ly j ^ C> > *^ ^ 

6.]) And, in another trad., ^Ut a~U ^*Jbl^I 
TAe people, or men, pushed, pressed, crowded, or 
thronged, together upon him. (TA.) — And 
<4i* >rU^t /< comprised it, or enclosed it. (K.) 
You say, c^JLoJI aJ* C~»Jauel TAe rii« cow- 
jprfeed t/, or enclosed it. (S. [See also 7.]) 

E. Q. 1. JUI ^ji* J^Jo He took all the 
property ; (K ;) as though he drew it, or 
gathered it, (*«-o,) to himself. (TA.) [See also 
8.] — And^Afff Zfe (a man, TA) encouraged 
his heart; or became courageous in heart. (K, 
accord, to different copies.) — And, said of a 
lion, He [roared, or] uttered a cry : ($, TA :) 
inf. n. X^Jb. (TA.) 

jji> inf. n. of 1 [q. v.]. (Msb, &c.) _ [As a 
conventional term of lexicology and grammar, A 
certain vowel-sound, well known.] 

jjbi\ and T^eCJaJI Severe calamity or mis- 
fortune; (£, TA ;)' accord, to Lth: (TA:) but 
app. mistranscriptions, and correctly with ^a 

[i. e.JJci\ and, by implication, >l*^JI, but the 

latter is app. only jX^o, without the art., like 
>l£j] ; (£, TA j) so says Az. (TA.) 

Z+-e [inf. n. un. of 1 (q. v.) : and as such sig- 
nifying] An embracing. (TA.)___ Also A number 
of horses assembled from every quarter for a race : 
(EL, TA :) thus called because so assembled. 
(TA.)__[And, as a conventional term in lexi- 
cology and grammar, The sign of the vowel-sound 

>Co : ice what next follows. 

>C-f, (?,KL,) with kesr; (§;) or *Jli-4, 

like v'>5 (?0 t* 6 {oTmer a Pf- *• ri ^ n *» 
being agreeable with analogy, like J»Wj and JU^ 
and jC\ and JUft &c. ;] A thing, (S, K,) or 
thread, string, cord, or <Ae like, (KL,) 6y mean* 
0/ which one thing is drawn, and joined, or ad- 
joined, to another thing. (S, K., KL.) One says, 

<Jl4» j 'i^ i ' i >C-0 i5j**" [■P**'y ** <Aat w ** cA 

draw* and attaches to its possessor eeery jrood 

i - 
t/jin^]. (TA.) = Sec also^riJI, above. 

_»j t r ^.ny i>a/fcy afen<7 roAtcA one (70M between 

* * s 
two long hills of the kind termed i*£»l : or any 

valley flowing [with water] between two long hills 
of that kind : (so accord, to different copies of 
the K:) [the former explanation is app. the right; 
for] AHn says, when one goes along a valley 
between two long hills of the kind termed l+£*\, 
that place is termed j>^ai\. (TA.) 

>w »«a [i. 5. v»««mJ. One says, \i"}S cJ-y« 

U^ki ***** CJm^»j [J *ent *ucA a one, and made 
*wcA a one Ai* a«(/unc<]. (TA.) 

<Ul««s>: see 3UI»^.— U» ^» « " U .« U A means 
2%e <wo *t'de* [or ftoard*] of the book, that 
embrace it between them. (T and M and TA voce 
ijj.) And in like manner, »-j-JI U«l t .j> and 
J»J]| [The two boards of the horse's saddle and 
of the earners saddle, that embrace it between 
them]. (M ibid.) 

j»U«^ One who collects together the seed-produce. 

I , 

j>la act. part. n. of 1 [q. v.], (TA.) 

<UU> [a subst. from>U>, rendered such by the 
affix »]. You say, i«U> y»j JUiU ^j^ki i^oyi 
<u>^3 [iSucA a one row and *ped to fight, or to <Ae 
j^A<, Ae 6etn^ iAe musterer of his people, or 
party], (TA.) — — Also A want, or an object of 
want, that brings one and causes him to have 
recourse [to a thing]. (Meyd, in explanation of 
a prov. cited vocc^Uo, in art.^-6, q. v.) 

• * • * 

j*a+>6 A lion that grasps everything ; as also 

' J^-oU-i. (S.) [See also jA&^A : and see what 
here follows.] _ Also, (S,) Angry ; (S, K ;) 
applied to a man : (S :) and, as also ▼ -^»C-J 
and '^Aio, an angry lion: (K, TA:) or 
simply a /ion: (TA:) and cold, or daring; 

(K, TA;) applied to a man. (TA.) And 

Big, bulky, or corpulent : (K, TA :) but it is 
mentioned by IAar as with the unpointed 1^0. 

• «• j • » • « 

„» A «. o : see j*k*i. ■» Also Niggardly in the 

utmost degree. (IAar, TA.) [See also^U-4.] 

• »>• #»• •, « 

3«A«.A : see <U>«J and j,«i.o. 

j*\W t <> One wAo toAet, or yeto, everything 
within his grasp; (K,TA;) drawing it to him 
self. (TA.) [See also^U^A.] 

^rf U-o : *ee jyt&i, in two places. — Also 



One who eats much; mho hat an inordinate 
appetite for food ; mho appropriates to himself 
exclusively of others : or who eats much, and does 

not become satiated. (TA.) And A niggardly 

man. (TA.) [See tSmJJA^A.] 

• ' " * • - • t 

*m«J1 A bundle, (i*>-, Msb,) or number 
put, or joined, together, (TA,) i. q. ijuit, (S, 
TA,) of booka or writings; (S, Msb, TA*;) as 
also tiil^i : (TA:) pi. of the former Jr*Ul 

(8.) You say, ^Jd> &+ <uCa,W J^ &• 
[Such a one brought a bundle of books or writ- 
ings]. (8.) _ And A company, or collection, (S, 
$, TA,) of men, or people, not of one stock, but 
of different tribes mixed together; [and of horses;] 
as though collected and joined, one to another : 
pi. as above. (TA.) One says, JlJ ^jj 
jk+\u>-)\ i. e. [A horse that often outstrips] the 
collections (S, £) of horses. (K.) _ And its pi. 
^e«Ubl signifies also Stones: (TA:) or collections 
of stones: (Mgh in art. ***»:) occurring in a 
trad, respecting the stoning of an adulterer. (Mgh, 

a .. 

jr*** A place of assembling of military forces. 
• j • « 
j>y*±+ pass. part. n. of 1 [q. v.]. (TA.) See 


jt^i* [part. n. of 7, q. v. __ Hence,] Lean ; 

or slender and lean; or lean, and lank in the 
belly ; as though one part thereof were drawn 
and adjoined to another. (TA.) 

7 : see what next precedes. 

'I, and its var. j t f l : see 5. 

A fat woman or she-camel. (K.) 

And Fresh ripe dates (s«J»j [so in copies of the 
£, accord, to the TA ^J»j, app. a mistran- 
scription,])/rom which something drips. 

Q. 4, accord, to some, but Q. Q. accord, to 
most. JU +M : see art. J~~o. 

4 » » * 

Q. 4. yj m t ■ *> ) '• q. J* o o\ [<]- v. in art 
J*~i] ; formed from the latter by substitution 
[of ^ for J : mentioned by Yaakoob. (TA : 
and mentioned in the K in art. J- , r ) 

1 : see the next paragraph. 

2. s^)W «***i (§, A, Mgh, Msb,) inf. n. 
£**£; (S,A,$;) and * i^i, (ISd,TA,) 
aor. *, (T£,) inf. n. I^i; (ISd, K;) //c daubed, 
or smeared, (S, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) Aim, (S, A, 
Mgh, Msb,) or his body, (L, }£.,) with perfume, 
or some odoriferous or fragrant substance, (S, 
A, Mgh, L, Msb, £,) copiously, (L,) w tAa< ft 
seemed to drip. (L, K.) It is said in a trad., 

and theti with another so as to satiate herself. 

r.i "!- ' - ." ' ,J tt mr l J, , ( Fr And <&**<»> aor. as above, f S/te (a 

waklu *-.)• i^-«u o^ -^ e [Mohammad] t«erf v . , v , f . ' . ;. 

t ■ . ; ■* q_T ■ w L J woman having a husband or a friend [or lover]) 

in ihitiJt nm <m,<nr hijt ln'ini rmnimiAhi initlt tuw. . 1 i* / .1 v f /• • 1 r . -• 

L rJ +i\ ^i, (S, A, L, ?,) aor. i (S, L, K) 
and - , ($,) inf. n. J£i ; (§, L ;) and t ,'j^ 
(A, $,) inf. n. j*Ji3; (TA;) He bound the 
wound (and in like manner one says of other 
things, L) with a >C«i or SjC-i i- e. a bandage, 
or filet, (S, A, L, £) or kerchief. (A.) This 
is the primary signification. (L.) And J, ', h 
*-lj, (L,) or >Co^ * »J^-», (Lth,) He wound a 
piece of rag round his head, after anointing it, or 
wetting it with water : (Lth, L :) and t /[ c 
*->1j, inf. n. j, t „ <C> , He bound his head with a 
filet, or bandage, (S, A,) or a kerchief, (A,) or a 
piece of cloth, not a turban. (S.) And 11 r 
r-^-H, inf. n. j^^>, also signifies 2T« applied a 
remedy [or rfrc»tn^] <o the wound, without band- 
aging it. (L.) And jJeik 4~£e t j^«o i/" c 
applied, aloes to his eyes. (L, from a trad.) 
Ana j00ci\j ot>fr>>W »J^-<3 -ffe smeared kirn, or 
&, owr, [or poulticed him, or ft,] wtVA saffron 
and aloes. (Az, L.)^And J^UJ i^'I f JL^4i 
i?tnd <Ao« ujxm tliee thy garments^ (Ibn-Malik, 
A,) andiU*U* [thy turban]. (A.) And j^o J^.1 
Jjiall IjJk Make thou good the binding of this 
half bad. (L.) _ And tj^^> f -ffe rfnwA him, 
or Ai< Aim, on Ai.* head with a staff or stick : (S, 
50 sometimes used in this sense: (S:) or Ae 
«<<, or wounded, (A, L,) Aim (L,) or it, i. e. his 
head, (A,) in the place of t/ie turban, with a 
sword ; syn. «**«. (A, L.) _ j^, also signifies 
t The treating with gentleness, or blandishment ; 
soothing, coaxing, w/ieedling, or cajoling ; or 
striving, endeavouring, or desiring, to do so. (S, 
L, K,) — And Ojl^6, (A, L,) aor ; and -, (L,) 
inf. n. iU (A A, S, L, K) and iC-i, (Fr, A, L,) 
I jSA« (a woman) took to herself two friends, (S, 
A, L, K,) or secret friends, or amorous asso- 
ciates, (A,) together: (S, A, L, K:) or she took 
another man beside her husband (AA, A, L) as 
her friend, or secret friend, or amorous associate; 
(A;) or two other men: (AA, L;) or she asso- 
ciated as a friend with two or three men in a time 
of drought, in order that she might eat with one 

[Book I. 

one says, Uljc^ f They both associated at friends 
[or lovers] with her, or made love to her. (L.)ia 
J^i, aor. '- , It dried; (Hr, L, $ ;) said of blood 
upon the throat of a slaughtered sheep or goat. 
(Hr, L.) ss Also, inf. n. j^, He acted wrong- 
fully, or injuriously, or unjustly. (L.)_And 
*©J* **-»"°> aor - * > ">f- n. JL**>, J/e &orc rancour, 
malevolence, malice, or jipite, against him : (S, L, 
K. :*) or AeW /a«( rancour, &c, against him in 
his lieart. (L.) And Ife was angry with him : 
or vehemently enraged against him and angry 
with him : or he was enraged against him ; i. e. 
one over whom he had power to vent his rage. 

2 : see the preceding paragraph, in four places. 

t 00 it 

4. _ /t hj^J>\ I He collected them together. (]£, 

TA.) — And ^Jja}\ jk*^l T/te [plant called] 
»J>* contained its i^ey^. [q. v.] lying hidden 
within it, not yet appearing. (S, £.•) 

5. , ><| ,a i It (a wound) was bound with a 
bandage or filet [or kerchief (see 1)]. ($.) 7t 
(a man's head) nns boutul with a bandage or 
filet [or kerchief] or «>i<A a piece of cloth, not 
a turban. (S.) — [And <v .^.eu lf« tued i<, or 
applied it, as a poultice or the like.] 

Suck as is fresh, or moist, of herbage or 

trees : and such as is dry thereof: (S,* L, K :•) 

thus having two contr. meanings: (K:) or fresh 

and dry herbage mixed toget/ter : and herbage of 

which every twig, or slioot, has put forth its leaves. 

fi * • • 
(L.) jtjS\ ^0 jlom? means Such as is dry of blood; 

dry blood. (L.) — Also The better, or best, and 
the worse, or worst, of sheep or goats : (S, L, £ :) 
or the young, and the old : or such as are in a 
sound, or good, state, and tuck as are in an un- 
sound, or a bad, state : or the slender, and the 
large. (L.) A man says to his creditor, iLa>l 
j,iii\ oJa j^6 ^y> [I will pay thee with some of 
the better, or best, or of the worse, or worst, Sec, 
of these sheep or goats]. (S.) 

to daub, or smear, his head copiously with per- 
fume. (L.) 

5. .^W r-^J, (§, A, Mgh, Msb, If,) and 

♦ M t Ai l, and * J .,U, <^ , (£,) and * j-*-»J, (L,) 

_ff« daubed or smeared himself, or A« i«cam« 
daubed or smeared, (8, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) copi- 
ously, (L,) /yi'<A perfume, (S, A, Mgh, Msb, ^,) 
to that it teemed to drip. (L, K.) 

took him (another man) as Iter friend [or lover]. 
(L.) Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, 

* -rt ui "f!*** ^ u *- jl f*^ j*-* * 

t [Thou desirest to take me as thy lover together 
with Khdlid : but can the two swords (mercy on 
thee) be combined in one scabbard?]. (S, L.) And 

t A friend; or a true, or sincere, friend; 
or a- special, or particular, friend. (K.) 


■>« o A remainder, that it due to one, of a fine 

for blood, or of any other debt. (S, K.) One 

• * * * § 00 
says, j.,.o fjfti J^i* U ^L remainder of a fine 

for blood, or of another debt, is owed to us by 
such a one. (S.) 

%0 • 00 

ij~o-i> •>-* j! 6«<tty, <AicA, slave. (El-Hejeree, 


>l*0o A bandage, or fillet, (S, A, }£.,) or a 

kerchief, (A,) <A«< « bound upon a wound; (S, 
A, K ;) as also * 5jC«o : (S, ^ :) and a piece 0/ 
rag that is wound round the head, after anointing 
it, or wetting it with water : (Lth, L :) and some- 
times put upon the head on account of a headache : 
pi. jj\+~3. (L.) — Also A remedy [or dressing, 
such as a poultice and the like,] that is applied to 
a wound. (Ibn-Hani.) 

*0 * it 00 000* 

hi** : see >U-». _ »v>)l i >« »jU-o . JU Ul 

Book I.] 

means I have become on the point, or verge, of the 
affair, or event. (S.) 

jutLo i.q. jtj*$ [Cleaving, clinging, holding fast, 
fee.]' (AHn.)' 

[A tort of yoke;] a piece of wood which 
is put upon the necks of the two bulls [in plough- 
ing], having at each extremity a perforation, and 
between the two perforations, in its upper side, a 
notch [app. /or the tying of the beam of the plough 
thereto so that it may not shift from the middle], 
each of the perforations having a string put into 
it with the two ends thereof coming forth beneath 
the iji» <i «, and each end of the string having a 
[short] staff, or stick, tied to it ; the neck of the. 
bull being put between the two staves, or sticks. 

1. ^i, (S, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) aor. '- ; (S, Msb, 
K ;) andj^o ; (S, Msb, K ;) inf. n. jyo~o, of the 
former, and j^o, (S, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) of the 
former also, (A, Mgh,) or of the latter, (Msb,) 
[also written >»-o, (see an ex., voce ;V>)] He (a 
horse, [&c.,] S, A, &c.) ?vas, or became, lean, or 
light of flesh : (S :) or slender, and lean : (Msb :) 
or lean, and lank in the belly : (A, K :) or lank in 
the belly by reason of leanness: (Mgh:) and 
t jJ*M signifies the same. (S, K.) [See also 
6 and 8.] _ Also, inf. n. j>»-e>, He became lean 
and weak. (TA.) _ ^JinJI ^j, f T/ie grapes 
became withered, so as to be neither fresh grapes 
nor raisins. (Sgh.) — aJcubJI «i>i-£t The wheat, 
being parched over the fire, became contracted 
and small. (Mgh.) 

2. *j+-a, inf. ii. j-*. a j, He made him (a horse) 
lean, or light of flesh ; [&c. ;] as also ♦ lj+M. (S.) 
__ He prepared him (i. e. a horse) for racing, 
[or for a military expedition, (see ^ki,)] by 
feeding him with food barely sufficient to sustain 
him, after lie had become fat; as also ▼ »>«-?l . 
(Msb:) he fed him with food barely sufficient to 
sustain him, after he had become fat ; as also 
♦ *j+*>\ : (K :) or he fed him with fodder so that 
he became fat, and then reduced him to food 
barely sufficient to sustain him; which is done 
during forty days : (S :) or he saddled him, and 
put on him a housing, in order that he might 
sweat under it, and so lose his flabbiness, and 
become firm in flesh; and then mounted upon 
him a light boy or young man, to make him run, 
but not to make him go so quick a pace as that 
which is termed JUe ; by the doing of which, one 
becomes in no fear of his losing his breath in run- 
ning, and a quick run does not cut him short: 
this (says AM) is what I have seen the Arabs 
practise; and they term it jtJLS, and also 
t jU-*m. (T, L.)_Also He, or ii, weakened, 
and subdued, and diminished, him : and the same 
signification is assigned to it [tropically] when 
the objective complement is a word denoting a 
sensation or passion. (TA.) _ j—Jl« also sig- 
nifies The plaiting well, and the anointing well, 
the lock of hair termed S Jt ..£. (TA.) 

4 : see 2, in three places. = oj^-ol signifies 
also He determined, or resolved, upon it, »jt+*e ^y 
in his heart, or mind. (Msb.) ^_ He conceived it 
in his heart, or mind. (MA, KL.) — He con- 
cealed it, syn. »j*\, (A,) or oU*.l, (K,) aJLi ^j 

in his heart, (A,) or a- Ju .J in his mind. (S.) 
__ [And hence, He suppressed it, (namely a 
word or the like,) meaning it to be understood. 
_ And hence also %+*b\ meaning He made use 
of a pronoun.] __ And iJ>jaJt \Jj*& j+*b\ [He 
suppressed the vowel of the final letter ;] he made 
the movent [final] letter quiescent. (TA.) — And 

j"}|UI ajj-o-il X Tlte lands, or countries, hid him, 
by hit luiving travelled far : (A:) and djj+*b\ 

\j°yty t the earth hid him, either by reason of 
travel, or by death. (K, TA.) sas j+-o\ is also 
syn. with ^miSmA [q.v.]. (O, If.) [Accord, to 

the TK, one says t^j^JI j+-b\ meaning » U>fc ^il.] 

5. -v^} j<**3 His face became shrivelled, or 
contracted, by emaciation. (Sgh, L, K.) 

7. >o-=u1 It (a branch, or twig,) became dried 
up. (TA.) 

8. j n 1 - f 1 : see 1. — Also He, (a horse,) after 
having been fed until he had become fat, was re- 
duced to food barely sufficient to sustain him. 
(TA.) [See 2.] 

j^o : see j-»Lo, in two places. _ Hence, in 
the opinion of ISd, as he says in the M, it is 
also applied to a horse as meaning i>-ii 

Be* * + * 

i>|.fcljfca..)l [i. e. Thin in the bones surrounding, 
or projecting over, the cavities of t/ie eyes : in the 
TA, ^ fc-U. ( J t, an obvious mistranscription ; and 
in the TK, ^.T^U.*!', which is also wrong] : 
on the authority of Kr: in the copies of the K, 

O^-UJI. (TA.) And Narrow; (O, K ;) 

applied to a place.* (O.) And i. q. t j***b 

[app. in the first of the senses assigned to the 
latter below]. (O, K : in the CK J^>.) See 

0\r^> (S, O, K) and * o\i^> (TA) A certain 
plant, (S, O, K,) of the shrub-kind (Jj ty 

>^— tJI): (K:) or of the kind called ,>U- % : AM 
says, it is not of the shrub-kind, and has [what 
are termed] ^j* [q. v.] like tlte ^>S* of the 
,jJ»)l : (TA :) AHn says, it resembles the *i~oj, 
except that it is yellow (ji-oi [app. a mistran- 
scnption iorjjuo\ 1. e. smaller]), and it has little 
wood, [and] the small and dry parts of its 
branches are fed upon [by the camels] ( ' Sim j) : 
he adds, on the authority of the ancient Arabs of 
the desert, that it is [of the kind called] ur ! - )t - j 
green, lank, pleasing to the camels: and Aboo- 
Nasr says that it is of the kind called ,_r\- 
(O.) = See also what next follows. 

Ol^U (A'Obeyd, S, O, EL, TA) and ♦ o!^-*, 
thus, with fet-h, as said by Af on the authority 
of ISk; each of the names of dogs; (TA ;) a 
name of a male dog ; (O, K ;) not of a bitch, as 
J asserts it to be. (K.) as See also the next pre- 
ceding paragraph. 


jU-i A place, or a valley, that is depressed, 
concealing him mho is journeying in it. (O.) 
[Accord, to the 5, jCi>< is "A place ;" i. e. the 

name of a certain place.] — jU-o JU Property 
of which one hopes not for the return : (1£ :) or 
absent property of which one hopes not for the 
return : (A'Obeyd, Msb, TA :) if not absent, it 
is not thus called. (A'Obeyd, TA.) — jU-A ^> 
A debt of which the payment is not hoped for : 
(S :) or for the payment of which no period is 
fixed. (K,»TA.) jCf &* A gift that is 

not hoped for. (A.) __jC-» «*«> (§,) and ijx. 

jCs, (A, K, [wjIJjOI t>« in the CK being a 

mistranscription for OljjJI .>•, as in other 
copies of the K and in the TA, in which latter is 
added that Oljte is pi. of ijtc, which is syn. 

with «*£),!) A promise of which the fulfilment is 
not hoped for : (S, A :) or of which the fulfilment 
is delayed. (K.)_jC-o also signifies Anything 
of which one is not confident, or sure. (S.)_ 
And A debt of which the payment is deferred by 
the creditor to a future period ; or a sale upon 
credit, in which the payment is deferred to a 
definite period; or a postponement, or delay, as 
to the time of the payment of a debt or of the price 
of a thing sold &c; syn. 3£-J. (Fr,TA.)_ 
Also Unseen; not apparent; contr. of ^jlc*. 
(K.) A poet says, censuring a certain man, 

'.* ***** 

[And hi* present gift is a thing not hoped for, like 

the unseen debt of which the payment is deferred 

by the creditor :] meaning, his present gift is like 

the absent that is not hoped for. (TA.) __ l^lii 

IjU-o ^U/ means They took away my property 

by gaming. (Fr, TA.) n Also A certain idol, 

which was worshipped by Elr'AbbAs Ibn-Mirdas. 

(O, K, TA. [It is implied in the K that it is with 

the art. Jt ; but it is not so accord, to the O and 


• * 

j fo A thing that thou concealest, or con- 

"* j » *** • I 

ceivest, or deter mtnest upon, (sj^-oj,) in thy heart, 


or mind: (Lth, TA :) a secret; syn. ^: (£ :) 

a subst. from \Li <ujJ tJj* r' : (S :) pl.^Ci.. 
(S, K.)_ [Hence used as meaning A pronoun; 
which is also termed 1j,.i\», and j\ nt jfJi. lit. 
a concealed noun, i. e. a noun of which the signifi- 
cation is not shown by itself alone ; opposed to 
f£*» : pi. of the first as above ; and of the second 
Olj^-o*.] »_ See also j^e. _ And ^ et All sig- 
nifies The heart [itself]; tlte mind; the recesses 
of t/ie mind; the secret thoughts; or tlte soul; 
syn. ^tU^I ^Jj, and ZitXi, (Msb,) or J*.lS 
>UJI: (A,K:) pi. as above, (M ? b,K,) the 
sing, being likened to ijijL, of which the pi. is 
p\j-. (Msb.) [See also j^z*. And see an ex. 
in a verse cited in art. -^*, 7th conj.] ami Also 
Withered, or shrivelled, grapes, (0, K,) that are 
neither fresh grapes nor raisins. (O.) 

%0 i ** * 

^-aJW *^*J is a phrase mentioned by Sgh [in 


the O] as meaning I met him at sunset : but it is 

correctly [jj»*Hfi] 'with, the unpointed ^o. 

*jt*-o -A. loch, or plaited loch, of hair, such as 
u termed i#JU> and »^j .*£ : pi. >U<«- (As, TA.) 

j-»Ui Lean, and lank in the belly ; [&c. ; see 1 ;] 
(A,K;) applied to a he-camel, (K,) and to a 
home, as also *>»-», and ♦ ;* <* ■ « , and * jii><n ; 
(A;) and to a she-camel, (S, A, K,) as also 
ly\-o; (S;) [and to a man;] ^»U> applied to a 
she-camel being regarded as a possessive epithet 
[signifying >«-» Olj] : (TA :) and " j*Jt signi- 
fies also lank in the belly, and small and slender in 
person ; applied to a man : (S, A, K :) fern, with 
I: (A, £:) the pi. of j*lb is j^b. (Ham p. 
478.) «> And A horse m a state of preparation 
for racing, by his having been fed with food 
barely sufficient to sustain him, after having 
become fat : and you say S^»U> Jt*. and >*!>«?, 
meaning harsr.* in that state. (Msb.) — Applied 
to grain, it means Thin, or slender : (Mgh :) and 
to a branch or twig, sapless ; dried up ; as also 

bi*£ (S, O, Msb, K) and cjffjr* (M?b) 
and *o!^i (0,Msb,$) and ol^i (Mfb) 
A species of the Oe*-^ j [° r sweet-smelling plants] : 

(§,0:) or of the wild ot"-0 : (50 or the 
iV-y^* O^J : (Mfb, J£ :) Aboo-Nasr says that 

the olr*«-» » tlie >>~*^ [° r >J*~^'> •• e - 
basil-royal, or common sweet basil, ocimum 
basilicum] : AHn says, on the authority of an 
Arab of the desert, of El-Yemen, that the ,j'>***0 
is exactly like the j)yt* [which is one of the names 
now applied to sweet basil], of sweet odour, and 
is therefore asserted by some to be the ^£~*l£>, 
but the £'>•«** is wild; and he says that some 

call it Ob*>*' (°) 

Ob*** a "d 0]i**r° : Bee tnc nCxt preceding 

j^Jt Concealed, (£,) [or conceived,] in the 
mind. (S.) You say, j^«* ,jyk, meaning Con- 
cealed love ; as also ♦ jjb ; as though the latter 
were believed to be an inf. n. [used in the sense 
of a pass. part, n.] from the unaugmented, for 
the augmented, verb. (TA.) See also jt*-*- — 
Also The place of concealment, (1£,) [or of con- 
ception,] in the mind. (S.) A poet, (S,) El- 
Ahwas Ibn-Mohammad El-Ansdree, (TA,) says, 

[There will remain to her, in the hiding-place of 
tlie heart and the bowels, a secret love, (lit. a 
secret of love,) on the day wlum secrets shall be 
revealed]. (§, TA.) 

• ft f j • ' 

j»j\+ : see j*\*b. 

One who prepares his horses, by reducing 

them to scanty food, (U^-oj,) for a military ex- 
pedition or for racing. (TA.) 

• ' • 

jl»-a-» A training-place in which horses are 

prepared for racing [or for military service] by 
being fed with food barely sufficient to sustain 
them, aflqr they have become fat : (S,* Msb, KL :•) 
[a hippodrome; a place where horses are ex- 
ercised:] pi. jtJ.\JtC». (A.) You say, \J> \£j*- 
jU-i-aJI [He ran in the hippodrome, or place of 
exercise]. (A.) And j*l>\ jC-a* &»» t [app- 
meaning Singing is that in which the excellences 
of poetry are displayed, like as tlie excellences of a 
horse are displayed in the hippodrome]. (A.) — 
Also The time, of forty days, during which a 
horse is reduced to food barely sufficient to sustain 
him, after his having been fed with fodder so that 
he has become fat ; (S, TA ;) the time during 
which a horse is thus prepared for racing or for 
an expedition against the enemy : pi. as above. 

(TA.) It is said in a trad., tj^ij jU-a-o j>y£\ 

iU^JI J~/ £y i^Ulj Jl?— 11 [To-day is a time 
for training, and to-morrow is the race, and the 
winner is he who wins Paradise :] i. e., to-day one 
is to work, in the present world, for the desire of 
Paradise ; like as a horse is trained for racing. 
(Sh.) [One of the explanations of jU-oJI in the 

5 is JUljl ^cr^l k&, or, as in the T A, jC^J 
app. meaning The goal, or limit, of the horse 
in racing : but in the TA, these words are made 
to form part of an explanation which I have 
given before, i. e., the time during which a horse 
is prepared for racing, bo.] aa See also 2. 

j,(~ -n- j'3 1 Contracted pearls : (£:) or pearls 
having somewhat of contraction in the middle. 
(S.) _ See also^U). 

see j»*L£, last sentence. 

6, (IAar, S, £,) or JOl, (Mgh, 
Msb,) and 44 &J*, (Msb, K,) aor. '-, (^C,) inf. n. 
J,Ci (IAar, S, Msb, K:) and [^b, (K,) He 

m i 

was, or became, responsible, answerable, account- 
able, amenable, surety, or guarantee, (S, Mgh, K,) 
for the thing, (S, £,) or for the property : (Mgh:) 
or he made himself responsible, &cc.,for it; syn. 
lipl ; (Msb ;) and so, in this sense, V ■ * ;« ■ iv , 
(S,*K,) quasi-pass, of 4i^i : (S, K :) [as though 
he had it within his grasp, or in his possession ; 
for] the primary signification of q! t o)l is 
Jt.n^Vll : (Msb :) some of the lawyers say that 

it is from^JI; but this is a mistake; (Msb, 

TA ;) for the O is radical. (Msb.) And O*"* 

t j£s ei He was, or became, responsible, &c, to 

him for such a thing. (MA.) And JUM y>*-« 
«• * 

iU He was, or became, responsible, ice, to him 

for the property [received from him]. (Mgh. ) _ 

See also 5, in four places. -_ a.,,o signifies also 

+ He learned it; acquired a knowledge of it. 

(TA.)«- And oyi, (S, Msb, $,) aor. ', (?,) 

inf. n. oi-*i (?» Msb, K,») f He (a man, S) 

[Book I. 

had, or was affected with, a malady of long con- 
tinuance, or suck as crippled him ; (S, Msb, K ;) 
was afflicted in his body (S,* £, TA) by some 
trial, or fracture, or other ailment. (S,* TA.) 
And d ju c.'^o- o , mf. n. iiU-o, t His arm, or 
hand, was affected with a malady of long con- 
tinuance, or such as crippled. (Fr, TA.) 

2. t'JL\ luU, (S,MA,£,) or JUI, (Mgh, 
Msb,) inf. n. v >.»rf>'i, (S,) He made him to be 
responsible, answerable, accountable, amenable, 
surety, or guarantee, (S, MA, Mgh, Msb, If.,) for 
the thing, (S, MA, ]£,) or for the property. 
(Mgh, Msb.) [See an ex. in a verse cited voce 

jlom.] __ I j£s t < j-'\ <C-'+-a I made the thing to 
comprise, comprehend, or contain, such a' thing. 

(Msb.) Hence, J--JI JyLJi\ v^ 1 '<$ 0~* 
[Ood lias made the loins of the stallions to com- 
prise, in the elemental state, the progeny]. (Msb.) 
And (UJt ***i He put it (i. e. anything) into 
the receptacle. (S, K.) And j*«Jt C « t> JI ^^6 
He deposited tlie dead body in the grave. (TA.) 
And life v^' (>•-« t He made the writing 
to comprise, or include, such a thing. (MA.) 
[And \J£a J&ibl 0*-» t He made, or held, tlie 
sentence, or sjxech, or phrase, to imply such a 
thing. And \JJ> ^sl» iJSi\ C*~b t He made 
the word to imply or import, such a meaning.] _ 
^j i% '~~m as a conventional term of those who 
treat of elegance of speech is * t The making 
poetry to comprise a verse [of anotlier poet] : 
(TA :) or the introducing into poetry a hemistich, 
or a verse, or two verses, of another poet, to com- 
plete the meaning intended, and for tlie purpose of 
corroborating tlie meaning, on the condition of noti- 
fying it as borrowed, beforehand, or of its being 
well known, so that the hearer will not imagine 
it to be stolen : and if it is a liemistich, or fas 
than that, it is termed jij. (Har p. 267.) And 
as a conventional term of those who treat of ver- 
sification, f The making a verse to be not com- 
plete otherwise than with what follows it. (TA.) 

5 : see 1, first sentence. _ 1jk£> i^j^M O-.-^ 
The thing comprised, comprehended, or contained, 

such a thing. (Msb.) Hence, v^' C i« A 7 
jlj\ JyL AH and • tfts i» [The loins of the 
stallions comprised, in tlie elemental state, the pro- 
geny]. (Msb.) And»i4jl^l«l J^i3 The grave 
had the dead body deposited in it. (TA.) And 
\S&> v*^ 3 ' O^-* 3 [ and * *^r*] + r ** writing 

comprised, or included, such a thing. (S, MA, 
«" ^ And \J£»J.^S3\ --1^3 rand 1 1LJ,. as is 

K.) And 1>£»>>^3I o*-«« [ and T * i J-»» M tt 
indicated in the first sentence of this art.,] t The 
sentence, or speech, or phrase, comprehended, or 
comprised, within its scope, [or trnpited,] such a 
thing ; syn. aJUm.. (Msb.) [And i^fll oi*«o3 
I jk& . JaM and t - r ' t jr t 2%e nwrrf implied such 
a meaning.] 

J4-o t The jjt, (S, MA, K.) i. e. the inside, 
(MA, TK,) [Hi. the folding,] of a writing, or 

letter. (S, MA, \, TA.) You say, o*-f -WJUI 

jUJ» i. e. <0» 1-* X [I sent it, or transmitted it, 

within the folding of my writing or letter; mean- 

Book I.] 

ing infolded, or enclosed, in it ; included in it ; or 
in the inside of it]. (S, TA.) And ,^*-o ^* 
*y£i» [and A/lii=»] means f Among tlte contents, 
or implications, of his speech [and of his renting 
or letter] {<HJ^ jj*) > and **« indications 
thereof. (Mfb.) sec -4 tAtn^ <Aat satisfies the 
stomach: thus, U<_i o^>» iV* u**' u means 
ShcA a one did not stand me in stead, or supply 
my want, of anything, even as much as a thing 
that would satisfy the stomach. (IAar, TA.) 

*^Jo (S, KL) and t *JLJo and * &Ci (?, 
Msb, KL) I A malady of long continuance, or 
such as cripples ; (S, Msb, KL, TA ;) on afflktion 
in the body, (S,* KL, TA,) by some trial, or 
fracture, or other ailment ; (S, T A ;) and * ii^ 
signifies the same; (EL;) and [simply] a disease, 
or malady ; (S, KL ;) as in the saying, C~jl£> 
>il **ij' sj'tt '^Jo \ [The disease of such a one 
'mas four months in duration]. (8, TA.) [See 
also 1, last two sentences.] __ yj^i also signifies 
f A burden; syn. J& : so in the saying, o"& 
<uUlJ>1 ^-U d>i-6 [<8«cA a o»e «« a burden upon 
his companions]. (AZ, TA.) = It is also an 
epithet : see the next pargaraph. 

lfjj> (applied to a man, S) f Affected with a 
malady of long continuance, or such as cripples ; 
(S, Mfb, KL, TA ;) afflicted in the body, (S,* KL, 
TA,) by some trial, or fracture, or otlier ailment : 
(S, TA :) and ♦ ^y^A signifies [the same ; or 
simply] affected with a disease, or malady ; ap- 
plied to a man [and to two and more and to a 
female ; being originally an inf. n.] ; having no 
dual nor pi. nor fem. form : (TA :) pi. of the 
former J±i> (?,* Msb, KL,* TA) and 0^i>, or 
the former of these is pi. of * \J*** [which signi- 
fies the same as &*i>]. (TA.) U»-i ^«Z£>t [in 
the CKL \'% r] means t S* wrote himself down 
[as one affected with a malady of long continu- 
ance, &c, or] m tlte register of the ^j+*>, i. e. 
the (jU) ; (S, KL, TA ;) i. e. he asked that he 
might write himself down [as such], and took for 
himself a billet from the commander of the army 
in order to excuse himself from fighting against 
the unbelievers : (TA :) of such it is said that 
God will raise him in that state on the day of 
resurrection. (S, TA.) aiyi^fc U»j^m, occur- 
ring in a trad., means Slaughtered not having any 
disease. (TA.) — Also t [Loving : (see iiCJ, :) 
or] loving excessively, or admiringly. (KL, TA.) 

<L:>rf> : see t>»-e. 

}j\Jb an inf. n.: [see 1, first sentence:] (IAar, 
S, Msb, KL :) [used as a simple subst,] Responsi- 
bility, answerableness, accountability, amenability, 
suretiship, or guaranteeship ; syn. ii\i£» : (Mgh :) 
but it is more common [in signification] than 
aiU£» • for it sometimes signifies what is not 
JUU=>, namely, [indemnification ; or] restoration 
of the like, or of the value, of a thing that has 
perished. (KulL) [JU £&*, and >>, signify 
Responsibility, &c, far property, ano - /<^ a **'> 
owed by another person. And yJii u^>> u ^ 

jya»-, signify Responsibility, Ice, for the appear- 
ance, or presence, of anotJter person, to answer a 
suit.] Jjj i>t*<* ' iti a vu 'g ar phrase; correctly 
JjjJI oCi [expl. in art. Jp]. (TA.) = See 
also O-**- 

^j ;< r : see ,j*<X*o : ass and see also (>♦-». 

iiC^s : see l >»-°- — Also I Zoce : (K, TA :) 
[or] excessive, or admiring, love. (TA.) 

y^Li and 1 &f*i> One who is responsible, 
answerable, accountable, amenable, surety, or 
guarantee : (S, Msb, KL :) both are mentioned 
by IAar as syn., like t>«L> and o^-*-'- C^A.) 
God is represented by the Prophet as saying, 

^>*L3 ^jie j>*5 y>«tA <iuic, meaning [TTAo*o goes 
forth as a warrior in my cause, and seeking, or 
seeking earnestly, to obtain my approval,] I am 
responsible to him for what I have promised him, 
to recompense him living and dead ; j>«to being 
made trans, by means of ^jJ* because it implies 
the meaning of >U~o and ^fy ; and the last 
clause means nearly the same, but is rendered 
as meaning and he is one who has [a claim to] 
responsibility on my part, as though care and 
mindfulness [of him] were obligatory on me. 
(Mgh.) And it is said in a trad., ^>oLi >U*^t 

0*& OiP'i: (Mgh, JM/TA:) [the latter 

» • « 

clause has been expl. in art. £y»\ (voce £>e*w 

the former clause meanB, The imdm [or leader of 
prayer] is as though he were responsible for tlie 
correctness of the prayer of those who follow him : 
(JM, TA : [and the like is said, with other, simi- 
lar, explanations, in the Mgh :]) or it means, the 
imdm is careful, or mindful, for the people [who 
follow him], of [the correctness of] tlieir prayer. 

(TA.) — &*lo and * o^**** a PP ue< i to a sne " 
camel, signify Having a foetus in her belly : and 
the pis. are o-'V' and O t^* ' (I-^ ar > 1 a nd 
TA fn art .JU and in the present art.) — . iuU 

applied to rights, or dues, ( JyU-,) is used by 
Lebeed as meaning <Li j « A» ; [see t j j t o« ;] like 
as iJU-lj is used as meaning ii^m-yt. (TA.) 

iuU [fern, of u^lH>, q.v.] iuUJt signifies 

What is included within the middle of any town or 
country or the like. (TA.) ^Lji\ o* AuUJI, 
(AO, S, KL,* TA,) occurring in a letter of" the 
Prophet, (AO, S, TA,) means What are included 
within the cities or towns or villages, of the palm- 
trees : (AO, S, KL,* TA :) or what are surrounded, 
thereof, by the wall of the city : (KL :) but Az says 
that they are so called because their owners are 
responsible for their culture and keeping : (TA :) 
opposed to J*Jt t>* a^B»La)t, which means what 
are in the open country, of the palm-trees that 
imbibe with their roots, without being watered. 

Q+ttk* Water included in a mug or other vessel : 
and milk included in the udder. (TA.) — Also 
f Poetry made to comprise a verse [from another 


poem]. (S, KL. [See 2, last sentence but one.]) 
And t A verse [made to be] not complete other- 
wise than with what follows it. (S, KL. [See 8, 
last sentence.]) — . And t A sound [made to 
comprehend with it somewhat of another :] upon 
which one cannot pause without conjoining it with 
another : (KL :) in the T it is said to be [such as is 

. ''*«r V 

exemplified iti] a man's saying Ji sji [or Ji, for 
il$* »-A5 Pause thou, such a one], with making 
the J to have a smack of the vowel-sound (>l*£U 

&^J\J\sW). (TA.) 

tjU^* : see ^>*w, last sentence but one. 

^jyo-s"> pass. part. n. of 1 in the first of the 
senses assigned to the latter above : you say S^£> 
£m a -^ [meaning A thing, such as property, or 
the payment of a debt, &c., ensured by an 
acknowledgment of responsibility for it]. (TA.) 
__ w>U£> Q)+-a« means <u*-» ^J> U and *-!» 
[i. e. The contents of a writing or letter; or what 
is infolded, or included, in a writing or letter; 
what is implied therein; and what is indicated 
therein] : pi. ( j t « lao . (TA.) — And j t « U t l l, 
(A'Obeyd, S, M?b, KL,) of which the sing, is 
qJJAJ, (A'Obeyd, Msb, KL,) and one may also 
say Zj),j\«, as meaning \ t , '■, (Msb,) sigmnes 
What are [comprised] in the loins of the stallions ; 
(A'Obeyd, S, Msb, KL ;) i. e. tlie progeny [thereof, 
in the elemental state] : (Msb :) or, accord, to 
Aboo-Sa'eed, [though the reverse is generally 
held to be the case,] ^Jt^JI signifies what are 

in the backs of the he-camels, and ^ • Uul l what 
are in the bellies of the females. (L in art. *-*).) 
The selling of the ^tlo* and the mS^IU is for- 
bidden. (S.) [t>»*l^4 is also pi. of ^jU-o-», q-v.] 
— j<jj| O)*** *'■ a - Q y % * « i (?>) meaning 
LjJjiiL* [i. e. Diseased in the arm, or hand] ; 
(TKL;) applied to a man. (TA. [See 1, last 
sentence, which indicates a more particular mean- 

1. A/ t>«, (Mgh, Msb,) first pera. a/ C >.><?, 

(S, Msb,*) [and one may say aJU, and <uc, in 

the place of a/, (see 0«*^>)] and 'y^*^ occurs, in 

a verse of KLaanab Ibn-Umm-Sahib, used by 

poetic license for \y~6, (S,) aor. • ; (S, Mgh, 

Msb, KL;) and ^6, (Mfb,) first pers. Cw^, 

(S, Msb,*) aor. ; , (S, Mfb, KL,) accord to Fr, 

(S,) or, accord, to Th, Fr said, I have heard 

C»U, though I have not heard |>«t, but this 

aor. is mentioned by Yaakoob; (TA;) inf. n. 
k jJ, (S, Mgh, Mfb, KL [in the CKL UtL» is erro- 
neously put for Le]) and ^>« (TA) and iilli., 
(S, Mgh, Mfb, KL, TA,) with fet-h, (Mfb, TA,) 
and i±~b, (Mfb,) or this last is a simple subst ; 
(Mgh ;) He was, or became, niggardly, tenacious, 
stingy, or avaricious, (S, Mgh, Mfb, KL,) of it. 


(8, Mgh, Msb. [See also 8.]) You say, *J^ Cyb 
yj*i He was, or became, niggardly, kc, to him, 

of ruth a thing. (Mgh.) And t^^iJlv i >iy Ol 
[Only he who clings it to be clung to] : a prov., 
meaning that you should cling to fraternizing 
[only] with him who clings to fraternizing with 
you. (Meyd, and Har p. 42.) And oJL* 

Jji+l\j, inf. n. yj^b and iJ\Lb, [I kept tenaciously 
to, or] I did not quit, or relinquish, the place of 
alighting, or abode. (TA.) 

8. ^Li\ (originally £>Lb\, TA) He (a man, 

TA) was, or became, niggardly, tenacious, stingy, 
or avaricious. (#.) [See also 1.] 

4>A an inf. n. of 1 [q. v.]. (S kc.) _ Also A 
thing highly esteemed, of which one is tenacious. 
(TA.) — [Hence] one says, L y-o yk He is the 
person of whose affection I am tenacious; as also 

■b : (TA :) or he is my par- 

ticular, or special, friend, (£, TA,) ^ ,>• 
jjil^A.1 [cAtwen y*rom among my brethren] ; (S, 
TA ;) as though I appropriated him specially to 
myself, and were tenacious of him because of the 
place that he held in my estimation : as is said in 
the S, it is like special appropriation [of the per- 


son to oneself). (TA.) [And as ^b is originally 
an inf. n., it is used as an epithet applied to a pi. 
number:] it is said in a trad., ,>• Cb Jb q\ 

& sj.'^^ «•*> ^'-^i 4*> (?»' TA ') 

or aaU. J>* * Oite, (£,* TA,) accord, to dif- 
ferent relations thereof, (TA,) i.e. [Verily God 
has] specially-distinguished individuals [of his 
creatures, whom He causes to live in a state of 
freedom from disease, or from disease and trial, 
and whom He causes to die in a state of freedom 
kc] : (£, TA :) the sing, of ^>JUi is * Ij^S, of 
the measure il*** in the sense of the measure 
i)>*U, and meaning a thing that one specially 
appropriates to himself, and of which he is tena- 
cious because of the place that it holds in his 
estimation. (TA.) 

»a t « 

i~ 6 an inf. n. of i>4 : (Msb :) or a subst. 

therefrom signifying Niggardliness, tenaciousness, 

stinginess, or avarice: (Mgh:) or vehement nig- 

^ ■# 00 ' 

gardliness kc. ; as also * <Uo>. (TA.) _ See 
also (j-i. 

Courageous, brave, or strong- hearted. (]£.) 

O-a — 
•- - - / 

iiUe an inf. n. of 1 [q.v.]. (S kc) [Hence,] 

• * * ** • •* +** t 9 

one says, ^iii^af >yUI ^c c. n.A, meaning 
+ [/cam* suddenly upon the people, or party, in 
their close state, i. e.,] n>A«n <Aey Aarf no< dispersed 
themselves. (TA.) And *2Uiy ^i^l oj^'l t [^ 

<ooA to (A« ojfair] in its fresh state. (TA.) 


«? Niggardly, tenacious, stingy, or avaricious, 

(S, Mgh, Msb, £,) ;^ [o/a tA*y], (S,) or ;^ 

^-t*- [<>/"« </"'"</ AeW in high estimation]. (TA.) 

^ii^ v4i5T ^s. yi Uj, in the $ur [Ixxxi. 24], 

as some read it, others reading v>~Jb/ [°,-v0> is 

expl. by Zj as meaning, And he is not a tenacious 

concealer of that which has been revealed to him : 

and if i>» or v were substituted for ^*, it 

would be correct. (TA.) — See also 1. — And 

see o-o. 

~Uo ; and its pi. ^SlLo : see 

<t~«ao : see i*-b. __ ii^» ^X» I juk and i~«su> 
[tlie former mentioned after the latter in the S] 
Thu is a thing held in high estimation, of which 
one is tenacious, (S, K, TA,) and for which people 
vie in desire. (TA.) [See also J£c, last sentence.] 

^jyJa^i\ a name of [The compound of perfumes 
commonly called] £>&1 ; (Ez-Zejjajee, S, K^TA ;) 
as also t AiyLkjl ; (Ez-Zejjajee, S,*TA;) which 
latter is said by As to be a sort of perfume ; and 
so is the former in the A : in the M the former is 
said to be the oil of ben : it is thus called because 

one is tenacious of it. (TA.) Also, (IKh,TA,) 

or ▼iiyitjt, (K, TA,) a name of The well Zcm- 
zem. (£, TA.) 

»0 J • 

Ajyif\*\\ : see the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. 


1. Olii, aor. - , (S, M, O, Msb, If,) inf. n. 
J^-o and \y~b ; (S, M, O, K ;) and accord, to the 
K, Cwii) but MF says that this latter is un- 
known, i. e., it is not mentioned in the other 
lexicons in the sense here assigned to it in the 
K ; (TA ;) and * OUil ; (S, M, O, $ ;) She (a 
woman) had many children : (S, M, O, Msb, K :) 
[and so C«^o and w«gS~o, as mentioned in art. 
y~b :] and in like manner one says of cattle ; 
(M;) [i.e.] one says, JO' U^- (?, O, K) and 

J0 t ' S 

£f-°, (O, K,) and <^>Ot w>U« and C^-i, 

(TA,) [and * L«il and OlUpl as is implied in the 

M,] The cattle multiplied, or became numerous or 

many. (S, O, K, TA.) And OU> is said to 

s* * 
signify She brought forth. (TA.) — And U-o 

ubj*)\ ^, (M, ¥.,) inf. n. ty>« and lyi~b [as 
above], (M, TA,) He hid, or concealed, himself 
in the land, or country : (M :) or Ae went away 
in the land, or into the country, and hid, or con- 
cealed, himself [therein] : (K :) like Xjj>. (TA.) 

4 : see above, in two places. _ lj^-bl signifies 
Their cattle multiplied, or became numerous or 
many. (8, O, K.) 


a) UfcbAl and <»-u 7/e was abashed at, or 

*Ay of, and Ae shrank at, or from, him, or &. 
(M, K. [See also Lk*t.]) Et-Tirimmah uses 
l:h.jl [or ^ . I ri « M in this sense,] and ^yJoucu : 
meaning Uu>l [and ^jiU-oj] : or as being de- 
rived from iJLiJI meaning " disease." (M.) 

l^j^o Children, or offspring; as also ♦ l^fb ; (S, 
M, O, K ; [and so y*b and y-i, as mentioned in 

[Boox I. 

art. y-i ;]) the former accord, to El-Umawee, 
and both accord, to AA : (S, O :) the former 
signifies the offspring of anything : (TA :) and 
also, (K, TA, [in a copy of the M * the latter, 
but this is app. a mistranscription,]) multitude of 
offspring: it is like >i (M, K) and ilj, (M,) 
having no n. un. : the pi. is lyLi. (M, £.) 

!,>o Origin, root, race, or stock; syn. J»ol: 
(El-Umawee, S, M, O, K :) and the place in 
which a thing originates; syn. &j,n.i_ (El- 
Umawee, S, O, £.) One says, t4 >i ^ jjj 
Jj-« [Such a one is of an excellent origin or race 
or stock], (S, 0, L,) and ;^ .^ ^i [of a bad 
origin kc.]. (L.) _ See also \^>, in two places. 

*ta j %0*0 M 

SUi (M, O, IS.) and ♦ »»U^ (O, Kl) Necessity, 
need, or n>an< ; or difficulty, or distress; (i',«tli. 
M, O, or »j_j^e, IC ; [both meaning the same;]) 
that befalls a man : (O :) so in the saying Jut} 
»l!i Jv*i* (M,Iy) and » wlii (IC) [H t . 2/e M< 
in <Ac sitting-place of necessity, kc. ; meaning he 
was, or became, in an abject condition] : the 
phrase denotes disdain, or scorn ; and is thought 
by AM to be from Lkil meaning "he was 
abashed, &c." (TA.) 

I" * 

5sU«i: see the next preceding paragraph, in 

two places. 

&U (S, O, K) and liiU (Ks, S, O, Msb, #) 
A woman having many children : (S, O, Msb, 
K:) and in like manner, the latter, cattle (i^iU) 
Itaving numerous offspring. (TA.) 


1. jL-b, aor. ^ , inf. n. J&& and i£>ui and 
I m m y ni , (O, K,) the first and third of these, 
(O,) or the first and second, (TA,) accord, to 
IDrd, used in relation to a place, and the second 
and third in relation to life, or sustenance, or 
means of subsistence, (O, TA,) It was, or became, 

narrow, or strait. (O, £, TA.) And jXj j 

said of a man, inf. n. i&CLo, He was, or became, 
weak in his judgment, and in his body, and in hit 
soul, and in his intellect. (£.)__ And & t 
w>U_JI The clouds became thick, collected together, 
and dense. (O, TA.) = AiS, like {yi, He was, 
or became, affected with a coryza, or defiuxion 
from the head and nose. (%..) 

4. «£ubl He (God) caused him to be affected 
with a coryza, or defiuxion from the head and 
nose. (TA.) 

* • * f. 3 

.UU*s an inf. n. of jX^e : (O, K :) its primary 
signification is Narrowness, or straitness, and 
hardship. ( Aboo-Is-hak, TA.) _ And Narrow, 
or strait; syn. J^; (S, M, O, £; [in the C£, 
and in a copy of the S, Jc-b, which is also a 
correct explanation, as shown above; but not 
what is here meant, as appears from what 
follows;]) applied to anything, (M, K,) masc. 

Book I.] 

and fern., (M, E, and Bd in xx. 123,) being an 
inf. n. used as an epithet. (Bd ibid.) [Like the 

I era. e£— J.] One says J\J~o (jlC» A narrow, or 
strait, place. (IDrd, O, TA.) And Jli. JL^c 
A strait life; or strait sustenance, or means of 
subsistence ; (I Drd, O, TA ;) as also * JX.U> ,J^s. : 
(AA,0,K,TA:) and thus uii ki t %* in the 

Kur xx. 123; where some read t .JlLi, like 
\^$j£~> : (Bd :) or this means .wc/t as is unlawful; 
(O, TA;) every life that is unlawful being 
termed JJtLe, accord, to Lth, even though it be 
ample: (O, TA :•) Aboo-Is-hak thinks it to 
mean [subsistence] in the fire of Hell : but says 
that most explain this phrase in the Kur as 
meaning the punishment of the grave: (TA:) 
thus it means accord, to Ibn-Mcs'ood: (O :) or, 
accord, to Katadeh, Hell: (O, TA:) or, accord, 
to Ed-Dnhlmk, forbidden gain: (TA:) or, as 

some say, fij-aJI [q. v.], and J»>i=>>lt [q. v.]. 

Iff ' \'> 

15AA : see Jluj. 

A~b — 

1. H>JI 

6, inf. n. &i (S, M, K) and lli, 
(M, K,) Tlie woman had many children ; (S, M, 
K ;) as also £ ** ** : (K :) and so with . . (S.) 

And 4~-oJ Ums His sliare, or portion, became 
redundant; it increased, or augmented. (Sgh, K.) 

y-e and y~o Children, or offspring ; ( AA, S, 

K;) like l^j-b and \&*b; as also t Ui, accord, 
to IAar. (TA.) 

»• * • • * 

15»~0 : see JL-i. 

* # • - 

ilUo : see JL_i. 

• ^ j 

jJUb ^1 coryza, or diffusion from the head 

and nose; syn. J>l£>j ; (S, O, K ;) as also 
t«£J. (K.) 

i»tU; (0,K,fcc.;) accord, to El-Farabce, 

(0,TA,) and J [in the S], (TA,)tjui ; but 

accord, to others, with kesr, and this is the right; 

(O, TA;) Compact in fiesh; applied to a 

woman : (El-Fanibcc, S, O :) or plump, and 

cvmjMict in flesh ; so applied : (Lth, TA :) or 

heavy in the hinder part, (K, TA,) and large in 

Imdy; (TA ;) so applied: (K,*TA:) or having 

much flesh; applied to a male and to a female, 

without?: (IAth, TA:) and Jinn in ma he, and 

strong; applied to a male and to a female; (K, 

TA ;) of human beings, and of camels, and in 

like manner of palm-trees and of trees in general: 

(TA:) and, applied to a shc-cainel, thick in the 

hinder part: (TA :) and [targe; applied to trees 

(jf**>) ■■ or] large trees. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K.) 
• - «• , 
J*tyi> : sec iLuo Also Wcah in his body, 

and in his intellect, (AZ, O, K,) and in his judg- 
ment, and in his soul. (K.) — And A servant 

who works for his bread. (AZ, O, K.) And 

i. q. pLL [Cut off; fcc.]. (A A, 0,K.) 

■1)U*6 Hard, and firm and compact in flesh ; 
(Lh,0,K;) applied to a man; (Lh, O ;) as 
also i)Ui: (K:) fern. i&Ui ; (Lh, 0,K;) 
applied to a woman. (Lh, O.) And, applied to 
a she-camel, Great, (K, TA,) and compact in 
mahe: (TA :) as also with S. (K.) 

.Ula*, (TA,) or t JC^U, (O,) Affected with 
a constant, or chronic, pervading disease; or 
emaciated by disease so as to be at the point of 
death. (O.TA.) 

Jj^o-t Affected with the malady termed i»UJ» 
tq.v.]. (S,0.) 


* j 
Ui : see what next precedes. 

*• \S?>> (?, M, Msb, K,) aor. -, (Msb,K,) 
inf. n. j£>; (S, M, Mgh, Msb, K ;) and * ^yiuit 
signifies the same ; He was, or became, slender, 
and small in body: and hence, (Ham p. 112,) 
lie was, or became, diseased, disordered, or sick ; 
(S, and Ham ibid.;) because disease occasions 
leanness, or emaciation: (Ham:) or he was, or 
became, lean, or emaciated: (so accord, to the 
explanation of the inf. n. in the Mgh:) or he was, 
or became, affected with a disease, disorder, or 
sickness, (M, Msb, K,) of long continuance, and 
settled, (Jul,) or constant, so that he was at tlie 
point of death, (Msb,) or such as infected, or per- 
vaded, him, and so that, whenever he thought 
himself to be recovering, lie relapsed. (K.)= [See 
also 1 in art. y~&.] 

a * i* ■ " * * * > 

3. »ULa« i. q. SOU*, (S, K, KL,) both sig- 
nifying The suffering, or enduring, [or contending 
with,] the difficulty, or trouble, or inconvenience, 
of a thing; as also iCULo. (KL.) 

4. »U*ol, said of a disease, disorder, or sick- 
ness, (S, M, M^h, Msb, K,) // rendered him such 
as is termed ^A or ,>£ : (M, Msb, K :) rendered 
him lean, or emaciated: (Mgh:) or oppressed 
him; burdened him heavily; overburdened him; 
or overcame him, and rendered him heavy. (S, 
TA.)^ And ^yi-il He kept to the bed by reason 
ofwlutt is termed ^o [i. e. leanness, or emacia- 
tion ; or disease, disorder, or sickness, or such as 
was of long continuance, &c. : see 1]. (TA.) 


(Mfb, TA) [and its dual ^lli] and the pi. is 
«U^I ; (TA ;) [Slender, and small in body : and 
hence, (see 1,)] diseased, disordered, or sick : 
(S:) [or lean, or emaciated: (see again 1:)] or 
affected with a disease, disorder, or sickness, (M, 
M ? D » K,) of long continuance, and settled, (M,) 
or constant, so that lie is at tlie point of death, 
(Msb,) or such as infects, or pervades, him, and 
so that, whenever lie thinks himself to be recovering, 
he relapses. (K.) You say, ^li *2»Jj and 
* £-» [/ left him lean, or diseased, fcc.]. (S.) 

Bk. I. 

"• iX*^* 3 H* ( a man) feigned himself diseased, 
disordered, or sick. (TA.) 

8. ( j . tw t : see L __ Sec also 8 in art. U«o. 

^ inf. n. of 1. (S, M, fcc.) Also, [in 

some copies of the K erroneously written J*,.^.,] 
and t ^ ; (S, M, Msb, K ;) the former applied 
alike to a man (Fr, IAar, T, S, Msb) and to a 
woman (IAar, T, S, Msb) and to two persons 
(Msb) and to a pi. number, (Fr, IAar, T, S, 
Msb,) because originally an inf. n., (S, Msb,) for 
(^e ^3 and ^y-o ob [fcc] ; (Msb ;) or some 
do not dualize it nor pluralize it, because it is 
[originally] an inf. n., and others dualize it and 
pluralize it; (M ;) but t ^ has a fern. (Msb) 

Cho ; tern. <U*» ; and pi. !U^I : see the next 
preceding paragraph, in three places. 

^ji^, [written in the TA Uo, but tlie final 
radical is ^£,] with kesr, accord, to IAar, sig- 
nifies Pains that cause fear. (TA.) 

.Uo, like j>*%, [in measure, The state of such 
as is termed ^a or ,>^]> a subst. from -V-i. 
(M ? b.) 

< • j 

LJ i^a-« Hendei-ed lean, or emaciated; [fcc. ;] 

(Mgh ;) pass. part. n. of 4 [q. v.]. (Mgh, Msb.) 

3. SUUU is syn. with »UUJ, (K, TA, [the 3 
before SULsOl in the CK should be erased,]) 
i. q. ii£»lii : (S, O, Msb,TA :) you say, <OUU, 
and i^iU, ('Eyn, S/O,* Msb,» TA,) i.e. I 
resembled him ; syn. a^yli. : ('Eyn, TA :) [or / 
conformed with him :] or <Uli, inf. n. as above, 
signifies lie imitated him; syn, *ua,U. und eljli; 
and one says also, ILkUi, inf. n. »UUu: (Msb:) 
the verb is read both with and without • in 
the Kur [ix. 30]. (O, Msb, TA.) <u Uu, 

(A'Obeyd, TA,) [or «l*U, like o\j.\J>, mentioned 
in art. ^jy-b,] inf. n. as above, (K,) He (a man) 
was, or became, gentle, tender, or courteous, or he 
acted, or behaved, gently , k.c.,ivith him, or to him. 
(A'Obeyd, K,* TA.) 

Q. Q. 1, orQ. 1. *Ui:) 

. . > sec art. U«o. 

Uy-i and SLy-o : ) 

r ™-«„ KM ,j UU( . ^^nas a tern. (Msb) he* There's multiplying themselves, and hat 
and a dual and a pi., (S,) its fern, being «£i | ia g : f or] it J, Baid in the a Nawddir „ ^ . 

1. jUW *^i, aor. -, (K,) inf. n. ^, (TK,) 
He altered tt,(K, TA,) and changed its colour, 
(T A-,) by means of fire. (K.TA.) [See also 2.] 
=s Jf^i said of a man, (O, K,) aor. -, (TA,) 
inf. n. 4^,(0, K,) t He failed of fulfilling 
his promise (JlU.1), and was weak, and not like 
a man : (O, K, TA :) as though likened to meat 
not thoroughly cooked. (TA. [See 2.])_»And 
*)&\ -r-t-« signifies ^'&L\ [i.e. Tlie people's 
being mixed, or confused] ; (JK, O :) orJ^i^U.! 
[i. e. t ^yj, js a subst., signifying o medley, or 
mixed or promiscuous multitude or collection, of 
people]. (So in the K. [But I think that this 
explanation is a mistranscription.]) [Or it signi- 
fies The people's multiplying themselves, and hasten- 



* •* • ** * . *" "' <•'■*' ii 

jtyii\ and \y^b and lyJuk and \yi\ and t>-W all 

denote jl&St and clJI.Nl : so in the T in art. 


inf. n. *r"tr*3, He roasted (Lth, K, 
TA) flesh-moat (Lth,TA) upon heated stones: 
(Lth, $, TA :) or he roasted, (r>,) or put into 
the fire, (A A, TA,) but did not cooh thoroughly, 
(AA, $, TA,) flesh-meat. (AA, TA.) — And, 
(£,) inf. n. as above, (8, 0,) He exposed a bow, 
(8, 0, $,) and a spear, (S, O,) to the fire, (8, O, 
%.,) on the occasion of straightening it, (S, O,) or 
to straighten it. (K.) [See also 1.] — And He 
collected together the fire; (JK;) and so t 

3. i-*La« signifies Mutual reviling or vilify- 
ing; (£;) the addressing each other with bad 
woi-ds. (TA.) 

Q. 1. yvo^i: see 2, last sentence. [Men- 
tioned in this art., as though Q. Q., contr. to the 
rule generally observed with respect to words of 
four radical letters of which the first and third are 
identical but not the second and fourth.] 

>^*v*b : see the first paragraph. 

iC^o u*£ A bow upon which the fire has tahen 
effect [so as to alter its colour]: (O, KL:) like 

fully, unjustly, or injuriously; (L;) its also 
<V V J^ol : (L, K :) he constrained him. (S, L.) 

» jlytw^lt J4*~i*) O^t occurring in a trad., 
means He used not to allow constraint, or com- 
pulsion, or force, in a sale, and in an oath, 
&c. (L.) 

4:|see erfch, in two places, in the preceding 
8 :J paragraph. 

Jjy«» Force; constraint; compulsion. (L.)__ 
j ^-l Jj3 ijy*> yk means He is one who may be 
overpowered, subdued, or oppressed, by every one 
who desires to make him so. (S, L, K.) 

Jtyo Hardy, strong, robust : (L, ]£ :) applied 
to a man : (L :) [said to be] the only word of the 
measure J^ii (1£) in the language of the Arabs ; 
but Kh asserts it to be a forged word : (TA :) 

Uy-o and jjJU are also mentioned as of this mea- 
sure ; [but the latter is disallowed in the S and 
O, voce^elc;] and yjjj-e and^j* [which, how- 
ever, are foreign proper names]. (MF.) 

j j t -n^ and t j^Mtmts A man (L) overpowered ; 
subdued; oppressed; (S, L;) abased; (L;) con- 
strained. (S, L.) 

: see what next precedes. 

I The lion. ($.) 

i. q. s-v=-°> meaning A place where flesh- 
meat is roasted [on the ground heated by the sun] ; 
(K; [in the CI£, ^^Jbl ij£j is erroneously 

put for^»»I)l ijy^i ;]) accord, to Lth, any [high 
around such as is called] \J&, or rugged ground, 
or place on a mountain, upon which the sun shines 
with tuck heat that flesh-meat will roast upon it: 
but Az says that what Lth means is vv~° only, 
with the unpointed t>»; (0,* TA ;) and if bo, the 
meaning assigned here in the 1£ is not correct 

yyiu Flesh-meat roasted, but not thoroughly 
cooked : (8, A, O :) accord, to El-Mufaddal, flesh- 
meat rut in pieces; (O;) and thus in the K; 
(TA;) but IF says that this is nought, unless it 
be rut in pieces roasted : (O :) it is at variance 
with what is said by the leading authorities, for 
they say that it means flesh-meat roasted upon 
heated stones : or roasted upon the fire, but not 
thoroughly cooked: (TA:) or cooked in a frying- 
pan. (TA in art o»j*.) Imra-el-$eys says, 

• LJL&I jU-JI olj-cW 

Q. L 

see 2 in art. 

S^y-i A i£»ji of water; [i. e. a watering- 
trough, or tank, or tA« i»A«, of water; or a 2>a*w», 
poo/, pond, or lake, of water ; or a />ioc« TfAcre 
water remains and collects, or collects and stag- 
nates;] (M, K;) as though formed by transpo- 
sition from rt-atj, which signifies a depressed 
piece of ground : (TA :) pi. S£il. (M, £.) 

l\yfi> A woman wAo«e breasts have not become 
prominent, or protuberant. (Lth, £.) [See also 
i ley-j, in the next art] 

~' • * ******* 

jip |>» M ^ bi 

[TT<; mpe our hands with the manes of the swift 
horses when we rise from eating roast meat not 
thoroughly cooked], (8, O.) 

