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Cap. 1. De principiis, eornmque cognoscendorum ra- 
tione. 2. De iis philosophis, qui unom modo priocipium 
statuerint. 3* De Melissi et Parmenidia doctrina. 4. De 
physicorum veterum circa principia placitia. 5. Contra- 
ria ponenda esse principia. 6. Noo unum modo, fed 
nee plura duobut aut tribut ease ponenda. 7. Tria ease 
ponenda, et quomodo. 8. De erroribus veterum. 

Gap. 1. Quid ait natura. 2. Quomodo differat pb j - 
sicus a mathematico. Physicnin et circa materiam et circa 
formam versari. 3. De causis, quae nam et quotaint. 4. De 
Fortuna et Casu. 5. Quid de fortuna atatuendum sit. 
6. Quomodo differat ab casu. 7. Physici esse, de omnibus 
cansia disserere. 8. Naturam propter certum finem agere. 
9. De necessitate in rebus physicis. 

Cap. 1 — 2. Quid sit motus. 3. Motum esse in mo- 
bili, uon in movente. 4. De infinite, 5. Infinitum sepn- 
Arist. Pnrs. Ausc. ' 

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rabilc a sensilibus, nullum esse, contra antiquos physicos, 
6. Esse, h. e. existere infinitum, et quomodo sit, et quid 
sit. 7. Quomodo ex definitione infiniti sequantur, quae 
de eo siut tradita. 8. Aliorum propositiones confutantur. 

Cap.l. An sit locus, et quid ille sit. 2. Locum non esse 
forma m neque materiam. 3. Quomodo aliquid in alio 
quodam, et an aliquid in se ipso esse possit. 4. Quid sit 
locus ex sententia auctoris. 5. De iis, quae sunt in loco, 
deque loci accidentibus. 6. De vacuo. 7. Antiquorum 
de eo opinio nes. 8. Quod non recle per mo turn astrna- 
tur vacuum, quando posito vacuo tollalur motus. 9. Re- 
futatur opinio eorum , qui vacuum demonstrarnnt ex 
denso et raro. 10. De tempore : an sit, quid sit , et quod 
aon sit motus. 11. Esse tempus ; sed neque esse motum, 
neque sine motu. Temporis esse numerum. 12. Pro- 
poiiuntur theoreinata, ad plenam temporis cognitionem 
speciantia. 13. Explicatur, quid sit, quod dicimus nunc, 
olim, iam, nuper, quondam , subito. Qua ratione tem- 
pus omnia ferat et auferat. 14. Omnem mutationem mo- 
tumque in tempore fierL Aliae de tempore quaes ti ones. 

Cap. 1. Quot modis mutentur, quae mutantur, et quid 
ditferat motus a mutatione. 2. De motu et quiete, et quot 
et quales sint motus. 3. Quid sit, quod dicimus : simul, 
seorsim, tangere, inter, deinceps, haerens, continuum. 
4. Quia motus simpliciter sit nans. 5. Qnis motus cui 
motui sit contrarius. 6* Quae quies cui motui sit con- 

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Cap. 1. De continuo. Demonstrator, nullum conti- 
nuum ex indivisibilibus compositum esse. 2. Et tcmput 
et magnitudinem esse continua et infiaita. 3. Id quod 
nunc didmus , esse indivisibile, neque motum in eo esse, 
aec quietem. 4. De motus et muutionis divisione. 5. De 
or dine partium motus, et primo an sit in motu primnm. 
6. Quomodo ea quae sunt in motu, sesepraecedant. 7.De 
finite et infinito in motu. 8. De quibusdam necessariis 
sd divisionem quietis. 9. Confutantur quorundam erro- 
res circa motum, et primnm Zenonis, negantis prorsus 
motum eue, 10. Indivisibile non moveri, contra Demo- 
rritum, qui docuerit, atomos per se moveri. Nullam mu- 
tationem intlnitam esse, contra Heraclitnm, ponentem 
omnia semper moveri. 

Cap. 1. Quidquid moveatur , ab aliqno moveri , et 
quod primus motus quispiam sit, primusque motor. 2. 
Movens cum eo, quod moveatur, simul esse. 3. Omnem 
alterationem esse in sensilibus , et in parte animae seusi- 
tiva. 4. Qui motus siot inter se comparabiles. 5. Quo- 
modo inter se comparentur motus. - 

Cap. 1. Motum utrinque ease aeternum. 2. Defendi- 
tur boc contra adversarios. 3. Motum primnm esse aeter- 
num, primumque movens immobile; et quare quaedam 
modo moveantur, modo quiescant. 4. Quidquid moveatur, 
ab alio moverL 5. Primnm movens ewe immobile. 
6. Esse aliquod aeternum primnm movens, quod neque 

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pex se neque per accidens moyeatur. 7. Prlmum et . 

motum laiionem((poQdw)y eamque solam esse coiitinua < 

8. Circularem motum solum esse posse contiuuu 

9. Eundem esse posse infinitum ac primum* 10. Primi • 
moyens expers tue omtiis magnitudinis et materiae. 

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zodog Moral o tov av&qtimov Xoyog * aXXa a^vva- 
\ov ixuvo yao iv tg> ixuvov Xoyw tvtOTir. El o 
iXXoj avf*/3e/fyxe to dlnovv, xal to Swoy, xai py io™* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


SXaXSgOV, OTTSQ OV XI, Xal O &V&Q*mOf £v sl'l) X&V 

ovfifePrixoToiv kxsgw. 9. IdXXa xb onsg ov xi, %atm 
fitjdsvl ovfipe(trjx6g * xal xa#' ov ilfUfxa, xal kxaxs- 
gov, xal to ix xovxtav Xsyio&w • i$ adiatgsxtav aga 
xb nav. "Evioi de ividoaav xolg Xbyotg afi(poxsgoig * 
r« psv, oxi navxa sv, si to ov sv or\iiaivti t oxi iaxl 
xal to firj ov tw di, ix xtjg dixoxofilag axopa novr)- 

J (favxsg fisys&rj. 10. Qavsgbv ds xal oxt ovx aXy- 
• &sg, a>g si sv orjfialvu xb ov^ xal fxr] oibv xb apa xtjv 

. ' avxlqtaotv slvai, tovx soxaioidsv prj ov ovdev yog 
xmXvsi fir\ aJtXwg slvat, alia fit] ov xt slvat, xo (ir) ov. 
To drj cpavai naq avxo xo ov, wg si fiff xi Karat al- 
io, IV navxa soso&at, axonov. Tig yag pav&avsi 
avxo xb ov, si firj xb onsg ov xi slvat; si b*i xovxo, 
ovdiv ovxco xtoXvst noXXa xit ovxa slvat, iigneg sfyq* 
xai. "Oxt (isv ovv ovx&q IV slvat xb ov advvaxov, 

'fig d* oi cpvowol Xsyovat, dvo xgonot siaiv * oi 
fisv yag s*v notrjoavxsg xb ov aSipa xb vnoxslpsvov, ijf 
xav tqiwv xi, ij aXXo , o ioxt nvgbg fisv nvxvoxsgov, 
aigog ds Xsnxoxsgov, xaXXa ysvvwst, nvxvoxijxt xal 
pavbxr\xt noXXa notovvxsg, Tavxa d' ioxlv ivavxia • 
xa&oXov 6' vnsgoxv *a* sXXstiptg, iignsg xb piya yij- 
ol nXaxtav xal xb ptxgov nXtp oxt, 6 fisv, xavxa 
notsl vXtjv , xb ds tv, xb sldog • oi ds\ to psv IV xb 
vnoxslpsvov, vXijv • xa d* ivavxia, diaqtogag xal el'- 
Srj • oi di ix xov ivbg ivovoag xag ivavxwx^xa^ ix- 
xglvovaiv, wgnsg 'Avatipavdgog <prjoi> • xal oooi 6s ev 
xal noXXa cpaoiv slvat xit b'vxa, Hgnsg 'Eii7isfioxXi\g 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xal 'Avatayofag • Ik tov plypaxog yog nal ovfot lx- 
zgivovm xa alia. Jiayigovai 5' aXXyXup, tw to* 
pe* ntgio&ov Jtouiiv xovxav xbv o°, anal* xal xbv 
pir, axtiQa, nx xs bpeiopegrj, xal xaravxi* • top di, 
to xaiovptva axoi/ua povov. 2. "Eomt di IdvaJsa- 
yogxg ovxmg antiga oirj&t}veti xa orot/sta , 8ta to 
vMoXapfiaxav xyv xoiyr,y do*av xatv yvotxir tfrat 
alrftr}, mg ov yivofUvov ovdtvbg ix tov pi) owxog • 
9ta toOto /«p ovxto Xiyovoiv?Hv bpov xit nana, xal 
Tiyire<f&ai xotovdt xa&duTrjxtv aXXoiwo&ai • ol &, 
ovyxgioiv xal faaxgioiv. 3. tri £ 'ix tov yiVBO&cu 
£ aXXrjXaty xararxia • hvntjgxfy iga * «* /ao «a* 
/it? to yirifitwov avayxr) yivto&aitj I* oVtw, % ix pi\ 
ovxw xovx&v di, to /tlv Ix /iij oWc*? /irto&cu, 
itdvraxor • jtco) yao Tavrt/e bpoyv^apwovat xrys 9i- 
fy? anavrtg oi ntgl q>w?t<ag • to Xombv rfii\ ovpjfal- 
ruv l| aydyxijg bipusar, i$ orrw /it* xa* iyimag- 
twT<»y yhta&ai • 0*a £« o/i ixgbxyxq Twy oyxwp, i$ 
arcuo&rjTtyr tj/ur. Jib <paol icav iv navxl ptplx&at, 
tarn jiw* Ix TiavTO? ktfow yivopevor • <paiveo&ai di 
dia<pdgovxa, xal 7tgogayogcvso&ai fotga aA>lij;W, Ac 
toiJ pdkiaxa vizegixovxog , &a to wX^o? I* tiJ ju/&* 
tw amlQW dXixgivwg uiv yag oXoy Xtvxby r\ pi- 
lay, ^ aagxa % ooxovv, oix that- vxov di nXtlaroy 
txaoxov %x u t tovto 8okhv tlvai rijy cpvoiv xov nga- 
ypaxog. 4- El di) xb piv ansigor, jj aittvgov, ayrta- 
oxov, to piv xaxa xb nXy&og tj piyed-cg aititgov, a- 
\yoiaxov noabv xi • xb hi xax tldog anfiQov, ayvm- 
(Ttov Ttoiov xi, Ttov d* ao/aw antlqtav ovatov xal xa- 
xa nXri&og xal xax tldog, advvaxov dbivai xa Ix 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xovxav. Ovxto yag eldevat xo avv&exov vnoXafifidvo^ 
pev, oxav eldwpev ix xivwv xal noaatv ioxiv. 5. *Exi. 
#', el dvdyxr], ov xo pogiov irSs/fitou brtrjXixovovv 
slvat xaxd fieye&og xal ojmxqottjtci, xal avxb ivds- 
Xeodai 9 Xeyta de xiov xoiovxmv xv fiogiwv, tig o ivv- 
ndgxov dtatgeixat, xo okov el de advvaxov £wov r\ 
<pvxbv bnr\Xixovovv elvai xaxd ftiye&og xal fiixgoxij- 
xa, (pavegbv btt ovde xwv fiogitav bxwvv. "jEoxai yag 
xal xo bXov hfioiwg. 2agS de xal oaxovv, xal xa xoi- 
avxa, fiogia £(aov • xal ol xagnol , xwv (pvxtav. z/»j- 
Xov xoivvv oxi advvaxov adgxa, ?j oaxovv, tj aXXo xt 
bnrjXixovovv elvai to fieye&og, % in\ x6 fiei£ov, tj inl 
to lAatTov. 6. y £xi, et dnavxa fiev evvndgxsi id xoi- 
avxa iv aXXyXoig, xal firj yivexai, al£ txxgivexai 
ivovxa, Xeysxat, ds anb xov nXelovog, ytvsxai ds $ 
OTovotiv bxiovv (olov ix aagxbg vdwg ixxgwojievov, 
xal oag$ i$ vdaxog) anav de otofia nenegaafievov dvai- 
guxai vnb owjiaxog nenegaafievov * (pavegov oxi ovx 
ivdextnxi iv exdaxoj exaaxov vndgxsiv. *A<paige-&elarig 
yag ix xov vdaxog aagxog, xal naXtv aXXrjg yivofid- 
vri$ ix xov XoLiioV dnoxgioei, el xal del iXdxxcav eaxai 
7} ixxgivopevrj, aX£ Oftwg ovx vneg^aXXei fieye&og 
xi xp ofiixgoxrjxi • wgxe, el fiev ax^aexai rj exxgiaig, 
ol'X anav iv navxl ivioxat,' iv yag toi Xoino* vdaxi 
ovx ivvndg&i odg$. El de p; ax^aexai, «AA' del e$ei 
d(palgeaiv, iv nenegaofievat fieye&et, Xaa mnegaafiha 
iveaxav , dneiga xo nXij&og' xovxo 5' advvaxov. 
7. Ilgbg de xovxoig , ei anav fiev owfia dqpaige'&ivxog 
iivbg eXaxxov dvdyxr\ yiveo&ai , xqg de aagxbg oSa*- 
axai xo noabv xal fieye&ei, xal Ofiixgoxrixi,, (pavsgov 

Digitized by GOOgle 


oxi4xxiqg ilaxiarijg oagxbg oidh 4xxgt&yaBxai oStpa' 

hxai ydg tkaxxov x^g 4Xaxioxv\g. "Ext d\ 4v xolg 

umlgoig atopaaiv hvndgxot, dv ijdrj odg£ antigog, xal 

aipa, xal 4yx£paXog, xtxuiguifiiva fibnot d?t aXXtj- 

Xw ovdev di r t xxoy ovia y xal anugov ixuorov. Tov- 

to d 3 aXoyov. 8. To di pyddnoxa diaxgi&rioeo&ai, 

ovxudoxwg piv Xiysxai, og&tog di Xdytxat' xd ydg 

na&rj ax^gwxa. El ovv fii^uxxai xd xgfofiaxa xal ai 

&ig, ear diaxgi&woiv, toxai t* Xsvxbv, rj vyitwbv, 

WZ hsgov -ti oy, oidi xa& 3 vnoxeipirov. "jlgrs «to- 

nog ia ddvvaxa £rjxa>y b vovg, sI'tisq (tovXtxa* per 

biaxgivat, • tovxo di nottjoai ddvvaxov, xal xaxd to 

noaov xal xaxa xb noiov • xal xaxd piv to noabv, 

oxi ovx toxtv iXdxtoTov fiiye&og* xaxa di xb noibv, 

Ixi axMQurca xd nd&tj. g. Ovx og&<og di oidi xi\v 

yivtoiv Xapfavn ix t&v bjuoioeidwy. "Eoxi ydg tag b 

nifkog sig nrjXovg diaiguxai, ion d* wg oil, Kal ovx 

baixbg xgonog, a>g nXiv&oi 4$ olxiag, xal olxia 4x 

nXiy&av. Ovxa di xal vdatg xal a^o «£ aXXt}X<av xal 

ml xal yivovxai. BiXxuov d* 4idxx(o xal nsntgaapi- 

ra Xafiuv, ontg noiel 3 EfnzsdoxXr)g. 


i» nivrtg dy xavavxia dgxdg noiovow , one Xiyov- 

xig oxi tv to ndv, xal fiij xivovpevov • (xal ydg llag- 

fttyiSfjg S'tgfibv xal ipvxgbv dgydg nom, xavxa di 

ngognyogwu nvg xal y^v •) xal ol, flavor xal nvxvbv, 

xal 4f}fJioxgixog xb oxtgtbv xal xtvbv, a>v xb fih wg 

ov, to d tag ovx ov ilval cprjoiv • sxt &iou, oxrifiaxi,, 

xd$€i • Totvxa di yivr\ ivavxiwv. Gian, ws dvta, xdxw, 

ngoa&sv, bnio&sv • oxyficixi, yeywvuofiivov, aywvtov, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tv&if, neoNpeaeg. 2. "Oxi ph ovv xivavxla nw$ nav- 
xeg noiovanag agx*$* StjXov. Kal xovxo tiXoywg • 
del yaq xag agxag fifae iS aXXrjXfov elvctt, pyxs 4$ aX— 
Xw xal 4x xovxtav navxa, Toig Si 4vavxioig xotg 
noxoxoig imaox&> xavxa, Sta fikv xi nqwxa ilvai, fxi) 
4$ iiXXap • Sia Si xi ivavxia, fit) 4$ uXXrjXwv. 3. i^Ace 
Su to vxo «al &r2 toi) Xoyov oxiymad-ai, n&g w^^ai— 
^ vu* Avpxxiov drj nqmxov, on anavxtAV xav ivzoiv ov— 
^Siv ovx$ noiHV n&pvxtv, ovxs neta/eiv xi xv%ov vtio 
%ov tv%6vtoq • ovdi yivexat otwvv 41 oxovovv, iuv 
fiy nq Xapfidvy xaxd avfi^e^xig • 7ra>£ y«o £)> yivot- 
xo to ^evxov ix powucoi/, sAqy £fc/if7 {x«Ta] avfi^i^ 
xig ei'ri t<» Xevxa> J) t« psXavt, to fiovaixov y aiUa 
JUt/xoy jugv ylvtxai 4£ ov Xevxov, xal xovtev ovx & 
navxig, aXX* 4x piXavog, ij tcw? (tuxa&u ■• «a» fiovm- 
xiv, 41 ov fiovoixov, nXtfV ovx 4x navxig, dXX i£ 
afiovoov, tj el' xi avxtav 4&xl ftexu^v. 4* Ou<Se #jj 
cpfteloetou eig xi xv/ov rxotoxoy, olov xi Xevxov, ovx 
sig fiovatxov, nXtjv elnoxt xaxd ot^u/?£/?i}xo?, aXX Big 
xi fit] Xsvxby * xal to ^uiy JUtttcov, ovx e*s xi xvxiv, 
aXX' tig xi fiiXav, rj xi p.txa$v • woavttag Si xal xi 
[iovowbp ug xi fit} fiovatxiv , xal xovxo ovx tig xi 
xvxiv, al£ tig xi apovaov, J) ti'xi aixmv 4axl /i«ra- 
£v. 5. 'Ofioiotg di xovxo xal inl xiav aXXav, 4nsl xa* 
xa fir\ anXa xwv qvxmv , aXXa avv&Exa xaxa xir av- 
xiv £%$i Xoyov aXXa Sia xi py xag avxtxti^ivag 
Sia&eoetg wvofiaad-at , Xav&avu xovxo avftfkuvov • 
avdyxt) yaq nav xi f^fioafiivov 4% avaqpooxov yiv%- 
o&ai, xal xi avaqftooxov «*| rjofAOOfiivov xal<p&*i- 
Qso&at, xi t^fjioofiivor eig avafftootiur , xa* xavirjv 

Digitized by GoOgle 


oi xqv Tvxovaav, alia xijy arxixfiftbrjv. 6. du*- 
ydgei fl ov&r &i* mgfiovimg tin tip, jj TCfSf*)?, i} ovr- 
■& do tcag • pawicy yap oti o «tto? Ao/o? Arr/y. Vfi- 
l& fAijv xol ocxta, xa* ardywg, xal OTtot/x «JUo y/rf- 
tox bfioltog • ij *i« /ao oix/a ybtxai in xov /uif avy- 
xslo&cu, allot dttjgrp&ai xadl •*&'• xal o «x£ot«f, 
xa* T<uy ia/riptatiepdvm' t* t| aaxrjftoovnjg, xal txa- 
oxov xovxw, xa fib rati?, ret &i ovw&Bolg xtg ioxb. 
7. £2 xoivvv xovx ioxiv alrj&ig, Sntav ar yiyrono to 
yivofitvov, xal y&tigotxo xb y&UQOusvov, rj 4$ bav- 
xiatv, ^ «fe bavxla, xal xa to v tow /utr«£v. Ta & 
utxa$v, ix twx bavxUav iaxlv, o\ov /pw/jaja I* A*v- 
xov xai uilavog. "jh&t nana aw tXtj ta <pim* /wo- 
fttva , % bavxia y r±i\ bavxiiav, 8. Mixgt, juex ovx 
toi/toi; , ax^ov avvrjxolov&rjxaol xal x»p alitor oi 
nluaxot, xa&amg ttnofitp ngoxtgor* nmrxsg yaq 
xa OTOizua, xal rag in aixwv xalovfupag agxitg 
xahttq ctvtv loyov xi&bxsg, pfitog xavavxia liyovoir, 
wg-neg V7i aix%g tyg aXy&sicu; avayxao&bxtg, Aut- 
yiqvvvh y alh]X(ov, t£ xovg fib ngortga, xovg d 
voxega lafipaveiv • xal xovg fib ypotgifniTtga xaxa 
xbv loyov, xovg $$ xaxa xi\v aXo$r\aiv • oi fib yag 
&8Dpbv xal yv%qov 9 ol ds vygbr xal jf^oox, I'xsgoi di 
nsgixxbv xal agxiop, oi ds vtixog xal (piliar, alxla'g 
xi&spxai xyg yspiasug. Tavxa d 3 aXXtjlwy dtayiou 
xaxa xbv slgr^fiivov xginov. 9. w J2st£ xaixa liyup 
n<og, xal htoa aXirjXav stiff a fib, agnep xal doxtl 
xo7g nltlaxoig * tot avxa di t) ievaloyov • lafiftavovoi 
yag ix xyg avxr^g ovoxoix'uxg ' t« fib yag ntgdx*i% 
xa ds TTSQiixtxat xStv bavxitov. Tavtrj dy wa«VTwg 

Digitized by GOOgle 



Xeyovoi xal kxegutg , xal x&Q 0V > * a * fiiXxiov * xotl oi 
fiev, yvtogifidxega xaxd xbv Xoyov y agneg el'gyxat 
ngoxegov oi de, xaxd r^v al'o&riaiv xb piv yag xa- 
\ &6Xov, xaxd xbv Xoyov yvagifiov • to de x«^' exa- 
gtov, xaxd xr\v aXod-r\oiv • o /icy yag Xbyog, tov xa- 
&oXov • 7\ d* aVod-rioiQ, tov xaxd fiegog • oiov to fiiya 
xal xb fiixoby xaxd tov Xoyov, to de (ictvbv xotl to nv- 
xvbv xaT« xr\v ai'a&rioiv. "Or* fiev ovv ivavxiag del 
tag agxag elvai, (pavegov. 

3 Ex6fievov d' av etrj Xiyetv, noxtgov dvb, 1} xgelg, 
tj nXelovg eioh filav fiev ydg ovx olovxe, 0x1, ovx £V 
xa ivavxla • dneigovg de ov, or* ovx lmaxr(ibv xb ov 
eaxav ula xe ivavxlatoig iv navxl yivu M m yd' 
ovola ev xi yivog • xa* ot* ivdixsxai 4x nenegaofie- 
vav. BeXxiov de 4x nemgaafievwv, togneg *Efinedo- 
xXrig, 17 4$ anelgatv. ndvxa yag anodidovai, ol'exai, 
agneg *Ava$ay6gag ix xiav otTteigwv. "Exi de, ioxlv aX- 
Xa aXXtav ngoxega ivavxia, xal yivexai exega i$ aX- 
Xtov, oiov xb yXvxv xal mxgbv, xal Xevxbv xal fieXav 
xag d' agxag del del fieveLv. 2. "Oxt, fiev ovv ovxe 
^ fila, ovxe aneigoi, dijXov ex xovxmv • inel de nene- 
gaofievat, xb //?/ noietv dvo fibvov, %xei xivd Xoyov. 
Anogrjoeie yag av xig, nag fj Ttvxvoxrjg xi\V fiavbxr\xa 
noielv xi niqpvxev, ij avxr\ xrjv nvxvoxr\xa. 'Ofioltog 
de xal dXXrj bnoiaovv 4vavxibxv\g • ov yag ^ qpiXia xb 
velxog avvdyei, xal novel xi 4£ aixov, oi'de xb velxog 
i§ ixeivtjg, aXX y Sfiopto exeoov xi xgixov. > Evioi de xal 
nXel<o Xafiftdvovoiv, i$ (av xaxaoxevd&voi xrjv xav 
ovxtav (pvotv. 3. Jlgbg de xovxoig exi xav xode xig 

Digitized by GOOgle 


anoQ^asuy, ti pi) Tig ktigay vJio&yotTai tdie harti- 
oig (pvoiy ovdtvbg yao bgupsy toty oyxory ovoiag 
tayavtla, Tr\v d* agxh v t °v * a & vnoxupivov du 
Xsyta&ai tiyog. "Eotai yag agxh *VS <*gXW* ^*° Y*Q 
vnoxdpsvov otgxh* *<*' ngbttgoy doxtl %ov xattiyo- 
govpivov sly at. "Eti, ovx ilvai (papiv ovaiay iyav- 
ilav o voice. Ilwg ovv ix pi) ovouor ovola ay tXi); ij 
nig ay ngbttgov py ovoia ovoiag tit); 4. diantg 
tltig tbv it ngottgov aXri&y vopiaeuv tlyou Xoyoy, 
xaltovtoy, avayxalov, d piXXu diaodotiv apopoti- 
Lpfgovg amove . \Jmoti divai t* tg ltov t agmg <paolv oi 
^ffplav rtvet <pvow slvai, Xiyovttg to nay, olov vdag, r\ 
n v (j , 1} to pstatv tovtav. 5. J ox si de to ptta$v 
paXXov ' nvg yag dy, xal yrj, xal aij/0, xal vdug pet 
iyavTLOTTjTCJV ovpmnXfypeva iati. Jib ovx aXoywg 
noLOVOiv oi to vnoxdpevov etegov tovtfov noiovvtsg' 
tav J' aXXav, oi atga. Kal yao b arjo yxiora e^f» 
tiav aXXtav dia<pogag alo&tjtag, Exopevov de jo vdiog. 
i 6. *AXXa navteg ye to tv tovto tdig ivavtioig oxypa- 
ti^ovaiv, oiov nvxvdtr\ti xal pavovritv, xal t<T> paX- 
Xov xal rjttov. Tavta #' iatlv oXtag vnegoxf) d^Xo- 
voti, xal eXXeupig, Stgneg d'grjtai ngottgov, Kal 
eoixe naXaia dvai xal avtr\ \\ db%a, oxi to ty, xal 
vnegoxu * a * tXXtuptg agxal tatv ovtwv dot' nXr\v ov 
toy avtbv tgonov • aXti oi pev agxaioi, tit dvo pev 
noiiiv, to de ty naoxtiv. T(ov de vottgov tiveg tov- 
vavtiov, to ply tv noiuv, ta de dvo naoxtiv opaal 
paXXov. 7. To pay ovv tgia (pay at ta ototx^a «- 
vac, ex tt tovtaav xal ix toiovtwv aXXtov imaxonovoi 
bbltiev av bxbiv twa Xoyoy, agmo rfnopev to di 

Digitized by GOOgle 



nXuw iqi&v, ovx stl * nqbg pev yaq to naaztiv facet— 
vbv to IV • f* 6i xsrtdqfav bvruv dio sooviai Ivav— 
ruiaug, derjost £6>at$ btaxiqag vnaqxuv hiiqav rivet 
pera$v qjvoiv n d' i$ aXXi]Xiav d vvavtai ysvvav, 
mqiegyog av drj r\ faigee iwv tvavTu&at&v. "Apt* di 
xal advvaxov nXuovg stvai ivavxmaug tag ngmxag • 
tj yaq ovaia tv ti yhog iaxl xov ovxog 9 wore t$ nqo— 
xtgov xal tw vaxsqov diolaovaiv aXXyXwv al agz&& 
povov, iX£ ov tw yivu, *Atl yitq iv kvl yivu plot 
ivavxlatoig iow anaoai di al havxu&oug avayto&cu 
doxovaiv tig play. 8- °Oti ph ovv ovxs tv to oto*- 
XHok, ovxb nXslar Svotv 1} toiwt, yavsgov • xovxutv di 
noxeqov, xa&ansq einopsv, ohroqlav l*x u itoXXqv* 
Sid* ovv i)pug ye Xiyopev nqmxov nsql naafjg 
ycvsottog insX&ovxtg • taxi yaq xaxa qwoiv, xa xoivcc 
nqwxov tlnovxag, ovxm xa mql fxaaxov tHia &mq£iv. 
2. Qaptv yaq ylveo&at i$ aXXov SXXo, xal i£ kxiqov 
$xsqov, tj xa anXa Xiyovxtg, 1} xa ovyxelpeva. Adyta 
ds xovxo adh taxi yaq nov yivGo&ai av&q<o7iov, 
povaixov * taxi tie , xal to prj povaixiv xi ylvso&at 
povaixov, 17 Toy prj povaixov av&qamov, av&qmtov 
povaixov. 'AnXovv pev ovv Xiyio to yiyvopsvov, xbv 
av&qanov, xal to pij povaixov • xal o yivexai anXovv, 
to povaixov • avyxdpsvov Si, xal ylyvsxat, xal to 
yiyvopsvov, oxav xbv pi] povaixov av&qamov qjaptv 
yiyvsa&ai rj povaixov, ij povaixov av&qamov. Tov- 
ratv dk, to pev ov povov Xdyerai rids %i yiyveo&ai, 
aXXa xal ix tovSs, oiov ix pij povaixov povaixog • to 
de, ov Xiyetai inl navxw • ov yaq i$ ay&Qwnov ty{- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

rsro fiovoutog, ail* o ar&qoinog iyiptro povoixog. 
10. Twy di yipopipw, wg tot anXa Xiyoptp yiyp*o&a\ 
to pip vnopipop yiyptrai, to d* oix vnopiwop* o 
(uv yaq ap&qtonog vnoptvti povoutbg ywbptpog ap- 
d-qtanog, xal tori * to 6i prj povoutbp, xal to apov- 
aop, ovtb anXwg, ovtb avvri&ipwov vnopfru. 11. 
zJuaqiopiywr di tovtwp , £ anartotp tvp ytypopipup 
tovto Am XajSely, £p ug im/SXinjj, Sgntq Xiyoptp, 
^oti del ««/ ti vnoxilo&ai to yiypop%popy xal tovto 
si xal aqi&pn iarlp fp, aXX' ttdti yt oix tp • to yaq 
«ffo* Uyta xal Xoytp xaviov • ov yaq tot in or ap&qti- 
ny xal t# apovay ilpat* xal to flip vnofUpu,TO d' 
ovx vnopipn • to fih prj anixtlpepop vnopivu • o 
yaq ap&qwnog vnophw to di povoixbp xal to 
apovoop oix vnopipu, ovdi to i$ ap<poiv ovyxiip*- 
pop' olop 6 apovaog ap&qanog. 12. To d* ex t<- 
pog ylpsa&ai ti, xal to pi) Tods yipto&al ti, paXXop 
uip Xiyrtai inl t<op prj vnoptvopTtap, olop i$ apovoov 
povautbpyipso&ai, i$ ap&qdnov di ov. UXXa pit\P, 
xal inl Tap vnopepoprap triors Xi/ETcu woaviag • ix 
yaq jfaAxov apdqiapra yiypto&ai <papb, ov top X(&- 
xbp apdoidpTa* to (Uptoi ix tov apTixeipipov, xal 
fit] vno/iipoPTog , dpqxyiiqtog XiysTcu, xal ix Tovde 
Tode, xal Tods Tode • xal yaq i\ apovoov yipttat pov- 
oixog, xal 6 apovoog yiptiai povoixog • dib xal inl 
tov ovyxupipov oioavnaq • xal yaq i$ apovoov a*- 
dqwnov , xal apovaog ap-frqutnog ylypto&at Xiynai 
povoixog. 13. IZoXXaxwg di Xtyopivov tov ylypi- ft 
o&ai, xal tup pep ov yiypeo&ai anXStg, aXXa Todt t* 
yiypso&ai • anXug di yiypig&at T<ap ovoiStP pbvop • 
Arist. Phts. Ausc. B 

Digitized by GOOgle 


s xixxa fib xaXXn, cpavegbv oxi vvayxif vnoxutr&ai i 
to yiyvifitvov, Kal yag noobv, xal noiov xal 7tgo 
. ti I'ctgov, xal noxe, xal nov, ylvtxat vnoxtijiivov ti 
vbg t -dta to fiivfjv rijv overlay Kara fti^dtvbq «/l5U> 
Xsyea&ai vitoxtijdvov , xa 8* aXXa ndvxa xara rvj 
ovolag. Oxt di xal alovolat, xal oca alia anXto 
ovxa $• vitoxeifiivov xtvbg yivBXat, imoxoiiovvvt yi^ 
voix av awevsgov aitt yag iori xio vnbxBixai, i$ o' 
yivBxai to yiyvifxtvov^ olov xa qpvxa xal xa £<5a i 
oitigfiaxog. 14. Tiyvrtai di xa ytyvopBva oncXmg 
xit jiiv fiBxaoxtifjuxxhBi, olov avdgiag ix jaXxov • t< 
di itgogfr&m, -olov xa av^avopieva • xa 8* aqpatgiast 
olov ix fbv Xi&ov o *Eg(it t g~ xa di ovv&iott, olov x>fc 
xla' xa d* aXXouooti, olov xa xgtTtopzva xaxa t?}i 
vXtjv. ndvxa di xa ovxa yivofitva, (pavtgbv oti £ 
inoxBipivtov yivexai. l^Jlgxt drjXov ix xZv bIq-tj- 
jiivwv, on to ywofitvov attav ait ovv&erov ioxi' xa 
$oxi fxiv xi xb yivo/isvov , Iota di xv o xovxo ylvtxat 
Kal xovxo dtxxov • rj yag xb inoxtlfiBVOV , i\ xo ay- 
xixelfisvov • Xiyta di, avxixilo&ai (iiv xb afiovaov 
vnoxuo&ai di xbv av-d-gtorrov • xal xr\v fiiv aaj^juo- 
crvvrjv, xal xr\v ajiogqpiav, ij xr\v axa$lav, xo avxixel- 
fiBvov • xbv di zuXxbv, ij xbv Xi&ov, ij xbv xg v ^ov, tc 
inoxtlfjiBvov. 1*6. ftavsgbv ovv, £>g tfittg tlolv al- 
xiai xal dgxal twv qwaet ovxtav, ii iav ngwxatv udl s 
xal ytyovaoi prj xaxa ovfip((irjxbg f aXX* txaoxov o 
Xiyexal xaxa x\\v -ovoiav, oxi ylyvixai anav ex xb xov 
vnoxHfiivov xal xqg fiogg)tjg' ovyxtixai yag o (iov- 
oixog av&giaftog 0; av&gtonov xal fiovoixov , xgoTtov 
rivd ' dtaXvoBig yag xovg Xoyovg elg xovg Xoyovg xov* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ixvrorr, 17. dylop ovp ig yiypoit u* x* yiypopwm 
ix tovtwp. "Ecu da to imoxMifL&op, iodtfiy |iir Sr, 
4'fo* ds dio • o fay 7*019 av&fo>*9g xal h /fvaaf , nai 

xaxi vvjifafaxbg, i$ avtov //ma* xi yiyvifupw q 
di otigyvig, jw* ^ jipovtiouHf, vvpflsfiiixoe ' h di ti 
etdot, olop q jfetg, % tj jiovwMjjt r t wv oXXvp u fir 
oviw xwriyooovidvoiv. 1$. ^ta fat* ^if «if dio 
lexttov that tag igxig, wu d 7 £>g rqug- mxl&ti 
uiy ojg t&paptfa, olov & Jig Uyw rg povoixbp xal to 
Spovaovt jj %b &$gubp xal to ywzfbi>, ^ to ijQfioafUr- 
pop xal to iva^iootop' tat% Sfi m ov' V9 iHn<- 
law yo)o naoxsw tipania adyvatop. Avnat, di xal 
tovtOj dta to alio tlpai to iuoxslfuvop - tovto yag 
ovx ivavtlov ' mgts -ovts TiXuovg wp 4xa*ziW a* «f- 
Xoh tQonop tipa, aJUi dvo* jag £uup, t<J» agi&jiy - 
ovxe av narteXiog dio, dua xi htgov imagx*** to A- 
vat avtoiz, allot totig * hegop yag w£ ap&goinv xal 
t^i ajioivta jo slvai, xal ftp aaxr\uatigvf xal %alx$. 
%9. JIooou (Up ovv ag/al jap mgl yiptoip (pvaix&p, 
xal nig nooui, eigtitou. Jtai dilby 4ati>v 9 ozi du 
vnoxuo&ai *t tolg ivapjloig , *ai ta iraptia dio tf«- 
%cu • tgonov ds twh allov oi» avayxalop * txayw 
yi^ tora> to ttsgoy tdv .ipavtiuy 7iou£v tjjj oauovoia 
xal nagovfdn tip ^exa^oh'iv, ZQ+'hS* vTtoxttfUpq 
(pvoig, imojrjtri xata ivaloylay. 'tfte y*Q Ttqbg op~ 
dqiaptVL xoilxbjg, 5 W>bg xlivxp £vlov, q ngbg tvp,al~ 
hap ti tip i/ovt&v fiogcprjv q vlrj xal to apoQipop 
fyd,, nQW lafiuv ti)P (iQQfp.rjp • oviwg avtrj Ttqbg ov~ 
*iap tx*h *<** ?° fids jt, ml to op. Mia /i*y ovp oq* 

n 2 

Digitized by GOOgk 


W avxtj, ovx ovtg) fila ovoa, ovds ovtwg iv, wg xb 
joSs xi ■• fila ds, rj 6 Xoyog. "Ext 8s xb ivavxlov rov- 
Tw tj oxiqrioig. 21. Tavxa ds noog tivo, xal Ttwg 
nkslta, bVqtjtou iv xoig «Vw. UqSixov fib ovv Hix^V* 
on aqxal xavavxla fiovov voxsqov d* , oxt aviyxtj 
xal aXXo xt vnoxsta&ai, xal ilvat xqla • ix ds rwv 
vvv qpavtqbv, rig f) dia<poqa x&v ivavxbav, xal nag 
txovoiv al aqxal nqbg aXXrjXag , xal xl xb vnoxsifis* 
vov. Iloxsqor ds ova la xb sldog, ij to vnoxdfisvov, 
0V7TCJ drjXov &XX? oxt ai aqxal iQ&$> x«* n&g xqtig, 
xal rig o xqonog avxav, dr\Xov. 22. IJooat fib ovv 
xal xivsg tiolv at aqxal, ix xovxoav &smqslod'aoav. 
"Or* ds fiovaxag ovxto Xvsxai xal fj x&v aqxaioiv 
inoqla , Xsyafisv fisxit xavxa. Zrjxovvtsg yaq of xa- 
ri cpiXooocplccv nq&xot xijv aXri&siav, xal xijv (fvutv 
xr\v x&v ovxav, i%sxqanr\oav , oXov bddv xtva allijv 
ctncoo&ivttg vnb anstqlag * xal q?aotv ovxs ylvso&at 
x£>v ovxtov o-idb, ovxe q?d-slgso\}ai, dia xb avayxaXov 
fib slvat ylyvso&at xb yiyvofitvov ij i$ ovxog, ij ix 
fit) ovxog. 'Ex ds xovx&v afiyoxsqiuv advvaxov slvat. 
Ovxe yaq xb ov ylvso&af slvat yaq ydrj. "Ex xb f^irj 
ovxog ovdb av ysvio&af vnoxuo&at yaq xt de7. 

2. Kal ovxot dt) xb iyt$i]g ovfiftatvov av$ovxsg, ovd' 
slvat noXXd cpaoiv, aXXa fiovov avxb xb ov. *Exsivot 
fib ovv xaixyv sXaftov xrjv do$av dta xa tlqrjixira. 

3. 'llpiig ds Xiyofisv, oxi xb i$ ovxog ij (irj ovxog yi- 
vso&at,, i) xb py ov, ij xb ov izottiv xi rj naox*w> ^ 
OTtovi' xods ylveo&at, tva fib xqonov ovdb diayiqu, 
fl xo xbv iaxqbv noiiiv xt ij naoxw, ^ to i$ laxqov 

Digitized by GoOgle 


$*ai t* rj yiyvto&at. 4. Iflora inttdtf tovto dtx*tg 
Uytra*, drjloy oti xal to i£ ovrog, xal to ov, r\ no&- 
uv, n nioxuv.* Olxodofiti piv ovv o iaxooq , ov/ » 
iarqbg, il£ n oixodopog • xal Xivxbg yivejcu, ovx $ 
iazobg, all* y (uXag* laToevudi xal aviaTqog yivt~ 
tcm, 5 iarqog. *Entl di pal una Xiyoptv xvolug rbv 
torpor nouiv %i, ij naoxuv, rj yiyvta&ai 4£ Unoov, 
&v ji iarqbg jairra naoxfl* V noitj, dqXov ox* xal to 
py £ ovrog yiyvea&ai , xal tovto ar\uaiv& to »/ fiy 
or. "Otizq ixuvoi (Uv ov dukovTtg , aitiorrioav • xal 
ha Tavtr\v ti\v ayvowv toqovtov nqogrjyvoijoav, iS$- 
u piidir oiea&ai yiyveo&ai , py di thai t&v aXXmv, 
ail' aveXiiv naoav rrjv y&vtoiv. b.'Hpug di xal 
crirrol (paptv, yiyvto&ai fib ovdb anXwg ix fit) ov- 
xog, opa>g p&vroi yiyvto&at ix fiy ovrog , olov xaxa 
<jvpPsp7}x6g • ix yao trig oreoqoew?, o Anr* xa&* al- 
to pit ov, ovx ivvnaqxovtog yiyvtrai n. Oavuafaa* 
di tovto, xal advvaTov ovxw doxsi, yiyvto&al t% Ix 
pi} ovrog. 6. 'Jlaavtwg di ovdi i$ ovtog ovdi to ov 
yiveo&ai, nXijv xaxa orvp/fc/fyxo?. Ovtw He xal tov- 
to yiyvsa&ai tov avxbv Tqonov, olov d ix £wov {Aov 
av yiyvoixo, xal ix Tivbg Cwov t» fwoy, olor u xvw 
5 h&tov yiyvovto • yiyvoiro uiv yao av, ov'fiovov i* 
nvbg £coov o xvtav, aXXa xal ix ^dov, aX£ ovx fl 
%Zov * vnaoxti yao %dr\ tovto. El di ti uiXXu yi- 
yvea&ai fwov urj xutu avtifoprixbg, ovx ix (uov sorat* 
7. xal ti Ti ov, oix i$ bvTog , ovd* ix pri ovrog • to 
fitq ix /AT} ovTog d'oyTai iifuv Tt orifialvu , oti, ij /*iy 
Jr. *jEt* di xal to slvai anav, if to py tlvai, ovx avatr- 
pvfier. 8. JSfe /iev di) TQonog ovtoq. "AXXog d , 

Digitized by GoOgle 


aw ttdiztiat raita liyup xata t^p Siv&pw taitifp 
iv&gyztav. Tovto d* ip allots bSmgioxat di axftfitteg 
potllop ' &o& (jm*Q ih&yoptr} ai in&gias liovv&t, 
ti ag wpayxa^ofuvot araigovot t&* tlQupfow %*** * 
&<* yog ro* tevto tooovtoy o\ Ttgotegor i&tqaniia&rp 
trig odov^g bittyr ybtotp %al <p&og*p y *Hlolto$ 
ptictfhkTiv. Avtti yag &p oy&tioa n <pi&4> cirtwdeep 
'divot* dinar v&vtyp iqv ayvo$#p. 
'jtfifUyo* p& ow *ui$t$g (A ttvi$ tidip avtrfs, alt 
oix It&pfa* Hf&top [i& yag hp#loyoioh> itftl&$ yt- 
yw&tri n4x pif opto$, % nagiitvifyp bg&wg Xiyup* 
ehec (fiaivVHti aitotgy tfattg tori* ttgi&ptp jita, xa\ 
$vmpt4i porov pioty elyou. T&vto Se diotyigit itXtt- 
<HK>p- f,fiug pip yap . $fap xai &tiqi\o%p hsgov tlpat 
<p#psf *a\ totu&pta pkp ovx 3* ttpat xata ovppt- 
i fh}Xog f typ vlyv • wp As otigtfot*, **& avtrp * xal 
J im\v phr tyyvgxal ovular m>g, t^v $lw tr^p di oti~ 
Qfjotf ovtapmg. % 01 di to prj op to piyec xal to 
putgbr buoitw, % to wpaptpottgop, Jj tb^^h $*<*- 
ttgop* mtn napttlwg frigog o tgoito$ bitog rtfg 
tgtadog, xaiulpog' pixgt pb> yag d&goTtgoijl&ov, 
ifai del mm vnoxtio&fxo (pvaiv. Tccvttjv pivtot plop 
ifoivvot • xal yag e? xig dvada noul, liywp piya xai 
atxgbv avtf)v y ovd-kv i}ttov tavtbp Ttottl • t\\v yag 
Higccw nage7di, tip atigfjair • ^ ph yag vnopiv&v- 
aa, avvattia tjJ p<HFf>}l tw ywopivw iaitv, Sgmg 
pjprjg' yd* higa> polga trjg ipapTnocreibg, nollaxig 
ar cpuvTUQ&tli) 7$ ngog to naxonotbv avtrjg tvattpl- 
$ovti %rp Siavoiap, ovd* that tq nagaitaf. 3. "Op- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tog ydq tivbg &tfov xal aya&ov xal iyttov, to flip 
ivaytiov avtta yctfisy slyai • to 6i, o niyvxiv iiplt- 
o&cu xal oqiyto&at aitov, xaiit tyy axiiov yvoiw. 
Tots 8a evpfiaivu jo iyavtioy, oqiyta&ai xije iavtov 
y&oQccg* Kaixoi ovts avtb iavtov o\bv tt ttfiea&ai 
to tidofy $ia to pij filvai ivtitig ' ovtt to ivavtiov* 
W&aqwa yao aXXqXtav tot bariia* *AXla toll tuny 
7) vXr\, ojgiiiQ ay si <&riXv aqfeyog, xal aloxqbv %a- 
Xov' nXrp oi xa&' avtb aioxQoy, dXXa xata ai/p- 
foftqxog' ovdi $t)Xv, iXXa xata ovpftfflrjxog. 4. 
tp&uq&tai 6*i xal yivttak t for* piy &g, fori Se tug ov. 
c Jlg pfr yaq to iy w, xa& avtb (p&tiqtxai ' to q>&et- t 
qoptvov yao (v tovtbf ioxly i\ otiqyoig' ag 6e xata 
Tr\y dvyajAtv, py xat avtb, aXU aay&aotov xal ayi- 
vt\tov avdyxq avtr\v tlvak' tl'tt yitq iylyvtto, vno- 
xuo&al xi fu nqwror, Tp i$ ov ivvnaqxovxog. Tov- 
to pi iaxiv aixr\ r\ yvaig * ; it gti taxai nqly ytyio&a*. 
Aiyfti yaq vXyy, tonamov inxoxiiptyoy kxdaxy, i$ 
ov ytyetai ti ivvnaqxovxog fiy xata av/i/fc/frjxog* ti- 
ts (p&tiQtxal ti, tig tovxo aq)i$txai laxaxov oagxt 
iyPaytfiyTi %otqu, Tiqlv <f$aqTivai. 5. Jltqltetqg 
xata to eldog aqxys* nottqov fiia ij noXXal, xal tig ij 
tlvtg t\o\ §i axqfaiag i^g nqitrig (pdoooylag Hgyov 
iatl dioqfaak • oigxt tig ixtlvov tbv xatqbr anoxela&ca. 
JJsql }$ %Sfv (fvaixoxy xal t&y (p&aqxwv tiduv iy tolg 
vonpQV §uxvvjiivQig iqovfisv. "Oxi piy qvv *low aq- 
Xotl, xal th'tg, xalnoqat toy dqi&iubv, dmqlodw q/u? 
oi/Tw. JIvXw di aXXyy aqx^v dqSafAtroi Xiyafiw. 

d by Google 



2 wy bvxw xa fib iaxl tpvan, xa tie di aXXag aixlag* 
tpiau fib, xa it £«« xal xa fiigtj avx&y, xal xa <pv— 
to, xa* to OTrito xwy owfiaxoav, oloy yi}, xal wi)©, xa* 
oifo, xa» iMwo • xavxa yaq tlvai xa* to xoiavxa <pv- 
ou (paper, Ilavxa di to Qrj&bxa tpaiytxai dia<pi- 
qovxa nobg rot fiy yvoei ovveaxioxa. Tu fib yaq 
(pvosi oyxa, navxa qpaitara* Uxoyra b kavxdig VQXV* 
xtvT)(j£0)Q xa* oxaaeag, tot fib xaxa xonov, to di xax 
avtyoty, xal q>&iaiv, rot dixaxa aXXoitaoty. 2.XvU- 
yrj di xal ifiaxioy, xaleTxi xoiovxoy alio ybog iarlv, 
jl fib xtxvxv** xi\q xaxr^yoqlag kxaoxtjg, xal xa#* 
oaov iaxlv anb xixyyg, ovdefilay bofifjy tfr«* tf**a/Jo- 
Xr\g SfKfvxov • tj di avfipifir^xsy aixdtg Xi&ivoig ij 
yrjlvoig thai, ij fiixxotg ix xovxw, *#€* xaxa xooov- 
-" ^ Toy. 3» € Jlg ovoijg xqg (pvoeag aajrrjg xivog xal ai- 
.V~ Jtiag xov xiveia&ai xal i\oifiiiy 9 b (j> vnaqxu np&twg 
xa& avxb, xal fiy xaxa avfijit^xog. jiiyta di xb fii] 
xaxa uvn($t($i)xoq f oxi yboix ay avxbg kavxy xig af- 
xtog iyiriag, £y laxqig • aXX* ofiwg ov xa& o vyia- 
texai, xtjv latQixyv *X U > <*XXa avfifiifitixe xbv avxoy 
laxqbv elvai xal vyia£6fityoy • dtb xal x^Q^xai no- 
xs iXXyXwv. 'Opoiwg di xal x<oy aXXtay txaaxoy rib 
noiovfibw ovdb yaq aixiav i#** xi\v aqxw b lov- 
toJ xrjg notrjamg, aXXa to fib b aXXoig xal t$a>&tv, 
oioy oixia, xal xatv aXXay xStv xeiqoxfitjxtoy txaaxoy * 
to di b avxoig fib, aXX' ov xa&* kavxa, oaa xaxa 
ovfipeftrjxbg ai'xia yboix ay kavxolg. tfyiotg fib ovy 
iaxl xb yi]&iv. 4. <Pvoiy tie tz**> Sera xqy xoiavxrp 

Digitized by GOOgle 


t%ti if>Zty* Kal taxi xavxa nana, ovaia • inoxti- 
xerov yao xi, xal iv vTioxeyievm iaxhf tj <pvoig iu. 
5. Kaxa <pvoir di, xavxa xb xal boa xoixoig vnaoz** 
tax? avxa, olox tw nvql xb <piot<j&ai axm* xovxo 
yaq, <pvoi$ [ib ovx eotiv, ovd' sxHipvow yvon di, 
xal xaxa cpvaix iaxL 6* Tl uix ovx q <pvcng laxly, 
tXqnjaiy xal xi xb q>voa*, xal xaxa a>voix. c Jlg d' i- 
oxh tj (pvatg, nuqao&ai detxxvxai ytXoloy * (paytqbv 
fkq St* Towtvxa x<*y ortw iaxl noXXa. To di dttxvv- 
fat to q>avtqa dia xuy ia>a*uv, oi dvyauiyov xqbux 
toil xb- di avxb xal fir\ di avxb yxtiqiuoy, "Oxt di iv- 
Hxtxat xovxo naazux, ovx adrjXoy ovXXoyioaixo 
joq ax rig ix ytytii\g &y xwpXbg, ntql ZQ*uax*nr • 
Sgxt arayxrj xoig xoiovxoig mq& xix bvopaxuv dvok 
tbx Xoyor, prfiky di youy. 7* Joxu di 17 yvoig xal 
4 ovaia xmx opvan bvxw ixloig elxai xb nq&xox iru- 
xaqz°* bm0x» oq§v&(uotox xa& kavxb, olox xXlytjg 
fvaig xb tvlov, aydqtayxog d* x^Xxbg. JStjpiioy di 
fHOix Idrxupuv, on it xig xaxoqvUn xXirqy, xal Xa- 
§01 dvvap.iv rj oijmdity, w$t« axuxai fiXaaxbx, ovx 
ix ytxio&ai xXixqx, aXXa ZvXoy ttg xb fux xaxa 
9vpfi§p?ixbg vnaQZox, xrjy xaxa rbuox dia&taw, xal 
J W typy** T V* $ ovolax ovoax ixtlyrjy, tj xal fl*a- 
uixty xavxa naazovaa ovvez**g. 8. 2# di x«» xov- 
xmx txaaxox nqbg ixtqbv xi xaixb xovxo nmoy&& 
(olov b pep/aixo? xalb ZQvabg nqbgvdmq,xa d* baxa 
tal £vXa Ttqbg yr\y 9 buoUag Si xal xS>y alX»x bxiovx) 
aura Tfjx <pvatv ttycu xal xip ovoiav avxiby. 9*z/io- 
xto ol (iky yiqv, ol di nvo) oi J* aioa tpaoly, 0% di 
waq, oi di ewa xoyxw, oi Si nixxa xavxa xr^x 911- 

Digitized by GoOgle 


mw tlrcu xjjfy i<»v orrmr. "O yap tig airm* vmlmfia 

TOtOVTOP, tl'Ti 8* r «frt Ttltiw, 10VTO nul TOGCCVTCt <pO-< 

*h fom rip Onaoo* victor* tu to Xll* nwand- 
&t} rovtaw, tern Sfrtf, xm) l*a$i<fti$. 10. JTa* too- 
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/O/XS? Tt IffT* a«6& If OXTTOVy OVTI g>V0?* 4ai/tt* 

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* ^ritoiOTor ©V, aAA* jpxflCTtt to* Zo/o*. To $' 4* to** 

tiw, <pvaK juif ovx 3ot*> qpvott ££ * oW o av&Qvmog. 
Kal pallov awatg air«, rfc illy?' I naaror yi*Q totj 
Jtfyarat, oiav imil^ y pavUov, ^ oto» dvydfui. 

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xliytf in nliyTjg • &o xa/ (jpaatv ov to oxyp* €?rixi 
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4p**o?. 14. "j&i* 9' *f qrioig ij ksyoptnj ig yhtxng y 
tio$ 4mr dg^vwtpi Oi yip igitsQ y laiQuvmg U- 
jmat, cvm uq imtftxip ***>*> »*£ tifvyktav i*ay*$i 
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aXXvroqrvopsTor, i% rtpbg tig tl fyrmrt, J qpvrta*. 
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jtnotv, 7) prj i*t$y, vwttfvr iiuewtmiov. 
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oitmg ova* evpflifinne. Jtb *al £*>£/£"* ^»^«ni ;, - 

oWi yfattui ytvdog ^w^tfarrwy. 4. Amr(h*vovoi> di 
mrto noiovrttg xal el ta? *^i«^ A«/drfr^* Tlx 7°^ 

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Itaxix&v. Tlyvovto d\ avxoyxo dijXov, tXxig kxardqvp 
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xal xb SV&V xal to xaftnvXov. *Exi di xal aqtS-fibg, 
xal yqappii, xal oxy/uct avev xivtjomg* oio£ di xal 
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$lg otfiri, aX£ ovx <5f *b xapnvXov Xiytxai. 5. dr\- 
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ovx avev vXr t g xa xoiavxa, ovxe xaxa xr\v vXr\v. Kal 
yaq tit) xal neql xovxov dix&g anoqriawv av xig, irxtl 
dvo ai (pvoeig, nsql noxiqag xov opvoixov, ij ntql xov 
iS apq>oiv * aX£ u ntql xov il ap<po%v 9 xal nsql kxa- 
xiqag. 7. Uoxsqov ovv xi\g avxrig, ij aXXi}g, Ixaxe- 
qav yv<0Ql&w; **£ /*«* y<*q iovg aqxaiovg anofiXi- 
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ftiqog 'EpntdoxXiQg xal dripoxqixog xov eldovg xal 
xov xi t)v tlvai ijiftavxo. Ei ds rj xixvtj pifitixat Tijir 
q>vaiv, xyg di aixiqg iniarrjurjg ddivat, to Udog xal 
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xyg av tft) to yvwoiiuv a(A€poxiqag xag <pv<mg. "j&n 

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to ov irexa, xal to tiXog, tiqg avtrig, xal oca tovtw* 
toexa. &. € H Si yvoig to tikog k xal ovjrtna. T Jlp 
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xiin'joeoig, tovto furxotror xal to ov tvtxa • diib nml i 
*oifirii$ ytXofog ftgofiz&'f ww***, 

*££& tiXtvriir, W n*Q ovvtx iytono* 
fiovXrtat yag ov nax that to sor/aTor, tiXog, akla to . i / 
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at ph anXtag, al di tvtqyov • xal ZQ&ftt&a ig ftp** 
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pev %qya, %a £e ooyava. 4, QHpt /^v ovv 4»*Tta ^|^ 
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PHYSIC. A U9C.JU13.JJv CAP. 111. 31 

f ip&paptonoiqtmii, xal i jjfoJjfO^, oi %m£r fo$$*p 
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alitor tovds, tovto jxal asa&p aiuifu&a ipiott voi 
hardov • oJqp tqp anovular tov xvfieqp^tov p tys 
iov Ttlaiov avatooxSjSf ov yv f) naqovaUi cutlet tip 
wtuQitts. 5. "Anuria di ta pvp uqqpdpa altta hs 
ikraqas tqonovs nbttu tovg amptqmtamvg * (tit 
pip yao <jTQ*xuv tip avllafiiy, xal $ vly tip wuv- 
mnaiv, xal to wvo xa* tit towvta tip o^tatmv, xal 
tk pi^y tov oloy f x£tl<dvnQ&t&u£Z4wevfiv*fMfiMt- 
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xi^tt olop, xal % ovpfeatSf *«* to ildos • to di qtuq- 
pa, xal o latobst *«* 6 (tovltvoas, > xal oIms *o m** 
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allay i&iXtu thai* Jtatptqitta di prjdipj nito unup 
ayafrby, i\ qpavptyitvop aya$QpJl 6. Ta pip ovp at- 
ria toimvta xal voaavta ioti tip ddsi * tfino* di 
lip aitkw* xxoi&pq fdv uol nollol, ovyx#paXa*o£- 
uspoi di xal ovxot ilatrovg * liyetai yog aVuu ooJU 
laxiSt *«» avtip tip vfioudiv, ii^ozi^uxg %al voti- 
?&£ ilXov alio ' olop iyieiag o laxgog, xal h Ttj^W- 
\\s ' *«» tov dta itaoip, to dmlawov, xal -o af*r 

Digitized by GOOgle 


&(ibg, xal ael rot ntgdxovxa nobg t« xa&* exaoror. 
7. "En 6*', tog to ovp(le(liixbg, xal t« Tovtmy yivrj • 
olov avdoiavtog aXXtog IIoXvxXeiTog , xal aXXtag «v- 
dotayxonotbg, on ovpftip tjxs t£ avdqiavxonoiip tc 
UoXvxXehto elyai. Kal t« neoiixovxa de to avfifis- 
(trjxbg, oloy ei b av&otonog aXxiog eXf\ tov aydpiav- 
tog, rj oXto$ to £a>ov. *jEot* d£ xai T«y ovfifteprixo- 
tcw aMiv coUwv nogQcottyov xal iyyvxeooy, oloy ti b 
Xevxbg, xal 6 fiovoixbg al'riog Xiyovto tov aydgiay- 
rog. 8. JTaoa Ttavtflf fl£ xa* t« olxdug Xeyopeva, 
xal tct xara avfji^t^rjxbg , t« j^i* £? dvyapeya Xsye- 
t«*, t« d*i w? iveoyovvxa • olov tov olxodofieia-d-ai 
olxlay o olxodopog, rj 6 olxodokitov olxodofiog. 9.'0- 
jio/a>? ^e Xtx&rjOtTcti xal iq? toy alna ra aXiia tdig 
UQt}{t6Y0ig • oloy toi/£» tov aVflowevTOff, * j cWoiavrb?. 
^ xa} ojtws etxoVo?, xa} /aXxov Tovfle, i} ^aAxov, r 
oAa>£ vJL^g* xal £rr2 Twy avfx^t^xoTcov tooavrojg. 
10. jETt 5c ovpnXexofieya xal xavxa xal ixuva Xex&tf- 
oexai, oloy ov IloXvxXeixog, oide aydoiayxonotog, 
aXkct IloXvxXeixog avdotayxonoiog, *AX£ bfitog anotv- 
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r\ tog ovpnXtxofitya xavxa, r) £>g anXwg Xeyofieva* 
nana de rj iveoyovvxa, rj xaxa dvvafiiv. 11. ^ta- 
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fxaorov, agia iorl xal ovx eou, xal toy otXxkct • oloy 
ode o iaTQtvtov tmSs tw vyiaXo[ievto t xal ode b olxo- 
dop&v Ttpde t$ oixodofiovftivto. Ta de xaxa dvya- 
piy, ovx aeh <p&eioerai yao ovx «j" a V oixia xal i 

Digitized by GoOgle 


oixodopog. 12. Ju di a$l to attwp ixacxov to 
axgoxaxop Ctjxeiv, £gnto xal inl tup ailvy olaw 
av&gconog olxodopu, oxh oixodopoQ* b d* obtodo- 
pog, xaxd t\\v olxodopixi'p. Tovxo xoirvp novxtyop 
to alitor, xal ovxtag inl napxatp. v £xi, xd uhf yirq 
totp ytvatv, tit di xad* txaoxa tip xa& txaoxa, olop 
apdqutpxonoibg ph drdoiarxog, bdl di tovdi* xal 
tag ukp dvpauug rat? dvpaxw, tot di iviqyovvxa Jtfbg 
tit, ivtoyovptpa. 1 3. "Ooa /ti? ovp ti aXxut, xal op 
tqotxop alxia, taxta ijfuy dmoujpipa Ixavatg. 

CAPUT IV. <zM-*-y ~ 

Aiytxai di xal r\ tixn xai to avxbfiaxop tS*p ai- 
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iarl totg aixioig i) xvxty * a * J0 avxouatop • xal no- 
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%ov ylyvto&ai, ij xixrjg • oloy tov iXdiip anb tixvt 
slg Tt)p ayoodp, xal xaxaXafiup, cv ifiovXvxo (Up, oix 
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bfioiag Si xal inl tap aXXtop t£>p ano tvxW XtyofU- 
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xiv doxatcoy ooq>ip xd al'xia nsol yvpfowg xal qp^o- 
gag Xiycov, neol xvxyg ovdip duigtasp * aXX w$ Jo*- 
xtp, ovdip Sopxo ovd' ixiipoi thai anb tvxhs* y AlXd 
Arist. Phts. Ausc. C 

Digitized by GOOgle 


%ol\ xovxo davpaoxov. 4. IloXXa yaq xal yiyvBxa* 
xal eoxiv anb xvxys *«' * no xaixopaxov a ovx «- 
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ivtuQ&v xip Tvxyv * oping xovxoay tit pkv thai cpctiji 
navxtg anb xvxfig, xa d' oix anb xvxw* 5. <dii 
xal afKagyentog rjv noirixiov avxoig (iveiav. AlXo 
(ir)v ovd' ixsivtoy yd xi wovto elvou xr\v xvxW> oTo* 
iphXlav, % viixog, ij nvo, rj voir, ? aXXo yi xi xa>> 
xoioixw. *!dxonov ovv ttxt pi) intXapfiavov tlvcxi, 
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wgneo 9 £pnedoxXf)g , ovx ill xov aiga anoxQlvto&ca 
avmxaxa q>i\olv, aX£ ontog ay xvxjl' Akyti yovv i* 
xjl xooponoiia • 

€ Jlg ovxn ovvixvooe &i(av xoxe, noXXaxt d' aXXojg. 
xal xa pooia x&v Jww* Anb xixyg yevio&ai xa nXeX- 
axa (prjalv. 6. Elal 6i xivig ol xal xov oioavoi xov- 
ds, xal xiav xoopixStv navxtav alxuovTcti xb avx6p,ci- 
xov • anb xavxopaxov yaq yiyveo&ai <paoi xijv divrjv 
xal xtjv xivtjoiv , xt)v diaxoivaaav xal xaxaaxr\aaaotv 
tig xavxtj* xijv xaliv xb nav. 7. Kal paXa tovto 
yz avxb &avpaoat a$iov, Xiyovxag, xa ph £<wa xal 
xa <pvxa anb xvxijg ptjxe ilvcu pjjxe ylyvto&ai, aXX 
i?to* <pvoiv, ij vovv ij xi xoiovxov txtoov thai to at- 
xiov (ov yaq 3, xi txvxtv, ix xov aniqpaxog kxdoxov 
yiyvixai, aXX* ix psv xov xotovdl iXaia, ix ds xov t*»- 
ovdl avd-qtanog) xbv ds ovqavbv xal xa &twxtoa Twy 
(pavtQWv, anb xov aixopaxov ytvio&ai • xoiavxip di 
aixiar fifjds/iiay thou, oXav x&v fwwy xal xiv yvxmr. 
8. Kalxoi y$ ti ovxmg ex*h xovxo yi avxb abov in& - 

Wzed by GoOgk 


exaoetog* xal xaXmg t/ft Xex&yvai t* mgl avxov 
xovxov * nqbg yag tw xal aXXotg axonov thai xb Ai- 
yoperor, m axonnxtqor xb Xiyut xavxa, og&vxag 
to ph t« ovoa?£ ovdlr otto xavxofiaxov yiyropwox, 
ir 8i voig ovx anb rvxy? noXXa ovp/laiporxa anb 
wjfijc. Kaixot thtogye i\v xovxavxiop ytrio&ai. 9. JB*- 
o« & rwe$, ol? fox*? efrm /uer ati/a ij ti/jij, o^i}Ao; 
& iv&Q&Ttbfi diavola , ug &tTor u ovoa xal daifio- 
ruaxtoor. "Jlgie oxinxior, xoIxIbx&xbqop, xal ti t«v- 
top ij bxbqov, xo,xb avxopaxop xal tj rixHt *«* ***** 
tig %b\ duaowpha atria ipninxovoi. 
Hoeitor ph ovp, inudri oqtoptv xa ph atl Aoav- 
ttag ytpopBpa, xa da tig inl xb noXv, <paptobp St* ov- 
dsxigov xovx&p alzia fj xvx*! Xiyttat, ov9i xb ino 
vvz*l$t ovz*~*q£Jx p y«y*flc xgL gg?. ovxb xov ig i nl ' 
to itohi. *AX£ bitidr) iaxl ttva, a ylypsxai xalitaoa 
xavxa, xal narxtg xavxa q>aow «&«« ino xvxyg, <pa- 
regbr oxt ioxl xi, fj tux*) xal to avxopaxop * xatB yag 
rouxvra anb riffle t *«J *w inb t&XW xoiavta oma 
toper. • 2. Tuv Si ytvopivtav xa ph hexa xov ylypt- 
rai, w 8' ov 9 tovtwv 6b xi ph xaxit ngoalgtoip, 
ra d* ov xaxanooaiQBoiir 9 apo}& d* hxolghexa xov* 
5gxe dfjXov, oxt xal h toXg naga xb ivayxaXop xal 
to Ag htl xb noXi, boxip ma, negl a frdixBxai inag- 
X*& to tvixa xov • linr* di trexa xov, 00a xb anb flia- 
poiag awgax&sif}, xal 00a anb qyvoBtog. 3. Ta dq 
xoutvxa otap xata ovpfaprpibq ybtjxai, ino xvxw 
qwpiv tlvai * SgnBQ yag xal ov ioxt xb ph xa& «v- 
fo, to di xaxit ovpfiB^xbg, ovxw xal aXxiov Mix**** 

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Digitized by GOOgle 


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To ftcy oi)y ya^' aito afriov, cu^ffytuvpy T.iW »*- 
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ay xopujopevog rov typvovt si j)#f«, l&fc #t oi 

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to T«io? ^ xofM&q, ov jwy & avT$ atr&WV *>U« ?w 
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e?ycx^ xai aftylog iv^^d^ * ^aj eoTiy ig 0^^ «teo 
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«jto tv^S* H«W evfi^ywkg %*§ ym%m- 7« JC«« 
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ovdfivos, C4«y oJ«*«c, oijco^o^or J4fi* «iftt^ *#?» 

Digitized by GOOgle 


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tihn to agyvfior, fty toitov bt*m U^orta, « tteip© 
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ilnft t* naf*kofov xty tizil* , 6$&Ag • o y*$ Aoy©$ i} 
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wnoo?, wfroa o*/<Wy «fr«(r*»v flo*#. *jBw, «/W^ff*#r 
4 tvrvxlct, tvloynf i\ yig *$x*l tfjtyteioff* ovtt 
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ltnl»g f pt)de f mg inl to ttoAv * xal tovrmy, ooa «y 
yifono to> roig IVnea tov. 


JuKpiyH di, on to avjoputroy inl nXMp ion* to 
fh y&0 anb rvxrig, Anb /tavTopdtov tovto 9$ oi 
*my anb rifflS '• *& pb 7<*Q tvxn *«^ T0 " 7t0 WJP)f 
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Digitized by GoOgle 


noa&g, 2. Aio xal avayxt) ntql xa ngaxxa tlvcu 
*y* tv/rir, 2r\ptiov hi, on doxii ijxoi xaixbv tlvat 
xfj Bvdatfiovia [ti svtvxla], rj iyyvg • ij d* Bi daipo - 
via, g*g«JtfeLl*g * tlnqalia yaq • iW oootg fir} h>di-+ 
XBxat noatai, oidk xb anb xvxi\g t* noirjoai. 3. Ufa* 
dice xovxo ovxb at/rvxop ov&h , ovt« &riqlov, ovxb 
naidiop oi&kv notti anb xvxyg, oxi ovx t/f* nqoai- 
qsow old* sixvxla ovde dtvxla vnaoxti xovxo tg, ei 
[til xottf ofioiotriTCf Sgntp tcprj llQfaxaqxog, bvxv- 
X&S tlvai xovg Xl&ovg, i£ wr oi fioafiol, oxi, xift&vxoti, 
ol to bpoZvysg aix&v xaxanaxovvxai* To 6b nuoxeiv 
ano %vxyg* vnetQXtin&g xal xovxoig, oxav o nqdxxorr 
xl ntql aixa, nqaSy ano xvx^g * aXXatg tie ovx liarr*. 
4* To 6*« avxopaxov xal xdig aXXoig £tioig, xal noX- 
Xolg xiv ayrixw * °lor o Xnnog aixopaxog, (paper, 
yX&tv, oxi ioti&ii fiw iX&av, oi xov o<o&rjvai di ly«- 
xsp t)X&8. Kal b xqinovg aixopaxog xen&juatw 
boxrj fikv yaq xov xa&rjo&ai bpbxbp • aX£ oi xov xa- 
&rjo&ai bpbxbp xaxinBosr. 5. "Jlgxs qpavtobr oxi iy 
xoig anX&g Ursxi xov ywojiivotg , oxav fitj xov (jvp- 
fldvxog tvBxa yivqxai, ov S« xb ai'xiov, xbxs anb 
xov aixofiaxov Xiyofuv anb xix^g 9s, xovxmv Boa 
anb xov aixofiaxov yivBxat x&v nqoatqtxiv xoig s~ 
%ovoi nqoalqBow. 6. JSr^kiiov 8b xb fiaxyy, oxt Xi~- 
yBxat, oxav fir) yivr\xai xb ov tvtxa, aX£ 8 ixuvov 
tvBxa. Olor xb fiadioai, ti Xana^ewg svBxa iaxw 
b\ 6b (iii iyivBxo padioavxi , ftdjrjv tspapsp fladioai, 
xal i) padung paxaia, wg tovto oV to fHXTrjy, xb ?***- 
q>vxbg aXXov i'vBxa, oxav pri ntqalvr] ixiivo ov ivcxot 
W xal inBtpvxBi. 'Kml b%xi>s Xovoao&ai (paty fidxfjr, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


on ovx gsXinty o ijltog t ytXolog «r «Tv ov yag %p 
xovxo ixtivov tpexa. 7. Ovxu drj xb avxopaxop un- 
til xb opopa, oxap avxb fiixtir ybytai' xatintot 
yag ov xov natalou ivtxa o Xi&og. 'dnb xov ait o- 
fiaxov aga xaxintotp o Xl&og , oxi nioot Sp anb t»- 
rbg, xal xov naxa$at tptxa. 8. Malutxa di ioxi £«*- 
giC&psvop xb anb tvxv? b *o*g <pv<m ywofUpoig * 
oxav yag ybtftai xi naga qwoip, xix§ ovx anb TV/qc, 
alia pallor anb xavxopaxov ytyopbai yafuv. "Eaxi 
di xal tovjo it t gov. Tov fib yag t$w to atxwp, xov 
d' bxoq* 9. Ti pip ovv ioxl xb avxofiaxop, xal xi 
h ™xn> &gn**h *«* xi du*<pigovo*p ill^lup. Tup 
di xgonup xyg aixlag b tolg o&tp ij agxh "J? xtvr,- 
osug, ixaxtgoy aixup • n yag tup a>vo$h V *<»* inb 
dutpolag, alxiop ail ioxw alia xovxup xbnlrfioq 
aogioxor. 10. ^Entl d* ioxl xb avxofiaxop xal q tv- 
XH aXxta up av fjpovg ybotxo aXxiog, fj (pvaig, oxap 
xaxa ovpfUprjnbg alt toy t* yivrpak xovtup atiwr 
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avxo* dqlop on oidi xb xaxa ovfijkfiijxbg aXxiop 
ngoxtgop xov xa& iavto. 11. "Toxtgop aga to av- r 
TOfiutop xal ij tvxV xa * vov na * ^vjsag * wgxt tl on 
ualtoxa xov ovgaxov aXxtop to avtofiatop, arayxji 1 
ngotigop povp aXtiop xal <pvoiP *lpa,i xal iillupnol- 
lup, xal tovds tovnanog. 


"Oxi di ioxvp al'xia, xal o« ioxl xooavta top igi- 

&pbp baa q>apip, dijlop • xooavta yag top agi&pbp, 

To diet xl neoitlXfjCptP • *} yag ng xb ti iotip itpay*- 

tat xb dta xl, soxaxop ip xoig axipi\xoig 9 olop b tolg 

Digitized by GoOgle 


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tgov, rj dllov nvbg avdyttai eexottoy * 2. rf tig to 
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Irjoav rj tlvog tvtxa; iV aglwow rj ir toXg yivo- 
pivoig, r) vly. °Oti piv ovv t« aXtia tavta nal ro- 
oauta, (pavtgov. 3. *Entl de aitlat ttooagtg, ntgl 
notour tov tpvoixov tidivai • xal tig ndoag dydycoy 
to did tl, ditodmosi (pvoixtog, tr)v vlr\y, to sl&og, ti 
xivr)oav , to ov tvtxa. "Eoxbtcu di xa tgla tig to & 
nollaxtg* to piv ydg tl iott, xal to ov IWxa, SV 
iott,. To di o&tv rj xiyrjoig nomov, tw tide* tavtb 
tovtoig* ay&gamog pi? ydg dv&gomov ytyyfjt. 4.-Kaj 
oXoag oaa xtvovptva xivu • o<ra £e /iijj, avx It* qwa*~ 
*jjs • ov ydg iy kavtoig ty°*™ xlvtjoiv, ov8* *QX*P 
xivrjottog , xivtt, all 9 axlvryta ovta • dih to tig al 
ngaypatilai • r) piv, ntgl axlvryior • r) ds, ntgl *t- 
yovptvov ptv> a<p&agtov di • i) di, ntgl tit q>&agrd. 
^/'jlgts to did tixal tig trjv vlr\v dydyovn anodi- 
dotai, xal tig to ti icrti, xal tig to ngatov xtvrjoav • 
ntgl ytviottag ydg pdliOra tdvtov toy tgonov rag 
ah lag oxonovoi, tl pttd tlylvnou, xal tl ngwtoy 
frrolrjocy, rj il erta&t, xal ovtwg dtl>tb i(ps^r)g • (6.o**x- 
tal di agxal al xwovom <pvmxwg, »v r) ktiga ov <pv- 
01x1) • ov ydg l/« xivr]otiog agx*l* iy kavtrf toiovto 
d* iotlv, d'ti xivii pr) xwovptyov • iagntg to,tt izav- 
xelmg dxlvTjTov , xal to ndrttov ttqmtov •) 7. xal 
y to ti ioti, xal r) pogq>f) • tilog ydg , xal ov tvtxa* 
wgtt intl 7) <pv<jig t'yexd tov, xal tavtr^v tidevtu d&. 
Kal ndvttog dnodotioy TQ^Jkdjtl, olov oti ix tovdt 
dvdyxr] todt* tb 6e ix tovds, r] dnling, rj wg frtl to 

Digitized by GOOgle 


noXi' xal & (UXXu toil foto&ai, Sgnto & to? *roo- 
wnmr to ovfiniqaopa • xal ou tovto ijy, to ri yy 
fom, xal diixt pattor ovtwg, ovx &*Xug, JtXXi 
Xfigti}* inimovjnHjioty. . # ' t r . /. 

JrJu— -^> CTPOT vm.t *; *. *v./^ ( . 

Junior dtj, nqwtoy ph, dioti rj (pvoig t&y trend «•* 
tov altimy • htuta ntol tov ayayxalov, irng &« (y 
toig ipvoixoZg • tig yao tavtrjy t^y aittay avayovoi 
narttg, or*, instil) to ^sgfiov iotordl ntyvxt, xal 
loyvxQbr, xal fxaotov dijtmy totovttoy, rotdl (& a- 
**yxttf iotl xal yirttai, xal ntyvxf xal yaq x$y 
uXXfp ctixiar &rt<aav, ooov aiftdatyoi *cr/o«tv itooiy, 
o uh rtfy yiliay xal to puxog, b Si thy yovy. 2. *ifc« x 
I ' dno piety, ti xiaXvu tip <pvotv fit} hind tov nottlv, 
fyd o,ti pilrioy, aX£ wgitso tfr* o Ztvg, oix orttoc 
w ottoy av^arj, ill' £ drdyxyg • to yap dvax&h 
Wfrnr** W, xal to tfrvx&h vdao ytyoueyot xaxeX- 
&&v • to Si av^dpBod-at tovtov ytyouivov ovppaiyn 
toy </troy. 'Opoltag de xal st t<$ anoXXvtat 6 o*itog 
fr ty al<$ t ov tovtov tvtxa vu, bmag drioXrjTat, aX~ 
Xa tovto ovpPifauey. "jlgtt t( xwXvei ovtw xal ta 
riot} tz*** &* *Ji (pvott ,- olov tovg idoytag i$ ayay~ 
tj\g kyovt&lat, tovg ply ifingoo&lovg oUTg, imttjfoU 
ovg nqbg to diaiquv, tovg ds yofjupiovg nXarug, xal 
tmalpovg nqbg to Xtaiyety tqy tooxprjy* intl ov tov- 
tov tvtxa ytv&j&ai, aXXa oi>ft7tt6tlv. 'Opoltog 9i xal 
wot t«y aXXtov fieovy, iv ' oootg dontl vttdoxtw to 
btxa tov. "Onov fiiy oi>y anayta ovyipti, tigitto 
Wv $i tvtxa tov iyhtto, tttvta (i$y io(6&n, anb tov 
wtofiitov avotina innr}dti<sg' ooa di p?j ovt<og> 

Digitized by GOOgle 


aniXeto xal anoXXvtah, xa&aneq *EpntdoxXiig Xiyu 
ta fiovyeptj xal apdqonqaqa* 3. O pep ovp Xoyog, 
op ap rig anoqr^oeiep, ovtog, xal el' tig aXXog towv- 
tog iotip, 'Adipatop de tavta tovtov sxwtbp tqo- 
nop * tavta [isp yaq, xal napta ?a (pvoei, % atl ov- 
ta yipetai, i] a>g inl to noXv* %iap $' ano rvzys *al 
tov avtopatov ovdep' ovte yiq ano rvxyg, ovve 
ano ovpnxwpaxog doxu Sup noXXaxig tov x**p*>vog, 
aXtf up vnb xvpu* avdi xavpata vnb xvpa, aX£ 
Sp ZMptotog. El ovp rj ano ovpntifiatog doxei, % 
epexa tov elpai, ei pi) olop te tavta elvai, p4\te ano 
ovpntmfiatog, (jtqti ano tavtopatov, epexa tov ap 
sly. jiXXa firjp cpvou (atl tit totavia ye nayta, wg 
xSv avtol (pcclep ol tavta Xeyopteg. "jEotip Sea to 
epexa tov h to%g (pvou yipopipoig xal ovoip. 4. "Ett, 
ip oaoig tiXog tl iotl, tovtov epexa nqattetat, to 
nqbteqop, %al to i<pe£qg. Ovxovp wg nqattetai, ov- 
tw netpvxe* xal ig ni<pvxep, av fit) ti ipnodl^jj, ov- 
Tw nqattetai exaotop. JJqattetat de epexa tov, xal 
niopvxep aqa tovtov epexa, Olop ei oixla tStP <pi- 
oei ytpopipwp fjp, ovtatg up iyepeto, ig pvp into \tiqg\ 
tixptig ' el de ta <pvoei, pi\ popop yvoei, aXXa xal 
ttXPft ylypovto, woavrtag ap yipoito tj mqtVxep • f>e- 
xa aqa <d-ateqov &ateqoP. 5. "OXtog te f} texpq ti 
pep initeXel, a t\ <pvoig advvatei aneqya£ea&ai , ta 
de pipeitm, £tovp ta xata tixpfjp epexa tov , dy- 
Xopou xal ta xcrra (pvaiv • opoltog yaq fyei nqog aX- 
XqXa dp tolg xata texpt\p, xal ip toig xata <pvow, ti 
voteqa nqog ti nobteqa. 6* MaXiota de (papeqbp 
inl tap £(o(ap tap aXXwp, a ovte tixvfi t ovte ^tiJ- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


carta, ovxt ftovltvoapipa, noiu. Jib anooovol t«- 
y«s, nottoop p$, fj t»m aJUq> ioyatorxai ot x$ aqdx- 
pai, xal oi pvQpijXtg, xal xa xouivxa. Kata pmoop 
£* ovtoj noolorn xal to toig <pvxoig yairtxai xa ovp- 
qpigopta yiyvopera nobg to xilog, olop xa yvlim |y«- 
xa tijs tov xaqnov oxini\g, v Jlgx w awrtt ti tiou*, 
xa» ercxa tov q x*lrfa*y x^p ptoruap, xal o dqdxr^g 
to iqazrior, xal xa <jpvxa t« qpvAAa, totna tm* *ao- 
Trwy* seal T«f ^Ifa? ovx aw, aJUa scare, JWxa Tijc 
rpoqpf/s * qmptqlp ou ioxlp tj aixia rj xoiavxif to toig 
(pvatt yiroptooig xal ova*. 7. 2fat inel tj *>votg 0*t- 
T17, ^ j*«V w? vA^, ^ £' a»; popw, Tt log gg crtfri f, tov 
tHovg Si iptxa t« aUa, avxif ay «fy 4 «**& ^ ov 
JVexa. 8. 'Apaqxia Se yiyruat xal to xotg xaxa x*x- 
vip" eyoaft yaq ov* oo£oj; o yoappatutbg, xal 
initiator ovx oq&mg iaxqog to qtagpaxov &gx$ dy- 
Xoy oil totisxttai xal to xotg xata ayiow, 2$ dr] 
iartp ewa xata xix*y*> i* olg to oq&mg trtxa tov * 
to da totg apaqxapoptooig, totxa pto twog inix**Q&~ 
tai, al£ anotvyx&rttat,* opolmg ap ifro* xal to totg 
qwaixolg* xal to Ttpara apaqx^paxa ixtbov tov 
ersxa tov, Kal to xa%g i& aqxyg aqa avatdaeoi ti 
Povywr) , «* py nqog w« ooop xal tilog dvpata tjr 
il&s7p, dMfpde^optofjg Sp aQXVQ twoq iybno, <3ff- 
mq vvv tov oniQiiatog. 9*"ito» avdyxt) aniopa yt- 
vio&a* no&top, alia pi) ti&vg to fwor xai to (ovAo- "^ 
qpvi? li nooxioop oniopa tip, "En xal to xolg yv- 
To7g l>«ar* to IVexa tov, ^tto^ Si dn'io&Qwxai* ni- 
xtoop ovp xal to xoig tpvxolg iybsxo, Hgneo fiovytrri 
xal avdgonowoa, ovitog apntleytri} xal ilaiono*- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Qa, ij ov ; axonov ydg' aXXa fif^v Ifle* ye, ttneg xa 
ivxoXg ^doig. iO.'Ert, tdet xal iv xolg aitig^xaa 
yiveo&ai ontog sx\)%tv * oXtag di otvatgtl 6 ovxat Xiyon 
xa <pvoH r* xal cpvaiv • cpvot* yag, ooa ino xipog 4i 
iavxoXg agx*\$ ovvex&g xivovutva, atpMvnjtxi ttg x 
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ovxtag mg Svexd xov , <pavsg6v.\ 


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xal at xivi\Qug ai xavxr\g. 5. Kal {ajicpcajpir t<» * 
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2. Ilqbg Si tovtoig, Srtv tonov, xal xtpov, xal [diet] 
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is tavta, xal [dta] to napttup stpat now* xal xa&6- 
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tixbp, xipyuxbv tov xirrpov • xal to xiPtjtby, *wij- 
tov vitb tov xwrjtixov. 4. Ovx sot* di xiri\oig naqa 
t« nqayftata •» fistaftaXXu yaq ail to fitta§dXXop 9 
V %at ovoiar, q xati itoobv, ij xata nowp, i\ xata 

Digitized by GoOgle 



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ovts fiSTafioiTi avdsvbg Xoiat, nag a ra tigti^tva, pr\~ 
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dix&s vnctQXM nBW t olov to rods* to uivyag nogyr] 
avjov, to ds ozsgnatg. JCal xata to now to psr 
ydg Xzvxbv, to b*$ {4&oy. Kal xaxa to nooov, to 
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r fxaoxov yivog, tov /Uy bxeXtxsta, tov ds dvvauMt, q 
y \ tov tvvdpu ovxog ivxtUfiiM, y xoiovjov, xivqaig 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


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vovv. Ov /xifV aXXa, ntql fiiy xovxtav i$ aXXiav taxai 
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XtxoLi yaq sxaoxov bxs ph ivsqyslv, bxs tie pi\ • olov 
to oixodofirjxbv, y oixodofirix6v. Kal y xov oixodo- 
firjTOV ivsqysia, jj oixodofiijxbv, olxodofirjolg ioxiv 
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dk oixodofifjoig , xivr\oig xlg ioxiv. *AXXa pr\v o ctv- 
tog iq>aqfioosi Xoyog xal inl xSiv aXXtov xivriotav. 
Arist. Piiys. Ausc. D 

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"Oxi ds xaXStg ti'qtjxai, dyXov xal i$ lav ol aXXoi 
ittql avxtjg Xiyovai, xal ix xov fiij qydiov thcti d logi- 
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xafioXhv iv aXXto yivti dtivai dvvaix av xig, ovzs ol 
ixiqtag slqt}x6xsg Ttcol airing, xaxoq&ovai. Jr\Xov di 
oxonovotv, «j xi&iaoiv tvioi aixw, ixtqix^ta, xal 
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ds doxslv aoqiaxov shai xtjv xivrjaiv aVxiov, oxi ovxt 
tig dvvapiv xStv ovxtav, ovxs tig iviqysiav iaxi &sivai 
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xiov o", oxi axsXig xb dvvaxbv, ov iaxiv iviqytia xi- 
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Svvafiiv, i} tig iviqytiav anXr)v xovxtov b* ov&iv 
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6s thai. 5. KivtXxai ds xa* xb xivovv, agitsq sl'qr)- 
t«*, nav xb dvvaftsi ov xivr\xbv, xal ov ^ axivijoia 

Digitized by GOOgle 

PHYSIC. AUSC. LIB. 1U. CAP. 10. 51 

%gt(iia taxi* * « yag i) xivrjou; xnxigxu, Tovry >) *- 
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Oiov o trxtlixtia av&ganog noiti ix tov dwifin or- 
xog av&Qwnov ay&gwnov. 

Kal to aixogoifitwov di yavegbv, on iatlr rj x«Vi;- 
<hq it tw xivrjtM • irrtXixtta yag ioth tovtov, xal 
vnb tov xtvrjTixov. Kal ?j tov xirrjxixov da ivig- 
yua, ovx ally iaxi' du fiir yag thai IvxtXixttat 
afupdiv * xivijuxby fiiv yag igti, xw dvvao&ai • x»- 
vovv 6e, t« ivtqyuv • aX£ Wmv ivegyrjuxov tov xi- 
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(iixtoi Xoyog ovx **£• 'Ofioiatg &i xal til tov xi- 
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ntfv uvayxaiov yag Vo&g ttval tiva Mgytiav aXXi\v 
tov noirjTixov xal tov na&f]Tixov • to pkv yag ixoirj- 
oig, to dk na&rioig. "Egyoy di xal tiXog, tov pkv 
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$H<rig iv t$ naaxow A 61 del xal tavx^v nolrioiv 
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iv T(T) fiav&dvovxi • tiqwtop psv, v\ ivigysta fl Ixa- 
azov, ovx iv exdatca vndglw sir a, axonov xb dvo 
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xiaf aX£ mg % odbg y Qtjpri&ev 'A&ijvats, xal fj 
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To7e, dXXa povov olg xb slvat xb avxb . Ov fifjv 
dXX* ovd* d % didahg xjj na&r\ou xb avxb, xal xo 

Digitized by GOOgle 

PHYSIC. AUSC. LIB. 111. CAP. IV. 53 

fiav&dvsiy tw diddoxuv to avto • wgneq ovd' ti 17 
didotaoig pla twv oWt^xoto)?, xal to duarao&ai 
Mivdt ixtloe, xal ixsi&tv dsvqo, sv xal to avro. 
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rotovrov, anXoug ts xal naXw xa& exaatov, 1] oixo- 
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tgonov xal ntql twv aXXtov xwi)aiwv kxdatr^g. 
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fj anuqov, ij mnsqaofiivov, olov na&og rj atbyfi^ • 
wv yaq Toiovttav Xawg ov&iv avayxatov h &aiegio 
tovtiav sivai*} nqog%xov av €Cv\ y tov ntql (pvaswg 
nqayfiatsvofisvoy dewgrjoai ntql anslqov, d sotiv, r\ 
prj • xal, tl sat i, ti ioti. 2. 2rj(isiov de, on tavtr^g 
xyg hnax7]\i.r^g olxtla ^ &tioqla y nsql aitov • ndv- 
ng yaq oaot doxovatv a^ioXoy cog rjcp&ai tijg toiav- 
iifff qpiXooocpiag, nenoirjvtat Xbyov nsql tov ansiqov, 
tal TtdvTtg ag aqx^v Tiva t&iaav t&v ovtav • ol ftiv, . ^ v< 
igntq ol Hv&ayoqtioi xal IlXai ojv, xa& avtb , ovx -* ^ 
1$ avfipt^rixog twb ktiqy, aXi i>g oialav avtb o» 

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to aneiqov (nXi)v ol fiev Jlv&ayoqeiot, iv totg at- 
o&rjto'ig * ov yaq jjfOJotOTov noiovob tov aqt>&[4.6v • 
xai elvai ds to 8fa> xov oiqavov aneiqov IHoctcov 
ds, £&a) ftev oidev elvai aafia, ovde tag idictg, dux to 
firidi nov elvai aiftag • to fievtoi aneiqov xal iv To7g 
<xiax)"rjTolg, xal iv ixeivaig elvai, 3. Kcu ol fiev to 
antiQOV elvai to Sqtiov • tovto yaq ivanoXapParo— 
pevov, xal vnb tov 7teqittov neqaivopevov, naqixei 
tdlg ovoi ttjv aneiqiav • arjpelov di elvai tovtov to 
avp^aivov inl tav aqi&pwv • neqm&epivwv yaq Ttnv 
yvwpovw neql to ev xalx^qlg, ore pev aXXo ael yi— 
yveod-ai to eldog, ore di IV. nXawv tie dvo xa arcei- 
qa, to peya, xal to pixqov •) 4. ol de neql qpvoecvg, 
anavreg ael vnoti&eaotv heqav rivet <pvoiv tgj aTttl- 
oa> tiav Xsyopevwv atoixdtav • olov i'tfwfl, *} aeoa, <jj 
to peta^if tovtohv twv di neneqaapiva tiolovvtcov 
atoixela, ovoct? anuqa noiei * ooot 5' aneiqa noiov— 
Oi atoixela, xa&dneq *Ava\aybqag xal Jrjpoxqitog, 6 
ftev 6c tgjj> bpoiopeqwv , b 6' ix ttfg navoneqplag 
twv oxiH*a*MV, tji aq>i] avvexeg to aneiqov elvai, q>cc- 
oi, 5. Kal o fiiv, btiovv pbqiov elvai bpolag ply pot 
tip navtl, dia to bqqv btiovv i$ btovovv yiyvopevov • 
(ivtev&ev yaq I'otxe xal to bpov noti anavra XQV'- 
uara <pavai elvai • olov yde f) aaq$ xal tods to o- 
atovv,xal ovtag btiovv* xalnavtaaqa* xal S/uot 
tolvvv Aqxv yaq ov pdvov iv kxd<n<p iail ttjg dicc- 
xqloeug , ctXXa xal navrw inel yaq to yiyvopevov 
ix tov toiovrov ylvetai atopatog, navttav d' ^or» y&- 
veotg nlip 6\>x a 1 pa • xal tiva aqxw *7vcu del trjg 
yevfoetog. Avri\ tf iatl pia, ov ixelvog xaXei row. 

Digitized by GOOgle 

PHYSIC. AUSC. LIB. 111. CAP. IV. 65 

e ds vovg, an agxfo rtvog igydfcxai voyoag • £g t« 
avaptr} [ndvxa] bfiov nox tlvcu, xal ag$ao&al nox* 
xivovpeva.) 6. Ar^ioxgixog di, ov&b txtgov £ M- 
gov yiyvea&ai xutv ngtaxwv <pt)olr • aX£ ofiwg aixo 
to xoivbv otofia andvxtov ioxlv agxh > ptyi&tt xaxi 
xa fiogia xal oxrifiaxi ^taqpigov. "Oxt fiiv ovv ngog- 
i\xovaa roig qpvotxoig 7] &twgla, dtjXov ix xovxtay, 
7. EvXoyag de xal agxhv avxb ri&iaoi nivxzg • ovxi 
yag fiaxfjv olovxs aixb tlrou, ovxs aXXi]v avxia vnag- 
Xttv dvvafiw, nXrjv ug agxty' anarxa yag ij agxht 
f) H &QXVS ' T °v 6s amlgov ovx toxiv agxv ' *fy Y*Q 
av avxov nigag. *Exi 61 xal ayivvr\xov xal u(fdag- 
xov, &g vqxt) Tig ovoa. To, x$ yag ysvoptvov, a^a- 
yt% Xapiiv tiXog, xal xeXtvxrj naorjg iaxl qt&ogag. 
dio, xa&antg Xiyofitv, ov xavxrjg agxht <*X£ avxi) 
xav aXXwv clvai doxu, xal mgUxuv anavxa, xal 
itavxa xvjSegvav, &g cpctoir boot fiij noiovoi naga to 
antigov SiXXag ah lag, oTov vovv, ij (pdiav, xal xovxo 
thai xb -d-Bioy a&dvaxov yag xal avdXt&gov, <Sff- 
rceo <pi]olv b 'AvaSlpavdgog , xal oi nXiioxoi ttav <pv- 
owXoyow. 8. Tov d* tlval xt anttgov, fj nlorig ix 
nbrtt (iaXtoxa aV ovpPalvoi axonovow Ix it xov 
Xgovov • ovxog yag anugog • xal ix xyg h xotg [tt- 
yi&BOt dtctigioetag • XQ® VTal Y**Q xa * °* pa&riparixol 
tw aneigcp • %xt, t<JJ ovxwg av fiivtag firj vnoXelntiv 
yhwiv xal cp&ogav, u anugov sl'rj , o&w iupaigeixai 
to yiyvofievov txi, xto xb ntnigaopivov ail ngog t* 
ntgalvtiv tigts avdyxr\ pijdb tlvai nigag, (I atl 
ntQaivuv avayxrj exegov ngbg txtgov. 9. MaXioxa 
^ xa* xvgu&xaxov, o xijv xowijv nokti aitogla* naor 

Digitized by GOOgle 



dia yag xb iv xj) voijosi py vnoXtlnuv, xal o aQiS-fjibg 
doxu antigog tlvai, xal xa pa&Tjpaxixa fityd-&i], xal , 
xb %lta xov ovgavov. 'Aneigov fl* 6Vto$ rov t£oi, 
xal (JWfia aittigov elvai 6oxh, xal xoofioi. Ti yog 
udXXov xov xevov ivxav&a , i\ ivxav&a; tog-re si'mg 
povaxov, xal navxaxov avdyxrj tlvai xbv oyxop. 
l, Afia d' si xal taxi xtvbv, xal xbnog antigog, xal om- 
fia anugov avayxaiov tlvai • to yag ivdixea&at rov 
Avai oi&iv dia<pegei iv xo%g aidioig. 10. *'Mx*i d* 
dnogiav i] ntgl tov dnslgov dstagia* xal yag fii) elvai 
xi&tpivoig iroXXd advvaxa avfi^aivti • xa* tlvai. *jKt* 
di, noxigcag ioxl, noxsgov wg ovaia, i] wg ovjuftefitj- 
nbg xa& alto q>voti xivl, rj ovdexigtog* aXX* ovtdev 
rjxxov ioxlv anugov ij antiga x$ nXr]&ti. 11. JWa- 
Xioxa $s (pvoixov ioxi oxiipao&at, ti taxi fiiye&og ai- 
od"r\zov antigov. Ilgiaxov ovv diogioxiov, itooaxmg 
Xiytxai to ansigov. "Eva fisv ovv xgdnov , to adv- 
vaxov ditX&tiv, xoi fir) nt<pvxivai duivai • otgneg rj 
qxovij, aogaxog, 'AXXwg di,xb dU$odoy s%ov artkev- 
t^tov rj o poyig, rj o 7ie<pvxbg txtiv, PV *X st ^« did$- 
odov, rj negag. *'Exi ansigov anav, rjxaxa nQoa-ds- 
aiv, rj xaxa diaigtoiv, r) dftcpoxegiog. 
Xagioxov fiiv ovv tlvai xb anugov xmv aio&fjxojp, 
avxo xi ov ansigov , ovx oiov xs • si yag firjxe (tiys- 
&6g ioxi, firjxe nXi]d-og t aXX' oioia avxo iaxi xb anei- 
gov, xal firj ov^t^rjxbg j adiaigsxov soxai* to yag 
diaigsxbv, rj psyedog i'oxai, rj nXti&og. M di ccdiott- 
gexov, ovx anugov, u py tag r) (pavrj aogaxog, 3 Ali' 
ovx ovxbig, ovxs cpaalv tlvai ol (pdoxovxeg slvai to 

d by Google 


unugov, ovx8 rjfisig £rjxovfifP 9 &X£ wg adti£odop. 
2. itj ds xaxa ov/jfisft^xog ioxi xb antigov , ovx ap 
£i) aroixuov twv ovTwv , j] antvgop ' aignsg ovdi TO 
aogaxov rijg dtaXixxov, xaixoi i) cpwvrj ioxw aogaxog. 
Exi nag ivdexzTou eipai xiavxb ccttbiqov, ttJitg py xal 
aqidpbv xal piye&og, tap ioxi xa&* avxb na&og xl 
to Sntigop ; tu yag i\xxop apayxy, ^ top agi&fibp, 
ythfibyi&og. 3. 0apsgbp di xal oxt ovx ipdifsxai 
thai to ansigop, wg ipsgysla op, xal (og ovalap, xal 
*wh v ' saxat yag oxiovp avxov anugop to Xafifia- 
fofupop, si fiegioxop. To yag an tig (o eipai, xal «- 
luigov, to avxo • tl'neg ova ice xb ansigop, xal fiy 
xatf wioxhu&pov. Jlgx tj adiaigsxop, tj tig anti- 
po duttgexov • noXXa d' anuga advpaxop tw uvto) 
thai. IdXXa (ir\p mgneg aigog arjg pigog, ovx<o xal 
muigov andgov, st yt ova la foil xal agx^l* 'Apigtr* 
oxor aga xal adiatgtxop. *AlX advpaxop xb ivxeXe- 
tua ov anttgop • nooop yag xi tlpai apayxalop, 
4. Kaxcc ovfi^s^xbg aga vnagxsi to anugop • al£ 
u ovwag, sigr^xai oxi ovx ipdixsxai avxb ao/V M- 
yup m aX£ ixupo <J avp^i^xt , top aiga , rj to ao- 
xiop. "jlgxs axonag ap anotpaipoipxo oi Xiyopxeg ov- 
xag, Sgneg oi Ilv&ayoguol qpaoip ' Spa yag ovaiap 
Ttowvob to anugop, xal pegiSovoip. 5. IdXJ? I'acag 
avxfj fiir ioxt xa&oXov fj ^xriffig fiaXXop, si ipdixs- 
Ttu to anugov xal ip xolg fiad-rifiaxixdlg slpai, xal 
bxolg vorjxolg, xal ip xoig pTjdev e/ow* piye&og. 
Ufiug d* imoxonovfjiep nsgl xwp aio&rixmp, xal nsgl 
•» noiovfis&a xijp fu&odop, ag saxip ip aixoig, n 
to* taxi owfia anugov inl xqp criflqow. C Aoy*~ 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xwg fiiv ovv axonovfiivoig, ix twv touovds $6* tut 
Sv ovx slvar si yag ion oapatog Xoyog to ininida 
wgiopivov, ovx Sv sXr\ oapa anstgov, ovts votjtbv, 
ovts otiod-rjTov* l*AXXa firjv ovd* agi&fibg ovttag ws 
xsxagiofisvog xal anstgog' agi&fifjtbv yag 6 <xo(- 
&pbg, fj to e'xov agi&fiov. El ovv to agi&firitbv (v- 
bixstai aQi&ftTjoai, xal dis&Xd-siv Sv sl'rj dvvatbv to 
anstgov. (Pvotxwg 8& fiaXXov -dsagovoiv ix twvds, 
' / .' jK8. Ovts yag ovv&stov olov is slvai, ovts anXovv, 
t . r ^{- r S2vv\rsTov fiiv ovv ovx sot at to anstgov owfia, u ns- 
^ *< ': * i J- 1 7 *g<wfiiva tot 7rA*;#£* t« ototxsia sl'rj. 'Avayxrj yag 
I nXslta slvat, xal ioagstv asl tavavtla, xal (ir\ slvat 
sv avtiv anstgov * si yag onaoovv Xsinstat fj iv hi 
caftan divapig d-atigov, olov si to nvg nsnigaotat, 
6 $* arjg anstgog • cot* dk to Xoov nvg jov Vaov cU- 
gog tji dvvafiM bnooanXaoiovovv, fiovov ds agt&fiov 
tiva i'xov * ofitog tpavsgbv, on to anstgov vnsgjJaXu 
xal (p&egu to nsnsgaopsvov. 9. "Exaotov d* Snst- 
gov slvat advvatov • oafia yag ion to navtrj %xov 
diaotaotv • anstgov di to ansgavttog dtsotrjxog • e3<r- 
T8 to anugov oaifia, navtaxrj sotat dtsoTqxbg tig 
anugov. 10. !4JU« /irjv ovde sv xal anXovv slvat 
ivSixsrai to anstgov capa, ovts, wg Xsyovol ttvsg, 
to naga ta ototxsia, i$ ov tavta ysvvSiOtv, ovfP o- 
nXwg* siol yag twsg oltovto notovot to anstgov, 
aXX ovx aiga, y vdwg, ontag fir] taXXa (p&slgtjrat 
ino tov inslgov avtmv Ijjfovo* yag ngbg aXXrjXa 
ivavtlaotv, olov o fisv aijg ynjxgbg, to 5' vdtog vygbv, 
to 6i nvg S-sgfiov toy si sv ansigov, sy&agto ay ijdtj 
thXXa* vvv §h stsgiv opaoiv slvai to i$ ov tavra. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


il. *Advvatov $* tlvai toiovtov, ovx on antigov 
(ntgl tovtov yag xoivovti Xsxtiov inl navtbg buolcog 
mi aigog, xal vdatog, xal btovovv •) aXX' on ovx 


tnoixua • Sinew yag, £ ov iotl, xal diaXvttai tig 
tovto. Iflgrs i\v av ivtav&a naga aiga, xal nig, 
xalyyr, xal vda>g alio tf cpalvtiai d* oi&b. 12. 
Ovdi dy nvg, ovb* alio t&v <rroi/*/ew oi&b antir- 
gw bdsxerai tlvai ti • oXtag yag xal /ropi? *ov anti- 
gov iivai t* aixiv, advvatov to nay, x$v 1} ntntga- 
apivov, r\ tlvai, ij yivto&ai %v ti avt&v, £gntg 'ifga- 
xlnxog q>ijoiv anavta yhtod-al nott nvg. 13. c O di 
avtbg Xoyog xal inl tov bbg , olov noiovoi naga xa 
oioixua ol qpvoixol • nana yag finapdXXti i$ bav- 
tlov tig bavtlov, olov i% dsgfiov tig ipvxgov. Jii di 
mgl navtbg, xal b tavdt oxoniiv, ti ivdixtxav r) ovx 
ivdexErai tlvai owfxa anugov aio&rjrov, 14. "On dt 
olag Hvvatov tlvai otapa antigov alo&ijtbv,ix Twr- 
& dyXov ' niyvxt yag nav to aia&rirbv nov tlvai, 
*al tart tfmog rig txaotov, xal b avtbg tov fioglov 
xal navtbg, olov oXrjg tt trig yr\g xal' fnag fttoXov, 
talnvgbg xal omv&r)gog. "Jlgtt tl fib bfiotidig, f) 
ttxivrjrov Matai, ij aitl olo&yotTai. Kaltoi advvatov* 
li yag fiaXXov xatta ij av<o, i\ bnovovv; Xiya 6i, olov 
u §(oXog tXr\, nov amy xivti&rjottai, ij nov fitvtl ; 6 
yag tonog anuoog, Tpv ovyytvovg avtjj ompatog. 
Uottgov ovv xa&iUi %bv oXov tbnov, xal nag ; tig 
Wv xal nov f\ povrj xal i\ xlvr\aig arT^$ / rj navta- 
fov iitvii ; ov xivm&tiattai aga' ^ Ttavtaxov xivn&n- 
mat,; ovx aga attjattai. 15. El d 3 avopoiov to 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nav, avofiowi xal ol xonor xal ngmxov psv ov% IV 
to ow/ia xov navxbg, aX£ ij xo) dnxso&ai. 'Encirct, 
ijxot nsnsgaopsva xavx saxai, rj dnsiga to> si'dst • xce* 
nsnsgaofisva jisv ovx olov xs m saxat yag xd fisv a— 
nstga, tit d' ov, si to nav ansigov, olov to nvg, *} to 
vdag. 0-doov di to xoiovxov xoig ivavxioig, xa&ai— 

71SQ si'gtJXai ngOXSgOV. Kol did TOV TO, OV&slg TO £V 

xal ansigov nvg inoirjosv, ovds yi\v, x&v (pvotoXo— 
yaw, dl£ ij vdwg, rj diga, ij to fisoov avxwv St* to— 
nog Ixaxigov, dijXog r\v Siagiofiivog. Tavxa d* 
inafMpoxsgi&i t<Ti avta xal xdxat. El d* dnsiga xal 
aula, xal ol xbnoi dnsigoi, xal saxai dnsiga toc 
oxoi%ua • si di xovxo advvaxov, xal nsnsgaofisvot ol 
xonoi, xal to olov nsnsgdv&ai -avayxaiov * advvpt— 
». tov yag jir\ dnagxl£siv xbv xonov, xal to oafia • ovxe 
ydg 6 xonog 6 nag fisi£a>v, *j oaov ivdsxsxai xb oio/bioc 
d/ia sir at m (apa d* ovd* ansigov saxai xb owpa,) 
ovxb xb o&fia (jiei£oP, rj o xonog • ij yag xsvbv scmxt 
xl, ij o&fia ovdapov nsqpvxbg slvai, \§.*Avaliay6- 
gag 6* axontag Xsysi nsgl xqg xov ansigov povfjg • 
oxijgi£siv yag avxb avxd qprjai to ansigov, xovxo da, 
oxi iv avx§ • aXXo yag oifrsv nsgiixsi. € Jlg onov ay 
xl ji, nscpvxbg ivxav&a thai • tovto d' ovx iX^S-is • 
sYtj yag ay xi nov (Ha, xal ovx ov nsyvxsv. 17. 2£» 
ow oxt fidXtoxa py xtvsixai xb oXov • (to yag iv «v- 
T<p oxr)gi£6(isvov, xal iv avxoj ov, axivi[xov slvat a- 
vayxi\ •) dXXd did xi ov nicpvxs xiveio&at , Xsxxiov • 
ov yag ixavbv xb ovxtag sinovxa anriXXax&ai • sftj 
yag dv xal bxtovr aXXo ov mvovfisvov • ilka nsqpv- 
uivcu, ovdsv xakvsi- insl xal v yij oi qpsgsxai, ovd* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


u anugog rjv • tlgypivf] fiivroi inb tov (idoov * aXlH 
ovx, ow iarlv aXXo ov ivtx&riotTcu, /uvoi av inl tov 
ftiaov • aXX* on ov nicpvxtv oviw. Kaitoi iliifl av 
ttyuv, on OTtiQlfa kavrrjv. El ow pud* inl tr,g 
yi\g tovto atxkov antlgov ovorjg, all' ou fiagog £/«i, 
to <$« fiagv /**m t^ri tov pioov, 17 di 71} £ii tov ju«- 
aov, Oftoltog xal to antigor fisvu iv avioi, #ia a>Utjy 
xtya ah lav, xal ovx ° T * Snugov, xal oxijo/Jm <*vtb 
avio. 18. ^a #£ dr^Xov, on xyv bxipvv dioi fiigog 
fiimv wc yap to antiqov h IcrvTO) fiivti orfjgliov, 
oviw x$v bxiovv Xi]<p&fi fiigog, iv iavro) fiivti • tov 
yao i'lov xal tov fUgovg bfiotidtTg oi Tonoi, olor 
olrjg yjqg xal @dXov , xatto • xal navrbg nvgbg xal 
wuvd-i}Qog, av<o. 'Jlgre ti tov antlgov Tonog to h 
cwtw, xal tov fiigovg 6 avxog ' (itvti aga iv kavroi. 
19. OXag 6s (pavtgbv, on advvaTov apa antigov Xi- 
yuv o&fia, xal totzov two, tlvai ToTg oojfiaoiv, tl nav 
aaua ata&rjTov, tj fidget g exti, V xovq>oTfjTa • xal ti 
p& fiagv, inl to fiioov «/« Tyv <pogav <pvou* ti b*i 
xowpov, Svod. 3 Avayxrj yag xal to antigov owfia. 
Advvaxov de ij anav bnoTtgovovv , f\ to ijfiiov Ixa- 
T«pov nmov&tvai* nutg yag dUXtjg, ?j nStg tov and- 
gov torai, to fiiv avto, to di x«tco, % \ax wtov V (*&- 
ooy/ 20. 'fen, nav awua alo&rjTOv iv Tonta • totiov 
08 t\dr\ xal dia<pogal, to ava xal xaxw, xal %pngo- 
o&w xal omo'&sv, xaldstibv xal agiOTsgov' xa* Tav- 
to ov fiovov ngbg fipag xal &ioM , aXXa xal iv avtoi 
i« oXcjj duagiorai. 'AdvvaTov d* iv Tta anetgw iivai, 
T «VTa. 21. c AnXmg $8 ti advvxTov Tonov slvai ami- 
gov, iv totio) ds nav ouna,.advvaTov aneigov ttval x* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


aotfia. 'Allot pr\v xb ys nov , eV xontp • xal to iv to- 
ny, nov. El ovv fitjds noaov oloy x zlvcu to ansir- 
gov* (noaov yag xl saxai, olov dlnr^v, % xgbxitfv 
xavxa yag arjpaivu xb noaov) ovxto xal to iv tony, 
oxt, nov • tovto ds, ij ava, i) xdxa, % iv ate.*} w* 
diaaxdasi xtov IJ?' xovx(ov 5' txaaxov nigag xl iarty. 
22."On psv ovv ivsgysia oix lor* aapa ansigov, <pa- 
vsgbv ex XOVXGJV, 

"Oxi ds, si fiij iaxw ansigov anXag, npXXa advva- 
xa avpfiaivsi, d^Xov xov xs yag xqovov saxai rig ag- 
tfl xal xsXsvxr^ • xal xd fisys&rj oi diaigsxd sig fisvs- 
&og, xal agi&iibg ovx saxai ansigog. "Oxav di 6W- 
giafisvajv oixag jiridexigfag (paivrjxai ivdsxea&ai, did 
xovxo drj xal dyXov, oxt nag psv iaxi, nStg 3' C v. 
Asysxm ,6e xb slvai, xb ftsv dvvdfisi, xb ds ivxsXexsia* 
xal xb ansigov iaxi fisv ngog&iasi, taxi ds xal aopcu- 
giasi- xb ds fiiye&og, oxi usv xax ivsgysiav oix earn 
ansigov, eigrjxar diaigsasi 6° iaxi • oi yag xaXsTibv 
avsXstvxdg dxo/iovg ygappdg. 2. Aslnsxai ovv dv- 
vdfisi thai xb ansigov. Ov del ds xb dvvdfisi ov Xau- 
fidvsiv, iignsg si dvvaxbv xovx dvdgidvxa slvai, &g 
xal saxai tovt dvdgidg- ovxm xal ansigov xi, o iarat 
ivsgysia. IdXX insl noXXax&g xb slvai, oignsg y ^£. 
ga, iaxi, xal baydv, x$ ael aXXo xal alio yivso&ai, 
ovxa xal to ansigov* xal yag inl xovxcov iaxi xal 
dvvdfisi xal ivsqysia • 'OXifinia yag iaxi xal t£ dv- 
vaa&ai xby dytava yivsa&ai, xal t« yivta&ai.\kxXmg 
ds iv xs x§ XQovq dfiXov xb ansigov, xal inl xZv a*- 
&gan(ov, xal inl xr\g diaigiasug xwv fisys&civ. °OiLoK 

Digitized by GOOgle 


p$y yag ovxtog iaxl to amigoy, to» ahl aXXo nal £U 
Xo XctfipapeQ&ai • nal to Xafifiayoptyoy (Uy dtl n%- 
mgaopivoy tlrai, aX£ alii y* txtgov nal Utgoy. 
3. ["&$, to ilvou, nXtovaxwg Xiyexaf'] wgxt to anu- 
gov ov del Xafifidvny otg rode tl, oloy av&gwioy, rj 
olniav, aX£ a>g ypiga Xiytxai, nal b ay an, (olg to 
slrat oix &g ovoia tig yiyoyev , aX£ atl h ytyioti r\ 
y&oga,) tl nal ntmgaapiyoy, aXX* atl y* txtgoy nal 
txtgoy, *AX£ h fisy tolg fteys&toiy, vnofUyoytog tov 
Xfifp&iyrog , tovto ovpfialvH , inl ds ray ardgunaty 
nal tov X9^ vov > V&tiQopiyw, ovxag, ugte fir} vno- 
Xdituy. 4* To 6i nata ngog&eow, to avxo mig 
ion, nal to nata diaigtow • h yag ta> ntntgao^ivtf 
nata ngog&zoiv ylvstat avttotgafifiiyvtg * j/ yag di- 
atgovfievoy bgaxcu sig anugov, tavtjj ngogxi&iptvov 
(pavsixa* ngbg to atgiapiyov • iv yag t<JJ ntntgaofjiiyta 
Hr/i&ei ay Xafkov tig StgiafUvoy ngogXafijUayp t<J> ai- 
t£ Xoyta, fii] to aixo t* tov bXov fiiyt&og T(j> Xoyto 
7iBgiXafifiav(oy , oi dU$euH to n&iegaopivoy • ay d* 
ovxtog avSji toy Xoyov , iogti ail ti to aixb negiXap- 
§avuv piyt&og, 6*u'£aat, dut to nay to ntntgaopi- 
vov avaigtia&ai bttoovy &gKj(i£ytp. "jlXtog p& ovy 
oix sotiy, ovttog 6* iatl to anngov • dvvpfiu yag nal 
inl na&aigtan • nal bxtXsxda ds ioxlr, u>g tip rjfii- 
gav that Xiyopsy , nal toy aytoya* nal dvvafiu ov- 
xtog ig % vXt) • nal ov na& avtb, wg to n*7ngao[U- 
*ov. 5. Kal nata ngogd-soiv df) ovxtog antigov dv- 
fapu iaxlv, b taixb Xiyopey tgonov tiva that t£ 
nttxa diaigsow • atl ftiv yag ti> avxov Sw Iota* Xa^ 
§dveiy • oi u&vtoi vmgpaXXit nayxbg igiafiivov fit" 

Digitized by GOOgle 


yid-ovg, wgntg inl xi)v diaigeoiv vntgfiaXXu navxog 
wgujfiivov, xal eoxai i'Xaxxov. "Slgxe 6tj navxog vneg- 
(iaXXuv xara xr\v ngog&sow, ovde dvvapei oiov xe 
ttvcu, eVntg fit] ion xaxa ovfijSs^rjxbg ivxeXtxeia a- 
neigov Hgneg cpccolv oi cpvoioXoyoi xb IJoi otofia xov 
xoofiov, ov ij ovola arjg, ij aXXo xi xoiovxov ansigov. 
*AXfi u gj,rj olov xe elvai aneigov ivxeXexela o&fia ai- 
o&rjxbv ovxoa, cpavtgbv oxi ovde dvvafxu av el'rj xaxa 
ngogS-eoiv, aXX* ?}> agneg slg^xai, avxeoxgafifiivtog 
Tij diaigioei. 6. 'Ens} xal JlXdxcav dia xovxo aneiga 
dio inoirjoev , on xal inl xr\v av$r\oiv doxel vnsg- 
(iaXXeiv, xal sig aneigov levai , xal inl xi\v xa&aige- 
oiv. non'ioag fiivzot dvo, ov ^of/tat. Ovxe yag iv 
Tolg agi&fioXg to inl xrjv xa&algEoiv aneigov vnag- 
%u. 'llyag fiovag iXdxiaxov ovxe inl xv\v avSrjoiv 
[tixgi yag dexadog noiH xbv agi&ftov. 7. Svpfialvei 
de xovvavxiov elvai anugov, ^ &g Xeyovaiv ov yag 
oil (irjdev f&a, aX£ ov delxi fJfw ioxl, xovxo ansigov 
ioxi* orifitiov de* xal yag xovg daxxvXlovg anelgovg 
<paol xovg firj exovxag ayevdovrjv, oxi aid xi I£&) ioxl 
Xafipaveiv, xaxf bfiowxtjxa psv xiva Xeyovxeg , ov 
fiivxci xvglcog • del yag xovxo xs vndgxeiv, xal fiijdi- 
noxe xb avxb Xanpdveo&at. *JSv de* tw xvxXta ov yi- 
vexai ovx(og,aXX 3 ahl xb iyetfjg povov txegov. 8. *!d- 
neigov pev ovv xovx soxiv, ov xaxi xb noobv Xaa- 
pdvovovv, alsl xi Xafiuv !$<» ioxiv. Ov de firi&ev IJw, 
xovx eoxi xiXuov xal oXov oiixoa yag ogi£6fie&a xb 
oXoVy ov ngog xa pigy fir^d-kv antorw m oiov civ&QM- 
nov oXoVy r\ xiptoxiov. "Jtlgneg de ogi^6fie&a xb xatf 
t*aaxoVy ovxoa xal xb xvgiwg • olov xb oXov, ov pq- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


&ir iartv Hfa>" ov d* iorlv anovola ejoi, ov nav, 
9,n av U7i7j. 9- To bXov de xal xiXnov, r\ to avib nap- 
nay, ij ovvtyyvg tjj yvon iari* teXeiov d' oih&b, 
pit txov riXog • TO de teXog, nigag. Jib fieXnov oit^. 
riov Uagittvldr\y Mslioaov slgnxtoai • o per yag to 
aTCiooy oXov <prioiy • b de to oXqv nentgav&a*, 

Meaoo&ev laonaXig. 
ov yag wg Xivov Xlyca , earl avyanreiv t£» nayrl xal _ 
oltt to aiisigov* 10. !Ett«* inevd-ev ye XaftjSdvovoi 
njr oepvoTTjTa xaTa tov aneigov, to nana ntgiexov, 
xal to arcey tV iat/Toi t^ov, tfta to i^mv wa bpoio- 
njTtf to* o'X&) * lor* yap to aneiqov, irjg tov peye&ovg 
nlnoTtjTog vlr) • xal to dvvdfiei oXov, toxeXextiot de 
ov ' duxigsToy de, ini x« tijv xa&algtotv xal Tip av- 
Tiaxgafifiivriv ngoqd-eow oXov de xal ntnegaope- 
for, ov xotf avTO,_aM.a xax alio' xal ov ntgUx*h^ </,"■ 
alia nsgiexexai, jj aneiQov dib xal apftaorov, y 
ZnuQOv. JEldog yag ovx ex H V *lij. ll.lflfw 9<*~ 
ngbw, oTt pallor to pogiov Xoya to aneigov, % to 
olov ' fiogiov yag 7) vXij tov olov, wgneg o x 01 ^* ? 
tov xaXxoit avdgiavTog* tnsl etye ntgiixn to tolg 
alo&fjTo7g xal £v rdig vornoig to peya xal to ptxgbv, 
tdu nzqUxsw xa vor\zo\. Axonov de xal advvaxov, to 
ayvtoaxov xal to abgioxov negUxsw xal bgi&iv. 
Kata Xoyov de ovpfiaivti, xal to xaxa ngog&eatv, 
*g pr\ elvai doxeiv aneigov ovxoag, MQte(navtbg vneo- ~ 
falXeiv ^fy^ovgj > inl vr\v oWpeaiy fli etvai • nzgU- 
Tnai yag tag i\ vXrj ivrbg, xa* to aneigov * negisx 6 * 
Si to eldog. 2. Evlby&g 6* xal to to psv t# ag&W r 

ARI8T. Ph?S. AUSC. E > I „ 

= "/^C^^V^ e — s^-y «— ' 

Digitized by CjOOQle 


\Ja4 aristotelis 

1 '*{ ,cTf<w inl xb iXdx^axov nigag* inl de xa rota/a, 
^ cue* navxbg vntgfiaXXuv nXy&ovg • ibri di tap 

fity£&(av xovvavxlov* inl piv yag xb eXaxrov, nav- 
xbg insgpaXXnv peyi&ovg 9 inl di to psitov, firj 
slvai fiiyt&og anugov. Alxiov d', St* to tv iaxiv a- 
diaigexov, ontg av tv v, olov av&gatnog dg aVtfyw- 
tto$, xa* ov noXXol* o d' agtS-pog iaxiv hvbg Tilda f 
xal nooa axxa * &gxB avayxij ovrjvcu inl to adiai- 
gsxov. Ta yag dvo xal xgla naguvvpa' ovopaxi 
iaxiv ofioitog di xal xtav aXXtav agid-piov sxaaxog. 
3. *Enl di to nXuov aid iaxi voi)oai* anBigoi yag al 
dixotofucu xov psyi&ovg* wgxe dvvapei fiev iaxiv, 
ivegysla d* ov, dX£ aUl vnsgjJdXXei to Xapfiavofit- 
vov, navxbg toguffisvov nXy&ovg. *AX£ ov x&Qurtbg 
o agi&fiog ovxog xyg dixo^oplag, ovdi p&vu */ anet- 
gia, dXXcc ylvsxai, iigneg xal o XQovog xal o agi-d-pbg 
xov xgovov. 3 JSnl di x&v fieye&MV xovvavxiov iaxi' 
xal diaigsixai [lev yag tig anstga to ovvsxte* *Enl di 
to pu£ov ovx soxtv anugov. "Oaov yag ivdixexui dv- 
vdfin dvat, xal ivsgyda ivdtx&xa* xooovxov elvai. 
v Jlgxs intl amtgov ov&iv iaxi piys&og ala^xov, ovx 
ivdixexai navxog vntgfioXriv slvai agiopivov fisyi- 
&ovg • $tij yag av xi tov ovgavov psitov. 4. To d* 
aneigov, ov xaixbv iv xivi\au, xal [teyi&ei, xal xgo- 
^~~~"~yft>, ag xal pla xlg <pvoig, aXXa xb voxtgov Xiytxcu 
xaxa xb ngoxtgov olov, xlvtfaig piv, St* ngoxsgof 
xb fiiyt&og, iq>* ov xwurai, rj aXXotovxai, % avSdvs- 
xai* 6 pgovog d&ftiaxyv *jv]ll aiv ' ^ v f 4 ^ ovv XQV>- 
fitda xovxotg • voxsgov hs nugaoofis&a Xiytiv, xal 
xl ioxtv txaoxov, xal dioxi nav piye&og dg psyi&ri 

Digitized by GOOgle 


dtatgsxop. 5. Oix aqpatgtixat b*i o loyog oidi xovg 
fia&7)fimixt>vg xqv &6&glav, avaigmv ovxmg tlrai xb 
anuQOV, £gx9 bigytla tlvou inl xyv avSrjotr, ig adt- 
slixrixoy • oidi yag vvv diovxat xov antlgov, oidi 
Xgwvxai, alia (xovov tlvat, oarjv av fiovlwrtat, nt- 
ntgaonirfjv • tw di psyioxy fieyi&u xov aixov Iro 
TSTftyo&cu loyov bnr\U*ovovv piyt&og htgov. "Jlgxt 
ngbg fib xb du£cu ixtivwg, ov&er dtoion * to di «T- 
vat, iv xoXg ovatv eat at fitys&toiv. 6. *Entl di xa of- 
xta dtrjgrixat xtxgax&g, opavigbv oxi u>$ vlrj to unit- v 
gov aXxtv* ioxt • xal oxt, xb psv tlvat avxat oxigrjoig ) 
ioxt, xb di xa& avxb inoxelptvov, xb ovvtxig xal at- I 
ofryxov, Qaivovxat di navxtg xal ol allot, wg vly 
Zgtofiivot tw andgy dtb xal axonov xb ntgiixov 
nomv avxb, alia ftrj xb ntgisxdpevov. 
CAPUT Vlll. 
Aotnbv d* insl&siv, xa& ovg loyovg xb anttgov 
sly at doxsi, oi fiovov dvvafin, all* ig aawgtofiivov 
xit fib yag ioxtv avx&v ovx avayxaia, xa d* •/«* ti- 
vag aXfi&tig higag anavttjottg. Ovxt yag, %va r\ yi- 
veaig (ir t intliny , ivayxaiov ivegyela anttgov tlvat 
oojpa aw&^xdv* ivdixtxat yag xi\v &ccxigov <jp^o- 
gitv yivsotv &axigov tlvat , nsntgaofiivov byxog xov 
navxog. 2.*Ext, xb anxeo&at xal xb mmgav&at, 
htgov. To /Uv yag ngog xt xal xtvog • (anxtxat yag 
nav xtvbg,) xal xav ntntgaopivtov xtyl ovupifaxt * 
to di ntnegaapivov, ov ngog xt, ovd' ayao&at tw 
xvxovxt xov xvxdvxog ioxi. 3« T& $* T i *oi}o** tt*- 
oxtvstv, axonov • ov yag inl xov ngayuaxog rj vntg- 
oxij xal h elluytg , ali inl xyg vorjototg * fkaoxo* 


Digitized by GOOgle 


yag av rjfiiv vorjasU xig noXXanXaoiov iavxov eei/£ap 
sig ansigov • al£ ov dia xovxo §?a) xov Saxsog xig 
ioxiv, rj xov ryXixovds psyi&ovg o I'xopsv, ox* you 
rig • aX£ oxt ioxl* xovxo ds ovii/3i^ijxsv. c O ds xob- 
vog xal % xivrjoig, ansiga ioxi, xal ^ vorjcrig, oil 
vnopivovxog xov Xapftavopivov. Miys&og ds, ovxt 
xy xa&aigiosi, ovxs xtj vorpvxy avSyasi laxly a7isi- 
gov. 'AXXa nsgl pfo tov anslgov n&g ion,, xal nws 
ovn sari, xal xl ioxiv, sXgr\xai. 

L I B E B IV. 


(Jfioitag d* avayxrj xal nsgl xonov xov qyvotxbv, 
tognsQ xal nsgl anslgov, yvwgltsw, u soxw »/ fity xal 
nwg ioxi, xal xi ioxi. Tax* yag ovxa navxsg vno- 
Xafi/idvovotv tlval nov. To yag fir) ov, ovda/tiov «7- 
vai' nov yag iox* xgayiXaqtog, rj oqtlyl;; xal xttf 
xivyoswg v\ xotvrj fiaXiaxa xal xvgwxaxr\, xaxa xonov 
ioxlv, i\v xaXovpev cpogav. 2. 'ifcs* ds noXXag octio- 
giag, xl noxi ioxiv 6 xonog • ov yag xavxbv yabrs- 
xat &stagovoiv i| andvxwv x&v vnagxovxav. "Mil d* 
oid y sxofisv ovdsv nagd x&v aXhav, ovxs ngoqnooij- 
fiivov, .ovxs ngofivnogrifisvov nsgl avxov. 3. "Or* 
fdv ovv ioxlv b xonog, doxsl dr,Xov sivai ix xijg am- 
fisxaoxaosmg • onov yag ioxi vvv vdtog , ivxav&a, 
ifrX&ovxog Hgntg i£ dyyuov, naXw ar\g svsoxiv • S»« 
ds x6v avxbv xonov xovxov aXXo xi xwv oafiaxtov *a- 
xfyti, xovxo dr\ xtov iyyivofiivwv , xa» psxapaXXovxwv 

Digitized by GOOgle 


hsQOv izarmv thou doxti' h w ydg arjg ioxi yw, 
vdtag 4v xovxto ngoxtgov rjv. "Slgxe drjXov, ug tjv b 
xdnog xl xal i] jgwoct, txtgov d(*<f>o~iv, tig ijy, xal & 
7JQ psxipaXXov. 4. *Exi ds xal ai q>ogal xwr yvouttb* _ ^ 
aoifidj(t)v xal ctnXtav, olov nvgbg, xal yr\g, xal xSw 
towvtmv, ov fiovov drjlovotv ox* ioxl xi 6 tonog, dXH 
oti xal %x*i iw<*> fivvafitv * g>dg$xai ydg Hxaaxov tig 
top avxov xonov fiij xtoXvdfuvov, to fitv avta, xb di 
xcctcj. 5. Tavxa d* iatl xonov fiigtf xal ifd^ t xo,xt 
avta xal xb xdxa, xal al Xotnal x&v t£ diaoxdotw. 
£(jri ds xa xoiavxa ov (ibvov ngbg i)fiag, xb SeUbv 
xal to agioxsgbv, xal xb ava xal xb xdxa • rjfuv yog 
ovx atl to avxb, dXXd xaxa xrjv \>iaiv t bntag dvoxga- 
q>(£fiev, yiv&xai. Jvb xavxb noXXdxig ds$ibv xal agi- 
otsqov taxi, xal avta xal xdxto, xal ngood-tv xal om- 
o&bv. 3 £v ds xtj cpvoei duagioxai jgwot? txaoxov. Ov 
ydq o,xi lxv%8 xb avta ioxlv, aXX* onov qpe'orra* to 
nvg, xal xb xovqtov. 'Opoiwg ds xal xb xdxco, ovx S,t* 
txvzsVy <*XX* bnov xa I'xovxa fidgog xal xa ytrjga, ag 
ov tji &iou diayigovxa povov, dXXd xal xtj dvvdftti. 
Ar^koi dh xal xa pa-d-qfiaxixd. Ovx bvxa ydg iff xo- 
ntp, Ofiwg xaxd xi\v &ioiv xtjv ngbg rjfidg, %x n dslia 
xtu dgusxsgd • clgxe fiovov voeio&ai avxarv xrjv xHoir, 
ovx %xovxa (pvaei xovxcav txaoxov. 6. tit, ol xb 
xzvbv opdoxovxsg slvai, xonov Xiyovoi ' xb ydg xtvbv, 
xonoq ay tl'fj ioxsgrjfiivog odftaxog. "Oxi fisv ovv taxi 
u o xdnog nagd xa odfiaxa, xal ndv ooofta aiod-rjxbv 
h xonw, did xovxtav dv xtg vnoXd/ioi. Jo\ut tf av 
xal c Hoiodog og&ag Xiyew, noiqaag ngwxov xb xdog. 
Aiyn yoiv • 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Ildvxmv fxkv nqixioxa x*°S yivsx , avrig 


mg 8iov nqStxov vnaq^ai xdqav xotg ovoi y diet xb vo- 
fii&iv, wgneq ol noXXol, navxa tlval nov, xal iv to— 
7t(o. 7. Ei o" ioxl xoiovxov, &avfiaoxri tig av ttr) fj 
xov xonov dvvafiig , xal nqoxiqa navxtav • ov yitg 
ilvsv x&v aXXmv ovdiv ioxiv, ixetvo f avsv xStv &X— 
Xmv, avayxi\ nqSixov elvai • ov yaq anoXXvxai o to-^ 
nog, x&v iv avxw y&eiqonivwv. 8. Ov fiijv aXtf'fyBi 
yt anoqiav, ti taxi, xi ioxi • noxsqov oyxog xig ao»- 
fiaxog, r\ xig kxiqa cpvoig • £r\xrixiov yitq xb yivog av- 
xov nqmxov. /Iiaaxr^iaxa per ovv %x u T o/a, fitjxos 
xal nXaxog xal (ta&og, olg bql&xat oSffia nav. Adv~ 
vaxov di ocofxa xov xonov stvai • iv xavxw yaq av *Xi\ 
dvo oojfiaxa. 9'jBt* elneq ioxlowfiaxog xonog xat £a>£a, 
dyXovoxi xal inupavciag, xal xStv Xointav neqaxwv • 6 
yaq aixbg aqiioon Xoyog."Onov yaq r t v nqoxsqov xa tov 
vdaxog inlnsda, tfoxai naXw xa xov aiqog. *AXXa (urjy 
diayoqav ovdsfiiav l^o^if v OTt/^??, xal xonov oxiyfi^ig m 
"llgx u nnbk xavxrjg iaxlv b xonog sxsqog, ovds ra>* 
aXXmv oi&svbg, oid* ioxi xi naq txaaxov xoixtov 6 
xonog. 10. Tl yaq av noxt xal deiriptv slvai rbv 
xonov ; ovxs yaq otoix&ov, oi'x ix oxoixslmv olor x 
Aval, xoiavxrjv txovxa yvaiv, ovxs xov otafiaxixaty, 
ovxs xav aomfddtcQv fiiys&og fisv yaq %x H > <*tb(ia d* 
ovdiv. "Eoxi b*s xa fiiv x&tv aia&tjxuv owfidxwv oxoir- 
X&a otofiaxa • ix ds xwv votjtwv arot/e/wv ovdiv yl— 
vrtat (tiys&og. H. **Exi fc, xal xlvog *v xtg &ti v 
xdig ovoiv afxiov thai xov xonov / ovdepia yaq ac- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ria v7iagz fl avty tap tmaqmp • ovf t yaq ag vlff 
tap ovtap* ovdip yao il avtov ovriotifxiv ovti ug 
tldog xal Xoyog tap noayuatap, ov& ag tiXog, ovxt 
xtptl rot Spta. 12. *ifr* di , xal aitbg tl Sjt* t* tap 
ovtav, nov gotat; iiy&Q Zffpapog dnoqla t^ntiva 
Xoyop • ti ydq nap to op h tony, dylop on xal tov 
tonov tonog totaf xal tov jo tig antiqop noottoip. 
13. "£ti, ti agntq Snap oa/ia ip tona, ovta xal ip 
tona anarn oafia, nag ovv iqovfitp ntql tap avla- 
POfiipap / avdyxT) yaq he tovtap ovpav^dpto&at top 
tonov avtolg, ti urft* iXaooap, fii\tt uiifap b tonog 
kxdorov. Jid flip ovv TOVTwr , ov fiopop tl dotty, 
aXXa xal ti tatty, dnoqup apayxdiop, 
3 Entl di, to uip xa&* avtb, to di xai alio Xdyt- 
zai • xal tonog b uh xowbg, ip a anapta ta outla- 
id iotiv, b d* id tog, ip a nqatag • Xiya di, olop ov 
vvp ip tw ovqapfy, ar* ip tw aiqt, ovtog d* ip t£ 
ovqapa, xal ip tw aiqt, on ip tj} yrf bfiolag di xal 
htavtrj, ot* iv tmdt t<p tona, bg ntqii/u ovdiy 
nliop, %ot. El di\ iottp b tonog to nqatop ntqti- 
%op txaotop tap oafiatap, niqag up ity. "Jlgtt do- 
Sntp ixv to tldog xal r\ fioqyrj ixaotov o tonog tlpat, 
w bql&tat to ftiyt&og, xal q vXy fj tov utyi&ovg • 
tovto ydq btdotov niqag. 2. Ovta flip ovp oxo- 
novatv b tonog to ixdotov tldog iottp • y di doxii b 
tonog tlpat to dtdati\fia tov utyi&ovg, tj vXrj • tov- 
to yaq tttqop tov fisyi&ovg • tovto d* iatl to mou- 
XOfisvop imb tov ti'dovg xal aoiofiipop, olop vnb ini- 
nidov xal niqatog. "Eott di toioitop i\ vlf\ xal to 

Digitized by GOOgle 


aogtoxov * otocv yag dq>aigs&y xb nigag xal za nd- 
&TJ xyg ocpaigag, Xslnsxai ovdsv nagd xr^v vXr\v. Jii 
xal b nXaxoiv xrjv vXt\v xal xi)v x^9 av ™ <*vxo 917- 
glv slvat iv tcp Tipalip" xb yag psxaXrpxxvxhv xal j 
zip XtoQ av w xal xavxbv * aXXqv di xgonov ixu z& 
Xiywv xb psxaXTpixixby, xal iv xdtg Xeyopivoig dygd- 
(potg doypaoiv , oping xbv xojxov xal x\\v xdgav xb 
avxb ansipjjvaxo. 3. Aiyovoi fiiv yag. anavxsg slvai 
xixbv xonov xi d* iaxlv, ovxog fiovog inexeigv**** 
slnsZv. JElxoxtag 3' ix xovxtav oxonovfiivoig doSsuv 
av si von, /aif^oy yvagioat, xi ioxiv b xonog, sl'nsg 
xovxav bnoxsgovovv iaxiv, slxs vXtj, si'xs xb sldog • 
aXXcog xb yag ti/v dxgoxdxrjv %x u ^£wo^«y> xal £&>£*? 
>aXXi\X(ov ov QtydioVsCtvia yvagi£eiv. 4. 3 AXXa fiijv 
oxi ye ddivaxov buoxsgovovv xovxtav slvai xbv xo- 
nov, ov xaXtnbv Idstv • to fisv yag sldog xal r\ vXr\ 
ov /w^/Jctcu tov ngdyfiaxog • Toy #8 tottov, ivdixB- 
zai* iv (p yag di\g ijv, iv xovxto naXiv vdcog, oig <pa- 
psv, ylvsxat, avxLps&ioxapivaiv aXXi]Xoi>g xov zs cU~ 
gog xal vdaxog , xal xatv aXltov ofapdxfav bfioiwg. 
"Jlgxs ovxs pogiov, ovxs s£ig, aXXa xwgwibg o xonog 
iaxlv kxdoxov xal yag doxsX xoiovxdv t* slvay b xo- 
nog, olov xb ayysXov saxi yag xb ayyslov, zoTtog 
[isxa<pogrix6g • xb d* ayyslov ovd.iv xov ngdypazog 
ioxiv. 5. *Hh psv ovv xwgusxog ioxi xov ngdypazog, 
xavxy fisv oix taxi xb sldog • jj di nsgdxsi, xavxjj 
sxsgog xyg vXrjg. Aoxu di dsl xb ov nov avxd t« el- 
val xi, xal sxsgov xi ixxbg avxov. JlXdrowi fievxot 
Xsxxiov, u dsl nagsxfidvxag sIji&v, did xi ovx iv xo- 
3T<j> Ta stdfj xal ol dgi&pol, sXitsg xb'pe&Gxxixbv b xo- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nog, six* xov fityaXov xal xov pixgov ovxog xov fit- 
&6XJIX0V* $1x8 xtjg vXi]g, xa&antg iv iy Tipaio) yi- 
ygaq>tr* 6. Exi, niagav qpigoixo tig tbv avxov xb- 
tiov, si 6 xonog i\v q iky, if to eldog* advvatov yog 
ov fiy xivr^aig, (XTjds xb avm i) xdxto ioxl, tonov dvat. 
"Jlgxe iritriiiog iv xoXg xoiovxoig b ronog. 7. J5* fl' 
^iv avxtojfr xonog • (dsl yag, tl'ntg rj fiooyif, i) viti?,) 
loicu 6 xonog iv xotuo * fiexa/3dXXtt yag afia t<J> 
ngay[iax$, xal x&uxai, xal to tldog, xal xb abgwxov, 
ovx ahl iv tw aviw, ttJU, 1 ov?r«o xal xb ngdyfia' 

wgXS TOV TO 710 U fcOTCM T07T0ff. 8 . 'Ext, oxav i$ adgog 

vdojg yivyxa*, anoXaiXtv o toko? • ov yag iv xq> av- 
tw to7t<ji to ytvoptvov aw/net. Tig ovv r) cpdoga; 
9. 'i££ «w /u«* xoivvv avayxaiov slval xi to* TO^oy, 
xa* naUv il <ov anogrjotuv av tig avxov mgl trig ov- 
. oiag, sl'orixat. 


Merit de xavxa Xrptxiov, nooaxwg alio iv aXXta 

yivsrai. Eva uiv dij xgonov, wg b daxtvXog iv xtj 

X&Qh *«* oXoag xb fiioog iv xq oXw. "AXXov d&, ag to 

oXov iv tdig fiigeoiv • ov yag ioxt naga tot fiigri to 

oXov. "AXXov di xgonov, &g 6 av&gomog iv fwa>, xal 

olatg d>g sldog iv yivtt. "AXXov d*, mg to yivog iv 

tw tXdu, xahoXog xb pigog xov sl'dovg iv tw tov «*- 

dovg Xoyto. *%xi di, ag iyieia iv &tgpo7g xal ipv- 

Xgdtg, xal oXmg xb eldog iv xtj vXtj. "Ext, ug iv /9a- 

utXu xa x$*v c EXXt)v(ov, xal oXong xb iv xto ngwxa xivrj- 

tix$. 'jBti, ag iv tw aya&a , xal oXtog iv xto xiXu • 

tovto 3 3 iotl xb ov tvsxa. Jlavtcov di xvgiwxaxov 

%b ig iv iyydy , xal oXtag to iv tone). 2. *Anogi\- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


a Bit d* av xtg, elaga tv xal avxo xi iv kavico ivdi- 
X8Tcti tivaiy tj ov&bv, aXXa navxa 5} ovdotfiov, tj h 
ally, dying di xovxo ioxiv, qxoi xa& avxo, i] 
xa&* ttBgov • oxav fiiv yag rj fiogia xov oXov, xo,x 
iv w, xal xb iv xovxfo, Xsx&fiOBxai xb oXov iv cwtw * 
Xiysxai yag xal xaxa pigy, olov Xbvxov, bxt fj inupa- 
veia Xevxrj • xal imojrjfiov, *6xi xb Xoywxtxov. *0 fih 
ovv auwooBvg ovx taxai iv avxw, ovd* o olvog • b Si 
xov olvov ccfiyoQtvg toxai* o,x% yag, xai iv w, ctft- 
cpottQci xov avxov fiooia. 3. Ovxm fisv ovy dvd&xt- 
xai avxo xi iv avxo* thai' ngontog d' ovx ivdifB- 
xai • olov xb Xbvxov iv omjiaxt. € H imy&vua yag 
iv aifiaxi, i\ & imoxiipri iv yntzji* Kaxa xavxa f 
at TtQogijyoQiat uigi\ Svxa, Hgxe iv av&giany b d* 
afMpoQsvg xal b olvog, £<»£»£ fUv ovxa, ov pigy • Sum 
di * dioxi oxav rj pigy, toxai avxo iv avxa • olov xo 
Xbvxov iv av&gdmo, on iv tw otifiaxt • xal iv xov- 
Tco, on iv xt) im<pavsia • iv di xavxtj, ovx m xax 
aXXo * xal txsga ys xa tldst xavxa, xal aXXr\v <pvoiv 
f£e* kxixBgov xal divapiv, r\ x inupavna, xal xb Xbv- 
xov. 4. OviB dr) inaxxtxwg oxonovoiv, ovdkv iv 
aixtp, oQWfisv xax* ovdiva x5>v diogiopfov * xa xb Xi- 
y<$ drjXov, oxt advvaxov • SBi\oBt yag afMpoxBoa kxa- 
xeoov vnaQX*iv • olov xbv.afi<pogia , ayyiiov xb xal 
olvov tlvai * xal xbv olvov, olvov xt xal afi<pogia t tT- 
nBq ivdixBxai avxo xt iv avx$ slvai* iigxs el oxt /tta- 
Xuna iv aXXrjXoig bIbv , b fib apaogsvg di&xab rbv 
olvov, ovx tj aixbg b olvog, aXU ij ixiivog' b d* ol- 
vog ivioxat iv x$ apqpogBi, ovx V (xpyogsvg aixbg, 
aXi ji ixBivog afupogsvg. Xaxa (isv ovv xb slvai 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Jw heyop, dr t Xop» *AlXog yaq 6 Xoyog o ?ov ip y, 
uu o rov ip tovtm. 5. *JMm fiffp ovdi xaxa ovufli- 
faxog 4ydiz*rcu m Sfia yaq dvo otifiata ip rtf avt<* 
iriorai • avrog re yaq iv avrtp 6 au<poq*vg corcu, el 
ov i| oyiaiq dexrixij t tovt Iroc/tra* ip lavxm thai * 
xai m, ixupo ov dsxxtxop • olop, $1 oXpov, b dlpog. 
°Oxt pev ovv advpaxop h iavrip t* nqwxvg thai, dtj- 
lor. 6-"0 di Zrpnap tjnoqu, bxi ti b xonog i<nl t*, 
h x'mtoxai, Xvetr ov xaXmbp* ovdh yaq xmXvu, ip 
all* (Up bIvcu top nqSnop xonop, fit] fiirroi ig ip to- 
xtf ixdvw , al£ Sgnsq ij uh iyUu* ip xolg &tqpoig, 
*g Sk> vb di &sofibp ip tw odfian, mg na&og. v Jlg% 
ovx ipayxij Big amiqop livcu. 7. i £xupo di (par*- 
for, bxi intl ovdh to iyyuop rov ip avrt* • (htoop 
fxq to nqaxwg, o,xs xai> ip Q'J ovx ap sty ovrt y v- 
ij, ours to elSog o toko?, all fctqor. *£xtivov yiq 
i* Tatrro Tot/ ipoptog, xal i\ vXij, xal r\ pooyfj. Tav- 
t« /tir ovr «jt« duptoqrjpsya. 

7t ds 7TOT lorr*? o xonog, ad' ap yipotxo qpaptqop. 
Jaftojiep di teeqI aixov, baa doxii aXy&ios xa& av- 
ti vTiaqxwp av*£. ll&oi^sy tfij to^ totco* thai, 
nqwjsw flip ittQU%op ixupo, ov xonog ioxl • xal ur^ 
' 9& (tov nqayuaxog^pai • I't», top nqwxop xonop, 
ur\%8 iXaxxto, firjTt uti£a * l'n, Q*^t«] dTToXfbj^a&ai 
hteojov, xal zonounop * woo; di Tovrot?, napxa io- 
<oy ^«w to cow xa* to x«tw * xa* <piQio&ai cpvou, 
to* fiipstp ip rots olxuotg ronotg txaorop twv o&ua- 
tmp* lovxo $i notiip, i\ apta, ^ xaTco. 2. 'Trtoxti- 
|t*irwy ^i tov\ibp, xa Xoma &moiitiop. AH dk nu>- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Qao&cuTriv oxii/nv ovtta noiuod-ai, oTtong to t* ioriv 
aTtodoS-^asTai* wgre ti t$ dnogovfieva Xvea&ai, xal 
%a doxovvta vnagxtw T( 5 tottw, vnagxovxa lora* • 
xal It*, to T^g dvoxoklag oXtiov , ,xa* twv 7reo* auroy 
anoqrifiaTfov, eaxai (pavegov ovtoa ydg av xdXXusxa 
detxvvono sxctOTOV. 3. ITgwrov fiev ovv del xaxavo- 
ytiactt, ot* ovx av *%i\Teuto o TOirog, u (itj xlvijoig xtg 
\ l/ijy r\ xaxd tonov • diet ydg tovto xal tov ovgavbv 
fidXiora oiofie&a iv totko , on otitl iv xivr\au. Tav- 
Ttjg de, to fiev yoga, to 6*' avtyoig xotl qt&ioig' xal 
ydg iv ttj ccv^tjosi xal <p&loei fierapdXXu, xotl omg 
ngoxegov r t v ivTav&a, ndXiv fie&iarrixev eig sXaxrov 
ij (i€i£oy. "Eoxb de xivovfievov, to fih xa& avxb ivtq- 
yda, to de xona ovfi/ie/Srjxog • tov de xaxd ov ( u^6/$if- 
xog, to ph ivdexofjuvov* xweuj&cu xa& avxb, olof 
xd fiogia tov otopotTog, xal o 4v tw tiXoim tjkog • t« 
d' ovx ivdexdfisva, aXX* aiel xutu ovfifie^xog • olo* 
?; fovxoT^c, xa* »/ imoTijfiii • Tavra yao ovtw fiertt- 
pipXijxe tov totiov % qt* iv w v-ndgxovai fiexa^dXXst. 
4. J jB7T8t de Xeyofiev elvai d>g iv xbnta t<w oigotvw, dib- 
xi iv Tw acot, ovtos 6*' 6>tw ovoewa) * xa* eV to> aeot 
fli, ovx «V navxi * «^a 6**a to co/octo? «*>tov xal 
negdxov, iv t©> ago* q>afiev «*>«*• el ydg dnag o at# 
xonog, ovx av loog el'rj kxdaxov o Tonog, xal txaarov. 
Joxei di ye laog elvai^ Tocovxog d* o ng&Tog iv w 
^ot*V. 5. "Otav fxev ovv fiy dirjgrifAdvov jj to negUxov, 
dXXa avvexeg, ovx W & v xojko Xeyszai iv ixsivta, otX£ 
&g fiigog iv oXtp • oTay de dirjgrjfiivov rj xal «^ro/t*6- 

VOV, iv 7TOWTW ioTl TiVb T4W «(J/«TW TOV TttQieXOVTO^, 

ovt cot* fiegog tov iv avxoi oyrog, ovts [aii$ov tov 

Digitized by GOOgle 


diotorrjfiaTog , aXX loov to yag xoi avTui ta to/ata 
t&v amoftivuv. Kal ovvtxig fib ov, ovx iv todvu) 
xivettat, aXXd pri ixtlvov ditjgrifiivov di, to ixelvtp. 
Kal idv it xwtjtcu to negiixov, idv ts [trj, older rjt- 
xov. Exv d , otav fit) diTjgijptoov tj, ig fiigog to 
oXw liystai • oloy ig iv xw oydaXfiot r) oyig, t) iv 
tot (japan i) xtig. "Otav 8i difigtjfiivov rj, olov iv 
t$ xaddta to vd<ag, rj iv x£ xtgafilu o olrog • ij fib 
yag z**Q (***<* *ov oafiatog xiv&zai , to di vdag to 
ttp xaddw. 6. Hdrj toivw ipavtgov ix tovtav, ti 
iotw o tonog. 2xt^hv yag tittagd iotiv, uv avdyxr\ 
tov tonov %v x» $lva* • ij yag fiogatfj, 1} vXrj, rj did- 
atr\fia ti to fitta$v tiv ioxazav, rj ta toxata, ti firj 
IffT* [ir\db diaotnifia naga to tov iyyivofibov odfia~ 
tog pdyt&og. Tovtuv $ 3 ox* ta tgia oix Mix*™ 1 
uvai, yavsgov. 'AXXa dia fib to ntgdxtw , doxii ij 
fiogcprj sivai • to tip avtof yag xa toxata tov ntgii- 
Xovtog xal tov ntgnxofibov. "Eoti fib ovv Sfi<fo$ 
nigata, dX£ ov tov avtov • aXXa to pb eldog, tov 
ngayfiatog* o di t6nog, tov nsg^xovrog owuato g. 
7. du* de to fittaftaXXeiv noXXdxtg fiivovtog tov m- 
giixovtog to ntgitxofisvov xal diygrifiivov, olov it 
dyytiov ildag, to fittalv thai t* doxii dtdotrjfia, ig 
ov x* naga to o&fia to pt&iotdfitvov. To d\ ovx 
totiv, aXXa to tvxov ifmhntt, owfia tiv fit&iotapi- 
v&v, xal antto&ai ntyvxotmr. 8. Ei d 3 ijy tt to 
diaottj/ia to ns<pvxbg, xal fiivov to xoi «vt<j> tonm, 
untigoi av tjoav tinoi • fie&iotafitoov yag tov tJtfa- 
105, xal tov digog, to avto noir^au ta fiogia anavta 
iv tip oXtf , ontg anav to vdwg iv xw dyytiy • ufia 

Digitized by GOOgle 


de xal o tonog eotai perafiaXXiop. v Jlgt total xal 
tov tonov dXXog tonog, xal noXXol tonoi dpa eaov— 
tai* Ovx Iot* de aXXog tonog 6 tov poglov, ip ot xi- 
veltat, otap to oXop ayyiiop pe&ijtytai, all* o cru- 
jog' iv (o yag ioup, dptipe&iotatai b atig, xal to 
vd(OQ, xal ti pogia tov vdatog,aX$ ovx i» <p ylvov- 
T«t tonta, og pegog iatl tov tonov, og ioti Tonog o- 
Xov tov ovoavov, 9. Kal ij vXy de do$eup av elrai 
tonog, el' ye ip rjgepovptl tig oxonoirj, xal ptj xf^co- 
gtopeva* , aXXa ovpexei' ilgneg yag el aXXoiovrcu, 
eat i, tl pvp flip Xevxbp, naXip de ueXap • xal pvv pep 
oxXtigop, naXip de paXaxop' dio qtapep elpal ti tijp 
Zlr\v ovtta xal tonog dii rotavtyg tipog elvai do- 
xei q>aptaoiag. nXrjp Ixuvo pep , diott 3 ip aijg, 
tovto pvp vdtyQ' ds tonog, ot$ ov v\p o aijg, ipxav- 
&a ioti pvp vd&g. *Ak£ ^ ph vXrj, mgneg iXex&ri ir 
tolg ngotegoig , ovte x^tourttj tov ngiypatog , ovte 
neqiexovaa • de tonog, apqao. 10. El tohvp /U17- 
dep tovttap twp tgwp tonog iatl , pyte to eldog, 
pr\te r\ vXq, pipe dtiotrjpa, uel ti vnigxop ettoop 
naga to tov ngiypatog tov ped-iotapipov , ipayxrj 
top tonov elpab to Xomop tap teooig(op,\t6 nigag 
tov negUxortog ompatog.) Aeyvt de to negitxopsvop 
oZpa, to xipytbp xata (pogdv. 11. J ox el de piya 
Ti elpat xal x<*i-*nor Xijq>&T)vai tonog, dii te to 
nageptpalpeo&a* typ vXtjpxal ti\p pogyrjv, xal did 
to ip rigepovpt* t£ neqiixopti yipeo&at tijp [ittaaHat- 
oiy tov yegopipov ipdixeo&ai yag yalvetat, elvat 
diaottjpa peta^v aXXo t* twp xipovpeptop peye&St* 
SvppaXXetai di ti xal o a^g, dox&p aavpatog «Zr«i 

Digitized by GOOgle 


(pairtta* ydo ov fioyoy ta niqata tov dyyiiov tlrai 
o xonog, dXXd xal to fiBtaSv oy, ig xtyoy. 12. "fe- 
ar* d* igntqxb dyyuov xonog fitrayoquxbg, ot/Tft** 
o Tonog ayyuoy afmaxiy^Toy. Jib, bvay fib h 
xiyovftbca xl xivTjiai, xal fieTapaXXy to dribs, olov 
iv noTapy nXoloy, ig dyydy X9V tal pdXXoy tj Tony 
iw ntQiizovri. BovXiiai ydo axlyr\Toy tlrai b tonog* 
dib b nag ftdXXoy noTaftbg xonog, on dxiyrjTog o nag. 
°Jlgjs to tov n i qUxovkk nioag dxirtjioy kowtow, 
iovt tony b xonog. 13. KaT~iiS tovto xb fiiaoy 
xov ovoavov, xal to toxaxov xb nobg tying xyg xvxXtf 
tpoodg, doxti elvai, to fib am, to di xdno, fidXiota 
ndoi xvoiag, on xb fib aiil pirn, tov di xvxXov to 
ea£«fTor ioavTtog txov fibti. "Jlgt intl to fib xov- 
q>oy, to ayta qptobfiwoy ion qtvon, to di fiaqv to xd- 
ta, to fib nobg to fiiooy neoiixoy nioag, xaia> iorl, 
xal ainb to fiioov to di nobg to toxarov, ayw, xal 
ocinb to toxaxoy • xal did tovto doxti ininsdoy n 
tlyai , xal oloy dyytloy 6 toko? xal ntqiixov. *En, 
afia to> nqayfiaTt nug xal b tbnog • afia ydo rw n«- 
ntoaofib& td niqata. 

fit fib ovy owfiati ion n ixtbg oifia ntotizov 
aitb, tovto io*tty iy ronta • w difif\, oil' dtb xay vdmo 
ybytai loioi'To, tit fiiy fioqia xivr,otTai aviov • m- 
Qiixtrai yiq in alXrjlw. To di nay, son fiiy ig 
Mrrionai, ton <T ig ov* ig fib ydo oXoy afia toy 
xbnoy ov fiztafidXXu • xvxXw di xtyyottui • tiy fio- 
qwv yctq ovtog 6 tonog' xal aVw fib xal xdtw, ov • 
xvxXq di, tvia. Ta di aVw xal xata, [*«*] boa e^ri 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nvxvmatv xal (idvtaaiv. "llgnsq d' iXix&il, *« (ih 
iaxvv iv T07TO) xaxa dvvapiv, xa ds xax iviqysiav. 
Jib, oxav psv ovvsxsg V ™ bfioiofisqig, xaxa dvvctfiiv 
iv xbnta xa peg 7j. "Oxav ds xwqio&fj p&> anxtjxai ds 
dgnsq otoqbg, xax iviqysiav. 2* Kal xa fisv xa-*f 
aixa, oiov ndv aafia, f] xaxa cpoQCtv, rj xax avtyaiv 
, xiV7\xbv xa&* avxb nov. *0 #' ovqavbg, tagnsq slyy- 
' xai, oil nov oXog, ovd* sv xwi xbnta ioxlv, sX yt fivj~ 
\ dsv aixbv nsqisx*i> ow/ia. 3 £<p tp ds xivelxou, xavxy 
\ xal xbnog iaxl xolg fioqioig • sxsqov yaq kxsqov 4xo~ 
psvov xwv fioqUov toil' xa ds xaxa ovfifo/irjxbg, olof 
V V v Xy> *«* o ovqavbg • xa yaq pbqia iv xbrna nag 
ndvxa • £ti\ tw xvxXtp yaq TteqUxti* aXXo aXXo. Ato 
xwsixai fiiv xvxXa fiovov xb aVw * to de nav, ov nov • 
to yaq nov avxb xs iaxi xi, xal ex* «XXo Tt #« elyou 
7raoa tovto, iv ta o nsqiixu. Jlaqa ds to nav xai 
bXov, ovdsv iaxtv s$a>&tv xov navxog. 3. Kal dia 
tovto iv tw ovoavtp ndvxa • o yaq ovqavbg xb nav 
Xotag. *£oxi ds b xbnog ovx b ovqavbg, dXXa xov ov- 
( qavov xi xb soxaxov, xal anxb^svov xov xivyxov m»- 
(iaxog niqag rjqsfiovv • xal dia xovxo , ^ /ksv yrj, iv 
xo) vdaxi, xovxo d* iv x$ aiqh.ovxog 5' iv Toi ai&iqi, 
o d ai&riq iv xtp ovqavoi , o d* ovqavbg ovx Urt, iv 
ctXXco. 4. toavsqbv ds ix xovxwv, bxt xal al omoqicu 
naoai Xvoivt av , oi>Ta> Xsyofiivov xov xbnov • ovxs 
yaq ovvav£av€o&ai, avayxr^ xov xbnov, ovxs axiy^q 
sXvai xonov, ovxs dvo owfiaxa iv toi avjcp xonto, ovxs 
diaoxrjfia xi sivai avtfiaxixov. sStpa yaq xb firtot^i 
xov xonov xb xvxbv> aX£ ov didaxrjfia ocopaxog • xa* 
sativ o xonog, xal nov, ovx W &* xontp ds, aX£ mg 

Digitized by GoOgle 


to negag h j$ ntntqaopivto. Ov yag nav xo ov iv 
tony, aXXa xb xivrpov owpcr. 5. Kal <pigtxai dtj tig < 
%bv avxov xonov ixaaxov, evXoywg- o yag Ape|ijj$ 
xal anxopevov prj (Ha, ovyyeveg * xal ovfineyvxoxa 
fdt, ana&ij • anxogieva Se, na&tjxixa xal noirjxuta 
aXXrjXow. Kal pevei 6SJ (pvoti nav h t«w ohttlat xonta 
exaaxov, ovx aloyag* xal yag to utgog xode h bXto 
T(f> tonta, ug duugexbv fUgog ngog oXov iaxiv • oloy, 
oxav vdaxog xivrjay rig potior, ij aegog. 6* Ovxta 
de xal 6 cojo fyn ngog vdag • olor Hy yag • * to de, 
sldog • to [tev vdwg vXt) aigog, b de arjg olov iveg- 
ysia tig ixeivov • to yag vdag dwauei arjg ioxtv, b 
d 7 otriQ dvvafiet vdtag aXXov xgonov, Jtogioxeov de 
negl xovxtav voxegov. 'AXXa dia to* xaigbv avayxf\ 
fih elneiv aoaawg de %vv Qrjdev, xbx eaxat oa<pi- 
oxegov. £? ovv to avxo if vXrj xal fj ivxeXixua • (tf- 
dag yag a^qpta' aXXa to fiev dvvauu, xo de ivxeXe- 
%eia ') exoi av £>g fiogiov mag ngog 6 Xov. Aib xal xov- 
xoig aari] iaxt • ov/narvoig di , oxav £[ia*f» hegyeia ev 
yivwvxain, Kal negl ftev xonov , xal ox* laxly xa* xi 
iaxiv, eYgrjxai. 


Toy avxov *de xgonov vnoXrjnxeov etvat, xov yvat,- 
xov xtscogrjocu xal negl xevov, ei eoXiv, tj firj ' xal nwg 
ioxiy, ij xi lax iv, urgneg xal negl xov xonov • xal yag 
naganXrialay sxu xrjy xe amoxiav, xal xyv nloxw, 
Sim xStv inoXafipavoftivay • olov yag xonov xwa 
xal a/yttov xo xevov xi&iaow oi Xeyovxtg. do* el de\ 
nXiqgeg fiiv elvat, oxav exj] xov oyxov, ov dexxixov 
ioxiy • oxav de oxeQfi&ti, xevov, wg xo avxo fih ov 
Arist. Phys. Ausc. F 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xsvov xal nXygsg xal xonov. To 6* eivai avrotg, ov 

xavxo ov. 2. "AoSaa&ai di dn xyg oxiif/sug Xaftov~ 

otv, a t« Xeyovotv oi (pdaxovxtg elvai* xal ndXiv a 

Xiyovaw oi fir) qpdoxovxeg sly at* xal xghov, t«s xoi- 

vag doSag ntgl avxObv. Oi piv ovv d&ixvvvai TtBigta- 

lizvoi on ovx toxiv, ovx o (iovXovxa* Xiyuv ol av&go)- 

not xsvov, xovxo i&Xiyxovoiv, aXX' o dfxagxdvorxsg 

Xkyovaiv, &gntg *Ava\ayogag, xal oi xovxov xov xqo- 

nov iXiyxovxsg. ^Emdeucvvovoi yog, on ioxl ti 6 dr)g, 

oxgs(lXovvxsg xovg aaxovg, xal deixvvovxsg, «5$ iaxv- 

gog 6 ar)g, xal ivanoXapfidvovxtg iv xaig xXeipvdgaig. 

