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uatuor (Soronatoruxn 

being the TRANSACTIONS op the 





« "" ■ 

CIRCA, 1500 A.D. 

and W. J. SONGHUBST, P.A.G.B.C. 


W. J. Paurett, Ltd., Printers, Mas gate. 




Friday, 5th January, 1912 

Friday, 1st March, 1912 ... 

Friday, 3rd May, 1912 

Monday, 24th June, 1912, St. John's Day in Harvest 

Thursday, 18th July to Sunday, 21st July, 1912 (Summer Outing : 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Hexham and the Roman Wall) ... 
Friday, 4th October, 1912 
Friday, 8 th November, 1912, Festival of the Four Crowned Martyrs .. 






David Ramsay Hay 

Robert Fergusson's Petition to the Cape Club, Edinburgh 

John Theophilus Desaguliers 




JBaelz, Robert 


Bailey, Frederick W. 


Baker, William 


Barker, Thomas E. 


Barnard, George S. 


Bennison, W. J. 


Brice, Albert G. 


Browne, Col. H. Buxton 


Cameron, John 


Castle, E. J. 


Coveney, Albert E. 


Dowding, Major Hewitt 


Eckles, George 


Hanks, Walter S. 


Hantke, T. J. C. 


Hind, James 


Home, Edward L. 


Kellevink, H. J. D. 


Kelley, John G. 


Knight, John M. 


Koop, E. C. 


Lardner, H. J. 


Lean, G. G. 


Lindsay, Thomas A. 


Long, Sadler 


McAlister, Robert 


McClure, Dr. Charles T. 


Mayers, John 


Metcalfe, William 


Murray, Donald 



Table of Contents. 

BITU ARY. — Continued. 

Quayle, Mark 
.Roberts, Edward 
liobshaw, John 
Smith, Charles \V. 
Smith, H. H. Montague 
Staley, G. W. 
Steinberg, E. J. 
Thompson, Ralph 
Tonkin, Itev. C. D. 
Ward, Gordon B. 




The Jerusalem Sols and some other London Societies of 
the Eighteenth Century. By F. W. Levander 
The Society of Adams; Comns's Court; The Codheads; The 
Rowlands; The Royal Stag Society, 9; The Knights of the Brush; 
The Country Feast, 10 ; and The Country Stewards Lodge ; The 
Knights of the Moon, 11; The United Alfreds; The Society of 
Blue and Orange; The Order of Khajares, 12; The Jerusalem Sols; 
A Sermon preached before the Society in 1785; The Founder, John 
Drawwater, 13; The Royal Grand Modern Sols Lodge, and the 
Windsor Modern Sols Lodge ; The Queen of Bohemia's Head, and 
Wych Street, 14 ; The Sols Arms and Shakespeare Chop House ; 
The Club of Owls, 15 ; The Sols Arms, Hampstead Road ; The Sol 
Club, 16; The Constitutional Code of Laws of the Jerusalem Sols, 
17; A Procession to Florida Gardens, 24; The Royal Arch Con- 
stitutional Sols, at the Adam and Eve, St. Pancras; The Grand 
Constitutional Sols, at the Globe, Fleet Street, 25; Procession to 
Islington, 27; The Honorary Stewards; Viscount Hood, Sir Watkin 
Lewes, Charles James Fox, 29; Sir William Curtis, John Home 
Tooke, Edward Topham, Brook Watson, Paul le Mesurier, Rev. 
Dr. Barry, 30; Mr. Byng; The Sword of the Royal Arch Con- 
stitutional Sols, 31 ; Jewel of a Raised Master of Modern Sols, 32 ; 
The Surgeon's Jewel; The Windsor Lodge, 33; The Albion Sols, 34. 
Comments by E. H. Dring, 34; W. J. Songhurst; W. H. Rylands, 
35. Appendix : Papers in the collection of Mr. J. Elliott Hodgkin ; 
The Royal Corinthian Lodge, 35 ; The Ancient Original Free and 
Accepted Sols, 38. 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands 
and its Grand Master, the Marquis de Gages. By Count 
Goblet d'Alviella 

Lodges in Belgium under England, Scotland, and France; The 
French Provincial Grand Lodge, its records preserved at Mons, 39 ; 
Lodg;es la ParfaiteUnion, la Parfaite Ilarmonie, la Parfaite Egalite, 
and les Frcres rhinis, 40; The Warrant of la. Parfaite Ilarmonie, 41 ; 
The Appointment of the Marquis de Gages as Provincial Grand 
Master under the Grand Lodge of England, 42 ; La Parfaite 
Ilarmonie as the Mother-Lodge, 43; and. as the Provincial 
Grand Lodge, 45; its temporary cessation of work; and re-opening 
as a Private Lodge: The Officers of the Provincial Grand Lodge, 
45; de Vignoles, Provincial Grand Master in London for Foreign 
Lodges, 46; his failure to pay money received for Charity Fund, 


table of Contents. 

47; Twenty-three Lodges own allegiance to the Provincial Grand 
Lodge; The Papal Bulls against Freemasonry not operative in 
Belgium, 48; The Marquis de Gages and Higher degrees, 49; 
Lodges of Adoption, 50; Certificates and Seals, 51; A dispute 
between Perignon de Progent and F. J. Beghin, 52; Illuminated 
Address to de Gages from la Par f ait e Earmonie, 53; Freemasonry 
in Belgium under Maria Theresa; and under Joseph II., 54; Edicts 
against Freemasonry; Appeals by the Marquis de Gages, 55; The 
closing of Lodges, 56. Appendix : By-Laws of the Provincial Grand 
Lodge, 57. 

The Charter of Larmenius. By John Yarker ... ... 6g 

Dr. Morrison and the Order of the Temple; Fabre Palaprat accused 
of falsifying the Statutes, 69; Fabre's Ritual, 70; Morrison's 
criticism of the Scottish Order, 71 ; The introduction of Royal 
Arch and Templar degrees into Scotland by a Militia Regiment, 
74; Convents of the Temple in England and Scotland, 77; and 
India, 78; Officials in Paris in 1836, 79; The Successors of Fabre 
Palaprat, 80. 

The Papal Bulls and Freemasonry in Belgium. By Count 

Goblet d'Alviella ... ... ... ... y^ 

Roman Catholics as members of Lodges, 81; The Lodges to be 
treated as Charitable Societies, 82: Papal Bulls only obligatory 
after regular publication, 83; Present day opposition in Belgium 
by the Roman Catholic Church, 84. Appendix : Edict of Joseph II., 
January 5th, 1786, 84; and Declaration, May 15th, 1786, 86. 

The Old Landmarks of the Craft. By W. B. Hextall ... 

Definition of the word 'Landmark,' 91; References to Preston's 
Illustrations of Masonry; Hutchinson's Spirit of Masonry; Oliver's 
Historical Landmarks of Masonry, 92; The Symbol of Glory; and 
The Freemason's Treasury; Use of the word by the Duke of Sussex ; 
Stephen Barton "Wilson; Mackay; Mackenzie; Woodford, 93; 
H. B. Grant, 94; and H. J. Findel; Ecclesiastics and Operative 
Masonry, 95; Invocations to the Deity, 96; The Old Charges and 
Geometry; Injunctions to secresy, 97; The formation of Grand 
Lodge in 1717, 98 ; The word ' Landmarks ' as used by Anderson ; 
The destruction of Manuscripts, 100; George Payne and the MS. 
Constitutions; The early meaning of the letter G, 101; A Know- 
ledge of Geometry necessary in the preparation of Architectural 
plans, 102; A comparison of the Old Charges with a modern 
Indenture of Apprenticeship, 106; Both enjoin secresy, 107; The 
probability that the ' Old Landmarks ' were the Operative building 
secrets, 108; The Operative element in Lodges after 1717, 111. 
Comments by J. P. Simpson, 114 ; E. L. Hawkins, Fred. Armitage, 
116; Sydney T. Klein, 117; A. Poignant, 118; \V. J. Songhurst; 
Canon Horsley, 121 ; Dr. W. Hammond. Reply by W. B. Hextall, 


vi. Table of Contents. 



Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of 

the Eighteenth Century. By Gordon P. G. Hills ... ... 141 

Letter from George Downing to Rev. Thomas Maurice mentions 
the proposed formation of a Literary Masonic Lodge, 141 ; Downing 
as a Mason ; Succeeds Thomas Dunckerley as Provincial Grand 
Master of Essex, 142 ; His oration after being installed, 143 ; The 
Rev. Thomas Maurice, His life and writings, 144 ; Grove, Kill and 
Dr. J. C. Lettsom, 145 ; Ode to Mithra included in the book, 148 ; 
Lettsom's correspondence with Dr. Zimmerman, 151 ; General 
Rainsford; Biographical Notes, 152; The Lodge des Amis Beunis 
at Paris; The Lodge Echarpes Blanches and its correspondence 
with the Pilgrim Lodge in London, 156 ; The Rite of Philalethes ; 
Pernotti's Hermetic Rite; The Rite of St. Martin; The 
Swedenborgian Rite; The Exegetique et I'lulanthropique Society, 
157; Rainsford's connection with the Royal Arch; Preston's 
Chapter of Harodim; Royal Ark Mariners; and Chapter of 
Observance, 158 ; The Rev. William Jones, of Nayland ; List of 
Rainsford's papers relating to Freemasonry and Magnetism, 159. 
Comments by J. P. Simpson, 160; Dr. Wynn Westcott, 161; E. H. 
Dring; Dr. S. Walshe Owen; W. B. Hextall, 162. Reply by 
G. P. G. Hills, 164. 

Dr. Richard Rawlinson and the Masonic Entries in 

Elias Ashmole's Diary. By J. E. S. Tuckett ... ... 237 

The differences between the original MS. and the printed editions 
of the Diary, 237; Two issues in 1717, 238; The 1646 entry, 239; 
The 16S2 entry, 240 ; Preface to the 1717 Edition ; Charles Burman 
the Editor, 243 ; Dr. Robert Plot's transcript of the Diary agrees 
with the original, 244; Dr. Rawlinson as Editor of the Diary, 245; 
The probability that ho made the alterations in the 1717 Edition, 
246. Comments by J. P. Simpson, 249; E. H. Dring, 250; John T. 
Thorp; W. B. Hextall, 251; W. Wonnacott, 253. Reply by 
J. E. S. Tuckett, 255. 

Gavin Wilson, " Poet Laureat to the Lodge of St. David." 

By A. M. Mackay ... ... ... ... ... 258 

Gavin Wilson inventor of a process for hardening and polishing 
leather, 258; An article in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1793, 259; 
His membership of Lodge St. David, 261 ; His appointment as 
Grand Steward, 262 ; and as Proxy for the Lodge of Glamis, 263 ; 
The Cape Club ; Origin of the title, 264 ; Some of its members ; 
The Ceremony of admission, 265 ; Wilson's application for member- 
ship, 266; The Diploma of the Club, 267; Wilson's Collection of 
Masonic Songs, 268; No mention of his Laureateship in Books of 
Lodge St. David, 269; The "New Song of St. Davids," and 
notes on the members mentioned therein, 270; Wilson a member 
of the Royal Order of Scotland ; His house in the High Street, 
Edinburgh; His Epitaph, 274. 

Table of Contents. 

Hidden Mystery No. VII. The Real Personality or Tran- 
scendental Ego. By Sidney T. Klein ... 

That which is visible is the shadow of the invisible, 285; The 
Physical Ego does not look out upon Nature, but the Spiritual 
endeavours to enter the Physical, 286; The senses of Sight and 
Touch; Light compared with Space, and Sound with Time, 287; 
The development of man's senses, 288; The connection between 
the Physical Ego and the Spiritual Ego, 290 ; The Eye of the Soul, 
292; The truth beyond the Veil, 294; The limitations of time and 
space, 295; The influence of Heredity and Environment, 296; 
Sympathetic action not confined to organic senses, 297. Comments 
by J. P. Simpson; Canon Horslcy, 298; Rev. J. T. Lawrence, 305; 
Dr. D. F. de l'Hoste Ranking, 307. Reply by S. T. Klein, 310. 

Summer Outing. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Hexham, and the 
Roman Wall. By Francis R. Taylor 

The Northumbrian Masters' Lodge, No. 3477, 318 ; Newcastle, 319 : 
The Ancient Bridge ; The Mediaeval Walls, 320 ; The Ancient Guild 
of Masons; The Hospital of the Holy Jesus, 323; The Keelmen's 
Hospital ; The Trinity House, 324 ; The Guildhall, Surtees House, 
326; St. Andrew's Church, 327; Cathedral Church of St. Nicholas; 
The Black Gate, 328; The Castle Keep, 329; Axwell Park; 
Hexham, 330 ; Hexham Abbey, 331 ; Masons' Marks ; Roman Wall 
and Cilurnum, 333; Corstopitum; Return to London, 334. 

Inaugural Address By E. H. Dring 

The Toast of the Worshipful Master. By J. P. Simpson 






History of the Grand Lodge and of Free- 
masonry in the District of Columbia. 

By Kenton N. Harper 
History of the Grey Friars Lodge, No. 

1101, Reading. By G. Thorne Phillips 
By-Ways of Freemasonry. By Rev. J. T. 

History of the Humber Lodge, No. 57, 

Hull. By G. A. Shaw 
History of the Pomfret Lodge, No. 360, 

Northampton. By T. P. Dorman 
History of the Lodge of Fidelity, No. 445, 

Towcester. By T. P. Dorman 
Chronicle of the Lodge of Goodwill, No. 

711, Port Elizabeth. By T. N. Crans- 

History of the Falcon Lodge, No. 1416, 

Thirsk. By E. Charlesworth 
The Royal Jubilee Lodge, No. 72, London. 

By H. A. Darch 
Freemasonry in Marlborough, from 1768- 

1834. By J. E, S. Tuckett... 

E. L. Hawkins 
William Watson 
E. L. Hawkins 
E. L. Hawkins 
E. L. Hawkins 
E. L. Hawkins 

E. L. Hawkins 

E. L. Hawkins 

E. L. Hawkins 

E. L. Hawkins 



Table of Contents. 

REVIEWS.— Continued. 

A short Masonic History. By Fred. 

The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry. By 

A. E. Waite 
Records of the Lodge, Original No. 1, now 

the Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, London. 

By W. H. Rylands 
Masonic Jurisprudence, illustrated by 

Grand Lodge decisions, from the date 

of the Union. By the Rev. J. T. 

Science and the Infinite, or Through a 

Window in the blank Wall. By Sydney 

T. Klein 
Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. Reports 

of York, Hallamshire, and Metropolitan 


E. L. Hawkins 

B. E. J. Edwards 

W. Wonnacott 

W. B. Hextall 

Dr. W. Hammond 

A. Y. Mayell 






Adams, Society of ... ... 9 

Address of E. H. Dring... ... 345 

Ancient Free and Accepted Sols 58 
Andalusia, Provincial Grand 

Master of ... ... 369 

Anti-Gregorians ... ... 276 

Ark Mariners ... ... ... 158 

Ashmole's Diary revised by Dr. 

Rawlinson ... ... 237 

Audit Report for 1911 ... ... 2 

Avignon, Illumines of ... ... 157 

Belgium, Freemasonry in ... 39, 81 

Board of trial for examination of 

Candidates ... ... 179 

Bulls, Papal, and Freemasonry in 

Belgium ... ... ... 81 

Brush, Knights of the ... ... 10 

By Laws of Provincial Grand 

Lodge of the Netherlands ... 57 

Cape Club, The 

264, 277 

Chaplain to Grand Lodge appointed 370 

Chapters (R. A.) referred to: — 

All Souls, Weymouth 


Charity, Bristol ... 


Henry Levander, Harrow.. 


Mystic Stone, Martock 


No. 361, 17th Light Dragoons 89 

St. James', London 


Sincerity, London 


Yarborough, London 


Charter of Larmenius ... 


Chesters, Summer Outing 


Certificates, The Crowe Collection 

Cilurnum, Summer Outing 



Codheads, Society of 


Comus's Court 


Constitutional Sols 

25, 283 

Constitutions of Jerusalem Sols.. 


Corbridge, Summer Outing 


Corstopitum, Summer Outing .. 


Country Feast ... 


Degrees worked in Belgium 
Degrees worked in Lodge 

Antiquity ... 
Drawing the Lodge 

Echarpes Blanches 

Edicts against Freemasonry 

Elected Cohens 
Election of Wardens 
Exegetique Society 






Exhibits :— 

Aprons ... 4, 89, 90, 139. 232, 234, 

235, 236, 284, 343, 344 

Ashlar from Matoppo ... 8 

Cap, R.A. 234, 235 


Certificate, John Bell ... 8 

William Bell ... 236 

„ Joseph Bird ... 5 

„ John Bloom ... 232 

,, Charles Clerc... 343 

„ Robert Downs . 90 

,, John Handford 236 

,, Thomas Longworth 5 

,, Joseph McClean 284 

„ Thomas Mason . 234 

,, Frederick Schuler 89 

Charitv Box ... ... 8, 90 

Chart ... ... ... 233 

Cross, Maltese ... ... 235 

,, Templar ... ... 5 

» Cup, Silver ... ... 90 

Engraving ; Faith, Hope 

and Charitv ... ... 90 

Handkerchief ... ... 282 

Jewel, Angel Lodge, Colchester 6 

,, Arnold Lodge ... 343 

„ B.C.M. ... ... 139 

„ Bucks ... ... 140 

,, Crossed Keys ... 235 
,, Deputy Prov. Grand 

Master ... ... 5 

„ District J.G.W. ... 7 

,, Enamelled... ... 140 


8, 235, 283 

French Prisoners' work 4 

Grand Steward's ... 234 

Intendant of Buildings 282 

Mark ... ... 235 

Oddfellows ... 343 

Ohio ... ... 344 

Pierced ... 5, 7, 90, 140, 233 

P.M 90 

Prov. Grand Treasurer 236 

Provost and Judge... 282 

Prussian Knight ... 282 


5, 90, 140, 236 

,, Red Cross of Babylon 

,, Rose Croix 
Medal, Danish 

,, Duke of Sussex 

„ Frederick the Great 

,, Freemasons' Hall, Bath 

,, Grand Lodge of 

,, Lodge Friendship 
and Fraternity ... 

,, Lodge Parfaite Egalite 

,, Oddfellows 

,, Steinmetzen 

,, Union Lodge, British 
Medallion, Leaden 
Mug, Sunderland 
Nautilus Shell 
Plate. Iron, Orange Society 
Princinia for R.A. Chapters 
Pug Dog, Dresden figure of 

5, 282 


















Sash ... ... 232, 234, 236 

Snuff Box ... ... 4, 7, 139 

Soud Plate ... ... 344 

Star, Red Cross of Babylon 5, 282 

Sword, R.A. Constitutional 

Sols ... ... ... 283 

Templar design ... .,, 139 



Exhibits :- 

Tokens ... 

Warrant, Chapter of Mystic 
Stone ... 


Working Tools 

Florida Gardens 

Foreign Lodges, Provincial Grand 

Master for 
Forming the Lodge 
Free and Accepted Sols 

Goose and Gridiron, Lodge at the 
Green worn by Country Stewards 
,, worn in the Lodge of 

Harodim, Chapter of, worked in 
the Lodge of Antiquity 
,, Order of 
Hexham, Summer Outing 

Inaugural Address of E. H. Dring 
Incorporation of Grand Lodge 

Ireland, Provincial Grand Master 


Jerusalem Sols ... 

Khajares, Order of 
Knight Templer Sols 

Landmarks of the Craft, The Old 
Larmenius, Charter of ... 
Leeward Islands, Provincial Grand 

Master of ... . .. 

Literary Lodge, proposed in 1797 

Literature, Masonic 

Lodge converted into a Provincial 

Grand Lodge 














Lodges referred to: — 

Alexandria - Washington, 



All Souls, Tiverton 


All Souls. Weymouth 


Amis de l'Union, Brussels... 


. 81 

Amis reunis, Paris 


Amis Theresiens, Mons 


, si 

Anchor and Hope, Liverpool 


Ancient Knight Templar, 



Angel, Colchester 


Antiquity, London 


Antwerp, Royal Exchange 


Apollo, York 


Arnold, Walton-on-the-Naze 


Baptist's Head, Chancery 




Bear, Bath 


Bear and Harrow, Butcher 



Black Boy and Sugar Loaf, 

Clare Market 



Black Posts, Great Wild 




Blue Boar. Fleet Street ... 


Bonne Amitie, Namur 


British, London ... 


Bull Head, Southwark 202, 




Lodges referred to : — 

Caledonian, London 10, 26, 201 

Campbell, Hampton Court . 232 

Carnarvon, Hampton Court 138 

Castle, Highgate... ... Ill 

Castle, St. Giles 203 

Coach and Horses, Madox 

Street 220 

Coffee House, Long Acre... 219 

Coffee House, Queenhithe... 208 

Combermere, Birkenhead... 279 

Concorde et Amitie, Joinville 343 

Concordia, St. Eustatius ... 234 

Canongate Kilwinning ... 190 

Constance, Brussels ... 56 

Constitution, London 12, 197, 219, 230 

Constitutional, London ... 9 

Cordiality, London ... 26 

Country Stewards' ... 10 

Crown, Fleet Market ... 215 
Crown and Rolls, Chancery 

Lane ... ... 224 

Crown and Sceptre, St. 

Martin's Lane ... 206, 229 

t>alhousie, Carnoustie ... 280 

De Ogle, Morpeth ... 319 

Dog, Spitalfields ... ... 203, 216 

Echarpes Blanches ... 156 

Edinburgh ... ... 278 

Emulation, London 12, 210, 219 

Equitable, Mons ... 81 

Etekwini, Durban ... 279 

Faith, London ... ... 14 

Falcon, Thirsk ... ... 130 

Falstaff, Charing Cross ... 203 
Fidelity, Towcester ... 129 
Flesh Market, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne ... ... 364 

Fountain, Catherine Street 222 

Fountain, Snow Hill ... 212 

Fountain, Strand ... 359 
Freedom, London 194, 199, 212, 217, 221 

Freres reunis, Tournai ... 40, 81 

Friendship and Fraternity 6 

George, Leicester Fields ... 204 

Glamis 263 

Globe, London 9, 26, 190, 213 

Goodwill, Port Elizabeth ... 130 

Green Lettice, Holborn ... 207, 228 

Grev Friars, Reading ... 125 

Grevhound, Fleet Street ... 203 

Grevhound, Spitalfields ... 203, 216 

Griffin, Newgate Street ... 206 

Hague ... 370, 371 

Half Moon. Cheapside ... 220, 223 

Harmony, London ... 209 

Heureuse Rencontre, Brussels 56 
Hole in the Wall, Hatton 

Garden ... ... 223 

Hope and Anchor, Liverpool 283 

Horn, Fleet Street ... 210 
Horn, Westminster 207, 360, 364, 376 

Hotel Bussv. Paris ... 371 

Humber, Hull 127 

Humilitv with Fortitude, 

Calcutta ... ... 385 

Immortality, London 159, 210, 214 

Indian Head, Philadelphia 371 

King Harold , Waltham Cross 280 
King's Arms, St. Paul's 206. 213, 219, 

220, 225, 228 

King's Arms, Shad Thames 218 

King's Arms, Southwark ... 221 

King's Head, Poultry ... 190 
Kind's Head and Shears, 

Holborn ... ... 203, 213 

Libertv of Havering, Rom- 
ford 279 



Lodges referred to : — 

Ligne equitable, Mons. ... 48 

Lion and Lamb, London ... 30 

Lisbon ... ... ... 372 

London ... ... ■ ■ ■ 14 

Lorain's Head, Suffolk Street 370 

Loyalty, Marlborough ... 131 

Manchester, London ... 26 

Mary's Chapel, Edinburgh . 278 

Mason's Hall, London ... 239 

Merchants, Quebec ... 236 

Middlesex, London ... 138, 279 

Mitre, Aldgate ... ... 218 

Mitre, Reading ... ... 220 

Montserrat ... ■■■ 374 

Mt. Everest, Darjeeling .... 279 

Mourning Bush, London ... 210, 219 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 187, 319 

New Exchange Punch House, 

New York 
Northumbrian Masters, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne . . . 
No. 9, District of Columbia 
No. 50, London ... 
No. 61, London ... 
No. 84, London ... 
No. 95, Cork 

No. 108, 31st Regt. of Foot 
No. 128, London ... 
No. 243, Dover ... 
No. 303, Bolton ... 
No. 361, 17th Light Dragoons 
No. 400, Ireland 
No. 914, Newry 
Old King's Arms, London... 
Old Man's Coffee House, 

Charing Cross 
Old Sinjins, London 
Parfaite Egalite, Bruges ... 
Parfaite Harmonie, Mons .. 
Parfaite Intelligence, Liege 
Parfaite Union, Mons 
Parfaite Union, Namu'r ... 
Parfaite Union, Rouen 
Paris, Duchess of Ports- 
Perseverance and Triumph, 

Pewter Platter, Hatton 

Philanthropic, London 

Philanthropic, Long Melford 
Pilgrim, London 
Pomfret, Northampton 
Pontefract Castle, Padding- 
Prince of Orange's Head, 

Prince William, Charing 

Princess Dowager's Arms, 

Prosperity, London 
Quay, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Queen's Head, London 
Red Cross, Barbican 173, 218 
222, 223, 225 
Red Lion, Canterbury 
Regularity. London 
Research, Leicester 
Richard Giddy, Kimberley . 
Rising Star, Bloemf ontein . . 
Rose, Cheapside 206, 

Rose, Fleet Lane 









, 226 


























40, 82 
48, 81 




210, 216, 

223, 229 


26, 159 




Lodges' referred to: — 

Rose, Temple Bar ... 207, 220 

Rotterdam ... ... 370 

Royal Athelstan, London... 11 

Royal George, Bridport ... 90 

Royal Jubilee, London ... 131 
Royal Kent of Antiquity, 

Chatham 6, 138 

Royal Naval, London ... 26 
Royal Somerset House and 

Inverness, London ... 166 
Royal Sussex of Hospitality, 

Bristol 232 

Rummer, Charing Cross ... 219 
St. Alban's, London ... 211, 214 
St. David, Edinburgh ... 258, 276 

St. Davids, Berwick ... 319 

St. George, Berwick ... 8 

St. John's, Dunse ... 284 

St. John's, Hampstead ... 11 

St. Paul's, Glasgow ... 261 
St. Paul's Head, Ludgate 

Street ... 207, 210, 221 

St. Stephen's, Edinburgh.. 74 

St. Thomas's, London ... 14 

Scoon and Perth ... 74 

Sea Captains, Liverpool ... 283 

Sea Captains, Wapping ... 220 

Shakespeare, Dublin ... 232 

Ship, Royal Exchange ... 216 

Social, Manchester ... 89 

Solomon's, Charlestown ... 376 
Stewards', London 188, 223, 225 
Strict Benevolence, Lynn 

Regis ... ... 1 

Strong Man, London ... 205 

Sun, St. Paul's 217 

Sun, Fleet Street ... 207, 220 

Swalwell, Gateshead ... 371 

Swan, Exeter ... ... 207 

Swan, Fish Street Hill ... 219 

Swan and Olive Tree, London 203 

Swan and Royal Oak, London 203 

Talbot, Halifax ... ... 377 

Thistle and Rose, Glasgow... 261 
Three Lions and Greyhound, 

Salisbury ... ... 370 

Tun, Philadelphia ... 369 
Tuscan, London ... ... 217, 225 

Union, British Columbia ... 89 

Union, Brussels ... ... 56 

Union, Manchester ... J5 

Union fraternelle, Brussels 56 

United Friends, Yarmouth 232 
Utility, London 190, 212, 214, 226 

Unitv, London ... ... 14 

Vine', Ludgate Street ... 204 
Vraie et Parfaite Harmonie, 

Mons. .... ... 40 

Vrais Amis de l'Union, 

Brussels ... ■ • • 56 

Warrington ... ... 239 

West Kent, London ... 385 
West India and American, 

London 166, 198 

Wheatsheaf, Gloucester ... 377 

Wilts Militia ... ... 131 

Wirrall, Birkenhead ... 279 

Yellow Lion, Dublin ... 367 

Making a Mason ... ... 176 

Martinisme ... ... ■■• 157 

Mason derived from Maze, ... 369 

Masonic Literature ... ... 345 

Masonic Templars ... ... 70 

Masons' Marks. Hexham Abbey... 333 

Massorians, Order of ... ... 235 



Masters' Lodge ... ... 179 

Masters' Oath ... ... 168 

Modern Sols ... ... • • • 9 

Moon, Knights of the ... ... 11 

Netherlands, Provincial Grand 

Lodge of the ... ... 39 

Newcastle - upon - Tyne, Summer 

Outing ... ... ... 317 

Oath of a Master ... ... 168 

Officers of Lodge elected ... 182 
Operative Secrets, the Landmarks 

of the Craft 91 

Owls, Club of 13 

Papal Bulls and Freemasonry in 

Belgium ... ... ... 81 

Paris, Illumines of ... ... 158 

Past Master, The ... ... 184 

Patent of Provincial Grand Master 42 

Persons referred to: — 

Abbott, Abraham ... 206, 208 

Acklam, 90 

Adams, John ... ... 9 

Adams, John ... ... 206, 208 

Adamson, H. ... ... 346 

Addison, J 343 

Aldridge, Bro. ... ... 37 

Allan, Darid ... ... 274 

Allen, John ... ... 208 

Allen, Mundeford ... 208 

Allen, William 368, 376 

Alleyne, John ... ... 208 

Alleyne, Thomas ... 202, 208 

Alricks, Harmanus ... 376 

Alsop, Nathaniel ... 208 

Amies, Thomas ... 175, 209 

Anderson, Rev. James ... 98, 237, 

348, 378 

Anderson, Gapt. William ... 209 

Annesley, A. ... ... 11 

Appleton, William ... 183, 209 

Arabin, Gapt. Septimus ... 78 

Arnall, George ... ... 8 

Armitage, Fred. ... 116, 132 

Armstrong, T. J. ... 319 

Ashe, Rev. Jonathan ... 92 

Ashmole, Elias 237, 347 

Askew, Dr. ... ... 372 

Ashton, Charles ... 209 

Atkinson, Sir Jasper ... 78 

Atwick, Lieut. Richard ... 209 

Audric, J. B. ... ... 89 

Austin, Rowland ... 381 

Avery, John ... ... 209 

Ayres, Bro. ... ■■• 37 

Axtell, Samuel 179, 185, 190, 191, 209 

Baelz, Robert ... ... 136 

Bailey, Frederick W. ... 386 

Bailev, John 209 

Bailiff, Robert ... ... 325 

Baillie, William ... ... 271 

Baker, Andrew ... ... 209 

Baker, William 279 

Balfour, Andrew .. ... 271 

Ball, Beniamin ... ... 209 

Ballisat, G 90 

Bamford, Samuel ... 209 

Bancks, John ... ... 378 

Banker, S. M. ... ... 6 

Barde, James ... ... 8 

Barker, Thomas E. ... 386 

Barker, William 190, 191, 209 

Barnaby, H. J. ... 90 

Persons referred to':— - 
Barnard, George S. 
Barr, Major H. J. 

Barrell, W. H 

Barrett, ... 

Barry, Rev. Dr. 

Barry, John 

Barton, George ... 

Bass, George 

Bass, Samuel 185, 190, 

Bateman, James 

Bateman, John ... 


Bathurst, Charles 

Batson, Thos. 

Baumann, Professor 

Bavius, Mr. 

Baxter, Mr. 

Beale, Dr. John ... 

Beardmore, G. 

Beauchant, Theophilus 

Beaufort, Duke of 41 

Beaumont, Marquis of 

Beckwith, Samuel 

Beghin, F. J. 

Belcher, Governor 

Bell, Benjamin ... 

Bell, John 

Bell, Seymour 6, 32, 90, 

Bell, William 

Bengough, Thomas 

Bennison, William J. 

Benson, John 

Berkeley, Rowland 190, 202, 

Berry, Bro. 

Berry, John 

Berry, John 

Bickerton, Francis 

Bigsby, Robert 

Billinghurst, Henry 

Billings, R. W. ... 

Billson, F. W 

Bingham, James 
Binks, John 
Birch, Fred. W. 


Bird, Joseph 

Bird. W'illiam 

Birkhead, Matthew 

Blackerby, Nathaniel 363, 

Blackett, Walter 

Blanch, Nathan 194, 

Blenkinson, Mr. ... 

Blight, Hon. Thomas 

Bliss, Dr. P. 

Blonchard, James 

Bloom, John 

Blythe, F. 

Boaman, John 
Bohemia, Queen of 
Bolton, John 
Bond, Thomas 
Bone, George 
Bone, Robert 
Bonnar, John 
Bonnor, Charles . 
Borthwick, Gapt. 
Bottomley, John . 

Boude, Thomas 
Boult, Richard 
Bourde, Thomas 
Bousie, William 
Bowden, James 
Bowes, Arthur 
Bowie, Patrick 
Bowman, John 








27, 36 




191, 209 












, 78, 200 







319, 343 


185, 209 



206, 210 






187, 210 




364, 376 


207, 210 









184, 185, 

203, 210 

368, 379 

207, 210 









Persons referred to: — 
Bowring, S. W. ... 
Boyd, James 
Boyden, W. L. ... 
Bradley, Benjamin 

Brandscombe, James 
Branson, Henry 
Brearley, James, Sen. 


Brett, Reginald B. 
Brett, Rose Fuller 
Brewer, Hugh 
Brice, Albert G. ... 
Bridgeman, Henry Toye ... 
Bristow, John .. 168, 

Bristowe, E. F. ... 
Broadhead, Theodore 

Henry . . . 198, 

Broadley, A. M. ... 35, 

Broadwood, Henry 
Brockbank, F. W. 
Brook, T. W. 
Brookhouse, J. O. 
Brooks, John 
Brooks, John 
Brooks, William ... 
Brooksbank, James 


Brown, W. Ruddle 
Brown, R. S. 
Brown, Samuel ... 
Browne, C. A. G. 
Browne, Col. H. Buxton... 
Browne William ... 
Bruce, Bev. John 
Brudenall, Lord ... 
Bruin, James 
Bryerley, John 
Bryson, Bro. 
Buchanan, Gilbert 
Bullock, Jos. 

Bunn, J. H. 
Burdon, Nicholas 
Burgh, Henry 

Burlton, William 

Burman, Charles 

Burman, John 

Burman, Henry ... 

Burnes, Adam 

Burnes, Lieut. F. H. 

Burnes, Lieut. G. J. H. ... 

Burnes, Lieut. H. F. H. ... 

Burnes, Lieut. H. W. H. ... 

Burnes, Dr. James 

Burns, Robert 

Butler, Bev. 

Byerley, Sir John 

Byng, Mr. 

Byrom, Henry 

Bywater, W. M. 

Cadwalader, Br. Thomas ... 


Cale, Benjamin ... 

Callendar, Thomas 

Calvert, William 

Cameron, George 

Cameron, John ... 


Campbell, Col. 

Campbell, Dr. 

Campbell, Alexander 

Campbell, Dougall 

Campbell, John Stewart ... 

Campbell. Richard 

Campfield, John ... 

Carmichael, Lord 





179, 180, 

190, 191, 
198, 210 



179, 190, 

191, 210, 

206, 211 

205, 211 
363, 379 

197, 211 
238, 252 
72, 77 
184, 211 
187, 211 


Persons referred to: — 

Carnarvon, Earl of ... 337 

Carnarvon, Marquis of ... 378 

Carpenter, ... 169, 211 

Carpenter, Col. ... ... 360 

Carpenter, Col. George ... 368 

Carpenter, John ... 212 

Carter, Peter ... ... 236 

Carter, Theodore ... 212 

Castle, E. J 138, 279 

Cater way, ••• 212 

Chadwick, William ... ^34 

Chaff ey, Robert 139 

Chalcraft, Henry ... 212 

Chalmers, John ... 212 

Chambers, Boyle ... 79 

Chapman, Edward ... 193, 212 

Chapman, John ... ... 212 

Chapman, Dr. Robert ... 212 

Charles Edward, Prince ... 73 

Charlesworth, E. ... ... 4, 130 

Cheetle, Peter ... ... 361 

Chesterfield, Earl of ... 227 

Chetwood, William Rufus .. 368 

Chewell, John ... ... 5 

Chibert, Bro. ... ■■■ 39 

Chocke, Alexander ... 363 

Cholmondley, Wm. Hy. Hugh 78 

Church, General ... 79 

Clanfield, Samuel ... 212 

Clare, Earl of ... ... 254 

Clare, Martin 341, 367 

Clark, O. A 233 

Clarke, 212 

Clarke, Sir C. Purdon ... 2 

Clarke, John ... •■• 232 

Claus, John 208, 212 

Cleaver, Joseph ... ... 212 

Cleeve, Bro. ... ... 37 

Clerke, Dr. Thomas ... 190 

Cleland, Peter ... ... 273 

Clinton, Robert ... ... 234 

Coates. Ca V t. G. C. ... 324 

Cobham, Lord ... ■■■ 360 

Coke, Thomas ... ... 207, 212 

Cole, Benjamin ... 197, 207, 212 

Cole, John Louis Christian 212 

Cole, William, Jun. ... 198, 212 

Coleraine, Lord ... 363, 368 

Collier, James ... ... 239 

Colhoun, William ... 27 

Collier, 243 

Collins, Philip ... ... 212 

Collins, Ruth ... ... 369 

Comerford, James ... 369 

Compplin, ... 186, 212 

Conder, E. ... ... 102 

Cook, Daniel ... ... 272 

Cook, Robert ... ... 142 

Cookson, James ... ... 212 

Cooper, Charles ... ... 10 

Cooper, Richard 2?7, 212 

Cope, Col. John 170 

Corbett, Thomas George ... 78 

Cordier, A. ... ... 39 

Cordwell, John 207, 213 

Corson, G: E 125 

Counsaler, Adelohus Dusoan 207, 213 

Court de Gebelin ... 157 

Court, John M. ... 232 

Courthorp, George ... 213 

Cousins, Mr. ... ... 355 

Cousins, George ... ... 213 

Coveney, Albert E. ... 279 

Cowper, William ... 364, 367 

Cox, Bro. ... ... 188, 197 

Cox, Anne ... ■•• 326 

Cox, Daniel ... ••• 378 




190, 191, 

102, 237 


Persons referred to: — 
Cox, Edward W. 
Cox, Henry 
Cox, John 
Cox, T. 
Cox, William 
Craigie, James 
Craigie, John 
Cranston, John ... 
Cranstoun Day, T. N. 
Crauford, Earl of 
Crawley, Dr. W. J. 
Chetwode . . . 


Cremin, Thomas 
Cresswell, Henry 
Crisp, Thomas 
Critchley, James 
Crookatt, James 
Croker, Capt. Walker 
Crompton, Spencer 
Crookshanks, John 
Crosbie, Robert ... 


Crowcher, John ... 
Crowe, F. J. W. 
Cuff, Peter 
Cummings, James 
Cummyng, James 
Cunningham, John 
Curran, J. B. 
Curll, E. 
Curryer, Thomas 
Curtis, Alderman 
Daking, Abraham 
Dalkeith, Earl of 
Daly, Francis 
Danby, John 
Dansay, Lieut. ' ... 
Darch, H. A. 
Darnley, Earl of 
Dassigny, Fifield 
Davies, David 
Davis, A. 

Davison, Sir Hugh P. 
Davison, Thomas 
Davison, Thomas 
Deale, John 
D'Anvers, Caleb ... 
d'Arberg, Count 

de Bartholome, 

de Bourriott, 

de Bures. 

de Choiseul Hainville, Duke 

de Clifton, Sir W. 

de Coltereau, 

de Costa, Daniel Mendez... 

de Costa, Jacob Mendez ... 

de Donumore, Alexandre ... 

de Duras. Duke 

Deeble, Thomas ... 

d'Eon, Chevalier 

d'Estrees, Marshal 

D'Eyncourt, Charles Tennyson 

D'Eyncourt, George H. T. 

Defoe, Daniel 

de Gages, Marquis 

de Gallez, 

de Geloes, Canon 

de Gouffieri, Francis 

de Guillard, 

de Halltine, Baron 

de Hochepied Larpent, Baron 

de la Chaussee, Bro. 

de la Coste, B. P. 

de la Coste, Joseph 

Delany, Daniel ... ••■ 185, 





















































Persons referred to: — 

de Lobel, Bro. 


Delvalle, Daniel ... 


Delvalle, Isaac 

179, 214 

1 1 ^™ i-. j-+ 



.L/eillclLL, ... ... 

de Mahy, Canon 

do Montalivet, Count 


de Montesquier, President 


Denmark, King of 


de Nerac, Count 


Dennis, Mr. 


do Pelgrom, Bev. Charles 


de Quesne, Marquis 

364, 368 

de Raoul, Jean Marie 


i do Sade, Count 


Desaguliers, Bev. John T. 

168, 214, 

278, 368, 369, 

371, 383 

de St. Ceran, Ennon 


de Saxe Tesschen, Bro. 


des Barres, Francis 

174, 214 

de Seckendorf, Baron 


de Stassart, Baron 


Deuchar, Major 


Deuchar, Alex. 


Devaux, Canon Nicholas .. 


de Vignoles, John 


Devorall, Richard 


de Wolf Smith, W. A. ... 


Dick, John 


Dickenson, Capt. Henry .. 

205, 214 

Dillon, Charles 41 

, 51, 178 

Dobbs, William 


Dodd, Bev. William, D.D. 

179, 214 

Dobee, James 


Donaldson, James 185, 

190, 214 

Donegal, Marquis of 


Donker, Peter 


Donovan, E. YV\ 


Doria, Urbano Teixera 


Dorman, T. P. 

128, 129 

Douglas, William 


Dover, Barnaby 

206, 214 



Dowding, Major H. H. H. 


Downie, Bro. 


Downie, William 

266, 272 

Downing, George 


Downs, Robert 


Doyle, Col. Carlo 


Drake, Francis 111 

349, 372 

Drawwater, John 


Dring E. H. ... 34, 

162, 251, 


345, 384 

Drogheda, Earl of 


Drummond, George 


Drummond, J. H. 


Duchaine, Paul ... 


Duffield, John ... 


Dugood, William 

208, 214 

Dumfries, Earl of 


Dumfries, George 


Duncan, John 


Dunckerley, Thomas 

142, 236 

Dundee, Lord 


Dunlop, Andrew 


Dunlop, James 


Dunn, Robert 


Dupont, Matthew 


du Progent, Perignon 

41, 52 

Durham, Earl of 


Dyett, R. H. K. 


Dyne, Thomas ... 178 

, 202, 214 

Eaden, John 

■206, 215 

Eccles, Bev. Allen Harrison 180, 215 

Eccles, Robert ... ... 215 

Eckles, George ... ... 386 

Eden, Dr. 79 


Persons referred to: — 
Edwards, B. E. J. 
Edwards, David 
Elcho, Lord 
Eldon, Lord 
Ellam, John 
Ellam, Richard ... 
Elphinstone, Robert 
Emmett, Christopher 
Ergas, Ralph 179, 190, 

Erskine, ... 

Esplin, Bro. 

Esplin, Alexander 

Esquire, William... 

Essex, Thomas 

Esterhazy, Prince Anthony 

Evans, Phineas ... 

Everson, Lambert 

Faber, John, Jun. 182, 197, 

Fabre Palaprat, B. R. ... 

Farnier, James ... 

Farre, Richard John 

Farren, John 

Farwinter, Capt. Ralph ... 

Fatt, T. 

Faulkner, George 
Fecknam, Joseph 
Fellowes, George Dorset ... 
Fellowes, Sir James 
Fendall, P. R, ... 
Fenton, S. J. 
Femviek, John 
Ferara, Andrea ... 
Ferguson, Copt. Jamos ... 
Ferguson, Walter 
Fergusson, Robert 
Field, Robert ... 183, 

Figgis, John 
Finall, William ... 
Findel, H. J. 


Fleetwood, AVilliam 
Flude, John 
Folkes, Martin ... 
Folliott, Lord 
Forester, Richard F. 
Forrester, Lord ... 
Foster, John 
Foulds, John 
Fountaine, Sir Andrew 
Fox, Charles James 
Fox, Stet 
Foxcroft, Sam 
Francis, Thomas ... 
Franklin, Benjamin 


Persons referred to: — 



Freeman, William 
Furnell, Michael 
Fyfe, Alexander ... 
Fyfe, John 
Galway, Joseph ... 
Gardner, David ... 
Garnett, George 
Garston, Edgar ... 
Garston, John H. 
Gates, Alfred 
George IV. 

Gerhard, ... 

Gibbs, Thomas 
Gibson, Col. G. W. 
Gilbert, John 
Gilliat, William Henry 
Gilson, Cornforth 
Uissing, G. J. 
Gloag, Andrew 



Glynn, Sir Richard 



Goblet d'Alviella, Count 


, 81 


Goddard, Samuel 



Goding, Capt. 



Goding, James ... 



Godwin, George ... 



Goldney, F. H 



Gordon, Mr. 


191, 215 

Gordon, George ... 



Gordon, James 



Gould, R. F. ... 107, 




Gow, William 


206, 215 

Gower, William ... 



177, 215 

Grabianka, Count 



Graeme, James ... 



Graham, Mr. 



Graham, Lord George 


202, 215 

Grant, Alexander 


69, 79 

Grant, Donald J. 



Grant, H. B. 



Grant, John 



Gray, David 


175, 215 

Gray, William W. 



Green, Hezekiah .. 



Green, James 


23S, 215 

Greenwood, A. B. 



Greenwood, M. 



Grenier, ... 


190, 191 

Greeves, John 



Grey, William 



Griffith, Thomas ... 



Griffith, Capt. Thomas ... 



Griffith, Wliliam Pettit ... 



n.~ ' „« 


uuion, ... ... 

261, 277 

Hacket, Dr. John 


194, 215 

Haines, Francis Wilbraham 


182, 215 



nan , ... ... 

208, 215 

Hailey, John 



Halket, Capt. 



Halket, Sir Peter 


194, 2< 6 

Hall, Richard 




Hamden, John 



Hamilton, Charles 



Hamilton, James 



Hamlyn, Thomas 


Hammond, Henry 



Hammond, John 176, 183 




Hammond, Dr. W. 








Hamon, William ... 



Handford, John ... 



Hanks, W. S 



Hantke, T. J. C. 


358, 367, 

Harper, Edwards 


370, 376 

Harper, Kenton H. 



Harper, Thomas ... 


187, 216 





Harris, Henry 



Harris, Pritchard 



Hart, John 




Hart, Samuel 



Hart, Thomas 


236, 216 

Hartley, Theophilus 179 



192, 216 

Harvey, Lord 



Harwood, William Took ... 



Hawkins, E. L. 



8, 139 





Hawkins, Joseph 




Hay, David Ramsay 



178, 216 

Hay. John 




Hayes, W. C. 


205, 216 

Haynes, J. 



Hearne, Thomas 



Heather, Joseph 


, 217 


Hedges, Charles 


74 , 

Heeson, John 



Persons referred to: - 

Henley, Orator 
Hepburn, John . 
Herbert, Lord 
Herd, David 
Hervey, John 
Heseltine, James 

Hewbanke, John 
Hewitt, James 
Hextall, Thomas 
Hextall, W. B. 

Higgenson, Jonathan 
Highmore, Joseph 
Hill, Bro. 
Hill, Matthew ... 
Hill, Nathan 
Hill, Richard 
Hill, Rowley 
Hillersden, Edward 
Hillhouse, J. 
Hills, Gordon P. G. 
Hillsborough, Lord 
Hinchinbrook, Lord 
Hind, James 
Hindson, Joseph 
Hobbs, J. Walter 
Hodge, Robert 
Hodges, C. C. ... 
Hodges, Tydzach 
Hodgkin, J. Elliott 
Hodgson, Frederick 
Hodson, Mr. 
Hogarth, William 
Hogg, James 
Holland, R. Martin 
Holme, Randle ... 
Holmes, Bro. 
Holmes, Col. John 
Holt, Henry 
Holt, John 
Home, Robert 
Hood, Lord 
Hooper, John 
Hooper, Richard 
Hopkins, John 
Hopkinson, Thomas 
Home, Edward Lawson 
Home, Dr. George 
Horsley, Canon ... 
Horton, H. J. 
Hotham, Col. Sir Charles 
Hough, Bro 



365, 369, 370 



... 265, 277 


47, 156, 184, 

201, 203, 217 




90, 122, 162, 251, 

276, 282, 335, 345 






























271, 273 








121, 302 


207, 218 


168, 169, 218 






2, 108 






Humphries, David 175, 179, 183, 218 

Houghton, Col. . 


Howes, John 
Hudson, Bro. 
Hudson, John 
Hughan, W. J. . 
Hughes, Thomas . 
Hull, Christopher 
Hull, John 
Hume, George 

Humphreys, J. M. 
Hunt, Richard ... 
Hunt, William Henry 
Hutchinson, William 
Hutchinson, Wm. Parry 
Hyde, James 
Inchiquin, Earl of 
Innes, John 


190, 191, 218 

... 207, 218 

... 207, 219 

Persons referred to: — 
Innys, Mr. 
Inwood, Rev. Jabez 
Irwin, Major F. G. 
Irwin, Walter 
Isaacs, Levi 
Ivey, W. P. 

Jackman, • 

Jackson, Henry ... 
Jaquery, John Elias 
Jacques, John 
Jenour, Joshua ... 
Jepson, Antony ... 
Johnson, Richard 
Johnston, A. W. 
Johnstone, James 
Jones, Dr. 
Jones, Anselm 
Jones, A. Ernest 
Jones, Dr. Buckland 
Jones, Capt. Henry 
Jones, Joseph 
Jones, Stephen 
Jones, Bev. William 


Kay, John 
Keck, Samuel 
Keesen, Mgr. 
Keith, Sir William 
Kellaway, William 
Kellevink, H. J. D. 
Kelley, John G. 


Kemys-Tynte, Col. Charles 
Kennedy, R. H. 


Kent, Duke of 
Kent, Rowley 
Kenyon, B. 

Ketell, • . 

Kidd, J. C. 
Kier, John 
Kiernan, T. M. . 
King, John 
Kingston, Lord . 
Kirby, Lawrence 

Kirkman, Joseph, Jun. 181 
Kirkman 4 William, Sen. 
Kitchener, Lord 
Klein, Sydney T. 102, 117, 
Knelier, Sir Godfrey 
Knight, John M. 
Knowles, W. H. 
Knox, John 
Koop, E. C. 
Kouli Khan 
Kupferschmidt, C. 
La Coste, Isaac, Jun. 
Lalande, Bro. 
Lambert, Richard 
Lambert de Lintot, Peter 
Lancashire, Thomas 
Landesmann, R. E. 
Langley, Batty . . . 
Lanjuinais, Count 
Lardner, H. J. ... 
Lawrence, Rev. J. T. 91, 126 
Lawrence, Gen. S. C. 
Lawrie, Wm. Alexander 
Leake, John 
Lean, G. G. 
Leautier, Bro. 
Le Caan, Charles 179. 

Lee, Sir Sidney ... 















206, 219 



375, 376 











206, 219 


















363, 367 

206, 219 

182, 219 



284, 338 



362, 373 



, 305, 335 



207, 220 

185, 190, 
199, 211 


9, 35, 

Persons referred to: — 
Le Goyt, P. W. 
Leinster, Duke, of 
Leith, John Harley 
Leman, Sir William 
Lemarchand, M. I. 

Le Mesurier, 

le Mesurier, Paul 
Lemon, Mark 
Leper, Andrew 
le Strange, Hamon 
Lettsom, Dr. J. C. 
Levander, F. W. 
Leven, Earl of 
Lewes, Sir Watkin 
Lewis, Edward ... 
Lewis, Maurice ... 
Liddell, James 
Liddell, Thomas ... 
Lightbourne, Capt. Samuel 
Lincoln, W. S. 
Lindsay, Thomas A. 
Lindsey, William 
Littler, Henry 

Little, R. W 

Lloyd, Hugh 
Lloyd, John 
Lloyd, John Buck 
Llwyd, Edward ... 
Loach, Thomas ... 
Logan, William ... 
Loggin, William ... 
Lomax, Edmund ... 
Long, Sadler 
Longworth, Thomas 

Loraine, Duke, of 

Lord, Bro. 

Lowfield, William 

Lowther, Nevil ... 

Lucas, Henry 

Lucas, Henry Walter 

Luckombe, Philip 

Lundin, ■ ... 

Lushington, Col. F. 

Luttrell, Simon ... 

Lyell, J. C. 


Lyon, William 

McAlister, Robert 


McClean, Joseph 

McClure, Dr. C. T. 

McCulloh, Robert 

McDougall, Alexander 

Macfadyen, F. E. 

Mackay, A. M 

Mackenzie, Murdock 

Mackenzie, William 

Mackey, Albert G. 

Mackinnon, Charles 

McLachlan, A. 

McLaren t David .. 

Macleod, ... 

MacNeill, Hector 

Macomb, James ... 

Macray, llev. W. D. 

Madan, Falconer 

Mailard, James ... 

Mainwaring, Col. Henry 

Mairroski, Major 

Mandevil, Edmund 

Mailing, William 

Manlove, Edward 

Manning, William 

Mansel, Sir Edward 
Mansell, Rawleigh 









206, 220 
2, 342 


138, 232 



207, 220 








206, 220 

207, 220 



198, 220 





276, 278 






207, 220 


207, 220 

190, 191, 

198, 221 

221, 361 


Persons referred to: — 
Manton, Charles 
Mar, Earl of 
March, Thomas ... 
Margrett, Edward 
Marquis, F. H. ... 
Marsam, Capt. vVilliam 
Marshalls, Henry John 
Mason, George ... 

Mason, Thomas ... 
Mason, Tom 
Masters, John 
Matier, C. F. 
Matthey, Lewis ... 

Maurice, Bev. Thomas 
Maxwell, George 
Maycock, William Dollin. 
Mayers, Edward Lassels . 
Mayers, John 
Mayell, A. Y. 
Mee, Mr. 

Mendez, see de Costa 
Mercer, Capt. John 
Mercy d'Argenteau, Mgr. 
Metcalfe, G. M. ... 
Metcalfe, William 
Michie, James 
Middleton, Bev. J. W. 
Midford, Daniel ... 
Millbourne, Joseph 
Miles, Henry 
Millar, George 
Millar, P. C. H. 
Miller, Alexander 
Miller, George 
Miller, James 
Miller, Joseph 
Mills, Charles 
Mills, Henry 
Miltown, Earl of 
Milward, Mr. 
Minty, George 
Molyneux, C. 
Molyneux, J. 
Monro, Dr. Alexander 
Montaeute, Lord 


... 344, 374 
181, 182, 184, 
192, 202, 221 

Montague, Duke of 

Montague, J. 
Montgomery, Andrew 
Moodie, John 
Moody, W. 
Moore, Temple ... 


Mordaunt, Lord .... 
More, Jacob 
Morel, Frank 
Moreton, Andrew 
Morgan, M. 
Morison, Dr. C. ... 
Morley, James Goodman 
Morley, M. 
Morris, Bro. 
Morris, Robert 
Morris Thomas, Sen. 

Morris, William ... 
Morrison, Thomas 
Morrogh, Henry 
Moses, Alexander 
Moses, Moses 
Moses, Philip, Sen. 

Muller, E. G. 







176, 192, 221 


... 190, 191 





74, 263 



190, 198, 221 








170, 171, 355, 

368, 369, 383 


... 186, 221 


... 190, 191 








69, 79 





... 168, 170, 

206, 221 






180, 183, 193, 

206, 222 




Persons referred to: — 
Murray, Donald ... 
Murray, Humphrey 
Murray, William 
Mylne, John 
Narcisse, Fere 
Nantes, Daniel ... 
Napier Clavering, Co 
Nash, Mr. 
Nelmes, Thomas ... 
Nettervil, Lord ... 
Nevett, Thomas ... 
Newoome, James 
Newman, Samuel 
Newton, Mr. 
Newton, Leonard 
Niblett, Henry ... 
Nicholson, William 
Nieolson, William 
Noble, Alexander 
Noorthouck, John 
Norfolk, Duke of 
Normon, Eobert ... 
Norris, John 
Norris, Matthew ... 
Norris, William ... 
Noteman, John ... 
Oats, Anthony ... 
O'Connor, Martin 
O'Keefe, Andrew 
Oliphant of Baohilton 
Oliver, Dr. George 
Oliver, John 
Oliver, William ... 
Oram, Bro. 
Osborne, John 
Osburne, Edward Oliver 
Oughton, Gen. Adolphus 
Outram, Sir James 
Owen, Dr. S. Vvalshe 
Oxenden, Sir George 
Paget, Cot. 
Paine, George 
Paisley, Lord 
Papworth, Wyatt 
Parr, Dr. Samuel 
Parry, David 
Patrick, Mr. 


Payne, George 
Pearce, Isaac 

C. W. 



Peel, Lawrence ... 

Peirson, William... 

Penket, Richard ... 

Penn, Joseph 

Penton, Henry 

Penny, Mr. 

Perkins, Thomas Marriott 

189, 197, 198 
Perne, Andrew 


Pettigrew, T. J. 

Phillips, G. T 

Picket, Alderman 
Pillans, Bro. 
Pindar, Peter 
Pinknev, William 
Plot, Dr. Robert 
Plumsted, William 
Poignant, Axel 
Pollard, James ... 183. 

Ponsonbv, Hon. W. 
Ponton, Col. W. N. 
Poole, James 
Poole, T. R. 
Porcher, Henry ... 

PAGE. l 

318, 330 
194, 222 
180, 222 
182, 222 
189, 222 
177, 222 
170, 364 
92, 367 
187, 222 
170, 362 
182, 223 
174, 182, 
202, 223 
194, 223 
237, 346 
371, 374 
91, 118 
202, 223 
177, 223 

Persons referred to: — 
Porter, Henry 
Portugal, King of 
Powell, A. 0. .... 
Power, Dr. James 
Pratt, Bartholomew 
Pratt, Henry 
Pratt, Joseph 
Pratt, T. S. 




138, 232, 282 

182, 189, 223 



... 206, 223 


Prendergast, Sir Thomas 170, 360, 368 

Prenties, Miles 
Presick, B. 
Preston, Thomas 
Preston, William 


Price, Sir John .. 
Price, John 
Prichard, Samuel 

Pringle, Wm. 

Pritchard, D. 

Pritchard, Henry 

Prosser, Benjamin 

Provost, David ... 

Provost, William 

Pudsey, Henry 

Purcell, Bro. 

Pyott, W. 

Quaile, Vere E. ... 

Quaritch, Bernard 

Quayle, Mark 

Radcliffe, Thomas, Jun. 

Raeburn, Sir Henry 

Ragg, Richard 

Raikes, Robert 

Rainsford, General 

Rainshaw, Edmund 

Ramsey, Allan 

Ramsay, Col. James 

Rand, William 

Randall, Edward 

Rankin, Hugh 

Ranking, Dr. D. F. de l'Hoste 

Rasmussen, Johs. 

Rawlinson, Dr. Richard ... 

Raymond, Lord ... 

Read, G. H. B. 

Reavely, Richard 

Reddall, Richard 

Reid, John 

Reid, William 

Renshaw, Edmund 

Revis, John 





99, 185, 188, 

190, 191, 223 



172, 350, 366 
... 207, 224 
... 176, 224 

Rich, Sir Robert ... 
Richmond, Duke of 


Riddell, Henry Scott 
Rigge, John 
Rigge, William ... 
Robbins, A. F. ... 
Roberts, Lord 
Roberts, Edward 
Roberts, Sir Howland 
Roberts, J. 
Roberts, W. J. D. 
Robinson, Rev. Mr. 
Robshaw, John ... 
Rochford, Frank 


Rogers, C. Blunt 
Rogers, William ... 
Rohan, Cardinal 
Romaine, Bro. 
Rooker, Joseph ... 












178, 205, 224 












178, 186, 224 


... 266, 363 

178, 205, 224 

... 169, 224 



169, 364, 368, 

370, 371, 373 



... 194, 224 

177, 194, 224 










... 169, 224 

169, 180, 224 

... 202, 224 



... 208, 224 



Persons referred to: — 

Rose, Edward 


Ross, Earl of 


Ross, Walter 


Rowcastle, Thomas 


Rowe, Thomas 


Rudemaker, William Cornelius 


Rumbold, Sir William 


Runciman, Alexander 


Rushworth, Bryan 

.'.'.' 208, 


Ruspini, Bartholomew 




Russell, William ... 


Rutherford, Henry 

'.'.'. 207, 


Ruthworth, Benjamin 

... 208, 


Rutledge, Barnabas 

187, 188, 


Ryan, Bro. 


Ryland, Edward ... 


Rylands, W. H. 2, 35, 

101, 165, 


Sadler, Henry 

2, 88, 93, 


Saint, John 


St. Clair, William 


Salisbury, George 


Salter, John 


Samber, Robert ... 


Sankey, Richard 


Saunders, Henry 


Saur, Bro. 


Savage, Canon 


Savage, Major John 


Savage, Richard 


Savalette de Langes 


Sayer, Anthony ... 


Sayer, Thomas 

::: m, 


Scatcliff, John 


Schuler, Frederick 


Scobie, John 


Scoffern, Br. 


Scott, Capt. 


Scott, David 


Scott, Francis 


Scott, J. A. S. 


Scott, John 

'.'.'. 225, 


Scott, Sir Walter 


Scrape, Jef. 


Sealey, John 


Seaman, Mr. 


Sears, Edward 


Sewars, James 

'.'.'. 207, 


Shadbolt, Thomas 


Shadforth, Henry 


Sharp, John 

'.'.'. 190 


Sharp, Nathaniel 

... 208, 


Shaw, ■ 


Shaw, G. A. 


Shaw, James 


Shepheard, Charles 


Shepherd, William 


Sherlock, Thomas 



'.'.'. 187 


Shippen, Joseph ... 

371, 374 


Shipton, Joh. 


Shipton, Thomas 


Shirreff, Capt. 


Shorthose, John 


Shorthose, Thomas 


Showers, James ... 

'.'.'. 207 


Sibly, Ebenezer ... 


Siddall, William 


Sillery, Charles Doyne 


Simkins, ... 


Simmonds, Humphrey 


Simmonds, Joseph 

.'.'.' 193 


Simmonds, Thomas 


Simpson, John 


Simpson, J. P. 114, 

160, 249, 


318, 342, 


Persons referred to: — 
Sims, Br. James 

Sisson, Jon. 
Sitwell, Capt. N. 
Skal, -Mr. 
Skinner, Jacob 

S. H. 

Slazier, Captain 
Smallpiece, licv. Martin Slack 
Smart, Thomas ... 
Smedley, Edward 
Smee, Richard 
Smith, Charles W. 
Smith, H. H. Montagu 
Smith, James 
Smith, John 
Smith, Nicholas ... 
Smith, Peter 

Smith, Robert ... 188 

Smith Sir Wm. Sydney 
Smith, Sir Sydney 
Smith, William ... 341 

Smurthwaite, George 
Solomon, Abraham 
Sommers, Thomas 
Songhurst, W. J. 
Southwell, Lord ... 
Southwell, Blon. Henry 
Southwell, Thomas 
Sowden, Henry ... 
Sparrow, Bodychen 176 

Spencer, Richard 
Spenser, Bro. 
Speth, G. W. .... 
Squire, Peter 
Squire, William ... 
Staley, G. W. ... 
Standish, Bro. 
Stanhope, Lord ... 
Stanhope, Lord Philip 
Stanhope, William 
Stanton, William 
Steinberg, E. J. 
Stephenson, Robert 
Stevens, Richard 
Stevens, William 
Stewart de Lancaster, H 
Stewart, H. 
Stewart, Henry J. 
Stewart, Robert ... 
Stewart, William . . . 
Stiles, William ... 
Stirling, Sir James 
Stokes, Charles ... 
Strong, Benjamin, Jun. 
Strong, Edward ... 
Strong, Gerald, Sen. 

Stool, Bro. 

Stuart, CM. 

Stukeley, Br. W. 101. 

Styles, James ... ... 372 

Sudlow, R. Clay 140. 

Sunderland, Earl of ... 364 

Surtees, Aubone ... ... 326 

Surtees, Elizabeth ... 326 

Sussex, Me of 8, 77, 139, 140, 336 

Sutherland, Earl of ... 369 

Swift, Alexr. ... ... 362 

Syme, George ... ... 272 

Syng, Philip ... 374, 376, 379 

Tatischeff, Lucas ... 227 

Tay, Charles 227 

Taylor, Francis R. ... 317 
Taylor, Bev. R. ... 13 

Taylour, Samuel ... ... 24Q 




















226, 25*/ 



, 367, 371 




2, 35, 121 





, 206, 227 





206, 215 




170, 227 










202, 227 



207, 227 
181, 227 


168, 169, 

206, 227 



348, 359 



Persons referred to: — 
Teale, Bev. William 
Teasdale, R. M. ... 

Tempest, James ... 
Tenant, William ... 
Tenbrocke, Anthony 
Thomas, Dr. William 
Thome, Marquis de 
Thomlinson, J. 
Thomlinson, Robert 
Thompson, John ... 
Thompson, John ... 
Thompson, Ralph 
Thomson, James ... 
Thoresby, Mr. 
Thornhill, Sir James 
Thornton, Roger 
Thorp, John T. 
Thwaites, Bro. 
Tindall, Bro. 
Tonkin, Bev. C. D. 
Tonson, Jacob 
Tooke, John Home 
Topham, Edward 
Torrington, Viscount 
Townsend, Simeon 
Townshend, Lord 
Tozer, P. G. 
Tozer, T. R. 
Trent, William Henry 

Tringham, W. 
Troughton, Nathaniel 
Troup, Christopher 
Troutbeck, Wilfred 
Truell, Robert 
Truby, Richard . . . 
Tucker, Capt. Henry 
Tucker, Joseph ... 
Tuckett, J. E. S. 
Tufton, Sackville 
Tulloh, John 
Turnay, Bro. 
Tusser, Thomas ... 
Unwin, Thomas ... 
Ilrquhart, Col. Gordon 
Varley, John 
Vaughan, Edward 
Velbriick, Bishop 
Very, Mr. 


Villasey, Jamss ... 
Villeneau, Josias 

Virgo, William ... 
Wageman, J. 


Waite, A. E. 
Wakeman, Sir Offley 
Walcott, Eyre 
Waldegrave, Lord 
Walker, Edward ... 
Walker, Thomas ... 
Walker, VV. 
Walls, William ... 


Ward, Gordon B. 
Ward, Joshua 
Ward, Hon. John 
Wardrobe, David 
Ware, Richard 
Warner, John 
Warren, John 
Warson, James ... 
Watkin, T. M. J. 
Watson, Brook 
WMson, William 














... 372, 378 

... 363, 368 














... 180, 184, 

195, 228 



... 205, 228 



... 206, 228 

... 197, 228 


131. 237, 255 








... 207, 228 

48, 81 




... 168, 170, 

202, 207, 228 







... 207, 228 

... 206, 228 




... 198, 228 



171, 207, 228 


.'.'.' 206, 229 


... 207, 229 



24, 27 



Persons referred to: — 

Watts, John James 


Watts, Sir William 


Weddell, Samuel 




Welch, John 



Welford, John 


Welles, George 


Wells, John 


Welsford, Will. O. 




Westcott, Dr. W. W. 


Weston, Samuel 



Weston, W. 


Westropp, T. J. 



Weymouth, Lord 


Wharton, Duke of 




Wheeler, Jonathan 




White, ... 


White, John 


White, J. P. 


White, Nathaniel 


White, Samuel 



White, T. Killingworth 


White, William ... 


White, William Henry 




Whitworth, James 




Whyman, H. P. 


Whytehead, T. B. 


Wickham, John . . . 


Wilder, William 




Wilkie, John 


Willets, Edward ... 



Williams, William 


Willoughby, Bro. 


Wilmot, William ... 


Wilson, Charles Monck 


Wilson, Sir Daniel 


Wilson, Gavin 


Wilson, John 180, 




Wilson, Matthew 


Wilson, Robert 


Wilson, Sir William 




Wilson, William ... 


Wiltshire, James 


Winchester, James W. 


Wingate, ... 


Winter, see Farwinter 

Wise, Thomas 


Wise, William 


Withey, T. A. 90, 




Wix, William 


Wodman, William 


Wolcot, John 


Wonnacott, W. 2, 




Woodburn, Isaac 


Woodford, Bev. A. F. A 


Woodman, J. L. 


Woodman, Dr. W. R. 


Woods, Thomas . . . 


Woodward, Augustine Samue 



Woodward, Thomas 



Woof, Richard 


Wordsworth, Canon Christop] 



Wotton , Richard . . . 




Wray, Sir Cecil ... 


Wren, Sir Christopher 





Wren, Christopher, Jun 



Wright, Col. 


Wright, James 


Wright, John 



Wright, Walter R. 


Vvyatt, John 



Yarker, Bev. Luke 


Yarker, John 


Yeo, Sir Henry 


Young, Midford ... 



Persons referred to: — 
Young, Nicholas ... 
Young, William ... 
Yoxon, Henry 
Yule, Andrew 
Zetland, Earl of ... 
Zimmerman, Dr. 


208, 230 

Philadelphes of Narbonne ... 157 

Philalethes, Rite of ... ... 157 

Physical Ego ... ... ... 285 

Plays bespoken by Freemasons 369, 370, 371 

Poet Laureate of Scotch Lodge ... 258 

Principia for R.A. Chapters ... 4 
Provincial Grand Masters pro- 

possd for London ... 199 

Rawlinson, Dr. Richard, as Editor 
of Ashmole's Diary 

Real Personality or Transcen- 
dental Ego 

Refreshment in Lodge 

Report of Audit Committee 

Roman Catholic Lodges in Belgium 

Roman Wall, Summer Outing ... 

Rowlands, Society of 

Royal Ark Mariners 

Royal Grand Arch Sols 

Royal Stag Society 





48, 81 





Sadler Memorial Fund ... 88 

St. John's Masons ... ... 201 

Scotch Masters ... ... 179 

Seals of Grand Lodge of the 

Netherlands ... ... 51 

Secresy enjoined in the ' Old 

Charges' ... ... ... 97 

Select Sols ... ... ... 34 

Smoking in Lodge ... ... 196 

Sol Club 16 

Sols Arms ... ... ... 16 

Sols, Order of 9, 283 

Spiritual Ego ... ... ... 285 

Stewards sworn into office ... 262 

Summer Outing ... ... 317 

Summonses delivered by Tyler ... 186 

Suppression of Lodges in Belgium 54 

Sword of Royal Arch Sols ... 283 

Templar ritual ... ... 70 

Transcendental Ego ... ... 285 

Tyler to collect Visitors' fees ... 186 

United Alfreds, Order of ... 12 

Wardens elected ... ... 182 

Warrant for Lodge La vraie et 

Par f ait e Harmonie ... ... 41 


Address presented to the Marquis 

de Gages ... ... ... 48 

Apron, Leather, hand-painted ... 4, 89 
,, „ Printed from 

Engraved plate 140 

Arms of John Drawwater ... 20 

Ashmole's Diary ... 239, 240, 240, 

244, 244, 24S 

Cape Club, 

Petition of Robert 
,, ,, Certificate 

Cave of Mithra 
Certificate, Cape Club ... 

,, Design for Templar ... 

,, Order of Sols 

,, Lodge les Amis Theresiens 

,, Templar 

„ Lodge No. 361 in 17th 

Light Dragoons ... 
Chollerford Bridge 
Cilurnum : — 

The Apodyterium 

The Hypocaust ... ... 

The Laconicum ... 
Corstopitum : — 

Fountain and Watering 

The Granaries 






Hexham : — 

The Abbey 
Masons' Marks ... 
The Moot Hall ... 
Hygeia repelling the Fates 


328, 332 






Jewel, British Lodge 

,, Lodge of Regularity 
,, Mark 

„ Raised Master, Modern Sols 
Recorder, Modern Jerusalem 

Sols 36 

,, Surgeon, Royal Arch Con- 
stitutional Sols ... 28 
,, Order of Bucks ... 140 
„ Silver, Engraved 6, 235, 283 
,, „ of Angel Lodge, 

Colchester ... 6 

,, ,, pierced ... ... 5, 7 

„ Sols 28, 32, 36, 38 

Letters : — 

George Downing to Rev. 

Thomas Maurice ... 142 

Dr. J. C. Lettsom to Rev. 

Thomas Maurice ... 144 

Rev. Thomas Maurice to Dr. 

Lettsom ... ... 148 

Said by Dr. Rawlinson to be 

from Robert Plot ... 256 

Locomotion No. 1 ... ... 317 

Edinburgh, High Street ... 264 

Frontispiece of Code of Laws of 

Jerusalem Sols 20 

do. do. of Select Sols 28 

Medal of Lodge Friendship and 

Nautilus Shell 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne : — 
Map of City 
Ruins of old Bridge 
General View of City 
The Citv Walls and Towers 
The Castle 

Hospital of the Holy Jesus 
The Keelmen's Hospital ... 
The Surtees House 
The Trinity House 
The Cathedral ... 

Patent of Marquis de GageSj 
Prov.G.M. of Netherlands... 
Portraits : — 

Elias Ashmole 

William Brooks ... 

Sir William Curtis 

George Downing ... 

John Drawwater ... 

Viscount Hood 

Dr. J. C. Lettsom 

Sir Watkin Lewes 







Portraits (continued) : — 

Rev. Thomas Maurice ... 152 

Charles de Pelgrom ... 82 
J. P. Simpson ... Frontispiece 

Edward Topham ... ... 16 

John Home Tooke ... 20 

Sir Brook Watson ... 12 

Gavin Wilson ... ... 258 

Rawlinson's Works ... ... 248 

Seals, Prov. Grand Lodge of 

Netherlands ... ... 51 

Star, Independent Black Prince... 234 

Summons, Antient and Original Sols 36 

,, Roval Arch Constitutional 

Sols ... ... 36 

,, Cape Club ... ... 264 

Sword of Royal Arch Constitutional 

Sols 284 

Warrant, Lodge True and Perfect 

Harmony, Mons ... ... 40 


Armitage, Fred. 

Dring, E. H. 

Edwards, B. E. J. 

Goblet d' Alviella, Count 

Hammond, Dr. William 
Hawkins, E. L. 

Hextall, W. B. 

Hills, Gordon P. G. 
Horsley, Canon 

Klein, Sydney T. 

Lawrence, Rev. J. T. ... 
Lavander, F. W. 



34, 162, 250, 345 


39, 81 

... 123, 338 

116, 124, 126, 

127, 128, 129, 

130, 131, 132 

91, 162, 251, 

276, 335 


... 121, 302 

... 117, 285 


Mackay, A. M. 258. 276, 
Mayell, A. Y. 

Owen, Br. S. Walshe ... 

Poignant, Axel 

Ranking, Br. D. F. de l'Hoste... 
Rylands, W. H. 

Simpson, J. P. 
Songhurst, W. J. 

Taylor, Francis R. 
Thorp, John T. 
Tuckett, J. E. S. 

Watson, William 
Westcott, Br. Wynn 
Wonnacott, W. 

Yarker, John ... 

114, 160, 249, 


277, 278 




302, 384 
35, 121 




165, 253 



&v& tyxtatxxov €ovonatovntn, 


Quatuor Coronati Lodge of A.F. & A.M., London, 

No. 2076. 


FRIDAY, 5th JANUARY, 1912. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Present :— Bros. W. H. Eylands, 
P.A.G.D.C., P.M., as W.M. ; E. H. Dring, S.W.; B. L. Hawkins, J.W. ; W. John 
Songhurst, P.A.G.D.C, Secretary; W. B. Hextall, S.D. ; W. Wonnaoott, J.D.; 
Fred. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., P.M. ; and Dr. Wm. Wynn Westeott, P.G.D., P.M. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle : — 
Bros. Fred. H. Postans, Wm. H. Crang, Major John Barker, H. Hyde, S. M. Banker, 
H. Newman Godward, J. J. Philpott, H. R. Justice, G. T. Lawrence, S. J. Fenton, 
J. Smith, F. Postans, H. A. Badman, R. H. Kortright Dyett, J. E. Bowen, Dep.Pr.G.M., Bucks, 

E. E. Landesmann, K. van Kampen, John Glass, John Church, Bedford McNeill, W. Howard-Flanders, 
G. Vogeler, Fred. Armitage, H. H. Biach, W. T. Belstead, W. F. 0. Shove, G. Trevelyan Lee, Henry 
Potter, F. Cracknell, J. C. Zabban, D. Bock, Dr. Blake Marsh, Dr. T. Edwin Harvey, J. R. Thomas, 

F. W. Levander, H. F. Whyman, Geo. Rutherford, F. C. Lloyd, G. E. Gregory, Herbert Burrows, R. E. 
Everitt, W. W. Mangles, W. Blackburn, Alfred Tucker, W. E. Jones, E. Stanley lies, Herbert Poole, 
J. Powell, J. M. Goodwin, Cecil J. Rawlinson, Wm. A. Tharp, G. C. Vernon-Inkpen, Dr. William 
Hammond, P.G.D., Robert A. Gowan, James J. Nolan, Thos. M. Timms, Curt Nauwerck, Dr. S. Walshe 
Owen, W. Hammond, G. E. Davis, William Hall, C. Isler, L. Danielsson, Lewis Wild, J. F. H. Gilbard, 
Reginald C. Watson, and H. F. Bayliss. 

Also the following Visitors :— Bros. C. W. Thompson, Fidelity Lodge No. 663 ; A. E. Sharman, 
Carbon Lodge No. 2910 ; S. O. Mitford, Zetland Lodge No. 525; S. L. Pryor, P.M., Harrow Lodge, 
No. 1310 ; W. Augustus Steward, P.M., Panmure Lodge No. 715, L.R. ; John M. Rudd, S.G.W., British 
Columbia ; P. J. Prewer, Beach Lodge No. 2622 ; K. M. Jones, P.M., Campbell Lodge No. 1415 ; W. E. 
Knott, W. M., Cannon Lodge No. 1539 ; and James D. Cassel, Gallery Lodge No. 1829. 



Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. Edward Armitage, P.Dep.G.D.C, 
I.G. ; Admiral Sir A. H. Markham, P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M.; Edward Macbean, P.M.; Dr. W. J. 
Chetwode Crawley, G.Treas., Ireland ; J. P. Rylands ; E. Conder, L.R., P.M.; Canon J. W. Horsley, 
P.G.Ch., P.M., Chap. ; William Watson; Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk, P.M., Treas. ; John T. 
Thorp, P.A.G.D.C, P.M. ; R. F. Gould, P.G.D., P.M. ; J. P. Simpson, P.A.G.R., W.M. ; L. A. do 
Malczovich; G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; and J. Ross Robertson, P.G.M., Canada. 

2 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Two Lodges and forty-one brethren were admitted to membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The acting W.M. referred to the absence of Bro. J. P. Simpson, the W.M., which had been 
caused by the serious illness of his mother, and a vote of sympathy was passed, the brethren expressing 
the hope that she would soon be restored to health. 

The Eeport of the Audit Committee, as follows, was received, adopted, and ordered to be 
entered upon the Minutes. 


The Committee met at the Offices, No. 52, Great Queen Street, on Tuesday, the 2nd January, 

Present :— Bros. J. P. Simpson, in the Chair, Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, E. L. Hawkins, W. 
Wonnaoott, W. John Songhurst (Secretary), and A. S. Gedge (Auditor). 

The Secretary produced his books and the Treasurer's accounts and vouchers, which had been 
examined by the Auditor, and certified as being correct. 

The Committee agreed upon the following 



During the past year the hand of Death has pressed heavily upon us. On the 7th March 
our Veteran Bro. Wititam Matthew Bywater passed away. On the 29th March we lost Bro. Sir 
Caspar Pcrdon Clarke, who had but recently resigned his position as Director of the Metropolitan 
Museum in New York. On the 20th May a further gap was caused in our ranks by the death of 
Bro. William James Hughan; and on the loth October we were again plunged into grief by the 
sudden death of our Worshipful Master, Bro. Henry Sadler. The names of these brethren will 
remain fresh in the memories of Masonic students throughout the World. 

Bro. Ernkst William Mai.pas Wonnacott has been elected a Member of the Lodge, thus 
making our total membership thirty-two. 

To our Correspondence Circle we have added 311 new names (an increase of 46 on last year), 
while, on the other hand, 354 names have been removed by death (50), resignation (156), and 
non-payment of subscriptions (148). Thus the list now numbers 3,323, or a decrease on last year of 43. 

The amount owing by members of the Correspondence Circle is £685, which compares 
favourably with 1910 ; but the apparent improvement is due in a large measure to the greater number 
of names removed for failure to keep up subscriptions. The dilatoriness of our brethren in this 
respect has retarded the issue of further volumes of our Reprints, in which, as already announced, it 
is intended to publish the Minutes of the two Grand Lodges of England. These Minutes have been 
entirely copied, down to the time of the Union in 1813, and they will appear in full with annotations. 
It is hoped that by prompt payment of arrears, brethren will enable us to commence printing during 
the present financial year. 

Taken as a whole, the Accounts are satisfactory, as we have cleared off the adverse balance on 
Profit and Loss Account, and have a small balance to the good. 

By resolution of the Permanent Committee the gaps caused by the deaths of Trustees have now 
been filled, and the Investments have all been placed in the names of Bros. William Harry Rylands, 
Hamon le Strange (Treasurer), and William John Songhurst (Secretary). 