1. »j^i, (S, L, £,) aor. -, (S, L,) inf. n 
(L ;) and ▼ o t h.t>l, (as in the L, and in some 
copies of the K,) or ▼ *j^b\ ; (as in other copies 
of the $ >) He overpowered him ; subdued him ; 
oppressed him : (S, L, £:) fc treated him wrong- 

inf. n. 

<SA« wa«, or 

1. C^s, aor. *, ini.n. >w ^o, 
became, such as is termed »l«y-6. ($.) 

3. iuU, (8, M ? b, K,) inf. n. SUU»i, (S, 
Msb,) B"« resembled, or conformed with, him, or 
t< ; syn. iifeli ; (S, Msb, ? ;) like itiU [q. v.] : 
(S, Mfb :) and, like the latter, he imitated him. 

(Mfb, TA.») It is said in a trad., ^Ul ji.1 

sS)S JU. Oi"^i Oi^ ^«^>l j»y. W<J^ i- c. 
[The most severely punished of mankind on the 
day of resurrection mill be] those who imitate by 
what they make [the creation of God]; meaning 
the sculptors or limners or the like. (Msb.) _ 
Also, [or At 13*16, like a/ UUj, q. v.,] He was, 
or became, gentle, tender, or courteous, or he 

[Book I. 

acted, or behaved, gently, &c, with him, or to 
him; namely, a man, and other than a man. 

4. 1^0' He married, i. e. took to wife, a 
woman such as is termed .Uy-o. ( AA, 1£.) as 
And He pastured his camels upon tlic, species of 
tree called J^o. (K.) 

Uy-6 : sec the next paragraph, in four places. 

jLywi A woman that does not menstruate : pi. 
i*v-° > which necessarily implies that the former 
is [as above, i. e.] with the long I : but AA men- 
tions " iLy-o and ' «Uy-o, with S and with «, as 
having this meaning ; which necessarily implies 
that Uy-o is with the short t [i. c., accord, to a 

general rule, t Uy-o, with tenween, like ^-i>, 
q. v. in art. Lyo, though (accord, to a general 
rule) this should be regarded as a muse, epithet] : 
(S.) or iC^b, and also with the short I [app. 
v \ftrb, as above, not Uj-6, or, as I rather incline 

to think, Ly-b (whicli is mentioned in art. Uy-b) 
may be here meant], signify a woman that does 
not menstruate nor become pregnant ; (I£, TA ;) 
so that she is as though she resembled a man : 
(TA : [see 3 :]) or that menstruates but does not 
become pregnant : (5, TA :) or that does not 
bring forth, though site menstruate : (TA :) or 
whose breasts do not grow forth; (K, TA ;) and 
when this is the case, she does not menstruate : 
or the former signifies tliat does not menstruate, 
being pregnant. (TA.) __ And f Land that does 
not give growth to anything; as also with the 

short 1 [i. e. * CU or C*]- ($■ [ In the TA 
this meaning is restricted, app. without reason, to 
the form with the short I.]) =9 Also, (8, ]£,) and 

with the short t [i. e. * Ly-b or l-y-o], (K,) A 
species of tree (S, If) of the kind called »Loc, (}£,) 

having a i-ojj [q. v.] and a pod (<UXc) [which 
succeeds the htji], and many thorns. (TA. [For 

f** * 

further descriptions thereof, see Uy-», in art 

3Uy-b and oUy-b : see the next preceding para- 

a . • - 

(jy-6, (S, ?,) of the measure Je«i, (S,) The 

/tie of another [thing or person] : (S, K :) one 
says, IJjL [jy ^ Ijjk This is the like of this : (S :) 
or «lC».«J >* He is the like of thee. (K. ) 

Q. 1. [Accord, to the O and $, Q. Q. 1, being 

mentioned therein in art. ly-o-J "J-* 1 W^ -"*' 
^/eW *Aor< of doing what he ought to have done in 
his affair, (i-ij-o, 0, ?,) and did not decide it, 
(Z»^ai'j$, 0,) or and did not perform it firmly, 
or soundly: ($:) likeUj- (TA.) 

teJ-6, of the measure jiii, or, as some say, 
l 3^i»; if of the latter, [said to be] the onlj in- 
stance of this measure in the language ; j^> 

Book I.] 

being a forged word ; [but see this word ;] and 
£y\ being a foreign proper name; (TA;) or, 

accord, to Sb, tbe hemzeh in U^i, which is with 
tenween, is augmentative, because it is syn. with 
l\^b, which is with the long I and imperfectly 
decl., for the yj cannot be augmentative and the 
hemzeh radical in the latter; (MF and TA in 
art. ,«t-e ;) [a word like L^o and l\^b (which 
see in art. igr°) in most, or as some seem to 
say in all, of its meanings;] A certain tree, 
resembling the Jl^,, (AZ,0,?,) each of which 
has its fruit in a iiL [or pod] ; it has roeah 
thorns, and grows in the valleys and on tfie moun- 
tains: (AZ, O:) Ed-Deenawaree [i. e. AHn] 
says, on the authority of some one or more of the 
Arabs of the desert, of El-Azd, that the ley-o is a 
great tree of the kind called »Lo*, having a **# 
[q. v.] and a pod (AAJLft) [which succeeds tlie <U*], 
and man;/ thorns ; its )*)ds (<J»Ift) are intensely 
red, and its leaves are like those of the [sjrecics of 
acacia called] j^L (O.) = Also A woman that 
does not menstruate: and tliat has neither miUt 

nor breast : as also * »le»-e '• (£ or the latter 
is an epithet applied to a woman in these two 
senses : (O : [in which the former word, without 
5. is not mentioned :]) Seer says, in his Expos. 


of "the Book" of Sb, that C^e, like *W* 
[which belongs to art. ,jt-p], is a subst. as well 
as an epithet, signifying a woman whose breast 
has not grown forth : and one who ha* not men- 
struated : — .and also iA land that has not 
given growth to anything : (MF, TA :) or " SU*-* 
signifies as above : and also t » desert («"&) 
haring in it no water: (O, I£, TA :) or that does 
not give growth to anything; app. because it has 
no water. (TA.) [Accord, to those who hold 
the tC to be augmentative,] a woman is thus 
termed because she resembles men (oUU L»*}) 
Jt^ll). (0,TA.) 

S\^e: 8ee the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. 

R. Q. 1. \ye'ye, [inf. n. eleye and fleye, 
(see the next paragraph,)] They cried out, 
shouted, or clamoured; first pers. sing. C~-oya, 
the [second] j being changed into ^j. (S, TA.) 

iyo [in the CK erroneously written l\ye] A 
crying out, shouting, or clamouring ; (S, £ ;) so 
says As, and AZ says the like ; (S ;) as also 
▼ lleye (S, K) and * lleyi, (TA in art yjoye, 
[these two there mentioned as inf. ns., on the 
authority of Il£tt>]) an d * u°yo- (& in art. 
^joyo.) One says, >»yUI iye .:.«q..i [I heard the 
crying out, shouting, or clamouring, of the people, 
or party], (Af , AZ, S.) 

#•< » »» » «<■».. 

ifbyb and Iteye and tteye; see the next 

preceding paragraph, 

\jb\y± Large, big, or bulky} thick; or large 
in body; *}n.jL£, (£,TA,) and^Ui. (TA.) 

i~6l^s : see what next follows. 

Kfiye, (£, TA,) in the dim. form, (TA,) A 
calamity, or misfortune; (1£, TAO because of 
its greatness ; (TA ;) as also * i^Hiye. (R, 
TA.) — _ And A stallion [camel] excited by lust. 

^bye* A man crying out; shouting, or cla- 
mouring ; (K and TA in art. ^eye ; [in the 
CKL erroneously written i -by ttA ;]) like yeye*. 
(TA in that art.) 


1 : see 4, in two places. 

2 : see the next paragraph, in two places. -__ 
i » * i l* * t 

One says also, oja C>\yb [meaning I brought to 

light, made visible, discovered, or revealed, him, 

or it], (M, TA.) A sheep, or goat, belonging 

to an Arab of the desert strayed ; whereupon he 

said, <U£ i^yojov^'l [O God, bring it to light, or 
discover it]' (A, TA.) = Accord, to Lth, but 
he is the only authority for it known by AM, 
(TA,) y»y\ &e \ye, inf. n. aS^Jj, means He 
declined, or turned away, from the affair. (K, 

4. .Lit, (M, Msb, J£,) said of a thing, (M,) 
[as, for instance,] of the moon, (Msb,) or 0*U>1, 
said of fire (jlJt), (A'Obeyd, S, 0,) inf. n. «lil; 
(Msb;) and t ;U, (M, Msb, $,) or OlU, (S,0,) 
aor. i°yoj, (M,) or lyo3, (S,) inf. n. lye (S, M, 
O, Msb, K) and lye, (S, O, K,) or the latter is a 
simple subst. ; (Msb ;) but the former verb is 
preferred ; (TA ;) It gave light, was light or 
bright, shone, or shone brightly. (Msb, K,* TA.) 
[See also an ex. of * the latter verb in a verse 

cited voce Jiil ; and cited here in the TA.] And 

ai OUI [I gave light to him]. (M.) b The 

it it *.i 
former 'verb is also trans.: you say, jUl <usU>l 

[Tliefire made it to be light or bright, to shine, or 

to shine brightly] : (S, O :) and <uLM and " <C\yo 
[I made it to give light, to be light or bright, to 
shine, or to shine brightly] : (M, Msb^ K. :) and 

Ox^Jt a* OLsl and a/ " *j\yo [I lighted, or 

illumined, with it (i. e. with a lamp or the like) 

the house, or chamber, or tent]. (M.)_ [Hence,] 

diyti «U>I I He ejected his urine [so as to make its 

drops to glisten] ; or emitted it and then stopped 

it; syn. 4j ~\jS**j (K, TA ;) or ^ hAM> ; 

(so in a copy of the M, as on the authority of 

Kr;) or, as in the A, <y cjil. (TA.) And 

it, »» » 
they said »ly^t U [J/oro %Af, or bright, is it !]. 

(S voce^tl [q. v.].) And Xo\ signifies also 

Myi ^Uol [lie saw (lit. lighted on, or found,) 

%At, or brightness]. (T voce^jLbt [q. v.]) 

5. 1^-cJ 2Te stoorf tn ^/w <^arA to see people by 
the light of their fire, (AZ, J£> TA,) without their 

seeing him, (AZ, TA.) And »!/-cl 1^-aJ [ ^/« 


*^oorf in the dark to see a woman by the light of 
her fire, without her seeing him]. (TA.) 

10. <v oUJLl [7 wi^/i< <o o&<atn %A< 6y 
mean* of it ; I made use of it for light]. (M, 50 
jJiJI J*1 jW ljj»*^J "9 ['it- AW not ye <o 
obtain light by means of the fire of the people of 
belief in a plurality of gods], (O, !£,) a saying of 
the Prophet, (O,) means t seek not ye counsel, or 
advice, of the believers in a plurality of gods, in 
affairs : (O, K :) because he whose affair is con- 
fused and dubious to him is as though he were in 
darkness. (O.) 

*'y6 and t^J, and t j£«i (S, M, 0, £) and 

♦ \\yb, (M, K,) the last of which is [erroneously] 
written in the L SJ^-i, (TA,) signify the same, 
(S, M, O, &) i. e. Light, syn. *J, (?, TA,) 
accord, to the leading lexicologists ; but see what 
follows: (TA:) and \yo is an inf. n. of iLo, (S, 
M, O, Msb, K,) and so is ♦ **Jb, (S, 0, ¥.,) or 
this is a simple subst. from *Up, and so is " *U*p, 

which is also, sometimes, written " *&£, from %Xo\ 
as syn. with (Us : (Msb :) the pi. of \yb (M, 
TA) and ▼ lyo (M) is tl^l ; and ▼ iCi is some- 
times a pi, (M, TA,) as Zj states it to be : (TA :) 
some say that \y6 has a more intensive signifi- 
cation than jy, and that hence God has likened 

his direction [the Kur-an] to jjJI rather than to 

• a 

■3-qJI ; because if it were otherwise, no one had 

erred : and that hence, also, [in the Kur x. 5,] 
the sun is termed ♦ .L-i; and the moon, jy : it 
is also said that lye signifies the rays that are 
diffused by w/iat is termed } y : the kadee Zeke- 
reeya aflSrms that these two words are syn. by 
their original application, but that *yi is more 

forcible accord, to usage: and some say that 

* a 

iyo)\ signifies that [light] which subsists by itself, 

> A 

as [that of] the sun, and fire ; and ^yi\, to that 
which subsists by some other thing [as does the 
light of the moon]. (MF, TA.) 

iye : see the next preceding paragraph, in 
three places. 

t\yb : see *yo. 

JUa and !lL? : see lye, in five places. 

2. — "ye : see 2, in two places, in art. m«0. 


>Ui The name of one of the letter* of the 
alphabet. (L, M b, £.) See the letter ub, 

1. ojUo, aor. jy*i : see «jU>, aor.^-aj, in art. 

5. jyej He writhed by reason of the pain of 
beating, (M, A, ]£,) or of hunger: (£:) lie cried 
out and writhed on being beaten, (Lth, S, A,) or 



by reason of vehement hunger: (S, A:) he 
writhed and cried out and turned over, by reason 
of the vehemence of fever : (TA:) fie manifested 
harm, injury, or hurt, that he suffered; and was 
in a state of agitation : (I Amb, T A :) he mani- 
fested weakness : (Abu-1-' Abbas, in TA : [but 
for J(mJ, as the explanation of the inf. n., in 

the TA, I read uuuJ :]) he (a wolf, and a dog, 
and a lion, and a fox,) cried out (M, ]£) with 
hunger. (M.) 

Si* — 0*° 


ji' >' 

1. <ii». ojU>, aor. ojycu, t. q. »jLe, aor. »J~*i ■ 
see art. >-o. (VL.) You say also ^jjl*, aor. 
^jjyoj, meaning .j&^fo [7/e made me to suffer 
loss]. (Kr, M,TA.)'a*And JU, aor. j^ is 
also [intrans.] like jUd, q. v. (TA in art. jU».) 

ijjye <U-J i. q. \J}fO : sec art jt*6. (M, 

For words mentioned in the ]£ under this 
head, see art. ye. 


1. *s\Jo, (aor. **)-L, S, O,) inf. n. c^-o, -He, 
or ?t, put it, or Attn, into a state of motion, com- 
motion, or agitation ; (S, O, ]j£ ;) as also v ts-yo, 
inf. n. £jye3: (TA:) and disquieted, or dis- 
turbed, him, or t7 : and frightened him : (S, O, 
K :) and some say, roused, or excited, him : and 
♦ m^o, also, has the last but one, or the last, of 
these meanings. (TA.) One says, . h' c jAj •J) 
l^l* f, 1 U i. e. [/','/ no means let that which 
thou hearest from her move tme, or disquiet thee, 
or frighten thee; or] do not thou be moved by 
what thou hearest from her; or do not thou care 
for it, or regard it. (TA.) And \j£s y»\ ««Ls 
\j&>2 iSW/i and such things frightened him. (AA, 
TA.) _ And, said of the wind, It made it to 
incline; namely, a branch: (KL:) and it (the 
wind) bore heavily upon it. (TA. [The object 
of the verb in this sense is not there mentioned.]) 

Ami t. q. *»li [He, or it, excited his desire] : 

(so in the O, on the authority of Ibn-'Abbad:) 
or i. q. «iU> [he acted with him contrariously, or 
adversely, and inimically ; &c.]. (So in copies of 
the &.)_And J^l £U, (O,) or ajljjl, (K,) 
said of journeying It rendered lean, or emaciated, 
(O, K ( ) tlte camels, (O,) or the beast. (K.) — 
And !•»> cLo, (IAar, O, K,) aor. as above, 
(IAar, O,) and so the inf. n., (TA,) It (a bird) 
fed its young one with its bill. (IAar, O, K.) 
When you command tlte bird to do so, you say 
«J> *J>, (IAar, ().)= c.U> is also intrans.: 
see 5, in two places. 

2 : see 1, first sentence, in two places. 

4. 4S.y*\ U, said of odour, means How sweet 
[or fragrant] is it ! (l?ar p. 670.) 

5. t-yaJ said of the wind, It became in motion. 
(TA.) And ^*£JI iLSy] £**yo3 Tlte odour of 

the perfume diffused itself, or became diffused. 
(O.) And «i >..«)! e-yaj, (S, K,) as also *ye2; 

(S;) or i{Jl\ cybi; (Msb;) and * cU, (S, 

O, Mfb, K.)) aor. s-yo^, (0, Msb,) inf. n. eye ; 

(Msb j) and tU, aor. i„^j'; (Har p. 070;) The 

musk, being put in motion, diffused its odour, or 
fragrance ; (S, O, K, TA ;) or the thing diffused 
its odour: (Msb:) so in a verse of Imra-el-Keys 

cited voce Cj, in art. ^jj : [in which, in the 
place of pyoJ, some read pyaj, for t-yo^i ■] 
(TA :) and in like manner one says of a stinking 
thing. (IAar, K.) And l£— o t^-oj [/< diffused 
the odour, or fragrance, of mush], (S, 0.) — 
And Afcjlj <u* P>^* ^ e snuffed, or scented, or 
smelt, from him, or t7, an odour. (TA.)sbs Also, 
said of the [bird called] eye, It cried, or uttered 
a hud cry or crying. (Allat, O.) — — And, (O,) 
said of a child, (K,) He writhed, (K,) or cried 
out and writhed, (O, K,* TA,) in weeping; (K,* 
TA ; in the former, s l£JI ,>o ; but correctly, 
,tat J,-, TA;) as also ♦ cU,'(Lth, O, K,) aor. 

fyoj, (Lth, O,) inf. n. eye : (TA :) both sig- 
nify he cried, or uttered a loud cry or crying, in 
weeping ; as one docs when beaten : or the former, 
mostly said of a child, signifies he writlted in 
weeping with vehemence, 'and raising the voice; as 
expl. by Lth : (TA :) or it signifies also he (a 
child) wept vehemently : (0 :) and, said of a 
young bird, it writ/ted, or cried out and writhed; 
(O, I£ ;) as when said of a child ; and so T pUxil, 
said of both : (K. :) or t cLail, said of a young 
bird, (S, O, K,) as also tyej, (O, K,) signifies 
it spread its wings to its mother in order that site 
might feed it with her bill. (S, O, K.) 

7. cUait : see the next preceding sentence, in 
two places. — Also lie was frightened at a 
thing, and cried out at it, or utta m cd a loud cry 
or crying by reason of it. (TA.) 

lye (S, O, Msb, K) and £yi (AHeyth, O, 
K) A certain night-bird, (S, O, Msb, K,) [a 
species ofwvl, i. e.,] of the hind termed >U : (S, 
O, M$b :) or [a male owl;] the male of the ^y ; 
(S, O, Msb, K ;) accord, to El-Mufaddal: (S, 
O :) said by ADk to be a bird that utters a 
scream when it perceives the daybreak : (O :) or 
the O'jJ^ [ a name now given to the stone- 
curlew, or charadrius aedicnemus] : (K. :) or a 
certain black bird, resembling the ^Ij* [or crow], 
(Et-Taifcc, O, K,) smaller than this, but red in 
its wings, tltese being of a roseate colour : so says 
AHiit, on the authority of Et-Tai'fee : accord, to 
others, he says, it is a small bird, less than the 
jlo and the jJL. ; (O ;) and in like manner 
says Th : (TA :) also that the * IJt'ye [which 
may be the fem. or a n. un.] is of a colour in- 
clining to yellow, dusky and blackish externally, 
and yellow and ash-coloured within, short in tlte 
neck and tail, smaller than tlte sparrow ; and 
that it is thus called because of the cry that it 

[Book I. 

utters at the commencement of daybreak : accord, 
to El-Hannshee, the s,yd is a bird such at is 

termed w^l [q. v.], resembling tlte domestic hen, 
(0,) the flesh of which is good: (0,£:) but he 
adds that it has been said by some to be not a 
bird : and in another place of the book he says 
that the ♦ ieye is black, like the .yiji, a little 
larger than tlte *j**~6, red in the ij»\y*. : (0 : 
[but Jpl^JI is an obvious mistranscription for 

^yt^aJI : sec ijiU. :)] the pi. is c\yo\ [a pi. of 

pauc] and (jU^. (S, O, Msb, K.) 

if-ye: sec the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. 

* * ' * j 

f-\yo The cry of the bird called pyo. (S, 0, 


fj^ye, applied to camels, (O, K,) and to other 
beasts, (O,) Lean, and lanh in tlte belly: (O, 
1£ :) or emaciated : (TA :) app. from c\Je said 
of journeying, meaning " it rendered lean, or 
emaciated : (O :) by rule it should be isuLe. 

s.\yei\, like ^IjJrf, [in the O erroneously 
written '*\yol\,] The fox. (Ibn-Abbad,£.) 

fya* pass. part. n. of At-Ls. (O, TA.) 

1. Ait. JU, inf. n. \Jya : see 1 in art uu*s. 


aiya* : J 

see art uui. 

1. >Up, aor. j>y^ojy inf. n. j>yb y a dial. var. of 
j^Oy aor. ^^i-flw, inf. n.^^o : (K :) **«*?, like 

rt,*< *>j signifying <C<,\h [I wronged him, &c]« 

1. iiye, (K,) an inf. n. of which the verb is 
&le, aor. sjyoj, said of a man; (TK,) Tho 

* #i " 

/tavi»g numerous offspring; as also " sjyeo. 

(K.) [Probably from Ot»s-*-] 
5 : sec the preceding paragraph. 

Qye The iLLl [i. e. runnct, or runnet-bag, of 
a kid, or lamb], (K.) 

iilJ> A nose-ring of brass (S^ M, K, Ju*» £y» 
M) for a camel: (K:) or a [earners nose-ring 
such as is termed] <Utj£. ; accord, to Sh : men- 
tioned in the K in art. ^13 ; but this is its 
proper place, for it is without ». (TA.) 

3Jye A young female child. (K, TA. [In 
the C£, Cill is put for 4^1.]) 

Oyj-e, (S, M, ]£>) of the measure J***, not 
Jyti, because the former is the more common, 
(IB, TA,) extr. [in respect of rulo], preserving 

.Book I.] 

its original form, (M,) without >Ujl [i. e. not 
having its _} incorporated into the ^J so as to 
become Ot^t M » l should by rule,] because it is 
a primitive noun, (S,) like »$>*■, which is a 
proper name of a man, (S, M,) but more extr. 
because that is allowable in a proper name which 
is not allowable in another kind of word, (M,) 
[A he-cat;] i.q.jy~ [q. v.] ; (M:) the male 
j'^L, : (S, I£ :) or a certain email beast resembling 

the£* : (M :) pi. 0^>> (§> $>) in which the 
3 is unaltered because it is so in the sing. : (S, 

TA :) Sb says, the dim. is t J^-b, like j^*\ 

[dim. of >>-l], but he who says i^-l may say 

* Oft**- (§•) 

^ift and k j>«t«o : see what next precedes. 

1. ^£y£, aor. ^£5-^, inf. n. \Jye, He (a 
child, Msb) was, or became, lean, or emaciated, 
(S, Msb, K,) a«rf small in body: (Msb:) or 
slender in the bones, and sj>are of body, naturally. 
(M, $.) [See also 4.] = £} j£i, (S, M, &) 
aor. ij^i, (?, K,) inf. n. ^jy* (S, M, K) and 
yje, (M, K,) He adjoined himself, got him or 
got himself, betook him or betook himself, repaired, 
or resorted, to him; syn. ^^oil; (S, M, K;) as 
also * ijy^l > (9 ar P- 73 ;) and Ac /«ad recourse, 
or ftetoc-A himself, to him for protection, or refuge. 
(S,»M, $.)-_ And J^i. iL ^11 ^, inf. n. 

^ and ,J^, »'. ?. JC [i. e. Bounty flawed to 
me from him] : (M, TA :) accord, to the copies 
of the IjC, JL» tjlL ,_^l ijyb; which is wrong. 
(TA. [In my MS. copy of the K, »^A. ^11 
Ju*.]) __ And {£yb signifies also It came by 
night : (M, £ :) you say, oj-i. U^JI ^jya The 
news, or tidings, of him, or ft, came to us by night. 
(M, TA.) ^ ^yo, said of a camel, He was, or 
became, affected with tlie tumours termed {£yb, 
(Lth, TA,) or with wliat is termed S\y*> [q. v.]. 

4. \J!y*>\ He (a man, TA) was, or became, 
slender (If , TA) in his body. (TA. [See also 
^£ye.y) And >yUI ^>-il The people's cattle 
became lean, or emaciated; like >oyUI ^^-ol. 
(Ilfrt, TA in art. (Jy*.) — And He (a man) 
had offspring such as is termed |j£)l£ born to 
him : and in like manner Oj-ol is said of a 
woman [as meaning she brought forth such off- 
' spring] ; (M ;) or she brought forth a boy such as 
is so termed. ($.) \/yH % taj% (S, M, Msb,) 
occurring in a trad., (S,) means Marry ye among 
women that are remote in respect of relationship, 
(S, M, Msb,*) and not among the relations of 
your paternal uncles, (S,) or and not among your 
near relations, lett your offspring be such as is 
termed ^U> : (M, Msb :) for the Arabs assert 
that a man's offspring from his near relation is 
meagre, though generous, of the nature of his 
people. (S, Msb.) = »j^ol He rendered it weak. 

(S, Msb, $••) You say, '£)\ fjyi\ \He ren- 
dered the affair weak ; (S, TA j) did not render 

it firm, or sound; or did not perform it in a firm, 
or sound, manner. (S, J£, TA.) — And aiu*. »\yo\ 
f He curtailed him, or defrauded him, of his 
right, or due. (IAar, M, $.•) = *J1 J^JJ »\ya\ 
The night made him to have recourse, or to betake 
himself, to him for protection, or refuge. (TA.) 

7 : see 1, second sentence. 

fjyo inf. n. of ^^i» [q. v.]. (S, M, &c.) = 
See also the next paragraph. 

i\'yH> [mentioned in the TA as from the I£, but 
not in the CK, and in my MS. copy of the Tfc. 

' *' ' ' IK 

inserted in the margin,] A ganglion (»>j£, M, or 
ijl, £, TA) beneath the lobe oftlie ear, above the 
2& [q. v.] : (M, K, TA :) or, accord, to Az, [o 
thing] resembling a ij&. (TA.) And A tumour oc- 
curring in the fauces of camels and other animals : 
pi. * fjyA : (M :) or this latter [is properly 
termed a coll. gen. n., of which i\y£ is the n. un., 
and] signifies tumours accidental to the camel, in 
his liead, having an overpowering effect upon his 
eyes, and rendering it difficult to attach to him the 
[lialter called] >>LLui. ; and sometimes it is in tlie 
side of the mouth. (Lth, TA.) And (M, TA) A 
ixL. [or ganglion] (S, M, TA) in a camel, (S,) 
or in any part of tlie body. (M,TA.)_Also 
A certain thing, or small thing, (ii*,) that comes 
forth from tlie she-camcTs vulva before tlie coming 
forth of tlie foetus. (M, 1£, TA.) 

jUb : see the next paragraph. = Also Coming 
by night ; syn. i3»U» [which Golius here explains 
as meaning " Lucifer," and supposes to be for 
£ ; U]. (M,£.) 

2 t > * 

\j}\-b, (S, M, Msb, K,) of the measure J^fcl*, 

[originally Jjajti,] (S, Msb,) and * «U>, (Msb, 
TA,) applied to a boy, (S, M, K,) and with $ 
applied to a girl, (S, Msb, K,) Lean, or emaciated, 
(S, Msb, £,) and small in body : (Msb :) or 
slender in the bones, and spare of body, naturally : 
(M,K:) and likewise applied to anj^species of 
animal : (M :) accord, to the T, the offspring of 

i s 
an incestuous union. (TA.) yfAiti, (T, TA,) 

not without teshdeed, as the text of the K implies 
it to be, (TA,) was the name of A certain horse, 
(T, K, TA,) belonging to Ohanee. (T, TA.) _ 
Also the former, disordered, or diseased, and near 
to dying : [so I render ±joj\^, q. v. :] and weak ; 
in a bad, or corrupt, state. (TA.) 

<Q«l£ jus In him is leanness or emaciation 
[&c] : (S :) t. q. {Jyo [the inf. n. of ^$yo, used 
as a subst.]. (TA.) 

ijycho, applied to a camel, part. n. of i5«-o 
[q.v.J. (Lth,TA.) 


2. $i\ ,4-i, (S,0,?,) inf.n. £«£, (S.) 
He mixed the milk with water, (S, O, £,) so that 
it became J*±i (S ;) as also *t^y-o, as heard 
by Az from an Arab of the desert; (TA ;) and 
♦ **£*, (O, $,) inf. n. L^J>, but this last is 
said by IDrd to be obsolete : (0 :) or * «*>U, 
inf. n. *.\'r, lie poured water into it, it being 
thick, and then stirred it about until it became of a 
uniform consistence. (T, TA.) — And tm+k He 
gave him to drink thin milk, mixed with water, 
such as is termed «-*i ; (S, $ ;) as also *».ye. 

4. r Lil, said of the Jii [or fruit of the 
Theban palm] It became what is termed *-r°> 
and fit to be eaten. (O.) 

5. -4«a3 It (milk) became wliat is termeil 
-.1^6; (K;) i. e. it was diluted with water, and 
stirred about until it became of a uniform con- 
sistence: and so any medicine, or poison. (TA.) 
__ And He (a man) drank what is termed »-l-~i. 

._~£ and ♦ p-Ui Thin milk, mixed (S, O, K, 

TA) with much water: the former cxpl. by 
As as meaning milk in which is much water : the 
latter expl. in the T as thick milk into which 
water is poured, and which is then stirred about 
until it becomes of a uniform consistence : also, 
both words, milk, wlietlier it be fresh or such as is 
termed s^'j [q- v, ]> u P°n which water is poured 

»-U> : see 2, in two 

1. iifeJJI s»-U> : see 2, in two places. = c-»-Ui 
i*&\ The tracts of land became vacant, (T£, TA,) 
by reason of drought. (TA.) 

until it has become thin : and " p-U-o and * «*»* * 

any medicine or poison having water poured into 
it, and then stirred about until it becomes of a 
uniform consistence: or, accord, to Lth, only 
milk is termed *-C?±. (TA.) [See an ex. voce 

jL^a..] _ «-*o also signifies Honey. (0, K.) 

_ And Ripe JJL» [orf-uit of the Theban palm] : 
(O, K : [see 4 :]) this is of the dial, of El- Yemen, 
universally. (O.) 

-^b i. q. Z~o [q. v.] : ($ :) ascribed by 

IDrd to the vulgar. (TA.) — Also an imitative 
sequent to -^j, (r>,) [i. e.] a corroborative of 

£jj, (O,) in the phrase «4"i F^H **" [ ex ? ] - 
voce ^— i], and thereforo having' no meaning if 
used alone. (O,* TA.) 

imXb The sight: (O, K:) one says, *y».l U 
Ai».Li [How good, or excellent, is his sight!]: 
(O :) or the eye. (K.) 

A single drink, or draught, of thin milk, 
such as is termed *-~i>. (TA.) 

• - ' • • » , 

»-U-i : see y-e-o, in two places. 

• t - 1 ' * » * 
-~-ft« : see _#«. 

^-^t-ix* JLe* t A rurftid Zt/e ; syn. &&*•. 

t = 

J Coming to the watering-trough when 


most of tlte contents thereof has been drunk and 
there remains but little, mixed, (IAth,» O, ft, 
TA,) and turbid; (IAth,TA;) this being likened 
to milk mixed with water : (TA :) or coming to 
mater the last of the people. (AHcyth, TA.) 

1. #,U, aor.j^, inf. n. j^i; (S, M, A, Msb, 

]£ ;) as also »jLe, aor. jyiv, inf. n. jyi ; (S, M, 

¥0 '<(• thing, M, 1£) harmed, injured, hurt, 

mischiefed, or damaged, him; i.q. «JjLi, (S, M, 

K») or «rf >*L (Msb.) You say, •$ £* ljuk 

•Vjvfi [This is of the things that mill not harm 

tltee]: and J>^ ^ *h*i y [Hadst thou done it, 

it had not harmed thee] : and AJ&- ^Li y [No 

harm shall befall thee]. (A.) And ifceu U 
• •'■a .. .it,. ' 

J~° »y~iJI ^A i. q. J^iu U q. v. (A in art. 

j4.) And Ks says that he had heard (from one 

of the people of El-'Aliych, TA) the phrase 

\Jj>*>± *& «*& <J?£t ^ [ That wia not benefit 

me, nor mill it Itarm me]. (S, TA.) Sec also a 

reading of a phrase in a trad, cited in art. j*>. 
conj. 3. 


jU, (TA,) 

1- M (?, $,) aor. j^, inf. n. 
He deviatedfrom theright course; oracted unjustly, 
mrongfully, injuriously, or tyrannically ; (8, £;) 
J^ii\ ^J in the judgment : (S :) like jU. (TA 

in art. jLs.)_*i». 4jLi, aor. and inf. n. as 
above, He deprived him, or defrauded him, of a 
part, or tlie mhole, of his right, or due: (8, M, 
JC :) like *jLi, aor. ij^-aj : (K. :) he refused it to 
him, or withheld it from him : (AZ, M, TA :) 
nnd sometimes one says «jU>, 
jt*. (§,TA.) 

aor. ajUij, inf. n. 

\£}t± ii—* .An wnj««i!, (S,M,) or a defective, (£ 

in art. jtA,) division : (S, M, If :) as also \Jjyo: 
(M :) \Jjt-b in the Kur liii. 22 is read by all 
without hemz : (TA :) it is of the measure ^^W, 

like i*/** and ^J>>*— ; but the ^ is with kesr 
in order that the ^ may remain unchanged; for 
there is not in the language an epithet of the 
measure i«i*i ; this being a measure of sub- 
stantives, like ij'j*li\ and ^jiijJI: (S:) or, 
accord, to Aboo-'Alee, it is not an epithet, but an 
inf. n., like ^^»i, as though the meaning were 
jyt- Oli i»-i : (Har p. 524:) Fr says that 

some of the Arabs say (J^jli, and i^j$-o : and 
AHat mentions AZ's having heard the Arabs say 
\jj~°, with hemz. (S.) 

1. etc, aor. v-oj, inf. n. cU and Aju^j (S, 

Mgh, O, Msb, *L) and £i and g*>, (K,) Jf (a 
thing, 8, Mgh, O, Msb) perished, came to nought, 
passed amay, or became lost. (8, O, M*b, I£.) 
It is said in a trad, of Saad, | ^A« i^li.1 _Jt 

1 y^^' i. e. [Verily I fear, for the 
grapes,] their [lit. the] perishing, or becoming lost. 
(TA.) — And^U, (£, TA,) inf. n. el^ and 
a»Ji, (TA,) J< (a thing) mas left; left, or let, 
alone; or neglected. (£, TA.) Hence, C^U 
J/J)1, and Jle«JI cLo, 2Vt« camels, and the family, 
or houselwld, mere left untended, and unminded; 
and were fe/l atora, or neglected. (TA.) = cU, 
aor. £*-oj, said of perfume, or sweet odour, i. a. 
cUi having for its aor. cyiS. (Har p. 070.) 

[See 5 in art. c.yb : and see also 5 in the present 
art.] *- 

2. ^Ifl ^, (0,M f b,?,) inf. n. pjx-, 

(8;) and t Ull,\, (O, Msb, K,) inf. n. Uu,l; 
(S ;) both signify the same ; (S, O, Msb, £ ;) 
^e made, or caused, the thing to perish, or be- 
come lost ; he destroyed it, masted it, or lost it. 
(Msb, K, TA.) Hence, U# \^> is used by 
the vulgar as meaning They beheaded such a one 
mith the smord. (TA.) It is said in a prov., 
C^-UI C -»»fr^ i-Aj-oJI [7n <A« spring, or t» <Ae mm- 
mcr, thou losedst the milk], in which the O is 
with kesr when the words arc addressed to a 
male, or to a female, or to a pi. number, because 
originally addressed to a woman, the wife of a 
weafthy man, whom she disliked because of his 
being aged, wherefore he divorced her, and a poor 
man married her, and she sent to her first 
husband requesting a gift, and he answered her 
thus ; (S, O, V. ;*) uu-o)l being in the accus. case 
as an adv. n. : so says Yaakoob : (S, :) or 
El-Aswad Ibn-Hurmuz divorced his wife El- 
'Anood Esh-Shcnneeyeh, (0, $,) of the Benoo- 
Shenn, (TA,) preferring to her a beautiful and 
wealthy woman of his people; (O, £ ;•) then 
there occurred between them what led to their 
separation, and ho sought to obtain [again] El- 
' Anood, and sent a message to her ; but in reply- 
ing to him she said, 

l «JL* J >,■ Lit 

• .3 , •«. 

, - . I . .« 

[Tlwu hast begun to seek our union: in the spring, 
or in the summer, tlwu losedst the milk] : (O,* 
50 l ' ,e "- 1 m A'8 caae being with fet-h. ft 
[See more in Freytag's Arab. Prov. ii. 19/7-8, or 
in Har p. 577 ; in both of which, however, and 
in the O, C«* v o is with kesr in the latter case, 
as in the former.]) [One says also, I j^i %^o, 
meaning He broke his compact, contract, or 
covenant]. The phrase, in a trad., ,>i ^> 
JUM v icU>J means He forbade the expending of 
mealth othermise than in obedience to God, and 
the squandering thereof, and extravagance, (TA.) 
— See also the next paragraph. 

• s 
4. i^ji)! fie) : see 2, first sentence, and last 

but one. __ Also, [and app. ♦ **#& likewise, 
accord, to the K,] He left the thing; left it, or 
let it, alone; or neglected it. (K, TA.) You 
say, aJLc cL«I He neglected his family, or house- 

[Book I. 
mindful of them. (TA.) «^iJ &) q\£> U» 

^UjI, in the ^ur [ii. 138], means ^i«i God 
wttf not neglect [or mafa ^o ie /o*/] your prayer. 
(TA.) S^ljl t>eUl, in the same, [xix. 60,] 
means Who neglected, or omitted, prayer, (Bd, 
TA,) altogether : (TA :) or deferred it : (Bd :) 
or mho performed it in other than its right time : 
but the first explanation is more suitable, for the 
unbelievers are meant thereby. (TA.) as cUbl 
[is also intrans., and] may signify He found hit 
affair to be coming to nought. (Ham p. 33.) _ 
And His estates (**^-o) became mide-spread, (8, 
O, K,) and many, or numerous. (S, O, Msb, £.) 

5. *e«o3, said of the wind, It blew : because it 
[often] destroys that upon which it blows : so says 
Er-Raghib. (TA. [But it may be from what here 
follows.]) — Said of musk, It diffused its odour, 
ax fragrance: (S, O, If;) a dial. var. of cyi3: 
(S:) or an instance of substitution [of fj for j]. 
(O.) [See also 1, last explanation.] 

*• . . * . g . . 

l*~i OU and Uj-i : see cLj. 

a*^ an inf. n. of 1. (S, &c.) Sec ct^i, 

below, last sentence but one. — Also A single 
case, or occasion, of perishing, coming to nought, 
passing amay, or becoming lost ; or of being left, 
left or let alone, or neglected. (TA.) __ A&y 
3«i<V means / fe/2 /u»n unsought-after, or un- 
minded, or unmissed. (TA. [See also a similar 
phrase voce *^.]) ss Also t. y. jU* [meaning 
^in extato consisting of land, or o/ land and a 
house, or of a house or fand yielding a revenue, or 
o/ a Aowe and palm-trees, or </te /i/re] ; (S, O, 
Msb, K;) and [particularly] /and yielding a 
revenue ; (K. ;) or with the people of the towns 
and villages and cultivated lands it signifies the 
property, of a man, consisting of palm-trees and 
grape-vines and land: but the Arabs [of the 
desert] know not the word in this sense : (Ax, 
TA:) IF says, I do not reckon the application 
of this word as a name for the jUi to be of the 
original language, but think it to be an innovation 
in speech ; and I have heard it said that this is 
termed a i*~o because, when frequent attention to 
it is neglected, it perishes ; and if it be so, this is 
an evidence of what we have said, that it is of the 
innovated speech : (O, TA :) the dim. is t ii^-i, 
for which one should not say iiuyo : (S, O, £ :) 
the pi. is eLj and »Lo, (S, O, Msb, ]£,) as 
though the latter were a contraction of the 
former, (Msb,) and oU^6: (K. :) accord, to Lth, 
the first of these pis. signifies places of alighting 
or abode or settlement ; which are thus called be- 
cause, when the paying frequent attention to 
them, or taking good care of them, and the keep- 
ing them, or putting them,' in a good state, or state 
of repair, is neglected, they come to nought: and 
Ol*4-i> occurs in a trad, as meaning the means of 
subsistence. (TA.) And, (T, O, Msb, £,) as 
used by the Arabs [of the desert], who know not 
the word in any other sense than this, (T, O,) A 
craft, or handicraft, by mkich one gains his sub- 
hold; omitted taking good care of them, or being I sutence ; a mode, or manner, of gain ; or any 

(Sh,0:) and J-lJ j^» 

Book I.] 

habitual work or occupation of a man ; (T, O, ; 
Mfb,£;) as the sewing of skins or boots and the 
like; and the twisting of ropes; and the weaving, 
or plaiting, of palm-leaves; and the culture of 

palm-trees ( JaJjl J**) ; and the pasturing of 
camels; and the like thereof; (T, O ;) including 
the sowing, or tilling, of land : (TA :) or the 
lx~i> of the Arabs was the management, or tend- 
ing, of camels and of sheep and goats : and the 
term includes a man's craft, or handicraft, or 
means of gain: (Sh, O :) and his traffic: (Sh, 
O, K :) one says to a man, 

to thy craft, kc] 
'* '-'. * 1^ [Every man should occupy himself 
with his proper craft, kc] (Msb.) «XH j_yi»l, 
f~-i r, occurring in a trad., means God made or 
may Ood make, his means of subsistence to be 
abundant. (TA.) And one says, s ^ M ^ i C— », 
[or, more commonly, xju-o a~U Co ti, as in the 
TA in art. yii, kc.,] which is said to mean His 
property was, or became, large, or abundant, [or 
wide-spread,] so that he was unable to collect it 
together: and [hence] Am means of attaining his 
object [or Am affairs (as in the TA in art. yi-i)] 
became disordered so that he knew not with which 
of them to begin : (TA :) or he look to doing an 
affair that did not concern him : (TA, and Ham 

p. 33 :) it is nearly like the saying J|>-Jt £-3J 
*SljJI ^J* [expl. in art. Jj±]. (Ham ibid.) 

And A*-f~-=» Sj V-^-^ * ^^lS^^U^'^ 
J «ee property that nothing but a sleep will 
restore to a right state] a prov. ; said by a pastor 
whoso camels had dispersed themselves, and who, 
desiring to collect them together, and being un- 
able to do so, sought aid of sleep. (O.) 

i»~o cU : see the next paragraph. 

cCian inf. n. of 1 [q. v.]. (S, kc.) [Hence] 
one says, U-U^> oU, as also " U~e>, and " uuo, 
and f 4jlj-o, He (a man, TA) died unsought-after, 
or unminded, or unmissed. (K, TA. [Sec also a 
similar phrase voce i»~o.])_ Also A family, 
or household : (ISh, O, £ :) or the meaning is 

£** JW», (Mgh, O, ?,*) i. e. a family, or 
household, neglected, untended, and unminded; 
(TA ;) or such as are exposed, or liable, to perish, 

(*~*\> O' i^D**)) M y° M "i7 children, and those 
who are cripj>lcd, or deprived of tlte power of 
motion, who cannot manage their own affairs : 
(Mgh:) occurring in a trad., in which it is said 
that when a man died leaving such as arc thus 

termed, (lei** i|p>) they were to be brought to 
the Prophet, (Mgh, O,) to be maintained by 
means of the government-treasury : (Mgh :) a 
prefixed noun is to be understood [i. e. it is for 

cl^a JLc or the like] : (Mgh :) or it is an inf. n. 

used as a subst. [properly thus termed] : (Mgh, 

O :) or, accord, to one relation of the trad., the 

word is t A , « e ,« j [which is likewise an inf. n., and 

in this case to be expl. in the same manner] : 

* # 'i 

(Mgh :) if read Wl**, it would be pi. of vU. 

(Mgh, 0.)«sAIso A sort of perfume, or odori- 
ferous substance. (K.) 

i*t&° dim. of <utj>o, q. v. (S, (.), ]>..) 

uli Petishing, coming to nought, passing 
away, or becoming lost : (Mgh,* Msb :) [and 
being left; left, or let, alone; or neglected:] 
part. n. of 1: (Mgh, M?b:) pi. cUi (Mgh, O, 

Msb, ]£) and £U. (Mgh, O,* Msb, £.*) [See 
an ex. of the latter pi. in a verse cited voce ^j\>, 
in art. Oii. Sec also Jul*, in art. fy>.] — And 

A man in a state of poverty : or having a family, 
or household, to sustain: or ttt a state of circum- 
stances by means of which he is unable to subsist. 

(TA.) _ g5li JL y» ji»t 0$ means gSU. 
[i. e. &ucA a one eats into a hungry, or an empty, 
gut] : and it was 6aid to the daughters of El- 

Khuss, "What is the sharpest thing? (j*-t U 
»,_ji ;) and she answered, .-i L5*^i fi • * r ' 
x3L^ jjt« [A hungry canine tooth tliat throws 
the food into an empty gut]. (S.) 

.* 0' * 

*~ot means UU> _^>l : so in the saying, 

0">* v>° %■#<& 0>* [" M cA a one m t» a more 
perishing state than such a one], (TA.) 

*~cl« act. part. n. of the trans, v. ctel. (TA.) 
[See t-^t—», in art. »>>>.] s And part. n. of the 
intrans. v. cUil ; as such signifying One whose 

estates (acU-o) are becoming widespread, and 
many, or numerous. (S, TA.) 

and itgrfio t. </. ct-6 [an inf. n. of 1, 
q. .▼.]. (Mgh, O, Msb, K.) So in the saying, 
iMjfk^t aJleft ■VjJ or ii«j<ioi> [-^c left his family, 
or household, in a state of perishing, kc.]. (Mgh.) 

* - ' - ■* 

So too in the saying, JU ^j «Jaij "^ JjU-ll 
fUt.rfv,^ [TVte thief shall not suffer amputation of 
his hand in the case o^lns stealing property in a 
neglected state]. (Mgh.) And so in the saying, 
-^iU f+t'yh (S,»0,K) and £LX» (0,£) [He 
is in a place (lit. an abode) of perdition, kc] : 
or as meaning in this saying, abandonment, and 

ignominy. (TA.) And <Ue*ao _,! j>j ^«i-o •* or 

i*00O0* means [2Te u dwelling in tlie abode of in- 
dolence; or] Am characteristic in his affairs is 
indolence. (Msb.) — _ Also, [or perhaps the latter 
only, as meaning A cause of perishing kc, this 
latter being app. of the class of <UjL«< and &-:*■.* 
kc,] A desert, or waterless desert, that is cut off 
[from inhabited regions] : or, as expl. by IJ, a 
place in which a man perishes, or is lost. (Msb.) 

00 * J 

Xe-ixt : see what follows. 

. ' t . • ' • •. •» ■ 

J' . • ' J 

JUAJ cU-eu> J»j »'. '/. a! » »jA< [i. e. ^1 man 
roAo wastes, or squanders, wealth, or property]. 


1. JU, (M, ?,) [aor. JW,] inf. n. 


(T?;) and t »JU1, (M,) and * uC-3, and 
t Jus ; (K ;) He, or if, inclined, (M, £,) and 
approached, or aVew near; <cJt [to Aim, or it], 

(M.) And J^h\ C^U,' (S, M, Mgh,) or 

~j}'jxM y-e-iJI c-iUi, (0,) aor. J ^ i J , inf. n. 

J£i; (M;) and * C-k^, (S,M,Mgh,) or 
w.j>JU C^ J; (O;) and t wJ^i, (S, M, 
Mgh,) VJ>* IJ C-Ae-o ; (0 ;) 2%c sun inclined, 
(S, Mgh, O,) or drew near, (M,) <o setting. (S, 
M, Mgh, 0.)-_ And c-iU> said of a woman, 
aor. as above, Site menstruated; (O, K;) because 
she who docs so inclines, or declines, from a state 
of purcness to menstruation. (O, TA.) — — And 
J£jj ^*U, (M,) or uij^l ok >W -Jt »JU, (S, 
O,) Tlic arrow turned aside from the butt : (S, 
M, O :) like JU (S, O.) And t *Ji\ ^ "-»'-&» 

f • • •" * " 

inf. n. <*>y6 [and i_i~i], He, or it, turned away 
/row lAe tAin^ ; like oUo, inf. n. ij^o [and 
wij-s]. (M in art. <_J^-i.) — And oU> said of a 
man, t He feared; as also t i_>Lol. (M.) And 
A0-O * oU>l t He feared it, or nvw cautious of it ; 
namely, an event, or affair; (S, M, O, K, TA ;) 
as also Ai0» \J\0o : (TA :) or J Ae wa.s- cautious of 
it with the caution of one encompassed, or &e«ef, 
thereby. (Z, TA.) b i^Li, (S, M, O, Msb, ^,) 

aor. <ui00j>\, (O, K,) inf. n. iiU-i, (S,)or uuc, 

(Msb,) or both; (M,0,S:;) and t ^X^J (?, 

M, O, ^L ;) J alighted at his abode; (M, Msb ;) 

and inclined to him : (M :) or I alighted at his 

abode (S, M, O, Msb, K) as a ijk^o [or guest], 

(S, 0, K,) or and became his >_«•«? [or ^uejif]. 

(M, O, Msb. [See also 3.]) And >yUI JU, 

and 'j t yk f/M , He alighted at the abode of the 

people, or party, as a oL-i [or guest]. (Mgh.) 

And " *a^ A 3 I came to him as a o>~o [or guest]. 

0. j 
(L, TA.) [Hence,] ^1 *iU t Anxiety befell 

him. (S, M,»0. [See, again, 3.]) And His 

signifies also / sought, or desired, of him enter- 

• . + *J*A '0 

tainmcnt as a <Jt. L «? [or guest] ; and so " t£kt.iaj ; 
(M ;) or this latter, (L, Msb,) and ♦ t&thSmtl, 
(M,) i" ashed of him such entertainment. (M, 
L, Msb.) 

2. kjj&t intrans. : see 1, first and second sen- 
tences, bb As trans. : see 4, last sentence, in four 

j 0*3 

places. — [Hence,] ti'ij . j signifies also f I pro- 
tected him, or defended him, from him who sought, 
or pursued, him : (Mjb:) \I rendered him safe, 
secure, or free from fear ; and became at peace 
with him ; thus used metaphorically. (TA.) 

3. oJujLb [app. signifies He straitened him: 
(sec 6 :) or, perhaps, Ae became his guest ; like 

J i 1 

<oU>, kc]. _ [Hence one says,] .^Jt <uLjLo 
I [Anxiety straitened him : or, perhaps, befell 

him; like i*U]. (TA.) [And ibU, inf. n. 

JUbLebo, signifies also It was, or became, cor- 
relative to it ; as, for instance, fathership to son- 
ship. See also the next paragraph.] 

4. vJlol, intrans. : see 1, in three places. _ 
Also, said of a man, He ran, and hastened, made 
haste, or sped, (Ibn-'Abbid, 0, £,) and fled, or 


turned away and fled: (£:) and said of a dog 
at meaning lie ran away, or fled. (TA in art. 
i > rt -.) — And t {jM ^ «JUI i. q. 4li SjL\ 
[He looked upon, or viewed, the thing from above : 
or he was, or became, on the brink, or verge, or 
at the point, of the thing : kc], (O, K, # TA.) 
— JaJUl Ctyo ^1 Jt-o3, said of a she-camel, 
means <SA« Aear* roi<A dew're of going to him the 
voice, or sound, of the stallion. (M.)_And 
aiU>NI and * ,JuLaJI signify Correlation, or 
reciprocal relation, so that one of the two cannot 
be conceived in the mind without the other ; as in 

the case of Sj/^t and iyJI [i. e. fathership and 
sonship]. (KT. [See also 3.]) = pJ iiU.1 V/<' 
wiWe A to incline towards it ; (S, M,* O, Msb, 
$ ;*) namely, a thing (S, O) to a thing. (S, O, 
Msb.) He made it to lean, rest, or stay itself, 
against it, or upon it. (M, TA.) You say, 
iuUJI ,J1 t>y£> uitel He leaned his back against 
the wall (MA.) And £»l 4)'l wiUI J ife 
rested, or stayed, ujton him an affair, and desired 
him to do what would suffice. (TA.) — And 
He made him to hare recourse to it, or to betake 
himself to it for refuge. (S, O, If..) — And He 
adjoined it to it. (Msb.)-— And hence i»LoNI 
ns a conventional term of the grammarians ; 
because the first [of two nouns in the case to 
which it applies] is adjoined to the second : 

(Msb :) [for] Jjp Jl^^ **t-*J >s [Tlte pre- 
fixing the noun to the noun so that tlie former 
governs the latter in the gen. case] as when you 

say j>ij y^t ; in which instance, >>£ is termed 

T oUx-», and juj is termed «OI t JU« ■ and 
this is done for the purpose of particularizing or 
appropriating, and of making known or definite: 
therefore the isLil of a thing to itself [i. e. the 
prefixing a noun in this manner to one identical 
therewith in meaning] is not allowable, because a 
thing docs not make known, or definite, itself; 
(S;) unless by an ellipsis, as when you say 

iSt*JI J>»- ' or (IhAs" » (fc j- J l J*-* or, accord, to 
Fr, the Arabs used to do so because of the dif- 
ference of the two words themselves. (S voce 
«-«U-.) [iil^NI is also often used as meaning 

The state of being prefixed in the manner ex- 
plained above ; or the connection of a noun so 
prefixed with its complement. The various kinds 
of iiUil are sufficiently explained in the gram- 
mars of De Sacy and others: they are not 
proper subjects of a lexicon, though much is said 
respecting them in the O, and more in the Msb. 
_ Hence also, U=» ^1 f^^W meaning In 
comparison with (lit. to), or t» relation to, (like 
.Jl |j j)U,) such a thing ; as though in juxtapo- 
sition to it : a phrase of frequent occurrence : see 
an ex. in Bd ii. 6.] — *2U>t (inf. n. <UUt, Msb) 
and t lil 'i (inf. n. J L35 , O) both signify the 

same, (S, M, O, Msb, $,) from iil^JI ; (O ;) 
i. e. both signify J made him a guest, or lodged 
him, or gave htm refuge or asylum, syn, *3ji\, 
(8, M, Msb,) with me, as a <J^6 [or guest], (§,) 
and entertained him : (S, M, Msb :) »y \J>\ and 

* »^<v-o both signify *£>>\: (Mgh:) accord, to 
Th, <u»wl signifies I lodged him at my abode as 
a ouo : and I gave him (i. e. one in fear) pro- 
tection, or refuge or asylum : (Msb :) and 
" < i •*....? is also expl. as meaning I fed him : and 

" < > i,.,. o as meaning Ac wauic him to be in the con- 
s' 1 
dition of ou-bl [or guests]. (TA.) 

5, intrans. : see 1, first and second sentences. 

• i . , . 
, w»WA3 signifies also The ieiw/ collected 

together. (KL, from the Mj.) _ And The being 
a «/3 [or follower, kc.]. (Id.) =; As trans. : 
see 1, latter half, in four places. 

6 : see 4. as u^Uw as said of a valley, [from 
o^-o "a side,"] /< became nai-row ; syn. i^tiu. 

(S, M, O.) a-JLc ^Uu, a phrase used by a 
poet [describing camels following an old camel], 
They became near to him, (S, M, O,) by his side. 
(S, M.) And you say, >»JJaJI ajuLoj The people, 
or party, became on both sides of him (iy.«, 
(TA.) And (jU-JI jJuLoj The two beasts of 
prey hemmed him in on both sides. (TA.) And 
ju-oJI w>>Ml w-AjLoj and o~Xp c-ajLoj [77te 
«fo#* hemmed in the object of the chase on both 
sides, or round about]. (TA.) [In the TA, all 
these are said to be tropical ; but why, I see not.] 

[7. «UI wiLoJl signifies He, or it, became 
joined, or adjoined, or added, to him, or i/ : and 
he joined himself to hint: but is perhaps post- 

10: see 1, last sentence. _ You say also 
^jiiUwt, meaning He desired me, or ashed me, 

to grant him protection, or refuge. (Msb.) And 

ft * *f ' « 

0>* .Jl O^* IJVAS*! Such a one had recourse, 

or betook himself, to such a one for protection, or 

refuge. (IAar, M.) 

•» - 
iJL-o A </ueri : and guests : (MA :) so called 

because adjoined to the family and fed with them : 
(Ham p. 124:) it is applied to one, and to a pi. 
number, (S, M, MA, O, Msb, K,) and to a male 
and to a female, (S, O, Msb, K,) because it is 
originally an inf. n. : (MA, Msb :) [as a sing.,] 
1. 17. " JLot, (M,) which is syn. with ^ji : 
(TA :) and applied to a pi. number, it may be 
pi. [or rather a quasi-pi. n.J of t ouLi, which is 
syn. with JjU ; thus being of the class of jjj 
;ind j>y& ; (M :) and it is also pluralizcd, having 
for its pis. ol)~sl and ijU^ (S, M, MA, O, 
Msb, $) and J^A (S, M, MA, O, K) and Jl^o, 
(MA, TA,) the first of which is properly a pi. of 
pane, but is also used as a pi. of mult. : (M :) 
and a female is termed ii^o as well as Uj& : (S, 
M, O, Msb, K :) El-Ba'eeth says, 

[A castaway with whom his mother became preg- 
nant while she was a guest] : (S, M, O :) or, 
accord, to AHeyth, the meaning here is that 
which follows. (O.) — i»w> applied to a woman 
signifies also Menstruating : (O, K:) so says 
AHeyth with reference to the citation above from 
El-Ba'eeth. (O.) 

[Book I. 

The side (T, S, M, O, $) of a valley 
(T, M) and of a mountain (M) [ike. : see 6] : 
and, as metaphorically used by an anonymous 
poet, of the jfei : (M :) and * <JuUL* signifies 
the sides of a valley. (TA.) _ And one says, 
^^i ut-o ^j* 0^*> meaning Such a one is m 
the vicinage, or quarter, of such a one. (M.) 

--o One who comes with a guest : (S, :) 
or wlio so comes intruding without invitation: 
(r>:) or one who follows a guest: derived from 
«Ju«9, accord, to Sb ; but said by AZ to belong 
to art. l >4-9 : (M :) [accord, to J and Sgh] the 
,j is augmentative : the pi. is ^>»U-i. (S, O.) 

Ill* ■ t. r J '* 

a> W> an inf. n. of *Zi*i in the first of the senses 

assigned to the latter above. (S, M, O, ^.) 

[And] a subst from .Ctusl and a^ilj, [as such 

signifying The entertainment of a guest or guests; 
i. e. the act of entertaining : and an entertain- 
ment as meaning a repast, given to a guest or 
guests; a banquet, or feast]. (Msb.) [Hence, 
iilj-oJI jlj The house of entertainment of guests.] 

uuLi A man alighting as a guest ; syn. JjU : 

(M, TA :) sec U j> t : its [proper] pi. is u>~3. 

• -•> »-•-> •. 

owm ; and <u)t uUu : sec 4. _ The former 

signifies also t One who is made an adjunct, or 
adlierent, to a people, or party, (S, M, O, K, TA,) 
and made to incline to them, (M,) not being of 
them. (M,TA.) One says, JUm ^1 £& U \{Ht 
is none other than an adjunct, or adherent]. 
(TA.) — _ And \ One whose origin, or lineage, or 
parentage, is suspected ; or who makes a claim to 
relationship not having it : (O, K, TA :) and (5) 
whose origin, or relationship, is referred to a 
people, or party, of whom he is not a member. 
(O, I£, TA.) _ And One who is constrained to 
betake himself to a place of refuge, (M, 0,]£, 
TA,) to a narrow, or confined, place, and w/u> 
is burdened with evil: (TA :) El-Bureyk El- 
Hudhalee says, 

[And he protects him who is constrained to betake 
himself to a place of refuge, when he calls for 
aid], (M.) And ♦ »_»LaLL« signifies the same 
as JUu [app. in the last of the senses expl. 
above] : so says IB ; and he cites the saying .of 
Jowwds Ibn-Heiyan El-Azdee, 

f M|| tl- H > . tl •«•« 

[app. meaning And verily I advance boldly in 
the case of fear, and I protect him who is con- 
strained to betake himself to a place of refuge]. 
(TA.) [See also oyi*.] _ Also One who is 
beset, hemmed in, or encompassed, in war, or 
battle : (S, O, K : said in the TA to be tropical :) 
or one falling among the horsemen and men of 
valour, having in him no strength, (M.) [See, 
again, Oy<M.]_ And One in a state of fear, 

iJ^a* Beset by distress oj mind: (TA :) 
[b coord, to Freytag, as from the Deewan of the 

Book I.] 

Hudhalees, constrained to seek refuge : (see also 
«_iliu« :)] it occurs in the Baying of the Hudhalee, 

00§0 * * ft 

[T'Aou answerest the prayer, or ca/i, o/Atm roAo 
u beset ice] ; and is formed after the manner of 
^for^. (M,TA.) 

kitfi* a dial. var. of U tfff* h* v 0- (TA.) 
[ISd says that] U+iu occurring in a verse of 
Aboo-Dhu-eyb [as some relate it], cited voce 
!&£->, [where tlie reading of U^o* is given,] is 
for UJU>, meaning Turning aside ; crooked. (M.) 

uke^k* Fleeing; or turning away and Jleeing. 
(Ibn-'Abbad, 0. [See also its verb.]) 

iiUaJo Hardship, or difficulty, or distress. 
(TA.) _ See also the next paragraph. 

3iy«M, an anomalous word, by rule aa-cuo, 
(Kh, Sb, TA in art. sJyo,) Anxiety ; and want, 
or a wan* ; (O and & in that art. ;) and ♦ 4*000* 
and t aiptfx* signify the same ; (0 in that art. 
and in art. «Jt*« ;) or these two signify anxiety, 
and grief: (K in this art. :) or ii^-a* signifies an 
affair, or event, that is feared, or 0/ wAfcA one is 
cautious; (S and M in this art.;) thus accord, 
to As ; and * aa~cl« and ♦ Ulk* signify the 
same. (S, L, TA.)' 

2*000* and aa.<>< : see both in the next preced- 
ing paragraph ; the former in two places. 

ttgAs, of the measure ibuU, A p/are o/a»IJLo 

[i. e. entertainment cf a guest or guests : pi. 

Jjll*]. (TA.) 

• • 

^rj-n-r The master of an abode in which guests 


are entertained ; as also ▼ ^gktlo*. (T A.) 

xjVt r- t [One wAo o/fcen entertains guests]. 
(flar p. 579.) 

jLUw [pi. of U»Ls t — and also of a sing, 
not mentioned] : see w *r* * 

,-MA> [from Juliii pi. of Ai-eu.] : see 

jjb ljas !U-I Correlative nouns; i.e. noun* 
significant of the existence of persons, or things, 
whereof the existence of one necessarily indicates 
the existence of another ; as ^>\ an< * \LH\ [father 
and son]. (Er-Raghib, TA.) 

■ »» *.,'.' 

yj\.,a"...« : see oUt*. 

[act. part. n. of 10, q. v, :] Asking, or 
calling, for aid, or succour. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, £.) 


j. JU, aor. Jf-iu, inf. n. J*i (6, O, Mfb, 
$) and J^-», (S, O,'?,) or this latter is a simple 
subst., (Mfb,) It mas, or became, narrow, or 
strait; contr. of £-L5\; (Mfb, $;) as also 
v j£tf, [or rather this signifies A roa», or 6e- 
come, rendered narrow, or rtrat'f, being quasi- 1 
Dk. I. 

kit*— JfO 

pass, of 2,] and * J*Ul! : (K :) it is said of a 
thing, (S, O, Mfb,) and of a place. (Msb.) 

Of J »t»0> 0** * * 

[See also J** below.] ^j^l^ov-J* cJUo, in the 
Kur ix. 119, means The earth became strait to 
them. (Bd, Jel.) And one says, ijoj*)\ *i oiU> 
[meaning, in like manner, The earth, or land, be- 
came narrow, or strait, with him]: 'Amr Ibn- 
El-Ahtam says, 

* m ' * ' ' # * 3 U 

JpU JL.,11 J^U.1 o-CJ^ 

* * 

[By thy life, or Z>y <Ay religion, countries have not 
become narrow with their inhabitants, but the dis- 
positions of the men become narrow], (0, TA.) 
[<^ JjU> often signifies, and so does a/ ♦ JjUjj, 
It was, or became, choked, surcharged, or ore?^ 
jTZZed, rot'zA it; for instance, a water-course with 
water, and a place with people.] And ♦ ^Uu 
-0*^1 aj means AjJU ,^L£ t [7%e affair was, or 
became, strait to him], (0, TA. [See an ex. in 
art. v*-jf conj- *•]) One says also, aJlc JUo 
awIm :* see 4. [And oJ*JI JU> t The time be- 
came strait, or contracted.] And »jJl^ JL« 
t -fiT« bosom, or mt'nrf, became strait, or co?i- 
tracted: (Msb:) and J)jJl« a^c JUo t [^y 
mini became so contracted as to be incapable of 
it : or thy mind shrank from it]. (K.) [And 
tujjd ^ ^^iil J-iu + ?V*e intellect is incap- 
able of determining its limit, or limits, or <Ae ZfAe.] 
And wrtii-n 4>* Jt-o and .^t^JW + [^fe ma* 
straitened, or embarrassed, so as to be unable to 
reply, or to answer; he was incapable of replying, 
or anwrertw;] : both signify the same. (TA in 

art. jJj.) And Uji ^W J^» (?»* O/Msb,) 
meaning f 27« Z/u'w/, or affair, was difficult, or 
distressing, to him, (Msb,) originally a; A*ji JUo, 
(S, # O,* Msb,) i. e. Am ability [was straitened by 
it, or was inadequate to it] ; and his power : 
(Mfb:) or Am art, or artifice, or cunning: or 
Am way, course, mode, or manner, of acting 
(oLmX») [was straitened, or rendered difficult, or 
distressing, by it]. (O, [See more voce cjj : 
and see a similar phrase in the I£ur xi. 79 and 
xxix. 32.]) And hence, app., the saying JU. 
Oji**" O* J^* * ^e property was inadequate 
to the debts. (Mfb.) And you say, .sUp J 1 -* 
i, 'Jjl [meaning iJulJ J^ t The thing was not 
allowable to tliee]: one says, J^-a*.} «,jA vx«-i "? 
jilt, (S, 0,*TA, [in the O, erroneously, "jl 

•A;,-.; ,]) i. e. JJUft J^«i O'i t [^- ' Wn 5 l «■ not 
be allowable to me conjointly with its being dis- 
allowable to tliee, $0001 ol} meaning 4X^0 ji] : 

<^*-i *^r > tr*-^ i»r* *^ ^ fcMt when a thin9 " 

allowable to me, it it allowable to thee]. (S in 
art. m.) And JU, (aor. Je^»i» $» inf ^ n - 
Je-i, TA,) t 2Te n?ai or became, niggardly, or 
avaricious. (6, 0, Mfb, I£> TA.) 

