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The Path of Freedom 

(vimuttimagga) 




THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

(Vimuttimagga) 

of 

Arahant Upatissa 

Translated from the Chinese 

by 

Rev. N. R. M. Ehara 

Soma Thera 

Kheminda Thera 

The Vimuttimagga is probably the 
work of a famous Buddhist monk of 
Ceylon living in the first century after 
Christ. The original text in the Pali no 
longer exists; but the work has survived 
in a sixth century Chinese translation; 
and it is from this that the present 
translation has been made. 

In contrast to the somewhat aca- 
demic approach of the later and better 
known V isuddhimagga, the Vimuttimagga 
gives the impression of having been 
written by one whose heart was in his 
work. Though it covers approximately 
the same ground as the Visuddhimagga 
it is marked by a lively sense of urgency 
for which one looks in vain in the later 
work. It is above all a call to practise . 
This work, which rivals the Visuddhi- 
magga in historical importance (it 
almost certainly inspired the Visuddhi- 
magga) and in many ways surpasses it 
as an exposition of the Buddha's teach- 
ing, has now for the first time been made 
generally accessible in an English trans- 
lation. 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM — VIMUTTIMAGGA 



kJlth ike compliments 

4 

cJxIieminda (Oh* 



vera 

Vajirarama, 
Colombo 5, 
CEYLON. 

Forwarded by 

BUDDHIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY 

"• O. BOX 6, . KANDy . CEyLoN 



Amupubbena medhavl thokathokarh khane khane 
kammaro rajatass' eva niddhame malam attano. 

Dh. 239. 



Gradually should the perspicacious one, 
Momentarily, little by little, expel 
His own dross, as would the smith 
That which is in silver.* 



Soma Thera's Translation. 



The Sinhalese translation of this work is being made by 

the Venerable Madilie Pannaslha Maha Nayaka Thera 

of Vajirarama, Colombo, Ceylon. 



THE PATH 

OF 

FREEDOM 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

Translated into Chinese (Gedatsu Do Ron) 
by 
Tipitaka Sanghapala of Funan 

Translated from the Chinese 

by 

The Rev. N. R. M. Ehara, Soma Thera and Kheminda Thera 



Published by 

Dr. D. Roland D. Weerasuria, 

Balcombe House, Balcombe Place, 

Colombo 8, Ceylon. 

1961 



printed at 4 . 

The Saman Press, 

Maharagama, 

Ceylon 

Sole Distributors: M. D. Gunasena & Co., Ltd. — Colombo, Ceylon 



DEDICATED 

to 

the memory of 

The Venerable Maha Nayaka Thera, 

Paelaene Siri Vajiranana of Vajirarama, 

Colombo, Ceylon 

and 

The Venerable Myin Mu Myo Sayadaw, 

Pagdava Maha Thera of the Satipatthana Monastery, 

Moulmein, Burma. 



In Memoriam 

SOMA MAHA THERA 

(1898 — 1960) 

Aciram vat 9 ayarh kayo pathavim adhisessati 
Chuddho apetavinndno, nirattharh va kalingaram. 1 

Truly it will not be long before this body lies in the earth, bereft of con- 
sciousness, like a useless piece of wood, which is thrown away. 

— Soma Thera's translation in 
"Words Leading to Disenchant- 
ment", Bosat, Oct. 1959. 

Truly, indeed, it was not long after — just four months since he wrote this 
article — that he suddenly passed away. Often he used to say that this was 
the sort of death he preferred. 

It is fitting to record here the life and work of the Venerable Soma Maha 
Thera, for, but for his indomitable energy and earnestness this work would 
not have been undertaken, persisted in, and brought to a conclusion in just 
four months. Whenever any difficulty arose it was to him that the others 
turned. When we were tempted to give up the work on encountering really 
hard patches, he was always ready with encouragement and with a way out of 
the difficulty. He loved to work hard, and half-hearted effort was unknown 
to him. Not infrequently he used to say, "Better wear out than rust out". 

Soma Maha Thera was born on December 23, 1898, in Kotahena, Colombo, 
and passed away at Vajirarama, Bambalapitiya, Colombo, Tuesday, February 
23, 1960. His father was Emmanuel Marian Perera Pulle, and his mother, 
Theresa Rodrigo Babapulle. His name was Victor Emmanuel Perera Pulle. 
He received his education at St. Benedict's College, Kotahena. 

Once at the age of eleven, when he was told by his teacher that God made 
man, he promptly asked him, "Who made God?". The teacher, apparently 
unused to this sort of question from his pupils, snapped back, "Do not question 
the antecedents of God". However, this incident pleased neither the teacher 
nor the pupil. He began to read and think for himself. One day his mother 
gave him one rupee as pocket-money, and Victor walked about three miles to 
a bookshop in the Fort, Colombo, looking out for a book priced at one rupee 
or less, as that was all he had. Finding an English translation of the Dhamma- 
pada being sold for a rupee he quickly bought and read it again and again. 
This was his introduction to the Buddhadhamma. From that day on he 

1. Dh. 41. 

rx 



In Memoriam 

eagerly attended lectures and sermons on the Dhamma, the while reading 
what literature came his way on philosophy, art, archaeology, history — in fact 
anything that would add to his knowledge. And thus he moved further and 
further away from the faith of his fathers. During these years, as his mother 
objected to his reading late into the night, he would, after she had gone to 
sleep, begin reading by candle light under the bed. Sometimes he found that 
when he had finished reading it was already day. Such was his thirst for 
knowledge. 

Sometime in 1920 he had met Mr. W. Joseph Soysa, one of the founder- 
members of the Servants of the Buddha, the well-known association which has 
its headquarters at Lauries Road, Bambalapitiya, and of which the Venerable 
Kassapa Thera is the founder-patron. After being actively engaged for some- 
time in the publication of the "Blessing" which was edited by the then president 
of the association, Dr. Cassius A. Pereira, he, along with Mr. Soysa, 
joined the Colombo Buddhist Union in the early twenties, and presented a 
large collection of books to the Union library. He composed "A formula of 
associate worship" 1 to be used by members of the Union at their monthly 
joint flower-offering at one of the many shrines in the city. 

Shortly after this, once again with his equally keen friend Mr. Soysa, he 
founded the Fort Study Circle and was elected its organizing secretary. Later, 
as work increased, assistance was needed and Mr. W. Don Michael was 
elected joint secretary. 

The following extracts are from Mr. Michael's article entitled "Apostle 
of the Dhamma", written on the passing away of Soma Maha Thera: 

The sudden death of Soma Thera has uprooted from our -midst a -per- 
sonality distinguished at once by the versality of his talents, self-sacrifice, 
personal sanctity, and crusading apostleship of the Dhamma. A deep 
understanding of human nature and the human problem of suffering had 
mellowed him and bred in him, in an unusual degree, qualities of tolerance, 
patience, restraint and sympathy with fellow-beings. Opposition and 
frustration left in him no sense of defeat or bitterness. He was the working 
bee in the Master's hive and, in His service, the very juice of the bitter thyme 
turned into honey at his touch. No wonder that, in the Augustan age of 
Buddhist renascence in Ceylon, Soma Thera was considered to represent 
the fine flower of Buddhist culture. He shed its fragrance wherever he 
moved. As scholar, preacher, organiser, monk and friend it may be aptly 
said of him: "Nihil tetigit quod non ornavit". 



1. Associate Offering Of Flowers, Incense And Light To The Buddha. 

We have gathered here to pay homage to the Blessed One, who found the way to Happi- 
ness for all beings. With these flowers we honour the mainfold purity of the Master; with 
incense, his compassion; with the light of these lamps, his perfect enlightenment. 

By our joint worship of the Buddha, may we gain the strength to work together in 
friendliness, sympathising with those in trouble, rejoicing with those who are are fortunate, 
and avoiding all the evil courses of action, namely, the evil courses of selffish desire, hate, 
fear and delusion. 



In Memoriam 

These sterling qualities of Soma Thera were happily blended in a character 
in which humility and service formed the keynote. He never spared himself. 
He gave till it hurt. He gave UNTO THIS LAST— unto death. Over- 
work, fatigue, were the proximate causes of the dire malady which struck 
down this mighty oak of the Dhamma which was a shade and refuge of 
many a seeker after Truth. Today a void is left standing which may take 
years to fill. 

'To those of us who knew him and enjoyed his friendship and affection 
for nearly four decades both as the dashing young layman Victor E. P. 
Pulle, and as a monk of blessed memory, Soma Thera presents a remarkable 
character study. The child was the father of the man, Thera. Yet in his 
twenties, he was a rebel from the faith of his fathers and questing for the 
knowledge of the truth. In the 1930's, still hot on the pursuit, he was the 
leader of a band of young men who formed the Fort Study Circle under 
the Presidency of Mr. J. Tyagarajah, with Dr. L. A. (now Sir Lalita) 
Rajapakse and the late Mr. R. Nadarajah as Vice-Presidents. 

'Their motto was sacrifice and service and their main object was the 
economic and cultural development of the country. The regular weekly 
programme of the Circle, all planned by Victor, included classes in Pah, 
Hindi, Layman's Law, History, Economics and politics. With what 
resourcefulness, with what prevision of judgement and success, he organised 
and directed its activities towards the cultural and literary formation of the 
day are now matters of history. . . 

*Young Victor's reputation for literary and critical scholarship was such 
that Dr. Lucian De Zilwa prefaced his talk by saying that he accepted the 
invitation for a lecture with the major object of making the acquaintance 
of Mr. V. E. P. Pulle; and Mr. K. P. S. Menon, one of the most graceful 
and eloquent public speakers this country has ever had, began his lecture 
by saying that he was always anxious to see the set of young men who could 
produce an annual report of such literary excellence as that turned out by 
the Fort Study Circle. 

'For Victor Pulle reason was the touchstone of truth. In this quest, he 
studied comparative religion, logic, philosophy — Dahlke and Schopenhauer 
had a particular appeal to him — art, sculpture, archaeology, history, music 
and even astrology. Indeed, like Bacon, he took all knowledge for his 
province. There was not a single individual in the Fort of his day who 



Service of the world is the highest homage we can pay to the Buddha, the friend and 
helper of all beings. Let this act of homage with flowers, incense and light, be the symbol 
of the homage of service of the world every Buddhist has to fulfil. Let us dedicate ourselves 
anew today to tread the Path of Service trodden by the Master — the Path of Charity, Virtue 
and Clear Thought. 

Let us remind ourselves now and frequently that the greatest charity is in giving the 
gift of fearlessness (abhaya dand) to the world by refraining from killing, stealing, unchastity, 
lying and drink. Thus we shall be able to become merciful, honest, chaste, truthful and 
sober, and make the society in which we live a noble one. 

May right understanding and right thought grow in the world! 

XI 



In Memoriam 

combined in himself such a vast amalgam of knowledge. Literary and 
economic studies, however, could not satisfy his ardent mind and he joined 
the Sangha. It was in this august calling that his scholarship ripened and 
Buddhist revival throughout the World received from the results of his 
labour a new life and orientation. 

'Meditation, study, teaching the Dhamma, canonical research and his own 
trials and tribulation in the process produced a vast transformation in Soma 
Thera. The Han and impulsiveness of the layman turned into serene calm. 
The combative debater of yesteryear became the sedate teacher and friendly 
adviser. The glint of battle which earlier rose to his eyes when argument 
waxed high grew into sparks of sympathy and compassion. The chiselled 
square jaws which hurled challenge softened their contours. Above all, 
the terrific right fist which characteristically swung menacingly in debate 
would swing no more. It was obvious even to us his old boon companions 
to whom he still accorded the privilege of "ragging" him once in. a way, 
that this great pioneer and savant, by a terrific ordeal of trial and error, 
had at last subdued himself and that he had not only found the Middle 
Path but had established himself so firmly in it that he was a fitting exemplar 
of his Master's Way of Life. 

'As a writer, Soma Thera belongs to the genre whom Buff on' s dictum 

"Le style est Vhomme meme" is perfectly applicable. In his Study Circle 

days, he had a massive style. The exposition and, argument would at times 

be obscured by the weight of movement. .He used his pen as a tomahawk. 

When Carthage had to be destroyed, he made no bones about it but went 

and destroyed. As a Thera, the old asperity and venom disappeared and 

the style assumed a precision, clarity, mellowness and gentle movement 

which reflected the repose and sureness of his own mind. It is significant 

that, in recent years, his thoughts turned to poetry. They all centre on the 

Dhamma. One of them recalls so naturally the self-abnegation of the bees 

in Virgil's lines "Sic vos, non vobis, mellificatis, apes" — not for yourself, ye 

bees, your cells ye fill — that the verses "Giving Up" deserve quotation'. 1 

One day, towards the end of 1928, our common friend, Mr. W. Joseph 

Soysa (Oliver as we call him), introduced me to Victor. But it was hardly 

necessary. Simultaneously Victor and I knew that we had been friends before, 

in an earlier life. 2 But we were always grateful to Oliver for this. Later I was 

happy to find that the Buddha taught that it was not easy to find a being, who, 

during the vast period of time covered in the process of birth and death, and 

birth again and death, had not, at one time or another, been a mother, a father, 

a brother, a sister, a son, a daughter. The Blessed One then asks the question, 

"What is the reason for this"? and himself answers: "Not to be known is the 



1 . See page xvi. 

2. Since writing this the Ven. Vinita Thera of Vajirarama was kind enough to draw my 
attention to a sonnet in which Lord Tennyson describes how he recognised a friend o 

XII 



In Memoriam 

start of beings enmeshed in ignorance and fettered by craving, running on, 
speeding on through interminable births and deaths. Nor can it be said' of the 
running on and the speeding on of ignorant and craving beings that they are 
tending to an end. And in this interminable process, for long have you all 
experienced grief bitter and sharp and made the graveyards bigger and bigger. 
Because of that you should turn away from the formations (sankhdras), cut 
them off, and become free of them"— S. II, 190 (Soma Thefa's translation). 
This is no poetic fancy, as at first sight it may appear to be. This is the word 
of the Supremely Enlightened One who has done with poetic fancy. His is the 
vision of things as they are (yathdhhutandandassana). And this vision he 
describes without exaggeration; for exaggeration the Buddhas do not indulge 
in. 

In the late twenties, Victor and I had heard from the late Mr. Wong 
Mow Lam, the Chinese scholar, who was in Ceylon" for sometime, that there 
were great possibilities for spreading the Theravdda in his country and that 
there was much that could be translated from the Mahay ana literature of 
China. So when we went to Burma in 1934, remembering the words of our 
scholar friend, we decided after careful thought to go to the Far East and 
return later to Burma for ordination. We began our journey to China by way 
of Kawkerik, over the misty Dawna Mountains and across the border for four 
days on foot to Raehaeng in Thailand, and thence by bus, river boat and 
train through Svankaloke (Svargaloka — heaven world), Pisaloke (Visnuloka — 
Visnu's world), we arrived in Krum Teb (Deva Nagara — the city of the 
gods) which is Bangkok. Then again, after travelling by train to Penang, 
and by ship to Singapore and Hong Kong, we arrived in Shanghai. Finding 
there no facilities for study we proceeded to Tokyo. There we met Prof. 
Nichiki Kimura of Rissho University, who invited us to attend his English 
lectures on Mahay ana. Towards the end of 1935, through his good offices, 
v/e were invited to Jozaiji, the Nichiren temple in Kawatana-Machi, Nagasaki- 
ken. The head of that temple, the Rev. N. R. M. Ehara, had been a lecturer at 
Rissho for sometime. He was the perfect host — a most understanding, patient, 
pleasant, witty character with abundant laughter, and he was young. He did 
everything within his power to make our stay as comfortable as possible. 



an earlier life, thus : 

"As when with downcast eyes we muse and brood, 
And ebb into a former life, or seem 
To lapse far back in some confused dream 
To states of mystical similitude; 
If one but speaks or hems or stirs his chair, 
Ever the wonder waxeth more and more, 
So that we say, 'All this hath been before, 
All this hath been, I know not when or where'. 
So, friend, when first I looked upon your face, 
Our thought gave answer each to each, so true — 
Opposed mirrors each reflecting each — 
That tho' I knew not in what time or place, 
Methought that I had often met with you, 
And either lived in either 's heart and speech". 

XIII 



In Memoriam 

When we arrived at Kawatana-Machi, Jozaiji was being rebuilt. By the 
end of April, the building operations over, our host set apart the new guest- 
house for our use and called it the Lion Hall, "in honour", as he said, 
"of the Lion Isle, the home of my friends". We spent a most pleasant and 
fruitful year in our Lion Hall, for, it was here that the whole of the Gedatsu 
Do Ron (the Chinese translation of the Vimuttimagga) was translated into 
English for the first time. Perhaps it will not be out of place to mention here 
that when the late Ven. Nyanatiloka Maha Thera was in Japan during the 
years that followed the First World War, he tried, but failed, to persuade any 
Japanese scholar to undertake this translation. So when we sent him a copy of 
our translation he heartily welcomed it. The word for word translation 
the draft translation, copying, cyclostyling, binding, packing for the post, 
were all done by the three of us and that during the brief space of four months. 
Besides, the section on virtue had to be cyclostyled thrice before Victor was 
satisfied with it. 

This is how the translation began. Some days after we went into residence 
in the Lion Hall, our friend showed us around his new library. Pointing to 
three thin volumes he said that that was the Chinese translation of the Vimutti- 
magga, and that originally it was supposed to have been written in Pali in 
Ceylon by a Sinhalese Thera. With one voice both of us exclaimed that we 
were ready to begin translating it that very instant,— of course, with his help. 
And our friend, with his great big ringing laughter, readily agreed. And we 
immediately translated the first few pages though he had much to do, it being 
very close to Hanamatsuri, the Flower Festival, which corresponds to Vesak 
in Theravdda lands. Working incessantly we managed to issue the translation 
of the first fascicle on Hanamatsuri, May 28, 1936. Continuing to work 
even up to twenty hours a day sometimes we were able to post the last copy 
of the last section of the translation to fifty scholars by the last day of September, 
1936. During this period Victor knew no fatigue in that most agreeable 
climate of South Japan. 

Jozaiji is beautifully situated a third of the way up the hill which rises 
abruptly from the broad paddy fields that stretch right up to the sea. In 
front is the river Kawa, the beauty of which they sing in Kawa-no-Kawatana, 
the song of the Kawa of Kawatana. Behind, the hill rises higher and higher 
and is level at the top. The temple was here in ancient times, and here Victor 
and I used to stroll under those attractively twisted and gnarled sungi trees, 
the cypresses, that adorn the grounds of Japanese temples. One summer day 
while walking there our attention was drawn to some plants we seemed to 
recognize. At first we thought they were well-grown violets. But soon found 
they were gotukola (Hydrocotyle Asiatica). Their stalks were nearly eighteen 
inches long with large leaves. We took a handful of them to the temple, and 
our host was agreeably surprised to hear that this was eaten in Ceylon. He 
liked it so much that he introduced it to the whole village. They call it 
horseshoe. 

XIV 



In Memoriam 

During these four months of translation work the thought that repeatedly 
arose in our minds was how soon could we return to Burma for ordination 
and put into practice the teaching of the Sambuddha so clearly set forth in the 
Vimuttimagga. It was plain, open, and easy to understand. What it said 
reached the heart direct — hadayangama seemed to be the correct word to 
describe one's reaction on reading the Vimuttimagga for the first time. There 
was no point in delaying. 

So we left Jozaiji with our friend the Rev. N. R. M. Ehara and a few 
others, went to Nagasaki and took ship to Rangoon. Our friend was much 
grieved that we were leaving so soon and repeatedly said as the ship was leaving, 
"Come back, come back again". That was the last time we were to see him. 
For, though we had hoped some day to see him again, word came shortly 
after the Second World War that he had suddenly passed away. This was 
sometime after he had been appointed head of the Nichiren sect for the district 
of Omura. 

Before we decided to translate the Vimuttimagga our host was keen on 
translating some of the smaller treatises of Nichiren Shonin which Victor did. 
Some of them were published in the Young East, the journal of the Japanese 
Buddhist Associations. Tokyo. 

We reached Moulmein by the end of October, and found that U. Chit Swe, 
our ddyaka, had made all arrangements for our ordination in an aranhdvdsa 
(forest residence), as requested by us, and had gone over to India on pilgrimage. 
His close friend, U. Chit Su, deputised for him. And on November 6, 1936, 
Victor and I received our higher ordination with the Venerable Pandava Maha 
Thera of Taungwainggyi Shewgyin Kyaung Taik, Moulmein, as teacher. Here 
we came to hear of the Venerable Narada Maha Thera, also known as Jetavana 
Sayadaw. As he was then living in nearby Thaton, we visited him. A lay 
pupil of his who had earlier instructed us in the practice of the Satipatthdna 
method of meditation, too, accompanied us to see the Sayadaw. His method 
was strictly in accordance with the Satipatthdna Suttas of the Digha and Majj- 
hima Nikdyas and their commentaries. He said that the necessary instruction 
was found in them and no new interpretation was necessary; the Buddha 
called it the sole way and that there was no other 'sole' way to the purification 
of beings. 

On reaching Ceylon by way of India in the middle of 1937, Bhikkhu Soma 
met a companion of his childhood days who became so attached to him that 
he would not leave him till his death — that distressing thing called asthma. 
It would have rendered many a strong man useless for work quite early. But 
asthma or no asthma, he worked on and on up to the end with increasing vigour. 
Hearing that we were returning to Ceylon, a ddyaka, the late Mr. W. M. Barnes 
de Silva, had set apart a small house for our use in a quiet place at Belihuloya. 
We could not stay there long as the Venerable Soma fell ill and had to go to 
Colombo for treatment and we stayed at the Vidyalankara Oriental College, 
Kelanjya, for a time. 

XV 



In Memoriam 

After he recovered from his illness, and wishing to live in quiet surroundings 
for a while, we were able to go into residence at the MahanadI Arama at 
Gampolawela. Then at the invitation of the late Sir Baron Jayatilaka we 
visited Bangalore in 1939 with the Venerable Naravila Dhammaratana Maha 
Thera, as leader of the Mission of Goodwill to India. There the mission was 
able to secure from the Government of Mysore a site for a Buddhist Centre, 
and both of us returned to Ceylon in 1940 owing to illness. 

As Bhikkhu Soma needed rest for sometime, Mr. A. B. C. de Soysa 
placed his bungalow, in his estate in Kurunegala, at our disposal. After a 
few months' stay there we were invited by the Venerable Nyanaponika Maha 
Thera to the Island Hermitage, Dodanduwa. As the Second World War had 
begun, all the German Theras of the Hermitage were interned and the Vener- 
able Nyanaloka Maha Thera, the present adhipati (chief resident Thera) was 
then in charge of the place. During this period the attacks of asthma were 
most severe. At one time the only available medicament was Himrod's 
Asthma Cure. It had to be lit with a match and the fumes inhaled. Bhikkhu 
Soma could hardly walk two yards without this Himrod's cure, and could 
not sleep at night without filling the room with these fumes. One night 
even this failed to help. So about 2 a.m. he sat at his table and scribbled 
these verses: 

Out of the womb of sightless night 

Rang out a word of healing strong, 

And put to flight the evil throng 

That stood betwixt the eye and light. 



Where lies, friend, the golden mean ? 
Where's the heart forever clean ? 
Where is life at its best seen ? 
Where reaches one Peace Serene ? 



In giving up. 
In giving up. 
In giving up. 
In giving up. 



When does one always see things clear ? 
When is one to all beings dear ? 
When does one wipe away all fear ? 
When does one to Truth adhere ? 



In giving up. 
In giving up. 
In giving up. 
In giving up. 



How does one give full measure ? 
How, end poverty's pressure? 
How, come to rarest treasure? 
How, know the purest pleasure ? 



By giving up. 
By giving up. 
By giving up. 
By giving up. 



Why on self a tight hand keep ? 
Why the heart in culture steep ? 
Why turn, on to wisdom deep? 
Why care not to sow or reap ? 



XVI 



For giving up. 
For giving up. 
For giving up. 
For giving up. 



In Memoriam 

He lived in this "our little island home", as he liked to call the Hermitage, 
from 1940-45 and from 1948-54. These were years he treasured much. 
For it was here that the first edition of The Way of Mindfulness (1941) and 
His Last Performance (1943) were written. He also edited here in 1943 
Andpdna Sati of Dr. Cassius A. Pereira. In spite of his failing health he 
wrote unceasingly. He contributed articles to various Buddhist journals 
regularly. The quiet of the Hermitage appealed to him a great deal. 
Frequently he sat beneath the trees by the water's edge in deep thought, and 
the following verses might indicate some of the thoughts that occupied his 
mind then: 

Away against the lip of sea and sky 
A tiny fisher craft tanned brown by sun, 
Pops up and down, like monk in russet clout. 
Upon the choppy sea of doubt and lust. 

The tender palms of gold and light green fronds 
Remind me of my youth and boyhood's days. 
Amidst their plumy, wavy forms I throve 
Imbibing nature's simple silent ways. 

Once it was thought that his asthma might improve if he had a change 
and so he stayed at Asokarama in Nuwara Eliya for sometime. There, 
walking along in Moon Plains once, he was absorbed in the beauty of a 
waterfall. He used to watch the water rushing down in a silver streak, and 
very often the asthma left him on those occasions or he forgot it. This tiresome 
friend, Asthma, has a peculiar trait. He wants attention. And, sometimes, 
if no attention is paid to him, he sharply retorts in return by paying no attention. 
These were the times when Soma Thera would say, "I am thoroughly fit. I 
can work even the whole day", reminiscent of the Lion Hall days when he 
really worked almost the whole day. It is about this waterfall in Nuwara 
Eliya that he wrote : 

E'er let me live and die where waters flow 
From hidden springs on heights that probe the sky. 
And come to light as white foam falling by 
The negrc face of rocks that shine and glow. 

Childlikeness was a prominent characteristic of his, and perhaps the 
following verses illustrate some aspect of it: 

E'er let me live and die with childlike sight, 
Beholding elfin gold and jewels bright, 
And dream-made treasure in the silent night 
Of travel on and on the Path of Light, 

xvn 



In Memoriam 

At the invitation of the late Venerable Tai Tsu, the well known Buddhist 
leader of China, the Venerable Madihe Pannasiha Thera (now Maha Nayaka 
Thera), the Venerable Soma Thera, and I, went to China to establish a Pali 
College at Sianfu, the ancient Buddhist Centre in Shensi Province, the home 
of Fa Hsien the famous pilgrim. Arriving in Shanghai in early July, we 
found that fighting had broken out in Shensi between the Nationalist and the 
Communist forces. There was no possibility of proceeding further. The 
Vassa-vdsa, the rainy season residence, was spent in Shanghai after which the 
mission returned. During this period Soma Thera's radio sermons were much 
appreciated. Besides, he addressed many gatherings in various parts of the city. 
The Shanghai Y.M.B.A. which he founded had, by the time the mission left, 
nearly three hundred members. He also conducted a Pali class, which was 
well attended. In November that year the Mission returned to Hong Kong 
where, too, Soma Thera addressed various groups of Buddhists. Arriving in 
Singapore in January 1947, the mission had to wait two months for a boat. 
Meanwhile Soma Thera delivered sermons and lectures to large gatherings 
both in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. The Mission returned to Ceylon in 
March that year. Soma Thera returned to the Island Hermitage at the end 
of 1948 and remained there till 1954. After his return from China, on his 
initiative, two important Buddhist associations in Colombo, The Sasanadhara 
Kanta Samitiya and The Banks' Asoka Society, were formed in 1950 and 
1956 respectively. He was the founder-patron of the latter. 

With the approach of the Buddha Jayanti celebrations, it was suggested 
that a bi-monthly called 'Buddha JayantV be published for the duration of 
these celebrations for the benefit of the English reading public. When in 
1953 the organizers came to ask Soma Maha Thera for his help, he threw 
himself wholeheartedly into the work, for half-hearted effort was alien to his 
nature. Most of the editorials on the Dhamma in the 'Buddha Jayanti* 
and a large number of translations from the Pali and the German, besides 
original articles, and the Jayanti Miscellany, were from his versatile pen. His 
masterly articles on 'The Greatest Mahanayaka Thera of Our Time' and the 
editorial 'A Maker of Good Men' on the passing away of the Venerable 
Paelaene Siri Vajirafiana Maha Nayaka Thera, were written at a time when 
he was much harassed by asthma. Finding that the long stay at the Island 
Hermitage had worsened his asthma and seeing the advantage of being with 
the Venerable Paelaene Siri Vajirafiana Maha Nayaka Thera at Vajirarama 
with its well equipped library, Soma Thera came to reside once more at 
Vajirarama. Both the Maha Nayaka Thera and Soma Thera were happy 
to meet; for, as far back as 1919, the former had inspired the latter by his 
great knowledge, understanding, and kindness. Soma Thera's regard and 
respect for him kept on increasing during the years. They used to converse 
on the Dhamma and on allied subjects such as literature, history, grammar, 
folk-lore, and so on, for hours at a time. The Maha Nayaka Thera, too, 
was always ailing, but when both of them began to converse they forgot their 

xvui 



In Memoriam 

ailments. It might be wondered how it was possible for one to get so interested 
in such a theme as grammar. But the Maha Nayaka Thera was such a master 
of the subject and an accomplished conversationalist that he was able to make 
even a subject like grammar interesting. I remember in the early thirties 
how the Maha Nayaka Thera discoursed on the Dhamma to a group of us 
young men whose leader was Victor. Once the questions put by Victor so 
interested the Maha Nayaka Thera that he continued the conversation till 
three o'clock in the morning. 

This early earnestness he maintained to the very end. How this long 
and earnest practice of the Dhamma moulded Soma Maha Thera' s character 
is briefly shown in the following extracts from an article by Ceylon's Director 
of Education, Mr. S. F. de Silva: 'I came to know the Venerable Soma Thera 

as Mr. Victor Pulle some thirty years ago My first impression was of a 

remarkably earnest man who was determined to seek and find out the Truth. 
His face was an index to his earnestness and I often listened to him arguing 

a point We became very good friends and week in and week out I used 

to watch and realise that of the band that gathered together, he was one of 
the most earnest and untiring in his study of the Dhamma. . . .As a member 
of the Order he became a changed man. I noticed a strength of character 
and calmness of demeanour in everything he said and wrote. I used to visit 
him in his room and talk things over many an evening. Occasionaly the eye 
would flash and I could see the old time fighter but there was an unmistak- 
able sense of toleration of others and a remarkable kindliness in everything 
he said. The Venerable Soma Maha Thera was very well known to English 
speaking audiences in the Island. Many may remember his thoughtful talks 
over Radio Ceylon. I am aware how deeply he was respected by Buddhist 

students in schools all over the island To me his translation, edition and 

notes of the Satipatthdna Sutta is characteristic of the man. He was one who 
wanted to practise the Dhamma, and the Satipatthdna Sutta was to him 'the 
one way for the ending of unhappiness'. I can see his mind in his introductory 
notes and his interpretations of the text. The Venerable Soma Thera's edition 
of the Satipatthdna Sutta is a part of his own life because he was one who 
wanted to practise the Dhamma. I miss him very much as a friend but 
those who knew him have no cause to grieve for a life that had been so 
nobly spent. He had acquitted himself heroically in all things he did to the 

end Alert and intensely alive in the search and practice of the Truth, it 

is of these that the Buddha has said that 'those who are heedful do not 
die'. His life is an example to all those who knew him, that there is nothing 
nobler for a Buddhist than to live the life that the Buddha has preached, to 
walk the way He had walked and to follow Him on the Noble Quest. May 
the Venerable Soma Thera attain the Noble Quest he started some forty 
years ago'. 

When one happens to be the only person in a powerful group to accept 
another teaching, much opposition may be expected. This Victor had in 

XIX 



In Memoriam 

plenty. At these times he resorted to the calm atmosphere of Vajirarama, 
where the late Venerable Maha Nayaka Thera and the Venerable Narada 
Maha Thera always found the time to speak with him, sometimes for hours, 
and he went away stimulated. Later, as a bhikkhu, when the Venerable 
Soma, while residing at the Vidyalankara Oriental College, Kelaniya, found 
that the opposition had grown into hostility, he had the ready sympathy and 
unstinted support of the late Venerable Lunupokune Dhammananda Nayaka 
Thera, the Venerable Kirivattuduve Siri Pannasara Nayaka Thera (now 
Vice-Chancellor) and the other venerable theras of the College. It is also 
fitting to record here the help readily given by the late Mr. Sagara 
Palansuriya and Mr. K. M. W. Kuruppu during th^s difficult period. But both 
as layman and as monk his attitude to those who were opposed to him, and 
who later became hostile, was one of kindness and understanding. True foll- 
ower of the Master, he bore his sufferings without rancour, like the fragrant 
sandal wood tree which perfumes the axe that lays it low, and like the sugar- 
cane which sweetens the mouth where it is being crushed. 

Soma Thera participated in the making of the simd, chapter house, 
at the Mahabodhi Society's Centre in Bangalore during the Buddha Jayanti 
celebrations in 1956. Some of the older members of the Buddhist Association 
there were pleasantly surprised to see him, for this was the site that the Mission 
of Goodwill had, in 1940, secured from the Government of Mysore for a 
Buddhist Centre, On his return to Ceylon in early 1957, Soma Thera was 
invited by the German Dharmaduta Society to lead the first Buddhist Mission 
to Germany in June that year, the other members being Vinita Thera, Mr. W. 
Joseph Soysa and myself. But though he underwent a serious operation just 
two weeks before the mission was due to leave, he insisted on not altering the 
travel arrangements. Actually he went on board ship direct from the hospital. 
The wound had not healed completely then, and the dressing had to be 
continued for another five weeks. At the end of this period he could not move 
his left arm. It was after a further three months' treatment that he recovered. 
Yet during all this time Soma Thera worked with a fortitude which evoked 
the admiration of all around him. Though the dry climate of Berlin helped 
his asthma he was not entirely free of attacks. Referring to his fortitude, a 
friend wrote, "No other monk except another Soma Thera would have ventured 
forth on such a mission after the serious operation he had to stand only a 
couple of weeks before". 

Yet the work which he had undertaken absorbed all Soma Thera's time 
and attention. He met the leading Buddhists in Berlin, who were anxious 
to co-operate with the mission's work, and soon there began a series of weekly 
meetings at which Soma Thera read a paper in German which was 
followed by answering questions that the audience liked to ask. The inter- 
preting at these meetings was done by Mr. F. Knobelock, the then President 
of the Congress of German Buddhist Associations, or by Mr. Guido Auster. 
This programme was continued till the mission left Berlin. Meanwhile 

xx 



In Memoriam 

Soma Thera addressed schools in various parts of the city. The children 
listened to him with the greatest interest. Just before leaving Berlin, the 
mission received an invitation from the Municipality of Iserlohn to conduct 
a Meditation Seminar during the "Indian Week" which was a part of the 
'Sauerland Cultural Season'. About one hundred people from all walks of 
life attended it. The late Mr. Egon Vietta was the organiser of the Seminar. 
On the last day of the Seminar he announced that he had brought a few 
questions from his teacher, the well-known Existentialist philosopher, Prof. 
Heidegger, who was ill and unable to travel. When these questions were put 
to the Ven. Soma Maha Thera his answers were prompt and so convincing 
that Mr. Vietta said that these same questions had been put by him to European 
scholars, individually and in groups, but he had not received such satisfying 
answers as had been given by Soma Maha Thera. 

Another invitation that the mission accepted was that of the Buddhists 
of Hamburg. They were anxious to have us with them during Vesak time. So 
from Islerlohn the mission left for Hamburg, where Mr. W. Stegemann, the 
President of the Buddhist Society of Hamburg, welcomed us. From here, 
after making a brief visit to London, Oxford, and Cambridge, the mission 
returned to Hamburg where Soma Thera conducted classes in meditation, 
and delivered lectures and led discussions on the Dhamma. These meetings 
were well attended. He much liked working among the Hamburg Buddhists 
because, as he said, they were well informed, organized, and greatly interested 
in their work as a body. In response to numerous requests, all the addresses 
delivered in Germany by Soma Maha Thera were published by the Hamburg 
Buddhist Society in their Bulletin the Mitteilungsblatt. 

With all this incessant work and travel Soma Thera grew weak, and when 
he returned to Ceylon from Germany in June 1958 he was very tired; but 
with skilful medical attention and another operation he regained his former 
vigour and worked hard which he loved to do. Then again he fell ill — this 
time with renal colic — and after another spell in hospital he was once more 
in a fit condition to continue his work. This time he slept hardly four hours 
a day, from about midnight to 4 a.m. When told that he tired himself over- 
much, he used to say, "I have gathered enough now but I have not time enough 
to give". So he worked on to the end never caring for his health. Yet he 
was happy doing it. 

He was held in affectionate and highest regard by all those who knew 
him for his qualities of heart and head. One of them wrote from England 
thus: "I was mentioning to the Dons of the Faculty of Eastern Religions at 
Oxford that there was in Ceylon a monk (referring to Soma Thera) who was 
eminently qualified by way of knowledge and learning to fill the Chair of 
Eastern Religions which is now vacant". Mr. Guido Auster, the Director 
of the Oriental Department of the German State Library, Berlin, hearing of 
his death wrote, "He contacted many personalities of the religious and in- 
tellectual life in Berlin and Germany. He delivered lectures at various places, 

XXI 



In Memoriam 

among them — most important in my opinion — several to pupils in our schools. 
He had an especially lucky hand in dealing with children and young people 
who admired him. He was most patient towards enquirers and beginners". 
Again, he says, "This impressive personality, reminding me in his dignity of 
a high prelate during the Middle Ages, weilding not only spiritual but also 
temporal power, has dissolved". 

The President of the Servants of the Buddha, Mr. Ananda Pereira, who, 
long before his 'teens, knew Soma Thera wrote thus of him in the Ceylon Daily 
News of February, 27, 1960. 

'With the death of the Venerable Soma Thera, Lanka loses one of her 
noblest sons. Born of Roman Catholic parents on December 23, 1898, 
duly baptised and brought up in the faith of his parents, the youthful Victor 
Pulle began asking questions — deep, simple, direct questions — the answers 
to which as given by his parents and spiritual advisors did not satisfy him. 
'His inquiries in due course led him to Buddhism, where at last he found 
the answers, or at least the hope of satisfactory answers to his questions. 

'He plunged into the study of the Buddha Dhamma. It was at this 
period that he laid the foundation of that sure grasp of the Teachings that 
served him so well in later years as a missionary. He was associated with 
Dr. Cassius A. Pereira (later Ven. Kassapa Thera) in the preparation of the 
Blessing. He was an enthusiastic and hard-working member of the Servants 
of the Buddha. He made many friends. 

'Never one to be satisfied with half measures, he was ordained as a 
Bhikkhu in 1936. From the day he joined the Sangha, he adorned it. As 
scholar, translator, writer, preacher and missionary, he strove mightily in 
the Buddhist cause. He never spared himself. 

'But those who knew him, will remember him most for his humanity. 
His was not the cold way of the anaemic academician. He lived his 
Buddhism with every beat of his warm generous heart. Sometimes he 
seemed impulsive, sometimes even a shade pugnacious, but never, never, did 
he say or do a mean, false, or deliberately unkind thing. 

'He was generous — with his advice, with his time, with himself. Though 
to outward appearance he was strong, his health was never particularly 
robust. But he never let ill-health interfere with his work, and his work 
was always giving. I have seen him preaching sermons or reciting Pirith at 
times when the mere act of breathing was acutely difficult because of 
asthma. 

'Soma Thera was a genuine monk. He observed the Vinaya rules with 
absolute strictness, never permitting himself the slightest infringement, 
His standards were the highest. His life was a shining example to others, 
Bhikkhus and lay-folk alike. 

'One does not need to feel sorrow on his behalf. His road is the road of 
the Buddha, the Arahats, the mighty ones. He lived here a while and has 

XXII 



In Memoriam 

gone on, strong and assured, brave and smiling, kind, gentle, untiring. 
The story is not done. We too must fare onward when our time comes. 
We shall meet again'. 

During the last few months of his life he often spoke and wrote on death, 
quoting from the Suttas and other writings, for instance, his own translations 
from the Sanskrit of Visnusarman thus : 

In him who ever and again, 

Reflects on death's hard hand of pain, - 

The drive for gross material gain 

Grows limp like hide soaked through with rain; 

and from the commentary to the Dhammapada: "Uncertain is life, certain 
is death; it is necessary that I should die; at the close of my life there is death. 
Life is indeed unsure but death is sure, death is sure" — Dh.-a. Ill, 170; and 
from the Sutta — S. IV, 211: "Mindfully and with complete awareness should 
a bhikkhu meet his end. This is the advice I give you". 

'I knew the Venerable Soma Maha Thera intimately for nearly thirty-two 
years. During this period if the number of days we were absent from each 
other be added up it will not amount to more than a few months. Yet during 
all these years our interests centred round the Dhamma only. When I met 
him I knew very little Dhamma, having but recently accepted the Teaching 
of the Buddha. What Dhamma I now know was gleaned from him or in 
his company. So when he passed away suddenly the blow was difficult to 
bear. Before this event "the separation" referred to in the words of the 
Buddha: Piyehi vippayogo dukkho, "the separation from the loved is ill", 
did not seem so difficult a thing to bear. Now it appeared in a different light. 

The passing away of the Venerable Sariputta Thera caused in the Venerable 
Ananda Thera, who was then only Sotdpanna, Stream-entrant (he became 
Arahat later), great agitation of mind, in spite of his having been with the 
Buddha and learned the Dhamma from him for twenty-five years. How he 
served the Buddha during those years is shown in the following verses, beauti- 
fully rendered by Mrs. C. A. F. Rhys Davids, thus: 

For five-and-twenty years a learner I; 
No sensual consciousness arose in me. 
O see the seemly order of the Norm! 
For five-and-twenty years a learner I; 
No hostile consciousness arose in me. 

see the seemly order of the Norm! 

For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One 

1 waited, serving him by loving deeds, 
And like his shadow followed after him. 

For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One 

xxiii 



In Memoriam 

I waited, serving him with loving speech, 
And like his shadow followed after him. 
For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One 
I waited, serving him with loving thoughts, 
And like his shadow followed after him. 
When pacing up and down, the Buddha walked, 
Behind his back I kept the pace alway; 
And when the Norm was being taught, in me 
knowledge and understanding of it grew. 1 

And it is this 'knowledge and understanding' that he refers to as being 
'confused' for him in the following verses, when the Venerable Sariputta Thera 
passed away: 

The firmament on every hand 
Grows dim, yea, all confused stand 
The truths I seemed to understand. 
Gone is the noble friend we love, 
And dark is earth and heaven above} 

The following is a description by Soma Thera (Bosat, October 1959, pp. 
170-71) of how the Buddha comforted the Venerable Ananda Thera on this 
occasion: 

'When the Buddha was told of the passing away of the Venerable Sariputta 
Thera, who was considered to be the Commander of the Army of Righteous- 
ness, the Blessed One said this to the Venerable Ananda Thera, who was upset, 
"Tell me Ananda, did Sariputta take the aggregate of virtue along with him 
and become extinct? Or did he take the aggregate of concentration along 
with him and become extinct? Or did he take along with him the aggregate 
of wisdom and become extinct ? Or did he take along with him the aggregate 
of freedom and become extinct? Or did he take along with him the aggregate 
of the knowledge and insight of freedom and become extinct?' — 'No Vener- 
able Sir'. — 'Have I not, indeed, told you before that with all that is dear, 
pleasing, involved are change, separation, and variation?" 

'The Buddha shows that it is not possible to stop the breaking up of 
what is born, produced, and put together, and of what has the nature of 
breaking, and compares the Venerable Sariputta Thera to one of the greater 
branches of the mighty tree of the Community of Bhikkhus. Comparable to 
the breaking of a bigger branch of a mighty tree, says the Buddha, is the 
Venerable Sariputta Thera's passing away and no one can stop the breaking 
of what is breakable by ordering that thing not to break'. 

But when this peerless comforter, the Blessed One himself, passed away 



1. Psalms of the Brethren, 1039-44. 2. Psalms of the Brethren, 1034. 

XXIV 



In Memoriam 

shortly afterwards the Venerable Ananda Thera uttered the following verses : 

And is the comrade passed away, 
And is the Master gone from hence ? 
No better friend is left, methinks, 
Than to mount guard o'er deed and sense. 
They of the older time are gone; 
The new men suit me not at all. 
Alone to-day this child doth brood, 
Like nesting-bird when rain doth fall. 1 

Thus did the Venerable Ananda Thera find comfort, and we, too, find 
solace at the feet of the Teacher of divine and human beings. 

Sometimes birds fly into houses and, staying a while, sing and cheer those 
there; but suddenly they fly away, casting no glance behind, none knowing 
where. In like manner even as it is said: Anavhdto tato dga, anunndto ito 
gato 2 — 'uncalled he hither came, unbidden soon to go', Soma Maha Thera, 
too, came uninvited and unbidden went away, the while having cheered some 
weary traveller on the way. 

To me Soma Maha Thera was a kalydnamitta. In life he blessed me with 
the friendship extolled by the Blessed One in no uncertain terms: Sakalam 
eva h-idam Ananda brahmacariyarh yad idam kalydna-mittatd kalydna-sahdyatd 
kalydna-sampavankatd, 3 — 'the whole of this holy life consists in noble friendship, 
in association, in intimacy with what is noble'. And in death he has drawn me 
ever near to the Dhamma, that sure refuge and support, as has been sung by 
the ancients, thus: 

Dhammam vind natthi pita ca maid 
Tameva tdnam saranam patitthd 
Tasmd hi bho kiccamahnam pahdya 
Sundtha dhdretha cardtha dhamme} 

Except the Dhamma of the Perfect One, 
There is no father and no mother here; 
The Dhamma is your refuge and support, 
And in the Dhamma is your shelter true, 
So hear the Dhamma, on the Dhamma think 
And spurning other things, live up to it. 5 

May that 'trusty, staunch, true friend', the Venerable Soma Maha Thera, 
attain to that happiness, higher than which there is none — Nibbdna, the 
Happiness Supreme! 

Vissdsaparamd ndti, nibbdnarh paramam sukham. 6 

Vajirarama, 

Bambalapitiya, KHEMINDA THERA 

Colombo, September 3, 1960. 

* Psalms of the Brethren, 1035-36. 2. J. Ill, 165 (Uraga Jataka). 3. S. I, 87-8. 

. Rasavahini. 5, Soma Thera's translation, 6. Dh. 204. 

XXV 



Prefatory Note to Original Draft Translation 



In the following pages is a draft translation of the 

first fascicle of Gedatsu Do Ron (Vimuttimagga) , No. 

1648 of the Taisho Edition of the Chinese Tripitaka (No. 

1293 in Nanjws Catalogue). The pages of the text are 

given in square brackets. 

This is circulated with the hope of receiving sugges- 
tions and criticisms helpful towards bringing out a 
complete translation of the Vimuttimagga. 

We have derived much help from Prof R. Higata's 
Japanese translation of the Gedatsu Do Ron, and Prof . Pe 
Maung Tins English Translation of the Visuddhimagga. 

N. R. M. Ehara 
V. E. P. Pulle 
G. S. Prelis 



Jozaiji, 

Kawatana- Machi, 
Nagasaki- Ken . Japan . 



Hanamatsuri, the eighth day of the fourth 
lunar month, May 28, 1936. 



XXVII 



Acknowledgments (Original Draft Translation) 



Jozaiji, 
Kawatana-Maehi, 
Nagasaki-Ken, 
Japan. 

August 29, 1936. 



For having encouraged us, we offer our hearty thanks 
to Dr. C. A. F. Rhys Davids, J. F. McKechnie Esq., 
(England); Prof. Dr. Wilh, Geiger (Germany) ; Dr. B. C. 
Law, Ven. Nyanatiloka Maha Thera, Ven. Narada Thera 
(India and Ceylon); Dr. Unrai Woghihara, Dr. Makoto 
Nagai, Prof. Nichiki Kimura, Prof. Giokei Umada, Dr. 
Baiye Henmi, Prof. Chotatsu Ikeda, Prof Kaijo Ishikawa, 
Prof. Kairyu Yamamoto, Prof. Yukio Sakamoto, Rev. 
Sho-on Mizuno (Tokyo); Dr. Giei Honda, Prof. Chizen 
Akanuma (Kyoto); Prof Ryusho Higata (Fukuoka). 



N. R. M. Ehara 
V. E. P. Pulle 
G. S. Prelis 



XXIX 



PREFACE 



As stated elsewhere (In Memoriam (p. xv) the draft translation of 
the Gedatsu Do Ron (being the Chinese name for the Vimuttimagga) was 
completed in four months. Therefore it was thought that it needed some 
revision. This the Venerable Soma Thera intended to do on his return to 
Ceylon in 1937. But he fell ill and by the end of 1939 the Second World War 
was already three months old. All hope of publishing the revised edition 
of the Original Draft Translation during the war had to be given up. With 
the end of the war, however, conditions were even less favourable. Mean- 
while, though the Venerable Soma Thera wished to complete the revision 
and await a favourable occasion to publish it, other work he had undertaken 
prevented him from doing so. Further, asthma robbed him of much of 
his time. Thus the work he intended to do on the Vimuttimagga translation 
had to be postponed each time he took it up. 

When he passed away many venerable theras and ddyakas were much 
interested in publishing, at least, the Original Draft Translation as it was, 
and they requested me to prepare it for publication. Knowing my own 
limitations, I was at first rather disinclined to undertake this work, but later 
acceded to their earnest request for the following reasons. 

The Venerable Soma Thera had originally wished to have the English 
translation of the Vimuttimagga (The Path of Freedom) revised and published 
some day. But later, seeing difficulties, he modified the idea and was 
even content with merely revising the Draft Translation, leaving the publica- 
tion itself to some future time. He said that the important thing, the Draft 
Translation, had been done, and that if people felt that they needed it they 
would see to its publication. 

It was a work that had inspired both the Venerable Soma Thera and me, 
and there were many who welcomed its publication. 

Dr. D. Roland D. Weerasuria of Balcombe House, Balcombe Place, 
Colombo, invited the Venerable Soma Thera sometime in 1959 to write an 
abridged version of the Visuddhimagga as he felt that such an edition would 
supply a long felt want. But shortly after he began writing it death inter- 
vened. Dr. Weerasuria then requested the Venerable Nanamoli Thera to 
take up the work which, after some hesitation, he agreed to finish within 
a year. But he, too, passed away within a week. Sometime after this 
Dr. Weerasuria, having seen the Original Draft Translation of the Vimutti- 
magga, was keen on its publication. 

This was a fitting occasion to pay a tribute to the memory of the two 
senior co-translators of the Vimuttimagga, the Reverend N. R. M. Ehara 
and the Venerable Soma Maha Thera. 

XXXI 



Preface 

And finally the urgent personal need to keep myself immersed in the 
Dhamma throughout the waking hours during this period of stress prompted 
me to take up the work. 

From the above it will be seen that this work was taken up due to sheer 
force of circumstances and not because of any special qualification on my 
part. Therefore, perhaps, some things stated here could have been said in 
other and better ways. Inexpert as I am in scholarly per suits there is bound 
to be many a lack in my portion of this work and so I ask reader to bear with 
me should he detect any errors of commission or omission here. 

In preparing this work for printing I have made a few alterations in the 
rendering of certain terms and passages, as they appeared in the Original 
Draft Translation, in accordance with notes and instructions left by 
the Venerable Soma Thera. The lacunae in the Draft Translation were 
filled, as far as possible, with the help of the word for word translation in 
consultation with Soma Thera's notes. All the longer Pali quotations in 
the footnotes, except a few from the Visuddhimagga and some from the 
Dhammasahgani etc., were inserted by me. They are given in full mainly 
with the idea of helping the general reader conversant with the Pali but to 
whom reference books are not easily accessible. By this attempt of mine 
if but just a few readers happen to be benefitted, to any extent, I should 
consider myself amply rewarded. 

Since the Introduction had already been sent to the Printers by the time 
the 'Encyclopaedia of Buddhism' (1961 Government of Ceylon, Fascicule 
A-Aca) was out, the following is included here. In his article, Abhidharma 
Literature, Dr. Kogen Mizuno makes three statements on page 78 of the 
Encyclopaedia regarding the Vimuttimagga: (1) that the Vimuttimagga (along 
with the Dhammapada, the Atthakavagga of the Suttanipata etc.) "probably 
belonged to the Abhayagiri sect and not to the Mahavihara sect" (paragraph b 
continued from the previous page); (2) that "He (i. e., the Venerable 
Buddhaghosa Thera) evidently studied the Vimuttimagga, which was a manual 
of the Abhayagirivihara sect" (paragraph c); and (3) "That the Vimutti- 
magga, was Upatissa's work and belonged to the Abhayagirivihara sect is 
mentioned in the tika (sub-commentary, i.e., Dhammapala's Paramattha- 
maojusa) of the Visuddhimagga''' (paragraph c). 

The first statement, (1) above, says that the Vimuttimagga "probably 
belonged to the Abhayagiri sect", while the second, (2) above, says ''Vimutti- 
magga, which was a manuel of the Abhayagirivihara sect". How, precisely, 
did probability in paragraph b became certainty in paragraph c? As for the 
third statement, (3) above, the Paramatthamahjusd does not say that the 
Vimuttimagga "belonged to the Abhayagirivihara sect" as is claimed here. 
What it says is that the Vimuttimagga is the work of the Venerable Upatissa 
Thera. The fact that certain teachings are common to both the Abhayagiri- 

XXXII 



Preface 

viliara and the Vimuttimagga does not prove that the latter belonged to the 
Abhayagirivihara sect. For details see Introduction pp. xxxvi, xxxvn and 
n. 2, p. 57 of the present translation. 

I have derived much help from Prof. Dr. P. V. Bapat's Vimuttimagga 
and Visuddhimagga — a Comparative Study, and the Venerable Nanamoli 
Thera' s translation of the Visuddhimagga — The Path of Purification. The 
Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary 1921, and Trenchner's Critical 
Pali Dictionary, Copenhagen 1924-1948 have been equally helpful. 

It is with great pleasure that I make the following acknowledgements 
to all those whose help and encouragement made my work less difficult. 

To the Venerable Madihe Pafmaslha Maha Nayaka Thera of Vajira- 
rama for his kindly and ready help and advice at all times lacking which 
this work would not have been completed. 

To all those venerable monks who encouraged me by word and deed 
when that encouragement was most needed. 

To the Venerable Nanavjra Thera for his welcome suggestions and the 
readiness with which he helped in many ways. 

To Mr. W. Joseph Soysa who helped in reading over some of the proofs. 
He has always been much interested in the Vimuttimagga and in its publica- 
tion. 

To Mr. Lakshman de Mel who read through the type-script and made 
valuable suggestions. 

To Mr. R. D. Piyasena and those who helped him for taking a great 
deal of trouble in preparing the English Index. 

Lastly, to Dr. D. Roland D. Weerasuria who has generously borne the 
entire cost of publishing this translation. Provision has been made by him 
to keep the price of this book within reach of the modest purse. He has 
performed this meritorious act (puhnakamma) with great faith (saddhd) wishing 
his father, Mudaliyar D. D. Weerasuria j.p., who passed away on 25. 5. 1949, 
the happiness of Nibbdna. May the result of this pure deed redound in full 
measure to his lasting happiness. 

The Printers have to be thanked for their patience and high quality of 
work. 



Vijirarama, kheminda thera, 

Colombo, Ceylon, October 2505/1961. 



xxxm 



INTRODUCTION 

IN the Journal of the Pali Text Society of 1919, there appeared an article 
* by Prof. Dr. M. Nagai on "The Vimutti-Magga, The Way to Deliverance' ". 
Referring to it Mrs. C. A. F. Rhys Davids in a letter dated September 20, 
1936 to the translators of the Gedatsu Do Ron (Vimuttimaggd) said, "Then 
as to the issuing of the book (referring to the Path of Freedom) in a volume 
of print: Were this society in easier circumstances enjoyed by it up to the 
Great War, when we were immensely helped by the princely donations of 
your wealthy men, I would undertake at once to publish the work with Prof. 
Nagai's excellent article in our Journal, 1919, as preface, with anything he 
liked to add. Or, if you objected, I should ask you three to write your own 
preface, making such references to his article as you thought fit". 

This article of Prof. Nagai took the Buddhist world by surprise; for, 
according to the Culavamsa chapter xxxvn, 236-39, when the Venerable 
Buddhaghosa Thera had written the Visuddhimagga at the behest of the Mahd- 
sangha, the devas had hidden it and he had to write it afresh. When this 
was done, it too was hidden by the devas. So, when he wrote it for the third 
time and presented it to the Mahdsangha, it is said, the devas produced the 
first two copies. It was then found that the three copies agreed in every detail. 
The record goes on to say (Cv. Ch. xxxvn, 241-43): 'Then the bhikkhus 
read out all the three books together. Neither in composition and content, 
nor also as regards the sequence (of the subjects), in the teaching of the Theras, 
in the quotations, in words, and sentences was there any kind of deviation 
in all three books. Then the community satisfied and exceedingly well pleased, 
cried again and again: "without doubt, this is Metteyya!" and handed over 
to him the books of the three Pitakas together with the commentary' — 
Dr. Geiger's translation. By this statement it was, perhaps, only intended to 
stress the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera's great ability, which is amply borne 
out by this (i.e., the Visuddhimagga) and his later works. No other view 
seems to be warranted, or else it has to be conceded that the Mahavihara 
Theras knew very well that the Bodhisatta Metteyya could not have been 
born in this world at this time; — see, for instance, the earlier statement of 
the Mahdvamsa at Ch. xxxn, 73 : 'Awaiting the time when he shall become 
a Buddha, the compassionate Bodhisatta Metteyya dwells in the Tusita-city' — 
Dr. Geiger's translation. Further, that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera 
and the Bodhisatta Metteyya are two different persons has been established 
by the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera himself in his Postscript to the Visuddhi- 
magga (found only in the Sinhalese texts and translated by Nanamoli Thera) : 
« 

So may I in my last becoming 
Behold the joys of Tavatimsa, 

And having in my last life seen 
Metteyya, Lord of Sages, Highest 
Of persons in the World, and Helper 
Delighting in all beings' welfare, 
And heard that Holy One proclaim 
The Teaching of the Noble Law, 
May I grace the Victor's Dispensation 
By realizing its Highest Fruit'. 

xxxv 



Introduction 

And this, too, the Mahavihara Theras would have known. But in thus 
stressing his ability, the Culavamsa account seems to make out that the visuddhi- 
magga was written without recourse to other works. There is a discrepancy 
in this account of the Culavamsa. It will be noted that 'the three Pitakas 
together with Commentary' were handed over to the Venerable Buddhaghosa 
Thera by the Mahasangha only after he had written the Visuddhimagga, which 
is correctly designated the General Commentary to the three Pitakas. Now, 
if he had access to the three Pitakas, and the Commentary only after he had 
written this General Commentary to the three Pitakas, how did he do it? 
This is difficult to comprehend. Here is where the article of Prof. Dr. Nagai 
appears to fit in. 

Bearing No. 1293 in Prof. Nanjio's Catalogue is a work in Chinese called 
Cie-to-tdo-lun. It is also called Gedatsu Do Ron. Prof. Nanjio has rendered 
the title of this work in Sanskrit as ' Vimoksa-Marga', the author being Arahant 
Upatissa. In trying to identify him with a Ceylon Thera, Prof. Nagai adduces 
the following reasons: 

1. It cannot be the Venerable Sariputta Thera, who was also called 
Upatissa, because he is often quoted in the Venerable Upatissa Thera's text. 

2. In the Samantapdsadikd (I, p. 263), it is said that there were two elders, 
named Upatissa Thera and Phussadeva Thera, pupils of the same teacher 
who was proficient in the Vinaya. Upatissa Thera was superior to the other; 
and he had two pupils named Mahapaduma Thera and Mahasumana Thera. 
The latter learned the Vinaya Pitaka nine times from his teacher, while Maha- 
paduma Thera learned it eighteen times and was, therefore, the superior. 
When the former left his teacher to live elsewhere Mahapaduma Thera remained 
with his teacher saying that as long as one's teacher was alive one should be 
with him and learn the Vinaya and the Commentaries many times more. The 
teacher, the Venerable Upatissa Thera, and his pupil the Venerable Maha- 
paduma Thera, recited the Vinaya in this manner for many years more. During 
this period they expounded the Vinaya and on one occasion the Venerable 
Upatissa Thera, at the request of the Mahasangha in assembly, pronounced 
a ruling on a question that arose regarding the first Pdrdjika. 

3. A teacher such as the Venerable Upatissa Thera was the most appropri- 
ate person to be the author of a work of such importance as the Vimuttimagga. 
Then he goes on to mention the account of the gift of King Vasabha's queen 
to the Venerable Mahapaduma Thera who accepted it as his teacher's share. 

4. To show that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera was aware of the 
existence of the Vimuttimagga, Prof. Nagai refers to the comments of the Ven- 
erable Buddhaghosa Thera regarding the "fourteen cariya's" of the 
Vimuttimagga. 

It is quite probable that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera had the Vimutti- 
magga in mind when he made this comment; for there is the definite statement 
of the Venerable Dhammapala Thera in his commentary to the Visuddhimagga 
{Paramatthamahjusd, Venerable Morontuduve Dhammananda Nayake Thera's 
Sinhalese ed. p. 103) which says: Ekacce ti Upatissattheram sandhdydha. Tena 
hi Vimuttimagge tat ha vuttam, — " 'Some' is said with reference to the Venerable 
Upatissa Thera. It is said thus by him in the Vimuttimagga". From the fore- 
going it is clear that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera had the Vimuttimagga 
of Venerable Upatissa Thera before him when he wrote the Visuddhimagga. 

xxxvi 



Introduction 

In his Pali Literature of Ceylon, Dr. G. P. Malalasekera has this to say 
on the subject: 

(a) "The Vimutti-magga is an Abhidhainma exegesis, serving as a com- 
pendium for that portion of Buddhist literature . . . , and in some points 
the Chinese work seems to have been influenced by the Mahayana doctrine" 
(p. 86). 

(b) He says, further, that if it is granted that the Vimuttimagga was 
taken to China by some of the schools of approximately the same tradition, "it 
would not be difficult to conclude that the Visuddhi-magga and Vimutti-magga 
are more or less independent works, written by men belonging to much the 
same school of thought — the Thera-vdda" (pp. 87-88). 

Regarding the statement (a) above, it will be seen that very little Abhi- 
dhamma is found in the Vimuttimagga, though of course, it begins by saying 
that he who wishes to "lead those on the other shore to perfection, should be 
versed in the Sutta, Abhidhamma and Vinaya". Here, the late Venerable Nana- 
moli Thera's opinion on the subject will be of interest: "However the Vimutti- 
magga itself contains nothing at all of the Mahayana, its unorthodoxies being 
well within the 'Hinayana' field". Again he says : "Also Abhidhamma, which 
is the keystone of Bhadantacariya Buddhaghosa's exegesis, is not used at all 
in the Vimuttimagga (Aggregates, Truths, etc., do not in themselves constitute 
Abhidhamma in the sense of that Pitaka). There is, for instance, even in its 
description of the Consciousness Aggregate, no reference to the Dhamma- 
sanganVs classification of 89 types, and nothing from the Patthdna; and though 
the 'Cognitive Series' is stated once in its full form (in Ch. ii) no use is made 
of it to explain conscious workings. This Vimuttimagga is in fact a book of 
practical instruction, not of exegesis" (Path of Purification Introduction pp. 
xxvii-xxviii). The statement of the Venerable Dhammapala Thera in the 
Paramatthamanjusd quoted earb'er seems to disallow (b) above. 

The Venerable Buddhadatta Maha Nayaka Thera in the Pali Text Society's 
edition of the Saddhammappajotikd refers to Prof. Nagai's view that the 
author of the Vimuttimagga was the Venerable Upatissa Thera who flourished 
during King Vasabha's reign, 66-109 A. c. He says, "However, there is no 
such great difference as cannot be bridged between his supposition and mine" 
(Introduction p. vm). 

Regarding the view that the Vimuttimagga was a work written at the 
Abhayagiri Monastery, the late Venerable Jsjanamoli Thera rightly says, "That 
it (the Vimuttimagga) contains some minor points accepted by the Abhayagiri 
Monastery does not necessarily imply that it had any special connection with 
that centre. The sources may have been common to both. The disputed 
points are not schismatical. Bhadantacariya Buddhaghosa himself never men- 
tions it" (Introduction, xxvin). 

Prof. Dr. P. V. Bapat in the Introduction (p. liv) to his careful work 
"Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, A Comparative Study" (1937), has 
examined a great deal of material. In support of his theory that the Vimutti- 
magga originated in India, he puts forward, among others, the following 
reasons (p. liv): (a) "It is very likely that Vimuttimagga was one of the books 
brought over from India. From the internal evidence of the book we may say 
that there is no reference to any name 2 or place in Ceylon". If the view of 



"2. Unless the name Narada (p. 134) referred to any high personage from Ceylon, which 
seems to be very improbable". This name is found at S. II, 117-18. See p. 321. 

XXXVII 



Introduction 

the late Venerable Nanamoli Thera, that the "Vimuttimagga is in fact a book 
of practical instruction, not of exegesis" — which is also the view of the late 
Venerable Soma Thera and myself — is accepted, and if it is recognized that 
the whole style of the Vimuttimagga makes for brevity — it is even abrupt 
sometimes — , then it will be seen that the exclusion of any 'name or place in 
Ceylon' is not surprising. 

(b) "We find in this book many words which are transliterations of 
Indian words. The list of worms residing in different parts of the body gives 
names which are transliterations of Indian names. These names must have been 
taken by Upatissa from some old work or works on medical science" (p. liv). 
This is as it should be, seeing that the Dhamma is of Indian origin, and when 
medicine or anything related to medical science is mentioned it is natural for 
Ceylon writers to use Indian terms: for what medical knowledge Ceylon 
possessed at the time was of Indian origin. The standard Ayurvedic medical 
works in use even now are Susruta and Vagbhata. Caraka is not unknown.* 
The first two works have been in use in Ceylon through the ages. But if the 
list of worms is not derived from the first two works or one of them, then the 
Vimuttimagga most probably bases itself here on some other medical work 
of Indian origin known in Ceylon at the time. 

Regarding the statement, "We find Upatissa going into the details of the 
development of the foetus week by week" (p. Ivi), it will be seen from pp. 173-74, 
n. 3 that here the Vimuttimagga follows the Sutta and its commentary. 

(c) "Besides, the reference to a Canddla, which we have already noticed, 
also points to the origin of the book in India, 3 particularly, in South or Dravi- 
dian India where there is a very strong prejudice against Candalas" (p. liv). 
References to Candalas are found eslewhere, in the texts and commentaries. 
For instance, as pointed out by Prof. Bapat himself (p. xlvi), at A. I, 107 and 
A. Ill, 214, canddla is mentioned. Here it should be borne in mind that in the 
society of the time, and also later, the canddla was a person looked down upon. 
To illustrate certain points in a way that the large mass of the people would 
understand, appropriate similes were used by the Buddha and his Disciples, 
and the commentators who came after them. It does not mean that they 
thereby endorsed some of the statements made in their similes. For instance, 
when the Buddha, in the Satipatthdna Suttas, says, "Just as if a clever butcher 
or butcher's apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions 
were sitting at the main cross-road," and so on, it does not follow that the 
Buddha upheld the buchers' profession. If the word canddla was used in a 
simile, the motive behind it was nothing else than to facilitate the understanding 
of the point under discussion. The upholding of the caste system does not 
come in here. On the contrary, the Buddha and his disciples were opposed 
to it as we see in the use of the word canddla in a different context referring to 
an updsaka (i.e., one who has gone to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the 
Sangha for refuge) but who does not observe the silas etc. — he being called 
updsakacanddla (A. Ill, 206). The Vasala Sutta (Sn. 116-42) may also be 
mentioned here. Further, these sentences occur in the Vimuttimagga itself, 
thus: "Virtue is called excellent joy, the highest of all castes . . . This is to 



*Since writing the above the Caraka Samhitd has been translated into Sinhalese by Ayurveda 
Sastri R. Buddhadasa, Colombo. 
"3. Upatissa's change of the 'yellow' colour of the earth for kasina (as said by B.) into 
'black' (p. 43) may be considered as significant. Can it suggest the black soil of the 
country of origin of Upatissa?" The soil in many parts of Ceylon, too, is black. 

XXXVIII 



Introduction 

wear the thread which must be worn. This is the sacred caste" (p. 8). 

What has largely prompted Prof. Bapat to protest seems to be the statement 
found in Chapter in dealing with the Austerities, and his objection runs thus: 
"Let us note one peculiar fact about Upatissa. He seems to have some kind 
of contempt for, or low opinion of, a Canddla" (p. xlvi). Then on the same 
page he goes on to say the following, which are possibly the reasons for the 
statement mentioned above. 

(1) "In one place, there is a reference to a Canddla where we are told 
in a simile that he has no desire for a princely throne" (p. xlvi). The relevant 
passage is, "As an outcast has no desire for a king's throne" (p. 25 of the 
present translation). The same idea is found in the Visuddhimagga too, namely, 
"Nirdso saddhamme canddlakumdrako viya rajje" (p. 54) — "He is desireless 
for the Good Law as a canddla (outcast) is for a kingdom". It is therefore 
not a statement peculiar to the Venerable Upatissa Thera. 

(2) With regard to the next objection: "At another place, to see a Canddla 
on the way is considered to be a sufficient reason for the laxity in the observance 
of the practice of sapaddna-cdrikd (going from house to house in succession 
for begging one's food)" (p. xlvi). This is not quite what the text says, as 
will be seen later. There is no question of laxity. Then the next sentence 
continues, "Upatissa says that if a mendicant sees a Canddla on the way, 
he should cover his begging-bowl and may skip over some houses and go 
further. In the third place we find a lack of conscientiousness (ahirika) is 
compared to a Canddla" (pp. xlvi-xlvii). Further, at p. 23, "Even if he has 
taken up the practice of a sapaddnacdrika, he should avoid elephants or horses 
that may be coming in his way. Seeing a canddla, he should cover his begging- 
bowl. 'Following one's acariya or upajjhdya? is also mentioned as an occasion 
for exception". Here is the relevant passage from the present translation 
(p. 36): "What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 
'regular almsround'? If a bhikkhu on seeing elephants or horses fighting 
or in rut, at the gate, avoids them, or on seeing an outcast {canddla, trans- 
literation) covers his bowl, or goes behind his preceptor, teacher or a visiting 
bhikkhu, and thus commits certain faults for expedience' sake, he does not 
fail in 'regular almsround' ". 

Now let us consider why the expedience in regard to elephants and horses 
may be resorted to. It is plain that it is to avoid being hurt or even killed. 
Regarding the preceptor or teacher — it is out of respect due to them. It is 
an offence not to do so. Again, covering the bowl on seeing a canddla is 
for self-protection. The society at that time was very much caste-conscious. 
If the people objected to, or did not favour, the receiving of alms from one 
they considered an outcast, the support from the large majority of the people 
would be liable to be withdrawn and the life of the bhikkhu rendered difficult, 
to say the least. Here the story of the son and heir of the King Dutthagamani 
comes readily to mind. It is said that the people were prosperous and happy 
during his reign and that he had a son named Salirajakumara, concerning 
whom the following is recorded. 

"Greatly gifted was he and ever took delight in works of merit; he tenderly 
loved a candala woman of exceedingly great beauty. Since he was greatly 
enamoured of the Asokamaladevi, who already in a former birth had been 
his consort, because of her loveliness, he cared nothing for kingly rule" (Mv. 
Ch. xxxiii, 2-4). Therefore King Dutthagamani, after his death, was succeeded 
by his brother, Saddhatissa, who reigned for eighteen years. 

xxxix 



Introduction 

"He cared nothing for kingly rule", — So rajjam neva kdmayi. Surely 
there is something similar in this statement and the simile which is common 
to both the Vimuttimagga and the Visuddhimagga, namely, Nirdso saddhamme 
canddlakumdrako viya rajjel — Vimuttimagga p. 25: He has no desire for 
the Noble (Law), as an outcast has no desire for a king's throne"; Visuddhi- 
magga p. 54: "He is desireless for the Good Law as an outcast (canddla) is 
for a kingdom" ! Have not both the Vimuttimagga and the Visuddhimagga 
been making some sort of allusion to this event, which would, no doubt, 
have shocked the whole land? Might it not seem that here was an actual 
story well-known in the land and even recent history as far as the Venerable 
Upatissa Thera of King Vasabha's reign was concerned (King Dutthagamani 
reigned from 161-137 b.c. and King Vasabha from 66-110 a.c.)? If our 
author is in fact this Upatissa Thera, this story will provide him with the 
most appropriate material for a simile to illustrate the regardlessness of an 
un virtuous man for the Good Law. How appropriate the background provided 
by the prince's story is for purposes of the simile, which was perhaps even 
inspired by it, can be seen from the present translation, p. 25. 

That the author of the Vimuttimagga, whoever it was, knew such passages as 

1 . Mdjdtim puccha caranan ca puccha. 
Katthd have jdyati jdtavedo ; 
nlcdkulino pi muni dhitlma 
djdniyo hoti hirinisedho — Sn. 462 

Judge not by birth but life. 
As any chips feed fire 
Mean birth may breed a sage 
Noble and staunch and true* 

2, Najaccd 'vasalo' hoti; — najacca hoti brdhmano; 
kammand 'vasalo' hoti kammand hoti brdhmano — Sn. 136 

No birth a wastrel — or a Brahmin — makes; 
'tis conduct wastrels makes — and Brahmins too* 

is beyond doubt. And it is inconceivable that he had a prejudice which he 
put down in writing knowing full well that it was entirely against the Teaching 
of the Buddha. 

As for the statement that the Vimuttimagga "reveals no special mastery 
of the Yinaya which is claimed by Prof. Nagai for that Upatissa who lived 
in the first century a.d. in Ceylon" (p. lvi), the Vimuttimagga is hardly the 
place to display such special knowledge. 

Finally, to this following statement: "My discovery of the Tibetan version 
of the third chapter on 'dhutas' is also important . . . This Tibetan text 
provides an additional evidence to show the Indian origin of the book. It 
does not appear to be probable that a text from Ceylon was taken over to 
India and there it was studied in Buddhist schools and that it assumed such 
importance as to be translated, in part at least, in Tibetan" (pp. liv - lv). An 
article which the late Lama Geshe La Gedum Chomphell originally contributed 



* Lord Chalmers' translation. 

XL 



Introduction 

to The Buddhist, the journal of the Y.M.B.A., Colombo, and which was reprinted 
in the Buddha Jayanti of July 22, 1956, begins — The horse of Buddhism 
is dead in India; only the tops of the horse's ears are still visible in the east 
and the west of the land'. This saying which had gained currency in Tibet 
once, perhaps originated with the monk Vanaratana, known, in Tibetan 
history, as the last great Indian Mahdpandita who came to live and teach 
in Tibet. A native of Bengal, he was ordained young, as a sdmanera, in a 
monastery of one thousand monks. He received full ordination in Ceylon, 
with two well-known Theras, the Venerable Buddhaghosa and the Venerable 
Dhammakitti as preceptor and teacher respectively. He studied the Vinaya 
Prabhd (Splendour of the Discipline), a Sarvdstivdda work. Then he returned 
to his native country and, after studying the Kdlacakra, went to Tibet by way 
of Assam. The Lama says: "During the journey he is believed to have 
remembered his Sinhalese preceptor, and inscribed on a wayside rock these 
words: 'I salute Buddhaghosa the teacher of thousands of beings' ". And 
he says further that in the middle of the seventeenth century the lama king of 
Bhutan, when at war with the Central Tibet government, had seen and men- 
tioned it in one of his writings. On reaching Tibet his interpreter died, and 
so after a short stay there he returned to Bengal. "Vanaratana's second 
visit to Ceylon lasted six years; during that time he studied all branches of 
Buddhism", says the lama. The Venerable Vanaratana in his account of a 
pilgrimage he made to Sri Pada in Ceylon states that he received two bone relics 
there. Then again the lama goes on "to say, "With the relics and some books he 
had collected, Vanaratana returned to his country and not long afterwards re- 
entered Tibet. This time he was able to speak Tibetan well; he made many lamas 
his disciples through his preaching. The chief of Vanaratana's disciples was 
Rong-Thong-Pa, the founder of a new sect; to him Vanaratana gave one of the 
relics he had got in Ceylon. Rong-Thong-Pa built near Lhasa a monastery called 
Nalanda". The Venerable Vanaratana died fifteen years after he re-entered Tibet 
"at a monastery in Singpori in Tsang province; his tomb can still be seen in that 
monastery . . . The full admission of Vanaratana to the Sangha by Ceylon 
theras, and the long stay here, point to the existence of cordial relations between 
the Indian and Ceylon Sangha of his time. Tibetan books show that Ratna- 
kara Gupta of Vikramasila stayed in Ceylon for seven years on his way to 
Dhanyakataka; and Atlsa (Dlpamkara Sri Jhana), who became abbot of Vik- 
ramasila, was here in the eleventh century". Further, I myself remember the 
late lama, when he was preparing this article, mentioning to the Venerable 
Soma Thera that he had seen in a monastery in Tibet a Sinhalese manuscript 
which, he said, probably dated back to the Venerable Vanaratana Thera's time. 1 

In view of the above we are entitled to say that, while it is not proved 
that the Vimuttimagga was written in Ceylon, it has been shown that the very 
reasons put forward to support the view that it must have been written in 
India, support equally well the view that it may well have been written in 
Ceylon. To this can be added the idea that the simile of the outcast having 
no desire for a king's throne, possibly drew inspiration from the story of 
Salirajakumara, which must certainly have been current at the time, though 



1. Since writing the above, the Ceylon Daily News reported, in its issue of September 9, 
1960, of the discovery of a Singhalese manuscript in a Buddhist monastery of Saiskya 
in Tibet by Prof. Rahula Sankrityayana of the Vidyalankara University, Kelaniya, in the 
years between 1929 and 1938. This manuscript has been assigned to the twelfth, or the 
thirteenth, century and is now deposited in the library of the Vidyalankara University. 

XLI 



Introduction 

the account of it in the Mahdvamsa came to be written later. Yet the 
Mahdvamsa, according to Dr. Geiger (Introduction, Mv. translation p. ix), was 
"based upon older material", the "Atthakathd-Mahdvamsa", as he calls it, 
and "existed as did the Atthakatha generally, in different monasteries of the 
Island, in various recensions which diverged only slightly from one another" 
(p. x). He further says, "The chronicle must originally have come down 
only to the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon. But it was continued later, and 
indeed to all appearance, down to the reign of Mahasena (beginning of the 
fourth century a.d.)". 

Tipitaka Sanghapdla Thera of Funan 

Below is given the Life of Tipitaka Sanghapala Thera of Funan, being a 
translation from Kosoden, Biographies of Famous Clerics, in Vol. 50, No. 
2059, Taisho edition of the Chinese Tripitaka: 

In the early years of the Ryo dynasty there was Sanghapala; he was a 
foreign scholar. His bearing was noble and he was handsome of feature. 
He was a skilful debater. Coming to the capital he stayed at Shokwanji 
(Mahavidarsanarama). The Emperor Bu honoured and respected him, and 
treated him with great consideration. He was requested by the emperor to 
translate Buddhist scriptures in Jukoden (Ayus-prabha vihara) and Sen-un- 
kwan (. . . megha- vihara). He translated the Mahd Asoka Sutra, Vimoksa- 
Mdrga-sdstra, and others. Hosho, En-don-u and others assisted (lit. wrote). 

This occurs under the Biography of Gunavrddhi of Mid-India who built 
Shokwanji and died in Shokwanji in the second year of Chuko (p. 345). 

The following is from Zokukosoden, Further Biographies of Famous 
Clerics, number 2060, volume 50 of the Taisho edition of the Chinese 
Tripitaka. Here the life of Sanghapala is given first. Sanghapala: In the 
language of Ryo his name may be translated thus: So: Order; and Yd: 
Nurse. Or So: Order; and Gui: Protector. He was a Funan-man. From 
his youth, he was very clever. Having mastered the Law, he became a monk. 
He was expert in the knowledge of the Abhidharma, and was famous in the 
lands of the Southern Sea. After completing (possibly the study of the 
Abhidhamma), he studied the Vinayapitaka. He was zealous in the propa- 
gation of the Vanquisher's Faith, and hearing that the time was propitious 
for the spreading of the Truth in the country of Sai (Canton), he took ship 
and came to the capital. He stayed in Shokwanji and became a disciple of 
Gunabhadra, a sramana of India and studied Vaipulya under him. Sangha- 
pala's knowledge was wide and deep and he was conversant with the languages 
and books of several countries . , , Pala was clean of body and of mind and 
was reluctant to engage in conversation. In the seclusion of his room he 
stayed and worked, taking very simple fare. 

In the 5th year of Tenkwan, he was offered by the emperor these five 
places of residence : Jukoden, Karinenden (Flower-forest-garden), Shokwanji 
Senunkwan and Funankwan of the Capital Yoto (Sun City). He translated for 
seventeen years. His translations amounted to eleven cases of forty-eight fasci- 
cles. They are the great Asoka sutra, the Vimoksa-Mdrga-sdstra and others. 
When the translations began the Emperor Bu himself came to Jukoden, 
attended to the exposition of the Law by Sanghapala and himself wrote (down 
the translations). After that he handed them over to the writer who was to 
make the printing blocks. The emperor commanded the sramana Hosho, the 

xlii 



Introduction 

sramana Echo and the sramana Sochi to assist Sanghapala. His translations 
were in elegant Chinese and faithful to the original. The emperor treated him 
most cordially and respectfully and made him the court chaplain. It is said 
that he altered many customs of the people. Pala did not hoard treasure. With 
offerings that were made to him Pala built the Ryujuji (Arabdha-vlryarama). 
The minister Rinsenoko was deeply attached to him. In the fifth year of 
Futsu, he died at Shokwanji. He was sixty five years old. 

About the beginning of the Ryo dynasty another sramana of Funan 
named Mandara came to China. He brought many Sanskrit texts and 
presented them to the emperor. The emperor ordered him to translate them 
together with Pala. They translated Ho-ung-ho-kai-taisho-monju-hanna-kyo: 
Ratna-megha-dharma-dhdtu-kdya-svabhdva-manjusri-prajnd-sutra . Though he 
translated, he could not understand Chinese well. So in his translations there 
are many vague renderings (p. 426, fascicle 1). 

The Visuddhimagga 

Much has been written about the Visuddhimagga from the earliest times 
right down to the present day. King Parakrama-Bahu II (1236-68 A.c.) 
is reported to have written the paraphrase to the Visuddhimagga after he 
had handed over the kingdom to his son Bodhisatta Vijaya-Bahu (1271-72 
AC-)- During the last century Pandit M. Dharmaratna revised this work. 
Of him and his work on the Visuddhimagga, the Venerable Soma Thera wrote 
in the Buddha Jayanti of April 5, 1955 thus: "Had he not written any of the 
works mentioned above and not edited the paper, still people of this country 
would have been obliged to remember him for his great gift of the translation 
of the Visuddhimagga, with his edition of the Visuddhi Text, and the revised 
version of the ancient paraphrase of the Visuddhi by Parakrama-Bahu II, a 
comprehensive work which is of never-failing interest and great usefulness to 
all students of the Dhamma and the Sinhalese language". Then again there 
is the late Venerable Pandita Matara &rl Dharmavamsa Maha Stavira's more 
recent translation which was completed by his pupil the Venerable Pandita 
Batuvita Nandarama Maha Thera in 1957. There is also the English trans- 
lation of the Pali Text Society by Prof. Pe Maung Tin of Rangoon, completed 
in 1931, and that of the late Venerable Nanamoli Thera of the Island Hermit- 
age, Dodanduwa in 1956. The German translation is by the late Venerable 
Nyanatiloka Maha Thera, founder of the Island Hermitage, Dodanduwa, the 
publishers being Verlag Christiani, Konstanz, 1952. 

The Visuddhimagga is a household word in all Theravdda lands. No 
scholar of Buddhism whether of Theravdda or of Mahdydna is unacquainted 
with it. Therefore there is no need of repeating what has already been said 
at one time or another. But an introduction to the Vimuttimagga, can hardly 
avoid all mention of the Visuddhimagga, and I may be excused if I go over 
ground already covered by others. An endeavour, however, is made to 
present some of these facts briefly and with a slightly new approach. It is 
for the reader to assess how far this has been achieved. 

In the introduction to his translation of the Visuddhimagga, The Path 
of Purification, the late Venerable Nanamoli Thera, after carefully sifting a 
large collection of material, points out that the influence of Sanskrit Buddhism, 
the centre of which was the Abhayagiri monastery in Anuradhapura, was so 
great in the first century a.c that it became a threat to the Mahavihara's 

XLIII 



Introduction 

position as the central authority of orthodox Pali Buddhism in Ceylon. Indeed 
that threat grew into open rivalry and even enmity between these two institu- 
tions, culminating in King Mahasena's (277-304) giving protection to 
Sanghamitta, "a Cola monk, follower of Vetullavada", and driving away the 
monks of the Mahavihara from Anuradhapura for nine years. Then, Maha- 
sena, repenting of his deeds, restored the Mahavihara to its former position 
and burnt the Vetulyan books. But by then Sanghamitta had got the Loha- 
pasada destroyed, and he and his friend, the minister Sona, were killed by a 
labourer on the orders of the queen when they attempted to destroy the 
Thuparama. The efforts of the Mahavihara monks since the beginning of the 
dispute with those of the Abhayagiri in the first century a. c. were solely directed 
to the establishment, says the Venerable Nanamoli Thera, of "Pali as the lang- 
uage for the study and discussion of Buddhist teachings, and the founding of 
a school of Pali literary composition" (Intro, p. xiv). He then goes on to say, 
"It is not known what was the first original Pali composition in this period; 
but the Dipavamsa (dealing with historical evidence) belongs here (for it ends 
with Mahasena's reign and is quoted in the Samantapdsddikd), and quite 
possibly the Vimuttimagga (dealing with practice — see below) was another 
early attempt by the Great Monastery in this period (4th cent.) to reassert 
its supremacy through original Pali literary composition: there will have 
been others too. Of course, much of this is very conjectural" (Intro, p. xiv). 
It will be noted here that the Venerable Nanamoli Thera does not place the 
Vimuttimagga during the reign of King Vasabha, but in the 4th century. 
Still it does not contradict the fact that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera 
had access to the Vimuttimagga of the Venerable Upatissa Thera when he 
wrote the Visuddhimagga. 

If the suggestion that the Vimuttimagga "was another early attempt by 
the Great Monastery in this period to reassert its supremacy through Pali 
composition" is acceptable, it would then not be difficult to suppose that the 
Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera, with what knowledge^he had already acquired 
of the Dhamma in India — (for he had written the Ndnodaya, the Atthasdlini 
and had begun "to compose a commentary to the Partita", Cv. Ch. xxxvn, 
225-26 — ), was able to write the Visuddhimagga, perhaps with the assistance of 
the Mahavihara Theras. This work is more comprehensive than the Vimutti- 
magga and in every sense more scholarly, with a wealth of material drawn 
from every imaginable source and interspersed with numerous Ceylon stories. 
Thus, not only did it provide instruction for those needing it in the practice 
of the Dhamma, but it was also capable of holding its own as a work of 
literary composition. 

Two things seem to have played an important part in making available 
for later generations, even up to the present day, a work of such excellence as 
is the Visuddhimagga. They are: (1) The desperate need of the Mahavihara 
for a work which would prove its claim to be the centre of Buddhist learning 
in Ceylon ; (2) the equally urgent need of the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera 
to prove his ability as a worthy scholar in the eyes of the Theras of the Maha- 
vihara. Without this recognition he could not have obtained from them the 
commentaries and the expositions of the teachers (dcariyavdda) for translation 
into Pali as required by his teacher in India, the Venerable Revata Maha 
Thera, and for which express purpose he came to Ceylon (Cv. Ch. xxxvn, 
227-32). That this dual need was supplied to the complete satisfaction of 
both parties is amply borne out by the recorded history of the centuries that 
followed. 

XLIV 



Introduction 

The Vimuttimagga and the Visuddhimagga. 

On certain points the Vimuttimagga and the Visuddhimagga hold contrary 
views. For instance, the latter says that by developing the Buddhdnussati 
(the recollection of the Buddha) the factors of meditation, jhdna, arise in 
a single moment; that as the qualities of the Buddha are unfathomable or else 
owing to reflection on his numerous qualities appand (fixed meditation) is 
not attained, and only upacdra (access-concentration) is reached. The Vimutti- 
magga on the other hand says that "from the recollection of the Buddha 
the four meditations, jhdnas arise". This statement seems to agree with the 
sutta and its commentary quoted in note 3 on pp. 148-49. 

They agree that in practising Andpdnasati (mindfulness of respiration) 
the breath should not be followed inside or outside because it distracts the 
mind. This causes the body and the mind to waver and tremble. The simile 
of the man sawing wood illustrating where the breath should be noted (i.e., at 
nose-tip or on the lip) is common to both works. The Visuddhimagga quotes 
other similes in illustration. It also quotes (p. 280) the Patisambhiddmagga 
(I, p. 165) which warns against the practice of trying to follow the inhaled 
breath to the heart (hadaya) and the navel (ndbhi) and the outgoing breath 
back from the navel to the heart and nose-tip, for, both the mind and the 
body become 'disquieted and perturbed and shaky' if this practice is resorted 
to. The Visuddhimagga (p. 278) says that there are eight stages in the practice 
of Andpdnasati, the first four of which are (1) counting, (2) connection, 
(3) touching, and (4) fixing. Here the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera 
does not quote authority for this statement as he usually does. The Vimutti- 
magga (p. 159) supplies this omission by saying that 'certain predecessors' 
taught these four ways. Here both base themselves on authority outside 
the texts and the commentaries. 

In discussing the earth kasina, the Visuddhimagga (p. 123) says, 'The four 
blemishes of the earth kasina are due to the intrusion of blue, yellow, red, 
or white'. But it does not give any reason. The Vimuttimagga (p. 72) 
says, 'By dwelling on white, black, or red, he practises colour kasina'. It 
is seen here that by practising one subject of meditation another cannot be 
developed — for instance, when one practises Andpdnasati one does not 
become proficient in, say, Buddhdnussati, though this is sometimes imagined 
to be possible. If, for instance, one sees the form of the Buddha or a 
Buddha statue while developing any other meditation, then it is a clear case 
of failure in the practice of that particular meditation, though the seeing of 
these signs in itself is a good thing. The proper occasion for these signs 
to appear is when Buddhdnussati is practised. 

That the Vimuttimagga is an inspiring work is stated elsewhere. It is 
confirmed by the spontaneous testimony of those who have read the 

xlv 



Introduction 

original draft translation. It has inspired men of ancient times. That is 
shown by the fact that the people of Ryo in the early years of the sixth cen- 
tury a.c. called the author of the Vimuttimagga 'Great Light'. 

What connection there is between these two works has been shown, 
though briefly, in the foregoing pages. No mere can be expected in an intro- 
duction. For a detailed study the reader may consult the thorough investi- 
gation made by Prof. Bapat in his "Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, & 
comparative Study", Poona 1937. 



XL VI 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Visuddhimagga 
Text — 



1. Edition of the Pali Text Society, London 1920. 

2. Edition of the Harvard Oriental Series, Vol. 41, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1950. 



Translations — English 



German: 



1, The Path of Purity (3 Vols.) by Prof. 
Pe Maung Tin, P.T.S., London, 1922, 1928, 
1931. 

2. The Path of Purification by the Venerable 
Bhikkhu Nanamoli, Colombo, 1956. 

1. Der Weg zur Reinheit, 1 Band, by the 
Venerable Nyanatiloka Maha Thera (Vor- 
wort pp. iv-vn), Benares Verlag, Munchen 
Neubiberg, 1931. 

2. Der Weg zur Reinheit, complete edition, 
by the Venerable Nyanatiloka Maha 
Thera (Vorwort pp. vm-x, xn), Verlag 
Christani, Konstanz, 1952. 



Sinhalese; 1. The Ancient Paraphrase by King Parakra- 
mabahu II (1236-68 a.c). 

2. Sinhala Visuddhimargaya by Pandita 
Matara &rl Dharmavarhsa Sthavira, 
Matara, 1953. 

Paramatthamanjusd ( V idsuddhimagga commentary) by Bhadantacariya 
Dhammapala — Venerable Morontuduve Dhammananda Nayaka Thera's 
Sinhalese edition, 1908. 

Mahdvamsa 

Edition of the Pali Text Society, London, 1908. 



Text — 

Translation 



Culavamsa 
Translation — 



English: The Mahdvamsa or The Great Chronicle of 
Ceylon by Dr. Wilhelm Geiger, Ceylon 
Government Information Department, 
Colombo, 1950 (Reprint). 

English: Culavamsa, being the more recent part of the 
Mahdvamsa by Dr. Wilhelm Geiger and Mrs. 
C. Mabel Rickmers, (2 Parts). P.T.S London 
1929, 1930. 



xlvii 



Bibliography 

The Pali Literature of Ceylon by Dr. G. P. Malalasekera, Royal Asiatic Society's 
Prize Publication Fund Vol. X, London, 1928. 

History of Indian Literature by Dr. M. Winternitz, English translation by 
Mrs. S. Ketkar and Miss H. Kohn, University of Calcutta, 1933. 

Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon by Dr. E. W. Adikaram, Colombo, 1953 
(Second Impression). 

Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, a Comparative Study by Prof. P. V. Bapat, 
Poona, 1937. 

Vimuttimagga 

Translation — Chinese: Cie-to-tdo-lun or Gedatsu Do Ron by Tipitaka 

Sanghapala of Funan (6th cent. A. a). 



XLVIII 



ABBREVIATIONS 



A. 


Anguttara Nikaya 


Abhms. 


Abhidhammattha-Sangaha 


Abhmv. 


Abhidhammavatara 


Ap. 


Apadana of the Khuddaka Nikaya 


As. 


Atthasalini = Dhammasangani Atthakatha 


It. 


Itivuttaka 


It.-a. 


Itivuttaka Atthakatha = Par amattha-DIpani 


Ud. 


Udana 


Ud.-a. 


Udana Atthakatha 


C.Pit. 


Cariya-pitaka 


Cv. 


Culavamsa 


J. 


Jataka (Fausboll's ed.) 


Th. 


Thera-gatha 


Thi. 


Theri-gatha 


D. 


Digha Nikaya 


Dh. 


Dhammapada 


Dh.-a. 


Dhammapada Atthakatha 


Dhs. 


Dhammasangani 


Nd 1 (and Nidd. I) 


Maha Niddesa 


Netti. 


Netti-Pakarana 


Pts. 


Patisambhidamagga 


Pts.-a. 


Patisambhida Atthakatha = Saddhammappakasini 


Petaka. 


Petakopadesa 


Pm. 


Paramatthamnjusa = Visuddhimagga Att hakatha = Maha 




Tlka 


Ps. 


Papahcasudani=Majjhima Nikaya Atthakatha 


M. 


Majjhima Nikaya 


Mv. (and Mhv.) 


Mahavamsa 


Mil. 


Milindapanha (V. Trenckner s ed.) 


M. Vyut. 


Mahavyutpatti 


Ruparup. 


Ruparupavibhaga 


Lal.V. 


Lalitavistara 


Vin. 


Vinaya 


Vis. Mag. 


Visuddhimagga 


Vbh. 


Vibhanga 


Vbh.-a. 


Vibhanga Atthakatha = Sammoha-vinodani 


S. 


Sarhyutta Nikaya 


Saddh, 


Saddhammopayana 


Sn. 


Sutta-nipata (Harvard Oriental Series) 


Sn.-a. 


Sutta-nipata Atthakatha = Paramatthajotika 


Sp. 


Samantapasadika^ Vinaya Atthakatha 


Spk. 


Sarattha-ppakasinl^Samyutta Nikaya Atthakatha 


Sv. 


Sumangala-vilasini=DIgha Nikaya Atthakatha 



XLJX 



CONTENTS 

FASCICLE I, CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE 

Page 

Salutation 1 

Introductory Stanza 

Path of Freedom Described 2 

Merits of Acknowledgement of the Path 

Three Trainings 3 

Meaning of Training 4 

Removal of the Impurities 
The Three Kinds of Good 

The Three Kinds of Happiness 5 

Perfection of the Middle Way 

CHAPTER II 

ON DISTINGUISHING VIRTUE 

Virtue Defined 6 

Salient Characteristic of Virtue . 7 

Function, Manifestation, Near Cause of Virtue ..... 8 

Benefits of Virtue 
Meaning of Virtue 

Virtue and Mode of Life 9 

Three Kinds of Virtue 

What Produces Virtue 

Stages of Virtue 

Impediments and Causes of Virtue 

Groups of Virtue (Various) 10 

What Purifies Virtue 24 

Causes Through Which One Dwells in Virtue 25 

FASCICLE II, CHAPTER III 

ON AUSTERITIES 

The Thirteen Austerities 27 

Brief Explanation of the Thirteen Austerities 28 

'Dirt -rags' 

LI 



Contents 

PAGE 

'Three Robes' 29 

'Begged Food' 30 

'Regular Alms-round' 

'One-eating' . . , 31 

'Measured Food' 

'No Food After Time' 32 

'Dwelling in a Peaceful Place' 

'Dwelling Under a Tree' 33 

'Dwelling in a Dewy Place' 

'Dwelling Among Graves' 34 

'Any Chanced Upon Place' 35 

'Always Sitting and Not Lying Down' 

'Expedience in the Observance of the Austerities 

Miscellaneous Teachings 37 

CHAPTER IV 

ON DISTINGUISHING CONCENTRATION 

Meaning of Concentration 39 

Salient Characteristic etc. 

Benefits Produced by Concentration 40 

Obstacles to Concentration 41 

Causes of Concentration 

Requisites of Concentration 42 

Kinds of Concentrarion (Various) 

Why Four and Five Meditations are Taught ...... 46 

CHAPTER V 

ON APPROACHING A GOOD FRIEND 

Qualities of a Good Friend 48 

The Search for a Good Friend 50 

A Beginner's Duties 51 

FASCICLE III, CHAPTER VI 

THE DISTINGUISHING OF BEHAVIOUR 

Kinds of Behaviour 54 

Fourteen Kinds of Persons 

Fourteen Kinds Reduced to Seven ....... 55 

Modes of Practice 56 

LII 



Contents 

PAGE 

Seven Reduced to Three 57 

Causes of Behaviour 

Elements as Causes of Behaviour 58 

The Humours as Causes of Behaviour 

Seven Aspects of Behaviour 

On Robing, Begging, Sitting, Sleeping, and Resort .... 61 

Miscellaneous Teachings 62 

CHAPTER VII 

THE DISTINGUISHING OF THE SUBJECTS 
OF MEDITATION 

Thirty-eight Subjects of Meditation 63 

Method of Discerning the Qualities 
By Way of Meditation 

By Way of Transcending 64 

By Way of Increasing 65 

By Way of Cause 
By Way of Object 

By Way of Speciality 67 

By Way of Plane 68 

By Way of Seizing 
By Way of Person 

FASCICLE IV, CHAPTER VIII, SECTION I 

ENTRANCE INTO THE SUBJECT OF MEDITATION 

Earth Kasina, Its Practice, Salient Characteristic, Function and 

Near Cause 71 

Benefits 

Meaning of Kasina . 72 

Kinds of Earth 
Non-Prepared Earth 

On Making a Mandate 73 

Method of Earth Kasina Meditation 

Tribulations of Sense-Desires Illustrated in Twenty Similes 

Renunciation and Its Benefits 74 

Method of Practice of Earth Kasina 75 

Three Ways of Sign-Taking 76 

Grasping Sign 77 

The After-image 

LIU 



Contents 

PAGE 

The Sign 78 

Protecting the Sign 

Access-Meditation 79 

Fixed Meditation, Jhana 

Increasing the Kasina 80 

Skilfulness in Fixed Meditation, Jhana 

Ten Ways 81 

Simile of the Horse-Chariot 
Simile of the Inked-String 

The First Meditation, Jhana 83 

Three Kinds of Separation From Lust and Demeritorious States 

Two Kinds of Lust 84 

Roots of Demerit 

Reasons for Treating Lust and Demerit Separately .... 85 

Separation From Demeritorious States 

Difference Between Lust and Demerit 

Initial and Sustained Application of Thought 86 

Initial and Sustained Application of Thought Discriminated . . 87 

Similes of the Bell etc. 
Similes of the Bird etc. 

Solitude 88 

Joy and Bliss 

Five Kinds of Joy 89 

Bliss 

Five Kinds of Bliss 90 

Difference Between Joy and Bliss 
First Meditation, (Jhana) 

Five Hindrances 91 

Five Factors 92 

Similes of Chariot and Army . 93 

Three Kinds of Goodness 94 

Ten Characteristics 

Twenty-five Benefits 95 

Simile of the Bath- Attendant 

Three Kinds of Rebirth 96 

Meditation Which Partakes of Deterioration, Stability, Distinction and 
Penetration 97 

FASCICLE V, CHAPTER VIII, SECTION II 

The Simile of the Young Cow 99 

Entrance Into the Second Meditation, Jhana 100 

Simile of the Pool of Water 103 

The Third Meditation, Jhana 104 

LIV 



Contents 

PAGE 

Simile of the Calf 107 

Simile of the Lotus Pond 108 

The Fourth Meditation, Jhana 109 

Simile of the White Cloth 112 

The Sphere of the Infinity of Space 113 

The Concentration of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness . . . 116 

The Sphere of Nothingness 117 

The Sphere of Neither Perception Nor Non-Perception . . . 118 

Miscellaneous Teachings 120 

The Water Kasina 121 

The Fire Kasina 122 

The Air Kasina 123 

The Blue-Green Kasina 124 

The Yellow Kasina 125 

The Red Kasina 126 

The White Kasina 127 

The Light Kasina 128 

FASCICLE VI, CHAPTER VIII, SECTION III 

The (Separated) Space Kasina 129 

The Consciousness Kasina 130 

Miscellaneous Teachings 

THE TEN PERCEPTIONS OF PUTRESCENCE 

(1) The Perception of Bloatedness 132 

(2) The Perception of Discolouration 135 

(3) The Perception of Festering 

(4) The Perception of the Fissured 136 

(5) The Perception of the Gnawed 

(6) The Perception of the Dismembered 137 

(7) The Perception of the Cut and the Dismembered 

(8) The Perception of the Blood-Stained 138 

(9) The Perception of Worminess 
(10) The Perception of the Bony 

Miscellaneous Teachings 139 

The Recollection of the Buddha 140 

The Recollection of the Law 149 

The Recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus . . . . 150 

The Recollection Virtue 152 

The Recollection of Liberality 153 

The Recollection of Deities 154 

LV 



Contents 
FASCICLE VII, CHAPTER VIII, SECTION IV 

PAGE 

Mindfulness of Respiration 156 

Benefits 

Procedure 157 

Counting, Connection, Contacting and Fixing 159 

Sixteen Ways of Training in Mindfulness of Respiration . . . 160 

The Three Trainings 161 

The Four Foundations of Mindfulness 164 

The Seven Enlightenment Factors 

Mindfulness of Death 166 

Similes of the Foam, Plantain Trunk and Bubble . . . . 168 

Mindfulness of Body 170 

Thirty- two Parts of the Body 171 

Mindfulness in Thirteen Ways 172 

The Worms that Rely on the Body 174 

Bones of the Body 176 

Impurity of the Body 177 

Some Diseases 

The Recollection of Peace 

Miscellaneous Teachings 179 

FASCICLE VIII, CHAPTER VIII, SECTION V 

The Immeasurable Thought of Loving-kindness . . . 181 

Disadvantages of Anger and Resentment . . . . . . 182 

Simile of the Saw 

Twelve Means of Removing Hatred 185 

Simile of the Pond 

Ten Perfections 188 

The Four Resolves 190 

The Immeasurable Thought of Compassion 

The Immeasurable Thought of Appreciative Joy . . . . 192 

The Immeasurable Thought of Equanimity 

Miscellaneous Teachings 193 

The Determining of the Four Elements 197 

Twenty Ways of Grasping the Element of Earth .... 198 

Twelve Ways Grasping the Element of Water 
Four Ways of Grasping the Element of Fire 
Six Ways of Grasping the Element of Air 

The Four Elements ' . . . 200 

Simile of the Puppet ....... ... 204 

The Loathsomeness of Food 205 

The Dwelling of the Homeless 206 

LVI 



Contents 

FASCICLE IX, CHAPTER IX 
THE FIVE FORMS OF HIGHER KNOWLEDGE 

PAGE 

Three Kinds of Supernormal Power 209 

Seven Kinds of Supernormal Power 210 

Procedure of Developing Supernormal Power 212 

Supernormal Power of Resolve 214 

Supernormal Power of Transformation 217 

Supernormal Power Caused by Mind 218 

Miscellaneous Teachings 

Divine Hearing 219 

Knowledge of Others' Thoughts 220 

Recollection Past Lives 221 

Divine Sight 224 

Miscellaneous Teachings 228 

CHAPTER X 
ON DISTINGUISHING WISDOM 

Wisdom Defined 229 

Benefits of Wisdom 230 

Meaning of Wisdom 231 

Two Kinds of Wisdom 
Groups of Wisdom (Various) 

FASCICLE X, CHAPTER XI, SECTION I 
THE FIVE METHODS 

The Aggregate of Form 237 

Four Primaries Defined 

Derived Material Qualities 238 

Sense-Organ of Eye 

Sense-Organ of Ear 239 

Sense-Organ Nose 
Sense-Organ of Tongue 

Sense-Organ of Body 240 

Difference Between the Four Primaries and Derived Matter 

Similes of the Three Sticks 241 

Material Qualities by Way of Arising 
Material Qualities by Way of Group 

Material Qualities by Way of Birth 243 

Material Qualities by Way of Diversity, — Groups of Two in Material 

Qualities 244 

LVII 



Contents 

PAGE 

Groups of Three in Material Qualities 

Four Kinds of Material Qualities 245 

Material Qualities by Way of Unity 

Aggregate of Feeling 246 

Aggregate of Perception 

Aggregate of Formations 247 

Thirty-one Similies 

Aggregate of Consciousness 250 

Through Sense-Organ-Object 251 

Through Object 

Through States 252 

Through Word Meaning 
Through Characteristic 

Through Discrimination 253 

Through Comprehension 

Twelve Sense-Organs and Sense-Objects 254 

Through Word Meaning 

Through Limits 255 

Through Condition 

Simile of the Thread 256 

Simile of the Mango 

Element Method 257 

Conditioned Arising Method 259 

(a) Direct Order 

(b) Reverse Order 
Ignorance 

Formations 260 

Simile of the Seeds 

Simile of the Sun 

Simile of the Two Bundles of Reeds 

Simile of the Seed, Shoot and Plant 261 

What Conditions Ignorance 

Simile of the Colours of a Painter 263 

Conditioned Arising to be Known in Seven Ways 
First Three links 

Death of the Ignorant Craving Evil-Doer 264 

Action, Action-Sign, Destiny, Destiny-Sign 

Four Group Division 265 

Twenty Modes 

Direct and Reverse Order 266 

Mundane and Supramundane Conditioned Arising .... 267 
Four Kinds of Conditioned Arising 
Through Comprehension 

lviii 



Contents 

PAGE 

FASCICLE XI, CHAPTER XI, SECTION II 

THE FIVE METHODS 

The Four Noble Truths 269 

Truth of 111 

Five Groups of Clinging 270 

Two Kinds of 111 

Three Kinds of 111 271 

Truth of the Origin of 111 

Truth of the Cessation of 111 272 

Truth of the Path Leading to Cessation of 111 

Through Word Meaning 274 

Through Characteristics 

Through Series 275 

In Brief 

Similes of the Poisonous Tree, The Ship, The Burden 276 

Through Discrimination 

Through Enumeration 277 

Through Sameness 278 

Through Difference 

Through One Kind etc 279 

Through Inclusion 281 

CHAPTER XII, SECTION I 

ON DISCERNING TRUTH 

Aggregates, Elements, Sense-Spheres 283 

Similes of the Three Hundred Halberds and of the Burning Head 
Procedure 

Differences Between Name and Form 284 

Summary of the Truth of 111 285 

Cause and Condition of 111 

The purity of Transcending Uncertainty 

Truth of Cessation 286 

Truth of the Path 

One Hundred and Eighty Ways of Knowing the Five Clinging Aggregates 

Impermanence, 111, Not-Self 288 

The Signless, the Unhankered, and the Void 

The Knowledge of the Rise and Fall 289 

Defilement-Grasp 

Concentration-Grasp 290 

Insight-Grasp 

ltx 



Contents 

PAGE 

Two Ways of Grasping Thought-Characteristics . , . 291 

Characteristics of Rise and Fall in Three Ways 

Acquiring the Highest Knowledge . 293 

Simile of the Bird Surrounded by Fire 
Four States 

Non-Effort in the Rising of the Formations 294 

Reviewing of Breaking Up 295 

Breaking Up in Three Ways — (a) Through assemblage 

(b) Through Duality 

(c) Through Understanding 296 

Similes of Drum-Sound, Town of Gods, Lightning 

FASCICLE XII, CHAPTER XII, SECTION II 
ON DISCERNING TRUTH 

Fear Knowledge 299 

Similes of the Man with the Sword, Poisonous Snake, and Heap of Fire 

Knowledge of the Desire For Release 300 

Adaptive Knowledge 301 

Knowledge of Adoption 

Similes of the Boat, Lamp, and Sun 302 

Simile of the Burning City 304 

Three Fetters 305 

Once-Returner 306 

Non-Returner 307 

Saintship 

Three Kinds of Stream-Entrant 308 

Five Kinds of Non- Returner 

Simile of the Fiery Sparks 309 

Miscellaneous Teachings 310 

Serenity and Insight 

Initial Application of Thought and Bare Insight 

Joy 311 

Feeling 
Plane 

Faculties . . 312 

The Three Emancipations 

Emancipation and the Entrance Into it 314 

One Hundred and Thirty-four Defilements 

Three Immoral Roots 

The Three Kinds of Seeking 

LX 



Contents 

PAGE 

The Four Corruptions 315 

The Four Knots 
The Four Floods 
The Four Yokes 
The Four Clingings 

The Four Wrong Courses of Action 316 

The Five Kinds of Meanness 

The Five Hindrances 

The Six Roots of Contention 

The Seven Latencies 317 

The Eight Worldy Conditions 
The Nine Conciets 

The Ten Defilements 318 

The Ten Courses of Unskilful Actions 
The Ten Fetters 
The Ten Errors 

The Twelve Reversals 319 

The Twelve Arisings of Unskilful Thought 

The Two Enjoyments 320 

Enjoyment of the Fruit 
A Second Point of View 

A Third Point of View 321 

The Signless Concentration of the Mind 

The Enjoyment of the Dissolution of Perception and Sensation . . 322 

Indexes 

1. Names and subjects 327 

2. Pali words in footnotes 343 

Appendix (with index of Pali words in footnotes) .... 353 



LXI 



[399] THE PATH OF FREEDOM 1 

FASCICLE THE FIRST 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPAT1SSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE 

CHAPTER THE FIRST 

SALUTATION 

Homage to the Blessed One, the Consummate One, the Supremely 
Enlightened One. 2 

INTRODUCTORY STANZA 

Virtue, concentration, : 

Wisdom and the peerless freedom: 
To these verities awoke 
Illustrious Gotama? 

He who wishes to be released from all trouble, wishes to be unloosed 
from all attachment, wishes to gain the pre-eminent mind, wishes to be rid 
o f birth, old age and death, wishes to enjoy bliss and freedom, wishes to achieve 
the yet unachieved extinction, Nibbana, and lead those on the other shore to 
perfection, should be versed in the Sutta, Abhidhamma and Vinaya. This is 
the Path of Freedom. 

Now will 1 expound. Hearken. 
Question: What is 'virtue' ? 

Answer: 'Virtue' means restraint. 1 'Concentration' means non-distractedness. 
'Wisdom' means comprehension. 'Freedom' means freedom from bondage. 
'Peerless' means canker-free. 'Awoke' means realized and understood 
through wisdom. 'These verities' means the four noble verities. 5 'Gotama' 

1. Vimuttimagga 2. Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammasambuddhassa. 

3. A. II, 2; D. II, 123: Silarit samadhi pahna ca vimutti ca anuttara 

Anubuddha ime dhamma Gotamena yasassiml. 

4. Satitvara. 5, Cattaro arivadhamma. 



2 Vimuttimagga 

is the name of a family. 'Illustrious' means blessed. Through the excellent 
merits: virtue, concentration, wisdom and freedom, he gained boundless and 
highest fame. 
PATH OF FREEDOM DESCRIBED 

What is the meaning of the Path of Freedom? 'Freedom' means the five 
kinds of freedom : freedom of suppression, 1 freedom of parts, 2 freedom of 
eradication, 3 freedom of tranquillity, 4 and freedom of emancipation. 5 

What is 'freedom of suppression' ? It is the suppression of the passions 
through the practice of the first meditation. This is called 'freedom of 
supression'. 'Freedom of parts' is the freedom from views through the 
practice of concentration which partakes of penetration. 7 This is called 
'freedom of parts'. 'Freedom of eradication' is the destruction of the fetters 
through the practice of the supramundane path. 8 This is called 'freedom 
of eradication'. 'Freedom of tranquillity' is (to be understood) as the happy 
heart of a man who acquires fruit. This is called [400] 'freedom of tranquillity'. 
'Freedom of emancipation' is extinction without residue of the substratum of 
being. 9 This is called 'freedom of emancipation'. This Path of Freedom is 
for the attainment of liberation. This perfect path is called the Path of Freedom 
through virtue, concentration and wisdom. 

Now will I preach concerning the Path of Freedom. Q. For what 
reason is the Path of Freedom taught? A. There is a good man. He is like 
a blind man who wanders to a distant land without guidance, because, although 
he wishes to gain freedom, he does not listen to the teaching of freedom; 
because he does not acknowledge freedom and because he wrongly acknow- 
ledges freedom. Since he is hemmed in by much suffering he cannot gain 
freedom. Although he wishes to gain freedom, he has not the means. To 
gain freedom means are necessary. The Buddha has declared: "There are 
beings covered with but a little dust. They will fall away unless they hear 
the Truth". 10 Again the Buddha has declared: "O bhikkhus, through two 
occasioning causes can one arouse Right Understanding. Which two? Hearing 
from others is the first. Intelligent attention is the second". 11 Therefore do I 
preach freedom. 

I preach freedom to those who do not acknowledge freedom in order to 
produce in them the feeling of detachment. This is like a traveller to a distant 
land getting a good guide. 

MERITS OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE PATH 

If a man acknowledges this Path of Freedom, he fulfills three groups. 12 
What are the three? They are the group of virtue, 13 the group of concentra- 
tion, 14 and the group of wisdom. 15 



1. Vikkhambana-vimuttL 2. Tadanga-vimulti. 3. Samuccheda-vumitti. 4. Patippassaddha- 
vimutti. 5. Nissarana-vimutti. 6. Palhamqjjhana. 7. Nibbedhabhdgiya-samddhi. 

8. Lokuttara-magga. 9. Anupddisesanibbdna. 10. S. I, 105-6: Santi sattd apparajakkha- 
jatika assavanatd dhammassa parihdyanti. 11. A. I, 87: Dve'me bhikkhave paccayd 

sammddltthiyd uppdddya. Katame dvel Parato ca ghoso yoniso ca manasikdro. 12. Khandhd. 
\~h.Silakkhandha, 14. Samadhikkhandha, 15, Pannakkhandha. 



Introductory Discourse 3 

What is the group of virtue? It is Right Speech, Right Action, Right 
Livelihood and the like. Or the group of virtue is the merit-mass of diverse 
virtues. 

What is the group of concentration? It is Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, 
Right Concentration and the like. Or (the group of concentration is) the 
merit-mass of diverse forms of concentration. 

What is the gioup of wisdom? It is Right Understanding, Right Thought 
and the like. Or (the group of wisdom is) the merit-mass of diverse kinds of 
wisdom. Thus these three groups are completed. 

THREE TRAININGS 

A man who acknowledges the Path of Freedom should be versed in the 
triple training: the training of the higher virtue, 1 the training of the higher 
thought, 2 and the training of the higher wisdom. 3 

(It is said:) Virtue is the training of the higher virtue; concentration is 
the training of the higher thought; wisdom is the training of the higher 
wisdom. 

And again (it is said:) There is virtue which is the training of virtue and 
there is virtue which is the training of the higher virtue. There is concentra- 
tion 4 which is the training of thought and there is concentration which is the 
training of the higher thought. There is wisdom which is the training of wisdom 
and there is wisdom which is the training of the higher wisdom. 

0. What is the training of virtue? A, Indicated virtue 5 — this is called 
the training of virtue. Virtue partaking of penetration 6 — this is called the 
training of the higher virtue. Again, the virtue of the commoner — this' is, 
called the training of virtue. Ariyan virtue — this is called the training of the 
nig he i virtue. 

Q. What is the training of thought? A. It is concentration pertaining 
to (the) sense (plane) 7 . 0. What is the training of the higher thought? 
A. It is concentration pertaining to (the) form (plane) 8 and (the) formless 
(plane) 9 . This is called the training of the higher thought. And again, indi- 
cated concentration 10 is the training of thought. Concentration partaking of 
penetration and concentration of the Path are called the training of the 
higher thought. 

What is the training of wisdom? Worldly knowledge — this is called the 
training of wisdom. The four truths, (enlightenment) factors' knowledge 11 
and the knowledge of the Path — these are called the training of the higher 
wisdom. 

The Blessed One expounded the training of the higher virtue to a man of 
the lower type, the training of the higher thought to a man of the middle type 
and the training of the higher wisdom to a man of the higher type. 

1. Adhisllasikkha. 2. Adhicittasikkha. 3. AdhipanMsikkhd. 4. Lit. Samadhisikkhd . 

5. The virtue that can be appreciated by ordinary men. 6. Nibbedhahhdgiya. 7. Kdmdvacara 
scwhjdhi. 8. Rupavacara samddhi. 9. Arupavacara samddhi. 10. The concentration 
that can be appreciated by ordinary men. 11. Bodhipakkhiyadhamma nana. 



4 Vimuttimagga 

THE MEANING OF TRAINING 

Q. What is the meaning of training? A. To be trained in the things 
wherein training is necessary, to be trained in the excellent training and to be 
trained to transcend all training. Thus to be trained in these three trainings 
is called the acknowledgement of the Path of Freedom. 

REMOVAL OF THE IMPURITIES 

Through these three kinds of training one attains to purity: purity of 
virtue,i purity of thought, 2 and purity of views. 3 Thus virtue is purity of 
virtue, concentration is purity of thought, and wisdom is purity of views. 

Virtue cleanses away the impurities caused through transgression of 
precepts ( — this is called the purification of virtue). Concentration cleanses 
away the encompassing impurities-— this is called the purification of the mind. 
Wisdom removes the impurities of ignorance — this is called the purification 
of views. And again, virtue removes the impurities of demeritorious action. 
Concentration removes the encompassing impurities. Wisdom removes the 
impurities of the latencies. 4 Through these three purities a man 
acknowledges Freedom's Path. 

THE THREE KINDS OF GOOD 

Again, a man acknoweldges the path through three kinds of good: the 
initial good, the medial good, the final good. 5 Virtue is the initial (good); 
concentration is the medial (good); wisdom is the final (good). Why is virtue 
the initial good? There is a man who is energetic; he attains to the stage of 
non-retrogression; on account of non-retrogression, he is joyful; on account 
of joy, he becomes buoyant; on account of buoyancy, his body is thrilled; 
on account of his body being thrilled, lie is happy; on account of happiness, 
his mind is at ease — this is called 'the initial good'. 'Concentration is the 
medial good' thus : Through concentration a man understands things as they 
are — this is called the medial good. 'Wisdom is the final good' thus : Under- 
standing things as they are, a man is disgusted; through disgust he separates 
from passion; through separation from passion, he frees himself; having freed 
himself, he knows it (the nature of his freedom). 6 Thus a man accomplishes 
the Path of the triple good. 



1. Silavisuddhi . 2. Cittavisuddhi. 3. Ditthivisuddhi. 4 Cp. Vis. Mag. 5, 6: Tat ha 

sitena kilesdnam vitikkamapatipakkho pakdsito hoti; samadhina pariyutthdnapatipakkho; 
pahhdya anusayapatipakkho. Silena ca duccaritasankilesavisodhanam pakdsitam hoti; 
samadhina tanhdsankilesavisodhanam ; parmdya ditthisankilcsa visodhanarh. 

5. Adi-, majjha-, pariyosana-kalydna. 6. Cp. A. V, 2: hi kho Ananda kusalani silarti 

avippatisdratthdni avippatisdrdnisamsdni, avippatisdro pdrnujjattho pdmujjanisamso, 
pdmujjam pftattham pitdnisariisam, piti passaddhatthd passaddhdnisamsd, passaddhi 
sukhatthd sukhdnisamsd, sukham samddhattham samddhdnismmam, samddhi yaihdbhutand- 
nadassanattho yathdbhutahdnadassandnisamso, yathdbhiltandnadassanam nibbidavhagattham 
tiibbidavitdgdnisamsam, nibbida virago vimuttindnadassanatiho vimuttindnadassandnisamso , 



Introductory Discourse 5 

THE THREE KINDS OF HAPPINESS 

After acknowledging the Path of Freedom, a man acquires three kinds 
of happiness: the happiness of the fault-free, the happiness of tranquillity 
and the happiness of Enlightenment. He acquires the happiness of the fault- 
free through virtue; he acquires the happiness of tranquillity through 
concentration; and he acquires the happiness of Enlightenment through 
wisdom. Thus a man acquires the three kinds of happiness. 

PERFECTION OF THE MIDDLE WAY 

After a man acknowledges the Path of Freedom, he attains to the perfection 
of the middle way 1 rejecting the two extremes. Through this virtue he removes 
well the attachment to diverse sense-desires and arouses within him the joy of 
the fault-free. Through concentration he removes the weariness of the body. 
In the case of tranquillity he increases joy and bliss. Through wisdom he 
understands the four noble truths 2 reaches the middle way and deeply cherishes 
the delectable happiness of Enlightenment. Thus, he, rejecting the extremes, 3 
attains to the perfection of the middle way. 

After acknowledging the Path of Freedom, through virtue he transcends 
the way to states of regress; 4 through concentration he transcends the sense 
plane; 5 through wisdom he transcends all becoming. 6 If he practises virtue 
to the full and practises little of concentration and wisdom, he will reach the 
stage of the Stream-entrant 7 and the stage of the Once-returner. 8 If he practises 
virtue and concentration to the full and practises little of wisdom, he will reach 
the stage of the Non-returner. 9 If he practises virtue, concentration and wisdom 
to the full, he will reach the peerless freedom of the Consummate One. 10 



1. Majjhimd patipadd, 2. Cattdri ariya-saccatii. 3. Antd. 4. Apdya. 

5. Kamdvacara. 6. Sabba bhava. 7. Cp. A. IV, 381: Puna ca par am Sariputta 
idK ekacco puggalo silesu paripurakari hoti samadhismim mattasokari panhaya 
mattasokari. So tinnam samyojandnam parikkhaya sattakkhattuparamo hoti. 

8. Cp. Ibid. 380; Puna ca par am Sariputta idK 'ekacco puggalo silesu paripurakari hoti, 
samadhismim na paripurakari panhaya na paripurakari. So tinnam samyojanam parik- 
khaya ragadosamohdnam tanuttd sakaddgdmi hoti. 

9. Cp. Ibid. Puna ca par am Sariputta idK 'ekacco puggalo silesu paripurakari hoti, 
samadhismim paripurakari panhaya na paripurakari. So pancannam orambhdgiydnam 
samyojananam parikkhaya — uddhamsoto hoti akanitthagdmi. 10. Araham. 



ON DISTINGUISHING VIRTUE 

CHAPTER THE SECOND 

Q. What is virtue? What is its salient characteristic? 1 What is its 
function? 2 What is its manifestation? 3 What is its near cause? 4 What are 
its benefits? 5 What is the meaning of virtue? What is the difference between 
virtue and mode of life? 6 How many kinds of virtue are there? What 
produces (virtue)? What are the initial, medial and final stages in virtue? 
How many states 7 are obstacles to progress in virtue? How many are the 
causes of virtue? How many groups of virtue are there? What purifies 
virtue? Owing to how many causes does one dwell in virtue? 

VIRTUE DEFINED 

A. 'What is virtue?' It is virtue of volition, 8 virtue of abstention 9 and 
virtue of non-transgression. 10 What is 'virtue of volition'? It is this resolve: 
"I will do no evil, because, if I do evil, 1 shall have to suffer for it". What 
is 'virtue of abstention'? It is keeping away from occasions of evil. What 
is 'virtue of non-transgression' ? (Here) a virtuous man has no fault of body 
and speech. Again, the meaning of cutting is 'abstention'. All good activities 11 
are virtue. It is said in the Abhidhamma 12 thus: "The destruction of sense 
desires by renunciation (is virtue). This virtue can remove evil. It is the 
'virtue of volition', the 'virtue of restraint' 13 , the 'virtue of abstention'. The 
destruction of ill will by not-ill will, the destruction of rigidity and torpor 
by the perception of brightness, the destruction of agitation and anxiety by 
non-distraction, the destruction of uncertainty by the determination of states, 
the destruction of ignorance by knowledge, the destruction of discontent by 
gladness, the destruction of the five hindrances by the first meditation, the 
destruction of initial and sustained application of thought by the second 
meditation, the destruction of happiness by the third meditation, the destruction 
of bliss by the fourth meditation, the destruction (of perceptions ranging) from 
the perception of form to (the perception of) sense-reaction and the perception 
of diversity by the concentration of the sphere of the infinity of space, 14 the 
destruction of the perception of the sphere of the infinity of space by the 



I. Lakkhana. 2. Rasa. 3. Puccuppatthdna. 4. Padatthana. 5. Anisamsa 
6. Vata. 7. Dhamma. 8. Cetana sila. 9. Veramani sila. 10. Avitikkama sila. 