The Committee regrets to report that communications have been received from Bro. F. J. W. 
Crowe, P.M., to the effect that he is unable to carry out his previously expressed intention of 
bequeathing his collection of Masonic CertiScates to the Lodge. 

For the Committee, 

J. P. Simpson, 

In the Chair. 

Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 

BALANCE SHEET, 30th November, 1911. 



£ s. d. 

£ s. 


Life Members' Fund (176 


1148 6 


Subscriptions, etc., received in 


116 14 


Correspondence Circle, 1911, 

Balance in hand 


Summer Outing balance 

41 6 


Sundry Creditors 

12 14 


Sundry Creditors, re Publica- 


24 17 


Profit and Loss Suspense 

Account, being outstanding 

Subscriptions as per contra, 

subject to realization 



Lodge Account — 

Receipts ... 43 1 

Less Payments 25 15 6 


£ s. d. 

Cash at London, County, and 

Westminster Bank, Ltd., 

Oxford Street 
Investments, £1,300 Consols at 

80 per cent. ... 
Interest accrued 
Sundry Debtors for Publications 
Sundry Publications ... 
Furniture — 

Balance 1st Deer., 

1910 118 6 8 

Additions during 

the year ... 41 12 3 

£ s. d. 

300 10 


11 15 6 

57 3 6 

245 8 6 

159 18 11 

17 5 6 
Add credit Balance, 
1910 57 18 2 

Balance of Profit and Loss 

75 3 
15 19 

£2520 2 4 . 

Less Depreciation 

for the year ... 39 14 1 

Sundry Debtors for 

Subscriptions in 

arrear — 
1911 Correspondence 

Circle 371 17 9 

1910 ditto 193 7 

1909 ditto 90 16 2 

1908 ditto 24 15 1 

1907 ditto 4 4 

120 4 10 

Kepairs Suspense Account 


£2520 2 4 

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT for the year ending 30th November, 1911. 



To Balance brought forward 


Salaries ..." ... 375 

Kent 114 

Lighting and Firing 16 7 8 

Stationery ... 37 12 5 

Postages 278 11 5 

Office Cleaning .. 20 8 5 

Insurance ... ... 10 18 

Renewals and Repairs 19 13 

Carriage and Sundries 16 1 8 

Telephone, etc. ... 10 1 

Local Secretaries' 

Expenses ... ... 5 3 7 

Depreciation on Fur- 
niture at 10% on 

cost 39 14 1 

Library Account . . 40 6 10 
52, Great Queen 
Street, Repair?, 

Suspense Account 20 

Profit, Balance Forward 



£ s. d. 

By Correspondence Circle Joining 

Fees, 1911 ... 150 3 

„ 1911 Subscriptions... 468 3 10 

„ 1910 ditto 204 2 4 

„ 1909 ditto 38 7 

„ 1908 ditto 10 1 6 

„ 1907 ditto 3 3 

„ 1906 ditto 110 

£ s. d. 

Back Transactions ... 

Various Publications 

Interest on Consols 


Sundry Publications 

Life Members 

40 5 
53 9 
30 12 
21 2 
26 6 
94 11 

875 1 8 

266 6 6 

1003 6 
15 19 


£1141 8 2 i 

£1141 8 2 

This Balance Sheet does not include the value of the Library and Museum and the Stock of 
Transactions, and is subject to the realization of Assets. 

I have examined the above Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account with the Books and 
Vouchers of the Lodge, and certify the same to be correct and in accordance therewith. 

Alfrf.d S. Gedge. 

Chartered Accountant, 

3, Great James Street, 
28th December, 1911. Bedford Row, W.C. 

i 'transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

The Secretary called attention to the following 


By Bro. Dr. Wm. Hammond, Liskeard. 

Large circular 'French prisoner's' Jewel, in silver star-shaped form. 

By Bro. Harry J. Horton, Colne, Lancashire. 

MS. in the possession of the Cana Chapter No. 116, Colne, as follows : — 


1st THAT as soon as the Chapter is duly formed an Account shall be transmitted to the 
Grand Chapter, containing the Names of each respective Officer and Companion ; and that 
this be done Annually immediately after the Election. 

2nd THAT they have full Power to make any Bye Laws for their own Government, provided 
they dont interfere with the fundamental ones of the Most excellent Grand and Royal 

3rd THAT their Jewels and Ornaments be such as in Use in the Grand Chapter. 

4*h THAT they make no Innovation in the Business of the Chapter; and if any Doubts 
should arise, they must always be referred to the Grand and Royal Chapter for Decision. 

5th THAT they shall contribute anuually to the Grand Chapter so much as they reasonably 
can towards raising a Fund ; to be employed to the most truly benevolent and advan- 
tageous Purposes. 

6th THAT no Man of bad or immoral Character be admitted a Companion; nor any one 
untill he hath past through the several Probationary Degrees of Craft Masonry, and 
thereby obtained the necessary Pasport, as a Reward of his Services. 

7*h THAT no Man be admitted for an unworthy Consideration ; or for a less Sum than is 
usually paid for the three previous Degrees. 

8th THAT they take every Method to forward the true Purpose of our Order; which is to 
promote all the useful Arts and Sciences, and create universal Peace and Harmony : And 
that every Companion do consider it as his Duty to lay before the Chapter whatever may 
tend to such Salutary Purposes. 

9th THAT any new Discovery, or other Matter thought worthy of Observation, be communi- 
cated to the Grand and Royal Chapter ; who will always be ready to support and forward 
whatever may be found useful to the Public in general, or that Chapter in particular, not 
repugnant to th9 Common Welfare. 

These Rules are written on a full sheet of foolscap, and probably date from about 1815. 

By Bro. E. Charlesworth, Gomersal, Yorkshire. 

Horn Snuff-Box, silver mounted ; on lid, square and compasses, enclosing G, and below 
"No. 553." On a shield, the letters N. Mc. S. 

By Bro. Capt. N. S. H. Sitwell, R.A., Dum Dam, Bengal. 

Leather Apron (see illustration) 15" x 11", edged with red silk ribbon. The general design is 
roughly hand-painted, the three large rosettes are of blue satin ribbon, and the small rosette at the 
top is a combination of darker blue and red ribbon. At the sides two rectangular pieces of pink silk 
are stitched on, and at the lower corners are tufts of dark blue silk fringe. Between the lower rosettes 
is a strip of ribbon machine-embroidered with flowers. The upper part of the apron does not fall 
over, but has a loop presumably for attachment to a button. 

The apron is stated to have been owned by a brother of the name of Reynolds, who was initiated 
in Warwick, and died about 1870, at the age of 90. 

Exhibits. 5 

By Bro. F. W. Brockbank, Bolton. 

Clearance Certificate, issued 20th February, 1811, by the Lodge of Union No. 443, held at the 
Falstaff Inn, Market Place, Manchester, in favour of Joseph Bird. The Certificate is signed by John 
Chewell, Master; James Caster, S.W. ; David Davies, J.W., and Sam Foxcroft, Secretary. Presented to 
the Lodge. 

Certificate, Grand Lodge of England (Ancients), issued to Thomas Longworth, of Lodge 303, at 
the Horse Shoes, Deans Gate, Bolton, dated 2nd November, 1803. Presented to the Lodge. 

Eugraved Clearance Certificate, issued by Lodge No. 95, Cork, to Andrew O'Keefe, and signed 
by Joseph Galway, Master ; Thomas Cremin, S.W. ; Henry Morrogh, J. W. ; and B. Presick, Secretary. 
The Certificate is dated " this 8th day of June, 1802, and of Masonry 5782," while in the margin the 
brother is said to have been admitted June 27th, 1798. Presented to the Lodge. 

Silver Star, having in the centre a red cross with serpent entwined, surrounded by the words 
" Longe Inde Bste." Pendant from the star is a silver cross with entwined serpent. This cross may 
at some time have been enamelled, and it is not certain that it was originally attached to the star. 

Similar Star, but smaller, the motto being " Este Inde Longe." 

Templar Cross, in red enamel, with cross and serpent in the centre, surrounded by the motto 
" In hoc signo vinces." 

Cross, metal gilt, Dunckerley's pattern. 

Small Circular Jewel, in the centre under glass, a bridge with three arches, lettered " L.D.P." 
On the bridge a red cross with entwined serpent, and an equilateral triangle superimposed. Bound the 
frame " Equitas. Longe inde este." The jewel hangs from a green ribbon. The cross and serpent 
in the present day and under some Constitutions represent the degree of Red Cross of Babylon, 
conferred previous to or in conjunction with the R.A. and Templar degrees. The bridge suggests a 
French form of this degree, the letters being generally taken to mean Liberty de passer. 

By Bro. F. H. Goldney, on behalf of Bro. W. Ruddle Brown. 

Three Jewels, formerly the property of Bro. Brown's grandfather. 

(a). Collar Jewel, as Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Wiltshire. 
(6). R.A. Jewel, altar pattern, made by Thomas Harper, dated 1816. 
(c). Silver pierced Jewel, showing square, level and plumb-rule. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

By Bro. H. F. Whyman, Kochester. 

Silver Jewel. On the face "No. 59, Angel Lodge, Colchester," and over all the Arms of 
Colchester. On the back is engraved " P.M. No. 20.— CM. Stuart.— Past P.G. Treas., Kent." The 

Hall-mark gives the date as 1843. No. 20 is the Royal Kent Lodge of Antiquity, Chatham. 
So far Bro. Stuart has not been traced as a member of the Angel Lodge, Colchester. 

By Bro. S. M. Banker, Bounds Green. 

Nautilus Shell, engraved on the front with Masonic design, on one side the Royal Arms, on the 
other representations of the Steamers Great Western and Great Britain. From an inscription at the 
back the engraving seems to have been executed in 1845. Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. J. A. Y. Matthews, on behalf of Bro. Dismoke, Swindon. 

Silver Medal. The words in cypher read " Friendship, Fraternity." 

On the reverse is engraved " Presented to B. .". W. Walker, by M. I. Lemarchand, W.M. of 
LH .'. Friendship and Fraternity, as a mark of his Fraternal esteem and regard, A.L. 5835." The design 
of this medal is undoubtedly Continental, probably French, and it is therefore curious that the words 

Exhibits. 7 

iu cypher as well as the inscription are in English. There 13 no record of any Lodge bearing this name 

under the Grand Lodge of England, but Bro. Shackles points out that a Lodge — VAmitid et Fraternity, 

was constituted on 1st March, 1756, at Dunkerque, under the Grand Orient of France. It can be 

traced to 1841, and probably it became extinct, like many others, in the Bevolution of 1848. No other 
specimen of the Medal is known to exist. 

By Bro. Seymour Bell, Dep. Prov. G.M., Northumberland. 

Battersea enamel Snuff-Box, with Masonic designs on lid and sides, and date 5764. On the 
underside are the arms of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns), with arm and trowel as crest. 

Collar Jewel, J.W., District Grand Lodge of Bengal. 

Pierced Silver Jewel, showing signs of gilding. An inscription records that it originally 
belonged to Richard Smee, of Lynn Regis, a member of " the Lodge of Strict Benevolence No. 552, 
constituted April 5th, 1796." A reference to Lane's Masonic Records shows that this Lodge bore the 

number 553, that it was warranted 14th April, 1796, and constituted 27th April, 1796. These dates 
are confirmed by Bro. Hamon le Strange in his History of Freemasonry in Norfolk. The warrant was 

8 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

transferred in 1805 to Wisbecli and the Lodge was erased in 1825. Another specimen of this Jewel, 
issued to John Greeves, is described and illustrated in the Transactions of the Lodge of Research, 
Leicester (1908-9, p. 25). 

Silver Medal, obverse, square and compasses, and inscription " Des Zirkels Kunst u 
Gerechtigkeit":— reverse, inscription " Meister Gerhards Verein gesliftet im Januar, 1844." It is 
suggested that this medal may have been issued by a Lodge or Club of the Steinmetzen. Gerhard was 
Superintendent of the work at Cologne Cathedral from 1248 to his death in 1279. 

Two white metal Medals, struck at the death of the Duke of Sussex, in 1843. 
Three American Tokens, or shop tickets. 

By Bros. Gio. Aenall and S. J. Fenton. 

Chaeity Box, designed and made by Bro. Arnall, an Old Sinjins boy, assisted by his son who is 
now a Sinjins scholar, from portions of desks formerly used by boys at the Sir Walter St. John School, 
Battersea, founded in 1700. ThiB box will shortly be presented to the Old Sinjins Lodge, No. 3232. 

Box of Working Tools, made from the same material by boys at present in the School. 

By Bro. Alfred Gates, Sherborne. 

Clearance Certificate, issued 29th December, 1777, by Lodge St. George, No. 70 (Ancients) , 
Berwick, to John Bell. The certificate is signed by Henry Hammond, Master; James Barde, S.W. ; 
Richard Reavely, J.W. ; and Thomas Liddell, Secretary. Bro. John Lane, in his Masonic Records, was 
not able to show that the Lodge was named before 1802. The certificate is exhibited on behalf of the 
grandson of Bro. John Bell. 

Oval silver Jewel, engraved on both sides with emblems, apparently relating to Craft, R.A., Red 
Cross of Babylon, Ark Mariner and K.T. The jewel has a rim about |in. deep soldered round it, but 
the object of this is not clear. It is possible that it may have been used as a snuff box, or perhaps as 
the head of a walking stick. 

By Bro. Henry Harris, London. 

Perfect Ashlar, inscribed " Matoppo, 1911," made by him at the request of the M.W. Grand 
Master, from a piece of marble brought back by his Royal Highness from the grave of Bro. Cecil 
Rhodes, at Matoppo Hill, Rhodesia. 

A hearty vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to those Brethren who had kindly lent objects 
for exhibition, and who had made presentations to the Lodge Museum. 

Bro, F. W. Levandf.r read the following paper : 

Exhibits. 7 

ill cypher as well as the inscription are in English. There 19 no record of any Lodge bearing this name 
under the Grand Lodge of England, but Bro. Shackles points out that a Lodge — L'AmitiiS et Fraternite, 
was constituted on 1st March, 1756, at Dunkerque, under the Grand Orient of France. It can be 
traced to 1841, and probably it became extinct, like many others, in the Revolution of 1848. No other 
specimen of the Medal is known to exist. 

By Bro. Seymocr Belt,, Dep. Prov. G.M., Northumberland. 

Battersea enamel Snuff-Box, with Masonic designs on lid and sides, and date 5764. On the 
underside are the arms of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns), with arm and trowel as orest. 

Collar Jewel, J.W., District Grand Lodge of Bengal. 

Pierced Silver Jewel, showing signs of gilding. An inscription records that it originally 
belonged to Richard Smee, of Lynn Regis, a member of " the Lodge of Strict Benevolence No. 552, 
constituted April 5th, 1796." A reference to Lane's Masonic Records shows that this Lodge bore the 

number 553, that it was warranted 14th April, 1796, and constituted 27th April, 1796. These dates 
are confirmed by Bro. Hamon le Strange in his History of Freemasonry in Norfolk. The warrant was 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 




fiT is my purpose in the present paper to bring to the notice of the 
members of this Lodge some particulars respecting the Royal Grand 
Modern Order of Jerusalem Sols. As, however, in the course of my 
investigations I found occasional mention of other Societies that 
existed at about the same period, I have ventured to put on record 
a few items of interest respecting them, and at the same time to note 
the Masonic Lodges that met at one time or another at the establish- 
ments that sheltered these Societies. I will deal with these first. 

The Noble Order of Bucks, the Gormogons, the Gregorians, as well as the 

earlier Philo-musicae et Architecture Societas, have been already described in our 

Transactions, and are consequently ruled out. I may say at the outset that those 

, bodies have afforded a far greater harvest to the explorer than I have been fortunate 

enough to reap. 

Some of the secret or quasi-secret societies of the eighteenth century were of a 
political, others of a social or merely convivial character ; some, again, were to a 
certain extent burlesques on or derisive of Freemasonry, due, probably, to the various 
" exposures " that had been published, while others, perhaps, aimed at rivalling that 
Order. But to whatever causes they owed their origin, whatever aims they had m 
view, all seem to have shared a similar fate, and after short and more or less chequered 
lives, to have fallen into the limbo of oblivion. 

My short list embraces those only that appear to have been best known. 
The Most Ancient, Honourable and Venerable Society of Adams was a social 
society of the middle of the century, having for its first article or rule the provision 
that no young man under seventy years of age should be admitted as a member. Its 
meetings were held at the Royal Swan in the Kingsland Road, kept at that time by 
one John Adams. Oomus's Court was of a similar nature, and met at about the same 
period at the Half Moon Tavern, Cheapside. Another society of contemporary date 
rejoiced in the name of the Codheads. The Prince and Princess of Orange in White- 
chapel Fields, also at about the same time, was the place of meeting of the Ancient 
and Honourable family of the Rowlands. The Royal Stag Society met every Monday 
evening at seven o'clock at the Three Tuns, near the Hospital Gate in Newgate 
Street. This body enjoyed a fairly long existence, lasting for a quarter of a century, 
namely, from 1745 to 1770. 

Of the Taverns mentioned above, the Half Moon in Cheapside appears to have 
been a favourite place of meeting for Masonic Lodges. It was there that, as we find 
from the Engraved List of Lodges for 1723-24, No. 23 met. This Lodge afterwards 
met at the Globe in Fleet Street, from which in 1768 it received the name of the 
Globe Lodge, as recorded by our late Bro. Sadler in his history of that Lodge. 
Another Lodge spent the last six years of its short life there : constituted in 1731, it 
was erased in 1761. Another well-known Lodge, the Constitutional, No. 55, also held 

\q Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

its meetings at the Half Moon from 1762 to 1773, and in 1782 the Lodge of Affability, 
which was erased in 1813. The Caledonian Lodge, No. 134, met there from its 
foundation in 1764 till it went to the King's Head Tavern, Poultry, in 1785. 

The meetings of the Most Ancient and Honourable Order of the Knights of the 
Brush were convened by the Secretary " by order of Noble Sir." From among several 
advertisements I select the following, published April 20th, 1787, in one of the London 
daily papers :— " Knights of the Brush. The Knights Companions of this Most 
Ancient and Honourable Institution are requested to Dine with the Brethren, at the 
Long Eoom, Hampstead, on Monday next the 23rd inst. Dinner at three o'clock 
precisely. By Order of Noble Sir, R.B., Secretary." There were evidently two ranks 
—the Knights Companions and the Brethren. This may refer to an anniversary 
meeting, for they did not always dine together, as shown by the following advertise- 
ment, which appeared on October 10th of the same year : " Knights of the Brush. 
The Knights Companions of this most ancient and Honourable Order are desired to 
meet at the Coach-makers' Arms, in Long Acre, on Friday next, the 5th inst,, at Seven 
o'Clock in the Evening precisely. By order of Noble Sir, E.H., Secretary." In this 
there is no mention of the Brethren, and the place of meeting, evidently after dinner, 
is changed. A journey to Hampstead at the time named would be fraught with much 
risk. This Order did not last very long, for a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1794 (lxiv., 296) states that "the late Club, called Knights of the Brush, did 
not take its origin from painters, but from Politics, in allusion to a celebrated. 
character." 1 

With respect to the Long Room at Hampstead, Park in his History of 
Hampstead, published in 1818, says : — 

" The Long Room is now converted into a private house, the 
residence of Charles Cooper, Esq. Here the gentry used formerly to 
meet every Monday evening to play at cards, & here they had likewise 
an assembly, beginning- at Whitsuntide and ending in October. The 
meetings were once a fortnight at the beginning and latter end of the 
season, & every week in the middle. The ball-room was 75ft. long & 
33 feet broad & adorned in a very elegant manner. On both sides of the 
entrance were two small but neat rooms for tea & cards. A guinea sub- 
scription admitted a gentleman & two ladies into the ball-room every 
other Monday. To non-subscribers admittance was half a crown each 
night. The Master of the Ceremonies had an annual benefit, when the 
Tickets were five shillings each. On this occasion a concert usually 
commenced the evening." 

The first mention in the Minutes of Grand Lodge of the Freemasons' Country 
Feast occurs in those for May 4th, 1772, notifying that it would be held in the Long 
Room, Hampstead, on the following June 25th. It was held there also in 1783 and 
1793, and probably in other years. The "Country Feast" is, of course, not 
synonymous with the " Annual Feast," the date of holding which is laid down in the 
first edition of the Book of Constitutions, p. 65. Bi o. Gould (History, ii., 494) says 
that it was first known as the " Deputy Grand Master's " or "Annual Country Feast of 
the Society." There appears to have been some difficulty in inducing Brethren to serve 
as Stewards at these Country Feasts, so in 1789 the Country Stewards' Lodge, No. 540, 

1 Can thjs refer to Charles James Fox ?— F.W.L. 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 11 

\vas constituted, and in the same year it was enacted by Grand Lodge that those who 
had served as such should be permitted to wear a suitable jewel pendant to a green 
collar. In November, 1795, a further distinction was permitted them, namely, to have 
their aprons lined with green silk. This, however, was withdrawn at the next Commu- 
nication. The matter gave rise to considerable discussion and the question of the 
Green Apron Lodge was brought up also in 1796 and the following year. The result 
of it all was that the jewel only was retained. The Lodge itself, which at the recension 
in 1792 had become No. 449, paid no dues after 1799. It lapsed about 1802, and its 
number was assigned (or sold) to the Lodge of Faith and Friendship, meeting at the 
White Hart, Berkeley, Gloucestershire. 

St. John's Lodge, No. 167, which was consecrated in 1767 and still has its home 
at Hampstead, held its meetings in the Long Room, Well Walk, Hampstead, from 1787 
to 1794, and again in 1795, after a brief sojourn at the Horse and Groom and at the 
Yorkshire Grey, both in Hampstead. In the following year it removed to the Flask 
Tavern, where it remained till 1805. Perhaps the brethren were hard to please, for we 
find that in 1805 the Lodge met at the Horse and Groom, in 1807 at the Black Boy and 
Stile, in 1808 at the Holly Bush. It continued there till 1826, when it moved to the 
Castle Tavern, returning, however, to the Holly Bush in 1832 and remaining there for 
more than balf-a-century. In 1886 it removed to Jack Straw's Castle, its present place 
of meeting. The Long Room was also used as a place of meeting for a short time by the 
Lodge of Rural Friendship, which, constituted at Edmonton in 1780, united with the 
Lodge of The Nine Muses (now No. 235) in 1796. 

The Coach-makers' Arms, Long Acre, was for a biief period the habitat of the 
Royal Athelstan Lodge, No. 19, of the Lodge of Concord, which ceased to meet in 1844, 
and of the Lodge of Rectitude, which was erased in 1776. 

In the same daily paper, The World, from which I have already quoted, we find, 
October 4th, 1787, the following advertisement : — 

" Knights of the Moon. The favour of the Company of the 
Knights and their Friends, are [sic^] desired to dine on Saturday, the 13th 
day of October, (being the Anniversary Dinner), at the Paul's Head 
Tavern, Cateaton Street. — G. M. Metcalfe, President. 


Mr. Aid. Picket, Mr. Aid. Curtis, 

Mr. T. S. Pratt, Mr. M. Morley, 

Mr. A. Annesley, Mr. J. Montague, 

Mr. John Warner, Mr. Patrick, 
Mr. John Berry, Mr. Hodson. 

Dinner on Table at Half past Three o'Clock precisely. 
N.B. Tickets to be had of the Stewards, and at the Bar of the Paul's 
Head Tavern. D. Pritchard, Sec." 

From the number of Stewards mentioned it would seem that a large attendance 
was expected, though one cannot admire the wording of the invitation. This Body 
became extinct in 1810. 

The name of Cateaton Street is not to be found in the Post Office Directory of 
the present day. It was one of the northern tributaries of Cheapside, which was itself 
noted for ages for the number of its taverns, the proprietors of which vied with one 
another in the amplitude of their signs. We can hardly realise the fact that the 

12 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

practice of assigning numbers to houses, instead of distinguishing them by signs, is not 
yet 150 years old, 1764 being the date usually given for the change. As long ago as 
the reign of Edward III. all the tavern keepers in the city were summoned to Guildhall 
and warned that no ale-stakes (as tavern signs were then called) or bush was to extend 
over the King's highway beyond the length of seven feet, under pain of fine. 

It was at Paul's Head in Cateaton Street, that the Lodge of Emulation, No. 21 
(known earlier as the Mourning Bush Lodge) worked from 1769 to 1800. The Lodge 
numbered 84 (afterwards 73 and 45), constituted 1731 and erased after an existence of 
30 years, also met there in 1753-55. Sixteen years later we find the Paul's Head 
patronised by the Constitution Lodge, which afterwards merged into the Mourning 
Bush Lodge just mentioned. 

There also met the Helvetick Union Lodge, which had the unusual experience 
of being twice erased, having been constituted in 1775, erased in 1782, reinstated nine 
years later and finally erased in 1795. A Lodge, numbered 61 in the 1729 list, met at 
the King's Arms in Cateaton Street; it was constituted in 1729 and erased in 1760. 
Other Lodges, no longer existing, also met at these houses. Cateaton Street began at 
the north end of Ironmonger Lane. Destroyed for city improvements it was in 1845 
re-named Gresham Street. 

The following newspaper cutting, that has been brought to my notice (both 

origin and date unknown, but the latter probably about 1750), introduces another 

Order : — 

" United Alfred Lodge. The Brothers of this Order are hereby informed 

that the Annual Ball of the Society will be held on Monday the 29th of 

November at the Horn Tavern, Doctors Commons. Tickets to be had at 

the Lodge." 

At this Tavern, which, by the way, Larwood does not mention, was held at the 

Royal Hanoverian Lodge of Bucks (A.Q.G., iii., 146). 

Among other London societies of the eighteenth century may be mentioned, 

though not coming within the limits I had set up for myself, the Loyal and Friendly 

Society of Blue and Orange, which in 1742 met at the Kouli Khan's Head in Leicester 

Fields, and the Brethren of the Order of Khajares, meeting (1749) at the Nag's Head, 

Tothill Street, Westminster. 

Kouli Khan was a Persian much dreaded in his day. Born in 1688 he was 

originally a shepherd called Nadir Kouli— " slave of the Wonderful One "—and a maker 

of sheepskin coats and caps, distinguished for his boldness and intrepidity. He entered 

the service of a petty chief of his native country, became the leader of a formidable band 

of robbers but afterwards rose to high rank in the service of the governor of Khorassan, 

the province in which he was born. Dismissed and degraded he once more took to a 

robber's life, and eventually delivered Persia from the Afghan invaders and usurped 

the throne of Persia, which kingdom he vastly extended. Known as the Great Mughul 

he exhibited in his later years a degree of cruelty and barbarity exceeding all that has 

been recorded of even the most bloodthirsty tyrants : this was ended by his assassination 

in 1747. One may wonder why such a man gained the distinction of being enrolled 

among those whose painted heads adorned houses where strangers expected kindly 

treatment and hospitality. Larwood states that one of the reasons of his popularity in 

this country was the permission he granted to the English nation to trade with Persia, 

the most chimerical ideas being entertained of the advantages to be derived from that 


The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 13 

Thus we see that most of the Societies hitherto mentioned met at Taverns 
frequented by members of oar own fraternity, but we must not conclude from that 
fact that they had any, even the slightest, connection with the Masouic Order. It 
would be safer to assume that the houses were selected as their places of meeting 
because it was known that Freemasons' Lodges met there, and, therefore, presumably 
furnished good cheer, as evidenced by Hogarth's representation of what was, perhaps, 
a not unusual manner of a Freemason travelling home, for in those days very few left 
any dinner table sober. And Hogarth was a Freemason. 

Having disposed of these Societies with their fanciful names, let us now 
proceed to consider another whose name appears to show that it really may have had 
some connection with Freemasonry. And here I may say, with the view of preventing 
disappointment, that though several years have elapsed since I first set myself the 
task of searching for particulars respecting the Order in question, examining books, 
old documents, and old newspapers, the information that I have been able to glean is 
bat meagre and fragmentary, not such a history as I had at one time hoped to present 
to this Lodge. 

The body to which I now invite attention was originally known 1 as the Royal 
Grand Modern Order of Jerusalem Sols. I cannot find in the various Masonic and 
other publications that the Order has aroused much curiosity, though it numbered 
at one time some three or four hundred members. 

Under the heading " Masonic Notes and Queries " in the Freemasons' Magazine 
and Masonic Mirror for March 22nd, 1862, occurs the following :— " Is anything known 
about a Society rejoicing in the name of the Jerusalem Sols ? I am led to make this 
enquiry from seeing the title-page of A Sermon preached before the Royal Grand Modern 
Order of Jerusalem Sols at Kensington, by the Rev. R. Taylor, probably about the 
year 1785." This elicited no reply. A similar enquiry was inserted in A.Q.C., iv., 
174, 1891, by the well-known collector of Masonic curios, Brother Thomas Francis, 
formerly of Havant, whose collection was dispersed by auction about two years since. 
This was equally unavailing. No other enquiries have, I believe, been made, with the 
exception of some inserted a few years ago by a friend on my behalf in Notes and 
Queries, which also met with no success. 

Bro. Francis's enquiry related to a portrait of the Founder, John Drawwater. 
With much difficulty I was able to obtain a copy of this mezzotint, and shortly 
afterwards Bro. Songhurst secured for the Lodge the one which had been the property 
of Bro. Francis. Doubtless many other copies exist, but I have heard of only one 
other, which was but now, I understand, is no longer in the Library of the Provincial 
Grand Lodge of Worcestershire. There is no copy in the Print Room of the British 
Museum. The portrait represents the Founder seated in an armchair and holding a 
sceptre. Suspended by a chain round the neck hangs an enamelled jewel and on the 
back of the chair is represented a coat of arms— a chevron between three water-bougets. 
Beneath is the inscription— " To Charles Hamilton, Gent, Grand Arch Master, the 
Reg. Profr. Grand Wardens, Deacons, Officers and Brothers of the Royal Grand Arch 
Constitutional Sols. This Print of the Founder, is by permission, most humbly 
inscribed, by their most obliged and obedient Servant. T. R. Poole. Printed by 
T. 11. Poole. Engraved by W. Pyott." 

The arms are presumably those assumed by Mr. John Drawwater— the name itself 
was perhaps also assumed— but I regret to have to state that, though one of the laws 

1 See Appendix. 

14, transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

of the Order prohibited falsehood, these arms were not granted by authority as ascer- 
tained for me, after due search among the records of the Heralds' College, by Portcullis, 
Mr. T. M. J. Watkin, nor indeed do they occur in the lists of unauthorised armorial 
bearings preserved in the College of Arms. I am afraid the water bougets that appear 
iu the arms of certain families in Kent and Yorkshire, as well as in those of Ilkley 
School, will not help us, any more than will the water bouget of Messrs. Child's Bank. 

The number of enquiries that have been made, and of books, old newspapers, 
and various documents that have been consulted, is very large, but I regret to say that 
the results have been by no means commensurate. Friends, as well as strangers, have 
been very long-suffering and very kind in their replies to my questions. 

First, as regards the place of meeting of this body with its high-sounding name. 
From its Code of Laws we learn that there were two Lodges under its jurisdiction, one 
called the Royal Grand Modern Sols Lodge, No. 1, the other the Windsor Modern Sols 
Lodge, No. 2. The former met at the " House of Brother Hudson, known by the name 
of the Jerusalem Sols and Bohemia Tavern in Wych. Street." Wych Street was 
formerly, till its demolition seven or eight years ago, a continuation of Drury Lane, 
and its old name was Via de Aldwych. In 1790 we find the Lodge meeting at Bro. 
Spenser's, The Garrick Head, Bow Street, Covent Garden. It was at the latter house 
that the Lodge of Unity, now No. 69, met from 1808 to 1810, as did St. Thomas's 
Lodge. No. 142, in the year 1825. It should be remembered that Bow Street was for 
the first 100 years of its existence - it was built in 1637— the home of many members 
of the upper class, among whom may be mentioned the artist Sir Godfrey Kneller, and 
Dr. Radcliffe, the founder of the library at Oxford bearing his name. 

As regards the earlier place of meeting — the Jerusalem Sols and Bohemia 
Tavern— it is not easy to explain the origin of the former part of the name ; it seems 
more probable that the Society gave its name to the house than vice versa, as suggested 


Larwood says that the Sols met at the Queen of Bohemia's Head in Drury 
Lane ; they may have done so at some period of the existence of the body, though it 
seems somewhat unlikely that there should be two houses with names so closely 
resembling each other in such close proximity. Nevertheless, Lane states that the 
London Lodge, No. 108, met from 1768 to 1772 at the Queen of Bohemia's Head in 
Wych Street, and the Lodge of Faith, No. 141, at the Queen of Bohemia in the same 

street in 1798-9. 

Bro. Sadler, in his life of Thomas Dunckerley, tells the story of the origin of the 
London Lodge, how that distinguished Brother was the first to hold a regular Lodge 
on board a ship of war, a warrant having been issued by Grand Lodge on January 16th, 
1760, for a Lodge on board His Majesty's ship Vanguard, and later on May 22nd, 1762, 
for one to be held on board His Majesty's ship Prince, to which Dunckerley had been 
appointed in the previous year. Of neither of these Lodges is much kuown, but the 
Minute book of the London Lodge commences thus :— " Bye Laws and Regulations to be 
observed by the Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons No. 250 removed from on board his 
Majesty's ship Vanguard to the Queen of Bohemia's Head in Wych Street, in the parish 
of St. Clement Dane in the County of Middlesex, made and agreed to the first day of 
May, a.d. 1768, a.l. 5772." The Lodge removed in 1772 to the London Coffee House, 
Ludgate Hill, in which year also it received its name ; in 1812 to the Queen's Arms 
Tavern, Cheapside; in 1816 to the Freemasons' Tavern; in 1865 to its neighbour 
Freemasons' Hall, and in 1871 to the Ship and Turtle, Leadenhall Street, from which 
it removed in 1902 to its present place of meeting, the Hotel Cecil, Strand. At the 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 15 

various recensions of the list of Lodges it has borne the following numbers :— 202 (1770) ; 
162 (1780); 163 (1761); 142 (1792); 173 (1814); 125 (1832) and 108 at the last re- 
numbering in 1863. 

There was also a Rising Snn at the south-east corner of Wych Street. I may 
mention that though this is undoubtedly the correct spelling, I have met with 
the designations " Wich," " Whych," and even, in Bead's WeeUy Journal, 1723, " Which 


Drury Lane and Wych Street appear to have been confused. Larwood gives no 

authority for his statement that the place of meeting was in Drury Lane, whereas we 

; shall find below in the Constitutional Code of Laws that the house was in Wych Street. 

On the other hand, I have searched the Rating Books of St. Clement Danes, and find no 

mention whatever at this particular period of a tenant of the name of Hudson in Wych 

Street, whereas " John Hudson " does occur in Drury Lane in 1782-87 aud probably in 

earlier as well as later years. Taking the house that in 1815 was known as The Sols 

Arms and Shakespeare Chop House, the following are the names in the Rating books :— 

> 1782-83, Gillam; 1784-85, Robinson; 1786, Wynn ; 1787, Fassett & Co. The next 

entry is 1800, William Desbrow. From other sources I find that in 1815 the house 

l bore the name just mentioned ; in 1825 it was the Shakespeare Head ; from 1826 to 

!__ 1834 it was the Sols Arms ; in 1836 the Shakespeare Inn, and from 1838 to the final 

' demolition of the street in the present century it was again known as the Shakespeare 

] Head. This was No. 31. In the Gentleman's Magazine for June, 1801, p. 566, occurs 

: the following :— " Sunday, April 26. This night about 8 a mob assembled before a 

house in Whych Street, formerly the Queen of Bohemia Tavern (but now supposed to 

be unoccupied) 1 in consequence of some boys who had been at play in the passage 

declaring they saw some persons through the key-hole employed in cutting up human 


The confusion between Wych Street and Drury Lane reminds one of the disputes 
} between antiquaries as to the locale of the Mermaid Tavern— whether it was situated in 

Bread Street or Friday Street — now happily settled. 

No. 31 Wych Street was partly (or entirely) rebuilt about 1880, and shared in 
', the final fate of the street about 1903, when Aldwych and Kingsway were laid out. 

t Owing to certain technicalities the street was not completely demolished, for we find 

f the following paragraph in the Times of Sept. 7th, 1907 : — " The omission of Wych 

! Street from the Post Office Guide called forth protests from Mr. C. A. G. Browne, 

whose advertising offices are in the only buildings now remainiug in this street. Wych 
\ Street now appears once more amongst the list of ' Principal streets' in the London 

J postal district." 

.! To return to the Shakespeare Head, the last haunt of what was known as the 

Club of Owls (which had previously met at the Sheridan Knowles in what was then 

Brydges Street, Covent Garden), so called on account of the late hours kept by its 

i. members, few of whom attended before midnight. Spielmann, in his History of Punch, 

| tells how it was at one time held by Mark Lemon, who in a time of great stress, owing to 

the failure of his stepfather, Mr. Very, a joint manager of a brewery in Kentish Town, 

where Lemon filled a clerical position, bad been put in charge (by one of his stepfather's 

;. customers) of the Shakespeare Head. Mark Lemon was not calculated to make a 

successful landlord, and both he and the house suffered financially. To become one 

of the small knot of literary men who founded Punch was more congenial to his taste. 

1 A destructive fire had happened in the neighbourhood and the tavern was shut up. — F. W. L. 

16 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

In the time of the Stuarts Wych Street was highly respectable, and so was its 

Gordon, in his Old Time Aldwych, says :— " Wych Street was the most picturesque 
street in London, and for its size had the largest number of old houses. Walking up 
from St. Clement's the first noteworthy house was the Shakespeare's Head with a 
plaster bust of the poet over the door. It had been a somewhat disreputable public 
house, under the management of a female who enjoyed the protection of ' Dutch Sam 
the Younger '." This lady was Mark Lemon's predecessor. 

It may be incidentally mentioned here that Shakespeare's Head, " over against 
Catherine Street in the Strand " had been adopted about 1712 as the sign of his 
establishment by the celebrated Jacob Tonson, the " Prince of Booksellers," who was 
born in 1656. Almost from the time of his starting in business he was the publisher 
of most of the best books of the great authors of the period, besides those of Shakes- 
peare and others. Though he began with a small capital only, on his death in 1736 he 
left a sum of over £80,000. 

Drury House stood at the west end of Wych Street, lately (says Allen in his 
History of London, 1827) a large brick pile turned into a public house bearing the sign 
of the Queen of Bohemia, the mistress of Lord Craven, who, on purchasing the house, 
rebuilt it and gave it the name of Craven House. 

It would, I am afraid, occupy too much time to tell the story of the Lady 
Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I. and Queen of Bohemia, whose name is 
commemorated by the sign, of the lordly palace in which she sometimes resided, or of 
the ultimate building by Philip Astley of the Olympic Pavilion on the site of old 
Craven House, taken down in 1802. 

I have not been able to trace the connection, if there was any, between the 
house kept by " Brother Hudson " and the Sols Arms still existing in the Hampstead 
Road (No. 65), the date of the establishment of which appears to be uncertain, since 
no records are available. The house, stated in Allbut's Rambles in Dickens Land to 
have " derived its name from the Sols' Society, whose meetings held therein were of a 
Masonic character," is at the corner of what was formerly called Charles Street, but 
now named Drummond Street, and occupies part of the site of eleven small cottages 
known as Sols Row. According to Johnstone's London Directory, 1817, the Row was 
seventy-five yards in length. It was in No. 10, on the site of which is now No. 74, 
Hampstead Road, that Wilkie (1785-1841) lived, and painted the Blind Fiddler in 
1805, and it was to the Sols Arms that John Wolcot (1738-1819), better known under 
his pseudonym of Peter Pindar, as well as Cruikshank and Dickens, all of whom lived 
within easy distance, used to pay frequent visits. Harmonic meetings were held at 
the house, and there still hangs in the saloon bar, and inalienable from the establish- 
ment, a portrait painted "by the very deserving and respectable artist, Mr. Kearney," 
in 1820, of Mr. Benjamin Cale. The expense of painting and framing the picture was 
defrayed by subscriptions among the mombers of the Society meeting there. A 
printed copy of the list of subscribers, as well as of the resolution respecting the 
painting, framing, and future disposition of the picture, still exists. Unfortunately, 
this printed slip was apparently cut down to suit the size of a certain frame ; it has 
no head-line, nor does it contain any clue to the name of " the Society " to which the 
subscribers belonged. Were they Jerusalem Sols— the names of a few ladies occur— 
or were they members of the " Sol Club," twenty-one pencil portraits of whom are 
in a small sketch book in the Print Room of the British Museum. The artist who 






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The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 17 

executed these portraits was William Henry Hunt (1790-1864), who was a pupil, 
together with Linnell, of John Varley. He exhibited at the Royal Academy 1807-1811, 
and was in 1824 elected an Associate of the Water Colour Sociely, to the full member- 
ship of which he was admitted in 1826. The book containing these portraits has also 
a sketch, partly iu ink, partly in pencil, showing the artist and others, entitled, 
" Hunt the slipper." Although this has been in the Museum for a long time, it seems 
to have been lost sight of until its re-discovery as a result of my researches about three 
years ago. The authorities cannot trace its source, nor have they any clue to the key 
which evidently accompanied it, for all the portraits are numbered but, except the 
artist's, nameless. 

This public house in the Hampstead Road most probably furnished Dickens 
(as Wheatley remarks) with the idea of introducing the Sols' Arms, where Harmonic 
meetings were held twice weekly, into the story of Bleak House, though he put it in 
the neighbourhood of Chancery Lane, probably in Chichester Rents. But it does not 
seem to have been pointed out that when he states that subsequently to the inquest 
two of the jurymen left the house for a " stroll " to Hampstead, his thoughts had 
evidently reverted to the establishment that he knew so well in the Hampstead Road. 

Although so little seems to be known about the Jerusalem Sols beyond the 
mere name, I have met with a few descriptions, varying in toto from one another. 
From one source we learn that they were a kind of Freemasons, from another that 
they had nothing to do with Freemasonry, from a third that they were a political 
body, and from another that they constituted merely a social society. When we 
consider their code of laws and the Masonic symbols represented on their coat of 
arms, we shall perhaps be led to believe that the first of these four descriptions is 
most probably the correct one, though in later times they took an active part in 
politics. (See infra, Mr. Watson's speech at the Highbury Place dinner.) 

I will therefore now draw attention to their Constitutional Code of Laws. Of 
these T have been unable to hear of the existence of a complete copy. or. indeed, of any 
other than the one disposed of at Bro. Spencer's sale in July, 1875, and the incomplete 
one in the possession of the Grand Lodge of England. It lacks its frontispiece, and, 
what is of much greater importance, the names and addresses of the members. 

The following is a full transcript from the copy in Grand Lodge Library : — 


The | Constitutional [ Code of Laws | of the | Royal Grand Modern 
Order | of | Jerusalem Sols, [ together with | A List | of the | Brothers, | 
arranged in Alphabetical Order, | with their places of abode, | and 
Additions, j London: | Printed, by James Newcome, Wych St., Drury 
Lane, j Appointed Printer to the Order, | 18th April, 1785. 


The Constitution and Code of Laws of The Boyal Grand Modern 
Sols Lodge, Number I. agreed and confirmed in just and perfect Lodge, 
legally assembled, on the ninth Day of September, in the twenty-third 
Tear of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third, by the Grace 

18 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland King, Defender of tbe 
Faith, and so forth, and in the Year of our Lord One thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-three. 

Right Honourable Grand Master. 

[Verso of Preface] Introduction. 

Every Society wherein Philanthropy for each other reigns in the 
Breast of it's Members, is a laudable Institution, and as such ought to be 
promoted by every Person who wishes well to his Country and Fellow- 
creatures ; for it certainly was the Intention of the Creator of all Things, 
to make this Earth an Habitation of Fellow-citizens, and not a Hermitage 
for Anchorets ; and that Man ought to lose his Prerogative on Earth, who 
ceases to be sociable. We whose Names are hereunder written, having 
formed ourselves into a friendly Society, by the Name and Title of The 
Royal Grand Modern Jerusalem Sols • and in order to prevent and 
discourage all kinds of licentious Behaviour, and Indecencies in Speech, 
or otherwise, we do hereby agree to abide by the following Rules and 
Laws, which we hope are such as will meet with the Approbation, and gain 
the Esteem of all good Men, being calculated to promote good Harmony, 
a real lasting Friendship, and to discourage that detestable and various 
shaped Monster Vice. 

[No catchword. Next follows page 9, sig. B, as under]. 
| Articles | of the | Constitution &c. | 

Article I. 

That the Members of the Lodge shall meet at the House of Brother 
Hudson, known by the Name of the Jerusalem Sols and Bohemia Tavern, in 
Wych- Street every Monday night ; and that the Master and Officers attend 
this Lodge at Eight o'Clock in the Evening, but not to exceed a Quarter 
after, in order to open the Lodge ; and if the Master do not attend at the 
above Time, he shall pay a Fine of Sixpence ; but if absent the whole 
Night one Shilling ; and if the Ofticers do not attend at the above Time, 
then each forfeit Threepence, if absent the whole Night Sixpence ; but 
with this Proviso, that the Fines shall be subject to the Opinion of the 
Lodge : and if the Master send to a past Master, and he attends for him 
in due Time, the Fine to be void ; likewise the Officers not to be fined, if 
their Deputies attend for them : The Officers to have their Liberty to 
appoint their Deputies. Each Brother, on his Admittance into this Lodge 
to pay one Shilling to the Treasurer, for hisExpences [sic] of the evening. 

1 It need hardly be pointed out that this name is by no means a common one. A writer in 
Notes and Queries, December 7th, 1907, quotes the following inscription on a tomb in Greasley 
Churchyard, Notts., erected over " Benjamin Drawwater, Gentleman, of Mansfield, late of Eastwood, 
who suddenly departed this life on the 2<1. of June, 1815, in the 68th year of his age. In his 
professional duty he accompanied the great Circumnavigator, Cook, in the year [sic] 1772-1775." 

The death is thus recorded in the obituary of tli6 Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1815 :— - 
"Suddenly B. Drawater [sic] Esq. of Mansfield.'' — F.W.L. 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 19 

Article II. 

That antecedent to any Gentleman's becoming a Member of this 
Lodge, he must be proposed the night before he is made, and the Brother 
who proposes him must, with Honour and Integrity, first vouch that he 
is a Man of nncontaminated Character, not of a loquacious Disposition, and 
be well recommended and seconded by a Brother, and the Secretary must 
enter his Name, Place of Abode, and Occupation ; and, on his Admittance, 
he is to pay the Treasurer ten Shillings and Sixpence, one Shilling for 
Quarterage, and one Shilling for his Certificate and having his name 
enrolled ; and every Brother who shall be One Year's Quarterage in 
Arrear, shall not be admitted into the Lodge till the same is paid. 

Article III. 

That the Master be chosen by a Majority, two Lodge Nights 
before the Anniversary, and he shall appoint his Officers ; and no Brother 
shall have a Vote who has not paid up his Quarterage. If the Master 
should neglect to attend Four Nights together, without assigning some 
good Reason for so doing, he shall be fined five Shillings ; and if the Officers 
shall so Neglect, then each forfeit two Shillings and Sixpence; and the 
Secretary shall be mindful to send a Letter to the Master on the Fifth 
Night, and on his not paying the same, the Majority of the Brothers shall 
be at Liberty to chuse another Master ; and if any of the Officers shall 
not attend when summoned, then the Master shall appoint another in his 
Room ; and on the Master or Officers absolutely refusing to pay the above 
Fine, are to be suspended their being admitted into this Lodge till they 
have paid the same ; and on not attending the Anniversary, and paying 
all Arrears of Fines and Quarterage, to be expelled. 

Article IV. 

That for the better establishing Regularity, good Order, and for 
laying before this Society the true State thereof, Prudence directs, that a 
Committee be appointed to meet once in every six Weeks, and that the 
Committee be held on a Friday Night, the Gentlemen so appointed to 
be invested with a full Power, indiscriminately to make such Orders and 
Regulation for the Benefit of this Lodge, and to inspect all Monies 
whatsoever received for making Members, Quarterages, Fines, &c, and 
to make out Dividends, pay the Bills of the different Tradesmen, and to 
report the same on the next Lodge Night, when the Report is to be ratified 
by the Members of the Lodge. The Treasurer shall have no Authority 
to pay Money without an Order from the Committee. The Committee to 
consist of the Master, past Masters, Officers and past Officers, and six 
Brothers appointed by a Majority of the Lodge, who shall also appoint 
the Grand Stewards ; and if any one of the Committee shall not attend 
on the Committee Night, unless Sickness, or some other well-grounded 
Reason is assigned to the Satisfaction of this Lodge, he shall forfeit 
Sixpence : This Money to go towards the Committee Night's expences 
[sic']. The Secretary to send Letters to the Committee to attend every 
Committee Night. The Master on any Dispute arising to have two Votes. 

20 transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Article "V. 
That the Brothers may not be deprived of the Knowledge of the 
Lectures, and that every one may be able to work the Fellow-crafts and 
Masters Lectures on a Lodge Night, the Master shall appoint the first 
Friday in every Month, one Night to raise Fellow-crafts, and the next 
Night to raise Masters ; and that no Apprentice shall be raised a Fellow 
craft, till he can say his Lecture ; and no Fellow-craft shall be raised a 
Master, until he can say his Lecture. The better to support the Dignity 
of the Craft, and Master's Night, the past Masters are to take it in 
Eotation to attend the Lectures ; and on their Non-attendance Cwithout 
Sickness prevents them) to be fined one Shilling, unless they get another 
past Master to attend in their Room. 

Article VI. 
That if the Lodge shall remove on Account of improper or super- 
cilious Treatment of the Landlord, or in case of his Death, or for Want 
of a larger Room, or any other cogent Reason whatever, then, and in that 
Case, the same shall not be removed further than Half a Mile from the 
Place where it now is held ; and the Place shall be determined by the 

Article VII. 

That to secure the Property of this Society, and for the Safety 
and Security thereof, it is absolutely necessary that the Landlord, where 
the Lodge is held, shall give Bond to the Lodge in the Name of the 
Master, Officers, and Committee acting for the Time being for the Body 
at large, that he shall be accountable for the Canopy, 1 and the whole of 
the Regalia, Pictures, and all other Furniture belonging to this Lodge, 
with a Condition that the Landlord shall be answerable for all Damage 
that the Regalia shall have sustained through Negligence or otherwise, 
Fire and reasonable Wear in the mean Time only excepted ; and that the 
Society shall have free Liberty to remove the Regalia, &c. when it is 
signified under the Master and the respective Officers Hands in Writing 
for that Purpose ; Refusal to the Lodge. 

Article VIII. 
Any Brother who has, or shall make a Motion in or out of the 
Lodge, in order to disturb the Harmony thereof, or to break up the 
same, while twenty Brothers are willing to support the Society, shall be 
deemed an Enemy to the Society and be excluded from it ; and if it shall 
happen that any Brother shall be excluded this Society for Want of 
paying his Quarterly Payments, or Fines, they and every of them shall 
be totally excluded from having any Claim or Demand whatsoever on the 
Whole or any Part of the Stock or Jewels belonging to this Lodge, not- 
withstanding he shall have been a Subscriber to such Stock or Jewels ; 

i The Canopy is shown in what I suggest is a copy of the Sols Certificate. It was most probably 
placed over the chair of the principal officer, and somewhat resembles the Master's Canopy formerly 
used in the Lodge established at Ashby-de-la-Zouch by the French prisoners of war, now in the 
possession of the ltoyal Sussex Lodge, No. 353. For an illustration see History of Freemasonry %n 
AMy-de-la.Zouch, 1809-1909, by Bro. J. T. Thorp.— F.W.L. 

Ars Qcatuor Coronatorum. 




The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 21 

and no Person shall be entitled to claim any Right to any Part of the 
Stock or Jewels belonging to this Lodge, unless he shall have subscribed 
towards the same. And in order to establish good Harmony and lasting 
Friendship between the Brothers thereof, it is agreed, that if any Dispute 
shall arise between any of the Brothers of this Society, respecting the 
Business of this Lodge, in which any Brother shall speak with a vindictive 
or malignant Disrespect of the Society whose present Respectability has 
raised the Admiration of all its Members ; or any Member shall attempt 
to cast any Reflection, by way of Censure, or Ridicule before any Person 
who is not a Brother at any time or place, then on any Brother's reporting 
the same a Lodge Night, and Criminating the party so accused, the 
defaulting Brother shall pay such Fine as the Majority then present shall 
think proper, and shall not be again admitted into this Society till the 
same is paid, and in Default of Payment in four Nights, shall be for ever 
excluded, and have no Right, Title, or Interest to any Part of the Property 

of the Lodge. 

Article IX. 

That as many propbane Oaths and Speeches too frequently issue 
from the Mouths of some People, without once considering the dreadful 
Punishment of the Man, who without Shame or Remorse presumes to 
take, on every trifling Occasion, the Sacred Name of his Creator in vain ; 
and as so wicked a Custom breaks the Bands of that which is Sacred, 
Civil, or Decent, he ought therefore to be banished Human Society. 
Every Member guilty of prophane Swearing, Lying, Betting of Wagers, 
or using indecent Language, or not Keeping to Order when called on so 
to do by the Master, shall for every such offence pay a Fine of Twopence, 
and in Default of Payment the Deacons to un-cloath and conduct him out 
of the Lodge, till the Sense of the Brothers then present shall be taken; 
and such their Determination is to be absolute. 

Article X. 

That on the Anniversary Day the Master, past Master, Officers, 

past Officers, the six Committee Men, and the Stewards shall dine at the 

House where this Lodge is held, and on the Night after the Master is 

chosen, they are to pay into the Hands of the Treasurer Three Shillings 

and Sixpence. 

Article XI. 

That in order to establish and make known the Noble Order of 
Modern Sols, the Members of this Lodge shall walk in Grand Procession 
in the month of July, with a Band of Music, and the Master, past Master, 
Officers, Committee Men, Stewards, raised Masters and Fellow Crafts, 
cloathed with Regalia, to some large and convenient House out of Town 
that shall be approved of by the Majority of the Society at large, and 
that every Brother belonging to the Lodge shall pay into the Hands of 
the Stewards at least Two Shillings and Sixpence for the Dinner, and 
such Brother who does not take a Ticket, unless Sickness prevents, or his 
being out of Town at a great Distance, shall for such Neglect forfeit Two 
Shillings, the Fine to go into the Treasury, to be added to the common 

22 transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 

Article XII. 

That the better to support the Grandeur and Brilliancy of the 

Regalia, the past Masters, past Wardens, past Deacons, Treasurer, and 

Sectetary, not appearing in their Jewels, shall forfeit Threepence, and 

that every Master, who has not past the Chair, who appears in the Lodge 

one Month after having served Master, with a new Jewel, shall receive 

one Guinea towards paying for his Jewel ; and that every Brother shall 

purchase a Book printed with the sols arms as a Frontispiece, and all 

the Articles, with the Names of the Master, past Masters, Officers, 

Committee Men, Stewards, and the Names of all the Brothers Places of 

Abode, and Occupations, for which they shall pay one Shilling and 


Article XIII. 

That all Lodges of the Order of Sols take a Dispensation from 
this our Royal Grand Modern Lodge, signed and sealed by the Royal 
Grand Modern Master Sol, and the other Officers of the Society, in just 
and perfect Lodge assembled, and those who after the Ninth Day of 
September, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-three, refuse to 
do the same shall for ever afterwards be deemed unlawful Lodges, and 
the Members shall ever be looked upon as Impostors by this our Royal 
Grand Modern Order of Sols. The Windsor Lodge to have a Dispensa- 
tion gratis, and to be called The Windsor Modern Sols Lodge, Number 
Two, and to be enrolled accordingly in the Books of this Royal Grand 
Lodge. All Lodges which come under this our Grand Institution of 
Modern Sols, to pay unto the Treasurer of this Lodge the Sum of Two 
Guineas for their Dispensation and likewise the Sum of one Shilling for 
every Member they make in their Lodge. Those Lodges that refuse to 
pay such Sums of Money shall be struck off the Roll of our Grand Order; 
and every Quarterly Night the Master or Senior Warden of every Lodge 
shall attend the Grand Master with a true State of the Members of each 
Lodge, &c, for which Summonses shall be sent to all Lodges that are 
legally constituted by our Order of Modern Sols. 

Article XIV. 

In order to keep up the Dignity and Honour of this Lodge, such 

Brothers who have had the Honour of serving Master, or past Masters 

shall for their faithful Services be intitled to Three Votes in open Lodge 

legally assembled, or on any Committee, and likewise the past Wardens, 

Deacons, Treasurer, and Recorder, shall be intitled to two Votes in open 

Lodge legally assembled, or on any Committee, they the said Officers 

being proper Judges of the Constitution, and Code of Laws belonging to 

this Institution. 

Article XV. 

In order to show our Approbation of the generous Behaviour of 
those Brethren, who have nobly stood forth and subscribed their Five or 
Ten Guineas to pay off the Tradesmens Bills, each of them shall have as 
many Votes over and above their common Voice, in open Lodge legally 
assembled, as he has paid Guineas, but on receiving of every Guinea his 
Votes to be decreased. 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 23 

Article XVI. 
That there shall be new Books provided relative to all the Business 
of the Royal Grand Modern Sols Society, and that all the Books, and 
other Articles thereunto belonging, shall be deposited in the Sanctuary 
thereof, and that the Master shall see the Constitution be carefully 
deposited in one Part of the Sanctuary, of which he shall have a Key, 
and that no Books, nor any Part of the Regalia, shall be moved out of 
the Lodge, without an Order made by the Majority of the Society in 
open Lodge legally assembled ; and that the Recorder enter the Minutes 
of the Night's Debate, and that any Brother of the Society breaking this 
Article shall be subject to pay any Sums of Money that shall be levied 
by the Master, Officers and Brothers in open Lodge legally assembled, 
and on Non-payment to be excluded the Society of Modern Sols for ever. 

Article XVII. 
That the Lodge of Royal Grand Modern Sols do acknowledge 
John Drawwater Right Honourable Grand Master, Robert Lawford, 
Samuel Whiticar, John Phillips, and George Lockit, to be most 
Honourable past Masters; John Pring, Richard Dobbins, Esqrs. past 
Wardens ; Hugh Richards, past Deacon ; and that this Lodge will not 
acknowledge any others to be past Masters, or Officers of this our Royal 
Modern Order of Sols. 

Article XVIII. 
Be it known, that it is our Will, that after any Gentleman is 
proposed to become a Brother of this our Royal Modern Order, the 
Candidate shall on being approved of have Notice from the Recorder in 
Writing, of his Success, and that he attend the next Lodge Night in order 
to be initiated in this most Honourable Society: That the Recorder 
declare in open Lodge every Evening the State of the Night's Account, 
whether any Money be good or deficient, and keep regular Account of the 
same. That the Master, past Masters, Officers, and all the Brotherhood, 
to pay one Shilling for their Certificate of belonging to the Royal Grand 
Modern Jerusalem Sols Lodge (Number One). 

Lastly, be it known to our Royal Modern Ordee of Sols, 
that our Great Grand Master King Solomon was ordained by the great 
Jehovah and Creator of the Universe to be the wisest and greatest King 
on Earth, by his Example we are taught to hold the Sacred Writings of 
God in the highest Veneration and Esteem, that whenever we take the 
Holy Bible in our Hands and mention ; ' So help me God," that shall be 
binding in every Sense of the Word, as if any Ruler, Governor or 
Magistrate tendered the Oath ; therefore if any Brother should attempt 
to evade himself of the Three Obligations they may expect to answer for 
the same before the Great Judge of Heaven, on that tremendous Day 
the Resurrection, at which Time all will certainly rise to answer for their 
Good and Bad Deeds. 

The fragment ends here [page 24, on which are the catchwords, "A List "J. 

24 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

We are now better able to form an opinion as to what manner of men these Sols 
were — or aimed at being. 

In their Code of Laws one cannot but be struck with the number of familiar 
words, phrases, and allusions that occur. We have, for instance, "just and perfect 
Lodge," " open the Lodge," "make a member," "Fellow-crafts Lectures," "Masters 
Lectures," "to raise Fellowcrafts," "Quarterages," "Fellow craft shall be raised a 
Master," " past Masters," " past Wardens," "past Deacons," " Senior Warden," "in 
open Lodge legally assembled," " Certificate," " our Great Grand Master King 
Solomon," "the three Obligations," etc. In an advertisement quoted below the term 
" Entered Apprentices " occurs. It would not be difficult to obtain these expressions 
from some one or other of the various exposures, if the framers of the rules had so 
desired; still, the statements in the Introduction and Article 2 concerning the 
qualifications of intending members tend to show that the Society was not political, 
and that its raison d'etre was a good one. One need not be surprised at coming across 
in their advertisements names of Honorary Stewards who were well-known in the 
political world ; such a course of procedure is not unknown even at the present day. 
It may be noted that the political views of these Honorary Stewards were not identical. 
In perusing these Rules it will be noticed that several variations of the name 
of the Order occur; thus, we have the Royal Grand Modern Order of Jerusalem Sols 
(Title), The Order of Sols (Article 13), The Royal Grand Modern Order of Sols («'&.), 
The Grand Institution of Modern Sols (ib.), Our Royal Grand Modern Order (Article 
18), The Society (passim). 

We also meet with the following titles :— Right Honourable Grand Master, 
Royal Grand Modern Master Sol, and, later on, Grand Arch Master. 

The following account of one of their early appearances in public is contained 
in a newspaper, dated August 4th, 1787 : — 

The Sols. Yesterday being the annual festival of one of the 
Lodges of the Sols, they went in procession through the West end of the 
town. The procession consisted of charioteers, equestrians, and, 
pedestrians ; there was [sic] at least 130 coaches, and a considerable 
number of horsemen ; among the latter were, unhappily for them, to be 
seen the band of music; unhappily may be justly said, for so far were 
these sons of Apollo from being able to exert their musical efforts, that it 
was with great difficulty they could either keep their seats, or their 
station in the cavalcade. The sorry jades on which they were mounted, 
regardless of the load of harmony upon their backs, were some of them 
restive, and others obstinate. The grand standard bearer, or rather the 
man who carried the pole on which the sun was placed, was equally 
unpleasant [sip] and awkwardly situated ; for instead of being able to 
display that glorious symbol of the fraternity on high, it was frequently 
set in the dust. In short the whole procession formed a scene equally 
grotesque and entertaining. Among the company in the coaches we could 
discern Mr. Byng, Mr. Brook Watson, and other respectable characters, 
who, after the procession was finished, crowned the day with an elegant 
dinner, and its concomitant festivities, at Florida Gardens ! 
Of the Florida Gardens Besant says "lately called Cromwell's Gardens, a place of 
resort for the West End," (London in the 18th Century, p. 423). But this statement 
js inaccurate, Florida Gardens being quite distinct from Cromwell's Gardens. Thetwg 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 25 

lay on either side of Hogmore Lane, south of Chelsea Common, a vast open heath, one 
of the earliest records of which alludes to it as being the exercise ground for the city 
train-bands. We learn from Lysons that "on the site of a tea-drinking place at 
Brompton, which was much puffed in the daily papers between the years 1780 and 1790 
by the name of Florida Gardens, the late Duchess of Gloucester, having procured a 
lease of the Gardens, built a villa, called Oxford Lodge, where she died in 1807." 
"Wheatley says that Hale House, afterwards called Cromwell House, may have been 
the residence of Henry Cromwell, the Protector's youngest son. He goes on to state that 
in the neighbourhood was a noted place of resort called Cromwell's Gardens. House and 
Gardens were swept away to make room for the South Kensington, now the Victoria 
j and Albert, Museum. 

> The members of the Royal Grand Arch Constitutional Sols do not appear to have 

s long continued at the house of Bro. Hudson, in Wych Street. 1 We find that in 1788 

[ their place of meeting was the Globe Tavern in Fleet Street, and it was from that 

house that they were to have gone in procession on July 31st to partake of their annual 
dinner at the Adam and Eve, St. Pancras. But that was the time of the General 
Elections, and Lord Hood was one of the candidates for a seat in the House of 
Commons. The roughness and buffoonery incidental to the Westminster elections had 
for long been notorious ; indeed, they retained their character to the passing of the 
first Reform Bill. Crabb Robinson, in his Diary, writes of a Westminster election 
that it is " a scene only ridiculous and disgusting. The vulgar abuse of the candidates 
from the vilest rabble is not rendered endurable by either wit or good temper." Under 
the circumstances a procession would certainly not commend itself to peaceable 
citizens, and might even be attacked by political roughs. It is also only natural to 
suppose that some, if not all, of the Sols might have been genuinely interested in the 
election, and desirous of recording their votes. Accordingly, procession and feast were 
alike postponed, as we learn from the following advertisement in The World for 
August 4th, 1788 :— 

Royal Grand Arch Constitutional Sols, Globe Tavern, Fleet St. 
: The Brothers of this Lodge are respectfully informed that the Anni- 

versary Dinner, which was to have been held on Thursday the 31st 
; ' instant, at Brother Turnay's, the Adam and Eve, Pancras, is, on account 

] • of the absence of many of the Brothers, on the Westminster Election, 

" ' postponed to Thursday, the 14th day of August iust. The Brethren are 

particularly requested to attend the Lodge on this evening, August the 
4th, to adjust the form of the- procession, and other necessary business 
previous thereto. 

The form of the procession was evidently adjusted, for we read later, " Yester- 
day morning the members of the Grand Constitutional Sols met at the Globe Tavern, 
in Fleet Street, at ten o'clock, and went from thence, in grand procession to Pancras 
Church, where a sermon was preached ; after which the company dined at Pancras. 

" This meeting was held out of respect to Lord Hood, who joined the club at 
the Globe, and proceeded with them to Church, and afterwards dined with them." 

The second paragraph betrays ignorance on the part of its author as to the 
reason for not only the dinner but also its date. It will be noticed that the word 

1 §ee supra, p. 18. 

26 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

"club "is applied to the body, and that in the advertisement the word " Lodge " is 
substituted for " Order," from which it would appear that even at that early date the 
Windsor Lodge, No. 2, had seceded. 

The Fleet Street Tavern, The Globe, which exists no longer, was one of the old 
houses of entertainment. It was the resort in the eighteenth century of many 
celebrated men, and a favourite place of meeting for London Lodges. It was there 
that from 1766 to 1768 and again from 1792 to 1793 the Globe Lodge, No. 23, of which 
Bro. Sadler has written such an interesting history, held its meetings. The Lodge 
was founded in 1723, although it was not till some fifty years ago that the privilege of 
wearing a centenary jewel was granted to its members. 

It was here, also, that the Lodge of Cordiality met from 1768 to 1795. Having 
gone as far west as Walham Green, it was erased in 1830, after an existence of 105 
years. For five years the house was the meeting place of a Lodge that at first bore the 
number 47. Established in 1728, it was erased in 1743. 

Lodge No. 59, which received in 1793 its present well-known name of the Royal 
Naval Lodge, but was called in 1768 the Lodge of Relief with Truth, and in 1791 the 
Royal Navy Lodge, met first at the Chequers, Chequer Court, Charing Cross. It does 
not seem to have been happy in its early choice of houses, for Lane records that the 
Globe Tavern was its seventeenth place of meeting. In 182.U823 only did it meet 
there, and after a few more changes settled in 1865 at Freemasons' Hall, where it still 

Of five other Lodges meeting under the same roof three still exist— the Caledonian 
No. 134, the Manchester No. 179, and the Pilgrim No. 238. 

The Adam and Eve and St. Pancras Church still exist, but it will be worth while 
to remember that in those days the Adam and Eve was really in the country, and that 
by going there the members were conforming to their regulations. It is situated at the 
corner of the Euston Road and what is now the Hampstead Road, and the original 
building has been supposed to have been on the site of the old Manor of Toten Hall. It 
was for years celebrated for its cakes and cream as well as for its tea gardens. Ireland, 
in his Hogarth Illustrated, ii., 146 (Ed. 1806), describing the " Representation of the 
March of the Guards towards Scotland in the year 1745 " (commonly known as the 
" March to Finchley "), says that the scene is laid " before the Adam and Eve in the 
Tottenham Court Road." 

Pancras Church was, of course, that which is now known as Old St. Pancras, the 
church in the Euston Road having been consecrated as late as 1822. 

Is it too hazardous to suggest that this visit of the Sols to the Adam and Eve, 
Pancras, was in some way the cause of the neighbouring tavern, still existing in the 
Hampstead Road, being called the Sols Arms ? (see sttpra, p. 16). 

The following advertisement, announcing the Annual Feast of 1790, appeared in 
The World, of August 26th :— 

Royal Grand Arch Constitutional Sols Lodge, 
Held at Brother Spencer's, the Garrick Head, Bow Street, Covent Garden, 
The Brothers of this most Honourable Order are respectfully informed, 
that the Grand Arch Master's Annual Feast, is on Monday, the 30th of 
August, 1790, at Brother Willoughby's, Highbury Place, Islington. 

the Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 27 

Honorary Stewards, 
Lord Hood, John Home Tooke, Esq. 

James Brandscombe, Esq. James Johnstone, Esq. 

Hezekiah Green, Esq, William Took Harwood, 

and Edward Topham, Esq. 

Acting Stewards, 
Brothers Brothers 

Purcell Lord 

Stool Ryan 

Oram Holmes 

Tickets 7/6 each, to be had of the Stewards, and at the bar of the 
Blue Posts. Berwick-Street; and Garrick's Head, Bow-Street. 

Dinner on Table at half-past Three o'Clock precisely. 

The Grand Arch Master particularly requests the Brothers to 
attend at Brother Spencer's, on Monday morning, August 30, at Ten 
o'Clock precisely, in order to proceed from thence with the Grand Patron, 
Brook Watson, Esq. M.P., 1 and the past Honorary Stewards, the Right 
Hon. Charles James Fox, M.P., Paul le Mesurier Esq. M.P. Sir Watkin 
Lewes, Knt, M.P. and William Mainwaring Esq. M.P. William Curtis, 
Esq., M.P., and William Colhoun, Esq. M.P. in procession, to Islington 
Church, when the Rev. Dr. Barry will preach a Sermon on the occasion. 
By Order of the Grand Arch Master, 

Jef. Scrape. 

^ There will be a lodge held on Friday night, for entered Apprentices ; 
those Brothers that mean to take Tickets for the Ball are desired to 
attend ; and those Brothers that have proposed their friends to be made, 
are desired to attend with them by half past Eight o'Clock. 

This was followed a few days later (August 28th, 1790) by a reminder of a less 
elaborate character, and showing a few alterations-for instance, the omission of Lord 
Hood's name. 

Royal Grand Arch Constitutional Sols Lodge, at Brother Spencer's, the 
Garrick's Head, Bow-St., Covent-Garden. The Brothers of this Most 
Honourable Order are respectfully informed that the Grand Arch Master's 
Annual Feast, will be held at Brother Willoughby's, Highbury Place, 
Islington, on Monday next, the SO'.'. 1 of August. Honorary Stewards, James 
Brandscombe Esq., Hezekiah Green Esq., Edward Topham Esq., John 
Home Tooke Esq., James Johnstone Esq., William Took Harwood. 
Acting Stewards, Brothers Purcell, Stool, Oram, Lord, Ryan, Holmes. 
Ticket's, 7s 6d each, to be had of the Stewards, and at the bar of the 
Garrick's Head, Bow-Street. 

By Order of the Grand Arch Master, 

Jef. Scrape. 

T. Fatt, Secretary. 

i Afterwards Sir Brook Watson, Bart. His leg was bitten off by a shark in The Havana, 1747.-F.W.L. 

28 Transactions of the Quaiuor Ooronati Lodge. 

This produced on August 30th an inspired paragraph, which was followed two 
days afterwards by an account of the proceedings :— 

This being the day advertised for the Aunual Meeting of the Society 
of Sols — the public will have an opportunity of seeing in their procession, 
that brilliancy and elegance which ever adorns this Society. — Should the 
day prove fair, nothing will be wanting to render this a spectacle worth 
attention— and as they mean to proceed from the Garrick's Head, to 
Highbury-Place to dinner, their rout will afford the public an opportunity 
of seeing them. 

In the issue of September 1st we read : — 

Procession of the Sols. 

This ancient and very respectable Society assembled on Monday 
morning at their Lodge, held at Spencer's, the Garrick's Head, in Bow- 
Street, and after initiating a number of Gentlemen into their order, they 
proceeded, attended by Brook Watson, Esq. their Grand Patron ; Home 
Tooke, Esq. and the other Honorary Stewards, with flags, staves, music 
&c. to Islington Church — where a Sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. 
Barry, from the First Chapter of Saint Paul's Epistle to the Philippians, 
former part of the 27th Verse—" Only let your conversation be as it 
becometh the Gospel of Christ."— from which he drew conclusions replete 
with the soundest doctrine, and acquitted himself to the general satis- 
faction of the Society, and much to the honour of his head and heart. 

We are pleased to hear this sermon is shortly to be published, and 
doubt not, that in this, as in every other instance, the Society will 
convince the Doctor how much they esteem the works of good men. 

An excellent dinner was provided at Highbury-Place, of which 
between three and four hundred Members partook— After which many 
Constitutional Toasts were drank — one of which called up Mr. Alderman 
Watson, who in a speech of some length, took an opportunity of thanking 
the Members for their support at his late election. Many present were 
disappointed that Mr. Home Tooke had not, on the occasion, an 
opportunity of conveying his sentiments to them. The Grand Arch- 
Master Scrape, proved himself, on this occasion, to be a fit person to 
occupy the chair, by preserving the strictest decorum and regularity. 

The day's entertainment concluded with a ball in the evening, 
much to the satisfaction of the company present. 

The Blue Posts, where tickets might be obtained, was at that time the home of 
St. James's Lodge, which was constituted in 1788 and lapsed early in 1792. 

Brother Willoughby, at whose house the dinner took place, was the energetic 
proprietor of the Highbury Tavern and Tea gardens. Originally an ale and cake house 
on a very small scale, its gardens offering many attractions to visitors from town, it was 
patronised to such an extent that further accommodation was found to be necessary and 
the " Barn " was built and added to the Tavern. This gained its name from having 
been erected on the site of the barn belonging to the Prior of the Convent of Knights 
Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem at Clerkenwell, who had a summer residence or 
Manor house there, on the opposite side of the road to that on which the tavern 

The Sots and ?ome other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 29 

afterwards stood. Daring Wat Tyler's insurrection the manor house was plundered 
and destroyed by Jack Straw, and the ruins afterwards became known as Jack Straw's 


The Barn was handsomely fitted up, and formed the principal room (able to 
accommodate nearly 2000 people) of the Tavern, which was afterwards commonly 
known as Highbury Barn. It was the usual place for holding the Court Baron of the 
Manor, and was the rendezvous of the Highbury Society from 1740 till its dissolution 
about 183:5. The Society was established to commemorate the dropping of a Schism 
Act against Protestant Dissenters, which was to have received the Royal sanction on the 
day that Queen Anne died. The successors to Mr. Willoughby, who died in 1785, 
were as enterprising as himself and made various additions to the place. 

In June, 1808, the " Antients " went in procession, duly clothed, to the number of 
twelve or fourteen hundred, with several bands, to the Church of St. Mary, Islington, 
and about five hundred afterwards dined at Highbury Tavern. This was the occasion 
of the Country Feast. 

Some of the Honorary Stewards call for special mention. The Lord Hood 
mentioned here was Samuel, Viscount Hood (1724-1816), the brother of Alexander 
Hood, Viscount Bridport. At the general election in 1784 he was returned at the head 
of the poll for Westminster after a contest of unparalleled length and severity, having 
secured 6,69 i votes as against 6,234 cast for Fox, and 5,998 for Wray. During the 
whole time that the poll was open, April 1st to May 17th, the city was in a state of riot. 
Hogarth's four pictures, though painted fifty years earlier, give a vivid idea of 
electioneering pleasantries (?) in the " good old times." Hood's political opinions were 
at least not antagonistic to the Government. He was commander on the North 
American station, 1767-1770, and second in command under Rodney in Dominica. In 

1787 he was promoted to be Vice-Admiral ; served as a Lord of the Admiralty from 

1788 to 1793; in 1794 captured Corsica, but was recalled for political reasons. In 
1794 he was made Admiral and in 1796 Viscount Hood and Governor of Greenwich, and 
in 1815 the honour of G.C.B. was conferred upon him. 

The career of Charles James Fox (1749-1806), third son of the first Lord 
Holland, is so intimately connected with the history of our country that it need not be 
repeated here. 

Sir Watkin Lewes was the first Worshipful Master of the Lion and Lamb Lodge, 
' an Athol Lodge, No. 258, constituted in 1789. The number was changed in 1814 to 325, 
in 1832 to 227, and at the last closing up in 1863 to 192. Sir Watkin was a Member of 
Parliament for London, an Alderman, and eventually in 1781 Lord Mayor. It was 
while holding this office that he was initiated in the Lodge of Emulation, now No. 21, 
of the Moderns. I need hardly remind members that an excellent history of this 
Lodge has been written by Bro. Sadler. We do not gather much about Sir Watkin 
Lewes in Bro. G. Abbott's History of the Lion and Lamb lodge, but in that by Bro. 
Hughan we find that he was elected Junior Grand Warden of the "Antients " in 1789, 
when it was resolved " that his private Lodge be directed to pass him through the 
chair on the morning of St. John's day next, if he should not before that time be 
installed Master of a Lodge." Bro. Hughan remarks that " it is quite possible that 
the Lodge was partly started so that this Alderman (late Lord Mayor) of London might 
qualify as Master, and thus obtain Grand Lodge honours." He was elected Senior 
Grand Warden in the following year. 

In A.Q.G., xix., 63, is a paper on Seals on " Antients' Grand Chapter Certificates " 
from the pen of Bro. J. T. Thorp. This is illustrated by reproductions of three 
Certificates, the earliest of which, dated 1792, is signed by Jas. Agar, Z., Watkin Lewes, 

30 Transactions of the Q.uatuor Coronati Lodge. 

H., John Bunn, J. The signature of Sir Watkin Lewes corresponds exactly with that 
ou the warrant of Lodge No. 270, formerly held at Devizes, but erased in 1827, as 
shown in Hughan's History of the Lion and Lamb Lodge, p. 20. In the latter work, p. 24, 
a copy is given of a Lodge Minute of the proceedings at the meeting held on Feb. 11th, 
1790, when the brethren granted " Bro r - Sir Watkin Lewis [Lewes] Pass Master, His 
Recommendatory Certificate, To Pass the Holy Royal Arch." This degree was conferred 
by Lodges of the " Antients " by virtue of their Craft Warrants. 

William Curtis, Esq., was afterwards Sir William Curtis, Bart. He was a very 
successful Merchant and a friend of the King. He represented London in Parliament 
from 1790 to 1818, being head of the Tory party in the City. The Bank known at 
first as Robarts, Curtis, Were & Co., now represented by Robarts, Lubbock & Co., was 
established by him, and he was offered but declined a peerage. In 1821, in 
consequence of the death of Sir Watkin Lewes, he became Father of the City. Peter 
Pindar made him a butt for his ridicule. 

John Home— better known as John Home Tooke— was born in 1736. He was 
the son of a poulterer, or, as he told his schoolfellows, a turkey merchant, in Newport 
Street, Westminster. After graduating from St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1758 
he was at his father's wish ordained. But parish work was not his bent, and in 1763 
he became for a year travelling tutor to John Elwes, afterwards known as the miser. 
Returniug from France he threw himself eagerly into the political arena and became a 
friend of Wilkes, with whom, however, he shortly afterwards fell out. He frequently 
stayed at Purley with William Tooke, one of the four friends who joined in supplying 
him with an income, when, after resigning the vicarage of New Brentfoid, he studied 
for the Law. Tooke made Home his heir, and on the death of the former in 1803, Home 
became proprietor of Purley, and, in accordance with the conditions of the will, added 
the name of Tooke to his own. It was in 1786 that he published the Diversions of 
Farley, a philological work still known; the second and concluding volume did not 
appear till 1805. In 1790 lie opposed Fox in the election for Westminster, but was 
defeated by a large majority. He again stood for Westminster at the general election 
in 1796. The polling lasted for fifteen days, the number of votes given being 5,190 for 
Fox, 4,814 for Gardner and 2,819 for Tooke. Tooke died in 1812. 

Edward Topham (1751-1820), a journalist and play writer, was associated with 
Home Tooke, Wilkes, the elder Colman and Sheridan. He wrote a life of John Elwes 
' (1790) as well as several epilogues and plays. In 1787 he started the daily London 
newspaper The World, to which he contributed and from which I have quoted. 

Brook Watson (1735-1807) was a merchant. He went to sea when very young, 
served as Commissary under Monckton and Wolf, and as Commissary General in Canada 
under Sir Guy Carleton. He returned to England in 1783, and from 1784 to 1793 
represented London in Parliament. He became a Director of the Bank of England, was 
Lord Mayor in 1796 and in 1803 was created a Baronet. 

Paul Le Mesurier (1755-1805) was well known as a prize agent during the 
American War. In 1780 he joined the first military association formed in England 
and rose to be colonel of the Honourable Artillery Company in 1794. He so actively 
opposed Fox's India Bill of 1783 that he was appointed a Director of the East India 
Company, and was elected M.P. for South wark at the election that followed the defeat 
of Fox's measure. He became Alderman in 1784, Sheriff in 1787, and Lord Mayor in 1794. 
The Rev. Dr. Barry, who preached the sermon, may have been identical with the 
Rev. Edward Barry, A.M., M.D., who was Grand Chaplain of the " Antients " from 1791 
to 1813. (See Appendix.) 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 31 

" Mr. Byng," mentioned among the respectable characters noticed in the 
procession, is too vague to bear discussion. In the lists of Grand Officers of the Moderns, 
however, John Byng is mentioned as being Secretary of the Board of Stewards in 1789. 