2. iiU, (Mfb, 5.) ^ ". JepM, (Mfb, TA,) 
He made it strait, or narrow; (Mfb,K;) 
namely, a place [&c.]; (Mfb;) as also • a»U1, 

(?,) inf. n. aiUt. (TA.) You say, 4& c 


^l£JI, (S,) or t^jZH, i. e. I straitened, or made 
narrow, to him [the place, or tAe thing ; or JT 

scanted it, or made it scanty] ; contr. of 1 
a«U. (O.) And a^JU ci^i [alone, used ellipti- 
cally, J straitened him, properly speaking ; and 
also, f his circumstances &c.]. (Mfb.) And J-«i 
O-^ yj* t [SmcA a one was straitened]. (TA.) 

v > t *U l yL A J , in the Kur [lxv. 6, t *» orfZtfr 
rAat ye may straiten them], implies relation to 
expenses and to the bosom. (TA.) [See 8. 

0*0* * 00 £ t 3 ■ ^ f 

C*rs* Oct t jcirfvi l, occurring in the S and K in 
art. ijoyo., means The making a coarctation 
between two things.] 

3. aajUp He straitened him : (MA:) [see also 
2 : or, properly, Ac straitened him, being in like 
manner straitened by him: see 1 in art.^^-j : and] 
I Ae treated him, or beliaved towards him, with 
hardness, or harshness; (0,*X,*!A|) \'j£» ^ 
[in, or t'» respect of, such a thing]. (TA.) 

4. JUit | His means of living became strait 
( A-il*. aJU t JUi) ; (TA ;) Am property went 
away; (S, O, Msb, 50 an ^ '** became poor. 
(TA.) =sSee also 2. ' 

5 : see 1, first sentence. 

6 : see 1, in three places. lyLUJ They strait- 
ened one another ; pushed, or pressed, one against 
another ; or crowded one another ; in a place of 

00 000 00 000 

assembly ; syn, Loty j*fQ*t js—j : (Mfb in art. 
^00-j :) or they became straitened in a place, or 
t in disposition. (S, 0.) 

10. i».jj4> w-5La^-l [She endeavoured to con- 

strict her vagina by means of a pessary], (0, £, 
TA,) or A^ji*^ [by means of medicaments] ; (A, 
TA ;) said of a woman. (A, O, K.) 

J00O an inf. n. of 1, (S, O, Msb, K,) as also 
t i^e-o, (S, 0, K,) or the latter is a simple subst. : 
(Mfb :) [both, used as simple substs., signify 
Narrowness, or straitness :] accord, to Fr, [both 
seem to signify thus ; but the latter, properly ; 
and the former, tropically; for he says that] 

tfe^JI is in that which does not [really] become 
wide, like the mind ( jJueJI) : (O :) or it is 
J>jj*o 4H. Jti U [that of which the mind by its 
being contracted is incapable, or from which the 
mind shrinks; an explanation not given in the K 
as on the authority of Fr, and deviating from 
his words as given in the O ; whence it appears 
that, for U, we should perhaps read C»»] : (K -.) 
but ▼ i*«<aH is in that which may be [really] wide, 
like the house and the garment: ((>,K:) and 
the former [is also used as an epithet, being a 
contraction of ^o > n this case, and as such] 
has a dual and a plural and a feminine ; but 
the latter has not : (O :) or ▼ both are alike [In 
signification] : (5 :) and ▼ U^o is syn. with J^o. 

(S.) Also, and t J^i, accord, to AA, (0, 

[the latter there expressly said to be jXjjiL*.^,] ) 
or the former and * J~o, (K, [said in the TA to 



be a mistake for JtJ>, but see what Follows,]) 
Doubt (AA, O, K) in the heart : (K t) the first 
is more common than the second, in this sense ; 
and occurs in the r£ur in xvi. last verse and 
xxvii. 72 : (O :) [but] Ibn-Ketheer read, in both 
of these instances, t J^ • and this and Je«6 
are dial. vars. signifying straitness of mind. ( Bd.) 
■h See also ^0, in two places : _ and 2i~b, 
second sentence, in two places. 

J~b : sec the next preceding paragraph, in five 


•» » • •> » 

tje-o : see J*e-o, latter part. 

see J-c~£>, latter part Also (S) 

t Poverty ; and an «>ti Jtate or condition ; (S, O, 
K, TA ;) and so * ii** : (K, TA :) and the pi. 
[or rather coll. gen. n'.] (Fr, S, K, TA) of the 
former (Fr, S, TA) is t ^ : (Fr, S, K, TA : 
[in the CK, erroneously, J»~o :]) Fr says, when 
you see " ^oi\ to have occurred in tlie place of 


t£e*a)l, it is in [one of] two cases ; either it is the 
pi. [or coll. gen. n.] of VLifl ; or it means the 
narrow, or strait, thing, &*& being a contraction 

of tXi. (TA.) And 2jLli\, (O,) or ££i 

[without the article], (JK, O, TA,) or t ij^yt, 
(K, [app. a mistake, for in the O, in every case, 
whether as a proper name or not, <U t ^JI is written 
iit-all,]) is the name of A certain mansion of the 
moon, (JK, O, K, TA,) [not one of the Twenty- 
eight Mansions,] close by li^pl [or the Pleiades] : 
(JK, O, TA :) or, as IKt says, on the authority 
of Ibn-Ziyad El-Kilabee, sometimes the moon 

falls short of olK«*" an( l alights in iie-o)!, i. e. 

two small stars, near together, between \ijH\ and 

(jl^jJI : (TA :) it is asserted by the Arabs to 
be an inauspicious place. (O,* TA.) Hence the 
saying of El- Akhtal, 

[.1W wherefore didst not thou draw an omen 
from the flight of birds on the night wlien thou 
earnest to her, when the moon was in Deyhah, 
between the Pleiades and Ed- Debardn ?] : he 
notifies that the moon, in the night of their 
coming together, was making its abode [in the 
neighbourhood of] oltf •*"> which is inauspicious : 
(O, TA :) or [the latter hemistich, as J relates it, 
app. on the authority of A'Obeyd, is thus,] 
m a .* • 5 90 0§ 

oW«*"j -**-'• o*t ***** 

from ii^aJI as syn. with Ji~all ; (S ;) and as 
AA relates the verse, it is [thus] with kesr to the 
I in A« t rfy ; the word not being made the 
[proper] name of a place, but the meaning being 

As* s 

uIk-^'j >»*) W Cw ^* i * ;^V ['• c - "* ^ c narrow 
space between the Pleiades and Ed-Debardn], 
(TA.) — ii^j is also the fern, of ^-o the con- 
tracted form of J*i. (S, O, TA.) 

3J±& : see the next preceding paragraph, former 
half, in t<ro places. 

yjfyo and l> yU«a are fems. of t J^*l ; ($, 0, 
%.',) the former [as well as the latter] is 
[originally] of the measure \J*b, (TA,) [each 
being originally jji^,] the ^ being changed 
in the former into _} because quiescent and pre- 
ceded by dammeh : (S, O, TA :) the former 
occurs in the saying of a woman to her fellow- 
wife, contending with her for superiority, 

[Thou art not the better nor the narrower &c. ; 
l££*. being in like manner fern, of^i.1]. ( TA.) 
Accord, to Kr, the former is pi. of t i*£J> ; 
(TA;) and he says the same of ^^o also ; (TA 
voce u~>£> ;) but ISd says, I know not how this 

' * 9 J 

may be, for ^1*4 is not of the measures of pis. 
except of the kind of pi. which differs not from its 
sing, otherwise than in the latter's having 5 [as 
an affix], like iC* and ^Jj£ [q. v.]. (TA in 
the present art.) 

t 9 0$ 

ij^t-o : sec*. 

j>l* : see the next paragraph, in four places. 

J~o and " $0*6, (S, O, K,) the latter a con- 
traction of the former, (S,) the two being like 
£> and ^i [&c], (6,) and t J5U, (K,) 
Narrow, or strait : (S,* 0,* K :) or JJ^i is an 
epithet used in this sense when permanence [of 
the attribute] is meant [and so therefore is 
its contracted form] ; and f J3Li as meaning 
[being, or becoming, narrow or strait; or] tem- 
porarily narrow or strait: (Meb:) the fem. of 
the first (TA) and of the second (S, O, TA) [as 
well as of the third] is with i : (S, O, TA :) see 
also (jyi: [the pis. of the first and second, 
applied to rational beings, is Q)*i*o and Qy^, 

like Oyf and \Jyv*'- ai> d] the pi. of * J3U> is 
ijli. (TA.) You say jji IjL (O, Msb) and 
* Je-b (O) A narrow, or strait, thing. (0* 
Msb.) And Ji,-^ jj~o f A strait, or contracted, 
mind; (Msb;) and i»v-o ^-ii [meaning the 

same]. (TA.) And Jjjuo aj t JSU^, in the 
Kur [xi. 15], means f And thy mind is tem- 
porarily strait or contracted thereby. (Msb.) 
J>--i» signifies also f Niggardly, or avaricious. 
(KL.) [And JiUJt JUo f Narrow, or illiberal, 
in disposition.] 

<j~o\ [More, and mo«f, narrow or 4<raz'< or 
contracted] : (S, O, K :) see its fems. ^Jye and 
^j<V«> above. [See also three exs. voce wl, 
in art. tuw.] 

A narrow, or *<ratV, place: (KO [ a 
7>o« ; a p/acc of narrowness or riraifrWM] of land ; 
and of the vulva ; and f [<* J»i»ce, or state, of 
straitness] of life, or of the means of subsistence : 
(IjL in art.^sjl :) and J a narrow, or strait, affair 
or case: (K, TA :) pi. Jrflii. (TA.) 

(£>•»• j*t f [-4." affair rendered strait], (TA.) 

[Book I. 

c i* 
JU^m, (JK, and O on the authority of Ibn- 

'Abbad,' and TA,) or * Jl^., like vU£» [in 
measure], thus in all the copies of the K, (TA,) 
[but probably, I think, taken from a mistran- 
scription,] A pessary (*»-;.>) of rag and perfume, 
with which a woman endeavours to constrict her 
vagina (\yt ^ya» »J). (JK, Ibn-'Abbad, 0, K.) 

4. v°j*}\ cX.^1 and cJUbl 77«; /<»«/ /ifl(i t/t it 
[trees of the species called] Jti: (Fr, S, :) or 
,jl£iji JUol and Ji-6t tAc ^iac>3 //are growth to 
JLo : (AHn, M, £ :) or Aod in it many JU». 
(IKtt, TA.) 

JUd> The wiW [,«pcctcs o/" lote-tree called] jjk«# 
[q. v.] : (S, O, K :) or such of the j ju* as are 
watered only by the rain; (M, K:) the jju» of 
the mountains, ivhich is thinner in its wood than 
that of the rivers : AHn says, it grows in the 
plain, or soft, tracts, and in the rugged ; and the 
bow that is made of it, when it is pared, is pared 
so as to be thick, in order that it may be stronger, 
because of the lightness of its wood: (M :) n. un. 

with »." (S, M, O, K.) [See also \jy~s-, and 

^^^o*.] — Also Another species of tree; (M, K;) 
AHn says, it is a tree oftlie shrub-kind, found in 
the borders of EUYemen, rising to the height of a 
cubit, in its manner of growth like the cypress, 
and having a yellow [fruit of the sort called a] 
l*ft, of a very pungent odour, so that its odour 
comes to you before you reach it : it is not of the 
jJm thus called. (M.) 

iJU n. un. of Jli [q. v.]. (S, M, O, K.) _ 
Also ./lra>7iw, (M, O, TA,) and bows, (TA,) 
made of the [sj>ecies of lote-tree called] JUi : (M, 
TA:) this is the primary signification: (TA:) 
or arrows, (IB, K>) because they are made 
thereof: (IB :) or it signifies, (K,) or signifies 
also, (O,) all kinds of weapons. (O, K.) One 
says, iJLaJL,! ^ *JJ\j [I saw him sliootmg 

' ' ' 90 * . . . , % 

arrows]. (TA.) And iJUi «Jlj ^j-ij frj-*- >• e - 
[He went forth having in his hand] a bow. 
(TA.) And aiill J*tO «5l Verily he is com- 
plete in respect of weapons. (O.) And -»-j-»- 

diliv (j^Li Such a one went forth with his 
weapons. (0.) 

1. *itS, (S, Msb,) aor. a*~oj, (S,) inf. n. 

a, (S,* Msb,) [as also a«Lo, aor. < -« ^ a L », 
inf. n. j>y&, (see art. j>yo,)] He wronged him ; 
treated him wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or 
tyrannically: (S:) he harmed, injured, hurt, or 
damaged, him : (Msb :) and * a-oUwl signifies 

the same. (S.) And <u» o<U>, (M, K,) aor. as 
above, (K,) and so the inf. n., (M,) He de- 
frauded him of his right, or due, partially or 
wholly; (M, K;) as also t mUU, (K.) — 

Book I.] 

And ■" i r I was wronged, &c. : of which there 

aro three dial. vara. ; one says of a man 

ami ja~°, with [the pronunciation termed] >U— J j 

and j>pb ; like as we have said respecting *&. 

(S.) One says, c-^-i Uj I j>».l c««. o U [J have 
not wronged any one, and I have not been wronged] ; 
i. e. no one has wronged me. (TA.) It is said 
in a trad., as some relate it, *i>$j i«* (Jy ^ *$ 

[or ▼ i^iLiJ or ♦ ,j^*Lkj J** roitf no< 6e 
wronged in the seeing Him]. (M. [For other 
readings and explanations of this trad., see 3 in 
art. >*>.]) 

3 and 6 : see the preceding paragraph. 

10 : see 1, in two places. 

jf^i Wrong; i.e. wrongdoing; or wrongful, 
unjust, injurious, or tyrannical, treatment: (S, 
K:) an 'inf. n. which is pluralized; its pi. being 
j^i. (M,$.) 

jft^b The side of a mountain, (S, M, £,) and 
o/"an [eminence such as is termed] <U£»I. (M.) 

^pJLi Wronging, or a wrongdoer: pi. ieli : 
the latter occurring in the prov., ioUJI Jit ^U 
jj/^l trt^* [The wrongdoers bring thee, or cause 


<A«e to com£, to the covert of the lien]; meaning, 
the wrong of the wrongdoers requires thee to cast 
thyself into destruction: applied in offering an 
excuse for venturing upon that which is perilous : 

or, as some relate it, i«La)l, from >r iJI ; meaning 
" want, or the object of want, that brings thee 
and causes thee to have recourse [to a thing]." 

j^oU Wronged; treated wrongfully, unjustly, 
injuriously, or tyrannically: as also ">\ifl7..«. 
(§,?,• TA.) 

j»Uk;".« : see what next precedes. 

[Book I.] 


The sixteenth letter of the alphabet ; called JU> 
[and l&] ; the I of which is reduced to ^g [as its 
radical letter] : when you spell it, you make its 
final letter quiescent; but when you apply an 
epithet to it, and make it a noun, you decline it 

as a noun, saying, [for instance,] iijyla °U» »Juk 
\This is a tall la] : it is one of the letters termed 


»jj t fc o [or vocal, i. e. pronounced with the voice, 
and not with the breath only] ; and of the letters 
termed a : *Wi, like O and }, because originating 
from the *JaJ [q. v.] of the roof of the mouth. 
(TA.) It is substituted for the O in the measure 
jiJSI and the forms inflected therefrom, and 
[sometimes] for the pronominal O, when imme- 
diately following any of the palatal letters [^ 
and uo and J> and la] ; (MF, TA ;) as in 
[j .. i\ *>\ and ^JifmmmM and *-Jkt and^iLbt, for 
»t and wJj^-ol and %*Ja\ and^JUJ&l ; and in] 
and L<i»- and bm+tU and dhi*., for 

some of the grammarians say that this [latter] 
substitution is not to be made invariably ; [nor is 
it common ;] and it is said to be a dialectal 
peculiarity of some of the Benoo - Temeem. 
(TA.) It is also substituted for 3 : thus Yaakooh 

mentions, on the authority of As, i_»j>»JI iLe, 
for sJi'jLl\ Xo : and AO, Ualjl, for \j^l\ : and 
Aboo-'Amr Ez-Z&liid, in the Yawakeet, jjiyl U 
iljli, for i)jb J*?\ li. (TA.) = [As a numeral, 
it denotes Nine.] 

R. Q. 1. ti>U», inf. n. ilStiia, He lowered, or 

j A, » 
depressed, a thing. (TA.) You say, «u.lj U»U» 

2T« lowered his head; (S, K., TA;) and so 

t'lWlii, alone. (TA.) And ,^£ll J* U>U» He 

lowered his head from the thing. (TA.) And 

8«$jj| i^tuSj^J * C&U»3,'(S, TA,) occurring in 
a trad, of 'Othman, (TA,) I stooped, or lowered 
myself, [or bent myself down,] to them, like as do 
the drawers of water with the bucket. (S, TA.) 

And SlhJJ $ *lt^J, a prov., (Meyd, TA.,) 
meaning Stoop thy head to it, i. e. to an accident, 
or a calamity, and it wUl [miss- thee, or] pass by 

thee : applied in relation to the abstaining from 
exposing oneself to evil. (Meyd.) And oU»U» 
\jbjZ-i I She (a woman) lowered Iter veil, or 

curtain. (TA.) And £)^-*^4 *+4 U»U» He 
lowered his hand with the rein, for the purpose of 
[the liorse's] running and hastening. (K,* TA.) 
And [hence, perhaps,] a->j» \la\la He struck his 
horse with his thiglis, to make him go quickly. 
(K/ TA.) And J& O^ U»U» t He lowered the 
reputation, or estimation, or dignity, of such a 
one. (TA.) _ He hastened, or was quick. 
(TA.) You say, *JU ^ U»U» He hastened, and 
exceeded the usual bounds, in the expenditure of 
his property. (A, g, TA.) And^jJJ ^ U»U» 
He hastened, and exceeded the usual bounds, in 
their slaughter. (TA.) _ And He filed up a 
hollow, or cavity, dug inthc ground. (TA.) 

R. Q. 2. UaUaj It was, or became, low, or 
depressed. (S, O.) It (the head) was, or became, 
lowered. (K.) See also the first paragraph, in 

three places. One says also, L -U J^LJaJ 

<w> QLbl.k.«» [app. meaning t ■#« domineered 
over me, or exalted himself above me, and I 
humbled, or abased, myself to him: see ,j*» Lblb 
0$, above]. (TA.) 

*U>U» .A tow, or depressed, place, (S, 0, K,) of 
the ground, that conceals him who is within it : 
(£ :) or, as some say, a narrow, depressed place ; 
also called cUj and ^u>. (TA.) — And A 
short, short-necked, camel. (O, K.) 

1. 4^i aor - L y (°» Msb » K> TA >) agreeably 
with analogy in the case of a trans, reduplicative 
verb [like this], (TA,) and ;, (K, TA,) which is 
irregular, (TA,) inf. n. £ja (O,* Msb, K,» TA) 
[and app. C^Aa and ^J° a ^ 80 accord, to the O 
and K, but, accord, to the Msb, *-J» is the subst. 

from this verb, and app. ^Ja is likewise a simple 
subst.], He treated medically, therapeutically, or 
curatively, (0, , Msb,K,*) another person (O, 
Msb) [cf the body, and in like manner the soul : 
see y^, below]. _ And C~»&, with kesr, (S, 

O, K.,) and «£4£» with fct-h, (O, K.,) [third pers. 

of each ^h, and, accord, to analogy, the aor. of 

the former is - , and of the latter , , but from what 

follows it seems probable that one says also w~J» 

0** & > * 

in the same sense, aor. l , unless C~< fc have w-J»3 

as an irreg. aor.,] Thou wast, or becamest a 
*r~*ia [or physician], not having been such. (S, 
O, »:.) One says, il^O ^J»i CJa \\ C-i&> o\, 
(S, O, and so in copies of the K,) or <&?*1, (so 
in other copies of the K.,) or JLJU>, (ISk, TA,) 
and >li» IJ, and v-fc IJ, (S, K,) and ^Jai, and 

4-ii ; (K ;) [i. c. If thou be a possessor of the 
art, or science, of physic, be a physician to thine 
eyes, or thine eye, or thyself;] meaning, begin by 
rectifying thyself. (ISk,TA. [See also Freytag's 

Arab. Trov. ii. 902.]) — And [hence] ^Ja 
signifies also t He acted with skill, or expert MM : 
[and in this sense likewise the second pers. is 
• « ' *'{ j ' *V i» i-'i. 

probably Ctt* an< l C<n» and C ■«.■ *» , ot which 

last the inf. n. is app. <w'U», occurring in one of 
the phrases here following:] so in the saying, 

^.-a- ^^j ^nl- ^^ <**Uo AJU-ol I.e. t JW "'OM J< 

in <Ac manner of him who acts with skill, or 
cxpertness, for him whom he loves: a prov., 
relating to the accomplishing an object of want 
skilfully and well. (El-Ahmar, TA. [See also 
Freytag's Arab. Prov. i. 717.]) One says also, 

</iou, in this, tlus deed of him who acts with skill, 
or expertness, for him wlwm he loves], (M, Msb,* 
TA.) And ZfSa Cr^- O", (Meyd,) or ^*"' v>» 
^J>, (5,) t He who loves is skilful, or intelli- 
gent, and exercises art, or ingenuity, for him 
whom he loves : (Meyd :) or f *• »*« loves 
executes affairs with dcliberateness and gentleness. 

W * 01' ' * t 

(K.) [That one says £~-la, as well as C-«J» 
and o'- K seems to be indicated by the fact that 
t ljLl», as an inf. n., is thus written, in a copy of 
the K.L in my possession, and expl. as meaning 
The medical art: Golius, however, appears to 
have found it written, in a copy of the same 
work, t £jul», which is agreeable with analogy 
as inf. n. of a' verb of the measure J*i significant 
of an art, and is probably correct: Freytag 
mentions the pi. 4-?W^ M signifying medical 


urts, on the authority of the Deewan of the 
IIu<Ilmlt'C8.]_*lJ> also signifies -f He en- 
chanted him, or fascinated him : (0 :) and *^-l> 
t he (a man, 8, A) was enchanted, or fascinated. 

(§, A, O. [Sec also ^J», below.]) «UUI 4-i, 

aor. ', (S,TA,) inf. n. ^J. ; (K, TA;) and 

», with tcshdeed to denote muchness, (S, 
TA,) inf. n. C^&i ($, TA ;) He covered the 
seams of the water-shin, or milk-shin, with a 
JLA^W [q.v.]: (S,K1,*TA:) andjjJ-JI yi» he 
covered the seams with a iyCb : (TA :) [and] 

*>'iil! * » r .j { k j/ie (a girl, or young woman,) 
put [or »«w«i] a j>tece of skin called ♦ vW^ ana 
" A/*!*, upon the place of junction [of each] of the 
two extremities of the hop-shaped handles of the 
Si\j* [or leathern water-bag]; as though she 
rectified the Jjlj* thereby. (A.) 

2 : sec the last sentence above, in two places. 
__ yy.njlnj also signifies The inserting a iitii [or 
gore'] for the purpose of widening «-lg> [or silk 
brocade] : (K, TA :) or, as in the A, one says of 
a tailor, w^j-H y t*> meaning he added, in the 
garment, a ii^y [or gore], in order that it might 
become [more] wide. (TA.) — Also The hanging 
a .lL» [or milk-skin] (S, K, TA) to a pole (j>»a, 


S, this is the right word, not jt^c [as in copies of 
the (J, TA) of the tent, (S,) and then agitating 
it to produce tlxe butter : (S, #, TA :) but Az 
says, I have not heard y^h3 explained in this 
sense except on the authority of Lth, and I think 
that it is ^T^-UaJ. (TA.) 

TA :) or it made a sound (K., TA) with the 
water. (TA.) iiSaJo signifies The sounding of 
water (I Aar, S, Ki, TA) when in a state of com- 
motion and collision, (IAar, TA,) and of the like, 
(S, TA,) and of the dashing of a torrent. (K.) 
And t^.h;lrw It made a sound, or noise, [like 
vJ» «^-~t>,] said of water and the like, (S,) and 
of a woman's breast : (TA :) a poet says, 

' w ft I - 

L^Lud i^ja c. 

[Book I. 

I, « , 

covers. (A, TA.) And ^A> _>««/ t -A. camel that 

is mindful, or careful, as to the place of his foot, 
(A, K, TA,) where to tread with it : or that does 
not place his foot save where he sees. (TA.) 

<~Ja : sec the next paragraph : sss and see also 

[TFAen a woman of Duma grinds for her family, 
Iter breasts make a sound by their collision, and 
her flour flies away]. (S, TA.) ass iU)l ^Jx°S> He 
put the water into a state of commotion. (TA.) 

3. iyUk* signifies t The seeking, or labouring, 
to Jind the means of accomplishment [of an affair, 
like as the physician seeks to find the means of 
curing a disease] ; syn. Sj^tju. (K, TA.) One 

says, ajO^I ,j=» ^. jl->*^I IJuk V U»I U1 : [/ 
have been seeking, or labouring, to find the means 
of accomplishing this affair, that I might attain 
to it]. (A, TA.) 

»l L« How [knowing, or] skilful, or 

R. Q. 2. J r SJ B J 

trJa : see « r J». 

see the next preceding 

: It is also an inf. n. used as 

expert, are they! (Mcyd, in explaining a prov. 
cited below, voce t^J*.) 

5. v;!*" He applied himself to the science of 
physic : (TA :) [or he applied himself to the 
science of ]>hysic but did not, know it well : (see 
the part, n., below :)] or he practised physic : 
and he professed physic. (KL.) — And a) y<J»3 
He inquired of [or consulted] the physicians for 
him. (TA.) 

10. AJhat-jJ ytJaJ i 'I He ashed, or sought, a 
medical prescription for his pain, or disease. (S, 

A, Msb, $.) —And *1# ^. fa : lj <U. I ife 
came asking, or seeking, for his she-camels, a 
gentle stallion, that would not injure them. (A.) 

R. Q. 1. CJoJo, (Lth, K, T A,) inf. n. i-ki>, 
(Lth, TA,) said of a valley, or water-course, 
(Lth, K., TA,) It flowed with water so that one 
heard it to make a sound like ^i» «^J» ; (Lth, 

an epithet : see y^t. (Msb.) _ And, (S, A, 
Mfb, K,) as such, i. e. an inf. n. used as an 
epithet, or by original application, but the former 
is app. the case, and some have mentioned like- 
wise t ^Js and * yji, (MF, TA,) t Knowing, 
or possessing knowledge, (S, A, Msb, TA,) re- 
specting a thing, or of a thing ; (A, Msb, TA;) 
and so 1^*<J>: (TA :) and (TA) t skilful, or 
expert; (T, $ ;) as also * 4~rl» i (T, S, K :) and 
I gentle; (Nh, TA ;) and so too*^~~S,. (TA.) 

One says, Ijij ^J» &*)■* t Such a one is knowing 
with regard to, or is one possessing knowledge of, 
such a thing. (TA.) And \jyJo j>yU\, or, as 

some relate it, " OyJ°\ *•* ^y^'i 1S a prov. : the 

former means f The people, or party, are knowing, 

or skilful, or expert : and [Meyd says,] I know 

not any way in which the latter is explainable 

#"^**i »if ... * < • i 

unless " * T A>\ be syn. with ^Jo, like ^>ix».l and 

(j-^*-. & c >> a "J *-° a connective. (Meyd.) To a 
man who offered to cure the [so-called] seal, or 
stamp, of the prophetic office between the Pro- 
phet's shoulder-blades, asserting himself to be a 
y»t t» [or physician], the Prophet replied, ♦ lL«Jo 

LiU- i^JJt, meaning f 2Te ?y/w has knowledge 
respecting it is He who created it. (TA.) And 
El-Marrar El-Fak'asce says, 

* ▼ L-^t J^/ Utyrf <U^)t ^>0 * 

t [She obeys a plaited nose^rein attached to the 

side of a ring of brass, the skilful maker of which 

has fashioned it with gentleness] : (8, L :) i. e. the 

she-camel of which he speaks obeys her rein that 

is tied to her nose-ring of brass, (L,) [Hence,] 
S < * * t 
v^Js J**-* t -1 stallion [camel] expert in covering, 

(S, Msb, ?:, TA,) as also * ^*S> ; (Msb ;) that 

knows the she-camel that w pregnant from her 

that is not, and her that desires the stallion from 

her that is covered without desire, and the motion 

of the foetus in the womb, ice. : (TA :) or I that 

is gentle, and does not injure the female that he 

v-A» (?, A, O, Msb, $) and * ^S and t ^J, 

(S, A, O, K) Medical, therapeutical, or curative, 

treatment, (A,» 0,» Msb, K,») of the body, [i. e. 

the physicking thereof,] (A, K,) and likewise of 

S - i. 
the soul. (K.) ___ [And Knowledge], « T -1» «_)j5 

[Knowledge is near], or, as some relate it, ^iji 
U», (Meyd, 0, K, TA,) with the noun in the 
accus. case, as a spccificativc, (TA,) like the 
phrase ^U-j j^i, (Meyd, O, TA,) is a prov. : 
originally said by a woman to a man who asked 
her an indecent question which he was himself 
about to resolve : (Mcyd, O, K, TA :) it is like 
the saying, wJ^-JI ,«)* wol [q. v.] : (Meyd, 
TA :) and is related on the authority of Ibn- 

Hani. (TA.) And Skill, or expertness. (T, 

ISd, Meyd, TA.) This is said in the T to be 
the primary signification. (TA. [But see^^Jo.]) 
__ And \ Gentleness ; gentle treatment or conduct. 
(Kl, TA.) _- And t Enchantment, or fascination : 

(S, O, K, TA : but only yJ> is mentioned in this 

sense in the S and O :) used in this sense as 

ominating cure. (AO, O,* TA.) _ And >r J> 

signifies also Desire, or appetence ; syn. «^i : 

and will, or wish; syn. ojijl. (K.) ^ And 

I State, condition, or case ; syn. ^ti, (K, TA,) 

and ^>l> : (A, TA :) [or by the latter of these 

two words may be meant what here follows :] 

custom, habit, or wont. (S, K, TA.) One says, 

. _lkj i)lj U I Tliat is not my custom, habit, or 

wont. (S, A, TA.) [Sec also another ex., in a 

verse (added here in the S and TA) which I have 

cited voce (j\, page 107, col. iii.] = See also 
8 .- * 

ilk : see *\(Jk, in two places. 

<Ul» An oblong piece, or portion, of a garment, 
or of a piece of cloth, (S, A, TA,) as also ♦ x. x ■!» ; 
(A ;) and likewise of skin : or a square piece of 
the latter : and a round piece in a ojj* aru ' a 
ijjj, and the like: (TA:) pi. y^fej (S:) and, 
as also ♦ 4^UJ», (As, S, TA,) f a streak in sand 
and clouds, (As, TA,) or a streak of sand or 
clouds : (S :) or <£l» and ♦ 1^0> ami t j^S, 
signify an oblong piece, or portion, of a garment 
or piece of cloth, and of skin, and t °f land or 
ground, and f °f clouds : (Kl :) or, all three 
words, a long strip of a garment or piece of 
cloth, and of skin, and f of sand, and t of clouds : 
(TA :) and t « hng and narrow tract of land 
abounding with plants or herbage : (AHn, TA ; 
and A in explanation of the- first word :) pi. [of 
the first] <^*As and [of the same, or of the third, 
or a coll. gen. n. of which the second word is 

Book I.] 

the n. un.,] * w>U». (K.) And sometimes AJo 
is applied to The piece that is served upon tlie edge 
of the leathern buchet and upon that of the ijk— : 
and the pi. is ^ and * ^>£l». (M, TA.) ^ 
y^ljl tiki (A ? , S, TA) and * ^»Cu\, (As, TA,) 

or y-llll C-*t and t Q&, (A, TA,) signify 
I The streaks that are seen in the rays, or beams, 
of the sun when it rises. (As, S, A,* TA.) — 
Also 1 1. q. L*-C [i. e. A side ; or a region, 
quarter, or tract ; &c] : (so in a copy of the 
A :) or i. q. i~o\J [i. e. a forelock ; &c.]. (So 
in the TA.) [One of these two explanations is 
app. a mistranscription for the other.] — And 
one says, a iuL.« ^Jk ^J* (&* J*& ibl, 

meaning, 0$ • yj* I [»• e - Verily thou Ki]i fi 1 ^ 
such a one to be of various moods, dispositions, or 
characters']. (A, TA.) 

'^>Ci* [like £■*&] A thing that is used for 
medical, or curative, treatment : so in the saying, 
Ua)1 »J* vM» 'J [7Vtis, or that, is tvltat is used 


for the medical, or curative, treatment of this 
disease], (A, TA.) eb See also i>, latter half, 
in four places. And see i&i», in five places : 
and 1, last sentence. 

^J, (S, Msb, $, TA) and t ^3, (Msb, TA) 

[A physician ;] one skilled in ^JbJI [i. e. medical, 
therapeutical, or curative, treatment] ; (S, TA ;) 
or one who jn-actises medical, tlierapeutical, or 
curative, treatment ; (Msb;) and " vt** * signi- 
fies [likewise one w/w practises physic : and a 
professor of physic : (see iU verb :) or] one who 
applies himself to the science of physio : (S, K, 
TA :) or one who applies himself to that science 
but does not know it well : (Nh, TA :) it has 
been said that the s-*4» ' 8 80 called from the 
same epithet as signifying "skilful, or expert ;" 
but this is not a valid assertion : (TA :) the pi. 
(of pauc., S) is &»'l (S, K) and (of mult, S) 
iUt'l. (S, Msb, K.) — The first of these words 
(„ f ^ ! ^) occurs in a trad, as meaning t A judge ; 
being mctonymically thus used, because the office 
of him who judges between litigants is like that of 
the *r-f.b who cures diseases of the body. (TA.) 
[And hence, ~,>j*4\ y^ : 8e0 vS" 51 *«**> in art - 
**».] See also s r «i>, in six places. 

<bCi> : see 1, latter half. 

ifCy : see 1, latter half. =: Also A piece of 
skin with which tlie seams of a te~> are covered, 

extending across, [so I render lAAs , app. mean- 
ing from side to side, for one edge of the skin 
beneath overlaps the other,] like the finger [in 
breadth], doubled [but see what is said below on 
the authority of AZ] over the place of the sewing : 
pi. [or rather coll. gen. n.] 1 ^U» : (As, S, TA :) 
or that which is put over the place where the two 
ednes of the shin meet, when it is sewed, in the 
lower part of the Jtgi and of the >Uw and of the 
Sjljl : so says As : or, as also t «_>U», the piece of 

skin that is put over the two edges of the skin, in 
these things, when it is laid flat and then sewed, 
without being doubled : (TA :) accord, to AZ, 
when the [piece of] skin, in the lower parte of 
these things, is doubled, and then sewed, it is 
called J!lJ* ; and when it is laid flat and then 
sewed, without being doubled, it is called 
♦ IjUo : (TA ; and the like is said in the S in 
art. J^* :) or ijui» and Jl^ft both signify, accord, 
to As, a piece of skin with which the punctures 
of tlie seams arc covered : (S in art. Jjjft :) or a 
<^Cb is a wide strip of skin, in which is the 
sewing : and the pi. [or coll. gen. n.] is * «r>Mf : 
(M, TA :) or, accord, to the K, a strip of shin 
that is in the lower part of a Juji, between the two 
seams; as also » <U» : but in this explanation, 
its author has confounded the words of Lth, who 
says that i^llb signifies the strip of the shin that 
is between tlie two scams ; and * £j», the strip of 
skin that is in the lower part of the *\(JS, and that 
contracts tlie seams [so I render jj*-H Vj^ii 
but the meaning of this phrase is not, to me, 
clear]. (TA.) See also 1, last sentence. — And 
see JLb, in two places. — . Also, and * w»ti, 
(K, TA, in the CK UlS» and i^Ui,) [or the 
latter is a coll. gen. n.,] t A streah, or narrow 
elongated tract, of the sky : (K, TA :) [and app. 
any portion of the sky not of large extent :] an 
ex. of the latter word occurs in a verse cited voce 
j£»[f^ : and in another verse, a man in a prison 
is described as seeing only a ijtl> of the sky like 
a shield ; i. e. a round }>ortion thereof. (Az, TA.) 

9* * 9& 

a, !e Jr», see iJ», in two places. 

j-It Medical, tlierapeutical, or curative; of, 
or relating to, medical, t/ieraj>eutical, or curative, 
treatment. (Msb.) 

A certain broad thing, one part of which 
is struck with anotlier part thereof. (TA.) 

z^.u.u A [kind of whip, or scourge, such as is 
called] hi [q. v.] : (K, TA :) because the sound 
that is made by its fall is like «^J» «^J». (TA.) 

wjlk-i A certain bird, or flying thing, (jj^,) 
having large ears. (K[.) 

dylivi-, or ^>UxJ», (accord, to different copies 
of the sj.,) A broad piece of wood, with which one 
plays with the ball, (K., TA,) or with which the 
horseman plays with the balL (T, TA.) 

^- H . M t Tlie j, i, r [i. e. Persians, or 
foreigners], (L, TA.) 

i , i , iff i * 

*^J»I ; and its pi., \JyJ°^ '• see s-~*»- 

J A man enchanted, or fascinated. 

(6, A.) 


j. *■':£, (so in some copies of the K, and so in 
the S voce w>U^»,) or A^JkCL, (so in other copies 


of the K,) with fet-h to the i» and the t, (TA,) 
[the latter app. a n. un.,] Flesh-meat cut into thin 
slices and broiled : (£,• TA :) or a food composed 
offlesk-meat and eggs: (MA ; in which the word 
is written htJAtM [or, accord, to Golius, as on 
the authority of J and El-IJaleemee, o food of 
pieces offlesk-meat, eggs, onion, and water : but 
I do not find that J has explained it otherwiso 
than by what here follows :] t. q. w>LJ^» : (S voce 
^Cis:) or a kind of fry offlesk-meat: (L :) 
arabicized from [the Pers.] a*L3. (]£.) [See 
also De Sacy's Chrest. Arabe, sec. ed. i. 175.] 

1. lit, (S, A, ?, &c.,) aor. '- (L, Msb, £) 
and - , (L, K,) inf. n. 1JS> ; (L, Msb, £;) and 
♦ lltl; (Sb,L;) He coolted (S, L, £) flesh- 
meat, (S, A, L,) &c, (L,) either tn a cooking- 
pot [by boiling or stewing or the like] or by roast- 
ing or broiling or frying ; (S,* L, £ ;) the former 
verb [accord, to some] said of one who cooks for 
himself or for others ; and the latter, of one who 
cooks only for himself: (L : [but sec an ex. in 
what follows, of this paragraph ; and see also the 
latter verb below:]) or the former signifies he 
cooked flesh-meat with broth or gravy. (At, 

* ' * 

Msb.) And you say also jjuUI ~!> He cooked 
[the contents of] tlie cooking-pot. (S, L.) And 
Jj^JI lit [lie cooked the broth]. (A.) _ And 
1I£ He (a dyer) decocted Brazil-wood (^A) 

&c. (A. [See llQi.]) And lie baked bread, 

and wheat, and bricks [and clny and pottery]. 
(L.) One says, ■» M\ «J^> »>?*■ "•** This is a 
calce of bread well baked [in tlie hot ashes], (S, 
A,» L, Msb.) And ^l£jl Sj^i. l^A »Ja This 

is a brick well baked. (L, Msb.) And t 1^ .bl 
Ley U [Bo he ye for us (app. meaning for us 
including yourselves) a round cake of bread]. 
(S.) — Also t It (the heat) ripened the fruit. 
(TA.) And ^-I^JI J^ii ';& ! [The vehement 
midday-heats fevered tliem]. (A.) And **. , 1* 

(jj jtaJt I [The small-pox affected him with a hot, 
or burning, fever] : and in like manner one sn ys 
of the *\~— [i. e. measles, or spotted fever: see 
•i— iU»]. (A.) — [And f He dressed silk : see the 

pass. part, n., below.] := [f~*b, aor. -, inf. n. 
»-Il», accord, to the L, seems to signify He was, 
or became, confirmed in stupidity: but only the 
inf. n. is there mentioned ; and this is doubtful : 
see mJpI.] 

2. 7-»b> i"f- n - f - f . ^' , ^ (a J— »■ [or young 
lizard of the species called <^wo]) grew big; syn. 

^s&». (S. [See l^-»-]) And He (a boy) 

became active, and grew up, or became a young 
man; (L,$;) grew big; syn. ^J»; ($;) a/*d 
became intelligent, (L.) 

5. ~lk» He (a man) ate ihy* [or melons, or 
water-melons; as also ~£l. j ]. (A.) 


7. £*H, (?, A, L, Msb, 5,) and t £&, 
(K, [but this latter seems to be a mistake, oc- 
casioned by a misunderstanding of the word 
\jy£l, one of the words by which it is expl. in 
several of the lexicons,] It (flesh-meat, S, A, L, 
and the same is said of other things, L) was, or 
became, cooked, either in a cooking-pot [by boiling 
or stewing or the like'] or by roasting or broiling or 
frying : (S, L, 5 :) or t'( (flesh-meat) was, or 
became, cooked with broth, or gravy. (Az, Msb.) 
And you say also, jjJUl w^^kil [The contents 
of] the cooking-pot became cooked. (S, L.) And 
tv-o-lt 9-*l*Jt ['/'/«.' &ro<A became cooked]. (A.) 

__[Said of bread, and wheat, and bricks and 
clay and pottery, It was, or they were, or became, 
baked. (Seel.)] 

8. «-J»l He prepared, or prepared for himself, 
[i. e. flesh-meat coolted in a pot, &c], syn. 


JtfJi, (S, A, L, 5,) or ,jjJ, [which sig- 
nifies flesh-meat cooked in a pot, with, or without, 
seeds to season it, such as pepper and cumin-seeds 
and the like, as expl. below, voce »-**H > (TA ;) 
[it is said that] it particularly signifies he cooked 
for himself alone, [or it signifies for himself with 
others,] thus differing from f~±>, as expl. above : 
(L :) see 1, in two places; and see also 7: ISk 
says that ?SJo\ signifies the cooking in a pot and 

by roasting or broiling or frying. ($.)__[ Also, 
probably, He jrrejyared, or prepared for himself, 
the beverage called ■i.. i ,.l».] 

«_*!» : see ».;ln. 

• . » < » #af 

*u~l> : sec «~l»t. 

»-Ui», (8, A, K,) thus in the handwriting of 
El-Iyadee, (L,) and lilt, (5,) thus in the 
handwriting of Az, (L,) f Firmness, or soundness ; 
(5 ») strength, and fatness. (S, L, 50 One 
says, »-U» <s> U J TAere is not in it, or him, 
strength [nor fatness] : originally said of lean 
flesh-meat, that yields no benefit to him who 
cooks it. (A.) And ~U» <o ^r-J J*-j t A man 
in whom is no strength nor fatness. (S.) And 
a) ji-Ci» "^ f •//'e 'irt.t no intelligence, nor does he 
possess any good: and t ke has no companion 
remaining to him. (L.) And »-U» <i**^a ^jj 

+ Jn Am *peecA « soundness. (TA.) And ^ U 
~.Ci» aV^Ss J There is no profit in his speech. 

j i.Jr, of the measure J*** in the sense of the 
measure J>**-« [i. e. t. q. " »->«*"> Cooked; &c; 
but accord, to general usage, it is an epithet in 
which the quality of a subst. predominates, sig- 
nifying cooked flesh-meat] : accord, to somej.^ejA- 
meat cooked with broth or gravy ; what is cooked 
without broth or gravy not being thus termed : 
(Msb:) or, as El-Karkhee says, what has broth, 
at gravy, and contains flesh or fat ; dry fried 
meat, and the like, not being, thus termed: 

(Mgh :) or t. q. j^ji [which signifies either flesh- 
meat cooked in a pot, or flesh-meat cooked in a 
pot with seeds to season it such as pepper and 
cumin-seeds and the like] : or ji ji is applied to 
that which is with seeds to season it, and A«l» 

is that which is not seasoned with seeds such as 
pepper and cumin-seeds and the like : (L, TA :) 
[pi. H a, ;J a l :] and cooked flesh-meat is also called 
* f~^>- (L.)__[Also A decoction: used in this 
sense in medical and other books. (See also 
ii-Ub.)] _ And A sort o/"«Juo-U [i. e. wine, or 
beverage, cooked until half of it has evaporated]. 
(S, M, A, 5-) — And Gypsum : and baked 
bricks. (50 These are said to be meant by the 
last word in the following trad., M jljl Ijl 
J i i.Jbi\ ^ i'u JjLL \£, jli, [When God 
desires evil to befall a man (lit. a servant), He 
makes his property to consist in gypsum and baked 
bricks]. (L.) 

<U.U» The froth, or foam, that boils over from 

a cooking-pot. (S, 5) — And A decoction of 

anything ; the extracted juice, thereof, tliat is 

taken after coction ; such as that of Brazil-wood 

(>o*0> and the like : (L :) what one takes, of that 

which he requires [for use], of that which is 

cooked; such as ^o*v; of which one takes the 
ii.Lt/w dyeing, and throws away tlie rest. (T.) 
[Sec also *-?&>■} 

ii.Lk> The art, or business, of cooking. (K.) 

[Book I. 

IL^i t *'• q. •j**-!* [i. e. Midday when the 
heat is vehement ; or midday in summer, or in the 
hot season; &c.]. (S, K, TA.) 

~J9f Confirmed in stupidity; as also t a^Lb ; 
(L, K. ;) but the word commonly known is 

^1 i~~±, (A,L,) pi. £5U>, (S, A,L,5,) 
I Hot wind (S, A, L, K) blowing at midday in 
t/ie season ofvelwment heat. (A, L,) One says, 
jiJI A^ t .it ^ji l>»v»., and A«iJUb ^ji, t TVtey 
went forth during the hot wind &c, and during 
the hot winds &c. (A,) 

La.CS> 31^.1 (S, L, K) and Li-lX, (5,) A 
young woman, (L, K,) ,/m//, [or plump,] (L,) 
compact in flesh : (S, L, 5 •) or the latter, (L,) 
or both, (K,) an i7itelligent and beautiful woman. 

iui A cook. (5.) 

■».,,. "irr, (A, L, K,) written by Aboo-Bekr 

f-&, with fet-h to the h, (L,) t. q. ~J>* [The 
melon ; or particularly the water-melon] : (L, 5 
of the dial, of El-Hijaz, (L,) or of El-Medeeneh. 
(A.) [Freytag says that, accord, to some, but he 
does not not name his authority, it is a large, 
round melon, rough to the touch, and without a 
neck, different from the •t-Jey, which is a small 

~->\L [act. part n. of iSio : — and hence,] 
sing, of *4^»» which signifies f The angels of 
punishment [wlio roast the damned in Hell], (S, 
?.) — Also, (S,5,) or iy& J^> (A,) M 
[hot, or burning,] fever, such as is termed ^JLo. 

y>L» (S, Mgh, Msb, K) and * ^_jL, (Mgh, 

Msb,) sometimes called by the latter name as 
being likened to an instrument, (Msb,) and this, 
latter is the only form mentioned in the A, and is 
said by Sb to be not a noun of place, but a subst. 
like jty», (TA,) A place of cooking ; a place in 
which cooking is performed ; (S, A, Mgh, Msb, 
5 a cook's house or room ; a kitchen. (T.) 
[See also »--Jaui.] One says, iU>W1 u«rfl 3* 
1 [lit. J/c w owe ro/jo«e kitchen, or cooking-place, 
is white; meaning Ac u inhospitable ; like as one 
says in the contrary case, jUpi^i&^ij: and in 
like manner, s^Ua^ll ^^.^i. (A.) 

««~k« An implement for cooking : or a cook- 
ing-pot. (50 — See also the next preceding 

f-J** A young [lizard of the species called] 

^— 6 [in a certain stage of its growth] : in its first 
stage it is called jLm.; then, Jlj^fc; then, 

* *t * , • v j 3' 

^y** » then, ^a^iti. ; and then, ^— »: (S, L:) 

or one that has nearly attained to the size of its 

parent: or one in its fullest state : (ISd, L :) or 

the first of the offspring of the ^Jd (jjj Jkl 

.^^oll). (5- [But this is evidently a mistake, 

as is observed in the T5-]) — And A young 

man that is full [or plump] : (K. :) a child when 

born is called £**>; and jh> ; then^,,^'; then, 

*-»>i then,^A».; then, »»L> ; then p*i; then, 

l^kii ; and then, ^J*j£>. (IAar, TA.) 

^>h** : see ? -*• *' • — jr>J»« jv- Oi\ [Dressed 
silk]. (Mgh and Msb voce^j**..) 

«M * * A place in which people cook tkeir food. 
(JK.) One says, >ktyi* IJJkj ^^i)l ^..ix* IJl* 
[77*^ is the people's place of cooking their food, 
and this is the place of their roasting or broiling 
or frying]. (S.) [See also ~1L<.] 

Sj^ and Jj^-J» and Oj^ 

ij^jl», an arabicized word, (S, L, Msb, 50 
from the Pers. >jj-5, (L,) as though pieces were 
chipped from its sides with an axe, or a hatohet, 
(L, Msb, 50 >& in B ere - signifying "an axe or 
a hatchet," (L,) [and }j " he struck,"] originally 
meaning " what is chipped, or cut, or hewn, 
with an axe or a hatchet;" (Shifa el-Ghalecl ;) 
[Sugar-candy; called in the present day ii'^S> 
and JJ» and SjuS : see jjS :] or excellent sugar : 
(MF, voce C»^}:) or sugar: (L, 5:) as also 

Book I.] 

* \Jij*££" > ( MbD md Jj'j& and OJJ& : 
(At, S, L, Msb, K :) and Yaakoob says jj^Jb 
and Jj^fc and OJ>& : DUt *Sd remarks upon 
these forms as being unknown to him. (L.) 

see the preceding paragraph. 

1. ilW, aor. i , inf. n. tuSt, He sealed, stamped, 
imprinted, or impressed; syn. ^,-L*. : (Msb:) 
{and, as now used, lie printed a book or the 
like:] *J and^^A. both signify the making an 
impression in, or upon, clay and the like: (S, 
Mgli, O, K:) or, as Er-Rdghib says, the impress- 
ing a thing with the em raving of the signet and 
stamp : (T A in this art. and in art. ^m. : [sec 
more in the first paragraph of the latter art:]) 
and he says also that *I£ signifies the figuring a 
thing with tome particular Jigure ; as in the case 
of the ju& of the die for stamping coins, and the 

«lt of coins [themselves] : but that jt is more 

t-° • • , 

general in signification than j gSJk , and more 

particular than J£> ; as will be shown by what 
follows : accord, to Aboo-Is-hak the Gram- 
marian, ilfc and J£*. both signify the covering 
over a thing, and securing oneself from a thing's 
entering it: and IAth says [in like manner] that 
they held *J» to be syn. rvith ^j [inf. n. of 
^jlj] : but Mujuhid says that &jj denotes less 
than *li> ; and *-£>, less than JUSI [or the 
"closing with a lock:" this he says with refe- 
rence to a phrase in the K ur xlvii. 20]. (TA.) 
You say, v^f" £**»» ( M g"> M ? b >) and \J+ {& 
V U3I, (S, Mgh, Msb, K,*) He sealed ('J*., S, 
Mgh, Msb, K,) the writing, or letter. (S, Mgh, 
Msb.) And i\li\ ill* He branded, or otlierwise 
marked, the sheep, or goat. (O. [See £*U».]) 
And *JL» .Ji <"IH ilk t G r< "^ sealed [or *e< a *>a/ 
upon] his [i. e. an unbeliever's] heart, so that lie 
should not heed admonition, nor be disjiosed to 
that trhirh is good; (Mgh;) or so that belief 
should not enter it: (O :) [and in like manner, 
aJU ^,'m- , q. v. :] in this, regard is had to the 
*-i>, and the h^St, which is the natural consti- 
tution or dis]>osition; for it denotes the character- 
izing of the soul with some particular quality or 
qualities, cither by creation or by habit, and 
more especially by creation. (Er-Raghib, TA.) 
— Also He began to make, or manufacture, a 
thing : and lie made [a thing] as in instances here 
following. (Mgh.) You say, o-J»M (>• *«J» 
IjL. He made, [or fathioned, or moulded,] oft/ie 
clay, a jar. (S, O, K.) And '^i\ ££>, (Mgh, 

TA,) and j£l, (S,Mgh,0,K,) ahd^jJt, 
(S, O, K.) He made (S, Mgh, O, K) [tlie crude 
bricks, and the sword, and the dirhem] : or *_L-1» 
^tjjJI lie struck (Mgh, Msb) with the die (Msb) 
[i. e. coined, or minted,] the dirhems, or money. 

Mm i"r 

(Mgh, Msb.) And [hence] one says, Hi\ &*A> 
j*y\ 1 _ j Ap, aor. and inf. n. as above, f Ood 
Bk. I. 

created him with an adaptation, or a disposition, 
to the thing, affair, state, condition, or case ; or 
adapted him, or disposed him, by creation, [or 
nature], tliereto. (TA.) And »^ijl ^Js. LL 
t He (a man, O, TA) was created with an adap- 
tation, or a disposition, to the thing; or was 
adapted, or disposed, by creation [or nature], 
thereto; syn. J^-, (IDrd, O, K, TA,) or 'jiea. 
(Lh, TA.) — Also, (aor. as above, TA, and so 
the inf. n., O, TA,) He felled (Er-Raghib, O, K, 
TA) a measure for corn or the like, (Er-Raghib, 
TA,) or a leathern bucket, (O, K, TA,) and a 
skin, (O, TA,) ice; (O;) and so * *ll», (S, 
0, K,) inf. n. » . ; h '» : (S, O :) because the 
quantity that fills it is a sign that prevents the 
taking a portion of what is in it [without the 
act's being discovered], (Er-Raghib, TA.) — _ 
And »U5 *«J», (IAar, O, K,) inf. n. as above, 

(IAar, O,) He struck the back of his neck with 
his hand; (IAar,0,K ;) i. c. the back of the neck 
of a boy : if with the ends of the fingers, one 
says, «U5ji. (IAar, 0.)_ ilfc^l ^^^l U 
means I know not wlicnce he came forth; syn. 
£&. (TA.)=£4>, [aor. e,] inf. n. £j», said 
of a sword, It was, or became, rusty, or over- 
spread with rust: (S:) or very rusty, or over- 
spread with much rust. (K, TA : from an expla- 
nation of the aor. : but this is written in the CK 
and in my MS. copy of the K, and in the O, 
«Jaj. [An explanation of *-J» in the O and K 
confirms the reading » .Inj ; and another confirma- 
tion thereof will be found in what follows in this 
paragraph.]) — Said of a thing, (Msb,) or of a 
garment, or piece of cloth, (TA,) inf. n. *lb, It 
was, or became, dirty; (Msb, TA;) and ♦ « ;R~ 
is likewise said [in the same sense] of a garment, 
or piece of cloth. (M and TA voce ^jlj, in art. 
!>2j.) — Said of a man, + He ?vas or became, 
filthy or foul [in character]. (S.) And f He 
was, or became, sluggish, lazy, or indolent. (S.) 
One says of a man, *J=u, (O, K,) like ?->j, 
(K,) meaning f He lias no 2'cnetrativc energy, 
s/iarpness, or effectiveness, in the affairs that are 
the means, or causes, of attaining honour, like tlie 
sword that is overspread with ynuch rust. (O, K.) 
s=£j», (0,£,) inf. n. *J», (O,) said of a man, 
t He wat rendered [or pronounced] filthy or foul 
[in character] ; (O, £;) on the authority of Sh ; 
(O;) and so ^fc, like LJ>; (TA as on tlie 
authority of Sh ; [but this I think doubtful ;]) 
and disgraced, or dishonoured: QS. :) and t ilt, 
(O, TA,) inf. n. ^oj, (TA,) he was rendered 
[or pronounced] filthy or foul [in cliaracter], (O, 
TA,) and blamed, or discommended. (O.) 

2. »J», inf. n. ftJ mJ, He sealed well [or much, 
or he sealed a number of writings &c.]. (KL : in 
which only the inf. n. is mentioned.) _ And He 
loaded [a beast heavily, or] welL (KL.) _. See 
also 1, a little after the middle. = **•& signifies 
also The rendering unclean, dirty, filthy, or 
impure. (O, K. ) — See 1, last sentence. 


5. £*k3 f He affected what mas not in kit 
natural disposition. (liar p. 236.) You say, 
ac Liv £*l»3 I He affected, or feigned, hit [i. e. 
another's] natural depositions. (O, K, TA.) — 
Also It (a vessel) became full or filled: (S, 0, 
K :) quasi-pass, of <uJi». (S.) And ,"0W *~VJ 
/< (a river, or rivulet,) overflowed its sides with 
the water, and poured it forth abundantly. (TA.) 
_ Sec also 1, last quarter. 

7. £>i»-jj T>jj-i, a phrase of Es-Sarakhsec, 
meaning [It melts, and then] it admits of being 
sealed, stamped, imprinted, or impressed, is allow- 
able on the ground of analogy, though we have 
not heard it [as transmitted from the Arabs of 
pure speech]. (Mgh.) _ [Golius has erroneously 
cxpl. AfJaM as meaning " Mansuetus, edoctus, 
obsequens fuit ;" on the authority of the KL ; 
evidently in consequence of his having found its 

inf. n. (cLJail) written in a copy of that work for 
• # W * * 
cLkil, the reading in my own copy.] 

8. tUt>*5)l for cUw>^t sec in art &~£. 

»J», originally an inf. n., (S,) signifies t A- 
nature; or a natural, a native, or an innate, 
disposition or temper or tlie like ; or an idiosyn- 
crasy; syn. i^J. (S, 0,K, TA) or 2JL.. 

(Msb) and a« ..U. ; (TA ;) to which a man is 
adapted by creation; (S, O, Msb, K, TA ;) [as 
though it were stamped, or impressed, upon 
him ;] as also * ILJ> ; (S, 0, K, TA ;) or this 
signifies his «-lj-» [i. e. constitution, or temjtera- 
ment, or aggregate natural constituents], composed 
of the [four] humours; (Msb; [see m.\j*;]) and 

t cUt ; (S, O, K, TA ;) or this last signifies, 
(K,) or signifies also, (O,) with the article Jl 
prefixed to it, what is, or are, constituted in us in 
consequence of food and drink <Jr. (UJ yA» U 
jUi _^*j *Jjm\*}\j j &lmmn y>* [in which >k» 
and *->j^» are evidently used as inf. ns. agreeably 
with general analogy]), (O, K, TA,) by Jiiij,b 
being meant suck as straitness and ampleness [of 
circumstances], and 7iiggardlincss and liberality, 
(TA,) of tlie natural dispositions that are insepttr- 
able from us ; (O, K> TA ;) and this word is 
fern., (O, TA,) like fan* , as is said in the M ; 
or it is sing, and niasc. accord, to Abu-1-Kasim 
Ez-Zcjjajce ; and it is also pi. of %A>, as it is 
said to be by Az ; (TA ;) [and those who have 
asserted it to be fern, may have held it to be a 
pi. ;] and » »/U» is syn. with cU» [as a sing.] ; 
(K, TA ;) or, as Lh says, it is syn. with 
tiieji; of which the pi. is »5U&. (TA.) — 

Also f Model, make, fasliion, or mould : as in 

0% * 00 it * 

the saying, IJjk £•!» ^ji* *i^-o\ t [ Malte thou it, 
fasliion it, or mould it, according ta tlte model, 
make, fashion, or mould, of this]. (IAar, O, L, 

i> A river, or rivulet ; (As, T, S, 0, K, 
TA ;) so called because first dug [and filled] by 
men; having the meaning of pyje*, like oUbJ 



in the seme Of J^ULi ; not applied to any of 
those cleft by God, such aa the Tigris and the 
Euphrates and the Nile and the like thereof: 
(Ai, TA :) pi. oCil, [properly a pi. of pauc.,] 

(As, S, 0,) or ejli, as heard by Az from the 
Arabs, and tUL : (TA:) or £*&>!, as some 
say, is the name of a particular river : (S, O :) 
or it is also thus applied, i. e. to a particular river. 
($.) __ And i. q. } U JixJ* [i. e. A place where 
water sinks, or goes away, into tlie earth ; or where 
water enters into the earth ; and where it collects] : 

(0, 50 pi. Uii. (O, TA.) And The quantity 

sufficient for the filing of a measure for corn or 
the like, had of a skin, (0, $, TA, [iUlltj in the 
C£ being a mistake for ,uLI%]) such as does 
not admit of any addition : and the quantity that 
a vessel holds, of water. (TA.) = See also the 
next paragraph, in two places. 

&£ Dirtiness, (S, Msb,) or dirt : (S :) or, 
as also t «!ll», rustiness, or rust, (0,1£, TA,) 
upon iron; (TA;) and dirtiness, or dirt, (O, IC, 
TA,) covering the sword: (TA:) or the former 
signifies much dirtiness or dirt, from rust : (Lth, 
O, $ :) pi. »W&1. ($• [See £*£, of which £> 
is the inf. n.]) — Also J Disgrace, or dishonour; 
(A'Obeyd, O, $, TA;) and so t£^ ; (TA;) 
it is in religion, or in respect of worldly things. 
(A'Obeyd, TA.) Thabit-$utneh says, in a verse 
ascribed by Et-Tanookhee to 'Orweh Ibn-Udhcy- 

|. »« » » til. 

^** > * * * *■ 

[77iere u no <7«>d tn coveting, or covetousncss, that 
leads to disgrace : and a sufficiency of the means 
of subsistence contents me]: (O, TA:) ^JJ^i in 
this case means ^£syi- (O.) 

&X Rusty; applied to a sword. (TA.)— - 
Dirty. (Msb.) _ Applied to a man, ((),) 
J Filthy, or foul, base, ignoble, mean, or sordid, 
in disposition; that will not be ashamed of an evil 
action or saying. (O, £, TA.) — And f Slug- 
gisli, lazy, or indolent. (TA.) 

j~**<)\ (JUJ» 2%« cfay with which the prince, 
or governor, seals. (O, ^.) 

eUi>, as a sing, and a pi. : see *-Jo. 

ictl» The art, or crq/i, of the cQ», or manu- 

facturer of swords, (O, ]£, TA,) or of knives, or 
o/ spear-heads, or </te ZiAe. (TA.) _ [Also, as 
used in the present day, The art of printing.] 

iit-fc : see «-i, in two places. [It generally 
signifies] The m.\j» [or nature, as meaning the 
constitution, or temperament, or aggregate natural 
constituents, of an animal body, or any other 
tiling, for instance,] of medicine, and of fire, 
which Ood has rendered subservient [to some 
purpose or purposes]. (TA.) [Hence the phrase 

«j, meaning Zfe became costive. And 

ijj^l ijUbJ) 7^« /our humours of the body : sec 

«• • ' 

kU. and •><>•■] 

t5 « e Jt Natural; i. e. o/, or relating to, the 
natural, native, or innate, disposition, or temper, 
or other quality or property ; like j_y^- ; mean- 
ing essential; resulting from the Creator's ordering 
of tlie natural disposition in tlie body. (Msb in 

art. J-*-.) [Hence, ^sfw&l >U^< Natural, or 
physical, science.] 

cUJ» A mamt/acturer o/ swords, (0, K, TA,) 
or of knives, or of spear-heads, or </te Mm;. (TA.) 

cjj» A certain venomous 4*jjj [or mmcc<J : 
(El-Jahidh,0,K,TA:) or, (£,) as said to Az 
by a man of Egypt, an insect (**<ji) (O) of tlie 
same kind as the ^j\'ij» [or ticlts], (O, K,) but 
(O) tAc bite of which occasions intense pain ; (0, 
K ;) and sometimes, or often, lie that is bitten by 
it becomes swollen [app. tn the part bitten], and is 
relieved by sweet things : Az says that it is with 
the Arabs [called, or what is called,] the j+i 
[which is expl. as meaning the tick ; or an insect 
resembling the tick, which, when it creeps upon tlie 
camel, causes the track along which it creeps to 
stvell ; or as being smaller than the tick, that bites, 
and causes the place of its bite to swell; &c] : 
(O :) [accord, to Dmr, as stated by Freytag, i. q. 
l«lO, which is expl. as applied to a small tick ; 
and a species of louse, tliat clings tightly to the 
roots of the hair, app. meaning a crab-louse:] 
what is known thereof [or by this appellation] 
now is a thing of tlie form of a small emaciated 
tick, that sticks to the body of a man, and is 
hardly, or not at all, severed, except by the appli- 
cation of mercury. (TA.) 

i,Jj» The heart (^J) of the £& [as meaning 
the spathe of the palm-tree] ; (O, £ ;) so called 
because of its fulness ; expl. in a trad, of El- 
Hasan El-Basree aa meaning the £JJ» [i. e., in 
this case, agreeably 1*1111 general usage, the 
spadix of the palm-tree] in its \^ji£> [i- e. sjiatlte], 
the \£& being the envelope of the ^U». 

Life and t Lui (S, O, Msb, K, &c.) i. q.^>\i- 

(S, O) andjsii. (O) [meaning A signet, seal, or 
stamp ; i. e.] a thing with which one seals, stamjhi, 
imprints, or impresses : (Msb, TA :) [and also a 
seal, or stamp, as meaning a piece of clay or wax 
or the like, or a place in a paper &c, impressed, 
or imprinted, with the instrument thus called:] 
and accord, to ISh ; the former, (O,) or each, 
(K,) signifies the >0 l e * [which means the instru- 
ment for the branding or otherwise marking, and 
the brand or other mark,] of tlie o*"!>» [or beasts 
tliat are to be given in payment of the poor-rate : 
seeiUJI^i]. (0,$.) One says, t ^Ui ^l£jl 
[The signet, &c, « a thing that seals, &c] ; 
which is like the attribution of the act to the in- 
strument. (Er-Baghib, TA.) And *£i J^i» 

[Book I- 

A»U»i)t jL/lb t [Language upon which is the 
stamp of cliasteness, or perspicuity, &c.]. (TA.) 

sjUs : see the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places : — and see also *J». 

[**lbo A place where anything is sealed, 

stam}ied, imprinted, or impressed. And, as used 
in the present day, A printing-house ; as also 


, applied to a she-camel : sec the next 

*Ijbk« Filled: so its fern, in the phrase i^ji 

UUJo iZLJt [A skin fMed with food]. (TA.) 
_ And rt jt;J n ,< applied to a she-camel, Filled 
with fat and flesh, so as to be rendered firm in 
make: (Az,TA:) or [simply] fat. (Z,TA.)_ 
And, (T A,) so applied, Heavily laden ; (S, O, ]£, 
TA ;) and [in like manner] " <UJ»« a she-camel 
heavily burdened by her load. (TA.)^And 
yJa-o j^o A colt trained, or rendered tractable or 
manageable. (TA.) 

c^-Jap [pass, part n. of &«]» in all its senses]. 
__ You say,>j£t ^s- s-y-lan, yh I [He is created 

with an adaptation, or a disposition, to generosity]. 