Oi ds av&gcoTToi ftovXovtcu xtvov sJvoa didarrjpa, iv 

<>) firjdiv ion oiofia aio&rjxov. 3. Olofisvoi xk to ov 

anav slvai oafia, qpaalv iv (a oXag firjdev ioxh xovi 

slvai xtvov * bio xo nXrfgsg asgog, xtvov slvai. Ou* 

ovv xovxo d si dsixvvvat, oxh ioxl xi 6 dr)g, dXJL on 

ovx eoxi didoxrjfia sxsgov xw otopdxwv, ovxe%€oqi- 

axo v, ovie ivsgysia ov, o diaXafifiavn xo nav owfia ' 

wgx' slvat fir) ovvex&g, xad-dnsg Xiyovot Arjfioxgixog 

xal Asvxmnog, xal lisgoi noXXol xwv q>voioX6yutv, ij 

xal sV xi c|w tov navxog otofiaxog ioxiv, bvxog ovvs- 

Xovg. 4. Ovxoi fiiv ovv ov xaxa d-vgag ngog xo 

ng6pXt}fia anavxSaow, dX£ oi qpdoxovxsg slvat, fiaX- 

Xov. Asyovoi ds, sv fisv, oxt, r) xivrioig r) xaxa ronov 

oix av sXri • avxr\ d* ioxl qpogd xal avtyoig' oi yag 

av doxoirj slvat xivrioig, si fit] rj xtvov xo yag 7rilj}- 

gsg ddvvaxov slvat ds$ao&af d ds ds£atxo, xal eoxi 

dvo iv tw avxo), ivdixoix' av xal onooaovv Spa eTvai 

ooifiaxa • xr)v yag diacpogdv, di r}v ovx av tfrj jo 

lex&iv, ovx eoxiv dnuv. El ds xovxo ivdixexat, xal 

Digitized by GOOgle 


to Ofuxgoxaxov di£sxai xo uiyioxov • nolla yag xa 
pixQa xo uiya iaxiv • wgx si nolla Jaa ivdiftxai iv 
juvtw elvcu, xal nolla avioa, 5. MsXiooog uev ovv 
tut dsixrvaiv, oxi xb nav axivqxov, ix xovxtav • si yag 
Tuvrptjcu, dvdyxrj slvai, qpnof, xsvov • to de xsvov, ov 
WV_jivx$oy. 6. "Eva uev ovv xgonov ix xovxtov #e*- 
xrvovoiv, oxi ioxl xi xsvbv, alloy d 3 , oxi tpaivovxai 
ma ovviovxa xal niXovusva • olor xal top olvov (pet- 
al firta xav aoxfav dsxw&ut xovg ni&ovg, wff tig xa 
bona xsvk ovviovxog xov niytvovubvov aw (4a jo g. 
En de xal y avtyoig doxsl yiyvso&ai naoi dia xsvov* 
tip uev yag xgocpvv slvat oatua • dvo de ovuaxa a- 
Sv'vaxov Sua slvai. 7. Magxvgtov de xal to negl 
lyg xsqpgag noiovvxai, % dixexai loov vdag, boov to * 

ayyuov xo xsvbv ov. ELvai d* eqtaaav xal oi Ilv&a- 'kyl j 
yoQHOi xsvbv, xal insioievai avxb to> ovoavw ix xov 
(tmioov nvsvfiaxog, ag av dvanviovxi • xal xb xsvbv, 
o diogi&i rag yvasig, ig bvxog xov xsvov yhgia^ov 
uvog xu>v iq>s^g, xal xqg diogiosag • xal xovx f7- 
vai ngmxov iv xoXg agi&uolg • to yag xsvov diogi^eiv 
ii\v fpvaiv avxwv. a JE£ wv uev ovv oi uev <paaiv «I- 
vai, ol 5' ov opaoi, Ofsdov xoaavxa xal xouxvxd ioxt. 
ITgbg de xo, noxsgoag t%si t del laflslv, xi OTjuaivzi 
jovvoua. doxsi dq xo xsvbv xbnog slvat, iv (p utjdev ioxi. 
Tovxov d* aXxiov, oxi xo ov owua oXovxat shut • nav 
& owua iv xoTtxp • xsvov di, iv w totu? (xydsv iaxi 
OQfia. "jlgx* si' nov fit\ iaxi owfia, xsvbv stvai ivxav- 
&a. 2u*aa ds ndlw anav olovxav slvai arcTov. Toi- 
ovxov de, o iav sxji fiagog i\ xovyoxrixa. Svfi^alvsk 

F 2 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ovv ix ovXXoyiafiov xovxo slvai xsvbv, iv q> firjdsv ian 
(tagv xi rj xovyov. Tavxa psv ovv, &gnsg tl'iropsy 
xalngoxsgov, ix ovXXoyiafiov oVfi/ialvsi. *!dxonov di, 
sir) any (Ay xsvov d si yag xonov thai, iv w otofiatog 
iaxi diaoTTjfiix &nxov. 2. *AX£ ovv yalvtxai Xiys- 
o&ai to xsvbv, svapsv Tgonov, to fir) nXrigsg alv&Tj- 
xov odtfiaxog, xaxa xr)v aq>7jv aiad-rjxbv d' ioxl xaxa 
xi\v aq>i)v to fiagog fyov xal' xovq>6xr\xa. Aib xav 
anogrjasis Tt?, xl av qpaisv, si %x u T0 dtaoxrjfjia XQ**>- 
fia, »/ yo<pov, noxsgov xsvbv, r) ov ; rj drjXov, on si 
usv dsxoixo owfia anxbv , xsvbv slvai • si ds fir), ov. 
3. *AXXov ds xgbnov, iv (o fir) xoSs xl, fir\d* oiala Tig 
otofiaxixri ' dio <paoi xivsg slvai to xsvbv xr)v xav ao)- 
fiaxmv vXrjv, oXnsg xal xonov xb aiib xovxo Xsyov- 
Ttg, ov xaXwg • r) fisv yag vXr\ ov Xfogiaxr) xwv awfia- 
Ttov • to de xtvbv £rjxovdi* &g /wotoroV. 4. *Ensl 
ds xal nsgl xov totiov duogwxai, xal to xsvbv totiov 
avayxr\ slvai, si soxiv iaxsgrjfisvov otifiaxog • xbnog 
ds xal nag ioxi, xal nag ovx Xoxiv, sl'grjxai • (pavsgbv 

[0Vv\, Sxi OVXta flSV XSVOV OVX SOXIV, OVXS XfjfCdOlO/ie- 

vov, ovts axdgiOTov • xb yag xsvbv, ov oafia, aXXa 
oapaxog diaoxrjfia fiovXsxai slvai. 5* Aib xal to 
xsvbv doxsi xi slvai, oil, xal o xonog, xal dia to. avid. 
Hxsiyag dr\r) xivrjoig rj xaxa xonov, xalxolg tov xonov 
(paoxovaiv slvai xi naga xa oebfiaxa xa ifininxovxa, 
xal xolg xo xsvov. Alxiov ds xwrjoswg ofovxai slvai 
xo xsvov, ovxatg mg iv o> xivsixai • tovto d' av **ij, 
olov xbv xonov (paalxivsg slvai. 6. Oidspia d* a- 
vayxrj, sllloxi xivi\Qig, slvai xsvov. "OXtag fisv ovv 
anaorig xivjosug, ovdapug- di o xal MiXiooov ?Xa- 

Digitized by GOOgk 


&tv • alXoiovo&cu yaq lydixtta* to nlqqtg. *Alla di) 
ovJe ji)v xaxa xonov xivrjow Spa yaq vm^Uvak 
ailrjloig iydixsxai, ovdsybg Snog diaoxrjfiaxog jfMot- 
axov nag a ra ovpaxa tit xtvovfisva. Kal xovxo dy- 
lov xal ir Tcug xaty ovytxuy ftivaig, Sgntq xal h xaig 
xw vyqiov. 7. y £vd4x$ra& ds xal nvxyovo&ai, firj tig 
to xtvbv, alia dta to t« ivona &xnvqrjvi£tLv * oiov 
idaxog ovr&Xifioftsvov, toy ivovxa aiqa * xal av$avt- 
o&cu, ov fiovov uaiovjog wig, alia xal olXXohooh, 
olov & l| vdaxog yivoixo ariq. "Olatg di o,xt ntql xyg 
av$Tj<jsw£ loyog, xal xov tig %r\v xkpqay iyxtofiiyov 
idarog, avxbg airby ipnodi&i. *H yaq ovx av$dvi- 
xoubxiovv ij ov awfictTi' q ivdixsxai dvo owpaxa 
b tw avzo) ilyai • (anoqiav ovy a$iovoi xotyrjy li- 
ny, alX ov xtyby duxrvovoiv &g tori*,) rj nay thai 
to awua avayxaiov xtyov, ei navtrj av$avsxai, xal 
*v$avETcti dia xevov. c O d' aixbg loyog xal iitl xrjg 
xupgag. "On fih ovv 1% (ov buxvvovoi to xtvbv tlvai, 
Ivuv gadwv, (payeqoy. 


"Or*, d* ovx tott xtvby ovxw xexfoqioftiyoy, tag ivioi 
(paoi, liytopsv nalty d yaq iauv ixaoxov <poqd rig 
tip anltav oetpaxwy (pvoei, olov, xa> nvql [xiv avw, 
%j) ds yji xaxa, xal nqbg to fiiooy, dylov on ovx ay 
to xtvbv sVrj aXxioy rife yoqag. Tlvog ovv al'xiov to 
uyoy / Soxu yaq atxioy elyai xtvyotoyg xyg xaxa to- 
noy ravxr^g d* ovx eotir. 2. "jSth tl lor* xl, otoy 
xoitog ioTtqrifiivog ooifiaxog, oxay y xtvby, nov olo-d'ff 
oiiou to intd-h elg avxb o&pa ; ov yaq di) tig anay. 
*0 5* avrbg loyog xal nqbg xovg xbv xonoy tlval t* 

Digitized by GoOgle 


olofievovg xexwgiapevov, elg ov yigexai * nag yag oi- 
o&yoerai to ivxe&ev, ?} [level; Kal negl xov ctvca xal 
xdxrn, xal negl rov xevov, agfiooei o aixbg Xoyog ei- 
xoxwg ' to yag xevbv ronov noiovoiv ol <pdoxovxeg 
elvav. Kal nSig drj iveoxai, tj iv rona ?} h tw xevoi; 
ov yag avfi^aivei, oxav oXov re&jj, tog iv xex(ogi<jfidv(o 
T07TW xal vnopevovxi, owfid xi. To ydg pegog iav pr} 
%(oglg xid-rjxai, ovx eoxai iv xonw, dXk iv tw oXco. 
v Exi, el fiySe xonog, oide xevov eaxat. 3. 2v\i$aivei 
Se xolg Xiyovoiv elvai xevov, wg dvayxalov, el'neg eotcu 
xivrjoig, xovvavxlov fiaXXov, iav rig imoxonrj, pi] cV- 
dexeo&aixiviio&ai ptjdev, iav y xevov \wgneg yag 
ol Sid to opoiov cpdpevoi (xaV) rip ytjv rjgepetv, ov- 
ra>g xal iv xm xevcp dvdyxr) fjgepelv ' ov yag iariv ov 
pdXXov rj rjTTOv xivr)&r}oerai' {} yag xevbv, ovx l*x H 
diacpogdv.] 4. ITgmov pev ovv, on naaa xivrjoig, 
rj pin, i] xaxd (pvaiv * dvdyxrj dt, dv neg y (tiaiog, el- 
vai xal ttjv xaxd opvoiv. *H pev yag (ttaiog naga 
(pvoiv, y Se naga opvoiv, voxiga rtfg xard (pvaiv. 
"Jlgie el pr\ xaxd q>vaiv ioxlv exdoxm xm yvoixw aw- 
fidx(ov xlvrioig, oide x&v aXXtov eorai xivyoewv oide- 
pla. 3 AXXa pijv, (fvaei ye n&g etitai, prjdepidg ovorjg 
diaqpogdg xaxd to xevbv xalrb dneigov; y pev yag 
Sneigov, ovdev eoxai xdxta, ovd& ava, ovde peaov * ji 
ds xevbv, oidev diayegov to xdxoa rov dvw wgneg 
yag xov pydevbg ovdepia iorl $iaq>ogd, ovxtag tiwl rov 
pi} ovxog. To di xevov ptj ov n, xal oxigvaig $oxu 
elvat. 'ilfie cpvaei q>ogd, didqpogog • & gx eaxat xd cpvoti 
didcpoga. *H ovv ovx Eoriq>xfoet oidafiov ovdevl qpogd, 
V el rovt %(friv, ovx eaxi xevov. 5. "Efti, vtrv fuv x*- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


rurcn xa giTtrovfisva, tov woavTog ovx onnofiivov, 
jj di owwttgioTaoiv, iaqntg tvioi <paow, rj dia to w- 
&uv tov (ou&ivra aiga &att(o xlyr^aiv Trjg tov too&iv- 
rog yogag, r\v cpsgirai tig tov olxiiov totiov. 3 JEv di 
tm xtva ovdiv tovtojv ivdixtrai vnagxnv, ovd' laiai 
<pio&o&cu, al£ y a>g to oxovpevov. 6. "Eti, ovd tig 
*& Ixqi unsiv, dia ti xivq&iv otrjosTCtL nov; t/ yag 
pallor dvrav&a rj ivrav&a; otgT ij ygtprjoti, rj tig 
mtigov avotyxtj ysgto&ai, iav fxr\ Ti ifntodloy xosit- 
tov. 7. JEti di, vvv fib tig to xtvbv , dia to vnti- 
*h* <pegta&ai doxti, hf di to) xtyw, navt rj b/nolwg to 
toiovtov wgTt ndvTrj olo&TJfferai. S^£ti di xal 
be jwvde tpavtgbv to Xtyoptvov • bgafttv yao to ocvto 
pagog xal aw pa &uttov qptgoptvov, dia dvo altiag • 
ij t£ diacpiguv to di ov, olov, di vdaTog, ?/ yr\g, t\ 
iugog* $ T<5 dtacpigeiv to (ptgoptvov, ay TaXXa rai- 
to vnotQxy, dia Tt}vv7ttgoxr}v tov flagovg i) Ti\g xov- 
ffirijTog, To pb ovv di ov yigtxai aXTiov, on Ipno- 
di&i, paltara piv avTiytgoptvov, tntna di xal pi- 
vot ' paXXov di, to py tvdialgtrov. Toiovtov di to 
naxvxsgov. To dy iqf ov a', oio&Tjottai diet tov ft', 
top kp to y XQoyov • dia di tov tf, XtTtroptgovg bv- 
tog, tov &p w t, tl laov to prjxog tov (? tw V, xaTa 
tip avaloylav tov ipnodi£ovTog owpaTog. "Eoto) piv 
yag, to fiiv (? vdag, to di tf arjg • ooy drj XmTOTt- 
qov arjg vdaTog, xal avmpaTWTtgov, tooovtoj &<xttov 
to a' diet tov # oio&rjotrai, rj dia tov (f , 'jE^c'tgi dr\ - 
ioy ovtov Xoyov, ovntg dtiaT^xtv ayg ngbg vdwg, to 
t&Xoq 7tg6g to Taxog, "fieri tl dmXavleog XtitTov, iv 
$mlaol<p XQQWp *h p T ^ P diuaiv, ^ Trp to d> '. Kal 

Digitized by GoOgle 


soxai o i<p (o y XQWog dinXaoiov xov «V w £ . Ka\ 
atl dij, o<jg> av s\r\ aooi/iaxwxeoov xal tjxxov iftnod^ 
axtxbv, xal svdiaiosxfaxsQov dt ov yigsxai, j&axxov 
oio&TjoeTcu. To 8s xsybv, ovdiva !#« Xoyov o) vtisqs- 
Xsxai vito xov aoifiaxog, "jlgnsg ov8s xa fitjdiv Tigog 
xov aoi&fi6v • ei yog xa xsxxaga xStv xguiv vmqixu 
Ivl, nXsiovi 8s xoiv 8vo%v, not It* xov Ivbg nXelovi, q 
xolv 8volv • xov 8s firj&svog ovx ex* sxei Xoyov q> v- 
nsgsx*t> * civdyxrj yag diaiQU<j&cu xb vnsgsxov, sYg tb 
xr\v vrngoxyv, xal slg xo vnsgsxoftsvov. JZgxe soxai 
xa xsxxaga ooa> xs vnsgixsb xal ov8iv* dw, ovde 
yoafifiri oxiyfitjg insgix^h c * M ovyxuxat ix axiyfiwv. 
'Oiioiwg 8s xal xb xsvbv ngbg xb nXr\Qsg ovdiva oiov 
xs exuv Xoyov wgx* ov8s xijv xivqoiv. Q.AXX si 
8 id xov Xtnxoxdxov h xooco8l xr)v xooi\v8s qpigsxeti, 
8iu xov xsvov, navxbg vntofiaXXn Xoyov, > JEoxta yog 
xb £ xsvbv, ioov 8s tw [Atyi&si xotg (? xal ft • xb^di) 
a' u dleiai, xal xivr]d-r]asxai, (isv %v xivt XQ® V( $> T £ &<P* 
ov tt\ , iv iXaxxovt 8s, rj x<& iqp ov s , xal xovxov I£e« 
xbv Xoyov xb'xsvbv nobg xb nXyqsg. 3 AX£ iv xoaovxta 
XQovq), ooog icp 3 ov xb r{,^xov ft xb a dieioi xyv xb 
&'. AUwi 8s ys, x$v y xi lmtbxi\xi 8ia<psgov xov 
digog i<p o) xb £', xavxyv xi)v avaXoylav i\v %x u © 
Xqovog i(p oj «', nobg xbv iqp (j* rf * iav yag jj xooov- 
xw Xsnxoxsgov xb icp at J 7 otifux, xov ft, ooy vnegizti 
xb e xov tf, avxeoxgafifiivcag dlewi x$ t«/c* iv xooov- 
X(p, oaov xb r{ t\\v £, xb icp ov a', iav cptQTjTcu. ^Gav 
xolvvv firjdev rj otofia iv toi J^, gxl fiaxxov ' aX£ tjv iv 
xo) rf. "jlgx* iV Vow xqovco dieioi>, nXr f Qig xs ov xal x«— 
vbv. 'AX£ advvaxov. 10. &avsobv xolvvv, oxi el 

d by Google 


hxat xiqxqovog iv (o dia xov xevov buovv oio&tjorrcu, 
ovpfaaexcu xovxo xb advvaxov. *JEv Toy yaq Xyy&r)- 
«r«* nXrjqig xb ov du£Uvcu xl, xal xtvbv • lorcrt yaq 
n avaXeyov oupa htqoy itqbg txtqov, &g o XQoyog 
*qk zqovov. *Jlg $' iv xxpaXaiy finely , drfXov xb 
xw ovpfiaivovxog atxiov ioxiv, on xwyotug piy nqbg 
niniaiv Ttaar\g toil Xoyog • fr jr?oV» yaq ion. Xoo- 
wv ds navxbg ioxh nqbg XQOvov, it$n$qaopivotv ap~ 
f o*r • xcrov di nqbg nXyqtg, ovx low. 1 1 . r H* piy 
ovv diaqtiqovoi dt wv ysqovxai, xavxa ovpftaivei* 
Mara di xrp xtav ytqopiviav vntqoxr\v, xad* • bqwpty 
/«p xa fid&a qonxp tyavxa, ij fiaqovg, r\ xovyor-q- 
tog, iav xaXXa bpoing txfj xolg ozypaoi, &axxov qpe- 
qipiva to loov zwoior, xal xaxa Xiyov by «/ovat t« 
pyi&fl nqbg aXXyXa. "jlgxe xal dia xov xbvov • Wil- 
li advvaxov • ^*a Tera yaq aixiav oio&r)otxa* #<xt- 
W; iv ph> yaq xolg nXtjqtoir |£ avayxr^g ? S-axxov 
yaq diatqu xji laxv'i xb pi%ov. 12. "IT yaq oxypaxi 
duuqsi, r\ gorcjj 7jy %x^ to yeqopevov, tj xb aq>s&iv. 
'iaoxaxy aqanavx lata** aJU' atk'yaiov. "0t* /u«* 
©w, ti sort xtvor, avpfiaivu xovvavxlov, r\ di o xa- 
xaoxtvatovoiv oi cpaoxovxsg tlvai xtvbv, yavtqbv ix 
my elqi)p*ywy. OS piy ovv oXovxat xb xevbv that, 
£ntQ zaxat y xaxa xonov xlvrjaig, anoxtxoipivor 
ta& avxo. Tovto di xaixov iaxt tw xby xonov <pa- 
ffu tlral xt xsxuourpirov • tovto d' oxi ddvraxov, 
fyrjxai nqojtqov. 13. Kal x«d' avxb di exonovoi 
(parurj uy xb Xtyoptvov x*vby, w? &Xri<&<og xtrov. v Jlg- 
xtq yctQ iv vSart ay &$ xig xvftov, ixoxijotxai xooov~ 
iw vdatg oaov b xvfiog * ovtw %u\ iv oeo« * aXXa xv 

Digitized by GOOgle 


alo&fiou adyXov. Kal del Si] iv navri ot&fAari txovti 
(leTacmww, i<p o ni(pvxs ov(itis&ioTao&tti, , avayxti, 
av fit} ovfimlfjTou, lAS&iotau&ai, ij xdtta asl, si xeetw 
y cpoqa, wgnsq yr\g • % av&, si nvo • ?} iii aftfpoi, a>g 
6 at}Q • ij oitoXov av ti rj to ivri&ipsvov. *Ev ds dy 
tw xsvta, tovto fuv advvarov • ovdi yag aw/ua • tiia'di 
tov xvfiov to Joov diaotrijia disXrjXv&ivai doS&sv, 
bnsg r\v xal ngoxsgov iv %$ xsvw. "Jlgnsg av si to 
vdwg fir] fis&ioTorro to)£vXlv(o xvfiw, fiyd* o ayg, aX- 
Xa navrr\ bv^saav di aviov. IdXXct flip xal 6 xvflog 
sxtotooovrov fiiys&og, oaov xa%l%n to xsvov o si 
xal &SQfi6v ioTiv i) yvzgbv, 1} fiagi 1} xov<pov, oidsv 
tjjtov frsgov, aXXa xal fiaXXov, tw slvai navrtav twv 
na&rjfiaKov iorl, xal si fitf /womftoV * Xsyto di tov 
oyxov tov Mlvov xv(lov. "Jlgxs si xal x^^&sin 
navTtav t&v alloy, xal ftijte fagv, fit}TS xovcpov rft) f 
xa&t£ei to loov xsvov • xal iv T(p avxw sen at t$ tov 
totiov xal to> tov xsvov pigsi I'aco avxw . Ti ovv dhol- 
r [osiTo tov xvfiov omfia, tov Voov xsvov xal Tonov; 
xal si dvo TOiavTa, diet t/ ov xal onooaovv iv tw 
aviot sot at; sv [A$v dij tovto axonov xal advvarov. 
14. *Eti ds (pavsgbv, oti tovxo o xvflog i$ct xal fit- 
&unapsvog, o xal xa aXXa otapaTa nana s%si. "jlgr 
si tov totiov fitjdsv dia<psgsi, xl del nomv totiov to?? 
owfiaai naga tov kxaorov oyxov, si artaxtsg 6 oyxog; 
ovdev yao, ovpPaXXsrai, si stsqov nsol avTov Tao* 
diaoTtjfia toiovtov sly. 15. \^Etv ds% drjkav shah 
oiov xsvov iv Tdig xivovfUvoig, Nvv &s ovdapov iv- 
Tog tov xoofiov • 6 yag ayo, sari ti. Oil doxti di yv 
ovds to vd<aq, si tjQav oj iz&vsg oidr)Qo% • Ttj vao acprj 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ij xgioig xov anxov.] 1 6. "Or* fisv xolvw ovx litrr* 
uxmgtofidvov xevov, ix xovxav ioxl drjXor. 
Ewl di xiveg of du* xov ftavov xal nvxvov oTorxat 
<pttrtoov elvai, or* ioxl xevov • el fxh yag \xr\ ioxk fta- 
vov xal nvxvov, otitis owiivai xal mXuo&ai olov xe. 
J£» di xovxo firj jj, rj Slats xivrjoig ovx eoxai, ij xvfia- 
ru xb olov, wgneg eyy Sov&og, tj tig loov ael fiexa- 
piXXeiv aiga, xal vdag. Asyto ds, olov el i% vdaxog ■ 
xva&ov yiyovev arjg, apu 4$ i'oov aigog vdtog xooov- 
rov ysyevria&ai, ij xevov etrai &; avayxr\g % ovpmXu-' 
o&ai yag xal owenexxetvea&ai ovx ivdsxexat uXXcog. 
2- El fiiv ovv to flavor Xeyovat, to noXXa xeva xf/a>- 
gtouiva ex ?, (pavegbr wg el firjde xevov hdixsxat «Z- 
nu Zwgicnov, wgneg ftrjds xonov exovxa diaax^fia 
ievTOV, ovdi fiav6v ovx tog. 3. El ds fit} x^oioxbv, 
ffii' ofi&g iveivalxi xevov, i\xxov fiev advvaxov. 2vfi- 
(kuret di, ng&xov fiev oVTiaorjg xwrjotwg afuov elvat 
xb xevov, aXXa xyg avw. To yag flavor, xovqpov dib 
xal to ttvq flavor tlval <pamv. "Eneixa xivrioewg aV- 
Ttor, ovx ovxto to xevov, 6)g (v o>, aXX Sgntg oi aaxol 
tu (ptgsa&ai avxol civet, yigovoi to ovvexeg, ovxca to 
terbv ivojopegig. Kaixob, irwg olov xe qpogav tlval 
xevov i) xonov xevov ; xevov yag yivexai xevov, tig o 
yegexai. 4. "lExi ds, vrmg htl xov (iagiog anodtaoov- 
0* to q>igeo&at xajfo; Kal dqXov bit, ti oato av fia- 
mxegov xal xtvwxegov r h avto oioS-tjonai, ti oXwg sl'rj 
nvbv, xax^oxa av cpegona. "long ds xal tovto adv- 
totov xivrj-S-fivat • Xoyog d' 6 avxbg, ot* togntg xal 
h xS) xtrtp ixivffxa navxu, oStw x«* to xtvbv, oxi 

Digitized by GOOgle 


axlvrixov aoifi^kx\xa yag xd to£i?. 5. *ETtt* Si *«- 
vbv fib oi <pafib thai, xdkfa d* ipibgnxai dkij&wg, 
[oxi] 7) xbrjoig oix eoxai, tl fxr\ eoxai nvxvfaoig xal fxd- 
vwoig 9 ij xvfiavu b oigavog* i} del Xoov vdatQ i£ di- 
oog tatai, xctl aqg i£ vdatog • dr\ko* yog oxi nXsUtv 
dr\g i£ vdatog yivexai, 3 dfdyxtf xoivvv el fit) ioxi 7ti- 
kijoig, rj iSatd-ovfievov xb izofisvov xb eoxaxov jcvfiai- 
vuv noieiv, i] akko&i nov to loop fiexafidkkeiv 4$ di- 
oog tig v$tag, Xv 6 nag oyxog xov okov laog tj, i} fitj- 
db xiveiod-ou * del yag fu&ioxafibov xovxo av/u/JiJ- 
oexai, iay fit} xvxkto negi'foxrjxai, Ovx del ds eig to 
xvxXa> r\ <pogd t akkd xal eig to *i&v. Oi fib dtf S*a 
xouxvxa xevov ti cpcutv av elver*. 6. 'Hfiug de kiyo- 
fisv ix ttov vnoxufibtaw, or* iatlv vkrj pa twv irav- 
titav, &egfiov xal ipvxgov, xal tav akktov cpvoixiav 
ivavtuooetay • xal ix dvvdfitt ovtog, ivegyela ov yi- 
vetai 9 xal oi xwqiott} fib ij vktj, tw d* elvai etspov, 
xal fila t$ aoi&fiJa, u stvx*, XQ 0I **$> * a * &egfiov, xal 
ipvxQov. "Eat* di) xal otouatog Hky, xal fieydkov, xal 
fiixgov, ri avtrj* dr t kov de* otav yao sjf vdatog dift 
yivr}xcu f rj avtr t vkrj, oi ngogkafiovoa akko ti> iybt- 
xo , dk£ b r\v 8vvdfi6$, ivegyela iybeto* Kal ndki> 
vd(og £* aigog, wgavx(og • 6t« fiev tig fiiye&og ix ofu- 
xooxrjxog, oxe Ss tig fiixgoxrixa ix fitye&ovg* 'Ofiofag 
toivvv xal av arg nokvg wv, b ikdxxovi ybyxai oyxm, 
xal i$ ikdxxovog fiti£<av, ^ dvvdfin oiaa ylvsxai vlfj, 
afigxo. "Jlgneq yog ix yvxQoi dsofibv xal ix &€Qf*ov 
ipvxQOP rj avxrj, oxt rjv dvvdpu, ovxoa xal ix &eqfiiov 
fiakkov &&Qfibv, oidsrog ytvofibov b xrj vkrj &sgfiov t 
o ovx i\v fagfibv, oxt qxxov ^v &egfiov • agnsg ye ovd' 

Digitized by GOOgle 


1/ tov pttZoveq xvxlov negiyigtia xal xvgxoxijg, lav 
yivi\xai ildxxovog xvxlov, i) aixtj ovoa, rj ally, to oi- 
dsvl yiyovt to xvqxbv, o r)v ov xvgxbv, ill' si&v • 
(ov yaq t$ dtaieinHv xb qxxov rj xb pallor laxiv) 
ov d' taxi xr)g <ploybg laflsiv xi piys&og, to w ov xa\ 
Itvxixrig, xal &sqfi6xrjg tvsoxiv. Ovxw xoivvv xal r) 
nqoxiga &tqftoxrjg xj) voxsqov • Hgxs xal xb fuyt&og 
xal r) fitxgoxfjg xov ato&rjxov oyxov, oi nqoglaflov- 
or\g xi xr)g vlr]g,insxxtivsxai* all' oxi dvvdufi iaxlv 
ij vlrj apyotv vgxe ioxl xb avxb nvxvbv xal pavbv, 
xal fiia vlrj aifxwy cot* di, xb psv nvxvbv, paqv • 
to ds (iavbv, xovipov. 7. \?Exi, tognsq r) xov xvxlov 
ntqiopiqsia awayo/iivf) tig tlaxxov, oix alio xi la/i- 
(idvsi xb xoilov, all* o r]v ovvijxdrj' ovxa xal xov 
nvqbg o,t* av xig lafiot nav ioxi &sgfibv, outoi xal 
to nav ovvaywyfj xal diaaxoly xr)g avxi)g vlr^g .1 
Jvo yaq ioxw iq? kxaxigov xov xb nvxvov xul xov 
ftavov. To, xs yaq (laqv xal xb oxXrjgbv, nvxvu do- 
xu slvai • xal xavavxia fiava, xo, xs xovg>ov xal xb 
[lalaxov diayuvu de xb fagi) xal xb' oxlrjgbv inl 
fiolipdov xal oidrjqov. 8. *Ex dr) xmv slqr]fiivwv 
q>avsqbv, tag ovx anoxsxqtfiivov ioxl xsvbv, ov&* a- 
nlwg, ovxs iv iw fiavw, ovxs dvvdfisi, si pr, xig pov- 
Xotxo navxtog xalstv xsvbv, xb alxtov xov cpigio&ai. 
Ovxto d r\ xov pagiog xal xovqpov vlrj, rj xoiavxrj, 
sir} av xo xtvov • xb yaq nvxvbv xal xb fxavbv xaxa 
xttvxrjy xt)v toavxlaoiv, qjogag noir t xixd • xaxa ds xb 
oxltigb* xal fialaxbv, na&ovg xal ana&slag, xal ov 
yoqag, al£ kxsqouaoswg pallov. Kal nsgl psv xs- 

d by Google 


vov, nag ioxi, xal ntag ovx am, difoglo&a rbv iqg- 
nov xovxov. 

3 ExofisvoP ds xiav eigrjpivav iazl nsgl xqwov tntX- 
&slv • ngaxov ds xaXwg txsi, duxnogrioai, nsgl avxov 
xal did xwv i$(axsgix<av Xoyav, noxsgov xiav ovrw 
ioxlv, rj xiav py ovxtav slxa xig y qyiatg avxov. 2J"Oxi 
usv ovv oXtag ovx soxiv, i} fibyt,g xal dfivdgatg, ix tw 
ds xig dv vnonxsvosis • xo (isv yag avxov ysyovs, xal 
ovx soxi • xo ds fisXXsi, xal ovnw ioxlv. 'Ex ds rov- 
xav xal o dnsigog xal 6 ail Xapfiavopsvog xgovog 
ovyxsixai' xo 3' & pr] ovxtav ovyxsipsvov, advvaxov 
av do$sis iisxs%tiv noxs ovoiag. 3. Ilgbg ds xovxoig, 
navxbg (Asgwxov, idvnsg rj, dvdyxrj, bxs ioxlv, rjxoi 
svim, i>] ndvxa xa (isgri thai • xov ds xgovov, xa (isv 
ysyovs, xa ds fisXXsi, soxi d ' ovdsv, bvxog ptgioxov • 
xb ds vvv, oil fisgog • fisxgtl xs yag xo psgog, xal avy- 
xslo&ai del xo bXov ix xtuv fisgatv • o ds XQ o * $ ov 
doxsl ovyxsio&ai ix xwv vvv. 4.*jEt* ds, xal xovxo 
xb vvv o opaivsxai diogi£siv xb nagsX&bv xal to piX- 
Xov, noxsgov sv xalxb avxb del diafiivsi, -? aXXo xal 
aXXo, oi gddvov Idslv • si fisv yag del sxsgov xal fr«- 
qov, firj&sv tf' ioxl xwv iv to) xqovg) aXXo xal aXXo 
(isgog afia, o fir\ nsgUx*i>* xb ds n8gi4xs*<*h wgnsy b 
iXdxxtav XQOvog inb xov nXsiovog • xb ds vvv fit) Sv, 
ngoxsgov ds ov, avdyxri i(p&dg&ai noxs • xal xa vvv, 
afia fisv aXXrjXoig oix soxai. *Eq>&dgd-ab ds aviyxn 
asl xb ngoxsgov. *Ev tccvxw fisv ovv iq&ag&ai ovx 
olov xs, did xb slvai xoxs • iv aXXoj ds vvv icp&dg&at 
xb ngoxsgov vvv ovx ivdsxsxai* toxta yag advvaxov, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fyofiepa elvai aXX^Xatv xit vvv, &giuo oxiyfii) auypyg' 
ttntg ovv iv tw iyi&tg ovx ty&aQxeu, aXX' iv ally, 
h xdig fiexa£v xolg vvv ansigoig ovoiv , afia av *?i? • 
xovxo di advvaxov. 5. IdXXa prpr ovdi ail xb otvxo 
dtapivuv dwaxov* ov&tvbg yog diaigsxov ntmga- 
op&ov, Iv nigag iaxiv ovxs av i<p tv ij ovv&xi$> 
ovxs av inl TtXeid) * xb di vvv nigag ioxl, xal xgbvov 
(ail XaSelv nsnegao/rivov. 6/£xi, tl xb apa elvai 
juna xov XQQ* 0V > *<*' A* 1 ??* ngixtgov, ju^tc vaxegov, 
xb iv tw avxq* tlvou, xal iv x$ vvv ioxtv, d xa t« 
ngoxegov xal xa vaxtgov iv xtj* yvv iaxiv, Spa av ti'rj 
itf tig ttog ytvoptva pvgiooxbv xolg ysvopivoig tiJ/46- 


alio v. 7. Htgl piv ovv xav imagxovxwv aixtp, to- 
aavxa Iotgj dirinogTipiva. Tl di iaxiv o XQovog, xal 
tig avxov f} cpvaig, bpolcag ex xe xuv Ttagadedouivmv 
adr t lov iaxi, xal negl uiv xvyxavop.iv duXrjlv&oxtg 
nqbxegov • ol pev ydg xr\v xov olov xivr^aiv elvai (pa- 
oiv ol di xr t v oqxugav avx^v, Kaixoi xqg negupogag 
xo< to pigog, XQOvog xlg ioxi • negupoga di ye, ov • 
fttgog yag negupogdg xb Xiqcp&iv , aX)! oi negupoga. 
Exi d*,si nXelovg tjoav ovgavol, bpoioig av ijv o XQ°~ 
vog, r\ oxovovv aviwv xivqoig' oagxe noXXol XQovot 
£/4(x. 8. *H di xov oXov oq>a7ga, sdo$s piv xolg ei- 
iiovoiv sly cii o xoovog t bxt tV xs tw XQwy navxa ioxl, 
talh xfi xov b'Xov ,o(paioa. "Eaxi d* tvti&ixwxeoov 
to UQ7Jtih>ov, t\ ulgxs ntol aixov xa advvaxa inujxo- 
n&v. 9. *J2ntl di doxii fiaXioxa xiv^Qi^ tlvai xal 
\UTa poXr\ Tig o xqovog* xovx av tXr\ oxsitxiov. II ph 
ovv ixdaxov usxafioXi) xal xivyoig iv avxy T(Ji iu%*~ 


(tdlXovxi ioti fiovov, ij ov avxvxfl ov avxo xo xivov- 
uevov xal pexapdXXov • 6 di xqovog ofiolwg xal nay- 
xaxov,xal naqa naaiv. l0."JExt ds, fisxa/Solij pip 
ioxi naaa &axxtov xal ^gadvxiga, XQovog d* ovx Sorr 
10 ydq figadv xal xaxv XQW*? wgioxai • xaxv pep v«o 
xo iv oXlyw noXv xwovpwov (fyafiv ds, xo iv ttoZXw 
oXlyov • o ds XQOvog ovx &Qunai XQOvw, ovxs t<5 itooog 
rig slvav, ovxe tw noiog. ll/'Oti fib xoivvv ovx 
%'axi xlvfjaig,(paveg6v firjdiv ds dtayegixw Xiyetv rjf&y 
iv t<£ nagovxi, xivi\oiv, jj [isxafioXriv. f 


UXXa firiv ovd' Svsv ys (isxafloXrig • oxav yag av- 
xol pti&b fista^dXXtofiey xy didvoiav, 4] Xd&cofiLev 
psxafiaXXoyxsg , ov doxu fjfuv ysyovbai 6 XQovog* 
xa&ditsg oirds xotg iv xrj Sagdoi fiv&oXoyovfidvoig 
xa&sidsiv naqa xoig %qww+.oxav iysg&wat. ^wa- 
nxovai yag xo ngoxtgov vvv xoi vaxsgov vvv, xal ty 
noiovoiv, iSaigovvxsg dia xi)v avata&^alav xo fiera- 
Iv. yigrtso ovv^l ftij yy ixsgov xo vvv, aXXa xotvxo 
xal sv, ovx ay v\v xqovog • ovxto xal intl Xuv&otvn 
exsgov ov, oi doxu thai xo fiexatv xqovog. El dij to 
ftij ol'sa&ai thai XQovov xoxe av^aivu ryuy, oxav 
firj oqioapsy pridefiiav psxafioXriv , aXJ? iv hvl xal a- 
diaiqixw opaivtixat ^ y>vxv fitvuv • oxav tie ala&vjus- 
&a, xal oglaojfitv, xoxs yapiv ysyovivai xqovov • g>a- 
vsgov oxt ovx eaxtv avtv xwT)omg xal (isxapoXiqg 6 
XQovog. 2. Oxi piv ovv ovxs xivtjoig, ovxs avsv xi- 
vyoeag 6 XQ°v°$ i<**l, opavsqov. Arinxiov di, inudri 
fyxovfiev xl iaxiv 6 XQovog, ivxev&tv agxofAsvoig, t/ 
**?£ xivyosdg iaxiv ajia ydg xivtjoecog aia&ayofie&a 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xalxgbvov xal yag iav rj axoxog, xal fiijdev diet xov ow- 
paxognaozapsv, xlvi\aig di xtg iv xfj yvxjl & f 5> ti&vg a- 
pa doxii xt ycyovivai, xalxgovog, jiXXa pr ( v, xal oxav 
ytXqivog doxy ytviodaixig, apa xalxlvrjalg rig qtalvt- 
tat yiyovivai. "jlgxt rjxot xlvr)Oig, rj trig xivrjotag xi iaxl 
ZQWog. 'jEnsidri ovv ov xivqoig, avayxi\ xijg xwr\attng 
« thai avxov. 3. 'Enel di xb xivovpsvov xiviixai tx 
uvog tXg rt, xal navpiys&og avvexig, axoXov&si xw p%- 
yi&u t} xlvr t aig • dia yag xb piye&og elvai ovvsx*$> *«* 
y xhtjaig iaxt ovvtxfc ' dia 6e xr\v xivtjaiv xal bxgbvog' 
oari yag tj xivrjoig, xoaovxog xal o XQovog atl doxel 
ftyovivat. To di dv) ngoxtgov xal vaxtgov iv to7toi, 
hqmov iarw ivxav&a piyjoixi] &iau. 'En el tf' iv 
%y psyi&si iaxl to ngoxtgov xal xb vaxtgov, avayxrj 
xal iv xivr]aet elvai xb ngoxtgov xal vaxsgov, avako- 
yov xolg btu. 4. 3 AXXa pr)v xal iv tw /ooVq) iaxl xb 
ngoxtgov xal vaxtgov, dia xb axoXov&iiv ail d-axigtp 
dartgov aviwv. "Eaxi ds xb ngoxtgov xal xb voxigo* '- 
avxfov iv tjj xivtjasi, o piv noxt ov xivrjoig iaxi, xo 
fiivxoi Avai, aviM txtgov, xal ov xivrjoig. jiXXa pr)v 
xal rbv XQ° V0V Y* yv&gitoptv, oxav bgi&pw ti\v *i- 
rqoiv, to ngoxtgov xal vaxtgov bgfcovxtg* xal roxi 
yapiv ysyovivat XQovov, oxav xov ngoxtgov xal ioxi- 
qqv iv xji xivfjoti aXa&Haiv Xufapev. *Ogi£optv di, t£ 
tdlo xal ctXXo vnoXaftuv aixi, xal ptxa$v xi aixav 
*ngov • oxav yitg xa axga ntga xov pioov votjoo)- 
ptv t xal dvo siny q fvxfj xa vvv, xb piv nooxegov, 
to de vartgov, xbxz xal xovxo (paper ilvai XQ°vov • to 
yaq oqi£o(igvov t^ vvv, XQOVog tlvat doxii, xal vno- 
xtio&o). 5. "Oxav pkv ov> &g tv xb vvv ala&avwp*- 
Arist. Phtb. Ausc. G 

Digitized by GOOgle 


&« f xal firj y ti ig to ngotego* xal wttgov iv rp %*~ 
vyan, i} wg to avto fiiv, pi] ttgotigov di xal varigov 
jivbg, oi doxtl x$*> v °$ y*yovivito oV#e$£> o« ovdi xi- 
yr}oig. "Otav 8s to ngongov xal vottgov, tot* Xiyo- 
fiBv zqovov • itovto yag iatw o XQW°$> agt&pbg x«ri}- 
omg xata to ngottgov xal votsgovJ Ovx uqxx x/f^- 
oig b xgowog, al£ y agi&pbv %x*i r\ xivr^tg. 6- ^Vr 
ftuov di' to per yag nXel&v *al Uattov xglvoptv 
agi&fita ' xivyow dh nUl& xal iXuttta, #0070*. *Aqi** 
&pog aga tig bxgovog. 'tintl d' agi&pog ioti dix*>S 9 
xal yag to agi&povptvov, *al to agtdpritbv, agi&pbr 
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Qi&fjioypsvov, xal oix $ ag*&p.ov[£tv. 'jKot* d* Irre- 
gov o) txgi&fiovfiep, xal to a{p&(iov)isvov. 7. Kal 
ugntg ^ xivrjoig atl aXXtj xal ally, xal b x?6voq. € 
6" apa nag XQovog b avtog • to yag vvv to airto 5 
not ?}v, to o" elvai «i!t$ ttsgov • to di vvv toy zqo- 
vov (istgst, y ngotsgov xal votegov. 8. To di vvv ear* 
fiiv mg to avto, Sot* ti* wg oi to avto' y fiiv yag 
iv aXXy xal aXX<n, tregov tovto d' 4p avto to rwr 
ij di o note ov lonr* to vvv, to ait6. 3 AxoXov&S 
yag wgmg iXix&f), * # P& f*s/B#« V xbrjoig, Ttxxnt) 
d* 6 XQovog, wg q>apiv. Kal bpoimg dq ty ony^y to 
q>sgouevov, tptijv xhtjaivyvfogKofisv, xal to Jtgoregof 
iv aity, xal to vtmgov. Tovto di o fiiv itots ov 3 to 
avTo cot* • otiypri yag, ij Xl&og, y ti aXXo toiovrov * 
t^ Xoym di aXXo, wgnsg oi ooyunal Xap(l&vovaiv rrs^ 
ooy to Koglaxov iv Avxdw tlvat, xal to Kogiaxov iv 
ayog<x. Kal tovto drj tw aXXo&i xal aXXo&i tjycti, 
ttsoov t^ di optgofiivqt axoXov&u to vvv, Sg7t€Q b 

Digitized by GOOgle 


j#6vo$ Tfi xwr^au* t$ yaq ytQopivta pwQ{fofi$v to ,. _ 

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p&jupbv yag to n£OT«oo? xa* vvteoov, to rvv i<m • 

ta# ymgimov fialurta tovt tirci * xai /«o jy niveau; 

dtirb %tv*vperov, xai t? o*>paf dta to qxQoptvov 

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tin to yvy ^ Et'^, o zyorpg ovx «* tfy • a/ia yao oj^— 

]roto q> Biopsy ov xal q <poga, ovzcog xal o agi&fibg u 

rov ysQo+Urov xal b Tt\g qpogag • igovog \kh» yao o 

rijS <po$ag afu&fiog * to & yv? oVtf to (psqoptyw, ol- 

w poritg oQi&fiQV. Kal cvwex^g i« £q o xqqvos tq> 

w, xa* dipgtjrai xaxa to «;»» * axo4ov&Z /ao *a+ 

tovto t^ <poQa, xal tw ytqofUvw * xal y«o 19 ttlvrjQis, 

*«i r\ q^oga fjUa tw cpiqojUvxi^, on ey, xai ©v/ o wot* 

or * xa2 yao ay diaXinoi^ uXla tw io/w. Ka> oo/fti 

<ty tij* jsgoTtgov xai vorsgov xlrrjoiv tovvc. ^AxoXov- 

&u da xal tovto mog vg unyfi^ 9 xcvt yif % ottypri 

xai ovys%n mug to iiijxog, xal 0£/£&* lor* /£©> tov , 

,uiy a0?.q, to 5 5i TeXrifT^. 10. ^Il' oiaf #«V oi/ia) 

hippo**} **£* ®4 Svol zfxijfiwog tjJ juq, afuyxq Xotcl- 

ff^at, ei tarat agzi xal tsXsvtij f)" airy <rzi>ypi]. *Po 

Hrvv, dia to xwuo&m to cpSQOfUvov^ q&.HsQOV 

*o& o xqovoq oQt&fibg, ov/ «s t^? ^T^^at*^ 1 ^* 

m* xai ao^ xat T€Jl£t;T^ «U* «? Ta loi«T« t^s 

G 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ygafifttjg fiaXXoy, xal ovx ig tit pigy, dii ts to tiQrj - 
fxivov. Ty yag usay onyfirj, ag dvol xgriostai' «5ct« 
j)Qt(xHV ovfipfjostai. 11. Kal sn, qpaysgby on ovtii 
pbgioy to yvv tov xgovov, ovd' r\ diaigsoig tys x*v*J- 
ustog, Sgnsg ovd' al crnypal trig ygapurjg* al di 
ygap/ial dvo tyg fiiag pogta. Hi fisy ovv nigag to 
vvv, ov XQ° V0 $t «**<* aVfipiprixBV • # d' agi&(£&, 
agi&fiog • t« fisy yag nigata , ixslvov fiivov icrtlv, 
ov ion nigata. € d* agt&fiog o t&vds t&y Xnnoiv, tj 
dsxag, xal aXXo&i. 12. "Ox* fisy toivvy b xgovog 
agi&fibg xivrjosag iari xata to ngotsgov xal votegov, 
xal avysx^g (ovysxovg yag), yavsgov. 
3 £laX^otog ds agi&fjibg, o fib anX&g, iativ fj dvccg • 
tig ds agt&pbg, soti fisy iog tonv, soti ds ag ovx sorty • 
olov ygafifiyg ikaxiotog agi&ficg, nXrj&st fisy icrriv 
ai dvo, rj i) fila' fisys&si d' ovx sotiy ilaxiotog" asl 
yag diaigutai naoa ygafifii). "Jlgts bfioUag xal b xq6— 
rog • ik&xunog yag xata fisv agi&fioy iativ b stg <jj 
oi dvo • xata fisys&og £' ovx soti. 2. Qavsgov di 
drj xal, dion taxvg fisv xal (tgadvg ov Xiystai, txo - 
Ivg di xal oXlyog , xal fiaxgbg xal pgaxvg. Hi pi* 
yag ovysxi\g, f*(**gbg *tf * /fya/vs • # ds agt&fiog, ?ro- 
Xvg xal bXtyog • taxvg ds xal (tgadvg ovx sattv • ovdi 
yag b agi&fibg (a agi&povpsv, taxvg xal (Igadig o\& 
dsig. 3. Kal b aitbg di, navtaxov Sfia • ngotsgov I 
ual votsgov, ovx o aitbg, on xal q pttafioXr), r\ jui 
nagovoa, pia • ^ di ysysvtjfiivtj, xal yuiXXovaa, St4 
ga.'Odsxgorog ag&fiog i<ntv, ovx <? agi&fiov^usi 
aXX* b agi&povptyog. Ovtog di ovpPalvn xat 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nqoteqop xal vortQov, atl ittqog • to yaq pvp, 2V«- 
Qa* *Eati di b aqt&fibg, tig (tip xal b avtbg, b tup 
btazhv Xmtup, xal tu¥ kxatbp apdgup • up d ' aq *- 
&pbg, htqa, olinnoi tup ap&qunup. 4* "fiti, ug Ip- 
dixnou xivtjaiv thai trp uvtr\p xal piap naXip xal 
niXip, ovtu xul xqopop hdixrtai, olov, inavrbp, q 
taq, rj ptionuqop, 5. Ov fiopop di trp xiptfotp t£ 
XQOru pagovftip, aXXu xai tjJ xvp^au top jjf^yor, 
dun to bqtfyo&ai i>n aXXijXup • 6 per yaq xgopog °<}*~ 
burp xiyyoir, aqi&pog up ait^g* y dixlprjoig, top 
XQovow. Kal Xiyo/isp noXvp ij bXiyop xq^voy, T jS **- 
vtjou (titqovpttg, xadantq xal iy aqi&prjtu top a~ 
Qi&pop' oiop, io) {pi Inn (a, top tup \nnuv aqt&fibp' 
tw pip yaq uqi&pm to tup innup nXy&og ypuqfto- 
(itr. JlaXtp di tw hi Xnnu , top tup Xisnup aqi&fibp 
ainov. 'Opoiug di xal inl tov yqovov, xal tqg %ip%- 
omg • tu flip yaq XQopm typ xivrjoir, tiJ di xiptjou 
tov xgopop ttttQoviitp. 6. Aa* tovt tvXoyug ovp- 
PtPrpttp • axoXov&di yaq tip ptyi&u fj xiptjoig, ttj di 
*ipri<jH b xow°$> T $ *°i nooa, xal ovpfXV> *«* dtat 
Qtta eivcu- d la flip yaq to piyt&og tlvat, toiovtop, 
Jj xlpr\Qtg tavta nmop&t • dia di tip xlprjoip, b XQQ- 
vog. Kal fierqovfitp xal to fiiye&og ty xiprjou, xal 
ir,pxipriGiP tw fityi&et* noXXrjv yaq qtafitp that tip 
odop, ap ji ij noqtia noXXi), xal tavxip noXXip, Sp $ 
ij odbg noXXr\ • xal top xqopop, ap fj xlvqaxq 9 xal tip 
*lvtioip f Sp b XQ<> V0 $« 7. *Enil di b X9°*°? pi*q°* 
xirrjaecjg ioti, xal tov xip£io&ay fittqti d* ovtog 
tty xiptjoip, itp bqioai two, xIpijoip, ij xatafitrqriott 
tip bXrp • ugiuq xal to pyxog b ntix v S> **? iqlo^at 

Digitized by GOOgle 


n fttys&og, o itafLBTQtjati to oXov • xal ikm xp x*~ 
vr\an to to zq6*<$ thai, to [itTQsio&ai toj Xqovw xal 
avxijv, xal to elvou avri\g • apa yaq tip xir^atv xcr* 
to el*** Tji xwr\osi, fisrqst • xal tovt Mart? aity to 
to XQ° V V shah to pBrouo&ou avTyg to elvat. 8. ^if- 
Xov d' art xal Toig aXXoig tovt fitm to to ZQOvm el- 
pch, to [isrq&e&ai airmp to shut irto tov xgorov' 
to yaq to XQwy slvat, dvol* ion -d-axtqov, tv [i&w to 
slvai tots, ors o XQovog iorip* tv dt to, *>$7rzp trta 
Xiyopsv, on to aqi&pf* ion. Tovto ds orjfialret, jjxoi 
ig piqog aqt^fiov, xat ita&og, xal oXmg on tov aqtr- 
&povTf ij on iotlv aitov aq*&/i6$. *Eitsi d' ci£«- 
&pbg o XQ*v°$> *° (*& ™ v > * a * T0 itQOTtQQ*, xal ova 
Touxvxa, ovtmg to #0oVa>, ug to et^i&fiw povotg, xal 
%b mqixxov xal to aqnov * Ta fiiv yaq tov ciqi&fxov 
n, t« fa tov XQovov tHoti' Tot di nqaypara &g to 
aqi&py, Tq> XQO**? *i ionv. £l ds tovto, ntqiix^rat 
vn aqi&pov, Agntq xal to, to tottw vicb tov totiov. 

9. ipavsQov is xal on oix eon to to #(*ovw elvat, to 
flvai ort o zfaos &rtb * &gnsq ovdi to to xi^fjau 
slvai, ovdi to to totem, ot« ^ xlrrjotg xal o xontog 
IotIv * si yaq sorai to IV nvi ovt&g, navxa to 7rpd~ 
ypaxa to OTcaovr serai, xal 6 oiqavqg to tj} x&yxfna * 
ots yaq j? xiyxqog iorl, xal b oiqarog ionv. IdXla 
tovto fiiv ovfifisprjxtv, ixuro d' arayxy TtaqaxoXov- 
d-siv, xal tw oru to XQ^ V( 9 tlval nva xqovov, ots x«- 
x«7yo Ioti, xal tai iv xt^ijaet ovrc, flrat tots xivqtnv. 

10. *£7i«» ^' ior*y w? ^y aqt&pup to I* /ooyw, Afj<p^^- 
a«T«/ Ttff nXslfav x°6 vo ? navrbg tov to /ooVa? ovrog • 
3to avdyxij nana to to XQOvta orra, mq*ixw&ai. imo 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tov ZQorov, Sgnto xal tmlla ioa Iv tivi iotlp • olov 
xa iv t« -tony vnb tov tonov- xal x«o/w dy t* vnb 
*<™ Xobvov, xa&antg xal Xiytiv tu*&afnv, or* x«to> 
t^xti 6 ZQWog, xal yqoaaxu niri vnb tov jfoorov, 
xal dmXap&apna* foot tbvxQOPOJf ill* oi ptpa&t)- 
X9v, ov$s viov yiyoptp, ovdt xalop • y&ofag yog oT- 
t*o£ %ct&* avtov fiaXloy o xoovog* afi&pbg yog «*- 
vqaswq* tf ds xiyrjoig i^Umjoi to inagxov. u Jlgt9 
<pa*eqbv ot* to ad ovta, $ ail ovta, ovx tottv toZQO- 
wp * ov yao nig^t tai vnb tov XQovov, ovdi pitgu- 
rai to tlvai avx*>v vnb tov xoopov • otipuop 6i tov- 
tov, St* ov naoxst oidiv vnb tov jfoorov, a? ovx or- 
t« ^ t£ j?ooV<p. 11. '-#*«* $' 4or*y o Xf^pog fthoov 
uivrjows, wi» xoi yg*(iiag fdtgop xata ovpfiififixog * 
naocc yag ygeuia iv x?ov(p ' ov /ap &>s*eo to if x*- 
vjjau ov kvay*r\ x&HO&ai, ovta x«» to fr XQ°W 
ov yo\q i) xivr^oig b XQo*og, akl* agi&fibg xivyuwg • ip 
aoi&pfy <5* xiytjow? Mix**** thai xal to jjgtpovp. 
Ov yag nay to ox/p^to* ygtyti, aXXa to iottgrjfUvov 
xhvtiau*;, nupvxbg de xivuo&ai, xa&antg iXgr\xai h 
%o"ig ngotsgov. To ds $Jvai iv agt<d(ijp , loti to tlvai 
tivol agi^fibv tov ngayfiatog, xalfitiguod-ai to tlvai 
avtov t<£ agi&fiy iv <*i iotiv ' agt d iv /ooV<p, wo 
Xgovov. Mftgyosi d* o XQovog to xwovpsvov xal to 
ifttfiovv, y to piv xivovfiwav, to di r t gtfiovv * t\\v 
yao xiywQiv avtav fiworiati xal trjv iowLav , noon 
tig. 12. Jlgts to xwovfiivov oyx aniwg total pi- 
toytov vnb XlfOWVf Ji i*ooop ti iotlv, al£ y r\ xivr\<ng 
avtov noori. "jlgts oaa fiyis xivuiai, ft^i« yQifiei, 
ovx totiv iv XQWtf * *b pi* y*Q ivXQovot tlvai, lor* to 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ptxoua&ai XQoya * 6 di XQOvog xivtj oewg xalijQBfiia 
pixqov. 13. &avtgbv ovv oxi ovdi xb prj ov Toxa 
nav iv XQw*? ' °^ v oa< * PV ivdixtxai uXXwg, a>?7r* 
xb xijv diapsxqov elvat, xtj nXsvqa ovpptxqov oXat 
\ yaq, il pixqov piv iaxi xivi\at(ag o XQOvog xa&* avxb 
i xtnv di aXXoav xaxof ovppsfttjxbg, drjXoy on ov to elva 
i psxqei, xovxoig ana'aw eaten to slvai iv tw rjQtpeiv ■ 
I xivua&at, "Ooa piv ovv q>&aqxa xal yevvrita, xa 
oXmg, bxi piv bvxa, ore di fit}, avayxy h XQov<^ iivcti 
eon yaq xqovos Tig nXsitoy, eg vneqiSsi xov tlroti Av 
xiv, xal tov ptxqovvxog xr\v ovalav %£>v di pr\ oy 
roav, oaa piv Tteoiix** ° XQ^ v0 ?t xa I 1 *? V*> °^° v "Of**) 
qog noxi i\v xa di toicu, olov xdv psXXovxuv xt, 4q 
bnoxsqa ntqtix^' xa» u in a pep a, apyoxtqa xal 171 
xal %oxai. "Oaa di prj ntqiixti pfjdapri, ovx i\v y otti 
iaxlv, ovx 3 eoxai' saxi di xa xoiavta xStv pi\ bvrcot 
oatov xa avxixilpeva ad iaxw • olov xb aavppttgo 
elvai xrjv diapsxqov, a si taxi, xal ovx saxai xovxo 4 
XQoyoy ov xoivvv ovdi xb ovppsxqov dib atl ov 
Boxiv, on ivavxiov tw olbI ovxi. "Ootov di xb ivavrlo 
fitl atl, xavxa dvvaxai xal thai xal p^ 9 xal taxi yi 
vioig xal <fr&ooa avxuv. 

li di vvv iaxi ovvi/ua XQovov, vgntg (X&x&r\ 
avvix** yaq xbv xqovov xbv naqtX&ovxa xal iaoptvo 
xal oXug niqag xqovov iaxlv • taxi yaq, xov piv a^ 
XV* *ov di xsXsvxtj. 'AXXa xovx ovx wgntq M ti 
axiyprJQ ptvovow tyavtqov • diction di dwapn. JBC 
I piv xoiovxov, atl txtgov xb vvv • fj di ovvdil, i 
xb aifxo' wgmo inl xwv pa&tfpaxtx&v yqappu* 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ev yaq tj avtij atl xal fiia oxiyfirj ttf potion* diai- 
Qovvitov yaq, aXXg • # di fiia, y aviff navxif. Ovtm 
xal to vvv • to piv, tov xgopov durtqtotg xata dvva- 
fuv to di niqag otfupoZv xal kvoxijg • *or* di to av- 
to xal xaxa to aitb y dutiqtoig xal r\ ftwotf * to d* 
thou ov tavxo. 2. To fib ovv ovta Xiytxat tmvvvv • 
alio ft, Stav 6 jfooyo? ° towtov iyyvg y • ijl«* rw, 
ot* Ti£p«f oy ijjlw jjjxe ySy, or* ^Z£e xtfritgov. Ta d* 
iv'lXia yiyovtv ov vvv, ovdi o xaxaxXvofibg yiyovt 
vvv. Kaixot ovvtxrig XQOvog tig avxa, aXX' ot* ov* 
^/yvff. 3. To di noxi, xgovog vqurpivog nqbg to ngo- 
ttqov vvv olov, noxi iXtjy&r) 4 Toolw xal not t 
total xataxlvopog • del yaq n*ntqiv&ai nqbg to 
vvv. "jSota* aqa nooog tig anb tovde xg^vog, * a ^ 
tig ixiivo, xal ffv tig to nagtX&ov. 4. El di /xi; fig 
Xgovog, og ov not*, nag av tl'ij xgovog nantqaouivog. 
*Aq qvv vnoltliftn, rj ov j tXntq aid ioxi xlvrfOig* 
aXXog ovv, rj o avtbg noXXaxig; dyXov oxt, ig av y 
xivijotg, ovxo) xal 6 xgovog. El fiiv yaq r\ aiti] xal 
fiia yivtral not$, total /ooros tig xal o aitog • tl di 
pit, ov* wtai. 5. 9 Entl di to vvv ttXtvtij xal aqxy 
tov XQ°* 0V > <*l£ ov * ov *itov, alia tov fitv naqy- 
xovtog ttltvtij, ocQxh di tov fitXXovtog • %x°* 8* »ff- 
ntg o xvxXog iv tip avzo> nag to xvqibv xal to xol- 
Xov, ovta> xal 6 XQovog atl iv aqxjl xw * rtXtvtj) • xal 
dia tovto doxu atl tttoog- ov yaq tov avtov aqxy 
tal xtXtvtr\ to vvv * apa yaq av xal xata to aixb, 
to avtutdptva tVrj, xal ovx vnoXtliftti dr\ • atl yaq iv 
iqXfi' 6. To d* fidtj, to iyyvg iotb tov naqovxog 
vvv atouov, piqog tov piXXovtog xgovov. nitt /?a- 

Digitized by GoOgle 


diaeig / ' ijdri, Sxi iyyvg o XQ°vog & V pM** ' *<*J *ov 


diaugt ijdri (Jsfiadtxa • xb di "iXiov <pavai r t dfj iaXta- 
xivai.ov Xiyousv, ot* no^gto Xiav xov vvv. 7. Kal 
xo agTt, to iyyvg xov nagovxog vvv, xal uoqiov xov 
naotX&ovxog. IIoxs tjX&Bg? agxt, iav $ o /o©Ve$ 
iyyvg xov iveoxwxog vvv. JldXmt Si, xo nigqto. TO 
di $&ixl(f>vng, to iv avaia&rixip XQOvw diet pixgoTtixa 
ixaxav. 8. Msxupolri di nwm cpvou ixaxaxixov. 
3 Ev di T(J5 XQovqt navxa yivexai xal <p^a*o«for** dtb 
, xal ol fih ooyxoxaxov eXtyov, o di Jlv&ayogtiog Ha- 
qo)v afta&iaxaxov, oxt xal iniXavd ayovxai iv xovxty 
Xiytav oq&oxsqov. dx\Xov ojuv ot* qp&ogdg jiaXXov 
soxai xa& avxbv al'xiog, ij yvianag, xa&dntQ iXi- 
X&i) xal tiqotsqov ixaxaxtxbv yag y firta/SoXr} xa& 
uvxyjv • ytviostog di xal xov itvah xaxa ovfiPsfaxog, 
JStjfAUo* di ixavbv, Sxi yivtxai fiiv prfiiv avsv to J 
xiviio&ai nag avxb xal ngaxxuv • (p&ugsxai di %a\ 
firjdsv xivovfuvov * xal xavxi\v (idXioxa Xiyuv tui&a- 
fiBv vnb xov xgovov (p&ogdv - ov fiyv aX£ oidi tov- 
xjjv 6 jfoovos noiu, aXXa ovfifiaivn iv jfooVcy ylvt- 
o&ai xal xotvxrjv xijv pttafioXriv. "Oxt fjtiv ovv iaxvv I 
Xgovog, xal xl t xal noaax&g Xiyofity xb vvv, xal xi it 
noxi, xal xb agxi, xal xb ydy, xal xb ndXai, xal xc 
iSaiyviig, cfy i?t«*. 


Tovxnv 6* tjfuy ovxa dtrjQt&firffmrmv, (pavtobv ox 

anaaav pixafioXiiv, xal anav xb xtvovptvov dvctyx 

xwuo&ah iv XQovy to yog dixxov xal figadvxtgot 

xaxa naadv ioxi ftngt/hX^v • ix nbai yag ovxw <pnl 

Digitized by GOOgle 


met*. Aiyti di &axror xtvuo&at to nqortgov /irra- 
ftaXXo* sig xb vnoxslptrov naxa to avxb diaoxtjfia, 
nal opctlyy xirrjow nwovfwov olov, M xqg yooag, 
st Sfiam nara tip Tnouptoij xivhtcu, ij Spam naxa 
rqr BV&U9P* 'Opolttg di nal iitt xmv aXXtov. *AlXa 
pr\v to y* ngoxtoov to ;pdw ioxh ngoxtgov yaq nal 
wrttQOr Xiyoutr naxa xrp nqbg to rvr anooxaow * 
to di rvr, oqog xov naq^ortog nal xov piXXorxog • 
cigrs intl to m to jtooVw, nal to nqoxtqov nal vort- 

qot to X$°™2 «****• to V Y*Q T0 ™*» * a * V J0V *** 
chtoirrceaig, 'Evarxiag di Xiyrtai to nqoTtqov nara 
t« tor TtaqsXrjXv&OTa %qbvov 9 nal xbv fiiXXorxa • to 
(flip yaq t» -JTaQskrjXv&oTi nqbttqov Xiyoptv to no§- 
Qavxifor tov rvv, vartqov di xb iyyvxtoov. *Ev di t£ 
ft&Xoim, nqbuqov pto xb iyyvxeqoy, vaxtqor di xb 
itoQQvntqov. a Jlgx$ httly xb fih nqorsgov to xoovn, 
TzcHfTj d' axoXov&ii xtrrjou xb nqbxnqov, <pavtqb* ot* 
Tiaec* fttrafioXrj nal naoa xbrjotg to XQW™ i<nl*» 
2. KAhor di intoxiipmg, nal n&g itoxi %x** o zqoyog 
Ttgog xf/r yvx*l v > *<** &** *l I* narxl slvai dontl o 
Zgorog, nal to yjj, nal to &aXaxxrj, nal ovqavip. *H 
ot* xirrjo trig ri na&og, rj !£*$; aqi&fiog yt tov; Tavxa 
di xrvrjTa noma • to Tonto yaq nana • o di zqovog 
xal r\ xlvrjotg Spa, naxi xb xr\v dvvapw, nal nax 
toiqyuav. 5. JIox$qov di py ovar^g xrjg yvxVS* ^"1 
av o XQ^vog, V °v* aTcogrjasLEv av xig • advvaxov yaQ 
orxog sTvai, tov aQi&ftrjoorrog, adivarov xal agi&fir}- 
Tor t* tlvai m &gxt dijXov ot* ovdi aDi&fjiog • Aqi&(io9 
yao rj to rjgt&pfjfitooy, vj xb aot&prixov. 1& di prfiif 
alio ni<pv&%v $ y*vz*> otgi&ptlp, nal y>vx*l$ *ovg, adv- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


vaxov tivai xqovov y yvzys ph ovatjg : aX£ tj xovxe 
o note ov ioxtv b xgovog • olov si ivdixsicu xivrjat» 
avsv yvxvQ ilvaif xb di ngoxsgov xal voxsgov it 
xivijou iaxh XQovog oe xavxd iotiv, p dgi&prjxa 
ioTiv. 4* AnoQrjoeie 5* av xig xal nolag xivyostag o 
Xgovog agid-pbg, fj bixoiaoovv xal yag ylvsxai b 
XQovqt xal (p&eigsxai, xal av$at>sjcu, xal aXXoiovxai 
iv XQOvco, xal yigtxai • rj ovv xivr^olg ioxt, xavxt) 
ioxlv kxaoxqg xwtjomg agtfpog. Jib xiv^otoig a- 
nXag agt&pog ioxi avvsxovg, al£ oi uvog. *AXX° taxi 
vvv XExivria&cu xal alia, oar kxaxdgag xqg xivfjows 
tlrj av agi&pog. "Eisgog ovv xgopog evxai, xal apa 
dvo i'ooi xgovot av thy, ij ov ,• b aitag yog XQovog 
tig, bpoUagxal Spa 9 tldufti xaloipi} apa • uyagtlsv 
oi pkv xvveg, oi 5* innoi, kxaxegoi d' bnxa, b aixbg agi- 
&pog. Ovxod xal xStv xwrjoewv xwv apa Titgaivopi- 
voav, b aixbg ^opyo? • all! ij piv xaxua focog, q d' 
ov 9 xal f\ fiiv (pogo), y o° aXXafaoig. e pivxoi xg°~ 
vog o avxog, tl'nsg xal b agi&pbg loog, xal Spa, xi\g 
xs aXXouooewg, xal rrjg yogag * xal did xovxo, ai pb 
xivrjaeig txtgat, xal x^Qig • b di xgovog navxaxov o 
avxbg, on xal b agifrpbg eig, xal navxaxov b aixbg, 
b xw i'ocov xal apa. 5* 3 En*l d' ioxl cpoga xal xav- 
xrjg rj xvxXy, dgi&psixai 5' exaoxov hvl xm avyyevu, 
povddsg povddi,innoid 9 Xnny oyxta xal b xgovog 
Xgova xivl cog ia fiiv ok Mtxguxai, 3' wgntg tTnoptvyo, 
xs xgovog xwi\OM,xalri xhqoig xgovw. Tovxod* ioxlv, 
oxi vno xi\g ugiopivtjg xivyoetog XQ^yco pixguxa* xiqg 
T8 xlv7]q eoig xo noabv, xal xov /poVoi/. El ovv xb 
ngtoxov pixgov navxwv xwv oyyyev&v, ^ xvxXoyogla 

Digitized by GOOgle 

physic, ausc. lib. nr. cap. xiv. ioa 

5 bpaXijg fiiiQoy fiaXutta, or to aqt&fibg tavtfig ^y«- 
oipuxaTo?. UjUo/okh? juiy ov*, ovdi av$rjou; t ovM 
ytototg, oix not* bpaXiiq* q>ooa d' iatl. Jib xal 
bonu o xoovog tiro* f] tr)g apalqag xlvijotg, on tav- 
Tiy fUTQovyjtu ai aXXat *ivr\ouq, xal b XQOfog Tctvrij 
ijjj xwijcm. ^*« fl* tovto, xal to tua&bg Xiyto&a* 
ovfifiaiysf <paol yitq xvxXov ttvtu tit av&<pamva 
nqaypaxa, xal T&r aJUctfy T»y xlvtjoiv ixbrtur <pvoi- ' 
x^y, xa* ytototv, xal <p&ooav. Tovto di, on taita 
nana tw jfooVj) xolvttai, xal Xappavn ttXtvtfjv xal 
ttQXV, wgntQavel xata two. ntqlobov • xal yao b joo- 
vog avtog tlvai do* si xvxiog ng. Tovto 6*1 naXtr flo- 
*ti, dion totavrrjg apooag iatl (i&TQOv, xal ptigtitat 
ttvrog fori toutvtfjg. ^Jlgtt to Xfyuv thai ta yivifi*- 
va tSw noaypatw xvxXop, to Xiynv iatl tov xqovov 
ttwai twa xvxXov • tovto 6e, on fietofitat tij xvxXo- 
yoQia • naoa yao to [Utoov, ovdip SlXo 7taQ*(ta)al- 
ma* to [istQovfiwov , all' fj nXtltt phoa, Tooior. 
6. My net t di oo&ig, xal on b ao*&pbg pb b aitbg 
o tm nqofiornav xal tmv xvr&r, h laog btartoog' 
dtxitgdi oix h *itri, ovdi data ta avta* &gmo ov- 
<W tolyowa tit avta, to laonltvoov, xal to axalrpoir 
xaltoi ox rift* y* to avrb, on toiywa apqpm* tavtoy 
yag Xiyerai, ov ptj duttpion dtanpoof, all' oixl ov 
tiutq>iqw oloy tqiymvoy tgiywrov diayooqt diatpiow 
toiyaqovy htga tolywa. Sx^pa di ox*lp*tog, ov • 
«&' to tji aitfi diatoian xal jui§* ajfi\\ia yao, to pb 
toi6v6t, xvxiog • to dl toiovdt, tolywvov • tovtov di, 
T o pi? toiardt, ioonXrvoov, to dk totovdi oxaXfi*6>w. 
S XW* §**» ov* xi crvxo xal tovto • tqlywfov yao • 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xoiymov tf ov to avxb • xal b ofrfftb g dy o txixog • 
ov yao diayign aai&pov dia<pooa b aq^fiog avxmw • 
dexag de o&x 9) airy* 4<p up yao leyexat, diwpiget' 
xu /*iy yccQ xwtg, %it d* Innoi. Kal nzol fih xgovev 
xal aviov, xal xm ttsqI aitbp oixeimr %% oxifu «!'- 

L I B E R V. 


JMLexapallsi de to fiexafiallor nav, to fUr xaxm 
ovpp*(lr)xo$ • olov oxa? Uytofiev to fiovombv fiadi- 
£«w/, ©t* y apa/Ufax* uov<hx$ thai, *ovxo /?«&£«* • 
xb de, tw xovxov xl ptxafialleiv, aulas leyexat /*e- 
j&fialluv ofw boa liyexa* xaxa ueofr iytafenu { 
yao xb ouua, on 6 bqt&alpbg, yT&voaS* xavxa 
de pipy xov olov otouaxog* ear* de dtj xi, b ovn 
mtxa ovu(kfaxbg xn&xcu, evte t$ alio xi rov av- 
%o\)y ilia t<5 alto xivua&cu nqwtov. Kal xovxo 4cn 
xb *a& avxo xwyxov xax aXlrp de xbtjow, txtmov 
oXov allomxbv *al alXomaemg t vymvxb», ij ^eppay- { 
rov, freooy. 2^'lfou de dy xal inl xov xivovvxog «$- 
avzug • to per ycto, xaxa avufoftrjxbg nivei. Tb de\ 
xaxa ueoog, x% xwv xovxov xi • to de, xa& avxb 
notoxov, olor, b fiiv laxobg laxat, q de x*iQ nlyxxei. 
3. *ETn* d* iotl uev i* xb xtvovy nonxo*, for* dirtxb 
xvovperov ^ tu, 4v $ b X o6vog • nal naoa xavxa, i$ 
ov, xatugo- {naoa yao xirfjatg tx tivog, xal tig w 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ttsoov ymq to itqiatov xivovfitvo*, xal tig o umtixm, 
xal U ov • oipr to Sviov, xal to &toft6v, xal to unt- 
ZQ&v. Tovtiav o*, to (& o, to o* tig b, to d' 4$ ov) 
q dii ufrqvH drjlovex* fr T<p £vkp, ov* htm t23f»* 
ovts yao xivu, ovt* xwhuu to (l<tog y iq o tokov, ij 
to Toooyd*. 4« 14U' «<ff t* xtvovv, xal Hivoifi&or, xal 
tig o xivutat' uaXXo* yao tig b,tj i$ ov x&Htoitbpo- 
fia&Tcu % f/bttafioXq • fab xal tj w&ooa, tig to pq or, 
psta/foXy i<ni m mritoi xal g ovtog ftttafiaXXti to 
(p&sqjQfuvov, ual y yivtotg tig ov, xaltot ix py ovtog. 
5. TV fiiv ovv kaxiy i\ xivyoig, tlqi^tai noottoov ' ta 
Hi tXdff, xal tit 7id&i), xal b tbnog, tig a xivovvtai 
ta xirovpiva, axiv^im latv* ' olov, r} ijuotijuti, xal 
i) &*ofi6ttig. Kaho* anoQixjm* a* tig, $1 %a na&i) 
xurqette, i\ Hi Xtvxotyg na&og • toitu yao tig %ivi\- 
otv fitta/SoXy. *JX£ \<mg ovx V Uvxotttf xlvifoig, al- 
Xa i\ Xsvxavatg. > £an Hi xal h> ixuvotg xal to xata 
ovfifieftiixbg, xal to xata jiioog, xal to xat alio, xml 
to 7iQ<»T(*g, xal fiq xat iiXXo • olor, to X$vxaiv6(ju- 
vop, uq fiw to voovfuvov fietafiaXXti xata ovpfitftT)- 
xig • t<p yaq xqttyMTi ovpftipyxt poHO&ai * tig Hi 
XQGtfi*, St* {Mfog to Xsvxbv tov XQ&patog • xal dg 
tip Evytmrp, btipioof al Id&qvm t^g • Evoiin^g ' 
us tis to Xsvxbv X°&t* a *«#' «vto. Iliaguiv ovv xa& 
ainb xwiitai, xal nmg xata ovpfttfiipcbg, xal nwq 
xat alio t», xal img to avib nymtov, xal inl x*- 
povyrog, xal inl xwovuwov, dijkov * xal bit y xini- 
otg ovx h tw sldu, ai£ iv T<jJ xivovfdvy, xal xi»i\t!^ 
xat ivioysiav. 6. *H p& ovv xata ov^t^nxbq fie- 
tafioXri, a<p$La&(»' & anaai tt yao ioti, xal asl, xal 

Digitized by GOOgle 


navxw ' fj dk fit} xaxi ovfifitprixbg, owe h anaaiVj 
&X£ iv xolg ivavxioig xal xolg fitxa$b, xal iv am- 
q>aoti. Toixov $8 nhxig ix xyg inaytoytjg. 'Ex di 
xov fitxa$u fitxapdXXti, wg ivavxiov • /o^tcm Y a Q «u- 
t$ ag ivavxiq ovxi nqbg hxaxtqov • Xoxi yaq ntog xb 
fitxa$v, tit axqa. Jib xal xovxo nqbg ixtlva, xal 
ixiiva nqbg xovxo Xiytxai ntog ivavxia • olov, i\ fiiarj 
fiaqiia nqbg xijv vr\xr\v, xal oUTa nqbg xi\v vnaxyv 
xal to tpaibv Xtvxbv nqbg xb fiiXav, xal fiiXav nqbg 
to Xtvxbv » 7. 'En si di nana fitxapoXrj ioxiv f* «- 
vog tig Ti* (dfjXdi ds xal xovvofia 9 fitx aXXo yaq xi* 
xalxbfiiv, nqoxtqov drjXoi* xbd\ voxtqov) fitxa- 
fiaXXoi Sv xb fitxafiaXXov xtxqaxmg • fj yaq 4$ vno- 
xtifiivov tig vnoxtifitvov, rj ovx 4$ vnoxtifitvov tig 
oix vnoxtifitvov, i] fit) i$ vnoxtifitvov tig vnoxtifit- 
vov , i} i$ vnoxtifiivov tig fit) vnoxtifitvov • Xiyat ds 
to vnoxtifitvov, xb xaxaqpdoti drjXovfitvov. "Jlgxt a- 
vayxrj ix xav tiqufiivav xqtig thai fitxafioXig, xtjv 
t« i$ vnoxtifiivov tig vnoxtifitvov, xal trjv i$ vno- 
xtifitvov tig fiii vnoxtifitvov, xal xrjv ix fit) vnoxtifii- 
vov tig vnoxtifitvov i\ yaq fit} i$ vnoxtifitvov tig fir\ 
vnoxtifitvov oix toxi fitxafioXrj, dta xb fit) tlvai xaxa 
avxi&toiv • ovxt yaq ivavxia, ovxt avxiq>aoig ioxtv. 
*H fitv ovv il ovx vnoxtifitvov tig vnoxtifitvov fitxa- 
floXri xax avxiq>aotv, yiveoig ioxiv • r\ fitv anX&g «- 
nXr\, t) tit rig xivog * olov, rj fitv ix fit} Xtvxov tig Xtv- 
xbv, yivtoig xovxov y &' ix xov py ovxog anX&g tig 
ovoiav, yivtoig anX&g, xa& ij* ctnXwg yivto&ai, xal 
ov xi yivtofrai Xiyofitv. e JI d* i$ vnoxtifitvov tig oix 
vnoxtifitvov, <p&ogd • anXyg fitv, i) ix xSjg ovaiag d$ 



1 6 pi) tlvat,' tig 6i, r) tig tipr urxixupeyrjv ctncxpaoiv, 
xa&otneq iXix&tj xal iixl ti)g ytviototg. 8. E* dij to 
pr) ov leyttai nXtovax»g, xal pfrpt to xata ovy&uhv 
ij duxlocoiv todix*tai uivtio&cu, ptjts T0 * ax * ovra- 
piv, to tw anX&g %at hiqyuay orr* arxtxtiptvov • 
(to fuv yaq pt) Xtvxov , fj pi) aya&ov, op»g bdiyi- 
tatr xiruo&ou xaxit ovp(ti(ti\xog * tftf yitq av&qwxog 
to f*T/ levxov • to dt anXStg pi) rode, ovdap&g * adv- 
vatov yaq to pi) 5V xwHO&ai) tl di tot/to, xal tx)v 
y&vtaw xivx\ow tlvaf ylretai yaq to pij ov ti yaq 
xal ot* paXiota xatic avpptprjxbg yivttai, aXtf opotg 
dXij&sg tlnuv , otzi vnaqx u *° f*V °* xata tov yivo- •' 
fierov anXStg • opoltag di xal to i\qtpuv. Tavxa di) 
7i art a ovpfialvu dvoxtQf), t*> xwuo&ai to pi) ov* 
xal ci nar to xtrovptvor h tony, to di pv\ ov ovx 
totiv bf tonta • eft} yaq a* nov* Ovdi di) rj <p&oqa 
xirrjatg • hartiov ph yaq xwyoeh xhrjotg i? r)qtpla • 
rj di gy&oqa yevioH ivanlov. 9. *Ensl di naoa xi- 
vrjotg pttapoXti tig • ptxapoXal di tqtig ai uqypi- 
vay tovtwv di ai xata ysrtoiv xal qp&oqav, ov xi- 
vrjaeig • avion di uow ai xai artUpaow • avayxt\ 
ti\v i£ ' vnoxuphov tig vnoxeiptvor pcta@oli)v, xbt\- 
oiy ttvai, povov • tit di vnoxslpwa, rj ivartla , rj pt- 
ta£v * xal yaq r) atiqfjaig xdo&a hartlov, xal drj- 
Xovxat xatayaoei, to yvpybv, xal Xtvxbv, xal piXav. 
El ovv ai xatriyoqlai dijiq^vtai ovoiq, xal nou>xr\xi, 
xal tq> 7tov, [xal xm note,"] xal xm nqog xi, xal to 
noou>, xahw noiiiv, rj naaxtiv, ivayxx] tqug Avai 
xwrjoeig, ttjv te tov nooov, xal tip tov noiov, xal 
xr)r xata tonov. 

Arist. Phys. Ausc H 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Kax ovotav $i ovx ton xivqoig, dii rbjjLti&iv el- 
vat tw optuv ova ice ivavrlov. Ovde dy tcTi itqog t* • 
ivdix^ton ydq date gov fitxafiaXXovTog, aXu&tveo&a* 
ddxtgov, pt)db ptxafiaXXov • Hgrt xaxi avftfit^xog 
% xivqaig avxav. Ovds dy noiovvxog xal Traq^roy- 
tog, ovde navxbg xivovfiivov xal xivovvxog, or* ovx 
taxi xm)amg xivqaig, ovde ysviatag ysvtaig, ovd' 
oXag ptTctPoXri lABTafioXrtg. 2. Hqiaxov fiiv yao di- 
X&g ivdaxtxai xivr t at(ag tlvai xivqaiv ' i\ (og vnoxsifii- 
vov, olov av&qanog xtvttxat, oxi ix Xtvxov tig ftiXav 
ptTafiaXXtt. Jqa ys ovt(o xal % xlvqoig, i] &tQfA,oU- 
vsxai, i) ipvxtxai, rj xonov [itxaXXaxxti, i\ avSdvsxai, 
jj q>&ivti; xovto de ddvvaxov ov yog runt vTioxsifid- 
vwv xliaxiv \\ (isTa^oXt}. 3."ff t# txtqov xt, inoxeifjia- 
vov ix (itxafioXrig fisxapdXXtiv tig txtqov tldog • olov 
Sv&gwnog ix voaov tig vyitiav aXX ovda tovto dv- 
vaxbv, nXr\v xaxa ovufoprixog • avxij ydq tj xivqaig, 
it SXXov ti'dovg tig SXXo iaxl fitTa(ioXq. Kal q yt- 
vtaig da xal if q>&oqd, waavxag 9 TtXqv, at fisv, tig 
avuxtlfis^a wdi • q dt xivijoig, ovx oftoimg. ^ifiot ovv 
(itrapdXXti, i$ vyulag tig voaov, xal 4$ avvqg tolvti^ 
Trig ptTapoXiig **? uXXqv. Ai\Xov d' ot* oxav vootjarj, 
ptTa{2t(}Xr}x6g taxat tig onoiavovv • ivdixsxai ydq 
r^qt fitly. Kal It*, tig (iij Tip xvxovaav atl, xq\xsivii 
Ix xwog sl'g xi hsqov. "Jlgxs xal q avuxttfiivq sarai 
q vyiavoig, aXXd toJ ov(jifii($qxivai • otov, u i£ 6\va- 
(ivqatrng tig Iq&qv fitxa^aXXot, ou cp vnaqxu, ixuvo 
ptxapaXXti,, ots fiiv tig imaxqgiqv, ots dt tig vyUtav, 
4. "Exi da, tig aittiqa (tadiiixai, si toxai ptxaftoXii; 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fitrajSolrj, xal yevioewg yiveaig* dvdyxrj di) xal jy* 
xgoxigar, el r\ vartqa eoicu* olov, el ^ anXt] yiveaig 
fyirero ttots, xal to ywopevov iyivexo. "jlgtt ovnto r t v 
w yiyvopevov anXtag, aXXa t* yiyvbp,evo* xal ywope- 
fof ydf}, xal naXw tovt iylvixo no%t • &gx% ovx v\v 
nt» Tore ytvofievov. 'Enel ds twv aneigtav ovx tori t* 
ngmov, ovx sarat to ngaxov • Sgj ovds to ixopevov. 
ovu yirso&ai ovr, ovxe xirsio&ai oiov t« , ovts pe- 
tafidlXsiv ovdiv. 5. En, tov aixov xivrjaig i\ hav- 
tia, xal In tjgifirioig, xal yiveaig, xal <p&oga • mgr* 
to yero/ievor Star yiyvr\Tai ytvofievov, tots qt&elge- 
iw ovts yag ev&vg ywofisvov, ov&* voregov sir at 
rag del to q>&eigopsvov. 6.*jEt#, del vXijy iitelvai 
xal tw ywoyih^yxal t$ ftsrafiaXXoyri. Tig ovv carat/ 
Sgneg to aXXouoibv $} owfia, rj yvxh > ovxta drj to yi- 
ropsyov, xiyr\aig ij yiveaig. 7. Kal ndXiv tI, elg o 
xsrovnai ; del yagelvai [ti] tt\v Tovds ix Tovds elg xo- 
&s[xLvrioiv, xal pr{\ xlp^aivij ysveoiv. u Afia ds xalnStg 
mai; ov yag earai fia&rioig y T%\g pad"i}aetag yive- 
aig • fiS^TC oidi yeviaeosg yiveaig, oidi Tig Tivog. 
8. "Eti, si Tgia sl'dr} xivrjoewg ion, tovtwt two. ava- 
yxij slrcu Tip inoxeiiiivnv qpvaiv, xal elg a xivovv- 
tu* olov avayxrj Tqv qpogav uXXotovo&ai, i\ yege- 
o&ai. "OXwg ds inel xwelxav to xivovfievov nav Tgi- 
&>S> V *% xaxk avfi^s^xbg, jj tw pigog ti, rj t£ xa& 
avrb, xccTCt ovupsprjxaq fiovov av ivdixono fiSTafidX- 
luv Ttpr peTapoXrp • oloy, el 6 vyiatopevog Tgi%oi, ^ 
futv&artn* ti\v de xatd ovpPefirixbg aqtelpev ndXau 
10. 'jEnel ds ovi« oialag, ovn tov ngog ti, ovts tov 
itoiuv xal naox*w> Xeinerai x«t« to notbv xal to no~ 


Digitized by GOOgle 


abv , xal to nov xivijow shai povov • iv btdoTto yag 
iari tovtwv ivavtlaoig. C H fih ovv xaTa to noiov 
xivrioig, aXXoicooig lore* • tovto yag ingeuxTat xoirov^ 
ovofia. uiiyto de to noiov, ov to iv t$ ovola* xal 
yag n diayoga, noiov • aXXa to na^Twbv, xa& o 
XiysTat, naoxw, rj ana&k eivai. C H 6e xctta to tto- 
abv, to fib> xoivbv, avawfiov xu& btdtsgov de,av- 
f > ~a!~. n » *, ..1*, sir tA t*1*i.ov uivE&OQ. av~- 

xaXov(iivn to xoivov. Kahot XiytTal ys (pigea&ai 
Tama fiova xvglug, otciv (iy in avToK rjToor^vat, 
Tolg (leTapdXXovoi tov Tonov t xal ooaavTa M havTa 
%wn* vara Tonov. 11. °H 5' iv Ttp uvtm el'dei peta- 
PoXi) inl to fiaXXov xal yTtov, aXXoiwoig iorw- J] 
yag i£ ivavxiov slg ivavxiov, xivrjotg, f} anXwg, rj ni\ • 
inl fih> yag to \ttov lovaa^ ng tovvuvtIov Xe##ija«- 
T«t fieraPaXXeiv inl ds to paXXov, ngix tov ivav- 
tiov ng to avTO • diayigsi yag ovdsv nr\ ptTafiaXXuv, 
n anXwg- nXlp ny ds^on t« ivavjia vnagxnv^ to ds 
fiaXXov xal tjttoV ion, tw nXiov ij eXartov tov ivav- 
Tiov ivvnagxw, *a* t*V- "Oti pev ovv avTai Tgug 
fiovai xwi\ong slolv, ix tovtwv dyXov. 12. 3 AxivrjToy 
d' iou, to,tb oXwg advvarov xivri&Tivat, ilgneg b y>6- 
cpog aogaTOg, xal to iv noXXw XQOPto poyig xwoi(it- 
vov, tj to (Igaditog agxofievov, o Xiystai dvoxivrjTOV 
xal to necpvxog fih xivsio&at, xal dvvafitvov, firj xi- 
vovfievov ds tots, oTsni<pvxt, xa* ov xal tag, ontg 
rjgeuuv xaXto t&v ocxtvrjtojv fiovov * ivavTiov yag i)- 
grfiia xivrjon * atgTs arigrjoig av sly tov foxttxov* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Ti pto ovv ion xivyotg, xal ti ygtpia, xal noaai pt- 
taftoXal, xalnoiai xtvriotig, qtavtgov in tvtp tlgij- 

Mtta di tavta Xiyttptv, ti ion to Stia, xal *«- 
gig, xal ti to amto&ai, xal ti to pna$v, xal ti to 
4q>t$r&, *«* *« T0 ixoptvov f **l ti to owtxig, *** 
tolg noiotg txaatov tovtttv vndgxttv Jti<pvxtv. H. U A- 
pa pkv ovv Xiyttat tavta ttvat xata tonov, 00a to 
kvl ton to iotl ngtitta. Xuolg di, 00a to higtp * aim- 
o&a* di, mv tit axga Spa. Mt*a£v di, tig o ngott- 
gov nbpvxtv acptxvtlo&at to pttafiaXXov, t\ tig o 
tfozatov pttapaXXu xata opvotv ovvtx*g pttafiaXXov. 
°£r iXaxtatotg d* iarl to ptta£v tgtoiv. "Eoxatov piv 
yag iati tns ptxa(loXi)g to to arc tov. 3. 2vvtx*X &* 
turutat, to pi\dto ij to oXiytotov dtaXtinov tov nga- 
yponog, pr) tov xtfovov * (ovdiv yao xwXvtt, diaXti- 
no not , xal tv&vg di ptta tr)v vnatfjv <p&iy$ao&at 
zr\v vtatr)v) aXXa tov ngaypatog, to to xivtttai. 
Tovto di tv tt taig xata tonov , xal to taig aXXatg 
fietafioXaig qtavtgov. 4. 'Evavtiov di xata tonov , 
to xat ii&ttav anixov nXttotov r) yitg iXaxhtff 
ntniqounat * phgov di, to ntntgaoptoov. 5 . *E<f>*-* 
&q$ di, ov ptta tr\v agxvv povov ovtog rj diott, rj 
epvuet, rj aXXto ttvl, ovzvg aatogw&dvtog, pr)dto ptta- 
£v itm tiv to tavxtk yivtt, xal ov tyt$r)g ioti. jiiyw 
d', olov ygappr) ygappyg, ij yqappai* rj povadog 
povag 9 rj povadeg • % oixiag otxia. "AXXo d* oi&to 
x&Xvsi petaSv tlvai* to yao tope trig, ttvl dqp^rjg, xat 
vottgov w ov yag to h> iq>t$r]g to"iv dvolv, ovdi ^ 

Digitized by GOOgle 

118 AR1ST0TEL1S 

vovfi^vla tr)Q devteqag &jpeS*i? , alXa xavx ixebwv, 
6. 'Ex&pevov de, o av i<pe$rig ov amytai. *Enel ds 
naoa fieta/Holy iv xoTg avxixeipivotg, xa ds avtixsi- 
fieva xa te ivavtla xal xa xaxa avtlcpaoiv • ayxtopa- 
oeag ds ovdev ava pioov • fpaveqov ox* iv tdig ivav- 
xloig sotai to fieta^v. To de ovvexeg, eott psv oneq 
ixofisvov t#. Myu ds slvai ovvexeg, ° Ta * T0 a ^ t0 V**' 
vtjtat Hal tv to ixatsqov nioag oig antovxai, xa*, 
&gneq or^iaivn tovvofia, ovvix^tai. Tovto ds ovx 
olov ts, dvoiv ovtoiv elvai tolv ioxatOLV. 7. Tov- 
tov ds duoQUjpivov, g>avegbv, oti iv tovtoig iail to 
ovvexeg, ft &v ev ti niyvxs yiveo&ai xata ii\v ovva- 
yjtv, xal &g note yivetav to ovvsxov ev, ovtta xa* to 
oXov ear a i h, olov tj yofiquo, f) xoXXtj, */ aq>tj, r\ itQog- 
q>voei. 8. fpaveqov ds xetl oti nqwtov to iq>e$r}g 
ioti- to per yaq anxopevov, avayxrj i<pe$rig eivat,' 
to 6*' &?«£?£, ov nav antea&at, *" dto xal iv nqoti- 
Qoig x$ Xoyto to i<pe$rjg iottv, olov iv aqtS-fioig • ayy 
d 3 oifx lax*. Kal el fikv ovvexeg, avdyxi\ aTtteo&ai* 
el d 3 antstai, ovtmo ovvexeg • ov yaq avayxi\ ev slvai 
aitav xa axqa, el agia elev ' alt el ev, avayxri xal 
Spa. "Jlgte y ovp<pvoig votary xatit tr\v yivsaw • 
avayxri yaq aifjao&at, el ovp<pvoetat, xa axqa' xa 
ds ctTiTOfievcc, ov navta ovfxnicpvxev iv oig ds py 
iottv oupv, dijXov ox* ovx sottv oids ov(A.<pvoig iv tov- 
TOi?. 9. °Jlgt el sort otiyfiij xal fiovag, oXag Uyov- 
o* xsxwQiopsvag, ovx olov te slvctt, fiovdda xal ot*- 
yfir^v to avTo * xaig fisv yitq vnaoxei to anteo&ah 
taig ds povaot to i<pe$r}g. Kal twv fisv ivdixeta* 
sfoal t* jista$v. Ilaoayag yQafifii], peta$v mypSnr 

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tax 6**, ovx axayxrj • ovdiv yao ptta$v dvadog xal 
poxidog. 10. Tl piv ovx ioti to a pa xal x^olg, 
xal %l to aTtreo&ah xal tl to pexatv, xal to Ajpi |j}$ , 
xal tl to ixopexox xal avxtxig , xal tolg noloig fxa- 
aro* Tovrwy vnaqxH, efofjtai. 

Mia di xlrqoig Xiyttai noXXax&g * to yao tx noX- 
Xax<t>? Xiyoptx. rivet pix ovx pice, xata tit offlpata 
trjg xattiyoglag ioth (fooa per yaq, naotj <poo£ t£ 
yirth pla • aXXol&oig di, tpooag Moa ry yhu, tXdu 
di pla, otax tw yirti pla ovaa, xal h atopy tXdu 
jj • olor, XQ*>P<**o$ (*** wh duxapooml • xotyaoovx 
aXXrj tw tldti piXaraig , xal Xtvxaroig* naoa ovx 
Xsvxaxoig ndoji Xtvxaron 1; avi^ Kara to eWoc fbra»* 
xal 7T«aa piXaraig ptXarow Xtvxotrjn d* ovx «w 
Sib to) eitt** juia Xtvxaxaig Xtvxaron ndoji * «l di 
ioriv art a a xal yirrj Spa xal tidy iatl, b%Xor ovv 
a>g tVdei nag pla eat at, anX<og di pla tldti, ov' olox, 
rj pa&noig, tl rj imatripr}, tldog uir vnoXrpptwg, yi- 
yog di tStr imtrtripSir. 2. 3 AnoQfjOti8 d' ax tig, el 
sfdsir pla xivrioig, otar 4x tov ainov to avtb tig to 
avtb pttapdXXrj • oloy , y pla otiypif ix tovde tov 
xonov tig torde tbx tonov naXir xal naXir. El di 
jovxo, total f} xvxXoyoqla tlj ev&vqpoola *; avttj * 
xal rj xvXiaig ttj padiau. 3. *H duAounai to *(* o) 
idr tzegor y tea tldti, oa ktioa xlrtjotg; to di 7ztq§- 
(ftoeg, tov tvd-ioghtoox tw el'dei. rivet piv ovx xal 
tldei xlvrjoig pla, oviwg. 4> 'AnXtog di pla xlxqoig, 
fi Ttj ovaict pla, xal T(j> agi&ptp' tig di i) totavtrj t 
dinXov ditXouivotg * tqla yiq tort tor ioiS-pbx ntql 

Digitized by GOOgle 


a liyofiev Tr\v xivi\ow filav, o, *al iv tp, xal jots. Ai- 
y<o de o, oil dvdyxij elvai %i to xwovuevov • olov av- 
d-qvmov, r\ /oi/joy. Kal vvtivi tovto xiveio&ai' olov 

iv T07TM, 7) h Tldd-El, Xal 710TS * iv XQW*? yaq TtOV 

xivhtui. 5. TovTtov de to fiev elvai tw ysvei rj tw 
eXdei fiiav, ioxlv iv tw nqayfiari iv w xiveiTai. To 
de ixofievov rjv iv %ijt xqovfp^ to 6*' a7r>l<us ju/ccy, A' 
a7raat Tovtoig • xal yaq iv <£, ey del elvai xal axo- 
fiov • oloy to eldog. Kal av to oze, olov t6v XQ*> yov 
eva , xal (ATI* dialeineiv. Kal to xivoifievov h> elvai, 
(irj xaxa ovfifiefhixog * Hgneq to levxbv fieXaivea&ai, 
xal Koqioxov fiadtQeiv * ev de xal o Koqioxog, xal 
levxbv, alia xaxit ovfi($efirix6g. Mqde xoivbv eXq 
yaq av afia dvo av&ownovg vyia£*o&ai xyv avxr\v 
vyiavaiv, olov 6<p&aluiag, *Al£ oi fiia avxr}, al£ 
ei'dst fiia. 6. To di, 2wxqaTi\ Ttjv aivit\v fikv a^- 
loiwotv allotovo&ai tw ei'dei, iv odlw de xqovm, xal 
naliv iv aXXco • si fiev ivdixexat to q>&aqev ndliv h 
yiveo&ai toi aot&utt, sly av xal avxri fiia • el de fii), 
7j avTtj fiev, fiia d° oil. l"Ex& d* anoqiav tavry 
naqanlfjaiav, xal noreoov fUa r\ vyieia, xal ol<ag cu 
Qeig xal xd nd&r} jjj ovoia tlalv iv ToUg atofiaoi • *t- 
vovfieva yaq q>aiverai id exovra xal qeovTa. M d* 
f) avzrj xal fiia f) Ito#ey xal vvv vyieia, did rl ovx av 
xal Srav dialmwv idftji xal ndliv tifv vyieiav, xal 
airy xal ixelvrj mi* xw aot,&p.<a av sly; 8. c yaq 
avrbg loyog* nki\v xooovtov diaq>eqet, ot*, ei fdv 
dvo, di avrb tovto, a>g t^ aqt&utp (da, xal Tag e$eig 
dvdyxrjr pia yaq aqi&py iviqyew, kvbg aqt&py. 
*fc ? n S*ff fiia, fang ovx av %y doUti nv> fiia xal 

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iviqyua thou* oxav yaq navarixai fiadifav,- oix 
ext iaxlv y fiddwig • ndUv di (tadltovxog, toxoi. Et 
ovv fiia xal r\ aixij, tvdixono av to avxb xal 2v xal 
(p&tfyto&cu xal elvai noXXaxtg. Avxat, p& tlaw al 
anoolai, Sfai xr\g viv axiywg. 9. *Eml di ovvtxhg 
naaa xivyoig, xyv xt anX&g play dvdyxrj nal ow*xn 
rival, tXixsQ naaa bwuqtii) , xal $1 avvtxii f^ a ' oi 
ydq naaa yivori av awsxw n <*oj}> <*f *? ovdt aXXo 
ovdb, t£ xvxbvxt to xvxov • al)! oo&v h> xa taxaxa * 
taX ata &*t ™ v P** ovx eat*, x&v i* iaxlv , aXXa xq 
eYdu xal bfi<Avvua' nag yaq av ayano, ij tv yivoi- 
xo xb %axaxov, yqa\ipr\g xal (Sadiotug ; 10. 'Exopt- 
yat (isv ovv ehv av xal ai pr\ avxal xjp ttdti, urjde 
Tq» ysvu ' doapmv yao av xig nvq&utv tv&vg f xal 
otov 7] Xapndg, i% dtadoxw, qpoga ixofUvrj, ovvixw 
S* ovx law xuxat ydg xb avvtx*S f <av id taxaxa tv. 
"Jlgxs ixoptva xal £(pe$rjg tioi, xy xbv XQorov tlvai 
avvsxt}' ovv exits &*, iw xdg xivrjotig * xovxo d\ oxav 
tv xb saxaxov ysvyxat, aptpoZv. 11. Aib avdyxtj xr\v 
avxr\v x§ sldsi tlvai, xal kvbg, xal iv hi XQovty xiyv 
otTtXwg avv*xn xivyaiv xal filav. Ty XQ°vtp per, 
Snug fit} dxwrjoia ptxa&v y kv t£ diaXtlnovxi yog 
rjQefxeiv dvdyxrj UoXXal ovv xa) oi fila r\ xivtjotg, 
iv iariv rjgspla fiexa&v. "Slgrs tX xif xivrjoig axdau 
dialotfi^avBrat, ovxtpla, ovxt ovvtxtig. JiaXau/id- 
vzxai ds, si pttalsv XQOvog • TTjg di x<p «ifle* fitf fudg, 
ov, xal u fir) diccleiTieTouoxQovog ' o piv ydyxobvog, 
tig' tw d* ti'dsi, r\ xivrjatg aXXrj' xryv fuv ydg filav 
avdyxrj xal tw eldtv filav elvat * xavxrjv <5e cmXatg 
Aval filay, oix avdyxtj. Tig ftcy ovv xivnaig anXiag 

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pia, rVgrixa*. 12.*Et* de, Xeyexat pia xal y riXetog, 
lav xe xaxa yivog 9 iav xe xaxa eldog rj, iav re xax 3 
ovoiav wgneg xal inl xwv aXXwv xb xiXeiov xal bXov 
rov kvog, "Eoxt tie ore, xav axeXvjg 17, pia Xiyerai, iav 
uovov rj avvexrig* 13. *Exi ti', aXXtag naga rag ei- 
gtjpivag Xiyerai pia xivr\oig, r\ bpaXr\g, *H yag avt»- 
paXog eoxiy wg ov doxei pia, aXXa paXXov f) bpaXrjg, 
wgneg fj ev&ela * fj yag avtapaXog, duxigerrj, "Eoute 
de dia<pt(>Hv wg xb paXXov xal i]xxov. "Eaxi d' h a- 
naatj xwyaei, to bpaXwg rj prj * xal yag ay aXXototxo 
bpaXmg, xal <pegotxo iq> bpaXov, oloy xvxXov, ij ev- 
&eiag, xal negl aity* woavxag xal <p&low. 14. Id- 
ympaXiag $* iaxl diaq>oga, ore pev , ly <*> xivttxai * 
advvaxov yag apaXy elyai ri\v xivr^aiv pi) inl bpaXta 
peyi&tf olov, f) ryg xexXaopivrig xlvrjotg, ij fj xv\g 
eXixog, % aXXov psye&ovg, w py itpagpbxxti to rvxby 
inl to xv/by pegog. 'Ore de, ovxe iv tw nov, ovxe iv 
t$ noxe, ovxe iv xfy eig o, aX£ iy x$ £g. TaxvxrfXh 
yag xal (tgativxTjxi ivioxe duogiaxai • ijg pev yag xb 
aixb raxog, bpaXyg • ?# de pr\ y avt&paXog. Jib ovx 
el'dy xwqaetag , oide diacpogal, raxog xal (tgadvrrjg, 
oxi naoaig axoXov&ti xmg dia<pogoig xax eldog. 
Jlgxe oide pagvxrig xal xov<p6xt)g rj eig xb avxb, oloy 
yi\g ngog avx^v, tj nvgbg ngbg alio. 15. Mia ph 
ovv i] avtupaXog, xia ovvfxns ' ^tto^ de • o7rco tJ xe- 
xXaopeyji ovppaivei <poga • to de i)xxoy, pi$ig ael rov 
bavxiov. El de naoay rrjy play ivdex*xai xal bpaXrj 
flvai xal pij, ovx av eXr\jay al pr\ xax eldog ixope- 
vat t xal avxai pia xal ovvex^g ' nag yag av el'i] bpa- 

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Xr)g 7] i* aXXotwotiog ovyxuuhi} xal (fogag ; dioi yag 

OLV ityagflOXXtlV. 


*!Et* de diogiaxiov, nola xlvrjoig havxla niveau • 
xal ntgl fiovTjg de xbv aixbv xgonov. Jiaigtxiov di 
ngvnov, noxtgov havxla xlvyoig r) ix xov aixov ijj 
tig xb aixb, olov r) i£ vyulag tjJ tig vyltiav r olov xal 
yivtoig xal qp&oga doxii ' ij i) 4$ havxl&v, olov r) £ 
vyulag Tjj ix vooov • rj fj tig havxla, olov r\ tig vyl- 
tiav ti} tig vooov • rj r) 4$ ivavxlov xf\ tig ivavxlov, 
olov r) i$ vyulag ty tig vooov rj r) 4$ havxlov tig 
havxlov xfj i$ ivavxlov tig hartlov, olov, t; £ vyulag 
tig voaov xfi 4x vooov tig vyltiav • avayxrj yag rj iva 
xtva rovxw thai xwv xgonwv, rj nXtlovg • oi yag 
iariv aXXatg avxixi&hai. 2. "Max* di, r) fiiv i$ hav- 
tIov tj tig ivavxlov oix havxla, olov r) i$ vyulag xy 
tig voaov • r) avxy yag xal (da. To phxoi thai, 
ov to aixb avxdig • wgntg ovdt to aixb xb 4£ vyi- 
tlag [AtxafiaXXtiv, xal xb tig vooov. 3. Ovdt rj £ 
ivavxlov tjJ il ivavxlov • apa yag avfiPalvti # ivav- 
xlov, xal tig ivavxlov, rj ptxa$v. IdXXa ntgl (tiv xov- 
xov vaxtgov igovptv. *MXa fiaXXov xb tig ivavxlov 
fUxafiaXXtiv do$titv av alxiov thai xr)g ivavxuiotug, 
r) xb il ivavxlov • r) fikv yag, anaXXayij & havxib- 
xrjxog' r) di f Xyipig. Kal Xiytxat di ixaoxi) tig o 
fuxaflaXXti paXXov, rj i$ ov oiov vylavoig t/ tig v- 
yitiav, voaavoig di rj tig vooov. Atlntxai dr) r) tig 
havxla, xal r) tig havxla i$ havxlav • t«/« fiiv ovv 
ovfipalvti, xag tig havxla xal i$ havxlwv thai • ccA- 
Xa xb thai Vooag oi xb avxo • Xiyat di, xb tig vyltiav, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


t$ ix voaov • xal to l£ iyisiag, tw sig voaov. A^Eitsl 
ds diacpsqsi fistaj3oXij xwrjostog • (^ ex Tiros yi^ v7ro- 
xsipsvov tig Tb vnoxeifisvov [istaftoXi] xlvrjolg iativ,) 
rj l£ ivavtlov tig ivavtlov rjj i$ ivavrlov sig svavrlov, 
xivrjoig ivavtla * olov, t\ i£ vytslag dg voaov tiJ ix 
voaov dg vylsiav. 5. JtjXov di xal ix rfjg inayw- 
yr^g, bnola doxsi ra ivavtla slvai* to vooa&a&ai 
yaq t$ vyia(so&ai, xal to uav&avsw t$ anaraa&ai 
ui) di avtov* dg ivavxla yaq* agnsq yaq ItmotiJ- 
urjv iatlv, ovroa xal anatr^v xal dv avtov xrao&ai' 
xaldi aXXov. Kal f) avcoyoqa, t^xatta' ivavxla 
yaq tavta iv /itjxet. Kal i\ dg ds$ta, tjj sig aquns- 
qa* ivavxla yaq tavta h TtXdxev, Kal rj sig to eu- 
nqoa&sv, rf) sig to oma&sv ivavxla yaq xal tavta 
iv fia&st. Q.'Hd* dg to ivavtiov fiovov, oil xlvr\- 
aig, aXXa iisrafioXii, olov to ylyvso&ai Xsvxbv /xq sx 
tivog. Kal oaotg ds firj iati n ivavtlov, i\ l| avtov, 
tt) ug aitb fistafioXjj, ivavtia. Jw yivsaig (p&oga 
ivavtla, xal anofiolr] Xrnpsi. Avtai ds, (istafioXal 
fiiv, xwi\as%g tf ov. 7. Tag d* sigrb usra£v xirrj- 
osig, oaotg rwv ivavtltav ti iatt pstaZv, ig sig ivav- 
tla nwg &stiov * ig hwvriai yaq xqyta* rip fista^v n 
xlvt\aig, i(p bnotsqa av [istaftaXXj} • olov, ix qpaioi 
usv dg to Xsvxbv, wg ix fiiXavog * xal Ik Xsvxov, ds 
qpaiov, ag sig psXav • ix ds ftsXavog sig q>aibv, d»s sU 
Xsvxov • to yaq q>atbv, to fiiaov nqbg kxarsqov Xiys- 
tal nmg t&v axqav, xa&ansq si'qrjtai xal itqottqov. 
Klvi\aig fisv dq xwrjosi ivavtla ovttag, r\ H Ivavtiov 
sig Ivavtlov, tjJ l{ Ivavtlov sig ivavtlov. 

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'Enel Si xivqau ov fiovov doxii xlvrjoig tlvai ivav- 
ila,aXXa xalrJQtfiia, tovto dioQiorior • anXwg piv 
yog bavrlov xlvrjoig xivrjosi, AvrlxuTai di xalfi ijo«- 
pice • art^rjatg yaq ioriv. "Eoti d* £g xal rj oriq^oig 
bania Xiyercu * nola di nolo, ; olov ttj xatot tottov, 
ij xara tottov ; aXXa tovto pb vvv Xiysrai ctnAwg • 
Tiixiqoy yaq Ttj brav&ol povrj, i\ ix tovtov, rj tig 
tovto xivrjoig avTixtnai; 2. Ar{Xov dij on, bctl b 
holy rj %ivi\aig inoxttpbotg, it, piv ix tovrov tig 
bavrlov, i\ iv tovto) povr\ * ttj d' ix Tovvavrlov tig 
tovto, i\ iv tw bavrlta, "Apa di xal aXXrjXcug bav- 
uai avrai • xal yaq Stotiov, si xwr\otig pb banian 
tlolv, 7] q splat, di avrtxtlptvai ovx nob. Eiol di al 
b Toig Ivavrloig • olov, r\ iv vyitlct, ty iv vbo<$ ^oe- 
pla, xivtioti di tji &* vyitiag tig voaov %r k yaq ix 
pqqov tig vylttav, aXoyov • r\ yaq tig avTo xlvrioig, 
If to torrjxsv, %qipr\aig paXXov ioriv, r ( ovpfiaivti yt 
apa yiyveo&at, ttj xivrjoti. 'Avayxri di % TavTi\v, rj 
htiyrjv tlvav oi yaq tj yt Iv XtvxotrjTi yqtpia ivav- 
Tice Tij iv vyitla, 3. "Oooig di ptf ionv ivavria, 
Toxrtfov fjtsrafioXri fib ioriv avrixupbri rj l| avTov ttj 
tig avro • xlvyoig d* oix flow olov r\ i$ ovrog, ttj 
dg ov. Kal povtj fib tovtmv ovx soriv, apsraflXrioia 
&L Kal si fuv ti ttrj inoxtlptvov to ptj ov, q b t$ 
om aptrafilrjola, ty iv tw py ovrt,, ivavria • ti di 
(itj ixni ti to fitj ov, anoqtjotttv av tig, %lvk ivavria 
i\ b rat ovti AfitTa/iXfiqia, xal ti r\qtpla ioxiv' ti di 
tovto, ij ov naoa riqtfjiia niveau ivavria, q ^ ybt- 
»K xal f] (p&oqa %hv\aig. Ar\Xov roivvv or* rigtpla 

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fisv oil lexxso\, ft py xotl avxai xivrjoeig. Ofioiov da 
xi xal auexafilrioia • Ivavxia de, ij oi&evl, ij xjj iv 
x<5 uij ovxi, ij rjj (p&OQa- avxrj yag c| aix^g- V ds 
yiveoig eig exeivtjv. 4. 'Anogriaeis #' av rig, dux xi, 
Iv [lev ttj xaxa xdnov fAexajHolji, eial xal xaxa <pvoiv 
xal naga cpvavv, xal poval, xal xivr t aug • Iv ds xaig 
allaig, ov* olov aXXolcoatg, ^ fiiv, xaxa <pvoiv rj de, 
naga <pvoiv • oi&ev yag pallor r\ iylavaig, ^ »/ vo- 
aavaig, xaxii q>voiv, *J naga yvoiv • ovds levxavoig, 
% fiiXtxvoig' hfioioag de xal en av$i]<j£(»g xal (p&ioscog' 
ovxe yag avxai aXXrjXmg evavxiai, ag <pvou, y nagi 
qpvaiv, ovxe avtyoig av^aei, Kal enl yeviaetag ds xal 
q>&ogag o aixbg loyog • ovxs yag, y fiiv yiveoig xaxa 
<pvoiv, i] di <p&oga naga (pvoiv, to yag yqgyv xaxa 
(pvoiv. Ovxe ysveoiv bgwfiev, xr\v fiev xaxa (pvoiv, 
xtjv ds naga (pvoiv. 5. El di eoxi xb (iia naga (pv- 
oiv, xal (p&ooa av d'r) (p&ogfy evavxia r\ (ttaiog, oag 
naga (pvoiv ovaa, xjj xaxa (pvoiv * aga ovv xal ysvi- 
oeig elolv I'viai (Haioi, xal ovx eifiagfiivai, alg ivav- 
xiai at xara (pvoiv, xal aiSJ\oeig (liaioi, xal (p&loeig ' 
olov av&joeig,. at xiav xaxv dia xgvqtijv fipwrrw xal 
oi olxoi, oi xaxv adgvvofievoi, xal fir] nilfj&ivxeg. 
6»*Enl d* aXXouoaewg, nag; tj aoavxatg; etrjoav 
yag av, av fiiv xiveg (Haioi, at ds (pvoixal, olov oi 
cccpiifisvot fit} ev xgioifioig rjfiigcug, oi d* ev xgioifioig' 
oi fisv, naga (pvoiv r\XXolo)vxai * oi de, xaxa (pvoiv. 
Eoovxai d' Ivavxiai ai cp&OQal aXXi)Xaig, ov yevi- 
aeig. Kal xi ye xtolvet; lor* yag wg • xal yag ei, r\ 
(lev, rjdeTa • jj de, Xvnrjga el'rj • olgxe oix anting q>&o- 
gy <p&oga evavxia* al£ y, rj fiev,xoiadl aixav ioxiv 

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y Si totadi. 7. "Okoq piv ovy evavxicu xtvrjosig xal 
Tjoepiai, toy dgmpsvov tgonov eioiv • olov rj avto, tj} 
wtw to7iqv yag ivavxuiosig avion. 4>igsxai di, 
%rp fikv ayto q>ogav t (pvon xb nvg • tyy di xoctw r\ ytf 
xal ivavxiai aixav at q>0Qai. To di nvg, av<a piv, 
yvas** xara di, naga <pvmv. Kal ivavxla y* ^ va- 
ra <pymy avtov, tjj naga q>voiv. 8. Kal poval d' 
iaavtag • *} yag ava povr), tiJ avu&tv xdtat wi\an 
ivartia. JTlyvexai di tjJ yrj, r) piv povr] ixeivrj, naga 
q>voiv ' r) di xivr t aig avxtj xata qtvoiv. "Jlgts xivnou 

♦f r « '/ my, m * 

povr\ svartia, r\ nag a (pvow ty xata q>vaiv tov av- 
xov ' xal yag r\ xivrjoig r) tov avtov, ivavxla ovxmg' 
i\ (ibr yag xata cpvaiv avxwv sotcu, r) avta, rj i] xarw • 
^ ds, naga yvoiv. 9. "Ezu &* anoglav, si far* na- 
oiys iigtpiaq t^g pr) ael, yivsoig, xal avtrj to lata- 
o&ai - tov dr)* naga q>voiv phovtog, olov rr)g yrjg 
avta, sVr t av yivsoig. "Ote aga iyigito avta /fra, iara- 
to. AXXa to piv lotapsvov, a si doxu (pigsod-ai &at- 
xoy • to de (Ha, tovvavtiov. Ov ytvoptvov aga ygt- 
povv, eaxat rjgepovv. "Exi doxu to Xotao&ai xvgioag 
Xsysa&at, i) oXag &vai, inl tov xcrra cpvaiv slg to* 
avtov tonov cpEQsa&ai, rj ovpfialvuv Spa. lo/'Exu 
d' anoglav, si ivavxla r\ povr\ rftrtavd-a, tfj iyxsi- 
d-sr xivtjou * otay yag xivrjtai ix tovdl, % xal aito- 
PalXji, ett doxsi exsiy to anofiaXkoptyoy. "jlgxs d 
avxr\ TjQSfila ivavxla tj) ivtev&cv tig tovvavtlov xi- 
rrjasi, ajua vndgUi tavavtia. *Ifnr) r]gsuet, si Iti fii- 
vn ; oXag di tov xivovftsvov, to fiiv ixst* to d\ tig 
o ttstap&lXu • 8 to xal fiaXXov xlvrjotg xtvr]oti Ivav- 
tiov, rj rjgifirioig. 11. Kal ntgl piv xivr]onog xa? 

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ygsfiiag, xal n&g kxaxiga {Uq, xa* xivtg (vavxlai x£— 
aw, iXgr\xai. ^Anogrjasis d* av tig xal nsglxov 
Xaxao&ai, si xal, oaai naga <pvaw xwrpsug, xavxatq 
iaxlv tjgejjUa avxixsifiirq. El fdv ovv fii) taxai, cijo- 
nov • ftivu yag , (Ha di • mgxs qgsfiovv xi Uaxai ovx 
aul avsv xov yevia&ai. 12. *AXXa dyXov, oxt, eora*- 
wgnsg yag xw&xai naga cpvoiv, xal ^gspolrj av xt 
naga q/uaw. 3 J£nel $* taxw ivioig xivrjoig xaxa <pv— 
aw xal naga cpvaw, oloy nvgl, xaxa yvoiv fib r\ avm, 
i) di xaxta naga <pvaw, noxsgot avtrj bavxia, 4} ff 
xrjg yrjg ; avxt} yag (pigexai xaxa <pvaw xaxa. "/T dtj- 
Xov on afiqxa, aX£ ovx agavxag • aX£ r\ fib &g xa- 
xa cpvaiv xyi xaxa cpvaiv * i\ d avta xov nvgbg xjj xa— 
to, cue r\ xaxa cpvaiv xjj naga <pvaw. 'Ofioitag di xal 
xalg fiovaig. Kal nsgl fib xwqaetog, xal rjgtfiiag, 
natg kxaxiga fiia, xal xivtg Ivavxiai xlaw, eiQrjxai.'} 



Jul di iaxi avvsxeg, xal anxbfitvov, xal i<ps$r)g, ng 
SuoQiaxai ngbxigov avvtzh P&» w Talb^aialy' 
anxopsva di, wv Spa • tcpeSyg di, mv ptjd-b finaSi 
ovyysvig* advvaxov #? aduugixow thai xiovvsxig* 
olov, ygafifiqv ix axiyfiiav, %1'nsg fj ygappi) pi* avvt- 
Xig, fj axiyjm di adtaigsxov • ovts yag h xa ia^aTa 
Twv axiyfiav • av ydg iaxt xb fib taxaxov, xb d' al- 
io xi fiogwv xov adiaighov ov& apa ra la/ata • 
vv yog iaxw taxotxov ov&iv xov aptgovg • htQOt 

d by Google 


yap to eozaror, xal ov Hoxaxov. 2. "En, arayxrj ij- 
xot avvex&g that xag oxiypag, rj omxo^ihag aXXrjXvr, 
£ &p tori to avvtxig. O &* aixbg Xoyog xal ixl 
TiocyTtar wr adwuqiitxiy. 2vrixt7g fib di) ovx av tltr, 
diet top tigrifiirov Xoyov • airtttcu d*. anav, 17 oXov 
oXov, rj fdgog fitoovg, rj oXov pioog. 'jEntl d* apt- 
gtg to adialotxov, avayxr\ oXov oXov anxta&ai • olov 
d * oXov anxofitvov, ovx total ovvifig • to yaq ovvt- 
%ig %x*h T0 I 1 ** oiXXo, to d* aXXo fxigog* xal diatqti- 
x&u tig ovxtog htga xal tottw xtxtagiofiiva. *AXXa fii^v 
ovde i<pt^r)g boxai oxiypr) oxiyfirig, r) xb kw tov vvv, 
«£T ix rovxatv tlvat to fir)xog *} top XQ° v o* * i<p£if 
tiiv yaq iaxiv, wv im&iv ioxt (ttxa£v avyytvig • or*- 
yfiotv & at* to (itxalh yQafifir), xal xav vvv XQOVog, 
3. v Exi diaigolT av tig aduxlotxa, tlnto, ij? <ov iaxiv 
ixarsqov, tig ravxa duniqiixav. *A\t ov&ev rjv xatv 
ovvex^v tig afitqr) diatqtxov • aXXo di yivog ovx olov 
t8 tivah fitxa^v xtov axiyfitiv xal xav vvv oi&sv • tl 
yaq ecnai, drjXov ag rjxoi dtaiqtxbv, r) ddiatqtxov 
tax at * xa* si dtaiqtxbv, rj tig idiaiqtxa, ?i tig ad 6V- 
aiqerd * rovxo di owtxig. Qavtqbv di xal oxt nav 
ovvtxtg dtaiqtxbv tig dtl dtaiqtxd * tl yaq tig adiai- 
qtxa, sax at ddtaiqtxov ddtatqixov anxbptvov • tv yaq 
to Boxarov, xal anxtxai, xuv ovvtx&v. 4. Tov d* 
avxov Xoyov, xal piyt&og, xal XQorov, xal xivr\aiv i'i 
udiaiqixav avyxiiad-aiy xal dtaiotio'&ai tig adiaiotxa, 
f] im&iv. 5. AtjIXov dz ix xwvdf ti yao to piyt&og 
^» ixdiaiQETwv ovyxttxai, xal v\ xfarjoig r\ jovtov i* 
Votav xivfjatuiv carat adwiQsxwv • oloy, si to « /J y, tx 
rwy a p y iaxlv adiaighwv , [xal] t; xivrjaig, iff i\g 8 
Arist. Phys. Alsc. I 

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s f, i]v ixtvrj&jj xb o inlxijg a fi y dtaoxaostag sxa- 
oxov psoog fyst adiaiqsxov. 6* El drj nagovorjg xi- 
vrjoewg avayxri xtvslo&ai xt , xal el xtvstxal ti, ava- 
yxij nagstvat xlyrjotv, xal xb xivela&cu toxai 4$ cc£i- 
atgsxiav. Tb fib di] a ixtvtj&rj to o xi\v to d xtvov- 
fisvov xlvv\oiv. To ds @ xtjy to s, xal to y igavxtag 
xijv to £. 7. El di} avdyxrj to xtvovusvor no&iv 
not, fir\ a'fia xwela&at xal xsxtvria&at ov ixtreixo oxs 
ixivuxo ' (olov, el OrjjSa^s xtg ftadl&i, ddvvaxov cifia 
(tadl&tv OtjpaZs, xal Psfiadtxivat Qi)(la£e •) xqv dfj 
to a xrjv ctfiSQT] ixtvstxo xb o, jj y xo d xivrjatg naoriv. 
"Slgx si psv voxeqov dti}X&ev i] dtyst, dtatqexr\ av tVy. 
Oxs ydo dirju, ovxs qQSfisi, ovxs dieXriXv&et, aXka 
psxa$v rjv. El 6° apa diioxsxat, xal dteXTjXv&e, xb 
Padifrv oxs fiadi&i, fofiadtxbg ixsl sot at, xal xsxi- 
Vfjfiivov ov xwsixat. 8. El ds xr t v psv oXtjv %r\v a /? 
y xwuxai xt, xal r\ xhtjotg, rp xtvstxat, xa d e £ taxi, 
xr\v ds apsQT), xr\v a, ov&h xtvstxat, aXXa xexivr^xat * 
ti'rj av tj xlvi\otg, ovx ix xtvtjoswv, aXX ix xtyr^iaxxav ' 
xal xb xsxiyr\a&ai xt prj xtvovpsvov • xijv yaq a du- 
XyXv&sv ov dte&tov. "Jlgxs soxat xt fisfiadtxivat /uijds 
noxs fladi£ov xavxyv yog (tt/iddtxev ov ($adl£ovTav- 
xrjv. 9. El ovv ardyxri rj r]qsfistv, rj xtvslodat nav, 
TjQSfisi ds xa& sxaaxov xfnv a /? y, &gx soxat %t <rvy«- 
Xag TjQSfiovv apa xal xtvovpsvov * x\\v yaq a fl y 
b'Xr\v ixtvstxo • xal r)gspst oxiovv psqog, ugxs xal 7ra- 
oav. Kal si fih xa ddtaiqsxa xyg d s f xtrrjoBtg, xt- 
vriaiwg naqovong, ivdixotx av fit} xtvtio&ai, al£ 
rjDSfisiv • si ds ftTj xtytjastg stol, xr\v xivi\Qtv fit} iu x*- 
vrjotcov elvat. 10 fOpoitag ds avayxi) x$ pyxst xal xj 

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xivr]au adtaiotrov tlvai tov x^ovov xal ovyxtio&ai ix 
t&v vvv, ovtwv ddwiqiT(ov • ti yao anaaa adiaiotToc, 
h t(m ildrxovt da to iooTaxig disiotv Hlottov, diaiQtibg 
loxou, xal o XQOvog. El d* b XQOvog dmignbg ?<rra*, 
h a q>iqtral t* Trpr a, xal q to a torai duuqsTTj. 


3 Eittldi niv fiiyt&og tig (ityt&ri diaigtxov • (didu- 
xtcu yaq on dbvvarov £ diofiwv thai™ ovvtxig ' P*Y*- 
&og d* iorlv aitav cvvtxig,) dvdyxrj to &artov, iv tw T- 
jwZqovw fiii£ov, xal h t$ tXatrovt loov, xal ivxto iXdt- 
jvvi nXiiov xivilo&ai, xa&antg bqltovral twig to &di- 
TOf tarto yaq xbiqp y to a, tov iq? to (I, &avtov. 'Entl 
Toivvv xtarrov iaxt, to wooTeooy fitraflaXXov, iv (fxqbvM 
to a (jiexap&fiXrixiv and tov y tig to d, olov iv tw J rj, 
iv tovtm to ($, ovTuo Korai nqog to d, &X£ anoXtiipti, 
"Sign iv t$ i'ocp xqovw nXiiov ditioiTO &ctTTov. 2.14X- 
Xa ftfjv xal iv tw iXdxxovi, nXiov tovtov • h <a ydq 
to a ytytvrjTai nobg t$ d, to tcnat nqog t$ t to 
ftgadvTtqov ov. Ovxovv, faiti to a nobg t$ 6 ytyi- 
rrjTai h anavxi iw f tj XQOvco, n qbg tw & Moral iv 
iXarrovi tovtov • xal Iot« iv t<o £ x. To fiiv ovv y 
&, o duX^Xv&t to a, fitl£bv ion tov y a, b tit xqo- 
vog o f x iXaTTtov tov navrbg, tov ? i\. Jlgit iv 
tXaTTOvi ditiai fitl£ov. 3. Oavtqbv 9i ix tovtwv, 
xal OT* to &drtov iv iXdxJovi jfoovo) ditioi to loov. 
^Entidr) ydq tt\v i*ti£&> iv iXaxxovi dtigxtxai tov /Soa- 
dvTtgov, avTO dt xaxf avxb XapPafOfttvov, iv nXtiovt 
XQOVto tt]v {i£i£o) ti}s iXaTTOVog, olov tv\v X (i, Trig X I, 
rrXelarv av tit} 6 XQWQS b n q, iv <p tt)v X /* fttioxtTw, 
n b 7i a, iv (a Tip X |. "Slgx* ti b n o XQ*> V °S & aJ - 

I 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xtav sarou tov n Xt iv w to ^qabvxtqov dUgx*™! Tt]\ 
X S, xal o n a iXdxxtov iarl tov iq? tp n x* Tov yog 
tcq iXaxxatv xo di xoviXdxxovog tXaxxov, xalavxo I'Aorr— 
top. wgxe iv iXdxxovi xivr)&r)<jEXou to loov. 4'ifri ds, el 
nav avdyxrj xj iv too? XQOV<a, rj iv iXdnovi, ij iv nXtlovi 
xivsio&ai, xal to fxsv Iv nXsiovi fioadvxsQOv, to fr' ev 
law laoxaxsg, ™ de&dxxov, ovxs laoxaxsg, ovxs ftoa- 
dvTtoov, ovx Iv i(jo), ovx iv nXsiovi xivsixai to &ut— 
tov Xsinsxai ovv iv iXdxxovi. "jlgxs dvdyxxj xal 
to loov fiiys&og iv iXdxxovi £0oV&> diUvai to ^«t- 
TOf. 5. 'Enel ds naoa psv xivx\aig iv tfooVw, * a * * y 
anavxt jroorw dvvatbv xwrj&rjvai, nav ds to xivovfie- 
vov ivdixsTcti xal d-axxov xivslo&ai xal faadvxsQOv, 
iv anavxi XQOv(a soxai to d-dxxov xivslo&ai xal ftqot- 
dvxsqov. Tovxatv $' ovxwv, ivdyxxj xa* tov xqovov 
ovvextj slvai. Aiyta ds ovvsxsg, xo diaiqsTOv slg del 
diaiqsra • tovtov ydq vnoxstpivov tov ovvtxovg, 
uvdyxri ovvsxrj slvai tov xqovov. 6. *Entl ydq dd- 
dsixxai, oti to &axxov sv iXdxxovi XQ° V{ 9 dlsioi TO 
loov, soxut to fisv iqp w a, d-axxov to d* i<p oi ft, 
fiqadvxsqov xal xexivrjod-at to fiqadvxsqov, to iop* 
w y d piys&og, iv x$ £ x\ XQ ***?' dr)Xov toiwv St* 
to d-dxxov iv iXdxxovi xovxov xivri&rjOSTai to uvto 
(liye&og* xal xexivrjo&w iv tw J &. ndXiv d* 9 inel 
to d-aTTov iv tw J & disXr)Xv&t tx)v oXx\v tx\v y 6, to 
Pqadvxsqov sv tw avxw jfooVw ti\v iXdxxa) dlswiv • 
soTtoovv iq? xjg y x. 'Enel ds to (IqadvTsqov to ft, 
iv tw f & *0oVw, tk\v y x duXyXv&e, to &ottov iv 
iXdxxovk dieujiv. "jlgte ndXiv dtaioe&yosrat o f & 
Xqovog. Tovxov de dtaiqovfiivov xal xo y x jUt/s- 

Digitized by GOOgk 


$og duxige&ijortai xata tov aitbv Xoyov. El di to 
piyt&og, xal b xgovog. Kal ail tovt total ptta- 
iufifiavovoiv anb tov &attovog to /fgadvtsgov, xal 
vjio tov ftgadvtigov to $avtov, xal %fy anodedsiyfti- 
ru /oa^eVo*?* diaignoti yag, to fib d-attov tov 
Xgovov, to Si figadvtsgov to fiyxog. Ei ovv atl fib 
aniaxgixptw dXt)&ig, artungtyopbov di del ylvttai 
durlgtoig, (pavsgbv Set nag jifoovoff * a ** <rw*JW« 
7. "Afia Si dtjKov, xal bti fiiyt&og anav iatl ovvexig' 
tag avtag yicg xal tag Xoag diaigioeig o,t« XQ^vog 
xal to fiiye&og diaigutai. *Eti di xal ex twv tUo- 
&6tav Xoyatv Xiyw&ai, <pavtgbv f ag tXntg b XQOVog 
iotl owsxyg, bti xal to fiiysdog, sfneg iv tw rjfifati 
Xqbvm rjfitov diigxnai, xal ctnlwg iv tw iXattovi 
tXattov ' ai yao aital diaigiaug loovtai tov xgbvov 
xal tov peyi&ovg. 8. Kal d bnottgovovv anugov, 
xal &dtegov xal wg &dtsgov, xal &dtegov • olov, n 
pbtolg iazatoig ansigog b XQW°$> *«* *° ffl*°S T0 *S 
toxatotg ' si di tjj diaigiasi, Tt\ diaigiou xal to firi- 
xog* ti di dfiq>dtv b XQ^vog, ajuyolv xal to fiiyt&og. 
9. Jib xal b Zrjvwvog Xbyog iptvdog Xafifidvei, to fitj 
Bpdixsa&aif ta anuga dieX&eiv, rj aytao&ai twv anei- 
g&v xa&* exaotov iv ntmqaofiivb* XQ*> V( 9 ' dixwg yag 
Xkyttai xal to firjxog xal b XQ^vog artetgov, xal bXag 
xav to avvsxig * ij tw xatd dialgtoiv, rj toig iaxdtoig* 
T&v fib ovv xata to nooov dntigtav ovx hrdixtta* 
afao&ai iv nsTtsgaofiivto jjfoova) • twv dk xata dial- 
Qtoiv, ivdixstat,* xal yag avtbg o XQOvog ovtag ansi- 
gog. "Slgtt, iv tw ansigw, xal ovx iv tw Trensgaofii- 
yip ovfiftaivei ddbai to anugov, xal antso&ai toav 

Digitized by GOOgle 


anslgwv xolg anslqoig ov xolg nenegaofiivoig. Oxjtc 
dy ovv xb ansigov oiov xs iv nsnegaofiivw ZQ° Vf 9 ^*- 
sX&siv, ovd' iv utzuqw xb nsnegaofihov • ctXX' av rs 
6 xgovog ansigog rj 9 xal to piye&og zoxai ansigov, 
idv xs to (isys&og, xal b ZQ° y0 $' 10. *Eoxw yag 7ts— 
nsgaojiivov piys&og, iq? ov a § • XQ^vog di ansigog, 
icp ov y. JEiXijcp&o) dy xixov xqovov nsnsgaofiivov, 
cop' $ y d. 'Ev xovxco ovv Slew I xi xov (isyi&ovg, xal 
soxta dnXriXv&bg, iq? <p (3 e. ToSto (5* *} xaxa/xe- 
tqi]oel to top ($ a ft, % iXXstipsi, rj insg^aXsl * dux<pi- 
gst yao ovdh' si yag asl to loov tg> /? 8 (isysd-og iv 
lay XQOVfp dlsioi, xovxo di xaxaiisxgsl to oAov, tt«- 
neoaopivog soxav o nag XQ<> V0 $> & V* diyXdsv • ei$ 
i'oa yag dtaigsd-rjosxai, mg xal to fiiys&og. 11. *jE?t* 
d* , si (iij nav piys&og iv ansigqt XQova disioiv, ak£ 
ivdsxsxai xi xal iv nsnsgaoftivfn duX-&siv f olov to fl 
s , tovxo di xaxa/xttgijosi x6 nav , xal xb loov iv kfoi 
disioiv. "Jlgxs nsnsgaofisvog soxai xal b XQOvog, "Oti 
d* ovx iv anelgio disusi xb (3 s, opavsgbv, si Xrjq)&sir t 
inl &axsga nsnsgaofisvog b XQ° V0 $ ' € * Y&Q & v iX&r- 
xovi xb fiigog disiot, xovxo avayxrj nsnsgav&ai, #a- 
tc'oov ye nsgaxog vnagxovxog. 12. *# avxij di ano- 
dsgig, xal si xb fiiv fiyxog ansigov, b di XQovog ttc- 
nsgaopivog. &avsgbv ovv ix x&v sigrjfisvmv, wg oil- 
xs ygaftfiijy ovxs ininsdov, ovxs oXoag x£>v avvsxw 
ov&iv saxai axofiov, ov povov dta xb viv Xsx&iv, oA- 
Xa xal dioxi ovfi/Srjasxai dKugeio&cu xb axopov. 
13. JEnsl yag iv anavxv XQOvat xb &axxov xal figa- 
dyxsgov ioxt, xb di &axxov nXslov di£gxsxa% h r$ 
Xo^xobv^ivdixsxai x«i bmXaoiov,%al ^lohov diti- 

Digitized by GoOgle 

PHYSIC. AUSC. LIB. VI. CAP. in. 135 

vai prjxoe * c£q yag av ovtog o Xoyog tov taxovg. 
'Evuvix&ai ovv to &attov ijfiioXiov ivtipavttp jfooVqi, 
xal dijjQijod'G) ra fxtyi&ri, ra fih tov &attovog f iff 
(a a (l } (} y, y d, eig tola atofia • t» di tov (Iga&v- 
tigov eig dvo, eqf av e J, £ n\ • ovxot/* xa* o X°ovog 
diaige&rjoetai eig tola atofia • to ^ao Too? « * t£ 
law xyovui Meio$. Jitjqtio&Q} yovv 6 XQ&vog eig tjjp 
% X, I p, p v. IlaXiv di end to figadittgov irrjrt- 
xrai ty* e f, J rj, ovxovv xal o jfpoyo? tjuij#iJost«* 
dfya. Jwuot&ijonai aga to Stofiov, xal to afiegig 
ovx h ai6fi<a dluotv, aX£ iv nXeiovi. o^avegbv ovv, 
on ov&iv ioti tap avvex&v apsgig. 
Idvayxy di xal to vvv to \li\ xa& hegov, aXXa 
xa\? avtb xal ngwtov Xeybfievov, adiaigetov thai, 
xal iv an am toiovtov XQ° V( ? irunagxtiv * * aT * Y*Q 
eoxatbv t* tov yeyovotog, ov inl tade ov&ev ioti tov 
uiXXovrog • xal naXiv tov fieXXovtog, ov inl tide ov- 
-&iv ioti tov yeyovotog • o dy eqpapev apcpdlv eivai 
nsgag. 2. Tovxo di av deix&y on toiovtov ion 
xa&* avtb xal tavtbv, Spa (pavegbv eotai xal on 
adiaigetov. 3. Idvdyxij dfj to avtb elvai to vvv to 
8(r/«Toy aptpotegav iwv xgbvwv si yag hegov, Ajpe- 
£j}; [Uv ovx av si'rj & are gov d-atiga, diet to prj elvai 
ovv$xeg i$ apegitv ei di xwglg ixategov , pttalv 
tatai, XQ°vog • nav yag to ovvtxig toiovtov, agx sT- 
val ti ovvwwpov fieta^v tav negatmv. *AXXa fiffv 
ei b xoovog to peta^v, diaigetbg eatai' nag yag XQ°~ 
yog dideixtai oti diaigetog. "Jlgte diaigstbv to vvv. 
El di diaigtibv to vvv, eatai ti tov yeyovitog iv t£ 

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uiXXovn, xal rov jiiXXovxog iv tw ytyovoxi • xaS- 5 
yao «V diaiQd&rj, xovxo dioQiet tov naQrjxovxa xal 
tov fiiXXovxa xqovov. 4« "Apa di xal ovx av xo^' 
avxb ci'tj to vvv, aXXa xa& btcqov • r\ yiiQ diaigeaig, 
ov tov xa& avxo * n§ bg de Tomoig, tov vvv, to ftiv 
n ysyovbg sorat, to de fiiXXov. Kal ovx as* to ai- 
to ysyovbg, t) piXXov. Ovds drj to vvv to aixo • 
noXXaxjl Y**Q diatQSTog o xgovog. 5. JlgT si ravrcc 
advvaTov vnaQxew tw vvv 9 avayxv\ to avTo tlvai to 
iv cxaTsoa) vvv, jiXXa fit)v u xavxb, yavsgov on 
xal udtalgsxov* si yaq dvavqsxbv, naXiv xa arjxct 
ovfi^ijasTai a xal iv tgj nqoTsgov. 6. "Oxt fiiv to/- 1 
vvv ioxl xi iv tw xgov(p adiaigsrov o <pa(*sv slvat to 
vvv, dr\Xov ix tS>v slgtjfiivav. On d' ovdsv iv toi 
vvv xivtXxaiy ix xwyds qtavsgov • si yao ioxiv, &$£%&- 
Tat xal d-axxov xwuo&ai iv avjco xal ftoadvTSQov. 
"Eotm dy to vvv 9 iy $ v xsxtvqo&to 5* iv avxa> to 
&aTT0V Tr t v a (3 • ovxovv to (JgadvxsQOv sv toj avToi ' 
fXaxxw TTjg a /S xwrjd-TiGCTai, olov Tqv a y. JStxsI 
6s to ($QadvT$gov Iv oX($ tw vvv xtxlvrjTai t^v ct y f 
TO &&TTOV Iv sXaTTovi xovxoy xivri&riosxat. "Sl^TS 
dicuQS&rjOETcu to vvv * aXi yv adtalgsxov. Ovx Hon 
soxl xivslo&ai iv tw vvv. 7. 'AXXa firjv ov5 ygspcZ* • 
^Qffitl^.yag iXiyofUv, to nsqtvxbg xivsio&cci prj x*— 
vovfisvov oxs nicpvxs, xal ov, xal wg, "jlgx, E7r€* 
iv t$ vvv ovdiv niqjvxs xivsio&ah, drjXov on oio** 
rjQs/xsty. 8. En d', si to avTO fxiv e<m to vvv €y 
aficpolv toIv xqovoiv • ivdexsxai de, tov fiev xwuo&ai, 
tov 6 jgs(iuy b'Xov • to 5' oXov xivovpwov xbv X$6- 
vov sv bxyovv xtvydqaixat twv tovxov, xa& o 7ti- 

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<pvxt xweio&cu, xal to yptpovp igavtmg r,QSfii}ou, 
cvfi(h}(f£Tcu, to avtb apa rjosptip xal xivuo&at • to 
yag aitb toxaxov t&v xqopup apifotiomy, to vvv, 
*Eii d', 7}QSfieiv (Up Xiyopiv to bpofag \x ov *°* avJ b 
tal ta pigti rvv xal noottoov iv di tip vvv, ovx 

E(TT» TO 71 QOTIQOV ' W£T€ Ovd* tjotp&V. AvdyX7\ OLOOL 

tal xtvuo&at to xwovpivov Iv £ooV(p> xal rjQtpuv to 

li di pera/kilXov Snap, apdyxtj diaigvtbp Hvai • 
inu yog tx twog tig tt naoa pttaftolrj, nal otav flip 
y h tovtta slg o psti/iaXXsv, ovxstl petafialXu ' o- 
xav di e£ ov pttifiallt, xal aitb xal ta pigrj ov pe- 
tafiaXXti - [to yao wgavtwg fyov xal aitb xal ta 
pigy ov ptta^aXXn *] avayxt\ ovv to piv t* h tovrta 
drat, to di iv d-atigco tov prrafiaXXovtog - ovte yaQ 
ip apqpotigotg, ovt lp pudttigq olov dvpatov Aiyta 
di tig o pstafiaXXei, to nqiitor xata ttjv pttaftoXyv • 
olov, £x tov Xtvxov to q>aibv 9 oi to piXav * ov yog 
ardyxrj to pttafiaXXov ip bnotiQi^ovv tivai tStv a- 
xqnav. tyavtgbv ovv ou nap to pttafiaXXov tatai 

2. Kivtjaig 3' iotl diaiQttr) &/w£, tva piv tgonov 
tw XQorco * alloy di xata tag tup ptgwv tov xivov- 
P&pov xivriotig ' olov, u to ay xiv&tai oXov, xal to 
b /? xirn&fjostai, xal to /? y, *jEot<odrj, tov pip a 
§, i\ d * • tov di (} y, r\ e £, xiv^aig tmv ptQ&v. *Ap6\- 
yxH drj typ oXnv, iq> i\g y d £, tov a y tlvai xlrnaip. 
Kip^actat yaQ xata taitt\v 9 inuneo btatSQOV iw 
utgwv xiveitai xa& hxatioav. Ovdiv di xw«Ta* 

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xaxa xrjv tov aXXov xivrjaw • wgxs rj olrj xivrjaig xox 
oXov iaxl fisyi&ovg xivrjaig. 3. *Exi 6*e ,_ si Snaaa 
fib xivrjaig xivbg, r) d' oXrj xivrjaig r) i<p rjg d f, (irj- 
xs xwv fisgwv iaxi (irjdsxigov • (fisgovg yag kxaxiga •) 
firjxs aXXov firjtisvog • (ov yao ^ oil? oAov, xal t« 
/uoi? TaJy fisgiav • t£ fli /U€(>1? ti*;? d £, Tai* a /J y, 
xal ovx aXXaav* nXsiovwv yag ovx rjv fiia xivrjaig,) 
xal tj oXrj xivrjaig strj av tov a § y fisyi&ovg. 4*Et* 
6*', si fib iaxi xov SXov xivrjaig aXXrj, olov iqf rtg & 
i, dopaigsd-rjasxai an avxrjg rj ixaxsgmv x&v fisgav 
xivrjaig* avxai 5* Xaai saovxaixalg d s, s £• fit a 
yag Ivog xivrjaig • wgr , si fib oXrj diaigsdrjasxai r) 
& i sig rag xwv fisgwv xivrjasig, Xarj saxai ij & » xrj S 
'Q- si d' anoXsinsi xi, olov xb x i, avxrj ovdsvbg tax at 
xivrjaig • ovxs yag xov oXov % ovxs xatv fisgStv, diet xb 
fiiav slvai xov bog, ovxs aXXov ov-dsvog' rj yag ovv- 
sxrjg xivrjaig iaxi ovvsxwv xivtov • togavxwg Si xal si 
vnsgftaXXsi xaxa xijv diaigsaiv. Jlgx si xovxo oidv- 
vaxovy avayxrj xrjv avxrjv slvai xaljarjv. Avxrj fib 
ovv rj diaigsoig, xaxa xag xav fisgav xivrjasig iaxi, 
xal avayxrj navxbg slvpti xov fisgiaxov avxrjv. 5.^ki- 
Xrj ds xaxa xov xgovov ' insl yag anaaa xivrjaig b 
XQOvta, XQovog ds nag diaigsxbg, b ds x$ iXaxxovi 
iXaxxav rj xivrjaig, avayxrj naaav xivrjaiv diaigsia&a* 
xaxa xov xqovov. 6. *Ensl ds nav xb xivovfisvov, sv 
xivi xivsixai, xal xqovov xiva, xal navxbg xivovfibov 
iaxl xivrjaig, avayxrj xag avxitg slvai diaigiasig, xov 
xs xgovov xal xrjg xivijoswg, xal xov xivsia&ai xal tov 
xivovfibov, xal iv w rj xivrjaig- nXrjv ov navxuv o- 
fioiug, b olg rj xivrjaig, aXXa xov fib noaov, xafr* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


avTo* rov Si noiov,xata avfiptpr\x6g' iiltj<p&*yaQ 
o ZQorog h i xtrtUai 4<p w a, xal »/ niveau;, i<p qr 
ft. El ovy tyy olijr h t# nayxl XQ° vt ? xtxiytjxat, 
to xw fifiioH ildxxta, xal naliy xovxov dtaiot&irtog, 
ilaxxa xavxqg , xal ail ovxtag. 'Opolm Si xal ti r\ 
xivrioiQ dicuQsrr], nal o XQovog ^laioixog • ** y<*Q xqv 
blr\v iy Ta» nayxl, xr^y rjfiianay h tw ff/iiou, xal na- 
liy Trfv Hdxxova h t£ ilaxxoyt. 7. Toy avxby b*i 
tqotiov xal to xiytio&ai dtaiQt&rjotxai' toxv yao 
iq> w y, to xivtio&ai. Kara di\ xqy ryiiouay xiyt}- 
oiv, tlaxxov eoxai xov olov xal naliy xaxd xijy xyg 
ilfiiotiag, fipiatiav xal ail ovxwg. **Eoxi 6e xal ix- 
&ifavop to xa& kxaxigav xiby xivtioiwv xtytio&ai, 
olov xaxd re xyy d y, xal Tijy y t liyny, ot* to olov 
toiai xaxit trjv Slyy • u yao alio, nltia tar at xwu- 
o&ai xata ii\v avxi]v xiyr^ow, tagntq idtiSautv, xal 
Tt/v xivTjatv dtaioBjfiP tig tag xiav uigwy xivrjotig ou- 
Jav Xrjcpd-syjog yao rov xivtio&ai xa&* ixaxioay, 
avvtxtg toxai to olov. 8* 'ftgavnag 6i dux&rioixai 
xal to pyxog Siaiotxby, xal oltog nay h w ioxiy q (it- 
TaPolij (nlrjy tvia xaxa ov/i/Je/Jijxos,) ot* to (iixa- 
Pallov ioxl diaiotxov • hog yao duxtoovpivoV) nay- 
ta duxLQs&rjoejaf xal inl xov nintqaofdya tlyai if 
wtHoa, ofiolag e£ti xata ndvxay. 'Hxolov&rjxt di 
ucdtaice to dicuqsXo&cu ndvxa xal anno* that, anb 
xov fina/idllovtog • ti&vg yao hvnao%u t« ptxa- 
/JoUovta to dWoeTor xa* to amioov. To fib ovp 
ouiiQttbv didtixxa* nooxtoov , to d* anttoop iv xoig 
toop&oig eoTai dqioy. 

d by Google 


'Enel ds nav to [istafldXXov, ex twos Big ti (astcc-* 
(tdXXei, avdyxr) to ustafopXiixbg, ots nqtatov fieTct- 
(tepXriKEV, eivou iv ft) iietapipXrjxs • to ydo (iStafidA- 
Xov, i£ ov fietafidXXsi, i^iot at at % anoXdnei avfxa - 
xal %toi tavtbv ion. to fistapaXXuv xal to anoXei- 
nuv, y dxoXov&ii t<£ (istafiaXXsiv to dnoXtinsw • tw 
8e HeiaPefiXTjxivcu, to anoleXoiTiivcu. Opoiwg yoc.Q 
exdtSQOv tyu nobg kxdtsgov, 2. 3 £7isl ovv fua tatv 
^stocSoXcov q xai dvticpaoiv ote fiBtapipXyxsr £* 
xov pr) ovtog tig to ov, anoXiXome to fiy ov. Eatcct 
dga iv t$ bvti' nav ydo dvdyxrj i} slvcu, 1/ \tr\ eTrcci. 
ilwvtqov ovv on iv xjjj xai dvtlg>aoiv fistapoXji, to 
ftsTafisftXyxbg eotai iv <o fietafiipXrixev, El d iv 
tavty, xal iv taig dXXaig • ofioiwg ydo inl fitag xal 
%5>v ctXXwv. 3.*i?T/ 6s xal xa&* kxdotrjv Xapfiavov- 
oi (pavBobv, el'nsQ dvdyxrj to fieTafepXrjxbg tlval Tiott 
% IV rivi' insl ydg i$ ov fista^i^Xrjxev dnoXiXoi7rev, 
dvdyxrj de slvai nov, rj iv tovko v) iv aXX(o eotai, JzX 
fib ovv iv aXXto, olov iv toj y, to slg to /J fietafisfilrj^ 
xog, ndXiv ix tov y fiBtafiaXXei slg to /?• ov yaq rjv 
ixo/tevov t« /?• fj ydg fista^oXtj, ovvtxrjg. Jlgte 
to fista/Ss^X^xbg ots fiBtafii/iXrjxe, fisza/SaXXu tig o 
[ittapdftXrjxe * tovto 5' ddvvatov dvdyxri dga to 
uttafejSXrjxbg elvai iv tovtw, iig o /u*Ta/ft/?Ar/x*. 
4. ftavegov ovv oti xal to ysyovbg, bts yiyoviv eaxai, 
xal jo iy&agpivov ovx total • xa&oXov ts ydo tigij- 
tou ntgl ndorjg fiBtapoXrjg, xal fidXtota dijXov b xrj 
xatd dvxiyaoiv. "Ott, fib toivw to fiBta^Xijxog, 
ots [iSTaplipXrixs ngSttov iv txdvta iotl, dr\Xov. S*Ev 

Digitized by GOOgk 


o) di 7iQ<at(o [rvv ngiatov\ (unajJejiXrjxt xb /mo/9«- 
(JXrixbg, avdyxi\ axo/nov thou. Aiym dingatxov, o fiij 
rw it t gov tvaixov tlvai 7tgwtov,to$ovt6v iativ ' cotoi 
yag diaigttbv to a y, xal dijjQrjo&a) xona to /?. EX 
fjtiv ovv b xw a (3 fiitxapiftXrjxtv , tj naXtv b x& /} y, 
ovx av b ngwxco Tin ay fitxaftepXr)xbg fir). El S* b 
ixaxigca (itxi^aXXtv • (avayxri yag ij /ucTa/fe/ftipcfrou, 
r\ prtafiaXXuv iv kxatdga •) x$v b to> oXw jneTaftaX- 
lot • aAX* rjv psxafopXrixog. € avxbg di loyog, xal 
& b Tto gib fitrafldXXti, b di xta fitxapipXr\xtv ' toxai 
yag ti tov nginxov ngoxegov * itgtt ovx ay «fij dtai- 
qstov to ngatov iv w fitfTaftspXijxt. 6. <Pavtqbv tol- 
vvv on xal to iq>&agpbov xal to ytyovbg, b axofifa, 
to fib eay&agtat, to di yiyovt. Aiytxai di to iv w 
TiQWTO) fAetafti(3X7}X£, dix<o$ • to fib, b a ngmtn ire- 
Xio&rj »} fittafloXr) • tots yag dXrj&ig tlniiv, ot* fit- 
caftsfiXTjXE • to di iv ef ngdtto ijg^ato fiixafiaXXtiv. 
7. To fiiv ovvnaxa to tilog trig fitxaftoXfjg ngwxov 
Xsybfisvov indgxti xb xal toxw • bdixexat yag im- 
tsXsa&fivat trp fisxa^oXrjv, xal Mori fiexafioXrig tiXog' 
o drj xal dideixtat adiaigstov ov, diet to nigag tlvai. 
To di xata xr\v agfflv, oXong ovx eotiv • ov yag ioxiv 
dgxh (AVtotPoXrjg, ovd 3 iv <w txqwtw xov xgovov fttxi- 
(taXXsv taxto yag Tigfaxov, iq> $ xb a 6. Tovxo dy, 
adialgexov fib ovx toxi' ovfiftrjoexai yag i/ofieva 
sivai ta vvv. \Ert d* u iv t& y a xgovw navxl tjgt- 
H& % (xdodfa yag ygefiovv) xal iv tfy a T]qtpf\ou. 
Slgxt el dfiegig ioxi xb a d, apa JjQtfirjoet xal pexa- 
fofiXrixbg eoxai • iv fib yag rw a tjgsfiu, b di tw d 
Htxa(3ipXrixev. 8. 3 Ensl d* ovx taxiv dfifgis, avdyxrj 

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8taigsxbv slvcu xal iv bxwovv xav xovxov ^la^s^krj- 
xsvar 8ictigs&svxog yctg xov a 8, si fisv iv firideregc 
fASxct^Xrjxsv , ov8 iv t# bXy- si 8' iv dficpolv pe- 
xa^dXXst , xctl iv t<5 nctvxi* si 8' iv &axsg(o ftsrcc- 
pipirixev, ovx iv x$ ol<$ ngonca. u Jlgxs dvdyxtj 4* 
bxtaovv fittotpepirjxivai. &otvsgbv xoivvv oxi ovu 
soxiv iv oj ngwTu fisxa^s/SXrjxsv • Unsigoi yctg ai di- 
aigsasig. 9. Ov8s 8rj xov fisxa^s/SXrjxoxog iaxl rt 
ngwxov o ftstafiipirixsv • eoxm yap xb 8 J ttqwtop 
fisrctpeftkrixbg xov 8 s' nav yctg 8s8sixxcti duxigsrov 
xb fisxapdXXov. € di xgovog iv of xb 8 f fxsxotftdftXt}- 
xsv, soxco i(p oJ # i. El ovv iv t£» navxl xb 8 J (ts- 
xa^Xrjxsv, iv tw r t (xlosi sXotxxov saxoti xb fisxaSsfiX^^ 
xbg, xctl itgoxsgov xov 8 f • xal ndXw xovxov alio, 
xaxslvov sxsgov, xctl asl ovxwg. "Jlgxs oi&sv i'axai 
ngwxov xov fisxa/SdXXovxog b fisxaj5s/3X7jxsv. IQ^Oti 
fisv ovv ovxs xov psxafidllovxog, ovxs iv oJ psTotfidX- 
Xsi XQOvw ngaxov ov&sv ioxt, (pave gov ix xav slgq- 
pivwv. Avxb 8s o psxafiaXXsi,, i) xatf o fisxa^dXXst, 
ovx sxi iftolmg I&«* • xgla ydg ioxiv a Xeysxcti xotxa 
xtjv psxafioXTJv • to, xs fisxafldXXov, xctl iv <£, xctl 
xa& 6 (isxafldXXsi' olovb civ&gwnog, xctl b ygovog, 
xctl xo Xsvxov. € fisv ovv ctv&g&nog xctl o XQ^vog 
Staigsxol, Tisgl 8s xov Xsvxov ctXXog Xoyog. IJXijv xa- 
xa ovfipeflrjxog ys ndvxct Siotigsxd • of yotg ovppiprpts 
xo notovy ri xb Xsvxov, sxstvo 8vaiosx6v eaxtv. snel 

d by Google 


idiaigexov taxai xb /? y t apt gig upegovg tmai «*o- 
usvov • ei di diaigsxbv, earai xi xov y ngbxtgov, tig o 
psTaftiftlrjxs, xqxtivov ndXiv alio, xal dtl ovxw, did 
to fiTfddnoTs vnoXdntiv xtjv biaigtaiv, "jlgxt ovx 
botcu ngwxov tig 9 o fiBxafiipXrjxtv. 'O/ioiwg ds xal inl 
xyg xov nooov fitxa^oXr^g • xal yag avitj iv ovvtxtl 
ioxt. <Pavegbv ovv oxi lv (iovfj xuv xivrfoeav xjj xa- 
xd to noihv, IvSixtxat ddiaigsxov xa%? avxb tlvai. 
JEtisI de to fiexaftdXXov anav lv xq6v(# [itxafidX- 
Xu, Xiysxat d* lv xgovtp fitxa^dXXstv, xal wg lv now- 
tw, xal d>g xatf txtgov (olov iv xy iviavxia, oxi U 
xtj f]piga, fisxafiaXXEi, •) iv w ngmxtag XQory ptxaftdX- 
Xei to (i£xa($aXXov, iv bxtaovv dvdyxti xovxov fiixu- 
fidXXtiv. Jr\Xov fiiv ovv ix xov bgtofiov • to yag 
ngwrov ovxtag iXiyoptv. 2. *AXXa dij xal ix xiavdl 
gpavegov • Ibrot) yog iv to ngdxtn xiveixai xb xivovpt- 
vov, iq> (p x Qt xal diygijo&a) xaxa xb x • nag yag 
Xgovog Siaigtxog. *Ev di\ x$ x * XQOvo), ijxoi xwiixai, 
% ov xivtixai. Kal ndXiv ivxw x g, agavxag, JEl fiiv ovv 
iv pTjdBxigfp xivtlxai, rjQf^ioiT} dv iv x$ navxi' xtvti- 
a&cci yag iv {irjdtvl xuv xovxov xivovpevov, advva- 
xov. Ei if iv &axigto fiovta xivsixai, ovx dv iv ngd- 
xojt xivolxo tw x Q ' * a & tTsgov yag rj xivijatg. *Avd- 
yxrj aga iv bx(oovv xov x g xtxivrjo&ai. 3. Jedti- 
ypdvov di xovxov, yavtgbv oxi ndv xb xivovptvov 
dvdyxrj xtxivrio&ai ngoxtgov • ti yag iv x$ x g XQ*>- 
vo) Tigtaxto xb x X xixivr\xai piyt&og, iv x$ rjpiou xb 
bfioxaxag xwovptvov, xal dfia agSaptvov, xb rj/iwn; 
tax at X€xwr)(iivov. El ds xb ogioxaxeg iv xta aix$ 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Xqovn xsxivipal ti, xal &arsqov avayxy to aito xe- 
xivri<s&ou psys&og. "jlgrs xsxivrjfiivov ear at to xwov- 
psvov. 4/!ETi ds, si iv tw navxi XQ°vy *$X Q **; 
xivria&eu Xiyofisv, ?/ oXcog, y iv^ bwoyv XQovto* ^ r$ 
Xafiuv to boxonov avxov vvv, (tovto yaq iori to oqi- 
£ov, xal to fitraSv twv vvv XQ 0V °S>) x $ v & X0l< * **~ 
Xoig ofioiag Xsyovto xsxivrjod-ai. Tov if nuiosog 
iox<*TOv i\ diaiqsotg. "Slgrs xal iv t$ ^t/aret xsxivtj- 
pivov earou, xal oXwg iv hnaovv t&v psqav ' ael yaq 
Sfia tjJ TOfii] XQovog iatlv aqiofisvog vizb t&v vvv. JSi 
ovv anag [lev XQOVog diaigsTog, 6 ds fisxafv t&v vvv 
XQovog, unav to psTaftaXXov , ans iqa sarai fierape- 
pXr^xbg. h*Eii d\ si to ovvsx&g (isTafiaXXov, xal 
fitjds (p&aqsv, pride nsnavpivoviyg iisTafioXyg, ?j ps- 
TapaXXuv, ij ptTafopXrixevai, avayxdiov iv bxyovv , 
iv ds tw vvv oix sort psTafiaXXsiv, avayxy [isTap&- 
§Xr\xsvai xa& txaorov twv vvv. Jlgre, & ra wv 
ansiqa, nav to [itTaftaXXov, annqa XoTai psra^s^Xri- 
xbg. 6. Ov fiovov ds to fiSTafiaXXov avayxr\ psTafie- 
(5Xr)xivai, aXXa xal to fisra^sjSXrixbg avayxtf fisra- 
(iaXXuv nqoTsqov • anav yaq to sx nvog sl'g ti psta- 
fispXr}xbg, iv XQOvy psTa^XY\xsv ' carw yaq Iv tw 
vvv I x tov a slg to psTa^Xrixog • oixovv, iv uiv 
t& oei/Tw vvv, sv w soriv tnwa, ov fiSTafis^Xvxsv 
a ft a yaq Sv sir} iv tw a xal t<*> /?* to yaq fiSTafis- 
ftXyxbg, ots [istsfiaXsv, Srt oix sotiv sv tovtm, dsdsi- 
xTai nqoxsqov. El 6*' iv aXXq, psra^v iaTiv o XQ°~ 
vog' ov yaq t}v sxbfisva ta vvv. 1. 'Eitsl ovv sv 
Xqbvy ttsraftsftXrixs, XQovog ds nag diaiqsTog, tv tw 
t\fitasi aXXo sot at tisTafofiXfixbg, xal naXiv sv t« 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Ixtivov i}filoti. Silo, %al dtl ovrug. "jlgtt prra/?«JU 
lot, ay nqottgoy. %."liti d' inl tov utyi&ovg qtavt- 
owisqov to Itx&to , diet to ovytxw ttvai to ftiyt&og, 
iv w fistajidXXtt to (ittapdllov • Sore* yaq to piia- 
fapXrjxbg to tov y tig to d. Ovxovy, ti piy ddiaiot- 
jup ioti to y d, dptqig dfitqovg totai ixoptyov. 'Entl 
di tov to ddvyatoy, dvdyxr) fiiyt&og tlyai to ptta$v, 
xal tig antiqa diaiqttoy • mgt tig touva pttafidllti 
nqdttqoy • dvdyxrj aqa nay to fittafit/Slfixbg fitxa- 
fidXluv nqottqoy. 9» t H yaq airy anodt&g xal to 
toXg pii ovvexioty, olov tv tt tolg toavtlotg, xal to trj 
dvtupaoti • Irjyofit&a yaq toy XQ^vov, to <j> pttafii- 
pXyxe, xal ndliv ta avta iqovfitv. "SLgtt avayxr} to 
HSJctpspXrjxbe fitta/idXltiy, xal to fittafidllov fitta- 
fispirixivcu • xal toti, tov fito pttafidlXtiv, to futa- 
PeftXyxtvat nqottqoy • tov di pttaptpir\xivai, to fit- 
tafidlleiv xal ovdi nott Xf}(p&T}oerat to nqmtov. 
Axtiov di tovtov, to py tlvai aptqig dfitqovg ixofit- 
vov &ji antiqov yaq ^ dialqtotg, xa&aTitg inl twv 
av£avofiiv<BV xal xa&aiqovfiivav yqafifi&v. 10. <Pct- 
vtqbv ovv, oti xal to ytyovbg avdyxtj ylvto&ai nqo- 
ttqov, xal to ytvoutvov ysyovtoai, Sua diaiqsta xal 
ovvtx% * ov fitotoi dtl o ylvttai, aiX* alio to lot e, 
olov tar ixtivov ti, dtgntq ttjg oixiag tov &tfi&iov. 
Opotcog di xal inl tov (p&ttqoptoov xal i<p&aqfitoov 
ti&vg yaq tovndqxti tip yivofiivtp xal q&siqoptooi 
antiqov ti, ovvtxti yt ovti, xal ovx tatty, ovtt ylvt- 
o&ai firj ytyovog ti, ovtt ytyovtoai fir\ yivbptvbv ti. 
Oficuog di xalinltov (p&tiqto&aixalinitov 4q?&dq- 
Oat • dtUydq total, tov ph <p&tiqto&ai to iqp&dq- 
Arist. Piiys. Ausc. K 

Digitized by GOOgle 


&ou nqoxtoov, toil da icp&aQ&ai to qj&eigso&cu * 
cpavtqbv ovv oxt xal to yeyovog avdyxy yivso&at 
ttqotsqov, xal to yivopevov ytyovivak * nav yaqjii- 
ye&og, xal reas xqovoq, dtl dtatgezd. Jlgt 3 iv a> av 
?/, ovx av cl'13 b)f nQWTta. 

