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Full text of "Architecture of the Night : A Series of Articles Published by the General Electric Company to Suggest the Possibilities of Architectural Illumination"

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INTERNATIOMAL 



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INTERNATIONAL 



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ARCHITECTURE 

OF THE 
NIGHT 



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INTERNATtONAl 



ARCHITECTURE 



OF THE 



NIGHT 



A series of articles published by the General 

Electric Company to suggest the possibilities 

of architectural illumination 




GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 

SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK 




THE FISHER BUILDING, DETROIT, MICHIGAN, FLOODLIGHTED BV 
G'E NOVALUX FLOODLIGHTING PROJECTORS 



Raymond M. Hood Predicts "Architecture of the Night" 

SEES FASCINATING POSSIBILITIES IN NIGHT ILLUMINATION 
COLOR, PATTERN AND EVEN "MOVEMENT" MAY BE ATTEMPTED 






? 



Ir is the privilege o£ the General Electric Com- 
pany to present this significant interview with 
Mr, Raymond 'M. Hood. Night illumina- 
tion — the "Architecture of the Nii:^-ht" — is a sub- 
ject of immediate interest to all architects of 
important building;S and one to which Mr. Hood 
has devoted thoughtful attention. It is a new 
branch of the art and fully deserves the open- 
minded consideration that is being given to it by 
acknowledged authorities. While many of the 
ideas here presented for the first time are of 
far-reaching import to professional practice of 
the future, it may be that even 
the present year will see the 
brilliant fulfillment of some of 
Mr. Hood's glowing predic- 
tions. 

"The possibilities of night 
illumination have barely been 
touched," said Mr. Hood. 
"There lies in the future a 
development even more fan- 
tastic than anvthino- that has 
ever been accomplished on the 
stage. Up to the present, we 
have contented ourselves 
mainly with direct and flood- 
lighting of varying intensity. 
There is still to be studied the 
whole realm of color, both in 
the light itself and in the 
quality and color of the re- 
flecting surfaces, pattern stud- 
ies in light, shade and color, 
and last of all, movement. 

"When I was studying the 
lighting of the Radiator Build- 
ing, I tried, with the help of 
Mr. Kliegel, a few experi- 
ments that opened my eyes to 
what might be done. We tried 
nuilti-colored revolving lights 
and produced at one time the 
effect of the building's being 
on fire. We threw spots of 
light on jets of steam rising 
out of the smoke-stack. Then 
again, with moving lights, we 
had the whole top of the 
building waving like a tree in 
a strong wind. With cross- 
lighting, that is to say, light- 
ing from different sources and 
diiferent directions across the 



light 




UNDER G-E FLOODLIGHT!;, THE GRACE AND 
DIGNITY OF THE AMERICAN RADIATOR BUILD- 
ING CARRY AS IMPRESSIVE A MESSAGE BY 

NIGHT AS BY DAY, 



same forms, the most unusual cubistic patterns 
were developed. All of this, however, was experi- 
mental, as we did not feel that either our knowl- 
edge of the art or the perception of the public 
was at a point where it would be wise to attempt 
extravagant and exotic effects. It was not a lack 
of courage or nerve that held us back, merely the 
question of taste, on account of the building's 
being in such a prominent location. 

"At present the art is new, our knowledge very 
scant, and we all play safe. For example, day- 
sunlight — is constant from a single sotirce 

and in a single direction. That 
is what brings out the model- 
ing and massing of a building, 
as in everything else, as we 
understand it. So at night we 
follow the same rule, merely 
reversing the direction of 
light, turning it up instead of 
down, although in Classic 
architecture \ve frequently use 
long,hori2ontal bands lighting 
downor outlining our architec- 
ture with lines of light. The 
general tendency of all of this 
lighting is to flatten out the 
modeling and relief, unless it 
is thrown across a projecting 
band as in the case of a build- 
ing with strong projecting 
cornices lighted from below. 
Such a condition reverses the 
daylight effect and usually up- 
sets and otherwise disconcerts 
the composition of the archi- 
tectural forms. For that rea- 
son, with vertical lightingfrom 
below, unless a horizontal 
member can be so studied that 
it composes either right side 
up or upside down,— an ex- 
tremely difficult thingto do, — 
it is safer to suppress it or, to 
put it another way, to illuminate 
onl3-I)uildingswheretheschori- 
zontal members do not exist. 
"Vertical lighting from be- 
low adds the element of mys- 
tery, as the fading out of 

lights from the bottom to the 
top exaggerates the perspec- 
tive, and seeing the building 
disappearing up into the night 




Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc. 