II. Sabbe kusald dhamma. 12. Cp. parallel passage in the Vis. Mag. 49-50, beginning 
with " Vuttarii Ketam Patisambhidayarh" '. The beginning of the quotation from "Abhi- 
dhamma" in the Vim. Mag. is confused, possibly due to copyist's error. The repetition 
of 'destruction' or 'severance' (or is it 'rejection'?) is perhaps due to the needs of Chinese 
composition. 13. Sam vara sila. 

14, The ideograph for 'pafigha' is 'hatred'. 

6 



On Distinguishing Virtue 7 

concentration of the sphere of the infinity of consciousness, the destruction of the 
perception of the sphere of the infinity of consciousness by the concentration 
of the sphere of nothingness, the destruction of the (perception of the) sphere 
of nothingness by the concentration of the sphere of neither perception nor 
non-perception, the destruction of the perception of permanence by the view 
of impermanence, the destruction of the perception of bliss by the view of ill, 
the destruction of the perception of self by the view of not-self, the destruction 
of the perception of the pure by the view of the impure, 1 the destruction of the 
perception of craving by the view of tribulation, 2 the destruction of the percep- 
tion of passion by the view of the stainless, the destruction of origination 
by the view of cessation, 3 the destruction of density by the view of evanescence, 
the destruction of union by the view of separation, the destruction of fixity by 
the view of change, the destruction of the sign by the view of the signless, the 
destruction of yearning by the view of non-yearning, the destruction of 
adherence by the view of the void, the destruction of clinging and adherence 
(to essence ?) by the view of the higher wisdom, the destruction of the 
adherence to delusion by the knowledge and discernment of things as they 
are, the destruction of adherence to dwelling 4 by the view of tribulation, 
the destruction of non-reflection by the view of reflection, the destruction 
of adherence to fetters by the view of the rolling back (of delusion), the des- 
truction of adherence to the cankers of views by the path of the Stream- 
entrant, the destruction of the gross cankers by the path of the Once-returner, 
the destruction of the subtle cankers by the path of the Non-returner, 
and the destruction of all cankers by the path of the Consummate One" — 
these are called the 'virtue of non-transgression', the 'virtue of volition', the 
virtue of restraint' and the 'virtue of abstention'. These are called virtue. - 

SALIENT CHARACTERISTIC OF VIRTUE 

'What is the salient characteristic of virtue' ?: The removal of non-dignity 
by dignity. What is called 'non-dignity 1 ? A. It is transgression of virtue. 
There are three kinds of transgression of virtue: transgression of the virtue 
pertaining to the rules of the Community of Bhikkhus; 5 transgression 
of the virtue pertaining to the requisites; 6 transgression of the virtue 
pertaining to the faculties. 7 What is 'transgression of the virtue pertaining 
to the Community of Bhikkhus'? [401]. It is loss of faith in the Tathagata 
owing to immodesty 8 and indecorum. 9 What is 'transgression of the virtue 
pertaining to the requisites'? When a man's life is concerned with the 
adornment of the body, he loses contentment. What is 'transgression of 
virtue pertaining to the faculties' ? It is separation from wise attentiveness 
through not closing the six sense doors. These three constitute 'non-dignity'. 
This is called the 'salient characteristic of virtue'. 

1, 2. Not in Vis. Mag. And, 'mhkuianupassanayanandiya of Pts. 1,46, quoted in Vis. Mag., 
is not here. 

3. After this Vis. Mag. has 'patinissaggdnupassandya dddnassa\ 

4. Alaya. 5. Lit. Pdtimokkha dhamma. 6. Lit. Paccaya dhamma. 
7. Indriya dhamma. 8. Ahiri. 9. Anottappa. 



8 Vimuttimagga 

FUNCTION, MANIFESTATION AND NEAR CAUSE OF VIRTUE 

What are its 'function', 'manifestation' and 'near cause' ? Excellent joy 
is its 'function'. Non-repentance is its 'manifestation'. The three meritorious 
activities are its 'near cause'. And again, excellent delight is its 'function'. 
Non-repentance is its manifestation. The shielding of all faculties is its near 
cause. 

BENEFITS OF VIRTUE 

What are the 'benefits' of virtue? Non-repentance is the benefit of virtue. 
This is in accord with the words of the Blessed One addressed to (the Venerable 
Elder) Ananda: "Non-repentance is the benefit and gain of virtue." 1 And 
again, virtue is called excellent joy, the highest of all castes, the treasure 2 
and the noble. This is the ground of the Buddhas. This is to bathe without 
water. 3 This is to permeate with fragrance. 4 This is the shadow accompanying 
form. This is to wear the thread which must be worn. This is the sacred 
caste. This is the peerless training. This is the course of well-faring. If a 
man practises virtue, on account of that virtue, he will become fearless, ennoble 
his friends and be dear to the holy ones. This is the good ornament. 5 This 
rules all conduct. This is the place of merit. This is the field of offering. 
This is the ground of growth in noble companionship. 

(He who practises virtue) will be steadfast in all good. He will fulfil 
purity of aspiration. Even in death he will be self-possessed. 6 Accomplishing 
the freedom of suppression he will experience the bliss of artifice ('?). Thus 
there are many merits of virtue. 

MEANING OF VIRTUE 

'What is the meaning of virtue'? A. It means coolness, the higher excel- 
lence, action, nature and natural condition of the nature of suffering and 
joy. Again, it means the head, coolness 7 and peace. Why is it said that 
virtue is the 'head'? A. If a man has no head he cannot get rid of the dust 
of passion from his faculties. Then it is called death. Thus the virtue of 
the bhikkhu is the head. Beheaded, (he) loses all good qualities. Thus 
in the teaching of the Buddha it is called death. This is the meaning of 'head' 
in virtue. Why is it said that virtue means 'coolness' ? A. Just as the exceedingly 
cool sandal allays the fever-heat of the body, just so does virtue allay the 
fever of the mind that fears after breaking the precepts, and induce joy. This 
is the meaning of virtue as 'coolness'. Why is it said that 'peace' is the meaning 



1. A.V,1: Avippatisdratthdni kho Ananda kusaldni silani avippatisdrdnisamsdni. 

2. Dhana. 3. Th. 613: Tit than ca sabbabuddhdnam tasmd silam visodhaye. 

4. Cp. Th. 615: Silam vilepanam settham. 5. Cp. Th. 614: Silam dbharanam seftham, 

6. D. II, 86: Silavd silasampanno asammdlho kdlam karoti. 7. See Vis. Mag. 8: 

AMe pana sirattho sitalattho ti evam ddind pi nayen ev 9 ettha attham vannayanti. 



On Distinguishing Virtue 9 

of virtue? A. If a man practises vhtue he will be quiet of behaviour. He 
will not arouse fear. This is the meaning of virtue as 'peace'. 

VIRTUE AND MODE OF LIFE 

'What is the difference between (virtue) and mode of life'? 1 Practice, 2 
energy, 3 resolution, 4 austerities. 5 These are modes of life, not virtue. Virtue 
is also called mode of life. Virtue is called dignity. Feeling (?) is also called 
mode of life. 

THREE KINDS OF VIRTUE 

'How many (kinds of) virtue are there'? There are three kinds of virtue: 
skilful virtue, unskilful virtue and non-charactriezable virtue. 6 What is 
skilful virtue? Bodily and verbal meritorious activities and right livelihood. 
(Here), because of absence of tribulation, good result ensues. What is unskilful 
virtue? Bodily and verbal demeritorious activities and wrong livelihood. 
(Here), because of tribulation, good result does not ensue. What is 'non- 
characterizable virtue'? It is bodily and verbal canker-free activities and 
spotless livelihood. (Here) there is neither tribulation nor good result. 

WHAT PRODUCES VIRTUE 

'What produces virtue'? Virtue produced in a good heart is skilful 
virtue. Virtue produced in an evil heart is unskilful virtue. Virtue produced 
in a non-characterizable heart is non-characterizable virtue. 7 

STAGES IN VIRTUE 

'What are the initial, medial, and final (stages in) virtue'? The keeping 
of precepts is the initial (stage), non-transgression is the medial (stage) and 
rejoicing is the final (stage) in virtue. 8 

How many are the 'obstacles' to and how many are the 'causes' of virtue? 
A. Thirty-four states 9 are 'obstacles'. Thirty-four states are 'causes' of virtue. 

IMPEDIMENTS AND CAUSES OF VIRTUE 

Anger, malice, hypocrisy, agitation, covetousness, jealousy, wile, craftiness, 
resentment, disputatiousness, pride, self-conceit, arrogance, negligence, idleness, 
lust, non-contentment with little, not following the wise, non-mi ndfulness, 
harsh speech, evil companionship, evil knowledge, evil views, impatience, 
want of faith, immodesty, indecorum, indulgence of body mouth and palate, 



\. Vata, Vatta. Cp. Nd* 66, 92, 104,106,188. 2. Patipatti. 3. Viriya. 4. Adifthana. 

5. Dhutanga. 6. Lit. Indescribable virtue. Pts. I, 44: Kati silanftn Tini silani, 

kusalasilam, akusalasilam abyakatasilam. 7. and 8. Not in Vis. Mag. 9. Dhanmid. 



10 Vimuttimagga 

vulgarity, contact with women, not honouring the teacher, non-practice of 
restraint of the senses, non-practice of concentration in the first and last watches 
of the night, not reciting the discourses in the first and last watches of the 
night — these thirty-four states are 'obstacles'. A man impeded by any one 
of these cannot perfect his virtue. If his virtue is not perfected he will surely 
retrogress. The thirty-four slates which counteract these ('obstacles') are the 
'cause' of virtue. 1 

FIRST GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

'How many groups of virtue are there' ? Group of two, group of three 
and group of four. What is the group of two ? Precepts governing usage 2 
and precepts governing prohibitions. 3 Those decisions of the Buddha which 
indicate what ought to be done by body and speech are 'precepts governing 
usage'. Those decisions of the Buddha which indicate what ought not to be 
done by body and speech are 'precepts governing prohibitions'. 'Precepts 
governing usage' are accomplished through the effort of faith. 'Precepts 
governing prohibitions' are accomplished through being mindful of faith. 

SECOND GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue : the virtue of discarding 4 
and the virtue of undertaking. 5 What is called 'discarding'? It is the des- 
truction of non-virtue. What is called 'undertaking'? It is the undertaking 
to keep many good precepts. Just as light dispels darkness, just so a man who 
discards non-virtues, by the discarding of those non-virtues, will be freed from 
ill-faring. Through undertaking to keep good precepts he can enter the path 
of merit. Through the destruction of non-virtue he fulfils steadfastness. 6 

THIRD GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue. Mundane virtue 7 and supra- 
mundane virtue. 8 What is 'supramundane virtue'? The virtue which is 
fulfilled together with the fruit of the noble Path — this is 'supramundane 
virtue'. The rest is 'mundane virtue'. Through the fulfilment of 'mundane 
virtue' pre-eminence is accomplished. Through the fulfilment of 'supramun- 
dane virtue' freedom is accomplished. 

I. Not in Vis. Mag. 2. Carina s f la. 3. Varina si/a. 4. Pahdna. 

5. Samadana. Cp. with reference to both (1 and 2) D. I, 63: Kathan ca maharqja 
bhikkhu sila-sampanno hoti'l Idha maharqja bhikkhu pcinatipatam pahaya panatipata 
pativirato hoti, nihita-dando nihita-sattho lajji dayapanno sahba-patui-bhuta-hitanukampi 
viharati. Adinndddnam pahaya ... . 

6. Not in Vis. Mag. 7. Lokiya sila. 8, Lokuttara site. 



On Distinguishing Virtue 1 1 

FOURTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue: measurable virtue 1 and 
immeasurable virtue. 2 Incomplete virtue — this is called 'measurable virtue'. 
Complete virtue — this is called 'immeasurable' (virtue), according to the 
declaration of the Buddha. 

FIFTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is -i group of two in viitue: with limit and without limit. 3 
What is 'with limit' ? If a man undertakes to keep any precept but transgresses 
it for the sake of worldly welfare, for the sake of fame, for the sake of friends*, 
for the sake of the body** and for the sake of life, then his virtue makes worldly 
welfare its limit, makes fame its limit, makes the body its limit, makes life 
its limit. What is 'without limit'? Here a bhikkhu undertakes to keep a 
precept rightly and does not entertain even the thought of transgressing (the 
precept) for the sake of worldly welfare, for the sake of fame, for the sake of 
the body and for the sake of life. How then will he transgress it? This is 
called virtue 'without limit*. 

SIXTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue : dependent and non-dependent. 4 
Virtue that is connected with becoming is dependent on craving. The virtue 
that is connected with addiction to rites and ceremonies is dependent on 
opinions. The virtue that is connected with self-praise and blame of others is 
dependent on pride. 5 These are 'dependent' virtues. Virtue that is for the 
sake of freedom is 'non-dependent' virtue. 'Dependent' virtue is not for 
wise men. 'Non-dependent' virtue is for the wise. 

SEVENTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue: the virtue of the fundamentals 
of the holy life 6 and the virtue of enhanced practice. 7 What is 'the virtue of 
the fundamentals of the holy life'? The virtue comprising purified bodily 



1. Pamdna si la. 2. Appamdna si la. 

3. Pariyanta-\ apariyanta-si/a. Cp. Pts. 1,43-44: Atthi silam par iy ant am, at tin silam apari- 

yantam. Tattha katamam tarn silam pariyantam? Atthi silam labhapariyantariu 
atthi silam yasapariyantam, atthi silam Mtipariyantam, atthi silam ahgapariyantam, 
atthi silam jivitapariyantam. Katamam tarn silam lahhapariyantam ? Idh' ekacco lahhahetu 
Icibhapaccaya fdbhakdrand yathasamadinnam sikkhapadam vitikkamati — idam tarn silam 
lahhapariyantam.... Katamam tarn silam na angapwiyantariil fdh % ekacco ahgahetu 
angapaccayd ahgakarand yathasamadinnam sikkhapadam vitikkamdya cittam pi na uppadeti 
kim so vitikkamissati, idam tarn silam na ahgapariyantam. Katamam tarn silam na jivita- 
pariyantam ? ld)i ekacco jivitahetu jivitapaccayd jivitakdratid yathasamadinnam sikkha- 
padam vitikkamdya cittam pi na uppadeti, kim so vitikkamissati\ idam tarn silarii na 
jivitapariyantam . 
* Pis. passage quoted above reads had (relatives), **ariga (limb). 

4. Nissita, Anissita. 5. Mdna. 6. Adihrahmacarivaka. 7. Abhisamacdrika. 



12 Vimuttimagga 

action, purified verbal action and pure livelihood 1 is called 'the virtue of the 
fundamentals of the holy life'. The remaining virtue of training is called 'the 
virtue of enhanced practice'. 

EIGHTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue: connected with mind and 
not connected with mind. What is 'connected with mind"? It is 'the virtue 
of the fundamentals of the holy life'. What is 'not connected with mind'? 
The other, 'the virtue of enhanced practice'. In observing 'the virtue of the 
fundamentals of the holy life' the hearer 2 accomplishes the austere and the 
lofty virtue. By this 'virtue of enhanced practice' one does evil. Because 
the Buddha did not declare that (i.e., the virtue of enhanced practice), it is 
a hindrance to Enlightenment. (Therefore one does evil). 

NINTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue : inviolable virtue and spotless 
virtue. 3 What is 'inviolable'? It is hearer's virtue. What is 'spotless'? It is 
the virtue of the Buddhas and the Paccekabuddhas. 

TENTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of two in virtue: virtue practised within a 
time-limit 4 and virtue practised till the dissolution of the body. 5 What is 
practised for a short time and is not connected with life is called 'virtue practised 
within a time-limit'. What is practised to the end of life from the time a man 
follows his teacher and undertakes the precepts is called the 'virtue practised 
till the dissolution of the body'. There is time in the reward of virtue practised 
within a time-limit. There is no time in the reward of virtue practised till 
the dissolution of the body. 

FIRST GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

What (is the group of) three (in virtue)? It is (the virtue of) quelling evil 
and not transgressing, experiencing and not transgressing, extirpating and not 
transgressing. 6 What is 'quelling evil and not transgressing'? Though 
hitherto not experienced feelings not belonging to one's practice arise, yet one 
does not suffer even the thought of transgression, in his mind — this is called 
'quelling evil and not transgressing'. 



1. Samma kammanta, sammd vaca, samma djiva. 2. Sdvaka. 3. Not in Vis. Mag. 

4. Kalapariyanta. 5. Apdnakotika. 6. Not in Vis. Mag. 



On Distinguishing Virtue 13 

What is 'experiencing and not transgressing'? Having experienced a 
feeling one does not on that account transgress ever after — this is called 
'experiencing and not transgressing'. 

What is 'extirpating and not transgressing'? The noble individual 1 
extirpates various causes of evil through the noble Path — this is called 'ex- 
tirpating and not transgressing'. 

SECOND GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of three in virtue thus: tarnished virtue, 2 
not-tarnished virtue, 8 tranquillized virtue. 4 

What is 'tarnished virtue' ? One clings to the appearance of a put-together- 
thing at first sight — this is called 'tarnished virtue'. 

The virtue of the commoner 5 which is also the means of entering into 
the Path — this is called 'not-tarnished' virtue. 

What is 'tranquillized virtue' ? It is the virtue of the Consummate One. 

THIRD GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of three (in virtue) thus: the virtue swayed 
by the world, the virtue swayed by the body and life, 7 the virtue swayed by 
the Law. 8 

■ What is virtue swayed by the world' ? A man, through fear, removes 
various evils following the will of the world — this is called 'virtue swayed 
by the world'. 

What is 'virtue swayed by the body and life'? A man, through fear, 
removes various evils in order to protect his life — this is called 'virtue swayed 
by the body and life'. 

What is 'virtue swayed by the Law'? A man, through reverence, removes 
various demeritorious states for the sake of the True Law — - this is called 
'virtue swayed by the Law/ 

FOURTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of three in virtue [402] thus: virtue allied to 
disparate desires, virtue allied to like desires, virtue allied to no desires. 9 

I. Ariya puggala. 2. Paramattha siia. Cp. S. II, 94: Digharaitam he tarn bhikkhave 

assutavato puthujjanassa ajjhositam mamdyitam pardmattham etam mama eso 'ham as mi 
eso me attdti. 3. Apardmattha sila. Cp. A. II, 56-7: Puna ca pararh bhikkhave 

ariyasavako ariyakantehi silehi samanndgato hoti akkhandehi achiddehi asabalehi 
akammasehi bhujissehi vitihuppasatthehi apardrnaUhehi samddhisamvattanikehi. 

4. Pafippassaddha sila. 5. Puthujjana. 

6, 7, 8. A. I, 147: Tin itndni bhikkhave adhipateyyan't. Katamdni //"///? 

Attadhipatteyyarii lokadhipateyyam dhammddhipateyyarii. 9. Not in Vis. Mag, 



14 Viinuttimagga 

What is 'virtue allied to disparate desires'? (A man, while) tormenting 
others, undertakes to observe the precepts — this is called 'virtue allied to 
disparate desires'. 

What is 'virtue allied to like desires'? A man undertakes to observe 
the precepts for the sake of happiness in the present life and for the sake of the 
happiness of freedom in the future — this is called 'virtue allied to like desires'. 

What is 'virtue allied to no desires'? A man undertakes to observe the 
precepts, does not repent and benefits others — this is called 'virtue allied to 
no desires'. 

FIFTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of three in virtue thus: pure virtue, 1 impure 
virtue, 2 doubtful virtue. 3 

What is 'pure virtue'? Through two causes 'pure virtue' is fulfilled: 
the first is non-transgression; the second is confession after transgression — 
this is called 'pure virtue'. 

Through two causes 'impure virtue' is fulfilled: the first is wilful trans- 
gression; the second is non-confession after transgression — this is called 
'irapuie virtue'. 

What is 'doubtful virtue'? Through three causes 'doubtful virtue' is 
fulfilled: the first is the non-distinguishing of place; the second is the non- 
distinguishing of transgression; the third is the non-distinguishing of 
wrongful deeds— this is called, 'doubtful virtue'.. 

If a yogin's virtue is impure he confesses and experiences the bliss of the 
purified. If he had doubt, he presently finds out the blemish and acquires 
peace. 

SIXTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of three in virtue: learner's virtue, 4 learning- 
ender's virtue, 5 neither learner's nor learn ing-ender's virtue. 

What is learner's virtue'? It is the virtue of the seven learner-individuals. 7 

What is 'learning-endefs virtue'? It is the virtue of the Consummate 
One. 

What is 'neither learner's nor learning-ender's virtue'? It is the virtue 
of the commoner. 

SEVENTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of three in virtue thus: fearful virtue, anxious 
virtue, fatuous virtue. 8 



1. Visuddha sila, 2. Avisuddha sila. 3. Vematika sila. Cp. Vis. Mag. 14. 

4. Sekha sila. 5. Asekha sila. 6. Nevasekhandsekha sila. Cp. Vis. Mag. 14. 

7. Sattasekhiyapuggala sila. 8. Not in Vis. Mag. 



On Distinguishing Virtue 15 

What is Tearful virtue'? There is a man who through fear does not 
commit evil — this is called 'fearful virtue'. 

What is 'anxious virtue'? A certain man, remembering an intimate 
friend from whom he is separated, is troubled with anxiety; owing to anxiety 
he does not commit evil — this is called 'anxious virtue'. 

What is 'fatuous virtue'? There is a man; he observes the precepts of 
cow-asceticism 1 or dog-asceticism 2 — this is called 'fatuous virtue'. 

If a man fulfils 'fatuous virtue', he will become a cow or a dog. If he 
does not fulfil, he will fall into hell. 3 

EIGHTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of three in virtue: inferior, 1 middlings 
superior. 6 

What is 'inferior' ? (A certain man) is affected with much passion, excessive 
passion, great passion and is impregnated with non-paucity of wishes — this 
is called 'inferior' virtue. 

What is 'middling' ? (A certain man) is affected with subtle passion and 
is impregnated with paucity of wishes — this is called 'middling' virtue. 

What is 'superior'? (A certain man) is not affected with passion and is 
impregnated with paucity of wishes — this is called 'superior' virtue. 

Through the fulfilment of 'inferior' virtue, one is reborn as a man ; through 
the fulfilment of 'middling' virtue, one is reborn as a god; through the fulfilment 
of 'superior' virtue, one attians to freedom. 

FIRST GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of four in virtue: partaking of deteriora- 
tion, 7 partaking of stagnation, 8 partaking of excellence, 9 partaking of penetra- 
tion. 10 

What is 'partaking of deterioration'? A certain man does not remove 
what shuts out the attainment of the Path; he is not energetic; and he wilfully 
transgresses (the precepts) and thereafter conceals (his fault) — this is called 
'partaking of deterioration'. 

What is 'partaking of stagnation'? A certain man keeps the precepts 
and is not heedless, but he does not arouse aversion — - this is called 'partaking 
of stagnation'. 

1 . Go Slla. 2. Kukkura sila. For details of 1 and 2. see M.J, 388 f. (note 3). 

3. ML J, 388-9: So go vat am bhdvetvd paripumiam abbokhmarii... kdyassa hhedd parammarand 
gum /am sahavyatam uppajjati. Sace kho panassa evarii ditthi hoti: im'md 'ham silena vd 
vatena vd tapena vd brahmacariyena vci devo vd bhavissdmi devamiataro vdti sdssa hoti 
micchdditthi. Micchdditthikassa kho aham Seniya dvinnam gat mam amiataram gatim 
vaddmi: nirayam vd tiracchdnayonhh vd. A similar result follows in the case of dog- 
asceticism. 

4. Hina sila. 5. Majjhima sila. 6. Pam'ta si/a. Cp. Vis. Mag. 13. 
7. Hdnabhdgiya. 8. Thitibhdgiya. 9. Visesabhd<?iva, 

10. Nibbedhabhdgiya. For 7-10; see A. in, 427, Vis. Mag. 15. 



16 Vitmittimagga 

A certain man fulfils virtue and concentration, is not heedless, but does 
not arouse aversion — this is called 'partaking of excellence'. 

A certain man fulfils virtue and concentration, is not heedless and arouses 
aversion — this is called 'partaking of penetration'. 

SECOND GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of four in virtue: the precepts for bhikkhus, 
the precepts for bhikkhunls, the precepts for the not-yet-ordained, 1 and 
precepts for the white-clothed householders. 2 

What are 'the precepts for bhikkhus'? 3 The Pdtimokkha-Tcsimxnts — 
these are 'the precepts for bhikkhus'. 

(What are) 'the precepts for bhikkhunls'? 4 The Pdtimokkha~T.estra\nt$ — 
these are 'the precepts for bhikkhunls'. 

The ten precepts for male and female novices 5 and the precepts for female 
probationers" — these are called 'the precepts for the not-yet ordained'. 

The five precepts and the eight precepts for lay-disciples, male and female — 
these are 'the precepts for the white-clothed householders'. 

THIRD GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of four in virtue thus: Virtue that is natural, 7 
virtue that is good manners, 8 virtue that is law 9 and virtue that is (the result of) 
former conditions. 10 

What is 'virtue that is natural' ? The virtue of the people of Uttarakuru — 
this is called 'virtue that is natural'. 

What is 'virtue that is good manners'? Conduct conforming to rules of 
clan, caste, country, beliefs and the like — this is called 'virtue that is good 
manners'. 

What is 'virtue that is law'? The virtue (of the mother of the Bodhisatta) 
when he enters the womb — this is called 'virtue that is law'. 

What is 'virtue that is (the result of) former conditions'? The virtue of 
the Bodhisatta and the Venerable Elder Maha Kassapa — this is called 'virtue 
that is (the result of) former conditions'. 

FOURTH GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of four in virtue: virtue as virtue, virtue as 
accumulation, virtue as ending, virtue as complete path of ending. 11 

1. Anupasampanna sila. 2. Odata-vasana gahattha sila. Cp. D. Ill, 125: Santi kho puna 
me Cunda etarahi updsakd savaka gihi odata-vasana brahmacdrino. 3. Bhikkhu sila. 

4. Bhikkhimi sila. 5. Sdmanera-samanen dasa sila. Cp. Vis. Mag. 15. 

6. Sikkhamana sila. 7. Pakati sila. 8. Acara sila. 9. Dhammata sila. D. II, 13: 
Dhammata esa bhikkave, yada Bodhisatta mat it kucchim okkanto hoti, na Bodhisatta- 
mdtu purisesu mdnasam uppajjati kdmaguniipasamhitam, anatikkamaniyd ca Bodhisatta- 
mat a hoti kenaci purisena ratta-cittena. A) am eitha dhammata. 

10. Pubbahetuka sila. ' Cp. Vis. Mag. 15. 

11. Not in Vis. Mag. — Kusala sila. samutthdna sila, nirodha sila, nivodha patipddd sila, 



On Distinguishing Virtue 17 

What is Virtue as virtue'? Two kinds: skilful and unskilful virtue — these 
are called 'virtue as virtue'. 1 

What is 'virtue as accumulation'? A good heart accumulates skilful 
virtue; a bad heart accumulates unskilful virtue. 2 

What is 'virtue as ending'? A man ends unskilful virtue through 
the acquisition of skilful virtue; a man ends skilful virtue through the 
accomplishment of sanctity. 3 

What is 'virtue as complete path of ending'? Namely, the four-fold 
right effort 1 — this is called 'virtue as complete path of ending'. The four-fold 
activity is to be understood thus: It is called energy and is not real observance 
of virtue — this is named 'right effort'. 

FIFTH GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE 

And again, there is a group of four in virtue: virtue of the rules-of-the- 
order restraint, 5 virtue of the purity of livelihood, 6 virtue of faculty restraint, 7 
virtue connected with the requisites. 8 

What is 'virtue of the rules-of-the-order-restraint'? Here a bhikkhu 
dwells, being restrained by rules-of-the-order restraint, is endowed with good 
behaviour and lawful resort, fears even a small fault and well trains himself 
in the precepts in which he should be trained. 9 'Here' means in this Masters 
teaching. 'Bhikkhu' means good commoner. Also it means learner, learning- 
ender, unshakable one. 10 'Rules-of-the-order-restraint' means virtue, manifes- 
tation, beginning, activities, protection, restraint, sloughing and unbinding. 
This is the entrance into the doctrines. By this the Good Law 11 is accepted. 
This is the meaning of 'rules-of-the-order'. Not transgressing through bodily 
and verbal action is 'restraint'. 'Restrained' means accomplished in the 
rules-of-the-order-restraint. 'Dwells' means guards the four postures. 'Is 
endowed with good behaviour and lawful resort' : — (In his) there is good 
behaviour 12 and there is misbehaviour. 13 

1. Cp. (a) M. II, 27: Katame ca, thapati, kusalasild! Kusalam kayakammam, kusalam 
vacikammam, djivapdrisuddhim pi kho aham, thapati, silasmirh vaddtni. Ime kho, thapati, 
kusalasild; (b) M. II, 26: Katame ca, thapati, akusalasild? Akusalam kayakammam, 
akusalam vacikammam, pdpako djivo. — ime vuccanti, thapati, akusalasild. 

2. Cp. (a) M. II, 27: Yam cittam vitardgam viiadosam vitamoham, itosamutthdnd kusalasild, 
(b) M. IT, 26: Sacittam sardgam sadosam samoham, itosamutthdnd akusalasild. 

3. Cp. M. 11,26 (a): Idha, thapati, bhikkhu kdyaduccaritam pahdya kdyasucaritam bhdveti... 
manoduccaritam pahdya manosucariiam bhdveti, micchd-djivam pahdya sammd-djivena 
jivikam kappeti. EttKete akusalasild aparisesd nirujjhanti, (b) M. II, 27: Idha, thapati, 
bhikkhu silavd hoti, no ca silamayo, tail ca cetovimutlim panndvimuttim yathdbhutam 
pajdndti, yatth'assa te kusalasild aparisesd nirujjhanti. 

4. Cp. M. IT, 27: Idha, thapati, bhikkhu anuppanndnam pdpakdnam akusaldnam dhammdnam 
amippdddya chandam janeti vdyamati viriyam drabhati cittam pagganhdti padahati, uppart- 
ndnam akusaldnam dhammdnam pahdndya — pe — anuppanndnam akusaldnam dhammdnam 
uppadaya, uppanndnam kusaldnarh dhammdnam thitiyd asammosdya bhiyyobhdvdya 
vepullaya bhdvandya pdripuriyd chandam janeti vdyamati viriyam drabhati cittam 
pagganhdti padahati. Exam patipanno kho, thapati, ku said nam sildnam nirodhdya 
patipanno hoti. 

5. Pdtimokkhasamvara sila. 6. Ajivaparisuddhi sila. 7. Indriyasamvara si la. 

8. Paccayanissita sila. 9. D. I, 63-70. 10. Sekha* asekha, akuppam, 11. Saddhamma, 
12. Acdra. 13. Andcdra. 



IB Vimuttimagga 

What is "misbehaviour 1 ? "Here a bhikkhu gives someone bamboo 
staves, or flowers, leaves and fruits, or tooth-sticks and bath-powder; or he 
courts favour, speaking well or ill of others; or he is given to fawning; or he 
runs hither and thither and to far off places contrary to the rule, in order to 
invite folk to an assembly; or does such other actions censured by the Buddha 
and thus subsists by wrong livelihood — this is called 'misbehaviour'. 1 

And again, there are two kinds of 'misbehaviour': bodily and verbal 
misbehaviour. What is 'bodily misbehaviour' ? A certain bhikkhu goes to 
the midst of the assembly of the Order with pride in his heart, brushing past 
the venerable ones; he recklessly pushes them, or goes forward, or haughtily 
stands, or sits on a high seat before the venerable ones (sit), or keeps back 
the venerable ones, or sits pompously, or disdainful of the venerable ones 
disposes himself on a seat ; or patting them (the venerable ones) on the shoulder, 
he speaks lightly to them. While the venerable ones go barefooted, he wears 
sandals. When aged and venerable ones walk on the path below, he walks 
on the high and broad road above. In various ways he slights and troubles 
(others). He withholds what is good from the younger bhikkhus. He gives 
what is mean to the venerable ones. Without permission, he burns fuel in 
the bath-room and opens and shuts the door. Or when he goes to the water- 
side, he enters it (the water) before them (the venerable ones) and twists and 
turns his body, or pats, in the fashion of rustics. When he goes to another's 
house he enters abruptly, either by the back or by the front door; sits down 
and gets up in a disorderly manner; or he enters screened places and jokes 
with women and young girls and strokes their necks. Such misconduct is 
called 'misbehaviour' of body. 2 

What is 'verbal misbehaviour'? A certain bhikkhu has no reverence in his 
mind. Without rinding out the wishes of the venerable ones he preaches on 
the Law or he preaches on the Pdtimokkha; or he speaks to others patting 
them on the shoulder; or he enters another's house and asks of a woman 
bluntly thus: "Madam so and so of such and such a family, is there or is 
there not anything to eat? If there is, let me have it. I want to get food". 
Such words are 'verbal misbehaviour'. 3 

What is 'good behaviour'? It is the opposite of 'misbehaviour'. A 
certain bhikkhu has reverence in his mind, is obedient, is possessed of modesty 
and decorum and is thoroughly skilled in the postures. He has enough 
always, guards his senses and is abstemious as regards food and drink. He 



1. Kdyika andcara. Cp. Vbh. 246: Idh'ekacco veluddnena vd pattaddnena vd pupphaddnena 

vd phaladdnena vd sinanadanena vd dantakatthaddnena vd cdlukamyatdya vd muggasu- 
patdya vd pdribhatthataya vd janghapesanikena vd annataranhat arena buddhapatikutthena 
micchd ajivena jlvitam kappeti: ay am vuccati andedro. 

Cp. also Th. 937, 938 : Mattikarh telarh cunnari ca udakdsanabhojanam 
gihinam upandmenti dkankhantd bahuttaram 
danta-ponam kapitthah ca pupphakhddaniydni ca 
pindapdte ca sampanne ambe dmalakdni ca. 

2. Kdyika andcara. Cp. Ndi 228-9. 

3. Vdcasika andcara. Cp. Nd 1 230. 



On Distinguishing Virtue 19 

never sleeps in the first and last watches of the night. He is endowed with 

wisdom and is aware of the paucity of his wishes. He is not troubled with 

worldly cares, is of energetic mind and deeply honours his companions. This 
is called 'good behaviour'. 

'Lawful resort' means lawful resort and unlawful resort. What is 
'unlawful resort'? "A certain bhikkhu goes to a harlot's abode, a widow's 
abode, a virgin's abode, a eunuch's abode, a bhikkunf s abode, to liquor 
shops; he associates with kings, ministers, heretical monks, evil monks and 
with such fellows as have no heart of faith, never benefit the four classes and 
who are disliked by them (the four classes). This is called 'unlawful resort' ". 1 
The Buddha has declared: "A bhikkhu transgresses (the precept against) 
impure unlawful resort. What is 'impure unlawful resort'? It is to go to a 
harlot's abode". 'Lawful resort' is obvious. 

And again, there are three kinds of 'lawful resort': lawful resort as close 
reliance, 2 lawful resort as protection, 3 lawful resort as a bond. 4 

[403] What is 'lawful resort as close reliance'? It is a good friend 
endowed v/ith the ten meritorious qualities. 5 Owing to these qualities a man 
hears what he has not heard before and what has been heard is further 
expounded to him, he destroys doubt, attains to right views and clarity (of 
mind); and training himself well in the Law, believes strongly and deeply, 
and increases in virtue, learning, liberality and wisdom. 6 This is called 'lawful 
resort as close reliance'. 

What is 'lawful resort as protection'? When a certain bhikkhu goes to 
others' houses or to the village, he walks looking groundwards and not further 
than a fathom's distance; his bearing is dignified, calm and orderly; he is 
reverenced by the people; he does not look at elephant-chariots 01 horse- 
chariots, or at men and women making merry, or at the balcony of the palace, 
or at street-stalls. Thus he does not look up and down in the four directions. 
This is called 'lawful resort as protection'. 

What is 'lawful resort as a bond'? It is as the Buddha has said: "A 
bhikkhu dwells within the precincts of his home and land" 7 — this is called 
'lawful resort as a bond'. These are called 'lawful resort'. Thus 'lawful 
resort' is fulfilled. Therefore, it is said, 'endowed with lawful resort'. 

1. Gocctra and agocara. Cp. Vbh. 247: Idh'ekacco vesiydgocaro vd hoti, vidhavagocaro vd 
thullakumdrigocaro vd pandakagocaro vd bhikkhunigocaro vd pdndgdragocaro vd, sarii- 
sattho viharati rdjuhi rdjamahdmattehi titthiyehi titthiyasdvakehi ananulomikena gihi- 
samsaggena, ydni vd pana tdni kuldni assaddhdni appasanndni anopdnabhutdni akkosaka- 
paribhdsakdni anaithakdmdni ahitakdmdni aphdsukdmdni ayogakkhemakamdni bhikkhimam 
bhikkhuninain iipdsakdnarh updsikdnam, tathdrupdni kuldni sevati bhajati payirupdaati: 
ay aril vuccati agocaro. 

2. (jpanissay agocara. 3. Arakkhagocara. 4. Upanibandhagocara. 

5. Dasakathdvatthugunasamanndgatakalydnamitta. Cp. A. IV, 357: Puna ca pararii Meghiya 
bhikkhu ydyarii kathd abhisallekhikd cetovivaranasappdyd, seyyathidarii appicchakathd 
santutfhikathd pavivekakathd asamsaggakathd viriydrambhakathd silakatha samddhi kathd 
panndkathd vimuttikathd vimuttindnadassanakathd. 

6. Cp. Vis. Mag. 19. 

7. Cp. S. V, 148: Ko ca bhikkhave bhikkhuno gocaro sako pettiko visayo yad idath cat tdro 
satipafthdnd. 



20 Vimiittimagga 

Tears even a small fault' means fears the small faults committed in the 
course of training — this is called "fears even a small fault'. 

And again, there is another teaching: One arouses unskilful states of 
consciousness — this is called slight error. One wishes to dwell far from this 
'slight error seeing and fearing the retribution thereof. This is called seeing 
danger in 'slight error'. 

'Trains himself in the precepts in which he should be trained' — What is 
the meaning of 'should be trained'? It means the seven groups of restraint. 1 
'Trains himself means follows all (as taught above). This is called 'trains 
himself (in the precepts) in which he should be trained'. This is called 'virtue 
of the rules-of-the-order-restraint'. 

Q. What is 'virtue of purity (of livelihood)'? A. It is to be not 
guilty of wrong livelihood. What is wrong livelihood? It is trickery, 2 talka- 
tiveness, 3 insinuation, 4 detraction, 5 and giving in order to get more. 6 

What is 'trickery' ? There are three bases of 'trickery' : — 

One schemes, and wants to have the four requisites, coarse and different 
(from the fine requisites offered to one): a certain bhikkhu corrects his 
behaviour, temporarily, advertises himself widely, or harbours evil desires; 
coveting property, he hands over excellent robes and food (to others), and 
for himself wants what is coarse ; or, he pretends as if he did not want to get 
(any); or, he accepts the four requisites simulating compassion for others — this 
is called the 'trickery' of scheming for requisites. 7 

A certain bhikkhu having evil desires and coveting property, simulates 
dignified demeanour, and says: T have attained to meditation (jhana) 9 and 
recites the Discourses wishing to receive offerings — this is called the 'trickery' 
of the postures. 8 

A certain bhikkhu who is covetous and talkative, declares to others: 
"I possess the Ariyan Truth and dwell in solitude;" or, "I practise meditation," 
"My preaching is deep and subtle," "I possess the signs of a superman." 9 
Thus, desiring gain, he extols himself. This is called the 'trickery' (of round- 
about talk). 10 

Talkativeness means one is not genuine, flatters, jests and poses, hoping 
for gain. One causes amusement longing to attract gain to oneself. This is 
called talkativeness. 

What is 'insinuation' ? A bhikkhu preaches the Law to a rich man whose 
support he desires. He longs for benefits and does not endeavour for mastery 
over his own heart. This is called 'insinuation'. 



1. Sattdpattikkhandha: pdrajika, sanghadisesa, thuliaccaya, pacittiya, pdtidesaniya, dukkala, 
duhhhdsita. 2. Should read kuhana. The ideograph means kosajja. 3. Lapand. 
The ideograph also means vankata. 4. Nemittikatd. 5. Nlppesikatd. 6. Ldbhena 

labharh nijigimsanatd. For 2-6 Cp. Vbh. 352-3. 7. Ndi 224: Paceayapatisevanasarh- 
khdtarh kuhanavatthu. 8. Ibid: Iriydpathasamkhdtam kuhanavatthit. 

9. These are quite different from the details given at pp. 25-6 in the Vis. Mag. on the same 
subject. 10. Ndi 226: Samantajappcmasamkhdtam kuhanavatthu. 



On Distinguishing Virtue 21 

'Detraction' means that a man wishing to gain benefits, causes people to 
fear him, because he abuses them, or because he creates dissensions among 
them; or terrifies people with harmful actions. 

What is 'giving in order to get more'? He makes small offerings and 
expects great returns. This is called 'giving in order to get more'. These 
many evil actions constitute wrong livelihood. 

And again, there is another (teaching concerning) wrong livelihood: 
(It is) giving bamboo staves, or flowers, leaves and fruits, or tooth-sticks and 
bath-powder; or, it is to divine, or to interpret dreams, or to make astrological 
predictions, or to interpret the language of birds, or to conjectuie concerning 
the auspiciousness or inauspiciousness of modes of walking; it is to worship 
fire 1 and to offer flowers to it; or it is to drive a prosperous trade; or it is to 
lead armies; or it is to deal in sharp weapons. These, and such other activities 
constitute wrong livelihood. The not doing of these is called 'virtue of the 
purity (of livelihood)'. 

Q. What is 'virtue of the restraint of the faculties'? 

A. On seeing a form, hearing a sound, smelling an odour, tasting a 
flavour or contacting a tangible, a man resolves to be not entranced by the 
defiling aspects thereof, and he does not transgress. 2 This is called 'virtue 
of the restraint of the faculties'. This 'virtue of the restraint of the faculties' 
is fulfilled through nine activities 3 :— 

Through cutting down the signs of evil which arise in the faculties; through 
overcoming non-mindfulness ; through not letting (evil states of consciousness) 
to continue, as (in the simile of) the man who saves his burning head ; 4 through 
restraint comparable to that of the Venerable Elder Nanda; 5 through conquering 
evil states of consciousness; through attaining to concentration of mind with 
ease; through living apart from men who do not guard the faculties; and 
through living in the company of those who guard the faculties. 

Q. What is 'virtue connected with the requisites'? 

A. Through eight ways one wisely reflects in accepting alms thus: 

The first: one does not take (food and drink) for the sake of violent sport 
or intoxication ; the second : one does not take (food and drink) for the sake 
of personal charm or beautification; the third; one takes (food and drink) 
in order to sustain the body and to preserve it; the fourth: one takes (food 
and drink) in order to stay hunger and thirst; the fifth: one takes (food 
and drink) in order to observe the holy life; the sixth: one always thinks 
that food and drink are intended to remove old ills and not to allow new ills 



1. D. I. 9: Aggi-homa, 

2. Cp. D. I, 70. 3. Only eight are treated in the explanation which follows. 

4. Cp. S. II F, 143: Evam khandhe avekkheyya bhikkhu araddhaviriyo 

diva vd yadi vd rattim sampajano patissato. 
Jaheyya sabbasahnogam kareyya saranattamo 
Careyyddittasiso va patthayam accutam padam. 

5. Cp. A. i, 25: Etad aggam indriyesu-gutta-dvaranam yadidom Nando. 



22 Vimuttimagga 

to arise; the seventh: one takes (food and drink) finding satisfaction with 
little; the eighth : one takes (food and drink) faultlessly and dwells in comfort. 1 

Q. What is 'one does not take (food and drink) for the sake of violent 
sport or intoxication' ? 

A. "I take food greedily. I am strong. Therefore, I like violent sport, 
rough play, competing with others and running." These constitute 'violent 
sport'. 'Intoxication' means self-arrogance and dissatisfaction. It is likened 
to the state of an angry man who beats another. 'Not for the sake of personal 
charm and beautification' : (Not like) those who wish to be loved for the 
fullness of their body and limbs and good looks, and do not know contentment, 
being full of desires. 'One takes (food and drink) in order to sustain the body 
and to preserve it': As a hub needs oil, so one yearns for the peaceful preser- 
vation of the body. 'One takes (food and drink) in order to stay hunger and 
thirst' : One, always, takes little food. As a man uses medicine for a disease 
of the skin, so one takes. 'One takes (food and drink) in order to observe the 
holy life': One wishes to reach the Noble Path through the advantages of 
abstemiousness. Feeling as a man who eats the flesh of his child, one takes. 2 
'Intended to remove old ills and not to allow new ills to arise': One takes 
not too little and not too much. As a man taking a mixture, so one takes. 
'One takes (food and drink) finding satisfaction in little': One keeps one's 
body safe accepting little, always treating one's body as a nurse (treats a 
patient). 'Faultlessly' means one sets one's body at ease with little. Using 
in this way, one makes the body faultless and escapes the reproof of the wise. 
Thus 'one takes (food and drink) faultlessly and dwells in comfort'. 

If one's food is suitable, one never feels tired and one does not sleep in 
the first, middle and last watches of the night. In this way one fulfils tranquillity. 
Thus 'through eight ways one wisely reflects in accepting alms'. Thus one 
should accept. 

And again, these eight ways are shortened to four considerations: the 
consideration of what ought to be cut down, the consideration of reality, the 
consideration of being satisfied with little, the consideration of accepting little. 

Q. What is 'the consideration of what ought to be cut down' ? 

A. The state of not being addicted to 'violent sport', not being in a state 
of 'intoxication' and the state of not being concerned with 'personal charm 
and beautification' — these are called 'the consideration of what ought to be 
cut down'. 

Using 'in order to sustain the body and to preserve it', 'in order to stay 
hunger and thirst', and 'in order to observe the holy life' — these are called 
'the consideration of reality'. 



1. A. IT, 40: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu patlsankhd yoniso aharam dhdreti, neva clavdya na 
maddya na mandandya na vibhusandya ydvad eva iniassa kdyassa thitiya ydpandya 
vihimsuparatiya brahmaeariydnuggahdya: iti purdnah ca vedanarh patihankhdmi navan 
ca vedanam na uppddessdmi, ydtrd ca me bhavissati anavajjatd ca phasu-vihdro cdti. 

2. S. II, 98. Also Th. 445: Uppajje ce rase tanha puttamamsupamam sara. 



On Distinguishing Virtue 23 

"I shall subdue the old ills and I shall cause no new ills to arise" — this 
is called 'the consideration of being satisfied with little'. 

"I shall satisfy myself with little and, being faultless, I shall dwell in 
comfort" — this is called 'the consideration of accepting little'. These are 
the four considerations. 

These four considerations are further shortened to three thus: consideration 
of cutting down, consideration of mean (lit. taking the middle between two 
ends), consideration of completion. 

A man cuts down the attachment to sense-pleasures through the 'considera- 
tion of cutting down' i.e., removes hunger and thirst, destroys the old ills and 
does not cause new ills to arise. And again, by this 'consideration' a man 
destroys karmic weariness of the body. The others should be practised in the 
'consideration of mean' and the 'consideration of completion'. 

And when one reflects on robes he understands that robes are for protec- 
tion against wind, cold, heat, mosquitoes, gadflies and ants and for covering 
one's unsightly shame-producing parts. Thus one practises 'consideration 
of completion'. 1 

And again, one reflects on medicines for ailments. 2 
If that is so, when should one make consideration? 

As regards food and the taking of medicine one should make consideration 
whenever one takes (food and medicine). As regards robes and bedding one 
should make consideration at the time one accepts. And every day and every 
hour should one think thus: My life depends on others; therefore, I ought 
always to reflect'. 3 Thus one should consider everything. 

There are four kinds of use taught by predecessors thus: use as theft, 
use as debt, use as inheritance and use like a master. 4 

What is 'use as theft'? Use (of requisites) by the transgressor of the 
precepts. 

What is 'use as debt'? Use (of requisites) by individuals guilty of 
immodesty, indecorum and wrong livelihood. 

What is 'use as inheritance' ? Use (of requisites) by individuals who are 
strenuous. 

What is 'use like a master' ? Use (of requisites) by the consummate ones. 

And again, there are two kinds of use. Namely, unclean use and clean 
use. 

What is 'unclean' ? (Use of requisites by an) individual having modesty 
and decorum but who is not capable of wise reflection — this is called 'unclean'. 

1. M. T, 10: Patisankhd yoniso civaram patisevati yavad eva sitassa patighataya unhassa 
pafighcltdya damsamakasavdtdtapasirimsapa samphassdnarh patighataya yavad eva 
lurikoplnapaticchddanattham. 

2. Ibid. 

3. A.V, 87 — 8: Parapatibaddhd me jivikd ti pabbajitena abhinham paccavekkhitabbam. 

4. J. V, 253 : Theyyaparibhoga, inaparibhoga, ddyajjaparibhoga, sdmiparibhoga. Vis. Mag. 
does not attribute these four to the 'ancients' (pordna) as it is done here. 



24 Vimuttimagga 

(Use of requisites by an) individual having modesty and decorum, who 
reflects wisely, knows, is self-moderated and is possessed of aversion — this 
is called 'clean'. In this cleanliness one ought to train oneself always. Thus 
one should understand the four requisites. This is called 'virtue connected 
with the requisites'. 

FIFTH GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE SUMMARIZED 

Thus 'virtue of the ruies-of-the-order-restraint' should be fulfilled through 
higher faith; 'virtue of purity of livelihood' should be fulfilled through higher 
energy; [404] 'virtue of the restraint of faculties' should be fulfilled through 
higher faith and 'virtue connected with the requisites' should be fulfilled through 
higher wisdom. 

Thus 'virtue of the purity of livelihood' goes together with the rules of the 
order, Pdtimokkha. Why? Because, through separation from worldly affairs 
owing to non-attachment, one becomes quiet of behaviour and acquires restraint 
of bodily and verbal actions. These two kinds of virtue belong to the 'virtue 
of the restraint of faculties'. What is the reason? If a man guards his mind 
in goodness, he can well protect his bodily and verbal actions. '(Virtue) 
connected with the requisites' is 'restraint of faculties'. What is the reason? 
One knows the aggregations and their dependence and is disgusted with them, 
and dwells in Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. It is as taught by 
the Blessed One thus: "A bhikkhu understands material food and the five- 
fold lust". 

'Rules-of-the-order-restraint' and 'purity of livelihood' belong to the 
'group of virtue' ; 'virtue of the restraint of faculties' belongs to the 'group of 
concentration' and 'virtue connected with the requisites' belongs to the 'group 
of wisdom'. 

WHAT PURIFIES VIRTUE 

'What purifies virtue'? If a bhikkhu who has accepted the teaching of 
meditation 1 and is mindful of the seven groups of offences, sees another 
committing a Defeat-offence 2 he falls from the state of a bhikkhu and lives in 
incomplete virtue. If he lives in complete virtue, he will acquire the excellent 
virtue. If he lives in complete virtue, he will acquire the excellent truth. 
This is the teaching of the predecessors. 

If a bhikkhu sees another committing a Suspension-offence 3 he confesses 
fully. If he sees another committing any other offence, then he confesses 
concerning that transgression to one person. 4 

If a bhikkhu sees another 5 committing wrong livelihood, he makes a 
proper confession concerning that transgression. After he confesses, he 
resolves: "I will not do it again." Thus having seen, he resolves. 



1. Jhana dhamma. 2. Parajika. 3. Sanghadm-.m. 4. Apattidesana. 

5. Probably should read "himself". 



On Distinguishing Virtue 25 

When he transgresses '(virtue of) the restraint of faculties' or '(virtue) 
connected with the requisites' he says: "1 will not do it again". If he resolves 
he will acquire excellent restraint in the future. 

When a bhikkhu practises the purity of virtue, he does bodily and verbal 
actions that ought to be done. He reflects on his actions. He does well and 
removes ill. Reflecting thus he dwells in the purity of virtue, day and night. 
Thus doing he is able to purify his virtue. 

What is the salient characteristic of the purity of virtue? 1 One can control 
the passions, 2 destroy rigidity 3 and fulfil concentration. 4 This is the salient 
characteristic of the purity of virtue. 

CAUSES THROUGH WHICH ONE DWELLS IN VIRTUE 

'Owing to how many causes does one dwell in virtue?' Through two, 
one dwells in virtue. The first : one considers the tribulation of the transgression 
of virtue; the second: one considers the merits of virtue. 

What is to consider 'tribulation'? If a man transgresses virtue, lie makes 
demerit and prepares evil places (for himself) and fears the four classes 5 and 
doubting, blames the wise. Those who are virtuous avoid him. He is not 
taught meditation. Heavenly beings despise him. He is hated and slighted 
by all. When he hears others praising the merit of those who are virtuous, 
he feels sorrowful but does not believe it (the merit of those who are virtuous). 
He is always angry when he is amongst those of the four classes. He dislikes 
and hates (good) companions. He opposes those who are virtuous and takes 
the side of evil companions. 

And again, he has not the patience to enter into the way of excellent con- 
centration. If he adorns himself, he looks, especially, ugly. He is disliked 
even as excrement and urine are disliked by men. (He does not endure) even 
as a makeshift article does not last long. (He is worthless) even as mud is 
of no value in the present or the future. He is anxious and dejected always. 
He is ashamed and remorseful of the evil he has done and he has no peace 
of mind, like a thief in prison. He has no desire for the Noble (Law), as an 
outcast has no desire for a king's throne. 6 Though he is learned in the doctrine 
of wisdom, yet none honour him, even as a dung-fire (is honoured by none). He 
cannot find a good place in this life and after death he will go to an evil state. 

If a man wishes to forsake evil and fulfil the merits of virtue, he should 
consider thus : The mind of the transgressor of virtue is disti acted and dejected. 
The virtuous man, through strenuous endeavour, grows in belief and becomes 
an energetic individual endowed with faith. 



1. Silavisuddhi. 2. Kiiesa. 3. Thlna. 4. Samadhi. 

5. Cp. D. II, 85 : Puna caparam gahapatayo dussilo slla-vipanno yam yad eva parisam upasaih- 
kamati yadi khattiya-parisam yadi hramana-parisam yadi gahapati-parisam yadi samami- 
parisam, avisarado upasamkamati mahku-bhuto. 

6, Vis, Mag. 54: Niraso saddhamme caiidalakumdrako viya rajje. 



26 Vimuttimagga 

A man should protect his virtue, with all his strength, as an ant protects 
her egg, as a yak loves his tail, as one protects an only son or one's sole eye, 1 
as a diviner protects himself, as a poor man protects his treasure and 
as a fisherman protects his boat. More (strenuously) than these should he 
honour and protect the virtue he has undertaken to observe. If he thus observes, 
his mind will be guarded, he will dwell in the peace of concentration and his 
virtue will acquire protection. 



1. (a) J. Ill, 375: Satthd attano sdvake rattiyd tayo vdre divasassa tayo vdre ti rattimdivam 
cha vdre olokento kiki vd andarh viya camari va vdladhim viya mdtd piyaputtam viya 
ekacakkhuko puriso cakkhum viya rakkhati, tasmim tasmirh yeva khane uppannakilesam 
nigganhati. 

(b) Vis Mag. 36, and Sddh.v. 621 : 

Kiki va andarh camariva vdladhim 
Piyam va puttarh nayanam va ekakaih, 
Tattf eva silarii anurakhamanakd, 
Supesald hotha sadd sagdravd. 

(c) Ap. 61, v.16: Kiki va andarh rakkheyya camari-r-iva vdladhim 

nipako silasampanno mamam rakkhi mahamuni. 
In the Pali passages, (a), (b) and (c) above instead of ant the bird, blue jay \ (kiki) occurs, 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE SECOND 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIP1TAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
ON AUSTERITIES 1 

CHAPTER THE THIRD 

Q. Now, if a yogin who dwells in pure virtue aspires to accomplish 
excellent good merits and wishes to acquire the benefits of the austerities, he 
should consider thus: "Why should one acquire the benefits of the austerities" ? 

A. Because of the varying disposition of the yogin. For paucity of 
wishes, for contentment with little, for freedom from doubt, for the destruction 
of craving, for the increase of energy, for the sake of using little and not 
accepting the offerings made to others, for solitude, for the cutting down of 
clinging and for the protection of moral virtue. These (the merits of the 
austerities) are the equipment of concentration. These are (practices of) 
the ancient lineage of the Ariyas. 2 These are the excellent considerations. 

THE THIRTEEN AUSTERITIES 

What are the austerities? There are thirteen teachings: 3 two teachings 
connected with robes, namely, dirt-rags* 4 and three robes ;t 5 five teachings 
connected with alms, namely, begged food,t 6 regular alms-round,* 7 one eating,* 8 
measured food,* 9 no food after time ;* 10 five teachings connected with residence : 
the first: dwelling in a peaceful place,* 11 the second: dwelling under a tree,* 12 
the third: dwelling in a dewy place,* 13 the fourth: dwelling among the graves,* 14 
the fifth: any chanced upon place;* 15 and there is a kind of sitting connected 
with energy, namely, always sitting and not lying down.* 16 



1. Dhuta (transliteration). 6. Pindapdtika-\ 11. Aramika- '. 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 59. 7. Sapaddnacdrika-\ 12. RukkhamuUka- . 

3. Ibid. 8. Ekdsanika- . 13. Abbhokdsika- '. 

4. Pamsukfdika-anga. 9. Pattapindika- . 14. Sosdnika- . 

5. Tecivarika- '. 10. Khalupacchdbhatika-\ 15. Yathdsanthatika^ 

t A. I, 38. * A. Ill, 219-20 16. Ne$ajjika-\ 

27 



28 Vimuttimagga 

BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE THIRTEEN AUSTERITIES 

What is the quality of 'dirt-rags' ? A. The quality of enabling to observe — 
this is the quality of dirt-rags'. Others are similar. 

What is the meaning of the observance of dirt-rags'? The non-acceptance 
of gifts of householders. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'three robes'? The rejection 
of extra robes. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'begged food'? The non- 
acceptance of the invitations of others. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'regular alms-round'? The 
abandoning of skipped begging. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'one-eating'? The not sitting 
again. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'measured food' ? The abandon- 
ing of greed. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'refusing food after time' ? The 
abandoning of the desire to eat afterwards. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place'? 
The abandoning of dwelling in a village. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling under a tree' ? The 
abandoning of dwelling in a house. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place' ? 
The abandoning of dwelling in sheltered places. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling among the graves'? 
The abandoning of dwelling in other and in good places. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'any chanced upon place'? 
The abandoning of desire for pleasant places. 

What is the meaning of the observance of 'always sitting and not lying 
down'? The abandoning of beds. 

'DIRT-RAGS' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'dirt-rags'? One 
sees the fault of asking householders for robes and the merit of 'dirt-rags' 
(and undertakes thus:) "I refuse the offerings of householders and observe 
(the austerity of) 'dirt-rags'". 

What are the benefits of the observance of 'dirt-rags' ? ('Dirt-rags') are 
just as useful as householders' robes 1 and are enough. One does not depend 
on others. There is no fear of losing, and one is not attached. Thieves do 
not want 'dirt-rags'. ('Dirt-rags') are always sufficient for one's purpose. 



I . Gahapatkivara, robes offered by householders. 



On Austerities 29 

In getting ('dirt-rags') one is not troubled and (this observance) will be an 
example to good folk. This observance is proper to those who are doubt-free 
and virtuous. One lives happily in this life. (This observance) will cause 
one to be liked by the people, and cause them to practise rightly. These are 
the benefits of the observance of 'dirt-rags' praised by the Buddha, 1 

O, How many kinds of 'dirt-rags' are there? Who observes?" How 
does one fail? 

A. There are two kinds of 'dirt-rags'. The first: 'dirt-rags' which are 
ownerless, the second: 'dirt-rags' which are thrown away by people. 

Those which one picks up in a cemetery, from a dirt-heap, in the street, 
or from the road-side and cuts, dyes, pieces together, sews to completion and 
uses, are called " 'dirt-rags' which are ownerless". Remnants of cut-cloth, 
torn pieces of cattle-bitten, mouse-gnawed or burnt cloth and cloth thrown 
away, cloth on corpses, and cast-off cloth of ascetics are called " 'dirt-rags' 
which are thrown away by people". 

What is the observance of 'dirt-rags'? When a bhikkhu refuses the 
offerings of householders, it is called the observance of 'dirt-rags'. 

How does one fail? When a bhikkhu accepts the offerings of house- 
holders, it is called failing. 

'THREE ROBES' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'three robes'? 
One immediately gives up one's extra robes. Knowing the fault of keeping 
(extra robes) and seeing the benefits of the observance of 'three robes', (one 
undertakes thus :) "I refuse extra robes from today and observe (the austerity 
of) 'three robes'". 

What are the benefits of the observance of 'three robes'? It is an obser- 
vance of good men. A bhikkhu gives up the hoarding of unnecessaries, 
lessens troubles and becomes modest. As a bird on wing that does not yearn 
for what it leaves behind is filled with content, so is he. [405] One gets a 
following of good men. This observance is doubt-free. 

Q. What are 'three robes'? What is the observance? How does one 
fail? 

A. Shoulder cloak, 3 upper garment 4 and waist-cloth. 5 These are called 
'three robes'. 

What is the observance of 'three robes'? When a bhikkhu does not 
hoard extra robes, it is called the observance of 'three robes'. When a bhikkhu 
accepts a fourth robe, it is called failing. 

1. A. Iir, 219: "Vannitam buddhehi ' buddhasavakehf. 

2. According to the explanation which follows, this should be "what is the observance of 
'dirt-rags* ?" 

3. SanghSti. 4. Uttamsanga. 5. Antaravasaka. 



30 Viniuttimagga 

' BEGGED FOOD' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'begged food"? 
If a bhikkhu accepts an invitation, he interrupts his activities and is not 
at ease. One sees these draw-backs and the merits of the observance of 
'begged food' (and undertakes thus:) "I refuse invitations from today and 
observe (the austerity of 'begged food')". 

What are the benefits of the observance of 'begged food' ? One is free 
to go or stay according to one's wishes. One does not need food to be prepared. 
One destroys rigidity and pride. One is not greedy of delicacies. One 
permits others to be benefitted and is never attached to any quarter. One 
gets a following of good men. This observance is doubt- free. 

Q. How many kinds of invitations are there? What is the observance? 
How does one fail? 

A. There are three kinds of invitations. 

The first: (general) invitation, the second: invitation to visit, the third: 
repeated invitation. 1 

The non-acceptance of these three kinds of invitations is the observance 
of 'begged food'. If a bhikkhu accepts these three kinds of invitations, he 
fails in the observance of 'begged food'. 

'REGULAR ALMS-ROUND' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'regular alms-round'? 
When a bhikkhu is able to obtain tasty food from any house by making a 
'regular alms-round', he does not go again (in that direction). If he goes 
again, it is an ordinary alms-round. If there is a doubtful place he avoids it. 
One sees these faults (of going again etc.) and the benefits of the observance 
of 'regular alms-round' (and undertakes thus :) "I abandon the irregular alms- 
round from today and observe (the austerity of) 'regular alms-round'". 

What are the benefits of the observance of 'regular alms-round' ? One 
thinks of benefitting ail beings equally, and destroys the fault of enjoyment. 
One is not pleased when invited, is not pleased with many words, and does 
not call on householders. One does not walk hurriedly. Rare as the moon 
at full, one appears and is appreciated and honoured. One gets a following 
of good men. This observance is doubt-free. 

Q. What is a 'regular alms-round'? What is the observance? How 
does one fail? 

A. When a bhikkhu enters a village for alms, he begs in regular order 
from the last house backwards. This is called 'regular alms-round'. 

How does one fail? Skipped begging — this is called failing. 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 66. The Chinese is unclear. 



On Austerities 31 

'ONE-EATING' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'one-eating'? 
Eating in two places, eating frequently, taking food frequently, washing the 
bowl frequently — the opposite of these is 'one-eating'. This is an observance 
of good men. This observance is doubt-free. One sees the faults (of eating 
at two places etc.) and the merits of the observance of 'one-eating' (and under- 
takes thus:) 'T abandon eating at two places from today and observe (the 
austerity of) 'one-eating'". 

What are the benefits of the observance of 'one-eating'? One takes 
neither more nor less. One is not greedy of improper offerings, is not troubled 
with many ills, is untroubled as regards livelihood, and is happy. This is an 
observance of good men. This observance is doubt-free. 

Q. What is the observance of 'one-eating'? What are the limits? 1 
How does one fail? 

A. There are three limits: sitting-limit, water-limit, food-limit. 

What is 'sitting-limit'? After one ends eating one (cannot) sit again. 

After a bhikkhu fetches water and washes his bowl, he cannot eat again. 
This is called 'water-limit'. What is 'food-limit'? After one thinks: "This 
lump of food is the last," he should not drink or eat any more. This is called 
'food-limit'. 

If a bhikkhu sits twice, except in taking liquid-medicine and such other 
things, he fails in the observance of 'one-eating'. This has been disapproved 
by the Buddhas. This is called 'food-limit'. 

'MEASURED FOOD' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'measured food'? 
If a bhikkhu drinks and eats too much, he increases sleepiness, always hankers 
for much food, and sets no limit to his appetite. One sees these faults and 
the merits of the observance of 'measured food' (and undertakes thus:) "From 
today, I take food without greed, and observe (the austerity of) 'measured 
food'". This is called undertaking to observe (the austerity of) 'measured 
food'. 

What are the benefits of the observance of 'measured food'? One 
measures one's meal. One does not eat for belly's sake. One knows that 
too much eating induces fatigue and therefore one does not desire much, and 
causes diseases to perish, and abandons rigidity. This is an observance of 
good men. This observance is doubt-free. 

Q. What is the observance of 'measured food'? How does one fail? 
1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 69. 



32 Vimuttimagga 

A. When a bhikkhu receives drink and food, he considers the measure 
of his wants. He does not take too much food and knows well the (proper) 
quantity and does not exceed the limit. (This is) called the observance of 
'measured food'. If he does otherwise, he fails. 



'NO FOOD AFTER TIME' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'no food after time' ? 
One abandons expectation and avoids extra food. One knows these faults 
(expectation etc.) and sees the benefits of the observance of 'no food after 
time' (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon extra food from today and observe 
(the austerity of) 'no food after time'". 

What are the benefits of the observance of 'no food after time'? One 
abandons greed, and experiences the joy of self-restraint. One protects the 
body, and avoids taking food in advance, does not hanker, does not ask others 
for things, does not follow his inclinations. This is an observance of good 
men. This observance is doubt-free. 

0. How many kinds of '(no food) after time' are there? What is the 
observance? How does one fail? 

A. There are two kinds of '(no food) after time': immoderate limit, 
accepting limit. 

What is 'immoderate limit'? If a bhikkhu accepts extra food, his offence 
is (equal to) that of one who accepts food offered to a particular person or 
persons. 1 He should not eat again. What is 'accepting limit'? A bhikkhu 
should not accept after he has eaten twenty-one handfuls. Tf he observes 'no 
food after time', he abandons extra food. If he accepts extra food he fails 
in the observance of 'no food after time'. 

'DWELLING IN A PEACEFUL PLACE' 

How does one undertake (the austerity of) 'dwelling in a peaceful place' ? 
When the village is crowded, one's mind is touched by the five objects of sense 
and saturated with the desire for pleasure. When one dwells in a crowded 
place, one is disturbed by people going and coming. One sees these faults 
and the merits of the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place' (and under- 
takes thus:) "I abandon dwelling in the village from today and observe (the 
austerity of) 'dwelling in a peaceful place'". 

What are the merits of 'peaceful place' ? Even when the village is crowded, 
one's mind is not touched by the five objects of sense and is kept away from 
attachment. If one dwells in a crowded place, one is disturbed by the going 
and coming of many: One knows the excellence of the ten kinds of words 



1. Uddesabhatta. 



On Austerities 33 

praised by gods and men. One does not wish to become worldly, and wishes 
to gain tranquillity. One dwells in solitude, speaks little and meditates, 
according to one's bent of mind. This is an observance of good men. This 
observance is doubt-free. 

Q. What is the nearest distance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place' ? 
What is the observance? How does one fail? 

A. One dwells outside (the village) keeping some distance from the 
walls and avoiding the far end of the suburb. The nearest distance of 'dwelling 
in a peaceful place' is five-hundred bow-lengths. 1 One bow-length is four 
cubits of an average man. Avoidance of dwelling in a village is called 
'dwelling in a peaceful place'. If bhikkhu dwells in a village, he fails in the 
observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. 

'DWELLING UNDER A TREE' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling under a 
tree'? One avoids roofed places. One does not keep animals. One does 
not build or long for (roofed places). One does not search (for roofed places). 
One sees the faults (of dwelling in roofed places) and the merits of the observance 
of '(dwelling) under a tree' (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon roofed places 
from- today and observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling under a tree'. Thus one 
undertakes to observe. 

What are the benefits of '(dwelling) under a tree'? One relies on the 
place one likes, one does not hold intercourse with the world, one is pleased 
because one is free from all work, one dwells with the gods, cuts down 
resentment due to residence, and is free from attachment. This is an obser- 
vance of good men. This observance is doubt-free. 

Q. Under what trees should a bhikkhu dwell? What trees should he 
avoid? What is the observance? How does one fail? 

A, The place on which shadows of trees fall during the day and the 
place where leaves of trees fall when there is no wind are the places to dwell 
in. One avoids dangerous decayed trees, rotten trees with hollows and trees 
haunted by evil spirits. One avoids roofed places. This is the observance 
of 'dwelling under a tree'. If a bhikkhu goes to (live in) a roofed place, he 
fails in the observance of 'dwelling under a tree'. 

'DWELLING IN A DEWY PLACE' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling in a dewy 
place'? One does not desire to dwell in roofed places, under trees, and in 
places where animals and goods are kept. One sees the faults of these, and 

1. Vin. IV, 183: Arannakaih senasanmh panca-dhamisatlkam pacchimam. 



34 Vimuttimagga 

the benefits of 'dwelling in a dewy place' (and undertakes thus:) "I avoid 
unpleasant places from today and observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling in a 
dewy place'. 

What are the benefits of 'dwelling in a dewy place' ? One does not go 
to unpleasant places and abandons negligence and torpor. One goes whither- 
soever one wills, like a forest-deer and is not attached to any particular place. 1 
This is an observance of good men. This observance is doubt-free. 

What is the observance? How does one fail? One avoids roofed places 
and the shelter of trees. This is the observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place'. 
If one dwells in roofed places and under the shelter of trees, one fails in the 
observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place'. 

'DWELLING AMONG THE GRAVES' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling among 
the graves'? One who dwells in other places becomes careless and does not 
fear wrongdoing. One sees these faults and the merits of 'dwelling among 
the graves' (and undertakes thus:) "I avoid other places from today and 
observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling among the graves' ".- This is the under- 
taking to observe. 

What are the merits of the observance of '(dwelling) among the graves' ? 
One understands the feeling of the time of death. One perceives that all is 
impure. One acquires the homage of non-humans. One does not cause 
heedlessness to arise, overcomes passion and is much detached, One does 
not fear what common folk dread. One contemplates on the emptiness of 
the body and is able to reject the thought of permanence. This is an obser- 
vance of good men. This observance is doubt-free. 

Q. (What are the merits of 'dwelling among the graves'?). Where 
should one dwell? What is the observance? How does one fail? 

A. If in a place of graves there is always weeping and wailing and smoke 
and fire, one should consider, find out a calm place, and go to dwell there. 

If a bhikkhu dwells 'among the graves', he should not build a hut or 
make a comfortable bed. He should sit with his back to the wind. He should 
not sit facing the wind. He should not fall into deep sleep. He should not 
eat fish. He should not drink milk or buttermilk or eat sesamum or flesh of 
animals [406]. He should not dwell in a house or use a platter. When a 
person taking his mat and robes leaves (the monastery) and goes to dwell 
'among the graves', he, as it were, flings all his belongings afar. At dawn, 
he takes mat and robes and returns to the monastery 2 and avoids other dwelling- 
places. If he dwells in any other place, he breaks or fails in the observance 
of 'dwelling among the graves'. 



1. Sn. 39: Migo araftnamhi yathd abandho 

yerC icchakarh gacchati gocardya, 

2, Sanghdrdma (transliteration). 



On Austerities 35 

'ANY CHANCED UPON PLACE' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'any chanced upon 
place'? One does not like the place which men want greedily. One is not 
troubled when others wish him to leave any place. One sees these faults 
(greed for place etc.) and the merits of the observance of 'any chanced upon 
place', (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon the greed for residence and observe 
(the austerity of) 'any chanced upon place' ". This is the undertaking to 
observe. 

What are the benefits of 'any chanced upon place' ? One dwells satisfied 
with any place, longs for tranquillity, abandons various comforts, is honoured 
by others, dwells with heart of compassion. This is an observance of good 
men. This observance is doubt-free. 

What is the observance? How does one fail? 

To abandon the longing which is dependent on dwelling— this is called 
dependence on 'any chanced upon place'. If a bhikkhu goes to dwell in a 
pleasant place, it is called failing. 

'ALWAYS SITTING AND NOT LYING DOWN' 

How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'always sitting and 
not lying down'? One sees the faults of sleeping and idling in the dwelling- 
place and the benefits of 'always sitting and not lying down' (and undertakes 
thus:), "I abandon sleeping and lying down from today and observe (the 
austerity of) 'always sitting and not lying down' ". This is the undertaking 
to observe. 

What are the benefits of 'always sitting and not lying down' ? One avoids 
the place where idleness arises. One removes resentment produced on account 
of one's body, and is freed from the pleasures which taint the organ of touch. 
One diminishes the enshrouding torpor. One is always tranquil and becomes 
fit for the practice of excellent concentration. This is an observance of good 
men. This observance is doubt-free. 

What is the observance? How does one fail? 

(Its observance is in) the abandoning of sleep and not lying down. If 
one lies down, it is called failing. 

EXPEDIENCE IN THE OBSERVANCE OF THE AUSTERITIES 

What are not 'dirt-rags'? They are hemp, cotton, silk and woollen 
robes 1 and others 2 offered by house-holders. If a bhikkhu accepts these for 
expedience' sake, he does not fail in the observance of 'dirt-rags'. 

1. Khoma, kappdsa, koseyya, kambala — all transliterations. 

2. According to the Chinese " Samantapdsddikd" these are sdna and bhanga^ two varieties 
of hemp. 



36 Vimuttimagga 

What are (not) 'three-robes'? Extra robes stored for more than ten 
days; kathina robes and those other extra robes used as bedding-holders, 
bed-spreads, 1 cloth for skin-ailments and the like, 2 napkins, 3 rain-bath cloth, 4 
should not be kept if they are not spotless gifts. If a bhikkhu uses these for 
expedience' sake, he does not fail in the observance of 'three robes'. 

What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'begged- 
food' ? To partake of food given to the Order as a whole, 5 of assured food, 6 
of ticket food, 7 of food offered on lunar fortnights, 8 of food offered on a 
sacred day, 9 of food offered to the many 10 and of food given in honour of a 
monastery, 11 for expedience' sake is not to fail in the observance of 'begged 
food'. If one sees faults, one should reject such food. 

What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'regular 
alms-round' ? If a bhikkhu on seeing elephants or horses fighting or in rut, 
at the gate, avoids them, or on seeing an outcast 12 covers his bowl, or goes 
behind his preceptor, teacher or a visiting bhikkhu, and thus commits certain 
faults for expedience' sake, he does not fail in 'regular alms-round'. 

What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'one- 
eating' ? If in the course of taking a meal at the proper time, one sees elephants, 
horses, cattle or snakes, or if it rains, or if one sees one's preceptor 13 or 
teacher, 14 or a visiting bhikkhu, and stands up for expedience' sake, and after 
that resumes one's meal, one does not fail in the observance of 'one-eating'. 

In 'measured food' and 'no food after time', there is nothing by way of 
expedience. 

What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'dwelling 
in a peaceful place' ? If one goes to the village for causing people to undertake 
the precepts, confession of faults, hearing the Law, the service of the sacred 
day, 15 the service of the termination of the rainy season residence, 16 sickness, 
nursing the sick, inquiries regarding doubts on the discourses, and the like, 
it is not failing in the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. 

What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'dwelling 
under a tree' ? If a bhikkhu, because of rain, goes to a roofed place and returns 
when it is bright, he does not fail in the observance of 'dwelling under a tree'. 

Expedience in the observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place', 'dwelling 
amongst the graves', and 'any chanced upon place' is also like this. A bhikkhu 
may dwell elsewhere. 

There is nothing by way of expedience regarding 'always sitting and not 
lying down'. Yet there is a tradition as regards the expediency of pouring 
(medicine) into the nose. By this one does not fail in 'always sitting and not 
lying down'. 



1. Paccattharana. 5. Sanghabhatta. 9. Uposathabhatta. 

2. Kandupaticcadi. 6. Niccabhatta. 10. Ganabhatta. 

3. Mukhapunchana. 7. Salakabhatta. 11. Vihdrabhatta. 

4. Vassikasdfika. 8. Pakkhikabhatta. 12. Canddla (transliteration). 

13. Upajjhaya (probably transliteration). 

14. Ac ariya (transliteration). 15. Uposatha, 16. Pavarana. 



On Austerities 37 

MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

And again one fulfils eight teachings through these thirteen austerities. 
In the Abhidhamma these eight are taught: " 'Measured food' and 'one- 
eating' are involved in 'no food after time'. 'Dwelling under a tree', 'dwelling 
in a dewy place', 'dwelling among the graves' are involved in 'dwelling in a 
peaceful place', because, if one gathers funds for building a house, or if one 
likes to (do remunerative) work, keeps animals or is attached to 'dwelling in a 
peaceful place', one's mind is not at ease. Thus thinking one dwells in peace 
'under a tree', 'among the graves' or 'in a dewy place' ". Thus the eight are 
fulfilled. 

By these eight austerities three teachings are fulfilled: the first: 'dwelling 
in a peaceful place', the second: 'dirt-rags', the third: 'begged food'. If 
these three are pure, the austerities are fulfilled. Therefore the Buddha taught 
the Venerable Elder Nanda thus: "Always you should observe 'dwelling in a 
peaceful place', 'dirt-rags' and 'begged food'. You should not nurse your 
body and life. You should not see the objects of lust." 1 

Q. Who is called observer of the austerity-factors ? 2 How many kinds 
of teachings are there regarding austerities ? Which of three persons observe 
the austerities ? How many seasons are there for the observance of austerities ? 
Who is an observer and teacher of the austerities ? 

A. There are thirteen austerities taught by the Buddha. These are 
precepts of the Buddha. These are called austerity-factors. Here the skilful, 
unskilful and the non-characterizable 3 should not be taught, because the unskil- 
ful man is full of lust. He does not remove lust. He lives in wickedness. 
He is greedy of worldly advantages. Therefore, unskill is (not) austerity. 

How many kinds of teachings are there? There are two teachings of 
austerities : non-greed and non-delusion. The Buddha has said, "If a bhikkhu 
who observes (the austerity of) 'dirt-rags' is endowed with paucity of wishes, 
is contented with little, enjoys tranquillity, is doubt-free and relies on freedom, 
then he is called one who observes (the austerity of) 'dirt-rags'". 4 The other 
austerities are all greedless and delusion-free. By means of this greedlessness, 
a bhikkhu removes ignorance in thirteen places. And again by this greed- 
lessness which the Buddha made possible (a bhikkhu) arouses in his mind 
aversion, and being free from doubt, reasonably removes the stain of lust and 
crookedness. By this freedom from delusion, he removes weariness of the 
flesh and crookedness. These are the two teachings of austerities. These 
are greedlessness and freedom from delusion. 



1. S.II, 281 : Evam kho te Nanda yam tvam arannako ca assasi pindapdtiko ca pamsu- 

kitliko ca kdmesu ca anapekkho vihareyydsi. 

2. Dhutanga. 3. Kusala, akusala, avyakata. 

4. Cp. A.III, 219: Imesam kho bhikkhave pahcannam drannakdnam yvdyam arannako 
appicchatarh yeva nissdya santutthim yevanissdya sallekham yeva nissdya pavivekam yeva 
nissdya idam afthitam yeva nissdya arannako hoti, ayarh imesam pancannam drannakdnam 
aggo ca sett ho ca mokkho ca uttamo ca pavaro ca. 



38 Vimuttimagga 

'Which of the three persons observe the austerities' ? The man of greed 
and the man of delusion observe the austerities. The man of hate cannot 
observe the austerities. The man of greed and the man of delusion can observe 
the austerities. The man of greed accomplishes heedfulness through attachment. 
If he becomes heedless, he overcomes greed. Delusion is non-doubting. By 
means of the austerities a bhikkhu can fulfil heedfulness. If he is heedful, 
he can overcome delusion well. That is why the man of greed and the man of 
delusion observe the austerities. 

Heedless men suffer and do evil. A heedless man should not observe 
(because if he does, he will increase his sufferings), just as a person afflicted 
with a disease of phlegm worsens on taking hot drinks. 

And again there is a tradition. A heedless man should dwell 'in a peaceful 
place' or 'under a tree'. Why should he dwell 'in a peaceful place'? Because 
there are no worldly troubles there. 

How many seasons are there for the observance of austerities? Eight 
months are the period for three austerities, namely, 'dwelling under a tree', 
'dwelling in a dewy place' and 'dwelling among the graves'. The Buddha has 
permitted dwelling in roofed places in the rainy season. 1 

Q. 'Who is an observer and teacher of the austerities' ? 

A. There is one who is an observer and teacher of the austerities. There 
is one who is an observer but not a teacher of austerities. There is one who is 
not an observer but only a teacher of austerities, and there is one who is neither 
an observer nor a teacher of austerities. 

Who is 'an observer and teacher of austerities' ? The Consummate One 
who has fulfilled the observance of the austerities. 

Who is 'an observer but not a teacher of austerities' ? The Consummate 
One who has not fulfilled the observance of the austerities. 

Who is 'not an observer but only a teacher of austerities' ? The learner 
or the commoner who has fulfilled the observance of the austerities. 

Who is 'neither an observer nor a teacher of austerities'? The learner 
or the commoner who has not fulfilled the observance of the austerities. 

Q. What is the salient characteristic, function and manifestation of the 
austerities ? 

A. Paucity of wishes is the salient characteristic. Contentment is the 
function. Non-doubting is the manifestation. 

And again non-attachment is the salient characteristic. Moderation is 
the function. Non-retrogression is the manifestation. 

What are the initial, medial and final stages of the austerities ? The under- 
taking to observe is the initial stage. Practice is the medial stage and re- 
joicing is the final stage. 



1 . Vassana. 



ON DISTINGUISHING CONCENTRATION 

CHAPTER THE FOURTH 

Q. Now, what should the yogin who dwells in pure virtue do, when he 
has already observed the austerities and has reached an excellent station ? 

A, Let him bring out concentration. 

Q. What is concentration? What is its salient characteristic? What is 
its function ? What is its manifestation ? What is its near cause ? Who 
observes it? What differences are there between meditation, freedom, con- 
centration and right observance ? How many are the causes which produce 
concentration? How many states are obstacles to progress in concentration? 
How many benefits of concentration are there? What are the requisites of 
concentration? How many kinds of concentration are there? What is the 
bringing out of concentration? 

MEANING OF CONCENTRATION 

A. Concentration means that one has purity of mind, endeavours stead- 
fastly, dwells with the truth having the benefit of tranquillity and is not 
distracted. This is called concentration. 

And again, it means not allowing one's mind to be bent by the strong 
wind of passion. It is comparable to the unflickering flame of the lamp 
behind the palace. 

It is said in the Abhidhamma thus: "What fixes the mind aright, causes it 
to be not dependent on any, causes it to be unmoved, undisturbed, tranquillized 
and non-attached, and rightens the faculty of concentration and the power 
of concentration [407] is called concentration." 1 

SALIENT CHARACTERISTIC ETC. 

What are its salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause? Dwelling of mind is its salient characteristic; overcoming of hatred 
is its function; tranquillity is its manifestation; non-association with defilement 
and the mind obtaining freedom are its near cause. 

Who observes concentration? Namely, he who maintains the mind 
and the mental properties in a state of equilibrium. It is like the hand which 
holds a pair of scales evenly. 

The even practice of mindfulness and energy is concentration. It is 
comparable to the evenness of oil in an oiled bowl. Equilibrated thought, 



1. In his Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, p. 26, Prof. Dr. P. V. Bapat has traced this 
passage to Vbh. 217: Yd cittassa thiti santhiti avatthiti avisaharo avikkhepo avisahata- 
mdnasatd samatho samddhindriyam samddhibalam sammdsamddhi: ay am vuccati samddhi. 

39 



40 Vimuttimagga 

like the equalized energy of four horses of a chariot, is concentration. It is 
like the attentiveness of a fletcher scrutinizing the straightness of a shaft. 
It is like a drug which counteracts poison, because it removes resentment. 
It is said in the Abhidhamma thus: "* is the meaning of concentra- 
tion." This explanation of concentration is comprehensive. 

'Meditation' means the four meditations, namely, the first meditation 
and others. 

'Freedom' means the eight kinds of freedom, namely, one having internal 
perception of form reflects on external form and so on. 1 

'Concentration' means the three kinds of concentration, namely, initial 
and sustained application of thought and others. 

'Right observance' means the right observance of the nine gradually 
ascending states. 2 

'What is 'meditation' ? It is to contemplate on reality, to remove resent- 
ment, to make the mind happy, to discard the hindrances, to gain freedom, 
to equalize, to arouse concentration skilfully, to acquire liberation, to dwell 
in right observance, to wish to arouse concentration and to aspire to possess 
freedom. 

BENEFITS PRODUCED BY CONCENTRATION 

How many benefits can concentration produce? There are four benefits 
which concentration can produce. What are the four? Pleasant dwelling 
in the happiness of truth in the present life; enjoyment of all objects through 
investigation; acquisition of worldly knowledge; the attainment of perfection. 

What is 'pleasant dwelling in the happiness of truth in the present life' ? 
Namely, one acquires concentration and is freed from corruption. One's 
mind arouses joy, partakes of the joy of the supramundane and dwells pleasantly 
in the happiness of truth in the present life. Therefore, has the Blessed One 
said: "He produces joy from quietude, acquires coolness and becomes 
perfect gradually." 3 And again, the Buddha declared to the bhikkhus: "At 



* Unintelligible. 

1. Attha Vimokkha. Cp. D.II, 70, 71. A. IV, 306. Rupi rupani passati etc. In the 
Abhidharma Sangiti Paryaya PadaSastra, the following account of the eight deliverances 
or kinds of freedom is given:- "Having (or with) form one reflects on form; not having 
internal perception of form, one reflects on external form; attaining to and realizing 
the emancipation of purity through one's body, one dwells; transcending all perceptions 
of form, destroying all perceptions of sense-reactions, becoming heedless of perceptions 
of diversity, one enters limitless space, and, attaining to the sphere of the infinity of 
space, dwells; entirely transcending the sphere of the infinity of space, one enters limit- 
less consciousness, and, attaining to the sphere of the infinity of consciousness, dwells; 
entirely transcending, the sphere of the infinity of consciousness, one enters nothingness 
and. attaining to the sphere of nothingness, dwells; entirely transcending the sphere of 
nothingness, one enters the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception and, 
attaining to it, dwells; and entirely transcending the sphere of neither perception nor 
non-perception, one enters the state of the dissolution of perception and sensation 
and, attaining to and realizing it through the body, dwells". 

2. A. IV, 410: Nava anupubbavihara. 3. Not traced. 



On Distinguishing Concentration 41 

first I was a naked ascetic; I did not move my body or open my mouth for 
seven days and seven nights; I sat in silence enwrapped in bliss." 1 This is 
the meaning, in the Noble Teaching, of 'pleasant dwelling in the happiness 
of truth in the present life'. 

'Enjoyment of all objects through investigation' means that a yogin 
acquires concentration and is not hindered by objects. Being pliant of mind, 
he is able to concentrate. He investigates the aggregations, the sense-spheres, 
the elements and others. He is well-disposed. Therefore, the Blessed One 
taught the bhikkhus thus: 'Thus should you train yourselves. Everything 
depends on mind. Know this as it is." 2 

'Acquisition of worldly knowledge' means that one having acquired 
concentration, develops the five faculties of knowledge, namely, psychic power, 
divine ear, knowledge of others' thoughts, recollection of past existences, 
and the divine eye. Therefore, the Blessed One has declared: "With concen- 
trated mind one is able to change one's body at will. Thus one produces 
psychic power in the various modes." 3 

'The attainment of perfection' means that one having a concentrated 
mind, although one has yet to reach the stage of the learning-ender, may 
not fall back at all. One gains (a good) reward through concentration. One 
attains to 'the form', 'the formless' and to perfection. The Buddha has 
declared: "Those who practise a little of the first meditation ate able to join 
the retinue of Brahma. All such are born in such a world." 4 These four 
benefits can be produced by concentration. Each of them causes to arouse. 

OBSTACLES TO CONCENTRATION 

How many states are obstacles to progress in concentration? Namely, 
eight states: lust, hatred, indolence, rigidity, agitation, uncertainty, delusion, 
absence of joy and bliss. All other evil demeritorious states are obstacles. 

CAUSES OF CONCENTRATION 

How many causes of concentration are there? Namely, eight states 
are causes: renunciation, non-hatred, brightness, non-disturbedness, all 
skilful states, sustained application of thought, gladness, and those states 
that arouse knowledge of the truth. These are causes of concentration. 



1. Cp. Ud. 3. 

2. Cp. Dh. 1 : Manopubbangama dhammd. 

3. M. II, 18. 

4. A. II, 126: Idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalovivic'eva kamehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi 

pathamajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. So tad assadeti tarn nikameti tena 

ca vittim dpajjati, tattha thito tad-adhimutto tabbahulavihari aparihino kalarii kurumdno 
Brahma-kayikanarii devdnam sahavyatam uppajjati. 



42 Vimuttimagga 

REQUISITES OF CONCENTRATION 

What are the requisites of concentration? There are seven, namely: 
virtue, contentment, shielding of the faculties, moderation in drink and food, 
not sleeping in the first, middle and last watches of the night, the being intent 
on wisdom and a calm and quiet dwelling-place. 

TWO KINDS OF CONCENTRATION 

How many kinds of concentration are there ? 

There are two kinds of concentration. The first is mundane concentration ; 
the second is supramundane concentration. The acquisition of the Noble 
Fruit is called 'supramundane concentration' ; the others are named 'mundane'. 
Mundane concentration is accompanied by corruption, is connected with 
the fetters and is bound. This is the flood. This is the bond. This is hind- 
rance. This is the corruption of virtue and views. This is clinging. This is 
defilement. Such are the qualities of 'mundane concentration'. The opposite 
of this is named 'supramundane concentration'. 

And again, there are two kinds in concentration: wrong concentration 1 
and Right Concentration. What is wrong concentration? Unskilful unifi- 
cation of mind is called 'wrong concentration'. Skilful unification of mind 
is called 'Right Concentration'. Wrong concentration should be abandoned. 
Right concentration should be practised. 

And again, there are two kinds of concentration: access concentration 
and fixed concentration. The antecedent portion — this is called 'access 
concentration'. Suppression of the hindrances — this is called 'fixed concen- 
tration'. 

THREE KINDS OF CONCENTRATION 

And again, there are three kinds: concentration with initial and sustained 
application of thought; without initial and only with sustained application 
of thought; with neither initial nor sustained application of thought. 2 

What is 'with initial and sustained application of thought'? The first 
meditation is 'with initial and sustained application of thought'. In the 
second meditation there is no initial application of thought, but there is sustained 
application of thought. In the other meditations there is 'neither initial nor 
sustained application of thought'. 

And again, there are three kinds of concentration. Namely, the concen- 
tration that is produced together with joy; the concentration that is produced 



1. Micchdsamddhi. 

2. D.IJI, 219: Tayo samddhi. Savitakko savicdro samddhi, avitakko vicdramatto samddhi, 
avitakko avicdro samddhi. 



On Distinguishing Concentration 43 

together with bliss ; the concentration that is produced together with indiffe- 
rence. The first and the second meditations (jhdnas) are 'produced together 
with joy', the third is 'produced together with bliss' and the fourth meditation 
(jhdna) is 'produced together with equanimity'. 

And again, there are three kinds of concentration : skilful concentration ; 
skilful result (producing) concentration; real concentration. 

What is 'skilful concentration' ? The concentration pertaining to the form 
and the formless practised by the learner of the Noble Path and the commoner 
is called 'skilful concentration'. The concentration of the learner who is 
established in the Noble Fruit (in the spheres of form and the formless) and 
of the commoner who is reborn in the spheres of the form and the formless is 
called 'result producing concentration'. The concentration of the form 
and the formless practised by the learning-ender is called 'real concentration'. 

FOUR KINDS OF CONCENTRATION 

And again, there are four kinds of concentration : the sense plane concen- 
tration; 1 the form plane concentration; 2 the formless plane concentration; 3 
unincluded concentration. 4 

The putting away of each of the five hindrances by its opposite and the 
maintaining of it is called 'the sense plane concentration' ; the four meditations 
are called 'the form plane concentration'; the four formless plane meditations 
and the result of good action (?) are called 'the formless plane concentration'. 
The concentration of the four Paths and the four Fruits is called 'unincluded 
concentration'. 

And again, there are four practices in concentration: painful practice 
(of a man of) slow wit; painful practice (of a man of) quick wit; pleasant 
practice (of a man of) quick wit; pleasant practice (of a man of) slow wit. 5 
(Here) the first of these four kinds of men has dense passion, and the second, 
rare passion; the third has keen faculties, and the fourth, dull faculties. 

To a man of dense passion and dull faculties practice is 'painful'; he 
gains concentration with 'slow wit'. 

To a man of dense passion and keen faculties practice is 'painful', though 
he gains concentration with 'quick wit'. 

To a man of rare passion and dull faculties practice is 'pleasant', though 
he gains concentration with 'slow wit'. 

To a man of rare passion and keen faculties practice is 'pleasant'; he 
gains concentration with 'quick wit'. 



1. Kdmdvacara samddhi. Lit., 'That that' practice and 'true keeping'. The rendering is 
tentative. 

2. Rupdvacara samddhi. 3. Arupdvacaia samddhi. 4. Apariydpanna samddhi. 
5. A.II, 149: Dukkhdpatipadd dandhdbhifind, dukkhdpatipadd khippdbhifind, sukhdpafipadd 

dandhdbhihfid, sukhdpatipadd khippdbhihM. 



44 Vimuttimagga 

Because of the density of passion, a densely passionate man overcomes 
passion with difficulty. Therefore, his practice is painful. 

Because of the dullness of faculties, a man of dull faculties has to practise 
meditation assiduously for a long time and wake up his sluggish wit. Therefore, 
he is called (a man of) dull faculties. 

In this way the others also should be understood. 

And again, there are four kinds in concentration, namely, restricted 
concentration with restricted object; restricted concentration with immeasurable 
object; immeasurable concentration with restricted object; immeasurable 
concentration with immeasurable object. 1 What is 'restricted concentration 
with restricted object' ? The concentration that is not able to keep pace with 
the mind and an object 2 that is weak — these are called 'restricted concentration 
with restricted object'. What is 'restricted concentration with immeasurable 
object' ? The concentration that is not able to keep pace with the mind and an 
object that is powerful — these are called 'restricted concentration with immeasu- 
rable object'. What is 'immeasurable concentration with restricted object'? 
The concentration capable of keeping pace with the mind and an object that 
is weak — these are called 'immeasurable concentration with restricted object'. 
What is 'immeasurable concentration with immeasurable object'? The con- 
centration that is capable of keeping pace with the mind and an object that is 
powerful — these are called 'immeasurable concentration with immeasurable 
object'. 

And again, there are four kinds in concentration: will-concentration; 
effort-concentration ; mind-concentration ; scrutiny-concentration. 3 

4 Will-concentration' is attained by means of the will ; 'effort-concentration' 
is attained by means of effort; what is attained by means of the mind is 'mind- 
concentration' ; what is attained by means of scrutiny is 'scrutiny-concentration'. 

And again, there are four kinds in concentration: the concentration to 
which the Enlightened One attains but not the hearer; the concentration to 
which the hearer attains but not the Enlightened One; the concentration to 
which both the Enlightened One and the hearer attain; the concentration to 
which neither the Enlightened One nor the hearer attains. 

The concentration of great commiseration 4 and the concentration of the 
twin-miracle 5 are attainments of the Enlightened One and not of the hearer. 
The fruition concentration of the learner 6 is an attainment of the hearer and 
not of the Enlightened One. The concentration of the nine gradually ascending 
states and the fruition concentration of the learning-ender are attainments of 



1. Paritta-samddhi, paritta-drammaiia; paritta-samddhi, appamdna-drammana ; appamdna- 
samddhi, paritta-drammana; appamdna-samddhi, appamdna-drammana. 

2. Lit. samddhi. Possibly an error. 

3. A.T, 39, 297 — Chanda, viriya, citta and vimamsa. 5. Maha karund samdpatti. 

4. Yamakapdtihdriya. 6. Sek hiya-phala-samddhi. 



On Distinguishing Concentration 45 

both the Enlightened One and the hearer. And the concentration of incon- 
science 1 is an attainment neither of the Enlightened One nor the hearer. 

And again, there are four kinds in concentration: the concentration that 
is a cause of origination and not of cessation; of cessation and not of origination; 
of both origination and cessation; of neither origination nor cessation. 

Q. What are causes of 'origination and not of cessation' ? Skilful and 
unskilful concentration of the sense plane are causes of 'origination and not of 
cessation'. The concentration of the fourfold Noble Path causes cessation 
and not origination. Skilful concentration of the learner and the commoner 
pertaining to the form plane and the formless plane cause 'origination and 
cessation'. [408] The concentration of the Noble Fruit and object concen- 
tration cause 'neither origination nor cessation'. 

And again, there are four kinds in concentration: the first meditation ; the 
second meditation; the third meditation; the fourth meditation. 

Freedom from the five hindrances, the fulfilment of initial and sustained 
application of thought, joy, ease and unification of mind are called 'the first 
meditation'. 

Freedom from initial and sustained application of thought and the ful- 
filment of the other three (are called 'the second meditation'). 

Freedom from joy and the fulfilment of the other two (are called 'the 
third meditation'). 

Freedom from ease and the fulfilment of equanimity and unification of 
mind are called the fourth meditation. 

FIVE KINDS OF CONCENTRATION 

And again, there are five kinds in concentration, namely the first meditation ; 
the second meditation; the third meditation; the fourth meditation; the fifth 
meditation. This fivefold (classification of) meditation is based on the five 
factors of meditation, namely, initial application of thought, sustained applica- 
tion of thought, joy, bliss, unification of mind. 

The separation from the five hindrances and the fulfilment of the five 
factors are called 'the first meditation'. 

The separation from initial application of thought and the fulfilment of 
the other four factors are called 'the second meditation'. 

The separation from initial and sustained application of thought and the 
fulfilment of the other three factors are called 'the third meditation'. 

The separation from (initial and sustained application of thought, joy) 
and the fulfilment of the other two factors are called 'the fourth meditation'. 



1, The concentration that causes rebirth among the unconscious gods (asanna samapatti). 



46 Vimuttimagga 

The separation from (initial and sustained application of thought, joy,) 
bliss and the fulfilment of two factors are called 'the fifth meditation. (The two 
factors are) equanimity and unification of mind. 

WHY FOUR AND FIVE MEDITATIONS ARE TAUGHT 

Q. Why are four and five meditations taught? 

A. Because the result depends on two sorts of men. In the second 
meditation there are two divisions: without initial and sustained application 
of thought, and without initial and only with sustained application of thought. 

Q. How does a yogin induce the second meditation from the first? 

A. He considers the coarseness of initial and sustained application of 
thought, knows the disadvantages of initial and sustained application of thought, 
and induces the second meditation which is free from initial and sustained 
application of thought. This is the way of progress in the four meditations. 

And again, there is another man. He is able to induce freely the second 
meditation out of the first meditation. He considers the coarseness of initial 
application of thought and knows the disadvantages of initial application of 
thought. He discerns the state of being free from initial application of thought. 
Possessing restricted sustained application of thought, he induces the second 
meditation. This is the way of progress in the five meditations. Therefore, 
the five meditations are. taught. 

And again, there are five kinds in concentration, namely, complete fixed 
meditation in the five factors : joyfulness, blissfulness, mindfulness, luminous- 
ness and the perception of steadily moving thought. Here 'joyfulness' is in the 
first and the second meditations. 'Blissfulness' is in the third meditation. 
'Mindfulness' is in the knowledge of others* thoughts. 'Luminousness' is in 
the knowledge of the divine eye. The knowledge of steadily moving thought 
is born of reflection 1 concentration. This is called 'the perception of steadily 
moving thought'. 

And again there are five kinds in concentration, namely, Right Concen- 
tration connected with the fivefold knowledge. These are consequences of 
present bliss and the bliss to be. These arise depending on the knowledge 
of the body. 

(1) This concentration is practised by the Noble Ones and is passion-free. 

(2) This concentration is practised by wise men. 

(3) This is the excellent bliss of solitude and the attainment of tranquillity. 
Although this accomplishes the unique, yet it does not overcome birth and 
death. 



1. Lit. "That that knowledge". 



On Distinguishing Concentration 47 

(4) This concentration is most pleasant and peaceful. This becomes 
one endowed with tranquillity. This does not overcome the (belief in) self 
(which is the cause) of birth and death. 

(5) This concentration moves in mindfulness and is a cause of mindful- 
ness. These arise owing to knowledge of the body. 

And now, (the acceptance of) objects of meditation, what is connected with 
the requisites, and the inferior, the middling and the superior have been dis- 
tinguished. Thus there are many divisions of concentration. 

(Further), it should be known that all concentration may be classified 
under the four meditations. 1 



. D. II, 313: Katamo ca bhikkhave sammd-samddhi*! Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivic 'eva 
kdmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam savicdram vivekajam piti-sukham patha- 
majjhdnam upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicdrdnam vupasamd ajjhattarh sampasddanam 
cetaso ekodi-bhdvam avitakkam avicdram samddhijam piti-sukham dutiyajjhdnam upa- 
sampajja viharati. Pitiyd ca virdgd upekhako viharati sato ca sampajdno, sukham ca 
kdyena pafisamvedeti yan tarn ariyd dcikkhanti: 'upekhako satimd sukha-vihdri tV tatiya- 
jjhdnam upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahdnd dukkhassa ca pahdnd puW eva 
somanassa-domanassdnam atthagamd adukkham asukham upekha-sati-parisuddhim 
catutthajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. Ayarh vuccati bhikkhave sammd-samddhi. 



ON APPROACHING A GOOD FRIEND 

CHAPTER THE FIFTH 

Q. Then how is concentration brought out? 

A. If a man wishes to bring out concentration, he, at first, should approach 
a pre-eminent friend. Why? If, at first, when a yogin wishes to accomplish 
excellent concentration, he dwells apart from a good friend, he will not acquire 
steadfastness. In a Discourse it is said: "Meghiya bhikkhu partakes of 
deterioration." 1 It is comparable to a man who sets out alone on a distant 
journey. None guides him. When a man sets out alone, he is like an elephant 
that is not guided by the goad. If, when a yogin practises, he listens to the 
discourses and instructions of a good friend, he is able to remove his many 
difficulties and get into the right method and practice. If he strenuously 
endeavours and strictly trains himself, then he is able to acquire excellent 
concentration. 

QUALITIES OF A GOOD FRIEND 

A good friend who may be likened to a wealthy chief of merchants honoured 
by all, to a kind good-hearted person, to a dearly loved parent, steadies one, 
as the chain the elephant. 

A good friend on whom one relies and accomplishes all meritorious 
activities is like a mahout who causes (the elephant) to go backwards and 
forwards, is like a good road on which a man can take a yoke of oxen, like 
a physician who cures diseases and removes pain, like the rain from heaven 
which moistens everything, like a mother who nurses her child, like a father 
who guides his son, like parents who ward their children from perils and 
like a teacher who instructs (his pupils). Therefore, the Blessed One declared 

1. Hdnabhdgiya. Cp. A. IV, 357: Idha Meghiya bhikkhu kalyanamitto hoti kalydnasahdyo 
kalyansampavanko. Aparipakkdya Meghiya cetovimuttiyd ayam pathamo dhammo 
paripakkdya samvattnti. The following is a more or less free rendering of the relative 
passage from the Chinese Chu Agon (Madhyama Agama) No. 5, Fascicle X, Sutra 
No. 56: "Thus have I heard. At one time, when the Enlightened One was wandering 
in the land of Magadha, he arrived at Jantugama, and his sole attendant was the Venerable 
Elder Meghiya. 

And in the morning, the Venerable Elder Meghiya taking bowl and robe went to 
the village of Jantugama for alms. And after completing his alms-round, he wended 
his way to the bank of the river Kimilala. The land there was level meadow, and 
it was known as the Grove of Sweet Mango. Beside it ran the excellent waters of Kimi- 
lala, sparklingly clear. Seeing the pleasant place, the Venerable Elder Meghiya was 
delighted and thought: 'The land here is level meadow and is known as the Grove 
of Sweet Mango. Beside it runs the excellent waters of Kimilala, sparklingly clear. 
Meet is this spot for a clansman for the exercise of energy'. 

And having finished his meal, put aside his bowl and robe, washed his hands and 
feet, he, with one shoulder bared, went to the presence of the Enlightened One, bowed 
at the Enlightened One's feet, and sat on one side. And being seated he spoke thus : 
"Venerable Sir, in the morning, having taken bowl and robe, I went to the village of 

Jantugama for alms and T thought : 'The land here is level meadow and 

is known as the Grove of Sweet Mango. Beside it runs the excellent waters of Kimilala, 

48 



On Approaching a Good Friend 49 

to (A)nanda : "Good companionship is the whole of the holy life." 1 Therefore, 
one should search for the pre-eminently good man and make him the good 
friend. 

What is meant by pre-eminent good friend? (Here), the fulfilment of 
acquisition is the meaning (of 'pre-eminent'). The understanding of the 
Sutta, Abhidhamma and Vinaya is called 'fulfilment of acquisition'. 

One understands the seed (?) of kamma and is endowed with beneficient 
worldly knowledge. One knows the Four Noble Truths. 

These two kinds of men are merit-fulfillers. They should be searched for. 

If these two kinds of merit-fulfillers cannot be found, the fulfiller of seven 
qualities should be considered as a good friend. Such (a man) should also 
be searched for. 

What are the seven qualities? 2 Loveableness, esteem ableness, vcnerablc- 
ness, the ability to counsel well, patience (in listening), the ability to deliver 
deep discourses and the not applying oneself to useless ends. 

What is 'lovableness'? Led by two kinds of practice, a man preaches 
well: dwelling together happily, having come to a mutual understanding 
and not abusing one another. 



sparklingly clear. Meet is this spot for a clansman for the exercise of energy'. How, 
Venerable Sir, if I should go to that calm place in the Grove of Sweet Mango and exercise 
energy ?" .. " :. ~ ;. „i z ' _ -• 

Then the Blessed One said: 'Meghiya, there is no one except you here. Stay 
awhile until another bhikkhu comes to wait on me. Then you may go to that calm 
place in the Grove of Sweet Mango to exercise energy'. ... 

A second and a third time the Venerable Elder Meghiya requested permission 
and for a second and third time did the Blessed One refuse it. 

Then the Venerable Elder Meghiya said: 'Venerable Sir, the Blessed One has 
nothing more to do. The Blessed One need not exert energy any longer. But I, 
Venerable Sir, have much to do yet. Therefore, Venerable Sir, I wish to enter that 
calm place in the Grove of Sweet Mango and exercise energy'. 

Then the Blessed One said: 'Meghiya, if you wish to exert yourself, I do not stop 
you. Go Meghiya and do as you please'. 

The Venerable Elder Meghiya hearing the words of the Enlightened One and accept- 
ing them, bowed at the Enlightened One's feet, walked round Him three times and 
departed. Arriving at the Grove of Sweet Mango, he went to the foot of a tree, 
prepared a seat and sat down. 

And when he was thus seated in the forest, three demeritorious states of mind arose 
in him. namely, discursive thoughts connected with lust, discursive thoughts connected 
with hate and discursive thoughts connected with harming. Then the Venerable Elder 
Meghiya thought of the Blessed One, arose from his seat and forthwith returned to the 
presence of the Blessed One (and told the Blessed One everything) and the Blessed One 
said: 'Your mind is not yet ripe for deliverance. If you wish to cause it to ripen, 
you should train yourself in the five trainings. What are the five? Meghiya, a bhikkhu 
is a good friend and he should be in the company of a good friend, he should closely 
associate with a good friend. 

'Msghiya, if your mind is not ripe for deliverance, and if you wish to cause it to 
ripen, this is the first training ' 

1. S.I, 87-8: Sakalam eva h-idarh Ananda brahmacariyam yad idam kalyaiui-mittata kalyana- 

sahiiyatd kalyiina-sampavankata. 

2. A. TV, 32: Sattahl bhikkhave dhammehi samannagato bhikkhu initio sevitabbo bhqjitabbo 
payirupdsitabbo apt panujjamanena pi. Katamehi sattahP. Piyo hoti manapo ca, gam ca, 
bhavaniyo ca, vatta ca, vacanukkhamo ca, gambhiran ca kathom hat tit hoti, no ca atthane 
niyojeti. Cp. Vis. Mag. 98; Netti 164 r 



50 Vimuttimagga 

'Esteemableness' means that one is tranquillized through the action of 
virtue, fulfils the protection of mindfulness, is not over-desirous and does 
not speak much. This is called 'esteemableness'. 

' Venerableness' means that one is endowed with the merit of much learning 
and appreciates well the value of meditation. This is 'venerableness'. 

'The ability to counsel well' means that one considers thus: "Let my 
speech be lovable, esteemable, venerable and fruitful", and benefits others 
and esteems the truth. Therefore, one restrains oneself from things that 
ought not to be done. Thus one observes to the end and does not forsake. 
This is called 'the ability to counsel well'. 

'Patience (in listening)' means that one is like a saint, understands well, 

never hesitates in one's speech and does not flatter* This is 

called 'patience (in listening)'. 

'(The ability to deliver) deep discourses' means that one well understands 
* This is called '(the ability to deliver) deep discourses'. 

'The not applying oneself to useless ends' means that he understands 
well the place of kamma. This is 'the not applying oneself to useless ends'. 

Thus the seven qualities are completed. These (are qualities of) a good 
friend who should be searched for. 

THE SEARCH FOR A GOOD FPJEND 

Q. How should one search ? 

A. If in such and such a place there is one who knows the accomplishment 
of these merits and is a teacher of meditation, one should go to that teacher. 
Though one may not know, yet if a fellow-student knows, one should go 
and serve him. 

At the proper time in a befitting way (one approaches a fellow-student) 
and without expressing one's wishes, one worships him and exchanges the 
customary greetings and consults him as to what one should do, thus: "In 
which country and in which place is it safe for a bhikkhu to dwell? Which 
is the suitable place of meditation for a bhikkhu ? What is the name of the 
teacher who dwells there? For what practices and for what merits is he 
honoured by all" ? Thus one should inquire. 

The fellow-student will answer: "In such and such a country, in such 
and such a monastery, in such and such a place of meditation set apart for 
the Order, such and such a teacher of meditation is honoured by all". 

On hearing this, one should think on this and be happy, and going thither 
serve that teacher and practise under him. 



Unintelligible. 



On Distinguishing Concentration 51 

Adjusting one's robes one should go to the presence of one's preceptor 1 
and open to him one's happy heart: "O preceptor, hear me. I wish to go 
and serve such and such a teacher of meditation". 

Hearing this the preceptor will reply: 4< Sadhu! I too am glad. Your 
action is praiseworthy. It is called co-residence with a good man and is the 
action of a good man. It is the practice that accompanies the truth. Great 
is the merit of learning it and greater that of co-residence. You should go to 
him. After you go there, you should not be negligent". 

A BEGINNER'S DUTIES 

If one is good, one studies earnestly, honours (one's teacher) whole- 
heartedly, not for a while but always. If one uses gentle speech and guards 
the body and the mouth, then, one may understand and fulfil the practice. 

One relies completely on the teacher in all things, does not slight him 
and obeys him just as a newly-wed bride her mother-in-law. If one sees 
other bhikkhus lacking robes or liquid-medicine, one prepares (what is lacking) 
in the customary way. 

When on going there one is instructed (through) exposition, precept and 
posture — in the Good Law — one should adjust one's robes, bow at the feet 
of the teacher and circumambulate him. 

At. the water-side which may be by the road or outside the village, he 
goes to a certain spot, keeps his bowl, robe, sandals, washing-vessel and the 
meditation mat on a high place. He does not use the water which is near by, 
and without noise he bathes. After bathing he wears the upper-garment, 2 
arranges his robes and, carrying bowl 3 and robe and the meditation mat on 
his right shoulder, rolls the shoulder-cloak 4 or throws it across the shoulder. 

On entering a monastery, he lowers his umbrella and circumambulates 
the relic mound. If he sees any bhikkhu, he goes to him and asks: "Is there 
a yogin living here ? is there a 'dirt-rags' man living here ? Is there a 'begged- 
food' man living here ? Is there a teacher of discipline living here ? Where 
does he dwell? Which is the way to his dwelling? [409] If there is one, 
I wish to see him. If there are no such persons and if there is a (sub-) teacher 
of discipline, I wish to see him. If there is no teacher of discipline, who is 
the elder here? I wish to see him". 

If that bhikkhu is a senior or a venerable one, one should not hand one's 
bowl and robe. But if he is junior, one should. If there is none, one places 
one's bowl and robe on the ground. When one sees the elder, one bows 
at his feet and sits at one side. 

A bhikkhu who lives there will give one a seat and water, show the washing- 



1. Upajjhdya. 3. Patta (transliteration). 

2. Uttardsanga (transliteration), 4. Sanghdti (transliteration). 



52 Vimuttimagga 

place, serve, give information, take care of bowl and robe and point out the 
place for easing. 

According to the rules for visiting bhikkhus, one should go round, within 
the precincts of the monastery, before sundown. 

If one sees a teacher of discipline, one should talk with him and ask him 
concerning any faults with regard to which one is in doubt, and which one has 
not yet committed. Or, if one sees a teacher of Abhidhamma, one should 
inquire concerning the method of acquiring wisdom and about the aggregates, 
sense-spheres, elements and kamma. If one sees an observer of austerities, 
one should inquire concerning the benefits of the austerities connected with 
wisdom. If one dwells there, one should go to many and daily make inquiries. 
If one wishes to leave, one folds one's bedding and bows at the seniors' feet 
and informs them and leaves. These are the rules for visiting bhikkhus. 

How does a yogin dwell in a monastery ? When the teacher of meditation 
comes, one should take his bowl and robe, even if he be a junior. According 
to the rule of the teacher of meditation, one should practise that which ought 
to be practised or not practise the ought-not-to-be-practised, and one should 
not abandon the practising (of that which ought to be practised and of that 
which ought not to be practised). This is the practice that should be observed 
at first. Thus should one practise. 

If the yogin wishes to let others learn the Law at first, he watches the 
dwelling-place and keeps the bowls and robes. After sometime has passed, 
he, at the proper time, approaches the teacher of meditation, salutes him 
respectfully, and remaining silent a while, sits. 

Should the teacher of meditation question the yogin, he expresses his 
desire. If the teacher of meditation does not question, the yogin should not 
speak. Thereupon he should ask for tooth-sticks and water for washing, 
and should use them in the proper way. 

When the time for the alms-round comes, he should ask permission of 
the teacher and follow the usual way. 

When the meal-time arrives, one should wash the teacher's feet, arrange 
his seat, give him the bowl and inquire of the teacher what he wants from 
one's own bowl. Having partaken of the remainder, one gives what is left 
over to the juniors. Thus one observes and abstains from quarrelling. 

After finishing one's meal, one washes the teacher's bowl and puts it in 
the proper place. 

Seeing a suitable time, one approaches the teacher, respectfully salutes 
him, and remaining silent a while, sits. Should the teacher question, one 
should express one's desires. Should the teacher not question, one worships 
and says: "I will now say what I wanted to say from the first. If I am 
permitted, I wish to ask what I want". Should the teacher permit, one 
expresses everything. Should the teacher not question, one should worship 
him. 



On Distinguishing Concentration 53 

Finding a suitable opportunity, one should inform him (the teacher) 
concerning the reason for one's coming there thus : "O teacher, kindly listen 
to me". If the teacher listens, one should tell him regarding all one's wants. 
The teacher will say, "Sadhu, I will instruct you in the regular manner. You 
should observe well. Therefore, the Blessed One uttered these stanzas:- 1 

'One goes, when 'tis the right and proper time, 

with lowly heart devoid of thoughts of pride, 
to him who guards the Law with holiness. 

As when no wayward winds assail a tree, 
in pleasant practice of the Law he dwells, 

feeding on the joyous calm of truth. 
Thus dwelling in the Law he knows the Law 

and so expounds that others too may know 
The Sublime Law, just as it truly is. 

He never speaks in dispraise of the Law, 
jests not, flatters not, speaks no fearful words. 

He has done with ill will and slothfulness. 
He dwells not in anger, revenge, greed or pride, 

is not deluded, craves not, is not attached. 
Thus does he practise, conquer, and reject. 

Conceit of righteous life he does not nurse. 
Sincere are his words and always true. 

For meditation's sake he knows and learns. 
The self-indulgent, heedless, feckless man, 

unsuited ever is to know the truth, 
and is not one who grows in wisdom's light. 

If there's a man conversant with the Law, 
a winner of the homage of gods and men, 

whose lustrous splendour adds to his faith, 
who by much learning ably guards the Law, 

who is a happy hearer of tidings glad, 
possessor of an ample stock of virtues good, 

a follower of truth and a practiser-well, 
who causes the arising of excellent wit, 

and who has himself reached high wisdom's peak — 
if there is such a teacher — under him, 

should one with zeal unremitting practise well'". 



1. Not traced. 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE THIRD 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
THE DISTINGUISHING OF BEHAVIOUR 1 

CHAPTER THE SIXTH 

KINDS OF BEHAVIOUR 

Now, when the teacher 2 on whom one depends has observed one's 
behaviour for several months and has fixed upon a suitable subject of medita- 
tion, 3 he will instruct. 

Here, 'behaviour' means the fourteen kinds 4 of behaviour: passion- 
behaviour, hate-behaviour, infatuation-behaviour, faith-behaviour, intelligence- 
behaviour, excogitation-behaviour, passion-hate-behaviour, passion-infatuation- 
behaviour, hate-infatuation-behaviour, passion-hate-infatuation-behaviour, 
faith-intelligence-behaviour, faith excogitation-behaviour, intelligence-excogi- 
tation-behaviour, faith-intelligence-excogitation-behaviour. 

And again, there are other kinds of behaviour such as craving-behaviour, 
opinion-behaviour, pride-behaviour. 5 

Here, in the case of greed and the rest, the meaning does not defer 
from the above. 6 

FOURTEEN KINDS OF PERSONS 

There are fourteen kinds of persons corresponding to the fourteen kinds 
of behaviour thus: 

The person walking in passion, 

The person walking in hate, 

The person walking in infatuation, 



1. Cariyd. 2. Acariya. 3. Kammatthana. 4. Rdga-°, dosa-\ moha-\ saddhd-*, buddhi-°, 
vitakka- , rdga-dosa-° , rdga-moha-° , dosa-moha-° , rdga-dosa-moha-*, saddhd-buddhi-* ', 
saddhd-vitakka-°, huddhi-vitakka-° , saddhd-buddhi-vitakka-cariyd* . (*Lit. qualities of 
equal measure). 

5. Tanhd-, ditthi-% mdna-cariyd. 6. The Chinese is unintelligible. 

54 



The Distinguishing of Behaviour 55 



The person walking 
The person walking 
The person walking 
The person walking 
The person walking 
The person walking 
The person walking 
The person walking 



in faith, 

in intelligence, 

in excogitation, 

in passion-hate, 

in passion-infatuation, 

in hate-infatuation, 

in passion-hate-infatuation, 1 

in faith-intelligence, 



The person walking in faith-excogitation, 

The person walking in intelligence-excogitation, 

The person walking in faith-intelligence-excogitation. 2 

Thus 'the person walking in passion', 'the person walking in passion- 
infatuation' and 'the person walking in passion-hate-infatuation' are called 
'persons walking in passion'. 3 

One always behaves passionately and increases passion. This is called 
'passion-behaviour'. The others should be distinguished in the same way. 

FOURTEEN KINDS REDUCED TO SEVEN 

These fourteen kinds of men may be reduced to seven kinds: through 
the walker in passion and the walker in faith becoming one, the walker in 
hate and the walker in intelligence becoming one, the walker in infatuation 
and the walker in excogitation becoming one, the walker in passion-hate and 
the walker in faith-intelligence becoming one, the walker in passion-infatuation 
and the walker in faith-excogitation becoming one, the walker in hate-infatu- 
ation and the walker in intelligence-excogitation becoming one, the walker 
in passion-hate-infatuation and the walker in faith-intelligence-excogitation 
becoming one. 4 

Q. Why does a walker in passion become one with a walker in faith? 

A. In a passionate person, when he does good, faith is strong, because 
this quality approaches passion. 

And again, passion and faith are alike owing to three traits: clinging, 
searching for the good, non-repulsion. 

Here 'passion' means the being intent on passion. 'Faith' means the 
being intent on good. 'Passion' means the search for what is passionally 
good. 'Faith' means the search for what is morally good. The nature of 
'passion' is not to forsake what is bad. The nature of 'faith' is not to forsake 
what is good. Therefore, a walker in 'passion' becomes one with a walker 
in 'faith'. 



1. & 2. Qualities of equal measure. 3. Tentative rendering. 

4. Raga^saddhd; dosa=buddhi; mohd=vitdkka; raga-dosa=sdddha-buddhi; raga-moha = 

saddhd-vitakka; dosa-moha= buddhi-vitakka; the last literally means: Through the 

two who walk in qualities of equal measure becoming one. 



56 Vimuttimagga 

Q. Why does a walker in hate become one with walker in intelligence? 

A. In a hating person, when he does good, intelligence is strong, because 
this quality approaches hate. 

And again, hate and intelligence are alike owing to three traits: non- 
clinging, searching for faults, repulsion. 

As a hating person does not cleave (to what is good), so an intelligent 
person does not cleave (to what is bad). As a hating person is given to fault- 
finding, so an intelligent person is given to the search for the faults 1 of wrongful 
conduct. As a hating person repulses others, so an intelligent person 
repulses the conformations. Therefore, the walker in hate becomes one 
with the walker in intelligence. They are alike. 

Q. Why does a walker in infatuation become one with a walker in 
excogitation? 

A. In an infatuated person who endeavours to arouse virtuous states, 
incertitude increases, because this quality approaches infatuation and because 
of separation from faith and wisdom. 

And again, infatuation and excogitation are alike owing to two traits: 
instability and movement. As infatuation is not peaceful because it is disturbed, 
so excogitation is not peaceful because of various trends of discursive thought. 
As infatuation moves, not knowing where to go, so excogitation moves because 
of levity. Therefore, a walker in infatuation becomes one with a walker in 
excogitation. They are equal. 

The others should be distinguished in the same way. Thus they are 
reduced to seven persons. 

MODES OF PRACTICE 

Among the seven which persons are of quick practice and which are of 
slow practice? 

The walker in passion is of quick practice, because he is easily led, is 
strong in faith and because of the rarity of infatuation and excogitation in him. 

The walker in hate is of quick practice, because he is easily led, is strong 
in intelligence and because of the rarity of infatuation and excogitation in him. 

The walker in infatuation is of slow practice, because he is led with difficulty 
owing to infatuation and excogitation and because of the rarity of faith and 
intelligence in him. 

The walker in passion-hate is of quick practice, because he is easily led, 
strong in faith and intelligence and because of the rarity of infatuation and 
excogitation in him. 

1. Adinava. 



The Distinguishing of Behaviour 57 

The walker in passion-infatuation is of slow practice, because he is led 
with difficulty, is not believing and because infatuation and excogitation are 
strong in him. 

The walker in hate-infatuation is of slow practice, because he is led with 
difficulty, lacks intelligence and because infatuation and excogitation are 
strong in him. 

The walker in qualities of equal measure (passion-hate-infatuation or 
faith-intelligence-excogitation) is of slow practice, because he is led with 
difficulty, does not dwell in intelligence and because infatuation and excogitation 
are strong in him. 

SEVEN REDUCED TO THREE 

Now, these seven persons may be reduced to three according to their 
basic defilement. They are: the walker in passion, the walker in hate and 
the walker in infatuation. 

CAUSES OF BEHAVIOUR 

Q. What are the causes of these three kinds of behaviour? How may 
it be known that this man is a walker in passion, that man is a walker in hate 
and yet another is a walker in infatuation? 1 How may they be distinguished 
through robes, food, bedding, resort and postures? 

A. Deeds done in the past are causes of behaviour. The elements are 
causes of behaviour. The cardinal humours 2 are causes of behaviour. 

How do deeds done in the past become causes of behaviour? 

One who had accumulated good actions, in past existences, through 
lovable means, becomes a walker in passion, and also one who passing away 
from a heavenly mansion is reborn here. 

One who (in past existences) had perpetrated inimical deeds of killing, 
maiming and capturing, becomes a walker in hate, and also one who passing 
away from a hell or a serpent-state, is reborn here. 