'jB7ic* de nav to xwov^iivov iv *0<>v<p x*m*a*, *ai 
ev tw nXelovt fiu£ov piye&o$, iv t$ dneiQfp x^ovta 
ddvvajov ion tistieq aofAsv^v xwsie&eu, fir} tvv ov- 
%rp> dtl, xal %5>v ixtlvr\g ih xivovfttvov, ak£ iv t4» a- 
navu anaoav. "Oti psv ovv % si' ti looxaxng x»voito> 
avdyx^ to neneQaOfiivov iv TtsntQaopivio xiviio&ai, 
oi\lov lyqt&tvTog yocQ poqiov, o xaiausjQrjaet rip 
o\r\v , iv i'aoig tdlg XQW° l $ toaomoig, 00a t« (ta^id 
ion, xrp oXr\v xexivtjTai. Jflgx snel ravta nsjtEQa- 
rai xal t$ nooov exaarov, xal t$ noaaxtg cmccyra, 
xal o XQovog av efy nsntQaopivog • ToaavTax*? yao 
cffiat Toaoi/Totf, oao$ o tov fioglov XQ^vog noXXanXa- 
oiao&slg tw nXffi-n twv poo<W. 2- AXka dy x£y el 
|u^ ioorax&g, 8w<piQ£i ovdiv • «rcw /«£, «V ijff to a 
xa* to /£, &aoTifyta mmQaofiivov, o x6x<Vi?Ta* Iv t<£ 
dnsioy, xal xqovog anuqog, iq> ov to y d. El dtj 
avdyxri, ngois^ov titgov ktigov xsxivtio&ai, tot/to 

dq dtjXov, Oil, TOV XQ ovOV Sy T V 5r ? OW ^ *<*• VffT€()« 

sTfoov xfxtVijTai * del yctQ iv t^j nXdovi §r«0ov sorcu 
xBxivijpivov, idv t« loo%ax<ag,idv jspy iaoraxag /we- 
Tardily • x<x» taV T6 imjslvri y xlvrjoig, idv t* ay/77, 
idv te fi&vfl, ov&iv ijTtov. JBUij^w '5^ Tt xoi a /J 
dtaatfifimog, to a c, o xaTa/u€To^os» T^y a /?. Tovto 
o^, toD ansioov IV Tty* iy&vsio XQW*? ' & dfttiQip yaq 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ovx olov if to yaq Snap h antlqtf. Kal naXip 
Ixtqov drj, dap Xd^ta ooop xb a t, dwdyni) dp ntntoa- 
opivw XQwy ' to yaq Snap, dp dntiqy xal ovim 
dij Xctfipdvwr, dntidi\ xov pip dndqov ov&sv dot* pi- 
giop, o xaxapsxqno-n * (advpaxop yaq to annqop li- 
ra* dx nsntqaopipw, ual low, ual aviow, but to 
xaia[ieT4)r)&qoe<j&ai xa ntntqaauipa nXr ( &ti xal pt- 
yi&ti vnb x&og hpbg, dap tc taa y, dap xt Sputa • iqi^ 
opha Si t£ peye&ei, ov&sp ijno*.) to 0* diaaxupa 
to nentqaopivop, noaolg to*? a c pexquxat, ip *<- 
nsqaopipt^ ap XQ^pq to a ft xwolxo, mgavxttg di xal 
ini yqtpqosag • w$t« ovt« yiveo&ai, ovxt (p&eiqiO&ai, 
olop xt atl xi to aixb xai IV. 3. 'O atfrof £i Xoyog 
xal oxi ovti* dp nintqaapiptf £ooxy anuqop olov x$ 
xiv&o&ai, ot/5' qq$pifco&ai, ov&* bpaXig xipovpt- 
pov, ovx apwpaXtog * Xrjy&iprog yaq xipog piqovg o 
apapttq^au top oXop zqopop, dp xovxy nooop %k du- 
Uioi xov ptyi&ovg, xal ovx oXop * dp yao t$ napxl 
olov. Kal naXip dp x$ lata aXXo, xal dp kxaaxta o- 
poiatg, e¥ie loop, zXtb apiaop tw d$ aqxw ' dmnpiqn 
yaq ovdip, $1 e?ij popop lunsqaopivoy t* txaoxop • 
dtjlop yaq a>g dpaiqovphov xov x^opov, to amiqop 
oix avaiQe&rioeTvti, nmiqaopipyg xr# aqtaiqiomg yi- 
vopivr^g, xal t$ noow, xal xy nooaxig • <2$r ov di- 
tto w dv nsnegaopipy XQorto xb amtqo*. Ovdip xe 
$iaq>£qei xb piys&og dnl ddxtqa, % In apa>6xsqa sl- 
vai amigov * b yaq aixbg box at Xoyog. 4. 'Anofa- 
deiypevap di xovxtap, yaptqbp ot« oidi xb nmtqaopi- 
pop piye&og xb ansiqop dpdix*xat dieX&tiv dp nms- 
gaopivtp X°op(^, b*™ ih v <*v*H* oiixlap • dp yaq tw f*o- 

K 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


gl(o tov xqovov nensgaofiivov dleuji , xal iv btaatto 
mgavtmg, <3st' iv t$ nartl nsnsqaofUvov^ 5. *Ensl 
ovv to itSTtsgaafisvov ov dieiai to ansigov iv tibtzs- 
Qaa(jiiv(o xqovo), dtjXov ag ovds to itnuqov to nsns- 
qaofiivov si yao to ansiqovtb nsTtsoaofiivov, dva- 
yxr) xal to nsnsoaafAhov dusvcu to ansigov. Oidsv 
yag. duxtpigsi , onotsgov slvai to xivovfistov • a/upo- 
tsgag yag to nsnsgaopivov disusi to ansigov ' otav 
yag xmjrai to ansigov itp ft) to a , total ti avtov 
xata to P nsnsgaopivov, olov to y d, xal naXiv aJU 
Xo xal SXXo, xal asl ovtag. "Jlgts afia ovfipqostai 
to ansigov xexivfjod-at to nsnsgaofiivov, xal to ns- 
nsgaofiivov iisXrjXv&ivai to ansigov ovds yag dv- 
vatov l'o<»g, to ansigov aXXag xwtj&ijvcu Sia tov ns- 
nsgaop&vov, ij tgJ %g nsnsgaofiivov d Clival to ansi- 
gov, ij <psg6fievov, jj avafistgovv. "jlgt insl tovt 
advvatov, ovx ay ditoi to ansigov to nsnsgaq/iivov. 
6. 'AXXit flip ovds to ansigov iv nsnsgaofisva jfoorAi 
to ansigov dismv • si yag to ansigov, xal to nsns- 
gaofiivov • ivvnagxsi yag tg> anslgy xal to nsnsga- 
ofiivov. **Eti ds xal tov x^ovov Xtiq>&svtog , fj avrr) 
sotat anodsi£ig. 7. 'Ens! d ovts to nsnsgaofiivov 
to ansigov disiovv, ovts to anuoov to nsnsgaofiivov, 
ovts to ansigov iv nsnsgaofisva* XQOVti xivsitai^ q>a- 
vsgbv oti ovds xivtjaig sotai ansigog iv t$ nsns- 
gaofiiv(o XQOvtp • t/ yao diaq?igsi, tr\v xivijoiv, ij to 
(liys&og noisiv ansigov; avdyxq yao, si onots- 
govovv, xal &attgov slvai ansigov • naoa yao a>oga 
iv tonqj. 

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!&r«» de nap % xtv&rat ij rjqefiel to nearvxbg, ore 
leqpvxe, xal otF, xal £g • avayxtf to lordfuvor ore 
menai xivuo&ai' el yaq firj xt,vurai t riqefifjou. 
3 JX3l ovx todsxerat qqefjUCeo&ai to rjQtpovy. 2. Tov- 
iov d' anodedeiyfitoov, (paveqov on xal to /dow 
unaa&ai avayxi) • to yaq xiyovpeyoy to ZQ&V «*- 
nhai • to d* lorapevov, diduxtcn xtyovpeyox • mgre 
ivayxrj %v XQ° y *> tarao&ai. 3.^£t* o*' el to /*«* 
&arroy xal fiqadvreqoy ty xeovm Xiyopuy, Xoiao&ai 
<T ior* &anoy xal fiqadvreqoy, 4. *#* <p fl« ZQW<? 
nqawg to iaxafievov 'iorarai, ey bxtaovy avayxi) xov- 
tov toxao&ai • diaiqe&ipxog yaq xov xqovov, ei fib 
to pifiexiqtg rmy peqwy toxaxai, ovde to xi$ ol&. "Jlgx 
ovx ay torarai to loxa/ieyoy. Eld' to &axiqt§, ovx 
ay to 7i(HOT(a oX(p toxaixo • xa& kxaxtqov yaq to xov- 
t» unarm, xa&dntq ilix&r) xal inl rov xiyovptoov 
nq&reqor. "Jlgtxeq de to xtyovperoy -ovx eoxty to to 
nq£*a xwiixaij ovxwg o^'^rw toxaxai to Unape- 
voy. &.Ovxe yaq rov xivuo&at, ovxe xov loxao&ai 
faxi xt itqwtov • eoxto yaq, to <p notary toxaxai, £o/ 
» to a /?. Tovto 0S7, etfieqsg per ovx &&/<Ta* dvar 
xiyrioig yaq ovx toxiv to t£ apeqel, diet to xttuyi}- 
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w. IdXka firfy, si dtaiqexoy ioxiy, to oxtpovy avxov 
ti* jitqw toxaxai * tovto yaq dideixxai nqoxeqov, 
on to to TTQcottog toxaxai, to brcoovv xmy toehov iora- 
!»*, *Mml ovv xqovog iaxly, to <» wowtw^ Xoxaxcth 
*al ovx aropov • abza? fli ZQO*°$ **$ anetqa fieqioxog, 
oix torai to <$> tiowtw VaraTa*. 6. Ovdi 3ij to ^oc- 

d by Google 


ttovv, ot« ngwxov rjgipyotv, ioxip' ip aptou fiivyaq 
ovx rjgi^rjas, dim xb firj elvat, xirqoiv iv axofito • iv w 
5i xb jjQtfielv, xal xb xwtio&ai • tot* yao eyapev 
ijQtpsiv, bxs xa* *V w ra^t/xo? xw&o&ai, pr\ xw&xai 
to Trapvxo?. 7.*jBt» fli xa* tots Xiyopep rjgtfieiv, 
oxar buoiug %xy w* *<** ngoxeqov, wg ovx M Tm 
xolpopxsg, aXXa dvoip xoZp iXaxhxoip • cSst ovx sierra*, 
£y w i]Q9fi*h aptgsg. El da fjugtoxop, XQ°*°$ ** £ ty> 
xal ip bxtaovp avxov xStp pegwv rjga^Tjaek' top avxbp 
yaq xgonov dtix&ijoercu, op xal htl x&p ngortgop- 
<5$t ovdsp tfoxai, ngSnop, Tovxov d' aXnop, on, ^o«- 
a*I [ib xal xipefoai nap h XQ^pta • /ooi'os o* 3 ovx 
for* nQtaxog, oidi ui/B&og, ovd ' 2Ac»£ ovy«^? ov- 
fliV* anray yap *fe antiga peoioxop. 8. 'ifct* de Tray 
to xipovfitpop ip XQOvm xiptixai, xal 3x twos «r? Tt 
finafiaXXsi, ip <w /ooVw xiviixai, %a& avxb, xal ftfj 
xwp ip ixtlpov xipI, advpaxop tot* xaxa xi etpai ttow- 

TOV TO XIPOVfltPOP • TO y«0 ffOtflSlP iffXl TO *V TO! OV- 

t<5 «7yai xqopov xipit xal avxb , xal twt fitgcop fxa- 
oxop. Ovtw yao Xs/otup rjotfABip, oxop ip aXXco xal 
aXXw t$ w aAif#e? 17 Mnrety, on «V Tip ovtoi xai av- 
to, xal Ta ju&oj}. £l fli tovt for* to rjqefiBip, ovx ip- 
dixsxai to fisxaflaXXov xaxa xi slpai bXop, xaxa iir 
ngmtop xqopop • 6 yao XQ* V0 $ 9uugtxbg anag. "Slgxt 
ip aXXta xal aXXm avxov fiigu aXy&eg soxai tlnup, 
on ip tw «vrw &ro xa* avTo xal Ta ^0017 * «i ^ao fi^ 
ovtcu?, all' ip krl popy xwpvp, ovx h'oxai xQopop ov- 
&eva xaTa xi, aXXa xaxa xb nigaq xov xqopov • ip di 
t<j> pvp, ioxi ftip ail xaxa x% ubpop, ov fiipxo* ^o«/uw • 
ovt« yag xiptta&ai, ovxs ygifiup ioxtv ip tw pvp, ai- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


1c pii xvru&d-ai (Up alrf&ig h t£ pvp, xal tjpcu xa- 
ri -Uy iv ZQ®*^ & * ovx iyddx*xtu etyat, xaxa to ♦;©«- 
poir • avfifiairti ykg xb tytgopeyop ijgtp&p. . . 


Zijwv tf« 7xagaXoyi(nai-< si ydg ae*, qpqoiy, rigt- 
x£ *ax ^ ***&*<*h oxup if xerra to ktov • taxi 6* ' ae* to 
qpepopeyoy &> tw *vx, t£ x«t« to loor, dxiyrjrov xi\p (pt- 
oopfVijr livai 6'Iotop. ) 2. Tfct/TO di fan ipevdog • ov 
/of avynuxa* o jfooVos 4x twv rvv opxwp ddicugixw, 
epreo ov£' aAXo (iiyt&og ovdip. 3. TVrTaoes 6*' 
eta* Ao/ot 7r?p* xn^joeo»? Zi/ywros, ol nagixovxtg xag 
ivoxolictg rotg Xvovot. Jlgwxog flip, o tr*o* tov juij 
umo&ai, dim to TrooTeoov et? to tj/iiffu My dytxs- 
o&mi to tptgo/Atwop, ij ngbg to tbAo? * two* ov 6W- 
iopt* &» to*s ngoo&ip loyoig. 4. Jtvxtgog Si, 6 
xmlovfirrog *AxiXlsvg • Ijt* d^ovxog, on to figadv- 
nqov ovdi Ttoxe naxalt\<f>d-^atxui &iov vnb tov Ta- 
/kftov - cfinooo&tp yag apayxaiop £X&ur to tftwxov, 
ofrtv rngprjoe to <ptv/ov. "jlgx del xi ngoixup dva- 
•pmiop to j3^advx$gop. 5. "Eaxi Si xal ovxog o av- 
ti$ Xoyog t« dixoxofxtiv. dwupig** di ir t« duxiguv 
tfi) dV/a to 7TQogkccfij3av6/dtvov piyt&og. Tb pir ovp 
M xaxaXctfiftdptrt&ai xb figadvxtgop, avpflipfjxsp in 
tov ioyov. rlvtrav dk naga xb avxb xfj dixoxopin * 
fr apqpoTs'poi? ^ao ovfifiouyu pr} d<pixvtio&ai itgbg 
to niqag , diai^ovfihov itwg tov piyid-ovg * aXX« 

>00$X£4Ta* A' TOVTW , OT» Ovd« TO Ta/MTtOV TtTOa/OI- 

folftiyov iv t« dttMctty to figadvxtgop * wct av«/K»; 
««i t^jv Av<r*y f lya* T^r avT^v. To ^ ' a£*ovy, ot* to 
Too^o ov xenalatipdpexa*, ytvdog * otc yao tiocs^ 

Digitized by GOOgle 


X^h ov xataXapflavstai, al£ opwg xataXafiSavsrat, 
tlnsg dtoau b**$Uvai tr\v nsnsgaopivfjv. Ovtoi fjUr 
ovv Xoyoi dvo. 6. Tgitog ds, o vvv Qrj&elg, oxi r\ 
oiotbg ysgofisvtj sotyxs. 2vp(laivsi, ds naga to Ictft— 
fiavsw tbv xgovov ovyxeio&ai ix tmv vvv • fi$j dido- 
pivov yag tovtov, ovx total o ovXXoytOfiog. 7. 3Hb- 
tagtog ds, b nsgl t&v 4v i<j> otadita xtvovfUvmv 4£ 
ivavtlag i'oav byxmv nag I'oovg, tav psv anb tiXovg 
tov otadiov, rwv ds anb tov fuoov, tow ta%H, bf ta 
ovppaivsw oYetou, loov slvai xgovov t $ dmXaoiy tov 
yfiiovv. 8. *Eott d' b nagaXoyiopog h ttp, to fiiv 
naga xivovpsvov, to ds nag rjgspoiv, to loop fi&ys- 
&og d&ovv t$ loop ta/u tov loov <pigso&a$ xgovov. 
Tovto ds ipsvdog • olov souaoav ol iatmttg loot Sy- 
xoi, kp tav ta a a a a' ol ds 4<p oavta /?/?/?/?, igxo— 
tisvoi anb tov fisoov tav a, looi tbv ag&pbv tov— 
toig ovtsg xal to piys&og. Ol #' i<p tov ta y y y y, 
anb tov iax^tov loot tbv agt&pbv tovtoig ovtsg xal 
to psysdog, xal iootax&g toig /? • ovfifialvst dq to 
ngitov /?, afia inl iw iox<*tt» slvai, xal to ngSnov 
y, nagaXXrjXa xivovpsvav. 2uppalvn drj, ta y na- 
ga nana ta § disSsXrjXv&ivai * ta ds /J, naga ta 
7} filar) • &ots xal yfiiavv slvai tbv xgovov • loov yap 
kxatsgov ioti nag sxaotov, "Apa ds ovp/Salvu, ta ft 
naga navta ta y nagsXriXv&ivai* (<*(*<* yag sotai 
to ngwtov y, xal to ngmtov /?, inl toig ivavtiot? iox*~ 
*<M») loov xgovov nag* sxaotov yivopsvov wv ft, 
ooov nsgl xvv a, ag ffv^o^ dia to ifiyotsga loov XQO- 
vov naga ta a ylyvio&ai. '0 fisv ovv Xoyog, ovtig 
iott. Sv^alvu ds [naga] to tlgfjfUvov ysi'dog. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


9. Ovdi dri xaxa xqv iv xjj anupion ptrafoXrjv ov- 
iiy r^ilv earai advvaxov • olov «* 6c tow jmjj An/xov 
ag to Xevxov pBxa^aXUi, xal h infinity ioxlv, ig 
aqa ovxe Xevxbv taxai, ovxs py Xtvxov oi yag, u 
py oXav iv bnoxegiaovv ioxiv, oi JUj^ijoctcm Xtvxov, 
if ov Xtvxov • Xtvxov yag Xiyopev, tj ov Xtvxov, oi 
Ty oior elyou xowvtov, aXXa toj t« Tritetora ij Ta irv- 
gmjara ftdw ®* www &* tori, pr\ tlvai xt iv 
wita, xal pt) elvai h xovxto oXov. 'Opoiwg ft *«* 
ixl xov orxog, xal inl xov py ovxog, xal x&v aXXmv 
utw xori ivxlopaaiv taxai • pi) yag i* avayxrjg h &a- 
ugm Twy avxtxupivmv, iv ovdixdgq d* bXov at/. 
iO. HaXtv inl xov xvxXov, xal inl xt\g oyalgag, xal 
oX&$ Twy iv avxolg xwovp&vwv, oti ovpfirjatxai avxit 
ijgtptiv iv yag T«j> avitp tony, zgovov xiva sora* 
xml avicc, xal xa p*gr\. "Jlgxt r]gsprjau apa xal x*- 
njarrcu. 1 1 . JIgwxov piv yag xa pigy ovx toxiv iv 
t£ avxto ovdiva zgovov. JSixa xal to oXov psxa@aX- 
lu aitl sig kxtgov • ov yag rj avxtj iaxw r) anb tov a 
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tov y, xal xwv aXXwv ixaatov oqptlatv ' nXi\v tog o 
xovoutbg av&gtanog, xal av&gwnog, oxi ovpPiprjxsv. 
Ilgxt pexafiaXXu aUl r\ kxiga tig xqv ktigav, xal ov- 
dinoxs r t Qipri(jM. Tov avxbv di xgonov xal inl xr^g 
ofaiqag xal xav \aXX<av\ iv avxotg xtvovsUvwv. 
Idnodsduypbmv di xovxfav, Xiyoptv, on to apsoig 
ovx Mix**** xwTo&ai, nXip xaxa ovpftsptixog • olov 
xtrovpsvov tov ot&paxog, ij tov peyi&ovg, tov iv a 
vnaqx^h *<*&&7uq av el xb iv t£ nXolta xtvoixo vno 

Digitized by GOOgle 


trjg tov nXolov q>ogag, ij to ftigog rfj tov oXov x*- 
vi\ou. 'Ajicgig tie Xeyo), to xata noobv adialgstov^ 
xal yag al t&v fiegmv xwr\Gug ttsgai dot xat avtd 
ts tot fiigrj, xal xata ftjv tov oXov xlvrjmv. 'idoi d 
av tig xal inl ti}$ oqpalgag fidXiottf ttjv duxq>ogdv * 
oif yag to avtb tdxog satai twv te ngbg tw xivtgta, 
xal twv ixtbg, xal tr\g oXijg, wg ov ptdg ovorjg xiv^- 
oetog. Ka&dntg ovv ei'nofisv, ovtto fiev iydizetcu xi- 
vuo&cti to Afisgeg, Ag o iv t§ nXoua xa&tflievog, tov 
nXolov &iovtog* xa&* avtb d' ovx ivdix*tat. 2. Jfefc- 
ta(ittXXit(o yag ix tov a /S elg to /? y, Bit 4x ptyi- 
&ovg tig (iiys&og, eVt i$ rfdovg eig eldog, stts xat 
dvxUpaoiv. e O ds XQOvog so~t<a iv w ng&tta jusra/ftxJU 
Xsi, iq? ov o\ Ovxovv dvdyxr\ y avtb,' xa& ov (itta- 
ftaXXei XQWWy rj iv ta a fi elvm, rj iv tw /ff y, ij to 
(jl&v t* avtov iv tovio), to di ti iv &afigip • nav yag 
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note, xsxtvirjo&at d' ash tovto d' or* ddvvatov, 
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dp xivfjair «| apsgmv, xa&ditsg av ti tbv xqovov ix 
ww w, ij to piyt&og ix ottypuv. A.**Eti ds xal 
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fiov ovSiw ivdirttat xivsio&ou • amx? yag to **- 
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ngbv oti xal ?/ ottypri [rjj skattov q loov xwij#^o«- 
•Guhowtov. Ensl d' ddvaigstog , advvatov tkattov 
ttnfti\vai ngotegov • Yorjv 'Sga kavtrj. "jlgts sot at rj 
Yyafifih ix otiyptov • del yag Vorj xivovpivri, tijv na- 
na* ygafi/irjv cri/fii] xataftetgrjosi. El ds tovto adv- 
vaiov, xal to xivtio&ai to adiaigstov, advvatov. 
S.'Eti d*, si anav ivxQOvto xivsltai, iv ds* t$ vvv 
tHt&b, anag ds XQOvog dtatgttbg, tftj at tig XQovog 

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8. El ovv xo (ptgoptvov psxafiaXXoi sig xi, xal dvva- 
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d by Google 




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Digitized by GoOgle 

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xoivw, vq> kxiqov, ineidrj xal avxb xiviixat, xal rea- 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


tov levxov tig xb pilar, jj ix xov aya&ov tig xb *a- 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


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xs&svxog, ovdsv axonov idei ovpfiaiveiv. 

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Digitized by GOOgle 


fdr yaq dltaatg anwaig- rj yaq an avxov, rj an ai- 
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nqbg alio, oxav &dxxov ij xivrjoig y xov sXxovxog, r t 
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ayvxov dXXoiovxai, xal xb sfupvxov, xa& boa ds xb 
sfupvxov, ov xaia xavxa ndvxa xb dipvx ov% °i /<*? 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


to* alloiovfuyop • tw uh yag ovpsxvi 6 ar\g, tw 6*' 
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paoh xal h xaig fiogqtaig, xal h xa%g t&soi, xal xaig 
tovrav Xyyeot xal anopoXaig, aXXoiaoiv vndgxw 
kr ovderigoig di iaxi* to fih ydg oxwovtitdpvpop 
nav intTtXea&fj, ov Xdyofisy ixtivo 1$ ov iouv • otov, 
top avdguxna x**Xxbv, ij %\\v nvgafiida xqgbv, f} trjv 
xllvr\v £vXov • aXXa 7iag&w(iia£ovrtg t to fikv *aA- 
xovv, to de xqgivov, to di fyuXivov • to di nenop&bg 
xal riXlouofiivov ngogayogtvo/iw. Srigbv yag, xal 
i/gbv, xal oxXrjgov, xal &igpbv tov jafcrtoy Xiyopep 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xal xbv xqgov • xal ov fiovov ovxwg, aXXa xal to v- 

ygOVXal TO &£QjXOV %(xlx6}> IfyoflSV, OfUtiVVflWg Ty 

na&si ngogayogsvovxsg xr\v vXv\v. "flgx' si xaxa fisv 
to axtlfia xal xi\v pogiprjv ov Xsysxai to ysyovbg iv 
oj ioxi xb (JXrjfia, xaT <* &* T « rcarfy * «* *a$ aXXoua - 
o«S Xiysxai, (pavsgbv on ovx av slsv ai ysviosig ccvtcli 
aXXouoosig. 3. *'Ext di xal sinew ovttag atonov av 
do&itv, rj uXXoiovo&cu rbv avd-gtanov, rj tr)v olxiav, 
rj SXXo btiovv %Stv ysysvrjfisvtov, aXXa ysvso&ai fUv, 
i'owg sxaotov avayxaiov, aXXotovfxivov nvog. Olov 
trig vXr\g Tcvxvovfievrjg, ij fiavovfiivrig, ij &8Qpaivope- 
vrjg, r\ \f)vxofiivr\g. Ov fxsvtoi 1a yivbfisva otXXoiov- 
tcu, oid' i) yivsoig ait&v aXXoiaxjlg ionv. 4. jtXXit 
firj> oilts ai s$sig, ovts ai tov otopatog agstaL j& 
lih yag agstal, ai di xaxiai, xtbv e&wv. Ovx eon ds 
ovts r\ agstr), ovts r) xaxia aXXolaoig, aX£ r) psr ags- 
tr\ tsXsltooig tig iotlv otav [/ao] *«/?# iV v kavxov 
agstr)v f tots Xiystat tsXsiov sxaotov • tots yag ion 
fiaXiota to xata <pvoiv • &gnsg xvxXog xiXstog, otav 
fiaXusta ysvrjtai xvxXog §iXtiotog, *H 6s xaxia, q>&o- 
ga tovtov xal txotaaig. "Jlgnsg ovv ovts to xr)g ol- 
xlag xsXsiatfia Xiyofisv aXXolatow (atonov yag & b 
&giyyog xal b xigafiog aXXoloaoig, rj si &giyyofiivr} 
xal xsgafiovfisvri aXXoiovtai, aXXa fir) xsXsiovxai r) 
oixia • ) xbv aitbv xgonov xal inl xtbv agsxiv xal 
x<bv xaxiav, xal xatv i%6vx(av rj Xafifiavovxmv * al fiiv 
yag xeXsuooeig, ai 8s ixaxaosig sioiv • Sgxs ovx aX- 
Xouoosig, En 8s xai (paper anaoag slvai tag agsxig 
iv x$ ngog t* nmg fysiv xag ph yag xov owpaxog, 
olov vyieiav xal svstiav, iv xgaon xal ovfipsxQi* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


&tgfi«oy xat y>vxQ&i> xl&tfity, rj avxa ngog avxa xQy 
torog, fj ngog xo ntgiixov. 'Opoiug di xal to xaXXog 
xal iTjv wzv*9 x «* T «? aXXag agnag xal xaxia g. *Exa- 
arfi yag 4ax$ toi ngog t* 7ia>£ Cy«*r, xai jwoJ t« oixtia 
na&rj sv tj xaxa>? dtaxi&rjav to e/oy * otx&a 5', v<p* 
«y ylyyso&ai xal y&Hgto&ai ni<pvxtv. 'jSmt ovy to 
ngog n ovxs avxa iaxiv aXXouooug, ovxb avxwy ioxty 
aXXoiaxng, ovxs ytotoig, ov& oXmg ovdi pexafhXri 
ovdeuia, fpaytgby or* ov&* al I$tt?, ov&* at x<oy ffceatt' 
anopoXal xal XTfiftug, aXXouooeig tiely, aXXa ylyyt- 
o&ai fib fatag avxai xal (p&dgeo&at, aXXoiovfUwav 
rivwy avayxri, xa&aneg xal xb eldog, xal xip ftog- 
q>fjr, o%oy &egfuoy xal ipvxg&v, rf £i?0a>? xal vyg&y, i\ 
to oTg rvyxavovoiv ovocu ngtoxoig • ntgl xavxa yag 
bcaaTrj Myexai xaxia xal agexri, vq? tay aXXoiova&at 
niqpvxe to %xoy • q fiiy yag agstrj noiti ana&ig, fj 
&g dsi na&TjTixoy fj di xaxia nad"nxtxby fiiy toav- 
xl&g xal ana&ig. 5. 'Ofioitog di xal toil xS>y xyg yw- 
ZV$ 8?««w. "dnaoai yag xal avxat t£> ngog xi nag 
%Z*irV f xal al fiiy agtral xtXtunaug • al di xaxiai 4x- 
orcicFBtg. "Ext di, r\ fiiy agsxtj tv diaxl&rjot ngog xa 
oixua na&rj • v\ di xaxia xaxtog. v Jlgx* ovd' avxat 
zaovxat, aXXoimottg' oifdi dy xal anoftoXccl xal al 
XrjtpHg avxiov. 6. riysa&ai d ' avxag avayxaXoy aX- 
Xotovfitoov xov aUj&tjTixov fiigovg' aXXoLW&rjoexai 
di vnb Twr aio&tjxiay anaoa yag ij y&ixi} aorr^, 
negl tjdovag xalXvnagxag oonfiaxixag • avxai di r) iv 
to* ngaxxHy, ^ iv x§ (if[iyii<j&ai, ij to t£ tynliivy. Al 
fiiv ovy to Xfi ng<*$u, xaxaxijy ata&tjaly tioiv, wg& vno 
aic&rjxov xtyog xivila&ai' al d* to tJ /uj'ij/ui? xal 

Digitized by GoOgle 


tf) ilnidh ino xavxyg nob* ?j yao ola thta&ov fit- 
(AVtjuhoi ydovxai, rj iXnl^ovxtg ola fiivovaiv. "jlgr 
avayxrj naoav xijv xotavxrjv r)dovt)v, into x&p aio&Tj- 
xav ylyvto&ai. 3 £nsl 6' rjdovijg xal Xwtrjg iyyiyvo- 
fievrjg, xal rj xaxla, xal r) aotxr) iyylyvzxai* (nsgl 
xavxag yaq daw *) at da rfioval xal ai Xv-rtai aXXoua- 
osig xov aio&t\xixov • (pavegov oxt aXXowvpivov xi- 
vbg, avayxr\ xal xavxag anofictXXew, xal Xafxfiavuv. 
*'jixi, r) ub yiviotg avxtav uex aXXouaomg, avxrj d' 
ovx taxw aXXoiwoig. 7. AXXa pr)p ovd$ tw diavorj- 
xix$ piosi xr)g ipv%r)g r) aXXoiwoig. To yaq lnioxr\- 
fiov paXusxa xStv nqog xh Xiysxai. Tovxo di drjXov • 
xax ovdeplav yao dvvapw xivm&uow lyyivvtai %c 
xr)g inkoxfjfiTjg, aX£ vnaqtavxog xwog ' ix yaq xrjg 
xaxa piqovg ifineiqiag xr)v xa&bXov XaufiarofiBp 6w- 
axtifiriv, Ovde dr) rj ivigyua yiveoig, u fir] xig xal 
xr)y avafiXtyjiv, xal xr)v a<pr)v ytviaug qprjoi' xoiovxo* 
yao r) iviqyna. JlaXiv 8i xr)g XQV aBm 9 * w * T *fc £*«£- 
ytiag ovx !<ro y&vtaig, ** f*V xig xal xr)g avaflXitpeotg, 
xal xr)g ao)fjg ol'sxai ybtoiv thai, xal xo Ivsqyuv 
ofioiov xovxoig, *H de ££ aqxyg Xr)yjig xr)g imoxyptig, 
yivtoig ftkv oix Moxiv, ovd' aXXoitoaig • xo yaq i)qt- 
firjoou xal oxr)vai xr)v diavoiav, inloxaodai xal <pQo- 
vuv liyopi&a. Big ds xb r)qtpuv, ovx Soft* yivsaig * 
oXwg yao ovdepuxg uexaPoXr)g,xa&a7isqtl'qr)xai nqo- 
xsqov. %, Exb de, tognsq oxav ix xov pe&vuv, ij xa&$v- 
deir, rj voaiiy ug xa ivavxla usxaoxy xig, ov (pap** 
imaxtjfiova ytyovivai naXw '. xalxot advvaxog p rj 
imaxrjfit} /p*j(j#«* ngoxeqov • ovxto ovd' oxav i£aQ- 
%i\g XanfiavT) xt)v ejiy jy yuq xa&ioxaodai rijv 

Digitized by GOOgk 


yvxhv ix xr t g rj&LXTjg uosxiig, (poovifiov xt yivtiai xal 
imarijfjiov. Jib xal xa naidia ovxb (lav&avuv'dvva- 
xai, ovxb xata xag aiod-yattg bpoltog xolveiv rdig 
ngeofivxd^oig • noXXr) yao i) ragaxi) xal q xlvt)0*g. 
Ka&loTctTcu da xal navsxai trig xaoaxTjg, toti pip 
vnb trig qtvatatg, xoxe 6' vn aXXmv • iv afi^oxiqoug 
di aXXoiovfiivmv xtvmv xStv iv owpaxi, xa&antQ hu 
xr\g iyigasfog, xal trig ivtgytiag, oxav vtjq>a>v yivtfxai 
xal iyig&jj. &avsobv ovv ix xtov efyijpivw, on to 
aXXo&ova&ai xal aXXoiaoig, %v xb rdig aiad-fjxoig yi- 
vexai, xal [if] iv tw aio&rjxixo) fioglca ir\g yw/Jf? • iv 
aXXco de ovdsvl, nXr^v xaxa avfipe^rjxog. 
^Anoq^tu d* av xtg, nbxtoov soxai xivrjoig naoa 
rtiaji av/u/W^Tt,, rj ov. 22* oi\ ioxt naoa ovfifiXrixr), 
xal opoxaxeg xb iv i'o<a XQ°*<o \oov xwovptvov, Zoxai 
n€qupior]g xtg I'orj *v& la, xal(isi£wv ty xal iXaxxw. 
*jEt*> aXXoiaoig xal yoga tig Torj, oxav iv Xoia jfooVcp, 
xb i*kv aXXouo&rj, xb d! h%x&$* "Eoxm aga laov xb 
na&og (irjxei' aX£ advvaxov. *£Xt aga oxav iv lata 
XQOvcq laov xivrj&T] , tot* ia ox ax eg * loo* di aim saxi 
na&og {irjxsi. "jlgxe oix soxiv aXXoimaig yoga toy, 
ovdi iXaxxow. "jlgxt ov naaa ovfifiXifxr]. 2. *Enl d$ 
xov xvxXov xal xrjg ev&tiag nag ovftpfjosiai; axonov 
xe yog, u fir) lora* xvxXtp, 6 potto g xovxo xivtiodai, 
xal tovto inl xi}g tv&ilag • aXXa ev&vg avayxrj rj 
&axrov, rj floudvxtQov, wgneg u, xb fiiv xaxavxeg, xb 
d* avavxtg. 3. "Ex* ovdh diaatiou [oid' iv] x<p io- 
yy> f tt xig (prjotuv, avayxt\v thai, -fraxxov tvfrvg % 
ffqadvxeoov xivuo&ai * taxai yao fuifav nal iXaxrtav 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ij Ttsgicptgyg tt\g si&Biag, wgte xal fori • u yag iv> -re 
a XQova, to fisv trjv fi diriX&e, to Sb tijv y, piV&nv «. 
ejty r) /? iris y ovrat yag to #«rroy iXiyeto. Ovtctyv. 
xal u iv iXdnovt loov, S-attov &gt total t* fidgo 
tov a, iv to to & tov xvxXov to loot dietoi, xal to ; 
iv oho t$ a ttjv y. 4. 'AXXa (ifa, ti fort £vfipX*]Tcc 
avftfialvu to agti $r}&h, Varjv sv&tiav elvcu xvxX<p 
aXX* oi SvppXrjTa, ovd' aga at xwqotig. *Al£ Sac 
ur\ bfidwfia, anavta tvppXTjrd. Olov dut tl oi £v/u- 
fiXfftbv, nottgov b^vtsgov to ygaiptiov, ij b olvog, 4 k 
ff vf\t^ % oti yag bfitopvfia, ov SvpflXrita, aXt ij vt/t^j 
tji nagavrjti] ^vftfiXtftbv, oti to avtb arifiaivn to 6$i 
in otfi<poTv. jig ovv ov tavtbv to ta^v iptav&ct, 
xaxei; noXv di ti t\txov h aXXoitoon xal <pogy. 5.**.fl 
ngwxov fi$v toito oix dXrj&sg, ig ti fiy bfttowfAa 
tvpflXrjtd ,' to yag noXv to avtb atjfiaivM iv vdcrzt 
xal aigi, xal ov ovfi^iritd. El di (it}, to ys dmXoi- 
Oiov to aitb • dvo yag ngbg tv, xal oi ovfifiXtixct, 

6. *H xal i*l tovttav b avtbg Xoyog; xal yag to no- 
Xv bfitavvfiov, *AX£ iviorv xal bfttivv/toi oi Xoyov • olov 
ti Xiyot, tig, oti to noXv to toaovtov, xal en aXXo to 
toaovtov, xal to loov bfitovvfiov, xal to tv di, ei rrv— 
X£v, si&vg bfitovvfiov. Ei di tov to , xal ta dvo. 

7. *JEfJttl did tl ta ftiv ovfipXritu, ta di ov / tl'irsg tiv 
fila (pvoig. "h ott iv aXho ngtota dtrnjixat; o psv ovv 
fvenog xal b xvav £i//i/?Ai?Ta, nottgov Xtvxottgov iv 
<p yag Ttgwtto, to avtb, f/ imydvna • xal xata f**ye- 
&og ugavtag. v Tda>g Si xa} qxavi) ov- iv aXl(f yoig. 

8. it Vqlov ot* €or«* oiJtw ya nana W noulv, iv oi- 
I* di fxaoTor ydoxtiv that, xal fotai tavtbv loov, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


M* yXvxv, xal Xtvxbv, aX£ fa aXXw. 9. Kal hi St- 
nocbv ov to tvxop iotiv, aXt fy frog to ngatov. *Al£ 
ioa ov povov del ia £vu(lXryia ur) bfttivvua tlvai • 
ilia xal fir) tzuv diaqpogav, pr\tt o, ur]i fa a> * Xiyta 
te 9 olov zQ&pa *%& diatpoeav rj diaigtoiv* toiyagovy 
ot avfi(3lrjToy xata tovto • olov nbttoov xc/oai/ua- 
xunai paXXov firj xata %i xgrnpa, aX£ ri jroai/ua * al- 
ia xata to Xsvxov. Ovtat xal ntol xivijotv buotaxh 
rib Tata XQOV<a xivrftfa laov tooovdi. 10. Ei drj 
tov arptovg fa tmdl, to ft fa r)lloaa&rj, to oe r)vix&vi ' 
toi\ aoa avtrj r) aXXoicwig xal buotaxh? T JI 9>°Q% » 
il£ aroTvov. Altiov tii, ot* r) xivr\oig &** tidy. v Jlg- 
u d ta iv tm foes ZQ°*<*> fasx^irta laov uyxog , ioo- 
Toi/ij totai, Xar\ r) tv&eioc xal r\ ntguptgr]g. IIoteqov 
ovv altiov, oil r) yooa yfaog, r) ot* r) yqaupr\ yfaog ; 
b uiv yag x°ovog 6 aitbg as* Stouog rat ttdti, rj xal 
aua ixtiva efdn diayiqu; xal yog r) atoga sidy bxbi, 
ay txtivo sxjl s Xdtj, &P ov xivittai. "Eti de av Si ov, 
oiov, ti TioSeg , fiadung * si ntigvyeg , Tttrjoig ; r\ ov, 
alia roig oxrjuaoiv r) g>oga aXXtj; agts ta fa Xtfto 
ZQoyta to airtb uiye&og xivovusva iootaxij' to avtb 
& diaq>ogov sldei, xal xivi\o*g adiaq>ogov elSei. 1 1 . 
"Sign tovto axsTtrior, rig duupooa xirrjowg. Kal 
oiiuaiysi ys o loyog ovtog, on to yfaog ovx $ 9 *h «^- 
i« itaga rovto Xay&ayet nolla. EioL tt tuy bfuoyv- 
fuw, al fifa noXv anixovaai, al Si twit buoiotyta 
yovoai, al ds iyyvg, t] yfasi, r) avaloyla. Jib ov 
doxovaiy bpmrvfilai elvai, ovoai. Jlott ovy tttgov 
to ildog; iaytavxb fa aXXco, rj av alXo fa aXXta; xal 
tig ogog, % tw xoivovptv, ot* tavtb to Xtvxbv, xal 

Digitized by GoOgle 


to yXvxi, v SlXo • ij oxi iv aXXcp qpaivnai tttqov ; ij 
on Slug ov xavxo, 12. Utol dy aXXouAatag nwg 
iaxtv iaoxax ffg kxiga hiqa; tl oV/ iazi to vyidZto&ccir 
aXXoiovo&ai. "Eaxi 6i, top fiev xaxif, xov ds ftoadewg 
la&rjvai, xal Spot wag. *Jlgxt iaxlv aXXoUaaig loo- 
xaxyg * iv Votp yaq XQOvqt tjXXoho&t). *AXXa xl ^i- 
Xolw&t),- xb yaq laov ovx tuxai ivxav&a Xtyofitvov, 
dXX wg iv to) 7100$ 1(j6xt}$, ivtav&a ofMHOXtjg. *AX£ 
loro) to avxo unafiaXXov iv foxy XQOvy iooxaxig. Ho- 
xtqov ovv iv (a to izd&og, rj xo nd&og du ovfifiaXXtiv; 
ivxctv&a fitv drj oxi f) vylua rj avttj, iaxl Xafitiv, ij 
[<m] ovxt fiaXXov, ovxt tfxxov, al£ bfioimg \maqx*** 
3 Eav de to nd&og alio ij, olov aXXoiovtai xo Xtvxa*- 
vofisvov, xal xo vyiatbfitvov, xovxoig ovdsv xo avxo, 
ovd 3 laov, ovd 3 opotov, jj [ifiij] xavxa tXdr\ noisi «A- 
louooswg, xal ovx Max* pia, tigntQ oidi <pood. Jlgxt 
Xqmiovy noaa tVdij aXXouaattag, xal nbaa yooag. Ml 
uiv ovv xd xivov/itva ttdn diaqpioti <av tlaiv at xivtj- 
otig xa& 3 avrd, xal fir) xaxa ovfifitfifjxbg, xal al xi- 
vrjotig stdsi dtoiaovoiv * u di yivu, yivti • u di doi- 
&/*$, doi&pou 13. *AXXd dtj noxtqov tig xo nd&og 
dii fiXiiftai, iav y xb avxo ij opoiov * u loot ax tig al 
aXXouooug, ?j tig xb aXXotoiftevov • (olov tl, xov fiiv 
joiovdl XtXtvxavxai, xov di xooovdl, i ij tig afuptt ; xal 
7] avtij fiiv, t) aXXq tw nd&u, ti xb avxo, ij aXXo * 
i'oti di ij avusog, el ixtivo laov ij Svtaov. 14. Kal 
inl ytviattog di xal <p&ooag xb avrb axtntiov, nmg 
laoxaxvg h yivtaig, tl iv lay xoovy xb avxb xal «to- 
lio*, olov avfytmog dXXa ^ &ov ddrxvv di, tl 
iv fry htoov • ov yao fyopiv t*va Mo, iv olg q h*. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


oixfjg, ag fj avo/iotoxrig. Kal si boxiv aqiS^fibg rj ov- 
via, ixXsioiv ij ilaxxuv aot&fibg ofioiotidr)*; • all' Avm- 
vvfiov to xoivbv, xal to kxaxsqov * [nolov • xb (Up 
Jioioy,2 &&**<} xbnXsiov ni&og, rj to vtzbqsxov, ftaXXov 
to ds noabv, pslCov, 

*JEitsl Si to xivovv xivsl 11 [«**>] *«* tv xwi, xal 
p&XQ 1 T ° v ' (Xsyw ds, to fisv sv xivi, ox% iv XQOvq • to 
d*e fiiZQi- tov, ot* 7to(Tov t* fiTjxog- a el yaq afta xivsi 
xal xbxIvijxbv. "jlgxs noabv xt Xaxai o ixivrj&ri, xal 
iv noam •) el flij to /ueV o to xivovv, to ds /? to jm- 
vovjisrev • oooy 6*e xBxivr^xai fiijxog, Toy eV oow 6*» 
o XQOv°g i<p ov 8 • ^r^ tw ftr<p ^o^w iy foi? tivva- 
fiig if iq? w a, to ij/iiov xov /9 dmXaaiav xov y xivri- 
0€». T^y fle to y, & t<» ^/<m tov £. Ovtco yaf 
iviXoyov soxai. 2. Xa* «t ij avT^j dvvafiig xb avxo 
iv xcodl t$ XQOvm, xi\v xootjvde xivil, xal Tyv fifilosuip 
iv T<p tifjLiau, xal y riftiosia ioxvg xb ijftuiv xwr^osh h 
tip faep XQOVGt to Too** oloy ti}$ a dvvafistag sarw 
ilfifoetra fi to *, xa* tov /3 to £ jjfiuov • bfioltag dy 
t'xovoh xal avaXoyov rj ioxvg nqbg xb (taoog. Jlgxs 
xo iaov iv Votp /oovcp xtvrjoovat, 3. Kal si to « to f 
xivtt iv toi 8 xipf y, ovx avayxtf iv Tip lam XQova xo 
itp ov e xb dmXaaiov xov £ xivslv xr\v rifilouav xrjg y 
bI dri to a xrj* xb /5 xivtjou iv x<$ d, oai\v y xb y, xo 
TipiAjv xov a, xb iq? ov e xijv xb /J ov xtrrjoBi iv xy 
ZQOV€0 iq? w d. Oid' IV xivi xov 5 xl xr\q y, t) avo- 
Xoyov nqbg xtjv olyv xr\v y, &g xb a nqbg xb b • Slag 
yocg, si bxvxbv, ov xwi\OBi ovdiv • si yay y oky lox v $ 
joofjyds ixlvfjosv, v\ ijfiiosia ov xwyosi, ovxb nooriv, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ovts iv onoatoovv • slg yao av %vvolr\ to nXoiov, st 
nsQ ij T« tmv vsoXxwv tifivstai loxvg slg toy aqi&fib 
xal slg to fiyxog, o Ttavtsg ixivrjoav. due* tovto 
Zrjvwvog Xoyog ovx dXrj&rjg , wg y>o<psi tr^g xsyxqo\ 
otiovv fiigog * ovSh yao xwXvsi pri xiv&v toy aig\ 
iv prjdsvl zoo**? tovtov ov ixlvtjasv ifintamv b 0X0 
fiidifivog • ovdi drj tooovtov fioqiov, boov ay xnv^on 
tov oXov, si ei'tj xa& avio, tovto oi xwsl * oids ya 
ovdiy iottv aXtf ij iv tip oXtp dvvapsi. 4- £l dit 
dvo, kxatsoov ds jwvds kxatsoov xivsi tooovds iv to 
owde, xal ovvti&spsvah ai dvvdfistg to ovv&stov I 
tStv fiaoa>v, to loov xwrjoovoi fifjxog, xal iv Xo<a XQ * 
v<p • dvaXoyov yaq. Aq ovv ovtat xal in aXXoua 
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tow noiji T0 * y > V T0 vtixog noXXa i£ bog' rigsfisiv 
w h xoig fisxa&v zgovoig • Xiywv ovxmg, 

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Digitized by GOOgle 

174 AR1ST0TEL1S 

ri yag, y di diaXXdaaovxav, iv&ivds £xuob Xiytiv at/- 
xoy VTtoXrjTniov. 3. 2xenriov dij ntgl xovxeav 7ra>£ 
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dewgiay idsiv xyv aX^&siav, aXXa xal ngbg rrjy jce- 
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piTOL$Xr\iov . "jlgxs Set ngotsgov xavaxbv elvai Tight 
xdsa&ai, xal xavoxtxbv nglv xauv. 5* Ovxovv xal 
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xivsi povax&g, xa di xag havxlag xivtjoug' oXov, to 

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iter nvg &sgfia{vsi, yvx* 1 * d* ov • 1} di imotiipii do- 
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tog is dsixwaiv dtg advvatov anavta ysyovivai • toy 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 



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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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opTjrtiy ' tig xovvavxlov yag q aXXoiuMHg. *0,xt Xi&qg 
ovT8 oxXygoxtgog yivtxai, ovxt paXaxmxtgog. 4. Ka- 
xd t« to (psQeo&ac &avpaoxbv, tl XiXrj&tv 6 Xi&og 
xdxoj cpeoofuvog, fj (xivwv inl xijg yiqg. "Eti d', tj yr\ 
xal %5rv aXXoay txaaxov, iS avdyxyg fiivovoi fiiv iy 
xolg oUttioig xbnovg , xiyovyxai di fiiaitog ix xovxtav. 
EXtxsq ovv iW avxay iaxw iv xolg olxtiotg xbnoig, 
dvdyxt] /iridt xaxd xbnov ndvxa xwtio&ai. "(Jxi fAtv 
ovv ov dvyaxoy, ij dtl ndvxa xiviio&ai, rj dtl ndvxa 

Digitized by GOOgle 


rjQBfielv, ix xovxuv xal allow xoiovx&y morswmw S\ 
xig. allot firjv ovxs xd fib ««♦ iydix^at yosfiuv, *i 
<T del xwuo&ai' noxi d* rjoefislr, xal noxextysc 
a&ai ptfiiy. Aexxiov d* oxi ddvvaxov, wgneg euj 
xwy si^rifUvwf nqoxeqoy, xal inl xoixwv • oqwfisv ye^ 
inl x&v avxw> yiyyop&ag rig elqrip*yag fUx«(3okag 
xal ngbg xovxotg, oxi pax*** 1 T0 *$ (pavegolg o ckf*- 
qHOprfrSiv ovxe yog av$t}mg, ov&* tj fiiaiog Icrroe 
xlyyoig, ei fiij xivTj&rjoerai naga <pv<siy to ^fjBOt;; 
ngoxegov. ttveaiv ovv dvatgu xal <p&ogav ovxog < 
loyog. 2x*dbv di xal to xwuo&ai, ylveo&ai t* xcc 
cp&tigsa&ou doxel naaiv • ug o pkv ydg pexafialXet 
yivexai xovxo, fj iv xovxqt • 4£ ov di fiexafiallei, <p&*i- 
gexai xovxo, 1} ivxev&ev. &. v Jlgxe drjlov, or* rot psi 
xiveixah, xad* rjgefiel ivlox£. To di Tidvxa aftovy 
oxi (isv ygepelv, oxi di xtveio&cu * xovxo ijdrj owa- 
nxiov ngbg xovg ndXav loyovg. *Agxip di naJUv tioit^ 
xiov aito xiav vvr dioqw&ivxfov, xijv avxyv rpiug yg< 
$d(ie&a ngoxegov. 6. "& ydg to* ndvxa yoefiel , <i 
ndvxa xtveixai ' i] xd pb> qgejiet, xa di xw&xai tcwj 
ovxuv. Kal el xd fdv yoepu , xd di xwelxai xm> oV- 
tow, dvdyxrj tjxoi ndvxa, oxi fiiv ygeftuv, oxi $& xi- 
vtlo&ou ♦ rj xd (xey del tjgepeZv, xd di del xiveZa&ct 
avxtav ' xd d*, oxi fiiv yoifi&y, bxi di xwuo&at. TOr 
fib ovv xohvv ovx oXov xe ndvxa rjgefiuv, sl'grjxat fi£i 
xal nqdxtqoy • Bintofuy di xal yvv tl ydq xax txXrj- 
&siav ovitag sxei, xa&dnsq xivsg qtaaw elyat to Si 
dneiqov xal dxLyqxov, all* ov t* (pair gt a I ye xaxd t?jj 
aXodriow, alia xtystxai nolla xSty ovxwv. EXtizq ovi 
taxi do$a yevdrig, ?j Slug do$a, xal xlytjolg i<m, ac£j 

Digitized by GOOgle 


si opavraoia, xav oti fib ovtttg doxy tlvxn, oti 6* t- 
xiqwg • rj yitq tpanaoia ual 4 doh* xwqoug tivig 
donovaiv slvai. 'dXXit to fib mql tovtov mtontir, 
xal ^rjtelv Xoyov, wy (MXxiov fyoper V Xoyov dtlo&ai, 
xax&g xqlvuv iaxl to fliXtiov xal to /'fyo?, *al to 
niaxbv xal to fitj rnaxbv, xal aqxh v *°* PH VQXW' 
*Ofioimg ds advvatov ual to nana xtvJUj&ai * ij tit 
fUv atl H4vuo&cu, ta d* atl r\qifitiv' nqog anavta 
yog tavta ixavrj fiia nlattg * oq&fitv yaq but, oxi 
fib xivovfuva, ore d* f\qtfiovvta. "jlgtt tpavtqbv on 
advvatov ofioiwg to nana iiqtfi&v, ual to navta x*~ 
vsur&ai owtxfcs > T <j> T « t** v <*** xiv&o&ai, ta di n- 
qtfiilv atl. 7. Aombv ovv dcwQijUov, nittqov nav- 
ta toiavta ola xivua&ai ual yqtfiuv, jq ma fib ov- 
tesg, Uvia d' atl tjQtpu, bt>a d' ail xivtitat * tovto 
yitq Stixtiov f)(iiv. 

T&v dtj xivovmnv xal xwovfibw , ta fib xati 
ovfipefiyxos **>*& xal xtvittai, ta di xati? avta, Xa~ 
ta tjvfifieprixbg fib, olov oaate tw vnaqx*** tolg x»- 
vovatv rj xivov/iivotg • xal tit xatit fioqtov* ta di 
xa&* avta, oaa fit) tip inaqxtiv ttp xtvovm i} xivov- 
fibta, pride tto fioqtov ti aixSw xiviiv r) xtveia&cu. 
T&v di xa& avta, tot fib vop avtwv, ta 61 in aX- 
Xov - xa* Ta fib (pvaet, tit 6s ($la xal naoa q>votv • 
to,t8 yitq avxb vcp ctvtov xvvovfitvov, <pvau xiviitai, 
olov txaotoirttav £w<»v xwiitai yaq to £wov avtb 
iq? avtov. "Ootov 6* r\ aqxy i* avtoXg tr^g xivtjotwg, 
tavxa tpvou q>afib xivbio&cu. Jib, to fib £wov oXov 
<pvoei> avtb kavtb xtvU* to [ibtot awfia bdix*t<** 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xal cpvoei xal naqa q>voiv xtveio&ai ' 6ia<psgei yd 
onoiav is xlvrjow xivov/isvov tvxr\, xal ix noiov aw 
Xsiov ovvsaxi\xdg • xal t&v vn aXXov xivovpevw 
t« jisv cpvost xtveltat, ia 5s naqa yvaiv • naqa (pvat\ 
fiev, olov Ta yeyqa aVco, xal to nvq xdtw. En **. 
tit fiogia t«ov fiawy noXXdxig xivevtai naqa q>vo& 
naqa Tag &ioug xal tovg Tqonovg trig xifrjOBMS 
2. Kal fidltara to vno Tivog xiveto&ai to xivovp&o 
iv Totg naqa cpvoiv xivovpivotg sotI <paveqov, out v 
dr\Xov thai vn aXXov xivovpevov. Mbtu $s ta iWQ' 
q>voiv x&v xaTa <pvoiv ia avTa vq> avtatp, oiov *< 
6»a • ov yaq tovt adrjXov, el vno Tivog xiv&m 
dXXd ntag del diaXafitlv avzo to xivovv'OV- 
uevov • soixs yaq ujgneq iv Tolg nXoioig xal %di$ fH 
(pvoei ovviarafisvoig, outoi xal iv Tolg &aoig thai hf 
qr\fiivov to xivovv xal to xivovpevov, xal ovvo t< 
ndv avto havjo xivetv. MaXiara f? anoqelxai u 
Xomov TTjg elqTjfiivrjg TeXevtaiag diaiqioeag ' tcm7*| 
vn aXXov xivovfihfav , ja fiev naqa q>vaw ed"i\*<*l& 
xivelo&at, tci ds Xelnstai dvri&eivai, oti q>voei. Tav- 
t« d' iorlv, a tt\v anoqiav naqdoxoi, av vno v,n\ 
xiveitai, olov t« xovcpa xal to. (iaqia * Tavta yttq «! 
vev Toifg avTixsipdvovg Tonovg (Ha xiveiTai • eig * 
Tovg olxslovg, to fisv xovcpov avta, to ds (iaqv xctri 
a>voei. 3. To d* vno Tivog, oix sTiqpavegov' wd 
nsq oTav xivwvTat naqa qpvoiv • to,ts yaq avta vf 
avTtav yavai advvaTov • ^cotcxov ts yaq tovto *<t 
twv ifiipvxtov tdiov xal loTavai av idvvaTO aiti\ 
Xsyoa d\ oiovel tov fiadlteiv aXTiov avTtp, xal tov p\ 
ffadl&iv. v Jlgt inel in aittp to Sva (piqeo&ai i\ 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nvql, 6i\Xov bxi in ovtw xal xi xdxtt. "AXoyov di xal 
xo plot* %hr\Qiv xivua&ai, povov v<p avxny, tlye av- 
xa kavxct xivoiow. 4. "Ext,, wfiff 4vd£x*xai ow%xig T * 
xa» avfiarvig avxb iavxb xw; w yao Sr *a* owtxig 
fit} aqnj, xavxtj ana&ig* aX£ rj ftfi/wourra*, ^xavxji 
to pey niipvxB noiuv, to o« naoxw. Ovx aqa xov- 
T»y ovos? avTO iai/To x*m * ovfiarvr) ydq • ovt mUo 
ovy$x*$ ovdiy. IdXX dvdyxi\ dijiQtja&eu to xn'ot/v & 
kxaoxy nqig to xivovfjuvov olov inl xnv ayvx<*v 
bqwfisv, oxav xivy xt wv ipifntxw avxd. 5. Ui-vta 
ovpftaivu xal xavxa imo xivog dtl xiviio&ai ' yivoixo 
5 ' ay q>aytqbv dtaiqovot xag alt lag. "Eoxt> di xal inl 
xtav xivovyxuv Xafitiv xa elqrjfieva • toc /uiv /ao 7rao« 
<pvoiv avxwv xvrqivxa ioxiv, olov o poxXbg, ov qpi/at* 
tov fiaqovg xvr^xvxbg • t« ^« qpvoet, olov to ivtqytia 
d-aqpbv xivi\xixbv xov dwifin &*quov. 'OpoUog di 
xal fail xmv allot* xwv xoiovxw. Kal xivrjxbv d* wg- 
avxag tpvoti, xo dvvdfiunoibv, tj noobv, ij nov,oxav 
sxfi vyr UQXW [ T ^] xoiavxyv h kavxo), xal fix) xaxa 
ovfifteftrjxog • tiff yaq av to avxb xal noobv, xal 
Tiotbv, dXXa -&axiq(p &dxaqov avfifiijifiXB, xal ov xa& 
avro VTtdgxsi. To dtf nvq xal r) yr) xwovvxat vno 
xivog, fiia fUy, oxav naqa (pvotv * qyuosk di, oxay tig 
tag kavxwv ivsqytiag dvvdfiu ovx a. 6. *Mntl di to 
dvrdfiei nXeoyaxoig Xiysxcu, xovx ai'xiov xov pi) <pa- 
vtqbv tlvai, inb xivog xa xoutvxa xivuxay olov xo 
nvq ava , xal r) yrj xdxw. "Eoxi, di dvvapu aXXng b 
pavd&vtav totiox'tiiKov, xal b %x (av V^ 7 )* xa ^ M ^" €W- 
q<aY' del d\ oxdv apa xo noi^xtxbv xal xo na&ffxt^ 
xov <o a i, yivEtai [ivioxe] btqysia xb dvvaxbv, olov xo 

Digitized by GOOgle 


uav&dvov ix dvvdpsi, ovxog, hsgov yivsxai dwdfiei. 
c O yag fyfw imoxrjpriv, py &etagwv de, dwdfiu ioxlx 
iniojrtfiw ntag, dl£ ovx w$ xal nq\v (la&elv. "Oray 
d ovx&g %xjl> * av wh Ti **rt>vjl> ivegyu, xal &twge%, 
ij taxat to tt) avxupdoet, xal ayvoia* 'Ojioiag ds zavx 
%X U *«* inlxav (pvoutwv xo yap ytvxgiv, dvvdfiti 
&*Qpoy. "Oxav di (itxa (Sallr), ijdr) nvg, xaltt di, av 
urj ti xoilvT] xal ifinodiCf). *Opoitog d* «/** xal ntgl 
xo §agv xal xovq>ov • xo yag xovyov yixerai ix (2a- 
giog, cilov 4£ vdaxog ayg * xovxo yag dvvdfU* itgot- 
xov, xal ydt) xovyov, xal ivegytfOBt ys tu&vg, iav fit} 
xi xwlvoTj. 3 Ev£gyua di xov xowpov, xo nov drat, 
xal avta, Koilveiou d\ oxav cv tw ivavxiw xonca ij. 
Kal xov& opoiwg %x** *«' &** T °v txooov, xal inlrov 
noiov. Kalxot xovxo fyxelxai, did xl noxt xivtixai 
dg xov avxov xdnov xa xoixpa xal xa flagta. Ai'xtov 
d\ oxi 7it<pvxi not- xal xovxo ear* xa xovqxa xal 
pagei slvai, xo piv iw aw, xo di tw xaxm dwtgioid- 
vov. /Ivvdfiu d* ioil xovtpov xal j3agv noXXax&g, 
wgntg Bigyxai • oxav yag j} vdag, dvvdfin ys Txmg 
iaxl xovq?ov xal oxav drjg, *<*xw It* dvvdpu* ivdi- 
X*iat yag ifinodi^ousvov /ut^ aVa» elvai, alX iav oupat- 
ge&tj xo i(ino$i£ov, ivsgysi, xal del dvaxign yiyvettu. 
c O(jLol(ti$ di xal xo noiov ug to ivtgytla slvai (uxa- 
fidllu ' sv&vg yag &iwgsi xo imaxryiov, lav ftrj t* 
xwlvt), xal xo naobv ixxelvtxai, iav fifj xt x&lvtj. c 
ds xo vyiaxaptvov xal xwlvov xivrjoag, I'axi fxh> &$ 
xivti, taxi, d' ag ov' olov, b xov xiova vnoandaag , i} 
6 xov Xi&ov dytldtv dno xov doxov iv vdaxi* xaxd 
ovufofaxog yag xwu, ugnsg xal ^ avaxlao&uoa 

Digitized by GOOgle 


wpouQa ovx vnb tov to*zov ixa^&fi, aXX' imb tov 
ftalorroe. "Ox* fiev ow ovd&> jovTtov uvto xwu iav- 
to, drjXor. 'Alia xtp^otag aojH?? lx**> ov tov xhpuv, 
•vos tov itotfiv, dXXa tov ndo%up. 7. El drj nana 
tk xwovfwa % arvau xtr&Ta*, ^ naqd tpvoiv, xal 
Amj ' xal t« t* (Ha, xal to naod tpvoip naptavno 
uvoq tal vtc aXXov • to* di cpvoti ndXiv to t« vq> 
•vim xivovftsvu, vni Ttvog xtvuTai, xal ia py vq? 
avwr, olov Ta xovqta xal to fiagia • (jj yog vnb 
t&i yepptjaavrog xal noiyoanog xovopov, $ fiaov, i} 
wo tov t« 4(inodi£ona xal xtoXvorra Xvoavrog') 
axarta a* to xivovfitva vnb rivog xivo%to. 

CAPUT V. > e t , > 
Tov to Si dt/u? ' ij ydq ov dt airb to xivovv, 
iXXa di btsqov, o xivsi to xivovv • jj bi avto • xal 
tovto, iq tiq&tov find to Xoxarov, 7) did nXtiovav • 
ofor, 7) (htxTTjola x+vu iw XI&op, xal xivtUai vnb 
l W Z*H?°S xipovfiivtig vnb tov ap&otanov • ovtoj d', 
ovx St* tot in aXXov xipsio&at,. 'jlpaw dij xwtivya- 
jup xal to tsAsvtoiov xal to nomxov to* xivovnw, 
alia, fiaXXoy to noatov • ixupo ydo xipbI to t* X*v- 
Tatar, oiaa ov tovto to ngurrop • xai avsv (i%v tov 
nqmxov to Tslevraiov ov xiv^ou, ixtipo d* dvtv tov- 
tov • oiov, t\ PaxTtiQia ov xivi)azi, fit) xivovnog tov 
ard-Qfonov. 2. Ml di} avdyxTj nap to xivoifitvov 
vnb Tivog avxb xivua&di, xal jj vnb tov xivovfiivov 
vn aXXov, ij pTj • xal si fiiv in aXXov xivovpspov, 
ivayxT} t* thai xivovv, o oix vn aXXov, no£>TOV. Ei 
di toiovtov to no&TOP, oix avdyxT) &dxiQOv •* a<Jv- 
varov yao slg aneioov Upai to xivovv xal to xivov 

Digitized by GOOgle 


(isvov in aXXov avxo • tow yag aneigap ovx eaxiv 
ovdev ng&xop. El ovp Snap flip xb xipov[ibpop vrto 
xwog xiveixai, xb di ngaxop xvpovp, xipiixai fiiy, ovx 
in aXlov di, apdyxi} avxb vaf avxov xipelo&atr. 
3. *Exi di xal yds xbp avxbv xovxop Xoyop ioxh> insl- 
&sip. "Anav yag to xwovp xi is xwii, xal xwi. *H yag 
avxo} xipst xb xipovp, rj ctXXco • olov, av&ganog avico 
ry xfj $axxr\gia 9 xal o aptfiog xaxipaXXep, r\ avxog, ?] 
o Xi&og ov eoioep, Iddvvaxov di xvpup a'psv xov avxb 
avxip xipovvxog, xb <j> xwsi, al£ d flip aixbavxtp 
xvvu, ovx avayxr\ alio that, oi xtvu. 'Eop di y tre- 
qop xb (p xwiL, eaxi xt o xiprjosi, ov xwl, all avxtp • 
rj ug anugop slow. El ovp xi> xwovfitvop xwii, ova- 
yxri oxrjvai, xal fir\ tig ansigop Upaf u yag tj fiaxxrj- 
gia xivii t<Jj xipelo&ai, vnb xyg xngbg, i\ x**g xtpei xrp 
fiaxxrjglav. El di xavxrp alio xivsl, xal xavxr\v £«- 
gbp xi xb xivovp. "Oxap drj xm xwy asl sxtgov, ava- 
yxy slpat ngoxtgop xb avxb avxa xwovv. El ovp xi- 
puxai flip xovxo, firj alio di xb xipovp avxb, avayxtj 
avxb avxb xvpup • agxs xal xaxa xovxop xop Xoyov, 
-Jioft ev&vg xb xiPovfiBPOP vnb xov avxb avxot xipovp- 
xog xwuxai, rj sgxsxai noxs sfg x% xoiovxop. 4* Ilgog 
di xolg dgrjfiivoig xal <pde oxonovoc, tavxa ovfipri- 
oetou xavxa • el yag vnb xipovfifrov xwuxai xo xtr- 
yovfievov nav, r^xoi xovxo vnagxu xdigngayfiaot, xa- 
xa avfifis^rjxog • wgxs xipii flip xcpovfispop, ov fiipxoi 
diet xb xivsiadtu avxb [««i] 5 ov , alia xa& avxb. 
Ilgaxov fiiy ovv el xaxa ovfifleflrixbg, oix apayxrj xt- 
psia&ai to XLvovfispop. El di xovxo, drjXov wg ivdix*- 
tai noxs ftrjdiv xwuo&ai xw opxtap • ov yag apa- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


yxatov xb av/ifis^xbg , itX£ ivdexofitrov (iij thai, 
*Eav ovy &vp&> xb dvvaxbv thai, ovdb advvaxov 
ovfifirjaerai, y/tvfiog d' i'awg. 'AXXa xb xivtjoiv ptj *7- 
vai, aSvraxov • didstxxai yag xovxo ngoxsgov, on 
ttyayxi) xtrrjaiv mil sir at. 5. Kal tvXoyong xovxo 
mtrfUPipce • xgia yag avayxr\ that, xo,xs xtvovfitvov, 
xoXjq xivovv, xal xb (a xivsl. To fiev ovv xivovfi't- 
vor, arayxt] fiiv xivsto&ai, xwuv di ovx avayxij • to 
£ w xw«7, xa» xiviiv, xal xivno-d-ai * ovfj^exa^dX- 
lu yag xovxo apa xal xaxa to aixb tw xivovfiivta 
ow, JtjXov ds inl xmv xaxa xonov xivovvxav • ititxt- 
o&at yaq aXXqXwv avdyxt\ ovxw, fiixQ 1 wig • to ^i 
swot/* ovtws ngx slvai (iff «f» xira, axivtjxov. 3 £nel 
d 3 h(M»ftev to sax axov, o xivsio&ai fih dvvaxai , xi- 
rqoBwg di agxh v ovx sx*h *«* 8 xivnxat psv, vii o'A- 
iov di, aX£ ovx v( f> <*vxov, svXoyov, Xva fifj avayxalov 
tfntofJrSr, xal to xgixov eivcu o xivu axlvrjxov oV. Aib 
xal *Av<z£ay6gag bg&tog Xiyu, xbv vovv ana&ri (pa- 
axwv xal afuyrj tlvcu. 'Encidrjiteg xivtjatwg agxw 
noui avxov tlvai' ovxto yag povwg av xivoif) axlvrj- 
Tog wv, xal xgaxoli\ apiyi\g &v. 6. 'AXXa fitjv, ti fit} 
xaxii avfjtfit^rixog, aXU 4$ avayxi\g xivtixai to xivovv 
£i di firj xivotxo, ovx av xtvolrj, avayxv\ xb xivovv, y 
tiv&xai, rjxoi ovx& xivuo&ai, mgxe xaxa xb avxb sl- 
3o$ rrjg xtvriottag, rj xa& txtgov. Aiym di, bxi t\xoi 
to S-EQfiaivov xal avxb &tgfiaivto&ai, xal xb vyia- 
?ov vyuk&a&ai, xal xb (piqov qtigea-d-ai • r t xb vyia- 
Xov y&QSO&ai, xb de cpBQor av$avEO&ai. 3 AXXa qtavt- 
gov oxi advvaxov • du yaq p*XQ* T ^ axifitav b*iai- 
govvxa Xiytiv, olov tX x% didaoxu yttofisxQtlv, xovxo 

Digitized by GOOgle 


8i8aoxsa&ai yecofisr^slv xb aixo, i\ si tynxsi, $«rrei>— 
o&ai xov avxbv xqonov xrjg £«tyso>£. -E* qvtm per p,*}, 
aXXo 8s, $ aXXov yivovg' olov, xo opiqov fib av£cc- 
vso&ai, xb 8e xovxo av£ov aXXoiova&ai vn aXXav. 
To 8e xovxo aXXoiovv, ktiottv xiva xivuo&a* xivrf&w. 
*M£ avdyxrj ottjvqu • nensfaopivat, yaq ai xivyorBig. 
To 8s ndXiv avuxapnxsw, xal to dXXovovv (pdvat <pegs- 
o&ai, to «vto noisiv iini, x$v si sv&vg eyy to cpigov qpi- 
Qsa&a* , xal 8i8doxsa&at to 8i8doxov * 8tjXov yctQ t 
oxi, xwstxai, xal vnb xov avfaxsou xivovvxog xo xivav- 
iasvov nav, xal fidXXov vnb xov nqoxsgov Tea* jcwovy- 
Tojy. IdXXa flip xovxo ys d8vvaxov xb 8i8uoxov yccg 
ovfi^alvu pav&aveiv, <ov to fisv fit} sx**>v, ™ ^ Mfew 
imoxfjfiriv dvayxaXov. "£xi 8i fiaXXov xovxw aX&yow, 
ox* Gvpjiaivei nav xb xivrixixbv slva* %ym\xov y e&rep 
anav vnb xivovpivov xtvsixai xb xivovpsvov • sormt, 
ydo xwyxov • mgnso el' xig Xiyoi, oxt nav xo vyiami— 
xov, xal vyiafav, xal vyiaoxbv soxat • xal xo oixo— 
dofirjxixbv oixedofttjibv , if si&vg, i\ 8*a nXsi>o*m>. 
Aiyw 8'\ olov si xivyxbv ftsv in aXXov nav xo xiviy- 
tixov, ail/I* ov xavxi\v xyv xivrjoiv xvrixbv, rjv xivsZ 
xb nXi^aiov, aXtf ixiqav • olov, xb iytaaxtxbv fta&ti- 
xbv, dXXd xovxo inavafiaZvov ij£st noxs sig xo avxo 
sldog, wgnsg sXnopsv novxsQ&v • to fisv ovv xovtmr, 
advvaxov * to 8s nXaaf*ax&8sg • axonov yao xo ai- 
Xoioixixbv avtyxbv e| avayxr^g slvat. 7* Ovx aqa 
avayxn ail xwsio&at .xb xwovpsvov in aXXov, xal 
xovxov xivovfisvov ' oT^anat aoa. Jlgxs r t xoi vtio 
iiospovvxog xwiforpsxai xb xwovfisvov nqiaxov, i) 
avxb kavxb xivr\ou. IdXXa pr}* xal sly* 8i<n oxontiv, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


n&tsfov afxwv xwrjotug xal aoxn z0 avxb avxb xtpovr, 
ij to vn aXtov xwovptvov, ixuvo nag uy -freir) • xb yao 
6tvro **& avxb ov alxiov , ae» nooTfoo? tov *a£' 
UihQOv xal aixov ovxog, 8. *l/i^r« xovxo oxtntiov 
Xapovaw aXXrjv aQX*lv> ** Ti ***** «vto atrco, tr*s 
xivcl, x«i xiVa tooko*. *Avayxatov dq xb xirevfirrov 
anav uvai ouxtortoy tig ail diatotxd • tovto yog di- 

dfAXTftt KQOTeOOV tV TO*? X(X&6XoV ntfl (fVOtQtg, OU 

7iay to *a#' crvTo xiyovpeyov, avvsxig* 'Advnxto* dq 
to avTO avro xiyot/y, nayxji xiviiv avtb kavxb* qm- 
Qono yao av okov xal (pifoi xtjv avx^vyooav, lv ov 
xal axofkov xw si'det, xal aXXotolxo xal aXXoiol. Jig- 
Tf di&aoxo* av xal didaaxoixo iifia, xal vfta£oi xal 
vyia£o*x6 xi\v avi7)V vyiuav. *'Eti dmywrcu oti xivu- 
xat, to xivr\xbv * xovxo di ioxt dvvdfiti mvovfuvov, 
ovx ivxsXsxsia' to di'dvvapit, $ig ivxtXix*t>av (ladi- 
fei. 'iftrw 5i % xiVqot? hxtXixtta xivyxov ax*Xf\g. 
To Si xwovv rfix\ ivepytia ioxiv • oloy, deopaivn xb 
&$Q(ibv, xal oXtog ytvvip xb Ifror xb tldog. "jlgtf apa 
to opvto xal xaxa xb aixb &9Qfibv %axak xal ov &bq- 
H&v. 'Opoi&g di xal xtav uXXw txaaxov, oowy to xt~ 
vovv ivayxri fyeiv xb awmvpov. To }iiv aoa xwft, 
to &i xivutcu xov avtb avxb xwovvxog. 9. Oxi d 
ovx «n* xb avxb avxb nwovv ovx&g, igxt kxaxtoov 
vaf hxatiQov xtvHo&at, £x x&vfis qpecyeooy. Ovxt yao 
Marat noajor mvovv evdtr, tl ys ixaxeqov xwrpn 
btaxeoov * to yao ngoxsoov, ahuaxeoov xov xtvti- 
o&cu xov ixoptvov, xal xivfcu fdaXXav * dtx<*S Y<*Q 
xtvelv r\v, xb piv xb vn aXXov xwovpivov avxb, xo 
$' avxy ' iyyixsoov di, xb tioq$(ox$i>qv xov xwovpi- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


vov Tr)g aqx^g, *? *o [iera£v. *Exi ovx avayxr\ xb **— 

VOVV XCVHOd-M, (l (17) V€p aVXOV ' XaXO. <FVflpEpT}x6g 

aoa avxixivCi &dxeoov. "EXafiov xoivw ivdexfo&cec 
(ii) xiveiv * taxat aoa xb ftev xivovfiivov, xb de xivoxrv 
axivi\xov* y £xi ovx avayx% to xivovv avxixivtlo&ai, 
aXU r) axlvrjxov yi xi xiveiv avayxr], r) avxo vq? ai- 
tov xivovpevov, ei'neo avayxrj ael xivyoiv elvai. "jExi, 
rjv xivei xivrjoiv, xal xivolx av • agxs to -d-eoftatvor 
&eopaivexai. 10. 'Alia fir)v ovds tov nqohag avxo 
avxo xivovvxog, ovte IV pbqiov, ovxe nXeio) xivrjosc 
avxo avxo exaoxov to yag oXov el xiveixai avxo 
vq> avxov, ijxoi vnb xav avxov xivog xivrj&riaexai, 
i] oXov vyo oXov. El pev ovv, tw xiveio&ai xi (ti- 
oiov avxo vcp 3 avxov j xovx av ely to ng&xov avxo 
avxo xivovv • xwQut&w 7*Q ' fovxo pev xivtjoei avxo 
avxo, to de oXov ovx exi. JE* de oXov v<p olov xivii- 
tcu, xaxit ovfi/iejirjxbg Sv xavxa xivol avxa kavxa. 
"llgx ei (irj avayxaia, elXijai&m prj xivovpsva vq? av- 
Tav. Tr]g oXr\g aoa to fiev xivrjoei, axiviytov ov* to 
de xwrj&riosTcu' fiovag yag ovtwg olov xi ti aixo- 
xivijTov elvai. "Eti, ei'nto */ oXy avxtj avxijv xivei, to 
fisv xivrjoei aixrjg, xo di xivrj&r)<rexai. *H aoa a ft 
v(p avxr\g xe xivr\&r\aerai, xal vno Ttjg a. 11. Emi- 
drj de xivei to fiev xivovfiivov vri aXXov, to de axlvrj- 
tov ov xal xivelTai, to fikv xivovv, xb de ov&ev xi- 
vovv, to avxo avxo xivovv avayxr] i$ axivrytov elvai, 
xivovvrog de, xaJ sxi ix xivovfiivov, pi) xtvovvxog dk 
4$ avayxrjg, aXX 3 otioxsq' etvzsv • ITotoi yao to a xi- 
vovv fiiv, axlvfiTov de, to de fi xivovfievov tc inb xov 
a, xal xivovv to kp* w y, Tovxo de xivovfiivov p,b 

Digitized by GOOgle 

PHYSIC. AUSC. LIB. Vlll. CAP. V. 193 

V7ib xov ft, (if) xivovv 6s prfiev • eXneg yag xal dta 
nteiovoiv ij$ei note elg to /, eotta oV evbg povov. To 
djj anav a fi y, avto kavtb xivel • dXX iav dqp&a> to 
y, to flip a /? xivr]oei avto havto • (to fiev yag a tet- 
vovvy to di ($ xivovfievov,^ to de y ov xivi\oei avto 
kavtb, old 3 oXag xivti&r]oetai. IdXXa /uijy ovd' r) /S 
y XLvrjost, avttj havti\v avev xov a • to yag /? xivel t$ 
klvuo&cu in aXXov, ov tw vcp avtov tivbg pigovg. 
To aga a (2 fiovov alto eavto xivei. 'Avdyxri aga to 
avto eavto xivovv e%siv xal to xivovv, dxivr\tov de, 
xal to xivovfievov , (ir}dev de xivovv i£ avayxi\g m a- 
Tttofieva de v\toi a{i<pco aXX^Xonv, i\ &ategov d-dtegov 
el fiiv ovv ovvexeg ioti to xivovv • (to yag xivovpe- 
vov avvtxtg avayxalov etvav •) dr\Xov on to nav aitb 
kavtb xtveX, ov ta avtov elval n toiovtov, olov ai- 
to eavto xiveiv, aX£ oXov xivel avto eavto, xivovfte- 
vov re xal xivovv, t$ avtov n elvai to xivovv xal to 
xivovfievov* ov yag oXov xwti, ovd oXov xivutai, 
aXXa xtvei fitv to a, xiveitai de to /?, fiovov • to de y 
vno tov a ovx eti* ddvvatov yag. 12. Idnogiav 
di ex* l > ^ av ^(peXjj T *S V *%$ <*> ( £ * ovv*x*S *o xivovv 
fiiv, axivt\tov de') r) trig /? trjg xivovpivrfi • r\ Xomr) 
aga niveau tyg a, r\ t\ tr]g /? xivrj&^oetai* el yag 
tovto, ovx av e\i\ ngdtag xivovfiivq ixp avtr]g i\ a 
P ' aqtaige&eiorig yag dnb trjg a /?, en xivi]aei kav- 
tt)v 7] X oin 7) a ft' i] dvvapei [lev kxdjegov, ovdsv xw- 
?.x>et>, ? &ategov to xwovfievov diaigetov elvai, ivte- 
k*X*i& d* adiatgetov * eav de diaige&rj, fir]xeti elvai. 
triv avtr\v %xov dvvafiiv; wgTC ovdh xwXvei, iv diai- 
pstolg dvvapei ngdttog iveivat. <Pavegbv tolvvv i* 
Arist. Phys. Ausc. N 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xovxoav, bxi ioxl xb ng<oxa)g xivovv axlvtjxov sVr 
yag sv&vg toxaxai xb xivoifisvov, vno xtvog ds xivxyv 
fisvov, slg axivr^xov xb ngcotov • sl'xs slg xivovpsvo 
usv, avxb d* kavxb xivovv xal Ujxav, auyoxigwg o~v/li 
paivsi to ngthxuig xivovv, iv anaoiv slvai xotg xivojj 
uivoig axivijxov. 

*Entl ds dsi xivijoiv asl slvai xal urj diaXslnsiv 
avayxt\ slvai xi a'i'diov, o ngwxov xivst, sXxs %v, etr 
nXsia, xal to nginxov xivovv axivyxov. 2. "iSxaoroi 
usv ovv aid 10 v slvai, xav axivyxiov fisv, ur\ xivovvtwj 
ds, oidsv ngbg xbv vvv Xoyov. "Oxi d' avayxdiov, el- 
vai xi to altl axlvrjxov usv avxb naorig xyg ixxbg fxe- 
xaftoXyg, xal anXtag, xal xaxi avu/3s07jxbg, xivr^xixot 
<T kisgov, di}Xov tabs oxonovow."Eax<o ds, tt xigpov- 
Xsxai, ini xivwv svdsxbusvov, Agxs slvai note xal fir { 
slvai avsv ysvsastag xalfp&ogag • xa%a yccq avayxdiov, 
sX xi ausgsg bxs usv ioxiv, bxs ds ui] ioxiv, avsv tov 
usxafidXXsiv, bxs usv slvai, bxs ds fit) slvai nav rb 
xoiovxov, xal xav agx&v xaw axivrjzoav usv, xntrjxixibv 
ds, ivlag, bxs* usv slvai, bxs ds fit} slvai. *Evdsxso&u 
xal xovxo, aXU ov xi ndoag ys dvvaxbv* drjXov yag 
a>g aXxibv xi xoig avxa iavxa uivovolv Am tow bti 
fisv slvai, bxi ds ui) slvai* xb fisv yag avxb iavxb xi- 
vovv aitav sxstv avayxt) uiys&og, si prjdsv %wuxai 
ausgsg • xb ds xivovv ovftsula avayxi\ in xav sigiffii^ 
vwv. Tov drj, xa usv ylveo&ai, xa ds qp&sigso&aq 
xal xovx slvai ovvsxag oidsv aXxiov, x<bv axivyxoti 
usv, urj asl d' ovxtav • oid* av xwv Asl fisv xam 
xivovvxav , xovxatv d* hsga • tov yag asl o*l 

Digitized by GoOgle 


xog xal <Jvytxovg> ovxe txaaxov aixmv atxiov, ovxe 
nana • xo piv yao ovxmg hxetv, atdtov xal 4$ ava- 
yxng • xa di nana aneiqa, xal ovx opa nana oVra. 
Jrjlov xoivvv, oxi,, e* %al pvqiaxig evict t aqxal xmv 
axivT}Tw piv, xwovamv di • xal noXXa xmv avxa lav- 
xa xivovvxmv <p&eiqexat, xa d' imyivexai* xal rods 
itev axivrjxov ov, xode xivu • hxeqov di, xodi • aXX? 
oidiv tytxov taxi xi o neqiixet, xal xovxo naq txa- 
axov ov, o ioxiv ai'xiov xov xa piv that, xa di pij, xai 
xijg awexovg pexafloXrjg. Kal xovxo piv xovxoiq, 
xavxa di xoig aXXotg utxia xtvqoemg, 4. Iftneq ovv 
aid 10 g rj xivrjoig, itdiov xal xo xtvovv eaxai nqmxov, 
eiev el di nXeim, nXeim xa atdia. *Ev di paXXov, r) 
71 oXXct, xal neneqaapeva, fj aneiqa de% vopi£eiv. Tmv 
aixmv yiq ovpflaivovxmv , ail xa nentqaapiva paX- 
Xov Xrjnxiov * h yaq xoig qrbaei, dsi xo neneqaapi- 
vov xal xo (tiXxtov, iav ivdex^xav, vnaqxw paXXov. 
'ixavbv di, xal el lv, o nqmxov xmv axm\xmv a'tdiov 
ov, toxai xoig aXXoig agxh *wyoemg. 5* ftaveqbv 
di xal ix xovde, oxi avayxx\ thai xi %v xal atdiov to 
nqmxov xtvovv * dedeixxai yaq, oxt, avayxfj, a el xi- 
vrjoiv elvai • el di alel, avayxr\ xal owexv ^ ya * * x< ** 
yog xo aUl or, ovvexig' xo d* 4q>e^g, ov owtxig. 
3 AXXa prjv el' ye ovvexr)g, pia' pia d\ [«*] vq> kvog xe 
[xov] xwovvxog, xal hvbg xov xivovpivov • el yao xi 
aXXo xal aXXo xwtpjei, ov ovvexw V oXij xivrioig, aXX' 
fysSyg. 6. "Ex xe drj xovxmv nusxevoeuv av xig elvai 
xt no&xov axivr^xov, xal naXiv ini/HXiyag inl xag ao- 
X*$ xwv xwovvxmv. To pev dij thai axxa xmv ov- 
xmv, a oxi p$v xw&xat, oxi d* yotpti, opareooV. Kal 

N 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


diet xovtov ysyovs dr\Xov, oti ovts nana xwurai, ov- 
ts navra rjgspsi, ovts %a fisv asl rjgsfist, ta d asl 
xwsvtai • t« yag inafi<poTsgi£ona, xal dvvapiv tyov- 
Ta tov ore psv xwsio&ai, on ds ygsptiv, dsixvvw 
nsgl avxtav. 'Ens* ds %a fisv toiavta, dyXa naai>' 
(iovXoptda ds du$ou xal %oiv dvoXv kxaTegav tvv <pv- 
ow, ott iarl tot pb ail ax/yijxa, xa d* asl xwovpsvo 
IlgoiovTsg d' inl tovto, xal &svTsg anav to xwov- 
usvov vno tivog xivua&ai, xal tovto sivai r\ axivrj- 
tov y xwovpsvov, xal xwovfisvov f\ vq> avxov *j vn 
aXXov aisl, ngorjl&opsv inl to Xaftslv, oti twv xivov- 
psvwv laxly aoxv* xwovpivav fisv o avTo lavTo xivsl, 
navTav ds to axlvr\Tov* 'Ogwpsv ds xal <pavegwg ov- 
xa ToiavTa, a xwsi aixa iavxa • olov to twv i(*yv r 
XW xal to Ttov faW ysvog, Tama dtj xal do|af 
nagslxs, fiy noT ivdix*Tai, xlvt\aw iyylvso&at fir\ ov- 
aav oXtog, dia to iv TOVTOig bgav rifiag tovto avp- 
ftaivov • axLvipa yag noTS ovra, xivslxai naXtv, tag 
doxsi. 7. Tovto dy del Xafislv, oti filav xivi\aw ai- 
t« xwsX, xal oti TavTr^v ov xvgiag • ov yag IS avrov 
to al'Tiov, aM' Ivsioiv aXXat, xwrioug qpvoixal ToXg fei- 
oig, ag ov xivovvrat dl kavrtov, olov, avtyoig, qp&l- 
oig, avanvo% ag xivslxai t&v &»wi> %xaorov ygspovv, 
xal ov xtvovpsvov Tip vip kaVTOv xivfjaiv. TovTtav 
aftiov to nsgiixov xal noXXa tmv tloiovrav, olov biw 
Tgoq>r t ' nsTTOfiivrjg yag xa&svdovot, 8iaxgivophr\g 
ds, iyeigovTai xal xwovqiv kavTOvg, Tfjg ng<aTi)g ag- 
XW s&o&ev pvorjg. Jih ovx Asl xivovvrat ovrsxwg 
v<p avT&v * aXXo yag to xtvovv, avTo xwov[asvov xai 
psTapaXXov, ngbg sxaoTOv tmv xwovvtw kavxa. *Er 

Digitized by GOOgle 


naok di xovioig xivtlxai xb xiyovv nquxtog, xal xb al- 
itor xov avxo eavxb xtvely va? avxov , xaxa 0171/ft- 
@r)xbg (livxot • fiexaflaXXn yaq toy xonoy xb ow/ua • 
wgxexal to h tw aapaxi bv, xal to [&] xfj fioxXtia 
xivovv havxo. 8. 3 £| cay Am ntotevoai, ou, el xi 
iaxl x&y dxiyrjxav ph, xivovvxtav di, xal avxuty xt- 
vovfiiyiay xaxa ovfifie/irjxbg, advvaxov avvtxn xiyrjaiy 
xiyeiy. Jlgx elneq ara/xrj ovvex&g sly at xiyrjoiy, sl- 
vai t* del xo nqtaxoy xivovy axirqxov, xal fin xaxa 
oVfifleflrjxbg,^ et fiiXXet, xa&aneq elnopey, eoeo&ai iy 
xotg ovoiv^ anavoxog xig xal a&ayaxog xlvtjoig, xal 
(drew to by «vto iv avxw, xal iy tw avx$ • xijg yaq 
&QXV? pevovorig, avayxr\ xal xb nay pdyeiy, ovvexig 
by nqbg xr)y agxyv * ovx eoxt di xavxb to xm~to$ai 
xaxa ovftfteftrjxbg vq> avxov xal i<p kxiqov • to fiiv yaq 
vq> kxiqov vnagxei xal xwv iy t$ ovqavoi iyiaig aq- 
Xdiig, ooa nXelovg (peqerai q>oqag • &axeqoy di to*s 
q&aqxolg pbvoy. 9. 'AXXa fitjv, el yd ioxl xt ael xoi- 
ovxov, to xivovy pivxoi, axlvrpov di, xal avxo aC- 
diov, avayxrj xal to nqmxoy inb xovxov xivovptyoy 
a'i'dioy elvui. "Eoxi di xovxo dtjXoy fiiv xal ix xov pij 
ay aXXwg eiyah yiveoiv xal ay&oqav xal fitxafloXijV 
xolg aXXoig, el firj xi wr\an xivovpsvov • to piy yaq 
axlvyxov xyv avxr\v atl xivrjoei, xby aixby xqbnov, 
xal piav xivr\aw, axe ovdh aixb fiexaflaXXov nqbg to 
xiyovfievov to di xivovpeyov vnb xov axivi\xov ij 
uvovfUyov Tidy, dta to aXXong xal aXXng %x*iv nqbg 
ia nqayfiaxa, oi xtfg avxyg eaxai xirqotwg alxiov, 
aXXa dux, xo iy hayxioig elyai xonoig jq ei'deoiv bav- 
xla>g naqeSerat xiyovpeyov txaoxov twv aXXwv, xal 

Digitized by GOOgle 


oxe pev qgtfiovv, bxk de xivoifitvov. <l>avtgby dtj 
yiyovsv ix xatv tigr\uivuiv, xal o xax agxdg ynogov— 
fitv,,xi dn noxe ov navxa rj xwtixai, fj^gtfiii' rj ra 
fitv xivtixai atl, xa ti* del ryttptX 9 dX£ hvia btefiir, 
oxe d' ov* xovxov yag xb atxiov drjXov ioxi vvv, oti, 
xa fih inb axivtjxov xivtXxai aidiov • 5tb ael psxat- 
fidXXei 9 xa d' vnb xtyovpivov xal ptxapdXXortog • 
wgxexal avxa dvayxaXov pexa($dXXtw. To d\ axi- 
vqxov, &gntg tXgyxai • axe anXStg xal igavxwg xal 
iv xm ctvjw diafievov, ftlav xal anXip xivr\oei xlvr\oiv. 
Ov fir t v dXXaxal aXX^v noitioafievoig dgxw f*«A- 
Xov eoxai negl xovxwv (pavtgov • oxtnxiov yag, no- 
xegov ivdixexal xiva xlvyoiv etvai QvvsxVr V ov ' *<** 
el ivdexexai , xlg amy , xal xlg ngtoxtj twv xiytjaeanf • 
dqXoy yag £>g, etneg dvayxaiov ptv del xlvr\aiv elvai, 
nQWTT) de yde xal awc^s > oxi to ngiaxov xwovv xivit 
xavxr\v xr\v xlvrjotv, r\v avayxaiov filav xal xtp avxrjr 
thai xal owixVf *<** ngtoxt)*. 2. Tguav de ovo&v 
Kirrpjewv, xyg xe xaxa fieye&og, xal xyg xaxa nu&og, 
xal xyg xaxa xoitov, rp> xaXovpsr qtogav, xavxr\v a- 
rayxaiov ehai ngwxrjv • ddvvaxov yag avtyow thai, 
dXXou&oeiog fit) nQOvnaQXovorjg' xb yag avtavope- 
vov, taxi fuv &g bfioitp avSdvtxai, ton d* »g avo- 
poly * xb yog iravxiov, xgoyr) Xeyexai xip bart'top • 
ngogylvexai de nav ytvofitvov ofiotov blotto • drayxv 
ovv dXXolwoiv sly at xr\v tig xavartla fiexafioXfpt. Ak- 
Xd firjv el ye aXXoiovxat, dti)oH thai xb dXXoiovr xal 
xb tzqiovv ix xov dvrdfui &egpov xb htgyeia dtgtibv. 
Jr\Xov ow hxlv, oxi xb xirovr ovx bjiolvg §x*h *Ai* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ote fAtv iyyvtsqov, bti di nontax eqov rev aXXowv- 
phrov iaxL Tavza o° avtv q>oqdg oix ivdixsrau 
vTiaQX* 1 *- & «V a dvayxt\ aid %ivy\aw thai, avayxij 
xal qiogitv itvcu aUl n^wiyy tav xivrjatoav, xal yo- 
ga g, si sotw, ij fiiy tiqcjttj, i\ d' voxioa, trjv nqwjrjv. 
>r £Ti di navxtov xav na^r^iaioiv aqxht rtvxv&ois xal 
fidvtaaig' xal yaq fiaQv xal xovcpov, xal paXaxbv 
xal oxXttyov, xal &eqp6v xal fvxqbv, nvxvoTrjitg do- 
xovai xal aoaioTijTe? thai xivtg, Hvxvanns di xal 
(laroMHQ, ovyxquHQ xal diaxqujtg, xa& as xal yivtaig 
xal cp&OQa Xeystai lotv ovouav. ZvyxQwopiva di xal 
dtaxQiyopsva, avdyxij xal xa%a %6nov fitiaj3aXXuv. 
jLXld (irjv xal tov av$avo(iivov xal cp&ivovtog, ptra- 
fiaXXst xaxa jonov to piyt&og. 3. *E%t> xal 4vtsv- 
&sr ijuaxonovow %o%at, (paveobv, o» i\ yoga nqmri * 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GoOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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ev&eiav. Z/ipa dk xal ix tovtov [iSTafiaXXu, £v «? oix 
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tov y. Oix aqa pla r\ xlvijoig' r\ yaq diaXafipavo- 
psvrj OTaosi, oi fiia iaxiv. 8. 'it* dk xal ix ratrdz 
(paveqbv xa&oXov paXXov nsql naorjg xivrjcfsatg • tl 
yaq anav to xivovpsvov twv uqripivmv Twct xiveZxai 
xwr\at<ov, xal yqepu xwy avTixupbKov qgepuov • ov 
yag r\v aXXrj naga TavTag. To dk pi\ ael xivovjuevov 
TJ\vds ti\v xivrioiv, (Xiyoa tf ' oaat foegai to> eldei, xal 
pi) slTVfiogtov Am Ti\g oXr^g,) avayxi] ngoTsgov ^ot- 
fitly Trjv avTixzipivrp rjgspiav r\ yaq yqepia, axi- 
Q7)<ng j^g xivriomg ioTiv. El ovv ivavTiat phv xinj- 
astg al xaT ev&slav, Spa dk fiy ivdiz&ai xivsto&ai 
Tag ivartlag, to anb tov a nqbg to y yeqopevov ovx 
av (fsgoiro apa xal anb tov y nqog to a. EttsI dk 
ovx Spa tyiqsTat,, xwi\&T\avtai dk TavT^v Tir^v xlvijmv, 
avdyxrj rjqefirjaai, ngoTtqov nqbg ti$ y * atltij yitq ijw 
r\ avTMUfiivri rjgtfAia tq anb tov y xwyoH. dtjkov 

Digitized by GOOgle 

PHYSIC. AUSC. LIB. V1U. CAP. Vlll. 200 

toirvv ix t&v uqripivw , oti ovx toil ovp$zW V *l~ 
vyoig. 9/Exi, di xal odt o Xoyog paXXov olxiiog 
t&v el^TjfUvwv • apa yaQ tqt&aQtai to ov Xtvxbv, nal 
yiyovt ktvxov. El ovv ovvtxr\g h iMoiiooig tig ktv- 
xbv, xal 4x Xevxov, xal fxrj ftivti ttva XQ^vov, «f*« 
ty&aQtai to ov Xtvxbv, xalyiyovtv ov Xevxov tQuov 
yaQ tatai b avtbg ZQOvog. v Eti t ovx, tl ovvtxyg ° 
XQOVog, xal r\ xivtjoig • aXX* i<f>&\g. U<ag d' civ ify 
to tox<XTOv to aitb ray ivavtiaiv, olov Xtvxotfjtog 
xal ptlaviag ; 1Q. C J£ de inl trig ntQuptQovg, total 
fiia xal owtxyg ' ovdiv yaQ advvatov ovfifiaivu • 
to ycty ix tov a xtvovptvov, afia xivr\&r\Qttai tig to 
a xata tr\v avtrjv nQO&eotv • tig o yaQ ijUi, xal **- 
vutah tig tovto, aXX° ovx "V" nivr^tjostai tag toav- 
tiag, ovdi tag avtixtifiivag • ov yaQ anaaa r\ ix 
toy jov ttj tig tovto ivavtia, ovfii* aviuceifiivtj • aXX 
havtla fiiv,r\ hi tv&tiag' tavty yaQ iotw havtla 
xata tdnovy olov r\ xata diafittQOV anixti yaQ 
nluatov, ^Avtixtifiivrj di, ij xata to aitb firjxog. 
Q flgtt ovdiv xwXvn ovvtx&S xiveio&ai, xal fir)diva 
XQOvov diaXtintiv • r) fiiv yaQ xvxXco xivi\oig iottv, ij 
aqp avtov tig to avto • ^ fti xat tv&tiav, aq> av- 
tov tig aXXo. Kal fj fiiv iv t$ xvxXw , ovdmott iv 
toig avtoig' i\ di xat tv&tiav, noXXaxig iv toig 
avtdig. Tr\v fiiv ovv altl iv ctXXw xal aXXqt yvyvo- 
fUvijv, ivdixttai xivuo&cu ovvtx&g' t\{v $* iv toig 
avtoig noXXaxig, ovx ivdixttat 9 avayxr\ yaQ afia 
xivtlo&ai tag avtixttpsvag. "Jlgtt oid* iv t$ fjfiixv- 
xXicp, ovd' iv aXXy TitQtqptQtia ovdtfiujt ivdixttat ovv- 
*X<*g xivtiod-ai' noXXaxig yaQ avayxr\ tavta xivu- 
Arist. Phys. Ausc. O 

Digitized by GOOgle 


o&cu, xal xag ivavxlag fisxafiaXXeiv [isxafioXag • 01 
yag ovvanxu xg agxy to nigag. C H ds xov xvkXov 
ovvdnxei, xal Uaxt fiovrj xsXsiog. li. toavsgov Si 
xal ix xavx-rjg trig diaigsaewg, oxi ovde rag aXXag £v- 
dix^xai, xivr\osig slvai ovyex&g * iv andoaig y&g xati— 
xa avfi^aivu xweZo&cu noXXaxig, olov iv aXXoicoase 
xa fisxa^v, xal iv tjJ rov notiov, xa avit fiioov fieys— 
•fry • xal iv yevsost xal y&oga aaavxtag • ovdsv yap 
diayigsi, bXiya ij noXXa noii}Gcu, iv oig ioxiv r\ fierce— 
PoXrj, oids fisxa$v ngog&stvai xt tj aq>sXslv afiqpoTe— 
Q(og yag avfij3alvu xavxa xwsio&ai, noXXaxig. ^]lov 
ovv ix xovxtov, oxt, ovd* oi (pvoioXoyoi xaXwg Xiyov— 
ow, ol ndvxa xa alod-ijxa xivuo&ai q>daxovxsg aitl • 
xwsio&at yag dvdyxrj xovxtov xiva xmv xivrjosoav, xal 
paXiaxa xax ixelvovg (oxlv aXXoiovo&af (5*7* y<*Q 
cpaoiv asl xal (p&lveiv. v Exi ds xal xr\v ysvsoiv xal 
xyv y&ogav aXXoltootv Xsyovoiv. c ds Xoyog vvv ef- 
gr\xs t xa&oXov nsgl naorig xwrjoeoag, oxi xax ovdtplccy 
xivr\aiv ivdi/sxai xivsio&ai owe/tig, e|(» xrjg xvxZta • 
Sgxs ovxs xax aXXoiaow, ovxs xax avtyoiv. Oxi (jlbv 
oi)v ov'x Snsigog iaxi (isxafioXv ovdspla, ovxsowz- 
Xyg «£<» xr\g xvxXm yogag, saxto xoaav& r\\tiv sigrj- 

"Oxi ds xtov cpoqwv fj xvxXoq>ogia ngdxrj, dyXov * 
naoa yag q>oga t wgnsg xal ngoxfgov slnofisv, ij xv- 
xXta, rj in ev&siag, rj fiixxr]. Tavxyg 8* avdyxrj hqo- 
xigag slvai ixsivag- 4$ ixtivwv yag qvvsgxi\xs. Trjg 
6* sv&siag, r\ xvxX(o • anXy yag xal xiXsiog fiaXXov • 
ansigov (asv yag ovx soxiv tv&eiav q?igeo&ai • to y&g 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ovwff anshqov oix soxw • aXX* oids il rjv, ixiruxo 
ay ovdty • ov yaq yiyysxai xb advvaxov. ditX&uv 
di xyv anuqoy, advvaiov. *H 3' inl xr^g mntqaofis- 
j»i|S sv&tiag, avaxapnxovaa fiiv ovv&sxri, xal dvo 
mrqotig • pi) avaxafinxovoa di, axtXr\g *a* ydaqxy. 
Hqbxsqov di xal <pvosi, xal Xoyy, xal looVcp, *<> T<_ 
Xetov psy xov axsXovg, xov q>&aqxov da xb ay&aqxov. 
*Exk nqoxsqa ijjy iydsxsxai al'diov slyai xyg pr) ivdtx " 
ptytjg. Tip fiiv ovy xvxXy iydix^xai ai'dioy tlvai, 
wr d' aXXwv ovxs q>oqav, ovx aXXr^v oidipiav • ota- 
<w yaq ds% ylyto&ai. El di oxaaig, lep&aoTai n\ xi- 
pqoig. 2. EvXayiog ds ovfifiifinxs xb, t\\v xvxlw piav 
stvat xal ovvszh* * a * pi T h v l™ *v&tiae' xyg piy 
yog in ev&eiag ojqujtcu xal aqXty * a * pioov, xal xs- 
Xog ' xal navx %x%k iv lawn. "Slgx ioxly o&sy aq- 
£rra* to xwovpevoy, xal ov xs Xtvxr\at i • nqbg yaq 
toIs niqaow r\qtpu nay, r\ o&tv, y ov. Trig di ns- 
quptqovg, aootora* xi yaq paXXov bnowvovv niqag 
%iv inl tqg yqappiig ; booing yao txaoxoy xal agxVt 
xal fUoov, xal xsXog, wgr aUi xs xwa ilvai h aqxfi 
xaliv xsku, xal fifidsnoxs, ACo xivnxai xal iigtfiu 
nmg r\ o<paiqa • xbv aixby yaq xaTt/st xbnoy. AX- 
twv d 9 , on navxa ovfi^i^xs xavxa tw xiyxqy • xal 
yaq aqxv *«* (isoov xov (isyi&ovg xal xiXog ioxlv. 
1ft?T« dia to Uw slvat xovxo xr^g nequpeqsiag, oix 
sow onov to q>$q6(isvov ijqepriou , wg duXr\\v&6g * 
aisl yaq tpiqsxai nsql xo fiioov, aXX* ov nqbg xb 
soxaxov (kit ds xb xovxo pivuv, aid xs qqtfitZ nwg 
xb oXov, xal xivuxat ovvsxwg. J?v(i@aivsi ds avxt- 
OTQoqxag * xal yaq ot* pnqov x£>v xivtjatwv r\ nsqi- 


Digitized by GOOgle 


yoga ioxt, ngdxtjv avayxalov aiixipf sfoaf anavTcc 
yag fiexguxai tw tiqcjtco • xa* bioxi ngdxq, fiery or 
ioxl tmv aXXtov* "Ext di xal bpaXrjv ivddx*xa* elra* 
xrp xvxXco fiovrjv • xd yag inl xr\g ev&tlag dvoifioi— 
Xtog and t« xrjg dgxvs (figttai, xal ngbg xb tiXog 9 
navxa yag oowrtsg , av dytarrjxai nXuov tov rjQS- 
fiovrtog, <pigexai &dxxov xijg di xvxXco fiovrjg, ovre 
V <*QXV> ovt8 to xiXog h airy ni<pvxsv, aXX' ixxog. 
3. Oxi, & fj xaxa xonov qpoga ng&XTj xwv xwtjusojv, 
fiagxvgovai ndvxsg, Soot nsgl xtvrjatog nenoirjvra* 
fivsiav tag yag agx&g avxrjg anodcdoacn xotg xt- 
vovai xoiavxi\v xlvt\aiv • diaxgioig yag xal ovyxgwig 
xivhaug xaxa xonov sloiv. Ovxa di xwovaiv r\ (ptXlut 
xal xb v&xog • xb fiiv yag diaxglvsi, xb di ovyxqlvti 
avxatv. Kal xbv vovv di (prjotv *Ava$aybgag diaxgi- 
vuv xbv xwrjoavxa ng&xov • ofioloag di xal oooi, to*— 
avxrjv fiev ovdsfiiav alxlav Xiyovoi , did di to xsvbv 
xw&ad'al qpaai, * xal yag vixoi xrjv xaxa xonov xi— 
vi\ow xivsio&ai xijv tpvow Xiyovoiv ij yag did to 
xevbv xlvrjoig, <pogd ioxt, xal ig h tony twd* 
aXXcov ovdepiav vnagxnv xoTg ngwxotg , dXXa xoig 4x 
xovxtav oXovxai* av$dv6<j&ou yag xal (p&ivuv, xal 
aXXoiovo&ai evyxgivofiivwv, xal diaxgivofiivtav xwv 
axofimv oapdxttv <paol. Tov avxbv di xginov xal 
oooi did nvxvoxyxa rj fiavoxrjta xaxaaxtva£ovai yi- 
veotv t\ (p&ogdv • ovyxglosi yag xal diaxgioH xavra 
dtaxoojiovow. *Exi di xal nagd xovxovg oi t^v yv- 
XW aixlav noiovvxeg xivyomg • to yag avxb kaxno 
xtvovv, dgxn» thai <paot xStvxivoVfdvfOV. JCw^ot* di 
xo Svov, xal nav xb Bfiywxov, xip xaxa xonov ovto- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tivrjaiv. Kal xvqlmg di xwilo&al q>afiw fiovov to xi- 
wvftfvov tip xata tonov xivrjoiv. 3 £av d* rjgsfiy fib 
b Tw avtm, avSavrpai di rj a>&lvtj, f\ aXXoiovfitvov 
wyX<**il> n V xwuo&ai, anting di xwiia&ou ov (pa- 
per. "Or* fib ovv asl t$ xivyotg i\v xal total tbv a- 
narra XQ°*°*> *«* *& <*QXV T *l$ aidiov xnrjoetog • rrt 
9s, tig -TVQvnri xivtjoig, xal tiva xlvyoiv aidiov ivdi- 
jna* ftoyrjy elvat, xal to xivovv nqwtov oti axivn- 
tor, Giqrjrai,. 

Ot$ di tovt a/neqig avayxaiov ilvou, xal fiydb 
\tuv piy&d-og, vvv Xiyausv, nqwtov nsql twv nqoti- 
Qav avtov dioqioavtsg. Tovtwv di, tv fib iotiv, on 
wx olov t« ovdb nsnsqaofibov xiviiv anuqov XQ *- 
rov tqios^yaq ioti, to xtvovfitvov, xal to xivovv, 
wltoiv totqhov oxoovog. Tavta di,rj nana ansi- 
oer, n navta ntJiiqaafiba, fj evia, olov ta dvo, tj to 
h. "Eotoy 6rj to a xivovv, to di xivoifisvov /?, X(?6~ 
vog antigog i<p* ov- y. To drj d xivsitw t» fiiqog tiqg 
(S, to iq? tp e. Ov drj b Vato tw y iv nXiiovi yaq 
to [iti£or. "Jlg-i ovx anuqog 6 XQW°S o T0 *> ?• 0%- 
t» dij tji d nqooti&dg, xatavaXtoaoa to a, xal tjj t 
to /J. Tav 9i xqovov ov xatavaXtooa atl ayatq&v 
hop • anuQog yaq. "ftgt* ij naoa a tijv oXyv /? xi- 
wjra* iv ittJieqaopbtp XQOV(o tov y. Ovx aqa olov 
u %mb\ Tttnsqaofibov xwslv&at ovdir ansiqov xivr\- 
W. "Ott fib ovv ovx bSixstai ti n&tsqaofibov a- 
nuqov xtvuv xqovov, yavtqov. 2. "Oct, d' oltog ovx 
bdixvtcu b nmsqaofibm fityi&u anstqov slvat> bv- 
vafiiv , b tibds dqXov • Motm yaq t\ nXsltov Svvafug 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ad 7) xo laov h iXaxxov* XQwy noiovoa, olov #«^- 
paivovoa, y yXvxalvovoa, tj qmxovaa, xal okng n*» 
vovoa. Avdyxr\ aqa xal vnb xov nsmoaopivQv fUv, 
itmiQOv d ' s/ovzog dvvafuv, naax £lv T * *• naaxor, *<** 
nXslo) rj in aXXov * TiXeiwv yao 7) ansioog dvvafug. 
AXXa pt)v xqovov y$ oix tvdixeteu tlvcu ovdiva • d 
yao iauv b i<p* y a xoovoq, iv <p y an8to.og la^vs 
i&iopavsv, rj iOio$v « iv o> dk 6 o ; /?, TienfQaofisvt} tk* 
7100$ TavT^y juc/^o) at* Xafi/3dv(ov nsntQaopivtiv, jjf|c» 

7TOT6 Sl£ TO fr TW a #0oV<p **mVTjX8V0U * 7100$ 71S71E- 

oaofiivov yao id noooxifolg, ineoftaXi Jiavxog wo*- 
OfUvov, xal dapaiowv iXXeit^ta wsavnag. Ev iaq aoa 
XQQvu xivijosi 7) mntQaopivTi ti} dndoy tovto di 
advvaxov. Ovdiv aoa ninsoaopivov ivdix^xa* antk- 
oov dvvafiiv t>x uv ' 3* Ov xolvvv ovtis iv andfy 
nensoaofiivtjv • xafxoi ivdix**(H iv iXdxxovt fityd&H 
nXelova dvvafiiv elvai, &X£ It* paXXov iv /ue/Joy* 
nXsito. > £az(o St) to iq? ov a /5, Sltiuqov • to di) ft y, 
%XU dvvafiiv xiva, ^ sv xivi /ooV*) ixlvyos xyv d, iv 
t£i Xoovu iq> qi 8 J. *Av dij xyg ($ y dmXiaiov Xap- 
/?ayoa, fr tipiosi Kmjaa jfooyip *ov 8 £• <<rra) /ao av- 
tij ij avaXoyia. "flgx iv x$ £ # xwijaii. Ovxovy o«- 
to) Xotfipdvcov ill, xt)v fiev a ft ovddnote dU£tq*i, xq*~ 
vov ds %ov do&ivtog del iXdrtm XrjipopoH. "Anti^og 
ccqa 7) dvvafiig eaiw niang yao nmBomapivqi 
vnsqfiaXXn dvv£ft8W nioqg di n87i8^aafUvfig £v- 
lapewe, ctvayxy mntoaa^Uvov slvai xal xov Xffovov' 
8l yao ev xnvi *) xoaridl, ^(i8lCw iv iXctxiov* fUv, «^4- 
ojiivw 6e xivtjoei XQOv<?> x*xa xrp dvxKiXQO^f)v Tijs 
vvaXoylag. "Ajisiqos di ndaa diva/us, Sgma ««» 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nlri&og xal piye&og to vnsgfiaXXov navxbg Agiopi- 
vov. 4. *jEot» di xal tods dn$ai xovxo* Xriyofii&a 
yhf> di} rtva Svvapiv xr\v avxijv tw yivei tiJ iv 1$ a- 
nzigco (reyi&ti, h ntntgaopivoi fieyi&tt ovoav, fj xa- 
Ta^Lttqr\an xfjv h tw cmdgw nsntgaofiivrjv frvvapiv. 
"Oxt piv ovv oifx Mixtion aitsigov tlvai dvvapiv iv 
7t87XBgaapiv(o ptyi&ei, ovdi rnnsgaofiivrjv iv antigia, 
§x tovtcqv drjXov. 5. Ilegl di xwy qxgopivotv, xaXatg 
%X*i Stanogrjoai xiva anogiav ng&xov • tl yag nav 
xb xtvovptvov xiviixai vnb xivbg, baa (irj aixa kavxa 
iuv si, nag xiviixai %via ovvsx<ag, firj anxopivov tov 
xivyaavtog; olov xa Qmxovpeva. El d* apa xivti 
%ai SXXo xi 6 xivrjoag, olov xbv aiga, og xivovpsvog 
xivii ' opoitag advvaxov xov ngtaxov pr\ anxopivov 
pijds xwovvxog xiviiod-tti, aXX* apa navxa xal xivii- 
v&oci, xal nsnavo&ai, oxav to ngwxov xivovv nav- 
ar\xai } xal si notu agrreg o Xi&og, olov xiviiv o ixi- 
vyoev. Idvayxri tie*, xovxo ph Xiyeiv, or* to nguxov 
xirrjaav itoiii olov xs xiviiv, fj tov aiga xovxov, tj to 
vdag, ij aXXo xi xoiovxov o niqpvxs xiviiv xal xivii- 
a&ai , aXX° ovx up* ^avsxai xivovv xal xivovpevov, 
aXXa xwovpivov phv apa, oxav b xivav navorjxai xi- 
vnv, xivovv Si It* ioxi' dib xiviixai xi aXXov ixbpi- 
vov, xal inl xovxov o aixbg Xoyog. Ilavexai di, oxav 
iXoSxrcav y dvvapig tov xiviiv iyyivrjxai tw ixopivta, 
TiXog 6*8 navexai, oxav pt\xhi noi^ar^ xb ngoxigov 
xivovv, aXXa xivovptvov povov. Tavxa d' avayxrj 
Sfia navEo-d-ai, to fisv xivovv, xb tie xivovptvov, xal 
rifv oXr\v xivyoiv, Avxrj fiev ovv iv xotg ivdsxofiivoig, 
bxi fiiv xivCia-d-ai, bxs d* f)gspiiv iyylyvsxai r\ x/yij- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


oig, xal ov avvexys* aXXd yalvttai* r\ ydq i<pe£rjg 
onto*, rj anxopivwv ioxlv • ov yao sv xb xivovv, all* 
iXOfisva aXXrjXav. Alb xal iv dipt,, *al iv vdaxi ylvt- 
xai> r) xoiavxrj xlvrjoi>g, r\v Xiyoval xivtg dvxmsotara- 
aw tlvai. Iddvvaxov d* aXXtag xd anoq^ivxa Xvtiv, 
si fi7] toy eiorjfihov xobnov. C H d 3 avxiTtsgiaraa^g 
Sfia ndvxa noul xwuo&ai, xal xwtlv otgxe xal 
navzQ&ai. Nvv de (faivsiai ev xi xvvoifievov avvt- 
Xmq* vno xivog ovv; ov yao vnb xov avxov. 6.*£- 
ntl d' iv xdlg ovoiv avdyxrj del xlvr\Qbv elvon ovvtxr), 
avxrj de fiia ioxlv, avdyxrj de xr)v filar psyd&ovg re 
xivog elvai* (ov yao xivelxai xb dpiye&eg •) xal hvbg, 
xal i(p evog m ov yao eaxai ovvexr)g, uXIl ixop£vr\ 
kxeoa hxeqag xal dijjQrjpevri. To dr) xivovv si §y, rj 
xivovfievov xivei, rj dxlvrjxov ov. El fih dr) xivovjxe- 
vov, ovvaxoXov&eiv derjoei xal jiexafiaXXeiv avxb, a- 
fia de xivelod-ai vno xivog * agxe oxrjoexai, xal ijjSa 
eig xb xiveio&ai vnb dxivrjxov ' xovxo yao oix avd- 
yxr\ ovfifiexafidkkeiv , dX£ ad xi dvvrjaexai xivuv 
anovov yao xal xb ovxta xiveiv, xal bfiaXijg avxr\ r) 
xlvrjoig, rj fiovrj, rj pdXiaxa • ov yao exu fiexafioXip 
ovdeplav xb xivovv. Ail de ovde xo xivovfievov txqoq 
ixeivov l/cty fiexa^oXr)v t Iva bfiola y y xlvrjoig. 1 *A- 
vdyxrj de rj iv fiioa, rj iv xvxXco elvai' avxai yog al 
doxai. IdXXa xdx^oxa xivuxai xd iyyvxaxa xov **- 
vovvxog. Toiavxrj 5' rj xov okov xlvrjoig • ixii olqql 
xb xivovv. 8."£x£i> d' dnoqlav, si ivdixexal r* xi- 
vovfitvov xivilv ovvtxm, «Ua fir) togneo xb ta&ovv 
ndXiv xal ndXiv, [xal"] tw i(p£$r)g elvou ovvexatg • rj 
yao avxb iei w&siv, rj eXxeiv, rj Sfiqxo, rj frspov t» 

Digitized by GOOgle 


hdsxopevoir alio nay SlXov, ttgnso nalai itixdrj 
fal tc5v $ iTtT ovpivwr. El di diaiQBtbg to* 6 arjo ij to 
vStaq nwu, ak£ »$ asl xivovfisvog, afKpoU^wg d* 
ovx olor 19 plot* thai, &l£ ixofUrfjr • port) aqa 
<rvv*xys» V* *"£ T0 axivrpov * iel yao bpoitog exov, 
xa\ nqbg to xwottfisvov bfiolotg IJ«* xal owtxwg. 
9. Jmqiafiivmif di tovtow, <paweQor on advvatov to 
tiqutov xivovv xal axbrjtov %x* iV T * itiye&og • el yaq 
piys&og sx*h iviywi\ froi ntiteoaapivov avtb elvai, 
7) ansiQov. "AntiQov fii> ovv, on ovx ivdixttoti fieye- 
&og elvcu, dideixrai nqojfQov iv %oig qtvoixdig. "(Hi 
di to neneoaafibov advvaxov ex*w cinsi^ov b*vvafiiv 9 
xal on advvaxov ionv imb nsnegaafisvov xwuo&ai 
n anuqov jfoovov, didsixxai vvv. To di ye nobnov 
xwovv, ai'diov xwei xivrjotv, xal anuoov xqovov. <Pa- 
veobv toIvvv, ou adialotiov ioxi xal apeoig, xal ov- 
tfo %x ov (*iys&og. 

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Li b. I. Cap. 1. Quid sitscientia, et quomodo differat 
al» experientia. 2. Philosophiam iuprimi* in cognitione 
cansarum principioramque , a sen si bus remotorum , ver- 
wri. 3. De primis rerum causis principiisque quid do- 
eaerint veteres, utThales, Anaximenes, alii, qui vel nnum 
principiuru, vel plura statuerint. Praefertur ceteris Aoa- 
xagoras , qui top vovp principium posuerit praeter mate- 
rlam. 4. De amore , quem praeter materiam posuerint 
, Parmeuides et Hesiodns. De amicitia et odio Empcdoclis, 
tpii primus quatuor elementa asseruerit. De Leucippo 
Democritoque , qui plenitndinem et vacuitatem entium et 
mm entinm causam statuerint. 5. De Pythagoreis, qui 
nomeros posuerint principia. De Parmenide, Xenopbane, 
Heliaso. 6. De PI atone, ad Pythagoreos accedeute. Idem 
qua in re ab illis dissentiat. Colli^untur supra dicta. 7. 
fiefelluntur veterura de principiis placita , supra corame- 

Lib. I. (II.) Uic liber aut nouuisi aliud idque brerius 
^ordium est totius operis; (unde et inGraecis,ubi trede- 
jm tan turn numernntur Metaphysicorum libri, vocatur 
tdipu to tXuTTOv) aut plane alieuus est iudicaudns ab hoc 
°pere , quia transitum facit ad disquisitionem dc natura. 
&p. Xm Veritatis contemplationem partim difficilem, par- 
tial facilem esse. De discrimine, quod sit inter philoso- 
Arist. MetAphys. 

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k-.m »t inter nracticaro. Hlam imprimis circa causas 
ph.aro et inter V"™ a liquod simplex, nee innu- 

me". , ;..erefomLr. P .«t«en2a..3.Adiiciunturo«.e.. 
STincTnditiora de mvestigandae traden°a«q ne v« iU- 
tis ratione. Subtilitatem inatbemaucam in uon 
prae«ari posse. Transitu, fit ad disquisiuonem de natnra 
(quae tamen hie non seqiulur). 


K^nsarnm genera speculari 3. An gener-rum 

?, r u° m ?nlniur„mqne'. P ec U latio esse? et ^-«*«£ 

PSnSM-. 6. Qu.reoporteat *•£«£ 
^eculari philosopbum, praeter sens.b.l.a? E'^'"™ 

an *«#' i'xaOTix? 

Lib III. (IV.) C.p.l. De eote perse, ut subiecto 
separaue scientiae. 1 De ente specnlationem , deque 
proprieutibus eius, nt entis, unius esse scientiae. 3. f M- 
losophiae esse mnnn. , disquirere ax.o- 
m ,tLs , et de substantia (o«o^). 4. De unaquaque re 
umimquodqae aut debere praedicari , autnegan. Idem 
»„n posse simul esse et non esse. 5. Non omne, quod 
esse videatnr, etlam vere esse. 6. Dispntatur •^em» 
cos, qni omnia quae vera videantur, rera dicant. /. Himi 
medium esse inter contradiclionero ; h. e. quodlibet rte 
quolibet recte aut affirroari ant negari. 8. De ns , qui 

DioiBzedb, Google 


omnia vera, et de iis, qui omnia falsa esse dixerint. Osten- 
ditar, errare ntrosque. 

Lib. IV. (V.) Continet hie liber variorum terra ino- 
ram vocabulorumque a pbilosopbis usnrpatorum expli- 
cationem homonymicam. Cap. 1. Quot modis princi- 
pium dicatur. 2. Qnot modis cansa. 3. Elementuin. 
4. Natura. 5. Necessarium. 6. Unum. 7* Eus. 8. Sub- 
stantia. 9. Eadem, diversa, differentia, similia. 10. Op- 
posita et contraria. 11. Priora et posterior a. 12. Potentia 
{6vra/i*s)» 13* Quantum. 14. Quale. 15. Ilgoq t*, ad 
aliquid. 16- Perfectum. I7. Terminus. 18. Secundum 
gaod(TOxa^' o). 19. Dispositio. 20. Habitus* 21.Passio. 
22. Privatio. 23* Habere. 24. Ex aliquo esse. 25. Pars. 
26. To turn et omne. 27. Mutilum. 28. Genus. 29. Fal- 
mm. 30. Accidens. 

Lib. V. (VI.) Exilis bic liber superiorum quadam- 
tenus est supplementum. Cap. 1. Disputation em de ente 
tbeoreticae esse philosopbiae. Tres esse pbilosophias 
theoretics* : pbysicam, mathematical^ theologicam. Cf, 
X. (XI.) 7-) 2. Quid sit accidens (roJWftptptjHoq,) et cur 
sit, et quod eius non sit scientia. 3. Principia causasque 
oriri et occidere sine generatione et corruptione* 

Li«. VI. (VII.) Cap. 1. De primo ente. 2. Quaestio- 
nes de substantia (ovo(<f). 3. Quid sit substantia. 4. To 
tip tZvaiy i. e. defiaitio, seu quidditas alicuius rei. 5* To 
*t?p elvtu competere substantiis vel solis, vel maxime, et 
primum, et simpliciter. 6. An to %C r\v tlvtu et ?xadroi> 
ut idem, nee ne. 7. De generatione. 8. Formara et es- 
senttaxn rei non generari. 9. Quare quaedam arte et casu 
font, quaedam minime. 10. Utrum Totius definition! 
>trtinxn quoque definitionem inesse oporteat, nee ne; et 
Urum prius, partes an totnm? 11. Quae sint speciei 
partes , et quae non? 12. Cur et qnomodo unum sit de- 
fnitum. 13. Nullum universalium (rah xa&6Xov) esse 
mbstantijMn ; et quaecunque universaliter praedicentur, 
non significare hoc aliquid (roSe t»), sed quale (rowpSi). 
14. Adversus cos, qui ideas dixerint simul et substantias 

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esse, et separabiles. 15. Singulariuin rerum sensibilium 
substantiae nee definition em esse posse, nee demonstra- 
tionem. 16. Nullam ex substantiis esse substantiam. 17. 
De substantia et de quidditate {%i fa ilvai) alia quaedam 
snbtilius disputantur. 

Lib. VII. (VIII) Cap. 1. Post repetitionem eorum 
quae de substantia hactenus dixit, de substantiis sensibi- 
libus dicere orditur. % De sensibilium oi/aCq,, quae sit 
o)q ipegytta. 3. No men rei an signified substantiam, qua— 
tenus sit composita, an ti[v ivfyyeutv et formam. Addun- 
tur quaedam de generatione et interim substantiarum* 
Solvuntur quaedam quaestiones , circa quas ambigebant 
Antisthenis sectatores. Denique de reductione ad name- 
rum disputatur. 4. De substantia material^ et de causis. 
5. Non omnia contraria ex se invicem gigni. Adduntur 
quaestiones quaedam. 6. Quae causa sit tov tv cfrat. 

Lib. VIIL (IX.) totus agit de Swaps* et ivegytdf. 
Gap. 1. De potentia et privatione. 2. Potentiarum alias 
esse rationis expertes, alias cum ratione coniunctas. 3* 
Contra Megaricos , qui dixerint, tunc solum dvvaptv lo- 
cum habere, cum iviqyua adsit, sen cum agatur; ubi yero 
uon agatur, non esse dvpctfui'. 4. An fieri possit , ut res 
possibilis nee sit, nee futura sit unquam. 5. Unamquam- 
que potentiam , si adsit cupido eius , cuius habeat poten- 
tiara, id que ea ratione, qua habeat, necesse esse illud 
ipsnm eftectum reddere. 6. Quid et quale ipigytus, 7. 
Quando unumquodque sit Swaps* , et quando non. 8. 
Tip iv/qytutv esse ante rtfP Swap*p et ante omne princi- 
pium tiansmutatorium. 10. In bonis rebus %ij9 Ivdqyiiav 
praestantiorem esse ry Swap**, in malis contra. Unum- 
quodque quale sit, probari, si ad iv4qys*a¥ rerocetur. 11. 
De vero ct falso. 

Lib. IX. 0L) Cap. 1. Quid sit to* ?r, et to hi tlva*. 
2. To 3V in omni genere esse quandam naturam , et rei 
nuUius prorsus id ipsum ewe naturam. 3. Quot modis 
sibi opponantur unum et multa : itemque diversion et 
dissimile, 4* De contrarietate. 5. Aequale, magno et 

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parvo quomodo opponatur. 6. Quaestio instituitnr de 
unius et multorum oppositioue. 7. Necesse esse, ut, me- 
dia quae sint inter contraria , sint ex ipsis contrariis. 8. 
Ea quae specie dnrersa sint, in eodem esse geaere. 9. Quid 
sit specie esse diversum, et cur alia specie differant, alia 
non. 10* Dirersa esse specie corrupt»bile et incorrtipti- 

Lib. X. (XI.) Cap. 1. jixogtm quae dam de philoso- 
phia. 2. Item aliae amoqUu. 3. Quomodo multorum et 
specie divers or urn una sit scientia. 4. Primae philoso- 
phiae esse, principia mathematicarum rerum inquirere. 
5. Fieri nou posse, ut res eadem eodem tempore et sit et 
non sit. 6. De Protagora , qui dixerit , hominem rerum 
omnium mensnram esse; ac de contrarietatibus et oppo- 
sitis. 7* Physicam scieutiam esse theorelicam , siruti et 
mathematicam et tbeologicam. (Cf. V. (VI.) 1.) 8. De 
ente per accidens. 9* Tr\v itrsA/jfttav eius quod sit dv- 
varov, qua Svvavbv, motum esse. 10. Corpus non posse 
esse infinitum. 11. De mutatione. 12. De motu. 

Lib. XI. (XII.) Cap. 1. De ovtrty. 2. De owri? mu- 
tabili, et mutatione. 3. Nee materiam nee speciem ge- 
nerari. 4* De causis, principiis et elementis. 5. De prin- 
cipiis sensibilium. 6. Quod necesse sit esse ovalav ali- 
quam aeternam , quae prima sit omnium causa. 7. De 
primo movente, deque Deo. 8. De astris et orbibus coe- 
lestibus, quot sint numero ; et de veterum de diis opinio- 
nibus. 9. De mente (ntgl tov vov). 10. Quomodo na- 
tura universi ha beat ipsum bonum et ipsum optimum. 

Lib. XII. (XIII.) Cap. 1. Entia maibematica utrum 
sint, an non sint. 2. Eadem an a sensilibus separata sint. 
3. Quomodo sint. 4. Ideas Platonicas non esse. 5. Nul- 
lum Tftiv tlSwv esse posse usum. 6* De numeris pbilo- 
sopbia. 7* An unitates sint combinabiles , nee ne ; et si 
combinabiles , quomodo? 8. Quae sit differentia inter 
onmerum et nnitatem, si qua sit. Disputatur cum contra 
alios, turn Pytbagoreos. 9. Numerum et magnitudines uon 

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posse separari. Item aliae quaestiones proponuntur. 10. 
De ideis quaestiones. 

Lib. XIII. (XIV.) Cap* 1. Contrariorum nullum 
(Oitdhv t(Zp ivarvCoiv) posse esse proprie principiuin re- 
rum omnium. 2. Aeterna non posse esse composita ex 
dementis. 3* Contra Py thagoreos , eorumque numeros* 
4. De numerorum generatione ; item aliae dubltationes 
circa Pythagoreorum sententiam. 5. Numerum non esse 
rerum causam. 6. Aliae denique dubitationes ad do- 
ctrinam de numeris et de ideis pertinentes proponuntnr. 

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"*■■*■ ayttg av&oamoi toy udba i ogiyovxaijpvqt^ 2t\- 
fiiiov d* ij Twy aio&Tjotiov ayan^aig' xal yhg #o>- 
?*£ t^$ xQtiag , iyanwvtai di iavTag, xal ftaXiata 
idv SkXatv i) dia Ttuv dfjfiVTfov. Ov yog fiovov Xva 
ngartafiw, alia xal fiydb fidXXovtsg ngatrstv , to 
ogqiv algovfis&a artl navrwv, wg tlnuv , nov alitor. 
Alitor d\ oti fidliata nolu yvwgi£uv ti tjfiag av%r\ 
iw aio&rjomv, xal nollag dfjlol diaatogag, *tn/an 
fib ovv alo&tjoiv i'xovrct yivncu tit iota. *Ex de zr\g 
aio&riostog, tolg fib avtwr ovx iyylyvt%aifivi\fir\^xoig 
ds yiyvvtai. Kal dia rovro %a fdv qpgovifia , ta Si 
Ha&7)paiixi6isQa jib fit) dvvafurwv fun\ftov%vtivia%lv. 
togovifta fisp, arm iov fiay&avtiV) oaa py Swata 
t&v \p6q>(»v ixoviiv • olov fiiXitta, xal tl %i lotovxov 
alio yivog £o»cw iatl. Mav&avu d' f oaa ngbg t»/ 
fivflfijl * a * tavtriv %%ti Ttjv aVa&?iptv, ; Ta fib ovv 
a IX a zaig qpanaoiaig fy, xal tatg fivr^fiaig, i/nttigiae 
Arist. Metaph. A 


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fl« pstixu fiixgov • to di twv a v&Q(tin<ov jy£v og xa l^ 
tixvjj xal XoywiioXg'T' Ylyvstai, d 3 ix tr)g fivrj^g 
ifinugla tofg av&gtonoig. Ai yag noXXal fivr)fiai 
tov avtov ngaypaTog, fiiag ipntigiag dvvapiv uno- 
TsXovai ' xal doxu ovedov inioTr\pri xal jixvy opowv 
thai r) ipjtsigla. Anofaivu d* imorripri xal t&vij 
diet trig ipnuQluS *°'S txv&gwnoig. *H fiev yag ip- 
Itugla %ixvv\v inolrjoev, wg q>r\oi IloiXog , og&ag Xi- 
y (ov • r) d 3 anugla Tvxr\v. rlvnai ds tijpn, orav 
ix noXX&v Trig i^tigiag ivvorjpaTtov , xct&oXov fiia 
ybryiai mgl twv opoltov vnoXr^fig. To ph yag %x* w 
vnoXrufsiv, ott, KaXXla xdfivovri ir\v$i Trjv vooov , to- 
dl ovvrjveyxs , xal Saxgaxtt,, xal xa&ixaorov ovtw 
noXXoig, ipnugiag iari • to 6* oxi naoi ToXg xotolo- 
ds xat 3 tldog tv aqfogta&siai, xapvovm Tr]vd$ tr)v vo- 
oov, ovvrpeyxe, otov tolg q>XeypaT<i6s<Hv £ jfoleWeaff, 
rj nvg&tTovoi xavoto, Tixvyg. Ugog fih ovv to nqax- 
tuv ipmtgia Texvyg oidev doxu diacpiouv, aXXa xal 
fiaXXov knvtvyxdvovxag agtopev tovg ipmigovg , t&v 
avsv %r\g ipmiglag Xoyov ixovttav. Atnov d , ot* r\ 
(iiv ipmigia t&v xa&&xa<sxa ion yv&oig, r) 9e Tc^rij 
tc3v xa&oXov • av ds nga^sig xal ai ywiaug naoat, 
nsQl to xa&ixaorov ilaw. Ov yag av&oamov iyiiia 
6 iatoevwvy nXyv aXti r] xata ovpfoPrixbg, dXXa KaX- 
Xiav, rj 2iaxQUTi\v, r] %Sw aXXav Twa ovrmXsyopivw, 
m ovfifiiprptev av&p&ny slvai. *Eav ovv avev xi)g 
ifmngiag e%j} Tig tov Xoyov, xal to xa&oXov pbr yvn- 
ql'Qr], to d 3 itv avxfy xa&exaorov ayvorj,itoXXaxig dia- 
H<xqtt}oetou Trjg &6Qun$iag •• ^eganevthv yag tojmi- 
•&ixaoTov fialXov. 3 AXX Sfiwg to yt tl&ivai xal to 

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Htoutiv, TiJ lipy tys ipmiolag \maox*v olipi&a 
u&XXov, xal owponigovg %ovg rtjpitac tmv ipnilow 
inoXapfUxvoptv , &g nana to tidtva* pallor axolov- 
dovjav %r\v oooplav naai. Tovto di , oxi oifUvtrp 
alxlav Xaaaiv, oi d 3 ov. Oi piv yaq tpmiooi, to 
011 piv i'oaoi, flwm d ' ovx toaatv • oi di to diou xal 
Tfjp afoiav yvwoftovo*. dio xal toig aqxiTtxTovag 
mgl exaorov TipiwUgovg , xal paXlov tidivai yo/i/Jo- 
piv twv x^oTtx^^y *<*i ooyonioovg, oti Tag ahiag 
iwy noiovpivoyv Xoaow • oi d' wonto xal twv ayni- 
X*rv ivia, notit piv, ovx udota di noiu , olov xalu 
to nvo. Ta psv ovv ayvxa qrvou tivl noiuv tov- 
tmv htaarov * tovg di xuootixvag di %&og • a>g ov %a- 
ta to nqaxuxovg tlvcu ooywtioovg ovrag, alia xaxit 
to Xoyov txtiv avToiig, xal Tag ahiag yvaol&iv. "QXwg 
t« oqpelov tov sidotog xal to dvvao&at did gotten 
iati • xal diet tovto t^v Tixvrp 1^5 iunsiqiag oiops- 
$a paXXov imorripnv tlvai. Jvranai yaq, oi di ov 
dvvavrai didaoxuv. "Eti di twv aio&tjosiov oidspi- 
av fiyovpt&a thai ooyiccv, xahoi x^wrarai yi*i- 
oiy avtai t&v xa^ixaarjt^x^oiig, aXX ov Xiyovoi to 
^diiri neql ovdsvog, olov, dia %l &tqpov to nvq, ai- 
la povov on &Bgpov. Tov piv ovv nqmtov uxog Tip 
onoiavovv evgovia %*x vr \ v naqa Tag xoivag aio&tf- 
<sug, &avfi(x&o&ai vnb twv av&qaitw, pt) povov did 
to xQ^oipov elvai tI tmv tvQB&svrm, aX£ ig aoqpov 
xal diayiqovra T»y aXXwv. JJXhov(ov di svoioxo- 
fUvorv Ttxv&v, xal tmv piv noog Tavayxaia, tojy di 
noog diay&yfiv ovomv, atl oocptatigovg Tovg toiov~ 
tovg (xtb&v inoXapSdvoutv , dia to fit) . noog XQV- 


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aiv that tag iniotrjiiag aiwv. "O&sr nfrn mxrrwr 
ttav TOiovTwy xateoxsvaopivQJV , ai pii ngog ydovriv, 
Wlli ngog tavayxala t&v imottifiwv ivgi&r)oav, xal 
ng&tov tovtoig tolg tonoig ovneg loxbXaoav. Jio 
negl AXyvntov ai pa&r)ftanxal ngmov tixvaiovve- 
ornoav. 'Extl ydg r)q>el&ri oxoXdfav to w iegmv 
%&vog. EXgr^tat fisv ovv iv tdig rj&ixdig, tig hayo- 
gu tixvt)g xal imorwng , xal t&v aXXwv wv bpoyt- 
ywy. Ov o° evixa vvv noiovfie&a tov Xbyov , tovx 
iatlv, onir)V bvopatotidvriv ooyiav nsgltd ngSta 
alua xal tag dgxdg, vnoXa^dvovoi ndvtsg' wots 
xa&dntg ti'grjtai ngotsgov , ott 6 fih fyntigog tbtv 
bnoiavovv ixovuov al'a^^aty, slvat doxu ooqxotsgog' 
6 ds tsxvityg, t&v ifintlgm' x*iQO™X*° v &* > «fl*««- 
vnw' ai di &60JQt)Ti,xal, twv noiritix&v potto?. On 
lib ovv r) ooqtia nig ttvag aitlag xal dgxdg ioxiv 
imorrjptit drjXov. 


'Enel.ds tavtv\v tvv tounypw tipwp*» * %ov% 
av sty axsntiov, nsgl noiag aitlag xal ntglnoiag ag- 
Xag imorrifiri, ooq>ia iotlv. El drj Xafioi tig tag vno- 
Xrjyug ag 'ixoptv mgl tov ooq>ov, tax <* v ** tov tov 
(pavegbv yevoito fiaXXov. 'TnoXafi^dvofitv drj, ng&- 
tov [isv inlatao&ai fidXuna ndvia tov ooq>bv wg £v- 
dixetai, pi} xa&ixaotov $xovta towriptp avtjov • cl- 
ta tov to x<*Xind yv&vai dwaptvov , xal fit} $£dn 
av&gdnqt yivdoxuv, tovtov ooq>ov • to yag aio&ave- 
o&ai, ndvttov xoivbv dib gddiov, xal ovdsv oocpov. 
*Eti tov dxgtfliottgov , xal tov didaoxaXixmtgov tav 
altfav, oocpmegov thai nsgl ndaav imotritir}v • xo* 

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li&v ini(jT7]fX6JV di xr\v gvrjjg tvtxt v , xal xov slihaL 
jdffSt alq*ti\v ovoar, paXXoy thai ooylav, ij xrp xwv 
mtopatvortwv Hvtxtv • xal xrjv aqxixwxiqav, xqq vnt)- 
qnovarjg fidXXov zlvat oocplav. Ov ydq diiv imxdx- frl 2 f r 
xto&ai toy ooqtbv, dXt imxonxuv, xal oixovxov hi-*-- 1 - 
(>w Tzsl&eo&ca, dXXd xovxtp xov vpxo* ooyov. Tag ^ cA> 
ftiv ovv vnoXyyug xoiavxag xal xooavxag fyofiev nt- 
$trjg oocpiag xal twv oocpwv* Tovxwy 5s xb fib ndv- 
-^Xainioraa&ai , tw fidXioxa sxoni xi]v xa&oXov ifrr*- 
(rnfprjvowayxaiov vndqxuv, Ovtog ydq oldi nag 
ntnrtara vnoxtlfisva. 2xs$bv de xal xaXsnwxccTa yya)- 
qi£uv tolg av&gwnoig iatl xd pdXioxa xa&oXov * noq~ 
qotdxaa ydq xwv alo&yoniif ioxi. *Axqi(}ioxaxaidi twv 
tBurtTjfiwv, at uaXioxa xav nqwxanr tlalv. Al ydq IS 
kkattovoav axqi/Moxsgai iw ix nqoo&iotGtg Xsyopi- 
vvy, olov aqi&firjxtxi) ysoausxqiag. *AXXd pip xal #<• 
daaxaXixrj ye ?j xtov aiximv &t(OQTjTutr) paXXov. Ov- 
101 ydg diddoxovoiv ol xdg aitiag Xiyovxtg n$ql ixa- 
oxov. To d 3 ddbcu, xal to Moxao&ai avtwv tvt- 
xa , ualiotf inaqxu xfl xov fidXioxa imoxijxov int- 
axtjfAjj. c O ydq xb inioxao&ai dt tavtb aiqovusvog, 
tip fiilioxa lni<nr$n)v fidXioxa algyoerai. Toiavxrj 
9' iaxtv t) xov fiaXurxa £ni<jxr}xov. MaXioxa tie im- 
axrfta id nqS>xa xal xd aXxia, Aid ydq xavxa, xal 
(x tovtwv xaXXa yvaqi£txai , dXX ov xavxa did xwv 
vnoxsifisxov. *Aqxixtartdxr[ 8e xwv ijiiaxt\aiLv , xal 
pdXlov dqxixrj vygvityqttovafig , r} yv&qi£ovaa xivog 
trtxiv iaxi nqaxxiov txaoxov, Tovxo d ioxl to a/a- 
dbv kxdoxov * oXwg 6s xb aqioxov h xji (pvou ndot). 
*JBiS vtnavxfav ovv xuv iiqfj(iiv(ov inl xtjv avxyv intox^ 

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(itiv nintu to £rjjovfisvov ovofia. Au yaq ravTTjv 
rap ngmmv agxotv *«2 am«> slvai&stogijTixrjv. Kal 
yag xal to ayadbv, xal to ov svtxa, h twv airiap 
ioriv. "Chi $* ov nonjuxrj, dtjXov ix twv novnwv q>i- 
Xooo<pr]oavTO)v. /Jta yag to d-avpctfav oi av&Qmnoi 
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pixobv ovtoa ngo'i6rte±, xal nsgl xc5v fttitovuv dianogr)- 
oavtsg • olov ntgl tc %Gtv rfjg oeXtjvrjg na&fifidrtoy, xal 
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to tlSivai to iniotao&ai idtaxov , xal ov XQyawS ti- 
vog htxtv, Magtvgu d$ xal axrtb to ovfiflsfirjxog. 
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inl tovtov ovfiptfvai paXioTa tixbg, xal dvorvz*ig «&«* 
ndvrag xovg nsgutovg. *AX£ ovw to &bIo* qt&ovt- 

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b &eog %x°h &**a %w huaxr^iiav iou, xnv tX xig Tc5y 
£uW sty poxy d*' aviij Tot/iwv aj*g>o?6pa)y xnvxV' 
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3 Emi Si tpavtobv, oti xmv i£ aqzVS aixltax dtH Ao> 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


dia ti ngwtov) filav di, tyv vXyv xal to vnoxtiptvov' 

tgivrp di, o&tv r\ agxv 1*1$ xivyoeag 9 tttagtr\vdi tr^v 

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uBmg, ofioog nagaXafitafiBV xal tovg ngotsgov fjfji&v ng 

inioxtxpiv t&v ovtav iX&onag , xal q>iXoooq?rioavtag 

nsgl ttjg aXti&dag. JrjXov yag on xo)xuvoi Xiyov- 

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yivog eigrjaofiBv aitiag, ij taigvvv Xsyofibaig fiaXXov 

motsvoopBV. Tojv drj ngtattav (pdooocpyodvtwv oi 

nXuotoi tag iv vXijg ei'dst fiovov wr)&i)ouv ag- 

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xal i$ ov yiyvstai ngmov, xal tig o cp&ugetai teXtv- 

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pstaPaXXovorig , tovto atoix&ov xal tavtrjv tiJv ag- 

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<prtooo<piag, vdtag qnjolv tlvai • 6ib xal tijv yr^v 4q? 

vdatog ansoppvato thai, Xaftwv Yam ir\v vnoXrjyay 

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iavtr t v ix tov ndvTtov bgav tip rgoyriv vygdvovoav, * 
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vygolg. Eiol di twtg ov xal tovg nafinaXalovg, xal 
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vn aviwv Sivya itbv noitjiitv. Tipuinatov fiiv ydg 
to ngtopvtatov. "Ogxog dt to tipuatatov iouv. Ei 
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oxrts ylyvBo&ai, ovte unoXXva&at, dXXa diapivuv &t~ 
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aqa IlaQfi&idji , xal tovtca xati toaovtov ooov ov 
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Tdlg dinXtiw no toy a iv fiaXXov Mixtxat, Xiyuv , olov 
to diopov xal yvxQov, $ nvq xal yyv. XQwrcat yao 
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METAPHYS. MB. I. CAP. 4. 11 

ami rr\v wy ortmv qivoir, noXtv vn avtyg tr^g uXi}- 

#tl«^, Zoniq ifnopir, dpayxa&fttpoi , typ ixofttoriw 

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di tig unmv tlvou , xa&dcn$q to toig Suoig , xal to Tjj 

yvou tor aXiiov xal tov xooftov xal ttjg tdU**g n£- 

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pop toxttox t&v Xoywp. Air iar 6' %x** noottoo* c Eq- 

potifiog Kka$opivtog tiittiv. Ol ftto ovv ovtvg 

vnoXafi/iavopttg , a pa tov xuXwg vifv aitiav ioxriv 

thai twv ovtwv s&toav, xal tip toiavrqv, o&tp i\ xl- 

c , <i 

vying v7taQZ$i toig ovoiv. 


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toig ovoiv t&tixip &g aQXWf olov xal naopdvldfig. 
Kal yaq ovtog xcctaoxsvdfav tt)v tov naptbg ytotoiv, 

Jlgoniatov {lb (qnioipyeoma #ea>? fttiiioato 
'Holodog de, 

Jjdvxtav fikv Ttqwiiata x«og yivet * avtao sVrmu 

rat 9 tvgvottgvog, 

*JRd' *Qog, og ndvttooi pttanoinu d&avatoioiv • 
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*al at/r«£u ta nqdypata. Tovtoig piv ovv mog XQH ^*«- 
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■ Digitized by GoOgle 


de xal tavavtia toig dya&olg ivovta iqpaivsto iv rn 
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voiav , xal pr) ngbg a tpiXXi'Cstai Xiymv 3 Eimt6oxXr t g, 
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xal fisxgi tovtov dvtlv aitlaiv ifpr^avto , £>g rjfisTg 
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o&tv r\ xlvnoig*- dpvdgMg pivtoi xal ovdsv oaopiag, 
dX£ olov iv Talg fidxaig oi ayvfivaotoi noiovjt. Kal 
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t« oioixua dii'otrjtai to ndv vnb ?ov vslxovg, tots to 

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nvQ sis ev ovyxgivitai, xal T«wy aXXwv arot/ctay **«- 
otop' Stay di navtavnb tyg (pdiag ovvlaoiv eigtb tV, 
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'EpntdoxXrjg pkv ovr nagd tovg ngotsgov , nrpwios 
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aigi, xal idau. Adftoi d' av tig avtb xttayuv ix 
tuv ifiwv. Ovtog fih ovv, wantg Xiyopev, ovtag ts 
xal tooavtag ugyxev agxdg. Asvxmnog di , xul o * *->. ■ ' 
ktaZoog avtov Jiyioxgitog , otoixua fih to nirflts 
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pot rs, xal xa%iy y xal &soiv. /ftacpigeiv yag <paoi to 
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tQOitri &ioig. /Jiaqpiosi yag to piv A tov N qgijpaT* • 
%b di AN tov NA td&i • to di Ztov N &iou, JItgl 
di xivyatwg, o&tv rj nwg vnagxu toig ovoi , xal ov - 

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xot naganXrjoitog xolg aXXoig $a&vpttg ayrjoctv. H$gl 
ftiv ovv xwv bvo aUuav, &an$g iXiyofiev , inl xooov- 
xov toixsv i£rjTrjo&cu ngoxegov. 
: • CAPUT V. 

*Ev da xovxoig, xal ngb xovxwv oixaXovptvoi ZZv- 
&ayoguoi xwv pa&rifiaxtov aipapevot ngiuxov, xavxa 
ngoyyov, xal ivxgacp&vxtg iv avxolg, xdg xovxmv dg- 
Xag xvv ovnav agxag yri&riaav ^ vai ^vxvtv. *Eml 
di xovxtov oi agi&fiol q>vau ng&xoi, iv ds xoig ccqi- 
•frpoig idoxovv -freoageir opou&paxa noXXa xoig ov- 
oi xal yiyvopivoig paXXov rj iv nvgl xalyfj xalvdaxr 
oil x6 fiiv xoiovdl x&v aQi&fiwv nd&og dixaioovyr/ , 
to de xoiovdl, yvxh *<*• V °W * %t*QOV ^« xaigog * xal 
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dgpovixtov iv dgid-potg ogwvxtg xal xa nd&rj xal 
xoig Xoyovg* intidrj xa piv aXXa xdig agu&pdtg iq*ai- 
vsxo xr\v <pvaiv aqxtipouoxj&ab ndaiv, ol ds dgi&fiol 
ndatjg xr\g qtvoswg ng&xoi 9 xa row ag&pwv axoixua, 
xwv ovxav axoixua ndvxav etvai vniXafiov , xal xov 
olov oioavbv dguoviav thai xal aoi&ubv, xal oca *£- 
%ov opoXoyovfiwa osixvvvai, tv ts xoig agi&poig xal 
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xal ngog xi\v oXx\v tiiax6o\vt\oiv xavxa ovvdyovxsg, 
ityygpoxxov. K$v tt xl nov noXv dUXins* itgoatyU- 
Xovx-o xov avvi\gpoop&r\v naaav avxolg elvai xr\v 
ngaypaxsiav. Aiyto &' olov, inudr\ xiXuov rj dsxag 
tlvat doxil , xal naaav mgiuXtiq>ivai xijv xw dgt- 
-d-fitov qyvaiv, xa» Ta <psg6fisva xaxa xov ovgavov, dixa 
fiiv tlvai cpaoiv • b'vxfov di ivvia povov XtoV g><m- 
gwv, diet xovxo dtxaxyv xrfv avxix&ova noiovoi. Jur* 

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Qurtai Si n8Q* joints iv ktiqoig tffup axqi/kotsqoy. 
*Al£ ov d*i zdqtv intQzbfAS&aytovib iotiw, bntag la/fa- 
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[ tag, net* 7tvg ug rag uqrifdvag ipnlntovoiv aitiag. 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


xovaag* olov Xevxbv, peXav yXvxv, mxgov aya&ov, 
xaxov (iixgbv, fiiya. Ovxog pevovvadiogioxiag indg- 
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d by Google 


par ovv, xa&dntq tlnoutv, dytxioi nqbg xijv vvv £*/- 
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xoiovtov tttgov, aX£ avtb to anugov , xal avtb ti 

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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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fitfitixbg Xiyovoiv. "Oti fiiv ovv oo&okg diwgunai 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ntgl tmv altiouv, xalnooa, xal rtdla, pagtvgtlv ioixaoiv 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


diet xr\9 ptyaXofiiguav tmv ds tgt&v fxaotov otoi- 
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XQWfia, dXXd axqwfiatov i\v i\ dvayxyg. Elx* ydq 
av u tovtav tav XQ^^oitav. 'Opoi&g de xal axvpor 
tw ccvtM Xoyio tovtoa , ovde dXXo t&v opolw ov&iv. 
Ovte yaq noiov ti olov te aito elvat, ovte nooov, ov- 
te ti • tuv ydg iv fiiqet tl Xsyo/nsvwv eidwv, vnfjqxev 
av aiftql. Tovto de advvatov ptfAiypivfov yt ndv- 
tmv * ijfdJi? yaq av anexexqito. iPtjol d' elvai pefiiy* 
peva nana , nXtjv tov vov • tovtov de dpiyrj pitvov 
xal xadaqov. *Ex drj tovnov ovpj3alv$t Xeyeiv axni$ 
tag dqxdg, to, te tv (tovto yaq dnXovv xal apuyig^ 
xal d-dttqov xa&dneq av, olov ti&epev to ioqiatov 
nqb oqta&rivai xal petaox^iv ei'dovg tivog. "flats li» 
yetat piv ovte oq&ng, ovte oacpwg' (tovXetai penoi 
tl naqanXtjotov tolg t$ voteqov Xeyovoi xal toig vvv 
yaivop&voig pdXXov. *AXXa yaq ovtoi pev totg neql 
yeveotv Xoyoig xal (p&oqav xal xivrjoiv otxeZoi tvyxd- 
vovoi povov. 2xedbv yaq neql te trfi toiavrrjg ov- 
u lag, xal tag aqxdg y xou tag aitlag trjjovoi povov. 

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METAPHYS. LIB. 1. CAP. 7. 25 

*Oaoi Si mol fth aJiaxtwp tap ornov noiovoi* %r\v 
^noglav, t&p d' ortiap tapir aio&f)ta, ta d' ovuai- 
o&Tjra ri&iaai , dylov ug tisqI apyotigtop tip ytp&p 
jioiovvzai ttjp htloxtyiv * dib pallor dp thg ivdta- 
iqiipei* 7i i pi avtup,tixalmqripri xal&g leyovotveig %r\v 
mp pvr rifiiv ngoxtipipwp oxiyiv. Oi pip ovp xaXovpt - 
voi gv&ayogeio*, talg ph igxoug *«1 *o%g orof^a/oic 
bnoTzatigog xQvrtat xmv qwoioXoyvtp, To d* attiov, 
onnagiXafiop avtag ovx i$ aio&ritmp'td yagpadtjpa- 
itxa Twy optwp, owt/ xtvqomg iotip, t|oi tUpntgltrit 
iatgoXoytap. duxXiyoptai phtoi xal ngaypattvop- 
taij itpl <pvae<og ndpra . lYnwat t« yag tap ovga- 
fop' xal nsgl td tovtov pegrj , xal ra nd&f) xal 
to tgya , foottrjgovoi to ovpftaipop • xal tag dgxdg 
xal tot aVtux tig tavia xatavalloxovoiv , ig bpoXo- 
yovrtsg toig alloig (pvaioXoyoig , ot» toys op tovt 
Mv, oaop aia&tjtop tort, xal o negitilrjcptw b xaXov- 
utpog ovgavog. Tag d* aitlag xal tig dgxdg Santo 
unoptp Ixardq (&g Xiyovai) xal inapafSqpat, xal inl 
ia dpvnigat Twr ortoyp, xal pallor j) to%g ntgl yvosttg 
loyoie dgpottovaag. *Bx tlpog pinoi tgonov xivrj- 
aig karat, nigatog xal dmlgov popop vnoxiipivtor, 
tal neqiTtov xul dgtiov, ov&ip Xiyovaw • rj n&g dv- 
tatbp Spbv xivrjomg xal petajSolrjg yevsoip slvat xal 
y&ogdv, rj ta tmv (ptoopivtav tgya xata top ovqopop* 
in Hi fcfVe doiri tig avtoig ix tovtwp tlpou piyt&og, 
uis dnx&tin tovto , optog tha tgoatop total ta pip 
xovq>a, ta di /idgog Ixoptd t&p aapdwp • i$ £p yaq 
vnoti&iptai xal Xiyovoir , ov&ip paXXop y ntol i&v 
uudrjfiatixwp avtpdtw, Xiyovai ntgl twv «mi^ij- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


t&v. Alio negl nvgbg fiyr\g, ij imv aXXtov tmv toiov- 


gl tap alo&T]TG>p olpai Xiyovteg Tdtov. v Eu ds nutg 
del Xafietp, vutia uev (Ivatta toy aotd-fiov Tta&f^ xal 
top agi&pop, tap xata-tov ovgavov ovnav xal yi- 
yvofiivoav, xali$ agxrjgxalvvp, agi&pbp de aXXop ny- 
diva elpai naga top agt&fibp tovtop 4$ ov owiotri- 
xev 6 xoofiog ; "Otap yog 4v xwdl pep tw pkigu db$a 
xal xaigbg avtoig y } fiutgbv de avta&ep rj xdtw&ev 
^ yi/ct u» adtxla . xal didxgioig i] plbg, artodu&p de Xiywatv, 
' on tovttop fih tv exaotop dgi&fiog i<m, avfiSairH de 

' ... , ^ x xata toV tbnop tovtop fjdfj nXq&og ttvou tip ovvi- 
' \ v (jTctuevav ueys&wv, dia to td ndd"n tavta axoXov- 
vuv toig tonoig txaotoig • notegop ovv ovtog o avtog 
iottp dgi&pbg b iv t$ ovqccvw, ovdsiXapuv, otitov- 
to»v txaotop iotiv, ^ naga tovtov SXXog ; c O ph yag 
JlXdtmp Uttgop Aval oprjof xctitoi xaxeipog agi- 
&fioig oUtai xal tavta slvcu, xal tag tovttav altlag' 
aXXa tovg pep vofjtoig aUlovg, toviov g de alf&n- 
tovg. Jlegl ptv ovv tap Uv&ayogeitap iqaio&ta td 
pvp • ixavbv yag 9 avt&p aipao&ai tooovtov. Oi di 
tag idiag altlag ti&ifiwoi, ngwtop flip fytovptsg tup- 
dl tmv bvTwv Xapsiv tag altlag, exsga tovtoig Jaa tbv 
agi&fibv ixofiioav, &onsg el' tig agi&firjoai povXofif- 
j vog, iXattovtav fih ovtmp, oVono pr\ dvprjoto&ai, nXsfa 
de noiTjoag agi&fiolrj. Sxedbv yag Jaa rj ovx iXattto 
ta ei'dri iotl tovtoov^ negl mp ^tovptsg tag altlag, i* 
lovtwp in ixelpa ngoijXd-op. Ka& txaotop yag 
buwpvfiop tl ioti f xal nagd tag ovolag tStv te aXXav 
iorlp inl noXX&p h t xal inl toTode, xal inl totg aidioig 

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*Eti di xal xa&* ovg tgonovg dtlxwtai on foti to «?- 
dr\, xat ovdiva qpalvttai tovtwv. *E$ ivlwv ftiv yag 
ovx avayxi\ yiyvto&ai ovXXoyiafiov • tf£ ivltav dk nut 
ovx tav olofit&a, tovtmv ttdy yiyvtteti. Kata t$ yag 
tovg Xoyovg tovg in -mv iniottifimv , ii'dy sotai rit\v- 
iwv ouojv imaxri^ai tloi, xal xata to tv inl noXlwv 
xal twv dnocpaatcoy • xata di to vofly n ai&agivtog, 
riuir (f&aqxwv opavtaofia yap %i tovtmv iatlv. *i'r* 
5s ol axgi/5iotatot tttv Xoyatv , ol ftiv tav ngog n 
noiovaiv idiag, w ov qpaoiv thai yivog xa& avto • 
ol di toy tgltov av&gwzov Xiyovoiv. "OXag Tt avai- 
govoiv ol mgl twv tidwv Xoyot, a fiaXXov thai (iov- 
lovrat ol Xiyovttg tidy, tov tag idiag thai. 2vfi- 
(lalvti yag fiTj thai tfjvdvada ngtotrjv, aXXatbv agi- 
&/ibv, xal to ngog ti, tov xa& avtb , xal nav& baa 
twig axoXovdyoavttg talg mgl T«y tid&v do$atg, 
rpavtito&rjoav taig agxnXg. "Eti di xata fiiv tijv 
vnoXriyjiv xa& 9 r t v thai yaptv tag idiag, ov fiovov 
twv ovoi&v total tidy, aXXa noXX&v xal itigiov. Ka\ 
yag to yotjfia ev, ov fiovov ntgl tag ovoiag, aXXa xal 
xata tav SXXodv ovmmv low xal intotijfAai ov fi6- 
vov tiqg ovoiag tlolv, aXXct xal higuv xal aXXa di 
fivgla ovfipalvu toiavta, Kata di to avayxalov 
xal tag d6$ag tagntgl avt&v, tl toti fitdtxta tidy, 
tav ovot&v avayxalov Idiag thai ftovov • ov yag xa- 
icc ovfi^t/iTjxbg fittixovtai, aXXa del tavtrj kxaatov 
ftttixttv , rj pri xa& vnoxtipivov Xiytrai. Aiyto d' 
otov, tt ti avtov tov dmXaolov (tttixti, tovto xal 
aidlov fistixti, aXXa xata ovfipefaxog. ^t//i/5a/5^x« 
yag tip dianXaoty aidloi thai, "Jlatttotai ovala t« «*- 

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drj. Tavta ds ivtavd-a ovoiav or\(talvsi xdxst * ij r£ 
tor ai to hvcu opdvai %i naqd tavta , xb ev inl ttoX- 
Xuyv i Kal si pb xb avtb tldo$ tav ids&v xal x&v /uc- 
tsxovtwv, total n xotvbv. Ovti ydq pallor inl twv 
y&aqt&v dvddcov , xal dvdd&v t&v noXXmv fiev , a£- 
diavde, 10 dvdg thai tv xal tavtbv, rj inl tavtrjg 
xal jijg tivog. El ds (irj to avtb sldog, opatwfiiu av 
si'rj xal Ofioiov, mansq av si tig xaXoli\ av&qtanov xov 
tc KaXXlav xal to £vXov, iiydspiav xowtavlav snifili- 
yag avt&v. ndvttav ds fidXiota dianoqtiasisv av tig, 
tl note ovpffdXXstai xd sl'dij tdlg aidioig xwv aicr&rj- 
xwy, »7 *olg yiyv'ofisvoig xal tolg <p&siqo(jiivoig. Ovts 
ydq xivrjosag, ovts fistafioXrjg ovdspidg iaxtp a£- 
tia avtotg. IdXXd ptjv ovts nqbg tqv iniaxrjfjiijv ov- 
dkv'($or\&s% tr\v t&v aXXav , (ovds ydq ovota ixslva 
tovttav • iv tovtoig ydq av r\v ') ovts sig to slvai j ^*ij 
ivvndqxovtd ys tolg fisti%ovoiv. Ovxto psv ydq av 
i'owg aXtia dblsisv slvai, wg to Xsvxlv pspiyfiivov iw 
Xsvxco. *AXi? ovtog psv 6 Xoyog Xiav svxivrixog > ov 
*Ava$ayoqag psv nqaxog , Evdotog 5s voxsgov, xal 
aXXoi twig sXsyov • qydiov ydq ovvayaystv noXXot xal 
jddvvata nqbg vqv xotavtrjv do£av. *AXXd fiTjv ovds 
ix twv sid&v iaxt taXXa xai oidsva tqonov xmv €ii»- 
&6t(ov Xsyso&ar to ds Xiysiv naqadsiypata avxd slvai, 
> xalpstsxsiv avtoJv taXXa, xsvoXoysiv ioxi xal fist aq>o- 
j qdg Xiysiv noirjtixdg, Tl ydq ioti to iqya£opsvov ngbg 
tag idsag anofiXenov; ivdsxstai ydq xal slvai xal yiyvs- 
o&ai opoiov otiovv, xal ftii slxatopsvov nqbg ixetro • 
mats xal ovto(,2<axqdtovg xalfir\ ovtog,yivon d\ oloa- 
nsq 2wxqdt*jg. 'Opolwg ds dyXoii', ox* xav si rp h 

d by Google 

METAPHYS. LIB. 1. CAP. 7. 20 

2m%qi%m atdiog, "Eotai is nl%ita nagadslypata tov 
avrov* vats xal si'dtj' olov, to avdgwnog, to fa or, 
to dbiovv * afAtt di xal to a vToar d Qnmog. *Eti ov 
\iovov tuv aio&r]ja)v nagadslypata xa sidy, aXXa xal 
ainmv, olov to ;wo$ , ws ^eyo? aoW * wot* to avxb 
tatai nagadtiypa xal sixtov. "Eu doSutv a v advva- /,^x 
-iov iiJpaL tfiHQfc myf Qvqfgy % xalov Tjo voiu. Slots n&g t% ' 

av at idsai ovaiai tinv ngaypatmv oi/oa*, jfuoig sltv; \ 
Ev di t$ 4>a<oW* ovttn Xsystai, ig xal tov slvai xal 
tov yiyvso&ai ai'ua t« tidy ioti. Kaiioi tuv siduiv " 

ovtoav, ofttog ov ylyvstai ia pstsxovta, ay /15 JL*°J"? 