1. [nJuia, aor. - , accord, to Freytag, is expl. 
in the K as syn. with <uLl»l in tlie first of the 
senses assigned to this latter below: but I find 
no authority for this in the £ nor in any other 
lexicon.] a ij^ cJLjb, (S,0,£,TA,) aor.-j 

and cjQ>, aor. - ; (TA ;) inf. n. (of the former, S, 
TA) Jli (S, O, K, TA) and (of the latter, TA) 
Ji«k ; (K, T A ;) f Hit arm would not be stretched 
forth; (S, O ;) or I stuck to his side, ($, TA,) 
and would not be stretched forth. (TA.) = 
\jJb ^j JJiiJ (>«J» i. q- c?*J» [>• c - H e xt about, 
or began, &c, doing with me such a thing]. (0, 

2. JjUb, inf. n. J«i3: see 4 [Hence,] 

I^JI ^rW J l Ji«t The clouds covered tlte mid-air 
between tlie heaven and the earth : (#. :) and 
A^li\^oSi\ T t^fel and lyilb [77«s c/o«rfs covered 
the sky]: (Mgh, TA:) both signify the same. 
(TA.) And ,>j^! *ij *U)I jy» r/«« «««<«• 
covered the face of the earth, or land. (I£.) _ 
And J^l)l J4», inf. n. as above, i. ?.^ [7%« 
t/ttnjr »«a«, or became, common, or general, in its 
relation or relations, operation or operations, 
effect or e/fecfc, &c.]. (K.) And as syn. with 
^ it is trans. : so in the phrase, ^JJ* _pa-» tjA 

t^j*^' [^ /l " " m,n '^ a< * as iKchukd tlie general 
extent of the land within the compass of its fall]. 
(TA.) And one says also, J*il\ JJ», (S, O, 
TA,) inf. n. as above, (S,0, IS., TA,) The clouds 
rained upon the whole of the land ; (S, O ;) or 
made their rain common, or general, (#., TA,) 

Book I.] 

to the. land. (TA.) — Je4»5 also signifies The 
making a thing to suit, match, tally, conform, 
correspond, or agree, with another thing. (KL.) 
_ [And >J£~i\ Oti i*k He put tlie two things 
together, face to face. (See also 3.) _ Hence,] 
J^JaJI in the divinely-appointed act of prayer is 
Tlie putting the hands [togetlier, palm to palm,] 
between the thigh* in the act of bowing oneself; 
(S, O, KL ;) and in like manner in the act termed 

Jy^l [q- ▼•]• (El-Harbee, TA.) One says of 
a person bowing himself in prayer, jy», and 
likewise * JJ.I, (TA,) or 4-!i&» jlfc, (Mgh,) 

or <L)Juti v>sl Uy*-oj^* *«■*» O** t**> ( u >) 
He put his hands [together, palm to palm, ana 
then put tliem] between his thighs. (Mgh.) The 
doing thus is forbidden ; (Mgh, O ;) for the 
hands should be placed upon the knees. (O.) — 
Also The horse's railing his forefeet togetlier and 
putting them down together in running : (S, O, 
LK. :) or, accord, to As, the leaping of a camel, 
or of a shc-camcl, and then alighting so that the 
legs fall upon the ground together ; the doing of 
which is not approved. (TA.) — And C«* Jt> 
J^i iisJt ^J/^1 I Tlie camels travelled the road with- 
out declining from tlie right direction. (TA. 
[The verb is there written without any By 11. 
signs; but is evidently thus.]) __ And JJJ* 
j£\, (S,0,TA,) [i. e. J-oUjI XJI J*!*,] 
inf. n. as above, (K,) The sword hit the joint (S, 
O, K, TA) and severed the limb : (S, O, TA :) or 
fell between two bones. (TA.) A poet says, (S,) 
namely, El-Farezdak, praising El-Hajjitj, and 
likening him to a sword, (O,) 

[expl. in &rt.^ r o]. (S, O.) Hence, J-euL»)l JUtu 
means t He hits aright the argument, proof, 
or evidence: (S, O:) and this is also said of 
an eloquent man. (AZ, TA voce ^J\i, q- v -) 
Hence also, i>J» alone, t He hit upon the right 
mode of judicial decision ; (O, TA :) and the text 
of tlie tradition. (TA.) 

3. iLlU. signifies The putting a thing upon, 
or above, or over, another thing commensurate 
therewith : whence the phrase, ,_J*J1 >i-i^U» [i. e., 
as expl. in Bd Ixvii. 3, i" sewed another sole upon 
the sole or sandal]. (Er-Riighib, TA.) [Hence] 
one says also, Ot^l Oti wJ^Ub / made tlie two 
things commensurate, and stuck tlicm together. 
(S,0. [See also 2.]) And £*^*J Ort JA 
He put on, or attired himself with, two shirts, one 
over, or outside, the other; (K., TA;) and in like 
manner UylJ JiLe, and JjU», (TA,) and >bU». 
(A &c. in art. ^Ji.) — And i*A, (KL, TA,) 
inf. n. iiilLi (S, O, $, TA) and jut, (KL, TA,) 
It suited, matched, tallied, conformed, cor- 
responded, or agreed, with it ; (S,* O,* K, TA ;) 
and was equal to it ; or was like it in measure, 
tvee, quantity, or the like. (TA.)__ [Hence,] 

one says, Jl£-)t i#v*i T>lyr '•** [This is an 
answer, or a reply, that is suitable to t/ie question]. 
(TA.) — And \a-jj w»*vUo She (a woman) com- 

plied with [the desire of] her husband: and 
wJ^U? said of a she-camel, and of a woman, 
Site was, or became, sulimissive to him wlvo desired 
her. (TA.) _ And ,J*»-i ^J i«U» -Hi obeyed 
me with respect to my right, or due, and hastened 
to render it ; or he acknowledged to me my right, 
or due, willingly. (TA.)__ And j^)l ,^U a*vU» 
He combined with him, and aided him, to do the 
thing: or [simply] he aided him to do it. (TA.) 
__ And J^jOI ^jJU J*U» He became accustomed, 
habituated, or inured, to the work. (S,* O,* TA.) 
_ AJLiUaia, of a horse, (S, O, K,) in his running, 
(S, O,) and in like manner of a camel, as in the 
A, (TA,) means His putting his hind feet in the 
places that were those of his forefeet. (S, O, K.) 

And (hence, TA) t The walking as one 

shackled; (S, O, K, TA;) i. e., with short steps. 
(TA.) [See an ex. voce Jj»-»..] 

4. <uul»t He covered it ; (S, O, K ;) as also 
f axA>, inf. n. J~«1»J ; (K ;) [i. e.] he made it to 
be covered; (S, O ;) he put the JkJ», i. e. cover, 
ujwn it, namely, a jar [or the like]. (Mgh. 
[And the like is said in several other arts, in 

other lexicons.]) And ^y^t C*& ** l / put the 
ujrper mill-stone upon tlie lower. (TA.)_- See 
also 2, second sentence. [This last ex. 6hows 
that <tiJ») signifies sometimes It covered it as 
meaning it became a cover, or like a cover, to it ; 
and xSe- Ji«l»I likewise has this meaning; as also 
*eie * jy*it, and <**U * J^aJ-] — [Hence,] 
one says, O^**!-" *e^* jy»' (M?b, TA) f In- 
sanity covered [i. e. veiled, or wholly obscured,] 
Ms reason, or intellect. (TA.) And <uJLt oJubl 
^JlaJt (Mgh, O, TA) J Tlie fever was, or became, 
continual upon him, not quitting him night nor 

day. (TA.) >l^t ^J* lyul»l means I They 

combined consentaneously, or agreed together, 
resjmcting, or to do, the thing, or affair; (S,* 
Mgh,* O,* Msb, TA ;*) and so Zxe. ♦ l^liJ. 
(MA.) — And AjXfi lyulat They came round 
about him. (MA.) __ [And i-aJI aJ* C i .l > l 
The serpent wound itself round upon him. (See 

J~t>, last sentence.)] — And j>y*~4l cJUl g l 7'/ir 
s<a« appeared, and were numerous ; (O, K, TA ;) 
[as though they were like a cover ; or] as tliough 
they were stage above stage (<UJ» (J.ji *M*)- 
(TA.) — [<<Jlft dJUlvt signifies He made it to 
cover it ; i. e., to be a cover, or like a cover, upon 
it.] You say, ^UJJI ^y» wi^JI p-j±~o (_yl* jy»l 

JUm '1 ^>« oliU- U [7/e maiic to cover the part 
of tlie tongue which was tlie place of utterance of 
the letter what was opposite to it of tlie palate ; 
i. e. he put that part of his tongue close beneath 
the opposite part of the palate]. (0.)_ [Hence,] 
wjtjoOl yn-Ss- i*J>l, said of God, \ He made 
punishment to fall, or come, upon them in common, 
or universally, [as tliough He made it to cover 
them,] so that none of tliem escaped. (Jel in 

a j •" j\ »» * * at 

xci. 14.) — And ir**")! **** ^' J^'> an d 
^jj^ajl, f God made the fever to be continual 
upon him, and in like manner insanity : the verb 
being used as intrans. and trans. (Msb. [But 


its author adds that he had not found this: 
meaning that he had not found any classical 
authority for the trans, use of the verb in this 
and similar senses.]) — — One says also, w>U! i£J»l 
[He closed tlie door]. (Msb and K in art. j-oj ; 
&c.) And S£;'ki jJ>\ [Close thy lips;] i. e. t be 
thou silent. (TA.) [And ^>&i\ JJ>\ He closed, 

or shut, tlie book. And v>-" jy 9 ' He folded 
together the garment, or piece of cloth.] See also 
2, in the middle of the paragraph, ss <oL±»l t» 
How skilful is he (O, K) Iji3 [for the perform- 
ance of such a thing] ! (0) is from J-ai^JI 4>J». 

- *** * 

5. i^iaj: sec 7._*JL* J»fJeu: see 4. [Hence,] 

one says, c~Ui U i^cj^l t>5 V» iU_)l Ciik^ y 
I »k& [i/ - </te heaven became as a cover upon the 
earth, I would not do such a thing], (S, O.) 

6. ^U-Ut Ji_iL-laJ 77u; two ^AiHf/.s- suited, 
matched, tallied, conformed, corresponded, or 
agreed, each with the other ; (S,*0,*TA;) and 
were equal, each to tlie otlier ; or were like each 
other in measure, size, quantity, or the lilte. 
(TA.) And^l,Jift JyvUw: seo 4. 

7. i£JojI J* twm, or became, covered; (O, KL ;) 

[i. c.] it was made to be covered ;] or it had tlie 

JiJs, i.e. cover, put upon it;] quasi-pass, of 

iLj>\; (O ^ and so t jl±J. (S, O, K[.) _ 

[And It became closed; said of a door, Sec 

Hence,] >»tJM3l **** »>J»*! *'• <!• Jl*^i t [S/zeccA 

is as though it were closed against him ; i. e. he 

is impeded in his speech, unable to speak, or 

tongueticd], (O.) __ Sec also 4. — [Hence one 

says of a rule, IJu&j \J-2=> ^^i-fr J : h ■ j t 7' 

applies to such and such things or suZyccte.] 

* d ' 
t^sb : see an ex. of tlie accus. case, in the 

phrase Uul> ^JJI OjJ^, voce (^J*, last quarter. 

= JU1» is also expl., by I Aar, as meaning The 

doing wrong, or injuring, by false pretence or false 

allegation. (TA.) 

i>J»: see JiJs, in the latter part of the former 

, ,»' ,J '•, •-, • I '• 

half. __ ^>j^l JLJo : see JUJ?. __ i^j-JI tjjk 


, (IAar, O, K,*) and ♦ fci .Jo, and 
t iillb, (IAar,* O,* $,) and » i*^, (IAar, 
O, K,) and * aJLjLL, and * <uLJx«, (IAar, O, 
TA,) t. q. " AiuUa-o [i. e. 77*ii //</«»/ w /Ac match 
of this; or w/ta< ««<<«, matches, tallies, conforms, 
corresponds, or agrees, with this; what is equal to 
this; or </te like of this in measure, size, quantity, 
or the like], (IAar, O, KL, TA.) _ Jlis signifies 
also A space, or period, (<UL>,) of the day; and 
so V 4aJ» : and ♦ c»~A» signifies the same of the 

night : (K :) you say, j\J\ ^y> UJ» » Jm* o~oii, 

and * <UUb, 7 remained at his abode during a 

space, or period, (acLt,) of the day: (Ibn-Abbud, 

O:) and till., (K, TA,) with kesr, (TA,) or 

♦ UU», (so in tlie O,) and ♦ U*J?, i. e. a irAtfo. 

i , 
or a ton^ l»mfl, syn. UU : (Ibn-'Abbdd, 0, KL:) 

' » • t 

or, accord, to the L, one says, s jjt ,JJe j.xj UUI 



(j^ijt, and ♦ JL-b, he came to us after a space, 
or period, (yx»-,) of the night; and in like 

manner, J^Sl >ja of the day : (TA:) the pi. of 

»^e4» is Jib. (K.) [See also o»b, in, or near, 
the middle of the paragraph.] = Abo Bird-lime; 
a dial. var. of J^y (IDrd, O, K.) And The 
fruit of a certain hind of tree [app. meaning the 
berries of the viscum, or mistletoe, of which bird- 
lime is mostly prepared, and which are called 
tK* in the present day]. (K.) And Anything 
with which a thing is stuck, or made to stick. 
(K.) And [particularly] A thing [or substance] 
to which the exterior lamina of the pearl is stuck 
to that it becomes like it; as also * JUm. (TA.) 
— And Snares for birds, or things with which birds 
are caught; (Ibn-'Abbad, O ;) like «-bjli; as 

also J«b ; of which [latter] the sing is t iilb. 
(Ibn-'Abbad, O, K.) an Also A road, or way: 
as and i.q.jy^ii [as a Pcrs. word, generally 
meaning Permission, or leave, as expl. by Golius 
in this instance]. (KL. [But for these two 
significations I have not found any other autho- 

J~io A thing (hut is ttie equal of another thing 
(Msb, K) of any kind (K) in its measure so that 
it covers tlte whole extent of the latter like the 
lid ; this is its primary signification : ' (Msb :) 
[whence] one says, IJjk jLb i^^JI \JJt, like <uub, 
q. y. : (lAar, O, K :) and [hence] it signifies The 
cover, or lid, (Mgh, KL,) of a jar, (Mgh,) or of 
anything: (KL:) pi. JCbl (S,» 0,» KL) [and 
JLb, mentioned in the Msb as a pi. of ^J» in 
another, but similar, sense, which will be found 
in what follows, but better known as a pi. of 

1 00 •- » * 

<ULb], and JULbl is added as another pi. in the K, 
but [SM says] this is strange ; I have not found 
it in the [other] lexicons ; and it may be that the 
right reading is <uLb\j, as syn. with what im- 
mediately there follows it, i. e. **~bj. (TA.) 

*ilb O^ J*'i •» t a P rov -] ex pl« (°» K, TA ) b y 
As (O, TA) as said of a company of men who 
had a receptacle of skin [i. e. a water-skin] that 
had become old and worn out, wherefore they 
made a J*b [or cover] for it : (O, KL, TA :) [so 
that the meaning is^ A water-skin that had be- 

come old and worn out suited its cover .-] or ^>i 
and J~b [in the O <uLl»] were two tribes ; (S,* 

O, K* TA ;) and, as ISd says, j>i does not 
here mean a water-skin, for this has no J^h : 
(TA :) or [<uU» is for i*lb, and] aJUb was an 
intelligent woman, whom an intelligent man took 
as his wife. (O, KL, TA. [See Freytag*s Arab. 
Prov., ii. 600.]) — _ Also A certain household 
utensil; (Msb;) [i. e. a dish, or plate; perhaps 
thus called because the cover of a cooking-vessel 
is often used as a dish or plate ;] the thing upon 
which one eats, (K, TA,) and in which one eats ; 
and the thing upon which fruit is placed [i. e. a 
dish, or plate, used for that purpose ; and likewise 
a round tray, and the like] : (TA :) pi. JLbl and 
JLb. (Mfb.) _ I The surface of the earth 

[considered as a cover]. (K, TA.) [And in like 
manner applied to A layer, or stratum, of earth. 

t^^iJI w-uii is expl. in the Msb as meaning 

.—>|>3I JLbl £*m3 <«^-ii.l I concealed it beneath 

the layers, or strata, of the earth, or dust. See 

• g 
also < UL.. b .] _ J The exterior part of tlte 

pudendum muliebre [considered as a cover]. 

(Ibn-'Abbad, O, K, TA.) A fold, a ply, or 

an overlapping part, of a thing. (PS. [See 

w« * ».]) — [And hence, app., I A roller of the 

3 - 
sea : see ^$M.] — A thin bone [or cartilage'] 

that forms a division between any two vertebra : 

(S, O, KL :) what is between any two vertebra of a 

horse [&c] : pi. JLbl : (Kr :) and some say, the 
vertebra altogether : and some say, a vertebra, in 
any part. (TA.) It is said in a trad, respecting 
the day of resurrection, s j t iiL^i\ ^>%o\ . JL3 
ljk*-t^ ULb, meaning [The backbones of the hypo- 
crites shall be (lit. continue to be) as though 
they were] one vertebra : or, as some say, 
" iijb ; and [they say that] J^h is the pi. [or 
coll. gen. n.]. (O. [See also 1 in art. ^^is.]) — 
[And Any of the successively-superimposed carti- 
lages of tlte windpipe : pi. ,JLbl. (See »jL\L, in 
art. jm^m. ; and see also >yUU..)] __ Any of the 
stages of Hell [whereof every one except the 
lowest is imagined to be like a cover ■ over 
another]. (TA.) [And in like manner, Any of 
the Seven Heavens :] one says, J' -V --.U , i^ 
meaning The Heavens are [composed of stages] 
one above another; (S, O, Msb;*) every heaven 
[except the lowest] being like a JLb to another : 
(Mfb :) or this is said because of their being con- 
formable, one with another : (K :) and it is said 
in the Kur lxvii. 3, ULb Ol^U ill JxL ^JJI, 
meaning [ Who hath created seven heavens] placed 
one above anot/ier; ULb being the inf. n. of 

' 06 0* - 

J*dl wJL-lb [q. v.], used as an epithet ; or for 

l»y» c-*^b ; or Jllb ol>, pi. of Jib or of 

▼ ii-b. (Bd.) — [Any of the bones of the head ; 

because they compose a covering: or] JUbl 

ihJjJI means the bones of the head because they 

suit one another and have certain parts of them 

inserted and infixed into other parts. (TA. 

[See 8 in art. j+J*.]) _ Any joint of a limb : 

■ * • i 
pi. Jl^bl. (As, TA.) __ A collective number of 

men, and of locusts }^(S, O, BL ;) as also t ^jb, 

(K,) which is thus expl. by As in relation to 

men : (TA :) or a multitude of men, and of 

locusts : (EL :) [app. considered as covering a 

space of ground:] or a company of men that arc 

equal with a company like them.*, (ISd, TA.) ^ 

A generation of mankind; or the people of one 

time; syn. fjji and^le ; as in the saying of El- 


00 9 0* 0*0* * 

[metre »->~uj i.e. Qji Ijy Qji ^^o* lij [When 
a generation pauses away, a generation appears 
in its place] : the £yi being called jib because 
they are a J^b [i. e. cover] to the earth : then 

[Book I. 

they pass away and another jJo comes: (0, 
TA:) or, as lAar says, J«b signifies a people 
after a people. (TA.) And (TA) A Jfi [i. e. 
generation] of time : or twenty years : (KL, TA :) 
or, as in the book of El-Hejeree, on the authority 
of I'Ab, * iilb has this latter meaning. (TA.) 
_ t A rain such as Jills and covers the earth, or 
land; (TA ;) or such as is general, (S, O, KL, TA,) 
and of wide extent ; termed by a poet (namely, 
Imra-el-KLeys, O, TA) ^ij^l £b : (S, O, TA :) 
or a Instinq rain, consecutive in its falls. (Msb.) 
And lj^.1^ ULb ^j^l £*mm+m\ means f [The 
land became, or became in the morning,] covered 
with water over its surface. (TA.) _ A main 
portion of the night and of the day : (S, 0, KL :) 
or, accord, to the Mufradat [of Er-Raghib], Jl\> 
jl^Jlj J^UI signifies Uu\h^\ «u'uC [app. a mis- 
transcription for iUyvkZ«)l, and meaning the com- 
mensurate, or similar, or equal, portions of the 
night and of tlte day]. (TA.) Sec also ^^b. __ 
And A state, or condition; (S, O, KL, TA;) as 

also V iilb, of which the pi. is J Lb : the pi. of 

. • *» I ' 

the former in this sense is JSLbt. (TA.) Hence 

the phrase, jib ^ ULb ,>i>>J, (S, O, KL, TA,) 
in the Kur [lxxxiv. 19], meaning [Ye shall 
assuredly enter upon] state after state, (S,* O, 
TA,) and predicament after predicament ; as in 
the A ; (TA ;) on the day of resurrection ; (S ;) 
the state being termed Jilb because it will fill the 
hearts [as though the dread thereof covered them], 
or will be near to doing so ; (O, TA ;) and ^js* 
being put in this instance, as it is in many others, 
in the place of jji/ : (TA :) or the meaning is, 
one after another of similar states of hardship : 
or it may be, degrees of hardship after degrees 
thereof; J-b accord, to this rendering being 
regarded as pi. [or coll. gen. n.] of t iilb .- 
(Ksh and Bd :) or [ye shall assuredly mount 
upon] the Iteaven in one state after another state ; 
for it (the heaven) shall be like jiy* [i.e. molten 
brass or iron &c, as is said in the Kur Ixx. 8,] and 
then successively in other states: (O, TA:) so 
says Aboo-Bekr: accord, to Er-Raghib, it points 
to the various successive states of man in the 
present world from his creation, and in the world 
to come until his resting in one of the two abodes 
[Paradise or Hell] : or, accord, to Ibn-Abi-1- 
Hadeed, it means [ye shall assuredly enter upon] 
difficulty after difficulty; as is related by MF; 
and the same is said by Az on the authority of 

St + " t * * 

I'Ab : (TA :) some read ^yJb^i, meaning thou, 
O Mohammad, shalt assuredly mount upon stage 
after stage of the stages (J Lb I) of heaven ; and 
I'Ab and Ibn-Mes-ood read l j-£s J i, ) with kesr 
to the w>, which is accord, to the dial, of Temeem, 
and Keys and Asad and Rabce'ah pronounce the 
first letter of the future with kesr except when it 
is (^: 'Omar read ^>-£>jJ, either as relating to 
the Prophet or as referring to him who is men- 
tioned in verses 10-15 of the same chapter. (O, 
TA.) One says also, >*j4~dl Jib ^y-jj «£il/, 
meaning | [He passed the night watching] the 
state of the stars in their course : (TA :) or J0S0 

Book I.] 

j»j^m)I means the falling [or app. setting] of stars 
after [other] stars : or, accord, to Es-Sadoosee, 
the rising of a star and the setting of another : 
and a collective number thereof after a collective 
number [of others] : and such, he says, are termed 

>j4~Jl »>«*OUli. (O.) \LL> J/j\ OsU. 

tjh«-tj means J>»-lj «J»». ji* [i. e. The camels 
came following one another, in a single line : see 
art. Ut*.]. (TA.) And one says, ^Jtll OjJj 
tiX and ♦ UJ», meaning The sheep, or jwih, 
brought forth one after another : (L : ) El-Umawce 

9**9*90 ***** 

says, when they do thus, one says, i"%*-j> I V Jkl ^ 
and Uui» VjJj and * <uul» [7Vu?y brought tliem 
forth (i. c. their young ones) one fl/?cr o»0</wr]. 

(S, O.) [The pi.] JC&^I also signifies 2%OM 

who are remote, and those who arc remotely con- 
nected : so in a trad, respecting the signs of the 
resurrection, or of the time thereof; in which it 

, j - a l t * 9a* J # • I 9 # • J 

is. said, v»U-j^t xJouuj JM**^! J-e^i [Those who 
are remote, and those wlw are remotely related, 
shall be brought into close connection, and the ties 
of relationship shall be severed], (TA.) — C~J 
Jilb is an appellation of A female tortoise, [app. 
because of the cover of her back,] which, (S, O, 
IS.,) as the Arabs assert, (S, O,) lays ninety-nine 
eggs, all of them [eventually] tortoises, and lays 
one egg which discloses (S, 0, K) a serpent (K) 
[or a serpent such as is termed] an j^wl ; (S, O ;) 
or, accord, to Az, sixty-nine [eggs], and the seven- 
tieth is [eventually] a vij>er. (So in a marg. note 
in one of my copies of the S ; in which, also, the 
appellation is written JJ> Cw, instead of C^ 

i>«i>.) Hence the phrase Jki OU^ iCJ^t, 
meaning \A calamity; (S, O, TA ;) as also 
4>J» O-o : (TA :) ^J> OLy meaning calamities 

[like O U . I>< ] : as well as tortoises : and ser- 

' il 

pents : (K :) and JLJ» j>\ [in like manner] means 

calamity : (TA in art. JjP» :) or, accord, to Eth- 

Tha'alibee, J*J» [thus, imperfectly deck, as 

written in the L,) signifies a yellow serpent : 

(L, TA :) and Jili» >t and Jllj» c~y are said to 

signify <Ac serpent, because of its coiling itself 
round : or J>-J» OU/ is an appellation applied 
to serpents because of their winding themselves 
round (l^iUUN) upon him whom they bite; or, 
as somo say, because the *\ym- [q. v.] confines 
them beneath the lids (JU»t) of the baskets 
(l»U_t) covered with leather; or, as Z says, 
because they resemble the «jll> [i.e. cover, or 
dish, or plate,] when they coil themselves round. 

*'*. • •. 

iiJo : see JJ», former half, in two places : = 

and also near the end of the same paragraph. 

i*J» [generally signifying Any one of two or 
more things that are placed, or situate, one above 
another; a stage, story, or floor; a layer, or 
stratum ; or the like : pi. ouX and Jut] : see 
Jl£, in seven places. — [Hence, g>«iOI otfjo 
TA« o>a&, or fumes, o/ <A« eye. (See SjljJL*..)] _ 

[Hence also,] ^Ul oUJo 7%« degrees, ranks, 
orders, or c/«&sc», o/ men. (§,• O,* TA.) [Thus, 
,lj*ill oUul» means Tlie orders, or classes, of tlte 
/wefs.] __ iiJ? ^Jt rt,.,.r-> is a phrase mentioned 
by Ibn-'Abbid as meaning His letters, or epistles, 
to me are consecutive. (O, TA.) — — A iii of 
land is [A jwrtion] like a SjlLe [expl. in art. 
&]. (TA.) 

ju ^'ln arm </tn< wiW not be stretched 
forth ; (S, O, TA ;) sticking to the side. (K, 

JLb [a pi. of <Uul», and said to be also a pi. 

of <£S>]. — uxij'^l o 1 ^ 9 means IF/iai » upon 
the earth : (S, O :) or what Jills, or would fill, 
the earth, extending over it in general, or in com- 
mon, (O, TA,) as though it were a JJo [or cover] 
to it. (TA.) It is said in a trad, respecting 

Kureysh, ^j^l JLi» > *t-»)^ ^«As >• c. The know- 
ledge of the knowing of them is as though it 
extended over tlie earth in general, or in common, 
and were a cover to it; (0,*TA ;) or, as some 

relate it, t^j^l * jll». (TA.) Sec also Jj». 

__ And see Ji~tu>. 

J~**> : see ^>ll», in five places. 

ilitX J A camel (S, O, K) ^a< will not cover; 
(S, O ;) lacking strength, or ability, to cover. (K, 
TA.) — _ And, applied to a man, (S, O, K,) 
t Impeded in his sjnxch ; unable to speak ; or 
tonguetied: (O, K,* TA :) or that will not per- 
form the act of coitus: (TA :) or heavy, covering 

the woman (i\j*i\ ^s. Ji-iu, in the CI£ [erro- 
neously] J-iu, and in my MS. copy of the K 

Sl^oJI Ji-Lj,) with his breast by reason of his 

i . 

heaviness : (K, TA :) or imjwtent ; syn. ,««« : 

9 - 

(S, O :) or impotent ( ( j e c), heavy, covering her 

whom he compresses, or the woman, with his 
breast, by reason of his littleness, or immature 
age : accord, to As, stupid, foolish, impotent in 
s})eech or actions, dull, or lieavy : accord, to 
IA^r, whose reason is veiled, or wholly obscured, 

(ijA* f JiJx*, [see Ot^^ *e^ tSJ a \,]) by stu- 
pidity, or foolishness: or, as some say, whose 
affairs are veiled to him [so that he sees not how 
to accomplish them] : or who lacks ability to 
speak, his lips being closed. (TA.) _ ^Jle UjUJ 

»+* * f *t * I *^ 

«tSUJ» ^LJNI jXJi means 27«y collected tliemseloes 
together against tliat man, all oftliem. (ISh, O.) 

JljJ» A species of tree, (S, O, K,) growing upon 
the mountains of Mehkeh ; (^ ;) described to AHn 
by some one or more of Azd-es-Sardh as being 
about the stature of a man in height, growing 
near one another, scarcely ever or never seen 
tingtyt having long, slender, green leaves, which 
slip [between the Jingers] when squeezed, applied 
as a dressing to a fracture, which, remaining 
upon it, they consolidate; it has a clustered 
yellow flower; is not eaten by the camels, but 
by the sheep or goats; and grows among the 
rocks, with the jtj* j the bees eat from its 


flowers, and the mountain-goats alio feed upon 
it : (O :) it is beneficial as an antidote against 
poisons, taken internally and applied as a dress- 
ing, and as a remedy for the mange, or scab, and 
the itch, and fevers of long continuance, and colic, 
and jaundice, and obstructions of the liver ; and 
ii very liealing. (K.) [Jilt, thus written by 
Golius, without teshdecd, is said by him to be 
Ocimum agreste ; as on the authority of Meyd ; 
but he has not given the syn. by which Meyd 
has explained it.] JU*) w~£ ^>, in a trad, ot 
Mohammad Ibn-El-Hanafecyeli, means in the 
places where grow these two species of trees ; 
(<) ;) i.e. in the tracts of tho mountains of 
Mekkch. (TA.) 

JA : see J!k = Also, (S, Mgh, 0, K,) and 
(JjUs, (K,) both mentioned by Kb and Lb, [and 
both in one of my copies of the S,] (TA,) and 
t jVli, (Fr, O, K,) A large brick : (Mgh :) or a 
large baited brick : (S, O, K :) [or « large tile, or 
jiat piece of baked clay :] and a large [piece of] 
glass : (Mgh :) arabicized, (S, Mgh, O,) from 
the Pcrs., (S,0,) i.e. from *ju : (Mgh,0:) 
[and particularly a large flat piece of baked 
clay, or of stone, tjr., that is used for a trap- 
door:] whence, JL>U»JI c~^ [the chamber that 
has a trap-door]; (Mgh: [see also ^^Jk*:]) pi. 
J^l^i and J^tji ; (Myl>, O. K ;) the former 
being pi. of J/U*, and the latter of Jt/V (0.) 
_ And in like manner the Jk>l£> of iron [is from 
the Pers. a^U] : (O :) [i. e.] ^u» signifies also, 
(K, TA,) and ^>U» likewise, (accord, to the K,) 
A certain vessel .in which one cooks, (K, TA,) 
[meaning a frying-pan,] of iron or of copper : 

(TA :) arabicized from i/5. (K, TA.) [And 

A plate, or flat piece, of metal.] m C>li jJL/ 
J^lt means A ivcll in which are projecting edges. 
(Ibn-'Abbad, 0.) = And J^lfc and J^l£ signify 
also A limb, or member, (Th, O,* K, TA,) of a 
human being, such as tlie arm, or hand, and tho 
leg, orfoot, and the like: (Th, TA :) applied in a 
trad, to the hand of a thief, which is to be cut 
off: (TA:) [see sliJjSt, in art. *J>J»:] or they 
signify [or signify also] the half of a sheep, or 
goat : (K, TA :) or as much thereof as two per- 
sons, or three, eat. (TA.) 

JlyU» ; pi. tietft>» : see the next preceding 

iJLUbJI a*k)1 The mode of disposing the turban 
without winding [a portion thereof] beneath the 
chin: (0,K:) a mode which is forbidden. (O.) 

£ f 9***3 9 *>** 

UL>U» l tt «;< i^H* (^ means Such a one came 
having his turban disposed in the manner abore 
described. (IAar, O.) 

t .• 

i. part n. of 4, Covered; Ice.]. _ 
jj^kjl \Jjj*J\ are The letters ^,o, ^i, J», and 
ii : (S, O, K :) the part of tlie tongue which is 
the place of their utterance being [closely] 
covered [in their utterance] by what ia opposite 
to it of the palate. (O, TA.) __ And jlL. is 


used by the vulgar for <tJLc JIk«, [which is for 
^jj-aJt AgJLft ^J*.*,] meaning f ?'/)»;/ whom in- 
sanity is made to be continual: (Msb: sec also 
iliUt [where xJU- «j»k« is in my opinion better 
rendered] :) and you say ty~lc Jk-ko Ju^.a. « [in 

-, * » 0*0 *' 9 » 

like manner, for u>-*~" W* l^" t "« insane 
female whose reason insanity lias veiled, or wholly 
obscured]. (Mgh, O.) — *JLc (it*** signifies also 
Affected with a swooning, or a Jit of insensibility. 
(TA.) _ 4>nk« cw means f y1 of which the 
former hemistich ends in tlie middle of a word. 
(Z, T A.) _— See also the next paragraph. __ And 
see Jjo. 

Jjkl Covering. (0, K, TA.) Hence, (K, 

TA,) Jjki j^il (Mgh, O, K, TA) f Insanity 
that covers [i. e. veils, or wliolly obscures,] the 
rciww, or intellect. (TA.) — UJa* ^y**- (S, 
Mgh, O, Msb, K) J A continual fever, not. 
quitting night nor day. (S, Msb,* TA.) — 4JuJcu> 
[for iifik*) «Uw] means t A hard, or severe, year. 

' 9 ■ 9 t 

(TA.) And oUjho means f Calamities [like 
J^t oLy]. (TA.) — And JUo-o may have the 

(TA. [But in what 

same meaning as 
sense the latter is here used is not specified.]) 
_ It signifies also A subterranean prison ; or 
a place of confinement beneath the ground. (TA. 
[The word in this sense, which is probably post- 
classical, is there said to be like ,j .. „■» ,« ; but 
perhaps only because of its having been found 
written Ji*!**; for I think that I have heard 
t JjLi used in this sense ; and I find an appa- 
rent authority for this in a copy of the M in arts, 
juol and Juo), where jLoNI and jti^ll arc expl. 

as meaning J^,b,»)l : and likewise in the TA in 

* * # 
art. j^*, where I find J-l=u>, thus written ; see 2 

in that art. : it seems also that * JUb may have 

the same signification ; for I find iUoNI expl. as 

meaning JUja" '" tne S '" :ut - Juo ' > aru ' tuus 
in the O in art Juej, and likewise jUj^ I.]) 

tfek* : see JtJ», last quarter. 

h/( •>< , .. 

^J Lit >lj»». Locusts extending in common or 
universally [over a tract or region], (TA.) And 
<uZlx« iy 1 — ut A (•/«//«/ raining upon the whole of a 
land. (S, O.) — ^jli*-* signifies also [A sword 
hitting the joint, and severing the limb : or falling 
between two bones. __ And hence,] t One ro/io 
faAe* tlie right course in affairs by his [good] 
judgment. (K, TA.) 

,^-Uv* : see an ex. voce JJ». 

1. J£, (Lth, O, Msb, K^aor. * (Lth, O, 
Msb) and ,, (Msb,) inf. n. J£, -He tea* tlie 
JJ» [or drum; he drummed]; (Lth, O, Msb, 
K ;) and ♦ SM, (Msb, K.) inf. n. X&f (O, 
Msb,) signifies the same; (0,*K;) or the 
lattor verb signifies he did so much. (Msb.) 

2 : see the preceding paragraph. 

jlji» [A drum;] a certain thing with which 
one beats, (S, 0, K,) [or rather upon which one 
beats,] well known, (Msb,) having a single face, 
and having two faces: (Msb, K:) pi. [of mult.] 
Jj> (O, Msl), K) and [of pauc] JL>1. (Msb, 

0, 9 ' 3 9 » ' J 

K.) [Hence] one pays, OwTj £ »*W» 9* ["*• 
.Hie is a double-faced drum.] ; meaning X he is of 
ill-omened, or hard, aspect. (TA.) And tif^i 
,LJ3I c*3 J^1*H <->-» [lit. Si«7t a one beats the 
drum beneath the garment called X~£a ; meaning, 
t strives to conceal what is notorious : similar 

to tlie Pcrs. saying 0>j>e*" Hi J* tW , 3« C^A.) 
__ Also A Asuj [or SMinW ro«>«/ basket, covered 
with leather,] for perfumes. (TA.) And A il_, 
[or round basket] for food, [app. shallow, re- 
sembling a round tray, for it is said to be] like 

tlie OJJ*- > a l s0 called * <C0»> of which the pi. 
..' "I- 

is Jlfl>. (TA. [Sec also ju/, last sentence.]) 

[And A kind of tray, of wood, used for counting 
money, .jr. ; also called ♦ iLla : this is app. what 

-A 9 • * 

is meant by the saying in the S, ^\jjS\ ^J-.b 

Ojjjue U/aC) ; and by the saying in the O, iUb 

wijjjv* ^oAljjJI-] — And ^1 certain sort of gar- 
ments, or cloths, (Lth, I Did, O, K,*) ujion 
which ii theform of the J-i» [or drum], (Lth, O, 
K,) or figured with the like of J>*t> [or drums], 
(T, TA,) of tke fabric of El- Yemen, or </ Egypt, 
(K,) or brought from Egypt, and called also 

t aJLiaJI and jl£)l »J>Jf: (Lth, O :) which last 
appellation is expl. in the A as meaning [gar- 
ments of tlie kind called] )}yt, worn by tlie lords, 
or principal personages, of Egypt. (TA.) _ 
And The [tax called] •-!>.•. (IAar, O, K:) 
[or an instalment thereof; for] one says, j^jl 
7-l>iJI o^ ^M» j-3-o Jj*' and (j>«JLb and ^)>J> 
77te people of Egypt payed an instalment of tke 
«-tjjW [and two instalments and several instal- 

wicnY.v] ; so called after the J-J» [or drum] of the 

"*' • 

jtjLy [app. meaning the farmer-general of the tax, 

who, it seems from this, announced his coming 
by the beating of a drum] : (A, TA :) [and pro- 
bably syn. with *-[}»• as meaning revenue in a 
general sense ; for it is added,] hence [the saying] 

* aluil wj-aJ 'yk (O, K [in the CK C«J is 

i * 
erroneously put for y-"* j]) i. e. i/e /ot'cs the 

[Book I. 

ilCb : see JJ», in three places. 

r-'>»-, (O,) or </tc money of the *-lj», (K,) with- 
out fatigue. (0.) = J-JaJI signifies also i >JUJ) 
and ^piUI [i. e. 7%e created beings in general and 

- i ȣ - 

mankind in particular] : one says, ^1 ^£j}\ U 
yk J^kJt i. e. [/ know not] wliat one of mankind 
he is : (S, O :) and so ^L t >l£jl J^l (TA.) 

• f # 

«UJ> [A wooden tray ; generally round : like 
•'* # 
dJlLi in Persian. And such is app. meant by 

what here follows:] A certain thing of wood, 

which women take for their use. (TA.) Sec 

also JJ». 

iUUI? The art, or occupation, of beating the 
jli. [or drum]. (Msb, K.) 

9 3* * , 

JU» [A drummer;] a beater of tke J^K 

i)Ub [fern, of JU» : and] t. q. <Ul/yU, q. v. 

Suit A ewe; (S, O, K;) as also tljUb: 
(TA :) pi. of the former o^l^b : a ram is not 
to be called Jb>£. (S, K.) Tarafeh says, 

9 * * $ > 

djLijj» i)u* ty^ * 

. j ' • * '»* 

[Hananeh announced to me death (app. meaning 
predicted my death, for otherwise it should be 
^J j_5»v): a ewe tluxt eats dry 'ishrik]: (S, O, 
TA:) [in explanation of which it is said,] ^ylai 
means O^Jb ^jj~o±.\: and ajU*. is the name of 
a pastor : and ilb^Js is put in the accus. case as 
a term of rcvilement, as though the poet said 

aji^^i. (TA.) 

1. a] k >J», aor. £ , inf. n. ,j-i» [accord, to the 

CK (>fl», which is wrong] ; and <J ^^Ja, aor. - , 
inf. n. <uU» and iJUb and <Li^J» ; He under- 
stood it ; or knew it ; or had knowledge, or nw* 
cognizant, of it: (S, K:) some say that ^i» 
relates to good, and i >y to evil ; but AO says 
that iiUb and tfJlJ arc one, meaning the being 
very intelligent or knowing; and Lh says that 

<uUi and A-JUb, and <UUj and iJUi, and iiUU 

•- -- ' *, ., %, .. 
and iUJUJ, and iilyJ and iJlyJ [app. mistranscrip- 

tions for djly^s and iJly^a], are one [in mean- 
ing]. (TA. [See more in the first paragraph of art. 
(>J-])^V 0-J*> m which tlie pronoun refers 
to a woman, a phrase occurring in a trad., is 
expl. as meaning He apprehended what was the 
state, or disposition, of Iter mind, and that she was 
one who would comply with tlie endeavour to seduce 
her : or, accord, to Sh, it is lyJ {jjo, like ^>j-o, 
and means lie deceived her, or corrupted her, and 


beguiled her: accord, to Az, <v C~U», aor. -, 

• f J »0 00 9 

inf. n. i>Ja ; and C ■'■:*>, aor. 5 , inf. n. ULio ; 
signify I deceived him, or deluded him. (TA.) 


— And deilfJv, accord, to IB, signifies also A 
man's looking at his wife, and either debarring 
her from appearing or being angry and jealous. 
(TA.)=jUI &>, (S (> K,) aor. T , (K,TA, [in 
the CK - ,]) inf. n. ,>X, (K,) He covered tlie 
fire [in a hollow] in the earth, in order that it 
might not become extinguislied. (S, K.) 

3. S^iaJt ojj. yjj\L (S) or ojJlLm (K) means 
Lower thou [or dee/ten thou] thit hollow in the 
ground [app. for fire to be covered over therein ; 

9 I ■ 09 t 

see 1, last sentence] ; syn. \yU\Jo and lyil»U». 
(The former syn. in some copies of the S and K ; 
the latter in other copies of the S ; and both in 

.Book I.] 

some copies of the K.) — And tj^o ^U» He 
lowered, or bent down, his back ; syn. <U«U». 
(TA.)=eAnd i^lt, (K,) inf. n. Hjlki and 
C>0*, (TA,) He, or it, agreed, or accorded, with 
him, or it. (K.) 

Q. Q.4. o&l *'•?• oCit; (?,K;) formed 
from the latter by substitution [of ^i for>]. (S in 
art. »>►*»■) So in the phrase *J5 oW^I, mean- 
ing jETw /tear* became quiet, at rest, at ease, or 
tranquil. (TA.) 

,>J» A numerous collection or to% (K, TA) of 

men; (TA;) asalsot^. (K, TA. [Freytag 

• • • • * 

adds ,>J» and ^>J» in this sense ; but they are 

mentioned in the K as syns. of 4 >J» meaning a 

certain game : and Golius adds, instead of these 

two, u-^° :u "' O-t-K which are altogether 

0* ft<J it »t » 

wrong.]) _ And one says, y» i >*U)t ^1 tA>3l I*, 

ft* 5 it' 

(S, K,*) meaning y» ^Ul ^1 [i. e. I know not 

what one of mankind he is] : (S, KL :) and so j^l 

yk J-iaJI. (S and O in art. J-J».) = Also, [and 
it is implied in the K that the following explana- 
tion applies likewise to ♦ &J* and t t ^J 9 and 
" o-^j but " ,e TA restricts it to 0-r^>] -^ carcass 
which is placed for tlie purpose of capturing upon 
it the vultures and beasts of prey. (K, TA. 
[Freytag assigns this meaning to ,j*J» only.]) ^s 
See also <UJ». 

^jA> The [kind of mandoline called] jy^i» : 
(IAar, K:) or the ji^c [i.e. lute]. (K.)_See 

ft,» * • ft , 

also <UJ>. __ And see |j*l». 

j>J» : see i~sk :__and see also >>J»._ i >JaJI 
also signifies What the wind brings, [or bears 
along,] of firewood [app. meaning of fragments 

thereof], and i£*Jt: [but this seems to be a 
mistranscription ; for it is immediately added,] 
and sometimes the house (c~-JI) that is built, or 
constructed, therewith is thus called. (TA.) 

i>J» : see ^>J» : = and see also 

j>«]» and » ^>jU> Intelligent, understanding, 
skilled, or knowing, (S, K,* TA,) i» everything : 
(TA :) the former is syn. with ^^5 [q. v.] : (M 
in art. ^>J :) and " «UJ» signifies [very intelli- 
gent &c, being of a measure proper to intensive 
epithets ; or simply] skilled, or skilful. (TA.) = 
And for the first of these words d">J»), see also 

ijJo : sec <UJ» : as and see also y>J?. 

iLt, (S,) or ♦ ^>J» and ▼ ^^It and ♦ j^^t 
(K) and t J^ and t ^t (TA) and t *jS> t 
(K,) or this last is pi. of iu£, (S, TA,) A 
certain game, (S, K> TA,) [said to be] played by 
children, by means of a circular line, [drawn on 
the ground, (but see what follows,)] and [also] 
called by them ^Jll ; (TA ;) called in Pers. 
ojt *~>, or »j ju-i, (accord, to different copies of 

J* ft m' 

the S,) or »j ju>, (accord, to some copies of the K, 

and the TA, [this and »jju<* being app. for *w 
»j3, which is syn. with »^ a-,] in a MS. copy of 
the K »^» JU, and in the CK »>• J", [both 
app. mistranscriptions for »y *->.]) i- e. " having 
three doors;" (TA;) [app. the same that is some- 
times called in Pcrs. i>o <u» ;] the game that is 
called in Turkish ^,^j>-j^J^k> [and ^jt^-ji^ia], 
and in Arabic called also Jj^; (TK1;) [i.e. tJ>», 
which is said in the K and TA in art. Jij3 to be 
the game called jJl* ; accord, to an explanation 
and diagram there given, played by means of 
twenty-four lines, composed of four squares, or 
parallelograms, one of these having within it 
anotlier, the latter having within it another, and 
this last having within it another ; to which are 
added a line drawn from each angle of the outer- 
most of these to the corresponding angle of tlie 
innermost and another line drawn from tlie 
middle of each side of the outermost to the middle 
of tlie corresponding side of the innermost ; within 
which combination of twenty-four lines they place 

* J * * # i ft * fi*. 

(j^uu, in the CK Qyi-o j,) pebbles, jju- is 

evidently from the Pcrs. so *W : it is said in the 

TA in art. jju* to be also pronounced jjui and 

jjuft, and to be a Pers. term arabicized. Golius, 

without mentioning any other authority than that 

of the K, explains s jl ! ia as follows : " Pers. 

%* ft J ft ft ftftft m. 

ejjL*, Turc. ^jiyl 0*rj»>, Grate, rptw&iov, Tnum, 

vel novem, scruporum Indus." Freytag explains 

the same word as meaning " Triodii sou trivalli 

ludus ;" adding a loose rendering of the explana- 

tion of Jji in the K.] ss iiJ» signifies also The 

* • i 

sound of the [musical instrument called] t><J». 


J» Intelligence, understanding, skill, or know- 
ledge': (S, K :) pi. ^. (K.) 

: see ^>J». 

algJUJi i. q. aieiUb [q. v.]. (TA.) 

^U» : see i j^>. 

0^/^> A- place in which fire is covered [in a 
hollow] in tlie earth, in order that it may not 
become extinguislied : (S, K :) pi. k >^-#l^_t. 

* - j 8 / t j 

i>u=«-« t. q. o ' « h<i [q- ▼•]■ (?•) 

1. »lX, (S, K,) aor. 0> I£J, (S,) inf. n. yS> ; 
(K ;) and cU>, aor. **&>, (S, TA,) inf. n. ^L ; 
(TA in art [Jt i> ;) lie called kirn : (S, K :) or, 
accord, to Sh, lie called kim vitk a gentle calling: 
(TA :) an ex. of the latter verb occurs in a verse 
of Dhu-r-Rummeh cited voce w>jUi, (S,) or, as 
Lh cited that verse, an ex. of the former verb : 
(TA:) and t iu£l, (Sh, S, K, [in the CK 

erroneously written »Utl,]) of the measure <UxJj1, 

(S,) signifies the same. (Sh, S, K.) And [hence] 

, •( • •( 

one says, C tt *' i>i' k>* l&*' 'J'j [ a mistran- 


scription for c~J>,] with damm, and «i»~J»l, [i. e. 

™ C~j«J»l,] meaning [7 know not whence thou hast 
been called ; or] whence thou hast come. (TA irt 
art. ^0 

8 : sec 1, in two places. __ One says also 

l&S 0# £ c5^'> ( S . K » TA » [» the CK, 
# ft** 

erroneously, jikl,]) The sons of such a one 

associated as friends with such a one and slew 

him: (S, K, TA:) and <i£.\h\ I acted with him 

as a friend, then I slew him. (IKtt, TA.)_ 

w<^JUUI ijf*»l, in a trad, of Ibn-Ez-Zubeyr, means 

lie shorved love, or affection, to the hearts [of 

others], and drew them near to him. (TA.) 

ft * j 
And «Uft»t signifies also He attracted him to 

himself; or sought to make kim incline. (TA.) 

[»U» (thus written without any vowel-sign) is 

said in the TA, in art. ijJ», to signify o«*k>t (i.e. 
Stupid, &c.) : but I think it probable that this is 


from a mistranscription for «Ub, properly mean- 
ing " a hyena ;" a beast proverbial for stupidity : 
see *~o.] 

i\'yS> : see i~i>, in the next art 

100 >>•* * 

1. ftUc <CmJ», (?, K,) aor. a«Jot, inf. n. ^iv, 
(TA,) I turned him away, or back, from it, 
(Lth, S, K, TA,) namely, his opinion, and his 
affair, &c. (Lth, TA.) And *JI «^> 7 ra/fcrf 

Attn /o t<; as also ♦ *^Cl [in tlie CK erronc- 

ft#*#ftft * 

ously written n.-nJal], (K, TA. Sec also art. 

^.) And '<££> I led him. (K, TA.) And 

thus Lh explains the ex. of this verb in the verse 
of Dhu-r-Rummeh cited voce ^^-o. (TA.)om 
w- » «i » , aor. *, inf. n. ^j-J* ; (TA ;) or jj*l» C e «i» 
IjljjuIi ; (K ; [in the CK, erroneously, UJ» ;]) 

* "ft M 

said of a she-camel, Her j_yJ» [q. v.] was, or 
became, flaccid, flabby, or pendulous ; (TA;) or 
rcry flaccid &c. ; (K ;) on the authority of Fr. 

8 : sec the preceding paragraph : and see also 
the same verb in art. yJa. 

{Jl. (S, Mgh, M 9 b, K, &c) and t ^ (S, 
K) [A teat, or dug, of any of certain animals 
mentioned in what follows ; agreeably with an ex- 
planation of its pi. in the O, voce pj-o, on the 
authority of AZ ; and agreeably with a usage of 
its pi. in the TA, voce JlU, on the authority of 
Lth : this is the most usual, if not the only 
proper, signification :] the p^e [which sometimes 
means the teat, or dug, and is app. here used in 
this sense] ; mostly, of a beast of prey : (Mgh:) 
or it is to the beast of prey, and to tlie solid-hoofed 
animal, (A?, T, S,) like tlie c^«6 to others; and 
sometimes to the camel; (S ;) or that of the 
camel and of the cloven-hoofed animal is termed 
uUftfa : (As, T:) or, to the camel, and to the 
cloven-hoofed animal, lifie the i^jJ [which some* 


times means the teat] to the woman ; and in rare 

instances, to the solid-hoofed animal, and to the 

beast of prey : (Msb :) or the Ol»JU. [meaning 

teats], (K, TA,) or, accord, to the M, the 

*** * » * 

qU«1— [meaning pair of teats], (TA,) of the 0^6 

[or udder], of the camel, and of a cloven-hoofed 
animal, and of a solid-hoofed animal, and of a 
beast of prey : (K :) [and 1 i~Lb is perhaps a 
dial. var. : (see .vIa., last sentence but two :)] 
pi. :t£i. (S, Mgh, Msb, K.) It is said in a 
prov., (S,) [and] in a letter of 'Othman to 'Alee, 

(TA,) ^£>1 >j*JI jjU. (S, ¥) r/w <7irtA 
*» * 

passed beyond the jLJ> [or too teate, or two pairs 

of teats]; (TA ;) meaning f the affair, or case, 
became distressing, an d formidable. (I£, TA.) _ 
El-Hoseyn [bn-MuJeyr uses the pi. metaphori- 
cally in relation to rain, by way of comparison, 

ll^l c~el* cJLij li ( U • 

[in which, for c .L.1, I read >^JU»3 ; for the 
verse, literally rendered, seems to mean, t Its 
teats were abundant as the abundance of its heavy 
rain, (or rather I would read «Jvj »ji£) Ay reason 
of the abundance &c.,) so t/tat n>A«n if flowed 
with rain, as though it were milked, tA* teats 

jroured forth exuberantly] . (T A. ) «$£) I juil 

t [Ditch's dugs] is an appellation of the tree called 


ltU~« [i. e. /A« sebesten]. (TA in art IsA >, q. v.) 

see the next preceding paragraph. 

«S*~1», like <U^i, on the authority of Fr, in the 
K erroneously wntten 2*J», (TA,) [and also 

there misplaced, for, with ^i (in the CK y£) 
preceding it, it shoujd follow immediately after 
the explanation of the phrase iiUI C«m*, being 
the part, n., and thus signifying Whose ._«£ is 
flaccid, flabby, or pendulous,] applied to a she- 
camel ; (Fr, TA ;) and jiyJ» signifies the same ; 
(Fr, K, TA;) or this is applied to a she-goat, 
meaning dugs (UUJU.) descend towards tlie 
ground. (So in one of my copies of the S : in the 
other copy omitted.) 

s . •• • * 

^jJs* ULU. i. q. w . ( » • [meaning Yielding 

milk] ; (S, £ ; [thus in my copies of the S, and 
in copies of the K ; but said in the TA to be 
written in the $ ttn( l '" t' 10 copies of the S, 
^...m. «, which is evidently wrong;]) as though 
called, and answering the call. (J M.) 

1. ^mJo The act of frying : (5 :) an adven- 
titious word in the Arabic language. (TA.) 

You say, »^lll v>«-l», aor. *, inf. n. Ot^t & e 
fried the thing. (T£.) 

^Lli, (S,) or ^m.\L, (T,) or both, (M S b, 

TA, and in a copy of the S written ,>fc.lL,) and 
"0»- *^ » ( s >Msb,$,) A frying-pan; ; syn. 
^jiL*; (Msb;) a J*tt upon wAteA one fries: 
(S, K:) arabicized words, (S, Msb, K,) because 
ia and «. do not occur in the original language 

of the Arabs : (S, TA :) [app. from the Greek 
ryyavov:] the pi. of ^>fcU» is 1 >>-I>£> ; (Msb, 

TA ;) and that of * oW» is j>-Ui, (Msb,) or 
^Ct. (MA.TA.) 

0*t~?iB : see the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. 

yjl.} a .'« Fried in a o-"-U»- (?•) 

e , 

1. ^X, aor. i , (S, O,) inf. n. ^S, (S, 0, K,) 

He scraped it with his heel so as to remove its 
superficial part ; grazed it with his heel: (S, O, 
K :*) or he put his Iteel ujjon it and then so scraj>ed 
it. (TA.) _ And He spread it, or expanded it. 

4. <i»J»l He made it to fall, threw it down, or 
let it fall: and he threw ii. (Fr, O, KL.) 

7. ~Jx>\ It (a thing, O) became spread or 
expanded; or if spread, or expanded, itself. 

R. Q. 1. ^ , L. h, (S, O,) inf. n. iLl-U, 
• .' » " . 

and ^UeukJs, (S,) He dispersed, or scattered, 
tltem, (S, O, TA,) destroying them: (TA:) or 
he dispersed, or scattered, t/iem, and overcame 
them. (IF, O.) And <«. km. in He dispersed, or scat- 
tered, it, destroying it : (Lth, TA :) or he destroyed 
it : (IDrd, O :) and he broke it : (S, :) or he 
broke it, destroying it : (TA :) and Ae disjtersed, 
or scattered, it. (S, O.) And j^m hmh, said of 
time, or fortune, It destroyed them; and dis- 
persed, or scattered, t/iem. (A.) And -,' i-l f. 
*JU 77e dispersed, or scattered, his property. 
(A.) sb And l.hli. 7/c laughed slightly : (K :) 
or so «£»~0 ^ «. Um W ; (TA ;) which means 

the same as aJb^ and CJSfc (O, TA) and 

1£«V» and jL=>ji> and^jfe. (TA.) 

• ■» * > <•# • # • # 

t .i i l i t. 7. » ».l,..« [pi. of -■■» .,.« and of 

• ^ • 

* : see these two words]. (IAar, O, K.) 

[Book I. 

or goat : (Lth, IAar, 0, K :) or a thing resem- 
bling a SXii [generally meaning the whirl of a 
spindle], in its foot, with which it scrapes the 
ground : (Th, 0, £ :) Lth says that, beneath its 
hoof, in the place of the ilL», is a little bone 
like the 3&. (0.) 

^ 1. iiii, (S, O, K,) aor. « , inf. n. jLS, and 
J**i (^>) H« Mi, or hurt, his J\LS> [or spleen], 
(S, O, K.) a And 'AL±, (O, K,) aor. t , (^,) 
inf. n. J^li, (O,) He filled it ; (O, $ ;) namely, 
a vessel. (0.) = J^i, (S, O, Msb, K,) aor. « , 
(Msb, K,) inf. n. jli, (S, O, Msb,) i/e had a 
complaint of his JULb [or spleen]: (S:) or he 
became large in his JU»i : (0, Mfb, ^:) and 
J^J», like ^j^*, inf. n. Jj^J*, [accord, to the 

Cl£ J«Jo,] has the former of these two mean- 
ings.^ (K,TA.) — And J*ji, (K,TA,) inf. n. 

J<»J», (TA,) He was, or became, of tlie colour 

" * j 
termed <UaJ* ; said of a wolf; and in like man- 
ner one says of a sheep or goat. (K., TA.) _ 
And J*J> said of water, (S, 0, K,) as also 
J^Ja, (S, O,) It was, or became, corrupt, (S, O, 
K,) and altered in odour, (S, O,) or stinking, by 
reason of black mud. (K..) 

J^wJa Having his JUJ» [or spleen] large, or 
enlarged : (Msb, K :) or having pain therein; as 
also " JjaJw ; (0 ;) or this latter signifies 
having a complaint of the JUJ» ; (TA ;) or it 
signifies, (S,) or signifies also, (TA,) Ait, or 

hurt, tlicrcin.. (S, TA.) And f [Spleenful, as 

meaning] angry. (IAar, O, JC.) __ And Black : 
(O, K:) or of a dusky, or dingy, black colour; 
(IAar, TA;) which, Z says, may be from [the 
colour of] the JU~1>, or from the meaning of 

4-XliJI : (TA : [see also jLL\ :]) [for it sig- 

^UJ» [A grinder of corn ice. with a mill] is 
said by Kb to be of tlie measure ^j^ju from [the 

inf. n.] lill. (O, TA.) [But see art. o*^>-] 

la cu-lj ^jle U means There is not upon 
his Itead a single hair: so says AZ: Lh says, 

% * a ****** *t 

imJtmJf aAs- Uj UUI He came to us iwt having 

upon him anything: (O :) or the last word in 
i— Jsi in a~U U signifies anything : or any hair. 

(^.) [See also 


L\±LL\ The lion. (IDrd, 0,K.) 

The hinder part of the hoof of a sheep 

nifics also] __ Overspread with [tfte green sub- 
stance termed V ..U. Ir» ; (IAar, O, K ;) or having 
much yJafcJi ; applied to water : (AZ, IAar,* 
( ),* M$b, K :) and in like manner one says yj^i* 
dJmJa a source having much ^JU» 1». (Msb.)=a 
Also Full; (IAar,0, K.;) and so t J^L»; 
applied to a vessel. (K.) 

aJUJ* A colour between that of dust and white- 
ness, (S, M, O, TA,) Kith a little blackness, like 
tlte colour of ashes: (M, TA :) or a colour be- 
tween that of dust and blackness, with a little 
whiteness. (KL.) 

JUJ» [The spleen;] one of the intestines, 
(Mfb,) or a piece of flesh, (¥., TA,) well known, 
(S, O, Mfb, J£,) black, (or rather blackish,] and 
broad, in the belly of man and of otliers, on the 
left, cleaving to tlie side, (TA,) or cleaving to the 
ribs on the left side, (Zj in his " Khalk el-Insan,") 
and said to pertain to every ruminant except the 
horse, which has none : (Mfb : [a strange asser- 
tion, involving a double mistake ; partly origina- 
ting from a saying which will be mentioned in 
what follows :]) it is of the masc. gender : (Lh, 

Book I.] 

TA :) the pi. is J^ii (Msb, £, T A) and iU-il 
and O^U-t. (Msb. [The second and third of 
these pis. appear to be rare ; for it is said in the 
TA that the first is the only pi. form : and the 
last is anomalous.]) One says of the horse, *9 
a) JU~k [lit. He has no spleen] ; which is a 
metaphor, meaning I he is quick, or swifl, in his 
running ; like as one says of the camel, i$y* *} 
<J [lit. " he has no gall-bladder "] ; meaning 
" he has no daring." (S, O.) 

(J^-Uo : see the next paragraph, in two places. 

J^il Of a colour like that of the JUJ» [or 
spleen], (Ham p. 90, and TA,) thus applied to a 
[garment of the kind called] »V-£», (TA,) and 
this is said to be the primary signification : or 
of tlie colour of ashes: (Ham ubi supra:) or of 
tlie colour termed iU_b expl. above, (S, O, K,) 
thus applied to a wolf, (O, K,) and thus the fern. 
r)j*A> applied to a sheep or goat (Sli), (K,) and 
the masc. applied to ashes (jUj) : (S, O :) also, 
(S, O,) and (O) t ^£, (0, £, [in the CK 
(J*^» 1- v, »l) applied to beverage or wine 
(wjlj-i), (S, O, K,) meaning not clear, (S, O,) 
or turbid; and so " J*-U» applied to dust ( jUc, 

]£, TA, [in the CK1 v'>>] and >^, and 
TA). And one says J*J»t j-oi-t ^ji meaning 
A horse whose *j*A. [i. e. dingy ash-colour, or 

J*J» — o*^» 



, [aor. - ,] inf. n. 

dark dust-colour,] is overspread by a little yellow- 
net*. (§,0.) 

Jj- twt : see J-^-1", first sentence : — and the 
same, also, last sentence. 

Q. L lUM v»*J»» (?. S> TA ,) inf - n 
(Kli,) TVte water became overspread with the 
green substance called «^..JU.1 » : (S,* T A :) or had 

much thereof. (£, TA.) And J£}$\ C^LlX 

+ The land became green with herbage : (KL, TA :) 

or began to become so. (TA.) = J/]J1 

* * * 
He sheared the camels. (K.) — And li^Hi 

Jle slew such a one. (K.) 

and yj^ki (S, Msb, K) and 
(Lh, M, 1£) T/j« </ree» substance, (S, £,) or yreen 
.Wt'my substance, (Msb,) <Aat overspreads water 
(S, Msb, I£) roAtc/t has become stale : (]£ :) or 
what is upon water, resembling tlie web of tlie 
spider : n. un. with 5. (TA.) [See also ,/u/.] 

olJU U There is not upon him a hair. 
(K.) [See also Intuit.] 

Lu.ll* J>U, (S,) and >^A«lk4 fu (IAar, K) 
and t^JUJx*, (K,) this last anomalous, like 
i^ -* a, or originating from the supposition of 
the verb's being trans., (MF,) A source, (S,) 
and water, (£,) overspread with v^** i (?>) or 
having much tltereqf. (]£.) 
Bk. I. 

», IZe ^ferf t*. 

(S, K) and t a,-- t. (K, and thus also 
in some copies of the S) and * l*mJ» (K) The 
I i*»i [as meaning <«&, or rush,] of a torrent, (S, 
I K,) and so [as meaning tide] of a valley, (]£,) 
and so [as meaning irruption, or invasion,] of 
night j (S, K. ;) and the greater, or mam, 7>art of a 
torrent, and of night: (S:) or the first <U»j, and 
the greater, or main, part : or the impulse, or 
driving, of the greater, or main, part [of a 
torrent] : and accord, to Z, jHJi\ * #* *J » ' s 
tropical, and means J the greater, or mam, /?art 
of tlie blackness of night. (TA.) — — And X A 
company, or congregated body, of men : (S, A, 
K, TA :) or, as in the M, a rush, or rushing body, 
of men, more in number than suck as are termed 
ijili, which means the first tliat come to one, or 
come upon one. (TA.) — _ And i-ii)l <i t » U 
means I The Uy* [or wlveeling about, or the 
defeat, and return to fight,] of men on the occasion 
of «U3 [i. e. conflict and faction, or tlie like]. 
(TA.) = See also " 

see the next preceding paragraph. 

A man veliement in conflict. (S, K.) sa= 
And Numerous camels. (KL) 

A species of plant, (S, K,) growing in 
plain, or soft, land, of the kind called \j b+m : 
(TA:) or i. q. Je^J, (AHn, K, TA,) which is 
the best of all tlie j' t - , [herbaceous, i. e.] not 
having wood fit for fuel nor such as is fit for 
carpentry, and eaten by tlie camels ; (AHn, 
TA ;) as also ▼ SjmS, (K, TA,) which is said 
by AHn to be of the kind called u**-o*-y broad in 
the leaves, and having much juice. (TA.) 

* j t 

jty* U That impels, or propels, much, or vehe- 
mently : (K :) applied to a bow ; as also j)L is : 
Or a bow of which the arrow is swift. (TA.) 

j^yh Jj-«( i. q. jtilji [i. e. Torrents pouring 
as though impelling, or propelling, themselves]. 
(TA.) " 

s^LL* Filled. (^.) 

1. ^Jl &m~ir, aor. *, inf. n. ^>J», (S, Msb, 
K,) said of a man, (S,) He ground the wheat ; 
i. e. he made the wheat into &£* [i. e. flour] ; 
and so [but a pp. in an intensive sense] " Aim*i *. 

(K.) [Hence] one s&ya,^iX\i ^mSt t [He 

crushed tliem and destroyed them]. (T and M and 

]£ in art.».) And ^i J£» o-**- ^ - 1 •rfr*' t [-^ 
war tAa< crushes every thing]. (TA. [See also 
ijya~h.]) And ^j 8 1 11 jt^jAm m f [Time, or 


(/<.'«//(, reduced them to dust]. (TA.) And one 

says also, LJ fc>)t C.:>i» [The mill-stone ground ; 
or revolved]. (S.) _ And [hence,] .yii^l C.:«.J» 
TVtc »»^er turned round about; or cotZea* i<«y. 

2 : see the preceding paragraph, first sentence. 

i^mJe : sec what next follows. 

O-Lt Flour; (S, MA,?;) as also t ^i . 
(MA :) or ground wheat and <A« M«; [or 7/ica/;] 
and sometimes the inf. n., ♦ O^'t ' 8 usc< ^ '" 
this sense. (Msb.) Hence the prov., « , ■' 

^**J» L&' « ****^ [■* '* car a »c«na' o/tA« mill, 
or mill-stone, but I see not flow]. (J$L) 

* ' i . „ . , . %!».» 

yjM-Jo A certain small creeping thing, (i«yj, 

S, K, TA,) inform like [tlie species of lizard, or 
reptile, called] ^j^^. j>\, [see art. (>«»■,] fc«< more 

slender (JiL)\) than this latter, that raises its tail 
like as docs the pregnant camel, and, when bidden 
to grind, by the children of the Arabs of the 
desert, grinds with itself tlie ground until it be- 
comes concealed in the soft soil; and one never 
sees it but in a tract of ground such as is termed 

H^Xj : Az says that " <UaJ> signifies a certain 
small creeping thing (<Qji) like tlie [beetle called] 

Jsuf. ; and that t>*"-* ' s tne !''• : [' mt » properly 
speaking, the latter is a coll. gen. n., and the 
former is the n. un. :] As says that it is [a 
creature] smaller than the hedge-hog, tliat comes 
into existence in the sands, appearing sometimes, 
and turning round as tltougk grinding, and then 
diving [into the sand] : (TA : [see also iil^c :]) 
and, (K,) accord, to Aboo-Kheyreh, (TA,) the 
O*^ is m,Mt " called OiJ^ -^ Li- v - ,n art - 
>c], (K, TA, in the C? Oifc ij',) resembling 
tlie pistachio-nut, in colour like the dust, that 
buries itself in the earth. (TA.)_— [Hence, app.,] 
S/tort : (K :) [or] accord, to Zj, * >;»J» signifies 
short, having in him 2jy [app. meaning stupidity, 
or the like]; and IB says that he who is tall, 
having in him 2u<^ , is termed jJL ■ : (TA :) 
accord, to IAar, sliort in tlie utmost degree: (Az, 
TA :) accord, to 1Kb, the shortest of the short; 
and the tallest of the tall is termed J^L^-.. 