The visit to Islington was not attended with such untoward events as the annual 
procession of the previous year had been, although on that occasion the members went 
only as far as Pentonville Chapel. Thieves were about, practising their profession, nor 
did they hesitate to knock down and grievously assault any one who was bold enough 
to offer resistance. The historian relates that, though there were hundreds of honest 
persons present, no one dared to interfere. Travelling after nightfall in that neighbour- 
hood was evidently attended with some risk. We read (June 1783) that "patrols, 
horse and foot, were stationed from Sadler's Wells gate along the New Boad to 
Tottenham Court Turnpike." '• A horse patrol will be set in the New Boad at night 
for the protection of the nobility and gentry who go from the squares and that end of 
the town ; the roads also towards the city will be properly guarded." At that time 
Pentonville was but sparsely inhabited. Pinks, the historian of Clerkenwell, in his 
description of it, says:— "About the year 1773 on the lands of Henry Penton, Esq. 
[ob 1812] were commenced the earliest, erections of the extensive chapelry of Penton- 
ville, which, for many years, was selected as a place of residence for gentlemen and 
affluent tradesmen. It was separated from the rest of the parish by several inter- 
vening fields, there being at the time no connected buildings north of the London 
Spa, at the end of Bosoman's Bow." The road passing the chapel was known as a 
part of the New Boad until 1857, when it gave place to Pentonville Boad, the 
name Euston Boad being adopted for the portion between King's Cross and Great 
Portland Street, and Marylebone Boad onward as far as Paddington. Previous to the 
act for the formation of the road being passed in 1756, the Duke of Bedford objected 
to it on account of " the dust it would make in the rear of Bedford House." 

We have learnt that as was the custom of the Freemasons the Sols annually 
showed themselves publicly in procession, and we may assume that on those occasions 
the members of the Order adorned themselves with their regalia, and that the Grand 
Arch Master was preceded by his sword bearer. In Graham's History of Freemasonry 
in Shropshire (1892) we find the following :—" The B.W. the Grand Secretary of 
England, Brother W m . Henry White on June 14th 1861 presented to the Provincial 
Grand Lodge of North Wales and Shropshire a magnificent sword. This gift was most 
gratefully accepted and a special minute of acknowledgment was made by order of the 
B.W.P.G.M.— Bro. J. P. White, the Pro. G. Treasurer, was nephew to Bro. W m . H>. 
White and presented the sword in the name of his Uncle. The sword has two plates 
upon [it] with engraved inscriptions. The larger of these records the gift to the 
Province as above mentioned, the other, which is very much worn, reads thus :— 

Boyal Arch 



The Constitutional Sols was a secret convivial Society, in no respect Masonic, 
established about the year 1780." 

The Province of North Wales and Shropshire was divided in 1885, and as the 
original Minute Book is now in the possession of Grand Lodge, I was able, through the 
kindness of Bio. Sadler, to make a copy of the original document, which is practically 
as stated by Bro. Graham, but no mention is made of either of the inscriptions. I put 
myself in communication with the Provincial Grand Secretaries of the two Provinces, 
in order to discover, if possible, the present whereabouts of this sword. The P..Q-. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Secretary of North Wales kindly brought the matter to the notice of his predecessor, 
who, however, was unable to give me any information. I was equally unsuccessful in 
my application to the P.G. Secretary of Shropshire, inasmuch as he had never heard 
of the presentation, though he had been very intimate with Bro. W. H. White's 
nephew, who never made any reference to the Sols. This is one of the many instances 
in which enquiries on the subject have resulted in disappointment only. 

Among the regalia is mentioned the Canopy, represented in one of the plates 
illustrating this paper, for which see the footnote to Article 7. But with respect to 
the Jewels we are not quite so much in the dark. The Deputy Provincial Grand Master 
of Northumberland, Bro. Seymour Bell, exhibited here in May, 1910, a jewel (figured 
in A.Q.C., xxiii.) consisting of a square and compasses, enclosing a representation of 
the blazing sun, the square being inscribed " A Rais'd Master of the Order of Modern 
Sols." 1 This was probably the regular jewel of the third degree of the Order. 2 In the 
Epicure's Almanack for 1815 we read:— "Near the bottom of Wych Street is the famous 
Sols Arms and Shakespeare Chop House. . . . The house is much frequented by 
the Society, whose badge of distinction forms part of the sign, and by many 
theatrical gentlemen. Mr. Rees, the proprietor, for many years trod the comic walk at 
Covent Garden Theatre," &c. It has been suggested that the sign of the Sols Arms 
(retained by the house of that name in the Hampstead Road) is a variant of the Sun in 
splendour from the Arms of the Distillers' Company. 

There is a gilt metal jewel in the Grand Lodge Museum which -Bro. Sadler con- 
sidered was worn by the Sols. It consists of a circle from which proceed thirty-six 
alternately straight and wavy rays; on the circle are the letters B R Z, and within it 
a triangle having the letters FPSat its angular points, and a cross bar on which is 

i Bro Seymour Bell has since kindly presented this jewel to the present writer 

* It would appear from Hughan's English Rite (1884), p. 25, that the expression "Raised Master 

as opposed to "Pass'd" or "Admitted Master," was first mentioned in the revised edition of the 

By-laws of Relief Lodge, now No. 42, published in 175L 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 33 

inscribed the Hebrew name of Jehovah. The jewel has a ring for suspension. A 
drawing of it is in the Rylauds collection belonging to this Lodge, as well as of another 
jewel of a quite different character, bearing on the back the inscription, " Surgeon to 
the Royal Grand Arch Constitutional Sols Instituted November 23"? 1785." Round the 
head, which is, perhaps, intended to represent that of Galen, is the motto of the now 
defunct Surgeons' Company, Quse prosunt omnibus artes.. 

In Article 12 of the Rules it is stated that "every Brother shall purchase a 
Book printed with the sols arms as a Frontispiece, and all the Articles, with the names 
the Master, past Masters, Officers, Committee Men, Stewards, and the Names of all 
the Brothers Places of Abode, and Occupations, for which they shall pay one Shilling 
and Sixpence." This is, of course, the Constitutional Code of Laws, as given above. 
What might we not be able to learn if we could meet with a complete copy ! The 
Grand Lodge copy lacks the list as well as its frontispiece ; but of the latter Bro. 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley possesses what I believe to be a copy. 

I said above that it would appear that as early as 1788 the Windsor Lodge had 
seceded. Whether that is correct or not, it is certain that a few years later it had 
assumed a new name and was no longer known as Lodge No. 2 of the Royal Grand Arch 
Constitutional Sols. It had been constituted as merely the Windsor Lodge ; in 1793 
we find it had associated Royalty with its name, and had blossomed into the Royal 
Windsor Lodge of Modern Jerusalem Sols. This, however, was not the only body of 
secessionists, for in the same year there existed the Royal Grand Select Sols. Here 
are two advertisements of that year : — 

(1) Royal Windsor Lodge of Modern Jerusalem Sols. 
Brothers. The favour of your company is requested to dine with 

the Master, Past Masters, Officers, and Brethren of the above Lodge, at 
the Queen's Arms Tavern, Kennington Lane, near Vauxhall, on Monday 
next, the 29th inst, being the Anniversary Feast. 

Brother R. M. Teasdale Brother J. M. Humphreys 

Brother S. W. Bowring Brother Thwaites 

Tickets may be had at the Bar of the St. John's Gate, and of the 
Stewards. Dinner on tabic at Three o'Clock precisely. The favour of 
the Company of any Brother of the United Lodges is requested. 

(2) Royal Grand Select Sols Lodge. 

The Officers and Brothers of this Society are requested to meet 
the Grand Master, William Brooks, Esq. at the Buffalo Tavern, Blooms- 
bury Square, on Tuesday evening next, at Eight o'Clock, for the Purpose 
of nominating a House to have their Summer Dinner at. 

T. M. Kiernan, Secretary. 

A few points in these advertisements deserve attention. In the former no 
mention is made of a Grand Master. John Drawwater had probably died, and his 
place had not been filled ; Lodge No. 1 had probably lost many of its members ; the 
Windsor Lodge was no longer No. 2, but the sole representative of the United Lodges. 
The second advertisement would lead one to think that such members of the original 
Order as were unwilling to throw in their lot with the United Lodges had formed 
thenaselves into a new Order, having as its Grand Master William Brooks, who, like 

34 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

John Draw water, could boast of a coat of arms— lawfully acquired or not— wherewith 
to adorn, perhaps, a Book of Constitutional Rules. Another peculiarity respecting the 
second advertisement is that William Brooks is styled Grand Master of the Royal 
Grand Select Sols Lodge, whereas his designation on the plate containing his- coat of 
arms is Rt. Honble. Grand Select Master of the Knight Templer (sic) Order of Grand 
Select Sols. The dates probably do not synchronize. 

Both advertisements are copied from newspaper cuttings, but neither the names 
of the papers from which they were extracted nor the dates have been preserved, with 
the exception only of the year. By calculation I find that " Monday the 29th inst." in 
1793 suits July, which was the month in which the annual feast was usually held. 

Another name has cropped up, for quite recently the Library of Grand Lodge 
has acquired a Bible, on the cover of which are inscribed, in addition to Masonic and 
miscellaneous gilt tooling, the words "Albion Sols Lodge, 1789." With respect to 
this Lodge, all that I can at present say is that the name does not occur in any list of 
Masonic Lodges. 

In article 18 of the Constitutional Rules mention is made of " Our Great Grand 
Master Solomon," the Masonic origin of which expression is very evident. Not having 
a better derivation of the name of the Order to offer, I suggest that " Sols" may have 
occurred to some of the original members as a not uncommon abbreviation of their 
Great Grand Master's name and at the same time a convenient stepping-stone, as it 
were, between Solomon and the adoption of the Blazing Sun as their peculiar mark of 
distinction, and consequently the " Sols Arms " as a suitable name for their place of 


Here I must leave the matter for the present, not without hope that in course of 
time further information concerning the Sols, a complete copy of the Rules of the Order 
and even Minute Books, may be brought to light, but I cannot do so without saying 
how much I am indebted to those members of the Lodge who have so kindly 
replied to my numerous enquiries, especially to our lamented Bro. Henry Sadler, to 
Bro. Songhurst, and to several other friends, who are not members of the Craft. 

My thanks are also tendered to Bros. A. M. Broadley, Dr. Chetwode Crawley, 
and W. B. Hextall, for kind permission to include engravings of objects in their' 

Bro. Drino said :— I think there is very little doubt that our first thoughts this 
evening will be of regret that our Bro. Simpson is not with us. Had he been 
here, I feel sure he would have been able to give us a great deal of information on his 
own particular subject, which, as you are well aware, is the taverns and inns of London. 
I had no intention of saying anything about this paper, because it is a little out of my 
line, but one or two things have struck me as it has been read this evening, and I should 
like to draw attention to them. I fancy that Bro. Levander has altogether overlooked 
the fact that there were apparently three, four, or even five of these bodies of Sols, all 
apparently copied from the Freemasons. Thus there were the Craft, or Constitutional 
Sols, and the Royal Arch Sols, and Knight Templar Sols, then again the Select Sols, 
so that instead of being one Lodge or body there were four or five different grades of 
the same Society. 

1'he Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 35 

Bro. Soxghurst said :— Since Bro. Levander wrote this paper one or two little 
matters have cropped up, some of which he has already mentioned. 

A few days ago I received from Bro. A. M. Broadley a number of photographs 
of certificates, summonses, etc., and amongst them a portrait of William Brooks, who 
was presumably the second Grand Master of the Sols; and yesterday morning I 
received from Bro. Seymour Bell, who owned the collar jewel of the "Rais'd Master," 
a rough little brass medal, which I think is clearly a jewel of the Sols. The motto is 
the same as that used by the Society, 1 and the emblems, although very much rubbed, 
may fairly be identified with those shewn in some of the Engravings. 

I do not think we can criticize anything that Bro. Levander has said. He has 
brought forward a number of interesting facts in connection with the Sols. There is a 
big field still open in connection with such Societies, and more information is wanted 
about the Albions, the Khaibaiites, the Hurlothrumbrians, and many others of which 
at present we know little more than the names. 

Bro. W. H. Rylands said:— It seems to me that we shall never get to the end of 
these Societies which copied Freemasonry. It is only natural that at the time when the 
market was flooded with the supposed ceremonies of the Order, and when it was quite 
easy to pick up so-called exposures, convivial clubs should have been formed in 
imitation, sometimes for charitable purposes and sometimes for amusement. I think 
the Sols must have had something of politics about them, and as with others of these 
Societies the members were opposed to something that was then existing. 

In one thing I am sure you will all agree with me, and that is that we express 
our thanks to Bro. Levander for his very interesting and very complete paper. 

Bro. Levandek writes:— With regard to Bro. Dring's criticism I cannot in the 
present state of my knowledge— or perhaps I ought rather to say, of my ignorance- 
affirm or deny that the various titles indicate different grades of the same Society, 
•but am rather inclined to the latter course. 


Since the above paper was read in Lodge I have met with further particulars 
respecting the Sols, and through the kindness of Mr. J. Eliott Hodgkin, F.S.A., 
it has been possible to reproduce some cuttings, etc., contained in his magnificent 


The first cutting, reproduced in facsimile, describes a procession that had taken 
place " yesterday." It is dated July, 1787, but I am unable to fix the exact date or 
name the newspaper from which the original was cut. The procession included not 
only the Royal Windsor Lodge but also the Royal Corinthian Lodge, and must have 
presented a wondrous spectacle. The Holy Lamb, so frequently mentioned, might 
have had some connection with the Lamb of the Templars, while Bacchus, Ceres, 
Pomona, Flora, the Old Man and his son and the bundle of sticks, were doubtless 
intended to be emblematic of wine, corn, fruit, flowers, and unity. 

' Compare Laurence Dermott's Dedication of the Ahiman Rezov, 1756, p. ii. See also Micab, vi., 8. 

36 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

On Friday, August 3rd, 1787 (if the date can be trusted) a procession of " one 
of the Lodges of the Sols" took place (p. 24). The abstract there printed occurs also 
in the Hodgkin Collection, coming immediately after the following, the date of which 
has been partly cut away, but appears to have been "Aug. '87." There is, however 
a difficulty in the day of the week. The type, etc., shows that the two cuttings were 
not taken from the same newspaper and seem to refer to the same procession. 

Thursday the Society which some time ago broke from their fealty 
to the Grand Mother Lodge of Modern Jerusalem Sols, and gave 
themselves the title of the Royal Arch Constitutional Sols, held their 
anniversary festival at one of the tea gardens near Knightsbridge. 
Emulous of distinction, they determined to do something to outshine 
the Mother Lodge, and therefore their procession was made in carriages, 
and their music a,nd flags and petty officers on horseback. This 
expedient answered two good purposes.— It preserved them against the 
influence of St. Swithin, if the Saint had chosen to continue his pranks, 
and it served to conceal the deficiencies of their regalia, if deficiencies 
there were ; but we understand that they are as pompous and 
extravagant in dress as their prototype— This fashion among the drinking 
societies of decorating their shoulders with expensive ornaments has 
its use. It brings into the Lodge a set of interested tradesmen, whose 
respective talents are occupied in embellishing the Brotherhood, and 
much money is therefore spread over trade, which might be less 
beneficially spent in the useless luxury of the table. They made a very 
brilliant shew in the streets, and were honoured with the countenance of 
two Members of Parliament, who having occasion for all the votes 
they can muster at the next election, make it their practice to resort 
to all the convivial meetings about town, who are weak enough to accept 
of their company upon such conditions. 
[Aug. 1787.] 

The above extract confirms the view expressed in the body of my paper that 

at least one schism had taken place. But here again there is a difficulty, for the title 

Royal Grand Modern Order of Jerusalem Sols" occuis in the Code of Laws, and 

that of the "Royal Arch Constitutional Sols" is fonitd in the inscription beneath 

Dravvwater's portrait. 

The first Article in the Code of Laws states that the place of meeting was to be 
the house known as the Jerusalem Sols and Bohemia Tavern in Wych Street. It was 
at the Queen of Bohemia Tavern, Wych Street, that the Royal Grand Lodge of 
Modern Jerusalem Sols met in 1788 according to the following announcement : — 
Royal Grand Lodge of Modern Jerusalem Sols. 
Queen of Bohemia Tavern, Wych St. 
The Brothers of this Lodge are requested to meet the Grand Master and 
Officers. This evening, at eight o'clock precisely ; being a special Lodge 
night, and the brothers are also requested to meet at Brother Reilly's 
Cumberland Gardens, Vauxhall, to-morrow, at twelve o'clock precisely, 
(being the Anniversary day) in order to proceed from thence to 
Lambeth Church, to hear a sermon suitable to the principles of 
the institution, by our brother the Reverend Dr. Edward Barry, 
assistant Preacher at Fitzroy and Bethell Chapels. 

Ars QuArooa CoronaToeuM. 










Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

F Q R M of ~tbt PXOCESSlQn 

O F l -V II f. '> 

Royal grand modern order 
q r 

Y E 8 T E R D A Y. 

Tyler of the Grand LoJge, with Sword drawn. 

A Brother with a Staff -.' Medalion, King Solomoir. 

Two Brothers with Slafft ;.. Medalions, Bacchus, Ceres 

. Portion i 'mod Flora. 

Six Deputy Stewards, Regalias and Staffs. 

A Porter with a Flag — Bacchus and Ceres. 

Twelre Apprentices two and two with Staffs, Induflry 

and Safety. ' 

Six Stewards with Reg alias and Staffs, Fla^gons on ihcm. 

Six Apprentices two and two witli Staffs. 

A Crimfon Flag with Sob Arms. 

Apprentice! two and two. 

A purple Flag, reprcfenting the Emblematic) 

Fellow Crafts two and two, with purble Ribbons. 

Firft Bud oil MuOck. 

Two Brothers with Staffs ; Medalions, reprefcrting' 

the four Cardinal Virtues. 

A fear let Flag, w'ith the Embleroatics of the ratted 

Matters fupportcd by two Figures. 

Raited Matters two and two, with crimfon Ribbons. 

Senior Railed Mafier, with a crimfon Velvet Collar. 

A Flag, reprcfenting St. Paal's »od the Temple of King 

Solomon in background. 

Herald Painter and Limner, with proper Regalias. 

Six Raifed Matter*, blue Ribbons with Staff,, two the 

Sun, two the Moon, ani.two Stars. 

Six Raifed Matters, with blue Ribb«n«» 

The Committee Flag. 

Six Committee Men, crimfon ColLrs, Gol3 lace: 

Medals reprcfenting the Old Man and his Son, and 

Bundle of Sticks. 

Paft Grand Treafurer afcd Deputy with his Flag. 

Paft Deacons, two and two, *ith. their Flags. 

Pall Wardens, two and two, with their Flags. 

Right Hon. Paft Matters. 

Two brothers with Staffs; Medalions, Faith, Hope, 

Charity ami Mercy. 

Fonr Brothers, Staffs with Cherubim*! Medalions, 

Holinefs to the Lord. 

(is Raifed Mailers, crimfon Velvet Collars ; gilt Regalia!, 

reprcfenting the 'Holy Lamb. 

A Silk crimfon Frag with the Holy Lamb. 

Two Brothers with Staffs with the Holy Lamb.; 

rwo Boys carrying the Holy Bible on a crimfon CuGiion. 

Doctor of Divinity in hia Canonicals 

Six Raifed Mailers, §nud Regalias-, Holy Lamb 

fet in Silver. , 

Right Honourable Grand Mailer's Tyler with Sword. 

A grand Flag, reprefcntlng the Standard of England. 

A Brother, with a Staff reprcfenting the Sun. 

Six Raifed Matters, blue Ribbons. 

Secondhand of Mutkk. 

Two Raifed Milters, blue Rihbbn3. * 

Deputy Treafurer and Deputy Secretary. 

Grand Secretary's Flag. 

Treafurer and i Secretary, with Regalia* 

The Recorder's Flag. 

Recorder with two Raifed Mafters, crimfon Ribbons. 

Orand Streamer Flag-iKing Solomon and Queen Sheba. 

Grand Deacons Flag. 
Dep. Sen. and Dep. Ton. Warden -^Staffs, Moon aad Star. 
Grand Junior Warden's Flag. 
Six Brothers; with Regalias. 
Grand Seer. Warden's Flag. 
Six Brothers, with Staffs, 
Crand Sem. and Junr. Warden, with Grand Regzlias. 
Regius PrcfefTor's Flag. 
Regius fcrofeffor and Deputy, with their Grand Regalia: 
Tyler of the Grand Lodge. 
Grand Sword Bearer and Mace Bearer. 
Supported by Senr. and Junr. Deacoas, with Gracd 

Six Raifed Mailers, criftiiott Ribbons. 

Two Brothel with Staff* renefencing Farre 

Tvro Brothers, with Staffs ntBrcfanting the Saal of 

- Qteitrtritajni 
'Two Bttstbers, with Staffs, reprcfenting Britannia 
and Liberty- 
Grind Paft Matted-, Locket*, Flag with hi« Coat of Arms. 
Two Brothers, with Staffs, one King. Solomon, 
the other Minerva. 
Grand Paft Matter Morris's FlasJ, with his Coat of Arm*. 
Six Ralfnd Mafters, two and two. Cold Lace Collars, wuh 
Square and Compafs, gilt $uSs in tneir Hands, gilt 

Grind Patron's Flag, with his Coat of Arm?. 

Two Raifed Mailers, crimfon Ribbons. 

Grand Patron, fupporteihy. Grand Maftch 

Morris and-Aldridge. 

Four Raifed Matters, crimibn Ribbons. 

Six Raifed Matters,, broad Gold Lace Collars, 

gilt Square a"nd Compafs. 

Six Fellow Crafts, purple Ribbons. 

Sir Apprentices, Staffs, reprcfenting Induftry an*. Jafety. 

Tyler to clofe the Qrarrd Lodge. 

Tyler of the Royal Wandfor Lodge, Staff and Medallion, 

King's Arms. 

Six Steward* With Staffs. 

A Porter with the Flag — Sols Arms. 

Six FeHojv Crafts. 

A Porter with a Flag— ibe Rqibleniatic of the Order. 

A Porter with a Flagr- the. Holy Lamb. 

Six Raifid Mafters, red Ribbons and Lamb and Flag. 

A Porter with the Hon. Paft Matter Hammond's Fb. g 

Hon. P3ft Matter Hammond. 

Paft Deacotts. 

Fpur Raifed Matters, two and two. 

A Porter with the Hon. Paft Mafier Hodfon's Flag. 

Hon. Paft Matter Hodfom 

Paft -Deacons. 

Four Railed Mafters. 

Two Brothers with the Cufbion and Bible," 


Four" Raifed Mafters. 

A Brother whh a Staff with the Sad. 

TWaRslfed Matters. 

Third Band of Mufici. 

Two Raiftd Mailers 
Treafurer and Secretary. 
A Porter with the Recorder's F|«. 
Recorder and his- Deputy. 
. Surgeon and Apothecary^ 

Deputy Wardens with th« Staff. Sui) arid Mood. 
Senior and Junto* Vftsrdeos. 
Two Raifed Maftars; 
|A Porter wiih the Regfos'l Flag. 
Regius andhftfpfpury* 
" Two Raifed J&ftets. 
A Porter with the HoavMafttr'sFIag; 
Deputy Sword and Mace, ; Bea'rer. 
Sword arid Mace Btajjler. 
Right Hon. Maflei 1 IJayis. 
' Two Deacons; ' 
. „ ■ . , v r wo,Raift<l.Mafler ? i 
A Porter with the Flag. Q f the Right Hori. Patrdn of 
the Wndfor L'ofc* . • 
Right Hofl. Patron, fupported byW<>' Raifed Mailers. 

. . .FourfUiledMaOtfs,? 
i>ler to clofe— tbe Mafier' of the Qe>aponii« to Condua 
.i tbe Protvffion. i ' ' 

Tyler of the Royal Corintlian, LUjge, with Staff 
and Meehliofl. * . 
A Porter with a Flag-^S«% Arms. 
Apprentices, two and two; 
Fellow Crafts, two, a&drjro. 
Raifed Matters, two, add two. 
Hon. Paft Officers', twainB two, 
Hon. Pad Matters-, two and <wo. 
Fnuith Bind of Mnfick. 
Senr. and junr. Wardcnsr 
Rejrijs Pfoje'flor and Recorder. 
Senr. anil juar f I}e»cpn«. , 
Ty: Right Han. Mailer of tb« Cbrimhian L«Uc 
"ellof thcBrsjtluen. - 

Older of Procession of the Royal Grand Modern Order of Jerusalem Sols. 
(From a Newspaper of Jul}-, 1787, in the Collection of Mr. J. Elliot Hotlgkin, F.S.A.). 

The Sols and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century. 37 

Tickets may be had of the Stewards ; and at the Bohemia Tavern, Wych St. 

Brother Morris, P.G.M., 
Aldridge, P.G.M., 

Brother Cleeve, 


J. Haynes, Grand Sec. 

[July 16, 1788]. 

It being the occasion of the annual festival, in accordance with Article II., the 
meeting took place at some " convenient house out of town." Cumberland Gardens, 
as marked in Bowles's Map of London, 1786, was due west of Vauxhall Gardens, and 
abutted on the river. Part of Vauxhall Bridge Road now occupies the site. 

We have seen (p. 15) that the London Lodge met at the Queen of Bohemia's 
Head in Wych Street, 1768-1772, and it was there that the Knights of St. George met 
their Noble Grand in 1758. 

In 1788 the Royal Grand Arch Constitutional Sols met at the Globe Tavern, 
Fleet Street (p. 25), as well as in the next year, as shown by the following advertise- 
ment in the Hodgkin Collection and the Invitation ticket in the Banks Collection at 
the British Museum; but in 1790 they had moved to the Garrick Head, Bow Street 

(p. 26). 

Royal Arch Grand Constitutional Sols. 

The Nobility, Clergy and rest of the brothers of this honourable order, 
are particularly requested to meet their Grand Patron, Grand Arch 
Master, and other officers, on Monday evening next at Brother 
Humphry's, at the Globe Tavern, Fleet St. to celebrate the joyful 
event of the happy restoration of His Majesty's Health. 

G. Beardmore, Sec, 

By order of the Grand Arch Master. 
[March J-, 1789]. 

I have reserved for the last the curious advertisements, quoted below, in the 
Hodgkin Collection. These, if the dates are correct, open up a new field of enquiry. 
We have hitherto been dealing with the Modern Sols ; here we have the Ancient. 

The lips of the righteous feed many, 
But fools die for want of wisdom. 
The worthy brothers of the Free Accepted Sols are desired to attend the 
Master, and the rest of the Brotherhood, at Mr. Standish's, the Coach- 
makers- Arms, in Long Acre, on Tuesday next, the 13th instant, at eight 

in the evening, on special affairs. 


[Aug. 10, 1754]. 


The wise in heart shall be called prudent, 
And the sweetness of the lips increaseth learning. 
The Worthy Brothers belonging to the Grand Committee of Sols, 
held at Brother Standish's the Coach-makers Arms in Long Acre, are 
desired to attend the Grand Master, and the rest of the Brotherhood, on 

38 Transactions of the Qualuor Ooronati Lodge. 

Tuesday next, the 22nd instant, at seven o'clock in the evening, to 

celebrate the anniversary of the Lodge. 


Note :— Prometheus will be in the chair, not his Journeyman ; Mercury 

and Minerva attend in character. 

Note : — None of Cerberus Lodge will be admitted. 

[Oct. 19, 1754]. 


The Wise will inherit the Glory, 

But shame shall be the promotion of fools. 
The Brothers belonging to the Ancient Original Free and Accepted Sols, 
are desired to attend at the Grand Lodge held at Brother Standish's, the 
Coach-makers Arms in Long Acre, on Tuesday next the loth instant, at 
Eight o'clock in the evening to fix the day for the Summer Feast, and 
other special Affairs. By order of the Grand Master. 

[July 12, 1755]. F.R. Secretary. 

I take it that the initials G.M., G.S., denote Grand Master and Grand Secretary 
respectively, but am at a loss how to explain the notes at the end of the second 

It should be noted that the dates of the cuttings both in the paper itself and this 
Appendix are inserted in the originals in manuscript — some I found to be erroneous — 
and that when the name of the newspaper is not stated I have not been able to verify 

The date, " probably about 1750," assigned to that of the ball of the United 

Alfred Lodge (p. 12), appears to be too early, unless the Order was long-lived, for 

there is in the Banks Collection an Admission ticket to dine " with the Grand of the 

Order," dated 1781. 

F. W. Levander. 

Cast Brass Jewel (actual size) 

in the Collection of Bro. Seymour Bell. 

The reverse is plain. 

The inscription reads, "Do justice, love mercy 

aud walk humbly before your God." 

Transactions of the Qu-ituor Coronati Lodge. 






HERE is little doubt that Belgium received Freemasonry directly from 
England during the second or third decade of the XVIII th century. 
Yet, till 1770, only three Belgian Lodges left their names in the 
Engraved lists of the Grand Lodge of England: la Discrete Imperials 
at Alost in Eastern Flanders (anno 1765) ; la Constante Union at 
Ghent (1768) ; la Vraie at Parfaite Harmonie at Mons (1770). It is 
not unlikely that the first Lodges on Belgian soil were opened by 
isolated Masons of regular standing, who initiated some natives without having pre- 
viously taken the trouble of getting a warrant. I have shown in a preceding paper 
(A.Q.C. vol. xx. (1907), p. 205) how the Lodge founded at Namur by a Scotch officer in 
the Dutch Service, Captain John Cunningham, worked several years before it was chartered 
in 1770 by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. In the middle of the century, Belgium, under 
Austrian sway, counted many Lodges, but until 1765 there was no attempt to create 
amongst them a central Masonic authority, although some may have been considered 
as ' Mother Lodges,' which gave to them few privileges, beyond the right of ' inspect- 
ing' their offspring. In that year, the Prince de Clermont. Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of Fiance, turned a private Lodge he had founded at Mons into a 
Provincial Grand Lodge for the Austrian Netherlands. But, as the Grand Lodge of 
France, torn by factions, temporarily closed its doors in 1767, this French Provincial 
Grand Lodge in Belgium gave way for an English one, which worked so satisfactorily 
that, sixteen years later, it numbered more than twenty subordinate Lodges, when it 
met with an untimely death at the hands of an alien government. 

Its relics and papers, left under the care of one of the Mons Lodges (themselves 
closed for a time), remaiued there in a dusty confusion during more than a century, 
hardly disturbed, and then generally for the worse, by some occasional visitor. Bro. 
A. Cordier searched them towards 1850, to find materials for his Histoire de VOrdre 
miQinniqne en Bdglqie. He was an excellent Mason and a tolerably good penman, but 
neither an historian nor even a critic. It is only a few years ago that some competent 
Brethren of the Parfaite Union undertook a methodical arrangement of these precious 
Archives. Bro. Paul Duchaine was the first to profit by their labours, and, having 
extended his investigations to the public Record Offices of Brussels and other towns, 
wrote his recent and valuable book : La franc-maQonnerie beige au XVIIP siecle, a 
review of which has been given here by Bro. Songhurst. It would be unfair not to 
mention also a brief, but reliable, essay of Bro. Chibert, assistant Librarian of the City 
of Brussels, published in the Bulletin of the Grand Orient of Belgium (1908) on the 
Belgian Lodges since the foundation of the first Lodge at Mons. Finally, there are some 
good monographs, issued by several Belgian Lodges, in connection with the celebration 
of their Centenaries, bringing us back to the days of the Provincial Grand Lodge of 

40 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Austrian Netherlands. With all these publications in hand, having investigated, for 
additional light, the most important part of the documents stored at Mons and gone 
through some of the files kept at Freemasons' Hall in London, I deemed myself 
sufficiently equipped to draw a sketch of this Provincial Grand Lodge, its origin, its 
■work, its struggles, and the life of its worthy Grand Master, Francois- Bonaventure du 
Mont, Marquis de Gages. My best thanks are due to those who have assisted me in 
my researches, particularly some Brethren of the Chapter at Mons and, above all, the 
last Librarian of the Grand Lodge of England, our late Worshipful Master, Bro. 
Sadler, -whose sudden death has been a sad loss to all interested in Masonic 


Mons, under the Austrians, was a garrison town, without much commerce or 
industry, but the seat of the Provincial States of Hainault, inhabited by well-to-do 
burghers, quite a number of officials and lawyers, broad-minded and easy-going 
ecclesiastics, besides being much visited by the nobility and gentry of the 
neighbourhood— in fact, the very spot where Continental Freemasonry would rise and 
thrive in the eighteenth century. Late in the sixties, it possessed two Lodges, already 
ancient and well frequented. One of them, la Parfaite Union, was supposed to 
date from the very dawn of speculative Masonry, on account of a warrant, now lost, 
which claimed to have been delivered, in 1721, by the Duke of Montague. The 
question of its authenticity has been sufficiently discussed before the Quatuor Coronati 
(A.Q.C., vol. x., 1897), and there is no need to go over it again for the present. I will 
only add that there seems to be no ground whatever for the local tradition that this 
Lodge was at any time commissioned by the Grand Lodge in London to act as 
Provincial Grand Lodge for Austrian Netherlands.— The other Masonic centre at Mons, 
la Vraie et Parfaite Harmonie or la Parfaite Harmonie for short (both titles occur 
sometimes in the same documents), was the Lodge quoted above as transformed into a 
Provincial Grand Lodge by the Prince of Clermont in 1765. Its range of action 
remained nevertheless very limited, since, five years later, only two Belgian Lodges 
had accepted its jurisdiction : La Parfaite Egalite at Bruges (1766) and towards the 
end of 1769, Les Freres reunis at Tournai. During that period its chair had been held 
by the Marquis de Gages, an influential man and earnest Mason, of large means, 
literary tastes and philanthropic disposition, with a real talent for organizing, which, 
for the best part of his life, he entirely devoted to the affairs of the Craft. Born 
in 1739, a nephew and heir of the Count de Gages who led the Spanish forces in the 
Italian wars and afterwards became viceroy of the Kingdom of Navarre in Spain, he 
had married in 1763 a cousin, Alexandrine de Bouzies, from a family which had given 
several of its members to Freemasoury ; she was herself initiated into a Lodge of 

The Belgian Lodges were then under the Obedience of four foreign grand 
Lodges (England, Scotland, France, and Holland), not counting those which belonged 
to none. When the Marquis de Gages understood that there was no hope of uniting 
them under French jurisdiction— although he was a personal friend of the Prince de 
Clermont, with whom he kept, till the death of the latter in 1771, an interesting 
correspondence on Masonic subjects— he turned towards England, offering to transform 
bis Parfaite Harmonie into an English provincial Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge of 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 41 

England, then under Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, must not have been very 
prone to accept on those terms a private Lodge in a secondary foreign town, but it 
received the Parfaite Harmonie amongst its subordinate Lodges, and by another 
warrant, delivered two days later, January 22nd, 1770, invested its Master, the Marquis 
de Gages, with the title and functions of provincial Grand Master for Austrian 
Netherlands. Botli warrants being still unpublished in their English text (and the 
first one, even in a French translation), I have obtained from The Parfaite Union 
to have them photographed in order to illustrate this paper. (See Plates I. and II.) 


No. IW To all and every Our Right Worshipful, Worshipful, and Loving 

Brethren We Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, Marquis and Earl of 
Worcester, Earl of Glamorgan, Viscount Grosmont, Baron Herbert, Lord 
of Ragland, Chepstow and Gower, and Baron Beaufort of Caldecot Castle, 
Grand Master of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and 
Accepted Masons, send Greeting. 

Know ye that we at the humble petition of our Right trusty and 
well beloved Brethren Messire Francois Bonaventure Joseph du Mont, 
Marquis de Gages, Vicomte de Hecq, Baron de la Puissance, Seigneur 
des Dits Lieux, d'Etree, Bachant, etc. Actual Chamberlain of their 
Imperial Royal and Apostolick Majesties, Perignon du Progent and De 
Gallez, with other Brethren severally residing in or near the City of 
Mons in Hainault and also at the recommendation of our Right Trusty 
and Dearly Beloved Brother John de Vignoles Esquire, Our Provincial 
Grand Master for foreign Lodges, Bo hereby constitute the said Brethren 
into a regular Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons under the title or 
Denomination of the True and Perfect Harmony, to be held in the City 
of Mons aforesaid. And do further at their said petition and of the 
Great Trust and Confidence reposed in every of the above-named Brethren, 
herebv apooint the said Marquis de Gages to be Master, Perignon du 
Progent Senior Warden and De Gallez Junior Warden for opening the 
said Lodge and for such further time only as shall be thought proper by 
the Brethren thereof. It being our will that this our appointment of the 
above Officers shall in no wise affect any future Election of Officers of 
the Lodge, but that such Election shall be regulated agreable to such 
By-Laws of the said Lodge as shall be consistent with the general Laws 
of the Society contained in the Book of Constitutions. 

And we hereby will and require you the said Marquis de Gages 
to take special care that all and every the said Brethren are or have 
been regularly made Masons and that they do observe, perform and keep 
all the Rules and Orders contained in the Book of Constitutions. And 
farther that you do from time to time cause to be entred in a Book 
kept for that purpose an account of your proceedings in the Lodge 
together with all such Rules, Orders and Regulations as shall be made 
for the good Government of the same. That in no wise you omit once 
in every year to send to us or our successors Grand Masters or to the 
Honourable Charles Dillon, Our Deputy Grand Master or the Deputy 
Grand Master for Time being, or to the said John de Vignoles Esquire, 
Our Provincial Grand Master for foreign Lodges or to the Provincial 
Grand Master for the time being, an account in Writing of your said 
proceedings and copies of all such Rules, Orders and Regulations as shall 
be made as aforesaid, together with a list of the Members of the Lodge and 
such a sum of money as may suit the circumstances of the Lodge and 

42 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

reasonably be expected towards the Grand Charity. Moreover, We 
hereby will and require you the said Marquis de Gages, as soon as con- 
veniently may be, to send an account in writing of whatever shall have 
been done by virtue of these Presents. 

Given at London under our hand and seal of Masonry, this 20th. 

January A.L. 5770 A.D. 1770 

By the Grand Master's Command 

Chas. DILLON d.g.m. 


Ja. Heseltine, g.s. 

La dite patente accordee a notre requisition 
J. De Vignoles g.m.p. 



Beaufort g.m. 

To all and Every our Right Worshipful, Worshipful and Loving 
Brethren We Henry Somerset Duke of Beaufort, Marquis and Earl of 
Worcester, Earl of Glamorgan, Viscount Grosmont, Baron Herbert, 
Lord of Ragland, Chepstow and Gower, Baron Beaufort of Caldecot 
Castle, Grand Master of the most Ancient and Honorable Society 
of Free and Accepted Masons. Greeting. 

Know ye that W T e of the great trust and Confidence reposed in Our 

Right Worshipful and well beloved Brother Messire Francois Bona- 

venture Joseph du Mont, Marquis de Gages, Vicomte de Hecq, 

Baron de la Puissance, Seigneur de dits Lieux, d'Etree, Bachant, 

etc., Actual Chamberlain to their Imperial, Royal and Apostolick 

Majesties. Do hereby Constitute and Appoint him the said 

Marquis de Gages Provincial Grand Master of and for the 

Austrian Netherlands with full power and Authority in due 

form to make Masons and Constitute and Regulate Lodges as Occasion 

may require and also to do and Execute all and every such other Acts 

and things appertaining to the said Office as usually have been and 

ought to be done and Executed by other Provincial Grand Masters, 

he the said Marquis de Gages taking special Care that all and every 

the members of every Lodge he shall Constitute have been regularly 

made Masons and that they do Observe perform and keep all and 

every the Rules Orders and Regulations contained in the Book of 

Constitutions (Except such as have been or may be Repealed at any 

Quarterly Communication cr other General Meeting) together also with 

all such other Rules Orders Regulations and Instructions as shall from 

time to time be transmitted by Us or by the Honorable Charles DILLON, 

Our Deputy or by our successors Grand Masters or their Deputies or 

by the Provincial Grand Master of Foreign Lodges for the time being 

And We hereby Will and Require you our said Provincial Grand Master 

to cause four quarterly Communications to be held yearly, one whereof 

to bo upon or as near the feast Day of Saint John the Baptist as 

conveniently may be and that you promote on those and all other 

Occasions whatever may be for the Honor and Advantage of Masonry 

and the Benefit of the Grand Charity and that you yearly send to us or our 

successors Grand Masters an Account in writing of the proceedings therein 

and also of what Lodges you Constitute and when and where held with 

a List of the Members thereof and Copies of all such Rules Orders and 

Regulations as shall be made for the good Government of the same with 

whatever else you shall do by Virtue of these presents And that you at 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 43 

the same remit to the Treasurer of the Society for the time being at 
London three pounds three shillings sterling for every Lodge you shall 
constitute for the Grand Charity and other necessary purposes. 

Given at London under our Hand and Seal of Masonry this 22d. 
day of January A.L. 5770 A.D. 1770. 

Ja. llesrftinc G.S. By the Grand Master's Command 



On the back of the last Patent, we find the following endorsement in French : 

" Nous soussigne-Grand Maitre Provincial, charge du soin des 
" loges etrangeres, declarons que sur la connaissance du Zelo et des 
" Talents du tres-noble et tres-eclaire et tres respectable Frere Francois 
" Bonaventure Joseph du Mont, Marquis de Gages, nous avons denotre pur 
" mouvement demande la patente de l'autre part: nous desistant en 
" consequence comme nous nous desistons par ces presentes de toute 
" jurisdiction immediate sur toutes les loges regulierement constituees ou 
" a, constituer regulierement dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens, autant 
" cependant que ledit Frere de Gages remplit avec fidelite l'engagement 
" qu'il a pris entre nos mains par son ecrit en date du 17 Decembre 
" 1769, signe de sa main, et scelle de ses armes. 

" En foi de quoi, nous avons signe le present a Londres ce 20 Mars 

" an de -J-ff-J- 

de Vignoles, G.M.P., pour les loges etrangeres." 

How did the Parfaite Ilarmonie stand the loss of its privileged situation as 
Provincial Grand Lodge? We possess the old book in which are transcribed its 
Minutes from June 1766 to February 1783. Until the last days of March 1770— 
although the English warrants were signed in January and while we have the minutes 
of several meetings held by the Lodge in the interval— wc do not discover the slightest 
allusion to a change of jurisdiction. We are even confronted with the fact that, in the 
middle of January, the Lodge had received officially the visit of the Count de Nerac as 
representative of the Prince de Clermont and of his Grand Lodge-this about a month 
after the Grand Lodge of England had endorsed the Marquis de Gages' promise of 
allegiance.— Then abruptly, the Parfaite Harmonie is reported to have met on the 4th 
day of the last week in March 1770 to listen to the reading of the Patents delivered by 
the Duke of Beaufort " Grand Maitre de la Mere-Loge de Londres et de toutes les 
"bonnes Loges vraiment constituees."— The business of the day began with an 
initiation, then: " le tres sage Grand-Maitre a fait l'ouvertare et la lecture des 
« Constitutions de la Loge, par lesquelles, le Grand-Maitre des Orients Anglais la 
" reconnaissait pour Mere-Loge provinciate des Pays-Bas Autrichiens et admettait tous les 
" membres qui la composaient et qui la composeront pour vrais et legitimes macons. 
" Apres lecture faite, nostre Sage Grand Maitre a fait faire trois decharges de toute 
"nostre artillerie portees au Sage Grand Maitre Henry de Somerset, Due de 
" Beaufort aitisi qua tous les freres qui composent sa respectable loge. D'abord 
" apres, nostre Cher Frere Substitut d'Arberg a fait la lecture des Patentes de Grand 
" Maitre provincial adressees a nostre Sage Grand Maitre le Marquis de Gages. 
" Lecture faite, le Sage Frere Substitut d'Arberg a fait charger trois decharges de 

44 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lo&ge. 

" toute nostra artillerie qu'ellss ont ete portees jusqu'a la voute azuree, pour feliciter 
" nostre Sage Grand Maitre pour la validite de sa sublime Dignite et pour le remercier 
" des peines que son zele pour nous lui a fait entreprendre. Nostre Grand Maitre a 
" fait un compliment et a fait preter une nouvelle obligation a tous les Freres, qu'ils 
" observeraient ce que a quoi il s'etait engage lui-meme vis-a-vis de la Mere Loge 
" anglaise et de leur Grand Maitre. Puis, il a reciproque la sante qu'on lui avait 
" portee. A 8 heure3 precises, on a couvert le temple aux frais dii Sage G.M.P. Pour 
" celebrer cette feste, il a nomme les places des Officiers, les laissant comme elles etaient 
" anciennement jusqu'a nouvel ordre." 

Anybody who reads this quaint specimen of the Masonic style in the French- 
speaking Lodges of the Old Regime cannot fail to be impressed with the discrepancy 
between" the words I have italicized and the very text of the first patent quoted above. 
Either nobody understood English, and the translator, whoever he was, is responsible 
for the assertion that the Patent acknowledged the Parfaite Harmonie as Mother Lodge 
of Austrian Netherlands, or the Minutes, although authenticated by the signature of 
de Gages, do not exactly give what was said during the proceedings. 

What pleads strongly for the last explanation is another tampering with the 
facts in the Record Book, when the Master of the Freres Reunis at Tournay, Bro. 
Lestienne, appeared before the Provincial Grand Lodge on May 20th, 1770, in order 
to receive from the Marquis de Gages the Constitutions of the newly opened Lodge : 
"This Lodge" (Les Freres Reunis), say the Minutes, " has been recognised as just and 
" good by all the members hereby assembled, declaring itself dependent (mouvante) 
" upon the Parfaite Harmonie, to which it has rendered homage, in virtue of Powers 
" proceeding from the Sublime Grand Lodge of London."— We know that the Grand 
Lodge never intended anything of the kind. Besides, I have ascertained that in the 
Constitutions of the Freres Reunis, lately recovered by the Brethren of Tournay 1 , the 
Parfaite Harmonie is not even mentioned ; the Patent is delivered in the name of the 
Marquis de Gages as Provincial Grand Master ; it is signed, indeed, by the Count d' Arberg 
(who occupied at that time the chair of the Parfaite Harmmie), but only in his 
capacity of Deputy Grand Master, as shown by the letters D. G.M.P. following his 

In fact, we see in that period the Parfaite Harmonie sitting now as a local lodge 
" Loo-e de ville," now as a semi-provincial Lodge, whatever that may mean, now as 

1 It is worth relating how the Freres Reunis lost and recovered their old documents, 
as the storv illustrates the fate of many masonic relics, at least on the continent. _ When 
the Lodge' temporarily closed up towards 1861, most of its papers, charters, minutes, 
diplomas, as well as some badges, aprons, jewels, etc., remained with its last Worshipful 
Master. After the death of this worthy mason, twelve years later, his widow was per- 
suaded by her confessor to deliver this unholy collection to the Bishop of Tournai, Mgi . 
Dumont de Chassart, who locked it up in an iron safe amongst his private papers. Bishop 
Dumont was a great favourite with Pio Nono, whose ultramontane ideas he pushed to 
the extreme and when, in 1879, the next Pope wanted to introduce a more diplomatic 
policy in his dealings with the Belgians, Dumont flatly refused to give in, going even 
so far as to decline to give his demission, although urged by the Pope to do so. ibis, 
in the eves of the Church, could only be a sign of madness. Being warned that a 
medical order had been obtained for his removal to a private asylum the Bishop took 
refuge into the Seminary of Bonne Esperance, where, tor several days, he kept the 
Authorities at bav, with the help of the enthusiastic students. At last he was seized 
and carried off to a family residence, where he was kept in strict confinement tor 
several months. Meanwhile the Pope had chosen another Bishop, who had taken 
possession of the episcopal Palace at Tournai. But, when Mgr. Dumont was let tree, 
as cured in mind, lie set the law in motion to recover his private belongings. Amongst 
them still lay the bundle, duly sealed, which contained the papers and paraphernalia 
of the Lod<'o He gave them to one of his lawyers who kept the collection till his 
own death m 1905. One of the latter's Executors, being a Mason, restored them to the 

Freres reunis. 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 45 

a full Provincial Grand Lodge, with the only difference that, in the last case, the 
Master and Wardens of the other subordinate Lodges are summoned to join its 
meetings. The Minutes of these Meetings follow each other chronologically in the 
Record Book of the Parfaite Harmonie ; amongst them, the account of the first session 
of the Provincial Grand Lodge, which Bro. Duchaine thought to he lost, because he 
vainly looked for it everywhere else. — This confusion lasted even after the Marquis 
de Gages had received from London the Rules for the establishment and working of 
Provincial Grand Lodges. (This document, written in French, was probably the work of 
the Provincial Grand Master of Foreign Lodges, John de Vignoles. The Marquis had 
several copies made of it. One of them signed by himself and all his Grand Officers 
still exists in possession of the Parfaite Union. I will give it as an Appendix, so that 
it might be compared with similar Regulations in England and abroad.) Bat, in April, 
1771, the Parfaite Harmonie was suddenly closed "till better times," on account of the 
unavoidable departure of his Master, Count d'Arberg, and also for other reasons 
"communicated and known to us," adds a marginal note from the hand of the Marquis 
de Gages written in the Record Book. This suspension was only temporary. In the 
next October the Lodge was solemnly re-opened, and from that day it confined itself 
strictly to its duties of subordinate local Lodge. Its chair was no more filled by a 
Grand Master, but simply by a "Worshipful Master, and the proceedings of the 
Provincial Grand Lodge disappeared for ever from its Minutes. 

If I have insisted on these particulars, it is because all those who have dealt 
with the subject — myself included — not having had the opportunity of handling the 
documents, or having misunderstood them as did Cordier, have either persisted in 
extending to the English Provincial Grand Lodge the name of the Vrate et parfaite 
Harmonie or have assigned to the latter privileges and functions, it was never intended 
to possess and it only displayed by mistake for a few months. 


The Provincial Grand Lodge, according to its rules, was composed of the Grand 
Master, all the Grand Officers past and present, besides the Master and Wardens of 
each subordinate Lodge. The nomination of the Grand Officers, with the exception of 
the Grand Treasurer, remained entirely in the hands of the Grand Master. They are not 
enumerated in the Rules from England, but, according to the Minutes of the first sessions, 
they were: the Deputy Grand Master, Grand Inspector, First and Second Warden, 
Grand Chancellor (Secretary General), Grand Orator, Grand Treasurer, Grand Master 
of Caremonies, Grand Fiscal, Grand Kesper of the Seals, Grand Almoner, Grand 
Architect, Grand Sword Bearer, besides a few Assistants or Deputies who were added, 
as the increase in tli3 number of the Lodges to be represented permanently, made it 
expedient to augment the list of the office-bearers. The Parfaite Harmonie, of course, 
kept the lion's share, as its premises, bought and furnished at the expense of the Marquis, 
sheltered the permanent administration of the Grand Lodge. There was also amongst 
the Grand Officers a General Agent, residing at Brussels, very likely to represent the 
Grand Lodge in its dealings with the central Government. 

De Gage's negotiations at London had been conducted through Bro. de Vignoles, 
who held in the Grand Lodge of England the somewhat undefined and short-lived office 
of Provincial Grand Master of Foreign Lodges. Bro. Sadler expressed to me the 

46 Transactions of the Quatnor Coronati Lodge. 

opinion that the authority of this officer only extended over unattached Lodges, viz., 
those which were not already under some foreign Provincial Grand Master. Thus, 
before do Vignoles, we find that a Bro. William Douglas has received a similar appoint- 
ment in 1737 from the Grand Master, the Earl of Darnley, " for the Coasts of Africa 
and the Islands of America where no particular deputations had been granted." But, 
as de Vignoles spoke several languages, was very active, and showed himself always 
ready to oblige, his services were often utilized by the Provincial Grand Masters and 
Grand Lodges abroad in their relations with the Grand Lodge of London. As his 
appointment was in the hands of the Grand Master, we can at once dispose of Cordier's 
strange assertion that he renounced bis title and general authority in favour of the 
Marquis de Gages. The mistake likely proceeds from de Vignoles having written in 
French, on the back of de Gages' Patent, that henceforth he renounced all immediate 
jurisdiction over the Lodges constituted or to be constituted in Austrian Netherlands; 
which simply agrees with Bro. Sadler's suggestion. To me, this renunciation seems a 
logical and even necessary outcome of the whole process : On the 20th of January the 
Grand Lodge charters the Parfaite Harmonie as an unattached Lodge abroad, with the 
Marquis de Gages as Worshipful Master, and therefore formally places it amongst the 
Lodges under the supervision of de Vignoles. Two days later, it invests the Marquis 
de Gages with the Office of Provincial Grand Master for Austrian Netherlands, and 
consequently takes off the control of the Parfaite Harmonie, as well as of the other 
Belgian Lodges in the same situation, from the hands of the Provincial Grand Master 
residing at London. 

This de Vignoles was rather a curious figure. A Frenchman by birth, he had 
opened at London in 1776 a Lodge working in the French language under the name of 
L 'immortalite de VOrdre, which initiated and even installed in 1768, as second Warden, 
the notorious Chevalier or Chevaliere d'Eon, although at that time his or her real sex 
was already questioned (see A.Q.G. vol. xvi., 1903). Different letters which I have 
found in the Foreign Portfolio at Freemasons' Hall show that de Vignoles did good 
work for the Grand Lodge in more than one awkward negotiation with the Masonic 
leaders in France, Holland, Germany, Italy, and even Russia. In fact, he became a 
sort of under-seoretary for foreign affairs. All the correspondence with the Provincial 
Grand Master of Austrian Netherlands continued to pass through his hands, until, in 
1772, unfavourable rumours about certain of his dealings reached the ears of the 
Marquis de Gages, who directed his Grand Secretary, Bro. De Lobel, to enquire directly 
from the Grand Lodge of London what were the real attributions of de Vignoles: " For 
" two years," said the letter dated March 2nd, 1772, " we have exchanged a correspondence 
" with him and be has always directed it, nobody else having made himself known, with 
"the exception of our Warrant. 

The Foreign Provincial Grand Master of all Foreign Lodges had firstly got into 
trouble with his own Lodge, which he tried to have closed in 1772 by the Grand Lodge. 
The Immortality of the Order replied by accusing him, amongst other grievances, of 
having appropriated for his own convenience the funds of the Lodge. The quarrel was 
patched up by the intervention of Bro. Charles Dillon, the Deputy Grand Master, and 
the Lodge itself, in spite of the promises of its name, soon died a natural death, being 
erased finally in 1775. In the interval, there happened to de Vignoles a more serious 
affair, and that in his relations with de Gages. The latter had sent to him the Belgian 
contribution to the Charity Fund of the Grand Lodge. This money, de Vignoles failed 
to deliver in due time to the Committee of Charity. To save him from disgrace, the 
Grand Secretary, Bro. Heseltine, advanced the sum, but had great difficulty in getting 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 47 

his money back. After four months waiting, losing patience, he wrote on November 18th, 
a last letter, where he threatened de Vignoles to expose him before the Committee at 
the Horn Tavern, " for having so long trifled with a matter which being known mast at 
"once destroy you in the Society of Masons."— The French Ambassador interfered, I 
do not know on what grounds, and de Vignoles paid his due or at least made "such 
arrangements as his position allowed," adding in an explanatory letter to Haseltine : 
" I flatter myself that if in the past I have wronged you, it is only because I have been 
" myself a victim to others."— However, all this does not seem to have seriously 
damaged his connection with the Grand Lodge or even with the Grand Secretary, as, 
five years later, the same Bro. Haseltine wrote on April 5th, 1776, to the celebrated 
Bro. Lalande, of the Grand Lodge of France, in answer to an enquiry similar to the one 
made in 1772 by Bro. De Lobel : " Mr. de Vignoles has still the regulation of our 
" correspondence with the Foreign Lodges, and his letter to the Lodge of Lyons 
" contains the true sentiments of our Grand Lodge.— Therefore, I beg that you may 
" give credit to everything that Mr. de Vignoles writes, as I have the honour to inspect 
" every letter of his before it is sent away." 

It is only after that date that de Vignoles disappears from the masonic horizon, 
and when, in 1779, the Marquis de Gages enquires again about him, Bro. Haseltine 
answers rather curtly: "that gentleman being no longer Provincial Grand Master of 
" Foreign Lodges, nor does he now reside in London." — Thus, exit de Vignoles. But 
we cannot let him off yet. Cordier and Duchaine both assert that in 1770, the Belgian 
Masons contributed to the Fund for the erection of Masonic Hall in London. The lists 
of the subscribers were published at the time and are still at Freemason's Hall. Bro. 
Sadler told me that, in spite of a careful search, he found there no mention of the 
Marquis de Gages or of any Belgian Lodge. If the money was sent, why did it not 
reach its destination ? It is rather hard for a man to see his character questioned 
nearly a century and a half after his disappearance. Yet bearing in mind the incident 
related above and the fact that de Gages in those days only dealt with the Grand Lodge 
of England through de Vignoles, one must acknowledge that in this case circumstantial 
evidences are strong enough to justify our suspicions. Oil the other hand, as Cordier, 
whom Duchaine has simply followed, is by no means a very reliable witness, we will 
have to content ourselves with a Scotch verdict of : not proven} 

From what precedes, it results that the new Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian 
Netherlands started with three subordinate Lodges, one at Mons, one at Bruges, one 
at Tournai. In the last days of April, 1770, the Marquis de Gages received the 
allegiance of the two Lodges which held their Constitutions directly from the Grand 

1 There is, at the Archives Nationales of Belgium, a collection of files entitled Gasios 
Sccretos (Spanish for: " Secret Funds "), which contain a list of the payments made by 
the Government of Austrian Netherlands to the Agents of its information service, at 
home and abroad, with fragments of their correspondence. Bro. Duchaine has published 
from this source the names of spies attached to several Belgian Lodges. While I was 
completing this paper, it occurred to me that de Vignoles was the very man to be found 
in such company, and sure enough there stands his name, from 1766, in black and 
white, "John Vignoles Esq. in Warwick Streeet, Golden Square, London," confronted 
with periodical deliveries of sums ranging about 20 guineas. It is true that, what is 
given of his reports only concerns English political affairs, but ho^was dismissed from 
the Austrian service on account of some indiscretion, in January, 1769, and it was only 
at the end of that year that he entered into relation with the Marquis de Gages and 
Belgian Masonry. — Vignoles, who was always clamouring for more reward, alleging both 
his "important "information and his monetary difficulties, did not take his dismissal 
lightlv; ho threatened, in covert words, to make himself disagreeable, and only dropped 
for good after being silenced by a parting allowance of mille ecus (about £200) 
in Juno, 1769. — Perhaps he did transfer himself to the service of France, and this 
would explain the interference of the French Ambassador in his settlement with Bro. 


4g Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Lodge of England, one at Alost, the other at Ghent, as we have said before. S 
afterwards came over the Lodges chartered in Belgium by the Grand Lodge of Holland ; 
this was managed in 1771, after a successful negotiation carried from London through 
de Vignoles. The Marquis de Gages then turned his attention towards the other 
Belgian Lodges. It was no easy task : when he knocked at their door he was always 
received with due honours, on his personal merits; but they never failed to draw the 
distinction alluded to in this letter of 1776, from the Master of the Lodge at Namnr : 

" One is quite willing to receive the very Wise Brother Marquis 

" de Gages as one has received the very Wise Brother Baron de 

" Haltinne, namely as a Master in the Chair, while on a visit, but not as 

" Provincial Grand Master of Austrian Netherlands. Where is it said 

" that he is such ? " 

Yet they came one by one. The two last were in 1776, La Parfaite Union, at Mona, 

when the Grand Lodge agreed to acknowledge the authenticity of its original Patents ; 

and in 1777, the Parfaite Union of Namnr, which had to exchange its name into La 

Bonne Amide.- New Lodges were also opened: six between 1770 and 1777; eleven 

during the nine following years, which brought to twenty-three the number of Lodges 

acknowledging the Marquis de Gages as Grand Master and sending representatives 

to the Grand Lodge. Amongst them were two military Lodges, one attached to the 

Regiment of Arberg,. the other established at Moris, La Ligne equitable, which met at 

the house of its Master the Prince de Ligne. There was also at Mons, since 1783, an 

ecclesiastical Lodge, Les Amis Tharesiens (so called in memory of the late Empress 

Maria Theresa), composed of priests and Monks, mostly Recollets. It sat in the 

convent of that Order where it remained under the inspection of the Parfaite Harmonie. 

Bro. Duchaine has kindly allowed me the use of one of his plates, reproducing 

a Diploma delivered by this Lodge to the Rev. Father Narcisse, " Carme dechausse," 

on Aug. 10th, 1784, (see Plate III.). 

This was by no means an exception. The Belgian Freemasonry of that period 
had a real attraction for the clerical element, in spite of the Papal Bulls, which had 
not received the placet of the Austrian Government and were therefore considered as 
inoperative in Belgium. Bro. Chetwode Crawley, in his valuable article on The Old 
Charges and the Papal Bulls, has pointed out that in Ireland the same phenomenon lasted 
till our own time, so to speak. In my comments on his paper, I show to what 
degree the Belgian Lodges of the eighteenth century were frequented by members 
of the clergy, including a Bishop (Bro. Velbriick of Liege), several Grand-Vicaii es, 
numerous Canons, some Heads of religious Orders, and a long list of minor Dignitaries. 
One might almost think that this clerical influx reveals an attempt from the Church 
to lay its band on the Lodges, but such an inference would be quite wrong. Of course, 
in those days, the spirit of the Lodges was rather religious than otherwise ; they used 
the clergy as a medium for their charities, ordered funeral services for their departed 
members and celebrated in church the anniversaries of their patron saints, but their 
ideals remained of a broadness far beyond the catholicity of the Roman Church. These 
ideals were sincerely shared by our frocked Brethren who represented the progressive 
section of the Church, at a time when the great foe of Masonry, the Order of Jesus, 
was lying low, having been thrown overboard by the Holy Sea. I have already spoken, 
in a proceeding Paper, of Canon de Mahy, the Master of the Lodge at Namur, who 
became Grand Orator of the Provincial Grand Lodge, where his discourses were so 
highly appreciated. At Liege, in April 1776, during the installation of la Parfaite 

Ars Qdatuor Coronatorum. 

Plate IV. 

Illuminated Address presented to the Marquis de Gages in 1769. 

Designed by Beghin, 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 49 

Intelligence, Canon de Paix, acting as Orator of the Lodge, did not hesitate to say, thirty- 
eight years after the Bull of Clement XIX., twenty-five after the similar edict of 
Benoit XIV. against Freemasonry: "The time of error is past, when to the eyes of 
" outsiders, our Institution passed for a rebellion against universal Order, an illegal 
" and dangerous conventicle, an exception to the laws of Society." The same Bro. de 
Paix wrote a short poem : " L'Eloge de la maconnerie," of which we possess a printed 
copy in the library of the Supreme Council at Brussels. It ends thus: 

Bans ces lieux fortunes, V innocence et la paix 

Sur J . . . . et B . . . ont bdti leur palais. 

Justes, vrais, bienfaisants, voilu ce que nous sommes 
Et le magon parfait ett le meilleur des homines." 

Those were the Halcyon days of Belgian Masonry, equally at peace with Church and 

Outside the pale of the Grand Lodge, there remained the Lodges opened in the 
independent Principality of Liege where they flourished under the protection of Bishop 
de Velbriick. There were also at Ostend an English Lodge warranted in 1783 by the 
Antients under the name of the Imperial Lodge of Austrian Flanders, and at Brussels 
Les Amis de V Union fratemelle, founded in 1781 by the Grand Orient of Prance, in 
spite of the protests of the Marquis de Gages, as there was a treaty passed with France 
in 1771 to prevent any territorial encroachment of masonic jurisdiction. But both soon 
disappeared and, leaving out a few clandestine Lodges, shut off from all masonic 
communion, one can say that Belgian Masonry really attained its unity under the 
Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 


The activity, of the Marquis was not limited to Blue Masonry. In Belgium, 
since the middle of the XVIIIth century, the symbolic Lodges were a good deal mixed 
up with higher degrees. Now and then we see them sitting as Chapters, open only to 
Brethren sufficiently qualified. It is not clear whence came those degrees. They seem 
to have appeared in Belgium under a form akin to the Rite of Heredom. Later on, they 
merged into the Rite of Perfection. Their number varied, according to the Chapters, 
from 7 to 25, the most frequent appelations being : Scotch Master, Irish Master, 
Architect, Elu, Knight of the East, of the Eagle, of the Sun, and, above all, of the 
Rosy Cross. The knights of the Rosy Cross had great privileges, not only in the 
Chapters where they ruled supreme, but even in the symbolic Lodges. The 
Regulations laid down for the Lodges in 17G7 by the Parfaite Earmonie acting as 
French Provincial Grand Lodge, and of which a copy duly signed is preserved at Mons, 
contain the following clause : ART. 40 " In the Lodges where there is only one Knight 
" R. + , he assumes the title of Christian Knight and has a right to decide all matters, 
" without a plurality of votes. He always presides without having to undergo a Ballot 
" on the Feast of St. John. If they are two, the Grand Master must be chosen amongst 
" them by the officers of the Lodge. He can change the officers or keep them as he 
" chooses." The reason given is that these knights are " entirely outside the first 
system of Masonry." They had also the right of making Masons at sight. It was the 
time when the Marquis de Gages signed himself " Grand Master of the Blue and the 

50 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

" Red Lodges under the Prince of Clermont and Edouard," which goes far to show that 
at least the Chapter of the Parfaite Harmonie proceeded from the similar institution 
said to have been founded at Arras in 1745 by the Pretender Charles-Edward, although 
no Belgian Chapter was ever mixed up with Jacobite intrigues. 

When afterwards the Marquis organized his Grand Lodge under the English 
system, it seems that this "new Body could have nothing to do with the higher degrees. 
Yet we find amongst its Regulations (said to proceed from the Grand Lodge of 
England) some general provision devoted to these Degrees : " Chap. XVII. It is 
" advisable that the National and Provincial Grand Masters should inform the 
" Provincial Grand Master residing in London what degrees are conferred in their 
" respective Grand Lodges, in order to enable the Grand Lodge to make by common 
" agreement a selection amongst them and to regularize their number, so that their 
" ladder might lead to a clear, certain and desirable truth ; which has been already 
" performed by Bro. dela Chaussee, Chancellor and Agent of the National Grand Lodge 
" of France." This is evidently an interpolation, perhaps due to de Vignole's himself. 
But it doubtless gave rise to Cordier's story that the Grand Lodge of England asked 
from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands a list of the Degrees worked 
under its jurisdiction, in order to put an end to their confusedness. — More credible is 
this other assertion by the same Author, that, some squabble having arisen in the 
Parfaite Harmonie about the privileges of members of the Rosy Cross in 1772, the 
Deputy Grand Master, Bro. DILLON, to whom the matter had been referred, answered 
that these Knights had to conform to the general Regulations of the Lodge in the same 
way as other Brethren. — The provincial Grand Lodge continued nevertheless till the 
end to endorse and even deliver diplomas stating that the holder had been admitted 
within his Lodge to the degrees of Scotch Master, Elu, Rosy- Cross, etc.; even (Ghent 
1779) of Knight Templar. Meanwhile, the Marquis de Gages tried to bring some 
uniformity into the number and the titles of the higher Degrees, leaving to the Chapters 
the right of working them according to the Ritual they preferred. He even convened 
at Mons in 1775 and 1776 a general Chapter to that effect. But its only results were 
measures to restrict in the future the granting of the Rosie Cross. 

There is still another masonic field which the Marquis de Gages brought within 
his sphere of action, in trying to make the Brotherhood a Sisterhood as well. It was 
the time when Lodges of Adoption were spreading all over the continent. In Belgium, 
where they appeared as early as 1776, they were in connection with the regular Lodges 
at Mons, Tournai, Alost, Brussels. From 1768, they worked under the combined direction 
of the Marquis and the Marquise de Gages, the latter assuming the title of Grand 
Mistress. The Record book of the Parfaite Union contains the proceedings of a meeting 
held at Mons on January 29th, 1778, where a Countess Agathe Sophie de Lalaing 
d'Audenarde "agee de 19 ans, catholique, apostolique et romaine, nee en Amerique" 
went through her initiation. Amongst the visitors who took part in the ceremony, 
special mention is made of Bro. Charles DILLON. At the banquet which followed, a 
Duchess d'Ursel, who had passed " compagnonne " the same day, expressed her thanks 
by singing a ditty of which the words had been composed impromptu by the Bro. 
Prince de Ligne. These names show how much the institution was favoured by the 
aristocracy. We possess in the Library of the Supreme Council at Brussels a diploma 
from the Lodge of Adoption attached to VHeurense Eencontre, where one reads the 
signatures of the Duchesse d'Arenberg, the Countess de Merode, the Count de Duras 
and the Marquis de Chasteler. The Adoptive Rite in Belgium included eight degrees; 
jt also granted certain privileges to the Knights of the Rosy Cross, 

the English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 


The quarterly communications of the Provincial Grand Lodge took place in the 
building of the Parfaite Harmonie, itself a gift of the Marquis ; but they were gradually 
reduced to a yearly communication meeting of the Grand Officers for the transaction of 
current business. There was also every year a general session of the Grand Lodge, 
held alternately in the towns provided with a subordinate Lodge which was willing to 
fill the honourable but expensive duties of masonic hospitality. We possess the records 
of these sessions or Convents at Mons (1770), Bruges (1771), Most (1772), Namur (1778), 
Mons (1783), Antwerp (1784), "Brussels (1786) ; the others are lost. The Convent was 
generally opened by a report from the Grand Master and a discourse from the Grand 
Orator. Then came the nomination of Grand Officers, the chartering of new Lodges, 
the discussion on ways and means, the appeals from or against some Lodges, the 
relations with foreign Masonic Powers. Matters were often referred to permanent 
committees constituted by the Grand Master for the examination of internal and 
external affairs. Business was followed by musical entertainments, banquets and 
symbolical festivities, set up by the local Masons. Where the proceedings describe 
these in full, as at the Convent of Namur, we have an interesting glimpse of the 
masonic life and language in those days. — All the members of the Grand Lodge wore 
the same costume: a red coat, waistcoat and breeches " ventre de biche," hat with a 
ribbon (chapeau horde). — I do not know whether, as Cordier says, " it reminded them of 
their primitive equality "; but it was doubtless a more picturesque sight than, in our 
time, the invariable evening dress of the English Masons and the diversified costume 
neglige of the continental ones. 

So far, each Lodge had used its own diplomas, sometimes designed by well 
known local artists. Henceforth, their issue was undertaken by Grand Lodge which had 
them engraved after a uniform pattern. I have seen quite a set of those Masters 
Diplomas signed in advance, with the name of their future holder left in blank — a very 
dangerous practice at any time and especially in those days. — The big seal and the 
counter seal of the Grand Lodge are still at -Mons. The first contains, amongst 

Seals of the Provincial Grand Lodge. 

a happy combination of masonic symbols, a small escutcheon with the family coat of 
arms of the Grand Master. 

Direct relations with the Grand Lodge of England were rather scarce. Now 
and then, Belgian Lodges would receive some English big-wig on his way through tho 

52 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Low Countries. Bro. DILLON is the only one who seems to have come several times 
on a special masonic visit. — An incident well worth mentioning occurred when, shortly 
after the constitution of the Provincial Grand Lodge, the Masons of England were 
agitating the question of Incorporation. One of the London Lodges, the Caledonian, 
being strongly opposed to the measure, looked round to find some allies, and, in January, 
1771, sent the following letter to the Marquis de Gages: "One M. de Vignoles, who 
" calls himself Provincial Grand Master of all Foreign lodges or such as work in 
" French, (though many dispute this title and treat it as a chimera 1 ), has positively 
" alleged that you and all the Lodges in the Austrian Netherlands under your direction, 
" approve an Incorporation. The Count of Nerac (to whom we are obliged for your 
" address) assures us of the contrary. We beg of you to inform us of the truth. We 
" have no reason to doubt Count de Nerac's relation, but should be happy to be able to 
" overturn the allegations of a man who creates differences everywhere and avails 
" himself of the insinuation of his style to mislead those who are not upon their guard." 
The Marquis very likely knew nothing of this affair ; he forwarded the letter to the 
authorities of the Grand Lodge of England, perhaps through de Vignoles himself, and 
then there was a row. The Master of the Caledonian, the two Wardens and the 
Secretary who had signed the letter were excluded by the Grand Lodge for their 

The same year, de Vignoles made a report to the Grand Lodge on a complaint 
by John Baptist Perignon de Progent, late member of the P.G.L. of Austrian 
Netherlands, against a decision of this Provincial Grand Lodge concerning a dispute 
between himself and one Bro. Beglun (evidently Beghin), member of the same Grand 
Lodge. He prayed to have the whole proceedings reconsidered and also requested that 
the Marquis de Gages may be ordered to grant to the petitioner a Certificate of Probity 
and Morality. — The Grand Lodge having heard the Eeport in its meeting of 27th 
"^December, 1771, passed a resolution approving the conduct of the Marquis and his 
Provincial Grand Lodge, adding that they were "most likely to judge of the conduct 
of the parties residing amongst them with justice and impartiality." — Relating to this 
affair, I have found nothing at Mons, save an entry in de Gages' Book, stating that 
the demission of Perignon had been accepted by the P.G.L. on 21th June, 1771. — Both 
Perignon de Progent and Beghin were conspicuous figures in the two successive 
Provincial Grand Lodges. Perignon was a captain of the civic guard (garde Bourgeoise). 
He filled the Office of first Warden under the French Jurisdiction and of Grand Econome 
in the new Grand Lodge at its outset. His name strongly reminds of the Elu de 
Perignan, a degree introduced about that time in the Ritual of the Adoniramite 
Masonry. Mackey says in his Encyclopaedia Masonica " I am at a loss as to the derivation 
or radical meaning of the word." — Francois-Joseph Beghin was an artist of great 
repute as engraver and silversmith. He is quoted as the last representative of a 
School of Art which flourished in the Hainault during the X VHIth century. The 
Exhibition of Retrospective Art, held at Brussels in 1888, contained several of his 
works: amongst them some pieces of a table service in silver, with Masonic emblems, 

1 These allusions may throw some light on the following quotation from Thory's Acta 
J.atomorum, inserted by the Author opposite the date, 27th December, 1771: — "There 
was a proposal made to institute a new Office of Provincial Grand Master of all the 
Lodges under English Constitutions ; the Brother invested with this function was to receive 
the title of Inspector General, Grand Master Provincial. This measure was opposed by 
a majority of the Deputies of the London Lodges." It appears that there was no 
meeting of the Grand Lodge at the date mentioned by Thory, and I have been unable 
to find any other information concerning the matter. But it is quite possible that about 
that time a proposal to enlarge or enforce de Vignoles' powers gave rise to some protests 
from several London Lodges, although they were practically outside his jurisdiction. 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. S3 

which he had designed and executed for the Marquis de Gages. May be that he had 
received some similar order from Perignon and found himself none the better for the 

The Provincial Grand Master of Belgian Netherlands, as we have seen above, 
sent scrupulously his annual contribution to the Charity Fund. But there lies at 
Freemasons' Hall the copy of a letter dated April 24th, 1 779, where, in face of increasing 
local calls upon the beneficence of the Belgian Lodges, thinking not unwisely that 
charity begins at home, he asked to be relieved of his regular obligations towards the 
fund of the Grand Lodge of England. His request was refused, but the letter of Bro. 
Heseltine on the following June 26th, adds "But the Grand Lodge does not mean to 
" enforce the payment of any actual sum by your Excellency, leaving that actually to 
" the discretion of the Provincial Grand Orient over which your Excellency presides." 
The Marquis's wisdom, eagerness, and generosity, had made him exceedingly 
popular amidst the Belgian Masons, and the increasing prosperity of the Order was in 
a great measure due to him. As early as 1768, when a son was born to him, the 
Parfaite Harmonie took advantage of the occasion to send him an address, elegantly 
drawn up and ornamented by one of the best artists of the town, to congratulate him 
and to ask for his return, as he had been absent for some time. (See Plate IV.) 
It would appear more effective, if it was not written in the bombastic style of the day 
(and sometimes too of later Masonic days)— It ended thus : " Accept, very wise Brother, 
" our weak Compliments. We miss expressions to translate the ardour which brings 
" us to congratulate you on this lucky day. But you know our heart is devoted to 
" you. Therefore, come back quickly, lovable Brother. Our Lodge gets impatient. 
" You promised a speedy return. Come to restore to the Brethren light and joy. So 
" soon as you appear to their eyes, it is for them a new spring ; the days are finer, 
'• the sky more serene. Just as a tender mother consults the omens, utters prayers 
" and vows, in order to hasten the return of a beloved son long detained beyond the 
" seas by a southern wind far from the home of his fathers and she keeps her eye 
" constantly fixed towards the shore, so the Lodge sighs incessantly after its chief, etc." 
In face of such terms, the Marquis could not but return and resume his duties 
as Worshipful Master. The boy, his only son, Fery A. Joseph de Gages, became later 
on a Mason and died in 1810, without male issue. One must add that the Provincial 
Grand Master was assisted by an able Body of Grand Officers, amongst whom special 
notice is deserved by the Deputy Grand Master, Marquis de Chasteleer; the Grand 
Secretary, De Lobel ; the Grand Treasurer, Dublux-Delbar and the Grand Orators, de 
Mahy and, during later years, Pollard de Warnifosse. At the same time, the Marquis 
de Gages, Chamberlain of the Emperor, hand in glove with the representatives of the 
Austrian Government in Belgium, was the very man to answer for the good behaviour 
of the Craft, where his example and influence attracted an increasing number of eminent 
members whose loyalty could not be suspected. But dark days were at hand. 


Although during the Austrian domination, Belgian Freemasonry did not 
interfere with politics any more than with religion, it had been from the first, as a 
secret society, suspiciously watched by the Powers of the time. There is no proof that 
it attracted the attention of the Government under the Emperor Charles II. But under 
his daughter, the Empress Maria-Theresa, who began her reign in 1740, there was a 

54 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

regular information service carried on by paid spies, and, after the death of her 
husband, Francois de Lorraine, who had himself been initiated at the Hague in 1731, 
she thought of expelling the Order from her possessions. Luckily in Belgium, it was 
sheltered by the Governor General Charles dq Lorraine, who administered the Austrian 
Netherlands for more than thirty-six years. Also a Mason, he not only attended now 
and then Masonic meetings, but helped to open two new Lodges, one in 1762 at Brussels, 
named after him La Loge de St. Charles; the other in 1765 at Tournai, VUnanimite. 
He was officially acknowledged as " Protecteur de toutes les Loges regulieres des Pays-Bas 
Autrichiens." He died the same year as his sister-in-law, Maria-Theresa. The next 
sovereign, Joseph II., who ascended the throne in 1780, was an enlightened and broad- 
minded prince, but nevertheless a despot by nature, who endeavoured to impose upon 
unwilling populations reforms in advance of the age. Hence the final revolution of 
Belgium, which darkened his last days. At first, he not only tolerated, but favoured 
Freemasonry, which, in his family estates of Austria, jumped within five years from 
13,000 to over 20,000 members. He expected Masons to help him in carrying out his 
liberal schemes, but they would have to do it, like his other subjects, according to his ways. 
Whenever he was opposed, he lost his temper and tried to crush the opposition. Just 
as he dreamed of carving out of Roman Catholicism a national Church, of which he 
was to be the secular head— after the fashion of Henry VIII. , although with nobler 
motives,— he wanted to create a national Freemasonry of which he would pull the strings. 
Therefore, he could no more tolerate Lodges under a foreign jurisdiction than Religious 
Congregations, which, as early as 1781, he forbade to acknowledge foreign superiors. 
This prohibition, as de Gages ascertained, was not at first intended for Freemasonry. 
But in 1782, the Provincial Grand Lodge of Vienna renounced its German allegiance 
and, having started anew as the National Grand Lodge or Grand Orient of Vienna, at 
once claimed authority over all the Lodges within the Austrian States. 

The Marquis de Gages had forseen the danger. As early as June, 1782, he had 
generously offered to resign, in order to place his Grand Lodge, turned into a national 
or independent Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands, under the direction of the 
Governor General, Bro. de Saxe TesscheD, as Grand Master. Joseph II., who had 
other views, would not hear of it. The imperial scheme of Masonic reorganization 
was exposed to the Provincial Grand Lodge, in its session of 1783 at Mons, by Bro. 
Pollard de Warnifosse, speaking in his capacity of Grand Orator. The Grand Lodge 
of Vienna was to become the sole head of Freemasonry in the Austrian states. 
Foreign relations would be exclusively into its hands. Even the Provincial Grand 
Lodges should be prevented from corresponding directly with each other. Every 
degree beyond the first three had to be suppressed.— This statement, of course, caused 
some stir, but the convent came to no conclusion, save that it was expedient to consult 
the Lodges. The following year, the Provincial Grand Lodge met at Antwerp, on the 
12th of September, but, this time again, it could not resolve itself into definite action. 
Not so with the Kaiser. On the 11th of December 1785 he sent a message to the Grand 
Chancellor of the Empire, Bro. Prince de Kaunitz, communicating his " will " concern- 
ing the Freemasons, " as nothing in a well-ordered state can exist without a certain 
order and direction." No Lodge was to be allowed except one in the chief town of each 
province. (There were in Belgium nine provinces, not counting the ecclesiastical 
Principality of Liege). The Lodges thus authorized would have to impart to the local 
Authorities the names of their members, the place and time of their meetings. In 
the large capitals, if the Masons were too many to be included in a single Lodge, a 
second and even a third might be allowed, provided they were subordinate to the 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 55 

principal one. In all this there was no provision concerning Provincial Grand Lodges, 
although previously it had been understood that the Provincial Grand Lodge at Mons wai 
to go on, so long as the Marquis de Gages remained at its head, and that afterwards it 
was to be transferred to Brussels. 