NEW YORK BY DAY— A "LOST CITV" BY NIGHT. LET YOUR IMAGINATION PLAY WITH THE EFFECT OF COLOR, PATTERN, AND MOVEMENT 

WHICH MR. HOOD PREDICTS NIGHT ILLI-MIN.A.TION WILL GIVE TO THIs'aRCHITECTUR.A,L MASS. 



gives it an increased height. It follows, therefore, 
that the type of architecture that is the most easy 
to illuminate successfully is "what can be called 
our American perpendicular, as the lights can be 
arranged to stream up the vertical forms of the 
building, gradually disappearing into the night, 
and the set-backs and terraces provide ideal 
places for the operation of the lights. 

"I have spoken of the possibilities of cross- 
lighting. I recently saw an extraordinary photo- 
graph by Steichen where cross-lighting on a 
regular arrangement of hunps of sugar on a flat 
surface produced the most astonishing effect of a 
Scotch plaid. Tlie same principles can be applied 
to the forms in a building, but it must always be 
remembered that the intensity of light and possi- 
bility of effect are increased if the shadows are 
not completely destroyed, as it is the combination 
of light, shade and shadow that gives the pattern. 

"One of the first criticisms that can be brought 
against the ordinary methods of floodlighting is 
that they merely produce glaring, unbroken sur- 
faces in which all texture in form and pattern is 
lost and the only effect produced is that of the 
light against the surrounding darkness. All of 
this is well and good, but it does not attempt to 
realize or make the most out of the limitless 
possibilities in the art. 

"There is also the qtiestion of the character, 
texture and color of the surface to be lighted. To 
take again the case of the Radiator Building, the 
richness, depth and quality of color (I can say 
this modestly as it was almost accidental) are 
produced by an amber light thrown on a metallic 
pure gold surface. Certainly, among the other 



buildings, this color has a distinction and a 
quality that is very mysterious. The study of 
details of a building in night lighting is relatively 
unimportant. Almost the only effect seen is the 
contrast of light and darkness, and this effect 
is always so vivid and striking that masses are 
all that count in the picture. 

"Eventually, the night lighting of buildings is 
going to be studied exactly as Gordon Craig and 
Norman Bel Geddes have studied stage lighting. 
Every possible means to obtain an effect will be 
tried, — color, varying sources and direction of 
light, pattern and movement. In this last case, 
I cannot even see any logical reason why a build- 
ing should not be made to move and flutter. 
There is nothing more shocking or astonishing 
in the idea than there is in hearing over the radio 
the voice of a man in England, who by the 
accepted standards of one hundred years ago was 
completely out of sight, range and mind. 

"At^ present we are in the A, B, C stage of illu- 
mination. If we want to see something, we turn 
a light on. Anyone who has seen the color organ 
that has been played in some of our concert halls 
can realize that the illumination of today is only 
the start of an art that may develop as our mod- 
ern music developed from the simple beating of a 
tom-tom." "^ 



cTvy^^^ 



Corbett Advises Designing Buildings for Night Illumination 

"ARCHITECTURE OF THE NIGHT" SHOULD NOT BE AN AFTER CONSIDERATION 
BEST RESULTS OBTAINED WHEN INCORPORATED IN ORIGINAL PLANS 

THE General Electric Company takes pride in an elevator pent house and pressure tanks, and his 
presenting the constructive suggestions and vision of ancient Greece restored ends in a galvan- 
ripe judgments of Mr. Harvey Wiley Corbett. ized iron temple enclosing the aforementioned pent 
Mr. Corbett is one of the first to give serious consid- house and tanks, Now a newer and still more con- 
eratlon to the exterior illumination of buildings. He fusing problem has been added to his already corn- 
has studied this phase of architectural design very plete store of problems. Night illumination of build- 
deeply, and his knowledge and personal experience ings has become a very popular and effective ele- 
ment in design, particu- 
larly ill buildings of the 
skyscraper type. Having 
designedhisarchitecture. 
coniices, mouldings, and 
details with due regard 
for an angle of sunshine 
falling from above at -IT) 
degrees over the left 
shoulder, he now finds 
himself confronted with 
beams of night light 
shooting upward at a 
dozen different angles, 
completely reversing his 
entire design problem so 
that every carefully 
studied shadow becomes 
a high light and every 
studied proportion is 
turned upside down. The 
question arises* *can we 
design our buildings to 
be equally effective for 
the eight or ten hours of 
daylight and at the same 
time be architecturally 
satisfactory for a few 
hours of specially illumi- 
nated night time;' 

"From a critical point 
of view, more attention 
is given, more comments 
are made, more interest 
is aroused when build- 
ings are artificially illu- 
minated than during the 
natural daylight. Night 
illumination attracts at- 
tention like a spotlight 



give unquestioned au- 
thority to his opinions. 
In the following inter- 
view he emphasises the 
importance of designing 
buildings with a view to 
the best effects of flood- 
lighting, and points out 
the disadvantages of 
leaving these considera- 
tions to the outcome of 
chance. 