One who (in past existences) had partaken freely of intoxicating drink 
and was devoid (of learning and conversation) becomes a walker in infatuation, 
and also one who passing away from a bestial state is reborn here. Thus 
deeds done in the past become causes of behaviour. 3 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 102: Td pan' eta cariya kirn niddndl etc. 2. Dosa (Sk. dosa). 

3. Cp. Vis. Mag. 102-3: Tatra purimd tdva tisso cariya pubbacinnaniddna dhdtudosaniddnd 
cd ti ekacce vadanti. Pubbe kira iffhappayogasubhakammabahulo rdgacarito hoti; 
saggd va cavitvd idhupapanno. Pubbe chedanavadhabandhanaverakammabahulo dosacarito 
hoti; nirayandgayonihi yd cavitvd idhupapanno. Pubbe majjapdnabahulo sutaparipucchd- 
vihino ca mohacarito hoti, tiracchdnayoniyd va cavitvd idhupapanno ti. Ekacce above 
is commented thus by the Venerable Dhammapala Thera: Ekacce ti upatissattheram 
sandhdydha. Tena hi Vimuttimagge tathd vuttath — Pm. 103 (MoroMucJuve Dhamma- 
nanda Thera's Sinhalese ed.). 



58 Vimuttimagga 

ELEMENTS AS CAUSES OF BEHAVIOUR 

How do elements become causes of behaviour? 

Because of the heightening of two elements one becomes a walker in 
infatuation. They are the element of extension and the element of cohesion. 

Because of the heightening of two elements, one becomes a walker in 
hate. They are the element of mobility and the element of heat. 

Because of the equalizing of all elements, one becomes a walker in passion. 
Thus the different elements become causes of behaviour. 

THE HUMOURS AS CAUSES OF BEHAVIOUR 

How do the cardinal humours become causes of behaviour? One who 
has an excess of phlegm becomes a walker in passion. One who has an excess 
of choler becomes a walker in hate, and one who has an excess of wind becomes 
a walker in infatuation. 

And again, there is another teaching : One who has an excess of phlegm 
becomes a walker in infatuation, and one who has an excess of wind becomes 
a walker in passion. Thus the cardinal humours become causes of behaviour. 1 

How may it be known that this man is a walker in passion, that man is a 
walker in hate and yet another is a walker in infatuation? 

SEVEN ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOUR 

A. It may be known through the seven aspects of behaviour, namely, 
through (the manner of seeing) objects, through the defilements, through 
(the manner of) walking, through (the manner of) robing, through (the manner 
of) eating, through work and through (the manner of) sleeping. 2 

How may it be known 'through (the manner of seeing) objects'? 

One who walks in passion looks at an object as if he had not seen it before. 
He does not see its faults, and does not consider them. He does not make 
light of even a little merit (of the object). He cannot free himself of the desire 
for it. Even after he reflects he cannot mend his ways. Towards the other 
objects of sense also he behaves in the same way. Thus it may be known 
that one is a walker in passion. 

One who walks in hate looks at an object thus: he does not look long 
at an object, as though he were tired. When he is affected by the humours, 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 103: Dvinnam pana dhdtunam ussannatta puggalo mohacarito hoti: patha- 
vidhdtuyd ca dpodhdtuyd ca. Itardsarh dvinnam ussanattd dosacarito. Sabbdsam samattd 
pana rdgacarito ti. Dosesu ca semhddhiko rdgacarito hoti, vdtddhiko mohacarito, semhd- 
dhiko vd mohacarito, vdtddhiko vd rdgacarito ti evam dhdtudosaniddna ti vadanti. 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 104 ff : Iriydpatho kiccd bhojand dassanddito 

dhammappavattito c'eva cariydyo vibhdvaye ti. 



The Distinguishing of Behaviour 59 

he quarrels with others often. Even with very good things he is not pleased. 
Thus he rejects all things. His way of life is determined by the humours. 
Towards other objects of sense also he behaves in the same way. Thus it 
may be known that one is a walker in hate. 

One who walks in infatuation looks at an object thus : he believes others 
as regards merits and demerits (of anything). He considers worthless what 
others consider worthless. He praises what others praise, because he does 
not know. Towards the other objects of sense also he behaves in the same 
way. Thus it may be known that one is a walker in infatuation. Thus it may 
be known 'through (the manner of seeing) objects'. 

Q. How may it be known 'through the defilements' ? 

A. Five are the defilements of one who walks in passion. They are 
jealousy, pride, wiliness, deceitfulness, sensuality. These are the five. 

Five are the defilements of one who walks in hate. They are anger, 
vindictiveness, hypocrisy, niggardliness, hatred. These are the five. 

Five are the defilements of one who walks in infatuation. They are 
rigidity, negligence, uncertainty, anxiety, infatuation. These are the five. 
Thus it may be known, 'through the defilements'. 

Q. How may it be known 'through (the manner of) walking'? 

A. The natural gait of him who walks in passion is thus: Lifting up 
his feet, he walks swiftly, with even pace. He raises his feet evenly and does 
not bring them down flat. In walking, he lifts his feet gracefully. Thus is 
one who walks in passion known 'through (the manner of) walking'. 

The natural gait of him who walks in hate is thus: He lifts up his feet 
jerkily and jerkily puts them down. His feet rub against each other as he 
puts them down half-way, as if digging the ground. Thus is one who walks 
in hate known, 'through (the manner of) walking'. 

The natural gait of him who walks in infatuation is thus: Shufflingly 
he lifts his feet up and shufflingly he puts them down. His feet graze against 
each other. Thus is one who walks in infatuation known, 'through (the 
manner of) walking'. Thus it may be known 'through (the manner of) walking'. 

Q. How may it be known 'through (the manner of) robing'? 

A. The natural manner of robing of him who walks in passion is thus: 
He robes neither shabbily nor tardily. His robes do not sit too low and are 
well-rounded, elegantly worn and, in many ways, pleasing to see. 

The natural manner of robing of him who walks in hate is thus: He 
robes hurriedly. The robes sit too high, are not well-rounded, are inelegantly 
worn and, in many ways, are not pleasing to see. 

The natural manner of him who walks in infatuation is thus : He dresses 
tardily. His robes are not well-rounded, are inelegantly worn, and in many 



60 Vimuttimagga 

ways are not pleasing to see. Thus it may be known, 'through (the manner of) 
robing'. 

Q. How may it be known 'through (the manner of) eating'? 
A. A walker in passion relishes tasty, succulent, sweet food. 
A walker in hate relishes acid food. 
A walker in infatuation relishes anything at all. 

And again, when a walker in passion eats, he serves himself a moderate 
quantity of food, takes it (to the mouth) in well-rounded, moderate lumps, 
and slowly enjoys its taste. Even if it is of little taste, he enjoys it very much. 

When a walker in hate eats, he takes in big mouthfuls of immoderate 
lumps of food, not well-rounded. If the food is of little taste, he is displeased. 

When a walker in infatuation eats, he takes in small, not well-rounded 
lumps of food. He smears his mouth with food. A part of the food enters 
his mouth and a part falls back into the vessel. In the act of eating, he is 
not mindful. Thus it may be known, 'through (the manner of) eating'. 

Q. How may it be known, 'through work' ? 

A walker in passion takes hold of the broom evenly, 1 and unhuriedly 
sweeps. Without scattering the sand, he cleans well. 

A walker in hate hurriedly takes the broom and sweeps, quickly, one 
end to the other, scattering the sand on both sides and making a harsh noise. 
He sweeps clean, but not evenly. 

A walker in infatuation takes hold of the broom tardily. Though he 
goes over the ground, certain parts are not swept well and not evenly. 

One who washes, dyes, sews and does everything evenly without letting 
his mind go astray, is a walker in passion. 

A walker in hate does all things unevenly, but does not let his mind go 
astray. 

A walker in infatuation is disturbed in mind. He does many things, 
but nothing successfully. Thus it may be known 'through work'. 

Q. How may it be known, 'through (the manner of) sleeping'? 

A. A walker in passion prepares his bed unhurriedly and in proper 
order. He lies down gently and sleeps drawing in his limbs. On being 
awakened at night, he gets up immediately and answers hesitatingly. 

A walker in hate hurries and lies down in any place he gets. He frowns 
in his sleep. On being awakened at night, he gets up immediately and answers 
angrily. 



1. Lit. With even body. 



The Distinguishing of Behaviour 6-1 

A walker in infatuation does not prepare his bed in an orderly manner. 
In sleep, his limbs are out, and only his body is covered. On being 
awakened at night, he murmurs and answers long after. Thus it may be 
known 'through (the manner of) sleeping'. 

ON ROBING, BEGGING, SITTING, SLEEPING, AND RESORT 

Q. In what manner and with what thought should one wear the robes, 
beg, sit, and sleep and what should be one's resort? 

A. A walker in passion should robe himself humbly, and his robes 
should not sit too low. He should not wear bright robes. Thus should he 
robe himself. 

A walker in hate should robe himself with minute care, cleanly and with 
robes of bright colour. His robes should sit low and be elegant, Thus should 
he robe himself. 

A walker in infatuation should wear whatever robes he gets. 

A walker in passion 1 should beg humbly, should not look for clean and 
tasty food. He should beg little. 

A walker in hate may look for succulent, pure and tasty food, and for 
as much as he likes. 

A v/alker in infatuation should be satisfied with what he gets. 

A walker in passion should sleep and sit under shade of trees, by the 
water's edge, in small secluded woodland glades, or in some half-built shrine, 
or in a place where there are no beds. Thus should he sleep and sit. 

A walker in hate should sleep and sit under shade of trees, by the water's 
edge, in a level place, in a completed shrine, or in a place provided with beds 
and sheets. 

A walker in infatuation should dwell near his teacher, relying on him. 

The resort of a walker in passion should be a place of humble drink and 
food. When he enters the village for alms, he should, facing the sun, go to 
the meanest quarter. To such a place he should go. 

The resort of a walker in hate is the place where rice, water, meat and 
drink are complete. When he enters the village for alms, he should not face 
the sun, and should go where there are many men of faith. To such a place 
he should go. 

The walker in infatuation should take what he gets. 

The walker in passion should adopt the posture of standing or walking 
to and fro; the walker in hate should adopt the posture of sitting or lying 
down; 1 the walker in infatuation [411] should adopt the posture of walking. 



1. Text, Mohacarita. Obviously an error. 2. Cp.Vis. Mag. 108-9. 



62 Vimuttimagga 

MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

Here, there are miscellaneous teachings. A passionate man gains faith 
through lovable objects. A hating man gains faith through being bound up 
with unlovely things. An infatuated man gains (faith) through non-investi- 
gation. 

A passionate mau is like a servant. A hating man is like a master. An 
infatuated man is like venom. 

A passionate man is little affected by the humours. He does not remove 
the defilements. 

A hating man is much affected by the humours, and does not allow himself 
to be stained by the defilements. 

An infatuated man is much affected by the humours. He does not remove 
the defilements. 

A man walking in passion is sensuous. 

A man walking in hate is quarrelsome. 

A man walking in infatuation is negligent. 



THE DISTINGUISHING OF THE 
SUBJECTS OF MEDITATION 1 

CHAPTER THE SEVENTH 

THIRTY-EIGHT SUBJECTS OF MEDITATION 

Now, the teacher on whom one depends, having observed one's behaviour, 
teaches one the thirty-eight subjects of meditation. And again, he teaches 
one the two associated subjects of meditation. 

Q. What are the thirty-eight subjects of meditation? 

A. Namely, the ten kasinas, — earth, water, fire, air, blue-green, yellow, 
red, white, space, consciousness; 2 the ten perceptions of putrescence, namely, 
the perception of bioatedness, the perception of discolouration, the perception 
of festering, the perception of the dismembered, the perception of the gnawed, 
the perception of the cut and the dismembered, the perception of the fissured, 
the perception of the blood-stained, the perception of worminess and the per- 
ception of the bony; 3 the ten recollections, namely, Recollection of the Buddha, 
Recollection of the Law, Recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus, re- 
collection of virtue, recollection of liberality, recollection of deities, mindful- 
ness of death, mindfulness of body, mindfulness of respiration, recollection 
of peace; 4 the four immeasurable thoughts: loving-kindness compassion, 
appreciative joy, equanimity; 5 the Determining of the elements; 6 the Per- 
ception of the foulness of food; 7 the sphere of nothingness, the sphere of 
neither perception nor non-perception. 8 

METHOD OF DISCERNING THE QUALITIES 

These are the thirty-eight subjects of meditation. The distinctive qualities 
of these thirty-eight subjects of meditation may be known (1) by way of medi- 
tation, (2) by way of transcending, (3) by way of increasing, (4) by way of 
cause, (5) by way of object, (6) by way of speciality, (7) by way of plane, (8) by 
way of seizing, (9) by way of person. 9 

BY WAY OF MEDITATION 

Q. How, 'by way of meditation' ? 

A. Namely, ten subjects of meditation fulfil access-meditation; eleven 

1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 110 ff. 2. A.I, 41: Pathavi, dpo, tejo, vdyo, nita, pita, lohita, odata, 
akasa, vinfidna. For the last two kasinas Vis. Mag. substitutes dloka-° and paricchinn- 
akasa-kasinas. 

3. Pts. 1,49: Uddhumdtaka, vinilaka, vipubbaka, vikkhittdka, vikkhdyitaka, hatavikkhittaka, 
vicchiddaka, iohitaka, puluvaka, atthika. The order here is altered to suit the passage 
above. 

4. Buddhdnussati, Dhammdnussati, Sanghdnussati. sildnussati, cdgdnussati, devatdnussati, 
marandnussati ', kdyagatd-S dndpdna-sati, upasamdnussati. 

5. Lit. appamdna citta. Cp. D. Ill, 223-4: catdsso appamanndyo. — Metta, karund, muditd, 
upekkhd. 

6. Catudhdtuvavatthdna. 7. Ahdre patikkula-sannd. 8. Akincanndyatana, nevasanfidnd- 
sahndyatana. 9. Cp. Vis. Mag. Ill ff. 

63 



64 Vimuttimagga 

subjects of meditation fulfil the first meditation; three subjects of meditation 
fulfil the three-fold meditation. 

And again, one subject of meditation fulfils the four-fold meditation; 
nine subjects of meditation fulfil the four-fold and five-fold meditation. And 
again, four subjects of meditation fulfil the four-fold formless meditation. 

Q. Which ten subjects of meditation fulfil access-meditation? 

A. Excepting mindfulness of respiration and mindfulness of body, 
the remaining eight recollections, the determining of the four elements and 
the perception of the foulness of food are called the ten (objects of) access- 
meditation. 

Q. Which of the eleven subjects of meditation produce the fiist 
meditation? 

A, The ten perceptions of putrescence and mindfulness of body produce 
the first meditation. 

Q. Which three subjects of meditation produce the three-fold meditation ? 

A. Namely, loving-kindness compassion and appreciative joy. 

Q. Which subject of meditation produces the four-fold meditation? 

A. Namely, equanimity. 

, Q. Which nine subjects of meditation comprise the four- fold and five-fold 
meditations? -' ■'•-• : - -■"•.'*•" 

A. Excepting space-kasina and consciousness-tower, the remaining eight 
kasinas and Mindfulness of respiration. 

Q. Which four subjects of meditation comprise the four-fold formless 
meditation ? 

A. Space-kasina, consciousness-/:^/^, the sphere of nothingness, 
the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception — these are called the 
four subjects of meditation. 

Thus these should be known 'by way of meditation'. 
BY WAY OF TRANSCENDING 

Q. How 'by way of transcending'? 

A. The sphere-subjects of meditation transcend form. Excepting the 
formless-towas, the remaining eight kasinas and what remain of the thirty 
subjects of meditation, do not transcend form. 

Three subjects of meditation transcend the object: the two formless- 
kasinas and the sphere of nothingness. The other thirty-five subjects of medi- 
tation do not transcend the object. 



Subjects of Meditation 65 

And again, one subject of meditation transcends perception and sensation, 
namely, the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. The other 
thirty-seven subjects of meditation do not transcend perception and sensation. 

Thus these should be known 'by way of transcending'. 

BY WAY OF INCREASING 

Q. How, 'by way of increasing' ? 

A. Fourteen subjects of meditation should be increased, namely, the 
ten kasinas and the four immeasurables. The other twenty-four should 
not be increased. 

Thus these should be known 'by way of increasing'. 
BY WAY OF CAUSE 

Q How, 'by way of cause' ? 

A. Nine subjects of meditation are causes of supernormal power, namely, 
excepting the formless kasinas, the remaining eight kasinas and limited-space 
kasina. What remain of the other thirty subjects of meditation do not become 
causes of supernormal power. Thirty-seven subjects of meditation become 
insight-causes, namely, (all) except the sphere of neither perception nor non- 
perception.^ And again,- one subject of meditation does not become insight- 
cause, namely, the sphere; of neither." perception nor non-perception. Thus 
these should be known 'by way of cause'. ._......,........ 

BY WAY OF OBJECT 

Q. How, 'by way of object' ? 

A. Twenty-one subjects of meditation have the sign as object. Twelve 
subjects of meditation have their intrinsic nature as object. 

O. Which twenty-one subjects of meditation have the sign as object? 

A. Excepting the consciousness kasina, the remaining nine kasinas, 
the ten perceptions of putrescence, mindfulness of respiratic n and mindfulness 
of body. 

Q. Which twelve (subjects of meditation) have their intrinsic nature 
as object? 

A. Consciousness kasina, the sphere of neither perception nor non- 
perception and the ten objects of access-meditation. 

O. Which five have neither the sign nor their intrinsic nature as object ? 

A. Namely, the four immeasurables and the sphere of nothingness. 



1. A. IV, 426: /// kho bhikkhave yavatd sanndsamapatti, tuvatd anhdpativedho. 



66 Vimuttimagga 

And again, two subjects of meditation have: internally developed object; 
internal object. 

And again, two subjects of meditation: internally developed object; 
external object. 

And again, one subject of meditation: externally developed object 
and internal object. 

And again, twenty-one subjects of meditation: externally developed 
object; external object. 

And again, four subjects of meditation: internally developed object; 
internal object; prepared external object. 

And again, four subjects of meditation: prepared internal object; prepared 
developed external object; external object. 

And again, two subjects of meditation: prepared internally developed 
object; prepared externally developed external object; prepared internal 
object; prepared external object. 

And again, one subject of meditation: internal-external developed 
object; internal object. 

And again, one subject of meditation: developed internal object; indes- 
cribable internal object; external object. 

Two subjects of meditation: developed internal object; internal object, 
namely, consciousness kasina and sphere of neither perception nor non- 
perception. 

And again, two subjects of meditation: internally developed object; 
external object, namely: mindfulness of respiration and mindfulness of 
body. 

And again, one subject of meditation: externally developed object; 
internal object, namely: recollection of death. 

And again, twenty-one subjects of meditation: externally developed 
object; external object, namely, the ten perceptions of putrescence, the four 
immeasurable thoughts, the four colour kasinas, (limited-) space kasina, 
recollection of the Buddha and recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus. 

And again, four subjects of meditation: internally developed object; 
internal object; prepared (object); prepared external object, namely, recol- 
lection of virtue, recollection of liberality, the determining of the four elements 
and the perception of the foulness of food. 

And again, four subjects of meditation: prepared internally developed 
object; prepared externally developed object; prepared external object, namely, 
the four colour kasinas. 

And again, two subjects of meditation: prepared internally developed 
object; prepared externally developed object; prepared internal object; 



Subjects of Meditation 67 

prepared external object, namely, recollection of the Law and recollection 
of peace. 

And again, one subject of meditation: internal-external prepared object; 
internal object, namely, recollection of deities. 

And again, one subject of meditation: inner developed object; inner 
object; outer object; sphere object; namely, the sphere of nothingness. 

And again, two subjects of meditation belonging to the past, namely, 
consciousness kasina and the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. 

And again, one subject of meditation is of the future, namely, recollection 
of death. 

And again, one subject of meditation is of the present, namely, recollection 
of deities. 

And again, six subjects of meditation: prepared past object; prepared 
future object; namely recollection of the Buddha, recollection of the Com- 
munity of Bhikkhus, recollection of virtue, recollection of liberality, the 
determining of the four elements and the perception of the foulness of food. 

And again, two subjects of meditation: prepared past object; prepared 
present object; prepared non-characterizable past-future; namely, nine 
kasinas, the ten perceptions of putrescence, the four immeasurable thoughts, 
mindfulness of respiration, mindfulness of body and the sphere of nothingness. 

And again, four subjects of meditation, namely, fire kasina, air kasina, 
the perception of worminess and mindfulness of respiration, have unsteady 
objects. Movement is their medium, but their after-image is steady. All 
the other thirty-four have steady objects. 

Thus these should be known 'by way of object'. 

BY WAY OF SPECIALITY 

Q. How, 'by way of speciality' ? 

A. Eight kasinas and the four formless (objects of) concentration are 
named special. The eight kasinas, being true objects, are called (objects of) 
speciality in concentration. And because in the fourth meditation, jhdna, one 
reaches a special plane, the four formless (objects of) concentration become 
special. 

The ten perceptions of putrescence and the perception of the foulness of 
food are called special perception, because of colour, form, space, direction, 
distinctiveness, combination and coherence, and because of the impurity- 
perception-obj ect . 

The ten recollections are called special recollections, because of their 
subtility and because of attend veness. 



68 Vimuttimagga 

[412] The four immeasurable thoughts are called special, because they 
cannot be surpassed. 

The determining of the four elements is called the speciality of wisdom, 
because of its connection with the void. 

Thus these should be known 'by way of speciality'. 
BY WAY OF PLANE 

Q. How, 'by way of plane' ? 

A. Twelve subjects of meditation do not arise in the higher heavens. 
Namely, the ten perceptions of putrescence, mindfulness of body and the 
perception of the foulness of food. 

And again, thirteen subjects of meditation do not arise in the form 
existence. 1 Namely, the first twelve and mindfulness of respiration do not 
arise in the form existence. 

No subject of meditation except the four formless (ones) arise in the 
formless existence. 2 

Thus these should be understood 'by way of plane'. 
BY WAY OF SEIZING 

Q. How, 'by way of seizing' ? 

A. Seventeen subjects of meditation seize the sign through sight,- i.e., 
excepting air kasina and the formless kasinas, the remaining seven kasinas 
and ten perceptions of putrescence. 

And again, one subject of meditation seizes the sign through contact. 
Namely, mindfulness of respiration. 

And again, one subject of meditation seizes the sign through sight or 
contact. Namely, air kasina. 

The remaining nineteen subjects of meditation seize the sign through 
audition. 

And again, five subjects of meditation should not be practised by the 
beginner. Namely, the formless and equanimity. The remaining thirty-five 
may be practised by the beginner. 

Thus these should be known 'by way of seizing'. 

BY WAY OF PERSON 

Q. How 'by way of person' ? 

A. A walker in passion should not practise the four immeasurables, 



1. Riipahhava. According to Vis. Mag. 113, Brahmaloka. 2. Ariipabhava. 



Subjects of Meditation 69 

because of their auspicious sign. Why? A walker in passion is not good at 
appreciating the auspicious sign. It (the practice of the four immeasurables 
by a walker in passion) is comparable to a man affected of a disorder of phlegm 
partaking of very rich food that is harmful to him. 

A walker in hate should not practise the ten perceptions of putrescence, 
because of the arising of resentment-perception. A walker in hate is not 
good at appreciating it and is comparable to a man with a bilious ailment 
partaking of hot drinks and food which are harmful to him. 

A walker in infatuation, who has not gathered wisdom, should not work 
at any subject of meditation, because of his lack of skill. Owing to lack of 
skill, his efforts will be fruitless. It (the practice of meditation by a walker 
in infatuation) is comparable to a man who rides an elephant without a goad. 

A walker in passion should practise the perception of impurity and 
mindfulness of body, because these help overcome lust. 

A walker in hate should practise the four immeasurables, because these 
help overcome hatred. Or he should practise colour kasina, because his 
mind attends to such. 

A walker in faith should practise the six recollections beginning with 
recollection of the Buddha. Then his faith will gain fixity. 

A walker in intelligence should practise the determining of the four 
elements, the perception of the foulness of food, recollection of death and 
recollection of peace because he is profound. 

And again, a walker in intelligence is not debarred from working at any 
subject of meditation. 

A walker in excogitation should practise mindfulness of respiration, 
because it eradicates discursive thought. 1 

A walker in infatuation should make inquiries regarding the Law, should 
hear expositions of the Law in due season, with reverential mind, and should 
honour the Law. He should live with his teacher. He should heap up 
wisdom and should practise what pleases him of the thirty-eight subjects of 
meditation. Recollection of death and the determining of the four elements 
are specially suited to him. 

And again, there is another teaching: "When I investigate the subjects 
of meditation, I see their distinctive qualities. The six persons may, through 
discernment, be reduced to three". 

Q. If that be so, will there be difficulties at the beginning? 

A. There are two kinds of men who walk in passion, namely, (the man) 
of dull faculties and (the man) of keen faculties. A walker in passion who 
has dull faculties should practise the investigation of impurity in order to 
overcome lust. Thus he should practise and overcome lust. 



1. A. I, 449: Cetaso vikkhepassa pahanaya dndpdnasati bhdvetabbd. 



70 Vimuttimagga 

The walker in passion who has keen faculties should, at first, increase 
faith. He should practise the recollections. Thus he should practise and 
overcome lust. 

There are two kinds of men who walk in hate, namely, (the man) of dull 
faculties and (the man) of keen faculties. A walker in hate who has dull faculties 
should practise the four immeasurables. By this he will be able to overcome 
hatred. 

The walker in hate who has keen faculties, being one endowed with 
wisdom, should practise the (meditation of the) special sphere. Thus should 
one practise and dispel hatred. 

There are two kinds of men who walk in infatuation, namely, (the man) 
of no faculties and (the man) of dull faculties. The walker in infatuation 
who has no faculties should not work at any subject of meditation. The 
walker in infatuation who has dull faculties should practise mindfulness of 
respiration in order to dispel discursive thinking. 

Thus (the six persons) can be reduced to three. Therefore, there should 
be no difficulty. According to this teaching, the kasiyas and mindfulness 
of respiration are developed (further) through space. All the activities can 
be fulfilled without difficulty. If a man is endowed with merit, he will have 
no difficulty in fulfilling all the excellent subjects of meditation. 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE FOURTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
ENTRANCE INTO THE SUBJECT OF MEDITATION 

CHAPTER THE EIGHTH 

Section One 

Q. What is the earth kasina! 1 What is the practice of it? What is its 
salient characteristic? What is its function? What is its near cause? What 
are its benefits? What is the meaning of kasina! How many kinds of earth 
are there? What is the earth sign? How is a mandala made? What is the 
method of meditating on the earth kasina! 

EARTH KASINA, ITS PRACTICE, SALIENT CHARACTERISTIC, 
FUNCTION AND NEAR CAUSE 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the earth sign — this is called 
earth kasina. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind — this is called practice. 
Delight in being linked to the earth sign is its salient characteristic. Non- 
abandonment is its function. Non-differentiated thought is its near cause. 

BENEFITS 

What are its benefits? 2 Twelve are its benefits, namely, the sign is easy 
of acquisition through meditation on the earth kasina; at all times and in all 
actions, mental activity is unimpeded; acquiring supernormal power, a man 
is able to walk on water just as on earth and to move freely in space; he gains 
the supernormal power of manifoldness, the knowledge of past lives, the 
heavenly ear and worldly higher knowledge; he fares well and draws near to 
the verge of the ambrosial. 



1. In this text the ideograph for pafhavikasina = prthxikrtsndyatana (Sk.) 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 175. 

71 



72 Vimuttimagga 

MEANING OF KASINA 

Q. What is the meaning of kasina°t 

A. Pervasiveness — this is called kasina. It is even as the Enlightened 
One taught in the stanza:- 1 

" When a man remembers 

the worth of the 'wakened ones, 
the joy that wells within him 

floods his body through. 
So, when with spreading earth-thought 

Rose-apple Isle's suffused, 
the earth-wrought state is likened 

to the body with bliss perfused". 

Meditating thus one causes this mandala to prevail everywhere. 

KINDS OF EARTH 

Q. How many kinds of earth are there? Taking which earth as sign 
should one practise? 

A. There are two kinds of earth. 2 1. Natural earth. 2. Prepared 
earth. Solidity is the property of natural earth. This is called natural earth. 
What is made of earth dug out by a man himself or by another is called prepared 
earth. Earth is of four colours, namely, white, black, 3 red and the colour of 
dawn. Here a yogin should not add anything to natural earth. He should 
exclude white, black and red. Why? When he meditates on earth of these 
colours, he does not get the after-image. By dwelling on white, black or 
red, he practises colour kasina. Why? If a yogin meditates on natural earth 
or prepared earth, he will get the (after-) image. If it (i.e., earth) is of dawn- 
colour, he should take that sign. 

NON-PREPARED EARTH 

Q. What is non-prepared earth sign? 

A. Level ground which is free from thickets, free from roots of trees 
or tufts of grass, within the range of vision and which arouses steady mental 
activity — this is earth perception. This is called non-prepared earth. 

A practised yogin gains the after-image of earth following either the 
difficult or the easy way, and dwells without falling. A beginner in the first 



1. Not traced. Cp. Th. 381: Buddham appameyyam anussara pasanno pitiyd phufasan'ro 
hohisi sat at am udaggo. 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 123 ff. 

3. Nila — also sometimes rendered dark-blue, blue-black, black. 



Subjects of Meditation 73 

meditation, jhana, takes prepared earth and makes a mandala. He should 
not meditate on non-prepared earth. 

ON MAKING A MANDALA 

Q. How is a mandala made? 

A. If a yogin desires to make a mandala on the ground, let him at first 
select a calm place in the monastery, or a cave, or a place under a tree, or a 
deserted, covered place unlit by the sun, or a place on an unused road. In 
all such places, let him keep a distance of one fathom, sweep the place clean 
and make it smooth. In such places let him, with clay of the colour of dawn, 
prepare the ground in order to cause the arising of the sign. Taking a moderate 
quantity in a vessel, let him carefully mix it with water and remove grass, 
roots and dirt from it. With the edge of a cloth let him remove any dirt that 
may be on the swept place. Let him screen the sitting place and exclude the 
light, and make a couch of meditation. Let him make a circle according 
to rule, neither too near nor too far. Let the circle be flat and full and without 
markings. After that let watery clay unmixed with any other colour or un- 
mixed with special colour be applied. It should be covered and protected 
until it is dry. When it is dry, [413] it should be edged with another colour. 
It may be of the size of a round rice-sifter, a metal gong and may be circular, 
rectangular, triangular or square. Thus it should be understood. 

According to the principal teacher's instructions, a circle is the best. 
The mandala may be made on cloth, on a board or on a wall. But it is best 
on the ground. This is the teaching of predecessor teachers. 

METHOD OF EARTH KASINA MEDITATION 

Q. How should one meditate upon the earth kasinal 

A. A yogin who wishes to meditate upon the earth kasina should at 

first consider the tribulations of sense-desires, and again he should consider 

the benefits of renunciation. 

TRIBULATIONS OF SENSE-DESIRES ILLUSTRATED 
IN TWENTY SIMILES 

Q. How should he consider the tribulations of sense-desires? 

A. Because they produce little pleasure and severe pain, they are full of 
tribulations. 1 (1) Sense-desires are likened to a bone because of scanty 



1 . The first ten simi es are at A. Ill, 97 : Atthisankhalupamd kdmd vuttd Bhagavatd, bahudukkhd 

bahupdydsd, ddinavo ettha bhiyo. Mamsapesupama kdmd vuttd Bhagavatd 

Tinukkupamd kdmd Angdrakdsupamd kdmd Supinakupamd kdmd 

Ydcitakupamd kdmd Rukkhaphalupamd kdmd Asisunupamd kdmd 

Sattisulupama kdmd Sappasirupamd kdmd vuttd Bhagavatd, bahudukkhd bahupdydsd 

ddinavo ettha bhiyo. 



74 Vimuttimagga 

yield of pleasure; (2) sense-desires are likened to a piece of flesh because 
they are followed by many (sufferings); (3) sense-desires are likened to a 
(flaming) torch carried against the wind because they burn; (4) sense-desires 
are likened to a pit of glowing embers because of the great and the small (?); 

(5) sense-desires are likened to a dream because they vanish quickly; 

(6) sense-desires are likened to borrowed goods because they cannot be 
enjoyed long; (7) sense-desires are likened to a fruit tree because they are 
chopped down by others; (8) sense-desires are likened to a sword because 
they cut; (9) sense-desires are likened to a pointed stake because they impale; 
(10) sense-desires are likened to the head of a venomous snake because they 
are fearful; 1 (11) sense-desires are likened to a flock of cotton blown about 
by the wind because they are unresisting by nature; (12) sense-desires are 
likened to a mirage because they bewilder the fool; (13) sense-desires are 
likened to darkness because they are blinding; (14) sense-desires are likened 
to hindrances because they obstruct the way of good; (15) sense-desires are 
likened to infatuation because they cause the loss of Right Mindfulness; 

(16) sense-desires are likened to ripening because they are subject to decay; 

(17) sense-desires are likened to fetters because they bind one to another; 

(18) sense-desires are likened (to thieves) because they rob the value of 
merit; (19) sense-desires are likened to a house of hate because they provoke 
quarrels; (20) and sense-desires are pain-laden because they cause trials 
innumerable. Having considered the tribulations of sense-desires, in this 
manner, he should consider the benefits of renunciation. 

RENUNCIATION AND ITS BENEFITS 

Renunciation. Namely, good practices, like the first meditation, jhdna, 
from the time one retires from the world — these are named renunciation. 



Simile No. 14 — A. Ill, 63: Kdmacchando bhikkhave dvarano nivarano. 

Simile No. 17 — D. I, 245: Kdma-guna ariyassa vinaye anduti pi vuccanti, bandhanan 

ti pi vuccanti. 

In the Chinese 'Potaliya' (transliteration) Sutta, the simile of the snake is also found, and 
the eight doctrines taught in this sutta are illustrated with as many examples, though it is 
difficult to say exactly which illustration refers to which doctrine. In the Pali there are 
only seven illustrations. The following is taken from the Chu Agon {Madhyama Agama) 
No. 203 : "Householder, it is as if, not far from a village, there were a huge venomous 
snake, very vicious, poisonous, black and terrible of aspect, and a man not foolish, not 
deluded, not insane, in full possession of his senses, desirous of weal and shunning woe, 
disliking sorrow very much, wishing to live, not wishing to die and disliking death very 
much, were to come. What do you think, householder, would that man stretch out his 
hand or any other member of his body to the snake, saying, 'Bite me, bite me' ?" Then 
the householder answered: "No, venerable Gotama, because on seeing the venomous 
snake he would think : 'If I were to stretch forth my hand or other member of my body 
and let the snake bite it, I should die or suffer severely'. And so, on seeing that veno- 
mous snake, he wishes to flee from it". Householder, the learned, noble disciple also 
thinks in the same way : 'Sense-desires are like a venomous snake. It was taught by 
the Blessed One that sense-desires are like a venomous snake. They yield little pleasure, 
produce much suffering and are pain-laden'. And he abandons sense-desires, becomes 
freed from evil states of mind and causes to perish all worldly enjoyment and clings 
to nothing". 



Subjects of Meditation 75 

Q. What are the benefits of renunciation? A. Separation from the 
hindrances; 1 the dwelling in freedom; the joy of solitude; the dwelling in 
happiness and mindfulness and the ability to endure suffering; accomplishment 
of much good and attainment of the ground of great fruition; the benefitting 
of two places 2 through acceptance of gifts. This (renunciation) is profound 
wisdom. This is the best of all stations. This is called 'beyond the three 
worlds'. 

And again, what is called renunciation is the renunciation of sense-desires. 
This is solitude. This is freedom from all hindrances. This is happiness. 
This is the absence of defilement. This is the super-excellent path. This 
washes away the dirt of the mind. Through this practice is merit gathered. 
Through this practice inward calm is won. 

Sense-desires are coarse; renunciation is fine. Sense-desires are defiling; 
renunciation is non-defiling. Sense-desires are inferior; renunciation is 
superior. Sense-desires are connected with hate; renunciation is unconnected 
with hate. Sense-desires are not friendly towards fruition; renunciation is 
the friend of fruition. Sense-desires are bound up with fear; renunciation 
is fearless. 

METHOD OF PRACTICE OF EARTH KASINA 

Having, in this manner, considered the tribulations of sense-desires and 
the benefits of renunciation, one accomplishes happiness through renunciation. 
One arouses the heart of faith and reverence, and meditates either on the 
non-prepared or the prepared. Taking food in moderation, one observes 
the rules regarding the bowl and robes, well. Bodily or mentally one is not 
heedless, and accepts little. 

Having taken a moderate meal, one washes the hands and feet, and sits 
down and meditates on the Buddha's Enlightenment, 3 the Law and the Order. 
Through the doing of good actions and through these recollections one 
becomes happy and thinks: "Now it is possible for me to acquire perfection. 
Had I not renounced, long would it have been before I reached peace. There- 
fore, I should endeavour earnestly". And taking the mat of meditation to 
a place neither too far from nor too near the mandala, i.e., about the length 
of a plough-pole or a fathom (from the mandala), one sits down with legs 
crossed under him, faces the mandala, holds the body erect and arouses mind- 
fulness from the very depths of his being, with closed eyes. 

After sometime, one is able to exclude all disturbances of body and mind, 
collect his thoughts and unify his mind. Then opening the eyes neither too 
wide nor too narrowly, one should fix one's gaze on the mandala. 



1. Panca nivaranani. 

2. Cp. A. II, 80: Atthi bhikkhave dakkhina dayakato c'eva visujjhati pafiggahakato ca. 

3. Bodhi — transliteration. 



76 Vimuttimagga 

THREE WAYS OF SIGN-TAKING 

The yogin should meditate on the form of the mandala and take the sign 
through three ways: through even gazing, skilfulness and neutralizing 
disturbance. 

Q. How, through even gazing? 

A. When the yogin dwells on the mandala, he should not open his eyes 
too wide nor shut them entirely. Thus should he view it. If he opens his 
eyes too wide, they will grow weary, he will not be able to know the true nature 
of the mandala, and the after-image will not arise. If he faces the mandala 
closing the eyes fast, he will not see the sign because of darkness, and he will 
arouse negligence. Therefore, he should refrain from opening his eyes too 
wide and closing them fast. He should dwell with earnestness on the mandala. 
Thus should the yogin dwell (on the mandala) in order to gain fixity of mind. 
As a man looking at his own face in a mirror sees his face because of the 
mirror, i.e., because the face is reflected by the mirror, so the yogin dwelling 
on the mandala sees the sign of concentration which arises, because of the 
mandala. Thus should he take the sign by fixing the mind through even 
gazing. Thus one takes the sign through even gazing. 

Q. How, through skilfulness? 

A. Namely, through four ways. The first is to put away any internal 
lack; the second is to view the mandala squarely; third is to supply the 
deficiency should a partial sign or half the mandala appear; (fourth:) at 
this time if his mind is distracted and becomes negligent, he should endeavour 
like a potter at the wheel 1 and, when his mind acquires fixity, he should gaze 
on the mandala, and letting it pervade (his mind) fully and without faults 
consider calmness (?). Thus should skilfulness be known. 

Q. How, through neutralizing disturbance? 

A. There are four kinds of disturbance: the first is endeavour that is 
too quick; the second is endeavour that is too slow; the third is elation; 
the fourth is depression. 

Q. What is endeavour that is too quick? 

A. It is hurried practice. The yogin is impatient. He sits (to meditate) 
in the morning. By evening he ceases (to endeavour), because of weariness 
of body. This is called hurried doing. 

Q. What is endeavour that is too slow? 

A. It is to stray away from the way of meditation. Though the yogin 
sees the mandala he does not dwell on it with reverence. Often he gets up. 
Often he lies down. 



1. Cp. M. II, 18: Seyyathdpi Uddyi, dakkho kumhhakaro vd kumbhakdrantevdsi yd supari- 
kamrnakatdya mattikdya yam yad eva bhajanavikatim dkankheyya, tarn tad eva kareyya 
abhinipphddeyya. 



Subjects of Meditation 77 

When a yogin endeavours too vigorously, his body becomes weary and 
his mind flags. Or, the mind wanders and loses itself in frivolous thoughts. 
When he endeavours too slowly, his body and mind become dull and lazy 
and sleep overtakes him. 1 

Elation: If the yogin's mind becomes lax through losing itself in frivolous 
thoughts, he becomes discontented with the subject of meditation. If he, 
at first, does not delight in frivolous thoughts, his mind becomes elated through 
willing. Or again, it becomes elated, if he does many deeds through the will 
for happiness and bliss. 

Depression: The yogin fails owing to agitation and thereby partakes of 
uneasiness, and dislikes the subject of meditation. If he dislikes the subject 
of meditation from the start he resents activity and, accordingly through resent- 
ment, his mind becomes depressed. And again, his mind becomes weary of 
initial and sustained application of thought, falls from distinction and, owing 
to craving, becomes depressed. 

When this yogin's mind falls into a state of agitation, quickly, he over- 
comes and abandons agitation, with the faculty of mindfulness and the faculty 
of concentration. When his mind falls into a state of negligence, he should 
overcome and abandon that state of mind-negligence with the faculty of 
mindfulness and the faculty of energy. When the man of elated mind falls 
into a lustful state, he should abandon lust forthwith. When the man of 
depressed mind falls into an angry state, he should abandon anger forthwith. 
In these four places a man accomplishes and makes his mind move in" one 
direction. If his mind moves in one direction, the sign can be made to arise. 

GRASPING SIGN 

There are two kinds of signs, namely, the grasping sign and the after- 
image. What is the grasping sign? When a yogin, with undisturbed mind 
dwells on the mandate, he gains the perception of the mandala and sees it 
as it were in space, sometimes far, sometimes near, sometimes to the left, 
sometimes to the right, sometimes big, sometimes small, sometimes ugly, 
sometimes lovely. Occasionally (he sees it multiplied) many (times) and 
occasionally few (times). He, without scanning the mandala, causes the 
grasping sign to arise through skilful contemplation. This is named grasping 
sign. 

THE AFTER-IMAGE 

Through the following of that (the grasping sign) again and again the 
after-image arises. The after-image means this: what when a man contem- 



1. A. Ill, 375 : Accdraddhavhiyam uddhaccdya samvattati atilinaviriyam kosajjdya samvattati. 
Tasrha ti ha tvam Sana viriyasamatam adhitthaha indriydnah ca samatam pativijjha tattha 
ca nimlttam ganhdhi 'ti. 



78 Vimuttimagga 

plates appears together with mind. Here the mind does not gain collectedness 
through viewing the mandala, but it (the after-image) can be seen with closed 
eyes as before (while looking at the mandala) only in thought. If he wills to 
see it far, he sees it afar. As regards seeing it near, to the left, to the right, 
before, behind, within, without, above and below, it is the same. It appears 
together with mind. This is called the after-image. 

THE SIGN 

What is the meaning of sign ? 

The meaning of (conditioning) cause is the meaning of sign. It is even 
as the Buddha taught the bhikkhus: [414] "All evil demeritorious states occur 
depending on a sign". 1 This is the meaning of conditioning cause. And 
again, it is said that the meaning of wisdom is the meaning of the sign. The 
Buddha has declared: "With trained perception one should forsake". 2 This 
is called wisdom. And again, it is said that the meaning of image is the meaning 
of the sign. It is like the thought a man has on seeing the reflection of his 
own face and image. The after-image is obvious. 

PROTECTING THE SIGN 

After acquiring the sign the yogin should, with heart of reverence towards 
his teacher, protect that excellent sign. If he does not protect, he will, surely, 
lose it. 

Q. How should he protect it? 

A. He should protect it through three kinds of actions : through refraining 
from evil, practice of good and through constant endeavour. 

How does one refrain from evil? One should refrain from pleasure of 
work, of various kinds of trivial talk, of sleeping, of frequenting assemblies, 
immoral habits; (one should refrain from) the non-protection of the faculties, 3 
intemperance as regards food, non-practice of the meditations, jhdnas, and 
non-watchfulness in the first and last watches of the night, non-reverence for 
that which he has learned (the rule), the company of bad friends and seeing 
improper objects of sense. To partake of food, to sit and to lie down, at 
the improper time, are not wholesome. To conquer these states is (to do) 
good. Thus he should always practise. 

Q. What is the meaning of constant endeavour? 



1. Cp. D.I, 70: Idha mahd-raja bhikkhu cakkhund ruparh disvd na nimittaggdhi hoti 
ndnuvyanjanaggdhi. Yatvddhikaranam enam cakkhundriyath asamvutam viharantam 
abhijjhd-domanassd pdpakd akusald dhammd anvdssaveyyum tassa samvardya pdfipaijati, 
rakkhati cakkhundriyam, cakkhundriye sarhvaram dpajjati. 

2. Cp. D.I, 181 : Sikkhd ekd sanhd uppajjanti, sikkhd ekd sannd nirujjhanti. 

3; A. HI, 116: Pane* ime bhikkhave dhammd sekhassa (=sekhassdti sikkhakassa sakaranlyassa 
— Mp. Ill, 274) bhikkhuno parihdndya samvattanti. Katame pahcal Kammdrdmatd, 
bhassdrdmatd niddardmatd, sanganikdramatd, yathdvimuttam cittam na pacchavekkhati. 



Subjects of Meditation 79 

A. That yogin having taken the sign always contemplates on its merit 
as if it were a precious jewel. He is always glad and practises. He practises 
constantly and much. He practises by day and by night. He is glad when 
he is seated. He is at ease when he lies down. Keeping his mind from 
straying hither and thither, he upholds the sign. Upholding the sign, he 
arouses attention. Arousing attention, he meditates. Thus meditating, 
he practises. In his practice, he contemplates on the mandala. Through 
this constant endeavour, he sees the sign and protecting the sign in this way, 
he acquires facility. And if the (after-) image appears in his mind, he gains 
access-meditation. And if access-meditation appears in his mind, he, by means 
of this, accomplishes fixed meditation. 1 

ACCESS-MEDITATION 

Q. What is access-meditation? 

A. It means that the man follows the object unimpeded by his inclinations. 
Thus he overcomes the hindrances. But he does not practise initial and 
sustained application of thought, joy, bliss, unification of mind and the five 
faculties of faith and so forth. Though he gains meditation-strength, diverse 
trends of thought occur yet. This is called access-meditation. 

FIXED MEDITATION, JHANA 

Fixed meditation, jhdna, follows access. This state acquires the power 
of mental progress. This is the power of application of thought, faith and 
the others. This state does not move in the object. This is called fixed medi- 
tation, jhdna. 

Q. What is the difference between access and fixed meditation, jhdnal 

A. The overcoming of the five hindrances is access. One overcomes 
these five and thereby fulfils fixed meditation, jhdna. Through access one 
approaches distinction in meditation, jhdna. When distinction in meditation 
is accomplished, it is fixed meditation, jhdna. In access-meditation mind 
and body, not having attained to tranquillity, are unsteady like a ship on 
waves. In fixed meditation, jhdna, mind and body having attained to tran- 
quillity are steady like a ship on unruffled water. Because the factors 2 are 
not powerful the mind does not dwell long on the object, in access-meditation, 
like a child. 3 All factors 4 being powerful (in fixed meditation, jhdna) one 
dwells on the object peacefully and long, like a powerful man. 5 In access- 



1. Appand jhdna. 

2. and 4. Text has anga. 3. and 5. Cp. Vis. Mag., 126: Yathd ndma daharo kumarako 
ukkhipitvd thapiyamdno punappunarh bhumiyam patati, evam eva upacdre uppanne cittarh 
kdlena nimittam drammanam karoti, kdlena bhavahgam otarati. Appandya pana angani 
thdmajdtdni honti, tesarh thdmajdtattd. Yathd ndma balavd puriso dsand vutthdya diva- 
sam pi tittheyya, evam eva appandsamddhimhi uppanne cittarh, sakirh bhavangavdram 
chinditvd, kevalam pi rattirh kevakam pi divasam tifthati, kusalajavanapatipdtivaserfeva 
pavattati ti. 



80 Vimuttimagga 

meditation one does not practise with facility. Therefore yoga is not accomp- 
lished. It is like the forgetfulness of a discourse-reciter who has stopped 
(reciting) for a long time. 1 In fixed meditation, jhdna, practice being facile, 
yoga is accomplished. It is like a discourse-reciter who keeps himself in 
training, always, and who does not forget when he recites. 

If a man does not overcome the (five) hindrances, he is blind as regards 
access-meditation. 2 These are the teachings regarding impurity. If a man 
overcomes the hindrances well, he gains sight (lit. becomes not-blind). 

Concerning the accomplishment of fixed meditation, jhdna, these are 
the teachings of purity : — From the state of facility in the sign to (the state of) 
repelling is called access. Continued repelling of the hindrances is called 
fixed meditation, jhdna. 

Q. What is the meaning of access? 

A. Because it is near meditation, jhdna, it is called access, as a road 
near a village is called a village road. The meaning is the same, though the 
names differ. 

What is the meaning of fixed meditation, jhdnal Fixed meditation, jhdna, 
means yoga. Fixed meditation, jhdna, is like the mind entering the mandala. 
There is no difference in meaning between renunciation, meditation {jhdna) 
and fixed meditation, {jhdna). Here the yogin, dwelling in access, fixed medi- 
tation {jhdna) or the first meditation {jhdna) should increase the kasina. 

INCREASING OF THE KASINA 

Q. How should he increase? 

A. Namely, the kasina which is a span and four fingers, at the start, 
should be gradually increased. Thus should he contemplate; and he will be 
able gradually to increase with facility. Let him progressively increase it 
to the size of a wheel, a canopy, the shadow of a tree, a cultivated field, a 
small neighbourhood, a village, a walled village and a city. Thus should he 
progress gradually until he fills the great earth. He should not contemplate 
on such things as rivers, mountains, heights, depths, trees and protuberances, 
all of which are uneven; he should contemplate on earth as if it were the 
great ocean. Increasing it in this way, he attains to distinction in meditation. 

SKILFULNESS IN FIXED MEDITATION, JHANA 

If the yogin attains to access-meditation but is unable to obtain fixed 
meditation, jhdna, he should effect the arising of skilfulness in fixed meditation, 
jhdna, in two ways: the first, through causes; the second, through "good 
standing". 



1. A. IV, 195: Asajjhayamala bhikkhave manta. 

2. Cp. S. V, 97 : Pahcime bhikkhave nivarana andhakarana ackkhukarana. 



Subjects of Meditation 81 

TEN WAYS 

By means of ten ways he effects the arising of skilfulness in fixed medi- 
tation, jhdna, through causes: (1) By the consideration of cleansing the 
physical basis. (2) By the consideration of equalizing (the work of) the faculties. 
(3) By skilfulness in taking the sign. (4) By restraining and regulating the 
mind. (5) By repressing negligence. (6) By (overcoming) mental inactivity. 
(7) By gladdening the mind. (8) By steadying the mind and fulfilling equani- 
mity. (9) By separation from him who does not practise concentration and 
by associating with a concentration-practiser. (10) By intentness on fixed 
meditation concentration. 1 

(1). Q. What is the consideration of cleansing the physical basis? 

A. Through three kinds of action one accomplishes the cleansing of 
the physical basis. Namely, through the partaking of suitable food, the 
enjoyment of the ease of agreeable weather and the practice of a posture that 
is pleasant. 

SIMILE OF THE HORSE-CHARIOT 

(2). By the consideration of equalizing (the work) of the faculties, i.e., 
faith or any of the other four faculties should not be allowed to fall back, 
through negligence. It is comparable to a swift horse-chariot. 2 

SIMILE OF THE INKED-STRING 

(3). Skilfulness in taking the sign: The mind-faculty takes (the sign) 
well, i.e., neither too hastily nor too slowly. It is like a skilful carpenter, 
who, having determined well, pulls the inked-string, lets it go at the right 
moment and thereby marks an even, uncurved line. 

(4). By restraining and regulating the mind: There are two ways. 
By these two, the mind is regulated: the first, through intense effort; the 
second, through profound investigation of the spheres or the mind becomes 
discursive, wandering to distant and unsuitable spheres and is thus disturbed. 

Through two ways one restrains the mind: One arouses energy. One 
takes (food) temperately every day. If the mind wanders to unsuitable spheres 
and objects, one restrains the mind having considered the evil results (of such 



1. Cp. Vbh.-a. 283: Api ca ekddasa dhamma samddhi-sambojjhangassa uppdddya samvat- 
tanti: vatthuvisadakiriyatd, indriyasamattapatipddanatd, nimittakusalatd, samaye cittassa 
paggahanatd, samaye cittassa niggahanatd, samaye sampahamsanatd, samaye ajjhupekk- 
hanatd, asamdhitapuggalaparivajjanatd, samdhitapuggalasevanatd, jhdnavimokkhapaccave- 
kkhanatd, tad-adhimuttatd ti. 

2. S.IV, 176; M.III, 97; A.III, 28; Seyyathdpi bhikkhave subhumiyam cdtummahdpathe 
djahharatho yutto assa thito odhastapatodo tarn enarh dakkho yoggdcariyo assadamma- 
sdrathi abhiruhitvd vdmena hatthena rasmiyo gahetvd dakkhinena hatthena patodam 
gahetvd yerf icchakarh yad icchakam sdreyya pi paccdsareyya pi. 



82 Vimuttimagga 

actions). Thus one overcomes in two ways : through investigation of various 
sufferings and through the search for the reward of evil deeds. 

(5) (6) and (7). By repressing negligence: Through two ways negligence 
of mind is fulfilled : through lack of distinction in concentration and through 
mental inactivity. When there is much negligence, the mind becomes sluggish 
and torpid. This means that, if the yogin does not gain distinction in con- 
centration, his mind is steeped in negligence because of mental inactivity. 
Through two ways one should repress. Namely, through the consideration 
of merit and through the arousing of energy. He should repress negligence 
of torpor and idleness of mind in four ways : — If he is a voracious person 
he considers (the faults of) negligence and practises the four restraints. Fixing 
his mind on the sign of brightness, he dwells in a dewy place, makes his mind 
rejoice and gets rid of attachment. Through three ways mental inactivity 
takes place: through insufficiency of skill, dullness of wit, non-obtainment 
of the ease of solitude. If a yogin's mind is inactive he makes it active in 
these two ways: through fear and through gladness. 

If he considers birth, decay, death and the four states of woe, owing 
to fear, anxiety and mental agony arise in his mind. 1 If he practises the re- 
collections of the Buddha, the Law, the Community of Bhikkhus, virtue, libera- 
lity and deities, he sees the merits of these objects and is gladdened. 

(8). By the mind becoming steady and fulfilling equanimity: Through 
two actions (the mind) fulfils access-meditation : by destroying the hindrances 
the mind fulfils fixity. Or, arousing the meditation (jhdna) factors on already 
acquired earth (kasina), the mind attains to fixity. 

After a yogin attains to calmness, there are two states to be abandoned: 
that which causes inattention, and that which causes middling skill. 

(9). Separation from those who do not practise concentration means 
that a man who has not attained to fixed meditation, access-meditation or 
restraint meditation, and he who does not train himself in these or practise 
these should not be served. Association with a meditation practiser means 
that if a man has attained to fixed meditation, jhdna, he should be followed. 
Under him one should learn. Him should one serve. 

(10). By intentness on fixed meditation, jhdna, means that the yogin 
alv/ays reverences, enjoys (meditation) and practises much (regarding it) 
as the deepest depth, as a fountain and as a tender plant. 

Through the practice of these ten, fixed meditation, jhdna, is obtained. 

Q. How (does the yogin) produce skilfulness in fixed meditation, jhdna, 
well, through good standing? 

A. That yogin, having well understood the causes (which induce concen- 
tration), enters into solitude. With the sign of concentration which he has 
practised, he induces, in mind, desirous ease, with facility. Through this 



1. Cp. Nd 1 . 371 : Jdtibhayam jardbhayarh byddhibhayam maranabhayarh duggatibhayam. 



Subjects of Meditation 83 

state, the mind acquires good standing. Through the arising of joy, the 
mind acquires good standing. [415] Through the arising of body-bliss, 
the mind acquires good standing. Through the arising of brightness, the 
mind acquires good standing. Through the arising of harmlessness, the mind 
attains to calmness. Through this calmness, the mind acquires good standing. 
Thus observing well, the mind attains to equanimity and acquires good standing. 
Liberating itself from limitless passions, the mind acquires good standing. 
By reason of freedom, the mind accomplishes the one-function-of-the-Law 1 
and practises. Therefore, owing to this excellence, the mind gains increase. 
Thus established in good standing, the yogin causes the arising of skilfulness 
in fixed meditation, jhdna. Understanding causes and good standing well, 
in this way, he, in no long time, brings out concentration. 

THE FIRST MEDITATION, JHANA 

That yogin, having separated himself from lust, having separated himself 
from demeritorious states, attains to the first meditation, jhdna, which is 
accompanied by initial and sustained application of thought, born of solitude, 
and full of joy and bliss. 2 This is the merit of earth kasina. 

THREE KINDS OF SEPARATION FROM LUST AND 
DEMERITORIOUS STATES 



Now,. there are three kinds 6f.Tepair4ii6hTrbm..lu^,.yfe., pY the body,.*of 
the mind and of the defilements. 3 

Q. What is separation from (lust of) the body? 

A. (A man) separates himself from desires, goes to a hill or moor and 
dwells there. What is separation from (lust of) the mind. With pure heart 
a man reaches a station of distinction. What is separation from (lust of) the 
defilements? A man is cut off from kindred, birth and death. 

And again, there are five kinds of separation, namely, suppression- 
separation, part-separation, eradication-separation, tranquillity-separation, 
emancipation-separation. What is suppression-separation? Namely, practise 
of the first meditation jhdna, and the suppression of the five hindrances. What 
is part-separation? Namely, practice of penetration-concentration and the 
suppression of views. What is eradication-separation? Namely, the practice 



1 . A. IV, 203 : Seyyathdpi Pahdrdda mahdsamuddho ekaraso lonaraso, evam eva kho Pahdrdda 
ayam dhammavinayo ekaraso vimuttiraso. 

2. A. Ill, 25 : Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicc'eva kdmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam 
savicdram vi'vekajam piri-sukham pathamajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. 

3. (a) Nd 1 . 26: Vivekd ti tayo vivekd, kdyaviveko, cittaviveko, upadhiviveko. 

(b) Ibid. 27: Kdyaviveko ca viipakatthakdydnam nekkhammdbhiratdnam; cittaviveko ca. 
parisuddhacittdnam paramavoddnappattdnam; upadhiviveko ca nirupadhinam puggaldnarh 
visamkhdragatdnam. 



84 Vimuttimagga 

of the supramundane Path and the cutting down of many defilements. What 
is tranquillity-separation? It is the joy of the time when one acquites the 
(Noble) Fruit. What is emancipation-separation? Namely, Nibbdna. 1 

TWO KINDS OF LUST 

There are two kinds of lust: the first is lust for things; the second is lust 
for pleasure. The lust for heavenly mansions and forms, odours, flavours and 
tangibles which men love is called lust for things. A man clings to this lust 
for things and attends to it. 2 The separation from these lusts through mind 
and through suppression — this is solitude, this is renunciation, this is freedom, 
this is the unassociated, this is called separation from lust. 

ROOTS OF DEMERIT 

Q. What is separation from demeritorious states? 

A. Namely, there are three kinds of roots of demerit: the first is lust, 
the second is hatred and the third is ignorance. 3 The sensations, perceptions, 
formations and consciousness connected with these and the actions of body, 
speech and mind (connected with these) are called demeritorious states. 

According to another tradition, there are three kinds of demerit: the 
first is natural; the second is associated; the third is causally produced. The 
thiee roots of demerit aie named natural. Sensations, perceptions, formations 
and consciousness which are connected with these are named associated. 
The actions of body, speech and mind which are produced are called causally 
produced. The separation from these three demeritorious states is called 
renunciation, freedom, the unassociated. This is called separation from 
demeritorious states. And again, separation from lust means the separation 
from the hindrance of lust. Separation from demeritorious states is separation 
from the other hindrances. 4 



1. Pts. II, 220: Sammaditthiya katame panca vivekal Vikkhambhanaviveko tadangaviveko 
samucchedaviveko pafippassaddhiviveko nissaranaviveko. Vikkhambhanaviveko ca 
nivarananam pathamajjhanam bhavayato, tadangaviveko ca ditthigatdnam nibbedhabha- 
giyam samadhim bhavayato, samucchedaviveko ca lokuttaram khayagdmimaggam 
bhavayato, pafippassaddhiviveko ca phalakkhane, nissaranaviveko ca nirodho nibbdnam. 

2. Ndi 1 — 2: Dve kdmd, vatthukama ca kilesakama ca. Katame vatthukama? Mandpikd 

rupd, mandpikd saddd, mandpikd gandha, mandpikd rasa, mandpikd photthabbd; 

dibba kdmd; ime vuccanti vatthukama. Katame kilesakama ? Chando kdmo, rdgo 

kdmo, chandardgo kdmo, samkappardgo kdmo; yo kdmesukdmacchando kamardgo 

kdmanandi kdmatanha kdmasneho kdmaparijdho kdmamucchd kdmajjhosdnam kamogho 
kdmayogo kdmupdddnam kdmacchandanivaranam. ime vuccanti kilesakama. 

3. D. Ill, 214: Tini akusala-muldni. Lobho akusala-mulam, doso akusala-mularh, moho 
akusala-midam. 

4. Vbh. 256: Vivicc'eva kamehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehiti: tattha katame kdmd? Chando 
kdmo, rdgo kdmo, chandardgo kdmo; samkappo kdmo, rdgo kdmo, samkappardgo kdmo; 
ime vuccanti kdmd. 

Tattha katame akusald dhammdl 

Kamacchando vydpado thinamiddham uddhaccakukkuccam vicikicchd: ime vuccanti 

akusald dhammd. — Here see Vis. Mag. 141 : Vivicca akusalehi dhammehi ti imind 

pahcannam pi nivarananam, agahitaggahanena pana pathamena kamacchandassa, dutiyena 

sesanivarandnam, 



Subjects of Meditation 85 

REASONS FOR TREATING LUST AND DEMERIT SEPARATELY 

Q. Since separation from demeritorious states is preached and lust as 
a demeritorious state is already within it, why should separation from lust be 
separately preached? 

A. Lust is conquered through emancipation. Every Buddha's teaching 
can remove the defilements well. "The separation from lust is renunciation". 1 
This is the teaching of the Buddha. It is like the attainment of the first 
meditation, jhdna. The thought connected with the perception of lust 
partakes of the state of deterioration. 

Thereby lust is connected with the defilements. With the dispersion of 
lust all defilements disperse. Therefore, separately, the separation from lust 
is preached. 

And again, thus is separation from lust: After gaining emancipation, a 
man accomplishes the separation from lust. 

SEPARATION FROM DEMERITORIOUS STATES 

Separation from demeritorious states is thus : Through the acquisition of 
non-hatred, a man fulfils separation from hatred; through the acquisition of 
the perception of brightness, he fulfils separation from torpor; through the 
acquisition of non-distraction, he fulfils separation from agitation and anxiety; 
through the acquisition of non-rigidity, he fulfils separation from rigidity; 
through the acquisition of fixed meditation, jhdna, he fulfils separation from 
uncertainty; through the acquisition of wisdom, he fulfils separation from 
ignorance; through the acquisition of right thought, he fulfils separation 
from wrong mindfulness; through the acquisition of bliss, he fulfils separation 
from non-bliss; through the acquisition of the twin bliss of the mind, he fulfils 
separation from suffering; through the acquisition of all meritorious states, 
he separates from all demerit. This is just as it is taught in the Tipitaka thus : 
"He is full of dispassion, therefore he fulfils separation from lust. He is full 
of non-hatred and non-delusion, therefore he fulfils separation from demeri- 
torious states". 2 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LUST AND DEMERIT 

And again, separation from lust is taught as the emancipation of the 
body, and separation from demeritorious states is taught as the emancipation 
of the mind. 



1. It. 61 : Kdmdnam-etam nissaranarh yad-idam nekkhammam, 

2. Prof. Bapat in his Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, p.46 traces this passage to Petako- 
padesa. He quotes from the printed Burmese edition =P.T.S. Ed. 141 : Tattha 
alobhassa paripuriyd, vivitto hoti kdmehi. Tattha adosassa paripuriya amohassa pari- 
puriyd ca vivitto hoti pdpakehi akusalehi dhammehi. 



86 Vimuttimagga 

And again, separation from lust is taught as the abandoning of discursive 
sensuous thought, and the separation from demeritorious states is taught as 
the abandoning of discursive thoughts of hate and harm. 

And again, separation from lust is taught as eschewing of sense-pleasures, 
and separation from demeritorious states is taught as the eschewing of 
negligence thiough indulgence of the body. 

And again, separation from lust is taught as the abandoning of the sixfold 
pleasures of sense and of delight therein. Separation from demeritorious 
states is taught as the abandoning of discursive thoughts of hate and harm, 
anxiety and suffering. Also it is taught as (1) the mowing down of pleasure, 
(2) as indifference. 

And again, separation from lust is present bliss of relief from sense- 
pleasures, and separation from demeritorious states is present bliss of relief 
from non-subjection to tribulation. 

And again, separation from lust is to get beyond the sense-flood entirely. 
Sepaiation from demeritorious states is the surpassing of all other defilements 
which cause rebirth in the sense and form (planes). 

INITIAL AND SUSTAINED APPLICATION OF THOUGHT 

Accompanied by initial application and sustained application of thought : 
What is initial application of thought? To perceive, to think, to be composed, 
to excogitate and to aspire rightly, though without understanding, constitute 
initial application of thought. Such are the qualities of initial application of 
thought. Owing to the fulfilment of initial application of thought there is 
initial application of thought in the first meditation, jhdna. And again, one 
dwells on the earth kasina and considers the earth sign without end. These 
constitute initial application of thought. It is comparable to the reciting of 
discourses by heart. 

Q. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and 
near cause cf initial application of thought? 

A. 1 

What is sustained application of thought? When one practises sustained 
application of thought, the mind dwells in non-indifference following that 
which sustained application of thought investigates. This state is called 
sustained application of thought. In association with this one accomplishes 
the first meditation, jhdna. The first meditation, jhdna, is (conjoined) with 
sustained application of thought. And again, the meditator who dwells on 
the earth kasina considers many aspects which his mind discerns when working 
on the earth sign. This is sustained application of thought. 



1 . This passage is unintelligible. 



Subjects of Meditation 87 

Q. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause of sustained application of thought? 

A. Reflection following investigation is its salient characteristic. The 
brightening of the mind — this is its function. The seeing that follows initial 
application of thought — this is its near cause. 

INITIAL APPLICATION AND SUSTAINED APPLICATION 
OF THOUGHT DISCRIMINATED 

Q. What is the difference between initial application and sustained 
application of thought ? 

SIMILES OF THE BELL ETC. 

A. It is comparable to the striking of a bell. The fust sound is initial 
application of thought. The reverberations that follow constitute sustained 
application of thought. And again, it is comparable to the relation of the 
mind to its object. The beginning is initial application of thought; the rest 
is sustained application of thought. And again, to wish for meditation, 
jhdna, is initial application of thought; to maintain is sustained application 
of thought. And again, to recall is initial application of thought; to dwell 
on the recollection is sustained application of thought. And again, the state 
of the coarse mind is initial application of thought and the state of the fine 
mind is sustained application of thought. Where there is initial application 
of thought there is sustained application of thought, but where there is sustained 
application of thought, there may or may not be initial application of thought. 
It is taught in the Tipitaka thus: "The mind beginning to dwell on anything 
is initial application of thought. If, having acquired initial application of 
thought, the mind is still unfixed, it is sustained application of thought". 1 To 
see a person coming in the distance, without knowing whether one is a man 
or woman and to distinguish the form as male or female is initial application 
of thought. Thereafter to consider whether he or she is virtuous or not, is 
rich or poor, noble or humble, is sustained application of thought. Initial 
application of thought wants (a thing), draws it and brings it near. 2 Sustained 
application of thought keeps it, holds it, follows and goes after it. 

SIMILES OF THE BIRD ETC. 

Like a bird taking off from a hill flapping its wings, is initial application 



1. Dhs. 10, paras 7, 8; 20, paras 84, 85; Yo tasmirh samaye takko vitakko sankappo appand- 
vyappand cetaso abhiniropand sammdsahkappo — ayarh tasmirh samaye vitakko hoti. 

Yo tasmirii samaye cdro vicdro anuvicdro upavicdro cittassa anusandhanatd anupekkhanatd 
— ayam tasmirh samaye vicdro hoti. 

2. Petaka. 142: Yathd puriso diirato purisam passati dgacchantam na ca tdva jdndti — eso 
itthi ti vd puriso ti vd. Yadd tu patilabhati: itthi ti vd puriso ti vd evamvanno ti vd 
evamsanthdno ti vd, ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti: kirn nu kho ayarh silavd 
udddu dussilo addho vd duggato ti vdl Evarh vicdro vitakke apeti vicdro cariyati, ca, 
anuvattati ca, — Traced by Prof. Bapat. 



88 Vimuttimagga 

of thought and the planing movement (of a bird in the sky) is sustained appli- 
cation of thought. The first spreading (of the wings) is initial application of 
thought. The spreading (of the wings) when it is continued long is sustained 
application of thought. 1 With initial application of thought one protects; 
with sustained application of thought one searches. With initial application 
of thought one considers; with sustained application of thought one continues 
to consider. The walker in initial application of thought does not think of 
wrong states; the walker in sustained application of thought induces 
meditation. 

Sustained application of thought is like a man who is able, while reciting 
the discourses in mind, to gather the meaning. Initial application of thought 
is like a man who sees what he wants to see and after seeing understands it 
well. Expertness in etymology and dialectic is initial application of thought; 
expertness in theory and practice is sustained application of thought. 2 To 
appreciate distinction is initial application of thought; to understand the 
distinction of things is sustained application of thought. These are the differ- 
ences between initial application and sustained application of thought. 

SOLITUDE 

Born of solitude. It is called solitude because of separation from the 
five hindrances. This is named solitude. And again, it is the merit-faculty 
of the form plane. And again, it is taught as the access of the first meditation, 
jhdna. And again, it is taught as the meditation-thought. What is produced 
from this is called born of solitude, as the flower which grows on earth is 
called earth-flower and the flower which grows in water, water-flower. 

JOY AND BLISS 

Joy and bliss. The mind at this time is greatly glad and at ease. The 
mind is filled with coolness. This is called joy. 

Q. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause of joy and how many kinds of joy are there? 

A. Joy: the being filled with joy is its salient characteristic; to gladden 
is its function; the overcoming of mental disturbance is its manifestation; 
buoyancy is its near cause. 

How many kinds of joy are there? There are six kinds of joy: one 



1. Vis. Mag. 142: Dukanipdtatthakathdyam pana dkdse gacchato mahdsakunassa ubhohi 
pakkhehi vdtarh gahetvd pakkhe sannisiddpetvd gamanam viya drammane cetaso abhi- 
niropanabhdvena pavatto vitakko; (so hi ekaggo hutvd appeti;) vdtagahanattham pakkhe 
phanddpayamdnassa gamanam viya anumajjanasabhdvena pavatto vicar o ti vuttam. — This 
simile is not in the Cy., i.e., Manorathapurani. 

2. Here again Prof. Bapat has traced this passage to the Petaka, 142; Yathd paliko tunhiko 
sajjhdyam karoti evam vitakko, yathd tarn yeva anupassati evam vicdro. Yathd aparihnd 
evam vitakko, yathd parihna evam vicdro. Niruttipatisambhiddyah ca patibhdnapatisam- 
bhiddyah ca vitakko, dhammapatisambhiddyah ca atthapafisambhiddyan ca vicdro. 



Subjects of Meditation 89 

proceeds from lust; one, from faith; one, from non-rigidity; one from solitude; 
one, from concentration and one, from enlightenment factors. 

Which, from lust? The joy of passion and the joy that is bound up with 
the defilements are called joy that proceeds from lust. 1 

Which, from faith ? The joy of a man of great faith and the joy produced 
on seeing a potter. 2 

Which, from non-rigidity? [416] The great joy of the pure-hearted 
and the virtuous. 

Which, from solitude? The joy of the individual who enters the first 
meditation, jhana? 

Which, from concentration? The joy of the individual who enters the 
second meditation, jhana^ 

Which, from the enlightenment factors ? The joy that follows the treading 
of the supramundane path in the second meditation, jhana. 

FIVE KINDS OF JOY 

And again, it is taught that there are five kinds of joy, namely, the lesser 
thrill, momentary joy, streaming joy, swiftly going joy, all-pervading joy. 5 

The lesser thrill is like the raising of the hairs of the body caused by being 
wet with fine rain. Momentary joy suddenly arises and suddenly passes away. 
It is comparable to showers at night. Streaming joy is like oil that streaks 
down the body without spreading. Swiftly going joy is joy that spreads through 
the mind and vanishes not long after. It is comparable to the store of a poor 
man. All-pervading joy permeating the body, continues. It is like a thunder- 
cloud that is full of rain. Thus the lesser thrill and momentary joy cause the 
arising of the access through faith. Streaming joy becoming powerful 
causes the arising of the access. Swiftly going joy dwelling on the mandate 
causes the arising of both the good and the bad, and depends on skill. All- 
pervading joy is produced in the state of fixed meditation. 

BLISS 

Q. What is bliss? A. Contact with the lovable and the ease-giving is 
bliss. 



1. S.IV, 235: Katamd ca bhikkhave sdmisd piti. Pahcime bhikkhave kdmagund. Katame 

panca. Cakkhuvihheyyd rupd itthd kantd mandpd piyariipd kdmupasamhitd rajaniyd 

pe kdyavinneyyd photthabbd itthd kantd rajaniyd. Ime kho bhikkhave panca- 

kdmagund. Yd kho bhikkhave ime pancakdmagune paficca uppajjati piti, ayarh vuccati 
bhikkhave sdmisd piti. 

2. What is meant by potter is not clear. 

3. A.II, 126: Idha ekacco puggalo vivicc'eva kdmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam 
sayicdram vivekajam pitisukham pathamajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. 

4. Ibid. 127: Vitakkavicdrdnam vupasamd ajjhattam sampasddo cetaso ekodibhdvam 
avitakkam avicdram samddhijam pitisukkam dutiyajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. 

5. Dhs.-a. 115. Khuddakd piti, khanikd piti, okkantikd piti, pharand piti, ubbegd piti ti 
pahcavidhd hoti. 



90 Vimuttimagga 

Q. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause of bliss ? How many kinds of bliss are there ? What are the differences 
between joy and bliss ? A. Its function is its salient characteristic. Dependence 
on an agreeable object — this is its agreeable function. Peaceful persuasion 
is its manifestation. Tranquillity is its near cause. 

FIVE KINDS OF BLISS 

How many kinds of bliss are there ? There are five kinds of bliss, namely, 
caused bliss, fundamental bliss, the bliss of solitude, the bliss of non-defilement, 
the bliss of feeling. 

What is called caused bliss ? Thus it is according to the Buddha's teaching : 
"The bliss of virtue lasts long". This is called caused bliss. This is a merit 
of bliss. Thus is fundamental bliss according to the Buddha's teaching: 'The 
Enlightened One produces worldly bliss". 1 The bliss of solitude is the develop- 
ment of concentration-indifference and the destruction of meditation, jhdna. 
The bliss of non-defilement is according to the Buddha's teaching "highest 
Nibbdna".' 2, The bliss of dwelling is generally called the bliss of dwelling. 
According to this treatise, the bliss of dwelling should be enjoyed. 3 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN JOY AND BLISS 

What are the differences between joy and bliss? Buoyancy is joy, ease 
of mind is bliss. Tranquillity of mind is bliss. Concentration of mind is joy. 
Joy is coarse; bliss is fine. Joy belongs to the formations-group; bliss belongs 
to the sensation-group. Where there is joy there is bliss, but where there is 
bliss there may or may not be joy. 

FIRST MEDITATION (JHANA) 

The first is the basis for producing the second. After accomplishing the 
access one enters the first meditation, jhdna. The meditation-factors are 
initial application of thought and sustained application of thought, joy, bliss 
and unification of mind. 

What is meditation, jhdnal It is equalized meditation on an object. It 
is the plucking out of the five hindrances. It is to meditate and to overcome. 

Enters the first meditation, jhdna, and acquires good standing: Having 
already acquired, having already touched, having already proved, one dwells. 

And again, thus is separation from lust and demeritorious states: The 
first meditation, jhdna, is called the special characteristic of separation from the 
world of sense. The second meditation, jhdna, has the special characteristic of 



1. Dh. 194: Sukho Buddhdnarh uppado. 2. Dh. 204: Nibbdnam paramam sukharh. 
3. Cp. I, 75: Puna ca pararh maha-rdja bhikkhu pitiyd ca virdgd ca upekhako ca viharati 

sato ca sampajdno, sukhafi ca kdyena patisarhvedeti yan tarn ariyd dckkihanti: '"''upekhako 

satimd sukka-vihdri" ti tatiyajjhdnarh upasampajja viharati. 



Subjects of Meditation 91 

separation from initial application and sustained application of thought. 
In solitude are joy and bliss; therefore joy and bliss are called the special 
characteristics of solitude. 1 

And again, thus is separation from lust and demeritorious states: It is 
to remove well, and to overcome well. 

With initial application and sustained application of thought: This is 
said to be the characteristic of (the first) meditation, jhdna. 

Joy and bliss born of solitude : This state resembles meditation. 

Acquires good standing enters and dwells : One acquires the first medita- 
tion, jhdna, separates from five factors, fulfils five factors, three kinds of good- 
ness, ten characteristics, 2 and accomplishes the twenty-five merits. With 
these merits one can obtain rebirth in the Brahma or the deva world. 3 

FIVE HINDRANCES 

Separation from five factors : This is separation from the five hindrances. 
What are the five? Sense-desire, ill will, rigidity and torpor, agitation and 
anxiety, uncertainty. 4 

Sense-desire : (This refers to) a mind defiled by the dust of passion. Ill 
will: This is the practice of the ten defilements. Rigidity: This is negligence 
of the mind. Torpor : This is the desire for sleep owing to heaviness of the 
body. There are three kinds of torpor: the first, proceeds from food; the 
second, from time ; the third, from the mind. If it proceeds from the mind, 
one removes it with meditation. If it proceeds from food and time as in the 
case of the Arahant, because it does not proceed from the mind, it is not a hin- 
drance. If it proceeds from food and time, one cuts it with energy as the 
Venerable Elder Anuruddha taught: "Since first I destroyed the cankers 
for fifty-five years, have I not slept the sleep that proceeds from the mind. 
And during this period for twenty-five years, have I removed the sleep that 
proceeds from food and time". 5 



1. Petaka. 147-8: Tattha katame jhdnavisesd? Vivicc 'eva kdmehi vivicca pdpakehi akusalehi 
dhammehi cittacetasikasahagatd kdmadhdtusamatikkamanatd pi, ayath jhdnaviseso. 
Avitakkd c'eva avicdrd ca sappltikdya satisahagatdya pitisahagatd sahhdmanasikdrd 
samuddcaranti; ayarh jhdnaviseso. 

2. (a) M.I, 294-5: Pathamarh kho dvuso jhdnarh pancangavippahinam pancahgasamannd- 
gatam: IdK dvuso pathamarh jhdnarh samdpannassa bhikkhuno kdmacchando pahino hoti 
bydpddo pahino hoti, thinamiddham pahinam hoti, uddhaccakukkuccam pahinarh hoti, 
vicikicchd pahind hoti. 

(b) Vis. Mag. 139: Pancangavippahinam pahcangasamanndgatam tividhakalydnam dasa- 
lakkhanasampannam pathamajjhdnam . 

(c) Petaka 136: Tat t ha katamam pathamarh jhdnaml Pahcangavippayuttam pahcanga- 
samanndgatam. 

3. From "The first is the basis for producing the second" (p. 90, above) to "the Brahma or 
the deva world", refers to the first meditation, jhdna, formula (p. 83 above) : Vivicc' eva 
kdmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam savicdram vivevakajam pitisukkam 
pathamarh jhdnarh upasampajja viharatV\ Vis. Mag. 139. 

4. Kdmacchanda, vydpdda, thina-middha, uddhaccakukkucca, vicikicchd. 

5. Th. 904 Pahcapahhdsa vassdni yato nesajjiko aharh 

pahcavisati vassdni yato middham samuhatam. 



92 Vimuttimagga 

Q. If torpor is a bodily state, how can it be a mental defilement? A. The 
body is produced only by mental defilement. It is like a man drinking wine and 
taking food. Thus should it be known. 

Q. If torpor is a bodily state and rigidity is a mental property, how do 
these two states unite and become one hindrance? A. These two states have 
one object and one function. What are called torpor and rigidity become one. 
Agitation is non-tranquillity of mind; anxiety is unsteadiness of mind; the 
characteristics of these are equal. Therefore they become one hindrance. 
Uncertainty is the clinging of the mind to diverse objects. There are four 
kinds of uncertainty : the first is a hindrance to serenity, 1 the second, to insight, 2 
the third, to both and the fourth, to things non-doctrinal. 

Here, is serenity won through the ending of these uncertainties, or is it 
possible or not to win tranquillity while having these uncertainties or the 
uncertainty concerning the self? If one has that uncertainty, it is called a 
hindrance to serenity; uncertainty concerning the Four Noble Truths and 
the three worlds is called a hindrance to insight; uncertainty concerning the 
Buddha, the Law and the Community of Bhikkhus is called a hindrance to 
both. Uncertainty concerning things like country, town, road, name of man 
or woman is called hindrance to things non-doctrinal. Uncertainty concerning 
the Discourses is a hindrance to solitude. Thus should these be understood. 
What is the meaning of hindrance? Hindrance to vehicle; 3 superposing, 
defilement, fetter. These are obvious. 

Q. There are many fetters such as those which cover the defilements, 
and others. They are fetters. Then, why are only five hindrances taught? 

A. Because these five include all. And again, the attachment to sense- 
desires includes all attachment to passion ; all demeritorious states (of hatred) 
are included in the attachment to anger ; and all demeritorious states of infatu- 
ation are included in the attachment to rigidity and torpor, agitation and 
anxiety and uncertainty. Thus all defilements are included in the attachment 
to the five hindrances. Because of this the five hindrances are taught. 

FIVE FACTORS 

Five factors: These are fulfilled (through the fulfilment of) initial and 
sustained application of thought, joy, bliss, and unification of mind. 

Q. It is said that the five factors together constitute the first meditation, 
jhdna. Therefore, it cannot be said that there is a meditation (jhdna) outside 
the five factors. If there is a meditation, jhdna, outside the five factors, how 
can it be said that the first meditation, jhdna, consists of the five factors ? 



1. Samatha (transliteration). 2. Vipassand (transliteration). 

3. Yana. 



Subjects of Meditation 93 

SIMILES OF CHARIOT AND ARMY 

A. By means of the meditation, jhdna, factors, meditation (jhdna) is 
fulfilled. There is no meditation, jhdna, separate from meditation (jhdna) 
factors. Such meditation, jhdna, there is not. One can speak of a chariot 
because of all the parts of a chariot. 1 There is no chariot outside the parts. 
Owing to all the parts of an army, one can speak of an army. There is no 
army separate from the parts. Thus owing to meditation (jhdna) factors, it 
is called meditation, jhdna. There is no meditation, jhdna, separate from the 
meditation (jhdna) factors. 2 The factors combined are named meditation, 
jhdna. Separately, they are named factors. It is taught that the object is 
called meditation, jhdna, and the attributes, factors. By way of clan they 
are meditation, jhdna. By way of caste they are factors. 

Q. In spite of there being mindfulness, energy and others, why are only 
five factors taught? 

A. Because these five through combination accomplish meditation, 
jhdna. 

Q. What are the characteristics of combination? 

A. Initial application of thought follows the object of mind and acquires 
fixed meditation. Sustained application of thought goes together with the 
observing mind. When initial and sustained application of thought are 
unmixed, they cause the arising of skilfulness. If one is skilful, one produces 
joy and bliss. If one is skilful, one can produce the heart of joy, and after 
increasing that, produce the heart of bliss. With these four qualities the 
mind becomes peaceful. If the mind becomes peaceful, it acquires concen- 
tration. These are called the characteristics of combination. Thus, these 
five, through combination, accomplish (meditation, jhdna). 

And again, the hindrances are overcome by the perfection of the five. 
The overcoming of the first hindrance is the first meditation, jhdna. Thus 
the overcoming of the five hindrances results in five meditations, jhdnas. In 
the first meditation, jhdna, initial application of thought is the special factor; 
through initial application of thought lust is abandoned. If initial application 
of thought enters into right concentration, the other factors are also awakened. 
Among the five factors, sustained application of thought is the beginning of 
the second meditation; joy, of the third meditation; bliss, of the fourth; 
and unification of mind, of the fifth. These are the special factors of the 
meditations, jhdnas. 

And again, with the overcoming of the five hindrances, the five are fulfilled, 
as it is taught in the Tipitaka: "Unification of mind is the overcoming of 
sensuous desire, joy is the overcoming of anger, initial application of thought 



1. S. I, 135: Yatha hi angasambhdrd hoti saddo ratho iti. 

2. Sp. I, 146: Yatha pana sarathd sapattisend ti vutte senangesu eva send eva send samutti — 
evam idha pancasu angesu yeva jhdnasammuti veditabbd. 



94 Vimuttimagga 

is the overcoming of rigidity and torpor, bliss is the overcoming of agitation 
and anxiety, sustained application of thought is the overcoming of uncer- 
tainty". 1 Thus, through the overcoming of the hindrances, the five are 
fulfilled. 

Q. Meditating on the earth kasina sign, [417] how does the yogin cause 
the arising of joy and bliss? 

A. The earth kasina does not bring joy and bliss. They (joy and bliss) 
naturally follow the separation from the five hindrances. Thus the son of 
truth 2 causes the arising of joy and bliss. 

Q. If that be so, why does the son of truth not arouse joy and bliss in 
the fourth meditation, jhdnal 

A. Because it is not a suitable state, and because he removes joy and 
bliss in the fourth meditation, jhdna. And again because of his having skilfully 
rooted out the joy and bliss which he caused to arise at first, and because, he, 
seeing the tribulation of bliss, forsakes it, and attaches himself to deep tran- 
quillity. For these reasons, he does not cause the arising of joy and bliss. 

THREE KINDS OF GOODNESS 

The three kinds of goodness : These are the initial, medial and final stages 
of goodness. Purity of practice is the initial stage; the increase of equanimity 
is the medial stage; rejoicing is the final stage. 3 What is purity of practice? 
It is the foundation of all goodness. What is the increase of equanimity? 
It is fixed meditation. What is rejoicing? It, is reflection. 1 Thus there are 
three kinds of goodness in the first meditation, jhdna. 

TEN CHARACTERISTICS 

Fulfilment of the ten characteristics : These comprise the three charac- 
teristics of the purity of practice, the three characteristics of the increase of 
equanimity and the four characteristics of rejoicing. 5 What are the three 
characteristics of the purity of practice? A. The mind purifies itself of that 
hindrance to the meditation, jhdna. Because of purity, the mind acquires 
the middle sign of serenity, and from that *hc mind leaps forward. These 
are called the three characteristics of the purity of practice. 

Q. What are the three characteristics of the increase of equanimity? 



1. Vis. Mag. 141 : Tathd hi samddhi kdmacchandassa patipakkho, piti vydpddassa, vitakko 
thinamiddhassa, sukkham uddhacca-kukkuccassa, vicdro vicikicchdyd ti Petake vuttarh. 
— But it is not in the Pefaka. 

2. Dhammaputta, 

3. Cp. Vis. Mag. 147: Pathamassa jhdnassa patipadd-visuddhi ddi, upekkhdnubruhand majjhe, 
sampahamsand pariyosdnam . 

4. Cp. Vis. Mag. 148: Patipadd-visuddhi ndma sasambhdriko upacdro, upekkhdnubruhand 
ndwa appana, samapahamsand ndma paccavekkhand ti evam eke vannayanti. The com- 
ment (in Pm. Sinh. Ed. I, 144:) eketi Abhayagirivdsino, is quoted by Prof. Bapat in his 
Vim. Mag. and Vis. Mag. p. 49. 

5. Cp.Ibid. 147. ff. 



Subjects of Meditation 95 

A. If the mind is pure, it fulfils equanimity; if it attains to solitude, it 
fulfils equanimity; if it dwells on one object, it fulfils equanimity. These are 
called the three characteristics. Q. What are the four characteristics of 
rejoicing? A. Among these ten characteristics, there is rejoicing by reason 
of the gradual arising of the states produced; there is rejoicing by reason of 
the functions of the faculties becoming one; there is rejoicing by reason of 
the possession of energy; and there is rejoicing by reason of devotion (to 
these states). These are called the four characteristics. Thus, in the first 
meditation, jhdna, the ten characteristics are fulfilled. 

TWENTY-FIVE BENEFITS 

Twenty-five benefits: In the first meditation, initial and sustained applica- 
tion of thought, joy, bliss and unification of mind are accomplished. Faith, 
energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom are accomplished. The 

initial, medial and final stages (of goodness) are accomplished. . . . . x 

is accomplished. Practice is accomplished. Solitude is accomplished. 
Dependence is accomplished 2 is accomplished 3 is accomp- 
lished. Reflection is accomplished. .......... . 4 is accomplished, Power is 

accomplished. Freedom is accomplished. Purity is accomplished, and the 
super-excellent purity is accomplished. Thus a man dwells together with 
the twenty-five benefits. These are the excellent stations of the deities. They 
are produced from tranquillity and are called the abodes of joy and bliss. In 
such excellent abodes surpassing the human do the deities. dwell... Hence the 
Blessed One, the Buddha* declared to the bhikkhus: 

SIMILE OF THE BATH-ATTENDANT 

"Just as a skilful bath-attendant or his apprentice heaps up bath-powder 
in a lovely copper vessel, adds water to it, kneads it, and makes it round, 
saturating it so that it adheres and does not scatter, just so a bhikkhu, having 
calmed his body and mind, produces joy and bliss and lets it evenly moisten 
and saturate (him) in such a way that there is no part of him that is not saturated 
with it. There is no place in his body or mind that is not saturated 
with joy and bliss born of solitude". 5 Like the skilful bath-attendant or his 
apprentice is the yogin. The copper vessel is the kasina sign. Thus it should 
be known. 

Q. What is the kasina sign? A. As the copper vessel contains the hard 



1 — 4. These terms are not clear, Prof. Bapat has rendered them as: sankhepa-sangaha, 
sangaha, anunaya and sevana respectively at p. 49, Vim. Mag. and Vis. Mag. 

5. D.I, 74 and A. Ill, 25 : Seyyathdpi bhikkhave dakkho nahdpako vd nahdpakantevdsi vd kam- 
sathdle nahdniyacuwidni dkiritvd udakena paripphosakam paripphosakarh sanneyya, sd'ssa 
nahdniyapindi snehdnugatd snehaparetd santarahdhird phutd snehena na ca paggharati, 
evam eva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imam eva kdyam vivekajena pitisukhena abhisandeti 
parisandeti paripureti parippharati, ndssa kind sabbdvato kdyassa vivekajena pitisukhena 
apphutam hoti. 



96 Vimuttimagga 

bath-powder which is made fine and bright, so the kasina sign contains the hard 
(earth) out of which one produces joy which is soft and pure and therefore 
bright. Because the mind and the mental properties fill the object, the copper 
vessel is said to be like the kasina sign. Mind and the mental properties are 
like the bath-powder. Thus it should be understood. 

Q. Why is the bath-powder likened to the mind and the mental properties ? 

A. As bath-powder, owing to coarseness, does not adhere and is scattered 
by the wind, so the mind and mental properties when they are separated from 
joy and bliss, become coarse. And if they are separated from concentration 
they do not adhere and are scattered by the winds of the five hindrances. There- 
fore it is said that the bath-powder is like the mind and mental properties. 
What is comparable to water? Namely, joy and bliss and concentration. As 
water moistens, renders malleable, makes it round, so joy and bliss moisten 
and render malleable the mind and mental properties, and produce con- 
centration. Therefore water is like joy and bliss. Like the stirring of the 
bath-powder with water are initial and sustained application of thought. 
Thus they should be understood. 

Q. What is likened to the rounded thing? 

A. Namely, initial and sustained application of thought. As a skilful bath- 
attendant puts the bath-powder into the copper vessel, mixes it with water, 
makes it round with his hand, and having made it round, he rounds it further 
with more wet powder and puts it into the vessel without scattering, so does the 
yogin place his mind and mental properties in the object and produce tranquillity 
well. In the first meditation, jhdna, joy and bliss should be regarded as water, 
initial and sustained application of thought as the hand that stirs and makes 
it (the powder) round. Thus one is able to produce tranquillity well. The 
mind and mental properties become rounded with joy and bliss and are not 
scattered because of the mind being kept on the object of meditation. Thus 
the rounded bath-powder is like initial and sustained application of thought. 
Just as the bath-powder is moistened thoroughly and just as it, through adhering, 
does not scatter, so the yogin in the first meditation, jhdna, is filled with joy 
from head to foot and from foot to skull, skin and hair, and dwells without 
falling. Thus one dwells in the realm of Brahma. 

Q. Joy and bliss are called formless states. How then can they fill the 
body? 

A. Name depends on form. Form depends on name. Therefore, if 
name is full of joy, form also is full of joy. If name is full of bliss, form also is 
full of bliss. And again, form that is bliss-produced, causes calm of body, 
and owing to the bliss of form the entire body is tranquillized. Thus there is 
no contradiction. 

THREE KINDS OF REBIRTH 

The merit which can produce rebirth in the world of Brahma is thus; In 



Subjects of Meditation 97 

the first meditation, jhdna, there are three kinds : lower, middling and upper. 
When a man considers the special means, but does not remove the five hind- 
rances well and does not reach the state of freedom, it is called lower 
meditation, jhdna. When a man considers the special means and removes the 
five hindrances, but does not reach the state of freedom, it is called middling 
meditation, jhdna. When a man considers the special means, removes the 
hindrances well and reaches the state of freedom, it is called higher medi- 
tation, jhdna. If a yogin attains to the lower first meditation, jhdna, after 
his death he will join the retinue of Brahma, and his life-span will be a third 
of an aeon; if he practises the middling first meditation, jhdna, he will, after 
his death, be reborn as a chief Brahma, and his life-span will be half an aeon; 
if he practises the higher first meditation, jhdna, he will be reborn as a Great 
Brahma, and his life-span will be one aeon. 1 

MEDITATION WHICH PARTAKES OF DETERIORATION, 
STABILITY, DISTINCTION AND PENETRATION 

There are four kinds of men who acquire the merit of rebirth in the world 
of Brahma. A man partakes of deterioration, a man partakes of stability, a 
man partakes of distinction and a man partakes of penetration. 2 

A man of dull faculties causes the arising of meditation, jhdna, but is 
heedless. And again, through two kinds of conduct in meditation, jhdna, a 
man partakes of deterioration: — (1) Owing to the denseness of the encom- 
passing impurities 3 , a man has not sufficient energy to destroy the evil 
discursive thinking which he caused to arise in the past. Thus, owing to the 
denseness of the encompassing impurities, he deteriorates. (2) Or, a man 
who is desirous of meditation, jhdna, is given to talk, addicted to sleep, and 
does not endeavour. Hence he deteriorates. 

Q. Who falls back and how? 

A. There is an opinion that if a man becomes impure of mind, he will 
fall back. And again, there is an opinion: Through slow pollution of the 
mind, one falls back. And again, there is another opinion: If a man loses 
serenity, he falls back. And there is yet another opinion: If a man does not 
practise for a long time on the sign he caused to arise in the past, he becomes 
incapable of making it to arise as he likes and does not attain to concentration. 
So, he falls back. If a man of dull faculties dwells heedfully, he acquires the 
recollectedness of that state and partakes of stability in meditation, jhdna. 



1. Brahma-pdrisajja, Brahma-purohita, Mahd-Brahmd. 

2. Cp. Pts. I, 35 — 6: Pathamajjhdnassa Idbhim kdmasahagatd samidmanasikdrd samudd- 
caranti, hdnabhdgiyo dhammo; tadanudhammatd sati santitthati, (hitihhdgiyo dhammo; 
avitakkasahagatd sahhd manasikdrd samuddcaranti, visesabhdgiyo dhammo; nibbiddsahagatd 
sahhd manasikdrd samuddcaranti virdgupasamhitd, nibbdehabhdgiyo dhammo. 

3. Pariyutthdna kilesa: — Cp. Thi. vv. 77 — 8: Ayonisomanasikdrd kdmardgena additd, 

ahosim uddhatd pubbe citte avasavattini. 
Pariyutthitd kilesehi sukhasahhdnuvattini, 
samam cittassa ndlabhim rdgacittavasdnugd. 



98 Vimuttimagga 

If a man of keen faculties dwells heedfully, he can acquire facility in the second 
meditation, jhdna, which has no initial application of thought. If he develops 
further, he partakes of distinction in meditation, jhdna. If a man of keen 
faculties dwells heedfully, he can attain to insight with ease. Dispelling the 
thoughts of agitation and anxiety, and developing further, he, through absence 
of passion, partakes of penetration in meditation, jhdna. 



[418] THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE FIFTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 

CHAPTER THE EIGHTH 

Section Two 

Here I show how to get the second meditation, jhdna. I consider the tribu- 
lation of the first meditation, jhdna, and the benefits of the second meditation, 
jhdna} 

THE SIMILE OF THE YOUNG COW 

Now, the yogin who practises the first meditation, jhdna, with facility 
wishes to cause the arising of the second meditation, jhdna. Why ? If the 
yogin is not able to practise the first meditation, jhdna, with facility, though 
he wishes to remove initial and sustained application of thought and attain to 
the second meditation, jhdna, he falls back and is not able to enter the second 
meditation, jhdna. Further, he cannot re-enter the first meditation, jhdna. 
Hence the Blessed One taught the simile of the young mountain cow which, 
being foolish, knows not good pasturage, and which, though inexperienced, 
wanders to a far off precipitous place. She thinks: "How, if I were to enter 
the place I never entered before, eat the grass I never ate before and drink the 
water I never drank before"? Without planting her fore leg firmly, she raises 
her hind leg, becomes restless and is not able to go forwaid. And not being 
able to enter the place she never entered before, eat the grass she never ate before, 
drink the water she never drank before, she thinks thus : "I cannot go forward. 
I must return to the old pasturage". 2 



1. The passage in italics does not occur in the Sung Dynasty edition in the library of the 
Japanese Imperial household. This applies to all passages in italics in Section Two of 
Chapter Eight. 

2. This passage does not occur in the Chinese Ekottara Agama. A. IV, 418: Seyyathd 
pi bhikkhave gdvi pabbateyyd bald avyatta akhettahnu akusald visame pabbate caritum, 
tassa evam assa 'yan nunaham agatapubban ceva disarh gaccheyyani, akhaditapubbani 

99 



100 Vimuttimagga 

There is a bhikkhu. He has not yet attained (meditation, jhdna). He 
does not know a subject of meditation. 1 He has not yet separated himself 
from lust and does not know how to enter the first meditation, jhdna. He does 
not practise this teaching nor study it, but thinks thus: "How, if I were to 
enter the second meditation, jhdna, and rid myself of initial and sustained 
application of thought" ? Being not at ease, he again thinks: "I cannot enter 
the second meditation, jhdna, and I cannot rid myself of initial and sustained 
application of thought. I must retire, (from this), enter the first meditation, 
jhdna, and separate myself from lust". This foolish bhikkhu is as ignorant 
and inexperienced as the young mountain cow. Therefore, he should practise 
the first meditation, jhdna. He should make the mind free (from lust). 

ENTRANCE INTO THE SECOND MEDITATION, JHANA 

Before and after his meal, in the first and in the last watches of the night, 
according to his wish, a bhikkhu practises adverting, entering, establishing, 
rising and reflecting. 2 If he enters (the meditation, jhdna,) often and goes out 
of it often and acquires facility in the practice of the first meditation, jhdna, 
he can acquire the bliss of facility, cause the arising of the second meditation, 
jhdna, and surpass the first meditation, jhdna. And again he thinks thus: 
"This first meditation, jhdna, is coarse; the second meditation, jhdna, is fine". 
And he sees the tribulations of the first and the merits of the second meditation, 
jhdna. 

Q. What are the tribulations of the first meditation, jhdnal 

A. The hindrances as the near enemy (of this meditation, jhdna,) stir 
up initial and sustained application of thought and cause negligence of body 
and disturbance of mind. Thereby the concentration becomes coarse and 
incapable of producing higher knowledge. Therefore, one does not relish 
the first meditation, jhdna, or partake of distinction in it. These are the 
tribulations of the first meditation, jhdna? The merits of the second medita- 
tion, jhdna, consist in the overcoming of these. Thus we have seen the tribula- 
tions of the first meditation, jhdna, and the merits of the second. 

Here the mind separates itself from the first meditation, jhdna, and taking 
the kasina sign as the object of the second meditation, jhdna, dwells on it. 
The mind, dissociated from initial and sustained application of thought, at 



ca tindni khddey yam, apitapubbdni ca paniyani piveyyarC ti; sd pur inam padam na suppatitthi- 
tarh patitthdpetvd pacchimam padam uddhareyya, sd na c'eva agatapubbam disarh gaccheyya, 
na ca akhdditapubbdni tindni khddeyya, na ca apitapubbdni paniyani piveyya; yasmirh 
c*assd pdde thitaya evam assa 'yan nundham agatapubbah c'eva disam gaccheyyam, akhddi- 
tapubbdni ca tindni khddeyyam, apitapubbdni ca paniyani piveyyarf ti, tan ca padesam na 
sotthind pacchdgaccheyya. Tarn kissa hetu ? Tattha hi sd bhikkhave gdvi pabbateyya 
bdid avyattd akhettaiinu akusald visame pabbate caritum. 

1. Kammatthdna. 2. Pts. I, 99 — 100: Panca vasiyo — dvajjandvasi samdpajjandvasi 

adhitthdnavasi vutthdnavasi paccavekkhandvasi. 

3. A. IV, 440: So kho aharh Ananda aparena samayena vivicc* eva kdmehi pathamam 

jhdnarh upasampajja vihardmi. Tassa mayhath Ananda imind vihdrena viharato kdmasaha- 
gatd sahhdmanasikdrd samuddcaranti, svdssa me hoti dbddho. 



Subjects of Meditation 101 

ease in joy and bliss born of concentration, attains (to the second meditation, 
jhdna). If the yogin strives, he accomplishes the destruction of initial and 
sustained application of thought quickly. He is at ease in joy and bliss born 
of concentration and cause the mind to abide tranquilly. 

Here I show the four factors of the second meditation, jhdna. 

That yogin "attains to and dwells in the second meditation, jhdna, which, 
through the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought, develops 
internal tranquillity and the state of mind-predominance, is without initial and 
sustained application of thought, born of concentration, full of joy and bliss". 1 
This is the merit of the earth kasina. The stilling of initial and sustained 
application of thought is the stilling of initial and sustained application of 
thought through clear understanding. And also it is named ending. 

Q. What is "the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought" ? 

A. It is the destruction of the tribulations of initial and sustained appli- 
cation of thought pertaining to the first meditation, jhdna. It is the destruction 
of the roots of all initial and sustained application of thought. It is the co- 
destruction of the tribulations of initial and sustained application of thought, 
roots of initial and sustained application of thought, and initial and sustained 
application of thought themselves. This is "the stilling of initial and sustained 
application of thought". 

And again, after separating himself from the lower coarse meditation, 
jhdna, the yogin attains to the upper fine meditation, jhdna, and causes it 
(the lower) to perish. 

"Internal": what is one's own is named "internal". There are three kinds 
in what is internal: the first is internal in the sense of personal; the second is 
internal concentration; the third is internal object. 

What is "internal in the sense of personal"? The six internal sense spheres. 
"Internal concentration": The contemplation on one's own bodily state is 
called "internal concentration". The thought which is inward (subjective), 
does not go outwards, and the nature of which is to understand is called 
"internal object". In this treatise "internal in the sense of personal" means 
"to be in a state of blissfulness". 

Faith, 2 right faith and the faith which develops meditation, jhdna, are 
called "tranquillity". In internal concentration this is internal tranquillity. 

What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause of internal tranquillity? Non-disburbance is the salient characteristic 
of internal tranquillity. Repose is its function. Non-defilement is its mani- 
festation. Initial and sustained application of thought are its near cause. 



1. A. I, 53: Vitakka-vicdrdnam vupasamd ajjhattam sampasddanam cetaso ekodibhdvarh 
avitakkarh avicdram samddhijam pitisukkarh dutiyajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. 

2. Saddhd. 



102 Vimuttimagga 

"Develops the state of mind-predominance": the dwelling of the mind 
in right concentration is called the development of the state of mind-predomi- 
nance. What is the meaning of "development of the state of mind-predomi- 
nance" ? "Mind" means mentality. "Predominance" is a name for mindfulness. 
"State" has the same meaning as that of "natural state" which is taught in 
the science of sound. "State" means nature. The stilling of initial and 
sustained application of thought and the arousing of the state of mind- 
predominance through unification of mind is called "the development of the 
state of mind-predominance". 

What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause of 'the state of mind-predominance' ? 

Pure righteousness is its salient characteristic; repose is its function; 
unruffledness is its manifestation; and the stilling of initial and sustained 
application of thought is its near cause. 

Q. (It is said that the yogin) "develops internal tranquillity and the 
state of mind-predominance". If that be so, why are these not included in 
the first meditation, jhdnal 

A. In the first meditation, jhdna, owing to the waves of initial and 
sustained application of thought, the mind is muddied. 

"Internal tranquillity and the state of mind-predominance": just as, 
owing to waves, water becoming turbid, does not clearly reflect any image, 
cast on it, just so in the first meditation, jhdna, because of turbidity due to 
the movement of the waves of initial and sustained application of thought, 
internal tranquillity and the state of mind-predominance are not clear. 
Therefore, they are not included in the first meditation, jhdna. 

'Without initial and sustained application of thought" : After the stilling 
of initial application of thought, there is no initial application of thought. 
After the stilling of sustained application of thought, there is no sustained 
application of thought. 

Q. The stilling of initial and sustained application of thought is the 
state that is without initial and sustained application of thought. Are there 
two kinds of ending of initial and sustained application of thought? Why 
are two kinds taught? 

A. The stilling of initial and sustained application of thought develops 
internal tranquillity. The state of mind-predominance becomes the cause of 
the state that is without initial and sustained application of thought, owing 
to the appearance of the excellent characteristic of joy and bliss which is born 
of solitude. 

And again, the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought is 
thus : Seeing through initial and sustained application of thought, the tribula- 
tion of initial and sustained application of thought, he abandons them. The 



Subjects of Meditation 103 

state that is without initial and sustained application of thought is the stilling 
of initial and sustained application of thought of the form element. 

And again, in what is without initial and sustained application of thought 
there are two divisions: the first is "without initial and sustained application 
of thought" that is not due to the stilling of initial and sustained application 
of thought; (the second) is "without initial and sustained application of 
thought" that is due to the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. 
Thus, without the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought, the 
five branches of higher knowledge and the third meditation, jhdna, are without 
initial and sustained application of thought. The second meditation, jhdna, 
is without initial and sustained application of thought through skilful 
seclusion and the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. 
These are the two divisions. 

"Born of concentration" : This refers to concentration. The first medi- 
tation, jhdna, comes from that consciousness and the second meditation, 
jhdna, comes from the first meditation, jhdna. And again, "concentration" 
means that the second meditation, jhdna, comes together with unification of 
mind. 

"Joy and bliss born of concentration": Joy and bliss have already been 
expounded. 

"The second meditation, jhdna" : It is called so because it follows the 
first. 

"Attains to the second meditation, jhdna", means that he enters the second 
meditation, jhdna. 

"Meditation, jhdna" : Internal tranquillity, joy and bliss and unification 
of mind are called "meditation, jhdna". 

"Attains to and dwells in the second meditation, jhdna''' : He acquires 
the second meditation, jhdna, which is free from two factors, endowed with 
two factors, three kinds of goodness and ten characteristics and is associated 
with twenty-three merits. This is the heavenly abode. This is merit. This 
is birth in the Abode of Resplendence. 1 This has been expounded at length 
before. 

SIMILE OF THE POOL OF WATER 

"Heavenly abode" means that he dwells in a plane surpassing the human 
because of joy and bliss that proceed from concentration. Therefore it is 
called "heavenly abode". Hence the Blessed One taught the bhikkhus thus: 

1. A.II, 127: Puna ca pararh bhikkhave idtf ekacco puggalo vitakkavicdrdnam viipasamd 
ajjhattam sampasado cetsao ekodibhdvam avitakkam avicdram samddhijam pitisukham 

dutiyajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. So tad assddeti tabbahulavihdri apirihino kdlarh 

kurumdno Abhassardnam devdnarh sahavyatam uppajjati. 



104 Vimuttimagga 

"As in a pool of water with a spring and into which no water flows from 
the four directions, nor rain descends, the water wells up cool and pure from 
within, saturates the entire pool and over-flowing spreads afar, even so [419] 
joy and bliss, cool and pure, welling up from concentration saturates every 
part of the body of a bhikkhu. Thus joy which is produceed from 
concentration saturates the body and the mind". 1 

A yogin entering the second meditation, jhdna, should consider his body 
in the light of this simile of the pool with water welling up from within. The 
absence of any stream flowing from any of the four directions is to be under- 
stood as the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. As the 
water welling up from within fills the pool without causing waves to arise in it, 
[419] so joy and bliss springing from concentration fills the mental and bodily 
factors and there is no disturbance of mind. As water that is cold cools the 
body, so joy and bliss born of concentration causes all the mental and bodily 
factors to be at ease. 

Thus is the reward of the practice of concentration : One is reborn in the 
Abode of Resplendence. There are three kinds of rewards pertaining to the 
three divisions of the second meditaton, jhdna: lower, middling and higher. 
The yogin who practises the lower meditation, jhdna, will, after his death, be 
reborn in the Abode of Lesser Light. His life-span will be two aeons. 2 If he 
practises the middling meditation, jhdna, he will, after his death, be reborn in the 
Abode of Measureless Light. His life-span will be four aeons. 3 If he practises 
the higher meditation, jhdna, he will, after his death, be reborn in the Abode of 
Resplendence and his life-span will be eight aeons. 4 

THE THIRD MEDITATION, JHANA 

/ consider the tribulations of the second meditation, jhdna. 

Now a yogin having practised the second meditation, jhdna, and acquired 
facility therein thinks: "The second meditation, jhdna, is coarse; the third 
meditation, jhdna, is fine". Knowing the tribulations of the second medita- 



1. Chu Agon No. 98: M.I, 276—7; D.I, 74; A.III, 25—6: Seyyathd pi bhikkave udakarahado 
ubbhidodako tassa nev' assa puratthimaya disdya udakassa dyumukham na pacchimdya 
disdya udakassa dyamukham na uttardya disdya udakassa dyamukham na dakkhindya 
disdya udakassa dyamukham, devoca na kdlena kdlam sammddhdram anuppaveccheyya atha 
kho tamhd ca udakarahadd sitd vdridhdrd ubbhijjitvd tarn eva udakarahadam sitena vdrind 
abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripureyya paripphareyya, ndssa kind sabbdvato udakara- 
hadassa sitena vdrind apphutam assa, evam eva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imam eva kayarh 
samddhijena pitisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripureti, parippharati, ndssa kind sabbd- 
vato kdyassa samddhijena pitisukhena apphutam hoti. 

2. Vbh. 424: Dutiyam jhdnam parittam bhdvetva parittdbhdnam devdnam sahavyatam 
uppajjanti. Tesam kittakam dyuppamdnam ? Dve kappa. 

3. Ibid: Dutiyam jhdnam majjhimam bhdvetva appamdndbhdnam devdnam sahavyatam 
uppajjanti. Tesam kittakam dyuppamdnaml Cattdro kappa. 

4. Ibid : Dutiyam jhdnam panitam bhdvetva dbhassardnam devdnam sahavyatam uppajjanti. 
Tesam kittakam dyuppamdnaml Attha kappa. 



Subjects of Meditation 105 

tion, jhdna, and seeing the merits of the third meditation, jhdna, he causes the 
third meditation, jhdna, to arise. 

What are the tribulations of the second meditation, jhdna! This concen- 
tration has initial and sustained application of thought as its near enemy. 
This meditation, jhdna, being accompanied by joy, is coarse. The mind exults 
in the possession of joy and is not able to arouse other (higher) meditation 
(jhdna) factors. To be attached to joy is a fault. If he understands these 
faults, he becomes fault-free. One is not able to acquire supernormal power; 
or one gains the second meditation, jhdna, and is not able to partake of distinc- 
tion. Thus should one understand the tribulations of the second meditation, 
jhdna. The merits of the third meditation, jhdna, lie in the overcoming of 
these (tribulations). If one considers the tribulations of the second meditation, 
jhdna, and the merits of the third, he can remove joy through meditation, 
jhdna, on the kasina sign and be at ease because of freedom from joy. Con- 
sidering thus he can in no long time attain to fixed meditation, jhdna, through 
bliss free from joy. 

/ will elucidate the factors of the third meditation, jhdna. 

That yogin "through the absence of the desire for joy, abides in equanimity, 
mindful and completely conscious, experiencing in the body that bliss of which 
the Noble Ones say: "Endowed with equanimity and mindfulness, and com- 
pletely conscious, he abides in bliss. So he abides in the attainment of the 
third meditation, jhdna". 1 

"Through absence of desire for joy": Joy has already been explained. 
"Absence of desire": Removing joy one dwells in equanimity. What is 
"equanimity"? Equipoise, protection, non-retreating, non-advancing, serenity 
and evenness of mind are called "equanimity". There are eight kinds of 
equanimity: equanimity of feeling, of effort, of insight, of the enlightenment 
factors, of the immeasurable states, of the six members (senses), of the medita- 
tion (jhdna) factors and of purity 2 . The equanimity of feeling is the equanimity 
of the five faculties. Reflection on the sign of equanimity from time to time — 
this is the equanimity of effort. If, saying, "I will remove the cause of suffering", 
one attains to equanimity, it is called the equanimity of insight. The practising 
of the enlightenment factors is the equanimity of the enlightenment factors. 
Kindness, compassion, appreciative joy and equipoise — these are called the 
equanimity of the immeasurable states. 

If, on seeing a form, one, being indifferent, is neither glad nor sad, it is 
called the equanimity of the six members. The dwelling in the attainment of 



1. A.I, 53: Pitiyd ca virdgd upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajdno sukhah ca kdyena 
patisamvedeti yan tarn ariyd dcikkhanti upekkhako satimd sukha-vhdri ti tatiyajjhdnam 
upasampajja viharati. 

2. Vedanupekkhd, viriyupekkhd, vipassanupekkhd, bojjhangupekkhd, appamdnupekkhd, cha/an- 
gupekkhd, jhdnupekkhd, pdrisuddhupekkhd, Cp. Vis. Mag. 160 where brahmavihdrupekkhd 
is substituted for appamdnupekkhd. 



106 Vimuttimagga 

equanimity because of dispassion is called the equanimity of the meditation 
(jhdna) factors. Equanimity-mindfulness purity is the equanimity of purity. 

And again, there are three kinds of equanimity : equanimity regarded as a 
vehicle of concentration; regarded as the state of little activity; and regarded 
as non-action. The equalized skilfulness that is present in all meditations, 
jhdnas, and is neither hasty nor slow is "equanimity considered as a vehicle of 
concentration". This inferior equanimity is near the second meditation, jhdna, 
and removes exultation of mind. If the mind is not active, it is called "equani- 
mity regarded as a state of little activity". This equanimity is near the third 
meditation, jhdna, and removes all exultation of mind. If one's mind is not 
actively concerned with objects, through imperturbability of thought and body, 
it is called "equanimity regarded as non-action". This equanimity is near the 
fourth meditation, jhdna. 

What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near cause 
of equanimity? Equipoise is its salient characteristic. Non-attachment is 
its function. Non-action is its manifestation. Dispassion is its near cause. 

Q. Why is it taught that equanimity is in this meditation, jhdna, and not 
in the second and the first meditations, jhdnas 1 

A. In the second and the first meditations, jhdnas, the mind, being full 
of joy, does not become detached. Because of joy and bliss, exultation of 
mind is not removed. Therefore, this equanimity is not taught as being present 
in the second and the first meditations, jhdnas. Owing to absence of joy and 
bliss, owing to dispassion and owing to the removal of the process of combi- 
nation in the third meditation, jhdna, this meditation (jhdna) factor arises. 
Because of the mastering of the meditation (jhdna) factors, it is said "abides 
in equanimity, mindful and completely conscious". 

Q. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause of "mindfulness"? 

A. Recollectedness is its salient characteristic; non-forgetting is its 
function; protection is its manifestation; and the four foundations of mind- 
fulness are it near cause. 

What is it to be "completely conscious" ? To be conscious is to be aware. 
It is to be completely conscious rightly. There are four kinds in being completely 
conscious rightly. 1 They are the being completely conscious of oneself; 
the being completely conscious of one's distinctive mark; the being completely 
conscious undeludedly; the being completely conscious basically. Here, to be 
completely conscious of the four postures, is to be completely conscious of 
oneself. Entering solitude is to be completely conscious of one's distinctive 
mark. To know the eight worldly conditions 2 is to be completely conscious 



1. Cp. D.- a. I, 184: Sdtthaka-sampajahham sappdya-sampajannam gocara-sampajanham 
asammoha-sampajahnan ti catubbidham sampajannam. 

2. Affha loka-dhammd. 



Subjects of Meditation 107 

undeludedly. To dwell on the object of concentration is to be completely 
conscious basically. In this treatise ("completely conscious" in the sense of) 
"being completely conscious basically" has been taken. 

What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near cause 
of the being "completely conscious" ? Non-bewilderment is its salient charac- 
teristic; decision is its function; investigation of states is its manifestation; to 
consider rightly is its near cause. 

Q. Should one be mindful and completely conscious in all places ? 

A. If a man is not mindful and is not completely conscious he is not even 
able to cause the arising of the access stage of meditation, jhdna. 

Q. Why is it taught in the third meditation, jhdna and not in the second 
and the first meditations, jhdnasl 

A. Here, joy and all other coarse meditation (jhdna) factors are stilled. 
Concentration becomes fine, enters a place of fineness, and through the state of 
being completely conscious remains firm in the third meditation, jhdna. Thus 
he gains facility in the exercise of the meditation (jhdna) factors. 

Again, the foolish mind longs for happiness and easily turns to the bliss of 
this meditation, jhdna, for its exceedingly sweet and named "alluring". Thus 
(through mindfulness and through the state of being completely conscious) 
one is able to remove joy and acquires facility in this meditation, jhdna. 

SIMILE OF THE CALF 

Again, joy and bliss are intimate. So, understanding mindfulness and the 
state of being completely conscious one dwells on the object in bliss separate 
from joy. It is like a calf following its mother. Unless someone holds it 
back by the ears, it will follow its mother with its head against her side. One 
understands bliss that is separate from joy, conjoined with mindfulness, and the 
state of being completely conscious, and dwells on the object of concentration. 1 
On the contrary, if one does not understand, one re-enters joy and partakes of 
deterioration in concentration. For the acquiring of mastery over the medita- 
tion (jhdna) factors, mindfulness and the state of being completely conscious 
are taught. Thus equanimity, mindfulness and the state of being completely 
conscious are accomplished. Therefore, it is said "abides in equanimity, 
mindful and completely conscious, experiencing in the body that bliss". 

Q. What is mental bliss? 

A. Bliss experienced in mind is mental bliss. It comes from mental 
contact. This is the meaning of mental bliss. This is called "bliss". 

Q. What is "body" ? The perception-group, formations-group and cons- 
ciousness-group — these are called "body". 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 163: Yathd dhenupago vaccho dhenuto apanito arakkhiyamdno punad-eva 
dhenum upagacchati. This simile, common to both the Vis. Mag and the Vim. Mag., 
has not been traced to its source. 



108 Vimuttimagga 

"Experiencing in the body that bliss" means to acquire ease of body. 

Q. Then, why is it said that there is no joy in this bliss and that it is not 
experienced in the body? 

A. In the third meditation, jhdna, the faculty of bliss is removed. This 
is according to the teaching of the Blessed One which says, that in the third 
meditation, jhdna, the faculty of bliss is removed. 

"That bliss of which the Noble Ones say": "Noble Ones" means the 
Buddha and his disciples. "Say" means to reveal, establish, explain, point 
out. Thus is "that bliss of which the Noble Ones say" to be known. 

Q. Why do the Noble Ones praise this state of body and not any other? 

A. In the third meditation, jhdna, although the yogin can easily dwell 
in pleasing bliss, he does not hold to bliss. The Noble Ones dwell looking 
beyond bliss. This is an accomplishment of the Noble Ones. Therefore, 
the Noble Ones praise this excellent meditation, jhdna. 

"Endowed with equanimity and mindfulness, he abides in bliss" : Equani- 
mity, mindfulness and bliss have already been explained. 

"Abides in the attainment of the third meditation, jhdna" : It is called 
"third" because of the second. The third meditation, jhdna, comprises equani- 
mity, mindfulness, the state of being completely conscious, bliss and unification 
of mind. The accomplishment of these is called (the third) meditation, jhdna. 
"Abides in the attainment" means that one who acquires the third meditation, 
jhdna, separates from one factor, fulfils five factors, three kinds of goodness, 
ten characteristics and is associated with twenty-two merits. 

To dwell in the heaven world means to be born in the Abode of All Lustre. 1 
It is to be understood in the same way as it was taught in the first meditation, 
jhdna. "To dwell in the heaven world" is to dwell in that pleasant dwelling 
which is free from joy. "To dwell in the heaven world" is to dwell in a 
manner surpassing humans. 

SIMILE OF THE LOTUS POND 

Hence, the Buddha taught the bhikkhu thus : "Just as in a pond of blue 
and white lotuses, the blue, red and white lotuses are born, grow and stand 
in the water and are immersed in the cold water from root to neck, so this 
body is filled and saturated with bliss that is free from joy". 2 As the blue, 
red and white lotuses stand in the water, so he abides in the third meditation, 



h Subhakinna. 

2. Chu Agon No. 98; M.II, 16; A. Ill, 26: Seyyathd pi bhikkhave uppaliniyam vd padumi- 
niyam vd pundarikiniyam vd app' ekacce uppaldni vd padumdni vd pundarikdni vd udake 
jdtdni udake samvaddhdni udakdnuggatdni antonimuggaposini tdni ydva c'aggd ydva ca 
muld sitena vdrind abhisanndni parisanndni paripurdni paripphutdni, ndssa kind sabbdvatam 
uppaldnarh vd padumdnam vd pundarikdnam vd sitena vdrind apphutam assa, evam eva 
kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imam eva kdyam nippitikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti 
paripureti parippharatU ndssa kind sabbdvato kdyassa nippitikena sukhena apphutam hoti. 



Subjects of Meditation 109 

jhdna. His body should be known thus : as the lotuses born in the water [420] 
are immersed in the water from root to neck, so he abides in the third medi- 
tation, jhdna, with body and mind filled and saturated with bliss that is free 
from joy. 

Thus is the reward of the practice of concentration : One is reborn in the 
Abode of the All Lustrous. There are three kinds of rewards pertaining to the 
three divisions of the third meditation, jhdna, namely: higher, middling and 
lower. If a yogin practises the lower meditation, jhdna, he will, after his 
death, be reborn in the Abode of Lesser Lustre. His life-span will be sixteen 
aeons. If he practises the middling meditation, jhdna, he will, after his death, 
be reborn in the Abode of Measureless Lustre. His life-span will be thirty- 
two aeons. If he practises the higher meditation, he will be reborn in the 
Abode of All Lustre. His life-span will be sixty-four aeons 1 . 

THE FOURTH MEDITATION, JHANA 

/ consider the tribulations of the third meditation, jhdna. 

Now, a yogin, having practised the third meditation, jhdna, and acquired 
facility therein, wishes to cause the arising of the fourth meditation, jhdna, and 
to transcend the third meditation, jhdna. (He thinks), "The third is coarse. 
The fourth is fine". He sees the tribulations of the third meditation, jhdna, 
and the merits of the fourth meditation, jhdna. What are the tribulations of 
the third meditation, jhdna? Joy is the hear enemy. Right concentration 
with bliss is coarse. So he is not able to acquire supernormal power. The 
third meditation, jhdna, does not partake of distinction. Thus he sees the 
tribulations of the third meditation, jhdna. The merits of the fourth meditation, 
jhdna, consist in the over-coming of these (tribulations). 

Thus the yogin, on seeing the tribulations of the third meditation, jhdna, 
and the merits of the fourth meditation, jhdna, meditates on the kasina sign 
and removes bliss at once. After removing it he can dwell with the mind of 
equanimity. Thus meditating his mind quickly attains to fixed meditation, 
jhdna, owing to equanimity. 

/ will elucidate the factors of the fourth meditation, jhdna. 

That yogin, "having abandoned pleasure and pain, leaving behind former 
joy and grief, painless, pleasureless, in the purity of equanimity-mindfulness, 



1. Vbh. 424 — 5: Tatiyam jhdnarh parittarh bhdvetvd parittasubhdnarh devdnam sahavyatarh 

uppajjanti. Tesam kittakarh dyuppamdnarh? Solasa kappa Tatiyam jhdnarh 

majjhimam bhdvetvd appamdnasubhdnarh devdnam sahavyatarh uppajjanti. Tesam kittakarh 

dyuppamdnarhl Dvattirhsa kappa Tatiyam jhdnarh panitarh bhdvetvd subhakinhdnarh 

devdnam sahavyatarh uppajjanti. Tesam kittakarh dyuppamdnarhl Catusatthi kappa. 