Bro. Duchaine has started the explanation that Joseph II. wished no harm to 
Freemasonry. What the Emperor had in view was, in the words of the Edict : " To 
" prescribe rules which should legalize the societies of true and honest Freemasons, 
" about which it is enough for us to know that they may do some good and in the 
" same time to free them from all irregular, bastard, and clandestine Lodges, which 
" have already to my knowledge produced such inconvenience." If this were really 
the Emperor's only intentions, it recalls the fable of the bear who crushed the head of 
his sleeping friend with a paving stone, to get rid of a fly which had settled on the 
sleeper's nose. Or, as a German author has it, in trying to throw some water out of 
the tub, Joseph II. spilt the child with it. That the Belgian Masons did not protest 
loudly is no proof that they approved of the fetters so kindly offered to them. 

The Marquis de Gages lost no time in appealing to the proper Authorities both 
at Brussels and at Vienna. He implored that the Provincial Grand Lodge should be 
left alone, offering to make himself responsible for the execution of the Edict. He also 
begged for the preservation of the small Lodges, located outside the provincial chief 
towns, provided they could offer some special reason to justify their existence. He 
went so far as to point out that these Lodges could easily be put under the control of 
the local police. As to the military Lodges, the Commander-in-Chief might be left 
free to deal with them in each case. At the same time, he addressed himself to the 
Grand Lodge of Vienna, offering to affiliate at once his own Provincial Lodge " under 
the laws of our August Sovereign and Benevolent Protector." The Privy Council of 
Austrian Netherlands, where several Masons were sitting, lent a favourable ear to 
these proposals, and forwarded them to the Emperor, asking permission to negotiate on 
such terms. They had also the approval of Count Belgioso, the Substitute of the 
Governor General, who was then on leave. But it was of no avail, and this opposition, 
mild as it was, only made matters worse. The Marquis de Gages had already begun to 
conform to the Imperial will in closing some of the Lodges destined to disappear, when 
a new Edict, dated May 15th, 1786, decreed the suppression of all the Belgian Lodges 
with the exception of three confined to Brussels. 

The Marquis de Gages at once called together at Brussels for the 26th of June 
a general Masonic meeting to settle the five following points:— 1. — "Is there still 
sufficient interest to maintain the Freemasonry of Austrian Netherlands, graciously 
protected and authorized by the Sovereign, but restricted to three Brussels Lodges 
publicly discredited and exposed to the daily investigations of the police, or should it 
not be preferable to stop it altogether ?" 2. — "If any Brethren still expect from there 
some advantage or enjoyment, are they indifferent to the fact that each of them will 
henceforth be posted up as a Mason before the Sovereign, the police, his family, his 
relations, his chiefs or superiors of all kind ?" 3. — " If three Lodges out of five are to 
be kept at Brussels, which ones shall it be ?" 4. — " Would it not be better to dissolve 
them altogether, to make a list of all the Brethren, whether living at Brussels or in the 
provinces, and to distribute them by lots amongst three new Lodges ?" 5. — " Under 
what conditions shall the Belgian Lodges become subordinate to the Grand Lodge of 
jj It is easy to read, between the lines of this appeal, the feelings of the Provincial 

J Grand Master. He thought the struggle over, the battle lost, and that, for the sake 


56 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

of their own dignity, tbe Belgian Brethren had better close their Temples, at least till 
the storm was over. But the majority of the Convent, mostly composed of Brussels 
Brethren, "the German party " as they were ca^ed, thought otherwise, and decided to 
accept the Emperor's conditions. They agreed to give up two of the Brussels Lodges, 
la Constance and?' Union fraternelle. In accordance with a final suggestion from the 
Grand Master, a Committee was chosen, composed of representatives from the three 
remaining Lodges, " to make all the arrangements justified by actual circumstances," 
and, immediately after, the Marquis de Gages resigned his post of Provincial Grand 
Master. It was to be the end of his career, of his work, and of his life. On the 20th 
of January, 1787, he died from a broken heart, at the age of 48.' 

The three Lodges, doomed to survive at Brussels, were : VEeureuse Rencontre, 
V Union and les Vrais Amis de V Union, the two last henceforth subordinate to the first 
The new Committee which was to control these remnants of the Belgian Masonry took 
as President the Baron de Seckendorf, aide-de-camp to the Governor General. An 
Austrian Mason, he undertook as " Commissaire of the National Grand Lodge of 
Vienna " to watch the reorganization of Belgian Masonry in conformity with 
the Imperial Edicts. Under his guidance, the Brussels Lodges led for a short 
time an uneventful and, so to speak, undignified life. The provincial Brethren who 
were to swell their ranks remained few in numbers. On the other hand, many of the 
Brussels Masons deserted their columns, many joining the national movement which, 
two years later, expelled the Austrians from Belgium. It was Joseph II.'s turn to die 
heartbroken on the 20th February, 1790. The Austrian forces returned twice and 
were finally expelled by the French armies in 1794. By that time, only one Lodge, 
les Amis de V Union still alive to-day, had not ceased working, although with a greatly 
reduced membership. 

On the other hand, there are reasons to believe that the old Lodges at Tournay, 
Mons, Antwerp, Brussels, Namur, continued to meet secretly during this troubled 
period and when, at the end of the century, Freemasonry revived in France, they were 
ready to resume their work. Of course, they had to place themselves under the Grand 
Orient of France. 

We learn by the Certificates of membership delivered in the Lodge les Amis 
de V Union at Brussels, that from 1792 to 1801, it persisted in claiming as sole source of 
authority its constitutions by " Bonaventure du Mont, cy devant Marquis de Gages, 
" nomme Grand Maitre national de toutes les Loges des Provinces Belgiques par le trois 
" fois Venerable Henry Somerset, due de Beaufort, Grand Maitre de toutes les Loges 
" d' Angleterre." — Only the mention of Austria had disappeared and the Provincial 
Grand Master had become a National one. Meanwhile the Lodge, which had never 
ceased working amidst revolutions and wars till its acceptance in 1902 of the French 

1 The Marquis de Gages had built for himself at Mons an elegant mansion, decorated 
with masonic emblems, some of them still noticeable in a hall on the first floor, although 
the building has been long since bought over by the Belgian Government and turned into 
public offices He had a collection of valuable books, mostly masonic, which would be 
invaluable to-day, but which were dispersed after his death. His country place is still 
in the hands of his descendants, through the female line. To one of them, who was 
supposed to have inherited an oil portrait of his ancestor, a distinguished member of 
the Chapter at Mons wrote lately a polite letter, telling how much the Fraternity was 
anxious to procure a likeness of its former Chief to whom it owed so much. The 
answer is worth quoting for the light it throws on the state of mind now prevailing 
amongst the descendants of those noblemen who adorned and cherished the Belgian 
Lodges of the eighteenth Century: "Sib, I do not possess the portrait of the person 
"you mention and it would surprise me if he ever belonged to that Society. Anyhow, 
"if he did there would be no reason for me to be proud of it, but quite the contrary. 
Our Brother replied at once, and although I do not reproduce here his letter, I can 
certify that it was appropriate to the occasion. 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 57 

Jurisdiction, bad gott< n into trouble more than once with the French Republican Police 
as well as formerly with the Austrain Imperial Authorities ; it even required a certain 
courage to recall thus on the eve of the Napoleonic rule its allegeance to the " pei-fide 

It is only after the formation of the kingdom of the Netherlands, in 1815, that 
the Belgian Masons recovered some autonomy under the Grand Loge a" Administration 
des Pays-Bas Meridionaux, organised as a section of the Grand Orient of the Nether- 
lands, sitting at The Hague. The Chapters, so brutally closed by Joseph II., revived 
about the same time ; firstly isolated and independent, then under the Supreme Council 
of France and finally since 1817 under the Supreme Council of Belgium for the Scottish 
Ancient and Accepted Rite. But of the old set of masons known to the Marquis de 
Gages, few reappeared. They had been scattered by twenty-five years of political and 
social upheavals. Only masonic symbols and landmarks remained unchanged. 


Regulations for Provincial Grand Lodges forwarded to the Marquis de Gages, P.G.M. 

of Austrian Netherlands. 



1°. — Touto Grande Loge Provinciate est subordonnee a la Sublime Grande Loge seante a 
Londres d'ou emane son autorite : elle en doit done suivre les loix, les usages et les 
coutumes et no pent rien innover dans l'art roial sans en avoir eu prealablement son 
consentement, par le canal du Grand Maitre Provincial etranger resident a Londres. 

2°. — Elle doit tenir une correspondance au moins annuelle en ecrivant a cet effet an dit 
Grand Maitre Provincial etranger resident a Londres, Depute Grand Maitre en 
cotte partie. 

3°. — La Grande Loge Provinciale est composee des grands officiers provinciaux actuels. 
et de tous ceux qui peuvent avoir rempli ces postes qui en sont toujours membres, 
avec les Maitres et suneillants de toutes les Loges regulierement constitutes dans le 
district provincial 

4°. — II y a deux sortes d'assemblees de Grande Loge provinciale: les lines appellees de 
communication de quartier et l'autre la Grande Fete. 



1°. — Le rang de seance entre les Loges s'y regie par la date d'anciennete de constitution, 
sans qu'il soit jamais permis d'y deroger. 

2°. — Des que le president a donne le signal, tout le monde doit observer un profond 
silence, et chacun reste assis, sans pouvoir se lever on quitter sa place sans per- 

3°. — Nul frere ne peut y faire une proposition sans l'avoir communiquee au G. M. P. 
dix minutes au moins auparavant que de la faire. 

4°. — Pour qu'une proposition puisse etre debattue et soumise aux suffrages, il faut que 
faite par un frere elle soit secondee par un autre, et des lors le president ne pent 
empecher qu'il ne soit pris une resolution consequents 

5°. — Nul frere ne peut parler plus d'une fois sur le meme sujet a moins que ce ne soit 
pour expliquer sa premiere pensee et alors il doit obtenir la permission. 

58 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati [A)dge. 

6°.— Tout frere qui parle doit etre debout a l'ordre et s'adresser au President. 

7°.— Personne n'a le droit d'interrompre un frere qui parle, si ce n'est le president de 
l'assemblee qui pent le faire lorsque l'orateur s'ocarte de son sujet. 

8°. — Dans ce cas, le frere doit s'asseoir, ecouter avec modestie l'avis de son chef: 
mais ensuite, s'il le juge a propos, il se levera et parlera sur le sujet en question. 

9°, — Si dans une meme assemblee un meme frere etoit pour la troisieme fois appelle a 
l'ordre, il devroit quitter la salle a l'injonction que lui en feroit le president. 

10°. — Si un frere jette un ridicule sur les paroles de celui qui parle ou excite quelque 
rumeur tumultueuse pour l'empecher de continuer, il sera exclu pour toujours de 
pareilles assemblees. 

11°. — Quand le president croira qu'une proposition secondee a ete suffisamment debattue, 
il la soumettra aux suffrages dont la pluralite decidera, lui seul aiiant deux voix. 

12°. — II n'est qu'une maniere en Maconerie de manifester son sentiment et c'est aux 
surveillants a declarer si la pluralite est pour l'affirmative ou pour la negative. 

13°. — Le depute provincial prononce alors a haute voix la proposition acceptee, que le 
Grand Secretaire enregistre de mot a mot et la relit ensuite. 

14°. — Quiconque croiroit devoir se plaindre d'une derision prise par la Grande Logo 
Provinciale, doit donner par ecrit au Grand maitre Provincial l'appel qu'il inter- 
jette, et l'un et l'autre doivent dans vingt jours exposer leurs raisons au Grand 
Maitre Provincial etranger resident a Londres. 



— On entend sous ce titre une assemblee generate qui devroit se tenir de trois mois 
en trois mois : mais le Grand Maitre laisse a sss provinciaux la liberte de les indiquer 
quand ils le jugent a propos, et ne les oblige qu'a en tenir une chaque annee, au 
jour et lieu qu'il leur plait d'indiquer. 

— Le Grand Secretaire Provincial doit en donner avis a toutes les Loges de son 
district, un mois avant le jour fixe pour sa tenue, et cet avis doit contenir un 
precis des matieres que, les grands officiers entendent y soumettre a l'examen. 

. — Le lieu destine pour cette assemblee doit avoir deux salles, l'une apropriee pour 
Loge du 3 e g. oil sont introduits les Maitres et Surveillans des Loges qui se placent 
selon le rang de leur Loge et l'autre oil s'assemblent les grands officiers actuels ou 

— Comme ces assemblees ne doivent s'occuper que des affaires de la societe voici l'ordre 
a observer dans l'arrangement de la salle de Loge. 

. — Au centre doit etre le tableau du 3 e g. avec les lumieres. 

. — Du cote de l'orient est une table pour les seuls grands officiers dont le G. M. P. sur 
son trone occupe le centre, aiant a sa droite son Depute suivi des anciens grands 
officiers places selon leur rang et a sa gauche son Grand Tresorier, son Grand 
Secretaire et les visiteurs distingues que le choix seul du president voudra y 
admettre: en face du Grand Maitre est assis le grand Porte glaive. Sur les deux 
ailes du tableau, il y aura des tables pour les Maitres et Surveillans des Loges du 
district et a l'occident de chacune sera un Grand Surveillant selon l'usage, faisant 
face a l'orient. 

. — On pent y admettre des visiteurs, si quelques membres repondent qu'ils sont parvenus 
au 3 e g. mais ils n'ont aucun droit de suffrage et ne peuvent meme y parler, si le 
president ne les en requiert. 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 59 

8°.— Tout etant ainsi dispose et le G. M. P. voulant entrer en fait prevenir les freres par 
celui qui garde la porte et le fait en cet ordre, lui et son cortege habilles et decores : 

2 Servants l'epee a la main 
Si on ne porte point l'epee d'etat; le Porte Glaive 

Les anciens Porte-Glaives I 2 a 2 

Les anciens Grand-Secretaires 
Les anciens Grand-Tresoriers j 

Le G. Secretaire tenant un sac de velours pour ses livres 

Le G. Tresorier tenant levee une baguette bleue ornee de simboles en or et les 

bouts d'ivoire 

Les anciens 2 e G ds Surveillants ^ 

Les anciens 1' G ds Surveillants j- 2 a 2 

Les anciens Gds jyjes Provinciaux J 

Les deux Grds Surveillants Provinciaux 

Le Porte Glaive tenant haute l'epee d'etat 

Le Grand Maitre Provincial seul couvert 
2 servants l'epee a la main 

9°. — Le cortege se rend par le centre aux places destinees a chacun et l'applaudissement 
qui commence a l'entree finit des que le G. M. P. arrive a la sienne a salue Fassemblee. 

10°.— A sa volonte le president aiant ouvert solennellement la Loge du 3 e g. ordonne au 
Secretaire de lire a haute voix : 1° Le chapitre second de ce code : 2° la minute 
de la derniere assemblee et si a sa demande la pluralite des voix la confirme, il la 
signe snr le champ et dans l'instant tous ses articles ont force de loix pour le 

11°.— Les affaires de la seance y sont en suite discutees amiablement et decidees suivant 
ce qui a ete dit dans le chapitre precedent. 

12°.— Si la Grande Loge Provincial se decidoit a former un fonds de charite, ce seroit 
ici que s'en treteroient les affaires, suivant le plan que suit la Sublime Grande 
Loge et qu'on trouvera dans le chapitre 18 et dernier. 

I30 _l 6 Grand Tresorier rendra publiquement ses comptes de recettes et depenses et 
s'ils lui sont alloues unanimement le G. M. P. les signera et cet arrete sera sans 
recours contre lui. 

14°._Si a ce sujet ou pour toute autre affaire, il survenoit quelque point de trop longue 
discussion, le president aura le droit de nommer un committe de trois freres qui, 
avec les grands officiers actuels, auront le droit de pouvoir regler 1' affaire en litige. 

15°._La Loge aiant ete dument fermee, les Grands Officiers en sortent dans le meme 
ordre qu'ils y sont entres et an milieu de l'applaudissement des freres qui ne se 
retirent qu'apres. 

}go Vous remarquerez que les deux servants, qui en entrant ouvrent la marche, se 

tiennent pendant toute la seance l'epee a la main aux deux cotes du trone et la 
ferment en sortant; lorsque les deux qui Font fermee en entrant, restent dans la 
meme attitude derriere les surveillans et l'ouvrent en sortant. 

!7°._Le Tresorier et le Porte Glaive pendant la seance mettent devant le president Fun 
sa baguette et Fautre l'epee d'etat couchees sur la table. 



10 _Q uo i que ce tte fete generale se doive ordinairement celebrer dans le jour consacre" 
a S. JEAN BAPTISTE, cependant le G. M. P. d'accord avec ses grands officiers peut 
la fixer a tout autre jour qui lui paroitra plus convenable. 

§() transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

•2°.— Le Grand Secretaire en donnera avis a cliaque Loge particulicre pour qu'elle ait a 
ne point tenir sa fete speciale dans le meme jour afin de pouvoir y assister. 

3°— Cette solemnite exige trois salles au moins : celle du banquet pour un diner dont 
les tables doivent etre rangees comme a la communication et ou s'assemblent les 
Maitres et surveillans decores et los visiteurs apres qu'ils auront ete reconnus, les 
dits visiteurs en tabliers sans ornemens : celle du committe ou seront trois freres 
nommes par le G. M, P. pour s'assurer que les visiteurs sont Maeons du 3 e g. et la 
troisieme ou doit etre prepare tout ce qui est necessaire pour une Loge solennelle 
et dans laquelle les grands officiers s'assemblent. 

40 — Lorsque le G. M. P. veut commencer les ouvrages, il onvoie le Grand Secretaire 
sommer les Maitres et Surveillans des Loges de venir le joindre, ce qu'ils font. 

-jo.—Le G. M. P. ouvre la Loge et fait lire la derniere minute, apres qu'elle a ete confirmee 
et signee, il ordonne la procession qui doit conduire a la salle du banquet. 

0°.— Chacun se range a cet effet selon l'appel qu'en fait le Grand Secretaire et qui doit 
etre comme suit : 

OltDHE DE Un couvreur le sabre en main 

PROCESSION Les Maitres et Surveillans 2 a 2 

La Musique jouant 2 a 2 
2 Servants l'epee a la main 
1 Hambeau porte par le Maitre de la 1° Loge ou un de ses surveillans 
Les anciens porte-glaives, secretaires et tresoriers 2 a 2 
Le Grand Secretaire avec son sac 
Le Grand Tresorier avec sa baguette 
1 flambeau porte par le Maitre de la 3° Loge ou un de ses surveillans 

Les anciens 2emes Qte Surv B 1™ G Surv et Grands Maitres P 2 a 2 
Le 2eme Grand Surveillant 
Le ler Grand Surveillant 
1 flambeau porte par le Maitre de la 2° Loge ou un de ses surveillans 

Le Depute Provincial 
La bible sur un coussin porte par le M de la 1"* Loge ou un de ses surveillans 
Le Porte-glaive tenant droite une epee d'etat 
Le G. M. P. couvert 
2 servants l'epee a la main 
un couvreur sabre en main 

70. — En cet ordre on passe a la salle du festin et apres en avoir fait trois fois le tour, 

chacun se rend a sa place, pour jouir du banquet dans lequel on suit les usages 

8°.— Apres les santes soleunelles, le G. M. P. ordonne la 2° procession qui se fait dans le 

meme ordre que la premiere. 
ij°. — De retour quelque frere donnera a l'assemblee des instructions sur la solemnite du 

jour et toutes ses parties. 

10°. — A la fin de ce discours, tous les grands officiers resignent leurs emplois, en remettant 
au G. M. P. les cordons et les bijoux de leurs dignites. 

11°. — Le G. M. P. nomine alors ceux qu'il continue ou remplace, les installant 1'un apres 
l'autre et les faisant proclamer par son secretaire, ce qui est termine par la 3° 

la°.— 11 est d' usage que chacun de ces officiers nommes ou continues fasse une offrande 
volontaire au tresor general, apres quoi la fraternite les salue. 

I30. Le reste de cette solemnite est a la volonte du G. M. P. qui ne peut permettre qu'on 

y traite d'aucune affaire litigieuse. 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 61 



1°.— Le Grand Maitre Provincial garde son titre tant qu'il ne donne a la sublime Grande 
Loge aucun sujet de le revoquer. 

2°.— 11 jouit dans son district de tous les droits attaches au G. M. et ne cede jamais le pas 
qu'au G. M. a son Depute, aux surveillans de la G. L. et tient entre ses egaux le 
rang que lui donne sa creation. 

3° . — II a le droit de constituer des Loges, de leur accorder les dispenses dont elles pouvent 
avoir besoin ; mais il ne peut raier du tableau une Loge qu'il a constitute sans le 
consentement de sa Grande Loge Provinciale. 

4°. — II noinme de plein droit ses Grands offlciers, si Ton excepte le G. Tresorier; dont la 
nomination doit etre ratifiee par sa G. L. P. et qui ne peut-etre mis en place sans 
avoir donne bonne et ratable caution. 

5°. — II peut convoquer sa G. L. P. toutes les fois qu'il le juge a propos. 

(i' J . — II est par sa place un des grands offlciers de la sublime Grande Loge, parmi lesquels 
il siegera s'il se trouve a Londres, honneur qu'il conserve pendant toute sa vie quand 
meme il auroit obtenu du Grand Maitre qu'on lui nommat un successeur. 

7°. — 11 doit chaque annee par lui-meme ou par quelqu'un qu'il depute a cet effet visiter 
toutes les Loges de son district, pour compte en etre par lui envole au Grand Maitre 
Provincial etranger resident a Londres. 

8°. — La mort du Grand Maitre Provincial suspend tout exercise de la G. L. P. jusqu'a ce 
que le Grand Maitre ait pourvu a le remplacer et s'il ne le fait pas, les Loges du 
district retombent sous la juridiction du G. M. P. Etranger auquel on doit faire tenir 
les livres et les archives de la G. L. P. eteinte. 



1°. — Le Grand Maitre, son Depute et ses Surveillants actuels, ont seul le droit de 
preside? a toutes les Loges oil ils se trouvent. 

2'. — Tous les Grands offlciers anciens ou actuels portent toujours un tablier double, borde 
et lie avec une soie blcue de roi. 

3°. — Les seuls grands offlciers actuels portent des bijoux qui doivent etre d'or suspendus 
a des rubans larges bleus de roi et ces bijoux sont : 

Pour le G. M. P. un cc.mpas renfermant entre ses pointes un quart de cercle. 

Pour son depute une equerre chargee d'emblemes. 

Pour ses surveillans, Tresorier et Secretaire les bijoux ordinaires. 

Pour le Porte glaive une epee ou une equerre sur chaque branche de laquelle est 

gravee une epee. 

Si le Grand Maitre ou l'un de ses deputes anglois ou etranger etoit present ou si le 
G. M. P. se trouvoit en Grand Loge a Londres son bijou pour l'instant serait une 
simple equerre d'or. 

4°. — La couleur bleu de roi est tellement affectee au G. M. P. qu'il peut la porter partout 
ou il se trouve; mais son depute et ses autres grands offlciers ne peuvent s'en servir 
que dans les Loges de leur district, lorsque tous les offlciers de la sublime Grande 
Loge ont le privilege exclusif de la porter partout. 

6$ transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodye. 


1°.— Jl remplace partout 1'absence du G. M. P. et jouit alors de tons les honneurs, droits 
et prerogatives : le G d Surv 4 lui servant de Depute et le 2° de ler G. Surv' et la place 
de celui-ci est remplie par le Maitre de la plus ancienne Loge. 

2°.— 11 faut cependant remarquer qu'un anoien G. M. P. remplaceroit l'actuel absent au 
prejudice du Depute. 

3"._Si de memo le Depute presidoit ou etoit absent, nn ancien Depute en prendroit 
la place avant le 1° surv 4 et un ancien survt remplace les absents avant tout autre. 

4° _H est bon de remarquer que les Grands Tresorier, Secretaire et Porte glaive ne 

remplacent jamais aucuns de leurs superieurs mais sont remplaces par ceux que 

le president juge a propos. 
5°.— Le Depute Provincial une fois nonime par son Grand Maitre ne peut etre depose 

pendant son annee d'exercice que par un jugement de la G. L. P. sur les plaintes 

que lui soumettroit son chef. 


I .— Nulle assemblee de Macons ne peut care reconnue pour Loge, qu'elle n'ait obtenu 

une patente de constitution, suivant ce qui sera present par la suite. 
2 o —Les officiers de chaque Loge particuliere doivent etre annuels, a moins que leur 

nouvelle election ne se fasse par les suffrages libres des membres qui la composent. 
3= -Ses Maitres et Surveillans sont membres de la G. L. P. et or.t droit d'y paroitre 

par eux ou par leurs deputes: mais ils y doivent assister decores de leurs bijoux. 
4°.— Les bijoux que portent les officiers de Loge particuliere ne peuvent etre d'or ni 

dores, mais au plus en argent. 
5 o._ Nu lle Loge particuliere ne peut porter la c'ouleur Bleue de roi. 
6 ° _N ullo L oge ne pe„t changer le jour ni le lieu de son assemblee, sans avoir eu sur 

sa resolution le consentement du G. M. P. ou de son Depute. 
7° -Une Loge particuliere ne peut dans le meme jour 1° eonferer plus d'un grade a 

une meme personne 2° faire plus de 5 receptions sans une dispense expresse du 

G. M. P. ou de son Depute. 
8 o _Tj ne Loge particuliere ne peut initier un candidat qui n'a pas Page de 21 ans, 

elle ne peut non plus faire des actes publics au dehors, comme enterrement, pro- 
cession, concert, sans une permission par ecrit du G. M. P. ou de son Depute, 

qui ne doivent l'aecorder que sur les plus justes motifs. 
9°.-Nulle Loge et encore moins un membre tel qn'il soit, ne peut rien ^ ^ime, 

de relatif a la Maconnerie, sans une permission expresse du G. M. P. ou de son 

10 °.-Une Loge qui a ete douze mois sans tenir d'assemblee est ipso facto raiee du 




1" -Si Sept freres au moins s'unissent dans le dessein d'ouvrir une nouvelle Loge, ils 
s'adresseront par requete signee d'eux sept au Depute pour le prier de leur 
obtenir une patente de constitution. 


The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 63 

2°.— Sur cette requete si le G. M. P. n'agit pas par lui-meme, il nommera son Depute 
ou nn autre grand offieier, pour a Her sur les lieux tenir avoc les dits f re res line 
Logo provisionelle. 

3°,— Cette personne eommise sera fort attentive a examiner la decence et la convenanee 
du lieu designe dans la requete; oonnoitra par lui-meme si les suppliants sont 
vrais macons et regulierement faits ot, s'il est content, il proeedera : sans quoi il 
suspendroit jusqu'a ce qu'il eut les ordres du G. M. P. 

40 ..__Tout etant regulier, le G. M. P. entre dans la Salle de Loge avec les grands officiers 
ou ceux qui en tiennent lieu, et aiant fait introduire les visiteurs il ouvre la Loge. 

5°.— Des que l'ouverture sera faite, les freres de la nouvelle Loge se font entendre au 
dehors, le Depute se rend a la porte, les introduit et les amene devant le G. M. P. 
a qui il dit : 

F. N. F. E. F. It., G. M. P. je vous presente ces bons freres qui desirent 
former une nouvelle Loge en ce lieu. 
6°.— Les freres presentent leur requete au G d Secretaire qui en fait lecture, apres 
laquelle le G. M. P. dit: 

Nous souscrirons avec joie aux desirs que votre requete exprime, des que 
nous nous verrons en etat de le faire sans compromettre la gloire de la 
Societe : e'est pour cela que nous venons d'ouvrir des travaux occasionels, 
pour juger des talens de ceux que vous entendez mettre a la tete de vos 
ouvrages et que vous devez nous presenter. 

7°.— Les freres aiant nomme ceux d'entre eux qu'ils proposent pour Maitre et 
Surveillans, le G. M. P. dit au premier: 

p ; par l'autorite dont nous sommes revetus, nous vous 

permettons d'agir, en notre presence seulement comme maitre de Loge, 
et declarons a tous les freres ici presens que nous tenons pour legitimes 
les initiations ou promotions dans l'art roial que vous ferez en ce jour. 

8°.-._L 3 q >i, p. ordonne au dit Maitre designe et a ses surveillans de prendre les 
ornemens eonvenables a ces titres : mais il n'a garde de les en decorer lui-meme. 

90 __L e g. M. P. en quittant le trone, met le maillet sur l'autel, et le Maitre designe 

doit le prendre lui-meme pendant que ses surveillans en font autant pour achever 

avec lui l'ouvrage du jour. 
10°.— Quand le G. M. P. veut faire finir l'ouvrage, il reprend le siege, rappelle ses 

surveillans et avec eux ferme la Loge. 
11°.— Les freres de la nouvelle Loge se retirent et le G. M. P. consulte ses officiers pour 

savoir si l'on peut la constituer ; et il communique le resultat de la deliberation 

aux suppliants qu'il fait rentrer a cet effet. 

12°.— S'il leur est favorable, il fixe le jour oil il entend former ces freres en nouvelle 
Loge, et enjoint a son grand Secretaire d'en expedier le diplome. 

13°,— 11 signe le proces verbal du jour dont le G d Secretaire P. laisse un double aux 
freres de la future Loge. 



l°._Les membres de la nouvelle Loge doivent s'unir dans une chambre pendant que 

les grands officiers s'assemblent dans une autre. 
2°.-— Sur la table de cette derniere doivent etre les bijoux, outils, instrumens et 

flambeaux qui sont prepares pour la nouvelle Loge. 

64 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

3°.— Les G' 13 ofticiers eta lit habillos, le G a Secretaire va avertir les vi si tours et les 
freres de se rendre aupres du Grand Ma it re Provincial, ce qu'ils font en habit. 

40 _Le Maitre designe adresse un petit discours an G. M. P. pour le prier de les constituer 
en nouvelle Loge, ce qu'il accorde en ordonnant a son Secretaire de les rendre par- 
ticipans de la Lumiere. 

5°.— Le Secretaire tire a l'instant du feu d'une pierre, le presente an G. M. P. qui en 
allume les trois flambeaux qui lui sont presented par les trois officiers designes. 

6°. —Apres les applaudissemens d'usage, on se met en marche pour se rendre a la table 
de Loge dans l'ordre suivant : 

Le servant de la nouvelle Loge 

Ses membres 2 a 2 

Un servant de la G. L. P. l'epeo a la main 

Les visiteurs 2 a 2 
Le futur 2° surveillant avec un flambeau 

Le G d Secret 6 P. avec les instrumens de la Loge 
Le G d Tresorier avec les livres do la Loge 
Le futur 1° surveillant avec un flambeau 
Les G. Surveillans P. avec les bijoux de la Loge 

Le futur Maitre avec un flambeau 
Le Depute Provincial portant la Bible de la Loge 
Le Porte glaive avec Tepee d'etat 

Le G. M. P. couvert 
2 servants l'epee a, la main 

70 — e„ entrant dans la salle, ceux qui portent les instrumens, livres bijoux et Bible les 
mettent sur l'autel et les autres placent les flambeaux selon l'usage. 

8°.— Des que le G. M. P. touche l'occident, on lui ouvre la voute ferree, par laquelle il se 
rend au trone. 

90 ji n ' y os t pas arrive que la voute disparait et les applaudissemens suivent apres 

lesquels il ouvre la Loge et donne aux freres les instructions que la prudence lui 
10° .— Aiant fait retirer le Maitre designe, il demande pour la derniere fois si les freres per- 
sistent dans le choix qu'ils ont fait, et cela etant il prie son Depute de le lui amener. 

11°. _Le Depute va le chercher, le fait parvenir a l'autel en Macon et dit : 

F. N., G. M. P. je vous presente le f pour vous prier de conflrmer 

le choix qui en a ete fait pour oonduire les ouvrages de cette future Loge. 
II en est digne par la morale de ses principes, sa probite, ses connoissances 
dans Part roial et son amour pour la fraternite repandue sur la surface de 
la terre. 
12°.— Le G. M. P. repond: Instruisez done ce frere des devoirs et des droits de la charge 

que le libre consentement de ses freres veut bien lui Conner. 
13 o _Apres que le Depute a rempli cette fonction, il met l'Elu sous la couronne et le 
G. M. P. lui fait preter l'obligation apres laquelle il ajoute : 

Par l'autorite et au nom du G. M. de la Societe des francs et acceptes 
Macons, nous constituons et formons ces bons freres en line nouvelle Loge 

et vous nommons Fr pour etre le Maitre ne doutant point que 

vous ne mettiez tous vos bons soins a, cimenter l'amitie qui pent seule la 
mettre a l'abri de l'inconstance et du terns. 
14° —Le G. Secretaire lit la patente de constitution et l'aiant fait signer par le G. M. P. 

il la remet sur l'autel. 
I50 —Tous les freres qui ne sont pas on qui n'ont pas ete Maitres de Loge doivent se retirer 
pour donner a l'Elu les caracteres de sa nouvelle dignity 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 65 

1(3°.— Chacun etant rer.tvo ot remis en place, le G. M. P. revet l'Elu ties ornemens do 
sa dignite, lui remet l'acte do constitution, los livres, los instrumens et les bijoux de 
la Logo, en lui donnant los instructions coiivenables. 

17°.— Le G. M. P. quitte alors lo trone et, y aiant fait asseoir l'Elu, le Grand Secretaire dit : 
Mes freres par ordre du G. M. P. nous vous ordonnons et enjoignons de 
reconnoitre le f pour votre maitre et de lui preter obeissance. 

IS'.— Co devoir etant rempli lo nouveau Maitre doit remercier les grands officiers, les 
visiteurs et les membres. 

19°. — Le Grand Secretaire presente au nouveau Maitre (un couvre-ohef) dont il se couvre, 
et alors le G. M. P. lui remet le maillet on lui disant : 

Jo vous remets ce Sceptre de la Maconnerie qui prouve 1'autorifo du chef 
sans detruire la liberte des membres. Commencez done a user de vos droits 
en nommant ceux que vous destinez a vous aider. 

20°. — Le nouveau Maitre presente deux suiveillans, si tous les membres admettent co 
choix le G. M. P., pour lo confirmer, ordonne a. chacun d'eux de se rondre aupres 
du G d Surv 1 qu'il doit remplacer, pour etre instruit de ses droits et de ses devoirs. 

21°.— Chaque instructeur ramene son disciple a l'autel, et le Maitre leur aiant fait 
preter 1'obligation relative, les habille, les decore, leur donne les marques de 
jurisdiction et ils vont aux sieges des surveillans pendant que les Grands prennent 
rang le premier a la droite du G. M. P. et le second a la gauche de son Depute. 

22°. — Le Maitre aiant vetu nomine et installe un tresorier, un secretaire, un orateur, 
un architocte, un infirmier et un Maitre des ceremonies, continue l'ouvrage du 
jour, mais decouvert par respect pour les grands officiers. 

2,'S .— Lo Maitre voulant terminer les ouvrages en demando permission au G. M. P. qui 
avant que de la lui accordor dira etant assis : 

Mes freres grands officiers nous vous prions de nous declarer sinoerement, 
si nous avons rempli toutes les formalites qu'exige la constitution reguliere 
d'une Lege? 

24°.— La reponso etant affiimative, le G. M. P. se leve ajoute : Puisque cela est ainsi 
felicitons-nous, Mes freres, de ce glorioux ouvrage. Puisse cette nouvelle 
Loge diiment constitute etre une ecole perpetuelle, oil s'enseignent et se 
pratiquent les loix de la vertu et les devoirs de l'amitie. Puisse ce 
nouveau temple eonsacre a la sagesse, obtenir la force qu'elle procure, 
pour reflechir la beaute qui enchante nos coeurs. Puissent ses membres 
y trouver l'asile de la paix, de l'harmonie et de la coneorde, moi'ens 
infaillibles de parvenir a une immortalite glorieuse." 

2l5°.— Chacun salue profondement le G. M. P. qui, avec ses grands officiers, le maitre et 
les membres de la nou\ elle Loge, signe le proces verbal du jour, dont un double est 
remis au Grand Secretaire avec une liste des membres et la Loge est fermeo par 
lo nouveau Maitre selon l'usage. 

26°.— C'est un usage constant que dans ces ceremonies la nouvelle Loge habille les grands 
officiers et fait tous les frais du jour. 


1°.— Tout Maitre a droit d'assembler sa Loge quand il lui plait: mais il ne pent de sa 

seule autorite en changer ni les jours ordinal res ni le lieu. 
2°.— Si Ton veut transferer le lieu le Maitre etant de cette opinion, doit faire sommer 
tous les freres de so rendre, dix jours apres au moins, a l'assemblee qu'il entend tenir 
a ce sujet et pour que le ehangement ait lieu, il suffit de la pluralite des voix, si le 
Maitre est pour 1' affirmative. 

66 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

3"'.- Si le Maitre etoit d'un sentiment contrairo, les surveillans peuvent lo sommer par 
eecit d'indiquer l'assemblee, et s'il le refuse on garde trois jours de silence sur la 
sommatiou, les surveillans indiqueront l'assemblee dix jours au moins avant qu'elle se 
tienne, en dormant avis au Maitre et aux membres de son motif. 

4°.— Mors en absence on en presence du Maitro, on discutera la matiere et la Loge ne 
sera transferee oontre l'avis du Maitre qu'autant que les deux tiers oomplets des 
membres seront pour la translation: mais en l'absence du Maitre, cette assembler 
ne peut traitor aucune autre affaire. 

5°.— Dans toutes les deliberations le Maitre a deux voix. 


1°._Lps Surveillans sont presented par lo Maitre, qui ne pout installer, qu'autant qu'un 

consentiment unanime les rocoit ; car si la nomination du Maitre trouvo un seul 

opposant, le droit du Maitre est rempli et les surveillans doivent etro nommes par 

la pluralite des suffrages. 
2=.— Le bon ordre et la discipline de la Logo les regarde ; aussi hors do la presence du 

Maitre, ont-ils le droit de roprendre et de corriger memo les officiers de la Loge. 
3°._Le premier, comme a son deffaut le second remplace lo Maitre absent, malade ou 

mort, et alors il jou'it de tons les droits attaches au siege. 
4° _Si la Loge avoit un frere qui out deja tenu et exerce sa maitrise, ce seroit au sur- 

voillant a indiquer les jours d'assemblee : mais cot ancien Maitre presideroit aux 




]o __rj n membre, avant que d'etre reeu, doit etre propose un mois auparavant, et pendant 
ce terns, son nom sera expose a la viie des freres dans la salle de Loge. 

2°.— On a toujours souhaite qu'un membre ne fut admis que par le consentement unanime 
des freres; et ce n'a etc qu'avec peine qu'on s'est restreint a l'exclure que quand 
il a trois voix contre lui. 

3°._Tout membre qui, sans excuse valable, resto trois-mois sans paroitre en sa Loge, 
doit etro somme de s'y rendre; et faute de le faire, doit etro raie du tableau. 

4°.— Tout membre qui vent porter line plainte en G. L. P. doit en dormer avis au G d 
Secretaire, de faeon qu'il ait le terns d'y sommer les parties intexessees. 

5°.— Si un membre assiste a une Loge ou a line reception clandestine, il perd des lors 
son droit de membre, ne pent devenir officier de Loge et ne doit pas en etre aide, 
s'il venoit a avoir besoin de ses secours. 



1°.— Personne ne pent etre initio, s'il n'est bien connu, n'a atteint l'age de 21 ans, n'a 
ete jiropose pendant un mois et ne jou'it d'une bonne reputation. 

2°.— I'n candidat, lors de sa reception, doit habiller la Loge. 

3° —On mottra au moins l'intervalle d'un mois du 1 au 2 g. de trois du 2 au 3 g. et de six 

de ce 3° a l'obtention d'une dignite dans la Loge. 
4°._Te.ut homme initie clandestincment est regarde comme n'etant pas maeon, 

The English Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands. 67 



1°.— II n'ost point de circonstanco dans laquello une Loge doive agir avec plus de 
prudence, que quand il est question d'admettre uu ctrangor a la participation de 
ses ouvrages. 

2°. — Nul visitour ne doit etre admis, s'il n'est personnellement connu d'un ou de 
plusieurs menibres, qui puissent attester l'avoir vu dans nos atteliers. 

30 _ — a ce deffaut on doit exiger de lui un certifficat de reception, sans etendre ses droits 
plus loin que le dit certificat ne lui en donne. 

40 — p our q U ' U n certificat soit legitime, il doit etre signe au moins des trois premiers 
officiers de la Loge qui l'accorde, de celui a qui il est accorde, et la signature de ce 
dernier sera attesteo par celle du Secretaire : il sera de plus scelle des sceaux de la 
Loge et de son maitre. II est a souhaiter de plus qu'il soit legalise par la G. L. 
generate nationale ou provinciale, dont la Loge releve immediatement. 

50. — Un frfere muni d'un pared certificat est admis en confrontant la signature qu'on lui 
fait mettre dans le livre des visitours, avec la meme qu'il a deja mise au certificat; 
et la parite ou dispante d'ecriture decide. 

yo. Un frere visiteur, qui n'est ni connu ni muni de certificat, ne pout etre admis sans 

avoir pris le sentiment des freres sur le rapport que leur fera celui qui aura ete charge 
de lui faire subir un examen scrupuleux et si sur ce raport il y avoit deux opposi- 
tions, ou cidle du Maitre, cc visiteur devroit etre prie de se retirer. 



1°. — Avant que d'admettre un servant, on ne sauroit faire trop d'attention a son etat, 
sa vie privee, ses moeurs, sa temperance et sa discretion, puisque nous ne sommes 
plus dans h tens ou les servans avoient une distinction, qui nous les faisoit con- 
noitre sans qu'ils nous connussent; et ou l'idee de nos premiers elemens etoit pour 
eux la recompense d'une vartu eprouvee. 

2°.— lis ne pouront etre admis au 2 g. qu'apres six mois d'Initiation et rarement en 

elovera-t-on au 3 g. 
3 .— Si un servant se rondoit coupable de faire des receptions clandestines ou d'y assister; 

il seroit exclu de la Societe et ne pouroit pretendre a ses secours, quels que devins- 

sent ses besoins. 



11 soroit a souhaiter que les G d " M es Nationaux et provinciaux fissent connoitre au 
G. M. P. Et ranger a Londres, quels sont les grades que l'on confere dans leur Grand- 
Loge, atin que de covert la Grand-Loge, en faisant un triage, put en regler le 
nombre, de facon que leur echelle conduisit a une verite claire, certaine et desirable : 
e'est a quoi s'est deja conforme le f .'. de la Ohaussee chancellier et Agent de la Grand- 
Loge nationale de France. 



1°. — Si les Loges particulieres no vouloient point etre troublees par des demandes 
journalieres, elles pouroient etablir dans la G. L. P. un fonds general de charite, 
auquel tout indigent seroit oblige de s'adresser comme cela se pratique dans la 
Sublime Grand-Loge. 

68 Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 

2°.— A cliaque communication do quartier, le Secretaire feroit un appol des Loges sub- 
ordonneos on suivant l'ordre du tableau, et chacune declareroit ce qu'elle entend y 
donner, qu'elle remettroit a 1' instant et publiquement au G d Tresorier, qui en feroit 
note et en declareroit a la fin le montant a haute voix. 
30 _Niil grand officier ne seroit mis en place, nulle nouvelle loge no seroit constitute, 
nul certificat ou nulle dispense ne seroit accordee sans y faire une oifrande fixee par 
la G. L. P. 
4°.— Toute Loge qui passeroit une annee sans y contribuer, seroit obligee de le t'aire 
sur le premier avis que lui en donneroit le Grand Secretaire, sous peine en ne s'y 
conformant pas, de perdre sa constitution et son rang. 
5 C .— Apres la collecte faite, la G. L. P. prendroit en consideration les requetes qui lui 
auroient ete presentee par les indigens, et decideroit a la pluralite des voix: 1° Si 
le sujot doit etre aide 2° de quelle sommo il peui l'etre, eu egard a ses besoins et 
aux fonds. 
6°.— Tout frere qui voudroit y avoir recours devroit remettre, au moins dix jours avant 
l'assomblee sa requete au Grand Secretaire pour qu'il ait le terns de faire les infor- 
mations qu'il croira necessaires. 

70 .—Cetto requete doit etre attestee et signee par deux freres, dont l'un au moins soit 
present a l'assemblee pour donner les eclaircissemens requis. 

8°.— Dans ce cas, si aucun des fie.res qui ont signe la requete, n'avoit droit de seance a 
Tassemblee, Fun ou tous les deux pouroient noanmoins s'y rendre, afin que la 
G. L. P. put les y faire introduire pour etre intorroges dans le besoin, si le G. M. P. 
n'avoit pas juge a propos de les y admettre comme visitours. 

9°.— Nulle nouvelle requete d'indigent ne sera admise dans le cours de la meme annee, 
a moins qu'il n'y allegue de nouveaux motifs bien attestes. 

10°.— Si le besoin d'un frere etoit tel qu'il requit un secours immediat sans pouvoir 
attendre le jour de la prochaine assemblee, le G. M. P. sera autorise, apres avoir 
pris l'avis de son Depute, de ses surveillans et de son Tresorier, a lui dormer un 
ordre sur le dernier pour telle sommo modique que sa G. L. P. aura fixee. 

11°.— Quiconque sera convaincu d'aller de Loge en Luge y faire metier de demander, 
SL-ra par eele seul exclu de tout a la charite de la Grande Loge Provinciale. 

To this copy was added the following endorsement, which shows that in the 
mind of the Marquis de Gages and his Grand Officers a certain confusion was still 
prevailing at that time between the Parfaite Harmonie and the new Provincial Grand 


Vu, Lu et aprouve et accepto par nous grand M .-. provincial, depute grand 
maitre, second depute, prem. second Surveillants, officiers dignitaires et membres 
de la Respectable grande Loge provinciale des Pays bas austrichiens Uite La vraie 
et parfaite harmonie seante a L'oriont de Mons, en foy de quoy nous avons signe 
au dit orient La ditto Loge etant Regulievremont assemblee Le 3 Avril 1770, L. de 
grace. L an de la Lumieyre 5770. 

Le Marquis de Gaycs G.\ M.\ I'.'. 

Le Comte d'Arbtrg I).\ G.\ M.\ Perignon de progent l a (/.". surv.'. 

de Lemaire G.\ M.\ D.\ G.\ Gallez 2 d g r surv.'. 

Be La Maiselle G.\ P:. g.\ j-_ Sublux g:. or. 

Le baron de Stael B.\ C.'. 

J.- B. Housier 

Ije B r de Boozemberq P.'. G.'. „ , 7 ,,, , • v r- 

a Br de Lberstein J4... (/... 

Query P.'. G.\ 

P. Dumont P.'. C.\ 


de E.des 9. 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 




18 the excelleut description of this document by Bro. F. J. W. Crowe, 
full justice has been done to the subject in France, but an account 
of the British portion would no doubt be welcome to English readers. 
We have some very interesting letters upon this from the pen of 
Dr. C. Moiison, written in 1845. His name appears as Baueenifer 
as "Charles of Arabia" in the 1825 Manuel of the Chevaliers of the 
Order, though he signs as Grand Chancellor in 1821 (see Bro. 
Crowe's paper), and he informs us that he was Grand Chancellor in 1831, and we may 
suppose up to 1836. Hence he had special opportunities, and the ability as well, to 
<>-et at the actual history of the Order, and he vouches for an " undoubted existence " 
from 1705. Yet he accuses Fabre Palaprat of " falsifying the Statutes," and in 1822 
chano-incr the cross, hence I take it we may hold our mind in reserve as to Clavel's 
statements. From what we know of Fabre's acts we may quite believe that he really 
was guilty of some "pious frauds" in regard to the " Relics," but this, it seems to 
me, neither affects the authenticity of either the Charter, or the Rituals. As to the 
former, it is as difficult to believe that it is a fraud, as it is to believe that it has been 
transmitted through the centuries ; but leaving that aside the Rituals might have a 
genuine ancient transmission. 

Fabre seems to have been taken with the fact of the existence of the Masonic 
Knights Templars, and he did invent, in 1808, a species of Adoptive Freemasonry as 
his "Lower Militia." The allegation that he "falsified the Statutes" does not 
amount to much. I have made a comparison of those of 1825 with those of 1815, 
and find that the following have been added :— 


Of the 

Magisterial Prince, 

15 Articles 



Grand Committee, 




































Prefect of Legations, 




Of C ei 

•tificate forms, 



Additions were also made to IV, VII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVIII, XXII, 
XXXVI (Vestments 5), XXXVII, XXXVIII, XXXIX, LI, LII. Probably there 
was no great harm in all this, for even in England we have never hesitated to alter our 
Rituals and Laws. We had anciently two species of Templar, that of Ecossaise, 
" Templar p, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre " of Seven degrees Observance work, and 
that of " St. John of Jerusalem " (Baptist) of Bristol and Ireland, also importations into 
England from Ireland. Singularly, these are said to have had different objects, the 
first being the appanage of the House of Stuart, while the second came to be devoted 

70 transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

to the House of Orange, according to my late two friends, Charles Monck Wilson, 
J.P., F.R.S.L., and Major Francis George Irwin, of Bristol, who both firmly believed 
that at a period older than our ordinary records, Orangeism and Freemasonry were 
so closely allied that they were practically one and the same society, and that the 
Black Masonry of the Orange Order is our Templar and Templar Priest; hence 
Freemasonry abandoned the last named. Thus Fabre's great fault was not so much 
in his six semi-Masonic degrees, as in his toying with the Evangelicon and Levitikon, 
and his conversion of the latter into an Order of Levites, though this had nothing to 
do with his six semi-Masonic degrees. His Knights of the East, as any one can see 
who examines an Oration in the Manuel of 1825, are the same thing as de Tschoudy's, 
and the Observance-Dunckerley ritual's account of the Knights of the Dawn or of 

There is a pecularity in the Ritual of 1705, for I am quite ready to give it that 
age, apart from any voucher of Dr. Morison, which might induce us to give it a very 
ancient transmission through the Centuries by the Chaplains of the Order, who were 
not tortured and persecuted like the unfortunate Knights, and had full liberty to do as 
they might think fit on the fall of the Order. If there is any point of the history of 
the unfortunate persecutions of 1307 to 1312 upon which we can rely it is this, that 
the Vow of Profession was the same for all classes, even for females, who seem to have 
been sometimes admitted. The Rituals of admission were the same, save as to duties, 
in all cases for the three classes ; the Knights or Chevaliers were admonished to perform 
their duties under the most rigid military discipline. The Serving Esquires were the 
Arms bearers of the Knights, and the orders were less rigid but required obedience to 
their superiors. The Chaplains were admitted by the Litin llitual of the Benedictines. 

Let us turn to the Ritual as Fabre handed it down to us. The first Reception 
is that of "Esquire and Taking the Habit." It required proofs of Nobility, and the 
candidate might or might not become a Chevalier ; he is assigned to serve some special 
Knight. There is only one other Ritual, and, as showing some affinity with the Masonic 
Templar, the aspirant receives a " Pilgrim name, which is usually that of Baptism." 
Again, up to a certain point, he is addressed as "Esquire." Then the Aspirant is 
received, according to the Benedictine ceremony of the Chaplains, in the Coffin, and reborn 
with the same sort of liturgy, and Suffers a Tonsure, the cut hair being preserved as a 
memento for deposit in the Archives of the Order, with the Vow of Profession, which 
he signs with his blood. Without any actual break, or point, he is now Created and 
Sanctified as a Professed Chevalier, though there are no great military exactions such as 
prevailed in the ancient Order. Even the very differences here noted argue 
for the ancient transmission of the Order, no matter whether we accept or 
reject the Charter, and I know of no body of men who would have been more likely 
to have possessed the original Ritual than the Jesuit friends of Orleans, at Clermont, 
where Philippe signed the Statutes in 1705. Much of Clavel's talk we may dismiss 
with contempt, and especially all that about the " Petite Resurrection." The private 
life of the Duke of Orleans was an ample refutation of that. Many years ago I sought 
to authenticate the alleged signature of the Duke de Duras in 1681, and I found that 
though he had been created Due, he had not at that date taken out his Patent, but that 
is not sufficient, under the circumstances, to invalidate his signature. 

Now as to the Masonic Templars, how comes it that the Ecossaises of Clermont, 
if they had the same origin as those of Bristol and Ireland, have always termed them- 

The Charter of Larmenius. 71 

selves Templars, and not even the United Order of St. John and the Temple (united by 
Clement V.) ? It is certain that the former, succeeding the Reformation, was the more 
popular designation for The United Order, both in Scotland and England ; but Duke 
Philippe's successors were Masons, and Ecossaisism may have desired to maintain a 
right to the title with Philippe's body. I can offer no better explanation, and will now 
turn to the letters of Dr. 0. Morison. Bro. Michael Furnell, 33° of Ireland, sought 
copies and printed them, and a copy reached me about 1870. 


Paris, 15 May, 1846. 
Dear Sir and Brother, 

Since you have been so good as to express a wish to have copies 
of my letters to Mr. J. L. Woodman, Secretary to the Order of the Temple 
in Edinburgh, relative to the Society, I have great pleasure in obliging 
you, and to inform you that you may show, or print them, if you think 
they are worth while. 

I am, Dear Sir, your Servant and Brother, 

C. Morison, D.G.I.G.33rd. 
To M. Furnell, Esqre. 

1. 13, Quai Voltaire, F.S.G., 14th July, 1845. 
Sir and Brother, 

I beg to inform you that from this date I cease being a member 
of the Order of the Templp in Scotland ; request you will have the goodness 
to strike out my name from the list. Should I owe any fees, etc., etc., to 
the Order on your taking the trouble to let me know the sum, and why 
and how incurred, I will remit to you the amount. 

I am, etc., etc., 

To Mr. J. L. AVoodman. 0. Morison. 

2. 13, Quai Voltaire, F.S.G., 27th November, 1845. 

Sir and Brother, As to being absolved from the Vow of 

Profession, never having made one in the Scottish Order of the Temple, 
cannot possibly be absolved from it. When I became a Templar in 1798 
no Vow was made, nor any promise entered about remaining in or quitting 
the Order. 

Within the last few years (four or five only) the Order of the Temple 
in Scotland appear to consider themselves the successors of the Antient, 
Noble, and Glorious Order of the Temple, formed in 1118 by Hugh de 
Pagan (Payans in French, not Hugh de Payance) and destroyed in 1314. 
Error. The Order of the Temple was introduced at Edinburgh in 1798, 
by certain non-commissioned officers and men of the Nottingham Militia, 
then quartered in the Castle* (see the "Revue Historique Scientific and 
Morale de F. Mac., 1 vol. 8vo. page 134, Paris Galerie de Lorme, No. 
11 et 13, 1830."). They became frequent visitors or Members of St. 
Stephen's Lodge, then No. 193, now No. 145; they introduced into that 
Lodge the Royal Arch and Templar degrees, such as practised in England,* 
but individually and without any legal authority to do so, from any 
regular Masonic body entitled to constitute Chapters, or Encampments. 

My Diploma of Knight of the Temple from Edinburgh St. Stephen's 
Lodge, is now before me ; it is dated the 13th August 1800, and signed 
by the High Priest, the Captain General, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Grand 
Wardens, and the Grand Secretary of a Grand Assembly of Knights 
Templars held under the sanction of St. Stephen's Lodge. 

72 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

In 1801 or 1802, tlio late Mr. Deucliar visited St. Stephen's Lodge. 
He saw several members wearing black Sashes; on enquiry was told they 
were Templars. He became a member, was almost immediately named 
Treasurer, and from one dignity to another he became Grand Master. 

In 1811 he got a Charter from his late R.H. the Duke of Kent, 
through his brother (Major Deuchar), an officer in the R, Lt. H. Regt. 
The Duke of Kent could only give a Charter as Chief of the Masonic 
Templars in England. Had the Scottish Order really been a continuation 
of the Antient, Noble, and Glorious Order of the Temple, there was no 
necessity to have received a Charter from his late R.H. the Duke of 

In 1831, a Mr. H. Stewart, Member and Grand Cross, of the Scottish 
Order of the T., came to Paris, purposely to be made a French Templar ; 
he was made and named Legat for the French Order in England, with 
power to constitute a Convent at Liverpool. The Convent had formerly 
been, and was then (1831) under the jurisdiction of the Scottish Order, as 
the Priory of Jacques de Molay. Both Stewart, and his Convent, or 
Priory, repudiated the Scottish Order as irregular, illegitimate and merely 
Masonic, and entered (in 1831) under the obedience of the French Order, 
in which Stewart became (and I think still is), a Commander, Bailly, and 
Grand Prior. I was then Grand Chancellor of the French Order, and 
as such signed, sealed, and Registered his Diploma of Chevalier, and his 
Letters of Investiture. In August 1836, Dr. J. Burnes, a member of the 
Scottish Order, came also to Paris to be made a French Templar. Dr. B. 
was a zealous Mason, but a mere rhetoric one; he was also a Grand 
Cross of the Scottish Order of the T. He went through a sort of Reception 
in the house of the late Grand Master (Fabre), and supposed, or fancied, 
that he had been made a French Templar. He was named Legat in Scotland 
and India, with the Dignity of Commander of Calais, Bailly of Berne, 
and Grand Prior of Aquitaine. On his return to Edinburgh he received 
several Masons French Templars, amongst them Mr. Laurie. Dr. Burnes 
having been irregularly received " au coin du Cheminee," as they say in 
France, in open violation of several articles of the Statutes, and Magisterial 
Decrees, could not make those he received more regular than himself, nor 
can he or they be considered French Templars by the Knights of the French 
Order, initiated legally according to the Statutes, who have entered the 
Order in the coffin, and who have been Received according to the Ritual. 
The principal reason Dr. Burnes gave me for his wishing to become a 
French Templar was, that according to his idea, the Scottish Order was 
merely Masonic, whereas he considered the French Templars as the only 
real descendants, and the French Order the only true and uninterrupted 
- continuation of the Antient, Noble, and Glorious Order of the Temple. On 
the last point, however, he was mistaken. The French Order can, never- 
theless, prove 140 years of undoubted existence, and until the French 
Order had (in 1804) the misfortune of placing a low fellow like Fabre at 
their head, the Grand Masters were always men of the highest rank, and 
of the first and most noble families of France. 

I possess the correspondence between the late Mr. A. Deuchar and 
myself for many years past. Though Grand Master for upwards of 25 
years it never once entered into his imagination that the Society of which 
he was Chief, and which in fact he had made what it is, was anything 
else than the Masonic Order of the Temple, imported from England in 
1798 by certain non-commissioned Officers and Men of the Nottingham 
Militia. About sixteen or eighteen years ago, I sent a copy of the Statutes 
of the French Order (those of 1825 falsified by Fabre) to the late Ml'. 

The Charter of Larmenius. 73 

Deucliar, from which a great part of those of the Scottish Order, in 

particular the Arms, Diploma, etc., have been taken. Unfortunately, 

they have taken the Arms invented by Fabre in 1822, a Cross surmounted 

by a sort of Crown Mitre. 1 The true Arms of the French Order are those 

which I enclose. 

Even supposing the history of the Scottish Order, prefixed to this 

Statute of 1843, to be true; and that Sir W. de Clifton, Lord Dundee, 

the Earl of Mar, the Duke of Athol, Prince Charles Edward, and Oliphant 

of Bachilton, have been Grand Masters of the Order in Scotland, with 

the exception of Sir W. de Clifton, who was one of the Old, Noble, and 

Glorious Order of the Temple, all the others can only be considered Chiefs 

of a political Society who took the name of The Order of the Temple. 

It appears to have been altogether composed of the adherents of the 

House of Stuart, to be made use of when a favourable opportunity might 


In 1821 the Captain Mairroski instituted a political Society in Poland, 

with the view of restoring liberty to his country, which Society he called 
Order of the Temple (see " Rapport du Comite d' Enquete a S.A.I. Monsgr. 
le Grand Due Constantin, Commandant en Chef l'Armee Polanaise ; Paris, 
Poublie en Palais Royal et Ponthim, Michelson et Cie, Leipsic 1827. 
Brochure en 8vo. de 108 pages.") Captain Mairroski had been a French 
prisoner of War in Scotland, and was there made a Masonic Templar; 
but who would seriously suppose that such a Society was the Order of the 
Temple ? 

It appears to me to be the same thing with respect to the Scottish 
Order. There is not the slightest proof that the Masonic Society at present 
■ existing in Edinburgh, calling itself the Order of the Temple, is now a 
continuation of the Society said to have existed in 1745, also calling itself 
the Order of the Temple. If they are a continuation of that Society they 
ought to bo able to prove it, and to show the legal transmission from 
Mr. Oliphant of Bachilton to Mr. Deuchar. There are no proofs what- 
ever that the modern Order of the Temple at Edinburgh is a continuation 
or the Old, Noble, and Glorious Order of the Temple, instituted in 1118, 
or rather 1128, and destroyed by Philip le Bel, a coiner of false money, 

assisted by Pope Clement the V., a S The Convocation of all the 

Templars in Scotland, that is to say the Masons calling themselves 
Templars ! ! ! declaring their independence, and asserting their antient 
prerogative (see Statutes of 1843) means nothing, it is " Vox et prseterea 
Nihil." They could not give what they did not possess. The Order of 
the Temple in Edinburgh was, is, and always will be, as I have said, the 
Masonic Templars introduced at Edinburgh in 1798 into St. Stephen's 
Lodge, by some English Masonic Templars, then in the Castle with a 
Regiment of English Militia.* It is, 1 have not the smallest doubt, a most 
excellent Society composed of good, worthy, and honourable men; but it 
i.i not The Order of the Temple. 

Of course you know that the word "Conclave" means a meeting 
of Cardinals assembled for the purpose of Electing a Pope. It appears 
to me a most extraordinary term applied to the governing body of a 
Society calling themselves Templars. In my opinion the word " Conclave " 
ought never to be pronounced by a Templar except in execration. The 
Scottish Templars, are they ignorant of the Bulls of Clement V., the vile 
accomplice of Philip le Bel, " Regnamans in Coelis Triumphans Ecclesia," 
published at Poictiers, the 12th August, 1308, and "Alma Mater Ecclesia," 
published at Avignon the 4th April, 1310, addressed to Robert de Win- 
chelsea, Archbishop of Canterbury ? Do they not know the infamous 

1 It is a small white Maltese cross charged with a red cross Patee. J.Y. 

* Bro Morison is in error. The degrees of Royal Arch and Masonic K.T. were 
introduced from Ireland by the Nottingham Militia, who received them in Dublin, M. 

74 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

sentence of the Council of Vienne in Dauphine held the 16th October, 
Kill, and the Hull, " Ad Providentiam Christi Vicarii Priesidentis," 
published at Vienne in Dauphine the 2nd May, 1312, which pronounced 
the dissolution of the Old, Noble, and Glorious Order of the Temple, gave 
the signal for the most horrible persecutions and ended in the legal 
assassination of the Grand Master Jacques de Molay, and of Guy Dauphin 
d' Auvergne, Grand Prior of Aquitaine ? (Quibus honor et gloria.) 
I am, Sir and Brother, 

Your Obedient Servant and Brother, 
To Mr. J. L. Woodman. O. Morison. 

N.B. The Old, Noble, and Glorious Order of the Temple was governed 
by a Chapter General composed of the Grand Master, the Preceptor or 
Grand Commander, the Grand Mareschal, the Grand Hospitaller, the Grand 
Drapier or Trapier, and the Grand Tresorier. The Grand Commander 
is sometimes called the Grand Seneschal. The Institution is as old as 
the Order itself; they were originally the Officers of the Convent in Acre. 

Certified a true Copy. C. Morison. 

Bros. C. Morison and equally M. Fumell are wrong in attributing the introduction 
of Arch and Templar to the Nottingham Militia in 1798. Both the Arch and the 
Templar were introduced into St. Stephen's Lodge, 1778, by the Scoon and Perth 
Masons ; a Lodge which according to their Charter of 1658 initiated our British 
Solomon, James ^', through their Master and the King's Master Mason, John Mylne. 
On the 23rd November, 1894, the late G.S.E. of Scotland, E. S. Brown, was good 
enough to send me the following extracts from the Minute Book of the Edinburgh 
Royal Arch Chapter, No. 1, belonging to St. Stephen's Lodge, audit is evidence which 

is indisputable. 

"Edinburgh, Dec 1 '. 2nd, 1778. 

" This day the compliment of Six Sundry Steps in Masonry was offered 
to the Office Bearers of St. Stephen's Lodge by sundry of the Brethren 
from the ancient Lodge of Perth and Scoon particularly Brother Andrew 
Gloag, Bro. Bryson, Bro. David Gray, and Bro. John Scobie. Accordingly 
there was a Committee called, so there was then present The Right 
Worshipful Master Br. David McLaren ; Br. Wm, Lyon, J.W. ; Br. John 
Dick, Secretary ; Br. George Miller, Senr House Steward ; Br. Robert 
Stewart, Grocer; Br. Wm. Mackenzie; Br. John Moodie, and Br. John 
Reid, Tyler, who all of one Voice, accepted of the compliment of that 
degree in Masonry, vizt. called Past the chair, after which the Master, 
Warden, Secretary, and Brethren present gave honorary Invitations to the 
above named Brethren who gave us the Compliment." 

"Dec 1 . 4th, 1778. 

" This Night being set apart by the Brethren of the Perth and Scoon Lodge 
. in order to confer upon the Office Bearers of St. Stephens Lodge the 
following Degrees of Masonry, viz*: Excellent and Super Excellent 
Mason, Arch and Royal Arch Masons, and lastly Knights of Malta, there 
was then at that time admitted into that Order Br. David McLaren, 
Master ; Br. Wm. Lyon, Jn. Warden ; Br. David Dick, Secty ; 
Br. Jas Shaw, Treasurer; Br. John Noteman, Grand Steward; Br. Jas. 
Miller, Sen 1 ' Lodge Steward; Br. Wm. Gow, Watchmaker; Br. John 
Moodie, Clerk; and Br. John Reid, Tyler; after which the Right 

The Charter of Larmenius. '° 

Worshipful Master, Worshipful Junior Warden, and Office Bearers then 
present, ordered the same to be minuted in order to shew the worthy 
Brethren of St. Stephens Lodge what honour the Brethren of Perth and 
Scoon Lodge had conferred on us." 

This settles entirely the alleged introduction in 1798, but in the letter Bro. R. S. 
Brown sends me with this, he says that he had had in his hands, in 1872-4, the 
Certificate of a Bro. Jas. Smith which recorded that he was Entered, Passed, Raised, 
and advanced to the Excellent, Super-Excellent, and Royal Arch, and dubbed a Knight 
Templar, and Knight of Malta in St. Stephen's Lodge. Date of Certificate 1796. 

For an angry man the Doctor is good enough to afford all the information he can 
to his Scottish Brethren. He seems to be hard on Dr. Burnes, and I can quite believe 
what he says as to the Candidate having had no legal reception. Probably the real 
cause of so trenchant an attack upon the Scottish Order is that Dr. Burnes used h.s 
powers to create an independent body. The Scottish Ritual is unquestionably the best 
of the sister kingdoms, but it is not the Ritual of the Ordre du Temple, except that 
it contains the Vow of Profession, and it would be simply upon signing that that his 
Reception was recorded. The other changes made in the Scottish Ritual are only such 
as would be gathered by a perusal of the Statutes of 1825 ; the bulk of the Ritual 
is simply a revision of the Deuchar Masonic Templar Work. 

3 13, Quai Voltaire, F.S.G., Paris, 27th Deer., 1745. 

Sir and Brother, .... (sic) 

A Society calling themselves the Order of the Temple exists in 
England, Scotland, Ireland, France, and Germany. In Portugal it is 
known as the Order of Christ. In Scotland and France it pretends to be 
the lineal descendant and legitimate successor of the Old, Noble, and 
Glorious Order of the Temple. I am inclined to think that neither of 
them have that right. The Order of Christ in Portugal seems to have the 
best claim to legitimacy. A few years after the destruction of the Old, 
Noble, and Glorious Order (1319), their name only was changed, and the 
Glorious Red Cross simply charged with a white one. Their Dress, form 
of Cross, Begle, etc., etc., remain to the present time such as they were 
previous to 1314. 

Their name was changed and the white cross added in 1319 by Pope 
John XXII.; see his Bull, " Adea ex quibus " approved and ratified by 
Denis King of Portugal the 5th May 1319. 


Any individual who assumes titles or qualifications to which he has 
no right is little esteemed ; it is the same with Societies. Any Society or 
body of men taking titles or qualifications to which they have not a clear 
' and undoubted right, however well composed and respectable they may be 
individually, cannot be respected, or respectable, as a Society, should their 
unfounded pretensions become public. I not only know the origin of the 
Scottish Order of the Temple, but am one (perhaps now the only one) of 
those Masons received Templars in St. Stephen's Lodge in 1798. I do not 
think it right, nor acting honourably, to publish to the world that I am 
one of the legal and undoubted successors of the Old, Noble, and Glorious 
Order of the Temple, and as such assist in receiving Esquires and Chevaliers. 
In plain English I conceive it conniving at making dupes. 


76 Transactions of the Quatuor Corunati Lodge. 

If the Members of the Order of the Temple at Edinburgh will be 
contented to call themselves simply Templars, without asserting whether 
they are Masonic Templars, or whether they are successors of the Old, 
Noble, and Glorious Order of the Temple, I shall be most happy to remain 
on the Roll, in that case I hereby beg leave to authorise you to be so good 
as to replace my name on it, particularly as I propose going to Edinburgh 
next summer, and may perhaps fix myself there. If however they intend, 
in the forthcoming Statutes, to reprint the historical notice of the Order, 
such as it is in the printed Statutes of 1843, continue to make use of the 
Arms, such as they are on the title page of that edition, and to keep in 
force certain Articles of those Statutes, it is with much regret I must 
decline the favour of having my name replaced on the list. 


To Mr. J. L. Woodman. I am, Sir and Brother, etc., etc., etc., 

Certified a true Copy, C. Morison. C. Morison. 

4. 13, Quai Voltaire, F.S.G., Paris, 10th March, 1846. 

Sir and Brother, 

I have been prevented answering yours of the 15th January last, 
in consequence of having been unwell, all that month and February. 

After what you say in that letter it is impossible for me to allow my 
name to remain on the Roll of the Scottish Order of the Temple; shall 
therefore be much obliged by your having the goodness not to insert either 
my name, or my Arms, in the forthcoming edition of the Statutes. 

Enclosed I beg leave to send you a leaf from the printed allocution 
cf the late Grand Master (Fabre) of the French Order of the Temple, 
in which he speaks of the Scottish Order in a manner not very flattering. 
This Discourse was pronounced at the celebration of the yearly Fete in 
commemoration of the death of the Grand Master Jacques de Molay (Cui 
honor et gloria) before perhaps two hundred persons. One thousand copies 
were printed and delivered. 

Mr. J. L. Woodman. I am. Sir and Brother, etc., etc., etc., 

Certified a true Copy, C. Morison. C. Morison. 

Since writing the above I have found among my papers a printed 
copy of the Statutes of the Order of the Temple at Edinburgh; as also 
•one entitled: — "Roll of the Members of the Edinburgh Canongate Kil- 
winning, or Metropolitan Priory of Knights Templars, with a list of the 
Office Bearers for 1836-7, and an Abstract of the Regulations, Edinburgh; 
printed by W. Burness, April 1836." At the third page I find under the 
head " Regulations : — 1. No person can be received into the Order of the 
"Temple, through the Canongate Kilwinning Priory, who has not been 
'previously admitted a Companion of the Canongate Kilwinning Royal 
"Arch Chaptei." In the" Statutes of the Combined Masonic Order of 
"the Temple, and of St. John of Jerusalem in Scotland, with the 
"Charter of Constitution, and a list of the Grand Officers and Members 
"of the Conclave, Edinburgh; Printed by authority of the Grand Con- 
" clave, January 1837 " ; at Page 12, Chap. V., under the title of "Mode 
of Admission" we find:— "1st. Novice Esquire. As an intimate connec- 
"tion has existed for centuries between the Order and Freemasonry in 
"Scotland it is imperative that all Candidates be Royal Arch Masons." 

From this it appears that in 1837 the Order of the Temple in 
Scotland was a Masonic Order merely. At present they pretend to be 
the lineal descendants and lawful successors of the Old, Noble, and Glorious 
Order of the Temple, instituted in 1118, destroyed in 1314, at the death 
of the Grand Master Jacques de Molay. (Cui honor et gloria). 

The Charter of Larmenius. 77 

Mr. Deuchar's last letter to me is dated 28 March 1843; I answered 
it on the 10th June 1843. 
To Mr. J. L. Woodman. P. C. Morison de Grenfield, 

Chevalier of the Temple, Commander of Alloa ; 
Bailly of Arigon, and Grand Prior of Arabia; 
in the French O. of the T. Ex Grand Chancellor of the Order. 

I will now follow with a list of the Convents established in Britain, as collected 
by the qualified Bros. Richard Woof and Dr. Robert Bigsby. 

Grand Convent Provincial, Liverpool. 
This body met at the Templar's Hall from 1831 according to Dr. Morison. In 
1830, whilst holding of Scotland as the Priory of Jacques de Molay, they printed the 
translation of The Manual of 1825, viz. :— " Manual of the Order of the Temple. 
" By * Prater Henry Lucas of the Priory of Jacques de Molay at Liverpool, 12mo. 
" 1830, Printed by David Marples, No. 11, Lord Street, Liverpool." Many years ago 
I called to ask Marples for a copy, but they had forgotten all about it. The following 
is a List of 1836, those marked thus * were living 1865 : — 

*H. Stewart de Lancaster, Bailli. George Barton, Irlam. 

*Lawrence Peel, Prieur. Jonathan Higgenson. 

George de Dumfries, Chancelier. 
Henry Lucas, Secretaire. 
C. Molyneux. 

Wm. Parry Hutchinson, fils. 
Henry Porter. 
J. Thomlinson. 

*Edsar Garston, Mareschal. | Wilfrid Troutbeck. 

Robert Crosbie, Tresorier. 
John Buck Lloyd, Conservateur. 
Wm. Hy. Gilliat, Hospitalier. 
*Edward Tenant, Beaucean. 
John H. Garston. 
J. Molyneux, fils. 
Thomas Davison. 

James Cammings, Frere Hospitalier Servant 

Augustine Samuel Woodward. 
James Villasey. 
Henry Byrom. 
Henry Walker Lucas, t 
Henry J. Stewart, ) •* 

*Samuel Beckwith (after 1836.) 

Convent of Scotland. 

Meeting at Edinburgh, Received under Legatine Powers granted 1836. They 
then assumed independence of France, but continued, and do so still, to make use of 
some portions of their Statutes, etc. : — 

James Burnes, M.D., Grand Preceptor of Southern Asia. 
Mariano Martin de Bartholome, M.D., of Edinburgh. 
Wm. Alexander Lawrie, Magisterial Secretary. 
Andrew Dunlop, Advocate of Edinburgh. 
Adam Burnes, Junior, of Montrose. 
Fitzjames Holmes Burnes, Lieu*, in Madras Army. 
Holland Ward Holmes Burnes, Lieu'. Indian Navy. 
Hamilton Farquhar Holmes Burnes, Lieu'. Bombay Army. 
Robert Bigsby, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., etc., etc., of Glasgow. 

Metropolitan Grand Priory. 
H.R.H. The Duke of Sussex, K.G., D.C.L., etc. Grand Prior of England, 1838. 

Transactions of the Qaatuor Goronati Lodge. 
London Content. 

Septimus Arabin, Capt. R. N". (Stepson-in-law to Sir Wm. Sydney Smith.) 

Sir Jasper Atkinson, Kt. (Employed in the Mint.) 

Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort, K.G., etc. 

Henry Broadwood, of The Albany, Piccadilly, London. 

James Brooksbank, younger son of R.B. of Healaugh Hall, co. York. 
*Wm. Hy. Hugh Cholmondley, (brother of Geo. 5 Earl, and 2d Marquis). 
*Thomas George Corbett, of Elsham Hall, co. Lincoln, M.P. 

Walter Croker, Capt. R. N. 

Sir Hugh Peacock Davison, K 4 ., Major General, A. de C. to Marquis Hastings. 

B.iron de Hochepied Larpent, George Gerard. (Barfc. in 1841.) 
*George Hamilton Chichester, 3rd Marquis of Donegal. 

Carlo Doyle, Colonel. (Gov 1 ', of Grenada, etc.) 

John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, G.C.B., Gd Prior of Scotland. 

George Dorset Fellowes, -) 

„. T -r, „ \ Brothers. 

Sir James Fellowes, ) 

Richard Forester Forester, of Abbot's Hill, co. Derby. 

James Goding, of Knightsbridge, London. 

Frederick Hodgson, M.P. for Barnstaple. 

Charles Kemeys Kemys-Tynte, Colonel, of Halsewall Hall, co. Somerset. 

♦Augustus Frederick Fitzgerald, 3 Duke of Leinster, Gd Prior of Ireland. 

Edmund Lomax, of Co. of Herts. 

Charles Mackinnon, M.P. for Southampton. 

Charles Mills, Author, Historiographer. 

*Joseph Loeson, 4th Earl of Miltown. 

Henry Porcher, of Arborfield, Co. Berks, M.P. Clitheroe. 

Sir William Rumbold, 3d Baronet. 

William Russell of Brancepeth Castle, Co. of Durham, M.P. 

Edward Smedley, Barrister at Law ; Commander of Larissa. 

Sir Wm. Sydney Smith, Admiral, G.C.B. etc. Ci-devant G.P. of England. 

Charles Tennyson D'Eyncourt, of Bayous Manor, co. Lincoln ; M.P., Gd Prior 

of Italy, Baili of Cyprus, Com 1 ' of Westminster, Grand Prior of 

the Metropolitan Convent. 

*George Hildyard Tennyson D'Eyncourt, (eldest son of the above.) 

George Byng, Ofch Viscount Torrington, Vice Adm'. of the Blue, etc. 

*John James Watts, of Hawkesdale Hall, Commander of Carlisle. 

William Williams, of Belmont House, co. Surrey, M.P. 

♦Matthew Wilson, of Eshton Hall, co. York. 

Serving Brother,— Richard Hooper. * Living 1865. 

Grand Prioky of India. 

George Washington Gibson, L*. Co 1 , of Artillery at Bombay. 

Rich 11 . Hartley Kennedy, Physician, Bombay (Son Major Genl. M.K.— C.B.) 

,lohn Holmes, L l . Co 1 . Bombay Army. (Son of Major Genl. Sir Geo. H.— C.B.) 

Philip William Le Goyt, Legislative Council, Calcutta. 

James Ramsay, Lt. Col. & Major Genl. Bengal, (Son of Genl. John R.) 

Harry James Barr, Major in Persia. (Son of Major Genl. D. Barr.) 

Sir James Outram, K.C.B. ; L*. Gen 1 , in Persia. Created Baronet, etc. 

The Charter of Larmenius <"9 

Franklin Lusliington, L'. Co 1 . (Son of Sir H. L., Bart , co. Berks.) 

James Boyd, Sup*. Surgeon Bombay Army, of Orchard Field, Ayrshire. 

William Burlton, C.B., Col. of Bengal Cavalry, Oaklands, Middlesex. 

Frederick Wm, Birch, Lt. Col. Bengal. 

John Grant, Sup*. Surgeon, Bengal Army. 

John Harley Leith, Barrister of Calcutta, now 79 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park. 

Spencer Crompton, Prothonotary, Bombay. (Son of C. Justice Sir Herbert C.) 

Reginald Best Brett, Major of Bombay Artillery. 

James Webster Winchester, Medical Supt,, Bombay, Prov Gd. Secretary. 

George James Holmes Burnes, IA Bombay. 

The additions to the following names are unknown : — Hair,— Erskine,— 
Le Mesurier, — Boyle Chalmers, — Campbell, — Campbell, — Macan, — Shaw, — 
Fitzgerald, — Pearson, — Simson, — Pringie, — Harris. 

Additions in a Certified List; Paris 1836. 
Russell, Member of Parliament,— Henderson, Gentilhomme — Macleod, Gentilhomme,— 
Brown, Gentilhomme,— Gordon Urquhart, Colonel,— Wright, Colonel de Genie, 
after Major General and Grand Prior of India,— Church, Lieu'. General,— Shirreff, 
Capitaine de Vaisseau, Marine Royal,— Goding, Capitaine d' Artillerie,— Humphreys, 
Chef de Bataillon,— Kenny, Chef de Bataillon — Skottowe, Chevalier,— Petre, 
Magistrat,— Byerley, Sir John,— Eden, Medecin en Chef de la Marine,— Morison de 
Grenfield, id. des Armees. Dansay, Lieutenant de la Marine,— White, Chef de 
Bataillon,— The names of Mordaunt, and Ricketts, appear in the printed Report of a 
" Seance," held in Paris in 1838. 

Principal Officers in 1836, 
Grand Maitre, — Bernard Raymond Fabre Palaprat. 
L'. s Generaux — D'Europe, 

D'Afrique M. Jean Marie de Raoul. 