"The troubles of the 
poor architect never di- 
minish, but only multi- 
ply. Just when he thinks 
he liasmasteredthe prin- 
ciples of the architecture 
of the Ancients, a whole 
lot of new commercial 
and mechanical problems 
are thrust upon him and 
he has to revamp all his 
ideas of architectural 
form, proportion, and 
mass to m.eet the practi- 
cal needs of the day. 

"A Greektemplebask- 
ing in the sunshine of a 
Mediterranean summer 
day and reflected in the 
waters of an azure sea, 
inspires him with the 
hope of some day repro- 
ducing such a vision in 
his own country. The 
first opportunity to re- 
construct this delightful 
vision is a twentv-storv 
loft building capped by 




FLOODLIGHTING IS NOT TO BE RESTRJCTED TO THE LARGEST CTT[ES 
AS EVIDENCED BY HELMLE A CORBETt's EFFECTIVE DESIG:^ FOR THE 
ILLL'MIN'ATIOV OF THE NEW PENNSYLVANIA POWER * LIGHT CO, 
BUiLDlXG AT ALLENTOWN. G-E FLOODLIGHTING WILL TRA.VSFORit 
THIS JiL'ILDlNG INTO A AIAG.MFICENT BEACO.V. 



on a stage. Buildings 
are noticed and com- 
mented on which other- 
wise would be passed by 
the casual observer with- 
out a thought, so that 
from one point of view 
the problem of architec- 
tural design with respect 
to night illumination is a 
very serious one, demand- 
ing a great deal of study 
and research. It will un- 
doubtedly become of 
ever-increasing impor- 
tance and one which no 
architect can afford en- 
tirely to overlook. For- 
tunately modern com- 
mercial demands have 
made many of the old 
familiar architectural 
forms which have come 
down to us from a 
past generation inap- 
propriate in modem 
work. In high buildings 
particularly, the cornice 
has practically disap- 
peared. Many other fa- 
miliar forms have gone 
with it. Mass, propor- 
tion, silhouette, and 
color haA-e become the 
commanding factors, 
and they are not so ma- 
terially influenced bv re- 
versing the angle of 
light; but we cannot let 
the matter rest with 

chance, simply hoping that the result of night illumi- 
nation may be good. We must design those portions 
of the building which are to be illuminated with all 
due respect and regard for this new element which 
has become so important a factor in the appearance 
of the building. 

"It happens too often in the design of buildings 
that illumination is an after consideration. The 
architect finds that spaces on which illumination is 
possible are not necessarily pleasing in mass and 
proportion, whereas with the thought in mind of 
planning these spaces for illumination, simple modi- 
fications in the plans M^ould have made these 
same spaces pleasing in proportion. Architectural 




HELMLE & COR-BETt's FAMOUS BUSH TOWER. G-E TLOO DLIGHTI .S'O 

ADDS A MVSTIC QCALITY TO THE BEAUTY Of THIS BUILDIXO AFTER 

DARK, AND A5 MR, tORBETT SAVS, "ciVES TH E ILLUMINATED PQRTJO.V 

THE APPEARANCE OF A JEWEL Iti A SETTING." 



detail has not as much 
significance as one might 
imagine. Since the illu- 
minating element is com- 
posed of many sources 
of light, the shadows are 
seldom equally divided, 
and the effect is more 
one of diffusion than of 
exactness. 

"The problem, to begin 
with, is one of mass and 
proportion. That portion 
of the building which is 
illuminated stands out 
clearly against a dark 
sky and is separated 
quite distinctly from the 
portion of the building 
unilluminated. Special 
study must of course be 
given to the line of tran- 
sition between these two 
portions. There is a tend- 
ency for the illuminated 
part to float unsupported 
and thereby lose its 
structural significance. 

The foi-m of the illumi- 
nated portion should be 
so tied in with the rest 
of the building that it 
should appear as a jewel 
in a setting, forming a 
coherent part of the 
whole structure. In or- 
der to illuminate a build- 
ing, two methods are gen- 
erally in vogue, — one by 
means of floodlights placed on the set-backs or ter- 
races, and the other by means of similar units placed 
on other buildings across the street or placed on the 
ground. The latter form is rarely possible in connec- 
tion with commercial buildings, but it has been used 
with great success in the lighting of government 
buildings and other public structures. It will be 
readily seen that if there is a choice in the location 
of the set-backs and their depth, it has a very direct 
influence on the effectiveness of the lighting." 



(Tvy^^rj) 



Character in Architecture Emphasized at Night 

PERTINENT SUGGESTIONS BY GEORGE L. RAPP. ARCHITECT. SHOW THE DRAMATIC 

POSSIBILITIES OF FLOODLIGHTING 



IK present-day architecture the designs of build- 
ings are frequentl}' such that it becomes a very 
desirable and very feasible part of the project 
to illuminate all or portions of the buildings and to 
present to view the beauties of the buildings at night 
as well as during the day. It is not only possible 
to light up an entire building with floodlights, but 
in many instances the design of the building is such 
that it is much more desirable to pick out certain 
features of the building to accentuate and at the 
same time produce silhouettes which bring out the 
character of the structure. 