1 10 Vimuttimagga 

accomplishes the fourth meditation, jhdna, and dwells". 1 This is a merit of 
the earth kasina. 

"Having abandoned pleasure" : This is the abandoning of bodily pleasure. 
Having abandoned "pain" : This is the abandoning of bodily pain. "Leaving 
behind former joy and giief " : Joy is the bliss of the mental properties. 2 This 
is the leaving behind of these. 

Q. It is said, "having abandoned pleasure and pain, leaving behind 
grief". Where were these abandoned and left behind? A. They were 
abandoned and left behind at the access moments of the meditation, jhdna. 
The Buddha taught the removal of pain in this fourth meditation, jhdna. . 
Q. Where does the faculty of pain that has arisen cease entirely? A. The 
Buddha taught the bhikkhus thus: "In the first meditation, jhdna, separation 
from sense-desires is fulfilled. There the faculty of pain which has arisen 
ceases entirely". 3 Q. Why does the faculty of pain cease entirely in the first 
meditation, jhdna! A. Because of the fullness of joy, there is bodily ease. 4 
Because of bodily ease, the faculty of pain is ended, i.e., through transcending, 
it is abandoned. Therefore, in the first meditation, jhdna, the faculty of pain 
is removed. In the second meditation, jhdna, the faculty of grief is removed. 
According to the teaching of the Buddha, the removal of the faculty of grief 
is thus: "Where does the faculty of grief that has arisen cease entirely? Here, 
bhikkhus, initial and sustained application of thought are stilled, and he 
abides in the attainment of the second .meditation, jhdna. Here, the faculty 
of grief which has arisen ceases entirely". 5 Why does the faculty of grief, 
cease in the second meditation, jhdna! If a man has initial and sustained 
application of thought for long, his body and mind become negligent. If 
his mind becomes negligent, the faculty of grief arises immediately, in the 
second meditation, jhdna, initial and sustained application of thought are 
stilled. In the third meditation, jhdna, the faculty of bliss is removed. The 
Buddha taught thus: "Where does the faculty of bliss which has arisen cease 
entirely? Here, bhikkhus, owing to the distaste for joy, one abides, in the 
attainment of the third meditation, jhdna. Here the faculty of bliss which 



1. A. Ill, 26 — 7; M. II, 16: Puna ca param, Uddyi, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahdnd dukkhassa 
ca pahdnd pubbe va somanassadomanassdnam atthagarnd adukkharh asukham upekhdsati- 
pdrisuddhim catutthajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. 

2. Cetasika. 

3. S. V, 213: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa dtdpino pahitattassa viharato 

uppajjati dukkhindriyam Kattha cuppannam dukkhindriyam aparisesam nirujjhati! 

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicc* eva kdmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkarh 
savicdrarh vivekajam pitisukham pathamam jhdnarh upasampajja viharati. Ettha cuppan- 
nam dukkhindriyam aparisesam nirujjhati. 

4. A. Ill, 285 : Pitimanassa kayo passambhati, passaddhakdyo sukham vediyati. 

5. S. V, 213 — 4: Idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa dtdpino pahitattassa viharato 

uppajjati domanassindriyam Kattha cuppannam domanassindriyam aparisesam 

nirujjhati! Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vitakkavicdrdnam vupasamd ajjhattam sampasddanam 
cetaso ekodibhdvam avitakkam avicdram samddhijam pitisukham dutiyam jhdnarh upa- 
sampajja viharati. Ettha cuppannam domanassindriyam aparisesam nirujjhati. 



Subjects of Meditation 1 1 1 

has arisen ceases entirely". 1 Q. Why does the faculty of bliss cease in the 
third meditation, jhdna ? A. Joy perishes, and so, bliss that arises depending 
on joy also perishes. Therefore, in the third meditation, jhdna, the faculty 
of bliss perishes. 

Q. If the faculties of pain, bliss and grief were removed in the third 
meditation, jhdna, why is their ending taught in the fourth meditation, jhdna ? 

A. These faculties were removed in the third meditation, jhdna. The 
third meditation, jhdna, is an approach to the fourth meditation, jhdna. In 
the third meditation, jhdna, these having arisen, passed away. Therefore, 
their removal is taught in the fourth meditation, jhdna. 

And again, "accomplishes" the "painless" and "pleasureless" means the 
overcoming of pain and pleasure. 2 Therefore, the overcoming of pain and 
pleasure is taught as the accomplishment of the painless and pleasureless. 
And again, it is because in the fourth meditation, jhdna, attainment and over- 
coming occur together. And again, equanimity removes the defilements 
immediately and entirely. The attaining to the "painless" and "pleasureless" 
means that the mind does not receive and thought does not reject. This is 
called the attaining to the "painless" and "pleasureless". 

What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near 
cause of the accomplishing of the "painless" and "pleasureless" ? 

Middleness is the salient characteristic. Dwelling in a middle position 
is the function. Abandoning is the manifestation. Removal of joy is the 
near cause. 

What is the purity of. equanimity-mindfulness ? Neutrality is called 
equanimity. That is called equanimity. "Mindfulness" is called attentiveness, 
recollectedness and Right Mindfulness. These are called "mindfulness". 
The mindfulness that is clarified and purified by equipoise is called "purity 
of equanimity-mindfulness". 

Q. How is mindfulness clarified and purified by equipoise? A. Here 
imperturbability and non-action are fulfilled, owing to the abandoning of all 
defilements and owing to resemblance and closeness to that attainment. This 
non-action is associated with equipoise. Therefore, mindfulness reaches 
imperturbability and fulfils impassivity. Therefore, this mindfulness is 
equanimity and acquires clarity and purity. 

"Fourth": This means that because of the third, the fourth is fulfilled. 
"Accomplishes the meditation": This refers to the equanimity-mindfulness 



1. S.V, 214: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa atdpino pahitattassa viharato uppajjati 

sukhindriyam Kattha cuppannam sukhindriyarh aparisesam nirujjhati 1 Idha 

bhikkhave bhikkhu pitiya ca viragd upekhako ca viharati sato sampajdno sukharh ca kayena 
patisamvedeti tatiyam jhanam upasampajja viharati. Ettha cuppannam sukhin- 
driyam aparisesam nirujjhati. 

2. S.V., 215: Idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa atdpino pahitattassa viharato 

uppajjati somanassindriyam Kattha cuppannam somanassindriyam aparisesam 

nirujjhati. Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahdnd dukkhassa ca pahdnd pubbeva 
somanassadomanassanam atthagamd adukkhamasukham upekhdsatipdrisuddhim catuttham 
jhanam upasampajja viharati. Ettha cuppannam somanassindriyam aparisesam nirujjhati. 



112 Vimuttimagga 

and unification of mind of the fourth meditation, jhdna. This is the meaning 
of "accomplishes the meditation". "Accomplishes" and "dwells": One 
separates from one factor, fulfils three factors, three kinds of goodness and 
ten characteristics, and is associated with twenty-two merits. Thus one 
abides in the attainment of the fourth meditation, jhdna. The reward of this 
(meditation) is rebirth in the heaven world. The merit of this causes rebirth 
in the Abode of Great Fruition. 1 This was taught fully before. "To dwell 
in the heaven world": This is to dwell in a manner surpassing humans. This 
is to dwell in the bliss of equanimity. This is called dwelling in the heaven 
world. 

SIMILE OF THE WHITE CLOTH 

Therefore the Blessed One taught the bhikkhus thus: "As a man might 
sit down and cover his body with a white cloth from head to foot, in such a 
way that no part of his body is left uncovered, so a bhikkhu covers his body 
and limbs with purified mindfulness, in such a way that no part of him is not 
covered with purified mindfulness". 2 The yogin is like a man who has covered 
himself with a white cloth. Freed from all subtle defilements, he dwells in 
the fourth meditation, jhdna. Thus should it be known. As the man who 
covers his body from head to foot with a white cloth is protected from 
extremes of heat and cold, experiences an even temperature and is undisturbed 
in body and mind, so that yogin who enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, 
experiences neither pain nor pleasure. This is the bliss of equanimity. With 
it he fills his body. 

Thus is the merit of concentration: One is reborn in the Abode of Great 
Fruition. A commoner who practises the fourth meditation, jhdna, will, 
after his death, be reborn in the Abode of Great Fruition. If his mind dislikes 
effort, he will be reborn in the Abode of the Unconscious. His life-span will 
be fifty aeons. 3 If the yogin is a recluse, he will be reborn in the Abode of 
Great Fruition, or in one of the five Pure Abodes. 4 Such are the retributory 
fruits of this meditation, jhdna. 

Q. Why are the lower, middling and upper (meditation, jhdnas) and the 
partaking of distinction of the fruition-ground taught in the third and not in 
the fourth meditation, jhdnal 



1. Vehapphala. 

2. Chu Agon No. 98. M. II, 16, 17; A. Ill, 27: Seyyathd pi bhikkhave puriso oddtena vatthena 
sasisam pdrupitvd nisinno assa, ndssa kind sabbdvato kdyassa oddtena vatthena apphutam 
assa, evam eva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imam eva kdyam parisuddhena cetasd pariyoddtena 
pharitvd nisinno hoti, ndssa kind sabbdvato kdyassa parisuddhena cetasd pariyoddtena 
apphutam hoti. 

3. Vbh. 425: Catuttham jhdnam bhdvetd appekacce asahhasattdnam devdnam sahav- 

yatam uppajjanti Asdhnasattdnah ca vehapphaldnah ca devdnam kittakam dyuppa- 

mdnarh ? Panca kappasatdni 'Fifty aeons' is obviously an error and it should read 'five 

hundred'. 

4. (a) D.III, 237: Panca Suddhdvdsa: Avihd, Atappd, Sudassd, Sudassi, Akanifthd. 

(b) Vbh. 425: Catunnam jhdnam bhdvetvd appekacce avihdnam devdnam sahavyatam 

uppajjanti appekacce atappdnam devdnam ^appekacce sudassdnam devdnam 

, appekacce sudassinam devdnam ,appekacce akanitthdnam devdnam sahav- 
yatam uppajjanti. 



Subjects of Meditation 113 

A. There are differences of "coarse" and "fine", according to result, 
in the third meditation, jhdna. Therefore, the excellence of the fruition- 
ground is taught through the partaking of distinction. In the fourth medita- 
tion, jhdna, the yogin reaches the limit of the partaking of distinction. Outside 
this there is no other partaking of distinction. Therefore, there is no 
partaking of distinction of the fruition-ground. 

THE SPHERE OF THE INFINITY OF SPACE 

/ consider the tribulations of the fourth meditation, jhdna. 

Now, the yogin who has acquired boundless happiness in the fourth 
meditation, jhdna, wishes to enjoy the space-concentration and to transcend the 
realm of form. He considers thus: "Concentration of form is coarse; space- 
concentration is fine". That yogin sees the tribulations of form and the 
merits of space-concentration. What are the tribulantions of form? There 
are many (tribulations) such as the taking up of sticks and weapons, beating, 
quarrelling, slander, lying, maiming and the like. There are many sufferings 
such as pain of the eye and other bodily ills, cold and heat, hunger and thirst. 
These are the severe trials of the sensuous form. 

What are the tribulations of the fourth meditation, jhdnal The depending 
on form objects has satisfaction for near enemy. It is called coarse. One 
who is attached to form and delights in it cannot partake of distinction. But 
depending on space, one liberates oneself peacefully. In this concentration 
one fulfils the gross. Thus the yogin sees the tribulations of the fourth medi- 
tation, jhdna, in form. The merits of space-concentration consist of the over : 
coming of these. 

/ have considered the troubles of the fourth meditation, jhdna. And now I 
show how to enter the concentration of the sphere of the infinity of space. 

That yogin having seen form and the great tribulations thereof and the 
merits of space-concentration, rises from that (form) concentration, abandons 
the earth kasina, the earth sign^andj)ractises space-concentration. 

He should dwell on space regarding it as an infinite object. If he meditates 
thus, he quickly completes the destruction of the earth sign and his mind 
rises out of the earth sign and goes beyond the earth sign to space. Through 
the acquisition of facility in the perception of the sphere of the infinity of space 
he attains to fixed meditation, jhdna. 

That yogin "by passing entiiely beyond perception of form, by the dis- 
appearance of the perception of impact, by being freed from attention to 



1 14 Vimuttimagga 

perceptions of diversity, thinking, 'Infinite is space', enters into and abides 
in the sphere of infinite space. 1 

"Entirely" means without remainder. "By passing beyond perception 
of form": What is perception of form? The perception, the perceiving, 
the state of having perceived pertaining to one who dwells in the concentration 
of the form-element — these are called perception of form. "Passing beyond" 
means the surpassing of this. [421] "By the disappearance of the perception 
of impact": What is the perception of impact? The perception of visible 
objects, of sounds, of odours, of flavours, and of tangibles — these are called 
the perception of impact. "Disappearance" means the ending of these various 
kinds of (impact-) perception. "By being freed from attention to perceptions 
of diversity": What are perceptions of diversity? The perception, the 
perceiving, the state of having perceived pertaining to one who has not attained 
to concentration and who is endowed with the mind element and the conscious- 
ness element — these are called perceptions of diversity. "Freed from 
attention to perceptions of diversity" means that one is freed from attending 
to these perceptions of diversity. 

Q. Why is it that only the surpassing of perception is taught and not 
the surpassing of feeling, formations and consciousness ? 

A. If a man passes beyond perception of form, he passes beyond all 
the others; and if a man is not freed from perception of form, his mind is 
not capable of passing beyond the others. Hence the Blessed One taught the 
surpassing of perception of form with the intention of setting forth the surpassing 
of all form-objects, because all (form) objects of concentration are dependent 
on perception. 

Q. If that does not happen (i.e., if he does not transcend the perception 
of form) is there or is there not perception of impact and diversity? 

A, There is the perception of impact and diversity in form concentration, 
because these are removed (later). 

Q. Why does he not proceed further in that concentration? 

A. He dislikes form, therefore, he does not remove (these perceptions) 
in that (concentration). This is according to the teaching of the Buddha 
which says that, owing to the non-removal of these (perceptions of impact) 
in that (form concentration), sound is a thorn to one entering the first medi- 
tation, jhdna. 2 Thus disliking form, he goes further. He destroys them here. 
Therefore, he attains to the imperturbability of the formless attainment and 
the peacefulness of liberation. Alaia Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta when 
they entered the formless attainment, did not see nor hear those five hundred 



1. D. I, 183: Puna ca pararh Potfhapdda bhikkhu sabbaso rupasanndnam samatikkamd 
pafigha-sanfidnam atthagamd ndnatta-sanhdnam amanasi-kdrd "ananto dkdso //" dkdsdn- 
ancdyatanam upasampajja viharati. 

2. A. V, 134 — 5: Pathamassa jhdnassa saddo kanfako. 



Subjects of Meditation 1 1 5 

carts passing and repassing. 1 Therefore, it is taught as the destruction of the 
(sense) spheres; and thus, surpassing of all form perception is taught as the 
destruction of the form states and the perception of impact. "By being freed 
from attention to perceptions of diversity" means the destruction of the sense 
states. Again, the surpassing of all form perception is taught as the attainment 
of the realm of the formless. The disappearance of the perception of impact 
is taught as the destruction of the outer disturbance to that concentration 
(of the formless) and the purification of imperturbability. "Freed from 
attention to perceptions of diversity" is taught as destruction of the inner 
disturbance to that concentration and the purification of the peacefulness 
of liberation. 

Q. "The sphere of infinite space": What is space? 

A. It is the sphere of space, the element of space and vacuity. 2 That 
which is untouched by the four primaries — this is called vacuity. When a 
man tranquillizes the mind by means of the perception of limitless space, 
it is said that he thinks, "Infinite is space". Infinite space means the entering 
into limitless space. The mind and the mental properties which enter space 
are called "sphere of space". What is "sphere of space"? Boundlessness 
is the nature of space. This boundless nature is the "sphere of space". This is 
taught as the meaning of space. As dwelling in heaven is called heaven, 
so (dwelling in) the concentration of the sphere of space is called "sphere of 
space". "Enters into and abides in the sphere of infinite space" means that 
he acquires the concentration of the sphere of infinite space, passes beyond 
all form objects, fulfils three factors, three kinds of goodness and ten characteris- 
tics, is associated with twenty-two merits and dwells peacefully in the enjoyment 
of the reward of concentration practice. By reason of these good qualities, 
he will be reborn in the sphere of infinite space, as it was fully taught before. 
"By these good qualities he will be reborn in (the sphere of infinite) space" 
means that he who practises the concentration of the sphere of space will, 



1. D. II, 130 — 31: Bhuta-pubbam bhante A/dro Kdldmo addhdnamaggapatipanno maggd 
okkamma avidure ahhatarasmim-rukkha-mule divd-vihdre nisidi. Atha kho bhante 
pahcamattdni sakata-satdni Alar am Kdldmam nissdya nissdya atikkamimsu. Atha kho 
bhante annataro puriso tassa sakata-satthassa pitthito dgacchanto yena A\dro Kdldmo 
tertupasamkami, upasamkamitvd A\dram Kdldmam etad avoca: 

"Api bhante paficamattdni sakata-satdni atikkamantdni addasdtiV 

"No kho aham dvuso addasan" ti. 

"Kim pana bhante saddam assositiT' 

"Na kho aham dvuso saddam assosin" ti. 

"Kim pana bhante sutto ahositiV 

"Na kho aham dvuso sutto ahosin" ti. 

"Kim pana bhante sanni ahositiT* 

"Evam dvuso" ti. 

'So tvam bhante saniii samdno jdgaro paficamattdni sakata-satdni nissdya nissdya 

atikkamantdni rfeva addasa na pana saddam assosi, api hi ie bhante samghdti rajena 

okinnd' ti. 

k Evam dvuso" ti. 

''Atha kho bhante tassa purisassa etad ahosi: "Acchariyam vata bho, abbhutam vata 

bhol Santena vata bho pabbajitd vihdrena viharanti yatra hi ndma sanni samdno 

jdgaro paficamattdni sakata-satdni na pana saddam sossatitV\ Aldre Kdldme 

uldrarh pasddam pavedetvd pakkdmitV . 

2. Lit. Empty hole. 



116 Vimuttimagga 

after his death, be reborn in the sphere of infinite space. His life-span will be 
two thousand aeons. 1 

THE CONCENTRATION OF THE SPHERE OF INFINITE 
CONSCIOUSNESS 

/ consider the tribulations of the concentration of the sphere of infinite space. 

Now, that yogin having acquired mastery in the practice of (the concen- 
tration of) the sphere of infinite space wishes to cause the arising of the concen- 
tration of the infinite consciousness kasina and to transcend the infinite space 
kasina. Considering the concentration of (the sphere of) space as coarse, 
he sees the fineness (of the concentration) of the sphere of infinite consciousness. 

And again, he sees the tribulations of the sphere of infinite space and 
the merits of the sphere of infinite consciousness. What are the tribulations 
of the sphere of infinite space ? This concentration has form for near enemy. 
The object of the concentration of the sphere of infinite space is gross, and the 
perception of impact and the perceptions of diversity have not yet broken 
away from each other. Here, owing to attachment, the yogin is not able to 
partake of distinction. Thus he sees the tribulations of the concentration 
of the sphere of infinite space. The merits of the consciousness kasina lie 
in the overcoming of these. 

/ show infinite consciousness. 

That yogin, having seen the severe troubles of the concentration of the 
sphere of infinite space and the merits of the sphere of infinite consciousness, 
should consider the sphere (of infinite consciousness) as calm, and steadily 
attend to the arising of the consciousness which proceeds spreading through 
space with the thought, "Infinite is consciousness". Thus his mind is held 
in the perception of the sphere of infinite consciousness. Thus he meditates 
and in no long time the mind rises out of the perception of the sphere of infinite 
space, and passes into the sphere of infinite consciousness. In this perception 
of the sphere of infinite consciousness, the mind attains to fixed meditation, 
jhdna. Thus "passing entirely beyond the sphere of infinite space, that yogin, 
thinking, 'Infinite is consciousness', enters into, and abides in the sphere 
of infinite consciousness". "Entirely" means without remainder. "Passing 
beyond the sphere of infinite space" means the passing beyond the sphere 
of infinite space. "Passing beyond" means to go rightly beyond. This is 
called "passing entirely beyond the sphere of infinite space". "Infinite space" : 
"He attends to that consciousness as infinite with which space is filled". 



1. Here 'two thousand* is obviously an error. Should read 'twenty thousand'. Cp. 
Vbh. 425 ; A. I, 267 : AkasanaHcayatanupaganam bhikkhave devdnarh visatim kappa- 
sahassdni dyuppamariam. 



Subjects of Meditation 117 

Q. Among the form and formless states, which are infinite? 

A. Only formless states are infinite, because there are no bounds to the 
formless, and because they cannot be held. And again, space is limitless. 
Therefore, it is called infinite. The word "infinite" (ananta) means infinite 
(ananta). Thus, the word "infinite" is used. So is the word consciousness. 

"Abides in the sphere" means abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness. 
The mind and the mental properties are called the sphere of infinite conscious- 
ness. What is the "sphere of infinite consciousness" ? It is boundless con- 
sciousness. This is called "the sphere of infinite consciousness". As dwelling 
in heaven is called heaven, so (dwelling in) the concentration of infinite con- 
sciousness is called the sphere of infinite consciousness. When this conscious- 
ness is held in concentration, it is called "the sphere of infinite consciousness". 
"Enters into and abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness" means that he 
surpasses the spatial object in that concentration of the sphere of infinite 
consciousness. He fulfils three factors, three kinds of goodness, ten characteris- 
tics and is associated with twenty-two merits, and dwells peacefully in the 
enjoyment of the reward of concentration-practice. By reason of these good 
qualities, he will be reborn in the sphere of infinite consciousness. This was 
fully taught before. 

Thus is the merit of the practice (of the concentration) of the sphere 
of infinite consciousness. A man who practises the concentration of infinite 
consciousness will, after his death, be reborn in the sphere of infinite conscious- 
ness. His life-span will be four thousand aeons. 1 

(The exposition of) the sphere of infinite* consciousness has ended. 

THE SPHERE OF NOTHINGNESS 

/ consider the tribulations of the sphere of infinite consciousness. 

Nov/, that yogin, having acquired mastery in the practice of the concen- 
tration of the sphere of infinite consciousness, wishes to cause the arising 
of the concentration of the sphere of nothingness, and to transcend the sphere 
of infinite consciousness. 

Again, he considers thus: "The concentration of the sphere of infinite 
consciousness is coarse; the concentration of the sphere of nothingness is 
fine". And he sees the tribulations of the sphere of infinite consciousness 
and the merits of the concentration of the sphere of nothingness. What are 
the tribulations of the concentration of the sphere of infinite consciousness ? 
This concentration has space for near enemy. The consciousness object 
is coarse. Here, the yogin, owing to attachment, is not able to partake of 



1. Again an error; should read 'forty thousand'. Cp. Vbh. 425; A. I, 267: Vinndnancdya- 
tanupagdnam bhikkhave devanarh cattdrisam kappasahassdni dyuppamdnam. 



118 Vimuttimagga 

distinction through the considering of infinite perception. The merits of the 
sphere of nothingness lie in the overcoming of these. That yogin, having 
seen the tribulations of the sphere of infinite consciousness and the merits 
of the sphere of nothingness, rises out of the sphere of infinite consciousness 
peacefully, does not proceed along that consciousness again, does not reflect 
on it again and puts away that consciousness. Seeing the freedom of the 
sphere of nothingness, he wishes to attain to it, and considering thus he quickly 
rises out of consciousness perception. Owing to the perception of the sphere 
of nothingness, he attains to fixed meditation, jhdna. Passing entirely beyond 
the sphere of infinite consciousness, that yogin, thinking, "There is nothing 
whatsoever", enters into and abides in the sphere of nothingness. 

"Entirely" means without remainder. "Passing beyond the sphere of 
infinite consciousness" means to go rightly beyond consciousness. This 
is called "passing entirely beyond the sphere of infinite consciousness". 
"Nothingness" means that he does not practise (consciousness concentration) 
again; does not discern again; goes out of that consciousness (sphere), and sees 
only nothingness. Thus should nothingness be known. "Sphere (of nothing- 
ness)" : The mind and the mental properties which enter the sphere of nothing- 
ness, are called "sphere of nothingness". What is the sphere of nothingness? 
That which is without the nature of consciousness and empty. The sphere 
of nothingness is taught as "holding to nothing*'. "Enters into the sphere" 
means "attains to the concentration of the sphere of nothingness". "Enters 
into and dwells": He attains to the concentration of (the sphere of) nothing- 
ness, passes beyond the consciousness object, fulfils three factors, three kinds 
of goodness, ten characteristics and is associated with twenty-two merits, and 
dwells peacefully in the enjoyment of the reward of concentration. By reason 
of these good qualities, he is reborn in the sphere of nothingness. This was 
fully taught before. The merit by which a man is reborn in the sphere of 
nothingness is thus : He who practises the concentration of the sphere of 
nothingness will be reborn, after his death, in the sphere of nothingness. His 
life-span will be six thousand aeons. 1 

(The exposition of) the concentration of the sphere of nothingness has 
ended. 

THE SPHERE OF NEITHER PERCEPTION NOR NON-PERCEPTION 

/ consider the tribulations of the sphere of nothingness. 

Now, the yogin having acquired mastery in the practice of concentration 
of the sphere of nothingness wishes to cause the arising of the concentration 
of neither perception nor non-perception, and to transcend the sphere of 



1. Again an error; should read 'sixty thousand'. Cp. Vbh. 426; A. I, 268; Akincannaya- 
tanupaganam bhikkhave devanam satthirh kappasahassani ayuppamanam. 



Subjects of Meditation 119 

nothingness. He considers thus: "The sphere of nothingness is coarse; the 
sphere of neither perception nor non-perception is fine". And again, he sees 
the tribulations of the sphere of nothingness and the merits of the sphere of 
neither perception nor non-perception. [422] What are the tribulations of 
the sphere of nothingness ? It has consciousness for near enemy. It is accom- 
panied by coarse perception. Therefore it is gross. Owing to attachment to it 
one does not partake of distinction. Thus he sees the tribulations of the sphere 
of nothingness. The merits of the sphere of neither perception nor non-percep- 
tion lie in the overcoming of these. And again, this perception is a disease, 
a boil, a thorn. Non-perception — this is right, tranquil and lofty. Thus he 
sees the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. And having seen 
the sphere of nothingness, having entered it and having reflected upon it, 
that yogin practises the other concentration by causing calmness to arise out 
of the solitude of the sphere of nothingness. Meditating thus he passes out 
of the perception of the sphere of nothingness in no long time, and attains to 
fixed meditation, jhdna, in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. 

/ will show the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. 

"Passing entirely beyond the sphere of nothingness, that yogin enters into 
and dwells in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception". "Entirely" 
means without remainder. "Passing beyond the sphere of nothingness" 
means the surpassing of the sphere of nothingness and the going beyond it, 
rightly. This is called "passing entirely beyond the sphere of nothingness". 
"Neither perception nor non-perception": He, piactises the other concentra- 
tion by causing calmness to arise out of the solitude of the sphere of nothingness. 
This is called the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. "Sphere of 
neither perception nor non-perception": The mind and the mental properties 
which enter the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception are called the 
sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. What is the meaning of 
"sphere of neither perception nor non-perception"? Through the removal 
of coarse perception, he is endowed with non-perception. Through there 
being a remainder of fine perception, he enters the sphere of neither perception 
nor non-perception. Thus should "sphere" and "neither perception nor 
non-perception" be understood. "Enters into and abides" : He attains to the 
concentration of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, passes 
beyond the sphere of nothingness, fulfils three factors, three kinds of goodness 
and ten characteristics, is associated with twenty-two merits and dwells in the 
enjoyment of the reward of concentration practice. By reason of these good 
qualities, he will be reborn in the sphere of neither perception nor non-percep- 
tion. This was fully taught before. "By reason of these good qualities he 
will be reborn in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" means 
that he who practises the concentration of neither perception nor non- 



120 Vimuttimagga 

perception will be reborn, after his death, in the sphere of neither perception 
nor non-perception. His life-span will be eighty-four thousand aeons. 1 

Q. Why is this called "sphere of neither perception nor non-perception", 
and not "sphere of the infinity of consciousness" ? 

A. He separates from the attachment to infinitude and causes the arising 
of subtle perception. Therefore, he does not attain to the sphere of the infinity 
of consciousness. 

Q. Why are the cankers not destroyed through this concentration? 

A. If a man separates himself from gross perception, he will not be able 
to see the Path. And again this concentration is exceedingly fine. So he 
cannot discern the nature of neither perception nor non-perception. Therefore 
he is not able to destroy the cankers. 

(The exposition of the) sphere of neither perception nor non-perception 
has ended. 

MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

I further elucidate the meaning of the above. 

Q. What are the miscellaneous teachings in the field of concentration ? 

A. Stoppage of sounds; overturning; rising; transcending; access; initial 
application of thought; feeling; uncertainty. "Stoppage of sounds": In 
the first meditation, jhdna, speech is stopped. On entering the fourth medit- 
ation, jhdna, the yogin stops breathing. 2 Gradual stoppage of sounds : When 
the yogin enters into concentration, he hears sounds, but he is not able to speak 
because the faculty of hearing and that of speech are not united. To a man 
who enters form concentration, sound is disturbing. Hence the Buddha taught: 
"To a man who enters meditation, jhdna, sound is a thorn". 3 "Overturning": 4 
A man, concentrating on the earth kasina develops earth perception through 
non-earth perception. 

Q. If that be so, does he not fulfil "overturning" ? 

A. This earth perception should be known as that perception. It differs 
from the four kinds of overturning of perception. Therefore, it does not 
fulfil "overturning". 5 "Rising": 6 The rising from concentration is conditioned 



1 . Vbh. 426 : Neva-sannd-ndsanndyatanupagdnam devdnam kittakarh dyuppamdnam ? Caturdsiti 
kappasahassdni. 

2. D. Ill, 266 : Catutthajjhdnarh samdpannassa assdsa-passdsd niruddhd honti. 

3. A. V, 134 — 5: Saddakanfakd hi bhikkhave jhdna vuttd mayd Pafhamassa jhdnassa 

saddo kanlako. 

4. Vipalldsa. 

5. This is after Prof. Higata. But the text is as follows: "It does not differ from the four 
kinds of overturning of perception. Therefore it does not fulfil overturning". 

6. Vufthdna. 



Subjects of Meditation 121 

by five causes, namely, painfullness of posture; many bonds; arising of 
hindrances; unequal skill; and inclination. 

When a man enters formless concentration, he does not "rise" owing 
to "many bonds", because he dwells in imperturbability. If he enters the 
attainment of dissolution and the attainment of fruition, 1 he can "rise" through 
previous action 2 and not through any other cause. "Transcending": In 
transcending there are two kinds, namely, transcending the factor 3 and trans- 
cending the object. 4 To pass from form meditation, jhdna, to form meditation, 
jhdna, is called "transcending the factor". To pass from form meditation, 
jhdna, to formless concentration, and from formless concentration to formless 
concentration is called "transcending the object". "Access" is the access 
of all meditation, jhdna. It consists of five factors. "Initial application of 
thought": In the second meditation, jhdna, and the others through continued 
suppression, the state that is without initial and sustained application of thought 
is fulfilled. "Feeling": In the fourth meditation, jhdna, and the others, 
through continued suppression, the state that is with equanimity arises without 
extremes. "Uncertainty" : Owing to this, one does not remove the hindrances 
of sense-desires and the others, and abides in the sphere of neither perception 
nor non-perception. This is called "with remainder". It is as if, fearing 
a poisonous snake, a man were to climb up a tree. 

There are four kinds of men who cannot enter into concentration. They, 
surely, will be reborn in states of woe. Without cause they commit the five 
immediately effective deeds. 5 They are of perverted vision. 

(The exposition of) Miscellaneous teachings has ended. 

(The exposition of) the earth kasina has been concluded. 



THE WATER KASINA 

Q. What is the water kasinal What is the practising of it? What are 
its salient characteristic, function and manifestation? What are its benefits? 
How is the sign grasped ? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the water sign — this is called 
the water kasina. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind — this is called 



1. Nirodha- and phala-samdpatti. 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 705 : Tat ha dkihcahhdyatanam samdpajjitvd vuffhaya catubbidham pubba- 
kiccam karoti: ndndbaddha-avikopanam, sanghapafimdnanam, satthu pakkosanam 
addhdnaparicchedan ti. 

3. Aiiga samatikkama. 4. Arammana samatikkama. 
5. Vbh. 378: Tattha katamdni pahca kammdni dnantarikdnP. Mdtd jivitd voropetd hoti, 

pita jivitd voropetd hoti, arahd jivitd voropetd hoti, dutthena cittena tathdgatassa lohitam 
uppdditam hoti, sarhgho bhinno hoti: imdni pahca kammdni dnantarikdni. 



122 Vimuttimagga 

practising. Absorption in the water kasina is its salient characteristic. Non- 
abandonment of water perception is its function. Undivided thought is its 
near cause. 1 

There are five distinctive kinds of benefits belonging to (the practice of) 
the water kasina: a man is able to dive into the earth and come out of it 
easily; to shake palaces, mountains or the earth; to bring down rain; cause 
water to gush from his body and make that (v/ater) appear as it were the ocean. 
The (other) benefits of the water kasina are the same as those of the earth 
kasina. One who practises the water kasina well, sees water in all places. 

"How is the sign grasped"?: The man who accepts the water kasina 
grasps the sign in water, i.e., natural or prepared water. Here, a practised 
yogin grasps the water sign in a place where there is no water or on seeing 
water in various places, i.e., in a well, pot, pond, swamp, river, lake or lagoon. 
Thus he can see (the sign) wherever he likes, and can arouse the after-image 
of water. He is unlike a new yogin. A new yogin has to grasp the sign 
in a prepared place. He is not able to practise the water kasina with skill in 
an unprepared place. Thus that yogin, at first, should find out a calm place, 
in the monastery or in a rock cave or under a tree, which is not too dark and 
where the sun does not scorch. It should be a place where there is no dust 
or wind and where there are no mosquitoes, gadflies or other impediments. 
In such a place, he buries a bowl or a water pot in clean earth, and makes the 
rim level with the ground. The circumference should be one fathom. It 
should be filled with rain-water and unmixed with any colour. The bowl or 
pot should be full to the brim. Here, he should dwell on the perception 
of water, and take the sign through three ways : through even gazing, skil- 
fulness and the elimination of disturbance. The rest is as fully taught before 
under the earth kasina and the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. 

The water kasina has ended. 

THE FIRE KASINA 

Q. What is the fire kasina? What is the practising of it? What are its 
salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? How 
is the sign grasped? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on fire —this is called the fire 
kasina. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind —- this is called practising. 
The skilfulness of sending the mind forth into the fire sign is its salient 
characteristic. Non-abandonment of fire perception is its function. Undivided 
thought is its near cause. 

"What are its benefits"? There are five distinctive benefits. These are 
displayed in the fire kasina. A man is able to produce smoke and flame, 
is able to reveal things through producing brightness, is able to destroy the 



1. In the question it is "manifestation". 



Subjects of Meditation 123 

light of other forms, is able to burn whatever he likes, 1 is able to know fire 
through the arising of brightness. The other benefits are equal to those of 
the earth kasina. Owing to the practice of the fire kasina, a man is able to 
see fire everywhere. 

"How is the sign grasped"?: The man who takes up the fire sign grasps 
the sign in fire, i.e., in a natural or a prepared place. Here, a practised yogin 
grasps the natural sign. (He grasps the sign) on seeing any fire, i.e., a grass-fire, 
a wood-fire, a forest-fire or a house that is on fire. He develops the natural or 
the prepared as he pleases and sees the appropriate sign. Thus the after- 
image of fire occurs to him. The new yogin is different. He is able to grasp 
the sign only in a prepared place and not in an unprepared place. He follows 
what is expedient in the practice of the fire kasina. The new yogin should 
at first gather fuel, heap it up in a clean place and burn it. He burns it from 
below, at about the time the sun rises or sets. He does not think of the smoke 
or the flames that rise up. He sends his mind towards the fire sign by directing 
it to the middle of the thick flames and grasps the sign through three ways : 
through even gazing, skilfulness [423] and the elimination of disturbance. 
(The rest) is as was fully taught before. 

The fire kasina has ended. 

THE AIR KASINA 

Q. What is the air kasina! What is the practising of it? What are its 
salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? How 
is the sign grasped? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the air sign — this is called 
the air kasina. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind are called 
the practising of the air kasina. Sending forth the mind into the air sign is its 
salient characteristic. The non-abandoning of air perception is its function. 
Undivided thought is its near cause. 

"What are its benefits?": There are three distinctive benefits in air 
kasina: a man is able to go about with the speed of air, to cause wind 
to rise and coolness to prevail. The other benefits are the same as those 
taught in the earth kasina. One follows what is expedient in the practice 
of the air kasina. 

"How is the sign grasped?": A new yogin grasps the air kasina through 
two ways: through sight and touch. How does he grasp the sign through 
sight? That yogin, seeing a field of sweet potatoes, a bamboo grove or a 
grass-land moved by the wind, reflects on air perception. He grasps the 
sign through three ways : through even gazing, skilfulness and the elimination 



1 , The first four are similar to those of Vis. Mag. : 175 — 6. 



124 Vimuttimagga 

of disturbance. Thus he grasps the sign through sight. How does he grasp 
the sign through touch? In a calm abode, a new yogin makes an opening 
in the wall, inserts a pipe of bamboo or reed into it and sits near it, letting 
the wind that comes through it touch his body. Thus he grasps the air sign 
through touch. 

A practised yogin is able to grasp the sign whenever the wind touches 
his body whether he is sitting, walking, standing or lying down. Thus the 
after-image of air occurs to him. He is unlike the new yogin. 

The air kasina has ended. 

THE BLUE-GREEN KASINA 

Q. What is the blue-green kasinal What is the practising of it? What 
are its salient characteristic, function and near cause ? What are its benefits ? 
How is the sign grasped ? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the blue-green kasina — this 
is called the blue-green kasina. The training and undisturbed dwelling of the 
mind are called practising. Sending forth the mind into the blue-green sign 
is its salient characteristic. Non-abandoning of the blue-green perception is 
its function. Undivided thought is its near cause. 

"What are its benefits?": There are five benefits. In the blue-green 
kasina, a man attains to the emancipation of the beautiful. He acquires 
the position of mastery of the blue 1 that is like a blue flower. He can change 
all things to blue. He sees the colour of blue anywhere through the practice 
of the blue kasina. 2 

"How is the sign grasped ?" : The yogin grasps the sign in a prepared 
place or in a natural place. That yogin sees (the sign) in blue flowers, blue 
clothes or in blue-coloured things everywhere. He sees it always before him, 
in pleasure or in pain, and thus the after-image of the blue-green sign occurs 
to him. A new yogin is different. He grasps the sign in a prepared place. 
He is not able to grasp it in an unprepared place. He follows what is expedient 



Lit. Nlla abhibhdyatana. D. Ill, 260: Attha abhibhdyatandni, the eight positions of 

mastery. 

The following is from the Abhidharma Sangiti Par y ay a Pada Sdstra:- One having no 

internal perception of form sees external forms, blue, indigo-coloured, indigo in 

appearance, indigo in brightness. As cloth of Benares dyed the colour of the Ummaka 

flower, deeply blue, is blue, indigo-coloured, indigo in appearance so it is when one 

having no internal perception of form sees external forms Seeing such forms, he 

thinks: "I know, I see". Thus he perceives. This is the fifth position of mastery. 
D. II, 110: Ajj hat tarn arupa-sanhi eko bahiddhd-rupdni passati nildni nila-vanndni 
nila-nidassandni nila-nibhdsdni — seyyathd pi ndma ummd-puppharh nilarh nila-vannam 
nila-nidassanam nila-nibhasarh — seyhathd vd pana tarn vattham Bdrdnaseyyakam ubhato- 
bhago-vimaftharh nilarh nila-vannam nila-nidassanam nila-nibhasarh — evam eva ajjhattam 
arupa-sanili eko bahiddhd-nlpdni passati nildni nila-vanndni nila-nidassandni nila-nibhdsdni, 
"Tdni abhibhuyya jdndmi passdmiti" evaih-sanni hoti, idarh pancamam abhibhdyatanam. 

Only three are treated in Vis. Mag. 176. 



Subjects of Meditation 125 

in the practice of the blue-green kasina. This yogin makes a mandala on a cloth, 
plank or wall with blue of the colour of the Asita 1 flower, in the form of a 
triangle or a square. He edges it round with another colour. Thus he prepares 
the blue-green sign. He grasps the sign through three ways: even gazing, 
skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. The rest is as was fully taught 
before. 

The blue-green kasina has ended. 

THE YELLOW KASINA 

Q. What is the yellow kasinal What is the practising of it? What are its 
salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? How 
is the sign grasped? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the yellow sign— this is called 
the yellow kasina. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind — 
these are called the practising of it. Sending forth the mind into the yellow sign 
is its salient characteristic. Non-abandoning of the perception of yellow is 
its function. Undivided thought is the near cause. 

"What are its benefits?": There are five distinctive benefits. A man is 
able to attain to the emancipation of the beautiful. He acquires the position 
of mastery of the yellow. He considers various yellow colours similar to 
that of the Kanikara flower. 2 Practising the yellow kasina, he sees yellow 
everywhere. 

"How is the sign grasped?": The man who takes up the yellow kasiria 
grasps the yellow sign either in a prepared place or in a natural place. (The 
practised yogin) grasps the sign in a non-prepared place. That yogin sees 
the yellow colour of yellow flowers or yellow clothes anywhere. He sees it 
always, in pleasure or in pain. Thus the after-image of yellow occurs to him. 
The new yogin is different. The new yogin grasps the sign in a prepared 



1. Indigo plant. Black colour (of ashes) black-blue, black — P.T.S. Diet. 

2. According to the Sdstra quoted in note 1 on page 124, the sixth abhibhdyatana differs 
from the fifth in colour and flower. For Ummaka, Karnikara is substituted. D. II, 111, 
confirms this. — Seyyathd pi ndma kanikdra-puppham pitarh pita-vannam pita-nidassanarh 
pita-nibhdsam. 

The late Venerable Soma Maha Thera, one of the co-translators of the Vimuttimagga, 
seeing the karnikara (Sinhala, kinihiri; Pterospermum acerifolium) tree at the Island 
Hermitage in Dodanduwa, in bloom in the early forties, and, recalling this passage of 
the Vimuttimagga, wrote the following verses: — 

In our little island home 
Where free the winged and reptile roam, 
The spirit weaves on silent loom: 
The Karnikara is in bloom. 

There may frolic elf and gnome, 
Ay, hearts grow happy in the loam 
Of quiet! 9 tis the fecund womb 
Of thought serene, the grave of gloom. 



126 Vimuttimagga 

place, and is not able to grasp it in a non-prepared place. He follows what 
is expedient in the practice of the yellow kasina. This yogin makes a mandala 
with yellow of the colour of the Kanikara flower, on cloth, plank or wall, 
in the shape of a triangle or square. He edges it with another colour. Thus 
he prepares the yellow sign. He grasps the sign through three ways: even 
gazing, skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. The rest is as was 
fully taught before. 

The yellow kasina has ended. 

THE RED KASINA 

Q. What is the red kasina! What is the practising of it? What are its 
salient characteristic, function and near cause ? What are its benefits ? How 
is the sign grasped? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the red sign — this is called 
the red kasina. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind — 
these are called the practising of it. Sending forth the mind into the red sign 
is its salient characteristic. The non-abandoning of the perception of red is 
its function. Undivided thought is its near cause. 

"What are its benefits?": There are four distinctive benefits. A man is 
able to attain to the emancipation of the beautiful in the red kasina. He 
acquires the position of mastery of the red. 1 He is able to change things into 
the colour of red. The other benefits are equal to those taught under the earth 
kasina. He who practises the red kasina sees the colour of red prevailing 
everywhere. 

"How is the sign grasped?": A man who takes up the red kasina, grasps 
the red sign either in a prepared place or in a natural place. The practised 
yogin grasps the sign in a natural place, i.e., on seeing red flowers or red 
clothes anywhere. He sees always, in pleasure or in pain. Thus the after- 
image of the red sign occurs to him. The new yogin is different. The new 



Lean grey tree with outstretched hands, 
Your golden flower, a symbol, stands 
For inward vision yoga-wrought, 
For lustrous power nobly bought. 

Upward flows life's current strong, 
Should it for cool, calm, clean bliss long, 
Should it, to sense the silence, throng, 
To sense the golden flower's song. 

Stem will you the outward flow 
Of mind caught fast in maya-glowl 
Illusion's lure will you lay low! 
Then, let the golden flower blow. 

1 . In the seventh abhibhayatana, according to the sdstra quoted above, the flower associated 
with the red abhibhdyatana is the Bandhujivaka. D. II, 111 confirms: Seyyathd pi nama 
bandhujivaka-puppham lohitakam lohitaka-vannam lohitaka-nidassanam lohitaka-nibhasam. 



Subjects of Meditation 127 

yogin grasps the sign in a prepared place, and is not able to do so in a non- 
prepared place. He follows what is expedient in the practice of the red kasina. 
This yogin applies a red colour resembling that of the Bandhujivaka flower 
on cloth, plank or wall, in the shape of a triangle or a square. Or, he makes 
a mandala of red flowers. He edges it with another colour. Thus he prepares 
the red sign. He grasps the sign through three ways: through even gazing, 
skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. The rest is as was fully taught 
before. 

The red kasina has ended. 

THE WHITE KASINA 

Q. What is the white kasina ? What is the practising of it? What are 
its salient characteristic, function and near cause? How is the sign grasped? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the white sign — this is called 
the white kasina. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind — these 
are called the practising of it. Sending forth the mind into the white sign is 
its salient characteristic. The non-abandoning of the perception of white is 
its function. Undivided thought is its near cause. 

"What are its benefits?": There are eight distinctive benefits. A man is 
able to attain to the emancipation of the beautiful, and the positions of mastery 
of the white. 1 He overcomes rigidity and torpor, dispels darkness, produces 
brightness and arouses the divine eye through the white kasina. The other 
benefits are the same as those taught in the earth kasina. He who practises 
the white kasina sees the colour of white prevailing everywhere. 

"How is the sign grasped?": A man who takes up the white kasina grasps 
the white sign either in a prepared or natural place. The practised yogin 
grasps the sign in a natural place. He sees the sign in various places — in 
white flowers, moonlight, sunlight, starlight or a round mirror. Beginning 
with these, he sees the sign always before him, through pleasure and through 
pain. Thus the after-image of the white sign occurs to him. The new yogin 
is different. The new yogin grasps the sign in a prepared place. He is not 
able to grasp it in a non-prepared place. He follows what is expedient in the 
practice of the white kasina. This yogin makes a mandala on cloth, plank 
or wall in the shape of a triangle or a square, with colour resembling that of 
the morning star. He edges it with another colour. Thus he prepares the 
white sign. He grasps the sign through three ways: even gazing, skilfulness 
and the elimination of disturbance. (The rest) is as was fully taught before. 

The white kasina has ended. 



1 . Oddta abhibhdyatana. In the sdstra mentioned above, this, the seventh abhibhdyatana, 
is associated with Usanastdrakd (Sk.), Osadhitdrakd (Pali), the morning star. D. II, 
page 111 confirms: Seyyathd pi ndma osadhi-tdrakd oddtd oddta-vannd oddta-nidassand 
oddta-nibhdsd. 



128 Vimuttimagga 

THE LIGHT KASINA 

[424] Q. What is the light kasina! What is the practising of it? What are 
its salient characteristic, function and near cause? How is the sign grasped? 

A. The thought that is produced relying on the light sign — this is called 
the light kasina. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind — these 
are called the practising of it. Sending forth the mind into the white sign is 
its salient characteristic. The non-abandoning of the perception of light is 
its function. Undivided thought is its near cause. 

"What are its benefits?": They are equal to those of the white kasina. 
He who practises the light kasiria sees light everywhere. 

"How is the sign grasped?": A man who takes up the light kasina, grasps 
the light sign in a prepared or in a natural place. The practised yogin grasps 
the sign in a natural place. He sees the sign in various places — in moonlight, 
sunlight, lamplight or in the light of gems. Beginning with these he sees (the 
sign) always through pleasure or through pain. Thus the after-image of the 
light sign occurs to him. The new yogin is different. The new yogin grasps 
the sign in a prepared place, and is not able to do so in a non-prepared place. 
He follows what is expedient in the practice of the light kasina. This yogin 
chooses a wall facing east or west. He fills a bowl with water and keeps it in 
a sunny place nearby. This water causes a mandala of light. From this 
mandala, light rises and is reflected on the wall. Here he sees the light sign. 
He grasps it in three ways: through even gazing, skilfulness and the elimina- 
tion of disturbance. (The rest) is as was fully taught before. 

The light kasiria has ended. 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE SIXTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 

CHAPTER THE EIGHTH 

Section Three 

THE (SEPARATED) SPACE KASINA 

What is the (separated) space kasinal What is the practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its 
benefits? How is the sign grasped? 

A. In the space kasina, there are two kinds: The first is space that is 
separate from form; the second is space that is not separate from form. The 
sign of the space kasina is space that is separate from form; the space sign 
that is grasped in an opening is space that is not separate from form. The 
training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind — these are called the 
practising of it. Sending forth the mind into space perception is its function. 
Undivided thought is its near cause. 

"What are its benefits ?" : There are two distinctive benefits, thus : A man 
is able to pass through obstructions such as walls, mountains and the like. 
His bodily activities are not impeded, and he becomes fearless. 

"How is the sign grasped?": The man who takes up the space kasina* 
grasps the sign in space that is natural or prepared. The practised yogin 
grasps the sign in a natural place. He sees the sign in various places — in 
some opening (in a wall), in the space of an open window, in the space which is 
between the branches of trees. Beginning with these, he sees it always, in 
pleasure and in pain. Thus the after-image of the space sign occurs to him. 
The new yogin is different. The new yogin grasps the sign in a prepared 
place; and not in a non-prepared place. This yogin goes to a calm abode 
on the outside of which are no obstructions. He makes a circular opening 
(in the wall) and grasps the space sign, through three ways : through even 

129 



130 Vimuttimagga 

gazing, skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. In this space kasina, 
the fourth and the fifth meditations, jhdnas, are produced. The rest is as 
was fully taught before. 

The {separated) space kasina has ended. 

THE CONSCIOUSNESS KASINA 

Q. What is the consciousness kasina! 

A. It is the concentration of the sphere of infinite consciousness. This is 
called the consciousness kasina. The rest is as was fully taught before. 

The ten kasinas have ended. 1 

MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

Q. What are the miscellaneous teachings regarding these kasinas! 

A. If one acquires facility in one sign, all other signs follow. If one 
acquires facility in the first meditation, jhdna, through one kasina, one is 
able to acquire facility through the other kasinas also and is able to cause 
the arising of the second meditation, jhdna. In the same way, if one acquires 
facility in the second meditation, jhdna, one is able to cause the arising of 
the third meditation, jhdna. If one acquires facility in the third meditation, 
jhdna, one is able to cause the arising of the fourth meditation, jhdna. 

Q. Which are the most excellent of all kasinas! 

A. The four colour kasinas are the most. excellent, because through them 
one attains to the emancipations 2 and the positions of mastery. The white 
kasina is excellent, because it illumines and because through it an unobstructed 
state of mind is attained. 

Here (the yogin) produces the eight attainments on eight kasinas, in 
sixteen ways, peacefully. (1) He dwells wherever he likes and (2) practises 
the concentration that he likes, (3) whenever he likes, (4) without hindrance, 
(5) in the direct order 3 and (6) in the reverse order, 4 (7) in the direct and 
in the reverse order, 5 (8) by developing separately 6 (9) by developing 
together, (10) by skipping over the middle, 7 (11) by limiting 8 the factor, 
(12) by limiting the object, (13) by limiting the factor and the object, (14) by 
fixing 9 the factor, (15) by fixing the object, (16) by fixing the factor and 
the object. 



1. This and the subsequent passages in italics in this section do not occur in the Sung 
edition in the library of the Japanese Imperial household. 

2. Vimokkha. 3. Lit. Ascending gradually. 

4. Lit. Descending gradually. 5. Lit. Ascending and descending gradually. 

6. Lit. Increasing each one. 7. Lit. Making little or restricting the middle. 

8. Lit. Making little or restricting the factor. 9. Lit. Together with the factor. 



Subjects of Meditation 1 3 1 

(1) "He stays wherever he likes": He dwells in the village or forest — 
whichever he likes — and enters into concentration. (2) "Practises the concen- 
tration that he likes": He produces the concentration which he desires. 
(3) "Whenever": He enters into concentration at the time he likes. (4) 
("Without hindrance"): He is able to remain firm in (concentration) at 
all times. (5) "In the direct order": He enters the first meditation, jhdna, 
and by degrees rises up to the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. 

(6) "In the reverse order": Starting from the sphere of neither perception 
nor non-perception, he comes down by degrees to the first meditation, jhdna. 

(7) "In the direct and in the reverse order": He excels in ascending and 
in descending. He enters the third meditation, jhdna, from the first meditation, 
jhdna. From the third meditation, jhdna, he enters the second, and from 
the second he enters the fourth. 1 Thus he enters the concentration of the 
sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. (8) "By developing sepa- 
rately" : Having gradually entered the fourth meditation, jhdna, he ascends 
or descends. (9) "By developing together" : He enters the fourth meditation, 
jhdna. From that he enters space, and then enters the third meditation, jhdna. 
Thus he enters into concentration in these two ways. (10) "Skipping over 
the middle" : He enters the first meditation, jhdna. From this he enters the 
sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. From this he enters the 
second meditation, jhdna, and therefrom attains to the sphere of nothingness. 
Thus he abides in that attainment, and understands the sphere of the infinity 
of space. (11) "Limiting the factor": He enters into the concentration of 
one meditation, jhdna, on eight kasinas. (12) "Limiting the object": He 
enters into eight kinds of concentration on three kasinas. (13) "Limiting 
the factor and the object": Two meditations, jhdnas, and one kasina. (14) 
"Fixing the factor": On three kasinas, he enters (Lit. two, two meditation, 
jhdnas). (15) "Fixing the object": He enters two meditations, jhdnas, 
on (Lit. two, two kasinas). (16) "Fixing the factor and the object": This 
consists of the two (preceding) sentences. 

Miscellaneous teachings have ended. 



Cp. (a) D. II, 156: 'Handa ddni bhikkhave dmantaydmi vo: "Vayadhammd samkhdrd, 
appamddena sampddethdti" . 

Ayarh Tathdgatassa pacchimd vdcd. 

Atha kho Bhagavd pathamajjhdnarh samdpajji. Pathamajjhdnd vutthahitvd 
dutiyajjhdnam samdpajji. Dutiyajjhdnd vutthahitvd tatiyajjhdnam samdpajji. Tatiyajjhdnd 
vutthahitvd catutthajjhdnam samdpajji. Catutthajjhdnd vutthahitvd dkdsdnancdyatanam 
samdpajji. Akdsdnahcdyatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd vinhdnahcdyatanam samdpajji. 
Vihndnahcdyatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd dkihcanndyatanam samdpajji. Akincahnd- 
yatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd nevasannd-ndsanndyatanam samdpajji. Nevasannd- 
ndsafindyatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd sahhd-vedayita-nirodham samdpajji. 

Atha kho dyasmd Anando dyasamantam Anuruddham etad avoca: 

i Parinibbuto_ bhante Anuruddha Bhagavd' 7/. 

l Na dvuso Ananda Bhagavd parinibbuto, sahnd-vedayita-nirodham samdpannoUi. 

Atha kho Bhagavd sahhd-vedayita-nirodha-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd nevasannd- 
ndsanndyatanam samdpajji. Nevasahnd-ndsahhdyatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd dkihca- 
nndyatanam samdpajji. Akincahndyatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd vinhdnahcdyatanam 



132 Vimuttimagga 

THE TEN PERCEPTIONS OF PUTRESCENCE 

(1) THE PERCEPTION OF BLOATEDNESS 

Q. What is the perception of bloatedness ? What is the practising 
of it? What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What 
are its benefits ? How is the sign grasped ? 

A . "The perception of bloatedness" : The state of being swollen through- 
out like a cast off smelly corpse which distends its bag of skin — this is called 
"bloatedness". 1 The viewing of bloatedness with right knowledge — this is 
called "perception". The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind 
in that perception — these are called the practising of it. The sending forth 
of the mind into the perception of bloatedness is its salient characteristic. 
The disgust connected with the perception of bloatedness is its function. Re- 
flection on malodour and impurity are its near cause. 

"What are its benefits?": Nine are the benefits of the perception of 
bloatedness, thus: A man is able to gain mindfulness as regards the interior 
of his body, is able to gain the perception of impermanence and th£ perception 
of death. He increases disgust and overcomes sense-desires. He removes 
the clinging to form and well-being. He fares well and approaches the 
ambrosial. 

"How is the sign grasped?": The new yogin who grasps the sign of the 
putrescence of bloatedness goes alone, without a companion, established 
in mindfulness, undeluded, with his faculties drawn in and his mind not going 
to things outside, reflecting on the path of going and coming. Thus he goes to 
the place of putrescent corpses. Avoiding contrary winds, he remains theie, 
standing or sitting, with the putrescent sign before him, and not too far from 
nor too near it. And that yogin makes a rock, an ant-hill, tree, bush or a 
creeper, near the place where the putrescent thing lies, one with the sign, 
one with the object, and considers thus: "This rock is impure, this is the 
impure sign, this is the rock". And so also with the ant-hill and the others. 



samdpajji. Vinndnancdyatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd dkdsdnancdyatanam samdpajji. 
Akdsdnancdyatana-samdpattiyd vutthahitvd catutthajjhdnarh samdpajji. Catutthajjhdnd 
vutthahitvd tatiyajjhdnam samdpajji. Tatiyajjhdnd vutthahitvd dutiyajjhdnam samdpajji. 
Dutiyajjhdnd vutthahitvd pathamajjhdnam samdpajji. Pathamajjhdnd vutthahitvd dutiyajjhd- 
nam samdpajji. Dutiyajjhdnd vutthahitvd tatiyajjhdnam samdpajji. Tatiyajjhdnd vutthahitvd 
catutthajjhdnarh samdpajji. Catutthajjhdnd vutthahitvd samanantard Bhagavd parinibbdyi. 

(b) Vis. Mag. 374 : Pathamajjhdnato pana paUhdya patipdtiyd ydva nevasahhd-ndsahnd- 
yatanam, tdva punappunam samdpajjanam jhdndnulomam ndma. Nevasahhd-ndsahM- 
yatanato paUhdya ydva pathamajjhdnam, tdva punappunam samdpajjanam jhdnapatilomam 
ndma. Pathamajjhdnato paUhdya ydva nevasannd-ndsahndyatanam, nevasahhd-ndsanhdya- 
tanato patfhdya ydva pafhamajjhdnan ti evarh anulomapatilomavasena punappunam samd- 
pajjanam jhandnulomapatilomam ndma. 
Cp. (a) A. Ill, 323-4; M. I, 58; D. II, 295: Puna ca param bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyathd 

pi passeyya sariram sivatikdya chadditam uddhumdtakam so imam eva kdyam 

upasamharati: 'Ayam pi kho kayo evam-dhammo evam-bhdvi etam anatito ti\ 

(b) S. V. 131: Uddhumdtakasannd bhikkhave bhdvitd bahulikatd mahato phdsuvihdraya 
sarhvattati, 



Subjects of Meditation 133 

[425] After making the sign and making the object, he practises, considering 
the putrescent sign from its intrinsic nature in ten ways: From colour, sex, 
region, locality, limitation, joints, cavities, low parts, high parts and all sides. 
He considers all sides of it. "From colour" means: "He determines black 
as black, the neither black nor white as neither black nor white. He determines 
white as white and malodorous skin as malodorous". "From sex" means: 
"He determines whether it is the body of a male or a female, and whether 
it is that of a young, an adult or an old person". To determine is to determine 
the long as long, the short as short, the fat as fat, the small as small. "From 
region" means: "He determines that in this direction is the head; in this, 
a hand; in this, a leg; in this, the back; in this, the abdomen; in this, the 
sitting place; in this, the putrescent sign". Thus he understands. "From 
locality" means: "He determines that on this place 1 is the hand; on this, 
a leg; on this, the head; on this, the sitting-place; on this, the putrescent 
sign". "From limitation" means: "He determines (the limit of the body) 
from head to foot, from below up to the head and the edge of the scalp, under- 
standing the whole body as an assemblage of dung". "From the joints" 
means: "He determines that there are six joints in the two hands, six joints 
in the two legs, and that there is one joint of the neck and one at the waist". 
These are known as the fourteen great joints. "From the cavities" means: 
"He determines whether the mouth is open or closed, and whether the eyes 
are open or closed. He determines the hollows of the hands and the feet". 
"From low parts and from high parts" means: "He determines whether the 
putrescent sign is in a low place or in a high place; and again, he determines 
thus: 'I am in a low place, the putrescent sign is in a high place', or, The 
putrescent sign is in a low place, I am in a high place' ". "He considers from 
all sides" means: "He determines a distance of two or three fathoms from 
the sign, because he does not grasp the sign by being too near it or too far 
from it, and considering all things, he grasps the sign (saying), "Sddhu! sddhu!". 
Thus observing he is contented. 

That yogin having grasped the sign, noted it well and determined it well, 
goes alone, without a companion, established in mindfulness, undeluded, 
with his faculties drawn in and his mind not going to things outside, reflecting 
on the path of going and coming. To and fro he walks on the path or he 
sits absorbed in the putrescent sign. 

Why does he go without a companion? It is for the sake of acquiring 
calmness of body. "Established in mindfulness" means: "Owing to non- 
delusion the faculties are drawn in and the mind does not go to things outside". 

Why does he reflect on the path of going and coming ? It is for the sake 
of acquiring calmness of body. Why does he avoid contrary winds? It is 
for the sake of avoiding malodour. Why does he sit neither far nor near the 
sign? If he sits far, he cannot grasp the sign. If he sits near, he cannot 



1. Lit. Bright place — a double translation of avakdsa. 



134 Vimuttimagga 

get a dislike for it, or see its nature. If he does not know its nature, he is 
not able to grasp that sign. Therefore, he sits neither too far from nor too 
near it. Why does he consider the sign on all sides? It is for the sake of 
non-delusion. Non-delusion is thus: When a yogin goes to a still place 
and sees the putrescent sign, fear arises in him; at such a time, if the corpse 
appears to stand up before him, he does not stand up, but reflects. In this 
way he knows, recollects, rightly understands, regards well and fully investigates 
the sign. In the same way he considers all signs. This is (the indication of) 
non-delusion. 

Q. Why does he grasp the sign in ten ways? A. It is for the sake of 
binding the mind. 

Why does one reflect on the path of going and coming? It is for the 
sake of progress in the course. "Progress in the course" means: "Though 
a yogin enters a still place, his mind is sometimes disturbed. If he does not 
always investigate it, the putrescent sign does not arise. Therefore, a yogin 
investigates the sign with all his heart by reflecting on the path of going and 
coming. He investigates the place of meditation. He investigates all signs. 
Thus should he investigate the sign to be grasped, in the ten ways. 

That yogin thus investigates again and again, and sees the sign as if it were 
with his eyes. This is (the indication of) progress in the course. A new 
yogin, meditating on a corpse, perceiving (it as) a jewel, rejoices, bears it 
in mind, resorts to it always, causes the hindrances to perish and arouses 
the factors of meditation, jhdna. Remote form sense-desires and demeritorious 
states, he abides in the attainment of the first meditation, jhdna, which is 
with initial and sustained application of thought, born of solitude and full of 
joy and bliss, through the perception of putrescence. 

Q. Why is the first meditation, jhdna, only developed through the per- 
ception of putrescence and not any other meditation, jhdnal 

A. This perception always follows initial and sustained application of 
thought because (they go together) and because it is tied down to a place. 
When initial and sustained application of thought are present, this sign becomes 
manifest. Without initial and sustained application of thought, the yogin is 
not able, here, to gain the calming of the mind. Therefore, the first meditation, 
jhdna, is developed and not any other. 

And again, it is said that colour, sex and the others of this putrescent sign 
are considered in many ways. "Are considered in many ways": These 
(colour, etc.) are objects of initial and sustained application of thought. 
Separate fr initial and sustained application of thought, these cannot be 
considered. Therefore, only the first meditation, jhdna, is developed and not 
any other. 

And again, it is said that this putrescent sign is an unenduring object. 
On an unenduring object the mind does not go higher. In an impure place 
joy and bliss can only arise by the rejection of initial and sustained application 



Subjects of Meditation 135 

of thought, which, in a place such as this, depend on malodour. Therefore, 
only the first meditation, jhdna, is developed and not any other. 

Q. On an unenduring object how do joy and bliss occur? 

A. The unenduring object is not the cause of joy and bliss. And again, 
joy and bliss arise owing to the removal of the heat of the hindrances and the 
training of the mind. The rest is as was fully taught above. 

The perception of bloatedness has ended. 

(2) THE PERCEPTION OF DISCOLOURATION 

Q. What is discolouration? What is the practising of it? What are 
its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? 
How is the sign grasped? 

A. One, two or three nights after death, the body becomes discoloured, 
and appears as if it were stained blue. This is the discolouration sign. This 
discolouration is called the blue sign. The understanding of this through 
right knowledge is called the perception of discolouration. 1 The \mdisturbed 
dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is the practising of it. The reflection on the 
blue sign is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) disagreeableness is 
its function. The thought of non-durability is its near cause. Its benefits 
are equal to those of bloatedness; The way of grasping the sign is as was fully 
taught above. 

(The perception of) discolouration has ended. 

(3) THE PERCEPTION OF FESTERING 

Q. What is perception of festering ? What is the practising of it ? What 
are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? 
How is the sign grasped? 

A. "Festering": Two or three nights after death, the body festers and 
matter exudes from it like ghee that is poured out. This is the festering of the 
body. The understanding of this through right knowledge is called the percep- 
tion of festering. 2 The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is the 
practising of it. The reflection on the festering sign is its salient characteristic. 



1. Cp. A. Ill, 323-4; M.I, 58, D. IT, 295: Puna ca param bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyatha pi 

passeyya sariram sivathikaya chadditam ekdhamatam vd dvihamatarh vd tihamatam vd 

vinilakam so imam eva kdyam upasamharati: 'Ayam pi kho kayo evarh-dhammo 

evam-bhdvi etarh anatito ti\ 

2. Cp. M. Ill, 91 : Puna ca param , bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyatha pi passeyya sariram sivathikaya 
chadditam ekdhamatam vd dvihamatarh vd tihamatam vd uddhumdtakam vinilakam vipubba- 
kajdtam; so imam eva kdyam upasamharati: Ayarh pi kho kayo evamdhammo evambhdvi 
evamanatito ti. Tassa evam appamattassa dtdpino pahitattassa viharato ye te gehasitd 
sarasamkappd te pahiyanti, tesam pahdnd ajjhattam eva cittarh santitthati sannisidati 
ekodihoti samddhiyati. Evam pi, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kdyagatam satim bhdveti. 



136 Vimuttimagga 

(The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. The thought of non- 
durability is its near cause. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. 
The way of grasping the sign is as was fully taught above. 

(The perception of) the festering has ended. 

(4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE FISSURED 

Q. What is the meaning of the fissured? What is the practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? 

A. "The fissured" means: "What resembles the scattered parts of a 
body that has been hacked with a sword" . Again, a corpse that is thrown away 
is also called the fissured. The understanding of this through right knowledge 
is called the perception of the fissured. 1 The undisturbed dwelling of the mind, 
(on the sign), is the practising of it. The reflection on the sign of the fissured 
is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. 
The thought of putrescence is its near cause. Its merits are equal to those of 
bloatedness. 

Q. "How is the sign grasped?" 

A. The sight of two ears or two fingers that are separated (from a body) 
causes the arising of the fissured sign. The sign thus grasped appears with 
one or two inches 2 of space intervening. The xest is as was fully taught 
above. 



(The perception of) the fissured has ended. 

(5) THE PERCEPTION OF THE GNAWED 

Q. What is the meaning of the gnawed? What is the practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its 
benefits? How is the sign grasped? 

A. "The gnawed": (leavings of a) corpse on which crows, magpies, 
brown kites, owls, eagles, vultures, wild pigs, dogs, jackals, wolves, tigers or 
leopards have fared — this is called the gnawed. 3 The understanding of the 
gnawed sign through right knowledge — this is (the perception of) the gnawed. 
The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) — this is called the practising 
of it. The reflection on the gnawed is its salient characteristic. (The percep- 
tion of) disagreeableness is its function. The consideration of putrescence is 



1. Cp. S. V, 131: Vicchiddakasanna bhikkhave bhdvitd bahulikatd mahato phdsuvihdrdya 
samvattati. 

2. This refers -he Chinese Sun= 1.193 inches. 

3. Cp. A. Ill, 32t/ M.I, 58; D.II, 295 : Puna caparam kdkehi vd khajjamdnam kulalehi vd 

khajjamdnam gijjhehi vd khajjamdnam supdnehi vd khajjamdnam sigdlehi vd khajjamdnam 
vividhehi vd pdnaka-jdtehi khajjamdnam, so imam eva kdyarh upasamharati: 'Ayam 
pi kho kayo evam-dhammo evam-bhdvi etarh anatito ti\ 



Subjects of Meditation 137 

its near cause. Its merits are equal to those of bloatedness. The rest is as 
was fully taught above. 

{The perception of) the gnawed has ended. 

(6) THE PERCEPTION OF THE DISMEMBERED 

Q. What is the meaning of the dismembered? What is the practising 
of it? What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What 
are its benefits? [426] How is the sign grasped? 

A. The state of (severed) limbs scattered hither and thither is called 
"the dismembered". 1 The understanding of this through right knowledge — 
this is called the perception of the dismembered. The undisturbed dwelling 
of the mind (on the sign) is called the practising of it. The reflection on the 
dismembered sign is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) disagreeable- 
ness is its function. The thought of putrescence is its near cause. Its benefits 
are equal to those of bloatedness. 

"How is the sign grasped?": All the (scattered) limbs are gathered and 
placed together so that they are about two inches apart from each other. Having 
arranged them thus, one grasps the sign of the dismembered. This is how the 
sign is grasped. The rest is as was fully taught above. 

{The perception of) the dismembered has ended. 

(7) THE PERCEPTION OF THE CUT AND THE DISMEMBERED 

Q. What is the meaning of the cut and the dismembered? What is the 
practising of it? What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? 
What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped? 

A. "The cut and the dismembered": Corpses, lying in various places, 
of those done to death with stick, sword or arrow — these are called, the cut 
and the dismembered. 2 To know the put and the dismembered through right 
knowledge is called the perception of the cut and the dismembered. The 
undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is the practising of it. The 
reflection on the sign of the cut and the dismembered is its salient characteristic. 
(The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. The thought of putrescence 
is its near cause. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. 



1 Cp. A.III, 324; M. I, 58; D. II, 296-7: Puna caparam affhikdni apagata-sambandhdni 

disd-vidisdsu vikkhittdni ahhena hatthatthikam ahhena pddatthikam ahhena Jahghaffhikam 
ahhena uratthikam ahhena katatthikarh ahhena pi(jhi-kan(akam ahhena sisa-katahath, 
so imam eva kdyam upasamharati: 'Ayam pi kho kayo evam-dhammo evam-bhdvi etarh 
anatito ti\ 
2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 179: Hatah ca tarn purimanayerf eva vikkhittakah ca ti hatavikkhittakam. 
Kdkapdddkarena angapaccangesu satthena hanitva vuttanayena vikkhittassa chavasarirass* 
etam adhivacanam. 



138 Vimuttimagga 

"How is the sign grasped" ?: This is as was fully taught above. 
(The perception of the) cut and the dismembered has ended. 

(8) THE PERCEPTION OF THE BLOOD-STAINED 

Q. What is the meaning of the blood-stained? What is practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its 
benefits? How is the sign grasped? 

A. The blood-besmeared state of the body and the severed limbs is 
known as "the blood-stained". 1 The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on 
the sign) is called the practising of it. The reflection on the blood-stained 
sign is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its 
function. The thought of putrescence is its near cause. Its benefits are equal 
to those of bloatedness. 

"How is the sign grasped?": This was fully taught above. 
(The percepion of) the blood-stained has ended. 

(9) THE PERCEPTION OF WORMINESS 

Q. What is worminess? What is the practising of it? What are its 
salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? How 
is the sign grasped? ' • \ 

A. "Worminess": The state of a body covered with worms as with a 
heap of white pearls is called worminess. The understanding of this through 
right knowledge is called the perception of worminess. 2 The undisturbed 
dwelling of the mind (on the sign ) is the practising of it. The reflection on 
the sign of worminess is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) dis- 
agreeableness is its function. The thought of putrescence is its near cause. 
Its^ benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. "How is the sign grasped?": 
This is as was fully taught above. 

(The perception of) worminess has ended. 

(10) THE PERCEPTION OF THE BONY 

Q. What is the bony? What is the practising of it? What are its salient 
characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the 
sign grasped? 



1. Cp. A. Ill, 324; M. I, 58; D. II, 296: Puna ca param bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyathd pi 
passeyya sariram sivathikaya chadditam affhi-samkhalikam sa-mamsa-lohitam naharu- 
sambandham. . . .pe. . . ., so imam eva kdyam upasamharati: ''Ay am pi kho kayo evarii- 
dhammo evam-bhdvi etam anatito ti\ 

2. A. II, 17; A. V, 106, 310: Pujuvakasanna. Also S. V, 131: Pufavakasanna bhikkhave 
bhavita bahulikata mahato phasuvihdraya samvattati. 



Subjects of Meditation 139 

A. "What is the bony"? The state of bones linked chain-like by means 
of flesh, blood and sinews or by sinews without flesh and blood, or without 
flesh and blood is called "the bony". 1 The understanding of this through 
right knowledge is called the perception of the bony. The undisturbed 
dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is called the practising of it. The reflection 
on the sign of the bony is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) 
disagreeableness is its function. The thought of putrescence is its near cause. 
Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. 

"How is the sign grasped"? This is as was fully taught above. 
{The perception of) the bony has ended. 
MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

Q. What are the miscellaneous teachings regarding putrescence? 

A. The beginner, being one who is affected by severe passion, should 
not grasp the sign in that which is not of the same kind. That which is "not 
of the same kind" means: "Like the body of a man to a woman". 

If one is of a calling associated with the perception of putrescence, he 
should not grasp the putrescent sign, because he, owing to the close connection 
with these objects, does not develop the idea of their disagreeableness. One 
does not cause th® arising of pure perception on the bodies of beasts (?). On$ 
causes the arising of the sign in one bone and grasps the .sign in -the bone with 
facility. 

And again, if a man grasps the sign of putrescence through colour, he 
should meditate on the kasina. If a man grasps the sign of putrescence through 
space, he should meditate on that element. If a man grasps the sign of 
putrescence through putrescence, he should meditate on putrescence. 

Q. Why are there ten putrescences and neither more nor less? 

A. Because the faults of the body are of ten kinds and because there 
are ten kinds of perception awing to ten kinds of persons. A passionate 
person should meditate on the perception of bloatedness. A sensual person 
should meditate on discolouration. A passionate lover of the beautiful 
should always meditate on the festering. The others should be understood 
in the same way. 

And again, the sign of putrescence is grasped with difficulty. All signs 
of putrescence are means of overcoming passion. Therefore, whenever the 
walker in passion sees the putrescent sign, he should grasp it. Because of 
these reasons, it is said that among the putrescences there are ten kinds of 
putrescence perception. 



1. Cp. A. Ill, 324; M. I, 58; D. II, 296: Atthi-samkhalikam apagata-marhsa-lohitarh naharu- 
sambandharh. . . .pe. . . .,so imam eva kayam upasamharati: ''Ay am pi kho kayo evam- 
dhammo evam-bhavi etarh anatito ti\ 



HO Vimuttimagga 

Q. Why are these (putrescence signs) not increased? 

A. When a man wishes to separate From passion, he causes the arising 
of the perception regarding the nature of his body. Because, if he has the 
perception of the nature of his body, he can quickly acquire the perception of 
its disagreeableness and cause the arising of the after-image. If the perception 
of putrescence is increased, the sign which he has grasped in his body will 
disappear. If he loses the perception of his own body, he will not be able 
to acquire the thought of disagreeableness quickly. Therefore, he should 
not increase. 

And again, it is taught that if a man is without passion, he may increase 
it for the sake of developing the great thought. This is in accordance with 
the teaching of the Abhidhamma: "One dwells without passion and the rest, 
practises the first meditation, jhdna, rightly, dwells on the perception of bloated- 
ness and causes the arising of the boundless object". 1 The great Elder 
Singalapita uttered this stanza: 

The heir of the Buddha, he, 

the almsman, in the fearful wood, 
has with "bony-precept" filled 

this earth, entirely. 
J think this almsman will, 

in no long time, abandon lust. 2, 

THE RECOLLECTION OF THE BUDDHA 

Q. What is the recollection of the Buddha? What is the practising of 
it? What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are 
its benefits? What is the procedure? 

A. The Enlightened One is the Blessed One who by his own efforts, with- 
out a teacher, understands the Noble Truths which were never heard before. 
He knows all. He possesses power. 3 He is free. Because of these qualities, 
he is called the Enlightened One. The yogin remembers the Enlightened 
One, the Blessed One, the Supremely Enlightened One and the worth of 
the Enlightenment, He recollects, repeatedly recollects, recollects again and 
again, does not forget to recollect on these. He remembers (the Enlightened 
One's) faculties and powers. He practises right recollectedness. Thus is 
the recollection of the Buddha. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (in 
the recollection of the Buddha) — this is called the practising of it. The 



1. Not traced. 

2. Th. 18: Ahu buddhassa ddyddo bhikkhu Bhesakafdvane, 

kevalam atthisahhdya aphari pathavim imam. 
Mahhe 'ham kdmardgam so khippam eva pahiyatiti. 

— Singalapita Thera. 

3. Nidd. I, 457 : Buddho tiyo so Bhagavd sayambhu andcariyako pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu 
samam saccani abhisambujjhi, tattha ca sabbanhutam patto, balesu ca vasibhdvam patto. 
Also Pts. I, 174 where 'pubbe' is substituted by i Buddhe\ 



Subjects of Meditation 141 

remembering of the Buddha's worth is its function. The growth in confidence 
ts its near cause. 

He who practises the recollection of the Buddha acquires the following 
eighteen benefits: increase of confidence, mindfulness, wisdom, reverence, 
merit, great joy, ability to endure hardship, fearlessness, shamefastness in the 
presence of evil, the state of living near the Teacher, enjoyment of activity 
belonging to the ground of the Buddhas, (the happiness of) faring well and 
approaching the ambrosial. 1 

According to the Netti Sutta, 2 if a man wishes to meditate on the Buddha, 
he should worship Buddha images and such other objects. "What is the 
procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and keeps his mind 
undisturbed. With this undisturbed mind, he remembers him who comes 
and goes in the same way, the Blessed One, consummate, supremely 
enlightened, endowed with true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of 
the world, matchless guide of men to be tamed, teacher of divine and human 
beings, enlightened, blessed. 3 Thus he reaches the further shore of merit. 

"Blessed One": Because he gets the praise of the world, he is called the 
Blessed One. Because he has attained to excellent truth, he is called the 
Blessed One. Because he is worthy of offerings, he is called the Blessed One. 
Because he has acquired the highest merits, he is called the Blessed One and 
because he is the Lord of the Way-Truth, he is called the Blessed One. For 
these reasons is he called the Blessed One. 

"Consummate" : Because he is the recipient of gifts, he is consummate* 
Because he has killed the defilement-foes, he is consummate. Because he 
breaks the spokes of the wheel of birth and death, he is consummate. 4 

"Supremely enlightened": Because he knows rightly all things, in 
all his activities, he is called the supremely enlightened. Because he has 
killed ignorance, he is called the supremely englightened and because he has 
attained to the enlightenment that is unrivalled, by himself, he is called the 
supremely enlightened. 5 

"Endowed with true knowledge and conduct": Knowledge means the 
three kinds of knowledge, i.e., the knowledge of past existences, the knowledge 
of the passing away and the arising of beings and the knowledge of the extinction 
of the cankers. The Blessed One has removed the ignorance of the past with 
the knowledge of past existences, the ignorance of the future with the know- 



1 . Only thirteen benefits are mentioned. 

2. Lit. Netri Sutara. 

3. Cp. D. Ill, 76; A. 1, 168; Sn. 132 (Selasutta): hi pi so Bhagavd araham Sammasambuddho 
vijjdcaranasampanno sugato lokavidu anuttaro purisadammasdrathi sattha devamanussanam 
buddho Bhagavd. 

4. Cp. Vis. Mag. 198; Sn.-a. 441: Arakd hi so sabbakilesehi maggena savdsandnam 
kilesdnarh viddhamsitattd ti drakattd araharfi; te ca nena kilesdrayo maggena hatd ti 
arinam hatattd pi araham. 

5. Cp. Vis. Mag. 201-2. 



142 Vimuttimagga 

ledge*of the passing away and the arising of beings, and the ignorance of the 
present with the knowledge of the extinction of the cankers. 1 Having removed 
the ignorance of the past, the Blessed One sees, when he recollects, all past 
states in the course of all activities. Having removed the ignorance of the 
future, the Blessed One sees, when he recollects, all future states in the course 
of his activities. Having removed all present ignorance, the Blessed One sees, 
when he recollects, all present states in the course of his activities. 

"Conduct" means: "The being endowed with virtue and concentration". 

"Virtue" means: "Endowed with all good states". He is called "perfect 
in knowledge and conduct". 

"Perfect" means: "Endowed with supernormal powers". Hence he is 
called "perfect 'in knowledge and conduct". (Again) "endowed" means: 
"possessed of all concentration". 

Thus the Blessed One has great compassion and appreciative joy because 
of omniscience, the three kinds of knowledge and conduct. He acquired 
knowledge with facility, because he had benefitted the world [427]. He opened 
the path of science, because he knew all spheres. He is perfect in knowledge 
because none can surpass him, because he has destroyed all defilements and 
because of pure right action. He is perfect in conduct, because he has become 
the eye of the world and because he has blessed those who were unblessed. 
He is perfectly enlightened through knowledge, because he has become the 
mainstay of the world and because he has rescued the fear-stricken. . He saves 
through conduct, because he has acquired the supernormal power of the 
highest truth. He, without a teacher, has acquired that excellent equipose 
of behaviour towards all things, because he has promoted the weal of the 
world. Thus, through being perfect in knowledge and conduct, he is called 
the Blessed One. Thus is "perfect in knowledge and conduct" to be under- 
stood. 2 



1. M. I, 22-4: So evam samahite citte parisuddhe pariyoddte anahgane vigatupakkilese mudu- 
bhute kammaniye thite anejjappatte pubbenivasdnussatihdndya cittarh abhininndmesirh. 

So anekavihitam pubbenivdsam anussardmi, seyyathidam: ekampi jdtirh dve pi jdtiyo 

So evam samahite citte. . . .anejjappatte sattdnarh cutupapdtahdndya cittarh abhininndmesim. 
So dibbena cakkhund visuddhena atikkantamdnusakena satte passdmi cavamdne upapajja- 
mdne . . . .So evam samahite citte .... anejjappatte dsavdnam khayahdndya cittarh abhininnd- 
mesim. So idarh dukkhanti yathdbhutam abbhahhdsim .... 

2. Cp. (a) D. I, 100: 'Katamam pana tarn bho Gotama caranam, katamd sd vijjd tiV ^Idha 
Ambattha Tathdgato loke uppajjati araharh sammdsambuddho. .. .pe. .. .evam kho Am- 
battha bhikkhu silasampanno hoti.'' 

4 pafhamajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. Idam pi 'ssa hoti caranasmim' . . . .pe 

catutthajjanarh upasampajja viharati. Idam pi 'ssa hoti caranasmim. Idarh kho tarn 

Ambattha caranam. 

*. . . .pe. . . .ndna-dqssandya cittarh abhiniharati abhininndmeti . . . .pe. . . .Idam pi 'ssa 
hoti vijjaya. . . .pe. . . .ndpararh itthattdydti pajdndti. Idam pi 'ssa hoti vijjdya. Ayarh 
kho sd Ambattha vijjd. 

'Ayarh vuccati Ambattha bhikkhu vijjd-sampanno iti pi carana-sampanno iti pi vijjd- 
carana-sampanno iti pi. Imdya ca Ambattha vijjd-carana-sampaddya ahhd vijjd-sampadd 
carana-sampada uttaritard vd panitatard vd rfatthi. 
(b) Sn.-a. II, 441 : Sammd sdmah ca saccdnarh buddhattd sammdsambuddho. 



Subjects of Meditation 143 

"Sublime" : Because he has reached the good road, he is named "sublime". 
Because he will not return again, and because he has attained to the extinction, 
Nibbdna, that is without residue of the substratum of being, 1 he is named 
"sublime". Again, because his teaching cannot be overturned he is called 
"sublime". And again, because his teachings are not untrue, he is called 
"sublime". And again, because his teachings are without disadvantages, he 
is called "sublime". And again, because his teachings are neither too many 
nor too few, he is called "sublime". 

"Knower of the world" : World is of two kinds, i.e., the world of beings 
and the world of formations. 2 The Blessed One knows the world of being 
in the course of all his actions. Through the varying desires of beings, through 
the difference of faculties, through past lives, through the knowledge of the 
divine eye, through the knowledge of the passing away and arising of beings, 
through combination, through fulfilment, through various modes of differentia- 
tion, through various states of durability and non-durability, through various 
births, through various states of birth, through various planes, through various 
actions, through various defilements, through various results, through various 
kinds of good and evil and through various kinds of binding and unbinding, 
the Blessed One knows the world of beings. 

And again it is said "the world of formations" : The Blessed One knows 
all action and he knows the many formations. Through concentration percep- 
tion, through causes and conditions, through moral, immoral and the amoral, 
through various aggregations, through various worlds, through various spheres, 
through perfect understanding, through impermanence, sorrow and not-self 
and through the born and the unborn, the Blessed One knows the world of 
formations. Thus is "knower of the world" to be understood. 

"Matchless": Because he is unsurpassable, in the world, he is called 
"matchless". And again, because he is without an equal, because he is most 
excellent, because he is incomparable and because others cannot excel him, 
he is named "matchless". 3 

"Guide of men to be tamed" : There are three kinds of persons: a man 
hears the Law and quickly is able to expound it; another man elucidates the 
principles of causes and conditions ; and yet another makes clear the knowledge 
of past existences. But the Blessed One, having mastered the eightfold way of 



1. Cp. It. 38: Anupddisesa nibbdnadhdtu. 

2. Satta-loka, samkhdra-loka. — Cp. Sn.-a. II, 442: Sabbathd pi viditalokattd lokavidii, 
so hi sabhdvato samudayato nirodhato nirodhupdyato ti sabbathd khandhdyatanddibhedam 
samkhdralokarh avedi, 'eko loko sabbe sattd dhdrafthitikd, dve lokd ndmaft ca rupan ca, 
tayo lokd tisso vedand, cattdro lokd cattdro dhdrd, pafica lokd pane* updddnakkhandhd, cha 
lokd cha ajjhattikdni dyatandni, satta lokd satta viiindnatthitiyo, affha lokd atfha loka- 
dhammd, nava lokd nava sattdvdsd, dasa lokd dasa dyatandni, dvddasa lokd dvddasd- 
yatandni, atthdrasa lokd atthdrasa dhdtuyo 9 ti evam pi sabbathd samkhdralokarh avedi; 
sattdnam dsayam jdndti anusayam jdndti caritam jdndti adhimuttim jdndti, apparajakkhe 
mahdrajakkhe tikkhindriye svdkdre dvdkdre suvihndpaye duvihhdpaye bhabbe abhabbe 
satte jdndti ti sabbathd sattalokam avedi. 

3. Cp. Sn.-a. II, 443: Attano pana gunehi visifthatarassa kassaci abhavd anuttaro. 



144 Vimuttimagga 

emancipation, has tamed beings. Therefore, he is named "guide of men to be 
tamed". 1 

"Teacher of divine and human beings" : The Blessed One has rescued 
divine and human beings from the fearful forest of birth, decay and death. 
Therefore, he is called "teacher of divine and human beings". And again, 
he has taught the way of insight and the way of meditation, jhdna. Therefore, 
he is called "teacher of divine and human beings". Thus, in these ways should 
a man recall (the qualities) of him who comes and goes in the same way. 

Further, there is the teaching of the principal teacher: In four ways 
should the Blessed One be remembered. He came to the world for the last 
time by his own efforts in the past. He was endowed with excellent virtue. 
He benefitted the world. During twenty incalculable 2 aeons from his first 
aspiration to his last birth, he had seen the faculties and the bases of faculties of 
countless 3 number of commoners. Therefore, he pities the world thus: "I 
have attained to liberation; now, I should liberate these. I have tamed myself; 
now, I should tame these. I have gained knowledge; now, I should cause 
knowledge to arise in these. I have reached Nibbdna; now, I should cause 
these also to reach it". 4 

He has reached completion and contentment in the fulfilling of charity, 
virtue, renunciation, fortitude, truth, resolution, loving-kindness, equanimity, 
energy and wisdom. He revealed the birth stories of the time when he was a 
Bodhisatta, in order to encourage others to gain the light. He was born as a 
hare and practised charity. 5 One should recollect on virtue through the 
Sarhkhapala birth-story; 6 on renunciation, through the Maha-Govinda birth- 
story; 7 on fortitude, through the Khanti birth-story; 8 on truth, through the 
Maha Sutasoma birth-story; 9 on resolution, through the Dumb-Cripple's birth- 
story; 10 on loving-kindness, through the Sakka birth-story; 11 on equanimity, 
through the Lomaharhsa birth-story; 12 on energy, through the Chief of Mer- 
chants' birth-story; 13 (on wisdom), through the Deer birth-story. 14 One should 
also recollect on the word of the father in the Dighiti-Kosala birth-story 15 and 
one should recollect on the reverence of the White Six-tusked Elephant-sage. 16 



1. Cp. Sn.-a. II, 443: Vicitrehi vinayanupdyehi purisadamme sdreti ti purisadammasdrathi. 

2. Asankheyya. 3. Lit. 10,000,000,000,000. 
4. Cp. (a) It. 123: Danto damayatam settho 

santo samayatarh isi, 
tnutto mocayatam aggo 
tinno tdrayatam varo. 
(b) D. Ill, 54-5 : Buddho so Bhagavd bodhdya dhammam deseti, danto so Bhagavd 
damathdya dhammam deseti, santo so Bhagavd samathdya dhammam deseti, 
tinno so Bhagavd tarandya dhammam deseti, parinibbuto so Bhagavd parinibbd- 
ndya dhammam desetiti. 
5. J. No. 316, C. Pit. 82-3. 6. J. No. 524, C. Pit. 91. 

7. D. II, 230-251, C. Pit- 76. 8. J. No. 313. 

9. J. No. 537, C. Pit. 101-1. 10. Temiya J. No. 538, C. Pit. 96. 

11. J. No. 31. 12. Nidana-katha, p. 10, C. Pit. p. 102. 

13. Kuhaka J. No. 89, Seri Vanija J. No. 3. 14. J. No. 206 (?) 
15. J. No. 371. 16. J. No. 514. 



Subjects of Meditation 145 

Through the White-Horse birth-story 1 one should recollect the visit of the 
Bodhisatta to help all beings. One should recollect that the Bodhisatta forsook 
his own life and saved another's life in the Deer birth-story. 2 One should 
recollect that the Bodhisatta, in the (Great) Monkey birth-story, 3 saved a being 
from great suffering; and further one should remember that seeing a man who 
had fallen into a pit, he rescued him with heart of compassion and offered him 
roots, and fruits of trees and when that man, wishing to eat flesh, hurt the 
Bodhisatta's head, he taught that man the truth and pointed out the right road 
to him, in the Great Monkey birth-story. 4 Thus, one should concentrate 
on the merits of the birth-stories of the Blessed One in many ways. 

How should one recollect on the merits of the sacrifices of the Blessed One? 
The Blessed One fulfilled all things in his previous births. When he was 
young he removed the longing for all abodes. He removed the longing for 
child, wife, parents and friends. He forsook that which was hard to forsake. 
He lived alone in empty places. He aspired after Nibbdna. He crossed the 
Neranjara in Magadha. He sat under the Bodhi tree, conquered the king of 
death and the demon armies. In the first watch of the night, he remembered 
his past lives; in the middle watch of the night, he gained the divine eye; and 
in the last watch of the night, he understood sorrow and its cause and saw the 
excellent. 5 Through the practice of the Noble Eightfold Path, he was able 
to destroy the cankers and attain to Enlighenment. He removed his body 
from the world and entered the highest and purest place of the extinction of 
the cankers. Thus one should recollect the sacrifices of the Blessed One in 
many ways. 

How should one recollect the virtues with which the Blessed One was 
endowed? The Blessed One acquired emancipation and the state of mind 
that is together with it, thus : through being endowed with the ten powers of 
him who comes and goes in the same way, the fourteen kinds of Buddha- 
knowledge 6 and the eighteen Buddha- virtues; 7 through fulfilment of many 
meditations, jhdnas, and through reaching the further shore of freedom. Thus 
should the yogin recollect. 



1. J. No. 196. 2. J. No. 12. 

3. J. No. 407. 4. J. No. 516. 

5. M.I, 248-9: /// sdkdram sauddesam anekavihitam pubbenivdsam anussardmi. Ayam 
kho me Aggivessana rattiyd pathame ydme pafhamd vijjd adhigatd, avijja vihatd vijjd 
uppannd, tamo vihato dloko uppanno 

/// dibbena cakkhund visuddhena atikkantamdnusakena satte passdmi cavamdne upapajja- 
mdne hine panite suvanne dubbanne sugate duggate yathdkammupage satte pajdndmi. Ayam 
kho me Aggivessana rattiyd majjhime ydme dutiyd vijjd adhigatd, avijja vihatd vijjd uppannd, 
tamo vihato dloko upanno 

So idam dukkhanti yathdbhutam abbhanndsim, ayam dukkhasamudayoti yathdbhutam 
abbhanndsim, ayam dukkhanirodhoti yathabhiitam abbhanndsim, ayam dukkhanirodha- 

gdmini patipaddti yathdbhutam abbhanndsim ; khind jdti ndparam itthattdydti 

abbhanndsim. Ayam kho me Aggivessana rattiyd pacchime ydme tatiyd vijjd adhigatd, 
avijja vihatd vijjd uppannd, tamo vihato dloko uppanno, yathd tarn appamattassa dtdpino 
pahitattassa viharato. 

6. Lit. Buddhapannd. 7. Lit. Buddhadhammd. 



146 Vimuttimagga 

What are the ten powers of the Blessed One ? He knows the proper 
from the improper, according to reality; knows the causes and consequences 
of good actions of the past, future and present, according to reality; knows 
the various intentions of beings, according to reality; knows the various kinds 
of behaviour, according to reality ; knows the causes and consequences leading 
to the world of deities, humans and others, according to reality; knows the 
differences in the faculties of beings, according to reality; knows the pure and 
that which is with defilement in meditation (jhdna), emancipation, concentra- 
tion and attainment, according to reality; knows his past existences, according 
to reality; knows the passing away and the arising of beings, according to 
reality; knows the extinction of the cankers, according to reality. 1 The Blessed 
One is endowed with these ten powers. 

What are the fourteen kinds of Buddha-knowledge? They are, namely, 
knowledge of sorrow, knowledge of sorrow's cause, knowledge of sorrow's 
cessation, knowledge of the way, knowledge of the analysis of meaning, 
knowledge of the analysis of the law, knowledge of the analysis of derivation, 
knowledge of the analysis of argument, knowledge of the causes and consequ- 
ences leading to the world of deities, humans and others, knowledge of the 
differences in the faculties of beings, knowledge of the twin miracle, knowledge 
of the great thought of compassion, omniscience, and knowledge that is without 
the hindrances. These are the fourteen kinds of Buddha-knowledge. Thus is 
the Blessed One endowed with these fourteen kinds of knowledge. 2 

What are the eighteen virtues fulfilled by the Blessed One ? 3 Unobstructed 
Buddha-knowledge of the past; unobstructed Buddha-knowledge of the future; 
unobstructed Buddha-knowledge of the present; all bodily actions are led by 
knowledge and appear in accord with it; all verbal actions are led by 
knowledge and appear in accord with it; all mental actions are led by 
knowledge and appear in accord with it — these six virtues has the Blessed 
One fulfilled. Non-impairment of the will; non-impairment of energy; non- 
impairment of mindfulness; non-impairment of concentration; non-impair- 
ment of wisdom; non-impairment of freedom — these twelve virtues has the 
Blessed One fulfilled. Absence of uncertainty ; absence of deception; absence 
of that which is not clear; absence of hurry; absence of state that is not 
known; absence of equanimity that is removed from reflection. 



1. Cp. Pts. II, 175-6; S. V, 304-6: Thdndthdna-, kammavipdka-, ndnddhimutti-, ndnddhdtu-, 
sabbatthagdmini-patipadd-, indriyaparopariyatti-, jhdnavimokkhasamddhi-samdpattisam- 
kilesavoddnavut{hdna-, pubbenivdsdnussati-, cutupapdta-, dsavakkhaya- nana. 

2. Cp. Pts. I, 3, 133: Dukkhe-, dukkha-samudaye-, dukkha-nirodhe-, dukkhanirodhagdminiyd 
patipaddya-, atthapatisambhide-, dhammapatisambhide-, niruttipatisambhide-, patibhdna- 
patisambhide-, indriyaparopariyatte-, sattdnam dsaydnusaye-, yamakapdtihire-, mahd- 
karundsamdpattiyd-, sabbannuta-, andvarana- ndnam. 

3. (a) Lai. V. 183, 343 : Atitamse, andgamse, paccuppannamse, buddhassa bhagavato appatihatam 
ndnarh. Sabbam kdya kammam, sabbam vaci kammam, sabbam mano kammam ndnapub- 
bangamam hdndnuparivattam. Natthi chandassa hdni, natthi dhammadesandya hdni, natthi 
viriyassa hdni, natthi samddhissa hdni, natthi pahhdya hdni, natthi vimuttiyd hdni, natthi davd, 
natthi ravd, natthi apphutam, natthi vegayittatam, natthi abydvatamano, natthi appatisankhd- 
nupekkhd — (Afthdrasa- asddhdrana-dvenika Buddhagund). See Mil. 105, 285. 



Subjects of Meditation 147 

"Absence of uncertainty" means: "His bearing is dignified; there is 
nothing unseemly in his action". 

"Absence of deception" means: "He has no craftiness". 
"Absence of that which is not clear" means: "That there is nothing that 
his knowledge cannot sense". 

"Absence of hurry" means : "His behaviour is free from hurry". 

"Absence of state that is not known" means: "He is completely aware 
of his mental processes". 

"Absence of equanimity that is removed from reflection" means: "There 
is no state of equanimity in him of which he is not aware". 

These eighteen virtues has the Blessed One fulfilled. 1 

And again, the Blessed One has reached the other shore with facility 
having fulfilled all good through the skilfulness belonging to him who comes 
and goes in the same way, 2 through the four foundations of mindfulness, 
through the four right efforts, through the four bases of supernormal power, 
through the five faculties, the five powers, the six kinds of supernormal 
knowledge, the seven factors of enlightenment, through the Noble Eightfold 
Path, through the eight positions of mastery, through the eight kinds of 
emancipation, through the nine gradually ascending states, through the ten 
Ariyan abodes and through the way of analytical science. Thus one should 
recall to mind that Blessed One who has acquired the merits of the Excellent 
Law through these ways. 

How should one remember the benefits with which the Blessed One has 
blessed the world? The Blessed One has fulfilled all merits and has reached 
the further shore. No other being could have turned the Wheel, of the Law 
which the Blessed One set a-rolling out of compassion for all beings. Without 
making an esoteric and an exoteric division of doctrine, he has opened wide 
the gate of the immortal. 3 He has caused an incalculable number of deities 
and humans to acquire the fruit of holiness. He has caused an incalculable 



(b) Sv. 111,994: Atthdrasa Buddhadhammd ndma: N'atthi Tathdgatassa kdya-duccaritarh, 
rCatthi vaci-duccaritarh, riatthi mano-duccaritarh: atlte Buddhassa appatihatam hdnam, 

andgate , paccuppanne Buddhassa appatihatam hdnam: sabbarh kdya-kammam 

Buddhassa Bhagavato hdndnuparivatti, sabbarh vaci-kammam , sabbarh mano-kammarh 

Buddhassa Bhagavato hdndnuparivatti: riatthi chandassa hdni, riatthi viriyassa hdni, riatthi 
satiyd hdni: ri'atthi davd, riatthi ravd, riatthi balitam, ri'atthi sahasd, ri'atthi avydvafo 
mano, riatthi akusala-cittan ti. 

(c) M.Vyut: Atite'dhvany asahgamapratihatarhjhdnadharsanampravartate. Andgate-. 
Pratyutpanne-. Sarvakayakarmajhdnapurvamgamam jhdndnuparivarti. Sarvavdkkarma-. 
Sarvamanaskarma- . Ndsti chandasya hdnih: ndsti viriyasya hdnih; ndsti smrter hdnih; ndsti 
samddher hdnih; ndsti prajhdya hdnih; ndsti vimukter hdnih; ndsti skalitam; ndsti ndndtva 
sarhjhd; ndsty-asamdhitacittarh; ndsti ravitam; ndsti musitasmrtita; ndsty-apratisamkhiyd- 
yopeksd. 

1. The last six are not exactly according to the Pali or the Sanskrit. Here the text is not 
quite clear. 

2. M. I, 71 : Cattdrimdni Sdriputta Tathdgatassa vesdrajjdni. Cp. Vis. Mag. 524. 

3. D. II, 39: Apdrutd tesarh amatassa dvdrd. 



148 Vimuttimagga 

number of beings to acquire merit with the three miracles, namely, the miracle 
of supernormal power, the miracle of mind reading and the miracle of 
instruction. 1 He has aroused confidence in the hearts of men. He has 
overthrown all soothsaying and all false views. He has obliterated the bad 
road and opened the good road and made men to acquire the fruit of liberation 
or birth in the heaven world. He has caused his hearers to obtain peace and 
dwell in the law of the hearer. 2 He has set down many precepts, preached 
the PdHmokkha, established beings in excellent merit, given them the perfect 
teaching of the Enlightened One and filled the world full (with the Truth). 
All beings worship and honour him, and all deities and humans hear him. 

Thus the Blessed One, who dwells unperturbed, has compassionated and 
benefitted the world, has done what should be done. 

That yogin recollects him who comes and goes in the same way, thus: 
Through these ways and these virtues, he arouses confidence in his mind. 
Being full of confidence and being easy in the recollection, his mind is always 
undisturbed. Because of his mind being undisturbed, he attains to access- 
meditation. 

Q. How is it that one who meditates on the Buddha attains to access 
and not to fixed meditation, jh ana ? 

A. In the highest sense, the virtue of the Buddha is a subject of profound 
wisdom. In this sense the yogin cannot attain to fixed meditation, jhdna, 
owing to abstruseness. And again, he has to recollect not merely one virtue. 
When he thinks on many virtues he cannot attain to fixed meditation, jhdna. 
This is a subject of meditation of all access-concentration. 

Q. Access is attained through concentration on a single object. If he 
thinks on many virtues, his mind is not concentrated. How then does he 
gain access? 

A. If he recollects the virtues of him who comes and goes in the same 
way and of the Enlightened One, the yogin' s mind becomes concentrated. 
Therefore, he is untroubled. 

Again it is taught that from the recollection of the Buddha, the four 
meditations, jhdnas, arise. 3 

The recollection of the Buddha has ended. 



1. D. I, 212 ff.; Ill, 220: Tini pdtihdriydni. Iddhi-pdtihdriyam, ddesand-pafihariyam, anusdsani- 

pdtihdriyam. Ime kho dvuso term Bhagavatd jdnatd passatd tayo dhammd sammad- 

akkhdtd. Tattha sabheh 'eva sarhgdyitabbarh na vivaditabbarh . . . .pe . . . . atthdya hitdya 
sukhdya deva-manussdnarii. 

2. Sdvaka-dhamma. 

3. A. Ill, 285: Yasmirh Mahdndma samaye ariyasdvako Tathdgatarh anussarati, nev* assa 
tasmim samaye rdgapariyutthitam cittam hoti, na dosapariyufthitam cittam hoti, na moha- 
pariyutthitam cittam hoti, ujugatam ev' assa tasmim samaye cittam hoti Tathdgatarh drabbha. 
Ujugaiacitto kho pana Mahdndma ariyasdvako labhati atthavedam, labhati dhammavedam, 
labhati dhammupasarhhitam pdmujjam, pamuditassa phi jdyati, pitimanassa kayo passam- 



Subjects of Meditation 149 

THE RECOLLECTION OF THE LAW 

Q. What is the recollection of the Law? What is the practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What is the 
procedure ? 

A. The Law means extinction, Nibbdna, or the practice by means of 
which extinction, Nibbdna, is reached. The destruction of all activity, the 
abandoning of all defilements, the eradication of craving, the becoming stainless 
and tranquillized — these are called extinction, Nibbdna. What are the 
practices leading to extinction, Nibbdnal Namely, the four foundations of 
mindfulness, the four right efforts, the five powers, the seven factors of 
enlightenment, the Noble Eightfold Path — these are called the practices 
leading to Nibbdna. The recollection of the Law is the virtue of renunciation 
and the virtue of the Way. This recollection is recollectedness and right 
recollectedness. Thus is recollection of the Law to be understood. The 
undisturbed dwelling of the mind (in this recollection) is the practising of it. 
The awareness of the virtues of the Law is its salient characteristic. Analysis 
of the Law is its function. The understanding of the meaning is its near 
cause. Its benefits are equal to those of the recollection of the Buddha. 

"What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude 
and keeps his mind undisturbed. With undisturbed mind, he recollects thus : 
The Law is well-taught by the Blessed One, is visible, not subject to time, 
inviting, conducive to perfection, to be attained by the wise, each one for 
himself. 1 

"The Law is well-taught by the Blessed One" : It is free from extremes, 2 
therefore it is called "well-taught". There are no inconsistencies in it, there- 
fore it is called "well-taught". There are no contradictions in it and it is 
endowed with the three kinds of goodness, therefore it is called "well-taught". 
It is completely spotless, therefore it is called "well-taught". It leads beings 
to extinction, Nibbdna, wherefore it is called "well-taught". 

"Visible": Because one gains the Paths and the Fruits in succession, it is 
called "visible". Because one sees extinction, Nibbdna, and the (other) Fruits 
of the Path, it is called "visible". 

"Not subject to time": Without lapse of time fruition occurs. Therefore, 
it is called "not subject to time". 



bhati, passaddhakdyo sukham vediyati, sukhino cittarii samadhiyati. (= Pamuditassd ti 
duvidhena pitipdmujjena pamuditassa; piti jdyati ti pancavidhd phi nibbattati; kayo 
passambhati ti ndmakdyo ca karajakayo ca darathapatippassadhiyd patippassambhati; 
sukhan ti kdyikacetasikam sukham; samadhiyati ti arammane samma thapitam hoti. — 
Corny. (Mp.) Ill, 337.). 

1. S. II, 69; A. I, 207; D. Ill, 5: Savdkkhdto Bhagavatd Dhammo sanditthiko akdliko 
ehi-passiko opanayiko paccattam veditabbo vinhuhiti. 

2. Vin. I, 10; S. V, 421 : Dve me bhikkhave antd pabbajitena na sevitabbd. Katame dvel 

Yo cay am kdmesu kdmasukhallikdmiyogo hino gammo pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasamhito. 
Yo cay am attakilamathanuyogo dukkho anariyo anatthasamhito. Ete te bhikkhave 
ubho ante anupagamma majjhimd patipadd Tathdgatena abhisambuddhd .... 



150 Vimuttimagga 

"Inviting": It says: "Come and see my worth!". In the same way ? 
those who have the ability to teach are called men who say "Come and see!" # 

"Conducive to perfection": If a man acknowledges it, he will reach the 
immortal. Such is that which is "conducive to perfection". What leads to 
the fruition of holiness is called that which is "conducive to perfection". 

"To be attained by the wise, each one for himself" : If a man acknowledges 
it and does not accept other teachings, he causes the arising of the know, edge 
of cessation, the knowledge of the unborn and the knowledge of free dom. 
Therefore, it is called that which is "to be attained by the wise, each one for 
himself". 

Further, the yogin should recollect the Law in other ways thus : It is the 
eye; it is knowledge; it is peace; it is the way leading to the immortal; it is 
renunciation; it is the expedience whereby cessation is won; it is the way to 
the ambrosial; it is non-retrogression; it is the best; it is non-action, solitude, 
exquisiteness. It is not soothsaying. It is the most excellent object for the 
wise man's mind. It is to cross over to the other shore; it is the place of 
refuge. That yogin in these ways and through these virtues recollects the 
Law, and his mind is filled with confidence. On account of this confidence, 
his mind is undisturbed. Because of the undisturbed state of the mind, he 
destroys the hindrances, arouses the meditation, (jhdna) factors and dwells 
in access-concentration. The rest is as was fully taught above. 

TJie recollection of the Law has ended. 



THE RECOLLECTION OF THE COMMUNITY OF BHIKKHUS 

Q. What is the recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus? (What is 
the practising of it?) What are its salient characteristic, function and near 
cause? What is the procedure? 

A. The congregation of the saints is the Community of Bhikkhus. This 
is called the Community of Bhikkhus. The yogin recollects the virtue of the 
observances of the Community of Bhikkhus. This recollection is recollected- 
ness and right recollectedness. Such is the recollection of the Community of 
Bhikkhus to be understood. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this 
recollection is the practising of it. Awareness of the virtues of the Community 
of Bhikkhus is its salient characteristic ; reverence is its function ; appreciation 
of the virtues of the Community of Bhikkhus is its near cause. Its benefits 
are equal to those of the recollection of the Buddha. 

"What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude 
and keeps his mind undisturbed. With undisturbed mind, he recollects thus: 
The Community of Hearers of the Blessed One is of good conduct, the Commu- 
nity of Hearers of the Blessed One is of upright conduct, the Community of 
Hearers of the Blessed One is of righteous conduct, the Community of 



subjects of Meditation 151 

Hearers of the Blessed One is of dutiful conduct. This Community of Hearers 
of the Blessed One, namely, the four pairs of men and the eight kinds of indi- 
viduals, is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy 
of reverential salutation, is the incomparable field of merit of the world. 1 

"The Community of Hearers of the Blessed One is of good conduct": 
The Community of Hearers of the Blessed One is of "good conduct", because 
it follows the good word. It is of "good conduct" and "upright conduct", 
because it benefits itself and others. It is of "good conduct" and "upright 
conduct" because it has no enemy. It is of "good conduct" and "upright 
conduct" because it avoids the two extremes and takes the mean. It is of 
"good conduct" and "upright conduct", because it is free from hypocrisy. It 
is "good conduct", because it is free from wickedness and crookedness and 
free from unclean action of body and speech. 

"Is of righteous conduct": It is of "righteous conduct" because it follows 
the Noble Eightfold Path. And again, "righteous" is an appellation of extinc- 
tion, Nibbdna. It is of "righteous", "good conduct", because it follows the 
Noble Eightfold Path and reaches extinction, Nibbdna. It is of "righteous", 
"good conduct", because it follows the Four Noble Truths taught by the 
Buddha. 

"Is of dutiful conduct" : It is of "dutiful conduct" because it is perfect 
in the practice of unity in the Community of Bhikkhus. It is of "dutiful 
conduct", because, seeing the great fruit of virtue and the increase of virtue 
which follow the practice of unity, it observes this (unity). 

"The four pairs of men and the eight kinds of individuals": The Path 
and the Fruit of Stream-entrance are regarded as the attainments of a pair of 
men. The Path and the Fruit of Once-returning are regarded as the attainment 
of a pair of men. The Path and Fruit of Non-returning are regarded as the 
attainments of a pair of men. The Path and Fruit of the Consummate One 
are regarded as the attainments of a pair of men. These are called "the four 
pairs of men". 

"The eight kinds of individuals" are they who gain the four Paths and 
the four Fruits. These are called the eight kinds of individuals. Because 
the Community of Bhikkhus dwells in these Paths and Fruits, it is said to consist 
of the four pairs of men. Those who dwell in the four Paths and the four 
Fruits are called the eight kinds of individuals. 

"Hearers": It (the Community of hearers) accomplishes after having 
heard. Therefore it is called (the Community of) hearers. 

"Community": The congregation of saints. It is worthy of hospitality, 



1. S. II, 69; A, I, 208; D. Ill, 5: Supatipanno Bhagavato savaka-samgho uju-patipanno 
Bhagavato savaka-samgho, haya-patipanno Bhagavato savaka-samgho, samici-patipanno 
Bhagavato savaka-samgho, yadidam cattdri purisayugani attha-purisa-puggald, esa Bhaga- 
vato savaka-samgho dhuneyyo pahuneyyo dakkhineyyo anjali-karariiyo anuttaram punna- 
kkhettam lokassdti. 



152 Vimuttimagga 

worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of reverential salutation, and is 
the imcomparable field of merit of the world. 

"Worthy of hospitality" : Worthy of hospitality means worthy of receiving 
invitations. 

"Worthy of offerings" : Great is the fruit that could be obtained through 
offerings made to it. And again, it is worthy of receiving offerings. 

"Worthy of gifts: One acquires great fruit by gifting various things to it. 

"Worthy of reverential salutation" : It is fit to receive worship. Therefore 
it is called worthy of reverential salutation. 

"Incomparable": It is possessed of many virtues. Therefore it is called 
incomparable. 

"Field of merit of the world": This is the place where all beings acquire 
merit. Therefore it is called the field of merit of the world. 

And again, the yogin should recollect through other ways thus: This 
Community of Bhikkhus is the congregation that is most excellent and good. 
It is called the best. It is endowed with virtue, concentration, wisdom, 
freedom and the knowledge of freedom. That yogin recollects these various 
virtues in different ways. Through this recollection of the various virtues, 
he becomes confident. Owing to the recollection of confidence, his mind is 
undisturbed. With undisturbed mind he is able to destroy the hindrances, 
arouse the meditation (jhdna) factors and attain to access. The rest is as was 
fully taught above. 

The recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus has ended. 

THE RECOLLECTION OF VIRTUE 

Q. What is the recollection of virtue? What is the practising of it. What 
are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What is the procedure? 

A. Through virtue one recollects pure morals. This recollectedness 
is recollection and right recollectedness. Thus should the recollection of virtue 
be understood. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in the recollection of 
virtue is the practising of it. Awareness of the merit of virtue is its salient 
characteristic. To see the fearfulness of tribulation is its function. Appreci- 
ation of the unsurpassable happiness (of virtue) is its near cause. Twelve 
are the benefits of the recollection of virtue thus : One honours the Teacher, 
esteems the Law, and the Community of Bhikkhus, respects the precepts of 
virtue, esteems offerings, becomes heedful, sees danger in and fears the smallest 
fault, 1 guards oneself, protects others, has no fear of this world, has no fear 
of the other world and enjoys the many benefits accruing from the observance 
of all precepts. These are the benefits of the recollection of virtue. 



1. D. I, 63: Anumattesu vajjesu bhaya-dassdvi. 



Subjects of Meditation 153 

"What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude 
and keeps his mind undisturbed. With this undisturbed mind, he recollects 
thus: "My virtue is unbroken, indefective, unspotted, unblemished, liberating, 
praised by the wise, untainted, conducive to concentration". 1 

If unbroken, they are indefective. If indefective, they are unspotted. 
The others should be known in the same way. 

Again, because when virtue is pure, they become the resorting-ground of 
all good states, they come to be called "unbroken and indefective". As they 
constitute the honour of caste, they are called unspotted and unblemished. 
As they constitute the joy of the Consummate One, and bear no tribulation, 
they are called "praised by the wise". As they are untouched by views, they 
are called "untainted". As they lead to sure stations, they are called "conducive 
to concentration". 

Further, the yogin should practise recollection of virtue in other ways 
thinking thus: "Virtue is the bliss of separation from tribulation. This 
caste is worthy of honour. The treasure of virtue is secure. Its benefits 
have already been taught". Thus should virtue be understood. That yogin 
practises recollection of virtue considering its merits through these ways. 
Owing to his recollectedness and confidence, his mind is not disturbed. With 
this undisturbed mind he destroys the hindrances, arouses the meditation 
(jhdna) factors and attains to access-meditation. The rest is as was fully 
taught above. 

The recollection of virtue has ended. 

THE RECOLLECTION OF LIBERALITY 

Q. What is the Recollection of liberality? What is the practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What is the 
procedure ? 

A. Liberality means that one gives one's wealth to others wishing to 
benefit them, and in order to derive the happiness of benefitting others. Thus 
is liberality to be understood. One dwells indifferent in the recollection of 
the virtue of liberality. This recollectedness is recollection and right recol- 
lectedness. This is called recollection of liberality. The undisturbed 
dwelling of the mind in this recollection is the practising of it. Awareness 
of the merit of liberality is its salient characteristic. Non-miserliness is its 
function. Non-covetousness is its near cause. 

A man who practises the recollection of liberality gains ten benefits thus : 
He gains bliss through liberality; he becomes non-covetous through liberality; 



1. A. Ill, 286: Puna ca param Mahanama ariyasdvako attano silani anussarati akhanddni 
acchidddni asabaldni akammdsdni bhujissdni vihhupasatthdni apardmatthdni samddhisam- 
vattanikdni. 



154 Vimuttimagga 

he is not miserly, thinks of others, becomes dear to others, does not fear in 
others' company, has much joy, acquires the compassionate mind, fares well 
and approaches the ambrosial. 

"What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude 
and keeps his mind undisturbed. With undisturbed mind he practises recol- 
lection of liberality thus: "Through abandoning things I have benefitted 
others; therefrom I have gained much merit. The vulgar, by reason of the 
dirt of covetousness, are drawn to things. I live with mind non-coveting 
and not unclean. Always I give and enjoy giving to others. Always I give 
and distribute". 1 

That yogin in these ways practises the recollection of liberality. Through 
the recollection of liberality his mind is endowed with confidence. Because of 
this recollection and confidence, his mind is always undisturbed. With 
undisturbed mind he destroys the hindrances, arouses the meditation (jhdna) 
factors and attains to access-concentration. The rest is as was fully taught 
above. 

The recollection of liberality lias ended. 

THE RECOLLECTION OF DEITIES 

Q. What is the recollection of deities? What is the practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What is the 
procedure? ...... 

A. Considering the benefit of birth in a heaven, one recollects one's own 
merits. This recollectedness is recollection and right recollectedness. This 
is called recollection of deities. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in 
this recollection is the practising of it. Awareness of one's own merits and 
the merits of the deities is its salient characteristic. To admire merit is its 
function. Confidence in the fruit of merit is its near cause. 

A man who practises the recollection of deities gains eight benefits : he 
increases five qualities, namely, confidence, virtue, learning, liberality and 
wisdom; he can gain that which heavenly beings desire and to which they 
are devoted; he is happy in the anticipation of the reward of merit; he honours 
his body; he is reverenced by heavenly beings. Through this, he is able to 
practise virtue and recollection of liberality also. He fares well and approaches 
the ambrosial. 

"What is the procedure?" : The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and 
keeps his mind undisturbed. With undisturbed mind he practises the recollection 
of deities thinking thus: "There are the Four Regents. There are the deities 



1. A. Ill, 287; Puna ca pararh Mahdndma ariyasdvako attano cdgam anussarati Hdbhd vata 
me suladdham vata me, yd* ham maccheramalapariyutthitdya pajdya vigatamalamaccherena 
cetasd agdram ajjhdvasami muttacdgo payatapdni vossaggarato ydcayogo ddnasarhvibhd- 
garato' ti. 



Subjects of Meditation 155 

of Tdvatimsa, Ydma, Tusita, Nimmdnarati, Paranimmitavasavatti heavens. 
There are the Brahma-group deities and other deities. Those deities, being 
endowed with such confidence, on dying here, were born there. I too have 
such confidence. Endowed with such virtue, such learning, such liberality 
and such wisdom, those deities were born there. I too have such wisdom". 1 
Thus he recollects his own and the deities' confidence, virtue, learning, liberality 
and wisdom. 

That yogin in these ways and through these virtues practises the 
recollection of deities, and is thereby endowed with confidence. Owing to 
confidence and recollectedness, his mind is undisturbed. With undisturbed 
mind he destroys the hindrances, arouses the meditation (jhdna) factors and 
attains to access-meditation. 

Q. Why does one recollect the merit of deities and not of humans? 

A. The merit of the deities is the most excellent. They are born in 
excellent realms and are endowed with excellent minds. Having entered a 
good realm, they are endowed with good. Therefore one should recollect 
the merit of the deities and not the merits of men. The rest is as was fully 
taught above. 

The recollection of deities has ended. 

The sixth fascicle has ended. 



A. TIT, 287; Puna ca pararh Mahdnama ariyasdvako devatdnussatim bhdveti ''santi devd 
Cdtummahdrdjikd, santi devd Tdvatimsa, santi devd Ydma, sand devd Tusita, santi devd 
Nimmdnaratino, santi devd Paranimmitavasavattino, santi devd Brahmakdyikd, santi devd 
Taduttari; yathdrupdya saddhdya samanndgatd td devatd ito cuta tattha uppannd, mayham 
pi tathdrupa saddhd samvijjati; yathdrupena silena samanndgatd td devatd ito cuta tattha 
uppannd, mayham pi tathdrupam silam samvijjati; yathdrupena sutena samanndgatd td 
devatd tato cuta tattha uppannd, mayham pi tathdrupam sutam samvijjati; yathdrupena 
cagena samanndgatd td devatd ito cuta tattha uppannd, mayham pi tathdrupo cdgo 
samvijjati; yathdrupdya pahhdya samanndgatd td devatd ito cuta tattha uppannd, mayham 
pi tathdrupa pannd samvijjatV ti. 



[418] THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE SEVENTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 

CHAPTER THE EIGHTH 

Section Four 

MINDFULNESS OF RESPIRATION 

Q. What is mindfulness of respiration? 1 What is the practising of it? 
What are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? .What are its 
benefits? What is the procedure? 

A. Inhalation 2 is the incoming breath. Exhalation 3 is the outgoing 
breath. The perceiving of the incoming breath and the outgoing breath — this 
is being mindful, mindfulness and right mindfulness. The undisturbed 
dwelling of the mind (in this mindfulness) is the practising of it. To cause 
the arising of perception as regards respiration is its salient characteristic. 
Attending to contact 4 is its function. Removal of discursive thought 5 is its 
near cause. 

BENEFITS 

"What are its benefits?": If a man practises mindfulness of respiration, he 
attains to the peaceful, the exquisite, the lovely, and the blissful life. He causes 
evil and demeritorious states to disappear and to perish as soon as they arise. 6 
He is not negligent as regards his body or his organ of sight. His body and 
mind do not waver or tremble. 7 He fulfils the four foundations of mindfulness, 
the seven enlightenment factors and freedom. This has been praised by the 



1. Anapanasati. _ 2. Ana. 3. Apdna. 4. Phassa. 5. Vitakka. 

6. S. V, 321-22: Anapanasati samadhi bhdvito bahulikato santo ceva panito ca asecanako 
ca sukho ca vihdro uppannupanne ca pdpake akusale dhamme thanaso antaradhdpeti 
vilpasameti. 

7. S. V, 316: Andpdnasatisamddhissa bhikkhave bhavitatta bahulikatattd neva kdyassa 
ihjitattam vd hoti phanditattam vd na cittassa ihjitattam vd hoti phanditattarh vd. 

156 



Subjects of Meditation 157 

Blessed One. This is the abode of the Noble Ones, of Brahma and of the 
Tathagata. 1 

PROCEDURE 

"What is the procedure?" : The new yogin having gone to a forest, to the 
foot of a tree or to a wide open space, sits down, with legs crossed under him, 
with the body held erect, with mindfulness established in front. He is mindful 
in respiration. Mindful of the outgoing breath, that yogin knows, when he 
breathes out a long breath: "I breathe out a long breath"; [430] when he 
breathes in a long breath, he knows: "I breathe in a long breath"; when he 
breathes in a short breath, he knows: "I breathe in a short breath"; when 
he breathes out a short breath, he knows: "I breathe out a short breath". 
Thus he knows. "I am breathing in, in such and such a way", thus he trains 
himself. "I am breathing out, in such and such a way", thus he trains himself. 
(Experiencing the whole body; calming the bodily formations), experiencing 
joy, experiencing bliss, experiencing the mental formations, calming the mental 
formations, (experiencing the mind), gladdening the mind, concentrating the 
mind, freeing the mind, discerning impermanence, discerning dispassion, 
discerning cessation, discerning renunciation, thus he trains himself. 
"Discerning renunciation, I breathe out in such and such a way", thus he 
trains himself; "discerning renunciation, I breathe in, in such and such a way", 
thus he trains himself. 2 

Here, he trains himself in "breathing in" means: "mindfulness is fixed 
at the nose-tip or on the lip". 3 These are the places connected with breathing 



1. S. V, 326: Andpdnasatisamddhim sammdvadamdno vadeyya ariyavihdro iti pi brahma- 

vihdro iti pi tathdgatavihdro iti pi ti. 

2. S. V, 311-12: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu arahhagato vd rukkhamiilagato vd suhhdgdragato 
yd nisidati pallankam dbhujitvd ujum kdyarh panidhdya parimukham satim upafthapetvd 
so sato va assasati sato passasati. 