D'Ameriqne, M. Alexandre de Donumore. 

D'Asie, L'Amiral Sir Sydney Smith. 

Grand Precepteurs. 

Supreme Precepteur, — M. le Due de Choiseul Hainville. 

De Sud Europe,— M. Grenier, Chev r de St. Martin, Ministre, Secretaire Magisterial. 

De Nord Europe, — M. de Bures, Ministre Grand Conetable. 

De Sud Asie, — 

De Nord Aeie,— M. de Bourriott, Ministre Grand Prieur Generale. 

De Sud Afrique,— M. Ennon de St. Ceran. 

De Nord Afrique,— M. de Geullard, Ministre Grand Seneschal. 

De Sud Amerique, — 

De Nord Amerique, — M. le Comte Lanjuinais. 

Grand Chaneelier, M. Juge. Grand Hospitalier, M. Guion. 

Coadjutors General. 

Primate de la Langue d'Espagne,— M. Moraleje. 

M- de Coltereau, Grand Tresorier 

80 Transactions of the Quahior Corcnati Txidge. 

The death of the Grand Master Fabre led to the election as Grand Master of 
Admiral Sir Win. Sydney Smith, 1838, who, on his death in 1841, bequeathed to the 
Grand Masters, in perpetuity, a very handsome and valuable Gold Cross, said to have 
been worn by Richard Coeur de Lion, and which had been presented to the Admiral by 
a Monastery at Jerusalem. Barrow states that Don Pedro, King of Portugal, sought to 
become Grand Master, and to establish it in Portugal in all its former splendour, with 
lands and houses as the seat of a Grand Prior, but that Admiral Smith, impressed with 
the democratic nature of its constitution, refused his sanction to the desire expressed 
by many of the Convents, to put H.R.H. Don Pedro in nomination, avowing that he 
could not regard rank as having any claim per se, in an Order where promotion should 
be based solely on the Merits of the Candidate. We read that M. The Comte de 
Montalivet received, in 1839, a number of Knights with some splendour, at 16, Rue 
Notre Dame des Victoires at Paris. (See the Freemasons' Magazine in 1839). 

After the Admiral's death we hear of the G.M's. being:— 
Jean Marie de Raoul, year 1811. 
George IV., Roi d'Hanover, year 1857. 

From this period all progress seems to have ended, and then we find that the 
Great Priory of England in 1911, had acquired by purchase the Charter of Transmission, 
and we see by the copy printed in Ars Quatuor Goronatorum that no signatures appear 
after the acceptance of Fabre in 1804. 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 




RO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY has treated the subject of the Papal 
Bulls with his usual fairness and accuracy. I would like to add a 
few facts taken from the history of Belgian Masonry during the 
two last centuries. Our distinguished Brother has established 
that, although Freemasons were formally excommunicated by the 
Bull's of Clement XVI., in 1738, and Benoit XIV, in 1751, the 
Roman Catholics of Ireland continued to take an active part in 
Masonic life until some time in the nineteenth century. I have shewn in my Paper 
on the En-lish Provincial Grand Lodge of Austrian Netherlands that the same observa- 
tion applies to Belgium, and with still more force, as there the clergy set the example. 
Meanwhile here are some more statements related to the subject. At Liege, 
Velbriick, who ruled this ecclesiastical Principality from 1772 to 1784, was a devoted 
Mason, together with many of his canons and officials. One of them, the Rev. Canon 
de Geloes was founder and first Master of La Parfaite Intelligence, under the jurisdiction 
of the Grand Orient of France ; this Lodge is still alive to-day under the Grand Orient 
of Belgium. Another one, the Rev. Canon Nicolas Devaux, presided over La Parfaite 
Egalite, also at Liege. 

It was the time, when, according to Bro. Duchaine in his recent book on La Franc 
Maconnerie Beige an 18> siecle, a French visitor at the table of Bishop Velbriick, reported 
that amongst eighteen guests he found himself the only one not wearing the Masonic 
badge Lie-e did not stand alone in that respect. I have already mentioned to the 
Qurtuor Coronati, in my paper on a Belgian Lodge warranted by the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland, the name of the Rev. Canon Mahy, who occupied the Chair at the Parfaite 
Union of Namur towards 1776. When he died, in 1783, universally regretted by his 
Brethren he was fulfilling the duties of Grand Orator in the Provincial Grand Lodge 
of the Austrian Netherlands. At Tournai, in 1770, the two Grands-Vicaires of the 
Diocese belonged to the Lodge les Freres-BSunis. At Mons, just as there was a 
military Lod-e exclusively recruited amongst officers, la Loge Equitable, so we find in 
1773 an ecclesiastical Lodge, exclusively composed of members of rehgious Orders. It 
had been founded under the name of les Amis Thcresiens, by six Becollets, and although 
its meeting-place was in the very convent of that Order, it remained for inspection 
under another Mons Lodge, La Vraie et Parfaite Harmonie. At the end of the e,ghteenth 
century and in the early part of the nineteenth century, Les Amis de VJJmon, at 
Brussels, the only Lodge then working in Belgium, numbered amongst its members a 
prebendary of the Cathedral, the Abbe van Laethem, who not only performed 
Gratuitously in Church the funeral ceremonies over the bodies of the brethren, but went 
so far as to modify in such cases the Roman Ritual, allowing the mourners, at the 
Offertory, to make their circumambulation of the coffin with a branch of acacia, instead 

of a lighted taper in their hand. 

Bro Chetwode Crawley states that Freemasonry became popular amongst the 
Irish Catholics at the end of the eighteenth century, on account of the Penal Laws 
which prevented them from associating elsewhere with their Protestant fellow country- 

82 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge 

It is interesting to know that, in the years before 1830, when King William of 


Holland found himself at war in Belgium with the Roman Catholic Church and when 
the Belgian Catholics began to join the Liberals in the opposition which brought about 
the downfall of the Dutch rule, the Vatican, which had just issued in 1825 a new Bull 
against the Freemasons, allowed the Belgian clergy to treat the Masonic Lodges of the 
country as simply beneficent societies (Societes de Bienfaisance) . The fact, asserted by 
a former Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Belgium, Baron de Stassart, in a letter 
to the Gourrier de la Meuse of 1839, has been often repeated and never denied. Of course 
this truce did not last long. But, even after the formation of a clerical party in Belgian 
politics, the Catholic laity for many years remained faithful to its Masonic ties. They 
only dropped out one by one. Bro. Dnchaine speaks of an Abbe who, in 1840, was 
still an Officer of the Lodge at Huy, and adds that an eminent Belgian Churchman, 
Mgr. Mercy d'Argenteau, who died towards 1878, never formally renounced his quality 
of Mason — (It happens that this prelate was a friend of my mother's family. I often 
heard him spoken of as a fine gentleman with literary and philosophic tastes). As a 
last fact I shall quote the initiation by the Parfaite Union, at Mons, on February 3rd, 
1839, of a parish priest, the Rev. Charles de Pelgrom, who took there all his symbolic 
degrees and even entered the Chapter. He left to the Lodge his portrait by a local 
artist, Bro. Coulon, in which he is represented with apron and sash over his 
ecclesiastical robes. I give here a photograph of this painting, taken by the permission 
of the Lodge, in whose ante-room it still hangs. 

All this is now a thing of the past, even in countries like the British Isles and the 
United States, where Speculative Freemasonry has not shifted an inch from its original 
standpoint towards religion in general and the Roman Catholic Church in particular. 
I hope I may be permitted to add a few historical remarks on what Bro. Chetwode 
Crawley calls the points at issue. Three facts are indisputable: (1) That Operative 
Freemasonry, in its organised form, remained sectarian to the last, its members being 
charged " in every Country to be of the Religion of that Country or Nation, whatever 
it was " ; (2) That Speculative Freemasonry, from the outset, was unsectarian, although 
not irreligious, its members being obliged only to be true to God and the Holy 
Church, or, as Anderson has it, "to keep that Religion in which all men 
agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves"; (3) That this change was 
initiated by the first Grand Lodge of London, when it ordered Dr. James Anderson 
"to digest the Old Charges in a new and better method"; the Constitution of 1723 
being the outcome of this move. But there is still another fact disclosed by the perusal 
of this last document: that religious toleration was not in itself ihe aim of the Grand 
Lodge. It* real purpose was to replace the professional tie by a moral one : a common 
feeling of reciprocity, solidarity and general brotherhood, opening the membership to 
all "nations, tongues, kindreds and languages," exclusive of "any quarrels about 
Religion or Nations or State Policy." Such a plan, nevertheless, involved religious 
toleration as one of its necessary sequences, and this amply confirms the saying of 
Mackey, in his History of Freemasonry (vol. iv., p. 940), " that of all the differences that 
define the line of demarcation between Operative and Speculative Freemasonry, this 
is the most prominent." On the other hand, it justifies, from a logical point of view, 
the condemnation pronounced by the Papal See. Leaving out the accusations of 
atheism, pantheism, naturalism, and other isms, so easily thrown at our Order by its 
Catholic opponents, we must acknowledge that, for the Church, Speculative Masonry 
has four unremissible failings : (1) in its origin : the discarding of the obedience to the 
Church ; (2) in its purpose : the promotion of benevolence and morality independently of 

The Papal Bulls and Freemasonry in Belgium. 83 

religious differences ; (3) in its discipline : the obligation of secrecy endorsed by an oath, 
which clashes with the duties of the penitent in the Confessional ; (4) even in its legend : 
the appeal to the religion of Noah (viz., of the patriarchs) as the very " Catholick " 
Religion, which may be interpreted as leaving out the Jewish and Christian revelations 
of a later age. 

The Papal See was not long in finding out all this, and, if anything remains to 
be explained, it is why its denunciations of Freemasonry took nearly a century to be 
generally accepted by the laity and even by part of the clergy. But, as Bro. Chetwode 
Crawley shows to have been the case in Ireland, Bulls only became obligatory after 
tbey had been regularly published. In most of the Continental States, this publication 
depended on the Civil Authorities, who in this case nearly everywhere refused the 
placet. Their Roman Catholic subjects may have been apprised of the Pope's utterances 
by indirect ways, but they did not consider themselves bound to obey, so long as this 
legal element was missing. Besides, the Popes had overdone the matter in endorsing 
all the Jesuits' allegations against Freemasonry. Many good Catholics were conscious 
that the Freemasons they knew and the Lodges they frequented had nothing in common 
with the heretics, conspirators and blackguards depicted in the clerical misrepresen- 
tations of our Order, just as, in recent times, many modernists assert that the fearful 
heresies denounced as modernism by the Papal Encyclicals do not answer in the least to 
their own doctrines, and, therefore, they go on peaceably with their critical work. 
Finally, it was still possible in those days to hold, within the Church, the opinion 
that a good Catholic owed full obedience to the Pope in matters of faith and 
ecclesiastical discipline, but that, as to the rest, he was free to act the way he pleased, 
and to associate, for honest purposes with whom he liked. Actually, under an infallible 
Pope, the Church claims the whole man. Nay, since the loss of its temporal power, in 
face of the progress of heresy and freethought, it tends more and more to revert to its 
disciplinary ideal of the first conturies, when, in the midst of a hostile or indifferent 
world, it tried to form its adherents into a perfect society, apart from the movement of 
the century, a sufficiency unto itself in social as well as in religious matters. Is it not 
fair to acknowledge that such a system, whether we approve of it or not, has no place 
for Freemasonry ? 

The only question is whether Freemasonry should ignore this opposition and 
remain aloof, or should retaliate. The first plan, followed in every country which can 
afford it, especially among Anglo-Saxons and Germans, is perhaps the wisest, and I 
grant that it is the only one which conforms to the letter and spirit of the original 
Constitutions. On the other hand, it must not be forgotten that wherever the Roman 
Church predominates, Freemasonry has to fight for its very life, and that Masons 
as such have to protect themselves against persecutions which threaten their private 
no less than their public life. This ought always to be kept in sight when one sits in 
judgment upon the anti-clerical dealings of Masons in Roman Catholic countries. 

A short time ago, in the Flemish town of Alost, where the first Belgian Lodge 
mentioned in the Engraved Lists was constituted just a century-and-a-half ago, a news- 
paper, published under the patronage of the local clergy, Be Volkslem, stated that " the 
Grand Master of the Lodge owes direct obedience to the Devil, to Satan," adding : 
" It is an established fact that in the conventicles of the Freemasons, the Devil 
often appears in person and that he presides over certain meetings of Freemasons." — 
Last May, a Roman Catholic prelate who sits in the Belgian Senate, Mgr. Keesen, 
delivered there a speech urging the Minister of War to forbid Officers to join the 

§4 transactions of the Quatuor Uo'ronati Lod'§e. 

Lodges, because their Masonic obligations clashed with their loyalty to the King and 
to the Nation. As there were present several Masons, and amongst them the Vice- 
President of the Upper House, this exhibition of clerical fanaticism was promptly 
answered from competent quarters, and its author failed to obtain any satisfaction 
from the Minister. But this may give an idea of what is launched nowadays from 
every pulpit and every confessional in the land, where the wildest tales about Free- 
masons can be affirmed without fear of contradiction.- Thus the Papal Bulls, of which 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley has given such an excellent account, if they have not succeeded 
in crushing Freemasonry even amongst the nations where the Roman Catholic Church 
predominates, have at least attained their ether aim, to create between the two 
organizations an impassable gulf. 


Concerninq the Free-Masons. 

Dated 9th January 1786. 
Joseph, by the grace of God, Emperor of the Romans, ever august; King 
of Germany, of Jerusalem, of Hungary, of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of 
Slavonia, of Galicia, and of Lodomeria ; Archduke of Austria ; Duke of Burgundy 
and of Lorraine, of Lothaire, of Brabant, of Limbourg, of Luxemburg, of 
Guelders, of Styria, of Carinthia and of Carniola; Grand Duke of Tuscany; 
Grand Prince of Transylvania ; Marquis of Moravia ; Duke of "Wurtemberg, of 
Upper and Lower Silesia, of Milan, of Mantua, of Parma and Placentia, of 
Guastalla, of Oswiecin and Zator, of Calabria, of Bar, of Montserrat and of 
Teschen; Prince of Saabia and of Charleville ; Count of Hapsburg, of Flanders, 
of Artois, of Tyrol, of Hainault, of Namur, of Ferrete, of Kybourg, of Goritz and 
of Gradiska, Marquis of the Holy Roman Empire, of Bourgovie, of Upper and 
Lower Lusatia, of Pont a, Mousson and of Nomeny ; Landgrave of Alsace; 
Count of Provence, of Vaudemont, of Blamont, of Zutphen, of Saarwerden, of 
Salm and of Falkenstein ; Lord of the Marches of Slavonia, of Port-Naon, of 
Salins and of Mechlin, &c. The Societies or Lodges of those who are called 
Free-Masons, having for some time past increased in number to such an extent 
that they are being formed even in the smallest Towns, We have deemed it proper 
for the well-being of the State, to place bounds to them, and to prescribe, for 
the Meetings of these Societies, certain rules which in making lawful the 
meetings of true and honest Free-Masons, of whom it suffices Us to know that 
they do good to their neighbours, to the poor and education, will at the same 
time remove and prevent the inconveniences and disorders to the prejudice of 
Religion and morals which spurious and irregular Lodges entail : For these 
reasons, We have, with the Advice of Our Privy Council, and after deliberation 
with Our Very dear and Loyal Louis Charles, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, 
of Barbiano de Belgiojoso, Cunio, Lugo, Zagonara and Bagnacavallo ; Lord of 
San Colombano, Conselice, &c, Knight of the Order of Malta, Our Chamberlain 
and present Most Intimate State Counsellor; Field-Marshal Lieutenant of Our 

1 The two following documents have been translated by Bro. Fred. II. Postans from original 
pamphlets in the possession of Bro. Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, printed in the town of 
Mons in 1786. The French version was published by Bro. Duchaine from another source. 

The Papal Bulls and Freemasonry in Belgium. 85 

Armies, Proprietary Colonel of a Regiment of Infantry, Our Minister 
Plenipotentiary for the General Government of the Low Countries, &c, &c, 
decreed and ordained, do decree and ordain, the following Points and Articles : 


It shall not be possible to form more than one Lodge of Free-Masons in 
each Province, and such Lodge shall not be held in any Town other than the 
Capital, where the Superior Tribunal resides. 


Such Lodge may meet as often as it thinks fit, but it must each time 
make known to the Chief Officer of Justice and of Police of the Town, the place, 
day and hour of the Meeting. 

If within a large Capital a single Lodge be not able to contain all the 
Brethren, a second, or at the most a third may be formed, but these must in all 
respects be dependent upon the Chiefs of the principal Lodge, and must in the 
same way make known to the Chief Officer of Justice and of Police, the places, 
days and hours of their Meetings. 

It shall not be permitted to hold any Meeting or Lodge of Free-Masons 
in any other Town, and still less in the Low Countries, or in Castles or Country 



Those who shall dare to contravene that which We have decreed, besides 
being personally punished for their disobedience, shall incur, each one and for 
eaclToffence, a Fine of Three Hundred Ducats, of which one third shall be 
apportioned to Our own profit, one third to the profit of the Officer who conducts 
the affair, and one third shall be for the informer, whose name shall be kept 
secret, and who, if he be an accomplice in the contravention, shall enjoy an 
entire immunity from punishment. 


Those who shall be set over the Lodges which shall exist in the Capital 
Towns, by whatever name they may be known amongst themselves, shall be 
bound to declare upon their honour and reputation, in a List, which must be 
remitted every month to the Chief of the Supeiior Court of the Province, the 
Names of all those of their Lodge, of whatever state or condition they may be. 
They shall also be obliged to send in addition, every three months, a 
supplementary List, in which they shall declare all those who have been newly 
admitted, as well as those who have left the Lodge. It shall not, however, be 
necessary to set forth in these Lists the titles, grades or characters used in the 
Lodges. When the Master of the Lodge is changed, he who shall succeed him 
shall be equally obliged to make himself known to the Chief of the Superior 
Tribunal, which Chief shall then and thenceforward obtain all these Lists and 
particulars for Our General Government. 

Transactions of the Qualuor Ooronati Lodge. 


The Lodges of Free-Masons so regulated as prescribed by this Edict, 
shall be continually under protection from all other enquiry and interference 
whatsoever, and may hold their Meetings freely and without constraint. 

Given as a mandate to our very dear and loyal Chief and President and 
Members of our Privy and Grand Councils, Chancellor and Members of our 
Council of Brabant; President and Members of our Council of Luxemburg, 
Chancellor and Members of our Council of Guelders, Governor of Limbourg ; 
President and Members of our Council of Flanders; Grand Bailly, President, and 
Members of our Council of Hainault ; Governor, President and Members of our 
Council of Namur ; President, Grand Bailly and Members of our Council of 
Tournai and Tournesis ; Ecoutette 1 of Mechlin, and to all other our Justices, 
Ouicers and Subjects who shall see this, to keep, observe and hold fast, and to 
have kept, observed and held fast, Our present Edict. For such is Our 
Pleasure. In witness whereof we have had affixed to these Presents Our great 
Seal ; Given in our town of Brussels the 9 th day of the month of January, in the 
year of grace one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, and of our reign 
over the Roman Empire the 22nd, and over Hungary and Bohemia the 6 th . 
Examined and initialled, Kulb. Further signed by THE EMPEROR AND 
KING in his Council, Signed Be Beul, and appendant thereto the great Seal of 
His Majesty, impressed in red wax on a double strip of Parchment. 
Council of the EMPEROR AND KING in Hainault, having seen this Edict 
together with the Letters of the EMPEROR AND KING of the 9th January 1786, 
orde'r that it be printed, read, published and posted up in form and manner 
accustomed. Given at Mons, the 20th January 1786. Examined and Initialled PEP. 
By warrant, Signed DURIEU. 

M. J. Wilmet, Printer to His Majesty, in the grand' Place. 

Price one sol. 



of the 15th May 1786. 
Upon the Edict of the 9th January of the same year, concerning the Free-Masons. 

HIS MAJESTY, having recognised, since the Edict issued on the 9th 
January last, concerning the Free-Masons, that it would not be convenient to 
authorize the Lodges of this Society in all the Capital Towns of the Belgian 
Provinces, has deemed it proper to concentrate into the sole Town of Brussels, 
under the eyes of the General Government, all the Free-Masonry in the Low 

1 Magistrate in the towns of Flanders. 

FRIDAY, 1st MARCH, 1912. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Present : —Bros. J. P. 
Simpson, P.A.G.R., W.M. ; E. H. Dring, S.W. ; E. L. Hawkins, J.W. ; 
Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk, P.M., Treas. ; W. John 
Songhurst, P.A.G.D.C., Secretary; W. B. Hextall, S.D. ; W. 
Wonnacott, J.D. ; Fred. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., P.M.; Dr. Wm. Wynn 
Westcott, P.G.D., P.M.; and Sydney T. Klein, L.R., P.M. 

Also the following Members of the Correspondence Circle: — 
Eros. H. A. Badman, H. H. Riach, L. McCreary, F. Postans, J. Smith, Fred. H. Postans, 
R, H. Kortright Dyett, F. W. Levander, Aug. Brennecke, Col. Sir Howland Roberts, 
Bart., W. J. Evans, H. E. Shrimpton, E. R. Evans, Dr. D. F. de l'Hoste Ranking, 
H. Hyde, H. Machin, V. M. B. Zanchi, D. Bock, G. Vogeler, Fred. Armitage, W. Howard- 
Flanders, John Church, W. R. Harriss, William Yeo, Grand Tyler, G. J. Gissing, P. J. 
Prewer, Alfred Gates, Sidney Napper, R. E. Landesmann, William Hall, C. Lewis 
Edwards, Nugent Chaplin, Joseph William Faulkner, Rev. H. C. de Lafontaine, P.G.D., 
F C Lloyd, Chas. S. Ayling, H. F. Hann, John I. Moar, Albert Loftus Brown, Curt 
Nauwerck, Rev. C. E. L. Wright, P.G.D., J. F. H. Gilbard, William J. D. Roberts, 
C. Gough, Dr. S. Walshe Owen, Alfred E. G. Copp, G. Fullbrook, C. Isler, Major John 
Rose, J. Walter Hobbs, and Reginald C. Watson. 

Also the following Visitors : -Bros. A. J. Blake, P.M., Duke of Cornwall Lodge 
No. 1839; J. Woolley, Friendship and Harmony Lodge No. 1616; W. Tomlin, I. P.M., 
New Finsbury Park Lodge No. 1695; W. Hookins, P.M., Dalhousie Lodge No. 865; G. 
D Callender, West Kent Lodge No. 1297; Chas. H. Laurence, P.M., Crystal Palace 
Lodge No. 742; A. G. Beal, Evening Star Lodge No. 1719; Wm. Cox, Robert Mitchell 
Lodge No 2956; Ramsden Walker, P.M., United Northern Counties Lodge No. 2128; 
William A. Dodd, Stew., Robert Mitchell Lodge No. 2956; Frank Fletcher, P.M., 
Beckenham Lodge No. 2047; A. W. Foxwell, S.W., Neptune Lodge No. 22; and J. F. 
Sutton, Horus Lodge No. 3155. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. Edward Armitage, 
PDepGDC,I.G.;G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; J. P. Rylands; E. Conder, L.R., 
P M ■ Admiral Sir A. H. Markham, P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M. ; Dr. W. J. Chetwode 
Crawley G Treas., Ireland; Edward Macbean, P.M.; R. F. Gould, P.G.D., P.M.; Canon 
J. W. Horsley, P.G.Ch., P.M., Chap.; John T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; and William 

Forty-five Brethren were admitted to membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The Secretary referred to the Fund which had been started by the Lodge for the 
purpose of placing a Stone over the Grave of Bro. Henry Sadler, to which nearly £40 had 
been subscribed. He announced that it had been decided to merge this amount into a 
larger Fund, of which the Grand Secretary would be the Treasurer. 

Exhibits. 89 

The Srcketaky called attention to the following 


By Bros. William Mauling and Johs. Rahmussen, Copenhagen. 

Silver Medal, struck to commemorate the fortieth Anniversary of the appointment 
of the King of Denmark as Yiearhis Salomonis of the Grand Lodge of Denmark (VHIth 
province of the Swedish Rite) in November, 1871. The medal was designed by Bro. 
Rasmussen, and is presented to the Lodge by him and Bro. Mailing, both of whom are 
members of our Correspondence Circle. 

The obverse shows the head of the King, with his motto " Deus mihi adjutor," and 
u legend which translates as follows : — "Frederick VIII King of Denmark, Vicarius 
Salomonis of the eighth province of Freemasonry, 1871-1911." On the reverse, the arms 
of the Grand Lodge of Denmark, with a crown, battle-axe, and sword, the latter being the 
special attributes of the King as Yiear'nis Salomonis, The legend translated reads: — 
"The Danish Great Land Lodge" : the letters IT.U.F. stand for Ultorem Ulcisritnr 

By Bro. Henry Billinghubst, on behalf of Bro. J. C. Lyell, Wandsworth. 

Craft Certificate, issued to Frederick Schuler, of Tinnevelly, on 1st October, 1821, 
by Lodge No. 361, attached to the 17th Light Dragoons, and then meeting at Kaira, 
Northern District Guzirat, East Indies. The certificate is signed by J. B. Curran, W.M. ; 
Vere Essex Quaile, S.W. ; M. Morgan, J.W. ; John Heeson, Secretary. 

R.A.. Certificate, issued to the same brother, on the same date, by Chapter 
attached to the same Lodge. 

These two certificates are entirely hand-drawn and painted, the designer's name 
being given at foot as George Salisbury, 17th Dragoons. 

By Bro. Wm. J. D. Roberts, on behalf of Bro. Wm. Cox, London. 

Silver Medal, struck for the Lodge I'arfaite Egalite at Rouen, and numbered 667 
in the Medaillenwerk of the Hamburgische Zirkel-Correspondenz. This medal formerly 
belonged to Jean Baptiste Audric, who was in business in London as a master cabinet 
maker. He sold up his property at the outbreak of hostilities between France and 
Germany and went out to fight for his country. He was in Paris during the siege and 
afterwards was a Commandant under the Paris Commune, returning afterwards to 
London where he joined his family. He used to state that he owed his liberation, when 
taken prisoner, to the exhibition of this medal, the like of which it was the custom for 
Masons to wear throughout the war. 

By Bro. W. A. De Wolf Smith, Grand Secretary, G.L. British Columbia. 

Bronze Medal, struck to commemorate the fiftieth Anniversary of the foundation 
of Union Lodge No. 9, British Columbia, December 2nd, 1861. 

By Bro. E. W. Donovan, Prestwich, Lancashire. 

Leather Apron, roughly 12Jins. by 17ins. deep, rounded at the lower edge and 
pointed at the top, that is with the flap not made to fall over. The apron is lined with 
dark blue silk and edged with dark blue ribbon, lfins. wide, and with long strings of 
similar ribbon. It shows no sign of wear; it was recently found amongst the possessions 
of the Social Lodge No. 62, Manchester. It is suggested that this is a M.M. Apron 
under the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. 

90 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Luhje. 

By Bro. H. J. Baknaby, East Dereham, Norfolk. 

Certificate, issued 25th December, 1824, by the Grand Lodge of Ireland to "Robert 
Downs as a member of Lodge of St. John No. 400. 

Leather Apron, about logins, by 17ins., with design hand-drawn. The apron was 
found amongst the possessions of Bro. Robert Downs, but the arms at the foot of the 
pillar seem to indicate that it was of English origin. 

Coloured Engraving, representing Faith, Hope and Charity as the " Supporters of 
Masonry." At the foot are the arms of the Grand Lodge of the Ancients, with the 
following dedication : — " To the Honourable Fraternity of the Ancient, Free, and Accepted 
Masons, This Print represents Emblematically the Emblems of the Supporters of Masonry, 
by Brother G. Ballisat." The date of publication is February 1st, 1810, Ballisat's address 
being given as 30 Frederick Place, Newington Butts. The engraver is J. Wageman. 

By Bro. John T. Thorp. 

Leather Apron, about 18ins. wide by 19iins. deep, circular flap, on which is a 
square in blue silk ribbon. The whole is edged with narrow blue silk, and has leather 
strings. The apron is believed to have been worn in a Scotch Lodge about the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

By Bro. J. Walter Hours, London. 

Charity Box, designed by him, and belonging to the Bolingbroke Lodge of Mark 
Master Masons No. 451. 

By Bro. Seymour Bell, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Sunderland ware Mug, with engraved design and the verse " The World is in 
Pain," etc. 

Silver pierced Jewel, with date "A.M. 5766." 

Two P.M. Jewels, one in white metal and one in bronze, similar to that illustrated 
A. 0.0. XXII. (1909), p. 5. These appear to have been part of a manufacturer's stock. 
They are unfinished, and no arms are engraved on the reverse. 

By Bro. T. A. Withey, Leeds. 

R.A. Jewel, dated 1834, of the Ancients' or Irish pattern. The jewel was made 
by Acklam, and the case in which it has been preserved describes him as "Masonic 
Clothing and Jewel Manufacturer, 138 Strand, London, Successor to the late Mr. Harper." 

By the Secretary'. 

Bronze Plaque, struck to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of the Birth of 
Frederick the Great. 

By Bro. R. H. Kortright Dyett, St. John's, Antigua. 

Silver Cup, presented 22nd February, 1825, to Henry Saunders, by the Brethren 
of the Royal George Lodge No. 307, Bridport (now extinct), " in testimony of their respect 
and esteem." After being lost sight of for many years, the cup has recently been acquired 
bv Bro. Dvett, a relative of the original owner. 

A hearty vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to those brethren who had lent 
articles for exhibition, or who had made presentations to the Lodge Museum. 

Bro. W. B. Hextall read the following paper: — 

transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodye. 



BY BRO. IV. B. HEXTALL, P.Prov.G. Warden, Derbyshire, 

HE subject of this paper was indicated when in the discussion upon 
Bro. Poignant's paper on " The Landmarks" 1 I ventured to say that 
whilst I agreed that the list of so-called Landmarks put forward by 
Mackey should not be accepted, either wholly or in part, I had to 
dissent from the solution which Bro. Poignant on that occasion 
propounded, and took occasion to outline an altogether different 
theory, namely, that " the Old Landmarks were in fact the secrets 
which existed amongst the Operative Masons in the days when they alone supplied the 
membership of the Craft." I am now permitted to place this view more fully before you 
by the aid of material which may be considered more or less cogent, and incidentally 
to refer to interpretations which have been placed elsewhere upon the phrase under 

Whilst my principal inquiry will be, what were in literal and prosaic truth the 
Landmarks of the Craft when in 1717 members of existing London Lodges, with others 
of the Craft, met together and brought about what is known as the ' Revival,' it would 
be incomplete without a further inquiry as to any specific meaning which may have 
been intended by the words ' the Old Landmarks ' as they are found in the " General 
Regulations" of 1720, that being, as far as we know, the earliest masonic use of the 
phrase. I, however, personally regard this last as subordinate and secondary only, 
though interesting enough. 

Our first step in the pursuit of knowledge must be the ascertainment of what a 
'Landmark' is. Recognised authorities, from the Oxford " New English Dictionary " 
downwards, show that a Landmark in the physical sense may be defined as any fixed 
object having for its purpose the marking of a boundary line. Bro. Rev. J. T. Lawrence 
has told us 3 that the term refers only to those features of a country which are entirely 
natural; that an artificial building cannot be a Landmark, nor can even a boulder stone 
simply sunk in the ground, though it may be if covered with moss, but refers to no 
authorities for the proposition. With all respect I must here differ from our erudite 
brother. John Milton in Paradise Lost, 1667, has 

" Ith' midst an Altar as the Land-mark stood." 
Captain Smith wrote in the "Seaman's Grammar," 1627, "A Landmarke is any 
mountaine, Roeke, Church, Wind-mill or the like," and the best available sources 
instance a marked tree, houses, &c, as legitimate examples. I have attempted to find a 
basis for Bro. Lawrence's distinction between a boulder stone and its covering of moss, 
but have failed to do so either in technical or general books. Given the requisite 
height, an ordnance cairn or a factory chimney may as well form a physical ' Land- 
mark ' as a mountain top. A secondary meaning of the word ' Landmark ' is any 
object in a landscape which by its conspicuousness serves as a guide, or characterises a 
district or neighbourhood ; and, apart from more literal applications we are familiar 

- A.Q.G. xxiv.', 171 ; quoting in effect from his Masonic Jurisprudence and Symbolism (1908) 186. 

92 transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

with a legitimate figurative meaning, such as a " Landmark of History," or literature; 
as when oar Bro. Dring entitled a paper of his own " Landmarks in the History of the 
Legends of Freemasonry ;"• or when in the famous " Letters of Junius" (1771) we find 
» Landmarks established by former decisions." It may be worth noting in the present 
connexion that a former meaning of 'Landmark' was a district or jurisdiction, and 
though now obsolete was so used about 1550.* 'Landmark' is indeed in no sense a 
special term of masonic art, but an old word found in Coverdale's Bible of 1535 and 
elsewhere, and it may be a little unfortunate that it should have been so often appro- 
priated by too many writers and speakers, merely as a convenient and useful word 
which flows trippingly on the tongue, without much definite idea of the meaning to be 


I will leave Anderson's Constitutions for the immediate present. In the nrst 
edition of William Preston's Illustrations of Masonry (1772), 3 which differs in body 
from all subsequent issues, are two references to " Ancient Landmarks," as being 
carefully preserved in the third degree ; treating of them as synonymous with " the 
established usages and customs of the order," with which they are bracketed. In his 
preface to the second and all later editions, Preston says, 

"I diligently sought for the ancient and venerable Landmarks of the 
Society ... and in part happily accomplished the design I had 
formed of enquiry into the contents of our various lectures ; " 
using the term as above. In this and his subsequent editions Preston largely copied 
from the operative history of Anderson. 

In 1775 William Hutchinson published The Spirit of Masonry, in which he 
ignored an architectural history for the Craft and proffered a wholly speculative and 
mainly spiritual interpretation; and, whilst making no mention of Landmarks, 
noticeably stated that the letter G " denotes Geometry, which to artificers is the 
science by which all their labours are calculated and formed."* Both Preston's and 
Hutchinson's works received formal sanction from the Grand Lod^e of England. 6 

There is not much to be found in other masonic writers on the subject of 
'Landmarks' until some years after the Union of 1813. They are not mentioned in 
the volume of twelve Sermons, from 1793 to 1799, by the Rev. Jabez Inwood, Prov. 
G. Chap. Kent ; and the Rev. Jonathan Ashe in his Masonic Manual, published in 
18 L3, merely copies from Preston on the subject. The first writer treating of ' Land- 
marks ' at anv length is the Rev. Dr. George Oliver, who in a sermon before the 
Provincial Grind Lodge at Lincoln on April 21st, 1820, said that " our ancient Land- 
marks " were handed down by oral tradition ; but the meaning he then attached 
to the term is not clear ; and the bold theorising which is characteristic of him 
appears when after saying, " Masonry was revealed at the creation of the World and 
practised by every branch of Adam's family," he goes on, " the Oral traditions of 
Masonry claim to be received because they are perfectly rational . . . [and] 
contain none of the wild improbabilities of ancient Fable." Much of the same 
proneness to an imaginative past is apparent in Dr. Oliver's two large volumes 
The Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry, (1846), throughout which the word 

1 Printed in Lodge of Research, No. 2429, Transactions, 1908-9, 31-49. 

2 In W. Lynne's Carion's Cron. 255 

3 Pages 17 and 207. 

5 Dr 8 01iver wrote in 1843 of Hutchinson's book, "It was the first efficient attempt to explain in 
a rational and scientific manner, the true philosophy of the ra-der." This is cited in Gould n., 475" : and 
may answer the query by Bro. Poignant at A.Q.O. xxiv., 173. 

The Old Landmarks of the Craft. 93 

' Landmarks ' is almost exclusively used in the figurative sense of important 
occurrences. Dr. Oliver's numerous other works call for no mention on the subject 
of 'Landmarks' until in The Symbol of Glory, (1850), in answer to the question, 
"What are the Landmarks of Masonry, and to what do they refer?" he writes, 
" This has never been clearly defined," 1 and, after explaining that his " Historical 
Landmarks" were " only the Landmarks of the Lectures," " There are other Landmarks 
in the ancient institution of Freemasonry which have remained untouched in that 
publication, and it is not unanimously agreed to what they may be confined." 
Dr. Oliver in The Freemason's Treasury, (1863), divides "the genuine Landmarks 
of Freemasonry" into twelve classes within which he enumerates over forty as 
existing, and at least a dozen others as either obsolete or spurious ; 2 and where he 
recognises that though most, if not all, are to be held immutable in theory, they have 
been and are in fact subject to alteration; significantly remarking that on this 
subject " we are grovelling in darkness." 3 In the same work he writes, " We 
have no actual criterion by which we may determine what is a Landmark, and 
what not." 4 

The difficulty which Dr. Oliver experienced in 1863 confronts us still. At A.Q.G., 
xxiii., 50, the present writer collated the ways in which the word 'Landmarks' or 
' Ancient Landmarks ' were used in the minutes of The Special Lodge of Promulgation, 
1809-11, and called attention to the circumstance that the expressions there meant 
nothing more than ' the authorized forms.' On December 1st, 1819, the Duke of 
Sussex, Grand Master, formally stated in Grand Lodge that, " it was his opinion that so 
long as the Master of any Lodge observed exactly the Landmarks of the Craft he was 
at liberty to give the Lectures in the language best suited to the character of the Lodge 
over which he presided," and Grand Lodge not only concurred, and requested that the 
ruling should stand recorded on the minutes, but sent out a circular notifying it to the 
English Craft at large. 

Our late Bro. Henry Sadler, in his History of the Emulation Lodge of Improve- 
ment (1901), page 54, mentions an essay by Bro. Stephen Barton Wilson, well-known 
in his day as a preceptor, on " The necessity of maintaining the Ancient Landmarks of 
the Order," as being read on May 30th, 1862, and printed in The Freemasons Magazine? 
this also is principally concerned with the Craft Lectures, and does little more as 
regards ' Landmarks ' than claim that they represent only those laws of the Craft 
which are universal and irrevocable. 

At this point I should refer to the list of twenty-five so-called 'Landmarks' 
which is said to have been compiled by the late Albert G. Mackey, an American 
brother, and (as Bro. Songhurst told us at vol. xxiv., 168) was first printed in the United 
States in 1856. I am bold enough to think that it was more because Mackey's list 
purported to fill an obvious gap than from any signal claims it possessed that it 
obtained a rapid circulation, and found ready acceptance in some quarters. It was 
printed almost without comment in Mackenzie's Boyal Masonic Gyclopsedia (1877), 
but much of it was questioned by the late Revd. Bro. A. F. A. Woodford in his Masonic 
Gyclopsedia, (1878), where he wrote of the question, "What are the Landmarks P" 
as one very difficult to answer ; that many of Mackey's twenty-five "certainly are 
not Landmarks properly of Freemasonry," and that "it is a subject on which much 
may be said, and little after all can be dogmatically laid down." It is highly probable 

1 Page 73. 2 Page 16. 3 Page 21. A Page 101. 

5 Also printed in pamphlet form. 


transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

that the inclusion in Mackey's ' Landmarks ' of declarations of religious belief did much 
to assist acceptance of the list in its entirety; and upon this it should be noted 
that in only one of the eleven ' Old Charges ' of which full transcript were published 
by our late Bro. W. J. Hughan, 1 is the word ' God' used singly and alone. The 
injunction in ten, out of these eleven Charges is, " That yee shall be true men to God 
and the Holy Church, and to use no error or Heresie by your understanding and by 
wise men's teaching allso," {Antiquity MS., a.d. 1686) ; or to precisely the same effect ; 
mention of the word ' God' — used alone — being found only in the print of the Krause 
MS., the genuineness of which has been much questioned. In days when the ' Old 
Charges ' were compiled, the ' Holy Church ' and her ministers were the Alpha and 
Omega for most of the community. 

It may also be noticed that in some English editions of Mackey's Lexicon of 
Freemasonry his list of ' Landmarks' does not appear, and the topic is dealt with in 
general terms only. 2 Since Mackey's formulated list obtained circulation, most essays, 
&c, on the subject have been based on the material he provided, and it is to myself 
surprising that more reserve in accepting the latter was not shown. Speaking without 
any disrespect for Mackey as a Masonic writer, it would be affectation not to recognise 
that a good deal that he included in his list of ' landmarks ' had been evolved from his 
own consciousness ; indeed, so much so as to almost furnish a parallel with that 
favourite topic of Dr. Oliver, designated by him "the Spurious Freemasonry." 

I can only here refer to a few instances, out of many, which have appeared in 
Masonic periodicals and published papers. The Freemaeons' Chronicle of March 23rd, 
1878, contains an address by the late Bro. T. B. Whytehead (W.M. of our Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge, 1899-1900) on " The Landmarks of Freemasonry," suggesting that the 
" twenty five " were the outcome of an analysis of the Old Charges and Constitutions 
made by several learned Masonic students, and that investigators "seemed to be pretty 
well agreed that the Landmarks of the Order may be all included under the twenty- 
five heads." Our late Brother was then young in the Craft, 3 and it is with the deepest 
respect I venture to think that in later years he would have dealt with the topic some- 
what differently. 

Twenty-five years afterwards in Transactions of the Lodge of Research No. 2249, 
for 1900-01, is a paper similarly entitled, by Bro. F. W. Billson, taking Mackey's list as 
its groundwork, but pointing out various limits which had been elsewhere set to the 
term ' Landmark.' 

In 190G there appeared in The Freemason a series of six papers, signed "Masonic 
Jurisprudence" (an anonymity perhaps not very difficult to pierce), dealing in much 
minuteness with the Mackey ' landmarks,' which were affirmed by the writer to have 
been "on the whole, accepted by most Constitutions." I think 'assumed to be 
authentic ' would supply a less official and more correct phrase. 

At A.Q.G. vii., 91, will be found a review by the late Bro. G. W. Speth, of a work 
by Bro. H. B. Grant, of Kentucky, U.S.A., " Some of the Ancient Landmarks of 
Freemasonry, with proofs" (1894), which set out a list of fifty-four. Our Bro. Speth 
expressed himself as unable to agree that even a tithe of the list could be rightly termed 
' Landmarks,' and commented upon " the usual mistake of confusing the mere 
regulations of particular jurisdictions with the immutable laws of the Craft." A 

1 Hughan's Old Charges of British Freemason*, 187". 

- ex. gr. the eighth edition, revised. Loudon [N.D. 1885 ?] 

J Bro. Whytehead was initiated in New Zealand in 1872, A.Q.O. xii., 214. 

The Old Lawlmirks of the Craft. 95 

prominent American Freemason, the late Josiah H. Drummond, of Maine, has effectively 
pointed oat the fallacy of regarding " fundamental principles " as ' Landmarks.' 1 The 
lateBro. H. J. Findel, the Masonic, historian, in 1871, suggested that the "ancient 
Landmarks," were nine in number, 2 and in 1903 a committee of the Grand Lodge of New 
Jersey, U.S A., arrived at ten as the correct figure. 8 

One instance of too little precision in the use of the term may be found in the 
generally commendable Etiquette of Freemasonry,' where a suggestion is made that 
the established number of perambulations should be held to be a Landmark; and it 
is, perhaps, to be regretted that, after it has been fairly well shown that Mackey's list 
of ' Landmarks ' ought not, to say the least, to be regarded as the last word on the 
subject it is sometimes still reproduced without hint or warning. For example, in 
Some Account of the Percy Lodge, No. 198 (1902), the Mackey list, taken bodily from 
Mackenzie's Cyclopedia, is presented as « Appendix v., Ancient Landmarks of Free- 
masonry," and, by being given a position amongst matter really authentic, treated 
apparently of equal value. One is tempted to quote the late Bro. Speth as to " the 
inveterate Masonic habit of repetition without independent investigation." 5 

I now pass to the constructive portion of this paper; to attempt with what 
success I may to identify the ' Old Landmarks ' with operative building secrets, or 
such of them as remained at the Revival of 1717 ; and for that purpose to cite 
authorities from outside, as well as within, the Craft. 

A general assertion that the Craft down to modern times was wholly operative ; 
that to the labour, the science, and the consummate skill which its members collectively 
possessed we owe the cathedrals and monastic buildings which have adorned our 
country, calls for no formal proof in support ; but I would emphasize the many 
indications we find that the various bodies of workmen were often supervised, as they 
were often employed, by ecclesiastics and monastic establishments which owned large 
landed estates, and encouraged, and even formed, craft-trades of various kinds. 
It has even been surmised that the first impulse to combine in bodies emanated from 
the clergy in the interests of the Church ; perhaps in the first instance from the 
Benedictines, who were noted for discipline and capacity for organization, though other 
monastic orders vied with them in energy and enthusiasm ; and that the Masonic 
Societies composed of their adopted children continued to flourish until architecture 
ceased to be an accomplishment of the priesthood. As one instance only, the 
Benedictine Abbey, Priory, and Convent of Faversham (Kent) maintained a large 
body of craftsmen, contracts for whose work in building and repairs still exist. 6 This 
association of the Church and the Craft has not escaped notice elsewhere : Ruskin 
writes of " the traditions, the wealth, and the skill of the monks and Freemasons" as 
making possible "the conditions of vaulting, buttressing, and arch and tower building 
necessitated by the mere size of the cathedral."? And to this close connection between 
the Church and the Craft may be attributed the invocation or prayer which forms a 
prelude to each of the old MS. Charges. This last feature, however, was by no means 
peculiar to our old Masonic documents. " The European monkish authors in mediaeval 
times usually prefixed the Sign of the Cross to their writings, which was followed by 

1 A.Q.C. x., 184. 

2 A paper in The Kingston [on Hull] Masonic Annual. 
:t T<ie Freemason, October 24th, 1903. 

4 London (1890) 116. 

5 A.Q.C. xiii., 151. . .. , ,„„ 
<■ Bro. A. M. Brown, M.D., in Freemasons Magazine, January list, 18/1, 

'• Stones of Venice, ii., iv. 

96 Transactions of the Quatuor Horonati Lodge. 

a pious invocation to the Deily for guidance. For example, in the old French romance 
of " Melusine," composed by John of Arras in the fourteenth century, the author, 
according to the early English translation, commences : — 

' In the begynnyng of all werks men oughten first of alle to calle the 

name of the creatour of all creatures, whiche is very and trew maister of 

alle things made and to be made, that oughten somewhat to entende to 

perfection of wele. Therfore att the begynnynge of this present 

historye though I ne be not worthy for to require hym beseche ryght 

devoutly his right highe and worthy mageste that this present history he 

wyl helpe me to bring vnto a good end, and to fuldoo it att hys glorye 

and praysing.' 

This custom of invoking the name of the Deity extended to all important 

documents, and a relic of it survived till within the last thirty years in the printed 

forms of marine insurance policies, which began, ' In the name of God, Amen.' . . . 

It is probable that the idea of such an invocation was derived from the East. 

Mahomedans invariably prefixed to tbeir books, letters, etc., the formula, 'In the 

name of God, the most Merciful, the most Compassionate.' " l ' In the name of God, 

Amen,' was also the usual commencement of a Will until comparatively recent 

years, and is found in horn books and primers for children. Notwithstanding this 

frequent use, we must bear in mind the late Bro. Speth's remark in A.Q.G. x., 17, that 

the ' Old Charges' belonged, and had relation, to the church -building Masons, and not 

to that different class which fell within the jurisdiction of town or city guilds. The 

late Mr. Wyatt Papworth, architect and antiquarian, who, though not a member of the 

Craft, wrote much upon the old building Masons, said : " I have always considered that 

there must have been in all places at least the two branches of Masons, ecclesiastical 

and secular, the ' Lodge ' at the Cathedral and the Town 'Lodge,' or 'Guild,' in the 

City." 2 The known MSS. of the ' Old Charges ' were only thirty-two when our 

late Bro. W. J. Hughan published his first edition of The Old Charges of British 

Freemasons, in 1872 ; but, as the result of Masonic investigation for nearly a quarter- 

of-a-century, amounted to eighty-six by the second edition, 1895 ; and their number 

may be now approximated at one hundred. In addition to these, there are probably 

very many still lying undiscovered or unrecognised. 

Time forbids any adequate reference to these ' Old Charges,' and I will but 
gather some representative passages which, or their equivalents, are contained in most 

of the MSS. 

The Begins MS. (a.d. 1350-1400) stands by itself as being in versified form and 
differently constructed from the rest. Its direct relation to the operative working may 
be conveniently seen from a paraphase of part of it in Oliver's Freemason's Treasury, 
(1863), 8 "the workman shall labour diligently on workdays that he may deserve his 
holidays 1 .... every workman shall receive his wages meekly and without 
scruple, 5 and should the Master think fit to dismiss him from the work, he shall have 
due notice of the same before noon. 6 If any dispute arise among the brethren, it shall 
be settled on a holiday, that the work be not neglected. 7 If a brother see his fellow 
hewing a stone, and likely to spoil it by unskilful workmanship, he shall teach him how 
to amend it with fair words and brotherly speeches." 8 

1 Mr. W. A. Clouston, in The Bookworm, iv., 121 (1889). 

- A.Q.C. vii., 84. 3 Page 148. 4 Regius MS., line 269. 

5 Line 295. Oliver has weekly in error for meekly. 

6 Line 299. 7 Line 305. 8 Line 395, 

The Old fjiindvurks of the Graft. 97 

| I will quote the ' Regius ' command to secrecy verbatim, (lines 275-286) : — 

j The thrydde poynt most be severelo, 

' With the prentes knowe hyt wele, 

Hys mayster conwsel he kepe and close, 
\ And hys felows by hys goode purpose ; 

The prevetyse of the chamber telle he no mon, 
' Ny yn the logge whatsever they done ; 

| Whatsever thou heryst, or syste hem do, 

| Telle hyt no mon, whersever thou go ; 

' The conwsel of halle, and zeke of bowre, 

Kepe hyt wel to gret honowre, 

Lest hyt wolde torne thyself to blame, 

And brynge the craft ynto gret schame. 1 

i Next comes the Matthew Cooke IAS. (a.d. 1400-1450), also varying in form from 

' the later Charges. This contains five separate mentions of Geometry, one of them 

f being (lines 132-137), 

\ -■ " amonge all ye craftys of ye worlde of mannes crafte masonry hath the 

moste notabilite and moste pte of ys sciens Gemetry " ; 

j and of secresy we find (lines 841-845), 

" That he can hele the councell of his felows in logge and in chambere and 
in evy place there as masons heth." 

Of the rest of the ' Old Charges,' speaking of them collectively, the two features 
I have named, viz., the giving the first place among the sciences to geometry, and the 
strict command of secresy, are, practically without exception, to be found in them all. 
Sometimes the injunction to secresy shows a specially marked application to the 
operative Craft which it is well to note ; as in the Harleian MS. No. 1942 (about a.d. 1670, 
and identified with the so-called ' Old Constitutions ' printed by J. Roberts in 1722) ; 
" You shall secure and keepe secret the obscure and intricate parts of the 
Science, not disclosing them to any but such as study and use the same." 


This MS. also gives the form of obligation to be taken ; 

i " I will not at any time hereafter, by any word or circumstance whatsoever, 

' Directly or Indirectly, publish, discover, reveale, or make knowne any of 

the secrets priviledges 2 or Counsells, of the Fraternity or fellowship of 
Free Masonry, which at this time, or any time hereafter, shall bee made 
knowne unto mee." 

Let me also read the reference to Geometry in the Antiquity MS. (a.d. 1686), 
because we have in it a distinct connecting link between operative and post-revival days; 3 

" The fifth [science] is Geometiue that teacheth a man Mett and measure 
of Earth and of all things of the which this Science is called by Mast 1 ' 

Euclidks Geomititrie and by Vitruouis is called Architecture 

These be theseaven Libreall Sciences of the which all be Founded by one 
that is Geometrie." 

1 From Whymper's Facsimile and Transcript (1889). 
j - Privities in the Roberts' print. 

a See Qo%ld ii., 210-11, 

!'8 ' Transactions of the (Jualuor CoronaU lodge. 

The Tho. Carmick MS., upon which the last paper by our late Bro. W. J. 
Hughan read in this Lodge was written,' has a fuller obligation than usual : — 

" to keep to the utmost of his power ... all the Charges and all the 
Secrets and Mysteries that belong to the Craft of Measondry together 
with the Council of your Lodge or Assembly, you shall not for any gift 
or bribe or Reward, favour or affection, derectly or indirectly or for aney 
cause whatsoever, Devolge or Disclose the same or aney part thereof to 
aney one whatsoeuer except to a trew and Lawfull Meason, as you shall 
find him upon trew [and] upon just examination." 

The ' Old Charges ' are insistent upon necessary qualifications for Apprentices, 
who must be of lawful or free blood, and perfect in limb, "that is to say [not] having 
any maim for the which he may not truly work as he ought for to do," 3 and be bound 
for seven years ; and a Master was not to take an Apprentice unless he had enough 
work to give occupation to two or three Follows at the least. The York MS. No. 1 
(about A.D. 1600) additionally requires that the Apprentice shall be " noe Alian, but 
descended of a true and honest kindred." Other restrictions are found ensuring 
workmen against insufficient wages, and, on the other hand, directing the Master to 
substitute a good for an inefficient workman when occasion offers. That such matters 
as these relate exclusively to the operative class is obvious; and it may here be noted 
that our present Book of Constitutions (1911), at pages 8-15, includes in its " Charges 
of a Free-Mason . . . V. Of the Management of the Craft in Workikg," what is 
at the same time a paraphrase of portions of the Regius MS., and also a literal 
transcript from " The Charges of a Free-Mason " in Anderson's Constitutions of 

For a reason apparent later on, before leaving the ' Old Charges ' I would refer 
to the element of moral precept to be found in them. Of this in the general sense 
there is but little, and the reason for that little is given in the Regius MS. 

" Lest hyt wolde thy felowe schame, 
And brynge thyself ynto gret blame " ; 3 

of the Lansdowne MS. (about A.D. 1560) "whereby the Craft may be dishonored or 
Slandered " ; and of the York MS. No. 1, " whereby ye craft may be Scandalized or 
whereby it may receive disgrace." The precepts to both Masters and Apprentices are 
for by far the greater part addressed to matters of discipline and conduct inter se as 
members of a trade or guild, even the frequently recurring reminder to make due 
payment for bed and board having cognate reasons assigned for it. 

I now arrive at the important epoch when in 1717 the 'Revival' took place; 
and where we are as yet without light which would be ours if we knew more with 
certaintv regarding Sir Christopher Wren and what connexion existed between the 
Craft and himself, his predecessors and contemporaries. Through this dearth of 
information we are perforce confronted with the Andersonian dilemma ; whether to 
accept the inference from Anderson's first edition of the Constitutions in 1723, where we 
find King James I. designated " a Mascn King " ; Charles I. " being also a Mason " ; and 
of his successor " We have much reason to believe that King Charles II. was an 
Accepted Free-Mason, as every one allows - he was a great encourager of the Craftsmen " ; 
whilst Sir Christopher Wren finds mention only as " the ingenious Architect" in the text, 

1 A.Q.C. xxii., 95. 

2 Cooke MS., line 704. The spelling is modernised alwe, 

3 Lines 365-6. 

The Old Landmarks of the Craft. S)9 

and "the King's Architect" in a footnote; although "our great Master- Mason Inigo 
Jones " is not only so described, but, a few lines later, is styled " glorious " ; the whole 
clearly implying that, acjording to Anderson's information in 1723, Wren was not of the 
Craft ; or whether we should give credit to the same Anderson's positive statements in 
his second Constitutions, of 1738, that Wren was Grand Warden in 1663, Deputy Grand 
Master (and Acting G.M.) in 1666, and Grand Master from 1685, with the approval, 
later, of King William III., until he was superseded by the action of the four old Lodges 
which in 1717 constituted a Grand Lodge, and at an Assembly on St. John Baptist's Day 
by a majority elected Antony Sayer Grand Master" as the Center of Union and Harmony." 
If we accept the effect of Anderson's statements in 1723, we must refuse the detailed 
account of Wren's Masonic career which he seriously and deliberately put forward fifteen 
years afterwards ; if we give credit to the version of 1738, we do so knowing not merely 
that it is at variance with his first Constitutions of 1723, but that, his statements as to Wren's 
being a member of the Craft (to say nothing of his holding high aud supreme office for 
over fifty years) have been refused acceptance by practically all writers who in modern 
times have weighed and tested the available proof and found it wanting. 1 

It has been asserted, but, like so many traditions of that unrecorded age of 
Masonry, may or may not have foundation, that Wren's dismissal as surveyor-general 
and the appointment of one Benson in his place caused him to decline all public 
assemblies, and that " the master masons then in London were so much disgusted at 
the treatment of their old and excellent Grand Master that they would not meet nor 
hold any communication under the sanction of his successor." 3 Wren was chosen 
President of the Royal Society in 1681, being then, according to the 1738 Constitutions, 
Acting Grand Master, and it seems incredible that Anderson, when gathering three 
Stuart Kings, together with Inigo Jones, into the masonic fold, would not have but 
too gladly placed Wren along with them had any plausible reason for the inclusion been 
known to him in 1723. It will be remembered that Wren survived until that very year. 

What, if it could be authenticated, would be of much importance is the state- 
ment, so far as I am aware, first made in the second edition of Preston's Illustrations of 
Masonry (1775) : — "The old Lodge at St. Paul's, and a few others, continued to meet 
regularly, but consisted of few members. 3 To increase their numbers, a proposition 
was made and afterwards agreed to, that the privileges of Masonry should not any 
longer be restricted to operative masons, but extend to men of various professions, 
provided such men were regularly approved and initiated into the Order. In conse- 
quence of this resolution some new regulations took place, and the Society began oi:ce 
more to revive and flourish." The French writer, Bro. Emmanuel Rebold, in his 
General History of Freemasonry in Europe, has it more circumstantially ; writing of 
the year 1700, he says, " Having ceased their labours as operative Masons, the vast 
crowd of operatives . . . are to-day represented by a few persons who resolve to 
perpetuate the name of their ancient organization by remodelling it as a purely 
philanthropic institution ; and at a meeting of the lodge of St. Paul, held on St. John's 
Day, a d. 1703, resolve [as above]. At this time Sir C. Wren, Knt., was grand master 
of Freemasonry, nearly all the operative Masons in England being employed under him 
upon the Construction of St. Paul's Cathedral. He opposed the execution of this famous 
resolution while ho lived, so that it was not until after his death . . . that the 

1 See, especially, Gould's History of Freemasonry, ii., 4-18, 35-55. 

2 Ahiman Rezon, and elsewhere. 

3 Thus far, in Anderson's Constitutions, 1738. 

100 Transactions of the Quatuor Curonati Lodge. 

brethren were at liberty to enforce their new regulation. ' n I ought to say that Rebold, 
however, more than once erroneously states that Wren died in 1716. 

This ' Resolution ' is also to be found in Sandys' Short View of the History of 
Freemasonry, 1829 ; in Clavel's Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Maconnerie, 1843 ; and in 
Findel's History of Freemasonry, English editions 1869 and 1871. 

It is within the covers of Anderson's Constitutions of 1723 that we find the first- 
known instance of the expression " the old Landmarks," as used masonically, where it 
occurs in the thirty-ninth, and last, of the " General Regulations, compiled first by Mr. 
George Payne, anno 1720, when he was Grand-Master, and approv'd by the Grand 
Lodge on St. John Baptist's Day, anno 1721 . . . for the Use of the Lodges in and 
about London and Westminster." Regulation xxxix. runs, 

"Every Annual Grand Lodge has an inherent Power and authority to 
make new Eeyulations, or to alter these, for the real Benefit of this 
ancient Fraternity; Provided always that the old Land-Marks be carefully 

Of the compiler, Bro. George Payne, we know officially that he was elected and 
installed Grand Master, on June 24th, 1718 ; and Anderson states that he thereupon 
" desired any Brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any old Writings and Records con- 
cerning Masons and Masonry in order to shew the Usages of ancient Times : and this 
Year several old Copies of the Gothic Constitutions were produced and collated." Payne 
held office until 1719 only, but again became G.M. in 1720, when one of the burnings of 
documents told by Anderson in his 1738 Constitutions seems to have occurred. Under 
date approximately, 1680-1684 Anderson writes, 

" But many of the Fraternity's Records of this and former Reigns were lost 
in this and at the Revolution, and many of 'em were too hastily burnt in 
our time from a fear of making discoveries." 
and of Payne's second term of office as G.M., 

"This Year, at some Private Lodges, several very valuable Manuscripts (for 
they had nothing yet in Print) concerning the Fraternity, their Lodges, 
Regulations, Charges, Secrets and Usages (particularly one writ by Mr. 
Nicholas Stone, the Warden of Inigo Jones) were too hastily burnt by some 
scrupulous Brothers, that those Papers might not fall into strange Hands." 

Bio. R. F. Gould has surmised that it is possible these destroyed manuscripts 
may have included, " Early and authorised rituals, by means of which the ceremonies 
of the Craft as practised during the splendour of Mediaeval Operative Masonry, were 
preserved for a long period after its decay." 2 They may with equal possibility have 
included much more ! 

In his second Grand Mastership Payne is stated (as above) to have compiled the 
" General Regulations," in which " the Old Landmarks " find their first mention. In 
1724 he was appointed Grand Warden ; presided as Acting G.M. in 1735 ; and, in 1754, 
was a member of the Committee to revise the Constitutions preparatory to the issue of 
Entick's edition of 1756. He appears to have last attended Grand Lodge in November, 
1754, and he died January 23rd, 1757, being at his death Secretary to the Tax Office ; 
and this, with his membership of the Old Lodge at the Home at Westminster, and of 
the Old King's Arms Lodge (which last he joined in 1747, probably upon the ' Horn' 

1 From Brennan's translation of Eebold's General History; Cincinnati (1867) 311. 

2 A.Q.G. xvi., 33-34. 

The Old Landmarks of the Craft. 101 

Lodge being erased from the list in that year), 1 and that he is incorrectly stated as 
having succeeded Sir C. Wren as G.M. in Dr. Manningham's letter of July 12th, 1757. 2 
comprises all we know of him personally. That he had knowledge of some old 
manuscripts appears from the Diary of Dr. William Stukeley, the antiquary (1687- 
1765); " 1721, June 2L The Masons had a dinner at Stationers Hall. . . . The 
G a . M 1 '. Mr. Pain produc'd an old MS. of the Constitutions which he got in the West of 
England, 500 years old. He read over a new sett of articles to be observ'd." ; 3 and also 
from the second and later editions of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry (1775), in which, 
following "an old record of the Society," temp, Edward III., which deals with the 
making of operative masons, we find, "The following particulars are also contained in 
a very old MS. of which a copy is said to have been in the possession of the late George 
Payne, Esq., Grand Master in 1718." These "particulars" comprise three clauses 
relating to (1) Protection by the Sheriff, Mayor, or Alderman for Lodges duly meeting. 
(2) Charges to Apprentices on their making. (3) Compulsory renunciation of the 
Craft by disobedient members. 4 The same clauses are given in both editions of 
Anderson's Constitutions, but no mention is there made of Payne. 5 

The words, ' Old Landmarks,' were again used, but in a different form, in the 
" New Regulations," edited to January 1737-8, in Anderson's 1738 Constitutions ; 

" XXXIX. All the Alterations or New Regulations are only for amending 
and explaining the Old Regulations for the Good of Masonry without 
breaking in upon the autient Rules of the Fraternity, still preserving the 

Old Landmarks." 

and have been handed down to the present time in the form which we find in our present 
Constitutions of 1911 ; Rale 4< — 

" The Grand Lodge . . . alone has the inherent powtr of enacting laws 
and regulations for the government of the Craft, and of altering, repealing 
and abrogating them, always taking care that the antient Landmarks of 
the Order be preserved." 

Incomplete as must necessarily be any attempt to condense into a short summary 
the material points regarding Masonry in, or just before, 1717, I now reach a stage 
where I may pray in aid conclusions which have been expressed, both by members of 
the Craft and by non-Masons. 

In 1895 Bro. W. H. Rylands pointed out 6 that the true meaning of the letter G 
in early times was Geometria, which the Old Constitutions correctly state was the same 
as Masonry, 7 and that only at a later period was the signification given which we now 
attach to it ; and quoted from writings by the late Mr. Edward W. Cox, who had 
enunciated his discovery of the geometrical bases upon which mediaeval buildings, 
whether churches or castles, were constructed. 8 I am not now concerned as to details, 
beyond remarking that these bases rested on the application in working of figures 

1 Gould ii., 46, 280n, 348 ; Calvert's Old King's Arms Lodge (1899), 127. - 

2 Printed in Findel's History of Freemasonry (1871), 315, and A.Q.C. v., 109. 

3 A.Q.C. vi , 130. 

4 Apparently taken from the Gooke MS., of which it has been surmised that Payne was at one 
time the owner. Hnglian's Old Charges (1872) 21. 

5 1723, 43, 1738, 71, The clauses are slightly altered in the 1738 edition. 

6 A.Q.C, viii., 8*. 

7 With [the early chroniclers of the Craft] Geometry and Masonry are convertible terms." 
Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley, ibid 101. 

b For list of papers by Mr. Cox, see A.Q.C. xiv.. 34. 

[0'2 Transactions of the (luatuor Coronati Lodge. 

circular and angular. In the same paper was cited the view expressed by a well-known 
church architect of his day, Mr. R. W. Billings (1813-1874), who wrote in 185L that an 
elementary geometric figure, such as a child would naturally form if playing with a pair 
of compasses, "marks in its progress a diagram known to the initiated as embodying 
the profundities of Masonic mysteries " ; and that " the secret working of the ancient 
freemasons . . . . was utterly lost during the period of the Reformation." I will 
quote Bro. Rylands' own words on the subject : " The Reformation caused a general 
break up of the system of ruling the Lodges at an earlier time. The central authorities, 
which in my belief existed, ceased to exist ; much of the old symbolism died out, as no 
great ecclesiastical buildings and no castle or fortress were any longer erected. That 
portion which did not die out remained only as a kind of shadow without the substance." 
Commenting upon Bro. Rylands' paper, Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley wrote, 1 "When a 
Master Mason set about planning some great ecclesiastical or castellated structure, he 
had none of the facilities which arc at hand for the modern architect, who can go to his 

books of reference, and find general formulas worked out No Tables of 

Construction or Handbooks of Architecture were available for the Mediaeval Architect. 
He had to work out his own plans for himself; and the only methods at his disposal 
were Geometrical." And farther on, 2 " The nature and method of the Secret Instruction 
given within the Lodge necessitates Symbolism, for the purpose of condensing and 
conveying the practical knowledge from the Master Mason to his coadjutors or his 
successors. It is inconceivable that each Master would have to work out, either by rule 
of thumb, or by Graphical Statics, the mechanical formulae involved. Those scientific 
Secrets must have been communicated by means of mentally conjoining each to some 
material object, following the law of Mental Association. The circumstances of the 
Dark Ages preclude the possibility of the Craft Secrets being handed on in writing. 
Here, then, we have a set of Secrets such as no other Craft possessed, and a necessity 
for universally understood Symbolism such as existed in no other Craft." 

In 1897, Bro. Sydney T. Klein in his paper on The Great Symbol 2, said of 
geometry, " We find it in the hands of the monks .... and its secrets religiously 
kept in the hands of those who, I think, we may conclude were the progenitors of our 
Craft Symbolism," and referred to the passages by Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley which I 
have read as showing that the mediaeval geometrical methods "were kept as profound 
secrets communicated only in Lodge, and that the secret dogmas of Freemasonry were 
these geometrical methods, and not the moral sermonizing invariably attributed to 
them." And again, "I do not wish to suggest that the knowledge of the square was 
ever divulged in modern speculative freemasonry. I rather lean to the idea that it 
ceased to be of value when the operative element had been eliminated from the Craft, 
the bare ritual coming down to us from operative times, its original meaning having 
been lost." 

Other observations upon the exactness with which the old builders carried out 
their geometrical rules will be found in papers by Bro. E. Conder at A.Q.O., xvi., 94, 
on William of Wyheham, and by Bro. Arthur Bowes at A.Q.C., xix., 165, on The 
Equilateral Triangle in Gothic Architecture.* And I must not leave our Transactions 
without quoting the following from Bro. Klein's paper, Mayister-Mathesios, in A.Q.G., 
xxiii , at page 108. " The knowledge of the square in one form or other must have been 

1 A.Q.C. viii., 101. - Ibid, 103. 

3 A.Q.C. x., 82. 

* See also papers by the latter in Lodge of Research No. 2429 Transactions 1909-10, 100: 1910- 
11, 93. 

TF 1 

The Old Laii I in arks of the Craft. 103 

handed down to each Master Mason when he became head of a Lodge, and it is clear, I 
think, that at all events later on it must have been believed that that knowledge was 
much more than an ordinary Craft secret." And again, page 115, "We know from our 
oldest MSS. that a solemn oath of secrecy was insisted upon at the making of all 
Freemasons when they were initiated into the secrets and mysteries of the building 
craft, and it was by the members of this secret Fraternity that these wonderful 
buildings were accomplished. They kept the secret so well that even to this day there 
is no written record forthcoming, and it has been suggested that the very fact that this 
has been kept secret is a strong proof that there was something worth keeping. It is 
well to bear in mind that in these days, say middle of twelfth century and for 300 years 
thereafter, there was no printing press, everything had to be written by hand, and 
instruction under those conditions would naturally have been mainly oral ; what was 
written, as we know from our old MS. Constitutions, was only a traditional account of 
the origin of the Society, and Rules for regulating their behaviour towards foreign 
brothers and amongst themselves, which were ordered to be read at the initiation of 
every Mason. The fact also that the old MSS. of the Craft maintained that Geometry 
was at the head of all Sciences, and that Geometry was Masonry, points to that secret, 
upon which the incentive was based, being of a Geometrical character." At page 133, 
Bro. Klein thus describes the decline of operative masonry : " Three or four centuries 
later we see a general decadence of the Arts, persecution and suppression of religious 
houses, the knowledge of geometry becoming looked upon as pagan learning and classed 
with witchcraft and magic, Masonry completely neglected, and the very name of Gothic 
being given to that beautiful style because it was called barbarous in comparison with 
the craze for the antique styles which had become the fashion." 

On the importance of secrecy to the early builders Dr. George Oliver had written 
long before. 1 " What was the powerful cause which produced those stupendous masses 
of building, blazing with all the rich results of decorative architecture, that adorn 
every corner of our land ? It was secrecy ! The operative Masons, in those days, 
adopted every secret measure — even holding their Lodges in the crypts of cathedrals 
and churches — to prevent the great principles of their science by which their reputation 
was secured and maintained from being publicly known. Even the Workmen, the 
Apprentices and Fellowcrafts, were unacquainted with the secret and refined mechanism 
which cemented and imparted the treasures of wisdom to the expert Masters of the art. 
They were profoundly ignorant of the wisdom which planned, the beauty which designed, 
and knew only the strength and labour which executed the work. The pressure and 
counter-pressure of complicated arches was a secret which the inferior workmen never 
attempted to penetrate. They were blind instruments in the hands of intelligent 
Master Masons, and completed the most sublime undertakings by the effect of mere 
mechanical and physical power, without being able to comprehend the secret that 
produced them; without understanding the nice adjustment of the members of a 
building to each other, so necessary to accomplish a striking and permanent effect, or 
without being able to enter into the science exhibited in the complicated details which 
were necessary to form a harmonious and proportionate whole." 

I will here avail myself of some material furnished by writers who were not, so far 
as I know, of the Craft. Mr. Wyatt Papworth, previously mentioned, believed that 
the building Masons had none other than such secrets as pertained to their 

1 The Revelations of a Square (1855), 257. In that pleasant mixture of fact and fable the passage 
quoted is placed in the mouth of Bro. John Northouck, but the words are those of the author, 

104 Transactions of the (jwxtuor < 'orouati Lvdye. 

art. 1 A well-known Architect, the late Mr. William Pettit Griffith (1815-1884) in The 
Natural System of Architecture (1845) wrote, "Pointed architecture would probably 
never have existed had it not been for the scientific geometrical knowledge which the 
Freemasons borrowed from the secret societies of Ancient Greece"; and in Ancient 
Gothic. Churches, their Proportions and Chromatics (1847), " Our ancestors set out their 
drawings entirely upon geometrical principles ... in proportioning sacred edifices 
the equilateral triangle appears to have been the favourite figure, but by no means to 
such an extent as to exclude all others." The late Mr. George Godwin (1815-1888), 
Architect, the first writer who systematically directed attention to Masons Marks, after 
remarking on the building marvels that were produced by the bodies of Masons at a 
time when the greatest ignorance generally prevailed, and the customs and mystery of 
the Craft, goes on, " There is not, in the whole history of architecture, a more curious 
point than this, although it is in many respects obscure. In studying the works of 
the Freemasons, they become additionally interesting if we have a knowledge of the men ; 
and the men, in like manner, are invested with greater importance when we reflect upon 
their wonderful productions." 3 

In November, 1854, the late Mr. David Ramsey Hay (1798-1866), a decorative 
artist of much repute, in a paper read before the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
on The Harmonic Law of Nature applied to Architectural Design? said, "The probability 
exists that a system of applying this law of nature in architectural construction was the 
only great practical secret of the Freemasons, all their other secrets being connected, 
not with their art, but with the social constitution of their society. This valuable 
secret, however, seems to have been lost, as its practical application fell into disuse ; but 
as that ancient society consisted of speculative as well as practical masons, the secrets 
connected with their social union have still been preserved, along with the excellent 
rules by which the brotherhood is governed. It can scarcely be doubted that there was 
some such practically useful secret amongst the Freemasons or early Gothic architects, 
for we find, in all the venerable remains of their art which exist in this country, 
symmetrical elegance of form pervading the general design, harmonious proportion 
amongst all the parts, beautiful geometrical arrangements throughout all the tracery, 
as well as in the elegantly symmetrised foliated decorations which belong to that style 
of architecture." The following lately appeared as part of a descriptive article in the 
provincial Press : 4 " Though their foundations were not bedded in concrete as they would 
be to-day, it is surprising how many old Gothic fabrics hold together by the very 
science of their construction, thrust meeting thrust everywhere; arches perfectly 
poised, walls braced by massive roofs, dead weight carried down from great heights 
through wall and pier and buttress, distributed and dispersed from centres of strain ; 
and as we walk about within we are undisturbed by the fact that thousands of tons are 
delicately balanced around and above us, held in stable equilibrium by the matured art 
of centuries ago." When we remember that building was going on almost simul- 
taneously at the cathedrals of Wells, Salisbury, Worcester, Peterborough, Lichfield, 
Durham, Ely, Lincoln and York, 5 an observation lately made, that " It may be doubted 
whether the ideal of the Crusader, rushing off to Palestine, was as worthy of celebration 
as the Mason who stayed at home to work," 6 seems justified. 

1 Finders History of Freemasonry (1871) 93n. 

2 History in Ruins (1853), 170. 

3 Separately published, London, 1855. 

4 September 23rd, 1911. 

a Dallaway's Discourses upon Architecture in England (1833), 406". 

6 Qoihic and Renahsance Architecture, by W. G. Waters, in Quarterly Review, July, 1911, 

The Old Landmarlts of the Craft. 


The great ecclesiastics " were probably not so well versed in geometrical 
science as the master-masons, for mathematics formed a part of monastic learning in a 
very limited degree . . . That the original plan, or the details of it, was often 
suggested by one of the more ingenious of the ecclesiastics, cannot be candidly doubted ; 
but that in more instances the master-mason had the exclusive execution, is not less an 
approved fact." 1 And we may further remember the mere erection of the building was 
not all that called for workmanship and skill, for, " our cathedrals were not always cold 
and gray. The artists of the Middle Ages rioted in colour, and wall-spaces and screens 
and statuary were aglow with all the colours of the rainbow." 

More than one paper in our Transactions to which I have referred is illustrated by 
diagrams and designs which greatly assist in its appreciation. It is not necessary that 
I should vainly attempt such here, and I refrain from surmise or speculation as to what 
actually were the specific or particular secrets on which the old builders set such store ; 
the fact of their existence, and their general nature, will suffice for the present purpose. 
But it is not irrelevant, and may be illustrative, to place in tabular form— merely as 
specimens of problems which were comparatively elementary — the various methods 
of constructing one feature of every-day occurrence, the Arch 2 ; 






Sub-divided into 

' 1. Semi-circular 

i 2. Segmental 

fl. Round 

| 2. Pointed 

1. Lancet 

2. Equilateral 

3. Obtuse-angled 

'1. Ogee, or con- 
Complex I trasted 

i 2. Tudor 

Formed from 

A circle 
The same 

The same 

Two segments of a 

The same 

The same 

The same 

Four segments of a 

The same 

Described from 

A centre in the same 
line with its spring. 

A centre lower than its 

A centre above its 

Two centres above its 


An acute-angled tri- 
An equilateral triangle 

An obtuse-angled tri- 

Four centres, two with- 
in and two without 
the arch. 

Four centres within 
the arch. 

This may, perhaps, bring more forcibly before our minds some of the problems 
which were continually confronting our ancient operative brethren. 

I now turn from material which has been rather glanced at than at all adequately 
presented, to inferences bearing upon ' the Old Landmarks.' The operative working of 
the Craft formed the subject-matter of the 'Old Charges' which were probably 
framed to provide for the government of bodies of men connected with the Church, 
in the first instance, and, regarded only as builders of churches and cathedrals, 
though, later on, they constructed castles and fortified mansions. The ' Old Charges,' 
with the one exception of the invocation in commencing, are conspicuous by their 
assuming to treat only of topics wholly profane (in the sense of being neither religious 
nor polemical) ; whilst their didactic or moral portions amount to nothing more than 

1 Dallaway, 417-18. 

2 Summarised from the text and illustrations of Bloxam's Principles of Gothic Ecclesiastical 
Architecture, 3rd edit. (1838). 

106 Transactions of the Quatuur Coronati Lodge. 

codes of snob business methods and good behaviour as would be insisted on by 
competent and responsible patrons or heads for the conduct, well-being and prosperity 
of the building trade, and incidentally of every person affected, be he Architect, 1 the 
oldest Master Mason, or the youngest Apprentice. In a word, the moral precepts are 
utilitarian, and not ethical. And, running throughout them all, prominent in every 
one of the ' Old Charges,' always to be found, no matter what other variations or 
omissions, we find strict injunctions to keep inviolate the secrets of the Craft. The 
dominant note was secresy ; compared with it the other duties enjoined become almost 
secondary and supplemental; and this would naturally be so, because if building 
secrets had reached those who might acquire them without the prescribed apprentice- 
ship, the downfall of the Craft must have come as inevitably as, and far more swiftly 
than, it came through other causes with the Tudors on the throne. 

Let us take as a fair sample of the ' Old Charges,' the oldest known after the 
■Begins and Cooke MSS., the Dowlands MS., dating from about A.D. 1550. It begins 
with the invocation, "The might of the Father of Kings, with the wisdome of his 
glorious Son," and follows with a narrative of the beginning of " Masonrye," with a 
foreword of " The Charge that belongeth to any true Mason to keep for in good faith, 
And yee, have good heede thereto ; it is well worthy to be well kept for a worthy craft 
and a curious science." Then come the " Seaven liberall Sciences," their inventors and 
teachers, sacred and profane, in what in these days we call the ' Near East,' until we 
reach the English " Sainct Albones," King Athelstona, Prince Edwinne, and the 
' : Assemble at Yorke " ; after which follow the charges, first for Masons generally, 
consisting of loyalty to God and Holy Church, to King, and to every Mason ; to " keep 
truly all the counsells of Lodge and Chamber, and all other counsells that ought to be 
kept by way of Masonhood " ; to be honest, true to the lord or master, courteous to 
other Masons, chaste as to their near female kin, making due payment for board and 
lodging, and behaving uprightly where they lodge for the good repute of the Craft. 9 
Other precepts follow, addressed to Masters and Fellows, all of them either of a purely 
operative character, such as the qualifications and due service of apprentices ; due 
payment of wages ; mutual good behaviour and courtesy ; in case of complaint, to 
"abide the award of the masters and fellows," or else enjoining abstention from evil 
and disreputable courses. 

It is remarkable how closely the general tenour of the ' Old Charges,' con- 
sidered apart from the specific trade of the builders, coincides with that of the 
ordinary Apprenticeship Indentures, used throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries (and probably still) ; so much so as to more than suggest that these last 
derived their substance from our ' Old Charges.' There is before me such an Indenture 
of 1810, by which for seven years the apprentice is bound to a carpenter and under- 
taker of Shoreditch, " to learn his Art ... his master faithfully shall serve, his 
Secrets keep, his lawful commands everywhere gladly do. He shall do no damage to his 
said Master, nor see it to be done of others ; but that he to the utmost of his Power 
shall let, or forthwith give Warning to his said Master of the same. He shall not waste 
the goods of his said Master, nor lend them unlawfully to any " ; and the Master agrees 
that he "his said Apprentice in the same Art and Mystery which he useth, by the 
best Means that he can, shall teach and instruct." This aptly illustrates how the one 
esoteric element in the ' Old Charges,' the requirement of secresy, has descended as a 

1 The primary meaning of Architect is " Master Workman." Gould i., 323. 

2 As to "Lodges" provided for Operative Masons when journeying from place to place, see 
Beseaich Transactions 1608-9,51; 1909-10,89; 1910-11,69, 

The Old Landmarks of the Craft. 107 

form which has been utilised for other handicrafts, though the determination which 
actuated the old builders, that its secrets should be fenced round and kept (the great 
security for this purpose being the exclusive monopoly of the Craft, of which an inflexible 
insistence upon the apprentice system formed the first line of defence), has in course of 
time been watered down to what now is regarded as merely one obligation amongst the 
rest, and largely one of form. 