There are many effects which floodlighting can 
produce, such as variation in color, combinations of 
colors, and intermittent dimming effects, as well as 
a varying intensity of light and color. The selec- 
tion of the type of floodlighting depends largely on 
the character of the building, as well as on the nature 
of the surface materials, 
which "\-ary greatly in 
light absorption and light 
reflection. In consider- 
ing color for floodHght- 
ing purposes, efficiency 
has great bearing on the 
selection, since in using 
the darker colors, stich as 
blue, efficiency is as low 
as 5 per cent. This indi- 
cates that much more 
current must be supplied 
with the darker colors 
than with the lighter ones 
in order to produce effec- 
tive results. Then again 
the matter of visibility 
must be taken into ac- 
count. This has to do 
with the possibility of 
seeing a building lighted 
in blue at a great height 
and through atmosphere 
containing either smoke 
or fog. Thus illumina- 
tion in brighter shades 
of color naturallv has the 
greatest value. However, 
if an installation is made 
in which the three pri- 
mary colors, blue, red 
and yellow, are in proper 
proportions, every color 
in the spectrum can be 
produced by using con- 
stantly rotating dimmers ; 




THE STEPPED RANGES OF G-E FLOODLIGHTING ON THE PARAMOUNT 
THEATER AND OFFICE BUILDING, NEW YORK, EFFECTIVELY ILLUS- 
TRATE THE IDEAS OF THE ARCHITECTS, C. W. AND CEO. L. RAPP. 



and if the building surfaces to be lighted are not too 
far removed from the viewing point, this lighting is 
ver\- effective. With the three colors on at the same 
time, a white light will be produced which bears a 
very close resemblance to daylight. The present-day 
"white light," as electrically produced, is far removed 
from sunlight or daylight, and unless some color is 
introduced it may produce glare. This can easily be 
overcome bv lighting a surface from two different 
angles, particularly if the surface is somewhat broken 
up with reveals or details in relief. 

In using colors for lighting buildings, illumina- 
tion from two angles and the use of complementary 
colors will produce striking effects. Here again visi- 
bility must be carefully considered, as in all color 
lighting. Until such time as we can successfuUy 
produce an artificial light resembling daylight, the 
best effects in floodlighting will be produced by using 

two colors as. already out- 
lined. However, when 
we do produce an arti- 
ficial liEjht more closelv 
resembling daylight, Ave 

shall be able to light a 
building so as to exhibit 
all of the lights and 
shadows which appear in 
a building during the day 
and which were upper- 
most in the mind of the 
designer while planning 
the structure. 

In designing floodlight- 
ing systems, great care 
must be taken in locating 
the floodlicrbtins^ units so 
that the desired effect of 
the gradations of light on 
the surface will be ob- 
tained. This also in- 
volves the necessity for 
care f ul analysis o f the 
light-absorbing and light- 
reflecting qualities of the 
material, and the distance 
and anHe from which 
this surface is to be 
lighted. The use of set- 
backs in modern Ameri- 
can architecture serves 
admirably tbe purpose of 
floodlighting in that it is 
much easier to locate the 
units properlv, and it is 
also true that present-day 




BANKS OF CE KLOODUGMTS, ON TI.E.K STUKDV SIPPOKTS. AKE SRT AT VARIOl'S ANCLES TO PRODUCE STHIKINC Eri-ECTS ON THE PARAMOUNT THEATER 



architecture nearly always embodies some motif 
which should very properly be brou^On out by night 
illumination. 

In addition lo what is commonly known as flood- 
liphtine:, many striking forms of Ilkimination can 
he produced, l-'or instance, towers of light with 
Hght on the inside, such as the ball of light atop the 
Paramount Building in \ew York, afford possi- 
bihties of floodlighting. Another .scheme is to throw 
floodlight on smoke or steam coming out r)f an orifice 
from tlie lop of a building, either in a single color 
or in a combination of colors. Still another possi- 
bility is that of constructing a large shaft equipped 
with mirrors and having colored light thrown on the 
mirrors from various angles, as well as the possi- 
bility of lighting the water in fountains, using vary- 
ing colors. 

Other notable examples of the floodlighting of 
recent buildings, in addition to the new Paramount 
Building already mentioned, are the "Times Square/' 
B. F. Keith theater and office building in Cleveland, 
and the new Rialto Theater. T<^Iiet. 111. These three 
buildings illustrate tJie use of difl'erent svstems of 
floodlighting. Architectural floodlighting is more or 
less governed by the actual composition and design 
of the building which is to receive this lighting effect. 
It is the wTiter's opinion that lines that form an 
integral i^art of the composition of the structure 
should also play the same part when the building 
is illuminated at night; in other words, the structure 



should always be the same in composition, lx)th night 
and day. and the flood of light should tie in and be 
part of the design of the building. 