Digham vd assasanto digham assasdmiti pajdndti, digham vd passasanto digham 
passasdmiti pajdndti. Rassam vd assasanto rassarh assasdmiti pajdndti, rassam vd 
passasanto rassam passasdmiti pajdndti. 

Sabbakdyapatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati, sabbakdyapatisamvedi passasissdmiti 
sikkhati. Passambhayam kdyasankhdram assasissdmiti sikkhati, passambhayam kdyasan- 
khdram passasissdmiti sikkhati. 

Pitipatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati, pitipatisamvedi passasissdmiti sikkhati. 
Sukhapatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati, sukhapatisamvedi passasissdmiti sikkhati. 

Cittasankhdrapatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati, cittasankhdrapatisamvedi passa- 
sissdmiti sikkhati. Passambhayam cittasankhdram assasissdmiti sikkhati, passambhayam 
cittasankhdram passasissdmiti sikkhati. Cittapatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati, 
cittapatisamvedi passasissdmiti sikkhati. 

Abhippamodayam cittam assasissdmiti sikkhati, abhippamodayam cittam passasis- 
sdmiti sikkhati. Samddaham cittam assasissdmiti sikkhati, samddaham cittam passasis- 
sdmiti sikkhati. Vimocayam cittam assasissdmiti sikkhati, vimocayam cittam passasis- 
sdmiti sikkhati. 

Aniccdnupassi assasissdmiti sikkhati, aniccdnupassi passasissdmiti sikkhati. Vird- 
gdnupassi assasissdmiti sikkhati, virdgdnupassi passasissdmiti sikkhati. Nirodhdnupassi 
assasissdmiti sikkhati, nirodhdnupassi passasissdmiti sikkhati. Pafinissaggdnupassi 
assasissdmiti sikkhati, patinissaggdnupassi passasissdmiti sikkhati. 

3. Mp. Ill, 202; Spk. I, 238: Parimukham satim upatthapetvd ti, kammatfhdn' dbhimukham 
satim thapayitvd, mukha-samipe vd katvd ti attho. Ten'* eva Vibhange, li ayam sati upatthitd 
hoti supaffhitd ndsik 9 agge vd mukha-nimitte vd. Tena vuccati parimukham satim upattha- 
petvd" (Vbh. 252) ti. 



158 Vimuttimagga 

in and breathing out. That yogin attends to the incoming breath here. He 
considers the contact of the incoming and the outgoing breath, through 
mindfulness that is fixed at the nose-tip or on the lip. Mindfully, he breathes 
in; mindfully, he breathes out. He does not consider (the breath) when it 
has gone in and also when it has gone out. 1 He considers the contact of the 
incoming breath and the outgoing breath, at the nose-tip or on the lip, with 
mindfulness. He breathes in and breathes out with mindfulness. It is as if a 
man were sawing wood. That man does not attend to the going back and forth 
of the saw. In the same way the yogin does not attend to the perception of 
the incoming and the outgoing breath in mindfulness of respiration. He is 
aware of the contact at the nose-tip or on the lip, and he breathes in and out, 
with mindfulness. 2 If, when the breath comes in or goes out, the yogin considers 
the inner or the outer, his mind will be distracted. If his mind is distracted, 
his body and mind will waver and tremble. These are the disadvantages. He 
should not purposely breathe very long or very short breaths. If he purposely 
breathes very long or very short breaths, his mind wilt be distracted and his 
body and mind will waver and tremble. These are the disadvantages. 

He should not attach himself to diverse perceptions connected with breath- 
ing in and breathing out. If he does so, his other mental factors will be disturb- 
ed. If his mind is disturbed, his body and mind will waver and tremble. 
Thus countless impediments arise because the points of contact of the incoming 
breath and the outgoing breath are countless. He should be mindful and 
should not let the mind be distracted. He should not essay too strenuously 
nor too laxly. If he essays too laxly, he will fall into rigidity and torpor. If 
he essays too strenuously, he will become restless. If the yogin falls into 
rigidity and torpor or becomes restless, his body and mind will waver and 
tremble. 3 These are the disadvantages. 

To the yogin who attends to the incoming breath with mind that is cleansed 
of the nine lesser defilements the image 4 arises with a pleasant feeling similar 
to that which is produced in the action of spinning cotton or silk cotton. Also, 



1. Cp. Pts. 165: Assdsddimajjhapariyosdnam satiya anugacchato ajjhat tarn vikkhepagatena 
cittena kayo pi cittarh pi sdraddhd ca honti ifijitd ca phanditd ca, passdsddimajjhapariyosdnam 
satiya anugacchato bahiddhd vikkhepagatena cittena kayo pi. . . .pe. . . .phanditd ca. 

2. Cp. Pts. I, 171 : Seyyathdpi rukkho same bhumibhdge nikkhitto, tamenam puriso kakacena 
chindeyya, rukkhe phutthakakacadantdnam vasena purisassa sati upatthitd hoti, na agate 
vd gate vd kakacadante manasikaroti, na agatd vd gatd vd kakacadantd aviditd honti, 
padhdnah ca pahhdyati, payogan ca sddheti, visesam adhigacchati: Yathd rukkho same 
bhumibhdge nikkhitto, evam upanibandhand nimittam, yathd kakacadantd evarh assdsa- 
passasd, yathd rukkhe phutthakakacadantdnam vasena purisassa sati upatthitd hoti, na 
agate vd gate vd kakacadante manasikaroti, na agatd vd gatd vd kakacadantd aviditd 
honti, padhdnah ca pahhdyati, payogan ca sddheti, visesam adhigacchati — evamevarh 
bhikkhu ndsikagge vd mukhanimitte vd satim upatthapetvd nisinno hoti, na agate vd gate 
vd assdsapassdse manasikaroti na agatd vd gatd vd assdsapassdsd aviditd honti, padhdnah ca 
panndyati, payogan ca sddheti, visesam adhigacchati. 

3. Pts. I, 166: Linena cittena kosajjdnupatitena kayo pi cittarh pi sdraddhd ca honti ihjitd ca 
phanditd ca, atipaggahitena cittena uddhaccdnupatitena kayo pi. . . .pe. . . .phanditd ca. 

4. Nimitta. 



Subjects of Meditation 159 

it is likened to the pleasant feeling produced by a breeze. 1 Thus in breathing 
in and out, air touches the nose or the lip and causes the setting-up of air per- 
ception mindfulness. This does not depend on colour or form. 2 This is 
called the image. If the yogin develops the image and increases it at the nose-tip, 
between the eye-brows, on the forehead or establishes it in several places, 3 
he feels as if his head were filled with air. Through increasing in this way his 
whole body is charged with bliss. This is called perfection. 

And again, there is a yogin: he sees several images from the beginning. 
He sees various forms such as smoke, mist, dust, sand of gold, or he experiences 
something similar to the pricking of a needle or to an ant's bite. If his mind 
does not become clear regarding these different images, he will be confused. 
Thus he fulfils overturning and does not gain the perception of respiration. 
If his mind becomes clear, the yogin does not experience confusion. He 
attends to respiration and he does not cause the arising of other perceptions. 
Meditating thus he is able to end confusion and acquire the subtle image. 
And he attends to respiration with mind that is free. That image is free. 
Because that image is free, desire arises. Desire being free, that yogin attends 
to respiration and becomes joyful. Desire and joy being free, he attends to 
respiration with equipoise. Equipoise, desire and joy being free, he attends 
to respiration, and his mind is not disturbed. If his mind is not disturbed, 
he will destroy the hindrances, and arouse the meditation (jhdna) factors. 
Thus this yogin will reach the calm and sublime fourth meditation, jhdna. 
This is as was fully taught above. 

COUNTING, CONNECTION, CONTACTING AND FIXING 

And again, certain predecessors 4 taught four ways of practising mindful- 
ness of respiration. They are counting, connection, contacting and fixing. 5 
Q. What is counting? A. A new yogin counts the breaths from one to 
ten, beginning with the outgoing breath and ending with the incoming breath. 
He does not count beyond ten. Again, it is taught that he counts from one 
to five but does not count beyond five. He does not miss. At that time 
(i.e., when he misses) he should count (the next) or stop that count. Thus 
he dwells in mindfulness of respiration, attending to the object. Thus should 
counting be understood. 

"Connection": Having counted, he follows respiration with mindfulness, 
continuously. This is called connection. 



1. Vis. Mag. 285: Api ca kho kassaci sukhasamphassam uppddayamdno, tulapicu viya, kappa- 
sapicu viya, vatadhara viya ca upatthdtiti ekacce ahu. Ayampana atthakathasu vinicchayo :-.... 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 286: Athd'nena tarn nimittam neva vannato manasikdtabbam, na 
lakkhanato paccavekkhitabbarh. 

3. Cp. Manual of a Mystic (P.T.S. translation) of Yogavacara's Manual 8 ff. 

4. Possibly Pordnd. 

5. Vis. Mag. 278: Tatrdyam manasikdravidhi:- ganand, anubandhana, phusand, thapand. 
Here it is interesting to note that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera does not ascribe 
this teaching to 'ekacce 9 as he usually does; nor does he go to the Atthakatha for authority. 



160 Vimuttimagga 

"Contacting": Having caused the arising of air perception, he dwells, 
attending to the contact of respiration at the nose-tip or on the lip. This is 
called contacting. 

"Fixing": Having acquired facility in contacting, he should establish 
the image, and he should establish joy and bliss and other states which arise 
here. Thus should fixing be known. 

That counting suppresses uncertainty. It causes the abandoning of un- 
certainty. Connection removes gross discursive thinking and causes unbroken 
mindfulness of respiration. Contacting removes distraction and makes for 
steady perception. One attains to distinction through bliss. 

SIXTEEN WAYS OF TRAINING IN MINDFULNESS 
OF RESPIRATION 

(1) and (2) "Breathing in a long breath, breathing out a short breath, 
breathing in a short breath, thus he trains himself" 1 

Knowledge causes the arising of non-confusion and the object. Q. What 
is non-confusion and what is the object? A. The new yogin gains tranquillity 
of body and mind and abides in mindfulness of respiration. The respirations 
become subtle. Because of subtility they are hard to lay hold of. If at that 
time, the yogin's breathing is long, he, through fixing, knows it is long. If the 
image arises he considers it through its own nature. Thus should non-confusion 
be known. And again he should consider the breaths, whether long or short 
(as the case may be). Thus should he practise. And again, the yogin causes 
the arising of the clear image through the object. Thus should one practise. 

(3) "Experiencing the whole body, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": 
In two ways he knows the whole body, through non-confusion and through 
the object. Q. What is the knowledge of the whole body through non- 
confusion? A. A yogin practises mindfulness of respiration and develops 
concentration through contact accompanied by joy and bliss. Owing to the 
experiencing of contact accompanied by joy and bliss the whole body becomes 
non-confused. Q. What is the knowledge of the whole body through the 
object? A. The incoming breath and the outgoing breath comprise the 
bodily factors dwelling in one sphere. The object of respiration and the mind 
and the mental properties are called "body". These bodily factors are called 
"body". 2 Thus should the whole body be known. That yogin knows the 
whole body thus: "Though there is the body, there is no being or soul". 3 



1 . This paragraph is not clear. Unintelligibility is not an uncommon feature of this Chinese 
text. The quotations (1) and (2) are not in full. The rest, (3) to (16), are from 
S. V, 311-12 quoted earlier. 

2. Cp. S. V, 329-30: Kdyannatardkarh Ananda etam vaddmi yad idam assasapassasarh. 

3. As. 38, Sec. 93: Tasmirh kho pana sarnaye dhammd honti dhammesu dhammdnupassi 
viharati ti ddisu nissattanijjivatdyam. Svdyam idhdpi nissattanijjivatdyam eva vattati. 



Subjects of Meditation 161 

THE THREE TRAININGS 

"Thus he trains himself" refers to the three trainings. The first is the 
training of the higher virtue, the second is the training of the higher thought, 
the third is the training of the higher wisdom. 1 True virtue is called the training 
of the higher virtue; true concentration is called the training of the higher 
thought ; and true wisdom is called the training of the higher wisdom. That 
yogin by these three kinds of training meditates on the object, recollects the 
object and trains himself. He practises repeatedly. This is the meaning 
of "thus he trains himself". 

(4) " 'Calming the bodily formation, I breathe', thus he trains himself": 
Which are the bodily formations? He breathes in and out with such bodily 
formations as bending down; stooping, bending all over, bending forward, 
moving, quivering, trembling and shaking. 2 And again, he calms the gross 
bodily formations and practises the first meditation, jhdna, through the subtle 
bodily formations. From there, he progresses to the second meditation, 
jhdna, through the more subtle bodily formations. From there, he progresses 
to the third meditation, jhdna, through the still more subtle bodily formations. 
From there, he progresses to the fourth meditation, jhdna, having ended 
(the bodily formations) without remainder. A. If he causes the ending of 
respiration without remainder, 3 how is he able to practise mindfulness of 
respiration? A. Because he has grasped well the general characteristics, 
the image arises even when the respirations lapse. And because of these 
many characteristics, he is able to develop the image and enter into meditation, 
jhdna. 

(5) " 'Experiencing joy through the object, I breathe in', thus he trains 
himself". [431] He attends to respiration. He arouses joy in two meditations, 
jhdnas. This joy can be known through two ways : through non-confusion 
and through the object. 4 Here the yogin enters into concentration and 
experiences joy through non-confusion, through investigation, through 
overcoming and through the object. 

(6) " 'Experiencing bliss, I breathe in', thus he trains himself" : He 
attends to respiration. He arouses bliss in three meditations, jhdnas. This 



1. Cp. Pts. I, 184: Sabbakdyapatisamvedi assdsapassdsdnam samvaratthena silavisuddhi, 
avikkhepatthena cittavisuddhi, dassanatthena ditthivisuddhi; yo tattha samvarattho ayam 
adhisilasikkhd, yo tattha avikkhepattho ayam adhicittasikkhd, yo tattha dassanattho 
ayam adhipahndsikkhd. 

2. Cp. Pts. I, 184-5: Yathdrupehi kdyasankhdrehi yd kdyassa dnamand, vinamand, sannamand, 
panamand, injand, phandand, caland, kampand 'passambhayam kdyasankhdram assa- 
sissdmitV sikkhati, 'passambhayam kdyasankhdram passasissamitC sikkhati. 

3. See note 2 on page 120. 

4. Cp. Vis. Mag. 287: Tattha dvihdkdrehi piti patisamviditd hoti; drammanato ca asammohato 
ca. Katharh drammanato piti patisamviditd hotP. Sappitike dve jhdne samdpajjati: tassa 
samdpattikkhane jhdnapatildbhena drammanato piti patisamviditd hoti, drammanassa 
patisamviditattd. Katharh asammohatol Sappitike dve jhdne samdpajjitvd vufthdya 
jhdnasampayuttam pitim khayato vayato sammasati, tassa vipassandkkhane lakkhanapati- 
vedhena asammohato piti patisamviditd hoti. 



162 Vimuttimagga 

bliss can be known through two ways: through non-confusion and through 
the object. The rest is as was fully taught above. 

(7) " 'Experiencing the mental formations, I breathe in', thus he trains 
himself": "Mental formations" means: "Perception and feeling". He 
arouses these mental formations in four meditations, jhdnas. He knows 
through two ways: through non-confusion and through the object. The 
rest is as was fully taught above. 

(8) " 'Calming the mental formations, I breathe in', thus he trains 
himself": The mental formations are called perception and feeling. He 
calms the gross mental formations and trains himself. The rest is as was 
fully taught above. 

(9) " 'Experiencing the mind, I breathe in', thus he trains himself" : 
He attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. The mind is 
aware of entering into and going out of the object, through two ways : through 
non-confusion and through the object. The rest is as was fully taught above. 

(10) "'Gladdening the mind, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": 
Joy means rejoicing. In two meditations, jhdnas, he causes the mind to exult. 
Thus he trains himself. The rest is as was fully taught above. 

(11) "'Concentrating the mind, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": 
That yogin attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. Through 
mindfulness and through meditation, jhdna, he causes the mind to be intent 
on the object. Placing the mind well he establishes it. 1 Thus he trains himself. 

(12) " 'Freeing the mind, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": That 
yogin attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. If his mind 
is slow and slack, he frees it from rigidity; if it is too active, he frees it from 
restlessness. Thus he trains himself. If his mind is elated, he frees it from 
lust. Thus he trains himself. If it is depressed, he frees it from hatred. Thus 
he trains himself. If his mind is sullied, he frees it from the lesser defilements. 
Thus he trains himself. And again, if his mind is not inclined towards the 
object and is not pleased with it, he causes his mind to be inclined towards it. 
Thus he trains himself. 

(13) " 'Discerning impermanence, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": 
He attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. Discerning 
the incoming and the outgoing breath, the object of the incoming and the 
outgoing breath, the mind and the mental properties and their arising and 
passing away, he trains himself. 

(14) "'Discerning dispassion, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": 
He attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath (thinking) thus: 
"This is impermanence; this is dispassion; this is extinction, this is Nibbdna". 
Thus he breathes in and trains himself. 



1. Cp. Pts. I, 191 : Digham assasavasena cittassa ekaggatd avikkhepo samddhi, digharh passa- 
savasena , yd cittassa thiti santhiti avatthiti avisaharo avikkhepo .... 



Subjects of Meditation 163 

(15) "'Discerning cessation, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": 
Discerning many hindrances, according to reality, (he thinks), "These are 
impermanent, the destruction of these is extinction, Nibbdna". Thus with 
tranquillized vision he trains himself. 

(16) "'Discerning renunciation, I breathe in', thus he trains himself": 
Discerning tribulation according to reality, (he thinks), "These are imperma- 
nent", and freeing himself from tribulation, he abides in the peace of extinction, 
Nibbdna. Thus he trains himself and attains to bliss. The tranquil and 
the sublime are to be understood thus: All activities are brought to rest. 
All defilements are forsaken. Craving is destroyed. Passion is absent. 
It is the peace of blowing out. 1 

Of these sixteen, the first twelve fulfil serenity and insight, and are discerned 
as impermanence. The last four fulfil only insight. Thus should serenity 
and insight be understood. 2 

And again, all these are of four kinds. The first is that practice which 
leads to the completion of discernment. There is a time when one discerns 
(impermanence) through attending to the incoming breath and the outgoing 
breath. This is called the knowledge of the long and the short through practis- 
ing. Calming the bodily formations and the mental formations, gladdening 
the mind, concentrating the mind and freeing the mind — this is called the 
arising of the knowledge of the whole body, bliss and the mental formations. 
"Experiencing the mind" means: "The completion of discernment". "There 
is a time when one discerns" and so forth refers to the four activities which 
always begin with the discernment of impermanence. 

And again, practice means attaining to a state (of meditation, jhdna) 
through mindfulness of respiration. This is practice. Through this mind- 
fulness of respiration, one attains to the state which is with (-out, even) initial 
application of thought. That is the state which is with initial and sustained 
application of thought, and the state of sustained application of thought. 3 
The experiencing of joy is the state of the second meditation, jhdna. The 
experiencing of bliss is the state of the third meditation, jhdna. The experien- 
cing of the mind is the state of the fourth meditation, jhdna. 

And again, all these are of two kinds. They are practice and fulfilment. 
Such practice as is included within fulfilment does not cause decrease of the 
sixteen bases. Practice is like a seed; it is the cause of merit. Fulfilment 
is like a flower or a fruit, because it proceeds from a similar thing. 

If mindfulness of respiration is practised, the four foundations of mind- 
fulness are fulfilled. If the four foundations of mindfulness are practised, 



1. S. I, 136; A. V, 8: Etarh santam, etarh panitam, yad idarh sabbasankhdrasamatho sabbu- 
padhipatinissaggo tanhakkhayo virago nirodho nibbanan ti. 

2. Vis. Mag. 291: Idarh catutthacatukkarh suddhavipassana xaserfeva vuttath. Purimani 
pana tlni samathavipassana vasena. Evarh catunnam catukkanam vasena solasavatthukaya 
anapanasatiya bhdvand veditabba. 

3. D. Ill, 219: Tayo samddhi. Savitakko savicaro samddhi, avitakko vicar a-matto samadhi, 
avitakko avicdro samddhi. 



164 Vimuttimagga 

the seven enlightenment factors are fulfilled. If the seven enlightenment 
factors are practised, freedom and wisdom are fulfilled. 1 

THE FOUR FOUNDATIONS OF MINDFULNESS 

Q. How is such a state attained? 

A. The foundation of mindfulness which begins with the long incoming 
breath and the long outgoing breath is the reviewing of the body. That which 
begins with the experiencing of joy is the reviewing of feeling. That which 
begins with the experiencing of the mind is the reviewing of thought. That 
which begins with the discernment of impermanence is the reviewing of states. 
Thus one who practises mindfulness of respiration fulfils the four foundations 
of mindfulness. 2 

THE SEVEN ENLIGHTENMENT FACTORS 

How are the seven enlightenment factors fulfilled through the practice 
of the four foundations of mindfulness? If the yogin practises the (four) 
foundations of mindfulness, he is able to abide non-confused in mindfulness; 
this is called the enlightenment factor of mindfulness. That yogin, abiding 
in mindfulness, investigates subjection to ill, impermanence and phenomena; 
this is called the enlightenment factor of inquiry into states. Inquiring into 
states (dhammd) thus, he strives earnestly without slackening; this is called 
the enlightenment factor of exertion. Developing exertion, he arouses joy 
that is clean; this is called the enlightenment factor of joy. Through the mind 
being full of joy, his body and mind are endowed with calm; this is called the 
enlightenment factor of calm. Through calmness his body attains to ease 
and his mind is possessed of concentration; this is called the enlightenment 
factor of concentration. Owing to concentration, the mind acquires equanimity ; 
this is called the enlightenment factor of equanimity. Thus because of the 



1. S. V, 329: Andpdnasatisamddhi kho Ananda eko dhammo bhdvito bahulikato cattdro 
satipatthdne paripureti. Cattdro satipatthdnd bhdvitd bahuikatd satta bojjhange paripu- 
renti. Satta bojjhangd bhdvitd bahulikatd vijjdvimuttim paripurenti. 

2. S. V, 323-4: Yasmirh samaye Ananda bhikkhu digharh vd assasanto digharh assasdmiti 
pajdndti, digharh vd passasanto digharh passasdmiti pajdndti, rassarh vd assasanto . . . . , 
rassarh vd passasanto . . . . , sabbakdyapatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati, .... passasissdmiti 
sikkhati, passambhayam kdyasarikhdram assasissdmiti sikkhati, .... passasissdmiti sikkhati, 
kdye kdydnupassi Ananda bhikkhu tasmim samaye viharati. . . . 

Yasmirh samaye Ananda bhikkhu pitipatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati , sukha- 

patisamvedi. . . ., cittasahkhdrapatisamvedi. . . . , passambhayam cittasankhdram . . . ., veda- 
ndsu vedandnupassi Ananda bhikkhu tasmim samaye viharati. . . . 

Yasmirh samaye Ananda bhikkhu cittapatisamvedi assasissdmiti sikkhati. . . ., abhippa- 
modayam cittam . . . . , samddaham cittarh . . . . , vimocayam cittam . . . . , citte cittdnupassi 
Ananda bhikkhu tasmim samaye viharati. . . . 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhu aniccdnupassi assasissdmiti sikkhati. . . ., viragdnu- 

passi , nirodhdnupassi , patinissaggdnupassi , dhammesu dhammdnupassi 

Ananda bhikkhu tasmim samaye viharati (For full text of abbreviated portions see 

note 2 on page 157). 



Subjects of Meditation 165 

practice of the four foundations of mindfulness, the seven enlightenment 
factors are fulfilled. 1 

How are freedom and wisdom fulfilled through the practice of the seven 
enlightenment factors ? The yogin who has practised the seven enlightenment 
factors much, gains in a moment 2 the wisdom of the Path and the Fruit of 
freedom. Thus because of the practice of the seven enlightenment factors, 
wisdom and freedom are fulfilled. 3 

A. All formations 4 are endowed with initial and sustained application 
of thought according to planes. 5 That being so, why is only initial application 



1. S. V, 331-33: Yasmirh samaye Ananda bhikkhu kdye kdydnupassi viharati upatthitasati, 
tasmirh Ananda bhikkhuno sati hoti asammutthd; yasmirh samaye Ananda bhikkhuno upatthita- 
sati asammutthd, satisambojjhahgo tasmirh samaye bhikkhuno araddho hoti; satisambojjhahgam 
tasmirh samaye Ananda bhikkhu bhaveti; satisambojjhahgo tasmirh samaye bhikkhuno 
bhdvand pdripurim gacchati; so tathd sato viharanto tarn dhammam pahhdya pavicinati 
pavicarati parivimarhsam apajjati. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhu tathd sato viharanto tarn dhammam pahhdya pavicinati 
pavicarati parivimarhsam apajjati; dhammavicayasambojjhango tasmirh samaye bhikkhuno 
araddho hoti; dhammavicayasambojjhahgam tasmirh samaye bhikkhu bhaveti. Dhammavicaya- 
sambojjhango tasmirh samaye bhikkhuno bhdvanapdripurim gacchati; tassa tarn dhammam 
pahhdya pavicinato pavicarato parivimarhsam dpajjato araddham hoti viriyam asallinarh. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhuno tarn dhammam pahhdya pavicinato pavicarato parivi- 
marhsam dpajjato araddham hoti viriyam asallinarh, viriyasambojjhahgo tasmirh samaye bhikkhuno 
araddho hoti; viriyasambojjhangam tasmim samaye bhikkhu bhaveti; viriyasambojjhahgo 
tasmirh samaye bhikkhuno bhdvand pdripurim gacchati; draddhaviriyassa uppajjati piti nirdmisd. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhuno draddhaviriyassa uppajjati pit! nirdmisd pitisambojjhah- 
go tasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhuno araddho hoti, pitisambojjhahgam tasmim samaye bhikkhu 
bhaveti; pitisambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno bhdvand pdripurim gacchati; pitimanassa 
kayo pi passambhati cittam pi passambhati. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhuno pitimanassa kayo pi passambhati cittam- pi passambhati, 
passaddhisambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno araddho hoti; passaddhisambojjhahgam 
tasmim samaye bhikkhu bhaveti; passaddhisambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno bhdvand 
pdripurim gacchati; passaddhakdyassa sukhino cittam samddhiyati. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhuno passaddhakdyassa sukhino cittam samddhiyati, 
samadhisambhojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno araddho hoti; samddhisambojjhahgam tasmim 
samaye bhikkhu bhaveti; samddhisambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno bhdvand pdripurim 
gacchati. So tathd samahitam cittam sadhukarh ajjhupckkhitd hoti. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhu tathd samahitam cittam sadhukarh ajjhupckkhitd hoti, 
upekhdsambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno araddho hoti; upekhdsambojjhahgam tasmim 
samaye bhikkhu bhaveti; upekhdsambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno bhdvand pdripurim 
gacchati. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda^ bhikkhu vedandsu, citte, dhammesu dhammdnupassi viharati 
upatthitasati tasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhuno sati hoti asammutthd. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhuno upatthitasati hoti asammutthd, satisambojjhahgo 
tasmim samaye bhikkhuno araddho hoti, satisambojjhahgam tasmim samaye bhikkhu bhaveti; 
satisambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno bhdvand pdripurim gacchati. Yatha pathamarh 
satipatthdnam evarh vitthdretabbam. So tathd samahitam cittam sadhukarh ajjhupekkhitd 
hoti. 

Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhu tathd samahitam cittam sadhukarh ajjhupekkhitd hoti, 
upekhdsambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno araddho hoti; upekhdsambojjhahgam tasmim 
samaye bhikkhu bhaveti, upekhdsambojjhahgo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno bhdvand pdripurim 
gacchati. 

Evam bhdvitd kho Ananda cattdro satipatthdnd evarn bahulikathd sattabojjhahge paripu- 
renti. 

2. Kshana (transliteration). 

3. Cp. S. V, 333; Katham bhdvitd ca sattabojjhahgd katharh bahulikathd vijjdvimuttim pari- 
purenti? 

Idhdnanda bhikkhu satisambojjhahgam bhaveti vivekanissitam . . . .pe. . . . uphekhasambojj- 
hahgam bhaveti vivekanissitam viraganissitam nirodhanissitarh vossaggaparindmim. 
'Evam bhdvitd kho Ananda sattabojjhahgd evam bahulikatd vijjdvimuttim paripurentiti. 

4. Sahkhdrd. 5. Bhumi. 



166 Vimuttimagga 

of thought suppressed in mindfulness of respiration, and not the other ? 

A. It 1 is used here in a different sense. Discursiveness is a hindrance to 
meditation, jhdna. In this sense, it 2 is suppressed. 

Why is air contact pleasant ? Because it calms the mind. It is comparable 
to the soothing of a heavenly musician's (gandhabba's) mind with sweet 
sounds. By this discursive thinking is suppressed. And again, it is like a 
person walking along the bank of a river. His mind is collected, is directed 
towards one object and does not wander. Therefore in mindfulness of 
respiration, the suppression of discursive thinking is taught. 3 

Mindfulness of respiration has ended. 4 " 

MINDFULNESS OF DEATH 

Q. What is mindfulness of death? What is the practising of it? What 
are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? 
What is the procedure? 

A. The cutting off of the life-faculty — this is called death. The undis- 
turbed mindfulness of this — this is called the practising of it. The cutting 
off of one's life is its salient characteristic. Disagreeableness is its function. 
Well-being is its near cause. 

What are its benefits ? He who practises mindfulness of death is possessed 
of diligence as regards the higher meritorious states, and of dislike as regards 
the demeritorious. He does not hoard clothes and ornaments. He is not 
stingy. He is able to live long, does not cling to things, is endowed with the 
perception of impermanence, the perception of subjection to ill and the percep- 
tion of not-self. He fares well and approaches the ambrosial. When he 
comes to die, he does not suffer bewilderment. 

What is the procedure ? The new yogin enters a place of solitude and 
guards his thoughts. He considers the death of beings with mind undistracted 
thus: "I shall die; I shall enter the realm of death; I shall not escape death". 
Thus it is taught in the Nettipada Sutta: 5 "If a man wishes to meditate on 
death, he should contemplate a person who is on the point of being killed 
and he should know the causes of death". 

Here there are four kinds in mindfulness of death: (1) Associated with 
anxiety. (2) Associated with fear. (3) Associated with indifference. 
(4) Associated with wisdom. 

The mindfulness associated with the loss of one's own beloved child is 
associated with anxiety. The mindfulness connected with the sudden death 



1. and 2. indicate vitakka. 

3. (a) Vis. Mag. 291 quotes A. IV, 353: Anapanasati bhdvetabbd vitakkupaccheddya. 
(b) A. Ill, 449: Cetaso vikkhepassa pahdndya anapanasati bhdvetabbd. 

4. This and the subsequent passages in italics in this section do not occur in the Sung 
Dynasty edition mentioned earlier. 

5. Transliteration, Netri-pada-sutra; probably refers to Netri-pada-sdstra of Upagupta referred 
to in Abhidharmakosa sdstra. 



Subjects of Meditation 1 67 

of one's own child is associated with fear. The mindfulness of death by a 
burner (of corpses) is associated with indifference. Remembering (the nature of) 
the world, one develops aversion — this is called associated with wisdom. 
Here the yogin should not practise the mindfulness associated with anxiety, 
fear or indifference, because [432] through them he is not able to remove tribula- 
tion. Tribulation can only be removed through the mindfulness associated 
with wisdom. 

There are three kinds of death thus : death according to general opinion, 
death as a complete cutting off, momentary death. What is "death according 
to general opinion"? Death as it is understood in common parlance. This 
is called "death according to general opinion". "Death as a complete cutting 
off" means : "The Consummate One has cut off the defilements". "Momentary 
death" means: "The momentary perishing of all formations". 1 

And again, there are two kinds in death: untimely death and timely death. 
Death through suicide, murder or disease, or through being cut off in the 
prime of life without (assignable) cause is called untimely death. Death 
through the exhaustion of the life-span or through old age is called timely 
death. 2 One should recall to mind these two kinds of death. 

And again, predecessor-teachers 3 have taught the practice of mindfulness 
of death in these eight ways: 4 through the presence of a murderer; through 
the absence of an efficient cause;* through inference; through the body being 
common to the many; through the weakness of the life-principle; through 
the distinguishing of time; through the absence of the sign; through the shortness 
of the moment. How should one practise mindfulness of death "through 
the presence of a murderer"? A. Like a man who is being taken to a place to 
be killed. When that man sees the murderer drawing out a sword and following 
him, he thinks thus: "This man intends to kill me; I shall be killed at any 
moment; I shall be killed at any step. I shall surely be killed if I turn back. 
I shall surely be killed if I sit down; I shall surely be killed if I sleep". Thus 
should the yogin practise mindfulness of death "through the presence of a 
murderer". Q. How should one practise mindfulness of death "through 
the absence of an efficient cause" ? There is no cause or skill that can make 
life immortal. When the sun and the moon rise, no cause or skill can make 
them turn back. Thus the yogin practises mindfulness of death. Q. How 
does one practise mindfulness of death "through inference"? A. Many 
kings who possessed great treasures, great vehicle-kings, Maha Sudassana of 
great supernormal power, Mandhatu and all other kings entered the state of 
death. And again, many sages of old, Vessamitta and Yamataggi, who possessed 

1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 229: Yam part et am arahantanam vattadukkhasamiicchedasankhdtarii 
samucchedamaranam, sankhdrdnarh khanabhangasankhdtam khanikamaranam, rukkho 
mato, loham mat am ti ddisu sammutimaranah ca, na tarn idha adhippetam. 

2. Cp. Ibid: Kdlamarana and akdlamarana. 

3. Pordnakdcariyd. 

4. Vadhakapaccupatthdnato, sampattivipattito (?), upasamharanato, kdyabahusddhdranato, 
ayudubbalato, addhdnaparicchedato, animittato* khanaparittato. Cp. Vis. Mag. 230. 

* This is different from Vis. Mag. 



168 Vimuttimagga 

great supernormal power and who caused fire and water to issue forth from 
their bodies, also entered the state of death. Great hearers of old like the 
Venerable Elders Sariputta, Moggallana and others, who were possessed of 
immense wisdom and power also entered the state of death. Many Pacceka- 
buddhas who attained enlightenment without owning a teacher, and who were 
endowed with all virtue, also entered the state of death. And again, they 
who come and go in the same way, the Consummate, Supremely Enlightened, 
Matchless Ones, endowed with knowledge and conduct, who have won the 
further shore of merit — many such also entered the state of death. How 
shall I with my brief life-span escape entry into the state of death? Thus 
the yogin practises mindfulness of death "through inference". Q. How does 
one practise mindfulness of death" through the body being common to the 
many"? A. Through the disorder of wind and phlegm, the state of death is 
fulfilled. Through the disturbance of many worms or through lack of drink 
and food, the state of death is fulfilled. Or through being bitten by poisonous 
snakes, centipedes, millepedes, or rats, death is fulfilled. Or through being 
mauled by a lion, a tiger or a leopard, or through being attacked by a demon 
(naga), or through being gored by a cow, death is fulfilled. Or through 
being killed by humans or non-humans, death is fulfilled. Thus one practises 
mindfulness of death "through the body being common to the many". 
Q. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through the weakness of 
the life-principle"? A, In two ways one practises mindfulness of death through 
the weakness of the life-principle. Through the state of being placed in 
powerlessness and through dependence on the powerless, the weakness of 
the life-principle is fulfilled. 

SIMILES OF THE FOAM, PLANTAIN TRUNK AND BUBBLE 

Q. How is the life-principle weak through its being placed in powerless- 
ness? A. There is no substantiality in this body as it is taught in the simile 
of the foam, in the simile of the plantain trunk and in the simile of the bubble, 1 
because it is devoid of reality and it is separate from reality. Thus through 
the state of being placed in powerlessness, the life-principle is weak. Q. How 
is the life-principle weak through dependence on the powerless? A. This is 
kept together by the incoming breath and the outgoing breath, by the four 
great primaries, by drink and food, by four postures and by warmth. Thus 
it depends on the powerless. Therefore the life-principle is weak. Thus one 
practises mindfulness of death "through the weakness of the life-principle" 
in two ways. Q. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through 
the distinguishing of time"? A. All beings were born is the past (and 
suffered death). At present, (nearly) all enter the state of death without 



1. S. Ill, 142: Phenapindupamam rupam, vedand bubbulupamd; 
Maricikupama sanitd, sahkhdrd kadalupamd; 
Mdyupamahca vinndnam dipitddiccabandhund. 
For details of the similes see the earlier portion of the sutta. 



Subjects of Meditation 169 

reaching a hundred years. Thus one practises mindfulness of death "through 
the distinguishing of time". And again one practises thus: "I wonder whether 
it is possible for me to live a day and a night. I wonder whether during that 
time I could think on the teaching of the Blessed One — could I have that 
opportunity! I wonder whether I could live even for a day. Or could I live 
for half a day, or for a short while. Could I live long enough to partake of 
a single meal, half a meal, or even long enough to gather and partake of four 
or five morsels of food! Could I live long enough to breathe out having 
breathed in, or could I live long enough to breathe in having breathed out". 1 
(Thus) one practises mindfulness of death "through the distinguishing of 
time". 

Q. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through the absence 
of the sign"? A. There is no sign. Therefore there is no fixed time for 
death. Thus one practises mindfulness of death "through the absence of 
the sign". Q. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through the 
shortness of the moment"? 2 A. If one reckons the causes of the present 
and not those of the past or the future, beings exist but a single conscious 
moment. Nothing exists for two moments. Thus all beings sink in the 
conscious moment. 3 It is taught in the Abhidhamma thus: "In the past 



1. A. Ill, 305-6: Yvdyarh bhikkhave bhikkhu evarh maranasatim bhdveti ''alio vatdham 
rattindivarh jiveyyam, Bhagavato sdsanarh manasikareyyam, bahu vata me katam assd* ti, 
yo cdyam bhikkhave bhikkhu evam maranasatim bhdveti 'aho vatdham divasam jiveyyatii 
Bhagavato sdsanarh manasikareyyam bahu vata me katam assd 9 ti, yo cdyam bhikkhave 
bhikkhu evam maranasatim bhdveti 'aho vatdham tadantaram jiveyyam yadantaram ekarh 
pindapdtam bhunjdmi, Bhagavato sdsanarh manasikareyyam, bahu vata me katam assd' ti, 
yo cdyam bhikkhave bhikkhu evam maranasatim bhdveti ''aho vatdham tadantaram jiveyyam 
yadantaram cattdro pahca dlope sarhkhdditvd ajjhohardmi, Bhagavato sdsanarh manasik- 
areyyam, bahu vata me katam assd' ti; ime vuccanti bhikkhave bhikkhu: pamattd viharanti, 
dandham maranasatim bhdventi dsavdnarh khaydya. 

Yo ca khvdyam bhikkhave bhikkhu evam maranasatim bhdveti ''aho vatdham 
tadantaram jiveyyam yadantaram ekam dlopam samkhdditvd ajjhohardmi, Bhagavato 
sdsanarh manasikareyyam, bahu vata me katam assd' ti, yo cdyam bhikkhave bhikkhu 
evam maranasatim bhdveti 'aho vatdham tadantaram jiveyyam yadantaram assasitvd vd 
passasdmi passasitvd vd assasdmi, Bhagavato sdsanam manasikareyyam bahu vata me 
katam assd' ti; ime vuccanti bhikkhave bhikkhu: appamattd viharanti, tikkham mara- 
nasatim bhdventi dsavdnarh khaydya. Tasmd ti ha bhikkhave evam sikkhitabbam: — 

Appamattd viharissdma, tikkham maranasatim bhdvessdma dsavdnarh khaydya ti. 

Evam hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabban ti. 

2. Transliteration of ksana. 120 ksanas = 1 tatksana; 

60 tatksanas = 1 lava; 30 lavas <= 1 muhurta; 30 muhurtas == 1 day and 1 night. 

(Abhidharmakosa, Fascicle 12). Therefore 

24 x 60 x 60 1 nnm r a 

X ksana = 30x30x60xl20 - 75 =0.0133 of a second. 

The following is given in the Dirgha Agama, No. 22, Taisho Edition, p. 146: — 60 khanas = 
1 laya; 30 lay as =» 1 muhutta; 100 muhuttas = 1 upamd. Below are two other tables: — 

(a) 60 ksanas = 1 lava; 30 lavas =» 1 hour; 30 hours = 1 day; 

24 x 60 x 60 - £ , 

1 ksana =■= ^^ ort ^ = 1.6 seconds. 

30 x 30 x 60 

(b) 120 ksanas = 1 tatksana; 60 tatksanas = 1 lava; 30 lavas = 1 muhurta ; 
50 muhurtas = 1 hour; 6 hours = 1 day; 

lft W» - 6 x » x'aSVffx 120 - 756" " 0-0013.. ..ofasecond. 

3. Cittakkhana. 



170 Vimuttimagga 

conscious moment, one did not live, one is not living, one will not live. In 
the future conscious moment, one did not live, one is not living, one will not 
live. In the present conscious moment, one did not live, one will not live, 
only one is living". 1 

And again, it is taught in this stanza: 

"Life and personality, sorrow, happiness and all 
are joined to one thought; quickly the moment passes. 
By the yet-not-become, nothing is born; by the present one lives. 
When mind's shattered, the world dies; 2 so the world's end was taught". 

Thus one practises mindfulness of death through the shortness of the 
moment. That yogin through these ways practises mindfulness of death and 
develops (the perception of) disagreeableness. Owing to facility in (the 
perception of) disagreeableness and owing to facility in mindfulness, his mind 
is not disturbed. When his mind is undisturbed, he is able to destroy the 
hindrances and cause the arising of the meditation (jhdna) factors and attain 
to access-concentration. 

Q. What is the difference between the perception of impermanence and 
mindfulness of death ? 

A. The perception of the passing away of the aggregations is called the 
perception of impermanence. The mindfulness of the destruction of the 
faculties is called mindfulness of death. The practice of the perception of 
impermanence and the perception of not-self is called the rejection of pride. 
He who practises mindfulness of death can dwell in the perception of imper- 
manence and the perception of subjection to ill through the thought of the 
cutting off of life and the destruction of the mind. These are the differences 
between them. 

Mindfulness of death has ended. 
MINDFULNESS OF BODY 

Q. What is mindfulness of body? What is the practising of it? What 
are its salient characteristic and function? What are its benefits? What is 
the procedure? 



1 . Looked at from the point of view of the changing khandhas, there is no important divergence 
to be noted here. For instance, in Vis. Mag. 301 this occurs: 

Khanikattd ca dhammdnam, yehi khandhehi te katam 
amandparh niruddhd te kassa ddni 'dha kujjhasil 
The so-called being of the present did not exist in the past and will not exist in the future. 

2. Ndi. 42, 117-18: Jivitam attabhdvo ca sukhadukkhd ca kevald 

ekacittasamdyuttd lahuso vattati-kkhano. 



Anibbattena na jdto, paccuppannena jivati, 
cittabhangamato loko 



Subjects of Meditation 171 

A. Mindfulness as regards the nature of the body is the practising of it. 
That mindfulness is mindfulness and right mindfulness. Thus is mindfulness 
of body to be understood. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this 
mindfulness is the practising of it. The becoming manifest of the nature of 
the body is its salient characteristic. The perception of disagreeableness is 
its function. The indication of the unreal is its manifestation. 1 

What are its benefits? A man who practises mindfulness of body can 
endure. He can bear to see the fearful and he can bear heat, cold and the 
like. He is endowed with the perception of impermanence, the perception 
of not-self, the perception of impurity and the perception of tribulation. He 
attains to the four meditations, jhdnas, with ease, gains a clear view of things, 
is pleased with his practice, fares well and approaches the ambrosial. 

What is the procedure? The new yogin enters a place of solitude, sits 
down and guards his thoughts. With mind undisturbed, he meditates on the 
nature of his body. How does he practise mindfulness of body? 

THIRTY-TWO PARTS OF THE BODY 

This body consists of head-hair, body-hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, 
bones, marrow, kidneys, liver, heart, spleen, lungs, bile, gorge, grease, fat, 
brain, 2 midriff, intestines, mesentery, excrement, urine, pus, blood, phlegm, 
sweat, synovial fluid, tears, nasal mucus, saliva, and is impure. The new yogin 
at first should recite vocally these thirty-two parts of the body in the direct 
and in the reverse order. He should always vocally recite well and investigate 
these (thirty-two parts). Vocally reciting well he should investigate always. 
Thereafter he should reflect on them only mentally in these four ways: 
through colour, through the formations, the form, the basis. He may, with 
discrimination, take one or two [433] or more and grasp the crude sign. Thus 
the yogin is able to cause the manifestation of three trends of thought, namely, 
of colour, of disliking and of space. When the yogin causes the arising of 
the sign through colour, he is able to meditate with facility through the colour 
kasina. When he causes the arising of the sign through disliking he is able 
to meditate with facility on impurity. When the yogin causes the arising of 
the sign through space, he is able to meditate with facility on the elements. 
If the yogin practises on the kasinas, he will get to the fourth meditation, 
jhdna. If the yogin practises on impurity, he will get to the first meditation, 
jhdna. If he practises on the elements, he will get to access-concentration. 

Here a walker in hate causes the manifestation of the sign through colour; 
a walker in passion, through disliking; and a walker in wisdom, through the 
elements. And again, a walker in hate should meditate through colour; a 



1. This is not among the questions. 

2. M.I, 57; 111,90; D. II, 293-94; Vbh. 193: (mattholunga does not occur in these 
references: — ) Atthi imasmim kaye kesa loma nakhd danta taco marhsam naharu ajthi 
atthiminja vakkam hadayam yakanam kilomakarh pihakarh papphdsarh antam antagunam 
udariyam karisam pittam semharh pubbo lohitam sedo medo assu vasd khelo singhanika 
lasika muttan ti. 



172 Vimuttimagga 

walker in passion, through disliking and a walker in wisdom, through the 
elements. 

MINDFULNESS IN THIRTEEN WAYS 

And again, one should recall to mind the nature of the body through 
thirteen ways: through seed, place, condition, oozing, gradual formation, 
worms, connection, 1 assemblage, loathsomeness, impurity, dependence, non- 
awareness of obligation, finitude. 

Q. How should a man reflect on the nature of the body through "seed" ? 

A. As elaeagnus pungens, kosdtaki*, 2 and the like burn, so this body 
produced from the impure seed of parents also burns. This is impure. Thus 
one should recall to mind the nature of the body through "seed". 

Q. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "place" ? 
A. This body does not come out of uppala** kumuda** or pundatika** This 
comes out of the place where impurity, malodour and uncleanness are pressed 
together. This body lies across the womb from left to right. It leans against 
the back-bone of the mother, wrapped in the caul. This place is impure. 
Therefore the body is also impure. Thus should one recall the nature of the 
body through "place". 6 

Q. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "condi- 
tion"? A, This body is not fed with gold, silver or gems. It does not 
grow up through being fed with candana*, 1 tagara*, s aloe-wood and the like. 
This body grows in the womb of the mother and is mixed with nasal mucus, 
saliva, slobber and the tears which the mother swallows. This body is nourished 
with foul-smelling food and drink produced in the mother's womb. Rice, 
milk, 9 beans, nasal mucus, saliva, slobber and phlegm which are swallowed 
by the mother form part of this body. On malodorous, filthy fluid is this 
brought up. Thus should one recall to mind the nature of the body through 
"condition". 

Q. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "oozing" ? 
A. This body is like a bag of skin with many holes exuding filth and urine. 
This body is filled with filth and urine. This body is a conglomeration of 
drink and food taken in, of nasal mucus, saliva, filth and urine. These various 



1. Lit. "dwelling peacefully". Cp Vis. Mag. 355, under Atthisu, where "ukkipitvd thitam" 
"patitfhitam" are used in a similar description. 

* Transliteration. 

2. Trichosanthes dioeca, or luffa acutangula or luffa petandra. 

3. Blue lotus (Nymphaea Coerulea). 4. Edible white water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta). 

5. White lotus (Nymphaea Alba). 

6. Vbh.-a. 96: Ayarh hi satto mdtuhucchimhi nibbattamdno na uppala-padwna-pundarikddisu 
nibbattati; attha kho hetthd dmdsayassa upari pakkdsayassa, udarapatala-pifthikantaka- 
narh vemajjhe, paramasambddhe, tibbandhakdre, ndndkunapagandha-paribhdvite, asuci- 
paramaduggandha-pavana-vicarite, adhimattajegucche kucchippadese putimaccha-putikum- 
masa-candanikddisu kimi viya nibbattati. 

7. Sandal wood. 8. The fragrant powder of the shrub Tabernaemontana coronaria. 
9. Unintelligible. 



Subjects of Meditation 173 

impurities ooze from the nine openings. 1 Thus should one recall to mind 
the nature of the body through "oozing". 

Q. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "gradual 
formation"? A. This body gradually forms itself according to its previous 
kamma. In the first week the kalala* is formed. 

In the second week the abbuda* is formed. 

In the third week the pesi* is formed. 

In the fourth week the ghana* is formed. 

In the fifth week five parts 2 are formed. 

In the sixth week four parts are formed. 

In the seventh week again four parts are formed. 

In the eighth week again twenty-eight parts are formed. 

In the ninth and tenth weeks the backbone is formed. 

In the eleventh week three hundred bones are formed. 

In the twelfth week eight hundred parts are formed. 

In the thirteenth week nine hundred parts are formed, 

In the fourteenth week one hundred lumps of flesh are formed. 

In the fifteenth week blood is formed. 

In the sixteenth week the midriff is formed. 

In the seventeenth week the skin is formed. 

In the eighteenth week the colour of the skin is formed. 

In the nineteenth week the wind according to kamma fills the body. 

In the twentieth week the nine orifices are formed. 

In the twenty-fifth week the seventeen thousand textures of the skin are 

In the twenty-sixth week the body is endowed with hardness. [formed. 

In the twenty-seventh week the body is endowed with the powers. 

In the twenty-eighth week the ninety-nine thousand pores are produced. 

In the twenty-ninth week the whole is completed. And again it is taught 
that in the seventh week the child's body is complete, that it leans back 
with hanging head in a crouching position. In the forty-second week, by the 
aid of the kamma-produced wind, it reverses its position, turns its feet 
upwards and its head down and goes to the gate of birth. At this time it is 
born. In the world it is commonly known as a being. Thus one should 
reflect on the nature of the body through "gradual formation". 3 



1. Cp. (a) Sn. 197: AtK assa navahi sotehi asuci savati sabbada ?. 

(b) Th. 1134: Najdtu bhastam dubhato mukham chupe; 

dhiratthu purarh navasotasandani. 

(c) Th. 394 : Aturam asucirh putirh passa Kulla samussayarh 

uggharantam paggharantarh bdldnam abhinanditam. 
* Transliterations. These are stages of the embryo. 

2. Pasakha. 

3. Cp. S. I, 206: Pathamam kalalarh hoti, kalala hoti abbudam, 

abbuda jdyate pesi, pesi nibbattati ghano, 

ghana pasakha jdyanti, kesd lomd nakhdni ca. 

Yah cassa bhuiijate mdtd, annarh pdnah ca bhojanarh, 

tena so tattha ydpeti, mdtukucchigato naro ti. 
(*=Tattha pafhaman ti, pathamena patisandhi-vinnanena saddhirh Tisso ti vd Phusso ti vd 
ndmarh rC atthi. Atha kho tihi jdti-imrf arhsuhi kata-sut? agge santhita-tela-binduppamdrtarh 



174 Vimuttimagga 

THE WORMS THAT RELY ON THE BODY 

Q. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "worms" ? 

A. This body is gnawn by eighty thousand worms. The worm that 
relies on the hair is called "hair-iron". The worm that relies on the skull 
is called "swollen ear". The worm that relies on the brain is called "maddener". 
In this class there are four kinds. The first is called ukurimba* The second 
is called shibara* The third is called daraka* The fourth is called daka- 
shira* The worm that relies on the eye is called "eye-licker". The worm 
that relies on the ear is called "ear-licker". The worm that relies on the 
nose is called "nose-licker". There are three kinds here. The first is called 
rukamuka* The second is called aruka* 1 The third is called manarumuka* 
The worm that relies on the tongue is called muka* The worm that relies 
on the root of the tongue is called motanta* The worm that relies on the 
teeth is called kuba* The worm that relies on the roots of the teeth is called 
ubakuba* The worm that relies on the throat is called abasaka* The 
worms that rely on the neck are of two kinds. The first is called rokara* 
The second is called virokara* The worm that relies on the hair of the body 

kalalm hoti ti. Yam sandhdya vuttam: — 

Tila-telassa yathd bindu, sappi-mando andvilo, 
evarh vanna-paUbhdgam kalalarh sampavuccati ti. 

Kalald hoti abbudan ti, tasma kalald sattati accayena mamsa-dhovana-udaka-vannam 
abbudam ndma hoti. Kalalan ti ndmam antaradhdyati. Vuttam hi c' etam: — 
Sattdham kalalam hoti paripakkam samiihatam, 
vivattamdnam tarn bhdvam abbudam ndma jdyati ti. 

Abbudd jay ate pesi ti, tasmd pi abbudd sat t ah' accayena vilina-tipu-sadisd pesi ndma 
sahjdyati. Sd marica-phdnitena dipetabbd. Gdma-ddrakd hi supakkdni maricdni gahetvd, 
sdtak' ante bhandikam katvd, piletva mandam addya, kapdle pakkhipitvd, dtape thapenti. 
Tarn sukkamdnam sabba-bhdgehi muccati. Evarupd pesi hoti. Abbudan ti ndmam 
antaradhdyati. Vuttam pi c'etam: — 

Sattdham abbudam hoti paripakkam samiihatam, 
vivattamdnam tarn bhdvam pesi ndma ca jdyati ti. 

Pesi nibattati ghano ti, tato pesito sattdK accayena kukkuf andasanfhdno ghano ndma 
mamsa-pindo nibbattati. Pesi ti ndmam antaradhdyati. Vuttam pi c'etam: — 
Sattdham pesi bhavati paripakkam samiihatam, 
vivattamdnam tarn bhdvam ghano ti ndma jdyati ti. 

Yathd kukkufiyd andam samantd parimandalam, 
evarh ghanassa sanfhdnam nibbattam kamma-paccayd ti. 

Ghana pasdkhd jdyanti ti, pahcame sattdhe dvinnam hattha-pddanam sisassa c' atthdya 
pahca pilakd jdyanti. Yam sandhdy etam vuttam: "Pancame, bhikkhave, sattdhe pahca 
pifakd santhahanti kammato" ( ?) ti. Ito param chaUha-sattamddini sattdhdni atikkamma 
desanam sankhipitvd dvdcattd\ise sattdhe parinata-kdlam gahetvd dassento kesd ti ddim aha. 
Tattha kesd lomd nakhdni ca ti, dvd-cattdfise sattdhe etdni jdyanti. Tena so tattha 
ydpeti ti, tassa hi ndbhito ufthahitandlo mdtu-udara-patalena ekdbaddho hoti. So uppala- 
dandako viya chiddo. Tena dhdra-raso samsaritva dhdrdsamutthdna-rupam samuuhdpeti. 
Evan so dasamdse ydpeti. Mdtu-kucchigato naro ti, mdtuyd tiro-kucchi-gato, kucchiyd 
abbhantara-gato ti attho. Iti Bhagavd 'evam kho, yakkha, ayarh satto anupubbena matu- 
kucchiyam vaddhati, na ekappahdrerf eva nibbattati' ti dasseti. — Spk. I, 300-1). 
* Transliterations. 

1. Cp. (a) S. IV, 198: Seyyathdpi bhikkhave puriso arugatto pakkagatto saravanam paviseyya; 
tassa kusakanfakd ceva pdde vijjheyyum arupakkdni gattdni vilikkheyyum. 

(b) M. I., 506: Seyyathdpi Mdgandiya kuUhi puriso arugatto pakkagatto kimihi 
khajjamdno nakhehi vanamukhdni vippatacchamdno 

(c) Mil 357: Arugatta-pakkagatto puluvdkinna-sabbakdyo. 



Subjects of Meditation 175 

is called "body-hair licker". The worm that relies on the nails is called "nail- 
licker". The worms that rely on the skin are of two kinds. The first is 
called tuna* The second is called tunanda* The worms that rely on the 
midriff are of two kinds. The first is called viramba* The second is called 
maviramba* The worms that rely on the flesh are of two kinds. The first 
is called araba* The second is called raba* The worms that rely on the 
blood are of two kinds. The first is called bara* The second is called 
badara* The worms that rely on the tendons are of four kinds. The first is 
called rotara* The second is called kitaba* The third is called baravatara* 
The fourth is called ranavarana* The worm that relies on the veins is called 
karikuna* The worms that rely on the roots of the veins are of two kinds. 
The first is called sivara* The second is called ubasisira* The worms 
that rely on the bones are of four kinds. The first is called kachibida* The 
second is called anabida* The third is called chiridabida* The fourth is 
called kachigokara* The worms that rely on the marrow are of two kinds. 
The first is called bisha* The second is called bishashira* The worms that 
rely on the spleen are of two kinds. The first is called nira* The second is 
called bita* The worms that rely on the heart are of two kinds. The first is 
called sibita* The second is called ubadabita* The worms that rely on the 
root of the heart are of two kinds. The first is called manka* The second is 
called sir a* The worms that rely on the fat are of two kinds. The first 
is called kara* The second is called karasira* The worms that rely on 
the bladder are of two kinds. The first is called bikara* The second is 
called mahakara* The worms that rely on the root of the bladder are of 
two kinds. The first is called kara* The second is called karasira* The 
worms that rely on the belly are of two kinds. The first is called rata* The 
second is called maharata* The worms that rely on the mesentery are of 
two kinds. The first is called sorata* The second is called maharata* The 
worms that rely on the root of the mesentery are of two kinds. The first is 
called (si-) ba* The second is called mahasiba* The worms that rely on the 
intestines are of two kinds. The first is called anabaka* The second is 
called kababaka* The worms that rely on the stomach are of four kinds. 
The first is called ujuka* The second is called ushaba* The third is called 
chishaba* The fourth is called senshiba* The worms that rely on the 
ripened womb are of four kinds. The first is called vakana* The second 
is called mahavakana* The third is called unaban* The fourth is called 
punamaka* The worm that relies on the bile is called hitasoka* The 
worm that relies on saliva is called senka* The worm that relies on sweat 
is called sudasaka* The worm that relies on oil is called jidasaka* The 
worms that rely on vitality are of two kinds. The first is called subakama* 
The second is called samakita* The worms that rely on the root of vitality 
are of three kinds. The first is called sukamuka* The second is called 
darukamuka* The third is called sanamuka* There are five 1 kinds of 



Transliterations. 1 . Only four are explained below. 



176 Vimuttimagga 

worms: those that rely on the front of the body and gnaw the front of the 
body; those that rely on the back of the body and gnaw the back of the body; 
those that rely on the left side of the body and gnaw the left side of the body; 
those that rely on the right side of the body and gnaw the right side of the 
body. These worms are called candasira* sinkasira* hucura* and so forth. 
There are three kinds of worms that rely on the two lower orifices. The first 
is called kurukulayuyu* The second is called sarayu* The third is called 
kandupada* Thus one should recall to mind the nature of the body through 
"worms". 

Q. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "connec- 
tion"? A. The shin-bone is connected with the foot-bone; the shin-bone is 
connected with the thigh-bone; the thigh-bone is connected with the hip-bone; 
the hip-bone is connected with the backbone; the backbone is connected with 
the shoulder-blade; the shoulder-blade is connected with the humerus; the 
humerus is connected with the neck-bone; the neck-bone is connected with the 
skull; the skull is connected with the cheek-bones. The cheek-bones are 
connected with the teeth. Thus by the connection of the bones and the covering 
of the skin, this unclean body is kept in position and is complete. This body is 
born of kamma. Nobody makes this. Thus should one recall the nature of 
the body through "connection". 

BONES OF THE BODY 

How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "assemblage"? 
There are nine bones of the head, two cheek bones, thirty-two teeth, seven 
neck-bones, fourteen ribs, twenty-four side-bones, eighteen joints of the spine, 
two hip-bones, sixty-four hand-bones, sixty-four foot-bones, and sixty-four 
soft-bones which depend on the flesh. These three hundred bones and eight 
or nine hundered tendons are connected with each other. There are nine 
hundred muscles, seventeen thousand textures of the skin, eight million hairs 
of the head, ninety-nine thousand hairs of the body, sixty interstices, eighty 
thousand worms. Bile, saliva and brain are each a palata* in weight — in 
Ryo this is equal to four ryo — and blood is one attha* in weight — in Ryo 
this is equal to three sho. All these many and varied forms are only a heap of 
filth, a collection of urine and are called body. Thus should one recollect on 
the nature of the body through "assemblage". 

How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "loathsomeness" ? 
A man esteems purification most. The things which a man holds dear are 
such means of adorning himself as sweet perfume, unguents and pastes and 
beautiful clothes, and bedspreads, pillows, mats and cushions used for sleeping 
and sitting, bolsters, blankets, canopies, bedding, and various kinds of food 
and drink, dwelling-places and gifts. A man manifests much attachment to 



Transliterations. 



Subjects of Meditation 177 

these (at first) and afterwards dislikes them. Thus one should reflect on the 
nature of the body through "loathsomeness". 

IMPURITY OF THE BODY 

How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "impurity"? 
When clothes and adornments become dirty they can be made clean again. 
Their purity can be renewed because their nature is pure. But the body is 
impure. Thus should one reflect on the nature of the body through "impurity". 

SOME DISEASES 

How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "dependence"? 
Depending on a pond, flowers are produced. Depending on a garden, fruits 
are produced. In the same way, depending on this body, various defilements 
and diseases are produced. Thus ache of eye, ear, nose tongue, body, head, 
mouth and teeth, throat-ailments, shortness of the breath, heat and cold, 
abdominal ache, heart-disease, epilepsy, flatulence, diarrhoea and vomiting, 
leprosy, goitre, vomiting of blood, itch, smallpox, skin-disease, ague, contagious 
diseases, gonorrhoea, chills and others give endless trouble to this body. Thus 
one should reflect on the nature of the body through "dependence". 

How should one reflect on the nature of the body through the "non- 
awareness of obligation" ? Now, a man prepares tasty food and drink and 
takes them for his body's sake. He bathes and perfumes his body and clothes 
it with garments for sleeping and sitting. Thus he tends his body. But on 
the contrary, ungratefully, this body which is like a poisonous tree goes to 
decay, to disease and to death. The body is like an intimate friend who does 
not know his obligations. Thus one should reflect on the nature of the body 
through the "non-awareness of obligation". 

How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "finitude"? 
This body will be consumed by fire or devoured (by animals) or go to waste. 
This body is finite. Thus should one reflect on the nature of the body through 
"finitude". 

This yogin, through these ways, practises mindfulness of body. Through 
the acquisition of facility in mindfulness and wisdom, his mind becomes un- 
disturbed. When his mind is undisturbed, he is able to destroy the hindrances, 
cause the arising of the meditation (jhdna) factors and attain to the distinction 
for which he yearns. 

Mindfulness of body has ended. 
THE RECOLLECTION OF PEACE 

Q. What is the recollection of peace? What is the practising of it? What 



178 Vimuttimagga 

are its salient characteristic, function and near cause? What are its benefits? 
What is the procedure? A. Peace is the stilling of the movements of the 
mind and body. Complete stilling is called peace. One recalls peace to mind, 
well. This is recollectedness, recollection and right recollectedness. This is 
called the recollection of peace. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in 
this recollection is called the practising of it. The manifestation of lasting 
merit is its salient characteristic. Non-restlessness is its function. Sublime 
freedom is its near cause. 

What are its benefits ? When a man practises the recollection of peace, 
happily he sleeps, happily he awakes, is endowed with calm. His faculties 
are tranquil and he is able to fulfil his aspirations. He is pleasant of mein, 
modest of demeanour and is esteemed by others. He fares well and approaches 
the ambrosial. 

What is the procedure? The new yogin enters into a place of solitude 
and sits down with mind intent (on the recollection of peace) and undisturbed. 
If this bhikkhu calms his faculties, his mind will be quietened and he will enjoy 
tranquillity immediately. This bhikkhu sees and hears, through bodily, 
verbal and mental action, through the recollection of peace and through the 
merits of peace. It was taught by the Blessed One thus: "That bhikkhu is 
endowed with virtue, endowed with concentration, endowed with wisdom, 
endowed with freedom and is endowed with the knowledge of freedom. Great, 
I declare, is the gain, great is the advantage of one 1 who sees that bhikkhu. 
Great, I declare, is the advantage of one who hears that bhikkhu. Great, I 
declare, is the advantage of one who goes near to that bhikkhu. Great, I 
declare, is the advantage of one who pays homage to that bhikkhu. Great, I 
declare, is the advantage of one who reflects on that bhikkhu or lives the holy 
life under him. 

"How is that so ? Bhikkhus who listen to the words of that bhikkhu 
will be able to gain the twofold seclusion, namely, that of the body and that 
of the mind". 2 

In the recollection of peace, one recollects (that bhikkhu) thus : When that 
bhikkhu entered the first meditation, jhdna, he destroyed the hindrances. 
One recollects : When he entered the second meditation, jhdna, he destroyed 
initial and sustained application of thought. One recollects : When he entered 
the third meditation, jhdna, he destroyed joy. One recollects: When he 
entered the fourth meditation, jhdna, he destroyed bliss. One recollects: 
When he entered the sphere of the infinity of space, he destroyed perception 
of form, perception of sense reaction and perception of diversity. One 



1. Bhikkhu (lit). 

2. S. V, 67: Ye te bhikkhave bhikkhu silasampanna samddhisampannd pannasampannd 
vimuttisampannd vimuttindnadassanasampannd dassanam pdham bhikkhave tesarh bhikkhu- 

nam bahukaram vaddmi. Savanam Upasarikamanam Payirupdsanam 

Anussatim Anupabbajjam pdham bhikkhave tesarh bhikkhunam bahukaram vaddmi. 

Tarn kissa hetu. Tathdrupdnam bhikkhave bhikkhunam dhammam sutva dvayena viipakdsena 
viipakattho viharati kdyavupakdsena ca cittavupakdsena ca. 



Subjects of Meditation 17$ 

recollects: When he entered the sphere of the infinity of consciousness, he 
destroyed space. One recollects : When he entered the sphere of nothingness, 
he destroyed the perception of the sphere of the infinity of consciousness. 
One recollects: When he entered the sphere of neither perception nor non- 
perception, he destroyed the perception of the sphere of nothingness. One 
recollects: When he entered the state of the dissolution of perception and 
sensation, he destroyed perception and sensation. One recollects: When he 
attained to the Fruit of Stream-entrance, he destroyed the defilements which 
are together with views (Lit. as that of views) 1 . One recollects: When he 
attained to the Fruit of Once-returning, he destroyed coarse passion, coarse 
hatred and coarse defilements. 2 One recollects: When he attained to the 
Fruit of Non-returning, he destroyed fine defilements, fine passion and fine 
hate. 3 One recollects: When he attained to the Fruit of the Consummate 
One, he destroyed all defilements. 4 And one recollects: When he attains 
to extinction, Nibbdna, he destroys everything. Thus in the recollection of 
peace (one recalls that bhikkhu to mind.) 

That yogin, in these ways and through these merits recalls peace to mind, 
and is endowed with confidence. Through being unrestricted in faith, he 
recollects with ease, is in mind undisturbed. When his mind is undisturbed, 
he destroys the hindrances, causes the arising of meditation (jhdna) factors 
and attains to access-meditation. 

The recollection of peace has ended. 

MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

The following are the miscellaneous teachings concerning these ten 
recollections. One recalls to mind the merits of the Buddhas of the past and 
the future — this is called the practice of the recollection of the Buddha. In 
the same way one recollects on the Pacceka-buddhas. If a man recalls to 
mind one of the doctrines that has been taught, it is called the practice of the 
recollection of the Law. If a man recalls to mind the merits of the life of 
one hearer, it is called the recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus. If a 
man recalls virtue to mind, it is called the practice of the recollection of 
virtue. If a man recollects liberality, it is called the recollection of liberality. 
If a man rejoices in the recollection of liberality, he gives to men who are 



1 . D. 1, 1 56 : Idha Mahali bhikkhu tinnam samyojandnam (sakkdyaditthi, vicikicchd, silabbata- 
pardmasa) parikkhayd sotdpanno hoti. 

2. Ibid. : Tinnam samyojandnam parikkhayd rdga-dosa-mohdnam tanutta sakaddgdmi hoti. 

3. Ibid.: Pancannam orambhdgiydnam samyojandnam parikkhayd opapdtiko hoti. 

4. Ibid. : Asavdnam khaya anasavam ceto-vimuttim pannd-vimuttim ditthe va dhamme sayarh 
abhihna sacchikatvd upasampajja viharati. 



180 Vimuttimagga 

worthy, and resolves to make that (giving) his object. [435] If he is offered 
food that is not (proper to be) offered, he should not partake of even a 
handful of it. The recollection of deities endows one with confidence. There 
are five doctrines. One should practise the recollection of deities. 

The seventh fascicle has ended. 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE EIGHTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 

CHAPTER THE EIGHTH 

Section Five 

THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF LOVING-KINDNESS 

Q. What is loving-kindness? 1 What is the practising of it? What are 
its salient characteristic, function and manifestation? What are its benefits? 
What is the procedure? 

A. As parents, on seeing their dear and only child, arouse thoughts of 
loving-kindness and benevolence towards that child, so one arouses thoughts 
of loving-kindness and benevolence towards all beings. Thus is loving- 
kindness to be known. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this practice 
is called the practising of it. To cause the arising of benevolence is its salient 
characteristic. The thought of loving-kindness is its function. Non-hatred 
is its manifestation. If a man practises loving-kindness, he is benefitted in 
eleven ways thus : Happily he sleeps ; happily he awakes ; he does not see bad 
dreams; he is dear to humans; he is dear to non-humans; deities protect him; 
fire, poison, sword and stick come not near him; he concentrates his mind 
quickly; the colour of his face is pleasingly bright; at the time of death he 
is not bewildered; if he attains not the sublime state, he is reborn in the 
world of Brahma. 2 

1. Metta. 

2. A. V, 342; Pis. I J, 130: Mettdya bhikkhave cetovimuttiyd dsevitdya bhavitaya bahulikatdya 
ydnikatdya vatthukatdya anutthitdya paricitdya susamdraddhdya ekddasdnisarhsd pdtikankhd. 
Katame ekadasa? Sukham supati, sukham patibujjhati, na pdpakam supinam passati, 
manussdnam piyo hoti, amanussdnam piyo hoti, devatd rakkhanti ndssa aggi vd visarh vd 
sattham vd kamati, tuvatam cittam samddhiyati, mukkhavanno vippasidati, asammilfho kdlarii 
karoti, uttarim appativijjhanto brahmalokupago hoti. 

181 



182 Vimuttimagga 

DISADVANTAGES OF ANGER AND RESENTMENT 

What is the procedure? The new yogin who aspires to practise loving- 
kindness, should at first reflect on the disadvantages of anger and resentment 
and on the advantages of patience and bear patience in mind. What is meant 
by "should at first reflect on the disadvantages of anger and resentment"? 
If a man arouses anger and resentment, his thoughts of loving-kindness will 
be consumed and his mind will become impure. Thereafter he will frown; 
thereafter he will utter harsh words; thereafter he will stare in the four direc- 
tions; thereafter he will lay hold of stick and sword; thereafter he will convulse 
with rage and spit blood; thereafter he will hurl valuables hither and thither; 
thereafter he will break many things; thereafter he will kill others or kill 
himself. And again, if a man is angry and resentful always, he, owing to his 
wicked mind, is liable to kill his parents, or kill a Consummate One or cause 
a schism in the Community of Bhikkhus, or draw blood from the body of an 
Enlightened One. Such fearful acts is he liable to do. Thus should one 
reflect. 

SIMILE OF THE SAW 

And again, one should reflect thus: I am called a hearer; I shall be put to 
shame, if I do not remove anger and resentment. I remember the simile of 
the Saw. 1 I like to enjoy good states (of mind); if now I arouse anger and 
resentment, I shall be like a man desirous of taking a bath, entering into a 
cesspool. I am one who has heard much; 2 if I do not overcome anger and 
resentment, I shall be forsaken like a physician who is afflicted with vomiting 
and diarrhoea. I am esteemed by the world; if I do not remove anger and 
resentment, I shall be cast away by the world like a painted vase containing 
filth, and uncovered. (Further, one reflects thus:) When a wise man grows 
angry and resentful, he inflicts severe sufferings. So he will be poisoned out 
of the fear of terrible punishment. If a man who is bitten by a snake has the 
antidote and refrains from taking it, he is like one who seems to relish suffering 
and not happiness. In the same way, a bhikkhu who arouses anger and 
resentment and does not suppress these, quickly, is said to be one who relishes 
suffering and not happiness, because he accumulates more fearful kamma 
than this anger and this resentment. And again, one should reflect on anger 
and resentment thus: He who arouses anger and resentment will be laughed 
at by his enemies, and cause his friends to be ashamed of him. Though he 
may have deep virtue, he will be slighted by others. If he was honoured 
before, he will be despised hereafter. Aspiring after happiness, he will acquire 
misery. Outwardly calm, he will be inwardly perturbed. Having eyes, he 



1. (a) Th. 445: Uppajjate sace kodho dvajja kakacupamam. 

(b) M. I, 129, 186, 189: Ubhatodandakena ce pi bhikkhave kakacena cord ocarakd 
angamangdni okanteyyum, tatra piyo mono padoseyya na me so tena sdsanakaro ti. 

2. Bahussuta. 



Subjects of Meditation 183 

will not see. Being intelligent, he will be ignorant. Thus one should reflect 
on the disadvantages of anger and resentment. 

Q. What is meant by "one should reflect on the advantages of patience" ? 

A. Patience is power. 1 This is armour. This protects the body well 
and removes anger and resentment. This is honour. This is praised by the 
wise. This causes the happiness of not falling away. This is a guardian. 
This guards all. This helps one to understand the meaning of things well. 
This is called "putting others to shame". And further, one should reflect 
thus: I have shorn off the hair of the head; now I must cultivate patience. 2 
I have received the alms of the country; I will cause great merit to accrue to 
the givers, through having a mind of patience. 1 bear the form and the 
apparel of the Consummate Ones; 3 this patience is a practise of the Noble 
Ones; therefore I will not allow anger to remain in my mind. I am called a 
hearer. I will cause others to call me a hearer in truth. The givers of alms 
give me many things; through this patience 1 will cause great merit to accrue 
to them. I have confidence; this patience is the place of confidence in me. 
I have knowledge; this patience is the sphere of knowledge in me. If there 
is the poison of anger and resentment in me, this patience is the antidote 
which will counteract the poison in me. Thus one should reflect on the 
disadvantages of anger and resentment and on the advantages of patience, 
and resolve: "I will reach patience. When people blame me, I will be patient. 
I will be meek and not haughty". 4 Thus the yogin proceeds towards the 
bliss of patience and benefits himself. He enters into a place of solitude, 
and with mind undisturbed begins to fill his body (with the thought) thus: 
"I am happy. My mind admits no suffering". What is meant by "I have 
no enemy; I have no anger; I am happily free from all defilements and 
perform all good".? That yogin controls his mind and makes it pliant. He 
makes his mind capable of attainment. If his mind is pliant, and is able to 
bear the object, he should practise loving-kindness. He should regard all 
beings as (he regards) himself. In practising loving-kindness towards all 
beings, the yogin cannot at the start develop loving-kindness for enemies, 
wicked men, beings without merit and dead men. That yogin develops 
loving-kindness for one towards whom he behaves with respectful reserve, 
whom he honours, whom he does not slight, towards whom he is not indifferent, 
and by whom he has been benefitted and, therefore, in regard to whom he 
is not jealous or ill-disposed. He should develop loving-kindness for such a 
one, thus : "I esteem a man who is of such and such a nature, namely, a man 
endowed with honour, learning, virtue, concentration and wisdom. I am 
benefitted through alms, sweet speech, liberality and intentness on that. 
These are of advantage to me". Thus he recalls to mind the virtues he esteems 



1. (a) Dh. 399: Khantibalam baldnikam. (b) Pts. II, 171: 'Bydpddassa pahinattd abydpddo 
khantitV khantibalam. 2. Cp. Ps. I, 79: Avuso, pabbajito nama adhivdsanasilo hoti ti. 

3. Th. 961 Sur rat tarn arahaddhajam. 

4. Cp. Ud. 45: Sutvana vdkyarh pharusam udiritam adhivdsaye bhikkhu adutthacitto *ti> 



184 Vimuttimagga 

and the benefits he has acquired (in and through that one), and develops 
loving-kindness towards that one. One should develop the benevolent mind 
and always reflect and investigate. One should have a mind that is without 
anger and resentment. One should wish to be endowed with tranquillity, 
to be free from hatred, to be endowed with all merits and to gain good advan- 
tages. One should wish to gain a good reward, a good name, to gain con- 
fidence, to gain happiness, to be endowed with virtue, knowledge, liberality 
and wisdom. One should wish for happy sleep and happy awaking. One 
should wish to have no evil dreams. One should wish to become dear to 
humans and to be honoured by them. One should wish to become dear to 
non-humans and to be honoured by them. One should wish to be protected 
by the gods; to be untouched by fire, poison, sword or stick and the like; 
to concentrate the mind quickly; to have a pleasant complexion; to be born 
in the Middle Country; 1 to meet good men ; to perfect oneself ; to end craving; 
to be long-lived; and to attain to the peace and happiness of the Immortal. 

And again, one should recollect thus: If one has not yet produced 
demerit, one should wish not to produce it; and if one has already produced 
it, one should wish to destroy it. If one has not yet produced merit, one should 
wish to produce it; and if one has already produced it, one should wish to 
increase it. 2 And again, one should not wish to produce undesirable states, 
and if one has produced them, one should wish to destroy them. (One should 
wish to produce) desirable states of mind, (and if one has) produced them, 
one should wish to increase them). 

That yogin is able to gain confidence by means of the heart of kindness. 
Through confidence that is free, he can establish his mind. Through estab- 
lishing that is free, he can dwell in mindfulness. Through mindfulness that 
is free, through establishing that is free and through confidence that is free, 
he is endowed with the unshakable mind, and he understands the state of 
the unshakable (mind). That yogin by these means and through these activities 
develops the thought 3 of loving-kindness for himself, repeats it and understands 
unshakability. [436] Having by these means and through these activities 
developed the thought of loving-kindness and repeated it, he makes his mind 
pliant and gradually develops the thought of loving-kindness for a person 
whom he holds dear. After he has developed the thought of loving-kindness 
for a person whom he holds dear, he gradually develops the thought of loving- 
kindness for an indifferent person. After he has developed the thought of 
loving-kindness for an indifferent person, he gradually develops the thought of 



1. Majjhimadesa. 

2. A. II, 15; IV, 462: Imesarh kho bhikkhave pahcannam sikkhddubbalydnam pahdndya 
cattdro sammappadhdnd bhdvetabbd. Katame cattdro ? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu anuppannd- 
nam akusaldnarh dhammdnam anuppdddya chandam janeti vdyamati viriyam drabhati 
cittam pagganhdti padahati, uppanndnam pdpakdnam akusaldnarh dhammdnam pahdndya 
. . . , anuppanndnam kusaldnam dhammdnam uppdddya. . . , uppanndnam kusaldnam 
dhammdnam thitiyd asammosdya bhiyyobhdvdya vepulldya bhdvandya pdripuriyd candam 
janeti vdyamati viriyam drabhati cittam pagganhdti padahati. 

3. Sannd. 



Subjects of Meditation 185 

loving-kindness for an enemy. Thus he encompasses all beings (with loving- 
kindness) and identifies himself with them. If he does not develop loving- 
kindness for an indifferent person or is unable to do so and develops dislike, 
he should reflect thus: "In me are states of demerit. I have dislike. Wishing 
to acquire merit, I stirred up confidence and was ordained. And again, I 
said, T will develop great loving-kindness and compassion for the weal of all 
beings, through the merit of the Great Teacher'. If I cannot develop loving- 
kindness towards one indifferent person, how shall I develop loving-kindness 
towards enemies?". If that yogin is still unable to destroy dislike and hate, 
that yogin should not endeavour to develop loving-kindness, but should adopt 
another way to remove the hatred he has for that person. 

TWELVE MEANS OF REMOVING HATRED 

Q. What arc the means of success in removing hatred? 

A. (1) One should share in order to benefit the other (whom one hates). 
One should consider: (2) merit, (3) goodwill, (4) one's own kamma, 
(5) debt-cancellation, (6) kinship, (7) one's own faults. (8) One should 
not consider the suffering inflicted on oneself. One should investigate: 
(9) the nature of the faculties, (10) the momentary destruction of states, 
(11) and aggregation. (12) One should investigate emptiness. One should 
bear these in mind. 

(1) Even if one. is angry j one should give the other what, he asks, accept 
willingly what he gives. And in speaking with him, one should always use 
good words. One should do what the other does. By such action, the destruc- 
tion of the anger of the one and the other takes place. (2) Merit — if one 
sees the merits of the other, one ought to think: "This is merit. This is 
not demerit". 

SIMILE OF THE POND 

It is like this: There is a pond covered with duckweed, and one, 
having removed the duckweed, draws out water. 1 If the other has no 
merit, one should develop loving-kindness for him thus: "This man has no 
merit; surely, he will fare ill". 2 (3) Goodwill — one should think thus (of 



1. A. Ill, 187-8: Seyyatha pi dvuso pokkharani sevdlapanakapariyonaddhd, atha puriso 
dgaccheyya ghammdbhitatto ghammapareto kilanto tasito pipdsito, so tarn pokkharanim 
ogahetvd ubhohi hat the hi iti c'iti ca sevdlapanakam apaviydhitvd aiijalind pivitvd pakka- 
meyya, evam eva kho dvuso yvdyam puggalo aparisudhavacisamdcdro parisuddhakdya- 
samdcdro, yassa aparisuddhavacisamacdratd, na sdssa tasmirh samaye manasikdtabbd, 
yd ca khvdssa parisuddhakdyasamdcdratd, sdssa tasmirh samaye manasikdtabbd. Evam 
tasmim puggale dghdto pativinetabbo. 

2. Ibid. 189: Seyyatha pi dvuso puriso dbddhiko dukkhito bdlhagildno addhdnamaggapati- 
panno, tassa purato pi 'ssa diire gdmo pacchato pi 'ssa diiregdmo, so na labheyya sappdydni 
bhojandni, na labheyya sappdydni bhesajjdni na labheyya patirupam upatthdkam na labheyya 
gdmantandyakam, tarn enam annataro puriso passeyya addhdnamaggapatipanno, so tasmim 
purise kdmnnam yeva upatthdpeyya, anudayam yeva upafthdpeyya anukampam yeva 



186 Vimuttimagga 

gaining) the other's goodwill: If a man does not revere (the other) let him 
arouse the thought of goodwill. If he is not revered, he should make merit. 
And again, the destruction of demerit is well-faring. Thus should the changing 
of hatred to goodwill be known. (4) One's own kamma — one should con- 
sider one's own evil kamma 1 thus: "The evil that I do will cause anger to 
arise in others". (5) Debt-cancellation — (thus one thinks:) "Owing to my 
past kamma, others blame me. Now I am free from debt. Reflecting on this 
evidence (of debt-cancellation), I am glad". (6) Kinship — he remembers 
that beings succeed one another in (the cycle of) birth and death, thus: "This 
is my kinsman", and arouses the thought of kinship. 2 (7) One's own faults — 
one arouses self-perception thus: "That man's anger is produced on account 
of me. I acquire demerit on account of him". Thus arousing self-percep- 
tion 3 one sees one's own faults. (8) One should not consider — one should 
not consider the perception (of one's own suffering) which is unrelated to 
hatred. Suffering — (one thinks thus:) "Owing to folly, I see my own suffering 
as a hindrance". Thus one should see. One suffers by oneself, because one 
does not think on loving-kindness. It appears so (i.e., as a hindrance) because 
of mental suffering. Avoiding the place where the enemy lives, one should 
dwell where one does not hear (his voice) or see him. (9) Nature of the 
faculties — one should investigate thus : "To be tied to the lovely and the 
unlovely is the nature of the faculties. Therefore I hate. Because of this 
I am unmindful". (10) The momentary destruction of states — one should 
investigate thus: "That man suffers because of birth. All these states perish 
in one thought-moment. With which state in him am I angry?". (1 1) Aggre- 
gation — one should investigate thus: "The inner and the outer aggregates 
produce suffering. It is not possible for me to be angry with any part or 
place". (12) Emptiness — one should investigate thus: In the absolute 
sense it cannot be said, "This man causes suffering" or "This man suffers". 



upafthdpeyya L aho vatdyam puriso labheyya sappdydni bhojandni labheyya sappdydni bhesajjdni 
labheyya pafirupam upatthdkam labheyya gdmantandyakarh. Tarn kissa hetu? Mdyarh 
puriso idK eva anayavyasanam dpajjatV ti. Evam eva kho dvuso yvdyarh puggalo apari- 
suddhakdyasamdcdro aparisuddhavacisamdcdro na ca labhati kdlena kdlarh cetaso vivaram 
cetaso pasddam, evarupe dvuso puggale kdrunnam yeva upafthapetabbam anudayd yeva 
upatthdpetabbd anukampd yeva upatthdpetabbd 'aho vat a ay am dyasma kdyaduccaritam 
pahdya kdyasucaritam bhdveyya, vaciduccaritam pahdya vacisucaritam bhdveyya, mano- 
duccaritam pahdya manosucaritam bhdveyya. Tarn kissa hetu ? Mdyam dyasma kdyassa 
bhedd parammarand apdyam duggatim vinipdtam nirayam uppajjatV ti. Evam tasmirh 
puggale dghdto pativinetabbo. 

1. A. V, 88: Kammassako 'mhi kammaddyddo; M. I, 390: Evam paharh Punna: kamma- 
ddyddd sattd ti vaddmi. 

2. S. II, 189-90: Na so bhikkhave satto sulabharupo, yo na mdtdbhutapubbo imind dighena 
addhund. Tarn kissa hetu ? Anamataggdyam bhikkhave samsdro pubbdkoti na pahndyati 
avijjdnivarandnam sattdnam tanhdsamyojandnam sandhdvatam samsaratam. 

Evam digharattam kho bhikkhave dukkham paccanubhutam tibbath paccanubhutam 
vyasanam paccanubhutam katasi vaddhitd, ydvancidam bhikkhave alam eva sabbasankhdresu 
nibbinditum alam virajjitum alam vimuccitunti. 

Na so bhikkhave satto sulabharupo yo na pitdbhutapubbo . . . 

Na so bhikkhave satto sulabharupo yo na bhdtdbhutapubbo . . . 

Na so bhikkhave satto sulabharupo yo na bhaginibhutapubbo . . . 

Na so bhikkhave satto sulabharupo yo na puttobhutapubbo . . . 

3. Atta sanhd. 



Subjects of Meditation 187 

This body is the result of causes and conditions. There is no soul-entity in 
the aggregates. 

Therefore the Blessed One uttered this stanza :- 

He who dwells amidst the village grove, 

experiencing pleasure and pain, 

is not burned because of self or other 

but because his mind is passionate. 

If one's mind were cleansed of passion's stain, 

who could touch that one immaculate 7 1 

Thus after that yogin has clearly understood the way of destroying 
hatred, has identified friends, indifferent ones and enemies with himself, and 
acquired facility in the practice, he should gradually arouse the thought of 
loving-kindness and develop it for various bhikkhus in (his) dwelling-place. 
After that he should develop loving-kindness for the Community of Bhikkhus 
in (his) dwelling-place. After that he should develop loving-kindness for the 
deities in his dwelling-place. After that he should develop loving-kindness 
for beings in the village outside his dwelling-place. Thus (he develops loving- 
kindness for beings) from village to village, from country to country. After 
that he should develop (loving-kindness for beings) in one direction. That 
yogin "pervades one quarter with thoughts of loving-kindness; and after 
that, the second; and after that, the third; and after that, the fourth. Thus 
he spreads loving-kindness towards all beings of the four directions, above, 
below and pervades the whole world with thoughts of loving-kindness immense 
immeasurable, without enmity, without ill will. 2 Thus that yogin develops 
loving-kindness and attains to fixed meditation in three ways : through com- 
prehending all beings, through comprehending all village-domains 3 and 
through comprehending all directions. He attains to fixed meditation, jhana, 
through developing loving-kindness for one being, and in the same way, for 
two, three and for all beings. He attains to fixed meditation, jhana, through 
developing loving-kindness for beings of one village-domain, and in the same 
way for (beings of) many villages. He attains to fixed meditation, jhana, 
through developing loving-kindness for one being in one direction, and in the 
same way (for beings) in the four directions. Here when one develops loving- 
kindness for one being, if that being is dead, that object is lost. If he loses 
the object, he cannot arouse loving-kindness. Therefore he should develop 
the thought of loving-kindness widely. Thus practising he can fulfil great 
fruition and merit. 



1. Ud. 12: Game arahfie sukhadukkhaputfho 

nev* at tat o no par at o dahetha, 
phusanti phassd upadhim paticca, 
nirupadhim kena phuseyyum phassd Vi. 

2. D. II, 186; D. Ill, 223-4: IdK dvuso bhikkhu mettd-sahagatena cetasd ekarh disath 
pharitvd viharati, tathd dutiyam, tathd tatiyam, tathd catuttham. Iti uddham adho tiriyam 
sabbadhi sabbattatdya sabbdvantam lokarh mettd-sahagatena cetasd vipulena mahaggatena 
appamdnena averena avydpajjhena pharitvd viharati. 

3. Gdmakkhetta. 



188 Vimuttimagga 

Q. What are the roots, manifestation, fulfilment, non-fulfilment and 
object of loving-kindness ? 

A. Absence of greed is a root; absence of hatred is a root; absence 
of delusion is a root. Willing is a root. Right consideration 1 is a root. 
What is its "manifestation"? The making visible of these roots is its manifes- 
tation. What is its "fulfilment" ? When one is endowed with loving-kindness 
he destroys hatred, removes impure affection and purifies his bodily, verbal 
and mental actions. This is called "fulfilment". What is its "non-fulfilment" ? 
Through two causes one fails in the practice of loving-kindness : through regard- 
ing friends as enemies and through impure affection. "Non-fulfilment" 
is produced when one arouses the feeling of enmity and rivalry. Thus should 
"non-fulfilment" be known. What is its "object"? Beings are its "object". 2 

TEN PERFECTIONS 

Q. That is wrong. In the absolute sense there is no being. Why then 
is it said that beings are its object? A. Owing to differences in faculties, 
in common parlance, it is said that there are beings. Now, the Bodhisatta* 
and the Mahasatta* develop loving-kindness for all beings and fulfil the ten 
perfections. 3 

Q. How is it so? A. The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop 
loving-kindness for all beings and resolve to benefit all beings and give them 
fearlessness. 4 Thus they fulfil the perfection of giving. 5 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting all beings, they cause separation from suffering and 
do not lose the faculty of truth. It is like the relation of a father to his children. 
Thus they fulfil the perfection of virtue. 6 



1 . Sammd manasikdra. 

2. Sattdrammana. — Cp. Mp. II, 41: Ime pana cattdro brahmavihdrd vattd honti, vattapddd 
honti, vipassandpddd honti, ditthadhammasukhavihdrd honti, abhihhdpddd vd nirodhapddd 
vd, lokuttara pana na honti. Kasmd ? Sattdrammanattd ti. 

* Transliteration. Cp. Sv. IT, 428: Atha Mahdsatto . . . panca-mahd-vilokanam ndma vihkesi. 

3. Ud.-a. 128: Yathd vd te Bhagavanto ddna-pdramim puretvd, sila-nekkhamma-pannd- 
viriya-khanti-sacca-adhitthana-mettd-upekkhd-pdrami ti imd dasa pdramiyo dasa-upapd- 
ramiyo, dasa paramattha-pdramiyo ti samatimsa pdramiyo puretvd, panca mahd-pariccdge 
pariccajitvd, pubba-yoga-pubba-cariya-dhamnf akkhdna-iidf attha-cariyddayo puretvd, 
buddhi-cariydya kotim patvd dgatd, tathd ayam pi Bhagavd dgato. 

4. Abhaya. — Cp. A. IV, 246: Idha bhikkhave ariyasdvako pdndtipdtam pahdya pdndtipatd 
pativirato hoti. Pdndtipatd pativirato bhikkhave ariyasdvako aparimdndnam sattdnam 
abhayam deti averam deti avyapajjham deti; aparimdndnam sattdnam abhayarh datvd 
averam latvd avyapajjham datvd aparimdnassa abhayassa averassa avydpajjhassa bhdgi 
hoti. Idarh bhikkhave pathamam ddnam mahdddnam aggahharh rattahham vamsahham 
pordnam asamkinnam asamkinnapubbam na samkiyati na samkiyissati appatikuttham 
samanehi brdhmanehi vihhuhi. . . 

Puna ca param bhikkhave ariyasdvako adinndddnam pahdya adinndddna pativirato 
hoti ... pe. . . kdmesu micchdcdram pahdya kdmesu micchdcdrd pativirato hoti. . . pe ... 
musdvddam pahdya musdvddd pativirato hoti... pe... surdmerayamajjapamddatthdnd 
pativirato hoti. Surdmerayamajjapamddatthdnd pativirato bhikkhave ariyasdvako apari- 
mdndnam sattdnam abhayam deti. . . pe. . . avydpajjhassa bhdgi hoti. Idarh bhikkhave 
pancamam ddnam mahdddnam aggahham ... pe. . . 

5. Ddna-pdrami (pdrami is transliterated in this section). 6. Sila. 



Subjects of Meditation 189 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting all beings, they acquire non-greed, and in order to 
remove the non-merit of beings, they attain to meditation, jhdna, 1 and enter 
into homeiessness. Thus they fulfil the perfection of renunciation. 2 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting ail beings, they consider merit and non-merit. 
Understanding in accordance with truth, devising clean expedients, they reject 
the bad and take the good. Thus they fulfil the perfection of wisdom. 3 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting all beings, they, without abandoning energy, exert 
themselves at all times. Thus they fulfil the perfection of energy. 4 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting all beings, they practise patience and do not grow 
angry when others blame or hate them. Thus they fulfil the perfection of 
patience. 5 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta [743] develop loving-kindness for all 
beings. For the sake of benefitting all beings, they speak the truth, dwell in 
the truth and keep the truth. Thus they fulfil the perfection of truth. 6 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting all beings, they do not break their promises but 
keep them faithfully unto life's end. Thus they fulfil the perfection of 
resolution. 7 

The Bodhisatta and Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting all beings, they identify themselves with all beings 
and fulfil the perfection of loving-kindness. 8 

The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 
For the sake of benefitting all beings, they regard friends, indifferent ones and 
enemies, equally, without hatred and without attachment. Thus they fulfil 
the perfection of equanimity. 9 

In these ways do the Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta practise loving- 
kindness and fulfil the ten perfections. 

/ elucidate (further) loving-kindness and the four resolves.^ 



1. Nearly always this is partially transliterated. Cp. M. I, 246: Na kho panaham imdya 
katukdya dukkarakdrikdya adhigacchdmi uttarim manussadhammd alamariyandnadassana- 
visesam, siyd nu kho anno maggo bodhdydti. Tassa mayharh Aggivessana etadahosi: 
Abhijdndmi kho panaham pitu Sakkassa kammante sitdya jambucchdydya nisinno vivicc* 
eva kdmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam savicdram vivekajam pitisukham 
pathamam jhdnam upasampajja viharitd, siyd nu kho eso maggo bodhdydti. Tassa may ham 
Aggivessana satdnusdri vinndnam ahosi: eso va maggo bodhdydti. 

2. Nekkhamma. 

3. Pahhd (transliteration). 4. Viriya. 5. Khanti. 6. Sacca. 

7. Adhitthdna. 8. Metta. 9. Upekkhd. 

t This and all subsequent passages in italics and marked t are omitted in the Sung edition 
mentioned before. 



190 Vimuttimagga 

THE FOUR RESOLVES 

Now, the Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta having practised loving-kindness, 
having fulfilled the ten perfections, fulfil the four resolves. They are the resolve 
of truth, the resolve of liberality, the resolve of peace and the resolve of wisdom. 1 

Here, the perfection of truth, the perfection of resolution and the per- 
fection of energy, fulfil the resolve of truth. 

The perfection of giving, the perfection of virtue and the perfection of 
renunciation, fulfil the resolve of liberality. 

The perfection of patience, the perfection of loving-kindness and the per- 
fection of equanimity, fulfil the resolve of peace. 

The perfection of wisdom fulfil the resolve of wisdom. 

Thus the Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta having practised loving-kindness 
and fulfilled the ten perfections, fulfil the four resolves and attain to two states, 
namely, serenity and insight. 2 

Here, the resolve of truth, the resolve of liberality and the resolve of peace 
fulfil serenity. The resolve of wisdom fulfils insight. Through the fulfilment 
of serenity, they attain to all meditations, jhdnas, and hold to emancipation 
and concentration firmly. They cause the arising of the concentration of the 
twin-miracle 3 and the concentration of the attainment of great compassion. 4 
With the attainment of insight, they are endowed with all supernormal 
knowledge, 5 analytical knowledge, 6 the powers, 7 the confidences. 8 There- 
after they cause the arising of natural knowledge 9 (?) and omniscience. 10 Thus 
the Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta practise loving-kindness, and gradually 
attain to Buddhahood. 

Loving-kindness has endedA 

THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF COMPASSION 

Q. What is compassion? What is the practising of it? What are its 
salient characteristic, function and manifestation? What are its benefits? 
What is the procedure? 

A. As parents who on seeing the suffering of their dear and only child, 
compassionate it, saying, "O, how it suffers!", so one compassionates all 
beings. This is compassion. One dwells undisturbed in compassion — this 



1. The order is different from D. III. 229: Cattari adifthdndni. Pannd-addifthdnam 
saccddifthdnam, cdgddiffhdnam, upasamddhiffhdnam. 

2. Samatha, vipassand (transliteration). 

3. Yamakapdtihdriya. 4. Mahdkarundsamdpatti. 
5. Abhinhd. 6. Patisambhidd. 7. Bala, 

8. Vesdrajja, 9. Pakati-Mna> 10. Sabbannutd-ndna. 



Subjects of Meditation 191 

is called the practising of it. The non-manifestation of non-advantage is its 
salient characteristic. Happiness is its function. Harmlessness 1 is its mani- 
festation. Its benefits are equal to those of loving-kindness. 

What is the procedure ? The new yogin enters into a place of solitude 
and sits down with mind collected and undisturbed. If he sees or hears of a 
person stricken with disease, or a person affected by decay, or a person 
who is full of greed, he considers thus: "That person is stricken with 
suffering. How will he escape suffering?". 2 And again, if he sees or hears 
of a person of perverted mind and bound with the defilements, or a person 
entering into ignorance, or one, who, having done merit in the past does not 
now train himself, he considers thus: "That person is stricken with suffering; 
he will fare ill. How will he escape suffering?". 3 And again, if he sees or 
hears of a person who follows demeritorious doctrines and does not follow 
meritorious doctrines, or of a person who follows undesirable doctrines and 
does not follow desirable doctrines, he considers thus: "That person is 
stricken with suffering; he will fare ill. How will he escape suffering?". 4 

That yogin by these means and through these activities develops the 
thought of compassion for these persons and repeats it. Having by these means 
and through these activities developed the thought of compassion and repeated 
it, he makes his mind pliant, and capable of bearing the object. Thereafter 
he gradually develops (compassion) for an indifferent person and an enemy. 
The rest is as was fully taught above. Thus he fills the four directions. 

Q. What is the fulfilment of compassion and what, non-fulfilment? 
A. When a man fulfils compassion, he separates from harming and from 
killing. He is not afflicted. He separates from impure affection. Through 
two causes compassion is not fulfilled: through resentment produced within 
himself and through affliction. 

Q. All do not suffer. Suffering does not prevail always. Then how is 
it possible to compassionate all beings ? A. As all beings have at some previous 
time experienced suffering, they can grasp the sign well and practise compassion 



1. Ahimsd, avihirhsa. (a) A. I, 151: Sabbhi ddnarh upahhattarh ahirhsdsahhamo damo 
(=Ahirhsd ti karuna c'eva karund-pubbabhdgo ca — Mp. II, 250). 

lb) Sv. Ill, 982: Avihirhsa ti karuna karund-pubba-bhdgopi. Vuttam pi c'etarh: tattha 
katamd avihirhd? Yd sattesu karuna karundyand karundyitattarh karund-cetovimutti, 
ayarh vuccati avihirhsa ti. 

(c) Dh. 300: Yesarh diva ca ratto ca ahirhsdya rato mano (—Ahirhsdya rato ti 'so 
karundsahagatena cetasd ekarh disarh pharitvd viharatV ti evarh vuttdya karundbhdvandya 
rato^- Dh.-a. Ill, 459). 

2. Cp. (a) Pts. I, 128: 'Jardya anusahagato lokasannivdso'' ti passantdnarh Buddhdnam 
Bhagavantdnam sattesu mahdkarund okkamati. . . 'Byddfhi abhibhuto lokasannivdso 9 ti 
. . . 'Tanhdya uddito lokasannivdso 9 ti. . . 

(b) S. I, 40: Tanhdya uddito loko, jaraya parivdrito. 

3. Pts. I, 128-9: 'Mahdbandhanabandho lokasannivdso . . . mohabandhanena . . . kilesbandha- 
nena . . . tassa nattK anno koci bandharh moceta ahhatra mayffti; . . . Uihi duccaritehi 
vippafipanno lokasannivdso' ti passantdnarh . . . 

4. Ibid. 129-30: 'Pahcahi kdmagunehi rajjati lokasannivdso' ti... 'atfhahi micchattehi 
niyato lokasannivdso' ti. . . 



192 Vimuttimagga 

in all places. Again, sorrow of birth and death is the common property of all 
beings. Therefore all beings can in all places practise compassion. 

Compassion has ended A 

THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF APPRECIATIVE JOY 

Q. What is appreciative joy? What is the practising of it? What are 
its salient characteristic, function and manifestation? What are its benefits? 
What is the procedure? 

A. As parents, who, on seeing the happiness of their dear and only child 
are glad, and say, "Sddhu!" so, one develops appreciative joy for all beings. 
Thus should appreciative joy be known. The undisturbed dwelling of the 
mind in appreciative joy — this is called the practising of it. Gladness is 
its salient characteristic. Non-fear is its function. Destruction of dislike is 
its manifestation. Its benefits are equal to those of loving-kindness. 

What is the procedure ? The new yogin enters a place of solitude and sits 
down with mind collected and undisturbed. When one sees or hears that some 
person's qualities are esteemed by others, and that he is at peace and is joyful, 
one thinks thus: "Sddhu! sddhu! may he continue joyful for a long time!". 
And again, when one sees or hears that a certain person does not follow demeri- 
torious doctrines, or that he does not follow undesirable doctrines and that he 
follows desirable doctrines, one thinks thus: "Sddhu! sddhu! may he continue 
joyful for a long time !". That yogin by these means and through these 
activities develops the thought of appreciative joy and repeats it. Having by 
these means and through these activities developed the thought of appreciative 
joy and repeated it, he makes his mind pliant, and capable of bearing the object. 
Thereafter he gradually develops appreciative joy for an indifferent person 
and an enemy. The rest is as was fully taught above. Thus with appreciative 
joy he fills the four directions. 

Q. What is the fulfilment of appreciative joy ? What is its non-fulfilment ? 
A. When one fulfils appreciative joy, he removes unhappiness, does not 
arouse impure affection and does not speak untruth. Through two causes 
appreciative joy is not fulfilled: through resentment produced within himself 
and derisive action. The rest is as was fully taught above. 

Appreciative joy has ended. 

THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF EQUANIMITY 

Q. What is equanimity? What is the practising of it? What are its 
salient characteristic, function and manifestation? What are its benefits? 
What is the procedure? 



Subjects of Meditation 193 

A. As parents are neither too attentive nor yet inattentive towards 
any one of their children, but regard them equally and maintain an even mind 
towards them, so through equanimity one maintains an even mind towards 
all beings. Thus should equanimity be known. The dwelling undisturbed 
in equanimity — this is called the practising of it. Non-attachment is its 
salient characteristic. Equality is its function. The suppression of disliking 
and liking is its manifestation. Its benefits are equal to those of loving-kindness. 

Q. What is the procedure? That yogin at first attends to the third 
meditation, jhdna, with loving-kindness, with compassion and with appreciative 
joy. Having attained to the third meditation, jhdna, and acquired facility 
therein, he sees the severe trials of loving-kindness, compassion and appreciative 
joy. Liking and disliking are near. These (loving-kindness etc.) are connected 
with fawning, elation and gladness. The merits of equanimity lie in the 
overcoming of these severe trials. That yogin, having seen the severe trials 
of loving-kindness, compassion and appreciative joy and the merits of 
equanimity, develops equanimity towards a neutral person 1 and makes the 
mind calm. Having developed and repeated it, he makes his mind pliant and 
capable of bearing the object. Thereafter, he gradually develops (it) towards 
an enemy and then towards a friend. The rest is as was fully taught above. 
Thus he fills the four directions. That yogin practising thus attains to the 
fourth meditation, jhdna, through equanimity. In three ways he attains to 
fixed meditation, jhdna, through comprehending beings, through compre- 
hending village-domains and through comprehending all directions. 

Q. When the yogin practises equanimity, how does he consider beings? 

A. The yogin considers thus: "In loving-kindness, compassion and 
appreciative joy, one is overjoyed with beings", and removing joy, he induces 
equanimity. As a man might leap for joy on meeting a long-lost friend [438] 
and later, calm down, having been with him for sometime, so having lived 
long with loving-kindness, compassion and appreciative joy, the yogin attains 
to equanimity. And again, there is a man. He speaks concerning beings, 
"Beings consider thus: What is the fulfilment of equanimity? What is its 
non-fulfilment?". When equanimity is fulfilled, one destroys disliking and 
liking and does not cause the arising of ignorance. Through two causes 
equanimity is not fulfilled: through resentment produced within oneself 
and through the arising of ignorance. 



2 



MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

Again I elucidate the meaning of the four immeasur ablest 

What are the miscellaneous teachings concerning the four immeasurables ? 3 



1. Lit. neither likable nor not likable. 

2. What follows is unintelligible. 

3. The miscellaneous teachings are in many places unintelligible as it is here. This portion 
is not in the three editions of the Sung, Yuan and Ming dynasties, i.e., roughly about 1239 
A.C., 1290 A.C., and 1601 A.C., respectively. Also it is not found in the old Sung 
edition, 1104-1148 A.C., belonging to the library of the Japanese Imperial Household. 



194 Vimuttimagga 

One attains to distinction in the four immeasurables through practising 
(them) towards animals, immoral persons, moral persons, those who dislike 
passion, hearers, Silent Buddhas and Supreme Buddhas regarding them as 
a mother regards her children according to their stage in life 1 (lit. seasons). 

g. Why is the third and not the fourth meditation, jhdna, attained 
in loving-kindness, compassion and appreciative joy? 

A. Through constant dwelling on the sorrows (of others) one develops 
loving-kindness, compassion and appreciative joy. (And so no equanimity 
is present). Therefore the third meditation, jhdna, is attained and not the 
fourth. 

Again the plane of equanimity belongs to the fourth meditation, jhdna, 
because it is endowed with two kinds of equanimity, namely, neutral feeling 2 
and neutrality as regards states. 3 Dwelling in the plane of equanimity and 
regarding all beings with equal favour, one accomplishes equanimity. Owing 
to the nature of the planes of the three immeasurables, the third meditation, 
jhdna, and not the fourth, is produced. And again, it is said that the four 
meditations, jhdnas, are produced with the four immeasurables. The Blessed 
One has declared: "Further, O bhikkhu, you should develop the concentration 
which is with initial and sustained application of thought; you should develop 
that which is without initial, and only with, sustained application of thought; 
you should develop that which is without initial and without sustained appli- 
cation of thought; you should develop that which is with joy; (you should 
develop that which is without joy); you should develop that which is accom- 
panied by equanimity. 4 

Q. Why are these four immeasurables and not five or three taught? 
A. Were that so, uncertainty might arise concerning all. And again, in 
order to overcome hatred, cruelty, dislike and lust, one accomplishes the 
four immeasurables. And again, it is said that these four are (overcome with) 
only loving-kindness. If one arouses (in oneself) hatred, cruelty, unhappiness, 
one, through suppressing them in the four ways, attains to distinction. 

Equanimity is the purification of loving-kindness, compassion and appre- 
ciative joy, because through it hatred and lust are destroyed. 

Further, it should be understood that the four immeasurables are of one 
nature though their signs are different. Thus owing to the suppression of 
tribulation, owing to the object which comprises beings, owing to the wish 
to benefit, they fulfil one characteristic. 



1. Cp. Sv. Ill, 1008: Appamanna tipamdnam agahetvd anavasesa-pharana-vasena appamanna. 

2. Vedanupekkhd. 3. Dhammassa majjhattatd. 

4. Lit. without sustained application of thought (vicdra) with only initial application of 
thought iyitakka) which is evidently an error. 
Cp. (a) S. IV, 360: Katamo ca bhikkhave asankhatagdmi maggo. Savitakko savicdro 

samddhi avitakko vicdramatto samddhi avitakko avicdro samddhi. Ayam vuccati 

bhikkhave asankhatagdmi maggo. 

(6)D. Ill, 219: Tayo samddhi. Savitakko savicdro samddhi, avitakko vicdra-matto 

samddhi, avitakko avicdro samddhi (=Samddhisu pafhama-jjhdna-samddhi savitakka- 



Subjects of Meditation 195 

And again, it is said that owing to the distinction in states, owing to the 
appropriation of object (?) and advantage, they are different, as the Blessed 
One taught in the Haliddavasana Sutta 1 : "In the sphere of the beautiful, 
loving-kindness is first;* in the sphere of (infinite) space, compassion is 
first;** in the sphere of (infinite) consciousness, appreciative joy is first ;t 
in the sphere of nothingness, equanimity is first".! 

Q. Why are they to be understood thus? A. They should be under- 
stood thus because of their being the sufficing condition. 

Q. How? A. If one develops the mind of loving-kindness, all beings 
are dear to him. Because they are always dear to him, he causes his mind 



savicdro. Pahcaka-nayena dutiya-jjhdna-samddhi avitakka-vicdramatto. Seso 

avitakko-avicdro — Sv. Ill, 1003). 

(c) A. IV, 300 : Mettd me cetovimutti bhdvitd bhavissati bahulikatd ydnikatd vatthukatd 

anutthitd paricitd susamdraddhd ti. Evam hi te bhikkhu sikkhitabbam. 

Yato kho te bhikkhu ayarh samddhi evam bhdvito hoti bahulikato, tato tvarh bhikkhu 
imam samddhirh savitakkampi savicdram bhdveyydsi, avitakkampi vicdramattam bhdveyydsi, 
avitakkam pi avicdram bhdveyydsi, sappitikam pi bhdveyydsi, nippitikam pi bhdveyydsi 
sdtasahagatam pi bhdveyydsi, upekkhdsahagatam pi bhdveyydsi. Yato kho te bhikkhu 
ayarh samddhi evam bhdvito hoti subhdvito, tato te bhikkhu evam sikkhitabbam: — 

Karund me cetovimutti muditd me cetovimutti upekhd me cetovimutti 

bhdvitd anutthitd paricitd susamdraddhd ti. 

S. V. 119-21: Katharh bhdvitd ca bhikkhave mettdcetovimutti kimgatikd hoti kimparamd 
kimphald kimpariyosdnd? 

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu mettdsahagaiam satisambojjhangam bhdveti mettdsaha- 

gatarh upekhdsambojjhangam bhdveti viveka" virdga" nirodhanissitam vossaggaparindmim. 
So sace dkankhati appatikkiile patikkulasahhi vihareyyanti, patikkulasahhi tattha viharati. 
Sace dkankhati patikkule appatikkulasanni vihareyyanti, appatikkulasanni tattha viharati. 
Sace dkankhati appatikkiile ca patikkule ca patikkulasanni vihareyyanti, patikkulasahhi 
tattha viharati. Sace dkankhati patikkule ca appatikkiile ca appatikkulasanni vihareyyanti, 
appatikulasahhi tattha viharati. Sace dkankhati appatikkulahca patikkulahca tad ubhayam 
abhinivajjetvd upekhako vihareyyam sato sampajdno ti, upekhako tattha viharati sato sam- 
pajdno. Subham vd kho pana vimokkharh upasampajja viharati, subhaparamdham 
(=* Kasmd pan' etdsarh mettddinam subha-paramdditd vuttd Bhagavatd ti? Sabhdga- 
vasena tassa tassa upanissayatd. Mettdvihdrissa hi sattd appatikkuld honti. AtKassa 
appatikkuld-paricayd appafikkulesu parisuddha-vannesu nilddisu cittah upasamharato 
appakasiren'eva tattha cittarh pakkhandati. Iti mettd subha-vimokhassa upanissayo hoti, 
na tato pararh. Tasmd subha-paramd ti vuttd — Spk. Ill, 172-3), bhikkhave mettdcetovi- 
muttim vaddmi. Idha pahhassa bhikkhuno uttarim vimuttim appativijjhato. 

Katharh bhdvitd ca bhikkhave karundcetovimutti kimgatikd hoti kimparamd kimphald 
kimpariyosdnd ? 

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu karundsahagatam satisambojjhangam bhdveti... pe ..., 
karundsahagatam upekhdsambojjhangam bhdveti vossaggaparindmim. So sace dkan- 
khati appatikkiile patikkulasahhi vihareyyanti, patikkulasahhi tattha viharati Sace 

dkankhati appatikkulahca patikkulahca tad ubhayam abhinivajjetvd upekhako vihareyyam 
sato sampajdno ti, upekhako tattha viharati sato sampajdno. Sabbaso vdpana rupasahhdnam 
samatikkamd patighasahhdnam atthagamd ndnattasahhdnam amanasikdrd ananto dkdso 
ti dkdsdnahcdyatanam upasampajja viharati, dkdsdnahcdyatanaparamdham** bhikkhave 
karundcetovimuttirh vaddmi. Idha pahhassa bhikkhuno uttarim vimuttim appativijjhato. 

Katharh bhdvitd ca bhikkhave muditdcetovimutti kimgatikd hoti kimparamd kimphata 
kimpariyosdnd ? 

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu muditdsahagatam satisambojjhangam bhdveti muditdsaha- 

gatarh upekhdsambojjhangam bhdveti .... Sabbaso vd pana dkdsdnahcdyatanam samatik- 
kamma anantam vihhdnan ti vihhdnahcdyatanam upasampajja viharati. Vihhdnahcdyatana- 
paramdhanv\ bhikkhave muditdcetovimuttim vaddmi. Idha pahhassa bhikkhuno 
uttarim vimuttim appativijjhato. 

Katharh bhdvitd ca bhikkhave upekhdcetovimutti . . . kimpariyosdnd? 

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu upekhdsahagatam satisambojjhangam bhdveti. . . Sabbaso vd 
pana vihhdnahcdyatanam samatikkamma natthi kihciti dkihcahhdyatanam upasampajja 
viharati. Akihcahhdyatanaparamdham% bhikkhave upekhdcetovimuttirh vaddmi. Idha 
pahhassa bhikkhuno uttarim vimuttim appativijjhato ti. 



196 Vimuttimagga 

to consider the blue-green, yellow (or other) colour kasina, and attains to 
fixed meditation, jhdna, without difficulty. At this time the yogin accomplishes 
the fourth meditation, jhdna, of the element of form. Therefore loving-kindness 
is first in (the sphere of) the beautiful. 1 At that time the yogin, depending 
on loving-kindness which he has developed in the fourth meditation, jhdna, 
of the element of form, surpasses that (element). 

Q. How is that shallow? A. He practises loving-kindness; therefore 
he knows the tribulations of the element of form. How? Seeing the sufferings 
of beings he develops loving-kindness through a material cause. After that 
he understands the tribulations of the element of form. He causes the mind 
to consider the abandoning of forms and of space, and attains to fixed medi- 
tation, jhdna, without difficulty in the sphere of the infinity of space, because 
he depends on it. Therefore it is said that compassion is first in the sphere 
of the infinity of space. 2 That yogin surpasses the sphere of the infinity of 
space through appreciative joy. 

Q. What is the meaning? A. That yogin, when he practises appreciative 
joy, contemplates on limitless consciousness, and is not attached to anything. 
How? (Through) this appreciative joy (the yogin) attains to fixed meditation, 
jhdna, through contemplation on beings in the un-attached sphere of the 
infinity of consciousness. After that, being not attached, he grasps the 
object of limitless consciousness. Freed from form and attached to space, 
he considers limitless consciousness and through contemplating many objects, 
he attains to fixed meditation without difficulty. Therefore, in the sphere of 
the infinity of consciousness, appreciative joy is first. 3 

Q. That yogin transcends the sphere of the infinity of consciousness 
through equanimity. What is the meaning of it? 

A. That yogin, practising equanimity fulfils freedom from attachment. 
How? If one does not practise equanimity, he will be attached (to things) and 
(think), "This being gets happiness", (or this being) "gets suffering". Or he 
depends on joy or bliss. Thereafter he turns away from all attachment. He 
turns away from the sphere of the infinity of consciousness 4 and is happy. 
He attains to fixed meditation, jhdna, without difficulty. His mind is not 



1. See Corny. (Spk. Ill, 172-3) passage marked * included in note 1 under mettd, 
page 195. 

2. Karund-vihdrissa danddbhighdtddi-rupa-nimittam sattadukkharh samanupassantassa 
karundya pavatti-sambhavato rupe ddinavo suparividito hoti. AtK assa suparividitaru- 
pddinavattd pafhavi kasinddisu annatararh ugghdtetvd rupa-nissarane dkdse cittarh upasarh- 
harato appakasirerf eva tattha cittarh pakkhandati. Iti karund dkdsdnahcdyatanassa 
upanissayo hoti, na tato param. Tasmd ' 'dkdsdnancdyatanaparamd' ti vuttd. — Spk. Ill, 173, 
being comment on sutta passage marked ** in note 1, page 195. 

3. Muditd-vihdrissa pana tena tena pdmojja-kdranena uppanna-pdmoj'ja-sattdnam vinndnam 
samanupassantassa muditdya pavatti-sambhavato vinfidna-ggahana-paricitam cittarh hoti. 
AtK assa anukkamddhigatarh dkdsdnancdyatanarh atikkamma dkdsa-nimitta-gocare vihndne 
cittarh upasamharato appakasirert eva tattha cittarh pakkhandati. Iti muditd vihndnahcd- 
yatanassa upanissayo hoti, na tato param. Tasmd' 'vinndnaficdyatana-paramd' ti 
vuttd.— Spk. Ill, 173— comment on passage marked t, page 195. 

4. Lit. dkincanhdyatana. 



Subjects of Meditation 197 

attached to any object. Why? Because in the sphere of nothingness he 
cannot be attached either to consciousness or to infinity. Therefore, in the 
sphere of nothingness, equanimity is first. 1 

Miscellaneous teachings have endedA 

THE DETERMINING OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS 

Q. What is the determining of the four elements ? What is the practising 
of it ? What are its salient characteristic, function and manifestation ? What 
are its benefits? What is the procedure? 

A. To discern the four elements within one's form — this is called dis- 
tinguishing the four elements. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (in 
determining) — this is called the practising of it. Close investigation of the 
four elements is its salient characteristic. The understanding of emptiness is 
its function. The removing of the thought of being 2 is its manifestation. 

What are its benefits? There are eight benefits: One who practises the 
determining of the four elements overcomes fear, worldly pleasure and dis- 
content, is even-minded towards desirable and undesirable (objects), destroys 
the idea of male and female, is endowed with great wisdom, fares well and 
approaches the ambrosial. His states of mind are clear. He is able to perfect 
all his actions. 

What is the procedure? The new yogin grasps the elements in two ways: 
briefly and in detail. Q. What is the grasping of the elements briefly? A. 
That yogin enters a place of solitude, and with mind collected considers thus : 
"This body should be known by the four elements. There is in this body the 
nature of solidity — that is the earthy element ; 3 (there is) the nature of humidity — 
that is the watery element; 4 (there is) the nature of heat — that is the fiery ele- 
ment; 5 (there is) the nature of motion — that is the element of air. 6 Thus in 
this body there are only elements. There is no being. 7 There is no soul". 8 
In this way one grasps the elements briefly. Again it is said that the yogin 
grasps the elements briefly. He understands the body through understanding 
the midriff, its colour, its form, its place. Thus that yogin grasps the elements 
briefly. He understands the nature of the whole body through understanding 
the midriff, its colour, its form, its place. He understands this body through 
understanding flesh, its colour, its form, its place. That yogin, having under- 



1. Vpekkhd-vihdrissa pana 'satta sukhita vd hontu, dukkhato vd vimuccantu, sampatta- 
sukhato vd md vigacchantff ti abhogdbhdvato sukha-dukkhddihi paramattha-ggdha-vimukha- 
sambhavato avijjamdna-ggahana-dukkham cittarh hoti. AtK assa paramattha-ggdhato 
vimukha-bhdva-paricita-cittassa paramatthato avijjamdna-ggahana-dukkha-cittassa ca 
anukkamddhigatarh vihhdndnahcdyatanam samatikkama-sabhdvato avijjamdne paramattha- 
bhutassa vihhdnassa abhdve cittarh upasamharato appakasirert eva tattha cittam pakkhandati. 
Iti upekkhd dkihcahhdyatanassa upanissayo hoti, na tato par am. Tasmd ' ' dkihcahhdyatana- 
paramd' ti vuttd ti. — Spk. Ill, 173-4 — comment on sutta passage marked % in note 1, 
page 195). 

2. Satta. 3. Pathavi-dhdtu. 4. Apo-dhdtu. 5. Tejo-dhdtu. 6. Vdyo-dhatu. 
7 and 8. Nissatta nijjiva. See note 2, p. 229. 



198 Vimuttimagga 

stood the whole body through understanding flesh, its colour, its form, its 
place, understands this whole body through understanding the veins, their 
colour, their form, their place. That yogin, having understood the whole 
body through understanding the veins, their colour, their form, their place, 
understands the whole body through understanding the bones, their colour, 
their form, their place. That yogin in these four ways dominates his mind. 
After dominating his mind, he makes his mind pliant and capable of bearing 
the object. That yogin, having in these four ways dominated his mind and 
having made his mind pliant and capable of bearing the object, in these four 
(other) ways knows that which has the nature of solidity as the element of 
earth; that which has the nature of humidity as the element of water ; that which 
has the nature of heat as the element of fire; that which has the nature of motion 
as the element of air. Thus that yogin, in these four ways, knows that there 
are only elements and that there is no being and no soul. Here the other 
ways also are fulfilled. Thus one grasps the elements briefly. 

TWENTY WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF EARTH 

How does one grasp the elements in detail? One grasps the element of 
earth in detail through twenty ways, namely, (through) hair of the head and 
of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, veins, bones, marrow, kidneys, 
heart, liver, lungs, spleen, gorge, intestines, mesentery, midriff, excrement, 
brain (that are) in this body. 

TWELVE WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF WATER 

One grasps the element of water in detail through twelve ways, namely, 
(through) bile, saliva, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, slobber, nasal mucus, 
synovial fluid, [439] urine (that are) in the body. 

FOUR WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF FIRE 

One grasps the element Of fire in detail through four ways, namely, (through) 
fever heat and normal heat of the body, weather, equality of cold and heat and 
(the heat) by means of which one digests the fluid or solid nutriment which 
one takes. These are called the element of fire. 

SIX WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF AIR 

One grasps the element of air in detail through six ways, namely, (through) 
the air discharged upwards, the air discharged downwards, the air which 
depends on the abdomen, the air which depends on the back, 1 the air which 
depends on the limbs, the air inhaled and exhaled. 2 



1. Vbh.-a. 5: Vdtd ti kucchivdta-pitthivdtddi-vasena veditabbd. 

2. Netti 74: Katamehi chahi dkdrehi vdyoddtum vitthdrena pariganhdti? Uddhamgamd vdtd 
adhogamd vdtd kucchisayd vdtd kotfhdsayd vdtd angamangdnusdrino vdtd assdso passdso. 



Subjects of Meditation 199 

Thus when one sees this body in forty-two ways, only the elements manifest 
themselves. There is no being. There is no soul. Thus the elements are 
grasped in detail. 

And again, predecessor-teachers 1 have said that one should determine 
the four elements through ten ways, namely, through the meaning of terms, 2 
through object, aggregation, powder, 3 non-separation, condition, 4 characteris- 
tic, 5 similarity and dissimilarity, 6 sameness and difference, 7 puppet. 

First, the chapter which refers to the meaning of terms is as follows : — 

Q. How should one determine the elements through terms? 

A. Two terms, viz., the common and the special terms. Here the four 
primaries are common (terms). Earth-element, water-element, fire-element, 
air-element are special terms. 

Q. What is the meaning of "four primaries"? 

A. Great manifestation is called primary. They are great; they are 
illusory; but they appear real. Therefore they are called "primaries" "Great" : 
By way of yakkha and others" the term great is applied. 

Q. Why is the "great manifestation" called great? 

The elements are "great manifestation" as the Blessed One has declared 
in the following stanza: 

"/ declare the size of earth to be 
two hundred thousand nahutas and four. 
Four hundred thousand nahutas and eight 
is of water the bulk; air's in space 
which reckoned is at nahutas six 
and nine times a hundred thousand; in that 
this world of ours lies. There is in the world 
consuming fire that will in mighty flames 
rise up to Brahma's world for seven days". 8 

"Great manifestation" is thus. Therefore they are called the primaries. 
Q. How do the primaries that are unreal appear as real? 