: see the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. 

Oy-^° t A war (»->») that crushes (^j^Joj) 
everything. (TA.) And [hence] Qjm mi\ is a 

name for + War. (Az, £,• TA.) And [hence 

also] t A I ^Sfc [or trooji] that crushes (^-' V') 
what it meets : (S, TA :) or a great 3 - "!m : (K :) 
or a IttSfc of horsemen, mighty, or valorous, and 
numerous. (TA.) __ And f Numerous camels ; 
as also t AiULb : (S, K :) or both signify camels 
when they are [many, and are] such as are termed 
Jlij, and have their owners with tliem; (TA ;) 

as also o>*»j an ^ **wj : (As, TA in art. k>fa>> 
q. v. :) and the former, about three hundred 
sheep or goats; (K ;) accord, to Lh; but ISd 



soys, I know not any other who has mentioned 
the u*"~k of sheep or goats. (TA.) 

Cxs^i and ♦ CJ^LL*. (Msb, TA) and » o^J14 
(TA) 'Oround wheat (Msb, TA) and the like 
thereof. (Mjb.)__For the first, see also 0*"-k- 

«- - a » 

iLiUJ* The craft, or occupation, of the ^Ld» 

[or mtffcr]. (£.) 

The rfra^ of the oil of sesame. (TA.) 

^jv^j* [meaning A miller, or grinder of wheat 

and //ie /ifo",] is thus, perfectly decl., if you do 
i a a * 

not derive it from «JsJI : (K, TA :) i. e. i)UJ», 

if you derive it from v>»~hJt, is perfectly decl. ; 

is * 3 

but if you derive it from -.JaM, or from UJoJI 

which signifies " the expanded tract of land," it 

* a 
is imperfectly decl. : (S, TA :) if from -JoJI, it 

is of the measure (J^*i, not JU» ; and if from 

U-tJI, it would be by rule jCyLL. (IB, TA.) 

%* a * ** * * * » * 

<UUJ> : sec iiym»\h : — _ and see also ^j^mAr. 

ija-\}» The bull, of those that tread tlie wheat, 
/Aa< stands [>»>L> i£JJI, for which >yU ^1 is 
erroneously put in the K and TA,] in tfie middle 
of the heap thereof and around which the other 
bulls turn : (£, TA :) mentioned by En-Nadr, 
on the authority of El- Jaadee. (TA.) 

[ijLJJ, mentioned by Freytag as meaning A 
frying-pan (" sartago"), is evidently a mistran- 

# »• A " 

scription, for ^> %t» »] 

H*.l£, (Msb.TA,) in which the 3 is added 
to give intensiveness to the signification, (Msb,) 
[or to convert the epithet ^>»»U» into a subst.,] 
sing, of ^j-fcl^-b, (Msb, TA,) which signifies 

The ^Htj-ol [as meaning the molar teeth, or 
grinders,] (S, Msb, £, TA) of a man and of 
others ; as being likened to a mill. (TA.) 

^>»-Uo : see what next follows. 

ii^i-Ui A mill: (S, M ? b,K:) [also called in 
the present day ▼ O)*"^ '• an ^ tnc same meaning 
is assigned by Golius and Freytag, by the latter 
as on the authority of the $, (in which I do not 
find it,) to ♦ iUfcJh«| pi. &m-\fa* ; and by Golius 
to T «jU>Xu* likewise :] or a mill that is turned by 
water; (Lth, MA, Mgh ;) as also * VU^b : 
(Lth, Mgh, TA :) or this signifies a mill that is 
turned by a beast [as ii^M» and yj^m.\i» do in 
the present day] : (MA, Mgh :) pi. of the first 
.!>. (Msb.TA.) 

0*^> — u*^ 

| .<..». ho is said by Golius, as on the authority 
of the KL, (in which however I do not find it,) 
to signify A place where grinding is performed.] 

see ii^».U». 

y j LL* : see ix^*- 

iJ^L.4 A viper turning round about; or 
coiling itself. (S, r>.) A poet says, 

• * -> - 

* * * * 

jp+r ^J* oij* JU **j* til 

[ With a coiling viper, as though its hissing, when 
it is frightened, were the sound of water poured 
upon live coals], (S, TA.) __ Sec also a^ya-lb. 

• j » # * 

^)j i In « : sec 

_ Also t Milh : so 
called as being likened to corn ready-ground, and 
fit for food. (L in art. j—o.) 

jfch and j«J> 

1. ItlJs, aor. j4-hj, inf. n. ya~it ; and LJ a>~b, 
* • # • # * 

aor. .«■». hj, inf. n. j__j»-1» ; two dial, vars., though 

only ifolo, like !•-«— <, is mentioned in the K; 
(TA ;) He spread [a thing] ; spread [it] out, or 
forth; expanded [it] ; or extended [it]. (K, TA.) 
You say, ajywJb, like <»Jy»o, i.e. / sjrread it; 
&c. (S.)^_And you sny, j*ro*i ,.»» hj >_yOI 
Uuu jTAe people, or party, repel one anot/icr. 
(TA.) = ^S, (K,) or uLi, (TA,) also signi- 
fies /<, or Ac, became spread, spread out or forth, 
expanded, or extended ; (K., TA;) being in trans. 
as well as trans. (TA.) Accord, to As, (TA,) 
iij-aJt ,j»« UJ» means 7/e became extended (S, 
TA) w;>on </je ground (TA) in consequence of the 
blow: (S, TA:) [and this is probably meant by 
what here follows :] laLla is said when one throws 
down a man upon his face ; (K, TA ;) or when 
he spreads, or extends, him ; or when he pros- 
trates him on the ground: (TA:) but accord, to 

Fr, one says, " sJ »~l» (V»- ^j* i.e. [He drank 
wre<i/] he stretched out his legs : andjgjUt ' ^mJo 
uoj^\ Jl i. e. 27tc camel stuck to tlie ground, 
either from emptiness or from emaciation : and 
in like manner one says of a man when people 
call him to aid or to do an act of kindness : the 
verb being in all these instances with teshdeed : 
as though, by saying this, he contradicted As as 
to its being without teshdeed. (TA.) Accord, 
to AA, (S,) c- t ifcl> means I lay, or lay upon my 
side, or laid my side upon the ground. (S, K.*) 

And you say, t ^j^Jkii ^/jj jt\i i. e. [Such a 
one slejit, and] lay, or lay upon his side, in a 
wide space of ground. (TA.) _ Also, i. e. laJ», 
(AA,S,) or^jli, (K,) lie (a man, AA, S) 
went away into the country, or in tlie land: (AA, 
S, K :) like \i>. (S in art. ^J».) One says, U 
bkJp ijA ijljil [ I know not whither he has gone 
away &c.]. (S.) And aJLS a/ UJL> His heart 
carried him away (<y s-^i) m [& c pursuit of] 
anything: (S, K:) whence the saying of Alkamch 

1 ****** * A * u * * 

[^. «car< wiucA affected with emotion has carried 
thee away in the pursuit of the beauties long after 
youthfulness, in the time when entering upon 
hoariness has arrived: j^ being here a dim. 

[Book I. 

used for the purpose of enhancement]. (S, TA.) 
And iLo> Aj i«^J> Thy anxiety has carried thee 
away in a far-extending course. (TA.) And 

»>3W i^*~l» He thretv the ball. (TA.) And 
j j » * * j * * 
■ t o* * O^* \^^° ^ MC ' 1 a one became fat. (TA.) 

—m wl>, aor. ) —l a . } , signifies also He, or it, was 
or became, distant, or remote. (K.) 

2 : see 1, former half, in two places. 

5 : see 1, latter half. 

UJ» An expanded tract of land. (S, K.) = 
[And the same word, app., written in the TA 
^jfJo, is there cxpl. as meaning The lower, or 
baser, or the lowest, or basest, of mankind, or of 
the people.] 

*'* f 9*t * 

*f»i » A portion of clouds; as also *[ *, K 

<^Ua~l» ^j c>*«^' J^*' ' a cx pl- by AZ as mean- 
ing [The lie-goat came] in his state of rattling at 
rutting-time (*«j* ^j). (TA. [But probably the 

. . * • r *>* » * 

right expression is <ulgaJ> ^ : see jlj^J*.]) 

(jlaJ? as derived from UJall : see u^~^> m 
art. ,>a>J». 

«j.U» Spread; s])read out, or forth; expanded; 
or extended. (S,* £. [See also ilt^.]) And TAa* 
/tas ^/Wfed everything by its multitude : (K, TA :) 
in this sense [or in the former sense as is implied 
in the S] applied to an army. (TA.) And one 

says i-o-Ua aJLIjla and ' tja Ino and " «t t «. Jk«, 
meaning ^1 </rcat (T, K, TA) spreading (TA) 
<en<. (T, K,* TA.) And ^^..t^-kJI L^jJ*J\ 
The vultures that circle [in the sky] around 
the bodies of the slain. (S, TA.)^Also High, 
elevated, or lofty: so in the phrase >««Jlj *} 
i-».UaJI [No, by the high moon] ; an oath of some 
of the Arabs. (TA.) [And Tall as applied to a 
horse : so i5<»-U> is expl. in the TA ; but this, 
being without the article Jl, is a mistake for 

™-lb.] And A great congregated body of men. 

(IAar, K.) 

• ait* •. 
8^1 ho : j 

see the next preceding paragraph. 

m. ho Spread, expanded, or extended; [like 

*-Uo ;] or thrown down upon his face ; or lying, 
and stretching himself, upon his face, on the 
groun 1 . (TA.) And Cleaving, or sticking, to 

% r+ J * *■ »*■ 

the ground. (TA.) And A .«.i a » iXif A kerb, 
or leguminous plant, growing upon tlie surface of 
the earth, (K, TA,) having spread itself upon it. 

it* * * 9 » * £ * j 

1. JJOt U^b, [aor. -,] inf. n. yiA> and yi~h ; 

and ^ji~l* [of which tlie aor. is app. - , and the 

inf. n. ijLSt] ; The night was, or became, dark. 

(TA. [The former of these verbs, with the latter 

of its inf. ns., is mentioned by Golius as on the 

Book I.] 

authority of J ; but I do not find it in either of 

my copies of the S.]) And lJ tLjo, inf. n. 

I^jmJ*, He was, or became, foolish, stupid, or 
unsound [as tlwugh obscured] in intellect or under- 
standing. (TA.) 

•"Sk * •( 

4. ;lo-JI 0». m The shy became overspread 

with AtLio, meaning clouds, and darkness. (TA.) 

■ • * »»• f 

^jbJv : see <L»J». 

5^Lb : see the next paragraph. 

I«b»1» Darkness ; as also " ie»~b and " Ij t Jt : 

(ISd,]£:) andsof.U-t. (TA.) AndAjwrfion 

of clouds; like <LaJb : (K :) or a thin cloud; 
(M, TA ;) and so t JyLfe : (M, K, TA : [see 
also *lli> :]) but, (TA,) accord, to Lh, one says, 
▼ *~a-±> sCJllI ^ji U, with damm, meaning There 
is «o< »'n <Ae shy aught of clouds. (S, TA.) — 
Also Foolish; stupid, or unsound [as though 
obscured] in intellect or understanding : pi. «j ^ . ; .a. K 
(Az, ISd, K.) 

j^Lb : see the next paragraph above, in two 


•'• «* • - 

<u»J> : see i.m.h. 

ttyLb : see the next following paragraph. 

fClL The darkness of clouds. (Lth, Mgh, TA.) 

And t\JS A# (S,« ISd, Mgh, K») A dark 

night; (8,$;) as aIso»iT^li 1$ : (TA:) or a 
nwpA* intensely dark, (ISd, Mgh, TA,) m wAtVA 
(Ae c/owrfs have concealed the moon : (ISd, TA :) 
and • ~\S> J^J and ^m h [app. ▼ ^4 t> , as 
inf. n. used as an epithet,] dark night: and jy 
t «L^*.lX darA nt//A/«. (TA.) — And O L £> 

iU.Lt [A sentence, or an expression,] not under- 
stood. (8, ]£.*)_ And [hence, perhaps,] one 
says [of a he-goat], *5L*J» ^j* «ilJ> O 15 '* mean- 
ing <ijU* j.* [i. c. TVtat »va* in his state of rattling 
at rutting-time]. (JK. [See a similar phrase in 
art. j~ u and i<*»i> ; in which ajLp»J. is pro- 
bably a mistranscription for AjULk.]) 

:ui: see LL& Also Clouds: (TA:) or 

high, or elevated, clouds; (A'Obcyd, Az, S, I£;) 
as also il^i : (TA :) or, accord, to the M, thin 

• • f 

ctowd* : [see also <U>~1» :] and Lth says that 
^^jfc ,j>» t SsUJp signifies any round portion of 
cloud that excludes tlie light of tlie moon. (TA.) 
_ And Any covering, or envelope, of a thing : 

one says, tuLt <uis ^», and * JcUJ», E/pon Aw 
heart is a covering : (M, TA :) the »UJ» of the 
heart is said, to be a covering thereof like that of 
the moon : (TA :) or JU~L> signifies v>^»> (£>) 
or the KAe thereof, (8,) [i. e. jrrte^, or anxiety, 
that presses heavily,] upon the heart ; (S, K ;) as 
in the saying, iWJ» ^«X3 ^1* Oj»j [J experi- 
enced, upon my heart, grief, or anxiety, that 
pressed heavily]: (8:) or it signifies heaviness: 
or rancour, malevolence, malice, or gn'te. (T, 

5tUJ» : see the next paragraph above, in two 

•ills, and the fem. pi. : see *£■-&. You say 
also ~-Ub y)&> (S, K) Intense darkness ; (K, 
TA ;) [in like manner] expl. in some of the copies 
of the S as meaning ^ j~*-. (TA.) 

>\& ruy, (S,TA,) the latter word formed by 
transposition from jj»lj ; (M, TA ;) and »jlc 
«bilt, (S,KL,) the latter word said to be formed 
by transposition from SjJ»lj, (S,) A custom, or 
habit, that is constant, settled, or established ; old, 
or inveterate. (S, K.) jUb and jJslj are also expl. 
as meaning Continuous ; or constant and uninter- 
rupted. (TA in art. ji»).) 

L >, aor. i , (A, Msb, TA,) inf. n. >, (S, A, 
Msb, K,) He cut, or divided, lengthwise; slit; or 
rent ; (S, A, Msb, K. ;) a garment or piece of 
cloth : (TA :) and Ae cut [in any manner] (S, A, 
K) the same, (A, TA,) or some other thing. 
(A.) — lie cut off a man's arm or hand, by a 
blow, or stroke ; (A ;) as also ▼ Jj»t ; (S, A, K ;•) 
and so ^31. (TA.) He cut, or clipped, his mus- 

tache. (TA.) And one says of a woman, jiaj 
\LjmjL She cuts Iter hair short. (A.) [And app. 
Site cuts her hair over the foreliead so as to form 
what is termed a ijio : sec also 2.] — And 
Jel^^lj JUaJI Jj*^I Ctjit t The camels traversed 

M $0 

the mountains and the hills. (A.) And £>jjie 
>>yUI f I passed by tlie people, all of them. 
(Yoo, TA.) ss Also, ji, (S, A,) aor. as above, 

(TA,) inf. n. % (A, K) and J 3 >, (£,) lie 
sharjtened (S, A, K, TA) a spear-head, (S,) or a 
knife (A, K) &c, (K,) or an iron implement. 
(TA.)_And Jo lie polished a sword. (O.) 

And, (TA,) inf. n. j±>, (K,) He renovated 

a building. (K., TA. [In the CK, juj^J is 
put for jujkaJ as the explanation of the inf. n.]) 
^And lie plastered with clay his watering- 
trough, or tank: (S, TA:) and likewise his 
mosque, or oratory, and decorated it. (TA.) -_ 

And i>~»- tS^-t »»»i aor. * , inf. n. jia, He 
eulogised him. (TA voce y^-.) sa And, aor. as 
above, (TA,) inf. n. j£>, (S, A, K,) He drove 

away; syn. ji ; (S, A, K, TA;) and *}i»l, 

• * • 00 ' * 

inf. n. jl/fel, signifies [the same, i. e.] ijia. (As, 

TA.) In some copies of the EL, [and in a copy 

ia is 

of the A,] jJJI is erroneously put for J^JI as 

an explanation of jiai I. (TA.) — And you say 
JS}\ C^>, (S,) inf. n. %, (?,) I drove, or 
brought, or gathered, tlie camels together, from 
their several quarters; (8, K;*) like \iij» : 
(S :) or, accord, to Yaakoob, I walked on one 
side of the camels, and then on tlie other side, to 



put them in right order. (S.) _ And jia sig- 
nifies also The act of seizing, or carrying-off, by 
force; or snatching at unawares. (Kr, K.) — 
And The act of slapping with the palm of the 
hand. (Kr, K.) = As an intrans. v.,jJ», aor. - 
(S, A, Msb, K) and r , (Msb, £,) the latter 
agreeable with analogy, (TA,) [but the former 
the more common,] inf. n. jjji», (S, Msb,) or 

"ji>, (£,) or both, (TA,) t It (a plant) clave the 
earth : (A :) or grew forth, or sprouted : (8, 
Msb :) or came up, or forth. (I£.) And it is 
likewise said of the mustache (S, A, Msb, K) of 
a boy, (S, A, Msb,) and of hair in general ; 
meaning J It burst through the skin: (A:) some 
say, <y;li Jo [meaning Aw mustache grew forth] ; 

(O, TA ;) but % is more chaste. (Az, TA.) 

<^a. ,JI Cjjio, occurring in a trad., means 

t The stars rose ; (O, TA ;) from Jo said of a 
plant : (TA :) or the phrase, as some relate it, is 
jsy*~$\ CjJ>, which means t the stars shone ; 
(O, TA;) from ji meaning "he polished" a 

sword. (0.)_And Hi ££&, (8,^,'TA,) 
aor. ; and l (Kl, TA) by common consent of the 
authorities on inflection, (TA,) f His arm, or 
Aana", fell off; (S, £,* TA ;) [being severed by a 

blow, or stroke;] like Op. (S, TA.) s= See also 


4. =ji» said of a man, [app. of the measure 
J*i, originally jjio,] inf. n. «jljJ>, He was, or 
became, beautiful, goodly, or comely. ( I Sli, TA.) 

■ %0 • 

__ And LS ^JU OjJ», [app. of the measure cJUi, 

000 & * * %0 

originally OjjJ», aor. jm3,\ inf. n. jjio, My she- 
camel was, or became, clear in colour. (O, TA.) 

2. Ojp», [and U/ni Ojji,] inf. n. jijioJ, 
<SAe (a girl) made to herself a SjU [q. T.J. (TA.) 
[See also 1.] 

4 : see 1, second sentence. _*p*1 signifies also 
He made it to fall off. (?1, TA.) One says, Jo\ 

O*^ **i *" " 0f * w 10 ™ 5 * or w^y ^°« www, <A* 
arm, or hand, of such a one to fall off; as also 

;>. (TA.) ex. And >l, (?,) inf. n. jl>t, (AZ, 

S,) J/e excited, or incited; syn. jj^l. (AZ, §• 

K.)^See, again, 1. =Jl»l is also syn. with 
Jit [as meaning lie acted with boldness, or he 
emboldened himself: in the Cl£, erroneously, 
Ji'l]. (S, K.) Hence, [accord, to ISk,] fj£\ 
iieX, 4&j, (ISk, S,K,) or t^ f (^,) both 
mentioned by Aboo-Sa'eed, (TA,) a prov., (S, 
TA,) meaning Act thou with boldness, or embolden 
thyself, ((Jil,) for thou art wearing sandals : 
(ISk, S, £:) applied alike to a male and to a 
female and to two and to a pi. number, for it 
was originally said to a woman, and is therefore 
used as thus said : (S :) or, (8, K,) accord, to 
AO, (8,) it means t venture thou upon the affair 
that is difficult, for thou hast strength for it ; and 
was originally said by a man to a woman who 
was pasturing his cattle in the soft, or plain, land, 
and leaving the rugged ; [lit.] meaning take thou 
to the jjio, i. e. sides, of the valley ; and he says, 
I think that by the sandals he meant the rough* 
ness of the skin of her feet : (8, K:*) or it means 



[Book I. 

collect thou together the cameU : (1£ :) or, accord, 
to Aboo-Sa'ced, tahc thou to the ji/±»l, I. e. wfc, 
of the camels; i. e. tahe care of them, from the 
most remote of them [inclusively], and heep them 
in safety. (TA.) Some say ifJtl. (M and K 
in art jii.) tim And ono says, of a man, »ji»\ U, 
meaning How beautiful, or goodly, or comely, is 
he! (ISh,TA.) 

1C. jf " »Cjt ^iu-l J< caused the [donmy, 
or ,/uw,] Aatr to grow to its full, or complete, 
state : occurring in some verses of El-Ajjuj. (O, 

R. Q. 1. >>, [inf. n. i>ji,] (K,) said of a 
man, (TA,) He gloried, or boasted, vainly, and 
praised himself for that which was not in him; 
syn. X»jL. (£.) IDrd says, ijbjb is an Arabic 
word, [i. c. it is genuine Arabic,] though in com- 
mon use with the post-classical writers : one says, 
ijUjlt dL-i J*-j, meaning A man in whom is vain- 
glorying &c. (ijStji) and loquacity. (O, TA.) 
_ And AJl^Lf Jktjo He called his eives to be 
milked, (0, 1$., TA,) saying to them ji» jl». 

Q. Q. 3. ^jj>t' He (a man, TA) became 
filled by repletion of the stomach, or by anger; 
(O, $, TA ;) as also Jj'iJil (O.) [But the 
former verb in also mentioned in the K, in art. 
}j±* , as of the measure J*yut ; and the latter, in 
art. ^jii.] 

jb jh a cry by which ewes are called to bo 
milked. (TA.) [See R. Q. 1, last sentence.] 

ji» ji» is said in enjoining one to abide in the 
neighbourhood of the House of God [at Mckkch], 
(O, £,) and to do so constantly : (KL :) so says 
I Aar : (TA :) Az has mentioned it in this art. ; 
hut if it be a word repeated, from jU>, aor. jfieu, 
its proper place is art. j^JU : the present art. would 
be its proper place only if it were jiojio [impera- 

* * * f * . . 

tive of jbjli] : (O :) [F says,] in my opinion it 
should rightly be mentioned in art. j^J» ; but Az 
and others have mentioned it among reduplicate 
words ; therefore I have followed them, and 
notified [the case]. (!£•) 

JL [The fur, or toft hair, called] >y, and hair 
of the ass, that comes forth after t/ie falling off' of 
former hair. (£.) 

jL A collective body [of men]. (Yoo, TA.) One 
says, \jL \&£f. They came all; (S, TA ;) and it is 
said that \jb is here in the accus. case as a denota- 
tive of state, or as an inf. n. : Sb mentions the 
phrase \jL j*j Ojj* / passed by tliem all ; and 
he says that the last word is used only as a 
denotative of state : but Khasccb En-Nasrance 
used it otherwise ; replying to one who said to 
him, How art thou? <siii. "^ ^'l ilTjki*.! [/ 
praise God to all his creatures] ; and the phrase 
j±l p^» ^( c-jIj I saw tlie sons of such a one, 

all of them, has also been transmitted : some say 
that lp» in the first of the phrases above is put in 
the place of an act. part, n., and is [originally] 
an inf. n. (TA.) 

2 *£ > 

ji» : sec ijio, latter half. 

sjj» A single act of cutting [&c: an inf. n. of 1, 
q. v.]. (TA.) _ And Impregnation by a single 
act of initus: (O, L, K :) [used in relation to 
camels:] or it signifies [simply] a single act of 
initus : thus in the phrase »>Jou \ t m , i l l [He (the 
stallion) impregnated Iter by a single act of 
initus]. (TK.) a 5>JI, (AHcyth, O, $,) thus 
with fet-h, (O,) and thus written by AHcyth, 
(TA,) signifies also The flank. (AHeyth, O, K..) 

YJo A thing that is cut. (TA.)__Thc hair 
that is cut over (lit. over against, t\je*,) the 
forelicad: (Mgh, Msb, voce «Uai :) what a girl 
cuts short, of tlie full hair upon her forehead, and 
forms into a row or rows: (A:) [so accord, to 
present usage ; the Aatr over the forehead of a 
girl or woman, cut with a straight or even edge, 
or with two such edges one above tlie other, so as 
to form a hind of border; as also i-oi:] what is 
cut, in the fore part of the <u«eO [or hair over the 

forelicad] of a girl, lihe tlie ^t. [or ornamental 
border], (K, TA,) or lihe the l^o [which seems 
here to signify the same as jj*-, or nearly so], 
(TA,) which is beneath a crown : and sometimes 
it is [an imitation of a band, across the forehead,] 
made of [the blach substance called] >iLolj : as also 
* * i3 'jL ; (K, TA ;) or * \^> : (so in the O :) or 
the latter signifies a IjL wa<Icofj\*\) : (O, TS:) 
pi. (of 5>,TA)j>, and (of J 5 > [orjj>], TA 
[and accord, to analogy of ijio also]) jljit: (K.) 
— Also (K) [absolutely] The hair over the fore- 
head; syn. sLcX>. (S,0, K.) — [Hence, a pp., 
The Sjfc of a building ; also called its iJua : sec 
this latter word.] — And I The <U£> of a gar- 
ment or piece of cloth ; (S, A, O, Msb ;) i. c., (S,) 
the border, or side, thereof, that has no ^tjJk [or 
end of unwoven threads] : (S, O, K :) [and the 
fringed end thereof: (see iuUo and v** :)] or 
the ornamental, or figured, or variegated, border 
(J&) thereof: and, in like manner, of a [water- 
bag of the kind called] »*£ : (K, TA : [Si^lj 
in the CK is a mistake for »jt>»Jtj :]) or the Sjio 
of a garment or piece of cloth is a thing resembling 
two ornamental, or figured, or variegated, borders 
(^Ljlt) sewed upon tlie two sides of a >jj, upon tts 

border : (Lth, TA :) pi. Jjjb (Msb, K) and jl>. 

(1£.) And d\jio [is likewise a pi. of Sjla, and] 
occurs in a trad, as meaning Veils (j^i-.), or 
head-veils, (O, TA,) or pieces [or strips], (Z, TA,) 
cut by women from a garment of the kind called 

."£(-. (Z, O, TA.) And J The side, or edge, of 

a river, and of a valley : (S, A, O, K :) the border 
of a land or country : (TA :) and the edge of 
anything ; (S, O, K ;) its extremity : (K :) pi. 
'^L (S, O, K) and jl^i* : (Kl :) and jljif also 

signifies the sides of a valley; and in like manner, 
of a country, and of a road ; (TA ;) and the 
extremities of a country ; (S, O, TA ;) and its 

sing, is * Jj» ; or, accord, to the T, »Jj» : (TA :) 
and j_^b signifies also I the margins of a book or 
writing ; (A, TA ;) and the sing, is ijio. (TA in 
arts. ,j-i»- and ,_£**•) — And t The two lines, 
or streaks, (,jUJxji.,) i//»» the two s/ioulders 
((jUu£») of the ass : (K :) or £$i£A\ signifies 
the streaked place upon each side of that animal : 
(TA:) or two black streaks (^UJkA., as above,) 
upon the two shoulders (^Ui£») of the ass : and 
applied by Aboo-Dhu-cyb to those of the wild 
bull : (S, O :) or two stri/His, or streaks, on the 
back of the ass : (A :) and aXU iji» the streak of 
his bach. (S.) _ J A streak of cloud : (S, A,* 
O, K :) an oblong portion of cloud, commencing 
from the horizon : (TA :) its dim., ijijie, occurs 

in a trad. (O, TA.) And t A goodly aspect of 

a man. (TA.) — And one says, .-J Sji» C-^lj 
,j^l» 1 1 saw the mode, or manner, of alighting 
and abiding of the sons of such a one, from afar. 

(TA.) And ji^l YjL Ojy t The indications, 

or signs, or tokens, of the affair, or event, appeared. 
(A,TA.)__And »jl^ 'o* j^I>V J& \ He 
spoke the thing eliciting it from his mind. (TA.) 

HJ^y or iiJ^ • sec J >- 

*jijL Sharpened; applied to a spear-head ; (A, 
K,TA;) as also*jj>i: (A,TA:) or, so ap- 
plied, polished; (O ;) or thus also, applied to an 
arrow ; and so * j )j£»* applied to a sword. (TA.) 

And t Goodly, or pleasing, in aspect ; (S, A, 

O, K;) applied to a man: (A:) a bcautifid, 
goodly, or comely, man : (ISh, TA :) a man 
beautiful, goodly, or comely, in face: and somo 
say, ivhose prime of manhood is future: (TA:.) 
or a youth, or young man, soft, or tender, fleshy, 

and fat : (Ham p. 513 :) pi. jl>. (ISh, TA.) 

2 - 

Sec also jU». 

yjjL A she-ass rfruwi away : (O, K, TA :) or 
a brisk, lively, or sprightly, ass. (TA.) 

»tj£ A cutpurse ; one who cuts, or slits, purses, 
(A, Mgh, Msb,* TA,) and takes people's money 
at unawares : (Msb :) or who slits a man's sleeve, 
[in which he carries his money and tlie like,] and 
gently extracts what is in it : (TA :) from jkl\ 
" the act of slitting" (S, Msb) and "cutting." (S.) 

. * ' 

(jUjl* A table upon which one cats ; syn. o'^f- : 

(K. :) or a dish, or plate, (J^,) upon which food 

is eaten. (O.) [But see OkP? » in art - 3J^°-\ 

jii J A boy wliose mustaclie is growing forth : 
(S, A, Msb :) or whose mustache has grown forth; 
(Lth,L,£;) as also *j,yi. (K.) — And jL 
jUb \ A sort of [cloth of the hind called] jt» 
[app. having a nap]. (A, TA.) 

j^£> A sort of J^iii [q. v.], (S, £,) morn 

Book I.] 

by Arab* of the desert, (S,) tall, or long, and 
narrow (S, 1£) in the head, or top : (S :) [in the 
present day applied to a sort of high, conical, 
cap : and a cowl.] _ And t A slender and tall 
man. (§, K.) — And, (K,) accord, to IAar, 
(O,) Lorn, ignoble, mean, or sordid, (•>*},) and 
weak : (O, K :) pi. j*W>. (O.) 

jitut A boy having a ijo ; as also ♦ jj^> '■ and 

the latter with I is applied to a girl. (So in a 

1 •» •-- 

copy of the A.) _ jiajt «yJL» + [A thing, or 

things, brought for the purpose of traffic,] come 
from the extremities (j|>l»l) of the country. 
(TA.) _^lJo ^..^r- An^cr f/ia< w misplaced, 
and for a thing that docs not require it: (S, K :) 
or in which is somewhat qfboUness, or presumptu- 
ousness: or such as is vehement, or violent. (TA.) 
__ \j±* ijyj *U» Such a one came domineering, 

or exalting himself; behaving boldly, or presump- 
tuously. (As, S.) 

o^l*, ((),) or S>J»-», or ijiu», (accord, to dif- 
ferent copies of the K,) with damm, (K,) [and 
accord, to the T1JL with fet-h to the J»,] Custom, 
habit, or wont : (O, K :) so says AZ : (O :) [the 
form given in the O seems to be preferable : but] 
F has also mentioned it as without teshdeed, [i.e. 
SpL*,] and thus it is mentioned [in the K] in 
art.^. (TA.) 

2fi** : see jl**. 

• *t * * i . 

j^jk* : bcc jjjle, in two places. 


1- ^ytM •>» *»• 

inf. n. Jj^i» (S, Mgh, 
Msb, £) and £k, (S, TS.,) He came to them 
from a place ; (K ;) or from a distant place, 
unexpectedly : (Mgh :) or he came forth upon 
them (S, Msb, 1£) from a place, ($,) or from a 
distant place, (TA,) unexpectedly, (KL, TA,) or 
from another country, or territory, or town, or 
the like: (S :) or he came to them without their 
knowledge : or Ae cawie forth upon them from an 
opening, or a wide, open tract : the original word 

is. [said to be] lp [q. v.: see also \jia, in art .}>!>]. 
(TA.) And ££, (Msb, TA,) said of a thing, 
(Msb,) aor. as above, (Msb, TA,) inf. n. olA 
[app. Ol^»]> (M?b,) It came, (Msb, TA,) came 
to pass, happened, or occurred, (Msb,) unexpec- 
tedly. (Msb, TA.) It is said in a trad., /j* l^Jb 
ijl^iM o-*> as though meaning A portion of the 
recitation of the Kur-dn came to my turn at an 
unexpected time. (TA.) ^ jjjl», [aor. - ,] (Mgh, 
M?b, £,) inf. n. WJ. (Mgh, £) and £>, ($,) 
in some of the copies of the K i\ji» and »»!>!», 
(TA,) i< (a thing, Msb) mnm, or became, fresh, 
juicy, or motrf; (Msb;) conir. o/^i; (£;) 
t. q. jji; inf. n. «>t>i>, (Mgh, Msb,) of which it 
is a dial, var., (Msb,) and which is the more 
common. (TA.) 

2. »\jit>, inf. n. aijU, He rendered it fresh, 
juicy, or moist. (TA.) 

4. of^tl J/« praised him : (TA :) or he praised 
him greatly, or extravagantly ; or exceeded the 
just, or iwuoZ, bounds, in praising him: (K, TA:) 

j it/ ii r 

accord, to Es-Sarakustce, 4_j|j-M signifies i 

praised him : and <wjkl, [in like manner,] I 
eulogized, or commended, him. (Msb.) [See also 
the latter verb in art. jjio-] 

Je-lt ol^Jo i. q. <u«i [u e. The tide, or ro/ia< 
pours forth at once, of the torrent] : (K :) from 
l^i " he came forth" from a land. (TA.) 

£$», (O, K,) or * jjjlJlJ, occurring in the 
poetry of El-'Ajjaj, (TA,) A road, or way, and 
an affair, or event, unknown, or disapproved, or 
deemed st range or extraordinary : (O, K :) [or an 
affair, or event,] unknown, kc, and wonderful. 

• a*!;*, an epithet applied to a pigeon, (0,K,) 
and to an event, (K,) Of which one hnows not 
whence it has come : (K :) an irregular rel. n. 
from j^i U,J* \jl» "Such a one came forth upon 
us without our knowing him :" (TA :) [or] ^j\jie 
is the name of a certain mountain in which arc 
many pigeons; (O, K ;) and hence the epithet 
above mentioned as applied to a pigeon : (O, 
TA:) Aboo-'Obeyd El-Bekree writes this name, 
in the Moajam, with damm to the first letter and 
teshdeed to the second : the vulgar say >»U». 
J^ljji, which is a mistake. (TA.)-See also 

tV>& Fresh, juiry, or moist ; (A,* Mgh,* Msb, 
^^ & 

TA ;) a dial. var. of ^Je. (Msb.) 

l^jlb part. n. of ljJ», applied to a man, and to 
a thing: (Msb:) the pi. is Iljk, ($, TA,) like 

ilikj, (TA,) and !(,*,, (K, TA,) like l\&, and 

*" ... * ' ' 

MF mentions, as from the M, lp», like^j**., 

[but this is properly termed a quasi -pi. n.,] and 
»l>b, like *.;.:?->, and in some copies i[fh, bke 
5Ua» : (TA :) and tjj» is applied to strangers, for 
jTjJ», meaning Persons coming from a distant place. 

(L, TA.) One says, ,UiJ1 o^o •$ ,T^J»JI »>• yL 
[2fe « of those who come from anotlier place, or 
country; not of the settled residents]. (A, TA.) 
— _ [It is also applied to a signification, as mean- 
ing f Adventitious.] 

iSjlt t A calamity, or misfortune, (O, K, TA,) 
of which one knows not whence it has come. 

^jJa* [thus written, without any syll. signs, 
in the TA, and there said to be the subst. (^«<0 
from »\jk\ : but I think that it is evidently 
£$j£x* ; and not the subst., but the act. part. n. 

(j*uO), of $£!]. 

1. v^» (§, Msb, TA,) aor. ^, (Msb,) inf. n. 
«r>J», (S,* Msb, ^,* TA,) JEEfl roa*, or became, 
affected with emotion, or a lively emotion, or 


excitement, agitation, or u>u<earfui«J, («U^, S, 
Msb, $, TA,) [of the heart or wind,] by reason 
of joy or of grief, (K, TA,) or of intense grief or 
joy, (S,) or of intense fear or joy: (Msb :) or [A« 
rwM moved with joy, or delight;] he was joyful, 
mirthful, or <//arf : and the contr., i. e. he was 
affected with grief, sadness, or sorrom. (!£,* 
TA.) [See v>> below.] — And JS}\ ^ji, 
,TJ^Jj [The camels became excited by reason of 
the driver's urging tliem with singing]. (A, TA.) 

And jMjisJt o* *W>k [written in the TA 

without any syll. signs, app. w«^P»,] »• q- CJJ* 
^uc [i. e. I deviated (cJj*) /«"> the road, or 
way]. (TA.) 

2. v>» (TA,) inf. n. 4-0&» (SO 7/ < «"V' 
(^, TA.) And e£o J> v> He trilled, or 
quavered, and prolonged, his voice: (Msb:) or 
CJyllt ^y 4-i>k" > s '** prolonging oftlie voice, 
and modulating it sweetly. (S, TA.) And, said 
of a bird, or, accord, to some, peculiarly of the 
,l£i, It prolonged its voice, and trilled, or 
quavered, it, or warbled. (TA.) And in like 
manner, djUjS ^ J^ (A, TA) He prolongeil, 
and trilled, or quavered, his voice in his reciting, 
or reading; (TA;) and 4JUt ^ [in his singing]. 

(A.) And *^jjLliUi lp [ifa recited, or rearf, 
nri<A o prolonging, and trilling, or quavering, of 
the voice]. (A, TA.) — And l^i They raited 
tlteir voices, cried out, or cried aloud, time after 
time. (Skr, T A.) = *Ji» : see 4. — [Freytag 
adds that, in the " Fakihct cl-Khulafa," p. 42, 1. 
5 infr., it means J/c asserted him to have sung 

4. <wj-tl JJe, ($,) or ft, (one's voice, A,) 
caused him to be affected with +->ji» [i. c. emotion, 
or a lively emotion, &c] ; as also ♦ A^ioJ ; (S, 
A ;) [and * <v>l» ; for] <^-iJaS signifies the same 

as vlA'i Ifce t ^>ji3 : (^f :) [generally, he, or 
t't, rendered him lively, brisk, or sprightly : and] 
<L>k>t is said of joy, and of grief, meaning [it 
affected him with ^>Jo ; or] it rendered him rest- 
less, or unsteady. (MA.) 

5: see the next preceding paragraph, in two 

10. w>jlalwt He, or it, sought, or demanded, 
*Jjl» [i. e. emotion, or a lively emotion, &c], (K, 
TA,) and diversion, sport, or play. (TA.) — 
And They (a party, or company of men,) became 
affected with intense *->jie. (A, TA.) = ^ r > J ^-,\ 
J^SI He put in motion tlie camels by urging them 
with singing. (K.) You say SljaJl v > ; .h.T..<l 
J^Nl [7%^ drivers, singing to them, excited, moved, 
or stirred, the camels,] when the camels have be- 
come lively, brisk, sprightly, or agile, because of 
their urging them with singing. (O, TA.) Az 
cites the saying of Et-Tirimmah, 


» - ' » * •-** 

but in his poem it is c~s>J»Ll}, with >U [i.e. 
with the letter <J>] : (O :) [this latter reading is, 
I doubt not, the right ; and the meaning seems 
to be, And their women borne in the camel' 
vehicles, when the mirage of the early part of the 
forenoon elevated them to the eye, elicited anew 
longing desire for tlieir hornet, or accustomed 
placet, from jocose, sportful females, lit., from 
jesting females of sport or diversion : the verse as 
cited by Az may admit of a similar rendering if 
wo suppose >>r...l to be there used tropically: 
the writer of my copy of the TA has endea- 
voured, in marginal notes in the present art. and 
in art. a, but in my opinion unsatisfactorily, to 
explain it; and has supposed OvjLr„rt to mean 
OojJo : his two notes, moreover, are incon- 
sistent :] IkwU in this verse means UjU Uyi. 
(EL in art. i>. [The verse is there cited with two 
readings differing from the words given by Az ; 
cJ^Luthj, thus written with J instead of *_», a 
manifest mistake, and m v— t 'i O- -]) — 
A^kwt signifies also He ashed him to sing. 

^jk Emotion, or a lively emotion, or excite- 
ment, agitation, or unsteadiness, («t « m., S, A, 
Msb, EL,) [o/"tA* Amrf or mfnd,] by reason of joy 
or jn'c/; (A, EL,) or of intense grief or joy, (8,) or 
of intense fear or joy : (Msb:) or joy, mirth, or 
gladness: and the contr., i.e. #ri>/", sadness, or 
sorrow : (Th, K :) or, as some say, the foaV^e- 
rocnt of joy, mirth, or gladness, and departure of 
grief, sadness, or sorrow : so in the M : (TA :) 
the vulgar apply it peculiarly to joy; (Msb;) 
[hut] the application of it peculiarly to joy is a 
mistake: (KL:) it signifies also motion; syn. 
\&>y*- : (K :) it is said in the M, Th says that 

Vj*" is derived from i/&jmJ\ ; whence it seems 

j - ? * * * * 

that «r>pB)l is, in his opinion, syn. with 2&»jaJI ; 

but [ISdadds] I know not this: (TA:) [it does, 

however, obviously imply the signification of 

motion, either ideal or actual :] also desire, or 

yearning or longing of the soul: (K :) the pi. is 

v'A'- (TA.) A poet says, (8,) namely, En- 
Nabighah El-Jaadee, using it in relation to 
anxiety, (TA,) 

[And I perceive myself to be affected with 
emotion, or a lively emotion, after them, (i.e. 
after the loss of them,) with the emotion of him 
who is bereft of offspring or friends, or like him 
who it insane in mind] : (8, TA :) <*Jty I here 
signifies J£>Ul; and j'ym. J\ means ,>L o-* 
*iXi J>. (TA.)-oAnd [the pi.] vl^l signi- 
fies Choice sweet-smelling plants : (K :) or 
[simply] tweet-smelling plants : (TA :) and die 
more fragrant of tuck plantt. (O, TA.) 

^>jif Affected with ^>Jo [i.e. emotion, or a 
lively emotion, &c] : (8, A, O, Msb, TA :) pi. 
^l>. (A,TA.) A Hudhalee says, 

Ji2 J#» &S Ctjw ciw 

[They passed the night joyful, or glad, and he 
passed the night without sleeping] : (O, TA :) 
meaning that the [wild] bulls or cows, thirsting, 
passed the night joyful on account of the light- 
ning that they saw, and the water for which they 
hoped in consequence thereof. (TA.) See also 

another ex. in the -verse cited voce *->jio Jj! 

<_->!>» means Camels yearning for their accustomed 
places of abode: (8, O, TA :) or they are so 
termed when they are excited (c~>l» lit) by 
reason of their drivers' urging them with singing. 
(A, TA.)k Also The head [meaning the hair of 
the head] : so called because of the sound that it 
makes when it is twisted with fingers : occurring 
in the phrase «^>k)l li^j ^Jm. [That he may dye 
the hair of the Jiead ivith L>j-j, i. e. pUa.]. 
(L,TA.) " 

Vj> (A, O, Msb, £, TA) and t ^\^L» (A, 
O, EL, TA) and * aj\jL* [which is of a very un- 
usual form (see S^jsU)], (Lh, K, TA,) applied to 
a man, (O, EL, TA,) Much, or often, affected with 
w>ji> [i. e. emotion, or lively emotion, &c] : (O, 
Msb, TA :) [but the last is doubly intensive, 
signifying very much, or very often, so affected:] 
pi. [of the second and third] *_-i jlL*. (A.) One 
says, ♦ ^qjJ h , t l c .**. ^-h jL-k»Jt cJsX til 

* * * <• t 

[Tf7ien tAe plectra of tlie lutes quiver, the persons 
who are wont to be affected with emotion become 

lively, or light-hearted], (A, TA.) And <UU*. 
▼ w>tjJx« [.4. pigeon that cooes much or often], 
(A, TA.') And t ^JlLS, J^l [CW& t/wt 
yearn much, or o/?e», ,/br tAefr accustomed places 
of abode : or that are much, or often, excited by 
reason of tlieir drivers' urging tliem with singing: 
seev^]. (A,TA.) 

w>tx« and " ijji>-» A separate, or straggling, 
road, or way : (S, O :) or a narrow road, or 
way : (El :) or the former, a conspicuous road or 
way : (I Aar, TA :) and the latter, a small road, 
or way, leading into a great one: or a narrow 
road, or way, apart from others: (TA :) or a 
small road, or way, branching off from a main 
road : (O :) pi. ^^ : (S, O :) [it is said (but 
see 1, last sentence,) that] there is no verb corres- 
ponding thereto. (TA.) A poet says, (S,) namely, 
Aboo-Dhu-eyb, (O, TA,) 

(S, O, TA) i. e. Many a desert tract, like the 
division of the hair of the head in narrowness, 
narrow conspicuous [or straggling] roads, or 
ways, [whereof the portions over which the eye 
can reach are far-extending,] protract ; some of 
these roads, or ways, tending this way and some 
that way. (TA. [w»jUx« is here with tenween 
for the sake of the measure. See also k^oj. 
Perhaps the poet means to liken the said roads 
to the ropes of a tent]) It is said in a trad., 

[Book I. 

i^iajl jfft &+ «Xil t^x) [May God curse him 
who alters the l»jJx«] ; i. e., the road thus called. 

<ypx« : see the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. 

• * • ■ j# 

wtl^Job*, and its pi. : see <~>jjl>, in four places. 

•» » • t * » 

a^jjk* : see VA^- 

Q. 1. *>lyf Jj>b jETs extended [or miMea*] Ati 
Mrine upwards. (S, O, KL.) _ And J^>b ife 
dragged his skirt, and walked with a proud and 
self-conceited gait, stretching out his arms. (0.) 

Jl^J» A high portion of a wall; (8, 0;) 
whence the saying, in a trad., that when any one 
passes by a leaning JX>j^, he should quicken his 
pace : (O :) ft resembles a Jjiki* of thejli\i+ of 
the Ajam, being in form like a Z*tij,o [q. v.] : 
(AO, O, TA :) or a sign of the way, constructed 
(O, K) upon a mountain : (O :) and (O, 5) 
accord, to IDrd, (O,) a portion of a mountain, 
and of a wall, elongated inform towards the sky, 
(O, KL,) and inclining: (O :) and any high build- 
ing: (K :) [and this seems to be meant by what 
here next follows :] accord, to I Aar, a high, or 
an overtopping, or overlooking, ojdk : (TA :) 
and, (S, O, K,) as some say, (O,) a great, high, 
or overtopping, rock (S, O, K) of a mountain : 
(>S, K : ) ISh says that it is a structure erected as 
a sign for liorses to run thereto in a race, and one 
kind thereof is like the JjU» [q. v.] : Fr, that it 

" * ■ + 

signifies a Ismy* [q. v.] : (TA :) and [it is said 
that] the Jtf jp» of Syria are its %ffyo. (S, O, 
K.) Az mentions his having heard [the pi.] 
^y~i\yb, and J<jlj« likewise, applied to Booths 
constructed of palm-branches, in which the watchers 
of the palm-trees slielter themlseves from tlie sun. 

j~>l> [perhaps from the Latin " tribula" or 
" tribulum"] The [machine, or drag, called] ^y 
[q. v.] wt'tA which the heap of corn is thrashed. 
(Ibn-'Abbad, 0,$.) 

vJhjjfJt l\jj\n» Sjttf. A jar long in the sides. 


R. Q. 2. vii>J lie gathered, or collected, the 
species of plants called <£jyjj». (S, Msb, El.) 

S>ji» Any plant (CjQ, K [so in the TA and 
in my MS. copy of the K, in the CK .U^, which 
is an evident mistranscription,]) that is fresh and 
juicy. (£.) 

ijfc The extremity of the & [q. v.]. ($.) 
_ And Flaccidity, or flabbiness. (L.) 

^>y_fio A species of plant, which it eaten ; (S, 
K ;) [app. a kind, or species, of fungus ; perhaps 
a species of phallus;] a plant of the tame kind as 

Book I.] 

the oyji and the Oy*J* 5 (JMr, T in art. £'i ;) 
accord, to Lth, a slender, oblong plant, inclining 
to redness, and serving as a il^j to the stomach 
[app. meaning a stomachic], included among 
medicines, of which there is a bitter sort and 
a sweet sort; (Msb;) in the M said to be a 
plant of the sands, long and slender, similar to 
the jLi [q. v.], inclining to redness, which dries, 
and serves as a cCj to the stomach ; n. un. with 
{ ; on the authority of AHn: it is of two sorts; 
one sweet, which is the red; and one bitter, which 
is the whiie; IAar says that it is a plant of the 
length of a cubit, liaving no leaves, as though it 
mere of the same hind as the truffle ; (TA ;) Az 
gays that the ■isyjb of the desert has no leaves 
(Msb, TA) nor any fruit, (TA,) grows in the 
sands (Msb, TA) and in tlie level grounds, (TA,) 
has in it no acidity, (Msb,) but a sweetness in- 
clining to astringency and bitterness, and is red, 
with a round liead, (Msb, TA,) like the glans of 
a man's penis : (TA :) [Ibn-Secna (whom we call 
Aviccnna), in his list of medicinal simples, (book 
ii., p. 183 of the printed ed.,) describes £~j\'J* 
as pieces of wood in a rotting state, of tfte thickness 
of a finger, and in length less and more, having an 
astringent taste, and dust-coloured; said to be 
brought from the desert. Sec also 33y*.] The 
Arabs say, tf ,J$ $ i^J> [Turthootlielts 
without artdlts] : because the former grow not 
save with the latter : a prov., like «£~^ *$ ^'i 
y : applied to him who is ruined, and has 
nothing remaining, after having had ancestry 
and rank and wealth. (TA. [See also art. ^IJ, 
last sentence.]) — Also I The glans of a man's 
penis: (£, TA:) so called as being likened to 
[the head of] the plant above described. (TA.) 

1. a^>, and ** £•>, (S, A, Mgh, O, Msb, £,) 
the latter allowable because a verb that is syn. 
with another verb may have the same govern- 
ment as the latter, and ~Je is syn. with a verb 

that is trans, by means of v» a8 wi " De shown 
in what follows, (Msb,) aor. s , (Mgh, Msb, K,) 
inf. n. 1>£, (§, Mgh, 0, Msb,) He cast it, threw 
it, or flung it ; or cast, threw, or flung, it away ; 
[and particularly as a thing of no account; (see 

pi; ;)] "J™- *Ua» (?» A » °» SO or «# ls*j» 
<Mgh, Msb,) and #tfffj (A, Mgh;) •* £y 
[from his hand], (Mgh.) You say, a) L'Jo 
<SC*)I (A, TA) lie threw to him the pillow, 
or cushion ; syn. ♦UJl. (TA.) And »TjJ)l c«*J<* 
.ytflc jjJLc I threw the [garment catted] »ljj 
upon my shoulder; syn. a^aII. (Msb.) And 
[hence] ilUJI a«1» Jji* J He put, or proposed, 

(lit threw,) to him the question : (A,* TA :) 
thought by ISd to be post-classical. (TA.) 
[And in post-classical language, «-^l» signifies 
also The making a throw in the game of back- 

gammon and the like ; and the making a move 

» * * * 
in the game of chess &c] — Also, i. e. *»>jl» 

and a/ *->!», He removed it; placed it, or put 
it, at a distance; put it away, or far away; 
[cast it off, rejected it, or discarded it;] (ISd, 
K,TA;) as also t£^£lj (S.,A,0,$;) [re- 
specting which see 8 in art 9-j^i] and ▼ a>»JJ», 
(]£,) inf. n. *-ij& ; (TA ;) or this last signifies 
he cast it, threw it, or flung it, or he cast, threw, 
or flung, it away, much, or frequently. (S, A, O.) 
One says, ^jL» jk> o:& ,jjb\ C^J> i. c. 
t [Removal, or distance, or the place to which lie 
journeyed,] rendered such a one [utterly] remote 
[or cast away]. (S, O, TA. [Here v-j)** is an 
inf. n.]) And [in like manner] J£> ^jJI <u »-jJ> 
9-'j^» i.e. J [Time, or fortune,] removed him, or 
separated him, [utterly,] from his family and 
kindred. (TA.) And y&JI *jJk J\ iW> U 
J [Tf7iaf has driven thee to tliese regions ?]. (A.) 
And _^*> j^c JoW] r->*»l t [CVi-si tlioufrom thee, to 
them, t/ieir covenant ; i. e. reject t<, or renounce 
t'<, to t/tem]. (Bd in viii. 00.) And tj* * —>1>I 
*£~> jutJI I [DixmLv thou this discourse]. (A, TA. 
[See the pass. part, n., below.]) And t p-ji»\ 
^^5 i^£j£* t -£«' <Aoa afone, or abstain thou 
from, thanking me and blaming me. (Har p. 
332.) = L£>, (IAar, O, K,) aor. - , (K,) inf. n. 

r^J», (T?,) He (a man, IAar,0) was, or became, 
evil in disposition. (IAar, O, K.) — And He 
enjoyed, or led, a life of ample ease and comfort. 
(IAar, O, £0 

2 : see 1. _ £>, (S, A, O, $,) inf. n. £o&, 

(S, K,) signifies also J //c matfe a thing fon<7, or 
he made it At#A : (TA :) or he made his building 
long ; (S, K ;) as also ♦ f»J*, (S, and K in art 
«_e»]*,) in which the > is [said to be] augmenta- 
tive : (S :) or both signify he made his building 
long and high : (A :) or the former signifies he 
made his building very long. (O.)^And He 
(a horse) took long, or wide, steps in running. 
(O, TA.) 

3. j>y£}\ 4»>.jUbc« is a phrase well known : (S, 

K :) •WjUa«)I signifies t The bandying of words, 
one with another; (KL, and Har p. 190;) the 
holding a colloquy, or a discussion, with another : 
and it is [said to be] primarily used in relation 
to singing. (Har ibid.) You say; >^iul a»-jU» 
t He held a colloquy, or a discussion, with him. 
(MA.) And ^JUll a£.jI£ and «UAM t [I bandied 
with him scientific discourse and songs], (A.) [See 
also 6.] 

4. £j£l : Look tkou : (A, TA :) from 3j» 
^L» and L^fc. (TA.) 

[5. f-jioj He attired himself with a im-jL : a 
post-classical word.] 


6. tjA-jULj t They bandied questions, one with 
another ; put, or proposed, (lit. threw,) questions, 
one to another. (A.) 

8. «->bl : see 1, in three places. 

Q. Q. 1. ^»J»: see 2; and see also art 

J-^i. (S, A, ?) and t ££ and t ^ (£) A 

thing (S, A) cast, thrown, or flung, away, syn. 
jl^ki, (S, A, ^,) and not wanted by any one. 
(S.) One says, J-tl U U.^ JUU. Cj\* f [If 
thy household goods passed the night, or remained 
during the night, cast away and neglected, they 
would not be taken]. (A, TA.) = And £jl» 
signifies also Tho leopard: sosaysAboo-Khcyrch: 
pl.^>. (0.) 

«_^i t Distance, or remoteness. (TA.) — Sec 
also t-^>», m two places. 

Aa»j£ The [art j'cfe of apparel catted] o^— M» 
[q. v.] : (O, ?1 :) it was not known to tho Arabs. 
(O.) [See De Sacy's Chrcst. Arabe, sec cd., ii. 
207-209 : and Dozy's Diet, des Noms des 
VetemenU chex les Arabes, pp. 254-202. It is 
now applied in Egypt to a kind of head-veil 
worn by women, the two ends of which gene- 
rally hang down behind, nearly reaching to the 
ground : but it is often worn in another manner ; 
about a quarter of it hanging down behind, and 
the remainder being turned over tho head, and 
under the chin, and over the head again, so that 
the middle part covers the bosom, and both ends 
hang down behind : it is a piece of muslin, or 
the like, often embroidered at each end ; about 
three quarters of a yard in width, and in length 
nearly equal to twice the height of the wearer.] 

£>: see^. 

mJjL : see the next paragraph. 

l-i'ji> \A distant place; as also T j-ji», (?, 
£,) and t £l>, (If.,) and [app. t ^ti, for] one 
says jtjlyk jQ> t Distant dwellings or abodes [as 
though the latter word were pi. of i».jU>]. (A, 
TA.) [Hence,] L)JL Z21 t [A stage of a 
journey] far-extending. (A,* : in a copy of 
the former a2£.) And * ^lA jt* t A far, or 
distant, journey : (As, S, O, 50 or • aara ^ 
journey. (TA.) And gjp£ lj, (TA,) or 
tl>, (T, ?,TA, and O in art £>«&,) like 
l^A, (O in that art,) t. q. «j^ [app. meaning 
f A distant, or remote, thing, or place, that is the 
object of an action or a journey]. (T, O, 50 
And r-jj)* <Cu..> iA palm-tree having long 
racemes : (S, 0, 50 or °f wAwA the upper 
part is far from the lower : pi. p-jif, with two 
dammehs. (TA.) _ r-ij^ \j*£ X A bow that 
propels the arrow with vehemence ; (S, A, O ;) 


i. q. 9-jj-o t (S, O, K :) or that tend* the arrow 
far : (TA :) or that sends it to the furthest 
limit. (AHn, TA.) And Lj'jL j4-j I A man 
who, when he compresses, impregnates. (Lh, O, 
£.) And yfi J^ t f. q. *^L», q. v. (O.) 
And T-i£> o-*j I A time Mat ca«/.i the people 
thereof into places, or positions, of peril: and 
m-jlt t^Jly [or r^*> a8 above, I Accidents that 
cast people into such places or positions]. (A.) 

9-iji> '• see ajl* : _ and see also fjJ*-** 

U^VH»>-: see^j>. 

I* A* • » • 

im.\ji» : see mIm. 

»-;U» : [fem. with S; and pi. of the latter 
pl^J. :] see £j>. 

^.^1 JC ^ fo»u7, (8, O, L, ?,) or taU, (S,» 
O,* L, ^,*) earners hump, (S, O, L, If,) leaning 
on one side. (L.) [See an ex. voce «»JLwl.] 

i*-jP»l f A question that one puts, or proposes, 
lit. tArww. (TA.) 

«~j;U»^)l ^jAJU ^^jU is expL by AO as meaning 

fiurA a ones moves both his arms up and down 
[in walking] : denoting a proud and self-conceited 
manner of walking. (O.) 

*-j±>** A place where, or into which, a thing 
[or person is cast or thrown or] is made to be : 

pi. A,U^. (Har p. 188.) [And hence,] \A 

state in which a person is [put, or placed] : so in 
the saying, ~'jLj\ I juk JJU-jji U J What hath 
put, or placed, thee in this state in which thou 
art? (A.) 

• * • • -• # • - - - 

»-jJ»-» J. 9. cAf*f [(!• v - : an, l i*-l>b has 

the same, or a similar, meaning ; applied in the 

present day to a horse-cloth, and the like; and 

to a mattress]-, pi. mUm. (A, TA.) jLj> 

_Jjk« J vl stallion that sends his semen far into 
the womb; (A,« O, £;) like » Ij^i. (O.) 
And -1>£m> «JjL t -^» eye tAat «ee* /ar ; (A, O, 
£ ;) as also * LoL. (A, TA.) And LHj 

r-'jL* X A long spear. (A, $.) And r-jU" JvJ 
^ # ■ * ■ 

I Quick, or *wj/>, camels. (A, TA.) __ [^>k«, 

as stated by Freytag, is also expl. by Reiske as 
meaning Camela in cujus ventrem aqua profunda 
cadit : but this explanation may have originated 
from a doubtful instance of the . same epithet 
applied to a stallion camel : see above.] 

fjb» Jfi X A [rejected] saying, to which no 
regard is paid. (A, TA.) 

U.ji»£* ^~» f He walked, or went, in a slack, 
or languid, manner ; as though repeatedly stum- 
bling, or throwing himself down ; syn. IfcJllz* j 
(IDrd, A, O ;) like one fatigued, or weary, (IDrd, 
O, $,) and weak. (TA.) 

1. »iJo, aor. ' , (S, A, Mgh, &c,) inf. n. »ji» 
(S, A, L, Mgh, Msb, $) and Yj., (S, A, L, K,) 
or the latter is a simple subst., (Msb,) He drove 
away him, or it ;' as also t tijL and * »>ji>\ : 
(L :) he drove him away, expelled him, or 
banished him, (ISk, S, L, K,) and said to him, 
Depart thou, or go thou away, from us: (ISk, 
S, L:) lie removed him, or it; put, or placed, 
him, or it, at a distance, away, or faraway; 
(S, A, Mgh, L, £ ;*) with his hand, or arm, or 
with an instrument in his hand ; as when one 

says %r >\jZ}\ ,JB. wjbjJI Oiji» [I drove away tlie 
flies from the wine, or beverage]. (Durrat cl- 
Ghowwas, in De Sacy's Antliol. Gramm. Ar., 

00 JJ §0 

p. GO of the Ar. text.) You say, >^t>jS +*>& 
[I drove him away, ice, and he went away], 
(Sb, S, Msb,) using *,«*> in the place of the 
quasi-pass., (Msb,) not using [in this case] the 

00% 0.0 0% 

measure JjuuI (S, A) nor ^)j£b\, (S,) [i. e.]you 

do not say * j/Jtuit nor t jj-t>l, (Sb, Msb,) 
except in a bad dialect. (S, A, Msb.) And you 

• j J M 9 0S M0 — . 

say, ^AijJe^ tjyi j-o Such a one went along 
driving them away and pursuing them.' (S, L.) 
_ And ^1 i>, [aor. '- ,] (S, L,) inf. n. i> 
and ijia, He drove, or brought, or gatftered, the 
camels together, from tlieir several quarters. (S, 
L, £•*) _ [And iji», aor. and inf. n. as above, 
t He coursed, pursued, hunted, or strove to gain 
possession of or to catch, wild animals or the 

%0f , >" * * 

like] : the inf. n. ,jk is expl. as signifying <U)1>* 
j'-^'i [and j/is is very frequently used in this 

* t0 0tS 0SM0 000 

sense]. (S, $.) You say, cA—* 1 ' ^^o— >ji*i p-j*. 
t JBTe nwnt forth to course, pursue, hunt, snare, 
entrap, or catch, the wild asses. (A.) And 
jJJalt v^3' «^o>k f 57m; t/of/j drove away, and 
pursued closely, the wild animals, or the like. (L.) 
And jtt<v)l » 3jU», inf. n. ^!>J>, t He circum- 
vented, in order to snare, entrap, or catch, t/ie 
wild animal, or wild animals, or the like; and in 
like manner, a serpent. (L.) __ And >^Sil Co^L 
J came to the people, or party, or came w/wn 

»*«•#! J •*! 


[Book I. 

♦ 1 ' • ' » M M 

them, or destroyed them, (^^Jl, K, or 
^^JLe, T, S, L,) and passed through them. (T, 
S,L, £.)_- And ^^JLiiiS ^r^Jl J>>3 j^jH 
{ 7%« tuiW blows away with violence the pebbles 

and the dust. (A.) — And v'j— " >j^* O^f* 1 ' 
t 2%* plains have the mirage running along them 
like water. (A.) — And y*\ ^J (jr^-a^ Oji J» 
>o^i)l J [7 directed my observation to the affair, 
or ca*e, 0/ Me people, or parly]. (A.) — And 
ill—JI ^ji i^>j>J1 oj^j f 7 ;«i< forward an 
opposition, or a contradiction, in the question: 
app. from »j^Uk«JI meaning " the making to run 
in a race." (Msb.) 

2 : see 1, first sentence : and see also 4 ; the 

• 1 0- »** 

latter, in two places. — One says also, &iyo >ji» 
X He prolonged his voice ; syn. » ju> : (A, TA :*) 

or J»^JI JujJeu signifies »jm [i. e. <Ae extending, 
or stretching forth, the whip], (K, TA.) [The 

latter I think a mistranscription.] — ^»ys»j» « j>t, 
said of a judge, means J 2fe 6a (ie Aim, (i. e. a 
litigant) to invalidate their testimony, or evidence, 
if able to do so. (TA, from a saying of Esh- 

3. ajji ijU», (A,) inf. n. Ojli»_o and j'^J» ; 
(S, A, K,) I He charged upon, or assaulted, or 
attacked, his adversary, (S, A, I£,) in war (S) 
&c, (TA,) the latter doing the same, (S, ^[,) and 
fought him, whether he drove him away or 
not. (A.) One says, i\j£i\ ^Cyi ^* J They are 
the horsemen who c/iarge upon, assault, or at- 
tack, one another. (S, £,TA.) >,U», inf. n. 

SjjUa-o, signifies [also] t He made [a horse] to 
run in a race. (Msb.)__ ju^JI jjU» : see 1, 
latter half. 

4. *ij)o\ He made him, or caused him, (ISh, 
ISk, S, Mgh,) or Ae ordered him, (L, If,) to Je 
driven aivay, expelled, banished, removed, or put 
or placed at a distance or away or /ar away, 
(ISh, ISk, S, Mgh, L, If,) *o a* not to 6e t'n a 
*tote of security; (ISh, Mgh, TA ;) said of the 
Sultan : (Mgh :) or Ae (the Sultan, S, L) ordered 
that lie should be expelled, or banished, (S, L, £>) 
from his, (S, L,) or fvm the, (If,) town, or 
country : (S, L, KL :) or jJUl ^>* o^bl , and * »^jJ» 
with teshdecd, Ae (the Sultan) expelled him, or 
banislted him, from the town, or country. (Msb.) 
— And J^NI j»jl»l He ordered tluit tlte camels 
should be driven, or brought, or gathered, togetlter, 
from tlieir several quarters. (S, L.) — And 
jtiii\ Ujjil JPe «enr the lie-goats among tlte herd. 

(IAar, TA.) And o>l, (L, K,) inf. n. \\jL\, 

(A'Obeyd, Mgh,) He (i. e. a person about to 
race with another, L) said to him, If thou outstrip 
me I will give thee such a thing, and if I outstrip 
thee thou shall give me such a thing ; (A'Obeyd, 
Mgh, L, $ ;) as also t kjk. (L.) 

6. bjUaj X They two cliarged upon, assaulted, 
or attacked, and fought, each otlier, whether they 
drove each other away or not. (A.) 

7. ijioti\ a word of a bad dialect. (S, A, Msb.) 