_yjjjooy • xal noXla ylyvsta^ stsga, olov olxia, xal da ~ * 
xtvXiog, iv ov yapiv tidy slvai. "Slots dyXov ou iv- * « r v <- ^ 
dsxsta*xaltaXXa^cal slvai xal yiyvtod-ai t xaldtatoiav^^Tit ' - » ,' 
tag aitlag, diag xal ta $i}&sma vvv. "Ett tlntg el- 1 > / , 
olv igi&fiol ta ti'df), nwg altioi soovtai; nottgov^ *V 
ot* stsgot aot&fioi sloita ovta; olov, odl fiiv aVdoai- Vv^ .. " * 
nog agiS-pbg, odl di 2(axgatyg, odl di KaXUag. Tl > . 
ovv ixslvoi tovtoig aVuot siaiv ; Ovdi yag si o\ piv 
itdiot, oi di ftrj, ovdiv dioiosi. El di ou Xoyoi «oi- ■ i - 

d-fitbv ra ivtav&a, olov V ovfi(pon>ia, dr\Xov oti toiat 
Iv yi ti (av slal Xoyoi. EX dij tovxo fj vXrj , qpavsgbv 
ot* >xai avtol oi agi&pol Xoyoi tivig saovxai kxsgov 
nqbg stsgov. Aiyto di olov, tl sotiv KaXXiag Xo- 
yog iv aoi&fAo7g nvgbg xal,yrfg, xal vdaiog , xal ae- 
oog, xal o aviog av&qtanog, aXXtav tiviov vitoxufiivtav 
tatai ' xal f] Idia agi&nog xal avtoav&Qwnog , die 
doi&pog ttg ajy tits pi], Qpwg sotaiXoyog iv aot&noig 
tivotVy xal ovx aoi&(Aog * xal ovx sotdi tig dice tavtot 
b agi&ftog. "Ezi ix noXXwv agi&fxw tig agipuog yi- 


vnai, IS tldwv ds tv stdog n&g; El de (Ayd* l| aitmv, 
&XX* ix xvv ivaoi&fiav, olov iv ty pvoiddt, nwg fyov- 
otv at povddeg; M' xe yao bponisig, noXXa ov fifty oe- 
xai axona' el'xspri ofiosidslg, (tyxsai avxal aiXrjXcug, 
firjts at aXXomaoai ndoaig' xlvi-yao dioloovoiv, ana- 
dug ovoai; ovxs yao tvXoya xavxa, ovxb bpoXoyov- 
peva tfi vorjott. "Ext di avayxalov hfoov xh ykvog 
doi&pov xaxaoxivd&iv , nsgl b y api#jUi?Tfx^ , xal 
ndvxa xd pexal-v Xeyopeva vno wyw, a n&g , i\ in 
xivav ioxlv ao/ofy > V $ ia Xl T * /* eT *£^ T< *>* tovoo x 
total xal avxtav ;*'Exi al fiovddtg at iv tiJ dvddt kxa- 
xdoa ex xivog nqoxiqag dvdfiog • xaitoi advyaxov. Ext 
diet tih 6 aoi&pog oyXXafifiavopivog ; *Exi to noog 
xoig UQTjfi&poig, tinea slolv al povddsg didfpoooi, ixQV* 
ovxa Xiyuv , wontQxal boot ret oxoix&a xixxaga if 
dvo Xiyovot. Kal yao xovxwv txaoxog, ov xb xoivov 
Xiytt oxolx&ov, olov to oStpa, dXXd nvg xal yyv, t$x' 
toxi xl xoivov xb awfia , slxt pr\> Nvv di Xiytxai cfc 
ovxog xov hog, &onto nvgog i\ vSaxoo opoioptgovg* 
JEi d' ovxwg, oix i'oovxai ovoiat ol doi&fioL 'AXXa 
dyXov, oxi tVnsg ioxi ti h avxo, xal tovxo ioxiv aox*b 
nXtovax&g Xiytxai x6 IV • aUuog yao advvaxov. Eov- 
XofAevoi di xag oiolag avaytiv elg xag doxag, pyxy 
piv xi&tvxai ix fiaxoov xalfyaxiog, i'x xivog pixgov 
xalpsyaXov xal inintdov 4x nXaxiog xal oxtvov' 
oetpa d' ix (ta&iog xal xanuvov. Kaixo* ixiitg f&i, 
ij to ininsdov yQapprp* V %0 oxigsbv yoafifiyv xal 
inlmdov ; "AXXo yao yivog xb nXaxv xalxb oxtvov, xal 
(la&v xal xannvov. "Slonto ovv ovd' agi&fiog vnag* 
X6i iv avxolg, oxi xb noXv xal xb oXiyov kxtgov xovxwv, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


br\\ov oil ovd* alio ovdix t&v avu vndo£ei toigxatti. 
'Alia firjr ovdi yhog to nXaxv tov fta&iog' r\v ydo 
av inintdov Jt, to owfia, *Eti ai otiyfial in thog 
iyvnagxovot; Tovty fib ovv x$ yhn xal dupdxnc 
UXaTtav mg orti yt&finoixtp do y fiat i' aX£ ixdXei 
a$XV v yQ a Wh$* Tovto di nollaxig iti&ti tig <Jf o- 
xovg yqapfidg • xaitoi dvdyxij tovtmy thai ti nioag> 
°Jlots 4$ ov Xoyov ygapfiy ioti, nal otiyfifi itrtiv. 
"OXmg di £f}tovor)g tr^g oocplag nsgl tax atavtgav to /*__ 
jfitiov, tovto fuv tidxaftty • oi&ix yog liyofitx mgl 
TTjg alt lag, o&tx t] dgxv tqg fieta/folyg ' ttjv 6" ov- 
ular oioptvoi liytiv avjwv,ktigag oioiag thai (paftiv. 
'Oxotg di ixiivai tovtmv oioiai, did xtvr\g Uyoptx. 
To ydo pttix tix, Homo xal to noon gov tlnofitv^^ 
ov$iv iaux. Ovdi tit) onto to%g inHnrjfiaig og&fitt 
ox altiar, 4±o xal nag vovg, xal ndaa cy ju jxsnoiti:^ 
Ovdi tavtrig tyg aitiag, ip yafiix thai fiiav twv 
igX*>*> ovdix anttjai td tidy. 3 AXXd yiyoxt t« pa-* \ v 
dfyiata toig xvx r\ anXoooatla, cpaoxoruo* dXXuv /<*-) 
pv avta diix ngayfiattveo&ai, *Eti di tyx vnoxtifii* 
rxy ovoiav, &g vXtjv fia-d'fjfiatixtatigax ax tig vno- 
Xdfioi, xal fidXXov xatrjyoguo&ai, xal dtacpogdx thai 
tqg ovoiag xal tfjg iXijg, olov to fiiya xal to fiixgox' 
Sontg xal ol (pvaioXoyoi cpaal, xal payor xal to nv- 
xvbr, nqitag tov vnoxtifiivov q>doxoxttg thai dia- 
(foodg tavtag. Tavta ydo iatix vntooxn tig xal 
tXXuyt£. JSigl di xiytjoswg, ti fiiv total tavxa 
xixtjoig, dr\Xov ou xivrjottai td tidy • ti di pr\, no&tx 
iiX&t* ; oXrj ydg r\ nsgl cpvomg axrjgfitai oxiipig , xal 
o do**JlJigtii$£4^ oi yl* 

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yvsxai. \7% ydg ix&iau ov yiyvsxai ndvxa er, dML* 
avxb xi tv, av di5w xig ndvxa.X -*£«* ovde xovto, iav 
fir] yivog 8m xo xa&oXov tlvcu. Tovxo 3* iv ivioig 
advvaxov. Ovdiva tf 5 %%u Xoyov, ovtis xd fiexd rovg 
dgiS-fiovg, \ir\xr\ xe xal ininsda, xal axsgtd • ovxe 
onag iaxlv rj eoxai, ovx si' xivatx* 1 dvvotpw. Tavxa 
ydg ovcs sldtj olov X8 sivai ( ov ydg slow dgi&poi ) 
ovt e xd pexa£v (xd (ia&rjfiaxtxd ydg ixuva) ovte t« 
q>&agxd • dXXd ndXiv xixagxov aXXo qpaivnai xovto 
ti yivog. "OXoag xt to xwv ovxwv fyxuv axotx&ai, (irj 
disXovxag, noXXax&g Xeyopsvoiv, advvaxov svgsiv, ak- 
Xtag xs xal xovxov xbv xgonov tyyiovvxag 4£ oiW iarl 
oxoixtfav. *Ex xlvatv ydg xo noiiiv rj ndaxav , rj to 
rid v , ovx eoxi 8r]nov Xafielv, aJU' etnsg iaxl , T«3>y 
ovoiuv povov ivdixexai. "jloxs xo xwv ovttov dndr- 
tcmv xd oxoixsla $ £r}%uv t rj ofeo&ai ex*w , ov* aXrj- 
&eg. Jlwg d' dv xtg xal pd&oi xd x&v ndvxmv oxoi~ 
%sia; Jr)Xov ydg &g ov&sv oidv xe ngovndgxsiv yvw- 
gi^ovxa ngoxsgov. "Jlaneg ydg xot yttontrguv fxav - 
&dvovxi, aXXa fxh ivdixsxat ngoeidivai, mv di r) 
imoxypri, xal mgl <av piXXst, [tav&dvHv, ov&tv ngo- 
ytvaoaxei • ovtw xal inl x&v dXXaav. "flax «t' xig xmv 
ndvxoav iatlv iniaxr\\ir\ y &anig xivig qxxotv, oih&sv av 
7igovndgxot> yvmgl&v ovxog. Kaixoi ndaa fid&t)- 
oig did ngoyivwoxofiivcoy rj ndvxcov, ij xivwv iox& ' 
xal rjdi dnaddSmg, rj 6i bgusiww. Au ydg, 4$ a» 
o ogujfibg , ngoeidsvai xal that yvmgitia. 'Opoitog 
de xal rj dt inaywyrig. *AXXd pr)p xal el xvyxdvti 
ovfupvxog ovaa, &avfiaoxov n<ug Xav&dvofiev sx ov ' tc 9 
*iv xgaxiaxr\v x&v imoxrjfA&v • I'rt n&g xig ypwgiosuv 

Digitized by GOOgk 


ix xIpwp ioxl, xal nwg total drjXov. Kal ydg xovx 
f[?6i anogiap • dfiyioprixriasu ydg av xig, uontg xal 
ntgl iviag ovXXafidg • ol flip ydg 10 2 M A ix xov 
2xalMxalA qpaolv Bivai' ol di xivtg txtgop <p&6y- "" 
yop epaolv elvai, xal ovdsva xup ypugifuap. *Exi di 
&p iaxip ai'o&rjoig, tavxa nwg av iig fit} l/wy trjp af- 
o&HOiv yvoii\ ; Kaitoi edu • ei'ye nonary tavxa aroi- 
%£ia ioxlv, i$ wv, uontg al oip&bxoi qxovai iiaiv ix 
wv oioi£«*W. u O%% fiiv ovv ictg eigrjfiivag 4v xoig 
(pvatxdig ah lag &]iuv ioixaoi ndvxzg, xal tovtmp ix- 
vbg ovdsfilav exoifisv av einup, 6ijXop xal ix t&p ixgo- 
xtgop elgrjfiiptov • dX£ apvdg&g tavtag' xal xgono> 
(lip xiva dnaoai ngoxtgov uqrjpjat, igonov ii xiva 
ovdagiug. WsXXitofiivrj ydg boixiv 7) ngwxri yiXooo^^. 
<pia rtsgl ndpxwv, itxe via re xal xax agxag ovoa, 
xal to ngwtov ' intl xal 'EfiixtdoxXijg ootovv tw Xoyto 
(prjglv ilvou. Tovxo Si ioxi xb xl t\v thai, xal v\ ov- 
oia jov ngdyfiatog. 3 AXXd firjp xalbfiolow dvayxaiov 
xal odgxa, xal xwv aXXtop ixaoxop tlvai top Xoyov, rj 
firfii iv. Aia xovx& ydg xal oag£ xal ooxovp iaxi 
xal wv aXXtov exact ov, xal ov did tfjp vXrjv, rjr ixti- 
pog liysi nvg xal ytjp, xal vdwg xaldiga. 'AXXdxal 
tavta aXXov fib liyovtog, ovvitptioev av i£ apdyxtjg, 
aaqpcos di ovx elgrjxe. Ilegl fiiv ovp tatp xoiovxwp 
dadrjXaxat xal ngoxtgop. "Ooa 8i negl xwp avxwv 
tovxtav dnogrjosisv av ng 9 inapiX&mfitp ndXiv. Tdxa 
ydg av 4£ aixwv fvnogrioaifiiv ti ngbg tag vottgov 

Arist. Metaph. C 

Digitized by GOOgle 






' lltql trig aXti&siag &e<OQia 9 ttj (ih x«^ n V > T 5 ^ 
Mia, 2r\uuov di xo unxs a£l(0$ uridiva dvvao&ai 
tvxuv avtijg, pyre navtag anotvyxoiveiv , aAA bxo- 
otop Xiysiv ti nsQl lijg <pvoeug • xal xa& tva ph, f*q- 

, Siv jJ (imqov impdXXsiv aviji • ix ndvwv Si awo- 
•&QOiio(jtir(ov yivGO&al xi piye&og. ct Jlar siihq sotxsv 
txstv, xa&dnfQ TvyxdvofiBv naQoipiatopsvoi , tig av 
&vqag aftccQioif TavTtj fiiv Sv tvr\ Qadia. % To d oXov 
t %xw> *«* P*Q°$ PV ^vvaa&at , di}Xdi xo j|fai«7ioy 

^avtrjg. *'lo<og ds xa* xijs x^*™* 7 ! 10 * ovarjg xaxa 
dvo TQonovg, ovx eV rdlg 7igdypaoiv, aX£ iv^fiivxo^aX- 
xiov avTrjg. "Jlon*Q ydq xal xa xwv vvxisjfiSaiv op- 

\ (xaxa Ttqog xo <piyyog t#« ™ f**^ W*Q a * > ovtw *a» 
rrig fipsriQctg yvxw ° v °v$ **oos *<* *// V^ae* q>avs- 
oaxaxa navx&v. Ov povov di X tt Q ty *X il * W*<*w f 
TovioiQ, w av tig xoivMvriocu xoiig d6$oug, dXXct xal 

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rdig tti imnoXwotsqov anooprpafiivoig. Kal ydq 
xal oi/Toi ovpfiaXXovtaitt. Ty* yaq Qty nqoTj<Jxr)oav 
f)luov. El (Uv yaq Tipo&sog pq iyevno, noXXtjv ay 
fxtlonouar ovx ttyoptv • d di fiij fpqvvig, Tipo&tog 
ovx av iyivtto. Tov avrov di tqdnov xal m tup* 
trig aXrj&eiag dnooprjpafuvmv. JIaqd fiiv yaq iritav 
naqsiXr)<pa(i8v tivag dolag • ol di tov ysrio&at tov- 
tovg afttoi ysyovotoiy. 'Oq&ag di %x H xa$ ™ xaXi- 
aat ^trpf q >tXoooq>iap btiaxi\iki\v tfjg aXrj&tiag &ttoQr)- 
tixrjij xtetaQTjTixTjg (iiv yaq tiXog dXrj&tia , nqaxti-^ 
xi\g S* tqyov. Kalydqidv to mvg fy* 1 oxon&oi, ov to 
alriov xct& avtb, aXXd nqog xi, xal vvv dtrnqovotv 
ol nqaxtvxoL Ovx taper 8i to dXrj&sg avtv trig ai- - 
tiag. "Exaotov di pdXiota avtb tvv.aXXwv, xa&' o 
xaltolg itXXoig imdqxu to owtwvpov, olov to nvq 
■dsqpotatov. Kctl yctQ tolg aXXoig to alttov tovto 
trjg dsqgi6tr t tog. "Slott xa\aXri&iotato*tb tdig vote- 
qoig alitor tov aXfi&iow tlrott. Jib tag tStv atl 
onwv dqxag, avayxaiov del thai aXrj&totdtag. Ov 
ydq not* dXri&eig, ovd* ixslvaig aXtiov ti iotl tov 
thai, aXt ixiivat toig aXXoig. v Jlo&' htaotov wg 
t/e* tov slvai, ovtco xaltijg dXn&siag. 


*AXXa uriv otiy iotlv dozy tig, xal ovx antiqa 
ta attta tStv ovtwv, ovttlg sv&vtooiav, otts xai stdog, 
dijXov • ovts yaq wg 1$ vXr\g, tod* ix tov tit dwortbv 
Uvcu sig anuqov olov odqxa piv ix yyg, yi\v d* ix 
tov aiqog, aiqa d 9 ix nvqbg, xal tovto fiy %otao&ar 
ovts o#ar ij aqxi\ tr\g xivJ\owog ' olov , tow uh av- 


Digitized by GoOgle 


■d Qfonov vno tOv aiqog xivy&rjvou, tovtov 8' vnb tov 
yXlov, tov tie %Uov vnb tov vtixovg, xal tovtov firjdsv 
thai nigag, 'Opofag 8s oidi to ov tvixa, slg anu- 
gov olovTt tivcu* pddioiv pi* vynlag evexa, tmvitjy 
8' zv8aifiovlag, %rp 8* tv8atfioviav aXXov, xal ovrtag 
asl alio aXXov tvtxtv thai. Kal inl tov ri rp «]- 
vat woavtwg. jiov yag piomv av ifnivt&va tt %ax«tov 
xal ngoTsgov , avayxaiov tlvcu to ngoTsgov afriov 
t&p fin (xvto. El yag tintiv fmvg8ioi,Tiwv tqiwv 
uXtiov, to ng&xov igovfiev. Ov yag drj to ye soxa- 
tov. Ov8sv6g yitg to ys tbXwxcuov. IdXXa fiqv ov- 
8s to fiiaov • kvbg yag. Ov8iv yag 8ia<pigH,wrj nXsica 
thai, ovd 3 amiga rj Ttsnsgao/uva. Tmv 8e ansigmv 
tovtov tov TQQTiov xal oXotg tov aneigov ndvra ia 
poo tot piaa b/ioimg fdxqt, tov vvv. "Jlar einsg firjdiv 
ion to ng&xov, olmg al'iwv ovSev ioTiv. °AXXa pi\v 
ov8e inl to xdxia oIovt 4otIv hianugov Uvatxov Svm 
fyovrog aqxyv war ix nvgbg fib v8wg, ix 8i tovtov 
yx\v, xal ovxvtg del aXlb xi ylyvto&a* yivog. JiXW 
yag ylyvnav x68t ix xovdt, (fiij wg x68a Xsysxat ut- 
xa x68t, olov 4£ *Io&plmv y OXvfinta,)ij ix nai8bg avyg 
(itxapdXXovxog , ij l£ Aj8axog arjg. c Jlg fUv ovv in 
Tratdbg av8ga, ylyv$a&ai q>a(iw, c&s ix tov yiyvopi- 
vov to ysyovbg*, x\ ix tov imxsXovfievov to xtxsXe- 
ap&vov del yog iarl pnatv xl,£ansgxov uvatxalftfi 
*ivai yivtoig , ovrtog xal to yiyvbpevov tov Svxog 
xal fiii Svxog. "Eoxi 8* b pav&dvcov yiyvopBvog 
intoxvtfi®* ' xalxovx iorlv b Xiysra*, ou yiyvttai ix 
Hav&avovToginioTTjfMtiv lb 8s, u>s l| aigog vdwq, 
(pfaiqofiivov daTiqov. Aib ixslva /asv ovx dvaxap- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

LIB. I. BREVIOR. (II.) CAP. 2. 37 

mu nqbg aXXriXa, ovde ylypetm i& avdqbg naig. Ov 
yaq ylyvsrcu in tyg yeveotug to yiypopepo* , «U* 
ton ptta ti\p yhtoip. Ovta yaq n faty* f* f *S 
hqw% oti peril tovto. dtb ovde to nqteX i$ rjpiqctg. 
Oanga 8e apaxapntei. *Ap<potiqv>g de idvpatow tig 
imiqop Hrcu. T&r per yaq ovwr ptta$v , apayxti 
Ttkog thai • ta de tig aXXr^Xa avaxapme*. 'H yaq 
dcniqov y&OQct , &aieqoviotl yeveaig. "jpadexal 
Mvarov -to nqmtop atdtov op, at&aqfp**' Ene * Y a % 
ovxansiQog t\ yipeoig in\ twv Spa , apayxt}, i& ov 
ydao&rtog nqmov tl iyepeto, py atdiop tlpai. Tovto 
to advpatov. "En de to ov tpexa, tilog. Totovtov 
fc, o py aXXov tpexa, aXXata aXXaixtlvov. u Jl<rt\el piv 
mm toiovtop to eoxatop, ovx wtn* antiqop • tl 
ti (if}dh totovtov, ovx eotat to ov tpexa. *AX$ oi to 
amtqoy noiovrng, Xapdapovow i^aiqovpttg tip tov _ 
iya&ov qpvoip. Kattotov&tlg £p iyxtiqnoeusp^ ov- 
^bnqdtteip, py piXhav inl neqag ^' ovd' Sveir) 
wvs h tdig toiovtoig. "Evsxa ya? ttpog ael nqat- 
w oye vovv %xw. Tovto yaq iou neqag • to yaq 
t&og, liiqag ioth. *JXXa pijv oide to tl yv thai iv- 
Uxnat avayeo&ai tig filXop bqiapbp nXtopd&pta 
tm Xbyta. Uel te yaq iotiv 6 }Spnqoo&ep pdXXop , o 
y voteqog oixZotip. Ov de to nqmtop. pn eativ, 
oidk to ixbpevbv iotiP. *Mn tbhtlotao&aiapaiqoi- 
oip oi ovta Xeyovreg. Ov yaqolbp te eidevat,, nqlv . 
tig ta Stopa IX&tlp, xal to ynrwrxeiv ovx eoti. Ta Ci U 
yap ovtfog aneiqa, n&g iMxttai voelv; ov yaqbpoi- 
ovlnltijg fqappyg, % xata tag diaiqeotig pep ovx 
matai' yo^aat^' ovx lot* pr\ atroavra. Jioniq 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ovx ctQL&prjOU xag xopag b zip anttQOV dittiwv, aXXa 
xal xr\v vXyv iv xivovfiivy vouv avayxr\ • xal undo a, 
ovtiiv iaxiv thai • u 6s py, ovx antiqov y iaxlv , xb 
antiow thai, UXXw fifjv xal ti anngd yqaav nXy- 
&ti xa si'dtj xwv aixtov, ovx av f\v ovd' ovtoa to yi- 
roj oxeiv. Tots yaq tldivai oiopt&a , oxav xa ai'xta 
yvagiaotfitv. To d* antioov xaxa xrjv 7iqoo&soiv, 
ovx eaxiv iv neTtsoaofiinp dis$tX$fiv. 


Al St axqodotig xaxa xa t&n ovpflaivovaw. 'Jig 

yaq tid&afitv/ovxtog afrovfisv Xtyto&vti.' xalxd na- 

ga tavxa ovx bfioia q>aivtxai, aXXa dta xx\v aovvrj- 

dtiav dyvoaoxoxtga xal Ssvtxdxsga • xb yaq avyri&tg 

, 's^yvWQifiwxeoov. 'HXlxrjv de laxvv %x fl t0 ovvrj&tg, ol 

a ^S^ ^ , vopoi dyXovoiv, iv olg xa lAV&txtbri xal naidaqiudri 

' "& P&&V loxvsi xov yivtaoxtiv ntgl aiitav dia xb K&oc. 

^* Ol fiiv ovv idv fiij fjia&ritiaxixtog Xiyy xig, ovx into- 

dixovxai xwv Xtyovxtav ol $\ av (ifi nagaduypaxtr- 

xo)g f ol difidgxvga a£iovoivinayso&ai7ioiijxr)v. Kal 

< ol fih ndvxa dxgi^&g , xovg ds Xvnsl xo aXgtpig , 17 

)dia xb fxr}- dvvao&cu ovv(igsiv,ydid xr\v pixqoXoyiav. 

'is/ei ydq xt xb axgifligxoiovxov. 'Jloxs xa&ansg inl 

xuvovfi^oXalwVfXalinl xavXbyav dvsXsv&sqov thai 

xiai doxti. Jib Sii nmaidivo&ai, n£>g sxaaxa anods- 

xxioVG>gaxo7tov,a[ia tyxiiv imaxff(ifiv,xal xgonov im- 

oxrifirig. "Eoxi ds ovdixegov$a$iovXa(}siv. Tip 6' ixgt- 

fioXoyiavxijv fia&fjpaxixrivovxiv anaoiv anaixyxsov, 

aXX* iv xolg fir\ exovoivvXyv* Jibntg oi qwoixbg b xgo- 

nog. "Anaoaydglotag rjq>vaigex^yXriv. Jiboxsniiov 

Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. 11.(111.) CAP. 1. 39 

nqtaxovj %l imw rj <pvoig. Ovitt yog xal, mgl tlvoq 
r) qtvoixij, drjlow eatat, xalripuzg dniaiT^Tjg jjiuUto- 
vent to. aXxia xai tag agxag &M»Qr)oai dotty. 

LIBER 11. (UI.) 


J4rayxri ngog ir\v in^titovfiiv^v iniQtr % ^y y in$X&tty 
T,pag TiQtozor, nt qi mv anoorjoaf 3t1 nqonov. Tav- 
xad* tatiw oaa mol avtmy aXXtog vnsiXfoaoi tiyeg, 
xny & it, ztoqlg tovtay tvyxoiyo* nqSttoy naotmoapi- , 

toy. \?Eoi* Si tolg timoorjoai /SovXofiiyoig nqoiqyov JT\^~ ^ 
to dianogr^c uxoc ji^c . j C H yap votcqov ivnogia Xv- 
aig tSty ngottgor anogovpiywy ioti. Avuv d' ovx ' 
tatty ayyoovvta toy dtopop* aX£ r)trjg diarotag azro- 
qia drjiol tovto ntgl tov ngaypatog. Hi yagano- v 
oil, ravrtj 7iaganXrjotQy ninoy&s tolg d$dtfidyoig. 
Udvyatoy yag afi(potigwg ngosX&uy tig to tfingo* y 
o&ty. Jib dtiTat dvaxtQtiag te^tmgfjxdyai naoag 
itQOtsooy, tovttov t« z<*Q lv *°» ^ %0 tovg £rjtovy 
lag avtv tov dianogfjoai iQattov , ofioiovg sivai tolg 
nol dupadl&i* ayyoovok* xalngbg tovtoig, ovd* d 
notB to Zqtovtitvoy (vqtjxsv fj py, ywtaaxuv. To 
yag tiXogt ovtat piy ov drjlov, t$ di xetXiog ngoijno- 
?ijxot* dijXov. *Eti di (teXuoy avdyxr\ %%$& ngbg to 
xqivcu, toy waneg aytidix&y xal t&y afiKpiofirjTovv- • 
toy Xoytav axrjxoota ndrtwy. "Eotilf anogia, ng<a- 
T17 fiiv ntgl my iv tolg nsqtgoifiiaopiyoig dirpiogrjaa- 
fitv, nottgoy fitag /J ttoXImv iotiv imottifitov, fctoori- 

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a«t t«£ aixiag, xal notsgov xag xi fc QVtffa j Pfiyfo ia^ 
nganag ioxl zyg tounrjfirig idsiv fiovov , rj xal mql 
( \j to)v agx&v i$w dilxvvovow ctnavjsg* olov noTtgov 
y^f ivdixsiat, xai'xo xal ev Sfia qpaVat xal a7roqpavaf , -^ 
ov, xat ?T€^i xwy aAAa)? tow toiovtw. EXx taxi tic- 
9} T^y ovoiav, noxtgov fiia negl naoag, t) nXsiovig et- 
jt. iCav a nXdoveg , noTsgov anaoat, avyysvslg , rf 
tcxs /u«y ooq>iag, tag di aXXo ti Xtxxiov avxwv. Kal 
tovxo 8 3 avxo xmv avayxaiw ioxl £7}ir)<jou t noxtgov 
Tag aio&yjag ovoiag slvai fiovov q>axiov , fj xal noc- 
ga ravxag aXXag • xa* notsgov povax&g > ^ ixXslovct 
yivrj xitv ova my • olov o* Troiot/yTc; ia xs ««#i? , xa* 
to pa&finaiuta, fiexaj-v xovxojv is xa* xwy alo&r)x<or. 
Ilsgi ts tovtwv ov? , xa&ansg qpafiiv , tmaxsnxioir* 
xal noxsgov nsgl rag ovoiag r) &s<agla fiovov ioxlv, if 
xal nsgl to) ovfiftsftiixoTa xa&* aixa xaXg ovalaig. 
JIgog di xovxoig, nsgl tavxov xal frsgov, xal ofioiov 
. xal avofioiov, xal xavxoxyiog xal b>ttvxi6xi}xog, xal 

K 7ltQl 71Q0T8Q0V Xal VOT8Q0V, XO* T(OV aXXtOV CWOLVXtay 

VTcay ToiovTmv, mol hotov oi diaXsxxixolnsig&vxaivxo- 
nsiv, ix t<ov ivdolw fiovov noiovfisvoi ttjv oxsyty, 
Tivog ion &eugrioai nsgl navrmv, *Eti di TovTOig 
aviolg oaa xu&* ami ovfipipyxs • xal fit] fiovov, xl 
iaxi tovtu* htaaxov t aXXa xal, si aoa tv kvl ivavtlov 
xal noxsgov at agxal xal ia aroi^fia to yivr\ iarlv, 
ij sig a diaiguTtti iwnagxovxa txaorov * xal si tcc yi- 
vtj, noxtgov oaa inl tolg axofioig Xiysxai xeXevxala, 
tj xa ngutTa * olov, noTegov Z&ov ?j av&goanog , agxn 
xt xal fiaXXov iau naga %b xa&ixaorov, MaXiara 
di tuxrixiov xal ngayfiuxsvxiov, noxsgov iatt xi naga 

Digitized by GOOgk 

METAPHYS. LIB. II. (HI.) CAP. 2. 41 

tf\v vXr\p attiov xa&* avtb, fj ov • xal tovto £0)0*- 
orbv, fj ov • xcrf nottgov h , fj nXtim top dgt&uov • 
xal nottgop iotl nagd to avvoZof^A^ft) 6*4 to or/yo- 
Xop, otap xatrjyoQrj&fi titfjg tkijff,) ij ov-div* fj %Ap 
flip, tap fl' ov* xal wota toiavta tap optap* 2fr» 
at ao/a», nottgop dgt&fia fj tfdtt agwutvai, xal at 
(y tolg Xoyoig , xal b> tw vnoxeifievw - xal nottgop 
tap qpd-agtap xal aop&dgtav ai avtal, fj traoaf xai 
nottgov S<p&agtoi ndoat, fj twv (p&agtav (p fractal • 
fri & to navtav x<*Xtnatatop, xal nXtiotrjv anogiav 
e/ov, nottgov to fp xal to ov, xa&dntg oi Hv&ayo- 
gsioi xal ItXdtav tXtytv, ovx htgov ti iotiv, aX£ 
ovuia tar optav, rj ov * dXI? htgov t* to vnoxtlut- 
pop, Sontg a Efint9oxXfjg q>rjoi yiXlav, aXXog di ttgnvg, 
o di vdag, fj diga. Kal nottgov al dgxal xa&oXov 
uolp, rj ag ta xa&ixaota t&v ngayudtav, xal dvpd- 
uu, fj ipigytia. "jEti nottgov aXXog, fj *«*« ^w " 
xai ydg tavta dnoglav av nagdoxoi noXXtjp. Ugbgc^f k* > 
di tovtotg, nottgov oi dgi&uol xal ta ufjxri xal ta / 
oxifiotTa, xal ai otiyual ovoiai upig tioip, fj ov. K$> 
di ovolai, nottgov xtxagwuivai tmv aio&fitav , fj h 
tovtoig. lltgl ydgtovtav dndvtav, ov uovov x a Xtnop 
to tvnogfjoai tfjg dXri&tlag, aXX' ovdi to dianogfjoai 
tw Xoya Qqdtov xaXag. 

^CAPUT 11. 
Ilgatov uiv ow ntgl av ngatov tXnoutv , nott • 
gov fiiag fj nXtiovav iotlvimatrifiap, &$agrjocn ndv- 
tatdyipri tap ait lap. Midgpiv ydg iniotrjurig nag a> 
«fy, uf) ivaptlag ovoag tag dgxdg yvagifav; *Kti dt 
noXXolg tm ovttiv ovx indgxovoi ndoi naoat. Tiva 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ydg xgonov old* is tjJ$ xivrjoeag dgzv v '^«* T0 *« 
dxivrj'toig, rj zr\v tdya&ov cpvoiv; si'neg anav o av g 
dya&ov xa&* avTo,xal Sid Tip avrov <pvaiy , xeXog 
iorlv, xal ovTtog aiTiov, St* ixtbov tvexa xal yiyvnai 
xal ton zdXXa. To 6e riXog, xal to ov flvtxa, nod- 
Stag Tivog iari TtXog * ai 6e ngdfcig naocu find xtvr t - 
a stag 9 wot iv Tolg axivi]toig ovx dv Mizono Tavxip 
thai Tt\v dgxv y t °^' *b<*i ** avTodya&o*. Aib xal 
iv tolg pa&rj-paoiv ovdh ddxwrai did xavxr\g Trjg 
alziag, ovd* sou* anddsi$ig ov depict, dioti (ftXriov *} 
Xtigov. 'aX"£ ovdi to nagdnav fiifivrjTai oidtlg ot/- 
dsvbg tmv toiovtwv. "JIotb did ravta tSiv ooquoTatr 
jwsg, oiot 3 AgiaTi7inog,7tQos7tt}ldxi^tv avxdg. Ev piv 
ydg Tatg aXXaig Ts^vaig, xal idig (tavavooig avTaig> 
oiov iv ttxjovixrj xal oxvuxfj , Sioti (MXtiov rj X&Q oy p 
Xsyto&ai ndvta* Tag ds fia-drj/iaxixag ovdiva noiu- 
a&ai Xoyov mgl dya&cov xal xaxwv. IdXXd pip tV 
ye nXtiovg biiOTrjfiai twv aiiUav tiol, xal htgai §rt- 
gag dgxug t tlva tovtwv qpaxiov ilvai Tip fyTOVpivriv, 
tj xlva fidXuna tov ngdypaxog tov ^rovpevov im~ 
OTTjfiova twv ixovtav avtdg • 'Evdixttai ydgto) avxw 
ndvrag rovg Tgonovg twv aUitov vndgxw olov o*- 
xiag, b&tv fikv r\ xfoyoiQ, i\ Texvr), xal 6 oixodopog * 
ov d 7 tvtxa t to tgyov vXtj ds, yij xal Xi&oi' to S* 
tldog, 6 Xoyog. 3 Ex fiev ovv tmv ndXat duogujpivwr, 
Tiva xgh *t*X&9 t&v imoTfjfiav aoqplav, l/ct Xoyov 
kxdarrjv ngooayogtvstv. 'Hpbydg dgzixtoTair} xal 
( rjytfiovix<ardTfi t xalfj Sontg dovXag ov5 % avxtintiv 
" Tft ff *^«ff intorrjpag dlxaiov, ij tov liXovg xal Taya- 
9ov Toiavxrf tovtov yog tvsxa t dXXa • ^ di jStv ng<o- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

ME TAPHYS. LIB. 1L (III.) CAP. 2. 43 

iw ahiuv, xal tov paliota imorrjTov duagioftri 
that, r) tr\g ovoiag av ttri toiavtrj. HoXlotxatg yag 
iniatapivtav to avta, pallor piv tldiva* q>apiv tov 
t$ sliaiyv<agi£ovta ti ti ngaypa, rj tw pr\ thai. 
Avtiv di tovtav, fatgov ktigov pallor, xal pdliata 
%<ov ri iativ, all? ov tmv nooov, rj noiov, rj ti nuttiv 
rj n£ax u * niopvxtv. "Eti, 6i xal iv toig ulloig , to 
Uddvai txaotov, xal fov anodtiStig tiol, tot oiops&a 
vnaqZW °* tav *ida>pev *l iow ' olov, ti iati to t«- 
Tgaywvi&w , oti piar^g svgtaig * opoifag di xal in* 
iuv allcov • ntgl ds tag ytviatig, xal tag ngdltig, xal 
ntgl anaoav ptta/3olr)v, otav tidiaptv trjv dgxr)v r W 
%ivi]otwg. Tov to d' ittgov xal urnxtipevov tta tiXti. 
v Jlot allrig av doSntv imotriprig thai , to -dtwgrjoai 
mv aitiatv tovttav txaotov. 'Alia pr\v xal ntgl tuv 
anodtixtix&v «^wv, nottgov pidg iativ imotr)prig, 
rj nXtiovfav, apq?io(lriTqoip6v iatu Aiyta ds ano- 
foixzixctg, xal tag xoivdg do$ag., it tav anavttg dti- 
xrvovoiv ' olov on nav avayxaXov ?/ qtavai rj ano- 
<pavai, xal advvatov Spa thai xal pr) thai, xal ooai 
allai toiavxai ngotdotig , nottgov pia tovtiav ink- 
atrjpi) xal trjg ovoiag, rj biega* x$v ti pr) pia, notigav 
ngooayogsvtiv tr)v fcritovpivriv. Miag piv ovv ovx 
tvloyov tlvai. Ti yag pullov ytmpstgiag, rj bnoiaa- 
ovv, ntgl tovtiav ioilv Id tov to ina'i'tiv ; Eintg ovv 
opoitag piv bnoiaoovv iotiv, anaoiav ds pr\ ivdixtiat, 
uontg ovdi twv alltav, ovtoag ovds> trjg yvagi£ovorig 
iag ovaiag i'diov ioti to yivaoxtiv ntgl avtoiv apadi 
xal tiva tgonov totai avttov intoifjpti. Ti psv yag 
txaatov tovtuv tvyxavn ov, xa* vvv yv<agi£opev. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Xgartai ovv ig yiyvwoxopivoig ctvtdig xal ctXXat 
xsxvai. El 5e anodsixxixti nsgl avxtav 4oti, dstjaei 
xi yivog sivai inoxsipsvov, xalxd piv nd&fi , xd 8' 
alubfiata avxiav. Ilsgl ndvxav yag ddvvaxov ano- 
Sstbv that. 'Avdyxrj ydg, ex Xivwv slvat xal nsgi t* 
xai xivwv xr\v dnddsifyv. "Jloxs avp^alvsi ndvtwv 
slvat, yivog IV xi iwy dsixvvfuvoav* niaai ydg al 
- dnodsixxixal XQ&vxai xotg dli^fiaaiv. *AlXd /k»}v, 
si kxiga i\ xr\g ovalag xal y nsgl xovxoav, noxiga xv- 
gimxiga xal ngoxiga niyvxsv avx&vt Ka&oXov yag 
udXiaxa, xal ndvxoav agxal, xd d^cofiatd iaxiv • six 
iatl prj xovio ooqtov, xlvog soxai nsgl avxtav aXXov 
xb xtsagyoai xb dXri&eg xal to ytvdog; "OXag xs xatv 
ovoiwv noxsgov (ila naa&v iativ, i] nXslovg iniaxr}- 
uai; Ei giev ovv fir] [ila, nolag ovalag &sxiov xr\v 
imaftjfifiv xavxi\v; To ds filav naa&v, ovx svXoyov. 
Kal yag av dnodsixxtxrj fila nsgl ndvxwv tXr\ xm 
xa& avxb avfi§s§7]xox(av sXnsg n&aa dnodeixxtxri 
nsgl xh vnoxslfisvov 'd-sagsl xd xa& avxa ort//u/?e/ft|- 
xoxa ix xwv xoiviov 8o$(ov. negl ovv xb avxb yivog, 
xd ovp$s$r\x6xa xa& alxd, xyg avxtjg ioxi ^awoijow 
ix t&v avxw dotiav. Ilsgl xs yag xb oxi, (nag* xal 
# &v, pidg, site xijg avxr)g, sXxs aXXyg. "Jloxsxalti 
ovft/it^fjxoxa &&' avxat dsugqaovoiv, tfx ixxovwv 
jw/cr. "Exi ds noxsgov nsgl xdg ovalag fj fowgia po- 
vov iaxlv, tj xal nsgl xd ovpPsprjxoxa xavxaig. Aiy* 
o" olov, si xb axsgsbv ovoid xlg iaxt, xalyga/upal xal 
inlnsda, noxsgov xr\g avxi\g xavxa yvwglttiv imaxT 
prig, xal xd ovfiPsprjxdxa nsgl sxaoxov yivog , ntgi 
(ov al fia&rinaxmal duxrvovoiv, f) alXrig. Elpbyafl 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. II. (111.) CAP. 2. 45 

jjijg avtqg, anodbixrixTj tig £v sir) xal r\ tqg ovaiag' ov 
doxsi ds tov ii iouv anodsi^ig thai • st d' itigag, 
tig carat r\ &$(agovaa nsgl tip ovaiav ta ai//u/?e/?i}- 
xotoc; Tovzo yag dnodovvai nayxdXsnov. *•#** ds 
notsQOv tag aio&Tjt&g oioiag ^wag thai, cpcniov , j} 
xal nagd tavtag aXXag. Kal nbttgov fiovax&g , V 
nXtlfo yivi\ jsivx^xsv • olov 61 ley ov teg ta ts ti'firj xal 
ten fistaZv, nsgl a tag na&ijfiatutdg thai cpaaiy im~ 
orrifiag. 'Jig piv ovv Xiyoptv id sidy alxid ts xal 
ovoiag sjvai xa& iavtag^igr^tat iv ttig ngwtoigXo- 
yoig nsgl uvicov. JJoXXaxn ds ix&vuav dvoxoXiav, 
ovdsvbg Tjfttov atonpv, to cpavai fisv slvai tivag cpv- 
osig nag a tag iv tw ovgavfy , tavtag ds tag avtag 
tpdvai totg aio&Titdig, nlrpr oti ta (asv ai'dta, ta ds 
q>&agtd. Avtb ydg av&gunov qtaoiv slvai, xal av- 
tb Xnnov xal iyisiav , alio 0° ovdiv naganX^oiov 
pkv noiovvtsg tolg &sovg (lev slvaiydoxovoiv, av&gw- 
nosidsig 6i. Ovts yag ixsivoi ov&sv aXXo inoiovv, ij 
dv&gconovg d'idiovg, ov& ovtoi ta si'dri, aXX J rj ai- 
a^ijxa d'tdia. *Ezi ds si tig nagd xa tidy xal ta 
aia&fjtd ta /ma£v &^ostai, noXXdg dnogiag *£«. 
Jt^Xov yag Stg opoioag ygappai ts nag avtag xal tag 
aio&ijtag laoyra*, xal sxaotov tav aXXotv ysvwv. 
"jlat intlntg % aotgoXoyia pia tovttav iotlv, laxat 
tig xal ovgavbgnagd tov alad"ntbv ovgavbv,xalr}Xiog 
xal osXrjvri, xal taXXa bpoiwg ta xatd tov ovgavdv. 
Kahdt nmg del motsvaai tovtoig ; ovdi ydg axivrpov 
svXoyov thai, xtrovfisvov ds xal nartsXag advvatov. 
^Opouog de xal nsgl tov 7] ontixri ngayfiatsvstat , xal 
r\ iv tolg fia^Vftatixolg dggAOvix^. Kal ydg tavta 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ddvvatov tivai not got ta aia&rita , dia tag avtag aU 
tiag. Ei yag iouv alodvpa psta$v xal aio&ri<mg, 
dqXov ou xal fc5« tooviou petatv avt&v ts xal ta v 

<pd(XQT(tiV. *AltOQTJOH8 d* UV tig X«* 7ltgl 7tO?a tSv 

ovtoav dsl ^rittiv t avtag tag imotrjfiag. Ei yag tov- 
to dioiou [if yttodaujla] trig yetopstgiag povov, oti ij 
per tovttov iatlv <av aiod-avopsd-a , r\ d ovx aio&ri- 
iw, drjXov on xal iraga laigixrjv total tig imotriprj, 
xal nag kxdotrjv tav aXXuv ptta$i avttjg ts iatgi- 
xrjg , xal tr\gds trjg iatgixfjg* xaltot nwg tovto dv- 
vatov ; xal yag av vymva ana tit} naga ia auj&fj- 
ta, xal avto to vymvov* "Apa di ovdi tovto aXr r 
&£g, <ws V ywdaioia *<»y aio& ytSiv ion psys&mv xal 
tp&agtwv. 3 Eq>&tigsto yag av qp&stgopivav. *AXXa 
pr\v ovds twv aio&rpiav av tYy peye&uv, ovdi ftegltov 
oigavov i\ acrrgoXoyia tovtie. Ovts yag at alo&ri~ 
tal ygappal toiavtal sioiv , oXag Xsyti o ystopitgw 
ovdsv yag sv&v tuv aio&rjtwv ovttag , ovds otgoy- 
yvXov, "Aittnai yag tov xavovog ov xata otiypt\v 
o xvxXog, aXU &omg Ugatayogag sXsysv iXiyzw 
tovg ysmpitgag • ov&* at xtvrjoug xal al tXtxsg tov 
ovgavov opoiat , nsgl (av i\ aotgoXoyia nou&- 
tai tovg Xoyovg • ovts ta at] fist a toig aotgoig tr t v 
avtrjv %x** <pvoiv. Eial ds tivsg, of q>aol ju*> 
slvai, ta pstalv tavta Xzyopsva tav ts sidav xal x«v 
ala&i}Twv - ov fitjv xwgk y* ™ v aio&V™* > <*M ** 
tovtoig , olg ta ovpfiaivovta advvata, nana ftsv 
nXdovog Xoyov disX&tiv , ixavov di xal ta toiavta 
frscogijocu. Ovts yag inl tovttov svXoyov %xuv oi/tw 
povov , aUa dr{Xov ou sidri ivdixoit av iv tolg air 

Digitized by GOOgle 


o&rjiols thai' tov yag avtov Xoyov afitpottga tavta 
iotlv. *Eu di dvo ottgta iv tw av\<$ avayxaiov thai 
Tony , xal fiii thai axivrjta , iv xivovpivoig yt ovia 
toig alo-drjTois. "OXfog di xal tlvog ivtx* av ug dtly 
thai fiiv avta, thai d' ivtolgaiod-ritolg; Tavta yag 
ovpprjottai atona tolg ngotigtifiivoig. *'Eotai yag 
ovgavog tig naga tov ovgavov, nXvv yt ov xotglg,aXXa 

ivTOJ aVTCO 7071(0 • 0716Q ioth adwatWttgOV. 


IJegi xi tovtmv ovv anogia noXXr), nmg del &ipt- 
vov tvxuv tr^g alrj&tiag, xal ntgl t&v agx&v, nott- 
qov du ta yivri otoixtia xal agxag inoXapPavttv, rj 
ftaXXov 4£ (av ivvnagxovtuv ioth txaotov ngitov • 
olov cpwvriQ otoixtia xai agxal doxovoiv thai tavta, 
$ tov ovyxtivtai ai qpmval naoai ngwtov, aX£ ov to 
*oivov r t qxovrj • xal tap tiiaygapftitw tavta otoi- 
Z&aXiyofitv, <ov ai anodtl&ig iwnagxovoiv h tatg 
*wy aXXtav anodtl$toiv,'i\ navtoav ,r)tw nXtiottov. "Eti 
<5s mv otofiatrnv xal ol nXdw Xiyovttg thai otoixtia, 
xa* ol tv, ($ tav ovyxtivtai, xal i$ <ov ovviotrixtv, ag- 
X<*gXiyovoiv that. Olov,*EpntdoxXrjg nvg xalvd&g, 
xaixa ptta tovtuv otoix&a (prjoiv thai, H wv ioti 
t« orta ivvnagzoruDV , aXX* oix &g yivri tavta Xiyti 
tup brtuv. llgog tit tovtoig xal t&v aXXatvtittg i&iXti 
vrp <pvoiv a&gtiv, oloy xXiyrjv |£ wv fiogUav ioti, xal 
nag ovyxtipivwv, tott yvwgi&h tv\v qtvoiv avtr)g. 3 £x 
u& ovrtov-tuv tmv Xoyuv, oix av t\r\oav ai agxal to 
yivri tav ovkov. z Hi Si txaotov piv yva>gi£o(itv dia 
i(ov ogio^iav, agxal di ta yivri xwv ogiopw tioiv, 
uvayxT) xal twv bgiotwv agxag that ta yivri. Kav 

Digitized by GOOgle 


d soti %r\v tw oVrew Xafisiv iniarrj^v to t&v slduv 
Xa/Silv, xa& a Xiyortai tit ovta , tStv ys sldwv agxal 
td ysvij slot. Qabortai di tivsg xal t&v Xsyorta* 
otoixuot Ttov onto* to Sr if to ov , 1} to fisya xal to 
fuxgbv, *>g yivtoiv avtoig xqtJo&m. *AXXa (ir)v ovdi 
afKpoJSQOic ys olov te Xiyeiv tag agxdg. c O fih yag 
Xoyog trig ovolag elg m stsgog d* carat odidtStv ysvav 
o bgiopbg, xal o Xiycav i$&y iotiv iwnagxovtmv. Ilgog 
di tovtoig si xal on pdXiota agxal td yivrj slol, no- 
ugat del vopi£siv td nguta twv ysv&v agxdg , rj td 
soxata xatriyogovpsva inl tav atopwv. Kal yag 
tovto sxn ufiq>uf^jr]oiv. El piv ydg on td %a&6- 
Xov fidXXov agxcuj qjavsgbv ontdav&tdtwt&vysv&v. 
Tavta yog Xiystai xatd ndaftmv. Tooavtat ovv 
soovtat agxal tap ovtav, ooansg td ngata yivr]' Hot 
;v sotcm to t< ov not to tv agxal xal ovmat. Tavta 
' yag xatd ndptmv pdXiota Xiystai tmv opttav • ovx 
l y olov ts di tmv ovtcov er stvat yirog , ovts to h> , ovts 
^ .. to oy. jivdyxtj fiiv yag tag diaqiogdg sxdotov y&ovg 
y^xai slvai, xal fdav tlvcu htaotrp. 'Advvatov di xa- 
tiiyoguo&ai y td si'dy tov yhovg tap oixsiav diaa>o- 
gav, ij to yivog avsv xav avtov sidap, "Slots sXmg 
to ip yirog , tJ to ov, ovdspia dtaa>ogd , ovtt to ov, 
ovts to iv lotai, IdXXd prjv si firj yivri, ovd* agxal 
soovtat, sVnsg agxal td yi*r]. *'Eti xal td (ista£v 
ovXXafifiavofisya fzstd tm>dia<pogwv, total yiytj pixgi 
tw cttofxtav. iVvF di td pi? doxsl , td d' ov doxii. 
Ilgog di tovtotg stt paXXov al diaq>oga* agxal, i} id 
ybti\. El di xal avtai agxal, ansigoi (wg sin&p} dg- 
xal yiyvovtai • aXXtag ts xtjp tig to ngwtov ysvog ao- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Xtjv ti&jj. [dXXa prjv xal ti fiaXXov yt agxotidig to 
iv iativ , $v dito adiaigttov , adiaigttov di anav , ij 
xatot to nooov, r\ xatd to tldog, ngottgov di to xa&* 
tldog, tayzvr\ di diaigttd tig tidy paXXov, IV av to 
Xaxovtov ti'rj xatrjyogovfitvov. Ov yag ioti yivog av- 
&gwnog t&v tivmv av&gianav. *Bn iv olg to ngott- 
gov xal vottgov iativ, ovx oiov t« to inl tovtav tlval 
T* naga tavta * oiov ti ngutfj %&v agi&fmv y dvdg, 
ovx tatai tig agi&fiog naga ta tl'dij tmv agi&fitov * 
bfiolmg di ovdi oxtjfiata naga ta tidy tmv oztiftanov. 
Ei di furj tovtav, oxoXfi ™ v /* aXXwv total ta yivt) 
naga ta tldrj. Tovtwv yag doxii paXiota tlvai yivtr 
h di toig ato/iaig ovx eon to piv ngottgov, to d 3 
vottgov. 'Eti onov to fiiv fiiXtiov, to di xcigov, atl 
to fiiXtiov ngottgov. "Jlot ovdiv tovttav av t\t\ yi- 
vog. *Ex fiiv ovv tovtav fiaXXov opaivttai ta inl tuv 
atofiwv xattjyogovfitva, agxal thai twytvw. IJaXtv 
di nwg av del tavta inoXa/Stiv igx&g t ov Qydiov 
tlnttv. Tyv fiiv yag agxw dti xal trjv aitiav thai 
naga ta ngaypata or? agxh> *al dvvao&ai that £a>- 
gi£oft£vriv avtav • totovtov di ti naga to xadixaotov 
thai, diet ti av tigvnoXafioi, nXr\v oti xa&oXov xcrrr)- 
yogutai, xal xai a ndvtwv ; 'dXXa prjv ti diet toviota 
fiaXXov xa-d-oXov , paXXov &ttiov agxdg watt agxal 
tit ngata av slrjaav yivrf. 


"Eoti di* ixopivr] tttovtmv dnogla, xalnaowvxa- 

Itnojtdzrj xal avayxaiotatrj &mgtioat, ntgt r\g Xo- 

yog iopiatrpte vvv, Ei'tf yag fur) tou**t naga ta xa- 

\>ixaota y td di xadexaota antiga, tav intigav nStg 

frtKlKV. Met^ph. D 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ivdiztxai lafittp imoxrifii\p ; r Ht ydg b xt xal xavxbv, 
.xal t) xu&oXov xl VftuQXH, xavx'rj ndpxa yv<oqi£outr. 

'^ IdHi uifp ti xovxo dvttyxcuov 4oxt 9 xal du n ilvat 

* y^** nagd xd xa&ixaoxa, dvayxalop &v sir) xa yivi{ $lpa* 

V,v' nagi xi xa&ixaaxa , rjxot xi cqyctTa, rj ti ng&ta. 

• v i kTovxo d* on ddvpaxov , agxt dirfTtogrjaaptp. Exi tl 

*V*' Sxt udltaxd 4axl xt nagi xb ovpoIop , oxap x«ri/yo- 

gtl&rj xt xijg vlrjg , nottgop ti \tattv tldog tt, nagd 

navtadii tlvairt^ rj nagi (Up tpta tXvat, nagi d* evia 

at) tlpat, r) Trap' ov&dv,' El uiv ovp (iif&ev 4ax* nagd 

xd xadtxaota, ovdip ap tiq vo^top, alii ndpta «£- 

a&r}xi, xal intatfjarj ovdtvog • f i ui\ ttg tlrat Xdytt 

xr)v aTa&t)<Jiv intoxyurjv. **Ext oW d'tdtop ovdip*, 

ovdi axlpr\xop. Td yig aUx&rixi nana cp&tigtxai, 

, xal 4p xtprjatt iaxlv. *Alli uryv, tt yt d'tdtop uifbUhr 
iaxtp, ovdi yivtaip that dvpuxbv. *Apdyxi] yig thai 
ti to yivbutvop, xal i£ ov yivtxat, xal xovxvtp xb ta^ee-* 

., v toy dydpprjxor, ttntg Xaxatal xs, xal ix ur} ovxogytp4>~ 
ad- at advpaxop. *Ext di yevio&og ovarjg xal xtpyatng, 
arayxrj xal nigag tlvat. Ovxt yog anttgog Am* 
ovdeuia xivrjatg, alii xal ndarfgiaxl tilog, yivxr&oti 
xs ovx olop xb xb advvaxov ytvia&at. To di ytyovbg, 
dpdyxrj tlvat ox* ngwtop yiyoptp. "Ex* 9 * ttntg vki) 
iatl, dti to ayipptjtog tlpat, nolv ttt pillop tvloyov 
tlvai xr)v ovoiav bnott ixelpq ybtxat tlvat. El yig 
utjxs xovxo toxoti urjxt ixtlvrj, ovdip toxai xb nagdnav. 
Ei & tovto advvaxov y dfdyxt) xl tlvat ftaga xb ovv- 
olov xtjv uogtpfiv xal xb tldog. JS* d' av&tg tovto 
•&j\ozt, dnogia *rj xipmp %t &qou xovxo, ual iml t«- 
v*v ov. "Oxt piv yag inl navtuv viz olop xt, <pove- 

d by Google 

METAPHYS. LIB. U. (III.; CAP. 4. 51 

gip. Ov yog dp &riqpfp thai xvpa ohUap, nagd tag 
updg olxiag. JIgog di zovxoif, noxtgop ij ova/a pia 
nartmw 90x01, olop xmp dp&gimmp, IdXl* dxonov. Ov 
ydg %p anapxa, tap r\ ova la ula, alia nolla xal did- 
(pofa. Idlld nal xovxo dloyop* "dpa di xal a&g yi~ 
vttmi y vlq xovxnp kxdoxov, xaltouxi ovpoXop auq>io 
iwra/'jEn^ nsgl tv* dgxwv xal tods dnogfiOM* up 
xiq • li {up ydg ddu dol sp, oi&iv botch dgi&u<§ tp, 
ov3* aixi xo ip, xal xo op. Kal xo inioiao&ai n&q 
eoxat, u py %i Hoxat SV inl ndpxmp ; jiXXd fxijv tl <xqi- 
$fMp tp, xul uia kxaojfi xwp apc**v, xal ay woubq tup 
aio^fji^p aXXai SUmp, olov fQudtirjg ovXXaPhs tq> si- 
fotTTjg avxfjgoSofjg, xal agxal &du ai avxai. Kal ydg 
ap&tu itoMQXOvoiP dgi&fxtjp h*gai. El di pi) ovxto, 
aX£ ai %&v epxtop dgi&utp IV slow, ovx Xoxai nagd 
xa aroijfeXa ovdip buqop. To ydg agi&u$ h> 9 rj to 
xa& 3 exaaxop Xiyup, diaqmgu ov&iv. Ovxto ydg Xiyo- 
utv to xa& ixaaxop , xo agiduy IV * xa&6Xov di to 
ins xovx&p. c fLo7iiQOW tl xd trig tpoovrjg %p agi&pij* 
tjp ototxuu tagitffiepa, dpayxalop r\v xoaavxa alpai xa 
ndpxa ygduuaxa , ooamg xd axo^ua , ur\ opxtap ys 
dvo xwp avx&p, ui)di nXuop&p. Qv&epog d* ildxxtop 
dnogia nagaXiXtvaxai xal xolg pvp xal xolg ngoxsgop, 
noxtgop al avtal x&p y&agzwv xal %Skp dyd-do'tup 
dqxai sloiv, 7/ txegeu. El usp yag al avzai uoi, nig 
tit p&p acp&agza, ta 8s q&agtd, xal did xvp aULav ; 
Oi pip nsgl 'Hoiodop, xal ndrt%g oaoi &toXoyoi , tov 
po#*op tygoptwap ni&avov %ov ngog aitovg, i}umv 6 
oiXi^aognoav. Osovg yog notovpr$g zag agxdg, xal ix 
%&v &t&p yeyopipai , td ay ysvoduspa xov pixxagog 

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xal T§f ipfigooiag, &vtjta ysviodai <paoi. ArjXov Si 
w$ tavta ta ovofiara yvtogifia Xiyovtsg avxoig, xaltot 
nsgl avxrjg xijg ngoatogag xmv aixiatv xovxmv, vnig 
rjfiag eigrjxaaty. El fisv yag X* ov * ytiovrig nsgl avrwr 
&iyyavovotv, ovS-sv afxia xov tlvcu, xb vsxxag xal y 
dppgooia. El is xov slvai, nwg av slsv avSioi, -dso- 
psvoi xgoqpijg ,' 'Alia mgl fisv xmv pv&tx&g oo(pi£opi- 
va>v, ovx afrov fisxa onovdijg oxonsiv. llsgldi xmv 
dt anodsftmg leyovttov, du nvv-d-avso&ai, dwgwt&v- 
tag, tl drj nor ix tmv avxav ovxa, xa psv a'tdia xi\v 
cpvokv iqxl, xa ds qp&sigsxai, tap ovxvtv. 'End dk ovxs 
ahlav Xsyovoiv , ovxs svXoyov ovxmg sxsiv » dyXov wg 
ovx «* ctvtal agxal, ovdi ahiai av avx&v slsv, Kal 
yag ovnsg oirj&slr) Xsysiv av tig fiaXiata ofioloyov- 
uivwg avTbj/EpTZMdoxlrjg, xal ovxog ravxo n&xov&t. 
Tid-rjoi fib yag agxip ™ a ctixlav xqg <p&ogag 
to vsixog. dolus d* av ov&sv fjxtov xal xovxo yswqv 
il avtov xov kvog. "Anavta yag ix xovxov xaXXa iaxl 
TiXtjv 6 d-tog. Aiyu yovv, 

E£ <av nav& ooa x rjv, ooa x to%r , ooa x sot at 
onto aw, 

Asvdgsa x i/HXaottjos xal avsgsg rids yvvaivsg f 

Otjgsg x oitovol xs xal vSato&gsfiftovsg iz&vg, 

K$v xs &sol doXixalcovsg. 
Kalxwglg ds tovtwv, drjXov. M yag prj tv f)v to vs%- 
xog iv toig ngaypaoiv , sv av t\v Snavta £g (prjotv. 
Oxav yag ovviX&j} , tots sozatov laxtp xo vsixog , dto 
xal ovfifialvsi avxw xov ivdaiftovsotatov &sov -ijito* 
ygovipov slvai xmv ctXXwv. Ov yag yvngifa ta oro*- 

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**«« nana. To ydg vttxog ovx S^a*. *H di yv&oig xov v k * / *. 
ofiolov x<3 ovoltp . *"~ "*""""** 

JWiy pfo ydg (yrjoi) yalar bntbnaptv , vdaxi d* #t 

Al&igid* al&dga tiiov, dxdg nvglnvg dtdrjXov, 
Sxogyjl di oxogytjv, vslxog di xs vsixs'i Xvygw. 
*AX£ o&*» dij b Xoyog, xovxo ys tpavtgbv, oxi ovpftai- 
m avjw xb vsixog , prj&iy pdlXov q>&ogdg r\ xov *7- 
vai aixiov. 'Opoiwg di ovd* rj qpiXoxfjg xov thai. 
Swdyovoa ydg tig xb iv, cp&eigsi xd alia. Kal dpa 
di avxr^g xi\g psxafioXrig aixiov ov&iv Xiyti, dXX' bxi 
oviwg TT&pvxw. 

*AXX* oxz dr\ piya vslxog ivl psXisooiv i&giy&y, 
lftg xipdg x dvogovos xsXuopivoio xgbvoio, 
**Og o<piv dpoifialog nXaxiog nagsXyXaxo ogxov • 
©S avayxaiov ph ov psxapdlXsiv. Aixlav d* ilavdy- 
xtjg ovdsplav dfiXot , dXt optog xooovxov ys povov 
XsyubpoXoyovpsvtag. Ov ydg xd psv q>&agxd, xd ds 
&<p&agxa noisl x&v ovxwv, dXXd ndvxa qp&agid, nXr\v 
xuv <jto#£ciW. 'jff di vvv Xsyopsvrj dnogld iotl , did 
il xd ah y xd d* ov, sin eg $x twv avxwv taxiv. c 'Oxi 
psv ovv ovx av U7]oav ai avxal dg%al , xooavxa si- 
qtjo&o). El di sxsgai dgxal, pia psv dnogia, nbxs- 
gov ay&agxoi xal avxal soovxai, % (p&agxai. El psv 
ydg q>&agxal, dijXov tag dvayxalov xal xavxag sx xi- 
vtav thai. "Awvxa ydg y&sJQSxa i tig xavx i£ wv ^; r j^\ -. 
iaxtv. "Jloxe ovjifialvsl xSv dg%(ov Sxigag agxag htvai^ (^;. * , 
ngoxigag. Tovxo d* ddivaxov , xaleiioxaxai,xal J , ,r _ 'J 
si ($adi£ti slg amigov. *Exi di n&g tatai xd <p&agxa, 
si <x\ dgxal dvaigt&tioovxai; si di dcp&agioi , did xl <• ■-< '^ : 


4x piv Tovxtov d(p&dgrtav oioxav, q?&agxd botch, ix di 
tmv Ixigmv ay&agxa; tovxo ydg ovx evXoyov, ceXX* 
fj d&uvaror, %'noXXov Xoyov biixui. v Exi ds ovd' 4y- 
xexFiQrjxsv ovdelg hegag, alia xdg civictg dnavtav 
Xiyovotv «££<%£* aXXd TOTTDWiovdnogTj&ev anorqtoyov- 
otv, wamg tovxo fitxgov xi Xa/jtjSdvovxsg, Hotvrw de 
xal &S(OQTfOou x^XsitwtaTov , xal ngog to yvwvat tw- 
Xri&ig dvayxaiorarov, noxtgoev noxs to ov, xal to h, 
ova let i xSnt ovxtav slot, xal hxdrsgov orvxSyv ovx sisgov 
Ti or, to (ib tv, to* ds ov ionv. *H dsi (riTslv, *l not 
tort to ov xal to tv, «C vnoxstfitvrjg aXXrjg qpvotwg. 
Ol fjiev ydg ixdvoag , ol d' ovxmg oXovrat Tyv qrvotv 
%Xnv. nXdxmv fiiv yao xa* ol Uv-d-ayogsioi, ovx !w- 
gov ti to ov, ovdi to tv, iXXd tovxo avxwv ttjv qpvaiv 
fjvat , d,g ovong Ttjg ova tag xavxo tv tlvcti, xal ov ti. 
Ol ds nsgl qpvomg, olov'EfimdoxXijg, wg tig yvwgipt*- 
xsgov dvdyvrv, Xiysi, on to tv ov lor*. Joltu yao av 
Xiystv tovto ttjv (piXiav ttvai. Alxla yovv ioxiv airy, 
tov sv uvai ndoiv. Etsgoi ds nvg, ol d aiga opaelv 
elvai to IV tovto xal to ov, 4$ ov to, ovtu slval xs xal 
ytyovkvai. c Jlg d' avxag xal ot nXsit» to, oro^eJa 
-ii&ifisvoi. 3 Avdyxrj yog xal Tovrotg Tooavxa Xiyw 
rb ov xal to tv, ooaomg agxdg slval (pccai. Svfufiaivu 
ds, h fiiv Tig fir] drjasrai slval Ttva ovolav to tv not 
to ov, fiyds twv aXXav elvai twv xa&oAov fAy&tw. 
TavTa ydg iort xa&oXov pdXiora nana*, .fit $8 py 
soxi xi tv avxo , priS* avxo ov , axoXjj xav ys aXXw 
tI av tit) nagd Ta Xiyoptva xa&* txaoxa. "Ett dk fi^ 
ovTog tov ivbg ovolag, b*r\Xov otiov^' av dgt&pog sty 
wg xtXMqiofisvrj y'-mg %tg xav ovxwv. V> fiiv ydg do** 

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&fihg povadtg • y\ di povag , ontg h xl ioxiv. Ei d ' 
ton xl avxb tv xal avxb ov, avayxaiov ovular iivai 
to ov xcu xb *v. Ov yag htoov xi xadblov xctu]yo- 
guxai, alia tain a ait a. jXla prp tX y Zoxaiii 
avxb ovxal aixb tv, nolly anogla noig toxaixlnaga 
lavta txtgov. Aiyu di nwg toxai nltliu hog xa ovxa. 
To yag txtgov xov Snog ovx toxiv, "jloxt xaxa xov 
Jlagptvidov avuflalvuv avayxrj loyov, tv an ay i a tlvai 
xa ovxa, xal tovio thai to ov. ^Afitpoxigag di dva- 
xolov * av xsyag ^ y xb tv ovoia, av xs tj to avxb 
tv, advvaxov xbv agi&fibv ovoiav thai. *Eav piv ovv 
/U17 ij, ttgyxai ngoxtgov di • iav di y, t) uvttj ano- 
qia xal ntgl tov ovxog. 'JBx xlvog yag xal naga to 
tv toxai avxb alio tv; avayxy ydgfirjdiv thai. Anav- 
xa di xa ovxa, rj $v rj nolla, (av tv txaoxov, "fir* ti 
ddialgtxov avxb xb tv , xaxa fisvxb Zyvwvog a\iw\na 
ovdiv av tXr\. t> yag fxr\xt ngooxiftiptvov, pyxe aqpcu- 
gotptvov noul xi ptitov [$ tlaxxov,] ov qpaoiv thai 
;ovzo xtov ovxav,ig dfjlovoxi ovxog ptyi&ovg xov ovxog' 
xal ti piyt&og, owpaxiXQv. Tovxo yag navxr\ ov. Ta di 
alia ntog fuv ngooxi&ifitva noir\oti ftti£ov , nujc d 
ov&iv olov inintdov xal ygafifA^ , oxiypr t dixal po- 
va$ ovdapwg. *Al£ intidh oviog &twgti yoqxix&g, 
xal[ovx]tvdix**aitlvai adiaigtxov xh Soxs xal ovxog 
xal ngbg ixtivov xiv t/ti dnoloylav* pii£ov fiev ov 
noirjoti, Ttltiov di itgo<jxi$iptvov xb xoiovxov. *4lla 
nig di) i£ hog xoiovxov, rj nluovw toxai fUyt&og; 
Ofioiw yag xal xyv y gappy? ix oxiypSfv tlvaiopaoxtiv. 
'Alia pri* xal tt tic ovxtag vnolapfinvoi , watt 
ylvto&ai (xa&antg liyovai xivtg) ix xov kvbg avxov, 

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xal aXXov fit] kvog xivog xbv dgt&pbv, ov&iv {ito> 
itjxtjxiov diet xl xal nag, bit fiev dgi&fibg, bxi ds fis- 
ys&og soxai to ysvopevov, ttntg xb (itj ev, r\ dvtaoxrjg 
xal t) avxri <pvoig t\v, Ovxe yag Snug it hog xal xav- 
xrjg , OVT8 ontag 4| dgi&fiov xivog xal xavxrjg , yivoix 
av xa fityi&rj, dijXov, 

Tovxmv d 3 ixopivrj dnogla ,, noxtgov oi aQi&fiol, 
xal xa act fi (xt a, xal ta ininsda, xal alotiypal ovaicti 
tips'? tioiv, 7} ov. El yag fir] slat, diaqpsvyti xl to ov, 
xal xlvtg ai ovalai xwv ovx&v. Ta pev yag iid&r}, 
xal ai xivrjong, xal xa ngbg xi, xal ai dia&ioug, xal 
oi Xoyoi, ov&svbg doxovaiv ovaiav arifialvtiv. Asyov- 
xai yag navxa xa& vnoxufiivov xivbg, xal ov&ev ro- 
de xi. *A ds av pdXioxa do£sit anpalvtiv ovaiav, vdcag 
xal yrj, xal nig, &$ wv xa avv&exa aoifiaxa avviaxr^xv 
xovxav 6*8 &sgp6xr)xeg ftiv xal yjvxgoxrjxtg xal xa 
joiavtu , ndd'ri, oix ovola*. To ds owpa xi xavxa 
ntnov&og, ftovov vnofiivn fag ovxt xal ovola xig ovaa. 
3 AXXa fif)v to xs o&fia t\xxov ovola xvg imqpavsiag, 
xal avxi\ xrjg ygafAfir)g, xal avxtj xr)g (iovddog xal xyg 
oxiy^i\g, Tovxoig yag &giaxai xb atopa' xa* Ta piv 
avtv oapaxog ivdexso&ai doxsi thai, xb di amfia avtv 
xovxtov thai ddvvaxov. Aiontg oi fitv noXXol xal ol 
ngoxsgov xyv ovaiav xal xb ov o&fia thai , xaXXa ds 
xoviov nd^rj • Saxs xal xag agxdg xag xmv awaaiwy, 
x&v ovxtav thai agxdg* oi 8' vaxsgov xal ooqx&xtgoi 
xovxtav that do£avxtg, dgi&povg. Ka&dnsg ovv it- 
nofitv , ii fir) %'axiv ovola xavxa, oXwg ovdtpia ioxlv 
ovota , old* ov ov&ev. Qv yag drj xd yt ovfi(lif}r\~ 

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xoTff tovtoig, a$iov ovta xaXiiv. *Alla (nr}v h tovto fiiv 
ofioXoyeitai, oti fiaXXov iativ ovala %a ftrptri tc5v a»- 
pdtav xal al otiypal* tavta di fti\ ogmfitv noUav av 
slsv ocofidjojv (iv yag tolg aiod-fjtoZg adwatov thai) 
ovx av ttrj ovala ovdtfila. Eti qtalvetat tavta nana 
dtaigdatig ovta tov atofiatog, to piv tig nXdtog, to di 
$lg fia&og, to di tig prjxog. Ilgbg di tovtoig ofioltag 
%v iativ iv Tft> ottgs$ onoiovovv ozrjficc. "Jlat ti 
fi.rjt iv tw Xl&w'Egprjg , ovdi to riptav tov xv/iov iv 
%ta xvflcp oviag &g dyaoiopcvov , ovx aga ovd' im- 
qxxveia. Ei yag onoiaovv, xal avtrj av t\v 4 acpogi- 
Zovoa to ypiov. € d* avtog Xoyog xal inl ygapfirfg 
xal inl otiypijg xal povddog. "Slot ti fidXtota (ti* 
ovala to amfia , tovtov di fiaXXov tavta , /uij ion, di 
Tavta firjdi ovala* twig , diacprvyu tl to or , xal tig 
Tj ovala t&v ovtwv. Ilgbg yag toig tigrjfiivoig , xal 
ta nsgl tr t v ykvtaw xal ir\v <p&ogdv ovpfiaivM aXoya, 
zfoxti fih yag y ovala pri ovaa ngottgov , vvv thai, 
vj ngottgov ovaa, vattgov i*t\ \jnttd tovto yivto&ai 
xal qp& tig to&ai tavta ndoztiv.'j Tagdi otiypagxaltag 
ygafjt fiag, xal tagini<pavtlag f ovx ivdixstai ovttylvt- 
(j&atr ovtt y&tigBo&ai, bti fiiv ovaag, oti diovx ovaag. 
"Otavyag antfjtatfj diaigrpai taatoftataapa, ow pi* 
filet antO(Aiv(aVyOti di dvodiaigovfiivoavyivovtai. Slot 
ovff ovyxuptvMv iatlv, aX£ sy&agtai, dirigrjfiivtav ti 
iloiv al ngottgov ovx ovaai, Ov yag dy rjyt adial- 
grtog anyfiy dirjgi&ti tig dvo • tl tt yiyvovtai xal 
ip&eigovTai, tx ttvog ylvovtai. naganXrjoltag d 9 «#«* 
xal ntgl to vvv , to iv tai ££ov<». Ovdi yag tovto 
ivddx&*i ylvto&at xal q>&tlgio&ai. 'AXX'Sfnag htqov 

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doxti ail iirat, ovx ovala tig ovoa, 'Ofiotctg di dt^ 
Xov on */« xal xa n*gl tag ottyfiag xaiygofipag, xal 
mgl ia in In id a. yag ccviog Xoyag, "Anwta yag 
oftoimg, rj nigata, rj dtaigioug tioiv. 
"OXag d anogyotw av x*c, b*ta ti xal du £ijttt* 
aXU ana naga ta alo&rjta xal ta prra£ir, olov y a 
-ititifitv fldrj. El yag [&a tovto, OTtjia pev pa&Tj- 
fianxa twv dsvgo, aXXw piv tun dwupinu, tw da noXJ! 
«rra opoadij tlyai,, ovdh dtaadgu. Jlor ovx Mor- 
tal ntvTwy at o^a& agi&fiw a<pwgwfuvai, &oneg ovdi 
tav ivrav&a ygappawv, ccgi&pw psy navtcovovxu- 
olr al agxal agiopevai , ttdt* ds' ia* fit) Xafifiavy 
rig trjodl %v\g ovXla/Hfjg, tJ ttjadl tijg qptayrjg. Tovtw* 
d* soovTai xal agi&fiw wgiofiivat, 'Oftolwg tie xal 
inl tcw ptxaHv. "Amiga yag xaxii ta Ofioudrj. u Jlot 
(i ^t] ioti naga tit alo&rjTa xal %a uaxhjfiauxa, tts- 
ga ana ola Xiyovat ta eldt) twig, ovx total fila 
vtQi&fiy xal sl'du ovala * ovb* al agx<*l tap bvttov 
agi&ptp toovtai noaal tireg, aXXa sl'du. El ovv tov- 
to avayxaiov,xal ta tidy avayx diov dta tovto slya*. 
Kal yag u firj xaXmg diag&govoiv ol Xiyovug , &XX' 
eat* iov& o (lovXovtai, xal arayxtj tavta Hyetv av- 
tdlg, on imp iid&v ovoia tig htaotov iou, xal oi&i* 
xata ovfifoPrixog. *AXXa /utjv tiys dtjoopw ti ttdii 
that, xal «v agi&p$ tag agx a *> *lXa py udu, tign- 
xauBv a avftpalvtiv avayxalov advvata. JSvvsyyvg 
de Tovxoi iatl to dianogyoai , irottgov dwapu iari 
to otoixua,rj riv hsQovjQonov. Elfiivyag aXXv>q 
mug, ngortgov ti total %mv agx&v alio, Ugongov 

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fbtq r\ hvvafug btsivxg ir\<; aitiag • to di bwat7\v oix 
arapttxiov £x$ivu*g nav tx* LV - -E* ft* Sow dwapn ti 
(TtotzuBt, irdizrrai f*r\&h thai t£p ortw. JwatoP 
yaq tlvm xal to prjn» ov t rfyxnat pb ydq to py 
ov • ov&iv de yiymon tuv tlvai ddvyditov. Tavtag 
te ovv tag dnooiag avayxm%ov anoQTjoai n$ql t&v 
O.QXW, xal not t gov xadoXov uah , rj wg Xiyoptx xa 
xa&ixaota. Ei fUxyitQ xa&olov, oix toovtai ovolai. 
Ov-d-iv ydo t&v xouwv r6fkrtar]fiaiv$i, alia towvdr 
rj S' ovola tods ti * si d- cor* too* ti, xal ix&io&ou 
[dvvatai\ to xo*vrj xetryyogovfievor, noXXa&jicu f«et, 
© SZcoxq ortTjg avtog re, xal 6 ap&gtmog, xal to Q»ov, 
tlntq orjfiaiptt sxaotov 1 61k u xal fr. Ei fjuv ovv 
xa&oXov ai aox<*l , tavta avpfiaivu • ti di fitj xa- 
&6lov 9 aXX* wg td x#$4xaota, ovx eaoyiat 4nurtr)taL 
Jia&oXov ydo ai imatiifiat ndvtcav. Slot soovtai 
aqxal tfttoat noottoai ta>v agx** xa&oXov xatyyo- 
QOVfjttvai, Svntq ftiXltj tato&ai, avtmv inunijiir). 

LIBER ffl. (IV.) ^ 


-fcjoti? imotrjftti ttg, jjj &8toQei to or ?) ov , xal td 
rovrca vndqxovta xa& avto, Avir\ hi iotiv oyh*~ 
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twv aXXtav toujxouu xa&oXov mol tov bvtog y ov * 
aXXa pioog avtov ti anotspvo ptvai, -d^ttaQovat ntgl 
rovro to ovp/fc/frjxoc, otov a\ paJhifiatixal wv in*- 
oxripitv. 3 £jttl hi tag aqxdg xal tag axqotatag ai- 

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tlag fytovfiep, drjXov wg opvotdg tipog aitag dvay- 
xaiop slvai xa&* avtr\p. Et ovp xal oi ta aroix*i* 
tw optcap tytovvteg , tavtag tag aqxdg i£ijtovv t 
apdyxrj xal ta otoiXua toy optog elpat fir) xata ovu- 
fleprjxbg, dXX* rj opt a. Aio xctl r)fiip tov bptog. r\ 6V, 
tag nqmag alt lag Xrjntiop. 

To ds op, Xiyvtat flip noXXax&g , aXXa nqog Iv 
xal pictr ttpa qyvatp, xal ov% OfiwifHag , dlX* Soneq 
xal to vymphp Snap nqog vyhtap, to (lip tw cpvXdr- 
tetp, to ds t$ notup, to dk x$ orjfietop ilvat tr)g iyt- 
elag, to d* ot* detxttxop avtr]g * xal to latqtxop nqog 
iatqtxrjp • to flip yaq t<3 %x uv lonqixr)p , Xiyttat 
latqtxop, to b*i tw ttKpveg elvat nqog avtr)p, to di to} 
tqyov ttfpat tr]g iatqirXr)g. 'Oftoioag di xal SXXa Aif- 
yifit&a Xiyofiwa tovtotg. Ovtta ds xal to op Xiyt- 
tat noXXax&g fitr, aXXa nap nqog filap dqxqp* Ta 
flip yaq, ott ovola, opta Xiyttat, tot d* ottnd&r] ov- 
oiag, tot d' ott odog tig oiolav, rj y&ogal, r) attqrj- 
ostg, rj nototrjttg, fj noirjrmot rj ytppryttxd ovolag, rj 
twjt nqog tr)p qvalav Xsyopip&p, tj tovtwp ttpog «tio- 
(pdaug, rj ovolag, Aib xal to fir) op, that fir) op qpa- 
fiip. Ka&dnsq ovp xal t&p vytttpotp andpttop fila 
iniotrjfiri iotlp , bftolatg tovto xal inl rS>p aXXcov. 
Ov yaq fiopop tw* xadr* %p Xtyofiiptap imorrjfirjg iotl 
&twqr)oat fitag, AXXa xal tSfp nqog filap Xtyofiipio* 
qpvatp. Kal yaq rafaa tqonop ttpot Xiyttat xa& sp. 
JrjXop ovp, ott xal tot opta fitag &$(oqr)oat, rj opta. 
JIaptaxov da xvqltag tov nqmtov 1} intotrjfirj ,' xal ^ 
ovt« aXXa ijqtrjta^ xal di' o Xiyoptai. & ovp 

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tovt iotlt y ovoia, tmv ovonav av dioi tag agxag 
xal tag aitiag txw tbv <pd6oo<pov. c !dnavtog de 
ytvovg , xal ai'o&rjoig pia hog xal inujTTjfAT) ' olov 
yoauuattxri uia ovoa, ndoag fawoti tag qxovag. Jw 
xal tov ovtog oaa $i'drj <#«w^a<u, uuxg iotiv iniot^- 
pyg i$ yivzi, ta %e $l'dri twv tid&v • el Stj to ov xal 
to %v tavtbv xal pia <pvoig, tip axoXov&siv aXXyXoig 
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atva' ditt<p$Q8i de ov&iv, ovd° av bpoimg vnoXd/3au9*, 
aXXa xal nob toyov fiaXXov. Tavtb yao elg «V^©- 
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gbv xi drjXol xata trjv Xi&v inavadmXovutvov to 
tot iv b av&gamog, xal av&oaTtog, xal tig av&gomog. 
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tp&ogag. 'Ouoi&g da xal inl tov kvog. c Slots opavtgbv 
oti 7} ngoo&soig iv tovtoig xavxb dyXol, xal ovdsv £?*• 
gov to IV nagatbov. "Etitffj kxaotov ovoia, sviotiv ov 
xata ovufisfirixog. 'Opoiag 5s xal btttg ov ti. *Jlo& 
boaneg tov bvbg ttdrj , tooavta xal tov bvtog ioti' 
ntol (av to ti lot* , trjg avttjg iniot^ui\g tw yivti 
■d*W07)0ai. Aiym d' olov negl tavtov xal tov ouoiov 
xal tav aXXav zwv toiovtwv , xal twv tovxoig am- 
xufiivfov ' oxttibv. di navta avaynai tavavtia sig tyv 
aoxhv tavtriv. Ts&toigfitat d* r^iiv tavta iv ty 
ixXoyp twv ivavtiwv, Kaltooavtauigtj q>iXoooq>iag 
iotlv, o oai nsg c djoyoiai. u Jlote avayxalov thai %wa 
ngarrt}v xal ixopivyv avtatv. 'Titaox** yao *v&vg 
yivfj $%ovza to Sv, xal to IV* dtb xal huot^uai^ axo- 
Xov&qoovoi tovtoig. "Ecrti yaq b q>dooo(pog oaoTteo 
6 fia&TJUcnixbg XsybfiBvog. Kal yao avtr} %x^fAiqn* 

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Kal ngwiT) Ttc xal dsvtsga i<nlv inwftfjfiti , xal «AA^ 
tyeSq? Iv TOtff p<*&rjfi4mw. 'Em* £i /to«£ avttxHptva 
&so}Q7tocu f j<» 6* b>l avtixHtai nXq&og* avtitpawv ds 
xal otigyotv puag iott %hoi(>r)om, dia to aptyotigms 
&e<u(mo&aiTo sv, ov y vTtiyawg, fj y otigrivig, ij 
inXwg Xeyofisvt), ott qvx inag£u ixuvo, ij tiv\ y$ve$. 
v Ev&a piv ovv t$ hi v\ dioupoga ^roooww naga to iv 
Tijj (moqHxoei'ftnovoiayGiQ tj anoyaaig ixdyov &rtlv) 
iv $e vrj uttgyan xal- vnoxupivri tig cpvoig yiyvnai, 
xa& ijg Xiyttai y otigrjcfig. Tw d* kvl nXib&og «v- 
tixutm * Hats xal ta vvtiitsipsvct toig ugripivotg, to, 
ts fosqov xal to avopoiov xal avioov, xal voce aXXa 
X4y$tai, fj xat ait a, 4j xata nXfj&og xal to ev, tr]g 
tigrjpivrig yvagi&tv iniotypijg • mv IV tt, xal y ivav- 
wt^g ioti* 5ia<poga pig tig y ivavnovr^g' r) ds 6ia~ 
<poga, hsQOTrjg. "Jlot inetdfj noXlax&g to zv Xiyt- 
tat, xal tavra noXXax&g pkv Xsx&fioetm , epwg di 
uiag anavta yvcogi&iv iotlv, Ov yog d noXXaxtag, 
Itigag * al£ si pyrt k«#* Iv, prjte ngog h ol Xoyot, 
avayigovtai, xoxe itsgag, 'Enel ds navta ngog to 
ngwtQv avaxpegitai, olov oaa$v,Myttamgb£to *roai- 
tov tr, wGccvxwg yatiov xal negl taitov xal creoov 
*al xwy ivavtitiv ifrwv. "Jlare duXopevov nooeexwg 
Xiyttat exaoiov, ovtwg anodotiov ngog to ngmtor 
iv btaaxT) xatyyogia, nwgngbg ixuvo Xiyttai, Tapir 
fag tw s%stv ixuva, ra di t$ nomv , ta Ss xat ceX- 
lovg Xex&7)oeTcu tokovtovg tqonovg. Qavegbv ovv, 
onsg ivvmg anogimg iXex&rj , o« (Hag mql tovtto> 
xal trig avolag 4atl Xoyov l>€*y. TVwxo d' i\v »!»> 
iv toZg anogtifiaoi. Kal text to v <pikoo6( pov nt^l 

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fK^yjwJvvva^m&wgup. J£t yaq pr\ xov qttXooo- 
q>ov, tig Botm b ijttoxupofiwog , u tavtb JSaxqdt^g, 
xal ^toxgdiyg xa^uevog, ^ tl ev hi hartiov , y ti 
ioti to ivartiov, fj nooax*>g liyetat; 'Opoiwg de xal 
neql twv alhav tStv toiovtwv. 3 £nel ovv tov kvog 
f] $*, xal rev ovtog j\ or, tavta xa& avta ion 
n*&7) , all* evx fj aot&fiol, tj yeapfial, tj uvq, dtjXov 
mg ixtivqg tyg imotrjprig , xal ti iot* ynoqioai , xal 
ta ovpftsfiyitoTa avtoig 9 xal ov tavtfldfiaQtdvovoiv oi 
neql ctvjup oxonovuevoi oag ov <piloa<xpovvTtg , all' 
oil itqoteqov t) ovola, 7186* rjg ovdev ina'L'ovow ' end 
itoirtQ iotlxal aoidfiov rj aoi&pbg Vdia na&f)' oiov, 
TUfttTOtrig , dgtiotrjg , ovfipetgia , looting , vntfoxv> 
tllttyig, xal tavta xal xa& eavtovg, xal nobg allr r 
lovg vnuyxei tdig dfi&potg' bfioiug de xal otegtia 
xal cSxtvfJxw xal xtvovpivto, afioQsi te xal (tdoog exov- 
u, Uotiv Iteea i'dta * ovtw xal to» ovti f, ov, %ou tiva 
Xdux' xal tcivt soti tiiqI mv tov <ptloo6(pov imoxi^a- 
o&ai to dlyOeg. Sqfiuov Si* ol ydo dialtxxixol xal 
oo<piotal f to avtb fiiv inodvortai oxrjpa tw qptlooo- 
qxo (if yaq oo<pwtix7) (paivofitvr) uovov ooqpia ioti, s 
xal oi Sialsxjixol dtaleyorta* ntol dndvtwv) xoivbv 
ii 7taoi to ov iou, dtaliyoviai de negl tovtfav Stj- 
invoti, did to ti)g qpiXoooqnag elvai avta olxiia. 
OoqI (dv yao to avtb yivog otyiqptmi */ ^oqxotixr) 
xal % dtalExtixt) ty qnkoooada * dlXa dutyigei, trig 
p&r, ttp t(kjtww trig ovvduttjg * tijg de, tov (Uov tjj 
TtQoaiQtoet. "£ou de ?; duaAsxtixii, Tutoaotixrj , ns$l 
tar rj q>iXoooq>la yvo>$iOTixr) • j\ de ooqpiotixri , qtaivo- 
pwiq, ovou d* ov "Eu t<ov ivavtbavq hxtya ovoto*- 


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glee, axsgfioig • xal ndvxa avdysxai sig xb ov xal xb 

fir] ov, xal sig ev xal nXy&og , olov oxdaig tov hog, 

xivrjoig ds tov 7iXrj&ovg. Ta 6 ' ovxa xal xtjv ov- 

oiav, bfioXoyovotv 4£ ivavximv ox*dov. € Anavxsg yovv 

tag agxagivavxiag Xiyovow ol psv yagnsgnxbv xalao- 

xiov, ol ds -d-egpov xalipvxgbv, ol ds nigag xal anti- 

gov, ol tie cpdiav xal vslxog * ndvxa ds xal xaXXa ava- 

yopsva (paivtxai sig xb ev xal to nXfj&og. Eifo'cp&o) 

yagri dvaycayrj fjfuv [& xm ngwxto nsgl aya&ov*] at 

d' agxal xal navxsXwg, xal nagaxSiv aXXoav , wg ug 

yevr\ xavra ninxovoi. toavtgbv ovv xal 4x xovxwv, 

oxi fiiag frtioTri[irig to or dstogrjoai. ndvxa ydg if 

ivavxla, ij i$ ivavtiwr. *Agx a * ds xal twv ivavtlcov^ 

to ev xal to nXtj&og. Tavxa ds pidg imoxrjprig, 

tits xatf ev Xsysxai, si'xs pr), womg iowg tysi toZ^- 

•&eg. *AXtf opoag si xal noXXax&g Xsysxai to s\, ngbg 

to ngwxov rail' avax&yosxai,, xctl xd ivavrla bpoiwg. 

Kal did TovtOy xal si prj ion to ov r\ to tv xa&6Xov, 

xal xavxo 4nl ndvxtav, rj x®Q L Q TOV > wontg i'otag ovx 

sow aXXa Ta psv ngbgxb ev, Ta ds tw iq>s^ijg • xal diet 

to {/to ov tov ysmpsxgov &S(ogi}Oai, xi to ivavxiov , tj 

xsXsiov, y sv, rj ov, % tavxbv, ij exsgov, aXX 3 rj & vno - 

&sotag. "Oxi psv ovv pidg imoxrjprig to ov p ov 

■frsatgijoai, xal ta vndgxovxa aviw y ov , dr,Xov xal 

vxi ov pdvov x&v ovoi&v, dXXd xal xmv vnagxovxoav 

tj avxr) d-sagijTixr), x&v xs sigripsvwv, xal nsgl ngoxi- 

govxalvdiigoVfXalyivovgxal si'dovg,xal oXov xal pi- 

govg, xal xav aXXwv x<ov xoiovxoav. 


Asxxsov ds , noxsgov piag fj kxigag imoxTJtiTjg* 

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negite twv iv tolg pad-rj(iaoi xaXovpivuw aSioafuxtav, 
xal negl trjg ovoiag. ftavegbv &>, ott> fitag te xal 
trjg tov cpiXooocpov xal r) negl tovtutv 4otl oxeyig* 
Anaa yagvnagxei *°*£ ovaiv, dXX' ov yivei im/w- 
g\g Id la tatv aXXoav. Kal xqoivtcu fih ndvteg bti 
tov ovtog iotlv fj oV exaotov de to yivog ov. *Enl 
tooovtov de x^vtai, i<p ooov avtolg Ixavov. Tov- 
to 5' eotiv, ooov Snixei to yivog negl ov O)igovoi rag 
anodzl^ug. Hot inel dyXov ou rj bvta vndgxei 
noLov (tovto ydg avtolg to xoivbv) xov negl to ov 
ji ov yvmgl^ovtos, *<*l negl tovttav iotlv rj &e<ogia* 
dio/teg ov&elg t&v xatduigog imoxonovvttav iyxeigel 
Xeyeiv %i negl avtav, el fl aXrj&tj r) py , ovte yeapi- 
tgyg, ovt agi&firjtixbg, dXXa tatv qpvoix&v evioi, el- 
xotatg tovto dgfovteg. Movoi yag wovto negl te trig 
oXtig cpvoeax; oxonelv, xal negl tov ovtog. 'iftrti d* 
lottv eti tov wvoixov tl avo)T £Q(t) ' (ev ydg t* yivog 
tov ovtog 7} q>voig) tov xa&oXov xav tov nsg* tr,v 
ngfoxr^v ovolav •fretogritixov xal r) negl tovtoav av 
t\t\ axitpig. "E oti di ooqpia tig xal r) ppvoLxr^ r gU' 
ov tiqwmL Sua <T lyxugovpl tatv Xtyovtav T*yes negl 
trjg aXrj&eiag , ov tgbnov del dnodixeo&at, di dnai- 
devaiav t&v dvaXvtixHv tovto dg&oi. J si ydg negl 
tovxoav rfxuv ngoentgtapivovg , dXXa pij axovovtag 
ZijTsiv. "Ott fxiv ov* .tov (piXoooqpov xal tov negl " 
naa7\g trig ovoiag S-edagovvtog $ ni<pvxe, xal negl tow 
^ U^Xoy iotixwy agx&v iatlv imoxiwao&ai , dy- 
Xov. Ugooi\xei de tov fidXusta yvtogi£ovta negl fxa- 
oxov yivog, e'xeiv Xiyeiv tag pe^aiotatai agxctg tov 
agdyfiatog • mote xal tov negl tm ovtoav jj ovta, tag 
Arist. Metaph. E 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ndvxwv pffiaioxdxag. "Eoxt d 3 ovxog o <piXoooq)og, 
BejSatoxdtrj d* dqxij naomv , nsql yv diayevo&fivai 
advvaxov yvtoqiptoxdxrjv xt yaq avayxaiov slvat xi\v 
xoiavxyv (ntql yaq a prj yvwqi^ovoiv , anaxwvxui 
ndvxeg) xal dwni>&sxov. *Hv yaq avayxaiov txtiv 
xbv bxiovv Ivviivxa xwv ovxtov, xovxo ovx vno&eoig. 
"0 di yvmqi£uv avayxaiov xw otiovv yvwqi£ovxi , xal 
jjxeiv fyovTa avayxaiov. "Oxt ph ovv i\ xoiavxij na- 
oStv feftaiotatri agxv > dfyov. Tig d' boxiv airrij, 
pexd xavxa Xiyatpsv. To yaq avxo aua vndqxttv 
xal pi) vndgxuv, advvaxov tw ainaj xaxa xb avxo . 
Kdl ooa aXXa nqoodtoqioaipE&' av , eaicu ngoodHo- 
qiopiva nqbg xdg Xoyixag dvoxeQelag. Avtrj d* ana- 
aStv ioxi fopatoxaxii xwv aqx&v. "Exu yaq xbv el- 
qrjpivov dioqiopov. ^Advvaxov yaq ovxwovv xavxo 
vnoXap/idvuv elvai, xal prj slvat, xa&dmq xivig 
oi'ovxai Xiyuv 'HqdxXetxov* Ovx toxi yaq avayxaiov, 
a xig Xiyei t xavxa xal vnoXapfidvuv . El de prj ivdi— 
Xtxat apa vndqxuv xqt avila xd ivavxia, (nqoodiw- 
qlo&tod' i\piv xal xavxa xy nqoxdou xd tlw&oxa) 
ivavxia d' ioxl do£a doty r) xrjg avxixpaoewg * (pavt- 
qbv oxi advvaxov apa vnoXapfidvuv xov avxbv slvai 
xal fitj tivai xb avxo, °Apa yaq av sx°* T «S ivavxiag 
dotag b dityevapivog nsql xovxov. Jib ndvxeg ano- 
duxvvvxeg , tig xavxrjv avdyovoiv ioxdxtjv dotav. 
ftvou ydq aqxy xal xtov aXXw atuopdxwv avxt} 

Mot di xmg ot (xa&dmq slnoptv) aixoixeivds- 
%sa&ai (paoi xb avxo zlvou, xal pi] thai, xal inoXap- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. III. (l\.) CAP. 4. 67 

(tdvtiv oviwg. Xgwvtai de tw Xoya) tovtco noXXol 
xal tuv tzsqI cpvowr ripeig ds vvv slXtyqxxfuv wg ddvva- 
tov ovtog apa slvai xal fir] slvai, xal Sta tovtov idti- 
lapsv on fis^aiotdtrj civvy t&vagx&vnao&v. *A$iov- 
aidsxal tovto anodstxvvvai twig di anaidsvaiar. J^vL* 
^Egti yag anaidsvoia, to py yivwaxsiv, tlvmvdttjg}- /£<J % .., 
ifty anodst^iv, xal tivwv oif dti. "OXoag utv yag' > 

anayTonTadivaTov dn63ei£iv slvai. Eig amigov yag : 

iv fiadlfri • wore pijd* ovtws elya* a7iodei|iy. El di * Jw. 
Ttywy ^ foZ ^TeZy oTidfoifry, t«V« o£toi/0<y «]yai p«A- 
ioy TOiavT^y agriv, ovx aV f£?o*ey tl7i**y. *Eo%i d' 
anodsllai iXsyxtixag xalnsgl tovtov oil advvatov, 
av fiovov tl Xiyy b dficpio/Sfjioiv • ay di [trj&iv, ysXolov 
to tytuv Xoyov, ngbg tbv firj&svbg exorta Xoyov , v 
ufj&iva fyst Xoyov. "Opotog yag <pvt$ b toiovxog, $ 
toiovtog. To d* iXsyxtixag anodsiSai, Xsyoa diaqts- 
gsiv, xal to anodstj-ai * ott o anodsixvvwv psv av d*d- 
Isisv aitsio&ai to iv agxj) ' SXXov Ss tov toiovtou 
altiov ovtog, sXsyxog av sl'rj, xal ovx anodsitig. Agxh 
ds ngbg anavxa %d toiavta, ov to atiovv, % thai n 
Xiysiv, 7) firj sly at, (tov to pivyag tax* ** v %i $ vnoXa- 
floi, to 4£ aoxrjg altsiv) aXXa to oypaivsiv yi ti, xal 
fag avt$ xal aXXtp. Tovto y&Q a*ayxr\, slnsg Xiyti 
ti. El yag p% oix av sir} tw toiovtw Xoyog , ov& 
aviw ngbg avtbv, ovit ngbg dXXov. *Av ds tig tov- 
to did$, totat anodsiSig • rjdt] ydq ti sotai ugiofit- 
vov • aXt ai'uog ovx ° omodeixrvg, aX£ b vnofiivfov ' 
avaigSiv yag Xoyov , vnofiivu Xoyov. Ilg&tov ph 
ovv drjXov, wg tovt aitb dXri&sg , oti otjfiaivBt to 
ovopa to slvai fj ur] thai todL "Slot ovx av nav 

E 2 

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nvxwg xal ovx ovxwg l^ot. "Exi, si av&gunog orjfiai- 

vsi IV, soxai xovxo xb Jwoy Sinovv. Aiyca 8s xb sv 

orjfiatvsw xovxo • si xovx soxiv av&gwnog , av r\ xi o 

av&gtanog, xovx ioxl to av&g&ntp slvai. diaysgsi 

6° ov&sv, ov8 si nXslca tig q>airj or)fiaivsiv f fiovov 8i 

wgiofisva. Tsd-slrj yag av £q> btdotco Xoya sxsgov 

ovofia, Aiyco fl' olov , si fir) opalrj xbv av&ganov sv 

orjfialvsiv, noXXd 8s, wv kvbg fisv tig Xoyoi, to Jwov, 

to dinovv slot 8k rati I'rsgoi nXsiovg, wgiofisvoi 8s xbv 

agt&fiov ' xs&sir\ yag av l8iov ovofia, xa& sxaoxov 

xmv Xoyav • si 8e fir) xs&sirj , aXX ansiga orjfiaivsiv 

q>airj, <pavsgbv oxi ovx av sir] Xoyog. To yag fir) sv 

xi or\fiaivsiv t oi&sv orjfiaivsiv ioxl. Mr) or\fiaivbvxtav 

, 8s xmv ovondxav , avr\gr\xai xb 8iaXsysG&ai ngog «A- 

u^r*fcfaovg, xaxd 8s xr)v aXrj&siav xal ngog avxov. Ov- 

"^^JWir yag $v8sxsxai voelv, fir}&sv voovvxa sv. El d* 

^^*^A~sv8sxsxai, xs&siri av ovofia tovtw tw ngdyfiaxi sv. 

x * Yi \j^y v EaTM aga 8rj (monsg £\sx&y xal xax agxag) orj- 

^ ^ 'fialvov xl xb ovofia, xal orjfialvov sv ov 8r) ivSixs- 

^xai xb dv&gtonto slvcu or\fiaivsiv , finsg fir) shai av- 

d-gwnta' si xb SvOgmnog oijfiaLvsi, fir) fiovov xa&* 

Ivbg , aXXd [xa* fdav <pvoiv] xal sv. Ov yag tovto 

a&ovfisv, xb sv or\fiaivsw xb *«#' sv6g * insl si ovxw 

ys, x$v xb fiovoixbv xal Xsvxbv , xal xo av&gtonog sv 

iorjfiaivsv. "Jloxs sv anavxa Sierra* * ovvtowfia yag • 

xal ovx total slvai xal fir) slvai xo avxo , aXX r) xa& 

ofiwwfilav tiansg av si ovfjfislg av&gwnov xaXovfisv, 

aXXoi fir) av&gatnov xaXolsv. To 8* inogovfisvov, ov 

xovxo ioxiv, si iv8ixsxai afia xb avxo xal slvai xal fir] 

slvai av&gwnov xb ovtua ccXXv xo nqayfia* Ei 8s fir) 

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METAPHYS. LIB. 111. (IV.) CAP. 4. 60 

or)fialvu ittgov to av&gwnog xal to fir) Svdgamog, 
drjAov oti xal to fir) slvai av&gomtp, tov thai dv&gii- 
7io). "Slot eotai to dv&goanoj elvcu, to fir) tlvai av- 
&Q(oncp. *Ev yag total, Tovto yag or)fiaivu to tlvai 
tv, Ctg Xwniov xal Ifidtiov, ti o Xoyog tig. El de iotai 
tv , tv orjfialvbi to a>&Q(ima) ilvai, xal fir) dv&gtoTHa • 
dXX ididtixto ott fhtgov or)fiaivti* 'Avdyxr) toivvv ti 
tl iativ aXri&tg tlntlv , oti av&goanog (aov tlvai Sl- 
novv. Tovto yag r)v o ior)(iaiv$ to av&oa)nog. El 
d* avayxtj tods, ovx ivdixttat fir) tlvai tott avto £&ov 
dinovv. Tovto yag or)fialvti to avayxtj thai, to 
advvatov tlvai, fir) tlvai av&ganov. Ovx aga ivds- 
Xstcu afia dXi)dtg tlvai tlntiv, to avto av&gamov tlvai, 
xal fir) tlvai av&goanov. *0 $' avtbg Xoyog xal M 
tov fir) tlvai av&gwnov. To yag dv&go)7tq> tlvai, xal 
to fir) av&QOTJMp tlvai, tttgov orjfiaivti ' tl'ntg xal to 
Xtvxov tlvai, xal to av&gumuv tlvai tttgov. JloXv 
yag dvtixtitai ixtivo fidXXov • mote or)fialvtiv tttgov. 
JEt b*s xal to Xtvxov q>r' t osi to avto xal ev or)(ialvtiv, 
ndXiv to avto igovfitv, ontg xal ngottgov iXix&i), oti 
tv td ndvta iotl, xal ov fiovov td avtixtifttva. El 
$s firj ivdixttai tovto, ovfifiaivti to Xtx&tv , av dno- 
xgivrjtai to (goittofitvov. *Eav 5s ngoott&y igmoivTog 
tivog dnXwg, xal tag dnoqpdotig , ov* dnoxgivttai to 
ig(ot(ofisvov • oi&iv yag xmXvti tlvai to avto, xal «V- 
&go)7tov xal Xtvxov, xal aXXafivgla to nXrftog * dX£ 
ofiotg (gofiivov , tl dXr)&sg tlntiv av&gvnov tovto 
tlvai, i) ov, anoxgitiov to tv or)fiaivov, xal ov ngoa- 
•&ttiov, oti xal Xtvxov xal fiiya. Kal ydg advvatov, 
antiga ovta tot ovp(it(lr)x6ta ditX&tiv. *H ovv anav- 

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xa ditX&ixto, rj pTj&iv. 'Opoiwg xoivw ti xal fiVQid- 
xig ioxl xb avxb av&qomog , xal ovx av&qwnog , ov 
nqouanoxqixiov xcjj (qo^iivca tl toxiv ctv&qamog , oxi 
toxiv Spa xal ovx av&qanog, si xal fit} xdXXaooaovfi- 
piptjxt nqooanoxqixiov , ooa ioxlv q prf toxiv. *Eav di 
xovxo noifj, ov diaXiytxai. "OXtog d* dvaiqovoiv ol 
xovxo Xiyovxtg ovoiav, xal to 'lirp thai. Uavxa ydq 
dvayxr\ <7V{i(3e/3i]xivai qtdoxttv aixdlg • xal to , onto 
av&qumq thai, rj £o)q> thai, pi) thai ' ti ydq toxai xt 
ontq av&qam<p thai , xovxo ovx toxai firj av&qwnoj 
thai, ij fir} thai dv&qrinip • xalxot avxai anoqtdotig 
xovxov. °JSv ydq i\v o ior\paivtv, xal qv xovxo xivbg 
ovoia. To d' ovoiav otipaivtiv ioxlv , oti ovx aXXo 
xi to thai aviio. Eld' toxai avxm xal xo onto dv- 
&Q<6nw thai, onto fifj dv&qomw thai, rj ontofiti thai 
dv&QtoTup, aXXo toxai. *Jlox 3 avayxaiov aixdlg Xiytip, 
bxi ov&tvbg toxai xoiovxog tidixbg xal ovoicodr^g, xal 
dtl x(x) vnoxttpivtp nqoo^qfioofiivog Xoyog, dXXct ndv- 
xa xaxd ovpPt(ltjx6g * xovtw ydq duoqioxai ovola xal 
10 ovfi^spijxog. To ydq Xtvxbv t<w dv&qwiup ovfifis- 
firjxog. To ydq Xtvxbv x§ dv&qwnqt ovfipi^xtv, on 
taxi piv Xtvxbg , dX£ ovx ontq Xtvxbv. El di ndvxa 
xaxd ovfi^tfiijxbg Xtytxai, ov&iv toxai nqwxov xb xa- 
&oXov. El S' dtl xb avuPtptjxbg xa# inoxtipivov 
xivog arjfiaivu xrjv xaxrjyoqiav, avayxr^ aqa tig vinii- 
qov iivai • ix£ ddvvaxov. Oiidi ydq nXtita ovfinXi- 
xtxai dvdlv xb ydq ov/ifisfirixbg, ov ovfifttprixoti ovfi- 
foPTjxog, tifiri oTicc{i(pa) ovfi/Si/irixt xavxto. uisyw d* 
oiov, xo Xtvxbv xal povoixov, xal xovxo Xtvxbv, oxi S^uqpw 
i(o dv&qdnio ovfifSijSrjxtv. 3 AX£ ovx Zwxqdxrig povoi- 

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METAPHYS. LIB. HI. (IV.) CAP. 4. 71 

xogoviwg, oti apquo av^jSi/S^xev frig (p uvl, 3 Enu toIvvv 
ia fisv ovtwQ; rex d 3 ixuvagXiystaiovfifePrixoTa, 3aa 
ovtug Xiyetat, &g to Xsvxov tw ^wxgdjei, ovx Mixt- 
ion dnsiga ilvai ml tqi dv&gwiua , olov <ta> 2iaxgctin 
iw Xsvxto , xal fotgov u avfifit/Srjxig • ov yag ylveiat 
n ly 1$ anavjwv , ovde drj tw Xbvxu iiegov t* sotcu 
ovuPsfirjxog, olov to povoixov. Ov&iv te yag fidXXov 
lovio ixtlva , q ixsivo tovtio ov^fte^i]xEv. Kal apa 
fo&giotai, on td fiiv ovtwq ovfA/Hfirjxs, t<J S* wg to 
povoixov 2?coxgdisi. "Oaa d' ovnog , ov ovpPi/HrixoTi 
ovfifiejSrixe to ov/iPt^fjxog , aU 1 oaa ixtivtag. "flax 
ov ndvxa xata ovpfitfiTjxog Xex-frtjieTai. "Eotcu dga 
t» , xal ag ovolav otipalvov. El 5s tovto , didsixtcu 
on ddvvarov apa xajrjyogua&ai tag dvTupdosig. v Eti 
d aXy&eig at avri<pdosig Spa xata tov avtov ndoai, 
dqlov tag anavxa laia* ev. "Eotcu aga to avio xal 
T 9 l VQV? * a * ToX/og xal av&gconog , si xata navxbg ti 
rj xaiacpTjoai rj anoopijqai ivdsxsiai, xa&dnsg avdyxtj 
tolg tbv Ugmayogov Xiyovoi Xoyov, El yag iw doxii 
pi} elvai rgtrjgTjg 6 av&gomog , dtjXov ou ovx sotat 
tqiqgHS • wots xal sariv, sXntg t) avTlqpaoig dXri&rig. 
Kal yivsTUi St) to Tov*Ava^ayogov t ofiov ndvta XW- 
ftata * wars firjdh dXti&fag sv vn&gxuv. To dogiotov 
ovv ioixaoi Xsynv, xal olofuvoi to ov Xiysiv, nsgl tov 
pr) ortog Xiyovoi, To yag dvvdpu ov xal fir) ivteXs- 
Xdijt, to adgiQxdv ionv. *AXXd fir)v Xsxtiov ye avrdlg 
*ata navtog ti)v xaTaqpaow y Tt\v dnoyaotv. "Atonov 
yag u endow , rj piv avtov anoyaaig vndgSei , yd' 
kiigov o fit] vndgxu avTcp ovx vjidgSsi. Aiyto & 
otov, li dXq&eg tlitiiv tov Sv&gtanov, on ovx av&gw , 

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nog, drjXov oxi xal ov Tgirjgtjg. Ei fisv ovv v\ xaxd- 
yaobg, dvdyxie\ xal tifv dnoqtaotv. El depri vnagxsi 
r\ xaxdcpaoig, sXys tj dnoq>aoi>g ifinxg^si palXov , ij q 
uvxov, fj Tt]$ TQirigovg. ' M ovv xaxsivrj indgZsh xal 
r\ xrjg xgirjgovg. Ei d* avxtj, xal r\ xaxdyaoig. Tav- 
xd re ovv ovfi^alvsi tots Xiyovoi xbv Xoyovtovxov, xal 
oxi ovx dvayxrjiil (pdvairj anoqpdvai. El yag aXm&kg, 
on dv&g(onog xal ovx £v&go>nog, dtjXov bnxal ovt av- 
&Q(OJiog, ovxs ovx av&gamog soxat,. Tolv yag dvolv, 
dvo anoyaoug. El ds[itai£ duyoxsgwv ixeivtj, xal avnj 
fiia avd'rj dvxixsinsvr^Enr^xoi nsglanavxa ovnag %X U » 
xai soxi xal Xsvxbv xal ov Xsvxbv f xal ov xal ovx 6v, 
xal nsgl Tag aXXag ydosig xal dnoydasig bpoioxgo- 
Trwr 1} ov, aXXd nsgl psv ttvag, nsgl ttvag d' ov. Kal 
si (ih firj nsgl ndoag , avtat dv shv bfioXoyovpsvai r 
si ds nsgl ndoag, ndXiv rjtot xa& ooav to q>rj(jai>, xal 
dnoq>rioai>, xal xa& Sawv dnoyqaai , xalyrjoa*, r\ 
xaid (lev ovv ynoat xal dnocprioaf xa& ooavdsano- 
qirjoai, ov ndvxtav <pr\oat. Kal si [iiv ovxoag, s\v\ av xi 
nayiwg ovx ov xal avxrj fofiala do£a. Kal ei to fiij 
slvai pifiaiov n xal yvwgifiov, (isfiaioxiga av itrj qpa- 
oig fj avxixsifitvTj, Ei ds bfioltag xal ooa dnotprioai 
opdvaiy xaxdyaoiv avdyxri • yxot, aXrj&sg diatgovvret 
Xiysiv , olov , on Xsvxbv , xa» ndXtv on ov Xsvxbv , % 
oil' xal si ph pr} dXydsg diaigovvxa Xiysiv , ov Xd- 
ysi xs tavxa, xal ov* soxiv ovdsv. Ta ds fcij ovxa, n&q 
av (p&iySaixo, jj fiadiosisv ; xal ndvxa d* av sl'ri ev, 
wonsg xal ngoxsgov ei'grjtai • xal xavxbv toxai xal 
av&gomog xal &sbg , xal xgirjo^g , xal ai dmcpdostg 
aixwv. Ei d* b/ioiojg xa&* sxaoxov, ovdsv dioioe* 

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htgot kttgov. El yag diohsi, tovt carat aXrj&ig 
xal tdiov. 'Ofioltog di xal u diatgovvra fodixnou «itj- 
£et/tir , avfi/Salpu to X$x&ev. Tigog di jovko , ©t* 
nartsg ay dXfj&svoi^ xal ndvrsg ay ytvdoirto , xal 
avrog avTov OfioXoydi ysvdto&at. "Apa di yaytgbv 
ou negl ovdivog ioti ngbg tovzov r\ Oxiiptg. Ov&iv 
yag Xiyu. Ovn ydg ovttag, ovi ovx ovTtog teyu, 
all 3 ovtfug t& xal ovx ovTtag. Kal ndXiv yt tavta 
anocpaoiv apqxo, on ov&* ovtag, ovr« ovx ovtoog Xiyu, 
uXIc ovrmg m xal ovx ovtmg • ti ydg pr\, rjdri dv u ti'rj 
wgiopevoy. **Eu u biav r\ <pdaig dXrj&wg rj f 1} and- 
<f>aoig tpsvS^g, xav avTfj dXri&ijgr), r\ xatdq>aoig ytv- 
9tig, ovx a* sty a pa to avtb (pdvat, xal dnoydvvu dXr)~ 
&&g ' aXX Xotag (pcuev av tovt tlvat to i$ dgxrjg xti- 
ptvov. Eti aga 6 ptv tj %x*iv img vnoXafiftdvoav , fj 
fifj l/«v, diiytvoTui' 6 di apqpa>, dXydtvu; El yag 
dXrj&tvti, xiav strjtb Xtyifitvov, [ti fir{\ OTiToiavTtj 
tuv ovrmv riq>vatg dXt)&svti ; El dififj aXtj&svsi, dXXd 
paXXov dXrj&tvti 6 ixsivtag vnoXaufiavtav , rfir\ natg 
$Z0* av t« fivra, xal tow to dXrj-d-ig dv tVy , xal ovx 
Sfia xal ovx aXy-frig ; si di bfioiag anartsg xal ipsv- 
tiovroti xal dXrj&tj Xiyovoiv , ovts (p&iyyso&ai , ovtt 
tin sly tw loiovKti iaxlv. °Apa yag tavia Tt xal ov 
Tavta Xiyu. El di fitj&h ittoXapfidvu, aXX' bfiolmg 
ofstai xal ovx oi'erai, ti av diacptgoviwg txoi tc5v tis- 
tpvxcttav *0&tv xal paXiata (pavtgdv ioriv, or* ov&tlg 
ovxta dtdxutai, ovjsxwv SXXwv, ovts t&v Xsyovtmv 
tbv Xoyov tovzov. Jia ti yag paSi&i Mtydgadt, 
aXJi ovx yovxd&t oidfuyog (ladi£uy; ovd* vb&itog 
fa&iv nogwvnai slg ygiag ij tig <pdgayya , idv TVXJl* 

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dXXd qper/ma* svlaftovpepog , wg ovxopoiatg olouspog 

fir} aya&op tlpai to ipmoeip xaldya&op ; drjXopaga, 

vti to flip fiiXtiov vnoXappapti, to d' ov fidXuop. El 

ditovto, xal to ph ap&qomop , to f ovx Sp&gamop* 

xal to fih yXvxv, to 6' oiyXvxv dvdyxT) vnoXapfid- 

php. Ov yag i£ i'oov anapta falsi xal vnoXappotpsi, 

1 otap olrj&f) (HXtiop shcu to m*iv vdmg xal id$ip or- 

\ &QW7tov, eha itjtii avtd. Kaitoi, I'du ys, ei tavtov 

r]v opohagxal dp&gomog xal ovx av&gwnog* aXX° Snsg 

ilix&r) t ovdslg og ov yabsiai to) pip svXapovperog, 

td d* ov. /lots, d>g %oixb, ndpttg vnoXafifldpovoi* 

e/ay ctnXwg, el fiy mgldnapta, dXXdnegl to a/xuvov 

xal xtiqop. El de (xr\ imotdfiBPOt, aXXa do$d£ovt$g, 

noXv fiaXXop imptXritiop dp el'ij tr\g aXy&siag, tooneg 

xal poowdu opti % iyuipy t%g vyulag, Kal ydg 6 

\do£d£<ap ngbg imotd/tepop, ovx vyiup&g diaxenai 

noog trjp aXrfd'Uup. "#w si ou [idXtota ndvxa ovtwg 

fyn , xal ovx ovttag, dXXd to ye ftaXXop xal fjttop IV 

ioup iv ti) cpvasi tap optatp Ov yag itp 6/nolwg qpij- 

aaifiev shai tit dvo Sgna xal td tgiar ovd' opoitog 

diiipevotai 6 td thtaga nipt* oiopwog, xal o jjf/Ata * 

u ovp fAtj oftoiag, drjXop oti atsgog ifiTov wot* 

fidXXop dXri&mei. El ovp to pdXXop iyyvtsgop , eft} 

ye dp ti dXij&ig, ov iyyvtfgop to pdXXop dlrj&ig. 

K$p $i firj ecrup , dl£ ydy yi tt iotl ftefiaioTsgov xal 

aXfi&iputigop, xal tov Xoyov drniXXaypspoi dp eI't](j,$+ 

tov axgdtov xal xwXvoptog xt ijj diapola bgloau 

Eott, d ano trjg avtfig dotygxal 6 JIgatayogov 
Xoyog, xal apayxr\ opolug df<t<pu avtoig, i} thai, q 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHY8. LIB. 111. (IV.) CAP. 5. 75 

1*7/ thai. Elxt yaq xd doxovvxa nana ioxlv dXti&Tj, 
xal xd qpaivofitva, avdyxrj nana dfia aXrjdrj xal 
ysvdr) thai. JIoXXol yaq xavania vnoXa(i@dvovoiv 
dXXrjXotg, xal xovg jiij xavxa dotdfovxag kavxolg, 
ditiffsva&ai vo(ii£ovow. "Slot avdyxt\ xb avxo thai 
xs xal fiff thai' xal tl xovx ioxlv, avayxtj xd doxovna 
thai nana dXrj&ri. Ta dnuttifisva yaq doldtovatv 
dXXr\Xotg oi dity$vofiivot xal dXtj&svontg. El ow 
%X& xd ona ovxmg, aXtj&ivovat ndntg. "Ox$ fiiv ovv 
dnb trig avif\g tloi dutvoiag d^opbxtqoi oi Xbyoi, dij- 
Xov. Eaxi d* o&x o avxogxqonog nqog ananag xyg 
irttvbwg. Oi fiiv yaq nsi&ovg dionai , oi di ftiag. , 
"Oooi fiiv yaq ix xov anoqijoai vniXaflov ovxmg, xov- 
xmv ivtaxog r\ ayvoia. Ov yaq nqog xov Xoyov, aXXd 
nqbg xi\v didvoiav r\ andvrrjoig avxuv. "Oooi di Xoyov 
Xaqw Xiyovoi, xovxtav d* tXsyxog iuoig , xov t iv ti} 
qxovjj Xoyov, xal xov iv xotg ovbfiaoiv. 'EXrjXv&t di 
xolg dianoqovoiv avttj tj do£a ix xwv aio&nx&v • f) 
(iev xov afta xdg dvxtqpdatig xal xavania vndqxw, 
bq&oivix xavxov yivbfitva xavania. El ovv fit] iv- 
dixsxai ytviodou xb fir) ov, nqovnygxtv bfioitag xb 
nqdyfia dfiqxo ov , Hantq xaVAvalayoqag fitfiix&ai 
ndv iv nani (frjoi, xal Jrjfibxqixog* xal yaq ovxog 
xb xsvbv xal xb nXtjqtg bfioiwg xa&* bxiovv vndqxuv 
ftiqog' xaixoi xb fib ov xovxtav thai , xb di firj ov. 
Jlqog fiiv ovvxoigix xovxtav vnoXafifidvonag iqov- 
fitv oxi, xqbnov fiiv xiva oq&atg Xiyovoi , xqbnov di 
xiVa dyvoovoi. To yaq ov Xiyexai #<£(»?. "Jlox toxiv 
ov xqbnov ivdix*tai yiyvto&ai xi ix xovnr) ovxog, for* 
d ov ov Kal Sfia to avxo thai ov, xal fiq ov , dXX 

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ov xard to air 6 ov. Jwd/iet fiev ydg ivdixnai Sfia 
to civto elvai %a ivavrla, ivreXexsta d* ov. N "Eti S' 
a^iwaofiev avTOV>g vnoXapfidveiv xal aXXyv ova lay 

€IVCU T<OV OVTVtV, 7j OVT8 XlVIJOig VTldgxei, OVJS ty&OQOl, 

ovts yeveoig to naganav. Ofioiwg de xal r\ mgl io\ 
(paivofABva aX^&eia, ivioig 4x twv aio&rjT&v iXyXvOs. 
To fievydg aXrj&eg ov nX^&eixgiveo&ai oVovraingoa^ 
r\xeiv , ovde oXiyotyti. To d' avzo rdig piv yXvxv 
yevopevoig doxu elvai, idig de mxgov. "Slot el ndv- 
reg exapvov , r\ ndvTsg nageygovovv , dvo d* rj Tgeig 
vyiaivov, y vovv Uxor, doxeiv dv Tovrovg xdpveiv xal 
naga<pgoveiv, tovg 6*' aXXovg ov. "Eti 0*8 noXXdig to>v 
aXXtav Qwwv Tavavtla qpaivso&ai xal tjjuv • xal avxqj 
de kxdoxa ngbg avxiv ov ravtd xaxd ttjv aia&rjatv del 
doxtiv. Iloia ovv xovxutv dXrj&ii fj yevdy , ddrjXov. 
Ov&ev ydg pdXXov Tade ij Tads dXrj&ri, aXX* opohog. 
Aib Jrjfioxgnog ye qprfotv , ijxoi ov&ev elvai dXfjd-eg, 
y Tipuv y adrjXov. "OXug de did to inoXapfidvtiv, 
ygovrjaiv (*b Trp> aio&rjoiv , tuvttjv o° elvai a/Uo/tt)- 
oiv,to qpaivopevov xard tv\v afo&rioiv f i!; dvdyxrjg dXrj- 
&eg elvai (paoiv. *Ex tovxwv ydg xal*EiinedoxXr\gxal 
4Tjp6xgiTog,xal lair aXXmv,ig enog elne?v,exaaTog,Toi- 
avxaigdolaigyeyevrpxai evoxoi. Kal ydg'EimedoxXrjg 
ueTafldXXovTag xijve^iv f fjiexapdXXeiv q?r)alxriv<pg6vnoiv. 

Ilgog nagebv ydg prjxig ae^erai av&gtanouii. 
Kal iv hegoig d$ Xeyei' 

"Ooov aXXoloig fierefjv, tooov ag o<ploiv aid 

Kal to q>gove~iv dXXola naglaraxo. 
Kal IIag/jievtdt)g de dnoqxxiverai tov avrbv Tgonov 

fig yag exaorog %xu xgdaiv peXeiov noXvxdfAixTwv, 

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Tug voog av&gwnoia* nagiozrjxsv. To ydg aixb 
"Eotiv ontg qpgoviu ptXiwv q>voig av&gwnotah 
Kal naaiv, xal navtb to ydg nXiov iotl vor^a. 
*Avalaybgov di xal anoqp&iypa (ivr)povevnai ngbg tuv 
etaigow twdg , oti TOiavra avtolg td ovza , ola ay 
vnoXaficooi. <X>aol di xal top "Ouqgov touxvtrjv fyovta 
<paiveo&cu trp do£av, or* inolrjo6TO¥ a Extogajig $;£- / 
otrj vno trig nXrjyijg , xuo&ai aXXoqpgoviorta • wg ! 
cpgovovviag pi? xal tovg nagaa>govovvtag , dX£ ov < 
tavtd. Ar\Xov ovv, on, ti apqjotsgai (pgovrioug, xal 
id bvta dfia ovt& t« xal ovx ovtwg «#**. Hi xal 
XaXenmatov to ovfijSaivov iaiiv. El yao ol fidXiota 
to hdexopsvov dlri&eg kwgaxoteg, (ovto* d' tlolv ol 
udXiota JTjJovvjtg aitb xal miXovvzeg) ovtoi tomv- 

_i -. — ' — r—- err ^-^Z "1 — ** r x 

tag txovoi tag oosag, xa* tavta anoyaivovtai nigi 
trjg aXti&siag, nwg ovx aliov a&v/jtrioai tovqcpiXooo- 
<psiv iyxetgovvtag ; To yao td nsrofitva diuxuv . to 

y ~ * «?' » ?.i/o._ ... av *«_"*'{•"! znr*~. 

jfltiiv av d'n tTiv aXri&siav. Ai'tiov di t^g doling tov-j 
toig, ou nsgi twv ovttav piv tip dXy&uav ioxonovv 7 
td d ovtoi vniXafiov elvai td aio&ijtd fiovov. Ev 
di tovtoig , noXXij % tov aoglotov cpvoig ivvndgxu, 
xal ij tov ovtog ovtoag, ioontQ tlnouw, Al o tlxouog 
fih Xiyovoiv, ov£jxXr}&7] di Xiyovohv. Ovtta yag ag- 
fiortu paXXov (liztiv, rj aonsg'EJilxagfiog sig Stvoyd- 
vtjv. *Eti di naoav bgiavtsg tavvrp xivovpsvr\v iv^t 
(fvaiv , xatd di tov uBtafidXXovtog , ovdiv dXridtvo- 
fisvov, Ttsgl ys to ndrmg ndvvr\ fiUzccfidXXov, ovx iv- 
dixso&at dXrj&eveiv. , *Ex ydg tavtr^g tr\g vnoXrjipswg 
i£qv&riosv v\ axgotdztj doSa z&v iigrjpivow , rj tav 
cpctoxovToov VQaxXsitl&iv, xal oXav KgatvXog slx*v> 

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og xo ttXtvxalov ov&iv $ £T0 5tcv Xiynv, alloc tow 
ddxxvXov ixlvn povov , xal ^HgaxXthof bitxlpa si- 
novxi, dl gxfa avx& notajiS pv* cgn rty fpflivat ^ Av- 
xbg ydg (atxo ovd anal, Hptig dixalngogtovxov 
xbv Xbyov igov/itv, oti to ptv ptxafiaXXov oxt ptxa- 
paXXti, ex s * Tiva avxdig aXy-frr) Xoyov (ty otta&at st- 
reet. Kalxoi taxi ye afjupiaprixrjoipov. To xt yaQ 
dnofidXXov %xit tl xov anoPaXXouivov , xal xov yi- 
yvofiivov r\dri dvdyxrj xl tlvai. OXtog xt d a}&sige- 
xai y indg&i xl ov • xal n ylyvtxai , i£ ov ylyvtxai, 
xal v<p ov ytvvaxai, avayxaiov tlvai, xal tovto fxr\ 
uvai tig antigov, 'AXXd tavta nagsvxtg, ixtiva ile- 
yofitv, oxt ov to avxb iou to ptxafldXXtiv xaxd to 
t ?ioabv xal xaxd xbnoiov. Kara piv ovv to noabv 
taxw fifj pivov } aXXd xara to tldog anavxa yivdoxo- 
ptv. *Eti d' utiov lmxipr\aai xolg ovxtog vnoXap- 
fidvovotv, oti xal avxiov xwv aiodijxw in* twv iXarr- 
xovtav tov agi&pbv tidoitg oiixtag txovxa, ntgl oXov 
tov ovgavov bpoi<og dntqprpavxo. c O yag ntg'i Tjficcg 
tov. aio&rjxov xonog, iv y&oga xal ytviau diaxtXtt 
povog &v aXX ov-dh, aig tlntiv , pogiov tov navxbg 
ioxiv. "flats dixaioxtgov av dt ixtiva xovxtav ait*— 
yyqiloavto, if did xavxa ixtivw xaxtynoplaavxo. *'Exi 
d£ drjXov, oxi xal' ngbg xovxovg xavxa xolg ndXat 
Xsx&*ioiv igovptv. "Oxi ydg iaxiv axlvrjxog xtgqpvaig, 
dsmxiov aifxotg, xalntioxiov'avxovg. Kalxoi yt 01//*- 
fialvtt xoig a pa qpdaxovaiv tivai xal pi) that, r\gtpuv 
paXXov ydvai ndvxa, r\ xiviig&ai. Ov yag icxiv tig 
°i T * ftnafiallti. "Anavxa yag imagximdoi. Iltgl 
Si trig dXtj&tiag, <ag v nav xb (paivoptvov aXrj&ig, 

^ Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. III. (I\.) CAP. 5. 70 

otqwiov [tsv, ott ovd' f] ai'o&tioig iprvdrjg rot) idlov 
i<rt\Vj all' tj tpavtaola ov tavtbv ty aia&tjoei. Ett 
cc£ior -fravfidoai si tovt anogovoi notsgov trjXixav- 
rm krtt ta peyi&ri, xal ta XQot^crca toiavta, ola tolg 
ano&sv (paivstai, rj ola tdig iyyv&ev • xal nottgov 
ola tolg vyialvovoiv, % ola tolg vooovoi * xal (tagv- 
vega, notsgov ola rotg ao&sveot, rj ola rdig ioxvovor 
xal alu&rj, notsgov ola tolg xa&svdovoiv, r\ ola tdig 
eygrjyogoaiv. "On pev yig ovx oXovrai yt, qpavtgov. 
Oi&slg yovv, iav vnola§ji vvxtatg 'A&rtvrjoiv slvai, , 
ojv iv Aifivrj, nogtvttai tig to tadiiov. *Eti ds nsgt 
-£OV fidXXonog, Soneg xal Ulattav Xiysi, ov dijnov 
OfioiwQ xvgla rj tov iatgov d6$a xal rj tov ayvoovv- 
roc olov ntgl tov pillovtog eoso&ai vyiovg , *j /i^ 
ptXlovtog. v Eti de in aviiov tmv alo&rjoeorv , ovx 
oftoiag xvgia q tov allotglov xal idlov , tj tov 
nXijoiov, xal tov avxng' alia ntgl pev x^patog 
oy/ig, ov ysvoig* ntgldkxv^ov t ytvaig^al}! ovx oyig' 
tor ixaottj iv ttp avtta XQoho n$gl to avtb , ovdinote 
q>r\a\y apa ovtatg xal ovx ovttag i^«*. *Al£ ovd* iv 
irsgoj xgovw ntgi ys to na&og 7^i<f>io^7]jr]oav > 
oXXa ntgl to <5 ovp^rjus to na&og. Adyta d' olov, 
o gJLiv avtog olvoe fioluiv av, % pttafialiav y tov oat- 
fAOttog /jstaftaXovtog, ore fiiv thai ylvxv g } oxe dt ov 
yXvxvg* il£ ov tots ylvxv olov iotiv otav r), oitdt- 
7TOjnore fieri flaXsv all' aUl ctlrj&svst nsgl avtov' 
MOtltotw 4$ avayxrjQ to ioofitvov ylvxv totovtov. Kai~ 
-wot tovto avaigovaiv ovtoi oi loyoi anavttg , (aansg 
teal oiotav pi) slvat xa& ivog • ovtw firjds il; avay- 
xfjS (iil&dv 1 to yag avayxalov ovx ivdix^tai allots 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xal aXXwg sxuv. c 'jlot c? n sotiv $ avayxi\g,^ ovx 
f£«* ovtu) Te xal ovx ovtw. "OXtog t si'niq ion to «*- 
odytov fiovov, ov&iv av tlrj pr\ ovtm tav ifiipvxar 
aio$T}Oig yaq ovx av eiy. To (isv ovv fii)ts tci aU 
adyta shai, pyre td <na**i}/uaTa, i'owg aXri&sg. Tov 
yaq alo&avofitvov nd&og tovto ion m to ds tot vnoxti* 
psva fi\ slvai a noiu tr\v ai'o&rjoiv, xal avsv aiady- 
oswg, advvatov. Ov yaq di) v y alo&riGig avtn\ 
kavtrjg ionv, aX£ son n hsqov naqa tqv aXa&noif 
o avdyxri nqotsqov sivai rtjg alo&ijoswg. To yaq 
xlvovv , tov xivovfiivov <pvou nqotsqov iatt • xav « 
Xiystat nqbg aXXtjXa toci/t<x «VT/i, ov&sv r t ttov. 
Eval ds tivsg o* anoqovoi xal twv tavta nmti- 
opsvav, xal Twy rovg Xoyovg tovtovg fiovov Xsyovteov. 
Ztjtovoi yaq, tig o xqivoavtbv vyialvovta, xal oX&g 
tov nsql sxaoxa xqwovvta bq&ag. Ta ds touxvta 
anoqrifiata ofioid ion t$ dnoqslv, notsqov xa&svdo- 
uiv vvv % iyqrjyoqa/isv. Avvavtai ds at anoqlai at 
toiavtai naoai, to aito. Tlavtiav yaq Xoyov a^iovoi 
ovtoi slvai. Idqxyv yaq £mtovoi> *a* tavtr}v di ano- 
; dsi£s<og la(i@dveiv • insi ys on ov nsnsiofiivot, dot, 
( (pavsqol sioiv iv taig nqdUoiv dXX otisq d'nofisv, 
I tovto avtwv to nd&og iotl. Aoyov yaq tr\tovaiv w 
ovx son Xoyog • dnodsl&wg yaq aqxi> ovx anodsi&is 
iotiv. Ovtoi fjiiv ovv Qadloag av tovto ittut&cUv* 
"Eon yaq ov xotXsnbv Xafotv. Oi ds iv tta loyy tip 
$Uxv fiovov itjtovvtsg, advvatov fytovoiv. Evavtiov 
yaq slnslv abovow , ev&vg ivavtia Xsyovxsg. El ds 
furj ion xavta nqog n , dXX %'via ion xal avta xa& 

METAPHYS. LIB. HI. (IV.) CAP. 6. 81 
iavta , ovx ay ur\ nay to yawbptyo* aXij&ig. To 
yaq <paiyousvoy, zi*l 6ro (faivopBvov. "Jloti b Xiyw 
anavta ta <paiv6fttya thai aXr\&r\, anarta nom ta 
ona nqog t*. Ju> xal qpvXaxtior tolg **)* (Ma* ** 
tw Xbytp Zrjtovaiy • ifta oe xal vnixtty Xoyot aUov- 
air , oti ov to a>atyou$yo¥ tow, alia to tpawoutyoy 
w yalvttai, nal on yaivttcu, xal rj, xal tig. *Ay 6*' 
vnixwo* pi? loyov, f*n ovta* b*i imixwJh ovpprtottai 
avxoig tavavxia taxv Xiyuv. 'Evdixttai yaq to av- 
lo, xaxct piy tqy oyn» uiXi yabto&at,, xj} di yriou . 
1*tj ' xaltSnroa&aln&v tivtlyortoty, prf tavta ixatiqa 
ij} oyu , day voiy ayouoiai • intl nqog yt tovg dta 
105 naXai tiqtifiiyag altlag to (paiyoutwoy qpaoxoy- 
toi? airj&eg thai , xal dia tovto itay& bfioimg tLvai 
ysvflij xal akij&r). Ovtt yaq anaoi tavta (paivt- 
o&ai, ovtt taixy isl taixa, alia JtoXXaxig tavavxla 
xokx toy ocviov xqovov. C H fiiy yao ctcpt} , dvo Xiyti 
ivtfj vnaXXalu t&v daxtvXw , i\ d* oipig IV. *AXX* 
ovxb tfj avxr\ yexalxata to avto aia&rjoti, xal moav- 
*w$ xal iv tty avxw XQ^ P( ff* ^ OT8 *ovt ay tir) aXr r 
&k- *JX£ Vowg dta tovto avayxi) X&ytiv toig utj di 
unoqiav, dXXa Xoyov x*Q l * Xiyovoiy , oil ovx soup 
uty&ig tovto , aXXa jovup aXq&ig. Kal uontq dy 
nqotsqov sZqjjtcu, avayxrj xal nqog n nouiiv anarta, 
fa* nqog do$ay xal ala&Tjoiv. "fiat ovtt yiyovty 
ouig lotai oi&8V, (iridsybg nqodo£doaytog. J2i di yi- 
yovsv 7} sotai, drjXov oxi ovx av sl'rj anarta nqog <5o- 
««K Eti u iy, nqog ev,ri nqog wqiousyov. KatMtoav- 
*o xa* riuiov xal looy, aXXa ov nqog to dmXaOioy ye 
tohoy. Tlqbg 6t\ to dola£uv tl tavtb ay&qtonog 
Arist. Metaph. F 

Digitized by GoOgle 


xal to do$a£6pzvov, ovx eotiv av&gomog to do£d£ov 9 
allot to doSatopsvov. El d' txaotov lora* 7roo$ to 
So!;d£ov, anuga I'jtou t$ sfdu to b*o$d£ov. Q Oti per 
ovv foPatotdtri do$a naomv, to pr) thai dXrj&sigapa 
tag avtixupivag qtdosig, xal xi ovpflalvH xdig ovrca 
tiyovoiy xal did xi ovto) Xiyovoi , tooavxa slgrjo^oi. 
'End d 3 ddvvatov tr)v avtiq>aoiv dlqd svso&ai Spa 
xaxd tov avtov , <pav$gbv oxi ovdi rdvavtia Spa 
vndgxsw ivdixsxat t&> avxw. Taly piv yag ivavtUav, 
&dtsgov otigrjoig iot$v ovx qttov. Ovaiag de axe- 
gyoig anoq>aoig iottv ano tiwog mgujpivov ysvovg. 
El ovv advvatov apa xataqtdvai xal anoydvat aXr?- 
•&&g, ddvvatov xal tavavtia indgxtiv Spot , dlld rj 
nji apqxo, r) &dngov piv 7xjj, &dtegov de dnlwg. 
Alia pr)v ovdi pstalsv dvtiq>dosmg ixdixtta* ilvai 
oi&iv all' dvdyxrj ij q>dvat rj dno<pdvai h xa&* 
hog otiovv. Jr)Xov de ng&tov piv bgiopivotg, xi to 
dXri&igxttt y/svdog. To piv yag Xiyuv to ov prj 
slvcci, rj xovxo sly at, ytsvdog • to di to ov that , xal 
to pr) ov pr) slvai, aXrj&ig. "Slots xal o Xiyuv that 
rj pr) elvai, aXrj&svoBi, rj ytvoeTCu. *Al£ ovte to ov 
Xiytxai pi) elvai *J thai, ovtt to pi) ov. *Et* rj t* 
pttaSv carat trig dvtupdonag, woixtg to <paiov piXa- 
vog xal Itvxov, rjug to prjdittgov av&gianov xalXn- 
7iov. El piv ovv ovtmg, ovx av petafidXXoi. Ex fir) 
dya&ov yag tig aya&bv prtapaXXth rj ix tovtov Big 
py ayad-ov. Nvv d' del (paivstai. Ov ydg cVm 
pita/toli), oli 1 rj tig ta avxixtiptva xal psxaSv. Ei 
d' eoxi pna$v,xalovta>Q tlrj av tig sig Xivxbv,ov% ix 

d by Google 

METAPHYS. LIB. in. (IV.) CAP. 7. 83 

M ov Itvxov ytoeoig. Nvv d 3 ovx ogatat. *En niv 

to duxvoTjibv xal vorjtbv i) didvoia r\ xatdcprjoir rj 

anoq>r)oi • tovto d* 4$ bgiopov drjXov otav dXvj&tvtt 

V tytvdzxai, "Oxav piv udl ovr&jtj, <pdoa rj dnoq>doa 

alf)dsvsi • otav ds d)dl, ytvdstai. *Eti nagd ndoctg 

fat thai tag dvti<pdo$ig, si pr) Xoyov ivtxa Xsystai. 

flottxalovte aXy-d-wati tig, ovt ovx dXrj&tvow 

*al nagd to ov xal to pr) ov zotai. "Jlott xal nagd 

ymmv xal q>&ogav peta^oXrj ttg eatai. *Eu to oooig 

yivtaiv r) anoqpaoig to ivavtiov iniopigti, xal to tov- 

totg carat. Olov to dgi&polg ovtsntgittbg, ovtt ov 

ntoittog agi&pog • all' ddvvatov • Ik tov ogiopov di 

Mllov. *E*i tig anugov fiadiutai, xal ov povov 

VptoXia xa ovta total, dXXd xal nXtia>> JJaliv yag 

wtcu dnoqpr)oai tovto ngbg tr)v (pdaiv xal tr)v afio- 

(paoiv, xal tovt sotai tt. C H yag oval a total tig 

at/toil aXXrj. *Eti otav igoptoov ti Xsvxov iotiv, tXnr\ 

on ov, oi&iv aXXo dniq>r}vtv rj to thai, ldnoq>aoig 

fytbpr) thai. *EXr]Xv&t d' toioig avtrj rj d6$a, uonsg 

*«t ul aXXat tav nagadofav. "Otav yag Xvtiv pr) 

tvwrtai Xoyovg igtotixovg, ivdbvttg t# Xoyy ovp- 

<!><*oiv aXrj&ig thai to avXXoyus&to. Ol pto ovv did 

toiavtriv altiav liyovoiv, ol di did to ndvtatv Xoyov 

fynlv. 9 Ag%r) di ngog anavtag tovtovg 4$ ogiopov. 

OQiopbg di ylvttai to tov orjpaivuv tl dvayxaiov t i- 

ww avtovg * o yag Xoyog, ov to ovopa orjpiiov, ogi- 

opbg ylvttai tov ngdypatog. "Eoixt d' q piv *Hga- 

xXtltov Xoyog X&ytov ndvta thai xal pr) that, anotvta 

<*Xti<d-i) noiiiv b d' 'AvaZayogov, thaiti pttalv tr)g 

avTicpaotog • Sots ndvta y/svdr). "Otav yag pW&V* 


Digitized by GoOgle 


ovrt aya&hp, ovtt ovx aya&ov to plypa • wort ov- 
dsv tintip aXfi&ig. 

dimqioptom 9i tovtmp, ipaptgbp, on xal ta po- 
pax&g Xtyopspa, xal ta xata ndptnp,advpatop vnaq- 
Ztip,&onig nptg Xiyovatp' oi pip ov&h fpdaxopttg 
dXri&sg sbou * ov&sv ydq xtaXvsip <paotv ovxtag Snap- 
to thai, woneg to trjp didpstgop avppttgov dvat • 
oi di napta aXr}&ij' aytdcv ydg avtoig oi Xoyoi oi 
avtol tw 'HgaxXcixov. c O ydq Xiyoup on nana aXy- 
&r t xal nana ytsvdij, uai x 090 ^ Uyu x & v Xoyatp kxd- 
ttQov tovt&p. Iflor itneg advpata ixupa, xal tavta 
ddvpatop tlvai. "En Si (pavegmg dvucpdoug eiolr, 
ag ovx olov ts Spa aXf)&ug thar oide dq tfHvd&g 
ndaag • xaltoi ho%sisp av pdXXop hdix^od-at ix tw 
ugrjpspuv. *AXXa ngog anartag tovg towvtovg Xo- 
yovg aituo&ai dti, xa&dnsg iXdx&rjxal h totg ixa- 
va Xoyoig, ovx thai n rj pr) that, aXXd orjpahtiv ?/. 
Slflote 4£ ogiapov SiaXsxtiop, Xafloptag ti anpabs* to 
. ytvdog rj to dXrj&ig. EH di prjdh aXXo r) to dXf]<&k 
q>dpai jj anoqtavat xpevdog tart*, advpatop nana 
ytvdr) thai* dpdyxrj yog trig dvtiydosoig -d^atsgov 
' thai pogiop aXrj&ig. "En si nay rj (pdvui rj dnoifd- 
vat, avayxalop, advpatop dpcpoitoa tptydtf shar #a- 
tsgop yaq pigog tr)g artapdamg ysvdog iottp. 2vp- 
(ialvu dr) xal to &gvXXovpspop naoi tdig totovto^ 
Xoyoig • avtovg iavtovg dpatgtip. e O pip yaq nuptn 
dXr)&rj Xiyiov, xal top ivaptlop avtov Xoyop aXrftn 
notsl • Sots top kavtov ovx aXrj&i) • o. yaq ivavtiog, 
ov <prjaip that, avtbp aXri&rj • o Hi ndpta ytvdri, xa) 
&*. -n •' w ^> 

METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 1. 85 

avxbg kavxov. *Eav d' iZcugwrai , o friv tov toav- 
xiov, ig ovx alrj&yg povog ioxiv • b di tov avxbv av- 
tov, ig ov ytvdrjg, ovdiv qxxov amtgovg ovpftaivtt, 
avxolg aixuo&ai Xoyovg nXn&ug xal yjsvdtlg. '0 
yog Xiyav xov aXti&i) Xoyov dXy&i} , ngoavnaxovt- 
xat to, Sta airj&rjs • xovxo d' tig anugov fiadiuxat,. 
0avtybv d',oxi ovd* oindvxa rjg6(iuvXiyonig,aXfi- 
<&ri ley ovoiv, ovd° olnavxa xiyno&ai. El fdv yag 
tjQifisl nana , as* xavta aXr)&7) xal ipevdij wxai. 
fpaivtxai, 6k xovxo (iSTafiaXXov, *0 yag Xiyuv, noxi, 
avxbg ovx tjv, xal ndXiv oix toxai. El tie nana 
xivutou , 0V-&& tatai aXfj&ig * nana aga ywdri* 
uXXd did suit at, oxk advvaxov. v Eti avayxri xo ov p$- 
xafidXXsw ex twos yag d'g xt rj fisxafioXt). *AXXa p^v 
ovdi nana iigtpu % xivtixal noxi • ««# d ov&iv *^ 
taxi yag xi o a$l xivii to, xivovpsva * xal to ngwxov 
xwovv axivmov avxo. ^ > 



joLgX^ V P& Xiytxai, o&*v av ti tov ngdypaTog xt- ( ^ 

rtl&ttil ngmov • olov, xov pyxovg, xal bdov • ivxtv- 
&tv per avxx\ agxht & ivaniag d' ttiga. e Hds,o&tv i_ 
av xaXXioxa ixaaxov yivoixo* olov xal pa&qowg, 
ovx anb tov ngdnov xal Tijc tov ngdypaxog agxvs 
irioxe dgxxiov , aM' o&sv ffiar av pa&o*. C H ds, <) 
o&tv ngwxov ylvtxai iwndgxovTog • olov ig nlotov 
TQomg, xal olxiag &spiXiog • xal xmv tiu&v ol pi* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xagdiav, oi de ivxiyaXov, oi d* o n> dv rvxwat, toi- 
y ovrov vitolappdvovaiv. e H de,o&evyiyveraingiotov 
pi) evwtdgxovrog, xal o&sv ngiarov t\ xlvtjoig niyvxtv 
agxeo&at, *«* *l (leraftoXrj' olov to rexvovix rov na- 
rgog xal ryg pijrgog, xal y pax 7 ! & T W Xoidoglac. 
\" c Hde, ov xara ngoalgeaiv xivelrai xa xwov/ieva, xal 
perapdXXei ra perapdXXovra, moneg aire xend no- 
Xeig agxal xal ai Svvaorsiai, xal ai ftaadeiai, xal 
(y xvgavvldeg. 3 Agx<*l Xiyovrai xal ai reypaiy xal tov- 
rwv ai agxirtxrovixal /icwUoxa. *Eri o&ev yvmotbv 
to ngaypa ngunov, xal airy agx*l leyerai rov ngdy- 
fiatog • olov r&v dnodilltwv ai V7io&eoeig. 9 Ioaxv$ 
de xal ra atria Xeyerai * ndvra yag ra curia dgxai. 
Ilaowv pev ovv xotvbv rwv agx&v > *o ngmov elvat, 
o&ev rj eonv, tj ylverai, % yiyvwoxerai. Toviwv de 
ai fih ivvnagxovaai eioiv , ai de ixrog. Jib rj n 
qpvoig agxhy *«* *o oroixfiov, xat didvoia, xai-fj ngo- 
aigeoig, xal ovala, xal to ov $vtxa. IloXXwy yag xal 
rov yvwvai xal ryg xivrjoeojg dgxv , rdya&bv xal to 
. v % xaxov} s ., 

^Av^" 1 CAPUT II. 

1 T ^ • ^^S&iS&fii Myerai ha fiev rgonov , 4£ ov ylverai 

\ rt iwndgxortog, olov o xotXxbg rov avdgidvrog , xal 

6 agyvgog rr)g yidXrjg, xal ra rovrwv ybn\. "AUot 

2, de, to eldog, xal to nagddeiypa • tovto d* tonv o 

Xoyoi iov rl yv elvai, xal ra rovratv»yivii • olov rov 

did naoStv ra dvo ngbg ev, xal oXoag 6 dgi&fibg , xal 

j ra fidgrj rd 4v t<5 Xoyy, "En o&ev i\ agxf) r*l9 f*«ra- 

(toXrig r\ TtgtotT), rj rrjg rjgefttjoevg • oioy o povXevoag 

atnog, xal o nairjg rov rixvov , xal oXwg to notovf 

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METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 2. 87 

rov noiovfiivov , xal %b fi£ta^Xrjtixb> tov ptraftdX- 
Xovrog. *Eu &g to riXog. Tovto o° iorl to ov svtxw 
olov rov ntqmatHv f} vyUta. dun tl yag nsgina- 
%tu; &apfa, tva iytaivji * xal tlnovug ovtcag, olofie- 
&a inodtdmxivai to alitor. Kal ooa dtj xivrjoav* 
tog otXXov ftstatv yivstai rov riXovg* olov it)Q iyiti- 
ag 7] ioxvaola,*} y xd&agotg , y ta ydgfiaxa , rj ta 
ogyava. JIavta yag tavta rov tiXovg tvsxa ion. 
Auiyigu ds alXyXtov &g Svta, rd pkv <*g ogyava , ta 
de &g tgya. Ta psv ovv aVtta oxsdbv tooavtax&g 
Xsysrai. Kal ovft{$aivH ds noXXax&g Xsyopivw rwv 
altfar, xal noXXd rov avtov afua slvai ov xath 
avfipefirixog • olov rov avdgtdvtog, xal y avdgiavto- 
noirjrixfi, xal o ^uAxof, ov xa& htgov tt, aXX' y «*- 
dgiag* aXX ov rov avtov rgonov , aXXd to fiiv log 
vXt] , to d ' atg o&tv r, xhrjoig. Kal dXXrjXwv atria • 
olov, to novuv rrjg sisMag, xal aviti rov noveiv • 
aX£ oi rov avxbv rgonov, aXXa to psv wg riXog, to 
d* wg agxh xivrjosug. "Eti ds tavtb iviots twv ivav- 
riav iorlv. "0 yag nagbv al'tiov tovdl , rovt dnbv 
aituofiid-a iviots rov ivavtlov. Olov ti\v anovolav 
rov xvfisgvtjtov, tjjc avatgonrjg tov nXoiov, ov r\v i) 
nagovoia altia tr\g oattTjgiag. "Aftquo ds, xal rj na~ 
govala xal rj otigr\^g, aina ag xwovvta. u Anavta 
& ta vvv &gr)(*&va altia elg tiriaga$ tgonovg m- 
nru rovg yavagundtovg Tct psv yctg oroi/eia tcav 
uvllaf&v, xal fj vXy tm axevacncov xal to nvg, xal 
y yri, xal ta touwta ndvra, tSxv oapdtow xal td 
fidgrj tov oXov, xal at vno&eaeig tov ovfmegacfiatog, 
wg to i£ ov aind iotk. Tovtcorv ds Ta /uey ag to vno- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xeipevov, olov td pegy td de wg to %i i\v thai, to, 
te oXov xal t) ovv&soig, xal to etdog. To de ottegfux, 
xal 6 iatgb^g, xal 6 (tovXevoag , xal oXwg to noiovv, 
ndvta o&ev fj &Qxh *W pnajfoXijg % at do sag. Ta 
d* alia, wg to tiXog xal taya&bv tm aXXtav. Tb 
yag ov ivsxa, (tiXnotov, xal tiXog t&v dXXcav 4&4kei 
el v ai. diayegha de pijdev aitb eineiv j) ayadbv, 4} 
qpatvopsvov aya&ov. Ta piv ovv aftia , tooavtd 
ioti t<5 ei'du. Tqotioi de t&v aitiwv, agi&pio (iev 
slot noXXot • xeyaXaiovpevoi, de xal ovtoi , tXarrovg. 
Aiyetat, yag aitia noXXaxwg xal avt&v twv bpou- 
d&v, ngotegotg xal vojigag aXXo aXXov • olov, vyieiag 
6 iatgbg xal texvittig • teal tov did naowv^ to foftXa- 
oiov xal dgi&pog • xal a el ta negvkxovta btiovv tw 
xa& exaota. *Eti 5* wg to ovpPefirjxbg xal ta tov— 
T(av yivTj, olov, avdgidvtog, aXXatg IloXvxXeitog , xal 
aXXwg avdgiavtonoibg, oti> ovftflsjifjxe t<5 avdgiavto- 
noita IloXvxXelTto elvai. Kal ta negiixovta de to 
ovpfie/3r}xbg, olov av&gtxmog aVtiog avdgidvtog, tj xal 
oXug Jwoy , ott, b IloXvxXutog avd-gwnog , b de aV- 
&gwnog faJoy. *Eou de xal ttov ovpfiepyxotatv aXXo 
aXXtav nog$m*gov,xal iyyvtegov olov, eibXtvxbg xal 
b povaixdg atttog Xiyoito tov avdgidnog , dXXd prj 
povov IloXvxXutog r\ av&gcanog. Ilagd ndvta di 
xal td oixeiwg Xeyopsva, xal Ta xatd ovpflepyxbg, xa 
pev wg dvvdpeva Xeyetai, ta d' £>g dvigyovvta • olov 
tov olxodopsZo&ai olxodopog y rj olxodoptov olxodopog, 
'Opoioig de Xex&yoetai xal iq>* &v ta ai'tta toTg tlgy- 
uevotg' olov tovdetov dvdgidvtog jj avdgidvtog , % 
oXug elxovog, ? x*Xxov tolds $ ^aAxov, fj bXmg vl^g. 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 3. 80 
Kal inl tiv ovftfit^xoTtav ioavtag. *Ei% di ovp- 
nltxofttva tavta xqxtiva Isx&tjattai • olov oi J7o- 
XvxXtnog oidi avdgiavtonoiog, aXXa UoXvxXtitog &v- 
dgtavtonoiog. *AlX opmg Snavta yt tavta ion, 
to pb nXrj&og §?, Xtyofitva di Six*g. *H yag ig to 
xa& 9 txaotov, tf ig to yivog avtov , rj ig to ovp(U- 
prjxog, y ig to yivog tov ovfifodrjxoiog • r, ig ovfi- 
nltxoptva tavta, rj xatd dvvapiv, rj anXig Xtyo/it- 
va , £ri ig ivtgyovvta. dtayigu di tooovtov, oxt> 
ia fih ivtgyovvta xal ta xa& txaotov apa tott xal 
ovxtathVy avtdtiiot$, xal iv alt La ' olov odt b 
iatgtvwv, J tad 8 ti vyiatofihto" xal odtb oixodopog, 
ttadt t$ ohtodopovpivy ta di xata dvvapiv, ovx 
atl. <t>&dqitat yag ovx otfia r\ olxla xal b olxo- 

CAPUT 111. 
StotXtiov Xtyttai,i£ ov ovyxtitamgitov iwnag- 
Xovtog adiaighov ti ddu , tig tttgov tldog • olov, 
<pwt}g atoixeia , 4$ w ovyxtnai r) qwvtf, xal tig a 
duxtgutai baxata • ixuva di pyxst tig aXXag qxovag 
ktigag tip tfdti avtiv • aXXa xyv diaigiitai, ta pogia 
bfiot$dif olov vdatog to poqiov, vdag, aiU 3 oi trjg ovX- 
ImftrjgovXXa/Sri'OfAoitig dixalta tiv otopdtonv ototxiia 
Xiyovoiv oi Xiyovttg, tig a diaigditai ta oipata tox**- 
ta, ixtlva di pyxi* tig aXXa tl'dti duupiqovta ocofict- 
ta * xal [sire fy] ttu nXtha ta toiavta, tavta otoi- 
X&a Xdyovo*. JlaganXtjoUog dixal tiv diaygafifia- 
ttav atoix&a Xiyttai, xal oXwg ta tiv anodti£t<ov. 
Al ydg ngwtai dnodtl£tig, xal iv nXthoiv anodsiSt- 
atv iwicdgxovoai, avtat otoixtia tiv anodtl$twv Xi- 

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yovtai* tlal ds toiovtoi avXXoyiapol ol ngmot & 
t&v tgmv di ivog pioov. Kal pstaq>igovtsg 5i otoi- 
Xflov xaXovaiv ivtev&ev, o av tv ov xal pixgbv , inl 
noXXd rj xgyoipov. Jib xal to pixgbv xal anXovv 
xal ddiaignov, otoixsiov Xiystai. c 09ev. (XrjXv^t ta 
pdXiata xa&oXov otoixua etvai, on exaotov avtm 
Iv ov xal anXovv , iv noXXolg iftagxsi > V naoiv , rj ou 
nXsioioig. Kal to tv xal t^v otiyp^v , dgxdg not 
doxu tlvat. 'Enel ovv ta xaXovpsva yivy xa&oXov 
xal adialgsta (tig ydg iati Xoyog avtw) oTof££<a 
td yivTj Xiyovoi ting , xal paXXov % tr\v diaqngdv, 
on xa&oXov paXXov to yivog. Sli pkv ydg y dia- 
$ogd vndgxu, xal to yivog axoXovdii, • <w de to yi- 
vog, ov navxl r\ diatpogd. 'Andvtvv de xoivov, to 
tlvai oxoixuov kxdorov, to ngwtov ivvndgxov kxdotc*. 