A. What are called primaries are neither male nor female. They are 
seen through the form of a man or a woman. And element is neither long 
nor short: It is seen through the form of the long and the short. An element 
is neither a tree nor a mountain, but it is seen through the form of a tree or 
a mountain. Thus the primaries are not real, but appear real and are called 
primaries. 

What is the meaning of "by way of yakkha and others"? It is as if a 
yakkha were to enter into a man and take possession of him. Through the 
possession of the yakkha that man's body would manifest four qualities: 



1. Pordnd. 2. Vacanatthato. 3. Cunnato. 4. Paccayato. 5. Lakkhanddito. 

6. Sabhdgavisahhdgato. 1. Ndnattekattato. 8. Not traced. 



200 Vimuttimagga 

hardness, (excess of) water, heat and lightness of movement. In the same way 
the four elements in union with the body fulfil four qualities. Through the 
union of the earthy element hardness is fulfilled. Through the union of the 
watery element fluidity is fulfilled. Through the union of the fiery element 
heat is fulfilled. And through the union of the airy element lightness of 
movement is fulfilled. Therefore the primaries are to be known "by way of 
yakkha and others". Primary is the meaning of the word. 

THE FOUR ELEMENTS 

Q. What is the meaning of earth-element, water-element, fire-element 
and air-element? 

A. Extensiveness and immensity are called the meaning of earth. 
Drinkability and preservation — these constitute the meaning of water. Lighting 
up is the meaning of fire. Movement back and forth is the meaning of air. 

What is the meaning of element? It means the retention of own form, 
and next the essence of earth is the earthy element. The essence of water 
is the watery element. The essence of fire is the fiery element. The essence 
of air is the airy element. 

What is the essence of earth? The nature of hardness; the nature of 
strength; the nature of thickness; the nature of immobility; the nature 
of security ; and the nature of supporting. These are called the essence of earth. 

What is the essence of water? The nature of oozing; the nature of 
humidity; the nature of fluidity; the nature of trickling; the nature of 
permeation; the nature of increasing; the nature of leaping; and the nature 
of cohesion. These are called the essence of water. 

What is called the essence of fire? The nature of heating; the nature 
of warmth; the nature of evaporation; the nature of maturing; the nature of 
consuming; and the nature of grasping. These are called the essence of fire. 

What is the essence of air? The nature of supporting; the nature of 
coldness; the nature of ingress and egress; the nature of easy movement; 
the nature of reaching low; and the nature of grasping. These are called the 
essence of air. 

These are the meanings of the elements. Thus one should determine 
the elements through the meaning of words. 

Q. How should one determine the elements through "objects"? 

A. In the element of earth, stability is the object. In the element of 
water, cohesion is the object. In the element of fire, maturing is the object. 
In the element of air interception is the object. 

And again, in the element of earth, upstanding is the object; in the element 
of water, flowing down is the object; in the element of fire, causing to go 
upwards is the object; in the element of air, rolling on is the object. And 



Subjects of Meditation 201 

again, owing to the proximity of two elements, one, at first, (in stepping for- 
ward) raises up one foot; and afterwards, owing to the proximity of two ele- 
ments, one lifts up the (other) foot. Owing to the proximity of two elements, 
one at first sits or sleeps. And owing to the proximity of two elements, one 
afterwards gets up and walks. Owing to the proximity of two elements, 
at first, rigidity and torpor are induced. Owing to the proximity of two 
elements, one becomes energetic afterwards. Owing to the proximity of 
two elements, there is heaviness in one at first. Owing to the proximity of two 
elements, there is lightness afterwards. Thus one should determine the four 
primaries through "object" 1 . 

How should one determine the four primaries through "aggregation"? 
Aggregation consists of the earth-element, the water-element, the fire-element 
and the air-element. By means of these elements form, smell, taste and touch 
take place. These eight are produced generally together; they co-exist and 
do not go apart. This combination is named aggregation. And again, 
there are four kinds, namely, aggregation of earth, aggregation of water, 
aggregation of fire and aggregation of air. In the aggregation of earth, the 
earth-element predominates; and the water-element, the fire-element and 
the air-element gradually, in order, become less. In the aggregation of water, 
the water-element predominates; and the earth-element, the air-element 
and the fire-element gradually, in order, become less. In the aggregation 
of fire, the fire-element predominates; and the earth-element, the air-element 
and the water-element gradually, in order, become less. In the aggregation 
of air, the air-element predominates; and the fire-element, the water-element 
and the earth-element gradually, in order, become less. 2 Thus one should 
determine the elements through "aggregation". 

Q. How should one determine the four primaries through "powder"? 

A. One determines the element of earth that is next the finest particle of 
space. 3 This earth is mixed with water; therefore it does not scatter. Being 
matured by fire, it is odourless; being supported by air, it rolls. Thus one 
should determine. Again, predecessors have said: "If pulverized into dust, 
the earth-element in the body of an average person will amount to one koku 



1. Cp. Ps. I, 260-61: Tass' evarh abhikkamato ekekapdduddharane pathavidhdtu dpodhdtu 
ti dve dhdtuyo omattd honti mandd, Hard dve adhimattd honti balavatiyo. Tathd atiharana- 
vitiharanesu. Vossajjane tejodhdtu-vdyodhdtuyo omattd honti mandd, itard dve adhimattd 
balavatiyo. Tathd sannikkhepana-sannirumbhanesu. Tattha uddharane pavattd rupd- 
rupadhammd atiharanam na pdpunanti. Tathd atiharane pavattd vitiharanam, vitiharane 
pavattd vossajjanam, vossajjane pavattd sannikkhepanam, sannikkhepane pavattd sanni- 
rumbhanam na pdpunanti. Tattha tattK eva pabbapabbam sandhisandhim odhi-odhim 
hutva tattakapdle pakkhitta-tild viya tafatafdyantd bhijjanti. 

2. Cp. A. Ill, 340-41: Atha kho dyasmd Sdriputto ahhatarasmim padese mahantam 

ddrukkhandham disvd bhikkhu dmantesi: — Passatha no tumhe dvuso amum mahantam 
ddrukkhandlian ti? Evam dvuso ti. 

Akankhamdno dvuso bhikkhu iddhimd cetovasippatto amum ddrukkhandham pafhavi 
tveva adhimucceyya. Tarn kissa hetu ? Atthi dvuso amusmim ddrukkhandhe pathavidhdtu, 
yam nissdya bhikkhu iddhimd... pe... pathavi tveva adhimucceyya. Akankhamdno 
dvuso bhikkhu iddhimd cetovasippatto amum ddrukkhandham dpo tveva adhimucceyya . . . 
pe. . . tejo tveva adhimucceyya. . . vdyo tveva adhimucceyya. . . 3. Akdsaparamdnu. 



202 Vimuttimagga 

and two sho? Then, if mixed with water, it will become six sho and five go. 2 
Matured by fire, it is caused to roll by the wind". Thus one should determine 
the body through "powder". 

Q. How should one determine the body through "non-separation"? 
A. The earth-element is held together by water; is matured by fire; is sup- 
ported by air. Thus the three elements are united. The element of water 
rests on earth; is matured by fire; is supported by air. Thus the three elements 
are held together. The element of fire rests on the earth; is held together 
by water; is supported by air. Thus the three elements are matured. The 
element of air rests on earth; is held together by water; is matured by fire. 
Thus the three elements are supported. The three elements rest on earth. 
Held together by water, the three elements do not disperse. Matured by 
fire, the three elements are odourless. Supported by air, the three elements 
roll on, and dwelling together, they do not scatter. Thus the four elements 
in mutual dependence dwell and do not separate. Thus one determines 
the elements through non-separation. 

Q. How should one determine the elements through "condition"? 
A. Four causes and four conditions produce the elements. What are the 
four? They are kamma, consciousness, season and nutriment. What is 
kammal The four elements that are produced from kamma fulfil two condi- 
tions, namely, the producing-condition 3 and /camma-condition. 4 The other 
elements fulfil the decisive-support-condition. 5 Consciousness:- The four 
elements that are produced from consciousness fulfil six conditions, namely, 
producing-condition, co-nascence-condition, 6 support-condition, 7 nutriment- 
condition, 8 faculty-condition, 6 presence-condition. 10 The other elements fulfil 
condition, 11 support-condition and presence-condition. 

In the consciousness at the moment of entry into the womb, corporeality 
fulfils seven conditions, namely, co-nascence-condition, mutuality-condition, 12 
support-condition, nutriment-condition, faculty-condition, result-condition, 13 
presence-condition. 

The consciousness of the birth-to-be fulfils three conditions in regard 
to the pre-born body, namely, post-nascence-condition, 14 support-condition 
and presence-condition. The four primaries that are produced from season 
fulfil two conditions, namely, producing-condition and presence-condition. 
The other elements fulfil two conditions, namely, support-condition and 
presence-condition. Nutriment:- The four primaries that are produced 
from food fulfil three conditions, namely, producing-condition, nutriment- 
condition and presence-condition. The other elements fulfil two conditions, 



1. 1 koku=10sho. 

2. 10 go=»l sho=1.588 quart, 0.48 standard gallon, 1.804 litres. 

3. Janaka-paccayd. 4. Kamma-paccayd. 5. Upanissaya-paccayd. 
6. Saha-jdta-paccayd. 7. Nissaya-paccayd. 8. Ahdra-paccayd. 

9. Indriya-paccayd. 10. Atthi-paccayd. 11. Paccayd. 

12. Anna-manna-paccayd. 13. Vipdka-paccayd. 14. Pacchd-jdta-paccayd. 



Subjects of Meditation 203 

namely, support-condition and presence-condition. Here the four elements 
that are produced by kamma are co-nascent elements. (Elements that are 
mutually dependent) * fulfil four conditions, namely, co-nascence-condition, 
mutuality-condition, support-condition, presence-condition. Other elements 
fulfil two conditions, namely, support-condition and presence-condition. 
Thus one should know (the elements) produced from consciousness, produced 
from season and produced from food. The earth-element becomes a condition 
of the other elements by way of resting-place. The water-element becomes 
a condition of the other elements by way of binding. The fire-element becomes 
a condition of the other elements by way of maturing. The air-element 
becomes a condition of the other elements by way of supporting. Thus one 
determines the elements through "condition". 

f440] How should one determine the elements through "characteristic"? 
A. The characteristic of the earth-element is hardness. The characteristic 
of the water-element is oozing. The characteristic of the fire-element is heating. 
The characteristic of the air-element is coldness. Thus one determines the 
elements according to "characteristic". 

Q. How should one determine the elements through "similarity and 
dissimilarity"? A. The earthy element and the watery element are similar 
because of ponderability. The fire-element and the air-element are similar 
because of lightness. The water-element and the fire-element are dissimilar. 
The water-element can destroy the dryness of the fire-element; therefore 
they are dissimilar. Owing to mutuality, the earth-element and the air-element 
are dissimilar. The earth-element hinders the passage of the air-element; 
the air-element is able to destroy the earth-element. Therefore they are 
dissimilar. And again, the four elements are similar owing to mutuality or 
they are dissimilar owing to their natural characteristics. Thus one determines 
the elements according to "similarity and dissimilarity". 

Q. How should one determine the elements through "sameness and 
difference"? A. The four elements that are produced from kamma are 
of one nature, because they are produced from kamma; from the point of 
characteristics they are different. In the same way one should know those 
that are produced from consciousness, from season and from nutriment. 

The (portions of the) earth-element of the four causes and conditions 
are of one nature owing to characteristics; from the point of cause they are 
different. In the same way one should know the air-element, the fire-element 
and the water-element of the four causes and conditions. The four elements 
are of one nature owing to their being elements, owing to their being great 
primaries; are of one nature owing to their being things; are of one nature 
owing to their impermanence ; are of one nature owing to their suffering; 
are of one nature owing to their being not-self. They are different owing 
to characteristics; are different owing to object; are different owing to 
kamma; are different owing to differing nature of consciousness; are different 
owing to the differing nature of the season; are different owing to the different 



204 Vimuttimagga 

nature of nutriment; are different owing to differences of nature; are different 
owing to differences of arising; are different owing to the differences in birth; 
are different owing to differences in faring. Thus one determines the elements 
through "sameness and difference". 

SIMILE OF THE PUPPET 

Q. How should one determine the elements through "puppet"? A. It 
is comparable to a skilful master of puppets who makes of wood (effigies) of 
humans, complete in every part, in the form of man or woman, and makes 
these walk, dance, sit or squat through the pulling of strings. Thus these 
puppets are called bodies; the master of puppets is the past defilement by 
which this body is made complete; the strings are the tendons; the clay is 
flesh; the paint is the skin; the interstices are space. (By) jewels, raiment 
and ornaments (they) are called men and women. Thoughts (of men and 
women) are to be known as the tugging by the element of air. Thus they 
walk, dwell, go out, or come in, stretch out, draw in, converse or speak. 1 

These puppet-men, born together with the element of consciousness, 
are subject to anxiety, grief and suffering through the causes and conditions 
of anxiety and torment. They laugh or frolic or shoulder. Food sustains 
these puppets; and the faculty of life 2 keeps these puppets going. The ending 
of life results in the dismembering of the puppet. If there happens to be defiling 
kamma, again a new puppet will arise. The first beginning of such a puppet 
cannot be seen; also, the end of such a puppet cannot be seen. 3 Thus one 
determines the elements through "puppet". And that yogin by these ways 
and through these activities discerns this body through "puppet" thus: 
"There is no being; there is no soul". 

When that yogin has investigated through the object of the elements 
and through the arising of feeling, perception, the formations and consciousness, 
he discerns name and form. Thenceforward he sees that name-and-form is 
suffering, is craving, is the source of suffering; and he discerns that in the 
destruction of craving lies the destruction of suffering, and that the Noble 



1. (a) Sn. 193-94: Car am vd yadi vd tittham, nisinno uda vd sayam, 

samminjeti pasdreti, — esd kdyassa ifijand. 
A tthinahdrusarhyutto tacamamsdvalepano 
Chaviyd kayo paticchanno yathdbhiitam na dissati. 

(b) Ps. I, 252: "Ndvd mdlutavegena jiydvegena tejanam 

Yathd ydti tathd kayo ydti vdtdhato ayarh. 
Yantasuttaveserf eva cittasuttavaseri' idarh 
payuttam kdyayantam pi ydti thdti nisidati. 
Ko ndma ettha so satto yo vind hetupaccaye 
attano dnubhdvena titthe vd yadi vd vaje* ti. 

(c) Ps. I, 265; Sv. I, 197: Abbhantare attd ndma koci samminjento va pasdrento vd 
rtatthi. Vutta-ppakdra-citta-kiriya-vdyodhdtu-vipphdrena pana suttdkaddhana-vasena 
ddru-yantassa hattha-pdda-ldlanarh viya sammifijana-pasdranam hotiti evam pajdnanam 
parC ettha asammoha-sampajanfian ti veditabbam. 

2. Jivitindriya. 

3. S. II, 178; III, 149, 151: Anamataggdyam bhikkhave samsdro pubbdkoti na panndyati 
avijjdnivarandnam sattdnam tanhdsamyojandnam sandhdvatam samsaratam. 



Subjects of Meditation 205 

Eightfold Path leads to the complete destruction of suffering. Thus that 
yogin discerns the Four Noble Truths fully. At that time he sees the tribula- 
tion of suffering through impermanence, sorrow and not-self. Always attend- 
ing to these, his mind is undisturbed. He sees the merit of the destruction 
of suffering through wisdom, tranquillity and dispassion. In this way that 
yogin, seeing the tribulation of suffering and the merits of cessation, dwells 
peacefully endowed with the faculties, the powers and the factors of enlighten- 
ment. 1 He makes manifest the consciousness that proceeds from perception 
of the formations and attains to the element of the most excellent. 2 

The determining of the four elements has ended. 

THE LOATHSOMENESS OF FOOD 

Q. What is the perception of the loathsomeness of food? 3 What is the 
practising of it? What are its salient characteristic, function, near cause 4 and 
manifestation? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? 

A. The yogin, attending to the loathsomeness of what in the form of 
nourishment is chewed, licked, drunk or eaten, 5 knows and knows well this 
perception. This is called the perception of the loathsomeness of food. The 
undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this perception is the practising of it. 
The understanding of the disadvantages of food is its salient characteristic. 
Disagreeableness is its function. The overcoming of desire is its manifestation. 

What are its benefits? The yogin can acquire eight benefits: He who 
develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food knows the nature of 
morsels of food; he understands fully the five-fold lust; he knows the material 
aggregate; he knows the perception of impurity; he develops fully the mind- 
fulness as to the interior of his body; his mind shrinks from desiring what 
is tasty; 6 he fares well; he approaches the ambrosial. 

What is the procedure? The new yogin enters into a place of solitude, 
sits down with mind composed and undisturbed, and considers the loathsome- 
ness of what in the form of nourishment is chewed, licked, drunk or eaten as 
follows: "Such and such are the several hundred sorts of tasty food cooked 
clean. They are relished of the people. Their colour and smell are perfect. 
They are fit for great nobles. But after these foods enter into the body, they 
become impure, loathsome, rotten, abominable". 

One develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food in five ways : 
through (the task of) searching for it; through (the thought of) grinding it; 
through receptacle; through oozing; and through aggregation. 



1. Indriya, bala, bojjhanga. 2. Sappi-manda dhatu. 

3. Ahare pafikkula sannd. 4. Not answered in comment. 

5. Khajja, leyya, peyya i bhojja. 

6. Cp. Th. 580: Rasesu anugiddhassa jhdne na ramati mano. 



206 Vimuttimagga 

Q. How should the yogin develop the perception of the loathsomeness 
of food through (the task of) "searching for it" ? 

A. This yogin sees that many beings encounter trouble in searching for 
drink and food; they commit many evil deeds such as killing and thieving 
(for the sake of food). Further, he sees that these beings are the recipients 
of various forms of suffering and are killed or deprived of liberty. And 
again, he sees that such beings commit diverse evil actions such as eagerly 
searching for things, deceiving and pretending to be energetic. Thus these 
beings perform evil. Seeing food thus, he develops dislike through the thought : 
"Impure urine and excrement are due to drink and food". 1 

THE DWELLING OF THE HOMELESS 

And again, he sees the dwelling of the homeless man in the clean forest- 
retreat where fragrant flowers bloom, where birds sing and the cry of the wild 
is heard. In that prosperous field which the good man cultivates, are shadows 
of trees, groves and water which captivate the mind of others. The ground 
is flat and exceedingly clean; so there is nothing uneven. 2 Seeing this, men 
admire them with awe. Here are no quarrels and noises. This place where 
the homeless man trains for enlightenment is like the dwelling of Brahma. 3 
In such a place the mind is unfettered; and he, reciting (the Law) and develop- 
ing concentration always, enjoys the practice of good deeds. (Leaving such 
a place) the homeless man goes in search of food in cold and heat, wind and 
dust, mud and rain. He traverses steep paths. With bowl in hand, he begs 
for food, and in begging enters others' houses. 4 Seeing that, the yogin stirs 
up the thought of tribulation in his mind as follows: "Drink and food are 
impure. They come out in the form of excrement and urine. For that one 
goes in search of food". Thus abandoning, he should look for the highest 
bliss. 

And again, the yogin sees the practice of the homeless man. When he 
(the homeless man) begs, he has to pass the places where fierce horses, elephants 
and other animals gather and the places where dogs and pigs live. He has 
to go to the places where evil-doers live. He has to tread on mud or excreta 



1 . In the text this precedes the previous sentence. 

2. Cp. Th. 540: Supupphite Sitavane sitale girikandare 

gattani parisihcitvd cankamissami ekako. 
1 103: Kada mayurassa sikhandino vane dijassa sutvd girigabbhare rutam 

paccutfhahitva amatassa pattiyd samcihtaye tarn nu kada bhavissati. 
1135: Vardhaeneyyavigalhasevite pabbhdrakute pakate ' va sundare 

navambund pdvusasittakdnane tahim guhdgehagato ramissasi. 
1136: Sunilagiva susikha supekhuna sucittapattacchadand viharhgamd 

sumanjughosatthanitdbhigajjino te tarn ramissanti vanamhi jhdyinam. 
1 137: Vutfhamhi deve caturangule tine sampupphite meghanibhamhi kdnane 

nagantare vitapisamo sayissarh tarn me mudu hohiti tidasannibham, 

3. Cp. Th. 245 : Yathd Brahma tathd eko yathd devo tathd duve, 

yathd gdmo tathd tayo koldhalam tatuttarin ti. 

4. Cp. Th. 1118: Mundo virupo abhisdpam dgato kapdlahattho 'va kulesu bhikkhasu, 

yunjassu satthu vacane mahesino, itissu math citta pure niyunjasi. 



Subjects of Meditation 207 

in unclean places. He has to stand at the gates of other's houses, silently, for 
sometime. He has to conceal his body with a cloth. Further, he doubts as 
regards obtaining alms. 1 This yogin thinks: "This man's food is like dog's 
food", and he arouses disagreeableness as regards food thus : "This searching 
for food is most hateful. How could I take this food? I will simply beg 
from others". Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of 
food through "searching for it". 

Q. How should the yogin develop the perception of the loathsomeness 
of food through "grinding"? 

A. That yogin sees a man who, having searched for and obtained drink 
and food, sits down in front of these. He makes the (solid food) soft, by 
mixing it with fish sauce. He kneads it with his hand, grinds it in his mouth, 
gathers it with his lips, pounds it with his teeth, turns it with his tongue, unites 
it with his saliva and serum. 2 These are most repulsive and unsightly as the 
vomit of a dog. Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of 
food through "grinding". 

Q. How should one develop the perception of the loathsomeness of 
food through "receptacle"? 

A. Thus these foods are swallowed and go into the stomach mixed with 
impurities and remain there. After that they go to the intestines. They 
are eaten by hundreds of kinds of worms. Being heated, they are digested. 
Thus they become most repugnant. It is like one's vomit thrown into an 
unclean vessel. Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of 
food through "receptacle". 

Q. How should one develop the perception of the loathsomeness of 
food through "oozing"? 

A. These foods are digested by heat and mixed with new and old impuri- 
ties. Like fermented liquor escaping from a broken vat, they flood the body. 
By flowing, they enter into the veins, the textures of the skin, face and eyes. 
They ooze out of nine openings and ninety-nine thousand pores. Thus through 
flowing, [441] these foods separate into five parts: one partis eaten by worms; 
one part is changed to heat; one part sustains the body; one part becomes 
urine; and one part is assimilated with the body. Thus one develops the 
perception of the loathsomeness of food through "oozing". 

Q. How should one develop the perception of the loathsomeness of 
food through "aggregation"? 

A. This drink and food which flow become hair of the head and the 
body, nails and the rest. They cause to set up one hundred and one parts 



1. Cp. Sn. 711-12: Na muni gdmam agamma kulesu sahasd care, 

ghasesanam chinnakatho na vdcam payutam bhane. 

'Alattham yad, idarh sadhu; nalattharh kusaldm itV; 
ubhayert eva so tadi rukkham va upanivattati. 

2. Lit. Thin blood. 



208 Vimuttimagga 

of the body. If they do not trickle out, they cause one hundred and one diseases. 
Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food through 
"aggregation". 

That yogin by these ways and through these activities develops the percep- 
tion of the loathsomeness of food. Through disliking, his mind becomes 
free and is not distracted. His mind being undistracted he destroys the 
hindrances, arouses the meditation (jhdna) factors and dwells in access- 
concentration. 

The perception of the loathsomeness of food has endedA 

The sphere of nothingness and the sphere of neither perception nor 
non-perception are as was taught under the earth kasina before. 

Here the stanza says: — 

The subjects of meditation are here 

indicated to the yogin in brief 

as if a man were pointing out the way 

to Pataliputta. 1 

What's told concisely he can know in full. 

He sees what lies before and what behind 

and with discernment viewing understands 

truth from untruth. 

From what have been here in detail set forth, 

namely, the marks and the merits complete, 

one ought to know, just as it is, the scope 

of Freedom's Path. 

The chapter of the thirty-eight subjects of meditation has ended. 

The eighth chapter of the subjects of meditation has ended. 

THE EIGHTH FASCICLE OF THE PATH OF FREEDOM. 



1 . Paliputat (transliteration). 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE NINTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
THE FIVE FORMS OF HIGHER KNOWLEDGE 

CHAPTER THE NINTH 

Now, when that yogin, having practised concentration, dwells easy in 
the fourth meditation, jhdna, he is able to cause the arising of the five 
forms of higher knowledge, namely, supernormal power, 1 divine hearing, 2 
knowledge of others' thoughts, 3 recollection of former lives, 4 divine sight. 5 
"Supernormal power" means "transformation". "Divine hearing" means 
"beyond the reach of human audition". "Knowledge of others' thoughts" 
means "the understanding of others' thoughts". "Recollection of former 
lives" means "the remembrance of past lives". "Divine sight" means "beyond 
the reach of human vision". 

Q. How many kinds of supernormal power are there? Who develops 
it? What is the procedure? 

THREE KINDS OF SUPERNORMAL POWER 

A. There are three kinds of supernormal power, namely, the supernormal 
power of resolve, the supernormal power of transformation, the supernormal 
power caused by mind. What is the supernormal power of resolve? That 
yogin being one becomes many; and being many becomes one. Developing 
the body, he reaches the world of Brahma. This is called the supernormal 
power of resolve. 6 What is the supernormal power of transformation? That 
yogin discards his natural body and appears in the form of a boy or a snake 



1. Iddhividha. 2. Dibbasotandna 3. Cetopariyandna. 4. Pubbenivdsdnussatindna. 

5. Dibbacakkhuhdna. 

6. Cp. Pts. II, 207-10: Katamd aditthdnd iddhil Idha bhikkhu anekaviditam iddhividham 

paccanubhoti: eko pi hutvd bahudhd hoti, bahudhd pi hutvd eko hoti ydva Brahmalokd 

pi kdyena vasam vatteti. . . Ay am aditthdnd iddhi. 

209 



210 Vimuttimagga 

or a king of Brahmas. These constitute the supernormal power of trans- 
formation. 1 What is the supernormal power caused by mind? That yogin 
calls up from this body another body, readily, and endows it with all members 
and faculties, according to his will. This is called the supernormal power 
caused by mind. 2 

SEVEN KINDS OF SUPERNORMAL POWER 

And again, there are seven kinds of supernormal power, namely, the 
supernormal power diffused by knowledge, the supernormal power diffused 
by concentration, the supernormal power of the Ariyas, the supernormal 
power born of kamma-result, the supernormal power of the meritorious, 
the supernormal power accomplished by magic, the supernormal power accom- 
plished by the application of the means of success. 

Q. What is the supernormal power diffused by knowledge? A. By 
the view of impermanence, one rejects the perception of permanence and 
accomplishes the supernormal power diffused by knowledge. By the Path 
of Sanctity, one rejects all defilements and accomplishes the supernormal 
power diffused by knowledge. Thus should supernormal power diffused 
by knowledge be understood. It is as in the case of Venerable Elder Bakkula, 
of the Venerable Elder Sankicca and of the Venerable Elder Bhutapala. Thus 
is supernormal power diffused by knowledge. 3 

Q. What is the supernormal power diffused by concentration? A. By 
the first meditation, jhdna, one rejects the hindrances and accomplishes the 
supernormal power diffused by concentration. By the attainment of the 
sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, one rejects the perception 
of nothingness and accomplishes the supernormal power diffused by concen- 
tration. It is as in the case of the Venerable Elder Sariputta, of the Venerable 
Elder Khanukondanna, of the lay-sister Uttara and of the lay-sister Samavati. 
Thus is the supernormal power diffused by concentration. 4 



1. Pts. II, 210: Katamd vikubband iddhi t. . . .So pakativannarh vijahitvd kumdrakavannam 
vd dasseti, ndgavannam vd dasseti, supannavannam vd dasseti, yakkhavannarh vd dasseti, 
indavannam vd dasseti, devavannam vd dasseti, Brahmavannam vd dasseti .... Ayarh 
vikubband iddhi. 

2. Ibid. 210-11 : Katamd manomayd iddhi? Idha bhikkhu imamhd kdyd ahharh kdyam 

abhinimmindti rupirh manomayam sabbahgapaccahgam ahinindriyam Ayarh manomayd 

iddhi. 

3. Ibid. 211: Katamd hdnavipphdrd iddhi? i Aniccdnupassandya niccasahndya pahdnatfho 
ijjhatitV hdnavipphdrd iddhi, ' ' dukkhdnupassandya sukhasahhdya, anattdnupassandya 

attasahhdya patinissaggdnupassandya dddnassa pahdnatfho ijjhatitV hdnavipphdrd iddhi. 

Ayasmato Bakkulassa hdnavipphdrd iddhi, dyasmato Sahkiccassa hdnavipphdrd iddhi, 
dyasmato Bhutapdlassa hdnavipphdrd iddhi. Ayarh hdnavipphdrd iddhi. 

4. (a) Ibid., 211-12: Katamd samddhivipphdrd iddhi? k Pathamajjhdnena nivarandnam pahd- 
natfho ijjhatitV samddhivipphdrd iddhi, ... pe . . . i nevasahhdndsanndyatanasamdpattiyd 
dkihcahhdyatanasahhdya pahdnatfho ijjhatitV samddhivipphdrd iddhi. Ayasmato Sdriputtassa 
samddhivipphdrd iddhi, dyasmato Sahjivassa samddhivipphdrd iddhi, dyasmato Khdnu- 
kondahhassa samddhivipphdrd iddhi; Ut tardy a updsikdya samddhivipphdrd iddhi, Sdmd- 
vatiyd updsikdya samddhivipphdrd iddhi. Ayarh samddhivipphdrd iddhi. 

(b) A. I, 26: Etacl aggarh bhikkhave mama sdvikdnam updsikdnam pafhamarh jhdyinam 
yadidam Uttara Nandamdtd. 



Subjects of Meditation 211 

Q. What is the supernormal power of the Noble Ones? A. Here 
if a bhikkhu wishes to dwell perceiving non-repugnance in the repugnant, 
he could dwell perceiving non-repugnance. Here if a bhikkhu wishes to 
dwell perceiving repugnance in the non-repugnant, he could dwell perceiving 
repugnance. Here if a bhikkhu wishes to dwell perceiving non-repugnance 
in the non-repugnant and in the repugnant, he could dwell perceiving non- 
repugnance. Here if a bhikkhu wishes to dwell perceiving repugnance in 
the repugnant and in the non-repugnant, he could dwell perceiving repugnance. 
Q. How does one dwell perceiving repugnance in the non-repugnant ? A. One 
fills the non-repugnant with the thought that is impure or regards it as imper- 
manent. Q. How does one dwell perceiving non-repugnance in the re- 
pugnant and in the non-repugnant? A. One diffuses the repugnant and 
the non-repugnant with thoughts of loving-kindness and regards them as 
elements. Q. How does one dwell perceiving repugnance in the non- 
repugnant and in the repugnant? A. One fills the non-repugnant and the 
repugnant with the thought that they are impure or regards them as imper- 
manent. Q. How does one dwell indifferent, conscious and knowing 
separate from the non-repugnant and the repugnant? A. Here a bhikkhu, 
seeing a form with the eye is not delighted, is not anxious, dwells indifferent, 
aware, knowing. It is the same as to the (objects appearing at) the other 
doors. This is called the supernormal power of the Noble Ones. 1 Q. What 
is the supernormal power born of kamma-result ? A. All deities, all birds, 
some men, some born in states of suffering, perform the supernormal power 
of traversing the sky. This is called the supernormal power born of kamma- 
result. 2 Q. What is the supernormal power of the meritorious? A. It is 
as in the case of a wheel-king; of Jotika, the rich householder; of Jatila, the 



1. Pts. II, 212-13: Katama ariyd iddhi! Idha bhikkhu sace dkankhati ' Patikkfile apatikkfila- 
sahhi vihareyyarf ti, apatikkulasahhi tattha viharati; sacce dkankhati 'Apatikkiile patikkula- 
sahhi vihareyyarC ti, patikkulasahhi tattha viharati; sace dkankhati 'Patikkfile ca apatikkiile 
ca apatikkulasahhi vihareyyarf ti, apatikkulasahhi tattha viharati; sace dkankhati ' Apati- 
kkiile ca patikkfile ca patikkulasahhi vihareyyarf ti, patikkfilasahhi tattha viharati; sace 
dkankhati "Patikkule ca apat ikk file ca tadubhayam abhinivajjetvd upekkhako vihareyyam 
sato sampajdno'' ti, upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajdno. 

Katharh patikkule apatikkulasahhi viharati! Anitthasmim vatthusmim mettdya vd 
pharati, dhdtuto vd upasamharati. Evam patikkule apatikkulasahhi viharati. 

Katharh apatikkiile patikkulasahhi viharati! Itthasmim vatthusmim asubhdya vd 
pharati, aniccato vd upasamharati. Evam apatikkiile patikkulasahhi viharati. 

Katham patikkfile ca apatikkiile ca apatikkulasahhi viharati! Anitthasmim ca ittthas- 
mim ca vatthusmim mettdya vd pharati, dhdtuto vd upasamharati. Evam patikkfile ca 
apatikkiile ca apatikkulasahhi viharati. 

Katham apatikkiile ca patikkfile ca patikkulasahhi viharati! Itthasmim ca anitthasmim 
ca vatthusmim asubhdya vd pharati, aniccato vd upasamharati. Evam apatikkiile ca 
patikkfile ca patikkulasahhi viharati. 

Katham patikkfile ca apatikkiile ca tadubhayam abhinivajjetvd upekkhako viharati 
sato sampajdno! Idha bhikkhu cakkhund rfiparh disvd n' eva sumano hoti na dummano, 
upekkhako viharati sato sampajdno; sotena saddam sutvd, ghdnena gandham ghdyitvd, 
jivhdya rasarh sdyitvd, kdyena photthabbam phusitvd, manasd dhammam vihhdya n'eva 
sumano hoti na dummano, upekkhako viharati sato sampajdno. Evam patikkfile ca apati- 
kkiile ca tadubhayam abhinivajjetvd upekkhako viharati sato sampajdno. Ayarh ariyd 
iddhi. 

2. Ibid 213: Katama kammavipdkajd iddhi! Sabbesam pakkhinam, sabbesam devanam, 
ekaccdnam manussdnam, ekaccdnam vinipdtikdnam. Ayarh kammavipdkajd iddhi. 



212 Vimuttimagga 

rich householder; of Ghosita, the rich householder. And again, it is said 
that it is as in the case of the five persons of great merit. This is called the 
supernormal power of the meritorious. 1 Q. What is the supernormal 
power accomplished by magic? A. A magician recites spells and goes 
through the sky. There he causes to appear elephants, horses, chariots, 
infantry or various other groups of an army. This is called the supernormal 
power accomplished by magic. 2 Q. What is the supernormal power accom- 
plished by the application of the means of success. A. By renunciation, 
one accomplishes the rejection of lustful desire; by the Path of Sanctity, one 
accomplishes the rejection of all defilements. It is like a potter finishing 
his work. Thus through the application of the means of success, all things 
are accomplished. This is called the supernormal power accomplished by the 
application of the means of success. 3 

PROCEDURE OF DEVELOPING SUPERNORMAL POWER 

Q. Who practises supernormal power? How is supernormal power 
developed? A. It is said that there are nine connected with space. Again 
it is said that there are five in space. All men who attain to the fourth medi- 
tation, jhdna, with facility, develop supernormal power. Again it is said 
that the fourth meditation, jhdna, of the realm of form, makes for distinction. 
Therefore one develops supernormal power. Again it is said that two of 
the four meditations, jhdna, are ease-giving. Thus is supernormal power 
practised. Q. How is supernormal power developed ? A . Here a bhikkhu 
develops the basis of supernormal power which is endowed with the activities 
of endeavour and the concentration of will. It is the same with the concen- 
tration of energy, the concentration of thought and the concentration of 
scrutiny. 4 "Will" is the wish to do. "Concentration" is non-distraction 
of the mind. That yogin wishes for supernormal power and the bases of 
supernormal power, and practises concentration and resolves upon the four 
kinds of endeavour. He endeavours to preclude the arising of evil demerit- 
orious states that have not yet arisen; he endeavours to reject the evil demerit- 



1. Pts. II, 213: Katamd puhhavato iddhil Raja Cakkavatti vehdsarh gacchati saddhim catu- 
rahginiyd sendya antamaso assabandhagopake purise updddya; Jotikassa gahapatissa puhha- 
vato iddhi, Jafilassa gahapatissa puhhavato iddhi, Mendakassa gahapatissa puhhavato iddhi, 
Ghositassa gahapatissa puhhavato iddhi, pahcannarh mahdpuhhdnam puhhavato iddhi. 
Ayarh puhhavato iddhi. 

2. Ibid.: Katamd vijjdmayd iddhil Vijjddhard vijjam parijapetvd vehdsam gacchanti: dkdse 
antalikkhe hatthim pi dassenti, assam pi dassenti, ratharh pi dassenti, pattirh pi dassenti, 
vividham pi sendbyuham dassenti. Ayam vijjdmayd iddhi. 

3. Ibid. 213-14: Katharh tattha tattha sammdpayogapaccayd ijjhanatthena iddhP. 'Nekkham- 
mena kdmacchandassa pahdnattho ijjhatitV tattha tattha sammdpayogapaccayd ijjhanatthena 
iddhi, . . . Arahattamaggena sabbakilesdnam pahdnattho ijjhatitV tattha tattha sammd- 
payogapaccayd ijjhanatthena iddhi. Evam tattha tattha sammdpayogapaccayd ijjhanatthena 
iddhi. 

4. D. II, 213: Ydva supahhattd v'ime tena Bhagavatd jdnatd passatd arahatd sammdsambud- 
dhena cattdro iddhipddd iddhipahutdya iddhi-visavitdya iddhi-vikubbanatdya. Katame 
cattaro ? Idha bho bhikkhu chanda-samddhi-padhdna-samkhdra-samanndgatam iddhipddam 
bhdveti, viriya-samddhi . . . citta-samddhi . . . vimamsd-samddhi-padhdna-samkhdra-saman- 
ndgatam iddhipddam bhdveti. 



Subjects of Meditation 2 1 3 

orious states that have already arisen; he endeavours to cause the arising 
of meritorious states that have not yet arisen; he endeavours to increase 
and to consciously reproduce the meritorious states that have already arisen; 
and to develop them fully. These are called "the activities of endeavour". 
"Endowed" means that one is endowed with these three qualities. Thus 
the six parts of the term are completed. "Basis of supernormal power": 
That by which one attains to supernormal power — the "basis of supernormal 
power" is only that. Therefore that state is called "basis of supernormal 
power". And again, the fulfilment of the activities of endeavour and the 
concentration of will — this is called the "basis of supernormal power". It is 
the means of attending to supernormal power. This is the principal meaning. 
"Develops" means: "Practises and repeats it". This is called "the develop- 
ment of the basis of supernormal power endowed with the activities of en- 
deavour and the concentration of will". Thus that yogin practises. This is 
the means of success :- Sometimes he falls back ; sometimes he abides. He 
causes the arising of energy. He fulfils [442] this basis of supernormal power 
which is endowed with concentration of energy and the activities of endeavour. 
(In) this means of success, he sometimes slackens, sometimes falls back, 
sometimes is perturbed. When the mind slackens, he produces the mental 
characteristic of alacrity; when the mind falls away, he produces concentration 
of mind; when the mind is perturbed, he produces the characteristic of equani- 
mity. Thus his mind acquires the basis of supernormal power which is endowed 
with concentration of mind and the activities of endeavour. If one has a 
mind that is without defilement, one understands advantage and disadvantage 
with ease. He practises (saying): "Now is the time to develop", or "now 
is not the time to develop". Thus he accomplishes "the basis of supernormal 
power which is endowed with concentration of scrutiny and the activities of 
endeavour". Thus that yogin develops the four bases of supernormal power. 
His mind, being wieldy, responds to the body, and his body responds to the 
mind. Thus that yogin sometimes controls the body with his mind, and 
sometimes the mind with his body. Depending on the body, the mind 
changes; depending on the mind, the body changes. Depending on the 
body, the mind resolves; depending on the mind, the body resolves. The 
perception of bliss and lightness adheres to the body. In that state he accom- 
plishes and abides. Practising thus, that yogin reaches the acme of lightness, 
makes his body exceedingly pliant, and attains to the capacity-limit of resolve, 
even as a ball of iron made red-hot is capable of being fashioned into any shape 
easily. Thus having through mental culture made his body light, he, owing to 
the lightness of body, enters the fourth meditation, jhdna , and is mindful and 
tranquil. Rising therefrom, he knows space, and resolves through knowledge. 
Thus his body is able to rise up in space. Having resolved through knowledge, 



214 Vimuttimagga 

he can rise up in space. It is comparable to cottonwool blown by the wind. 1 
Here the new yogin should not go far quickly, because he might, in the course 
of his application, arouse fear. If he stirs up fear, his meditation, jhdna, will 
fall away. Therefore the new yogin should not go far quickly. He should go 
gradually. At first one shakuf then he gradually rises and applies himself. 
And again, he attempts one fathom according to his size. Thus one should 
reach gradually the point he desires to reach. 

Q. Is it possible that the yogin will fall down from the sky, if he loses 
his meditation, jhdna, there? A. No. This begins from one's meditation-seat. 
If, having gone far, the meditation, jhdna, is lost, one reaches the sitting place. 
One sees the body in the first posture (and thinks): "This is the possessor 
of supernormal power. This is his serenity-practice". 

SUPERNORMAL POWER OF RESOLVE 

That yogin applies himself gradually, and becomes capable of easy attain- 
ment. "He is able to enjoy supernormal power in the various modes. Being 
one, he becomes many; being many, he becomes one. Or he becomes visible 
(or invisible) or he goes across a wall; he goes across a barrier; he goes across a 
hill; he goes unimpeded as if he were in space. He can sink into the earth or 
come out of it, as if in water. He can walk on water as on dry land. He can 
move in space as a bird on the wing. In the greatness of supernormal power 
and might, he can handle the sun and the moon. He raises up his body and 
reaches the world of Brahma. 

"Being one, he becomes many": He, being one, makes himself many. He 
makes himself appear a hundred or a thousand, or a ten thousand and so on 
through supernormal power. He enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, and 
rising therefrom peacefully resolves through knowledge: "May I be many!", 
like Cullapanthaka, the Consummate One (arahant). 



1. Cp. S. V, 283-85: Yasmim Ananda samaye Tathdgato kdyam pi citte samddahati cittam pi 
ca kdye samddahati sukhasahhanca lahusahhahca kdye okkamitvd viharati, tasmith Ananda 
samaye Tathdgatassa kayo lahutaro ceva hoti mudutaro ca kammaniyataro ca pabhassa- 
rataro ca. 

Seyyathdpi Ananda ayogufo divasam santatto lahutaro ceva hoti mudutaro ca kamma- 
niyataro ca pabhassarataro ca, evam eva kho Ananda yasmim samaye Tathdgato kdyam 
pi citte samddahati, cittam pi kdye samddahati, sukhasahhanca lahusahhahca kdye okkamitvd 
viharati, tasmith Ananda samaye Tathdgatassa kayo lahutaro ceva hoti mudutaro ca kamma- 
niyataro ca pabhassarataro ca . 

Yasmim Ananda samaye Tathdgato kdyam pi citte samddahati, cittam pi kdye samdda- 
hati, sukkhasahhahca lahusahhahca kdye okkamitvd viharati, tasmirh Ananda samaye 
Tathdgatassa kayo appakasireneva pathaviyd vehdsam abbhuggacchati, so anekavihitam 
iddhividham paccanubhoti, eko pi hutvd bahudhd hoti, ... pe . . . Yava Brahmaloka pi 
kdyena vasam vatteti. 

Seyyathdpi Ananda tulapicu vd kappdsapicu vd lahuko vdtupdddno appakasireneva 
pathaviyd vehdsam abbhuggacchati, evam eva kho Ananda yasmim samaye Tathdgato 
kdyam pi citte samddahati, cittam pi kdye samddahati, sukhasahhanca lahusahhhaca 
kdye okkamitvd viharati, tasmith Ananda samaye Tathdgatassa kayo appakasireneva 
pathaviyd vehdsam abbhuggacchati, so anekavihitam iddhividham pacchanubhoti, eko pi 
hutvd bahudhd hoti, ... pe . . . yava Brahmaloka pi kdyena vasam vattetiti , 
2, Nearly a foot. 



Subjects of Meditation 215 

"Being many, he becomes one": Desiring to change from many to one, 
he resloves through knowledge thus: "May I change from many to one!", 
like Cullapanthaka, the Consummate One. 1 

"He becomes visible or invisible. He goes across a wall; he goes across 
a barrier; he goes across a hill; he goes unimpeded as if in space": That 
yogin, having practised on the space kasina enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, 
and rising therefrom peacefully, goes across a wall, goes across a barrier, 
goes across a hill. In going along, he resolves through knowledge thus: 
"Let there be space!". Having attained to space, that yogin, in space, goes 
across a wall, goes across a barrier, goes across a hill. He goes unimpeded 
as if in space. 

What is the meaning of "He becomes visible" ? It means "opens". What 
is the meaning of "He becomes invisible"? It means "not open". That 
yogin causes to open what is not open, and he goes across a wall; he goes 
across a barrier; he goes across a hill. What is the meaning of "He goes 
unimpeded"? "He can sink into the earth and come out of it as if in water". 
That yogin practises on the water kasina and enters the fourth meditation, 
jhdna. Rising therefrom peacefully, he marks off a part of the earth, and 
resolves through knowledge: "Let there be water!". That yogin can sink into 
the earth and come out of it as if in water. 2 

Without obstruction "he can walk on water as if on earth". That yogin 
practises on the earth kasina and enters the fourth meditation, jhdna. Rising 
therefrom peacefully, he marks off a part of water and resolves through know- 
ledge thus: "Let there be earth!". Having produced earth, that yogin is 
able to move on water without difficulty as if on land. 



1. Cp. (a) A. I, 24: Etad aggarh bhikkhave mama sdvakdnam bhikkhiinam manomayam 

kdyam abhinimminantdnam yadidam Cullapanthako (=» So hdnaparipdkam 
dgamma tattha khayavayam patfhapetvd cintesi: idarh cojakhandam pakatiyd 
pandaram parisuddham upddinnakasariram nissdya kilittham jdtarh, cittam pi 
evamgatikam evd ti. Samddhim bhdvetvd cattdri rupdvacarajjhdndni padakdni 
katvd saha patisambhiddhi arahattam pdpuni. So manomayahdnaldbhi hutvd 
eko hutvd bahudhd, bahudhd hutvd eko bhavitum samattho ahosi. — Mp. I, 216). 
(b) Pts. IT, 207: ''Eko pi hutvd bhudhd hotitV . Pakatiyd eko bahulam dvajjati, 
satarh vd sahassam vd satasahassam vd dvajjati; dvajjitvd hdnena adhitthdti 'bahulo 
homitV, bahulo hoti. Yathdyasmd Cullapanthako eko pi hutvd bahudhd hoti, 
evamevam so iddhimd cetovasippatto eko pi hutvd bahudhd hoti. 
'Bahudhd pi hutvd eko hotitV . Pakatiyd bahulo ekarh dvajjati; dvajjitvd hdnena 
adhitthdti 'eko homitV , eko hoti. Yathdyasmd Cullapanthako bahudhd pi hutvd 
eko hoti, evamevam so iddhimd cetovasippatto bahudhd pi hutvd eko hoti . 

2. Pts. II, 207-8: 'Avibhavan' ti. Kenaci andvatam hoti appaticchannam vivatam pakafam. 

'Tirobhavan" 1 ti. Kenaci dvatarh hoti paticchannam pihitam patikujjitam . 

'Tirokuddam tiropdkdram tiropabbatam asajjamdno gacchati, seyyathdpi dkdse* ti. 

Pakatiyd dkdsakasinasamdpattiyd labhi hoti, tirokuddam tiropdkdram tiropabbatam 
dvajjati; dvajjitvd hdnena adhitthdti 'dkdso hotutV, dkdso hoti . So tirokuddam tiropdkdram 
tiropabbatam dvajjamdno gacchati . Yathd manussd pakatiyd aniddhimanto kenaci andvate 
aparikkhitte asajjamdnd gacchanti, evamevam so iddhimd cetovasippatto tirokuddam 
tiropdkdram tiropabbatam asajjamdno gacchati, seyyathdpi dkdse . 

'Pathaviyd pi ummujjanimujjam karoti, seyyathdpi udake 9 ti. Pakatiyd dpokasina- 
samdpattiyd labhi hoti, pathavim dvajjati; dvajjitvd hdnena adhitthdti 'udakarh hotutV, 
udakarh hoti. So pathaviyd ummujjanimujjam karoti. Yathd manussd pakatiyd aniddhi- 
manto udake ummujjanimujjam karonti evamevam so iddhimd cetovasippatto pathaviyd 
ummujjanimujjam karoti, seyyathdpi udake. 



216 Vimuttimagga 

"He moves like a bird on the wing in space": Here there are three kinds 
of movement: movement on foot; movement on air; and mind-movement. 
Here the yogin gets the concentration of the earth kasina and resolves through 
knowledge for a path in space, and moves on foot. Or if he gets the concen- 
tration of the air kasina he resolves upon air, and goes through air like cotton- 
wool. Or he fills his body and mind with the movement of the mind. The 
perception of bliss and lightness adheres to his body. Thus his body becomes 
buoyant, and he goes by the movement of the mind like a bird on the wing. 
Thus he goes by the movement of the mind. 

"In the (greatness of) supernormal power and might, 1 he can handle the 
sun and the moon" : Having supernormal power, that yogin gets control of the 
mind. Having trained his mind, he enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, and 
rising from it peacefully, he handles the sun and the moon with the resolve 
through knowledge thus: "Let my hand reach them!", and he reaches them 
with his hand. Sitting or lying down, that yogin can handle the sun and the 
moon. 2 

"He raises up his body and reaches the world of Brahma": Having 
supernormal power that yogin gets control of the mind and goes up even to 
the world of Brahma r happily. These are the four bases of supernormal 
power. 

By training the mind thus he resolves that the distant should be near, or 
that the near should become distant. He resolves that many should become 
few, or that the few should become many. He sees Brahma's form with 
divine sight. He hears the voice of Brahma 3 with divine hearing and he knows 
Brahma's mind with the knowledge of others' thoughts. That yogin has three 
formations. 4 He goes to Brahma's world through two formations. This is 



1. Lit. Supernormal power and divine might. 

2. Pts. II, 208-9: 'Udake pi abhijjamane gacchati, seyyathapi pathaviyari ti. Pakatiyd 
pathavikasinasamdpattiyd labhi hoti, udakam avajjati; dvajjitvd hdnena adhitthdti 'pathavi 
hotutV pathavi hoti. So abhijjamane udake gacchati. Yathd mantissa pakatiyd aniddhimanto 
abhijjamdndya pathaviyd gacchanti, evamevam so iddhimd cetovasippatto abhijjamane udake 
gacchati, seyyathapi pathaviyam. 

'Akase pi pallankena cahkamati, seyyathapi pakkhi sakuno' ti. Pakatiyd pathavi- 
kasinasamapattiya labhi hoti, dkdsam avajjati; dvajjitvd hdnena adhitthdti 'pathavi hotutV, 
pathavi hoti. So dkdse antalikkhe cahkamati pi titthati pi nisidati pi seyyam pi kappeti. 
Yathd manussd pakatiyd aniddhimanto pathaviyd cahkamanti pi titthanti pi nisidanti pi 
seyyam pi kappenti, evamevam so iddhimd cetovasippatto dkdse antalikkhe cahkamati pi 
titthati pi nisidati pi seyyam pi kappeti, seyyathapi pakkhi sakuno, 

'Ime pi candimasuriye evam-mahiddhike evam-mahdnubhdve pdnind paramasati 
parimajjatitV . Idha so iddhimd cetovasippatto nisinnako vd nipannako vd candimasuriye 
avajjati; dvajjitvd hdnena adhitthdti 'hatthapdse hotutV, hatthapdse hoti, So nisinnako 
vd nipannako vd candimasuriye pdnind dmasati paramasati parimajjati, Yathd manussd 
pakatiyd aniddhimanto kihcid eva rupagatam hatthapdse dmasanti pardmasanti parimajjanti, 
evamevam so iddhimd cetovasippatto nisinnako vd nipannako vd candimasuriye pdnind 
dmasati paramasati parimajjati, 

3. Lit. Devd. 4. Sankhdrd. 



Subjects of Meditation 217 

the teaching of the supernormal power of resolve in full. 1 
Supernormal power of resolve has ended.% 

SUPERNORMAL POWER OF TRANSFORMATION 

Now the yogin, wishing to acquire the supernormal power of transforma- 
tion, practises the four bases of supernormal power. He gets control of the 
mind. He makes his body easy in his mind; and he makes his mind easy in 
his body. He makes his mind easy with his body; and he makes his body easy 
with his mind. He resolves upon his mind with his body; and he resolves 
upon his body with his mind. The perception of bliss and the perception of 
lightness adhere to his body. In that he abides. Practising thus that yogin 
reaches the acme of lightness, making his body exceedingly pliant and reaches 
the capacity-limit of resolve, even as an iron ball made red-hot is capable of 
being fashioned into any shape easily. Thus having through mental culture 
made his mind pliant and capable of resolve, he resolves to fill his body with 
his mind. If that yogin wishes to take the form of a boy, he, discarding his 
form, enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, and rising from it peacefully changes 
into the form of a boy, gradually. In changing his body, he resolves through 
knowledge: "May I fulfil the form of a boy!". Thus resolving, he can fulfil 
the form of a boy. In the same way in changing into the form of a snake or of 
a garulq, a yakkha, an asura, or into the form of Sakka-Inda or Brahma, the 
ocean, a mountain, a forest, a lion, a tiger, a leopard, an elephant, a horse, 
infantry, groups of an army, he resolves through knowledge thus: "May I 
fulfil the form of infantry !". Resolving thus, he fulfils the form of infantry 
(and so on). 2 



1. Pts. IT, 209-10: l Ydva Brahmalokd pi kayena vasam vattetiti. Sace so iddhima cetovasip- 
patto Brahmalokam gantukamo hoti, dure pi santike adhitthati 'santike hotutV santike hoti, 
santike pi dure adhitthati 'dure hotutV dure hoti; bahukam pi thokam adhitthati 'thokam 
hotutV thokam hoti, thokam pi bahukam adhitthati 'bahukam hotutV bahukam hoti; dibbena 
cakkhund tassa Brahmuno rupam passati, dibbdya sotadhdtuyd tassa Brahmuno saddam 
sundti, cetopariyahdnena tassa Brahmuno cittam pajdndti. Sace so iddhima cetovasippatto 
dissamdnena kayena Brahmalokam gantukamo hoti, kdyavasena cittam parindmeti, kdya- 
vasena cittam adhitthati; kdyavasena cittam parindmetvd kdyavasena cittam adhitthahitvd 
sukhasanhah ca lahusanhah ca okkamitvd dissamdnena kayena Brahmalokam gacchati. 
Sace so iddhima cetovasippatto adissamdnena kayena Brahmalokam gantukamo hoti, 
cittavasena kdyarh parindmeti, cittavasena kdyarh adhitthati; cittavasena kdyarh parind- 
metvd cittavasena kayam adhitthahitvd sukhasanhah ca lahusanhah ca okkamitvd adissamd- 
nena kayena Brahmalokam gacchati. So tassa Brahmuno purato rupam abhinimmindti 
manomayam sabbahgapaccahgam ahinindriyam. Sace so iddhima cahkamati, nimmito pi 
tattha cahkamati; sace so iddhima titthati, nimmito pi tattha titthati; sace so iddhima 
nisidati, nimmito pi tattha nisidati; sace so iddhima seyyarh kappeti, nimmito pi tattha 
seyyam kappeti; sace so iddhima dhupdyati, nimmito pi tattha dhupdyati; sace so iddhima 
pajjalati, nimmito pi tattha pajjalati; sace so iddhima dhammam bhdsati, nimmito pi tattha 
dhammam bhdsati; sace so iddhima pahharh pucchati, nimmito pi tattha pahham pucchati; 
sace so iddhima pahham puttho vissajjeti, nimmito pi tattha pahham puttho vissajjeti; sace 
so iddhima tena Brahmund saddhim santitthati sallapati sdkaccham samdpajjati, nimmito 
pi ti tattha tena Brahmund saddhim santitthati sallapati sdkaccham samdpajjati; Yah had 
eva hi so iddhima karoti, tan tad eva hi so nimmito karotiti. Ayarh adhitthdnd iddhi. 

2. Pts. II, 210: Katamd vikubband iddhi? 

Sikhissa Bhagavato Arahato Sammdsambuddhassa Abhibhu nama sdvako Brahmaloke 
fhito sahassihkadhdtum sarena vihhdpeti. So dissamdnena pi kayena dhammam deseti, 



218 Vimuttimagga 

Q. What is the difference between the supernormal power of resolve 
and the supernormal power of transformation? A. In the supernormal 
power of resolve, one resolves without discarding the form. In the supernormal 
power of transformation, one discards the form. This is the difference. 

The supernormal power of transformation has ended. X 

SUPERNORMAL POWER CAUSED BY MIND 

Now the yogin wishes to acquire the supernormal power caused by the 
mind. Having got control of mind, he develops the bases of supernormal 
power and enters into the fourth meditation, jhdna. Rising therefrom peaceful- 
ly, he attends to the interior of his body with the thought: "It is like an 
empty pot". Further that yogin meditates thus: "Within this hollow body of 
mine I will cause changes as I like. I will cause it to change". And in chang- 
ing, he resolves through knowledge thus: "Following it I will accomplish!". 
Thus considering, he accomplishes the change. By this means, he makes 
many forms. Thereafter he engages himself in various activities. If the 
yogin wishes to go to the world of Brahma with a created body, he creates it 
in the form of a Brahma before entering the Brahma world. The form which 
is made according to his will is complete with all factors, and there is no 
faculty wanting in it. If [443] the possessor of supernormal power walks 
to and fro, that created man also walks to and fro. If the possessor of 
supernormal power sits, or lies down, or sends forth vapour and flame, or 
asks questions, or answers, that created man also sits or lies down, sends forth 
vapour and flame, or asks questions, or answers. Because that made form 
springs from supernormal power, it does so. 1 

The supernormal power caused by mind has endedX 
MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

What are the miscellaneous teachings? The form which supernormal 



adissamdnena pi kdyena dhammarh deseti, dissamdnena pi hetthimena upaddhakayena 
adissamdnena pi uparimena upaddhakayena dhammarh deseti, dissamdnena pi uparimena 
upaddhakayena adissamdnena pi hetthimena upaddhakayena dhammarh deseti. So pakati- 
vannam vijahitvd kumdrakavannam vd dasseti, ndgavannam vd dasseti, supannavannam 
vd dasseti, yakkhavannam vd dasseti, Indavannam vd dasseti, devavannam vd dasseti, 
Brahmavannam vd dasseti, samuddavannam vd dasseti, pabbatavannam vd dasseti, vana- 
vannarh vd dasseti, sihavannam vd dasseti, byagghavannam vd dasseti, dipivannam vd dasseti, 
hatthivannam vd dasseti, assarh pi dasseti, ratham pi dasseti, pattim pi dasseti, vividham pi 
sendbyuham dasseti. Ayam vikubband iddhi. 

Pts. II, 210-11: Katamd manomayd iddhi? Idha bhikkhu imamhd kdyd ahham kdyam 
abhinimmindti rupirh manomayam sabbahgapaccangam ahinindriyam. Seyyathdpi puriso 
muhjamhd isikam pavdheyya, tassa evam assa — 'Ayam muhjo ayam isikd, anno muhjo ahhd 
isikd, muhjamhd tv eva isikd pavdfhd'ti; seyyathdpi vd pana puriso asim kosiyd pavdheyya, 
tassa evam assa — 'Ayam asi ayam kosi, anno asi ahhd kosi, kosiyd tv eva asi pavdlho* ti; 
seyyathdpi vd pana puriso ahirh karandd uddhareyya, tassa evam assa — 'Ayam asi ayam 
karando, anno asi anno karando, karandd tv eva ahi ubbhato' ti. Evam evam bhikkhu imamhd 
kdyd ahham kdyam abhinimmindti rupirh manomayam sabbahgapaccangam ahinindriyam. 
Ayam manomayd iddhi. 



Subjects of Meditation 219 

power creates could be distinguished at any time. At this time he does not 
appear. He knows when it is not the time. During that time should he 
wish to speak, he makes himself invisible. He does not appear at any moment. 
The created form has no life-principle. Drinks, foods, things, and various 
forms of knowledge created proceed by way of nine objects, namely, limited 
object, sublime object, limitless object, past object, future object, present 
object, internal object, external object, internal-external object. 

Miscellaneous Teachings have endedX 

DIVINE HEARING 

Q. Who practises divine hearing? How is it developed? 

A. One who enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, with facility on eight 
kasinas and two kasinas causes the arising of divine hearing relying on the 
physical organ of hearing. 

Q. How is the form element of the fourth meditation, jhdna, set free? 

A. It occurs then. 1 

Q. How is it developed? A. The new yogin practises the four bases 
of supernormal power and controls his mind. He enters the fourth meditation, 
jhdna. Rising therefrom peacefully and depending on the physical organ 
of hearing, he attends to the sound sign. Hearing a sound afar off, or hearing 
a sound nearby, he attends to the sound sign. Hearing a gross sound or 
hearing a fine sound, he attends to the sound sign. Hearing a sound from 
the east, he attends to the sound sign. Thus as to all regions. Through the 
practice of the purity of mind and the purification of the ear element, that 
yogin strengthens the mental formations. That yogin hears what is beyond 
the reach of human ears owing to the purified divine hearing. He hears 
both sounds, namely, divine sounds and human sounds, also sounds afar 
and sounds near. 2 Here the predecessors have said: "At first the new yogin 
hears the sound of beings within himself after that he hears the sound of beings 
outside his body. Thence he hears the sound of beings anywhere. Thus 
he strengthens attention gradually". Again it is said: "At first the new 
yogin cannot hear the sound of beings within himself, because he is not able 
to hear fine sounds. He cannot reach the field of these (sounds) with the 
physical ear. But the new yogin could hear the sound of conchs, drums 
and the like, with the physical ear". 



1 . The question and the answer are not clear. 

2. D. I, 79 : Seyyathd pi mahd-rdja puriso addhdna-magga-patipanno so suneyya bheri-saddam 
pi mutinga-saddam pi sankha-panava-dendima-saddam pi. Tassa evam assa: "Bheri-saddo" 
hi pi, " mutinga-saddo" iti pi, " sankha-panava-dendima-saddo" iti pi. Evam eva kho mahd- 
rdja bhikkhu evam samdhite citte parisuddhe pariyoddte anangane vigatupakkiJese mudu- 
bhute kammaniye thite dnejjappatte dibbdya sota-dhdtuyd cittam abhiniharati abhininndmeti. 
So dibbdya sota-dhdtuyd visuddhdya atikkanta-mdnusikdya ubho sadde sundti, dibbe ca 
mdnuse ca, ye dure santike ca. 



220 Vimuttimagga 

Fine sounds or gross sounds, sounds afar off or sounds nearby could be 
heard with divine hearing. Here the new yogin should not attend to extremely 
fearful sounds, because he will (going to the other extreme) become attached 
to lovable sounds, and because he will stir up fear in his mind. 

Knowledge of divine hearing proceeds in three objects, namely, limited 
object, present object and external object. If one loses physical hearing, 
one also loses divine hearing. Here, the hearer, who acquires facility (in the 
practice), is able to listen to the sounds of a thousand world-systems. The 
Silent Buddhas can hear more. There is no limit to the power of hearing 
of the Tathagata. 

Divine hearing has ended.% 

KNOWLEDGE OF OTHERS' THOUGHTS 

Q. Who develops the knowledge of others' thoughts? How is 
it developed? 

A. One entering the fourth meditation, jhdna, on the light kasina and 
acquiring facility therein, gains divine sight and causes the arising of the know- 
ledge of others' thoughts. 

How is it developed ? The new yogin having acquired the bases of super- 
normal power and having got control of the mind, enters the light kasina 
which is pure and immovable. Rising from the fourth meditation, jhdna, 
peacefully, he, at first, fills his body with light. He sees the colour of his 
own heart through divine sight. Through this colour he perceives his own 
states of consciousness, and knows through the changes in colour the changes 
in his own mind: "This colour proceeds from the faculty of joy; this colour 
proceeds from the faculty of fear; this colour proceeds from the faculty of 
equanimity". If the consciousness which is accompanied by the faculty 
of joy arises, the heart is of the colour of curds and ghee. If the consciousness 
which is accompanied by the faculty of melancholy arises, it (the heart) is 
purple in colour. If the consciousness which is accompanied by the faculty 
of equanimity arises, it (the heart) is of the colour of honey. If the conscious- 
ness which is accompanied by lustful desire arises, it (the heart) is yellow 
in colour. If the consciousness which is accompanied by anger arises, it 
(the heart) is black in colour. If the consciousness which is accompanied 
by ignorance arises, it (the heart) is muddy in colour. If the consciousness 
which is accompanied by confidence and knowledge arises, it (the heart) is 
pure in colour. Thus that yogin understands the changes in colour through 
the changes within himself. At this time he diffuses other bodies with light 
and sees the colour of others' hearts through divine sight. He understands 
the changing colours through the changes in their hearts, and the changes 



Subjects of Meditation 221 

in their hearts through the changing colours. 1 Having understood thus, he 
causes the arising of the knowledge of others' thoughts. Having aroused 
the knowledge of others' thoughts, he leaves off attending to the changes 
of colour and holds to the heart only as object. That yogin practises thus. 
Therefore his mind becomes pure. 

If a certain individual has the heart of loving-kindness, he (the yogin) 
knows that that individual possesses the heart of loving-kindness. If a certain 
individual has the heart of hate, he knows that that individual has the heart 
of hate. If a certain individual has not the heart of hate, he knows that that 
individual has not the heart of hate. 2 Thus he knows all. 

The knowledge of others' thoughts proceeds in eight objects, namely, 
limited object, lofty object, the path object, the immeasurable object, the 
past object, the future object, the present object and the external object. 3 The 
knowledge of the thoughts of those who are freed from the cankers is not 
within the power of the commoner. The thoughts of the beings of the formless 
realms are knowable only by the Buddhas. If the hearer gains freedom, 
he knows the thoughts (of beings) of a thousand world-systems. The Silent 
Buddhas know more. As to the Tathagata, there is no limit. 

The knowledge of others' thoughts has ended. X 

RECOLLECTION OF PAST LIVES 

Q. Who practises the knowledge of the recollection of past lives ? How 
many kinds of knowledge of the recollection of past lives are there? How is 
it developed? 

A. He who enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, with facility on the 
eight kasinas and the two kasinas, is able to cause the arising of the knowledge 
of the recollection of past lives. 

Again it is asked: What is the form plane meditation? 

The fourth meditation, jhdna, of the form plane where there is freedom 
of the mind. 

Again it is asked: "In the fourth meditation, jhana, how many kinds 



Cp. Vis. Mag. 409, where only three colours are given and are different from those mentioned 
here. 
. Cp. A. I, 255; D.I, 79-80; S. II, 121-22; V, 265: Evarh bhavitesu kho bhikkhu catusu 
iddhipddesu evarh bahulikatesu parasattdnarh parapuggaldnarh cetasd ceto paricca pajdndti. 
Sardgam vd cittarh sardgarh cittanti pajdndti, ntardgarh vd cittarh ... pe . . . , sadosarh 
vd cittarh ... pe . . . , vitadosarh vd cittarh ... pe . . . , samoham vd cittarh ... pe . . . , 
vitamoharh vd cittarh. . . pe . . ., sankhittarh vd cittarh. . . pe . . ., vikkhittarh vd cittarh. . . 
pe . . . , mahaggatarh vd cittarh ... pe . . . , amahagattarh vd cittarh ... pe . . . , sauttararh 
vd cittarh ... pe . . . , anuttararh vd cittarh ... pe . . . , asamdhitarh vd cittarh ... pe . . . , 
samdhitarh vd cittarh ... pe . . . , avimuttarh va cittarh ... pe . . . , vimuttarh vd cittarh 
vimuttarh cittan ti pajdndti. 

Vis. Mag. 431 : Cetopariyandnarh paritta-mahaggata-appamdna-magga-atitdndgata-paccup- 
panna-bahiddhdrammana-vasena atfhasu drammanesu pavatti. 



222 Vimuttimagga 

of knowledge of the recollection of past lives can be made to arise" ? A. There 
are three kinds of knowledge of the recollection of past lives. 

Q. With the fourth meditation, jhdna, how many kinds of recollection 
of past lives are possible ? 

A. There are three kinds of recollection of past lives: many lives, 
birth made, practice made. 

"Many lives" means: recollection of past lives produced through four 
ways, viz., one develops the sign well, then one grasps the mental sign, one 
calms one's faculties and one develops that ability. These four ways produce 
the recollection of past lives. Of these the recollection of seven past lives 
is the best. Through "birth made" means: deities, ndgas (demons) and 
garulas (mythical birds) remember their past lives naturally. Of these the 
best remember fourteen past lives. 

"Practice made" means to produce by way of the four bases of supernormal 
power. 

Q. How is the knowledge of the recollection of past lives developed ? 
A. The new yogin, having practised the four bases of supernormal power, 
gains control of the mind through confidence, and becomes immovable and 
pure. He, having sat down, remembers what he had done in the day or all 
that he had done bodily, mentally and verbally. Thus also as regards the 
actions of the night. In the same way he recollects all that he had done during 
a day, during two days and thus backwards to one month. In the same way 
he remembers all that he had done during two months, one year, two years, 
three years, a hundred years up to his last birth. At this time the mind and 
the mental properties of the preceding birth and the mind and the mental 
properties of the succeeding birth appear. Owing to the mind and the mental 
properties of the preceding birth, he gets (the succeeding) birth. Owing 
to mind-succession, he is able to see the causes and conditions and remember 
the (backward) rolling of consciousness. The two (the preceding and the 
succeeding) are not disjoined and are produced in this world, having been 
produced in that world. Through such practice of the mind that is purified, 
that yogin remembers his varied lot in the past. Thus (he remembers) one 
life, two lives, three lives, four lives and so forth. The new yogin remembers 
all pertaining to this life. If any yogin is not able to remember his past births 
he should not give up exerting himself. He should develop meditation, jhdna, 
again and again. He, in developing meditation, jhdna, well, should purify 
the mind with action similar to the correct method of burnishing a mirror. 1 
Having purified his mind, he remembers his past exactly. If he continues 



1. D. I, 80; M. II, 19-20: Seyyathdpi, Uddyi, itthi vd puriso vd daharo yuvd mandakajdtiko 
dddse vd parisuddhe pariyoddte acche vd udakapatte sakath mukhanimittarh paccavek- 
khamdno sakanikam vd sakanikan ti jdneyya, akanikam vd akanikan ti jdneyya, — evam eva 
kho, Uddyi, akkhdtd mayd sdvakdnarh patipadd, yathd patipannd me sdvakd parasattdnam 
parapuggaldnam cetasd ceto paricca pajdnanti, sardgam vd cittarh: sardgam cittan ti 
pajdndti. . . 



Subjects of Meditation 223 

to remember [444] his past beginning with one life, he is exceedingly glad. 
Having found out the way he should not recall to mind his states of existence 
in the animal world and in the formless realm, and, because of inconscience, 
births in the plane of the unconscious deities. In this the Venerable Elder 
Sobhita is most excellent. 1 

The knowledge of the recollection of past lives proceeds in seven objects. 
They are limited, lofty, immeasurable, past, internal, external and internal- 
external. 2 

His lot in the past, the country and the village should be recalled to mind. 3 
To remember the past is knowledge of the recollection of past lives. To 
remember the continuity of aggregates through knowledge is knowledge 
of the recollection of past lives. Outsiders remember forty aeons. They 
cannot remember more than that, because of their feebleness. The noble 
hearers remember ten thousand aeons; more than this, the chief hearers; 
more than this, the Silent Buddhas; and more than this, the Tathagatas, 
the Supremely Enlightened Ones, who are able to recall to mind their own 
and others' previous lives, activities, spheres and all else. 4 The rest remember 
only their own previous lives and a few of the previous lives of others. The 
Supremely Enlightened Ones recall to mind everything they wish to recall. 
Others recall gradually. The Supremely Enlightened Ones, either through 



1. A. I, 25: Etad aggam bhikkhave mama sdvakdnam bhikkhunam pubbenivdsam annussa- 
rantdnarh yadidarh Sobhito. 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 433 : Pubbenivdsahdnarh paritta-mahaggata-appamdna-magga-atita-ajjhatta- 
bahiddhd na vattabbdrammanavasena atthasu drammanesu pavattati. 

3. D. I, 81-2; M. II, 20-1 : Seyyathdpi, Uddyi, puriso sakamhd gdmd ahham gdmarh gaccheyya, 
tarhha pi gdmd ahham gdmarh gaccheyya, so tamhd gdmd sakam yeva gdmam paccdgacchey- 
ya; tassa evam assa: — Aharh kho sakamhd gdmd amum gdmarh agahchim, tatra evam 
atthdsirh evam nisidirh evam abhdsirh evam tunhi ahosirh, tamhd pi gdmd amum gdmam 
agahchim, tatrdpi evam atthdsirh evam nisidirh evam abhdsirh evam tunhi ahosirh, so 'mhi 
tamhd gdmd sakam yeva gdmarh paccdgato ti. Evam eva kho, Uddyi, akkhdtd mayd 
sdvakdnam patipadd, yathd patipannd me sdvakd anekavihitam pubbenivdsam anussaranti, 
seyyathidarh: ekarh pi jdtirh... pe ... Tatra ca pana me sdvakd bahu abhihhdvosdna- 
pdramippattd viharanti. 

4. Cp. S. II, 190-92: Bhutapubbarh bhikkhave imissa Vepullassa pabbatassa Pdcinavamso 
tveva samahhd udapddi. Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena manussdnarh Tivard tveva 
samahhd udapddi. Tivardnam bhikkhave manussdnam cattdrisarh vassasahassdni dyuppa- 
mdnam ahosi. Tivard bhikkhave manussd Pdcinavamsarh pabbatam catuhena drohanti 
catuhena orohanti. 

Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena Kakusandho bhagavd araharh sammdsambuddho 
loke uppanno hoti. . . pe ... 

Bhutapubbarh bhikkhave imassa Vepullassa pabbatassa Vahkako tveva samahhd 
udapddi. Tena kho pana bhikkave samayena manussdnarh Rohitassd tveva samahhd 
udapddi. Rohitassdnarh bhikkhave manussdnarh tirhsavassasahassdni dyuppamdnam ahosi. 
Rohitassd bhikkhave manussd Vahkakam pabbatam tihena drohanti tihena orohanti. 

Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena Kondgamano bhagavd araham sammdsambuddho 
uppanno hoti. . . pe ... 

Bhutapubbarh bhikkhave imassa Vepullassa pabbatassa Supasso tveva samahhd udapddi. 
Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena manussdnarh Suppiyd tveva samahhd udapddi. 
Suppiydnarh bhikkhave manussdnam visativassasahassdni dyuppamdnam ahosi. Suppiyd 
bhikkhave manussd Supassarh pabbatam dvihena drohanti dvihena orohanti. 

Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena Kassapo bhagavd araham sammdsambuddho loke 
uppanno hoti. . . pe ... 

Etarahi kho pana bhikkhave imassa Vepullassa pabbatassa Vepullo tveva samahhd 
udapddi. Etarahi kho pana bhikkhave imesarh manussdnarh Magadhakd tveva samahhd 
udapddi. Mdgadhakdnarh bhikkhave manussdnarh appakarh dyuppamdnam parittarh 



224 Vimuttimagga 

entering into concentration 1 or without entering into concentration, are able 
to recall to mind always. The rest can recall only through entering into con- 
centration. 

The knowledge of the recollection of past lives has ended. % 

DIVINE SIGHT 

Q. Who practises divine sight? How many kinds of divine sight are 
there? How is divine sight developed? 

A. He who enters the fourth meditation, jhdna, on the light kasina and 
acquires facility therein, and by him who is in possession of natural sight. 

How many kinds of divine sight are there? A. There are two kinds 
of divine sight, namely, that which is produced by well-wrought kamma 2 and 
that which is produced by the strength of energetic developing. 3 Here, 
divine sight which is accumulated kamma is born of (kamma) result. Thereby 
one can see whether there are jewels or not in a treasury. "That which is 
produced by the strength of energetic developing" means that which is produced 
by the practice of the four bases of supernormal power. 

How is divine sight developed? Having practised the four bases of super- 
normal power and gained control of the mind, the new yogin, being pure and 
immovable, enters the light kasina. Attaining to the fourth meditation, 
jhdna, he attends to and resolves upon the perception of light and the perception 
of day thus: "This day is like night; this night is like day". 4 His mind being 
free from all obstruction and from all clinging, he is able to strengthen his 
mind and increase light. To that yogin who strengthens and increases his 
light, there is nothing obscure. There is nothing covered, and he surpasses 
the sun in splendour. Practising thus, that yogin diffuses his body with light 
and attends to colour and form. With the purified divine sight which sur- 
passes human vision, that yogin "sees beings disappearing and reappearing, 
coarse and fine, beautiful and ugly, faring well or faring ill, according to their 
deeds. 5 Here, if one wishes to cause the arising of divine sight, he should 
suppress these defilements: uncertainty, wrong mindfulness, rigidity and 
torpor, pride, wrong joy, slanderous talk, excessive exercise of energy, too 
little exercise of energy, frivolous talk, perceptions of diversity, excessive 



lahukam. Yo cirarh jivati so vassasatam appam vd bhiyyo. Mdgadhakd bhikkhave 
mantissa Vepullam pabbatam muhuttena drohanti muhuttena orohanti. 

Etarahi kho pandham bhikkhave araharh sammdsambuddho loke uppanno ... pe ... 

1. Samddhi (transliteration). 

2. Sucaritakammanibbatta. 

3. Viriyabhdvdnd balanibbatta. 

4. Cp. D. Ill, 223 : IdK avuso bhikkhu dlokasafinam manasi-karoti, divd-sahham adhiffhdti 
yathd diva tathd rattim, yathd rattim tathd diva, iti vivatena cetasd apariyonaddhena 
sappabhdsam cittam bhdveti. 

5. It. 100; A. IV, 178: Iti dibbena cakkhund visuddhena atikkantamdnusakena satte passdmi 
cavamdne upapajjamdne, hine panite suvanne dubbanne sugate duggate yathdkammupage 
satte pajdndmi. 



Subjects of Meditation 225 

investigation of forms. If any one of these defilements appears in the course 
of the practice of divine sight, concentration is lost. If concentration is lost, 
light is lost, vision of objects is lost. Therefore these defilements should be 
well suppressed. If he suppresses these defilements, but does not acquire 
facility in concentration, his power of divine sight is limited, owing to non- 
acquirement of facility. That yogin sees a limited splendour with limited 
divine sight. His vision of forms is also limited; therefore the Blessed One 
taught thus: "At a time when my concentration is limited, my eye is limited; 
and with a limited eye I know a limited splendour and I see limited forms. 
At a time when my concentration is immeasurable, my eye is possessed of 
immeasurable divine sight; and with an immeasurable divine sight, I know 
immeasurable splendour and I see immeasurable forms". 1 



1. M. Ill, 157-162: Aham pi sudarh, Anuruddha, pubbe va sambodhd anabhisambuddho 
Bodhisatto va samdno obhasan c' eva sahjdndmi dassanan ca rupdnam. So kho pana me 
obhdso na cirass' eva antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnam. Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, 
etad ahosi: Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yena me obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnan 
ti? Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Vicikicchd kho me udapddi, vicikicchddhi- 
karanah ca pana me samddhi cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca 
rupdnam; so 'ham tat ha karissdmi yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissatiti. So kho 
aham, Anuruddha, appamatto atdpi pahitatto viharanto obhasan c' eva sahjdndmi dassanan 
ca rupdnam. So kho pana me obhdso na cirass' eva antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnam. 
Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yena me obhdso 
antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnan ti ? Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Amanasikdro 
kho me udapddi, amanasikdrddhikaranah ca pana me samddhi cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdse 
antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnam. So 'ham tatha karissdmi yathd me puna na vicikicchd 
uppajjissati na amanasikdro ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha, — pe — tassa mayham, Anuruddha, 
etad ahosi; Thinamiddham kho me udapddi, thinamiddhddhikaranah ca pana me samddhi 
cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnam. So 'ham tatha karissdmi 
yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissati na amanasikdro na thinamiddhan ti. So kho aham, 
Anuruddha,— pe — tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Chambhitattam kho me udapddi, 
chambhitattddhikaranah ca pana me samddhi cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdso antaradhdyati 
dassanan ca rupdnam. (Seyyathdpi, Anuruddha, puriso addhdnamaggapafipanno, tassa 
ubhatopasse vadhaka uppateyyum, tassa ubhatoniddnam chambhitattam uppajjeyya, — evam 
eva kho me, Anuruddha, chambhitattam udapddi, chambhitattddhikaranah ca pana me 
samddhi cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnam.) So 'ham 
tatha karissdmi yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissati na amanasikdro na thinamiddham 
na chambhitattan ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha, — pe — tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad 
ahosi: Ubbillarh kho me udapddi, ubbillddhikaranan ca pana me samddhi cavi, samadhimhi 
cute obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnam. {Seyyathdpi, Anuruddha, puriso ekarh 
nidhimukham gavesanto sakideva pahca nidhimukhdni adhigaccheyya, tassa tatoniddnam 
ubbillarh uppajjeyya, — evam eva kho, Anuruddha, ubbillarh kho me udapddi, ubbillddhi- 
karanan ca pana me samddhi cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca 
rupdnam.) So 'ham tatha karissdmi yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissati na amanasikdro 
na thinamiddham na chambhitattam na ubbillan ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha— pe — 
tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Dutthullam kho me udapddi, dufthullddhikaranah ca 
pana me samddhi cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnam. So 
'ham tatha karissdmi yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissati na amanasikdro na thina- 
middham na chambhitattam na ubbillarh na dutthullan ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha— pe — 
tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Accdraddhaviriyarh kho me udapddi, accdraddha- 
viriyadhikaranah ca pana me samddhi cavi, samadhimhi cute obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan 
ca rupdnam. (Seyyathdpi, Anuruddha, puriso ubhohi hatthehi vattakarh gd\ham ganheyya, 
so tatth' eva matameyya, — evam eva kho, Anuruddha, accdraddhaviriyarh udapddi 
accaraddhaviriyadhikaranah ca . . . dassanan ca rupdnam!) So 'ham tatha karissdmi 
yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissati na amanasikdro na thinamiddham na chambhitattam 
na ubbillarh na dutthullam na accdraddhaviriyan ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha— pe — tassa 
mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Atilinaviriyam kho me udapddi atilinaviriyddhikaranah 
ca . . . dassanan ca rupdnam. (Seyyathdpi, Anuruddha, puriso vattakarh sithilam ganheyya, 
so tassa hatthato uppateyya, — evam eva kho me, Anuruddha, atilinaviriyam udapddi . . . 
dassanan ca rupdnam.) So 'ham tatha karissdmi yathd me puna na vicikicchd upajjissati 
na amanasikdro . . . na accdraddhaviriyarh na atilinaviriyan ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha — 



226 Vimuttimagga 

Here, the new yogin should neither cling to forms nor fear forms. These 
faults are to be understood as in the explanation given before. 

Divine sight proceeds in five objects: limited-object, present object 



pe — tassa may ham, Anuruddha, etadahosi: Abhijappa kho me udapadi abhijappddhikaranah 
ca pana . . . dassanah ca rupanam. So 'ham tatha karissami yathd me puna na vicikicchd 
uppajjissati . . . na atilinaviriyam na abhijappa ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha— pe — tassa 
mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Ndnattasahnd kho me udapadi . . . dassanan ca rupanam. 
So 'ham tatha karissami yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissati . . . na abhijappa na 
ndnattasahnd ti. 

So kho aham, Anuruddha, appamatto dtdpi pahitatto viharanto obhdsah c' eva sahjdndmi 
dassanan ca rupanam. So kho pana me obhdso na cirass' eva antaradhdyati dassanan ca 
rupanam. Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yena me 
obhdso antaradhdyati dassanan ca rupdnan ti? Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: 
Atinijjhdyitattam kho me rupanam udapadi . . . dassanan ca rupanam. So 'ham tatha 
karissami yathd me puna na vicikicchd uppajjissati . . . na ndnattasahnd na atinijjhdyitattam 
rupdnan ti. So kho aham, Anuruddha, Vicikicchd cit tassa upakkileso ti iti viditvd 
vicikiccham cittassa upakkilesam pajahim; Amanasikdro cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvd 
amanasikdram cittassa upakkilesam pajahim; Thinamiddham cittassa upakkileso ti ... 
pajahim; Chambhitattam . . . pajahim; Ubbillam . . . pajahim; Dutthullam . . . pajahim; 
Accdraddhaviriyam . . . pajahim; Atilinaviriyam . . . pajahim; Abhijappa . . . pajahim; 
Ndnattasahnd . . . pajahim; Atinijjhdyitattam rupanam cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvd 
atinijjhdyitattam rupanam cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvd atinijjhdyitattam rupanam cittassa 
upakkilesam pajahim. 

So kho aham, Anuruddha, appamatto dtdpi pahitatto viharanto obhdsam hi kho sahjdndmi 
na ca rupdni passdmi; rupdni hi kho passdmi na ca obhdsam sahjdndmi kevalam pi rattim 
kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivam. Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: 
Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yo ham obhdsam hi kho sahjdndmi na ca rupdni passdmi, rupdni 
hi kho passdmi na ca obhdsam sahjdndmi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam 
pi rattindivan ti? Tassa mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Yasmim kho aham samaye 
rupanimittam amanasikaritvd obhdsanimittam manasikaromi, obhdsam hi kho tamhi 
samaye sahjdndmi na ca rupdni passdmi. Yasmim pandham samaye obhdsanimittam 
amanasikaritvd rupanimittam manasikaromi, rupdni hi kho tamhi samaye passdmi na ca 
obhdsam sahjdndmi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivan ti. 

So kho aham, Anuruddha, appamatto dtdpi pahitatto viharanto par it tan c' eva obhdsam 
sahjdndmi parittdni ca rupdni passdmi, appamdnah ca obhdsam sahjdndmi appamdndni ca 
rupdni passdmi, kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivam. Tassa 
mayham, Anuruddha, etadahosi: Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yo 'hamparittah c' eva obhdsam 
sahjdndmi parittdni ca rupdni passdmi appamdnah c 'eva obhdsam sahjdndmi appamdndni 
ca rupdni passdmi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivan ti? Tassa 
mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Yasmim kho samaye par it to samddhi hoti, par it tarn me 
tamhi samaye cakkhu hoti; so 'ham parittena cakkhund parittah c' eva obhdsam sahjdndmi 
parittdni ca rupdni passdmi. Yasmim pana samaye apparitto me samddhi hoti, appamdnam 
me tamhi samaye cakkhu hoti; so 'ham appamdnena cakkhund appamdnah c' eva obhdsam 
sahjdndmi appamdndni ca rupdni passdmi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi 
rattindivan ti. Yato kho me, Anuruddha, Vicikicchd cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvd 
vicikicchd cittassa upakkileso pahino ahosi; Amanasikdro citassa upakkileso ti iti viditvd 
amanasikdro cittassa upakkileso pahino ahosi; Thinamiddham . . . pahino ahosi; Chambhi- 
tattam . . . pahino ahosi; Ubbillam . . . pahino ahosi; Dutthullam . . . pahino ahosi; 
Accdraddhaviriyam . . . pahino ahosi; Atilinaviriyam . . . pahino ahosi; Abhijappa . . . 
pahino ahosi; Ndnattasahnd . . .pahino ahosi; Atinijjhdyitattam rupanam cittassa 
upakkileso ti iti viditvd atinijjhdyitattam rupanam cittassa upakkileso pahino ahosi. Tassa 
mayham, Anuruddha, etad ahosi: Ye kho me cittassa upakkilesd, te me pahino^ Handa 
ddnaham tividhena samddhim bhdvemiti. So kho aham, Anuruddha, savitakkam pi savicdram 
samddhim bhdvesim, avitakkam pi vicaramattam samadhim bhdvesim, avitakkam pi avicdram 
samddhim bhdvesim, sappitikam pi samddhim bhdvesim, nippitikam pi samddhim bhdvesim, 
sdtasahagatam pi samddhim bhdvesim, upekhdsahagatam pi samddhim bhdvesim. Yato 
kho me, Anuruddha, savitakko savicdro samddhi bhdvito ahosi, avitakko vicdramatto 
samddhi bhdvito ahosi, avitakko avicdro samddhi bhdvito ahosi, sappitiko pi samddhi bhdvito 
ahosi, nippitiko pi samddhi bhdvito ahosi, upekhdsahagato samddhi bhdvito ahosi, hdnah 
ca pana me dassanam udapadi: Akuppd me vimutti, ay am antimd jdti, na 'tthi ddni 
punabbhavo ti. 

Idam avoca Bhagavd. Attamano ayasmd Anuruddho Bhagavato bhdsitam abhinanditi. 



Subjects of Meditation 227 

internal-object, external-object and internal-external-object. 1 From divine 
sight four kinds of knowledge are produced. The knowledge of the future, 2 
the knowledge of the kamma sprung from each self, the knowledge of the 
passing away of beings according to their deeds and the knowledge of kamma- 
result. Here, through the knowledge of the future, he knows the arising of 
the form of the future. 3 Through the knowledge of the kamma sprung from 
each self, he knows the kamma which others make. By that kamma he knows 
that such and such a man will go to such and such a world. 4 Through the 
knowledge of the passing away of beings according to their deeds, he sees 
the world in which beings will appear, and he knows that such and such a 
man will be born in such and such a world through such and such a kamma. 5 
Through the knowledge of the kamma-result, he knows the time of arrival 
here; he knows the state he will reach here; he knows the defilement which 
causes the arrival here; he knows the means of arrival here; he knows that 
such and such a kamma will mature ; he knows that such and such a kamma 
will not mature; he knows that such and such a kamma will result in much; 
and he knows that such and such a kamma will result in little. 6 

Here the hearer who acquires freedom sees a thousand world-systems. 
The Silent Buddha sees more than that, and there is no limit to the vision 
of the Tathagata. 

Divine sight has ended.% 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag: 434: Dibbacakkhundnam paritta-paccuppanna-ajjhatta-bahiddharammana- 
vasena catusu arammanesu pavattati. The fifth, ajjhattabahiddha-drammana, is not in 
Vis. Mag. 

2. Andgatamsahana, Kammasakatahdna (Svamaydkammandna), Yathdkammupagandna, 
Kammavipdkandna, Vis. Mag. mentions only the first and the third. 

3. D. Ill, 75-6: Asiti-vassa-sahassdyukesu bhikkhave manussesu Metteyyo ndma Bhagavd 
loke uppajjissati araham Sammd-Sambuddho vijjd-cama-sampanno . . . So aneka-sahassarh 
bhikkhu-samgham pariharissati, seyyathd pi 'ham etarahi aneka-satarh bhikkhu-samgham 
parihardmi. 

At ha kho bhikkhave Samkho ndma raja yerCassa yilpo rahhd Mahd-Panadena kdrdpito, 
tarn yupam ussdpetvd ajjhdvasitvd daditvd vissajjetvd samana-brdhmana-kapaniddhika- 
vanibbaka-ydcakdnam ddnam datvd Metteyyassa Bhagavato arahato Sammd-Sambuddhassa 
santike kesa-massum ohdretvd kdsdydni vatthdni acchddetvd agdrasmd anagariyam 
pabbajissati. So evarh pabbajito samano eko vupakattho appamatto dtdpi pahitatto 
viharanto na cirass' eva yass' at t hay a kula-puttd sammad eva agdrasmd anagariyam 
pabbajanti, tad anuttaram brahmacariyam pariyosdnam ditthe va dhamme say am abhihhd 
sacchikatvd upasampajja viharissati. 

4. D. I, 83 : So dibbena cakkhund visuddhena atikkanta-mdnusakena satte pas sat i cavamdne 
upapajjamdne, hine panite suvanne dubbanne sugate duggate yatha-kammupage satte 
pajdndti. 

5. D. Ill, 111-12: Idha bhante ekacco Samano va Brdhmano va dtappam anvdya padhdnam 
anvdya. . . pe . . . tatha-rupam ceto-samddhim phusati yathd samdhite citte dibbena cakkhund 
visuddhena atikkanta-mdnusakena satte passati cavamdne upapajjamdne hine panite suvanne 
dubbanne sugate duggate yatha-kammupage satte pajdndti: i Ime vat a bhonto sattd kdya- 
duccaritena samanndgatd vaci-duccaritena samanndgatd mano-duccaritena samanndgatd 
ariydnam upavddakd micchd-ditthikd micchd-ditthi-kamma-samdddnd, te kdyassa bhedd 
param marand apdyam duggatim vinipdtam nirayam uppannd. Ime va pana bhonto sattd 
kdya-sucaritena samanndgatd vaci. . . pe ... mano-sucaritena samanndgatd ariydnam 
anupavddakd sammd-ditthikd sammd-ditthi-kammd-samdddnd, te kdyassa bhedd param 
marand sugatim saggam lokarh uppannd tV\ 

6. Dh-a, III, 65-6: Te l atth' eso updyo' ti sabbe ekacchandd hutva 'yam kihci katvd tarn 
maressdmd ti attano upatthdke samddapetvd kahdpanasahassam labhitvd purisaghatakammam 
katvd carante core pakkosdpetvd, l MahdmoggaIJdnatthero ndma Kalasildyam vasati, 



228 Vimuttimagga 

MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS 

Here there are the following miscellaneous teachings: If one practises 
one kind of concentration with the purpose of seeing forms through divine 
sight, he can only see forms. He cannot hear sounds. If he practises one 
kind of concentration for the purpose of hearing sounds through divine hearing, 
he can hear sounds only. He cannot see forms. If he practises concentration 
for the purpose of seeing and hearing, he can see and hear. If he practises 
concentration for the purpose of seeing, hearing and knowing others' thoughts, 
he can see, hear and know others' thoughts. If he practises concentration 
for the purpose of seeing in one direction, he cannot see in another direction, 
he cannot hear and he cannot know others' thoughts. If he practises con- 
centration much, he can see in all directions, he can hear and he can know 
others' thoughts. Five supernormal powers are worldly higher knowledge. 
These are possessed by the denizens of the form plane who are with the cankers 
and commoners with the fetters. Meritorious higher knowledge belongs to 
both the learner and the commoner. To the Consummate One belongs non- 
characterizable higher knowledge. The five kinds of higher knowledge are 
not produced in the formless plane. 

The section on supernormal power in the Path of Freedom has ended. % 



tattha gantvd tarn mdretha' ti tesam kahdpane adamsu. Cord dhanalobhena sampaticchitvd 
k theram mdressama' ti gantvd tassa vasanatthdnarh parivdresum. Thero tehi parikkhit- 
tabhdvarh hatvd kuhcikacchiddena nikkamitvd pakkdmi. Te tarn divasam therarh adisvd 
pun 9 ekadivasarh gantvd parikkhipirhsu. Thero hatvd kannikdmandalam bhinditvd dkdsam 
pakkhandi. Evan te pathamamdse pi majjhimamdse pi therarh gaheturii ndsakkhimsu. 
Pacchimamdse pana sampatte thero attand katakammassa dkaddhanabhdvam hatvd na 
apagahchi. Cord gahetvd therarh tandulakanamattdni 'ssa atfhini karontd bhindirhsu. At ha 
nam "mato" ti sahhdya ekasmim gumbapitthe khipitvd pakkamimsu. Thero 'Satthdrarh 
passitvd va parinibbayissdmV ti attabhdvam jhdnavethanena vethetvd thirarh katvd dkdsena 
Satthu santikam gantvd Satthdrarh vanditvd ^bhante parinibbayissdmV ti aha. 'Parinib- 
bdyissasi Moggalldnd"' ti. Ama bhante' ti. 'Kattha gantvd 9 ti. Kdlasildpadesam bhante' ti. 
'Tena hi Moggalldna mayharh dhammam kathetvd ydhi, tddisassa hi me sdvakassa iddni 
dassanam natthi ti. So 'evam karissdmi bhante' ti Satthdrarh vanditvd dkdse uppatitvd 
parinibbdnadivase Sdriputtatthero viya ndnappakdrd iddhiyo katvd dhammam kathetvd 
Satthdrarh vanditvd Kdlasildtavim gantvd parinibbdyi. 



ON DISTINGUISHING WISDOM 

CHAPTER THE TENTH 

Q. What is wisdom? What is its salient characteristic? What is its 
function? What is its manifestation? What is its near cause? What are its 
benefits? What is the meaning of wisdom? Through what merits can wisdom 
be acquired ? How many kinds of wisdom are there ? 

A. The seeing, by the mind, of objects as they are — this is called wisdom. 1 
And again, the considering of advantage and non-advantage, and of the 
sublime, is called wisdom. It is according to the teaching of the Abhidhamma. 

WISDOM DEFINED 

What is wisdom? This wisdom {panfid) is understanding (panfid). This 



1. Yathdbhutandnadassana. — Cp. (a) S. Ill, 13: Samddhim bhikkhave bhdvetha, samdhito 
bhikkhave bhikkhu yathdbhutam pajdndti. 

(b) S. II, 31-2: /// kho bhikkhave avijjupanisd sankhdrd,... pe . . . bhavupanisd jdti, 
jdtupanisam dukkham, dukkhupanisd saddhd, saddhupanisam pdmojjam, pdmojjupanisd piti, 
pitupanisd passaddhi, passaddhupanisam sukham, sukhupaniso samddhi, samddhu- 
panisam yathdbhutandndassanarh, yathdbhutahdnadassaniipanisd nibbidd, nibbidiipaniso 
virago, virdgupanisd vimutti, vimuttupanisam khaye ndnarh. ( = Tassa kammatfhdnam 
nissaya dubbala piti uppajjati. Tad assa saddK upanisam pamojjam, tarn balava-pitiyd 
paccayo hoti. Balavd piti daratha-patippassaddhiyd paccayo: sd appand-pubbabhdga- 
sukhassa: tarn sukharh pddaka-jjhdna-samddhissa: so samddhind citta-kallatarh janetvd 
tarunavipassandya kammarh karoti. Ice" assa pddaka-jjhdna-samddhi taruna-vipassandya 
paccayo hoti: taruna-vipassand balava-vipassandya: balava-vipassand maggassa: maggo 
phalavimuttiyd: phala-vimutti paccavekkhana-hdnassd ti. — Spk. II, 55-6). 

(c) A. IV, 336: Satisampajahne bhikkhave asati satisampajannavipannassa hatupanisam 
hoti hirottappam, hirottappe dsati hirottappavipannassa hatupaniso hoti indriyasamvaro, 
indriyasamvare asati indriyasarhvaravipannassa hatupanisam hoti silam, sile asati 
silavipannassa hatupaniso hoti sammdsamddhi, sammdsamddhimhi asati sammdsamddhi- 
vipannassa hatupanisam hoti yathdbhutafidnadassanam, yathdbhutandnadassane asati 
yathdbhiitahdnadassanavipannassa hatupaniso hoti nibbiddvirdgo, nibbiddvirdge asati 
nibbiddvirdgavipannassa hatupanisam hoti vimuttindnadassanam. 

(d) D. II, 313: Katamo ca bhikkhave sammd-samddhi ? 

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicc' eva kdmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam savicdram 
vivekajam piti-sukham pathamajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. Vitakka-vicdrdnam vupasamd 
ajjhattam sampasddanam cetaso ekodi-bhdvam avitakkam avicdram samddhijarh piti- 
sukham dutiyajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. Pitiyd ca virdgd upekhako viharati sato ca 
sampajdno, sukhan ca kdyena patisamvedeti yan tarn ariyd dcikkhanti: 'upekhako satimd 
sukhavihdri tV tatiya-jjhdnarh upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahdnd dukkhassa ca 
pahdnd pubb > eva somanassa-domanassdnam atthagamd adukkham asukham upekhd- 
sati-pdrisuddhim catutthajjhdnam upasampajja viharati. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd- 
samddhi. 

(e) Vis Mag. 438 : Kan 'assa lakkhand-rasa-paccupafthdna-padatthdndni ti. Ettha pana 
dhammasabhdvapativedhalakkhand panfid; dhammdnam sabhdvapaticchddaka-mohandha- 
kdraviddhamsanarasd; asammohapaccupatthdnd; samdhito yathdbhutam jdndti passati ti 
vacanato pana samddhi tassd padatthdnam. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that without samddhi (=four or any one of the jhdnas) 
no development of panfid is possible. And it will be noted that this treatise as well as 
the Vis. Mag., beginning with sila and by way of samddhi (jhdna), come to panfid in 
keeping with the teaching of the seven purifications (Satta Visuddhi — M. I, 149-50) and 
of the three trainings (of higher virtue, higher thought and higher wisdom, — adhisila-sikkhd, 
adhicitta-sikkhd, adhipahhd-sikkhd — D. Ill, 219). 

229 



230 Vimuttimagga 

is knowledge. This is investigation of the truth, distinguishing, 1 synecdoche. 
That investigation is learned, skilful, clever, and in considering, it sees clearly 
and draws knowledge (?). Wisdom is good; wisdom is faculty; wisdom is 
power; wisdom is sword; wisdom is a tower; wisdom is light; wisdom is 
splendour; wisdom is a lamp; and wisdom is a gem. Non-delusion, investi- 
gation of the truth, right views — these are called wisdom. 2 The attainment 
of truth is its salient characteristic. Investigation is its function. Non- 
delusion is its manifestation. The four truths are its near cause. And 
again, clear understanding is its salient characteristic; the entering into the 
true law is its function; the dispelling of the darkness of ignorance is its 
manifestation; the four kinds of analytical science are its near cause. 

BENIFITS OF WISDOM 

What are its benefits? Incalculable are the benefits of wisdom. This is 
the statement in brief: — 

Through wisdom are all morals made to shine. 
Two kinds of wisdom lead to jhdna-hdghts. 
Through wisdom does one tread the Holy Path 
and see the fruition great of sanctity. 
Supreme is wisdom ; 'tis the eye of things. 
The loss of wisdom is impurity. 
Unrivalled is the growth in wisdom's state. 
Through wisdom does one break all heresy. 
The vulgar drawn by craving practise ill; 
Not so the wise, the highest of all kind, 
who rightly live and teach what profits both 
this world and that. They being free and strong 
see states of woe and welfare multiform, 
and know condition, cause, mind, matter, norm. 
This wisdom is the doctrine of the Truths. 
This wisdom is the pasture of the good. 
Through wisdom one attains to excellence. 
Through wisdom one roots out the evil brood, 
which are called craving, hatred, ignorance, 
and birth and death, and all the rest that is, 
which naught else ever can exterminate. 



1 . Lit. Excellent characteristic. 

2. Cp. Dhs. 11, para. 16: Yd tasmim samaye pan/Id pajdnand vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo 
sallakkhand upalakkhand paccupalakkhand pandiccam kosallam nepunham vebhavyd cintd 
upaparikkha bhuri medhd parindyikd vipassand sampajannam patodo pahhd pahhindriyarh 
pahhdbalam pahhdsattham pahhdpdsddo pahnd-dloko pannd-obhdso panhdpajjoto pahha- 
ratanam amoho dhammavicayo sammdditthi — idarh tasmim samaye panhindriyam hoti. 



Subjects of Meditation 231 

MEANING OF WISDOM 

Q. What is the meaning of wisdom? A. It means "knowledge" and 
it means "removing well". Through what merits can wisdom be acquired? 
Through these eleven merits, [445] namely, searching the meaning of the 
scriptures, many good deeds, dwelling in purity, serenity and insight, the Four 
Truths, work of science (?), calming the mind, dwelling in meditation, jhdna, 
at all times, ridding the mind of the hindrances, separating from the unwise 
and the habit of associating with the wise. 

TWO KINDS OF WISDOM 

How many kinds of wisdom are there? A. Two kinds, three kinds and 
four kinds. Q. What are the two kinds in wisdom? A. Mundane 
wisdom and supramundane wisdom. 1 Here wisdom which is associated with 
the Noble Path and Fruit is supramundane wisdom. Others are mundane 
wisdom. Mundane wisdom is with cankers, with fetters and with tangle. 
This is flood. This is yoke. This is hindrance. This is contact. This is 
faring on. This is contamination. 2 Supramundane wisdom is without 
cankers, is without fetters, is without tangle, the non-flood, the non-yoked, 
the non-hindered, the non-contacted, the not faring on, the non-contaminated. 

FIRST GROUP OF THREE IN WISDOM 

The three kinds in wisdom are wisdom sprung from thought, wisdom 
sprung from study and wisdom sprung from culture. 3 Here wisdom which 
one acquires without learning from others is the wisdom that kamma is property 
of each one or the wisdom which is conformable to the truth in respect of 
vocational works or works of science. Thus is wisdom sprung from thought 
to be known. The wisdom that is got by learning from others is called wisdom 
sprung from study. Entering into concentration one develops all wisdom — 
this is wisdom sprung from concentration. 

SECOND GROUP OF THREE IN WISDOM 

Again there are three kinds in wisdom: skill in profit, skill in loss, skill 



1. Lokiya-, lokuttara-pahhd. 

2. Cp. Dhs. 125 para. 584: Lokiyam sdsavam samyojaniyam ganthaniyarh oghaniyam, 
yoganiyam, nivaraniyam pardmattham updddniyarh sankilesikam. 

3. D. Ill, 219: Cintd-mayd pannd, suta-mayd pannd, bhdvand-mayd pannd (=cintdmay i 
ddisu ay am vittkdro. Tat t ha katamd cintdmayd pannd ? Yoga-vihitesu vd kamrn' 
dyatanesu yoga-vihitesu vd sipp' dyatanesu yoga-vihitesu vd vijjdyatanesu kamma-ssakatam 
vd saccdnulomikam vd rilpam aniccan ti vd . . .pe . . . vihndnam aniccan ti vd yam evarupam 
anulomikam khantim ditthim rucirh munim pekkham dhamma-nijjhdna-khantirh parato 
asutvd patilabhati, ayam vuccati cintdmayd pannd. Yoga-vihitesu vd kamm' dyatanesu . . . 
pe. . . dhamma-nijjhdna-khantim parato sutvd patilabhati, ayam vuccati sutamaya pannd, 
Tattha katamd bhdvandmayd pannd? Sabbd pi sammdpannassa pdhhd bhdvandmayd 
pannd.— Sw. Ill, 1002). 



232 Vimuttimagga 

in means. Here as one attends to these states, demeritorious states are put 
away; meritorious states are made to increase. This wisdom is called skill 
in profit. Again, as one attends to these states, demeritorious states arise, 
and meritorious states are put away. This wisdom is called "skill in loss". 
Here, the wisdom of all means of success is called "skill in means". 1 

THIRD GROUP OF THREE IN WISDOM 

And again, there are three kinds in wisdom, namely, the wisdom that 
accumulates, the wisdom that does not accumulate and the wisdom that 
neither accumulates nor does not accumulate. The wisdom of the Four Paths 
is called the wisdom that does not accumulate. The neither describable 
nor non-describable wisdom of the Fruit of the four stages and the object of 
three stages — this is wisdom that neither accumulates nor does not accumulate. 2 

FIRST GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

The four kinds in wisdom are knowledge produced by one's own kamma, 
knowledge that conforms to the truth, knowledge connected with the Four 
Paths and knowledge connected with the Four Fruits. Here, right view con- 
cerning the ten bases is the knowledge produced by one's own kamma. "Adap- 
table patience" in one who regards the aggregates as impermanent, ill, and 
not-self is called knowledge that conforms to the truth. The wisdom of the 
Four Paths is called knowledge connected with the Four Paths. The wisdom 
of the Four Fruits is called knowldege connected with. the Four Fruits. 3 . 

SECOND GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, there are four kinds in wisdom, namely, wisdom of the sensuous 
element, wisdom of the form element, wisdom of the formless element and 



1. D. Ill, 220 Tini kosalldni-Aya-kosallam, apdya-kosallam, updya-kosallam (=>Kosallesu 
dyo ti vaddhi, apdyo ti avaddhi. Tassa tassa kdranam updyo. Tesarh pajdnanam kosallam. 
Vitthdro pana Vibhange (325-6) vutto yeva. Vuttarh K etarh: Tattha katamam dya- 
kossallarh ? Ime dhamme manasikaroto anuppannd c* eva akusald dhammd na uppajjanti, 
uppannd ca akusald dhammd nirujjhanti. Ime vd pana me dhamme manasikaroto anup- 
pannd c* eva kusald dhammd uppajjanti, uppannd ca kusald dhammd bhiyyo-bhdvdya 
vepulldya bhdvandya pdripuriyd samvattanti. Yd tattha pahhd pajdnand sammd-ditthi 
idarh vuccati dya-kosallam. Tattha katamam apdya-kosallam ? Ime me dhamme manasi- 
karoto anuppannd c' eva akusald dhammd uppajjanti, uppannd ca kusald dhammd nirujjhanti. 
Ime vd pana me dhamme manasikaroto anuppannd c' eva kusald dhammd rt uppajjanti, 
uppannd ca akusald dhammd bhiyyo-bhdvdya vepulldya bhdvandya pdripuriyd samvattanti. 
Yd tattha pahhd pajdnand sammd-ditthi, idarh vuccati apdya-kosallam. Sabbd pi tatr' 
updyd pahhd updya-kosallan ti. Idarh pana accdyika-kicce vd bhaye vd uppanne tassa 
tassa tikicchan' attharh than' uppattiyd kdrana-jdnana-vaserf eva veditabbam. — Sv.III 1005). 

2. Cp. Vbh. 326: Tisu bhumisu kusale pahhd dcayagdmini pahhd. Catusu bhumisu pahhd 
apacayagdmini pahhd. Tisu bhumisu kiriydvydkate pahhd neva dcayagdmini na apacaya- 
gdmini pahhd. 

3. Cp. Vbh. 328: Tattha katamam kammassakatam hdnarh? Atthi dinnarh atthi yiftham, 
atthi hutam, atthi sukatadukkatdnam kammdnam phalavipdko, atthi ayarh loko, atthi 
paraloko, atthi mdtd, atthi pita, atthi sattd opapdtikd, atthi loke samanabrdhmand sam- 
maggatd sammdpatipannd ye imam ca lokam parah ca lokarh sayam abhihhd sacchikatvd 
pavedentiti: yd evarupd pahhd pajdnand . . .pe . . . amoho dhammavicayo sammdditfhi: 



Subjects of Meditation 233 

the wisdom of the unfettered. Here, meritorious wisdom of the sensuous 
element which is neither characterizable nor non-characterizable is wisdom 
of the sensuous element. Meritorious wisdom of the form element which is 
neither characterizable nor non-characterizable is called wisdom of the form 
element. Meritorious wisdom of the formless element which is neither charac- 
terizable nor non-characterizable is called wisdom of the formless element. 
Wisdom of the Paths and the Fruits is called unfettered wisdom. 1 

THIRD GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, there are four kinds in wisdom, namely, knowledge of the 
Law, knowledge of succession, knowledge of discrimination, and general 
knowledge. The wisdom of the Four Paths and the Four Fruits is called know- 
ledge of the Law. That yogin knows the past, the future and the present 
through knowledge of the Law, and through this also he knows the distant 
past and the distant future. The knowledge of the (four) truths is knowledge 
of succession. The knowledge of others' minds is called the knowledge of 
discrimination. The kinds of knowledge that are other than these three are 
called general knowledge. 2 

FOURTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again there are four kinds in wisdom, namely, wisdom which is 
due to combination and not due to non-combination; wisdom which is due 
to non-combination and not to combination; wisdom which is due to combi- 
nation and also to non-combination; wisdom which is due to neither combi- 



idarh vuccati kammassakatarh hdnarh. Jhapetvd saccdnulomikam hdnarh sabbd pi sdsavd 
kusald pahha kammassakatarh nanarh. 

Tattha katamarh saccdnulomikam hdnarh ? Ruparh aniccan ti vd vedand aniccd ti vd 
sanhd aniccd ti vd sahkhdrd aniccd ti vd vihhdnarh aniccan ti vd yd evavupd anulomikd 
khanti ditthi ruci muti pekkhd dhammanijjhdnakhanti: idarh vuccati saccdnulomikam 
hdnarh. 

Catusu maggesu panhd maggasamarhgissa hdnarh. 

Catusu phalesu panhd phalasamarhgissa hdnarh. 

Maggasamarhgissa hdnarh dukkhe /?' etarh hdnarh . . . dukkhanirodhagdminiyd pafi- 
paddya /?' etarh hdnarh. 

1. Vbh. 329: Kdmdvacarakusaldvydkate panhd kdmdvacard pahha. Rupdvacarakusald- 
vydkate panhd rupdvacard pahha. Arupdvacarakusaldvydkate panhd arupdvacard panhd. 
Catusu maggesu ca catusu phalesu pahha apariydpannd pahha. 

2. D. Ill, 226: Cattdri hdndni. Dhamme hdnarh, anvaye hdnarh, paricce hdnarh sammuti- 
hdnarh. ( — Dhamme-hdnarh ti eka-pativedha-vasena catu-sacca-dhamme hdnarh. Catu- 
sacc* abbhantare nirodha-dhamme hdnah ca. YatK aha: "Tattha katamarh dhamme 
hdnarh? Catusu maggesu, catusu phalesu hdnam". Anvaye-hdnan ti cattdri saccdni 
paccavekkhato disvd yathd iddni, evarh atite pi andgate pi: Ime va pahcakkhandhd dukkha- 
saccam, ay am eva tanhd-samadaya-saccam, ay am eva nirodho nirodha-saccam, ay am 
eva maggo magga-saccan ti, evarh tassa hdnassa anugatiyarh hdnarh. Ten* aha: "So 
imind dhammena hdnena difthena pattena viditena pariyogdlhena atitdndgatena yam netV ti. 
Paricce-hdnan tiparesarh citta-paricchede hdnarh. YatK aha: "Tattha katamarh paricce- 
hdnam ? Idha bhikkhu para-sattdnam para-puggaldnam cetasd ceto-paricca pajdndti" ti 
viithdretabbarh. Thapetvd pana imdni tini hdndni avasesam sammuti-hdnarh ndma. Yath- 
dha: "Tattha katamarh sammuti-hdnarh? Thapetvd dhamme-hdnam, thapetvd anvaye 9 
hdnarh, thapetvd paricce-hdnarh avasesam sammuti-hdnan ti. — Sv. Ill, 1019-20). 



234 Vimuttimagga 

nation nor to non-combination. Here meritorious wisdom of the sensuous 
element is due to combination and not to non-combination. The wisdom 
of the Four Paths is due to non-combination and not to combination. Meri- 
torious wisdom of the form element and the formless element is due to combi- 
nation and also to non-combination. Characterizable wisdom of the Fruit of 
the four stages and of the object of the three stages is neither due to combination 
nor to non-combination. 1 

FIFTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, there are four kinds in wisdom. There is wisdom which is 
due to aversion and not to penetration. There is wisdom which is due to 
penetration and not to aversion. There is wisdom which is due to aversion 
and also to penetration. There is wisdom which is due neither to aversion 
nor to penetration. Here the wisdom which is due to aversion and which is 
not due to penetration of supernormal knowledge and the knowledge of the 
Four Truths is called wisdom which is due to aversion and not due to pene- 
tration. That which is due to supernormal knowledge is due to penetration 
and not due to aversion. The wisdom of the Four Paths are due to aversion 
and also to penetration. The other kinds of wisdom are due neither to 
aversion nor to penetration. 2 

SIXTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, there are four kinds in wisdom, namely, analysis of meaning, 
of the Law, of interpretation and of argument. Knowledge in regard to 
meaning is analysis of meaning. Knowledge in regard to doctrine is analysis 
of the Law. Knowledge in regard to etymological interpretation is analysis 
of interpretation. Knowledge in regard to knowledge is analysis of argument. 3 

SEVENTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

Knowledge in regard to consequence of cause is analysis of meaning. 
Knowledge in regard to cause is analysis of the Law. Understanding in 



1. Vbh. 330: Tattha katama pahhd dcaydya no apacayaya? Kdmdvacarakusale pahhd 
dcaydya no apacayaya. Catusu maggesu panha apacayaya no dcaydya. Rupdvacara- 
arupdvacarakusale panha dcaydya ceva apacayaya ca. Avasesd panha neva dcaydya no 
apacayaya. 

2. Ibid. : Tattha katama panha nibbiddya no pativedhdya? Ydya pahhdya kdmesu vitardgo 
hoti y na ca abhihhdyo pativijjhati na ca saccdni: ayarh vuccati pahhd nibbiddya no pati- 
vedhdya. Sveva pahhdya kdmesu vitardgo samdno abhihhdyo pativijjhati, na ca saccdni: 
ayath vuccati panha pativedhdya no nibbiddya. Catusu maggesu panha nibbiddya ceva 
pativedhdya ca. Avasesd panha neva nibbiddya no pativedhdya. 

3. Ibid. 293, 331: Tattha katama catasso patisambhidd? Atthapatisambhidd dhammapati- 
sambhidd niruttipatisambhidd patibhdnapatisambhidd. At the hdnam atthapatisambhidd. 
Dhamme hdnam^ dhammapatisambhidd. Tatra dhammaniruttdbhildpe hdnam nirutti- 
patisambhidd. Ndnesu hdnam patibhdnapatisambhidd. Imd catasso patisambhidd. 



Subjects of Meditation 235 

regard to the analysis of the Law is analysis of interpretation. Knowledge 
in regard to knowledge is analysis of argument. 1 

EIGHTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, the knowledge of ill and cessation is analysis of meaning. 
The knowledge of the origin of ill and the Path is called analysis of the Law. 
Etymological interpretation of the Law is called analysis of interpretation. 
Knowledge in regard to knowledge is called analysis of argument. 2 

NINTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, knowledge of the Law, namely, the discourses, mixed verse 
and prose, expositions, verse, solemn utterances, sayings, birth-stories, super- 
normal phenomena, divisions according to matter* is called analysis of the 
Law. One knows the meaning of what is spoken: "This is the meaning 
of what is spoken". This is called analysis of meaning. Knowledge of the 
meaning of what has been preached is called the analysis of interpretation. 
Knowledge in regard to knowledge is called analysis of argument. 3 

TENTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, knowledge in respect of the eye is called analysis of the Law. 
Eye-knowledge in respect of views is called analysis of meaning. Knowledge 
in interpreting what has been preached is called analysis of interpretation. 
Knowledge in regard to knowledge is called analysis of argument. 4 

ELEVENTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 

And again, there are four kinds of knowledge, namely, knowledge of ill, 



1. Vbh. 293: Hetumhi hdnam dhammapatisambhidd. Hetuphale hdnam atthapatisambhida. 
Tatra dhammaniruttdbhildpe hdnam niruttipatisambhida. Ndnesu hdnam patibhdna- 
patisambhida. 

2. Ibid : Dukkhe hdnam atthapatisambhida. Dukkhasamudayehdnam dhammapatisambhidd. 
Dukkhanirodhe hdnam atthapatisambhida. Dukkhanirodhagdminiyd patipaddya hdnam 
dhammapatisambhidd. Tatra dhammaniruttdbhildpe hdnam niruttipatsambhidd. Ndnesu 
hdnam patibhdnapatisambhida. 

* Sutta, geyya, veyydkarana, gdthd, uddna, itivuttaka, jdtakd, abbhutadhamma vepulla (vedalla) 
— transliteration. 

3. Vbh. 294: Idha bhikkhu dhammam jdndti suttam geyyarh veyydkaranam gdtham uddnam 
itivuttakam jdtakam abbhutadhammam vedallam: ay am vuccati dhammapatisambhidd. 
So tassa tass' eva bhdsitassa attham jdndti: ayam imassa bhdsitassa attho, ay am imassa 
bhdsitassa attho ti: ayam vuccati atthapatisambhida. Tatra dhammaniruttdbhildpe 
hdnam niruttipatisambhida. Ndnesu hdnam patibhdnapatisambhida. 

4. Vbh. 296: Yasmim samaye akusalam cittam uppannam hoti somanassasahagatam ditthi- 
gatasampayuttam, rupdrammanam vd . . .pe. . . dhammdrammanam vd yam yam vd 
pan" drabbha, tasmith samaye phasso hoti . . .pe . . .avikkhepo hoti: ime dhammd 
akusald. Jmesu dhammesu hdnam dhammapatisambhidd. Tesam vipdke hdnam attha- 
patisambhida. Ydya niruttiyd tesam dhammdnam pahhatti hoti, tatra dhammaniruttdbhi- 
ldpe hdnam niruttipatisambhida. Yena hdnena tdni hdndni jdndti: imdni hdndni idam 
atthajotakdniti, ndnesu hdnam patibhdnapatisambhida. 



236 Vimuttimagga 

of the origin of ill, of the ceasing of ill and of the Path. Knowledge in regard 
to ill is knowledge of ill. Knowledge in regard to the origin of ill is knowledge 
of the origin of ill. Knowledge in regard to the ceasing of ill is knowledge of 
the ceasing of ill. Knowledge which practises to completion is knowledge 
of the Path. 1 

The Distinguishing of Wisdom in the Path of Freedom has ended. 

The Ninth Fascicle has ended. 



1. D. Ill, 227: Dukkhe nanam, samudayc ndnam, nirodhe hdnam, magge nanarit. 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE TENTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
THE FIVE METHODS 1 

CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH 

Section One 

Here, if the new yogin aspires after release from decay and death, and 
wishes to remove the cause of arising and passing away, wishes to dispel 
the darkness of ignorance, to cut the rope of craving and to acquire holy 
wisdom, he should develop the methods, namely, the aggregate-method, 2 
sense-organ-method, 3 element-method, 4 conditioned-arising-method 5 and 
truth-method. 6 

THE AGGREGATE OF FORM 

Q. What is the aggregate-method? A. The five aggregates are, the 
aggregate of form, 7 the aggregate of feeling, 8 the aggregate of perception, 9 
the aggregate of formation, 10 and the aggregate of consciousness. 11 Q. What 
is the aggregate of form? A. The four primaries and the material qualities 
derived from the primaries. 12 

FOUR PRIMARIES DEFINED 

Q. What are the four primaries? Earth-element, 13 water-element, 14 
fire-element, 15 air-element. 16 What is the earth-element? That which has 



1. Updya 2. Khandha-updya 3. Ayatana-updya 4. Dhdtu-updya 

5. Paticcasamuppdda-updya 6. Sacca-updya 7. Rupa 8. Vedand 9. Sanfia 

10. Sankhdrd 11. Vinhdna 12. Dhs. 124, para. 584: Tattha katamafh sabbarh riipam? 

Cattdro ca mahdbhutd catunnan ca mahdbhutdnam updddya riipam — idam vuccati sabbarh 

rupam. 
13. Pafhavi-dhdtu 14. Apo-dhdtu 15 Tejo-dhdtu 16. Vdyo-dhdtu 

237 



238 Vimuttimagga 

the nature of hardness and the nature of solidity. This is called the earth- 
element. What is the water-element? That which has the nature of flowing 
and the nature of cohesiveness. This is called the water-element. What is 
the fire-element? That which has the nature of heating and the nature of 
maturing matter. This is called the fire-element. What is the air-element? 
That which has the nature of moving and the nature of supporting. This is 
called the air-element. 1 

The new yogin overcomes difficulties in two ways, namely, through viewing 
these briefly and through viewing these at length. This should be understood 
as was fully taught in the determining of the four elements. 

DERIVED MATERIAL QUALITIES 

What are the derived material qualities? The sense-organs of eye, ear, 
nose, tongue, body, matter as sense-object, sound as sense-object, odour 
as sense-object, taste as sense-object, femininity, masculinity, life-principle, 
body-intimation, speech-intimation, element of space, buoyancy of matter, 
impressibility of matter, adaptibility of matter, integration of matter, continuity 
of matter, decay of matter, impermanency of matter, solid food, 2 the basis 
of the material element and the material quality of torpor. 3 

SENSE-ORGAN OF EYE 

What is the sense-organ of eye? By this matter is seen. Visible objects 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 351-2: Yo imasmim kdye thaddhabhdvo vd, kharabhdvo vd ayarh patha- 
vidhdtu; yo dbandha nabhdvo vd, dravabhdvo vd ayarh dpodhdtu; yo paripdcanabhdvo vd 
unhabhdvo vd, ayarh tejodhdtu; yo vitthambhanabhdvo vd samudiranabhdvo vd, ayarh vdyo- 
dhdtu ti evarh sankhittena dhdtuyo pariggahetvd punappunarh: pafhavidhdtu dpodhdtu ti 
dhdtumatiato nissattato nijjivato dvajjitabbarh manasikdtabbarh paccavekkhitabbarh. 

2. Cp. (a) Vis. Mag. 444: Cakkhu, sotam, ghdnarh, jivhd, kayo, rupam, saddo, gandho, raso, 
itthindriyarh purisindriyarh, jivitindriyarh, hadayavatthu, kdyavihhatti, vaclvihhatti, dkdsa- 
dhdtu, rupassa lahutd, rupassa mudutd, rupassa kammahhatd, rupassa upacayo, rupassa 
santati, rupassa jaratd rupassa aniccatd, kabafinkdro dhdro; 

(b) Rupdrup. 1 : Cakkhudhdtu sotadhdtu . . . kdyadhdtu rupadhdtu saddadhdtu . . . photfh- 
abbadhdtu, itthindriyam purisindiyam jivitindriyarh, hadayavatthu, dkdsadhdtu, kdyavihhatti, 
vacivihhatti, rupassa lahutd, rupassa mudutd, rupassa kammahhatd: rupassa upacayo, 
rupassa santati, rupassa jaratd, rupassa aniccatd; kabalinkdro dhdro ceti evarh atthavi- 
satividhesn rupesu ddito (patthdya ?) catubbidham rupam bhutarupam ndma; sesarh upadd- 
r up am ndma. 