8. jj-tl, as trans.: see 1, first sentence. = 
As quasi-pass. : see 1, second sentence. — jjJbt 
il«)l t Tlte water flowed in a regular, or a con- 
tinuous, or an uninterrupted, course, one portion 
following anotlter: (A,* L, Msb:) and wOjJ»l 
jlyi^l t The rivers so flowed: (Msb :) or [simply] 

J 9' 00 • 

<Ae rivers ran, or flowed. (S.) And J^-Jt jjJbuol 
X Tlie horses ran, following one anotlier : occurring 
in a trad.: the verb is originally ^Jj»t; the 
augmentative O being changed into J», and then 
the radical J» is changed into ^ : (L :) and for 
jIjJmI, some say }\jiai\, changing the ^jo into 

J [as in teJaJt for »■ In tX], (Az, TA in art 

»*-£.) And^s-yi ^1 \j»j£\ X They followed 
one another to go on a journey. (A.) And 
i'J*\ >&, (S, A, L,) or pfi, (Msb, £,) ; The 
thing, or fAe affair, followed a regular and ami 
tinuous course, one part, or stage, following another 

Book I.] 

uninterruptedly : (S, A, L, Msb, EL :) and jtjl»l 
j**)\ signifies also the affair followed a right, 
a direct, or an even, course. (S, L, ¥L.) And 
>»"£Jbl 3jb\ t The language, or speech, teas con- 
secutive, or uninterrupted, in its parts. (L.) And 
*jt\ji «2ojJ»t t Hit recitation, or reading, con- 

tinued uninterruptedly : from >lp» >^ meaning 

"a long day." (Mgh.) And j^Jt >>1 t^Ac 
definition was of uniform, undcviating, or general, 
application ; it uniformly, or commonly, or con- 
ttantly, applied, or obtained; i. e. «W </te tatn/p 
to wAm.-A & related followed one uniform, or «n- 
deviating, way, like tlte course of rivers. (Msb. 
[And in like manner one says of a rule.]) >ji»l 
said of a word, form or measure, construction, or 
government, means t It was agreeable .with the 
common, or constant, course of speech in respect of 
analogy, or rule ; it was agreeable with common, 
or constant, analogy, or rule : and, said of the 
same, or of a rule, it was agreeable with the 
common, or constant, course of speech in respect of 
usage ; it was agreeable with common, or constant, 
usage ; it commonly, or constantly, obtained : 
[the verb is used absolutely to express each of 
these two meanings; the context in general show- 
ing clearly which meaning is intended :] the 
former meaning is also expressed by the phrase 
j^-CiM ^ >j£t; and the latter, by the phrase 

jCJul^l ^* >j£\. (Mz, 12th cy. [See also 

the contr. Jw : and see >jb-°, below.]) 

10. jjJa^t lie desired, or sought, to drive 
away, expel, banish, remove, or put or place at a 
distance or away or far away. (KL.)__,)jJa£*l 
*) (8, L, Msb, in the K <U UjU^A,) denotes a 
kind of stratagem, (S, L,) or what is as though it 
were a kind of stratagem, (EL,) meaning f He 
fled, or wheeled about widely, from him, i. e. from 
his adversary in fight, to turn again, by way of 
stratagem, and then returned ujwn him ; as 
though he drew him from a position which he 
could not maintain to one which he could main- 
tain. (Msb.) _ And hence, app., the phrase, 
>tjjbul^l *L S (jic Jii'i ilj f That occurred in 
the way of a digression, not being mentioned in its 
proper place. (Msb.) 

>jjb »'. q. J*JI f\ji [as though meaning The 
young ones of bees: but app. a mistranscription 
for ji»JI f-\j» t the suckers, or offsets, of palm- 
trees ; as though pushed forth ; of the measure 
Jj6 in the sense of the measure JyuU, like ^jakt 
&c]. (TA, from AHn.) 

iji SU Water in which beasts have waded, 
and in which they have voided their urine and 
dung. ($.) 

iji» f A charge, or an assault, of two liorse- 
men, each upon the other, at one time. (K.) 

^Hijb A certain food of the [people called] 

>£tt[piof3,>]. (5o 

>l>: see ijJo^.—.\>\ji> \tL» ijLn o*** 

[app. I*ljj», from jljfc meaning "a spear;" or 
Bk. I'. 

perhaps t Ijljfc ;] f <SfwcA a cmc waft* in a 
straight, a direct, or an even, course. (L, TA.) 

joji and T J&P** (?» I'» Msb) and ▼ ij^L* 
(A) [and * jpL* A man driven away, expelled, 
banished, or outcast ; (L ;) a man removed; put, 
or placed, at a distance;, away, or far away : (S, 
L :) jl*j» is likewise applied to a female, as also 
SjljjJ* ; and the pi. of both in this case is ju1jl>. 
(M, L.) ju>t> i»U, without S, means A slte-camcl 
driven away, and taken away: pi. juljJ*. (L.) 
_ And J One who is born after another : (S, L, 
K:) the second is termed the J>iji> of the first. 
(S, L.) Also f One who is born before another. 
(KL.) And hence, &\jjjiai\ t The night and the 
day : (A, L, ¥L :) each being the jujJ» of the 

other. (A, L.) Sec also jljl> Also tOld; 

applied to a garment, or piece of cloth; syn. 
Ojli.. (A, TA.) And ji\fi» ^y is mentioned 
by Lh as meaning f An old, worn-out, garment, 
or piece of cloth. (TA.) = And The base, or 
lower part, of t/te raceme of a palm-tree; (S, L, 
K;) as also * »J>ij}». (L.) 

5jl*jL [a subst. from Jjjio, rendered so by the 
the affix »,] A wild animal, or the like, that is 
coursed, hunted, snared, entrapjied, or caught : 
(S, L, £, TA :) pi. Jl5l>. (TA.) The female 
that is the object of tlte chase of a male [wild] 
ass. (M» and KL» and MF, all in art. ^Jl.) — 
And A number of camels driven away together, 
i. e., (S,) camels that are stolen : (S, KL :) o 
number of camels attached by a troop of horse- 
men and driven away. (A, L.) = t A cane 
wlwrein is a notch (»>»•), which is put upon 
spindles and arrows, (S, L, YL,) and upon a stick, 
(L,) and thus used for planing them : (S, L, £:) 
J t. q. v^iw, (AHeyth, A, L,) i. e. a cane which 
is hollowed, and has some notches cut in it, 
(AHeyth, L,) through which an arrow is put 
(AHeyth, A, L) and repeatedly drawn [to smooth 
it] t (AHeyth, A :) or a small piece of wood, in the 
form of a watcr-spoul, as though it were tlte half 
of a cane, of the size required by the bow or arrow 
[which are to be smoothed therewith']. (AHn, L.) 
= I An oblong piece (A, K) of a garment (A) or 
of silk : (K :) or a long strip (AA, IAar, TA) of 
rag (AA,TA) or of silk. (IAar, TA.) -M 

piece of rag, which is moistened, or wetted, and 

with which the [kind of oven called] i y3 is wiped ; 

as also t l'}jM*. (K.) And \ A narrow strip 

of herbage (A,'» $, TA) and of land. (£, TA.) 

__ And t The line, or streak, (ii**-,) between the 

rump-bone and withers. (L.) = See also J-ij^>, 

last sentence. = • J-ij&i I is also the name of A 
certain game (K, TA) of the boys of the Arabs 
of the desert, (TA,) called by the vulgar aljl, 
(K,TA,) and some say ilU-H, (TA,) and 
i&qilH : when the hand of the player falls upon 
the body or head or shoulder of another, it is 
[said to be] i-^Jt ; and when it falls upon the leg, 
or foot, it is oL*)\: (?,TA:) but this [app. 


meaning o-''^"] ' 8 not °^ established authority : 

it was alto played by girls. (TA.)avSee also 

what here follows. 

• a- 

y\ji» A small and swift hind of ship or boat : 

(Si, TA :) called by the vulgar * JJtjJeu [perhaps 
a mistranscription for " ijjjie, which is a post- 
classical term for a vessel used for the transport 
of horses ; and of which juljj* is the pi. : see 
Quatremcre's Hist, des Sultans Mamlouks, i. 

144]. (TA.) Also f One who prolongs a 

recitation, or reading, [of the Kur-dn] to people 
so that he drives them away : (KL :) or one who 
drives away people by tlte length of hit standing 
and the muchness of his recitation, or reading. 
(Mgh.) __ And t Wide, sjiacious, or ample; (A, 
K ;) applied to a plain, (A,) or place. (K.) 
And J An even, wide, roof. (JC, TA.) And >^ 
».>ljj» t Wide, or spacious, regions or hauls, (A, 
L,) in which the mirage [in appearance] fiows. 
(!•.)— Also, (A, Mgh, L, ¥L,) and • J^>J>, and 
*'£L!s, (L,K,) I A long day: (L,Mgh,£, 
TA :) t a whole, or complete, day, (A, L,) or 
month. (A.) And i^jS> 0>L-> I Whole, or 
complete, years. (A.)__ See also >l^fe. 

jjU» [act. part n. of 1 : fern, with i, and pi. of 
the 'latter *j££j. — [Hence] J^^l ^l> I Those 
that remain behind, [as though driving away the 
others,] of the camels. (A.) 

iJ-ijieJ : see >\jb. 

>jlok* A spear; so called because one hunts 
(ijLi) with it^ (Msb :) or, (S, M, A, Mgh, L, 
]£,) as also • i\ji», (L, %., [in my copy of the 
Mgh, app., j'j-i», its pi. being tliere plainly 
written Oljyj, though the sing, is doubtfully 
written, and it may be that Freytag, who men- 
tions S}\ji> as signifying a sj/ear, was led to do 
so from his finding Ot>|p», which I believe to be 

pi. of i\ji», written Oljtjl*,]) a short spear, (M, 
A, Mgh, L, K,) so called for the reason above 
mentioned, (Mgh,) [i.e.] with which one hunts 
(ijlaui), or with which one hunts wild animals; 
(M, L;) [a short hunting-spear;] or a short 
spear with which one thrusts, or pierces, (S, L,) 
wild animals, (S,) or wild asses: (L :) pi. jjUk*. 
(A.) [And Freytag mentions .>•(£• as a pi. 
without sing., occurring in the Deewan of the 
Hudhalees, meaning Long arrows.] 

iijis* A means of driving away, removing, 
&c. : so in the phrase ju-^JI ^c JjJt ij^L* f A 
means of driving away, or removing, disease from 
the body. (L, from a trad.) __ And t The beaten 
track; or main part, and middle ; of a road; as 
also t iijL,. (K.) 

iijLc : see 5 ju^i, latter half: hb and l'ijLL. 

ijix4> : see ju^JU : — and i\jlt. 

[ij**», accord, to Freytag, occurs in the Deewan 
of the Hudhalees, applied to a spear, aa meaning 
Altogether straight, so that the whole trembles : 



for that which is crooked docs not. But this, if 
not a mistranscription, is app. used by poetic 
license, for * >>£*.] 

If** J}J>»~ t -A- rivulet, or streamlet, {regular, 
or uninterrupted, and] swift in course. (L.)__[In 

a copy of the A, among tropical phrases, I find 

» k * *i » a * ** t * 

^)y»U\* ^-jb^JI jt Job* J)J» : but it seems that 
ft * a» • * 

there is an omission here, and that after Jj-*»- 

we should read tjk* ; and then, «U1 *~»Jj, i. e. 
I .4 *p«ar etwn ana* regular in the internodal 
portions and the knots.] See ijjL». _- [Hoseyn 
Ibn-Homum El-Murree applies jj C *, as an 
epithet in which the quality of a subst. predomi- 
nates, to yl eoa< of mail, app. meaning e»en awrf 

regular in texture : see Ham p. 189.] -_j C nj 
• at ' 

iji*» t A camel that continues his pace, or course, 

uninterruptedly, and does not become out of breath 

from running. (L.)—-^-!!! jjjLi is used by a 

poet as a name for + The nose of a running horse 

[app. meaning uninterrupted in breathing], (S, 

f a t 
L.) — ijiay applied to a word, form or measure, 

construction, or government, means J Agreeable 
with the common, or constant, course of speech in 
respect of analogy, or rule ; agreeable with 
common, or constant, analogy, or rule: and, 
applied to the same, or to a rule, agreeable with 
tlie common, or constant, course of speech in respect 
of usage ; agreeable with common, or constant, 
usage; commonly, or constantly, obtaining : (Mz, 
12th cy :) [but what is thus termed is not 
strictly speaking and in every case without 
exception; for, taking 24 to represent univer- 
sality, 23 in comparison therewith is ijlx*;] 20 
in comparison with 23 is »,JU ; 15 \$jJ&> ; 3 is 
J-X» ; and 1 is jjU. (Mz, 13th cy. [See also 

the contr. ili. : and see 8 in this art.]) 

a^VJUi* Jy»j f Sand of which one part drives 
away and follows another. (L.) 

1. j^i, aor. ' , (£,) inf. n. j^t, (T$,) He 
became goodly in shape, form, or aspect, after 

having been thick. (Sgh,« £,♦ T£.) : He 

became good in disposition, after having been evil. 
(S.)_ (J ^U3T, J * }£, (£,) mi^L^I^J, 

(TA,) t lf« w<m nice, or dainty (JiU, $, or Jy3, 
A) in apparel, (K,» TA,) and in dior; (TA;) 
not wearing, ($, TA,) and not eating, (TA,) 
ow^At ou* what was good: (£, TA:) as also 
Uv-i tjjk>. (TA.) _ Accord, to IAar, ££)\ 
signifies jOi^ £*yi ; [thus in the L and TA ; 

but, I think, incorrectly, for j£&V £*Jd1 j] and 

'" t • » ** e ' ' 
one says, tjj-w, inf. n. jjj» [app. meaning 2f« 

repelled him by striking with his fist], (L, TA.) 

2. ;#lj>, (9,?, &c,,>hif. n.j.^Msb, 

5,) He embroidered, or variegated, 'or figured, 
the garment, or ;n«ce 9/ cfo<A. (S, A, Msb, $.) 

8. jbJ»3 7* (a garment, or a piece of cloth,) was 
embroidered, or variegated, or figured. ($.)^ 
See also 1. 

jjio, (Msb, and so In two copies of the K, and 
in the Tl£,) like Jja [in measure], (Msb,) or 
T jjJ», (so in the K accord, to the TA, and so in 
a copy of the A,) Form ; shape ; outward 
appearance; or garb; syn. ^JxA ; (IAar, Msb, 
TA ;) and ii^Jk ; (IjL ;) and ij^ : (TA :) as 

also tjl/k; syn. <£». (S.) You say, j^k ijuk 
Ijdk This is of the form, or shape, of this. (Msb.) 
_ J A way, or manner, of acting ; (A, TA ;) 
as also * jtjJ»; syn. of the latter l*+j, (S, Msb, 

5,) and 4*>&i (TK.) You say, J^l U 
0"&* *iP* t -How good u iAe way of acting of 
*ucA a one / and o— " ■ ir* *JLr* * **M ma y 
of acting is a good way of acting. (A, TA.) 

And Jj^)l t jljiJI O - * (?> Msb,) occurring in a 
verse of Hassan Ibn-Thabit, (S,) signifies Of 
[the people of] tlie first [and best] way of acting ; 

i. e., jj^)l -Ot ,>•. (S, Msb.) [But see a 
different explanation of this phrase below, voce 
jl^J».] ^Anything good, goodly, or excellent; as 
also t jljk. (TA.) 

jjJ» : see jj-l», in three places. = Also A 
house, or chamber, (C^,) somewhat long ; [said 
to be] a Pers. word arabicized : or a summer- 
house, or summer-chamber. (TA.) 

jtfls The embroidery, or variegated or figured 
work, (j£z,) of a garment, or piece of cloth : (S, 
A, Mgh, Msb, £ :) a Pers. word, (S, A, TA,) 
arabicized : (S, A, Msb, K :) said to be originally 
}£, meaning, in Pers., " even measurement :" 
(TA :) [or originally jlji», which has the same 
meaning in Pers. as the arabicized form has in 
Arabic:] pi. jjit. (Msb.) — And A garment, 
or piece of cloth, woven for the SuUdn : (^ :) 
also arabicized [from the Pers. jl^J», meaning, a 
royal robe, or rtcA embroidered garment] : and 

one also says, T iJU'jJ» VIV : (TA :) or this 
last is so called from a place named Jt/1». 
(Mgh.) And A place in which goodly gar- 
ments or cloths are woven : (LtJ-, Az, A, 1£ :) 
and this also is arabicized [from the Pers. j\jl>, 
which has the same meaning]. (TA.) You say, 
^•jW jpjif ^ V>*" 'J** J** This garment, or 
piece of cloth, was made in such a one's place for 
weaving goodly garments or cloths. (A.) And 
*tM j\^i» ^ J^t U >A J [It is what has been 
made in GocCs place of creation of goodly things] : 
said of a beautiful face. (A, TA.) And IJjk 
£)*& fa O* O—JI J»^3t t [This beautiful 
language is of the elegant composition of such a 
one]. (A, TA.) And jj^l^jjCl'CMi* I [app. 
He is of the first noble extraction], (A, TA. 

[Book I. 

[See also jjj».]) And one says of a man, when 

he utters a good thing of his own excogitation, 

«jlp* yj* Ijuk f [This is of his clever excogitation], 

(Sgh, TA.) And in like manner is expl. the 

phrase, in a trad., i)j|p* o^> '•** u^e- 1 t This is 

not of thine own authorship and excogitation. 

(T A.) _ Sec also jjio, in four places. 
i , 
iCjU» An embroiderer; one who does figured 

9 «7 — j 

work upon garments or cloths; as also * jj V~ t 
(TA) [and t jl^].__ jjl> ^ : seejl>. 

^ljjljj», or Objljfe, or 0'*j^*> (accord, to 
different copies of the Mgh and K,) The case 
(sj'^t) of the balance (ulj*^ 1 ) ? an arabicized 
word ; (Mgh, I£ ;) mentioned by Sgh ; in Pers. 
0'*)jlP t^ )ut this is expl. in Pers. dictionaries 
as meaning the scale of a balance]. (TA.) 

j\jh : see the paragraph next but one above. 

•s)j» * 

Jjlk* A garment, or piece of cloth, embroidered, 

or variegated, or figured. (S, Msb.) 

■"■** S - 

1. a-ijS*, inf. n. c^h' 9 ) ^Hc wrote it ; namely, 
a writing or book ; as also aju..',.. (TA.) M See 
also 1.=.^jb, a verb like «-^j, 2fe (a man) 
became worn out in body, and aged. (Sgh, TA.) 

2. «u/ji», (M, A,) so written by El-Urmawee, 
(TA,) inf. n. ^jj^S ; (A ;) or * 'tl>'J», aor. - ; 
(K ;) He obliterated it, or effaced it ; (Kl, TA ; 
[compare a-. rp ;]) and (TA) Ae marred, or 
spoiled, it: (M,TA:)or Ae obliterated it, or effaced 
it, well. (A.) = Also, the former, (M,) inf. n. as 
above, (K,) i/e blackened it; namely, a door. 
(M, $.) = And .j^ic,, (TBI,) inf. n. as above, 
(Lth, IS.,) He restored the writing upon a thing 
rcliereon the writing had been obliterated, or effaced. 

5. u*jiaj He ate not, nor drank, aught save 
what was good; (K, TA ;) like yJhd : so says 
IF. (TA.)_*ic u-Pslj He shunned it; kept 
aloof, or preserved himself, from it; (Sgh, £, 
TA ;) and held himself above t/ui commission of it. 
(Sgh, TA.) 

is'jio A written paper or the like; syn. «. 
(? ; A,Msb,K;) or C«^£» lij i^-i; as 'also 
trJJs : (Sh, TA :) or one of which the writing has 
been obliterated, or effaced, and which has then 
been written upon [again] ; (S, A, Msb, £ ;) [o 
palimpsest;] as also tJSia : (8:) or one of which 
the writing has been obliterated, or effaced, well: 
(Az, in TA, art. ^JJ* :) or a writing that has 
been obliterated, or effaced, and then written 
[again] ; as also ^eji» : (M :) or an obliterated, 
or effaced, writing upon which one is able to 
renew the writing: (Lth, TA :) pi. [of pane] 
^ijil (S, M, Msb, ?) and tof mult.] J.^. 

sj-jJo^» One who seeks, pursues, or desires, the 

Book I.] 

most pleating of things ; who picks, or chooses. 

1. Jijh, aor. -, (Mgh, Mfb, £,) inf. n. ^>jif, 
(S, A, Mgh, Mfb, ?,) He was, or ftecaroe, deo/: 
or affected with something less than >r0 -o [or dea/- 
iu«] : (Mfb:) or like deafness : (Mgh:) [meaning, 
heaviness, or dulness, of hearing : (see jjijJ»l :)] or 
J£i is <Ae slightest deafness : (S, A, $ : [in the C£ 

it is erroneously written yip* 0) Dut 80me Ba y ^ at 
it is not pure Arabic : (M?b :) and some say that 
it is post-classical: (S, Mfb, JS.:) so says IDrd : 
(0 :) AHat disallows the root and its derivatives, 
and says that they have not been content with the 
barbarousness of saying J^Jo, but have formed 
from it a verb, namely, ^>jia : (0, TA :) El- 
Ma'arree says that the verb has been formed by 

the vulgar from w*j>»l, whieli is an Arabic 
word. (TA.) 

6. i_^iaj He stood and sat ; said of one who 
is convalescent : (O :) or he became convalescent, 
and nearly recovered, and arose and walked; syn. 

Jsi^i. (£.)_ J£fy „i>J f. q . \t Jlilt 

[i. e. He went to and fro, repeatedly, with the 
young lambs or kids : strangely expl. in the TK1 
as said of a camel, and as meaning lie became 
mixed, or confounded, among tke beasts]. (O, K.) 

6. lAjLkJ He feigned himself deaf: (O, K :) 
or heavy, or dull, of hearing. (Mgh.) 

sJLjL, At In him is the slightest deafness. (Ibn- 
'Abbad, 6,$.) 

J£tf, (Msb,) or * J^&l, (Az,A,Mgh, O, 
Msb, £,) of which Az says, I know not whether 
it be Arabic or adventitious, (Msb,) and IDrd 
says that it is not genuine Arabic, (Mgh,) and 
Aljlat disallows it, but El-Ma'arree says that it 
is Arabic, though tho verb is a barbarism, (TA,) 
Deaf; (Mfb, £;) and in some of the copies of 

[the work of] Yaakoob, ♦ JL>Ll is found, thus 
expl. : (TA :) or heavy, or dull, of hearing: 
(Mgh:) or affected with something less than 
deafness: (Mfb:) or with the slightest deafness: 

(A :) the fern, of J£L\ is i\L'Jo : (Mfb :) and 
the pi. is J^&. (Mgh, O, Mfb, K.*) warn Accord. 

to Z, [in the A,] J->j±l, applied to a man, sig- 
nifies Having thin eyebrows. (TA. [But I 

think that this is a mistranscription for itjbl.]) 

J>l: ) 

see the next preceding paragraph. 


1. &t£, [aor. - ,] inf. n. ijSt, He had thin 
eyebrows: (Ibn-'Abbad, :) or he had light, 
thin, or scanty, hair of the eyes, of the eyebrows, 
and of the eyelashes, (iji.) _ And He was, or 
became, foolish, stupid, unsound in intellect or un- 
derstanding, or deficient therein. (£.) 

HjS» Thinness of the hair in the eyebrow. 

£>£> : see £j&l. — Also Foolish, stupid, un- 
sound in intellect or understanding, or deficient 
therein. ($.) 

£jU» Light, thin, or scanty, in the hair; 
(IAfT, O, L, £ ;) applied to an eyebrow. (L.) 

^Vyi| hjL\ A man destitute of eyebrows ; 
(AZ,S,'o ; ) as also C*i»'»" ijlt; (0;) and 
some say isjJl, but Abu-1-Ghowth knew it not: 
(S, O :) or having light, thin, or scanty, liair of 
the eyebrows; and so j B »U I t bjie : ($ :) the 
mention of the oW**- is indispensable; (AZ, S, 
O, J£. ;) but sometimes omitted, on the ground 
of a weak authority : (K, TA :) and accord, to 
Ibn-'Abbad, tybl signifies having thin eyebrows. 
(O.) And 0** 11 SSsJf A woman having scanty 
eyelashes. (0, I£.) 

Q. 1. j^jijW 4-J»>> >n f - n - *£>> He C the 
milker) called the goats, [app. by making a sound 
with the lips; for,] accord, to AZ, aJ»H» IS w,tn 
the lips: (S:) he called tlie goats : (IKtt,TA:) 
and 2U»»J^ J^Jojii he called the ewe: (AZ, TA:) 
[andFreytag says, on the authority of the 
" Kitab el-Addad," that ^i>°ji» signifies also he 
drove away sheep from himself:] the inf. n. sig- 
nifies the milker's making a sound to the goats 
ivith his lips, (ISd, Kl, TA,) to quiet them, or 
appease them : (ISd, TA :) and the calling sheep 
or goats to be milked, (K, TA,) as some say, 
with the lips : (TA :) also the calling of asses : 

CAz. TA:) and, accord, to some, the whistling 
v » ■ » ' ,#» i j • i j 

with the lips to sheep. (TA.) — Ol^ai ^Jaji^i 

<0, occurring in a trad., means Putting in motion 

his mustache [lit some small hairs that he had] 

in his speech : or, as some say, blowing with his 

lips into his mustache by reason of rage and 

pride. (0.) — And LjsjSs signifies also The 

agitation, or commotion, of water in the belly 

(I£tt,£,TA) and in a skin. (I$tf,TA.) — 

And The act of fleeing. (IK!tt, TA.) 

s-£>k : see + r ^>jL>, in two places. 

AJ^i : see ^J>ji» : — and <Ut>Ji». 

iy&>i» A long breast: (S:) or, as also 
t ^£y&, and, accord, to him who makes JfjJ 
[the "breast"] fem., * ut&j&i « large, flabby 
breast: (£:) or a large, flabby, long breast: 
(TA:) and the first word, a long udder; (9am 
p. 809;) [and] so f il£jJ>, written without 
tenween, in the dial, of El- Yemen ; on the autho- 
rity of Kr. (TA.) One says, C*£>£ &t,jjL\ 
May God expose to shame her long breasts. (A, 

TA.) Also, and * 4-^> t The pent* : (£ :) 

[not found by 8M in any work except the ]£ ; but 
the former word is mentioned in this sense in the 
O :] app. so called as being likened to a long and 
flabby breast (TA.)__^>«1»^3 Cn/^'i [or 
each of these two words by itself] is said to, or 
in reference to, a man whom one derides. (AZ, 
S, 0,£. [See art. j.***.]) 


ilXj-k A woman having long breasts : (8, 
TA:) or having large breasts: or having flabby 
breasts. (TA.) And, or accord, to the TA and 
some copies of the $ * *^A> ( 8aid in *■ ^ 
to be without teshdeed,) as also • i t > } >. »**> 
Having a long udder : (^ :) or a she-goat having 
long teats. (TA.) 

ijjejb : see ^ojo. 
i-jUjjJ» : see <u»/». 

This art is included in some of the lexicons in 
art. vj^- 

1. «Jji, aor. - , inf. n. J£i», He looked from 
the outer angle of the eye : or [he twinkled with 
his eye, i. e.] lie put the edge of his eyelid in 
motion, or in a state of commotion, and looked : 
(M, TA:) or J£kJI signifies tke putting the 
eyelids in motion, or M o state of commotion, in 
looking : (Mgh,* TA :) one says, C* tj** v**** 
wijij [His eye, or eyes, has, or have, become 
fixedly open, or raised, and he does not put his 
eyelids in motion, or does not twinkle with his 
eye, or eyes, in looking] : (TA :) [or] one says, 
j-aJI d£b, aor. and inf. n. as above, meaning 
tlie eye, or eyes, [twinkled, or] became in a state 
of commotion: (Msb:) [or] «f-o/ >-»>^» (0> £> 
TA, and so in a copy of the S,) or »;**, (so in 
one of my copies of the S,) aor. and inf. n. as 
above, [he winked, i. e.] he closed one of his eyelids 
upon the other: (S, 0, £: [see also 4:]) or 
a'^1 J^i [in the C]£ *££«*] he put his eyelids in 
motion, or in a state of commotion : (5, TA:) 
and s£p £*£, aor. U>W, inf. n. as above, his 
eyelids were put in motion or in a state of com- 
motion, by looking. (Af , TA.) [Another mean- 
ing of *j it § >Sj±>, and another of 0*»>b said 

of the eye, will be found below.] iJ^UJ Otfi, 
signifying An eye that [twinkles, or] puts t/ie 
eyelid in motion, or in a state of commotion, with 
looking, is used for kJ>hJ && jj, meaning f • 

living being. (Mgh.) wi^UJ &** J**, *="•*' u 
[There remained not of them one having an eye 
twinkling] means t they died, (O, £, TA,) or 
(O, in the £ erroneously " and," TA) they were 
slain. (O, $, TA.) — [Also He looked: for] 
J^£j) is used as meaning the act of looking (Er- 
Raghib, Mfb, TA) because the putting in motion 
of the eyelid constantly attends that act: (Er- 
Raghib, TA :) and *a>», inf. n. as above, sig- 
nifies I saw, or I looked at or towards, him, or 
it; syn. 'Sy^S. (flam p. 111.) It is said in 
the £ur [xiv. 44] J&£ J£\ JjjJ ^ [Their look 
shall not revert to them ; i. e., shall not be with- 
drawn by them from that upon which they shall 
look]. (8, O.) And in the same [xxvii. 40], 
j\%L i0« i& of J2 ** &tfw, [meaning, in 
like manner, / will bring it to thee before thy 
look at a thing shall revert to thee, or be with- 
drawn by thee therefrom; or,] accord, to Fr, 
meaning before a thing shall be brought to thee 



from the extent of thy vision : or, as some say, 
in the space in which thou shalt open thine eye 
and then close it : or in the space in which one 
shall reach the extent of thy vision. (0.) And 
one says, L5 -«-*. «J>Jk/ o^-» J&i [Such a one 
looked with a furtive glance], meaning, contracted 
his eyelids over the main portion of his eye and 
looked with the rest of it, by reason of shyness or 
fear, (liar p. 565.) And JU^Jt Jj-kJ [app. 
meaning She looks at the men] is said of a woman 
who does not keep constantly to one. (TA. [See 

• «>•* * •# * • m • * *0 M m 

JUjjk*.]) Ana i-oyj jjv i— ijj v°\jji\ \JjioJ 
[app. meaning She looks at the meadows, meadow 
after meadow, to pasture upon them in succes- 
sion,] is said of a she-camel such as is termed 
Xji. [q.v.]. (A»,TA.)_-^ »£J>, (§,0, 

Msb, in the K <l^» >->>l»,) aor. and inf. n. as 
above, (Msb, TA,) J (S, O, Msb) Ai<, *<n«:A, 
smote, or /mr<, /»?* eye n.-i/A a thing, (S, O, Msb, 
K, [in the CK l^jii is put for jjVW,]) such as 
a garment or some other thing, (TA,) so that it 
shed tears : and one says of the eye, C-ij£. (S, 
O, K. [See another explanation of the latter 
in the first sentence.]) Ziyad, in reciting a 

* * 9 B * t * J J /M( I " < • 

1 i U m, said, Oj^j L~i jJI ^ ■£.;.., el wJkjJ* jJ 
OljyDI >mU [TVte y<W o/ </ie present world 
hath smitten your eyes, and appetences have 


stop/ted your ears], (O.) And one says tijlo 
and t «ijj» meaning ZTe, or tr, struck, smote, or 
Altrt, Au eye. (TA.) And ftOl^ o^-" k>> 
Grief and wee/ring hurt it (the eye), *o <Aar i< 

*Ae.i <eaw. (TA.) And Jl^JI ^L <&j» The 
love of the men smote Iter eye, so that slie raised 
her eyes and looked at every one that looked at 
her; as though a iijir [or red spot of blood], or 
a stick or the like, hurt her eye. ( Az, TA.) _ 

«J>ii»)1 signifies also TVte dapping with the hand 
(£, TA) upon the extremity of Hue eye. (TA.) 
__ Then it became applied to signify The striking 

upon the head. (TA.) <uc **J& signifies lie 

turned him, or it, away, or back, from him, or it. 
(S, O, %..) Hence the saying of a poet, (S, O, 
TA,) 'Amr Ibn-Abee-Rabee'ah, (TA,) or a 
young woman of the Anf ar, ((_),) 

t ' it 0>* 



so in the S ; but the right reading is jtji^)\ ^, 

for the next verse ends with ^»j-oj : (IB, TA :) 
[i. e. Verily thou, by Allah, art one leaving a 
weariness : the nearer turns thee away, or back, 
from the older:] meaning, he turns away, or 
back, thy sight from the latter : i. e. thou takest 
the new (j^jt^Jt " UhmimJi), and forgettest the 

old. (S, TA.) You say, ile ^11 cJJi (S,» 
Msb) I turned away, or back, the sight from him, 
or it. (Mfb.) And i>j-<v «->>£> I TVrn away, or 
back, tky sight from that upon which it has fallen 
and to which it has been extended. (TA.)__ 
And JA£ U» eJi'jL Business, or occupation, with- 
held him from us. (TA.) — And t&jf* He drove 
him away. (Sh, TA.) — cJ>>X, (S, 0, $,) 

[aor. *,] inf. n. Jj£; (TA;) and ♦ wd£k3; 
/SAe (a camel) depastured the sides, or lateral 
parts, (\Ji\jm\,) of the pasturage, not mixing with 
the other she-camels, (S, 0, ]£,) tasting, and not 
keeping constantly to one pasturage. (Har p. 569.) 
= J>,(S, O, Msb, $,) inf. n. iiljk, (O, TA,) 
It (property) was recently, or newly, acquired: 
(S, O, £ :*) or it (a thing) was good [and recent 
or new or fresh]. (Msb.) — And the same verb, 
(S, ]£,) inf. n. as above, (S, TA,) He was such 
as is termed t-jujio [and \Jjie q. v.] as meaning 

the contr. of ijai. (S, K.) 

2. sjjie [from the subst. Ojkll meaning " the 
eye ] : see 1, latter half. = \Jjb [from \^jiai\], 
(S, O, $,) inf. n. Ji^, (¥,) Ife (a man, S, 0) 
fought around the army; because he charges 
upon, or assaults, those who form the side, or 
flank, or extreme portion, of it, (S, O, K,) and 
drives them back upon the main body : (S, O :) 
or, as in the M, he fought the most remote thereof, 
and those that formed the side, or flank, thereof 

(TA.) And j-T}\ ^1* ojj. He drove, or 

sent, back to me those that formed the sides, or 
extreme jmrtions, of the camels. (O, K.) And 

» jm § 

J«aJI \Jjio He drove back the foremost of the 

horsemen (O, 1£, TA) to, or upon, the hindmost 

of them. (TA.) Accord, to El-Mufaddal, JL^ij, 

signifies a man's repelling another man from the 

hindmost of his companions : (0, TA :*) one 

00 ft a* »0* 
says, t_rijUJI IJuk Uc o^l* [Repel thou from our 

rear this liorseman]. (O, TA.) — For another 

30 A 

signification [from iJjjJoJt] see 4. — — [Hence 

also,] LfJL^ \00ijig Site (a woman) tinged, or 

dyed, the ends (>_iljl>l, O, Msb, TA) of her fingers 

with .U*. (O, Msb, K,» TA.) And Jujei 

(ji^l T/ie making the ear of a horse to be pointed, 

tapering, or slender at the extremity. (TA.) 

[Hence,] Khalid Ibn-Safwdn said, >££)! jli. 

AjJUo w— >j-ij <wbu> w^jJ» U f [The best of 
language is that of which the meanings are pointed, 
and of which the constructions are ermvned with 
embellishments as thottgh they were adorned with 
*Jj00, pi. of <L»j-i, q. v.]. (TA : there men- 
tioned immediately after what here next precedes 

# a ■ t0f 

it.) — — And * LS ~i\ tJ>l» [from \Jjia signifying 

" anything chosen or choice "] means He chose, 
or made choice of, the thing; as also ♦ iijioj. 

(TA. [See also 10.]) uijib said of a camel 

means He lost his tooth [or teeth] (O, K, TA; 
by reason of extreme age. (TA.) 

4. \JjL\ He (a man, K) closed his eyelids. 
(Ibn-'Abbad, O, J£. [See also 1, first sentence.]) 
^m^>yi\ wJjJ»1, inf. n. ol/J»l, He made two 
ornamental or coloured or figured borders (Ot * **J 

in the ends, or sides, of '.he garment {*t»ji» jV) ; 

as also t eijia, inf. n. ^Jujiu. (Msb : and in 
like manner the pass, of the former verb is expl. 
in the S and 0, as said of a »tjj of jm..) := o^l 
U^M He gave to such a one what he had not given 
to any one before him : (L, £,• TA :) or he gave 
him a thing of which he did not possess the like, 

[Book I. 

and which pleased him : (TA :) [and he gave him 
property newly, or recently, acquired.] You say, 

g ** f ' * i t** *$ 

U£» AJjil and IJJ>v, meaning mLwJI [ZTe ^aoe 
/urn such a thing as a iUbJ, i. e. <U>1>, q. v.]. 
(Har p. 54.) — [Hence,] ^"^i JU»I signifies 
ij>lx) tU., (S, and Har p. 54,) as meaning Such 
a one brought something newly found, or gained, 
or acquired: (Harp. 54:) and as meaning he 
brought a thing that was strange, or extra- 
ordinary, and approved, or deemed good: (Id. 
p. 615:) and as meaning he brought new infor- 
mation or tidings. (Id. p. 32.) And one says, 
\j0i0 *}jie\ [and^ii^ (see Har p. 529)] meaning 
He told him new information or tidings. (Az, 
lA.)—.^!^, ^» d^ OjJ»l [a phrase used by 
El-Hareeree] means They who were around him 
became possessors, thereby, of a new and strange 
piece of information, (iijb i<ji a~-~> Ijjto,) 

J 00 Mt * ' 00 

and said, <xij)o\ U [How novel and strange is 
it .'], by reason of their wonder at it ; so that the 
verb is intrans., and ,>• is its agent: or it may 
mean lie made to wonder by reason of it those 
who were aronnd him. (Har p. 474.) = olji>NI 
signifies also &)\ l££» [i. e., app., The being 
numerous, as said of ancestors, meaning ancestors 
of note]. (TA.) = Jjui o»>l, (S, O, £, TA,) 
and ^rij^t O^J»t, (TA,) The country, and the 
land, abounded with [the kinds of pasture called] 

ai>[ q .v.]. (s,o,k:,ta.) 

0. o/JaJ [as quasi-pass, of 2 signifies It be- 
came pointed, tapering, or slender at the ex- 

( »i J 0t 

tremity : see o u .JI ^J in art. «,*>]. __ [And] 

i. q. \jjia jLo [It became an extremity, or a side; 

or at, or in, an extremity or a side]. (TA.) __ 

cWI O-* ^v"^l *^ O^j m a tra< ^- respecting 
the punishment of the grave, means He used, not 
to go far aside from urine. (L, TA.*) _ OJ>kJ 
said of a she-camel : see 1, near the end. _ Said 
of the sun, It became near to setting. (TA.) _ 


>»yUt jjJlc sJjiaj He made a sudden, or an un- 
expected, attack upon the territory, or dwellings, 
of the people. (TA.)^*^iJI ^k> He took 
from the side oftlte thing: [und] he took the side 
of it. (MA.) _. See also 2, last signification 
but one. 

8. t l j-0i\ oj>jJ»I, of the measure 
purchased the thing new. (S, 0, K. 

10. aijiwl He counted, accounted, reckoned, 
or esteemed, it new ; (PS ;) or Uujh [as meaning 
newly, or recently, acquired]. (S, 0, K.) One 
says of good discourse, «»« < ^>* AipLL^ [J2e 
roAo Aa« Aeard t< esteems it new]. (K.)^And 
*^Jt opau^t He found, gained, or acquired, 
the thing newly. (S, O, £. [See also 8.]) __ You 
say of a woman who does not keep constantly 
to a husband, Jl^Jll UjJbimi f [She takes, or 
chooses, new ones of the men] : she who does thus 
being likened to the she-camel termed i»4», that 
depastures the extremities, or sides, of the pas- 
turage, and tastes, and does not keep constantly 

Book I.] 

to one pasturage. (Har p. 569.) See also 1, last 
quarter. _— And one says of camels, c~>jla^>\ 
%>f^\ They chose, or selected, the pasturage : or 

they took the first thereof. (TA. [See also 2, last 
signification but one.]) 

\2ji» The eye; a word having no pi. in this 
sense because it is originally an inf. n., (S, O, K,) 
therefore it may denote a sing, and may also 
denote a pi. number [i. e. may signify also eyes] : 
(S, O, Msb:) or, (K,) as Ibn-'Abbad says, 
(O,) it is a coll. n. signifying the ^-o^ [which 
has the sing, and the pi. meanings mentioned 
above, as well as the meaning of the sense of 
sight], and is not dualized nor pluralized : or, as 
some say, it has for pi. \j\j>»\ : (O, K :) but this 
is refuted by the occurrence of \Jjio in a pi. sense 
in the Kur xxxvii. 47 and xxxviii. 52 and lv. 50 : 

(O :) and though <^i\ji»^)\ is said to occur as its 
pi. in a trad, of Umm-Selcmch, this is a mistake 
for v3!/»^l : (Z, O :) it is said, however, that its 
being originally an inf. n. is not a reason for its 
not being allowable to pluralize it when it has 
become a subst., and especially when it is not 
meant to convey the signification of an epithet : 
(MF :) [but it may be regarded as an epithet, 
meaning seer, and, being originally an inf. n., 
seers also ; and this is the more probable because] 

1 OjI^mJI [is an epithet used as a subst., and 
thus] signifies the eyes, (S, 0, K,) as in the 
saying u»jl^£dl »ljS *$ u^-*i" >* [He is in a -place 
in which the eyes will not see him] ; (S,* O,* TA ;) 

pi. of t ii.ui. (TA.) [Hence,] J£Lt is the 

name of f Two stars, which precede iy-aJt, (S, O, 
K,) so called because (K) they are [regarded as] 

(Lth, O, EL:) or recently acquired; not of his 
owner's breeding ; fem. with S, (O, K,) occurring 
in a verse of El-'Aijaj : Lth says that they some- 
times apply the epithets OiJ» and iijb as syn. 
with y^fcJ and £~»J, in a manner unusual in 
the language: (0 :) accord, to Ks, iijit is applied 

as an epithet to a mare : (TA :) and <Jjx> sig- 
nifies also a horse long in the legs or the neck, 
having the ears pointed, tapering, or slender at 
the extremities. (TA in the supplement to this 
art.) __ And \ Generous (S, O, TA) as an epithet 
applied to a young man (S, TA) or to a man ; 

(O, TA;) as also * j£t : (0,K:) or a man 
generous in resjiect of his male and his female an- 
cestors : (K,* TA :) pi. Jl>l : (O, K :) when 
applied to other than man, its pi. [or rather one 

of its pis.] is wijjJ*. (K.)_See also <Jji», 
latter half. And <c~I3 ^ Sjb J»J> (K,TA,) 

with kesr, (TA,) [in the CK, erroneously, \jjf,] 
t A man whose nobility is recent : as though a 
contraction of " yjjia. (K, TA.) — And itj-»l 
vi-iJ^JI J>, (K, TA,) with kesr, (TA,) [in the 

CK *SJo,] A woman whose discourse is good; 
every one who has heard it esteeming it new 
(4ijhi,„i). (K,* TA.) = And One desirous of 
possessing everything that he sees. (K.) — See 
also U>j», in two places. — And see Ju^.as 
Also Anything of the produce of the earth still in 
tlie calyxes tftereof. (Ibn-'Abbad, 0,K.*) 

<J>jJ» The extremity, or end, of anything ; [as 
of a sword, and of a spear, and of a rope, and of 
the tongue, &c. ;] thus accord, to ISd ; but in 

the two eyes of Leo ; one of t/ie Mansions of tlte \ tlic £ tLis meaning is assigned to ♦ J>k : (TA : 
Moon I (§, O, K :) [often called isjL\, q. v. :] 
the \jijia of Leo, consisting of two small stars in 

'0 * 0ff0 

front of 3, v .».)l, like the jjljiy, but inferior to 
them in light, and having somewhat of obliquity ; 
the Ninth Mansion of the Moon : (Kzw in his 
descr. of that Mansion:) or the star [a pp. \] in 
the face of Leo, toget/ter with that which is out- 
side [app. a] on the figure of Cancer : (Kzw in 
his descr. of Leo :) or tlte bright star [a] on the 
hinder, southern, leg, or foot, [i. e. claw,] of 
Cancer. (Kzw in his descr. of Cancer.) [See 
>*a)I Jjtu, in art Jji.]_And 1 >«ji)I \Jjio 

signifies 27m eyelid. (TA.)hbAIso iJj£>, A 
man generous, or noble, (K, TA, [see also <J>Ji»,]) 
in respect of ancestry, up to the greatest [i. e. most 
remote] forefather. (TA.) as See also sJjJt, 
first sentence. 

<Jji» : see *Js»^i, with which it is syn., and 
of which it is also a pi. 

*Jjk A generous horse : (As, S, O, K :) or, 
accord, to Er-Baghib, one that is looked at 
(%JjJm) because of his beauty ; bo that it is 
originally »Jj \L*, i. e, j^Jili ; like JLii in the 
sense of JUL : (TA :) pi. J^L (A,, S, O, K) 
and -j\jL\: (O, K:) accord, to AZ, an epi- 
thet applied peculiarly to the males : (8, O, K :*) 
or generous in respect of the sires and the dams: 

[scvuii] evkVnces of the correctness of the former 
word in this sense will be found in the present 
art. ; and countless instances of it occur in other 
at-io. &c. : it seems to have been generally re- 
garded by the lexicographers as too notorious to 
need its being mentioned :]) and a side; a lateral, 
or an outward, or adjacent, part or portion ; a 
region, district, quarter, or tract ; syn. i-».li : 
(S, O, Msb, K :) and a part, portion, piece, or 
bit, (syn. lilt,) of a thing : (S, O, £ :) it is 
used in relation to bodies, or material things, and 
to times &c. ; (Er-Raghib, TA ;) and is thus 

used in the sense of 2Ju\L of a people, in the Kur 
iii. 122 ; (Ksh ;) [and may often be rendered 
somewhat of a thing, whether material (as land 
&c.) or not material (as in the T and S voce jji, 
where it is used of a saying, and as in the S and 
A and K in art. u*y* tic, where it is used of 
madness, or insanity, or diabolical possession) :] 

the pL is Jufif. (O, Msb, K.) [Hence,] 

sJ\j±**$\ signifies The fingers : and [when relating 
to the fingers] has no sing, unless this is used as 
a prefixed noun, as in the saying <-ipis> Ojli.1 
lyju- ol [She made a sign with the end of her 
finger] : but the pi. is said by Az to be used in 
the Sense of the sing, in the following ex. cited 

* - * * • t ' *J 


[so that the meaning is, They show an elegant 
finger like a fruit of the species of tree called 
j^*]\ therefore the poet says «a*£ [which is a 
n. un. : but I think that it is much more reason- 
able, and especially as the verb is pi., to regard 
the » in this case as the i of pausation, of which 
see an ex. voce t>j»- ; and accordingly to render 
the saying, they shorn elegant fingers like fruits of 
tlte — -Lc]. (TA.) It is said in a trad, of 
Abraham, when he was a little child, *»jj ^J*^- 
4»\jlb\ ^J [His sustenance was made to be in his 
fingers] ; meaning that he used to suck his fingers 
and find in them that which nourished him. 

(T A.) And [hence] jjjl j*>1 oip»l t A species 

of grapes, (A, K, TA,) white and slender, found 
at Et-Tdif: (A, TA :) or, as in the L, black 
and long, resembling acorns, liltcned to t/ie fingers 

of virgins, that are dyed [with »U»-], because of 
their length ; and tlie bunch of which is about a 
cubit long. (TA.) — ^>J_^UI ji is an appellation 
of A sort of serpent, (K,) o sort of black serpent, 
(TA,) or tL' [serpent called] j)— A, (O,) having 
two stings, one in its nose and tlie otlter in its tail, 
with both of which, (O, K, TA,) so it is said, (O, 
TA,) it smites, and it suffers not him whom it 
smites to linger, killing at once. (O, K, TA.)_ 

<QljJ1 \ijl» sometimes means Tlie fore part and 
the hinder part of the beast. (TA.)_And 
ju^JI Jljil (O) or ojJI (K) means [The ex- 
tremities of the body; i. e.] the arms or hands, 
and the legs or feet, and the iiead : (O, K :) or, 
as in the L, t_>|p^l is pi. of «J/1» as syn. with 

\\£ [n. un. of <jji, q. v.]. (TA.) [And the 

dual has various other meanings assigned to it, 
derived from the first of the significations men- 
tioned in this paragraph.] It is said in a trad. 
(0,K) of the Prophet, (0,) jLLl ^/iitljl J& 

u>* l# tr- ^ Ul ^ **# JPJ **»• o^ 

Wf t _ 

Ae*jJ» j».l [It was the case that when any one of 
his family had a complaint, the cooking-pot did 
not cease to be on the fire but he arrived at one of 
his two limits] ; meaning f convalescence or death ; 
because these are the two terminations of the case 
of the diseased. (O, K.) _ And one says, *j 
<V>b jU**i t £Le will not have control over his 
mouth and his anus: referring to him who has 
drunk medicine or become intoxicated. (AO, 

ISk, S, O, K.) And t^ftl i-U o*** t Such 

a one is corrupt in respect of the tongue and the 

p.j*. (TA.)_And J^l y> i« UEjii I, 

(in the CK ijj^i,) [He will not, or does not, 
know which of his two extremities is the longer,] 
meaning I his j£=>\ and his tongue; (S, O, K, 
TA ;) whence <J>jo is used as signifying t the 
tongue : (TA :) or the meaning is, as some say, 
t which of his two halves is the longer; the lower 
or the upper : (TA :) or f the lineage qf his 
father or that of his mother (O, K, TA) in respect 
qf generosity, or nobility : (O, TA :) i. e., which 
of his two parents is the more generous, or noble: 
so says Fr. (TA.)__ L >li / jlj| Jiij-£> means 


t Generous, or noble, [on both sides, i. e.] in respect 
of male and female ancestors. (S, O, TA.) _ 
And ^J\jia\ means also f A man's father and 
mother and brothers and paternal uncles and any 
relations whom it is unlawful for him to marry. 
(AZ, S, O, K.) __ And f Noble, or exalted, men : 
(Th, S :) or uof$\ wJIptl means I the noble, or 
exalted, men, and <Ac learned men, of the earth, 
or land : (O, K, TA :) one of whom is termed 
d>£, or t J£j». (O. See the latter of these 
words.) And hence, as some explain it, the saying 

in the Kur [xiii. 41, like one in xxi. 45], \)jij}}\ 

,',,'t*. • ,' 'i.*' -•»•■» s. as 

\s\jie\ ij* \*ii;> ^ej^l A3U Ul i[llave they not 

seen that we visit, or bring destruction upon, the 
land, curtailing it of its learned men ?] ; the 
meaning being, the death of its learned men : 
(O, TA :) or, as some say, [curtailing it of its 
inhabitants and its fruits; for they say that] the 
meaning is, tho death of its inhabitants and the 
diminution of its fruits: (TA:) or it means, 
curtailing it of its sides, or districts, one by one : 
(Az, O, L :) Ibn-Arafeh says that the meaning 
is, we lay open by conquest, to the Prophet, 
( Jr-Jt \J* 7—"^)) the country around Mekkeh. 

(<), TA.) [ ^UJI J\jS>'\ also means f The 

lower orders of the people : but this I believe to 

be post-classical.] —jL^JI (j4p»» in the ? ur 
xi. 116, means <Uttj SjO-t [i.e. Morning and 
afternoon] ; by the former being meant day- 
break; and by the latter, noon and the >«ac 
[q. v.], (Ksh, Bd,) or the jJl* [only]. (Bd.) 
And j^JI wilj£f, in the Kur xx. 130, means At 
daybreak and at sunset : (Ksh, Bd :) or at noon 
and at the yes. ; so says Zj : or, accord, to I Aar, 
in the hours (OUU) of the day : Abu-1-' Abbas 
says that it means j£jl (■»>• (TA.) _ [Ju 
!_ijJ» often occurs as meaning Beside, aside, or 
apart ; like t^ti I*. \^*> an( l &-V \j^ '■ and in 
like manner the Persians say o>J» j^. « And 
O^j «-V^ C>f ' 8 °^ eu U80( l a8 meaning On ?ta 
part of such a one ; but is perhaps post-classical.] 

mm And you say, &&j& >•>• [meaning f There 

are two ways of performing the affair, either of 

which may be chosen ; as though it had two ends, 

s • * > * * * 

or two sides], (TA voce «>•«.) And «Juha» 

j^^UM JlU« f [jH« roatfe tt allowable, or free, 
in respect of both the alternatives, either way one 
might choose to take]. (Msb in art. *.>/.)__ 
[And hence, perhaps,] \Jji» signifies also f Any- 
thing chosen or choice : pi. <Jl^J»l : [whence] 
^ijjKi'f <-»!>-fcl means f Chosen, or choice, 
subjects of discourse; as also «£*4JuaJI t Jtftjji: 
and «i^ jU-^l oiy»l means [the same, or] collo- 
quies of friends, consisting of mutual communi- 
cations, and oblique expressions, and allusions : so 
says ISd: and this is likewise a meaning of 
♦ tJlj£jl and v'-i— "» wll ' cn latter [properly 
signifying " mutual reviling"] is given in the K 
as an explanation of this former. (TA.)_Also 
Flesh, or fleth-meat; iyn.^mJ. (TA.) 

\Jj5o, in the K * wijJv, but the former is the 
right, (TA,) A male camel that removes from one 
pasturage to another ; (K, TA ;) not keeping 
constantly to one pasturage. (TA.) And 2£j& A 
she-camel that does not keep constantly to one 
pasturage; (S, O, K;) that depastures the ex- 
tremities, or sides, of the pasturage, and tastes, 
and does not keep constantly to one pasturage: 
(Har p. 569 :) or, accord, to As, that looks at the 
meadows (,_*»IjjJI OjJsJ), meadow after meadow 
[app. to pasture upon them in succession] : (TA :) 
and " mS jtsSmm , so applied, signifies the same as 
i»>i: (TA, but not as on the authority of As:) 
and " \J\jltyt, so applied, that will not feed upon 
a pasturage unless she choose anew, or take the 

first of, (sJjkLj ^j^,) another. (As, S, O, K.) 

— And [hence (see 10)] <Jjj]» applied to a man 

signifies + That does not keep constantly to a 

wife, or woman, nor to a companion : (S, , O, K :) 

and t <J>Ji», thus accord, to the K, (TA, [in 

which it is said that by rule it should be \Jjia, as 

above,]) a man who does not keep constantly to 

the companionship of one person, by reason of his 

weariness. (K.) And * Lij m , r .« applied to a 

woman, f That chooses new ones of the men 

(JU-JJt %JJtmm3), not keeping constantly to a 

husband; as being likened to the she-camel 

termed *JLb. (Har p. 569.) = And *->j-±>, 

applied to a she-camel, (O, K, [but in some of 

the copies of the latter, where it follows next 

after another explanation of the epithet thus 

applied, mentioned above, "or,"]) accord, to 

I Aar, Whose fore part of the head has gradually 

U j a,t a . , a 
shed its hair (l^ ^»\ji 1 >JJto OUJ ^jH, O) or 

whose fore part of her mouth has shed its teeth 
one after another (ly«* >jJU C»UJ ^jl, K) by 
reason of extreme age. (O, K. [See 2, last 
sentence.])*™ Also, and ♦ <Mjb t Contr. ofyjjti ; 
(S, M, K, TA ;) i. e., as the latter is further expl. 
in the S, and each in the M, having many 
ancestors, up to the greatest [i. e. most remote] 
forefather ; and J adds that sometimes it is used 
in praise : thus also As explains y»Lj| * <Jujl> : 

accord, to IAar, uL^Ja signifies ,-i jji ■> .;.« 

-* • ' *■* i . 

[app. jjm i«, as though meaning of long 

descent] ; and he says that it is with the Arabs 
more noble than >JJtS : the pi. of \jjia as mean- 
ing the contr. of * jam is Olb~ i an <l the pi. of 
▼ vJtyis in the same sense is 0>1» and o>k and 
i3jP», the second and third of which pis. are 
anomalous. (TA.) _ [«-»>£ seems also to have 
the contr. meaning; or fOne whose nobility is 
recent : and the like is said of i joii ; that it has 
two contr. meanings :] see \Jji». 

aijm [A wink, i, e.] a closing of one of the 
eyelids upon the other : (S, O, K :) or [a twinkling 
of the. eye, i. c] a putting the eyelids in motion or 

in a state of commotion. (K.) One says pj*\ 
•# *% * * _. _ . ._ V - 

yj^t iijm £y [Quicker than a wmk, or a twink- 
ling of an eye]. (S, 0.) And iij» jjj^tfj U 

[Book I. 

,^s- [He docs not separate himself from me 
during a wink, or a twinkling of an eye]. (TA.) 
__ Also A red spot of blood, in the eye, occasioned 
by a blow or some other cause. (S, 0, K.)__ 
And A brand, or mark made with a hot iron, 

having to it no vJljJ»t [or sides, or lateral por- 
tions], being only a line. (Ibn-'Abbad, 0,K.) 

=3 And dJjJoJI A certain star or asterism (^mJ). 
(K. [There thus mentioned as though different 
from the asterism commonly called wjJXji, which 
I do not believe to be the case : see the latter 

iiji» A hurt of the eye, occasioning its shedding 
tears. (K.)^And Newly-acquired property; 
(S, O, K ;) anything that one has newly acquired, 

and that pleases him ; as also t iijjLl ; (TA;) 
a thing newly acquired; (Har p. 54;) and a 
thing that is strange and deemed good; (Id. p. 
615 ;) [o pleasing rarity ;] a welcome, or pleasing, 
thing; (KL;) and a gift not given to any one 
before; (K,*TA;) and a gift of which the 
recipient did not possess the like, and which pleases 
him; (TA;) [generally, o novel, or rare, and 
pleasing, present ; like i»ji and Urn J :] pi. \Jjie. 
(Har p. 32.) [See also JujL and iLjL.] 

iSjL A single tree of the species called Mjir, 
q.v. (AHn,S,0,K.) 

jjp» Remoteness in lineage from the [chief or 
oldest,] ancestor : ^j juo is nearer therein. (IB, 
TA.) [SeeJ>.] 

Aiji> [accord, to some Vijo and accord, to 
others <U>£, as will be seen from what follows,] 
A kind of trees, (S, O, K,) of which there are 
four species, one of these being the Ail [q. v.] : 
(K :) [or it is different from tke Atl : the name 
is now generally applied to the common, or 
French, tamarisk ; tamarix gallica of Linn. : 
(Forsk&l's Flora Aegypt. Arab. p. lxiv. no. 181 ; 
and Delile's Florae Aegypt Illustr. no. 349 :)] 
AHn says, it is of the kind called #Uic ; its ^>jm 
[a. v.] are like those of the JJI ; it has no wood 
fit for carpentry, coming forth only as even and 
smooth rods towards the sky ; and sometimes the 
camels eat it as yn*+- [q. v.] when they find no 
other ,>*♦*■ : AA, he adds, says that it is a sort 
of ,>X : (TA :) the n. un. is * ii'J», (AHn, 
S, O, K,) [which is irreg.,] and 5«5>i, (AHn, 
O, K, [in the CK, erroneously, Mji»,]) [and this 
requires &jb to be with tenween, as a coll. 
gen. n.,] or, accord, to Sb, .ujl» is sing, and pi. : 
(S, O :) or it is a pi. [or quasi-pl. n.] of 3Sfi», 
like as i£Ll is of SjmJ* : (S in art,.^-! : [see 
jm f. :]) or it is a coll. gen. n. : accord, to IJ, 
the • in »U/£ is a denotative of the fern, gender ; 
but in S»U>I», the • is a denotative of the fern, 
gender, and the • is augmentative. (M, TA.) 
_Also A place of growth of the ti>'£>. (TA.) 

vJUb The portion that is taken [app. meaning 
cut] from the extremities (<J1jl»l) of corn, or 
seed-produce. (Ibn-'Abbad, 0, K.) _ I^Sjl^J 

Book I.] 

Ul> ■>!■«» means tip vS* [i. e. TAey inherited, 
one after another, glory from nobility of ancestry], 

(Ibn-'Abb&d, O, $.) — See also JL> And 

see «J£&, last sentence but one. s= Also A tent of 
thin, or leather, (S, $, TA,) without a .U£> 
[q. v., for it is variously explained] ; of the tents 
of the Arabs of the desert. (TA.) 

J^L: see J^. as Also, (S,0,Msb,$,) 

and * JjL, (S,0,£,) and * J|>, (K,) [of 
which laet it seems to be said in the supplement 
to this art. in the TA, that it may be either a pi. 
or a syn. of «Ju>i»,] Property newly acquired; 
(S, O, Msb, $ ;) as also * J)j» and ♦ J> and 
t JJJi ($) and * <SJuL+ ; (TA;) [and it ia said 
in one place in the TA that * <Jja^ and ▼ wi^k* 
are dial. vars. of Oj£i; but I tliink that this 
last word is probably a mistake for * >_JjL«;] 
contr. of J*tf (S, O, Msb) and jJU (S, O) [and 
/$J]: pi. of the first and third sjj*. (K.) — 
Also, the first, A thing that is good [and recent 
or new or fresh] : (Msb:) what is strange, (IAar, 
£, TA,) [or rare,] and coloured, or of various 
colours, (IAar, TA,) [or pleasing to the eye,] 
of fruits and other things, (IAar, KL, TA,) U« 
<V i_' 1 j Ur ■■■; [in which Jtyk£«j is evidently a mis- 
transcription for «JjJaj? »• e -> of such things as are 
given as «Jj£ (pi. of 3ij±) meaning rare and 
pleasing gifts]. (TA, from IAar.) — Sec also 
«JjJ», latter part, in three places. 

hu^L The j>/a«< ca/fcrf ts-f-* w * cn ** * fl * 
&ec<mi« white (S, O, £, TA) and dry : (TA :) or 
when it has attained its full perfection^ (ISk, S, 
O, ?, TA ;) and the plant called £>&? "* this 
same state : (ISk, S, O, TA :) or the Jirst of any 
herbage that tlie cattle choose and depasture: 
(TA:) or the best of pasturage, except such as is 
termed w -l^; including the sorts termed ^yai 

and 0$"° and "*^ and L5^* and^^—» and 
j&. (O, TA.) — [As a subst. from »Jy>J», 
rendered such by the affix !, it signifies Any- 
thing new, recent, or fresh : and anything choice : 
pi. JblJJ». (See also &££.) Hence, O^t Jtitji» 
2Tta cAoica articles, such as vessels &c, o/ </ic 
Aotue; see «J>j. And hence also,] w^J* 1 1 ubip»: 
see ti/i, last sentence but one. 

o>jll» : see ub^. 

iijUo [a subst. from o_,U», rendered such by 

tho affix J] : pi. <3j\j* • see «JJ&, in two places. 
__[Also, app., A thing that causes a twinkling, 
or winking, of the eye. Whence, app.,] one says, 
^4^ UjUb* 'V, meaning I .He (a man, S, O) 
brought much property, or many cattle. (S, O, 
£,TA.)— - The phrase ^l>» J^>k i5j&l U, 

in which iJjIjL is P 1, of **^ U '» from *V sig " 
nifying property "newly acquired," means U 

sides of the tent that are raised for the purpose of 
one's looking out: (S,0,£:) or, as some say, 
rings attached to the skirts («-»yj) of the tent, 
having ropes by which they are tied to the tent- 
pegs. (TA.) = And <S}'£> fC? means Beasts 
of prey that seize, or carry off by force, the 
animals that are the objects of the chase. (0, £.) 

Jt>j£l yk He is the most remote of tliem from 
the greatest [or earliest] ancestor. (Lh, TA.) 

i»2jle\ : see ifjio. 

oLi.lij CtliJAA She (a woman) dyed [with 
.1^.] the ends of Iter fingers. (O, £.) 

J^Lo : see J»>U< : — and see. also u^J»- 
tj^ki : see «J|U»-* : and <-»>ko : and Beo also 

ui>lv» [act. part. n. of 4, q. v.]._— v>«JI «*—»! 
j*..u' a ii a phrase used by El-Hareeree, means 
llecite thou the two verses that adduce what is 
strange, or extraordinary, and approved,^ or 
deemed good : or, as some relate it, " £xijia+i\, 
expl. by Mtr as meaning that are ornamented 
at tlieir two extremities; like the *t>j called 
*JjLL : or t ^ffi-a", meaning, if coiTectly re- 
lated, that are beautified, and excite admiration, 
in lite first and last foot; as being likened to the 
horse termed \jjbU, that is white in the head 
and the tail : and O**/^ 1 [»• c. ±£jo^] may 
mean ^jJju-^I [i. e. £)3£&si*tl]. (Har p. 615 : 
in the next p. of which, an ex. is given.) — See 
also tJb^L>. 

JjlL, (S, O, L, M* .. TA) and » 3£U, (S, 
O, L, Msb, K, TA,) tho laUer, only, mentioned 
in the K, (TA,) and this is the original form, 

because it is from «J>£t, but the dammeh was 
deemed difficult of pronunciation, and therefore 
kesreh was substituted for it, (Fr, S, O, TA,) 
like as is the case in u b > <\* > [q. v.], (Fr, TA,) 
and IAth mentions also t JjL», (TA,) A gar- 
ment, (Msb,) or [such as is termed] Aij, (S, O, 
K,) of[tlte hind of cloth called] }L, (S,'0, Msb, 
K,) square, or four-sided, (S, O, ?,) having or- 
namental or coloured or figured, borders (>0M) : 
(S, O, Msb, IjjL :) or a garment having, in its two 
ends, or sides, (4-!L*A i^*») tm0 such oorders 
(oCie)s (Fr, TA:) or a square, or four-sided, 
garment of "j*. : (Msb :) pi. «->jtL*>. (S, O, 
Msb, $.) — iJjliwi is also applied to t Clouds 
[as being likened to the garments thus called]. 
(TA in art. O* 9 *-) — See also *JtJ^ 


other parts while: (S,0,I£:) or white in the 
ends of the ears, and for tlie rest part black : or 
black in the ends of the ears, and Jar the rest 
part white. (TA.) — See also JjLZ. And see 

JLLL In a verse of Sa'ideh the Hudhalce, 

as some relate it, but accord, to others it is «_*^lv* 
[q. v.], (O, TA,) describing a horse, (0,) it sig- 
nifies ^j£\ ^J i>s» [app. meaning Repeatedly 
improved in generosity by descent from a number 
of generous sires and dams]. (0, TA.) — See 
also i_j 

jjlli^lt l3lj*>l <wJ*>» [i. e. What the modern 
excogitative faculties have originated]. (Har p. 
03.)tt:(UJl wijlj»& means The portions of the 

(jtjiki A horse white in the head and the tail, 
the rest of him being of a different colour : and 
in like manner black in the head and the tail 
(S, O, £.) And, accord, to AO, kJjL» Jty A 
horse white in the head : and likewise white in 
the tail and the head. (TA.) And i»j!ki Sli 
A sheep or goat black in the end of the tail, in 

Sjk>U A man who fights around the army : 
(0, £, TA : [see 2, second sentence :]) or, as 
some say, who fights the yj\j±\ [app. meaning 
noble, or exalted, pi. of J>'Jo q. v., or of *->fl»,] 

of men. (TA.) In a verse of Sa'ideh the Hud- 

halee, (O, TA,) describing a horse, (0,) That 
repels those that form the side, or ftanlt, of the 
horses and of the [hostile] company of men : but 
as some relate it, the word is <Jji*» [q. v.]. 

jiL : sec *J>b, former half. 