It was of such a community as the mediaeval builders that Ruskin wrote, "Men 
inheriting the instincts of their craft through many generations, rigidly trained in 
every mechanical art that bears on their materials . . . classed, according to their 
proved capacity, in ordered companies in which every man shall know his part and 
take it indisputably well " ; l and Bro. R. F. Gould has pointed out that " During the 
splendour of Mediaeval Operative Masonry the art of building stood at the head of all 
the other arts," and that its supremacy is shown by the circumstance that "by no 
other craft in Great Britain has documentary evidence been furnished of its having 
claimed at any time a legendary or traditional history." 2 

A process of elimination applied to the ' Old Charges ' brings the same result. 
Of ethics, other than such precepts of good behaviour as were palpably necessary for 
the maintenance and well-being of the fraternity as a whole, we find none ; the only 
order which might apply to the outside world being to make due payment for board 
and lodging had ; and it is noticeable that this, though almost always, is not invariably, 
found j 15 whilst, on the other hand, the equivalent of that precept, with others, is found 
in writers who had no concern or connexion with the Craft. Of this one instance will 
here suffice : Thomas Tusser (1523-1580), in his Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, 
first published in 1557, had the following amongst 7-1 lines of " The Ladder to Thrift," 

" To follow profit earnestly, 
But meddle not with pilfery. 

To show to landlord courtesy, 
And keep thy covenants orderly. 

To love thy neighbour neighbourly, 
And show him no discourtesy. 

To use no man deceitfully, 
To offer no man villainy. 

To keep thy touch substantially, 
And in thy word use constancy. 

To learn t'eschew ill company, 
And such as live dishonestly. 

These be the steps unfeignedly, 
To climb to thrift by husbandry," 

1 A rrmvs of the Chace, 298. 
-A.Q.C., iii., 15-16. 

:1 It does not appear in the filoane MS. No. 3848 (a.d. 1646) as given in Hughan's Old Charges 
(1872), 47-51. 

103 Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 

From not one of the ' Old Charges ' is the command to secrecy missing; always 
present, it is sometimes emphasized by specific reference to the operative masons' 
trade, and more than once the very form of obligation is prescribed, as we have seen. 

Of the links which connected the decline of operative masonry with the 
masonry which was practised after the Revival of 1717 there is not much that can be 
said : and what is known is contained in a valuable paper by our late Bro. Hughan in 
Lodge of Research Transactions, 1903-4, 84—102; and in Bro. Gould's History of Free- 
masonry, vol. ii., 260-279. I may instance the " Orders " of the Alnwick Lodge, where, 
in 1701, we find the signatures of sixty-nine members appended to a schedule of 
twelve fines, varying from sixpence to £3 13s. 4d., to be imposed upon disobedience to 
the "Orders," which last are wholly operative, and were described by our late Bro. 
W. J. Hughan as " the oldest By-Laws of an English Lodge extant." 1 The Alnwick 
Lodge preserved its operative character until at least 1748. 3 

My proposition is that when, in or soon after 1717, the speculative element had 
prevailed, the old operative system was nevertheless preserved, allowance being, of 
coarse, made for the preponderance of the speculative element, and for the unavoidable 
changes of time and circumstance ; and that what in truth constituted the ' Old Land- 
marks ' of the Craft were the building secrets which the Operative Masons for hundreds 
of years had closely guarded, and handed down from one generation to another. What 
these particular secrets comprised, or of what particularly they consisted, we do not 
now know in detail ; or whether they were more directly connected by the old builders 
with arch, pillar, roof, etc., than with their science of construction as a whole ; but that 
such secrets were to them of the highest importance is beyond doubt ; nor, as at any rate 
it seems to me, is it more open to question that the preservation of these secrets, 
and by that means the continued existence and prosperity of the body of operative 
masons, was the direct and the principal, if not the only, object, for the attainment of 
which the ' Old Charges ' were compiled and written. 

What Bro. Hughan designated the ' Guild Theory ' 3 has been of late years 
advanced to the effect that the Rev. James Anderson, previously a member of a 
Scottish Lodge, in 1710 became Chaplain to an operative St. Paul's Lodge, in London, 
which had been formed in 1675, it being competent for him to assume the office upon 
taking an oath merely, and without the regular training and probation ; that in the 
course of 1714 he made seven non-operative Masons, amongst them Anthony Sayer, 
George Payne, Dr. Desaguliers, and John, Duke of Montagu (each of whom became 
Grand Master within the next seven years) ; that, in September, 1715, Sir Christopher 
Wren, as the Operative Grand Master, became aware of these proceedings, and his 
operative Society thereupon expelled Anderson and his seven initiates, who then 
formed a new Lodge, which they called " the Lodge of Antiquity," as well as other 
Lodges in London. This narrative rests, so far as I am aware, upon assertions of which 
satisfactory proof, though solicited, is not, so far, forthcoming. 4 

I now pass to what I regard as the subordinate question : What meaning was 
attached to the term ' Old Landmarks,' by Anderson, when it was printed in Payne's 
" General Regulations," and published with the Constitutions of 1723 ? Under other 
circumstances this branch of enquiry might be of more importance than I deem 

1 A.Q.C, viii., 223. 
■ See ibid xiv., 4. 

3 Origin of English Rite (ed. 1909), 31. 

4 See A.Q.C. xxiii., 28 29. Research Transactions, 1909 10, 93 91. 

The Old Landmarks of the Graft. 109 

? it, but Anderson appears to have been in all respects such an uncertain quantity as to 

* make his personal action or mental attitude of but little significance. A general 

| estimate of the value to be attached to Anderson as a Masonic writer may be formed 

i from the passage in Gould's Concise History of Free Masonry (1903), 325, where he 

. recommends " our totally disregarding any statements of [Anderson], excepting only 

such as relate to the early proceedings of the Grand Lodge officers and others who were 

personal actors in the events to which they refer ; " from Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley, 

j at A.Q.G. xviii., 202, where he writes of Anderson, " his strong point was not exactitude 

I either in spelling [proper names] or in weightier matters " ; and from Bro. E. H. Dring, 

at A.Q.C. xxiii., 30, "the verdict of the past is that Anderson was unhistorical and 


Anderson was an industrious copyist and translator; but it would not be difficult 

to supplement these opinions as to the value of his literary work with others to the same 

effect ; and his presentation of a passage from the Cooke MS. as a quotation, although 

materially altered by himself in the process, 1 should be a salutary reminder that Payne's 

" General Begulations," as printed with the 1723 Constitutions, had themselves been 

■ " digested into this new Method," and that it is at least possible the expression "the 

i old Landmarks " in paragraph xxxix. was adapted, or even invented by Anderson, and 

not by Payne at all. It will be remembered that Payne's " General Regulations " are 

expressly headed as being "for the use of the Lodges in and about London and 

11 Westminster," whilst the " Approbation " of the 1723 Constitutions, to which they are 

appended, is stated as given, " with the Consent of the Brethren and Fellows in and about 

the Cities of London and Westminster" ; the latter being a circumstance which, though 

of significance in other aspects, need not be discussed here. 

If we assume, however, that the phrase ' Old Landmarks ' was attributable to 


Payne, we know (ante) that in his 1775 edition of Illustrations of Masonry Preston 
printed portions of " a very old MS." of which a copy was said to have been in Payne's 
possession, and which the " particulars " given show consisted of rules relating to the 
l pursuit or trade of operative masonry. Anderson unquestionably was conversant with 

'] the subject-matter of some of the ' Old Charges,' 3 and it is perhaps not very important 

'} whether it is Payne or Anderson whom we have to regard, as each had sufficient know- 

ledge of the MS S. to warrant the suggestion that it is exceedingly improbable that, 
\ in the early days after the Revival, the phrase 'Old Landmarks' would be used except 

-,..' with the intention that it should be read in connexion with the precepts and injunctions 

contained in the old MSS., upon which Anderson founded such portions of his 
Masonic history as he extracted from them for his purpose and published in his 
Constitutions, as well as with his historical narrative. 

I put it thus ; if Anderson troubled himself to form any adequate conception of 

the meaning of the phrase we are considering, all probability seems in favour of his 

fixing upon the one objective and all-important element so prominent in the ' Old 

Charges,' in other words, the ever present injunctions to secresy : if he made the ' Old 

.[ Landmarks' available as a phrase which appeared convenient and euphonious without 

troubling himself as to any concrete meaning to be attached to it, his views appear 

. hardly worth inquiring into. I hope it is not uncharitable to say that, of these two 

f alternatives, my personal inclination is to the latter view. If Anderson had been in 

1 Gould's History, ii., 293. The late Bro. W. J. Hnghan, most lenient of critics, applied the term 
" garbled extracts " to Anderson's manipulations. A.Q.C. xviii., 41. 

2 " [He] seems to have compiled from several MSS." Late Rev. Bro. Woodford (1872). " The sources, 
of which Dr. Anderson purported to give a digest, have been traced, identified, and collated." Bro. Dr. 
Chetwode Crawley, A.Q.G. xxiv., 47 (1911). 

110 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

contact with operative masons to the extent contended for in the ' Guild Theory,' that 
would point to a conclusion intellectually more in his favour ; but it at present rests 
upon assertion as distinguished from proof, and so is not available for use. 

Again, at the Revival there were unattached Masons, if we accept Anderson's 
Constitutions of 1738. He says that, temp. William III, 1689-1702, there were six Lodges 
in various parts of London, " and some more that assembled statedly," besides " a bright 
Lodge " held during the building of a large part of Hampton Court Palace ; but that in 
Queen Anne's reign, 1702-1714, "in the South the Lodges were more and more 
disused . . . and the annual assembly was not duly attended . . . Some few 
years after this Sir Christopher Wren neglected . . . yet the Old Lodge near St. 
Paul's, and a few more continued their stated Meetings." The process of the Revival 
was conducted by four named Lodges in conjunction with " some old Brothers." In 
1719-20, when Dr. Desaguliers was Grand Master, "several Old Brothers, that had 
neglected the Craft, visited the Lodges;" and at the Grand Assembly, Dec. 27th, 
1721, when a committee was appointed to report upon the draft of Anderson's 1723 
Constitutions, we read, '• This Communication was made very entertaining by the Lectures 
of some old Masons." 1 The last extract is not so specific, but the former ones are plain 
as to the existence of old Masons, not members of an existing Lodge, and as to then- 
holding friendly communication with the pioneers of anew Masonic epoch. 

Of the Rev. James Anderson, A.M., who is nowhere shown to have taken actual 
part in the revival, and whose name first appears, in the narrative of events as recorded 
by himself, on September 29th, 1721, 1 will only say further that many of his assertions 
are contradicted by Dr. Stukeley, who wrote in his Diary, concerning his own 
admission to the Craft, on January 0th, 1721, " I was made a Freemason at the 
Salutation Tav. Tavistock Street ... I was the first person made a freemason in 
London for many years. We had great difficulty to find members enough to perform 
the ceremony " ; and who, in his Autobiography, says (of his initiation), " with diffi- 
culty a number sufficient was to be found in all London"; that Anderson's account of 
the revival was not written until twenty-one years after the occurrence of that event, 
and his ' History ' was " compiled at a time when troubles crowded thickly upon him, 
and very shortly before his death." 2 

' The Old Landmarks ' had, as a masonic expression, its first known mention 
within the covers of Anderson's 1723 Constitutions, where I have found nothing which 
supports inferences adverse to conclusions I put forward ; the purview and tenour of 
the entire work, both narrative and foot-notes, are operative, and operative only; and, 
if it were needful, it could be fairly claimed that Anderson's words in his last 
paragraph but one point in the same direction ; " the Accepted Masons . . . have 
maintained and propagated their Concernments in a way peculiar to themselves, which 
the most Gunning and the most Learned cannot penetrate into, though it has been often 
attempted ; while They know and love one another, even without the Help of Speech, 
or when of different Languages." 3 The observation is due to Anderson that he 

1 Anderson's Constitutions, 1738, passim. 2 On May 28fch, 1739. 

3 The following appeared in The Standard newspaper of August 2nd, 1911 : — " St. Petersburg!], 
July 29th. The curious ' artel' system which holds among the common classes in Russia, is responsible 
for many otherwise inexplicable occurrences. The other day, in a cholera infected district, an ' artel 
(i.e., a gang voluntarily bound together for a certain purpose, choosing their own leaders and making 
their own by-laws) of bricklayers found one of their number stricken with the disease. .The law of 
the land orders immediate declaration in such cases to the local authorities, but the law of the ' artel ' 
is to stand by a comrade at all costs. They conveyed him secretly home by rail, abandoning their work 
and their wages in a body in order to baffle police inquiries. The authorities are no»v trying to trace 
the route they took through several provinces, and to disinfect their tracks, but with no certainty of 

The Old Landmarks of the Graft. Ill 

attempted no definition or interpretation of ' the Old Landmarks,' and none appears to 
have been asked for or suggested when his Constitutions were approved by Grand Lodge^ 
on 25th March, 1722, and 25th January, 1737-8. 

It will be of service as assisting to inferences, to notice that the operative 
element was prominently apparent in the proceedings of many Lodges for long after the 
Eevival era; and of this I may give a few examples. In The Freemason's Pocket 
Companion, (London, 1735 and 1738) we find this passage, "The Number of Lodges 
has so prodigiously encreased within these few Years in Great Britain and Ireland; 
and it is to be hoped that Geometry and the Itoyal Art will be inculcated in every 
one of them." In 1733 the Old King's Arms Lodge acquired Le (Here's Introduction 
on the Principles of Architecture, and "a Drawing Board and T square for the use 
of the Master and his Lodge," and in the same Lodge Lectures were delivered 
upon "Military Architecture," "St. Paul's Cathedral," and "The properties of 
the Compass" ; and a By-law of August 1st, 1737, provided, "a certain portion 
of Andrea Palladio's Architecture to be read at Lodge meetings when the W.M. 
shall think meet, in place of a portion of the Law and Constitutions." The first 
book of Palladio had been that year presented by a member, and in 1739 the three 
remaining books were purchased from the Lodge funds. 1 At the Lodge held at the 
Castle, Highgate, in 1738, " Part of the Architecture of Palladio was read." 2 The 
Apollo Lodge, York, about 1775-1780, included in its property Euclid's Elements by 
If Charles* ; and in Rules or By-Laws promulgated in the same City, in 1725, it is 
provided that "An Hour shall be set apart to talk Masonry."* The historian of York, 
Francis Drake, F.R.S., when J. W. of the York Grand Lodge, on December 27th, 1726, 
in his " Speech Deliver'dto the Worshipful and Ancient Society of Free and Accepted 
Masons," 5 said, " I am creditably inform'd that in most Lodges in London, and several 
other Parts of this Kingdom, a Lecture on some Point of Geometry or Architecture is 
given at every Meeting." Lectures of a similar class have probably never become 
entirely discontinued. In 1839, a namesake of my own, Bro. Thomas Hextall, 6 delivered 
a lecture on the 47th proposition of the first book of Euclid at the Harmonic Lodge, 
Liverpool, of which he was the W.M. ; Bro. Charles Manton lectured at the Lodge of 
Honour, Wolverhampton, on " The Five Orders of Architecture," in 1859, and on " The 
History of Architecture in Athens," in 1861^ ; and many Lodge minute books will 
furnish both earlier and later instances. 

I have now to deal with independent conclusions at which other of our brethren 
have arrived as to the meaning of ' the Old Landmarks.' Bro. Poignant, in his paper, 
at A.Q.C. xxiv., 151, looked for the 'Landmarks' in a system of morality which was 
taught, as distinct from merely moral precepts, in 1813, at the Union. From this view I 
necessarily dissent ; and hope that neither our ancient brethren nor myself will suffer 
in estimation, because I have failed to find that any ethical instruction was aimed at by 
the former, except so far as it was regarded as a practical necessity which was required 

1 Calvert's Old King's Arms Lodge (1899), 70, 4c. 
'' Sadler's Thomas Dunckerley (1891), 113. 
3 Hughan's Apollo Lodge, York (1889), 120. 

■* A.Q.C. xiii., 17. Bro. Rev. Canon Horsley suggested that in this rule might be found the germ 
of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge (Ibid). 

s Printed with B. Cole's Constitutions, 1728-9 and 1731. 

6 Notices of this Brother are in Hawkins' The Harmonic Lodge, No. 216 (1890), 33 ; and in, 
Williams' Centenary of St. John's Lodge, Leicester (1892), 87, 

7 Barnett's Lodge of Honour No. 526 (1896), 8, 13, 

112 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

in the general interests of the building fraternity and its members. I have not discussed 
the editions of the Constitutions after 1738, as variations in them, to which Bro. 
Poignant directed attention, do not affect the contentions I have ventured to raise. 

Bro. E. L. Hawkins on the same occasion told as 1 he held that by the expression 
' Old Landmarks ' in General Regulation xxxix. Anderson meant " The Charges of a 
Free-Mason " which are printed immediately before the " General Regulations " in the 
Constitutions of 1723, as being " the Landmarks or unwritten usages of the Craft, while 
the General Regulations were the written laws of the Craft." This theory is attractive 
if only from its directness and simplicity ; but if it be the right solution, why that 
insistence upon secresy so invariably found in the MS. ' Old Charges ? ' We may look 
in vain, both in Anderson's 'Charges' of 1723 and in the slightly modified form in 
which they appear in all post-Union Constitutions to the present time, for anything 
approaching the esoteric, or for a word or syllable which indicates what the world at 
large might not see or hear; the only hint as to secresy being, "You shall be 
cautious .... that [a stranger] shall not be able to discover or find out what is 
not proper to be intimated "; words pointing rather to inadvertence than to 
deliberate disclosure. And the title of Anderson's ' Charges ' is itself significant. 
Tt introduces them to the reader as having been " extracted from the ancient Records of 
Lodges beyond Sea, and of those in England, Scotland and Ireland, for the Use of the 
Lodges in London." Now the MS. List of Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England 
in 1723 comprised the names of fifty-two Lodges, only three of yhich— those at 
Edgware, Acton and Richmond (Surrey) — were outside the London district 2 ; so that 
as far as Anderson's ' Charges ' purport to have been " extracted front Lodges beyond 
Sea," that of necessity means that the subject-matter had been derived from exotic 
fraternities on the continent of Europe or elsewhere. The position so created would be 
one requiring much consideration before acceptance. Apart from Head V., " Of the 
management of the Craft in working," there is very little of practical requirements, 
and throughout his entire 'Charges' I find nothing in ethics or morality which 
might not just as well apply to any well-regulated society as to a Lodge of Freemasons. 
Anderson, in his Constitutions of 1738, page 109, applies the epithet, " the center of 
Union and Harmony " to a Grand Master, and in Head I. of his ' Charges,' he writes 
of Masonry itself as " the Center of Union "; the nett result of his efforts in modernising 
the ' Old Charges,' or such of them as he knew, to fit the post-Revival age being to 
whittle away or dilute much of the picturesque diction and archaic value with which 
the latter abound. His object was, no doubt, to adopt them to the new speculative 
phase of the Craft ; and why he should have permitted Head V which has solely an 
operative application to survive, must be left unguessed. If Bro. Hawkins' suggestion 
were that — not in Anderson's ' Charges ' but — in the ' Old Charges ' themselves taken 
separately or collectively, might the ' Old Landmarks ' be found, the divergence between 
us would be slight : but taking his contention as printed in A.Q.G. xxiv., 166, I cannot 
but think he regards as ' Landmarks ' matters which the old building masons looked 
upon as secondary or auxiliary only. The possession and safe retention by them of 
operative secrets to be transmitted to selected and properly qualified successors constituted 
their hereditary treasure, the guarding of which for the preservation of these secrets 
inviolate was an absolute and obvious necessity; whilst, on the other hand, non- 
compliance with such precepts or directions as are contained in Anderson's ' Charges ' 

1 A.Q.O. xxiv., 166. 

2 June's Handy Booh to the Lists of Lodges (1889), 4, 

The Old Landmarks of the Craft. H 3 

were but venial in comparison, it their importance may be gauged by the fines imposed 
in 1701 by the Alnwick Lodge on disobedience to their Lodge Orders to which I have 
made reference. 

Bro. Hawkins says of Anderson's ' Charges ' that they " were the Landmarks 
or unwritten usages of the Craft.'" But the 'Old Charges,' one or probably more of 
which must have been known to Anderson or Payne, or both, and upon which Anderson 
founded his diluted version, had undoubtedly been reduced into writing ; and every one 
of the numerous MS. ' Old Charges,' which we now know so well, points to secrets 
existing apart from and outside itself, preserved for centuries by members of the Craft 
in the form of oral tradition, and perhaps, though not certainly, in that form 

That Mackey's list of ' Landmarks ' contains any one of the ' Old Landmarks,' 
as they were known to and practised by our brethren of operative days I am unable to 
concede. That Mackey includes beliefs and principles indispensable to membership of 
the Craft, I must be forgiven for saying quite plainly, has no bearing upon the 
question with which I deal, which ought only to be treated on historical, 
archaeological, and literary lines. Whilst I do not shrink from expressing an opinion 
that, whether considered in relation to subject matter or to time, the Mackey 'Land- 
marks' have no more to do with 'the Old Landmarks' of the Craft than have the 
Thirty-nine Articles with Magna Charta of King John, I would here repeat what I 
said in the discussion on Bro. Poignant's paper* that I earnestly ask brethren who have 
laid stress upon the inclusion in Mackey's list of certain spiritual doctrines to accept an 
assurance that although some of us are unable to agree that these fall within ' the Old 
Landmarks' of medieval times, we accord them full recognition ; and that the views I 
have expressed proceed exclusively upon the technical and literal significations of the 
terms ' Old Landmarks,' or ' Ancient Landmarks,' and the generally received history 
of the Craft. 

To any who, from their attributing all origins of Freemasonry to ages of extreme 
remoteness, regard the medieval masonry of the operatives as but a passing and 
incidental phase of no special moment, I can but regret my inability to provide a more 
satisfying essay. 

It is not difficult to discover points of contact between the facts of 
medieval masonry and accepted traditions of the Craft. In their journeyings to the 
British Isles the old builders came from the East to the West, the course taken by 
symbolic seekers for the lost. And is it improbable that there should be a definite 
relation between that point within circumferent area from which the skilful craftsmen 
cannot err and what I have indicated on a previous page as one essential element in the 
building methods of the operative days ? Though constructional secrets had in later ages 
passed largely out of knowledge, their comparatively recent existence and importance, 
and their memory and tradition, remained with the post-Revival brethren for long after 
1717 Giving its due weight to the circumstance that, plain and invariable as are 
the general commands of secresy which the ' Old Charges ' all contain, there is no 
express prohibition against their committal to writing, may we not-isit not incumbent 
onus to-hope that, as masonic knowledge widens and masonic research continues on its 
way, some part at least of what from the middle ages became lost will be regained, and 
genuine secrets of the Master Masons yet be found ? 

1 A.Q.C. xxiv., 167. 2 A 9- G - xxiv -> 170 ' 

IH Transactions of the Qmtuor Coronati Lodge. 

Lest aught in this paper be blamed for temerity, I borrow words of nigh three 
hundred years ago' : " Let none tax him for' presumption in conjecture where the 
matter was doubtful ; for many probable conjectures have stricken the fire out of which 
truth's candle has been lighted afterwards." 

Bro. J. P. Simpson said : — 

1 rise to propose a vote of thanks to Bro. Hextall for his most interesting, and, 
I might almost say, fascinating paper. 

It has been said "genius is the capacity for taking infinite pains." We may 
disagree with this definition, but true it is that an Antiquarian and Archceologist must 
have this capacity, and also, I think, to make tangible use of his research, he must have 
the logical and even legal mind to enable him to marshal his facts and quotations in due 
order, and then sift the evidence and draw his conclusions. 

' I think that you will agree with me that in our Bro. Hextall these qualities are 
always present in an eminent degree, and are again prominent in the paper before 
us. Having said this, it is naturally with some diffidence that I find myself at issue 
with him. I cannot, and do not, of course, traverse the facts and quotations he sets 
out, naturally chosen to support his contention, but from these, his own premises, I 
would draw a different conclusion. 

In criticising Bro. Hextall's paper, to do it adequate justice would require a 
paper as extended as his own, but as many members doubtless desire to speak on this 
important subject I must pass over the vast majority of his interesting points and 
details, and make my comments as general and concise as possible. 

Now let us take the first sentence of the paper. Bro. Hextall says he has before 
asserted, and will now proceed to prove that the term < Old' or ' A ncient Landmarks ' 
used in the Constitutions and by Masonic writers of the early eighteenth century 
meant ' Secrets ' relating to Architecture possessed by the Operative Masons. Now I 
would here at once point out that the excellent and painstaking List of Definitions of 
the word ' Landmarks ' given us by Bro. Hextall goes to prove conclusively that this 
word is antagonistic and diametrically opposed to the word ' Secrets.' ' I do not say 
that this ends the matter at all and that the word could never be so used, but simply 
to assert that a very strong case must be made out to shew that it was employed in 
what I cannot but characterise as a perverted sense. 

Let us just very shortly glance at these Definitions. The writer gleans that in 
a physical sense a ' Landmark ' " is an object on the landscape which by its conspicuous- 
ness serves as a guide or characterises a district or neighbourhood." Secondly, we 
have the word in the figurative historical sense, as used by our Senior Warden, Bro. 
Dring. In this sense the Landmark may be defined as a prominent and notable event 
from which important consequences flow. Thus perhaps the Reformation or the 
Invention of Printing. Thirdly, in a further figurative sense as a universal well- 
recognised maxim or principle as in jurisprudence " that a man be deemed innocent till 
he be proved guilty," and in respect to which principle all laws and rules must be made 
consistent with and in no case adverse to it. Bro. Hextall tells us that Bro. Stephen 
Barton Wilson, a great and learned Mason, possessed of sterling common sense, claimed 
in his lecture that Landmarks represent " those laws of the Craft which are universal 

1 Thomas Fuller, The Eoly and Profane State (1642), 

Discussion. *■*■" 

and irrevocable," and Bro. Speth terms them " the immutable laws of the Craft." And 
now we are getting somewhat nearer home, nearer perhaps to the two great Land- 
marks of the Order alluded to once or twice in the proceedings of the Lodge of 

I think it really must be admitted, and Bro. Hextall's many quotations confirm 
me in this, that Bro. Dr. Anderson and the writers in the eighteenth century certainly 
did not mean to imply that Rules, Regulations, Customs, or Usages were ' Ancient 
Landmarks ' ; indeed they differentiate them, and I think the fanciful lists of Mackey 
and others are scarcely worthy of consideration. So, by the process of elimination, 
Bro. Hextall arrives at the conclusion that the Secrets of the Operative Masons are in 
♦fact the ' Ancient Landmarks.' 

First it has to be proved that such secrets existed. I think Bro. Hextall has 
here in a great measure proved this part of his case. It seems probable there were 
some such Secrets— Secrets at any rate in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries, which have now merged in and form part of the Science of the present. It 
seems impossible to suppose, however, that these secrets were not known to the Ecclesi- 
astical Architects who designed so many of the Buildings Bro. Hextall refers to. 

The paper points out, and rightly, the invariable admonitions to secrecy contained 
in the Charges. But surely there was ample necessity for secrecy apart from the 
retention of this exclusive knowledge. From the reign of Edward III. the Statutes of 
Labourers kept thundering away against the Fraternities, endeavouring to fix a 
maximum wage and destroy freedom and contract, imposing severe penalties on all who 
opposed or combined against these measures. It is curious to note the reverse situation 
in this twentieth century. These Statutes culminated in the Act of Henry VI., 1425, 
when the Lodges and Assemblies were declared illegal and an act of felony to belong to 
or attend them. But in the next two centuries the Feudal System gradually passed 
away, scarcity of labour, brought about by repeated recurrences of pestilence and the 
Wars of the Roses being one of the chief causes. 

Bro. Hextall labours to show that the invocation of the Ueity and the admonition 
" to be true to God," etc., were generally made in conjunction with " the Holy 
Church." This would naturally be so, and Bro. Hextall himself gives us the reason 
when he quotes Bro. Speth's remarks, A.Q.C., vol. x., p. 17, that " the Old Charges that 
have come down to us belonged and had relation to the Church Building Masons and 
not to that different class which fell within the jurisdiction of town or city guilds." 
The Charges of this " different class," in respect of whom the eighteenth century 
Masons were probably the lineal descendants, would doubtless omit " the Holy Church," 

Portions of the lectures are no doubt of considerable antiquity, founded on the 
Old Charges and Rituals. Let us see what their compilers say in the introduction. In 
these lectures " The nature, character, attributes and perfections of the Deity are 
faithfully delineated and forcibly portrayed and are well calculated to influence our 
conduct towards him as our Father, Benefactor and moral Governor, as also in the 
proper discharge of the duties of social life." 

In conclusion, I would say that in dealing with what must of necessity relate to 
conjectures and possibilities as to meaning attached by writers to certain expressions 
used by them, there is a simple test which may bring us nearer the truth. It is to 
substitute our own ideas of the. meaning for the words themselves and then read the 
quotations so altered. Let us do this here, and Regulation 39 of Anderson's Constitu- 
tions, according to Bro. Hextall, would read thus : " Every Annual Grand Lodge has 

\\Q Transactions of the Quatuor Coronaii Lodge. 

an inherent power and authority to make new regulations or to alter these for the real 
benefit of this ancient fraternity, provided always that the Ancient Secrets connected 
with Architecture of the Operative Masons be carefully preserved." If there were 
such secrets, and they were known and considered by the eighteenth century Masons, 
which is admitting a good deal, how could any new regulation of Grand Lodge affect or 
have anything at all to do with them ? 

I would read the Eegulation as follows:—" Every Annual Grand Lodge has an 
inherent power and authority to make new Regulations or to alter these for the real 
benefit of this Ancient Fraternity. Provided always that the Belief in the existence 
and attributes of the Great Architect of the Universe arc ever acknowledged and 
recognised, and the great and fundamental Principle of Fraternity carefully preserved.'.' 
The elements that constitute the great Principle of Fraternity are Brotherly Love, 
Relief and Truth, Secrecy, Fidelity, and Obedience. 

I confess that my solution of this problem is less interesting and romantic than 
that of Bro. Hextall. Yet I think it is nearer the truth. It may be said that these two 
Landmarks might be and are the conspicuous guiding Principles of other Societies. 
This is doubtless true. Still there are Regulations, Secrets, and Customs peculiar to 
Freemasonry, and these may vary and be altered by the exigencies of locality or the 
progress of time, while the Landmarks remain ever permanent and the same. 

Bro. Hawkins, in seconding the motion, said : — 

As Bro. Hextall has so pointedly referred to my theory I feel I must say a few 
words. He says that the object of his paper is to identify the ancient Landmarks with 
the building secrets of the Operatives, but surely at different times these secrets would 
be changed" and thus I fail with our W.M. to see how such a thing could be. I have 
read the paper carefully, but have failed to find conviction. My suggestion, printed in 
our Transactions, vol. xxiv., p. 166, was that Anderson had collected from various 
traditional sources certain charges or lectures which he thought he had found as 
existing from time immemorial, and that these were what he meant by ' landmarks,' in 
General Regulation xxxix. I do not admit that the Landmarks need be secret, or that 
they must be entirely confined to Masons, or that they would cease to be Landmarks if 
committed to writing. The whole puzzle is to ascertain what Anderson did mean by 
the term, and not to attempt to put arbitrary explanations of our own to it. I fancy 
that no two writers will ever agree, unless indeed they follow the lines of Dr. Mackey. 

Bro. Fred. Akmitage said: — 

Whatever the Landmarks themselves may be, I cannot help feeling that there 
was never any definite meaning attached to the word ' landmark,' but I quite agree that 
as the first use of the word was by Anderson, it would be an interesting topic to find 
out what he himself meant by it. It is very largely a matter of taste, however, because 
so far as I can remember there are at all events four distinct classes of writers who 
have attempted to use the word 'landmark,' but have not used it in the same 
sense. First there was Anderson, secondly Preston, thirdly Manningham, who said that 
the Grand Lodge of London noticed that there had been a great deviation from the 

Discussion. I-*-' 

Landmarks of the Order. Evidently he referred to the ceremonies themselves. The 
fourth is the modern writer, Mackey, whose twenty-five Landmarks are well- 

My opinion is that in the old trade guilds there were certainly four (and perhaps 
more) distinct features which one might equally call Landmarks of the trade guilds. 
They were (1) that every man had to serve an apprenticeship, generally for seven years 
in England. Cannot Bro. Hextall admit this as being one of the possible Landmarks ? 
(2) It was necessary that every candidate for apprenticeship in the trade guilds should 
be free. He ought to be a free man of his own city. To-day if anyone wishes to join 
one of the City Companies he has to purchase his freedom of the City of London. (3) 
An oath was required from every apprentice to preserve the secrets of the guild. This 
brings me to (4) the secrets themselves. The one distinguishing phrase in connection 
with all these old trade guilds is that which impresses upon the candidate the 
importance of not revealing the secrets of the guild. This is so even in a guild such as 
the Butchers. 

Bro. Sidney T. Klein said:— 

The first question that would be asked, and with reason, by the man in the street, 
and probably by ninety-nine out of every hundred Masons, on seeing the heading of 
this paper, would be :— What was meant by ' old land-marks ' of any Craft ? but in the 
case of Masonry, the word ' land-mark ' is most appropriate ; one, indeed, seems to 
understand the very reason why such a phrase as ' the old landmarks ' was coined by 
Dr. Anderson in the 'General Regulations' of 1720. The old MS. Constitutions 
specially stated that Geometry was Masonry, and the two Greek words forming the 
word Geometry mean land measuring ; the ' lond-marks ' of Masonry, would, therefore, 
most appropriately be required for definitely fixing procedure of how the cultivation of 
that science is to be accomplished. Bro. Lawrence is, of course, not correct in stating 
that an artificial building could not be a Landmark ; anybody who has navigated in 
narrow waters knows that every building, every high hill, and even clumps of trees are 
Landmarks, which enable the skipper to navigate his craft safely, but this is looking at 
Landmarks from the outside, whereas the true Landmarks of Masonry are the secrets 
which are only known to the Order from within, and by means of which a Mason can 
be known by his fellows. Craft ritual and lectures cannot be called Landmarks but 
they are useful for explaining the inner Landmarks, similarly cathedrals of different 
epochs may be said to explain special Landmarks of the building trade by their 
particular styles of Architecture and their builders' secrets. Before the 
revival of 1717 the [f and £\ were very important Landmarks, as may be seen by 
their being almost invariably placed on the top of each two columns, being put there 
to represent the principal symbols of Operative and Mystic Masonry, these are specially 
seen in printed illustrations pertaining to Lodges before that date. After that date a 
new Landmark was introduced by Grand Lodge, namely, the Pythagorean theorem, to 
emphasize and represent Speculative Masonry, and, in order to bring this prominently 
forward, the use of the [f and /^ were obliterated, together with a good many of 
the geometrical secrets of ancient Operative Masonry. These obliterations are said to 
have been kept alive in certain Operative Lodges to this day, and the Mystical symbol 
was kept alive, as I have already shown, by the Grand Lodges of Ireland and the 
Ancients, until the R.A. Degree was instituted. 

Il8 Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 

In the Science of Masonry, since about a.d. 1135, there have been two Tracing 
Boards, upon which every point and line of departure were Landmarks, from which 
measurements could be taken and the whole plan mapped out for completion. On the 
Operative Tracing Board the point of departure was, as I have tried to show, the centre 
of the base of the equilateral triangle, and the lines of departure were the perpen- 
diculars drawn at each extremity of the base, whereas on the Mystical tracing board 
the point of departure was the T.G.A.O.T.U., namely, the Logos, whose symbol was the 
equilateral triangle, and each point at the corners of the equilateral triangle being the 
centre of a Circle became that form of true faith from which a Mason could not possibly 

Bro. Poignant said : — 

I must first pay a tribute to the indefatigable work which has given such an 
invaluable list of references for future writers on this subject. But I do not think Bro. 
Hextall has proved his contention, and I will try to point out the fallacy of some of 
his arguments, and where, in my opinion, the logical chain of his evidence breaks 
down altogether. 

As Bro. Hextall comes to the conclusion that those who were, or he who was, 
responsible for the phrase ' Landmarks ' in connection with Freemasonry, did not mean 
anything in particular by that word, I take it that he wants to ascertain what was at 
that time, and is now, the essence of Freemasonry, its raison d'etre. 

He proves beyond doubt that the Operative Masons of bygone ages had certain 
trade secrets of a high scientific value, of which they naturally were extremely 
jealous, and which they took strong steps to preserve. In fact, so well were they 
kept that, somewhere about 200 years ago, the number of people who knew those 
secrets approached the vanishing point, and apparently has since reached that point. 

According to Bro. Hextall, in 1717 some gentlemen who were all in some way 
or other connected with the operative masons, and who, at least to some extent were 
men of standing and presumably of intelligence and education, met and agreed to 
reconstruct, and give a new lease of life to the old Operative institutions. But where 
were the old and treasured secrets, which should serve as a basis ? Nobody seemed to 
know exactly ! " Never mind," one of them says, " I'll help you out of your difficulty. 
I'll put something in our Bye-laws that has never been in any Masonic Bye-laws 
before, and which will puzzle the Brethren greatly. We will make it the one essential 
thing which must never be altered, and which everybody must swear to guard against 
intrusion. Nobody will think of asking what it really is they have to guard, and if 
they do, we'll just have to put them off. When we are dead and gone it does not 
matter what happens !" 

Something which in fact amounted to this must have occurred, if the theory 
of lineal descent and development from the operatives is accepted, and with that Bro. 
Hextall's conclusions regarding the old Landmarks. 

But it is here, I think, that the binding force of Bro. Hextall's argument 
breaks down. 

He claims that " A general assertion that the Craft down to modern times 
was wholly operative, .... calls for no formal proof in support." Provided 
that he in "the Craft" in this sentence includes what we now know as Freemasonry, 
it is the one thing of all in the whole of his paper that most calls for proof, because if 

Discussion. 119 

that assertion is not proved, no particle of the evidence he has brought forward 
regarding the secrets of Operative Masonry has any right to be applied to Speculative 
Masonry. And that assertion is nothing but conjecture, and, taking refuge in the 
same sanctuary as Bro. Hextall does in the last paragraph of his paper, I venture to 
outline another "conjecture," and challenge him or anybody else to produce any 
historically established Masonic fact that does not, with equal or greater reason support 
the following assumption, as the one of which he is an adherent: — That 
Speculative Freemasonry is, and always has been, something distinct from Operative 
Masonry. They have at different times been in more or less close connection with one 
another, but never identical. When, for reasons that space does not allow me to 
enter upon here, Speculative Masonry was publicly organized, or possibly re-organized, 
great care was taken to assume the outward garb of Operative Masonry. One reason, 
amongst others, for this might have been that the organizers wished, for recruiting and 
other purposes, to acquire the kudos of an ancient, more or less historical history. 
Their own traditions can never have been anything but oral. 

I will do more than that, I will challenge anybody to show a single piece in 
this puzzle that does not fit into its place when regarded from this point of view ! 

I will now pass to some of the arguments by which Bro. Hextall tries to show 
continuity of his opinion from 1717 to the present day, and show the nature of the 
support they give him. 

He quotes Preston, in his 1st ed. (p. 207) as treating of the Landmarks as 
synonymous with "the established usages and customs of the order." I will repeat 
the lines in extenso and leave the Brethren to judge if Bro. Hextall has not misunder- 
stood their import : 

" Our ancient Landmarks you are carefully to preserve, and never 
to suffer any infringement of them ; or, on any pretence, to countenance 
deviations from the established usages and customs of the order." 
I do not see how this can be called "treating them as synonymous." 
To show that, apart from this, Preston stood on the same side of the fence as I 
do now, I quote from p. 14 of the same edition : — 

" The tools and implements of architecture, symbols the most 

expressive, imprint on the memory wise and serious truths, and transmit 

unimpaired, through the succession of ages, the exquisitely incomparable 

tenets of this institution." 

Two more passages from this edition of Preston will, I think, further reduce 

the assistance Bro. Hextall derives from him. 

From p. 22 :— 

" If our secrets or peculiar forms constituted the essence of the 
art, it might with some degree of propriety be alleged that our 
amusements were trifling, and our ceremonies absurd. But this the 
skilful well-informed mason knows to be false." 

And from p. 23: — 

" . . . . [Men of a certain stamp] having passed through 

the usual formalities, they have accepted offices, and assumed the govern- 
. meat of Lodges, equally unacquainted with the duties of the trusts 

reposed in them, and the design of the society they pretended to 

120 Transaction's of the (Jualuor Corcnati Lodge. 

govern. The consequence is obvious; anarchy and confusion ensue, and 
the substance is lost in the shadow." 
The first of these quotations might nave been written in answer to just such a 
contention as Bro. Hextall's, and the second might, if the word "anarchy" is taken 
away, be applied to present day conditions. It is undeniable that something approach- 
ing anarchy did ensue in the eighteenth century as regards the internal conditions of the 
Craft, and Preston here gives us the reasons; and he does not spare the feelings of his 

contemporaries either! 

Bro. Hextall's reference to the preface of the subsequent editions of Preston fares 

no better, if quoted in extenso. 

1781 ed. pp. viii.-ix. : " This unexpected success [the conversion of 
many opponents to Preston's views] exceeded my most sanguine wishes, 
and induced me to enquire, with a more minute attention, into the contents 
of our various lectures, [italics by me.] The rude and imperfect state in 
which I found them, the difficulties I encountered in my search, and the 
variety of modes established in our assemblies, rather discouraged me in 
the first attempt: persevering, however, in the design, I continued the 
pursuit; and with the assistance of a few friends, who had carefnlly 
preserved what ignorance and the degeneracy of a corrupt age had 
rejected as unintelligible and absurd, I diligently sought for, and fortu- 
nately acquired, some of the ancient and venerable Landmarks of the 
How do Bro. Hextall's conclusions, for which he quotes Preston as supporting 
authority, compare with these extracts, and how does the conclusion to which I arrived 
in my paper on the same subject, compare with the same extracts ? 

There are two other points, to which I should like to call the serious attention 
of the Brethren, viz., the unfortunate and to me inexplicable overlooking of certain 
things in connection with the study of Freemasonry. 

! _The ' Old Charges ' are unanimous in declaring that Geometry is 
synonymous with Masonry, and includes all the other sciences, and so are the authorities 
on this subject in our days, as Bro. Hextall points out in his paper. But when it 
comes to the application of this information, everybody unites in completely dis- 
regarding it! When in old Lodge minutes, which were worded so as to 
reveal no " secrets," it is stated that Masonry is "talked," or "a lecture given on some 
point of Geometry or Architecture," why should it, in the absence of other proof, and 
in the face of the above explanation, be regarded as proved that nothing but matters 
concerning the Operatives were discussed ? Why not something else, " of Earth and 
of all things," as the Antiquity MS. has it ? 

2.— Our ritual everywhere emphasizes that instruction in Freemasonry is given 
symbolically and allegorically. And yet, when men like Anderson, Preston, 
Hutchinson, and Oliver write, and publish treatises for the instruction of the Craft, 
they are held up to scorn as " unhistorical" or "unreliable"! To give an 
example of what I mean, I will take the sentences quoted by Bro. Hextall from Dr. 
Oliver in proof of his " proneness to an imaginative past." " Masonry was revealed 
at the Creation of the World, and practised by every branch of Adam's family, ... 
the Oral Traditions of Masonry claim to be received because they are perfectly rational 
[and] contain none of the wild improbability of ancient Fable." Tiis Bro. 
Hextall and everybody else that have I come across, interprets literally. What if 

Discussion. *^1 

Dr. Oliver has not broken his obligation or disobeyed the instructions given, but did 
really write symbolically and allegoric-ally ? Have we any right to suppose anything 
else P 

Joining Bro. Hextall in the shelter of his concluding paragraph, I will now 
stop, with apologies for having taken up so much of your valuable time. 

Bro. Songhubst said : — 

It will be remembered that our Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley when writing for 
our Transactions in 1910 (vol. xxiii., p. 167) on The Craft and its Orphans in the 
Eighteenth Century, expressed his opinion on the Landmarks as follows':— 

The Ancient Landmarks of Freemasonry, like all other landmarks 
material or symbolical, can only preserve their stability, when they reach 
down to sure foundations. When the philosophic student unearths the 
underlying rock on which our Ancient Landmarks rest, he finds our sure 
foundations in the triple dogma of the Fatherhood of God, the Brother- 
hood of Man, and the Life to come. All laws, customs, and methods that 
obtain amongst us and do not ultimately find footholds on this basis, are 
thereby earmarked as conventions and conveniences, no way partaking of 
the nature of Ancient Landmarks. 
Thirteen years earlier he had enunciated precisely the same views when writing 
a paper on the subject in the Freemason (Christinas Number, 1897), and probably there 
are few brethren who will not accept this definition of ' Landmarks ' as the word is used 
by us in the present day. 

Bro. Hextall has endeavoured to ascertain the meaning, if any, attached to the 
word by the compilers of the Book of Constitutions, in 1723 and 1738, and his 
suggestion that it included, or perhaps comprised, the methods of construction adopted 
by the Operative Masons is most attractive. Personally I have a very strong opinion 
that there must have been some practical means by which proper form and proportion 
were obtained, and I do not think it is impossible that some of these secrets may have 
survived to a late date. One point which occurs to me however is whether in 1723 a 
Presbyterian minister, or a Secretary to the Tax Office was likely to have such a 
practical knowledge of building construction as would have induced him to describe the 
technicalities as ' Landmarks.' The fact that Lectures on various subjects have been 
given in English Lodges does not in my opinion help forward the argument. It would, 
perhaps, be more useful if Bro. Hextall were to ascertain to what extent such Lectures 
have been given under Grand Lodges which were not influenced by the Union of 1813. 
If, for example, it could be shewn that the practice has prevailed in Ireland from early 
times, his position would be much strengthened, 

Bro. Canon Horsley writes : — 

With regard to Bro. Hextall's most interesting paper, which brings together so 
much that would have to be discovered separately, I am not clear to what conclusion he 
would come as to the number and nature of Old Landmarks. There is plenty of room 

\22 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronali Lodge. 

between the American maximisers and Bro. Speth, who, perhaps, represented the 
minimum of the minimisers. For myself I think that the test must have been, and 
should be now, what are the tenets or matters the breach or repudiation of which would 
entail, or at any rate merit, expulsion from the Order. 

They need not be all of Operative or all of Speculative origin, but when a 
Grand Orient is excommunicated for excising reference to the G.A.O.T.U., it seems 
idle to suggest that a belief in Him is not a Landmark. And surely the same result 
would follow if some foreign Grand Lodge discarded certain words or signs in favour 
of a brand new set F So even the secrets of a particular degree might be considered 
Landmarks, when the disuse or rejection of them hindered Masonic recognition and 

To put it in another way, can we not easily conceive on what proposals for loss 
or change Grand Lodge would put its foot, and so in that way see what may rank as 
Landmarks ? 

Therefore I regret I cannot agree with Bro. Hextall in his comprehensive 
rejection as Landmarks of all and sundry of those enumerated as such by Mackey. 
And if he argues only about such Landmarks as are most ' ancient ' or ' old,' the answer 
is obvious that we do not know what these were, but we do know what were considered 
in later times as boundary stones, beyond which we must not stray. 

Bro. Dr. "William Hammond, P.G.D., writes-.— 

Bro. Hextall's paper is most interesting, and curiously fits in with subjects which 
are just now greatly in evidence. Surely the Landmarks of a guild or body of men 
must be "the established customs" of that guild. It would be, however, interesting 
to learn whether the Rev. James Anderson is named on the list of an Operative Lodge, 
and if so, when and whero that Lodge was held ; also, if a member, whether his period 
of work was before or after his Speculative membership. 

Personally I feel that probably the action of the old Lodges in forming a Grand 
Lodge was due to the decline of work and membership, with consequent admission of 
Speculatives and loss of trade secrets : but there should, if so, be some absolute proof 
in the hands of the Operatives that such was really the case. Had the old Operative 
Lodges died out, their papers and lists of members would, at any rate in some cases, 
have been preserved or come into the hands of non-members, and then we could, with 
great interest and profit, trace names and membership and probably obtain a useful 
result. This would be a historical research, and nothing but assertions which would 
stand close and independent investigation can be considered ' A proof ' in this matter. 

Bro. Hextall writes, in reply : — 

The only general remark I need make on the above comments, all of which I 
welcome, is that I hoped I had sufficiently indicated the absence of any dogmatism, or 
positive assertion, on my part, in regard to conclusions suggested. Practically 
identical views have long been entertained by other brethren than myself, and my 
endeavour was to collect in a tangible and accessible form some of the material in 

discussion. "" 

Our Worshipful Master, Bro. Simpson, has taken no inadequate pains to 
dissociate himself from theories that may depart from the conventional. On the other 
hand, a colourless view is not necessarily a correct one. The " Introductory Address " 
prefixed to the First Lecture is but as the preamble to an Act of Parliament, which all 
men know to be valueless or even worse. Bro. Simpson's reductio ad absurdum of 
Regulation xxxix. is humorous rather than convincing, and perhaps was not intended 
to be taken too seriously. 

I cannof agree with Bro. Hawkins that " the whole puzzle is to ascertain what 
Anderson did mean " by ' the old landmarks ' ; this I regard as a question of secondary 
importance, though no doubt (to use the words of Bro. F. Armitage) an interesting 
topic. Bro, Hawkins says, " surely at different times these [building] secrets would 
be changed." But was this so, at any rate as affecting more than details, after the 
English Operative Craft became established?; and, if it were, why should the circunr- 
stances affect the inferences drawn ? 

Bro. Poignant has not shown me that I have misconceived any expression in 
Preston's Illustrations. And if I fail to follow the concluding portion of his note, it is 
consolatory to know that I err in company with " everybody else that I have come 


I must leave the further developments suggested by Bro. Songhurst to those 
who may hereafter work on similar lines. It may be at least probable that the result 
would be to largely add to a class of knowledge the want of which is a drawback to 
Masonic investigation now. 

I would, in conclusion, enter my humble but emphatic protest against a most 
unfortunate view, lately put plainly in a Craft newspaper of some circulation and 
known to be supported by at least one frequent writer on Masonic subjects, " Masonic 
historians have had their day; now let us hear from the Masonic philosophers." 
Surely it is better for a Masonic writer to be tied to the chariot wheels of history than 
to soar into empyrean heights of nothingness. As a sample of what results from 
ignoring the historic method, let me instance clause ii. in the Summary of the Ancient 
Charges and Regulations which appears in all editions of the Gonstitutons from 1827 to 
1911, " that it is not in the power of any Man or Body of Men to make innovation in 
the Body of Masonry." What can be more absolute or unqualified in its terms ? But 
Masonic history is clear that the resolution actually passed in the affirmative by Grand 
Lodge, on 24th June, 1723, was, " That it is not in the Power of any person, or Body 
of men to make any alteration or Innovation in the Body of Masonry, without the Consent 
first obtained of the Annual Grand Lodge," yet Anderson, so early as his 1738 
Constitutions, altered the all-important and governing words in italics to " without the 
Consent first obtain'd of the G. Lodge " ; and— whether of intention or not in the first 
instance is not for me to say or surmise— for nearly a century past the formula first 
quoted has been officially promulgated in its erroneous and mutilated form. The more 
we encourage the historical, and withhold our approval from aerated bathos, so much of 
which has passed muster, the better it must be for true and genuine Masonic investiga- 
tion and research. 


transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



Published by order of the Grand Lodge, Washington, V.C. R. Beresford, Printer, 1911. 

HIS is a massive and handsome volume of 452 pages, well printed, 
and profusely illustrated with portraits and prints of buildings, 
etc., connected with Freemasonry in the District of Columbia,. 

As long ago as 1857 a Committee was appointed to consider 

the question of preparing a history of Masonry within the District, 

and the matter was periodically brought forward, but without 

practical result, until in 1905 the author of this book was appointed 

to carry out the work in view of the Centennial of the Grand Lodge to be celebrated 

in 1911. Thus the book has occupied six years in preparation. 

The author commences his work with a chapter entitled " Whence came we ?" 
and accepts the opinion of those who hold " that the present society of Freemasons 
is plainly the outgrowth and lineal descendant of those ancient associations of 
builders " which existed in the middle ages. He also accepts the Grand Mastership 
of Sir Christopher Wren, and gives a brief account of the formation of the Grand 
Lodge of England in 1717. With regard to this, he says that only four Lodges had 
survived, and that Mr. Jacob Sayer was installed as Grand Master; but we would 
point out that it is extremely probable that there were other Lodges in existence at 
the time, though they did not take part in the proceedings, and the first Grand Master 
was Antony Sayer. He then repeats the old story about the "rebellious element" 
forming the Grand Lodge of the "Ancients," as to which the late Brother Sadler has 
shown that it was really formed by some Irish Masons resident in London who had 
never owned allegiance to the English Grand Lodge. 

He then narrates the establishment of the Grand Ladge of Maryland in 1783, 
which in 1789 issued the first charter known to have been issued to any Lodge within 
the limits of the present District of Columbia, called "Lodge No. 9." In 1793 the 
South East cornerstone of the Capitol in the city of Washington was laid with 
Masonic ceremony, in which George Washington took part, the gavel which he used 
on the occasion being still carefully preserved. 

By the end of the year 1810 there were six Lodges in the District of Columbia, 
and on February 19th, 1811, the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia was formed 
by five of them, the remaining one, the Alexandria- Washington, holding aloof and 
retaining its allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Virginia. 

The author then gives a brief account of the various abortive attempts that 
have been made at different times to form a General Grand Lodge of the United 
States ; and next traces the gradual growth of the Grand Lodge of the District of 
Columbia with its thirty-nine subordinate Lodges down to the close of the year 1910. 

Iteviews. 125 

After a chapter on the "Meeting Places of the Fraternity," which would 
undoubtedly be of great interest to those who are familiar with the locality, he passes 
on to describe the building of the New Temple, of which the cornerstone was laid in 
1907, with President Roosevelt assisting in the proceedings, and the building was 
completed in September, 1908. 

Then eighty pages are devoted to a " Brief History of each Blue Lodge, living 
or extinct, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia," 
followed by an account of the establishment of the " Masonic and Eastern Star Home " 
for indigent members, which owes its inception to the ladies of the Order of the Eastern 

The writer then gives his readers a chapter on " The Work," in which he 
traces briefly the " gradual evolution of latter-day ritualism," commencing with the 
ancient guilds of Operative Masons, and describing the attempts made during the 
nineteenth century by the Grand Lodge of the District to secure uniformity of work- 
ing. We are pleased to note that he explains that the term "York Rite" is a 
misnomer when applied to American Masonry, but it is something of a shock to find 
Laurence Dermott, the famous Secretary of the " Ancients," whom Bro. R. E. Gould 
has called the "most remarkable Mason that ever existed," described as ".Lawrence 
McDermott, an expelled Mason from Ireland " (p. 272). 

This is followed by a chapter on Royal Arch (or as our American brothers call 
it "Capitular") Masonry, of which the first evidence in the District of Columbia is 
contained in the records of a Royal Arch "Encampment" meeting at Washington in 
1795 ; in 1807 the first Grand Chapter of the State of Maryland and the District of 
Columbia was formed, followed in 1822 by a Grand Chapter for the District of 
Columbia alone, which however was again united with Maryland in 1856 and again 
separated in 1867. 

Bro. G. E. Corson then contributes a chapter on "Cryptic Masonry in the 
District of Columbia," Bro. A. W. Johnston one on " The Orders of Christian Knight- 
hood in the District of Columbia," Bro. W. L Boyden one on "The Scottish Rite in 
the District of Columbia"; while the main work is concluded with a chapter on 
" The Order of the Eastern Star in the District of Columbia." 

Then in an Appendix of ninety pages a series of Biographies is given, 
comprising " The Life Story of each Grand Master of the District of Columbia 
Jurisdiction and other Brethren of Note," and thus completing a thoroughly compre- 
hensive History of Freemasonry in the District of Columbia, which reflects the 
greatest possible credit on the labours of its compiler, and on the Grand Lodge that 

authorised its compilation. 

E. L. Hawkins. 



BY W. BRO. G. THORNE PHILLIPS, P.M. 1101, Sfc, Sfc. 

This Work is a specimen (deserving commendation) of the many Lodge Histories 
which have come into view of late years. The editor has done his part in a praiseworthy 
and workmanlike manner, and in su mm arising the result of his labours does not fail to 
discharge what he believes to be justly due, in tendering a graceful tribute to those 
brethren who have devoted time and thought in his assistance. 

126 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

In his able but all-too-brief preface, W.Bro. Edward Margrett, P.M. No. 1101, 
P.G.St.B. Eng., says " A History mainly compiled from the Minutes of a lodge, is of 
" necessity but the dry bones which memory and imagination will clothe with, flesh and 
" vivify into life." In perusing this history of their Lodge, many of the older members 
will revive in their mental vision charming episodes and happy reunions which the 
lapse of time had dimmed. 

The graphic account of the foundation and early time of the Lodge is pleasant 
reading, depicting, as it does, the charmingly cordial attitude of the Mother Lodge 
towards its offspring. The truly Masonic spirit which existed then appears still to 
pervade the intercourse of the respective Lodges. 

Generous donations in the cause of charity, from time to time, are noted, and all 
brethren of studious bent will observe with approval the success which has attended 
the efforts of the Reading Lodges towards the formation of a Masonic Library. 

Features which add materially to the value and utility of the Work are, a table 
of all the W.M's (with their Masonic record) in order of succession, a list of members 
according to seniority in the Lodge Roll, donations to the Masonic Institutions, 
individually and by the Lodge, gifts to the Lodge, and an index-. 

There is also, by way of frontispiece, a portrait of the First Master, Bro. W. P. 
Ivey, and a typographical copy of the warrant. 

The Lodge may justly feel proud of its history and of their member, the Brother 
who so ably records it. 

{Blue cloth, 8vo., pp. 115, printed by Thomas Hunt; Market Place, Beading, and 

Wellington College, Berks.) ^^ ^^ 


BY THE REV. JOHN T. LAWRENCE, M.A. (London, 1911.) 

This is another of Bro. Lawrence's popular works dealing, as he says himself, 
with " matters of which brethren talk, in lodge and antechamber." The author's 
expressed view is that present-day problems are at least as interesting as historical 
and antiquarian researches. Well! " Quot homines, tot sentential." Let us see what 
the present-day problems are. 

The work contains thirty-three chapters— quite an appropriate number for a 
Masonic work-and is further blessed with a good index: at least we thought it was 
.rood until we came to examine it, when it failed to satisfy a not very exacting test. We 
opened the book at random, and came on a discussion of the derivation of " Heredom," 
which seemed a good test word for the Index, but it is not there. 

The first chapter, called " The By-ways of Freemasonry," is practically an 
enumeration with very brief details of the various Masonic or quasi-Masonic Orders, of 
which the Mark, Knight Templar, Secret Monitor, and Royal Order of Scotland are 
more fully described in Chapters 2-6. Surely in Chapter six the author strays from his 
own By-way for he gives an historical sketch of the Royal Order of Scotland : was he 
tempted to do so by having it ready to hand in the pages of the Freemason ? Chapter 
seven is also in the main an historical account of the Grand Orient of France. 

Then follows a Sermon on " The Grand Lodge above," and an interesting 
chapter on King Solomon, succeeded by an account of the other Biblical characters 
referred to in the Ritual. 

h'eviews. ' &> 

The author next discusses the association of the two Saints John with Free- 
masonry, and, abandoning any attempt to connect either with the Order in their own 
persons, transfers the connection to their teachings, and concludes that St. John the 
Evangelist, who wrote the Gospel of Light, is the patron saint of all who have received 
the blessing of Light, and St. John the Baptist of those who are seeking it. 

Descending to more mundane matters, Bro. Lawrence then gives a chapter on 
" The Intermediate Purple," by which he means Provincial Grand Officers and London 

The next chapter, on " Making Masons at sight," touches upon landmarks, and 
the Grand Master's prerogative, and the author suggests that King Solomon probably 
selected worthy Masons and admitted them to the Order, and, therefore, a Grand 
Master who does so now-a-days is only following precedent. 

Then come some consolatory remarks addressed to the "Rank and File," who 
do not attain to distinguished office : then the Toasts are discussed. 

The chapter on the " Masonic Unemployed " contains many useful suggestions 
as to work which might be found for Provincial Grand Registrars, Past Masters, and 
even Deacons; and by work is not meant mere ritual rendering, but very different 
employments, e.g., it is suggested that the Deacons should visit sick Brethren. 

" Unmasonic Freemasonry " proves to be a title covering Masonic Balls, Masonic 
Outings, Masonic Services, Funerals, Ladies' Nights, etc., etc., on all of which Bro. 
Lawrence has interesting remarks to make. 

Other subjects treated are :— Grand Lodge Library and Museum ; The Charities, 
of which the management comes in for some pungent criticism ; Monarchs who have 
been Masons (? have they exchanged the Sceptre for the gavel) ; Literary Lodges ; 
Meeting Places, such as the licensed house, tho objections to which are strongly urged ; 
The Tetragrammaton (? is this much talked of in the antechamber) ; Dispensations, 
or permissions to suspend certain regulations on payment of certain fees, of which a 
full list is given ; Masonry and Manners, under which heading the writer shows what 
an excellent school of manners a Masonic Lodge is or should be; Masonry and 
Morality; The Perfect Ashlar; Jacob's Ladder ; The Holy Ground, in the chapter on 
which we notice a curious statement that Araunah the king is referred to in 2 Samuel, 
xxiv. ; Ars Loquendi ; Masonic Records ; and a Sprig of Acacia. 

The work concludes with an appreciation of the late Bro, Hughan and his 
services to the Craft. 

On all these topics Bro. Lawrence writes currents calamo, and we are not 
surprised that his works are so popular with the members of the Craft. 

E. L. Hawkins. 


The Library of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge has lately been enriched by 
several Histories of individual Lodges, which deserve special notice in our Transactions. 


of Hull, by Bro. G. A. Shaw, is a well printed and well bound volume of 176 pages, 
with an illustration of the Lodge Temple and several portraits of distinguished 
members, dedicated by permission to the Marquis of Zetland, Provincial Grand Master 
of N. and E. Yorks. 

128 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

It is a pity that the author commences his history of the Lodge with the old 
statement that in 1751 certain dissatisfied brethren seceded from the Grand Lodge of 
1717 and formed a rival one, for the researches of our late Bro. Sadler have proved 
conclusively that the founders of the Ancients were Irish Masons and not seceders ; 
and the Duke of Sussex was appointed Grand Master on December 27th, 1813, not 
1814, as stated on p. 50. 

The warrant under which the Humber Lodge works is No. 53 of the Ancients, 
and was first issued in 1756 for a Lodge to meet at Liverpool, which soon lapsed ; it 
was then re-issued in 1775 for a Lodge to meet at the Buck and Dog, Strand Street, 
Liverpool ; from this Lodge it was withdrawn for unmasonic conduct in 1807 ; and in 
1809 it was transferred by indorsement to a Lodge to meet at the Fleece Inn, Market 
Place, Hull. This Lodge was at first known as the " Ancient Knight Templars " (of 
which name the author suggests no explanation), and in 1810 it assumed the name of 
the Humber Lodge, so it has now completed over a hundred years of chequered 
existence, and has received a Centenary Warrant. 

The early years of the Lodge were far from prosperous — numbers were few, 
but disputes were numerous, and for several months during 1823 the Lodge was 
actually suspended by the Provincial Grand Master. For the unusual expedient 
employed on one occasion to preserve the warrant we would refer our readers to the 
book itself, as also for the means adopted on another occasion to prevent a candidate 
from being blackballed. 

In 1827 a new Masonic Hall, built by the Lodge, was opened and consecrated ; 
the writer quotes a curious patent for the Consecration commencing with " Ann," but 
gives no explanation as to who issued it. 

In 1864 the Foundation Stone was laid of the new Lodge buildings, which were 
consecrated in the following year, and the author gives a full account of the ceremony 
of the Consecration. 

It seems curious that in 1877 the Lodge obtained a Centenary Warrant, 
although by the author's own account the Warrant was purchased only in 1809, when 
the Humber Lodge was established; how came the authorities in London to grant 
such warrant ? 

The Lodge has been fortunate in its financial matters, for it has a Sinking Fund 
of over £2,500, and one Treasurer of the Lodge Fund of Benevolence during his 
twenty-five years of office raised the fund from £5,419 to £9,484. 

In fact, the whole later history of the Lodge is a continued record of advance, 
and is well worth careful perusal. Belonging to the Lodge are a well selected library 
and a collection of paintings and engravings. 

The handsome work that we have been reviewing reflects the greatest possible 
credit on its author. (Price 5j-. A. Brown and Sons, 3, Farringdon Avenue, E.G.) 

of Northampton, by Bro. T. P. Dorman, is also a well printed and nicely bound volume 
of 175 pages, embellished with numerous portraits of distinguished members. It is 
an unusually complete history, for it commences with copies of the preliminary letters 
from the founders when applying in 1818 for a warrant of constitution ; their petition 
was granted and a warrant issued in 1819. There is no record of any Consecration, but 
the Lodge simply began on November Pth, 1819, It is recorded that on November 6th, 

Reviews. 129 

1821, Bro. Peter Gilkes, whose name is erroneously given in the minutes as Gilkts, 
came' from London, and presided for seven nights, going through all the ceremonies 
according to the system of the Lodge of Reconciliation, receiving £1 7s. Od. for his 
expenses. A portrait of this distinguished brother was hung up in the Lodge Room 
and is reproduced in the book, which shows him wearing a P.M. jewel with the arms 
of the square of different lengths and with the 47th Prop, suspended from the short 
arm instead of between the two as now. 

The Lodge is called the " Pomfret Lodge " in the Warrant, but the author does 
not state any reason for the name as far as we can discover ; it was obviously named 
after the Earl of Pomfret, who was appointed Provincial Grand Master of Norths, and 

Hunts, in 1798. 

In its early days the Lodge was very fond of public processions, of which full 

details are given. 

In the year 1840 a most persistent candidate presented himself for election to 
the Lodge ; he was a L 3 ndon wine merchant, and was six times rejected on ballot, 
being elected at the seventh attempt. 

At intervals from 1838 onwards the Lodge made attempts to get a Provincial 
Grand Master appointed, but could not obtain any answers to the applications they 
addressed to the authorities in London ; and no reference is made in its minutes to the 
appointment of the Earl of Aboyne, until 1841, though, according to the Masonic 
Year Book, he was appointed in 1839. 

The author does not sufficiently explain some of the matters recorded, e.g., in 
1842 several letters are quoted in which the writers complain of the intention expressed 
by Dr. Crucefix to attend the Provincial Grand Lodge meeting, as likely to produce 
discord, but he does not explain why it should do so, nor whether the Doctor did attend 
or not. Judging from the number of letters quoted in the course of the work, a matter 
which we thinkls carried rather to an extreme, the Lodge must be in possession of a 
vast number of letter-books. 

It is interesting to note the gradual increase of the Initiation Fee from £3 3s. Od. 
in 1842 to £10 10s. Od. in 1890 ; during the same period the sum required by the 
Constitutions only increased from three to five guineas. 

The history has been compiled with very great care, and should be read and 
re-read by every member of the Pomfret Lodge. The author was not a member of the 
Lodge whose history he has so laboriously compiled, but we should imagine that by 
this time he has been made an Honorary Member. 


of Towcester, Northamptonshire, has been compiled by Bro. T. P. Dorman, the 
historian of the Pomfret Lodge. This Lodge was warranted in 1837 on petition from 
seven members of the Pomfret. The petitioners wanted to call the new Lodge the 
"Fermor" from the family name of the Earl of Pomfret, but this the Duke of 
Sussex G.M., would not allow, "as it is contrary to the Laws now adopted that any 
Lod-e can take the name of an individual except of a member of the Royal Family." 

An interesting story told in the minutes is the thorough manner in which the 
Lod*e adopted and looked after a boy and girl, children of a deceased member, 
incurring considerable expense for them for about twelve years. But was not Eva 
Gibson- very young to go as governess in 1888, if she was only four years old in 1877 f 

130 Transactions of the Quatuor Gorovati Lodye. 

Otherwise there is nothing mueli to call attention to iii the history of this 
Lodge, which is written with the same thoroughness as that of the Pomfret Lodge, but 
•we think with the reproduction of too many letters, chiefly of condolence. 

We find that the author has set himself the task of writing the history of each 
Lodge in the Province of Norths, and Hunts., and that this was really the first history 
that he produced ; we shall hope for a further instalment from him in due course. 


of Port Elizabeth, Cape of Good Hope, by Bro. T. N. Cranstoun-Day, is a book of 103 
pages, of which, however, pp. 65-100 consist only of lists of names of members and 
their former Lodges. Apparently the author is fond of statistics, and he gives a 
graphic chart showing how the number of members has varied from year to year, 
high- water mark (125) being in 1862. 

The author has described at length the preliminary proceedings which resulted 
in a Warrant, dated July 30th, 1857, being granted for the formation of the Lodge, 
which was opened on Jane 24th, 1858, but with some irregularity, for the Master 
named in the Warrant was absent in England, and another brother was chosen to act 

in his place. 

The Lodge made very rapid progress at first, and the next step was to start a 
Building Society, which resulted in the dedication of a new Temple in 1863, in the 
account of which, it is interesting to find the word " Lodge " in its old sense as 
meaning "Tracing Board": and in 1861 the Lodge of Good Hope was started to 
relieve the pressure in " Good Will." 

In the early years of its existence several irregular things were done by the 
Lodge, e.g., in 1870 a candidate was "made at sight," i.e., he was proposed, elected, 
and initiated without any previous notice. 

In one point the Lodge was rather in advance of its times, for it was agreed in 
1874 to form a Board of Installed Masters to consist of all the Past Masters of the 
Lodges in Port Elizabeth ; such a Board would have been a pioneer of the Lodges of 
Installed Masters that are now becoming so common in England, but there is no 
record of its ever having come into existence. 

In view of the agitation now on foot for a Grand Lodge of South Africa, it is 
interesting to read how the matter came forward iu 1875, when there were 43 
Lodges at work, 22 English, and 21 Dutch, with two District Grand Lodges; and 
again in 1892, when there were about 100 Lodges; in 1910 there were 283 Lodges and 
11 District or Provincial Grand Lodges, which number, the author remarks, " certainly 
justifies the formation of a Grand Lodge." 

There are many other matters of interest recorded by the author which we 
have not space to touch upon, and the book can be thoroughly recommended as a 
model of a Lodge History for brevity, and at the same time for completeness. 


of Thirsk, by Bro. E. Charlesworth, is a nicely printed little book of 78 pages, 
illustrated with many portraits and other illustrations. The Warrant for the 
Lodge is dated July 27th, 1872, and the Lodge was constituted in the same year. One 

Reviews, 131 

of its first acts was to lay the foundation stone of a new Masonic Hall, which was 
consecrated in 1874, and of which the walls are adorned with 196 cases of stuffed birds, 
presented to the Lodge in 1885 and insured for £500. 

The book is sketchy and disconnected, consisting of little more than very brief 
extracts from the minutes, with various lists of names at the end. Page 66 is filled 
up with the poem commencing 

" We meet upon the level, and we part upon the square," 
which is, we presume, Bro. Robert Morris's famous composition, but no hint of its 
authorship is given by Bro. Charlesworth. 


of London, has found a historian in Bro. H. A. Darch, who lias put together 45 pages 
of extracts from its minutes from 1828 to 1910. The Lodge was warranted in 1810, 
but its earlier minute books are missing. It succeeded to the number (77) of an 
Atholl Warrant, which had been previously issued in 1759 to a Lodge of unknown 
meeting place in London, which lapsed about 1781. This re-issuing of warrants by 
the Ancients seems often to lead Lodges to imagine themselves older than they are, 
aud Bro. Darch speaks of this Lodge as of " Original Foundation on Roll of Atholl 
Grand Lodge in'1759," though its warrant is clearly dated 1810, and there is nothing 
to suggest any connection between the first Lodge No. 77 and the second bearing the 
same number. 

It seems a pity that the Masonic Year Book gives the year of origin of the 
warrant aud not the date of the constitution of the Lodge now working under it, thus 
the Royal Jubilee Lodge has the date 1760 attached to it, which is misleading, and 
No. 57— the Humber Lodge -has the date 1756, though it was established in 1809. 

With the exception of frequent changes of meeting place the Royal Jubilee 
Lodge seems to have had an uneventful existence, and Bro. Darch's little book has 
been compiled as a souvenir of its centenary in 1910. 


from 1768-1834, by Bro. J. B. S. Tuckett, is a work of 42 pages, in which is collected 
all that is known of Freemasonry in connection with Marlborough down to 1834, when 
the Warrant of the L )dge of Loyalty was surrendered. 

After a brief but accurate sketch of the two rival Grand Lodges and their Union, 
the author gives a similar sketch of the life of Thomas Dunckerley, because the first 
Lodge in Marlborough of which we have any knowledge owed its existence in great 
part to his exertions. 

This was the Castle Inn Lodge, which was constituted in 1768, probably with 
Dunckerley as its first Master, and was erased in 1777. It was before this Lodge at a 
public meeting that Dunckerley delivered his famous Charge on Charity, which Bro. 

Tuckett reproduces. 

The author then gives as much information as can now be collected about the 
Wilts Militia Lodge, which is said to have been established at Hastings in 1794, and in 
1814 (or 1818, according to Lane's Masonic Records) became the Lodge of Loyalty at 

1'32 Transactions of the Quatuor L'oronati Lodge. 

The original meeting place of tbis Lodge is given by Lane as " Seaford Camp, 
Hastings," and some years ago the present writer endeavoured to ascertain the situation 
of this Camp and came to the conclusion that the Lodge was never really at Hastings 
but at Seaford, which is a " limb " of Hastings as a Cinque Port, and thus might be 
described as " Seaford, Hastings " ; anyhow on the date of the warrant the Wiltshire 
Militia were at Battle and at Seaford shortly after. 

Bro. Tuckett conclndes his little sketch, which is practically devoted to these 

"two Lodges, with some biographical details of the members of the Lodge of Loyalty, 

which must have taken great pains to compile, and which form a fitting termination to 

a most lucid and careful little book. 

E. L. Hawkins. 




This little book of 191 pages was published in 1909, and was followed, in 191], 
by a second volume, entitled A Short Masonic History, ivith some account of the Higher 
Degrees, so that the two together form a comprehensive guide to any one who wishes to 
acquire some knowledge of Secret Societies in general and of Freemasonry in particular. 

The author's design and the arrangement of the two volumes are very good, but 
unfortunately the execution of the work is marred by many inaccurate statements which 
prevent it from being an absolutely reliable guide. There are also various misprints, 
which seem to suggest hasty revision of proofs : but all of these can easily be corrected 
in a second edition. 

In the first volume the author devotes fourteen chapters to an account of various 
Secret Societies, such as the Pythagoreans, Rosicrucians, Uluminati, and others, and 
then passes through the Operative Masons to modern Freemasonry, and concludes with 
describing the Orange Society, the United Irishmen, and various Friendly Societies. 

All of this is done with great brevity, as may be guessed from the size of the 
book, but still quite sufficiently to serve as an introductory sketch and possibly to arouse 
in the reader a desire to pursue the matter more thoroughly. 

It is a thankless task to pick out errors, but in the interests of readers and of 
the writer himself, wiih a view to a second edition, it does seem to be desirable to call 
attention to two or three more serious ones. 

For instance -.—Aubrexj was the author of the Natural History of Wiltshire and 
not Plot, to whom it is attributed on pp. 105 and 107 ; it is by no means agreed that 
" only four Lodges in all can be numbered " at the Revival in 1717, as stated on p. 112, 
but there were almost certainly others in different parts of the country ; it was the 
Grand Lodge of York that called itself the " Grand Lodge of all England," and not the 
Grand Lodge of London, as stated on p. 118; the present United Grand Lodge was 
formed on December 27th, 1813, not in 1814 (p. 123) ; it was John, not Thomas Boswell, 
who was present at the Lodge of Edinburgh in 1600, and he was not made Warden, but 
merely attested the minutes with his mark (p. 134). 

In his second volume Bro. Armitage begins with an interesting account of the 
King's Masons and the Alchemists, and after tracing the early history of Craft 

Reviews. 133 

Masonry with some notes on the Constitutions and the Ritual, passes on to describe 
briefly the Mark Degree, the Royal Arch, Templar Masonry, and various other such 
" higher degrees." 

The second volume is a great improvement on the first, and in it several of the 
previous errors are tacitly corrected, but there are still points that need revision, e.g., 
we are told how Ramsay "was instrumental in founding various Templar orders," 
how he tried to talk over the English Grand Lodge into espousing the Jacobite party, 
and that he founded the Royal Order of Scotland, without any warning that these 
statements are unsupported by evidence, and are generally discredited ; and on p. 134 
it is stated that the letters K.H. in connection with the 30° of the A. & A. Rite sland 
for Kodesh instead of Kadosh as is usually supposed. 

On the whole, we have read the two little volumes with interest and pleasure, 

and can cordially recommend them to all who are without the time or inclination to 

lead more elaborate works. 

E. L. Hawkins. 


And an Analysis of the Inter-Relatioti Between the Craft and the High Grades 
in respect of their Term of Research, expressed by the way of Symbolism. 

BY ARTHUR EDWARD WAITE. In two Volumes. With 28 full-page Plates, and many other 
Illustrations. New York; Rehman Company, lf23 Broadway. 1911. 

In recent years there has been great activity in the field of Masonic research. 
Keen intellects accustomed to the weighing of evidence, critical minds well stored 
with the necessary apparatus, have examined, re-examined, and analysed the 
documents of Masonry, and collated them with information derived from widely 
diverse sources. The pages of the Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge bear 
eloquent testimony to the extent, profundity and painstaking care of these 
investigators to whom the whole Masonic world lies under a debt of gratitude. The 
student of the history of Masonry has been amply provided for. But the searcher for 
the hidden meaning and intent of Masonry finds, alas, but little to help, attract, or 
reward him. Even those articles which deal with the Symbolism do not give to the 
reader a deep and abiding satisfaction. They have been rather in the way of short 
pleasure excursions among the shallows of the waters of knowledge. It has remained 
for Bro. A. E. Waite to boldly venture forth upon the open sea in search of the 
Mystic Isle, where dwell the Masters of Wisdom, and to record for us the incidents 
and results of his adventurous journey. Starting from the mystic Mount Heredom, 
he reaches successively the degrees of the Craft, the High Grade degrees, and those 
of chivalry, dealing with each from the standpoint of their Symbolism, and its relation 
to the Great Central Legend of the Craft. Many of these degrees he rightly puts 
aside as futile or puerile, but in others he finds what he regards as the essential and 
necessary completion of the Craft Symbolism. 

The theory he favours as to the origin of the Craft (and it is well to remember 
that all our efforts in this direction only end in theories), is that at some period, 
probably the seventeenth century, certain Initiates deliberately took over the 
organization and crude symbolism of the trade guild, and engrafted upon it their own 
richer and deeper symbolism and ritual. These Initiates were Christian followers of 

134 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

the Kabbalistic system. The Craft degrees were intended to explain and enforce only 
the loss of a secret, whose restoration was, apparently, to be achieved in one or more of 
the Higher Degrees. As by supposition, the Craft degrees are thus closely related to 
the old Hebrew Covenant, the natural sequence and restoration is to be found in the 
new Christian Covenant. So the matter of the Craft degrees is Hebraic, that of the 
Higher degrees, Christian. 

It must be acknowledged that the incidents and wording of the Craft degrees 
lend weight to such a theory. They are textually Hebraic. But their content is no 
more Hebraic than it is Christian or Buddhistic. Beneath the form, temporary and 
evanescent, lies the eternal teaching of all the mystic schools of the past. That 
teaching, though symbolic, is clear and sufficient. The candidate must follow closely 
the very footsteps of the Great Examplar. Though our Grand Master may not come 
to him, he may reach our Grand Master by voluntarily embracing the mystic death. 
It is important to notice that death is not a necessary element in a ritual of loss 
alone. It is the essential step for the recovery of those secrets. And so despite the 
fact that these recovered secrets are but dimly sketched, the Craft Ritual is complete 
in itself, as the candidate is led up to the final step necessary to that recovery. The 
higher Grades only elaborate the method or result of that recovery. 

The principle upon which Bro. Waite classifies these Higher Grades is a 
somewhat arbitrary one, depending entirely upon the hypothesis he has adopted. It 
is, however, superior to any other I have seen, as it is based upon the Symbolism, 
the inner meaning of the degrees. No student of Masonry can study the legends as 
here arranged without widening and deepening his view of the Craft, or without 
being impressed by the fact that many of the makers of Ritual have perceived the 
hidden light of Masonry, and striven to express it in terms according with the bent 
and temperament of their minds. The total result is to deepen the conviction, that 
while the forms of Masonry are variable and comparatively unimportant, the 
fundamental truths — what our Masonic forebears meant by the landmarks— are 
unchanging and unchangeable, and are everywhere seeking materialisation. This 
classification is into (a) those degrees which are based on the Craft motive; (b) those 
with a Christian motive, or, rather, perhaps, those offering a Christian explanation or 
development of the Craft motive ; and (c) " those designed to incorporate some 
" specific portion of the Secret Tradition in Christian times as a part of the Masonic 
" system." 