3. Middharupam. (a) Cp. Vis. Mag. 450: Atthakathdyam pana balarupam . . .rogarupam, 
ekaccdnam matena middharupan ti evam ahhdni pi rupdni dharitvd: addhd muni 'si sam- 
buddho, natthi nivarand tavd ti ddini vatvd middharupam tdva natthi yevd ti patikkhittam. 
(= Ekaccdnan ti Abhayagirivdsinarh — Pm., 455, Dhammananda Thera's Ed.). 

(b) Abhmv. 72: Tattha: "samodhdnan" ti sabbam eva idarh rupam samodhdnato 
pathavidhdtu dpodhdtu tejodhdtu vdyodhdtu, cakkhdy at a nam . . . pe . . . jaratd 
aniccatd ti atthavisatividharh hoti; ito ahham rupam ndma natthi. Kecipana middhavddino 
middharupam ndma atthiti vadanti, te "addhd muni 'si sambuddho, natthi nivarand tavd" 
ti ca, "thina-middha-nivaranam nivaranah c' eva avijjdnivaranena nivarana-sampayuttan" 
ti sampayutta-vacanato ca; mahdpakarane Patthdne: "nivaranam dhammam paticca 
nivarano dhammo uppajjati na purejdta-paccayd" ti ca; "arupe pi kdmacchanda-nivaranam 
paticca thina-middha-uddhacca-kukkuccdvijjd-nivarandni" ti evam ddhihi virujjhanato 
arupam eva middhan ti pafikkhipitabbd. 
698. Arupe pi pan' etassa, middhass' uppatti-pathato 
nittham ettlf dvagantabbam, na tarn rupan ti vihhund. 



The Five Methods 239 

impinging on this, visual consciousness is aroused. 1 This is called the sense- 
organ of eye. And again, the sensory matter that depends on the three small 
fleshy discs round the pupil, and the white and black of the eye-ball that is 
in five layers of flesh, blood, wind, phlegm and serum, is half a poppy-seed 
in size, is like the head of a louseling, is made by the four primaries according 
to past kamma 2 and in which the primary of heat is in excess, is called the 
sense-organ of the eye. [446] It is as has been taught by the Possessor of 
Great Skill, the Venerable Elder Sariputta, "The organ of visual sense, by 
which one sees objects, is small and subtle like (the head of) a louse". 3 

SENSE-ORGAN OF EAR 

What is the sense-organ of ear? By this sounds are heard. Sound im- 
pinging on this, auditory consciousness is aroused. This is called the sense- 
organ of ear. And again, the sensory matter that is in the interior of the 
two ear-holes, is fringed by tawny hair, is dependent on the membrane, is 
like the stem of a blue-green bean, is produced by the four primaries according 
to kamma and in which the element of space is in excess, is called the sense- 
organ of ear. 4 

SENSE-ORGAN OF NOSE 

What is the sense-organ of nose? By this odours are sensed. Odour 
impinging on this, olfactory consciousness arises. This is called the sense- 
organ of nose. And again, the sensory matter that, in the interior of the 
nose, where the three meet, 5 is dependent on one small opening, is like a 
Kovildra 6 (flower in shape), is produced by the four primaries, according to 
past kamma, and in which the primary of air is in excess, is called the sense- 
organ of nose. 

SENSE-ORGAN OF TONGUE 

What is the sense-organ of tongue? By this tastes are known. Taste 
impinging on this, gustatory consciousness is aroused. This is called the 



1. M. Ill, 285: Cakkhuh ca, bhikkhave, paticca rupe ca uppajjati cakkhuvihndnam. 

2. S. IV, 132: Cakkhum bhikkhave puranakammam abhisankhatam abhisaiicetayitam 
vedaniyam datthabbam . . .pe. . . givhd puranakammam abhisankhatd abhisancetayitd 
vcdaniyd datthabbd . . . Mano puranakammam abhisankhato abhisahcetayito vedaniyo 
datthabbo. 

3. Vis. Mag. 446; Abhmv. 66; Dhs. A. 307: Vuttam pi c* etam Dhammasendpatind: 

Yena cakkhuppasddena rupdni samanupassati 
parittarh sukhumam c* etam ukdsirasamupaman ti. 
The common source of this verse has not been traced. 

4. Cp. Abhmv. 66: Sundtiti sotarh; tarn tami-tamba-lomdcite angulivethaka-santhdne padese 
vuttappakdrdhi dhdtuhi kaf upakaram utu-citt' dhdrehi upatthambhiyamdnam dyund 
paripdliyamdnam, sotavinndnddinam vatthu-dvdra-bhdvam sddhayamdnam titthati. 

5. Cp. Ibid : Ghayatiti ghdnath, tarn sasambhdra-ghdnabilassa anto ajapada-santhane padese 
yathdvuttappakdrarh hutvd titthati. 

6. A sort of ebony, Bauhinia variegata — P.T.S. Diet. 



240 Vimuttimagga 

sense-organ of tongue. And again, the sensory matter that is two-finger 
breadths in size, is in shape like a blue lotus, 1 is located in the flesh of the 
tongue, is a product of the four primaries, is wrought according to past kamtna, 
and in which the primary of water is in excess, is called the sense-organ of 
tongue. 

SENSE-ORGAN OF BODY 

What is the sense-organ of body ? By this tangibles are known. By the 
impact of tangibles on this, tactual consciousness is aroused. This is called 
sense-organ of body. And again, it is the sensory matter that is in the entire 
body, excepting the hair of the body and of the head, nails, teeth and other 
insensitive parts, is produced by the four primaries, according to past kamma, 
and in which the primary of earth is in excess. This is called the sense-organ 
of body. Material sense-object is the reaction of visible objects, auditory 
sense-object is the reaction of sound, olfactory sense-object is the reaction of 
odour, gustatory sense-object is the reaction of flavour. Femininity is the 
characteristic of female nature; masculinity is the characteristic of male 
nature; that which preserves the body wrought by kamma, is called life- 
principle; body intimation means bodily activities; speech intimation means 
verbal activities ; what delimits matter is called the element of space. Buoyancy 
of matter means, the lightness-characteristic of material nature; impressibility 
of matter means, the plasticity-characteristic of material nature; adaptibility 
of matter means, the workability-characteristic of material nature; these 
three are the characteristics of non-sluggishness in material nature; the 
accumulation of these sense-organs is called the integration of matter. This 
integration of matter is called the continuity of matter. The arising of 
material objects is the coming to birth of matter; the maturing of material 
objects is the decay of matter; matter decays — this is called the impermanency 
of matter. That, by which beings get nutritive essence, is called solid food. 
The growth which is dependent on the primaries and the element of conscious- 
ness, is called the sense-organ of the material element. All primaries are 
characterized by the material quality of torpor. These twenty-six material 
qualities and the four primaries make up thirty kinds of matter. 2 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE FOUR PRIMARIES 
AND DERIVED MATTER 

Q. What is the difference between the four primaries and the matter 



1. (a) Uppala. Cp. J. V, 37: Nila-ratta-set-uppala, ratta-seta-paduma, seta-kumuda, kalla- 
hdra— The seven kinds of lotuses. See P.T.S. Diet. 

(b) Abhmv. 66 : Sayatiti jivhd; jiviatm avhdyatiti vd jivhd; sd sasambhdra-jivhdmajjhassa 
upari uppala-dalagga-santhdne padese yathdvuttappakdrd hutvd titthati. 

2. According to Abhmv. 71, there are twenty-eight only — verse 695: — 

Bhiitd rupdni cattdri> upddd catuvisati 
afthavisati rupdni, sabbdrt eva bhavanti hi. 



The Five Methods 241 

derived from the four primaries? A. Depending on one another, the four 
primaries are produced. Though the four derived material qualities are 
produced in dependence on the four primaries, the four primaries do not 
depend on the derived material qualities and the material qualities derived 
from the four primaries are not interdependent. 

SIMILE OF THE THREE STICKS 

The four primaries should be known as three sticks which stand supporting 
one another. The material qualities derived from the four primaries should 
be known as the shadow cast by the three sticks, which support each other. 
This is the difference between them. Here the yogin knows that all these 
thirty material qualities are of five kinds by way of arising, group, birth, 
diversity, unity. 

MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF ARISING 

Q. How, by way of arising? A. Nine material qualities arise owing 
to the cause-condition of kamma. They are the sense-organs of eye, ear, 
nose, tongue and body, femininity, masculinity, life-principle, and the basis of 
the material element. Two material qualities arise owing to the cause-con- 
dition of consciousness. They are body-intimation and speech-intimation. 
One material quality arises owing to the cause-condition of the caloric order 
and consciousness. It is the auditory sense-object. Four material qualities 
arise owing to the cause-condition of caloricity, consciousness and nutriment. 
They are buoyancy of matter, impressibility of matter, adaptibility of matter 
and the material quality of torpor. Twelve material qualities arise owing to 
four cause-conditions. They are material sense-object, olfactory sense- 
object, gustatory sense-object, space-element, integration of matter, continuity 
of matter, birth of matter, solid food and the four elements. 

Of two material qualities, namely decay of matter and impermanency of 
matter, there is no arising. And again, decay depends on birth; and depending 
on decay, there is impermanency. Thus one should know the character of 
these by way of arising. 

MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF GROUP 

Q. How, by way of group? 1 A. Nine groups are produced by kamma. 
Nine groups are produced by consciousness. Six groups are produced by 
caloric order. Three groups are produced by nutriment. 

Q. What are the nine groups produced by kammal A. They are the 
eye-decad, ear-decad, nose-decad, tongue-decad, body-decad femininity-decad, 
masculinity-decad, basis-decad, life-ennead. 2 



1. Kaldpa. 

2. Cakkhu-dasaka-, sota-dasaka-, ghana-dasaka-, kdya~dasaka- t itthindriya-dasaka-, puris- 
indriya-dasaka-, dyatana-dasaka-kaldpa (possibly for hadayavatthu); jivita-navaka-kalapa. 



242 Vimuttimagga 

Q. What is the eye-decad? A. The four elements of eye-sentience are 
its basis. And again, it consists of the four primaries, form, odour, flavour, 
contact, 1 life-principle and the sentient eye. This decad is produced together 
and does not separate. This is called "group" and this is called the eye-decad. 
The arising of this is birth; its maturing is called decay; its destruction is 
called impermanency; what delimits it is called space-element; these four and 
the group arise together. When the eye-decad decays, it produces a second 
decad; these two kinds of decads should be known as "group". Coming 
after is called succession. These six states arise together. When decay sets 
in, the second eye-decad produces a third decad. These, the second and 
the third eye-decads are called "group". Coming after is called succession. 
The first decad is scattered, the second decad decays, the third decad arises. 
These occur in one moment. Thus the eye-decad arises. None can discern 
the interval. So quick it is that by worldly knowledge it cannot be known. 
There is a yogin. He sees the succession of the eye. It is like a flowing 
stream. It is like the flame of a lamp. 2 Thus should the eye-decad be 
known. In the same way one should know the ear-decad, the nose-decad, the 
tongue-decad, the body-decad, femininity-decad, masculinity-decad, life- 
principle-ennead at length. 

Q. What are the nine consciousness-born groups? A. Bare-octad, 
bare-body-intimation-ennead, bare-speech-intimation-heptad, bare-buoyancy- 
ennead, buoyancy-body-intimation-decad, buoyancy-speech-intimation-un- 
decad, bare-eye-ennead, eye-body-intimation-decad, eye-speech-intimation- 
undecad. 

Q. What is the consciousness-born-bare-octad? A. The four elements 
and visible object, odour, flavour and contact which depend on the elements. 
These eight are named the bare-octad. 

The arising of these is birth ; the maturing of these is decay ; destruction 
of these is impermanency; what delimits these is space-element; these four 
states arise in them. At the time of their destruction, this bare octad sets 
going a second bare-octad together with the second consciousness. Destruction 
of the first bare (-octad) and the arising of the second bare (-octad) occur in a 
moment.* 

In the same way, the bare-buoyancy-nonary and the bare-eye-ennead 
(should be understood). These six groups 3 are not destroyed in the first and 
not produced in the second, do not occur in one instant, because no two inti- 
mations can take place in one conscious track. The rest should be known 
in the way it was fully taught before. 



1 . Oja according to abhms. 

2. Abhms. Ch. VI, 10: Catu-samutthdna-rupd-kaldpa-santati kdmaloke dipa-jdld viya nadi 
so to viya. 

* This line is unintelligible. 

3. Bare-body-intimation, bare-speech-intimation, buoyancy-body-intimation, buoyancy- 
speech-intimation, eye-body-intimation, eye-speech-intimation. 



The Five Methods 243 

Q. What arc the six groups produced by the caloric order? A. Bare- 
octad, bare-sound-ennead, bare-buoyancy-ennead, buoyancy-sound-decad, 
bare-eye-ennead, eye-sound-decad. External groups are of two kinds: bare- 
octad and sound-ennead. 

Q. What are the three groups which are produced in nutriment ? A . Bare 
octad, bare-buoyancy-ennead and bare-eye-ennead. 

Of groups that are produced by caloric order and nutriment, the continuity, 
kamma and basis should be known as equal. The rest is as was taught above. 
The divine life-ennead is fulfilled in the sensuous element and in the sphere of 
action. Eight groups continue because of life : nose, tongue, body, masculinity 
or femininity, and the three beginning with buoyancy, and torpidity. These 
are not in the form-element. The divine life-ennead pertains to the unconscious 
Brahmas. In their body all the sense-organs exist. (Thus one should know), 
through groups. 

MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF BIRTH 

Q. How, through birth? A. It should be known by way of a male or 
female entering a womb. In the first moment thirty material qualities are 
produced. 1 They are the basis-decad, body-decad, femininity-decad, mas- 
culinity-decad. In the case of a person who is neither a male nor a female, 
twenty material qualities are produced. 2 They are the basis-decad and the 
body-decad. 

Taking birth in the sensuous element, a male or a female possessed of the 
faculties and the sense-organs arouses seventy material qualities at the time of 
birth. They are the basis-decad, the body-decad, the eye-decad, the ear-decad, 
the nose-decad, the tongue-decad, the femininity or masculinity-decad. 

When a blind male or female is born in an evil state, that person arouses 
sixty material qualities, at the moment of birth, namely, (all) except the eye-decad. 
In the same way a deaf person [447] arouses sixty material qualities, namely, 
(all) except the ear-decad. A deaf and blind person arouses fifty material 
qualities namely, (all) except the eye-decad and the ear-decad. When one 
who is neither a male nor a female is born, at the beginning of an aeon, in an 
evil state, having faculties and sense-organs, that person arouses sixty material 
qualities at the moment of birth, namely, (all) except the masculinity or femi- 
ninity decad. A person, who is neither a male nor a female and is blind, 



1 . Abhms. 77, v. 746 : Gabbaseyyaka-sattassa, patisandikkhane pana 

tirhsa rupdni jdyante, sabhdvass' eva dehino. 

2. (a) Ibid. v. 747: Abhdva-gabbaseyyanam; andajanan ca visati 

bhavanti pana ritpdni, kdyavatthuvasena tu, 
(b) Cp. Vbh-a. 169-70: Evarh pavattamdne c' etasmirh ndmarupe yasmd abhdvaka- 
gabbhaseyyakdnam andajanan ca patisandhikkhane vatthu-kdyavasena rupato dve 
santatisisdni tayo ca ariipino khandhd pdtubhavanti, tasmd tesam vitthdrena ruparupato 
visati-dhammd tayo ca ariipino khandhd ti ete tevisati-dhammd vinndnapaccayd ndma- 
rupan ti veditabbd. 



244 Vimuttimagga 

produces fifty material qualities, namely, (all) except the eye-faculty-decad 
and the masculinity or femininity-decad. A person who is neither a male nor 
a female and who is deaf arouses fifty material qualities, namely, (all) except 
the ear-decad and masculinity or femininity. A person who is neither a male 
nor a female, and is blind and deaf, arouses forty material qualities, namely, 
the basis-decad, the body-decad, the nose-decad and the tongue-decad. Brahma 
arouses forty-nine material qualities at the moment of birth. They are the 
basis-decad, the eye-decad, the ear-decad, the body-decad and the life-principle- 
ennead. The beings of the divine-plane of inconscience arouse nine material 
qualities at the moment of birth, namely, the life-principle-ennead. Thus 
one should know through birth. 

MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF DIVERSITY,— 
GROUPS OF TWO IN MATERIAL QUALITIES 

Q. How, through diversity? A. All material qualities are of two 
kinds. They are gross or subtle. Here, twelve material qualities are gross, 
because internal and external material sense-objects are seized through impact. 
The other eighteen material qualities are subtle, because they are not seized 
through impact. And again, there are two kinds of material qualities. They 
are internal and external. Here, five material qualities are internal, because 
the five sense-organs of eye and others are limited. The other thirty-five 
material qualities are external matter, because they are not limited. And 
again, there are two kinds. They are faculty and non-faculty. 1 Here eight 
material qualities are faculty. They are the five internals (possibly, five 
sentient organs), the faculty of femininity, of masculinity and life; they are 
so because of dependence. The other twenty-two are non-faculty, because 
they are non-dependent. 2 

GROUPS OF THREE IN MATERIAL QUALITIES 

All material qualities can be divided into three hinds. They are non- 
material qualities and arrested material qualities. 3 Here nine material qualities 
are feeling. They are the eight faculties and the material basis, because they 
are produced owing to kamma-result. Nine material qualities are the sense- 
object of sound, body-intimation, speech-intimation, buoyancy of matter, 
impressibility of matter, workability of matter, decay of matter, imper- 
manency of matter and torpidity. These are not produced through 
kamma-result. The other twelve material qualities are breakable ones because 
they have two kinds of significance (?). And again, material qualities are 
of three kinds : visible and reacting, invisible and reacting and invisible and 



1 . Lit. Life-faculty and non-life-faculty. 

2. Cp. Dhs. 125-27, para. 585. 

3. Lit. Having broken material qualities. 



The Five Methods 245 

non-reacting. 1 Here one material quality is visible and reacting, that is, 
material sense-object, because it can be seen and touched. Eleven material 
qualities are invisible and reacting. They are gross matter except material 
sense-object, because they cannot be seen but can be touched. Eighteen 
material qualities are invisible and non-reacting. All other subtle matter 
is invisible and non-reacting. 

FOUR KINDS OF MATERIAL QUALITIES 

• Again, all material qualities are of four kinds, by way of intrinsic 
nature of matter, material form, material characteristics and delimitation of 
matter. Here nineteen material qualities are intrinsic. They are the twelve 
gross material qualities, femininity, masculinity, life-principle, element of 
water, solid food, material basis and material quality of eye, because they 
limit (?). Seven material qualities are material form. They are body-inti- 
mation, speech-intimation, buoyancy of matter, impressibility of matter, 
workability of matter, integration of matter, continuity of matter and intrinsic 
nature of matter, because they change. Three material qualities are material 
characteristics. They are birth of matter, decay of matter and impermanency 
of matter, because they are conditioned. One material quality is delimitation 
of matter. It is space-element, because it defines the groups. Here, through 
intrinsic nature one discriminates, not through the others. Thus one should 
understand through diversity. 

MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF UNITY 

Q. How, through unity? A. All material qualities are one, as being not a 
condition, as not being non-conditioned, as being dissociated from condition, 
causally related, put-together, worldly, cankerous, binding, fettering, as being 
with flood, yoke, hindrance, as being infected, as being with faring-on, passion, 
as being indeterminate, objectless, non-mental, dissociated from mind, as 
not arising together with pleasure, as not arising together with pain, as arising 
together with non-pain and non-pleasure, as neither group nor non-group, 
as neither learning nor non-learning, as neither broken by views nor broken 
by concentration. Thus one should know the character of matter through 
unity. This is called the aggregate of matter. 



1. D. Ill, 217: Tividhena rupa-samgaho. Sanidassana-sappatigham rupam, anidassana- 
sappatigham riiparh, anidassana-appafigham rupam (= Sanidassarf ddisu attdnam drabbha 
pavattena cakkhuvinndna-sankhdtena saha nidassanen dti sanidassanam. Cakkhu-patihanana- 
samatthato saha-patighend ti sappatigham. Tarn atthato rup 'dyatanam eva. Cakkhu-vihhdna- 
sankhdtam ndssa nidassanan ti anidassanam. Sof ddi-patihananasamatthato saha-patighend 
ti sappatigham. Tarn atthato cakkhdyatanarC ddini nava dyatandni. Vuttappakdram ndssa 
nidassanan ti anidassanam. Ndssa patigho ti appatigham. Tarn atthato thapetvd das'* dyat- 
andni avasesam sukhuma-rupam — Sv. Ill, 997). 



246 Vimuttimagga 

AGGREGATE OF FEELING 

Q. What is the aggregate of feeling? A. From the point of charac- 
teristic, feeling is of one kind, as being experienced by the mind only. From 
the point of sense-organ, it is of two kinds thus: bodily and mental. From 
the point of intrinsic nature, it is of three kinds : blissful feeling, painful feeling, 
feeling that is neither blissful nor painful. 1 From the point of the Law, it 
is of four kinds: meritorious, demeritorious, retributive and objective. From 
the point of faculties, there are five kinds, namely, pleasure-faculty, pain- 
faculty, joy-faculty, grief-faculty, indifference-faculty. 2 From the point of 
black and white, it is of six kinds, namely, cankerous feeling of pleasure, 
non-cankerous feeling of pleasure, cankerous feeling of pain, non-cankerous 
feeling of pain, cankerous feeling of neither pain nor pleasure, non-cankerous 
feeling of neither pain nor pleasure. From the point of method, it is of seven 
kinds thus: feeling born of eye-contact, of ear-contact, of nose-contact, of 
tongue-contact, of body-contact, contact of mind-element, contact of mind- 
consciousness. Fully one hundred and eight kinds of feeling are fulfilled. 
Six states of feeling are aroused from craving; six from renunciation; six 
from grief-craving; six from grief-renunciation; six from equanimity-craving; 
six from equanimity-renunciation. Six times six are thirty-six, and in the 
three divisions of time, these thirty-six are increased three times. This is called 
the aggregate of feeling. 3 

AGGREGATE OF PERCEPTION 

Q. What is the aggregate of perception ? A. From the point of character- 
istic, perception is single, because only the mind apprehends objects. From the 
point of black and white, it is of two kinds, namely, perception-reversal and 
perception-non-reversal. 4 From the point of demerit, it is of three kinds, 
namely, lustful-perception, hating-perception and harming-perception. From 
the point of merit, it is of three kinds, namely, renunciation-perception, non- 
hating-perception and non-harming-perception. 5 From the point of not 
knowing the significant nature of sense-organ, it is of four kinds, namely, 
the perception of the ugly as beautiful, of ill as well, of impermanence as 
non-impermanence, of not-self as self. From the point of knowing the signi- 
ficant nature of sense-organ, it is of four kinds, namely, perception of the 



1. S. IV, 231-32: Katamd ca bhikkhave dve vedana. Kdyikd ca cetasikd ca. Imd vuccanti 
bhikkhave dve vedana. Katamd ca bhikkhave tisso vedana. Sukhd vedana dukkhd vedana 
adukkhamasukhd vedana. Imd vuccanti bhikkhave tisso vedana. 

2. Ibid. 232: Katamd ca bhikkhave panca vedana. Sukhindriyam dukkhindriyam somanas- 
sindriyam domanassindriyam upekkhindriyam. Imd vuccanti bhikkhave panca vedana. 

3. S. IV, 232: Katamd ca bhikkhave chattimsa vedana. Cha gehasitdni somanassdni cha 
nekkhammasitdni somanassdni cha gehasitdni domanassdni cha nekkhammasitdni doman- 
assdni cha gehasitd upekkhd cha nekkhammasitd upekkhd. Imd vuccanti bhikkhave 
chattimsa vedana. 

4. Sannd vipalldsa, sannd avipalldsa. 

5. D. Ill, 215: Tisso akusala-sanhd. Kdma-sannd, vydpdda-sanna, vihimsd sannd. 

Tisso kusala-sannd, Nekkhamma-sannd, avydpdda-sannd, avihimsd-safind. 



The Five Methods 247 

ugly, perception of ill, perception of impermanence and perception of not-self. 1 
According to the Vinaya, it is of five kinds, thus : the perception of the ugly 
as beautiful, of the ugly as ugly, of the beautiful as beautiful and the perception 
of uncertainty. From the point of object, there are six kinds thus: form- 
perception, sound-perception, perception of odour, perception of taste, per- 
ception of contact, perception of ideas. 2 By way of door, there are seven 
kinds thus : perception that is born of eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, 
tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-element-contact, consciousness-element- 
contact. Thus should the several kinds of perception be known. This is 
called the aggregate of perception. 3 

AGGREGATE OF FORMATIONS 

Q. What is the aggregate of formations? A. Contact, volition, 
initial application of thought, sustained application of thought, joy, confidence, 
energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom, life-principle, (removal of) 
hindrance, non-greed, non-hate, modesty, decorum, repose, wish to do, 
resolve, equanimity, attention, greed, hatred, delusion, conceit, views, agitation 
and anxiety, uncertainty, indolence, immodesty, indecorum 4 and all other 
mental properties, except feeling and perception, belong to the aggregate of 
formations. 

THIRTY-ONE SIMILES 

Here contact means mind touches object. It is likened to a sunbeam 



1. A. II, 52: Anicce bhikkhave niccan ti sanndvipalldso cittavipallaso ditthivipalldso, adukkhe 
bhikkhave dukkhan ti sanndvipalldso . . . , anattani bhikkhave attd ti sanndvipalldso . . . , 
asubhe bhikkhave subhan ti sanndvipalldso cittavipallaso ditthivipalldso . . . 

Anicce bhikkhave aniccan ti na sanndvipalldso . . . , dukkhe bhikkhave dukkhan ti na 
sanndvipalldso . . . , anattani bhikkhave anattd ti na sahnd vipdlldso . . . , asubhe bhik- 
khave asubhan ti na sanndvipalldso . . . 

Anicce niccasannino dukkhe ca sakhasahhino 
Anattani ca attd ti asubhe subhasanhino 
Micchaditthigatd sattd . . . 

Aniccan aniccato dakkhum dukkham addakkhu dukkhato 
Anattani anattd ti asubham asubhaf addasum 
Sammaditthisamdddnd sabbadukkham upaccagun ti. 

2. Vbh. 102, 104: Rupasanhd loke piyariipam sdtarupam ettKesd tanhd pahiyamdnd pahiyati, 
ettha nirujjhamdnd nirujjhati. Saddasahhd . . .pe. . . gandhasannd. . . rasasahhd . . . photth- 
abbasahnd . . . dhammasahhd loke piyariipam ettWesd tanhd pahiyamdnd pahiyati, ettha 
nirujjhamdnd nirujjhati. 

3. Cp. Vbh. -a. 19: Cakkhusamphassajd sahhd ti ddini atitddivasena niddittha-sannam 
sabhdvato dassetum vuttdni. Tattha cakkhusamphassato, cakkhusamphassasmim vd jdtd 
chakkhusamphassajd ndma. Sesesu pi es'eva nayo. Ettha ca purimd pahca cakkhup- 
pasddadivatthukd va. Manosamphassajd hadaya-vatthukd pi avatthukd pi. Sabbd 
catubhumikd-sanhd. 

4. Phassa, cetand, vitakka, vicdra, piti, saddhd, viriya, sati, samddhi, pahnd, jivitindriya, 
nirvarane (pahina, — suggested by Prof. Higata), alobha, adosa, hiri, ottappa passaddhi, 
chanda, adhimokkha, upekkhd, manasikdra, lobha, dosa, moha, mdna, ditthi, uddhacca- 
kukkucca (in the explanation thina is substituted for kukkucca), vicikicchd, kosajja, ahiri, 
anottappa. 



248 Vimuttimagga 

touching a wall. 1 This is the basis of perception. Volition means the move- 
ment of mind. It is like the movement of the foot or like the scaffolding to 
the builder of a house. This is the near cause of door-object. Initial applica- 
tion of thought is mental action. It is likened to the reciting of discourses 
by heart. Perception is its near cause. Sustained application of thought is 
investigation of objects by the mind. It is likened to thought that follows 
the sense. Initial application of thought is its near cause. Joy is delight of 
mind. It is likened to a man gaining something. Exulting is its near cause. 
Confidence is purity of mind. It is likened to a man purifying water through 
the uttering of spells. The four attributes of stream-entrance 2 are its near 
cause. Energy is vigour of mind. It is likened to the energy of an ox bearing 
a burden. The eight bases of agitation 3 are its near cause. Mindfulness is 
the guarding of the mind. It is likened to the oil which protects the bowl. 
The four foundations of mindfulness are its near cause. Concentration is 
unification of mind. It is likened to the flame of the lamp behind the palace. 
The four meditations, jhdnas, are its near cause. Wisdom is seeing with the 
mind. It is likened to a man who has eyes. 4 The Four Noble Truths are 
its near cause. Life-faculty is formless dhamma. This is life. It is like 
water to lotus. 5 Name and form are its near cause. The rejection of the 
hindrances is the breaking free from the evils of the mind. It is likened to 
a man, wishing to enjoy life, avoiding poison. 6 The activity of the four 
meditations, jhdnas, is its near cause. Non-greed is the expelling of attachment 
from the mind. It is likened to a man who gets rid of something that torments 



1. S. II, 103: Seyyathdpi bhikkhave kufagdram vd kutdgdrasdld vd ut tardy a vd dakkhindya 

vd pdcindya vd vdtapdnd suriye uggacchante vdtapdnena rasmi pavisitvd kvdssa patitthitd 
ti ? Pacchimdya bhante bhittiyan ti. Pacchimd ce bhikkhave bhitti ndssa kvdssa patitthitd 
ti ? Pathaviyam blante ti. Pathavi ce bhikkhave ndssa kvdssa patitthitd tt ? Apasmim bhante 
ti. Apo ce bhikkhave ndssa kvdssa patitthitd ti ? Appatifthitd bhante ti. Evam eva kho 
bhikkhave kaba\inkdre ce bhikkhave dhdre natthi rdgo natthi nandi natthi tanhd . . . pe . . . 
Phasse ce bhikkhave dhdre. . . pe . . . Manosahcetandya ce bhikkhave dhdre . . .pe... ViMdne 
ce bhikkhave dhare natthi rdgo natthi nandi natthi tanhd appatiuhitam tattha vihhdnam 
avirufham. 

2. S. V, 347 : Sappurisasamsevo hi bhante sotdpattiangam, saddhamma-savanam sotdpattian- 
gam, yonisomanasikdro sotdpattiangam, dhamndnudhammapaUpatti sotdpattiangan ti. 

3. Pts.-a. Ill, 547: Auhasamvegavatthiini ndma: Jdti-jard-byddhi-marandni cattdri, 
apdyadukkham pahcamam, atite vaUamulakam dukkham, andgate vaUamulakam dukkham, 
paccuppanne dhdrapariyetthimulakam dukkhan 'ti. 

4. Sn. v, 1142: Passdmi nam manasd cakkhund va 

rattindivam, brdhmana, appamatto; 
namassamdno vivasemi rattim; 
— terC eva manndmi avippavdsam. 

5. D. 1, 75: Seyyathd pi mahd-rdja uppaliniyam paduminiyam pundarikiniyam app ekaccdni 
uppaldni vd padumdni vd pundarikdni vd udake-jdtdni ukade-samvaddhdni udakd 'nuggatdni 
anto-nimuggd-posiniy tdni ydva c* aggd ydva ca muld sitena vdrind abhisanndni parisanndni 
paripurdni paripphuUhdni, ndssa kind sabbdvantam uppaldnam vd padumdnam vd pundari- 
kdnam vd sitena vdrind apphutam assa. 

6. (a) Dh. v. 123: Visarh jivitukdmo 'va, pdpdni parivajjaye. 

(b) M. II, 260: Seyyathdpi, Sunakkhatta, dpdniyakamso vannasampanno gandhasampanno, 
so ca kho visena samsaUho; atha puriso dgaccheyya jivitukdmo amaritukdmo dukkhapa(ik- 
kido. Tarn kim mahnasi, Sunakkhatta ? Api nu so puriso amum dpaniyakamsam piveyya 
yam jahnd: Imdham pitvd maranarh vd nigacchdmi maranamattam vd dukkhan ti ? No 
K etam bhante, 



The Five Methods 249 

him. Renunciation is its near cause. Non-hatred is the state of a mind 
that is not angry. It is likened to cat-skin. 1 The four immeasurables are 
its near cause. Modesty is the feeling of shame in a man when he does wrong. 
It is likened to the loathing one has for excrement and urine. 2 Self-respect 
is its near cause. Decorum is the fear to do what is wrong. It is like fearing 
one's superior. Respect for others is its near cause. 3 [448] Calm is the 
appeasement of mental excitement. It is like taking a cold bath in the heat 
of summer. Joy is its near cause. The wish to do is the wish to do good. 
It is like a believing giver of alms. The four supernormal powers are its 
near cause. Resolve is the inclination of the mind. It is like water flowing 
deep downwards. 4 Initial and sustained application of thought are its near 
cause. Equanimity is that state of mind where it does not move back and 
forth. It is like a man holding a pair of scales. 5 Energy and the others are 
its near cause. Attention regulates the mind. It is like a helmsman. Both 
merit and demerit are its near cause. Greed is the clinging of the mind. It 



1. (a) Th. v. 1138 Tathd tu kassdmi yathdpi issaro; 

yam labbhati tena pi hotu me „alath; 
tarn tarn karissami yathd atandito 
bilarabhastam va yathd sumadditam. 

(b) M. I, 128-29: Seyyathdpi bhikkhave bildrabhastd madditd sumadditd suparimadditd 
mudukd tulini chinnasassard chinnababbhard atha puriso dgaccheyya kafthath va kathalam 
va dddya, so evarh vadeyya: aham imam bilarabhastam madditam sumadditam supari- 
madditam mudukam tulinim chinnasassaram chinnababbharam kaffhena va kathalena va 
sarasaram karissami bharabharam karissdmiti. Tarn kirn man fiat ha bhikkhave, apt 
nu so puriso amum bilarabhastam madditam . . . katfhena va kathalena va sarasaram 
kareyya bharabharam kareyydti? No IC etam bhante, tarn kissa hetu: asu hi bhante 
bildrabhastd madditd sumadditd suparimadditd mudukd tulini chinnasassard chinnab- 
abbhard sd na sukard katthena vd kathalena va sarasaram kdtum bharabharam kdtum, 
ydvadeva ca pana so puriso kilamathassa vighdtassa bhdgi assdti. Evam eva kho bhikkhave 
pahc'ime vacanapathd yehi vo pare vadamdna vadeyyum: kdlena vd akdlena vd bhutena 
vd abhutena vd sanhena vd pharusena vd atthasamhitena vd anatthasamhitena vd mettacittd 
vd dosantard vd. Kdlena vd bhikkhave pare vadamdna vadeyyum akdlena vd; bhutena vd 
abhutena vd, sanhena vd . . . pharusena vd; atthasamhitena vd anathasamhitena vd; metta 
cittd vd bhikkhave pare vadamdna vadeyyum dosantard vd. Tatrapi kho bhikkhave evam 
sikkhitabbam: Na c'eva no cittam viparinatam bhavissati na ca pdpikam vdcam nicchdre- 
ssdma hitdnukampi ca viharissdma mettacittd na dosantard, tan ca puggalam mettdsaha- 
gatena cetesd pharitvd viharissdma, taddrammanan ca sabbdvantam lokam bildrabhastd- 
samena cetasd vipulena mahaggatena appamdnena averena abydpajjhena pharitvd viharissd- 
mdti. Evam hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabbam. 

2. Sn. v. 835: Disvdna Tanham Aratih ca Rdgam 

ndhosi chando api methunasmim. 
Kim ev > idam muttakarisapunnam? 
Pddd pi nam samphusitum na icche. 

3. D. Ill, 212: Atthi kho dvuso tena Bhagavatd jdnatd passatd arahatd Sammd-Sambuddhena 

dve dhammd sammadakkhdtd. Tattha sabbeKeva samgdyitabbam . . . pe . « . atthdya 
hitdya sukhdya deva-manussdnam. Katame dve ? Hiri ca ottappan ca. ( = Hiri ca ottappah 
ca ti yam hiriyati hiriyitabbena ottappati ottappitabbend ti evam vitthdritdni hiri-ottappdni. 
Api c 1 ettha ajj 'hat ta-samut (hand hiri. Bahiddhd samutthdnam ottappam. Attddhipateyyd 
hiri. Lokddhipateyyam ottappam. LaJJd sabhdva-santhitd hiri. Bhaya-sabhdva-santhitam 
ottappam.— Sv. Ill, 978.). 

4. A. V, 114: Seyyathd pi bhikkhave upari pabbate thullaphusitake deve vassante deve 
galagaldyante tarn udakam yathdninnam pavattamdnam pabbatakandarapadarasdkhd 
paripureti. 

5. A. IV, 282: Seyyathd pi Byagghapajja tulddharo vd tulddhdrantevdsi vd tularh paggahetvd 
jdndti 'ettakena vd onatam ettakena va unnatan' ti. 



250 Vimuttimagga 

is likened to a goose. Lovable and desirable forms are its near cause. Hatred 
is the excitement of mind. It is like an angered venomous snake. 1 The ten 
bases of hatred are its near cause. Delusion is mental blindness. It is like 
a man without eyes. 2 The four reversals are its near cause. Conceit is 
haughtiness of mind. It is like two men fighting. The three kinds are its 
near cause. Views are mental obsessions. They are compared to the blind 
men feeling the elephant. 3 The not giving heed to another's voice is its near 
cause. Excitement is the non-tranquil state of mind. It is like water that 
is boiling. Anxiety is its near cause. Sluggishness is the slackening of mind. 
It is compared to desiring the foul. The falling off of good owing to the 
performance of evil is its near cause. Uncertainty is the leaping of the mind 
on to diverse objects. It is like a traveller to a distant land who is bewildered 
at a junction of two roads. 4 Wrong attention is its near cause. Indolence 
is negligence of mind. It is compared to a hibernating snake. The eight 
bases of indolence are its near cause. Immodesty is that state of mind which 
is not ashamed of doing ill. It is comparable to a canddla. Irreverence is 
its near cause. Indecorum is the non-fearing of the mind to do evil. It is 
like a wicked king. The non-esteem of the six is its near cause. These are 
called the aggregate of formations. 

AGGREGATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS 

Q. What is the aggregate of consciousness ? A. It is eye-consciousness, 
ear-conscioiasness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-conscious- 
ness, mind-element and mind-consciousness-element. Here, eye-consciousness 
is the cognizing of forms dependent on the eye. This is called eye-consciousness. 
Ear-consciousness is the cognizing of sounds dependent on the ear. This is 
called ear-consciousness. Nose-consciousness is the cognizing of odours 
dependent on the nose. This is called nose-consciousness. Tongue-conscious- 
ness is the cognizing of flavours dependent on the tongue. This is called 
tongue-consciousness. Body-consciousness is the cognizing of tangibles 
dependent on the body. This is called body-consciousness. Mind-element 



1. M. II, 261 : Seyyathdpi, Sunakkhatta, dsiviso ghor aviso, athapuriso dgaccheyya jivitukdmo 
amaritukdmo sukhakdmo dukkhapatikkulo. Tarn kirn mannas i, Sunakkhatta? Apu nu 
so puriso amussa dsivisassa ghoravissa hattham vd anguttham vd dajjd, yam jahhd: 
Imind ''ham dattho maranam vd nigacchdmi maranamattam vd dukkhan ti ? No h' etarh, 
bhante. 

2. It. 84: Mujho at t ham najdndti 

Mujho dhammam na passati, 
Andham tamarh tadd hoti 
yam moho sahate naram. 

3. Ud. 68: ... sannipdtitd kho te deva ydvatikd Sdvatthiyam jaccandhd 'ti. Tena hi bhane 
jaccandhdnam hatthim dassehV ti. Evarh devd 'ti kho bhikkhave so puriso tassa rahho 
patissutvd jaccandhdnam hatthim dassesi: ediso jaccandhd hatthi 'ti. Ekaccdnam jaccand- 
hdnam hatthissa sisam dassesi: ediso jaccandhd hatthi 'ti, . . . Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi 
hatthissa sisam dittham ahosi, te evam dharhsu: ediso deva hatthi seyyathd pi kumbho 'ti . . . 

4. S. Ill, 108-9: Dvidhdpatho ti kho Tissa vicikicchdyetam adhivacanam. Vdmamaggo ti 
kho Tissa atthangikassetam micchdmaggassa adhivacanam, seyyathidam micchdditthiyd . . . 
micchasamddhissa. Dakkhinamaggo ti kho Tissa ariyassetam atthangikassa maggassa 
adhivacanam, seyyathidam sammdditthiyd . . . sammdsamddhissa. 



The Five Methods 251 

depends on the five-door-adverting and the receiving of the desirable and the 
non-desirable. The cognizing (of form etc.) immediately after the five 
kinds of consciousness is called mind-element. Mind-consciousness-element: 
The mind, excepting these six kinds of consciousness, is called mind-conscious- 
ness-element. These seven kinds of consciousness should be known through 
these three ways: through organ-object, through object, through states. 

THROUGH SENSE-ORGAN-OBJECT 

Q. How, through sense-organ-object? A. Five kinds of consciousness 
are different as to sense-organ and as to object. Mind-element and mind 
consciouness-element are one as to sense-organ. Five-fold is the object of 
mind-element. Six-fold is the object of mind-consciousness-element. Five 
kinds of consciousness are as to state, internal; as to organ, internal; as to 
object, external. Mind-element is as to state, internal; as to organ, external; 
as to object, external. Mind-consciousness-element is as to state, internal; 
as to organ, external; as to object, internal and external. In respect of the six 
kinds of consciousness, organ and object proceed from the past. In respect 
of mind-consciousness-element, organ-production occurs at the moment of 
conception. There is no object of organ in the formless sphere because organ 
is produced first. Thus it should be understood through organ-object. 

THROUGH OBJECT 

Q. How, through object? A. Each of the five kinds of consciousness 
has its limits. These (five) are not produced by one another. They are 
produced neither before nor after but at once, and are not produced separately. 
Through the five kinds of consciousness, all states cannot be known; only the 
first arising can be known. Through the mind-element, all states cannot be 
known; only those which proceed in the mind can be known. Through the 
six kinds of consciousness there is no establishing of postures. Through 
apperception 1 there is the fixing of them. Through the six kinds of conscious- 
ness there is no fixing of bodily and verbal activity. (Through apperception 
these are fixed). Through the six kinds of consciousness, meritorious and 
demeritorious states are not fixed. Through apperception these are fixed. 
Through the six kinds of consciousness, one does not enter or emerge out of 
concentration. Through apperception, one enters into concentration and is 
pacified through overcoming opposites. Through the six kinds of conscious- 
ness, nothing is caused to perish or to be produced. Through overcoming of 
opposites or through registration, perishing and production are caused. Mind- 
consciousne ss-element is born of result. Through the six kinds of consciousness 
one does not sleep, awake or dream. Through opposites one sleeps. Through 

1. Javana. 



252 Vimuttimagga 

subtle light one awakes. Through apperception one dreams. Thus one should 
know through object. 

THROUGH STATES 

Q. How, through states? A. Five kinds of consciousness are with initial 
and sustained application of thought. Mind-element is with initial and sustained 
application of thought. Mind-consciousness-element is with initial and sus- 
tained application of thought, or is without initial and only with sustained 
application of thought, or is neither with initial nor with sustained application 
of thought. Five kinds of consciousness act together with equanimity. Body- 
consciousness acts either together with pleasure or with pain. Mind-con- 
sciousness-element acts together with joy or grief or equanimity. Five kinds 
of consciousness are results. Mind-element is either result or means. Mind- 
consciousness-element is meritorious or demeritorious or result or means. 
Six kinds of consciousness do not arise without condition, are worldly states, 
with cankers, with fetters, with tangle, with flood, with yoke, with hindrance, 
infected, clinging, defiling, are not removed through seeing or through 
meditation. They are neither "group" nor "non-group". They are neither 
training nor non-training. They are the subtle fetters of the sense-plane, are 
not fixed and are not vehicle. Mind consciousness-element has the nature of 
breaking up. Thus one should know to distinguish by way of states. This is 
called the aggregate of consciousness. Thus should the five aggregares be 
known. 

And again, one should know the distinctive qualities of the five aggregates 
through four ways thus: through word meaning, through characteristic, 
through discrimination, through comprehension. 

THROUGH WORD MEANING 

Q. How, through word meaning? A. Material object means thing 
that is visible. Feeling means sensibility. Formations means work. Cons- 
ciousness means awareness. Aggregate means variety and group. Thus 
one should know through word meaning. 

THROUGH CHARACTERISTIC 

Q. How, through characteristic? A. Material quality is its own charac- 
teristic, like a thorn. The four primaries are its near cause. The characteristic 
of feeling is sensitiveness. It is like disliking a leper. Contact is near cause. 
To support is the characteristic of perception. It is compared to an image. 
Contact is its near cause. The characteristic of formation is unity. It is 
like the turning of the wheel. Its near cause is contact. The characteristic 
of consciousness is awareness; it is likened to the perceiving of taste. Name 
and form are near cause. Thus one should know through characteristic. 



The Five Methods 253 

THROUGH DISCRIMINATION 

Q. How, through discrimination? A. The aggregates are discriminated 
by the threefold discrimination of the five aggregates, the five clinging aggregates 
and the five aggregates of the Law. 1 Here the five aggregates are all pheno- 
mena. 2 The five clinging aggregates are all cankerous states. The five 
aggregates of the Law are : the aggregate of virtue, the aggregate of concentra- 
tion, the aggregate of wisdom, the aggregate of freedom and the aggregate of 
the knowledge and discernment of freedom. 3 Here the five aggregates are 
to be taken. 

THROUGH COMPREHENSION 

Q. How, through comprehension ? A. There are three comprehensions : 
sense-sphere-comprehension, element-comprehension, truth-comprehension. 4 
Here the aggregate of form is comprehended in eleven sense-spheres. Three 
aggregates are comprehended in the sense-sphere of states. The aggregate 
of consciousness is comprehended in the sense-sphere of the mind. 

The aggregate of matter is comprehended in eleven elements. Three 
aggregates are comprehended in the element of states. The aggregate of con- 
sciousness is comprehended in seven elements. The aggregate of virtue, the 
aggregate of concentration, the aggregate of wisdom, the aggregate of the 
knowledge and discernment of freedom are comprehended in the sense-sphere 
and element of states. The aggregate of freedom is comprehended in the 
sense-sphere of states, the sense-sphere of mind, the element of states and the 
mind-consciousness-element. The five aggregates are comprehended in the 
Truths or not comprehended in the Truths. The five aggregates of clinging 
are comprehended in the Truth of 111 and in the Truth of Origin. The aggregates 
of virtue, concentration and wisdom are comprehended in the Path-Truth. 
The aggregate of freedom is not comprehended in the Truths. The aggregate 
of knowledge and discernment of freedom is comprehended in the Truth of 
111. Some states are comprehended in the aggregates and not in the Truths. 
Some states are comprehended in the Truths and not in the aggregates. Some 
states are comprehended in the aggregates and also in the Truths. Some 
states are comprehended neither in the Truths nor in the aggregates. Here, 
the material qualities that are linked with the faculties do not associate with 
the Path ( ?). The recluse-fruit is comprehended in the aggregates and not in 
the Truths. Nibbdna is comprehended in the Truths and not in the aggregates. 



1 . Pancakkhandhd, pancupdddnakkhandhd, pahcadhammakkhandhd. 

2. Sankhata-dhammd. 

3. A. Ill, 134: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu asekhena silakkhandhena samanndgato hoti, 
asekhena samddhikkhandhena samanndgato hoti, asekhena pahnakkhandhena samanndgato 
hoti, asekhena vimuttikkhandhena samanndgato hoti, asekhena vimuttiftdnadassanak- 
khandhena samanndgato hoti. 

4. Ayatana, dhdtu, sacca. 



254 Vimuttimagga 

Three Truths are comprehended in the aggregates and also in the Truths. 
Restraint is not comprehended in the aggregates and also not in the Truths. 
Thus should one discern the method of understanding the aggregates. This 
is called the aggregate method. 

The aggregate method has ended. 

TWELVE SENSE-ORGANS AND SENSE-OBJECTS 

Q. What is the sense-organ method? A. There are twelve sense-organs 
(and sense-objects) : sense-organ of eye, sense-object of matter, sense-organ- of 
ear, sense-object of sound, sense-organ of nose, sense-object of odour, sense- 
organ of tongue, sense-object ef taste, sense-organ of body, sense-object of 
touch, sense-organ of mind, sense-object of ideas. 1 Here, eye-organ is sentient 
element. By this one sees material objects. Material object is elemental 
form. This is the field of eye. The ear-organ is sentient element. By this 
one hears sounds. Sound-object is elemental expression. This is the field 
of the ear. Nose-organ is sentient element. By this one smells. Odour- 
object is elemental scent. It is the field of the nose. Tongue-organ is sentient 
element. By this one tastes. Taste-object is elemental flavour. This is 
the field of the tongue. The body-organ is sentient element. By it one feels 
fineness, smoothness (and so on). Touch-object is hardness, softness, coolness 
and warmth of the elements of earth, water, fire and air. This is the field of 
the body. Mind organ is the element of the seven kinds of consciousness. 
Element of ideas comprises the three formless aggregates, the eighteen subtle 
material qualities and Nibbdna. These are the twelve sense-organs (and 
sense-objects). 

And again, these twelve sense-organs (and sense-objects) should be known 
by their distinctive qualities in five ways: through word meaning, limits, 
condition, arising of . . .* distinctive thought and comprehension. 

THROUGH WORD MEANING 

Q. How, through word meaning? A. Eye means, seeing. Material 
object means appearance. Ear means, hearing. Sound means, noise. Nose 
means, olfaction. Odour means, smell. Tongue means, tasting. Taste 
means, flavour. Body means, experiencing. Touch means, contact. Mind 
means, knowing. Idea means, non-living. 2 Organ means, entrance into the 
formless, place, resting-place. Thus one should know through word meaning. 



1. D. Ill, 102: Chay imdni bhante ajjhattika-bdhirdni dyatanani, cakkhuth c* eva rupd ca t 
sotah c' eva saddd ca, ghdnan c* eva gandhd ca, jivhd c* eva rasa ca, kayo c' eva pho\t- 
habbd ca, rnano c' eva dhamma ca. 

* Unintelligible. 

2. Lit. Nijjiva. 



The Five Methods 255 

THROUGH LIMITS 

Q. How, through limits? A. Eye and ear do not reach the object. 
Nose, tongue and body reach the object. Mind is together with object. There 
is another teaching: Ear reaches the object, because if there is an obstruction 
nearby one does not hear sounds, as when a spell is wrought. And again, 
there is another teaching: Eye by itself reaches the object, because one cannot 
see the reverse side of a wall. Thus should one know through limits. 

THROUGH CONDITION 

Q. How, through condition? A. Depending on eye, material object, 
light and attention, eye-consciousness arises. Here, to the arising of eye- 
consciousness, the eye is in the fourfold relation of pre-nascence-condition, 
support-condition, faculty-condition, presence-condition. 1 (To eye-conscious- 
ness) material object is in the threefold relation of post-nascence-condition, 
object-condition, presence-condition. Light is in the threefold relation of 
pre-nascence-condition, support-condition and presence-condition. Attention 
is in the twofold relation of continuity-condition and absence-condition. 

Depending on ear, sound, ear-cavity and attention, ear-consciousness 
arises. Thus should one know through the distinguishing of condition. 
Depending on nose, smell, air and attention, nose-consciousness arises. Depen- 
ding on tongue, taste, water and attention, tongue-consciousness arises. 
Depending on body, touch and attention, bodily consciousness arises. Depend- 
ing on mind, ideas, life-continuum and attention, mind-consciousness arises. 

Here, mind is . . .* ideas are the object of states. There are four kinds in 
this : Past, present and future of six internal sense-organs comprise the firsts 
past, future and present of five external sense-objects, excepting non-sense-organ 
faculty, comprise the second. The third is the sense-object of ideas. There 
are eleven things viz., being, direction, season, ... * comprise the fourth.** 
These are called the object of states. 

Concentration is intentness of mind on object. It is like light. Attention 
is mind-door-adverting. Consciousness is apperception. Here, to mind- 
consciousness, mind is in the relation of support-condition. Ideas are in the 
relation of object-condition. Life-continuum is in the relation of support- 
condition. Attention is in the twofold relation of continuity-condition and 
presence-condition. Thus should it be understood through condition. 

Q. How, through the arising of distinctive thought ? A. Three kinds 
are fulfilled at the eye-door. They are the objects of very great intensity, 
great intensity and slight intensity. 2 Of these, those of very great intensity 



1. In rendering the paccayas, here and elsewhere, in this translation, we have generally 
followed Venerable Nyanatiloka Maha Thera's "PaticcasamuppadcT . 

* Unintelligible 

** The meaning is not clear. 

2. Cp. Compendium of Philosophy, 127. 



256 Vimuttimagga 

fulfil seven stages and are born in avici, the great hell. After the vibration of 
the life-continuum, adverting, discerning, receiving, examining, determining, 
apperceiving and registering follow. 

SIMILE OF THE THREAD 

Here the life-continuum is the consciousness-faculty of becoming. It is 
likened to the drawing of thread. 1 Adverting is conditioned by the visible 
object at the eye-door. Through the visible object entering the field (of 
presentation?), the life-continuum vibrates, and is followed by adverting 
to the visible object. Adverting which depends on the eye is followed by 
discerning. This is followed by reception in the sense of experience. Then 
follows examining in the sense of (investigating) experience. After that 
comes determining in the sense of understanding. Determining proceeds 
and is followed by apperception according to action. Apperception proceeding 
in the sense of full cognition and not in the sense of means is followed by 
registration of effect. After that consciousness lapses into the life-continuum. 

SIMILE OF THE MANGO 

Q. What is the illustration? A. The king sleeps in his chamber, 
having closed the door. A slave-girl massages the king's feet. The queen 
sits near him. Ministers and courtiers are ranged in front of him. A deaf 
man is guarding the door with his back against it. At that time the king's 
gardener, bringing mangoes, knocks at the door. Hearing that sound, the 
king awakes, and says to the slave-girl, "Go and open the door". The slave 
goes to the door-keeper and speaks to him in gesture. That deaf door-keeper 
understands her wish and opens the door and sees the mangoes. The king 
takes his sword. The slave brings the fruits and hands them to a minister. 
The minister presents them to the queen. The queen washes them and sorts 
the ripe from the raw, places them in a vessel and gives them to the king. 
Getting them, the king eats the fruits. After eating them, he talks of the 
merit or non-merit of them. After that he sleeps again. 

The sleeping king is the life-continuum. The king's gardener, bringing 
mangoes and knocking at the door, is the impact of the visible object on the 
eye-door. The awakening of the king by the knocking at the door, and his 
command to open the door, illustrate the vibration of the life-continuum. The 
slave-girl's gestures, in requesting the door-keeper to open the door, is adver- 
ting. The opening of the door by the deaf door-keeper and the sight of the 
mangoes illustrate eye-consciousness. The taking of the sword by the king 
and the handing of the fruits by the slave to the minister illustrate reception. 
The presentation of the fruits by the minister to the queen is examining. The 



1. Cp. D. I, 54: Seyyathd pi ndma sutta-gule khitte nibbethiyamdnam eva phaleti. Perhaps 
the simile was drawn from this portion of the sutta. 



The Five Methods 257 

actions of washing, sorting, placing the fruits in a vessel and offering them 
to the king illustrate determining. The eating by the king is apperception. 
His talking as to the merits or demerits of the fruits illustrate registration of 
effect, and his sleeping again is the lapsing into the life-continuum. 1 

Here, consciousness depending on the impact of objects of middling 
intensity at the eye-door proceeds up to apperception and immediately lapses 
into the life-continuum. Through the impact of objects of lower intensity, 
consciousness lapses into the life-continuum immediately after determining. 
In the same way the procedure at the other doors should be understood. At 
the mind-door there is no impact of object. Conditioned by attention, and 
free from activities is the object grasped at the mind-door. Here, with 
reference to a very great object three stages are produced (after vibration) 
of the life-continuum, namely, adverting, apperception and registration. 
With reference to the objects of great and slight intensity two stages are ful- 
filled: adverting and apperception. 2 Here, feeling and perception should 
be known through various conditions. 

Through the conditioning of right-attention 3 and non-right-attention, 
various kinds of merit and demerit should be known. Thus one should know 
through manifestation of the interlocking of distinctive thought.* 

Q. How, through comprehension? A. There are three kinds of 
comprehension, namely, aggregate-comprehension, element-comprehension, 
truth-comprehension. Here, ten sense-spheres are comprehended in the 
aggregate of matter. The sense-sphere of mind is comprehended in the 
aggregate of consciousness. The sense-sphere of states, excepting Nibbdna, 
is comprehended in the four aggregates. Eleven sense-spheres are compre- 
hended in eleven elements. The sense-sphere of mind is comprehended in 
seven elements. The five internal sense-spheres are comprehended in the 
Truth of 111. The five external sense-spheres are either comprehended or not 
comprehended in the Truth of 111. The sense-sphere of mind is either com- 
prehended or not comprehended in the Truth of 111. The sense-sphere of 
states is either comprehended or not comprehended in the Truth of III. Thus 
should comprehension be known. In this way one develops discernment 
through the sense-sphere method. This is called sense-sphere method. 

Sense-sphere method has ended, 

ELEMENT METHOD 

Q. What is the element-method? A. There are eighteen elements, 
namely, eye-element, material-element, eye-consciousness-element ; ear- 



1 . Cp. Compendium of Philosophy, 30 for mango simile. 

2. Cp. Ibid. 128. 

3. Samma-manasikara ( ?) 
* Not quite clear. 



258 Vimuttimagga 

element, sound-element, ear-consciousness-element ; nose-element, odour- 
element, nose-consciousness-element; tongue-element, taste-element, tongue- 
consciousness-element ; body-element, touch-element, body-consciousness- 
element; mind-element, states-element, mind-consciousness-element. 1 Here, 
the sensory organ of eye is eye-element. Material form is material element. 
Eye-consciousness is eye-consciousness-element. In the same way the others 
should be known. Mind-door-adverting translates the objects. Mind- 
element decides the result. 

[450] The mind-element is just mind-sphere. All kinds of consciousness 
except the ideas-element and the six consciousness-elements are mind- 
consciousness-element. The rest is as was taught at length under sense- 
sphere. Here, ten elements are comprehended in the form-aggregate. The 
ideas-element, excepting Nibbdna, is comprehended in the four aggregates. 
Seven elements are comprehended in the consciousness-aggregate. Eleven 
elements are comprehended in eleven sense-organs (and sense-objects). 
Seven-elements are comprehended in the mind-organ. Eleven elements are 
comprehended in the Truth of 111. Five elements are comprehended in the 
Truth of 111, or not comprehended in the Truth of 111. Ideas-element is 
comprehended in the Four Truths, or not comprehended in the Four Truths. 
Mind-consciousness-element is comprehended in the Truth of 111 or not 
comprehended in the Truth of 111. 

Q, What is the limit of manifestation? 

A. Just the sphere of ideas-element is the limit. The assemblage of 
the characteristics of a variety of states is called aggregate. The characteristic 
of entrance is called sense-organ. The characteristic of intrinsic nature is 
called element. Again, the Blessed One has taught the Truth of 111 by way 
of the aggregates for the quick witted man. He taught the Truth of 111 by 
way of the sense-sphere for the average man, and he taught the Truth of 111 
by way of the elements for the slow witted man. 

And again, he has expounded form in brief to those who have the 
characteristic of attachment to name and aggregate, by way of discernment 
of name. He has expounded name and sense-sphere, in brief, through the 
determining of form, to those inclined towards attachment to form. He has 
expounded the elements through determining mind and form to those inclined 
to be attached to mind and form. 

And again, he has expounded the intrinsic nature of the sense-spheres. 
He has expounded the aggregates. He has expounded the (internal) sense- 
spheres and objects. And he has expounded the sense-spheres. He has taught 
the arising of consciousness and element, through (internal) sense-sphere and 



1. Vbh. 87: Affhdrasa dhatuyo: cakkhudhatu rupadhdtu cakkhuvirinanadhatu sotadhatu 
saddadhatu sotavinndnadhdtu ghanadhatu gandhadhdtu ghdnavinnd^adhatu jivhddhdtu 
rasadhdtu jivhdvinndriadhdtu kdyadhdtu photthabbadhdtu kdyaviMdnadhdtu manodhdtu 
dhammadhdtu manovinfianadhatu. 



The Five Methods 259 

object. Thus should the distinctions in the element method be known. This 
is called element method. 

Element method has ended. 
CONDITIONED ARISING METHOD 

(a) DIRECT ORDER 

Q. What is the conditioned arising method? A. Conditioned by 
ignorance are the formations; conditioned by the formations, consciousness; 
conditioned by consciousness, name-form; conditioned by name-form, the 
six-sphered-sense; conditioned by the six-sphered-sense, contact; conditioned 
by contact, feeling; conditioned by feeling, craving; conditioned by craving, 
clinging; conditioned by clinging, becoming, conditioned by becoming, 
rebirth; conditioned by rebirth, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief and despair spring up. Such is the origin of this entire mass of ill. 1 

(b) REVERSE ORDER 

By the cessation of ignorance, the cessation of the formations (occurs); 
by the cessation of the formations, the cessation of consciousness; by the 
cessation of consciousness, the cessation of name-form; by the cessation of 
name-form, the cessation of the six-sphered-sense; by the cessation of the 
six-sphered-sense, the cessation of contact; by the cessation of contact, the 
cessation of feeling; by the cessation of feeling, the cessation of craving; 
by the cessation of craving, the cessation of clinging; by the cessation of 
clinging, the cessation of becoming; by the cessation of becoming, the cessa- 
tion of rebirth; by the cessation of rebirth, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, 
pain, grief and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of 
ill. 2 

IGNORANCE 

Here ignorance is ignorance of the Four Truths. Formations are bodily, 
verbal and mental actions. Consciousness is rebirth consciousness. Name- 



1. Ud. 1; S. II, 1: Avijjdpaccayd bhikkhave sankhdrd; sankhdrapaccayd vihMnam; vinM- 
napaccayd ndmarupam; ndmarupapaccayd sa\dyatanam; safdyatanapaccayd phasso; 
phassapaccayd vedand; vedandpaccayd tanhd; tanhdpaccayd updddnam; updddnapaccayd 
bhavo; bhavapaccayd jdti; jdtipaccayd jardmaranarh soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass- 
updydsd sambhavanti. Evam 'etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. 

2. Ud. 2; S. II, 1-2: Avijjdya tveva asesavirdganirodhd sankhdranirodho; sankhdranirodhd 
vihhdnanirodho ; vihhdnanirodhd ndmarupanirodho; ndmarupanirodhd saldyatananirodho ; 
saldyatananirodhd phassanirodho ; phassanirodhd vedandnirodho; vedandnirodhd tanhd- 
nirodho; tanhdnirodhd updddnanirodho ; updddnanirodhd bhavanirodho ; bhavanirodhd 
jdtinirodho; jdtinirodhd jardmaranarh soka-parideva'dukkha'domanassupdydsd nirujjhanti. 
Evam 'etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hotiti. 



260 Vimuttimagga 

form means the mental properties which arise together with the continuity 
of mind and the embryo (kalala). Six-sphered-sense means the six internal 
sense-spheres. Contact means the six groups of contact. Feeling means 
the six groups of feeling. Craving means the six groups of craving. Clinging 
means the four clingings. Becoming means sense-plane becoming, form- 
plane becoming and formless-plane becoming where kamma works. Rebirth 
means the arising of the aggregates in becoming. Decay means the maturing 
of the aggregates. Death means the destruction of the aggregates. 

FORMATIONS 

Q. How do the formations arise, conditioned by ignorance? How do 
decay and death arise, conditioned by rebirth? A. The five clinging groups 
arise for the uninstructed commoner, because of his ignorance of the Four 
Truths. In the long night (of ignorance), he clings to self and goods thinking: 
"These are my goods, this is my self". Thus he enjoys and clings to enjoyment. 
The thought of becoming brings about reconception. In that thought of 
becoming there is no knowledge. He clings to becoming because he desires 
it. 1 

SIMILE OF THE SEEDS 

It is like seeds placed in a fertile field. If consciousness is extinguished, 
becoming is extinguished. This is the meaning of conditioned by ignorance 
the formations arise. Mental formations, conditioned by ignorance, enter 
the course of becoming, and integrate. Becoming proceeds; thus it is 
continued. Consciousness does not separate from mind in becoming. 
Therefore, conditoned by the formations, consciousness arises. 

SIMILE OF THE SUN 

As without the sun, there is in the world neither light nor any increase 
of it, so without consciousness, name-form dees not take shape and there 
is no growth of it. 

SIMILE OF THE TWO BUNDLES OF REEDS 

As (in the simile of the bundles of) reeds depending on each other, so 
conditioned by consciousness, name-form arises. Conditioned by the (internal) 
sense-spheres, the other mental qualities arise together. 2 The development 



1. S. II, 94: Yah ca kho etam bhikkhave vuccati cittam iti pi mano iti pi vinhdnam iti pi 
tatrassutava puthujjano nalam nibbinditum nalam virajjitum nalam vimuccitum. 

Tarn kissa hetu? Digharattam hetam bhikkhave assutavato puthujjanassa ajjhositarh 
mamdyitam pardmattham etam mama eso hamasmi eso me at id ti. 

Tasmd tatrassutava puthujjano nalam nibbinditum nalam virajjitum nalam vimuccitum. 

2. S. II, 114: Seyyathapi dvuso dve na]akaldpiyo ahhamahham nissdya tittheyyum, evam 
eva kho dvuso ndmarupapaccayd vinhdnam vihhdnapaccayd ndmariipam, ndmarupapaccayd 
saldyatanam, safdyatanapaccayd phasso ... 



The Five Methods 261 

of the mind-sphere is due to name. Conditioned by the four primaries, 
nutriment and caloric order, the other five (internal) sense-spheres develop 
and increase. The other does not depend on these. Therefore, conditioned 
by name-form, the six-sphered-sense arises. By the union of the other faculties, 
objects, elements and consciousness, contact arises. Therefore, conditioned 
by the six-sphered-sense, contact arises. Through the sense of touch one 
experiences pain, pleasure and neither pain nor pleasure. Should one not 
be touched (then there would be no feeling for him). Therefore, conditioned 
by contact, feeling arises. The uninstructed commoner experiences pleasure 
and clings to it and craving for more, he experiences pain; and overcoming 
it (pain), he, desiring ease,, develops the feeling of neither pain nor pleasure, 
or equanimity. 1 Therefore, conditioned by feeling, craving arises. Through 
craving, one clings to what is lovely. Therefore, conditioned by craving, 
clinging arises. Through that clinging, one sows the seed of becoming. 
Therefore, conditioned by clinging, there is becoming. According to one's 
deeds one is born in various states. Therefore there is rebirth, and through 
birth, there is decay and death. Thus, conditioned by birth, there is decay 
and death. 

SIMILE OF THE SEED, SHOOT AND PLANT 

As paddy-seeds are conditioned by the paddy plant, so conditioned by 
ignorance the formations arise. Conditioned by the seed is the bud; 2 so is 
the. arising. of consciousness, by the. formations. Conditioned. by the bud is 
the leaf; so. is the arising of name-form, by consciousness. Conditioned 
by the leaf is the branch; so is the arising of the six-sphered-sense, by name- 
form. Conditioned by the branch is the plant; so is the arising of contact, 
by the six-sphered-sense. Conditioned by the plant is the flower; so is the 
arising of feeling, by contact. Conditioned by the flower is the nectar; so 
is the arising of craving, by feeling. Conditioned by the nectar is the ear of 
rice; so is the arising of clinging, by craving. Conditioned by the ear of 
rice is the seed; so is the arising of becoming, by clinging. Conditioned by 
the seed is the bud; so is the arising of birth, by becoming. Thus the several 
successions come to be. Thus one cannot know the past or the future. Thus 
birth succeeds beginning with the causal condition of ignorance. Of it the 
past or the future cannot be known. 3 

WHAT CONDITIONS IGNORANCE 

Q. By what is ignorance conditioned? A. Ignorance is indeed con- 



1 . Cp. Vbh.-a. 1 80 : Dukkhi sukharii patthayati, sukhi bhiyyo pi icchati, 

upekhd pana santattd sukham ice' eva bhdsitd. 

2. Cp. (a) Vbh.-a. 196: Bije sati ankuro viya. 

(b) Mhv. XV, 43: Bijamhd nikkhamma ankuro. 

3. Cp. S. II, 178: Anamataggdyam bhikkhave samsdro pubbdkoti na panhdyati avijjdnivara- 
ndnam sattdnam tanhdsamyojandnarh sandhdvatam samsaratam. 



262 Vimuttimagga 

ditioned by ignorance. 1 The latencies become the condition of the encompassing 
defilements. The encompassing defilements become the condition of the 
latencies. 2 

And again, all defilements become the condition of ignorance according 
to the teaching of the Buddha thus: "From the origin of the cankers, origin 
of ignorance arises*'. 3 And again, it is likened to a single thought-state (?). 
Seeing a form with the eye, the uninstructed commoner develops craving. 
The bare enjoyment of that time is delusion of mind. This is called ignorance. 
Through attachment to this ignorance, one conditions the formations. 
Through attachment to these formations, one conditions consciousness and 
knows the associated states of mind and the material object produced by the 
formations. Conditioned by this consciousness, name-form arises. From 
feeling joy is produced. Conditioned by joy and conditioned by the joy- 
producing material object, the bare faculties arise. Thus conditioned by 
name-form the six-sphered-sense arises. Conditioned by pleasurable 
contact, feeling arises. Conditioned by the craving for feeling, craving arises. 
Through attachment to bare pleasure and conditioned by craving, clinging 
arises. Through attachment to and conditioned by clinging, there is becoming. 
Conditioned by becoming, birth arises, and when living (begins) to end — this 
is decay. To scatter and to destroy — this is death. Thus in one moment 
the twelvefold conditioned arising is fulfilled. 

Q. Of the factors of the twelvefold conditioned arising, how many are 
defilements, how many are actions, how many are results, how many are past, 
how many are future, how many are present, how many are cause-conditions, 
how many have already developed? What is conditioned arising? What is 
conditioned arising doctrine? What are the differences between these two? 
Why is conditioned arising so profound? 



1. (a) Cp. S. IV, 50: Avijjd kho bhikkhu eko dhammo yassa pahdnd bhikkhuno avijjd pahiyati 

vij'jd uppajjatiti. 
(b) Netti. 79: Vuttarh hi: avijjdpaccayd samkhdrd, samkhdrapaccayd vinhdnam. 
Evarh sabbo paficcasamuppddo. Iti avijjd avijjdya hetu, ayonisomanasikdro 
paccayo. Purimikd avijjd pacchimikdya avijjdya hetu. Tattha purimikd avijjd 
avijjdnusayo, pacchimikd avijjd avijjdpariyutfhdnam. Purimiko avijjdnusayo 
pacchimikassa avijjdpariyutthdnassa hetubhiito paribruhandya bijankuro viya 
samanantarahetutdya. Yam pana yatthd phalarh nibbattati, idarh tassa param- 
parahetutdya hetubhutarh. Duvidho hi hetu: samanantarahetu paramparahetu 
ca. Evarh avijjdya pi duvidho hetu: samanantarahetu paramparahetu ca. 

2. Cp. (a) Dhs. 79, Sec. 390: Yam tasmim samaye ahndnam adassanarh anabhisamayo 

ananubodho asambodho appafivedho asamgdhand apariyogdhand asamapekkhand 
apaccavekkhand apaccakkhakammam dummejjham balyam asampajahham moho 
pamoho sammoho avijjd avijjogho avijjdyogo avijjdnusayo avijjdpariyutfhdnam 
avijjdlangi moho akusalamujam — ayam tasmim samaye moho hoti. 

(b) Netti. 14: Panndya anusayd pahiyyanti, anusayesu pahinesu pariyutthdnd 
pahiyyanti. Kissa anusayassa pahinattd ? Tarn yathd khandhavantassa rukkhassa 
anavasesamuluddharane kate pupphaphalapavdjankurasantati samucchinnd bhavati, 
evarh anusayesu pahinesu pariyutthdnasantati samucchinnd bhavati pidahitd 
paficchannd. Kena? Panndya. 

(c) Petaka. 105: Tat ha hi purimd koti na pahndyati; tattha avijjdnusayo avijjdpari- 
ufthdnassa hetu purimd hetu pacchd paccayo sd pi avijjd sankhdrdnam paccayo. 

3. Cp. M. I, 54: Asavasamudayd avijjdsamudayo, asavanirodhd avijjdnirodho. 



The Five Methods 263 

A. Three are the defilements, namely, ignorance, craving and clinging. 
Two are actions, namely, the formations and becoming. The other seven 
results. 

SIMILE OF THE COLOURS OF A PAINTER 

Here, the defilements are a cause of future life, like the colours of a painter. 
Their objects are not self-produced, as also are the colour-object of the painter. 
Defilements cause becoming like the different colours of the painter. These 
two are past, namely, ignorance and the formations. These two are of the 
future, namely, birth and decay-and-death. The other eight are of the present. 
Thus it is as to the three divisions of time. Therefore one should know that 
birth and death proceed from beginningless time. The factors of the twelve- 
fold conditioned arising should not be taught (separately). Further, no 
conditioned arising should be taught which does not consist of these twelve. 
Then, what is conditioned arising? Just these twelve which in turn become 
condition. Therefore this is called conditioned arising. The twelve factors 
are states which have already developed. What is the difference between 
the two ? The working of conditioned arising being different (in each case) 
and being not complete, one cannot speak of it. Be they conditioned or non- 
conditioned, 1 they cannot be explained. States of conditioned arising that 
have already developed, have finished their task and are conditioned. This 
is the difference between the two. Why is this conditioned arising profound? 
One is able to know the way and characteristic by which ignorance conditions 
the formations. A delivered one, without the aid of another, is able to discern 
its working, characteristics and nature. These constitute the profound nature 
of conditioned arising. 2 

CONDITIONED ARISING TO BE KNOWN IN SEVEN WAYS 

[451] And again, this conditioned arising should be known through 
seven ways thus: through the three links, the four groups, the twenty modes, 
the wheel, order, discernment and through comprehension. 

FIRST THREE LINKS 

Q. How, through the three links ? A. Here the interval between the formations 
and consciousness is the first link; the interval between feeling and craving is 
the second link; the interval between becoming and rebirth is the third link. 
The conditioning of the present effect by past actions through the defilements 



1. Sankhata, asankhata. 

2. S. II, 92; D. II, 55: ' Acchariyam bhante abbhutam bhante ydva gambhiro cdyarh bhante 
paticca-samuppddo gambhiravabhaso ca. At ha ca pana me uttdnakuttdnako viya khayatitL' 

Md Kevam Ananda avaca, md Kevam Ananda avaca. Gambhiro cdyarh Ananda 
paticca-samuppddo gambhiravabhaso ca, 



264 Vimuttimagga 

is the first link. The conditioning of the present defilements by present effects 
is called the second link ; the conditioning of future effects by present defilements 
is called the third link. The first and the third are condition-effect-link 1 and 
becoming-link. 2 The second link is effect-condition link 3 and non-becoming- 
link. Q. What is becoming-link? 

A. Endlessly, the not yet enlightened aggregates, sense-organs and ele- 
ments, through the conditioning of past actions and defilements, go again and 
again to various modes of birth. This is becoming-birth-link. 4 Q. How 
is it fulfilled? 

DEATH OF THE IGNORANT CRAVING EVIL-DOER 

A. Here a man, who performs actions which are associated with ignorance 
and craving, is an evil-doer. When he comes to die, he suffers. Lying on 
his death-couch, he does not see this world. He does not see that world. 
He loses mindfulness and cannot recover it. At this time he suffers the ill of 
rebirth. Mindfulness draws away from his mind, and strength from his body. 
He loses his faculties gradually. The body quakes. Vitality ebbs and his body 
becomes like a dried tola leaf. At this time he is like one asleep and dreaming. 

ACTION, ACTION-SIGN, DESTINY, DESTINY-SIGN 

Through action, four states arise. They are action, action-sign, destiny* 
destiny-sign. 5 

What is action? The merit and non-merit one has made. They are 
heavy or light, many or few. The action-sign that uprises (as result) conforms 
to the action already done. The action-sign resembles action already done. 
Destiny: A happy destiny arises through the conditioning of merit. An evil 
destiny arises through the conditioning of demerit. Destiny-sign: At the 
time of entry into the womb, three objects unite to produce rebirth. Rebirth 



1. Hetu-phala-sandhi. 2. bhavasandhi. 3. Phala-hetu-sandhi, 

4. Bhava-jdtisandhi. Cp. Spk. II, 72 : Bhava-jdtinam antare eko ti. 

5. Cp. (a) Abhs. V, par. 12: . . . Tat ha ca marantdnarh pana maranakale yathdraham 

abhimukhibhutarh bhavantare patisandhi-janakam kammaih va tarn kamma-karana- 
kale rupddikam upaladdha-pubbam upakarana-bhutah ca kamma-nimittam va 
anantaram uppajjamdnabhave upalabhitabbam upabhoga-bhutah ca gati-nimittam 
va kamma-balena channam dvdrdnarh ahhatarasmirh paccupatthdti. 

(b) Spk. II, 218: Mamsa-pesi-vatthusmirh: goghdtako ti, go-mamsapesiyo katva, 
sukkhdpetvd, vallura-vikkayena anekdni vassani jivikarh kappesi. TerC assa naraka 
cavana-kale marhsa pesi yeva nimittam ahosi. So mamsa-pesi-peto jato, 

(c) Ibid. 372-73: Ettakesu thanesu Channa-tthero Sariputta-ttherena pucchita- 
pucchitarh pahham arahatte pakkhipitvd kathesi. Sariputta-tthero pana tassa 
puthujjana-bhavarh natvdpi 'tvarh puthujjano* ti va i andsavo > ti va avatva tunhi 
yeva ahosi. Cunda-tthero pan' assa puthujjana-bhavarh napessdmi ti cintetvd 
ovadarh addsi. 

Satthath dharesi ti, jivita-haraka-sattham ahari, kanthana\am chindi. AtK 
assa tasmirh khane bhayam okkami, gatinimittam upatthdsi. So attano puthujjana- 
bhavarh rlatvd, sarhvigga-citto vipassanarh patthapetvd, sankhdre pariganhanto 
arahattam patvd, samasisi hutvd, parinibbuto, 



The Five Methods 265 

depends on the place of birth, namely, a palace, habitation, mountain, tree, 
or river, according to destiny. The appropriate grasping-sign arises, and the 
man, leaning or sitting or lying (on his death-couch), grasps that. After the 
consciousness which apperceives the past action or the action-sign or the 
destiny or the destiny-sign ends, the last consciousness arises without a break 
gradually through apperceptional consciousness. Only that action or action- 
sign or destiny or destiny-sign becomes the object of the basic resultant cons- 
ciousness. Like the lighting of a lamp by a lamp, 1 or like fire issuing from a 
flame is re-linking consciousness. 2 

In the womb of the mother, through the impurity of parents, thirty 
material qualities are fulfilled by action of ten (?) sense-spheres. In the 
moment of decay, forty-six material qualities are fulfilled,* 



Thus consciousness conditions name-form. Name-form conditions conscious- 
ness. 3 Thus the link of becoming is fulfilled. Here, the fulfilment of the 
three links should be understood. 

FOUR GROUP DIVISION 

Q. How, through the four groups? A. Ignorance and the formations 
are divisions of the groups of action and defilement of the past. Consciousness, 
name-form, the six-sphered-sense, contact and feeling are divisions of the 
groups of effect in the present. Craving, clinging and becoming are divisions 
of action, and defilement of the present. Rebirth, and decay-and-death are 
divisions of effect of the future. Thus one should know through the four- 
group division. 

TWENTY MODES 

Q. How, through twenty modes ? A. Through the grasping of ignorance 
and of past craving and clinging and through the defilement-sign being grasped. 
Through the grasping of the formations of past becoming and through the 
action-sign being grasped. Through the grasping of consciousness, of name- 



(d) Vbh.-a. 156: Gatinimittam ndma nibbattanaka-okdse eko vanno upatfhdti. Tattha 
niraye upaffhahante lohakwnbhi-sadiso hutvd uppafthdti. Manussaloke upatthahante 
mdtukucchi kambalaydna-sadisd hutvd upatthdti. Devaloke upatthahante kappa- 
rukkha-vimdna-sayanddini upafthahanti. 

1. Mil. 71: Raja aha: Bhante Ndgasena, na ca sankamati patisandahati cad. — Ama 
mahdrdja, na ca sankamati patisandahati cdti. — Katham bhante Ndgasena na ca sankamati 
patisandahati ca, opammam karohiti. — Yathd mahdrdja kocid eva puriso padipato padipam 
padipeyya, kin nu kho so mahdrdja padipo padipamhd sankanto ti. — Na hi bhante ti. — 
Evam eva kho mahdrdja na ca sankamati patisandahati cdti. 

2. M. II, 262 ff.: Samvattanikam vinnanam. 
* The text is very confused here. 

3. S. II, 104: Paccuddvattati kho idam vinnanam ndmarupamhd ndparam gacchati, ettdvatd 
jdyetha vd jiyetha vd miyetha vd cavetha vd upapajjetha vd yad idam ndmarupapaccayd 
viMdnam i vinhdnapaccayd ndmarupam, ndmarupapaccayd safdyatanarh, . . .pe . . . 



266 Vimuttimagga 

form, of the six-sphered-sense, of contact, of feeling and through birth and 
decay-and-death of the result-sign of the present being grasped. Through the 
grasping of craving, clinging and through the defilement-sign of the present 
being grasped. Through the grasping of becoming the present formations are 
grasped through the action-sign. Through the grasping of birth, decay and 
death, future consciousness, name-form, the six-sphered-sense, contact, feeling 
are grasped. These twenty-four states become twenty. 

It is according to the teaching in the Abhidhamma: "In the previous 
/ctfrawa-becoming, delusion is ignorance, effort is the formations, desire is 
craving, grasping is clinging, volition is becoming. Thus these fivt states of 
the previous /cawwa-becoming are causes of the present rebirth. From the 
maturity of the sense-organs, here, delusion is ignorance; effort is the forma- 
tions; desire is craving; grasping is clinging; volition is becoming. Thus these 
five states, here in kamma-bQcommg are causes of rebirth in the future. Here, 
rebirth is consciousness ; descent is name-form ; sensory organism is sense- 
organ; the being touched is touch; the being felt is feeling. Thus these five 
states, here, in rebirth-becoming are cause of kamma already done. Thus 
one should know through twenty ways". 1 

How, through wheel? Ignorance conditions the formations; the forma- 
tions condition consciousness; thus birth conditions decay and death. Thus 
the whole aggregate of ill arises. Therefore all constitute the aggregate of 
ill. Not knowing is called ignorance. Ignorance conditions the formations. 
Thus should it be known by way of the wheel. 

DIRECT AND REVERSE ORDER 

How, through order? Order is of two kinds. They are, the one which 
begins from ignorance and the one which begins from decay and death. Ques- 
tioned as to that which begins from ignorance, one should answer in the direct 
order; and questioned as to that which begins from decay and death, the answer 
should be in the reverse order. 

And again, that which begins from ignorance is fixed; one can see the way 
to the future. That which begins with decay is the end; one can see the way 
to the past. Thus one should know through order. 



1. Pts. I, 52: Purimakammabhavasmim moho avijjd, dyuhand sankhdrd, nikanti tanhd, 
upagamanam upadanam, cetand bhavo; ime panca dhammd purimakammabhavasmim idha 
patisandhiyd paccayd . . . Idha paripakkattd dyatandnam moho avijjd, dyuhand sankhdrd, 
nikanti tanhd, upagamanam updddnam, cetand bhavo; ime panca dhammd idhakamma- 
bhavasmim dyatirh patisandhiyd paccayd. Ayatirh patisandhi vinndnam, okkanti ndma- 
rupam, pasddo dyatanam, phuftho phasso, vedayitam vedand; ime panca dhammd dyatim 
upapattibhavasmim idha katassa kammassa paccayd. Iti ime catusankhepe tayo addhe 
visatiyd dkdrehi tisandhim paticcasamuppddam jdndti passati ahndti pativijjhati. Tan 
iidtatthena Mnam, pajdnanatthena pannd; tena vuccati — 'Paccaya pariggahe pannd 
dhamma((hitindnam\ 



The Five Methods 267 

MUNDANE AND SUPRAMUNDANE 
CONDITIONED ARISING 

Q. How, through discernment? A. There are two kinds of conditioned 
arising: mundane conditioned arising and supramundane conditioned arising. 
Here, that which begins from ignorance is mundane. Q. What is supra- 
mundane conditioned arising? A, 111 depends on ill. Confidence depends 
on confidence. Joy depends on joy. Rapture depends on rapture. Calm 
depends on calm. Bliss depends on bliss. Concentration depends on 
concentration. Right views depend on right Views. Aversion depends on 
aversion. Dispassion depends on dispassion. Freedom depends on the 
knowledge of the freedom of extinction. This is called supramundane 
conditioned arising. 1 

FOUR KINDS OF CONDITIONED ARISING 

Again, four kinds of conditioned arising are taught thus: the defilement- 
action is cause; seed is cause; doing is cause; common action is cause. 

Q. What is meant by "defilement-action is cause"? A. It is that 
which begins from ignorance. What is meant by "seed is cause"? It is 
likened to the succession of seed and bud. What is meant by "doing is 
cause" ? It is likened to the change of material qualities. What is meant 
by "common action is cause"? It is likened to earth, snow, mountain, sea 
sun and moon. 

There is another teaching. Common action is not a cause. Material 
qualities, consciousness, states and caloricity are causes. There is no 
common action, according to the teaching of the Blessed One thus : 

With none is kamma shared, none can rob it, 
and by itself comes the fruit of merit won. 2. 

Thus one should know through discernment. 

THROUGH COMPREHENSION 

Q. How, through comprehension? A. There are four kinds of com- 
prehension : aggregate-comprehension, sense-organ-comprehension, element- 
comprehension and truth-comprehension. Here, ignorance, the formations, 



1. There is another classification of conditioned arising at Netti. 67: Es" ev* anto dukkh- 
assd ti paticcasamuppddo. So duvidho: lokiko ca lokuttaro ca. Tattha lokiko: avijjdpaccayd 
samkhdrd ydva jardmarand, lokuttaro: silavato avippatisdro jdyati ydva ndparam itthattdyd 
ti pajdndti. See p. 229, note 1 (c), and last note of appendix. 

2. Not traced. Cp. Sv. I, 37: Kammassakd hi sattd, attano kammdnurupam eva gatim 
gacchanti, rCeva pita puttassa kammena gacchati, na put to pitu kammena, na mat a puttassa, 
na putto mdtuydy na bhdtd bhaginiyd, na dcariyo antevdsino, na antevdsi dcariyassa 
kammena gacchati, 



268 Vimuttimagga 

contact, craving, clinging and becoming are comprehended in the aggregate 
of the formations. Consciousness is comprehended in the consciousness-aggre- 
gate. Name-form is comprehended in the four aggregates. The six- 
sphered-sense is comprehended in the two aggregates. Feeling is compre- 
hended in the feeling-aggregate. Birth and decay and death are compre- 
hended in the aggregate of form and in the aggregate of the formations. 
Ignorance, the formations, contact, feeling, craving, clinging, becoming, 
rebirth and decay and death are comprehended in the sense-sphere of ideas. 
Consciousness is comprehended in the mind-sphere. Name-form is 
comprehended in the five internal sense-spheres. The six-sphered-sense is 
comprehended in the six internal sense-spheres. Ignorance, the formations, 
contact, feeling, craving, clinging, becoming, rebirth and decay and death 
are comprehended in the element of ideas. Consciousness is comprehended 
in the mind-consciousness-element. Name-form is comprehended in the 
five elements. The six-sphered-sense is comprehended in the twelvefold 
truth. Ignorance, craving and clinging are comprehended in the tenfold 
truth. The other nine are comprehended in the Truth of 111. Supramun- 
dane conditioned arising way -factor is comprehended in the Path-truth. 
The extinction of conditioned arising is comprehended in the Truth of 
Cessation. Thus one should know through comprehension. Through these 
ways should one understand the method of conditioned arising. This is 
called conditioned arising method. 

Conditioned arising method has ended. 

The Tenth Fascicle of the Path of Freedom has ended. 



[452] THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE ELEVENTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIP1TAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
THE FIVE METHODS 

CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH 

Section Two 
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 

Q. What is the method of understanding the Noble Truths? 

A. There are Four Noble Truths: the Noble Truth of 111, the Noble 
Truth of the Origin of 111, the Noble Truth of the Cessation of 111 and the 
Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of 111. 

TRUTH OF ILL 

Q. What is the Noble Truth of 111? A. "Birth is ill; old age is ill; 
death is ill; sorrow is ill; lamentation and misery are ill; grief and despair 
are ill; association with those one does not like is ill; separation from those 
one likes is ill; the not getting of what is wished for is ill; in short the five 
aggregates of clinging are ill". 1 

"Birth is ill" : This is the arising of the aggregates of various beings. 
All these are assemblages of ill. "Old age is ill" : All the elements, proceeding 
from birth, come to maturity and lose vigour, colour, faculties, memory and 
intellect. "Death is ill": Fear of the ending of life, "sorrow is ill": On 
going to the place of suffering, fear arises. This is the burning within. "La- 
mentation is ill": Suffering reaches verbal expression. This is to burn within 



1. D. II, 304 ff; Vbh. 99: Cattdri ariyasaccdni: dukkham ariyasaccarh dukkhasamudayo 
ariyasaccarh dukkhanirodho ariyasaccarh dukkhanirodhagdmini pafipadd ariyasaccarh. 

Tattha katamarh dukkham ariyasaccarh ? 

Jdti pi dukkhd jard pi dukkhd marariarh pi dukkham sokaparidevadukkhadomanas- 
supdydsd pi dukkhd appiyehi sampayogo dukkho piyehi vippayogo dukkho yam p'iccham 
na labhati tarn pi dukkham; sankhittena pancupdddnakkhandhd pi dukkhd. 

269 



270 Vimuttimagga 

and without. "Misery is ill": This is the suffering of the body. By this 
one suffers bodily pain. This is the meaning. "Grief and despair are ill" : 
These are sufferings of the mind. By these one suffers mental anguish. This 
is the meaning. "Association with those one does not like is ill": This 
means that one is united with persons one dislikes. "Separation from those 
one likes is ill": This means that one is separated from persons one likes. 
"The not getting of what is wished for": A man loses happiness because 
he is not able to separate from those whom he dislikes, and because he is 
not able to unite with those whom he likes. Being unable to secure these 
he loses happiness. "In short the five aggregates of clinging are ill": One is 
not able to separate oneself from these five aggregates of clinging. Therefore 
these five aggregates of clinging are ill. 1 

FIVE GROUPS OF CLINGING 

Q. What are the five aggregates of clinging? A. The form aggregate 
of clinging, the feeling aggregate of clinging, the perception aggregate of 
clinging, the formation aggregate of clinging, the consciousness aggregate 
of clinging. These should be understood according to the full explanation 
under the method of (understanding) the aggregates. 

TWO KINDS OF ILL 

Here ill is of two kinds thus: ill of sense-sphere and innate ill. The 
ill of birth, the ill of death, the ill of association with those one dislikes, the ill 
of separation from those one likes, the ill of not getting what is wished for; 
in short, the ill of the aggregates of clinging, are called ill of sense-sphere. 
The ill of sorrow, the ill of lamentation and the ill of grief and despair are 
called innate ill. 



1. Cp. Vbh. 99: Tat t ha katama jdti? Yd tesam tesarh sattanarh tamhi tamhi sattanikdye 
jdti sahjdti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhdnam pdtubhdvo dyatandnarh patildbho ayarh vuccati 
jdti. 

Tattha katama jard ? Yd tesam tesam sattanarh tamhi tamhi sattanikdye jard jiranatd 
khandiccarh pdliccarh valittacatd dyuno samhdni indriydnam paripdko: ayarh vuccati jard. 

Tattha katamam maranarh ? Yd tesam tesam . . . cuti cavanatd bhedo antaradhdnam 
maccu maranarh kdlakiriyd khandhdnam bhedo kajevarassa nikkhepo jivitindriyassa 
upacchedo: idam vuccati maranarh. — The explanation given above is quite different. 
Cp. Ibid, 367 : Maranarh paficca bhayarh bhaydnakarh chambhitattarh lomaharhso cetaso 
utrdso: idam vuccati maranabhayam. 

Ibid. 99-100: Tattha katamo soko? hativyasanena vd phutfhassa bhogavyasanena 
vd phutfhassa rogavyasanena vd phutfhassa sttavyasanena vd phutfhassa diffhivyasanena vd 
phuffhassa anhatarahhatarena vyasanena samanndgatassa anhatarahhatarena dukkhadham- 
mena phutfhassa soko socand socitattarh antosoko antoparisoko cetaso parijjhdyand 
domanassarh sokasallam: ayarh vuccati soko ( — Cp. Nidd. I, 128 which adds antocldho 
antopariddho to the list.). 

Tattha katamo paridevo ? Hativyasanena vd phutfhassa . . . ddevo paridevo ddevand 
paridevand ddevitattam paridevitattarh vdcd paldpo vippaldpo lalapo lalapand lalapitattam: 
Ayarh vuccati paridevo. 

Tattha katamam dukkham? Yam kdyikarh asdtarh kdyikarh dukkharh kdyasamphas- 
sajam asdtarh dukkham vedayitam kdyasamphassajd asdtd dukkha vedand: idam vuccati 
dukkharh. 



The Five Methods 271 

THREE KINDS OF ILL 

111 is of three kinds thus : the ill of misery, change and existence. 1 Here 
bodily and mental suffering are the ill of misery. Pleasurable feeling connected 
with the cankers is subject to renewal. Therefore it is called the ill of change. 
The five aggregates of clinging constitute the ill of existence. 

Thus should the Noble Truth of 111 be known. 

TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF ILL 

Q. What is the Noble Truth of the Origin of 111? 

A. "Even this craving, causing new rebirths, accompanied by delight 
and passion, finding gratification now here and now there, namely, the craving 
for pleasure, the craving for existence and the craving for annihilation". Here 
"causing new rebirth" means: "Craving, wherever it is, causes rebirth". 
"Even this craving" means: "Craving is the origin of ill; it is not a co- 
arising". "Accompanied by delight and passion" means: "Craving causes 
the arising of delight. This is called manifestation. It causes to stain. This 
is called passion. It stirs up delight conjoined with passion". "Finding 
gratification now here and now there" means "It causes individuality to arise 
in various places where there are lovable forms and so forth, and to delight 
and find gratification therein". "Namely, the craving for pleasure, the craving 
for existence and the craving for annihilation": Everything, except the 
craving for existence and the craving for annihilation, is comprehended in 



Tattha katamam domanassam? Yam cetasikam asatam cetasikarh dukkham ceto- 
samphassajam asatam dukkham vedayitam cetosamphassajd asdtd dukkha vedana: idarh 
vuccati domanassam. 

Tattha katamo updydso ? hdtivyasanena vd phuffhassa . . . dydso updydso dyasitattam 
upaydsitattam: ay am vuccati updydso. 

Tattha katamo appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti anitfhd akantd 
amandpd rupd saddd gandhd rasa phofthabbd ye vdpart assa te honti anatthakamd ahitakamd 
aphdsukdmd ayogakkhemakdmd, yd tehi samgati samdgamo samodhdnam missibhdvo: 
ayarh vuccati appiyehi sampayogo dukkho. 

Tattha katamo piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti iff ha kantd mandpd 
rupd saddd . . . , ye vd pan' assa te honti atthakamd hitakdmd phasukamd yogakkhemakdmd, 
mdtd vd pita vd bhdtd vd bhagini vd mittd vd amaccd vd ndtisdlohitd vd, yd tehi asamgati 
asamdgamo asamodhdnam amissibhdvo: ayarh vuccati piyehi vippayogo dukkho. 

Ibid. 101 : Tattha katamam yam p' iccharh na labhati tarn pi dukkham? Jdtidham- 
mdnam sattdnam evam icchd uppajjati: aho vata mayam na jdtidhammd assdma, na ca 
vata no jdti dgaccheyyati, na kho pan y etam icchdya pattabbam: idam pi yam p' iccharh na 
labhati tarn pi dukkham. Jarddhammdnam sattdnam . . . pe . . . vyddhidhammdnam 
sattdnam maranadhammanam sattdnam sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupdydsadhammdnam 
sattdnam evam icchd uppajjati: aho vata mayam na sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupdydsa- 
dhammd assdma, na ca vata no sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupdydsd dgaccheyyun ti, na 
kho pan 'etam icchdya pattabbam: idam pi yam p' iccharh na labhati tarn pi dukkham. 

Tattha katame samkhittena pancupaddnakkhandha pi dukkha? Seyyathidarh: 
rupupaddnakkhandho vedanupdddnakkhandho sahhupaddnakkhandho samkharupdddnak- 
khandho vihnanupdddnakkhandho: ime vuccanti samkhittena pancupaddnakkhandha pi 
dukkha. 

Idam vuccati dukkham ariyasaccam. 
D. Ill, 216: Tisso dukkhatd: Dukkha-dukkhatd, samkhdra-dukkhatd, viparindma- 
dukkhatd The order is difierent here. 



272 Vimuttimagga 

the craving for pleasure. The craving for existence arises together the with 
view of eternalism. 1 The craving for annihilation arises together with the view 
of nihilism. 2 Thus should the Noble Truth of the Origin of ill be known. 3 

TRUTH OF THE CESSATION OF ILL 

Q. What is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of 111? 

A. "The utter fading away and cessation of that very craving, leaving it, 
giving it up, the being delivered from, the doing away with it". 4 Thus should 
be known the Noble Truth of the Cessation of 111. Q. No. This is also 
the ending of the origin, because the Blessed One has said: "The cause of 
ill is destroyed". A. The cause of ill is destroyed. Therefore the state 
of not coming to birth and of not perishing is accomplished. It corresponds 
to realization. Therefore the Blessed One taught: "The ending of the 
origin is the ending of ill". 

TRUTH OF THE PATH LEADING TO CESSATION OF ILL 

Q. What is the Path leading to the Cessation of 111? A. It is the 
Noble Eightfold Path of Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right 
Action, Right Livelihood, Right Exertion, Right Mindfulness, Right Con- 
centration. Right View is the knowledge of the Four Truths. Right Thought 
means the three meritorious thoughts. Right Speech is the separation from 
the four wrong (verbal) actions. Right Action is separation from the three 
wrong actions. Right livelihood is separation from wrong livelihood. Right 



1. Sassataditthi. 

2. Ucchedadhitthi. 

3. S. V, 421; Vin. I, 10: Vbh. 101-3; D. II, 308-10: Kataman ca bhikkhave dukkha- 

samudayam ariya-saccam ? Ydyarii tanhd ponobhavikd nandi-rdga-sahagatd tatra tatrdbhi- 
nandini, seyyathidam kdma-tanhd bhava-tanhd vibhava-tanhd. 

Sd kho part esd bhikkhave tanhd kaitha uppajjamdnd uppajjati, kattha nivisamdnd 
nivisati ? Yam loke piya-rupam sdta-rupam, ettrt esd tanhd uppajjamdnd uppajjati, ettha 
nivisamdnd nivisati. 

Kind loke piya-rupam sdta-rupam ? Cakkhum loke piya-rupam sdta-rupam . . . pe . . . 

Sotarh loke . . . Ghdnam loke . . . Jivhd loke . . . Kayo loke . . . Mano loke . . . 

Rupd loke . . . pe . . . 

Cakkhu-vinMnam loke ... pe . . . 

CakkhU'Samphasso loke ... pe . . . 

Cakkhu-samphassajd vedand loke. . . pe.. . 

Rupa-sahnd loke ... pe . . . 

Rupa-sancetand loke ... pe . . . 

Rupa-tanhd loke. . . pe. . . 

Rupa-vitakko loke ... pe.. . 

Rupa-vicdro loke ... pe . . . 

Dhamma-vicdro loke piya-rupam sdta-rupam ettrt esd tanhd uppajjamdnd uppajjati, 

ettha nivisamdnd nivisati. Idam vuccati bhikkhave dukkha-samudayam ariya-saccam. 

4. Ibid. 310-11: Kataman ca bhikkhave dukkha-nirodham ariya-saccam? Yo tassd yeva 

tanhdya asesa-virdga-nirodho cdgo pafinissaggo mutti andlayo . . . Idam vuccati bhikkhave 

dukkha-nirodham ariya-saccam. 



The Five Methods in 

Exertion is the fourfold right exertion. Right Mindfulness means the four 
foundations of mindfulness. Right Concentration is the fourfold meditation, 
jhdna. 1 

And again, if a man practises the Noble Path, he sees Nibbdna — this is 
called Right View. He awakes only in Nibbdna — this is called Right Thought. 
He abandons wrong speech — this is Right Speech. He rejects wrong doing — 
this is Right Action. He gives up wrong livelihood — this is Right Livelihood. 
He abandons wrong exertion — this is Right Exertion. He recalls Nibbdna 
to mind — this is Right Mindfulness. He concentrates on Nibbdna — this is 
Right Concentration. Here, the faculty of wisdom, the power of wisdom, 
the basis of supernormal power of scrutiny and the enlightenment factor 
of the investigation of states accomplish the entry into internal Right View. 
The faculty of exertion, the power of exertion, the basis of supernormal power 
of exertion, the basis of supernormal power of will, the enlightenment factor of 
exertion, and the fourfold right exertion accomplish the entry into internal 
Right Effort. The faculty of mindfulness, the power of mindfulness, the 
enlightenment factor of mindfulness and the four foundations of mindfulness 
accomplish the entry into internal Right Mindfulness. The faculty of con- 
centration, the power of concentration, the basis of supernormal power of 
thought, the faculty of faith, the power of faith, the enlightenment factor of 
concentration, the enlightenment factor of joy, the enlightenment factor 
of calm and the enlightenment factor of equanimity accomplish the entry 
into internal Right Concentration. These thirty-seven enlightenment acces- 
sories accomplish the entry into the Noble Eightfold Path. Thus should 
the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of 111 be known. Thus 
should the Four Noble Truths be understood. 



D. II, 311-13: Kataman ca bhikkhave dukkha-nirodha-gdmini-pafipadd ariya-saccarh? 
Ayam eva Ariyo Affhangiko Maggo, seyyathidam sammddiffhi sammd-samkappo samma* 
vdcd sammd-kammanto sammd-djivo sammd-vdydmo sammd-sati sammd-samddhi. 

Katamd ca bhikkhave sammd-ditthi ? Yam kho bhikkhave dukkhe ndnam dukkha- 
samudaye ndnam dukkha-nirodhe ndnam dukkha-nirodha-gdminiyd patipaddya hdnam, 
ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-ditthi. 

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammd-samkappo? Nekkhamma-samkappo avydpdda-sam- 
kappo avihimsa-samkappo, ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-samkappo. 

Katamd ca bhikkhave sammd-vdcd ? Musd-vadd veramani, pisundya vdcdya veramani, 
pharusdya vdcdya veramani, samphappaldpd veramani, ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-vdcd. 

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammd-kammanto? Pdndtipdtd veramani, adinndddnd vera- 
mani, kdmesu micchdcdrd veramani, ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-kammanto. 

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammd-djivo? Idha bhikkhave ariya-sdvako micchd-djivam 
pahdya sammd-djivena jivikam kappeti, ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-djivo. 

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammd-vdydmo? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu anuppanndnam 
pdpakdnam akusaldnam dhammdnam anuppdddya chandam janeti vdyamati, viriyam 
drabhati, cittam pagganhdti padahati. Uppanndnam papdkdnam akusaldnam dhammdnam 
pahandya chandam janeti vdyamati, viriyam drabhati, cittam pagganhdti padahati. Anup- 
panndnam kusaldnam dhammdnam uppdddya chandam janeti vdyamati, viriyam drabhati, 
cittam pagganhdti padahati. Upanndnam kusaldnam dhammdnam fhitiyd asammosdya 
bhiyyobhdvdya vepulldya bhdvandya pdripuriyd chandam janeti vdyamati, viriyam drabhati, 
cittam pagganhdti padahati. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-vdydmo. 

Katamd ca bhikkhave sammd-sati? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu kaye kdydnupassi 
viharati dtdpi sampajdno satimd vineyya loke abhijjhd-domanassam, vedanasu . . . pe . . . 
citte . . . pe . . . dhammesu dhammanupassi viharati dtdpi sampajdno satimd vineyya loke 
abhijjhd-domanassam. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-sati. 



274 Vimuttimagga 

Q. Why are four Noble Truths taught and not three or five ? A. (If 
three or five were taught) all might be doubted. These are the consequences 
and causes of the mundane and the supramundane. Therefore they are four. 
Q. What is the consequence (and what, the cause) of mundane truth? A. ill 
and origin are the consequence and cause of mundance truth. Cessation is 
the consequence of supramundane truth. The Path is the cause of supra- 
mundane truth. Therefore four and not three or five are taught. And again, 
because of the four sentences : "One should comprehend, one should abandon, 
one should realize, one should practise", 1 there are four. 

The characteristics of these Four Noble Truths should be known through 
eleven ways : through the meaning of words, 2 through characteristics, 3 through 
series in beliefs, 4 through analogy, 5 through discrimination, through enumera- 
tion, through sameness, through difference, through one kind and so forth, 6 
through inclusion. 

THROUGH WORD MEANING 

Q. How, through the meaning of words? A. The Noble Truths are the 
teaching of the Holy One. Therefore they are called Noble Truths. Through 
understanding these well, one fulfils the Four Noble Truths. "Truth" means: 
"Thus-isness, non-variability, identity". Ill is the consequence. Origin is 
the cause. Cessation is ending continued. The Path is the highest view. 
Thus should these be known through the meaning of words. 

THROUGH CHARACTERISTICS 

Q. How, through characteristics? A. Ill is the characteristic of suffering. 



Katamo ca bhikkhave sammd-samddhi ? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicc' eva kdmehi 
vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam savicdram vivekajam piti-sukham pathamajjhanam 
upasampajja viharati. Vitakka-vicdrdnam vupasamd ajjhattam sampasddanam cetaso 
ekodi-bhdvam avitakkarh avicdram samddhijarh piti-sukham dutiyajjhdnam upasampajja 
viharati. Pitiyd ca virdgd upekhako viharati sato ca sampajdno, sukhah ca kdyena pafi- 
samvedeti yan tarn ariyd dcikkhanti: 'upekhako satimd-sukha vihdri tV tatiya-jjhdnam 
upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahdnd dukkhassa ca pahdnd pubb* eva somanassa- 
domanassdnam atthagamd adukkham asukham upekhd-sati-pdrisuddhim catutthajjhdnam 
upasampajja viharati. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammd-samadhi. 

Idam vuccati bhikkhave dukkha-nirodha-gdmini-pafipadd ariyasaccam. 

(a) S. V, 422: Tarn kho panidam dukkham ariyasaccam parihheyyan ti me bhikkhave pubbe 

ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapddi ndnam udapddi pahfid udapddi vijjd udapddi 
aloko udapddi . . . Tarn kho panidam . . . parinndtan ti me bhikkhave . . . dloko udapddi. 

. . . Tarn kho panidam dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccam pahdtabban ti me bhikkha- 
ve pubbe . . . pahinan ti me bhikkhave pubbe . . . dloko udapddi. 

. . . Tarn kho panidam dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam sacchikatabban ti me 
bhikkhave pubbe . . . sacchikatan ti me bhikkhave pubbe . . . dloko udapddi. 

. . . Tarn kho panidam dukkhanirodhagdmini patipadd ariyasaccam bhavetabban 
ti me bhikkhave pubbe . . . bhdvitan ti me bhikkhave pubbe . . . dloko udapddi. 

(b) Cp. Abhmv. w. 1382-83: 

Parifindbhisamayena, dukkham abhisameti so 
pahdndbhisamen' esa, tathd samudayam pi ca, 
- bhdvand-vidhind yeva y maggam abhisameti tarn 
drammanakriydy eva, nirodham sacchikaroti so. 
Padattha. 3. Lakkhana. 4. Kama. 5. Upamd. 6. Ekavidhddi. 



The Five Methods 275 

Origin is the characteristic of cause. Cessation is the characteristic of non- 
birth. The Path is the characteristic of the means of success. And again, 
ill is the characteristic of grief, despair, the put together, the limited. Origin 
is the characteristic of accumulation, cause, condition, fetters, clinging. 
Cessation is the characteristic of renunciation, solitude, the non-conditioned 
and the choice. The Path is the characteristic of vehicle, arriving, seeing, 
reliance. Thus should these be known through characteristics. 

THROUGH SERIES 

Q. How, through series? A. The Truth of 111 is taught first, becuase 
it is gross and because it could be easily understood in this world. The Truth 
of Origin is taught next. The ending of the origin is the ending of ill. After 
that the Truth of Cessation is taught for the purpose of ending completely. 
And the Path is taught last. This (method) is like (that of) a clever 
physician, who at first gets at the root of the disease and later inquires as to 
the contributory causes. For the ending of the disease, he prescribes accord- 
ing to the nature of the disease. Here, one should know the disease as ill; 
the cause and condition as origin; the ending of the disease as cessation; and 
the medicine as the Path. Thus should these be known through series. 1 

IN BRIEF 

Q. How, in brief? A. Birth is ill; the being born is the origin; the 
ending of ill is cessation; the path leading to the cessation of ill is the Path. 
Where there is defilement, there is ill. Defilement is the origin. The removal 
of defilement is cessation. The means of removal is the Path. (The Truth of 
111 removes the illusion of self; (the Truth of) Origin removes the view of 
nihilism; (the Truth of) Cessation removes the view of eternalism ; (the Truth 
of) the Path removes all wrong views. Thus should these be known in brief. 



1. Cp. (a) A. Ill, 238: Seyyathd pi bho puriso abddhiko dukkhito bdlhagildno, tassa kusalo 
bhisakko thdnaso dbddham nihareyya, evam eva kho bho yato yato tassa bhoto 
Gotamassa dhammam sundti yadi suttaso yadi geyyaso yadi veyydkaranaso yadi 
abbhutadhammaso, tato tato sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupdydsd abbhattham 
gacchanti. 

(b) A. IV, 340: 'Bhisakko' ti bhikkhave Tathdgatass' etarii adhivacanarh arahato 
sammdsambuddhassa. 

(c) It. 101 : Aham-asmi bhikkhave brdhmano ydcayogo sadd payatapdni antimade- 
hadhdro anuttaro bhisakko sallakatto ( = Anuttaw bhisak(k)o sallakatto ti dutti- 
kicchassa vatfadukkharogassa tikicchanato uttamo bhisak(k)o, ahhehi anuddha- 
raniydnam rdgddisalldnam kantanato samucchedavasena samuddharanato uttamo 
sallakantanavejjo — It.-a. II, 143). 

(d) Petaka. 123-24: Tat t ha dve rogd sattdnam avijjd ca bhavatanhd ca. Etesam 
dvinnam rogdnam nighdtdya Bhagavatd dve bhesajjdni vuttdni samatho ca vipassand 
ca. Imdni dve bhesajjdni patisevento dve aroge sacchikaroti: rdga-vUdgam 
cetovimuttim avijjdvirdgah ca pahhdvimuttirh. 

Tattha tanhdrogassa samatho bhesajjam, rdgavirdgd cetovimutti arogam. 
Avijjdrogassa vipassand bhesajjam, avijjdvirdgd panndvimutti arogam. 

Evam hi Bhagavd c'dha: dve dhammd parinfieyyd ndmah ca rupan ca, dve 
dhammd pahdtabbd avijjd ca bhavatanhd ca, dve dhammd bhdvetabbd samatho ca 



276 Vimuttimagga 

SIMILES OF THE POISONOUS TREE, 
THE SHIP, THE BURDEN 

Q. How, through analogy? A. Ill should be regarded as a poisonous 
tree; origin, as a seed; cessation, as the parching of the seed; the Path as fire. 

One should regard ill as this shore of fear; origin, as the flood; cessation, 
as the other shore that is free from suffering and fear; and the Path, as the ship 
that sails well. 1 

[453] One should regard ill as the carrying of a burden; origin, as the 
taking on of the burden; cessation, as the laying down of the burden; and the 
Path, as the method of laying down the burden. Thus should these be known 
through analogy. 2 

THROUGH DISCRIMINATION 

Q. How, through discrimination? A. There are four kinds in truth: 
Speech that is true, knowledge, absolute truth and Ariyan Truth. Here, a 
man speaks true words and not words that are untrue — this is called speech 
that is true. Investigation of falsehood — this is knowledge. Nibbdna is 
absolute truth. The truth practised by the Saint is Ariyan Truth. Here, 
Ariyan Truth should be realized. Thus should these be known through 
discrimination. 



vipassand ca, dve dhamma sacchikdtabba vijjd ca vimutti cd ti. 

Tattha samatham bhdvento rupam parijdndti. Rupam parijdnanto tanharh 
pajahati. Tanharh pajahanto rdgavirdgd cetovimuttirh sacchikaroti. Vipassanarh 
bhdvento ndmarh parijdndti. Ndmarh parijdnanto avijjam pajahati. Avijjam 
pajahanto avijjdvirdgd pahhdvimuttim sacchikaroti. 

Yadd bhikkhuno dve dhamma parihhdtd bhavanti ndmah ca rupan ca, tathd'ssa 
dukkhadhammd pahind bhavanti avijjd ca bhavatanhd ca. Dve dhamma bhdvitd 
bhavanti samatho ca vipassand ca. Dve dhamma sacchikdtabba bhavanti vijjd 
ca vimutti ca. 

1. (a) S. IV, 174-5: At ha kho so bhikkhave tassa purisassa evam assa. Ay am kho mahd 

udakannavo orimantiram sdsankam sappatibhayam pdrimantiram khemam appafibhayam 
natthi ca ndvd santdrani uttarasetu vd apardpdramgamandya. Yam nundham tinaka(fha- 
sdkha-paldsam sankaddhitvd kullarh bandhitvd tarn kullam nissdya hatthehi ca pddehi ca 
vdyamamdno sotthind pdram gaccheyyanti. 

Mahd udakannavo ti kho bhikkhave catunnam oghdnam adhivacanam, kdmoghassa 
bhavoghassa ditfhoghassa avijjoghassa. 

Orimantiram sdsankam sappafibhayati ti kho bhikkhave sakkdyassetam adhi- 
vacanam. 

Pdrimantiram khemam appatibhayan ti kho bhikkhave nibbdnassetam adhivacanam. 
Kullan ti kho bhikkhave ariyassetam afthangikassa maggassa adhivacanam, seyya- 
thidam sammddifthiyd . . . pe . . . sammdsamddhissa. 

Hatthehi ca pddehi ca vdydmo ti kho bhikkhave viriydrambhassetam adhivacanam. 
Tinno pdrangato thale titthati brdhmano ti kho bhikkhave arahato etam adhi- 
vacanan ti. 
(b) Sn. 321: Yathd pi ndvarii da/ham druhitvd 
phiyert arittena samangibhuto, 
so tdraye tattha bahu pi anne 
tatr* updyahnu kusalo mutimd. 

2. Cp. (a) M. 1, 139-40: Kathan ca bhikkhave bhikkhu ariyo pannaddhajo pannabhdro visamyutto 

hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno asmimdno pahino hoti ucchinnamulo tdlavatthu- 
kato anabhdvakato dyatim anuppddadhammo. Evam kho bhikkhave bhikkhu 
ariyo pannaddhajo pannabhdro visamyutto hoti. 



The Five Methods 277 

THROUGH ENUMERATION 

Q. How, through enumeration? A. Except craving, all skilful, un- 
skilful and indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of 111; 
craving is the Truth of Origin; the removal of craving is the Truth of Cessation; 
the Noble Eightfold Path is the Truth of the Path. Again, except craving, all 
other defilements and the skilful, unskilful and indeterminate states of the 
three planes compose the Truth of 111; craving and the defilements (associated 
with it) compose the Truth of Origin; the removal of these is the Truth of 
Cessation; the path is the Truth of the Path. Again, except craving, all defile- 
ments and skilful, unskilful and indeterminate states of the three planes compose 
the Truth of 111; craving and the defilements, and all the unskilful states compose 
the Truth of Origin; the removal of these is the Truth of Cessation; the path 
is the Truth of the Path. And again, except craving and the defilements and all 
unskilful states (associated with it) the other unskilful states of the three planes 
and the indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of 111; 
craving, the remaining defilements, unskilful states and skilful states of the 
three planes compose the (Truth of) Origin; the removal of these is the Truth 
of Cessation; the path is the Truth of the Path. Here, to wish for the delight- 
ful is craving. Origin means "with craving" and "with latent tendencies". 
Other defilements are origin in the sense of removing and in the sense of 
manifestation of becoming. All unskilful states are origin in the sense of 
causing to be. Merit of the three planes is origin. Here, craving and the 
other defilements are origin. 



(b) Th. 604, 656: Paricinno mayd satthd, katam buddhassa sdsanam, 

ohito garuko bharo bhavanetti samuhatd. 

(c) Dh. 402; Sn. 626: Yo dukkhassa pajdndti, idK eva khayam attano, 

pannabhdram visamyuttam, tarn aharh brumi Brdhmanatti . 

(d) S. Ill, 25-6: Sdvatthiyam Tatra kho . . . pe . . . 

Bhdran ca vo bhikkhave desissdmi, bhdrahdran ca bhdrdddnan ca bhdranikkhe- 
panan ca. Tarn sundtha . . . 

Katamo ca bhikkhave bharo? Pahcupdddnakkhandhd tissa vacaniyam. 
Katame pahca? Seyyathidam rupupdddnakkhandho . . . vihndnupdddnakkhandho. 
A yarn vuccati bhikkhave bharo. 

Katamo ca bhikkhave bhdrahdro ? Puggalo tissa vacaniyam. Yoyarh dyasmd 
evam ndmo evarh gotto. Ay am vuccati bhikkhave bhdrahdro. 

Katamah ca bhikkhave bhdrdddnam ? Ydyarh tanhd ponobhavikd nandirdga- 
sahagatd tatra tratrdbhinandim, seyyathidam, kdmatanhd bhavatanhd vibhava- 
tanhd. Idam vuccati bhikkhave bhdrdddnam. 

Katamah ca bhikkhave bhdranikkhepanam? Yo tassd-yeva tanhdya asesa- 
virdganirodho cdgo patinissaggo mutti andlayo. Idam vuccati bhikkhave bhdra- 
nikkhepanan ti. 

Idam avoca Bhagavd . . . etad avoca Satthd: 

Bhdrd have pahcakkhandhd, 
bhdrahdro ca puggalo, 
bhdrdddnam dukkham loke, 
bhdranikkhepanam sukham. 

Nikkhipitvd garum bhdram y 
anham bhdram anddiya, 
samulam tanham abbhuyha, 
nicchdto parinibbuto, 



278 Vimuttimagga 

All merit of the three planes belong to the Truth of 111 or the Truth of 
Origin. Because of the characteristics of despair, misery, the put together 
and the limited, there is the Truth of III. Because of the characteristics of 
accumulation, cause and condition, clinging and combination, the Truth of 
Origin is fulfilled. Thus should these be understood through enumeration. 

THROUGH SAMENESS 

Q. How, through sameness? A. These Four Truths are one through 
four ways: through the meaning of truth; the meaning of thus-isness; the 
meaning of doctrine; and the meaning of the void. Thus these should be 
known through sameness. 1 

THROUGH DIFFERENCE 

Q. How, through difference? A. There are two truths: mundane and 
supramundane truth. 2 Mundane truth is canker, fetter, tangle, flood, yoke, 
hindrance, contact, clinging, defilement. 3 It is called ill and origin. Supra- 
mundane truth is without canker, without fetter, without tangle, without 
flood, without yoke, without hindrance, without contact, without clinging, 
without defilement. It is Cessation and the Path. Three Truths are condi- 
tioned. The truth of Cessation is unconditioned. 4 Three Truths are without* 
form. The Truth of 111 is with and without form. 5 The Truth of Origin is 
unskilful. The Truth of the Path is skilful. The Truth of Cessation is indeter- 
minate. The Truth of 111 is skilful, unskilful and indeterminate. 6 The Truth 
of 111 enables to understand; the Truth of Origin enables to remove; the Truth 
of Cessation enables to attain; and the Truth of the Path enables to practise. 7 
Thus should these be known through difference. 



1. Cp. (a) D* III, 273: //' ime dasa dhammd bhutd tacchd tathd avitathd anannathd sammd 

Tathdgatena abhisambuddhd. (—Bhutd ti sabhdvato vijjamdnd. Tacchd ti 
yathdvd. Tathd ti yathd vuttd tathd sabhdvd. Avitathd ti yathd vuttd na tathd 
na honti. Anannathd ti vutta-ppakdrato na ahhathd — Sv. Ill, 1057). 
(b) S. V, 430-3 1 : Cattdrimdni bhikkhave tathdni avithatdni anahhathdni. Katamdni 
cattdri? Idarh dukkhan ti bhikkhave tatham etam avitatham etam anahhatatham 
etam. Ayarh dukkhasamudayo ti tatham etam . . . ayam dukkhanirodho ti tatham 
etam . . . Ayam dukkhanirodhagdmini patipadd ti tatham etam avitatham etam 
ananiiatham etam. (=* Sabhdva-vijaharf atthena tatham. Dukkham hi dukkham 
eva vuttam sabhdvassa amoghatdya avitatham. Na dukkham adukkham ndma 
hoti. Anna-sabhdvdnupagamena ananiiatham. Na hi dukkham samudayddi- 
sabhdvam upagacchati. Samudayddisu pi es'' eva nayo ti — Spk. Ill, 298). 

2. Vbh. 116: Dve saccd lokiyd; dve saccd lokuttard. 

3. Vbh. 12; Dhs. par. 584-85: Sabbath rupam . . . lokiyam sdsavam samyojaniyam gantha- 
niyath oghaniyam yoganiyam nivaraniyam pardmattham updddniyam sankilesikam. 

4. Vbh. 116: Tini saccd samkhatd; nirodhasaccam asamkhatam. 
* Should read 'with*. Perhaps an error (see n. 5 below). 

5. Vbh. 116: Tini saccd rupd; dukkasaccam siyd rupam siyd arupam. 

6. Ibid. 112: Samudayasaccam akusalam; maggasaccam kusalam; nirodhasaccam avydkatam 
dukkhasaccam siyd kusalam siyd akusalam siyd avydkatam. 

7. See n, 1 (a) p. 274, 



The Five Methods 279 

THROUGH ONE KIND ETC. 

Q. How, through one kind and so forth ? A. They are of one kind thus : 
The body which has consciousness is ill. Origin is pride, and the removal 
of that is Cessation. Mindfulness of the body is the Path. They are of two 
kinds thus: Name and form are ill; ignorance and craving are Origin; the 
removal of these is cessation; serenity 1 and insight 2 are the Path. They are 
of three kinds thus: (Misery of the suffering of the three planes*) is the Truth 
of 111; the three unskilful faculties** are origin; the removal of these is cessa- 
tion. Virtue, concentration and wisdom 3 are the Path. They are of four kinds 
thus: (The four kinds of nutriment) 4 are ill. The four kinds of overturning 5 
are origin; the removal of overturning is cessation, the four foundations 
of Mindfulness 6 are the Path. They are of five kinds thus : The five states 
of birth 7 are ill; the five hindrances 8 are origin; the removal of the hindrances 
is cessation; the five faculties are the Path. 9 They are of six kinds thus: the 
six organs of contact are ill; 10 the six groups of craving 11 are origin; the removal 
of the groups of craving is cessation; the six elements of escape 12 are the Path. 



1 . Samatha. 2. Vipassand. 

This whole sentence is given as dukkha-dukkha. 
**Perhaps should read 'roots' — Tini akusala muldni. 
3. Sila, samddhi, pahhd. 
4„ The. text is not quite clear. 

5. Netti. 85: Tattha rupam pathamam yipalldsavatthu : asubhe subhan ti, yedqnadutiyarh 
vipalldsavatthu: dukkhe sukhan ti, sahhd samkhdra ca tatiyam yipalldsavatthu: ' .anattani 
attd ti, yihndnarh catuttham vipalldsavatthu: anicce niccan ti. * ■■'■-. 

6. Cattdro satipatthdnd. 

7. D. Ill, 234: Panca gatiyo. Nirayo, tiracchdna-yoni, pettivisayo, manussd, devd. 

8.- Ibid: Panca nivarandni. Kdmacchanda-nivaranarh, vydpdda-nivaranam, thina»middha- 
nivaranarhy uddhacca-kukkucca-nivaranam, vicikicchd-nivaranam. 

9. A. V, 16-: Pancangavippahino bhikkhave bhikkhu pancahgasamanndgato imasmim dhamma- 
vinaye 'kevali vusitavd uttamapurisd' ti vuccati. 

Kathah ca bhikkhave bhikkhu pancangavippahino hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno 
kdmacchando pahino hoti, vydpddo pahino hoti, thinamiddham pahinarh hoti, uddhacca- 
kukkuccarh pahinam hoti, vicikicchd pahind hoti. Evam kho bhikkhave bhikkhu pancaftga- 
vippahino hoti. 

Kathah ca . . . pahcangasamannagato hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu asekhena silak- 
khandhena samanndgato hoti, asekhena samddhikkhandhena samanndgato hoti, asekhena 
panndkkhandhena samanndgato hoti, asekhena vimuttikkhandhena samanndgato hoti, 
asekhena vimuttihdnadassanakkhandhena samanndgato hoti. Evam kho bhikkhave bhikkhu 
pahcangasamannagato hoti. 