0voig ds Xiynai iba pb tgonov, tj t&v (pvpptvw 
yivsoig* olov tt tig intxtsivag Xiyoitb T m tvaf,i^ ov 
(pvetai izgSnov to <pvopevov ivvndgxovtog.*Exio&& ij 
xivr\aig r] ngmij iv kxdotia t&v yvoti ovrwv iv avtm 
fj avtb vjidgxu. 0vto&ai dk Xiystai, oaa avZrjoiv 
%X*i 8* itigov, xw antta&ai xal ovpntcpvxivai , if 
ngoantcpvxivai, Aontg tot tp@gva. Jiatpigu diovp- 
<pvoig dqtrjg. "Ev&a piv ydg ovdiv nagd ti}v aqptj? 
ttsgov avdyxrj thai* iv de toig ovpnt<pvxoaiv iatitt 
tv to avxo iv dpcpdlv t o noiii dvti tov a7rtto&ai, 
ovpntyvxivai, xal tlvai'tv xatit to avvtxhxal noabv, 
aXXa pri xatd to noiov. "£ti ds (pvaig Xiystai, i§ ov 
ngwtov n lax*^ <j yivztalti t&v <pvo$t Srttav , ap*- 
Qplotov ovtog xal dpsta^Xtjiov ix t^g dvvdptoog tijg 

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METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 4. 91 

iavtov * oloy, aydoianog xal twy oxtvwv Twr xalxi- 
x«r, o jtcdxo? ^ a*voig liyttai ' t«* di $vliv<ay f £u- 
loy. 'Opoiug di xal inl tuy alloty, *Ex tovttay yao 
iotiy txaotov diaofotofiiyrig tr t g ngviqg vlt)g. Tov- 
tov yao toy tqonoy xal tuy <pvaei oviwv la ototxua <pa- 
oty thai qyboiy • ol fiey nvo, ol di yrjv, ol di aioa, ol 
6* vdvto, ol d* alio ntoiovtoy liyoyttg , ol d' tvia 
toviow, ol di nana tavta. ^Mti d* alloy tqonov 
liyttai i\ atvotg , t) t&y opvoti ontty oioia • olor oi 
liyontg tip <pvoiy thai tip norny* ovy&toiy, £ontq 
£ftnsdoxlriQ liyti, oti (pvaig oidtyog iativ oyiwv, 
3 AXla (xovov pi$ig tt dialla%ig tt fiiyintay 
*Eotl , (pvaig d * inl tolgd* oyofta&tai awdo&noioi. 
J to xal ooa <pvou iaxlv rjyivttai tjOrj, inaqxonog i$ ov 
nig>vxt ylyto&ai ij tlvai, ovna (paper tip opvoiv txtur, 
aw fii} txjl to tldog xal tyy poo(pv\v. oyvotipiv ovr toil; 
ajMpotioiay tovtwy iotiy, oloy ta £a>a xal tot fioqia av- 
t&y. flwaig di V dt notary Hy, xal avty dix&g, ij ij noog 
aitb nowtri, [%% blugnQtoty] otov, t&y /aixaiv to- 
ytavy nobg ait a fiiy nomog b falxog* olwg d* fotog 
vdoio, ti nana ta trjxja vdoaq. Kal to tldog xal ij 
oioia, ToCto d' iotl to tilog tyg ytyiomg. Mt- 
tacpoQct d* jjfdij xal Slug naoa oioia (pvaig liyttai 
diit tavtfjv, oti xal ?j (pvaig oioia tig iotiy. 'Ex dq 
Twy uQnnbw 7) notary (pvaig xal xvqiiog Ityofxht] 
ioth % oioia ^ tm ixontov aoxw xivrjotwQ Iv av- 
tolg j) avtot, *H yaq vlr\> iw tavryg dixttxrj tlvai 
Xiyttai (pvaig • xal al ytviotig, xal to (pvto&cu xw 
ano tavtijg thai xiyyoti. Kal r\ aqxn tr\g xiyqot- 

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wg tmv cpvau ovtiov, avrrj fatty irvnagxovad nvg, r> 
dwduu, S ineXsxdqt, 

^AvayxoXo y Xiytrai, ov avtv ovx ivdsxttcu &iv £>g 
ovvauiov oiov to avanviiv xal ^ tgo<pti t$ (dtp 
dvayxaiov. 'Advvatov yag avev tovimv that, Kal 
toy avsv to aya&ov pri iydixrtcu V tlvon y rj ysvso&ai. 
*Htt xaxbv anofiaXiiv, j) <rttQT)&rivai • oiov, to muv 
to *pdg[iaxo> dvayxaiov, ?va firj xapvji • xal to nltvacu 
tig Ai'yivav, fiij anomaly %a XQripatct. *Eti to (Haiov xal 
Tj (Ha. Tovto d' iotl to nagarr\v bg^v xal trjy nooai- 
gtoiv i[modi£ov xal xwXvtixov. To yig (Haiov, apay- 
xaiovXdyetai'dibxalXvnrigov • wonsg xalEvrjvog qptiar 

Ilav yag avayxalov ngayp aviagbv &pv. 
Kal 7] (Ha avayxi\ tig, wmsg xal 2o(f>oxXr\$ Xiyw 

'AXE v (Ha f»« tavt avayxa£u noitiv. 
Kal doxii tj avayxr\ dfistansiotov t* slvai, og&ug. 
'EvavtiovyagirjxataTrjvngoaigtoiv xivrpBi xal xata 
tbv Xoyiopov. *Eu io/xtj ivdsxofjuvov aXXwg %xtiv>dvay- 
xaiov qpaptv 'ixuv ovtag * xal xata tovto to dvay- 
xaiov, xal taXXa Xiyttai nmg anavta dvayxaia. To, 
ts yag (Haiov Xiyttai, r\ noitiv rj ndox^v T ° JS > otav 
(iff hdixytai xata tip ogpyv, diet to ($ia£opevov • ig 
tafaijv dvayxyv ovoav , di rp> prj ivdix**M aXXutg. 
Kal &nl t&v ovvaitimv tov £jj> x«* tov aya&ov «a- 
avttag. "Otav yag fir) ivbixipai , Xv&a piv to aya- 
&6v, tv&a di to £{jv, xal to thai avtv ttv£v, tavta 
dvayxaia. Kal t) altla , dvdyxtj tig iotiv avtrj. 
Eu rj anodtttig tdv dvayxainv, on ovx ivdix^tai aX- 
yXtog bxuv, tl anodidtixtai anXag. Tovtov d' altia 

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t« Jiquja, a advvatov aXXtag %x*Wt # «w o ovXXoyi- j 
oyto?. TeSy /icy d^ Irs^oy a?T *oy tov avayxala thai, 
twv M ov^iv, dMa &a TcrvTa frfoa iorivQ avayxrig. 
"Slois to ftoaiToy xal xvqlag avayxaiov ib anXovv 
ixni. Tovto yaq ovx ivdixttak nktavax&g f*«*y. 
"Jlat ovds aXXag xat aXXwg. *Hb*n yaq nXsovax&g 
av bxoi. Et aqa iatlv ana a I'd 1 a xal axivtjia, ovdiv 
ixsivoig iarl piaiov, ovds naqa <pvoiv. 
"Eg, Xiysrai to piv xara avp^t^xbg, olov Koqi- 
axog xal 16 povoutbv, xal Koqiaxog povoixog. 
TavTO yctq tinuv Koqiaxog xal to povaixbv , xal 
Kogioxog povautog' xal to povaixbv xal tc dixaiov, 
xalpovaixbg dixaiog Koqiaxog. IJavTa yaq tavxa 
tv Uysxai xaia oyppsfirixog. To psv yaq dixaiov, 
xal to povaixbv, ot* pi$ ovoia avp^ip^xs, to tie pov- 
oixbv xal Koqiaxog, on &aieqov datiqy avpfiipr}- 
xsy. 'Opoioag ds iqonov iwa xal b povaixog Koqi- 
axog to*) Koqioxtg tv, 011 ^atsqov twv poqiav 9ati- 
Q(a avp^i^xs T«y iv tw Xoyy olov, tc povoi- 
xbv t$ Koqioxtp , xal 6 povaixog Koqiaxog dixaiia 
Koqioxy, on kxaiiqov piqog toJ avJ% kvl av/u/ft/fy- 
xsv iv. Oldiv yaq dtayiqti, rj Koqioxtp to povaixbv 
ovpfoprixivai, 1} ixtivia tovio. 'Jloavtwg de x\v inl 
yivovg, x$v inl t&v xa&oXov tivbg bvopatav Xiy^xai 
to avpfisfiqxog' olov ot* av&qtonog to ctuto, xa$ 
povaixog av&qtonog. *H yaq on tm av&qwmp /xia 
ovarj ovoia, ai/ji/ft/fyxs to povaixbv, y on apqxo twv 
xa& exaatovtivl ovpfiifinw °^ ov Koqlaxq. nX^v ov 
Toy en/Toy tqonov apqxo vnaqxti, aM« ™ M* v * aw * 

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iagybog, xaliytjjovoict, to ds ig sSigrjtJtad-og tijgov- 
oiag ^Oootpsy ovv xata avpfofirixogXiystaiftovtov toy 
TQonov Xiystat &. Tow ds xa\P kavtaW Xsyopivwy, ta 
psy Xiystai tw ovysxv ^vai t olo> (fax slog dsopb>,xal$v- 
Xa xoXXy xal y gappy, xav xtxappivn $, avvsxW $** f*l* 
Xiystat, aOTisgxaltMV ptg&v ixaotoy, axiXog xal /?oa- 
xicov. Avtmv ds tovttay paXXov sy, ta cpvatv ovvsxv 
V **X v ll • 2vvsxsg ds Xsystai, ov 17 xivr\Qig pla xad' 
avtb, xal pr\ oloy ts aXXag. Mia ds, tj adialgstog 9 
adiaigetog ds xata xqwov. Ka& avta ds ovvsxv* 
ooa pij aqpfj Iv. E\ yag dsifjg airtopsva aXXyXwy 
SvXcC) ov q>r\oug tavta thai sv, ovts £vXoy , ovts aa>- 
pa, ovts aXXo ovvsxk ovdiv. Ta ts drj oXcog avvf^V 
sy Xsystai,xav exjl xaptpw, xal gu paXXovta pqsxov- 
Ttt xdpipiy • olov, xvri t ur) i} prjgog oxsXovg, 011 ivdsxs- 
tai prj filar slvai tiv xivyotv tov oxiXovg. Kal i\ 
sv&ua tr^g xsxappsvijg paXXoy iv. T^v ds xsxap- 
psyr}V xal sxovaav ytaviav, xal piay xal ov fiiav Xd- 
yopsv, oti> ivdixnai xal prj Spa ttjv xivyoiv avtijg 
thai, xalapa' tyg d* sv&siag , asl Spa, xal ovdiy 
pogiov sxov piys&og , to psprjgspsi, to ds xivuiai, 
wonsg Tif\g xsxappsvr\g. *Eti aXXov tgonov sy Xiys- 
tat, T(Z , to inoxtipsvov tt» sl'dsi elvou ddtdqpogov. 
J Adtd(foga tfi, <av adialgstov to sldogxatatrjv aTo&T)- 
oiv. To ds inoxtipsvov, ij To ng&tov , rj to tsXsv- 
Toioy ngog to riXog. Kal yag otvog tig Xiystai, xal 
10*0)0 h, ji adtaiqnov xata to sldog* xal ol xvpol 
navrsg Xsyovtai sv, olov eXcuov, olvog, xal t<1 tijxtot, 
ot* navxwv to soxatov vnoxtipevoy to aito. cl Tdmg 
yag xal aijg, nana tavta i<m. Aiyttai ds h , xal 

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METAPHYS. LIB. IV. [V.) CAP. 6. 95 

wf to yivog sv diaqpioov taig avtixiipivatg diayooalg* 
xal tavta Xiyitai nana sv, on to yivog tv to vno- 
xiipsvov taig diacpooctig- olov, Xnnog, av&ovnog, 
xvtov , sv tt f on nana fw« * xal tqonov dr\ nva na- 
ganXrjaiov, aonsq rj vXr) fua. Tavta ds bit psv ov- 
twg sv Xiysta$, ots di to av& yivog, o'tavtov Xiystai, 
av ji tsXsvtala xov yivovg sldrj %a avwtiom tovttav • 
olov, to fiiv iooaxsXig, xal to loonXtvoov, tavtb xal 
sv oxtjfia, otj afi<po) toiyuva' toiyatva 3' ov tavta. 
*!Eti de sv Xiystai ootav o Xoyog b to tl qv slvai Xiywv, 
adtalostog nobg aXXov tbv dyXovna, to xl slvai to 
nqayfia. Avtbg yao xatf avtbv nag Xoyog diaiqstog. 
Ovjoj yao xal to tivSrjftivov xal q>&ivov , sv iotiv, 
oTt 6 Xoyog tig * won so b t&v imnidtov tav ixbntav 
fxrjxog xal nXaxog 6 tov si'dovg slg, "OXtag ds av fj 
votjoig adiaiostog, y voovaa to ti rp slvai, xal py . 
tivvatai xvQl&o&tth PV** ZQ° vt ? PI™ lonta, prjts Xoyy, \ 
fiaXiota tavta sv xal tovttav ooa ovaiai. Ka&oXov 
yao ooa py s%u diaiosoiv, rj fitj sxsi, *<**>* Jl & Xiys- 
tai* olov, si ?/ avd-qtanog [it] sxsi diaiosoiv, slg av- 
^ o(07to g ' si dk rj fwoy, iv £&ov si ds y piys&og, sv 
psys&og* Ta psv ovv nXuata sv Xiystai, tw rre- 
qov tiWr^ noislv, § nao/siv, % noog n sv slvai. Ta 
di noattog Xsyopsva sv, wv tj ovola fiia, pia 3s tj ov- 
vsxsia, ■? tldsi, % Xoyta, Kal yao aQi&povfASv wg 
nXsita, % ta ^r\ owsxy , r\(ov fxr\ sv to sldog, y tov 6 
Xoyog prj slg. "Eii insl toti uiv wg btiovv sv, ovvs- 
Xtict qpapsv slvai, av tj nooov xal ovvsxsg* tott d* ag 
ov , av fxtj n oXov i). Tov to 8s av prj to tldog sxv 
sv , ovx av yalpsv sv , idovtsg bpoltog onwoovv tu 

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pigi) ovyxtlptva tov vnodrjpaxog , iav pr\ dimxr^i 
ovviztiav, aJU' idv ovxtag , ware vnodrjpa thai xal 
sldog tl %xtiv, ridy tv. Jib xal ^ tov xvxXov pdlt- 
ata pla twv ygapp&v, ou olrj xiXtiog ion. To di 
kvlslvai, dgxv Tip/lor*? dgidpov elvai' xb ydgirg&- 
tov phgov kxdaxov yivovg dgxy. &* Y*Q ngmn 
yvoagiCouey, xovio ngwxov phgov kxdaxov yivovg. 
Agx*\ ovv T °v yyvQunov , ntgl txaaxov yivog to It. 
Ov xavxb di iv naoi rotg yivtai to Sv. "Ev&a per 
ydg dleoig, tv&a di to (powrjtv ij aqpmvov. JBagovg 
S y hsgov t xal xivriottog aXXo. Havraxov di to 
tv, i\ t<5 tldei, 7) j(p Ttooaj ddiaigetov. To ph ovv 
xaia to noobv xotl j) noobv , adialgsrov, to pit 
ndvTTj xal adtxov, Xiytxae povdg' to di ndvxr} 
xal &ioiv $xov, OTiypr\* to di povaxjj, /Q<*wn ' *» 
^ di dixjj , inlmdov • to di ndvrji xal tgixy 9iat- 
^ gsrbv xata xb noobv, aw pa. Kal avxtoxgiyjav- 
„ n di to fiiv dixy diaigtxbv, inlmdov • to di povazfo 
\ ygapprj* [to di ndrttj tQixji diaigerbv, aw pa •] to 
V^de prjdapjj diaigsxbv xaxd to noobv, axiyptj xal px>- 
vdg * jj piv a&txog, povdg • r\ di &exbg, 0Tiypi\, v Ex% 
di xd piv xoct dgid-pov iaxiv sv, xd di xax sldog , to 
oe xaxd yivog, xd di xaxit dvaXoyiav. 'Aoi&uio uh, 
wv ^ 1/A17 /u/a • stdsi os, <av o Xoyog sig * ysvsi o , a>v 
to avxb axripa Tt\g xavqyoolag. Kaict artxloyiav 
di, ooa exu wg alio ngbg alio. 'Asl di ice voxs- 
oa Tolg spnQoo&ev dxolovdu* olov, ooa dgi&py, 
xal etdufv ooa d' tl'du, ov ndvxa dgi&pM' dkla 
yivti navxa ev, ooaneg xal ti'du • oaa di yivn, ov 
navxa tl'dtt, «Ua dvaloyia* oaa di sv avaXoyla , ov 

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MKTAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 7. 97 

nivxa yhu. <Pavt(jbv de, xo* oxi to noXXa avuxu- 
pb&g Xex&yoricu t<£ hi. Tit fih yag , tm fir} ovv- 
*X*l &vat, iol $e xta duugtxr)v b/uv xrfv vXtjv xonk 
to elSog, ij xv\v ngojtrjv , 17 %yp xeXtvxaiav • xa 6*e 
tw xovg Xoyovg nXtiovg tivai xovg xi Tfv tlvai Xi- 

Taov Xiytxm , to uh xoto avftjSt^rjxbg , xb Si 
%<*& avxo. Kaxa ovftfitftrpiog ph, olov xbv Mxcuov 
povoixov B&al qrttfisr , x«l xbv av&ownop (iowutbv, 
xai to fiovotxbv ay&qwtov naQanXijolwg Xiyovxsg • 
hxffteg xbv ftovoixbv olxodopuv, ox* oi//u/5fi/5^xe tw ol- 
jcodo/iw fiBvainw ilvm, ^ t<£ uoi/atxoi oixodofiw. To 
yug too*' € 1V«m t©6*«, orjfiuheiio ai//i/Js/J^x«Va* to£s 

Tttfo. OVTM & XO$ M TW UQTJflivtoV , XOV Sv&Q(D- 

nov Sxav povotxbv Xiyufitv , xal xov povaixbv av- 
&gwnov, rj Xsvxbv xbv povoixw, ij xovxov Xtvxbv, xb 
fUv oxi afupa xy oviw av/u/?«/??Jxaa*, xb d* Sxi x$ ovxi 
ovfifii^rjxs. Tb tefiovotxbv av&ganov eTvai,oxixov- 
Tip xb povoixbv ovppiftrixw. Ovxta tii Xiytiou xal 
xb Xtvxbv elvai, oxi & ovfipiprjxtv, ixiivo ioxiv. Tu 
fdv qvv xaxa ovp(t*(hixbg thai XtySfura ovt» Xiys- 
xcu , ij 6**0 t* t<m ccvtm ovxi Sfjfyw vn&QZM > V otl 0VTl 
btsivop vnaqx* 1 * V oti avxo iaxiv <p inagx H > ov ttv% b 
xaxriyoguxaf xotxf <xvxb de bIvou Xiysxai, ooaneg 
oitpalvtixaoxrifHxxa xyg xaxyyooiag. c Oaax®$Y*Q Xi- 
yixaiy xoGavx<x%<og xb elvai arjfimvn. 3 Ensl ovv xwv 
xaxriyoQOvpiVM, xa fisv xi iaxi or)paivei,xb denotbv^ 
to ^e Ttoaov, xa ds Ttqog xi, ra ds noitlv % naax*w> 
xa 8k 7tov, to be noxs, ixaona xovxtov xb sfoctt, xctvto 
Arist. Metaph. G 

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oripaivu. Ovdev yag diacpegst to Sv&gtonog iytai- 
vmv daily, tf to av&gomog vyiaivei* fjto av&gv- 
nog (3adl£o)v iotlv, ij tifivtav, tov av&gomov /?«- 
di&iv , rj tipveiv. 'Oftoiwg de xal inl tav aX- 
Xcov. "Eti to ehai oripaivei xal to sow, ou «Xij- 
■frig • to Si firj thai, ou ovx dXr}&eg, dXXa yevdog. 
Ofiolag xal inl xataqtdoetag xal dno<pdoea>g • olnv 
ou eoti JSwxgdvqg povoixbg , ouaXy&eg tovto • yon 
2(axqdt^g ov Xevxbg , ou aXt}&ig • to d* ovx eauf 
r) didpetgog aovfifietgog , ou vjevdog. *Eu tq ^ehq i 
orifialvu xal to ov, to fib dyvajui^Tjtbv , to d* &t«- 
Xexeia twv slgripivav tovuav. Ogw teydg elvai q*a- 
fitv , xal to dvvdpti (Jjjico? oqwv, xal to irttXe%tla' 
xal -co iniotao&ai ataavtag,xaltb dwdpsvov /^ija&x* 
tr\ iniotrjfirj, xal to zQwpzvov xal to ygefiovv, xal 
w ijdfi indgxet i\ r)gsfiia y xal to dvvdfievov iiqeput. 
'Ofioiag de xal inl t&v ovaimv. Kal ydg 'Eofirjv b 
tw Xl&ta yctfxb elvai, xal to yutov trjg ygafipfjg, nxl 
oliov xbv (irjnio ad gov. Hots Se dvvatbv xal note 
ovnto, iv aXXoig diogiatiov. 

Ovola 3s Xiyetai td te anXd adfiata, olov ytj xal 
nvg, xal vdcog , xal oaa toiavta* xal oXtag odfiata, 
xal td ix tovtmv ovvHnwra £a>a te xal daipovia, xal 
ta fiogia tommy. °Anavxa de tavta Xiyetai ovoia, 
ou ov xa&' vnoxsipivov Xiyexai , aXXa xatd tovtw 
ta aXXcc. "aXXov de tgonov o av y atuov tov elvat, 
ivvnagxov iv joig toiovtoig , oaa fii] Xiyetai xa&* 
vnoxeipevov olov, fj yvxr) iw £w&>. "Eu Sua fiogitt 
ivvnagxovtd iouv ivtotg toiovtoig, bgKovtd te xal to* 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.)CAP. q. qq 

den orjfiaivorta • &y dyaigov(iiy(av avaiQUtat, to okor 
oloy inmidov oiofia, £g qtaoiwtg, xal inintdoy ygap- 
/uifc' xal oXag dgtd-pbg doxti twitoiovtog ilvm (a?ou- 
oovfieyov it ydg, ovdb tlvai)xal bgifay nana. "£n to 
11 r\v dvaiy ov o Xoyog fatly bgwpog* xal tovto ovoia 
Xiystai kxdatov. Svpfialvn fljj xatd dvo tgonovg tr\y 
ovalav Xiyeo&ai, to -St vnoxBlpsyoy toxatoy , o (irjxsu 
%ori aXXov Xdystai, xal dv tbdt, u ov,xalx<ag*otby7i m 
toiovtov di rj kxdotov poQcpi) xal to sldog. 
TavtA di Xiytiai, tcx fib xata ovpfoPrixbg , oloy 
to Xivxbv xal to povoixbv to avto, ot* tt} avto) ovp- 
pd(h}xe xal av&g&nog xal povoixbv, oti xtdzegoy #a- 
tigca ovfifiiprixE * to di fiovatxbg av&Qomog , ou to 
povoixbv top dv&QO&ieo ovfi^Tjxe • ixatigw di tovto, 
xal tovtqt kxdtsgov ixtivav, Kal ydg tw dy&gwntp 
iqt fiovotxqt, xal b av&gainog xal to povoixbp tavtby 
leyntai, xal tovtotg ixtlvo, Jib xal tavta ndvta 
xaSbXov ov Xiyttat. Ov ydg dlrj&ig unuv, oti nag 
av&oomog tavtb xal ftovotxoy. Ta yag xadoXov*^ 
_ *«# ' avtd vndgxu ' ta di ovpflt$r\xbxa, ov xa& avtd, 
£l£ inl twy xa&ixaota dnXag Uystar tavtb ydg do- 
xu JSwxgdvrig, xal JSiaxgdtrig slyai povoixog. To ydg 
2a>xgdti\g , ovx inl noXXav • dib ov nag 2axgdtr\g 
Uyttai, atontg nag avd-ganog. Kal ta piy ovttog 
Xiytta* tavta, ta dijtad-* avtd, Sontg xa ltbt v. Kal 
ydg wv r) %kr\ fila, rj eldsi ij agi&py, r) yivn tavta Xd- 
yviaiy xal toy y ovoia. c Jlote cpayegbv oti, r\ tavrbtrjg^ 
kyotqg tig fatty tov ilvai, nr\ nXubvav, ij otay XQV Tttt 
wg nXdooiv • oloy Stay Xiyrj avtb avtw tavtby • fog 


Digitized by GOOgle 


dval yctQ ^r/tort ttvttp. "Enqa di Xiynm, «w 1} ta «?- 
$H rtlsib) , 7} ^ i/ify , jj o Xoyvg vr t $ violas • xal oiUg 
avxcxupcitug tw tctvtw A^eta* to ftt^ey. Jimpofa 
d? Xiysxai , ova &*pcr Art* to «vto t* &*«> ^7 poro? 
aoti^w , all* ij et&tt, *} ^5y« , fj avaXeyta. *Exi w 
htQOv to yivog xal ret ivartla , xal 5<hx €%*t4vTtj ov~ 
cla tyy kxsQorrjTa. "Ofioia Xeynm ta tb ravtb ji»- 
nov&ota , xal ta nXslto ravxa itmwfrotct , 1} fttpot* 
xal tav j\ noioxi\g fila • xal xa&* Saw aXXoiova&ai fr- 
de/rrat x&v ivavtifav, tovtwv to nleta) l/oy 17 xi/oioi- 
t«oa, ouoiov xoxrtco. *Avxtxnuwwg &k tot? ouoiov; ta 

*A vjMsl(i6ra Uysxai, avtlq>aaig y xal xavavria, xal 
ta rcpos xt, xal OTSQfjois , xal e£ig , xaJ if wy , *«} ei$ 
a tQxaia • ©To? , <*l yiviaug xal ai q>dvpal * mxt oont 
fi^ ivdixerai cifia naquvav tw auyolv dsxtixa, taHrta 
avxixuo&ai Xiyetai, 7} avxa, *} tfl wv low. <I>ai6v yaQ 
xal Xsvxov aua rta airta ovj inagx** * btb xal £ 
wy &jtii>, avxlxuxui xovxoig. 'Evavxla Xiynai, ta ts 
^ dvvaxa Spa tw ai5t(p naquvai twy fiiaxp sgovtav 
xatayivog, xal ta 7r/U7(rror diaqyiqovxa xm> 4v xi 
ai/t$ /eye* ; xal ta ^Xetotov diaa>igovxa &v tw crfrrw 
dextixw, xa* ta ttAetarov diacpiqovxa row vn6 rip av- 
iqv dvvafiiv • xat wV ^ dtaqpo^a fieylcfxrj t rj StnXjag , ■? 
xata yaVos, t) xat el^o^. Ta 5* aUa hart la Xiyttah 
ta j*cy xw xa totavta e^c w , ta ^i t(J dexrixa tlyctt 
twy toiovtwv, ta ^8 tw noirjiixa, ij na&rjtixa, rj no*- 
ovrta, ^ naoxovxa, yanoPoXal, ij Xr)ysig , rj e£si$,*i 
atsg^asig that tovtwv xal twj> totovtwV. *£nel # 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 11. 101 

to tr xal to oV noXXax&S Xtyttat y axolov&eiv aviynn\ 
nal Talk* oea nautu tavia Uytxak* "flat* xal to t av- 
vo? wet tbhsQGP, xa* to iveuttiov <Sot efrq* htgov 
not **&* kxvtotip xemjyopiav. Eisga di r$ ti'du 2i- 
jtrat, O0« t* TcruTov yfravg oVto, ftri vndXXt}ld igti, 
Mm oW fr tw 6tv?iT» yam oVra , dw<pooav ixu , xeu 
00* fr vjj ewr$ ivartitos e^a. JCa* Ta ivavjia e%sga 
itp efdn allr}X*xv , ij zraVra , ^ t« Xty opera mqwwq, 
nal oaw iv tw Tbktv*ai<$ tov ysvovg tldu t ol liyoi 
htfQf olo* uv&qwtog Hulfanog aiopa t$ yivsi, ol 
Si Xoyot frsf oc wto*. JCai ooa & %r\ avtjj avaia 
mvwv vrta , l#«* foaqpa^ay. Tavt* (is iq> stisi , t« 
arratujHSwos Xsy&pwa Tovtotg. 

JTgaTtoa xa* vauQG Mysron, fow piv ig ovtog 
i&bg ngmov nal aqx^g A fxaartp ?**m, to iyyvtigov 
ifflfe twos ^HffUpffQ, % owl&s nal tj5 qpvaa, ij nqog 
t», ?} wov, *} wro wa>x. Oloy Ta /u«y xara tow?, to) 
flvat iyyvTsgor ij 9>vae* two? toVjov wgwpivov • do? 
tov /uiaot; , ij tov ioxdtov • ij rcooc to ti#o* • to $e 
iro^wxcpov, votbqov. Ta di nata XQovovta p&> ydg 
noQ^wtioGi i6v vvr , olov inl tm ytvopww ' nqo- 
rtoa yag t« Tgmni tm Medium, on nog^fi%tgop 
inixu toy vv-v • xa di %$ iyyvjioy tov vvv , olov 
inl twv fisXXovwov * ngiugot yaQ' Niftsa IlvStov, 
3t* iyyvTtftov tov vv* , iy w wv a#y jj xa» 7r^fiara) 
Xfioafitvam, Ta ds nata nivyoiv * to yao iyyvtsgov 
tov n(mrov ncrrjoavtoQ, noottqov, olov nalg avbq&Q. 
9 Aqxv ^« *wl avTi? t«? a7jiw j. Ta 3i v«ia dvvapw * 
to yao vntqixov ty dwAjm, nqwgov • x«* to 5vya- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xtoiegov. Toiovxov d ' ioxlv ov xaxd xjjv ngoaigeaiv 
dvdyxrj dxoXov&eiv daxegov, xal *b voxegov • wait 
py xivovvxog xe ixelvov, pi\ xivelo&ai , xal xivovvxoe, 
xiveio&ai. 'Hde ngoaigeoig agxv- Ta de xaxdxd$i»- 
xavxa d* iaxlv, oaa ngog xi ev ugtopivov dteoxriHtxa- 
xd xbv Xoyov' olov nagaoidxtjg xgixooxdxoy ngoxegov, 
xal r\ nagavqx<n v^xrjg, v £v&a pev yag bxogvqxuog, 
ev&a de ti fiian «W- Tavxa pev ovv ngbxega xov- 
xov Xeyexai xbv xgonov. "AXXov de xgonov, to %fj 
yvaoei ngoxegov , ug xal dnXwg ngoxegov. Tovxm* 
de aXXug xd xaxa xbv Xoyov, xal xd xaxd xrjv ato&n- 
oiv. Kaxd pev yag xbv Xoyov, xd xa&oXov ngoxega' 
xaxa de xyv ai'o&rioiv, xd xa&ixaoxa. Kal xaxa toy 
Xoyov de xo ovpfofirixbg xov oXov ngoxegov, olov, v6 
ftovoixbv xov povoixov dv&gnnov. Ov yag eoxai 
b Xbyog avev xov pegovg • xaixoi oix ivdexexai ftov- 
oixbv ehai, pi) ovxog povoixov xivog. v Exi ngbxega 
Xeyexai xd xm ngoxegmv ndOf) ' olov, iv\htxr)g Xew - 
xrjxog. To (ihv yag, ygappr$ xct& avxtjv na&og- 
xb de, imyavtiag. Ta pev dy ovxai ngoxega Xeyexa* 
xal voxega • xd de xaxd (pvotv , oaa ivdexnai ehai 
avev aXXtav, ixeUva de avev ixelvav pi\' t) dtaigeau 
iyonjo o IJXdxwv. *Enel de xb ehai noXXax&g, ng»- 
xov pev xo vnoxeipevov ngoxegov, 01 o rj ovoia ngo- 
xegov eneixa aXXug xd xaxa dvvapiv , xal xaxa 4v- 
xeXextiav. Ta pev yag xaxa dvvapiv, ngoxegov iaxi' 
xd de xaxd ivxeXexeiav , voxegov • olov , xaxa divajuv 
pev h ripioeia xr\g i>Xrjg, xal xb pogiov xov oXov , xal 
fj vXt) xyg ovalag. Kax ivxeXex^av d* voxegov • diaXv- 
&ivxog yag, xax 4vxeXexeiav eoxai. Tgonov dt) xiva 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METtPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.; CAP. 12. 103 

wdvxaxdngoxigov xalvoxtgov Xtyoptva, xaxd xavxa 
Xtyixai. Ta piv ydo tcaxct yivtoiv ivdixtxai Svtv x&v 
ktsQctr elvat * olov, xo oXov xwv poolwv * xd di xaxd 
cp&oqav , olov xi pogiov xov oXov, 'Opolag di xal 


Jvvatug Xiytxai , ij pi* dgxv xivr]ottag y peiafio- 

Aijjff iv kxigm, *? $ txtQOV * olov, r) oixodopixr), dvvaplg 

ioxtv r] ox>x vnaqxu 4v x$ oixodopovpivy • al£ r) la- 

xoixr) dvvapig ovaa, vnagx * av iv x$ iaxotvopivq, 

il£ ovzfi iaxgtvoptvog. € H piv ovv oXag, dgxv /**- 

xafioXtjg rj xivqowg, kiytxai dvvapig iv ixigy , rj hs- 

gov • ri d * wp kttQov , rj $ txtgov * xa&' rjv yag xi 

ndoxov ndoxft xi. 'Oxi piv ovv iav bxiovv olov xt n 

na&uv , dwaxov <paph tlvai aixo na&uv ' oxi di ov 

xaxd nav na&og, al£ av toil xo fliXxtov. *Exi r) xov 

xaXwg too*' imieXuv, r) xaxd ngoalgtoiv. 'Evioxt yag 

xovg povov av nogw&ivxag r) tinovxag, pt) xaXug di, 

rj py ag ngodkovxo, ov cpaptv dvvcto&ai Xiyttv rj fta- 

di£tiv 'OpoUag di xal toil xov ndoxtiv. *'Exi oaai t$ug 

xa& ag dnu&ri hXtog , rj dptxdpXrjxa, r) prj gctdtog 

toil xo x&Qov 4vptxaxivr)xa, dvvdptig Xiyovxai, KXd- 

xat piv yog xal owxgiftixai, xal xdpnxtxai, xal oXtag 

<p&tigtxai, ov t«£i dyvao&ai, dXXa tw py dvvao&ai, 

xal iXXtlntiv xivog, jina&rt di xuv xoiovxwv, a poXig 

nal qgipa ndaxti did dvvapiv, xal tw dvvao&cti, xal 

iw txuv nmg, Atyo\dvr\g di xrjg dvvdfMwg xooav- 

%ax&g , xal xo dwaxov ha piv xodnov Xtx^nonai io 

§£0* xiVTjomg dgxh v > V ptxafioXr^g. Kal yag xo oxa- 

xmo9, dwaxov xi tlvat iv kxfya>, j} rj txtgov, "Eva di, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ictv %x 5 T * avrov aMo dfoapiv loiavryv. c, Eva Sk, 
idv %x\i avtafidXXuv i<p otiovv dvvapiv TQiuvTtjv, ti- 
re inl to x&QW > «^« ^** ™ (KXtiov. jial yaq xa 
(pd-eigopsvov doxsl dvvatbv shut y&stqw&ai, r\ ovx 
(iv {p&aQijvou si tjv ddvvaTOv. Nvv ds fyst uvd $*«- 
^coiy xctl ahiav xa* *£jny tov toiovtov nd&ovg. c O*s 
uiv ydq tw f^ti? doxu, oredi tw iaztqr\o&ai toiovtov 
that,. Eld* t) oidoTjaig iowUig m»g t ndvTa t$ •#«* 
jfy ay t*. ^Oftwyvfitog ds xal Xiyoptvov to oV * wax« 
tw s^fitv fSdt.Twa xa* &QXV*> * aw oWotois xa* tu 
tfcwi' i^y tov tovtov oxiQUQiv , el ivdix$iai fair ara- 
qr^iy. "Eva ds, t» fit) $x* w avrov dvvafuv, 1} dqxv v 
& ally, r] Jj d'XXo, q>&aQU*yv. *Eu dstavta ndvra, 
i) tw uovov dv ovpffivm ysvso&ai, % firj ysvio&at , rj 
tw xaXwg • xal ydo iv rolg dyvxotgi $p iortv r) TOiovn? 
tivvapig, olov iv tolg ogydvotg, Tqv /u«V yio Svvou- 
a&ai qxxoi cpd-syyso&cu Xvoav, Tip d' ovdsv, dv fitf 
j} tvywvog. 'Adwaula 8i ion ariq^atg dwdfuug, xal 
trig TotctVTtjg aoxyg Sqaig rig, ova fipiyxat, ij IXtag, i£ 
tw necpvxon %x* 1 *, V * a * ° %t niopvxsv ^dijexuv* Ovdo 
ydo o pottos dv ydisv ddvvaiov elvou ytwnv , naida, 
xal avdga tdvovxlctv. *Eti dk %a& kxoxtigav dvvaaiv 
ioxtv advvauia avnxufUv^ tj} %s fidvov wvqTtxp, xal 
Tjj xaXtog xivrrtixij. Kal dbvvaxa da xa uiv xaxd t^v 
ddwafiiav %av%r\v Xiyejoti, id d' SXXov jqonov, olov p 
dvvatov it xal ddvvaxov. *Advvatov psv, ov to b>a*~ 
riov i£ dvdyxrjg aX*)&eg * olov jo iqv dtdpnqov avji- 
fujQOV thai ddvvatov, on ipevdog to toiovtok* xal 
oi to banlov ov povov dXrf&ig, aXXd xai dvdyx^ 
olov aovjipnow thai, to aqaovflftitgov ov (Uvo* 

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METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 13. 105 

iptviog, aXXa xal& aviptr\g iptvdog. Tod 9 barrio* 
fvrw, to dwatov, orav pr\ avayxuiov jj to havtiov 
ysidog tiv*i- clow, to xct&ijo&cu ivdotmov, bvvutov. 
Ov yaQ 4g otvayxrjg to pq xn&rio&ai yttvdog. T6 piv 
ovv dwtnov, tva piv toinov, Sonto ffyifrai, to py 
tf£ mrayufig ymtdog oqpalvti , tva di to aXff&ig thai, 
tva di to ivdtxoptvov oXrf&ig that. Kara ptxacpo- 
gav 6*i, ^ iv Tij ytvptroia Xiyttai dvvnptg. Tavta 
piv ovv t« dwcrta ov k«to dvvaptv * t« & Xtyoptva 
xttta divapiv, ndna Xiyttm noog tip noibtifv plav. 
AvrtJ y iotlv ciqxt) pttafioXrig iv iXXy fj «XXo. Tot 
yitQ SiXa Xiytttti dwmta, ti piv w3 txtiv ainiav SX- 
Xo %h toiavtij* dvvaptv ti di, t$ pi) txttvti di, tcm 
idl $X*iv. 'Opofag di x«l ti 'adivata • wort 6 %v- 
ftog ooo$ trig notoifjg dvvaptrig av tfrj , aqxh i""«- 
ftXrjnxri iv alXfo jj cfiUo. 

CAPUT xni. 

JIooov Xsyttai to diaigttbv tig iwnaoxovta , oiv 
btchtoev, rj htaotov ?v ti , xal todt t* ni<pvxtv tlvm. 
HXrj&og piv ovv nooov ti, a* aQ^prjtbv jj • piyt&og 
$8, Sv pttotftov $. Aiytiai di nXy&og ptv, to fliai- 
ofToV dvvapn tig py owfrf" piyt&og di, to tig ovv* 
tjfit* Mffi&ovg di, to piv 4q> fv ovvtxig, prjxog • to 
d* inl dvo, nXatog* to d* inl to/<*, fld&og. Tovtcav 
di nXr)&og piv to ntntoaopivov , aoi&pog m pfjxog di, 
yoappV nXatog di,imq>avttor fia&og di, owpa. *Eti 
ti piv liyttai xa&' avti nooi atta , ti di xata 
ovpptptixig ' olor r\ piv yoetpprj, nooov tt xa&* lav- 
to , to di povotxov xata ovpjStpifxog. Tmv di xa& 3 
ctvra, ti piv not ovaiov iativ, olovfj yoctppi}, nooov 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tt. 'Ev yag if Ao/wtw tiiou Xdyovti, noaov rivnaQ- 
%n. Ta ds nd&rj xaliltig, life toiavtrjg iatlv 
ovaiag 9 olov, to nolv xal to oliyov, xal fiaxgbv xal 
figaxv, xal nlati xal attvbv, xal fia&v xal tanuvov, 
xal ($agv xal xovq>ov , xal talla tit totavta. Bart 
6e xal to friya, xal to juxghv, xal to p8£ov xal slar- 
tov , xal xa%f avta xal ngog alXr^a Xsyofitva , tov 
noaov nd&tj xa&* avid. Mttaipignat fiivioi tavta 
ta ovopaxa xal in alXa, Twv di xati ovuftsfirjxog 
Xsyopivtov noaw, ta fiev ovimgX4y6iai,mon€g ildx&ij, 
on to povotxov nooov, xal to X$vxov tta tlvai novo* 
u, ipimagxovor ta diug xivqoigxalxgivog. Kalyag 
tavxa noad ana Xiyetai, xal owtxVt ttpixiiva faxt- 
gstd thai, (£? 4(m tavxa nd&i}. Aiym ds oi to **- 
vovptvov, dX£ o ixivri&r). Too yig noaov elvou ixuvo, 
xal y xivrjoig noarj • 6 6i x°ovog, if tavtyv. 
yo noibv Xsyerou %va fib tgonov q diaqpoga tt\g 
ovaiag * olov noiov ta Sv&g<onog ££ov, on iinovv, In- 
nog 6e ttrgdnovv • xal xvxXog noiov t* oxy/ta , oti 
dynviov, ig tijg diaipogag trig xatd tip ovaiav noio- 
trjtog ovoijg. "Eva fikv di) tgonov tovtov tiysxai i) 
nototijg duxq>oga ovaiag' tva de tag ta dxivr\ta , xal 
ta fia&rjfiatuta , wonsg oi dgi&fiol noioi ttv$g • olov 
oi ovv-dsioi, xal fiti fiovov iq> tv ovttg, all* (avfiifiri- 
pa to ininsdov xalto otsgsov ovtoi d* tiolvoinoad- 
xtg noaol, r t oi noadxig nooolnoodxig 9 xal oXoag o nagd 
to noaov vndgxu iv ty ovaia • ovaia yig kxdatov to 
anal' olov tuv f£, ovx o dig % tglg tialv , dXXd o 
anal 9 8? ydg anal fj. v En oaa nd&t} tmv xivovpivw 

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METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 15. 107 

ovai&v olop, &$q(i6vr)g xal yvxqo*yg> *al Xtvxojtjg 
xal fulavla, xal ftaqv tf)g xal xovatotrig, xal boa to*- 
avta, xa& a Xiyopta* nal aXXoiovo&au ta out pat a 
fUtaftuXXoptmp. *Eti xata aqityp nal xaxlap , xal 
bXcag to xaxbp xal aya&bp. 2x*&ov drj xata dvo tqb- 
novg Xiyon av to noibp, xal tovtttp ha top nvquo- 
TdJov. Uguifi flip yaq. not 6ir t g t 7) tfjg ovoiag dia- 
g>oqd. Tavtrjg di u xal ij iv toig aqi&fiolg noiotrjg 
pigog. diayoqa yaq tig oioimp, all' rj ov xivovui- 
vtavy rj ovx V xivovptrwy. Ta di na&i\ tap xiPOVfii- 
pw'tj xiPovfi$pa,xal ai tap xivqowp diaopoqai' aqurj 
di xal xaxia tcw na&rjfiatap fiiqog ti diaqpoqag 
yag dtjXovoi> t^g xtprjotag xal tr/g iptqysi'ag, xa& ag 
noiovotv rj ndoxovot xaXag rj qpavXag ta iv ijj xwr\- 
0f* orra. To flip yag adl dvvdfitPOP xipfio&ai rj 
ipsgytiv, uya&op* to d* adl xal ipaptiag, fiox&riqop. 
Malurta di to aya&bp xal to xaxop, orjfiaipn to noibp 
inl tip ifiytvx®*, xal toitap pdliota inl toig %x ov <t* 

Ugog t t Xiystai , t« fiiv ag dmX&oiop nqbg to 
ijfiiov, xat, tqmXaaiop nqbg to tqar^fibqiop ,xa\ olag 
noXXanXaoiop nqog to noXXootrifioqiop, xal vmqixop 
nqog vntqexofiwop • to £' ag &tqfiaptixbp nqog 
&8Qfianbp , xal t/ir)tixbp nqog tfiqtbp , xal olag to 
noirjtixbp nqog to nad-r^ttxbp • ta 8' ag to pttqri- 
xop nqog to fi&tqop, xa* to iniotrjtbp nqog imotrj/irip, 
xal ain#qtbpnqbg al'o&r)otv. uiiystaidi ta (tip nqa- 
tu xa% aqi&fibp, rj anXag, rj aqiofiipag nqog avtovg, 
r) nqog IV* olop, to pip dmXaotop nqog tp, aqi&fibg 

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uQiOfi&vog- xb Hi nolXanXaawv, xax agi&pb* ngb§ 
h, ovx wgiopivov di m olov , xovbt, ij rovde. To di 
rffjtiohov , ngog xb wprjfitoXiov xax 9 dtot^poy, ngb$ 
agi&pbv wQiofitvov. To frrtpogiov ngog to vntnt>- 
fiogiov xaxa aogioxov ,-&on%g xb noXXanXaoutv ngog 
to & • to d* vitegizov ngog to inegxopsvov otog ao- 
gioxov xax agt&fiov. *0 yag ag*&pbg ovfijtsxgog • 
xaxa pi) ovppstgov di agi&pbv Uysxm. To yag vntg*- 
ixov ngog to vnsgexbfiBvov , xoiovxov xi ioxt, *<** fc*« 
Tovto de aogioxov. 'Onbxegov yag %xvz*v t cow tf 
Toov , rj ovx loov. Tavxa T8 ovv xa ngog t* anavxa 
xax 3 agi&pbv Xiysxai, xalagidpov na&y xalmxb 
hov xal opotov xal xavxb, xax aXXov xgonov. Kara 
. yitg to h Xiysxai navxa. Tavxa pb yag , &v fda q 

\ • , f ot/o/cr ogotad ,wv ij notoxtjg filer toao; w *o 
"^' ^ / ttoooV fy. Todib, xov agifyov ag^ xal fri*gov. 
' c *" x * "Slots xavxa navxa ngog xi kiynat, xax agi&fibv fdv, 
• ov xov avxbv di xgonov* Ta di noiifxata xal 7ia#if- 
xtxa, xaxa dvvafitv notrinxrjv xb xal na&iixmiiv, xal 
ipsgyslag xag xnv dvvapew olov xb fagpavxixov ngog 
to &egpavxbv, oxx dvvatai* xal naXtv xb &sgpaivov 
ngog xb dsQficuvofisvov, xal xb xipvovngbg xb Ttfiyo- 
fttvov, Stg ivtgyoWza. T&v di xax 3 agi&pbv , ovx 
tlolv Mgystai, aXX* 7} ov xgonov to *tigo\g tXgijftai* 
ai di xaxa xirrjoiv bigyuai,ovx vnagzuvo*. llov di 
xaxa dvvafiiv xal xaxa xgovovg, %\dn Xiyovxai xa ngog 
xi* olov xb nsnottjxbg ngog vb Ttsnotijfiivov , xa} to 
noiyoov ngog xb noifiooppov. Ovtw yag xai »«- 
xtig viov Xiysxat nax^g. To fiiv yag nsnoi^xbg, xo 
tie nmovd-bg xi tow, >f Eti evut xaxa oxigrjotv dvvot- 

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METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 16. 100 

ftmg, uiontQ xb advvaxov, nal oaa ovxn liyncu, olov 
to aoquxov* Ta (Uv ovv nax ao&pbv nal dvvapiv 
Itybptva noog n, navxa tail noog xi, t$ onto ioxlv 
&llov liyso&ai aixb onto ioxlv f alii py x$ alio 
noog ixuvo. To Si futofitbv nal xb imaxyxov, not 
xb dutvoijxbv raj Olio noog avxa liy*j$ai, noog 
t* liyztai. To , t* yaq diavoqxbv oupalvu , ou 
ioxlv avxov Siarota • qv* cotkJ ^ b\ivota nqbg tov- 
xo, ov ioxi diavota. Jig yao xavxbv uqv^iivov av 
tfty. 'Opoiag oe nal xt»og iaxiv y o^/k, ov% ov ioxw 
ofig. Kalxoi ily&ig xovxo tlnuv * alia nqbg fp**- 
pa, y nqbg Silo xi xotovxov. 3 En$ltmg&idig to avxb 
Itx&ioetat, oti, Maxtv oy*g , ov ieu> i) oyttg. Ta fUv 
ovv na& kavxa Isyopsva nqog xt , xa ps? ovxw liyt- 
xai, xa Si av ta yivi) mix&v j) xotavw • olov , i\ ia- 
idixt} x&v nqbg xi , ou xb ysvog avx%g r\ inunripLt] 
donst thai x&v nqog **• "Ext wl& So a xa tyovxa Ac- 
ytxai noog xt 9 olov woxTfg, oxtxbJaovnalbfAOiSxr}g r 
ow to opoiov. Ta oi naxa ovfijkfi^nbg, olov av- 
&qmnog nqog xt, ixi ovpfteflfintv avTto dvnlaoitp sl- 
vai % xovxo d' ioxl twv nqig w «}to Isvnbv , u tw 
avxib ovfifiifax* bmlaolfa nal JLat/xf Hvat. 
Tilsiov ley txm y h piv, ov \ir\ ioxtvf&oxl laS&v, 
fitjde h> piqiov * olov ZQovog xilsivg inaoxov ovtog, 
ov uij ioxiv l|w x$ l<x(klv xqovqv xiva, Sg xovxov pi- 
oog ioxl xov xqovov. Kotl xi %ax igsxfjv, nal xb xov 
cv , fit) \%ov vTuofioltiv noog x* yivog, olovx&uogia- 
xobg, nal x&ltiog avlr^xifg , Sxav nuxa to tldog xyg 
oineiag agsiqg fir^div iildnwoiv* Ovxw Ss ptxaqtt- 

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govTsg xal inl t&v xax&v Xs'yops* avTovg, ovxoyuvitjv 
TsXstov, xal xXinTyv tiXuov insidrj xal dya&ovg Xd- 
yoptv avTovg, olov xXintr^v aya&ov, xal ovxoqxxvtrjv 
aya&ov. Kal y dgsTfj TsXsimoig Tig. "Exaorov ydg 
TOT6 tsXsiov, xal r\ ova la naoa tots TsXsia t erav xa- 
Tot to sldog trig oixsiag agsTtjg (tt^dsv iXXslny uogior 
xov xata q>voiv psyi&ovg. ? *Eu olgvnagxsi T © tiXog 
onovdaiov, tavia Xiysrai TsXsia. KarayagTosx*iy 
tiXog UXsia, "Sloz insidij to t&Xogtmv tozditovji iati, 
xal inl Ta <pavXa fitraq>igortsg, Xsyopsv, TsXsiag ano- 
XwXivai, xal tsXeioag iy&aQ&cu, orav fir^dkv iXXsinjj 
trig qp&ogag xal tov xaxov , aX£ inl tov ioxatov rj . 
zfio xal i) tsXeirtr) xata fitTayogav XiysTai T sXog , or* 
afiqxo eozara~r TiXog ds xal to ov hsxa soxaTov. 
Ta fiiv ovv xa& av.ra Xsyopsva liXua , Tooavtaxug 
XiysTai,, %a piv tw xata to tv firjdsv iXXsinsiv fnyd* 
sX*w insg^oXtfy iv Ixaortp yivu , fiyd* shai n ££ar 
to. ds aXXa, ^drj [ovlxatf avta, tw ij noiuv uiotov- 
tov, ij %X HV > V agfiotrsiv tovtco , rj aXXcag ye nag Ac- 
yso&ai ngbg ia ngwTMg Xsyopsva TsXsia. 
llegag Xiysrai to loxaxov kxaarov , xal ov e£tu 
fifjdsv iori Xa(3uv ng&TOv, xalov slow nana ngtoTOv, 
xal o av rj sldog psyi&ovg *} sxovtog [iiys&og, xal to 
tiXog kxdotov. Toiovtov d 3 iqf or) xivrjmg xal n 
nga&g, xal oix a<p ov. c Ots ds Sfiopw, xal cup* ov, xal 
iq> o, xal to ov frexa, xal r\ oioia kxdatov, xal TOTlr]v 
slvai kxdoTtp. T^g yvcooswg yag tovto nigag • si ds 
Tr(g yvtoostog, xal tov ngayftatog. "JIots (pavsgbv ot» 
ooaxmg «? agxh XdysTat , Tooavtax&g xal to nigag, 

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METAPHYS. LIB. 1V.(V.) CAP. 18. Ill 

xal hi TiUovaxtoS* *H fdv yag agxh* wgw tt* to di 
nigag, ov nav agxv* 

To *(*& o Xeyttai noiXax&Q. "Eva fiiv tgonov, 
to tldog xal rj ovola Ix&otov ngaypatog • olov xa&b 
aya&bg, avtb aya&ov. "Eva 6i,iv w ttowtw ni<pv- 
xs yiveo&ai, olov TO.£0*>pa iv t§ imq>avtia. To uiv 
ovv ngtattog Xtyoptvov, xa&b, to tldog iati * dtvtigtag 
di, mg v viij kxdotov xal to vnoxei(i$vovkxaot<pngto- 
tov. "OXwg di %b xa&6 loaxwg,xalto aittov vndg- 
&*. Kata il yag iXrjXv&w, r) ov tvtxa 4XqXv&8, >U- 
ytiai* xal xata il nagaXtXoyiotai, ij ovXXtXoyiotai, 
J ot* to aluov tov ovXXoyiopov , ij naqaXoyiopov. 
*Lti to xa&o, to xata -dioiv Xiyutat , xa&6 lotrjxty, 
rj xa&b padftu. Uavta yao tavta &iaiv orjpahtt, 
xal tonov. "flats xal to xa& 3 aitb, noXXax<#$ avay~ 
x*i Xiysa&oci. **Ev pev yao xa& avio, to ti tjv thai 
ixdotot , olov 6 KuXXiag, xal to tItjv tlvai KaXUav 
sv di , oo a iv to} ti iotiv vndgx^t olov (wo? 6 KaX- 
Xiag xa&* avto. "Ev yao ty Xoyy iwnagxn T © &bov 
£djov yag t* o KaXXiag, *Eu di, s* iv kaxnio dide- 
xicci ng&tov, r\ t&v avtov tivi • olov r)ini(paviia}.iv~ 
xri xa& 3 avttjv , xal two? b av&gumog xaf? avtov. 
JH yag yvxv* fiigog ti to$ av&gdmov, iv $ ngmji to 
£jjv. "£u ov fiy iotiv aXXo tv t* aluov. Tov yao ^ 
vtv&Qwnov noXXa aitia, to (olov, to dbtovv aXX* 
Sfiojg XU&* avtov o avd-gamog, av&gunog iotiv. "En 
ooa povn vitdgx*h *°d V f*° V( & 4ib to xf^woto/w«vov, 
xa& avto. p 


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dui&eotg Xiyttai tov tyovtog fiiqn td^ig, ij xara 
tonov, rj xata dvvafiiv, ij xai $ldog. Oioiv yag del 
nvtt elvai, wcnitp xai to Svopa drjlot 7) diuxhaig. 

cl E}c^8i Xeyttcu, ha ftiv tgonov, olov iviqynd tig 
tov e/ovTO? xtxl ixopspov, Sontq nqu&q «s ij xlvq- 
oig. °Otav yixq to gih> irotjj, to diftonjfTcu, Moti noirj^ 
oig pttegv. Ovtw xal tov Ixortog Io&tjtxi xai tij$ 
iXOftevTjg io&ytog, soti fietaSv t£ig, Tavttjv piv 
ovv (paveooV) <m ovx {vdsztnai %%w* tj}v %iv, Mg 
amiqov yao /ffa&wroct, tl tov ixopevov eorroei l^fw Tt/y 
IS**. "AXXov di tomov Qig Xiystai dux&wig, xa\? 
rjv ev ij xaxwg dwexutm to Siaxslpevov, xoil ij xcttf 
avto, ij Ttgog alio, olov rj vylua Uzig tig. AiaSwig 
yaq ioti roictvtr). *Eti ffetg Xiynai , av $ poqiov 
dta&ioewg toiavtijg. Aio xal i) tiv pto&v agrtr), 
s£ig tig iati. 


nd&og 6b Xiytrai, isva fih tooitov notitr^g, xa&* 
rjv aXXoiovo&at ivdi^ttai' olov, to Xsvxov xal to pi- 
lar, xal to yXvxv xal to nixgov, xal (Jaovtrig xal 
xov(p6tf)g, xalSaa aXXa totavta, "Eva tie ai tovt&v 
ivioyuai xa* aXXomang iffy, v Eti tovxwv paXXov 
ctl ftXtxfoQal aXXmmoug xal xivijoHg, xal paXuna at 
Xvnrioal, xal at fiXafoqal. "Eti ta peyi&rj t&v ovp- 
<poQwv xal XvTtrjQ&v nd&r) Xtyttai. 

Stignaig Xeystai sva psv tqonov , avail tffl ti 
tmv fir) 7iiq>vx6t(0v ezeo&ai, x$v pi) avto f) nsyvxog 

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METAPH YS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 23. 113 
sXtw olov, <pvtbv ofiftajuv i<ntor\o&ai Xiytxai. 
"Eva di, av ntq>vxbg fy* 1 ** V <*vxb, $ xb yivog, pi) 
tzji ' olov, alius av&ounog b xvqpXbg oipstog toxi- 
gr\xat, xal b aanaXal • xb ph xaxa yivog, to di xad 3 
avxo. "Exi av nupvxbg , xal ox* niqpvxiv %xuv , fii) 
tZJl* 'Hyao xvq>Xbxi}g, oxegtjoig Tig, Tvq>Xbg di ov 
xaxa naaav ifXixiav, all 1 iv r\ niqpvxsv &X uv t <* v M 
%XJl" 'Opoiwg di xal iv (o avv,xalxa& b, xalnqbg b 9 xal 
org av sly mq>vxbg, avfifjBXV* *^ T * V fi ia ^ a hxaaxov 
aqyaigsoig, oxiorjoig Xiyexai. Kal boax&g di at anb 
%ov A ano<paosig Xiyovxai, xooavxax&g xal al oit- 
Qrjotig Xiyovxai. "Avioov fiiv yao, tw py $x*iv iobxr}- 
ra ns(pvx6g Xiysxat' aoqaxov di, xaltw oXtog fit} *x uv 
XQ&lia, xal tw qpavXtag • xal Snow, xal tw py $x tiv 
bXwgnodag, xal tg> (pctvXovg. "Exi xal tw fiixobv 
%X tlv } 0L0V t0 wtvqr\vov. Tovxo d 3 iatl, xb <pavX<oc 
nag «# e*v. "En t$ firj Qqdioog, ij tw fit} xaXwg • oloy 
to axfir\xov, ov fibvov tw py xipveo&ai, aXXa xal tw 
fjirj Qadi<ag M rj iw prj xaXag. "Ext tw navxtj pr\ %x uv * 
TvcpXbg yao ov Xiytxat b ixtooqp'd'aXpog, aX£ b iv 
apqpoTv ptj exwv oipiv. Jib ov nag aya&bg ri xaxbg, 
7) dixaiog ij adixog* aXXa xal to psxa£v. 

To %xhv Xiyexat noXXax&g. "Eva piv xgonov, 
to ayeiv xaxa xi\v avxov <pvow , ij xaxa xr\v avxov 
0QfiT)v> Aib Xiysxat nvgsxog r$ sxeiv xbv av&Qnnov, 
xal oi xvgavvotxag noXng, xal xv\v io&rjTct oi apns- 
Xopsvot. "Eva d*, ivip av xi vndoxot wg dexxtxt} • olov 
b %aXxbg *x si t0 rfdog xov avdqiavxog, xal xt\v vooov 
ib owficc. "Eva d 3 ,wg xb nsgiixov xa ntQiexoptva. *Ev a 
Arist. Metaph. H 

Digitized by GoOgle 

114 AR1ST0TEL1S 

yag ioxi mgitxopwov tt y txto&ai vna tovrov ley jar 
olov, xb ayytiov exstv T&vygov (pctfitv, xal vrp noli* 
av&gdnovg, xal Tip vavv vavrag • ovtta de xal to oXov 

l/«t T« pSQT). "Etl TO XOilvOV XUTCt 1f)V CtVTOV OQ/tl^V 

t* xwuo&a* i) ngdxxuv , sxuv Xiytxa* tovto osvro • 
olov xal oixiovsg t« buxiipsva (lagri,xal&g ol noirj- 
t«* Toy "AxXavxa noiovoi tov ovgavbv *x tiV > &$ f«j 
ovfiTtiooit av inl ttjv yr\v, &ontg twv q>voioXiymv ti- 
vig <f>ccoi. Tovtov di tov xgonov xal to avvixov A©- 
ytxai, a ovvix*h *£***> «S diaxwgus&ivxa av xaxa t»/» 
aixov bguyv txaoxov, Kal to *v xm di $lva$, o/uoio- 
xgonwg Xiysxai xal knopivtog tw I'xtiv. 
Toht xjvoc tlvai^ Xiyerai, eva pev xgonov, 4% ov 
ioTi, tag vXrjg * xal tovto dtx&g » V xaxct to ttqcotop 
yivog, »j xaTa to vaxaxov tldog 9 olov sort pkv <5g 
anavxa xa xyxxa igidaxog* I'oxi d' w$ ix x<*Xxov o 
avdgidg. "Eva d*, ag ix rfg ngfaxrjg xivrjtfdaijg «(>- 
£*}$• oloy «x Thog % fiaxv» &* Xoidoglag, oxi avtrj 
agxv iyg puxw* ^ a ^*» ^ x T0 ^ o*vy#erot/ , £t tiJs 
J'ilijs x«» ttjc, uogcprjg, uonsg ix xov oXov Tupigrj, xal 
ix Ttjg 'iXtddog to snog , xal ix Ti\g oixlag ol A»#ot. 
Teilo^ j*i? yao e'oTW ^ pogopq. T&tiov di to l^or 
leio?. Ta de w$ tx xov pigovg to el^or oloy o ay. 
dgoonog ix tov dlnodog, xal r\ ovXXafir) ix tov arot- 
^«/ov • aiUag ya0 tovto, xat o avtyiag ix tov ^ail- 
xov • **x t^j aio&^jrjg yao vXyg q ovv&nog ovalot • 
aXia xal to fideg fa Tv\g tov udovg vXyg , t« piv ov-> 
tw ley nat, t« & <ay xara pioog ti tovtvvtIs V7t*Q~ 
X$ x&v TQoitwv • olov ix nargbg xal (iijTobg to Texyo^ 

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xal 4x yqg ta (jpi/ia, oti *x two? pigovg avraiy. "fi*a 
£e, ji«^ o tw jpc^arolov II ypigag r£|, xa* *| ev- 
#«$ XuptHYy art tovto futa tovto. Tovtoty dt ta 
fitv Ty f^eiy (mapoXr)* tig aXlrjla , ovtw Xiyttai, 
&ontg xal to yOy tigripira * ta ditto xata top £po- 
ro* Iqptf ifc poVoy * oloy 41 iofjptglag iywrto 6 nXovg, 
ott pttet iotiptgla* iyivtto' xal ix Jiopvoiwp Sagyy* 
Xia, oil peta tit diorCoux. 


Migog Xiyttai eva pip tgonov , tig o diaigt&tlrj 
Slp to noobv bnaoovp. * Au yag to a<patgovp&ov 
tov tiooov j} ixoobr, pigog Xiyttai ixtipov olov tav 
tp/, xor dvo pigog Xiyttai rno-g. "dXXov di tgonov 
tot xatapttgovvta tmv toiovtwv povov * dib tit dvo 
%Siv tguav, totipiv ig Xiyttai fiigog, sati d* wg oil. 
*'Ett tig a to tldog tov (dov diaigt&titi av Svtv tov 
7rooov, xal tavta pogia Xiyttai, tovtov. Jib tot ti- 
dy tov yivovg <paolv tlvat pogia. >f £ti tig a diaigii- 
tal ti, v\ ll<xtv ovyxtitat to olov , ij to tldog , n to 
%XOv to tldog' olov, trpg oqpalgag tfjg%aXxrig , y tov 
xvfiov tov z<*Xxov 9 xal 6 xaXxog pigog. Tovto d' 
iotlv q vXy iv <o to tldog, Kal y yavia pioog. "Eth 
%a iv tw Xoy<a, t$ dr}Xovru txaotov , xal tavta po- 
gia tov oXov. Jib to yivog tov ti'dovg xal fiigog 
Xiyttai) aXXng di to tldog tov yivovg fiigog. 


"OXojl Xiyttai, ov pr\&zv amoti pigog i$ an> Xiyt- 
tai to oXov qpvow xal to ntgtizov tv, xal ta ntgit- 
%optva, &ot% h> ti thai ixitva. Tovto di flyws • ij 


Digitized by GOOgle 


yag dig txaoxov sv, ij ag ix tovttov to sv. To fisv 
yag xa&oXov, xal to oXwg Xsyofisvov, (og-oXov t* ov, 
ovToag iotl xa&oXov wg noXXd nsgtixov to xavqyogsi- 
o&at xa& kxaotov, xal sv anavta that wg kxaotov 
olov, av&gmnov, innov, dsbv, oti anavta £««. • To 
de ovvex*$ *«* nsnsgaofisvov, otav sv tt ix nXstov&v 
jl ivvnagxovtmv, (idXwxa (isv dvvdpsi • el ds [trj , iv~ 
sgysla. Tovtav d' avtw paXXov td cpvou rj tsxvrj 
touxvta, vtonsg xal inl tov kvog iXsyo/isv, w$ ovarjg 
trig oXotrjtog hotr\t6g Ttvog. "£u xov nooov %xov- 
tog agxv v *<*' fiioov xal soxatov, oomv psv py no in 
i\ &ioig dia<pogdv, ndv Xsystat* oo<ov ds noisl, b*Xov. 
°Ooa ds apyw ivdi'xttai, xal oXa xal ndv. "Eozi ds 
tavta, ootav y jisv g>voig fj avtrj pivsi tjj psta&sosi, 
tj ds fnoQCpr], ov* olov xtjgbi, xal ifiduov. Kal yag 
oXov xal nav Xiystai* %xsi yag ci/iqxo. "xdmg ds xal 
ooa vygd, xal agt&fiog, nav fisv Xsystar oXog d' 
agt&ftog xal oXov vdoagov Xiystai, dv pi] [tstayoga. 
Tldvta ds Xiystai, i<p olg to nav &g iq>' kvl, inl tov- 
toig ndvta, wg inl dirjgrifisvoig, nag ovtogo agi&fiog, 
ndoai avtai ai fiovadsg. 

j CoXogov d s Xiystai tStv noouv, ov to tvxov, 
dXXd (legiorov ts avtb du slvai xal oXov. Ta tsydg 
dvo, ov xoXofia d-atigov ayaigovpivov kvog (xal yag 
loovrb xoXofiwpa xal to lombv ovdsnot iotlv)ovd* 
oXwg agi&fibg ovdslg ' xat ydg tyv ovolav ds% fie- 
vuv - si xvX& xoXofibg , m del slvai xvXixa • o ds 
agi&pog, ovx It* 6 avxog. Ilgbg ds tovtoig xipv avo- 
poiopsgt) ji , ovds lavia ndvta. c O yag agi&pog 

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METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.) CAP. 28. 117 

t\rttv, og xal avofxota %xn fUgy • olov, dviida, rgtadw 
dl£ oXtog iv pr) notii r) <&soig diayogav, ovdev xo- 
lofiov • olov i'doag, y nvg • alia del toiavta slvai, a 
nata ti\v ovoiav &ioiv fyst, "Eti avyexv- "H" yag 
agpovia it avopoioptg&v psv xal &iow *x tl > xoXoftbg 
di ov ylvtxay ngbg Se tovtotg > old* oaa bXa, ovde 
Jttvxa otovovv poglov otegrjoe* xoXofia. Ov yag del 
ovt$ ta xvgia trjg ovoiag , ovte tit onovovv ovta • 
viol, av tgvnrj&jj fj xvlil- , ov xoXoflbg , alt av to 
ovg rj axguttjgtov ti. Kal b av&gamog , ovx lav 
oagxa rj tbv onXtjva, &X3? iav axgurygiov, xal tovto 
ov nav, aXt o pt) $pc» yevtoiv aayaige&ev oXov. dta 
tovto oi (palaxQol ov xoXoftol. 

CAPUT xxym. 

F&ns Xiyttaitb pkv, day ij ^ yivtoig avv*x*l$ *<** 
to eVfog. ixovTcov to avxo • olov Xiyna* $<ag av av- 
d-gwnav yivog y, ou fag av ij r) yivtoig, owexys ttV ~ 
mv • to de a<p ov av aw* ngwtov xirrjoavtog eig 
to elvai. Ovta yag Xiyovtat oi pev u EXXt)veg to yi- 
vog, oi di "imvtg, Tip oi psv anb "EXXtjvog , oi di ano 
Iwog etvai ngatov yewrioavtog • xalpaXXov ol ano 
tov yewrioartog, f] tijg vlrjg. Akyovtah yog xal anb 
tov &r\ktog to yivog , olov ano nig^ag. IBh Jj ws 
tbinlnedov tav ox^patatv yivog tStv inmidoav xal 
to ongebv, t&v ottgewv. "Exaotov yag rwv oxypd- 
imv, to fib ininedov toiovdl, to b*e ategeov ion roiov- 
dl, Tovxo d' toil to inoxelfttvov ratg diayogalg* 
Ett &g iv tolg Xoyoig to ngmov iwnagxov o Xiystai 
iv Ty t/ iati tovto yivog , ov diayogal Xiyovtat av 
noiotTjteg. To fih ovv ybog , tooavtaxm Xiyttah 

Digitized by GOOgle 


to ph xaia yiveoiv avvB%r) T ov avtov Bi&ovg , to di 
xatd to ngmov xwiwav oposidsg, to 6b &g vXtj. Oh 
yag f\ dicwpogit xotl vj noiot^g ioti, tout iarl to vwo- 
xtipsvov o Xiyopsv vXyv. *ETtoa dk t§ yivu Xsynm, 
wv htoov to nomov vnoxslptvov , xal py avaXvBtat 
dategov si$ &UT&QQV, py!f a pep (a tig tavtov • oiov, 
to bidog xal $ vXrj , hsgor j$ y&Bi. Kal ooa *a& 
tie gov oxvp* xatr\yoglag tov oVto$ XiyBtat. Ta ph 
yag t/ ioti or\paivu tuv ovtutv , ta ds noiov ti, ta 6 
we dtygrjtai, ngotsgov. Ovde yag ravra avaXvBtai, 
ovi c*s aXXijXa, ovt stgBv t*. 

To ipeyfl og Xiystai, alkov per tgbnov wg ngay- 
pa ysvdig • xatTOVTOv to psy t$ /i^ ovyxiio&ai, n 
Mvatov tlvai owtsdipat, wnsg Xiyetaitb T^vdia- 
pstgov slvai ovppstgov , ^ to oi xa&qo&at * toi/tgi* 
yag tpivdog to ph ail, to di notL Ovtq yag ovxovta 
tavta. Ta $s ooa iatl pkv ovta, niqpvxs psvtoi <pai- 
vso&ai q py old iotiv, if a py ionv olov, i} oxiayga- 
q>iaxaltd ivvnvia. Tavta, yag law piv ti, aXX* 
ovx wy ipnoisl tf\v yanccoiav. JIgaypata piv ovv 
ipsvdfj ovtong Xiystai, fj t$ pij slvai avta , i\ t$ tqv 
an avt&v qpavtaoiav ptj ovtog slvai • Xoyog di y/ru- 
dtjg, 6 t<ov pr} bvttov, p ipsvdrig. Jib nag Xoyog y«v- 
dvg, ktigov, ? ov iotiv aXri^g. Olov 6 tov xvxXov 
\ptvdi\g tgiyuvov* 'Exaatov 6i Xoyog, BOtt piv &s 
Big, b tov ti rjv slvaf lor* 3' mg noXXol , intl Tav- 
T0 7r»^ avtb,xalavto nsnov&og. Olov,2oi>xqatng>%al 
2<axgatr\g povoueog. 'O ds iptvdrjg Xoyog, oidtkog iattv 
anXwg Xoyog. Jib Idvtut&ivrig tjlno tvT)&Q>g, prjdiv 

Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. IV. (V.; CAP. 3a 119 

a$i£vXiy9o&ai, xXip t$ oixtitp Xoyq tv iqf |yo$. 9 ££ &v 
wvifia&t pi\ thai amiXiyuv , ox*dov di pudi ytvds- 
a&ai. "Eat* d * txaotov Xiytiv, ov fiovov t£ avtov 
ley?, aXXa xal xy tov ktiooVj ytvdvg p&v xal nav- 
ttXmg- am d' ovv mgxal aXfj&tog* womg ta oxtw, 
dmXaala t<$ ti}$ dvadog Xoyy. Ta pi* ovv ovtw 
liyetai yrvdrj. "Av&Qvnog Si yevdyg, o sixths xal 
nooaiottiubg t&v toiovtm Xoyuv , py 3i ttsgov 
ti, aXXa &' ovtb* xal o aXXoig ipnoiyTixbg t&v 
towxnuv Xoy&v. "Jltmsq <pauev xal nqaypata ytvdt) 
tfaaif oo a ipnoisi yavxaoiav ip$v$r}. Jib b> tw 3 In- 
nla Xoyog nagaxqovnai, ug b avtbg y/svdiigxal aXu^ 
&r\g. Tov dvvapevov yao wtvdso&ai , Xapfiavsi 
ytvdij. Ovtog 3' b eidag xal 6 q>govipog. v Eti tov 
btovta qxxvXov, fttXilw. Tovto de ytvdog Xappavsidia 
?5j$ inayayiig, S Q yao ixav jywAaiVw * J °v axovtog 
xotittwv ' to xaXaivw, to pip&a&ai Xiyuv • iml elyt 
Z&Xog kxw,xdQow Xomg t &ontQ inl tov rj&ovg xal tovto. 


^v p^nxbg diXiyttai, 2 vnaqxu pi* tivi, xal 
aXy&eg tmuv, ov pivtoi ovts i$ avayx^g , ova im~ 
tonoXv' olov el' Tig oQVttw (pvicp (to&oov, tvos #ij- 
oavoov. Tovto toivvv ovp^e^xbg t$ oQVttovtitbt 
po&oov, to ivqup drioavoov • ovtb yao & ayayxv\g 
tovto ix tovtov, % pita tovto • ov& ag imtono- 
Xv, av tig (pvtivj], -d-Tjaavobv tvoloxu. Xal povoi- 
xog y av tig si'rj Xsvxog * aXX* iml ovts il> avayxi\g> 
(&$ ig imtonoXv tovto ylvetaij ovfifit/ifjxbg avtb 
Xiyofuv. cl Jloi intl tativ imaoxov tl xct* tivl, xal 
ma tovttov, xal nov, xal not*, ti av vna^xv P* v > 

Digitized by GOOgle 


dXXd at) diott tobl, % vvv, rj ivtav&a, au/u/fc/fy- 
xbg eat at • ovtii dy alt i or ttyiopivov ovdh tov avp- 
(tBfirjxoTog, aXXa to tvxov. Tovto d* dogiotov <rv*- 
i(3ri to tig JXyiyav iX&elv, u M 8w tovto &<pi**to 
onmg ixti tX&y, aXtf vnb xupwog 4$wo&eU > V vnb 
Xtjotiov Xfj(p&ilg. Tiyovb (isv dq xal tajat to ovp(ie- 
faxog • all 3 ovx V avtb, aXX' \ h*Q<m *0 ?«?*»- 
fiow aVtiog tov fit) onov tnXu iX&uv' tovto 6* ^v 
Al'yiva. Aiyetai Se xal aXXtag at/ft/fr/fyaos. Olor 
ooa vthxqxu xct& avtb btdoty fty h ty ovola ovta • 
N oiov t$ toiydwy to dvo OQ&ag tx uv * ^°* tavta fib 
ivdix&ai dtdia elvcu, ixdvavtie ovbb. Aoyog dt 
tovtov iv kt&Qotg. 

caput i. oC.r 

AX oiQXal xal tit altiot Zytsitai t&v ovttov • dtjXov ds 
oti g una. *Eoti yaq u ait toy vyislag xal svt£iag* 
xal rwv fia^rjfiatLxwy uaiv dgxal xal ototxua xal 
altia • *«• oXm 6i naaa imofipri diavoTjtixrj , ij 
xal fistixovod ti dtavotag, itsol atnctg xal agxag forty, 
7} axotfootigag , % anXovatioag. *AXXanaaai awtai 
nsol $v ti, xal y&og tl ntQiyoaipdiiwai, neol tov- 
tov itoay/iatevonai, &Xi ovxl ntgl ovtog anX&g, ev- 
di j) ov, ovde tov %l iativ, ovdh a Xoyov noiovrtai* 
aXX ix tovtov ai pb alo&yoei noirjoaoai, avtb ftj- 
Xov , aid* vno&taiv Xafiovoat to tiiotty, ovtw xa$* 
avti inaQxovta tw yivth ntgl S slow , anoduxvvov- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. V. (VI.) CAP. 1. 121 

w fj dvayxaioxtoov rj (laXaKWXtoov. diontg qpcw- 
gbv on ovx tar iv dnodiiStg ovoiag, ovdi tov xi ioxiv 
in rijg xoiavxtjg inaywytjg, aXXd tig alios xginogxyg 
dfjhiotwg, 'Opofog 6t oid ' at tort* jj pr\ ioxi xb y«- 
vog neglo noaypaxsvovxai, ovdev Xiyovoi, diet to x%g 
avxrjg tivai faavoiag, xo, t« xi ion dt)Xov nouiv, xal 
ti Kaxh xovxo^KkEntl di xal r\ cpvoixq imoxfjpt) xvy- 
Z*vh ovoa ntpytoog t» tov owxog, (ntol yog xrirxoh- 
avtrir ioxlv ovolav to rj y uqxv *y$ xtptfotwg xaloxd- 
otwg to avxrj) drjXov on ovts noa%xi%r\ iaxw ovxe 
noifftutrj. Ttav fiiv yao novynxiov to n} noiovvxi t) 
*Wfi y V v °v$ ioxw, % vix* 7 ) * V &v**f*i$ ttg • t«* tie 
ixgaxxix&y, to tw ngdnovu t) nooaiotoig. To avxb 
yao to noaxxbv xal xb nooaionov. "Slot* ti t} anaoa 
dtavota ri noaxxtxrj, rj noirjxixT], rj dmoyuxr) , r) <pv- 
oixij &s<oorixtxrj Tig av tfrj, alia &$a>or]xutr) mol to*- 
ovxov ov t o ioxi dvvaxor xivtia&ou, xal ntgl ovoiav 
%r,y xaxit xbvXoyov,ig inixonoXi, ov xi»gioxr)v pbvov. 
Ju de to xlr\v tivai, xal jot Xoyor nmg ioxl,fiii Xap- 
<&avMr. € Jlg avsv ye xovxov %b tuxuv, fn}&iv noulv 
ion. T&v dy oQitofitooav , xal i&v xi ioxt, xa fib 
ovx&g imaQxn wg xb oifibr, xa $* ag to xolXov. Am- 
qngei ds xavxa, on to piv oipbv ovyuXrjfifiiyow ioxl 
finit xfjg vXijg. "Eon yag to fib oyibv xoiXrj $lg • r) 
Se xoiXoxrjg arw vXrjg alo&r)xfig. El dr) nana xa 
qpvoixa ofiofag T(wat/*oJ Xiyorxai, olov fig, ocp&aX- 
pbg, ngboomoy, oao$, ooiovv, oXmg Sfiov, yvlXov, $L- 
£a f qpXoibg, oXoag cpvxbv (ovdsvbg yaq avtv juvyotbts 
o Xoyog avxibv , aXti del l/et vXt)V } br\Xov nwg dsl iv 
xolg (pvoixoig xb xi 4oxi fy\xuv xal bgi&o&ai* xal 

Digitized by GOOgle 


diou xal mgl ywxw blag ^ewotjaa* tov (pvaixov, 
v oorj ur\ Svbv tijg vXyg ioxir. "Otifibovy ij yvoutq 
\}ewQT)tixr) ion, (paviooy ix tovtuy. ldX£ Hot* xal y 
ua&rjuauxfj &t(0Qr}ttK7j • aXtf ei axirrjtobv xal /wot- 
otwy i<m, vv> adtjXoy. "Oxi ub ovy tvia fia&^uata 
f, axlvrjta xal f\ x^giata &bwqu, dfjXoy. El di t* 
iotly a%hr\xov xal atdwy xal jwotoro*, g>aytgiy ow 
S-efagfjTiHfjg to yy&yai* ov fibtoi (pvoixijf yt, (n$ol 
*tvr\xsw yag jivuv r\ (pvaixTj) oidi pafyftattxrig, «A- 
Ji la nqotigag apamr. C H ub yag awoixt} nsgl ax»- 

7 Qiata fib , ai£ ovx axhyta * rrjs di fta&f)uanxrig 
fh m. t L. , ^ ia ne y\ « x / y ^ T0C pfy y ftoQuria di la&g , al£ ig 
l\ , ic/u, b vXtj' r\ 5i ngtotrj xal ntQl xaquna xal axivrjja* 
avayxt\ di ttavta ub ta aitta d'i'dia slva*, udXiata 
di tavta, /govt a yag aXtia tdlg ipavtqolg tip #«*- 
toy, *Jloi8 tgtig av thy q>dooo<pia* d^tu>g^tixou, fim- 
&fjfiaxixfj, q>vaixr\, dtoXoyixri. Ov yag adtjXov, oi*> 
etnov to &€iov vnagx**, b Tij toiavtji q>voti vnag- 
Xu * xal tip tifjitdytujTjy du negl to tiuiwraiov yivog 
that. Al ub ovv &wgrittxal tux aXXav htiotfjucay 
— aigvrmtgaiy avxt) di tmv ^ewo^Tixop. *AnogifOM 
yag av tig, nottgov no& rj 71000x17 <pdooo<pla xa&o- 
Xov iatly, jj ntgl ybog xal <pvoiy play. Ov yog a 
avtbg tgonog, ovd* b tdig ua&riuatixaig* ai£ rj ub 
yetoungia xal datgoXoyta , negl xiva ariaiv IdLav u- 
aly, ixelvij di xa&oXov naawy xoivtj* El ub ovv /u 19 
ia%l tig ktiga ovaia nova tag q>vou ovytotrixviag , 19 
^- opvoixvi ay tttj TtQutrj Mior^rj. Ei di iati ug ov- 
aia axtyrjtog , avtrj ngotiga xal (piXoaotpia notafq • 
xal xa&6Xov ovtmg on norny • xal mol tov ortog 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. V. (VI) CAP. 2. 123 

jf ov, javzys av «*nj tfewofjacu, xa* 1/ Am, xa* t« 
indgxovta xadoXov, p ov. y 

^ CAP U T 11. 
3 AXX' intl to or xo aaA*)? Xtyoptvov ttynai woiU 
iuX&g, &v fr per t)vio Kara ovpftt/trixbg, htgov dito 
mg aXri&ig, xml to fiy ov, ig to ythdog • aagd tavta 
&' iotlxi oxnh axa v fc xatr\yogiag, olov to piv %\, to 
3c notov, to 8i noobv, to fli noy , to di wow , xa* ti 
u aXXo aypalvH tbv tgonov tovtov • hi naga tavta 
nivta to dwuptt xal ivtgytia, *Entl 6t noXXaxfcg 1«- 
ytiai to ov, ngitov ntgl tov xata avp^t^xbg A«- 
xm'ov , oTt ovdtfUa ntgl «vto for* &tmgia • ofjpuov 
di • ovdsfua yog ijuoxriprj imptXig ntgl avtov , ovte 
nqamxtj ovx* noiqtixfr ovts &et)gr)tixj} . Ovte yag 
notch' olxlat, 7101c? ova avpfiaivu apa tfi oixiq yt- 
ropevy (amioa yag iatr) toig psv yog qdtZav , tdig 
08 (iXafisgdv, to%g d' ttxpiXipov ovdev itvai xmXvtitfjv 
notri&eUfav, xal ktigav, ag tinny, navtwv tiv ovtnv* 
w ov&tvog iotiv f) olxodoftiXT) noirjtixtf. Tov av- 
Tor 6i tgonov, ovd* bytmphgrig<d-mgtitaovzti>ovp- 
(tt§rj*6ta toig ozypaoiv , oid 3 ti htgov iatito to/- 
ywov> xal tgiytavov dvo og&ag %%ov, xal tovto tv- 
loymg ovpaibnu. c 'Slontg yog ovopati povov to 
evpfi$(hjx6g iuzt. Jib Hldtav tgonov twit ov xo> 1. 
**g ntgl trjv ooqpwmxtjv to prj ov tta£tv> Elol yag 
oltwv cxxpunvr Xoyo* ntgl to avpfttprixog , ig ti- 
ntiv, paXiota navtnv, nottgov tttgov 1} tavtov pov~ 
oixbv xal ygappatixbv , xal povotxbg Koglaxog xal 
Kogiqxog, xal ti nav o av y, prj du dt, yiyovtvnot 
ti povofxbg tiv, ygapfiatixbg yiyovt,xalygapfAatixog 

Digitized by GOOgle 


&v fiovamog • *al i'aot fl^ aAXot xoiovxoi xwv Xoyiav 
siol. <Daivtxai yao xb ovfipB(2rixbg , iyyig xi %ov 
firj ovxog, ArjXov 6s xal ix x&v xoiovtwv Xoy&v. Tto* 
piv yocg Silo* xgonov ovxvv, taxi yivsaig xal q&oga • 
xtov ds xaxa av^pipr^xbg ovx loxtv. 3 J\£ Sfimg Xexxiov 
txi ntgl xov au/i/?e/?i}xoTo? i<p ooov ivdsxnai , tig i\ 
q>voig avxov, xal 6ia xiv alxiay ioxlv, Apa yog dr\- 
Xov soxai long, xal diet xi imovqpri ovxeativ avxov, 
'End ovv ioxiv iv xoXg ovoiv,xapsv aslwoaviagsxov- 
xa xal IS avayxt\g , ov Tyg xaxa xb (tiaiov Xsyofiswjg, 
ttU' r\v Xiyofitv,X(p (ly ivdixso&ai aXX<og , xa tie, i£ 
avdyxrjg fisv ovx Koxiv ovx 3 ael , ov& wg imxonoXv, 
avjT) uqxV *** * uvxi\ aixla ioxl xov thai xb ovppe- 
firjxog. "0 yag av fj fiyx atl, pri& m imtonoXv, 
xovxo (paper ovfiptpyxbg elva* • Olov inl xvvl av #«— 
fiwv yevrjiai xal ynt/og, xovxo ovfi^pal atafiev, a*X 
ovx av nvlyog xal aXia, oxi xb fiiv asl , jf mg inno- 
noXv , xb d* ov. Kal xbv av&gwiov Xsvxbv tlvai 
ovpfiiprixsv • ovxt yocg asl, ov&* ug htixonoXv • £wo* 
d* ov xaxa ovppsfitjxog. Kal xb xbv olxodopov vyti- 
av noiijoat ovpPiprjxtv, oxi ov nicpvxs xovxo itoiuv 
oixodofiog, aXi laxgog' aXXa owi/fr} iaxgbv ehai 
xbv olxodopov. Kal oytonoibg ydovfjg aio/afope- 
vog, noi%omvav xi vymvov ai£ ov xaxa xi}voyto- 
noifixixyv. Jib owipri qpapsv , xal toxiv Stg noiu, 
anXwg 6* ov. T&v fitv yag ctXXai dvvaptig kvioxi el- 
oiv ai noirixixal, x<ov d* ovdsfiia xixvy, ovde dvvafug 
wQiopivTi. Tiov yag xaxa ovpfoprixbg ovxav rj yivo- 
fiivfav , xal xb aXxibv ioxi xaxa ovftpeprjxog • war 
inudij ov navxa ioxlv i$ avayxyg xal asl ij ovxa q 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. V. (VI.) CAP. 3. J25 

yivoptva, aXXa rot nXuota ug initonoXi, itviyxti 
Aval to xata ovfifoptixog ov olov ovt ail, ov&* ig 
initonoXv, 6 Xevxog fiovoixog iotiv. 'Enel di ylv$- 
tal now, xata ovppeprjxog total* tldifitj, nav- 
to total 4$ avayxijg, "flat* r\ vXrj tatai ahla r\ h- 
d$xofihfi naqa to wg imtonoXv aXXatg tov ovfiptprj- 
sotog ahla. 'Aqxv* di tyvdl Xrpniov, noatqov ov- 
dh iotiv, ovt alsl, ov%? v>g inuonoXv, ij xovxo adv- 
vatov. Eativ aqa t» nagi tavta to onoxtq txvx* 
xal xata oi//u/?e/?i}xo?. *AXXa noxsqov xo &g inixoitoXv , 
to d' i$l ov&tvl vnagxtiy q ioxlv axxa atdia; Iltql 
piv ovy tovttov vqtsqov oxtnxiov. "Oxi d' inioir\pr\ ovx 
taxi tov 6vpp$prix6tog t o}avtqbv*Emavr\pi\P* v Y*Q n *~ 
oa,7} tov asl, qtovtogimtonoXv. Uug yaq rj fia&rj- 
uexai fj didaUi, aXXov; J si yaq vqlo&ai r\ tw asl, ?; 
t« fig initonoXv ' olov oxi wcpiXipov tot nvqixxovxi to 
psXlxqaxov tug initonoXv. To di naqa xovxo ovx 
fjw Xiyuv noxi ov' olov vovfirjvla. ™H yaq atl, ?J 
wg innonoXv , xal tiJ vovfirivia. To di ovfi^s^rjxog 
iatt naqa xavxa. Ti pkv ovv ion tc ovp(}epT)x6g , 
xal dia tlv aixiav, xal oxi toioxtjpr} ovx totiv avtov t 

Oxi d siolv aqxal xal atria ytwyxa xal cp&agia 
Svtv tov yiyveo&at xal q>&tlgto&ou y cpavsg6v.Ei yaq py 
xovxo ,i$ avayxr^gnavx toxai,el xov yivopivov xal <p&ti- 
qofiwov pr) xaxa ovppBpr^xog al'tiov ti avayxrj slvai. 
Uottqov yaqsaxai xodl fj ov ; *Eav ys todl yivytar ti 
di fly, ov * tovto di, iav aXXo • xal ovxto dt\Xovbxi atl 
Xqovov aopaiqovfihov ano nsntgaofiivov XQ° V0V > 

d by Google 

126 AR1ST0TEL1S 

*)'£«* til ib vvv. "Slort ods ano&avsixat , rj voooj 1} 
fiia , idv ys iUX&y iovio di, iav diytrjoy iovio 
di, idv aXXo • xal ovitag rjUi sig o vvv vndgxtt> , ij sig 
imv ysyovonov it • olov , idv duprjori * tovto di , d 
ia&lst dgtpia • tovto d*, r\iot vndgxu, *? ov '» *flor 
H avdyxrjg dno&aviliat, fj ovx drto&avsliat. *Of*oi- 
<og di xtjev V7tsgnr}dri07j tig tig id ysvopsva , o avibg 
Xoyog. v H$ri yag vndgxst tovto sv itvt, A&yw di 
to ysyovog. *E£ avayxrjg dga nana saiai id loo- 
fisva, olov , to dno&aviiv iov £tovta. "Hdy yag it 
ysyovsv olov rot (vaviia iv t$ avtto awfiait* altf 
si voota, r\ (Ma, ovnta * alia idv lodl ysvrjiai,. JtjXov 
aga on pixQi itvbg ftadl&i dgx?i$ * aviij d* ovx 
It* sig alio. *Eoiat ovv y iov bnoisg sivx*v av- 
trj, xal alitor ir\g ysvsostog aviyg ov&iv • aitX* sig ao- 
X*iv noiav, xal ah iov noXov fj avayayrj r\ to taint], noit- 
gor dog slg vXrjv, tj wg sig 16 ov tvsxa, fj ag tig 16 x«- 
vr^oav, pdXioia onsmiov. Ilsgl fiiv ovv iov xaiit ovp- 
psprjxog oviog, aqpsia&ta • dttagtoxai yag Ix avtog. To 
ds ag aXij&ig ov dtg ipsvdog , instdij nagd avv&saiv 
ioit xal dtaigeoiv • to ds avvoXov, mgl fisgtofibv «y- 
itqpdoswg. To ftiv yag aXri&ig, irjv xaid<paotv in* 
x<av ovyxufisvoav kX^'ir\vd 9 anotpaotv, friliwv dtrj- 
grjfisvtov * io ds ifftvdog, ioviov iov (isgiafAOv irjv «v- 
it<paotv. n&g ds io apa, tj to x^O^S vouv ovpflai- 
vst t aXXog Xoyog, Aiyto di io Spa xal to x^olg, Sots 
1**1 io 4q>s£rig, aX£ h it ylyvto&at • oil yag ioitib y>sv- 
dog xal io dXrj&ig sv idlg ngdyfiaotv • oIof to fih 
dya&ov, otXri&ig • to di xaxbv, ipsvdog • aXX' 4v 3icr- 
vola. nsgl diid dnXa xalia il iaiiv, oid' sv xfi 

Digitized by GOOgle 


SuMvoia. "Oaa per ovr del #««o*jaa* negl to ovtmg 
or nai pr\ or, votegor inujxtnteor. 3 £nel Si i ovp~ 
nXoxtf iorir xal y diaigeoig h dutroia, aX£ gin ir 
toig ngdy float, to 6' ovtug or, hegor or t&r xvglwr 
(rj yag to tl fatir, tj ou notor, rj oti noobr , rj tt it, 
alio ovrarrtei rj aqpaigel t) didroia) to per tig ovp- 
pefifjxbg. xal to wg dXrj&eg oV, aqpetior. To yag at- 
ttor, tov per aogiotor, tov di trig diaroiag tl nd&og, 
xal dpqpotega nagd to Xomor yerog tov ortog, xal 
ovx !£*> drjlovotv ovodr ttra opvoir tov ortog. Aib 
tavta psr a<ptlo&(o • oxentior di tov ortog avtov tat 
aiuu xal tag agxag, jj or. <Pctvfgor d* ir olg diw-* 
giodpe&a negl tov nooax&g Xiyetai&taotor, oti noX- 
Xax&g Xeyetat to or. 



JL o or Xeyetat noXXaxwg, xa&dneg dteiXope&a nqo- 
tegor irtdlg negl tov noXXaxStg. Sv^palrei yag to 
per ti ioti , xal tode tt • to di, on noior , i) noobr, 
-J iw aXXeor exaotor tttr ovta xattiyogovperwr. To- 
oavtax&g di Xeyopirov tov ortog, qparegov, oti tov- 
tar ngwtor or, to ti iotir, oneg ofjpalvet tr)r ovular. 
Otar pir yag eVnwper notov tt Tode,*j itya&br Xiyo- 
per, if xaxbr, aX£ ov tglnnxv, i? ar&gwnor' otar di 
ti iottr, ov Xevxbr ovdi &egpbr, ovdi tglnrjxv , aXXu 
ar&gwnor fj &eor. Ta d * aXXa Xiytxou orta , to! 
tov ortag ortog, ti per noabvqtag eJrat 9 td denoio- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tt)% ag, ta M na&y> *« to aXXo ii> Totovtov. Aih x$f 
anogriosU Tig nbiigov to §adl£tiv xal to vyiaiveiv 
xal to xa&r)o&ai IxaaTov aviwv ov, %\ pi) bv. Opoioag 
ds xal inl tuv aXXwv onovovr twv toiovnSv, Ovdev 
yag avT&v ioTiv, ovts xa&' amb nsyvxog , ovts #a»- 
gi&o&ai dvvaibv rrjg ovolag , aXXa paXXov s\itSQ to 
(iadi£ov TcSr orrtav tI, xal to xa&r k psvov, xal to vyi>- 
alvov. TavTa ds paXXov yalvsiai ovta • dioti sari 
Ti vnoxsipsvov aviolg wgiopevov. Tovto d iarlv 
7) ova la xal to xa& sxaoTov, oneg ipqpaivsrat iv ti} 
xaTTjyogia ttj Toiavtrj. To aya&bv yag r\ to xa&q- 
psvov, oix avsv tovtov Xiysrai. Ar\Xov ovv oxi dia 
TavTi\v , xyxslvw sxaoTov ionv. "SLots to ttoqJ- 
Ttog ov, xal ov ti ov, aX£ ov anXwg, 7) ovoia av bVt]. 
^noXXaywg piv ovv UysTai to ng&TOv. "Opwg di 
navTtav t) ovola ngmov xal Xoyq? , xal yvwsn , xai 
Xq6vm, xal qpvosi. Twv psv yag aXXwv xatriyoQijua- 
Ttov, ovdsv yagiOTov • avtrj di pbvT) ' xal tw Xoyt$ di 
tovto ng&TOv, 'Avayxrj yag iv tw exaffTOv Xoyco^ 
tov Trig oioiag Xbyov ivvnagxuv. Kal sldsvai di 
tote oloue&a sxaoTov uaXiora , otav tI sotiv o av- 
•frganog yvoapsv, r\ to nvg, paXXov r, to noiov , t\ to 
noobv, 7) to nov • insl xal avt&v tovtw , tots cxa- 
otov lopsv, ovav ti £oti to noobv 7"} to noiov,Xdo)ptv. 
Kal St) xal to nalai te xal vvv xal a si tyiovpevov 
xal as* anogovfjisvov, tI to ov, tovto ioTi, Tig ovoia' 
tovto yag ol piv sv slvat (paotv, ol ds nXsito r) sv * xal 
oi psv nsnsgaopsva, oi de ansiga. Jib xal r\piv xal 
pdXioTa, xal ngwtov xal pbvov, wg tinsiv , nsgl tov 
ovTtag bvTog dtoogyriov tL ioTi. 

d by Google 


doxu d' r\ ovola vndgxtiv qtavsQUTata (isv toXg 
wpaoi. Jib id T6 ?£a xal ret (pvia , xal ra pogia 
uvtwv, ovoiag slval yaptv , xal id qpvoixa ooopoua, 
olov, nvQ, xal vda>Q, xal yijv, xal twv ioiovxwv txa- 
atov, xal ooa r\ pogia tovtmv, i) ix tovxw ioxlv , % 
fiigiov, r\ ndvxw olov, « ovgavbg xal ra ftogia 
aiaov aoxga, xal oeXrjvrj xal yXiog. Jloxtgov ds at- 
%ui povai ovoiav tlolv, r) xal dXXai, i\ xovxwv fjiiv ov- 
fisv, txsgai di xivsg, oxemiov. Joxh di uoi tot tov 
otopaxog nigaxa , olov imcpdvtia xal ygafipri xal 
ouyfiT) xal povag, slvai ovolai, xal fiaXXov rj to aw- 
jtia xal jo oxegsov. *Exi nagd ra aio&r)xd , oi fiiv 
ovk ol'orxai slvaiovdiv xoiovxov , oi di nXeioa, xal 
fiaXXov ovxa a'idia, woneg IlXdxmv %d xs sl'drj xal ra 
pu&rifiaTixa, 6vo ova lag , xghr\v di xr)v %w a\a&r\- 
iw owpdxcov ovoiav Sntiomnog di xal nXeiovg 
ovoiag, anb xov kvbg ag^dfisvog , xal dgxdg ixdoxr\g 
ovalag aXXrjv uiv agi&pwv, aXXrjv di fiBys&av, snnxa 
V v As ' *«* xovxov di] tov igonov inexxslvu Tag ov- 
ofag. "Evioi di t« fisv tldr] xal rovg agi&povg , xrp 
avtriv e%8iv qpaol qpvoiv * xd di a'Ua ixofisva , ygafi- 
fwg xal inineda, fiixgi ngbg xijv tov ovgavov ovoiav 
*«* id alo&ryia. Iltgl 6% tovtwv, rl Xsysxai xaXwg 
*(tiilvsg tlolv ovolai, xal noxsgov elol xivsg nagd 
i*g aio'd-ri'tdg, rj oix siol, xal avxai n&g eUn, xal no- 
rsobv ioxl Tig xwgioxr) ova la, xal did il, xal nStg, r\ 
ovdsfila nagd tag alad"f\Tag ox&rtiov, vnoxvntaaa^i- 
v oig nqoixov trjv ovoiav tl i(JTi. 

Arist Metaph. I 

Digitized by GOOgle 


CAPUT 111. 

Aiysrai dr\ ovoia, si py nXsovax&S, cuU' eV tst- 
jocqoI ye pdXiOTa. Kul yag to il rp elvou, xal to 
xa&olov, xalto yevog, tj ovoia doxsl thai kxaarm, 
xal ihagtov tovtwv to vnoxsipevov. To d* irmo- 
xsipftov iori, xa^' ov ra alia Xiysxai, ixslvo di av* 
to fiTjxiu hot aXXov. dtb ng&Tov ntgl tovtov duo- 
giariov, MaXiaxa di doxsl tlvai ovvia to vnoxsips- 
vov ngwtov, toiovtov di igonov piv Tiva, i} vXy idyo- 
xai • aXXov di tgonov rj pogyrj • tqItqv di, to 4x tov- 
T(0v» Aiyto di tt\v piv vXrjv, olov Toy jraAxoY • tip di 
pogqpr\v, to o%f}pa Trie idsag* to d ix tovtwv, to* 
avdgiavTa to ovvoXov. "/Lots si to sldog tijg vkrfi 
ngoTsgov xal paXXov ov, xal tov & aptpolvngoxsqw 
earcu, dia tov axnov Xoyov, Nvv piv ovv tvtt<» sf- 
Qr\xoLiy t{ not iotlv t\ ovoia , ©t* to py xatf vtioxo- 
pivov, aXXa xa& ov t« aXXa, Asl diov povov ov- 
TW ov yag Ixavov. Avto t% yag tovto adrjXov. 
Kal STi tj vXr\ ova lot yivsim * el yag pi} avtr\ ovoiv, 
tig ioTiv aXXfi, diaqpsvysi. Hsgtaigovpivwv yag tcw 
aXltiK*, ov qpaivsrai oifdiv vnopivov* Ta piv yttg 
alXa, Tcov 0G>paT(nv7r*&t), xal non^para, xal dvva- 
pstg * to di pyxog xal nXctTog xal fia&og , noooTrjrig 
uvsg, aXtf ovx ovoicti. To yag nooov ovx oioim* Al- 
Xa paXXov to vnaQXUTavta avta ngwuag, ixslvo 4anv 
t) ovoia. 'Alia pyv aymgovprvov pyxovg xal nXm- 
jovg nal fia&ovg, ov&b> ogipsv inoXstnopsvov, nXijv 
si' T* iaxl to bgi&ptvov vno tovtcw. "JLgt* Tip vlffv 
avayxrj <paivso&ai uovriv ovoiav ovt(o oxonovuivQic. 
jitym o vkr\v t\ xa& avTi\v pr\T% ti, pr\T% nooov, gir)- 

Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. VI. (VII.; CAP. 4. 131 

u alio firjdh liytiat, olg tooiotai to ov • eatt yaq ti 
xa& ov xatfiyogitrai tovttav txaoiov , <j> to elvai 

fnoov, xal t&v xatrjyoomv kxaory. Taftevyao alia, , 

ti# ova lag xatffyoQsitat ' ewrnj ds, trig vlr\g, c Slott 
to tozotjov, xct-d? avto ovis tl, owe noobv, ovis alio 
w&p iotiv ' ovtii dy al atnocpaosig. Kal yaq avtai 
inaqZovm xaza av(i{k(lr}XQ$. 'Ex fdv ovv tovtwv 
fcuoovoi avpfkUvsi ovalav thou tip vlr\v • advvatov 
&L Kal yaq to xwqiotbv , xal to todt %i vnaqxtiv 
fojwt paliota ttj ovola. 4io to tldog, xal to i£ «f*- 
<jPo*y, ovoia do&iw av fialXov tlvai t»Jj x/il^j. 7^y 
jtw tolwv 4£ afiq>oiv ovoiav (Xiyta ds tip \x vr\g vli\g 
talzrjs pooyrjg) atpvtiov • votiqayaq xal d^Xy * qpa- 
y^a de tioj^ xat ^ i/i^ * weo* fli trj.g tqitt\g oxmtiov. 
Avttj yaq anoquttatr^. OpoXoyovvtai 6* ovoiou «i- 
vtu tw aio&tjTwv twtg. ci JIozb iv tavtaig S^t^tcov 

'Entld 3 iv agxv Suilo/At-froi, noaoig boi£ofiw tnv 
woiav , xal tovtw IV ti doxu that to ti r\> that, 
dttaqriziov ntql avtov' nqb sgyov yaq to futafiaivuv 
tig t6 ytwqiptoTsqov. 'H yaq fxa&noig ovza yivttai 
nam, diet t&v ffttor yv&qlfiav cpvoug tig ta yvwqipa 
pallor. Kal tovxo %qyov iotlv, aonsq iv talg nqa- 
l*w, to notrjoeti ix tow kxdatao aya&wv, ta oltog aya- 
&a, btdoTto aya&dr oiruagix wy avtip yvwqifiatiq&v, 
tit tfi <pvoti yv&Qifia «vt<w yvtogyta • id 5' sxaatoi? 
Tfi^fiaxal nomta, noXldxig r^qi^ia yvwoipa' xal 
ptXQov rj ovdh tx**v tov ovtog. 'MX opwe i* 
vov tpavXug (iev yvtaoiatm , av^cj Si yvwowv , ta 


Digitized by GOOgle 


oXwg yvtoota yv&vai nsigatiov , fistapalvovxag (wa- 
nsQ sfgtjtai) did tovttav avt&v. Kal ng&tov ff- 
impsv tvia nsgl avtov Xoyixwg, otitoti to tl f\v slvai 
sxaoxov, o Xiystai xa& avto. Ov ydg ioti to aol «7- 
vai, to novoixo* slvcu. Ov yagxata aavtbv si (tovoixog* 
o aga, xata oaviov. Ovde dy tovto nav. Ov yap to 
ovttog xa& avto, wg img>dvsia Xsvxrj, on ovx soti to 
imqpavsta that, to Xsvxw slvcu. IdXXd fivv ovde to 
i$ dficpolv, to tniyayda Xsvxfj slvat. Aid xi; on ngoo- 
sotiv avxr\. 3 Ev to aga pr} hiatal Xoyta avto, 2J- 
yovxi avto , ovtos o Xoyog tov ti tyr slvat kxaottp. 
"Slot si to imqpavsla Xsvxfj slvat iott, to imqpavsia 
slvat Xsla , to Xevxw xal Xsico slvat , to avto xal sv. 
J Ensl d' satt xal xata tag aXXag xatijyoglag ovv&sxa 
(ear i ydg ti vnoxslfisvov kxdotto , olov zm noiia , xal 
tw ttot£, xal t$ nov/xal ty xivriost) axsntsov, aga 
sott Xoyog tovtl r\v kxaotto slvat, xal vndgxst xal 
xovtoig to xitjv slvat' olov Xevxw dv&gt&7t(p tl rjv 
Xsvxw av&g&mo. "Eotm drj ovofia avup Ipdttov , ti 
ioti to Ifiatlta slvat, ' aXXd prjv ovde t&v xa%? avto 
Xsyop&vmv, ovds tovto, % to ov xa& avto Xiystat 
b*iZ<»g, xal tovtov sott tl, to (tsv ix ngoo&sosag , to 
ds ov. To fisv ydg t$ avto &XXq> ngooxiia&at, Xiystat 
o bgl£stat ' olov si to Xsvxw slvat ogt£6j*svog , Xiyst 
Xsvxov dv&gwnov Xoyov. To ds tw , dXXo avxq> • 
olov si oupalvu to Ifidttov, Xsvxbv av&gvmov , 6 de 
ogl£st xb Ifidttov &g Xsvxov. To ds Xsvxbg aWpa>- 
nog , Sort ftsv Xtvxov , ov fiBvxoi ti r\v tlvai Xevxaj av- 
•frgtoniu , aXXd tm Ifiatita slvai. *Aga toti to tl tjv 
slval xi , ^ oXwg, ij ov ; v Onsg ydg t* \v slvai, satt^ib 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. VI. (\1\.) CAP. 4. 133 

xi ryv bIvcu. "Oxav d* aXXo xax aXXov Xiyr\icu, ovx 
eativ ontg xotfe xf olov, b Xsvxbg av&gtanog , oix 
ear iv ontg xode xi, tl'mg xb xodt xi xaig ovoiaig vnag- 
%m povov. "JI0T8 to xi ip thai ioxiv , ooatv o Xoyog 
ioxiv bgiopog. 'Ogiopbg d 1 daily ovx av ovopa Xoyta 
ravxb orjfiatvov • (ndvxtg yag av thv oi Xoyoi ogoi. 
"ifrxai yag vvopa oxtoovv Xoyta xavxov • ware xal r\ 
*lXiag bgiapbg eoxai) aX£ iav ngdxov xivbg rj. Tot- 
avxa d* taxiv, ootx Xiyexai pr\ tw aXXo xax aXXov Xi- 
yeo&ai. Ovx iloxai aga ovb*$vl x&v fiij yivovg tld&v 
vnagxov xb xl fjv elvai, alia xovxoig povov. Tavxa 
yag doxu ov xaxa pixoxr\v Xiyio&aixal na&og, ovd* 
tog ovfifofirixbg, alia Xoyog fxiv toxai kxaaxov xal x<ov 
aXXo)v xi otifiaivu, iav $ ovopa, oxi xods xtatit vnag- 
ZSi, r\ aril Xoyov anXov axgipioxegog* 'Qgiopbg d' 
ovx toxai, ovdi xb xl rjv elvai. *Hxal bgiopbg, wonsg 
xal xb xlioxi nXeovax<»g Xiyexai; Kalyag xb xiioxiv, 
fy<* uev xgbnov orjfiaivH xi\v ovoiav, xal xb xodt xi • 
aXXov $8, txaoxov x&v xaxriyogovpevav, noobv, noibv, 
xal 00a alia xotavxa* won eg yccg xal xb xiioxivvnagxu 
7TOCOIV, all* ovx bfioitag, alia tw fisv ngwtwg, xoig d 3 
knopevcog • ox xa xal xb xi ioxiv , anXtog fih xrj ova (a, 
n&g di xdig aXXoig. Kal yag xb noibv igoipsd* av 
tl ioxiv ' &oxz xal xb noibv, x&v xi ioxi fiiv, aX£ ovx 
anXmg, aXX? wontg inl xov fiv ovxog Xoyixwg <paoi 
xivtg tivai xb fiy ov , ovx anXwg , alloc pi) ov , ovxta 
xal xb noiov. Au fib ovv axontiv xal xb n^*g dil 
liyetv ntgl kxaaxov, ov pyv fiaXXov ys, ij xb nag txti. 
Jib xal vvv in$l xb Xsyofievov (pavegbv , xal xb xi i]v 
elvai opoi&g vndglu, ngmtag piv xal anXig xjj ou- 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ala., slta xal toig aXXotg , Sansg xal to ti iotiv , <A>x 
anXwg ti r\y slvat, aXXa note? i] noo& ti %r eTvai. 
Jii yaq i) optavvfimg tavta qpavai slvai ovta, ^ ngoa- 
ti&svtag xal acpaigovvtag , &ansg xal to pri imotij- 
tbv, &Jtio~tv\tbv • insl toys bg&ov ioxi, tifjtsofiwruft&g 
apavat, fttiTS waavjwg, aXtf won tg to iaxgixov't&ngbg 
aitb flip, xal sv , oi to aitb di xal tv. Oi piivtoi 
ovdi bftwvvfHog. Oidiv yctg tatgixbv owpa xal sqyov 
xal axsvog Xiystai , ovts buavvftag , ovts xa& h, 
aXXa 7i go g IV. Tain a piv ovv bnotigwg tig &iXti Xi- 
ysiv, diaqpigu ovdsv. 3 £xs7vo di cpavsgbv, oti o ngw- 
t<og xal anXwg ogivfibg, xal to tirjv slvat, ttovovaimv 
iotiv * oi fii}v aXXa xal tuv aXXwv bfioimg iotl , nXrp 
oi ngtaxwg. Ov yag avayxif, av tovto ti&to/isp, rov- 
tov bgiopbv sly at, o iav Xoyta to aitb arjfialvr), aXXa 
tivl Xoyta. Tovto d* iav hog r lt prj tS ovvsxsl So- 
nsg t) 'iXiag., % oaa awdiafifa, aX$ iav boa/cog Xiys- 
Ttft to ev to d* tv Xiystai, wan Eg to or. To ds ov, 
to fisv tods ti, to ds noabv, to di noibv n ofjftabsi. 
Jib xal Xsvxov av&gtanov scrtat Xoyog xal bgtofiog* 
aXXov di tqonov, xal tov Xsvxov xal ova lag. 
v Exm d* inogiav, iav tig fi^ cpfj bgiofibv slvai tov 
ix itQoo&soswg Xbyov , tivogsotai oqicfibg , twv ovx 
anXwv , aXXa ovvdsdvaopsvwv ; 'EX ngoo&iomg yag 
avayxti drjXovv. Asyta di, olov, satt fig xal xoiXotfjg, 
xalaifiotfjg to ix tdtv dvotv Xsyofisvov , tip tods h 
t$ds, xal oi ovpfoPrixog ys • ov&* f] xoiXotrjg, ov&* 
^ aifiotrjg, na&og trjg (ivbg, aXXa xa& avtyv. Ovd* 
oyg to Xsvxbv KaXXltx ij av&gwnu , oti KaXXlag Xsv- 

METAPHYS. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 5. 136 

nog, <p ovfifiiprjxtv av&gvn<p thai , iX£ ig xb affap 
tw Jww xcu xb Too* tw 7ioaw , xal navxa boa Xiynat 
xa& avxd inagxtiv, Tavxa d' ioxlv to booig vndg- 
X& *} o Xoyog, ij xovvopa, of ioxi xovxo na&og, xal 
firj ivdixtxai dijXwocu xwfay vontg to Xtvxbv avtv xov 
av&gmnov todixetai • aXX 3 ov xb &i}Xv avtv tow £wov. 
°J2ot« xovxtov xb xi i\v thai xal o bgtopbg, jJ ov» eoriy 
ovdsvbg, tj tl eaxiv , dXXct xa&antg tlgrjxautv. *Eon 
S* anogia xal ixiga negl avxmv. El f$$v yag to ovto' 
iox$ xal aifitj $lg xal moIXij $g, to avxb soxai to oipbv 
xal to xoiXov iidk (at), dta to advvaxov that tlniiv, 
to Oifiov xal avtv xov ngayfiaxogov ion na&ogxa&' 
avro* xal soxai xo otftbv xoiXoxyg iv g'ipl, to (fiva 01- 
firjv tlniiv, rj oix toxiv, rj dig to avxb eoxai tigtifiivov, 
$lg fa xoiXtj. C H yag $lg ^ oifiri, $U[fig]xoih}toicu. 
Aib axonov xo indgx* 1 * J °1$ xoiovxoig xb xi r\v thai. 
JEt di fly, tig Snug or Hot. c Pivl yag g'lvl oipjj , txi 
aXXo hiatal. JiqXov xoiwv, oxi (iovrigiT)g ovolag ioxlv 
ogioftog. El yag xal xmv aXX&v xaxtiyogiwv, avayxtf 
in ngoo&iotag thai, olov, xov noiov xal ntgixxov. 
Ov yag avtv agi&ftov * oidi b xov drjXeog avtv fwov. 
Tb di ix ngoo&iotwg Xdyto , to olg ovpfialvti dig xb 
avxb Xiytiv, fitamg to xovxoig ' tl di xovxo aXrj&ig, 
eidi xfiv ovvdvatopivatv Koxai, olov agt&pov mgix- 
xov • aXXi Xav&atu bxi oix axgiflatg Xiyovxai ol Zo- 
yoi. El di slot xal xovxw ogoi, tjxot aXXov xgonov 
tiolv, ij xa&dntg iXiy&ri, noXXaxwg Xtxxiov elvai xov 
igiofibv, xal xb xi rp that. *Jloxt wdl fito ovdsvbg 
eoxai ogtoftbg, ovdi xb xi r\v thai ovdtvl indglu, 
nXj\v ratg ovoiatg, Adl d' Iotcm. "Oxi pto ovv ioxlv 

Digitized by GOOgle 


bgiopbg o tov tlr\v sivai Xoyog, xal to ti i\v slvm 
ilj fiovov iwv ovoi&v sotiv, rj fiaXiota xal ngatag xa* 
otTiXotg, dfjXov* 


Ilotsgov ds tavtb iotiv yfosgov to tir\v thai, xal 
sxaotov, axsntsov. "Eotv yag ti ngb sgyov ngbg ti]v 
nsgl trig ova lag oxiipiv. "Exaotov ts yag ovx aXXo 
doxsl sivai vrjg kavtov ovaiag' xal to ti i\v sivai Ac- 
ystatslvat rj kxdotov ovoia. 'Enlpiv dy ttuv Xsyo[isv(ov 
xata ovpfoprixog, do&isv av hsgov elvai, olov Xsvxo g 
av&gwnoq stsgov, xal to Xsvxw av&gwna sivai. El 
ydg to avtb av&gwnw thai, , xal Xsvxoi av&gwna to 
alto. To avtb ydg av&gwnog, xal Xsvxbg ayttyw- 
nog , wg (pctaiv. v Sloxsxaltb Xsvxw av&g<6na> xal 
to av&gmnw. "Hovx dvdyxv\ 00a xata avppiflriXQi:, 
sivat tavta; Ov yag aoavtag ta axga .yivstaitavtd* 
dl£ I'owg y sxsivo do&iev Si v ovpfiaivsiv ta axga yivs- 
o&ai tavta xata ovfifteprjxog' olov to Xsvxw sivai, 
xa* to (iovoixto char doxu ds oil. 'Enl ds t<Sj> xa& 
avta Xsyopsvtuv, dsl dvdyxv\ tavta sivai • olov sltivig 
sloiv ovoiai, wvstsgai firj sloiv ovoiai, ji^tfe qpvosig 
stsgai ngotsgai, oXag q>aol tag Idiag sivai tiveg. El 
yag, sotat stsgov avtb to ayadbv, xal to aya&ia «7- 
vat, xal fcuo?, xal to &»<p sivai, xal t$ ovttxal tbov, 
soovxai aXXai te ovoiai xal ideat nagatag Xsyofiivag, 
xal ngotsgai ovoiai, ixttvai, si to tir\v dvat oioiag 
ioti. Kal si fih anoXsXvpsvai aXXrjXcov, tiv fUv ovx 
sotat in loiriiLr} , xa 5' ovx sotat ovta. sJiyoa ds to 
dnoXsXvod-at , si fifjts t§ aya&$, avt$ vnagxsi to 
sivat aya&$, jujjie tovtca to sivai dyad-ov. *Emotrtfiil 

d by Google 

METAPHYS. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 6. 137 
t« yaq kxdatov avtq, to ti r\v ixsivtg slvat. Kal inl 
iya&ov xal iav alXwv bfioitog «/«. "flats si pridi 
to aya&M shai ayadbv, ovds to ovti ov, oidi tgj hi 
if. 'Ofioi&g di ndvia iatlv, rj ovdsv ta ti rjv shah, 
"flat si firids to ovti ov, oidi tnv alkw oidsv. £ti 
9 p>i vndqxu aya&<$ slvai, oix iya&ov. *Avayxy\ 
aqa tv slvai to aya&bv, xal to aya&cp thai • xctl to 
xaXbr, xal to xal to slvai, oaa (irj xat aXXov Xiystai, 
iXXd nqwta xal xa& avtd'xalyuqtovto Ixavbv, idv 
vnagxji > *$ v f*V Jl ^V ' p*llov d' towg x$v $ sidy. 
*Afia di dqXov t xal oti sVntq sialv ai Idsai o%ag tivsg 
(paoiv, oix sati to vnoxsipsvov oioia • tavtag yaq 
ova lag fisv ay a pernor thai, fiq xa& 3 vnoxupivov ds. 
"Eaortai yaq xata ps&s$iv. "Ex %s di\ tovtmv tw* 
loywv, tv xal tavto ov xata ovp/fc/fyxo g , cwto fxa- 
istov , xal to ti r\v slvai • xal oti ys to iniataad-ai 
ixaotov, xovto iati to ti %v slvai iniotao&at. Slots 
xata ttjv sx&satv uvdyxrj sv ti that Spam. To di 
xata ovpfoPrixog Xsyofisvov, olov, to povoixov, v 
Xtvxbv, did to dittbv aijfiaivsiv^ ovx aXyd-sg simlv, wj 
to avTo to ti rp thai, xal avto. Kal yaq, w avp/ft/fyxe 
Xsvxa, [xai] to avfifis^xog. "flats sou psv ag Tav- 
tbv , sat i. di ag oi tavto to ti nr\v slvai, xal avto. 
Tu fiiv yaq dv&q<6n(p xal t$ Itvxy av&qdnto, oi 
to avro , tw nddu di to avro. '^to^o? d av q>a- 
vtiir\, xavd'tig exuatco ovofia &olto tm ti r\v slvai . 
"Eotai yaq xal naq ixslvo alio , to ti \v ifoaiXnny, 
stsgov. Kaitot ti xuXvsi xal vvv sivai svia svdyg ti 
W Avai, svnsq oioia to ti t\v shai ; dXXa pt}V ov 
//oW h, aXXd xal o Xoyog o avtbg avwv, w« dnXow 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ix t&v HQriftivcav. Ov ydq xati ovfipefaxbg h to 
kvl slvai, xal sv. *£ti si aXXo total, tig ansiqov slaiv. 
To (iiv ydq sotai, to tl rjv thai to svl slvai, to ds to 
cv. v Jlots xal in* ixtlviav 6 avtbg sotai Xoyog. "Ott 
fisv ovv M t&v nqtotwv xal xa& avta Xiyopivtav } to 
hxdotto slvai xal sxaotov , to avtb xal sv ioti, dijXov. 
Ol ds aocpiotixol sXtyxoi nqog tr^v &soiv tavtrjv, qpoi- 
vsqbv oti.tfj avxjj XvovtaiXvosi, xal si tavto 2o)xqdtrjg 
xal Swxqdtti slvai, Ovdsv ydq diaqpsqsi, ovtt i$tov c^co- 
trjomv Sv tig, ovts i$ mv Xvtav initvx ^ Hug (isv ovv 
to tl rjv that tavto, xal nag ov tavto btdotqt, siqijtat. 

£ Tuv ds yivopivcov , ta fib q>vosi ylvttai, xa ds 
O **X*ll> T « $& inb tov avtopdtov. Jldvta ds tit yi- 

, vousva^imo^ti tivog ylvstai, xal sx tivog, xal tl. To 

f ds tl, Xiyta xa& kxaat^v xatijyoqlav. *H ydq tods, 
r\ noobv, fj noior, fj nov, Al ds ysvsasig, alfisv <pvot- 
xal avtal sioiv, jjtoi ixiivwv twv ysyovotoav av f) ysvs- 
oig ix (pvoswg ion. To ds i$ ov yiyvstai , ip Xsyo- 
psvvXriv. To ds vqf ov, twf cpvou ti fivtav. To 
ds tl, o av&qcmog, ij (pvtbv , rj alio ti twv toiovtsav, 
a drj fidXiota Xsyousv ovolag slvai. v Anavta ds ta 

yivo/xsva, % (pvosi, rjtixvj} , %xsi vXrjv dvvatbv yap 

shaixal pi\ slvai txaatov avtnv. Tovto d* iotlv 
r\ iv tm kxdottp vXrj. Ka&olov ds, xal i£ ov <pvaig 9 

J xal xa&b q>voig. To ydq yivousvov e/«* tpvotv, olov, 
<pvtbv, tj Jwoy * xal v<p ov fj xatd to tldog Xtyofuvfj 
opvoig q buosidtjg 9 avtrj ds iv aXXta* av&Qwnog yap 
uv&qomov yswijc. Ovtoa fisv ovv ylvstai ta yivopsva 
dta ti]v <jpiW. Al d' aXXai ysvsattg, Xsyovtat »oaij- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 7. 139 

est;, Uaaai Si n&n at noiqoug, rj anb rixnig, 1} 
anb dwapsag ij oWo/cr$. Tovtaw di nvtg yiyvoy* 
tai xal anb tov avtouatov, xal anb xizW naQonXn- 
oitog, ttantg to tolg vnb (pvovag ywoptooig. *'£in* yag 
xaxtt teevtet xal in amopatos ylvttm, xal artv onio- 
fiaxog. ZZto* ph ov* twig** vatigov imoxntxioy. 
*Anb ti&W M ylyvtta^ dp to tldog to tjj yv/jj. -E?- 
dog di Xiyai, i balr\9 air aj JigflTo y ., x al tip ngnt^w 
ovoiav. Kal yaq tcw toarrluv tgSnop tiva to av-""~ 
to tldog* Ti\g yag atBgfjomg ovala, i) ovala y av- 
tixsifttoi}, olov vylua vbaov, 'Extiptjg yag an ovala, 
dr\Xovtai ij viuog. *H di iyiua, b to tfj yvXJI Ibyog, 
xal b to rjj imortjuT}. rlvnat, di tbiytig, vor)oartog • 
imidrjib di vyltiav , avayxvj, ti vyiig lata*, todl 
vnagtat, oloy, b[iaX6tt}ta a u di tovto, &9gu6ttjta. 
Kal ovtwg ail voii, fag ay ayayr) dg tovto t oaitbg 
divatai toxarov nottiv. Eh a %di\ t) anb xovxw xl- 
vriois, notrjoig xaXtitai, g inl to vyialvuv. u SLotb 
avfipalvtt iqinoy ttva iytlav it iytlaq ylndtiai, ta\ - 
tip olxiav i$olxlag, trjg uvivvXr]g f tT}v ^xovGavvXt}v. 
*H.yag iatgixr) iou xal oixodofiixr), to eldog rr)g vyi-^ 
tlag xal trig olxlag. Aiyta di ovoiav arev vXyg , to 
xi r t y elvou. Twv di yeviosw xal xwyoew rjfih ?0)j- 
oig xaXutai, i\ di nolrjaig • rj (ito anb th)g <*QX*I$ *°* 
tov Bidovg, v 67)01$ • % d* anb tov nXsvtalov trjg vorj- 
atoag, nolf}oig, *Ofiol(og di xal inl twi> aXXtov t&y 
urra£v txaatov ylvttai. Aiyta dr olov, d vyiav&rj, 
dit bfiaXvv&r]vat,. Ti ovv iotitb bpaXvtdiqvai ; to- 
dL Tovto d' earai, si •d-SQuav&rjottai,. Tovto di 
tiiou; todL c TnaQx*i> di rodl dvvapn • tovto di 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fjdrj in ctvtw. To drj notovv xal o&sv agxsTai *} 
xivrjoig tov vyiaivzw, iav piv ano Tsxvrjg, to sldog 
ion to iv rjj yvxfi ' iav d ' ano tov avxopaxov , ano 
tovtov dyXovon o noxa tov noistv agxh T( ? notovv- 
n ano Tsxvrjg • tnomg xal iv tw iatgsvuv, i'oag ano 
tov Ssgfiaivsiv y agxri* Tovto ds notst tjj Tgtysi. 
C H &sgfioTTjg Toivvv rj iv tm ooofiaTt/rj psgog Ttjgvysi- 
ag, ij ennui n avijj toiovtov o ion psgog i^g vysl- 
ag, i] dia nXsiovtav. Tovto d' soxoitov, to notovv t 
xal to ovTtog fisgog iaii xr\g vyslag , xal Ttjg oixlag • 
olov, olXi&oi ' xal Ttov (iXXwv. "JIots xa&ansgXsys- 
tai advvarov ysvso&ati si pudsv ngovnagxot, "Ort 
psv ovv to (iigog vndg£si $ dvayxtjg , g>avsgov, C H 
ydg vXrj psgog. *Evvnagxs* ydg xal yivsrat avTt} • 
aXX aga xal t<ov iv tw Xoyw; 3 Apq>0Tsgtag ds Xiyopsv 
Toig noXXovg xvxXovg tI eta* • xal t^v vXrjv XiyovTsg 
ots xvlxog * xa* to sldog, on oxypa TOiovds, xal tov- 
to' ion to ysvog, tig o ng&Tov ti&stui. c ds /ajl- 
xovg xvxXog «/et iv t$ Xoyta t^v vXriv. 3 J2$ ov ds wg 
vXr\g yivsrat Una, Xsystat otolv ysvrjrai, ovx ixsTvo, 
aX$ ixslvivov olov b ivdgiag ov Xi&og, aXXa Xl&tvog. _ 
'0 ds av&gtonog b vyiaivow, ov Xsysrai ixslvo i£ ov. 
Alitor ds, on yivsiai ix Tyg oTsgyoaag xat tov vno- 
xstpsvov, o Xsyopsv trjv vXrjv • olov xal 6 av&gtanog 
xal b xofivtav yivsrat vyiyg. MaXXov pivroi Xsysrai 
ix Tfjg OTtgrjostag ylvso&ai • olov ix xdfivovrog vytijg, 
t) i$ av&gunov. Jto xapvtov usv 6 vyitig ov Xsysrai, 
av&gwnog ds, xal uv&g&nog vyirig, r Jlv d ' i} ors- 
grioig adyXog xal avuvvpog • olov iv x<&*§ WW** 
to bnoiovovv , ij iv nXlv&oig xal IvXotg oixlag • ix 

Digitized by GoOgle 

MET A PH. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 8. 141 

tovtav doxsl ylvso&ai £g 4xti i% xdpvovtog. Aib 
Sonsg ovd' ixti, rf£ ov tovto 4xuvo ov liyttai, ovd' 
4vtsv&tv o avdgidg Svlov, alia nagdystai tvlwog, 
ov IvXoy xal xolxovg, dl£ ov£<xAxbV *<** li&ivog, 
alt ov Xi&og • xal y oixia nliv&fat), dl£ ov nliv&oi • 
btsl ovds wg 4x £vlov ylvstai avdgidg, rj 4x nliv&av 
oixia, 4dv tig imftXsnjj oq>6dga, ovx av oinXeig slnoie, 
did to dsiv fistapdllovtog ylvso&ai 4$ ov, dl£ ovx 
vnofisvovtog. diet psv ovv tovto ovnag ley si at, 
*Ensl ds vno tivog is yivstat to yiyvopsvov (toi>- 
io ds liyto o&sv xal i) dgxrj trig ysvsosdg 4oti) xal ex 
tivog • sotw ds pri r) oiigtjoig tovto , all* i\ vlr\ 
(jjdrj ydg duogiotai ov vgonov liyopsv tovto) xal o 
ylvstai (tovto d* 4oilv r] r) oopaiga , ij o xvxlog, rj o, 
ti frvx* twv allow) &onsg ovds to vnoxslpsvov noisl 
tbv x<*lxov, ovnog olds it)v oatatgav, si pi) xaid ovp- 
fitfirixog, on fjxalxr) oopaiga, oopaiga 4ot$v ixeivyv 
de ov noisi. To ydg tods u nouiv, 4x tov olov vito~ 
xtipivov tods noiuv 4oti, Asyia d* on toy %alxbv 
oigoyyvlov noisiv 4oiiv, ov to oigoyyvlov, fj trjv 
oqpaigav noisiv, alia hsgov ti , oiov to tldog tovto 
(v allm. El ydg noui , ex tivog av noioirj allov. 
Tovto ydg vnixtno , olov noitiv xotlxrjv oopalgav • 
tovto ds ovtoag, Sit 4x tovdl, o ton x^lxbg, todl noi- 
ti, o 4on oopaiga. El ovv xal tovto noisi avtb, 
drjlov on owavtoag noi^osi • xal fiadiovvtai at ys- 
viosig tig ansigov. <Pavsgbv aga, on ovts to tldog, 
j) o, ti dr]nots xgV xalsiv itjv lv tw ala&Tjto) pogop^v, 
ov yivsiat, ovd' 4otlv avxov yivtoig , ovds to ti i\v 

Digitized by GOOgle 


slvai tovto. Tovto yag iotaf 6 iv ally ylyvstai, 7} 
ano tixvyg, V v™ q?vo&<ag, % dvvafimg • to da /aiL- 
*ip> oyaigav slvai noui. Uoui yag ix xctlxov xal 
Gfpaioag. Etg todl yag todl to sidog noist • xal am 
tovto atpaiga x<*l*rj ' tov ds o (pallet sivai, olag si 
soti ysvsoig , Ix twig 11 Kotai. Jsyosi yag dicug*- 
tbv sipai asl to yiyvofisvov, xal shai to psvtods, to 
ds tods. Asyto d* ow to psv ~vlip , to ds sidog. El 
Sq ioti o<paiga to ex tov fiioov GXW a loov , tovtav 
to psv iv tpiotai, o noul' tod 3 , iv ixsivy to di 
anav, to ysyovog* olov, i\ x*k**\ a<pa?ga. tyav&gov 
dy ix tmv slgrjfitsvav, oti to (lev ojq sldog, i) *>S ovoia 
Isyofisvov ov ylyvstai ' tj ds ovvodog r\ x<xt# tavtr\v 
Myofibril yivstai , xal oti iv anavti t<5 ysvopsvai 
vli\ evsoti, tbfisv rods, to di tods. Ilotsgov ovv 
iotl tig ocpalga naga tagds, rj oixia naga tag nliv 
&ovg ; i} old 3 av nots iyiyvsto , si ovmg %v tods tt, 
aU 3 oti toiovds anfialvsi. Tods ds xal dtgiafUvov 
ovx sotiv, alia notsl xal ysvvif ix tovds toiovds • 
xal btav ysvvrj^tj , ioti tods toiovds. To ds 
anav tods KaUiag rj 2<axgdvr\g iatlv , wonsg q 
ecpalga y xalxr\ jj«M. c O 6° av&gfonogxal to &5ov, 
Sonsg oyaiga x<xl*y oltag. Qavsgov aga, oti ytuv 
sid&v altia (ag siu&aoi tvvsg liystv tot sidy) si sattv 
aTia naga t« xad* sxaata, ngog ts tag ysvsasig xal 
ovalag ovdsv /o^at/ia, ovd 3 av slsv dia ys tavta ov- 
aiaixatf avtag. *Enl usv dy Twoiy xal (pavsqov, 
ox* to yswt&v joiomov psv , oioi' to yswatpsvov , ov 
(iinoi to avto ys, ovd* IV to» itgid-fttp, al£ IV t<£ «?- 
dsi, olov iv iolg (pvoutoig. ^v&gamog yag av&g&- 

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METAPH. LIB. VI. (\U.) CAP. 9. 143 

nov ytwq, idv pr] xi nagd arvoiv ysvrjxat • oXo*, fw- 

nog rifuovov xal xavta ds bpoitog • o ydg av xoivbv 

tXr}i(f Itzjiov xal o>ov, ovx uvopaotai to iyyvtdtu 

yivog. El'tj 6*' av apqxa totog, olov rjplovog. "flats 

qpavsgbv oxi oifdiv b*ii wg nagdduypa , tldog xaxa- 

oxtvd'C,uv (jidXiota ydg av iv tovtoig im£t)tovvto. 

Ovaiai ydg ai pdXiota avxai) aXXd ixavbv xb yswiav 

Tioirjocci, xal xov ti'dovg al'xiov slvai iv xr, vXij. To &' 

dnav qdti xb xotov ds tidogjv xaigds taig oagSl uul botolg 

KaXXiag xal JSwxoaii? g • xal hsgov piv did xr t v vX^v 

kxdga ydg' xavxb di tJI sldsi • Stopov ydg to tldog. 


'Anogyoue d' av tig, did ti td piv yiyvnai xal 

ti^vrj xal anb tavtopdtov, olov vyitva* td d* ov, 

oiov oixla. Ai'xiov di, oti xtav piv ij vXtj r) agxovoa 

tr\g ysviuswg, iv x$ notilv xal ylvea&ai ttt&v an 6 

trig tixvTjg, iv jj vndgxsi tl pigog tov ngaypaxog, r) 

piv xoiavxrj ioilv o'ia xwua&ai vq? avxyg, r) d* ov. 

Kal tavtTjg r) piv wdl oXa ts, r) di ddvvaxog. JIoX- 

Xd ydg dvvaxai piv vcp alxiov xivelo&ai , aXX* ovx 

dtdi' olov bgxrioaod-ai. "Ovviv ovv toiavvq r) vXrj, 

olov ol Xl&oi, ddvvatov mdl xivrj&rjvai, d pi) vri aX- 

Xov. € Jldl fiivxoi ; val, xal xb nvg. Aid xovxo xd 

niv ovx eotai dvev xov sxovxogxriv xixvv\v, xd dieoxar 

vtto ydg xovxwv xivy&Tjosxai x&v ovxixovxwv pivtr)v 

xixvyv, xivslo&ai di dvvapivtav avxmv , fj in aXXuv 

ovx ixovxwv it}V xixv7\v , r] ix pigovg. Ai\Xov 6* ix 

xaiv sigtjfiivoiv, xal oxt, xgonov xivd anavxa yiyvnai 

i§ ou(avv(i(ov, taoTtsg xd qpvosi, r) ix ftigovg bpavvfiov 

olov, i\ olxia l| olxlag, r) vnb vov. *H ydg xix>>y> to 

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eldog, rj ix fiegovg, r) fyovTog xi pegog , iav fir) xaxa 
oviifeptixos yiyvr\xai. To yag ai'xiov xov noutv ngib- 
%ov xa& uvxb fiigog • &egpoxrjg yag r) iv xjj xivr]aei, 
•d-egfioxrjxa iv tw aonfiuxt inolrjoev. Avxr] d* ioxlv 
rytoi vyleia, rj fiigog, rj axoXov&el avxj) fiigog xi ir)g 
vyulag, r) avxr) r) vyleia. Jib xal Xeysxai noielv, ox* 
ixelvo noul rr)v vyleiav, w dxoXovdu xal ovfipifirjxe 
degpoxrig. Jlaxe wan eg iv xolg ovXXoyiafiolg nav- 
Twy agxv V ovala (ix yag xov xl iaxiv oi ovXXoyi- 
l (j 7, ofioi eiaiv) ivtav&a de ai yeviaeig- ofioltag de xal xd 
<f>vou avviaxdfieva xovxoig exsi* To fib yag anig- 
fia no in waneg xa anb xixv^g. "E%si yag dvvifiei 
to eldog, xal a<p ov to on eg pa iatl m»g bfitowfiov • 
(ov yag ndvxa ovxw del trjxelv, ag i£ dr&gwnov Sv- 
•frgwnog' xal yag yvvr) it dvdgog. jib i\filovog ovx 
i* r)piovov'} dXX 3 iav fir) nr'igupa jj. *Ooa de anb 
xov avxofiaxov woneg ixei yivexai, ootov r) vXrj 6*v- 
vaxai xal vqf avxr)g xivela&at xavxrp xr)v xlvrjoiv, 
viv xb anigfia xivel. "Oowv de pr), tain a ddvvaxa 
viyvea&ai uXXmg 7tmg rj i£ avxmv. Ov fiovov de ne- 
gl trjg ovoiag 6 Xoyog drjXol xb fir) yivea&ai to eldog, 
dXXd negl ndvxtav ofiolcog xwv tiqwtwv xoivbg 6 Xoyog, 
olov noaov, noiov, xal xuv aXXwv xaxrjyogiwv. JTi- 
vexai yag aomg r) %aXxr) aqtaiga, dXX 3 ov aaidlga, 
ovde xctXxog. Kai inl xaXxov yivexai • ael yag 5ii 
ngovTidgxHv xr)v vXqv xal xb eldog. Ovxw de xal inl 
tov xi ioxiy xal inl xov noiov, xal noaov , xal xStv 
aXX(ov ofioltag xaxyyoguov. Ov yag yivexai xb notbv, 
aXXd xo noibv £vXov ovde to noaov t aXXa xb noaov 
SvXov, rj £wov. 'MX' i'diov %r\g ovoiag ix xovxav Xa- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 10. 145 

ftstv iaxiv, oxi avdyxi\ ngovndgxsiv &sl kxigav ovot- 
av ivxsXsxsia ova at 1} noisi,olov(wov siylvsxait&ov 
itoibv ds V noabv ovx avdyxrj, aX£ 1} dvvdfisi fiovov. 
*Ensl ds bgiofibg Xoyog iaxl , nag ds Xoyog fiigti 
fast' ig ds b Xoyog ngbg xb ngayfia, xal xb fiigog 
xov Xoyov ngbg xb fiigog xov ngdyfiaxog bfioUag Ixh, 
dnogsixai ijdrj t ndxsgov dsl xov xwv fitgwv Xoyov ivv- 
nagx ttv & T <? T0 ^ oXov X6yw ) ri ov. *En ivltav fisv yag 
(paivovxai ivovxa, in iviav ds ov. Tov fisv yag xv- 
xXov b Xoyog ovx sxn tov xwv xfirifidxajv ds xrjg 
avlXafirig, l/« tov xwv oxotxsfav xaixoi diaigslxai 
xal b xvxXog slg xd xfirjfiaxa , aontg xal ij ovXXaflrj 
tig xd oioixua. "Ext, ds si ngoxsgov xd pigy xov 
oXov, xr\g ds bg&ijg r\ «|aa fiigog , xal b ddxxvXog 
xov £(£ov, ngoxsgov av sly r t 6$ua xyg bgd-r\g , xal b 
ddxxvXog xov dv&gdnov. AoxsX d ixslvaslvamgo- 
xsga. -Tm Xoyta yag Xiyovxaiil ixsivwv, xal tg» that 
di Svsv aXXwXav nooxsga. "H noXXax&g Xsysxai xb 
usgog ; tov slg fisv xgonog, xo fisxgovv xaxa xo no- 
aov. IdXXd xovxo fisv dq>sia&(o • 4$ (av dsq ovaia wg 
fisgav, xovxo oxsnxiov. El ovv iaxi xb fisv vXrj , xb 
di sldog, xb ds ix xovxw, xal ovoia ij xs vXij, xal xb 
sldog, xal xb ix xovxav, 1'oxi fisv wg xal fj vXtj fiigog 
xivog Xiysxai, taxi d 3 &g ov , atf H (av xov sl'dovg 
Xoyog • olov xyg fisv xodoxijxog ovx saxiv rj oag£ fii- 
gog, (avxr) yag vXr\ t dtp rjg yivsxai) xtjg ds oifibxr)- 
xog fiigog xL Kal xov fisv oXov avdgidvxog fisgog 
bxaXxbg, xov d* ag sldovg Xsyofiivov avdgidvxog, 
ov. Asxxiov yag xb sldog xal jj sldog sxei sxaaxov. 
Arist. Metaph. K 

Digitized by GOOgle 


~7o d* vlmbvjOvdinote xa& avxb XtxTeov.//io o ftevxov 
xvxXov Xoyog ovx tx*i> tbv x&v xprjfjidxw o ds xi\g avX- 
Xa^gjov Twy ffToi^e/wy. Ta pev yag oxoixsta xov Ao- 
yov,ixigri tov tidovg,xal ovx ^ f l* Ta &* tfi^axa xov- 
xoav ovitti pigr\ wgvXri, iqp olg imyivtxav iyyvxiga piv- 
xov xov ti'dovg, rj 6 xalxbg, oxav iv xaXxw r\ oxgoy- 
yvXoxr^g iyyivr\xai. *'Eoxai d' eo$ ovds xa oxoixua 
ndvxa itjg ovXXa^rjg iv tgj Xoyq* ivioxai • oiov , xadl 
xa xygiva, rj xo\ iv tw dsgi. Hdrj yag xal xavxa 
fisgog xyg ovXXaftrjg, atgvXt} al<S'd- / r}xri' xal yag y yoa^i- 
/ui} ovx si duxigovfisvri eigxa i\(ilor{q)d-tLgsxat,y wg aw- 
&Q(07tog sig xa boxa xal vsvga xal udgxag. diaxov- 
xo xal tiolv ix zovmdv ovT(og wc ovxtav tr^g ovaiag 
(xbqcov, aXX' £>g il; vXtjq. Kai xov ftev ovvbXov fiiw 
xov. el'dovq ds xal ov 6 Xbyog, ovx txi. Aiomq aid' 
iv xolg Xoyoig. Ta>v fisv ovv ivioxai o x<bv xoiovxw 
jusqojv Xoyog • xwv d* ov del ivtlvat , av pi] -$ xoi 
ovvsiXrinpivov. Jiaydg xovxo, evict fit* ix xovxow 
tog ctQxwv ioxlv tig a <p&eigovxai , svia d ovx tcniv. 
°Ooa fiiv ovv ovvtiXrjppiva, x6 ndog xal q vXfj ioxlv' 
oiov, xo oiuov, 7} o xuXxovg xvxXog' xavia /iiv q>&ti- 
gtrai tig xavxa, xal fUgog avxatv r\ vXv\, "Ooa dt pi} 
ovveiXynxai xjtj vXrj, dXXa avsv xyg vXqg , oiov Xoym 
xov si'dovg fiovov, xavxa #' ov op-dsigsxai, y okojg , rj 
on, ovxag ys. "llox ixslvav psv agx<xl xal pign xa 
v(p avxa ' xov ds ti'dovg ovti pigr}, ovxe agjfct* xavxa. 
Kal dia xovxo <p& tiger at 6 nyXivog avdgiag ug w^- 
Xbv, xal % oycuQa eig xaXuov, xal b KaXXiag tig aaq- 
xu xal ooxa. *Exi bh b xvxXog sig xa xfirmaxa m soxi 
yug xi o ovvtiXtinxai xy vXy. c O(iarv/i(ag yag Xiys- 

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METAPH. LIB. VI. (Til.) CAP. 10. 147 

wi xvxXog, o, x« anXtog Xsyopevog, xal ol xa&* txa* 

<na, did to fiy livai I'diov ovofia Tolg xa& txmotov. 

J2gt)xai fuv ovv xal vvv to aXrj&ig • oftwg d 3 tti oa- 

tpiortgov ei'ncopsv inavaXajiivTtg. c 'Oaa piv yag tov 

Xoyov ftegrj, xal elg a diaigurai 6 Xoyog, tavta txqo- 

isga, tj ndvTa, rj evia, e 6s x^g ogdyg Xoyog ov 

diaigutat tig o£eiag Xoyov , dXXa Trjg oUiag Big 

ogdrjv. Xq7)t at yag 6 ogtCoptvog Tt)v b$uav , ttj 

OQ&jj. 'EXdiTW yag 6<y&r]g r) o£ela. 'Ofiolwg ds xal 

o xvxXog xal to ijfiixvxhov s/ovoi. To yag r)f*ixv- 

xXiov tw xvxXco ogi&Tai , xal o ddxTvXog tw oXfa. 

To yag toiovde pigog av&gamov , ddxivXog. "Jlod- 3 

ooapsv fiegrj wg vXr\, xal ug a diatqeltai cog lig 

vXyv, voTtga* ooa ds mg tov Xoyov xal Tr\g ovoiag 

trjg xaxa tov Xoyov, ttoot«o« , tj navta tj evia. 

Ensl ds r) twv £aW ipvx^i (rovxo yag ovoia tov ifi- 

y n 7°v) tj xatd tov Xoyov ovoia xal to tldog , xal to 

ti 7)v elvai tw TOtovTio owpaxi ' hxdoxov yovv to pi- 

gog idv 6gi£rjxaixaXag, ova avev tov Hgyov ogiuitu, 

o ovx tmdgZei avsv aio&r t otf»g • mote ret Tavxr\g fiigtj 

Ttgoxsga, tj navta rj evia tov ovv 6 Xov £toov * xal xa& 

exaoxov dr) opoiatg. To de oHofia xal xd tovtov fio- 

gia, voxsga xavxr]g xr\g ovoiag, xal diatgeixai tig 

TaiiTa wg elgvXryv, ovx V ovoia, aXXd to ovvoXov. 

Tov ftiv ovv ovvoXov, TcgoTtqa Tama Kotiv Ug, cot* 

V wg oil. Ovde yag etvai dvvarai XMQitofieva. Ov- 

& yag o ndvTwg %xw ddxTvXog, &»oi/ , al£ v(t(0vv-~ 

pog o Ttdyiwg. *Evia &i wfia ooa xvgia, xal 4v (o 

rcowTft) o Xoyog xal r) ovoia , olov el tovto xaotiia n 

tyxiqtaXog, diacp&gti yag ovbev, noxtgov toiovtov. 


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c O d' av&gomog xal b Innog xal ra ovtag , inl ttov 
xa#' ixaota. Ku&oXov de ovx eativ oiaia, aXXa 
avvoXov ti ix tovdltov Xoyov, xa* tijgdl tr)g vXrig, 
wg xa&oXov. Ka& exaotov d' ix tr)g ioxaiyg vXr\g 
b JZwxgatrjg ridt) fori' xal inl t&v aXXwv ofioiag. 
Megog per ovv ioti xal tov ei'dovg (eldog de Xeya to 
ti r\v thai) xal tov avvoXov tov ix tov ei'dovg xal 
trig vXrjg aitr)g • aXXa tov Xoyov pegy, T « rov &8ovg 
ftovov ioiiv • 6 de Xoyog iotl tov xa&tiov. To yag 
xvxXto thai xal xvxXog, xal yvxjl *f* ai * a * WZV > \° 
avto. Tov de avvoXov r]dr) , olov xvxXov tovdl tm 
xa& exaata tivog , rj alo^xov r) votftov ( Xeyto de 
vorjtovg pev, olov tovg fia&rjfiaiixovg * aio&ritovgde, 
olov tovg xaXxovg xal SvXivovg) tovttav de dr) oix 
eativ oQiopog, aXXa petit vor)aeagri ala^r]atfagyvta^ 
£ovtai. UntX&ovtag deix trig ivteXex&lag, ov dr)Xov,n6- 
tegbv note tlaiv t r] oix elalv t aXti atl Xeyovtai xalyvwgj- 
iovtat tm xa&oXov Xoyco • r) d* vXij ayvmatog xa& av- 
triv^TXri der) fiev aio&rjtrj ianv t r) devoritr^Aia^ritri pew, 
olov *«Axos, xal ZvXov, xal oatj xivritr) vXrj • vor)Ty 
de, r) iv tolg alo&rjto'ig vnagxovaa , (tri r\ ala&rjta, 
olov Ta pa&ri[taTixa. n&g fiev ovv §#«* ntgl oXov 
xal fiegovg, xal ntgl tov ngotegov xal vatigov , el~ 
gritat. JJgog de tijv igatrjoiv avayxtj anavtijiv, otav 
tig igutci, note gov r\ og&ij xal 6 xvxXog, xal to fwoy 
ngottgov, tj tig a diaigovvtai, t« i£ wv tiai ta fisgt], 
oti oix unXwg. El fiev yag iott xal r] \pvxh SaJov, 
epipvxov rj exaatov, ^ kxaatov * xal xvxXog tw xv- 
xXat shai, xal r) og&rj tij og&fj elvat, xal y oiaia xijff 
&g&r]g, tlfiev, xal tivog votegovq?atiov • oiovtmv iv tta 

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METAPHYS. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 11., 149 

Xoyy, xal tivog og&rjg. Kal yag rj fist it ttjg vXyg i) 
X*Xxij 6g$r), xal tj iv talg ygappaXg talg xa& Ixa- 
ffia. *H d* avtv vXf\g, tuv fiiv iv t£ Xoyy votiga, 
tiv d* iv t£ xatx? txaota fioglatv ngotiga. 'Anion; 
d ov qpatiov. El d* ktiga xal pr\ ioriv r\ yvxn 
Hop *xal ovtw tdpiv <patiov, td d* ov <patiov, Hontg 

'Anogsitai di elxotwg , xal noia tov tl'dovg fiegrj f 
xal noia ov, dXXcc tov ovvuXrjpfiivov • xaitoi tovtov 
M dyXov ovtog, ovx totiv ogloao&ca txaotov. Toy 
ydg xa&oXov xal tov tl'dovg o bgiopog. noia ovv 
cot* t&v fitgmv tog vXr\, xal noia ov, idv firj rj qpayc- 
gd, ovdi 6 Xoyog lorcu yavtgbg 6 tov ngdyfiatog. 
Ooa fiiv ovv (paly era i imyiyvofitva icp htigoav tw et- 
du, olov xvxXog iv ^a/lxw xal Xi&(o xal £vXt$ • tavta 
piv ovv dtika thai doxu, oti ovdiv trjg tov xvxXov 
ova lag b %aXxog, ovtfo Xi&og, did to xwgl&o&ai av- 
t&v. "Ooa di fit) bgatai, /w^tfo/ifya^ ovdiv fiiv xw- 
Xvu ofioiwg eytiv tovioig, ojansg xav ti oi xvxXot 
ndvttg kagwno xaXxol. Ovdiv ydg t\ttov t}V 6 ^aA- 
*bg tov tl'dovg. XaXenbv di dysXsiv tovto tjj dia- 
tola* olov, to tov dv&g&nov tldog dtl iv oag£l q>al- 
vttai xal botolg, xal tdig toiovtoig fiigtoiv, *Ag 
ovv xal eoti fiigrj tavta tov tl'dovg xal tov Xoyov, 
ri ov, aXt vXri ; IdXXa did to fiy xal in aXXco imy~ 
vto&ai, advvatovfisv ^cop/aat. 'finel di tovto doxu 
ivdixto&at, SdtjXov di note, anogovol tuvtc vdtj xal 
inltov xvxXov xal inl tov tgiytavov, &g ov ngoor\- 
xovyga/jfialg bgi&o&ai xal ttp ovvtxti, aXXa tavta 

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nana bfioloag Xiyto&ai , woavel odqxsg ij botd tov 
dv&q&nov, xal xaXxbg xal Xi&og xvxXov • xal avd- 
yovoi ndvta tig tovg dqi&fiovg , xal yqafifitjg tov 
koyov, tov twv dvo tlval (paoi. Kal t&v rag idiag 
Xty6vttov t ol ftiv avtoyqafifji^v tijv dvdda, ol di to tldog 
trig yqafdfifjg. "Evict fiiv ydq thai td avid to ildog, xal 
ovtb tldog'olov, dvdda xal to tldog dvddog^Enl yqap- 
ur\g di ova eon. Svppalvti dy ev ts noXXwv tldog 
thai, &v to tldog qpalvttat tttqov • ontq xal tolg Ilv- 
&ayoqtioig ovvipatvs • xal ivdixttat tv ndvtmv noiiiv 
avtb tldog, td d' akla pi) tTdrj. Kaitoi ovmg tv 
ndvta totai. "Ou fur ovv txti dnoqiav tivd , tot 
ntql tovg ootofiovg, xal did tiv aitlav, ti'qijtai. Aib 
xal to ndvta avdytiv ovtw, xal acpaiqitv tr\v vXtjv, 
ntqitqyov. "Evia ydq Vowg , tod 3 iv tydi* iotlv , ^ 
tbdl todl exovta. Kal r\ naqafloXii f) inl tov £a)ov, 
r\v HM&ti Xiynv ^axqaiyg b vmttqog , ov xalwg 
exei. 'Andyti ydq dno tov dXrj&ovg, xal noitl vno- 
Xafifldvuv wg ivdtxbfitvov thai tov av-d-qomov avtv 
t<uj> (isqwv, uioTisQ avtv tov x«Xxov tov xvxXov. To 
d' ovx opoiov. Alo&Tjtbv ydq ti i'otog to £<bov , xal 
avtv xivrjottog ovx totiv bqioao&ai. Jib ovd* Svtv 
twv fitq&v ixovttov niag. Ov ydq ndvxcog tov ay- 
■d-qtanov fiiqog fj X**Q* <*^ ^ dvvafiivi) to tqyov cctio- 
ttXttv, watt tfiyvxog ovoa ' fit) tpipvxog di ov fiiqog. 
Tltql di td fia&rjfiaTixcc, did tl oix tiol ftigrj ol loyoi 
taiv Xoytav; olov xvxXov td rjfiixvxXia. Ov ydq iotiv 
ala&rjtdtavta. "H ovdiv diaqpiqti; total ydq vXi) 
ivitav, xal ftrj aio&rjtav xal navtbg, o fit] ion xi 4\v 
thai. KvxXov fiiv ovv ovx total tov xa&oXov xwy 

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di Max? tnaaxa, taxai pegy xavxa , wantg tfgyjxat 
ngoxegov. *Eaxi yag *\ vXrj, q piv alo&rjxfi , 1} di \ 
potjtri. dr)Xovde xal oxt i\ piv Y^xh oioia ^ itgoi- 
iij, xb de oiapa vAij • 6 d* tlv&gwiog, % xb Jwov to # 
apqpotv, ig xa&oXov. 2wxgaxt)g de xai Koglaxog, 
d piv fj yvxh , dixxov • oi piv yag wg vjvxv v , 
ol d* wg to ovvoXov ti d* anXug r\ y/vx^l ijde, 
xal lb awpa too**, aaneg to xa&okov, nal to 
*a& fhtaaxcv. Jloxegov di iaxi naga xi}v vXijv xwv 
xoiovx&v T*ff ovoiwv aXXr\ , xal del fainr oioiav av- 
xup higavxiva, oior agt&povg r ; xi xotovxov , axt- 
nxiov voitgov. Tovxov yag X<*Q L * *«* ^ftf* *«y«*- 
a&r t x<»roiouov7ieigwpe&a diogi£eiv, friel xgonov xiva 
lygjpvoixiig jca< devxegag cpiXooocpicxg egyov ^ two* 
tocs alo&rjag ovaiag &ewgia* Ov yag povov negl 
trig vXr^g del yvwgi&iv xb* (pvoixor, aXXa xal xrjg xa- 
ia xbv Xoyovj xal paXXov. *Enl de xwv bgwpwv, nag 
pigy xa iv tw Xoyw, xal dia xi tig Xdyog 6 bgiapcg. 
dyXov yag on to ngaypa ev to de ngaypa xivi ev, 
pigi\ ye &x ov * axenxeov vaxegov. Ti piv ovv iaxi xb xi i\v 
nvai, xal nwg avxb xatf avxb, xa&oXov negl navxbg 
tlgi\xai' xal dia xi xwvpev 6 Xoyog b xov xi i\v elvai, 
txuxa pogia xov bgifrpivov, x&v ©*' ov xal on iv 
piv Tft? xrjg ovaiag Xoyy xa ovxw pogia , wg vXtj ovx 
tvtaxi. Ov yag eoxiv hdrqg (dogia xr\g ovaiag , aX- 
Xa xrig ovv 6 Xov. Tavxrjg diy ioxi'ntag Xoyog, xal ovx 
$Jxi.M$xa fiiv yag xrjg vXtig f ovx botw, (aogtaxov yag) 
xaxaxyvTtgwxrjr 6* ovoiav ioxiv* olov, ay&gwnov b xrjg 
V*>XW Xoyog. € Hyag ova la iaxl xb eldog xb ivbv, i$ ov 
xal xr\g vXr\g ^ avvoXog Xiytxai ovala, olov r\ xoiXoxr^g, 

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*Ex ydg xavxrjg xal Tjjs g'tvbg, otpfj §lg, xal ft oifio- 

xrjg ioxi. Jig ydg iv xovxoig vndgxu V gk* '& $ 

itj ovvoXto ovalec, oiov givl aipy, r\ KaXXla, evsoxt xal 

7) vXt\ ' xal on xb xl r\v slvai xal txaaxov , inl xtvat 

(*b xavxb, toantg inl ttov ngtoxtov ovottov ' oiov, xotfi- 

\ nvXoxijg xal xafinvXoxrjxt ilvai, u ngwxij ioxi. Aiyw 

J di ngtoxyv, 1) firj Xiysxai ?w aXXo iv aXXto elvai xal 

X vTxoxufiivco tog vXrj, "Ooa $* tog v'Xti, ^ a>g ovvciXriiA- 

I fiiva xji vXy , ov xavxb, el pr) xaxa ovfijSs^rixog tv, 

\ oiov o Stoxgaxyg xal xb ftovoixov. Tavxaydg xav- 

xd xaxa ovppsprjxog. 


Nvv di Xiytofitv tiqwiov, i<p* ooov iv xolg dvaXv- 
xixolg nzgl bgtopov fit] el'grixai. C H yag iv ixeivoig 
dnogia Xex&iloa, ngb sgyov xolg negl xrjg ova tag ioxl 
Xoyoig. Aiyto Si xavxtjv xr\v anogiav, Sid %i ixoxs 
ev ioxi to bgioxbv, ov tov Xbyov bgiofiov elvai <papev' 
oiov, b xov av&gvmov xo £aov diixovv. 'Eaxto yag 
ovxog avxov Xoyog. did xl di] xovxo %v ioxiv , aX£ 
ov noXXa, %fi)OV xal dinovv/'Enl fiiv yag xov av&QU- 
nog xal Xsvxbv, noXXd fiiv ioxiv, oxav fit} vndgxji #«- 
xigto &dxtgov • tv ds, oxav vndgxfj xal nd&tf xt to 
vnoxsifiBvov b dv&goanog. Toxs yag tv ylvtxai , xal 
toxiv b Xsvxbg av&gtonog, 'Evxav&a d' ov (Atxixu 
&axigov &dxeqov. To yag yivog, ov doxsl fiexixw 
xoiv dtaqpogtov apa ydg ov xatv ivavxitov xb avxb jui- 
xixsiv. Ai yag diaqpogal ivavxiai, alg diaqtigei xb 
yivog. El ds xal fisxix^h b avxbg Xoyog, ti'ntg hop 
ai diayogal nXtfovg, oiov m£bv , dinovv, anxegov- 
Jiaxl ydg xavxa ev, dX£ ov noXXd; Ovxto fiiv yog 

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MKTAPH. LIB. VI. f\\\ ) CAP. 12. 153 

it anavtwv carat to IV. Ah di yt ev dvai oaa to t$ 
ogiopip • o yap ogiapog Xoyog tig iouv tig xal ovolw 
&ott kvog tivog dtl avtbv elvai Xoyov, Kal yag ij 
ovoia ty ii xal tods ti otipaivsi, tag yafiiv. Ail d' 
inwxonuv ngattov nigl tuv xata tag diaigiottg bgi- 
opwv. Ovdiv yag tit gov iotiv iv tw 6 giop oj , nXiyv 
to, is itg&tov Xeyoptvov yivog, xal ai dioccpogal • ta 
d aXXa yivrj toil, to, te ngiatov xal pita tovtov ai 
ovXXafifiavofitvai diaq>ogal' olov to ngwrov, £cuov 
tods ixopsvov, £iwov dlnovv, xal nakiv £$ov dlnovv, 
anngov. 'Opolmg di x$v did nXtiovoav Xiyrjtai. "OXug 
d ovdiv diayigudid 7toXX<ur,rj di oXlyatv, y diddvolv. 
Toiv dvolv di, to piv dia<pogd , to di yivog , olov to 
&ov dlnovv. to piv fwov, yivog* diayoga dij &ate- 
oov. El ovv to yivog ankajg pr] iati naga id tog 
yivovg tl'drj, rj si sott/iiv, wg vXr\ d* iotlv (ypiv yag 
<ptovr), yivo% xal vXr\ • ai di diaq>ogal, id tidy xal id 
VToe/ela ix iavtv)g noiovoiv) yavtgbv on bgiopog 
iotiv 6 ix tStv diaq>0Qwv Xoyog. *AXXd pi)v, xal dii 
yt diaigsio&ai tr)v tr\g diacpogag diayogdv, Olov 
(<oov diaqpogd, to vnonovv. IldXiv tov £a>ov tov 
vnonodog tr)v diaq>ogdv del tidivai rj vnonovv. Slate 
ov Xtxtiov tov vnonodog to ftiv megoaiov , to di 
amtgov, xavntg Xiyrjtai xaXlag • alia dia to advva- 
tUv noir]aei tovto • aX$ tl to fiiv oxitonovv, to d 
uaxtatov. Altai yag diaqpogal nodog. C H yag aya- 
ionodla, nodotrjg tig iouv. Kal ovt tag dtl (lovlt- 
tai padl£siv, tag av *X$tj fig ta ddidq?oga. Tote d* 
I'oovtai tooavta sl'dr} nodog, ooatntg ai dia<pogal' 
xal ta vnoTtoda JaJ« laa talg diaq>ogaig. El dt) lav- 

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ra ovttog !#«* , qpavsgbv on y tsXevrcua duxqpogd , if 
ovala tov ngdyfiaTog zotcu • xal o bgiofibg sen eg y,r\ 
8el noXXdxig ravti Xiyeiv iv toig ogoig ' negiegyov 
ydg • ovppaivH 8i ye tovto. "Orav ydg el'nrj Jiwov 
vnonovv Slnovv, oiSsv aXXo tl'grixev *j £toov nodag 
fyov , ^vo nodag exov xav tovto diougrj it\ olna'a 
diaigiott, nXeovdxig igel xal ioaxig Taig diaqpogaig, 
'jidv (xkv Srj diaq>ogdg diacpogd yevyTai, ftia eaxai i) 
reXevtata to eidog xal y ovala • idv 8i xatd ovfipe- 
Ptjxbg , olov ei diaigoirj tov vnonodog to fiev Xevxbv, 
to ds /uiXav , Tooavtai boai dv at rofial aaiv. Jlare 
(par eg by oti 6 bgtofibg Xoyog ioiiv b ixTtov diayogoiv, 
xal tovtouv ii\g xeXevxaiag xatd yt to 6g&6v. Ar\Xov 
8 ' dv elrj , ei' tig (letatd&is Tovg Toioviovg ogiofiovg, 
olov tov xov dv&gwnov, Xsywv £aov Sinovv, vnonovv, 
Ilegiegyov ydg to vnonovv, eigfjfiivov tov dinodog* 
Tee£f£ 8s ovx toTiv iv Tfj ovala. Ilag ydg 8el vorjoai 
to fiev vaxegov, to 8e ngotegov ; Jlegl {ikv ovv twv xa- 
Ta Tag 8iaigioeig bgiofi&v loactvia elgrjofrw, Tr\v ngw- 
Trjv nolo I Tivig eloiv. 

3 £nel 8e negl Trjg ovoiag r\ axiipig SotI, ndXtv 
enaviX&aftev. Aey etui d' wonegTo vnoxsifievov ovala 
* thai, xal to tI i]v elvai, xal to ix tovtohv, xal to x«- 
&6Xov. Ilegl (lev ovv tolv dvdlv eXgr\Tai' xal ydg 
negl tov tI t\v elvai, xal tov vnoxsipivov , oti 8ix<x>$ 
vnoxenai, rj <&g jbds ti ov f won eg to t&ovTolg nd&e- 
oiv, rj ag vXrj TJj evxeXex^ia. Joxel 8s xal to xa&6- 
Xov aXtiov Tioiv thai fidXiora , xal that, xal agM* 
to xa&oXov. Jib iniX&Mfitv xal ntql tovtov. "tioixs 

d by Google 

METAPH. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 13. i55 

yag ddvvatov tlvai, ovaiav tlvai btiovv , t&v xa&o- 
Xov XtYOfidpw. JJgmrfrj (iiv yag ovaia i) kxdarov , if 
ovx vndgxei aXXy to di xa&oXov , xoivov. Tovio 
yag IdysTcu xa&oXov , o nXtioaiv vnagxtiv niyvxt* 
Tivog ovv ova ia tovt total ;*Hydg ndvt&v, tj ovdt- 
vog. ndvxmv di ovx olov tt m kvbg £' tl iatai, xal 
taXXa tovt tatai. Jlv yag pia f\ ovaia , xal to t* 
rjv tlvai ev, xal avta fr. "JEti ovaia fiiv Xiyttai , to 
juij xa&* vnoxtipivov. To dixadoXov, xa& vno 
xttfiivov tiros Xiyttai ati. 3 AX£ aga ovto§ fiiv ovx 
ivdix^tai, o>ff to tirjv tlvai' iv avtco de ivvndgxnv : 
olov to t<oov , iv T(T> dvd-gumtn xal Xnnw. Ovxovv 
drfXov, on tarai Tig avxov Xoyog. Aiacpsgti d* ovdiv, 
ovS* ti fifj ndvrwv Xoyog txnl tmv iv tj) ovaia. Ov~ 
dip yag rjTTOv ovaia tovt tataitivbg, wg o ay&oamog 
tov av&gtonov iv tp vndgxti. "Slats to avtb oi/|u- 
§r]atrai ndXiv. "Eotoi yao ovaia, ixsivov ovaia , olov 
to £&ov iv <5 ti'dti wg i'diov vndgxti, "Eti di xal adv- 
votov xal atonov to todt xal ovaiav, ti tativ ex tvvtav, 
fifi i| ovai&v tlvai, fifjS 3 ix tov Todt ti, alX ix tov 
itoiov. JIgoTtgov ydg total, fir) ovaia tc xal to v 
noibv, ovaiag te xal tov tode* onto advvaTOv. Ov ttt 
Xoyta yag, ovts xgovto ovtt ytviau oiov tt t« ndd"n \ 
rjrjg ovaiag tlvai ngoxtg a. "Eotai yao x&QioTa. Exi 9 
tm ^toXQcxTy , ovaia, iwndglti ovaia m wort dvolv tar ai 
ovaia. u OX(og di avppabn ti to tip oiaia 6 av&gwnog, 
xal oaa ovxta XiysTai, htj&ev r&v iv tw Xoyqsivaifiri- 
dsvbg ovaiav , pride jfojot? vnagxsiv aixav , fii)d iv 
aXXw. Aiyw d' olov, ovx tlvai ti &Sov naga t« Tiva, 
ovJ' aXXo twv iv Tolg Xcyoig ovdiv. *'Ex t« di) tovtm 

Digitized by GOOgle 


decogovai (pavtgbv , on ovdkv t&v xa&olov vnagxo*- 
Ttav ova/a fori, xa* o?t ovdsy orjpaiv$t Twrxoivjj xa- 
%r\yogov^ivwv to8$ rt, allot rotovde. Ei tie (it}, alia 
ic 7rolXa ovfi/Saivn, xal o jghog av&gatnog. "Ext 8i 
xal code drjlov. *4&vvaxov yag ovaiav i£ ovoi&v slvat, 
ivvnagxovo&v ovitag cog ivjsXexsia. Ta yag dvo ov- 
rtog ivTtltxtia, ovdinoxt tv inelsx*i<f» *A11? iav 6v- 
vd(xu Svo ji, euiai tv • olov tj dinlaoiaix dvo ^/i/aew* 
dwdfisi ye, *H yag ivtslixtut iv alloig ^w^/Jei. "flora 
tiovolctfv, ovx loiou i$ ovoiav iwitagxovoStv , xal 
xatii tovtov tov Tgonov or liyst, JfjfioxgiTog OQ&wg* 
ddvvaxov yag thaicpqoiv ix dvo ev, t) £ kvbg dvo yi- 
vio&ai ' ta yag ftsyi&rj ra atofia, rag oiolag noiu. 
c O(xolbjg toIvvv drjlov oti xal in agi&pov Set, sfneg 
ioxlv 6 agi&fiog ovv&soig povddwv, wrntg liystw 
vno ttvoav, *H yag ovx * v t V 8vdg, 1} ovx evsan fiovdg 
iv avxji iyrelBx^ia. "Exsi ds to ovppaXvov dnogiav. El 
yag fi^t8 ix %mv xa&olov olov t slvai ftrjdsfniav ov- 
oiav diet to TOiovdt, alia pr\ Tods it orjfiabetv , pyx 
IS ovoiwv ivdix8Tai ivTslexsia slvai fiTjdefilav ovaiav 
ovv&stov , aovv&SToy av el'tj ovoia naoa • wan oiidt 
loyog av tit} ovdefuag oiolag, 'Allot jjli)v dovti yt 
naoi xal ilix&y ndlat, r) povov elvai ovalag ogov , y 
fidliora, Nvv tf' ovdi Tavvrig, Ovd' kvog ag torat 
ogiofiog. *H Tgonov \iiv Tiva Horai , Tgonov di Tiva 
ov; dijlov d* soTat to leyopevov ix tmv voregot 

<l«xvtgbv d' i£ avT&v TOVTtov to avfiflaivov xal 
Tolg tag idiag liyovotv ovoiag t« xal XNgtordg tiva* 

METAPH. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 14. 157 

apa, xal apa to tldog ix xov yivovg noiovoi, xalx&v 
dwcpoQUV. El yaq iari ia sl'drj xal to fwoy iv i(a 
dv&QMTua xal inmp, qtoi iv xal xavxbv tw dgi&po) 
intv, ij htgov ' t$ piv yao Xbyt$ dyXov oxi tv. Tov 
yio avxbv dtd&ioi Xoyov 6 Xdyuv iv kxaxigqt, Ei ovv 
ioxl xig Sv&gtanog avxb xa& avxb , xoSe xi xal xe/ai- 
giapevov, ay ay XT) xal {£ (ov, olov, to &oov, xal to dl- 
novv, Tode t* oypalveiv, xaltlvaix&Qiora xal ovolag* 
aats xal to £(t*ov. El piv ovv to avxb xal iv tw 
inrnp, wcmeg ov oavx$ , nag iv X^qU ovoiv tv taxai, 
xa* Sid xl o$ xal £&)£*£ avxov eaxat to Jiwov xovxo ; 
Enuxa il piv pi-friSti tov Sinodog xal xov noXvnodog, 
aftvvaiov it, ovpflaivu. Tavavxla yao a pa vtkxqSu 
avTw, kvl xal x&de ovxi,. El de pifa xig 6 xoonog, oxav 
tiny Tig to feSo? slvai dinovv rj ne£ov ; *AX£ tatogovy- 
*nxai xal anxtxeu, % pipixxai. IdXXd ndvxa ax on a • 
«U' htgov iv kxdoxw. Ovxovv ansiga, wg snog riniiv, 
htai f (ov r) ovaia fwoy. Ov ydg xaxd ovppeftTjxog 
t* fwov o avd-owjtog, v Exi noXXa eoxat, aixb to £<aov. 
Ovaia xe ydg xb iv kxaaxn &oov. Ov ydg xax a I Xov 
fynav sidsprj, i$ ixtivov taxai bav&ownog, xalyi- 
*og aixov ixuvo. Kai sn Id ecu dnavxa i$ (ov b av- 
fywiog • ovxovv ovx aXXov piv idea box at , aXXov 6* 
ovola. 'Advvaxov yaQ. Avxb dga Jwov toxin* exaaxov 
wv iv toig £woig. v Exi, ix xivog xovxov , xal niog i$ 
owtov £toov ; rj niog olov xs elvai xb (mov o ovaia 
tovxo avxb naq avxb xb fcaiov/'Exi d inlxwv ala^Jj- 
t(ov xavxd xz avppaivu , xal tovxojv axonuxtga. El 
o^ advvaxov ovxtog sx*Wt ^Xov oxi ovx Honvidiaav- 
xiav ovT(ag, &g xivig yaotv. 

Digitized by GoOgle 

158 AK1ST0TEL1S 


*Eml d' ovoia kxiqa, to, t* ovvolov xal o layog * 

(Xeyo) d on r\ (jisv ovx cog ioxiv ovoia avv tj; vXy ovy- 

tdrjfifiiyogoXoyog, fjdio Xoyog olios) ooa (uvovv ovxa 

Xeysxai, xovxow fisv ioxi <p&oqa* xalydq ysvtotg • tov 

di Xoyov ovxl'oxiv ovxag, coots qp&sigead-at. Ovde 

yaq yiveoig. Ov yaq yivtxai to oixia etvai, dXXa to 

xjjde rfj oixia. *AXX* avtv ytviaewg xal tp&oqag eiai 

xal ovx uoL Jiduxxai yaq oxt ovdtlg xavxa ytrva 

ovde noiii. Aid xovxo ds xal rwv ovaiotv tmv alo&rj- 

xwv xwv xa&' ixaoxa, ovx$ bqiopog outs dnodtiSU 

ioxiv, oil sxovoiv vXtjv, 7jg fjq>votgxoiavxi], wW ivdi- 

X^o&ai xal tlvai xal f4r t . Aib q>&aqxd nana fa xa& 

sxaoxa avxwv. £i ov* % xs anodt&g tw avayxaiuw, 

xal 6 bgiofiog i7ii(jt7]fiovixog, xal ovx ipdixsxai, oianeq 

ovd iniorri^i]v , bxs fiiv iiniaxrjuriv, oxid* ayvotav 

ilvat, dXXa do Sato toiovxov ioxiv , ovxtag ovd' dno- 

dn£iv ovd* bqiofibv , dXXa do£a ioxl xov ivdixo/uvov 

aXXtag tx^v , drjXov oxi ovx dp Bifj avxS>v , ovxs bqt- 

oftog ovxt dnodsiSig. "AdrjXd xe yaq xa q>&eio6(*tva xolg 

exovot xrp inioxrjfiTjv, bxav ix xyg aiad-rjoscag octzbX&tj. 