On the Paramount Building the floodlighting is 
arranged to light all of the set-backs above the 19th 
floor, and an added efl'ect is produced by having a 
large amount of light contained in the glass ball 
surmounting the apex. A notable contrast is pro- 
vided in this lighting by having stud lighting on the 
hands and the minute pcjinls of the large clocks on 
thetopof the structure. In the Keith Theater in Cleve- 
land, it was desired to accentuate the large arched 
window decoration at the top of the building. In the 
Rialto Theater at Joliet (as will be the case with the 
Press Club in Washington) floodlighting consists of 
lighting the large entrance niche in three Cf)lors— red, 
green, and blue— controlled by the operation of an 
automatic in o tor-ope rated dimmer, wliich produces a 
very striking effect in the semi-domical niche. 

The writer is of the opinion that the light can 
always be so arranged as to emphasize motifs of 
design. Modern floodlighting has this advantage 
and has ceased to be a mere throwing of light on 
the face of a building. 




^\ie:ht Architecture" Will Be Perfected through the 
Cooperative Efforts of Architect and Illuminating Engineer 

B9 WAIlhH D'Arcv KyaV. lhr,,tor of Illuminating Enghurring Uhoruton , Crrnrai F.Ucirh Company: 
Uirnt'.r of lUuminatt'jn, runumu-huific Intirnational and Uruziium Caitennhi Kxpoiit'tons. 



IV 1 recent article in Tjit ARciuriCTtRAL Foru'M, 
Mr. Harvey Wiley Corbeti states: 
"It hap/rns tuu ufttn in tht dtsiyn of buildinys that 
iUumtHalittn is an aftrr considrration. Thr ankitect 
finds that spmti on uhiih illumination ii pussibU are 
not mecrssarilji pUasiny in mass and proportinn, tchfrais 
With the thought in mind of planning th^sf spui^s for 




nibUT Tww or rna towm or iBwtLn amd MAMtrrACTimnV ictLDiNt. 
■xrmiTinN. tms uivitnKttL'^ riix ckkmchvai'ion dv nicptii. utt itiK 

A i'< >Mlil \A tlUN ()» Will [K VI noDLK.II tH AND (.(ILIINKII 

tlluminutihN, slmplr modifuutiuns in tin- plans would 

hate trmdf thrse samr spacer plfimnt; in prnportinn." 

The iihnvc aptly expresses the need oi more careful 

considerarion of flootJIrEhtfnE (fiiring the evnlijtii)n of 

the buiMinu'* desi;:n. The illuiiiiiutini; cnijitKcr is 

thurouuhly familiar wirh the limirnriofis in the design 

of lighting apparatus. ThruuKh experience, he has 

learned to iwe the ivailahle UuiU in the most efficient 

nwiiricr. The architect may conceive the effect, but 

If rfmaint for the enipneer to pnMUicr It in a practical 

way. Far too ottru tlie en^jineer is not consulled until 

it IS too late to alter structural plans to accotniiunl.uc 

necewary apparatus. 

The wrll-traincd illuiiufi.irint; crii^inccr uf tu-Ja> can 
talk to the architect in hi^ own lanjpince. an<! he Is 
competrnt to conceive arri-.tic li^htini: ctlccts as well a^ 
to execute them. At the Pannma-P.tclfic Fxposition, 
in San Fratui.m, the cntitc icjpujisibiht) fur the plan- 
ning and prtulucrion of the illumination was intrusted to 
the illuniinatint enyineer. The wisdom of ^uch action 
WM attested by the classification of rfir lii^htin;: of the 
Exposition by the International Jury of Awards as a 
"decorative art," largely becauie it appealed to the imag- 



ination and feelings of the public, and carried a mes- 
sage much the same as paintint^ or music. Thc^^c et- 
lects were made pussibie largely by close cooperation 
with the architects, w ho were not only interviewed as to 
choice of motif to bcemphjyed in the design of the light- 
ing '.landard and fixture, but were reiiuested to expresi 
the general teeling they wished to convey to the observer 

by their respective archi- 
tectural composition^. ^VIth 
this mfurmation it was not 
difficult to carry out and 
cmpb;i.si/c the architect's 
theme in the lighting effect. 