It is interesting to note our author's opinion on the two extra-Craft degrees, 
perhaps best known to the great majority of Masons, namely the Mark and the Royal 
Arch. The Mark he considers as a " Methodised attempt to sustain the supposed claims 
" of the Operative Craft as demanding recognition side by side with those of the 
" Emblematic Art." The ritual would be of little value but for one curious fact, which 
is that the Lodge, insistently operative at its opening, " closes in the highest form of 
Symbolism." The detailed exposition, which is ingenious, must be left to the readers 
of the book. Mark Masons may note that our author considers the Scotch Ritual and 
especially that worked in Mother Kilwinning, more symbolically significant. The chief 
symbolic episode of this degree is, somewhat unexpectedly, closely related with the 
Holy Royal Arch, which is not complete in itself. " It is a degree of the Second 
" Temple, but it represents the beginning of the work and not the completion thereof. . . 
" The work of the Arch symbolises an examination of the grounds of doctrine, which is 
" old ground, worked at a previous time and now sought with the certainty of recovering 
" treasures once interred therein." 

Reviews. '■'*<> 

All these degrees, Craft, Mark, and Koyal Arcb, suggest to our author the work 
of a school, which while essentially Christian, stcod behind Christianity, and intended 
to lead in the direction of Christian Masonry. The composers of the Ciaft Grade and 
its Legend knew indubitably that there was a Secret Doctrine in Isiael, while the Eojal 
Arch is an instruction that behind the literal sense of the old Scriptures there lies a 
holy mystery of interior religion, and those who can reach it will pass through experi- 
ences in the soul, receiving the living truth of doctrine in place of the forms thereof. 
So far from being the completion of the Craft, it is itself incomplete, and finds that 
completion in the Higher Christian Grades. 

If Masonry did no more than keep alive the knowledge of the existence of this 
Inner Doctrine it would have justified its existence. But surely it does more than this, 
in that it points out to the earnest student the successive steps by which this knowledge 

may be acquired. 
f It is good to find a writer, learned in so many degrees of Masonry, saying that 

'; « f rom a ll the Grades and Degrees which dt serve to be taken seriously, there sounds 

" a tocsin call ; that in obedience thereto we may become not only a peculiar people, a 
" holy priesthood, but that we shall take also our place in the seats of the installed 
" Masters who have truly passed the Chair." 

In conclusion let us say, that those who study the legends and history of the 
Craft, will find much to interest them in these two handsome volumes ; whilst those 
whose feet are already on the Secret Path will welcome Bro. Waite as a fellow pilgrim 
whose lamp helps to illumine the somewhat dim and uncertain road which all must 

traverse who would attain the Realm of Light. 

B. E. J. Edwards. 

136 Transactions of the Quatnor Coronati Lodye. 


EATH has removed from our Correspondence Circle the following 
Brethren, the loss of whom we record with regret : — 

Robert Baelz, of The Mount, Queen's Road, Forest Hill, London, 
S.B., P.M. Pilgrim Lodge No. '238. He died on 16th February, 1912 ; 
and had been a member of the Correspondence Circle since May 1897. 
William J. BenniSOn, 6, Bromley Common. Bromley, Kent, in 
November, 1911. A Past Master of the Pbcenix Lodge No. 173. He 
joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1904. 
James Hind, of Messrs. Burgess & Ball, La Plata Works, Malin Bridge, 
Sheffield, in January, 1912. He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1909. 

Edward LaWSOn Home, 54, Angell Road, Brixton, London, S.W., on 15th 
March, 1912. Bro. Home was for many years Secretary of the Ionic Lodge No. 227 
and Scribe E. of the Royal York Chapter of Perseverance No. 7, as well as Secretary 
of the Avondale Lodge No. 2395, from its consecration. 

H. J. D. Kellevink, of 44, Vossius Straat, Amsterdam, Holland, a member of 
the Lodge La Paix, in March, 1912. He was elected a member of our Correspondence 
Circle in June 1905. 

John GOShorn Kelley, 302, East Mission Street, Santa Barbara, California, 
U.S.A., on 29th May, 191 1. He joined our Correspondence Circle in May, 1897, and 
was a member of Lodge No. 368 and Chapter No. 250. 

Henry Joseph Lardner, Highdene, Ridgeway, Enfield, Middlesex on 9th 
February 1912. This Brother was initiated in the West Smithfield Lodge No. 1023 
in 1877, became its Master, and was Secretary at the time of his death, which occurred 
in his 74th year. He was a Past Grand Standard Bearer of Grand Lodge and 
PAG D.C. in Grand Chapter, and was also a Freeman of the Goldsmiths Company 
and a Liveryman of the Joiners. He was an Officer of the Inland Revenue Depart- 
ment for over forty years. Bro. Lardner's funeral service was conducted at St. 
Sepulchre's, Holborn, when the building was filled by over two hundred brethren. The 
remains were interred in Ilford Cemetery. Bro. Lardner's membership of the Corres- 
pondence Circle dated from May, 1890. 

Robert MeAHster, Pietermaritzburg, Natal, P.M. Lodge St. Andrew No. 701 
(S.C.), who joined the Correspondence Circle in October, 1895. 

Mark Quavle, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., elected to the Correspondence 
Circle in October, 1889, and died on 9th December, 1911. He was born in England and 
went to the States some sixty years before his death. He was initiated in Marion 
Lodge No. 68, in 1879, was W.M. in 1883, 1884, and 1885. His burial was conducted 
with the ceremonial of the A.A.S. Rite, of which he had been a member for nearly thirty 

JearS Edward Roberts, M.A., J.P., of Plas Maesincle, Carnarvon. Bro. Roberts, 
who was one of the most popular and valued residents in Carnarvon, was born in Bala 
sixty-eight years ago. At the age of 27 he became H.M. Inspector of the Schools in 
North Wales, and held the post for thirty-seven years. He assisted in establishing the 
North Wales University College, and until shortly before his death acted as Chief 
Examiner in the Welsh Language for the Board of Education. He was much interested 
in antiquarian matters, being local correspondent of the Cambrian Archaeological 
Society? Bro. Roberts was W.M. of the Segontium Lodge No. 606, m 1888 ; was 
appointed Deputy Grand Sword Bearer (England), in 1889, with the rank of A.G.D.C. 
in Grand Chapter; and was Deputy Provincial Grand Master of North Wales from 
1904. He died quite suddenly on the Bench in the County Magistrate s Court, on 23rrt 
March. 1912. 

Charles WinlOVe Smith, 50, High Street, King's Lynn, Norfolk, P.Pr.G.W, 
P Pr G Sc N., Norfolk, on 20th March, 1912. Bro. Winlove Smith, who was elected a 
member of the Correspondence Circle in October, 1891, was the holder of several Royal 
Warrants as a caterer, and his services were frequently requisitioned at bandnngnam. 

Gordon Berkeley Ward, 645, Avenida Mayo, Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 
1911. A member of Victoria Lodge No. 2329, Masefield Chapter No. 617, and of our 
Correspondence Circle since June, 1907, 

FRIDAY, 3rd MAY, 1912. 

£^Ti ITE Ijodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present : —Bros. J. P. 
Sim;>son, P. A.G.I?,, AV.M.; K. H. Dring, S.AV. ; E. L. Hawkins, J.AV. ; 
W. John Songhurst, P.A.G.D.C., Secretary'; AV. Wonnaeott, J.D.; 
John T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; Dr. Win. AVynn AVesteott, P.G.D., 
P.M. ; and Sydney T. Klein, L.R., P.M. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle : — 
Bros. Fred. H. Postans, Gordon P. G. Hills. H. A. Badman. Rev. 
Prebendary Arthur J. Ingram, P. G. Chap., Alfred S. Gedge, A. B. Joseelyne, H. R. Justice, 
Fred. Armitage, Walter Dewes, Bedford McNeill, F. Postans, F. W. Lovander, Osborne 
Poarston, George Elkington, John Church, R, E. Landesmann, AV. Howard Webb, Curt 
Nauwerck, H. Newman God ward, H. H. Riach, Capt. A. W. Stokes, R.E., T. Cann 
Hughes, H. Hyde, J. Procter Watson, J. Leach Barrett, P.G.St.B., J. Smith, Col. Sir 
Howland Roberts, Bt., Albert Loftus Brown, J. C. Zabban, M. Thomson, G. Vogeler, 
C. Gough, S. J. Fenton, N. Chaplin, Walter Lawrance, P.A.G.Sup.W., Walter H. Brown, 
P.G.Stew.,Wm. A. Tharp, J. Jellis, H. F. Bayliss, Seymour Bell, P.G.D., C. F. Sykes, 
W. A. Barker, J. R, Thomas, R, W. Anderson, Fred. A. Robinson, Robert Anthony 
Gowan, J. M. Goodwin, W. F. Keddell, Dr. S. Walshe Owen, Henry Lovegrove, 
P.A.G.Sup.W., John Foulds, Wm. J. D. Roberts, D. Bock, H. G. Wan-en, Thos. M. 
Timms, Dr. William Hammond, P.G.D., Charles Clarke, John White, P.G.D., W. 
Busbridge, O. Leo Thomson, Lewis Wild, Leonard Danielsson, F. F. Stafford , Major John 
Rose, Herbert Y. Mayell, and William Hall. 

Also the following Visitors: — Bros. Geo. Duncan, Eureka Lodge No. 3 (Brazil); 
S. V. Williains and H. J. Otten, Lodge of St. John No. 1306; F. W. Richardson, Sec, 
Bridge Trust Lodge No. 2878; C. H. Watson, Stew., Loyalty and Charity Lodge No. 
1584; Fredk. G. Weston, St. Margaret's Lodge No. 1872; H. Porter Cox, Electric Lodge 
No. 2087; J. Speedy, Strand Lodge No. 1987; Alfred Bannister, P.M., Stuart Lodge No. 
1032. L.R,; W. Laird Clark. Lodge Aberdeen No. 1«*(S.C.); H. Yolland Boreham, Hiram 
Lodge No. 2416; A. E. Symes, P.M., Doric Lodge No. 933; Charles H. Downcs, P.Pr.G.R , 
Suffolk; F. Shipton, P.M., Londesborough Lodge No. 1681; P. H. Hood; and E. Lipman, 
Lodge Ferdinande Caroline (Hamburg). 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. Admiral Sir A. H. 
Markham, P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M.; Gotthelf Greiner, P.A.G.D.C. P.M.; J. P. Rylands; 
Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawdey, G.Treas., Ireland; Edward Maobean, P.M.; E. Conder, 
L.R,, P.M.; Fred. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., P.M.; Edward Armitage, P.Dep.G.D.C, I.G. ; 
Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk, P.M., Treas. ; AV. B. Hextall, S.D. ; R. F. Gould, 
P.G.D., P.M.; F. H. Goldney, P.G.D., P.M., D.C. ; Canon J. AV. Horsley, P.G.Ch,, 
P.M., Chap. ; and L. A. de Malezovich. 

138 Transactions of the Quatuor doronati Lodge. 

It was announced that Bro. Edward James Castle, K.C., P.Dep.G.R., P.M., died 
oil 27th April, and a vote of condolence with his family was unanimously carried. 

Bro. Castle was born on 1st May, 1842, being the third son of Professor Castle, 
of King's College, London. He was educated at King's College and the Woolwich Mili- 
tary Academy, as he had chosen the Army as a profession. He received a Commission 
in the Royal Engineers in December, 1860, and served subsequently in Jamaica and 
other parts of the West Indies, retiring from the Army in 1867. He then turned his 
attention to the Law, and was called to the Bar in 1868, becoming Queen's Counsel in 
the same year. He was later made a Bencher of the Inner Temple, and was appointed 
Recorder of Bristol in 1897, having previously held the post of Recorder of Winchester 
for eleven years. 

Our Brother's Masonic career commenced when his Regiment was stationed at 
Chatham, and he was initiated in the Royal Kent Lodge of Antiquity No. 20. Later he 
joined the All Souls Lodge No. 170, at Weymouth, and was exalted in the Chapter 
attached to that Lodge. After he had left the Army and had been called to the Bar. he 
joined the Middlesex Lodge No. 143 London, and became its W.M. He also joined the 
Carnarvon Lodge No. 708, Hampton Court, and became W.M. of that Lodge also. He 
was appointed Provincial Grand Registrar for Middlesex ; and in 1904 received the collar 
of Deputy Grand Registrar in Grand Lodge. He joined the Quatuor Coronati Lodge 
on 4th May, 1888, and was installed in the Chair on 8th November, 1902. 

Bro. Castle had written works on "The Law of Commerce in Time of War" and 
the Shakespeare, Bacon and Jonson question. He was an authority on the history of 
the Knights Templar, and contributed several papers on the subject to the pages of our 
Transactions; "Enquiry into the Charges of Gnosticism brought against the Freemasons 
and Templars" (vol. xix.); "Secret Societies" (vol. xv.); "The Reception (Initiation) 
of a Templar " (vol. xv.); and " Proceedings against the Templars in France and England 
for Heresy, etc., A.D. 1307-11 " (vol. xx). 

The funeral took place at Brompton Cemetery, after a service at the Church of 
St. Mary Boltons, South Kensington. 

Brothers Frederick William Levander, Thomas Johnson Westropp, and Arthur 
Cecil Powell were proposed as Joining Members of the Lodge. 

One Provincial Grand Lodge (Mark), four Lodges and fifty-one Brethren were 
admitted to membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

A vote of Congratulation was accorded to members of the Correspondence Circle 
who received Grand Lodge Honours at the Festival held on 24th April. 

Exhibits. 139 

The Secretary called attention to the following 


By Bio. R. E. Landesmann, London. 

Breast Jewel, of somo Society not identified — metal-gilt, of rectangular form. 
The main design consists of the letters B.C.M., with a representation of the " Bolt in 
Tun." It hangs from a piece of light blue watered ribbon, and is of modern make. 

By Bro. A. Ehnkst Jones, P.Pr.G.W., Monmouth. 

Design, hand-drawn and coloured, probably intended for a K.T. Certificate. The 
paper has the watermark " Iping 1804." The reproduction (slightly reduced) shows at 
the left-hand bottom corner vertical lines, which are continued right down the paper, 
thus forming a margin. The colours of these lines are blue, red, and yellow. 

By Bro. Col. Sir Howlano Rouehts, Bart., London. 

Wakkant, issued 10th March, 1812, for a Royal Arch Chapter, No. 171, to be 
called the " Chapter of the Mystic Stone " and to meet at the " George Inn, at Martock, 
in the County of Somerset." The Principals designate were the Rev. John White 
Mkldleton, Robert Chaft'ey and Thomas Hamlyn, all of whom were members of the Lodge 
of Brotherly Love No. 329, now meeting at Yeovil. The Chapter must have had a very 
short existence, as the present Chapter attached to that Lodge was warranted in 1822. 
No records of the earlier Chapter are known to exist. The warrant is signed by the Duke 
of Sussex, Z.; the Earl of Moira, H.; Waller Rodwell Wright, J.; and Sam 1 - Newman, 
Grand Recorder. 

By Bro. Aleked Gates, Sherborne. 

Leather "Apkon, with design printed from an engraved plate, and hand-coloured, 
"pub. Feb. 28th, 1811, by Bro. Sadthorpe Chapel St. Cripplegate." The apron is lined 
and edged with dark-blue silk. It will be noticed that the arms of the Masons' Company 
and of the Carpenters' Company appear as part of the design. 

By Bro. T. A. Withey, Knaresborough. 

Ram's Horn Snuff-Box, silver mounted, with square and compasses on lid. 
Copper Tobacco-Box; on the lid the inscription 

John Cox 


This Box 


Above is a representation of an eye, on the loft a pair of compasses and on the right a 

140 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

By Bio. C. F. Matiek, P.Dep.G.D.C. 

Jewel, in the form of a square of white enamel with gold mount. On the enamel 
are a circle formed by a serpent, a triangle, and a celestial crown. The jewel is sus- 
pended from a gilt representation of St. George and the Dragon. It is not known to 
what Society this belonged. 

By Bro. Sir William Watts, K.O.B., Dep. Pr. G.M., Dorset. 

Jewel, of the Order of Bucks, silver-gilt, set in garnets. 

Jewel, of the Recorder of the Royal Grand Modern Order of Jerusalem Sols, 1783. 

By Bro. Dr. Wil. Hammond, Librarian of Grand Lodge. 

Dresden China Fiuuke of a pug-dog. It is suggested that this may have been used 
in connection with the Order of Mopses. 

Medal, struck to commemorate the Dedication of Freemasons Hall, Bath, by the 
Duke of Sussex in 1819. The reverse of the medal has been rubbed down, and the follow- 
ing inscription engraved: — "Freemasons Hall Bath. Dedicated by His Royal Highness 
Augustus Frederick Duke of Sussex 23rd Soptr- 1819. Brother W. C. Hayes G a . Director 
of the Ceremonies. " The medal has been mounted in paste and worn as a breast jewel. 

By Bro. It. Clay Sudlow, P.G.D. 

Silver Jewel, It. A., inscribed with the name of Anthony Oats, 1803. 

Silver-gilt pierced Jewel, with pillars, arch, and keystone, enclosing a triangle, in 
which is the letter A, surmounted by a star. At foot three steps lead from a tessolated pave- 
ment, on which are a Bible, square and compasses. On the left and right of the pillars 
are respectively the sun and moon. At foot is the motto, Amor Honor et Justitia. On 
the reverse a triangle is shown upon the three steps enclosing the letter G, and on the 
pavement is a scroll, bearing the name Anthony Oates. These jewels are believed to have 
belonged to the same brother, notwithstanding the different spelling of the name. 

A hearty vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to those Brethren who had lent 
objects for exhibition. 

Bro. Goudon P. G. Hills read the following paper:- 

Transactions of the Qnatuor Coronati Lodge, 



P.M. 2416 ; P.Z. 2416. 

MONG papers formerly belonging to my Grandfather, the late Thomas 
Joseph Pettigrew, S.G.D. (1827-8), which came into my possession a 
few years since, were some letters which have afforded me the clue 
to a little group of friends connected with Masonry, nourishing just 
at the end of the eighteenth century. 

In these notes I have endeavoured to put together some 
particulars, Masonic and otherwise, of these few interesting person- 
alities, which, I trust, may be acceptable to the "Brethren of the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge as affording a link here and there in the history of the evolution of the Craft, 
and illustrating the environment in which it was placed at that period. 

1 take for my text a letter dated May 2nd, 1797, written by Bro. George 
Downing, of Lincoln's Inn, to Bio. The Rev. Thomas Maurice. It runs as follows :— 

D 1 . Maurice, 

I felt concerned to receive your note, which I did not do till eleven 
at night. My Servant told you no story, at least as far as I am concerned, 
for I dined with the Conveyancers' Club, at the Crown & Anchor. My 
Wife, however, & her Sister dined at home, but at an early hour 
in order to go to the play, so that in fact they had dined when 
you called, & had given a general order of denegation, at which 
my Wife felt vastly concerned, when I shewed her your note in the 
evening. I am peculiarly sorry not to have seen you for two reasons, one 
because I wanted to say that Jones of Nayland is to come to our house 
to-day & will make some short stay with us, & to know whether you 
would like to be introduced to him. I cannot now make an engagement 

for him, because I know he A makes many before he leaves the 
country, but if you wish to meet him, say so, & I will contrive it on a 
day that shall suit you both. The next thing I wanted to say is, 

a peculiar 
that General Kainsford, who, tho' an oM Man in some of his 
speculations, is an ingenious & a worthy man, wishes to establish a 

Masonic Lodge, consisting wholly of men of literary attainments or a 
literary propensities, for the express purpose of enquiry into the origin, 
&c, of the order ; he has been already at great pains in tracing it through 
its various Sy mbol s Channels, and elucidating the symbolic part of it. 

142 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Will you be one of the party ? You must hew take this -with yon, that 
it is not to be a convivial thing. Let me know your mind on these two 
points & believe me, your faithful Friend 

Geo. Downing. 
Lincolns Inn, 

May 2. 1797. 

A courteous letter, in which the judicial weighing of words is very apparent when the 
writer proceeds to introduce his friend General Rainsford, as he has made several 
corrections of his expressions in order more precisely to convey his meaning. 

Brother GiiOKGK Downing was initiated in Somerset House Lodge No. 2, on 
November 25th, 1793, and exalted in the Chapter of St. James, on December 24th, 1795. 
We learn from Bro. Rylands' History of this Chapter that Companion Downing 
remaiued for a long period an active member, his last attendance appearing on July 10th, 
1800. There is an account of his presentation of a set of " Three Elegant Gilt Sceptres 
for the use of the Principals " on March 10th, 1796. He was First Principal of the 
Chapter in 1796, and also held the appointment of Grand Superintendent for 
Essex the same year. I am indebted to Bro. Sadler's Life of Thomas Bunckerley for 
further particulars of the career of this distinguished Mason, where a full account of the 
installation of " George Downing, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, and Ovington " as Provincial 
Grand Master for the County of Essex, at Chelmsford, on May 15th, 1797, is quoted 
from The Freemasons' Repository for June of that year. This installation took place in 
consequence of the death of Bro. Dunckerley, which had occurred on November 19th, 
1795, when the Provincial Grand Mastership thus vacated was filled up by the 
appointment of Brother Downing. The address delivered by Brother Cook, of Barking, 
the Deputy Provincial Grand Master, in introducing the business of the Meeting, after 
a suitable reference to the great loss the Province had sustained by the death of " our 
" late worthy Past Grand Master, Brother Thomas Dunckerley, a gentleman most 
" justly esteemed by all who had the pleasure of knowing him," proceeds to refer to his 
successor as — " a Brother and a Gentleman who, I believe is well known to several of 
" the Brethren present — I mean George Downing, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, and of Ovington 
" in this County, who is as much esteemed in private life as he is publicly honoured as 
" a Mason." And he continues " I take this opportunity of observing that shortly after 
" the demise of our Brother Dunckerley, the different Lodges in this County, being 
" made acquainted with our Brother Downing's character, connection, and situation in 
" life, and his having expressed a wish to succeed to the honour of presiding over this 
" respectable county, unanimously petitioned His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, 
" our present Most Worshipful Grand Master, to nominate and appoint Mr. Downing 
"to fill up the vacancy that was so great a loss to Masonry in this county. I can 
" assure you, Brethren, that when you have the happiness of being acquainted and 
" connected with him as a Man, who is to preside over you in future, you will not repent 
" permitting me the great honour of placing him in the Provincial Chair, and investing 
" him in due form with the insignia of his office, to preside over this truly respectable 
" and numerous assemblage of Brethren, to renovate our knowledge, guide us in the 
" true path between the Square and Compass, and amply console us for the great loss 
" we have sustained — And may the three Grand Masonic Principles, Brotherly Love, 
" Relief, and Truth, aided and assisted by the three Masonic virtues Faith, Hope, and 
" Charity, be a guide to our conviviality this day." From this eulogy we can gauge the 
esteem in which the newly appointed Provincial Grand Master was held by his friends. 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 143 

After his installation Brother Downing delivered an oration, from the report of 
which 1 will quote to illustrate the opinions which ho held with regard to Masonry. In 
the course of his address, he said : — 

" Prom my first initiation into the mysteries of our venerable 
Order, they have been subjects of my continual admiration, not so 
much on account of their antiquity as their moral tendency: — for though 
the former may attract the enquiry and gratify the research of the 
antiquarian, it is the latter which invites the cultivation, gives energy to 
the exertion, and ensures the final perserverance of the genuine 
Freemason. Let us not, however, affect to think lightly of the venerable 
sanction which our mysteries have acquired by the adoption of successive 
ages. Of their antiquity there is a sort of evidence which eclipses 
tradition. The method adopted by the craft for communicating 
instructions to their disciples, was in use before the invention of letters. 

" All the learning of the ancient world was conveyed in symbols, 
and entrenched in mysteries . 

" Those who have made enquiries into the rise and progress of 
science, have found that in the early ages all speculative knowledge was 
confined to a few, and by them carefully concealed from vulgar curiosity 
under the veil of mysteries, into which none were initiated, till not only 
their intellectual capacities, but the firmness of their characters, had been 
put to a severe test; the result of which determined the degree of 
probability that they would resist the stratagems of curiosity and the 
imperious demands of authority. The most famous mysteries on record 
are those in Persia, which were celebrated in honour of the God Mythra, 
and those at Bleusis, in Greece, in honour of the Goddess Ceres. 

"Many arguments might be adduced to prove that both these were 
corruptions of Freemasonry, and hereafter I shall not want the inclination, 
if I do not want the opportunity to discuss them. At present, however, 
I shall content myself with pointing out the similarity which subsists 
between the initiatory rites practised by the professors of those mysteries 
and by our Brethren, both antient and modern ; more especially in the 
allegorical part of their ceremonials." 

Here followed an historical detail of the ceremonies attending initiations into the 
Mythraic and Eleusinian mysteries, and a comparative examination of them with 
Freemasonry, which could not for Masonic reasons be reported, after which Brother 
Downing made " some remarks on the practises of different Lodges in England and 
" France, in what is termed making Masons," and then proceeded as follows : — 

" I conceive it to the credit of the English Masons in general, that 
they are content to make a solemn impression without doing violence to 
the feelings of the candidate, to awe without intimidating • and we may 
be bold to affirm, that by how much soever the terror of an initiation into 
either of the Heathen mysteries above alluded to exceeded the terror of a 
Masonic examination, by so much, and more do the moral and social 
advantages of the latter institution exceed those of the former," 

144 Transactions of the Q,uatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Leaving these more abstruse subjects, the orator proceeded to say that " For 
" proofs of the moral tendency of Freemasonry we need only appeal to our lectures, a 
" due attention to which cannot fail of proving highly auxiliary to the practice of 
" religious and social duties," and, after some enlargement on this topic, concluded with 
the practical inculcation of the Grand Masonic Principles in support of the " Eoyal 
Cumberland Freemasons' School " — the present Girls' School then recently removed to 
new premises in St. George's Fields. The subsequent proceedings seem to have fully 
realized the aspirations expressed by the Deputy Provincial Grand Master for the 
success of the meeting ; suffice it to say, in the concluding words of the reporter, it was 
" a day — never exceeded, if equalled, in the annals of Masonry." 

His friend, Maurice, in his own Memoirs, writes : — " the learned, the generous, the 
" accomplished, George Downing, a conveyancer of considerable eminence . . . 
" caught his death by his patriotic exertions, while too rigidly attending his duty in 
" that noble corps of which he was one of the principal founders and supporters— the 
" Light Hokse Volunteers" (of London and Westminster). 

The " Crown and Anchor " Tavern, where Brother Downing dined with the 
Conveyancers' Club, stood at the eastern corner of the junction of Arundel Street with 
the Strand, " a large and curious house with good Rooms, and other conveniences fit 
" for entertainment," it was the home of many Clubs and Masonic bodies. 1 

We will now direct our attention to the Brother, to whom this letter was 
addressed — The Reverend Thomas Maurice. Born at Hertford in 1754, where his 
father was master of the school in connection with Christ's Hospital, he received his 
education at several schools, and started with the intention of following a legal career 
by taking Chambers in the Inner Temple. This project he soon forsook, and after a 
course of classical study, under the celebrated pedagogue, Dr. Samuel Parr, 
matriculated at Oxford in 1774. There he published a translation of Oedipus Tyrannus, 
for which Dr. Johnson wrote a preface. On leaving Oxford he was ordained by the 
Bishop of London, to the curacy of Woodford, Essex. In 1785 Maurice became 
incumbent of the Chapel of Epping, and about the same time purchased the chaplaincy 
of the 97th Regiment, which was disbanded shortly after, but on acconnt of which he 
continued to enjoy half-pay for the rest of his life. In 1798 our brother became 
Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts in the British Museum, and in the same year was 
presented to the Vicarage of Wormleighton, Warwickshire ; afterwards, from 1804, he 
held as well the Vicarage of Cadham, Kent. In 1786 he married the daughter of 
Thomas Pearce, a Captain in the service of the East India Company, who predeceased 
him, dying in 1790. Rev. Thomas Maurice died on the 30th of March, 1824, in his 
residence at the British Museum. I cannot do better than quote the summary in the 
Dictionary of National Biography (to which I am indebted for these particulars), where 
the characteristics of our friend are thus tersely put :—" Maurice was on intimate terms 
" with many of the foremost of his contemporaries. He was an industrious student, a 
" voluminous author, and one of the first to popularise a knowledge of the history and 
" religions of the East." His principal work was Indian Antiquities, in seven volumes, 
published 1793-1800, of which two later editions were brought out, besides the separate 
publication of A Dissertation on the Oriental Trinities, extracted from the 4th and 5th 
volumes. A History of Hindustan, in two volumes, was published 1795-1798. Poems 
and Miscellaneous pieces (1779), were followed by Grove Hill, a Descriptive Poem, with an 

1 See Brother J. Percy Simpson's paper, A.Q.C. xx., p. 30, 

Notes oh some Masonic Personal/' 'lien tit the end of the Eighteenth I'enlnry. 145 

Ode to Mithra (1799), Westminster Abbey, an eleyiac poem, (1784), and numerous other 
poems, many of a eulogistic nature, amongst which llichmond Hill (1807), was an 
ambitious effort. Later works were Brahminical Fraud Detected, 1812, re-published in 
another edition the next year as The Indian Sceptic Refuted, also in 1816, Observations 
connected with Astronomy, published in two editions. We see here with little doubt the 
source from which Brother George Downing drew the information with regard to the 
Mysteries of Mithras, which formed part of the oration already referred to, and this I 
am able to illustrate further by some letters which passed between Rev. Thomas 
Maurice and his friend and patron Dr. John Coakley Lettsom, whose suburban villa, 
Grove Hill, Camberwell, became the subject of his friend's muse. The labour of 
writing the Indian Antiquities pressed heavily on our author ; he was handicapped by 
the expense, which brought him into monetary difficulties ; his eyesight troubled him ; 
he was half blind with copying; whilst convivial tendencies, which Downing, in his 
letter so expressly says, must be no part of the New Masonic Body under contemplation, 
probably affected him more acutely than was the case with some of his friends and so 
interfered with his more serious pursuits. 

We learn from the History of the Chapter of St. James that Brother Maurice 
belonged to the Burlington Lodge, and that he was exalted on December 8th, 1796, but 
no further attendance at the Chapter is recorded. 

On 17th November, 1796, Maurice wrote from 31, Norton Street, to Dr. Lettsom : — 

Dear Sir, 

Happy to obey your injunctions when I can,— that is when my 
mind, unimpeded by the constitutional infirmity of its partner — has power 
to act. I have already launched the quill in praise of Grove Hill. The 
new openings already present new hills, rich in verdure, deep in shade., 
Ferguson already copernicizes from his temple. — The bees have already 
commenced their sublime lessons of industry and harmony to the nations 
whose names distinguish them. — Already the farmyard lows and the 
granaries appear to burst, &c, &c, &c. I came to your house with the 
firm determination to act like a man and no more expose the writer of 
that booh, — but you were uncommonly jocular and festive. I could have 
stood firm against bloated stupidity but I sunk before the burst of genius 
and good nature. Pray, dear sir, forgive your repentant and suffering 


Thomas Maurice. 

The reply from Dr. Lettsom bears the same date. Some little peculiarities in 
expression are due to the fact that the writer was a member of the Society of Friends : — 

Rbvtcr d Friend, 

There are few errors but are obliterated by repentance ; I do not 
know, however, that thy conduct in my house, was reprehensible. I 
observed some words between thee and my daughter, but I thought it was 
merely a matter of sparring, more for the sake of conversation, than from 
any excitement of displeasure or anger. I heard, indeed, that Dr. Hawes 
enjoyed thy being half-seas over, as he imagined ; whilst poor fellow, he 
was quite gone — spilling the coffee about the room instead of spilling it 
per orem — tho' unconscious of his situation. Good little Beaumont with 

146 Transactions of the Quatuor foronati Lodge. 

his "meet little cherub sitting on a tree," was himself incapable of sitting on 
a chair. But Heaven surely will not suffer a few drops of Nectar, when 
y e soul is joined in innocent sociality, to curtail it of future joys. No 
unkind sentiment went athwart of any of our hearts. Why then should 
we recall the day with solicitude ? I went and returned with pleasure, 
rejoicing at the innocent conviviality of my Guests. I did not ask them 
to come and mump at each other, but to prove that with strong brains, 
in the vicinity might gambol some risible muscles. Newton himself kept 
kittens to frolick and divert him after severe studies, — and we are not 
yet grown so rigid and stiff, but occasionally we may kittenize among 

To-day Edwards of the Academy paid me a visit, and I pointed out 
to him the Temple (of Science), as an object to be painted (for thy Muse). 
Seriously however, if thou could say less about me, and better 
should I like thy muse — If thou thought as little of me as I do of 
myself, the epithets would be humble indeed,— instead of my name 
could not my friend, or anything besides, be substituted ? My 
origin was humble — my acquirements moderate, and I may say truly, 
I have nothing to boast of but my infirmities. My father was a planter 
who died in easy circumstances — but I was a younger son, and my elder 
brother ruined his property. I had in negroes about £3000, but when I 
returned to the West Indies I gave them their liberty, and found myself 
exactly £500 in debt. Before I returned to the West Indies, then a pupil 
at St. Thomas's Hospital, I rambled on Grove Hill, then a wild place. I 
said to a friend with me— "were I able to live in England this is the 
place I would wish to live and die at," little imagining I should ever 
possess an inch of land in this proud kingdom. 

I do not know whether or not thou observed the pain ting of an 
Island in my Drawing-room. In that little island I was born. It was 
once the property of my father, but my family were not provident enough 
to keep it ; last week, however, the proprietor happening to be in England, 
I repurchased the whole of it, and with it the bones of my parents. The 
house on it is still perfect, and the pins, whereon my hammock hung, 
remain. Considering therefore my origin— and the narrowness of my 
mental improvements — however Grove-hill may be praised; praise 
cannot be appropriate to one of such slender merit, as can be claimed by 

J. C. Lettsom. 

Maurice wrote again on December 30th, apologising for delay in the progress of 
the poem owing to his work on Indian Antiquities : — 

When I shall have finally compleated what I am about, nothing 
shall tempt me to resume my pen on subjects of considerable research, for, 
in fact my constitution, not less than my pocket, has felt a deep wound 

during the close application of five years You may fully 

depend that whatever may in future fall from my poetical pen will be 
extremely guarded in point of commendation of a personal nature. 

I certainly when I wish to afford pleasure, ought not to admit 
anythingthat may have a tendency to raise ablush, or to give the slightest 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 147 

pain to mental sensibility. Happily the world does not want to be 
informed who and what Dr. Lettsom is. The public Charities that bear 
his name, attest beyond any rhetorical figures, what are the true lines of 
his character. 

Can you leave out for me any topographical book that may be 
useful, — something provincial, relative to Surry, Kent ; is there not 
such a book as a Tour Five Miles round London r 1 I mean the first fine 
day to take a very long circuit, on horseback, which will do me good, 
round Camberwell. Your gardener must be my rnagnus Apollo, and I 
shall possibly make love to the Cook for some cold meat — for we poets can 
do nothing without eating and drinking — its an old failing, you know, 
of the corps. 

Other letters give particulars of the progress of the work — the consultations 
about the various references ; the vignettes ; the paper ; and fully illustrate the truly 
Masonic characteristics of Brotherly love, Relief and Truth in the case of the good doctor 
and the gratitude and good intentions of the poet. He writes : — 

I think you do me but justice to impute my faults to want of 
ballast, rather than good intentions. ... I am now resolved that 

nothing on earth shall divert me from the path of rectitude 

and duty — the good intentions of my friends shall no longer be frustrated 
by mj absurd eccentricities, nor their sensibility outraged by my 
imprudence. I esteem Dr. Lettsom among my most tried and firm friends, 
and I trust I shall live (now there is little prospect of my being able tolive) 
to let hitn see that his calculations concerning me were not ill-founded, 
and that his repeated kindness has not been thrown away. It is, sir, 
conduct like yours, blending benevolence with occasional severity, that 
gains upon and reclaims the sensible mind. I am happy that I have not 
entirely wearied out kindness so uncommon; nor outraged, beyond the 
possibility of recovery, the feelings of a friend whose worth I feel, and 
whose manly, decisive understanding I have had frequent opportunities 
of discerning and admiring — who possesses virtue without ostentation, 
genius without pride, and religion upon a broad scale, untinged by 
weakness and superstition. I assure you I write this with no studied 
attention — but currents calamo, and it is the result of experience and 

The letters with their quaint verbosity seem so vividly to conjure up these 
men of other times and manners, yet with human nature — ever the same — peeping out 
all along the line, that I cannot resist quotation, but not to weary my readers further, 
will conclude with the letter announcing the completion of the Poem. It is as follows : — 

Deae Sat, 

I have just returned from a second visit to my living in Warwick- 
shire. I shall now be constantly in London for some time and happy to 
do every thing in my power to improve Grove-hill, and am now preparing 
such a kind of introduction to that poem, as shall do away all the 
personality of the allusion to the owner of that celebrated seat. I inclose 
what I requested permission to add to it — the second part of my much- 
liked " Ode to Mithra," — by right the first part should also be printed, 

148 transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

but that may make the thing too long, unless you raise the price to Haif- 
a-guinea, which the rich decorations will justify. Bulmer had a guinea 
for the Chace, not so well adorned. I have no correct copy of this second 
part but the inclosed; so after Miss it has been sate in judgment upon, 
some sober evening at Grove-hill (the reader, Pickering, who spouts my 
poetry so well), I request of you to return it me hither, — the first part 
of it (to which I have added a long stanza, bran-new, recently) will be 
found at the end of Vol. 2, of the Indian Antiquities, and the subject you 
will know, or will well recollect, when I sign, Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
28th Feby, 1708. Mauriceboam. 

No. 19, Princes' Street, 

Cavendish Square. 

The Descriptive Poem of Q rove Hill was accordingly published in 1799, with a 
preface, in which the author states that " whilst on a visit at Grove-hill, [he] was so 
" struck with the interesting scenery and beautiful landscapes which that villa and its 
" vicinity presented to his view, as to have an instantaneous desire excited in his mind 
"to express the sentiments he felt, in poetry." He concludes — " The anxious desire of 
" a few friends to see the Ode to Mithra in a better garb than that in which it has 
" hitherto appeared, has occasioned its being added to the descriptive poem ; and it is 
"accompanied, through the liberality of the Proprietor of Grove-hill, with such 
"embellishments as must fully gratify their obliging predilection, in favour of that 
"juvenile effusion." 

The character of the poem on Grove-hill may be sufficiently indicated by an 
abbreviation of the argument : — -Address to the Deity, dictated by a general view of 
Grove Hill, &c. ; The Grove described ; moral reflections ; the Garden House and 
Library described ; the Museum ; the Lawn, and Symbolic Sculpture of Hygeia ; the 
Landscape ; the Telegraph ; the Arbustum, and Cupid sleeping ; the Observatory, 
or Temple of the Sybils: the Apiary; Shakespeare's Walk; the Cottage, Fountain, 
and Reservoir ; to the beauties and associations of all of which full justice is done. 
The Ode to Mithra, however, bears directly on our subject, as no doubt it was the Author's 
knowledge in this direction, which led to his being invited to join in the researches of 
Rainsford and Downing. 

I will quote some lines from Part the Second, where the mystic " Cave of Mithra," 
emblematical of the world, and the experiences of a candidate for those mysteries are 
described as follows : — 

Above, array'd in tints of loveliest blue, 

A concave dome, with glitt'ring symbols bright, 

And orient gems, that shed a vary'd light, 
Pour their full splendours on th' astonish'd view ! 
Deep on the rock and jasper walls portray'd 

The mighty circle of the zodiac shines. 

* * # 

High in the centre, wrought in burnish'd gold, 

Hithka, thy own refulgent orb appears ; 
And round the vast circumference are roll'd 

Attendant planets and revolving spheres. 

* * # 

Ifotes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 149 

Of virgin Silver form'd, with ray serene, 
Shines fair Astarte, night's resplendent queen ; 
Next, Mercury his ardent aspect shews, 
As iron in the raging furnace glows, 
Of ruddy copper formed, the blood-stain'd Mars 
Ou earth's affrighted race terrific glares ; 
Venus, whom beauty's loveliest smile arrays, 
A brilliant vest of sparkling tin displays; 
Next, dazzling Jupiter's enormous mass 
Kolls on, a ponderous globe of burnished brass ; 
While leaden Saturn's mightier sphere 
Through fields of azure wheels his vast career 
The myriad sparkling gems that burn on high, 
To rapt Philosophy's bold ken display 
The blazing wonders of the starry sky, 

That through the vast abyss of space extend 
To other worlds their cheering lustre lend, 
And light, through Nature's bounds, eternal day. 

Smite, loudly smite, the choral string, 
Aloft the golden censer raise ; 

Let heaven's bright arch with triumph ring 
And earth resound with Mithka's praise ! 

# # # 

The deeper mysteries prepare . . 
To the pale Candidate's astonish'd eyes ; 
In all thy dreadful charms, great nature rise ! 
With fearful prodigies appal his soul, 
Around him let terrific lightnings glare, 
And the loud thunders of the tropic roll, 
While winds impetuous rush, and waves resound, 
And rending earthquakes rock the lab'ring ground 
Through the deep windings of the mystic cave, 
While midnight darkness hovers o'er, 
Let the blind wretch his toilsome way explore. 
# # * 

Through all the elements that wrap the Globe, 
The soul that dares to heav'nly birth aspire, 
Must strenuous toil . . . earth, ocean, air, and lire ; 
Then purg'd of all the sordid dross below, 
The daring spirit shall with angels glow, 
And change its earthly, for a heav'nly robe, 
Yon mighty Ladder, let his feet ascend. 

# # * 

And sev'n bright gates their radiant valves unfold 
Of various metals wrought, those portals gleam ; 
And, through yon orbs, the soul's migration shew ; 

Until finally, to draw my quotation to an end : 

Now having rang'd creation's vast extent, 
From all its base terrestrial dross reQn'd, 
Let the glad Candidate's unclouded mind 

New-tledg'd and vigorous, take its rapid flight 
Beyond the bounds of yon blue firmament, 

To the pure mansion of the source of light ; 
There drink th' effulgence of the Godhead's ray, 
And bound and revel in eternal day. 

150 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The poem is explained and illustrated by copious notes with references to the 
Indian Antiquities. 

It is not for us to criticise our Brother Maurice's literary style, but were one 
inclined to do so, we might well pause on consideration of the various opinions 
expressed on his efforts in the later poem on Richmond Rill. Dr. Lettsom wrote of this 

"it will place thee on the lofty eminence of Parnassus In it dignity 

"is united with softness — sublimity with tenderness — and copiousness with Pierian 
" melody. Is there no Ma3cenas to feed the flame of poetic inspiration — no Sydney to 
" reward the genius of Spencer ? A Catalani claims her thousands for evanescent 
" notes, whilst the muse, whose sublimity reaches the stars and elevates humanity 
"into celestial regions, languishes under neglect or the tribute of reward is only 
" offered when it cannot be received." 

Yet Byron in his English Birdi and Scotch Reviewers took a very different view, 
describing Maurice as "dull" and this same poem as "the putrefactions of a plodding 

A glimpse has been afforded by these letters of that remarkable man John 
Coaklet Lettsom, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.A.S., etc., etc., whom we may be proud to 
claim as a Brother in the craft. An account of his life was written by my 
grandfather, who owed not a little to Dr. Lettsom's patronage and help in the early 
days of his own professional career. 1 It was in connection with this Memoir that the 
letters of Downing, Maurice, and other of Dr. Lettsom's correspondence came into Mr. 
Pettigrew's hands. Space will only permit a brief notice of Dr. Lettsom's career, 
which I condense from the Dictionary of National Biography. Lettsom was born 1744, 
at Little Vandyke, one of the Virgin Islands, West Indies, of a Quaker family, of 
Cheshire origin. He was one of the most successful of the long roll of Quaker 
physicians. He was not a rigid Quaker, being, to use his own words, " a volatile Creole, 3 
in his nature and essence unchangeable " ; but he always attended worship, and 
retained the Quaker dress even in the presence of Eoyalty. He was a man of warm 
heart, active benevolence, and so much perseverance and practical skill as to secure him 
a very large practice, but although obtaining a considerable income of several thousands, 
his great munificence, and still more, his lavish expenditure, kept him in continual 
pecuniary difficulties, so that (as he him3elf explains) constant occupation became a 
necessity, and for 19 years he never took a holiday. A voluminous writer and 
correspondent on the most varied subjects, — medical, scientific, popular, and 
philanthropic— his literary activity was the more remarkable because most of his works, 
as well as his private letters, were written in his carriage while driving about to see his 
patients. His practice was carried on at Sambrook Court, Basinghall Street. Boswell, 
a frequent guest of the Doctor, commemorated him in an Horatian Ode, three verses 
of which run as follows : — 

Methinks you laugh to hear but half, 

The name of Dr. Lkttsom : 
From him of good — -talk, liquors, food, — 

His guests will always get some. 

1 Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the late John Coakley Lettsom, by Thomas Joseph 
Pettigrevv, F.R.C.S., Surgeon Extraordinary to their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Kent and Sussex, 
etc., 1817. 

2 Creole, i.e., a native of Spanish America or the West Indies descended from European ancestors. 
Dr. Lettsotn is described as bsiug in appearance "of a tali delicate extenuated structure ; his face was 
very strongly furrowed, aul his skin was of a dark yellow tint." 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 151 

And guests Las lie, in ev'ry degree, 

Of decent estimation ; 
His liberal mind holds all mankind 

As an extended Nation. 

West India bred, warm heart, cool head, 

The City's first Physician : 
By schemes humane,— Want, Sickness, Pain, 

To aid is his ambition. 

Of his acquirement of the Grove Hill property at Camberwell, we have read his own 
account, and the headings of Brother Maurice's poem give some idea of the quaint pedantry 
of the arrangement of the grounds of what the owner styled his " Tusculum." The house 
itself is described in a note to the poem as " a plain structure, consisting of six rooms 
" on the ground floor, and of four on each above ; the front is ornamented with three 
" emblematic figures, in alto relievo, cast in artificial stone," representing Liberality, 
Plenty, and Flora. Outside the Library or "Western wing were panels of sculpture 
representing the seasons; on the East wing appeared the emblems of the Arts, 
Commerce, Peace and Plenty, Woollen Manufacture, the Sovereignty of the Laws, 
Truth unveiling herself, and Prudence with a mirror. In the centre between the 
wings is a tablet, on which the great pyramid of Egypt appears at a distance, and 
forms the background, which is skirted by a palm. The principal figure is the Isis of 
Sais, or Nature, and on each side is a sphinx, emblematic of mystery; under the Isis 
is a serpent representing eternity, in a circular form, including the following 
inscription : — 



" signifying — ' I am whatever is, or has been, and will be ; and no mortal has hitherto 
" drawn aside my veil.' " It was under Dr. Lettsom's auspices that the same 
emblematical figures and inscription were placed over the door of the house in Bolt 
Court, Fleet Street (then the headquarters of the Medical Society of London), where 
it still is to be seen. Amongst his many avocations our Brother was Founder, with 
others, of the General Dispensary in Aldersgate Street (1770), the first of its kind in 
London ; assisted Dr. Hawes in founding the Royal Humane Society (1774) ; one of 
the original founders of the Medical Society of London ; an ardent supporter of Dr. 
Jenner, in the introduction of vaccination ; and interested in the introduction 
in 1786, of the cultivation of mangel-wurzel in this country. Dr. Lettsom 
passed away after a brief illness on Nov. 1st, 1815. I have been disappointed of finding 
any definite Masonic matter amongst the published correspondence of Dr. Lettsom, the 
nearest approach, so far, being an interesting letter from Dr. Zimmerman, first 
Physician to the King of England at Hanover. Preston's Illustrations of Masonry 
refers to this personage at considerable length in connection with the rise of the 
so-called Illuminati of Bavaria, a philosophical party in Germany and France, who were 
accused of fostering all manner of revolutionary ideas in religion and politics, and 
associating themselves under the cloak of a spurious Freemasonry, for purposes 
subversive of Christianity and all constituted authority. This organisation was 

152 Transactions of the ()uatiwr t'oronati Lodge. 

suppressed by the Elector of Bavaria in 178-4. Zimmerman took a leading part in 
striving- to counteract tins movement, but eventually the stress of the controversy 
completely wrecked the unfortunate Doctor's nerves and even affected his mind. He 
died the victim of his morbid hallucinations, in October, 1795. Zimmerman's letter 
to Dr. Lettsom is dated from Hanover, May 27th, 1794, and written in French ; I quote 
from a translation :— The letter refers to medical subjects, his melancholy disposition, 
" tormented by a thousand nervous affections," for which he has tried various forms of 
relaxation and occupation. He confides in his friend "that I have been very 
" unfortunate in the translators of my works, and that there does not exist a more 
" dreadful torment to me and my poor nerves, than when people tell me that they wish to 
" translate them ; or when they speak of the translations which have leen made of my works 
" or when I am obliged to speak of them .... terror seizes me when I am told by 
"people that they are desirous of reprinting, and even correcting, these abominable 
" translations. My works have been translated into all the European languages ; 
"... and I wonld much rather not have had a line translated into any language 
"whatever." He instances "my 'Essay on National Pride,' translated (which is a 
"lie) from the German of Dr. Zimmerman, London, printed for J. Walker and 
"Heydinger, 1771." The translator has inserted his own ideas, "he has crammed the 
"text with Latin and English verses, not one of which appears in my work. . . has 
"made me appear throughout the work like a, fool. . . Such a translator is not only a 
"dunce, but he is an impostor." Mr. Mercier has translated his work on Solitude, 
omitting " all that might displease the Romish Church— all the details of ecclesiastical 
" history put into the crucible of philosophy ; precisely that which has caused my 
" work to succeed. . . . The French translation of the ' Essay on National 
"Pride' (1769), is the work of a French Abbe, who knew nothing of German, and 
" was, in the strict sense of the words, an Idiot and a Fool." 

I have no record of the Masonic Lodge to which Dr. Lettsom belonged, but the 
name of his second son— Samuel Fothergill Lettsom, of Camberwell, appears on the 
roll of Shakespear Lodge, as initiated in 1801. 

I must now introduce the character who is the most interesting of the group 
from the standpoint of Masonry, General Charles Rainsford, of whom Brother Downing 
wrote, "though a peculiar man in some of his speculations, is an ingenious and a worthy 
man." His name has already appeared in the pages of A.Q.G., in connection with the 
paper on The Good Samaritans, or Ark Masons (XXIV., 81). 

Some thirty-six volumes of MSS. purchased by the British Museum in I860, 1 
afford considerable information as to his life and pursuits. There are many volumes 
referring to military service and correspondence with Lord Amherst ; the Duke and 
Duchess of Northumberland ; the Duke of Gloucester ; etc., but our special interest lies 
in the autobiographical notes, in the General's own handwriting, entitled— Progression 
of General Charles Bainsford's Bank in the Army, from 1744 to 1795 ; Miscellaneous 
papers relating to Freemasonry, Magnetism, etc., 1783-1796; and a few letters among 
the general correspondence. 

Charles Rainsford was born February, 1728. At the age of 17 ho joined the 
Army as a second Cornet, in General Bland's Regiment of Dragcons, then serving in 
Flanders under the command of Colonel Honeywood. Under 1745 the notes proceed :— 

H.R. Hfs. The Duke of Cumberland, being appointed to the 
command of the Allied Army in Flanders, composed of English, Dutch, 

* Additional MSS., 23644-80, 

Ars Qtjattjor Coronatorum, 



3> _l 


"S3 * 









p 00 

o >> 

h s 

5 s 

"a s 


O to 

£> = 
60 - 

be £ 

a s 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century 153 

and some Hanoverian Troops & iliey took the field early, & on the 
30th April, attackd the French Army at the Village of Fontenoy, near 
the Hois de Barry, & not a great way from Tournay, the Result & 
Detail of which Battle is very well known, & had the Dutch troops done 
their Duty the Event of the Battle which is well known, would in all 
Probability have had a different Result in Favour of the Allies. The 
Cornet was on Duty the whole Day before with some advanced Squadrons 
and carried the Standard ; and the next Day no elder Officer of the Rank 
demanding it of him, he carried it during the whole Action, from four in 
the Morning till two in the Afternoon, & he escaped totally unhurt after 
many dangerous Risks — Among Others, being exposed to the Fire of 
a Redout near the Bois de Barry. He observed a Cannon shot that had 
ricocheed in a direct Line before him, & just as [it] lighted on the Horses 
Head, of Capt. Wade who covered The Cornet in the Front Rank, He 
being in the Centre Rank, & stooping very low to avoid it he felt the 
Wind of the Shot in passing over Him, & upon raising Himself He saw the 
Captain on the Ground under his Horse, which was killed. The Captain 
narrowly escaping by inclining, & the Dragoon behind the Cornet in 
the Rear Rank, not observing the shot, had received it in his Body & was 

dead when the Cornet rose again The next Day being 

the 1st of May, while the Cornet was sitting at his Tent Door ruminating 
upon past Events Lieut.-Colo: Honey wood came up to him on Horseback 
& ordered him to mount his Horse immediately & accompany him to 
Head Quarters to kiss H.R. Hfs. the Duke of Cumberland's Hand being 
appointed an Ensign in the Coldstream or 2d Regimt of Foot Guards. — 
He was of course much surprized but obey'd the orders. 

He was duly presented and ordered to pitch his tent with his new regiment. 

The simple modesty of the account gives so charming a picture of the. 
man that I must complete the story in the General's own words: — 

He obeyed as soon as possible, & from a Second Cornet in the 
morning became an Ensign of Foot in the Evening ; highly to his satisfaction, 
& most unexpectedly. As this may seem a singular event, it is necessary 
to observe that The Guards had lost many Officers in the Action and that 
Lt.-Colo : Honey wood being at Head Quarters had met with Lord 
Albermarle [Col. of the Coldstreams], . . . & being asked . . . 
if he knew an active young Man He could recommend to Him for an 
Ensigncy. . . . The Colonel was so good as to mention the Cornet, 
which produced what has been related. 

The Guards were shortly after ordered to return to England owing to the Rebellion 

in Scotland, they 

arrived safe in London, where Ensign R. found several of his Friends, & 
remained there doing Duty till the year 1751, & passed his Time 
very comfortably. 

Meanwhile Lord Albermarle died, and was succeeded as Colonel by Lord Tyrawly, 
to whom Rainsford, now Captain, was " strongly recommended by His Good Friend 
the Countess of Rochford," and being appointed General upon the staff and, in 1758, 
Governor of Gibraltar, took the Captain with him as Private Secretary. He was 

154 Transactions of the Quatunr Poronati Lodge. 

also employed at Gibraltar in the " Engineer Branch." Capt. Rainsford got his 
company in 1761 and served with the Battalion under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, 
in Germany, distinguishing himself by volunteering for special service in preparing the 
town of Lippestadt against a threatened siege which the defeat of the French at the 
battle of Wilhelmstadt rendered, after all, unnecessary. Colonel Rainsford accom- 
panied Lord Tyrawly as his aide de camp to Portugal and stayed on, serving there 
as Brigadier General and Chief Engineer, until in 1763 he was ordered home. 

second Major to the Regt. of Guards he was in, [he was] not long after 
this chosen Member of Parliament for Maiden, in Essex, by the Influence 
of his very esteemed Friend The Earl of Rochford, & after continuing 
there that Session He was chosen for Bere Alston, in Cornwall, & 
afterwards for Launceston, thro' the Interest of His Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland & His Brother Lord , and continued 3 

Sessions in Parliament thro' their Friendship & interest. 

During this time Col. Rainsford was engaged in raising the 09th Regiment of Infantry. 
In 1777 appointed Aide de Gamp to the King and Major General ; in 1780, at the iime 
of the Gordon Riots, he was in command of troops in Hyde Park and at Blackheath ; 
in 1781, in command at Harwich, and later — Commissary General to inspect the 
troops hired in Germany, and Col. of the 44th Regt. of Foot. In December, 1782, 
General Rainsford was despatched on a delicate mission owing to a dispute between 
General Murray, the Governor of the Island of Minorca, and Sir William Draper, but 
embarking at Leghorn the ship was driven on to the Barbary coast, and he reached 
Algiers only to learn that Minorca had capitulated. From 1782 till 1793, General 
Rainsford records himself as having " remained quiet." At the latter date he was 
sent to Gibraltar as Second-in-Command, when circumstances so fell out that — 
owing to the death of Sir Robert Boyd — the Command of the Garrison devolved on 
him. Meanwhile his appointment as Governor of Chester had been succeeded by the 
Command of Tynemouth, and on his return home in 1795, he was appointed General 
of Infantry, since which, " he remain'd totally unemployed." It is a pleasant 
characteristic of our distinguished Brother that he is always so ready to acknow- 
ledge his indebtedness to his patrons. The Memoir draws to an end with the 
following passage : — 

He had been chiefly indebted to His very Good Friend Lord 
Amherst who commanded The Army, nor must Mr. Morse, His Lordship's 
Secretary, be forgotten, who on all occasions had shown himself The 
Generals very good firm Friend & the General being now of an 
advanced Age near 70 Years He was very fully satisfied to remain quiet 
after such various Circumstances of Service in Several Parts of Europe, 
■ & remained in full Hopes of going down the Remainder of the Hill of 
Life in Comfort & Ease, under his own Roof & enjoying the Society of 
his Family & Friends & by strictly observing His Duty to God & his 
Neighbour to go when called upon to those Regions of Eternity assigned 
to Those it shall please God to approve of for that glad Purpose. 

General Rainsford was twice married. He died at his house, in Soho Square, 
May 24th, 1809, and was buried in a vault in the Chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula, in 
the Tower of London. 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 155 

The narrative of the Biographical notes concluded with my last quotation ; 
but over the page the General added the following Memorandum : — 

Singular Avocations of General Rainsford 1794 

1. C. R. Lieut General of H. M>' s . Forces upon the Brittish Staff 

2. Colonel of the 44 th Reg' of Foot, or East Eisex Regim'. 

3. Governor of the Town & Castle of Chester 

A. Commander in Chief of the Garrison of Gibraltar 

5. Member of the Brittish Parliament 

6. Fellow of the R. Society F.R.S. 

7. D° of the Antiquarian F.A.S. 

8. Member of the Society for making Discoveries in Africa. 

9. Member of the Society for helping the Poor. 

10. Member of the Exergetic 1 Society at Stockholm — Duke of 

Sudermania President. 

11. R .-. Cru T1£ a Rosi Crucian Order 

12. Of the Orient Order at Paris | | 

13. Of The [AR] of AR at D°. 

14. Of The Order of E .\ B .-. at D°. [Tb] 

15. D°. — of E at Lyons | E | 

16. D°. — of r~A~l at Avignon 

17. j>. _ of S at Strasbourg | S | 

18 D°. — of P. at Philadelphia [~P~~1 

19 Inspector of All ^ tl Lodges Universally & Member of 32 

Elevations to 7 th Degree exclusive 

20. Grand | L | at London 

21 . Of the mixed Order of Mopses QT] [na] Noahs Ark, & Adoption [AJ 

We have already followed the account of General Rainsford's distinguished 
professional career here briefly recapitulated ; we see him a member of learned and 
philanthropic Societies, whilst his private correspondence bears many records of his 
kind and charitable disposition, and we now come to the record of his Masonic 

Brother Rainsford was evidently a zealous student at a time when Continental 
Freemasonry was a prey to the introduction of countless novelties in Rites of high- 
sounding titles, and Systems Philosophical and very much the reverse, "innovations" 
which, as Brother Oliver wrote, " covered pure Masonry with disgrace." The objects 
of Masonry were confused by the introduction of political aims, as in the case of the 
Illuminati ; the propagation of theories of natural forces, chemistry, alchemy and the 
magnetic system of Mesmer ; of the supernatural, such as Eastern Theosophy and 
Swedenborgianism, affording a fruitful field for the exploitation of the charlatanism of 
Cagliostro and other adventurers. 

1 This word is doubtful. Probably Exegetic was intended. 

156 Transactions of the Qaatuor Goronati Lodge. 

The Rainsford MSS. at the British Museum furnish a key to some of the 
"avocations" enumerated, but beyond their illustration of the General's Masonic 
career I must not now attempt to consider them. On some future occasion I hope to 
bring forward further information on points on which these interesting, but by no 
means voluminous, papers may throw some light. For the present I append to 
these notes a brief list of the contents of the vol. 23,675. 

The Brethren of the Lodge Des Amis Beunis, under the Grand Orient of France, 
of which our Brother was a member, took an active part in the Masonic research of 
the period, and were members of many of the kindred Societies. Brother Woodford 
writes that, founded in 1772, this Lodge " was for a long time distinguished by its 
members and the high intellectual character it sought to maintain." In 1775, under 
the Mastership of Savalette de Langes, a Council of Philalethes, Philaletes, or 
Ghercheurs de la Verite was formed amongst the members of the Lodge. When 
organized it became a system of twelve "Chambers of Adoption" or grades:— 1, 
Apprenti ; 2, Compagnon ; 3, Maitre ; 4, Elu ; 5, Maitre Ecossais ; 6, Chevalier de 
V Orient; 7, Chevalier Bose Croix; 8, Chevalier du Temple ; 9, Philosophe Inconnu ; 10, 
Philosophe Sublime ; 11, fnitie ; 12, Philalete. Brother Woodford adds :—" It seems to 
have been based on Martinism and Swedenborgianism, at first to have had some slight 
success, but to have expired about 1790." Savalette de Langes was its leading spirit. 
It was under the auspices of the " Philalethes " that the gathering styled the " Convent 
of Paris " was convoked and met February 15th, 1785. This Masonic congress " seems 
to have sat until the end of April or beginning of May that year. It was 
numerously and influentially attended by French and German Masons, and a few 
English, among whom may be cited — be they who they may have been — Bousie 
(London), Brooks (London), Heseltine (London), Maubach (London), Reinsfort 
(London), said to be an English General. We may observe that they are mostly, if 
not entirely, of the high grades. The second convent was assembled in 1787, as a 
continuation of the former; but" says Woodford, "nothing practical 
resulted from these lengthy deliberations." We here recognize Rainsford's name 

It appears from the Rainsford papers that the Lodge E/.B.'., Echarpes Blanches 
(White Sashes), which is designated by the initials placed within the Lodge " Amis 
Reunis " thus : — J- E.B -\ entered into correspondence with the German-speaking 

Lodge der Filyer at Freemasons' Hall, London, Bros. William Bousie and General 
Rainsford being the intermediaries. A series of questions on Masonic subjects were 
propounded, evidently with a view to the discussions of the Convent, to which the 
Pilgrim Lodge replied on July 18th, 1783. More questions followed in 1784. Among 
the signatures to these papers occur those of Savalette de Langes, as member of the 
Council of the " Philalethes " and archivist of the Amis Rt'unis, of Sainte de James and 
the Marquis de Chef de Bien, all holding the 12th degree. Sainte de James was 
afterwards a supporter of Cagliostro, and the Marquis, who was French Secretary of 
the Convent, was also a member of the Primitive Rite or " Philadelphes "of Narbonne, 
an order which, in 1784, executed a concordat with the Philalethes on account of the 
similarity of their objects, which were stated as the Reformation of Intellectual Man, 
and his restoration to his Primitive Rank of Purity and Perfection. 

There is also among the correspondence a letter from de Langes relating to the 
Convent in 1786, and letters from William Bousie (1783), John Brooks (1785), and 
Maubach (1784), so that all the names of the English Representatives appear except 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 157 

Heseltine, whom no doubt we may identify as the Grand Secretary of the 
Moderns at that time, who we know was interested in the high grades. 

How's Freemasons' Manual, p. 387, states with reference to the Rite of 
Philalethes that " an attempt to revive a rite bearing this name was at one time made 
in London," hut it does not appear at what date. I would hazard the suggestion that 
we are dealing with one such occasion, and that it is very probable that the Lodge 
which Brothers Rainsford and Downing wished to establish in London in 1797 for 
research and not conviviality was intended to be on the lines of the " Philalethes." T 
understand that there exists at present in Paris an order of Philalete Knights, but 
whether they can show any connection beyond their title with the organisation of the 
eighteenth century I do not know. 

With regard to the Orders at Lyons, Avignon, Strasbourg, and Philadelphia, a 
little consideration of the various systems then in vogue affords a very near, if not 
absolutely certain, identification. Pernetti, originally a Benedictine Abbot, founded 
about 1770 his Hermetic Rite, a Rosicrucian Order, more an Alchemical than a Masonic 
Society, having for its objects symbolic instruction in the art of transmuting metals 
and preparing the elixir of life, from which was evolved the more strictly Masonic 
Order of the Philosophic Scotch Rite. Court de Gebelin, a founder of the 
Philalethes, took a leading part in this Order in 1777. In this connection we note 
Brother Rainsford's membership of a Rosicrucian Order at Paris, a letter referring to 
Alchemy (Sept. 24th, 1785), where he adds the cypher of that Order to his name and 
the particulars in his own handwriting of " Alchymical processes, commanieated to 
him, at Rome, 1772, by Gasparo Landi." - 

Martinism or the Rite of St. Martin (Marquis de), founded at Lyons 1770-1775, 
was an adaptation of Pasqualis' Rite of " Elected Cohens," which dealt with Eastern 
Theosophy. It spread through France and Germany, and even to Russia. 

Avignon was the headquarters of several Hermetic Orders, and it was there that 
the Rite of " Illumines of Avignon" was started by Pernetti and Count Grabianka, a 
follower of Swedenborg. From this system the Marquis de Thome framed his 
Swedenborgian Rite in 1783, and the name of Benedict Chastanier is also connected 
with it, he having introduced an adaptation of Pernetti's system, which he called 
" The Illuminated Theosophists," at Paris, which he brought, in 1767, to London, 
where he was long identified with Swedenborgian propaganda. 

What appears among the " Avocations ". as the Exergetic Society at Stockholm, 
suggests a kindred if not the same body, the title of which was the Exegetique et 
Philanthropique Societe, founded there in 1787, which included magnetism and 
Swedenboigianism in its researches. 

"P. of Philadelphia" is probably a fictitious name, such as it was usual to 
confer on places which were the seats of Chapters of some of the high grades, possibly 
it denotes the " Pliiladelplies " of Narbonne. 

Cagliostro is said to have opened the first Lodge of his spurious " Egyptian 
Masonry " at Strasburg in 1779, where he was under the protection of the Archbishop, 
Cardinal de Rohan. In 178 1 he opened a " Mother Lodge " of his Rite, La Sagesse 
Triomphaute, at Lyons, and was very active in Paris in 1 784-5, when in this connection 
Brother Woodford says a Lodge of Les Philalethes is said to have been held at the 
Cardinal's Palace. It was at this time that Cagliostro made the acquaintance of 
Mesmer. Mesmer's Staluts de la Societe Harmouique des Amis Iteunis, published in 
1786, suggest by the title of his organisation some connection with the Lodge Amis 

158 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

I find that there was a Lodge Des Amis Reunis in London from 1793 to 1799, 
when it was merged in the Loye L' ' Esperance, the Lodge in which Cagliostro is said to 
have been initiated in 1772. 

The Rainsford MSS. contain papers relating to Count Grabianka and 
Swedenborgian propaganda; — letters from Chastanier (1785-1802), who mentions an 
impending visit of the Marquis de Thome ; — particulars of the Illumines at Paris ; — 
particulars of magnetic healing ;— a list of books relating to Mesmer ;— alchemical notes, 
etc., all showing General Rainsford's interest in these movements. 

I have not been able to find any record of Brother Rainsford as a Grand 
Officer of the Grand Lodge of England. A letter dated September 24th, 1785, 
referring to alchemy, bears his signature, followed by the symbols T_Lj x'-X 

indicating Membership of the Royal Arch and of a Rosicrucian Order, to which I have 
already referred. He was proposed for exaltation in a Royal Arch Chapter held at 
Freemasons' Hall, London, on November 12th, 1784. A letter from John Brooks (who 
appends the R.A. symbol to his name) invites the General to " the Hall" for the annual 
Election Meeting, on Wednesday, January 12th, 1785, when there will also be 
"exaltations." Two printed forms of summons, dated March 3rd, 1792, and February 
11th, 1793, are from the Grand Chapter of the Order of Harodim to General Rainsford. 
Commencing " Excellent Companion" they invite his attendance at Freemasons' Hall, 
the Meetings being in the " Second Class," the business on both occasions being " The 
Public Lecture " and the Secretary " T. Harper" ; on the latter date the Secretary was 
" Stephen Jones." On the first summons are notices of a Meeting of the Council oi 
Harodim at which initiations will take place, and of a Meeting of the Harodim 
Lodge (Raising). On the second summons, "Such Companions as are not of 
"the Skcond Class are requested to attend the Meeting of the Council for the Purpose of 
" Initiation." These refer to the Grand Chapter of Harodim, which Brother Preston 
informs us was opened in London, in January, 1787. 

There was a "Royal York Lodge of Perseverance" connected with the 
Coldstream Guards, 1793-1821, with which General Rainsford might well have been 
connected, but I think we can certainly detect his influence in the case of the " Rainsford 
" Lodge No. 18., Provincial, 44 Ul . Regiment, Quebec." constituted in 1784, for although 
ho does not appear to have gone to America himself, he was appointed Colonel of that 
Regiment in 1781. 

The recent paper by Brother E. L. Hawkins, on Adoptive Masonry and the Order 
of the Mopses (A.Q.C. xxiv., 6) has given us some-particulars of one of the General's 
" Avocations" from one standpoint, but the account quoted by our Brother is probably, 
like other Masonic exposures, hardly a friendly one, and does not, we may well believe, 
show those orders at their best. 

In his membership of "Noah's Ark" we come across the intimacy with Brother 
Ebenezer Sibly, with which Brother Brookhouse, in his paper relating to that Order 
(A.Q.C. xxiv., 81) has already made us acquainted. Besides the letter addressed 
to General Rainsford by Dr. Sibly, I find among the MSS. a summons addressed to Dr. 
Sibly from the 

" Chapter of Observance of the Royal Order of H.R.D.M.K.D.S.H. 
Palestine, 1st & Hud Column of the Seven Degrees, in. v. vu. ix lxxxi. 


Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 1S9 

The Chapter was to meet at the " Surry Tavern, Surry Street, Strand," on 
Wednesday, Dec. 21 st , 1796, for "Installations" the Secretary being " B. Cooper." 

A list of books, jewels, etc., belonging to the late " B r . Peter Lanbert De Lintot" 
bears the insignia of the Lodge of S fc . George " De L'Observance " "of all Degrees of 
Masonry VII ." Brother Yarker has thrown some light on de Lintot (A.Q.G. xvi., 160, 
and xvii., 88), but I must not now pause to say more than that perhaps it was 
because de Lintot appears to have controlled the "VII , that that degree is specially 
excepted from Brother Rainsford's Inspectorship of all Lodges, No. 19 of the 

Here I must leave General Rainsford for the present, to add a few words, in con- 
clusion, about the only name yet unmentioned of those which occur in Bro. Downing's 
letter. He refers to the impending visit of "Jones of Nayland," and wishes to know 
if Bro. Maurice would like the opportunity of being introduced to him. The Rev. 
William Jones (172C-1800) incumbent of Nayland in Suffolk, was one of the most 
prominent Churchmen of his day. Canon Overton writes of him {Diet. Nat. Biog.) : — ■ 

He represented the School . . . which formed the link between the 
Non-jurors and the later Oxford School. His leaning to the 
Hutchinsonians led him into some scientific errors but did not injure his 
orthodoxy. It gave him a more spiritual tone than was common in his 
day, and deepened his attachment to Holy Scripture. 

His principal work was The Grand Analogy ; or the Testimony of Nature and Heathen 
Antiquity to the Truth of a Trinity in Unity (1793), of which it is said that he propounded 
" a singularly ingenious but rather fanciful theory." Whether he was a Mason I 
cannot tell, but the name " Hutchinsonian," to which school of thought he was 
attached, raises the question whether good Bro. William Hutchinson (1732-1814), 
author of The Spirit of Masonry (1775), can have been any relation of John 
Hutchinson, the originator of these ideas. John Hutchinson (1674-1737) was a writer 
on Biblical subjects. He claimed to have found in Holy Writ a number of original 
and symbolical meanings, but his scholarship appears to have been rather doubtful 
Amongst his collected works in xii. volumes, 1748, No. ix. is " Glory mechanical . . . 
" with a Treatise on the columns before the Temple." 

Brief particulars of Add. MSS. 23,675, "Miscellaneous Papers of General 
Rainsford relating to Freemasonry and Magnetism ; 18th July, 1783 — 15th December 
1796," extracted by Brother Gordon P. G. Hills. March 1912. 

Lodge Certificate, Bro.'. Saur of " l'lmmortalite de l'Ordre," London. 

15th June, 1768 
Lodge diagram (high grade) ... 
Particulars of Members, etc., of Lodge l'lmmortalite de l'Ordre, 

Alchemical Notes 
Letter from Pilgrim Lodge, London, to Echarpes Blanches Lodge, 

Paris. 18th July, 1783 
Questions from the Lodge TS.'.B.'. 

do. do. 28th January, 1784 ... 

List of Lodges under Grand National Mother Lodge of Holland. 

Latest date, 1783 .,. ... ... ... ... 19-20 

f. 1 







160 Transactions of the Quaiuor f'oronati Lodge. 

New Jerusalemists (Swcdcnborgians) propaganda. 25th November, 

178<'> ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21-22 

List of 23 Corresponding' Societies (?) ... ... ... ... 23 

Copy of Letter and Translation — Count Grabianka and others — to 
the Children of the New Kingdom at London. Written at 
Avignon 12th February, 1787 ... ... ... ... 24 & 2G-27 

Particulars in French of Masonic regulations, (?) byelaws ; writing 

very like folios 3-4 ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Particulars of the Visions of Maid Margaret in the house of Ralph 
Hodgson, West Auckland, October, 1788. Copy of letter from 
Strasburg, same writing, and further correspondence. She 
foretold the speedy end of the world ... ... .. 28-32 

Account of an Operation performed at Paris by one of the Society of 

Illumines ... ... .. ... ... ... 33-34 

Fragment of Account of Magnetic Healing, Dr. Beikers, Bremen .., 35-36 

Copy of letter (and translation) from a member of a High Society of 
Learned Men at St. Petersburg. 15th September, 1798. — (? a 
Martinist, it is in the terms of the Zendavesta) ... ... 37-40 

Letter referring to des E.B., Bousie and the Convent ... ... 41-42 

A Masonic Charge on Initiation ... ... ... ... 43-45 

Summons, Order of Harodim. 3rd March, 1792... ... ... 4G-47 

do. do. 11th February, 1793 ... ... 48-49 

Inventory of MSS., drawings, jewels, etc., of the late Bro. Peter 
Lanbert de Lintot, engraved heading of Lodge of St. George 
De L'Observance ... ... ... ... ... 50-51 

List of German Works on Freemasonry about 1781-1788 ... ... 52-53 

List of Magnetic Works : — Reports of French Royal Commissioners 
on Animal Magnetism, names of publications of Mesmer, etc., 
about 1781-1787 ... ... ... ... ... 54-55 

Proposals for Printing Works of Swedenborg ... ... ... 5(5-57 

Summons, Chapter of Observance of the Royal Order of H.R.D.M., 

&c, to Dr. Sibley, 21st December, 1796 ... ... ... 58-59 

Letter, asking General Rainsford for assistance, in French, except 
the words to the Smallest Donation, and Strength, Beauty, 
Wisdom ... ... ... ... ... ... 60-61 

Bro. Simpson said : — 

I rise to move a vote of thanks to the Brother who has so kindly given us this 
paper. It is a paper which is very difficult to criticise, and I propose merely to make 
one or two general remarks on it. It is always pleasant to revive the faces and the 
personalities of the past, although they be but actors and shadows of a period long 
finished and forgotten, and I think probably the best way of reviving such personalities 
has been taken by our Brother Hills. In my opinion there is nothing like the private 
letters of persons to bring before us distinctly their personalities and individual 
characters. Of course, there have been in our history great and distinguished letter- 
writers, but it is not letter-writers such as Horace Walpole and Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu who bring their personalities before us, so much as the obscure and private 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of the Eighteenth Century. 161 

person. I have a sluewd suspicion that those great letter-writers knew that their 
letters were not to be merely for the actual recipients, but were for the world at large. 
But here, in the correspondence which lias been brought before us to-night, we have 
letters written which neither the writers nor the recipients had the remotest idea 
would, more than one hundred years later, be of interest to the brethren here. The 
dry bones, as it were, become clothed, and we have brought before us the little coterie 
of friends of more than one hundred years ago. Bro. Hills said that he had no wish to 
weary us with more of these letters. Personally, I should have liked to hear more of 
them, and, indeed, should have preferred them greatly to dates and facts from any 
Dictionary of Biography whatsoever. Bro. Hills has interested us in four people 
characteristic of the time in which they lived. There is, first, George Downing, the 
kindly and acute lawyer; then there is the Rev. Thomas Maurice, learned, but, I am 
afraid, somewhat weak-minded, whose divers cures and posts might have distracted even 
a stronger mind than his ; then there is Dr. Lettsom— and very pleasant it is to read his 
letters, and to number him among our fraternity, for here we have a character of a 
true and great Mason, an ornament of a great profession, which has placed many 
distinguished members amidst our Order. Lastly we have General Kainsford, a 
gallant, but, I fear, a somewhat eccentric soldier, and a very, very speculative Mason. 
You have heard some of his degrees and societies. Our Brother has, perhaps discreetly, 
avoided giving you the whole of them to-night; but the number of degrees and 
societies to which the General belonged is something almost appalling. But where are 
all these various Societies of the eighteenth century ? They have all vanished; they 
are, as it were, only ripples on the sands of time under the shadow of the eternal Rock 
of true Freemasonry. 

Dr. Wm. Wyxn Westcott sent a copy of the " Plan and Regulations of the 
Grand Chapter of the Order of Harodim instituted at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street, 
January 4, 1787, and removed to Free Masons Tavern, Great Queen Street, October 
21, 1790." Printed in London, 1791. With this tract is bound up also " The Bye- 
Laws of the Harodim Lodge constituted by Warrant from the Grand Lodge of England ; 
dated March 25, 1790." These Bye-Laws were read and approved December 9th, 
1790 -they bear no Secretary's name. The former tract of the "Chapter of 
Harodim " is signed " William Loggin, Secretary." 

This " Harodim Chapter " does not appear to have been related to Royal Arch 
Masonry in any way, and had not Three Principals. It was managed by the Chief 
Harod, Assistant Rulers, a General Director, and Members of Council. The work of 
the Chapter was to deliver and to hear " Lectures which included every branch of the 
Masonic System and so to represent the Art of Masonry in a finished and complete 
form." The Plan states "The Order of Harodim is totally independent, being 
established on its own basis, and as a Chapter is no otherwise connected even with the 
Society of Free Masons, than by having its members selected from that Fraternity. 
The Mysteries of the Order are peculiar to the Institution itself." The Lectures were 
given by specially selected Sectionists and Clause-holders. 

Clause ix. of the " Chapter of Harodim " (1790) is as follows :— That a Warrant 
of Constitution having been obtained from the Grand Lodge of Free Masons at the 
expense of this Chapter, to empower the Companions of the Order to meet as a regular 
Lodge of Masons, and discharge the Duties of Masonry separate and distinct from the 
Chapter, all monies received in the said Lodge shall be paid into the Chapter Fund. 

162 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Clause in. states that the " Chapter of Harodim " shall consist of five classes of 
Masons : Apprentices, Fellow-crafts, Master Masons, Masters and Past Masters of 
Lodges, and Royal Arch Masons. 

Observe that the newly-invented " Chapter of Harodim " preceded the warranted 

Harodim Lodge. 

The Officers and Councillors appear to have worn Robes and Jewels, but these 
are not described. Kenneth Mackenzie considered that the lectures of the " Chapter 
of Harodim " were the Masonic Lectures on the Tracing Boards, and led to Lodges of 

Bro. Dring said : — 

As the W.M. has remarked, it is rather difficult to criticise a paper of this kind. 
I have listened to it with great pleasure. It certainly is a clear light thrown on a 
little coterie of Freemasons at the end of the eighteenth century. I was much surprised 
to learn that Thomas Maurice was a Mason. He was a man of whom I cannot say that 
I entertain a very great amount of regard. I have been intimately acquainted with 
his works for the last thirty-five years, and I was really surprised to find him com- 
plaining that his Indian Antiquities did not pay him, because, as a matter of fact, that 
book happens to be one of the most popular books of that kind that was ever printed, 
and thousands of copies must have been sold. It is really absolutely nothing less 
than a compilation of other people's writings. There were from 1780 to 1795 a large 
number of books published on Mythology and kindred subjects, and I think you will 
find that Maurice's Indian Antiquities is nothing more than a rechauffee of all these. 
The references to the Eleusinian Mysteries were no doubt instigated by the appearance 
of Taylor's well-known book, The Eleusinian Mysteries, published about 1793-4, and 
that no doubt gave rise to this allusion or suggestion of tracing Freemasonry to these 
Mysteries. It is not the first time that theory has been suggested by many dozens of 
times. It is still one of the most popular suggestions of people who have not the 
slightest knowledge of classical mythology or Oriental legends, but try to trace the 
origin of Freemasonry to the Eleusinian rites. I am much afraid that the people who 
are trying to do this now are not much nearer the goal of their research than were 
their predecessors of more than one hundred years ago. 