J s Xi [pass. part. n. of wiji, q. v.]. You 
say, o"^ C***" <-*5>*»* 0^»» meaning Such a 
one is, exclusively of others, looked at by such a 

one. (S, O.) And iijJ-U-i C«* An e V c °f 

which the lids are put in motion or in a state of 
commotion, by looking. (As, TA.) [And] An 
eye, hit, struck, smitten, or hurt, with a thing, 

so that it slieds tears. (S, O, £.) And t ^itjk 

t, i » . 
applied to an eye signifies the same as AijjJa* 
[in one of these senses, but in which of them is 
not said]. (TA.) — *»}£*» applied to a woman 
means As though Iter eye were hit, struck, smitten, 
or hurt, with something, (O, and EM p. 83,) so 
that it sited tears, (O,) by reason of the languish 
of her look; (EM ibid;) and this is said to be 
its meaning in the saying of Tarafeh, 

(O, EM,) i. e. When we say, " Sing tliou to us," 
she betakes herself to us in Iter gentle way, as 
though her eye were hurt by something, by reason 
of the languish of her look, not straining herself 
in her singing ; but as some relate the verse, the 
word is 23JJ&, meaning "weakly:" (EM:) 
or it means whose eye tlie love of men has smitten, 
so that she raises her eyes and looks at every one 
that looks at her ; as though a Siji [or red spot 
of blood], or a stick or the like, hurt her eye : 
(Az, TA:) or having a languishing eye ; as though 
it were turned away, or back, (c~»>l>,) from 
everything at which it looked : (IAar, TA :) or 
as though her eye were turned away, or back, so 
that it, or she, is still: (TA:) or t w^o looks at 
the m«n ( JW-^lt J>&) 5 >• e. t mho does not keep 
constantly to one; the pass, part n. being put in 
the place of the act. ; but Az says that this ex- 
planation is at variance with the original purport 
of the word : (TA :) or JW-pW *i}J~ means 
X a woman who raises, or stretches and raises, her 


eye at men, (S, O, K, TA,) and turns away her 
look from her husband, to others, (8, TA,*) and 
in whom is no good : (TA :) or t who looks not at 
any but the men; ($ ;) or JU->IV t>e«JI ^ij** 
has this meaning. (AA, TA.) an SijjL* ^jl 
Land abounding with the herbage called ihijio. 


%Jj£*» A camel newly purchased: (S:) or 
purchased from another part of tlw. country, and 
therefore yearning for his accustomed place. (IB, 

«J>k£* A man who does not, or will not, keep 
constantly to an affair ; [but I think that y»\ 
(which I have rendered "on affair") in my 

original is evidently a mistranscription for ol^ol, 
i. e. a woman, or wife;] as also * UfjLZm*. 
(TA.) See also J>. 

see oL>k- — yJj£ i~+ ^ *iUi 

jt\i*)\ I did it in the first, or first part, of the 

days; (\ii\i!l ^ ;) as also^l^l ♦ U>kJ ^*. 

it'*' •" ' " * ' 

OjUt « : see o| >ki*. See also «_j^l». 

** ' 

1- Jji signifies The beating [a thing], or 

striking [it, in any manner, and with anything] ; 
(£,TA;) this being the primary meaning: (TA:) 
or with the 33jix4, (K, TA,) which is the im- 
plement of the blacksmith and of the artificer 
[with which he beats the iron], and the rod, or 
stick, with which one beats wool [or hair] to 
loosen or separate it : (TA :) and the slapping (K, 
TA) with the hand. (TA.) You say, ^yi Jjji, 
aor. ', inf. n. Jjp», lie knocked [or (as we say) 
knocked at) the door. (Msb.) %Jy*J\ Jjjo, (S, 
0,TA,*) or^ln, (TA,) aor. as above, (S, O,) 
and so the inf. n., (S, O, If.,) He beat the wool, 
(S, O, £, TA,) or the hair, (TA,) with tlte rod, 
or stick, called UjLa, (S, (),) to loosen it, or 
separate it : (S,* O,* TA :) or he plucked it [so 
as to loosen it, or separate it]. (1£, TA.) ijS/it 
i _ r i«-«j, a prov., and occurring in a verse of 
Ru-beh, [originally addressed to a woman,] and 
[lit.] meaning Beat thou the wool with the stick, 
and mix tlte hair with the wool, is said to him 
who confuses or confounds, in his speech, and 
practises various modes, or manners, therein. 
(Az, TA. [See Frey tag's Arab. Prov. ii. 28.]) 

And you say also, ejuj^JI JjL He beat the 

* * • 
piece of iron [with the i»>tt»] : (Mgh,* Msb :) 

and * \}ji» he beat it much, or vehemently. 
(Msb.) And *i^> sijif, inf. n. as above, He 
slapped him with his hand. (TA.) And *£Jj£ 
J^£j| I travelled Tor beat] the road. (Msb.) 
[And hence, app.,] j£l» signifies also The being 
quick of pace; [probably as an inf. n. ;] or quick- 
ness of going along. (8h, TA.) And Jof$\ <zJjL 
The ground was beaten so as to be rendered even, 
or easy to be travelled; and trodden with the feet. 

<-*> — J> [Book I. 

(TA.) And sjja JL ^Jt, &fl ibJJI j> j (ISh, 0.)m*JjL, (£, TA,) like ^*, (TA,) 
[The beasts beat the water with the foot so as to [inf . n#> V^ j , Re ^ ^ ^ 

render U turbid, er muddy] : (Er-Raghib, TA :) meak in ^^ (?> TA) and ^ (TA )— 
or iWI Jfl\ CJ>, (S, O, TA,) aor. as above, j^ aor . s > fly inf> „. jfa (Fr> ?> Q ^ m 
(O,) J the camels staled and dunged in tlie water, (a' camel) had a weakness in his knees : (Fr, S, O, 

£?! °s ? A-X_ Al8 ° + ThC C ° ming hy ni{J ' U '' ( *' * : t 9ee J^ 0) or, said of a human being and 
TA;) because he who comes by night [generally] of a cvadf /ie w a wea1tness in the knee and in 

needs to Jmock at the door ; as some say ; (TA ;) j the arm or thefore hg . (TA ;) Qr> gaid of % ^^ 
and so Jj> [which is the more common in this he had a crookedness in the jC (Lth,* O,* $) 

sense]. (Kl, TA.) You say, Jjji, aor. '- , inf. n. 
s$)j±, He came by night. (S.) UjjjJ* ^"^4 UUI 
t Such a one came to us by night. (S.) And 
>yUt Jjlf, aor. '- , inf. n. Jjia and J^, t He 
came to tlte peo]>le, or party,, by night. (TA.) 
And 1UI j>, (TA,) or &i Xiil j>, (S, O,) 
inf. n. JjjJ», (TA,) f He came to his Jdkl 
[meaning mfe] by night : (S,» O, TA :) the doing 
of which by him who has been long absent is 
forbidden by the Prophet. (O, TA.*) And 
^^Jl Jip», aor. * , inf. n. Jjjb, + The star, or 
asterism, rose : and of anything that has come 
by night, one says Jjia. (Msb.) One says also, 
O^L* ,Jji» + Such a one was made an object of 
[or was visited by or was smitten by] nocturnal 
accidents or calamities. (TA.) And (jUpl 4iji> 
aJIv^ f [Time, or fortune, visited him, or smote 
Aim, »ot"<A «7* accidents, or calamities ; or rfiW so 
suddenly, like one knocking at the door in the 
night]. (TA.) And jCL ^ji t [An ap- 
parition, or a phantom, visited me in the night], 

(TA.) And yfh u£jia t [Anxiety came upon 
me; or did so suddenly, like one coming in the 
night]. (TA.) And [hence, app.,] ^-^-t Jji 
IJwfe + [Such a thing struck my ear] : and %z3jL 
j~m~! ^liit f [My ears were struck by good 
tidings]. (TA.) — Also The stallion's covering 
the she-camel; (Msb, If;*) and so J)jL ; ($., 
TA ;) and J^Jb likewise [app. another inf. n. of 

iff . * * r. * ' ' 

Jjit, as its syn. vlrf is of «r>«o] : (TA :) or his 
leaping her, (S, O, TA,) and covering her. (TA.) 
You say, iSUI Jlill J^i, (S, O, Msb, TA,) 
aor. * , (S, O, TA,) inf. n. Jyi, (Msb,) or Jj>, 
(S,) or both, (O, TA,) The stallion covered tlte 
she-camel: (Msb:) or leaped the site-camel, (S, 

0,TA,) and covered her. (TA.) And [The 

practising of pessomancy ;\ i. q. <**» nj ^j-b, 
(S, IAth, O, ^,) which is performed by women, 
(IAth, TA,) or by a diviner; (K;) a certain 
mode of divination: (S:) or [the practising of 
geomancy; i. e.] a man's making lines, or marks, 
upon the ground, with two fingers, and then with 
one finger, and saying, ^Ql U^-l ^£e ^1 : 
(AZ, O, TA : [see this saying explained, with 
another description of the process, in the first 
paragraph of art. J**. :]) or it is the making 
lines, or marks, upon the sand : (TA :) you say, 

" ' ' * * * 

JSjJ», aor. L , inf. n. JjJ», He made lines, or 

marks, with a finger, [&c,] in divining. (JK.) 
[See the last sentence in art. Q..»-.J Also The 
diviner's mixing cotton with wool when divining. 
(Lth, ?.) _ And a^Jui CsJ,, aor. * , inf. n. J(JL, 
JF« branded the ewe with the mark called Jl^. 

of the hind leg, [app. meaning in tlte thigh,] 
wit/tout the [kind of straddling termed] -, ^ * , awrf 
with an inclining in tlte heel. (Lth, O.)^ [See 
also ,jji» below.] = Jjb signifies also He drank 
turbid, or muddy, water, (O, K, TA,) such as is 
termed [jji and] ^'JaU. (TA. [In the K 
it is said to be, in this sense, like %+L ; which 
seems to indicate that the inf. n. is Jj!L, not 

2. ij->^mj\ Jjio : sec 1, former half. — Jjh 
Uj»^l» He made a road plane, or even, so that 
people travelled it [or beat it with their feet] in 
t/teir passing along. (TA.) The saying IjC&J ^ 
J*- 1— oJI means Make not ye the mosques to be 
roads [or places of passage]. (TA.) aJ oJ£k is 
from ,>J>iL» : (S, O :) you say, $ jjll» [app. 
referring to camels] /f« (ui& _/?«• </<em a roarf, 
or may: (K :) or «J jjj» Ac (/arc a way /o, or 
admitted, him, or t7. (MA.) _ oij£ said of the 
[bird called] Slfci, peculiarly, (inf. n. Jijij, O, 
K,) Site arrived at the time of her egg's coming 
forth : (As, A'Obeyd, S, O, K. :) or site (a SU.S) 
hollowed out in tlte ground a place wherein to lay 
Iter eggs ; as though she made a way for them : 
so says AHeyth : but the verb may be similarly 
used of other than the ZMaS, metaphorically; 
whence the saying, 

i. e. t Calamity [has prejtared to bring forth her 
first-born]. (Az, TA.) [Hence, app.,] one says 
also, »j*~-> Jji» i^*- *4j-b [He beat him until he 
gave passage, or was about to give passage, to his 
ordure]. (As, S, O.) And ,_» jjlfc, inf. n. 
kHj}**, signifies t^>»>l [app. meaning He gave 
forth, or produced, to me something]. (TA.) __ 
UjJ^> w-J/i», said of a camel, means She 
brought forth with difficulty, her young one stick- 
ing fast, and not coming forth easily ; and in like 
manner it is said of a woman : (As , S, 0, £ :) 
so in a verse of Ows Ibn-Hajar, cited voce^Ui: 
(O :) or »z-Sjio said of a woman and of any preg- 
nant female, means the half of her young one 
came forth, and then it stuck fast. (Lth, TA.) 
[Hence,] ,_,*■»* c$* Sj*> I Such a one acknow- 
ledged my right, or due, after disacknowledging 
it. (Af, S, 0, £, TA.) — Accord, to AZ, (TA,) 
J/ff' J>)» means He withheld the camels from 
pasture, (S, O, $, TA,) or from some other 
thing: (S, O, TA :) 8h, however, says that he 
knew sot this ; but that I Aar explained cJ>b, 
with wi, as meaning "I repelled." (TA.)«. 

Book I.] 

Jj/ijl ,-i ijyj Jl*.I means t Such a one prac- 
tited artifice and divination. (TA.)=sCJjl» 
y^pl 7 jewed *A« shield upon another shin : and 

JjiJI JJji, inf. n. Jo^> * made tne sole °f tw0 
pieces of shin, sewing one of them, upon the other. 
(Mfb. [See also the next paragraph.]) 

3. JjUI wJjll* [meaning I sewed another sole 
upon the sole] is an instance of a verb of the 
measure J*U relating to the act of a single agent. 
(AAF, TA in art. cj^.) [See also 2, last 
sentence.] You say also, a ^XjO J-^-^' i3j^°> 
[inf. n. A»jlLv4,] Tke man put one of his two soles 
upon the oilier and sewed them together. (As, 
TA.) And l >i«5 {£{ Jylfc He sewed one sole 
upon anotlier. (S, 0, 1£.) And ^**j-" Chrf JjU»> 
(S,) or cnny O*, (O, $,) and L«*J^' C>*> 
(TA,) i. q. JJU», (K,) or >kl&, i. e. i/e ^mT on 
himself one of the two garments, or one of two 
garments, [and one of the two coats of mail,] over 
the otlter. (S, O.) Jj^fc is said of anything as 
meaning It mas put one part thereof upon, or 
above, another ; and so » Jij£l ; (T A ;) [and in 
like manner t J^J»I ; for] one says of shields, 

,_**»-> (J* V^*/ J^ku <?ne oftliem ts sewed upon 
* * * - » • * pi 

another : (S, 0, 1£ :) and ^.< m) lj «**»>JW CJ>J»I 

27j«y were clad [or rooererf] wft/t sAin and sinetcs. 

(S, O.) J»*$jA)t>Ci)t JA r, «« cZou</ " foUowed 

M/wn t/ie darkness. (TA.)_ And >OW3t JjU» 
t Jfe practised, or <ooA <o, various modes, or 
manners, in speech ; syn. ««» (jitf. (TA.) 

4. <JUki di^bt 7/c toi< /i/»i his stallion [camel] 
to cover his she-camels. (S, O, K.)_-4lM J>jia\ *J 
igU, (O,) or 4lft, (]£, TA,) means I 3/ny God 
not cause thee, or Atm, to have one whom tltou 
mayest, or whom he may, take to wife, or com- 
press. (O, K, TA.) See also 3, latter part 

**"'j J[^' -^ e indited his head [downwards]. 
(TA.) And I)^> J^l»l Lower thine eyes towards 
thy breast, and be silent: occurring in a trad, 
respecting the looking unexpectedly [at one at 
whom one should not look]. (TA.) And jjb\, 
alone, He bent down his head: (MA:) or he 
lowered his eyes, looking towards t/te ground; (S, 
O, £ ;) and sometimes the doing so is natural : 
(TA : [and the same is indicated in the S :]) and 
it may mean he had a laxness in the eyelids: 
(A'Obeyd, TA :) or he contracted his eyelids, as 
though hi* eye struck the ground: (Er-Raghib, 
TA :) and he was, or became, silent, (ISk, S, O, 
£,) accord, to some, by reason of fright, (TA,) 
not speaking. (ISk, S, O, K.) It is said in a 

[Loner thine eyes Kara : loner thine eye* kara : 

(\j£a meaning the male of the ollr^ a narae 
now given to the stone-curlew, or charadrius 
oedicnemu* :) verily the ostriches are in the towns, 


or villages] : applied to the self-conceited ; (S, 
O ;) and to him who is insufficient, or unprofit- 
able ; who speaks and it .is said to him, " Be 
silent, and beware of the spreading abroad of 
that which thou utterest, for dislike of what may 
be its result :" and by the saying ^ >>UJI £j\ 
(jyUI is meant, they will come to thee and 
trample thee with their feet :' (O :) it is like the 
saying >_»>£jl ^Jdia. (S. [See also o'a^* : an( l 
see also Freytag's Arab. Prov. ii. 30-31.]) It is 
asserted that when they desire to capture the lj£», 
and see it from afar, they encompass it, and one 
of them says, fjfi ^ ilil \^£s Jj-tl [or ^jjJ ^jJ 
(Meyd in explanation of the preceding prov.) i.e. 
Lower thine eyes, or be silent, hard, : thou wilt 
not be seen :] until he becomes within reach of it; 
when he throws a garment over it, and takes it. 
('Eyn, TA.) And JU ^JlS \j£> j>l [Lower 
thine eyes, or be silent, haru : milk shall be drawn 
for thee:] is [a prov., mentioned by Meyd,] 
said to a stupid person whom one incites to hope 
for that which is vain, or false, and who believes 
[what is said to him]. (0.) — One says also, 
^yJUl j_jJI Jj/bt J He inclined to diversion, sport, 

or play. (IAar, K, TA.) <uli* J^l J>' I 

see 8 : and J^>NI c-5>l»t : see 6. = Jjio\ 

J ^ d J I He set a snare for tke beasts, or bird*, of 
the chase. (TA.) _ And hence, ,j"5L» J>J»I 
i^/il*) f Such a one plotted against such a one by 
calumny, or slander, in order to throw him into 
destruction, or into that from which escape would 
be difficult. (TA.) 

5. IJk& jJI ijjlaj He found a way to such a 
thing : (MA :) or he sought to gain access to such 
a thing. (Er-Raghib, TA.) 

6. JjjUaj signifies The coming consecutively, or 
being consecutive. (TA.) You say, Jv*jJI cJjUsJ 
T/ic camels came following one another, tke head 
of each, [except the first] being at t/te tail of the 
next [before it], whether tied together in a file or 
not: (TA:) or went away, one after another; 
(S,0, K;) as also toij£l; (0,$,TA;) in 

the S, incorrectly, ™ ci^tl ; which is also 
mentioned in the K, in another part of the art., 
and there ex pi. as meaning they followed one 
anotlier ; but the verb in this sense is " C«*p»t : 
(TA :) and, (O, K, TA,) as some say, (O, TA^) 
this last signifies they scattered, or dispersed, 
themselves upon the roads, and quitted the main 
beaten tracks : (0, 1£, TA :) As cited as an ex., 
(from Ru-beh, TA,) describing camels,, (O,) 

meaning They came together, and went away in 
a state of dispersion. (6, O, TA.) And you say, 

JoCiMj j>y&M Jj^aJ The darkness and the clouds 
nere, or became, consecutive. (TA.) And c-SjU»3 
jU*V>)l Ujlft [Tke tiding* came to us consecutively]. 

8. jj£l : see 3. Said of the wing of a bird, 


(S, TA,) Its feathers overlay one another : (TA :) 
or it was, or became, abundant and dense [in its 
feathers]. (S, TA.) And J>j*}\ wi>l Tlie 
earth became disposed in layers, one above anotlier, 
being compacted by the rain. (TA.) And Jjhi 
u oymJ\ T/te watering-trough, or tank, had in it 
[a deposit of] compacted dung, or dung and mud 
or clay, that had fallen info it. (TA.) And 
jJbt aJU Jj&I, as in the O and L ; in the K, 
erroneously, * J^il ; The night came upon him 
portion upon portion. (TA.) Sec also 6, in three 

10. "illLi <t5jiu-»t He desired, or demanded, of 
him a stallion to cover his she-camels; (S, O, K;) 
like jjj^:^\. (TA.) _ And »3 J ia2-,\ He desired, 
or demanded, of him the practising of j>essomancy 
( rii 'l; «_^-a)l), and the looking [or divining] 
for kirn therein. (K,* TA.) __ And He desired, 
or demanded, of him the [having, or taking, a] 
road, or way, within some one of his boundaries. 

(TA.) >-^l s-s-ai JjJbu--i O' Je* \J^> a 

phrase used by El-Kudoorcc, means Without hi* 
taking for himself the portion of the other as- a 
road or way [or place of pottage]. (Mgh.) 

And »_jyLaJt J^J Jl^^iw^l, a phrase used by 
Khwahar-Zadeh [commonly pronounced Khahar- 
Zadch], means Tke going [or tke taking for oneself 
a way] between tlte ranks [of the people engaged 
in prayer]: from ^> JaJt. (Mgh.) And <^ijia^>\ 
,_>Ul lJ\ I went along a road, or may, to tlte 
door. (Msb.) [Hence a phrase in the F&kihet 
el-Khulafl, p. 105, line 15.] — [iJ^iilT in a 
verse cited in the K in art a is a mistake for 
Qjjh •..'<, with M : see 10 in art. s^jif.] 

J^i [originally an inf. n., and as such app. 
signifying An act of striking the lute &c. : and 
hence,] a species («->^) °f **• <Z>\yo\ [meaning 
sounds, or airs, or tunes,] of tlte lute : (TA :) or 
any o^> [i. e. air, or tune], (Lth, 0, K, TA,) 
or any 3& [i. e. melody], (J£, TA,) of the lute 
and the like, by itself: (Lth, O, I£, TA :) you 

say, l»> \j£>) IJA ^jM' »^* V>^ l Thu 
girl, or young woman, or female slave, plays such 
and such airs or tunes, or such and such melodies, 
of the lute or tlte like], (Lth, O, £.*) — [Hence, 

probably,] y$Sii\ O* JaA *^f> 8m g- t5A» a 
phrase mentioned by Kr; thought by ISd to 
mean He has [various] sorts, or species, of ' tpeeclu 
(TA.) _ See also 3&j&, in four places. = Also 
t A stallion [camel] covering : (O, K, TA :) pi. 
Jjji and tJ\fL : (TA :) an inf. n. used as a 
subst. [or an epithet] : (O, $, TA :) for &£ jj. 
(TA.) — — And t The sperma of the stallion 
[camel] : (§, 1£ :) a man says to another, ,Vj*l 
j>U)t JiXamJ JjJ» i. e. [Lend thou to me] the 
sperma, and the covering, (As, TA,) which latter 
is said to be the original meaning, (TA,) of thy 
stallion [camel this year]. (As,TA.) And it is said 
to be sometimes applied metaphorically to f The 
sperma of man : or in relation to man, it may be 
an epithet, [like as it is sometimes in relation to 
a stallion-camel, as mentioned above,] and not 



metaphorical. (TA.) And J^JI Jj/JU means ' 
also The hire that is given for the camets covering 
of the female. (TA in art. >~i.) = Also, and 
t JijL,, X Water (S, O, K, TA) of the rain 
(S, O, TA) in which camels (9, O, K) and others 
[i. e. other beast*] have staled, (S,) or waded and 
Haled, (S,» O, K, TA,) and dunged: (S, O, TA :) 
or stagnant mater in which beasts have waded and 
staled: (Mgh :) and ♦ jji [expressly stated to be 
l£sj*~t] signifies [the same, or] water that has 
collected, in which there has been a wading and 
staling, so that it has become turbid ; (TA ;) or 
places where water collects and stagnates (S, O, 
K, TA) in stony tracts of land; (TA ;) and the 

pi. of this is JtjLl. (TA.) a Jjji> also signifies 
A [snare, trap, gin, or net, such as is commonly 
called] Li, (IAar, O, K,) or the lilte tliereof; 

and so ▼ Jjk : (K : [by Golius and Freytag, 
this meaning has been assigned to iijie ; and by 
rreytag, to iijia also ; in consequence of a want 
of clearness in the K :]) or a snare, or thing by 
means of which wild animals are taken, like the 
£i ; (Lth, O ;) and f &>, (S, 0, K,) of which 
the pi. [or coll. gen. n.] is ♦ Jj^Jb, (S, K,) signifies 
[the same, or] the snare (i)t»>) of the sportsman, 
(S, O, K,) having [what are termed] u»i=> [pi. 
of IkSa, q. v.]. (S, ) sssi And A palm-tree : of 
the dial, of Tciyi. (AHn, K.) = And | Weak- 
ness of intellect, (K, TA,) and softness. (T A 
[See J^.]) 

Jjit : see Uji». = [Also a contraction of Jjia, 
pi. of JijL, q. v.] = And pi. of jl> [q. v.]. (K.) 

Jji> Fat, as a subst. : (S, O, K :) this is the 
primary signification. (S, O.) [See an ex. voce 

is*.] «^ And Fatness. (AHn, K.) One says, 

iid» <v U f-*JI I JJk i. e. JVtw came/ has not in 
him fatness, and fat. (AHn, TA.) It is said 
to be mostly used in negative phrases. (TA.) __ 
And Strength : (S, O, K :) because it mostly 
arises from fat. (S, O.) One says, JJ» *f U, 


meaning Tliere is not in him strength. (TA.) 
The pi. is Jl>1. (TA.) es See also j£b, last 

t£jj» : see Jj/J», third quarter. — — Also i. q. 
y)l'jU [applied to a beast, app. to a camel,] 
meaning Rendered submissive, or tractable; or 
broken. (TA.) — It is also pi. of t iij£, [or 
rather is a coll. gen. n. of which the n. un. is 
33jL,] (S, O, K,) which latter signifies A row 
of bricks in a wall, or of other things, (S, O,) 
or [particularly] of palm-trees. (As, TA.) «_ 
Also, V the latter, [as ia expressly stated in the 
TA, and indicated in the S and O, (jtfT and 
( f !c\w> in the CK being mistakes for jUl and 
(yMULf,)] The foot-marks [or track] of camels 
following near after one another. (S, O, K.) 
You say, lj».£ *»> yj* fyf Cwli- The 
camels came upon one track [or in one line] ; 
like as you say, j-.(j Ju. ^t. (S, O. [See 


also a similar phrase voce JJ^k*.]) And Aboo- 
Turab mentions, as a phrase of certain of Benoo- 
Kilab, ^JyNI t iajo ^a Cjjja and lyii>e, mean- 
ing I went upon the track of the camels. (TA.) 
_ See also jjl», last quarter, sa Also, i. e. Jip», 
A duplicature, or fold, (^Jj, in the CK [erro- 
neously] (jj,) of a water-skin : (S, O, K :) and 
4,31/tl is its pi., (S, 0,) signifying its duplicatures, 
or folds, (S, O, K,) when it is bent, (O,) or when 
it is doubled, or folded, (S, K,) and bent. (S.)__ 
And ^>kJI Jl^Ll Tlie parts of tlie belly that lie 
one above another (K, TA) wlien it is wrinkled: 
pi. of JyJb. (TA.) _ Jj^J* in the feathers of a 
bird is their Overlying one anotlier : (S, O, K, 
TA:) or, accord, to the A, it is softness and 
flaccidity therein. (TA.) — [Also inf. n. of 

iijb A time; one time; syn. iy*; (S, 0, K;) 
as also * Jji, (O, K,) and tai^i and * J>i». 
(K.) You say, 35> s'l^JI C^A5fc I, (S, O,) or 
c3>, (S,) or t li>, (K,) or t ^gfc, (O, K,) 
[&c.,] i.e. [The woman dyed lier hands with 
hinna] once, or twice. (S, O, K.) And ^yl lil, 
C4^i> >^JI ^ U^i, (S, K,) and t ^>, (O, 
K,) ice, (K,) i. e. t [I come to such a one iti the 
day] twice. (S, O, TA.) And rf$* v >e ^lm.\ yk 
iijJb ijjj^jLf t [ZTe t? tcMcr <Aan such a one by 
twenty times]. (A, TA.) sa Jijhi\ iijh means 
The main and middle part, or the distinct [beaten] 
track, of the road. (TA.) __ And i^£ J~dl «jJb 

» •»* 

Jtawj J^y [27icsc arrows are] tlie work, or wianu- 
factnre, of one man. (S, O, K[.*) = See also 

a3> t. y. Jiji, q. v. (K.) _ And sing, of 
JjJ» signifying The beaten tracks in roads; and 
of oUji in the phrase JyNl Oliji meaning <A« 
tracks of the camels following one another con- 
secutively. (TA.) — _ Also A way, or course, that 
one pursues (ajbji) to a thing. (K.)_And 
t A custom, manner, habit, or wont. (S, O, K.) 
One says, iU3*>£ i«Ji Jlj U f That ceased not 
to be thy custom, &c. (S, O.) _ And A line, or 
streak, (3juJ»,) in things that are sewed, or put, 
one upon another. (K,*TA: [isjlkjl in the 
CK is a mistake for ai^lkjl :]) as also ♦ &j±. 
(K.) _— And A line, or streak, in a bow : or 
lines, or streaks, therein : pi. Jjl> : (K :) or its 
pi., i. e. J>1», has the latter meaning. (S, O.) 
_ And Stones one upon another. (O, K.) as 
Also Darkness. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K.) One says, 
j£}\ iijL iJ suJtf. [I came to him in the dark- 
ness of night]. (TA.) =a And i. q. »,h<i [app. 
as meaning Inordinate desire, though it also 
means a thing tliat is coveted], (Ibn-'Abbad, O,) 
or %^> [which has both of these meanings]. (K.) 
[That the former is the meaning here intended I 
infer from the fact that Sgh immediately adds 

[Book I. 

what here follows.] _ IAar says, (0,) tf$ .J 
iijia means In such a one is w-.:»»3 [i. e., app., 
a certain unnatural vice; see 2 (last sentence) 
in art. C~a»]i (0, TA:) and so L^3 ^. 

(TA.) = See also Sijia. as Also Foolish ; stupid; 
or unsound, or deficient, in intellect or M^for<fand- 
«'«<7. (O, K.)aa [Freytag adds, from the Deewdn 
of the Hudhalees, that it signifies also A prey 

iijie : see the next preceding paragraph. 

iijio : sec JjJ», in four places : _ and see also 
tjjio, last quarter. __ One says also, *U^1 a^j 
i»p» iiji i. e. 2/e /»«< tAe fAtw/.i oti« upon 
anotlier ; and so " <uup» U^b. (TA.) 

If ' 

*5^1» { A man who journeys by night in order 

that lie may come to his jll [meaning wife] in 
the night : (S, 0, TA :) or one who journeys much 
by night. (L in art. >JLU».) 

ij\jio (of which JijJ» is the pi. [app. in all its 
senses]) Any sole t/tat is sewed upon another sole 
so as to make it double, (S,* O, K,) matching the 
latter exactly : (O, K :) [this is called J*i Jljt ; 
for it is said that] JjUI Jlji, signifies' that with 
which the sole is covered, and which is sewed upon 
it. (S.) — And The skin [meaning sole] of a 
sandal, (Lth, O, K,) when the [thong, or strap, 
called] Jtjw has been removed from it. (Lth, 0.) 
El-Hdrith Ibn-Hillizeh [in the 13th verse of his 
Mo'allakah, using it in a pi. sense,] applies it to 
the Soles tliat are attached to the feet of camels : 
(TA :) or he there means by it the. marks left by 
the Jip» of a she-camel. (EM p. 259.) And A 
piece of skin cut in a round form, of tlie size of a 
shield, and attached thereto, and sewed. (0, K.) 
__ And Anything made to match, or correspond 
with, another thing. (Lth, O, K.) — Iron that 
is expanded, and tlien rounded, and made into a 
lielmet (Lth, O; K) or a [kind of armlet called] 
jjtC (Lth, O) and the like. (Lth, O, K.) And 
Any iL-i [i. e. plate, likened to a iUo of the 
head,] of a helmet, by itself. (Lth, O.) And 
Plates, of a helmet, one above another. (TA ) 
— JlP» is-ij Feathers overlying one another. 

(S.) And tAi^Jt Jljl* ji\i» A bird whose feather* 
overlie one another. (TA.) as Also A brand 
made upon tlie middle of the ear of a ewe, (En- 
Nadr, O, K,) externally ; being a white line, 
made with fire, resembling a track of a road : 
(En-Na(lr, O :) there are two such brands, called 
0«!>. (TA.) aa See also iLtt. 

Ji^U A road, nay, or path; syn. J*^*; (Sj) 
[i. e. a beaten track, being of the measure ,J**i 
in the sense of the measure JyuU ; and applied 
to any place of passage;] and t aijL signifies 

... f *m »% j 

the same : (K :) [see also Jjjl»7„,4 :] it is masc. 
(S, O, Msb, K*) in the dial, of Nejd, and so in 
the Kur xx. 79; (Msb;) and fem. (S, O, Msb, 
K) in the dial, of El-Hijaz : (Msb :) the latter 
accord, to general usage : (MF :) [see jij :] the 
pL [of pauc] is ll>l (S, Mfb, K) with those 

Book I.] 

who make the sing, masc (Msb) and Jjp»l (0, 
K) with those who make the sing. fem. (TA) 
and [of mult.] jjji (S, O, Msb, K) and J> [of 
which see an ex. voce 2j*5>] (K) and lUjJvl, (O, 
, K,) and «Lu£j» is a pi. pi. (Msb, K) i. e. pi. of 

JJli. (Msb, TA.) In the saying J^ £i 

Jj>OI J^A^JbJ, accord, to Sb, Jj>tJI is for 
J^yLl jil : [the meaning therefore is, t The 
sons of such a one sojourn, or encamp, where 
the people of the road tread upon them, i. e., be- 
come their guest* : (see more in art. U»j :)] or, as 
some say, J^>A»>I here means the wayfarers with- 
out any suppression. (TA.) — Jjj&I J». [The 
duty relating to the road] is the lowering of the 
eyes ; the putting away, or aside, what is hurtful, 
or annoying; the returning of salutations; the 
enjoining of that which is good; and the for- 
bidding of that which is evil. (El-Jdmi' es- 
Saghecr. See J-ii-.) — Jdj&ll £& [He inter- 
cepted the road] means he made the road to be 
feared, relying upon his strength, robbing, and 
slaying men [or passengers]. (Msb in art. £Ja3.) 
[And JtiJaH ^>\J*>\ means the same ; or, as expl. 
by Frcytag, on the authority of Mcyd, He was, 
or became, a robber.] _ [Hence,] £ijJoi\ ^1 
means t The robber [on the highway]. (T in 
art ^.) [But <&T J^li jit means f The 

devotees.] — Jij&j»l, thus correctly in the 'Eyn, 
[and shown to be so by a verse there cited, 
q. v. voce >,.-»*,] t The hyena : erroneously 
written by Sgh, t Jy,p» >1 ; and the author of 
the K has copied him in this instance accord, to 
his usual custom. (TA.) __ See also cw>kJI j>\ 

and 3ij& £*• in art - -»' V*/* 11 ol ^ 

means t The brandies of the road, that vary, 
and lead in any, or every, direction. (TA.) _ 
&>£> signifies also The space between two rows 
of palm-trees; as being likened to the Jjj£> 

[commonly so called] in extension. (Er-Raghib, 

a • 'i - - i 

TA.) — ixP*!! 15* u"^* •**•' means the same 

as Jjj£uJt ^ •**•! [expl. before: see 2, near 
the end]. (TA.) — &;£ as syn. with Ho Jo : 
see the latter word, first sentence. — _ [J^jJlil/ 
jJ^I is a phrase of frequent occurrence, app. 
post-classical ; lit By the fitter way ; meaning 
with the stronger reason ; a fortiori : see an ex. 
in Beyd xlii. 3, and De Sacy's Anthol. Gr. Ar. 
p. 467.] oh Also A sort of palm-tree. (TA.) __ 
See also Hojm (of which it is said to be a pi.), 
last sentence. 

J££: MeJSft&f. 

2i«Jb A she-camel covered by the stallion; of 
the measure U^ai in the sense of the measure 
Ijyiii. (Msb.) J-Lil aijj> means The female 
of the stallion [camel]. (S, O.) And (S, O) A 
she- camel that has attained to the fit age for her 
being covered by the stallion : ' (S, O, Msb, K :) it 
is not a condition of the application of the term 

that he has already covered hef i (Mjb i) or a 
young, or youthful, sfte-camel that has attained to 
that age and kept to the stallion and been chosen 
by him. (TA.) And one says to a husband, 
i&«Jk «Jh«£», meaning t Horn is thy wife? 
(TA :) every wife is termed ly»-j|j *5}jJ», (O,) or 
<& *».,>, (Msb,) or \ili «j> ; (&« TA ;) 
which is thought by ISd to be metaphorical. 

(TA.) One says also, !££> ^of^\ <&* ££ 

sUJJ i. e. f Ood made, or may Ood make, the land 
capable of receiving the water [of the rain so as to 
be impregnated, or fertilized, or soaked, thereby] ; 
expl. by 44*1*3 U-o Q^. (S in art. ~y.) 
[See also a verse cited in art. jJut, conj. 4.] 

iiujk A way, course, rule, mode, or manner, 
of acting or conduct or the like, (syn.|v**i*> §, TA, 
and ijtri, and .iU—o, TA,) of a man, (S, TA,) 
whether it be approved or disajyproved ; (TA ;) 
as also * ,JjJo, which is metaphorically used in 
this sense : (Er-Raghib, TA :) [like <^X^», 
often relating to the doctrines and practices of 
religion : and often used in post-classical times as 
meaning the rule of a religious order or sect:] 
and meaning also a manner of being ; a state, or 
condition ; (syn. 5JU., S, or JU., O, K ;) as in 
the saying, S.*«Jj 2Juj±> ^jJI* ^^ Jlj U [Such 
a one ceased not to be in one state, or condition] ; 
(S ;) and it is applied to such as is good and to 
such as is evil. (O.) One says also, ^1* yk 
<&jJo [He is following his own way, or course], 
(TA voce <uj».) *iujh)\ j^JU. t^eUUwl y, in 
the Kur [Ixxii. 10], means, accord, to Fr, [If 
they had gone on undeviating in the way] of 
polytheism : but accord, to others, of the right 
direction. (O.) [The pi. is Jil>.] — [It is 
also used for iuu^b JaI : and in like manner the 

pi., for Jil> Jit. Thus,] l>Jj ^3lji life, in 
the Kur [lxxii. 11], means t We were sects 
differing . in our desires. (Fr, S, O. [Sec also 

%i *' >' ' 

SjkS.]) Aiid^eyUI i*iji» means t The most excel- 
lent, (S, 0,K, TA,)'and the best, (S, O,) and 
the eminent, or noble, persons, (K, TA,) of the 
people : (S, O, K, TA :) and you say, J*jy IJjk 
cutis 4*j»i t [This is a man the most excellent, 
&c, of his people] : and ^#y-«y i*iji» »"i!>* and 
^ay-ey lPI^ 9 I 77((?.<e are [tAe wo.s< excellent, &c, 
or] <A« eminent, or noiZc, persons of their people : 
(S, O, K,* TA :) so says Yaakoob, on the autho- 
rity of Fr. (S, O, TA.) Jl^I U^i^i &&, 
in the Kur [xx. 66], means [And that they may 
take away] your most excellent body of people : 
(O :) or your eminent, or noble, body of people 
who should be made examples to be followed : and 
Zj thinks that y£&i jJsu is for ^£jL>ji> jib : 
(TA :) or, accord, to Akh, the meaning is, your 
established rule or usage, and your religion, or 
system of religious ordinances. (O, TA.) — [Also 
f The way, or course, of an event : and hence,] 
j*Jm JmIj* means f The vicissitudes of time or 
fortune. (TA.) __ [And + The air of a song 
&c. : but this is probably post-classical.] _ Also 


A &te, streak, or «<rtp«, in a thing : (K, TA :) 
[and a crease, or wrinkle; often used in this 
sense :] and [its pi.] Jm!P* signifies the lines, or 
streaks, that are called -il-»., of a helmet. (TA.) 
The iiujit [or Kn«] that is in the upper part of 
tlte back : and the line, or streak, that extends 
upon [i. e. along] the back of the ass. (TA.) [A 
vein, or seam, in a rock or the like. A track 
in stony or rugged land &c. A narrow strip of 
ground or land, and of herbage.] An extended 
piece or portion [i. e. a strip] of sand ; and like- 
wise of fat ; and [likewise of flesh ; or] an oblong 
piece of flesh. (TA.) _ [Hence, app.,] *->yi 
JmIj£ A garment old and worn out [as though 
reduced to strips or shreds]. (Lh, K.) — Oli 
Jkjlji? and Ji-5lji» lyei are phrases used, the latter 
by Dhu-r-Rummeh, in describing a spear-shaft 
(SU5) shrunk by dryness [app. meaning Having 
lines, or what resemble wrinkles, caused by shrink- 
ing], (TA.) — And Jb5ljJ> signifies also The 
last remains of the soft and best portio)is of pas- 
turage. (TA.)^And The stages of Heaven; so 
called because they lie one above another: (TA:) 
[for] ,Je\ % i JijJ 1^1) i£->'jJ* J*** C»lj | "H 
[27te Heavens are seven stages, one above another] : 
(Lth, O, TA :) and they have mentioned [like- 
wise] the stages of the earth [as seven in number: 
and of hell also : sec J)j}]. (TA.) Sec also 

&jif Accord, to Lth, (O, TA,) iJujit signifies 

* **l . ' 

also Any Sj^jktvt, (so in the O and in copies of the 

K and accord, to the TA, and thus also in the 

JK,) or o j} jui.t, (thus accord, to the CK,) [neither 

of which words have I found in any but this 

passage, nor do I know any words nearly 

,»l , i*l . 

resembling them except jjj*-1 and i)-*«-l, of 

which they may be mistranscriptions, or perhaps 
dial, vars., the former signifying a declivity, slope, 
or place of descent, and the latter a furrow, 
trench, or channel,] of the earth or ground : (O, 
K, TA :) or [any] border, or side, (3JU**,) of a 
garment, or piece of cloth; or of a thing'of which 
one part is stuck upon anotJier, or of which the 
several portions are stuck one -upon another; and 
in like manner of colours [similarly disposed], (O, 

TA.) And A web, or thing woven, of wool, or 

of [goats'] hair, a cubit in breadth, (S, O, K, TA,) 
or less, (S, O, TA,) and in length four cubits, or 
eight cubits, (TA,) [or] proportioned to tlie sue of 
the tent (S, O, #, TA) tn iU length, (S, O,) 
which is sewed in the place where the JjU£ [or 
oblong pieces of cloth that compose the main cover- 
ing of the tent] meet, from tli6j~£> [q. v.] to t/ie 
jL£a ; (S, 0, K, TA •) [it is app. sewed beneath 
the middle of the tent-covering, half of its breadth 

being sewed to one iii and the other half thereof 
to tlte otlier middle iii ; (see Burckhardt's 
" Bedouins and Waliabys," p. 88 of the 8vo ed. ;) 
and sometimes, it seems, there are three Jm|>*», 
one in the middle and one towards each side ; for 
it is added,] and in them are the heads of the tent- 
poles, [these generally consisting of three rows, 
three in each row,] between which and the «JL5ljJU 



are piece* of fell, in which are the nozzles («Jy t) 

of the tent-poles, in order that these may not rend 

the Jmj^I*. (TA.) _ Also A tent pole ; any one 

of the poles of a tent: a .<-*- has one djujio : a 

C«tf has two and three and four [and more] : 

and the part between two poles is called ^>u : 

(AZ, TA in art. jyj :) or the pole of a [large tent 

such as is called] ilk*, (K, TA,) and of a .1^.. 
(TA.) — And A tall palm-tree: (IS. :) or the 
tallest of palm-trees : so called in the dial, of £1- 
Yem&meh : (AA, ISk, S, O :) or a smooth palm- 
tree : or a palm-tree [tlie head of] which may be 
reached by tlie hand : (TA :) pi. [or rather coll. 
gen. n.] t J^. (AA, ISk, S, O.) 

J|p» : see ^ji». 

.»»/ *' J .- , 

^jjimjt\ : see &ij», latter part. 

• - ' # * 

&ji* means JI^NI j~& [i. e. One w/to lowers 

his eyes, looking towards the ground, much, or 
often; or who keeps silence much, or often] ; (Lth, 

O, J£ ;) applied to a man : (Lth, O :) and ▼ &J** 
signifies [the same, or] one who keeps silence 
much, or often ; as also ♦ Oj^-» [except that this 
does not imply muchness or frequency]. (TA.) 
— . And The male of the [bird called] \j\}/=> ; 
(Lth, O, K ;) because, when it sees a man, it 
tails upon the ground and is silent. (Lth, O.) 
[See 4.] _ 3Juji» ^jl Soft, or plain, land or 
ground; (O, $;) as though beaten so as to be 
rendered even, or easy to be travelled, and 
trodden with the feet. (TA.) 

• # ■ t - 

&Hji» [km. of Jj jit: see what next precedes. 

■b And also a subst., signifying] Oentleness and 
submissioeness : (S, O :) or softness, or flaccidity, 
and gentleness: (G,K:) and softness, or flac- 
cidity, and languor, or affected languor, and 
weakness, in a man ; as also t iijlo and t olA- 

(TA.) One says, 5jl ju*J jJISjJJ. cJJ (S, O, 
K) i. e. Beneath thy gentleness and submissiveness 
is occasionally somewhat of hardness : (S, O, TA :) 
or beneath thy silence is impetuosity, and refrac- 
toriness : (TA :) or beneath thy silence is deceit, 

or guile. (K, voce Sjl juc, q. v.) 

JLip» i. ?. oW^3 [q- v.], (0, £,) as also 
oWji J (O ;) and so » j£fc. (O, £.) 

JiU» [act part. n. of Jij-t ; and, as such, 
generally meaning] Coming, or a comer, (§,) 
[i. e.] anything coming, (O, Msb,) by night: (S, 
O, Msb :) one who comes by night being thus 
called because of his [generally] needing to knock 
at the door: in the Mufradat [of Er-Raghib] 
said to signify a wayfarer (Jij&ii JuC) : but 
in the common conventional language particularly 
applied to the comer by night : its pi. is Jljil, 
like jUwl pi. of j<o\i, [and app., as in a sense 

hereafter mentioned, Jlji also, agreeably with 

• " J *» 

analogy,] and the pi. of [its fern.] a5jU» is Jj'>b. 

(TA.) [V^UJI j^li, like IJUJI ^h, means 
77ie .?wmmon<r of death, lit., of deaths; because 

death makes known its arrival or approach sud- 
denly, like a person knocking at the door in the 
night.] _ Hence JjliJI, mentioned in the ]£ur 
[lxxxvi. 1 and 2], The star that appears in the 
night : (Er-Raghib, O :) or the morning-star; (S, 
O, EL;) because it comes [or appears] in [the 
end of] the night. (0.)_ Hence the saying 
of Hind (S, O) the daughter of 'Otbch the son of 
Rabee'ah, on the day [of the battle] of Ohud, 
quoting proverbially what was said by Ez-Zarka 
El-Iyddccych when Kisra warred with Iyad, 

\[We are the daughters of one like a star, or a 
morning-star : we bend not to a lover : we walk 
upon the pillows] : (S* O* TA :) meaning we 
are the daughters of a. chief ; likening him to the 
star in elevation ; (O, TA ;) i. e. our father is, 
in respect of elevation, like the shining star : (S :) 
or Jjili oW means t the daughters oft/ie kings. 
(T and TA in art. ^.)— And JjU* signifies 
also [A diviner : and particularly, by means of 
pebbles; a practiser of pessomancy : or] one who 
is nearly a ^jites ; possessing more knowledge than 

such as is termed jU. : (ISh, TA in art. { jj». :) 
ill * 

Jjlji [is its pi., and] signifies practisers of divina- 
tion : and Jjl^fc [is pi. of aSjUb, and thus] sig- 
nifies female practisers of divination : Lebced 

[By thy life, or by thy religion, tlie diviners with 
pebbles know not, nor tlie diviners by the flight of 
birds, what God is doing]. (S, O.) 

lijli [a subst. from Jjli, made so by the affix 
i, \ An event occurring, or coming to pass, in the 
night : pi. J;l>*]. One says, Jj>}^ i>? <Mj J**" 

' i li\ % [We seek protection by Ood from] tlie 
nocturnal events or accidents or casualties [that 
are occasions of that which is evil], (Er-Raghib, 
TA.) And 3Sj\i» occurring in a trad, of 'Alee 

" • *• • £ . 

is expl. as signifying j^-i C-J>J» [»PP- meaning 
An event that has occurred in tlie night bringing 
good, or good fortune]. (TA.)^Also A man's 
[small sub-tribe suck as is called] »j~lfi, (?, O, K,) 
and [such as is called] JuLi. (S, O.) = And A 
small couch, (IDrd, O, K,) of a size sufficient for 
one person : of the dial, of El-Yemen. (IDrd, 
O.) = [El-Makreezee mentions the custom of 

£ • - * * . ,- . 

attaching &&»• Jj'>i» upon the gates of Cairo 

and upon the entrances of the houses of the »\j*\ ; 
and De Sacy approves of the opinion of A. 
Schultens and of M. Reinaud that the meaning 
is Cuirasses, from the Greek OwpaS; : (see De 
Sacy's Chrest. Arabe, sec. ed., vol. i. pp. 274-5 :) 
but I think that the meaning is more probably 
large maces; for such maces, each with a head 
like a cannon-ball, may still be seen, if they have 
not been removed within the last few years, upon 
several of the gates of Cairo ; and if so, Jjl>t 

[Book I. 

in this case is app. from Jjh "he beat;" see 
also }y*.] 

AgSjU* A »3^3 [i. e. collar, or necklace] : (K :) 
[or rather] a sort of jj^ [pi. of i'i'jS]. (Lth, 0.) 

Jjjtl A camel having the affection termed JjjJ», 
inf. n. of J> [q. v.] : fem. llj> : (S, O, $ :) 
and the latter is said by Lth to be applied to the 
hind leg as meaning having tlie crookedness termed 
ijjia in its JLi. (0.) 

JjaW and » Jjjb A so7-t of palm-tree of El- 
Hijdz, (AHn, O, £,) that is early in bearing, 
before tlie ot/ter palm-trees ; the ripening and ripe 
dates of which are yellow : (O :) AHn also says, 
in one place, the (jjjsfcl is a species of palm-trees, 
tlie earliest in bearing of all tlie palm-trees of El- 
Ifijdz ; and by certain of the poets such are called 

o£ijU\ and CgSf&P. (TA.) 

i3jjLo (j-p [A shield having another sewed 
upon it: or covered with skin and shuns] : (S:) 

and iS'jLU oV-», (S, Msb, K,) or t &l£k«, (O, 
Msb, K,) Shields sewed one upon anotlier; (S, 
0, 1£;) formed of two skins, one of tlicm sewed 

upon the otlier ; (Msb;) like A»jJ*o J*i a sole 

having anotlier sole sewed U}x>n it; as also 

♦ Sij\iou» : (S, O, K :) or shields clad [i. c. covered] 

> > * > * 31* 
with skin and sinews. (S, O.) ^ t A y ^j \j\£> 

ai^bugJI ^W*JI, or " Jifiajt, occurring in a 
trad., (Msb, TA,) i. e. [^1* though tlieir faces 
were] shields clad with sinews one above anotlier, 
(TA,) means \ having rough, or coarse, and 
broad, faces. (Msb, TA.) __ And Jij£»» ^j 
Featliers overlying one anotlier. (TA.) 

j^Lo Having a natural laxness of tlie eye 
[or rather of the eyelids, and a consequent lowering 
of tlie eye towards tlie ground] : (S, O :) [or 
bending down tlie head: or lowering the eyes, 
looking towards the ground; cither naturally or 
otherwise : (see its verb, 4 :)] and silent, or 
keeping silence. (TA. See also & Jk)_It is 
also applied as an epithet to a stallion-camel : 
and to a [she-camel such as is termed] <Q)U». 
[i. e. one resembling a he-camel in greatness of 
make], and, thus applied, [and app. likewise 
when applied to a stallion-camel,] it may mean 
That does not utter a grumbling cry, nor 
vociferate: or, accord, to Khdlid Ibn-Jembeh, 
[quick in pace, for he says that] it is from j£b 
signifying "quickness of going." (Sh, TA.)_ 
See also JijJtua, last sentence. — — And, applied 
to a man, J Low, ignoble, or mean, (K, TA,) in 
race, or parentage, or in the grounds of pretension 
to respect or honour. (TA.) ss Also An enemy : 
from ij^ib (j^li Jjji»1 expl. above [see 4, last 
sentence]. (TA.) 

*' • 
JijJa* : see the next paragraph. 

iijiuc The rod, or stick, with which wool is 
beaten, (S, O, K, TA,) to loosen it, or separate 
it ; (S/ 0,» TA ;) as also * &L>. (O, IS., TA.) 
And A rod, or stick, or small staff, with which 

Book I.] 

one is beaten : pi. JjUa* : one says, JjUv^b «^e 

He beat him with the rods, &c. (TA.) And 

The implement [i. e. hammer] (S, Mgh, O, Msb) 
of the blacksmith, (S, O,) with which the iron is 
beaten. (Mgh, Msb.) 

Jjix« y^*i Stamped, or minted, gold; syn. 
j)jfi-4. (TA.) And U>k* i»U [like aJj^ 

(l- y 0] t ■4c she-camel rendered tractable, sub- 

M..J 1' 
missive, or manageable. (TA.) — And Jjix* J^ 

[./I horse-cloth] in which are [various] colours 

[app. forming (J-jIj-U, i. e. /m«, streaks, or 

stripes], (O.) — See also Jl/la*, in two places. 

JjJfeo «U»S [thus without •] .4 fc/rrf of the 
species called Uai that has arrived at the time of 
her egg's coming forth. (S.) [See also J-ix*.] 

plj l> 4 : see JLjj— b. = Also A she-camel 
recently covered by the stallion. (O, TA.) = 
And pi. of JjjUol« in the saying JjNI OtU- 
J^jUx* (TA) which means 7V*e camels came in 
one J-i/^a [i. c. roart", or way] : (Er-llaghib, 
TA :) or the camels came following one another 
(S, O, K,* TA) when drawing near to the water. 
(O, K> TA. [See also a similar phrase voce 
Jj>la.])_ [Hence,] » (> ^iJI Jl/k* signifies That 
which follmvs the thing; and the like of the thing : 
(K:) one says, lj* JljjLo IJuk 77tu u n'/ta* 
follows this ; and </ie #Ac of this : (S, O :) and 
the pi. is Jgllai. (S.) _ And Jrfjlki signifies 
also Persons going on foot : (K :) one says, 
JijUa* >yUI »-^ TVtc people, or party, went 
forth going on foot ; having no beasts : and the 
sing, is jl>*, (O,) or t j>ui, ('Eyn, L,» TA/) 
accord, to A'Obcyd ; the latter, if correct, cxtr. 

JjJjL. [pass. part. n. of JJ£ ; Beaten, &c.]. 
i3jjj»-« >* means /fe m one whom every one beats 

or slaps (j^f ji> *5j&). (TA.) And J A 

man in whom is softness, or flaccidity, (As, S, 0, K, 
TA,) am/ weakness : (As, S :) or weakness and 
softness: (TA:) or softness and flaccidity : from 
the saying Jji/J** yk i. e. <3t3fc aJjU. a^LsI 
[which, if we should read n.vir.'r*, seems to mean 
Ae « smitten by an event, or accident, that has 
disabled him as though it bound his arms behind 
his back; but I think it probable that <CJu£> is a 
mistranscription] : or because he is \_«jj<n.fl [app. 
a mistake for ^t^jJm], like as one says ejyu 
and f-)J*» [app. meaning beaten and subdued, or 
rendered submissive] : or as being likened, in 
abjectness, to a she-camel that is termed <ti>3>lv* 
[like ££&• (q. t.)]. (Er-Raghib, TA.) &j£. 
applied to a woman means [app. Soft and 
feminine ;] that does not make herself like a man. 
(TA.) [See also a reading of a verse cited voce 
3jjL».] — Also \Weak in intellect, (K,TA,) and 
soft. (T A.) — Applied to herbage, Smitten by the 
rain after its having dried up. (Ibn-'Abbad, L, 
K.) — See also jjj», latter half. Applied to a 

ewe, ii^jix* signifies Branded with the mark 
called Jl^l» upon the middle of Iter ear. (ISh,0,K.) 

•» » » M *' t ' 

^judla : see its fem., with i, voce J>jl*>». 

•'.*'• ' . *i . 

Jj hr„ « ♦ ;. ^. iC_i [app. as meaning vl roaa*, 

* ' 
like J>j>1» ; or a highway]. (TA.) 

oUjlxU Mineral substances. (TA.) 

Q. L »~«jJb jffe maaV his building ton*7; (S, 
K ; in the former in art. ~-p» ;) like >>p9 : (S 
and K in art »-jl> :) or he made it long and 
high : (A, TA :) accord, to J, tho is augmenta- 
tive. (TA.) A poet says, describing camels 
which herbage produced by the >y [here meaning 
the rain of the auroral setting] of the constellation 
Leo had filled with fat, 

el , +t f 

* trvmiif ^MipMS jJa~«Jlj tipfc. o * 

[DarA ^rewi herbage, tAe offsjrring of a motlier 
(meaning, as is said in the TA, of a cloud) of a 
yellowish black hue, tlte stallion (meaning the star 
or astcrism supposed to be the cause of its giving 
rain) tracing his origin to the lion, extended, or 
stretclted out, t/ieir sides]. (S and TA, the former 
in art. p-j^o.) 

• #• * 

r~*j^> One who takes, or walks with, long 

steps : (K, TA :) accord, to IKtt, the>» is augmen- 
tative. (TA.) 

AeiU~»jl> Pride. (K.) iJU^jJ» i-^. vl 

proud walk or »7att. (TA.) 

>-3*^b (K, TA) and * r-\*£>, as also>^»Jj», 

which last is thought by IDrd to be formed by 
transposition, (TA,) Long, or tall. (K, TA.) 

-.Ujb, of the very rare measure J'y>*i, of 
which there can hardly, or cannot at all, be 
found any other example, except jU-i-», a foreign 
word, and L^aw, also said to be of foreign 
origin, (TA,) A man of high ancestry or family, 
and celebrated ; (£, TA ;) of high renown. 
(TA.)— - And One who goes, or penetrates, far, 
or deeply, into an affair. (AZ, K, TA.) — — And 
accord, to Abu-l-'Omeythil El-Aardbee, One 

who elevates his head in pride. (TA.) __ Sec also 
a it j 

Q. 1. JlojJv, inf. n. SJ^jJv, J7e gloried, or 
boasted, vainly, and praised himself for that 
which was not in him : (AHeyth, L :) Th says, 
in his " Amalee," that SJ*»jia is a genuine Arabic 
word; (L;) and so says El-JJlalee: (TA:) but 
in the S it is said to be not of the language of the 
people of the desert. (L, TA.) [See this word 
below.] ■'g 1 - Xefh He gloried over him, and 


praised himself for that which he did not possess. 

%***) + 

Sj*ji» a-i In him is pride: (Abu-1-' Abbas, 

L :) [or vain-glorying : see 1.] 

i±*j* : see the last paragraph below. 

ij\j^,jl» and jlj^i» : see the next paragraph. 

iltjia One who glories, or boasts, vainly, and 
praises himself for that which is not in him ; (L, 
£;) as also t ^\S*jia, (L, £,) and j<J^J», (L,) 

• s * i *• * * * * 

or jIJl«jJ», (K, in which it is mentioned in a 
separate art.,) but jtJ^p* is said to have been 
unknown by IAar : (TA :) or one who boasts of 
abundance which he does not possess ; as also the 
last of the above-mentioned epithets, which also 
signifies one who boasts of that which lie does not 
perform. (L.) __ Also A horse of generous 
breed. (Th, L.) 

S*jlx* (S, L, K) and * ij^lo (K) A man who 
says but does not act, or perform; (S, L, K;) 
and who does not act seriously, or in earnest, 
(Jiifcj ^,) in affairs : (!£:) or, accord, to some 
copies of the K, who does not verify things. 


1. j>, [aor. ^,] (Kjr, S, Mgh, M ? b,K:,) 
and Jj^i, [aor. <j'jL,] (Ktr, S, ^,) inf. n. l^ 
(Kltr, S, Mgh, Msb, K) and JiT£ (S, K,) and 
Sljfe, (TA, and so in some copies of the S and of 
the K,) like «U», (TA,) and iTji, (so in some 
copies of the EL,) or \J», (TA as from the K,) 
with the shortened alif, (TA,) [the last agreeable 
with analogy as inf. n. of \^jSo,] said of a 
thing, (Mgh, Msb,) or of flesh-meat, (K!tr, S,) 
It was, or became, fresh, juicy, or moist : (Ktr, 
S,Msb, K:) andj>& signifies the same ; (Mgh, 
Msb;) but _j^l> is more common. (TA in art. 
!>!».) — And Jfyi signifles also iJ*J [// 
became new; was newly made or done; or was 
renewed]. (TA.) si tj_fe, [aor. jyJ«J,] inf. n. 

2jie, (K,) or, as written in the M, jjL, (TA,) 
He came from a distant place : (K :) you say 
ja^s. IjJ» he came, or, accord, to Lth, lie came 
forth, upon tltemfrom a distant place : or, accord, 
to AZ, lie came upon them witltout tlteir knowledge : 
it is a dial. var. of ljj» [q. v.]. (TA.)_And 

Sjie signifies also i***» [He went, or went away, 
&c.]. (TA.) — And ^£>, aor. jj^, (IAar, 
K,) in which, accord, to the K, the last radical 
letter is j_£, [not _j changed into ^ by reason of 
the kesreh before it,] but ISd says that there 
is no word of which the radical letters are i» and 
j and {J, (TA,) He advanced, or came forward: 
or he passed, passed by, went, or went away. 

2. o\ji», inf. n. aj»1»3, He rendered it fresh, 
juicy, or moist. (K.) You say, v*- 5 ' *^^» 
inf. n. as above, (S,) [app. meaning I refreshed, 


or I" moistened, the garment, or piece of cloth.] — 
And jj>U, (K,) inf. n. as above, (TA,) He ren- 
dered perfume fragrant [as though he refreshed 
it] by admixture*; ($, TA;) and aloes-wood 
with [other] perfume, or ambergris, or some other 
thing: (Az, TA:) and in like manner, food, 
(K, TA,) by mixing it with aromatics. (TA.) 
_ And He plastered, or coated, a building with 
clay, or mud : of the dial, of Mekkeh. (Z, TA.) 

4. »\jk\ lie praised him ; thus in the S, and 
in like manner expl. by Zbd and IKtt ; (TA ;) 
and thus t\jli\ [with .] is expl. by Es-Sarakustce : 
(Msb:) he eulogized, or commended, him; (K;) 
thus in the M ; (TA ;) and thus it is expl. by 
Es-Sarakus$ee : (Msb :) or he praised him renew- 
ing the mention of him : (Er-llaghib, TA:) or 
he praised him exceedingly: (AA, TA:) or lie 
praised him for the best oftlie qualities that fie pos- 
sessed; (Mfb, TA;) thus expl. by IF, and in 
like manner by Z : (TA :) or he praised him for 
that which was not in him : (Ax, TA :) or lie 
praised him greatly, or extravagantly ; exceeded 
the just, or usual, bounds in praising him : (Msb:) 
or, accord, to II r and IAth, he exceeded the just, 
or usual bounds in jrraising him, and lied tlicrein. 

(TA.) And J-Lil ^>1»» He made the honey 

to thicken, or coagulate. (S, Msb, TA.) 

13. J&jLlj (K, TA,) inf. n. $jtJL\, (TA,) 
He suffered from indigestion, or heaviness of the 
stomach, (K, TA,) in consequence of much eating, 
(TA,) and became inflated in his belly : (K, TA :) 
and so \JSfi'jb\ : thus correctly ; but mentioned 
by J and IKtt as with ^b. (TA.) [See also 
Q. Q. 3inart.>.] 

££jl [without the article £t] What is not of 
the nature of the earth; (K;) or whatever is 
upon the surface of the earth, of such things as 
are not of the nature of the earth, consisting of 
pebbles; or small pebbles; [and the like;] and 
dust and tlte like : (TA :) and, (K, TA,) as some 
say, (TA,) the sorts of created things whereof the 
number cannot be reckoned; (K, TA ;) or any 
created things whereof the number and t/ie sorts 
cannot be reckoned. (TA.) One says, jZ&\ >k 

i&& i£j^" <>? t° r 0b £■>' »• e - The y are 

more in number, or quantity, than the pebbles, 
&c, and tlian the moist earth], (TA.) 

^£jL Fresh, juicy, or moist : (S, Msb, K, 
TA :) and *{$jir is a dial. var. thereof. (Msb.) 
It is expl. as meaning thus in the Kur [xvi. 14 
and] xxxv. 13 [as an epithet applied to the flesh 
of fish]. (TA.) And oW/£" [used as a subst.] 
means Fish and fresh ripe dates. (A, TA.)^ 


Also Strange, or a stranger; syn. y^i : and A A 

has mentioned ▼ jj^li J<*J, [said to be] with 
teshdeed, [otherwise I should think it might be 
a mistranscription for (Y^r] as meaning a man 
that is a stranger. (TA.) 

0^iJ^> w ' 4 ^ tw0 kesrehs, an( i w > tn tue l5 
musheddedeh, The 0\t^ l 0T table ] up * which 
one eats; thus accord, to ISk: or, accord, to 
IAor, the ££> [i. e. disk, or plate] : occurring 

in a trad. ; as some relate it, thus ; and as others 
relate it, 0^J^> w ' 1 ^ l ^ e i musheddedeh, like 
^yLo ; [and thus it is mentioned in the O and 
K in art. j^ ;] but Fr says that this latter is of 
the dial, of Hie vulgar. (TA.) 

i - 8 . 

jjjU. : see ,jjle. 

*jj±>\ A sort of food, called in Pers. a-ii.*}) ; 
(S ;) [i. e.] a certain food, like threads, made of 
flour; (K, TA ;) an explanation necessarily im- 
plying that it is what is called in Egypt jji 
OUllt : accord, to Sh, a thing made of softened 
starch ; and said by Lth to l>e a food made by 
the people of Syria; a word having no n. un. ; 
and what these two say indicates that it is what 
is called ii\j£s : Lth and Z mention the word 
as pronounced also with fet-h ; but Az says that 
the pronunciation with fct-h is incorrect. (TA.) 

Olv^ 1 The first stage, and the quickness, 
('\')X£, in the CK [erroneously] ijifc,) of youth : 
(K, TA :) like u 1 ^* in measure an ^ in meaning. 
(TA.) One says also, ♦ K>}jJ»\ \£ J& >• e. 
[To everything there is] a state of youthfulness. 

2±>\jjL\: see what next precedes. 

^£ji»» jjfi [ Aloes-wood] such as is termed jjk*, 
with which one fumigates himself: (S, TA :) and 
SlJjLa »y)\ [signifies the same, i. e. aloes-wood] 
rendered fragrant [as though refreshed] by tlte 
admixture of [other] perfume, or of ambergris, 

I tig 4 »ii Tl 

or some other thing: Sl^laJI is said by Lth to 
mean a sort of perfume. (TA.) And ojjJx. JUL .fc 
A preparation for washing the liead or hand, 
compounded with aromatics. (S, TA.) — — And 

one says, <u- ii ^ lSj-*" >*> meaning jf t J* * 
[i. e. t Hie is restored to a good state, or con- 
dition, of body, or of property]. (TA.) 

JX and » i-X (S, M, K) and ♦ A-J. (M, K) 
• » * * 

t. q. CmJs, (§, K,) which is expl. in its proper 

• u * 
place : (TA :) [see art. C—Js : or] & ...J* is the 

• • ' 8 * 

original of c»...ln : (Lth, TA :) the pi. (of (j-t, 

M) is ^11^1 [a pi. of pauc] (M) and ^y-L 

(S, M, ^L) and J^-i (M, ^C) [or rather this is a 

quasi-pl. n.] and (of i-J» and i-Js, M) ^UJs 

and [of ilt also] c£Sr, (S, K,) and ilio may 
also have for its pi. ^— U?, accord, to rule. 

(M.) The dim. [of ^] is J4^> ; (S in art. 
C*Mif ;) and [of i~i> and <uJ?,] <UyJ ». (1 Kt 
and Msb in art. c h .) 

• z 


[Book I. 

^,CJo A seller, (M,) or maker, (K,) o/"[<A« 
hind of basins called] ^yLie. (M, £.*) 

. see the preceding paragraph. 

i-L-J» The <ra<fe of selling, (M,) or the art o/" 
making, (r>,) [t^e Am<i o/ bajrtas called] \j*y~h 

[pLofJi]. (M,£.») 