One of many noteworthy 

examples ol; thi> willingness 
to cooperate may be cited. 
Tlie rough tra\t'rtlnc hni^h 
of the Exposition's surfaces 
was adopted onI> after the 
need for such a dlfiFuser and 
reHcctor of light iiad bceji 
(h-mnii'st rated and laboratory 
tests actual!) ni.ide on sam- 
pltN. In modern structures 
thl-i question of texture is 
equally Important. It 
should be remembered that 
the building is seen by re- 
tlectcd light, and. while a 
smoiith surface m;iv reflect 
the b^;lu from the sk\ to 
advantage, at the s;ime time 
it would act as a mirror to throw the rising li^ht from 
floodlights to the sky instead of ba^;k to the observer's 
eyes. 



fAN \VI\ I'^L IHC (NTIBNAriONAI. 

iiiiHi' iiiMKNvii*N rN iK.irr. nv 

HKI IKK LU.lt r. 




vif;nr vrcw ui 



'r rHKCArnoL ai WAiiii^».roN, hiiiuvin. i-i , 1 m, i.niHliNi. 
■rrkcr- l.^bd oikix.. hik cuNifKHKNCK ii» Liwi i v hon o> a«m vvknth. 

It IS Inspiring to read the articles by Mr. Ra\ morul 
M. Huud and Mi. C^eorge L. Rapp in recent i«ue^ of 




THE VNION TERMINALS BUILDING, CLEVELAND, OHIO. THt 
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, ADMIRABLY SUITED TO FLOOD- 
LIGHTING, IS SERVED DV 239 G-E UNITS OF VARIOUS IN- 
TENSITIES. SO PLACED AS TO PRESERVE EVERY DETAIL OF 

LIGHT AND SHADOW. 




G-E SEARCHLIGHTS ARE USED TO PRODUCE THIS PLEASING 
EFFECT OF LIGHT AND SHADOW ON THE LIBERTY MEMO- 
RIAL AT KANSAS CITY, MO. THE UNITS A.RE CONCEALED 
BEHIND THE CORNICES OF THE ADJACENT MEMORIAL 

BUILDINGS. 



The Architectural Forum. These men have used 
floodlighting on buildings of their own design and ap- 
preciate the possibilities in the correct use of high lights, 
shadows, colors, and even motion, provided the structure 
is designed for such effects. They predict "Architecture 
of the Night" and fortunately, the modern American 
skyscraper with its natural tendency toward vertical 
lines and set-back construction is in line with this de- 
velopment. 

In designing floodlighting the character of the build- 
ing as well as of the surroundings must be considered. 
The classical public edifice demands simplicity in 
lighting, and color would be out of place except as a 

relief to shadows. The many cornices, capitals, and 
applied ornamentations would be distorted by a rising 
light. Best results are obtained when the light emanates 
from a higher neighboring structure with about three- 
fourths of the volume coming from the left of the 
observer and one-fourth from the right to soften the 
shadows cast bv the former. 

— 

One is impressed by the dominating height and mass 
of the modern skyscraper. The architect has accom- 
plished this largely with vertical lines which, when 
high-lighted at night, further accentuate the effect. 

Necessarily these towering facades must be illuminated 
from below with high intensities fading toward the top. 
Such lighting tends to exaggerate the height of the 
structure, but it appears to best advantage when it can 
be surmounted by a colored, or a much more intensely 

illuminated, element. It is this element in the form of 
a spire, tower, lantern, or dome, that is seen by the 
greatest number of people and from the greatest dis- 
tances. It is the jewel of the main structure and de- 
serves lavish treatment and, fortunately, because of its 
reduced area it can be given many times the light in- 
tensity of the main structure at a relatively small in- 
crease in over-all cost. 



Long viewing distances call for high intensities and 
white light. Red, orange, and amber lighted surfaces 
have fairly good carr}ing power, and green may some- 
times be used to advantage. Blues and purples, which 
are so effective for stage lighting, can scarcely ever be 
used for exterior lighting without excessive cost except 
in very small areas or where there is no complication 
from other light sources. This is due, largely, to the 
high absorption of blue or purple screening media 
which usually exceeds 95 per cent. 

The relative wattages required for the different colors 
for equivalent effects depend on local conditions, the 
nature of the surroundings, and the texture and color 
of the surface to be illuminated. They may vary as 
much as five to one between white and colored light 
on a light surface and again there may be no difference, 
as in the case of the illumination of a red brick build- 
ing. Red brick reflects mostly red light, so it matters 
very little whether all other colors are screened out at 
the floodlight door or by absorption at the brick itself. 
The former method is preferred, because the impurities, 
lime and mortar stains, etc., are usually accentuated 
by white light, and the added brightness of these re- 
flections overpowers the dimmer red rays. The engineer 
takes into consideration the reflection coefficients, tex- 
tures, and colors of the surfaces to be illuminated. 

In the abbreviated scope of this article, only sufficient 
high lights have been touched to excite an interest in the 
subject of floodlighting and point out the functions as 
well as the need for coordination of the work of the 
architect and the illuminating engineer. 



(Tvy^r;) 



GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY. 