Kal O(o£o(iiv(av xwp Xoy&tv iv xy yvxy xwy aviwv, ovx 

sot at ovxt oqiofiog \xi, ovxs dn6dti£ig, Aib dsi xwp 

nqbg oqop, oxav xtg bqi^rixai xi xmv xa& ixaoxa , pi) 

ayvouv } oxi dtl dvaiquv ioxiv. Ov yaq ivdix*xai 

oqioao&ai* ovde dr\ idiav ovdtfiiav ioxiv bqiaao&ai. 

Twp yaq xa& ixaoxov fj Idia , wg <paoi, xal xwqioxfj. 

Avayxdiov de xal 4§ 6 vo parco? sJvaixbv Xoyov ovopa 

d ov noiijoeib 6qi£6(ievog* dyvwoxov yaq soxai. Te 

ds xeiptva, xoivd ndoiv. 'Avdyxrj aqa vnaqxsiv xal 

Digitized by GOOgk 

MET A PH. LIB. VI. (VH.J CAP. 15. 159 

aXXoig xavxa* xal eftig era bgloaixo £wov, igu io%vbv y 

r\ hvxbv, tj exsgov tt, o xal d'XXca vndglu. El di xtg 

ipairi (iijdiv xwXveiv, x*>Q*$ ftiv ndvxa noXXoig, cifia di 

fiovu xovxtp vndgxtiv , ngStxov fiiv oxi xal afiopdlv 

oiov, to fawv dinovv, t<£ £«a> xal xa> dinodi. Kal 

xovxo inlpiv %&v a'idiwv , xal dvdyxrj ys stvai, ngo- 

xsgd y ovxa xal fisgrj tov ow&ixov IdXXa /urjv xal 

Xtogioxd, tinsg xo av&gwnog x n Q l(Jt0 ' v * i 7 a Q ovdiv, 

rj ufMpto. Ml fiiv ovv pydiv , ovx toxai xo yivog na- 

gd id ii'dr}. El d 1 eoxat, xal r) diayogd. El&* bxt 

ngoxega tw elvai ' xavxa di ovx dvxavaiguxai. 

Enuxa di el i$ Idtwv al Idsai, (dovv&sxaxega ydg xd 

e£ &v) I't*. inl noXXuv dir^on xdxtiva xaxrjyoguo&ai 

f£ uv r) idea* oiov , to £aW, xal xo dinovv. El di 

ftri, nag yvfagwd-rjoexai ; eoxaiydg r) idiaxlg, r\v ddv- 

vaxov inl nXsiov&v xairjyogi}oai r) kvog. Ov doxel 

di, aXXct naoa idea tivat, [At&txxr}. c Jlantg ovv eXgr]- 

xai, Xav&dvu on ddvvaxov bgioao&at, iv xoig d'idioig, 

udXioia di boa fiovaxd' oiov, r)Xtog xal r) oiXrjvrj. 

Ov fiovov ydg diapagxdvovoi^ t<£ ngoau&ivai xol- 

avxa, (av aq> pivwv, txi i'oxai r\Xiog, wansg xo jt«- 

qI yr)v Ibv r] vvxxixgvyig. *Av ydg oxy r\ <pavjj, ovx 

%xi i'oxat, i)Xiog • aX£ axonov u fir]. C Q ydg r)Xiog 

ova lav tivd Ofipaivu. "Jixi baa in aXXov 4vdix***xf 

oiov idv txsgog yivyxai xoiovxog, drjXov oxi r)Xiog soxai. 

Kotvbg aga b Xbyog * aX£ r\v xav xa& 3 exaoxao tjXiog, 

woneg KXiwv , r) ^wxgdxrjg • iml did xi ovdfl§ ogov 

ixopdgu avxwv iddag; rivoixo ydg av di\Xov migtoui- 

vwv, oxi aXr}&i€ xb vvv slgrjfiivov. 

Digitized by GOOgk 



ftavtobv ds on xal t&v doxovotov ovoi&v zlvai, 
ainXsiotai dvvdfiug sial, id is fiOQia twv^wwv. Ov- 
dsv yaq xexwQiopivov avtcov iouv. "Otav di /eapi- 
o&ij, xal totc ovxa oyg vXrj ndvra, xal yij, xal nvg, xal 
ar\g. Ovdsv ydg airwv IV ionv, «U' olov oagog, tiqivt] 
nty&f) xal yhr\iul 11 i£ avxiav iv. MaXusta d' av 
rtg ra jm> ifiipvxoav vnoXdpoi fiogia, xal t« rrjg \pv- 
Xt\g ndgsyyvg apqxo ylvto&ai, b'vta xal ivrtXtx sice xal 
dvvdfiei, tw agxdg %x HV xivrjofvig ano nvog iv xcug 
x a (A7t oil g. Jib evict £o5a diaigovfieva Jjj. dXV ofiatg 
dwdpei ndvta eorai, otav y IV xal avvsxig <pvau, 
aXXa firj pia ij ovfiopvau. To ydg totovtov nr^gmoig. 
'En el de to IV Xiysxcu gkjttsq xal to ov , xal rj ovoia 
r\ tov Ivbg pia, xal wv pia dgi&ptp, IV agi&pip, q>a- 
vsgov on ovts to IV, ovts to ov ivdix^Tai ovoiav swat 
%S)v ngaypdrtav, wotisq ovderw orot/e7a> elvai, r\ dgxj). 
IdXXa £r}T0vpev, rig ovv r\ dgxy ; *Va elg yvtagip&Tigav 
dvdywpsv. MaXXov piv ovv rovitav ovoia to ov xal 
tv, rj ?jt8 dgxtj xal to otoixuov, xal to ainov. Ovna> 
ds ovds ravta , tlntg prjd' aXXo xoivov pridkv ovoia. 
Ovdsvl ydg vndgx^i V ovoia, dXX' avxi\ ye xal tu 
s'xovzi avjrjv, ov iouv ovoia. "En si to IV noXkaxfi, 
ovx dv el'r} apa* to ds xoivov a pa ndot nokXaxp 
vnaQxu. °Slaxs drjXov oti ovdev twv xa&oXov vndg- 
X^i nagd xd xa& ffxaoxa #ft/o«$, <*& °* ttt S ^V Xiyov- 
*tg> it] jiiv og&ojg Xiyovoi x^Qi£ovTeg avra, tlnsQ ov- 
oiai uoi* Ttj 5' ovx oo&ag, on to f.v inl ttoXXwv sldog 
Xsyovoiv. Ainov 5' on ovx tyovoiv anodovvai, Tiveg 
ai joiavxai ova/at ai d<p&agToi Ttaoa rag xafr* exa- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. VI. (VII.) CAP. 17. 161 

<rtot xal aio&rjTag. JJoiovoiP ovp xdg avxdg tw ttdn 
rolg fp&agxolg, (xavxag ydg fofiiv,) avxodp&goi7iop, 
xal avxo'Cnnov, ngooxidhrttg xolg aio&r]Tolg xo qi\fia 
xo avxo. Kaixoi xup si firj kiagdxtifitp xd aoxga, ov- 
dip dp fjtxop'oJfiai yoav ovaiai a'i'dioi , nag 3 ag fifing 
f t dufitp. "ftoxt xal pvp, ti fiy txoifitp xivig tlolv, dXl* 
thai yt xipdg long dvayxouov. "Oxi fiiv ovv ovxs t&v 
xa&oXov Xeyofiivojp ovdepovaia, ovj ioxip oioiaovdk 
pla t£ ovoiwv, dyXov. 

Ti di xgh Xiytip xal bnoiov u xtjp ovoiav , ndXip 
aXXtjv olop dgxyp noiriaapspo* Xiywfitp. "iotag ydg 
Ix to vt up eorou drjXov xal n bqI ixtipfjgxtjg ova tag, rjug 
iaxl xtxagtopipri x&p aio&fjxuv ovoiwr. 'Entl ovp 
% ovoia igxv *«* alxia tig ioxw, ipxtv&tp jitxtxiop. 
Ztjthtou de xo did ti del ovxmg , did xi aXXo aXXw xipl 
vndgxtt. To ydg frixtip did xt o fiovoixog aWoai- 
nog, fiovoixog ioxip ap&gvmog, rjxot loxixb tigrjfibpop 
£r t xup, did xi 6 apdgmnog fiovoixog ioxip, r]aXXo. To 
fih ovp did xi avxo ioxip avxo , ovdsp ion £i?T«7y. 
Aii yag to op xi xal xo tlpai vndgxtw dyXa opxa. 
Asyw d oiop, oxi t) atXfjprj ixXtinw avxov di,oxi av- 
xo tig Xoyog xal fiia aixia bil ndpxap' did xi o aV- 
&Q<onog ap&gwnog , r\ 6 fiovoixog fiovoixog* nXr\v 
u xig Xiyoi oxi ddiaigtxop ngbg avxo txaoxop • xovxo 
d' tip, xo %v thai. IdXXd xovxo xoipop xt xaxd ndp- 
x(op xal xo ovvxofiop. Zr\xr\aEU d* dp xig did xi o dv~ 
•d-gmtog iaxl fwoy xoiopdi; Tovxo flip ovp dyXop, oxt, 
ov Stjxti , did xi og ioxip apd-gianog , ap&gamog ioxi* 
T* aqa xaxd xipog tyxsi y did xi vndgxti. "Oxi if 
Arist. Metaph. L 

Digitized by GOOgle 

162 AR1ST0TEL1S 

indgxu , dii dyXov elvcu. El ydg fin ovxag , ovdb 
Ztjxu • olop did xiflgovxqr; dtoxt ipoatog yivsxai h xdig 
viqpsoiv. "Alio ydg ovtiog xax aXXov ioxl xo £r}Toi>- 
favov. Kal did xl xadl , olov nXlv&oi xal Xi&ov , oi- 
xia ioxL ftavtgbv xolvvv, oxi £i?t«Z to ai'xiov, Toi~ 
to di ioxi xb xl rjv elvou, <5$ uniiv Xoyix&g. °0 in 
iviav piv ioxi xlvog tvexa, olov lotog in oixlag rj xXi- 
vrjg • in ivltav di xl txivrjae ngwxov. Aixiov ydg xal 
xovxo. *AXXd xb fih xoiovxov aXxiov , inl xov yivt- 
o&cu £rjxuxaixalq>d-tlgBO&ai, &dxtgov dexal inl xov 
slvai. Aav&dvst ds pdXioxa xo ^xovfisvov iv xolg [ii] 
xax dlXrjXwv Xsyopivoig. Olov av&gwnog xl ioxi £i?t«7- 
xai, did xo dnXwgXiyso&ai, aXXa pr\ diogifyiv, on xdds 
rixods?AXXd dsi diog&aboavxag tytdivd di firj xoivbv xov 
prjdiv £r\xtlv,xal xov &*&* xl yiyvsxai 'Ensl ds du sx^iv 
ts xal vnagxsiv xo slvai, dyXov di\ oxi xi\vvXr\v £ijtc* 
diet xl ioxiv olov, olxia xadL did xl; oxi xadl vndgxsi, 
o r\v olxla slvai. Kal avdgwnog bdl, rj to owpa xovxo 
xodl %xov, "ifloxB xo al'xiov £rjxsixai xyg vXrjg. Tovxo 
#' ioxl xo sldog to xl ion • xovxo d* t) ovoia. f&avsgbv 
xolvvv , oxi inl xvv dnXwv ovx soxi tig trjxrjoig , ovde 
didattg , aXX' sxsgog xgdnog xyg £t)xyosi»g xwv xoiov- 
xav. 3 Ensl ds xo sx xtyog ovv&sxov ovxtag , woxs iv 
slvai xb nay , dXXd fir\ wg ougbg, aX£ mg y ovXXaftt}- 
r\ ds ovXXapr\ ovx son xd oxoix&a* ovdsxavxb xb B 
xal A' ovd* rj oag£, xal nvg xal ytj. AiaXv&ivxoiy 
ydg, xd fih ovx tn ioxl, olov rj odgl; xal fj ovXXa($r\ • 
xd ds oxoixfid ioxi , xb nvg xal ?; yr\. "Eoxtv aga xt 
t\ ovXXa($ri, ov uovov xd oxoixiiot, xb ywritv xal aq><a- 
vov, aXXd xal htgov xr xal y odgl; ov povov nvg xal 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. VII. (VU1.) CAP. 1. 163 

y% jj to &tgpbv xal ipvxQOV, dXXd xal fasgoy it. El 
iqLwv aydyxr[ xaxsivo 1} otoixuov fj ix ototxtiow cl- 
vm, si fih OTOixfiov, ndXiv 6 airtbg Xoyog lotai. *Ex 
tovtov yag xal nvgbg xal yt\g 9 sorai rj cdgl;, xal m 
aXXov wot tig ansigov paduliou. Eios ix OToixriov, 
$i\Xov on ovxlvog, aXXdnXuowv, ij ixiivo avtb 
mat. "Slots ndXiv enl tovtov %ov avxbv igovftsv 
loyov, xal inl ii\g oagxbg, *? ovlXaffig. dolu* d' av 
tifai t* joiovto xal ov otoixsiov, xal ai'nov ys xov 
tlvcu, rodl uh adgxa, tool di ovXXafiyv. 'Ofioiatg ds 
xalinl i&v aXXtav. Ovoia de kxdmov piv tovto. 
Tovjo yag alxiov Ttgatxov xov slvat. 3 Ensl d' svia 
ovx ovoiai xatv ngaypdxwv , aX£ ooat, ova lay xaxa 
9v<w xal q>vosi ovvsoxrixaoi, qjavsirj av xiow xal 
«vttl r\ cpvoig ovoia, v\ iaxtv ov oxoix&ov , aU* dgxrj. 
2ioiZ&ov 6 3 ioxlv, ug o diaigslxai ivvndgxov d>g 
vXrjv, olov Tr\g ovXXa(ir k g zb A xal xb B. 



■Cfx dfi xwv sigrjfiivwv ovXXoyi&o&aidti, xal ovva- 
yayovxag xb xsqtdXaiov , xiXog imduvai. Ei'g^rat 
fy oil xwv ovolwv £r\%ti%ai xd aVxia , xal ai agxal 
xal tot oiotyua, Ovoiai di , at fiev ouoXoyovfisvai 
sioiv vnb ndvxwv • nsgl ds ivlwv idla twig ansyri- 
vavxo. 'OfjioXoyovpwai piv at yvotxal • oioy, nvg f 
yr\ , vdoyg , xal xaXXa xd anXa o&paxa * snsixa %a 
yvxd xal xdpogia avxwv xal xd fwa, xal id pogia 


Digitized by GOOgk 


xwv £iwwy * xal xiXog o ovgavog , xal xa pogia ret; 
ovgavov. *Idla d£ xwsg oualag Xiyovotv tivai , %i t* 
**#ij xal xa fia&rifioiuxa. "AkXctg di 6tj ovufialvu 4x 
x&v Xoycav ovoiag tivai , xb xi r\v slvai , xal xb vnoxti- 
fisvov. Ext aXXtog xb yivog [agiXXov xav sld&v , xal 
to xa&oXov x&v xa& ixaaxa. Tat dk xa&oXov xal 
tw yevei, xal ai idiai owanxovoi. Kaxa xbv airxbv 
yag Xbyov ovolai doxovoiv elvai. 3 Ensl ds to xi i\v 
slvai o voice , JS)ijoy^J^Xoyo£ jl^0£J2M££> dii toi/to 
nsgl bgiofiov xal nsgl xov xa&* aixoSiSgiaxat. *Ensl 
ds o bgioubg Xoyog, b ds Xoyog psgr) %%u , avayxalov 
xal nsglfidgovg tjv idsiv, nola xyg ovoiag uigtj , xal 
nola ov • xal si tail a. , xal xov ogio/iov ds%. Ext, 
xoiwv ovxb xb xa&oXov oioia , ovxs xb yivog. 
Ilsgl di xtov IdsStv xal xwv ua&ijuaxixaiv , voxsgov 
oxsnxsov. Ilsgl yag xag aio&rjxag ovoiag xavxag, 
Xiyovoi xivsg slvai. Nvv ds nsgl icov buoXoyovfisvoiv 
ovoubv iniX&fQfisv. Avxat 6* siolv ai alo&rjxaL Al 
d 3 alo&qxal ovxslai naoai vXrjv sxovoiv. "Eg™ d 3 
oioia xa vnoxslpsva , aXXmg psv r\ vXr\ , aXXmg de b 
Xoyog. c TXr\v di Xsyoa , rj urj rods xi> ouoa ivtgysia, 
dvvapsi ioxl tods xi. "AXXug ds 6 Xoyog xal y fiogqprj. 
"O xodt xi ov , tw Xoyqt xmqujxov ioxi. Tgixov de to 
ix xouxwv, ov yivsotg (lovovxal <p&oga ioxi, xa*£a>- 
giaxbv anXwg. Twv yag xaxa xov Xoyov ovotwv, al 
fib, ai b * ov. a Qxi> d * ioxlv oioia fj vXy, &i)Xov. Ev 
ndoaig yag xalg avxt,x*i(iivaig fuxapotalg, ioxi xt to 
vnoxeifuvov xatg fAexapoXalg • olov, xaxaxonov, to 
vvv fisv ivxav&a, naXiv d* aXXo&t. Kal xax* avfy- 
oiv, o vvv (iiv nqXixov, naXiv d* KXaxxov $ /ifit^of. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Kalxax dXXoiwow, o vxvfih vytig, ndXiv de xdfivov. 
'Ovotatg de xal xax ovolav, 5 vvv piv to yevioei, nd- 
Xiv d' to q>&oga. Kal vvv vnoxelfievov wg xodexi' 
n a X iv d* inoxeifievov wg xaxd oxsgrjotv. Kal axo- 
Xovdovoi 8r} xavxy al aXXai pexafioXal. Tuv d* uX- 
Xtav t] /u£, i} dvalv avxtj ovx dxoXov&u. Ov ydg . ■ 
dvdyxrj, etxi tfcn vXrjv xomxriv , xovxo xal yewr\xr\r «~ • 
xal q>&agxrjv tx HV * Tig fiev ovv diaqtogd xov dnXwg 
yiyvea&ai xal fir} anXtag, iv xolg qwotxolg el'grjxai, 
3 J£nil d* r t (iiv tag vnoxeifitotj xal wg vXtj ovoia 
6(ioXoye7xat, avxtj d' ioxlv ij dv vet ft a, Xoinbv, xtjv wg 
ivegyeiav ovolav iStv alo&rixiov elnuv tig ioxi. Jtj- 
/toxgixog fiiv ovv xgeig diacpogdg eoixtv olopevw elvat. 
To ftev ydg vnoxelfievov o&fia xr\v vXrjv, tv xal to 
avxo' diacpegeiv de $ Qvofiw, o ioxi axVM"' V T Q 07 *jl> 1 t> 
o ioxi &eoig • i? dia&iyji, o ioxi ia£<?. <l>aivovxai de ' 
noXXal diayogal ovoaf olov , xd pev ovv&ioei Xeye- 
xai %r\g vXrjg, woneg oaaxgaou, xa&dnvg fitXIxgaxov 
xd de yopqxp , olov xtfirixiov ' xd de dtoftw , olov <pa- 
xeXog' xd de xoXXy , olov (JifiXlov xd di nXelooi xov- . 
Ttav " xd de &iaei, olov ovdog xal bnig&vgov • xavxa 
ydg to) xtlo&al ncog diayegei • xd de xgovtp, olov del- 
nvov xal dgtaxov. Ta de xdnta , oiov xd nvtvftaxa. 
Ta de xolg xwv aio&r}xwv nd&eoiv , oiov oxXtjqottjti, 
xal (laXaxoxrjxi , xal nvxvoxrpi xal fiavbxr\xi 9 
xal Sygoxrixi xal vygoxrixi. Kal xd ph toioig xov- 
rav , xd de naoi xovxoig. Kal oXwg xd fiev vneg- 
oxjl, *d de iXXdipei. "Jlaxe drjXov oxi xal xb cor*, 
toaavxaxwg Xeyexai. Ovdog ydg iaxiv , oxi ovxiae 

Digitized by GoOgle 


^ xuxai' xal to tlvou, to ovitag avxbxBio&ai otjfjiaU 
yet. Kal to xqvotccMov thai, to ovxatg tisttv- 
xvwod-ai. *Evitav di to that, xal naai xovxotg 
oQio&riosrai, tw xit piv (iB(ux^ a h T <* $* xtXQaodai, 
xa & ded&o&ai, to fle nenvxvxoo&ou , t« fle Tct7$ «il- 
A<X£g dtacpoqalg x$XQrjo&at, wontQ i} #**Pi ij ttou?. 
Ai\nxia ovv xa ^sV^ twv di aqpoowi'. Avxai yctQ ug- 

- Xal Uaovxai xov slvai • otoy Ta tiw /uaAAo? xa* ^rroy, 
*} nvKvoi xal party , xal xolg aXXotg xdig xotovxoig. 
v Jlivta yag xavxa vn$ooxi\ xal sXXeupig i<mv. El di 
xi o^uaTt ^ AfiiOTi}T* xat loaxvxqxi, navxa ev&ti xal 
\ xafinvkiff. Toig di to civa* to fiE/u;?#at toxai' 
avxixupsvoig di, to /x^ eTvou. &aveQov di ix xovuov, 
oxi drop jj ovata afc/a tov ilvai txaoxov, oxiiv tov- 
\xoig. fyxyxiov, xi to alrioy tov tivai xovxvv txaoxov. 
Ovaia uiv ovv ovdiv xovxtav , ovdi ovvdva^ofievoy • 
Sfiag di to avaXoyov iv kxaoxt** Kal ag iv xaig 
ovoiaig xb xr t g vXqg xaxrjyoQOV(iBVOV, avxrj t\ ivfyytia 
xal iv xoig aXXoig bqiopdig p&Xiaxa • olov u ovdbv 
dioi boioao&ai, £vXov rj Xl&ov idl xt/fievov , ioovpiv.' 
xal olxiav, nXiv&ovg xal IvXa wdl xtipsva. (*H exi 
xal xo ov tvtxa in ivioav ioxiv.) El di xgvoxaXXov, 
1/OW0 mnijybg i) nmvxvwfiivov <Jd7. Svpaxavia di 
6$iog xal (taoiog fii$ig xoictdi. Tov avxbv di xgonov 
xal inl xStv aXXtov. Qavsgov dr\ ix xovxtov , Sxi 1} 
ivigyua aXXrj aXXrjg vXijg f xaloXoyog. Twvpivyai 
i\ ovv&eoig, xav d' q pi£ig, x&v di aXXo xi x&v eigri- 
fiivav. Jib xlav bgtiofiivuv, ol piv Xiyovxtg xi iaxiv 
olxia, oxi Xi&oi, nXiv&oi, $vXa, xt]v dvvdfiei olxiav 
liyovoiv vXri yao xavxa • ol di ayytiov oxtnaoxi- 

Digitized by GoOgle 

MET A PH. LIB. VII. (VIII.) CAP. 3. 167 

xbv XQypdxtov xal otofidxay, rj xt xal aXXo xoiovxo 
ngoo&svxsg , xijv ivsgyttav Xiyovatv • oi d* a/iqpa> 
xavxa xt&svxeg, xrjv xglxr\v> xal xrp ix xovxwv ovular. 
"Eotxs ydg 6 per did tc5v diacpogwv Xoyog, %ov si'dovg, 
xal trig ivsgyslag slvar b d* ix xwv ivvnagxortw , v*$ 
vli\g pdXXov. 'Opoiag ds xal ovg'Agxvxag dnsdsxsxo 
ogovg ' xov avvafjiqxo ydg slow. 6lov,xiioxi vrjvepia ; 
i)gtfila Iv nXfi&st aigog. TXrj piv 6 dr\g , ivigysia ds 
xal ovaia t] jjgspia. Tl ioxt yaXr\vi\; b(iaX6xr\g &a- 
Xdxxr^g. To pkv vnoxsl/isvov a>g vXrj, r\ &dXaxxa • y 
ds ivigysia xal y pogyri , fj ofiaXoirjg. Qavsgbv ds 
ixtojy UQTitiivwv, tig ij ccIo&tjtt] ova la ioxl, xal irtog. 
*H fth ydg &g vXrj, i\ d' ig pog<pi}, oxav ivsgytia • ^ J^ x 
ds xglxrfi ix xovxcov. 

ACi ds fitj ayvouv, oxi ivioxs Xav&avn , noxtgov 
arjuaheno ovopa xrp avv&sxov ovoiav, % xr\v ivsgysi~ 
ay, xal xr\v pogyriv • olov r, olxia noxsgov atjfiuov 
xov xoivov , oxt Gxinaofia ix ixXiv&tav xal IvXtav xal 
U&wy adl xsipivw ij -rijs ivsgysiag xal xov stdovg, 
oxi oxinaopa. Kal ygafiprj, noxsgov dvdg ivfirjxti, 
i)oxi dvdg, Kal £<oov, noxsgov ipvxh iv oiofiaxi, fj 
yvxk* Avxr\ ydg ovaia, xal ivigyua owpaxog xi- 
vog. J£iT\ d' dv xal in dpqpoxigotg xb £aW, ovx &g 
kvl Xoyta Xsyopsvov , aX£ tag ngbg tv. 'AXXd xavxa 
ngbg (uv xi aXXo diacpign* ngbg ds xyv Srjxrjaiv xr\g 
ovaiag xr\g aio&rixtjg, ovdiv. To ydg xi t\v slvai xa i£j/*. 
d'dsi xal %ji ivsgysiu vndgxH. *Pvxi\ psv ydg xal 
yvxy dlvoth xavxov dv&gdnaf ds xal dv&ganog , ov 
xavxbv, si i*ii xal y yvx*l dvd gojitog Xsxd-rjosxai. Ov- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


^w di xivl piv, xivl d 3 ov, Ov cpaivsxai di\ {tyrov- 
oiv, tj ovXXa($ri ix twv arot^e/wy ovaa xal avv&ios- 
atg- ovd' % olxia, nXiv&oi xh xai ovv&eoig. Kal 
xovxo og&tog • ov /ap &tw ^ ovv&eoig, xal t) pftig 
ix xovxwv, (ov ioxi ovv&soig r) pi£ig* 'Opoiwg di ov- 
di xcav aXXtov ov&iv * olov ovdbg &ioei, ovx ix xov ov- 
dov r) &ioig, aXXa paXXov ovxog i$ ixsivijg. Ovdi 
di) 6 Sv&qwiog taxi xb fwoy xal diitovv • aXXa xi dti 
sivcu o naga xavxa ioxiv, ti xavd* vXrj. Ovxs di 
Gxoixsiov, ovx* ix oxoixdov* aX£ i) ovaicr o i£aigovvxeg 
\xi)v vXr\v liyovoiv. El ovv xovx alxiov xov tlvai, xal 
ovoia xovxo, avxr)v avxijv ovoiav ov Xsyouv. *Avayxr\ di 
xavxrjv 7} ai'diov slvai, rj q>d-agxr)v avsv xoviq>dtiqto&ai, 
xal ysyovivai avsv xov yiyveo&ai. jedsixxai di xal 
dedqXwxai fa aXXaig ort xb sldog ov&slg notii* ovdi 
ytvvdxai, dXXd notsixai xods. riyvsxat di xo ix xov- 
xwv. El d* slot xwv (p&agx&v ai ovaiai xcogtaxal, ov- 
&&v 7T0) drjXov. HXi)v oxi* ye iviatv ovx ivdsxsxai, 
di\Xov, ooa pi) olov xs naga xd xivd sivat, olov olxiav 
fj oxsvog. "ioag piv ovv ovd* ovoiou siolv, ovdi xt 
avxd xavxa, ovxs xi x&v dXXtav, ooa pr) cpvoet, ovvi- 
oir\xt. Trjv yag cpvaiv fiovtjv dv xig &siij xi)v iv xolg 
q>&agx6lg ovaiav. v Jloxs t) anogia, rjv oi l4vxio&&- 
vuot xal ol oixag aixaldsvxoirjnogovv, l^ci xivd xai- 
gov Xv&fjvai, oxi ovx eoxi xb xi ioxtv oqloao&ai. Top 
yaq oqov shut Xoyov paxoov. 'AXXa nolov piv xi 
ioxtv, ivdixtxai xal dida£ai, (oontQ agyvgov , xi piv 
ioxtv ov ' oxi di olov xaxxixtgog. "Slox ovoiag Koxi 
piv rjg ivdixsxai thai ogov xal Xoyov , olov xr\g ovv- 
dhov, iav xb alo&ijxf), idv xs vorjxr} j}. *E£ <av d* 

d by Google 

METAPH. LIB. VII. (Vllh) CAP. 3. 169 


o Xoyog o bgioxixog. Kal dti xb fib £ontg vXrjy «]- 
vou, xb ds ug (logyy*. Q>av*gbv ds xal diox* tfnsg 
tiol mag agi&pol at oioicu , ovxtag tlol, xal ov% £g 
xiytg Xsyovai fiovadwr. c> 0, xs yag bgiofjtbg aQi&pog 
ttg (diaigsxog xs yag xal eig adiaigsxa. Ov yag 
anttgoi ui Xoyoi) xal b aQi&fibg ds xotovxog, Kal 
uonsg ovd an agi&pov aapaigt&svxogxwbg ynQog- 
n&svxog, IS wv b agi&pog ioxiv, ovx sxv b avxbg agi- 
d-fiog ioxiv, aX£ txsgog, xyv xovXaxi-oxov acprxiQS&t) rj 
nQooTS&ii • ovxtag ovds b bgiofibg , ovds 1 xb xirivsl- 
>ai ovx en eotai, aapaigs&svxog xivog , «j ngooxs&sv- 
tog. Kal xbv agt&fibv dti thai xi w tig, 6 vvv. ovx 
v/ovoi Xiytiv xivi slg f d'jisg ioxlvtlg. "Hyag ovx soxiv, 
aX£ oiov aaqbg, rj sVnsg ioxl, Xtxxsov xi xb noiotv tw 
ex noXXwv, xal b bgiofibg tig ioxiv, 'Opoiag ds ovds 
tovxoy %xovoi Xiyuv , xal xovxo slxoxug avfijSaivei. 
Tov aixov yag Xoyov, xal fj ova la sv ovx&g, aX£ ovx 
»S Xiyovoi xivsg, olov povag xig ovaa rj axtyfir^, aX£ 
ivxtXixua, xal yvoig xig bcaoTT). Kal inonsg ovds b 
aoid-pbg bxu xb fiaXXov xal xb yxxov , ovd' t\ xaia xb 
tidog ovaia • aXtf tVnsg, rj fitxa vXrjg. Htgl psv ovv 
ysvioBwg xal opd-ogag xwv Xsyofisvwv ovoitov, nwg iv- 
bixtxai, xal ntag advvaxov ylvto&cu, xal ntgl xr\g tig 
tov otQt&fibv avayayrig, soxat fiixQi xovxoyv diwgt- 

Utgl di Tt\g v{Xixi\g ovolag,dt% ph Xavdavuv, oxi 
tl xai ix xov avxov itavra ng&xov, rj x&v avxwv ag 
itQuxtor, xal Z\ avxri vXr\ ig agxh *°*S yifvofiivoig, 

Digitized by GOOgle 



ofuog sou xig olxtla exdaxov * olov q>X$yfiaxog iau 
ngwxrj vXr\ xd yXvxia, i) Xmagd" %oXris di xdnixgd, 
?) dXX art a, "iaaig di xal xdi xa ix xov avxov • yi- 
vovxai di nXtlovg vXat xov avxov , oxav &axigov y 
kxiga y • olov qpXiyfia ix Xmagov xal yXvxiog, el xb 
Xinagbv ix xov yXvxiog, *E* di xoXijg then, t$ dva- 
Xueo&ou tig xr\v nqtoxrp vkv\v xr)v /oAij*'. d^X^S y&Q 
rod* ix xovde, rj oxi ngb bdov ifoxai, rj oxiavaXv&iv" 
xog tig xr\v dgxr\v. *Evdixtxai di fiiugxr]g vXr\g ov- 
o^g, hsga yivto&ai did xr)v xivovoav ah lav olov, 
ix ZvXov xal xificojog xal xXlvrj. 'Evlav d* kxiqa 
r\ vXrj i$ avdyxrjg, kxigtov b'vxoav • olov nqlwv ovx av 
yivoixo ix tvXov , ovd' inl xr\ xivovorj alxia xovxo. 
Ov yag noir\ou nglova i$ igiov rj IvXov. El d* aga 
x6 avxo ivdixtxai *'£ SXXrjg vXr\g noirjoai , dr)Xov oxi 
r) xixvrj xal r) agxr) dig xivovaa , r) avxr]. Ei yag y 
vXrj kxiga, xal to xivovv xal xb ysyovog. "Oxav drj 
tig b]TTj xl xb aXxiov (inel nXsovax&g t<* alxia Xiyt- 
xai) naaag du Xiyuv xdg ivdfxofiivag alxlag* olov, 
uv&Q(anov xlg alxia &g vXrj; agaxd xaxapr)via / Titf 
d>g xivovv; aga xb onigpa; xl d' mg xb tldog; xb xl r\v «i- 
var xl d* wgovtvsxa; xb xtXog, "looag di xavxa autpoa, xb 
avxo. du di xal xd iyyvxaxa afxia Xiyeiv. Tig r) vXr\; (ir\ 
nvQrjyfjv,dXXd xr)vldiav. JItgl uiv ovvxag qpvaixag ov- 
oiag xal ywvrytdg, avdyxr\ ovxtog fisxiivat, st xti iu- 
xuoiv og&wg, tlntg aga aXxia xs T«t/T« xal xooavxa, 
xal dii xd ai'xia yvwgl&w. *Enl di xmv cpvoixwv (iiv t 
a'idloav di ovoi&v, aXXog Xoyog, "lo<ag yag svia ovx 
tXti vXv\v, \\ ov xoiavxi\v, dXXd povov xaxd xbnov x*- 
vtixr)v. Ovd ooadr)q>von ph pr) ovoia di, o*'* 

Digitized by GOOgk 


tatt tovtoig Sly , auUa to vnoxiiptvov f) ova/a • ol- . , 

©y Ti alrioy ixXttyswg, tig Sly ; ov yaq iottv, all* q I ^'r^ 

aiirivrj to ndoxov. To d' aXtiov mg xivr)oav xal 

{p&eigoy to <pa>g rj yr) ' to d' ov Hvtxa, tatog ovx eari. 

To d* mg tldog, o loyog, alia adylog , idv fir] /urn* 

%H)g aitiag b loyog rj. Olov tl txXeiiptg ,• oiiqrjoig <jpw- 

tog. *Eav ds nqoottd'ji vnb yi)g iv fiiota yiyvofjiivr^g, 

6 avv Ty ahl(o loyog ovtog. "Tnvov d' ddrjXov tl to 

ngmtov ndoxov. *AX£ ot*to Zwov; val, alii tovto 

xata ti. Kal tl noSitov; xagdia, f\ alio ti. Eh a . 

imo ttvog, Elta tl to nd&og to ixtlvov, xal fir) to ^Aa~ v W 

tov Slov ,' on dxivyoia touxdl; val. *Al£ avtij t» 

tl n&ox*w to ngmov. 

* C A P U T V * 
*2&rst 6" «Wa Swv ytviottag xal <p&oodg Aft*, xal 

ovx tanv, olov ai otypal , ttntg slot , xal Slug td 

tfdr} xal alfiOQcpai' (ov y&Q to levxov ylvttai, aXXd 

to $vlov levxov * r) ex twog, xal tl nav to yiyvopwov 

ylyvxtai')oi nina av tavamla ylyvovto\jdli~\l£ nl- 

Xylav • al£ higag Itvxbg Sv&gomog 4x pilavog 

dv&Q<onov, xal levxov ix pilavog * ovde navtbg ill) 

iatlv, al£ Sow yivtolg iott, xal peta(loli) elg al- 

lijla. c Ooa #' avev tov finafidXXeiv iotlv, r) fit), 

ovx eoti toitwv vly. *E%u b* anoglavnwg ngbgtd- 

vavtla t) vlrj v) kxdotov «#«* • olov, ei to owfia dvvd- 

pu vyiaivti, Svavtio* di vooog iyuia, aga Sficpo) dv- 

vdfisif xal to vdtag dvvdfiu o£og xal olvog ;f]tovfisv 

xa-fr s£iv xal xatd to sldog vlrj, tov ds xata atioi}- 

aiv xal xata <p&ooav tr t v naoct q>vaiv t'Anoola ditig 

tOTt, xal did ti b olvog ovx vlrj tov o$ovg, ovdk dvva- 

Digitized by GoOgle 


pu o$og, xaixoi ylyvsxat i$ avxov o$og • xal o £<»* 
dvvdpsi vsxgbg , y ov, dXXd xaxd ovfifteftr)xbg at 
q>&ogal. H 8s xov £(oov vXt) avxy icon a q>&ogdr 
vsxgov dvvafiig xal vXtj, xal to vdosg o$ovg. rlyvs- 
xat ydg ix xovxw, wan eg iS rjfiigag rv|. Kal Saa 
dtj ovno (isxafldXXsi rig aXXrjXa, rig XTivvXyv ds% 4na- 
vsX&slv • olov si ix vsxgov £wov, tig xijv vXtjv ngwxov, 
sl& ovxatg faloy xal xb o&og sig vdtog , sl& ovrwg 

Jltgl ds trig dnoglag xfjg rigrjfitvrjg nsgl is xovg 
ogiafiovg, xal nsgl xovg dgt&povg, xl iaxiv aXxiov xov 
sv elvai; Jldvxwvydg Saa nXslat fiigij s%si xalftrj iaxiv 
oi,ov aoagog to ndv, aXt sarin xb oXov naga xd (lo- 
gin, son n altiov • ins} xal o iv xdig awfiaai, xdig per 
a<pr. aizia toy sv shai, xdig ds yXwxgoxfjg, ij n nd- 
&og stsgov xoiovxov. € 8' bgiofibg, Xoyog iaxlr 
\ *U ov ovvdsoptp, xa&dmg r\ 'iXidg, dXXd t$ hog si- 
vai. Ti ovv iaxiv o noisl sv xov av&goanov, xal did 
' ffxl sv, dXH ov noXXd / olov to, xs fwov xal xb dlnovv • 
g j dXXtog xs xal si saxiv wantg q>aal xivsg avxo xi £wov 
"SV v 7*a« avTo dlnovv. did xlydg ovx ixeivct avid o a*- 

s ^-: &ov xal dlnovv. Qavtgov dtf, oxi ovxm pev fisxtov- 

' J^ V* Wjj'v&aofr ogl£so&ai xal Xsynv , ovx ivdizsxai 

sy ^ dnodovvai xalXvaai xijv dnogiav. El di iaxiv, mansg 

J/ U P^ V ' T0 ***" ***» t0 ** f°QW> *«* ™ pi* dwdpu, 

^ cT' *" Si %^i °vx fo dnogla dofasv av slvai xb fiy- 

d by Google 

METAPHYS. LIB. VII. ^VM.) CAP. 6. 173 

tovjisvov. Eatt ydg avtij q dnogia q avtrj, x$v ti 

o ogog «fy Ipatiov 6 otgoyyvXog x<*Xxog. JStrj ydg 

«* oitfiiiov tovvofia tovto tov Xoyov. "liars to £ij- 

lovptvov iati ii attiov tov sv uvai to atgoyyvXov 

xal toy zuXxov. Ovx hi $' ^dnogia yaivttat , ott 

tojtto vXij, to ds pogcpr\. Ti ovv tovtov to attiov, • ' 

tov, to dvvdpsi ov, ivsgytla uvcu, nugd to noirjaav, U ' ' 

& ovoig iotl ydvsoig; Ovdiv ydg iotiv attiov etsoov-^^^ *"* *- 

tov tr t v dvvdfAU o(paigav , ivtgysia thai oqpaigav, ^.jk ««-f-; 

aXXa tovt r^v to ti r\v thai ixatigta. "Eaxi ds -nj?-*^ ^f ; > 

vXyg q fiiv votjtrj, i\ $i aio&rixri • xal dtl tov Xoyov * l 

to /i£y 1/A17, to o« ivtgysia iativ, oiov o xvxXog axrjfia v 

inintdov. °Ooot ds (ii) sxsi vXyv, pyte vorjtrjv , p^tt*^*" * '* 

aia&rjtrjv, sv&vs ontg sv ti thai iotiv txaotov, cioneg }-#v> *>«** : 

W ojiso ov ti, to tods, to noibv,tb noaov. Jib xal ovx 

mat iv ivtolg bgiopdig, ovtt to ov, ovtt to sv • xal 16 

tiyv thai si&vg, tv ti iativ uontg xul ov ti. Ji6 

ovx sativ sttgov ti atuov tov tv thai ov&tvl tovttav, 

ovds tov ov ti thai. Ev&vg ydg txaotov iativ ov 

n xal sv Ti, ovx *>S to ysviati tcjj bvti xal t« kvl, 

ovd tag xwgiotiav ovtmv nagd ta xa&' sxaata. did 

lavvy ds tijv anogiav, ol psv ps&stiv Xsyovai, xai 

atuov ti trig pe&i£s<og, xal ti to fistsxtiv dnogovaiv • 

oi ds avvovaiav yvxng, toansg slvxvcpQwv (prjalv «2- 

y«i xrjv inioTtjfii)v tov iniotaa&at, xal ipvxyg, oi ds 

ovv&soiv t) ovvdeopov ipvxijg otiftati, to £gy. Kai- 

Tot o avtog Xoyog inl ndvtav. Kal ydg to vyiaivsiv 

tatui ii ovvovaia, q ovvdsofiog, % ovvdsaig yvxyg xal 

vydag. Kal to tov x^Xxbv thai tgiymvov , ovv&s- 

wg XdXxov xal tgiydvov. Kal to Xtvxbv sv thai, 


ovv&toig imopaveiag xal Xevx6xi\xog • al'xiov d' on 
dwdpeag xal ivxeXexeiag fytovoi Xoyov kvonoibv xal 
Siaqpogdv. "Eoxi £', wansg etgyxat, xal f\ ioxdxtj 
vli] xal 7} (logyy xavxb • xal xb psv dvvapsi, to 8s beQ- 
yeia. "jloxe opoiov to Zyxeiv xov tvog xi a\xtov,xal 
xov h iivcu. "Ev ydg xi exaaxov, xal xb dvvafiu xal 
%b evegyeia tv nag ioxiv. "Jloxs ai'xiov ov&iv aXXo 
TiXrjv el xi wg xm\oav ix dvvdpmg tig ivigytiotv* 
Ooa de fir} *#?* vXr t v, ndvxa anXfbg bneg ovxa xL 



llsglfiev ovv xov ngolxtog ovxog, xal ngbg b naaai 
al aXXai xaxrjyogiai xov ovxog dvayigovxat , slgrjxai, 
neql xrjg ovoiag, Kaxa ydg xov xyg ovviag Xoyov 
Xeyeiai xaXXa ovxa, to, xe noobv xal xb noibv , xal 
tiXXa xd ovxwg Xeybfieva. ndvxa ydg e£ei xov xrjg 
ovoiag Xoyov, Honeg tinopiv (v xolg ngwxotg Xoyoig. 
3 Enel de Xdyexai xb bv, xbfiev xbxl, ij noiov, fj noobv, xi 
tie xaxa dvva/iiv xal ivxeXifstav xal xaxa xb egyov, 
diogiowpsv xal negl dvvdfiewg xal ivxeXexeiag • xal 
ng&xov negl dvvdjuwg, % Xeyexai pev fidXioxa xvgiag, 
ov firiv XQVotyv ioxlv ngbg b {2ovXbfie&a vvv • in*. 
nXeov yag taxiv ^ dwapig xal rj ivegyeia xcjv povov 
Xeyofievav xaxa xivi\aiv • aXX* elnbvxeg negl javxtjg 
4v xolg negl xr t g ivegyeiag diogiopoig, StjXtiaofiev xal 
negl xav aXXav. "Oxi fih ovv Xiyexai noXXax&g 1 
Mvafiig, xal xb dvvao&ai, dirigioxai fair iv SXXoig. 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB V11I. (IX.; CAP. 1. 175 

Tovxav d' oaat piv ofiwv/ttog Xiyortai dvvdptig, 
(Hptio&aoav. "Eviai yaq bpototTjxi xivi Xiyortai, 
ta&dneq iv yeapexqia • xal dvvaxa xal advvaxa i*- 
youev tw tlvcu nag , i} pi\ ilvcti. "Ooai de nqbg xb 
avib eldog, ndoai dqxai xivig eioi, xal nqbg nqtoxrjv 
piav Xiyortai, y iariv aqxq uexa^oXr^g h aXXm 17 alio. 
Ofiev yaq xov na&eiv ioxt dvvapig , f) dp avTw tw 
naoxovxt, agxv ju«T«/?oli}$ na$i\xixrig in aXXov y 
alio, H de, t$ig dna&eiaq trig inl xb x&Q ov > xa * 
qp&oqag xijg vn aXXov tj alio, aqxyg fiitafil^tixrig. 
Ev yaq xovxoig evtoxi naoi tolg oqoig xrjg nqfaxijg 
tivvdfitiag Xoyog, UaXiv £' avxai al dvvdpeig Xi- 
yortai, r\ xov uovov noirjoai, J) xov na&eiv , rj xov 
xalug. "Stare xal iv xoig xovxwv Xoyoig, ivvndqxov- 
oi mag ol xwv nqoiiqiav Xoyoi dvvdus<av. <l>aveqbv 
ovv on eoxi pev wq pia dvvafiig tov noieXv xal nd- 
oxhv (dvvaxbv ynq Ion xal tw ex^iv avxo dvvaynv 
tov na&elv, xal xu cello vn avxov) taxi de wg dllr). 
'H-ydq iv t£ ndoxovxi. Aid yaq xb %x*iv tivd aq- 
Xyv, xal elvai xal xr\v oXrjv dqx^v xiva , ndox H T0 
ndoxov, xal alio vn alio v. To Xmaqbv (lev yaq 
»al xavoxov • xb S* vniixov <adl dlaoiov. 'Opoiag de 
*al inl xav alloy. C J£ d* iv xot noiovvxi, oiov xb 
&eqpbv, xal v oixodopixr) i\ fjiev iv tw -freq/iaviixto 
i) d* iv xtp oixodoiiixip. Aib tj ovpniqtvxev, ov&ev nd- 
oxn avxo iq? kavxov. "Ev yaq xal ovx aXXo, xal r t 
vdwafjiia xal xb advvaxov • xal v xoiavxri dvvdfiei 
ivavxla, axiqrjoig ioxiv. "Jloxe xov avxov xal xatd 
to avxo naoa dvvafiig, ddvvapict'ri de oxiqijoig Xiyt- 
T»t nollaxto?. Kal yaq xb py exov xal xb ne(pvxbc 

Digitized by GOOgle 


av fitj tyr), rj oXwg, % ore nitpvxs, xal rj atdl, oXovnav- 
xtXwg, rjxyv onmoovv. *En ivlmv di, av its<pvx6xa 
sxsiv fitf ixji (Mn, iartgrja&ai xavxa Xiyofisv. 
'EjiiI d* ai fisv iv xolg aipvxoig zvvnoqxovow ag- 
%al xoiavxai, aid* h xolg ifxyv/oig xal iv ipvxjj,xal xr\g 
ipvZW & J V Xoyovjxoxu, dr)Xov on xal xmv dvvaps&v, 
ai pi* sooviai ctXoyoi, ai dkfisxa Xoyov, Aio naoai 
ai xixvai xal noirjxixal xal at imaxi)/iai , dvvdfisig 
tloiv. 'Aqxal y<*<? ptxapXrjfXixai slow h aXXeo y ctX- 
Xo. Kal ai fiev ptxa Xoyov naoai x&v bavxlw <n 
avxai* ai d' aXoyoi, plot hog' olov , to Osqfiov jov 
&CQfiaiveiv povov • r) ds laxoixri , voaov xal vysiag. 
AXjiov ds, oxi Xoyog iaxlv tj imoTtiprj. e O ds Xoyog 
o avxbg drjXoT, xo nqaypa xal xr)v oxiorjoiv, nXriv oix 
weaving- xal saxiv wg apqtolv, taxi ds £g xov vndo- 
XOpxog paXXov. "Jlox avayxtj xalxag xoiavxag ivi- 
oxrjpag thai piv xav ivavxiav , slvai ds xov psv 
xa&' aiixag, xov dspr) xatf avxag. Kal yao 6 Xo- 
yog xov psv xa& avxb, xov ds xqonov xtvd xaxa ovp- 
pefirjxog. 'Anoydou yio xal anocpoqy drjXol xo ivav- 
xlov. C H ydo oxiorjoig r) nq&xi), xo ivavxiov • avxi\ 
da anocpooa &axsoov. *£nsl ds xa ivavxia oix iyyi- 
vsxai iv x$ avxtp 'JJ[ d ' imoxr)pi] dvvapig tw Xoyov 
sxeiv • xal y ipvxf) xivrjoscog sx st ao XV v ' ) *° psv vyi- 
sivbv vyUiav povov nsqinoisl, xal xo &SQpavxixbv 
&sqpox7jxa , xal xo ipvxxutbv ipvxQOTfjict • b d' im- 
oxtjpmv apqxo. Aoyog yaq ioxtv a/jqpolV fiiv , oix 
ifioimgjs xal iv xfj ipvx$, rj sxsi xivrjoswg &Qxn v - 
floxs (xjMpa) ane xyg avxifg aQXV$ xtvr\QU nqog xo 


METAPH. LIB. VIII. (IX.) CAP. 3. 177 

avto awdipaaa. Aih ra xata Xoyov dvvaxd , Tolg 
Svtv Xoyov dwajoTg, noiu Tavavrla. Mia ydq dq- 
Z*l mqux&ai to> Xoyta. <Paveqov di , xal on xjj fUv 
tov ev dvvdpti dxoXov&ti, r\ tov fiovov noinoat, 1} 
na&uv dvvapig • Tavxji d' ixtivrj ovx asi. 'Avdyxq < 
ydq tov tv noiovvxa, xal noiuv * top di povov not- ) 
ovvra, ovx avdyxri xal tv no my. ^dw t&J' **^ 
CAPUT III. %m ,M^~ ^ ( *• 
Eiol di Tivtg o% qpaoiv slvai, olov Miyaquxol, -* 
oxav ivsqyjj, povov dvvao&vi • oxav di fir) btqyji, prj -* '■ ' 
dvpaa&at • olop, top fiy oixodofiovvta , /*?} dvpao&at ft L 
oixo do fitly , alia top oixodofiovvta oxav oixodony • *. v „ . 
ouolng di xal inl tc5j» aXltop. Olg xd ovuftaivovxa 
axona ov x^Xtnov idilv. Ar{Xov ydq oxtovxe olxo- 
dofiog carat iav ^ oixodofifj. To yao olxodofico si- 
vat, xw d war co tlval ioxtv olxodopsiv. 'Opolatg di 
xal inl jcov uXXodv Ttxyiav. El ovv advvaxov tag 
xoiauxag s%tiv Tftvag,(tri fiav&dvovxd noTs xalXap- 
fidvovxa, xal fxt) %%uv fit] anofiaXXovxd note ( ij yao 
M&Jlt V nd&H tivl , rj XQOVw • ov yao dt) tov yt 
nqdypatog q>daqivrog • atV ydq ioriv)oxav navoi\- 
t««, ovx 8fe* T *l v *ix vr l v ' ndXiv d* sv&vg olxodofirj- 
oh nStg Xaflwv • xal xd £ipvx<* di bfioiug. Ovie ydq 
VPZQov, ovte -d-tgpov, ovxs yXvxv, ovxs oXoag alod-ri- 
xbv ov&iv I'oxai fit} aio&avofiivwv. °Jlore tov llqto- 
tayoqov Xbyov ovfi^rjasxai Xiyuv avxoig. *AXXa fiyv 
ovd al'o&r)oiv f£» ovdkv, dv /utj alo&dvrjTai, fit}d 3 
tveqyjj. El ovv tvqpXbv to fit) tyov oipiv, necpvxog di 
xal or? niqpvxt , xal Xxi wg oi avtol TV<pX'ol toovxai 
noXXdxtg x^c rjfiiqag xal xtaqpoL *Exi d advvaTOV 
Arist. Metaph. M 


to iaieQTifisvov dwdfittog to fii\ ywofievov, ddvvaxov, 
tax at ytviod-ai* to d' ddvvaxov ysvio&ai, 6 Xiycov ij 
ttvai, rj eaea&ou, ipsvoexai. To yag ddvvaxov tov- 
to hoqpaivtv. "Jloxs ovtoi olloyoi itaigovoi xal xi- 
vtjoiv xal ysvsoiv. *Ael ydq to, T6 eoxrjxbg ktrtrfcttai, 
xal xb xa&tfptvov xa&tduxai. Ov yaq dvaoxrjcrexai, 
av xa&i^rjxai. *Advvaxov yaq eoxou avaoxijvai, o ys 
L) ,Hrj dvvaxai dvaoxr)vai>. El ovv fit) ivdixexaiiavxa 
Xiyeiv, epctvsgov oxi dvpafug xal iviqyeiaexeqov iaxiv. 
3 £xsivoi d' oi Xoyoi , dvvawv xal ivigyeuxv xavxb 
nmovoi. Kal ov pixqov xi fctixovoiv avaiquv. Slats 
ivdixBTeu dvvaxbv ph xi thai, fit) stvai di* xal aWa- 
xbv (irj elvai, slvat di. 'Ofioiiag tie xal tup dXXtav xa- 
XTjyogiwv dvvaxbv fiadi&iv or, fir) (iadltuv 8i' xal fit) 
Pa8l£uv t dvvaxbv that ($adi£etv. "Eoxi $i dvvaxbv 
xo* K xo, w, iav vndqty y iviqyua ov Xiyexai exuv jy* 
dvvapiv, ov&sv Maxai advvaxov. Aiyto ds oiov , el 
dvvaxbv xad-rjo&ai, xal ivdtzsxat, xa&rjo&ai toutaj, 
iav vnaqSj] xo xa&rjo&ai, ovdiv Maxai advvaxov. 
Kal fl xivr\&r\vai xi, ij xivfjoai, i] axt]vai, r\ ottjocci, *j 
thai, rj ysvio&ai, r] pr) elvai, rj fiij ysvio&ai ofioi&g* 
3 Ehjkv&s d' r] ivegysia tovvopa r) nqbg xyv ivxeXex&- 
av oyvxi&Sfisvri, xal inl t« aXXa ix xlav xirrjotwv [ia- 
_ Xioxa. Aoxu yaq ivsgyjia (xdXioxa r) xtvrjoig elvai. 
Aib xal xoXg (ir) ovoiv, ovx dnodidoaoi xb xivuo&ai, 
aXXag dixivag xaxyyogiag' oiov diavoijxa xal imdv- 
fiTjxa elvai xa fxi\. ovxa , xivovfieva de oi), Tovxo 8i 
oxi ovx ovx a iveqyeia , Uaovxai ivtqyela. T&v ykq 
tit] bvxwv;¥na dvvdfiti duxiv. Ovx euxi de, or* ovx 
ivxtXexeifx iaxlv. 

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METAPH. LIB. V11I.(1X.) CAP. 4. 179 

JS* ft' sort to elQtjfiirov bwarbv y uxolov&u, 
(pavegbv ori, ovx ivbixerai alrj&sg ttvai rb iintiv, on 
tivvarbv fiiv robl , ovx torai be, IftoTe to abvvara 
elvai ravrtj biacptvyet. Aiyta bk olov , tt t*$ <pairj 
bwarbv rrjv btapsTgov fitrgti^rjvai, ov pirtoi ptrgr}- 
dJlQBtai, pr) Xoyi&optvog to abwarov eh at, brt ©v- 
&iv xtokvet bwarbv ti ov tTvcu, nytvio&ai, pr) elvai 
be, ptjdi eoto&ai, • dl£ ixelvo avayxri ix twv xeipivorv, 
tl nal vno&oipe&a elvai i) ysyovivai , o ovx ear* pev, 
dwctrov be, on ov&ev tar at dbvvarov • ov pfir)o srat 
be ye. To yag pergeXa&cu, abwarov. Qv yap ( gr^ 
rairb, t o, re ipevbog xccl to dbvvarov. To ydg oe 
koravai vvv, xpivbog peH , ovx dovvarov 6V. *Apa be 
drjXov, xal on, tl tov A ovrog, avayxri to B elvav, xal 
dwctrov ovrog tov A slvcu xal to B avayxri elvat 
dwarov. Ei yao pr) avayxri bwarbv slvai, ov&ev 
xtalvei pr) elvai, bwarbv elvai. v Eotm br) to A 
dwarov. Ovxovv ore to A bwarbv eVrj elvai , 
itre -d-eifj to A, oibev dbvvarov elvai oweffaive. To 
di ye B avayxri elvai • dXt ryv dbvvarov. "Earn bri 
abwarov. El bij abwarov, avayxri elvai to A, avay- 
xri xal to B tip at. *AXX f\v aga to A dwctrov • xal to 
B agw avaga jftb A bvvarbv r xal to B eotou bwarbv, 
tfneg oflratg tl%ov, mors tov A ovrog , avayxri iivat 
to B, *Eav 6q ovtws ixbvrtav rutv A B pr) rj bwarbv 
rb B ovrcag, ovbe to A B e£e* ag iri&rj • xal tl tov A 
dwarov ovrog, avayxri to B bwarbv elvai, tl sari rb 
A, avayxri elvai xal rb B, ■ To yag bwarbv elvai 4£ ' 
avayxric to B elvai, tl rb A bwarbv, rovro or\paiv%. 


Digitized by GOOgk 


idv t) to A, xal ot«, xal ig r\v dvvaxbv elvat, xdxuvo 
. tots, xal ovttog elver* dvayxalov. 
€ Anaotov di ttov dvvdpstov ovular , ttov [i&v ovy- 
yivtov, olov ttov aiod-tjoetnr • twv fla t^ei, olov trjgtov 
avltiv • Twy di pa&rjoH, olov trig tav tsxvtov, jag per 
dvdyxrj noosveoyrioavtag %x HV ooai *&**> *«* Ao/a> • 
tag di prj toiavtag, xaltaginl tov ndoxsiv, ovx dvdy- 
xrj. *Entl di to dvvaxbv , tl dvvaxbv xal noti , xal 
nag, xal ooa alia avdyxr) nqooilvah iv tea diooiojuco- 
xal td pkv xatd loyov dvvatai xiv&v , xal ai dwd- 
X * fittg avttov fittd loyov, td di aloya xal ai dwdfitig 
dloyoi, xdxdvag piv dvdyxrj iv ifupvx<*> tlvat , tav- 
tag di ivd/iqpolv tag fiiv toiavtag dvvdpug dvdyxrj, 
otav a>g dvvavtat to na&rjtixbv xal to noujuxbr 
nlrjoid£tooi, to piv noiuv, to di Ttdozw ixdvag d' 
ovx dvdyxrj. Avtaiyao ndoai, fila hog noirjxixrj * 
ixtfivai di, xtav ivavxitov, "flare apa noirjauxd ivav- 
tia. Tovxo di d dvvaiov. 'Avdyxrj aoa itsoov ti 
slvat, to xvgtov. Aiyto di tovxo oqbSiv rj nooalgtoiv. 
'ChtoteQov yaq ay boiyrjtai , xvqiwg tovxo noirjau, 
Stay wg dvvatai vndqxfj xalitlrjoidtrj tip na&rjtuto}. 
"Slots to dwatbv xatd loyov anav dvdyxrj, otavooi- 
yrjtai, ovts %x u J V V tivvafiiv, xal tog &«, tovxo noi- 
uv. *Exu di naoovtog tov na&ytixov xal todl %x ov ~ 
tog itoieiv. jfi, di (it}, noiiiv ov dvvrjottai. To ydo 
urj&tvbg ttov «£m xtalvovtog nnogdiooi&o&ai , ov&iv 
%ti d$i. Trjv ydq dvvapiv !/«, tog fax* tov dvvdpti 
nouiv. *Eoti d* ov ndvioig, al£ ixbvttov ntog,ivolq 
dq>ooio&rjottai xaltd tttoxtolvovta. 9 Aq>aiaeitai ydq 

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M(ETAPH. LIB. Vm. (IX.; CAP. 6. 181 

xavxa xS>v iv tw diogiapco ngoaovxav Hvia. J to ov- 
ds iav a/ia (JovXr}xai,.r) im&v/tjj noulv, dvo y xa 
ivavxla ov noirjoii. Ov yag ovxmg $x tl avxStv Spa 
xr)v dvvaptv, ovd* $oxi xov SpanoitXv r)dvvapig' tnti 
fay lav iv, ovx&g notrjou. 

'Enel di ntgl xrjg xaxd xivrjoiv Xsyopivrjg dwd- 
fi$wg efgrjxai, negl ivsgyiiag diogiocopsv , xi iaxiv r) 
ivigyua, xalndiov xi. Kal yag xb dwaxbv , Spa 
drjXov soxai diaigovoir, on ov pbvov xovxo Xiyoptv 
dwaxbv, o nitpvxt xtvtiv aXXo , rj xivtio&ai vn «X- 
Xov, rj dnXwg, ij xgonov xiva, alia xal foegoag. Jib 
tyxovvxtg xal negl xovrtov dir]X&op6v. "Eoxi d ' r) ^ (j^ _ 
ivigyuaxb vnagxuv xb ngaypa, pr) ovxoag wonsg 
Xiyoptv dvvdptu Aiyoptv di dwdpei, olov, iv x&r ^ 
$vX<p c £gprjv, xal iv xy oXrj xr)v rjplouav, oxt dyaigt- ^ 
&$iri Sv ' xal imaxr)pova xal xov pr) dsmgovvxa , idv r\ j " 
dvvaxbg rj &e<ogrjoaf xb ti& ivegyela (di]Xov d' inl ' a***** 
x&v xa&* txaoxa xfj inayayy , o (iovXbpe&a Xiytiv, fcpjt^y" 
xal ov dtl navxbg ogov Ctjxsiv, aXXa to dvaXoyov ovv- j 

oqav •) ot* mg to oixodopovv ngbg xb olxodoptxov • ^ 
xal xb iygrjyogbg ngbg xb xa&tvdov • xul xb bg&v 
ngbg xb pvov piv , otyiv di sxov ' xa* xb anoxtxgipi- 
vov ix xrjg vXrjg ngbg xr)vvXrjv xa» to dntigyaepi- 
vov ngbg xb dvigyaaxov, Tavxrjg de xrjg diaq>ogag 
d-dxegov pogiov, eoxa r) ivigyna aqxogiopivri, -&axi- J 
ga ds xb dvvaiov. Aiytxai 81 ivtgyela ov ndvxa 
bfiolag, dl£ rj xb avdXoyov, wg xovxo iv xovxta , rj 
ngbg xovxo. Tod* iv icods, rj ngbg xods. Ta piv 
yog mg xivrjoig ngbg 8vy^ mr t i&J£~Ai£ ° ^« **??<;„ , - 

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S* SjMSLS&gv.' *^M<»$ ds to anstgov xal xsvov, xal oaa 

r ' ^^/SISioiW/aTa* xa* dwdpst xal ivsgysla noXXoig xwy 

, (/' * ovrtav, olov tw OQtovTi, xal fiadiSovit, xa* ogcoftivco. 

JP J"^ ^Tai/Ta f*ev /a^ ivdexnat xal aitlag, xctl ^dlti&svs- 

~ £ ^Jto&oiL note. To psv ydg bg&ftevov, ot* oo^Tai- to cf 

v v\*< * oxi ogao&ai dvvaxov. To ds ansigov ovx ovtg> dv- 

jT vdftti iotlv, tag ivsgysla ioopsvov ^cdoiotoj', allot yvco- 

-, ^S 6 '» ^ /"£ ^ ^3roAia fiZ^Ifflv j&g/gcaty, anodldaiQi 

V / to elya* dvvdpsi iavT*\v iqv irigysiav , t£ ds #«£/£«- 

(^ad-a* ov. [ j £jt«a 5« Twy jroa&aiy w? &mv nigag, 

ovdsfila %ilog, alia twv 7tsgl to t&o? • oloy tov 

toxvalvsiv, i] loxvaola avto • avxa ds oxav loxvai- 

vy , ovto) ioxlv iv xivr\asi, /*?; vndgxovxa toy svsxa ij 

xlvrjotg, ovx son zavta ngd£ig, % ov tslsla ys. Ov 

ydg tslog, dl£ cushy ivvnagxe* to zilog xal q nga- 

£tg* olov oga 9 alia xal cpgovsl xal voti, xal vsvoqxev, 

dl£ ov pav&dvst, xal [ispd&rixsv old' vyux£?tat, 

xal vylaatai • sv (rj, xal sv efi?x«y • clHa xal svdai- 

fiovsl xal evdcci/uovrjxsv. El ds fit}, i'du dv nois nuv- 

so&ai , wansg oxav laxvalvji. Nvv d ov , alia £// 

xal e£r)*s. Tqvtmv dy tag piv xwi\osig liystv , t&g 

6° ivsgytlag. Ildaa ydg xlvqotg dtslhg, ioxvaoia, 

fiiot&yoig, (Iddioig, oixodopnioig, Avtat ds xivi)osig 9 

xal dtslslg ys. Ov ydg Spa Padi&t xal (tsfiddixsv, 

ovd' oixodopsl xal yxodoftyxsv , ovds ylyvsxai xal 

yiyovsv, tj xivsltaixal xsxlvffxsv • al£ htgov xal ui- 

vsi xal MiveiTai. 'JEtigaxs ds xal ogfy afia to avto, 

xal vou xal vtvoqxs. Tyv piv ovv TOiavvrjP Mo- 

ysiav Isya, ixsivrjv ds xivyow.'] To fiiv ovv svsgytltjf 

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MET A PH. LIB. VIII. (IX.) CAP. 7. 183 

i/ id Sort xal ndlov, ix tovtqjv xal twv toiovtwv drj- 
Xov ijjuy eaTco. 

/Zoic d« dvvdfiu iarlv txaorov, xal note ov , dio- 
giordov. Ov yag bnoTeovv. Olov rj yrj, ag iatl dv- 
vdfiu &v&g<anog rj ov ; aXXa fiaXXov oiav ijdt) yivr)- 
Tai andgfia, xal ovde tovto nov la cog. "floneg ovv 
ovde vtto iaigixrig atiav av vyiao&tiri, ovd* dnoTV- 
ZVSi dXX* eou 11 o dwaTov iori, xal tovto ioT&v vyiai- 
vov dvvdfisi. "Ogog di tov fiiv vnb diavoiag ivTtXt- 
Xficc yiyvofidvov, ix tov dwdfiu ovxog , oiav fiovXri- 
&dvrog yiyvrjTai ftrj&tvog xwXvovTog jaw ixro g. 'jzxii 
d iv t« vyia(ofiiv<*>, oiav firj&iv xwXvrj t&v ivavToj . 
'Ofioicag ds dvvdfiu xal olxia, ilfirjdtv xtoXvti tuv iv 
tovib) xal ijj vXrj tov ylyvsa&ah olxiav, ovd' tariv o 
du ngooysvdo&ai t) dnoysvio&ai, rj fisxafiaXuv, tov- 
to dvvdfiu olxia. Kal inl iwy aXXatv d)oavTiog, ootov 
etw&sv r\ agxh ifo yevdoeatg, xaloatav dr) iv clvtw tcw 
txoTti, oaa /irj&tvog twv I'Stodsv ifinodi£ovrog tarai 
di avTov ' olov, to onigfia ovnto. 4si ydg iv aXX<o 
xal fittafiaXXsiv. "Oxav d* ijdrj diet T?)g avTr)g agzw 
ytoLOVTor , fjdrj tovto dvvdfiu, 'Exeivo di Mgag 
dgxyg dtixai. "jlonsg r\ yr) t ovnta dvdgwg dvvdfiu • 
(istafidXXovoa yag eat at x<*Xx6g. "Eoixt di o Xiyofiev 
tbai ov rode, oU' ixtivivov olov to xifitaTiov, ov 
ZvXov, dXXct SvXwov • ovdi to £vXov yi) , dXXd yi)'i- 
vov, IldXtv % yij, tl ovTtag fiy aXXo, aXXa ixtivivov, 
atl ixuvo dvvdfiu anXug, to voTtgov ioriv • oloi', t6 
xtftwTtov, ov yrfivov, ovdi yij, aXXa £vXivor, Tovto 
yag dvvdfiu ki/Swtioj' • xal vXij xifittTlov avTii, anXtag 

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^C'4&y y ^ ARIS TOTE LIS 

V J*^ iov otnXwQj tovdl di xodl $vXov. M di « fori to 

VV^wrov, o [Atjxin xax aXXo Xiyexai ixtlvivov, xovio 

-,i Vn nowrif t/Ai? • oloy sly yi\ dspivrj, o d* arjo fi^nvp, dl- 

\ i% £ ]Xa nvpivog, xb nvp vXy ngwrrj, wg xods xi xal ova la. 

\u* [ Tovxui yap diayigu to xa&oXov,.xalxb vnoxBlpsvov, 
y t<£ tlvai xode xi, fj fit] tlvai • olov xoig nd&soi to vno- 

\ xeifitvov av&ganog xal ow/ua xal yvxy • nd&og di to 

povoixbv, xal Xsvxov. Aiytxai di xrjg (iovotxtjg iyye- 
voptvrjg ixtivo ov juoujixt) , dXXd povoixov xal ov 
Xsvxoxijg 6 av&patnog , dXXd Xtvxov ovdi j3ddioig ij 
xivtioig , dXXd ($adi£ov rj xivovpevov , wg to ixslvivov, 
"Ooa fiiv ovv ovtoj, to soxaxov ovoia • ooa di firj ov- 
tw aU' ei tfo£ t« , xal rods t* to xaxtiyopov^ttvov , to 
Eoxaioy vXrj xal ovoia vXixrj. Kal op&aig di\ ov/a- 
ftalysL to ixtivivov, ov Xiyeo&ai xaxd xrjv vXrp xal xd 
nd&rj • jyi(p<Q yap dooioia . IIoxs fiiv ovv Xexxiov 
dvvdpet, xal note ov, upt]xai. 

n tl *Entl di jSLJipoxtpov duaptoxai boax&g Xiystai, 

qpavspbv oxi npoxspov ivigysia dvvdjASvtg ioxi. Aiyta 
di dvvd/ASug , ov fiovov xr^g WQio/Jsvrjg ij Xiysxai dgxi\ 
fitxafiXTjXixri iv aXXa) ij dXXo, aXX' oXtag ndorjg dpxyg 
xtvijxixtjg ij oxaxixrjg. Kal yap r\ qpvoig iv xavxCt 
yiyvsxai. *Ev t<m avxta ydpyivn xjj dvvdpei. *Apxi\ydp 
xivrixixri, aXX* ovx iv aXX(p , dXX? iv avxtio tj avxo, 
Haarjg di xrjg xoiavxtjg npoxipa ioxlv fj ivdpyna, Kal 
Xoycoxal xfi ovoia. Xpovtn 6*' car* fxiv&g, taxi d* 
cog ov, Tw loya) fiiv ovv on npoxipa , drjXov. To 
yap t$ ivdixBO&ai ivtpyqaai dwaxbv, soxi xb npmxtog 
dvvaxbv * oloy Xiyto olxodofuxbv , xb dvvdpsvov olxo- 

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MKTAPH. LIB. VIII. (IX.) CAP. 8. 185 

top&rxal hgaxixbv, xo dvvdptvov bg<$v xal bgaxbv, 
xo dwaxbv bgao&ai* b 6" avtbg Xoyog xal inl xuv 
attar. Jloxs avdyxr\ xov Xbyov ngovitdgx*w y xal 
up yv&oiv xr t g yvwoecog. T$ di ZQ'opqt ngbxtgov code, 
to tw ttdei tc avxb ivsgyovv ngoxsgov , dgi&fiw d* . 
ov. Adyta di xovxo, oxi xovds fiiv xov dv&gtbnov xov 
rjdri ovxog xax ivigyeiav, xal xov oixov xal xov innov 
xal xov bg<avxog\ ngoxtgov tw XQorw ij vlrj , xal to 
onigpa xal to bgaxixov • a dwdpu fiiv ioxiv (xv&qco- 
nog, xal oixog , xal bqiov , ivsgysict de ovnto. *AlXa 
tovxwv tw /oovoj ngoxega sxtga ovta ivegyela, it (ay 
xavia iyivsxo. Idel yag ix xov dvvdfiet ovxog, yivt- 
icr* to ivsgyda ov, vnb ivtgyda ovxog * do* av&gat- 
nog «£ dv&g<anov, fiovoixbg vnb povoixov, aslxivovv- 

tog xivog ngaxov. To Si xivovv ivsgytitjc jjftfi? ioxiv. 

Klgqiai 6i iv xoig mgl xyg ovolag Xbyoig , bxi anav 
to yivofitvov yivexai sx xivog xb , xal vnb xivog • xal 
loi/To to} si'det xb avxo. Jib xal doxtl advvaxov «7- 
y«t oixodofiov thai, pi\ oixodofi^oavxa firjdev, r\ xt&a- 
1}mriv firjdsv xi&agioavxa. 'O yag pav&dvav xi&a- 
?*£«* , xi&agiSmv pav&dvei xi&agifav. 'Opoitog 6*8 
*«* oi aXXoi. "O&sv b ooqwjxixbg tXsyxog iyivixo, oxi 
°wc I^wv xtg xqv imoxrjfiriv , notion ov ^ inioxyfii) • 
yag (lav&dvav ovx fyH. *AXXa did xb xov yiyvofUvov 
Y*yivTjo&ai xi , xal xov oXiog xivovpivov xexivrjo&ai Qj 
u > (dtfXov di iv xoig nsgl xivriottog xovxo) xal xov '/«/>• 
uav&dvovra dvdyxrfMxsw xi x^g iniaxrjfirjg lowg. *AXt 0. <* + • 
°w xal xavxij ye drjXov, oxi f) iviqyua xal ovx<ag nqo- 
T «oo xa\s dvvdpmg xaxit yivzaiv xal xgbvov. *AXXd 
f^ xal oiola y$ • ngaxov pkv ovv, ot* xd xfi ytvion 

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136 AR1ST0TEL1S 

vaxsga, tw el'dsi xal rfj ovaict ngoxsga ' olov , avyg 
natdbg , xal av&gwnog onsgfiaxog • (to fisv yag ^3ij 
l^ct to sldog, to 5 ' otr) xal oxt anav in agxyv P a ~ 
di£st to yivopsvov, xal xsXog. *Agxy y*Q T0 ov * y£Xa * 
tov xsXovg ds svsxa ^ ysvsoig. TsXog d' i) ivigysia, 
xal tovtov x<*Qw V dvvaptg Xapfiavsrai, Ov yag tva 
oyiv sxwmv bgwo* xa fwa, dXX oiuag ooooatv o <//*>» 
tXovatv, c Ofxol(og ds xal oixodopixiiv, 'iva oixodofiaoi' 
xaltriv &sa)Q7jTixrjy J Iva -dsagaaiv aX£ ov -dscogov- 
mv, 'iva &S(agrjxtxriv s'x^aiv, si firj oi fisXsxdvxsg. Ou- 
Tot d* ovxl -frstogovoiv, aXX rj a3i, »; oti ovdsv diovxai 
•dstogsXv. ''Ext f} vXrj soxi dwdfiu , on sX&oi av sig 
to eldog, c 'Oxav ds ys ivsgysice fa xoxs iv t<5 sl'dsi iotiv. 
Opoiwg ds xal inl rcov aXXoav, xal wvxivrjoig to TiXog. 
Jib monsg ol diddoxovxsg , ivsgyovvxa imdeiSavxsg, 
otovxai to xsXog dnodedaxivat , xal fj qpvaig bfioloag, 
Etydg firj ovxa yiyvsxai, o ndoo&vog 'EgfiTjS saxai. 
"AdrjXog yag t) imoxrififj, si soot ij s%(jh, wansg xaxuvog. 
To ydg sgyov, xiXog • q ds ivigysia , to sgyov. Aib 
xal xovvopa Xiysxai ivigysia xaxd xb sgyov , xa* atw- 
rsivsi Tigbg xtjv ivrsXixsiav. 3 Ensl o*' ioxl twv fisv 
saxaxov r\ xgyoig , olov oiftstag t\ ogaaig, xal ovdsv 
yivsxai naga xavxrjv sxsgov dnb xr\g oipttog sgyov in 
ivioav ds yivsxai xi , olov dnb xr\g oixodoftixrjg oixia 
naga ttjv olxodofjtriaiv • ofjuag ovdsv rjxxov , sv&a fiiv 
TsXog, sv&a ds fi&XXov TsXog xrjg dvvdfisag iaxiv. '& 
yag oixodo^aig iv t« oixodo/xovpevw , xal afia yi- 
yvsxai xal taxi, xji oixia. "Oawv fiiv ovv sxsgov xl iaxiv 
naga xi\v xg'hoivxb yiyvofisvov, tovtmv psv fj iviQyua 
iv tw noiovpsvq ioxlv, olov fj t« olxodbfiv\oig iv t$ 

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METAPH. LIB. VIII. (IX.) CAP. 8. 187 

ohiodofiovfidrco , xctl J] xxpavoig iv tip vcpaivopevtg • 
Oftoiwg de xal inl T<2y aXXtav, xal bXug r) xhrjaig iv 
lot xivov[iiv(p. Oofov de fit] ionv ctXXo %i eqyov naqd 
ity hiqyuav , iv ctviolg vnaqx** V iviqyua * olov fj 
oqaaig iv ttp bq*>vn , ual r) &i&qia iv tw dscogovvn, 
*a* r) (oy^ iv rjj ysvvji* dio xal r) evdatfiovia * far) 
yaq xal notd itg ioriv. "jlate <paveqbv on r) ovaia 
ml to eldog iveqyetd %lq ion. Kara t* dr) f ovToy 
Toy Xoyov opaveqbv , oTt nqoztqov rjj ovaia iviqyeia 
bvvdpswg • xeu woneq tlnofiev xov /ooyot; a *l ™qo- 
lufipdvei, iviqyua Hiqa nqb ixeqag, eatg ttj$ tov < m /fr^~ 
xwot/yio* ttoojta)?, !*4iUa /iif* xal xvqtmeqiog. Ta pev^ e. y 
yaq a'idta, nqoxtqa Tijj ovaia, twv <p&aqj(av. *Eon d 
ov&sv dvvdpn d'tdiov. Aoyog de ode • itaoa dvvapig 
<*pa xr)g avJHpdotdg ion* to pev ydq pr) dwaxbv 
vn&Qx$iv, ovx Sv vnaq^etev ov&evi • %b dwaxbv de 
way Mextxai py iveqyeiv. To aqa dwaxbv elvai, 
bdixneu xal elvcu xal pr) ilvat. To avxb aqa dvva- 
*oy xal elvai xal pr) thai. To de dwaxbv pr) elvai, 
^Uxitai pr) elvai. To de ivdexopevov pr) elvai, qp#ao- 
tov, r) ccnXwg, rj xovxo aixb o Xiyexai ivdexso&ai, pr) 
*won, rj xaxax67tov,rjxaxa.xbnoobv > rjxaxaxb noiov 
ttnX&g de xb xax ovoiav. Ov&ev aqa t&v a<p&vtQxav 
unl&g, dvvdpei ioxlv ov anXug • xaxd u de ovdev xo>- 
h/«, oloy, 7to*6 v, *} nov. 'Eveqyeia aqa nana • ovdk 
T wy 4$ avayxyg ovx&v, xattoh tavta nqwia. El yaq 
TovTa fiif qv, ovd-ev av r^v. Ovde dy xivi\oig , e% tig 
foilv dtdiog ' ovd* el n xtvovpevov d'tdiov , ovx cot* 
*<«« dvvapiv xtvovpevov, dXti rj no&ev, rj njj. Tov- 
iov 5' vXr}v ov&kv xmXvei vndjtfuv , did atl iveqyei 

I U^- 

a^C ')vv<ru^\v (j\ 

%^tXZ^*~£~ - D zedb Google 


6 *JiUos *«* aoxga, xaloXog o ojugavbg , xal ov <pofte- 
( gov fir] noxs oxrj, o q>o($ovvxak oi mgl (pvoewg. Ovdi 
xdfivu Toi/To dgatvxa ' ov yag elvat 7xsgl xrp dvvapiv 
' xr)g dvxKpdaswg avxolg, olov xotg q>&agxdlg, r) xlvr)- 
aig. "Jloxe ininovov slvai xr)v ovvixsiav trig %ivj\<- 
oeiog. C H yag ovoict, vXfj xal dvvapig ovacc , ovx 
ivegyeta aixiaxovxov. Mtfislxai dsxd aq>&agxa xal xa 
iv fisxapoXjj ovxa, olovytj xalnvg. Kalydg xavxa a el 
iveg/si. Ka&* avid yag xal iv avxolg %x** r V v xfoy- 
oiv. Av d* dXXat dvvdfiug , i$ av dtagioxai , naoai 
xr)g avxupdomg hoi. To yag dvvd/ievov wdl xiviiv, 
dvvaxai xal fir\ wdl, ooa ye xaxa Xoyov, Ai 8e aXoyot 
t$ naguvat xal fir), xr)g dviupdomg soovxai at avxaL 
El aga xtvig uoi cpvouq xoiavxai , r\ ovoiat , oXag Xi- 
yovoiv oi iv xolg Xoyotg xag idiag, noXit pallor int- 
oxr)fiovavxi tlrj, r) avvrj imoxr\fir\ % xal xivoifitvov , ij 
xlvr\aig. Tavxa yag ivigyuai fi&XXov, ixsivai di dv- 
vdfiug xovxtav. "Oxi fiiv ovv ngoxsgov r) ivsgyeia 
xal dwdpeag xal naor\g ccgxvs fisxa(SXrjxixr}g ^ q>a- 

"Oxt 8s xal (SsXilcov xal onovdaioxiga xrjg anov- 
daiag dvvdfisag r\ ivigysia , ix xwvds drjXov. Ooa 
ydg xaxd xo dvvao&cti Xiyexai , xavxov ioxi dvvatov 
xdvavxla • olov, xo dvvao&ai xo XsySfisvov vyialvsiv, 
TcnJrov ioxi, xal xb vooovv , xal Sfia. *H avxr) yag 
dvvapig xov vyialvsiv xal xdfivnv , xal tjgtuiiv xal 
xivslo&ai , xal olxodofitiv xal xaxafiaXXsiv • xal oixo- 
dofieiod-ai xal xaxanlnxnv. To fiiv ow dvvao&ai xd- 
vavxia, afia vndgxw slvoudsxd ivavxla, apa, advva- 

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METAPH. LIB. VIII. (IX.) CAP. 10. 180 

xov [xal tag htgysiag di apa ddvraior vndgxsir] 

olor, uv xal xdpvsir. "Jlot dvdyxrj rovitor 

-d'dtsgor strai tdya&or * to ds dvrao&ai opoiwg 

dptpotsgor , ij older eg or. 'H aga irigyua, (Minor. 

Idrdyxri di xal inl tmr xaxvr to tiXog xal ttjv /yep- ^ 

ysiar thai x*tyw *V9 dvrdpsoag. To yag dvrdptror, 

rati to apopta t apart la. dyXor aga on ovx sort to 

xaxbr naga %a ngdypata. "Totsgor yag tjJ qpvosi 

to xaxor trjg dvrdpswg. Ovx aga ovd ' iv tdig i$ 

dgXVS xaltdtg a idiots ov&irionr , ovts xaxor, ovts 

ctfiagtrj/ta, ovts disa>&agpiror. Kal yag tj diay&ogd 

tcir xaxnr ionr, Evgloxttai ds xal id diaygdppata 

iregysia. diaigovnsg yag evgtoxovotr. El d* ijr 

dirjgrjpira, q>artga ay tjr, Nvr d* irvndgx*i dvrdpu. 

did ti dvo og&altb iglyatror; on ainsgl filar otiy- 

lirp yariai, Joat dvo og&ous. El ovv dvr^xxo r) nsgl 

it]? nXsvgdv, Idorn ar yr sv&itg dyXor. did il iv rjpi- 

xvxXitp og&7) xa&oXov ; dion idr loai ai igtlg, r\ is 

fidaig dvo, xal r\ ix psaov iniota&sioa og&r} , idorn 

drjXor Tea ixsiro udoxi. "Slots qparsgor on id dvrd- 

psi ona , tig irigytiar dray opera svgloxstai. 

Alitor ds, on rorjotg tf irsgysta. v Slot i$ irtg- 

ysictg rj dvraptg • xal did tovto noiovrtsg yirtaoxov- 

aiv. c, Totsgor yag ysriasi y irigysia nr\ xax dgi&por. 


'Ensl ds to or Xiystai xal to prj or , to per xaid 

rd ozrjpata tar xairjyogiar , to ds xaid dvrapir ij 

ivigytiar tovnar , *j tdranla , to di xvguotator or, \ 

aXrj&ig i} ipevdog • tovnar d* inl twv ngaypditor iotl^ *\\ 

to ovyxtia&ai tj diaigtiad-ai • Stats aXr^d-tvsi ph o to 

• Digitized by GoOgle 


difiqfifUrop olofisvog diatgiio&ai , xal to ovyxtlft** op 

ovyxeto&at • eytvoxac de 6 tvavxlotg ?/a>r, r t t« ngay- 

fiotrta not iatlv, 1} ovx eotiv* "Jlote to akfj&ig Xeyo- 

(jlbvov, r\ ysvdog • tovxo yag oxtnteov tl Xiyofiew. 

Ov yag, dia to fjftag oi'eo&cu altj&wg ae Xtvxbv shot, 

^ el ov Xevxog • aXXd dun to oi Xtvxbv elvai , t](iug o* 

<)P«VT8f tovto aXrj^evofiev, JSl o*^j t<* fie* act ovyxu- 

toci, xal advvaTadiaigi&fjvai, Ta (5 «*i ditjgfftai, xal 

advvata ovvxe&rjvat, xa d 3 ivdexetat, tavartia* to 

-^ i Z"**' f * ya ' ^* rr * T0 ovyxuo&at xal tv eivai • to fli pi? 

Ss***\ thai, to py ovyxeio&ai, alia nXsico elvat. Jleglfuv 

ovv ta ivdexbpeva, f\ avirj ylretai ipevdrjgxal aXrj&rig 

i do^a, xal 6 Xoyog o avtog* xal ivdixerai oik per aXy- 

i d-tVHv , ore de ipevdeo&ai. Jlegl de ta advvata 

( akkwg I'xsiv, ov ylyvetat bxi fisv aXrj&eg, ore di 

yytvdog, aXX y ad tavta aXtiStj xal iftevdr^. Jlegl 

de dr\ ta aovv&eta , tl to eivai, rj at] elva*, xal 

to afoj&ig xal to ipevdog / ov yag iot* ovv&erov. 

"Slate eivai jiev , otav ovyxrjxai' fty eivai di , iav 

ditigrffiivov tj (vtaneg to Xevxbv SvXov, ij to aovp(if~ 

Tgov Ttjv diapexgov •) ovde to «Jl^«5 xal to tyevdog 

bfioiag It* vnagla, xal in ixelvwv. *H won eg ovde 

to aXrj&eg inl tovxatv to avxb, ovtwg ovds to eivai ; 

aX£ eaxt to fiev aktj&eg , to de yevdog. To ficy $«- 

yeiv xal cpavai aXr^eg. Ov yag tav-xb xazdcpaoig xal 

yaoig. To d* ayvoetv [iq dt,yy&vuv. 'Anatij^yai 

__ yag negl to tl ioxiv, ovx I'oxiv, aXX* ij xata ovjuifieftj]- 

xo?. Ofiolaig di xal negl Tag aavv&eTovg ovalag. Ov 

jfagiotip dnaxtjOijvai' xal naoal eioiv ivegyela 9 ov 

ovvuftei. 'Eylrovio yag av , xal eip&elgovw vvv di 

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METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.) CAP. 1. 191 

to ov orvtb ov yivstai, ovdi (p&tigeTcti. *£x uvog ydg 
av iylvtxo. "Ooa drj ioxiv onsg elval ti xal ivigyda, 
ntgl tavta ovx saxtv anaxr\&ilivai t aXtf ijj vosiv, •§ f*if« 
AXXd to tc ion ^xtXxai ntgl uvtuv, el toiavtd iotiv, 
irj py. To di slvat wg to aXri&ig, xal to pi) tlvat, 
ug to ytvdog, tv piv iouv d ovyxsitai, aXy-frig* to 
d* ct pi) ovyxsixai, iptvdog. To di ev, tl'ntg ov, ol>- — 
twg iaxlv • si di pi) ovxotg , oyx sou. To di dXri&ig, ** 
to vouv avid' to di yjtvdog, ovx eoxiv, oidi dndxr\ t 
aXXd ayvoux, ovx °* a V tvq>Xoxtjg ioxlv. C H piv ydg 
tvqpXotrjg lath, wg av u to vorjtixbv oXtag pr\ fyot tig. 
&avcgbv di xul ot* negl t&v axivr\x<nv ovx toxiv and" 
trj xaid to noti, si' tig vnoXappdvoi dxlvrjxa • olov, 
to tglytavov , si pr) psxafiaXXeiv , ovx olrjoexai note 
piv dvo og&dg ^X^>> noti di ov. MetafidXXoi, ydg 
av* aXXa tl piv, tl d ov, Olov aguov dgi&pbv 
tiqmtov piv ilvai pq&eva , i) tivdg piv , tivdg d* ov.. 
IdQi&ptp di negl eva ovdi xovxo. Ov ya$ lit tiva ptv, 
tiva di ovx olr\aixai>, dX£ dXrj&svxm % xptvauai } cog 
ad ovvrng ixovxog. ^ 




jT qjv oxt piv Xiyexat noXXax&g, iv tolg ntgl xov no- 
aoex&g dirjQtjpivoig Bi'grjxai ngoxegov, IJX&ovax&g di 
Xsyopdvov, ol avyxsopuXaiovpevoi xgonoi eial tiooa^ ^ 
peg t<av ngwxwg xal xa-Qt avta Xtyopivoiv IV, aXXd 
pij xatct ovpf}s(2rix6g. To, xs ydg ovvexh, % anXwg, /. 

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rj (idXiGta ys to (pvost xal ft?) aq>f t , [iritis tito/aco * xal 
tovtwv fiaXXo> sv xal ngoTsgov , wv adiaigsrtaTsga i\ 
xivr)Oig xal fiaXXov anXrj. "Eti toiovtov, xal fiaXXov 
xo SXov xal'sxov T *y« fJtogq>rjv xal sldog~ fiaXioxa d* 
tt ti qpvost, toiovtov xal firj fiia, wunsg ooa koXXtj , tj 
yofiqxa, r] ovvdiofiq*' aXXa s% H & ovtm to aixiovxov 
awsxig tlvcti. Toiovtov ds tw fiiav xrjy.xlvrjaiv slvai, 
*at atiiaigsrov xonta xalxQovw. "JIots qpavsgbv stn 
<pvost xwrjosutg agxyv fyd xi]g noiaTfjg, Trp ngtatw 
olov Xsyto (pogag gvxXocpogiav , ot* tovto ngtoTov (ti- 
ys&og sv. Ta fisv dr) ovTOjg sv , »j ovvsxsg > V oXov ' 
xa ds (ov av 6 Xoyog stg jj, Toiaxna 5s d>v y vorjoig 
fiia* xoiavxa 8s tov adiaigsrog* adialgsrog ds tov 
•udiaiqsTov eld si, rj agi&fiw. 'dgi&fia* fisv ovv, Toxad" 
J ixaoTov adialgsTov • si'dtt ds, tw yv wara> , xal xp 4m- 
(f uxfifir}. v fLo& sv av sXr\ ngaxov to xalg ovoiaig a%- 
xiov tov kvog. \ AsysTah fisv ovv to tv xoaavxax&g t 
// to, tc ovvsxig cpvasixal to bXov, xal Toxatf sxaoTov, 
xai to xa&* bXov. IlavTa ds Tama sv , to! adialgs- 
xo\ slvat , twj> fisv xr)v xlvr t aiv, xatv ds xr\v votjow, r\ 
xov Xbyov. An ds xaxavosiv on ovx woavTag Xrj- 
nTsov Xsyso&ai nola xs sv XiysTat, xal tI ion to. kvl sl- 
vai, xal xig aviov Xoyog. Asysxai fisv yag xbsvxo- 
eavxax&s, xal sxaoxov soTai sv xovxtav, wv av vnag- 
Xot Tig tovtcov tmv Tgornov. To ds kvl sivat, ots fisv 
tovtojv tivI soTai, ots ds aXXto, o xal fiaXXov iyyvg t<£ 
ovofiaTi sari, T§ dvvdfisi d* ixslva • won eg xal nsgl 
OToixsiov xal ahiag , si dioi Xsysiv , ini xs xdtg ngay- 
fiaob tiiogi&vTa, xal tov ovofiaTog tov ogov outodi- 
tiovTa. Eoti (isv yag wg OToixsiov , to nvg (soti d* 

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METAPH; LIB. IX. (X.) CAP. 1. 193 
tot>g xctyf ctvtb xal to amioov , tf n ctXlo Toioi/Toy) 

tott 0* *>( OV. OV ^O^ TO UVIO Ttvol Xttl OTOi£f/y 

«7ra*, &Xi mg pkv ngayfia n xal (pvaig to nvg oio*~ 
&tov. To 64 bvoftct oTjfimhn, t$ todl ovpfofliixtocu ?/> r 

crvT«j>, St* iati xi to tovtov &g npotov toxmigxovtog. ( . 
OvT»f xal inl tatiov xal tobg tuv toiovtmv anartvtv. 
dtb xal to hi uweu, to aStasghta iatlp tJvmi , ontg v i . /^L-s 
T*id* ovti xal «/*>o/oTy, ij rd?r*», ij «J'6e*, ij dtavoia,. v • 
j} iw oi^ xat 6ta>ipioy»4i'(p. MaXiata deibfthgu thai * V 
itoenov bxaotov yivovg, xal xvoianata tov nooov. 
3 Ert$v&€v yag nalim tit uUm iXrjkv&s. Mitoov yap 
iauv q> to 9loooir yittomutai. IWrnoxtta* ds , rj hi, 
fj ag&(i& to noob* y nooov. O yaqaqid-u b^ a npjfi . 
hwL "Jlgte nav to noobv yivwxetou i t nooov, t» hi, 
xal £ ftgwiod ytrtloxetcu , tovto avtb IV. Atoxi to 
& agi&pov (*?X*}>y &Q&pig, 3 Evttv&i* ds xaltototg 
aXkotg Xiyttat fthgow, a> CTOflST^TefxaoToy^muoxcTat, 
xa2 to (Utoov kxaotov tv, to pyx*** * v nXatn, to /5«- 
#•*, 4r /frto**, li» tcc£**. To yog fiaoog xul u*xog, voi- 
re* to tolg toavtlo%g, /fttroy yap htaotov avjwv. 
CHov (iigog to, T« bnoatffvovv Ifcov qonriv, xal to fyo* 
vntqoxrjr fontjg. Kal ta/og, to, t« bnootijvovv xi- 
ri)Oty%x°*> xal to in tooty* xtvyotrng. "Eaxiyao %i 
*<*J(og ual iov figadiog , xal fiagog tov xowpotigov. 
3 £r naoi Stj tovtotg, fihqop xal otfxh & T * ««i adiaU 
Qttov * inil xal to tai4 yooipptuq xqanncai t?g ato/na 
tji nodicuce. Jlavtaxov yaq to pet gov h ti ^tyiovai 
x«ri aduxignov. Tovto $4 to oTilovy, v\ tw »otw , ^ 
to# noow. "Otiov ff4y ovy doxel ftrj dvai aqptXtlv rj 
nqocm&toat , tovto axQifieg to p&roov. Jib to tov 
Arist. Metaph. N 



{$ ig&[iov axgifiiotatov. Trjv ydg fiovdda ti&iaoi 

ndvrrj ddiaigetov iv de toig aXXoig [iifiovvtaito to*- 

ovtov. *Anb ydg aiadiov xaltaXdvtov,xal aelrov pd- 

£ovog, Xd&oi av xal ngoote&iv %i xal d<paige&sv pal- 

Xov, % an 6 tov iXattovog. "flats dcp ov ng&tov xata tqv 

ai'o&ijoiv (it) ivdsxetai,tovto ndvtsg noiovvtai futgov, 

* xal vyg&v xal I^omk, xal pdgovg xal psyi&ovg. Kal 

tot olovtai eidivat, to noobv, btav stdwoi did tov- 

tov tov petgov xal dr\ xal xivr\oiv tfj anXtj xivrjou 

xal tjj Taxl<rtji. 'OXiyootbv ydg avxt\ foei XQovov. 

Jib iv ttj dotgoXoyia to toiovtow h, dgxy *«* psxgov 

(ti)v xivrjaiv ydg bfiaXrjv vnoti&svtai, xal taxiai^v 

77)v tov ovgavov, ngog rjv xgivovai rag alXag) xal iv 

uovaixjj dieoig, oti iXdxiatov * xal iv <puvrj otoijc&or 

xal tavta nana sv %i ovttag , ovx Q>g xoivov t* toI?, 

aXi. iioneg el'gritai. Ovx del di to» dgtd-(i$ sv to 

fiet gov , dXX* triors nXiUa • olov ai disosig dvo , ai /iij 

xata xi]v dxor\Vy dX£ iv tolg Xoyoig * xal al qxoval 

nXeiovg alg petgovfiev, xalfj didfietgog dvol fistgsltai, 

xal rj nXevgd, xal id peyi&t} nana, Ovto) dy ndv- 

ttav fjhgov to sv, ott yv<agi£ofiev i$ uv iotiv rj ovoia, 

diaigovvteg v xata to noobv, r\ xata to eldog. Kal 

did tovto to sv ddiaigetov , on to ngmtov btdototv 

ddiaigetov. Ovx bfioitag de ndv ddiaigetov, olov noig 

xal povdg • aXXa to usv navvy , to d* tig ddialgeta 

ngbgttjv al'o&rjoiv i&iXei, uaneg ei'grjrai ydy. "iomg 

ydg ndv ovvexeg diatgetov, 'del de avyyevsg to ui- 

tgov. Msys&wv piv ydg piys&og, xal xa&' Ixaatov, 

[irjxovg pr\xog, nXdtovg nXdtog, (ptovwv (pwvri, fidgovg 

fldgog, [iovddatv povdg. Ovt<a ydg del Xappdveiv, dXX' 

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MET A PH. LIB. IX. (X) CAP. 2. 105 

oix on aqt&p&v aqtd-pog. Kaixot tdu, u bpoiotg' alt 
ovx opotoag a£to7, cUl* &ontq d povdtiuv povddag o£m»- 
out pixqov, allot pr\ povdda. *0 d' aqi&pog nkrj&og 
povdb*(av • xal xijv totioxi\prp pixqov xSiv nqaypaxoav 
liyoptv, xal xr\v alo&tioiv dia to avxb, bxi yv<oqi£o- 
piv xi avxaXg , iml prtqovrtai pallor , ij ptxqovotv, 
'Allot ovpflaivu rifuv , &oniq av ti alloy ypag pt- 
xqovvxog , iyvoaqloaptv nrjklxoi iapb , x$ xbr iur\x v * — 
inl xooovxov rjpiv intpdllnv. Ilqiaxayoqag d' aV- 1 V-l 
&qo)ti6v qtrjoi navtmv thai pfoqov , uontq av ti tbv 
imoxripova tinirv, rj xbv aio&avbptvov. Tovxovg d* t 
oxi exovow 6 pb ctto&rjoiy, b 9i imoxripriv, a qpapiv 
thai pixqa x£>v bnoxtipbvv. Ovdb Sri liyovttg 
ntqixxbv yaivovtai ti liyur. °Oxi pb ovv tw hi iL- 
vai, pdlioxd ioti xatdtb ovopa o dyogiCovoi, pitqov 
xl xal xvqimxaxov xov noaov , tlxa xov noiov , qpa- 
vtqov, "Eotai 8e xoiovxov , to psv, av >/ adiaiqtxov 
xata to noaov • to Si, av xatct to noiov. Jiontq 
adialqttov to tv, ? anlag, fj $ Iv. 
Kata Se xrp ovalav xal xv\v qpvoiv fyxrixtov jiots- 
qoag tfx$i, xa&dntg iv tdlg dianoqrjuaotv inrjl&o- 
ptv, xi to tv ioti, xal nwg du ntql tov avxov lafitiv 
nottqovig ovalag ttvbg ovarjgavtov xov bog, *a#a- 
n sq ol ts I2v&ayoqtioi q>aai nqoxsqov , xal Jllatoap 
vottqov i} pallov vnoxsital tig qpiaig* xal n&g du 
yvMgipwxeqwg Itx&fyai , xal pallov y wantq ol ntql 
(pvoscog. 'Extivwv pb yap, o piv tig qtiliav tlvai g>*?- 
ai to ev, b S 3 diga t b 8k to Sneioov. Ei dk pydb twr 
xa&olov dvvaxov ovaiav slvcu, xa&dmo iv tolg ntql 

N 1 

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\) v ovalag , xal toig ttqjl tov Snog tlgrjtou loyotg, ovd* 
aitb tovto ovala, ig h u naga ti nolla bvvatbv 
elvon(notv6v yio) all 3 rjxajrjyoQfjfia povov, Srjlovug 
ovde to ly. To yap ov, xal to iv xa&olov xatrjyo- 
Qsitcti palior a navtwv* "liars qvjb to yivu cpvaug 
tivig xal ovaiat xwountti t&v allow uoiv • ovts to 
iv yivog ivdixnm thai diet tag alias altlag , di 
aonsg ovde to 5V, ovde %rp ovolav, "Ert ti' opoitug 
inl navtmv avayxalov c/siy. Aiyetai tie ioax&g 10 
ov xal to ty. "Jlot inelmq iv tdlg nowLg iati ti to 
tv xal xu; qpvaig, bpofag tie xal iv tolg itoodig, tir^lov 
on xal olmg irjtfjrdov ti to iv, &jneg xal ti to ov • wg 
ovx Ixavbv oti tovto aitb i\ q/vacg avtov, 'Alia 
fir^v ev ye xQ^paolv ioii to iv XQ*>t*&t olov 16 levxov 
eh a ti alia 4x tovtov xal tov pilavog (paivnai yi- 
yvopeva. To tie pilav , oraoija*? levxov , wrneo xal 
(pwjog oxotog. Tovto ti* eati oiborjaig qtenOg. a Jlatt 
ei ti ovta qv xg»pata, i\v av agt&pog rig To ovta* 
*Alli tivwv ; tirjlov tir\ oti XQvparuv • xal to sv i}y 
av ti iv , olov to levxov, 'Opoivg tie xal el pelrj ta 
ovta ijv, aoi&pbg iv r,v, tiiieeng pivtoi • ill ovx agi~ 
&pbg if ovoi'a avt(av • xal to iv i\v av ti ov t) ovoia> 
ov to ?>, alloc tileaig. 'Opolotg tie inl tw? <p&6yyw 
arot^wW i)v av ti ovta aot&ubg, xal to iv otoix&or 
qpayjjjev. Kal el axnpata sv&vyQappa, ox'ripatwt 
av yv agi&pbg, xal to iv, to tgiyavov. 'O 8' aiftbg 
loyog xal inl t&v alia* yev&v. "Slot stntp xal h 
toig Tiadtgi , xal iv tdlg noidig , xal iv totg noooig, 
xal iv xivriatt aqid'fmv ovtvv, xal hog tuvog iv oxra- 
Qiv f o , t« aoi&pbg tiv&v, xal to tv ti ov al£ ovx* 

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MKTAPH. LIB. IX. (X.) CAP. 3. 107 
foi/fo avtov r\ ovola* xal inl t&v ovoi&v dvdyxij 
waving txetv. 'Opofag ydq «/«* M navttav. Oti 
pev ovvtbh to navtl ytoti iaxi tig qtvoig, not ovfla- 
vbg tovto y avtb r) yvoigio iv, qtavtQov. AXl* womg 
iv XQwpotoi XQ*>P* & ir\tfjtiov Wtb ™ ^> 01;TW *** 
iv ova la ovolav plav, avto t$ to iv. "Oti di to ov- 
10 orjpaivei irng tbevxal to Sv, dyXov, *$ ts naqa- 
*oXov&tlv ioax&g trig xmttiyooiaig , xal pri thai to 
pTjdsiAujt • olov oil 8 to ijj ti iotiv, ovt to tj} nolo*, 
(xU' bpoiag %x*h Montf to ov. Kal tf pi\ nqogxa- 
ttjyoQHo&at ittqbv ti to Ag av&qwtog tov av&qv- 
nov, wonsQ oide to tlvai , mqltotl, v^no tov, rj 
nooov * xal %<a hi thai, to kudatm slvai. 
*Avtixsitai dt tb iv not ti noXXa nata nXtiovg 
tqonovg, iv Iva tb tv %a\ tb nXy&og wg adialqrtov 
xal Siaiqetov. lb pev ydq i] difiqfjpivov, f] diaiq*- 
%bv, nXri&og ti Xiyetaf tb 8i adialqttov r) pr\ difi- 
gtiptoov, iv. 'Enel yovv ai avti&iottg tttqax&g, xal 
rovttav xava miqr\aiv Xeyercu &dttgov , toavtiov av 
tit), xal ovte wg dnlataoig, ovte wg xa nqog ti Xeyo- 
fisva. Aiyetai di ix tov toavtiov, xal dtjXovtai tb 
tv, ix tov diatqetov tb adiaiqetov, did topdXXovaU- 
O&i\tovtb nXq&og elvai, xaltb diaiqniv [$tb aoW- 
getovJ] a Jlote T«j? Xoytp nqoteqov tb nXrj&og tov adi~ 
aiqhov did trjv afo&rioiv. *feon 6* tov pto kvbg, 
Soneq xal to t# diaigiosi t&v ivavtlmv dityqdyapev, 
to avtb, xcri opoiov , *«* 7oov • tov tie nXf]&ovg to 
itBQOv, xal dvopoiov , xal avioov. Asyopivov di 
tavtov TioXXax&g, xal ha pto toonov xat aQi&pov, 

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o Xsyoptv iviotsavto' tovto ds, av xal Xoytp xal 
aqid-jxat sv r\, olov, ov oaviw, xal tw sfdsi xaltrj vXrj 
Iv. *Eu Si av b Xoyog o Tifc ngoiirjg ovolag slg r\, 
olov al laai ygappal sv&sicu ai avtal , xal ta Joa 
\ ' xal ta iooywvia tstgaytava, xaltoi nXsito * ak£ h 
V tovtoig r) iootqg, kvot rjg. "Opoia ds, iav pr\ tavta 

anXwg ovta, prjds xati tr)v ovolav adtiopoga ir\v 
vnoxttpsvr)v, xata to sldog tavta rj • olov- to pslZov 
%stgaymvov, tw /itxpw opoiov, xal ai \avujoi sv&uai. 
Avion yag ofxovon ixiv, al avtal ds anXwg, ov. Ta 
ds, iav to avtb sldog sxovta, iv olg to fiaXXov xal r\t- 
tov fyyivstai, prjts (taXXovrj, prjt$ i\ttov. Tads, 
iav t] to avtb na&og xal sv to» sl'dsi, olov to Xsvxbv 
oq?6dga xal rjttov, opoia <paoiv thai, ott sv to sldog 
avtm. Tads, av nXsla tyf! tavtai} stsga,r}anX(og, 
7j ta ngixaga • olov, xattitsgog agyvga , rj £01/03) ' 
XQVoog ds nvql, t) $av&6v xal nv($6v. a Slots dr)Xov 
oti xal to hsgov xal to avopoiov noXXax&g Xsystou' 
xal to psv aXXo avtixsifiivag xal to tavto. 4tb nav 
ngbg anav, rj tavto, rj alio. To Si, iitv pr) xal r) vXi\ 
xal o Xoyog tig. Jib ov xal o nXyolov stsgov. To 
Se tqitov, ug ta iv toig fia&rjfiatixoTg. To fisv ovv 
Itsgov, rj tavto, dta tovto nav ngbg nav Xiysiai, 
oo a Xsystai sv xal ov. Ovds yag avtlq)aoig iott, tov 
tavtov • dio ov Xsystai inl tStv pr) ovtoav (to ds p% 
tavto Xsystai) inl ds twv ovtwv navtoav. H yaq sv, 
r\ ovx sv neyvxbg ov xal fy. To fiiv ovv ttsqov xal 
tavtov, ovTwg avtlxsttai. Jiaqpoqi ds xal ltsqotr\g, 
aXXo. To fisv yao stsgov, xal ov stsqov, ovx avuy- 
xi\ slvai tivi stsgov, Ilav yag rj hsgov, rj tavto, ou 

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METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.; CAP. 4. 199 
if I ov. To te didyooov xivbg, xivl didqpooov. 
"jlart avdyntj xavxo xi elvai w bioKpioovot. Tovxo 
hi to avxb ysvog rj tlSog. Jlav ydo to diaqtioov &«- 
cptyt, ij yivu, ij eldw yivu fiiv, &v py ioxh xoivrj ^ 
vli\, pride yivioig dg allylcc olov Sow alio oxypa 
lys xaxrjyooiag- sXdn ds , av xb avxb ysvog- Xsysxat, 
ti yivog, o a/i<j><» xb avxb Xiyovxai xaxa xyv ovoiav 
ta dtdqtooa. Ta d' ivavxia , xal r) ivavxlaoig, 6W 
q>ood xtg. "On Si xaX&g xovxo vnoxi&sps&a, dyXov in 
xyg inayayrjg. Havxa ydq duupioovxd xs 9 a /Vera*, 
xa» ov fiovov sxsoa ovxa, alia ta pb> to yivog sxsoa • 
t«3' ivxjavxi) avoxotxla trig xaxi)yooiag. c Jlox 
h Taurw yhu xal xavxa iw tldu. Jidgioxai d h 
uttoig, nolo tw yim xavxa fj sxsoa. 
"j&ri* ds dtayiosiv fydsxnai dXXyXw xd dta<ptQOv- 
t« nXsiov xal sXaxxov, iotl tig xalptyioxr) diayood, 
Mlxavxyv Xiyw ivavxiwoiv^ "Ou d* v psyioxv, flia- 
<pood t dt)Xov ixxijg inaywyvg. Ta psv ydqysvst 
fowpioovxa, ovx «*e* odor sig aXXrjXa, aXXd dnsxsi 
nUov, ual aovfipXtira. Tdlg d' d'dsi diayioovotv 
al ytvioug ix xStv ivavxiuv slolv m ioxdxoav. To ds 
hxaxov didaxripa, piywxov. "jtirxs xal to xwv ivav- 
*lw. 3 MXd ftf]v toys psytaxov iv kxdoxtp yivsi xskst- 
ov* Msyioxov psv ydo, ov pij ioxtv vnsgfioXrj • xal 
viXuov, ov prj ioxiv $S« xiksiov Xafislv xi dvvaxov • 
tikog ydq %x H V **Xtla dtacpogd, &onsq xal xaXXa tw 
*&o? e/f iv Xiyttai xiXna. Tov di xiXovg, ovdh s$to. 
"Eojaro* ydo h iravxl , xal moiixn. Jib ovdb>e$<a 
*oi> xiXovg • ovde noootittxai ovdtvbg xb xHuov. Oxi 

Digitized by GOOgle 


peVQVV f] buvUOTJIS ioxl (faupQQa ?&6*0g, i* topjov 

drjXor. UoXXax&s ds Xcyapimv xw ivarximv , a«o- 
Xov&^ofi t© T£ied(*$ otrzttg, w? av x«t j i ivarifaiQ ej- 
*a< vnuqxoi avxolg. Tovwv $£ orx&v, (pvpsgiv o« 
oux iv&xtjcu hit w>U/ft> ivanla uvm. Ovxe yaq 
%ov iaxdiov ioxatmaqov d'y ay u, qvxm voi b>Q€ &a~ 
mfjfiatog nXtiu dvotv tggaia, "(Met? w it eaiw q 
ivavTiozr\q dutq>oqa, tj d& tiicupoqa dvoiv * »W* *«* ij 
t&fto^. 'Avayxy tie xal twc aiiovs 0404/? aX^&ug 
ttvai Ttav havxUav. Kal yag nXtigxov dia<pi$H t] t&* 
luog diayoga. Tup re yaq ysvu $mfpsqiv%{»v , ovx 
Botiv ttojTd(Ht) Xafi&v, xal zm **#«*, Mu%tai , oj* 
jt^os we &G> f ov yc'vo*/* ovx i'art duupoq «. 7W*a>r 
^ d J avii; fisylatri xal %a ip t £ aim y iv&LJ&XtloxQv 
dicKp&Qovta xavotyxia. Meyi<jtfj yaq diaqtOQa tov- 
iwv 7) tiXuog. Kal xa h T«j» av?<J) £exwx$ ttIuoto* 
kaqxQQvxa hayxia. *H yitq IUq if flis^ xolg ivav- 
xioig • xat %a vno xrjv avtf}v dvvafuv vl&oxor dia<p£~ 
govxa, Kal yaq ?) tmaxtfuf) **& & ¥&<>$ V {da, 4v 
olg V tsUux diwpoQa usyioxq. Uqmf} &* 4>avtUiaig f 
i$ig xal otigrjaig iaxiv oi nana, $8 axiQ^otg (nolXa~ 
Xm yaq Xdystou ij oxiqr^atg) al£ rjtig av xiXtia #. 
Ta d 3 aXXa ivavxia, xaxit vavxa Xex&fonnu, %i p& 
it*) ex* iv, ta di tw noiuv r\ nwqiwa drat , %a Se »<p 
Xtiipug ilvab xal anoflolal rovtatv, ij aXXwv havttw* 
El dij avtlxutat ^LevavxUpaatg xal onqtioig xal ipaptti* 
tr}Q , xal zee nqig it • tovtwv Sb ngmov avxiyaGic * 
avtiqxiaiwg de fiqbiv ion, pMxa&i* %mv d% ivavxUw 
Svdixttai * ou fisv ovv ov savxw uvtiyaaig xal xu 
ivavxla, drjXov • r\ $s oriQrjoig avtkpaoig ugdatw. "& 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.) CAP. 4. 201 

y&Q to advvatov Slug fx HV > *? • «* n&pvnog t/fity 
pn $Zfl> iotiQUxai, V btetg* if nig iyoipa&ir. Ilokla- 
X*>g yao %dr} xovxo Myope*, ion*? diyff}vsu tjfuy 4r 
SlXo*g. Vi*** Ivuv 19 atdQtjsie atniawjie tig, % idv~ 
vapia dio^a^Haa,^ avpedfjppBrfi %y dttruxw* dio 
ttviuf>ao«o? per *v* wni pnalv, mqriotmg 6i two* 
iotw. % Iqov p%\ yao tj ofa foot, nap * ho* di ij a vt~ 
cop, ov nay, ilk* tirnqpivoriv i$dtnnn$iovtaov. 
Ei di\ ai ytvboshg tjj vl$ in jwv ivarriw ' yiyvovuu 
£i, rj in toy ettovg nal life t ov tidovf I5s»s, *} in <rtt- 
pffaew tiveg %ov tldovg not tqg poo^ns • dtfko* ©u 
if per ivavtlwfig, atd^fjaig av w tZtj nma , f\ Si ar«- 
g^oig fa<*g ov naoa ivavtiitiig. Ai'tiop d on nol~ 
lax&g iv&ix*tai iottQifa&eu to ioriQT\pivQv. '£$ wr 
yap at pstafiolal ioxatw Jrartia tavta. ftavto^v 
d* nal dii trig inaytay^g. JIaaa yao toavtivoig %x** 
oTVotjoiv &aiioov %&¥ haml»v, «U' ovx bpoivg 
n&vta. 'Avuwrng psv y*Q hqsijtos, ctpopoiixt\t 
9k ofio*oxijT0S , nttnta di vqttrig. Juupiou $i 
owntg dgyxcu. To ph yaq iar povov r t iottm* 
phov, %b ds av # note, ij o> fm* olor av iv fjluuif. 
t***, i} t$ nv$iy, % nay*n* Jib tw ph ion, p*ia~ 
&, no* Utit ov« aya&bg ap&o&nog ovjenanbg, wv 
da 4vx *o%tv, aJU* ipaynq thai y ntquxbv, q aoww. 
"En ia per exu to inontipwov ioujpMVOV ,fi 5' oC. 
"/lore <payeqov o%i out &mt$ov tiv havtlmv Uytta* 
vara flrr^^w. 'Awoxqii to nip T* wq&%a nal ia yi- 
*$l wy ivavtUav, olw to Sv nal %a nolXv, T» ya$ 
iXXa ng xavta avayetai. 

d by Google 



*En*l de h hi Sow hapxiop , dnooyotup Sp t*c 
nwg dpxlnttxaixb h nal to noXXd (xa ydq aXXa tig 
xavxa dvdyrtai) nal xb loop tw ptydXto xal tw fit- 
*g$. To ydq noxtqov 4p dm&boei atl Xdyo/itP, ol- 
ov noxtqop Xtvxbp, rj piXav * xal noxtqop Xtvxbp , rj 
oil Xtvxbp * noxtqop de ar&qomog fj Xtvxbp, ov Xiyo- 
p*v, idp fix) ft vno&ioe&g, *«» tr\xovpxtg, oXov noxtqov 
rjXSs KXiuv 1} 2nxqdx7\g • aX£ ov* apdyxx\ ip ovderl 
yipu xovxo. 'AXXa xal xovto ixtl&tp iXr}Xv&t. Ta 
ydq apxixtiptva popa ovx ivdsxexou apa vndqxw 
(o nal ipxav&a xqv ta h iv tw nor too g iX&eiv. El yap 
ana fredex t*o, ytXdiop to iqvxruia. EX Si nal ovxatg, 
Ofnoitag ixnlnxtt tig apxl&tow, tig xb tp fj noXXi* 
olop noxtqop dpyoxtqot yX&op, y axtqog. El dr) i» 
xolg dvxixtipivois del xov noxtqov y Syxriotg (Xiytxeu 
6s noxtqop pti^op rj tXaxxov, tj loop) tig iottp q ax- 
xl&toig nqbg xatixa xov Xoov; Ovxt ydq &axiq<p (to— 
V(a ipapxio* , ovxt dfi<po7p. Ti ydq paXXop , rj t<5 
fitl&Pi , ij to* iXdxxovi ; *Eu tip dviovt tWapxlop to 
loop, °Slox (p nXtlooip toxai, *} hi. El dt xb aVt- 
oov orjfiaivsi xb avxb Spa dpopdip, tVy pep drxixdpt— 
pop dfiyoiv nal x\ anoqla j3ot)&(i xolg ydoxovot to 
Spioop dvdda thai, 'AXXd ovpfiaipti tv dvolp ivay- 
tiop * onto aovpaxop. *!Bt* xb fib loop (jtsxatv <pai- 
ptxai (AtydXov nal (uxqov * hapxi&oig dt ovdtpia j*e— 
xa$v ovxt (paiptxai , 'ovts in xov bqioftov ftwaxov. 
Ov yaq ctv eVrj rtXtia ptxalvxipog ovoa , aXXd pdk~ 
Xop %xn atl kavxyg xt ptxalv. Atintxav dr\ t ij mg 
anoyaoip dvuxuo&ai, r] ig oxiqtjOip. Oaxiqov fiiv 

Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.j CAP. 6. 203 

o^ ovx hdijrncu. Ttyig pallor tov peydXov ij gitxgov; 
Apyoiv Sga dnoyaoig ongrjuxrj. Jib xal ngbg a/uqpo- 
xtga to nbxigov Xiytxai • ngbg b*e &dxtgov ov 'olov 
noxtgov fiu£ov t ijloovri noxtgov loov,ij*Xaxxov dX£ 
«** xgla. Ov oxigijoig ds i$ dvdyxrig. Ov yag nay 
foov, o (tri liiiiov 5 sXatxov aX£ to o\g ni<pvx$y 
ixuva. "Eoxi dr) to loov, to pytt piya , /u^Ta pixgby, 
myvxbg ds piya rj^ixgov elvou • xal artixutat ap- 
q>oly ug anotpaoig oxtgynxri. Jib xal psxa$v ioxi, 
xa* to pyre xaxov ptjx aya&bv, avxlxtixai dfupoXv, 
oU' aMowpov. IlolXax&g yag Xiynai ixdxegov, 
xal ovx totiv iv to dtxtutbv, aXXd pdXXov to priulsv- 
*bv, ufa* fiiXav. *Ev ds x>vb*i tovxo Xiystai, alX wo*- 
opsva nag xdxg&paxa, i<p &v Xiytxai oxtgtjxixwg f\ 
anoyaoig avxrj. *Avdyxri ydg, r} (paibv ij axgbv il- 
vai, if xoiovxov xi uXXo togiopivov. "jloxt ovx bg&wg 
tnmpwoiv oi vopftovteg bftoicog Xsyto&ai nana* 
<oaxttoso&ai*vnodripaxog xalxugbg ftsxa^v, to \fS\it 
im6dT}{ia, [4i}TS x&QW inslntg xal to prjis aya&ov 
f<i}T6 xaxov , xov aya&ov xal tov xaxov • vg ndv- 
tuv ioofiivov tivbg prtotlv. Ovx dvdyxji ds tovxo 
ovpfialvsi. C H ph yag avxixupivtav ovvanoqpaolg 
Amy, ow ioxi [itxaSv xi, xal didoxripd xi niqtvx&v el- 
vui • 7<w f ovx ioxi, dtacpogd. *Ev aXXa yag yivu, 
«w ol ovvctnoydoug. "Jlox ovx tv to vnoxeiptvov. 
Opoiag 6e xal negl tov hog xal rfiv noXlwv dno~ 
grjautv av xtg. El yag xa noXXa xw hi anXug dv- 
tlxuxai, ovpfialvH tvia advvaxa. To yag tv , bXl- 
fov, ^ bXlya wxai. Td yig noXXa, xaltoig bXiyotg 

Digitized by GoOgle 


avrlxMai. *Ett t« dvonoXXa, tin eg to datXdoiov 
noXXanXaaiov • xal ovxta Xiyerai da xal ti dvo &- 
nXdoia. "JIotb to s\, bUyov. IJgbg %l ydg noXXd 
t« dvo, bI ftfj ngog iv %a xal ngog to oXiyov; ovdev 
ydg ioriv Uuttov. "Eriti «$ iv \ki\xei to paxgbv xal 
PQ*XVt ovTwg iv nlij&n to noXv xal to oXiyov, xal 
o ay r) noXv, xal noXXa, xal ra no XX a noXv • ei (ly %% 
dga dtaopigsi iv nvvexu dog lor op, to iXiyov, nXrj&og 

T* foTCU. U JlOTB TO %V TlXri&OQ Tl iotlv, si'jlSg Xal 6X1- 

yov. Tovto de dvdyxrj, h td dvo noXXa. 3 Jl£ Vang 
Ta noXXa Xiyeiai fih dig xal to noXv, aXX' <ag diacpi- 
gov, otov vdag noXv, noXXa d' ov. 9 AX£ ova diaige- 
t« iv tovtoiq, Xiyerai tva fiiv tqotvov , idv y itXrj&og 
Uxov vnBQoxrjv, % anX&g, ij ngog ii • xal to bXiyop 
woavtmg nXfi&og tyov sXXeupiv. To ds a>g agi&pog, 
o xal avrlxenai t$ hi povov. Ovtoag ydg Xiyouev 
tv, rj noXXa, Samg bV rig bI'tioi %v xal ha, *j Xbvxov xal 
Xsvxd, xal Ta uBftsTgijuiva ngog to uhgov xal to fee- 
rgriTov. Ovtag xal Ta noXXanXdoia Xiyetat noXXa. 
JloXXa ydg gxaorog agi&pbg, Zti tvog, xal St* pBTgrj- 
Tog hi txaorog, xal t»g to dvTixsifisvov tw kvl , ov tw 
oXlytp. OvTtag fiev ovv iort noXXa xal Ta dvo. *Jlg 
de nXtj&og fyov vnBQOxrp , % ngog ti, ij anXwg, ovx 
tlariv, dXXd ngmov, 'OXlya de anX&g to, dvo. llXij- 
dog yag ioriv eXXsiipiv I#ov nqwiov. Jib xal ovx og- 
&a>g aneoTr\'Ava$ayogag sinwv, on opov ndvTaxgq- 
pata riv, amiga xal nXrj&et *«J fiixgoirju. *EdBi d* 
iineiv, ovtI Tov f xal fjiixgoTfju , xal oXiyoTrfu. Ov 
yag ansiga, iml to oXiyov, ov did to h, £<mBQ twig 
q>aoiv, dXXd did to dvo. £dvrlxeiTai de xal ovtw?.] 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.) CAP. 7. 20& 

'Artixsnai dt} to W xal %a to iv dgt&potg , sv 
to toig noXXolg, tag pitgov firtQiftty. Tavta di atg 
n* ngog tt, ooa fir\ xa& avtd tiav ngog it. ^/*?;oij- 
ttub" fj/Aiv iv aXXoig, on di%wg Xiyttai tot ngog ti, 
ta piv £>g ivavtia, tot d' &g imotrifif) ngbginiotritbv, 
*y Xiyso&ul xt, alio ngog avtd. To ds tv , sXattov 
thou tivbg, olov toiv dvdlv, ovtib xaXvu. Ov yag d 
tXattov, xal oXlyov. To Si nXfj&og, togyivog iotltov 
(*Qi&pov. 'fern yag dgi&fibg nXfi&og ivi ptxoT\- 
iov. Kal dvtixntai nug to tv xal 6 dgi&pbg, ov% 
*g ivavtlov , al£ van eg ttgrjtat i<av ngog ti 
«**«. J-T* yag fiitgov , to de tistgrjtbv , tavtji dv- 
tixHiiu. J io ov ndv o Sv y Iv, dgi&fiog iotiv, 
oioy, tl %i adtaigitov iotiv. 'Opoiag de Xtyopwrj q 
ijwnriiiy n $°S to imotijtbv, ovx bpoiwg dnodidwoi. 
4o|«ie piv yag av pitgov r\ imotrjftri eivai, to ds int- 
vtrpbv to fittgovpevov. 2vp§alvH diimatrifirjv piv 
Kaoav iniotiftov eJvat • to di iniatr^tbv py ndv im- 
vtypilP, oti tgdnov %wa y imotr^py] pstgutai tw inir- 
«^t^. t To de nkft&og, ovte t£ oXiyu ivavtlov, «A- 
io tovtm fiev to noXit, ig vndgxov nXri&og vntgsxo* * 
fUvof nXrj&ei • ovts %<$ hvl ndvtmg • dXXd to psv worttg 
*tyt)jai,atL diaignbv, to 6* ddialgstov, too*' wc ngog 
w, (aantg r> inietr^ 1 ! i*wvr\t§ , idv j) dgi&pog • to 
fl h, phgov, 


3 £ntt di tm ivavtUav ivdixttai elvcd u ^nati, xal 

vim iatlv, avayxri 4* t&p ivavtitav thai i« psta£v. 

Uavtetyag tapttaSlti bty avT^ yivniotl^ xalvtv iozi 

pt*u£v. Meta$v fib yag tavta Xiyofitv, eig baa 

Digitized by GOOgle 


vexafiaXXstv nqoxsqov dvayxtj to fiBxa^aXXov ^ olov 
ano xr)g vndxTjg inl xr,v vvpip, el fiexa^aivoi iw oM- 
r<? XQ°"V> n^ nqoxeqov tie ioi>g psxa$v^ <p&oyyovg' 
xal iv xqdfiaotv, bv fast ix xov Xbvxov tig to p&av, 
nqoxBqov fast, eig to yoivutovv nal q>aiiv, y Big to 
uiXav • ofioimg di xal inl xav aMaw. MnafiaiXw 
d" it dXXov yivovg elg aXXo yivog ovxbouv , aU* n 
xaxd ovpPtfnxog • olov ixxqd^^ogug oxijfia. *Avdy- 
xrj aqa id pBtatv xal aixoTg, xaluv pBxa$v siolv, iv 
t £ avx§ ybu that. Iffla pr)v nana yt xd fiBxa$v, 
ioxlv dvxixBipivav xiv&v. 'Ex xovxav yaq fiovuv 
xa& avxo ion fiBxa^aXXsw. Jto Jdvvaxov slvai 
UBtaSit, (At} avxixupivw. Ely yaq av ^BxaPoX^xal 
ur) i$ dvxixufiivtov. Twv d' dvxixsipivuv dvxiq>dos- 
tag psv, ovx cot* /icralv. Tovxo yaq iouv ayWqpa- 
atg, avxi&BOig, xal r]g oxyovv noqiov&dxsqov naqs- 
oxiv, tyovarig oidsv fiexaSv r\g oxyovv &dxBqov po- 
qiov ov to val rj to ov ndqsoxiv, ovx ixovoyg ovdb> 
vnaSv. Twy di Xomwv, id piv nqog xi, xd di ari- 
qtjoig, td dsivavxla ioxi. Tow de nqog xiooa M 
ivavxla, ovx l>« /mall/. Aixiov d* ow ovx iv x$ 
avxy yivst ioxL Ti yaq inioxr]iAi\gxalimoxr\xov /**- 
xalv ; dXXa (isydXov xal (iixqov. El d' low iv av* 
t<ji yivn xd (jiBxaSv, woneq didetxxai, xal fuxa$v ivav- 
tLv, dvdyxrj xal «vt« ovyxuo&ai ixxovxjavxwv 
ivavxtov. *H yaq Moxai xl yivog avxav , ? ovdh. 
Kal si fih yivog i'oxat ovxug wot Bivai, nqoxBqov xi 
rav ivavxiw, at dt,a<poqal nqoxsqai ivavxia* \oovxa* 
ai noiqoaoai xd ivavxla , wg Bidy yivovg. *Ex yaq 
tov yivovg xal x£>v diayoqwv xd Bidrj • olov «* to A«w- 

Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.; CAP. 7. 207 

xbv xal piXav hart la, cor* di xb pkv dtaxqvxtxbv 
ZQW[jta,%6 di ovyxoixixbv XQwpa, aviai ai duty opal 
xb diaxQtxtxbv xal ovyxgixtxbv ngoxegat, "jlou 
xolvxol xd ivavxia dXXyXoig ngoxsQa. *AXXd pyv xd 
ye ivavxia dtayioovxa, paXXov ivavxia. Kal xd koi- 
ne* xal xa ptxa£i ix xov yivovg eoxat, xal xmv dioupo- 
Qtov • olov boa /pu/uctTa xov Xtvxov xal piXavog ioxt 
pexalv, Tavia dii ix x$ xov yivovg Xiyto&at, (jatt di 
yivog xb ^pa/tor) xal ix dwupooiav xtvvv. Avion di 
ovx toovxai tit notaxa ivavxia. El di pi) eat at fxa- 
oxov, fj Xevxov rj piXav , ixsqeu aga m Mexa$v ago 
xwv notoxwv bavxluv avxat toovxat. Ai notoxai di 
diacpoyal xb dtaxgtxtxbv xal ovyxotxtxbv • iioxe tov- 
xa ngwxa ifixrjxiov, ooa ivavxia prj iv y&si, ix xi- 
vog xa pexatv avxwv. *Avayxr\ yag xa iv x£ aix$ 
yivu, ix xuv dovv&ixwv x$ yivu ovyxiio&at, fj dovv 
&exa elvat. Ta ph ovv ivavxia, aovv&exa i$ ctXXrj- 
Xwv, max* agxal ' T « ^« ptxatv , ij nana , ij ovdiv. 
: *Ex di xSv bavxlwv ylyvtxal it. "Jloxetoxai ptxafio- 
Xr) tig xovxo, nglv ijj slg avxd * btaxigov ydg xal r\x- 
xov carat xal paXXov. Mtxalv aga toxat xal xovxo 
xiv ivavxlwv. Kal xa aXXa aga navxa ovv&exa xa 
ptxalv. To ydg xovpiv paXXov, xovd* x\xxov, avv- 
&ex6v nag i£ixelvmv (av Xiynai clvai,xov piv paXXov, 
xov d' v\xxov. 3 £n$l d* ovx soxiv Bxega ngoxtga 
opoyevtj xnv ivavxlav, anavx av ix xiv ivavxlmv t\t[ 
xa pixa\v"fLax* xalxa xdxto navxa, xal xavavxlaxal 
xaptxaSvixx&v ngwxanv ivavxlav toovxai. "Oxt piv ovv 
id ptja£v %v xb tovtw ybn navxa , xal pixa$v ivav- 
xioav, xal ovyxuxai ix xmv ivavxUav anavx a, (SijAov. 

Digitized by GOOgle 



To & hsgov t$ flfoi Tivog w tttgov ior*, *«* o*w 
10VTO otfupolv vndgxw olov , si J<5o* ijbqov t$ *«^- 
foj, apupto f«a. ^v«y*i? aaa *V yivu t§ «vt<w «2*a* 
t« trcea t£ e*#w. To y<*£ totoviov ffigpg xaX& , o 
vtjMpw ev iuvjo Xiysxav , pi} xcna ovfi^fjxog «/o* 
dtoupagctv, ti'& wg vXy ov, tiff a>$ aXXag. Ov (tovov 
ydq du to xoivbv vmxQx*Wy olov, afiqxo fa>a, aXXa xat 

IKQOV kxdTSQW, 10VTO UVtQ TO fttOy, olov, TO ftSV fo- 

nov, to ds av&gwnov. did tovto to xowov, hega 
dXXrjXwv iotl tw sldsi. "Barm 8i\ xa& «vto, to jriv 
to Lovdl iaov, to ds Toiovdi* olov to psv Xnnog , to 5 
av&Dtanog. *Avdyxij aga ttjp dt«<pogdv TaVTip It«- 
ooTr/Ta tov yivovg thai. Aiyvi yag yivovg 9uxq>o- 
gdv hsgottjTa, rj htgov noui xovto avto, Evavria>- 
otg toIvvv sotai avtif. Aj\Xov di ix tr)g inay&ymQ* 
Ildvta ydg diaigehai Totg dvttxsifiivotg • xal oil t«- 
vavria iv javxy yivsi, diStixTai. *H ydg ivavTioTtis 
j\v dtayogd uXsia. c Hds $ia<pogd r) bldn, naoa t*~ 
vog u. "Hare tovto to avto ts xal yivog in afitpoiv. 
Aib xal iv tji avtjj ovoTot/ioi ndvta t« ivavtln i^g 
xatrjyooiag, oaa tfdu didyoga xal fir) yivu, hsga i« 
aXXrjXwv pdXiOTa. TiXsla ydg r) diayood , xal a pa 
aXXyXoig ov yivnai. *H aga dtatpogd , ivavtfaoig 
ioTi. Tovto ydg iOTt to stsgov tlvai t<» ildu, to 
iv T(£ avrco yevsi ovxa (vavjleootv %x*iv , aiopa ©>»Ta 
Tot avTa di tw u'Sei , boot pr} ty** ivartkowp aio^ta 
ovta. Ev ydo t$ tiiatgiou xal iv Tolg fUTa^v yi- 
vovtai ivavruoosig, ngh> tig %d aTOfia iX&uv. °JloJ9 
q>avsgov on nobg to xaXovpwov ov yivog, ovt$ t«v- 

d by Google 

METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.; CAP. 9. 209 

toy, ovts ttsgov ico tXdu ovdiv ioti twv wg yivovg ti- 
dwv ngooyxovtav. *H ydg vXr\ anoyaau drjXovtou 
to di yevog vXy [o] ov Xiyttai yivog , firj ig to %m 
< HQaxXud<av, dXX' i!j wg to iv tjj qpvoBi. Ovdi ngbg 
t« pi) iv toivtw yivu , aXXd dioiau tw yivu ixtivwv • 
$tdu di, ia iv tavtw yivu. *Evavti<aoiv ydg dvdyxr\ 
uvai tr\v dtayogdv, ov duxijpigu eld a. Avxr\ $' vixdg- 
%u toig iv tavtw tw yivu ovot fiovoig. 
^Anogyoue d ' civ tig, did li dvdgbg ywr^ ovx el'du 
diaq>igu, ivartlov tov -frrjlsog xal xov dggtvog ovtog, 
%r\g di diayogdg ivavtiioouog ' ovdi Jiwoy &r\Xv xal 
aggsv, ixegov zo> etdu' xaixoi xa&' avtb tov £wov 
avtfj 7] diaqpogd, xal ovx *>$ V Xtvxotr^g r\ fitXavia, 
uX3l ji Jiwoy xal to &t}Xv xal to Sggsv vndgxu. *Eoti 
d r t dnogla avtrj ox*dov f\ avtrj , xal did xl r\ piv 
notu Tut ti'du ixsga ivavxiowig, t\ d ov oiov, to nt- 
(ov xal to nttgaxov ' JUi/xoti?? di xal fitXavia ov. 
H oil id piv olxua nd&i] tov yivovg , Ta d* v\ttov / 
Kal insidrj to fib Xoyog, to d' vXq, ooai (niv iv tw 
Xoyao uolv ivavuotrjteg, tldunoiovai dtacpogdv • oaat 
8* iv t$ ovvuXtififiivat ty vXy, ov noiovai. Jib cry- / 
&gwnov Xevxoxrjg ov noiu , ovdi fitXavia , ovdi tov • 
Xbvxov dv&gwxov iotl diatpogd xax ttdog ngbg (ii~ 
Xava ctv&gwnov , old* dv ovofta iv ttd-r\. 'fig vXri 
ydg b av&Q<onoQ, Ov notu di diaqpogdv r\ vXtj. Ovx 
dv&gwnov ydg y vXfi, tiolv ol dv&gunoi. did tovto, 
xahot h$oat, ai adoxtg xal td oota , i£ tav ode xal 
ode, aXXd to ovvoXov, titqov fih, ttdu d* ovxetsgov, 
ott iv io) Xoytp ovx totiv ivavtiaoig. Tovto di iotiv 
Arist. Metaph. O 

Digitized by GOOgle 


onofiov. e O 8s KaXXlag ioxlv b Xoyog xaxa trjg vXqg ; 
xal 6 Xevxbg b\ £r&q<onog, oxi KaXXiag Xsvnog. Kara 
avfifit(iTjx6g ovv 6 av&qwiog Xsvxog. OvSe o /aXnovg 
drj xvxXog, xal 6 l-vXivo?, ovde xqlytavov xaXxovv, xal 
xvxXog SvXivog , ov dia xirp vXrjv tldst dicKpigovotv, 
aXX' oxi iv t<» Xoy<$ tvtaxiv havxioxyq. Iloxiqop (T 
7/ vXrj ov Tioul frtqa tw sifoi ovoa mag friqa, r\ toxtv 
&g noiti j dia xi yaq ods b \nnoq xovSl avdqunov 
hsgog tw ndst; xuitot avv xjj Sky ol Xoyoi avxwv. 
*H oxi eveoxtv iv tw Xoyqt ivavxiwoig / xal yog xov Xbv- 
xov avd-qwnov xal piXavog innov. Kal Ban yt st- 
du, aXX ovx i[ o fiev Xsvxog , o ds piXag 9 intl xal ri 
apquo Xsvxa i\v , bpoiwg av %v si'Ssi moa. To 5e 
olqqsv xal &?iXv , xov fwou olxua ftty naxhj, aX£ ov 
xaxa trjv ovoiav, all! iv jfj vXrj xal tw owfian, Aib 
xh aito onigfia , rj xtrfXv tj aq^zv yivsxat na&ov xt 
na&og. Ti pev ovv ioxi xb tw d'du sxeqov thai, net* 
diet xi xa ftsv diaqtsqti ti'dzt,, to d* ov, i\'qr\xai, 


'Entl ds xa ivavxia txeqa ?w ttdu, to Si <p&agxov 
xal to aqp&aqxov ivavxia (^oxiqrjoig yaq adwapta 
duoQiopivri^ avdyxrj sxeqov thai t$ yivu to q>&aqxov 
xal to aydaoxov. Tfiiv ph ovv in aixav tiqijxaptv 
xwv xa&oXov ovopaxiov. "Jloxe do$siev av ovx avay- 
xaiov slvai bxiovv ay&aQtov xal (p&aqxov Ixtqa &- 
vat to) eld si , monto ovde Xevxur xal piXav, To yaq 
avxb ivdixetat tlvai xal «/u« , 4a* // xmv xa&oXov 
wineg 6 av&owiog tlrj iv xal Xsvxog xal piXag * xal 
x&v xa& htaoxa • dy yaq av fin *(*<* b avxo$ Xev- 
xbg xal piXag. Kaixoi ivavxlov to Xtvxbv to} ji4- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. IX. (X.) CAP. 10. 211 

lavi. 'Alia wp ivanlmp , to pi* xatit tntpfiB- 
fhjxog inaox** bloig , olop ma* to pvv dorsum 
not alia noXXd • to di advrcttov , m Am *al 
to qt&ttQtop mat to £<p&*ftop. Ov&r yiq tatt 
<p\hxpt6v nata ovjujfc/frpoc. To per yao ovp(}*- 
prjMog Mix***** PV vnaqx*** • to tie ydaoiop, 
xmv 45 apa/ntfg vfiof/oVrw wm* olg vnaqxt*' 
n Soto* tovto tv <p&ao?op *oi ctcp&aotop, tl 4p- 
ofyrrat avto /ui) inaox*tv to a^aoTo?. "if tiji> 
ovolav Soa, tj fc tjJ ovor/o avaynri imaqx*** w 
qpdooTO? htaxrtfa tip y&aftmp. e O avtog o* io- 
/o$ xat ftep* tov of>#of tov. Twy yoo £ avayxrjs 
inaoxorttop op aw * ij 00a *«i mo#6 irpwTor , to 
mcv <p#croTov too*' afp&OQtov %x H *W#«ow. "JlotB 
ardyxT) yivti fotea thai, ^avtqop toIpvp ou oim 
frdixerat tlvai ttdr) toimvta ola liyovoi rivtg. 
"Eotcu yao Sw&Qtmog, o piv q&ctftog y 6 6* wp&aq- 
toc. Kulioi tw sitf a tovtcc liynai sipai to aiflif t©*$ 
Tta*, xo» ovj ofuopvfia. Ta di yfru tieoa , nXilov 
di&nrjxtv jj to e^8t. 



Ot* fih fi ooyla neql aozdg intotrjfititig ioti, Stjiov 
in %<hp nowtw h olg SiTjnoQfjrai nqbg to if no rap 
Sllwv tiorifiiva mol tup ciqx&p. 'Atiodtjohb o* 3 Sp 
tig, noTSQOv plap vnolaflivp thai fal tifp oo<plav im- 
otypilP , V nollag. El uiv yaq fiiav , uia iotlp ati 

O 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


^t&p bavtlw ol d' otgxal ovx ivavtlai. El de pij 


, ,. pia , noiag dti d-fiycu tavtag ; *'Eti tag anotoxtixag 

• ,. / dgxag &iG>Qr\oai, (iiag rj nXtiovcav ; El piv yag fiiag, 

V tifiaXXov tavtijg, ij bnouxaovv; udenXsiovwv, noiag 

du tavtag d-uvait"Ett notsgov naoiv twv ovoiwv, n 
ov, Ei fiev yagpri notour, noi&v x<*l?*bv anodovvar 
si de nao&v pia , SdrjXop nS>g ivdixstai nXuovtov tij* 
avi7]v imattjfitjv iivai. *Eti notsgov ntgl rag ova tag 
(tovov, % xal t« ovfifaPrjxoTa, El yag nsgi ys ti ovp- 
Psfaxota anodsi&g iou, nsgl taftovoiag ovx sort*. 
Ei de krigct , rig kxatiga, xal notiga ooqtia; 'Hfiev 
yig aJiodeixjixr) oocpla,^ nsgl ti ovfiflefirixota' jg ds 
nsgl to ng&ta, %\ tm oioi*n>. 3 AX£ ovds nsgl tag iv 
toig (pvotHolg sigtffuvag ah lag xr^v iniQr\tov^vr^v hu- 
L ' oxrifirjy S-etiov. Ovts yig nsgl to ov svsxsv. Toiov- 

zov yag to aya&ov tovto d* iv zolg ngaxtixoig 
vitagxu , xal tdig ovaw (v xwqou * xal tovto ngSttov 
^- xipsi. loiovtop yag to tsXog. To Ss ngmov xivtjoo* 
ovx tow iv toig dxtv^TOtg. "OXtag d* anogiav l/#, 
notsgov nots nsgl tag alo&7)tag ouoiag iotlv ^ {fa- 
tovpwrj vvv imotrxxy t 5 ov, nsgl di tivag stigag. 
Ei yag mgl aXXag , q nsgl tit «ltf r/ sir) av , ^ nsgl ti 
fia&rinatixd. Ti ftiv yag sidy oti ovx.soti, dr^Xov. 
"Opus ds anogiav %x u > *$* slval tig avtd &r t , dia ti 
not ovx wontg inl tm fia&fifiatix&v, ovtwg e^c* xal 
inl xwv dXXoav wv iotw tidy. Aiyoa b° ou ia /u«^i?- 
fiatixa fisv (isza$v ts twv udm> t&iaoi, xal toJv al- 
o&Tjjuv, olov tgita twit, nagd ta si'dy ts xal ti 
dsvgo' tghog d' av&gamog ovx laity, old* i7tnog 
nag aitov te xal tovg xa& uiaoxov. Ei d' av pn 

METAPH. LIB. X. (XL) CAP. 1. 213 
ioxiv wg Xdyovoi, nsgl nolu &etiov nguyputevBO&ui 
tov fiu&r)(tuxixov / Ov yotg St) ntgl tit dsvgo 9 tovttov 
yug ov&iv ioxiv, olov ul fia&Tjpauxa} gyxovoiv t&v 
inta%ri(jim. Ovds pr\v ntgl tit pu&r)fiuttxu 17 tyjovjuivr) 
vvp iariv imoxrjpri • /wptcrrov yug uit&v ov&iv. 
AXX ovds twv alo&yTaur ovouav • <p&ugtul yug. "OXwg 
6* anoQTjaeii tig av, noiug ioxiv imoxrjprig xo diccno- 
Qijocu ntgl xfjg tmv (iu&r]fittxtxtov vKrjQ. Ovtt yug 
xyg (pvoLXTjg , diet to ntgl tot exovtu iv avtoig ugxyv 
xivrjoewg xul oxuotwg ti\v tov yvoixov notour thai 
nguyputtluv ovtt fi^v trig oxonovorig ntgl otnodtt- 
£ttog tt xul imattjfifig, ntgl yotg uvxb xovxo to yi- 
vog xi\v tyrrjoiv noitltui. Atinttui toivw xr\v ngo- 
xtifiivrjv <piXooo<piav ntgl uvx&v xqv oxiytv noulo&ui. __ 
ditmoQfjotis 6' uv tig, tl tin &t%vui zip ^lovfxevrjv , 

imoTmmv ntgl rig ugxug tot xuXoifitvu vno xivmv i\ { 
otoizilu. Tuvtu di nuvttg iwnugxovtu toig ovv- *" ) 

•drtoig xt&iuot. MuXXov d* uv do&it t&v xu&oXov y • s 
diiv tlvui tr\v ^r]tov(nevrjv imaxy\^r\v. Ilug yugXoyog, 
xal nuou imaT7\fxi] t&v xa&oXov , xul ov twv ioxu- ^ ' A "* ' 
*ew. Jlor tVrj uv ovtm t&v ngtixtov ytvwv. Tuvtu 
di ylyvoix uv, to, te ov xul to h. Tuvtu yitg fiuXiot X % * 
uv vnoXrj<p&tirj ntgiixtiv tot ovtu nuvtu, xul puXt- * Y ^ 
atu ugxuig ioixivui , diet to tlvui ngatu ttj <pvoti. v - 

fP&agitnwv yotg uvxwv, ovvuvuigtixui xul tit Xomu. . 
Iiuv yug ov xul sv. r Hi di tug diuyogug uvmv uvuy- 
xri fittixsiv, u &tjoutlg uvtu yivf)' diuyogit 3* ou- 
dspiu tov ytvovg /uerijfst • tuvry 3' ovx uv Sortie 8 tip 
uvtu xi&ivcti yivrj,' oid' ugxoig. *Exi d' d p&XXov { 
ugxv *b. unXovotsgov tov t)ttov toiovtov* tot 8s 

Digitized by GOOgle 


%oxata twv in *ov yivovg anlovatsga tm ytvmv 
(atopa yag • ta yivi\ $ ug tidy wXe/w nal diaqdgovta 
diaig&tar) pallov av agxri &&l**& *«*«' xa tidy tow 
yzv&v ' f} de ovvavougHtaitolg yivtoi ta tl'dr), %a yirn 
*afc agxalg boixs pallov* agx*) yag ™ owwa^ow. 
Ta pkv ovv tyy anoglav %xovta, tavta nal toickwt 
iotlv szsga. 

*'Exi notsgov oe* ti&bai tl nagata xa# exaora, 
ij ov, alAa tovttov f\ ^tovpivri vvv iniatripri. ^Ua 
iflrvTa antiga. Ta yz p^v naga ta xa# fxaara, 
yhn % tf&n io*fo- *M£ ovdstiga f ovf w q £i?tou- 
pivrj imorrjfiri. Aioti yag advvaxov tovxo, tXgr\tai. 
Kal yag oltag anogiav fyu, noxtgov M wa vnola- 
6uv ovoiav slvat x»guniiv naga tag ausd-ffftag ovaiag 
xal xag devgo, q ov* alia tavi &v*k fa wta, xal 
mgl tavta ti\v oocpiav vnagxw* Zyxiiv pb yag iol- 
xapev allr\v tiva. Kal to ngoxtipsvov tovt 4o*b 
rifuv. Aiy® di to Idiiv , «i' tt jwoiaroi' xa#' avth, 
xal ftqdtvl tiv aio&Tj-tbJV inagxov. *£ti $ ** naga 
tig aio&fixas ovaiag %ati tigktigaoioia, naganoiag 
twv alo&rjxm dzi ti&svai tavtt\v tlvau Ti yag p&l- 
lov naga tovg av&gtanovg ij tovg Xnnovg , i\ tw al- 
Ivv Jaw? &tjou tig aivjp thai , q xa* *w*» ay*//** 
olmgs To yt prjv Voag tdig aUf&fjtalg xalq>&agtatg 
ovaiaig d'tdiovg ktigag xataoxiva^uv , ixthg iwx tv- 
loywv dotuev av nlnxuv. El di ui) x (0 Q l(n V %fOV aw ~ 
(idt&v f\ £r)toviiivT} vvv iativ agxh> % ^ va av %l * uMW 
deit] pallor ti]g vlrjg; Avtr\ yz pr\v frtgytia fisv ovx 
lot i, dvvapet 3' latu Mallov % a> agxv *vgmti- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 2. 215 

fa %avtr\g dofaty tlvai to tldog xal fj poo<pri. Tovto . 

&i <p&aqtov. "JloxP Slag oix tativ atdiog ovaia *»- £^_$ Y_ 

qioir\xal xa& airtyv aX£ atonov. "Eoixt yaq, xat^Aj^^c^ 

bltuzcu axtdbv vno xaJy XWiwiartov, ig ovaa tig 

iqxy *«* ovaia toiavtrj, Ilwg yaq luiai talig, ur\ 

ttvog ovtog a'idiov xal x^oiatov xal (uvovtog ; "Eti d* 

ttntq iari tig ovaia, xal ccqxV toiavtif tt\v qtvaiv oliav 

tvv i^tovutv, nut avir\ pia nana*, xal fj ai/nj T*>r 

aidiuv tt xal <p&aqtvv , anoqiav txti diu ti nott tr\g 

ailing aqxqg ovar^g , ti fiiv iativ ai'dia ti\v vnb irp ^ 

a 9XV f » Ja & * ov * atdia. Tovto yaq to atonov* El 

o* aXXrj piv iativ aqxh *<*>* <p&aqt*tv, ally 5e twv 

a'idiav , si fdv ui'diog xal i) tiav q>duqt<av , opoUag 

inoq^aofitv, dia ti yaq ovx a'idiov tr\g aqxyg ov- 

orig, xal %a vnb ti)v aqx^v ai'dia ; tfr&aqtrjgd* ovorig, 

aXXtf tig aqxy yiyvttai tavvqg, xaxtivrig ktiqa * xal 

toll tig amtqov nqotiaiv. El I' ai tig tag doxov- 

aag uaXiata aqxag axivr^tovg thai , to, te ov xal to 

>y dtiou, nqwzov fdv ti ftrj toSe u xal ovaiav kxait- 

QQP aitav or\uaivu, nwg taovtai xoH^otal xal xa£ 

aitag ,- Totavtag di£rjtovutv tag aidiovg taxalnqri- 

tag aqxag. El yt \ni\v tode ti xal ovaiav kxattqov 

avtm drjlol, navi iativ ovaia ta bvta. Kata nav- 

iw yaq to ov xattiyoqutai , xai iviwv di to tV. 

Ovaiav d J tlvai nana Ta ovta, ytvdog. *Eti 6s tolg 

iff* nqwtiiv aqxrjv to tv Xiyovoi , xal tovto ovaiav, 

& detov kvbg xal Tr\g vXfigtbvaqi&fibv ysvvaat nqw- 

iov, xal tovtav ovaiav (pdoxovoiv tlvai , 7iw^ bb*ix*- 

fo* to Xtyofitvov alrj&ig tlvai ; Ttjv yaq dvdda, xal 

T«y Xointov ixaatov aQi&pov twv ovv&huv nag tv 

Digitized by GoOgle 


dii voTjoai; negl tovtov yag ovtb Xiyovatv oidiv, oi- 
T8 $(fdior einsiv. El' ye fir^v ygappag , fj ti rovxtav 
ixopeva (Xiyw di in Kpavsihtg tag ngt&iag} &r\ou t*$ 
agxag, Tavta d 3 ovx eiolv ovaiai ifuotorcri, tofial di 
xal diaigeoeig, al piv 4m<paveuav, al di owfiauov, al 
de OTiypal ygafipwv * hi di nigata Ttiv aviwv tov- 
tm ' ndvta di tavxa to allots vndgxet * *«* ^w^toroy 
ovdiv tax w. *'£t* nwg ovoiav vnoXaflelv elvai del tov 
hog xal atiyfir\g,' Ovoiagpiv yag naoi\g yeveoigiorv 
otiypijg d 3 ovx eoti • dialgeaig yag r\ ouypr). nage- 
Xei #' anogiav xal to, naaav piv imotrjprjv thai wv 
xa&oXov xal tov noiovdl, %t]v f ovoictv pr\ zStv xa- 
&oXov thai, paXXov di tide t* xal x^oustbv. "Jlar 
el negl tag agxag iotiv lniQxr\pr\ , nwg del tiv agx^v 
vnoXafielv ovoiav elvai; "Eunotegov taxi, tt nagoc to 
ovvoXov, % oh; Xeyw di Ttfv vXtjv, xal to petatavTyg. 
Ei pev yag prj , xa ye iv iXy cp&agia ndvta. El d ' 
eon n t to udog av en) xal r\ pogcpr^ Tovto ovv inl 
tlvtov iail, xal inl tivav ov, ^aXeTrov oKpogioac frt 
iviav yag dyXov ovx ov x^Qiotbv to eldog, olov oixlag. 
*En notegov al agxal ei'dei ij agi&pw al aital; Ei 
yag agi&pw ev, ndvi eat at tavta, 
*Enel d* eon 7] tov yiXooocpov imorrjpT} tov ovtog, 
jj ov, xa&oXov, xal ov xata pegog • to d ' ov noXXax&g, 
xal ov xa& eva Xeyetat tgbnov* el pev bpmvvptg, 
xaTa de xoivbv fiffdev, ovx eouv vnb (ilav imotrnmr 
ov yag av h yivog wv TOiovTftiy • ei di xaTa u *o*- 
vov t tXri av vnb plav imovrnit}v. *Eoixe dij Toy sigt}- 
pivov Xiyeo&ai tgonov, xa&amg to' , Te iatgixov xal 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 3. 217 

to vyuivov. Kal yag tovttav hxdtsgov noXXax&g A«- 
yopsvov. Aiystai ds tovtov tov tgonov sxaotov, 1$ 
to pkv ngog latgixrjv dvdyso&ai noag , to ot ngog 
vylsiav, to 0" aXXwg , ngog tavtb 6* fkaotov, '/«- 
rgixog yag Xoyog xal paxalgiov Xiyetcu , to> to pev 
dnb trjg iatgixyg lmotr\prig stvat, to de t tavtij XQV al " 
fiov * opoiwg 3s xal vyuivov. To piv yag bti oi\pav- 
tixbv vyidag, to 3* otinoiijtixov'O d'avtbg tgonog xa\ 
inl twv Xomwv. Tov avtov dij tgonov xal to ov Snav 
Xiystai. Tw yag tov ovtog fj ov , nd&og i] t$ig , rj 
did&soig, rj xlvrjoig , rj tGv aXXav ti tav .toiovtmv cT- 
vat, Xiystai txaotov avtwv ov. 3 Mnsl ds navtog tov 
ovtog ngog k*v n xal xoivbv, r) dvaytoyr) yiyvstai • xal 
tmv ivavtiwosav kxaott} ngog tag ngtatag diaopogdg, 
xal tag ivavtuoong dvax&r\ostai tov ovtog, st'ts nXr)- 
&og xal tv, sl'd-' bpoiotr\g xal dvopoiotrjg, al ngiutai 
tov ovtog tlal diacpogal , tit aXXai tivig. "Eatwoav 
yag avtai ts&twgripsvai. Jiacpigsi d* ovdiv, tr)v tov 
ovtog avaywyrjv ngog to ov rj ngog to sv yiyvso&ai. 
Kal yag, si pr) tavtbv, aXXo 6" iotlv, artiwgicpet ye. 
To , ts yag sv xal ov nag • to, ts ov, tv. 'End d* 
soti td ivavtla navta tr)g avtijg xal pidg- iniotrjprjg 
xtrngrjoai, Xiystai 8* txaotov aitiav xatd atigr^oiv, 
xaltoi y* svia , dnogrjosii tig &v , nwg Xiyttai xatct 
otigyotv, £v totiv ivd pixsov t» , xa&dnsg ddixov xal 
dixaiov. llsgl navta Sr) td toiavta tr)v otigijoiv 
dsl tid&vai, pr) tov oXov Xbyov, tov tsXsvtalov os sl- 
dovg • 010* si totiv dixaiog xa& £$w tivd nsi&ag- 
Zixbg totg vopoig, ov ndvtatg adixog totai tov oXov 
attgovpsvog Xiyov • mgl tie to mi&so&oti totg vopoig 

'Digitized by G 


ixUinw ny, xal-tavtrj y otigtiotg vnaohi avt$. To* 
avtov tie tqonov xal inl tvtv aXXwv. JCa&amg d 
6 (la&ripatixbg nsglta i$ ayaigeosag tyv &swglav 
noielTcu ' nsquXwv yag navta ta aio&-ifta , #ew- 
gu • olov fiagog xal xovyovrpa , xal oxXtigot^ta, 
xal tovvavtlov fri ds xal &sgfiotrita, xal ipv- 
XQOTfjta, xal tag aXlag alo&rjtag ivavtuaosig • f*o- 
vov tie xataXilnu to noobv xal ovv*x*$> ™ v P** *V 
iv , tuv di inl dvo , tnv fl' inl tgia , xal ta 
nu&rj toe tovtatv y nooL iotixalovvexVt *alov xa& 
tttgov ti &t<OQU' xal tm piv tag ngbg aXXtjXa qtvosig 
xal &6oeig oxonu, xal ta xavree^ vnagxovta, twv d* 
tag ovppngiag xal aovfifiitgiag, twvdetoig Xoyovg' 
uXX' Sfuag filav ndvtw xal tr\v avtyv ti&spiv imatri- 
prjv %r\v yeoafittgixtjv thv avtov tgbnov l#et * a * nt $ 
io ov. Ta yog tovt<$ ovpPePrjxota, xatf f>oov iotlv 
op , xai tag ivavtitiosig avtov rj ov , ovx aXXrjg im- 
oitjfifig n q>iXooo<piag fawgyoai. Ty yvoixt} fdv yag 
r^ovx I ovta, paXXov d* yxivrjoBiog pitixnwv &mgla* 
tig anovtipeM av. a H ye (aijv diaXextixij xal tj ooq>* 
ottxTj , tSw wpfiBftiixoTm fiiy riot, tolg ovoiv , ovx 
i\ d 3 ovta, ovde nsgl ti ov avtb , xa& ooov ov iotiv. 
,*Jlote Xdnttat tov yiXoooyov, xa& ooov ovta iotlv t 
' thai ntgl ta Xty&wta ds(agritt»c6v. *Entl 8i to , tt 
ov anav xa& h u xal xo&bv XiyttatnoXXax&g Xsyb- 
fitvov, xal ta ivavtia tbv avtov tgonov (jug to§ tt^w- 
tag yag ivavtuooug xal diacpogag tov bvtog avay*~ 
tat) ta d& toiavta dvvatbv vnb fiiav iniatr^iriv slvai, 
SiaXvott av ^ xat agxag anogla Xex^uaa. Aiym 

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METAPHYS. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 4. 219 

d iv p dirjnoQuro , n<og %o%m noXXwv xal duupoQOiv 
ovtatv ty /im, p&* t*5 imotijiifi. 
'End da 6 fia&tifAattxog XQ*i*<*i tolg xoivoig idiwg, 
xal tig tovt*w a?*"? a? ify \>*<tiQ7}<jai trig noting 
qnloooa>lag. "On yaq anb wv towv aqpaiqt&iviw 
laa ta Aturopeya, xo&bv (Uv iattv inl navttav km* 
noomv. e H fAa&fjfAtiJtnfi d\ vnoXafiovoa n§oit* pi- 
qog tr\g olxUag vXrjg, notutaittiv&Moiav* olov n&ql 
yoappag, tj y&vlctg, t/ ioi&uovg , rj twv Xommv tt 
noamv • oix y f ovta, «U* p awtxig aitmv fxaotov 
iq>* w» tj dvo, rj tola. *H da cpiXoooyia tuqI tiv iv 
uiqu phf, ij tovtuv btdono ti ovfip&firixtv , ov oxo- 
nsl* nsql to ov ds rj ov, tnv totovwv Oxaotov #«•»- ^ 
£«*. Tov aitov 6' t%u tqbnov xal ntql tip <pvo*» 
xt)v imoiypriv tfj fiu&TjpaTixr}. Ta ovfi^t/ifixota 
yitQ t) yvoixi) xal rag a£?ag -frewou, tig %&v ovttav ^ 
% xivov/Aiva, xal oix $ orta. Ty* 6k nqmr\v w^ij- 
xufizv inurtrjpfiv Tovttoy tlvai, xa&* ooov orta ta 
vnoxtifjLtvd iotiv, aX£ oix $ htoov ti. Jib xal tavz 
tfiP xal tip (ia&fipanxfi2 dniarnfi^y pigr} tr t g aocpiag 

tlvOLl &6T60V. 