(S, M, K, &c.) .4 Atiirf o/ »e«sei o/">-<> 
[or 6ra«] : (M, TA :) [generally pronounced in 

ft ft ji 

the present day J«iJ» and cJUn and mostly 

applied to o fc«d o/" basin of tinned copper, or 

of brass, or q/" silver, used for washing the hands 

ifc, figured and described in my work on the 

8 r 
Modern Egyptians :] i.q. ^~io, [q. v.,] (IKt, S, 

Mgh, Msb, K.,) which is [said to be] arabicized 
from C-'it>, the latter being a foreign word ; 
(Mgh ;) [but it is from the Pers., cJLk ;] it is 
of the dial, of Teiyi ; (S ;) and [said to be] 

formed from J-J», one of the two ^s being 
changed into C>, (IKt, S, Msb, K,) because they 
are deemed difficult of pronunciation ; (IKt, S, 
Msb ;) but in forming the pi. and the dim., the 
second sj» is restored, because separated from the 
former ; (S ;) for (IKt, S, Msb) the pi. is ^llt 

ft I 1 * 

(S, Mgh, Msb) and u*y-*>, though it has also for 
its pi. dyLL, (IKt, Mgh, Msb,) or, accord, to 
Zj, oU>; (Msb;) and the dim. is u Z' .i n , (S,) 

or a.n\'„lt, : (IKt, Msb :) it is also pronounced 
C^Ji ; (MF ;) and C-'in also lias been men- 
tioned ; (K ;) but some say that this is a mistake ; 
and others, that» is the original word from 
which C..i> is arabicized : (TA :) Zj says that, 
with most of the Arabs, (Msb,) it is fern. : (Mgh, 
Mbd :) sometimes it is masc. : (Lh, M :) IAmb 
says, on the authority of Fr, that the word used 

* s ' 
by the Arabs was i-±>, save that some said 

without » ; and that the tribe of Teiyi said 
• * 3 

like as they said C~a) for ^joi : Es-Sijistanee says 

that it is a foreign word arabicized : and Az, that 
it is a word adopted into the Arabic language, 
because io and «l> do not both occur in an 
Arabic word. (Msb.) 

(j.'^i, incorrectly pronounced by the people of 
Baghdad ^— b, (O, K,) A certain measure of 
capacity, (Lth, M, O, K,) well known : (M :) 
and (Lth, M, O, in the K " or ") Uie portion 
of the [tax called] k-\jL that is levied on the 

[quantities of land termed] ^W>^» (L^ 1 * M, O, 
K,) pi. of +fij*f : (TA :) an assessed rate (Ji^b)) 

of the land-tax : (S :) it is like the «-lj», having 

a certain amount: (Az, TA:) or it is like an 
impost of a certain amount : (O, K :) not a pure 
Arabic word : (Az, O :) app. post-classical : (K :) 
or (K) a Pers. word (S) arabicized : (§, K :) from 
the Pers. aJJ [or <lUJ originally signifying " an 
oil-measure:" (TK :) it occurs in a letter of 'Omar 
to'Othman. (S, 0, K.) 

a , 

• i 


?-}-}> A certain weight ; (T, TA ;) two grains, 
i. e. grains of barley; (jU^ ;) (S ;) the quarter 

Book L] 

of a jyia ;(?,?;)*■ e- the twenty-fourth part 
of a jXji 5 the JJIj being the sixth of a ^kji : 
(TA:) pi. LtfoCL: (S:) an arabicized word 
[from the Pern. >13]. (S, K.) — Also t. q. a^-0 
[as meaning A district, or province, or the like] ; 
(S, Mgh, £ ;) such as a i>£ [here app. mean- 
ing township], and the like: for instance, Ardabeel 
is of the •^-Ui of Hulwan : (Mgh :) one of tlie 
- , t -t'C „/ tA« <Sawdd! : (T, TA :) the £*-l-b of 
the people of El-Ahwdz aro like the wA ft * • of 
the people of El-Yemen and the *U»-I of the 
people of Syria and the j^£> of the people of 
El-'Irdk and the JpCj of the people of El- 
Jib&l : (IB voce >J^J~« :) in this sense likewise 
(S) an arabicized word. (S, Mgh, KL.*) 

1. lCli\ cJLi, (S, A, O, $,) aor. ; and '- , 
' 8. 
(O, £,) inf. n. J±, (T£,) The shy let faU ram 

such as is called Jii [q. v.] ; as also ¥ C*£J»I. 
(S, A, O, K.) — [Hence,] JLfc [as meaning 
f He sprinhled the moisture from his nose like 
fine rain] is said of one affected with the malady 
termed ilb, when he blows his nose. (O.) — 
And JLi, (O, $,) with damm, ($,) He (a man) 
mas, or became, affected with tlie malady termed 
zLL : (0, K. :) but Az says that the [better] 
known word is ^j£J». (TA.) 
4 : see the preceding paragraph. 

^ and ¥ J^lL Weak [or fine] rain, (S, A, 
O, ?,) but exceeding what is termed ilij : (S, O, 
# :) or the former is less than Jtjj : (El-Khatjabee, 
and Suh in TA art. Jy :) or rain exceeding what 

8 * • • 

w termed i) it but less than what is termed kiw : 

(TA:) or the first of rain; (L,TA;) next to 

which is what is termed JLj : (L :) [but see these 

■ * * » * 

other terms for rain : utlUa and Ji,yiJ» arc pis. 

of Jj» ; both mentioned in the O, though not 
there said to be pis. of JLi» :] one says, U^Lol 
JiUy^ (JlULfe [Bains such as are termed yllii* 
and u-^-y f eli u P on **]■ (0-) 

3*1- and ♦ uiUk, both with damm, A malady 
like the [rheum termed] jte=>}, (O, £,) incident to 
human beings : said by El-Klutabee to be termed iiJ» 
because when he who is affected with it blows his 
nose he sprinkles the moisture from it like fine 
rain (,^JU 'J&Ia lit) : but the [better] known 
word is iliX. (O.) [See also the next para- 

«Ui> is said in the K to signify A young child ; 
its author having app. understood a young child 
to be meant thereby in a trad, respecting the 
[plant called] »!>»., in which it is said, \ij^-i 
a'fcl) ^,^^11 J-ti\£>\ [evidently meaning, In- 
telligent children purchase it for the malady 

termed dls>, this word being doubtless either a 
dial. var. of ili», or a mistranscription] : that 
a ; >- here denotes children is refuted by another 
relation of the trad., iliji »UJ» ^ti^»\ \lr*t 
[i. e. intelligent women drink a preparation of it 
for the alL]. (TA.) 

JLlii i. q. JLlij [i.e. Such as is sprinkled, or 
scattered,] QS., TA) of rain : or such as is weak. 
(TA.) [Not to be mistaken for the pis. ,jiUJ» 
and Jili; : see jS>.] — And hence, app., and, 
if so, tropical, Weakness of sight : whence the 
prov., ,J*ai\ % Jili&JI [Weakness of sight, and 
not blindness], (TA.) 

i£UU» : see 
. . 8- 

I^IIMg '. S6G ^«j9a 

£i JLLc Jij\ Land upon which has fallen rain 

8 - *. * * 

such as is termed Jj>. (S, A, O.) — And J»-; 

£jiL* A man affected with tlie malady termed 

f • < « » .' 

>: see 

1. *« «£, aor. '- , inf. n. j?&> and >UJ», He ate 
it ; namely, food: (K./ TA :) and >£, aor. as 
above, inf. n. j^L, with damm, he tasted [a 
thing] : (K. :) or 'j?L, aor. as above, (S, Mgh/ 
Msb,) inf. n. ^Jti, with damm, (S,) or J*±, 
with fet-h, (Msb,) or both, (Mgh,) and j^Lc 
also is an inf. n. of the same verb, (TA,) signifies 
he ate, (S, Mgh, Msb/) a thing, (Mgh,) and 
[app. also he swalbwed, for it is said that] it 
applies to anything that is swallowed easily or 
agreeably, even to water : (Msb :) and he tasted 
(S, Mgh, Msb) a thing ; (Mgh, Msb ;) as also 
♦^JiW ; (S, Mgh, K ;) [i. e.] this latter verb 
signifies lie tasted food in order that he might 
know its flavour; and so t^^l^-il : (Msb:) and 
^£> as meaning lie tasted may be used in relation 
to that which is eaten and to that which is drunk. 
(L.) Hence, in the KLur [xxxiii. 53], J-**Jb lij* 
\J i *'-'\\\ And when ye shall have eaten [disperse 
yourselves]. (S/ TA.) And you say, J5 £& 
4^xJb, meaning [Such a one,] his eating [was, or 
became, little]. (S.) The saying in the Kur [ii. 

250], Jjj* liU aU^ JoJ O+S means Bui whoso 
does not'tas\e it, (S, Msb/ TA,) he is of my 
followers, (Bd, Jel,) or is at one, or in union, 
with me : (Bd :) or, accord, to Zj, the meaning 
is, */ ♦ JoJdai *jj [app. meaning does not refresh 
himself with it as though with food] : (TA :) or, 
as some say, the passage in which it occurs 
denotes a prohibition to take aught save as much 
as is laded out with the hand ; and when water 
has with it something that is chewed, one says of 
it 'J&>. (Er-Raghib, TA.) ^iij C&J i. e. 
Taste thou, (S, Mgh, ?,) then thou wilt have 


desire, or appetence, (Mgh,) or so tliat thou 
mayest have desire, or appetence, and mayest 
eat; (S, $;) or taste thou the food, for it will 
induce thee to eat it ; (IB, TA ;) is a prov., 
(IB, Mgh, TA,) said to him who refrains from 
an affair ; meaning, commence it, for thy doing 
so will invite thee to finish it. (IB, TA.)— ■ 
J^jJtJt signifies also The eating with the central 
incisors : one says, U-*. l*aJe js*m 4 **J L * / « r »*y 
he eats well with tlie central incisors]. (TA.) — 
>UWI 1 jl J£f\ 'J^t U, (K:/ TA,) a phrase 
mentioned by ISh, (TA,) means I Tlie eater of 
this food does not become satisfied in stomach. 

(K/TA.) 'j*S» said of a branch, or shoot, 

t It received ingrafiment. (ISh, $, TA.) — And 
[hence, perhaps,] l~c- C ^ o h t [LTis eye liad a 
mote cast into it : see 4]. (TA.) — *#U >*^>> 
(K, TA,) inf. n. *Jd», (If/ TA,) which, in the 
K, is improperly disjoined from its verb, [as 
though it were a simple subst.,] (TA,) *. q. j«*J 
[i. e. He had power over him, or it ; or he had 
power, or ability, to do it, &c.]. (£, TA.) 

2: see 4, in three places. — ^«i», (?, TA,) 

inf. n. JU«&» ( TA ») Baid of a bonc ' meanB t ^ 
liad, or contained, marrow. (1£, TA.) [Used in 
this sense, it may be regarded as a trans, v. of 
which the objective complement is understood ; 
as though signifying It fed.] 

3. «£*!& I ate with him. (TA.) _ And 
[hence] C*l£>, said of two pigeons, t They billed ; 
tlie male bird inserting his mouth [or bill] into that 
of his female; as also ♦ C*liaJ. (K,TA.) 

4. i**K (Msb, K,) or >UWI *♦*!»!, (S,) 
[inf. n. ^»UJ»t,] He fed him ; or gave him to eat, 
or gave him food; (Msb, ]£;) [and so, accord, 
to modern usage, ♦<£♦»!».] — And [hence] 4*xJft 
signifies also t He supplied him with the means of 
subsistence: whence, in the Klur [li. 57], j^t Uj 
^[.L'. £j\ i. e. X And I desire not that [they, 
meaning] any of my servants should supply me 
with the means of subsistence; for I am the 
supplier of the means of subsistence. (TA.) _ 
And u^' *J* As»i»l 1 1 have assigned to thee 
as a <U*£ [q. v.] this land. (TA.) It is said ot 
the Prophet, iiii lir^»^ t [^« assigned to 
them, or gave them, a 1**1»] : accord, to Aboo- 
Haneefeh, j»l«isi signifies peculiarly f the lend- 
ing of land for cultivation : but it is said on the 

v " * .,.,».,.}*# 

authority of Mo'dwiyeh, -.t^*. 1^* ^^i»» *i' 

jr~, meaning t that he gave 'Amr as a &»al» 
the •.»>*. [or land-tax] of Egypt. (Mgh.) _ 

See also 10 0^\ j*M, (ISh, ?,) inf. n. 

>U^I, (TA,) I He ingrafted upon the branch, or 
shoot, a branch, or shoot, of another tree ; (ISh, 
5, TA ;) as also * <L»xb, [which is more com- 
monly used in this sense,] (?,) inf. n. jh*jbj. 
CTA.) [And¥JL*i» i» n« w used M meaning 
also t He inoculated him.] — And *^e C«*kJ»I 
,Jji f [I cast a mote into his eye], (TA.) 


[— See also a verse cited voce ilic.l _ -*M 
j • a • - "^ 

J»~JI J 2%« palm-trees had ripe fruit, (S, K, 

TA,) such as might be eaten : or bore fruit : 

(TA :) or ijm/ *J I C ««*J»< *A« tree Aad ripe fruit : 

(Msb:) or 5j-»-JI C««.mi»t the fruit became ripe. 


5 : see 1, in three places : and see also an ex. 
voce jUi, in art. jj* and <J>«o. 

6. t j»riU TVtey (a party on a journey) ate 
rrith, or at the tent of, [meaning, of the food of] 
this man on one occasion of alighting, and another 
man on another occasion of alighting; each one 
of t/tem having his turn to supply the food of one 
day: like \yy\iJ and tjljUJ. (ISh.TAin art. 
vyO — See also 3. _ [Hence,] one says of 
two persons in conformity, Lj-cl U 7, meaning 
t They acted as do the two [billing] pigeons. 

8. ^Jl^l, (¥,) or 5^4>l o^«£l, (8,) + T/te 
ripening dates, or the ripening date, acquired 
flavour, (S, 1£, TA,) and became ripe, so as to 
be eaten. (TA.) _ _ [Hence,] one says, J».j ^s, 
^»aidu *^ I lie is a man who mill not become rvcll 
disciplined, in whom that which should improve 
him mill not produce an effect, (K,* TA,) and 
who will not become intelligent. (TA.) 

a one does any pleasing quality, nor any place of 
honour in the heart, or mind: and it is said in a 
trad., UJU> j5L»* ^1 U3 U^*j» <v U-1 Uui U 
t We slew not any one of account, any known per- 
son, or any one of rank, or station ; [we slew not 
any but bald-headed old women;] and one may 
also say in* this case *^al>, with damm. (TA.) 
— _ Also A thing that is swallowed easily or 
agreeably, whether solid, as grains [cJ"C.], or 
liquid, as expressed juice and oil and vinegar 
[<fc] ; differing from j&lo, which does not apply 
to liquids. (Msb.) 

[Book I. 

10. « t «U*„t lie ashed him to feed him. (S, 
Mgh, Meb.) — [Hence,] i~- j^JI «£■&£< 1 1 
ashed him to relate to me the narrative, or tra- 
dition : or to make me to taste the savour of his 

discourse. (TA.) And J>UNI J^»k:,.*T lit 

" tj.aUli J Tf'/te/i iVje >UI [or leader in prayer] 
desires you to tell him what lie should say, (S, 
Mgh, J£, TA,) being unable to proceed (Mgh, 
TA) in reciting the prayer, (TA,) do ye tell him 
what he should say, (S, Mgh, ]£, TA,) and prompt 
him, as though putting the recitation into his 
mouth like as food is put in : (TA :) a saying 
of 'Alee. (K.)__Aih1 JJ^JI c«»«I>£ll f I 
desired tlie horse's running. (TA.) __ See also 
1, first sentence. 

j^m [as an inf. n. : see 1 As a simple 

subst.,] Taste, flavour, or savour ; (S, Msb, 
TA ;) sweetness, and bitterness, and a quality 
[of any hind] between these two, in food and in 

beverage : pi. >>al». (K.) One says, j* <t,»l> 
[Its taste is bitter], (S, TA,) and ^U. [sweet], 
(Msb, TA,) and ^U [acid] : and a«jJ» ^Ju 
Its taste became altered from its natural quality. 
(Msb.) — And [Relish, i. e.] a desired quality 
of food. (S, Msb, £.) One says, j*So aJ J^J 
[It has no relish] : (S :) and ^tit wJiJJ J*J 

[ What is lean has no relish] : and t*aJ» signifies 
the same in the dial, of Kil&b. (Msb.) — _ 

[Hence, f An approvable quality in a man.] 

• r i * t - 
One says _^«J» ji J^.j fA man possessing in- 
telligence, and prudence, or discretion: and U 
i^"<y 79 -/•*» C>>^ t 2««r» u not in such a 
one intelligence nor activity: and J*ij L»J ^^ 
^Jd» u"^* 1 7%"*' appertains not to what such 

* * t 

j&lo [as an inf. n. : see 1 : _] as a subst. : 

see ^»U1». __ Also G/-at» <Aa< u thrown to birds. 
(T, Msb, TA.) And A bait that is thrown to 
fish. (TA.) — ^*l> ^lib means Fooii that 
satisfies the stomach of its eater: (ISh, K, TA:) 
and is said by MF to be for j&± . -i >Ut. 
(TA.) The Prophet said of the well Zemzem, 
_*«J> >UJ» lyil, meaning Verily it is a satisfier 
of the stomach of man, (ISh, Msb, TA,) like as 
ii food. (TA.) See also ^sJa. 

* ' ' • • ' 
_^»i>; see^c^W. 

^ew : sec ^Lb. 

iUt i. 7. il&U, (S, Msb, K, TA,) or jjj ; 
(Mgh;) i.e. f An assigned, or appointed, means 
of subsistence ; such as a grant of a tract of land; 
[an allodium so g?-anted;] and a tax, or a jmrtion 
of a tax or of taxes ; and the like : (Mgh, TA :) 
pi- j&Ao. (Mgh, K.) One says, oS* c.l»»- 
^•^W ioJtb « U |yn )l f [■» »*W assigned this estate 
as a means of subsistence to such a one], (S.) 
[For other exs., see 4.] And it is said in a trad, 
respecting the inheritance of the grandfather, &\ 
a) £*aJs jm*.*)\ (.^tjuJt i. e. t T/te other sixth is 
a surplus for him beyond his [regular] due. 
(TA.) __ Also An invitation to food. (EJ) — 
And t A mode, or manner, of gain ; (S, ¥., 
TA;) as also t i^d, ■ (TA:) it is like H\m.. 

(A, TA.) One sa'ys, aUJkJI wi,^ o^ I [Such 
a one is uncorrupt in res]>ect of the mode of gain] : 

and rt «. »Ja) l w« e «A. i. e. corrupt in respect of the 
means of gain. (S, TA.) 

io A way, mode, or manner, of eating: 
(£, TA :) L^ explains it as meaning a way, 
mode, or manner, of acting or conduct, without 
saying in eating or in any other thing. (TA.) 
One says, f&Ulj ^**¥ X *>-** 0*& [ Su c» * 
one is good, or comely, in respect of the way, 
mode, or manner, of eating and of drinking]. 
(A'Obeyd, S, TA.) And i^fjl 44u o*i 
I [Such a one is accustomed to eat nothing but 
what is lawful], and fU£)l *L~L accustomed to 
eat nothing but what is unlawful' (TA.) See also 

>>UJ» [as an inf. n. : see 1. As a subst.,] 

Food, (S, Nh, Mgh^Msb,?!.) of any kind; 
(Nh, TA;) like as ^!P signifies beverage [of 

any kind] : (Mgh, Msb :) and especially wheat, 
(S, Nh, Mgh, Msb, £,) to which it is applied 
by the people of El-Hijaz ; (Msb, TA ;) and 
barley; (Nh,TA;) [and corn in general; thus 
applied to millet in the present day in some parts 
of Arabia, as, for instance, in El- Yemen ; (see 
Ijtf* ;)] and dates, (Nh, Mgh, TA,) when said 
not to mean wheat ; (Mgh, TA ;) ,jr. ; (Nh, 
TA :) and in the Expos, of the " Shife," it is 
said to be applied to pother than food tropically: 
(TA:) and t^J& signifies the same; (S, Mgh, 
Msb, K;) as also tj^ii; (Ham p. 1GC, and 
K ;•) of which tlie pi. is ^t\LU : (Ham ubi 
supra:) one says, J.elijl 'j&Jj yL, meaning 
[He collects and withholds] wheat [waiting for a 
time of scarcity and dearness] : ( A, TA :) the pi. 
of >Ub is i£»£f, (Mgh, Msb, K,) and pi. pi. 
C»U«1»1. (K.) [It often means A meal, or re- 
past.] y*~i\ ^oUi, means That from which the 
water [of the sea, or of the great rieer,] has re- 
ceded, leaving it, so that it Li taken without fish- 
ing : or, as some say, anything that is irrigated 
by the water of the ja^ [i. c. great river], and 
consequently vegetates : so says Zj. (TA. [See the 
Klur v. 97.]) 

>»>*-l» and *^ S »J», applied to a slaughtered 
camel or she-camel, t Such as is between the lean 
and the fat : (Fr, S, K:) or the former, so applied, 
srgnifics fat : and each, applied to a sheep or 
goat (»li), having somewhat of fat : (TA:) and 
the former, as also '„#»£* and T ^«aJl< [in tlie 
CK^ k Llo], signifies J thus, applied to a he-camel 
and to a she-camel, (£,*TA,) as also *^e*i: 
or a she-camel having in her a little marrow: or 
in the flesh of which is found the flavour of fat, 
by reason of Iter fatness. (TA.) Accord, to 
Aboo-Sa'ecd, one says, <u>«^ IJjb »£•£ iu i.*e. 
t [Thine is, or shall be, tlie lean of this] and the 
fat tliereof. (TA.) And J^ldi ±J» means 

t Marrow in which is found tlie flavour of fatness. 

j,*** : see the next preceding paragraph, in 
two places. __ Also, applied to water, j. q. ^t^jL 
[q. v.]. (TA in art. v.A) 

<U>*J» A sheep, or goat (Sli) that is confined 
to be eaten. (K.) 

i .. 

^y-UJ* A seller of jt\*ia [app. as meaning 

wheat, or corn]. (TA.) 

JttA& Eating: and tasting. (S.)__And J A 
man having a good state, or condition, in respect 
of food; as also *^*S>; (£, TA;) [each] a pos- 
sessive epithet in this sense ; on the authority of 
Sb. (TA.) — ^fc-liL 'Js. l^ lSt f thus in the 

A and K, but in the L^CUi 'Jl, (TA,) mean? 
1 1 am in no need of your food. (£, TA.) 

j**L* [as an inf. n. : see 1 Asa subst,] 

A place of eating : (Har p. 345 :) [and a time 

thereof:] syn. j£>U.^ (TA.) See also>li£. 

_ And see alao^nhin *. 

Book I.] 

■j^ it* [Fed. — And hence,] t Supplied with 
the means of subsistence. (S, K, TA.) — [Hence,] 
one says, ^jiyt^aJa* jXil, meaning ,jr»>>* Oi'ir* 
[i. e. I Fen/y thou art gifted with my love, or 
affection]. (TA.) 

7%a< eats vehemently : (S, K :) fem. with 
I : (K :) the former applied to a man ; (S, TA ;) 
and the latter, to a woman, and extr., [saidto be] 
the only instance of the kind except iSJa*. (TA.) 

<C*iJ> or \i~V-* : Bee the next paragraph, each 
in two places. 

ftUlU, (?,K,) like iL-Li, (K,) [i.e.] with 
kesr to the c, accord, to IAar, (S,) and like 
lij&i, (K, [i. c. * i^xL!*, but I think it most 
probable that it is correctly * i^xke, like i m *** 
tec, as being the name of an instrument, agree- 
ably with a remark respecting it in what follows,]) 
J A bom : (S, K, TA :) called by the former ap- 
pellation because it feeds its owner with the game : 
(IAar, S, TA :) and by the latter appellation be- 
cause one takes the game by means of it, and often 
shoots with it. (TA.) — And i^S^\, (K, TA,) 

or, as written by Z, with fct-h, [i. e. " a ««fc «H , 
or, as I think more probable, * a ., «£ » ) !,] % The 
a t -~i*- [or epiglottis; because it is said to 
throw the meat and drink into the gullet]. (K, 
TA.) And I [The place thereof; i. e.] the JU- 
[or fauces ; or upper part of the throat] : so in 
the saying, ,•$» *«■!»«; Q*jj jj±\ i. e. J Such a 

one seized the JAm\ of such a one, squeezing it ; 
said only in a case of throttling and fighting. 

(AZ, TA.) And yL : -^ *£Jji\ I The two cor- 

rcsjxmding anterior toes of a bird ; (S, K, TA ;) 
i. e. the two talons with which the bird seizes the 
flesh-meat. (TA.) 

see >y>J>. — Abo t Milk that has 
acquired in the skin a flavour and a pleasant 
odour : (AHat, K> TA :) and '^^Jtk* signifies 
[the same, or] milk that has acquired the flavour 
of the skin. (TA.) 

^oJtiL* : seo^syU* : — and see also a<0 jdL*. 

s * • 

v&UJm One who feeds others much, (S,) or who 

has many guests, (K,) and who entertains guests 
much; (S, EL;) applied to a man, (S, TA,) and 
to a woman: (TA :) [and app. one who eats 
much : for] ^c Wx * j*} signifies a people, or 
party, that eat much : or that feed others much. 

JUJt ^clk« t. q. JXdJ\ */di [app. t Sound, 
or free from defect, in make], (TA.) 

J U£: ...« The lips of the horse : (S, K, TA :) 
As Bays that thinness of the ^ 4 - t -~ t of the horse 
is approved: (S, TA:) but some say that it is 
the part beneath the O-'J" [or place of the halter] 
of the horse, extending to the extremities of his 
lips : and j, ■ h« [thus in my original, app. 
1 jj&m*, as being the " place of eating,"] signifies 
the same. (TA.) 
Bk. I. 

j^> — o*b 

1. ~ljJl/ '^Jb, aor. '• and : , (S, Msb, K,) the 

latter allowed by Fr as aor. of the verb in all its 
senses, (S, Msb,) because of the faucial letter, 
(Msb,) and heard by him as aor. of the verb in 
this phrase, but not by Ks in this case nor in 
relation to the grounds of pretension to respect or 
honour, (TA,) inf. n. i>au», (S, Msb, K,) and 
(jjtlw, (Msb,) and Lth authorizes (jU*l» also 
in this case as well as in the case of JjiW 0*^> 
(TA,) He smote him and pierced him, or lie 
smote him and he pierced him, [for it does not 
always signify the causing the weapon to enter,] 
with the spear; (K;) he pierced him, smote him, 
or wounded him, with the spear : (MA :) [some- 
times «uxi» means lie pierced, stabbed, stuck, or 
gored, him with a spear, &c. ; and sometimes, fie 
thrust, goaded, or poked, him :] you say, i>*J» 

ft " * t J 'it £ 

»*a»j _jl *}ju ij\ jJI [He goaded the beast with a 
stick or the like], (Mgh and Msb in art. is-^J.) 
__ [Hence,] ^ai» J He was smitten by the oy^ 
i. e. plague, or pestilence; (Z, Msb, K, TA;) 
said of a man, (Msb, TA,) and of a camel. 
(TA.) — And j£>W *-e-» 0**>, (S, Msb, K,) 
and 4ie, (Msb, TA,) and 4Jll^ £i£, (TA,) 

[and <Jp J> o*Jb,] aor. '- , (Lth, TA,) or, 
accord, to some, in this case - , (TA,) or both, 
(Msb,) inf. n. {J& and J&>> (?, Msb, K, TA, 
[the latter in the CK, erroneously, &lis\h, but 
expressly said in the TA to be jXjjm~3\j,]) J [He 
wounded him, or attacked him, with words, and 
with his tongue; and wounded, or attacked, his 
reputation;] lie blamed, censured, or reproached, 
him ; attributed or imputed to him, charged him 
with, or accused him of, a vice, fault, or tlie like ; 
or spoke against him. (Msb, TA.) A poet says, 
(S,) namely, Aboo-Zubeyd, (TA,) 

•|i ;»ui)i >U» J<i • 

* JUL. *) U Jy^ liUJ» • 

[Anrf my father is one in whom hatred is manifest, 
(or, as in the TA, Sjl joOl j t h )1, Ae ro/io manifests 
enmity,) except in censuring, and saying what 
should not be said]. (S.) ,jUxb is of a measure 
of inf. ns. of verbs denoting that in which is 
prolongation and perseverance ; and aptly applies 
to deviation from the right course. (TA.)_ 

•' * * * * f e. 

a-«l jJI ^xla is said of a child, meaning He 
raised his Itead [or thrust with it] towards the 
breast of his mother. (L.)_ And jljJI ^4 4>«J», 
said of a branch of a tree, (L, Msb,) means It 
inclined into, or against, the house, rising : (L :) 
or it inclined towards the house, extending sideways. 
(Msb.) __ jjL*iJ! .J c .: »!» , said, in a trad., of 
any one of the Prophet's daughters, when de- 
manded in marriage, as denoting her disapproval, 
means t She entered within the j jufc. [or curta in] : 
or, as some say, she struck the jjA. with her 
hand. (TA in art. jjk»..)_And you say, 
j/M j o&, (S, Msb, El,) aor. t and '- , (S,) 

inf. n. sj*)o, (Msb,) J He went away in, or into, 
the desert, (S, Msb, K, TA,) penetrated into it, 


(TA,) and traversed it. (So in a copy of the S.) 

— And JJUI t>«J» I He journeyed throughout 
the whole of the night. (KL, TA.) One says, 
J*U1 0*^4 pi*> t H e ment forth journeying in 
the night. (TA.) And >yUW 0*i> t -^« j<""^ 
neyed by night with the people, or party. (TA.) 

— And ^J\ J^ ^iS,, (S, Msb,) aor.*, (S,) 
f He became old, or advanced [or far-advanced] 
in age: (Msb:) or he rose ( u <i» *) t'» a«7«. 
(TA.)_And a-s jjifc means also t He began 
it, or entered upon it, namely, a thing, (Msb, 
TA,) or an affair, of any kind. (Mrd.) Hence 
one says of a woman, rt.^.^11 . J ^Jw, for 
i«aj»JI^»ul ^i w>ji? i. e. + She entered upon 
we days of the menstruation. (Msb.) _ ^>«J» 
OU«Jl j^, (K,) aor. *, (S,) said of a horse, 
means } He strained the rein [by thrusting 
forward his head], and hastened, or was quick> 
(JaJLj, so in copies of the S, in the K. U.T..1,) in 
going, or pace. (S, Ki, T A.) — And ^ i>**» 
djjUk. means f 7/c died; (Lth and Mgh and TA 
in -j.rl.jJ*!.;) [lit. A* was thrust into his bier:] or 
Ac tw at <Ae point of death : and aL~> ^J ^jjiJj 
signifies the same. (TA in the present art.) 

3: see 6. — JjUJoJI is metonymically used as 
meaning aju>L^I. (Har p. 601.) 

6. Jj^\ Jl ty*Ui3, (S, El,) inf. n. ^ItJ, 
(K, TA,) and accord, to the KL o 1 -"^' °PP- 
(jllib, [in the CK with the c. quiescent,] but 
correctly * ^U.*!*, with two kesrehs and with a 
sheddeh to the Q, which is anomalous ; and to 

this the K adds £>&*> w i tn k e8r > P? the CK 
written with fet-h,] but this is the inf. n. of 
t ly*Ub, not of tyttltt, as also JuOfeJ>; (TA;) 
and ♦ i>U£l, (S, K,) of the measure lyJ&l ; 
(S ;) [77wy pierced, or finut, o«« another in 
war :] Az says that J*U3I and JUa^l scarcely 
ever signify otherwise than the participation of 
two agents. (TA.) 

8 : see the next preceding paragraph. 

• * - 

^jjd* : see what next follows. 

ijLb [as an inf. n. of un., A single act of 
piercing or thrusting ; i. e. a piercing thrust or a 
stab, or simply a thrust; with a spear or the 
like : and a wound made by piercing or thrusting 
with a spear or the like ; i. e.] the effect of > jxk}\ ; 
pi. [or rather coll. gen. n.] t (jjLt, thus used by 
a Hudhalee poet in the phrase >Ju\y i>*J» 
[spear-wounds penetrating into the interior of the 
body, or into a vital part]. (TA.)_[It is also 
an inf. n. of un. in other senses,— Golius assigns 
also to this word and to iMe and <Uu», as from 
the K> the meaning of A woman of evil dis- 
position: but this is evidently a mistake, and 
taken from an art, (next after the present one) in 
the K, in which aJ&JbJI, there said to be iJl^JO 
UU ^Ifr is expl. as meaning " the woman evil in 



ijLai* an anomalous inf. n. of 6, q. v. 

• ■' * ' t ' . t 

v>ou> : see ^ylu, in two places. 


ijUfe, (S, TA,) occurring in a trad., (S,) 
means Wont [to wound, or attack, the reputa- 
tion* of men ;] to attack men with blame, censure, 
or reproach, and with backbiting, and the like: 
(TA :) it is for ^-Ul ^(j** yjf J& [a phrase 
mentioned in the 'Mfb].' (§, TA.*) 

i>«a]» Skilled in piercing, or thrusting, [with 
the spear,] in war. (TA.) 

O**^ t An epidemic disease; (TA;) [i.e.] 
plague, or pestilence, syn. ly or »ly, (r>, TA,) fry 
reason of which the air is vitiated, and by it the 
constitutions and the bodies are vitiated: (TA:) 
or the hind of ly wifA wAirA men are smitten by 

Ml jinn, or ^ent'i .• (TA voce ly , q. v. :) or a 
mortality in consequence of ly : (S, Msb :) pi. 
O** 1 *^ : (8» Msb, Kl :) it is a tropical term from 
i>*A»)l, because the k >«tl>t are called by them 
£}»J\ «-U, [tlte spears of the jinn, or genii], 
(Z,'TA.) ' 

(jii.U* is a noun of place [signifying A pAtce 
of piercing or thrusting &c] ; as well as an inf. n. 
(Msb.) i>»£-» «t-> U means f TYwwc u not in 
him anything [for which his reputation is to be 
wounded, or attacked, or] for which he is to be 
blamed, censured, or spoken against : (TA in art. 
j*k :) and you say, i>*jL> *J <J f [-B* Aa* 
(meaning lie finds) in him something for which his 
reputation may be wounded, &c.]: pi. ^Ik*. 
(TA in the present art.) 

i^iL* : see what next follows. 

ijbik* One who pierces, or thrusts, the enemy 
much; (S, K;) as also t J^jL, : ($:) pi. of 
the former ^gftlk« ; (S, K ;) and of the latter 

o?\L>. (if..)' 

jj^iiui Smitten and pierced [ice. ; see 1, first 
sentence] ; as also * k > t «i : (K :) AZ says, (TA,) 
the pi. [of the latter] is o*L, (£, TA,) and not 
iJkL [like ^yl*]. (TA.)_Also \ Smitten by 
the O^^* ['• c - ptoffutt or pestilence] ; (Msb, 
TA;) and so » ,>*£. (TA.) 

5. >kk3 [in Freytag's Lex.^Ubi] He feigned 
ignorance (£, TA) **U [to Aim] ; a* <A<w^A Ae 
rft<i as do thej>\&. (TA.) 

_^i£ A sea. (K.) And .ftfttcA wator. ($.) 

>»UJ» Zero, ignoble, mean, or sordid, and weak, 
persons, such as serve for the food of their bellies; 
or stupid, weak in intellect, Ion, ignoble, mean, or 
sordid : (8, $, TA :) and applied to a single 
person as well as to a pi. number. (S, TA.) — 
And The inferior, or meaner, tort* of bird*, ($, 
£, TA,) [contr. of J£i\ JU»,] and some add, 

and of beasts, or birds, of prey: (TA :) n. un. 
with 5; (§,]£;) applied to the male and the 
female. (Yaakoob, §.) It has no verb; and its 
derivation is not known. (S.)—^*^*-*})' >lxi» b, 
said by 'Alee to the people of El-'Irak, is a 
phrase of the; same class as Jj>JI ^ji-', [i- e. an 
instance of a subst. used as an epithet,] as 
though he said v »*^L*-*n>1 «_*Uu> b [Oye weak in 
respect of the qualities of forbearance]. (TA.)_ 
j>'$&\ ^»U1» means t Zero, or rife, speecA : one 
says,>%Ol>ui£>liWty£i» I [TAc *peecA of 
the low, ignoble, tec, is low, or vile, t]>eech]. 

<UUU Foolish; stupid; or having little, or no, 
intellect or understanding ; (Az, ]£ ;) as also 

Lui. (Az, TA.) [See also >li£, of which it 

is a n. un.] 

i«yib and A;QjiJo Foohshness; stupidity; or 
paucity, or wan<, o/" intellect or understanding : 
and lowness, ignobleness, or meanness. (K.) 

yd* and ^j*]* 

L ^ii, aor. ^'j (S,M,Msb,TA,&c.;) 
not mentioned in the K [in art. ^j*l>, but in 
some copies thereof mentioned in art ytb] ; per- 
haps dropped by the copyist; (TA ;) and Ul», 
aor. s&i ; and [jSo, aor. ^Lj ; (8, Msb, If ;) 
inf. n. ,«*£, which is of the first, though men- 
tioned in the K as being of the last ; (T A ;) and 
(jllii, (S, £,) which is also of the first, and 
second, (S,) or of the last, as also i/«*l»> C£>) 
mentioned by Ks as from some of the tribe of 
Kelb ; (TA ;) or oW^» «■ a simple subst. ; 
(Mfb ;) and Lib, mentioned by Az as an inf. n. 
[app. of the first] ; (TA ;) and the inf. n. of the 
second is yS>, (Msb,) or y<J», (K accord, to the 
TA,) like jl*, (TA,) or ^j'^Jo, (so in some 
copies of the K,) and i£$w, mentioned as an 
inf. n. by Az, (TA,) and olj*£ ; (?> «»d men- 
tioned in the S as syn. with oC** ;) and the 
inf. n. of l ^ii is L ^i ; (Msb, TA;) He 
exceeded the just, or common, limit or measure ; 
wot excessive, immoderate, inordinate, or exorbi- 
tant; (8, M§ b, 5, TA ;) [and particularly] in 
disobedience : (?,• M?b,» TA:) he exalted him- 
self, and ma* inordinate in infidelity: he wa* 
extravagant in act* of disobedience and in wrong- 
doing: (K:) accord, to El-Harallee, ^JLkJI 
signifies the acting wrongfully in respect of the 
limit* of things and the measure* thereof. (TA.) 
__ [Hence,] yJSr, in the £ ^jS>, but the former 
is the right, (TA,) or Ufe, (Msb,) said of a 
torrent, (Msb,) or of water, (]£, TA,) \ It rote 
high, (Mfb, %, TA,) to as to exceed the ordinary 
limit in copiousness: (Mfb:) or t5 ib or Ul», 
(accord, to different copies of the §,) said of a 
torrent, t it brought much water : and, said of 
the sea, f its wavet became raited, or in a state 
of commotion : and, said of the blood, f it became 

[Book I. 

roused, or excited. (S.) [Hence also the phrase 
iO>« Ui» f Thy pen has exceeded it* due limit : 
see art. j} } .] _ lj*Jl oii, (K,) aor. - , (TA,) 
means The Sjkf [i. e. the bovine antelope called 
L £».yi i^if (see C«V)] uttered a cry or crie*. (^L) 

4. »Ubl It, (i. e. wealth, S,) or he, (a man, 
Mfb,) made him to exceed tlte just, or common, 
limit or measure; to be excessive, immoderate, 
inordinate, or exorbitant. (S, Msb, I£.) 

6. 7->«Jl .c&UaJ [epp. 77te wave* conflicted, or 
dashed together, with excessive vehemence] : a 
phrase mentioned by Z. (TA.) 

UA» : see what next follows. 

jjib ; accord, to the copies of the KL * Ul», 
but this is incorrect ; A jouna*, or voice ; of the 
dial, of Hudheyl : one says, i^"5W i-Al* «J.«,^ J 
A«ara' tAs sound, or voice, of such a one: and, as 
in the " Nawddir/'^yUI ^i£ C . m ,, rf , and^^i, 
aml^y-ij, Iheardtlic sound, or wicc, [or twicef,] 
of thz people, or party. (TA.) 

SjiL : see what next follows. 

ijd> The to^, or u/i>per part, of a mountain: 
(S, TA:) and any high, or elevated, place; as 
also t ;ytb. (TA as from the 8 : but only the 
latter word is mentioned in this sense in my 
copies of the S.)_And(S) A small quantity 
(Jj^fi) of anything : (§, £ :•) so says AZ. (S. 
[In this sense, and in the two senses following, 
erroneously written in the CK iu«l>.]) — And 
A smooth stone or rock. (K.)_ And, accord, 
to the copies of the K, a JlUII sigmfieti > Jf .«rf>V.. < ll 
J-^Jt cyt [as though meaning What is deemed, 
or found, difficult, of the mountain] : but [SM 
says, though I think this doubtful,] it is correctly 
jI«L)l i>« [meaning wAaf is refractory, or un- 
tractabh, of Itorses], as in the M. (TA.) 

I^sJp a subst. from the verb UJ», (K, TA,) 
[and] so is * o0>±>, (Mfb,) or the latter is an 

• * 

inf. n., (§, 5,) and, accord, to Az, so is ^>*1», 
and so too is t tilt, which latter is said by Zj to 
be the original of {Jjil* : (TA :) it is like o'*^ 
and oCaJ»* (80 Hence, in the Kur [xci. 11], 
UiyUbft/ >y+j sZ-jX'rt [Thamood disbelieved by 
reason of their exorbitance]-, (K,*TA;) meaning 
that they did not believe when they were 
threatened with the punishment of their £le&l» : 
or, as is said in the Expos, of Bkh, the meaning 
is, by reason of their acts of disobedience. (TA.) 

U>t : see the next preceding paragraph, am It 
is also a proper name for [The bovine antelope 
called] jl^\ ijit; (K, TA ;) from ijiJ\ wit 
[expl. above : see 1, last sentence] : (TA :) [or, 
as it appears from a citation in the TA, partly 
mistranscribed so as to be unintelligible, y&> or 
* Uai> signifies, accord, to IAar, a tjif uttering a 

Book I.] 

cry or cria, or a loud cry or loud cries:] or 
♦ (Ja, with damra accord, to As, or Lib with 
fet-b accord, to Th, signifies a youngling of the 

(Jth : see what next precedes, in two places. 

OV*^ : see ij>*»- 

iUU Any exceeding hit, or t'to, just limit [in an 
absolute sense or] in disobedience. (S, Msb.) 

a^clb t. ry. jU». [i. e. Insolent, tyrannical, &c] ; 
(£, TA ;) wAo deviates from the right way or 
course, or trangresses the just limit: (TA:) and 
«ruynd, or foolish; proud; ($, TA ;) wrongful, 
unjust, or wy'urtotM, in conduct: (TA:) or one roAo 
care* no* w/tat Ae do«, devouring [the property 
of] men, and oppressing them, and who is not 
turned from his course by a disposition to shun sin 
or crime, nor by fear. (Sh, TA.) [Hence,] 
ie£lk)1 is an appellation o{The king of the ^j [or 
Greeks of the Lower Empire] ; (S, El, TA ;) 
applied to him as a surname because of his much 
exorbitance, and corrupt conduct. (TA.) — And 
A thunderbolt ; syn. U«U. (S, &.) — And 
The cry of punishment ; by which Thamood were 
destroyed, as mentioned in the Elur [lxix. 5] : 
(S, TA :) or, accord, to Zj, it there means their 
ij(J>£> [or exorbitance] ; being a subst. like a«il* 
and i^JU. (T A.) — Also The food denoted by 
the words of the Kur [lxix. 11] AJt ^JS, UJ. 
(Er-Raghib, TA.) 

■ ** » • ■»"-•*• tt_ 

o>cli» is of the measure OytW, from o^ib ; 

(M, ]£;) formed by transposition, though like 
w»yk^ which is not so formed : (S :) it is origi- 
nally of the measure 0>i»», which is changed to 
OyJi, so that it becomes O^-^o, and this is 
then altered to Oj*l£ : (Msb, TA :) it is held to 
be altered from O^fjb rather than from O^-ib 
because the transposition of _j is more common 
than that of ,J, as in j)\i &c. : (M, TA :) or, as 
some say, the o is a substitute for j, and the 
measure is Jj*U: and some say that the measure 
is 0>i*U, and that it is originally Oj-ilb : 
(TA:) the pi. is C*b££ (S,K.) and |1>, (£,) 
the latter mentioned by ISd. (TA.) It signifies 
A devil; (8, Msb, $, TA;) thus expl. by Abu-1- 
'Aliyeh and otliers, and said to be on the 
authority of 'Omar: (TA:) or one that is exor- 
bitant in pride or corruptness or disbelief or dis- 
obedience, of the jinn, or genii: (Er-Raghib, 
TA :) or C>j£l£>l means [the idol called] o^l 
and [that catted] tJEjill ; ($;) or thus some 
expL C ■!*" and Oj*lW» [together, in the IJLur 
it. 64] : (TA :) or wAatener « worshipped in- 
stead, at to the exclusion, of Qod; (Zj, £,TA;) 
as also J *%"• (Zj, TA :) and lAe tdou [in 
general] : (1JL :) or it if of the idols, and o/ the 
jinn, or genii, and oftnankistd: (Akh, TA:) or 
he who turns from the good nay: (Er-Raghib, 
TA:) and the diviner: (§,?,TA:) and the 

encAanter ; thus expl. by 'Ikrimeh ; and said to 
mean thus in the R!ur iv. 63: and so Jm y l 
accord, to Zj: (TA:) and any head, or feaaer, 
of error : (S, 1£ :) and <Ae exorbitant in pride or 
corruptness or disbelief or disobedience, of tfie 
people of the Scripture : (Kl :) it is used as a 
sing., (8, K,) as in the Blur iv.' 63 ; (S ;) and as 
a pi., (§,$,) as in the $ur ii. 259; (S;) and 
masc and fem., (Msb, TA,) as fem. in the $ur 
xxxix. 19 : (TA :) or by C^Jl i« meant Hoyei 
Ibn-Akhjab; and by OjiUdl, Kaab Ibn-El- 
Ashraf: (IAb,^:) and [the pis.] C^fcl> and 
il^b signify [sometimes] idol temples: so says 
El-Hafidh in the preface to the "Fet-h" [i.e. 
his celebrated work entitled " Fet-h el-Bari "]. 

1. Ji, (As, O, £,) [aor., app., ,,] inf. n. 
ii, (TK, [or, accord. toFreytag J^Ab, which see 

in what follows,]) It (a thing) was, or became, near 

(As, O, K.) You say, <J»i. U ^U. i>. 

JU»« i. e. [I took, of my goods,] wltat [was light, 

i ' * In if 
and] mnw near to me. (As.O.) And^ l^j^JI »-*b 

i°J-}\ The thing was, or became, near to t/ie 
thing. (O, El.*) And iill «^b U XL, and 
iJ * Ju'r'A, (S, Meyd, O, K,) and SH ♦ Jt«, 
(Meyd, O, TA,) TaAe tAou wAa« lias risen to 
thee, and become within thy power or reacA, (S, 
O, El, TA,) and become attainable [to thee], or 
prepared [for tltee], (AZ, Meyd, TA,) and be- 
come near to thee : (?, TA :) or what has risen 
to view, and Aa» appeared, [to thee,] to be taken : 
(TA :) [for] Jfc, inf. n. «Jji£, signifies it rose 
[app. so as to become visible] : and it was, or 
6«ca»n«, little in quantity : the saying is a prov., 
relating to a man's being content with a part of 
that which he wants: (Meyd:) and in like 
manner one says, M Jb U Jt^, and J^l : 
(AZ, Meyd, TA :) and Ks mentions, in relation 
to a man's being 1 content with a part of that 
which he wants, the saying, ejj <& Ju» U M- 
iU t !_?,{-•" U [app. meaning, if the saying be 
correctly thus related, Take what is within thy 
power, or reacA, and leave what has risen to thy 
view so as to invite approach] ; i. e. be con- 
tent with what is within thy power. (TA.) _ 
' *«» oJdU : — and \JS> said of a bird : see 2. 
— Jtk<>* t a PP* w"<] Repassed by hastening, 
or going quickly. (6.) — il6l Jk, (O, $,) 

aor. •-, (O, TA,) inf. n. u&, (TA,) He (a man, 
O) bound the legs of the she-camel, (0,£,) all of 

them. (0.) *& He (a man, O) rawed it 

(i. e. a thing, O) with his leg or foot, or with his 
arm or hand. (O, £.) And £i^ ofy wik 
I jtf-. He raised such a one to suck a place; and 
made him to be on a level with it. (TA.) — And 
iuloJI uUU, inf. n. uU», He mounted upon the 
wall. (TA.) 


2. uULb He made defective, or deficient. (TA.) 
You say, u&, (K,) or Jl^ll uULb, and 

OljeJI, (Msb,) inf. n. J**i5, (S, O, Msb,) He 
gave short measure, and sAort weight ; (Msb ;) 
Ae made <Ae contents of the measure to be defective, 
(S, O, Msb, K,) and in like manner, of the 
balance; (Msb;) not filling the former to its 
uppermost parts : (§, TA :) i. e. A« did thus, 
cheating his companion in measure or in weight. 
(TA.) [Hence,] aJW* J^ uSi» I He scanted 
his household, stinted them, or was niggardly or 
parsimonious towards them, in expenditure. (TA.) 
And j4J)l iJi* uUk t He gave to tlie man less 
than he had taken from him. (TA.) And 
tUNt i_*Ife He took what tvas upon [or above] the 
vessel [i. c. Us sJ\&, or 2i\&]. (TA. [See also 
4, last sentence.]) _ Also He made full, or com- 
plete. (TA.) [Thus it has two contr. significa- 
tions.] = J-+1} I c-ilb l The sun drew near 
to setting: (TA:) [but this may be a mistran- 
scription for ♦ cJu>, mentioned by Golius in this 
sense on the authority of Z : or each may be 
correct: that the latter is correct, and that 
♦ «_iu£> or t oUl» is its inf. n., seems to be in- 
dicated by the fact that SM adds immediately 
after the explanation of the former phrase,] 
cr ^JI w»Ub Ju* UUt means I [He came to us] 
at the sun's drawing near to setting. (TA.)_ 
Ukil*, said of a bird, [or t JLu, mentioned by 
Freytag from Hamaker's Specim. catal. p. 49, 
1. 4, of the Arabic text, or both may be correct,] 
The bird expanded his wings : (O, Kl :) so says 

Ibn-Abbad. (O.) And J^ii\ *t uUJ» I Tlie 

horse leaped with kim. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K. 
[Golius has omitted this ; and has assigned to 
ijj&, followed by ^> with the person who is the 
object, as on the authority of the $ and K, the 
signification of Ujl (properly ^jJal), meaning 

" prope admovit," a signification belonging to 

ft § 
ijii>l, but not assigned to either of these verbs in 

the S nor in the K.]) ^ Sm —+ S*^ \jt <-^> 
Ji^jj, in a saying of Ibn-'Omar respecting a 
horse-race, means \ T/ie horse leaped with me 
(^, O, TA) so that he passed beyond the mosque 
of the Sons of Zureyk. (0, TA.) 

4. Jit utkl L« J**.: see 1. _ And ei ou*l 
He had knowledge of it, i. e. an affair ; (Lth, O, 
K ;) and of him, i. e. a person. (O.) — — And 
He desired to deceive him: (0,K:) or he had 
knowledge of kim, and desired to deceive him. (O.) 

And 4i* Ji»l t. q. S£\ (O, K:) i. e. J£if 

d^jLt [meaning He looked upon it, looked upon it 
from above, looked down upon it, got a view of 
it, saw it, or got knowledge of it]; namely, a 
thing; as also 4& J^'- (0.)_And, (AZ, 
O, 5, TA,) as 'also yi Jit, (AZ, TA,) He 
got possession of it, (AZ, O, K, TA,) and took it 
away, or went away with it; (AZ, O, TA;) 
namely, the property of another person. (AZ, 
TA.) — *+*■) 4*K» Jtlel He reached, or hit, 

him, or it, (*)_}£,) with a stone. (Ibn-Abbad, 
0, El.)—. 3iCi\ ciWI The tke-camel cast, (Ibn- 



'Abbad, 0,) or brought Jorth, (]£,) her young one 
in an imperfect state. (Ibn-'Abbad, O, K.) a 
*ibl He put it, or brought it, near : ' Adee Ibn- 
Zeyd says, [using the verb in this sense,] 

* - - i »t -'« 

[Kapeer put the razor near to his nose] : (Ham 
p. 436 :) or this means Kaseer put the razor near 
to his nose and cut it off. (T A.) _ And i. q. 

eJU. (TA.) [You say, ,,[,1)1 '&* '*&», and 

■■I • \ * j— 

app., in like manner, , ( _-U1 ^^» <ul>l, i. e. lie 

made him to have power over the thing; or to 
have the thing within his power or reach ; and so, 

perhaps, *^lu «Ul»1.] And J&JI i' JU>I He 

held forth the sword towards him, and struck him 

with it. (TA.) And j&\ JU>I He made 

lite contents of the measure to reach to its upper- 
most parts : (S, $ :) or, as some say, he took 
what was upon [or above] the measure. (TA. 

[See also (UNI Jub.]) 

10. oit>:„.1, said of a camel's hump, It rose, or 

became high. (TA.) And aJlm\L cJlLOwI 

The thing that he wanted became prepared, and 
easy of attainment. (TA.) See also 1, in two 

E. Q. 1. JUaii. He (a man, TA) became lax 
[or weak] (Ibn-'Abbad, O, J£) in the hands of 
his adversary (Ibn-'Abbad, O) or in the hand of 
his adversary. (K.) 

The side (O, £) of a thing: (O:) [like 

Jt> :] and the bank, or shore, (O, K,) of a great 

river or a sea ; (O ; ) as also t iJllaAJ* : (O, KL :) 

accord, to Lth, of the Euphrates : (O :) or, as 

some say, the elevated part of tlie side of the 

Euphrates. (TA.) And kJUoJI is applied to 

The part of the land of the Arabs that overlooks 
the cultivated region of EV Irak : (IDrd, O, £ :) 
said by A; to be so called because it is near to 
the cultivated region : (O :) or it is a place in 

the district of El-Koofeh. (S, O, £.*) And 

The exterior court or yard of a house. (TA.) 
__ Sec also o"UJ», in two places, as And see 


see v_»UV. 

iiu, : see a»Ub. 

lij^\ JuV (S, O, Msb,»$) and Sty, (£,) 

and f i*Ut, (S, Mgh,» O, Msb, $,) and * 'JS», 

and • dJiSo, (S, Mgh,* 0, ?,) The quantity suf- 
ficing for the filling (S, O, Msb, $) of the 
[measure called] jijit (S, O, £) and of the 
vessel (1£) to its uppermost parts : (S, O, Msb, 
K :) or what remains in it after tlie wiping off 
of the head thereof ': (M,K: [the measure being 
generally in the form of a truncated cone, much 
smaller at the top than at the base, the quantity 
rising above the top is not much:]) or the 
>>U»- or /A i 4 or >»U*. (accord, to different 
copies of the K [generally meaning the quantity 
that rises above the top after the filling]) thereof: 
or tlte quantity sufficing for the filling thereof: 

wife — Ufc 

(&:) or the quantity nearly sufficing 'for the 
filling thereof: (TA : [and the like explanation 
is given of the third word in the S &c, as will 
be shown by what follows:]) or the quantity 
that falls short of the filling thereof. (Mgh. 
[See also i>UI».]) It is said in a trad. (S, Mgh, 

O) of the 'Prophet, (Mgh, O,) ijT £i 'j&&> 
ftUJl t J&, (S, 0,) or pUll JS,, (so in my 
copy of the Mgh,) All of you, sons of Adam, are 
like the quantity nearly sufficing for tlie filling of 
the pto; (S,* Mgh, O;) i. e. ye are all nearly 
alike ; so says Az : (Mgh :) meaning, all of you, 
in being related to one father, are in one pre- 
dicament in respect of defectiveness, like the 
thing measured that fells short of filling the 
measure: (IAth, Mgh, O :) tlie Prophet then 
proceeded to inform them that there is no ex- 
cellence of one above another except by piety. 
(O.) = oUi» signifies also The blackness of 

night; (0,$;) and so t Jut. (K.) See 

also 2. 

>_*U1> : sec iilib, in two places. 

*_»UI» : see oUb, in two places : _ and see 2. 

JLib Little in quantity : (S, 0, Msb, £ :) 
and incomplete: (IDrd, O, K:) applied to a 
thing in this sense, (IDrd, O,) and in the former 
sense. (TA.) [See Jij.]__Also Low, base, 
vile, mean, paltry, or contemptible. (TA.) 

i»Ub The quantity that is above tlie measure; 
(S, O, Msb, K. ;) as also t JuX (S) or » iJjS, : 
(O, K :) or the quantity that falls short of filling 
the vessel, (IDrd, O, $,) of beverage or wine, 
&c. (IDrd, 0. [See also oUb.]) And Some- 
what, little in quantity, remaining in a vessel. 
(TA.) — And ,UN1 iiUL and * «L*U_t" The 
uppermost part of the vessel. (£.) 

oUt (O, $) and t U& (£) and J*, and 

o>, as epithets applied to a horse, are alike (O, 
KL) in meaning (£) [app. signifying Light, brisk, 
or quick : (see J*Ji\ «v UUb :) in the TYL, and 
hence by Freytag, expl. as meaning thus, but as 
an epithet applied to a man]. 

OUb fUl [in the CK i£*>] A vessel in which 
the measuring [or thing measured] has reached 
its uppermost parts: (S, O, XL :) [or] a full vessel. 
(IAar, TA.) 

jj a 

AJUaJI What is between mountains and plains. 

(Ibn-'Abbdd, O, K.) AndoOl «Ui What 

surrounds tlie garden: (Ibn-'Abbad, O, Kl:) pi. 

J&. (Ibn-'Abbad, 0.) 

iiiii (S, 0,K) and Aitlt, (O, ?,) the 
latter mentioned on the authority of AZ, (O,) 
The 3>cU. [or flank]: (S, O, Kl:) or any quiver- 
ing fiesh : (Az, 0, 1£ : [sec Jj^i :]) or the fiaccid 
fiesh of the soft parts of the belly; (O, K;) thus 
the former word is expl. by IDrd: (0 :) or the 
extremities of the side, adjoining the ribs : (K :) 

[Book I. 

and said to mean the soft part of the liver ; the 
pi. being used by Dhu-r-Rummch in relation 
to the liver : (L, TA :) the pi. is uUtllfe. 

cilkit The extremities of treat : (S, O, ¥. :) 
or tlie soft, or tender, and succulent, of plants, or 

herbage : or, accord, to El-Mufeddal, the leaves 

" S - 
of tlie branches. (T A.) — See also <J»J». 

One who gives short measure, and short 
weight, (Zj, Msb, TA,) thus clieating his com- 
panion; but this epithet is not applied unre- 
strictedly except in the case of exorbitant defi- 
ciency : [or] accord, to Aboo-Is-hiik [i. c. Zj], the 
iJUk« is thus called because he seldom or never 

steals from the measure or balance save what is 

»» A , 
paltry, i. e. \Juiio ; for it is from t^^JI uU», 

meaning "the side of the thing:" the pi. occurs 

in the Klur Ixxxiii. 1. (TA.) 


1. jUI 

, aor. '-, inf. n. !yJb (S, Msb, K) 

and lib; (TA;) and t oLU»JI ; (S, K ;) Tlie 
fire became extinguislted, or qucnclied: (Msb:) 
or ceased to flame : (K, TA :) [or rather, ceased 
to flame and its live coals became cool; for] when 
the flame of the fire has become allayed but its 
coals still burn, it is said to be S.mU.; and 
when its flame is extinct and its coals have 
become cool, it is said to be «jb«U and ♦ i£iU». 

4. jUI Ubl He extinguished, or quenched, the 

fire. (S,*Msb, K,»TA.) Hence, ^Jl UL>I 

t He extinguislted tlie fire of tlie war. (TA.) 

,-• , t- it 
And <UJa)I oUJsl I I allayed tlte sedition, . or 

cotiflict and faction, or the like. (Msb.) 

7 : see the first paragraph. 

&»U> jU [Fire becoming, or become, extin- 

guis/ied] : see 1. 

' * i • j 
joi»n ,»jA*vo [The extinguisher of the live 

coals;] one of the [seven] days called j>»-«JI >>W ; 
(S, O ;) the fifth of those days ; (Kl ;) so in the 
M kc: (TA:) or the fourth tliereof: (O, £ :) 
or the last tliereof. (Har p. 295.) [Accord, to 
modern Egyptian almanacs, it is the fourth of 
those days on which the last of the three Ot>»». 
becomes extinct: see ij*o- : and sec also ipHk] 
— - uu^JI <UaJbue (so in the M and O and L and 
in some copies of the K, in other copies of the K 

' * J m 

^yii", TA) A piece of fat which, wlien it falls 
upon the Juij [or heated stones], melts, and 
quenches them. (Lth, 0,K.) And in the M and 
L, it is said to signify A lean slieep or goat : the 
Arabs, as is related by Lb, used to say,^) ir>J» 
sJuoji\ rtSii-i ,> (TA) i. e. He slaughtered for them 
a lean s'heep or goat, which extinguished the fire 
and did not become thoroughly cooked : (M and L 
andl£ in art. lJ *A» :) or a fat sheep or goat, (AO 

Book I.] 

and T, TA in that art.,) which quenched the uuoj 
by it* fat. (T, TA ibid. [See also io.]) — 
Also A serpent, the poison of which, as it passes 
by the \JLoj, extinguis/ies their fire : (O, K :) in 
a verse of El-Kumeyt, [for the sake of the 
metre,] the former word is [altered to] T ££it-». 

(().) And t A calamity, or misfortune: (O, 

I£, TA :) said by AO to mean originally such as 
has made one to forget that which was before it, 
and extinguished its heat. (O, TA.) 


• * J~af 'J 

see the next preceding para- 

1. LH,, (S, A, K,) aor. - , (TA,) inf. n. 
lyLt (S, A, K) and lit, (K,) It (a vessel, S, 
A, K, and a river, A, TA, and a watering- 
trough, or tank, A) aw, or became, full, so as to 
overflow: (S, A:) was, or became, full, ami high 
[in its contents], (K, TA,) so as to overflow. 
(TA.) [See also jfj*.] — 1-i. t said of one 
intoxicated, { He was full of wine. (T, S, TA.) 
— >^^k *&*J& t She (a woman) brought 
forth chi'drcn abundantly ; brought forth many 
children: (A:) [or] jJjJW C«*JUt she by-ought 

forth the child at the full period of gestation, or 
in* * * * 

fully formed. (K.) _ oJjU ., I lr» t J I is under- 
standing, or intellect, became eminent [or, app., 
exuberant]. (TA.) _ f-^, aor. as above, also 
signifies + He ran. (As, TA.)_ And one says, 
^j^ .^itt, meaning t Cro tftou away, or depart, 

from me. (S, K.) = -lit as trans. : sec 4. — 
aJbuUI *-ipl C*JUi ^Ae twW raised, or carried 
up, the portion of cotton : (S, K :) and in like 
manner, a similar thing. (S.) 

2 : see the next paragraph. 

4. *afel { (S,A,£;) and t .Wt, (?,£,) 

inf. n. IttiJ; (S;) and t LLit, ($,) inf. n. 

• • * 
-it ; (TA ;) He filed it so that it overfloived : 

(S, A :) or he filled it so that it became high [in 
its contents] : (K :) namely, a vessel, (S, A, K,) 
and a river, or rivulet, and a watering-trough, or 
tank. (A.) 

8. jjJi\ li£l (S, K, in the CK [erroneously] 

jjJUl) He took off the JU.U1* (i. e. scum) of the 
cooking-pot. (S.) 

(jLJhJ* ; fern, ^j^-it : see -Jit. 

^ij^l .Llit WAa* would fill the earth (T in 
art. «_i»~V», and K,) so <Aat i< jtomM overflow : 

(T :) so in the saying, in a trad., .auic ^jlia ^1^ 
» ji •■ * « * ' 

VyA t^j^ 1 plit [Though there be upon him, or 

imputable, to him, what would fill the earth so that 
it would overflow, of sins, or crimes], (T.) 

imJUm What has come forth upon the surface 
of a thing, such as the scum of the cooking-pot, 
(S,) which is termed j JiaJI iUlit . (A, K.) 

lit — Jit 
ji>\'^\ .llit I A horse t/*a< rwu much. (A.) 
And^lyUI 4».lit J A shc-camel having swift 
legs. (K,TA.) 

«_»lt .FmW, «o a* to overflow; applied to [a 
vessel, and] a river, and a watering-trough, or 
tank: (A,TA:) or full: and. full and high. 
(A'Obeyd, T, TA.) And t J^LH, tUt, and 

r-'nlr ijuai A vessel, and a bowl, of which the 
contents flow over the sides. (]£.) — Applied to 
one intoxicated, J Full of wine. (T, S, A, K.) 
_ And t Running, or one that runs. (As, TA.) 
e= And [the fern.] LLslt signifies Dry, or tough, 
or rigid : whence the phrase A»Jlt a~=>j mean- 
ing A hnee which he to whom it belongs cannot 
grasp with his hand. (K.) 

A shimmer, or ladle with which the 
scum of the coohing-pot is taken off; (K;) called 
in Pcrs. ,ǣȣ>. (TA.) 

1. >t, (S, A, Mgh, M?b,) aor. - , (S, Mgh, 
Msb,) inf. n. J^iii (S, A, Mgh, M ? b, K) and>t, 
(S, A, Mgh, Msb,) or lj&, (K,) [but] this has a 
more particular signification than jiio, (Msb,) 
[being an inf. n. un.,] He leaped : (S :) or he 
leaped upwards, (Lth, T, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) as 
when one leaps over a wall to what is behind it. 
(Lth, T, Mgh, M ? b.) One says, JbuUJI 'jlL, 
(TA,)or #*& U ,Jl iwUJI>ji, (A,) He lca}>ed 
over tlie wall to wltat was behind it. (TA.) And 
^Jl J*jii\ jii [The horse leaped over the river, 
or rivulet]. (A, TA.) 

2. jyii\ J*jii\ >ii» He made the horse fo leap 
over the river, or rivulet. (A, TA.) 

8. Juji >il, inf. n. jU&l ; (0, TA ;) accord. 

to the K,jifet, inf. n. jUi»l, but the former is the 
right; (TA ;) He thrust his feet into the groins 
of his horse: the doing of which is a fault in the 
rider. (O, K, TA.) And in like manner one 
says of a man when he makes his camel to run : 

(0,TA:) i.e. i^^l, inf. n.jU£t, He thrust 

his feet into the groins of his camel. (L.) [It 

seems to be tropical, from what here follows.] — 
tit »» a 
Jj»^JI jj-bl, meaning He stuck his nails [into a 

' ,, a 

thing] is originally ^o\ ; (TA ; [in which it is 

said to be tropical ; but for this I see no 

j" a 
reason ;]) as also «jibl he stuck his nail into it. 

(TA in art. jiii.) 

ijii» A leap : (S :) or a leap upwards, (T, A,* 
Mgh, Msb, !£,•) as when one leaps over a wall; 
(T, Mgh, Msb ;) said to be thus distinguished 
fro-ii 4oj, which is downwards. (Mgh, Msb.) 

* * If ^ , 

Hence >sUxJt »j*l» [&PP- meaning An overleaping 

the right order, or method : I have not found any