GENERAL OFFICE 




SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 



Sales Offices — Address nearest Office 

Akron. Ohio 159 South Main Street 

Amanllo. Tex 806 South Grant Street 

Atlanta. Ga 187 SpritK;; Street, Northwest 

Baltimnrc. Md 39 West Lexington Street 

Binghamton. N. Y ..19 Chenango Street 

Birmingham. Ala 603 North Eighteenth Street 

Bluefield, W. Va 307 Federal Street 

Boston. Mass 84 State Street 

Buffalo N. Y 39 East Genesee Street 

Butte, Mont 20 West Granite Street 

Canton, Ohio 700 Tuscarawas Street, West 

Charleston WVa 30 J Capitol Street 

Charlotte. N. C 200 Smith Tryon Street 

ChattanooRa. Tenn ,536 Market Street 

Chicago, in 230 Smith Clark Street 

Cincinnati. Ohio 215 West ThinI Street 

Cleveland. Ohio <)2.5 Euclid Avenue 

Columbus. Ohio .17 South Hi^h Street 

Dallas. Tex laoi \nrth Lamar Street 

Davenport. Iowa m East Third Sti-eet 

Day tun, Ohio 25 North Main Street 

Drnvcr, Colo G-W Seventeenth Street 

Des Momes. Iowa 41S West Sixth Avenue 

Detroit, Mich.. 700 Antoinette Street 

Duluth, Minn , 14 West Superior Street 

El Paso, lex 109 North Oregon Street 

Erie. Pa 10 East Twelfth Street 

Fort Wayne, Ind l^>.^'i Broadway 

Fort Worth. Tex 410 Wpst Seventh Street 

Grand Rapids. Mich 148 Monroe Avenue 

Hartford, Conn \h Asylum Street 

Houston, lex |016 Walker Avenue 

Indianap.ihs, Ind 110 North Illinois Street 

Jackson. Mich L'lJ Michigan Avenue, West 

Jacksonrille, Fla ] I East Forsyth Street 

Kansas City, Mo 1004 Baltimore Avenue 

Knoxvilic. T;?nn 602 South Gay Street 

Little Rock, Ark . ,22;j West Second Street 

Los Anrc-lea, Calif .5201 Santa Pe Avenue 

Louisville. Ky 455 South Fourth Street 



Canada: Canadian General Electric Company, Ltd. Toronto 

Motor Dealers and Lamp Agencies in all large cities and towns 

SERVICE srrops 

Atlanta, Ga 496 Glenn Street, Southwest 

BufTalo, N Y ril.S Urban Street 

Chicago. Ill 50P East Illinois Street 

Cincinnati. Ohio 215 West Third Street 

Cleveland. Ohio li;j.3 East I52nd Street 

Dallas. Tex 1801 North Lamar Street 

Detroit, Mich 700 Antoinette Street 

Kansas City. Mo 819 East Nineteenth Street 



Memphis. Tenn 130 Madison Avenue 

Miami. Fla 25 Southeast Second Avenue 

Milwaukte. Wis 4L?5 East Water Street 

Minneapolis, Minn 107 South Fifth Street 

Nashville. Tenn 234 Third Avenue. North 

Newark. N.J 20 Washington Place 

New Haven, Conn 129 Church Street 

New Orleans. La. . 837 Gravier Street 

New York. N. Y 120 Broadway 

Niagara FalU. N. Y 201 Falls Street 

Oklahoma Cily. Okla 15 North Robinson Street 

Omaha, Nehr 409 South Se\'entcpnth Street 

Philadelphia. Pa 1321 W'alnut Street 

Plioem.x, Ariz 11 West Jefferson Street 

Pittsburgh, Pa ,535 Smithfield Street 

Portland, Greg 329 Alder Street 

Providen<^e, R. 1 76 Westminster Street 

Richm.ind. Va 700 East Franklin Street 

Roanoke, Va 202 South Jefferson Street 

Rochester, N, Y 89 East Avenue 

St. Louis. Mo 112 North Fourth Street 

Salt Lake Citv, Utah 200 Sooth Main Street 

San Antonio. Tex 201 Villita Street 

San Francisco. Calif 235 Montgomery Street 

Schenectady, N. Y 1 River Road 

Seattle. Wash SI 1 First Avenue 

Spokane, Wash . .421 Riverside Avenue 

Kprinnfiold. Ill 504 East Monroe Street 

Springfield. Mass 13K7 Main Street 

Syracuse. N. Y 113 South Salina Street 

Tacoma, Wash 1019 Pacific Avenue 

Tampa. Fla 112 Cas.s Street 

Terre Haute. Ind .701 Wahash Avenue 

Toledo, Ohio 520 Madison Avenue 

Tulsa, Okla 409 Sonlh Boston Street 

Utica. N. Y 258 Genesee Street 

Washington, D. C , .1405 G Street. Northwest 

Waterliury, Conn 195 Grand vStreet 

Worcester, Mass ,340 Main Street 

Youngstown, Ohio 16 Central Square 

Hawaii: W. A. Ramsay, Ltd.. Honolulu 



Los Angeles, Calif 520.'i Santa Fe Avenue 

Minneapolis. Minn 410 Third Avenue, North 

New York. N. Y 416 West Thirteenth Street 

Philadelphia. Pa 429 North Seventh Street 

Pittsburgh. Pa 16 Terminal Way 

St. Louis. Mo 1009 Spruce Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah .360 West Second South Street 

Seattle. 'Wash I50K Fourth Avenue. South 



opeciai service .iivisions are also maintamei at the following works of the Companv: Erie. Pa.- Ft. Wayne. Ind.; 
Oakland, Oalit.; Pittslield. Mass.; Schenectady, N. Y.; an i West Lynn, Mass.— River Works and West Lynn Works. 