"Eat i di t»s iv tdlq ovaiv &qx*I, ntol *j* ovxlotai 
dinpevQ&at t tovvavtiov 3i ivayxalov atlnoi&v • Xiyvt 
di aXt)&$vs*v f olov 8r* oix ivtiixnai to aitb x«^ IVa / / 
tbv avtbv xgovov thai xal fifi slva^xal taXXa ti tovtov J 
avtolg avtix$l[iBva tov tqonov. Kal ntql tmv toiov- 
twv , anXtog fib oix lotiv anodtt$ig , ngbg tovdt d 
eotiv. Oi yao iotiv ix inototigng a^^^avTot/ tovtov 

Digitized by GOOgle 


noirjoao&ai xop ovXXoyiouop. AH hi ye , &mo Moxi 
to unXwg anodedsix&ou. light di xop Xiyopxa tag 
avtixtifibag qtdoug, t$ deixrvvxi dioxi iptvdog , X17- 
nxiov xtxoiovtop, o xavxb fih soxai xta firjivdixeodai 
xavxb thai, xal pr\ elvcu xa&* IVa xal xop avxbv 
XQOPOP, fit} di&t d' thai xavxop. Ovtta ydo fiovwg 
Slv anoteix-ddr} nobg xop q>doxorta frdixto&cu iac 
apxtxnfupag ydoug dXtj&evso&at, , xaxa xov avxov - 
xovg d& fiiXXopxag dXXr\Xotg Xoyov xoivaipyouv, del t* 
owiivai avxSw (ly yiypop&pov yao xovxov, nwgiort. 
xoipmpla xovxoig nobg dXXrfXovg Xoyov ; Jti xoipw 
xup bpopdxwp Zxaoxop etrat ypwoi/iop, xal dyXovp fv 
xi, xal (ii\ noXXd, popop 0*8 h • x$w nXeiova arjfJLaivrj, 
(pavegov itotiiv lq> qpiqu xovpofia xovtmp, O drf 
Xiywv uvou xovxo, xalfarj sly at y xovxo o hXmg tlval 
(prjow, ov (prjoiy. c, Jlo&* o orjfialvu xovpofia , xovxo 
ov qtrtoi oyuaipup • xovxo S* advvaxop. Jlax stneg 
orifialvBi xl xb $Tpai rods , xyp dptiqtaaip aXrj&tvuv 
ddvpaxop xaxa xov avxov. Ext d el xi at^a/ret 
xovvofia, xal rot/r aXtj&evexai, dtilxalxovx iZ&pay* 
xrjg iivai • xo d* &: dpayxijg op, ovx bddxetcti tots 
fit} elvat>. Tag dpxtxsifiipag aqa ovx ipdixvtai cpaotig 
xal imoipaoug aXrj&sveiv xaxa xov avxov* "End* 9* 
(Aij&ev uaXXopri <pdoig rj anoqpaoig aXrj&svstat,, 6 A*- 
ymp avd-qmnov ij ovx Sp&qwiop, ovdev paXXop aA^- 
•d-tvoH. z/o£e*e $8 xap ovx "nnop thai cpdoxup xvp 
ap&Qtonop, fj paXXop fj ovx yr* * aXrj&eveiv, ij ovx 
avd-ovmop. u Jlox8 xal innov (pdoxwv thai xop av- 
xov aif]&Bvau. Tag yito avxixupipag l poling tip aX»- 
&tVHv. JSvppalvu xoIpvp xop aviov ap&oionop «7va» 

Digitized by GOOgle 


METAPH. LIB. X. CXI.) CAP. 6. 221 

xal innov, 1} twv aXXtov %i £aW. 3 dn6dti£ig p&v ovv 
ovdsfiia tov'iwv iotlv anXag • 7100$ fidvtoi tov ravza 
ti&iptvov anods&g. Taxing d* av tig xal avtbv 
toy HgaxXutov tovtov igatijoag tov tgonov, yvdy- 
xaoev opoXoyuv fjirjSi not* rag dvtixtipivag (pdoug 
dvvatbv thai xata tov avtmv dX7}devto&ai' vvv d* 
ov ovvulg havtbv %i not 8 Xiyei, %avtt\v Ua^sirjvdo- 
Zav. OXag d u 16 Xtydpevov vn avtov iotiv aXy- 
&ig, ov$ 3 av avtb tovto aXy&ig sit) \ Xiyto di to iv- ifC 
dizw&at, to avTO xa{? tva xal tbv avtbv xgdvov fl- 
vai re, xal ^7) elvai. Kaddneg ydg xal diygrjfiivuv av- 
tuv, ovdkv fiaXXov rixatd<paoig rj unocpaoig dXrj&sve- 
tai m tov avtov tgonov xal tov ovva(iq)otigov , xal 
tov ovpnmXsyiiivov , xa&dnsg piag tivog xataqxx- 
omg ovorig, ovdiv udXXov ^ ano<paotg, rj to oXov iv )j 

xataxpdoei tt&ipevov aXy&ig I'otai. "Eti d ' el pri&iv 1 % 
iotiv alydsg xatacprjoai, xav avtb tovto ipevdog si'rj, ^s' 
to qtavcu [iTjdepiav dXifdrj xatdqpaoiv vndgxtiv* el hi 
iotl ti, Xvoit av to Xeyofievov vnb twv toiavta ivi- \ 
otafiivwv, xal navteXwg avaigovvtfov to diaXiyea&ai. " 
IZaganXrjoiov ds toig elgr)[ievoig iotl xal to Xe- 
X&ev vnb tov Jlgtotaybgov. Kal ydg ixelvog scpy -**. 
ndvuov elvai xQWdnov fiitgov tov av&gomov • ovdev , 4 < 
hegov Xiytov , *} to Soxovv kxdoito , tovto xal elvai 
nayiatg. Tovtov de yivofiivov, to avtb ovfiftaivei 
xal elvai xal fiy elvai, xal xaxbv xal dya&bv elvat,, 
xal taXXa td xatd t«$ avtixeifxivag (pdoeig Xeybfieva, 
tf*a to noXXdxig toigdl fiev q>aivso&ai tods slvai xa- 
Xov, toigdl ds tovvavtlov fiitgov d' tlvai to <patvo- 

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fjitvov ixaoxta. Avoixo d' op avxrj rj anoxia, $«»- 
qrjoaoi no&iv iXyXv&tp ff agxh *>}$ inoXrjtfxtog t«v- 
xyg. "Eoixtyag Moig pb ix xr\q xwp yvotoXoyiap dotijg 
ytyivrio&ai, xo7g d' ix iov ptitavra neglwpavwv 
anavxagyiPtaoxnp f aXXa loigdlpep fflv rods <paiv$o&m, 
xoigdl di xovvapxlov. To yag (itjdip ix (it) opxog ybt- 
o&aifTtav d' i$ ovtog,oxfSbp naptaav ioxl xoivbvdoy- 
fia xwpntgl cpvomq'Entl ovv ov Xfvxbv ytypixai ix Xtv- 
xov xeXelwg opxog,xal ovdaprj pr) Xevxov'pvp dsyeyepri- 
fitvov pt) Xtvxbp yiypoix Sip ix fiy opxog Xtvxov xb-yir- 
yvopuvov py Xtvxov ."flare ix py ovxog yiypoix ap xat 
ixtlvovg,tl fii) vniJQXf W Xtvxov to avxb xalXtvxop. Ov 
ZuXtnop dk duxXveiv trjy anoglap xavtrip. KYgyxai yag 
iv xdig cpvaixolg, nug ix xov p% opxog yiyptxaixa yi~ 
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i%tw afiqtotigatg tdlg b*o$aig xal xalg cpaviaoioug x&¥ 
ngbg avxovg diafiqptofitjrovvxmp , tvtj&tg. JrjXov 
yag oxi xovg higovg avxiup avayxr\ duipsvo&ai. *«- 
ptgbv Si xovx ix xiav ytyvofiipwp xaxa xijp ato&i}Oi>. 
Oidinoxt yag xb aiib cpaivixou totg fih yXvxv, xoig 
Se xovpotpxlop, fii] iy&ctQfiivuv xal XtXtoftrifiivaip xw 
ttigtop xb aladr\Xrigiov xal xgixygiov twv Xtx&fr™* 
Xv^wv. Tovxov d ' ovxog xoiovxov, xovg kxigovg fib 
vnoXr)nxiop fiixgop tlpai, xovg d * Higovg ovx vnoXii- 
nxiov. *O t uoia)g Si xovxo Xiyto xal inl aya&ov xal 
xaxov, xal xaXov xal ccloxQOl ,xal xtop aXXwv x&p xot- 
ouxwv. Ovdip yag diacpigti ToiJt atiovp, rj xa q>ai- 
pofitva xojig vnbxnp oiptv vnofiaXXovow top daxxvXov, 
xal noiovoiv ix xov hvbg qtalveo&ai dvo. Jvo tie &l- 
pai, dii xb <patvsa&ai xooavxa, xal ndXiv tv. Tolg 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 6. 223 

yiq pi] xtvovoi tyr oytv , h qtalvttai to fir. "OXwg 
di axonovin tov (potlvto&ai tot dtvqo ustaftdXXorta, 
nal fitjdsnote diapiwovta h toig avtoig, in tovrov 
neql %r\q aXtf&tiag trjv nqloiv nouiio&ai. Ju yaq in 
to? atl nata tavta i/ofTcw , xal fiijdinoti /u«?a/?o- 
Xfjy noiovphnv, to aXij&eg &7)Qevtir. Toiavta fl^_, , 
for* tit nata tiv noo/ior, Tavta yaq ovx oti pzv *- 
xotadl, naXiv 0° aXXdia (pairttcu' tavta d* ail, nal^^ ** * 
pttafioXris oidtpiag noivwvovvta. **Eti d 3 ti nlvfjoig 
iati, *«* niyov/ittov tt, niptltai di nav tx tivog nal 
tXg ti, du Sqa to ntvovpsvov thai tti ir inthta i$ ov 
*wrjottai,nalovx tlvaiip avt$, xal tig todl nv&o&ai 
nal ylyvea&ai h tovtto • to di nata ttjv artlq>aoiv 
jxT] ovvdkn&tvtodai xat aixovg, nal ti nata to no- 
aov ovyix*>g ta dtvqo $ii nal xivCitai, nal tig tovto 
-frtirj, nabitq ovx aXij&eg ov, diet ti nata to noiov oi 
pert* ; 0aivovtai yaq ovx yx iota xat a tag avtupaotig 
tavtov xattfyoquv, in tov to noobv vnttXijyivai firj 
ftivtiv inl twv owfiatav, diit to tlvai t*tqimr\xv to 
aitb, nal ovx thai. € Hd* ovoia nata to noiov. Tov- 
to yaq tfjg mqiofiivrig yvat&g • to di noobv, trjg ao- 
qlotov. **Eti dia tl, nqogtattovtog tov iatqov todl 
to oitlov nqootviynaa&ai , nqoo<piqovtai / ti yaq 
paXXov tovto aqtog iotlv, y ovn tativ ; wort ovdh 
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ovxoq ntql avtb, nal ovtog tov nqootax&bnog oitiov 
tovtov, nqoaqtiqovtai tovto. Kaitoi y ovn tdti fii) 
diapwovofjg nayitog ftijdtfiiag (pvatwg iv toig aio&r]- 
xolg , aXX' atl naoav nivovfiivatv nal Qtovoav. "Eti 
di* si piv aXXoiovpe&a ail, nal [xqdenoTt diapsvo- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fisv oi aito), ti &avfiaot6v si fir\dino\f r)fuv ta at/- 
xa cpaivexai, xa&dnsg tolg xdfivovai; Kal yag rov- 
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ovv tovg ix Xoyov tag slgrjfisvag anoglag sxovtag, 
oi gddiov diaXvoai fir) ti&ivTcov ti, xal tovttav (irjxe- 
ti Xoyov ananovvttav, Ovzw dg nag Xoyog, xal 7ia- 
aa dnodii^ig yiyvstai, Mrjdsv yag ti&ivtsg , dvai^ 
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fisv tovg towvtovg ovx soti Xoyog * ngog ds tovg 
diaitogovvtag, ix wv nagadsdofisvtov dnogiiav §o)diov 
anaviav, xal diaXvsivta noiovvta tr)v dnoglav iv 
aitoig. dr\Xov d' ix tmv slgr)fiivw. Slots opavsgbv 
ix jovtcov, on ovx ivds'xstai tag dvtixsifiivag q>dosig 
nsgl taitov xa& ha XQOVOv aXr\&svsw , ovde td 
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JrjXov ds tovt, in agxyv tovg Xoyovg dvaXvovot tovg 
twv ivavtitov. 'Ofioiotg ds ovds twv dvd fisoov ovdsv 
olov ts xatrjyogsio&ai xatf kvbg xal tov aitov, Asv- 
xov yag ovtog tov vnoxsifisvov , Xsyovtsg avtb sivat, 
ovts Xsvxbv ovts /nil ay, ipsvo6fis&a. 2vfi(laiv*i yag 
slvai Xsvxbv aitb , xal fir) uvea. Oatsgov yag tm 
ovfinsnXsyfiivtov aXrjdsvstat xai aitov. Tovto 9* 
iuilv avtitpaoig tov Xsvxov. Ovts dr) xat *HgaxXs*^. 

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METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 7. 225 

toy ir 5 {/Eta i liyopta alijxhveip, ovte xwi 'Avwtiayo- 
gav. Ei Si pi], avftftfjonai tapaptta toU avtov 
xatfiyogtip, "Otap yug *iv navil <pjj nartog tlvou 
ftoigav, ovSip pallor elvai (pqoi ylvxv rj mxgbv , ?J 
imp lom&p bnoiavovp tvavTioooewv • ti'ntg iv anaptt 
navxa vKagytt ny Svptitpn popop , al£ ivsgyela, xal 
an<wh*Qifiivta$. 'Opoiwg Si ovde ndoag yevdtlc, 
ovSi <xXr]&&ig tag qtvumg Svvctxov elpar di alia re 
nolld xtbv lex&ipt&p av Svoxtgap Sid tavxrjv tijv 
&eow ual Stoxi ysvdwv pip ovowp naotav, old* «v- 
xb Tovto rig qxxoHwp dly&evoei • u\r}$&v Si, ymSslg 
ilvui ndffag ley tor, ov ytvosxat. 

Haaad* imox^p^ fcrjxsi xipag dgxw *<** alxiag 
ntgl maotop to»p v<p avxtjv imotrjxwv , oIop laxgixrj 
xal yvppaatiMfj, xal xwv lomup kxdoxtj mp ttoitjxixwv 
y (ta&7}fiaTiMMv. 'Exdaxfi ydg rovicov tttgiygaifJa- 
uivrj Tt y£pog avtjj, ftsgl tovto ngaypaxivttai (ag 
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X&eio&v iTiHJTfifiwv, kxaoTTi lajHovoa ttiog to %i ioxw 
iv kxdox *j> yipu, netgdxou Ssixpvpai tut loind pala- 
mt$gop if dxgtfiiotsgop. Aapfidpovai Si to ti ioxip, 
a» /tip Sid jtjs &4e&i}(f€f>>g' «* S' vnoxi&ipepai. Aid 
xaldrjlop & %?)$ loiavtyg fatty wyyg, oxi xyg ovoiag 
xal tov ti iaziv ovx etruv dno$st£n. *Enel <f soxi 
tig % n%o% yvomg faiat^pfi, dvjlor Sti xal ngaxxixrjg 
higa xal 7ton}tutifi eatau Hoi^Uxtjg pip yog iv tw 
noiovpxi, xal ov t$ noiovpip^ tfe xivyomg fj aQXV* 
xal tovt toilv tits %ixvi(\ tig, bVt 3 ally Tig Svvafug* 
Arist. Metaph. P 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Ofioicog de xal inl xyg ixgaxxixijg 9 ovx iv tw ngaxxo), 
fidXXovd 3 iv xoig ngdxxovaiv r) xivijoig. C H de rov 
(pvaixov n egl xd exovxa iv favxolg xivtjoemg dqxrjv 
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iniaxrifiriv, di]Xov ix xovxoav. Elgtv ydg xi xovtcav 
twv yevtnv dvdyxrj ninxeiv avxr\v, *Eml de xo xiiaxiv 
avayxaiov kxdoxj) nag xav imoxrjfitov eidevai,xalxov- 
x<p xgyo&ai dgxji * && f*V Xav&dveiv ntog bgtaxeov 
xo) yVQixio, xal nmg o xyjg ova lag Xoyog Xtjirxiog, n6~ 
itgov <»g xo oipbv, i) fidXXov wg xb xdilov. Tovrtav 
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xov ngdyfiaxog • o de xov xoiXov , £<»£*? *V$ vXt^g. 
€ If ydg aifioxijg iv Qivl yiyvexai. Jib xal b Xoyog 
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xoiXr\. ftavsgov ovv oxi xal oagxbg xal 6<p&aXpov, 
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dnodoxiov. *Eml d* eaxixig imoxt)fifi rov ovxog, y 
ov xal xcogioxbv, oxenxeov nbxegov noxext) opvoixjj tip 
avxrjv -d-exeov slvai xavxtjv, fj pdXXov kxegav. 'H fiiw 
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gaaofie&a deixvvvar xal ei'nig iaxl xig xoiavxrj cpvoig 
iv xoig ovaiv, ivxo^^n^eXjinovxal xb <&eiov • xal 
avxrj dv eXtj nqsfrQ $ alxy qnoxaxij agx^h di\Xov xoi- 
vvv oxi xgla yivv\ x<av ^ew^^fixwv" ImoTrjpojv iart, 

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METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 8. 227 

(pvoi xrj, ^ a ^WSSJ^h^Lj§JBJ^^^ BiXxioxov ph 
ovv to xwv <&BODQfitixmv imotrifiwv yivog* jovxohv d* 
avxwv y jtXtvxala Xtx&sioa • ntgl xo xipuoxtgov ydg 
iojh twv ovtq)V. BtXxlw de xal ^e/owy ^doxr} Xiyt- 
t«* xajd to olxuov intox^xov. *Anogr\atit d* dv tig, 
noxtgdv noxt tif\v %ov b'vxog ji ov huax^r^v xa&oXov 
xttivou del, y ov. Tap fiiv ydg (Aa&rjpaxix&v kxd- 
arfj ntgl IV t* yivog aqMagioptvov iotiv y xa&oXov, 
xoivrj ntgl navtfov. El fitv ovv ai (pvaixal ovoiat 
ngaxat J&v cvifay tlol,x(jtvfjq>vo'ixring(ax'rix(ovimoxr}- 
fiwv «iy tl d' toxiv kxiga q>voig xal ovoiax^gioxri xal ) 
dxhrjxog, kx&gav avdyxr\ xatjrpinwjriprivavxrjg tivai, ) 
xal ngoxigav jyg qpvoixrjg, xal xcc&oXov ngoxigav. 

CAPUT VIII. S** 1 " 

*Ensl dk to anXtog ov xaxd nXtiovg Xsytxai xgo - 
novg, toy tig xatd ov/jpeftrjxog tlvai Xtybfjttvog , oxt- 
nxiov nganop ntgl xov ovxoag bvjog. "Oxi fiiv ovv 
ovdtfiiajavnagadtdopivwv imojrifioiv ngay/jiaxtvs- 
toli ntgl to ovnPt@i)xog, dr^Xov, Ovxt ydg olxodofii- 
xr} ox on el to ovfifirjoontvov jolg Jrj olxia xgyoofiivotg, 
olov zl Xvnrjgwg *j xoivavxlov olxrjoovoiv, ov& 3 vq>av- 
Tixt}, ovxt oxvxoxofjiixi) ,[ovt« oyjonoirjxixrj.'] To de 
xa&* avxrjv tdiov kxdoxt) xovxav oxontt jtav inunij- 
[jiiav fiovov xovxo d* text xo olxuov xiXog' ovdt y 
ftovaixoy xal ygappaxixov. Ovdt xbv ovxa (jlovol- 
xbv, oxiytvofisvog ygaftfiaxixbg , a pa total xit a/u- 
q>6xtga, ngoxtgov ovx &v ' o da fir] dtl ov iaxtv, lyl- 
yvtxo xovxo* (bo& dpa fiovotxbg iylyvtJO xalygafi- 
fiajixog. Tovxo di ovdtpia Srjjei jav bfioXoyovfii- 
rtag ovootv inioxtjfiav } nXr^v t\ aoqpioxixr\. llsgl xo 


Digitized by GOOgle 


ovpfofaxbg yio avxfjfiovfj ngaypaxev exai. Aib 77Xa- 
,0 l^~ twv ov xccxwg tigyxe, q?rtoagxbvooq)Wxr)v nsolxo fiyvv 
I diaxglfltiv. "Qxi J* ovd ' ivdtxopsvov ioxiv elvai xov ovfi- 

pt^rixbxog imovt}(iriv t qpavtgbv eoxat, nsiQa&uow iduv, 
xinox knl xb av^tjSijxog, Jldv (papiv slvai t xb piv dil 
^ xali!;dvdyx7ig(uvdyxrig d' oi xrjg xaxa (ttat,ovXtyo[iivrig t 
aX£ y XQWfis&a 4v xoigxaxixdg anodtiSeig') to d* ug 
imxonoXv, xb 6° ov& wg irnxonoXv, ovx atl xal t$ 
dvdyxrig, aXX* ontag k'xvxtv • oiov inl xvvl y&voix av 
yvxog, aXXa xovxo ov& wg del 4$ avdyxyg , ovxs wg 
imxonoXv ylyvBxarovfij3aii] di hot av. Eaxi di\ xb 
ovfifopTjxog, b yiyvsxai fih ovx del, old' i!; dvdyxqg, 
ovd 3 ag imxonoXv. Ti fiiv ovvioxixb ovp^^i\xbg t 
ti'grjxai • dtoxi fl' ovx h'oxiv iTuoxrjfiTj xov xowvxov, 
dyXov. 'Emoxyfiri fiev yito ndoa xov del ovxog , rj atg 
imxonoXv. To di ovfifoPyxog iv ovdexigco xovxojv 
ioxiv. Oxk di xov xaxa ovpfoPtjxbg bvxog ovx tlalv 
^ alxiai xal doxoil xotavxat, olaintQ xov xa& avxo 
ovxog, drjXov, "Eoxai ydo anavx i$ avdyxqg. El 
ydq xods fiiv ioxiv xovdt ovxog, xode de xovfk, xovxo 
di niionoagsxvxwt dXX* i^avdyxrjg, iSavdyxrig&OTaixal 
ov xovx ip> al'xiov, ewg xov Xeyopivov xsXsvxalov ulxia- 
xov. Tovxo d* ip> xaxa ovfifePrixog. "Jloxsi^avdyxrig 
anavx eoxar xalxb bnoxiQ<ngt>xvxe,x-alxbivdixso&ai 
xai. K$v fiTjovdi t aXXaxalyiyv6[ievovToaixiovv7tOT€- 
&g, xavxaavfi^atxai, Ilavyaqxb ilavdyxyg ytvtias- 
xat.Kalydo avQiovtxXsiipig ysvrjasxai t avx6d€ yivrixav 
xovxo d , av Ixsqovxi' xal xovx ,av aXXo • * en xov xov 
drj xovxgonov dnb nsntgaofAevov xobvov xov dnb vvv 

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METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 0. 229 

ptX(H$ avqiop a<paiQOVfib>ov xqopov, rjtet. note Ug xc 
vnapxov. a Jlox irtsl xovx ioxlp, anvpx # drdyxrjg 
xit fABtet xovxo ytvtjosxai' £ox$ ndvta i& dvdyxr\g yl- 
ypto&au To d* w$ dXydug or, xai /ut; xerra ovpfk- 
firjxog , to /uey ton? Ir ai/^Aoj^ ti}$ diapolag, xal 
nm&og iv xavxjj * 6to two* per to oi/ia»$ or, ov (ffxovp- 
xai <*l «o^««* w§o* oe to «$« or xa2 /aotoror* t© d' 
ov* dvctyxatop, «Xl* dd{H<rtov. MytJ di to xaia m; 
^i' tXartor avfijk(hix6g, Tbv xoiovtov d' Slant a 
xal for €<oa xd mixta. To di frtxa xov, iv rotg <f>v- 
oei ytyvopsvoig, *} into dtmroiag iaxL T&xq 8' ioxlv, 
ozttv ti xovxwp yhfjxa* xaxd dvfifitfirixog. "JlantQ 
ya$ valerian*, io pb xm& avxo,xo di xaxd ovu fit/3 ft- 
nog, ovxmg xal atuov. *Hxvx*l d* al'ttop xaia avu- 
fitfi-qxbf, ipxotg xaxd nooaiototP x&p tvtxd xov yt- 
yyopepoig. Aib n$fn xavxd tw^ij xat didpoia* woo- 
ctl$9<ng ydo ov /*>**$ dtapoiag. Tot V atxta dooutia, 
ito) tap ftp ytvoito to «»o xvzyq. A** adylog dp- 
&Q*xhip Xoytopco , nal aXxiop naxd ovpfiifix;x6$ m 
ctnXAg di oidtpog * dyady di xvxv **1 xvtxi) , Steep 
&ya&dp fj cpavXov anofifi • dxvxia di xal dvoxvxia, 
mo* fiiyt&og xovxwp, 'Entl di ovdh xaxd oi/p/Se- 
($*,xhg TtpeisQov tup xa%? aixo , giti* ao* afxia. El 
&$* jvx^j, if nal to aixofiaxav aVtio* xov ovoopov, 
wqqxsoop povg al'uop xml a*vo??. 


ton di to jU€V Ivteytia [io*w t xo di dvvd/jM, to 

&& dvvdpti xal ivsqyuce, to pip op, to dt nooix, 

to ^e TcJy AoA7iwr. Ovx «jt* d« nivr)Vig naod xd 

ngayfiaxa. MtxafidXXn yd? isl xaia xag %ov epxog 

Digitized by GoOgle 


xaxr\yoglag. Koivov d' inl xovxtav ovdiv ioxiv, ovdi 
iv pin xaxijyogia. "Exaoxov ds dix&g vndgxsi na- 
ow, olov xods. To fiiv ydg (iogq?r) avxov,xo tie jxi- 
grioig* xalxatd xb noibv , xb fisv Xsvxbv , xb ds (ii- 
Xav - xal xaxd xb nooov, xb fisvxsXsiov, xb ds axsXig' 
xal xaxd qpogdv, xb jxh dvta , xb ds xdxta , fj xb ph 
xovqpov, xb ds pctQV. c JloT8 xwrjosoag xal n*xa($oXi]g 
xooavx* sl'dtj , ooa xov *6vxog. JirigTjftivov ds xa& 
txaoxov yivof, to ftsv dvvdfisi, to d* irxslsx^oi , tr)v 
xov dvvdfxsi $ xotovxbv ioxi, ivsgystav Xtyta xivrjoiv. 
"Ott d' dXti&r) liyofitv, iv&svds dtjXov. "Oxav ydg xb 
oixodofirjxov y xoiotuxov, avxb Xsyofisv itvai ivsgysia 
11 olxodopuxai. Kal Iota xovxo olxodoprioig. *0[ioi(og 
fid&fjoig, idxgsvoig, xal xvlimg , fiddioig, dXaig, yr)- 
gavoig, ddgwoig, Sv^aivsi ds xivuo&ai, oxav y iv 
xsXixsia r) avxr) , xal ovxs ngoxsgov , ov&* voxegov. 
*IT ds xov dvvdpsi ovxog ivxsXs'xsia, oxav ivxsXsxsia ov 
ivtoyji, tj avxb, rj aXXo fi xivr\xbv, xivtjoig ion. Asyw 
ds xb y (ads. v Eou ydg b xotXxbg dwdpsi dvdgtdg- 
iXX' SfMog ovx ji tov x«Xxov ivxsX&xHa,ri x«Xxbg,xi- 
vr\alg loxiv. Ov ydg xavxo xaXxtp stvai xal dwdpsi 
xivi' insl si xavxo r\v dnXcog, xaxd xbv Xoyov , i\v iv 
r) xov xaXxov ivxsXsxsta xivijolg xig. Ovx totidexavxor 
drjXop d ' inl xwv ivavxitav. To psvydg dvvao&aivyiai- 
vsiv,xaldvvao\)aixdfAVSw,ovxavxbvr}v> Kctlydgdv xb 
vyialvsiv xal xb xdfivsiv, xavxbv i\v. To d' vnoxsi- 
fisvov xal vytaivov, xal vooovv, sl'& vygoxyg, sV&* ol- 
fia t xavxo xal sv. 'Ensl ds ovxb avxbv, wansg ovds 
XQ(Ofia xavxo xal bgaxbv, r) xov dvvaxov y d wax op 
ivxsXixnct xivr\aig ioxiv. "Oxi, psv ydg iaxiv ovtij, 

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METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 9. 231 

xal oti ovfifiaivsi tcts xivtio&ai, otav r\ ivttXixsia g 
avtrj t xalovtsng6tsgov ov&* votsgov f dfiXov, Evdixstai 
ydgsxaotov bts fisv ivsgyiiv , bts dsfir^'olov, to olxodo- 
/irjtbvj) oixodofirjtbv,xal r\tov olxodo(4T)Toi) ivsgysia ff 
oixodofiritbv t oixodburiaig iotiv ^Hyagtovtbiaxivri ol- 
xodofjirjoig f 7] ivsgysia,^ olxia'aXX* otavr\ oixia y,ovxett 
oixodopTjTov sotar oixodofisltai ds to oixodoftrjtbv, 
*Avdyxrj agaoixodbfifiaivt^v ivigysiav slvai.' Hd* olxo- 
d6fiir)oig,xivr}aigtig?Ob* avibg Xoyog xal inltwv dXXatv 
xivrjostov. "Oti ds xaXug sl'gritai, dyXov i$ oiv olaX- 
Xoi Xsyovomsgl avtijg 9 xal ix tov pi] (tddiov tlvai 
diogioai aXXwg avtrjv. Ovts ydg iv aXXw tig ysvsi 
dvvait av &sivai uvt^v. ArjXov d £$ (ov Xiyovoiv. 
Oi fisv ydg ktsgbtrjta xal dviobtrjta xal to fiv ov ^ 
biv ovdiv dvdyxtj xivsio&ai. *AXX* oid 3 fj pstapoXr), 
ovt sig tavia, ovt ix toiovtmv fidXXov n\ ixttovav- 
tixsifiivmv, Al'tiov di tov sig Tai/xa ti&ivai, oti do- 
Qiatov ti doxil slvai fj xivijoig, Tr\g d 3 ktsgag ov- 
atoixiag al agxal 9 °* la t0 otsgrjtixal slvai, dogiotoi. 
Ovts yag tods, ovts toibvds ovdsfiia avtwv, ovts 
tcSv Xomwv xatrjyogiwv. Tov ds doxelv dogiotov 
slvai tr\v xlvrjoiv, al'tiov, oti ovt sig dvvauiv twv ov- 
•tav, ovt sig hsgysidv ioti tt&ivai avttjv. Ovts ydg 
to dvvatbv noobv slvai, xiviltai i£ dvdyxrjg , ovts to 
ivsgysia noabv. C H ts xlvrjotg ivsgysia fisv slvai do- 
ail tig, at sXrjg ds. Al'tiov d 3 , oti dtsXsg to dvvatbv 
ov iotiv ivsgysia' xal did tovto #aAe;rov avTyv Xa- 
fiilv, tl iotiv, *H ydg sig otigrjoiv dvdyxrj -d-sivai, 
jj sig dvvapiv, fj sig ivsgysiav dnXyv, Tovtav d* 
ovdiv opalvstai ivdsxbfisvov. ''Slots Xsinstai to Xs- 

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X&lv slvai xal ivigyeiav, xal fir) ivigyuav tip eigtjfte- 
vtjv , idtiy uiv xfxltnrjv , hdexofAeW^v &* ehai. Kal 
oti iotlv f) xlvrjoig iv tw xivr}t($, drjlov. ^EvttXsxeia 
yag iati tovtov vnb tov xivrjtixov • xal ^ tov xivtftt^ 
xov ivigyeia ovx aXXrj iortl. del fiiv yag elvai ivte- 
Xexetav aficpoiv. Kivt}tixbv fisv yag ioti, to dvva- 
o&ai • xivovv di , to ivegyetv • aXX* totiv ivegyrjtixbv 
tov xtvtjtov. cl Jla&' bfioliog filet afiipolv ivigyeta, «o- 
neg to avto diaottjfia tv ngbg dvo, xal 9vo ngbg tv, 
xal to avavteg, xal to xatavng, alia ib elvai ovx &V 
'Oftoiiog di xal inl tov xivovvtog xal xivovfiivov. 

V^^V C » A ?V7 x - 

{a? To fl* ansigov, rj to advvatov dieX&etv t$ (Arfne- 
K (pvaivat dtiivat, xad-aneg r) qxovr) aogatogj t\ to dU£» 
odov txov ateXevtr\tov t r] S poXis, rj Srjiupvxbg &«*, 
fir) fyjl dii^odov rj nigag' hi ngoo&ioei rj acpaigiou, rj 
afiqxa. Xougiotbv fiiv dr] avto tl ov, aio&rjtbv di ovx 
olovt elvai. Ei yag firjts fieye&og ioti firjte nXrj&og, 
ova la 5' avtov to anugov, xal fir) < pn//u/Se/?ijxo$, adt- 
algetov fatal. To yag diaigetbv, r) fieye&og, rj nXrj- 
&og. El di adtalgetov, ovx anugov, el fir) xa&ctntg 
ij qxavi] aogatog. *AXX* oi>x ovtoa Xdyovotv, ov& Vfittg 
tytovfiev, aXX' a>g adittodov. *Eti Vrwf ivdixetat xa& 
avto elvai aneigov , tl fir) eir\ agt&fibg xal fiiye&og, 
tov na&og to anugov; *Eti el xataovfifleprjxbg, ovn 
av eft] oToi/eiov twv Svttav $ aneigov, wmeg ov9e to 
ao^ajov tijg diaXextov, xaltot fi qxavr) aogatog, Kal 
oti ovx eotiv ivegytla elvat, to anugov, 6r)Xov. Ear at 
yag otiovv k avtov anugov fiigog .to Xctfiftavofierov. 
To yag anelgea tlvai xal anugov, to avto • etneg pv- 

Digitized by VjOOQlc 

METAPH. LIB. X. (XL; CAP. 10. 233 

a/a, to antigov , xal fir} xa& vnoxeifiivov. "jlaT« rj 
adiaiQfJOv, r] tig antigen diaigtjbv ij ptgioiov. II oil a 
d* tlvcu to avtb, idvvaTov ansiga. "jloneg yag pi- 
gog arjg aigog, ovtwg inagov mnsigov, si \ativ ovoia 
nal agxy 'Afiigttrtoy &ga xal aSialgsrov. 'Allot adv- 
vatov , to ivjsXexeitp ov , aneigov. Iloobv yag ilvat 
avayxtr\, Kara ovftpeprptog Sga vnctgx* 1 * *l£ •&• 
ttog stgrj-tat on ovn ivdixetai slvai agxh* » ok£ hu- 
vo w ovfiftipTixe top agi&ftov , rj to Uotjov. Avii\ 
ftev ovv f) SyTnoig xadoXov. °0u o' tvxolg aio&tj~ 
tolg oix eoriv , b&M* drjlov. El yag o(opaiog Ao- . 
yog, ro intnidotg agtofiivow , ovn efy av anttgov aw- 
fia, ovi aio&riTov, ovjt voqibv , oCt agi&pbg mg *«- 
ZtoQiopivog xal Snugog. 'Agi&fii^tov yag 6 agi&pog, 
ij to %xov agi&pov. fpvoixtog da in tmvdt ti)lov. Ovx* 
yag avv&ttov olov tc ilvat, ov& anXovv. JEvv&stov 
fiw yag ovx tori owfta, \intl~\ si nsnigetrtai iw nlri&fi 
Ta aroi^eta. Zfsl yag iaa&iv xivctntei, xal pi] elvai 
iv avittv anstgoy. El yag bittooovv Xsinnai rj #a- 
tigov owfiaiog dvraptg, qp&agiioetai into iov antigov 
to mntgaafihov. "Exaoiov d' antigov eJvat advva- 
*ov. 2wfioc yag iotl to nayfr\ %x ov diaoxaoiv anu- 
gov di, to antgdvtcos ditovqxog. "Slav d to ctntigov 
ow/ia, Tiavrr] iotlr antigov. Otfdk 2v di anXovp ip~ 
tyfiTcu Ta antigov elrat duua, ov#' wg XiyovoL xivtg, 
naga ta oroixua i& oi yivp&oi, tavia. Ovx loriya$ 
to to(ovtov aw pa naga t« orotxita • anavta yag 11 
ov ioxi xai&p, diaXvtiai tig t«vt». Ov qpalvnai 
forovto 7i agar a anXa aw pat a, ovdi nvg, ovds aXXo 
ti iwv oToixtlwv ovdiv x*>$S Y&Q T ov anugov dval t* 

d by Google 

234 AR1ST0TEL1S 

avtwv, advvatov to Snav , xav rj nentgaopivov, rj 
thai, rj ylyvto&ai ti avttov, wontg'lIgdxXtttog (prjotv, 
anavta yiyvto&ai notinvg. 'O d' avtog Xoyog xal 
inl tov kvbg, o notovot nagd tot otoix&a ol qpvotxol. 
Ilav yag fitta^dXXu IS ivavtiov, olov 4x &tgpov tig 
yvzgov. "En to alo&r}tbv awfia nov* xal b avtbg 
tbnog oXov xal fiogiov , olov trjg yrjg. Slat ti fiiv 
bfiottdig, dxivrjtov sotat, rj atl wa^r)attav. Tovto de 
advvatov. Ti yag fiaXXov xatoa rj avto, r\ bnovovv ; 
Olov ti (twXog tl'r], nov avtrj xivrj-d-rjottat rj fievsl; 
yao tonog avxr]g tov avyytvovg otopatog antigog, 
Kct&iSeiovvjbv olov J 6 nov. Kalntog; Tig ovv t//uo- 
vr) xal f] xivrjoig ,- rj navtaxov ptvti ; ov xtvrj&tjaetat 
aga • rj navtaxov xivrjd-voeiou; ovx aga ovqottau 
El d* avopoiov to nav , dvofioiot xal ol tonoi^ Kal 
notntov fiiv ovx * v xo o&fia tov navtbg , iX£ rj to 
anttad-ai. Eltarj ntntgaoutvatavtatvtai, rj Snttga 
ti'dti. Iltntgaafisva /uev ovv ovx olov rt. > Ecnai yag 
t« fiiv antiga, tot d* ov, rj to ndvanttgov olovnvg, 
r) vdtog. <J>&ogct di to to tov tov tdtg ivavtioig. El d* 
dnuga xal anXn, xal oi tonoi anttgot, xal carat 
antiga tot atotxua. El di tovt advvatov, xal ol to- 
noi ntnegaafjtivot , xal to nav dvayxr\ nsntgdv'&ai. 
"OXwg d* advvatov anttgov tlvat o&fia, xaltonovtolg 
owfiaoiv, el nav owfia ala&ntbv pdgogtx*h ijxovopo- 
tr\ta.*H ydg inl to fjtiaov, rj av(o ibo&rjottai. Iddv- 
vatovditb anttgov, rj nav, rj to rjftiav, r) on ox eg ov ovv 
ntnov&ivai. nag yag dtiXjig; rj nwg tov otntigov 
EOTctt to fiiv xatoi ,tbd* uvea , rj toxatov xal fxiaov ; 
y Eti nav aio&rjtbv atopa iv tony. Tonov di eitfi] & 

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METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 11. 235 

'Advvaxov d' iv tw antlga atofiaxi xavx slvai • Slug 
d* si ddvvaxov xbnov ansiqov slvai, xal ou/jia advva- 
xov • to yao iv xonw, nov, Tovxo ds orifialvst rj dvw, 
fj xaxa ij x&v Xoltiojv xi' xovxmv d' txaoxov nigag t*. 
To d~* ansiqov, ov xavxbv iv fisyi&si xal xivrjosi, xaJ 
XQo'vw , wg fiia tig (pvoig * dXXa xb voxsqov Xiysxai 
xaxa to ngoxsgov olov, xivrioig xaxa xb /uiys&og, i<f 
ov xwiixai, ij aXXoiovxai, i} av^sxai' XQOVog ds , did 
xi\v xlvrjotv. . -v J -> 

CAPUT XI. /-&.#«-*■ ' '•«" 
MsxafidXXsi ds to psxafiaXXov , to /uiv x«t« ai/p- 
(isflrixbg , wg xb fiovoixbv (ladl&iv • to #£ tc£ tovtov 
t2 fiexapaXXsiv, anXag Xiysxai psxaftaXXsiv, olov octet 
xaxa fiigrj. c Tyid£txai yaq xb ompa, oxi b btp&aXpog. 
Eoxi di xi o xa& avxb nq&xov xivslxai • xa* toSt ioxl 
to xa# J «£to xivrjxov. **Eoxi ds xi xal inl xov xivovv- 
to$ moavxwg. Kivti yaq xo psv xaxa ovfi^s^rjxog, 
to ds xaxa fiiqog, xb ds xa& avxo. *'Eoxi di xi xo xi- - 

VOVV TTQWTOV * SOXl di XI TO XlVOVflSVOV ' sxi iv (O XQ 0V( 9> 

xal If ov , xal sig o. Tad* sl'drj xal xd nady , xal 
o xonog, tig a xivovvxat xd xivovpsva, axivtjxd iaxiv, 
olov, intOTrjfiT) , xal &sqpoxrig. "Eoxi 5' oix V ^*o- 
poxijg xivrjoig, aitX* ij xHgpavoig, C H di fit} xaxa ov/i- 
fopTjxbg (istapoXr) oix iv anaaiv indqxth aXX iv xolg 
havxloig xal (isxalv , xal iv avxiydosi. Tovxov ds 
nioxig ix xr k g inaymyijg. Msxa^dXXsi ds xb psxafidX- 
l°v f V If vnoxtipivov sig vnoxsifisvov , % ix py vno- 
xupivov sig vnoxstpsvov, rj i$ vnoxsifiivov sig firi vno- 
xtlfisvov. Aiyta ds vnoxsipsvov, xb xaxacpdosi drjXov- 
pevov. "flat avayxti xoslg shai psxafioXag. *H ydq 

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4$ ovx VTioxeiptvov tig py vnoxtiptvov , ovx i'ort fi$~ 
TajioXfi' ovtb yag tVavT/ot, ovt« aviicpaotg iariv, ot« 
ovx avrl&sotg. *H(ib ovv «$ ov% vnotmpimv eig vno- 
MstfAtvov, x«t dvTlyotoiv, yivsoig iartv , r\ p,b ctnXwg, 
only, ij & tig, twos* ^ £' 4£ vnoxtipivov slg /wij 
vnoKiifisvav <p&o(>a, i\ phimXAg, imXi), r\ &k tig, ti- 
vos * ** to pij ov Xiysrai nXsov*x&g, x«J /u^ts to xotoi 
ovv&$mvrj dtttigsotv iv$dxticMHtvBia&cn, fiqi$TO*eiTa 
dvvetfuv, to t<$ a7iAw? ovrt avTixeifisvov • to yao /u^ 
tauxov ^ ju^ aya&bv ofiwg ivSizsicti xiv&a&ai xata 
cvpPefaxeg. Mr} yap «V av&fwnog to pi Xfvxoy • 
to <5* uTrkatg {ir\ to&e t evdctpoog. Id&vvaiov yap to 
pr) ov mvela&*i • u Si tovto , xa* Tiyy yereatv xivrjatv 
thai, riymxai yap to /m^| of. 22* yao xa* ot* /uaAiara 
xara ovfifltprjTcog yiyvnai , alii Zfuog aXr\&ig sintl*, 
Sti vna$%u to /*i? ©V xara tqv ytyvojjUvov anlug. 
Ofioltog $& xal to itftpuv. Tavxa. t* 0^ ovpfia&u $vo- 
X*QV> *«* «* tm y tq HAyovpitvov iv Tctfrqi * to 5« /tcq oy,, 
ovx sotiy & tott^u Jg'q /ao ax 7tov, Ot/fl« ^ if qp#o- 
$a xivtjGtg. 'Evmnfav yog xwijau xhtyaig n %g^tim, 
q>&oq>ct de ysvian. *En*i &* actaa xivyetg fiSiafioXq 
tig, fitnctftaXal <5e Teas a* elpiyisvM, rovTttvb* txifikv 
xata ywtaiif xal q>$QQ(*v ov **yi$a€*s > avTa* d' <*a*ir 
a* xar ayr/qpaetr, aW/xq tfj» IS vrcax8*pey»v ei$ 
vnoxufi&Qv xfotiat* elytf * povqy. Ti §' VTroxc/^sro^ 
-^ ivavtlcf, q (Anvtv. Kcd n oxiq^oig xslo&v* hurt fast, 
xal dqXovjai Kmaqmm, qZ*v, to yvpxiv xal v&dbv* 
xal to fAtiL^K 

£< ovy a* xetTijyQQiQii fa$QipiJM ova/a, yrotoTi^T^ 

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METAPH. LIB. X. (XI.) CAP. 12. 237 
xoxca, noiflv , rj nuoxtiv, tw ngog ti 9 noaa , dvdyxrj 
tgtig tlvai xivrjatig, noiov, nooov, tonov • xax ovalatL 
d* ov , did xb fttjdsv tlvai ovoia 4vavxiov , ovds xev 
ngog rt. "Eoxi yag &axsgov firidkv ftsxa/SaXXovrog, 
aXrj&kVsa&ai &dxsgov (xqdev fitxafiaXXov. c flaxt xaxd 
ov/d(iffiT]x6g y xivyaig avxutv, Ovds noiovvxog xal 
ndoxovtog, $ xivovviog xal xtvovfiivov , on ovx taxi 
xivyoetug xlvyoig, ovds ysviotwg yivtoig, ovd' oXoagnt- 
iaj3oXi] (israSoXrjg. Jixw yug 4vdsxsxaixivt)Ot(og tlvai 
nlvqaiv % wgvnoxsifievov, olov o av&geonog xtvstxai, 
on 4x Xtvxov rig fiilav ptxafidXXtr <3ar« ovx(o xal rj 
nivrjotg, rj •d-tg^alvtxai t % ipvxtxai, r\ tonov aXXdxxti, 
% av£sxai. Tovto <5s advvatov, Ov yag twv vnoxu- 
fUviov x* ij fistafioX^. *H tw htgov xi vnoxslptvov 
ix fitxaftoXrig (tsxapdXXuv tig aXXo sldog * olov , av- 
S-gamov ix vooov tig vyitiav, *AX$ ovds tovxo dv- 
vatbv , nXr\v xaxd av^s^xog. Ildoa yag xivr\aig i\ 
ocXXov rig aXXo 4oxl fisiaftoXr), xal yivtoig xal y&oga 
GHsavxwg • nXtjv ai pbv 41 dvxixtifiivxav <x*dl rj wdl , ov 
xivrjOBig. "Apa qw ptxafiaXXti 4$ vyislag rig vooov , 
xal 4$ avxrjg xavxrjg trjg ptxafioXrig tig aXXr\v. JvXov 
d ' on, av voqticft], (itxafopXiixbig toxai rig onotavovv 
ivdix&xai yag ygifieiv * xal txi tig fiy tr\v tv- 
%ovoav atl * xdxtlvfj tx xivog rig ti aXXo total' (oad- 
f) dvxixHfiivfi taxai vylavoig, dXXd t$ ovfijit^fjxivai • 
olov 4$ dvapvqotiog rig Xr ( &rjv (itxafiaXXti , oti w 
<v7idgx*h 4xuvo pstupdXUi, oxi pivtig 4moxrifir)V t oxi 
di sig vylsiav. *Exi tig antigov paditltai, si taxi /xc- 
jafioXrig psxafioXri, xal ytviatcag yivtoig. *Avdyxr\ dy 
xal tr\v ngotegav, ri r\ votiga • olov, el v\ anX% yivs- 

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oig iyivtto nots , xal to yiyvopsvov anXwg iyhrto' 
mote ovnta r\v to ytyvofitvov anlwg, alia to yiyvope- 
vov u, tf ysvopevov rfir\. Et St) xal tovt iyiyvtto 
note, dtd %l ovx r\v Tito tote yiyvofievov ; *Enel 8e t&v 
Jtntigav ovx iotiung&tov, ovxeotaitopg&tov wot 
ovde to ixofitvov. Ovte ylyveo&ai ovv , ovte xivsi- 
o&ai 0I0V te, ovxt fietafiaXXeiv ovdiv, *Eti tov avtov 
xivrjoig f) ivavtla, xal t}gefi7joig xal yeveoig, xal op&o- 
(jcc. "Slate to yiyvo/ievov , otav ysvytai yiyvofievov, 
tot8 qp&tlgttai,' ovte ydg iv&vg yiyvopsvov , oV\P 
voitgov. eIvou ydg fat to qpd-eigofitvov. *JEt* dn 
vXr\v vntlvai tw yiyvo/it'vto , xal /xstapdXXovti* Tig 
ovv totai MGTTEQ to aXXouotov owpa, ij v/vxh ,' ovtw 
ti xal to ytyvofisvov, rj xivijoig, rj yeveoig; Kal en ti 
tig 6 xivtXtai; ACi ydg elvalti ti\vtovbe ix tovde tig 
todtxlvyaiv, fitj xivr\oiv. Ilag ovv; ov yag total jud&ij- 
oig tijgftad-rjoemg* mot ovds yeveoig yeveoewg. 'Eneld' 
ovt ovoiag, ovte tov ngog ti, ovte tov noitiv xal nd- 
ox*w,Xeinetai xata to notbv xal to itoobv,xal to nov,xi- 
vtjoiv elvai. Tovtmv yag kxdatta ivavtlwolg ioti, Aeyta 
be to noibv, ov to iv trj ova In xal tfj diacpoga noiov, 
aXXa to na&rjttxov, xa&o Xiyetai ndoxeiv, tJ ana&ig 
elvaf to de axtvrjtov, to, re oktog ddvvatov xivt]&rt- 
vai, xal to fioXig iv xgovw noXXco rj /Sgadecog o^ofic- 
vov, xal to ntcpvxbg fiev xivtio&ai , pti dvvdpsvov dt 
ote 7ti<pvxs, xal ov xal Sg * o xaXco ygepelv Twy a*t- 
vi]TM fiovov. 'Evavtlov ydg rjgtfiia xivrjoet* Sate 
otigriotg av tVy tov dtxtixov, "Afirt de xata tonov, 
ooa iv kvl tona ngwtw , xal x m Q*$ > ° a( * iv alXta. 
Antso&aide, wvtaaxgaapa. Meralvd', elg omopvx* 

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METAPH. LIB. X. (XL) CAP. 12. 239 

hgoTsgov d<pixvsio&ai to psxafldXXov, r) slg o soxa- 
tov (isTafidXXsi xocjot opvoiv to ovvex&g psTa/UdXXov. 
Evnvrlov xaTa Tonov, to x«t sv&slav dnsxov nXii- 
atop. c JE^r)g ds, ov ftsra Tr)v agxw ovTog &4osi , rj 
sl'dsi, rj aXXwg mag aqtoguj&svtog, fir\d-sv fistot£v ioti 
mv iv tw avTw yivsr xaloi<pB£r)gioTlv olov, YQUfx- 
ftalygafifirjg,r] fiovddsgfiovadog, r) oixiag olxla' aXXo d' 
ov&sv xatXvsi psTa$v slvai* to ydg s£r]g, Ttvbg iyeSrjg, 
xal vaTsgov ti, Ov yag to tv k£r]g t&v dvo, ovd* r) 
»ovfiT]vla rrig dsvTsgag. *Ex6fisvov ds, o idv l£r)g &v 
umrjtdt. "Ensl ds ndoa psraPoXf) iv totg dvuxsifii- 
votg • tavxa ds ivavrla xal avtlqpaoig, avtiqpdosotg ds 
ovdsv avd fisaov, dr)Xov &g iv Toig ivavtioig to fist a- 
&/• to ovv$x&g ds onsg ix&fisvov ti, r] dnTofisvov. 
Aiysrai ds ovvsxsg, otav tavtb yivrjtai xal tv, Tolxa- 
tioov nigag cilg ditTOvtai xal avvixovtai, "llots drj- 
Xov oti to ovvsxsg iv TovTOig IS <ov IV ti niqpvxs yivt- 
o&ou xaTa %r\v ovvaipiv, xal oti ngtoxov to itpslsyg drj- 
tav. To yag k£r)g ovx antsTai. Tovto ds i<fs^r]g xal 
d ovvsxsg Smtsrai. El d* anTSTai , ovnw ovvsxsg. 
'Evolg ds fir] iotiv d<pr) t ovx sgti ovfiqpvoig iv Tovtoig. Jy 
Star ovx sot* otiyfir) fiovddt tuvtov. Talg fisv 
vnugxsi to anTso&at 9 Talg d' ov • aXXa to iq?s£r)q • 
xal t&v fisra£v ti, tmv d* ov. % 



iltglds Tr)g ovolagf) ■dttagia* Ttovyag ovai&v ai dg- 
*ct* xal Ta aVuot ty\Tovvtai. Kal ydg ti wg oXov ti 

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to ndv, 7} ovola nqwtov (Uoog * xal si to kfx£rj$ t xal 
ay ovtco 7t^wtok ^ ovola. Eira to noiov tj nooov. 
"Apa d 3 ovtf' 6Vta, wc an^w? e^rety, tavta, dXXa 
noibtqtsg xal xtvijoeig, jj xal to ov Isvxbv , xa* to 
ovx «v#v. Aiyofisv ovv ilvat xal tavta, olov, eoti* 
ov Xsvxov, "Exi oifisv t&v dXXwv jfMai&Toy. Maqtv- 
govat, ds xal ol dqxciioi sgyy* 2% ydq ovelag #17- 
tovv dqxdg, xal otoixsta xal aVtia. Ol piv ovv vv¥ t 
td ttu&oXov ova lag pdXXov ti&saoi, Ta ydq yivi) 
xa&oXov, a cpaoiv dqxdg xal ovoiag tivai,pdXXov diu 
to Xoyixwg Ctjtsiv. OldendXai, ta tta& exaota* 
olov nvq, xal yrjv, aiU' ov to xotvbv o&fia. Ovolai 
ds tqsig • pla piv , alodrjiq • tjg ty psv aidtog, ij di 
y&aotri, i]v itdvtsg bpoXoyovoiv, olov td-a>vtd f xai 
ta Je5a • rj d* didwg, f t g dvdyxrj ta otoyua Xafist^, 
site sv, site noXXd. "aXXy) ds dxlvytog. Tavtyv a>aal 
tivsg slvai xwototrjv • ol ukv sig dvo diatqovvtsg , oi 
ds tig filav qpvoiv ti&ivtsg ta sidy xal td jua#iflu«Ti- 
xd • ol ds td (*a&f][iatixd povov tovtw. 'Exslvai 
psv di) qtvoixtjg' {jpstd xivfoewg ydq) aSty d' itiqag, 
si pt^dspla avtyg dqxv xowij. 

C H 6 7 alo&TjtT] ovola pstapXt^t^ El ds i\ psta- 
floXrj, ix j(ov avt ixsifiivtavt rj tmv /urra$v * dntxsipev&v 
ds firj ndvtmv (ov Xevxbv ydq r\ qxavi} ) aX£ in tov 
ivavtlov, dvdyxi\ slvai xal ti to psta/SdXXov sl'g trjv 
ivuvthooiv. Ov ydq td ivavtla pstaftaXXsi. *Eti to 
(iev vnopsysi, to 5' ivavtlov ovx vnofiivei. *Eotu9 
aqa to t» tqitov naqd td ivavtla, f) vXt). El $t) ml 
usjupoXal tettaqeg, j} ttatd to t/, ^ xatd to noibv 5 

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METAPH. LIB. XI. (XII.; CAP. 3. 241 

nooov, jj nov • xal yiveotg piv ij anXij xal tp&oga \ rj 
xata todf avtyaig di (p&loig, »j xata to nooov dX- 
Xolwoig 5e, 7} xata to net frog • q>ogd dt t i}xatdt6nov t 
tig ivavtioioug av thv rag xa& txaatov al /*CTa/?o- 
M. 'Avdyxy drj pttafldXXtiv lyv vXijv dvvafiivrjt 
apfw. y Jjnel di dittbv to ov, pttapaXXuv nav 4x 
tov dvvduti ovtog, tig to tvegytla ov olov, ix Xevxov 
dvvdpu, tig to ivtgytla Xtvxov. 'Opohog Ss xal in 
uv&jottog xal (f&laewg. c Jlott ov povov xata ovp- 
ptfirjxog ivdixttai yivto&ai ix pt\ ovtog, aXXa xal it 
ovtog yiyvttai ndvta • bvvaptb pivtoh ovtog , ix pq 
ovtog di ivegytia* xal tovto ioti to 3 Ava£ayogov *v 
(fiiXtiov yag t]v opov ndvta ) xal 'EpntdoxXiovg to 
piypa xal*Ava$ipdvdgov • xal wg Jrjpoxgitog (pr)oiv, 
ty opov ndvta bvvdpth, ivtgytla d* ov. Slots tfjg 
vXi\q aviltv i)ppivoi, ndvta 6*' vXqvexuooa pna- 
QaXXti' uX)l itigav xal tojv d'ldlwv, oaa pr\ ytvvr\td, 
xwi\ta ds <poga' aXX oi ytmv\tr\v , aXXa no&tv not. 
Anog^atit fl* av tig, ix nolov pr\ ovtog ?/ yivtoig. 
Tgyug yag to prj ov. El dij ti iativ dvvapti , aXX 
oftmg ov tovtvxovtog* dX£ etegov it ktigov, Ovd' 
utavbv, ott, opov ndvta xgi)pata. Jiaq>igti ydg tp 
vXy • £ntl did ti antiga iyivtto , aX£ ovx tv; o yag 
v ovg, tig. "JIotc tl vXrj pia, ixiivo iyivtto xal ivtg- 
y**a, ov xal fj vXr\ r\v dvvdpti. Tgla dy ta aVtta, 
*«« tgiig al agxai* dvo ptv fj ivavtitaoig , r\g to 
ptvXoyog xal udog, to dt otigrjotg • to dt tgltov, rj vXy. 
Mtta tctvta ot* ov ylvttai, ovtt r) vXrj , ovtt to 
doog. Aiym di ti tax at a. Jldv yag pttafldXXti ti, 


Digitized by GOOgle 


*«* inb tivog, xal si'g ti. *T<p' ov ptv , xov ngmov 
xivovvtog * ov ds, r\ vXm • slg o di, to sldog. Elg anst- 
gov ovv slaiv, si i*r\ (xovov o xaXxbg yivstai otgoyyv- 
log, aXXd xal to otgoyyvXov, r\ b x^^og. 'jyayxri 
9rj arrival Msxd xavxa, oil sxdoxri ix ovvwvpov yl- 
vsxat, ovoia. Ta yag q>vou ovoiou, xal ra cdXct. 
*H yag tixvy, V (pvosi ylyvstai, *? rvxy> n t£ avTo- 
(kxt(o,*H fih ovv tixvrjdgxt] & <*XXw'r\ ds q>voig ,aq- 
Xn & avxw, "Av&gamog yag av&gomov ysw$. Av 
de Xoinal alxlai axtgriasig xovxiav. Ovaiai 8e tgslg • 
V pev vXt} , rods xi ovoa xm cpaiveo&ai. Ooa yag 
ioxiv acpjj xal pi] ovpupvosi, vXt} xal vnoxsifisvov. H 
. ; h tis yvaig, xal rods ti, tig rjv xal t£ig tig* Exi tgixx\ 
' r\ ixToviavr) xa& txaaxa* oiov 2<axgdxrjg rj KaX- 

Xiag. 3 Enl /xsv ovv tivtov, tods ti ovx tan naga t^v 
ovv&stov ovolav • olov, olxiag to sldog, si fiij % tixvij. 
Ovd* taxi yivsoig xal q>&ogd xovxwv • aXX aXXov 
tgonov slol xal ovx siolv, olxia ts i\ avsv vXrjg , xa* 
vyisia, xal nav to xaxa tixvyv &X£ si'nsg, inl nav 
(pvasi. Atb drj ov xaxwg 6 IlXdxutv scpij, ott si'dy 
ioxfo onooa <pvou, sXnsg iotlv ti'drj aXXa tovttov, 
olov nvg, oag§, xsyaXq. "Anavta yag vXji saxl, xal 
xyg fiaXiot ovaiag % tsXsvtala. Ta fiivovv xivovvta 
^ cutmx , wg ngoysywripsva ovxa • Ta d* ag b Xoyog, afia. 
"Oxs yag vyiaivsioav&ganog, tots xalvyisid iaxr xal 
tboxviM* trjgxotXxrig oyaigag afxajXalrix^^h oyalga. 
Eld&xalvotegov ti vnofiivthoxsnteov. 'En «Vtwv yag 
ovdsv xwXvsi ' olov, sirjipvxri toiovtov, /uij naaa, aXX o 
vovg. IJaoav yag advvatov loiog. ®avsgbv dr\ t oT * 
ovdsv dtt did ys tavt slvai tag idiag, "Av&gtonot 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XI. (XII.) CAP. 5. 243 

yaq Sv&Qcmop ymtiff o xa& htaatop top w«. 'Opoi- 
ttg 5i xal inl t&p TBXP&v. € H yao iatoixri i*z vr \> o 
Xoyog tr\g iyulag iarL 

Tor ds aftia xal al dyx*** aXXa aXXw toxip m, 
tat i d* wg ov, av xa&oXpv Xiyji ug t , xal uat avalo- 
ylav ta avta navrtov. 3 AnooviOM yaq &p tig, nott- 
gov htqai, % al avtal aqxal, * a * otoiz&a *&* ov- 
oiup, xal tmv nqog ti • nal xa& kndatrjv dq t&v xa- 
tt^yoqmp b potto q. 'aX£ Stonop, ti to avta ndvtwy* 
hi tap avttap yig satat ta nqog ti, xal f) ovaia. Ti 
ovp tovt total ; Ilaqa yaq ttfp ovaiap, xal ta aXXa 
ta xatijyoQovittva, ovdevtoxai xowiv nqottqop di 
to atoix&op , tj &p oxoix&ov. *AXXa prp ovds y 
ovaia otoix&ov xwy nqog ti, ovds tovttup ovdip ttjg 
ovjiag. "Eti nwg ipdixtxon navttov thai ta oToigf ta 
tavta; ovdsv yaq olop t that t&v ato^xtiav , tw ix 
rutv oTotxslwv ovyxnpivqi to avto' olov Ty B A , to 
B r\ A. Ovdi dr} t&v poyiwv atoixuov iatip • clap 
to $p, rj to ov. 'Tndqxti yao xavxa kxdaty xwp ovp- 
•d-itmp. Ovdevqiga taxat avxwp , oivi ovaia, ovtt 
nqog tr aXfi apayxaiop. Ovx tauv aqa n art wy tav- 
ta otoix*ia. "Hwotisq X&yoptv, coti pip wg, tati d* 
£g ov* olop Vang tmp aio&rp&p atupdtutp, wg pip el- 
dog to &BQ(i6p, xal aXXo* tqbnop to yvxQOP , r\ oxi- 
qrjoig. 'HvXrj di to dvpdpu xavxa nqaxop xatf av- 
xoy. Ovoiat, oV tavta -t8 xal tit ix xovrwv, o)v aluo- 
Xal tavta.' *H «l' ti ix -^egfiov xal ipvxqov yiptxai tv 
olop, oao% t i] oatovp * fosoov avayxt) ixtipnp slpai to 
yepoptpop. Tovtoup fih ohp tavta ato^lo xal aox<*\ 

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Digitized by GOOgle 


«kkvj> d' ZXka. Emtio* ft outmg pi* *in$fr , ovx 
fori ' to ovakoyov &• Santo *? *t£ klnm , ou iqx a j 
slot tqug, to eldog, xctl % ots'p^w* xal n Sly. *Alka 
tovtoay txotojov, htoov neql htamov yivog iatip • otov 
& XQ*>part Aevxoy , pilot*, inwpivua* <p&g t oxotog, 
iift • fc U tovtwv, fipiQct xal yv$. 3 £ml && ov po- 
yoy ti iwmxQxevTU ai'tux, allot teal twv ixtog, olov 
to kikovv, dql+v ou eisoov Aozn *** atoty&ov. At- 
T«r 6" «V^ W * ***» •& Tixvfrt d*cuf«**a* ^ ag* 1 ?* To ^ 
«5$ xtyoi/y ij Soiwy, ao*? «*$ xa* ovalou JZare oroi- 
X&a per xatit etrctloyiav, iqlat • aa/ai ft x«* «(#<**, 
teaoaoff aUo fl* & SjU<»- xrowtoy aftio*, 
•* xiyoi/y, tfUooiiw. c iy/w«, y<iaos, oupa* to 
Ktyovy> fatftxf • elft>$> ataxia toictdi 9 nlMoi' to 
xivovr, otxofoptxif. Kal dy ug tstvta duuQUtu y 
&QXV' ^»J W to xiyovy , & ji«f tois (pvoixoig «y- 
&omnog, i» & rot? ino iiavoiag to ddog^ % to &ay- 
tiov, iginov twit' tfim atttm av sly , w3* ft ww«f«. 
'Tytla fio n»g q Sue? txij • urn ohuag &dog , ^ o*xo- 
d*ft**1 • xal ay#0«»fa$ aytfowwoy ysyy^ '&«* ***« 
Tttvva, »*$ to nqviov Tiavtaw mvovv navta, 


, 'End d * fori fa fi& ^oioxa, tit ^ oi jraotcrca, 
ovo/w &&y* • icaft fta «qvto jr«yr»y «ii'f«* tavwi, 
pt* Twy ©vo*«5y &w, •dxfov* t« 5tc!^ij k«J a* witf- 
o»tfft *'««*«« ttbrrwt tavt » ^^ ^[^ lea ^ tf ^ a » ^ 
yoi/(?, xtti o^s^ , xw» tfttjtttt^ ^ti ^* SMoy ffowoy 
tea (XyaXoyoy o^tti ui avnti* olov iviqynu nttl ^i* 
votftig - dkka nub *air« fAJto t« aiUtuc , xal &U«^« 

Digitized by GoOgle 

MET A PH. LIB. XI. (XII.) CAP. 5. 245 

'Ev ipUig piv yao xi avro, oti kih ivtoytia forty, 
ot« di dvrdfiH • otoy , * otvoe, 1} aao£ , ^ ay#o#)«Of . 
Jlinxu & xa} jewTa *t$ xa UQtyiipa afrta. *Evtf- 
yda uip yao to tldog, iitp r t xo jpaoioroy , xa* xo £ 
uaqtoh • ors'oifoi? ^t, oloy oWro$ i? uiupou * dvpapi* 
di jj vli). Tovxo yao iaxi xo dpvdptvoy yiypta&ai 
maym. "AXXwg Si bsgytla ual dvpauu Huupigu, mp 
pr) iaup rj'avrr} vXrj out ova eon to aiwi tldog, al£ 
txsgop • aonso dr&otonov afxtop xa xs ototxua , nvq 
ual y*u «•£ vlq ' *«* to toWildo?, xouw ti aXXo tS«, 
otoy o na%r\q • xa* *aoa Tavwt o jjfiio? , xa* o Ao£o€ 
xi/xAof , owf • vXij ovia, ovt eldog, ovxt ouoyoig, o$n 
ipondig, alka uivovvxa. "jgrt Si oqSip 8u, on xa 
per xct&oXov forty tinny , xa Si* ov. JIovwp Sfi 
nq*tai UQxaiy to btsoyUa ttq&xop, xo tlSu, ual alio 
to o Svwapu, 'Euupa uiv ovv xiua&oXov ovu tart*. 
*Aox*) yd(>xoua& 9 fxaoroy tf»y ua& %uaaxop?Ap&Q&*og 
uipyaqav&gomov xa&oXQv,dXX' ovMioxir ovd£t f dXXa 
JlyXevg 3 AxdXd<a$' oov Si, b nax^q'ual xoSlxoBtovSl 
xov B A. u OXi»g Si xo B, xov mnXwg B A* "Enuta 
d'dtj xa wr ovamv « £Ua 6* aXXmp ai'ua ual atot- 
jffloe, alamo iXix&H* tmuifip xavxja yipu, XQmui%wt> 
ifKKpwv , ovowvy nocoxtjxog, uXy? x$ avdXoyop, 
ual t*5v fo ta> avTw 6*#«* |ifoa» ovic *tfi«i, «2A a ou ij 
tW xa^ 1 IfMxoToy aiio, ^ « a«J v'Xij icat to &dog t ual 
xo xivyoav, [xal xo tl$og] ual t) ipij * x$ ua&oXov $i 
Xoym xa avri. To biXflxiiv, xfotg&fX** *<** orot- 
X&a x&p oiviwv, ual no'g xt, ual nouav , noxtoop al 
aixal, % frioa* , dyXop oxt, noXXax&g Tf Uyopipwp 
forty ixdozov, diaiQt&tvtov di ov xavxa, dXX* rtaoa" 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nXr^p idt xcu natxmv &Si ds Tavra* i>t(p apaXoyor, 
oily vXti, iidogyOTEQiioig , to xipovp. Kal adl va 
ttov ovouovalzux, wg atua ndvrwv, ot* avaiquxai 
avaigovnevM. "ift* to nqSttov, ivtflsxeiy. 'lldlde 
hsqa nqma oaa za ivavtia, a pyxs ug yivi\ Xiysrcu, 
pyxs TtoXXaxug Xiyexai. Kal It* a* vXai. Tivtg 
pip ovv ao^oti t&v ala&fjTWP t xa* noaah , xalnag al 
avjctl, uul nmg frtgou, slqrjjai. 

•j}& 'En$l $' ig<r«v roug ovaiat, dvo (Up al yvoixal, 
fiia deij axipr\xog, mql xawtt^g Itxxiop , ot* ipuyxti 
tlpcu atdiov xwa ovoictv, axiptjxop. Jjlt*yaQOV<jitu 
ng&toiix&p opxatP'xal$i7taaai<p&aqxal,napxa <p&aqx<)t. 
9 AXi advpaxop xipijoipri yevio&at yxp&aqijpar atlyotg 
%p* oi(U xqopop * ov yig oiopxs to ixqoxsqop xa* 
.voxtoop ehai fit) opxog xQOPOV,Kal i\ xipyoig aga ov- 
tw ovpBxrig, wojisq xa* 6 tfooVbff. *H yao to avxo, 
% xipyoerig n na&og. Kiptioig d* ovx lor* ovxexve, 
aXX* i} x«t« tojiqv • xal xavx^g r\ xvxXta. ^ UXXa pqy 
.«M<fti xw\xc*op % novrpixop , (ir\ ipcoyovp de tl, ovx 
*ft* xiptjaig* 'Epdixtxai yag to dvvufiw sxop pq 
iptgyslv. Ovdev aga oysXog, ovdi up oioiag noir^ 
owfisv aidi&vg, uaneg oi'xi tidy, el prj tig flwa- 
(i&Tt friaiqi Agxv ptxa/SaXXup. Ov xoIpvp ovd* av- 
t»; ixotPfi , ovd' SXXri ovaia nagi xa sUy. El yig 
py iveqyr)QU, ovxsotm xlprtoig. "fiw ovd si ipcg- 
yqon, »/ d ' ovaia ctvifjg dvpafiig. Ovyitqearcti xlrtjoig 
ct'i'diog * Mixtion yaq to dvpapsi oPj fit} upui* du 
Sqa tlncu UQXW toistvzrjv, yg y ovaia biqyua* £t* 
loirw javtag dsi oveiag elvai avsv vXtjg. A'idiovg 

Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XI. (XII.) CAP. 6. 247 

yaq Sti, ti'ntg ye xal aXXo xi aidiov. *Ev$qysict aqa. 
Kaixoi dnoqlu • doxsi ydq xb fib ivtqyovv nav Sv- 
vao&cu* xo ds dvvotfisvov, ov navivsqytiv • (noxengo- 
xtqov tlvcu xrjy Svpafitv. \4XXa (Afjv u xovxo, ovdb 
total x<av ovxwv. 'Evdixsrai ydq dvvaa&ai fib thai, 
fiynw 5' slvai. Kaitoi tl, tog Xiyovoiv oi &toXoyoi, 
ol ix vvxxog ytwfavxtg , 7} ag oi qtvoixot , ijv bfiov 
ndvxa ^iJ/uaTa,[<jpa(7i,]To aixb advvaxov. IJwgydq 
xtyti-d-tjotxat, u (jtTj&iv eaxai ivtqytla aXxiov ; Oi ydq 
ij ysvXr) niveau ayxrj kavxqv , uXXa xsxxovixij* ovSs 
xi iniftyvia, oidi % yij, aXXd xd aniqfiaxa,xal r\ yo- 
vi). Aib svioi noiovaiv atl iviqyuav, olov Azvxin- 
nog xal IlXdxow. *Ael ydq slvai opaai xbrjaiv • dXXa 
dia xi, xal xiva, oi Xiyovaiv ' oidi adl, oidi xijy am- 
ar * oidb ydq wg txvx* xiyuo&ai , aXXa del xi a«i 
inaqxeiv, won eg vvv (pvosi fib &dl, /J/a di, ij vno 
vov, ij aXXov wdi. Eha ndia nqtuxrj, Jiaq>iq$i ydq 
ifiiixuvov ooov. IdXXa fiijv oidi nXdxwvi yt olov ti 
Xeyuv,i]> oUxai aqxyv elvcu bioxsxb aixb kavxb xivovp. 
"Tox&qov ydq xalSfta xco ovqavw ♦/ ipv^V, &g q>i\at+ 
To fib dy dvvafiiv otta&ai ivsqytiag nqoxtqov *lvai, 
taxi fib £g xaXae, taxi 8* Sg ov. Ei'qrjxai di nwg. 
°Oxi 8' iviqysia nqoxsqov, ftaqxvqti'Avalayoqag (a 
ydq voyg, iviqyua ) xal 'EfinedoxXrjg xyv qiiXlav xal 
xo viixog • xal ol ail Xiyovxtg xivr\oiv tivai , Santq 
uievximtog. c, Sloxs ovx v\v anuqov xqovov x<*<>9 V 
vv£, iXXit xa aixd asl, t] ntqiodw, ij aXXoag , tfnsq 
nqoxsqov biqyua dvvafitcog. El de xo aixb dtlns- 
gieda), di% xi atl fibuv woavxag ivBqyovv. El 5i 
uiXXti yitiaig xal (p&oqd that, aXXo dti toqyovr 

d by Google 


that asl , aXXtog xal aXXtag, ^Apayxt) iga &81 pip 
xa& aixo ivsgytiv, idl ds xax alio. *Htoi aga xa& 
ftsgov, 1j xaxa xb ngtaxov, Idrayxri dtj xaxa tovto. 
JlaXtv yag sxslro aixip xs al'nov xdxdvto. Ovxovp 
(tiXxiop to tiqmtov. Kal yag aXxtop v\v ixupo xov 
asl taaoLVtuq' xov d' aXXtog , sxsgop • xov d* asl «A- 
Xmg, apyoa dqlovoTi. Ovxovv ovxtag xal txovow at 
xirt}osig. Ti ovv aXXag del Syrup igxdg; 
*Entl 6* ovxwg x ivdsxsxai ,(xal si pi\ ovxwg, ix 
vvxxbg tarai, xal bpov nivttov, xal ix pi) ovxos^Xv- 
on av xavxa • xai[siJsoxi, xi asl xivovpspop xipt)ot* 
anavoxov • avxr) d % r\ xvxXy • xal tovto ov Xoy(a uo- 
vor, aXX' sgyco drjXoy ibaxs ai'diog av tfrj o ng&xog 
ovgavog. "Eoxi xolwv xl, xal o xivsl. 'jinsl di *b x*- 
povpsvovxal xipovv t pioov[xolwv]ioxlxi,o ov xivoips- 
vov xtvii, a'tdiop, xal ovoia xal ipsgysia ovoa. Kirti 
ds tods' xb bgsxxbvxal to voyxbp xipsi ov xivovpspop. 
Tovx&v Hk xa ngmra xa avxd, *EJU&vpt)xby psp yag 
xb yaipoptvop xaXop * $ovXi)tbv dk ng&xov , xb op 
xaXov. 9 Ogeyops&a ds bxt doxei* paXXop rj doxti, 
dwxi bgeyops&a* agxi) Y^g V vbr)oi$. Novg di vnb 
xov poqxov xtvsTxat, Not)xbv ds r\ kxsga ovoxoixia 
xa& 9 avx^p* xal xavxt\g f) ovola ngmt), xal xavxr\g 
t) anX&g, xal xax ivigyuav. Eoxi ds xb sp , xal xb 
anXovp, ov xb aixo. To pep yag tp, psxgop or)p*i- 
vsi* xb di anXovp, n&g e*x ov «vto. jiXXa pi)p xal xb 
xaXop, xal xb dt aixo algexbp, 4p xjj aixj/j ovoxoixitf 
xal toxip agioxop asl, tj apaXoyop , xb ng&xop. *Oxi 
d * loxi xb ov tptxa sp xotg axip^xoig, y diaigtotg dij- 

d by Google 

MBTAPH. LIB. XL (XII.; CAP. 7. 249 

lot, "Ear* yao tivt to ov htxcty wt to piv ioti, to d ' 
ovx fori. Ktvtl di ig iQvguvow xipov /is* op 6$, i al- 
lot stive*. El uh ovp T* xtystTo*, Mixutti xal al- 
lt&g $x Blp ' "Slot it *J (jDo^ci kowti;, xal ivioytia fatiy 
tj xwsitai, xavxr\v di ipdixnai allng fyuv , xal xata 
xonov, xal ti firj xar ovoiotv. 'Ensl d* iati t* **- 
povv, avxb axivfjjov ov, ivBoytia op, tovto ovx ipdi- 
X*rat alius txuv ovdauiag. <Poqol fag y norny %w 
urtaflol&v tavtijg di y r, xvxlto. Tavtyr di tovto 
xtvti. *E$ avayxrjg aga iotfr ov xal ij avdyxij, xa • 
Xmg • xal ovicag agxtj. To yag arayxalov, Toaavia- 
Z&S' to pi» (H(*> on na^a tr\v ogpijp' to <5e> ov ovx 
&v*v to mv to di, u4) ipdtxouspop Sling, al£ inlws. 
*JEx toiavtyg aga OQXVS fjgtfitai o ovgapog xal%<pv- 
oig. diay<oyr\ di ionp, oXa te fj aglatfj, pixqovxgo* 
vov fjfdlv. Ovta yag atl ixiipo tetiv. 'Hfup fih yag 
idvpatov inel xal rjdoyr) r\ ivigyua tovtov xal dta 
tovto iyoyyooatg, ato&ijotg, poyaig, ijdunop. 'Elnldeg 
dixalftvUuai dia tavta. *Hdi voqeig t) xa&* avitjv, tov 
*{*&' avto agiotov xal r\ ualurta, tov uahota. Avjop 
Si yotd o povg xata unalim>w tov poytov. Not]xbg yao 
yipetai &iyyav(op xal vowr. "Slate taitop vavg xal 
voi}TOv. To yao dtxttxb* tov rorjtov xal tqg ov* 
aiag, wovg. *Evtgyti di yfwy. "Slots ixiivo uallop 
tovtov, o doxtl o povg &nop $x tlv ' * a * V ^jy^/a to__ 
ydunop xal Sgurcov. El ovp ovtug ev %x**> «5f tyttfc no- 
rt t 6 &(6g atl &av[ictot6v. El di uallov, su d-avftaoua- 
ttgop. *Ex*i 8* ids* xal &gj di ysinagxH. € Hyag vov 
irigytia, jwrj* ixilvogdi r\ bigytia. *Evioyua di n xa&' 
avtrp, ix*e!pov Jai^ aglair\ xal aidiog. <Pafib> di 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tov &tov thai f«3of a'&tov, agiatov. "fLott £ar\ xal 

aitov ovvtxW *°* <*i>'diog vnagxti T( ? &8$. Tovio yag 

6 &Bog. "Oooi, dk vnoXappavovoiv, wan eg ol IIv$u- 

yogaioi xal Snsvoinnog , to agtotov xal xaXXiotov 

pri iv agxjl foal, diet to xal tcw (pvxwv xal tiv Jww 

tag agxag altia ph> tlvai, to dk xaXov xal to tiXew 

iv totg ix tovtoav, oix og&mg oiovtai. To yag omgr 

uct, i$ ktigwv iotl ngotigtov tbXsiwv * xal to ngwto p 

ov onigpa icftlv, ilia t o tiXuov ' oiov ngottgov «V- 

&qw7tov av <pctii} Jig elvai tov onigfiatog , ov toy ix 

tovtov yswdfisvov, ctXX' htgov i$ ov to onigpa. "Ou 

fjih ovv iotlv ovala tig a'L'diog , xal axivrjtog, xal xe- 

XOOQLOfjiivr} t&v aio&ijtwv, qtavegbv ix twv ugripivGiv. 

Aiduxtai dt, xal oti fiiys&og ovdh ivdixttcu t^wr 

tavttjv trjv ovolaVy aXXa afitgijg xal adiaigetog iaze 

xivii yixg tov anugov XQovov. Ovdh d* l/st dvva^uw 

anugov nentgaopivov. *Enel ds nav fityefrog q 

anugov rj nsntgaaphov , nmsgaouhov (ikv dia 

tovto oix av txoi piys&og • anugov d* , oti oXwq qv% 

sotiv ovdh anugov piyt&og. 'AXXa priv xal oti, ana' 

&eg xal avaXXoitotov. Haaai yag ul aXXai xivqaeis 

vottgai tijg xccta tonov. Tavta fih ovv dqXa, dion 

tovtov l/fi tov tgonov. 

Iloiegov ds ftiav -d-etiov trjv toiavtrjv ovaiav ,. { 
nXtiovg, xal nooag, dupij Xav&avuv, aXXa fispvijo&w 
xal tag twj» aXXwv anoq?doug , oti nsgl nXy&ovg ov- 
dh bigtixaoiv, o, ti xal oaq>ig flnuv. C H ph yag tw- 
gl tag ideag vnoXrfl/ig , ovdsplav %x u oxitpiv Idiav. 
Agi&fiovg yagXeyovai tagldiag, ol Xiyovug tag iddag. 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XI. (XII.) CAP. 8. 251 

Utgl tiix&y agi&pwv, oxi fiiy wg ntgl antiguy it- 
yovaiy , oxe di ig f&o* tf ^ dtxadog togujpkvtov. Al 
ip d a alxiay tooovxov xb niv^og tcw agi&fiuy, ov~ 
div Xdytxai utxa onovdyg ajtodtixjixfis- c H(uv 5* in 
x&y inoxtifiivtoy xal duogiofiiywy Xexxiov, € H uiv yag 
OQXV *«* to ngmoy tg>* oyxatv , axivuxov xul xa&* 
avtb, xal xaxi ovpfieprixog • xivovv ds iijy ngtoxrpxal 
atdioy, xal piav xbqoi*. 'Ensl ds %b xwov/ityoy avay- 
x% .inb xivoq xivuadcu, xal to ng&xov xiyovv axivrjxoy 
tlvaixa& avto, xalxrp a'ldioy xivr\Qiy inb aidiov xi- 
vtio&cu, xal xyy piavvo) kvog* pg&tuy ds nagct xrp xov 
navxbg rijy anXr^v (pogav, i/y xwsly cpaph xqy ngtax^v 
ovoiay , xal axivr\xoy , alias yogas ova as xag xm 
nXay^xary aidiovg • (aidiov yag xal aoxaxov xb xvxXw ' 
oiua* didsixxai ds iv xoig <pvoixdig nsgl xovxtov •) 
ayayxrj xal xovxtov Ixuoiyy xiav yogvv in axwi\xov 
Te xiviiodm xa& aixb, xal aidiov ova las* "H t* yag 
Twy aaxgtay yvaig , a'idiog ovaia xig ovaa • xal xb xt- 
VQvv , aidiov , xal ngoxsgov tov xivovuivov • xal xb 
ngoxsgov ovaiag , ovoiav avayxaiov slvai. 0avsgbv 
xoivvv , on xoaavxag ovaiag avayxaiov slvai , xrp x*^ 
tyvoiy aidiovg xal a*ivr\xovg xa& alias, xalavsvfis- 
y*&ovg, diet xijv sigrifUyriv alxiav ngoxeoov, "Oxi fi&v 
ovy sloiv ovoiai, xal xqvtw xlg ixgwxq xal dsvxsga, 
xaxa xyy avxyv xa£iv xoig (pagalg *(ov aaxgmv, q>avs<* 
gov. To ds nXrftog ydy x&y <pogwy ix xqg oixnoxa- 
*VS (fdoooyiag xwy fia&iifiaxixfiy imax^uiay del oxo- 
ntiv, ix xyg aaxgoXoyiag. Avxr\ yag ntgl ovaiag ai- 
o&rix rig uiv, aidiov ds , noiiixai xrjv &t(ogiav • al d* 
ttUo* nigl ovdefjuag ovaiag, o\ov, fj tt mgl xoig igi- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


$povg xal xqv yetopstglav. ^Ot* fiiv ovv nXetovg tw* 
(ptgopivwp al yogal, yavtgbv xotg xal psxglwg i?j*f*«- 
votg. JlXsiovg yag txavxov qpeorrcw fii&g xwv rcAa- 
vnpivuv &oxgw. Ilooat, d' avxai xvyx*vovw* ov- 
oai, vvv piv xal r)(iug> a li/ovoi x&v pa&fipaxixmv 
xivtg, iwotag x«gtv Xiywpev, Snug ij xi tiJ duxvol* 
nXrj&og wgiopivov vnoXa(lt!iv. 715 di Xoinbv, xi ui* 
Zyxovvxag avxovg del, xi di nw&avoptoovg nagi t«* 
Srjxovvxmv, av xi qpaivtjxai nagi xi vvvdgrjpiva foft 
xavxangaypaxtvopivoig, yiXfiv piv apyotigovg, nd+ 
•frso&cu di xdtg uxgiptorigoig. EtdoSogp&v ovv ffliov 
xal osXrjvySi ixaxigov x\\v tpogav iv xgialv M&ttO 
vtvai oyadgaig* iv xi\v piv ngwxtjv, xtjv xwv anXavuv 
aaxgtav thai • xrjv di dtvxigav, xaxi xb dii piamv tw 
Zmtow xrjv di xgixrjv , xaxi xb XtXotupbov iv xi 
nXdxu x&v Jw&W. *Ev pd£ov% di nXdxu XeXot&d&ai, 
xa& (iv tj oiXy\vr\ (pignut, JJ xa& oV o rjXiog. T&v bH 
nXavtofUvtov aaxgwv iv xixagaiv ixdoxov oyaigaig' 
xal xovxmv di xtfv piv ngdxtiv xal dtvxigav xrjv avxqv 
itvai ixtlvaig. Tti\v xt yig t&v anXav&v x^v andvag 
tpigovoav that • xai xyv ino xavx^v xtxaypivyv , xa\ 
xaxi xb dii piotav x&v fwoViiw xr\v <pogitv exovaav, 
xoivrjv anao&v slvai. T%g di xglxijg inavxmv xovg 
noXovg iv x$ diet piouv x&v fwfliW thai. Ttfg di 
xnagxyg xyv <pogiv , xal xi x&v XtXoS&pivw ngbg 
to pioov Tovxtjg. iftvat di xyg xglxyg oqpalgag xovg 
noXovg, xwv piv aXXtov tdlovg* xovg dixtjg'Aqpgodlxtie 
xal xov c Egfiov, xovg avtovg. KaXXtnnog di tijv fib 
&eatv x&v otpaig&v, xyv avtT\v hl&exo Eudo^to, tov- 
t«ot* xwv dnoaxtjfidttov xip xativ • to di nXq&og, xip 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPU. LIB. XI. (XII.) CAP. 8. 253 

psv tov Jiog xal to tov Kgovov, 10 axnb ixiivy «*•- 
dldov t$ ds qXiov xal t$} otXqvrig dvo yttostingoa- 
& rti ag tlvak oyaigag, tit (patvoptva u fUXXu tig 
anolkiotiv • tolg ds Xomolg twv nlarqt&v, ixaoty 
pla*. *Avayxalov ds, si piXXovoi avnt&tioui naoat, 
tit (pouvopevct anoddotw , xa& txaotov xwv nXctyoa- 
fiivcoy , hsgag oqpaigag pup iXattovag thai tag <m- 
littovaag , xal tig to avib anoxa&ujtdaag vn &ios& 
tip nowtr^y ocpouQay, atl tov vnoxatw tttayfisvov 
avtgov. Oviw ydg povag Mixtion tijv t&v irXavtjiwv 
(fOQmv anavta nomo&ai. 3 £ntl ovp h> atg pb avtit 
<pigtta$ ocpaigcug, at pb oxtd, al ds nivts ual sXxoohf 
tioiv * tovtotv ds jiovag ov dii avtXix&rivat * tv uU 
to xctTOiToeTO) tstaypsvor q>sgttai, al fiiv tag t&v dvo 
ngtotav dvsXlttovaai, 5 toovtai ' al ds tdgtavvott- 
gov ttttdgoiv, kxxaidsxa • 6 ds ctnaotov agi&fibg, tmv 
is (ptgovowv xaltuv avsXittovoUvtavtag, ntytrjxov~ 
tit ts xal mvxs. 25* ds tr^g otXrprig xal tg> yXly pri 
itQOo&siri ug ag si'nopsp xiy^otig , al naaai oipaigm 
soovtai inta tt xal tsooagaxoyta. To (ih ovv TrAJjj- 
•3-og twv oqiatgiv lav*) tooovtov * wars xal tag ovolag 
xal tag agxdg tag dxiyrpovg xal tag alod"ntag, to- 
oavtag tvXoyov vnoXaftsiv* To ydg dvayxalov, ayti- 
od-at totg iaxvgotigoig Uyttv. El ds prjdsfjiiav oloy w 
thai <pogdv ovvttivovoav ngog Sotgov yogav * sti ds 
ndoav qtvoiv xal ndoav ovoiav ana&fj, xal xa& av- 
tqv , tov aglotov ttivxyxvlav tiXovg thai dii vopi- 
itiv , oidtfila av tl'ri nagd tavtag ktiga yvoig , aXXa 
tovtov avayxrj tov agi&pbv tivai twv ovoiStv. JGt'is 
ydg tlaiv hegai, xtvoltv iv wg tiXog ovoai q>ogug. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


*AX£ thai yz aXXag <pogag advpaxop naga xag tlgy- 

uivag. Tovxo di tvXoyop ix x&p ytgopipwp V7roAa- 

(ttiv. JEi yag nap xb qpigov xov yegopevov x<*Q lv ni- 

q>vxs t xal q>oga naoa cptgopipov xtpog ioxip, ovdepla 

<poga avxrjg av tXri 2v$xa , ovd' &XXr\g yogag , aXXa 

xup aaxgoap eptxa. Ei yag tipaitoxat, yoga (pogotg spsxa, 

xal ixslpijp kxigiop derjoei x* oiv ^vai. "flox* inu8i\ 

ovx olop xb Uvaielg aneigov, xiXog eoxamaorjg q>ogag 

xwp qttgopipap t* fft/cay ofopaxap xaxa xop ovgavov. 

"On di sig oigavbg t (pavtgov. El yag nXsiovg oi oi>~ 

gavol (txjntg oi av&gunoh totai sfdn pla tj nsgl fxa- 

atov agx*l > agi&pw 84 yt noXXal. AXX ooa agi&py 

noXXa, vXrjv fyst* Elgyctg Xoyog xal o avxbg noXX&v, 

olov av&gtmov. 2&xgaxr)g di elg. To b*& xl yv slvai, 

ovx c^«£ vXrjv xo ngaixov • tvxtXixua yag. *Ep ptv 

aga xalXoyw xal agi&pa, xo ng&xop xipovp ax ivy toy 

op * xal xb xwovptpop aga ael xal avpsxwg tp povov. 

JElg aga ovgapbg povog. Ilagadidoxat ds vno xm 

j agxaltap xal naXaubp, ip pvSov axypotxi *<*xaXsXup- 

I pivot xolg vaxegop, on &epi xi iiaip ovxot, xal ntgis- 

I %n xb &c7op xyv oXffp <pvaip. Ta 8s Xoma pv&txiag 

7 rflr\ ngooijx&y ngbg xrjp 7tH&£> xwp ttoXXwp , xal 

] ngbg xrjp tig xovg vopovg xal xo ovpyegov XQV 0lv ' 

'Ap&gi>moub*ug xe yag xovxovg , xal xwv aXXcap £m*>p 

I bpoiovg xiol Xsyovoi, xal xovxoig sxsga axoXov&a xal 

. naganXrjoia xolg Bigrjpipoig • top tV xig xoiglaag avto 

Xapoi popop xo ngwjop , oxt &$ovg £opxo xag ngtaxag 

\ ovoictg slvai, &6l(»g $p slgrja&ai voploett, xal xaxa xb 

eixog noXXaxig tvgrjpivtjg eig xb dvpaxbp kxdaxfjg xal 

| tfypy? xa* fpiXooocpiag , xal naXvp cp&eigopdy&tv, 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPHYS. LIB. XI. (XII.) CAP. 9. 255 

xaltavtag tag do$ag ixtlvuv, olov Xtlijtava nfoftot- 
o&v&cu uixQi tov vvv. € H piv ovv itatoiog 56$a, 
xal 7] nag it way noaxuiv , in\ xooovxov rifuv qpavtga 

Ta di nsol xav vovv «#«* ttvag anoqiag. Aoxb\_ 
(ib yaq uvai x&v a>aivojiivw &tioxaxov. Ilwg d* 
ejgav xoiovxog a* sttf, ifre* tivag SvoxoXiag. EVxe yao 
pfjdiv vou, aXtf %x H wottco av $tr) o xa&svduv , %l av 
sir; to oepvovt Ei'x$ voei, xovxov d' aXXo xiqiov (ov 
yaq dan xovtq , o iaxiv avxov »/ ovaia, voijaig, aXXa 
dvvctfug) ovx av r\ aqiaxri ovaia ti'rj. diet yaq tol 
voeiv, to rlfiiov avxw vnaqxu. *Exi di ti'xs vovg y 
ovaia, avxov , (Vxb voyoig ion, %i voei;*H yaq avxeg 
avxov, ij sxeqov xi. Kal u htqov t*, f( to avxo ael, 
rj aXXo. Uoxsqov ovv diaqtiqti xl , ij ovdev, to vouv 
to xaXov, tj to xv%6v ; "H xal axonov xo dtavouo&ai 
ntql tvitov ; dyXov xoivvv, oxi xo dtioxaxov to tifAia- 
xaxov vou, xal ov /xexafidXXst Elg x&Qov yaq fj juc- 
xaftoXij, xal f) xivrjaig xig ^drj xo xoiovtov. Jlqmxcv 
fiuv ovv el ftrj vorjaig iaxiv aXXa dvva/jiig, evXoyovini- 
novov thai xo avvsxig ovtw xfjg votjoswg, "Eneixa 
dr}Xov ofti aXXo xv av tXr} xiutdxsqov r) vovg , xo voov- 
H$vov. Kal yao xo vouv xal rj vorjoig indq^Uy xal 
to xeiqiaxov voovvxi. "Jloxt q>svxxov tovxo. Kal yao 
ftf} oqav ma,xquxxov rj oqqtv, [ c ^ioT Jovx av sl'rj xo aqi- 
axqv i] voriaig. Avxov aqa voti, tin sq soil xbxqdxtoxov. 
JKal eoxtv % vorjoig, voqamg vorjoig.&aiysTai £' ael fj 
i7iioxrj(xrixalfi od'o&r)oigxotif)d6'£a,xotlf) 5iavoia\jiXXov 
slvar j avxr\g d ' iv xr«o4o/w. *'Exi si aXXo to vouv xal xo 

Digitized by GOOgle 


vouo&ai, uata n 6t tQ ov avi w xb tvvndqx*h' OvSiyaq 
to avio sivai vovoet xal poovpsv*) • ij in iviwp rj im~ 
ojtifdfj, to nqaypa; *Enl fiiv tvp noiijtixibp avtv vXyg 
rj ovola, xal to ti i\v tlvcu' inl ds tap &to)qr)tix&r, 
o Xoyog to nqaypa , xal rj pofjoig. Ov% ktiqov ovp 
optog tov yoovp&ov xal tov vov, oaa (At} vXfjv tyd, ti 
aitb satai' xal r\ porjoig tov voovuivov fila. >r £ti 
drj Xtlnttai anoqia, ti ovp&ttop tbpoovutpov. Mtta- 
(laXXoi yaq av h toig uiqeoi tov oXov ' r\ aduxiqeto* 
nap to py bxop vXr\p , uontg 6 ip&qtonwog povg • y 
o v ys tap ovv&frwv e/u %v t*v*^ov(m. Ov yaq ail ti 
sv iv ttadl, r\ iv Kadi, aX£ iv oXa tivl to aqiatov > of 
aXXo ti. OStag d* «/e* aCty avtf t g y voting top 
anavta atiava. 

'Enwxsntiov Si xal, notiqmg fyu 19 tov 0X0 v <pvoig 
to aya&op xal to aqwtop * nbttqov xextofHOfiirov ti, 
xal avtb xa& aitb, % t^v ta&v, 1} afi<potiqwg, &omq 
atqatcvpa* Kal yaq iv ty Tafei to cv* xal 6 otqa- 
tyybg, xal paXXop ovtog, Ov yaq ovtog diet tip toj- 
£*y, oXJl ixslvi} dice tovtov ivtw. Jldvta Si ovrrha- 
xtal mag, aX£ ov% cfioitag, xal nX&ta xal myvd, xai 
q>vtd\ Kal ovx ovtag %x u > ^ore /u»; elvai&atiq& 
nqog da-nqop fi^div aX£ iotl nqog n. Jlqbg flip yaq ff> 
anapta ovvthaxta*. *AXt won eg ip oixia toig iXsv- 
d&qovg jjxwta IgsoTty 2, t» hvx* noitiv, aXXa ta nap*' 
ta ^ Ta nXuQta thaxrat * tolg Si avSqanoSoig xal 
toig &tiqioig ptxqov to *lg to xoivop , to dk noXif 8, 
t**tv/«. Toiavtfj yaq kxdatov aqxh » avwp $ yv- 
otg ioti. jiiyw d* olop, el'g t« to dtaxqi%&r t vat <ir*a^- 

Digitized by GOOgk 

METAPH. LIB. XI. (XII.) CAP. 10. 257 

xr) Snaaiv iX&uv , xal aXXa ovtoag soriv tav xoivrnvu 
anavTci tig to olov. "Ocra ds advvaia ovpfialvu tj 
aion&zoig aXXtag Xiyovoi, xal nola oi xaQieoTegwg 
XiyovTtg, xal inlnolcav iXa^iorat anogiai, delfitj Xav- 
&avuv. Ildvitg yig 4$ ivaviiwv noiovoi nana. Ov- 
w di to navxa, ovxtro i£ ivaviitav og&ag, ovtb iv 
oaoig t« ivavTia inagxu, nag ix twv ivavTlmv sarai 
ov Xiyovow. 3 Ana&ij yag tot ivavTia vn aXXrjXwv. 
H[ut> di Xvixoli tovto ivlaymg , to» tqitov t* ilvai. 


61 to avtoov to) i'oqt , rj t$ hi to. noXXa. Avuai'dk 
xal tovto tov avTov Tgoiiov. C H yag vXr} vj ftia ov- 
favl Ivaviiov. **Eu anavTa tov (pavXov fit&s^H t'|w 
tov hog. To yag xaxov ctvio , d-dxtgov twv otoi- 
Xsicov. Old 3 aXXoi ovd' agxag to aya&bv xal to 
xaxov. Kahoi iv anaoi to aya&ov fiaXioxa agx 1 *}* 
01 8i tovto fih og&wg, oti agxv v ' <*lXa n&g to dya^ 
&ov agxr\, ov Xiyovow, noTtgov ag TiXog, rj wg xivri- 
oav t i] wg sldog. jtoomag di xal 3 E[MtdoxXi}$' tijv 
yag cpdlav noiu to dya&ov. Avttj d* ugxh *«* ™S 
xivovoa • ovvdyei yag * xahwg vXtj • pogiov yag tov 
uiyfjtaxog • sj, drj Hairy avjw avp(li($i\x*v u>g vXy xal ao- 
XJl ilvai, xal ag xivovvn. 3 AXXo) Toys slvai ov Tavro* 
xaTa noTsgov ovv (pdia t "Atotiov 8i xal to acp&agTov 
uvai, to veixog. ' Tovto d 3 ioTlv avTo r\ tov xaxov 
tyvoig. Ava^ayogag di wg xivovv to aya&bv agx'hv, 
yag vovg xivei, oXXa xivR svexa Ttvog. "jlors lie- 
gov • nXrjv wg -rffislg Xiyopzv. °H yag laTgixri iorl 
n&g vylua, v Atotiov ds xal to ivavTiov f*»; novr\oai 
«^ aya&tp , xal raj y«. HavTzg d 3 oi t« ivavTla 
ARI8T. Metaph. * R 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Xiyovxtg, ©vjowitou xdig ipapxlotg, iip pri (afrvpyoti 
xig. Kal dii xl xi per qt&agta, xi d* a<p&agxa, ov- 
dilg it /si, flarta yig xit Spxa noiovoip ix xatp av- 
xwp aQX&v. *jEt* ot pip ix xovjtrj opxog noiovai xi 
opxa' oi d\ tpa ur) xovxo apayxao&moip , sv nana 
noiovoip. *Eu dux xl id torch yiveotg, xal xl atxiov 
ytpiotvg, oiddg Xiyu. Kal xoig dvo igxig noiovoip, 
aXXrj> avdyxrj agxyp xvgw>xigap slvai' xal xolg xi 
tldrj * oxi ulXri agxy xvgtmxiga. dux xl yig /uerea/ey 
i\ ptiezti / Kal xolg flip aXXoig apdyxi\ xfj ootpia xai 
xjl xifiuaxdxtj imoxrjuy ilpalxt ipavxlop, tjfiip d* ov. 
Ov ydg iathP ivavxlop x<S hgwtco vvdiv. Jldpxa yig 
xi'ivapxla vXr t p fyst, xal dvpduti xavxd iaxiv. *H di 
ipavxla aypoia, siq xi frapxlop. Ty di ngwxta ivav- 
tiop ovdip. "Exi si py $oxai nagi xi alodyxi a XX a, 
oitx tax at igxh *»* xd&g xal .yivtaig , xal xi ov- 
gdpia, aX£ dil xqg agxyg i°X*i> &<nug xdig «#«o- 
Xoyoig xal xotg (pvotxoig anaoip. El d' carat xi 
tidy ^ agi&fiol , ovdtvog aXxxa * tl di /ut] , ovxe xt- 
vTjotwg ye. "j£xi nag eat at 4$i[*eyi&(op piy*&og 
xat oyptx&g > o yig agid-ftbg oi nou'iou ovpsxig, ovxe 
it? xcpovp, ovx$ ng tldog. *AXXi pr\p ovdip y* carat 
twv ipapxhow, onsg xal novqxixip xal xipijxucop. *JEp- 
dixono yig av ftrj tlpai, allot, urjy voxtgop yt xi Trot- 
iiv dwdfimg. Ovx aga d'l'dia xi ovxa • aXX eoxtr. 
jivaigneov 8$ a xovxap xi' xotxo d iXQi)iai wg. **Ex* 
xoipvv fi ol agi&fiol ep , *}"^ V 1 ^ » xa * T ^ <*&(*<* > *o« 
hktog to sldog, xal xb ngaypa, ovdip Xiyu ovdslg* ovd* 
hdixtxai tlnuv , idp urj mg ijfiug «ftn? , &g xb xtvovv 
7ioiH* Oi di Xiyopxeg xb* agi&pbp ngtoxop tip pa- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XII. (XW.) CAP. I. 250 
&fjpattxov, xa\ ovxwg uei atX^v ixopsvrj* ovaiav, 
xal igxag kxdoTTjS allots, intwodwdrj %i\v xov jtbi- 
tog ovaiav noiovaiv (ovdb y&g y ktsga tjj &iga 
avpfiaXXsrat ovoa y py ovaa) xal agxig noXXdg • ti 
ds ovia, ov fiovlzxai noXvnvso&ai xax&g. ( Ovx iya- 
&bv noXvxoigavlfi • tig xolgavgg. ) J _\ J a 1 ,7^ , 



Uegl pb > ovp tijg t&v aio&tjTwv oiolag %lgti%ai %i 
IgtWj iv psv tjJ pt&odw rtj j&vtpvoixiav mgiTTjgvXfjg, 
vatBoov ds mgl jjjg xa% ivigysiav. 'Eml d* *j oxi- 
yig avtij iatl, nottgov iatl ug ndga rag aio&^rag 
oialag axlvrjtog xal a'idiog , *} ovxboti- xal si lari, 
jig ion, 71 QOizov ta nag a t&v aXXwv Xsyoptva &eai- 
gr\xiov, ontog the t* prj xalwg Xiyovoi, prj tolg av- 
tolg tvoxoi (Dfisv xal st it Hoy pa xoivbv i\piv xaxeU 
voig, tovt I5la py xa& f^p&v dvoxegalv<up$v. 'Aya- 
wqibv yag, sing ta psv xaXXiov Xiysi, *a ds ov x&* 
gov. Jvo d tial do!;ai mgl xovtwv. Ta tc yag 
pa&rjpatixd qtaaiv oitoiag shot* xivig, olov agi&povg 
xal ygappag, xal xa ovyytvij joirtoig, xal ndXiv tag 
idiag. £ml 3s o\ pev 6vo yivi\ xavia noiovoi , tag 
%* ideas, *«* tovg pa&rjpanxoig agi&povg, ol ds plav 
ffvaiv apqjotigoav , htgoi Si tivtg tag pa&rjpatixig 
povov ovoiag slval qpaoi , oxbnxkov, ngwxov pip mgl 
xmv pa&iipanxw , prjdsplav ngooxi&ivxag q>voiv 
aXXrjv avxdig • olov, noxtgovlbiai xvyxdvovaiv ovoai, 

R 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


j) ov xal noxsgov dgxal *«' ovoiaixwvovxw , ij oJ* 
oXit' <5$ 7i6^* fia&tjftatutwv povov, sit siolv , si'xs py 
uoi '.xal sV slat, n&g slow. "Ejrstxa fist a xavxa x®- 
glg nsgl xibv Idswv avxwv anXwg, xal ooov vo/xov %a- 
giv. Ts&gvXXyxat yag xa noXXa xal vnb xav VI- 
mxsgixuv Xoyvtv. Ext ds ngbg ixsivrivdsX xrjv oxsyiv 
iwaviffv xbv nXslo) Xoyov, oxav imoxonwpsv , si at 
ovolou xal al dgxal x **- v ovxotv agi&pol xal ideal tiai. 
Msxd yag tag idiag ayxrj Xsinsxai xgixtj oxifig. 
'Avdyxrj d', tin eg soxi xa (ta&yftaxixa, i) iv xotg al- 
o&rjxolg shai avxd, xa&dnsg Xiyovol xivsg , rj x*;?a>- 
gtofisva t<ov aio&rjxtov * Xsyovot, ds xal ovxoj xivig • i} 
si firidstigtog, tj ovx siolv, rj aXXov xgonov siolv, u Jlo&* 
ij afi<piopricri<ng tjfiiv soxai , ov nsgl xov slvai , aXXd 
nsgl xov xgonov. 

Oxi psv xolvvv IV ys xdlg alo&rjxolg advvaxov 
thai, xal afia nXaopaxiag b Xoyog , signal /nev xal 
iv xotg dianogypaotv, oxi Spa dvo OTsgsd swat adv- 
vaxov, *'Eii ds xal bxi tov avxov Xoyov, xalxag aX- 
Xag dvvdftiig xal (pvosig iv xolg aio&Tixolg slvat , xal 
uydsfiiav xexcjQio[ibvr}v. Tavxa fisv ovv sVgyxai 
ngoxsgov. 'AXXa ngbg xovxoig (pavsgbv, oxi ddvva- 
tov diaigs&ijvai bxtovv ocofxa. Kax ininsdov yag 
diaigs&yosxat, ■ xal xovxo xaxd yga\L\Lv\v % xal avxi\ 
xaxd oxiy/irjv. "Slots si xrjv oxiyprjv disXsiv ddvva- 
tov, xal xrjv yga^r\v • si ds xavxrjV, xal xaXXa • xi 
ovv diaysgsi, jj xavxag sTvatxoiavxag yvosig, ijfirj, sl- 
vat ds iv avxolg xoiavxag qpvosig ; To avxb yag avfi- 
(trjosxai. Jiaigovfisvfav yag xwv alo&rixmv , diaigs* 

d by Google 

METAPH. LIB. XII. (Xlll.) CAP. 2. 201 

&rj<joviai • jj ovdi al alo&tjtai. *AXXa prjv ovde x«- 
XWQiOfisvag y that qpvotig totavtag dwmtov. El 
yag eotou otsgsd naga ta alo&rjia xtxtogtofiiva tow- 
tow fTf^oe, xa« ngottga iw alo&rjtfov, dtjXov on, xal 
naga %a inlnsda hega avayxouov tlvai inlnsda xi- 
XoagiOfidva, xal ottyfidg xal ygafifidg. Tov yag av- 
%ov Xoyov. JEH de tavta ndXiv naga tov ottgtov 
(la&tjpaTiuov inlnsda xal ygaftfidg xal OTiypag, fos- 
ga xtxwQionwa. JIgotsga yag xwv ovyxtipivav iotl 
t« aovv&sta. Kal stntg tmv alo&rjtoijv ngotsga 
. atofiara prj alo&rjta, tw «{/tw io/w xa» xwy imnidmv 
twv iv tolg anivjjrois otsgsdig Ta avta xata xa avta. 
Jlort hsga tavta inlntda xal ygapftal tw apa it 
toig oTBQsolg %6ig xexugiopivoig. Ta pev yag apatoig 
fiad-rjfiaiDimg ottgsolg, td di ngotsga twv pa&ijfia- 
Tixwv ottgt&v. IldXiv tolvw tovtav t&¥ imnsdw 
taovtai ygappal* <ov ngotsgov dsTjou higag ygafi- 
ftag xal otiyftag slvai , did tov aitov Xoyov* Kal 
tovjwv iv long ngotigaig ygafifiaig, higag ngotigag 
OTiypdg ' <»v ovx bu ngotsgat fasgai. v Atonog ts dij 
yivtxcu 7j uwQtvoiq. Svpflalvii yag otsgsd psv po- 
ya/a naga xa alad-rjxd , inlnsda ds tgitxd nag a xa 
alo&rjroc, td ts naga %a alo^rjta, xal ta iv toig pa- 
%>t}pauxo'i?9t£gto'ig, xal naga ta iv tovxoig • ygapt- 
- pal ds xngal ««, oxiypal ds nsvtatal. "Slats nsgl noia 
al imottifiai toovtai al fta&tjfiatixal tovttav; Ov 
yag tiff* nsgl ta iv t$ oriqsw tw axivrittp ininsda 
xalyQapfjag xal atiy/tag* a$l yag ntgl ta ngottga 
H invatriuri. *Q 8 ' avtbg Xoyog xal ntgl ttov 
agi&piav. Kal nag hxaotag yag tag otiyfiag., fre- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

262 AR1ST0TEL1S 

gat toovxat povddeg , xal nag txaoxa xa orxa aV- 
o&r)Ta • flxo t£ voipd. "Jloxt botch yivtj anuga xav 
ftm&rifMttiJtAv agt&pmv. *En ansg h xdig anoQt\- 
uaoiv tnyX&ofttv, nmg hdixnou Xvuv; Ilsgl ayagi\ 
doxgoXoyia ioxlv, bfioioag tori, ntgl xa aio&rira , xal 
ntgl a fj ytwptxgla* Ehai d* ovgavbv xal xa fiogut 
avxov , nug ovvaxov, % aXXo bxtovv %xov xhrjo$Pi 
'Ofioittg di xal xa omtxa , xal xa agfiotuxd. "Eoxai 
ydg <pm>Tj xt xal oipig naga xa alo&rjta, xal id xa& 
txaoxa. "Jloxt dt)Xo* ot* xal ol aXXai ala&qoug, 
xal xa aXXa aio&rjxd. Ti ydg pdXXov xddt $ xddt / 
hi di xavxa, xal (aw toon at , tlntg xal alo-frrjatig. 
v Exk ygdamat $na xa&oXov imb x&v fta&^fiaxutmv 
nagd xavxag xdg ovolag. "Eoxat ovv xal avxtj xlg 
aXXq ovola (itxa$v xtxMQtopivi) xwr x idtmr xal xw 
ptxatv, TjTig ovxt agi&pog ioxw, ovxt oxiypal , ovxt 
udyefrog, ovts zgwog. Ei di xovxp ddvvaxov, dyjXov 
oxi xdxtfra ddvvaxov thai xexngutfiiwa xmv aio&ii- 
xmv. "OXmg di xovvartlov avfA^ahtt xal xov eU>&6- 
xog vnoXafipdvea&ai , <f xig \>rjosi ovxug thai xa 
fAa&tifiaxtxd, ug xtxv>giopivag xivdg (pious. *A*6tyx% 
ydg, did xb piv ovxtog thai avxdg , ngoxigag that 
xwv aio&fjxmv psytdw, xaxd xb dXy&ig di voxigag. 
To ydg dxtXig piyt&og, ytviou fth ngoxtgov ioxi, 
xjj ovala d' vaxtgov, olov aipvxov ipytvxov. "fen 
xIvl xal noxstoxai sv xdpa&riiiaxuta ptyi&ii ; T« ph 
ydg fonau&a, yvxy n f* *?** V*OTs, V dXXtp xipI bvXo- 
ytp. Ei di fitj, noXXd dtaXvtxau 'Extfrotg di diaigt- 
xoXgxal noooig ovot, xi atxiov xov thai %v xal avp- 
(ibiiv; Ext ai ytviotig dyXovor ngmov /aw yd$ inl 

d by Google 

METAPH. LIB. XII. (XIII.) CAP. 2. 263 

(trjxog ylyvstai , ilia inl nXatog , isXevtalov ding 
fia&og, xal tiXog la/sv. El ovv to trj ysviott var«- 
gov, tjj ovaia ngotegov, to ao)/ia ngottgov av cfy 
imnidov xal fiyxovg * xal tavitj xal riXsipv, xal oXov 
fiattov, o*i tpfvxov ylyv&ai. rga/ifiti ds ipyvxog 
ti inintdov, nag av ity ; € Tnkg yag tag aluOrjaug tag 
rjpnigag av sit} to a$i(Ofia. *Eti to psv awfia ovaia 
ug • fjdfi yog %x& nutg to ieXhov • al di ygappal, 
n&g ovolat ; ovts yctg ug tldog xal pogeprj ug , olov 
tlaga t) yvxy toiovto* ovts wg y vXi\ t olov to awfia. 
Ov&ivyitg in ygapfiwv, ovth imnidoiv, oviH atiyfi&v 
(palvetou Qvviotao&ai dwapsvov. El d* fjv ovaia 
tig vXtXT}, iovj av iq>aivno dvvapeva naoxuv. To) 
fdv ovv koyco total ngotsga • aXX* ov navta oaa tw 
Xiyy ngotsga, xal ty ovaia ngotsga. Ty fisv yag t 
ovaia ngotsga, ooa x^Q^opsva *<& *?vat vnsgfiaXXsi • 
t§ Xoyqjt di, Hatav oi Xbyoi ix tmv Xoyuv, Tavta b*s 
ovx Spa vnagx H - J& ¥&Q M & au T « na&ri nag a 
tag ovglag, olov xivov/ievov ti % Xsvxbv , tov Xsvxov 
av&gwnov to Xsvxbv ngotsgov xata tov Xoyov, *aJU* 
oi xati tip- ovaiav ov yig ivdsxetai slvai xsxwgi- 
aftivov, aXX? asl apa t$ avvoXta iotl. 2vvoXov de Xiyw, 
tov av&qomov tiv Xtvxov. "flats tpavsgbv, oxi ovts to 
# a<paigsQsvf ngotsgov, ovts to ix ngoo&iosag van* 
gov. *Ex ngoo&soswg yig, tq> Xsvxm 6 Xsvxbg av&gmnog 
Xeyrtai. u OTi fisv ovv ovts ovaiai fiaXXov t&v oojfidiwv 
eioh, ovts ngotsga i% slval twvaio&ywv, aXXa x§ Xo- 
yqtpovov, ovts xsxmgiafiiva nov tivai dvvatov, ivgr^tai 
ixavmg. *Entl d' ovd' iv tolg ala&tiiolg ivdixttai avta 
uvai, opavegbv bu % bXcag ovx BOtiv,^tg6nov tivaiath 

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xal diet xovxo ovx anXwg taxi, IloXXaxag yiq ti 
tlvat Xiyoptv* 
.^ . CAPUT III. 

f "Jlontg -yag xd xa&oXov iv xolg pa&rjpaoiv , ov 

ntgl xtxagtopivav 4oxl, haga xd ptyi&ri xal rovg 
dgi&povg, aXXa ntgl xovxtov ptv 9 ovx J) de xoiavxa 
ola $x tlv ptyt&og, r\ tlvat dtatgtxd, dyXov oxt Md- 
Xtxat xal ntgl xiov alo& t}xmv ptyt&&v tlvat Hal lo~ 
V yovg xal dnodtl$tig, ptj fj ds aio&rjxd, dXX' fj xotadL 
"llantg yag xal ?; xivovp&a povov noXXol Xoyot slot, 
Xaglgiov xitxaoxov ioxtxmv xotovxtov, xal xmv avp- 
ps/Srjxoiutv avxoig • xal ovx dvdyxr\ did xavxa , ^ x«- 
Xtogioptvov xt tlvat xivovptvov xwv aio&rjimv , rj iv 
xovxotg xivd qpvatv tlvai ixcpagiopsvyv • ovxa xolvw 
jtal inl x&y xivovpivatv eoovxai Xoyot xal imoTrjpcti, 
ovx ]) xivovptva tie, aXtf r\ odpaxa povov • xal ndXiv 
fj inlntda povov, xal fj pyx*! povov, xal ij dtaigsxd, 
xal rj ddialgtxa tyovxa q>voiv, xal tj ddtaigtxa povov, 
u Jloxt intl anXStg Xiytiv dXrj&eg, pr) povov xd /«^i- 

} oxdtlvat, dXXd xalxa prj #a>£tara, olov xwovpsva, 
tlvat, xalxa pa&i\naxtxd, oxt ioxlv dnXtog dXfj&sg 

^tintiv, xal xoiavxa ye ola Xiyovof xal wontg xal 
xdg aXXag imaxypag otnXag dXrjdeg thttXv , xovxov 
elvai, ovxl xov ovpptfirixoxog • olov, Sxi Xwxov, ti to 
vyittvov xo Xtvxov, r\ d* toxtv vyittvov • dX£ ixtivov 

< ov ioxiv kxdoxfj, ti vyittvov, vyittvov, ti 6 ' 17 a>#£a>- 
7io?, dv&QdMtov ovxta xjulxip yttoptxgiav t ovx tlovfifti- 

t pr\xtv aio&jjTa tlvaiwv ioxi, prjioxidsjj alo&rjxa, ov 

* xow aio&tjxtov eoovtat &i pa&npaxixal imoxtjpau Ov 
pivxoi ovde ntgl xavxa, aXXmv xfxotgiop&w. TToXXa 

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METAPH. LIB. XII. (XIII.; CAP. 3. 266 

di 01//*/?£/?i?x8 xa&* avtd rolg ngdypaoiv , J Ixaotov 
vndgxsi tav toioviwv • iml xal y dijlv to J&ov xal 
jj a^sv, Xdia nd&rj iaxi Kaltoi ovx satv t* $r\lv 
ovtf agfsv Ktxt*>QUJ(iivoir tmv ^wav. c Jlets xal y pr\- 
xij povov, xal ri in In id a • xal oafa dy av nsgl ngots- 
gtov t<5 Xoytp xal dnXovotegav, tooovuo pallor «#« ^ r i 
to txxQiftig. Tovto di to dnXovv iotiv Sots avtv 
tov ptyi&ovg p&XXov, rj psta ptyi&ovg, xal pdXtata ^ \ t . 
ovav xtyqottt?. *Eav di xivi\oiv, pa hat a tyv ngmiTjv > ^^ 
anXovatdttj yag, xaltcti'trjg t; 6 paly. *0 5* avio? .. ^^ 
Xo/o? xa* 7ieoi dgpovixijg, xal onrix^g. Ovd* htiga 
yag rj oipig, $j rj gxavrj, fawgii, alX rj y gap pal xal 
agi&pol. Olxua phtoi tavta na&rj btdvwv. Kal 
V piixavtxri di aoavtwg. "Slats si tig &&psvog x*£w- 
giopsva tav ovpfoftrjxciwv, axonti ti ntgl tovtuav jj) 
toiavta, ov&iv did tovto iptudog ipsvasrai, wonsg v 
ovd* otav 4vtr\ ytj ygaq>t], xal tyv nodialav q>fj pr\\ 
nodiaiav. Ov yag 4v talg ngoidoeoi to ytx/dog* 
Agiata d° av ovt<ag ^sagtidsirj sxaotov, tl' tig to ptj 
ottxtogiapevov &eltj jfwoAra?, Sansg o agi&pytixbg I 
notsi, xal 6 ystapstgyg. *Ev psv yag xal ddiaigstov 
o av&ganog, r t dv&gsmog. c O di &slg & ddiaigstov* 
ut i&mgmotv, «1't*tw dv&gnnm ovpfiiprixevf) ddiai- 
gstog • o di ytcopiigyg , ov&* rj av&ganog , ovd-' rj 
adtaigsrog, all' y ottgsd. *A yag, xdv si pr\ nov i\v 
adiaigttog, vnygxiv avjca, dijlov onxalarsv toittav 
ivdixttat, avtia vnagxtw to dvvatov. "Slate did 
tovto og&&g liyovoiv oi ysfofUtgai, xal ntgl ovttav 
dialiyovtai, xal ovta sail. Aixxov yag to ov , to 
ftw ivtslsx^lff, to d 3 vlix&g. *Eml di to dyu&6> 



xal to xalbr htgov (to ph yag atl h ng&lu , to & 
xalhp xal tfy roTff axtrifYoif) ol <pdoxovteg ov&h X$~ 
yuv tag pa&yfiatutag huoxr^aq nsgl xaXov, *} a/er- 
#ov, ytvdortai. Aiyovoi yag xal dtixrvovm pali- 
ata. Ov ya^ t d pr\ 6vofAa£ovoi, ta 6" Igya xal tovg 
Xoyovg dnxvvovotp , ov Xiyovot nsgl avrt**. Tov di 
xaXov piyujta el'dy, ta$igxal ovufutgia, xal to &gi- 
oftivop • a paXiara duxrvovow ai (la&tjuatixal ini~ 
atrial. Kal inti yt noXXwy aftia cpaivetai tavta 
( Xiyto d* olov r] Tabs *<*l *o wgiopipop ) djjjlov on 
Xiyowp av xal ti}? toiavtip ah lav, tip *»g to xalov, 
altiov tgonov tivi. MaXXop ds ypwglpmg & alXoig 
ntol aitwp igovptp. Ilsgl ph ovp tStv pa&tipatutwp, 
on is ovta iatl, xal n&g ovta, xaJ n&g ov ngot$gop, 
xal nag ngottgop, tooavta tigTJo&m. 
Jfltgl ds tup Idmv , ngmtov avtr\v ttfp xata tip 
Idiav 66$av emoxsntiov, prj&iv owantovaap ngog 
xi\v tap agi&pup opvoiv , aXX* &g IniXafiov 4£ dgzr\g 
ol ngwtoi tag Ideag (pijoavreg that. 2vvi§r\ d' ij 
mgl t&v tidwv dolsa tolg dnovot , dii to nMo&ijvai 
. ntgl trig aXij&eiag totg'HgaxXutiioig Xoyoig, wg ndy- 
\^ tmv tcav aiodi)TOiv del g sonar. "Jlot' d'nsg 
iniotrjuri tivbg sotai xal qtgovrjoig , hdgag duv ti- 
vag (pvaug slvai naga tag alo&fjtag p$povoag. Ov 
yag thai twv Qsovtwv imorripriv. gwtgatovg di ntgl 
tag ri&ixag aosjctg ngaypattvopipov , xal nsgl toi'- 
' ttop ogl&o&ai xa&oXov Ctjtovptog ngjiiov (tup ftip 
yag (pvoixoir inl pixgov di\pbxgt\og jjipato ftoruv, 
xal wgioato nag to &tgpov xal to ifn'XQW ' ol di /Zw- 

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METAPH. LIB. XII. (Xlll.) CAP. 4. 267 

dayoqsioi nqixtqov ntqixivw oXiyw, *v tovg Xoyovg 
tig xovg aqi&fiovg avr^nxov, olov, xi iaxi xaiqog, rjto 
dlxatov, fj ydfiog) ixuvog tvXoyug $£i)'tii, *b *i iox*. 
2vXXoyi£w&ai yaq iZrjTSi. *Aqx*l oe x&v ovXXoy*- ^ 1 1 ( 
Ofiav, xo xl dart. diaXtxuxri yaq ioxvg ovrno vox i\v, 
(ooit dvvao&ai xal jfwpt? T0 ^ */ * aT * xavavxla im- 
axoitnv, xal xiv ivavximv ti f) avxrj im.oxr\pr\. Jvo 
yaq ioxiv , it Tig av unodyrj JSaxqaxu dutalug, xovg 
x inaxxixovg Xoyovg, xal xo eql£*o&ai xadoXov. 
Tavxa yig iaxw a/iqpa nsql aqxw bnovhpng. 'AX£ 
o fib 2i<axQttZfig xa xa&oXov, ov x^Qtaxa frtoiti, ovdi ,_ 
"tovg oqiopovg • oi d 9 ixvqioav , xal %it xoiavxa xnv 
ovjtav idiag nqooriyoqwoav. "Jlort ovvifteuvtv avxoig 
9Z*doy t<j> avx$ Xoyco, ndvxav idiag tlvat xanr , 
xa&oXov Xsyofi&w xal naqanXrjOiov , SLantq arl 
ti xig aqi&fAijoai fiovXofttvog , iXaxxovov piv ov- 
xw oloixo firi dwao&ai, nXtioa ds itoirjoag, aoi- 
-frfiolr}, nXtlw yaq ioxi x&v xa&* txaoxa alaQtiimv 
ig unity xa il'dr] , ntql coy £r t Tovvxtg xag aixlag , ix 
xovxwv ixii nqotjX&ov. Ka&* txaaxov xe yaq 0/uo>- 
yvfiov ioxixal naqa xag ovotag, xiav xt aXXtor hsonv 
inlnoXXav, xalinlxoiade, xalinlxdlg aidioig. "Exi xa& 
ovg xqonovg ddxwxai oxi l'<rci xa ti'dij , xax ov&iva __^ 
(palvsiai xovxw. 'JE£ iviutv fihv yaq ovx avayxy yi- 
vw&cu ovXXoyiaftov* i£ ivitav de xal ovx w oi'ovxat, 
xovxtap etdij yivtxai. Kaxd xt yaqxovg Xoyovg xovq ix 
xiav inioxijfi&v , saxai tidy ndvrcov oooiv imoxtipai 
tloiv * xal xaxd xo |y, inl noXlwr, xalx&v anocpaoiwr 
xaxd de xo votlv xt q>&aqivxog, iwv (p&aqtuv. <bav- 
Taofia yaq u xoixmv ioxb* *Exi de oi axqifiiaxaxot 

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xuv loyatv , ol fisv twv nQog xi noiovocv idsag , <av ov 
(paoiv sivai ttctx? avxb ysvog' oldsxbvxqlxov av&om-* 
nov Isyovoiv. c OXwg xs dvaigovaiv ol nsql xiov udtav 
loyoi, a fidllov fiovlovxai sivai ol Isyovxsg sfdtj, xov 
tag idsag sivai. 2vfi($alvn yag fir) sivai ngwxov ttjp 
dvdda, allot xov dgi&fibv, xal rovxov xb nqog u, xal 
to xa&' avTo • xal ndv& 3 oaa xivsg dxolov&yoay- 
xsg xatg nsgl ituv sidmv doSaig , rpavxici&rioav xaig 
dgxalg, *Exi Kara fisv xrjv vixolrjipt*, xa&* rp <paatv 
sivai tag idiag, ov fiovov xStv ovotwv soovxai sXdr\ y 
alia xal allouv noll&v. To yag VGtjfia sy, ov fiovov 
nsgl tag ovolag , alia xal xaxd firj ovouav ioxi • xal 
ai imaxtjfiai ov fiovov xr)g ovolag soovxai. 2vfi(lai*s$ 
ds xal alia uvgla xoiavxa. Kara ds to avayxalov 
xal jdg do£ag xdgnsgl avxwv, u tor* fis&sxxd id stdij, 
xm ovawv dvayxaiov idsag sivai fiovov. Ov yag 
xaxd ovftftsfaxbg fisxixovxat, dlld dsi xavxtj kxdoxov 
fisxsxtw > fi f*h xa& 3 vnoxsifiivov liysxau Aiyw 3* 
oiov f sX ti aixov dmlaolov fisxs'xn, xovxo xal d'idlov 
(istdxsi, alia xaxd ovfiflspyxog. 2vfi0dftr]xe yag tw 
dinlaaito to did tov sivai. "Jloxs ear at oiala id sidy* 
Tavxa d 3 ivxav&a ova lav otjualvsi, xdxsl' ij xi iaxs 
to sivai ydvai t* nagd xavxa xb sv inl nollwv ; Kal 
si fisv xavxb sldog xwv idt&v , xal xwv usxsxbvxvtp 
soxat xl xoivov * xl yag fidllov inl xSiv qt&agxuiv dvd- 
oW y xal iwv dvddnv nollwv fisv , o'idim ds, xb dvdg 
tv xal xaixbvy rj in avxrjg xal ir\g xtvog; 2$ ds ur) xo 
avxb sldog , bfitavvfia av sl'fj , xal ofioiov Aantg Sv st 
xig xalolfj avdqwnov xov xs Kalliav xal xb Zvlor, 
firidsfilav xotvmvlav imfitiyag aixmv. M ds xd fib 

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METAPH. LIB. XII. (XIII.) CAP. 5. 269 

aUa xovg xoivovg Xoyovg iyagpoxxsiv &rjoo(tsv xolg 
sffisoiv, olov in avxov xbv xvxXov ox*} pa ininsdov, 
xal xa Xomd (isgtj xov Xoyov, xb 6* ov. ioxi ngooxsd-ri- 
octai , oxonslv dsl py xsvbv $ xovxo navxsXojg, , Tivi 
xi yag ngoaxs^osxai ; t$ peoa , % t<£ inmeSw , */ 
Ttaai; ndvxa ydg xa iv xy ovoict, idiai, olov, to £a>oy, 
xal to diTtoyv. *Exi dijXov oxi dvdyxrj avxb slval T* 
toomg to ininsdov qpvoiv xwd, fj naoiv ivvndglsi xolg 
si'dsoiv, wg yivog. 

Jlavxatv di fidXtoxa dianogrjosisv av Tig , xi noxs 
avpPdXXo>xai t xd sidy , h\ xolg d'idioig xwv alo&rixwv, 
rj xolg ywopsvoig, xal xolg qp&sigofitvoig. Ovxs ydg 
xivyostog ioxtv , ovxs fisxa^oXijg ovdeptag al'xia ai- 
xolg. 'aXXu (17jv ovds ngog tijv imox^firjv ovdsv fioT}- 
&sl xip> xav aXXwv. Ovxs ydg ovoia ixslva xovxwv 
{iv xovxoig ydg av rjv) ovx' tig to slvai, firj ivvndg- 
Xovxd ys xolg pisxixovaiv ' ovxa fisv ydg Xautg aVxia 
dofcisv av thai , ag xo Xsvxbv (iSfuypsvov tcw Xsvx$, 
IdXX' ovxog psv 6 Xoyog Xlav ivxivrjxog , ov *Avalay6- 
gag fiiv ngoxsgog , EvdoSog d* voxsgog sXsys, diano- 
gav, xal sxsgoi xivsg. 'Padiov ydg noXXd ovvayayslv 
xal divvaxa ngog xtjv xoiavxyv do£ccv. *AXXd fir)v 
ovds ix xmv eidcwioxi xd aXXa xax ov&svaxgbnov xav 
siat&oxfov Xsyso&ai. To be Xiysiv nagadsiypaxa si- \ 
vai xal (isxsxsiv avxStv xd aXXa , xsvoXoyslv ioxi , xal ) 
(i.sxaa>ogdg Xsysiv noirjxixdg. Ti ydg ioxi xo igyct- 
£opsvov Txgbg %dg iftsag dnoftXsnsiv ; 'Evdixnaixs slvat 
xal yiyvso&ai oxiovv, xal pi} sixa£6(isvov . e 'Jloxs xal 
%vxog JS&xgdxovg, xal fit} ovtog, ysvovi av olov 2*w- 

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xgdxi\g. 'Ofxolcog ds dyXov oti xav ti'tj o JSmxgdtrig 
dtdiog t lotai ts nXslta nagadslyfiata xov aviov • wait 
xal sfdij * olov xov dv&gionov to fwoy, xal to dinovv, 
Sfia ds xal avtodv&gwnog, Ett ov povov twv al~ 
o&rjtwv nagadslyfiata rot stdt), dXXd xal avtatv, olov 
to yivog tSxv mg yivovg sld&v. "Slots to avib sotai 
nagddsiypa, xal slxwv. *Eii db&isv av ddvvatov 
X<*>glg slvai tr\v ovoiav , xal ov r\ ovola. "Slots nag 
av ai ideal ovoiai tav ngayfidtmv ovoai ^coot? &&>> 
y £y di tw &aid<on tovxov Xsysxai xov xgonov, wg xal 
tov thai xal xov ylvso&ai attia td sidy iotl. Kai- 
toi tmv sid&v ovt&tv, Sfitag ov ylvstai, Sv fit/ ?/ to x*- 
vr^oov. Kal noXXd ylvstai stsga * olov olxla xal da- 
xtvXiog, ojv ov cpaaiv slvai tidy. "Slots dijXov ou' 
ivdixttai xaxtlva <av (paoiv slvai idiag , xal slvai xal 
ylyvsob ai diatoiavtagaixlag, oiag xalxa Qrj&svra vvv, 
all' ov did td rioV *AXXa nsgl fisv tmv idewv, xal 
rovtov xov tgonov, xal did Xoyutmig&v xal axgife- 
otigmv Xbywv ear* noXXd ovvayaysiv ouoia tots *e- 

*Ens\ ds dmgioxai nsgl xovxmv, xaXag s^ei ndliv 
&tt)QT)aand ntgl xovg Agi&fiovg ovfipaivovxtt tdlg 
Xiyovoiv oiolag avtovg slvai %t»gurtag , xal tmv ovtmv 
altlag ngmtag. *Avayxv\ d 3 , tl'nsg ioxlv 6 dgi&pog 
ipvoig tig, xal fitj allrj tig avtov iotiv t) ovola, alia 
tovto avxb, wonsg cpaal xivsg, rjxoi slvai xo fiiv ngoixop 
ti aviov , to d J ixousvov sxsgov ov t<5 sldsi f*a- 
oto*. Kal tovto rj inl xciv fiovddwv iv&vg indgxst, 
xal Xotiv aovppXrixog onoiaovv fiovdg onoiaovv po- 

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METAPH. LIB. XII. (XIII.) CAP. 6. 271 

vidi • /? ev&vg icpstvg naaat xal avfifilrjtal onoiat 
onoicuoovv, olov liyovaiv $lva* tbv fiadfiponixo* 
uQi&pov* *Ev ycto tw fia&TjpaTixw ovdiv dux<peQH 
ovdtfiia fiovdg ktiga ktegag, *H tag fth ovfifilrjtdg, 
tag 8i (iTj • olov si for* fisra to ev ngitri r\ dvag, 
tmna t) tqidg, xal ovtw 6y 6 allog aoid-pog* Eiol 
ds ovfiftlijtal ivkxdota* dgi&pcp al povddeg, olov ai 
iv ir\ dvadi %ji itou>T7) ctVTTis, xaliv tji tgiddi t^Ttgrntf) 
uvti\g* xal ovto) dy inl tav alhav doi-d-ptov, Ai d* 
iv if} dvddi avtjj, TiQog tag iv ttj toiddi avtri, aovfi- 
filrjtoi. € Opoi<og 6* xal inl twv allot* tmv i<pe£ns 
agi&fiejy. Jib xal o ptv fia&Tjfjiatixbg dgt&fiutai 
fina to ev, dvo, nobg to» sftTtooo&ev kvl, alio w • xal 
to tqia itQog toig dvol tovtoig alio IV* xal 6 lombg 
to woavttag, Ovtog ds find to Ik dvo sttQct, avsv tov 
hog tov TiQwiov, xalr\toidg avsv Tr)g dvddog. Ofioitag 
di xal 6 allog aoi&fiog • *j tbv fiiv elvattwv dqi$pwv y 
olov b nqwToq ilix&ri, %bv d* olov ol fia&7}(tatixol 
Uyovoi, tgltov ds rov fad-ivta ttlevialov. v Ett tov- 
tovg % x<x)Qiozovg uvai tovg doi&fiovg twv nQaypd- 
*&v, ij ov x<*q*otov$, alii iv toig aio&ijtolg. Ovx 
vvxwg d* &g to no&xov insoxonovpBV, all 7 ig ix twv 
aoi&pwv ivvnaoxonw tolg ato&rjtoig • if tbv fisv 
ainwy tlvai y tbv di fif},^ ndvtag uvoti. Ol fiiv ovv 
toonoi xa&* ovg ivdixstai avzovg tlvai , ovtoi eloiv 
e£ rnvdyxyg povoi. 2xtdbv ds xal ol liyovtfg to tv 
tyZW tivai , xal ovoiav xal oroix&ov ndvtxav , xal ix 
rovtov Sllov tivbg tbahtbv dgi&fibr, ixaotogrovtiav 
ttva t&v tQOTtwv d'QTjxe, nli)v tov ndaag tag fiova- 
dag clva* dovuPlrjtovg* Kal tovio ai/^/5*/?^x«y $v- 

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Xoywg. Ov ydg Mixtion exi alloy xgonov uvea net got 
xovg sigrjfiivovg. Ol fikv ovv apyoxigovg (paolv slvai 
xovg dgi&fiovg, xov fiev exovxa ngoxegov xal vuxsgov, 
tag idiag • %ov de fia&rjfiaxtxov , nagd rag idiag 
xal xd aio&rjTa , r xal /copiaTovf dfifpoxigovg twv ai- 
o&rjToJv • ol de xov fia&rjiJiaTixbv fiovov dgi&fiov ei- 
vai xov ngwxov xdb ovxoav , xtxfagiofiivov xwv aio&y- 
t&v . JCa2 ot Ilv&ayogeiot de tva xov fia&rjfiaxixbvj 
nXrjv ov xexoagiopivov, aXX 3 ix xovxov ting aio&rjxdg 
ovaiag avveoxdvai qpaal. Tov ydg olov ovgavbv 
xataoxsva£ovow i£ agt^ftcov , nXrp ov fiovadtxwv • 
alia tag povddag vnoXaa§avovatv \%uv fiiye&og, 
Onwg de xb ng&xov tv owioxrj i'xov (*iy*&og, anogtiv 
ioixaoiv. "AXXog di xig xov nganov agi&fibv tov Twy 
tidwv iv a elvar evtoi de xal xov fia&rjfiaxixbv tov 
avxbv xovxov elvai. 'Ofioiug de xal negl xd fi^xfj %m 
xd ininsda , xal negl xd oxeged. Ol per ydg ex eg a 
xd fia&rjfiaxixd, xal xd fiexd xdg idiag. Ttov d* aX- 
X(ag Xeyovxiov, ol pev xd fia&Tipaxixd, xal pa&rjfiaxi- 
xwgXiyovoiv, ooot /Atj notovot xdg Idiag dgi-d-povg, 
fitjde elval qpaow idiag. Ol de xd (jLadrjfiaxixd, ov 
fta&rifiaxtxwQ di. Ov ydg xipveo&at ovxe piys&og 
nav tig fjteyi&rj • ov&* onotaoovv fiovddag, dvada «I- 
vat. Movadixovg de xovg agt&fiovg ndvxtg eivai t*- 
&iaot, nXijv xwv nv&ayogdav , ooot xb ev , oxotxuov 
xal dgxyv cpaoiv elvai TaJy bvxtov. Exeivoi d exov- 
xa fiige&og , xa&dneg tVgrjxat ngoxegov. c Ooa%iag 
fiev ovv evdixexat Xex&qvai neglavxwVy xal ow Tiav- 
xeg eiolv tigy pivot olxgonot, qpavegbv ix tovtohv. 

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METAPH> LIB. X!!. (XIII.) CAP. 7. 273 

"Eoti ds ndvxa psv advvaxa , fiaXXov d' i'oag &dxsga 
xaw frigtav. 

Ilg&xov (iiv ovv oxsnxsov, si ovfi^Xrjxal al fiovd" 
dsg tj dovpftXrjxot • xal si dovfjtpXrjxoi, noxsgwg woneQ 
dufXofisv. "Ecxi ftsv ydg onoiavovv slvai onoiaovv (io- 
vdSa aavujSXTjtov • taxi ds xdg iv avxjj xf/dvddi ngog 
td$ iv uvxy xjj xgtddi. Kal ovxag drj aovfijSXrixovg 
Aval tag iv sxdoxw tw ttqwtco agi&fiw ngog dXXrjXag. 
El ftiv ovv naoai ovppXrjxal xal adidcpogoi al {xovd- 
dsg, o fiad-fifianxbg yivsxai agi&pog, xal sig povog • 
xal rag Idiag ovx ivdixsxai slvai xovg dgi&fiovg. 
TLoiog ydg toxai agt&fiog avxoav&gconog,r t fwov,?^ aXXo 
oxiovvxwv sidiav ; 'idia fisv ydg (ilalxdoxov, oiqv av- 
xov dv&gwnov fila, xal avxov £<6ov aXXri pla. Ol d* 
Ofioioi xal adidyogoi, ansigoi. "fLox ov&iv fidXXov 
yds r\ xgidg avxoav&gamog, ij bnoiaoyv. JEl ds fxrj 
sioiv agi&fiol al Idiai, ovd* oXiog ^o\6v xs avxdg el- 
vat,. Ex xlvtov ydg taovxai agx&v al Idiai ,- '0 ydg 
agi&fiog ioxiv ix xov kv'og xal xtjg dvddog xrjg dogi- 
oxov xal al dgxal xal xd oxoi%tia Xiyovxai xov 
dgi&ftov slvai 9 xdSsi xs ovxs ngoxigag ivdixsxai twv 
agi&fiwv avxdg, ov%P voxigag. El ds uovfi^Xrixoi 
al fiovadsg, xal ovxoog dovp/HXrixoi , Soxs yxigovv ?/- 
xiviovv, ovxs xov fia&tjfiaxixov ivdixsxai slvai xovxov 
xov dgi&pov (o fisv ydg fiia&rjpaxtxog, iSadiacpogwv, 
xal xd dsixvvfisva xax avxov , wg inl xoiovxoic, dg- 
(toxxei) ovxs xov xwv sidwv ov ydg toxai f) dvdg 
ngtoxfj ix xov hog, xal xtjg dogloxov dvddog. "Ensixa 
ol Qyg dgidfiol ag Xsysxai, dvdg, xgidg, xsxgdg. v Aua 
A hi st. Metaph. S 

Digitized by GOOgle 


yaq ai iv tjJ dvddi xjj ngtixy ptvadsg ytvvm>xai, ffrt 
San eg 6 ngwxog unwv i$ dviowv (loao&ivxw* yog iy%- 
vsxo) tlxe aXXtag. "£rteixm d toxai y ktiga uovdg xr^q 
ngoxigag, xal xtjg dvdSag xqg ixxovtwv Baton ngoxiga. 
"Oxav ydg %xi>, to uiv ngoxtgov f to di vaxtgov ' jm4 


'ifr* iTtudrj Am nq&xov fdv avxo to *v , bttuxa tmv 
aXXtov iaxl u nqaxov w m dtvxtgov di usx ixtiro , xal 
ndXiv xglxov • to dvuxsgovuiv una to devxtgov, xgizov 
di uexa to ixg&xov ev • wor« ngoxtgcu av tfov ai /to~- 
vddeg, tj ol agi&uol it iv nlixavxai • olov iv xn 6W& 
xgixrj uovdg saxai, wglv xa xgla ttvm, xal iv x$ xgid&* 
xexagx^ xal r) Ttipmr\ y jxglv tov$ ciQt&uovg tovtqv?. 
Ovd&lg uiv ovv xbv xgonov tovi** sXgiyuv aixmv xag 
uovddag aovupXrjxovg uvau *Eou di xaxa fiiv w« 
ixHvtav dg^dg , • tvXoyov xal ovxmg, xaxa uivxo* iij* 
aXri&eiav ddvvaxov. Tag xb yag uovddag ngaxigag 
tlvai svloyov, ilnsg xal ngmxri xig lot* fiovag, xal S» 
ngwxov. 'Ojiol&tg di xal dvddtg^ tlutg xaldvds 7roo>ii| 
taxi Mexd ydg to ngaxov , evXoyov xal avayxa2ov 
dtvxtgov xi slvai m xal ti devxsgov , xglxov xal avxm 
Si] td aXXa iq#&bg. *Aua d* dfupoxsgu tiytiv, povada 
xs una to h ngmr\v slvai , xal dsvtigav , xa* $vada 
7iqwtrjv, advvaxov, Ol di novovai uovada u£* xa* &t 
ngwtov , dsvxegov di xal xglxov ovx Irt • xal dva&a 
ngtaxyv, dsvxigav di xal tgixriv ovx It*. &av*qov di 
xal oxt ovx ivdixsxat, u aavu(&nxoi Ttaoai at u4>va- 
dsg, dvdda efaai aifx^v xaitgiada, xal ovxm lovg 
allovg dqiO-povg. Idr U yaq waiv ddidyogoi ai f*o- 
vddsg, av xs duxcpigovaai towny kxaairjg, dvdyxn 

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doi&fufo&cu top aoi&pip xata typ nooo&eoir* oXov, 
tip Svada nov$ t$ krt 9 aXkov krog nooott&iptog u xal 
tip tgtadm, aXXov k*eg nqie r«$ $wi jrpoare^eyios * 
x xal tip ttrtoada wwitoH . Tovxvp Js ovrwv , adv- 
patop tip yipaaa* that tmp aot&fiup, wf ytppwsw in 
life dvddog xal iov k*6g. Mogtop ydo yipstat q dva( 
trig tomdog? xal uvxtj tifo tftoadog, Tov avtop Si 
jponov GVuflatru xui in I tup ixopirtov * dl£ ix trig 
SxmSog ttjg nqwxqq xal t^g aooiatov dvddog, iyivtto 
4 tttfdg, dvo dvadeff &**$' aitr^p tip SvdSa. El d* 
pij jxoqiov imtv aSty r) Svag , itioa Si nqooiatai pia 
dvag , xal f) dvag totcu ix tov hog avxoii xal aXlov 
kp&g. Ei Si tovtOj oix old* t» mIvui to htqov atoi- 
%Hqp dvddu adoanow* Movdda yito piav yeppf, aX£ 
ov dvdba tootopirtp. >T £*t nag avtriv tip xotddoc, 
xal aitip tip dvada, n»g aoovtm Slim totadtg xal 
dvadsg • xal lira toonop ix nootioup povddav 
xa) votiomr ovyx*ptm; ndpta ydf tavt iatl xal 
nkaopatwdtf, xal advratov that ngm^p dvada, 
tl& aitip tqiada ' iepayxt^ d* in t into earmt to 
$p xal ij aoonnag dvag ototvfia. Ei d' ddipa- 
*<* td (rvp/Saipotta , xal tag dgxdg tavtag «*- 
rat iMpatop, El pip ovr didawooi at popadeg bnoi- 
atovv oxo+cuoovv , tavt& xal toiavtf fasoa avpflai- 
W If apiywxg. &tf alaip iv aXXti dtxxyooo*, ccl 
d ipttp a&ttf aoi&fiw adwi<p6Q9i «XX^Xmg popxu, xal 
ovtmg 9vp§ahu xd dvazsoii.Olorydo ivtfj Stxddiavtjj, 
tretoi dtxa povadtg. 2vyx&x«i Si xa* ix tovtmp, xal 
ix dvo nertadtoVyfj Sixag. 'jStrtl d 3 ov% 6 tv^w» i^t&pog 
avtfi r t dtxdg (ovdi yds ovyxutai ix tuv xvxovowp 


Digitized by GOOgle 


nsvxddmv, wcmeg ovda ftovddav) dvdyxtj diacpigsiv 
xdg fiovddag xdgiv ir\ dsxddixavxjj, *Av ydg pr) dia- 
qpigtaoiv, ovd' ai nerxddsg dioloovoiv, i$a>vioxiv r\ £«- 
xdg' inet de diaqpigovoi , xal ai povddsg dioioovoiv 
tl dt diaq>igovo*, noxtgov ovx ivioovxai nsyxddeg aX- 
Xai , aXXd povov avxai ai dvo , % toovxai ; cJtc di /uij 
ivioovxai, axonov tlx ivioovxai , nolo, eoxat dsxdg 
iSixtivoav; Ovydgiaxiv Higa dsxag iv ty dsxddi nag' 
avxrjv. 'AXXd fir\v xal dvdyxrj ye firj ix twv tvxovamv 
dvddwv trjv xsxgdda ovyxsiod-ai. *H ydg aogiaxog 
dvdg t tog opouu, XotjSovoa xyvagiofiivfjvdvdda, dvo dvd- 
dag inolrjoe. Tov ydg Xrjy&ivxog i\v dvonoiog* Exi to 
thai nagd xdg dvo fiovddag, xtjv dvddayiow xiva, xal 
xijvxgidda nagdxd g xgsig fiovddag, nwg ivdixsxai?Hydg 
(it&itu&axigov &dx(gov, &ansgXevxog av&goanog, 7ra- 
ga Xevxov xal av&ganov (jiixixu ydg xovxtav) V oxav rj 
&axigov &axsgov diaqpogd tig, Sonsg av&ganog nag a 
x6 Z&ov xal dtnovv, *Exi xd piv dopjj ioxiv ev ,xd de 
jil&i, id di &iow <$v ovdiv ivdix*xai vndgxwtctig 
povdoiv , i$ <av i\ dvdg , xal r\ xgiag ' aXX' wontg ol 
dvo av&gtanoi ovx & xi nagd dfiq>oxigovg, ovrwg 
dvdyxrj xalidg povadag • xal ovx ox* ddiaigexoi, diol- 
oovoiv. did xovxo ydg xal ai oxiypal ddiaigstoi. 
'AXtf o(u»g nagd xdg dvo ovdiv sxtgov i} dvdg avTatv. 
*AXXd nrp ovdk xovxo del Xav&dvfiv, on ovfifiouvti 
ngoxigag xal vaxigag tlvai dvddag • afiolcog ds xal 
tovg aXXovg dgi&fiovg. Ai pev ydg iv tri rsxgddv 
dvadtg, saxaoav aXXyXaig Spa ' dXH avxai xav iv xg 
oxradi ngoxtgal tloi, xal iyivvrjoav, (Sonsg f) dvdg 
xavxag y avxai xdg xsxgddag xdg iv irj oxxddi avij. 

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M ETA PH. LIB. XII. CXlll.) CAP. 7. 277 

"/lore si xal fj ngatt] dvdg idia, xal avtai idiai tivsg 
taovxai. c d' avtbg Xoyog xal inl twv fiovddtav. Al 
yag iv Tjj dvddi ty ngwtj] (lovddsg , ysw&ai tag tit- 
tagag tag iv ty rag ad i. "flats ndaat al povddsg 
Ideal ylvoviai, xal avyxslastai idia g Ideojv. "flats 
drjlov on xaxsTva, dtv idicu avtai tvyxdvovaiv ovaat f 
avyxsl/isva sat at,, o\ov y sit a £wa <pair\ rig ovyxtZa&ai> 
ix £aW, si tovttav idiai tialv , 4x J&W idiai eoovtai. 
"OXwg ds to noiuv tag fiovddag dia<pogovg onwoovv, 
atonov xal nXaopatudsg • Xiyto ds nXaopatiodsg , to 
ngog vno&saiv /3t(3iao[isvov. Ovts yag xata to no- 
abv, ovts xatd to noibv bgSfisv dtayigovoav povdda 
povddog* dvdyxr\ ts % Ivov % aviaov slvai dgidfibv, 
nana fisv , aXXd (idXiata top fiovadixov. "flats si 
firsts nXsltav fjCrjts iXarttov, Toog. Ta ds 7aa xal oXiog 
adidqioga , taitd vnoXappAvonsv iv tdlg dgid-fidig. 
El ds fir), ovd* al iv tavtj} tft dsxddt dvddsg adid<po- 
goi saovtai, laai ovaai. Tiva yag aUiav e£si Xiysiv, 
6 qxxoxwv ddiatpogovg slvai ; *Eti si anaaa^ovdg xal 
(Aovdg aXXr), dvo * tj d' ix tr)g dvddog avtrjg fiovdg, 
xal fj ix tr}g tgiddog avtrjg dvdg, satai ix diaqptgov- 
awv ts, xal notsgov ngotiga tr)g tgiddog rj vatiga; 
MaXXov dssoixsv dvayxaiov ngotigav slvai' % ftsv yag 
otfia tj] tgiadi, t] d afia tjJ dvddi tow fiovadtav • xal 
r)fis7g (isv vnoXappdvoptv oXwg sv , xal sv xal idv r\ 
laa fj avioa , dvo slvai • olov to aya&bv , xal to xa- 
nbv, xal av&gwnov xal 'innov. Oi 5' ovtta Xiyovng, 
ovdi tag povadag. EX ts fit} iott nXtiwv dgi&fibg 6 
tt)g tgiddog avtrjg, % b ttjg dvddog, &av(iaot6v • sV ts 
iatl nXtUav, drjXov oti xal laog svsoti rjj dvddt. "fiats 

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olrtog adid<pogog uvitj ijj dvd&v al£ ovx Mixstai, ti 

ngatog tig iotiv agi&fibg, xal devrtgog , ovdi Koovtai 

at idsai dgt&fioL Tovto fib yaQ avtb of&itg iiyow- 

oiv, oi diacpbgovg tag povddag abowttg sivat, tXntg 

idiai eaortat, wontg tl'gijtai nqoxtQOv. 'jEr ydq 10 

ildog. At di fiovddeg u ddidyogot, xal ai dvddtg xal 

cti TQtddeg ddidcpOQOitQonat, • dibxaltb d<p&f*ua&<u 

ovtmg sv , dvo, fir) ngoalafijiavofieyov ngbg 1$ vndq- 

Xovti, dvayxaZo* ccvioig Xiyux, Ovtt ydg r\ y&tan 

lotatixtrjg dogiatov dvddog, oit tdiar ivd$z srcu 

tlvcu. *£yvndg^u ydq ktiqa idea iv ktiga' xal nana 

id tidy, hog fisQt]. Aib ngbg psv trjt vnb&tatv, o^- 

&ag IdyovotP, oXtog d* ovx bg&wj. IJoXXd yog dvcu- 

govoir • iml tovto y avtb *x*t* ttvd (prjoovotr dno- 

giav , note gov Star agi^fi&fAtx xal ttniopsv b , ' dvo, 

tgla, ngoaXafi/Sdvoxttg agt&povfisv, 17 x«tcJ fiigldas • 

itoiovptv de dfMpotigug, /lib ysXolov, tavttjv tig tij- 

XtxocvTrjp iqg ovaiag dvdytiv dta<pogdv. 


ndv-uov de ngmov naXvg t/«* diogiotto&cti , rig 

dgt&fiov dicKpoga, xal fiovccdog, «* tattv, Avayxy dq 

jj xata to noobx, 7} xata 10 noibr dtcHptguv. Tovtvtx 

<T ovditegov yairetoii evdixsod-ai indgxov > <&£ % 

agi&fibgxatatbnooov. JEl di dy xal ai fioxadtgtt^ no* 

OtadUytQQv, xixr dgi&pbg dgi&fiov diicpwsr, bhogtjp 

nXij&Mtmv povddfAV.*Eti nbtegow aingmtah (itilovgq 

iXdttovg,xalvat$goy ijiidtd6aonr,rj tovvarriov. Hart* 

ydg tavta aXoya. *AXXd pr)* ovdi xata to noibr tiia<p±- 

geivtvdsxerai. Ov&ex ydg avtaig olov te vndgxnx na- 

Gogvottgorxal toig dQt&fioigcpotoivvndQxetvjbnoibv 

d by Google 

META PH. LIB. XII. (XIII.) CAP. 8. 270 

xovTiQOOV. "Exiovx av anb xov &bg xovx avxougyivQi- 
xo, ovx av anb xi\g dvddog. Tofiivydg ov notov r\ 5i 
no ah v, notov. TovyctQ nolld xa ovxa elvai, cniict avxq 
19 a)vaiq. EL&* a$a ifou nmg allots, Xexxiov iv dgxji 
fiulwju xovro • xal diOQioxiov neql fiovddog diayo- 
qdg , fidlioxa fdv xal dioxi avayxri vjioiqxuv. JEi di 
fiil, xiva ldyov<Hr; Q Ou psv ovv iI'jisq elaiv aqi&pol al 
tdiuh ovxt ovpfilyxdg xag fiovddag an da a g ivdixexai 
elvai yavtqbv, ovx* aovjtplyxovg dllr^loug ovdixeqov 
ttbv xqontav. 'Alia pr)r, ovd ' wg exeqol xiveg liyovoi 
iuq+tuv otQidpw, liyixtu xaX&g, Elol d' ovxoi 0001 
tdiag fiiv oix oi'ovxai elvai, ovxe anlcog, ovie wg aoi- 
&fiovg iiya; ovoag* xade fta&rjfiaxixa elvai, xal jov g 
dqi^jtovg nouxovg xuv ovxmv, xal UQXV avx&v elvai- 
avxb to tv..Aionov yaq, xb tv ph> elvai xi ngtixov xm 
ivatv, moneoixttvol <paof dvdda dexav dvddtovfitj, pride 
XQiddaxuvxQiadMV, Tovyaq avxov loyov navxaloxb. 
JSt psv ovv ovxtag exei T « n *Q* tov aQi&fibv, xal dnou 
rig elvai Tovfia&TjfiOTMOv fiiovov, ovx taxi xb ev dgxv- 
3 Avdyxt] ydo dtaqteyeiv xb tv to xoiovxo xwv alhav 
povddwv* JEi di xov jo, xal dvdda xivd ttowt^v t&v 
dvadwv. 'Ofiotaig be xal xovg dllovg aQi&fiovg xovg 
iqpsSqg. El Si eon xb sv aqx\» ivdyxri paHov, wanty 
IJldxwv tleyev e%eiv xa neql xovgaQr&fiovg, xal elvai 
xiva noioxrjv dvada xal xftidtia, xal ov ovpftXyxovg 
Aval xovg aQi&jiovg nqbg dlli^lovg. "Av d 3 av nd- 
lot xig xi&ji xavxa, efyyxai oxi advvaxa nolld ovp~ 
(tabu, leilld pip avayxq ye, t) ixshmg, rj ovitag txttv. 
Slax u fifjdexiQtog , ovx av iv&ixoito elvai xbv dqi- 
$fibv x<*QMibv. &avtQQ* d 7 ix xoitav, xal oxixeiQiQ*** 

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Xiyttai o rghog tgonog, to tivai tov avxov dgi&fxby, 
tov twv sidwv , xoItov fia&rj^iaTixov. [dvdyxrj ydg 
tig filar do$av ovpfiaivtiv dvo ipagTiag. Outs ydg 
fia&rjfiaTixbv agi&pbv svdixeTou tovtov tlvai tov igo- 
nov, oUA' idiag vno&iastg imo&spevov, avdyxrj (irixv- 
vuv , baa i$ tdlg cog ildrj tov dg&fibv Xiyovo* ov[i- 
fiaivti, xal Totvxot dvayxaiov Xiysiv. c dk tmv nv&a- 
yogsiwv Tgonog , trj pev iXdxTovg dvax*g*iag «£«* twv 
nqoitQov tlgijpivav, ttj ds idiag higag. To fih ydq 
pi] xaQiorbv noisiv tov dgi&pbv , dcpcugsirai noXXd 
twv advvaTtov • to ds t« aw/iata i£ dgi&pwv thai 
ovyxsifxeva, xat tov agi&fibv tovtov sivai /na&Tj^ari- 
xbp, a&ivaTov ioriv. Ovts ydg octofia fisyidrj Xeysiv 
•dXrj&ig. E1& oti paXioTa tovtov «#€( Toy xgonov, 
ovx a% ys povadtg (tiys&og sxovoi. Msye&og d' i$ 
adiaigeTW ovyxfiod ainag dvvaTov; 'AXXdpyv, b ydg 
dgi&nrjTtxog dgi&pog, povadixog eotiv ' ixsivoi di 
tov aQi&fibv , t« 6Vt« Xiyovoi. Ta yovv ^swoijff orcr 
ngoodnxovoi Tolg oMfictoiv, wg i$ ixeiv<ov ovtwv twv 
ctQi&fiwv. "Etl toIvvv dvdyxtj fisv, el'nig ioriv «o»- 
&(iog TcSf bvTtav Tt xa& ainb , tovtov slvai Tiva t&v 
ugripivtav Tgonwv. Ovdsva ds tovtov ivdixtrai. 
Qavsgbv ovv mg ovx soriv dgi&giovTtgToiaVTfjqpvaig, 
oXav xaTaoxevd£ovoiv 61 ^woiorov noiovvxsg avxov. 
*En noxsgov kxdarrj povdg ix tov fisydXov xalptxgov 
ioao&ivTwv iouv, jq rj fih 4x tov fiixgov , r\ d' intov 
fitydXov; Ei fisv di\ ovTwg, ovts 4x naVTwv xmv oroi- 
X*i<av txaoTov, ovxe ddidq>ogoi at povddsg. 3 Ev Tjj pip 
ydg to fiiya , iv t$ ds to (tixgbv vndgx*h ivavriov tjJ 
(fvau ov. "ETialiv ttj rgiddi avif t nwg ; Mia ydg 

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METAPH. LIB. XII. (XIII.) CAP. 8. 281 

mqixxrj. jtXXa did xovxo Vatag aixb xb Iv notovoiv 
iv xta ntQiiTw pioov. El d' kxaxiqa xav fiovddcav Ij? 
dp(poi6Q(t)v iaxlv ioao&evjoiv , ff dvdg ixug laxou pia 
xig ovoa q>voig ix xov fitydXov xal pixqov ; rj xidioi* 
ae* Trig uovddog; *Exi ngoxiqa y fiovdg xrjg dvddog. 
'AvouQOVfuvrjg yaq , avaiquxai t] dvag, 'idiav ovv 
idiag dvayxaiov avxi)v slvat , nqoxiqav ovoav ideas, 
xal ysyovivai nqoxiqav ix xwooovv. C H yaq doqioxog 
dvag, dvonoiog r\v. *Exi dvdyxrj ,1)101 antiqov tlvai 
xbv dqixrpov, rj ittnsqaapivoy. Xmqioxbv yaq noiovoi 
xbv dqt&pov. "Jloxt ovx oldv xs pr) oixl xovxoav #«- 
xeqov vndgxsiv. °Oxi piv xoivvv annqov ovx ivdixi-^ 
xai, drjXov, Ovx$ yaq nsqixxbg o anuqog iaxiv, ovxs 
aqxiog • r) d$ yivioig xotv aqi&pfi>v , rj neqixxov dqt- 
&(40V, r)aqxiov iaxlv ad* idl fiivxov kvbg eig xbv aq- 
xiov ninxovxog, mqixxog* todl ds xr)g piv dvddog ifi- 
mnxovorjg , 6 i<p hog dtnXaotatoptvog • wdl di x&v 
nsgixxw y b SXXog aqxwg. "Exi ti nccoa idea xivog, 
ol ds aqidfiol idiai , xal 6 annqog laxat Idea xivog, 
r\ xibv alo&rixwv , rj aXXov xivog* Kaixoi ovxt xuxd 
xr\v &ioiv ivdi/tfai, ovxt xaxct xbv Xoyov. Taxxovoi 
d* ovxa xag idiag* El di ntntqaofiivog , psxqi no- 
oov ,' Tovxo ydq dti Uyto&ai, ov fiovov oxi, aXXd xal 
816x1, 'AXXa (Ayr ti pixq* trig dtxddog 6 aqi&fibg, 
oianig xivig (paoi, nq&xov pkv xaxv imXetyti xa eidrf' 
olov ti tatty f) xqiag avxodv&goanog , xig eoxat aqi- 
&fiog avxo'iniTog; alio yaq txaoxog dgi&ftbg, ptXQids- 
xddog. 'Avdyxrj dr) x&v iv xovxoig dgi&fiojv xivag fT- 
vai. Ovoiat yaq xal idiai ovxoi. AXX opwg Mei- 
ipti * xct xov fcoov yaq r\dr) vndqSu. c Apa di di\Xov, 

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ot* h ovrwg % tgiitg avtodv&Qomog > xal at aJUUa 
tgidfag. "Ofiotm yog b to** ovto?? dgi&poZg, "Jlor* 
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avtoixaarog or «w&gwnog • tidi jk^ 9 oU' ar&gvnoi 
yt, Kal et /tftoog o ikotttmv tov ptitw>og , o & tow 
ovpfiXfiTW povadwv, t&y b t*> «vt£ agt&pZ. JSl d* 
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o ar&gemog idtat psgog tnnov, d dvag 6 av&QGinog. 
"Atonov di xal to i% /uir Stxdtiog «*V«* Id's**', §?£*- 
«odo? £i pij , jKijds T«y txopbtop ag&pmv, v £it oe 
xae cart xa* ylvttai IVia xai wr cJo*iy ovx tOTO, O if2ore 
dia t/ ov xaxe/iwv stflij iotb; Ovx aga alua to «$$*, 
Iot/v. "fit* crrorrov c* 6 agt&pbg b ptyg* tqg &xa- 
dog pallor n op, xal tUdeg cttmjs trig Sexddog , xa/- 
toitov pb ovx &m ybtoig wg frog, ii\g& iatL IZu- 
g&rtat d' , tag to(? pixy* tfg dexddog ttltiov ovtog 
agi&pov. rtvy&Gi yovv tot enopenx , olor to xtrbr, 
avaloylav, to negntov, td aAAa tci toi ai/Ta bnog tijg 
dtxddog, id «& yao to?; dgxaig anodidoaaiv, olop 
xivriow, otdoiv, dya&bv, xaxor tab* alia toigagt- 
&poig. Jio to h to mgntov. M ydg b tn roiddi, 7toj$ 
^ ntviag ntgittov; "j&ti td psyi&ri xal ooa Toiai/Ta, 
pixgi nooov • olor % ngatu ygapptj dtopog, c7t« d*uct£, 
flTot xai Tort/Tct al;??* Stxddog. *Eti si eort x^Qiotog 
b aQi&pbg , anoqr\atLBV air tig , nvitgov ngotSQOV to 
h, % fj tgi&g xal rj Svdg. r Hi pb dtj ovr&ttog 6 
aQi&pog, to tv • ji de to xa&olov noortoov xai to 
tldog , b aoi&pog. 'Exdotr) yaq t&v povddtov poQiov 
tov vgi&fiov ag vlrj , 6 d* wg tldog. Kal &m pb 
*>g t} bg&fj nqotiga t^g oUiag, ott Sgiotai xal t5 

Digitized by GoOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XII. (XIII.; CAP. 8. 283 

liytf • tor* d' c»f tf o£aer, or* [tfyoe, ual tig tuvnp 
diCUQUiau € Jlg miv di) vlij jj o$£a, xcri to oroix&ov, 
xcu f} uovitg y noott^ow - ig di xaia to tfoof nal Tif* 
o volar Tijy »«Ta Toy lo/o*, if oo£^ xai to oilo* to ix 
t>Jc vlr\g not rov ttdovg. *Eyyvttoov yao tov iftovf 
xat of o loyog, £p<pw ytviaei d* vottQow. JIng ovv 
ccgXV *° & ; on ov dutiqtiw ipmotv, allot idtaiotrov, 
xcu to xa&olov xalti Mi piyovg, nal to otoi/iTov • 
aJUa toottov alitor to /Mr xaTa Ao/or , to fle xaTa 
Xgovov. Jlotiovg ovv to tr afxy, u Jlan$Q yig tfyif- 
ia^ xai^ ootfij ti}s oSdctg, nal avtif iuth^gdoxunoo* 
tiqa thai, x&l kxatioa ftia. 'AMCporiowg drf noiovo* 
to lv ao**??* *Mu Je aowccTox. To jiex fdo a>s aWoc 
xa* { ovale , to £' w? /t/eoos xai a>£ ttoiy. "ffar* ybq 
nmg tv kxajsqov , tjj uir aky&d*, dvwaun* %ty*o 
aqi&pog fir tt , xal pi} »$ acaoo* , aAA* rrtooy II W- 
0«w povadm, ioitto, qtaaiv 4rttlBz*ia d* ovx fern 
^o>«? fecareoa. AZriov di trig ovpficurovorig afiao- 
xiag, SuSua ix to? fia&iiuatmy l&Ttftvov, xaliuivv 
loywv %w¥ xa&ilov. "fiat it ixiirtnv piv ig atiyuip 
to & xa* t^v ao/i)? ettrptar. *H yao fiorag otiyu^ 
adeiog Am. Ka&antQ ow xeri trtooi tiveg , in tov 
SXaxioiov t« oVra ovmi&taav xal ovroi. "Jlott yi- 
yyticu f) fiovag vlrf wv aoi&it&v , xal Spa nooxioa 
Tijg dvddog , naltv Si vatiqa , &g olor ttvbg nal hog, 
nal eldovg t^g tivitog ovorjg. Jia b* to na&olov 
C^Tfly to xcrtfiyogovfitvov h, xvl ovrtog ig peoo$ I3U- 
yor, xavra di a/ucr t» uvttjj* abvvonov inuoxw* •£* 
di to €? aifjo del fiovov aStiov drcu (ov&bpI ya(? 
duMpiou, y ou iqx*i> *«♦ n H& dvag duuoetif, y di 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fiovdg ov) oftoiotiga av si'rj tw kvl avxui i\ povig* E& 
d 3 fj fiovag, xyxsivo xrj fiovddirj xtj dvadi, v JloxB ngo- 
xiga a? ti'ri ixaxiga r\ fiovag trig dvddog. Ov qpaai 
di. rewwoi yovv xx\v dexdda ng&xov* "Exi bI boxiv r\ 
dvag I'v t* avrtj xal rjxqtag avzrj, ctficpo) dvag. *Ex xi~ 
vog ovv avttj tf dvag; 

'AnogtjOBiB d* av rig , xal intl a<prj fiev ovx eoxiv 
4v xotg aoi&fioTg , to d' 4q>s!;itjg , oavav fir] ion, fisxaSv 
fiovddatv, olov xwv 4v xtj dvddi , rj xjtj xgiddi , noxsgov 
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xiga xav 4<pB$yg, rj x&v fiovddav bnoxsgaovv/Opofag 
di xal nsgl x<av voxigav ysvav xov dgi&fiov ovfifiai- 
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fiivydg 4xx&vsld<av xov fisydXov xal xov (iixgov notov- 
<7iv * olov 4x paxgov fiiv xal figaxiog , id fiyxTi • nXa- 
xiog di xal oxsvov, xd ininsda- 4x fia&iog di xal xansi- 
vov t xovg tiyxovg. Tavxa di ioxiv el'drj xov fisydXov 
xal fiixgov. Tr)v di xaxd xb ev dgxyv, aXXoi aXXtag 
xt&iaai x&v xoiovxgjv. Kalivxovxoig di fivgia q>ai~ 
vsxai xd xb ddvvaxa xal xd nXaofiaxmdrj , xal xd vne- 
vavxia ndoi xolg ivXoyoig. *AnoXsXvfiiva xb ydg «A- 
XrjXwv ovpflalvBi, si pt] ovvaxoXov&ovoi xal ai dgxai m 
woxb slvai xb nXaxv xaloxsvbv, xal fiaxgbv xal figaxv. 
JE* dixovxo, %oxai xb inlnsdov ygafifiij , xalxboxs- 
qbov , inlnsdov, "Exi di ytavlai xal oxypaxa xal xi 
xoiavxa, n&g dnododrjosxai ; xavxo xb ovpfialvsi toig 
nsgl xbv dgt&pov, Tavxa ydg nd&ri fisyi&ovg ioxiv 
dXX? ovx in xovxmv xb [liys&og, Sonsg ovd* 4$ sv&sog 
xal xapnvXov xb ftrjxog, ovf 4x Xsiov xal xgaxiog xd 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XII. (XUI.) CAP. 9. 285 

OTCpSflt. IlaVltdV d$ XOtVOV 10V10DV , 07180 ioil ItoV «*- 

dtov imv wg yivovg ovfi(3aivti dianogiiv , oiav ng &p 

T« XU&oXoV, TZOTtQQV 10 %MOV (XV TO iv TW fwft), ^ £t«- 

^oy avTov fcJov. Toviov yctg pi\ xwgioxoi) piv oviog, 
ovdspiav noirjau anoqiav /woitrrou 5i, dwftfp o» 
tovt« Uyoviig cpaOL , iov kvog xal x<5v aqi&pvv, ov 
Qadtov diaXvoai* tl /uj) gydiov dti Xtyeiv to ddvvaiov. 
"Oiav yao vojj ttg iv ifj dvddi 16 tv , xal oXatg iv ao*- 
&p(b, noiegov avib vosi n, rj litoov; Ol fiiv ovv id 
peyi&rj yswutow ix ify loiavir^g vXr^g , itegoi, di ix 
irp any prig* rj di oiiyfitj avxolg doxii elvou ovx tv, 
al£ olov 16 iv, xal aXXrjg vXrfg y oXag ib nXrid'og , aXX' 
ov nXy&ovg • mol (ov ovdiv r\iiov avft^aivsi id avid 
anoQuv. El fiiv yag fiia r\ vXfj, lavib ygapfxr) , xal 
inintdov, xal oitqtov. *Ex yag twv aviav ib avib 
xaltvsotai. El di nXtlovg al vXai, xal kiiga fiiv 
yga fifing, iiiqa di iov inmidov , xal aXXij iov otz- 
geov, ytoi, dxoXovdovoiv aXXr\Xaiq t r\ ov. "jloie lavid 
avfi^otiai xal ovicag. "H yao ovx ** H T ° ininsdov 
yQappriv, rj total ygapfirj. "Eii, nug fiiv ivddxstai 
sir a i ix iov kvbg xal nXij&ovg iov agi&fibv , ovdiv 
imxuqujai. "Ontog d* ovv Xiyovoi , lavicc avfifiai- 
-yet dvox*QVf aitsq xal lolg ix iov hvbg xalix lyg dvd- 
5og tyg doqioiov. '0 fiiv yag ix xov xairjyogovfiivov 
xct&oXov yevva iov agt&fibv , xa* pi iivbg nXq&ovg • 
6 d* Ix iivog nXrj&ovg, iov ngojiov di, Tr\v yag 
dvada ngwiov 11 ttvai nXri&og. c 'jlois diacpsgH ov- 
-div, d>g uniiv* aXX' al anoqlai aviai axoXov&rjOOv- 
oi, fii&g, i} &ioig, fj xgaoig , rj yivtoig , xal oaa aXXa 
lOiavxa. MdXioia d' uv ng im£fiii}oeuv , il fiia 

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btiatn Mowff , 4k xbog *nb. Ov yig *n *vt4 y$ to 
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y' ovtw • to J 3 in poglov, aXXag fr* noXXag *WZ*- 
gtlag. Ufaaigvt&P xt yog txaow apaytcuiop rfwn 
xS» pogltop, $ nXn&os Am f nal typ po*i** ***ig* 
rn* , *al pv OTOi/etw *&w to h **l to 7tl^og • n 
yag popug ktaorij ov* t* nXn&ovg *a\ hog. TEri oh- 
&b aiUo noul 6 Xiymrxovto, aXf if agt&pop &*&>*' 
To yag nXri&og &dt«ig&*>p totb agios' §ti £w 
riop xa I negl xovg ovm Uyortag » notsgov Snstgog 
o agt&pbg, $ nemgaopivog. 'TxtffZ* yag, «* f©i*«, 
ieae nm*g**pivop nXq&og, & ov «* nrnegvopipat po- 
r«de$- *«**©£ fro? &tits fagop ainb-nXtyog xal nXtf 
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'Opoiwg b* xal ntgl orvypw ** u § £Wf*\ *** *°* 
ototxtlov, 4$ 6v no*ov*t ti pty&ri. Ov yag pi* yt 
popop atiypn ionw awj- ?&p yovp $XX»p ouypup 
indirtfi in tbog; Oi yig d*j s* yidiwvt'ipazog wo$, 
*a\ avTtjg <myrfg> UXXa nip ovU pogia adtaigtta 
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&pbg, l£ ajkatgit&p ovyusixm* xa di pey&hl, ov. 
Ihapxa ty xavxa. *«i aXXa towxvf* <pap*gbr n*t- 
u, St* advvmop, thai xbv agi&pov *al va /if- 
yi&fi ^c*o*dt«. iBit ** to dt«ymp$p tovg ng&- 
tovg negt twv c^i^/rff, <yt}fiu<fp, ow t« ngay- 
para tavta ov* ortu aijj^, ««^J W ta^a- 
&)v avTQi*. Ol pip yag t« pa&Tjpatina popup wot* 

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ovtttg nag a %i alo&qta , ogirttg tip ntgl to tldi\ 
&voxig*ut» **l *l*oiw, censor your aub tov udyiiMov 
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fitfij fiovlopwo* afia xal agi&uovg noifiv, oif bgw- 
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fia&nfiatuiog agt&pbg naga toy tiStjuxov, tor aitov 
sldrpixov xal padiyAatiMb* inoii^aav agt&pbv t£ Xo- 
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xal ov fta&rjuccTutdg vno&iotig liyovow. e O 8e ngw- 
%q$ -fripsvog ta tidy ehcti , xaligi&povg, ta tl'drj xal 
to pa&ripatixa tlvai svloymg l^u^aey. "Slots nav- 
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og&wg. Kal avtol di bjioXeyavaw ov tavta Xiyov- 
%*S > aJ^ia ta fyartla. Attiov di , on ai vno&iaug 
%al ai agxal yuu&fc. XaXtnov d' in ftrj xaXug ifov- 
xmt Xiyuv xai&g, xat *Eitixagpoy. Idgtlwg te yag 
liytiui, xal *v&ito$ qpoiVcra* ov xccXatg tyov. IdXXa 
7ISQ* fiw t&p uQi&jiwy, ixaya tadir f nogr}fieya xaldico- 
QiQfUva. Mallov ypg av ix nluovuv hi nsia&eirj 
%yg 7wtt$o^isvog ' tisqa d* to nsto&rpai py 7Ttnuofii- 
vog, ov&kv fimXXov, JJegi ds tmv ngtitav dgxiov xa * 
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cda&rjtag+ itigag ovolag, ixofiBvov iati &C(OQijoai twv 
tlgnpivw*. *E7t& ovv Xiyovoi. tweg toiavtag thai 
tag iddag xal tovg agi&fiovg, xal ta tovttav otoix^tot 
%wv ovttav eh a i Gtoix&a xal agxag , oxtTttiov ntgl 
Tovtup, tiXiyovat* xal n&g Xiyovatv. Oi fiiv ovv 

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agiSfiovg noiovvtsg fiovov, xal tovtovg fia&rjfiotTt- 
xovg, vategov imaxenttot. T&v de tag idiag Xeyov- 
twv, afia tov te tgonov &eaaait av rig, xal xr\v «7io- 
giav tijv ntgl ctviwv. "Afia yag xa&oXov Tseng ovaiag 
noiovoi rag idiag , xal naXw wg xagiordg xal twv 
xa&* txaatov. Tavta d* oti ovx ivdixstai, dirjno- 
grjtai ngotegov. AXtiov de tov avyaiftai tavta, stg 
tavtbv tdig Xiyovat tag idiag xa&oXov , oti toI$ «u- 
o&fjToig ov tag avtag ovaiag inoiovv. Ta fiiv ovv 
iv tolg aia&rjtolg xa&ixaoia guv iv6fii£ov, xal fievuv 
ovdiv avttov • to de xa&oXov naga TaDra elvai re, xal 
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iXiyofiev, lxivt\ae fiev JSantgatrjq dia tovg ogiafiovg* 
oi flip i/dgioi ye twv xa& exaatov • xal tovto. og&tag 
ivor^aev ov ^w^/aaff. JtjXdi de ix twv egytuv. *Avev 
fiev yag tStv xa&oXov , ovx eonv imotrjfirjv Xa fitly. 
To de ^o)^/Jf<y, aVtiov twv ovfiftaivovtav dvo%egwv 
- negl tag idiag iotiv. Old* c5? avayxalov, eVneg eoov- 
tai'ttveg oiolai naga tag aio&ritag xal geovoag, 
XWQiotag elvai' aXXag fiev ovx elxov, tavtag de 
tag xa&6Xov Xeyofiivag iti&eoav. "Slate avfi/Sai- 
vei oxtdbv tag avtag qpvoeig elvai Ta? xa&oXov xal 
tag xa&ixaotov. Avtij fiev ovv avti} xatf avttov etfj 
tig av dvoxegsia tStv eigrjfiivow. 