Pancangavippahino kho bhikkhave bhikkhu pahcangasamannagato imasmim dhamma- 
vinaye 'kevali vusitavd uttamapurisd' ti vuccati ti. 

10. S. IV, 70: Chay ime bhikkhave phassdyatand adantd aguttd arakkhitd asamvutd dukkhd- 
dhivdhd honti. Katame cha ? Cakkhum . . . mano bhikkhave phassdyatanam adantam . . . 

U.S. II, 3: Katamd ca bhikkhave tanhd? Cha yime bhikkhave tanhdkdyd. Rupatanhd 
saddacanhd gandhatanhd rasatanhd photthabbatanhd dhammatanhd. Ay dm vuccati bhikkhave 
tanhd. 

12. Cp. A. Ill, 290-92; D. Ill, 247-50: Cha nissaraniya dhdtuyo... 

(a) nissaranam K etam dvuso vydpddassa, yadidam mettd ceto-vimutti . . . 

(b) nissaranam K etam dvuso vihesdya, yadidam karund ceto-vimutti . . . 

(c) nissaranam K etam dvuso aratiyd, yadidam muditd ceto-vimutti . . . 

(d) nissaranam K etam dvuso rdgassa, yadidam upekhd ceto-vimutti. . . 

(e) nissaranam H etam dvuso sabba-nimittdnam, yadidam animittd ceto-vimutti . . . 

(f) nissaranam K etam dvuso vicikicchd-kathamkathQ-saliassa> yadidam 'asmitV mam- 
samugghdto. 



280 Vimuttimagga 

They are of seven kinds thus: The seven stations of consciousness 1 are ill; 
the seven latent tendencies 2 are origin ; the removal of the seven latent tendencies 
is cessation; the seven enlightenment factors 3 are the Path. They are of eight 
kinds thus: The eight worldly conditions 4 are ill; the eight errors 5 are origin; 
the removal of the eight errors is cessation; the Noble Eightfold Path is the 
Path. 6 They are of nine kinds thus: The nine abodes of beings 7 are ill; 
the nine roots of craving 8 are origin; the removal of these is cessation; the 
nine basic states of wise attention 9 are the Path. They are of ten kinds thus : 



1. D. Ill, 253: Satta vihhdna-ffhitiyo (1) San? dvuso satta ndnatta-kdyd ndnatta-sahhino, 
seyyathd pi manussd ekacce ca devd ekacce ca vinipdtikd. Ayam pathamd vinhdna-ffhiti. 
(2) San? dvuso satta ndnatta-kdyd ekatta-sahhino seyyathd pi devd Brahma-kayikd pafhamd- 
bhinibbatta. Ayam dutiyd vinndna-tthiti. (3) San? dvuso satta ekatta-kdyd ndnatta- 
sahhino, seyyathd pi devd Abhassard. Ayam tatiyd vinndna-tthiti. (4) San? dvuso satta 
ekatta-kdyd ekatta-sanhino, seyyathd pi devd Subhakinhd. Ayam catutthd vinndna-tthiti. 
(5) San? dvuso satta sabbaso rupa-sahhdnam samatikkamd, pafigha-sahhdnam atthagamd, 
ndnatta-sahhdnam amanasikdrd, 'Ananto dkdso t? dkdsdnahcdyatanupagd. Ayam paflcami 
vinhdna-ffhiti. (6) San? dvuso satta sabbaso dkdsdnahcdyatanam samatikkamma Anantam 
vihhdnan tV vihhdnahcdyatanupagd. Ayam chaffhi vinndna-tthiti. (7) San? dvuso satta 
sabbaso vihhdnahcayatanam samatikkamma 'N'atthi kihcit? dkihcahhdyatanupagd. Ayam 
sattami vinndna-tthiti. 

2. D. Ill, 254: Satta anusayd. Kdmardganusayo, pafighdnusayo, diffhdnusayo, vicikicchdnu- 
sayo, mdndnusayo, bhavardgdnusayo, avijjdnusayo. 

3. D. Ill, 251-2: Satta sambojjhahgd. Sati-sambojjhahgo, dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhahgo, 
viriya-sambojjharigo, piti-sambojjhahgo, passaddhi-sambojjhahgo, samddhi-sambojjhahgo, 
upekhd-sambojjharigo. 

4. Ibid. 260: Affha loka-dhammd. Ldbho ca aldbho ca yaso ca ayaso ca nindd capasamsd ca 
sukhan ca dukkhan ca. 

5. Ibid. 254: Attha micchattd. Micchd-diffhi, miccha-samkappo, micchd-vdcd, micchd- 
kammanto, micch&ajivo, micchd-vdydmo, micchd-sati, micchd-samddhi. 

6. Ibid. 255: Attha sammattd. Sammd-diffhi , . ,pe . . . sammd-samddhi. 

7. Ibid. 263: Nava sattdvasd. The first four =^ the first four at n. 1 above (Satta vifiharia- 
tfhitiyo); the fifth — San? dvuso satta asahhino appafisamvedino seyyathd pi devd Asanna- 
satta. Ayam paficamo sattdvdso . . .; the next three « (5), (6), (7) of n. 1 above; and 
the last — San? dvuso satta sabbaso dkincahhdyatanam samatikamma nevasahndndsanha- 
yatanupaga. Ayam navamo sattdvdso. 

8. Vbh. 390; A. IV, 400-1: Tanham paficca pariyesand, pariyesanam paficca labho, labham 
paticca vinicchayo, vinicchayam paficca chandardgo, chandardgam paficca ajjhosanam, 
ajjhosanam paficca pariggaho, pariggaham paficca macchariyam, macchariyam paficca 
arakkhddhikaranam, danddddnasatthaddnakalahaviggahavivddd tuvamtuvampesuHHamusd- 
vddd aneke pdpakd akusald dhammd sambhavanti. 

Ime kho bhikkhave nava tanhdmuJaka dhammd ti. 

9. Pts. I, 86: Nava yoniso manasikdramulakd dhammd: — aniccato yoniso manasikaroto 
pamojjam jdyati, pamuditassa piti jdyati, pitimanassa kayo passambhati, passaddhakdyo 
sukham vedeti, sukhino cittam samddhiyati, samdhitena cittena 'idam dukkhan' ti yathdbhutam 
pajdndti, 'ayam dukkhasamudayo* ti yathdbhutam pajdndti, *ayam dukkhanirodhc? ti 
yathdbhutam pajdndti, 'ayam dukkhanirodhagdmini pafipadd' ti yathdbhutam pajdndti; 
dukkhato yoniso manasikaroto pamojjam jdyati, pamuditassa piti jdyati, . . . pe . . . sukhino 
cittam samddhiyati, samdhitena cittena 'idam dukkhan' ti yathdbhutam pajdndti, 'ayam 
dukkhasamudayo* ti yathdbhutam pajdndti, 'ayam dukkhanirodhd* ti yathdbhutam pajdndti; 
ayam dukkhanirodhagdmini pafipadd' ti yathdbhutam pajdndti; anattato yoniso mana- 
sikaroto pamojjam jdyati . . . pe . . . Rupam aniccato yoniso manasikaroto pamojjam 
jdyati . . . pe . . . rupam dukkhato yoniso manasikaroto pamojjam jdyati . . . pe . . . rupam 
anattato yoniso manasikaroto pamojjam jdyati . . . pe . . . vedanam, sahham, sankhdre, 
vihndnam, cakkhum . . . pe . . . jardmaranam aniccato yoniso manasikaroto pamojjam 
jdyati . . . pe . . . jardmaranam dukkhato yoniso manasikaroto pamojjam jdyati . . . pe . . . 
vedanam, sahham, sankhdre, vihndnam, cakkhum . . . pe . . . jardmaranam anattato yoniso 
manasikaroto pamojjam jdyati . . . pe . . . sukhino cittam samddhiyati, samdhitena cittena 
'idam dukkhan 1 ti yathdbhutam pajdndti, 'ayam dukkhasamudayo' ti yathdbhutam pajdndti, 
'ayam dukkhanirodho' ti yathdbhutam pajdndti, 'ayam dukkhanirodhagdmini pafipada' ti 
yathdbhutam pajdndti. Ime nava yoniso manasikdramulakd dhammd. 



The Five Methods 281 

The formations in the ten directions are ill; 1 the ten fetters 2 are origin; the 
removal of the fetters is cessation; 3 the ten perceptions are the Path. 4 Thus 
one should know through one kind and so forth, 

THROUGH INCLUSION 

Q. How, through inclusion? A. There are three kinds of inclusion, 
namely, inclusion of aggregation, of sense-sphere, and of element. Here, the 
Truth of 111 is included in the five aggregates; 5 The Truth of Origin and the 
Truth of the Path are included in the aggregate of mental formations; Cessation 
is not included in any aggregate. The Truth of 111 is included in the twelve- 
sense-spheres. Three Truths are included in the sense-sphere of ideas. The 



1. Cp. Nd 410: Disd sabbd sameritd ti. Ye puratthimdya disdya samkhdrd, te pi eritd 

sameritd calitd ghattitd aniccatdya jdtiyd anugatd jardya anusatd byddhind abhibhutd 
maranena abbhdhatd dukkhe patitthitd atdnd alend asarand asaranibhiitd. Ye pacchimdya 
disdya samkhdrd, ye uttardya disdya samkhdrd, ye dakkhindya disdya samkhdrd, ye purat- 
thimdya anudisdya samkhdrd, ye pacchimdya anudisdya samkhdrd, ye uttardya anudisdya 
samkhdrd, ye dakkhindya anudisdya samkhdrd, ye hefthimdya disdya samkhdrd, ye upari- 
mdya disdya samkhdrd, ye dasadisdsu samkhdrd, te pi eritd sameritd calitd ghattitd anicca- 
tdya jdtiyd anugatd jardya anusatd byddhind abhib/iutd maranena abbhdhatd dukkhe 
patifthitd atdnd alend asarand asaranibhiitd. Bhdsitam pi e'etam: 

Kihcd pi cetam jalati vimdnam 

obhdsayam uttariyam disdya 

rupe ranarii disvd sadd pavedhitam, 

tasmd rupe na ramati sumedho. (S. I, 148). 

Maccun' abbhdhato loko jardya parivdrito 

tanhdsallena otinno icchddhumdyiko sadd. (Th. 448; cp. Jat. VI, 26). 

Sabbo ddipito loko, sabbo loko padhupito, 

sabbo pajjalito loko, sabbo loko pakampito ti; (S. I, 133). 

disd sabbd sameritd. 

2. D. Ill, 234: Pane' oram-bhagiydni samyojandni. Sakkdya-diffhi, vicikicchd, silabbata- 

pardmdso, kdmacchando, vydpddo. 

Pahc ' uddham-bhagiydni samyojandni. Rupa-rdgo, arupa-rdgo, mdno, uddhaccam, 
avijjd. 

3. Cp, (a) It. 18: Sa sattakkhattum paramam 

sandhdvitvdna puggalo, 
dukkhassantakaro hoti 
sabbosamyojanakkhayd ti. 

(b) Th. 181-2: Yato aham pabbajito sammdsambuddhasdsane, 

vimuccamdno uggacchim, kdmadhdtum upaccagam. 
Brahmuno pekkhamdnassa tato cittarh vimucci me; 
akuppd me vimuttiti sabbasamyojanakkhaya' ti. 

4. A. V, 105: Dasa yimd bikkhave sahnd bhdvitd bahulikatd mahapphald honti mahdnisamsd 

amatogadha amatapariyosdnd. Katamd dasa ? Asubhasahhd, maranasahhd, dhdre patik- 
kulasahnd, sabbaloke anabhiratasahhd, aniccasahnd, anicce dukkhasanhd, dukkhe anatta- 
sanhd, pahdnasahhd, virdgasahhd, nirodhasahhd. 

5. Cp. (a) S. HI, 196: Dukkham dukkhan ti bhante vuccati. Katamannu kho bhante 

dukkhan ti ? Rupam kho Rddha dukkham, vedand dukkhd, sannd, dukkhd, sankhdrd 
dukkha s vihndnam dukkham. 

(b) Vbh-a. 50 : Yad aniccam tarn dukkhan ti* vacanato pana tadeva khandhapancakam 
dukkham. Kasmd? Abhinhasampatipi\anato . Abhinhasampatipilandkdro dukkha- 
lakkhanam. *S. Ill, 22 passim. 

(c) Netti. 42: Pancakkhandhd dukkham. 

(d) Dh. 202: N'atthi rdgasamo aggi, n'atthi dosasamo kali, 
N'atthi khandhddisd dukkhd, n'atthi santiparam sukham. 



282 Vimuttimagga 

Truth of 111 is included in the eighteen elements. Three Truths are included 
in the element of ideas. Thus one should know through inclusion. Through 
these ways knowledge of the Noble Truths should be known. This is called 
the method of understanding the Noble Truths. 



ON DISCERNING TRUTH 

CHAPTER THE TWELFTH 

Section One 
AGGREGATES, ELEMENTS, SENSE-SPHERES 

Now the yogin has understood the aggregates, elements, sense-spheres, 
conditioned arising and the Truths. He has also heard concerning virtue, 
austerities and meditation, jhdna. 

SIMILES OF THE THREE HUNDRED HALBERDS 
AND OF THE BURNING HEAD 

The commoner fears ill-faring, because he is not enlightened. If after 
contemplating on the fearfulness of ill-faring and of beginningless birth and 
death, he should think of not missing this opportunity, or on the similes of 
the points of the three hundred halberds, 1 and of the man desirous of saving 
his burning head, 2 the yogin is yet unable to understand the Four Noble Truths, 
he should proceed to discern the Noble Truths by way of analogy. He should 
develop the wish to do, strive earnestly, and accomplish (the knowledge of the 
Truths) through completing the mindfulness of concentration. 

PROCEDURE 

Q. What is the procedure? At first the yogin should listen to the Four 
Noble Truths expounded in brief or in detail or in brief and in detail. Through 



1. (a) M. Ill, 165-66; S. II, 100: Seyyathdpi bhikkhave coram dgucdrim gahetvd rahho 
dasseyyum, Ay ante deva coro dgucdri, imissa yam icchitam tarn dandarii panehiti, tarn 
enarh raja evarh vadeyya: Gacchatha bho imam purisam pubbanhasamayam sattisatena 
hanathdti, tarn enam pubbanhasamayam sattisatena haneyyum. 

At ha raja majjhantikam samayam evath vadeyya: Ambho katharh so purisoti? 
Tatheva deva jivatiti, tarn enam raja evarh vadeyya. Gacchatha bho tarn purisam majjhan- 
tikam samayam sattisatena hanathdti, tarn enam majjhantikam samayam sattisatena 
haneyyum. 

At ha raja sdyanhasamayam evarh vadeyya. Ambho katharh so puriso ti? Tatheva 
deva jivatiti, tarn enam raja evarh vadeyya: Gacchatha bho tarn purisam sdyanhasamayam 
sattisatena hanathdti, tarn enam sdyanhasamayam sattisatena haneyyum. 

Tarn kirn mahnatha bhikkhave ? Api nu so puriso divasam tihi sattisatehi hannamano 
tato niddnam dukkham domanassam patisarhvediyethdti? 

Ekissd pi bhante sattiyd hannamano tato niddnam dukkham domanassam pat isarh- 
vediyetha ko pana vddo tihi satttsatehi hannamano ti ? 

Evam eva kvdharh bhikkhave vihhdndhdro datthabbo ti vadami. 
(b) S. I, 128; Thi. 58, 141: Sattisulupamd kdmd khandhdnam adhikuttand, 

yam tvam kdmaratim brusi arati ddni sd mamam. 
2. (a) A. II, 93 : Seyyathdpi bhikkhave ddittacelo vd adittasiso vd, tass' eva celassa vd sisassa vd 
nibbdpandya adhimattarh chandah ca vaydmah ca ussdhah ca usso\hih ca appativdnih ca 
satin ca sampajahhah ca kareyya, evam eva kho bhikkhave tena puggalena tesarh yeva 
kusaldnam dhammanam patildbhdya adhimatto chando ca. . . 
(b) S. V, 440: Adittarh bhikkhave celarh vd sisamvd anajjhupekkhitvd amanasikaritvd 
anabhisametdnam catunnam ariyasaccdnam yathdbhutam abhisamaydya adhimatto chando 
ca vdydmo ca ussdho ca usso/hi ca appativdni ca sati ca sampajahhah ca karaniyam. 

283 



284 Vimuttimagga 

hearing, seizing the sense and reiteration, he should bear them in mind. At 
this time the yogin enters into a quiet place, sits down and composes his mind. 
He does not let it run hither and thither, and recalls to mind the Four 
Noble Truths. First he should recall to mind the Truth of 111 through aggrega- 
tion, sense-sphere and element. The idea of aggregation should be recalled 
to mind through one's own characteristics and through the characteristics 
of the aggregates, in the way it was taught, under the method of understanding 
the aggregates. The (idea of) sense-sphere should be recalled to mind through 
the characteristic of sense-sphere, in the way it was taught, under the method 
of understanding the sense-spheres. The (idea of) element should be recalled 
to mind through the characteristics of element, in the way it was taught, 
under the method of understanding the elements. Thus having understood 
aggregate, sense-sphere and element, that yogin knows that there are only 
aggregates, sense-spheres and elements, and that there is no being or soul. 
Thus he gains the perception of the formations 1 and gets to know the two 
divisions, namely, name and form. Here the ten sense-spheres and the ten 
elements of the aggregate of matter constitute form. Four aggregates, the 
sense-sphere of mind and the seven elements constitute name. The sense- 
sphere of ideas and the element of ideas are name and form. Name is one, 
form is another. Form is void of name and name, of form. Name is not 
separate from form, and form is not separate from name, like drum-sound. 2 
Only through dependence on name, form proceeds; and through dependence 
on form, name proceeds, like the journeying afar of the blind and the 
cripple. 3 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NAME AND FORM 

Q. What are the differences between name and form? 

A. Name has no body; form has body. Name is hard to discern; form 
is easily discerned. Name proceeds quickly; form proceeds slowly. Name 

1. Sankhdra-sannd. 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 595 : Yathd ca danddbhihatam bherim nissdya sadde pavattamdne anna bheri 

anno saddo, bherisaddd asammissd, bheri saddena suftnd, saddo bheriyd sunfto, evam eva 
vatthudvdrdrammanasankhdtam rupam nissdya name pavattamdne ahham rupam, ahham 
namam, ndmarupa asammissd, ndmarh rupena suhham; rupam ndmena suhham; api ca kho 
bherim paficca saddo viya, rupam paticca namam pavattati. 

3. Vis. Mag. 596: 

(a) Yatha jacchandho ca pithasappi ca disd pakkamitukdmd assu. Jaccandho pithasappim 
evam aha:- aham kho bhane sakkomi pddehi pddakaraniyam kdtum, n'atthi ca me 
cakkhuni yehi samavisamam passeyyan ti. Pithasappi pi jacchandham evam aha:- 
aham kho bhane sakkomi cakkhund cakkhukaraniyam kdtum, n'atthi ca me pdddni 
yehi abhikkameyyam vd patikkameyyam vd ti. So tutthahatfho jaccandho pithasappim 
amsakutam dropesi. Pithasappi jaccandhassa amsakufena nisiditvd evam dha:- 
vdmam muhcal dakkhinam ganha! dakkhinam muhcal vdmain ganhd ti. 

Tattha jaccandho pi nittejo dubbalo na sakena tejena sakena balena gacchati; 
pithasappi pi nittejo dubbalo na sakena tejena sakena balena gacchati; na ca tesam 
ahhamahham nissdya gamanam nappavattati. Evam eva namam pi nittejam, na 
sakena tejena uppajjati, na tdsu tdsu kiriydsu pavattati; rupam pi nittejam na sakena 
tejena uppajjati, na tdsu tdsu kiriydsu pavattati, na ca tesam annamahham nissdya 
uppatti vd pavatti vd na hoti. 



The Five Methods 285 

does not accumulate; form accumulates. Name excogitates, knows, considers, 
is aware; form does not do these. Form walks, leans, sits, lies down, bends 
and stretches; name does not do these. Name knows: "I go", "I lean", "I sit", 
"I lie down", "I bend", "I stretch"; form does not know these. Form drinks, 
eats, chews, tastes; name does not do these. Name knows: "I drink", "I eat", 
"I chew", "I taste"; form does not know these. Form claps the hands, frolics, 
laughs, cries and talks in many ways; name does not do these. Name knows 
thus : "I clap", "I frolic", "I laugh", "I cry", "I talk in such and such a manner" ; 
form does not know these. These are the differences between name and form; 
and that yogin knows name [454] and form thus : "Only name and form are 
here; there is no being, there is no soul". Thus he, making it manifest, 
gets the perception of the formations. 

SUMMARY OF THE TRUTH OF ILL 

Now, this is a summary of the whole Truth of 111 : One, causing to arise 
knowledge of pure views, according to reality, discerns name and form. All 
these should be known as descriptive of the Truth of 111. That yogin, having 
made manifest the Truth of 111, considers the idea of a being. 1 Thereafter 
he should attend to the cause and condition of 111. 

CAUSE AND CONDITION OF ILL 

Q. What are the cause and condition of ill ? 

A. That yogin knows thus: This ill has birth for cause and condition; 
birth has becoming for cause and condition ; becoming has clinging for cause 
and condition; clinging has craving for cause and condition; craving has 
feeling for cause and condition; feeling has contact for cause and condition; 
contact has the six sense-spheres for cause and condition; the six sense-spheres 
have name-form for cause and condition; name-form has consciousness 
for cause and condition; consciousness has the formations for cause and 
condition; the formations have ignorance for cause and condition. Thus 
depending on ignorance there are the formations; depending on the forma- 
tions there is consciousness; depending on birth there are decay, death, and 
grief. Thus all the aggregates of ill arise. Thus that yogin introspects the 
links of conditioned arising at length, 

THE PURITY OF TRANSCENDING UNCERTAINTY 

Now, this is the summary: Depending on feeling there arises craving. 



(b) Abfev. 1220-21 : Ndmam nissdya rupan tu, riiparh nissdya ndmakam 
pavattati sadd sabbam, pancavokdra-bhiimiyam; 
imassa pana atthassa, dvibhdvattham eva ca 
jaccandha-pifhasappfnarh, vattabbd upamd idha. 
1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 597: Evarh ndndnayehi ndmarupam vavatthdpayato sattasannarh abhi- 
bhavitvd asammohabhumiyam thitarh ndmarupdnam ydthdvadassanarh Diffhivisuddhi ti 
veditabbarh. Ndmariipavavatthdnan tipi sankhdraparicchedo ti pi ekass* eva adhivacanam. 



286 Vimuttimagga 

One makes manifest the origin of ill. The knowledge of the Law of conditioned 
arising, Ariyan understanding of conditioned arising and knowledge of the 
purity of transcending uncertainty are terms descriptive of the knowledge 
which makes manifest the Truth of Origin. 1 

TRUTH OF CESSATION 

That yogin, after having grasped the Truth of the Origin of III and trans- 
cended the uncertainty of the three phases of time, considers the cessation 
of ill. The destruction of what is the destruction of ill ? That yogin knows 
thus: When birth is destroyed, ill is destroyed; when birth is destroyed, 
becoming is destroyed; when becoming is destroyed, clinging is destroyed; 
when clinging is destroyed, craving is destroyed. When ignorance is destroyed, 
the formations are destroyed. Thus, with the destruction of ignorance, the 
formations are destroyed ; with the destruction of the formations, consciousness 
is destroyed. Decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, misery and grief are destroyed 
through the destruction of birth. Thus all the aggregates of ill are destroyed. 
Thus having considered the links of conditioned arising at length, he views 
them in brief thus: Depending on feeling there is craving. Owing to its 
destruction, ill is destroyed. Thus he makes manifest the Truth of Cessation. 

TRUTH OF THE PATH 

Now, that yogin, having grasped the Truth of Cessation considers the 
Path of the Cessation of III thus : What Path and what perfection constitute 
the destruction of craving? He considers the five clinging aggregates 2 and the 
tribulation of these. (He thinks), "This is the Path, this is perfection". He 
eradicates craving, and causes the arising of the Way-Truth. One should 
know this as has been taught fully under the method of understanding the 
Truth. 

ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY WAYS OF KNOWING THE 
FIVE CLINGING AGGREGATES 

Thus that yogin, having serially grasped the Four Truths, knows the five 
clinging aggregates in one hundred and eighty ways and by way of accumulation. 
He considers at length all matter of the past, future and the present, internal 
and external, great and small, gross and subtle, and far and near as imperma- 
nent, ill, and not-self. In the same way, he deals with all feeling, perception, 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 604: Evarh nananayehi namarupapaccayapariggahariena tisu add lid sit 

kankham vitaritvd thitarh nanam kankhavitaranavisuddhi ti veditabbarh dhammaffhiti- 
hanan ti pi yathabhutafianan ti pi sammadassanan ti pi etass"* eV adhivaccanam. 

2. Pancupadanakkhandha. 



The Five Methods 287 

formations and consciousness. 1 In each aggregate there are twelve states 
preceeding at the door. In five aggregates, twelve times five make sixty. 
Thus the sixty kinds of seeing of impermanence, sixty kinds of seeing of ill, 
and sixty kinds of seeing of not-self constitute one-hundred and eighty. And 
again, there are one hundred and eighty states proceeding at the door: six 
internal sense-spheres; six external sense-spheres; six kinds of consciousness ; 
six kinds of contact; six kinds of feeling; six kinds of perception; six kinds 
of volition; six kinds of craving; six kinds of initial application of thought; 
six kinds of sustained application of thought. 2 These ten sixes make up sixty; 
sixty kinds of seeing of impermanence, sixty kinds of seeing of ill and sixty 
kinds of seeing of not-self. Three times sixty are one hundred and eighty. 

Thus he discerns and investigates the formations through impermanence : 
The endless years, seasons, months, fortnights, days, nights, hours and thought- 
instants, roll on producing new states in succession like the flame of a lamp. 3 



1. Pts. T, 53-4: Katharh atitdndgatapaccuppanndnam dhammdnarh sankhipitvd vavatthdhe 

pahhd sammasane ndnam ? 

Yam kind ruparh atitdndgatapaccuppannarh ajjhattam vd bahiddhd vd o\drikarh yd 
sukhumam vd hinarh vd panitam vd yam dure santike vd, sabbarh ruparh aniccato vavat- 
theti, ekarh sammasanam; dukkhato vavattheti, ekarh sammasanarh; anattato vavattheti, 
ekarh sammasanam. Yd kdci vedand . . .pe . . . yd kdci sahhd . . . pe . . . ye keci sankhdra 
. . . pe . . . yam kind vinndnam atitdndgatapaccupannarh ajjhattam vd bahiddhd vd 
olarikam vd sukhumam vd hinarh vd panitarh vd yam dure santike vd, sabbarh vinndnam 
aniccato vavattheti, ekarh sammasanam; dukkhato vavattheti, ekarh sammasanam; 
anattato vavattheti, ekarh sammasanam. Cakkhum . . . pe . . . jardmaranam atitdndga- 
tapaccuppannam aniccato vavattheti, ekarh sammasanam; dukkhato vavattheti, ekarh 
sammasanam; anattato vavattheti, ekarh sammasanam. 

' Ruparh atitdnndgatapaccuppannarh aniccam khayatfhena, dukkharh bhayatfhena, 
anattd asdrakatthendtV sankhipitvd vavatthdne pahhd sammasane hdnarh. ' Vedand . . . 
pe . . . sahhd . . .pe . . . sankhdra . . . pe . . . vinndnam . . . pe . . . cakkhum . . . pe . . . jardm- 
aranam atitdndgatapaccuppannam aniccam khayatfhena, dukkham bhayaffhena, anattd 
asdrakaffhendtV sankhipitvd vavatthdne pahhd sammasane hdnarh. 

''Ruparh atitdndgatapaccuppannam aniccam sahkhatarh paticcasamuppannarh khaya- 
dhammarh vayadhammarh virdgadhammarh nirodhadhamman' ti sankhipitvd vavatthdne 
pahhd sammasane ndnam. k Vedand . . . pe . . . sahhd . . . pe . . . sankhdra . . . pe . . . vihh- 
dnarh . . . pe . . . cakkhum . . . pe . . .jardmaranam atitdndgatapaccuppannam aniccam sahk- 
hatarh patfccasamuppannarh khayadhammam vayadhammarh virdgadhammarh nirodhdam- 
man' ti sankhipitvd vavatthdne pahhd sammasane ndnam. 

'Jdtipaccayd jardmaranam, asati jdtiyd natthi jaramaranarf ti sahkhipitva vavatthdne 
pahhd sammasane ndnam; 'atitarh pi addhdnam andgatarh pi addhdnam jdtipaccayd jard- 
maranam, asati jdtiyd natthi jardmaranart ti sankhipitvd vavatthdne pahhd sammasane 
hdnarh; bhavapaccayd jdti, asati . . . pe . . . upaddnapaccayd bhavo, asati . . .pe . . . tanhd- 
paccayd updddnarh, asati . . . pe . . . vedandpaccayd tanhd y asati . . . pe . . . phassapaccayd 
vedand, asati . . . pe . . . sa\dyatanapaccayd phasso, asati . . . pe . . . ndmarupaccayd sa\d- 
yatanam, asati . . . pe . . . vihhdnapaccayd ndmaruparh, asati . . . pe . . . sahkhdrapaccayd 
vinndnam, asati . . , pe . . . avijjapaccayd sankhdra, asati avijjdya natthi sankhdra 9 ti sank- 
hipitvd vavatthdne pahhd sammasane ndnam. 'Atitarh pi addhdnam andgatarh pi adhdnam 
avijjapaccayd sankhdra, asati avijjdya natthi sankhdra' ti sankhipitvd vavatthdne pahhd 
sammasane hdnarh. Tan hdtaUhena ndnam pajdnanafthena pahhd; tena vuccati — 'Atitdnd- 
gata-pacuppanndnam dhammdnarh sankhipitvd vavatthdne pahhd sammasane hdnarh.' 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 608: Ettha ca: cakkhum . . .pe . . .jardmaranan (quoted at n. 1, above) 

ti imina peyydlena dvdrdrammanehi saddhirh dvdrappavattd dhammd, pahcakkhandhd, 
cha dvdrdni, cha drammandni, cha vihhdndni, cha phassd, cha vedand, cha sahhd, cha 
ceteand, cha tanhd, cha vitakkd, cha vicdrd. 

3. Cp. Mil. 40: Opammarh karohiti — Yathd mahdrdja kocid eva puriso padiparh padipeyya, 

kirn so sabbarattirh dipeyydti. — Ama bhante sabbarattirh padipeyydti. — Kin-nu kho 
mahdrdja ydpurime ydme acci sd majjhime ydme acciti. — Na hi bhante ti. — Ya majjhime 



288 Vimuttimagga 

Thus he discerns and investigates the formations through suffering: 
Through ill-faring a man experiences unhappiness, hunger and fear; he is 
separated from dear ones; he experiences old age, disease, death, sorrow, 
lamentation, misery and grief. Such are the vicissitudes of the formations. 

IMPERMANENCE, ILL, NOT-SELF 

Thus he discerns and considers the formations as not-self : What is 
according to the teaching, concerning cause and condition of the aggregates, 
of the sense-spheres and of the elements, is the Truth. According to kamma- 
result and conditioned arising, beings are born. There is no abiding being. 
There is no intrinsic nature in objects. 

He considers form as impermanent in the sense of extinction, as ill 
in the sense of fear, as not-self in the sense of unreality. Thus he considers 
it in brief and at length. And in the same way he thinks that feeling, perception, 
the formations, consciousness are impermanent in the sense of extinction, 
are suffering in the sense of fear, are not-self in the sense of unreality. Thus 
briefly and at length he discerns. Here, through the discernment of imperma- 
nence, he removes the idea of permanence; through the discernment of ill, 
he removes the idea of bliss; and through the discernment of not-self, he 
removes the idea of self. 

THE SIGNLESS, THE UNHANKERED, AND THE VOID 

Q. How does he discern fully through impermanence ? A. In dis- 
cerning the formations as they are, he limits the formations as not existing 
before their arising and as not going beyond their fall; and his mind, springing 
forth into the signless element, attains to peace. Thus he discerns through 
impermanence, fully. 

Q. How does he discern through ill? A. In discerning the formations 
his mind is agitated with fear as regards hankering and springs forth into the 
unhankered. Thus he discerns through ill, fully. 

Q. How does he discern fully through not-self? A. In discerning all 
states, he regards them as alien, and his mind springs forth to the element 
of the void and attains to peace. Thus he discerns not-self, fully, 1 



ydme acci sd pacchime ydme acciti. — Na hi bhante ti. — Kin-nu kho mahdrdja anno 
so ahosi purime ydme padipo, anno majjhime ydme padipo, anno pacchime ydme padipo 
ti. — Na hi bhante, tarn yeva nissdya sabbarattim padipito ti. Evam eva kho majdrdja 
dhammasantati sandahati, anno uppajjati anno nirujjhati, apubbam acarimam viya sanda- 
hati, tena na ca so na ca anno pacchimavinhdnasangaham gacchatiti. 
1. Cp. (a) Pts. II, 58: Aniccato manasikaroto khayato satikhdrd upafthahanti, Dukkhato 
manasikaroto bhayato sankhdrd upat\hahanti. Anattato manasikaroto sunnato sankhdrd 
upafthahanti. 

(b) Ibid. 61 : Aniccato manasikaroto animitto vimokkho adhimatto hoti, animittavi- 
mokkhassa adhimattattd saddhdvimutto hoti; dukkhato manasikaroto appanihito vimokkho 
adhimatto hoti, appanihitavimokkhassa adhimattattd kdyasakkhi hoti; anattato manasi- 
karoto sunnato vimokkho adhimatto hoti, suhnatavimokkhassa adhimattattd ditfhippatto hoti. 



The Five Methods 289 

Thus discerning the three states of becoming, the five states of existence, 
the seven stations of consciousness, the nine abodes of beings, through ex- 
tinction, fear and unreality, he investigates these. 1 

The discernment of Truth has ended. 

THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE RISE AND FALL 

That yogin, having discerned the five clinging aggregates, applies the three 
characteristics to them, wishing for the happiness of being released from 
phenomena. 2 And when the internal five clinging aggregates are grasped 
by way of the characteristics, he penetrates rise and fall thus: "All these 
states, not having been, arise; and having arisen, pass away". 3 Here, in 
grasping (the aggregates) there are three kinds: defilement-grasp, concentra- 
tion-grasp, insight-grasp. 

DEFILEMENT-GRASP 

Here, the infatuated commoner clings to and grasps willingly the sign of 
the defilements owing to mental reversal, and regards the world of sights, 
sounds, tangibles and ideas as blissful and permanent. It is likened to moths 
flying into a flame. 4 This is called defilement-grasp. 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 656: Tassa evam jdnato evarh passato tisu bhavesu, catusu yonisu, pahcasu 

gatisu, sattasu vihhanatthitisu navasu sattdvdsesu cittarh patiliyati. . . 

2. Sankhdrd. 

3. Cp. Pts.-a. I, 256: Tass 'evarh pdkatibhuta-sacca-paticcasamuppdda-nayalakkhanabhedassa, 

"Evarh kira ndm'ime dhammd anuppannapubbd uppajjanti, uppannd nirujjhantV ti niccanavd 
*va hutvd sankhdrd upat(hahanti. 

4. (a) Ud. 72: Evam me sutarh. Ekarh samayarh Bhagavd Sdvatthiyarh viharati Jetavane 

Andthapindikassa drdme. Tena kho pana samayena Bhagavd rattandhakdratimisdyarh 
abbhokdse nisinno hoti, telappadipesu jhdyamdnesu. Tena kho pana samayena sambahula 
adhipdtakd tesu telappadipesu dpdtaparipdtam anayarh dpajjanti, byasanarh dpajjanti, 
anabyasanam dpajjanti. Addasd kho Bhagavd te sambahule adhipdtake tesu telappadipesu 
dpdtaparipdtam anayam dpajjante byasanarh dpajjante anabyasanam dpajjante. At ha kho 
Bhagavd etam attham viditvd tdyath veldyam imam uddnarh uddnesi: 

Updtidhdvanti na sdram enti, navarh navam bandhanam bruhayanti, 
patanti pajjotam iV ddhipdtd, ditthe sute iti K eke nivitfhd'ti. 
(=Tena ca samayena bahu patanga-pdnakd patantd patantd tesu tela-ppadipesu nipatanti. 
Tena vuttarh: tena kho pana samayena sambahula adhipdtakd ti ddi. 

Tattha adhipdtakd ti patanga-pdnakd : ye salabhd ti pi vuccanti. Tehi dipa-sikham 
adhipatanato adhipdtakd ti adhippetd. Apdta-paripdtan ti, dpdtam paripdtarh dpatitvd 
apatitvd, paripatitvd paripatitvd abhimukham pdtan c' eva paribbhamitvd pdtah ca katvd 
ti attho. Apdte padipassa attano dpdtha-gamane sati paripatitvd paripatitvd ti attho. 
Anayan ti, avaddhirh, dukkharh. Byasanan ti, vindsarh. Purima-padena hi marana-mattarh 
dukkharh, pacchima-padena maranam tesarh dipeti. Tattha keci pdnakd saha patanena 
marirhsu, keci marana-mattarh dukkham dpajjimsu. Etam attham viditvd ti, etam adhi- 
pdtaka-pdnakdnam atta-hitam ajdnantdnam at? upakkama-vasena niratthaka-byasana- 
ppattirh viditvd tesarh viya ditthi-gatikdnam di\\K abhinivesena anayabyasana-ppatti- 
dipanam imam uddnam uddnesi. 

Tattha updtidhdvanfi na sdram enti ti, sUa-samddhi-pahha-vimutti-ddibhedam sdram 
na enti, catusacc* dbhisamaya-vasena na adhigacchanti. Tasmim pana sa-updya sdre 
titthante yeva vimut? i dbhildsdya tarn upentd viya hutvd pi ditthivipalldsena atidhavanti 
atikkamitvd gacchanti. Pane' updddna-kkhandhe niccam subharh sukharh attani abhini- 



290 Vimuttimagga 

CONCENTRATION-GRASP 

Q. What is concentration-grasp? A. Here a yogin wishes to gain 
concentration and grasps the sign in each of the thirty-eight subjects of medita- 
tion, with the mind, beginning with the knowledge of Right Mindfulness, and 
thereby chains the mind as one chains an elephant to make it quiet. 1 This 
is called concentration-grasp. 

INSIGHT-GRASP 

Q. What is insight-grasp? A, A man, beginning with the wisdom of 
steady viewing, discerns the characteristic of intrinsic nature 2 of form, feeling, 
perception, the formations and consciousness. Wishing for and happy in 
equanimity, he grasps the characteristics. It is like a man who lays hold of a 
poisonous snake. 3 This is called insight-grasp. It is well when a man 
grasps by way of insight. 

Q. What is the grasping of the characteristics of feeling, perception, the 
formations and consciousness? A. Characteristics of form: One grasps 
the form-conciousness by way of the earth-element, water-element, fire-element, 
air-element, sense-sphere of eye or sense-sphere of body. Characteristic of 
feeling: One grasps feeling by way of the pleasurable, the painful or the neither 
pleasurable nor painful. Characteristics of perception : One grasps perception 
by way of form-perception or perception of states. Characteristics of the 
formations: One grasps the formations through contact, volition, initial appli- 
cation of thought, sustained application of thought, or deliberation. 
Characteristics of consciousness: One grasps consciousness through eye- 
consciousness or mind-consciousness. One grasps one's particular medita- 
tion and produces the sign skilfully. Thus one grasps the characteristics of 
form, feeling, perception, the formations and consciousness. 



visitva ganhanta ti atttho. Navam navam bhandhnam bruhayanti ti, tathd ganhanta ca 
tanhd-ditthi-sankhdtam navam navam bandhanam bruhayanti, vadtfhayanti. Patanti 
pajjotam zV ddhipdtd, ditthe sute iti K eke nivitthd ti, evam tanhd-ditthi-bandhanehi baddhattd 
eke samana-brdhmand ditthe attand cakkhu-vinndnena diffhi-dassanena va ditthe anussav* 
upafabbhamatten* eva ca sute iti hi ekantato evam etan ti nivitthd, diffh' dbhinivesena 
sassatan ti ddind abhiniviffhd, ekanta-hitam vd nissaranam ajdnantd rdgddihi ekadasahi 
aggihi dditta-bhava-ttaya-sankhdtam angdra-kdsum yeva ime viya adhipdtd imam pajjotam 
patanti, na tato sisam ukkhipitum sakkonti ti. — Ud.-a. 355-6.). 
(b) Vbh.-a. 146: Salabho viya dipasikhdbhinipdtam. 

1. Th. 1141 : Arammane tarn balasd nibandhisam nagam va thambhamhi 

dalhdya rajjuyd, 
tarn me suguttam satiyd subhdvitam anissitam 

sabbabhavesu hehisi. 

2. Sabhdva lakkhana. 

3. Asl. 173: Yathd hi purisassa say aril geham pavitfham sappam ajapadadandam gahetvd 
pariyesamdnassa tarn thusakotfhake nipannam disvd 'sappo nu kho no tV avalokentassa 
sovatthikattayam disvd nibbemdtikassa 'sappo na sappo ti 9 vicinane majjhattatd hoti evam- 
evam yd draddhavipassakassa vipassandndnena lakkhanattaye ditthe sankhdrdnam 
aniccabhdvddivicinane majjhattatd uppajjati ay am vipassanupekkhd. 



The Five Methods 291 

TWO WAYS OF GRASPING OF 
THOUGHT-CHARACTERISTICS 

And again, through two ways one grasps the characteristics of thought : 
through object and through taking to heart. Q. How does one grasp the 
characteristics of thought through the object? A. Thought arises owing to 
object. One should grasp that. "Through this form-object, feeling-object, 
perception-object, formation-object, and consciousness-object, thought arises", 
— thus one grasps. This is the grasping of the characteristics of thought through 
the object. Q. How does one grasp the characteristics of thought through 
taking to heart? A. "Through taking to heart, thought arises", —thus one 
should consider. "Through taking feeling, perception and the formations to 
heart, thought arises",— thus should one introspect. Thus through the taking 
to heart one grasps the characteristics of thought. 

Q. What is the grasping well of the characteristics? A. Through 
these activities and these characteristics, one grasps form, feeling, perception, 
the formations and consciousness. 

[455] And again, one is able to grasp the characteristics through these acti- 
vities and these attributes. This is called the grasping well of the characteristics. 
"One penetrates rise and fall" means: "One sees clearly, 'There is arising; 
there is passing away' ". Here the form that has arisen continues. The 
sign of birth is arising. The characteristic of change is passing away. When 
these two passages are perceived with the eye of wisdom, there is knowledge 
of "rise and fall". The feeling that has arisen, continues. The characteristic 
of the coming to be of feeling, perception, the formations and consciousness 
is arising; the characteristic of change in them is passing away. When these 
two passages are perceived with the eye of wisdom, there is knowledge of 
"rise and fall". 

CHARACTERISTICS OF RISE AND FALL 
IN THREE WAYS 

And again, one can be well acquainted with the characteristics of rise 
and fall through three ways: through cause, condition and own property. 
Q. How can one be well acquainted with the characteristics of arising through 
"cause"? A. The aggregates arise owing to craving, ignorance, and kamma. 
When a man perceives this with the eye of wisdom, he becomes familiar with 
the characteristics of arising through "cause". 1 How can one be well acquain- 



Yathd tatK assa purisassa ajapadena dandena gdfham sapparh gahetva ''kin rC aham 
imam sappam avihefhento attdnah ca imind adasdpento munceyyan tV muncandkdram eva 
pariyesato gahane majjhattatd hoti evamevam yd lakkhanattayassa ditthattd dditte viya 
tayo bhave passato sankhdragahane majjhattatd ayam sankhdrupekkhd. hi vipassanupek- 
khdya siddhdya sankhdrupekkhd pi siddhd va hoti. 

Cp, Pts. I, 55: ' Avijjdsamudayd rupasamudayd" ti paccayasamudayatthena rupakkhan- 
dhassa udayam passati, *tanhdsamudayd rupasamudayd' ti paccayasamudayatthena rupak- 
khandhassa udayam passati, 'kammasamudayd rupasamudayd' ti paccayasamudayatthena 
rupakkhandhassa udayam passati. 



292 Vimuttimagga 

ted with the characteristics of arising through "condition"? Conditioned 
by nutriment, the form-aggregate arises. . Conditioned by contact, three 
aggregates arise. Conditioned by name-form, the aggregate of cons- 
ciousness arises. 1 When a man perceives these with the eye of wisdom, he 
becomes familiar with the characteristics of arising through "condition". 
Q. How can one be well acquainted with the characteristics through "own 
property" ? A. The formations arise, renewing themselves. It is like the succession 
in the flame of a lamp. When a man perceives this with the eye of wisdom, 
he becomes familiar with the characteristics of arising through "own property". 
One can see the characteristics of the Truth of Origin through cause and condi- 
tion. One can see the Truth of 111 through the arising of thought, 2 through 
condition and through own property. One can see by means of characteristics 
of the being observed.* Thus one can be acquainted with the characteristics of 
arising through three ways. 

Q. How can one be well acquainted with falling through three ways? 
A. Through the falling away of cause, the falling away of condition and the 
falling away of own property. Here through the falling away of craving, 
ignorance, and kamma, the falling away of the aggregates is fulfilled. 3 When 
one perceives this with the eye of wisdom, one becomes familiar with 
the characteristics of falling away, through the falling away of condition. 
Through the falling away of nutriment, the falling away of the form-aggregate 
is fulfilled; 4 through the falling away of contact, the falling away of three aggre- 
gates is fulfilled; through the falling away of name-form, the falling away 
of the aggregate of consciousness is fulfilled. 5 When a man sees this with the 
eye of wisdom, he becomes familiar with the falling away by way of the falling 
away of condition. The falling away of the formations is likened to recession 
in the flame of a lamp. When a man sees this with the eye of wisdom, he 
becomes familiar with falling away by way of own property. Here, through 
the falling away of the cause, one sees the Truth of Cessation. Owing to 
characteristics, (the first) seeing 6 is fulfilled. Through the grasping of the 
characteristics of the non-become, through the falling away of condition, 
through own property, through the destruction of views and through the 
characteristics of the Truth of 111, the first seeing is fulfilled. 



1. Cp. Pts. 57: Rupakkhandho dhdrasamudayo, vedand sahnd sankhdrd tayo khandhd 
phassasamudayd, vinhdnakkhandho ndmarupasamudayo . 

2. Vitakka. *Lit. 'the being seen'. 

3. Cp. Pts. I, 55-57: 'Avijjdnirodhd rupanirodho' ti paccayanirodhatthena rupakkhandhassa 
vayam passati, 'tanhdnirodhd rupanirodhd' ti paccayanirodhatthena rupakkhandhassa 
vayam passati, kammanirodhd rupanirodho,' ti paccayanirodhatthena rupakkhandhassa 
vayam passati. . . 

4. S. Ill, 59 : Ahdranirodhd rupanirodho. 

5. Cp. Pts. I, 57: 'Ndmarupanirodhd vihhdnanirodho' ti paccayanirodhatthena vinndnakkhand- 
hassa vayam passati. 

6. Dassana. 



The Five Methods 293 

ACQUIRING THE HIGHEST KNOWLEDGE 

Q. How does one acquire the highest knowledge by seeing the Truth of 
ill through rise and fall and through the characteristics? A. How is the 
destruction of views the cause? One is able to see what he has not yet seen 
through the sign of the Truth of 111. Ill pervades all (things). With the 
destroying of pernicious kamma, one sees things as they are. One causes the 
arising of the thought which is associated with the characteristics of pheno- 
mena, and rescues the mind from pernicious kamma. Having seen the 
tribulation of kamma according to reality, one causes the arising of the thought 
which is associated with the characteristics of phenomena, and rescues the 
mind from pernicious kamma. Here one sees ill everywhere, because one 
goes to the furthest end (investigates fully). 

SIMILE OF THE BIRD SURROUNDED BY FIRE 

It is like a winged bird surrounded by a fire. Before' it flies away into 
the open sky, it is not free of subjection to fear. But when it sees the tribula- 
tion of the surrounding fire and is affected by the fearfulness thereof, it flies 
away. Thus it should be known. Here, through cause, through condition 
and through arising, one becomes familiar with the sign of the arising of 
conditioned arising. This being, this becomes: Owing to the arising of this 
(cause) the arising of this (result) is fulfilled. 1 Owing to the destruction of the 
cause, and of the destruction of condition : Through the seeing of this des- 
truction, one becomes familiar with the characteristics of birth according to 
conditioned arising. This not being, this does not arise: Owing to the des- 
truction of this, this ceases. 2 One can be familiar with arising, having seen 
its ceasing through own property and through rise and fall: One can see the 
arising of conditioned arising and the constructed 3 states. One can see the 
arising and the cessation of this and also the stability of this. 

FOUR STATES 

One should, through rise and fall, know the four states: through oneness, 
diversity, non-effort and inherent nature. 4 Seeing the unbroken sequence of 
the formations, a man holds the flux 5 to be single and does not cling to the 
idea of multiple fluxes. He does not hold it to be same throughout, because 
he sees the destruction of it (momentarily), and because of the succession of 
the formations. He does not cling to self because by nature the formations 



1. Ud. 1: Imasmim sati iclath hoti, imass' uppddd idam uppajjati, yadidam'. avijjdpaccayd 
sank hard. 

2. Ud. 2: Imasmim asati idam na hoti, imassa nirodhd idam nirujjhati yadidam: avijjanirodhd 
safikhdranirodho . 

3. Sankhata. 

4. Ekatta, ndnatta, avydpdra, dhammatd, Cp. Vis. Mag. 585; Vbh-a. 198-9. 

5. Santdna. 



294 Vimuttimagga 

are uncertain, and because of the succession of the formations. The unins- 
tructed commoner, through wrongly grasping oneness, falls into eternalism 
or nihilism. Through wrongly grasping diversity, he falls into eternalism. 
Through wrongly grasping non-effort, he falls into the self-theory. 1 Thus 
through wrongly grasping the states, he falls into the theory of non-effort (?). 
Here, in the sense of entirety (wholeness), 2 in the sense of distinctiveness of 
oneness and in the sense of the inclusion of different characteristics, the charac- 
teristic of oneness is fulfilled (?). In the sense of understanding, it is diversity. 
In the sense of defilement, it is single. In the sense of means it is multiple. 
As the fruit of craving, it is one ; as the fruit of kamma, it is varied. That 
yogin, seeing oneness thus, does not cling to the view of discrete (series) ; and 
seeing diversity, he does not cling to the eternalist theory of oneness. 

If he sees oneness, he removes annihilationism. If he sees diversity, he 
removes eternalism. That yogin, thus, through rise and fall, knows oneness 
and diversity. 

NON-EFFORT IN THE ARISING OF THE FORMATIONS 

Q. How does one see non-effort in the arising of the formations? By 
what reason are all phenomena characterized by non-effort and immovability, 
and how do they proceed without being caused to arise by others ? A. Owing 
to intrinsic nature, cause and effect, union, origin, there is conditioned arising. 
Thus through inherent nature birth causes one to be born. Here, in the 
sense of non-life and non-motion, non-effort should be known. In the sense 
of own nature and condition, inherent nature should be known. Here there 
is the manifestation of emptiness and non-effort, and also of the kamma and 
the formations. The manifestation of non-effort is called inherent nature. 
The manifestation of inherent nature is called the formations, Here through 
the correct seizure of oneness, one becomes familiar with ill; through the 
correct seizure of diversity, one becomes familiar with imperfnanence, and 
through the correct seizure of non-effort and inherent nature, one becomes 
familiar with not-self. 

Q. Does the yogin review the rise and fall of all formations without 
remainder or only one? A. Grasping the characteristics in various subjects, 
he becomes familiar with rise and fall and causes that knowledge to fill all 
formations without remainder. It is like a man who, having tasted the water 
of the sea in one spot, knows all sea-water to be salty. 3 Thus should it be 
known. He fills all formations in two ways: by way of object and by way of 
non-delusion. Here, grasping the characteristics, one becomes familiar with 
arising and falling away of all formations. This knowledge of rise and fall 
is the discernment of all formations. All formations are discerned at the 
first moment of arising and in the last moment of falling away. They are 



1. Atta-vdda. 2. Samanta. 

3, A. IV, 199; Puna ca par am bhante mahasamuddo ekaraso lonaraso. 



The Five Methods 295 

empty before the first moment of arising, and are empty after the last moment 
of falling away, because there is no other arising before they arose, and there 
is no other falling away after their fall. Therefore the knowledge of the rise 
and fall is the knowledge of the discernment of all formations. 

The knowledge of rise and fall has ended. 
REVIEWING OF BREAKING UP 

Thus that yogin enjoys dwelling upon the characteristics of arising and 
passing away, discerns the formations as subject to breaking up and develops 
concentration. Effortlessly he produces intellection and sees the breaking up 
of mind-states. Through the form-object and through the arising and passing 
away of the mind, he sees the rise and fall of the mind-states associated with 
that object. In the same way he sees the rise and fall of the mind-states which 
are associated with these objects, through the perception-object, the formation- 
object, the consciousness-object and through the rise and fall of mind. 

BREAKING UP THROUGH THREE WAYS— 

(a) THROUGH ASSEMBLAGE 

And again, he sees breaking up through three ways: through assemblage, 
duality and through understanding. 

Q. How, through assemblage? A. Through assemblage, he sees the 
falling away of the postures in their several spheres and the associated mind 
and the mental properties with them. And again, he grasps form-imperman- 
ence, feeling-impermanence, perception-impermanence, formation-imperman- 
ence and consciousness-impermanence. After that he sees the breaking up 
of the mind and the mental properties which are associated with the object 
of impermanence, by way of assemblage. In the same way, with the object 
of ill and the object of not-self. 1 Thus one should discern through assemblage. 

(b) THROUGH DUALITY 

Q. How, through duality? A. Having discerned impermanence of 
form, he arouses the states of mind that conform to impermanence and he 
sees the arising and the passing away of the mind. Thus having investigated 
the impermanence of feeling, perception, the formations and consciousness, 
he arouses the state of mind that conforms to the object of impermanence and 



Cp. Pts. I, 57-8: Rupdrammanatd cittarii uppajjitva bhijjati, tarn dvammanam patisankhd 
tassa cittassa hhangarh anupassati. 

1 Anupassatitt '. Katham anupassati? Aniccato anupassati no niccato dukkhato 
anupassati no sukhato, anattato anupassati no attato . . . 

Vedandrammanatd . . . pe . . . sahndrammanatd . . . pe . . . sankhdrdrammanatd . . . pe . . . 
vinnanarammanatd: cakkhum . . . pe . . . jardmarandrammanata cittarh uppajjitva bhijjati, 
tarn drammanam patisankhd tassa cittassa bhangam anupassati. 



296 Vimuttimagga 

sees the arising and the passing away of the mind. In the same way, with 
the object of suffering and the object of not-self. Thus he should discern 
through duality. 

(c) THROUGH UNDERSTANDING 

Q. How, through understanding? A. Having discerned the imper- 
manence of form, he arouses the mind together with the object of imperman- 
ence [456] and sees the arising and the passing away of the mind. Thus 
through the understanding of insight, he sees the breaking up of many mind- 
states. He discerns the impermanence of feeling, perception, the formations 
and consciousness, and arouses the state of mind that conforms to the object 
of impermanence, and sees the arising and the falling away of mind-states. 
Thus he sees again and again the breaking up of mind-states. Thus through 
understanding he sees the breaking up of many states. Likewise, he discerns 
ill and not-self. Thus having understood, he grasps breaking up. That 
object of ill and breaking up makes for intentness. Intent on the formations 
always, he attains to well-being every moment. Through this understanding, 
that yogin, independent of another, knows the whole world by itself (and 
as unenduring) as a poppy seed on the point (of an awl), 1 and Uhat" in every 
concentrated thought-moment there is the change of arising, stability and 
destruction. 2 



SIMILES OF DRUM-SOUND, TOWN OF G0DS, LIGHTNING 

At this time the yogin again sees as it is taught in the stanzas thus: 

Depending on each other do the two 
called name and form, by nature cany on. 
When one breaks up the other also breaks; 
together do they always start their course. 
The five states of form, odour and the rest, 
rise not form eye, and also not from forms; 
yet are not different from the set of two. 
The states conditioned from a cause arise, 
like the sound when a drum is struck. 
The states of form, odour and the rest, 
rise not from ear, and also not from sounds; 
yet are not different from the set of two. 
The five states of form, odour and the rest, 
rise not from nose and also not from smell; 



1. Cp. Sn. 625: Vari pokkharapatte va, dragge-r-iva sdsapo, 

Yo na lippati kdmesu, tarn aharh brumi brdhmanam. 

2. Cp. I, 152: Uppddo pahhdyati vayo panndyati thitassa qmathattam panndyati. Imdni 
kho bhikhhaye tini sankhatassa sankhatalakkhandni ti. 



The Five Methods 297 

yet are not different from the set of two. 

The five states of form, odour and the rest, 

rise not from tongue, and also not from taste; 

yet are not different from the set of two. 

The five states of form, odour and the rest, 

rise not from body; also not from touch; 

yet are not different from the set of two. 

These are not born of form material; 

these do not rise out of the sphere of thought; 

they rise depending on condition-cause 

like the sound when a drum is struck. 

The functions are themselves without strength; 

weak is the former cause; what has become 

is feeble, poor. Infirm is that which is 

to others bound. Co-states are also weak. 

There is no strength at all in union; 

and what rolls on is always impotent, 

for what rolls on has no abiding strength. 

It has no pith ; it cannot cause to rise ; 
'."-..■ 'tis cor eless even as a town of gods; 1 

none cause this to be ;' tis not produced, 
. - - . . by self and does not by its strength remain. 

On other states, depending, does it rise, 
-.-.- and what it does produce is called corrupt. 

Weak is this body, it is not produced, 

by itself and is low. It is not 'cause' 

or 'object', by itself. It has no pith 

and is not free of states conditioned, but 

is truly due to many complex-states. 

Short is its life, because it is most weak ; 

it goes not anywhere; from nowhere comes; 

and is not born in some land, distant, far. 

The mind is not a person, soul or self; 

at every point of thought it is bound up, 

with what is pleasing or with what is ill. 

It passes over mountain, sea and clime, 

sees eighty thousand aeons in a trice, 

lives only once and does not come again, 

does not to two thought-moments bind itself, 

and in it is all past and future lost. 

All that remains is merely aggregate 

and this is ever falling without end 

and so will also fall the state to be. 



1 . Gandhabba nagara. 



298 * Vimuttimagga 

There are no different signs occur ing here, 

from the non-born there is no coming here, 

in the sense that is highest there is none 

who goes or comes. And in the future will 

no heaping be, but just a going-on. 

The world does not with dhamma ever mix, 

One cannot see the future or the source. 

All dhammas are un-made — they are like space — 

and rising like the lightning, perish soon. 

Thus seeing endless destruction, that yogin enters into concentration. Just 
as in rubbing sticks together for fire, sparks flash forth, just so is the class 
of enlightenment moments. When illuminattion, joy, calm, bliss, resolve, 
uplift, presentation, equanimity and desire 1 arise, if he is not intelligent, the 
yogin will arouse thoughts of distraction or conceit in this state. 

Q. How can he remove distraction? A. That yogin arouses rapture 
for the doctrine. That rapture pacifies his mind; and sitting again, he calms 
the mind and makes it conform to the doctrine. If his mind conforms to the 
doctrine, he rejects the idea of permanence through concentration of the 
reviewing of breaking up. Being free from the idea of permanence, he becomes 
familiar with the method and removes (distraction of mind). 

Q. How does the yogin remove conceit? A. That yogin causes the 
arising of illumination in the doctrine at first, believes that he has attained 
to the supramundane state, thinks that he has attained what he has not 
attained and does not endeavour further. Thus he arouses conceit. The 
intelligent yogin knows that defilement disturbs meditation, and knows that 
worldly states have the formations for object, Thus he knows that the supra- 
mundane state has Nibbdna for object. Having seen thus, he removes dis- 
traction and conceit by this knowledge and seeing only breaking up, practises 
well and practises repeatedly. 

The knowledge which is the discernment of falling away has ended. 
The Eleventh Fascicle has ended. 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 633: Obhaso, nanam, piti, passaddhi, sukham, adhimokkho, paggaho, 
upatthdnam, upekkha, nikanti. Nikanti is mistranslated into Chinese as renunciation, 
it being equated with the Sk. nishkranta. 



THE PATH OF FREEDOM 

FASCICLE THE TWELFTH 

WRITTEN 

BY 

THE ARAHANT UPATISSA 

WHO WAS CALLED 

GREAT LIGHT IN RYO 

TRANSLATED IN RYO 
BY 

TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN 
ON DISCERNING TRUTH 

CHAPTER THE TWELFTH 

Section Two 

FEAR KNOWLEDGE 

Thus to that yogin who discerns breaking up, owing to breaking-up- 
discernment, knowledge of fear arises. 

SIMILES OF THE MAN WITH THE SWORD, 
POISONOUS SNAKE, AND HEAP OF FIRE 

The cause of the aggregates, the arising of the aggregates, the three planes 
of becoming, 1 the five kinds of faring-on,* the seven stations of consciousness, 3 
and the nine abodes of sentience, 4 appear to him as fearful as a wicked man 
who takes up a sword, 5 a poisonous snake, 6 or a heap of fire. 7 Thus owing to 
his discernment of breaking-up, fear arises: fear of the cause of aggregation; 
fear of the arising of aggregation. Thus considering the three planes of becom- 



1. D. Ill, 216: Tayo bhavd. Kdma-bhavo, rupa-bhavo, arupa-bhavo. 

2. Ibid. 234: Pahca gatiyo: Nirayo, tiracchdna-yoni, pettivisaya, manussd, devd. 

3. Ibid. 253— See n. 1 p. 280. 

4. Ibid. 263— See n. 7 p. 280. 

5. S. Ill, 115: Vadhakam rupam Vadhakarh rupan ti yathdbhutam pajdndti. Vadhakarh 

vedanam. Vadhakam sannqm. Vadhake sankhdre, Vadhakam vinndnam Vadhakam 
' vinndnanti yathdbhutam pajandti. 

6. S. IV, 174: Cattdro dslvisd uggateja ghoravisd ti kho bhikkhave catunnetam mahdbhutdnarh 

adhivacanam, pathavidhdtuyd dpodhdtuyd tejodhdtuyd vdyodhdtuyd. 

7. S. IT, 84-5: Seyyathdpi bhikkhave dasannam va katthavdhdnam visdya vd katthavdhdnam 

timsdya vd katthavdhdnam cattdrisdya vd katthavdhdnam mahd aggikkhandho jdleyya. 
Tatrapuriso kdlena kdlam sukkhdniceva tindni pakkhipeyya, sukkhdni ca gomaydni pakkhi- 
peyya, sukkhdni ca kanhdni pakkhipeyya. Evanhi so bhikkhave mahd aggikkhandho 
taddhdro tadupdddno ciram dighamaddhdnam jdleyya. 

299 



300 Vimuttimagga 

ing, the hvc kinds of faring-on, the seven stations of intelligence, the nine 
abodes of sentience as impermanent, he grasps the idea of fear and causes the 
arising of the signless 1 through tranquillity. Attending to ill and fearing 
birth, he causes the arising of the birth-less 2 through tranquillity. Attending 
to not-self, he fears the sign of birth and causes the arising of the signless and 
the birthless through tranquillity. He reviews tribulation and repulsion and 
observes conformable patience. 3 This is the explanation in full. 

The cause of the arising of fear-knowledge has ended. 

KNOWLEDGE OF THE DESIRE FOR RELEASE 

Practising (the knowledge of) fear, that yogin produces the knowledge 
of the desire for release. When he fears the sign of the aggregates, the know- 
ledge of the desire for release arises. When he fears the arising of the aggre- 
gates, the knowledge of the desire for release arises. When he fears the three 
planes of becoming, the five kinds of faring-on, the seven stations of intelligence, 
and the nine abodes of sentience, the knowledge of the desire for release arises. 
It is like a bird hemmed in by a fire desiring to escape it, and like a man surround- 
ed by robbers seeking to get free of them. Thus if that yogin fears the cause 
of the aggregates, the coming to be of the aggregates, the three planes of becom- 
ing, the five kinds of ill-faring, the seven abodes of consciousness and the nine 
abodes of sentience,, the knowledge of the desire for release arises. 4 Attending 



Evam eva kho bhikkhave updddniyesu dhammesu assdddnupassino viharato tanhd 
pavaddhati. Tanhdpaccayd updddnam ...pe... Evam etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa 
samudayo hoti. 
1. Animitta. 2. Ajdta. 

3. Cp. (a) Dh-a II, 207: So there anumodanam karonte ekaggacitto hutvd dhammam sunanto 

sotdpattimaggassa orato anulomikarh khantim nibbattesi, thero pi anumodanam 
katvd pakkdmi. Updsakarh theram anugantvd nivattamdnam ekd yakkhini dhenu- 
vesena agantvd ure paharitvd mar esi. So kdlam katvd Tusitapure nibbatti. Dhamnta- 
sabhdyam katharh samuffhapesum: 'coraghdtako pancapanndsavassdni kakkhafa- 
kammarh katvd ajfeva tato mutto ajfeva therassa bhikkham datvd ajfeva kdlakato, 
kaharh nu kho nibbatto'' ti. Satthd agantvd ^kdya nuttha bhikkhave etarahi kathdya 
sannisinnd"' ti pucchitvd, 'imdya ndmd' ti vutte, ''bhikkhave Tusitapure nibbatto' ti 
aha. 'Kim bhante vadetha ettakam kdlam ettake manusse ghdtetvd Tusitavimdne 
nibbatto'' ti. 'Ama bhikkhave mahanto tena kalydnamitto laddho, so Sdriputtassa 
dhammadesanam sutvd anulomandnam nibbattetvd ito cuto Tusitavimdne nibbatto* ti 
vatvd imam gat ham aha; 

'Subhdsitam sunitvdna nagare coraghdtako 
anulomakhantim laddhdna modati tidivam gato' ti. 
(b) Pts. II, 240-41 : Pancakkhandhe suhhato passanto anulomikarh khantim patilab- 
hati, 'pancannam khandhdnam nirodho paramasuhham nibbdnart ti passanto 
sammattaniydmam okkamati. 

Pancakkhandhe jdtidhammato passanto anulomikarh khantim pafilabhati, 'pancannarh 
khandhdnam nirodho ajdtam nibbdnarC ti passanto sammattaniydmam okkamati. 

Pancakkhandhe updydsadhammato passanto anulomikarh khantim patilabhati, 
^pahcannarh khandhdnam nirodho anupdydsam nibbdnan' ti passanto sammatta- 
niydmam okkamati. 

4. Cp. Pts. I, 61: i Uppddo bhayan' ti muhcitukamyatd patisankhd santitthand pahhd sari- 

kharupekkhdsu ridnam, 'pavattam bhayan' ti muhcitukamyatd pafisarikhd santitthand 



The Five Methods 301 

to impermanence, he fears the cause; attending to ill, he fears birth; attending 
to not-self, he fears both cause and birth. Then the knowledge of the desire 
for release arises. Here the commoner and the learner* 

[457] 
This is the full explanation. 

The knowledge of the desire for release has ended. 
ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE 

Practising the knowledge of the desire for release that yogin wishes to 
free himself from all action and attain to Nibbdna. Wishing to arouse only 
one sign (?), he arouses knowledge conformable to the Way of Escape. 
Through three ways adaptive knowledge 1 arises. He transcends the formations 
through three ways: Reviewing the impermanence of the five aggregates, he 
attains to adaptive knowledge. The extinction of the five aggregates is permanent 
Nibbdna. Reviewing the ill of the five aggregates, he attains to adaptive 
knowledge. The extinction of the aggregates is blissful Nibbdna. Thus he 
transcends the formations. Reviewing not-selfness of the five aggregates, 
he attains to adaptive knowledge. The extinction of the aggregates is absolute 
Nibbdna. He transcends the formations considering them as impermanent, 
ill and not-self. Q. Through what knowledge does he transcend the forma- 
tions, and through what knowledge is transcending of the formations completed? 
A. He transcends the formations through adaptive knowledge. The trans- 
cending of the formations is completed through Path-knowledge. Q. What is 
adaptive knowledge? A. The knowledge which conforms to the four founda- 
tions of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of supernormal 
power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and 
the factors of the Noble Eightfold Path, 2 is called adaptive knowledge. This is 
the full explanation of adaptive knowledge. 

Adaptive knowledge has ended. 

KNOWLEDGE OF ADOPTION 

Adaptive knowledge arises from dwelling upon the characteristics of the 
formations immediately after. But when he attends taking Nibbdna as object, 



pannd sankharupekkhdsu ndnam . . .pe. . . 'updydso bhayarf ti muncitukamyatd patisankha 
santifthand pannd sankharupekkhdsu ndnam. 
* The rest of the sentence is unintelligible. Possibly this refers to a passage of Pts. T, 60-4. 

1. Anulomandna. 

2. Cp. Vis. Mag. 678: Cattdro satipatfhdnd, cattdro sammappadhdnd cattdro iddhipddd, 

pancindriydni, pancabaldni, satta bojjhangd, ariyo atthangiko maggo ti hi ime sattatimsa 
dhammd bojjhangatfhena bodhi ti laddhamdnassa ariyamaggassa pakkhe bhavattd bodhi- 
pakkhiyd noma; pakkhe bhavattd ti ndma upakdrabhdve thitatta. 

While Vis. Mag. calls these bodhipakkhiyd, Vim. Mag. calls them anulomandna 
See Preface to Vbh. XIV-XV1, for a discussion on bodhipakkhiya-dhammd. 



302 Vimuttimagga 

he arouses the knowledge of adoption. 1 Q. What is adoption? A. The 
passing beyond of commoner-states, is called adoptive knowledge. . . .* 

And again, the sowing of the seed of Nibbdna, is called adoption. It is 
as has been stated in the Abhidhamma: 'The overcoming of birth is named 
adoption. 2 The victory of non-birth is also named adoption". 3 And again, 
the overcoming of the cause of birth is adoption. To pass over to non-birth 
and the signless is named adoption. This is the first turning to Nibbdna. 
From without, he produces the wisdom of procedure. This is the full ex- 
planation of adoption. 

The knowledge of adoption has ended. 

By means of the knowledge of adoption, he knows ill, immediately after. 
He cuts off origin, and makes cessation manifest. He practises the Path, 
and attains to the Path-knowledge of Stream-entrance and all accessories of 
enlightenment. At this time the yogin sees the limited, the unconditioned, and 
the sublime, through seclusion. He understands the Four Noble Truths in 
one moment, in one comprehension, not before or after (each other). 

He understands at once ill, the cutting off of origin, the realization of 
cessation and the practice of the Path. Thus he understands. It is taught 
in the simile in verse thus: 

By boat one goes with goods leaving this bank, 
And cutting the stream, reaches that. 

SIMILES OF THE BOAT, LAMP, AND SUN 

It is like the crossing in the boat. The four actions occur simultaneously, 
neither before nor after. The man leaves this bank, cuts the stream, carries 
the goods and reaches the further bank. Like the leaving of this bank is the 
knowledge that understands ill; like the cutting of the stream is the cutting off 
of the origin; like the arrival at the further bank is the realization of cessation; 
like the carrying of the foods is the practising of the Path. 4 

Or it is like a lamp which in one moment, neither before nor after, fulfils 
four functions thus: the burning of the wick; the dispelling of darkness; the 



1. Gotrabhuhdna. Cp. Vis. Mag. 673. 
* This passage is unintelligible. 

2. Pts. I, 66: 'Jdtim abhibhuyyatitV gotrabhu. 

3. Cp. Ibid. 67 : 'Jdtiyd vutthitvd ajdtirh pakkhandatitV gotrabhu. 

4. Vis. Mag. 690-1 : (a) Yathd ndvd apubbam acarimam ekakkhane cat tar i kiccdni karoti: — 
orimatiram pajahati, sotam chindati, bhandam vahati, pdrimarh tiram appeti, evam eva 
maggahdnarh . . . pe . . . nirodham sacchikiriyd-abhisamayena abhisameti; etthd pi yathd 
ndvd orimatiram pajahati, evam maggahdnarh dukkhdm parijdndti; yathd sotam chindati, 
evam samudayam pajahati; yathd bhandam vahati, evam sahajdiddi-paccayatdya maggarh 
bhdveti: yathd pdrimarh tiram appeti y evam pdritnatirabhutam nirodham sacchikaroti ti 
evam upamdsamsandanam veditabbam. 



The Five Methods 303 

consumption of oil; and the production of light. 1 

And again, it is like the sun which performs four functions simultaneously, 
neither before nor after, thus: It makes forms visible, dispels darkness, 
removes cold and produces light. Like the making visible of forms, is the 
knowledge which understands ill ; like the dispelling of darkness, is the des- 
truction of origin; like the removal of cold, is the realization of cessation; 
like the production of light, is the practising of the Path. Thus is the Ariyan 
knowledge compared to the sun. 2 

Q. Of the knowledge that understands ill, of the removal of origin, of 
the realization of cessation and of the practising of the Path, what are the 
signs? A. If the yogin does not understand ill, the four reversals occur. 
And at that time the yogin sees the limited, the unconditioned and the element 
of the sublime through solitude. Through the knowledge that occurs in one 
moment, he realizes the Four Truths at the same time, neither before nor after. 
Q. How should these be understood. A. By means of the knowledge of arising 
and falling away, he cannot comprehend the flood of ill and the tribulation of 
the formations as they truly are. He practises on a sign which does not belong 
to the formations. And he passes over to that which is not formation. Thus 
he sees the tribulation of the formations as they are through causing the mind 
to practise on a sign belonging to the formations, and passes over to that 
which is not formations. Here he comprehends the flood of ill and reaches 
the end. And again, it is said that if that is so, he should be able to discern 
the Truth through the solitude and the knowledge of adoption. The knowledge 
of adoption arises from the formations, and passes over that which is non- 
formation. When the knowledge of adoption which arises from the sign 
of the formations passes over to that which is non-formation, he can attain 
to Nibbdna. Intentness on the cause is its only object. Through intentness 
on the object, he can develop concentration of mind. When he gets con- 



(b) Petaka: 134: Evarh ditthanto yatha ndvd jalam gacchanto cat tar i kiccani karoti, 
par imam tiram pdpeti, or imam tirarh jahati, sdram vahati, sotarh chindati, evam eva sama- 
thavipassana yuganandha vattamana ekakdle ekakkhane ekacitte cattdri kiccani karoti, 
dukkham parihhdbhisamayena abhisameti, ydva maggam bhdvandbhisamayena abhisameti, 

1. (a) Vis. Mag. 690: Yatha padipo apubbam acarimam ekakkhanena cat tar i kiccani karoti: — 
vaftim jhdpeti, andhakdram vidhamati, dlokam parividamseti, sineham pariyddiyati — evam 
eva maggandnam apubbam acarimam ekakkhanena cattdri saccdni abhisameti* dukkham 
parihhdbhisamayena abhisameti, samudayam pahdndbhisamayena abhisameti, maggam 
bhdvandbhisamayena abhisameti, nirodham sacchikiriydbhisamayena abhisameti. 

(b) Petaka. 134-5: Yatha dipo jalanto ekakdle apubbam acarimam cattdri kiccani 
karoti, andhakdram vidhamati, dlokam pdtukaroti, rupam nidassiyati, updddnam pariyddiyati, 
evam eva samathavipassana yuganandha vattamana ekakdle . . . pe . . . 

2. (a) Vis. Mag. 690: Yatha suriyo udayanto apubbam acarimam saha pdtubhdvd cattdri 
kiccani karoti: — rupagatdni obhdseti, andhakdram vidhamati, dlokam dasseti, sitam 
pafippassambheti — evam eva maggandnam . . . pe . . . nirodham sacchikiriydbhisamayena 
abhisameti. Idha pi yatha suriyo rupagatdni obhdseti, evam maggandnam dukkham pari- 
jdndti; yatha andhakdram vidhamati, evam samudayam pajahati; yatha dlokam dasseti, 
evam sahajatdni paccayatdya maggam bhdveti; yatha sitam pafippassambheti, evam 
kilesapatippassaddhim nirodham sacchikaroti ti evam upamdsamsandanam veditabbam. 
Vis. Mag. attributes these three similes to the ancient teachers — * Vuttarh K etarh PordnehV. 

(6) Petaka. 134: Yatha vd suriyo udayanto ekakdle apubbam acarimam cattdri 
kiccani karoti, andhakdram vidhamati, dlokam pdtukaroti, rupam nidassiyati, sitam 
pariyddiyati, evam eva samathavipassana yuganandha vattamana ekakdle . . . pe . . . 



304 Vimuttimaggci 

centration, he produces serenity and insight, and also can fulfil the enlighten* 
ment accessories. Thereby he understands the Truth through the knowledge 
of adoption. From that knowledge of adoption the knowledge of the Path 
is produced immediately. At that time he can get the concentration of 
Nibbdna. His mind attains to concentration and develops serenity and 
insight and the enlightenment accessories. Therefore it is only through the 
knowledge of the Path that one can discern the Truth. 

SIMILE OF THE BURNING CITY 

It is like a man stepping across the threshold of the gate of a burning 
city. When he has placed one foot outside the city, he is not yet entirely 
outside the city. Thus at that time, the knowledge of adoption arises from 
that object of the formations and passes over to that which is non-formation, 
But here it cannot be said that he has done with the defilements, because 
many states are yet not perfected. Just as when a man places both his feet 
outside the threshold of the gate of the burning city, it can be said that he is 
out of the burning city, just so when the knowledge of adoption arouses the 
knowledge of the Path without end, it could be said that one has gone out 
of the walled city of the defilements, because the states are complete. There- 
fore, through the knowledge of adoption, one fulfils the discernment of Truth. 1 

Q. What is meant by discernment? A. The Four Noble Truths 
occur in one moment — this is understanding. Here Path-knowledge and 
the balance of the faculties mean equilibrium; the powers mean immovability; 
the enlightenment factors mean vehicle; the factors of the Eightfold Path 
mean cause; the foundations of mindfulness mean dwelling; the right efforts 
mean distinction ; the bases of supernormal power mean contrivance ; truth 
means Truth; serenity means non-disturbance; insight means vision; the 
twofold means non-separation; the purity of virtue means shielding; the 
purity of thought means non-excitement; the purity of views means seeing; 
skill in wisdom means shedding; illumination of indifference means pervading 
everywhere; the faculty of the knowledge of extinction means complete 
sloughing; uniformity of attention means the development of regenerate 
desire; renunciation means the extinction of contact and feeling; concen- 
tration means the setting-up in front; 2 mindfulness means shelter; wisdom 
means Truth; the sublime means supreme distinction; Nibbdna means 
ultimate rest. 



1. Cp. Vis. Mag. 672 f. 



i. ^p. vis. iviag. xj/jl l. 

2. Cp. A. II, 210: Ujum kdyam panidhdya parimukham satim upatthapetva {= Parimukham 
satim upatthapetva ti kammatthdndbhimukham satim thapayitvd, mukhasamipe vd katvd 
ti attho. Ten'eva Vibhange ay am vuttam: sati upafthitd hoti supatthitd ndsikagge vd 
mukhanimittevd, tena vuccati parimukham satim upatthapetva ti (Vbh. 252) — Mp. Ill, 202). 



The Five Methods 305 

THREE FETTERS 

Thus that yogin knows presently, sees presently and cuts off the three 
fetters, i.e., self-illusion, uncertainty, addiction to rites and ceremonies, and 
the defilements standing in that place. 1 

Q. What is self-illusion A. Here seeing form, the uninstructed 
commoner thinks: "This is the self; the self is form; form is the abode of 
the self; in form there is the self". Thus in the same way he thinks of 
feeling, perception, the formations or consciousness thus: "consciousness is 
the self; the self is consciousness; consciousness is the abode of the self; in 
consciousness is the self". This is called self-illusion. 2 This self is cut off 
and thereby sixty-two views, 3 beginning with self-illusion, are also cut off. 

Q. What is uncertainty? A. Uncertainty regarding ill, origin, 
cessation, the Path, the Buddha, the Law, the Community of Bhikkhus, 
the beginning, the end, and the beginning and the end, or uncertainty con- 
cerning the doctrine of cause and condition, is called uncertainty. 4 , This is 
cut off. 

Q. What is addiction to rites and ceremonies. A. There are two kinds 
in addiction to rites and ceremonies. They are, (addiction due to) craving 
and (addiction due to) delusion. (Here one thinks thus:) "Through this 
vow, through this conduct, through this painful practice and through this 
holiness, I shall be reborn in heaven or I shall be reborn in every heaven". 
This is called addiction to rites and ceremonies due to craving. Here a recluse 
or a brahmin thinks : "Through this virtue, through this purity and the action 
of purity of virtue, (I shall be reborn etc.)". This is called addiction to rites 
and ceremonies due to delusion. 5 This is also cut off. 



1. Cp. Pts. II, 94: Sotdpattimaggena sakkdyadifthi vicikicchd silabbatapardmdso, imdni tini 
sahhojandni pahiyanti; ditthdnusayo vicikicchdnusayo, ime dve anusayd byantihonti. 

2. Cp. M.I, 8; III, 17; Vbh. 364: Tattha katamd sakkdyadiffhi ? Idha assutavd puthujjano 
ariydnarh adassdvi ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinito, sappurisdnarh adassdvi 
sappurisdhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinitto, ruparh attato samanupassati, 
rupavantam vd attdnarh, attani vd ruparh, rupasmirh vd attdnarh; vedanarh. . . saMarh . . . 
sarhkhdre . . . vihhdnam attato samanupassati, vihhdnavantarh vd attdnarh, attani vd vihhdnam, 
vinMnasmim vd attdnarh: yd evarupd ditthi ditthigatarh . . . pe . . .vipariyesagdho: ay am 
vuccati sakkdyaditfhi. 

3. Vbh. 400: Tattha katamdni dvdsatfhi diffhigatdni Brahmajdle (D. I, 44-5.) veyydkarane 
vuttdni Bhagavatd? Cattdro sassatavddd, cattdro ekaccasassatikd, cattdro antdnantikd, 
cattdro amardvikkhepikd, dve adhiccasamuppannikd, solasa sannivddd, atfha asahhivadd, 
affha nevasanni-ndsannivddd, satta ucchedavddd, pahca dittha-dhammanibbdnavddd. Imdni 
dvdsafthi difthigatdni Brahmajdle veyydkarane vuttdni Bhagavatd. 

4. Cp. Dhs. i98, par. 1118; Vbh. 364-5: Tattha katamd vicikicchd? Satthari karhkhati 
vicikicchati, dhamme karhkhati vicikicchati, sarhghe karhkhati vicikicchati, sikkhdya 
karhkhati vicikicchati; pubbante karhkhati vicikicchati, aparante karhkhati vicikicchati, 
pubbantaparante karhkhati vicikicchati, idappaccayatd-paficcasamuppannesu dhammesu 
karhkhati vicikicchati: yd evarupd karhkhd karhkhdyand karhkhdyitattarh vimati vicikicchd 
dvelhakam dvedhdpatho sarhsayo anekarhsagdho dsappand parisappand apariyogdhand 
thambhitattarh cittassa manovilekho: ayam vuccati vicikicchd. 

These two references (i.e., Dhs. and Vbh.) are not identical. 

5. Cp. Vbh. 365; Dhs. 183, par. 1005: Tattha katamo silabbatapardmdso ? Ito bahiddhd 
samanabrahmandnam silena suddhivatena suddhisilabbatena suddhiti — evarupd ditthi 
ditthigatarh ditthigahanarh dinhikantdro ditthivisukdyikarh diuhivipphanditam ditfhisanno* 
janarh — gdho paUggdho abhiniveso pardmdso kummaggo micchapatho micchattam 
titthdyatanam vipariyesagdho — ayam vuccati silabbatapardmdso. 



306 Vimuttimagga 

Q. What are the defilements standing in that place? A. Sense-desire, 
hate and infatuation which cause ill-faring are called the defilements standing 
in that place. [458] These are also cut down. At this time one realizes the 
Fruit of Stream-entrance. If a man has not yet attained to the stage of a 
Stream-entrant, he dwells in the Stream-entrant's place of departure, or the 
eighth place. Or else, in the ground of vision or concentration or in the wisdom 
procedure which arises from both. This is the full explanation of the know- 
ledge of the Path of Stream-entrance. Immediately after, the Stream-entrant 
cuts off the three fetters. Therefore his object is unconditioned. The method 
which is not different from the Path and other states arouses the fruitional 
knowledge and the fruitional consciousness of the Stream-entrant. 

Having seen the Path, Fruit and Nibbdna, he cuts off the defilements 
and sees the remaining defilements. This is Stream-entrance, non-retrogression. 
This is to be born of the breast of the Blessed One. This is to be born of the 
mouth of the Blessed One. This is the dhamma that is born of dhamma. 1 
This is the getting of the limbs of dhamma. It is separation from all things. 
It is called the good course endowed with vision. It is called familiarity with 
the Noble Doctrine. It is the dwelling at the threshold of the Sublime. 2 
Here, perfecting his vision, he sees the Good Law. After seeing the Good 
Law, he fulfils knowledge. If his knowledge is fulfilled, he enters the stream 
of the Noble Doctrine and becomes familiar with wisdom, and opening the 
gate of the Sublime, he dwells within it. Therefore it is said in the verse thus: 

Royal is that one who wins the stream, 

a king of deva-realms is he, 

a ruler of all worlds that be, 

for Fruit of Stream is verily supreme^ 

ONCE-RETURNER 

Dwelling in this stage, that yogin endeavours further wishing to obtain 
the Fruit of Once-return, and he sees birth, destruction and the rest. As ex- 
plained above he sees. He develops in the way through which he saw the 
Path. Depending on the faculties, the powers and enlightenment-intellection, 



1. (a) S. II, 221 ; M. Ill, 29: Yam kho tarn, bhikkhave, samma vadamdno vedeyya: Bhagavato 

putto oraso mukhato jdto dhammajo dhammanimmito dhammaddyddo no dmisaddyddo 
ti, — Sdriputtam eva tarn samma vadamdno vadeyya: Bhagavato putto oraso mukhato 
jdto dhammajo dhammanimmito dhammaddyddo no dmisaddyddo ti. 
(b) S. Ill, 83: Pancakkdandhe parinndya, sattasaddhammagocard, 
pasamsiyd sappurisd, puttd buddhassa orasd. 

2. S. II, 43: Yato kho bhikkhave ariyasdvako evam paccayam pajdndti, evam paccayasamuda- 

yam pajdndti, evam paccayanirodham pajdndti, evam paccayanirodhagdminim patipadam 
pajdndti, ayam vuccati bhikkhave ariyasdvako ditthisampanno iti pi, dassanasampanno 
iti pi, dgato imam saddhammam iti pi, passati imam saddhammam iti pi, sekhena fianena 
samanndgato iti pi sekhdya vijjdya samanndgato iti pi, dhammasotam samdpanno iti pi, 
ariyo nibbedhikapanno iti pi, amatadvdram dhacca titthati iti piti. 

3. Cp. Dh. 178: Pathavyd ekarajjena saggassa gamanena vd 

Sabbalokddhipaccena sotdpatti phalam vararii. 



The Five Methods 307 

he discerns the Truth. Thus he practises and goes towards cessation. He 
cuts off coarse passion and hatred and the defilements standing in that place. 1 
By this Path he gains the Fruit of Once-return immediately. 

NON-RETURNER 

Dwelling in this stage, he endeavours further, wishing to obtain the Fruit, 
of Non-return, and sees birth, destruction and the rest. As explained above 
he sees. He develops in the way through which he saw the Path. Depending 
on the faculties, the powers and enlightenment-intellection, he understands 
the truth and goes towards cessation. He cuts off fine passion and hate and 
the defilements standing in that place. By this Path he gains the Fruit of Non- 
return immediately. 2 

SAINTSHIP 

Dwelling in this stage, he endeavours further wishing to obtain the Fruit 
of Stainship and sees birth, destruction and the others. As explained above 
he sees. He develops in the same way by which he saw the Path. Depending 
on the faculties, the powers and enlightenment-intellection, he discerns the 
Truth. Thus he cuts off desire for the form and the formless; and he cuts off 
conceit, agitation, ignorance and all other defilements without remainder. 3 
Thereafter that yogin gains the Fruit of Saintship. He sees the Path; he sees 
the Fruit of enlightenment, and he sees the extirpation of the defilements. 
Thus that bhikkhu becomes a Consummate One, eradicates the cankers, does 
what there is to do, lays down the burden, attains to the goal, removes the 
fetters, knows liberation, 4 is sepatate from the five and (endowed with) the six 
factors, and attains to security. He is not fettered by death, removes cessation 
associated with other (false) truths, believes in and looks for the stainless, 
attends to the calming of the bodily formations, 5 and gains the highest guer- 
don. He is called one who has removed hatred, one who has won the further 
shore, 6 one who has broken free of the defilements, one who is without fetters 



1 . Pts. II, 94: Sakaddgdmimaggena ojdrikam kdmardgasannojanam patighasannojanam, 

imdni dve sannojandni pahiyanti, ojdriko kdmardgdnusayo patighdnusayo , ime dve anusayd 
byantihonti. 

2. Ibid. 94-5: Andgdmimaggena anusahagatam kdmardgassnnojanam patighasannojanam, 

imdni dve sannojandni pahiyanti, anusahagato kdmardgdnusayo patighdnusayo, ime dve 
anusayd byantihonti. 

3. Ibid. 95: Arahattamaggena rupardgo arupardgo mdno uddhaccam avijjd — imdni pahca 

sannojandni pahiyanti, mdndnusayo bhavardgdnusayo avijjdnusayo — ime tayo anusayd 
byantihonti. Evam sannojandni pahiyanti, anusayd byantihonti. 

4. D. Ill, 83: Imesam hi Vdsettha catunnam vanndnam yo hot i bhikkhu araham khindsavo 

vusitavd kata-karaniyo ohita-bhdro anuppatta-sadattho parikkhina-bhava-samyojano sam- 
madahhd vimutto, so tesam aggam akkhdyati dhammen' eva no adhammena. 

5. Cp. Ibid. 269: Idh' dvuso bhikkhu pahcangavippahino hoti chajanga-samanndgato ekd- 

rakkho caturdpasseno panunna-pacceka-sacco samavaya-satthesano andvila-samkappo 
passaddha-kdya-samkhdro suvimutta-citto suvimutta-panno. 

6. Cp. S. IV, 175: Pdrimam tiram khemarh appatibhayath ti kho bhikkhave nibbdndssetam 

adhivacandm. 



308 Vimuttimagga 

and hindrances, possessor of Ariyan wings, remover of the burden, the disso- 
ciated one, recluse, brdhmana, the purified one, knower of the lore, highest 
brahmin, Consummate One, one who has attained (knowledge), has sloughed 
off, conqueror, the man tranquillized who arouses tranquillity. This is the 
full explanation of Consummate One. 

THREE KINDS OF STREAM-ENTRANT 

Here, if a Stream-entrant does not endeavour further in this life, he falls 
into one of three classes. The three classes of Stream-entrants are: ekabijin 
(one-seeder), sattakkhattuparama (one who will be born seven times at most), 
kolankola (one who will be born in good families). 

Sattakkhattuparama is of weak faculty ; kolankola is of middling faculty ; 
and ekabijin is of keen faculty. 

Sattakkhattuparama: After dwelling in divine-realms (for six births), 
he, in his seventh birth, is born here, and makes an end of ill. 

Kolankola: He is born in a good family three or four* times, and makes 
an end of ill. 

Ekabijin: With one more birth as a man, he makes an end of ill. 

If a Once-returner does not make further endeavour in this life, he returns 
to this world once more, and makes an end of ill. 1 

FIVE KINDS OF NON-RETURNER 

If a Non-returner makes no further endeavour in this life, he will be 
reborn in a Pure Abode. 2 According to the difference of faculties, there are 
five kinds of Non-returners: Antard parinibbdyin, upahacca parinibbdyin, 
asahkhdra parinibbdyin, sasahkhdra parinibbdyin, uddhamsota Akanitfha- 
gdmin. Here, he who makes the Ariyan Path mainfest in order to remove the 
remaining fetters and latencies and passes away without reaching the middle of 
his life-span is antard parinibbdyin. He who makes the Ariyan Path manifest, 
in order to remove the remaining fetters and latencies, and passes away after 
reaching the middle of his life-span, is upahacca parinibbdyin. He who makes 
the Ariyan Path manifest, in order to remove the remaining fetters and latencies 
without external stimulus, is asankhdra parinibbdyin. He who makes the 
Ariyan Path manifest, in order to remove the remaining fetters and latencies 



Evidently a copyist's error. Should be two or three. 

A. I, 233 : So tinnam samyojandnarh parikkhayd sattakkhattuparamo hoti sattakkhattu- 
paramam deve ca mdnuse ca sandhavitva samsaritva dukkhassa ant am karoti. So tinnam 
samyojandnarh parikkhayd kolankolo hoti dve vd tint vd kuldni sandhavitva samsaritva 
dukkhassa antath karoti. So tinnam samyojandnarh parikkhayd ekabiji hoti ekarh yeva 
mdnusakam bhavarh nibbattevd dukkhassa antam karoti. So tinnam samyojandnarh 
parikkhayd rdgadosamohdnam tanuttd sakaddgdmi hoti sakid eva imam lokarh dgantvd 
dhukkhassa antam karoti. 

D. Ill, 237: Pahca suddhdvdsd. Aviha, Atappd, Sudassd, Sudassi, Akanitfhd. 



The Five Methods 309 

with external stimulus, is sasankhdra parinibbdyin. From Avihd he goes to 
Atappd; from Atappd he goes to Sudassd from Sudassd he goes to Sudassi \ 
from Sudassi he goes to Akanitthd. In Akanitthd he makes the Ariyan Path 
manifest in order to remove the remaining fetters and latencies, and passes 
away. This is the uddhamsota Akanitthagdmin} The life-span in Avihd is 
ten thousand aeons; in Atappd, twenty thousand; in Sudassd, forty thousand; 
in Sudassi, eighty thousand; and in Akanitthd, one hundred and sixty 
thousand. 2 In each of the four spheres there are five persons, and in the 
Akanitthd, four. There, the up-stream-goer is not. Thus there are twenty- 
four persons. 

The Consummate One has removed all defilements. No more has he. 
Therefore there is no cause of future birth in him. Because he has no cause, 
he is free from becoming. He destroys the formations. He cuts off ill. 
He stirs up no more ill. This verily is the end of ill. Therefore it is taught 
in the stanza thus: 

SIMILE OF THE FIERY SPARKS 

As when a smith beats red-hot iron to shape, 
sparks fly, fall into water, and then cease; 
so is his ending wrought in sequence true, 
and of his faring-on there is no trace. 

Escaping thus and breaking himself loose 
from lust, and tangle and corruptions base, 
he gains the blissful state immovable, 
and of his faring-on there is no trace? 



1. D. llf, 237: Paiica andgdmino. Antard-parinibbdyi, upahaccaparinibbdyi, asamkhdra- 

parinibbdyi, sasamkhdra-parinibbdyi, uddharhsoto Akanittha-gdmi. ( = Andgdmisu dyuno 
majjham anatikkamitvd antard va kilesa-parinibbdnam arahattam patto antard-parinihbdyi 
ndma. Majjham upahacca atikkamitvd patto upahacca-parinibbdyi ndma. Asankhdrena 
appayogena akilamanto sukhena patto asankhdra-parinibbdyi ndma. Sasahkhdrena 
sappayogena kilamanto dukkhena patto sasankhdra-parinibbdyi ndma. Jme cattdro 
pahcasu pi suddW dvdsesu labbhanti. 

Uddharhsoto Akanittha-gdmi ti ettha pana catukkam veditabbam. Yo hi avihato 
patfhdya cattdro devaloke sodhetvd Akanittham gantvd parinibbdyati, ay am uddharhsoto 
Akanittha-gdmi ndma. Yo avihato pafthdya dutiyam va tatiyam va catuttham vd devalokarh 
gantvd parinibbdyati, ayam uddharhsoto na Akanittha-gdmi ndma. Yo kdma-bhavato ca 
Akaniffhesu nibbattetvd parinibbdyati, ayam na uddharhsoto Akanittha-gdmi ndma. 
Yo hetthd catusu devaloke su tat t ha tattK eva nibbattitvd parinibbdyati, ayam na uddharh- 
soto na Akanittha-gdmi ti~-Sv. Ill, 1029-30). 

2. Possibly a copyist's error. The life-span in these heavens should be — one thousand, 

two thousand, four thousand, eight thousand, sixteen thousand respectively. Cp. Vbh. 
425 : Avihdnam devdnam kittakam dyuppamdnam ? Kappasahassam. Atappdnam devdnam 
kittakam dyuppamdnam? Dve kappasahassdni. Sudassdnam devdnam kittakam dyuppa- 
mdnam ? Cattdri kappasahassdni. Sudassinam devdnam kittakam dyuppamdnam ? Aftha 
kappasahassdni. Akanitthdnam devdnam kittakam dyuppamdnam? Sofasa kappasa- 
hassdni. 

3. Ud. 93: Ayoghanahatass' eva jalato jdtavedasso 

anupubbupasantassa yathd na hdyate gati, 
evarh sammdvimuttdnam kdmabandhoghatdrinam 
pahhdpetum gati n'atthi pattdnam acalarh sukhan ti. 



310 Vimuttimagga 

MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS* 

The following are the miscellaneous teachings here: insight, initial applica- 
tion of thought, joy, feeling, plane, faculty, emancipation, defilements, two 
attainments in concentration. 

SERENITY AND INSIGHT 

Insight is of two kinds, namely, of the method of serenity and of bare 
insight. Q. What is insight by way of serenity? Having acquired con- 
centration, one overcomes the hindrances by concentration-strength, and one 
understands form after one penetrates name by way of the factors of meditation, 
jhdna. Here beginning with concentration one proceeds to insight. 

Bare insight: One overcomes the hindrances through understanding- 
strength. One discerns name after form has been penetrated by way of the 
bodily formations. Beginning with insight, he develops serenity. 1 

INITIAL APPLICATION OF THOUGHT AND 
BARE INSIGHT 

Bare insight is with initial application of thought. In the first meditation, 
jhdna, the Path and the Fruit of insight are with initial application of thought. 
In the third meditation, jhdna, insight and adoption are with initial application 
of thought, and the Path and the- Fruit are without initial application of thought. 
The Path in the plane of initial application of- thought fulfils the eight factors 
of the Path. In the plane that is without initial application of thought, seven 
factors remove consideration. 



* The section preceding this, owing to unintelligibility, is untranslated. 

1. (a) A. II, 157; Pts. II, 92-6: IdK dvuso bhikkhu samathapubbangamam vipassanam 
bhdveti, tassa samathapubbangamam vipassanam bhdvayato maggo sanjdyati. So tarn 
maggarh dsevati bhdveti bahulikaroti, tassa tarn maggam dsevato bhdvayato bahulikaroto 
sahhojandni pahiyanti, anusayd byantihonti. 

Puna ca pararh dvuso bhikkhu vipassandpubbangamam samatham bhdveti, tassa 
vipassandpubbangamam samatham bhdvayato maggo sanjdyati. So tarn maggam 
dsevati . . . ; tassa tarn maggam dsevato . . . anusayd byantihonti. . . 
* % Katham samathapubbangamam vipassanam bhdvetil Nekkhamma-vasena cittassa 

ekaggatd avikkhepo samddhi, tattha jdte dhamme aniccato anupassanatthena vipassand, 
dukkhato anupassanatthena vipassand, anattato anupassanatthena vipassand. Iti 
pathamam samatho, pacchd vipassand; tena vuccati — samathapubbangamam vipassanam 
bhdveti. . . 

J J Katham vipassandpubbangamam samatham bhdvetil Aniccato anupassanatthena 
vipassand, dukkhato anupassanatthena vipassand, anattato anupassanatthena vipassand; 
tattha jdtdnam dhammdnan ca vossaggdrammanatd cittassa ekaggatd avikkhepo samddhi. 
Iti pathamam vipassand pacchd samatho; tena vuccati — vipassandpubbangamam 
samatham bhdveti. 
(b) Nekkhamma is explained as kdmdnam nissaranam — (1) A. Ill, 245; Idha bhikkhave 
bhikkhuno kdmarh manasikaroto kdmesu cittarh na pakkhandati, na ppasidati na san- 
titthati na vimuccati, nekkhammam kho pan' assa manasikaroto nekkhamme cittam 
pakkhandati pasidati santitthati vimuccati. Tassa tarn cittam sukatam subhdvitam 
suvutthitam suvimuttam suvisamyuttam kdmehi, ye ca kdmapaccayd uppajjanti dsava 
vighdtaparildhd, mutto so tehi, na so tarn vedanam vediyati. Idam akkhdtam kdmdnam 
nissaranam. (2) It. 61 ; Kdmdnam-etam nissaranam yad-idam nekkhammam. 



The Five Methods 311 

JOY 

At first the bare insight worker experiences the suffering of the formations. 
Through adaptive knowledge of insight he fulfils non-suffering, and develops 
adoption. The Path and the Fruit bring about joy together. Then the bare 
insight worker gains perfection of the ease of the formations. In the second 
meditation, jhdna, insight and Path and Fruit bring about joy. In the third 
and the fourth meditations, jhdnas, insight, Path and Fruit bring about joy. In 
the Path and the Fruit of the plane of joy, the seven enlightenment factors 
arise. The six kinds of enlightenment in the plane of non-joy remove the 
enlightenment-initial-application-of-thought that is joy. 

FEELING 

At first the bare insight worker experiences the suffering of the formations. 
Insight and adaptive knowledge bring about equanimity. Adoption, the 
Path and the Fruit bring about joy. Then the bare insight worker gains 
perfection of the ease of the formations. In the third meditation (j'hdna), 
insight, the Path and the Fruit bring about joy. In the fourth meditation 
(jhdna), insight, the Path and the Fruit bring about equanimity. 

PLANE 

There are two kinds of planes: plane of seeing and plane of volition. 
Here, the Path of Stream-entrance is the plane of seeing. The other three 
Paths and the four Fruits of the recluse are the plane of volition. Not 
having seen before, one sees now. This is the plane of seeing. One sees 

(c) Pts.-a. Ill, 586: Vossaggdrammanald "ti ettha vossaggo nibbdnam. Nibbdnam hi 

sankhatavossaggato paricedgato Vossaggo 'ti vutto, vipassand ca tamsampayuttadhammd 

ca nibbdnaninnatdya ajjhdsayavasena nibbdne patitthitattd nibbdnapatitthd nibbdnd- 

rammand. Pat it t ha 'pi, hi dlambiyati 'ti drammanam ndma hoti. Nibbdne patittha- 

natthen' eva nibbdndrammand. Anhattha pdjiyam 'pi hi "Patitthd drammanan" 'ti 

vuccati, yath' aha: "Seyyathd 'pi dvuso naldgdram vd tindgdram vd sukkham koldpam 

terovassikarh puratthimdya ce 'pi disdya puriso ddittdya tinukkdya upasankameyya, 

labhetha aggi otdram, labhetha aggi drammanam ?" 'ti ddi. Tasmd tattha jdtdnam 

dhammdnam vossaggdrammanatdya nibbdna-patitthdbhdvena hetubhutena uppddito yo 

cittassa ekaggatd-sankhdto upacdrappandbhedo avikkhepo, so Samddhi 'ti vipassandto 

pacchd uppddito nibbedhabhdgiyo samddhi niddittho hoti. Tasmd yeva hi, Iti pathamarh 

vipassand pacchd samatho 'ti vuttam. 

In (x) samathapubbangama vipassand {% above) the abandonment (pahdna) is of 

the five hindrances {paitca nivarand) beginning with sense-desire (kdmacchanda) by means 

of the first meditation ( pat hamajj hand). In(y) vipassandpubbangama samatha (J J above) 

the abandonment (pahdna) is of all stain (sabbamala) by means of the concentration 

partaking of penetration (so sabbamalavirahito nibbedhabhdgiyo samddhi sesasamddhito 

adhikattd adhicittan 'ti vuccati — Pts.-a. I, 228). 

Sometimes the samatha in (x) is mistakenly equated with that in (y) because the 
word used in both instances is serenity (samatha). But they are different. While in the 
one samatha of the first meditation (pathamajjhdnd) by v/ay of suppression abandonment 
is meant, in the other samatha of substitution abandonment is meant — Pts. I, 27 : Vik- 
khambanappahdnah ca nivarandnam pat hamajj hdnam bhdvayato, tadangappahdnan ca 
dit{higatdnam nibbedhabhdgiyam samddhim bhdvayato (== Tadangappahdnan ca ditfhigatd- 



312 Vimuttimagga 

thus and attends to it. This is called the plane of volition. 1 And again, 
there are two planes : the plane of the learner and the plane of the learning- 
ender. Here, the four Paths and the three Fruits of the recluse are of the 
plane of the learner. Arahatship is learning-ender's plane. 

FACULTIES 

There are three supramundane faculties, namely, the faculty which assures 
knowledge of the unknown, the faculty of perfect knowability and the faculty 
of him who has known. Here, the knowledge of the Stream-winner's Path 
is called the faculty which assures knowledge of the unknown. The knowledge 
of the three (other) Paths and of the (first) three Fruits is called the faculty 
of perfect knowability. The faculty of him who has known belongs to the 
plane of Fruition of the Saint. One who knows all dhammas without remainder 
is possessed of the faculty of him who has known. 2 

THE THREE EMANCIPATIONS 

Here, there are three kinds, namely, the signless emancipation, the un- 
hankered emancipation and the void emancipation. 3 Here, the absence of 

nam nibbedhabhdgiyam samadhim bhdvayato 'ti ditfhigatdnam yeva pahdnam oldrikavasena 
vuttan 'ti veditabbam. Ditthigata hi ofdrikd, niccasahhddayo sukhumd. Tattha: diffhi- 
gatan 'ti difthi yeva difthigaiam, l guthagatam\ ' ' muttagatart 'ti ddini viya. Gantabbabhdva- 
to ca ditfhiyd gatamattam ev' etan 'ti 'pi ditthigatam, dvdsafthiditthisu antogadhattd 
diffhisu gatan 'ti 'pi ditfhigatdm; bahuvacanena tesam difthigatdnam. Nibbedhabhdgiyam 
samddhin 'ti vipassandsampayuttam samadhim — Pts.-a. I, 122). 

1. Cp. (a) Petaka. 130: Catasso ariyabhumiyo, cattdri sdmahhaphaldni, tattha yo yathabhu- 
tam pajdndti, esd dassanabhumi. 

(b) Netti 8 : Imdhi dvihi pahhdhi manasikdrasampayuttassa yam hdnam uppajjati 
dassanabhumiyam vd bhdvandbhumiyam vd, ayam bhdvandmayi pannd, parato ghosd suta- 
mayi pannd, paccattasamufthitd yonisomanasikdrd cintdmayi pannd, yam parato ca ghosena 
paccattasamutthitena ca yonisomanasikdrena hdnam uppajjati, ayam bhdvandmayi pahhd. 

Ibid. 14: Tini ca saccdni samkhatdni nirodhadhammdni : dukkham, samudayo, maggo. 
Nirodho asamkhato. 

Tattha samudayo dvisu bhumisu pahiyyati: dassanabhumiyd ca bhdvandbhumiyd ca. 

Dassanena tini samyojandni pahiyyanti: sakkdyaditfhi, vicikicchd, silabbatapardmdso. 
Bhdvandya satta samyojandni pahiyyanti: kdmacchando, bydpddo, rupardgo, arhpardgo 
mdno, uddhaccam, avijjd ca niravasesd. 

Ibid. 50: Dassanabhumi niydmdvakkantiy a padatthdnam. Bhdvandbhumi uttarikdnam 
phaldnam pattiyd padatthdnam. 

2. (a) Ibid 15: Yam pana evam jdndti: khind me jdti ti idam khaye-ndnam, ndparam 

itthattdyd ti pajdndti idam anuppdde-ndnam. 

Imdni dve ndndni anndtdvindriyam. 

Tattha yah ca ahhdtahhassdmitindriyam yah ca ahhindriyam, imdni aggaphalam 
arahattam pdpunantassa nirujjhanti. 
(b) D. Ill, 219: Tin' indriydni. Anahhatam-hassdmitindriyam, ahhindriyam, anndtdv- 
indriyam. (== Anahhdta-hassdmi f indriyan ti: I to pubbe na ahhdtam aviditam 
dhammam jdnissdmi ti, patipannassa uppannam indriyam sof dpatti-magga-hdnass* 
etarh adhivacanam. 

Ann' indriyan ti ahhdbhutam jdnanabhutam indriyam. Sofdpatti phalato pafthdya 
chasu thdnesu hdnass' etarh adhivacanam. 

Ahhdtdv' indriyan ti ahhdtavisu jdnana-kicca-pariyosdna-pattesu dhammesu indriyam. 
Arahatta-phalass' etarh adhivacanam— Sv. Ill, 1002). 

3. Pts. II, 35: Tayo' me bhikkhave vimokkhd. Katame tayol Suhhato vimokkho, animitto 

vimokkho, appanihito vimokkho. {^Agamanam pana duvidham: vipassandgamanam 
tnaggdgqmanah ca, Tattha magge vipassandgamandm lab\)]xati, phale maggdgamanam. 



The Five Methods 3 1 3 

the sign in the adoption knowledge of the Path, is the singless emancipation. 
The absence of hankering is unhankered emancipation. The absence of 
attachment is void emancipation. And again, these three emancipations 
fulfil different Paths through penetration; and they fulfil one Path through 
attainment. 

Q. How do these fulfil different Paths through penetration? A. Through 
impermanence-penetration, the signless emancipation is fulfilled. Through 
ill-penetration, the unhankered emancipation is fulfilled. Through not- 
self-penetration, void emancipation is fulfilled. 

Q. How is the signless emancipation fulfilled through impermanence- 
penetration? A. Attention to impermanence destroys the formations, and 
emancipates the mind in many ways. Thus faith and the other four faculties 
are got. And the knowledge of the thus-isness of the sign makes manifest 
the impermanence of all compounded things, arouses fear of the sign of the 
formations and, through proceeding in the signless, surpasses the sign through 
the emancipation that is without sign: and the release from the aggregates 
takes place. Thus the signless emancipation is fulfilled through impermanence- 
penetration. 

Q. How is the unhankered emancipation fulfilled through ill-penetra- 
tion? A. Attention to ill develops fear towards the formations and emanci- 
pates the mind in many ways. Thus concentration and the four other faculties 
are got. And the knowledge of the thus-isness of birth makes manifest the ill 
of all compounded things, arouses fear towards birth, gains the knowledge 
of birth and, proceeding in the birthless, surpasses birth through the emanci- 
pation that is without hankering; and the release from the aggregates takes 
place. Thus the unhankered emancipation is fulfilled through ill-penetration. 

Q. How is the void emancipation fulfilled through not-self-penetration? 
A. Attention to Not-self makes manifest the voidness of the formations and 
stirs up aversion for them. Thus wisdom and the four other faculties are 
got. And the knowledge of the thus-isness of the faculties and of birth make 
manifest the not-self of all compounded things. Liberating itself from the 
sign and birth, the mind, proceeding along the signless, the birthless, goes 
beyond to breaking-up and Nibbdna, through the emancipation that is void; 
and the release from the aggregates takes place. Thus through not-self- 
penetration, the void emancipation is fulfilled. Thus do these three emanci- 
pations fulfil different Paths through penetration. 



Anattdnupassand hi sunnatd ndma, sunnatavipassandya maggo sufinato, sunnatamaggassa 
phalam suitnatam. Aniccdnupassand animittd ndma, animittdnupassandya maggo animitto. 
Idam pana ndmam Abhidhammapariydyena labbhati; Suttantapariydyena na labbhati. 
Tat ha hi "Gotrabhundnam animittam nibbdnam drammanam katvd animitta-ndmakarh 
hutvd sayam dgamaniy at thane thatvd maggassa ndmam deti" 7/ vadanti. Tena maggo 
animitto 'ti vutto. Maggdgamanena phalam animittan 7/ yujjati yeva. Dukkhdnupassand 
sankhdresu panidhim sukkhdpetvd dgatattd appanihitd ndma. Appanihitavipassandya 
maggo appanihito, appanihitamaggassa phalam appanihitan 7* evam vipassand attano 
ndmam maggassa deti, maggo phalassd 'ti idam dgamanato ndmam ndma. Evam san- 
khdrupekkhd vimokkhavisesam niyameti 7/ — Pts.-a. Ill, 551). 



3 1 4 Vimuttimagga 

Q. How do these three emancipations fulfil one Path through penetration? 
A. With the signless emancipation, three emancipations are gained. Owing 
to the signless, there is emancipation of the mind. Although emancipation 
is gained, there is hankering left, yet; therefore unhankered emancipation is 
won. Thus the three emancipations are fulfilled. Through attention (to 
impermanence etc.) emancipation of the mind is gained. Through emancipa- 
tion from the sign and attachment, void emancipation is won and the three 
emancipations are fulfilled; because if emancipation from attachment is 
fulfilled, it also is emancipation due to attention to the sign. Thus after 
attaining to the three emancipations the one Path is fulfilled. 

EMANCIPATION AND THE ENTRANCE INTO IT 

Q. What is the difference between emancipation and the entrance into 
emancipation? A. The freedom from the defilements that cloud Path- 
knowledge is emancipation. The entry into the sublime way [460] is entrance 
into emancipation. Again emancipation is only Path-knowledge; its object 
which is Nibbdna is called the entering into emancipation. 

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-FOUR DEFILEMENTS 

There are one hundred and thirty-four defilements. They are the three 
immoral roots, the three kinds of seeking, the four cankers, the four knots, 
the four floods, the four yokes, the four clingings, the four wrong courses 
of action, the five kinds ofmeanness, the five hindrances, the six roots of 
contention, the seven latencies, the eight worldly conditions, the nine conceits, 
the ten defilements, the ten courses of immoral action, the ten fetters, the ten 
errors, the twelve reversals, the twelve risings of immoral consciousness. 

THREE IMMORAL ROOTS 

Here, the three immoral roots are lust, hatred and delusion. 1 (Of these 
three), hatred is thinned in two Paths. It perishes without remainder in the 
Path of Non-return. Lust and delusion are thinned in three Paths. They 
perish without remainder in the Path of Saintship. 

THE THREE KINDS OF SEEKING 

The three kinds of seeking are the seeking for pleasure, for existence and 
for holiness. 2 Of these three, the seeking for holiness is destroyed without 
remainder in the Path of Stream-entrance. The seeking for pleasure is 
destroyed in the Path of Non-return. And the seeking for existence is 
destroyed in the Path of Saintship. 



1. D. Ill, 214: Tini akusala muldni. Lobho akusala-mulam, doso akusala-miilam, moho 
akusala-mulam. 

2. Ibid. 216: Tisso esand. Kdmesand, bhavesand, brahmacariyesand. 



The Five Methods 315 

THE FOUR CORRUPTIONS 

The four cankers are the canker of lust, of becoming, of views and of 
ignorance. 1 Here, the canker of views is destroyed through the Path of 
Stream-entrance; the canker of lust is destroyed through the Path of Non- 
return; the cankers of becoming and ignorance are destroyed through the 
Path of Saintship. 

THE FOUR KNOTS 

The four knots are the knot of the group of covetousness, the knot of 
the group of ill will, the knot of the group of addiction to rites and ceremonies 
and the knot of the group of the obsession that "this is the truth". 2 

Here, the knots of the group of addiction to rites and ceremonies and 
the knot of the group of the obsession that "this is the truth" are cut through 
the Path of Stream-entrance. The knot of the group of ill will is cut through 
the Path of Non-return. The knot of the group of covetousness is cut through 
.the Path of Saintship. 

THE FOUR FLOODS 

The four floods are the flood of lust, the flood of becoming, the flood of 
views and the flood of ignorance. 3 

THE FOUR YOKES 

The four yokes are the yoke of lust, the yoke of becoming, the yoke of 
views and the yoke of ignorance. 4 These are destroyed as it was taught 
before. 

THE FOUR CLINGINGS 

The four clingings are the clinging of lust, of views, of addiction to rites 
and ceremonies and of the theory of self. 5 Here, three clingings are destroyed 
in the Path of Stream-entrance. The clinging of lust is destroyed in the Path 
of Saintship. 



1. D. ITT, 216: Tayo dsavd. Kdmdsavo, bhavdsavo, avijjdsavo. 

2. Ibid. 230: Cattdro ganthd. Abhijjhd kdya-gantho, vydpddo kdya-gantho, silabbata- 
pardmdso kdya-gantho, idarh-saccdbhiniveso kdya-gantho. (= Ganthana-vasena ganthd. 
Vattasmim ndma-kdyah c'eva rupa-kdyah ca ganthati bandhati palibuddhati ti kdya-gantho. 
Idam saccdbhiniveso ti: Jdam eva saccarh mogham annan ti, evarh pavatto ditthi-niveso — 
Sv. Ill, 1024). 

3. Ibid. : Cattdro oghd. Kdmogho, bhavogho, ditthogho, avjjhogo. 

4. Ibid. : Cattdro yoga. Kdma-yogo, bhava-yogo, ditfhi-yogo, avijjd-yogo. 

5. Ibid. : Cattdri updddndni. Kdmupdddnam, ditthupdddnam, silabbatupdddnam, attavd- 
dupdddnam. 



316 Vimuttimagga 

THE FOUR WRONG COURSES OF ACTION 

The four wrong courses of action are the wrong course of action of desire, 
the wrong course of action of anger, the wrong course of action of fear and 
the wrong course of action of delusion. 1 These four are cut in the Path of 
Stream-entrance. 

THE FIVE KINDS OF MEANNESS 

The five kinds of meanness are, namely, meanness as to dwelling, family, 
gain, colour and doctrine. 2 These five are destroyed through the Path of 
Non-return. 

THE FIVE HINDRANCES 

The five hindrances are sense-desire, ill will, rigidity and torpor, agitation 
and anxiety, and uncertainty. 3 Here uncertainty is destroyed through the 
Path of Stream-entrance; sense-desire, ill will and anxiety are destroyed 
through the Path of Non-Return ; rigidity and agitation are destroyed through 
the Path of Saintship. Torpor goes together with the form. 

THE SIX ROOTS OF CONTENTION 

The six roots of contention are quarrelsomeness, envy, jealousy, craft, 
evil desires and infection of views, 4 Here, craft, evil desires and infection 
of views are destroyed in the Path of Stream-entrance. Quarrelsomeness, 
envy and jealousy are destroyed through the Path of Non-Return. 



1. D. Ill, 228: Cattdri agati-gamandni. Chanddgatirii gacchati, dosdgatim gacchati, mohdgatim 
gacchati, bhayagatim gacchati. 

2. Ibid. 234: Panca macchariydni. Avdsa-macchariyam, kula-macchariyam, Idbha-maccha- 
riyam, vanna-macchariyam, dhamma-macchariyam. 

3. Ibid. : Panca nivarandni. Kdmacchandha-nivaranam, vydpdda-nivaranam, thina-middha- 
nivaranam, uddhacca-kukkucca-nivaranam, vicikicchd-nivaranam. 

4. Ibid. 246-47: Cha vivdda-muldni. IdK dvuso bhikkhu kodhano hoti upandhi. Yo so 
dvuso bhikkhu kodhano hoti upandhi, so Satthari pi agdravo viharati appafisso, Dhamme pi 
agdravo viharati appafisso, Sarhghe pi agdravo viharati appafisso, sikkhdya pi na paripura- 
kdri hoti. Yo so dvuso bhikkhu Satthari agdravo viharati appafisso, Dhamme agdravo 
viharati appafisso, Samghe agdravo viharati appafisso, sikkhayd na paripura-kdri, so Samghe 
vivddam janeti. Yo so hoti vivddo bahujana-ahitdya bahujana-asukhdya bahu-janassa 
anatthdya ahitdya dukkhdya deva-manussdnam. Evarupan ce tumhe dvuso vivdda mulam 
ajjhatam vd bahiddhd vd samanupasseyydtha, tart a tumhe dvuso tass' eva pdpakassa vivdda- 
mulassa pahdndya vdyameyydtha. Evarupan ce tumhe dvuso vivdda-mulam ajjhattam vd 
bahiddhd vd na samanupasseyydtha, tatra tumhe dvuso tass' eva pdpakassa vivdda-mulassa 
dyatirh anavassavdya patipajjeyydtha. Evam etassa pdpakassa vivdda-mulassa pahdnam 
hoti, evam etassa pdpakassa vivdda-mulassa dyatirh anavassavo hoti. Puna ca pararii 
dvuso bhikkhu makkhi hoti pajdsi . . . issuki hoti macchari . . . safho hoti mdydvi . . . 
pdpiccho hoti micchd-ditfhi . . . sanditfhi-pardmdsi hoti ddhdna-gdhi duppatinissaggi. Yo 
so dvuso bhikkhu sanditthi-pardmdsi hoti ddhdna-gdhi duppatinissaggi, so Satthari pi agdravo 
viharati appatisso, Dhamme pi agdravo viharati appafisso, Samghe . . . pe . . . sikkhdya na 
paripura-kdri hoti. Yo so dvuso bhikkhu Satthari agdravo viharati appafisso, Dhamme . . . 
Samghe . . . sikkhdya na paripura-kdri, so Samghe vivddam janeti. Yo so hoti vivddo 



The Five Methods 317 

THE SEVEN LATENCIES 

The seven latencies are the latency of sense-desire, the latency of anger, 
the latency of conceit, the latency of views, the latency of uncertainty, the 
latency of the desire for becoming and the latency of ignorance. 1 Here, the 
latencies of views and uncertainty are destroyed through the Path of Stream- 
entrance. The latency of sense-desire and the latency of anger are destroyed 
through the Path of Non-Return. The latency of conceit, the latency of 
desire for becoming and the latency of ignorance are destroyed through the 
Path of Saintship. 

THE EIGHT WORLDLY CONDITIONS 

The eight worldly conditions are gain, loss, disgrace, fame, praise, blame, 
pain and pleasure. 2 Here, the resentment produced by the four kinds of 
places one dislikes, is destroyed through the Path of Non-Return. The 
inclination for the four kinds of places one likes, is destroyed through the 
Path of Saintship. 

THE NINE CONCEITS 

One produces the conceit: "I am superior to others who are superior"; 
or one produces the conceit: "I am equal to the superior ones"; or one 
produces the conceit: "I am inferior to the superior ones;" or one produces 
the conceit: "I am superior to others who are like me;" or one produces the 
conceit: "I am inferior to others who are like me;" or one produces the 
conceit: "I am superior to those who are inferior;" or one produces the conceit : 
"I am equal to those who are inferior;" or one produces the conceit: "I am 
inferior to others who are inferior". 3 These nine conceits are destroyed 
through the Path of Saintship. 



bahujana-ahitdya bahujana-asukhdya bahujanassa anatthdya ahitdya dukkhdya deva- 
manussdnarh. Evarupan ce tumhe dvuso vivdda-mulam ajjhattarh vd bahiddhd vd samanu- 
passeyydtha, tatra tumhe dvuso tass' eva pdpakassa vivdda-mulassa pahdndya vdyam- 
eyydtha. Evarupan ce tumhe dvuso vivdda-mulam ajjhattarh vd bahiddhd vd na samanupas- 
seyydtha, tatra tumhe dvuso tass' eva pdpakassa vivdda-mulassa dyatim anavassavdya 
pafipajjeyydtha. Evam etassa pdpakassa vivdda-mulassa pahdnam hoti, evam etassa pdpa- 
kassa vivdda-mulassa dyatim anavassavo hoti. 

1 . D. Ill, 254 : Satta anusayd. Kdmardgdnusayo, pafighdnusayo, ditthdnusayo, vicikicchd- 
nusayo, mdnanusayo, bhavardgdnusayo, avijjdnusayo. 

2. Ibid. 260: Affha loka-dhammd. Ldbho ca alabho ca yaso ca ayaso ca nindd ca pasamsd 
ca sukhan ca dukkhan ca. 

3. Vbh. 389-90: Tattha katame navavidhd mdnd? 

Seyyassa seyyo 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Seyyassa sadiso 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Seyyassa hino 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Sadisassa seyyo 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Sadisassa sadiso 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Sadisassa hino 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Hinassa seyyo 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Hinassa sadiso 'ham asmiti mdno. 
Hinassa hino 'ham asmiti mdno. 



318 Vimuttimagga 

THE TEN DEFILEMENTS 

The ten defilements are greed, hatred, delusion, conceit, views, uncertainty, 
rigidity, agitation, immodesty, indecorum. 1 Here, views and uncertainty 
are destroyed through the Path of Stream-entrance. Hatred is destroyed 
through the Path of Non-return. The other seven are destroyed through the 
Path of Saintship. 

(And again, there are these) ten defilements: Here one thinks: "This 
man opposed me, opposes me, will oppose me"; or one thinks: "This man 
opposed those who are dear to me, is opposing them, will oppose them"; or 
he thinks: "This man supported my enemy, is supporting him, will support 
him" ; and he produces what is improper. These ten defilements are destroyed 
by the Path of Non-return. 

THE TEN COURSES OF UNSKILFUL ACTIONS 

The ten courses of unskilful action are: Taking the life of beings, taking 
what is not given, fornication, lying, slanderous talk, harsh talk, frivolous 
talk, covetousness, ill will, wrong views. 2 Here, the taking of life, of what is 
not given, fornication, lying and wrong views are destroyed by the Path of 
Stream-entrance. Slanderous talk, harsh talk, ill will are destroyed by the 
Path of Non-return. Frivolous talk and covetousness are destroyed by the 
Path