WGY. Schenectady, N. Y. 



BROADCASTING STATIONS 
KOA. Denver. Colo. 



KGO. Oakland. Calif. 



Distributors for the General Electric Company outside of the United States and Canada 
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, INC. 
New York City, 120 Broadway Oencfal Sales Offices. Sch.nectady. N. Y. 

FOREIGN OFFICES, ASSOCIATED COMPANIES AND AGENTS 
Argentina: General Electric. S. A., Buenos Aires, Cordoba. Rosario dc Santa Fe. Tucuman. and Mendnza 
Austr.alia: Australian General Electric Company. Ltd.. Sydney. Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Newcastle, Rockhamo- 

ton, Mattra, CalaC, TownsviUe. Canberra. Alborry. and Lismore . . t- 

Belgium and Colomies: Societe d' Elcctricite et de Mecanique (Procedes Thomson-Houston & Cards) 

bocicte Anonyme. Brussels. Belgium 
Brazil: General Electric. S- A,, Rio dc Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Bahia, Portn Ale^re. Bello Horizonie. Jui? de Fnra. and Recife 
Uenthal AMtiRicA: International General Electric Co.. Inc., Panama City. Panama; Guatem 



Orleans, La. 



■mala City. Guatemala: New 



Chilk: International Machinery Company Santiago. Antofagasta and Valparaiso. Nitrate Agencies. Ltd., Iquiquc 

China: Andersen. Meyer & Companv. Ltd.. Shanghai; China General Edison Company. Shanghai •■ ^ ^ 

Colombia: Internatnnal (Tcneral Electric. S. A.. Barranquilla. Bogota. MedeUin. and Call 

Cuba; General Electric Companv of Cuba. Havana, and Santiago de Cuba 

Ecuador: Guayaquil Agencies Co., Guayaquil 

Egypt: British Thomson-Houston Company, Ltd., Cairo 

France and Colonibs: Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston. Paris; International General Electric Co,, Inc.. Paris' 
Lompagnie Des Lampes. Pans ' 

GerMANV: H- B. Peirce, Representative. General Electric Co.. Berlin 

Great Britain amd Irklamp: Internationa] General Electric Co.. Inc.. British Thomson-Houston Co.. Ltd.. London. W. C.2; 
tiritisn t homson-nouston Co.. Ltd.. Rugby. 

Greeci; ani> Coloniics: Compagnie Francaise Thomson- Houston. Paris. France 

Holland: Mijnssen & Co., Amsterdam 

India: International General Electric Company, Inc.. Calcutta. Bombay and Bangalore 

Italy amp Colonies: Compagnia Gcnerale Di Elettricita. Milan 

Japan: Shibaura Engineering Works. Tok-v-,; Tokyo Electric Company. Ltd., Kawasaki. Kanagawa- Ken ; International 
ijenerat blectnc Co., Inc.. Tokyo and Osaka 

Java; rnternational General Electric Co., Inc.. Soerabaia 

Mexico: General Electric. S. A.. City of Mexico. Guadalajara. Monterrey. Vera Cruz and El Pa^n Texas 

Df„^^,,-,^^i''^n"" ^^tional Electrical and Engineering Company, Ltd., Auckland, Dunedin, Christchurch and WcUin; 

Faragi AV: treneral Electric. S. A.. Buenos Aires, Argentina 

Peru: W. R. Grace & Company. Lima 

Philippink IsLAvns: Pacific Commercial Companv. Manila; International General Electric Co. I 

I ORTO Rico; International General Electric Company of Porto Rico San Juan 

Portugal ANP Colonies; Snciedade Iberica de Construcoes Electricas Lda. Li'^hon 

South Africa: South African General Electric Company. Ltd.. Johannesburg. Capetown. Dnrban. and Porl 

Spain and Colonirs: Sociedad Ihenca de Const rucci ones Electricas, Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao. Valladolid 

tiwiTzERLANn: IroHict Freres. Gene\-a 

UgurUAY: General Electric. S. A.. Montevideo 

■VENE2UELA; General Electric. S. A., Caracas and Maracaibo 



igton 



nc, Manila 



rt Elizabeth 
and Se villa 



February. 1930 C6M) 



.1 H 



GED-375 



■ I 







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