V ' x '0 dexal tolg Xiyovai tag idiag ex*i> tiva anogiav 
xal tolg firj Xiyovaiv, xal xax agxag ivtoigdiaitog^ 
fiaoiv iXex&rj ngotegov , Xiyafisv vvv. El fiev yag 
tig fiv\ &yoei tag ovaiag thai xexoogiofiivag , xal tbv 
tgonov tovtov wg Xiyetai ta xa&exaata t&v ovtwv, 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XII. (XIII.) CAP. 10. 280 

axxigrjoBt, i*r\v ovolav ag (HovXopt&a Xiytiv. *Av di 
xtg &ij xag ovoiag x^gioxag , nwg dfjon xa oxoix&x 
xul tag aqxag avxwv ; Ei Ifiiv yag xa&ixaoxor, xal pr\ 
xa&oXov, xooavxa laxat xa ovxa, ooaneg xa axoix^ia, 
xal ovx imojrjTct xa <rxo<£&a. "Eoxmoav yag at fiiv 
iv x$ <p<ovj] ovXXaftal , ovaiai , xa ds oxoix&a avx&v, 
QXOhxuaL Ttov otoi&v avayxi\ dy xo B A thai, xal 
kxaoTTjv xwv ovXXafivax filar , tl'nsg fiy xa&oXov , xal 
xw ti'dsi al avxas, aXXa fkla kxdoxrj x$ agiS-fi^ , xal 
tods x*, xal pi) bptoyvfiov, *Exi d* avx$ b ioxiy, tv txa- 
oxov Ti&iaow. 3 Eav d* al avXXa@al 9 ovxta xal i£ aw 
iloiv. Ovx Xoxui aga nXiloi aUpa hog' ovde t&v ok- 
Xbiv oxoixsiwv oi&ev xaxa xbv avxbv Xoyop , ovneq 
ov$i rtov aXXuv ovXXa^wv t) avrrj aXXri xal aXXij. 
AXXa fijjv u xovxo, ovx buz at naga xa oxotxua fx«oa 
ovxa, aXXi fiivov xa oxotxua. "Exi ovd' imoxr\xa 
xa <jToix&ia. Ov yap xa&oXov y £' imoxrjfirj xSiv 
xa&oXov. dr{kov J' ix xwv anodttiewv xal xwv bgi- 
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ywvov dvo og&alg, si /ur] nay dvo og&ai • oid* on 
odl b ctv&gomog £ioov , et firj nag av&gajnog £wov. 
AXXa fit\v it ye xa&oXov ai agxal, rj xal al ix xovxw 
ovaiat at xa&oXov , eoxa* fit] ovoia ngoxtgov ovoiag. 
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^ a QX*l> xa&oXov. Ilgoxtgov Ss to oxoixhov xal fj 
a QXV> w igxrj xal oxoixhov ioxiv. Tavxa xs dy 
navTa ov^^aivu evXoywg, oTav ix oroixefav xe 7rote5- 
a* xa^ Idiot g, xal naqa Tag xbavxb Bidog^xovoagidiag 
xai ovoiag, IV xi almoiv tlvat, xtx^^iOfiivov* El di 
fiil&kv xwXvn (oonsQ inl xStv xrjg (pwvrjS ^xoyft/fijv, 
Arist. Met a ph. T 

Digitized by GOOgle 


noXXd elyat, ta A xal ia JB, xal prj&iv uvai naqa ta 
noXXd avtoaXopa, xalavtoffita, taovtat tvtxd yexov- 
tov aneigoi at ofiotai ovXXafiai. To di xr\v inioxi]- 
prp bIvcu xa&oXov naaav , wot* dvayxaiov tlvai, xal 
tag twy ovtmy aqxng xa&oXov elvcci y xal fir) ovaiag 
xs^WQcafihag , $zu pdXiot dnoqiav twf hx&srto)V. 
Ov firjy aXXa &m piv wg aXq&ig to Xtyojitvov , cor* 
d* w g ovx uXfj&ig. C H ydq iniatrjfiri , wonso xal to 
inioxao&ou , d&xov • wv to pkv dvvapig , to di 4viQ- 
yua. C H pi? ovv dvvapig wg vXr\ tov xa&oXov ova a 
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twog. jiXXa xata ovpfo(lr\x6g r) oyig to xa&oXov 
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xal o &eMQt2 6 ygafipattxog , tods to aXq>a f aX<j>a- 
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ta ix tovxtav xa&oXov, maktg inl rwv dnod$i$mv. Ei 
di tovxo , ovx tatat x moiatotf ov&ev , old* ovoia. 
AXXa dr)Xop oxi lor* uh ig imaxr\ar\ xa&oXov, «rr* 
tag ov. 



HbqI fih ovv trig ovaiag tavtrjg tiorjo&w xooavxa* 
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di tr)g twv ndvxwy aoxyg fir) ivdixttat nqoxtqov Tt 
slvcu, advvatop av ei'^ ti\v aqxh v ti*QW ** ovaav. 

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METAPH. LIB. X1H. (XIV.) CAP. 1. 291 

thai aqxW' °^ ov € * T 'S **¥ 0i l***™ agx^thai, °i'Z 
y hsgov, aXX' jj Xtvxov • thai fiivtoi xa&* vnoxsipi* 
vov, xal sttgov ti 6V, Xtvxov thai. Exuvo yag ngo- 
tsgov totat. 'AXXa priv yiyvttai navta i£ ipavtiw 
tag vnoxBipivov tivog. *A»ayxr\ aga paXiata iv totg 
ivavtloig tov& vnaqxw. °Asl aga navta t« ivav- 
tia xatf inoxupbov, xal ov&b x^oiotov * »X£ wa- 
mg xal yaivetai, ov&b ovola ivaniov , xal 6 Xoyog 
fiagtvgii. Ov&ev aga t&v bavthw xvgfag agxv 
navtmv, aX£ ktiga. Ol dstofotgov tav ivavtiwv noi- 
ovoiv vXtjv, ol ph tw bl t t$ i'otpto avioov, a>g tovro 
tr\v tov nXyd-ovg ovoav tpvoiv • oi 8$ ttu §y* to nXi\- 
&6g. rsw&rtai yag ol agi&pol roig f*h ix trjg tov 
avlaov dvudogtoH psyaXov nab pixgov, tcji d* ix tov 
nXri&ovg vnb trig tov bvog de ovoiag apq>olr. Kal 
yag 6 to avvoov xal h Xiywv ta otoixua , to 6" avi- 
oov ix tuyaXov xal ptxgov dvada, £g w ovta to av+> 
oov xal to piya xal to fiixgbv Xtyu, xal ov diogifa 
on Xoyw, agi&py 9' ov. UU« pi\v xal tag agxag 
a oxoix&a xaXovort, oi xctXwg anodidoaoiv ol fit* 
to fidya xal to fiixgov Xiyovtcg fiCTa tov kvog , tgia 
TavTa otowua tStv igi&pwv, ta pb dvo, vXrjv, to d 
h, ti\v pogyriv • ol de to noXv xalbXtyov, ctito \iiya 
xal to fiixgov , fityi&ovg olxtiotega ti)v (pvaiv • ol ds 
to xa&oXov paXXov inl tovttap to vnsgixov xal to 
vnsgexofiepov. Aiayign tovttw ov&iv a>? unuv, ngog 
ma tmv ovfifiaipopttov, aXXa ngog tag Xoyixag pbvov 
dvoxsgslag ag (pvXattovtai, dia to xal avtol Xoyixag 
<piguv tag anotitituq. IlXr)v tov avtov ys Xoyov 
iotl , to vmqixov xal to inegtxopevov elvat agxag, 

T 2 

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aXXa juij to fityu xal to (hxqov, xal xovaoi&pbvnQo* 
xtoov iris dvadog, ix x&v oxoixdoiv. Ka&oXov yao 
afucpoTtya uaXXov iaxf vvv di xb pip Xsyovotv, xb d 3 
ov Xiyovoiv. Ol di to extoov xal to aXXo nqbg xb 
iv avTrti&iaoiv, ol dixo nXrftog xal to iv. El di ioxiv 
(a>O7T£0 (iovXovxai\ xa ovxa i$ ivavxiatv , tw fli gV} ij 
ov&iv ivavxiov , ij ei'ati aoa psJUUs , to 7iXt)&og * to 
6*' avioov, xta taw* xa* xbsxspov, tw TauiaJ, xa* to 
aiUo xavry , piaXioxa piv ol to «i» tw 7rA?/#t* avxixi- 
&ivTsg> fyoviai xivog dofyg* ov ^r\v ovd 3 ovxoi txa- 
ycuff. "Eoxai /«o to IV bXiyov. nXtj&og piv yao bXi- 
yoxrixi, to di rcoAv tw 0A//9 avxlxenai. To di IV, 
j ^ ot» pixoov onffiaivet , yuvsqov. Kal iv navxi ioxi t* 
frs^oy vnoxeiptvov * ofo? eV aopovia disoig , iv di /*«- 
ye'd-et ddxn/ilo?, j} Trove, ijf xi xoiovxov • eV fli (v&ftotg 
fiicig, ?J ovXXafti]. 'Oftoi&g di xal iv fidget, oxa&pog 
tig wgiofiivog taxi • xai x«t« tkxviwv di xbv avxbv 
xobnovy h ptv xoig noiotg noibv xi, iv dixdig noaolg 
nooovxtadtaigsxov. Tayag fiixQdv, xb pivxaxaxb eldog, 
to di nqbg xyvctl'o&fjoiv, ig ovx ovxog xivbg xa&* eavxo 
_ , ToovnXy&ovgxwog'xalbaQi&pbg^xinXri&ogiiefAexQr]- 
[*6Vov,xalnXri&og pfogwv dibxal tvXoyoag oixtauxb ev 
aoi&fiog 9 ovdi ydoxbfiixoovpixQa, aXX' agxyxulib pi- 
T^ov,xa*Toey. Jildiaslxb avxo XivndDX SiV7r <*°'h*b ui- 
xqov • oloy it 'iTtnog xb pixoov, tnnovg xal il av&qm- 
nog, av&qwnovg. El 0° Sv&oionog, xal Xnnog, xal 
&tbg, xal faJoy, Xaatg xal b aoid-fibg aviwv eorat&ua. 
JSi d' av&QO)7tog xal Xevxbg, xal fiadlfrv , yxioxa ficy 
aQi&ftbg xovxtav , dta xb xavxq navxa vnaQX$iv xal 

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METAPH. LIB. XIII. (XIV.) CAP. 1. 293 

£vl xaxa xov agt&pov, Opwg tie yevav taxai o agt» 
&pbg 6 xovxtav, rj xivog aXXrjg xotavxqg ngoonyogiag. 
Oi di to avtaov wg %v xt, xrjv Svdda Si dogtoxov no*~ 
ovvxtg ftsydXov xal (itxgov, nogfa Xiav xiav doxovv- 
xtav xal dwax&v Xiyovof na&ij xs ydg xai/Ta, xal 
ovfifo/Srixota fiaXXov, rj vnoxslfitva xolg agi&polg xal 
xolg peyi&Boiv ioti. To yog noXv xal bXiyov, 
dgt&fiov * xal udya xal fitxgbv , fisyi&ovg, won eg cig* 
xtov xal negtxxbv, xal XsXov xal igaxv, xal sv&v, xal 
xafjtnvXov. "Ext Si ngog xavxy xy a/jtagxia , xal ngog 
xt avdyxr\ slvatxbfjiiya xalxb fitxgbv, xal baa xoiavxa. 
To Si ngog xt, navxw yxtuxa <pvotg rig i\ ovoia x&v 
xatTjyogtwv ion, • xal voxiga xov notov, xal xov no- 
aov. Kal nd&og xt xov nooov xb ngog xi &g ngot- 
Xix&y , aXX* oi>x vXtj % xt txsgov • xal xtp oXtog xoivu 
ngog xt, xal xolg pigeon avxov xal sl'deotv. Ov&iv 
ydg iaxtv, ovxt piya ovxt fiixgbv, ovxs noXv ovxe oXl" 
yov , ovxb oXtog ngog xt , 2 oix bxbqov xi ov, noXv jf 
hXiyov, tj fiiya tj fitxgbv, f) ngog xt ioxi. Sqfiuov d', 
oxt7)xtaxaovolaxtgxalovxtxbng6gxt,xbfiovov fir\ ttva$ 
yevtoiv avxov , fiySt q>&ogbv , fjLijdi xivr^otv , Sonsg 
xaxa nooov avtyoig xal cp&iotg, xaxa xb notbv cU- 
Xotootg , xaxa xonov qpoga , xaxa xijv oioiav rj anXwg 
ydvtotg xal (p&ogd, aXi oh xaxa xb ngog xi. *Avtv 
ydg xov xtvri&fjvat, bxi fib ftu£ov, oxi Si tXaaoov 
i} loov sax at, -fraxegov xtvrj&ivxog xaxa xb nooov, 
Avdyxtj xt btdoxov vXt\v ilvat, xb Swdfttt xotovxov ' 
«or« xal ovoiag. To Si ngog xt, ovxs dvvdfjttt ovoia, 
ovxs ivtgytln, '!dxonov ovv, fiaXXov di ativvaxov, xb 
ovoiag prj oioiav notuv oxotxtlov xalngoxtgov. w 1Yfm- 

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gov yag naoai al xattjyogiai. Eti di ta otoixtia, ov 
xattjyogettai xa&* &v a%oty&<** To di noli) xal blU 
yov , *al xwolg Kctl Spa xatijyogtltai tov agt&pov • 
xal to fiaxgbv xal to flgaxv ygapfirig ' *«» Ininedbv 
iou xal nlatv xal otevav. El di dq *«* eott **> nXy- 
&og, tov to piv ad oliyov, olov r\ dvdg • el yag noli, 
to IV av oliyov etrj • xav nolvanlatfeVij, olovf) dexag 
nolv • xal el tavtr^g prj ioti nletov r\ Ta pvgia , nag 
ovv totai ovtog i$ oliyov xal nollov 6 agt&pog,- '!» 
yag apqxo i'dei xatfiyogelo&ai , ij pydhsQOV vvv di 
etegov povov xatrjyogettai, 

CAPUT 11. 
c Anlag di del oxoneiv , aga tott dvvatbv ta aidia 
4x GTOixelwv ovyxuodai* vXyv yag f&t. JSTiWeroi* 
yag nav to ix jro»/aW. El toivw avayxt} i$ ov ionv 
(« xal atl ioti, xal el iyevito) ix tovxov yiyveo&ai* 
yivetat di nav ix tov dvvdpei ovtog tovto o yivetat 
(ov yag av iylyveto ix tov ddvvdtov, ovdi tjv) to di 
dvvatbv ivdexetat xal ivegyelv xal fiy , el xal ott pa- 
Xiota aei iottv 6 agi&pbg , ^ btiovv alio vlfjv tyov, 
ivdixoit av pr\ elvai, woneg xal to piav tipigav fyo** 
xal to onooaovv ett]. El d' ovtto, xal tooovtov /pd- 
yov ov prj ioti nigag. Ovx av toivw ei't) a'i'dia , t£- 
neg py di'diov to ivdexopevov prj ehai , xa&dneg 4v 
Slloig loyoig ovve(}r\ ngaypatev&rjvai. ^ El di iort 
to Xeyopevov vvv dlri&ig ua&olov , ot* ovdepia iatlv 
ai'diog ovoia, idv prj y ivegyeia, ta di otoixeia vXtj 
tijg ova lag , ovdepiag av sirj d'idlov ovolag orot/ftoi 
& &v iottv ivvnagxovttov. Eiol di tiveg, ot dvdda piv 
dogiotov Tioio voi to fietin tov hbg oioixelov, to d 

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Spioov dvoxsQOthovoiv tvXoywg, dia tcx ovpfialvovxa 
advrata • olg Tooavra povov acpyorjTouTtov dvox&Q<ov, 
Sou diatbnoi&v Toavioov xal to nqogit OToix£iov,avay» 
xalot ovpfiaivovoi TolgXiyovoip. v Oaa dexaolg zavtfjg 
%il\g dotyg, tavia xaxslpoig vnaqxup avayxaiov, iav tc 
top ddixbv iqid-pbv i$ avitov noitoaiv, iav titov pa- 
&7}paTix6v. JJoXXa phv ovv ia al'na Tyg inl taviag 
Tag alt lag ixjqonrjg, paXiora ds to anogrjoai aqxai- 
xmg. "Edo£e yaq avxolg navx toso&at, tv ret ovxa, 
ttvtb to op • et py -tig Xvott, , xal bpoo$ fiatituxou tcJ 
JIaqptvidov Xoyeo. Ov yaq pynoxB tovto ovdapjj 
sty a i pi iopra * aXXa avayxrj el vat to py ov du$ai 
oTi iarlv, Ovxa yaq ix tov ovxog xal ixXXov Ttvbg, 
tcx ovra eosG&ai, il noXXa ioxi • xahoi nqtoiov pev, tl 
to ov noXXax&g. To pkv yaq on ovoiav or\paivu, 
to d* ou noibp, to <V oti, noaov , xal Tag aXXag $r\ 
xaTriyoqlag, Holov ovv tu SvTa navxa ev , tt pi] to 
p?} ov eaten; noTtqov ai ovoiou, ij xa na&ti; xal tu 
aXXa dij opolwg , i\ anavxa • xal soxai tv to xodt xal 
to Toiopds, xal Tooords , xal xaXXa ooa tv ti oripal- 
ph. *AX$ axonov, p&XXov tie advvaxov, to plav qpvoiv 
tipol ysvopivyv ahiav tlvai, xal xovxov xal ovxog 
uvea avTov ovxog , to pkv rode tlvat, , to dk toiovdt, 
to dk Tooovdt, xbjk nov. "En en a ix nolov py ov- 
Tog, xal Snog t« ovxa; JloXXaxm yaq xal to pr\ ov, 
in t id n xal to ov. Kal to pkv prj av&gamov, or\pai- 
pu to py (lv6U To&L To dk px\ ev&v, to pi\ etvai toi- 
ovdl. To 8k pi) Tqinrixv, to py tlvai Tooovdi, 'Ex 
nolov ovv ovTog xat prj oyTOg, noXXa tu ovTa; Bov- 
Itzai piv di) to ytvdog xal TavTt\v t\\v opvoiv Xiysiv 

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to ovx ov, it ol , xal tov ovtog tit on a. JtS 
xal 4Xiy$to, ou del y/ivdog t* ino&io&cu, &omg xal 
ol ytoipitqat , to , nod w lav tlvat tip \ir\ nodiuiav. 
Iddvvatov di t*v& ovtotg tXBtv. Ovtt yaq ol yi<o- 
fiSTQctt ytvdog ov&ev vJtoTi&tvtai (ov yaq \v tw ovX- 
Xoyiafiw r k nqotaotg) ovte 4x jov ovtw fiy ovtog Ta 
ovta yivstai , ovdi (p&tiqttat. *AX£ htsidti to flip 
xata tag nttooug pr) ov, io«z*>S taig xatyyoglatg XI- 
ystai , naga tovto di tods , ag ysvdog Xiystai to fitf 
ov, xal to xata dtvapiv, ix tovtov ^ yivsoig iatlv, 
^4x tov firj itv&gwnov, dwafiu di av&qtmov, av&qu- 
nog* xaJ 4a tov firj Xevxov, dwa/m diXsvxov , Xsvxov. 
'Opolwg 4av te fv yiyvrjtai , 4dv tt noXXa. ftaivetai 
di y (rjtrjoig , n&g noXXa to ov, to xata tig ovaiag 
Xiyo/isvop. 9 Aqi&fiolydq xa»/uijx^ xal otofutta ta ytv- 
v<iftwd 4otiv. "Atonov drj to ontag fiiv noXXa to Sv 9 
to ti iott trjtrjoa*, nStg di, ij noia, % nooa, prj. Ov 
yaq drj ij dvctg ?; aoqiotog aitla, ovdi to fuyot xal to 
pixqbv, tov dvo Xtvxa ijf noXXa tlvat ^(W/uaia, y %v- 
fiovg , ij ox^f*otta. *Aqi&uol yaq av xal tavta rjoav 
xal fiovddeg. *AXXi (iijv elystavt inyX&or , tJdov 
av to aVtiov xal to iv ixeivoig. To yaq avtb xal to 
avaXoyov aitiov. Avtrj yaq f] naqin^aoig aitla xal 
tov to avtixsipsvov ^tovvtag , t& ovtt xal tw kvl, 4$ 
ov xal tovttav to ovta, to nqog ti, xal to Svioov vno- 
&uvai, o ovts 4vavtlov, ovt dnoqpaoig ixtlvwv, ftla 
t6(pvoig twv ovtav, ojontg xal to ti, xal to ttoiov. 
Kal £r)t$tv I'dei xal tovto, nug noXXa ta nqog ti, 
aXt ovx IV. Nvv di nwg fih noXXal povadeg naga 
to TigwTov tv, iriteitat. Jloog di noXXa Svtoa nctgt* 

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METAPH. LIB. XIII. (XIV.) CAP. 2. 207 

to Svioov, ovx St*. Kaitoi xQavtat *a* Xdyovoi fUya, 
jiixQov • TroAt',. oXiyov, i$ av ol dgi&fjiol* paxobv, 
figaxv y 1$ av to /ui?xo? * nXaxv, axtvbv t i$ av xb **/• 
nedov • /Sa&v, tanuvbv, £ av ol byxof xal ct* «*im5jj 
7iAf/w Xiyovoi xov ngog t#. Tovtois J^ t/ afrto? tov 
ttoAAoc eivai ;*Avdyxi) pfo ovv (aantg Xiyoptv) vwo- 
■dslvat to dvvdpu ov fxaoro*. Toi/to 6*e ngoaanstp^ 
vato 6 tavta Xiyav, tl to dwdpn ov todt xal ovala, 
fitj ov oe xa&* avxb, on to ttoo^ t*. 'flonsg ti tXntg 
to noibv, o ovxs dwctfiu iaxl to tv, ij to oV, ovt« 
a7ro'<jpeeoi? tov £v6$, ovt« tov oVto$, atf IV t* tw* 
ovxav • noXv xe fidXXov (aoneg 4X$x&rj) e* itfou nag 
noXXa to ovxa t /u?} ta 4? tiJ at/Tj} xatfjyogla tyxtlv, 
nag noXXal ovoiou > rj noXXa noid, uXXd nag noXXa 
ta ovxa. Tot fih ydg ovalai , tot Ss nd&rj, xd di 
noog ti. *Enl fiiv ovv twv aXXav xaxtjyoQiav , j£t* 
nvd xal SXXriv inloxaoiv , nag noXXd. diet yao to 
fir) x°)?w*<x thai, tw to vnoxtl/itvov noXXa ylvto&a* 
xal thai, noid T6 noXXa slvai xal noad. Kaiioi del 
yd tiva that vXr\v kxdota yevw nXqv xwqi<jxt)v ddv- 
vaxov xav ovaiav, IdXX* inl twv to'£« ti, $gat twa Xo- 
yov, nag noXXa to xodt xi, el fir] xt, tax at, xal tode t* 
xal cpvoig xig xoiavxij. Avtt\ de iotiv lx%i&w fidXXov 
r\ dnogia, nag noXXal ivfgytla overlap dXt ov pla. 
IdXXd fix\v xal el prj xavxov ioti , to tods xal to no- 
aov , ov Xiyttat nag xal dia tl noXXa xd ovxa , dXXd 
nag xal did tl nood noXXa, K ydq dqi&fjibg nag,- 
noaov ti oripabu * xal r) fiord g, u fir) pitgov, otixo 
xaxd to noobv adialgetov. Mi p&v ovv Itcoov to tto- 
obv, xal to tiioxiv, oxt ovliysxaixo tilotivsxtivog, 

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ovde n&g noXXa. JE* de xavxa, noXXag vnofi&yu b ili> 
yav ivavittoauq. *£juaTij<ws d' ay xig xrp oxetpiv 
xal nsgl xwv aQt&ptLv , nb&ev del Xafiuv xtjv nioxiw 
tog eioi. Tip piv yag idiag xi&sfusvy, nagixovxat 
xiveg aixlav xotg ovotv , eXneg txaoxog t<5v agi&fiwy 
idiot tig* Tj d* idea xoig aXXoig aixla xov slvai ov dif 
noxe xgonor. "Zjotw yag avxoiq vnoxtipevov xovxo. 
Tm ds tovtov pev xov xgonov oix oiopirw, dia xb rag 
ivovoag dvoxegelag bg£v naga tag idiag, wars dot ye 
xavxa pti notuy agi&povg. IIoiovvxi de agi&pov tbv 
[ia&rifiaxixbv, no&ev xexgv moxevoai <Sg ioxi totov- 
xog dgt&pbg , xal xl xoig aXXoig XQV<Hp°g; Ov&evbg 
yag ovxe <j)t)olv b Xeyiov avxbv elvai , «JU' ceviijr xiva 
Xeyei xa& avtT}v <pvsiv ovoav , ovxe yaivexai wf a£- 
xiog. To. yag dewgr t fiaxa xStv agi&fjmxixwv nana, 
xal xaxa xwv aiod-ritwv vnag£ei, xadaneg ilix&i). 
Ol (lev ovv xi&iftsvot tag idiag thai , xal dgi^ 
&povg avxag elvai xi&i(ievoi, xaxa xrp ex&eoiv kxa- 
oxov, negl xa noXXa Xafjtfiavtiv, xb kv xi exaoxov nei- 
g&vxai Xiyeiv , nwg, xal dia xi iaxiv, Ov fiyv , aX£ 
inel ovxe avayxaia, ovxe dvvaxa xavxa, ovde xov 
agi&pbv dia y$ xavxa elvai Xexxiov. Ol ds Ilv&a- 
yogeiot dia xb bgijtv noXXa xwv agt&ft&v Tn'tQr\ vnag- 
Xovxa xoig aio&r t xolg odfiaoiv , elvai fiev ugi&ftovg 
inoirjoav xa ovxa, ov xvgurtovg de , aXtf i£ agt&fuwv 
%a ovxa. Awl xi di ; .Sxv xa na&r] xa x&v agi&^wy iv 
ag/iovla vnagxu , xal iv iw ovgavw , xctl iv noXXoig 
aXXoig. Tolg de xbv (la&tjfiaxixbv ftovov Xiyovotv 
agt&/ibv, ov&iv xotovxov ivdixttai Xiyuv xaxot xig 

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METAPH. LIB. XIII. (XIV.; CAP. 3. 299 

vno&iow aXX' on ovxtoovrai avr&v ai inunifaiai, 
iXiytto, 'Huiig di yapiv thai, xa&dnto ttnofuv xal 
noottoov • xal dqXov ou ov xe^w^wjra* %d fia&rtfiatt- tH- 
*d. Ov ycfy ay xixvoiapiviav %a aa£f? v7ij}p/«* fr 
Totff otiuaoiv. Ol uiv ovv Ilv&ayoonoi, xaxd fikv 
%b toiovxov ov&tvl Ivoxol tioi • Kara fUvtoi to wo*- 
tiv i$ doi&umv id (pvoutct oifiata, to /uij fair*** jffa- 
Qoq fiT)$k xovyoTTjia , %xov%a xov<p otfjr a xal fidoog, 
ioixotoi mol aXXov ovoavov Xiynv xal ottfidjfuv, dX£ 
ov twv alo&tjTMV. Ol di x^ourtbv noiovrng, oil inl 
*&v ala&tjtvv ovx «arat ret dSuofiaia , a A^#*j di * a 
Xtyoutva* xal oalvti %i\v yvx*i v > thai tt vBoXaf$pd- 
rovoi, xal x*>Qurta thai. c Opoi<og di xal fa utyi&t) 
twv pa&riftaTMunf, Kal dr{Xov ovv Sti xal b toav- 
tiovfitvog Xoyog , to toavrla ioii • xa» S aqxi tJtioqti- 
&t}, Xvtxai to%g oviw Xiyovoi, did t« ovdauwg to rolg 
alo&rjtois vnagxcvrmv , to *ra#if vndgxti avimv iv 
tdig aio&ntoig. Elal dd tivtg o* ix tov nigata that 
*al laxata, tip piv otiyuiiv y gappy $> tavti\v d* tm- 
nidov , iovto de toD aTC^eov , oXovtai thai avdyxvp 
toiavjut q>votig thai. Ju $r} xal tovtov bgijtv tbv 
Xoyov, pq Xiav y paXaxbg. Ovtt yog ovoiai tial td 
Hojcaia, dXXa paXXov tavta ndyxa nigata, intl xal 
itjg (ladiotvg, xal oXutg xivfottig ioii ti nigag. Tavt 
ovv ioii tbd% xal ovala tig. *AX$ atonov. Ov pip 
aXXa tixal tlo%tS>vdt twv alo&r\Tiov toovtai nana. *En s $ 
tovtmv yag b Xoyog cfyijxe. did tl air x*QiOia totan 
*Eti di iniCyirjOfitv av ugpii Xlav rvxtorigSv ' ntqlpiv 
ovv tov uQi&ftov navtbg xa* t&v pa&ripaTixwv , to 
pil\H* ovpfldXXto&ai aXXtpioigtdnoottqa tolgvattoov. 

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3fiJ ortog yog tov dgt&fjtov, ov&& rjttov to peyi&fi 
toicu xolg fxa&fjfiaiixoi povor ttvai (pctpevoig. Ka\ 
tovxmv ftii ovt tit, f) tyvxh xal tot otafiaxa xd aio&rjxd. 
Ovx Ibtx* d* rj qyvotg ineioodttadrig ovoa ix xwv qpat- 
voufrw , »ontg pox&riQOi tgaytadla. Toiq di tag 
idtag xi&tpbou; , tovto ^ ixytvyu. Uoiovac ydg 
tot fisyi&rj ix iff? tJXi;? xot agt&pov- ix fiiv tiJs dva- 
dog to 1*17x17, rfx Tpiodo? fl* Xotog to inlmda, ix di trig 
xtxgddog ta oxigtd, rj xctl it aXXtav agi&ft&v. Jia- 
<pigu ydg ov&ir. 'AXXd tavta yz note gov idiai toop- 
to*, fftlgo tonog ovta}?, noil tl ovfipdXXovtai totg ov- 
ert* ; Ov&$v ydg , Money ovdi tot fia&tjfiaxixd , ovdi 
tavta ovfifiaXXnat. *AXXd fifjy ovd* vndgxn Y* tov- 
twf oi&iw S-mgrifia, ictvfiij tig PovXr]tou xivtiv to 
(la&fipattud , xal noiilv Idlag ttvdg do$ag, tar* d* 
ov xaXtnor bnototoovr ino&iosig Xafi/idyortag pa- 
xgonoi&v xal owsignv. Ovtoi fti* ovv tavtji ngog- 
yXtoxo ptyonoug idiaig tot pa&Tjftaxtxd,diapagtavov- 
otv. Oi di nguxoi dvo tovg dgi&povg notrjaavrtg, 
tow t* twv tidwy, nal tbv pa&tifiatutbv, SXXov ovd a- 
fi&g, ovx ligrjxaoir, ovt ix°** v ** v *ii*&v 9 ™g xai ix 
tlvog iotat 6 fAa&ripatutog. Jlotovot ydg avxbv a*- 
xa|v tov tidixov xal tov ala&rjxov. El ftiv yag ix 
tov fityaXov xal tov fitxg&i, o avxbg ixtlvy tax at, tw 
tnv idt&v , H aXXov di tivog fnxgov xal ptyaXov • to 
yag psyi&i\ noul • ti d' htgov ttigel, nXslm to otoi- 
Xua igil • xal si fp ti ixatiqov i) Agxv > *owov tt inl 
tovxoav taxattb hr. Zrjxfjxiov, nig xal xavxec noXXa 
to ev 9 xal afia xov agt&fiov ybeo&cu aXXmg, tj ^ frog 
xal Svadog dogioxov, advvaxov xat ixiivov. Tlivta 

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MET A PH. LIB. XIII. (XIV.) CAP. 4. 301 

drj tavta aloya, xal pdx*xaixal avxd kavxp%g,nalxo7g 
Bvloyoig' xal soixtv iv avxotg bivcu o 2ifiwvlb*ov fiaxqbg 
loyog. rfosxai ycto 6 paxobg Xoyog , wansq bxmvdovlmv, 
Slav pri&iv vyiig XiyaxH. <2>alvfxat 6$ xal ay-ret ta 
oxoix&a xb piya xal xb fitxqbv fioixv w? khtopma. Ov 
dvvaxai ydq ovdap&g yivvqoai xov aqi&pbp , dl£ ij 
%bv acp hog dinXaeiatofiwov. "Axonov di urn} yiviotv 
noisiv d'iditov ovxtov, fiaXXov d' |y n twv ddwdzmv. 
Ol fib ovv Hv&ayoQBioi, nbxtoov ov noiovotv ij noi- 
ovot yivtaiv , ovdiv del dtaxd£uv. ®av$Qwg yuq M- 
yovoiv wg xov ivbg ovaxadivxog, ti'x' 4$ imnidwv, tlV 
ix XQ ot <*$> '** & oniqfiaxog, d'x i£ av dnoqovatv «*- 
nuv , tv&vg to syyujxa xov dmiqov, bxi uXxtxo xal 
ineoaivsxovnb xov niqaxog. *AX£ insidij xoaponoiovvi 
xal (pvoixwg povXovxai Xeynv, Sixaiov avxovg i$tr&~ 
£eiv xl ntgl (pyottag, 4x di xqg vvv d(p&vai p+&6- 
dov* Tag yaq iv tdlg axwyxotg fyxovptv aqxag. 
"JIotb xal xiov iqi&fAWV xwv xohovxwv imaxmxiov xi\v 

Tov fib ovv mqvtxov yevwiv, ov (paoiv , wg df)- 
Xovoxixov aoxiov ovarig ysviostog. Tov.d* aqxwv> 
tiqwxov & avlotov xivig xaxaoxevd£ovoi xov psydlov 
xal fitxQoi) loao&ivjiov. Avdyxtj ovv tiqoxsqov vndq* 
ynv jrjv aviobxr^xa avxotg xov ioao&rjvai. JSi d* dtl 
i}oav ioaofjiiva, ovx dv i\aav avipa tiqojbqov, Tov 
yaq a el ovx eoxi nooxsQOv ov&iv. "jloxs (puvtobv oxi 
ov xov &eo)QT)oai tvtxev noiovoi xqv yiveoiv x&v ao«- 
-d-p&v. "Exst $' anoqiav xal evnoQ^aavxi imxiurjoiv, 
ft&£ %X H nqbg to dya&bv xal xb xaXbv , xd oxo*x&<* 

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xal al aqxal ' anogiav pkv ravitjv , nottgoy ioxl u 
txtivtov , olov (tovXofit&a Xiyuv avtb to dya&bv xal 
to agiatov , rj ov , al£ voxtgoysyrj. Hagd fiiv Ttoy 
&toX6ya>v toixtv bfnoXoytia&ai t&v vvv tioip , ol ov 
<paoir, alia ngotX&ovorig ryg t&v ovttay <pvotwg, xal 
to dya&by xal to xaXby ifitpaiyto&ai. Tovto di 
notovaiy svlaftovptyoi ctXf}&ivr}vdvax*QW>y avfifiai* 
Pti toig liyovoiy, wontg fyiot to h, djfxtjy. "Eati d* 
fj dvaxigtia , ov did to tjj agxji t0 *^ dnodidovai wg 
vndgxov, alia foot to to tv dgxyy, *<*' VQZV* &$<rtot- 
Z*ioy, xal toy dgi&fibv ix tov hog. Ol di noitjtal 
ol agxaloitavttj bpofag g paaiXtvup xal agx* 1 * <?<*- 

V_ oh, ov tovg ngmtovg , oioy Nvxta, xal Ovgavbv , % 
Xdog, rj xal'jlxearov , alia toy dia. Ov firjy allot 
tovtoig fiiv dia to ftnapdlluv tovg agxovtag ovft- 
fiaivtt toiavta Xsytiv • intl ol y% (itfjiiyp&yoi oritur, 
xal to fifi uv&ixwg tavta Xiyuv , olov toegsxvdtig xal 
tttgoi nytg , to ytyyf^oav ngwtor agiotov ri&iaoi, 
xalolpdyoi' xal tmv vatigmy di ooqwv, olov'Efi- 
ntdoxXijg t$ xal *Aya£ayogag , o piy tfjv opiXlap otoi- 
Z&ov, b di tov vovv HgxW noirjdag. Tuv di tag oxt- 
yr\tovg ovalag Xtyortwv , ol fiiv <paoiv avtb to h , to 
aya&bp avtb thai. Ovoiav parrot to tv avtov $ov- 
to thai udliota. *H piv ovv anogla avtrj, notigtoc 
del Xiyuv. Oavfiaotbv d', ti t$ nowim xal aifiio* 
xal avtagxtotdttu tovt avtb ngtatov, ovy. wg dya&bv 
vnaQxeitb avtagxtg xal fj ooitygia. 3 AXla'pi}v ov 

-** di aXXo ti a(f&agtov, ij dioti tv sx*h ovd' avtagxcg. 
flaJB to fiev q>dvai tr\v dgxv v toiavtr^v elvai, evlo- 
yoy dXfi&ig thai. To (livzoi tavzrjv thai to tv , ^ 

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METAPH. LIB. XUI. (XIV.) CAP. 5. 303 

sifi^tovto, otolxuov te xal axoixnov agt&pwv, adv- 
vatov. 2vp(lodvu yag tioXXt) dvoxigeia, %v tvioi <psv- 
yovtsg uTtugr\xa<Hv, ol to bv fisv opoXoyovvtsg agxyv 
that 7tgi»tr)v xal (rtoixsloVy tov agt&fiov di xov fia- 
&t)fiaxixov. "Anctoou yag at fiovaSsg yiyvovxai onsg 
uya&ov xt , xal nolkfj tig anogia aya&wv, ™Exi i\ 
xa si'drj agi&pol, xa si'dri navxa on eg aya&ov xt. 
AXXapyv OTOvpovltTaiTi&sTOi tig stvai idiag. Eiptvyag 
twv aya&wv povov, ovx tfaovxtu at ovaiai idiai* si da 
xal xwv ovouov, navxa xa £cocr xal xa <pvxa aya&a, xat 
xaptxixovxa. Tavxi xt St] ovp(!}aivuaxoiia,xal to «V«y- 
xiov oxoix&ov, ilit TtXri&og ov, sVxsxb aviaov, xalpiya 
xal fiutgbv, xa xaxov avxo. Jionsg b ftfo t<pevy$ to aya- 
dbvngoaanXuv t$ Ivl, *>g ivavxiov ov,iimdfj iSivavxiwv 
yy&veoig, xb xaxov xip xov nXrj&ovg opvotv tfoar olds 
Xiyovai to avtaov xov xaxov <pvoiv. 2vp(laivM Si} nav- 
xa tit ovta finixuv xov xaxov , IJw ivbg avtov tov 
bog , xal fiaXXov axgatov petixHV xovg agi&ftovg , *) 
xa fiey&d-rj , xal xb xaxov tov aya&ov x^oav elvat,, 
xal [ttxizBiv xal ogiyto&ai xov qp&agxutov. &&agxv- 
xov yag xov ivavtiov , xb ivavtiov. Kal si wonig 
iXiyofitv, ot*iJ vlti iaxl xb Swaps* exaoxov, olov nvgbg 
xov ivsgysia xb dwapn nvg, xb xaxov %oxa* avxo xb 
dvvafiu aya&ov. Tavxa dy navxa ovpfiaivsi, xb 
f*ev ot* agxyv naoav otoix&ov noiovoi, xb d' oti Ta- 
vavtla agxctg, xb ti* oxtxb £v agxyv, %0 ^ ° u tov § <*?'" 
dpovg tag ngmtag ovolag, xal x®gvoxag t xal tidy. 
CAPUT y (j 
El ovv xal xb fit} xi&iva* xb aya&bv iv xaig a$>- 
Z<*igt xal xb xi&ivai ovxmg idvvatov, drjlov on a* 

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<*QX ati °^ x oqdutg anodidoptai , ovdi at nQtotcm ov- 
ale**. Ovx oo#w£ d* inoXafipdvu , ovd* it rig na- 
9«t*o{e* tag tov oXov outfits t# twv frowv not (pvtur 
ox* 4{ aooiottap di, dtl to tsXttotsoa. Jio xal inl 
jwv notitwp ovtug %x*ip yaolv , waie prjdi op t* thai 
to h aito* Eial di xal iptav&a tileicu at aojfa* 
4$ cSy tovto. "Av&qcotios yao av&QWtov ytppy , xal 
ovx tatt to aniqfia no&top. "Atonov di xal to tonov 
apa %<hq oieqtoig to"ig pa&iipatixo'ig noirjaou. e 
pip yao tonog , xwv xo^ txaaxov Idtog 9 dto XMQiora 
tony, ti di fia&rifiattxa, ov nov. Kal to tlnup pb, 
oti nov lotai, ti di iotkp o tonog, fif\, cut on op. "jEdei 
di tovg Xiyoptag ix aTO«/fi/a>v elpai to o*to , xal tmv 
ovttav to nq&ta tovg agi&povg, duXopipovg nag 
aXXoiS aXXov toilv, ovno Xiyup, tiva tqonop o aqi&fios 
iouv ix tw dQX<av,noMQov fjiiliH, 'aXX' ovnnappixtor, 
to, t« yiPOfitpov , Htsqov ovx total x^oiotop to sv, 
ovd* ktioa <pvotg* ovdi flovXoptat* IdXXa ovp&doii, 
HotttQ ovXXa($r\v. *AXXa &iotp t% dpayxij vndgzuVy 
xal x^olg o powp pov\ou to h> xal to nXy-frog. Tovi 
total ovv aoi&pbg , popag xal nXq&og > V *b er xtu 
Spioop. Xal inel to ix tivwv tlvcti, ear* pip ig iw- 
nctQxovToav, cot* di a>$ ov\ notigwg 6 aoi&fiog ; OvJtt 
yao wg ipvnaoxopttop ovx iatip, dXX 3 rj (ov ydptoig 
iouv, aX£ wg anb oniofiatog. 'aXX* ovx otop tc tow 
ddialgttop ti antX&iip , aX£ tag ix tov ivavxlov py 
vnofiivoptog, 3 AX£ ooa ovztog iotl, xal i$ Skkov ti- 
vog iouv vnofiipoptog. *E7tel roivvv to ev , o flip t« 
nXrj&et, ag ivavtiov ji$y<uv , o di tw avioyt, a>g Jb*^ 
t^» kvl ZQunevog , &g i$ (vaviitov av ti'ij o aQi&pog. 

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METAPH. LIB. XIII. (XIV.; CAP. 6. 305 

"Egtiv aga tl etsgov, i$ ov vno/jievovtog, xalSarigov, 
ioilv 7} yiyovev. *'£tt ti de note, t« pev aX£ boa i$ 
havxitov ft olg iotiv ivavtia,q>-d-eigttai t xav 4x navxbg y, 
o de dgi&pog ov ; ITegl tovxov ydg ovdkv Xiyetai,xaiioi 
xal ivvnaQxov xalpr\ Ivvndgxov, qp&dgei to ivavxiov • 
olov to veixo g, to piypa. Kaltoi ovx idee ovydg ixelvo 
ye ivavxiov, Ov&ev de diogioxai, ovde bnoxegcog oi 
dgi&pol al'noi tw ovouov xaltov elvai, noxegov atg 
ogoi , oiov oxiypal twv ptye&wv • xal wg Evgvxog 
'harts Tig , dgi&pog twog , olov , odl per dv&gwnov, 
odl de Xmtov * woneg oi tovg dgi&poiig ayovtsg eig tot 
ax^OLta tgiytovov xal tetgdyoovov, ovxwg a<popoiovv- 
t«* iptjyoigtag dyogpdg twv q>vtmv, "Hott bXoyog, 
7j avpqxavia dgi&pwv; bpoiajg de xal av&gomog , xal 
twv aXXwv exaoxov. To, ds dq nd&rj, nwg dgi&pol, 
to Xevxbv xal yXvxv xal xtegpov / "Oxi de ovx oi dgi- 
&pol ovoiat, ovde xijg pogtpyg alxioi, drjXov. *0 ydg 
Xoyog , ovoia' b d' agi&pbg vXrj' olov oagxbg tj 
baxov agi&pog , rj ovoia. Ovt<o tgia nvgbg , yrjg 
de dvo • xal del b agi&pbg og av y } nveov iativ , rj 
nvgivog , ij yrj'ivog, */ povadixog. AXt f) ovoia to 
toaovde sheet, ngbg to tooovde xata trjv pfeiv. Tovto de 
ovx eotiv dgi&pbg, dXXd Xoyog pi^etog dgi&fiav owpa- 
tixwv, rj bnomvovv. Ovt&ovv tw noiijoai avxiog b agi- 
<d-pog, ovte oXwg agi&pbg, ovxe b povadixbg,ovxe fj vXrj, 
ovte Xoyog , xal eldog tiov ngaypattov. 'AXXd prjv, 
ovo cog to ov evexa, 

'Anogycrtie d' av tig xal ti to ev (an , to dnb 
%SiV dgi&fiwv, to iv agi&fxo) eivat trjv pi&v , ij iv cv- 
Arist. M&TkVH U 

Digitized by GoOgle 


Xoyioty , r) iv nsgitta. Nvvl ydg ov&sv iyiuvott- 
gov, tglg tgia av rj to fisXixgatov xsxgafiivov • aXXd 
pdXXov (jjcpsXrjasiF.v av ovdsvl Xoyw ov • vdagsg de , y 
iv agi&pw dxgatov ov. *Eii oX Xoyoi iv ngoo&iaei 
dgidpuv sioiv, oi twv pfesav ovx iv totg agi&fioZg' 
olov, tola ngbg dvo, dX£ ov tglg dvo. To ydg aito 
dtt yivog dvai iv talg noXXanXaoidoeoi. fLots dst 
(iBTDUU&ai, TW t8 A to otoix*iov> s\p ov A B T, xal 
tw A , twv A E Z. "fiats tw aitta navta. Ovxovv 
totai nvgbg BET Z, xal idatog dgi&fibg dig tgia. 
El d* dvdyxrj navta agi&pov xoivwvtiv, dvdyxrj noX- 
Xa ov(i@alvHv id avtd. Kal dgi&fibv tov avtbv tw - 
ds , xal dXXto. ~Ag olvtovt aXtiov , xal did rovto 
ion to itgdyua; rj adr\Xov, olov iotitig twv tov r)Xi- 
ov yogwv dgi&pbg, xal ndXiv twv trig oeXrjvrjs , xal 
Twy £<wwv ys kxdatov tov (Hov xoe* r)Xixiag ; Ti ovv 
x(oXvh ivlovg psv tovtoav tstgaydvovg sivai, iviovg ds 
xvflovg xalXaovg, tovg dsdmXaoiovg; Ov&ev ydg xta- 
Xvsi ' aXXa dvdyxrj iv tovtoig atgiqpsa&ai, d agi&fiov 
navta ixoiviavsi, ivsdixtxb ts td diaq>sgovta vitb 
tov avtbv agi&pbv nintsiv. Slat d tiolv o avtog 
aqi&fibg ovvspefirjxei, , taitd av rjv dXXrjXoig ixiiva, 
to avxb sldog agi&fiov e%ovta • olov, r\Xiog xal azXrj- 
vrj , t« avtd. *AXXa did ti alna tavta ; Ema fisv 
qxovrjtvta, kntd ds xogdal rj agpovlai, btta ds ai 
. JlXsiddsg, iv kntd ds bdovtag SdXXn svid ys, evict d' 
ov' kmd de 61 inl Orjfiag. Ag ovv otv toioodl b 
dgi&fjibg niyvxs , did tov to , rj ixuvoi iysvovto kitri, 
♦} r) IlXudg kntd dotigav iativ ; r) ol fisv did Tag 
nvXag , r) ciXXrjv tivd aitiav; El ds fifislg ovtng Aqi- 

Digitized by GOOgle 

METAPH. LIB. XIII. (XIV.) CAP. 6. 307 

xtfiovfisv, ti\v de agxxov ye datdexa, oi de nlelovg, 
4 7i el xal to X *P Z, ovfjiqxaviag xpaolv thai , xal oti 
ixelvai tgelg , xal tavta tgia. u Qzi de pvgla av t\r\ 
toiavta, ov&ev fiiXsi. To ydg r xal P, sit) av ev 
OTjptlov. El d ote dmldoiov twv allot* txaotov, 
alio d* ov. Aitiov d 3 , oti tguov ovttov tonwv, ev 
i(p hxdotov iniqpigetai tw oiypa. diet tovto tgia 
piovov iotlv, all' ovx o& ctl ovfi<p<aviat tgtlg • intl 
Tileiovg ye al ovfMpwvicti ' Iviav&u d* ovxixi dvva- 
tai. "Opoioi dt} xal ovtoi tolg agxaloig 'Ofifjgixolg, 
ot fiixgdg Ofjiototijtag oqwoi, peydlag de nagogmoi. , 
Aeyovai de tiveg oti nolla toiavta, olov a% te [xeoai, 
i\ fiev ivvea, r\ de oxxw. Kal to snog dsxaema, ioa- 
gi&pov jovxo kg. Baivetat de iv per tw dt$iw ivvea 
evllafialg • iv de t§ dgiotsgco , oxtd. Kal oti loov 
to diaoirjpa , ev te tolg ygdfifiaoiv an 6 tov A ngog 
to SI , xal ano tov fiofjifivxog inl t%v o^vtdtrjv ved- 
tTjv iv ailolg , r\g o dgi&pog ioozrjg it) oloptlla tov 
ovgavov. *Ogav de del fin toiavta (ov&elg ydg av 
anogrjoeiev) ovte liyeiv ov&* evgiaxeiv iv tolg d'idloig- 
in si xal iv tolg qp&agtolg • all* ai iv tolg agt&fjiolg 
qyvosig alinaivofievai, xaltdtovxoig ivavxia, xal oloig 
td iv tolg fia&rjfiaoiv , ag (lev leyovoi tiveg xal ai'tia 
noiovoi tr\g q?voeoig, eoixev ovtaoi ye oxonovfievoig 
dia<pevyeiv. Kat ovdeva ydg tgonov tuv dttogtofie- 
vwv negl xa^ dgxdg y ov&ev avxwv ai'xiov iotiv. € Jlg 
pevxoi noiovoi (pavegov , oti to ev vnagx^i, xal life 
ovotoixiuQ inl t?/s tov xalov , to negittov , to ev&v, 
to loov, al dvvdpeig ivltov agi&fAtov. "Afiot ydg <agai 
xal dgi&pog toioodi • xal t alia dy ooa ovvdyovoiv 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ex iwv ficc&rifiatixwv &£<ogTjfiai(ov, ndvxa xavxrjv sx si 
xrjv dvvafiw. Jib xal touts avimxibfiaoiv. v Eoxt yag 
ovfxPsPrjTtota fxev, aXU oixsta aXXrjXoig nana, ev ds 
xo avdXoyov. *Ev kxdoxrj ydg xov ovxog xaxrjyogia, 
low to avaXoyov, tag svfrv b> fiyxei, ovioog iv nXdxei 
to ofiaXov i'owg iv agi&fiw to nigixxbv , ivdi xgoa 
to Xsvxov. v Exi ovx oi iv xolg ti'dsoiv dgi&fiol 
aVxiot twv agi&ftwv xal xav xoiovxwv. diaqpigovai 
ydgixsivot aXXrjltav, oi loot, el'dei. Kal yag ai po- 
vadeg. "jloxs 6ui ys xavxa , ti'dr) ov noirjxiov. Ta 
ftsv ovv ovfiftaivovTa , xavxd xs , xav txi nXeiw ovva- 
X&sitj. "Eoixe ds xexpygiov tlvai xo noXXa xaxona- 
•d-eiv ntgl xijv yivtoiv avxwv , xal (irjdsva xgonov Sv- 
vao&ai, ovvugai, xov firj jfcaotora slvai xa fia&rjfia- 
XLxa To>y alo-d-rjxatv atg sviot Xiyovoi, prfis xavxag 
uvai Toe^ agxdg. 

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negi Ovqavov xai neql rev^aewg 

xal (pfroQag. 










L I P S I A E 

18 31. 

Digilizedb, G00gk 

d by Google 


Cap. 1. Quid tit obicctum phytices. Corpus esse per- 
fectam magnitudinem absolutamque. 2. De motu qua- 
tuor elementorum, praeter quae aliud quoddam simplici- 
usque ac divinius sit corpus priucipiumque, quod suapte 
natura iu orbem. vertatur. 3. Hocce corpus neque grare 
uec leve es»e y nee genitum, nee corruptible: nee augcri, 
nee minui aut alterari. 4. Motui circulari non eue con- 
trarium motum rectum, nee diversorom cireulorum mo- 
tus esse contrarios, si ab iisdem signis yersus eadem fiant. 
5. Nullum corpus, quod in orbem moyeatur, esse infini- 
tum. 6. Porro, ueque quod ad medium, nee quod ex 
medio feratur, infinitum esse. 7. Universi corpus non 
esse infinitum. 8. Non plures esse possecoelos. 9. Unum 
esse coelum et sempiteruum. 10. Veterum examioantur 
sententiae de ortu aut interitu coeli. 11. Quot modis 
aliquid dici soleat generabile aut non generabile, corru- 
ptibile aut incorruptibile, possibile aut impossibile. 12- 
Quidquid or turn sit, illud etiam interire ; non autem in- 
terire posse, quod ortu car eat. 
Arist. ue Coelo. 

Digitized by GOOgk 

L I B R I II. 

Cap. 1. Quae supra dicta siat de aeternitate coeli , ex 
eoruni etiam sen ten ills probari posse, qui alia ratione de- 
mons trandi utantur. 2. De coeli partibus, et an d extra 
habeat aut sinistra. 3- Quare plures sint circulorum la- 
tiones. 4. Coeli figuram essesphaericam. 5* Quare coe- 
lum hac neque alia ratione feratur, 6. Lationem coeli 
es»e uniformem. 7. De asms, eorumque motu. Astra 
nee ignea esse, nee in igne ferri. 8. Astra eodem circu- 
lo cum coelo ferri. 9. Refeilitur Pytbagoricorum ratio, 
ponentium, corpora coelestia sonum harmoniamque effi- 
cere. 10. De or dine astrorum. 11. Astrorum esse figu- 
ram sphaericam. 12. Ob quam causam coelestinm cor- 
porum motus multipli centra iuxta cfistantiam a primo 
orbe. Et quare in primo orbe multae sint stellae, in re- 
liquis singula e. 13. Expenduntur veterum sententiae de 
tcrrae positions et situ, an moveatur an quiescat , et de 
figura eius. 14. Terram non moveri, sed quiescere. Fi- 
gura esse rotundam, et minorem reliqnis astris. 

Cap. 1. Veterum de genera tione et interitu opiniones. 
Ostenditur, ex superficiebus non posse componi corpus. 
2* Necessc esse, simplicium corpornm aliquem motum 
naturalem esse ; alia esse gravia, alia levia. Alium mo- 
tum cssti naturalrm, alium vtolentum. 3. De dementis. 
4. Element* non esse infinite, deque Anaxagora , Demo- 
crito et Leucippo. 5. An plura sinl elementa , an unnm 
tantum. 6. Elementa non esse aeterna, et ex se ipsis gigui. 
7. De motua elementorum ex se ipsis generatione. 8. 
Elements non figuris di versa inter se esse. 

d by Google 

L I B R I IV. 

Cap. 1. Quid sit grave, quid leve. 2* Alio rum de his 
doctrinae refutanlur. 3. Quart quae da ra corpora sursum, 
quaedam deorsum ferantur, et quid sit ferri in locum 
•num. 4. De simpliciter gravibus et levibus ; esse me- 
dium quoddam, ad quod gravia et de quo levia ferantur. 
5. De quatuor elementis. 6. Sursum deorsumve latio- 
nis causam nou esse ra fignra. Ea tanien effici, ut aliquid 
celerius aut lardius feratur. 


L I B R I I. 
Cap. 1. Priscorum de generatione et alteratioue sen- 
tentiae. 2* De Platone, Democrito et Leucippo. 3. Nihil 
simpliciter gigni aut interire , sed semper ex aliquo. 4* 
Quid differat generatio ab alteratione. 5. De augmenta- 
tione. 6. De actione et passione ; de tactu. 7. De elemen- 
torum actione et passione diversae opiuiones. 8. De 
modo agendi et patiendi quatuor opinione* 9. De actio- 
nis et passion is proprielatibus aliquot. 10. De mistioue 
et roiscibili. 

L I B R I II. 
Cap. 1. De principle materiali priscorum opinioues. 
2. De corporum principiis et differentia. 3. Quot sint 
elementorum inter se coniunctioncs. 4. De elemrntorum 
invicem generatione, corruptione, transmutation e. 5. De 
quatuor elementis ; clementa rerum naturalium non esse 

d by Google 

itifttcriam, nee infiniuu 6. Confutatur Empedocles et qui 
dixerint, elemenU non tranimutari inter se. 7. Omnia 
corpora ex elementornm omnium concurrentia naaci* 8. 
Generation!* causa an tit materia, an elementornm qua- 
litates. 9. Generationis et corruptionis aeriem ease per- 
petnani. 10. Proponnntur qnaestioues aliquot de genera- 
tlqne et comiptione. 

d by Google 


D E C E L 



•El ntgl (pvasws in^airi^f] ax*8bv r\ nXelatrj cpaivt- 
*cu nsgi tc adfiata xal fieyixhi} xal t« tovtcw ovoa 
nv&ri, * a * T «S xwi[Gtig * St* 8s nsgl Tag agxdg, Saa* 
T *K Toiavtrig ovoiag slot • tmv ydg qpvosi ovvsotw- 
T coy, Tot /*ev «rw ow/iata xal (isyi&ri, xa 8* e/ti ow- 
p><X7t(xlf4,iyid-og,Tci d* &gx<*l tcw ^/ovrwy sioi. 1.2vv- 
*Xh fiiy ovv Sot i to 8iaigsTOv slg asl diatgsToi • ooitfia 
fe, to ndvTji 8iaigsTov. Msyi&ovg 8s, to (isv iq> ev, 
VQafifi^' to 8* til 8vo, inlns8ov, to 8' inl Tgla, 
aojfia ' xal nagd tolvto, ovx sotiv SXXo (isys&og, 8ta 
to xa Tgia ndvTa stvai, xal to Tglg navTrj * xa&dnsg 
yag yavi xal oi Ilv&ayogsioi , to nav xal to, navTa 
Totg XQialv (agioxai • TtXsvTq yag xal fiioov xal agxh 
top agi&pov e/ei tov tov navTog* TavTa 8s tov Tr^g 
Tgt,a8og. Jib naga Tr\g yvosag elXrjcpoTtq &gnsg vo- 
(iovg ixslvrjg, xal ngbg Ta? ayiOTslag tojv &smv xgw- 
[it&a tw agt&fiw tovtu. 3 A7to8l8ofisv 8i xal Tag 
itgogyyogiag tov Tgonov tovtov • xa yag 8vo, afMpon 
Ar?st. i>i? Cofxo. A 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fiiv Uyofxtv, xal tovg dvo ifitpotigovg* navtag d* 
ov Xdyo/isv • aXXa xata tmv tgwbv tavvqv tijv ngog- 
yyogiav opapiv ngwtov. Tavta d' wgiteg Bigrjtai, 
dia to ti\v qpvoiv aitijv ovtag inaytiv, axoXov&ov- 
uev. 3- SLgi insl tit navta, Hal to nav, xal to ti- 
Xuov, ov xata trjv idiav diaqtioovaiv aXXyXmv * aXX 
tin eg aga iv trj vXrj, xal iq? <av Xiyovtai, to awpa 
fiovov av &$i t<av (ieye&(ov tiXsiov • (iovov yag a>o*- 
atai tolg tgiol* tovto d* iatl nav. Tgixjj b*s ov tii- 
aigstov, navtjj diaigttov iati * twv d* aXXav, to (itv 
iq> ev, to dk inl dvo • wg yag tov agi&fiov t£ivx*l- 
xaoiv, ovtto xal trjg diaigioeag xal tov ovvexovg • to 
fiiv yag i<p tv avvtxh» to d* inl dvo, to de, navtrj 
toiovtov. 4. "Oca fiev ovv diaigtta tfav pByed&v, 
xal ovyexri Tavia. El ds xal tit aw*x*l anavta di- 
aigtta, ovn<o dr t Xov ix tfav vvv • ix£ ixuvo fiiv 6%- 
Xov, ag oix totiv ug aXXo yivog fista^aoig, mgneg & 
(lyxovg ug imyavuav 9 tig de aa/ia l£ inupaveiag* 
ov yag tn to toiovtov tiXuov av tYy fiiys&og • ava- 
ynr\ yag ylvea&ai t\\v exfiaaiv, xatit ti\v sXXuipiv. 
Oix o\ov te de to teXuov iXXtinuv navtrj yag 
ioti. Twv (ih ovy iv fiogiov tidei awfiatwv xata tov 
Xoyov txaotov toiovtov iow ndoag yag %xei T< *£ 
diaotaoeig. 'AXXa clgiatai ngog to nXrjviov a<pjj. Aio 
tgonov tiva noXXa tSiv aoafiatfav txaotov ioti. To dt 
nav ov tavta pogia, tiXeiov avayxatov ttvat. Kal 
xa&amg tovvofia ar^iaivu navtrj, Hal /i^ tJ fiiv, 1$ 
tie (irj. 

Jlsgl fiiv ovv Tijs tov navtbg <pvasug, eft 5m§- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


gog iaxi xaiit to fiiys&og, sVxe ntnigavxat xov oivo- 
Xov oyxov, votsgov buoxmriov. 2. Jlsgl di x&v 
%ax BiSog avxov pogiav vvv Xiywfitv, agxh v noirj- 
oafievoi rtjvdt' navxa yag xa cpvoixa odfiaxa xal 
(leyi&il, xatf aixa xtvrjxa Xiyofisv tlvaixaxa xonov 
Ttpr yag qpvoiv, xivrjomg agzyv (parity tlvou avxotg. 
JIaoa di xlvrjoig, oarj xaxa xonov, rjv xaXoxifxsv qpo- 
qav, ij svd-eia, ij xvxXco, ij ix xovxtov fiixxrj • anXal 
yag avtai dvo fiovai. AXxiov d 7 , oxi xal xa fisyi&fi 
xavxa anXa fiovov, ij xt evd-tia, xal y ntguptgr^g, 
JfCvxXco (iiy ovv iaxiv r\ nsgl xb fiioov svduct di, ij 
aVw xal xaxa. uiiyto d*, ava fih, xr\v ano xov [ii- 
oov xaxta di , xyv inlxb fiioov. Z"jlgx avayxri 
naoav tlvai tip anXrp q>ogav, xr\v fiiv ano to? fii- 
aov, xi\v b° inl to pioov, xyv di negl to fiiaov. Kal 
eoixev rixoXov&rjxivai xaxa Xdyov xovxo xotg it ao- 
X^g* To,T8 yag owfia anttsXio&fj iv xgiol, xal r\ xi- 
vqoig avxov. 4. *Ensl di x&v oapaxiov, xa (iiv ioxtv 
anXa, xa di ovv&sxa ix xovxtov • (Xiyto d' anXa piv, 
oca xtvr\amg agxrp «#** *«*« (pvoiv, olov nvg xal 
yrjv, xal xa xovxtov eidtj, xal xa ovyysvrj xovxoig •) 
avayxii xal xitg xivrjoug slvai, xitg fih anXag, xitg di 
juixxag Ttpag • x&v fiiv anXStv anXag, fivxxag di x&v 
ovv&hnv xivuo&ou di xaxa to imxgaxovv. 5.EV- 
ittg ovv ioxiv anlr} xivrjoig • anXri d* fj xvxXa xlvr{- 
ai$ ' xal xov xs anXov otafiaxog anXr\ 5\ xivtjoig, xal 
% anXr] xivrjoig anXov odpaxog • xal yag av ovvd-i- 
rov y xaxa xb knixgaxovv, eoxai avayxalov slvai t* 
croJfta anXovv, o n&cpvxt cpiqeo&ai xyv xvxXta xivrjoiv 
xccxa xi}v savxov <pvaw. 6. Bla piv yag ivdix^ TiU 


Digitized by GoOgle 


xi\v aXXov thai xal kxiqov. Kaxa qpvoiv ds advva- 
%ov ' tfneQ fiia kxdaxov xivyoig i\ xaxa gpww, t«j» 
dnXiav. 7. 'Eti, ** V n&Qa cpvoiv ivavxia tj/ xaxa 
(pvotv, xal By kvl ivavrlov, avdyxr^, duel anlii y xv- 
xXy, si pi] sot at xaxa cpvuiv xov cptgapivov o&paxog, 
naqit q>v<H* aixov sivul. El ovv tivq 1} aXlo xi t«j» 
xoiovxtov ioxl to xvxky <f>tQQ+i*vov t fravxia 7) xaxa 
qpvaw aixov yoga soxai xp xvxiy*. *M.£ &> evl ivav- 
xiov. C H d* ava>, xal % xaxa aXXqXaig havxiai. &.Ei 
d * higov ti iati oStpa xo qptyo/ftyay KVxAqi Ka^a <f>v- 
aw, koxoH Jtg aixov alky xivyoig xnxa yvoiv. 'Alia 
tout advvaxov • el /iiv /«^ 17 atrip, in}? tara* ij t*i# * 
a 0e ij xaiw, vStOQ % yq. 9, ^Ua fity xal Txqixrpt 
y% avayxatov ilvat xtjv xowvirp yo^i*. To yag w- 
Xuov ngonqov ?jj (pvnu joy dvtXovg. C Q ds xvxlog 
twv xtXdm. Ev$ua oe yqafitiV* ov&tpia • ovxs yitq 
y anugog • 5fa* ya^ av ro^a? *a* -t&o? •■ ovre twr 
nsTtsQaofiivQ)* ovfcpia,' na*(av yaq ioxl %* ixxog- 
avtrjoai yap ivdifexaL QjtoMtvovv. "Jlgxs, &mq q (& 
ngoxiga xlvqoig TzyoxiyMi xjj ipwm acauaxog* t; di 
xvxX(p itQoxioa %qg ev&siag * ij di in ei&eiag xwp 
cuiXatv (KtifiaTwr iati* (xo\xs yaq nvq in tv&tLag 
Svm (pigsxat, xal xd yei^a xarw nqig to piaw *) 
avdyxrj xal Tip xvxly xivqow xSkv owXtav xivo$ uvak 
aafjiaxmv* xS>v yig fuxxSam xi\v (pogitv scpapsv clva* 
xaxa xb iitutoaxovv iv xy pl£n xwv oltiXuv. 10. *M* 
xe tit) xovxtov auxvsQov, ott ns<pvxi tv; ovoia adfunTog 
aXXrj naoa xag irxav&a ovaxdaug &tioTSQa xal nyo- 
xiqa xovxttv navxuv* 11. JKay sVxig %xi Xdfioi ««- 
(forv slvm xivrjotv % XWT ^ ywiv, yj naqa <pvoiv • xal 

Digitized by GoOgk 


trp itXXm naqa (pvacv, higto natit yvoiv • olov ij 
avw xal */ xdto» ninor&ty • t\ piv ydg tw nvgl, i) di 
tr> yrj nagit q>vaiv xal xatit q>voiy ' mgt ayayxaiav 
xal trjv xvxlo) xivrjoiv, tnudr) tovtoiq naqa (pvaiv, 
ktigov twbg tlvat xatit tpvaty. 12. Hgbg 8i tovtoig, 
(i piv iattv f) xvxXm ttvl qpoqit xatit yvoiv, dylov w$ 
$Vri ay ti ompa xwy ctnXwv te xal ngmttoy, o ndqpvxcv, 
tognsq to nvg avta xal tj ytj xatxa , ixttyo xvxXta q>i- 
QE<j&ai xata qruoiv. El ds naqa qrvoiy yegtrat, tit 
(ptgopiva xvxXw tqv nigt$ q>ogity, &avpaatby xal 
narrtXtog aXoyvv to povr^y slvai ovytxv tavtrfy ttjy 
xlyrjoiv xal ai'dtov ovaay, naqa <pvoiy • opairetai yitg 
%v tB toig aXXotg taxtata op&tigoptva tit naqa <jpt*- 
ow. u Jlgt ttneg iotl nvg to <peg6prrop, xct&dnsg <)po- 
ai twtg, ovdh ijttoy avxiji Tracer qyvatv ij xlvi\aig iotw 
avxrj, j} rj x«t«. Hvgbg yitg xlvijatr og*y>ptv ti\v anb 
tov pioov xax sv#«T(w. 13. ditntg it itnaytoay av 
rig tovttay ovXXoyiiofisyog niottvouiy, Ag eoti tt 
nagit tit oiapaxa, tit dsvgo xal nsgl npag, htgov 
xsx(ogi(f(iiyoy toaovtM ttpimtigay %x°* *W gw<w, 
daconeg aq>iatrjxe twv Ivtuv&a nXior. 
*Eml di tit ph vnoxutai, tit 6* anodidtixttti twv 
tlgrjfiBPwy, (pavtgbv on ovtt xoxHponjta, ovts fidgog 
$XU a&pa anay. Jit ds vno&io&ai , tl to 
fiagv xal to xovyovy vvy piv Ixay&g &g ngbg trjv net- 
Qovoav XQtfav * axgiPtotegov d& ndliy, Stay inioxo*- 
nwfiw ntgl trjg ovaiag avtwv, Sctgv fib ovp «tt6> 
to (peqeoxfcu m<pvxbg inl ib piooy • xovqpoy 8i, to 
Anb tov fiioov. Bagvtatoy dt to naaw wpurtapevov 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xdig xdtta <ptgofiivoig * xovqtotatov de to naoiv ini- 
noXa£ov tolg avta ytgopivoig. *AvdyxTj dij nav to 
q>sgouevov, 5} xdtw ij avto, 1} xovqtbt^t f#«y i) /Ja- 
gog, ?j afiquo, ay ngbg to avto 3i * nqog aXXr^Xa yag 
ion fiagia xal xovq>a • olov di\g ngbg vdtag, xal ngbg 
yyv vdtag. 2. To drj xvxXta oSifia (psgofisvov, adv- 
vatov %xuv fidgog r\ xovg)6ttjta • ovts yap xata <pv- 
ow, ovts naga <pvoiv ivdixstai avTw xwy&rivai, 1} 
inl to (isoov, ij anb tov [tioov • xata (pvoiv fiiv yag 
ovx sotiv avt$ t) in sv&siag yoga • fiia yag r,v kxa- 
atov tSiv itnXwv. "jlgt svtcu to avto tStv ovtto uvi 
q>sgousv<ov. JIaga (pvoiv d' ivsx&ivtog, si fih t) xa- 
tto naga yvoiv, r) avta eoxcu xata <pvow si 6e tj avto 
naga q>votv, f) xdtw xata (pvoiv * s&spsv yag tiv 
ivavtloav y r\ higa naga (pvoiv, tip frsgav slvai xa- 
td (pvoiv. 3. 3 £nsl d* sig to avto (psgstai to olov 
xal to uogiov xata (pvoiv, olov naoa yr\ xal pixgd 
fitoXog, ovpfiahsi ngiatov usv, (irjts xov(pot^t sxstt 
avto (itidBfiiav, fiijts fidgog • 1} yag av ngbg to pi- 
oov, % anb tov fisoov ifivvato ysgso&ai xata tip 
aitov (pvoiv. "jEnsix? , ott advvatov xivtj&ijvai tip 
xata tonov xivrfoiv, ij avta ij xdtw xataondusvov* 
ovts yag xata (pvoiv ivdixstai xivti&yvai xivtjoiv ai- 
tSt aXXyv, ovts naga (pvoiv, ovt avtcp, ovts ttiv po- 
gitav ovdevi* o yag avtbg Xoyog nsgl oXov xal pi- 
govg. 4. c O[ioimg 5' evXoyov inoXafluv nsgl avtov, 
xal oti ayiwfjtov xal acp&agtov, xal avavtsg, xal 
avaXXoiwtov, diet to yivta&ai fiev anav to yiyopevov 
i$ ivavtlov T8 xal vnoxeifiivov tivbg, xal (p&tigiO'&a* 
wgavTwg vnoxupivov td tivog xal in ivavtlov xal 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Big ivavrloy, xa&dntg h roig ngcoToig tfgyrou Xoyoig. 
T<iv d* iyarrlmy xal at (pogal ivctrtia*. El dfj rovtot 
firjdev ivavrloy ivdix*rai thai, dia to xa* t§ <pogijt ty 
xvxXm firi ttvtu ay tiva ivavxiav xlyyoiy, og&tbg sot- 
K*r fj qtvoig to fiiXXoy soso&cu aysyvrjtov xal aopd-ag- 
xoy £$eXio&ai in twy iyayifay • h toig ivavtioig ydg 
fj y&saig xal r\ cp&ogd. 5'AXXa fi^y xal to avluvb- 
psvov anay avSavsrai, xal q>&ivoy <pdivei vnb ovy- 
ysyovg nqogiovtog xal ayalvopUrov eig *rp> vXyy. 
Tovxy d* ovx s<my $ ov yiyoviy. El di ioxi xal 
ayavfyToy xal ay&agtoy , rtjg avirjg diayoiag iarlv 
vnoXap&y xal avaXXototoy elvai. "jBcm piv ydg rj 
aXXolmotg xivijoig xata to noibv. Tov di noiov ai 
(tiv t£eig xal dia&iaetg, ovx Svsv jay xatit nd&rj yi- 
voyrai [inapoXwy, oloy iyUia xal yooog. Kara di 
na&og ooa ptxafidlXu tmv g>voixcsry aatfidtfay, %x ov & 
og&fity nana xal av$qaiv xal qt&iow oloy id tb 
%<ov £(x)<ov otouara xal id pogia avzwv, xal ra twy 
9>vt(*v, ofiotiag di xal ra r£>y orot^ctW. 6. u Jlgt 
bXtibq- to xvxXta owfia [ufa avtyoiy %xet-y ivdixnai 
(tyrs yd-latv, tvXoyov xal avaXXoitatoy thai. Jioit 
fiiy ovv a'tdioy xal ovrs av&qoiv fyoy, ovjs cp&laiv, 
aXX ayrigaroy xal avaXXolwxoy xal ana&ig iati to 
ngtaxov xwy oapatwy, $1 rig xoig vnoxufiivoig m- 
orevst, opaysgby 4x x&y elgr]fi£v(ov ioxiy. "Eoixb & o, 
t* Xoyog xoig yatvofiivoig fiagtvgiiv, xal xa qpawo- 
fitya x(p Xoyq. ndvxeg ydg avd-gtonoy negl $twv 
Bxovoiy vnaXrflJiy, xal ndyxsg toy avmxdxta tw Sum 
xonoy anodidoaoi, xal (tag(iaqoi xal^EXXyytg, oaot 
neg Hvai vo/xiiovai -freovg, dyXovon, wg tw d&aydrta 

Digitized by GOOgle 


to a&aratop ovrqfTqp&'oy • abvyazoy yig cuUtoc. 
EtntQ ovp iotl ti &uoy, wgneo xal e<m, xal x« yt; y 
t\Qi)piva ntfl tqg nqmtqg ovaiag tmy owpmtvr Gify- 
Tdi xaXvg. JBvpPabm de tov%9 xal 8ia tr\g aic&ri- 
OB*>g inarms, tig y* nqig ay&ooiniyyv tlnuv nioxiy. 
3 £y anavn ycto T<p naQikqXv&iti /oww *« T « *V 
naqctdsdefiirriv dXXyXoig fivi^r^v , ovdey tpauyerai 
|Uno/$i^ifN^ ' ovx« xa#* oior to* co/oro? ovgavby, 
ovtt xata fiooioy avtov %<*v oixuwv ovdiy. "Eorne Si 
xal %ovv*fia naoa tay ci(tfaW dtixfadoo&ai psxQi 
xal tov vvv XQovov , tovtoy toy tobnov vnolaftor- 
t(*Vy ontq nal ^pug Xiyojiev. Ov yao ana$, ovdi 
dig, aXX anstQaxig 8*1 rofdfay tag avxag ayutvsia&ai 
do$ag tig f)fiag. Jiontg &g htsyov tiybg ovxog tov 
nQtotov atofiatog naqa yyy xal nvq, xa.1 ad^a xal 
1/0*0*0 > ai&iga 7Eqogmy6ftaoav toy aymatw tonov, 
anb tov &tly #Ul, tov atdioy xqoyoy &Bjtevoi, tr\v 
in cow pia? avxy. ^Avatmyboctg de xaxaxixwtat, xy 
ovofiati Jovitp ov xaX&g * bvopd&i yaq ai&ega av- 
tl nvqbg. 7. ftavsQov de ix tmv eiofifAivtoy, teal dio- 
ti tov aqi&fibv advvatov slvai TiXeio) rmv Xsyofiiww 
(jwfjMtwv unXatv tov (iky yag aitXov adfiatog ava- 
yxri zr\v xiv^aw anlr\v thai. Movag tfe tavxag <pa- 
uiv anXag, tyy ts xvxXqi, xal ti\v in ev&siae • xeii 
tavtffg 8vo fiOQia * xr\v p&y anb tov fisoov, Tig? d' 
M to (xioov. 


Ou d° oix Iota tiJ xyxXq (pooa ivanla i ukXi) <jpo- 
oa, nXsovaxo&tv av tig Xuftoi tyy nlmiv. U^tot 
utv, on tji nequpsQu tyy tv&tiav amxstG&ai iiak*- 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ara rl&efisv. 2. To yao xolXov xal xvgrbv ov fio- 
vov aXXr^Xoig arnx&o&ai doxu, aXXa xal tw sv&u, 
(JwdvaZofitva xal Xafiorra awvHaw. "jifr clVrc^ 
ivartia tig ion , Trp inl Tffg ev&dag fiaXurta wa- 
yxalov tvaniav elrat ngbg Tip xvxXu xbvr\Oi*. 3. Al 
oe inl xqg sv&ilag, aXXtjXmr arxixunat dtit tovg to- 
novg - to yag arm xal to xaxo), tbnov r£ iort dm- 
<poga, xal ivavxlm<ji,g. 4. "Emit, el' ng vnoXapfta- 
wm tov avxhv thai Xayov, ornsg xal inl ti}? vv&tiag, 
xal inl ti\q ntgupegovg 9 Ttp yog anb tov a ngbg to 
/J epoQav ivavriav elvou tJ anb tov /? ngbg to a • Tip 
inl Ti}g (v&sittg Xiyu • avrtj yag mndgavrai • nsgi- 
ytoug d* anugotar ilev ntgl t« avra oijfi&a. 5.*0- 
fioitag de xal r\ inl tov fjpixvxUov tov hog. Otov i) 
ano tov y inl to 8, xal ^ ano tov 8 inl to y. C H yag 
aviTj %rj inl Trjg otaftergov ioxiv • aitl yag fxaorov 
•frfcf** xaTa Tqv tv&slap Tl&Sfity. 'Opofog 8s xav 
& u$ xvxXov notqoag, Ttp inl &arigov fipixvxXiov 
tyogav havtlav &sirj tJ inl &atsqov, olor h tw oXw 
xvxiw ti\v ano tov s ngbg to £ tov i\ i)fiutvxXiov tji 
anb tov £ ngbg to «, iv t£ & rjumvuXita. El 8s xal 
avxat ivavrlaiy aXt ovri y% xal al inl tov oXov xv- 
xXov atogal aXXtfXa'ig 8ia tovvo ivarrlai. 6. 'AXX* 
pi* ov8* }j anb tov a inl Tb -fi xvxX* q>oqit ivavxia 
*JI ano tov a inl tb d • ix jccvtqv yaq $ig to uvto i\ 
xiy^av. C H d' hernia dm^h&f] (pooct in tov bav~ 
Tiov tig to hartlwf slvai. 7. M di xal qv y xvx\(a 
*p xvxXy faavTia, \iatrp av v\v frfya. *Enl to avTO 
y«© * OTiavayxri tb xv*Xa> (p^wptvov ono&tvovi' ag- 
wptvov tig nivrag bftoing ouptxvsto&atTOvg bavriovg 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xbnovg • elol 6e xonov ivavxtoxyxeg, xb aW xal xb 
xdxta, xal to ngoo&ev xal to b'nuj&ev, xal to de^tbv 
xal to agtaxegiv* Jl de xr\g yogas ivavxuioeig xaxa 
tag xwv xonav elelv ivavttt&oetg. 8. M (xh yag Tom 
ipjav, oix av i\v xivqatg avx&v • el de y ktiga xivyats 
ixgdxet, *; ixega oix av yv, "fLgx el apyoxega i)v, 
tidxtjv av &dxegov tjv a&fia fit] xtvovpevov xjjv avrrjv 
xivrjotv, Maxr\v yag vnodr^a xovxo Xdyopev, ov pT\ 
ioxtv vnodeotg^ c O de &ebg xal y cpvoig ovdev (idrrp 

*AXH inel dtjXov negl xovxtov, xal negl xiv Xomiav 
axenxiov • xal ngwxov, nbxegbv iatl xt aa>/ua arcet- 
gov, tigneg ol nXetoxotxwv dgxalmv (pdoaoqxov cj^vHj- 
oav, fj xovxo iaxiv ev xt xmv ddvvdxav * to yag ovxmg 
rj ixtivug e%ew ovxt (ttxgbv, aX£ oXov dtaqteget, xal 
nav ngbg X7p negl xi\g dlrjdslag &e<»giav oxedbf 
yag avxrj naotv agxh ™ r ivavxuAoewv xolg anoKpi}- 
vafievotg xt negl xyg oXtjg <pvaetag, xal yeyove xal ye- 
voix av • efneg xal xb (itxgbv nagaffivat xrjg aiij- 
&elag aqmjxa/ievotg , ylvexat nog$<a ftvgtonXaoiov ' 
oiov, eixig iXdxtoxov elval xt (pair) fiiye&og • ovrog 
yag xovXdxtoxov elgayaymv, xd (teytox av xivfjoete 
xwv fia&fifiaxtxwv. 2. Tovrou d* aXxiov, ott % dgxy 
dvvdfiei fielfav ^} fieyi&et • dtbneg to iv agxy (juxqov, 
iv xjj xeXevxji ytvexat na/jCfUye&eg • xb d' antigov, 
xal agxyg txet dvva/itv, xal xov nooov xijv fieylaxrjv. 
Jlgx ovdev dxonov ovd' aXoyov xb d-avfiaaxtjv elvai 
xijv dtatpogdv 4x xov Xa/3e%v, &g Ifoxt xt atopa Snet- 
go*. Jib negl aixov Xexxiov i$ agxyg avaXaflovotf. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


jivdyxr) dy nav owfia, fj xStv anXtoy thai, 1} x&y 
avy&hfoy. "Jlgxe xal xb aneiqov, % anXovy soxai, i\ 
avy&sxoy. AXXd fiyy xal on ye nsneqaouivtav xaty 
anXwv, avayxri nensqaofiivoy strut xb ovy&sxoy , dij- 
Xov • to yaq ix neniqaa^iytav xal nXydu , xal ptyi- 
&u ovyxufitvov, nsTtiqayxai xal tiXtj&h , xal fityi- 
&w tooovxov ydq eavai, i$ bowv ioxi ovyxeipevov. 
3. Aoinbv xohvy Idtiy, nbxeqov iydixexai xi xiav a- 
nXSiv aneiqoy ilvcu to fiiye&og, ij tovt ddivaxov. 
Ilqoxetqtodfieyoi dy neql %ov nqtaiov xtov owfidxtoy, 
Qvxat axoTtStfiiv xal neql x&y Xomwy. "Oxi fiiv xolvw 
ayayxij to oafia to xvxXm <peq6fi*yov 7tentqdv&ai 
nay, ix xowds dyXoy ei yaq aneiqov xo xvxXaj tpeqo- 
fitvov owfict, aneiqoi eoovxai al dnb xov pioov ix- 
(taXXopevai, xoov d* aneiqwv to didoxtifjia aneiqov, 
diuoxrifia ds Xiyto xw yqapfjuav, ov (iridiv ioxiv *So> 
Xafiuy psye&og anxofievov xav yqafifAWv. Tovt ovv 
avayxij aneiqov elvaf t&v yaq neneqaofiivav asl 
eomi neneqaofiivov • Ire d', asl ioxi xov do&ivxog 
ptKov Xafiuv. "Jlgxe xa&dneq aqi&fAOV Xiyopev anei- 
qov, bxi peyioxog ovx eoxiv, b avxbg Xoyog xal neql 
Tot/ diaax^ftaxog. El ovv xb fiev aneiqov fii} ioxi di- 
sX&&v f aneiqov #' 6Vtos avayxri amiqov xb didoxri- 
pa tfiyou, ovx ay ivdixoixo xiYTj&yyai xvxXta • to? tf' 
ovqavbv OQcofitv xvxXcp neqKpeqofievov. Kal t$ Xoyta 
Os duoqioafiey, oxi ioxi xivog y xvxXqt xlvyoig. 4*Exi 
«tto neneqao^ivov xqbvov idv acpiXrjg nenegaouivov, 
vvayxri xal xov Xombv elvai neneqaofiivov, xa\ sxeiv 
*QXnv. El d' b XQoyog xqg ^adiomq %xu aqxn*> 
«rtiv agxii xal t?^ xivnotvg • £gxs xal xov ntyi&ovg, 

Digitized by GoOgle 


o ft&ftddixtv. c OfjioUag de tovto xal inl t&p &XX(ov 
"Eatm dij ygafififj anugog, itp 3 y a y «, inl &dtcga if 
to c. *H d* icp rj td ft 8, in dpqpotsga anugog * JE& 
drj ygdytt xvxXov q to a y e anb tov y xivtgov ri- 
fivovad note, oUj&rjoetcct xvxXw tr\v ft ft y tb ay e, 
nsntgaofievfp ZQ*> V( 9~ o yag nag XQO^og h oaw xv- 
xXto yrix&n b ovgavbg, nmegaojuvog. Kal aQpygrj- 
p&vog aga, bv y tifivovaa iqpigtto. "Eotat aga ttg 
ctQxh V$ ngwtov */ to a y e, ttjv td ft ft stspsv • dXX 
ddvvatov • ovx aga eori xvxXto atgaytpai t© cot«- 
gov. "llgte ovds tbv xoafiov, d rjv antvgog. 5. Eti 
H xal ix ratvde <pavsgbv, ort to aneiqov ddvvatov 
xivfi&fivw totw yag y to a (psgopevrj naga tfjv ft, 
nensgaopivrj naga nsnsgaofisvrjv. Idvayxtj dij Sua 
tr\v ts a tiJv ft dnoXeXvo&ai , xal tfjv ft trjg a. Oaov 
yag y kiiga iniXdftoi ttjg ktigotg, xal i) foiga ixslvyg 
tooovtov. Et fnev ovv «ju<po) xivolvto tig tovvavtiov, 
•d-dttov dv dnoXvoivto. Ei 6i nagd fiivovaav naga- 
cpegoiTO, ftgadvtigov, tw atrry tdxei xivovfiivov tov 
nagatptgopivov, 6. 'All* ixslvo yt xpavsgbv, on d- 
dvvatov ttjv umigov dieX&nv h ntntgaofiiv^ /ooVw. 
3 Ev dnsigw aga' dfduxtat yag tovto ngatsgov iv 
totg n*gl xwrjmmg. diay&gn de ys ovdh, rj ttjv m- 
negavfjrivtjv tpigBO&ai naga tr)v dnugov, rj tip* anttr- 
gov nag 3 ixtivijv • b*av ydg- ixtivn nagalldttrj ixd- 
vi\v, xipxslvri nagalXdxtBi ixuvyv, bpolwg xivovfiivri 
xal uxirrjxog • nlfjv &dttov idv xmovtcu d(iq>6ttgaiy 
dnoXv&rjoovtou. Kaltoi y ^ot$ ovdsv xmXvu t^ 
xivovfiivfiv nag 3 tfetfioioav &d*tov nagtl&tiv, 7\ tfjv 
avtiMwovfiiv^v, idv t#s nopfjajj tag fisr dvrixivovfii- 

d by Google 


vag afupotdgag (psgopdvetg figadi&g, Tip ds notga tyy 
qoBpovoav, nollfy ixsivmv qtsgofiivfjv dattov. Ovdiv 
ovv izgog xav loyov ipmfooy, oxt nag rjgspovaav, 
imlnsg xivovphrrp irftixBtcu xrp a, Jtaga xivovpivrjv 
TV* fl> ftgadvxsgov il&elv. El ovv anugog o XQOvog, 
ov ri nenegao/tivi) aneXvejai xivovpsvii, xal h w y 
anugog rrjv nmtguoii&rqp ixivrj&ij, avdyxrj aneigov 
elvcu. Iddvvaiov aqa to anttgov xivtlo&at oXwg- 
iav yag xal Tovli^wxon xivff&fi, avdyxtj anttgov 
yiyvto&aixgovov. 'jXXcc flip o yt ovgavog ntgiigxs- 
t«m nal oxgiyvtai, olog xvxXy iv nmtgaofUvip jfodVai. 
Jlgxs nsqiuak tov xvxXov anaaav %ip ivtog, olov tip 
a p nsnegaapsvrjv. lAdvvarov Spa anngov shai to 
xvxXca. 7. Exk agntg yga^fA^v, ^g Ttigag iotlv, adv- 
vaxov &nu ansigov, all' sl'nso inl fiij*og, xal M- 
mdov, moavt&g y nsgag ovx ivdsxrtcu' otav d' ooi- 
ody, ovdapi} • olov Tvtgdy&vov anngov, rj xvxlov, 
7} aipatgav mgnsg ovSs nodialov anugov. M ovv 
fifjra oyalga, fiyx* TSTgaywvov, pfae xvxXog iaxlv a- 
nnqog* py Svjog $i xvxlov, ovd' Sv ^ xvxly fly 
qtogcc oftolng di (if}di awiigov Svtog, ovx dv etrj 
ametgag • si p^fl' o xvxlog antiqog iariv, ovx av **- 
voXto xvxUx&g anugov o&fia. 8. *Et* ds d to y 
xdrtgov, i) de rb a /? aiteigog, xal ^ to e ngbg ogdyv 
anscgog. Kal y to y 8 xtvovfiivt}, ovdinot anolv- 
ahtai ryg f, all' del 8fe* wgntg fj y e. Tipvu yag, ji 
to f. Ovx aga xvxXm tisqUiow tj anugog, 9. "Mi* 
stnsg amtgog o ovgavog, xwutai Si xvxlw iv nens- 
gaafiivfa xgovta, anugov tatat dtsltjlv^og. "Eota* yag 
o fiiv {.livtov ovgavog anugog, 6 d* iv tovtm xtvovps- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


vog laog • wgxt d'neq iXtjXvds xvxXco anuqog iSv, a- 
nuqov xb I0OV (xvtm disXyXv&ev iv nmsqaapt'via ZQ°- 
vw. *AXXd xovr yv advvaxov. 10. "JEoti Si xal ay- 
Twxqappiv&g sineiv, oxi ti nsmqaopivog oXQovog, 
h (a nsgcsaxgdcpTj, xal to piyt&og, o d&Xtikv&ev, 
avayxalov slvai nsneqaopivov Jaov d* avxw Txsgie- 
Xylv&B' ntniqavTai aqa xal avrog . 11. "Oti pep 
ovv to xvxXip xwovpsvov ovx %<niy axtXevrtjTov, ovd* 
anstgov, dXXd t#e* xiXog, yaveqov. 
*AXXd pi]v ovds xb iril to pioov, oide to ano tov 
pioov qpsgopsvov ctTieigov sorai • ivavxiai ydq ai yo- 
qal tj avto xal rj xdxa * ai d* ivavxiat Big ivavxlovg 
xbnovg* twv o° ivavxlw u~&dxegov nqioxai, xal 
&dxeqov wqiopivov toxai. To di pioov cSp«rra* # el 
yaq ono&tvovv opigoixo xdxco, to vqpiordpevor ov* 
ivdixsxainoqqwxiqto SuX&eiv tov pioov. c Jlqiopivov 
ovv tov pioov, xal jbv avto xbnov dvdyxtf wglo&ai. 
El d* ol Tonot (ogiopivoi xal nsnsqaop&voi, xal xd 
ocopaxa eoxcti nensqaopiva. 2. **Eti, u to aVw xal 
to xotoj aqiorai, xal to p$ra£v avdyxij a>gio&ai • si 
ydq pq (Spuria*, dnsigog av sly xivyoig. Tovxo 9s 
cm ddvvaTOv, didnxxai nqoxsqov • wqtoxat aoa to 
uioov. "Jlgxe xal to iv xovxw ooipa r\ ov, i) ysvio&at 
dvvaxov, *AXXa pyv to avto xal to xdxoa cpsgopwov 
owpa dvvaxai iv xovxta ytvio\haf niqpvxs yaq to 
fiiv ano tov pioov xwuo&ai t to di inl to pioov. 
3. *Ex T6 di} xovxtav q>avsqbv, oxt ovx ivdixtxai, o&pa 
tlvai anugov. Kal ngbg xovxoig , el /Sdgog pij ioxw 
anuqov, ovd dv xovxtav xav oopdxwv ovdsv tXt) a- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


nsigov avayxt\ yag tov anslgov ocojxaiog anugo* 
elrai xal to pdgog. c O & avxbg Xoyog earai xal iitl 
tov xov<pov • si yag ioriv anugog pagvxr\g 9 ton xal 
xovyoTTjq, idv anugov y to ininoXd£oi>. 4. Ai\Xov 
d° ix T«5y6V Iotw yag nsTtegaofiivov, xal tlXrj<p&a 
to (ikv anugov owpa, iq? tp to a p, to de pdgog av- 
tov, i<p oi y cKpTjQrjo&w ovv anb tov dnrigov nz- 
TteQaafxivov piye&og, iq> <>> to p d % xal to pdgog av- 
rov Iotoj, top (o to e. To Sij « tov y tXartov tbrat • 
to yag tov iXdnovog pdgog tXaxTOV. KaxaptiqtiTvi 
dri to tkavtov bnoaaxtgovv, xal wg to pdgog tovZcxt- 
tov ngbg to pii£ov, to p S ngbg to p £ yeyevrja&ia • 
ivdixrzcu yag dysXuv tov antlgov bnoaovovv. 5.-E* 
xoivvv avaXoyov to [ityi&n Toig pdgsai, to 6' tftaT- 
%ov pdgog tov ilaTTovog ion fityidovg, xal to (iu£ov 
Sr tXn tov ptl£ovog. *Ioov aga torat to tov nensga- 
Ofiivov xal to tov anslgov pdgog. "Eti ds, si tov 
pe££ovog owparog fm£ov to pdgog, to tov ij p [tti£ov 
tarai pdgog, i} to tov £ p. "Slgrs to tov nsnegaopi- 
vov pdgog rj to tov andgov psi£ov sorai, xal to twv 
dvlatov di fitys&uv tuvtov Marat pdgog* artoov 
yotQ t$ ntTtegaa^ivco to anugov. Ovdiv 6i dwt<pi- 
qe$, to pdgij ovfifittga elvai, ij dovfifisrga. Kal 
yag aavfifisrgotv ovrtav , 6 ovtoj Marat Xoyog. 
Olov , u to b to/to* inegPdXXn fisrgovv to y 
pdgog. Tuv yag p d psys&tov rgunv oXav Xrjq*&sv- 
rmv, (itj£ov Marat to pdgog, rj to kp' a> y. "Jlgrs to 
avrb Marat ddvvajov. Mrt de xal iyxa>Q& ovfifttrga 
Xaptiv • ovdh yag dia<pig$i agxw&ai dno tov Pa- 
govg, ^ anb tov ueyi&ovg, olov, idy Xw&y ovpp*- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xgov fldgog t§ y , to i<p <j> to s, x«* otto tow ccnti- 
gov acpcuQsdj], to exov to i<p (p to s fiagog, olov to 
/? o\ Eixa wg xo /fozoog rcooff to fiagog, to /? 6* rcpos 
aXAo yeysvtjxai piyt&og, olov ngog to /? £• ivSiz*- 
xtu yag anelgov ovtog tov peyi&ovg , onooovovv a- 
qpatoe^yat* tovttav yag Xrjcp&^vKay , ovfifistga 
i'atat, xal ta ptyi&rj, xal to pdgrj aXXrjXoig. 6* Ovde 
dri to piyt&og opoioflagsg elvat jj pvotioioftageg, ov- 
div dioiosi ngog xqv anodsi^iv • ae* y*o tarat Xafisiv 
loo flaQT) o&fiona x<ji /J 6*, ario to-D antlgov onoaaovv 
tj aqpatgovvxag, rj itgogti&ivxag . 1 .Slgrs di\Xov ix 
xSiv dgrjfisvcov oxi ovx $<nai tov dnelgov otifiatog 
nmegaapfrov to fiigog.^Ansigov aga. 2$ tolvw 
xovx advvaxov, xal to UTtngov t* ilvcu ompa advva- 
xov. 8. *JlXa fiyv OT* /« amig&v tt that fiagog a- 
dvvatov, ix t&vds <pav*gov • «t /«o to tooot$ fiagog 
xr\/v Joorjvds h tw5« t<j> jpoowp xiviixai, to toaovto\ 
xal sxi iv iidvtovi, xa* *V avaXoyiav, ijv ta (tagy 
BZ*h oi XQOvot avanaXw 1\ovqw* Olov, d to nfuov 
fidgog h tfyds, to dmkaotov iv jfyuiow tovtov. 9/Ev 
to Ttsnsgavfiivov fidgog attaaav atTttgaapiwiv dUtow 
IV w# /oov<» nmtgaafUvtp* *4vdyxq aga ix tovtmv, 
tXtt iatlv anstgov fiagog, xwuQ&ai (isv $ toaovfa 
oaov to aentgaapivov • xal It* /*ij xwua&ai, 6e, 1/ 
dvdXoyov psv del xaiit tag vnsgoxug xwt%o&ai, ivav- 
ting di to pii&v fr tw iXattow liyog tie ovdu; 
iott tov amlgov'ngag to TtznMgaQfiwQV, tov $* ikut- 
tovog xgovov ngig top n$i£(*> nsmgaofUvov • aX£ atl 
iv iXaxtov*' Raxmog 1? ova %axw. 10. Ovif « 
yv, oaxXog t* av qv • SXXo yag av t* nmsgaouivoi 

Digitized by GOOgle 

DE COELO L1J*. 1. CAP. VII. 17 

iXr^cfyB-r] iv t$ avio) Xoyw, iv w to aneiqov itgag |if- 
qqv fiufcov. "Jlgte h I'a<j> XQQ v( Q^h v fofl? & v ixtvelto 
to antiQov t$ neJisQaofiwq) * all' ddvvajov, 3 AlX& 
(iy* ctvayxtj ye tl'n&g iv onyXixyovv xqqvq, tutisqu- 
OfJLbvay de, xiveXtai to aneiQOv, xal aXXo iv tw avx<# 
tovtto neneQaopevov fidgog y Mv&G'&ai tiva wenega* 
Ofjusvriv. 11. 'Advvatov aga aJieigov elvai (Sdgog 9 
ofioiwg di xal xovcpoirjja. Kal odpata aga anugov 
paqog ezovta xal xovcp 6 TTjict, ctdvvatov. "Ow fiev ovv 
ovx eoxiv anagov o&fia, drjXov, did te jcov xata piqog 
xtewgovonovjov toy tqoirov, xal xa&oXov oxonovfie- 
vo*s fiy novo? xaxa tovg Xoyovg.topg iv xolg neql tag 
ayx<*9 ti^fifiivovg rjfuv diwgla&Ti yag xifxei xa&oXov 
ngoxeqov negl dneigov , nm iaxi xal nag ovx I'atw '. 
dXXd ual vvv aXXov tgonov. . 12. Mexd de tavi im- 
oximiov x$v u pi) amigoy fiev to oufxa to ndv ■ oil 
prp> aXXa toaovtov ye, wgt thai nXeiovg ovgavovg ' 
tax** y&Q <** **S tovt cmogtiowv, ox* xa&dneg 6 ne- 
ql ryidg xoapog ovveoxrjutv, oi$ev x&Xvt* xal kxegovg 
sjrcu nXeiovg fisv evog, pit fiivroi ye dnelqevg* 13. 
Ugcjiov $* el'TWfiev xa&oXov neql tov anugov. 

"Avdyxtj tit} owfia nay, tjto* aneiqov uvai, rj nene- 
quupivov. Kal el cuxeigov, yxot, dvofiotofiegeg aaav, 
ij ofiotopeqig. Kav el avofioiopegeg , r t tOi ex nene- 
qaofiivsav eidw, ij i£ dxtiguv. 2. c 'Ou fiev toivvv 
ovx olov te 4$ imeigw, qxxvegov, el tig ijfuv idoei pe- 
vuv tag yrqwtag. imo&ioug * nsneqaafiivcav yag tmv 
BQwtw xwfoei*v avow, vviyxri xal tag Idiag twf 
anXiav owfiuxiov eJvai Ttemgaofiivag • anXi] ^ikv yag 

Arist. de Coelo. B 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fj tov anXov awpaTog xlvrjoig, ai 8s anXaX nsnega- 
apsvai xivqosig siolv. 9 Avayxi\ 8s asl xivrjoiv szeiv 
nav ad(xa opvoixov. *AXXa fiijv si'ys ix nsnsgaofisvoiv 
sorai to ansigov, avayxrj xal Toiy pogiwv slvai txa- 
orov ansigov. Asyto 8*, oiov to v8oag, rj xo nvg, 
aXX' a8vvaxov 8s8sixxai yag oxi ovxs fiagog, ovrs 
xovqpoxr^g ioxlv ansigog. 3. *Exi avayxaiov aitfi- 
govg toi [tsys&si slvai xal Tovg Tonovg avxSiV. Jlgxs 
xal tag xivyosig anslgovg andvrw slvai. ToSto d' 
advvarov, si &r)<JOfiev aXrj&sig slvai ring irgaxag vno- 
&sosig • xal ptjxs to xaxw ysgopsvov slg ansigov iv- 
dsxeo&ai tyigso&ai, pyxs to aVco xaxa tov ovtov io- 
yov • advvctTov yag ylvso&ai, o fit] 4v8sx^xoii ytvi- 
o&ai. 'Ofioiag inl tov xoiov8s xal xoaov8s, xal tov 
nov. Aiyat 8', si advvaxov ysvso&ai Xsvxbv i\ nr^ 
Xvalov, rj iv Axyvnxq, xal yivso&ai xi tovtwv adv- 
vaTov. *A8vvaTov aga xal qpigso&ai ixti, ov fiydsv 
dvvaxov a<pixvsio&ai qpsgofisvov. 4. *Eti 8' si xal 
Sisonaofisvov ioxlv, older tjttov ivdi%oix av xo it a- 
navxtav nvg ansigov slvai. fy.*AXXa owfia ijy xb 
navxtj Siaotaoiv sxov mgxs n&g olov xs nXslot pb 
avopoia, exaoxov 8' uvtwv ansigov slvai; navxt] yag 
txaaxov del ansigov slvai. 6.*AXXa \l%v ovds nav 
ofioiopsgsg ivdifsxai xb ansigov slvai • ngtaxov fih 
yag oix soxiv aXXri naga xavxag xivrjosig. *!e$€* ovv 
filav xovxatv. El 8s xovxo, ovfiflrjosxai i} jSdgog ansi- 
gov, i} xovq>bxi\xa slvai ansigov. 'AXXa [tip oix °^ v 
xs xb xvxXco owfia qpsgofisvov ansigov. *A8vvaxov yag 
xo ansigov q>sgso&ai xvxXw* oidsv yag 8ia<psgsi 
xovxo Xiyuv, i\ to tov ovgavbv amvai ansigov slvai. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Tovxo di diduxxai ot* advvaxov. 7. IdXXi jxyv 
oid' oXwg ys xb aneiqov ivdixnai xiviia&at • rj yaq 
%axa (pvaiv xtv^-d-rjaetat f ij (Ha. Kal ti (H<f, toxiv 
avty xal f) xaxi yvow. "jlgxe xal xonoe aXXog Idiog 
tig ov oio&rjoerai. Tovxo 6" advvaxov, 8. "On d* 
bXwg advvaxov antiqov vnb ntntqaofiivov na&tiv x* 
<ij Ttoirjoai xb nentoaopivov, ix x&vdt <pavtqov • loxm 
yaq Sntiqov i<p ov a, ntnsqaofiivov di iq> ov #,#00- 
vog di iv w ixivqoi xt, r\ ixtvri&i) i<p <p y, Ei dtj vnb 
xov p to a i&tqpav&rj, ij MO&rj, ^ alio ti ina&tv, % 
xai ouovv ixivrj&rj, h tijJ £0oV<p iq> ov y, tox<o xb d 
xov (l XXaxxov, xal xo tXaxxov iv Ty Xato XQovq 2U*t- 
xoy xwha • taxto di xo kp w s, vnb xov d fiXXounpi- 
rov o dy iox$ xo d nqbg xo (J, xb s tarui nqbg xb 
nentqaogtivov t*. 9* "jBoxai dV/ xb fiiv loov, iv lath 
XQovto Xoov aXXoiovv • xo di sXaxxov iv xfi> too,, tXax- 
xov • xb di [i&Zov, pn£ov. Tooovxov di, ooov ova- 
Xoyov ioxw onto xb pu£ov nqbg xb sXaxxov, Ovx a- 
ga xb aneiqov in ovdsvbg nsntqaopivov xivti&riot- 
xeu iv ovdtvl xgovto • tXaxxov yaq aXXo iv ra> tatp 
XQOVto vnb iXaxxovog xivrj&riosxai, nqog o xo avaXo- 
yov nsnsqaofiivov Hoxou. To yaq anstqov nqbg xb 
itsneqaopsvov iv ovdsvl Xoytp ioxlv. 10,'AXXa fii)V 
ovdi xo ansiqov iv ovdsvl XQVva xwrjatt xb nsnsqa- 
OfjUvov. "Eara yaq i<p (a xb a ansiqov, xb di (l ns- 
nsqaopivov, XQovog iv y xb y. Oixovv xb d iv xip y 
sXaxxov xov fi xivrfin • soxm xb f. o drj ioxi xb § & 
oXov nqbg xb £ to • *x ov * 0>v X6yov xovxov Xaxto nqbg 
%b 3, Kwrjosi aqa xb t, xb (l f iv x$ y. Uwrtoao^t- 
rov xolvw xal xb amiqov iv f(Wj> /ooVcp aUotwae*. 

B 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


*AX£ a8vvaxov. *Ev 4Xdttovi yag to [iii£ov vnixuto, 
IdXH atl o Xrflp&elg XQ&vog tavtb no^o^t • coot ovx 
totai zgovog ovtitlg 4v y xmian. 'AXXa ^v h anst* 
g<o ys oix £<m xwrjocci, ovds xiv7]&rjvai,' nigag yag 
ovx sjfa.- *H 8i noitjoig xal to nad-og l^«t. 11. Ovd* 
Snsigov dqvn antigov 4v88XStatQv8i*7ta&tlv. > 'Eot<o 
yag to a iinugov, xal to ft, xgovog 8' iv to ena&e to 
ft vno rev a, iq> y y 8. To 8t] iq> 3 o» to s, tov anti- 
gov fiioog' inel oXov ninov&e to ft ovx iv i'ow/oo- 
vto to avt6* vnoxeia&a yag 4v iXavtovi xiveto&ai 
to tXattov £ooVa) • Baton to « xtxtytjftsvov vno tov a 
iv tm f. "0 8rj to 8 ngbg to y 8, to e iatl ngog n 
tov ft nsnegaagiivov. Tovto tolvvv dvdyxt\ vno tov 
a xivfjd-^vat iv tm y 8 XQOvy • vno yag tov avrov 
vnoxeiod'to iv t*J nXelovi xal iXunovi XQ° V <9 ** f*#" 
iov xal to sXattov naax^v, atftt dvdXoyov tw jfooV^ 
ditjQijtai, 12. *Ev ovdsvl aga XQ ** 4 ? 8vvatbv ntm- 
gaofi4v<a antigov in ^antigov xiVTj&rjvab • iv dnetgta 
aga. 3 AX£ b p£v anugog x^ovog, ovx %xtb *iXog • to 
84 xtxivrjfiivov Ijjft*. 13* El toiwv nav owpa aio&t}- 
tbv txu dvrafuv no^ttxfjv , i] na&fjtixr}v, y «//<jdw, 
advvatov crwpa anngov alofhjtbv eivai. 14. *Aiki 
uyy xal ooa ys odifiata iv tonco, ndvta alo&rjtd. Ovx 
sonv aga ocofxa dnsigov *$a» tov ovgavov ov8h y aX- 
Xa [iyv ovds fiexgitivog. Ovdb aga oXtog ocoptt f£« 
tov ovgavov. El fisv yag voiqtbv, Marat eV TOTto^ . 7$ 
yag eSw xal sl'am tonov oi((iaivu. "flgt «<tt«* epta^ij- 
tov cxta&rjrov 8* ovdfa py iv tonto. 15. Abytxii* 
rtgov 84 iffnv inixBiguv xal to8c ovts yitg xvkXm 
oi ov ie Xiv&a&ai to amigor bpotofiegeg ov [livo* 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ftb> yaq xov amlqov oix l<m. To 81 xvxXto, mql 
to fiioov xivuxai. 'AlXu \iv\v ovd* in ev&siag oiovxs 
<piqso&cti xb anuqpv • derjatt yaq sxsgov slvai xooov- 
tov tbnov anuqov, dg by olo&ijoncct xafit cpvoiv • 
xal aXXov toaovxov, dg bv naqa q>vaiv. l6.*Exi, 
el'ie <pvosi e%8i xlvrjoiy xov. tig ev&v, tl'x$ filet xiv si- 
tat, afKpoiEQpjg d&rjott anuqov tjvai xyv xivovoav 
lax^v V T8 Y&Q anstqog aneiqov, xal tov ansiqov 
aneiqog r\ la%vg* "jlgxs thrtou xal to xwovv ansiqov. 
Aoyog 8' h toig juql xivyottog, qti ovdh I^*t ansi- 
qov dvpupur xnv nsnsqaopivmv, oidi tiv ansiqtov 
Ttsnsgaagiivrjv, El ovv to xaxit qyiaiv xal naqa q>v- 
oiv ivdsxsxai xivri^vai, soxai ansiqa dvo, xo,xs xi- 
vovv, ovxta xal xb xivovfisvov. 17. "jExt, xb xivovv 
to ansiqov xi iaxiv • si fiev yaq aixb kavxb, e]uyw- 
%ov sotai. Tovxo di nag dvvaxbv ansiqov sivai Zwov; 
f* S* aXXo xt> xirdvv, dvo saxai ansiqa, xo,x$ xivovv 
xal xb xivovpsvo* \ bhatpeqovxa xtjv poq<pr)v xal trjv 
dvyafw. 1$, El di [ifi avvsxig to niv, aX£ tugnsq 
Xdysi dijfioxqixog xal Asvxmnog, diaqicifUva t$ x«- 
y», ulav avayxaiov navxmv sjvai tyv xivfjoiv dui- 
giata* idv yaq xolg oxypvw t\v di cpvoiv gtaolv 
ctirtoiv slvai ulav, oignsq ay d xqvoag sxaatov s\r\ 
xsx&Qiajiivog • tovtavdi xa&ansq Xiyofisv, avayxaiov 
*7rcu trjv avxr t v xlvrjaiv • bnov yaq uia fitoXog, xal rj 
xpopnaoa yrj yiqexai, xal xb, te nav nvq xal onvy- 
S^jq ugtbv avxby tbnov. "Jlgt ovxs xowpov anXStg 
ovdiv eotai rwv awpatwr, si nivt l/e* fiaqog • si di 
xtrvyoxyxa, ovdiv fiaqv. ±9*"Exi, d (hxqog tfrf * rj 
Kovqwtrjva, bot<u t) soxatov ti tov navxbg, tj fiioov. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Tovto d' idvrator aneloov y ortog, oXwg te, ov /m} 
iot% fiioov r\ eoxator, ftrjSi tb per arm, tb de) xgctn, 
tOTiog ovdelg tatai to*ig otoftaai tijg (pogag. Tovtov 
de [ty ovrpg, xlvrjoig ovx eotai • arayxri yag xiru- 
o&ou ijtoi nagd atvotr, rj xata (pvotr. Tavta d' &g*- 
otat tolg tonoig idlg t olxeloig, xal tdig aXXotgioig. 
20."Eri> eiov naga oyvowti [lire* rj (figetai^ ara- 
yxri tvrbg aXXov elrai tovtor tor tonor xata tpvoiv. 
Tovto di motor ix tr)g inaytayr\g. Idrdyxrj £j} pij 
narta r) fiagog 5?etv, rj xovq>6trita, aXXa tot flip, ta 
Si ov. 21. "Or* pkr ovr ovx lor* to owfia to tov 
navtbg aimgor, ix tovtmr qtaregor. 
Awt% Si ovSe nXsiovg olor t ovgarovg elyai H- 
ytaper • tovto yag eqpafter imoxentior, slug pi) to- 
filZot xa&oXov dsduz&<xi mgl tur o&patar, on ddi- 
rator ixtbg elpai tov xoofiov tovde btiovv uvtmf 
aXXa fiopop inl tip aoglotag xetpirar elgtjo&a* tit 
Xoyop. "Anarta yao xal fiirsi, xal xip&tai fiitp, %m 
xata (pvoir. Kata opvoir per, ip qi fdre$ firj fiiqi, «w 
qpegetai, xal tig or qpigetai xal pirei, *Er <p tie (&f t 
xal qpigetai (lla * xal tig or (Ha qpigetai, (tttp xa* pi- 
rn. u £ti, el (Ha ijde r) (poga, r) irartia xata cpvou- 
2.'Enl de tb pioor tb irtavda, el (Ha oioO-tjaetat f 
yi\ ixel&er, irtev&sr oio&yoetai ixel xata <jpvair. 
Kal el fAtvei iptav&a r) ixel&er prj (Hq, xal ola&rjot- 
tai devgo xata qtvoir. Mia yao r) xata ipvour. 
3. *jEt* drayxri nartag tovg xbofiovg ix toor avtmf 
elrat ota/tutor, buolovg tie ortag tr^v <pvoir. *AXX* 
uifr xal tuv oapmwv exaotor arccyxalor tyr ctvrv 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fyttr dvvapiy olov Xiyta itvq xal yip, xal to fitxa$v 
tovxtoy • it yaq Ofiwvfta tavxa xal pii xata tr\9 
avjrjv idiay Xiyoyxai, to ixu tolg naq ypiv, xal to 
nay ofmyvfiutg ay Xiyoito xoofiog. JtjXov xohvv on 
to psv iuzb tov pioov <piqto&ai n&pvxt, tod* M to 
fUaov avx&y, el'nsg nay bftoioBtdig to nvq T<ji nvqi 
xal tStv aXXuy txaotoy, ilgixeq xal to iy xovxt* fioqia 
tov nvgog. "Oxtd* ayayxaXov ovxtog &ctr, &c *»* 
ntql tag xivrfosig vTxo&iaewy (paysqoy. jCL tz yitq x*- 
vr t dug mmoaop&yai,, txaoxov tt tiy oxoixtiw Xiyz- 
to* xa& kxdoxtjy toy xiyrjotaty. 4. v Jlgt ttnto xal 
ai xwrfoug ai avxal, xal to otoixua ayayxaiov elycu 
navtaxov to avxa. Jlicpvxtp aqa q>iqso&ai xal toil 
tods to fiiaov to iy ally xoofno xyg yi\g fiogia, xal 
nqbg xod& to Mo/ato* to ixu nvq • all! advyaxbv • 
tovtov yitq avp/Saiyoytog, aydyxtj qtioso&ai, oVw (Uy 
tip yrjy iy tw oixslat xooftot, to ds nvq inl to piooy. 
'Opoiojg di xal ttjy iyxtv&sy yr\y anb tov fiiaov (pi- 
$90&ai xata atvoiy, nqbg to ixil q>$qo/ityoy fiiaov, 
dm to tovg xoafiovg ovtta xeio&ai nqbg aXXrjXovg. 
5. M /T yap ov &exiov trjy aityy elvai <pvo$y taty ctnXwy 
etofiattay iy xolg nXdooiy oiqayoig, ijf Xiyortag otJ- 
rmg, to fiiooy h noUiv, avayxri xal to toxatoy. Tov- 
rov d orxog tov axonov, advyaxoy uvcti xoofiovg 
nXtlovg hog, 6. To d* aSiovy aXXrjy <pvoiy thai 
tow anXmy owfiaxtav, iay anooxwoiv %Xaxxoy ij nXiloy 
TaJv olxtlwy tonmv, aXoyoy * x( yaq diaq>$QH to to- 
oovdl cpavou, prjxog anoaxuv, f) toaoydl; Stolasi yaq 
xata Xoyoy, oaw w nXtlov fiaXXov, to d* tldog to 
mvxi. l.'AXXct, p^y ayayxrj y &yal tiva xlyiyny 

Digitized by GOOgle 


avx&y on fiiv yag xwovvxai, tpayegor. UoTegov 
ovv flin naoag igovfity XLYtiadou xal xag ivavxiag; 
alt o fii] i**<pvutv Slug xivtio&ai, advvaxor xovxo 
xivua&ai (tin. El toivvv ioxl tig xhrjaig avxmv xaxa 
arvoiv, dydyxrj rity b/ioioeidwr, xal xatv xa&* exaaxov 
noog %va dpi&pw xinov vnaqxtiv xijv xbrjotv * oior 
noog xo$e xl fiiaov, xal ngig rods xl co/ato?. 8- Ei 
$s ngbg tVdrf tavxa, irltlto d*\ dioxi xal xa xa& 3 k'xa- 
oxa nXtlu jitiv, «*#** di txaoxoif aixStv ddtdcpogoy, ov 
T(p per, r$ d? ov, xoiovxoy total xtoy pogiwv, aiX 
o/ioiag naaw buolutg yag nayxa xax eldog idui- 
<poga dXXr\Xmv y aq*&u<f <Y ' txegov bxovovv. 9. Aiyoi 
di xovxo, ott d xa ivxaiu&a pigia noog cdltjktx, xal 
xa iv Hioy xoGftcp bfioi<a$.6%ei, xal xo Xr)<p&6v ivxtv- 
&sv, oiSiv duMfBQOtrxwv noog x&v h aXXt$ xtvl xuofjug 
fLogUov, xal noog tow iv ayx$, ak£ igavxwg. z/*«- 
ysgovo* -/ag oidiv si'$n aXXyXwv. 10. "Jig* ava- 
yxalov> t) xivHv xaviag xag ino&iaeig, % xo pioov tv 
thai xal xo soxajov. Tovxov ds bvxog, avayxi} xal 
xov oioavbv tp.a povov thai, xal py nXtiovg, tolg 
mvtoTg xtx/iygioig xovxotg xal xaig avxalg ayayxatg. 
1 1. "Oxt d\ ioxi xi ov niqpvxtv i\ yfj cpigto&at xal xo 
nvg, dyXov xal ix xwv ctXXav, "OX&g yag to xivovfU- 
vov ex xtvog tig xi ptxa/SaXXti, xal xavxa it ov xal 
Big o • side i <Je diayigu. Jlasa . ds ntntgaafUyfi 
iiexaftoXri, otov xo vyiatbptv&v ix ybaov tig vyitiav, 
xal xo av^avofitvov ix fivxgoxijxog tig [tiyt&og m Kal 
xo (ptoofitvov aoa. Kal yag xovxo yivtxai, tio&sv 
not. Jet aqa ti'dsi diayigsw, i$ ov xal tig o nitpvxt 
q>6Qso&ai', (ognsg xo vyia£6jitvov ovx ov exvxti', 

Digitized by GoOgle 


ovS ov fiovltxai b ximv. Kal to nvg aga xal f) yrj 
ovx tig anugov (pigovxai, all* tig dvxixtlfitva. 'Av- 
tixuxat dt xaxa xbnov to avto iw xaxai. "jlgxt xavxa 
itigaxa xijg <pogdg. 12. 'find xal iy xvxla !#« nag 
avtixtlfitva ta xata didpttgov, xfj d* Sly ovx toxw 
ivavtiov ovdiv. u Jlgtt xal xovxotg xgonov xivd rj x/- 
vrjotg tig ta dvttxtlptva xal ntnegaopiva. *Avdyxr] 
aga thai tn tilog xal pif tig Smtigov qpigto&at. 1 3 . 
T&xprjgiov tie tov py tig antiga ipigtodai, xal to 
tt\V fty fib oata av iyyvtigca jj tov fiioov, d-dxxov 
qpigttf&ai * to di nvg, Sam avxov avta. El d* anu» 
gov tjv, aimgog av rjv xixl r\ taxvttjg. Ei d 7 y taxv* 
ttfg, xal to (lagog, xal y xowpotrjg • ag ydg *« xa~ 
tmigm taxvtrjxi higov tip /Jagti av rjv ta%v, ovtmg 
ti attttg&g rjv i\ xovxov inidooig , xal t/ tijg taxvty~ 
tog inidoaig anugog av r\v, 14. 'Alia pfjv ovd* vri 
allov opigtxai avxwv, xo fisv ava, xb di xaxa. Ovdk 
§ln t wgntg xivig qpaoi xr\ ix&lfipH 9 ffgadvxtgov yag 
av ixwtito to nltiov nvg ava, xal r nltlav yr\ xa- 
ta. Nw 8i tovvavtiov tisl to nltiov nvg 'd-attov 
tpigttat xal 1/ nltiav yr^ tig tov avxmv tfaov • ovdi 
&dxxor av ngbg tw xiltt iqpigtto, ti ty (Ha xal ty ix- 
&llyti. ndvta ydg tov fiiaoapivov nog$mxiga yi- 
yvoptva Pgadvxtgov'opigtxai. 15. Kal b&tv av (Ha, 
ixti <pigovtat ov (Ha. v Jlgt ix tovxtav &tagovaiv 
iatl laptlv ti\v niextv nsgl cJy liyoptv ixavag. *Ett 
6i xal dia tav ix tr$ ngtaxTjg <ptlooo(piag loymv Set- 
%&tlij av, xa» ix trjg xvxlm xiv^attag, r\v avayxato> 
ofi'diov bfAolfog ivxav&a tlvat , xal iv xolg alloig xo- 
Gfiotg. 16. Jfjlovdi xav didt yivoixo oxonovpivoig, 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ot* avayxrj ilvai eva toy ovgavov tgmv ydg oVrcw 
oofiauxwv OTOixuwv, tgilg Uoovtai xal oi Tonot, iwy 
aioi^f/wy* cl? fii*» 6 tov vqpiotafiivov ompatog o 
ntgl to ftcaov * allog oa, 6 tov xvxlto gxgo/uvov, 
ognsg iotlv loxatog • tgitog, b ftfra$v xovtwv o tov 
(istciSv owpaxog • avdyxr\ ydg iv xovx<$ slvai to im- 
nold(ov • u ydg fiy iv Xovxy, I$a> taxcu. u4U* a Jv- 
yaToy 8«. To piv ydg dftagig, to d' fyov fidgog* 
xaxwxigto di, 6 tov (Idgog tfoviog otipaxog tonog, «£- 
n$g o ngbg tw ^€00) tov fiagiog, 'jlla pijy ovdi Jia- 
pi <pvotv dll<p ydg eoxai xaxd opvaiv, allqi &i ovx 
r\v, 'dvdyxri dga ivx$ psxa$i slvai. Tovxov d* ov- 
tov, xiveg tial dwupogal, voxtgov igovptv * ntgl piv 
ovv xwv owpaxixiov aroi^aW noli i ioxl xal noaa 
xal tig kxdaxov tonog, It* d' Slug, niaot to nly&og 
oi xonoi, b*i]kov r\p"iv ix x&v dgqpivwv* 
"Ot* d ' ov povov tig ioxiv, alia xal ddvvaxov y$- 
vio&ai nlsiovg * eu d\ ag d'L'diog aydagxog aJy xal 
dyivvrjTog y liytaptv, ngmxov dianogrjaavxtg ntgl av- 
tov. 2. d6$Ht ydg ay wdl oxonovpivoig ddvvaxov 
tva xal povov elvai avxov * iv anaot ydg xal tdig 
yvou xal xdlg anb tixvug ytytvtipivoig xal avvtotv- 
ow, Ittgog iouv aixq te xa& avxtjv i\ pogyi} xal 
pspiypivrj psxd tr^g vli)g • olov %r\g oqpalgag txegov 
to sldog, xal y xgvoy, xal i\ x a ^- x V iff alga • xal nd- 
liv tov xvxlov ixiga y fiogwv xal b jjfaXxot); xal i 
SvXivog xvxlog • to ydg tl i\y tlvai liyovtsg oipalga 
ij nvxl(a y ovx igovfisv iv t$ loyy j^ovooy »J x a ^bv, 
wg ovx bvta tavta tr^g ovoiag • aV ^6 tip xalxqv i? 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Zgvarp iowfisv, xal iay ftij dvvibfie&a voyoai firjSe 
Xafiuv aXXo xi nagd xo xa&* exaaxov • totoxe yag 
ovdiy xaXvei xovio ovpPalyeiv oloy el fioyog elg 
Irjcp&sir) xvxXog, Ovdiy yag tjTtov aXXo Marat to xv- 
xXto that, xal tiode t© xvxAw, xat to piv eldog, to fli 
tlfo? to xy vXji, xal xay xa&* exaaxov. *Enel ovv 
iaxiv o ovgavbg ctlo&TjTbg, twv xa& exaaxov a* ely • 
to yag ala&fixbv an ay, to %y vXtj vnygzev. El di 
%Stv %a&* txaaxov, exegov av eXr\ xipde Tip ovqccvui el- 
raij xal ovgava anXa>g - exegov aga ode 6 ovgavog 
xal ovgavbg etnXwg. Kal to fiiv &g eldog xal giogqp^, 
to d* ig xjjj vXtj fteftiyfiivov. Jlv d' iaxl fiogcp^ Jig 
xal eldog, rfxoi iaxlv ij todixexat TtXeim yevea&ai to 
xa&* fxcrora. Eire yag iaxiv el'dy, xa&dneg q>aai 
rtveg, avayxrj tovio av^alvuv * eXxe xal xmqujxqv 
ptldto xtbv roiovtwv, oidh tjxxov. Enl navxtov yag 
ovxug ogStiiev, Saw i\ ovaia to vXy iarl, nXelta xal 
aneiga bvxa xd b^oioudr\. "Jlgte ijto* elal nXeiovg oi 
ovgavol, 1} tode'xexai, elvat nXeiovg. 3. *Ex piv dq 
tovxmv inoXdpoi uv xtg xal elvai xal todi%eo&ai 
nXeiovg elvai ovgavovg. Sxenxeov di naXiv, xi xoi- 
xo)v Xiyexai xaX<ag, xal xi ov xaXag, To per ovv exe- 
gov elvai xbv Xoyoy xby avev xrig vXijg, xal xby to xjj 
vXy xyg fiog<f>7}g t xaX&jg xe Xiyexai, xaleaxw xovxo 
dXfj&ig. *AXK ovdiy i\xxov ovdegiia dvdyxtj did xov- 
xo nXeiovg elvai xoopovg, ovd* todixexat nXeiovg el- 
vat,, eXneg ovxog i$ anaarig iaxl xr\g vXyg, ilgneg iaxiv. 
4. c Jldl di fiaXXov foag sarat to Xeyopevov $r)Xov. El 
ydg laxw i\ ygvnoxr^g xafiTtvXoxrjg to Qivl rj aagxl, 
xal eaxiy vXr\ xy ygvnbxrpi, i\ oag$, el i$ dnaauty xa>v 

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oagxow fiia yivoixo octgS, xal vndgtti iv xavxy to 
ygvnbv, ovdiv av aXXo ovx sl'r) ygvnov, ovxb ivdi- 
Xolto ysvio&ai. 'Ofiotog de xal d tm dv&gtonqt early 
vXtj odgxtg xal ooxd, si ix ndorjg xqg aagxbg xal ix 
ndvxatv x&v ooxfov av&gwnog yivoixo ddvvdxav ov— 
xav diakv&rivat, ovx av ivSixoixo aXXov elvai av- 
■frgwnov • mgavxoag dk xal inl xuv aXXw, "OXtog yitq 
oaiop iaxlv tj ova la iv vnoxstfidvy tjJ vXg, xovxnv oi- 
dkv ivdsx**ot$ ytvio&ai (itj vnagxovoi}g xtvbg vXtjg. 
5. c O £' ovgavbg, tori fiiv xatv xa&* txaoxa xal %*a>v 
ix xyg vXr^g. 'AXH u fiij ix pogiov avxqg owioxrjx&ir, 
aXU i$ dndatjg, xb fiiv elvcu avx$ ovgavy, xal x&ds 
tw oigavy, kxsgav ioxw. Ov fmroi ovx av tXy aX- 
Xog, ovx av ivdfyoixo ytvio&at, nXtlovg, did ib nbt- 
oav rrjv vXt\v nsgiuXriy&vai xovxov. Adntiair a pa 
avxb xovxo dsi£ai, on i$ anavxog xov cpvoucov xal 
xov ala&rjrov avvioxrjxs ofiftaxog. 6. EXntoptv &i 
ngwxov, xl Xiyofitv ttvai xov ovgavbv, xal nooaxws, 
Xva paXXov fffuv dr\Xov yivyxai xb £tixovp8vov. "Eva 
ptv ovv xgonov ovgavbv Xiyopev, x^v ovaiav xyv xt\g 
ioxdrrig xov itavxbg nsgupogag * % o&pa cpvoixbv xb 
iv xji ioxdxjj ntQKpoga xov navxog • uco&afisv ydg 
xb tox<x*ov xal civco pdXioxa xaXuv ovgavbv iv <o xb 
&iiov ndv i$gvo&ai qpajttv, *!dXXov 5' av xgbnov, xb 
ovvsxsg o&fia xjj ioxdxij nsgupogd xov navxog , iv <p 
OfXrjvTj xal qXiog xal IVta xav aoxgtov xal ydg toti/- 
xa iv tw ovgavtp slvai <papsv. *Exi d* SXXtog Xiyofisv 
ovgavov, to Ttegisxofitvov oafia vnb xtjg ioxdxrjg ns- 
gupogag * to ydg oXov xal xb ndv sito&apev Xsyeiy 
ovgavov. 7. Tgix&g dij Xcyopivov xov ovgavov, rb 

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oXop vno xr\g ioxctxrjg ntguxofitpop nsgicpogag , i$ 
anavxog avayxrj ovvtoxdvai tov cpvoixov xal tov 
alad-tjtov ooj/uctjog, diet to [hjtc elpai gi^dev I'jfcu <w~ 
fta tov ovgapov , fitjit ipdixto&ai yipeo&ai • it yag 
iaxip t$o) trjg ioxdxrig ntgupogag aw/xa (pvoixbp, apa- 
yxr\ &VTO ijtoi t&p anXwp ilvai awfiaxmv, rj Tap ovp- 
•&ix&)P • xal rj xaxa yvoiv, y naga qtvoip \*x uv * T®* 
ftiv ovp anXiop ovdev ap si'tj. To fisr xvxXio qpegope- 
voVy didsixxat on ovx ipdixrxai fisxaXXd$ai top kav~ 
tou Tonop. jiXXa firp ovdk to onto tov fidoov dvvct~ 
top, ovde to vqptoxdfiBPOp • xaxa q>vow p&v yag t ovx 
Sp eX^aav aXXoi yag avxatp olxtioi totioi. JIagd 
q>voip d' el'neg elolp, aXXtp xivl terra* xctTU <pvoiv o 
eStoTOTtog' top yag xovno ixaga qpvaip, apayxdiop 
aXX<a ejpcu xaTo) <pvmr. 3 AXX' ovx tjp aXXo aa>/ua na- 
gitxavxa, Ovx ag (ail dvpaxop ovdev tup vcnXwv 
S?w elvcu tov oigapov oatfia. El di fit) Taif anXStp, 
ovde Tip juxxwv • apiyxri yag elpai xal to, anXd tov 
putTov opxog. 8. *M.Xa fiyp ovde yevio&cu dvpuxop* 
jjxot yag naga yvaip eoxai, ij xaxa qxvoip • xal % «- 
nXovpy % fivxtop. "Jlgxe naXiP 6 avxbg Xoyog. Ovdb 
yag dia<pign axomw, tl eaxip, ij ysplo&ai dvpaxop. 
tpapegop toIpvp ix xiav elgrifievwp, on ovtb iorlp !'£#, 
ovt iyx&gei yevia&ai odpaxog oyxor ovdepog' *» 
andoyg yag ion Trig olxeiag vXyg o nag xoojiog' vXti 
yag rjp avicp to cpvoixov o&fia xal aio&ijTOP, "Jlgxs 
ovtb vvv uo\ JiXdovg oigapol, ovx iyipoPTo, ovx 
ivdixtxcti ytvio&ai nXsiovg • aXXa tig xal (xovog xal 
tiXtiog ovTog ovgapog hxuy. 9. "Apa 6s dtjXop on 
ovdi Tonog, ovd« xtvbp, ovdi XQ^pog iartp l^(o tov 

d by Google 


ovgavov* iv anavxi yog T07ra>, dvvaxbv vnag£cn 
awfia • xev bv d' slvai (paoiv iv «f (trj vnagxu o&pa, 
dvvaxbv ds ysvio&ai. 10. Xgovog Si iaxiv agi&pbg 
xivyomg* xivijoig S* avtv (pvaixov ocjpaxog ovx 
toxiv • Sw dk xov oigavov diSnxxat ox* ovx iaxiv, 
ovx ivdix*xai ysvio&at, otoficf qiavsgbv Sga , oxh 
ovxs xonog, ovxs xtvbv, ovxs zgovog, iaxiv Qw&ev • 
dioizEQ ovx iv T07T0) xdxel niyvxey, ovxs x$ovog avxa 
nou% yr\gaaxuv, ovd* iaxiv ovdevbg ovdsfiia firca/3o- 
Xri xiov vnig xyv iSaxaxw xtxayfiivav opogav, aX£ 
avaXXoiwxa xal ana&fj, xrp agiaxrjv ixovxa fwi/7 
xal xr\v avxagxsaxdxijv SiaxeXu xbv anavxa amva • 
xal ydg xovxo xovvofia &tiwg $<p&eyxxai nagd xw 
agxaiwv. To ydg xiXog xb nsgiixov xbv xyg kxdaxov 
twrjg XQOvov, ov prjdiv I?w xaxd <pvoiv, aluv ixaaxov 
xixXr\xai. Kaxi xbv aixbv di Xbyov xal xo xov nar- 
row oiqavov xilog, xal xo xbv ndvxmv aneigov XQO- 
vov xal xrjv dnsiglav nsgiixov xilog, auov iaxiv, anb 
xov ad tlvai uXtjqxbg xyv intowfilav, d&dvaxog xal 
&uog. "O&sv xal xdtg uXXoig i$rjgxrixai, xoig piv a- 
xgiftiaxegov, xoig d* dpavgoxtgov, xb Bival re xal 
tf\v • xal ydg xa&dntg iv xoig iyxvxXiotg <pdooo<pj~ 
uaai nsgl xd &iia noXXdxig ngo<paivBxat xdtg Xbyovg, 
oxi xb &uov afAtxapXrjxov dvayxaiov sly etc nay xb 
ngStxov xal axgbxaxov, o oiixtag bxov ftagxvgtZ xoig 
tlgtlfiivoig. Ovxe yaq aXXo xgsixxov iaxiv oxi xi*if- 
asi, (ixiivo ydg av sly &uoxsgov) ovx %xu qpavXov 
ovdiv, ovxb ivdseg xtav avxovxaXwv ovdevog iaxt. Kal 
anavaxov drj xivrjaiv xtv&xai evXoyag • anavxa yaq 
navtxai xivov/isva, oxav tX&y tig xbv otxitov xonov. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


Tov ds xvxXca odpaxog 6 avxog xonog o&sv ijqSaxo 
%al tig bv xsXsvxfy. 

Tovxwv ds dtwqiofisvav Xsytapsv fisxit xavxa, no- 
reqov aysvvr\xog rj yswrjxbg, xal ciy&aqxog rj q?&ag- 
*og, disSeX&ovxsg nqoxsqov xdg xav aXXwv vnoXrjtftsig* 
ai ' yaq xSiv ivavxiatv anodsi&ig anoqiai nsql xav 
ivavxitov sloiv. "dpa ds xal paXXov av sVrj ntoxa xa 
fisXXovxa Xsx&rjoso'd'ai, nqoaxrjxooai xa xav a[i(pi- 
o(ir\xovvx<ov Xoyav dixaua[iaxa • xb yaq iqrjfirjv xa- 
ladixa&o&ai d ox sty, r,xxov av ^fiiv vnaqxof xal 
yaq del duxixrixag, aXX* ovx avxtdixovg tlvai xovg 
peXXovxag xaXri&sg xqivsiv ixotvwg. 2. Tsvofisvov 
fUv ovv anavxsg slvai <paoiv, dXXa ysvofisvov ol psv 
a I'd tov, ol ds (p&aqxbv, wgmq bxiovv aXXo xSiv Qpv- 
asi ovvtoxapsvav. Ol d' b>ccXXa$, ore psv ovxag, bxs 
ds aXXmg sxsiv (p&sigopsvov. JKal xovxo asl diaxsXsiv 
ovjag, oignsq'EpnsdoxXr)g bldxqayavxlvog, xaVffqd- 
xXsixog b 9 E<psou>g. To psv ovv ysvso&at, psv, dtdiov 
d' oftwg tlval (pavai, xmv ddvvdxmv • pbva yaq xav- 
tu -d-sxsov siXoywg, ooa inl noXXtav, rj ndvxav oqa- 
psv indqxovxa. Jleql ds xovxov avpfiaivu xovvav- 
riov. Anavxa yaq xa yivopsva, xal q>d*iqbpsva qpai- 
rsxai. 3. "Etb ds xb pr) sxov **qxh* T0 ^ **tf J Sf** y > 
dXX advvaxov aXXwg *x uv nqoxsqov xbv anavxa «*- 
Stva, advvaxov xal psxafldXXsiv soxat yaq xi aXxiov, 
o si inrjqxB nqoxsqov, dwaxbv av rjv aXXtag sxtiv ™ 
advvaxov aXXtog sxeiv. El ds nqoxsqov, i£ aXXutg 
ixovxav awsoxr\ b xoopog, si psv asl ovx<og ixovxwv, 
xal adwdxav aXXcog bxsiv, ovx av iyivsxo. El ds ys- 

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yovtv, arayxri di]Xovou xaxuva dvvaw ttvai. aH«s 
fyuv, xalfiy atloviug l*e»r w$t* wriawwrfiia 
diaXv&ijotTah xal ttaXeXvpiwa ovvioTrj sfiTiqoa&fv. 
Kal tovto a7teiqaxig V ovnog *W\ V 8vr<**o* j*- 
Mi d$ tovto, ovx av tl'n a<p&aqTog, ovz d aXAag *W 
note, ovx d Zwutov aXXtog &e^. 4.°» *t wig 
fioi&uav inwtfovQiv Inwtyw kavTolgT&v leyov- 
xvv iup&uQtov iiiv (hou, ywbpevov dts, ovx sot aXif 
#ifc- bpoiag yaq <*>«<* TolgTa dtayqafifiaTa yq&yov- 
01, xal o<pag uqnxbat mql vi\g ysviosug, ovx «f /«- 
vopirov noxe, aUa didaoxaXlag x^9 lv ' t *>* /*«**«> 
yvuQ&vroJV, agntq to diayqufijia yiyvbptvov &ia- 
oapivovg. 5. Tovto tf datl, wgntq Uyoptv, oi to 
avTO- iv fdv yaq tjj *0M?aej» w diayqajmaw 
navTWV t*&ivT<av that, Spa, tq aiio ovpfalvth iv & 
taig Tovr«* anoddfroiv , oi taitbv, il£ kdvyatoy 
tit yaq Xa^avopwa nqbxtqov xal vorsqoy vneravrh 
iariv. 6. 'JBf atixttav yaq note mvypiva <paaly*- 
viod-ai. *Apa 5s to avtb tttayfiivov that *a* ata- 
xtov, advvaiov. 'M£ avayxri yivetnv iWt^f X*Q 1 ' 
Kovoar, xalxqovov b> Se toig $tayqajtfiaoiv oidb 
t<5 ZQ°*V xsxoigwTai. "0t* fib ovv advvatov apa 
a'fowv avrov eivat xal ysvio&at, qwrtgov. ^ 7. To 6* 
imttaS ovvunavat xal Sialism, ovdkv akXoiotsqot 
itoiilv iariv, % to xaTaoxmi^uv avjbv it'dunr fib, 
aXXa petaPaXXovTa tip poqyvp^ W™9 *J T4ff «*! 
ncadbg av&qa ywoptvov, xal ££ av&qbg natda, on 
ph (p&tlqso&ah bt€ d* strut, ol'ono. 8. A^Xov yi$ 
oti xal slg aXXfjXa tStv atoix*ia>v ow*6rr(ap,^ ovxi 
tvxovaa ta^tg ylyvttm, xal ovot*W> o:XX y avx^ 

Digitized by GoOgle 

DE COEL.Q L.IJ3. 1. CAP. XI. 3$ 

aXXoag xs %al xaxa xovg xovxov tov Xbyov tlgrixoxag^ 
di xi]g ditt&daswg kxaxigag alxiwvxab xo ivavxiov, 
"Slgt ei xo oXov awM avve%6S ov, on fiey ovtwg, oxh 
di ixelv&g diaxl&sxai, xal bbaxtxoo^xai, fj $s xov 
oXov owraafe ioxixoopog xal ovgavog, ovx av o xo- 
afiog ylyvoixo x,al q>$eigaixo, aXX' at dia&toHg av- 
tov. 9., Tq &* olpg ytvi^Bvov q>&ag%vak x xal py 
avaxdpnxw qvxog fisv hog, advvaxov ioxi' nglv 
yag ysviad-ai ael vnygxtv r\ ngo avxov ovaxaaig, rp 
pr\ yevoftivriv aix o\qv % sjval qpapsv (inapdXXBw • 
dmlgtav d' oVrcw xmv xoapwv ivtiixexpu paXXov< '^X- 
Xi pi}v xal xovxo noxegov advvaxov ij dvvaxbv, i'arat 
d^Xoy ix x&v vaxsgov. 10. Mol yag xwb% olg iv$s- 
Xtad-uk doxsi xal aykvvx\xov Xk ov qpvhxofjyeu, xal /e- 
voptyov acp^agxov dwisXetv, oigneg iv tgJ Tifiaiq* • 
ixsi yag 9^01 Toy ovgavov ywBO&aif per, ov piv 
q>&agxov, aX£ saso&ai ye tov Xombv ad jjfOQypy. 
JJgbg ovg opvcumg (ibv mgl xov ovgavov fiovov eXqij- 
xah Jfca&oXov ds tico} anavxqg axsypptvois, forai 
xal n^g* xovxqv dyXav. 


Ugixov di diaigsxiov, nag ay&vvqw xal ytw^xd 
qpapBv, xal cp&agxa xal aq>&aora* noXXax&Z yvQ 
Xsyapivw, x$v fiijdsv dwqpigy itgbg xov Xoyov, ava- 
y*ti viv faavoia* aoglorag \%nit , av %vi toi foaigov- 
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xaxa noiav yvviv a vim ovfifialvei, to fo#fo'*% 2. -di- 
y&ai $* ayivvijzov, IVa pkv xgoTtav, iav jj w vvv, 
HQUxtqov /x^ ov avtv ytviatm wxl ptxapoXyg • xo> 
&amg %noi xo anxea&ai xa* to xivna&ai, XiyovoW 

Arist. de Coelo. C 

Digitized by GOOgle 


ov yag slvai ylvso&al qpaoiv anTopsvov, ovdi xirov- 
psvov. "Eva 6*', sXti ivdsxopsvov ylvso&ai tj ysvsa&ai 
pi] ioriv. 'Opoicog ydg xal tovto dysvvijxov, Sti iv- 
dixncu ylvso&ai • sva d*, sX xi oXajg ddvvaTov ysvs- 
o&ai, tog-tt oxi piv slvai, oxi di fir}. To di* advvaxov 
Xiysxai dix&s • ij ydg tw pi) dXt]&ig slvai unity, oxi 
ysvovi dv, ij t$ pi] gadlcog, pt]di Tot%v, rj xaXwg. 
3. Tov aixov di xgoTtov xal to ysvvtjxbv, sva piv, si 
urj ov ngdxsgov , voxsgov iuTiv sXis ysvopsvov, sXxs 
dvsv xov yivso&ai, oxi piv pi] ov, naXiv d' ov. *£va 
di ei dvvaxbv , sXxs to> dXij-d-sl diogio&svTog tov dv- 
vutov, sXts tw (jadlcog. "j&va di, iav ij yivsoig aixov 
£x tov fit] ovxog tig to ov, sXts ijdr) ovxog, did tov yl- 
vso&ai di ovxog • bits xal pi]7t(o ovxog, aXl? ivde%o~ 
psvov. 4. Kal cp&agxbv di xal aop&agxov mouvtw 
sXts yaq ngoxsgov xi> ov, voxsgov pr\ ioxiv, ij ivdsx*- 
t«* pi) slvai, q>&agxov slvai qpaptv • sXxs qp&sigops- 
vov noT8 xal psxa/idXXov , sVts pi). "Eoxi d' 5x8 xal 
to did tov qp&slgso&ai ivdsxopsvov pi) slvai, <p&aq- 
xbv slvai qpapsv. Kal en aXXtog to $qdl(ag tp&tigo- 
psvov, o sXnoi Tig Sv sv<p&agxov. 5. Xa* Tisgl tov 
d<p&dgxov o avxbg Xoyog • ij ydg to dvsv cp&ogag 
oxi piv ov, oxi Si pi} ov olov Tag dqpdg, ot* avsv 
tov <p&slgso&ai ngoxsgov ovoai, voxsgov ovx uqIp, 
ij to ov piv, advvaxov di pi] slvai, ij xal ovx ioopt- 
vov noxs, vvv di ov • ov ydg si, xal r t aqtrj vvv ' dlX 
opag op&agTov, on soTai noTi, ots ovx dXrjdig oi sl-> 
nsXv oxi si, ovdi xavTa dnTsod-ai , to di pdXiara *v- 
glfog, to ov piv, ddvvarov di q>&ag%vai oviwg, wgTt 
vvv ov, vorsgov pij slvai, ij ivdixso&ai py thai, y 

Digitized by GOOgle 


xal to firjnw iq&aopivov, ov 6s, Mtxo/nsvoy d' votb • 
gov fir) slvai. 6. Aiyixai ds aqt&aoTOv, xal to fir) 
fading <pdsig6fitvov. El drj Tama ovtwg «fc«, oxe- 
nriovnag Xiyofisv TodvvaTov xal to advvaroy to,t* 
^ao xvguoTata Xsybfisvov ay&aoTov t<T» fir) dvvaa&at 
av q?&aQr)vai, [iqd' oxt fiiv slvcu, ot& di fir], Aiyt- 
tcu ds xal to dyivvrjTOv to ddvvaTOV, xal to fir) dv- 
vdfisvov yzvia&ai ovroag, atgrt nooTtoov fiiv sivai, v- 
oregoy ds fir) slvai * olov Tip didfiSTQov aififisrqov* 
7. Ei drj ti dvrajai xivr\&r\vai orddia sxotov, rj aoa* 
fiagog, del irobg to nluarov Xiyofisv • olov idXavxa 
aqai btaxov, rj orddia (ladloah kxctjov, xatioi xal ia 
pooia dvvaxat tu ivrbg* sXnto xal Tr)v vkbqoxvv 
<ag diov bgi&o&ai nobg to TsXog xal Tr)g vn$ooxr)g 
tr)v dvvafiiv. *Avdyxr\ fisv ovw to dwaTov xa& wco- 
oxh v tooadl, xal to. ivTog dvvao&ar olov el TaXav- 
xa hxaxbv aoai, xal dvo • x$v u orddia kxctxbv, xal 
dvo dvvao&ai fiadioai. *H ds dvvafiig Tr)'g insooxyg 
ion* xlfv sV t* advvaTov Tooovdl xatf vntoftolr)* 
slnovTtov, xal t« nXsia ocdvvaxov • olov b ^//Ua § a ~ 
dloai orddia fii] dvvdfisvog * drjXov on xal jf/Ata *«' 
tv, 8. Mrfiiv d* r)fidg, to xsXsvxalov <*v dvvaTai, 
naosvoxXsiTW duoQlo&o) yag xaxa Tr)g vnsgoxr)g to 
riXog Xsybfisvov to xvglwg dvvaxbv xdxa yag iv- 
OTalfj Tig av> wg ovx avdyxr\ to \tx$iv. *0 yag bgiiv 
OTadiov, oix av Ta ivTog otytxai psyi&q • alia tovv- 
avriov fidXXov a dvvdfisvog iduv oriyfir)v, rj axov- 
oai (uxqov ip6<pov, xal twv (i€i£ov(ov Se» al'o&rjow. 
*AX£ ovdiv duxcpiqu nobg tov Xoyov * diaglo-d'Oi yao 
njoir til Trig dwdfAStag, ij inl tov nodyfiaTog r) vnso- 

C 2 

Digitized by GOOgle 


(toll' to yag Xtyoptvo* drfXov % pkv yag o*pi$ n 
tov ikdttovog, vmg*x**> % f) de %otx v% W» V T0V ™Le*o*os. 
Juagmphmv d$ TOVTcay, Xexxsov xb iysSyg. JEl $n 
dativsna dvyata xalshaixal py, avayxy xgo*o* ttva 
ngio&ai toy nXuatov xal xov tlyat xal tov p,rj. ji&y* 
y ov, dvvaxbyxb ng&ypa dvcuuml ay dvyatbr f*i\ u- 
vat xa&* inotawoivxwqyoQiait * ©I©* av&gomov ij l$v- 
xbv, rj tolnrixv, t} aXXo bxiovy t<ov toiovtoay * *i yog 
py total nooog tig, i\£ a*l nXtlta* tov ngoxt&brxog* 
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avxi dwaxbv ilvai xal pij that aXXov anuQOv* Idl- 
Xa tovt adwatoy. 2,'Agxk &' tot& (vtti&Bv to 
yiig advvatoy xal to y/$vdog ov tavtb orjpaiyw tau 
de to adiyatov xal to dwaxbv, xal to yt$vdo§, xal 
to aXfj&ig, to pfr ft vno&iowf Xiyw V, olov to 
tglywoy idvyatoy 8vq og&ag %x uv > ** tads* xal 
if diapstgog ovppexgog, tl tads. "Eoti d* anXvc 
xal dvyata, xal a dvyata , xal yrvdt), xal aXrj&f} • 
ov dii tavxi Aft* y/svdog ti t* that imXibg , xal 
advvatoy oSnX&g • to yag as prj kotma cpavat kotd- 
vat, ytvdog ply, oix advvatoy de. 'Opoitog di xal 
to tov xt&agKoyja, py $dovt* di, qduv q>avah y*v- 
dog ph, aXX 3 oix advvatov. To d' apa hatdym 
xal xa&%o&at, xal ti\v diapttgoy ovppstgoy thai, 
oi povoy yevdog, akXa xal adiyatov. Oi dq tmvtot 
iotw, vno&io&ai ysvdog, xal advvaxov ovpflutyn 
di advvatoy & advyatov. Tov ph ovr xa&^ 
o&ai xal latavai, Spa *x H *%* dwapw, ot$, oxt 
I'xn txeivqy, xal Ti}r ktdgay. *AX£ oix &&* «i»« *«- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


-diia&m xal iaravcct , &X£ iv «iU« #£<ww. & & ^ 
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dvvaxoti fiii t*vai. "Aft* a£w tarw, xt xal ovx taxat 
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ipsvdog hi&ri. *A)£ n jki} advvtixov yv> ovx ttvxal 
eidvraxdv rpv xb ovpfialvov. "Anav ctqa xb dtl ov tt- 
nXwg &(p&aqxov> 'Opoimg ds xal dyiwrjxov • u ydq 
ytvrTjrbp) Maxai dvvaxbvxQ&vw Tivd fty tlvcu. 4. Q>&oq- 
xov fuv ywo iaxi to nqoxtqov (ikv ov, vvv di (in ov • 
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iySiflxat Ttqoxtqov ftrj tivtu • a&£ ovx laTtr «V 9 jtoo*- 
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«c* €tvtu. *Advvaxov S^ot xal asl /usr xt tivcu, qyfraq- 
xov Si drat. 'Ofiolwg 6* ovdi yevvrjx6v. Avoiv yog 
oqoiv si advvarov xb voxeqov avev xov nqoxiqov 
imaq$ai % ixuvo d 3 ddvvaxov iriaqSat, xal xb vox**- 
gov. Jlgx u xb dtl ov (in ivdix**al noxt fir} uvea, 
advvetxov xal ywvrixhv elvai. 5. 'ifrreJ 8' y anoya- 
mg xov ftiv ml tivvafiivov slvai, *b pri ad tiwaps- 
vov thai • to tf au dvvdfitvov (ir) elvm ivavxiov, 
ov anoyaoig xb fit} aci dwaptvov (irj tlvcu • avdyxri 
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Itivov Toi/ atl Svxog, xul xov ael ui bvxog, xb dvva- 

Digitized by GOOgle 


fievov thai, xal /ny elva* * rj ydq kxateqov dnoyaoig, 
note vndqUi el /trf eVy del. "jlgte xal to firj del pT\ 
SV torcu note xal ovx carat, xal to fiy del dwdfievov 
that dt\Xovoti 9 alia note ov. "jlgte xal prj elvai. 
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tarty dficpolv pioov. 6. Aoyog de xa&6Xov ode • 
SOTO) ydq to a xal to /?, fir\devl tw avtot dvvafieva 
indqxtw • anavti di to a if to y, xal to ft 1} to d. 
*Avayxi\ 6ij, y fiijte to a vndqxei, pipe to fi, nartl 
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aptpa vn&QX*w to 9 te y xal to 6. Ilavtl ydq y to a 
ij to y. "jlgte xal tw t. *Enel ovv to a ddvvator, 
to y vndgtti. *0 6' avtbg Xoyog xal htl tov d, 7.0v- 
te dij to dtl ov yevvrftov ovdi (p&aqibv, ovde to act 
pq or. Jr\Kov d' Sit xal el ytwtftbv ij q&aqtoy, ov* 
dtdiov • dfia ydq total dvvdpevov del elvai, xal dv- 
vdpevov pif dtl slvai. Tovto d* oti ddvvottov, de- 
deixtai nqoteqov. 8. Aq ovv el xal dyiwrftoy, of 
de, tovt dvdyxtf di'diov elvat. 'Opo'uog de xal el S- 
tpdaqtov, ov de* ley® de to dyevvrpov xal aqp&agtof, 
ta xvqitag Xeyopeva • dyevvijtov pev o iott vvv, xal 
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lov de xal 4x tov bqtopov avtav • xal ydq dvdyxrj el 
cp&aqibv, yevviitov. "H ydq dyevvijtov, ij yewijtoV 

Digitized by GOOgle 


tl yag ayiwi\xoy 9 a<p&agxov vnoxsixai * xal si ytv- 
yfjxby ds, qp&agxbv dvayxrj • ij yag y&agxbv, ij a- 
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ovxs to aqp-d-agxov a id toy sly at. "On £' avdyxr\ axo- 
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to ix xiay ngbxsgoy * xov yag a el ovxog xal xov asl 
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xal slvat, xal pi) slvai mgtofisvov xgovov kxdxsgov * 
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fiij thai. 11. El xoivvv ioxl xt ysvvtjxov ij q>&agxbv, 
jkvayxri xovxo [isxa$v slvat • Iotw yag xb a, xb asl or. 
To ds ft, to ail lit} ov • to ds y, ysvvr\Tov • to di d, 
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ioj w &, <p&agx6v. Ta drj £ & dsdsixxai oxi axoXov- 
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to fiev £ xal & 9 axoXov&ovyxa * xb ds s xal xb ( f 
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Digitized by GoOgle 


t»i?^ irayni **l tit s if a*oiw^£r attipUjf 4 ^ 

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Digitized by GOOgle 


fa ual tov tlrtti Svvupir slx*> Hal tov titt fty *lv<*t 
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vaxov i? ytvopevoy ttou, cifryaqtev u oY«TeJUXr> V 
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Digitized by GOOgle 


dvrafjuy ov iviqytia oix eoxiv, "Jlgx av #<u/w to 
dvvatov, aXrj&eg %axai mtkuv vvv, . ot« xovx for* ni» 
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ivavxioig xal i$ <av owioxaxtu, xa <pvosi ovxa, xal 
vno x&v avx£>v xovxwv <p&eiq$xat. 


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xovg aqxalovg, xal fiaXwxa xovg naxqiovg iiftwv aXif 
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wgxt firjdev tlvai, niqag avx^g, aXXa fiaXXoy javxty 
xnv aXXwv niqag • xo,xt yaq niqag wv ntquxorw 

d by Google 


iaxl • xal avirj q xvxlo<pogla xiluog ovoa ntqUxu 

rag artists xal rag ixovaag nigag xal navlay, axrtfj 

(xev ovdeplcty ovtb aoxnv sxovoa, ovtb ttlsvTtjv, al£ 

aitavorog ova a top ansigoy xgoyoy • vow de allay, 

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xaai yag xovtov oi ovoTrjoavxeg toy loyov, ttpf av- 

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xal ndarjg ani)llaypiyr)y (aoviiy^g hfupgoyog * c* ye 

Digitized by GOOgle 


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Digitized by GOOgle 


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