Dr. S. Walshe Owen referred to the well-known epigrammatic verse on Dr. 
Lettsom, of which several variants have been published. 

Bro. W. B. Hextall writes: — 

The Bibliotheca Sussexiana (1827) and Egyptian Mummies (1834) were 
illustrated by George Cruikshank, and it is likely that one of them furnished occasion 
for Cruikshank's autograph, addressed to Mr. Pettigrew, which is exhibited to-night. 

Bro. Robert Cook, of Barking, D.Prov.G.M., Essex, under Dunckerley and 
Downing, is the subject of an obituary notice in the Gentleman's Magazine, lxx., 490. 
Dying at the age of 50, and described as " late an eminent surgeon " and an officer 
in the Barking and Ilford Volunteers, he was buried on May 4th, 1800, at Barking, 
with Masonic honours, Downing, Prov.G.M., his Officers, and upwards of 300 of the 
Craft attending. " After the funeral service, an affecting oration was delivered over 
the grave by brother James Asperne, Master of the St, Peter's Lodge, King's Head, 

Notes on some Masonic Personalities at the end of 'the Eighteenth Century. 1G3 

Walworth ; which was followed by an excellent exhortation from the [Provincial] 
Grand Master to the brethren, delivered with great feeling and effect." 

The letter from Bro. George Downing at the commencement of the paper 
mentions Jones, of Nayland, a well-known divine of his day. The privately-printed 
Biographical List of the Members of " The Club of Nobody's Friends," 1885, pp. 254, says 
that Downing was son of a Prebendary of Ely, an intimate friend of the Kev. William 
Jones, of Nayland, Suffolk, and of Dr. George Home, Bishop of Norwich, through 
whom he became acquainted with Mr. Stevens, founder of the Club. Downing, like 
his friend Maurice, was educated under Dr. Parr, and he was articled to an Attorney 
at Nayland, but practised in Lincoln's Inn as a conveyancer, eventually becoming a 
" Barrister of eminence on the Western Circuit." As an officer of the Light 
Horse Volunteers, he " acted gratuitously with happy effects at the time of the French 
Revolution. . . In an arduous service during a time of public alarm in 1800, he 
caught a cold which in a few days terminated in his death." He died October 9th, 
1800, aged 37, and was buried with military honours in St. Paul's Church, Covent 
Garden. The order of procession is given in the European Magazine, vol. 38, 319, 
and includes "Deceased's Horse, with black cloth, boots reversed, &c, and led by a 
Light Horse Volunteer (the Hon. Spencer Percival). . . the seventh Troop fired 
three vollies over the corpse (as expressed in the military order) to the memory of a 
worthy man." The same volume contains lines, " To the memory of George 
Downing Esq.," the earliest (and best) being, 

Ye who departed excellence revere, 

Approach, with silent step, this hallowed bier, 
That bears, to mingle with its native dust, 
A man supremely kind, and truly just ; 
Whose powers convivial made e'en sorrow gay, 
And gave to Mirth a more enlivening ray. 
Such Downisg was. Oh ! much lamented shade, 
Accept our homage to thy memory paid. 

" The Club of Nobody's Friends " was instituted in 1800 by and in honour of 
Mr. William Stevens, a warehouseman in the City, for nearly 30 years Treasurer of 
Queen Anne's Bounty, a man of literary ability, who edited the works of Jones of 
Nayland, and wrote his life: whilst Jones dedicated an edition of Bishop Home's 
works to his friend Stevens. Downing was a member of "Nobody's Club " only from 
June, 1800, to his death in October of the same year, but it may interest Essex brethren 
to know that William Wix, 1 who succeeded Downing as their Prov.G.M., was a member 
from 1818 to his death in 1846 ; and his brother the Rev. Samuel Wix, who, I believe, 
was. Prov.G. Chaplain, Essex, was a member from 1822 to his death in 1861. 

I assume Bro. Gordon Hills is satisfied that Dr. John Coakley Lettsom was of 
the Craft ; his name does not occur in a paper by Bro. R. F. Gould on The Medical 
Frofession and Freemasonry, at A.Q.G., vii., 153. The Biographical Dictionary of Living 
Authors (1816) attributes to Lettsom over thirty separate works between 1769 and 
1803 besides " a great variety of articles in various collections of a miscellaneous 
kind," and says, "Not long since by a decree of the Court of Chancery he has been 
put in possession of estates in Tortola worth, as it is said, £20,000 a year," and " he 
declined in favour with the Society of Friends some years before his death, owing to 

'Initiated in the Shakespeare Lodge, now No. 99, in 1795; Prov.G.M. Essex, 1801-1824; 
elected member of the Special Lodge of Promulgation, Nov. 21, 1809. A.Q.C., xvm, 113; xxm, 57. 

1(34 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

his want of conformity to all their peculiarities." Before this accession to fortune he 
had been compelled to part with his villa, library, etc., and he lived only a short time 
to enjoy renewed prosperity. An obituary notice of him in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
Ixx., 03 (1800) says, " The suavity of his manners, and the undeviating rectitude of 
his character, rendered him universally beloved, as he is now universally lamented, 
and prepared him to quit the society of friends for that of angels, to which his 
spotless mind was ever congenial." There is a well-known epigram on Dr. Lettsom, 
which I need hardly quote ; the following verses from an " Horation Ode to Charles 
Dilly," (the publisher), by James Boswell, the biographer of Dr. Johnson, may 
possess more novelty : — 

Yet we are gay in ev'ry way, 

Not minding where the joke lie ; 
On Saturday at bowls we play, 

At Camberwell with Goahley. 

Methinks you laugh to hear but half 

The name of Doctor Lettsom : 
From him of good— talk, liquors, food — , 

His guests will always get some. 

The praises of Grove Hill were also sung by John Scott, of Amwell, the Quaker 
poet, and there is an illustration of the house in Walford's Old and New London, 
vi., 282. It is gratifying to learn what there is relating to Masonry in General 
Eaiusford's MS. volumes in the British Museum, to which attention was called just a 
year ago (A.Q (.'., xxiv., 97). The " Rainsford Lodge in the 44th Regiment, Canada" 
existed as No. 467 and No. 378 in the lists of Regular Lodges from 1784 to 1813, when 

it was erased. 

I have collected some notes on William Hutchinson, author of The Spirit of 
Masonry, and do not think he was connected with John Hutchinson, whose " Hutchiu- 
sonian doctrines " were based on denial of Newton's theory of gravitation. Both 
Bishop Home and Jones of Nayland "distinguished themselves as the principal 
champions of the Hutchinson ian doctrines." {Gorton's Biographical Dictionary). 

Bra. Gordon Hills writes as follows in reply : — 

As was observed by the W.M. and Bro. Dring, the subject of my paper does not 
lend itself to criticism, so that little remains but for me tottiank the W.M. for the kindly 
appreciation of my efforts conveyed by his remarks, and Bros. Dr. Wynn Wescott, 
Dring, and Hextall for the interesting information which their notes add on several 
points, whilst I have also to thank Bros. Songhurst and Wonnacott for their valuable 
hints during the preparation of my paper. Bro. Wonnacott had drawn my attention 
to the particulars about the Grand Chapter of the Order of Harodim to which Dr. Wynn 
Westcott refers, and I am in hopes that more may be found out as to the aims of that 
body. Bro. Hextall's query as to Dr. Lettsom's masonic standing was replied to in 
Lodge, and a reference to Bro. Maurice's letter of February 28th, 1798, leaves no doubt 

on that point. 

Since writing the paper I have come across a reference in Mackenzie's L'oyal 
Masonic Oycloponlia to the effect that Cagliostro was connected with the Philalethes under 
the name of Count Grabianka. What grounds there may be for this assertion I do not- 
know but the suggestion is of interest in connection with the Rainsford MSS. 

Transactions of the Qtiatuor Goronati Lodge. 






VOL. I. 

Privately Printkd. 1911. 


W. WONNACOTT, J.D. 2076. 

HE History of the Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, which has been tagerly 
expected for many years by Masonic students and which it was hoped 
would throw much light on the doings of the Craft and on the Old 
Lodge of St. Paul's at the time of the so-called Revival, has at last 
appeared. The present handsome volume, the first instalment of the 
records, covering the period of the Lodge's history down to the 
end of 1779, the year of Preston's schism, has been produced under 
the extremely able editorship of Bro. W. H. Rylands, P.M. of No. 2 and of our own 
Lodge, No. 2076. 

Bro. Rylands has adopted for his work the modest title of "Records" of the 
Lodge of Antiquity : he makes no pretension to be the Lodge historian, for all through 
the work he carefully effaces himself, and allows the litera scripta to tell the plain and 
simple story of the Lodge in its own quaint manner, with but few remarks of his own 
and these only as signposts to lead the reader along the path of Masonic history, and 
permit him as he goes to draw his own inferences and conclusions. Never was historian 
less dogmatic, or more modest. But let me say at the outset two disappointments 
await the student : one is that this coveted volume will be found only on the shelves of 
the fortunate members of No. 2, or a few libraries which have been favoured with 
presentation copies, for it is privately printed and circulated : the other is that nothing 
authentic exists in the form of Lodge records anterior to 1736. This gap of nineteen 
years from the time of the formation of the first Grand Lodge, to the date when we 
find the earliest Lodge Minutes, has been skilfully dealt, with by the gifted editor, and 
its nakedness concealed, as far as possible, by excerpts from the records of Grand 
Lodge, and the first and second Books of Constitutions, by Anderson, but without 
relying on the latter as at all infallible. 

Of the four Lodges known to have been represented at the birth of the Mother 
Grand Lodge, though the anonymous author of Multa Faucis (which appeared in 1763 
or 1761) alleges six were present, the first has hitherto had no history writteD, and the 
early doings of the Lodge at the " Goose and Gridiron " are now revealed to the Craft 
for the first time. The second, at the " Crown " in Parker's Lane, said to have dated 
from 1712, died an early death, and is now almost forgotten : of the third, at the" Apple 
Tree Tavern " in Charles Street, Covent Garden, which in 1723 dropped to the eleventh 
place on the list, we have not much information beyond what is in Bro. R. F. Gould's 

166 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Four Old Lodges and his History of Freemasonry. The fourth, at the " Rummer and 
Grapes " in Channel Row, Westminster, was the aristocratic Lodge of the day, and its 
history is only known in the form of a pamphlet : we may, however, expect, at no 
distant date, a history of that Lodge, similar to the present volume, dealing with the 
records of the Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge JSo. 4 of 1717, and of the 
present enumeration. So that as none of the four original Lodges have hitherto 
published a record of their proceedings in the early times of the Grand Lodge, the 
appearance of the Antiquity records will be the more welcome. 

We are unable to say when the Lodge was first formed, although knowing of its 
existence prior to the events of 1717, under the alleged name of " the Old Lodge of St. 
Paul's," with which Sir Christopher Wren is traditionally said to have been 
connected while carrying out his masterpiece after the Great Fire of London. I may 
here note that there is in possession of the Lodge of Antiquity, and hanging in the 
room at Freemasons' Hall where our own Q.C. Lodge usually meets, a fine portrait of 
Wren, painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller. The label bears the legend : — " Grand Master 
1685 ". I will revert to this later. 

Before proceeding to consider in detail the story of the Lodge at the Goose and 
Gridiron, let me first draw attention to the compilation of the volume in which its story 
is related. It is in large quarto, of 407 pages, clearly printed and well bound, and 
abundantly illustrated with facsimile reproductions of the minutes and signature books 
at various periods. For frontispiece there is a charming reproduction of the heading 
of the roll of " Constitutions" known as the Antiquity MS. with its heraldic blazon in 
gold and colours. Another valuable illustration is a copy of a Lodge summons issued 
in 1760, when No. 1 was known by the name of the "West India and American 
Lodge " : while a third is a print from the original plate of the Lodge Certificate in 
1777, when it had adopted its last and best known title, Antiquity. 

Of the name of the Lodge we find no authentic reference in the records recently 
published to the title " The Old Lodge of St. Paul's," which seems to have been au 
appellation concocted by Anderson, followed by Preston, and appears in the latter's 
1775 edition of the Illustrations of Masonry. As was customary in the early years of 
the eighteenth century the Lodge had no number, and no name other than that of the 
tavern at which it met. Hence it came to be known as the Lodge at the " Goose and 
Gridiron," St. Paul's Churchyard, and was meeting there as late as 1724, and probably 
later, In the year 1737 at its new house, the " Queen's Arms," it is thus styled in the 
minutes : — " At a Meeting of the Lodge of y e Antient Goose and Gridiron held at the 
Queen's Arms in St. Paul's Churchyard." For many years after the first existing 
minute book commences, there is no name mentioned, the record of each meeting from 
1736 to 1759 being headed :— " At the Queen's Arms, St. Paul's Churchyard," or " At a 
meeting at the Queen's Arms." In some few instances the minutes and accounts of 
1745 and later are headed " Queen's Arms Lodge," and it is not until the influx of 
several new members, mostly merchants connected with the West Indies, and the 
consequent revision of the By Laws in 1759 that we find a distinctive title adopted, viz., 
" the West India and American Lodge late the Goose and Gridiron held at the Queen's 
Arms in St. Paul's Churchyard." The Lodge held its meetings at the last named 
tavern for many years. We know it was here somewhere about 1729 and continued to 
meet at the same place until 1768, with two exceptions. For a short time in 1734 it 
was at the " Paul's Head," in Ludgate Street, and in 1736 (from April to June) at the 
" Horn and Feathers," more commonly known as the " Horn," in Doctors' Commons. It 
was between June and September in the latter year that it returned to the King's (or 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 167 

Queen's) Arms, within a stone's throw of its first home. In November, 1768, the 
removal of the Lodge was again considered, one of the four taverns proposed for its 
new quarters being the " Goose and Gridiron," but " on a private ballot it was determined 
by a great majority of 8 to 5 to remove it to the Mitre, and the Same is removed 
accordingly." Its first meeting at the " Mitre Tavern " in Fleet Street was held on 23rd 
November, 1768, when the dates of meeting were also changed, and for the first time 
the present name of the Lodge appears, — " likewise our R.W.M. moved that the name of 
the Lodge might be altered, Bro. W m . Rigge proposed that the name of LODGE OF 
ANTIQUITY be given to the same, as also that the plate be altered immediately." 
In the month of January following, the minutes for the first time are headed with the 
number "No. 1," although the Lodge bad borne this number in the engraved Lists of 
Lodges from the year 1729, when the Lodges were first enumerated. 

The " Goose and Gridiron " Alehouse disappeared in 1894 or shortly after, owing to 
improvements, but there are in this book measured plans of the tavern and its meeting 
room over,. together with two views of its south front which give us some idea of fhe 
aspect and accommodation of this early home of the Lodge and the first meeting place 
of the Grand Lodge. Bro. E. F. Bristowe's scale drawings are carefully reproduced, 
and form a pattern by which similar records should be preserved before the old masonic 
taverns finally disappear. 

To turn for a moment to the Lodge Records. It appears by an inventory of the 
year 1778 that there were then in the custody of the Lodge " All the existing 
records of the Lodge in eight folio Books : with three Books in quarto for treasurers and 
tylers : beginning with the year 1721 . . " It is difficult to reconcile this list with 
what remains in possession of the Lodge, and Bro. Rylands' effort to marshal the facts 
is a trifle involved. Without attemping to follow his argument, I may briefly recount 
those portions of the minutes which have been preserved to the present day. From 
1721 to 1733 the records have disappeared, together with the years 1734 and 1735 in 
the first book available. From 1736 to 1748 we have the minutes in two volumes, 
except for 1741-43. The next book (1748-67) has disappeared, and the gap thus 
seated is partially bridged by " rough minutes " and cash accounts from December, 
1748, to August, 1759, and from July, 1759 (partially repeating some of the notes) to 
1767, in two note-books. From June, 1767, the series runs on in a fairly complete form 
to our own times with only an occasional hiatus where leaves have been torn out or 
proceedings have not been recorded. From the list of these books dealt with by Bro. 
Rylands we gather there is some interesting information yet to be brought to light, 
which will appear in his second instalment of the " Records," such as the absorption of 
the Harodim Lodge in 1794, and the minutes of Noorthouck's and Bottomley's Lodge, the 
remnant which adhered to the Grand Lodge of the Moderns when Preston's schismatic 
body drifted away and became the Lodge of Antiquity under the Grand Lodge of All 
England, South of the River Trent (1778 to 1790). Then the following book contains 
long reports of the Permanent Committee, which brings the history up to the close of 
the year 1812, with the Union looming largely ahead : another follows for the period 
1813-26 inclusive, which has Addresses from the Lodge to the Duke of Sussex and his 
replies, together with other papers relating to the affairs of the Lodge. We know of 
at least one surprise which Bro. Rylands is holding over for future revelation. From 
early in 1827 the remaining records are now complete. 

In one of the books, marked E, is a series of notes which may be extracts from 
the original minute books, or even the original minutes themselves. But the presump- 
tion is that they are not, for they are written in a fairly modern hand, evidently a copy 

168 Transactions of the Qualuor Coronati Lodge. 

from some unknown original, and until their source is made known we must regard 
them with more than suspicion, in spite of the interesting matter they contain. From 
internal evidence they cannot be dated earlier than 1768 (though headed 1721 and 
onwards), indeed, we are inclined to put them much later, and connect them 
with Preston's Mastership. The first note, dated 25th December, 1721, is headed 
"Old Lodge of St. Paul's or the Lodge of Antiquity, Queen's Arms Tavern, St. Paul's 
Church Yard." As shown above, there is no mention of the former of these names 
other than in Anderson and in Preston's Illustrations of 1775, and the name 
"Antiquity" was not adopted till late in 1768 One other item given refers to the 
mallet with which the first stone of St. Paul's was laid, and still another to the 
mahogany candlesticks. 

1722. 18th March. Several Vestiges of the Old time were laid before 
the Lodge, particularly the Old Mallet used at laying the foundation stone 
of St. Paul's Cathedral . . . and the Mallet ordered to be preserved m 
the Lodge as a Curiosity. 

1723. 3rd June. The three Mahogany Candlesticks presented to this 
Lodge by its Worthy old Master Sir Christopher Wren ordered to be care- 
fully deposited in the Wooden case lin'd with Cloth to be Immediately pur- 
chased for that purpose 

Both these extracts have a curious resemblance to the wording of the footnotes 
in the various editions of Preston's Illustrations, suggesting that there is a close 
connection between them, and that they originate from a common source, which I 
incline to think was the fertile brain of William Preston. 

Then there are also two curious Oaths under the date 1726, one being the Oath 
of a Master, which begins : — " Having been regularly elected Master of the most 
antient and right worshipful Lodge of Antiquity ..." and the other, the Oath 
of a Member, which also mentions " the Right Worshipful Lodge of Antiquity No. 1 
at London." We have already seen that the name of Antiquity was not used before 
the November meeting in 1768. From these extracts we can incline to no other 
decision than that these notes were fair copied later than 1768. Hence there must be 
no surprise at Bro. Rylands' opinion : " It would be a waste of time to analyse these 
notes," and again " All that can be said is that historically they are of no value 
whatever." Bat he is not inclined to consider them entirely unauthenic ; on the other 
hand, there may be some degree of truth in them. He accepts the list given of the 
Masters of the Lodge as being probably correctly stated. From this list we learn the 
following Masters held office in the years from 1721 to 1736, at which latter date we 
have the existing minutes to rely upon : — 



25 Dec. 

Bro 1 ' Morris, 


18 Mar. 



3 Nov. 

John Bristow 


10 Dec. 



3 June 



8 June 



27 Nov. 



26 Feb. 



19 Sept. 



24 Jane 



6 March .., 


The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 169 


16 Dec. 




26 July 

Wren [Jun 1 '] 



29 Dec. 




24 June 




1 March .. 




18 April 




25 Nov. 

Rogers [1J 



17 Dec. 




20 March .. 




3 April 

SirEdwd. Mansell, Bart. 


1 April 

Rogers [2] 


The first Rogers here mentioned is not C. Blunt Rogers, who was in the chair 
of Master when the minutes begin, and held that office again in the second half of the 
year 1745; the second Rogers was C. Blunt Rogers, admitted in 1734, on the 5th 

The first of these minutes from Book E gives the date of removal from the 
"Goose and Gridiron" to the "Queen's Arms" as 1721, 25th December, " Bro 1 ' Morris 
then being the Master." This date is pointed out by Bro. Rylands as erroneous. The 
Lodge did not shift its quarters " until after 1725 " (p. 13), but he says in another 
place (p. 36) it was " about 1729." 

We must avail ourselves of rather copious extracts from these suspicious notes, 
because the book is not available for many in our large Circle, and also because 
probably some other evidence may yet be forthcoming to prove or disprove the 
reliability of the statements therein set forth. And apart from any question of 
authenticity, they contain many curious and interesting points. 

Some of these might be mentioned for what they are worth, but the following 
few will be sufficient to show that the Lodge carefully and jealously preserved one of 
its most valuable privileges, that of assisting at the Installation of the Grand Master 
at each succeeding Feast. 

1721. 25th December. Agreed una vose That the dignity and Conse- 
quence of the Old Lodges be always suported and that the Members of this 
Lodge who meet in Grand Lodge do firmly adhere to the Old Constitutions 
and lay the same Obligation on the Masters and Wardens of New Lodges 
when Constituted. 

1722. 3rd November. The Master reported . . . Bro. Anderson's 
Appointment to revise the Old Constitutions. It was the Opinion of the 
Lodge that the Master and his Wardens do attend every Committee during 
the Revisal of the Constitution that no Variation may be made in the Antient 

1723. 8th June. [The Duke of Richmond being proposed as Grand 
Master Elect] It is the Order of this Lodge that the Master Do attend 
Merchant Taylors Hall on the 24th of this Month to require a public Con- 
formity to the constitution from the Grand Master Elect. 

1724. 19th September. Resolved una vose that the thirty ninth 
Article of the Old Regulations be carefully observed on every occasion and 
that the Officers of this Lodge do strictly enforce an observance thereof. 

1727. 27th February. This being the day appointed for the Installa- 
tion of Grand Master this Lodge attended in form at Mercers Hall to deliver 
the Constitutions in the usual form to the Grand Master Eject, 

170 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

1729. 26tli July. Several Regulations were unanimously agreed to 
for supporting the Antient dignity of this Lodge on public Occasions. 

1729. 29th December. The Officers of this Lodge were requested to 
attend ... to deliver the Constitutions to the Duke of Norfolk who was 
then to be installed Grand Master. 

1733. 29th May. This Lodge met and adjourned to attend the Pro- 
cession to Mercers Hall and to deliver over the Constitutions to the Earl 
of Strathmore Grand Master Elect. 

1734. 20th March. The Brethren of this Lodge wore then requested 
to accompany the Master and Wardens to Mercers Hall on Saturday Se'nnight 
to assist at the installation of the Earl of Craufurd Grand Master Elect. 

1735. 3rd April. Requested the early attendance of the Members of 
this Lodge at the Grand ffeast at Mercers Hall on the 17th inst. in order 
to assist at the Installation of our Worthy and Noble Brother Lord Viscount 

1736. 1st April. . , requested that the Master of this Lodge with 
his Officers would attend early at Fishmongers Hall to assist the present 
Grand Master in the usual fforms of Installation. 

Besides these, there are more instances of the name of the Grand Master Elect 
being submitted for approval in this Lodge. For instance: — 

1723. 8th June. The Duke of Richmond was proposed to be the Grand 
Master Elect and highly approved. 

1725. 24th June. Lord Paisley was proposed as the Grand Master 
Elect and approved and Colonel Houghton and Sir Thomas Prendergast being 
present were ordered to be recommended from this Lodge as Grand Wardens 
for the year ensuing. 

One more excerpt must be here given, because it supplements the account given 
by Anderson of the Feast in 1721, and the long list of names appeurs for the first time : 
the doings here recorded are interesting because there is no mention of any difficulty 
as to the Duke of Wharton, who was present at the Installation of the Duke of 

A General Assembly of a Greate Number of 
Free Masons Held at Stationers Hall : London. 
On the 24th day of June 1721 The Most Noble 

John Duke of Montague, 
Was then chosen Grand Master 
Dr. John Beale Sub*. Master 

Mr. Josias Villeneau -> .,„ . 

, „,, , r . Grand \\ aniens. 

Mr. Thomas Morris J 

The Most Noble Phillip Duke of Wharton 

The Right Hon Wo L a Herbert 

The Right Hon We Ifi Hinchinbrook 

The Right Hon We L d Hillsborough 

S r Will" 1 Leman Barr u . 

S r George Oxenden Barr u . 

S"- Robert Rich Barr". 

S r Andrew Fountaine Kn'. 

John Holt Esq r 

Sackville Tufton Esqr 

Willm Young Esq' 

Will"" Stanhope Esqr 

Coll. John Cope 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 171 

Coll. Campbell 

P [hilip Lord] Stanhope 

Christopher Wren Esq r 

ltich' J Boult Gent. 

Thos. Sayer 

W. Weston Esq' 

James Batemen Gent. 

Charles Hedges 

Jjs. Bullock. 

This Day the Most Noble Prince the Duke of Montague was Installed in 
form Grand Master of Masons and Solemnly Swore with his Right Hand 
upon the Holy Evangelist 3 to Observe and keep Inviolate in all tyme Coming 
the Eraunchises and Liberties of the free Masons of England and all the 
Uncords of Antient tymes in the Custody of the Old Lodge of St. Paul in 
London and was Moreover firmly held and Bound never to Connive at any 
Encroachment on the LLand Marks of the old Lodges in England or Suffer 
the Same to be done by his Successors who shall be also bound by Oath to 
the Same. 

This day the Free Masons of London in the Name of themselves and 
the rest of their Brethren of England Vested their Separate and Distinct 
rights and powers of Congregating in Chapters &c. in the present old Lodges 
in London in trust and the same was this day Publickly Recognised and 
Notified to their Brethren in Grand Lodge Assembled. 

The Masters of the old Lodges Accepted the Trust for their Lodges and 
were Sworn Accordingly. 

Ues iguliers, who is not mentioned in tins account of the proceedings, was 
present, and made a speech "suitable to the occasion." {Post Boy, June 24-27, 1721.) 

The extract of 3rd April, 1735, given above, concludes :—" This Evening our 
Worthy Brother John Ward Esq the intended D.G.M. was readmitted a Member of 
this Lodge." 

A short summary is given of the Annual Feasts of Grand Lodge with the names 
of the Grand Masters, Deputy Grand Masteis and Grand Wardens, from 1717 to 1723, 
which confirm the similar list given by Anderson, and is of value, as Bro. Rylands 
points out, as being the only piece of contemporary evidence known. The slight 
variations in the two accounts are given in detail but need not be dealt with here. But 
as regards the proceedings in Grand Lodge on St. John's Day, 24th June, 1722, when 
the irregular election of the Duke of Wharton occurred, as related in the 1738 
Constitutions, there is no suggestion of discord given in the Antiquity version, which 
names Merchant Taylors' Hall as the meeting place, while Anderson gives Stationers' 
Hall, the Feast being held afterwards at the King's Arms, in St. Paul's Churchyard. 
It also contradicts Anderson's statement that no Grand Officers were present, for it 
appears Desaguliers was chosen Deputy Grand Master, and he had been Grand Master 
in 1719. 

But on page 5 of Book E begins a list of the " Members of this Pres'" Lodge, 
Sep 1 '. 18th 1721," evidently prepared in accordance with old Regulation XII (1723 
Constitutions), and as this is of sufficient importance to be reproduced in its entirety 
I give it as an Appendix (A). This list has been collated by Bro. Rylands with the 
Grand Lodge MS. lists of 1723 and 1725, and the additional particulars he appends to 
the names are of extreme value. From this list we gather that in 1721 the 
Lodge numbered forty-one members, and this was reduced to thirteen between 1721 
and 1723. It had twenty-two when the 1723 list was compiled, fifteen in 1725 and 

172 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

sixteen in the 1730 list. In explanation of this reduction and shortage in the number 
of members is given the sequence of events from 1717 to 1723 as regards the Grand 
Officers, and the passing of the operative character of the Craft little by little into the 
non-operative or purely speculative element which then took almost entire possession 
of Freemasonry after the « Ingenious men of all Faculties and Stations » became Masons. 
The Lodge No. 4 at the » Rummer and Grapes," which shortly before 1723 moved to the 
« Old Horn," in Palace Yard, became the fashionable Lodge, and this was not without 
effect on the senior Lodge at the " Goose and Gridiron." The former had in 1723 no less 
than seventy-two members, headed by the Duke of Richmond as its Master. We quote 
Bro. Rylands' pertinent remarks on this change in the aspect of affairs. 

Original No. 1, the old Lodge of St. Paul's, on the contrary, seems to have 
preferred the old traditions of the Craft, and although at first, perhaps by 
the accident of circumstances, it admitted some of the new Masons, who 
afterwards left to join their friends in other lodges, it is pretty certain that 
the older members had little sympathy with the new order of thing*. lor 
■i short time the influence of these older Masons lasted, and they obtained 
the Grand Office of Warden. After the election of the Duke of Montague 
followed immediately by the casting aside of the "Old Constitutions of 
Masonry and a little later by that most extraordinary departure, the publica- 
tion of a new Book of Constitutions in 1722-23 (utterly useless in their eyes 
for the purposes for which it was intended); it may well have been looked 
upon as a marked infringement of one of the oldest traditions in -Masonry, 
and although still true to the allegiance they had given at the Revival 
of the Grand Lodge, some of the old Lodges declined to be overwhelmed with 
the new Masons, and tenacious of the old forms, preferred to hand down 
Masonry as it had been handed down to them. This, I think, is the explana- 
tion of why the Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron, and probably some others, 
in the early years of the eighteenth century could not boast that its members 
were gathered from the rank and fashion of the period. 
Then follows in support of this view a quotation from Prichard's Masonry Dissected 
(1730) which is an attack, not against Masonry in general, but against the new 
Fashions which threatened the " Old Fabrick." 

Dealing with the issue of the 1723 Constitutions as an official publication, Bro. 
Rylands characterises this as an extraordinary departure, sufficient in itself to outrage 
the feelings of the older Masons. 

To them it would be a severance from one, perhaps the most treasured, 
of their ancient usages-the use of the Roll of the "Old Charges" or Con- 
stitutions at the making of a Mason. ... It seems more than likely 
hat the edition of the Old Charges printed by Roberts m 1722 of which I 
think only one copy is now known, was issued not only to forestall Anderson s 
Constitutions, published by the Grand Lodge in 1723 but to ^upp y 
a demand for the old form of Constitutions, so entirely different from that 
sanctioned by the Grand Lodge. 
Having concluded this sketch of the early records, be they authentic, or 
otherwise, of the period following on the election of the first noble Grand Master 
Montague, we now come to the time when the existing minutes commence, on 7th 
September, 1736. A new Master was elected every six months (in early times they 
were even elected quarterly)' and the minutes at this time give little more than a list 
of the members attending the meetings, with the expenses of each evenmg. lhe 

1 Gould, History of Freemasonry, ii., 358. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 173 

meeting days were, as we learn from the 1723-24 List of Lodges, every other Monday, 
from 29th April inclusive, and according to Pine's 1729, and Pritchard's 1730 lists, the 
Lodge met on the first and third Mondays of every month. In 1731 or 1732 it was 
changed to the first Tuesday, and about 1753 to the second Tuesday, which 
arrangement continued until in 1759, and down to 1779, it was altered to the second 
and fourth Wednesday, the latter being at first the evening on which the Masters' 
Lodge was held. In the year 1739 we read first of a "Private Meeting," confined to 
the members of the Lodge, and the term was applied to those meetings held on nights 
other than those provided for in the By-Laws, the equivalent of our emergency 
meetings. We meet the term " Emergency Night " in the year 1767 (18th January), 
and one such meeting was held on a Sunday, for some reason undisclosed in the 
minutes, for no less than fourteen visitors attended : their Lodges are not stated, and 
the only ones that can be traced are Bro. Tenbrocke, and Bro. Muller (Ephraim Goliel 
Muller) both of the Caledonian Lodge. The latter was expelled by Grand Lodge on 
the 24th October, 1769. 

During the summer of 1745 and the following years it became customary to 
rise for the recess of about four months, • — ■ 

1745. July 2 d . A motion being made and Seconded that the Lodge 
do not meet till the 1 st Tuesday in September next, it was agreed for the 
motion Norn. Con. 
and again, 

A Motion was made to Adjourn the Lodge to the Second Tuesday in 
October and carried Nom. Con. 

Then one meeting a month in the summer was arranged, the Lodge reverting to its 
fortnightly meetings again in the autumn. In 1763, on 27th April, 

Agreed that we should meet Viz. the fourth Wednesday in May June 
July and August, 

and in 1765, May 8th, 

It was pi-oposod • that this Lodge should be held only once a Month 
for four Months, and the Tyler ordered to inform the Brethren thereof. 

We also find one instance of the term — " Convention night," in connection 
with which we can only discover that the minutes of the last Lodge were not read and 
confirmed. Another sort of meeting is recorded which must be allowed to go without 
any Masonic title,—" 1770. August 15. No Lodge held this Evening. Sev 1 . Bre". 
spent their Evening below Stairs at their own Expence." On another occasion in the 
following year, — " April 3. No Lodge opened" — the Bill of the Night amounted to 
nineteen shillings, three members and three visitors being present. 

There were several lists of Members at various dates in these pages, from which 
we may follow the fluctuating fortunes of the Lodge. We have already referred to the 
1721, 1723, and 1725 lists: In 1737 there were twenty members, and at the end of 
1740 there were thirty-one, and this number diminished in four years to seventeen. 
During 1745 efforts were made to strengthen the membership, for on the 5th February 
" Seven Brethren from the Red Cross Lodge in Barbican Were admitted Members of 
this Lodge." By 1748 things had become very unsatisfactory: officers and members 
were frequently absent, no new names had been added to the list for some time, and it 
appears no ceremonies were performed, as far as recorded. In 1753 only thirteen 
members remained, eight of whom had already passed the Chair, some of these on 

174 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

more than one occasion, as will be seen by the list in Appendix B, and it became 
increasingly difficult to fill the Master's chair, so the rule as to the election every six 
months was temporarily set aside. By 1755 the total had crept up to seventeen, and 
in 1759, after a Committee had met on 17th July " to Consider on some particular 
affairs " no less than thirteen brethren were proposed " to become members of this 
Lodge. . . . That each pay 10/6 for this Admition." The name at the head of 
the list is " Thomas Marriott Perkins Past Steward and Good Brother," who nursed 
the Lodge back to a strong and healthy condition. A Grand Steward in 1756 he 
became R.W.M. in the latter half of 1760, the whole of 1761, and the first half of 1762, 
when he appears to have " gone abroad to the West Indies." In the latter year he 
beoime Provincial Grand Master of the Musquito Shore and of Jamaica and held that 
post down to 1770. 

Negotiations were opened in August of 1767 with the Loge di I'Immortalite de 
VOrdre for uniting the two Lodges. On 26th August " The R.W.M. of the Lodge of 
" Immortality and several of the Brethren of that respectable Lodge, with the Consent 
" of the whole Lodge, attended at this Lodge with Proposals of Union between the 
" two Lodges, which were read : the Consideration whereof was postponed till 
" Wednesday the 2 a . of September next at 6 o'Clock in the Evens. a t this Place, and 
" that every Brother sho' 1 . have due Notice thereof." This French Lodge, No. 376, 
at that time meeting at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand, where it was constituted 
in 1766, was ultimately erased on the 28th April, 1775. On the day named " a 
" Committee of the Bretheren met, when nothing in the Proposals of the Bretheren of 
" the Lodge of Immortality was objected to, but it was agreed that the Expences of 
" each Lodge should be first settled and adjusted, and that the Bretheren would 
" further consider the Articles of Association, and the further Consideration of them 
was postponed till the next Lodge night." After a second postponement, and on the 
28th October, "The R.W.M. proposed that an answer might be given to the letter 
" received the 26th of August last from our Bretheren of the Lodge of Imortality 
" respecting the Union of the two Lodges, which Proposal was seconded and carried: 
" whereupon he produced and read a Dra[f]t of an Answer which he had prepared, 
" and which was unanimously judged very proper upon the Occasion, and was there- 
" fore ordered to be transcribed and presented to the Lodge of Immortality as soon as 
"convenient." After a considerable interval, on the 23rd March, 1768, " Bro T . Des 
"Barres and Bro r . Leautier attended from y e Lodge of Immortality and were com- 
" missioned to give an Ans 1 '. to a Letter from this Lodge but ye R.W.M. being absent 
" they were requested to give their Attendance at a future Time for that purpose, 
" which was readily agreed to." Des Barres attended on the 13th April, and Leautier 
on the 25th May, but. the negotiations appear to have been dropped, for there is no 
further mention of the proposed union. Des Barres and others joined No. 1 in 1769. 

A list of members in January, 1768, is given, numbering thirty-six members, 
and in the margin is written " So often as 7 New Members are admitted into the 
" Lodge an Acco*. of them are to be transmitted to the G.Sec. that they may be 
" registered." We may note that the Grand Lodge Register of Lodge membership 
commenced in this year. 

Another list of the Lodge in 1774 has nineteen names, and the first printed 
list, of December, 1776 (reproduced in facsimile), gives no less than forty-eight names. 
This list was printed by William Preston " at his own Expence," and his name heads 
the list in large type as R.W. Master. This is the only one we have giving the 
professions and occupations of the members, but the errors are somewhat numerous. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 175 

"Honorary Members are mentioned, the first as early as March, 1734, when 
Ralph Farwinter is referred to as such. The next is in 1772, -when " Thomas Amies a 
Member of the Lodge who had been absent for several years," and was then residing 
at Exeter, was "deemed an Honorary Member." In 1774 another brother on his 
resignation, "being disabled from attending by disorder of body was continued on the 
" Books as an Honorary Member." 

The Minutes " read and confirmed " are first so mentioned in 1754, 10th 
September, with this orthographical variant at a somewhat later date, "the Mumet of 
the Last Lodge Night Red and Conformed." On the 3rd December, 1777, the minutes 
are signed by the R.TV.M. and Steward, but this I think is a slip, for the signature of 
the so-called Steward is that of Benjamin Bradley, who, at the time, was the duly 
appointed Secretary. 

Of the Lodge being "regularly opened" we note the first occurrence is in 1756, 
on 13th January. In 1759, 10th July :— 

All Business being over The Lodge was Closed. 

The Lodge was oppen'd again at the Request of Bro. Humphreys who 
proposed the follow*. Bror". to become Members of the Lodge, w oh was 
seconded balletted for and admitted. Viz*. Bro". Retell, Cross and Kemp. 

Another instance is given of again opening the Lodge, and on this occasion the 
reason appears to have been more satisfactory, to settle a dispute in a masonic manner 
if possible, but the result was somewhat deplorable. 

1776. 21 Aug. The Lodge was closed in due form, and the 
Brethren adjourned to Supper. 

After Supper, the Master with the consent of the Brethren again 
opened the Lodge in due form. It being represented to the Lodge that 

Brother H and Brother TV had retired to another room, and were 

there, contrary to the rule of the Institution & their own character as 
Masons, grossly reviling each other, and committing other irregularities, to 
the disgrace of -the Society, and discredit of the Lodge, and that in the 
Squabble one of the Candlestioks belonging to the Lodge of Freedom had 
been broke: and it appearing that Brother H was the aggressor. Re- 
solved, That he is justly entitled to have the censure of this Lodge, passed 
upon him: and as Brother W— had likewise misbehaved and had not 

applied to the Master of the Lodge for redress on account of Brother H 's 

conduct towards him, but had been a party in the fray. Resolved that he 
also deserves censure. 

A motion was then made for the expulsion of Brothers H & TV 

from this Lodge to be determined by ballot at our next meeting, and that 
the said Ballot be separate. The motion being seconded, the question was 
put, and it passed in the affirmative. 

Ordered That the Candlestick belonging to the Lodge of Freedom which' 
has been broke be repaired at the expenee of the Lodge. 

Bro. TV engaged to indemnify the Lodge. 

On the 10th October following TV refunded 4s. 10d., the amount of the 

damage, and it is entered as " By repairing the Candlesticks, and glasses &c, broke in the 
fray of last meeting." Both offenders obtained " a fair and candid hearing. . . in 
vindication of their conduct. . . and they were both expelled the Lodge." 

" The Lodge was closed " is mentioned very early,-in 1738 " March 7th Nothing 
being proposed the Lodged was closed " ; but here we find Bro. Rylands makes a slip, 
for under the year 1753 (p. 182) he says-" up to this date, so far as the records show, 

176 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

the Lodge was neither opened nor closed," and again (p. 187)— 1755. Dec. 9th. 
" This is the first mention of the Lodge having been closed." 

In 1767 the note about closing is expanded in this manner, " 9th Sept. 
" nothing further being proposed for the good of the Craft in General or this Lodge in 
" particular the same was closed in due fform." In 1777 this is slightly varied,—" for the 
" Benefit of Masonry in general, ... All this weighty business being over, the 
" Lodge was closed in due form. Nothing further offering it was closed in due form 
" and admirable Harmony." 

On the question of Degrees one naturally looks for the slighest scrap of informa- 
tion that the Antiquity records can give us. Without leaning to either side in the 
controversy of Two versus Three Degrees, about which the last word has not yet been 
said, it will serve our present purpose better to examine and state the facts as we here find 
them. So far as we can discover, a Brother was simply " made " and seldom proceeded 
further in the early days : he was quite content with being a Mason, and without becoming 
a member of the Lodge, enjoyed the privilege of visiting where any body of Masons was 
congregated, of course on giving proper proofs of proficiency. Hence we find in these 
minutes the commonest expression used was " making a Mason," without reference to 
any distinctive degree, or of initiation or passing, and so on. The earliest reference of 
all is of 1736, 2nd November :— " Mr. George Garnett was this Evening proposed to be 
" made a Mason . . . and he was voted Mem. Con. to be made." On the 4th 
January, 1736 (New Style, 1737) "George Garnet was this Evening, as before 
proposed-Made a Mason," the fee paid being £2 7s. Od. inclusive of " Quarteridge." 
Thus we see that the custom then was to propose and elect the candidate at one meeting, 
and at the following one to " make " him. There are of course variations of this simple 
formula and it is interesting to trace the gradual change of the expression as years went 
on. " 1737/8 3 Jan. B r . Midford was proposed seconded and Ballotted for and Chosen 
to be made a Mason.— Feb. 7, B r . Midford was made a Mason in due Form." In 1737 
occurs this entry—" At a Committee of this Lodge that were desired to Attend to make 
" Bro v . Sparrow for the good of y e Lodge who was well Recommended by . . . and 
" paid Two pounds Seven shillings According to Our Orders for the same." It appears 
this Committee of the Lodge was specially called, Bodychen Sparrow being considered 
a desirable acquisition, but it became necessary to regularise the proceedings, or at 
least the financial part of the transaction. At the following meeting, 6th September, 
1737, " It being put up by the Master of this Lodge the Next Lodge Night after Bro 1 '. 
" Sparrow was°made whether what was Expended the Night he was made should be 
"Allow'd out of what he paid for his Making, and the Remainder carried into the 
" Lodge [funds], and Carried by Ten for paying it out of the Stock and Onely One 
" Negative . . . There healths that were p[r]esent at y e Making of Bro v . Sparrow 
" were drank by the whole Lodge with thanks for y e Good Services done them." 

The expression " proposed seconded and thirded " often occurs, sometimes in this 
form.— "Br. . . . proposed that Mr. . . . be made a Mason in this Lodge, which 
" was 2 a ., 3 cl ., ballotted for and carried Nem. Con." One interesting feature is first 
heard of in 1767, when on 8th August " Bro r . Hammon past Mast', at the desire of the 
" R.W. Master gave a very proper charge to the new made Brethren." 

It is only in 1758 we get the first clue to a mention of the first two degrees in an 
explicit statement. " Mr. Will" 1 . Provost of New York Gentlema and Merchant being 
" in a short time to go abro tl . the Lodge after due consideration and having Receiv'd an 
" Exceeding good Character of Said Gentlem did Mutually agree to make him a Mason 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 177 

" which was done in the two first Degrees. The Master gave a Leetuie in Enter'd 
"Apprentice's part and allsoin y e Fellow Crafts." "1761, 25 Feb. Bro 1 '. James Pool was 
" this night made a mason in this Lodge and was llais'd to the 2 d , degree of Masonry." 

The usual formula "made a mason " seems always to have included the two 
first degrees. This old custom was retained down to 1777, although in other Lodges a 
different practice may have prevailed. 1 In proof of this retention of the ancient rule 
referred to let us glance at what happened in the Lodge in Preston's time. 

1777. 3 Dec. B 1 '. Nooi'thouck moved that no Person shall be 
initiated into more than the first Degree of Masonry on the first night of 
his reception. This motion being duly Second 4 , the question was put and 
passed unanimously. Resolved that public Notice be given of this Regulation 
in such manner as the Master shall think most Expedient for the Information 
of other Lodges. 

Early in 1778, on 4th Feb. : — 

Bro 1 '. Rigge moved that we do for the future initiate every Gentleman 
into the first two Degrees of Masonry on the same Night, Seconded. . . . 
Order'd That this alteration in the By Laws be ballotted for agreeable to 
the Eleventh Article. 

On the 18th Feb. this was done : — 

A ballot was taken for the proposed alteration in the fourth Bye Law. 
Upon opening the Ballot, there appeared Twoo Negatives in the Ballotting 
Box. Whereupon the Lodge Resolved, That a Letter should be sent to the 
Grand Secretary of [ ? from] this Lodge to inform him, that it is the Resolution 
of this Lodge to Initiate Gentlemen only into one Degree of Masonry on the 
same Night, and to request the favour of him to communicate said Resolution 
to the Masters of such Lodges as shall attend at the next Committee of 
Charity and quarterly Communication. 

Here we have by a formal act of the Lodge the separation into two parts of what 
was originally considered to constitute " making," and it was because of the practice 
elsewhere in other Lodges being of a different pattern to that in Antiquity that it 
became necessary to draw attention publicly to the change made here by falling in with 
the general custom. 

And as the two first degrees were always conferred together, it is not surprising 
to find that it was only after a brother had attained to the second degree that he became a 
member of the Lodge if ho so chose. In 1759 we read :—" Nov. 28. Four Candidates were 
" made Masons . . . the above Brethren were also honoured with y e Second Degree of 
" Masonry and were ballotted for to become Members of this Lodge." There is an entry 
of 1776, 21st February, to the following effect :— " Mr. Joseph Hawkins was Accordingly 
" Initiated into the first Degree of Masonry, and Admitted a Member"— but this is an 
error on the part of the Secretary, as the next item will show,— on 20th March another 
candidate was admitted— " Mr. T. Essex was Accordingly Initiated into the first Degree 
" and Pass'd into the Second, as was also Bro 1 . J. Hawkins, and admitted Members." 

" With the Consent of the Lodge "—is an occasional formula used when the 
candidate was "Pass'd into the Second Degree" at the same meeting at which he 
was made. Here is a rather fuller entry : — 

'Bro. Gould remarks on the F.C. Degree ". . . . in England, under the purely 
operative regime, the apprentice was not a member of the lodge, and that he only 
became so and also a freemason, on his admission— after a prescribed period ot servi- 
tude—to the degree of Fellow or Master." (History of Freemasonry, n., 66d). 

178 Transactions of the Quatvor Corcnati Lodge. 

1770. 2 d May. The W.M. produced and read a dispensation from 
the 11. W. D.G.M. Dillon for leave to receive and pass Mr. T. Cox, on this 
Night altho' something under age. 

Mr. Tho. Cox having heen duly prepared by Bro. Pryce [a visitor 
from the Mourning Bush Lodge] was received in the first degree with the 
usual Ceremonies. . . 

Both these New made Bretheren being retired the R.W.M. opened the 
Lodge in the 2 d degree, and they being brought in again, were admitted to 
the said degree. 

Again on 17th October of the same year, 

A ballot was taken for the Admission of Mr. Rainshaw, which proved 
unanimous in his Favour, whereupon he was made a Mason in the first 
Degree and according to custom was passed to tho Second in due Form and 
paid the usual Fees. 

But the 17C0 By-Laws, Article IV., provided for conferring the second degree separately. 
" Each Brother who was made in any other Lodge, paying Five Shillings for being 
passed to the Second Degree in this," it being remembered that at this time the Lodge 
still kept to the old custom of two degrees together, and not, as in other Lodges, of 
initiating and passing as separate ceremonies on separate occasions. 

The first mention we have of passing is in 1737, but it refers to the degree of 
Master, and gives the fee then payable for taking this step. "Received .A prill 5th. 
1737, Reddall for passing Master, 5/s." This was the old word, used also in the records 
of the Philo-Musicse et Architecture Societas, 1725. 

Bro. Rylands draws our attention to the fact that there is no mention of a 
' Masters' Lodge,' the ceremony being performed on the ordinary day of meeting, and 
nothing to mark it as an unusual event. Right down to 1751, and even later, there is 
never any note made of any ceremony between ' making a Mason ' and 'raising Master.' 
It seems that a Fellow Craft often applied for the honour of raising, if he wished to 
proceed further, as he was then eligible. The Master's step is thus termed in one 
instance, — " 1761. 25 Feb. Bro r . Tindall was this night rais'd to the third and Honour- 
able degree of Masonry." 

In 1759 it became the practice to confer the three degrees in one evening, — 
" made and raised" is the term used, — but the instances are so numerous that it is needless 
to particularize. Sometimes this was done by dispensation, but more often without: 
as a specimen of the authority given on such occasions the following document may 
prove of interest : — 

London. Sep r . 12, 1764. 
By the recommendation of Bro r . Gibbs and Bro r . Dyne I grant a dis- 
pensation to make and raise through the three degrees of Masonry Mr. 
Richard Hall and this shall be your warrant for so doing. 

(Sign'd) Jn°. Salter D.G.M. 

This letter " from the Depute Grand Master adres'd to the Master and Wardens 
of this Lodge was presented by Mr. Richard Hall " (the candidate). I do not think 
this system of conferring the degrees is evidence of any slackness among the Lodges 
of the Moderns but it was the custom : on the contrary, after it was adopted in this 
Lodge, the candidate for the third degree had to be examined by a Board of Trial, 
composed of the experienced Past Masters, and, if approved by them, was reported 
on favourably to the Lodge, entrusted by the Board of Trial with certain requisite 
secrets, and then wept through the usual ceremony of being raised a Master Mason, 

the Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 179 

Thus in 1775, 15tli November: — 

Lodge opened in the Third Degree. A Board of Trial formed and 
Brothers . . . examined and approved as Candidates for the degree of 
Master Masons, and intrusted in due form by the Board. A report being 
made from the Board in favour of the Candidates, they were exalted to the 
Third Degree in duo form. The Masters' Lodge was then closed, and the 
Lodge opened in the First Degree. 

1777. 15 Jan. [The meeting at which the Rev. Wm. Dodd, 
D.D., Grand Chaplain, was expelled from this Lodge.] A motion was made 
and seconded that all the Brethren who have been made in this Lodge, and 
have not been raised to the third Degree, be exalted at our next meeting, 
if duly aproved by a Board of Trial. On the question being put it passed 
in the affirmative. 

Ordered that Bro 1 '. Brearley, Hartley and Axtell do compose the said 
Board of Trial, and make a faithful report to this Lodge. 

On Feb. 19th. Bro r . Brearley reported from the Board of Trial, 
that Brothers le Caan, Ergas, and Bradley had been examined and approved 
as qualified for preferment, but that Bro r . Delwalle [Delvalle] was disapproved 
as not qualified. 

It was agreed that the Brethren approved by the Board of Trial for 
exaltation, be raised to the Third Degree on Wednesday next. 

Feb. 26. The Lodge was opened in the third degree. A Board 
of Trial appointed as follows, Bro r . Brearley President: Bro r . Manning and 
Hartley Assistants. Bro 1 '. Brearley reported from the Board of Trial that 
the following Brethren had regularly passed under an examination for the 
Third Degree and been approved. . . . 

As above hinted there is not much information to be gleaned about the doings of 
the Masters' Lodge as such, the first mention being in 1758. The election of the new- 
Master sometimes took place in the third degree, and he appointed his officers, or they 
were elected as we shall show below, then the Lodge was closed. An interesting entry 
of 1773— 16th June— is here given : — 

The Lodge was opened in the 3 d Degree and this being Election Night, 
Brother Bottomley was elected Master for the coming half year upon a Ballot, 
in the usual way, and he was pleased to appoint his Officers as follows. . . . 
And y° Secrets in the 3 d degree being found the Lodge was closed. 

It was not until 1760 that one night a month, the fourth Wednesday, was set 
apart for the business of the Masters' Lodge, but the arrangement was continued for 
some years, and as we learn from the Lodge Lists between 1760 and 1769, it was so 
entered for the information of those who wished and were eligible to attend. No 
mention of a lecture in the third degree is made until 1760. 

But a solitary example is given of a much debated occurrence, showing something 
else was worked, of which no satisfactory explanation has yet been arrived at, and to 
this attention must be called. 

1740. 17 June. [Audit night, not one of the ordinary meetings of 
the lodge.] The following members of this Lodge were this Evening made 
Scotch Master Masons by Bro r . Humphrys of the Mourning Bush Aldersg te . 
[Names given, including the Master, Senior Warden, Secretary & some 
Past Masters of the lodge, nine in all, two brethren present at the audit not 
being made.] 

180 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Bro. Rylands is unable to give any clue beyond this— "the degree of Scotch 
" Master must have been something different from the degree they had already received 
" in English Masonry. I am inclined to think that the degree given by Bro. Humphreys 
" was not the foreign degree of the same name but the same as that given in the Scott s 
" (Master) Masons' Lodges of 1733-34." He refers us to Hughan's English Bite, 2nd 
edition, and to Lane's paper in A.Q.O. i., on "Masters' Lodges," which includes a 
notice of the Scott's or Scotch Masons' Lodge at the " Devil Tavern," Temple Bar, in 1733 
and 1734. 

Of the Installation Ceremony the first inkling we have is that the Master, 
upon his election, " take the usual Oaths on taking the Chair and that the same never 
" be omitted in this Lodge and that every new Member be also Obligated." This was 
on the 7th December, 1736, but the entry is a little suspicious, as it is in another hand 
and written in paler ink of a different sort, and mast be considered in connection with 
what has been pointed out above, the Oath of Master, and of a new Member, apparently 
of a later date than 1768. The next occurrence noted is dated 7th June, 1737 — " Bro r . 
" Hen. Niblett being Sen 1 '. Warden was nominated for Master for the f year Ensuing 
" and was Voted Nem. Con. . . . Bro 1 '. Niblet sworn as Master." The last phrase is 
in the same hand as the entry just before quoted, and again is written in a different 
ink. A facsimile of the entry is given facing page 26. 

Nothing more occurs giving us satisfactory information, beyond this bald 
statement — " 1745. 2 d . July. Bro. Rogers being Chose Master succeeded Bro. Trent in 
the Chair," — and no mention of a special ceremony is made till the year 1754, when 
there is found the following — " 8 Jan. According to the Minutes of last Lodge Night 
Br. Moses was placed in the Chair, as Master of this Lodge." Allusion is made to 
Bonnor's demonstration before the Lodge of Promulgation, in 1809, of the manner of 
working the degrees, etc., "as adhered to in the Lodge of which he is a member," and 
to Bro. Sadler's remarks upon the same in his Notes on the Ceremony of Installation. 
Bro. Rylands agrees that Bro. Sadler was right when he wrote — " It would appear 
" from this that the Lodge of Antiquity, although No. 1. on the Roll of the Moderns, 
" had never adopted their innovations, but had preserved the Ancient practices, 
" including the Ceremony of Installation." 

A later entry of 1763, 21st June, gives us the first occasion when the Master 
was elected and installed on the same evening, and says — "Being Election Night for a 
master of y e Half Year Insueing the Choice fell on Bro 1 '. Nicholson as R.W.M. and was 
Invested According." — while three years later we find this entry, on Dec. 24th, 1766, — 
" This being election night the Brethren present Proceeded to the Election of a 
Master when Bro 1 '. Rigge was duly chosen invested and Install'd." 

December 17th. A.D. 1777. A.L. 5782. This being the usual time 
of Electing Officers for the ensuing six Months, the Lodge proceeded to 
Ballot for a Master, Secretary and Chaplain agreable to the Bye v Laws, 
when a Majority approved in favor of the following Brethren, Viz'. 
John Wilson Esq 1 '. It. W. Master 
Benjamin Bradley Secretary 
and the Rev fl . Allan Harrison Eocles : Chaplain. 

[Wilson I should note was previously the Master.] The Rt. W.Masf. in 
the Chair proceeded to deliver the vsual Charges to the Master Elect, after 
which he was installed and invested in antient form. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 181 

Of the procedure of election fur the Mastership very little is told, usually the 
brief statement is given— " Bro 1 '. . . . Chose Master," and then we find the 
Master was " nominated." 

1736. 7 Dec. Bro. Strong Jun r . Being Sen r . Warden was 
Nominated for Master for this Ensueing half Year and was voted Nem. Con. 

In 1744 the M. Elect is thus described : — 

Bro r . Wilder ") , r ^ 

™ j_ t ., j. i Master 

Elected Master ) 

and on this occasion, for the first time, the "Wardens were nominated by the Master. 

1746. 9 Dec. Note. Bro r . Mason was this Night put in 
Nomination to serve as Master of this Lodge for the coming half year with 
a Proviso that if Bro r . Kirkman [the S.W.] should Chuse to serve in the 
said Office, then Bro r . Mason was to Submit to him. 

and at the foot occurs the following note: — 

Note. Bro r . Kirkman has not paid his ffees of honour for being Chose 
Ma 1 ', by Reason of an Uncertainty of his being willing to serve in that 

1747. July 14th. Bro. Wilder having been Nominated Master for y e 
Ensuing half Year and Not Attending the Election is put of to the Next 
Lodge Night and for Whant of a Number to Make a Lodge. 

Bro. Wilder attended on 11th August 

and being Chose Master desired to be excused serving the Office and 
to be Admitted to the Usual ffinc which was granted Accordingly and there- 
upon Bro r . Trent as next in Rotation [J.W.] was put up and voted Norn. 
Con. for Ma r . for the ensuing half year and BrC. Wildair paid for the 
ensuing half year and his ffees of Honour making as in the Margin. — 11 '•— 

Wilder, who joined from the Swan and Rummer, had once before declined 
io serve as Master, but he filled that office in 1744, and was besides a Warden on six 
separate occasions. There was another Wm. Wilder, of the Mourning Bush Lodge, 
and we find them both entered in 1740, one as a member, and the other as a visitor on 
the 6th May, the former having joined on the 5th February. 

It was proposed in 1761 that the half-yearly election be changed for an annual 
term, on 22nd July "... proposed that the R.W.M. of this Lodge should be 
"chose annually at Midsummer and continued in that respectable office for Twelve 
" Months ensuing : but it being deem'd an improper time to make any such proposal, 
" was disapproved of by every other member, especially as the Bye Laws otherwise 
" directed." The proposal was accordingly dropped, but in 1777 a Deputy Master was 
suggested and the proposition favourably received. 

20 August. . . . proposed to be ballotted for at our next meet- 
ing, seconded . . . , that every Master of this Lodge, shall have Liberty 
to appoint any Qualified Bro r . to act as Deputy, or Assistant to y° Master, 
as in former times in making, raising, Installation and every other business 
of y° Lodge, that order might [be] establish' d, and Solemnities [be] more 
strictly observed, 

which seems to point to an office remarkably similar to our Director of Ceremonies, 
and the brother so appointed was styled " W.Oep.Master," 

182 'transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

The Master himself was always termed " Master " until the first meeting in the 
year 1748 (1747 Old Style) on 12th January, and then we find the first occasion of his 
being called the R.W.M. 

The Wardens were always at first nominated : it appears by the records as they 
run on that the Master had a voice in their nomination and they were elected by the 
brethren. This procedure is what is indicated by the word nominated. 

1743-4. 7 Feb. Bro. Kirkman jun r . Warden was this Evening 
Nom w Sen r . Warden for the Ensuing | year Nem. Con. Bro. Wildair was 
this Evening Nom td Jun r . Warden for the Ensuing £ year Nem. Con. 

But at the later election in the same year, on 3rd July, the entry is varied to 
read thus : — 

Bro r . Wilder was Elected Master and Nominated Bro r . Trent Sen r . 
Warden and Bro r . Chapman Jun r . Warden for this half year. 

But a great many of the entries refer in a still briefer form to the business of 
elections, e.g., July 2 d ., 1745. 

Bro. Faber Chose Sen r . W'ardcn 
Bro. Figes „ jun r . ,, 
Bro. Mason „ Secrytary. 

On reaching the Warden's chair for the first time the selected brethren had to 
pay a fee of Honour, and these payments were usually recorded in the accounts : and 
if the honour was declined an equivalent payment had to be made, and there are many 
instances of this. 

The first mention of the Master appointing his Wardens occurs in 1760, on 
December 24th. 

This being Election Night, Bro r . Perkins had the Great Honour of 
being Unanimously Re elected R.W.M. of this Lodge, when ho appointed 
Bro r . Isaac Pearce S.W. and Bro r . Wm. Nicholson J.W. after which Bro. 
John Wheeler was elected Secretary. 

This election of the Secretary continues with the appointment of the Wardens 
down to 1769. We have one instance of the Senior Warden taking the chair in the 
absence of the Master, but must note in connection with this event that there is no 
record of any ceremony being worked on the occasion. 

1762. 10 Feb r *. Our R' Worshipfull Master Br. Perkins being 
gone abroad to the West Indies B r . Pearce being Senior Warden took the 
Chair in the absence of our s d . R*. Worshipfull and having opened the Lodge 
appointed B r . Dr. Power Sen r . Warden in his room; when the Minutes of 
the last Lodge Night were duly read and confirmed Nem. Con. 

The Right Worshipfull Master (pro tern) having gone thro' the two first 
Lectures in Masonry to the great satisfaction of all the Brethren and Visitors 
present, the Lodge was thereupon Closed in due form and the Brethren 
parted in the greatest good friendship and harmony. 

This is a clear case of the S.W. ruling the Lodge, taking the chair, and appoint- 
ing a deputy in his own place. We have yet to discover an instance, if it has ever 
occurred, of the Senior Warden doing any of the ceremonial work, and for that purpose 
sitting in the Master's chair. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 183 

Occasionally two nominees were put forward for the office of Junior Warden, 
being ballotted for by the brethren present, and the survivor of the ballot took up his 
duties and paid his fine, or, rather, fee of Honour. 

1752. June 9. This Night Bro r . Nicholson was Nominated Master 
Bro r . Hammond S.W. Bro ra . Moses and Gower to be Ballotted for next Night, 

and again in 1755, 

Dec r . ye 9th. Bro rs . Pollard and Feild to be Ballotted for Jun r . 
Warden, and the Lodge was Closed in Dew form. 

The Treasurer, now considered a very important officer of the Ledge, is not 
heard of in these minutes until 1756, it being the custom previously for the Master to 
bo responsible to the Lodge for the accounts, and these were entered up after each 
meeting, showing the subscriptions received and fines, the visitors' nightly fees, and 
the expenses of the evening. On election night, 13th Jnly, 1756, we read— 

The New Regulations for the future paiments for the Expences of 
the Lodge was agreed to be made a Law of the Lodge and Bro r . Humphreys 
was Chose Treasurer. 

This Bro. Humphreys was the one mentioned previously as having made the 
Scotch Master Masons in this Lodge, and joined from the Mourning Bush Lodge, now 
Emulation No. 21. He must have been held in great esteem by the members, and the 
Secretary shows this in one place by entering his election thus — 

11 July 1758. Proceeded to Election of Officers . . . 
Br. Humphreys Ld. H. Treasurer. 

This election of a Treasurer was usually taken with that of the principal officers on 
each half-yearly election night, until September of 1759, when, under the provisions of 
the new Bye Laws then adopted, the Treasurer was elected separately at the last 
meeting of the month of September annually, while the half-yearly election of the 
other officers went on as before. 

1760. Sept. 24. This being Election Night for Treasurer, the 
Brethren qualified were Ballotted for when Bro r . Humpherys was Reelected. 

The Bye Law referred to reads as follows : — 

Article III. The Treasurer shall be elected by a private Ballot on 
the last Lodge-Night in September, each Member having proper Notice for 
that Purpose, which if the Secretary neglects to mention in the Lodge-letters 
ho shall pay as many Shillings as there are Members within 15 miles of the 
Lodge to whom he did not give proper Notice: and when the Treasurer is 
elected, he shall be invested by the Master, to whom, as the representative 
of this Lodge, he shall give his Bond for all the Lodge's Money in his Hands, 
when it amounts to Fifteen pounds or upwards, and give a Receipt every 
Lodge-Night for what Money he may receive on Account of this Lodge : and 
every Brother shall be on his Legs during the Installation of all the new 

In 17G0, 25th June, it was 

Mov'd by Bro r . Appleton that the treasurer should have a proper place 
allotted to him and a Jewel made at the Ex pence of the Lodge and for its 
honour, when it was seconded thirded and carried that the treasurer should 
have a Jewel for the time being, made under the direction of the Master, 

184 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

In 1767, 25th February, David Humphreys having "resigned the Office and 
" Jewell of Treasurer [on February llthl Brother Rob 1 . Smith was Duly Elected 
" Invested Instaled and Congratulated." 

At the December meeting of 1768 the Bye Law relating to the election of 
Treasurer in each September was superseded, and we find that officer was balloted for 
in the usual manner on the ordinary election night, with the Master, Secretary, and 
Chaplain. It was provided in the printed Bye Laws of 1760 that the Treasurer should 
give his bond to the Master for the Lodge monies. This no doubt was always done, 
but we only find one instance of its being recorded. 

1770. 19th Dec. The Brethren then proceeded to Ballot for 
a Treasurer when Bro r . Calvert was chosen by a great Majority and gave 
for his Securities Bro r . Bottomley and Bro r . Pinckney. 

1775. 20 Dec. Bro r . Calvert Treasurer chusing to decline the 
Office, Bro r . Bottomley engaged to act for him until the usual time of electing 
a new Treasurer. 

It was in 1777 (19th November) that the old form ceases of entering the cash accounts 
as they occurred at each meeting, and doubtless a separate book was then kept by the 

The Secretary we first hear of in 1737 (July 5th) when a member was " Chose 
Secretary " at the same time as the Master and Wardens : and in 1760 the nominee for 
the office "had the honour of being chose Secretary and enter'd on his office 
accordingly." On the 5th July, 1743, occurs this note : — " N.B. Put off the Nomination 
of the Secretary 'till the M. Elect is present." He was apparently nominated by the 
Master and ballotted for by the Brethren and paid the usual subscription, there being 
no hint that the latter was waived. The ordinary entry is " duly elected by a private 
Ballot." In 1769, on the 21st June, " on a Ballott for Secretary B r . Heseltine was elected 
to that Office," — this was after he had been appointed Grand Secretary, for 
at the previous meeting, 7th June, " B r . Heseltine informed the Lodge of his being 
appointed Grand Secretary, and that he sho' 1 be glad to hear from us on any Business 
relative to Masonry." After this, the appointment of Secretary was vested in the 
Master in the usual manner. A Deputy was appointed in 1752 to assist the Secretary, 
11th August. " This Night the BA W l . M re . appointed B r . Trent Secretary which he 
thought a Very great Honour done him and B 1 '. Trent Requested B 1 '. George Mason to 
be his Deputy which B r . Mason very Readily accepted." The minutes of the period 
1777-1787 appear to have been written by a professional clerk, but in 1772 there is 
recorded this grievance : — " Dec. 2. The reason no minutes have, been entered for 
several nights past is the want of a Secretary, and no Member was kind enough to 

The Past Master, or, as wo should now call him, the I. P.M., is first mentioned 
on the 5th February, 1745, although the Lodge had been in possession of a Past 
Master's jewel since 1739, an early date for that badge of office, and the Past Master 
had certain stated duties. 1 It was seldom that any Brother who had passed the Chair 
was distinguished by the initials "P.M.": only the official, if he can be called such, 

'This appears to disprove the statement, often repeated, that the " Past Master " 
was an office, not a rank, invented by the Antients, 

77(e Loilyu at the Goose and Gridiron. 185 

being termed the "Past Master." We have one instance of a "," the 
member so acting not having served a mastership. 

1739. 7 Nov. The R'. Worshipful Master Mr. J"°. Figes presented 
this Evening to this Lodge a past Master's Jewel, his health was drank in duo 
form for that kind present. 

It was not until the year 1777, that we find the usual Past Master's jewel was voted 
and presented for having served a term as Master. 

3 777. 17 Dee. The vsual oompl ts being paid to Bro r . 
[William] Preston, IV. W. past M., Bro 1 '. Donaldson moved that as an 
acknowledgement for his past Services and steady Conduct in supporting the 
antient Kights and privileges of this Lodge during his Presidency, he be 
presented with a jewel at the Expence of this Lodge . . . Resolved That 
five Guineas be allowed for the said Jewel. 

Two Stewards were appointed in 1777 (15th January). 

A motion was proposed and seconded that two Stewards be appointed 
for this Lodge, and on the Question being put, it passed in the affirmative. 

I am inclined to think these officers were our modern Deacons, and from minutes of 
various Lodges that I have been privileged to inspect, conclude that they were known 
in the Lodges of the ' Moderns ' as ' Stewards ' (with some exceptions) and among the 
' Antients ' as ' Deacons.' The next entry, on the following 17th April, seems to point 

to this :— 

Bro 1 '. Bass having presented the Lodge with two white Rods for the 
Stewards he received the thanks of the Brethren in due form. 

At the next meeting, 18th June, after the ordinary election business, " The Stewards 
were called up and thanked, when they nominated their successors, viz., Bro r . Le Caan 
proposed Bro 1 '. Bradley, and Bro r . Axtell proposed Bro 1 '. Dulaney, and these Brethren 
being approved were appointed Stewards for the coming six Months." At the close of 
the year these Stewards are entered in the list of Officers present as " Sen 1 '. S. and 
Jun^. S," 

There is no mention of an Inner Guard, and coming to the Tyler, there is a deal 
of information to be gathered as to this humble but useful officer. Usually he was not 
a member of the Lodge. His fee on ordinary nights was 1/0, but when a Mason was 
made, this was increased by a special fee from the Candidate of half-a-crown to four 
shillings. Later his remuneration was increased to 2/6 per night, and about the same 
time (1744) there is an item continually recurring — " Drawer, 6d." The " Drawer " I 
believe to have been the Waiter or Serving Brother who attended to the creature 
comforts of the Brethren, and not the one who ;I drew the Lodge " : this was the duty 
of the Tyler himself, who had to prepare the symbolic diagrams on the floor of the 
Lodge and erase them when the evening's business had closed. This was also called 
"Forming the Lodge." A candidate for initiation having failed to present himself on 
the 5th December, 1770, — " Bro 1 '. Bottomley prayed that his making might be postponed, 
he undertaking to pay the Expences of forming last Night and this." A note in the 
margin says " Mr. Bengough did not attend on acco*. of Illness of which he died." 

In 1776. 1 May. Conven'd Night. On account of the Tyler having 
neglected to form a Lodge the Brethren were not Rais'd. 

186 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Another duty to be carried out by the Tyler, was to deliver the summonses to the 
members of the Lodge. 

March 1st, 1736 (1737). " Agreed by the Members then present that Bro r 
Riddalls Serv 1 be Allowed 12d. each Lodge night for Carrieing y c Letters to Each 
Member." Riddall was landlord of the " Queen's Arms " in St. Paul's Church Yard, 
where the Lodge was then meeting. And in 1744 (3rd July) : — 

Ordered that the Tyler for the future do deliver out the Summon' s 
for the meeting of this Lodge and be paid for the same One Shilling exclusive 
of his money for the Tyling. 

The accounts for the 7th May state, in 1745, 

Tyler 2 6 

D°. for Carying Somonds to Settle 

last Masters acco 4 2 

Drawer 6 

At Christmas it was customary to give him a gratuity of 10/6. 

1771. Wed. 11 Jan. A motion was made and seconded and 
passed Nem. Con. that in Consideration of the Tylers due Attendances 
on this Lodge and faithful Services an extra Gratuity of 10s. 6d. be given 
to him out of the Gen 1 . Fund of this Lodge, but this not to bo a President 
for another year. 

But it did form a "President" for several years and we have many entries to this 
effect — "A motion was made that the Tyler may receive his usual Complim' of half-a- 
guinea at Christmas which was unanimously agreed." 

From other entries we discover other duties to be performed by the Tyler. For 
instance, — "5 Aug. 1740. 'Tis agreed that the Tyler shall take the Visitors' 
" money at the Door & bring it to the M r . to save the trouble of the the jun r . Warden 
" and Secra'T." And in the 1760 By Laws, it is provided in article IX— " the Tyler 
shall collect the Money of the Visiting Brethren before they enter the Lodge-Room," 

and in Article IV — " every Bro shall pay besides the Tyler's 

usual fees, which shall be Two shillings and Sixpence for being raised to the Third 
Degree : the said Tyler being obliged to present each New made Brother with a List 
of the Lodges." 

Harris was the first Tyler we read about at the commencement of the minutes in 
1736 to 6th November, 1738 : but Bro. Sadler in his paper on Tylers and Tyling points 
out that in the 1723 list of original No. 1 Lodge there is the name of Edward Lewis, 
who for neglect of duty and insolence to the Grand Stewards was carpeted before the 
G. Lodge in 1732. We do not know who was Tyler from 1738 to 1747, as his fee is 
charged in the accounts nightly and his name not mentioned. Complin was for some 
part of that time in the service of the Lodge, and on 13th January 1746-7 we find — 
" Note. Bro r . Montgommery was Chosen Tyler of this Lodge this Night in the Room 
of Bro r . Compplin deced." Montgomery got in trouble very soon after his election, for 
in April, 1747 : — 

Whereas it has been usual for the Grand Secretary to send Letters 
for the Committee of Charity & the Quarterly Communication to the several 
Lodges And whereas it was usual for the Tylers to carry the s d Letter to the 
Ma r . of their respective Lodges and Mr. Montgomery who is present Tyler 
of this Lodge has violated this Custom, Therefore it is ordered by this Lodge 
that if the said Mr. Montgomery shall for the future during his s" 1 . Tylership 
or any other in that Capacity neglect his s a . Duty in this respect that then 
& in such Case lie shall be discharged from serving this Lodge in s d . Capacity. 

'the Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 1 87 

Montgomery was also at this time "Guarder of the Grand Lodge "—or Grand 
Tyler, — and in these minutes he is called both Tyler and Guarder. The engraving of 
his portrait is well known ; there is an oil painting, perhaps the original of this engrav- 
ing, in the Lodge room of No. 24, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, which is said to be the portrait 
of their Tyler, bat these extracts show this claim to be untenable. Montgomery died in 
June, 1757, and the Lodge " Order'd that Bro r . Bird should Attend as Tyler for the 
Benetitt of the Widow of Br°. Montgomery During pleasure." 1 Bird appears to have 
succeeded to the vacant post, but his tenure was brief. 

11th July. 1758. The Lodge thought Right to discharge the present 
Tyler and have Chose B r . Fredin for to Succeed him. 

We hear many times of two Tylers of the Lodge, first in 1756, at the election on 
26th December — "and the Lodge contiuued Br°. West and Sherman Tylers for y c 
ensuing half-year." 

1760. 25 June. Election for upper and under Tyler also came on,, 
when Brother West was chose Nein. Con. for upper Tyler. Brothers Sher- 
man Welch and Campbell were put up for under Tyler when Bro r . Sherman 
was Elected by a great majority. 

The 1760 By Laws provide in Article X as follows : — 

One Shilling and Six-pence shall be paid each Lodge-Night to the Head 
Tyler, who has the Benefit of all Formations, and is to take care of the 
Lodge's Furniture : and Three Shillings shall be paid to the Under Tyler, 
who is to carry the Lodge-Letters to the Members : 

1763. 22 June. . . proceed 4 to Ballot for Tylers it was propos d and 
2 d to have but one Tyler : it past in the affirmative. ... & there was 
[a] Balled for a Tyler, the Balled fell on Bro r . Sherman and R.W.M. Gave 
him his Charg. 

1767. 24 June. The Tyler having had notice to attend the Lodge the 
two Nights past which he neglected, and having omitted to summon the 
Brethren duly, he was made acquainted that if he omitted to attend the 
Lodge this Night the Brer 11 , would proceed to elect another which was done 
accordingly when Bro r . Oliver was duly elected into that Office for the next 
half year, and properly invested with the Badge of his Office. 

1767. Dec. 23. The Tyler was then ballotted for, when Bro r . Oliver 
on Account of his Good Behaviour for the last Half-Year was duly elected 
into that office. 

At the foot of the 1778 By Laws are the names of Barney (or Barnabas) 
Rutledge, "Mitre Tavern," Upper Tyler. John Oliver, Grub Street, Under Tyler. 
Barney Rutledge became the Grand Tyler of the schismatic Lodge of Antiquity under 
the Grand Lodge of All England South of the River Trent. 

There appears to be some reason for the belief that the Indoor or Upper Tyler 
developed later into the Inner Guard, of which we have here no mention at all. In 
A.Q.C. vii., 194, is an extract from the minutes of " Love and Honour " at Falmouth, 
a " Modern " Lodge, given by Bro. Geo. H. Baynes Reed, which shows the I.G. became 
widely adopted at the Union, and that he formerly wore as his jewel a trowel, a practice 
we hear of in several other Lodges about the same time. 

1 His son Robert was Tyler of the Mourning Bush Lodge, and proved to be a bad 
character, for ono day in 1764 " the Tyler did not attend, and the jewels, both new and 
old, were missing, together with the Pall, Hirams, Stewards' Aprons, etc., suppos'd 
to be illegally taken by the said Tyler." Ho pawned them for a guinea and a half, 
and in March 1765 he was imprisoned for the offence in the Wood Street Compter, being 
sentenced by Sir Richard Glynn, a former Lord Mayor, and member of No. 1 Lodge 
and of the Mourning Bush Lodge also. 

188 Transactions of the Quatuot Goronati Lodge. 

The Waiter at the Tavern where the Lodge met was made in the first and second 
degrees together, as was the custom ; on the 12th December, 1759 : — 

B>'. Hob 1 Smith was propos'd to be rais'd to y° 3 d degree, which was 
•2<> 3 d & earned Nem Con and he was rais'd accordingly. 

1771. 17 April. B>\ Bottomley our K.W.M. finding there was not a 
waiter in this House who had been admitted to the Honours of Masonry, 
and that Barnabas Itutledge had not only lived long but was likely to 
continue with our B'\ Cox, proposed that he should be made to wait upon 
the Bre". in Lodge which was agreed to & he was accordingly made a Mason 

In the year 1778 occurred an incident concerning the prestige of the Lodge, in 
which William Preston played a part, and is best narrated in the words of the record. 

At the meeting of the Lodge held on the 16th. October 1776 Brother 
Preston then informed the Lodge that about a fortnight ago he had visited 
a Lodge at the Pontefract Castle, near Paddington, where a Member of the 
Stewards Lodge was also on a Visit, That the Master of the Lodge had with 
great politeness and agreeably to the antient custom of the Society, com- 
plimented Bro''. Preston as Master of No. 1, with the thanks of the Lodge, 
for the honour of his visit, before the same compliment had been paid to the 
Member of the Stewards Lodge, then present, That the said Brother Steward 
had informed Brother Preston that lie looked upon the Conduct of the Master 
of the Lodge, to be derogatory to the dignity of the Stewards Lodge, which 
he wished to support, and that he was determined to represent the Affair to 
his Lodge, and if it was their opinion to support him, he should lay the 
matter before the Grand Lodge. Brother Preston then acquainted the 
Brethren that he thought it necessary to apprise them of the intended com- 
plaint, as he might thereby obtain their consent towards the support of 
the antient rights and privileges of No. 1. He explained the first origin of 
the Office of Steward, the several privileges granted to the Brethren, who 
had served that Office, by Grand Lodge, and the several claims which the 
Lodge of Antiquity might assert to the honour of Masonry in preference to 
any Lodge under the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of England. The 
Brethren were unanimously of opinion to support their rights and privileges 
against all innovations, and voted the Thanks of the Lodge to Brother 
Preston for his diligence and attention to preserve them. It was likewise 
resolved, That the healths of the Master and Brethren of the Lodge at 
Paddington' be drank, and That the Thanks of the Lodge of Antiquity be 
transmitted to them for the Compliment paid to Brother Preston, promising 
every support against any complaint that may be brought against them on 
that account. 

At the next meeting the letter of thanks to the Lodge at the Pontefract Castle was read 
and approved, and ordered to be sent. 

Perhaps before touching upon the subject of the Grand Chapter of Harodim, we 
may briefly refer to that of Lectures. It was not till the century had entered upon its 
second half that we find the first reference in the minutes. 

1706. Aug. 10. The Minuits of Last Lodge were Read and Confirmed. 
A Lecture was had and Lodge Closed. 

1707. May 10. a Lecture in Enter'd Prentice and fellow Craft 


The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 189 

Bro. Rylands remarks on this last entry, and presses home the contention made earlier 
with reference to degrees in the Lodge : — 

Although it appears from some of the minutes as if the E.A. Lecture 
was given alone, it must, however, bo remarked that in no single instance 
were the degrees themselves separated : that is to say, that the two first 
degrees were always given together and not for a long period separated even 
by name. 1 cannot think that this was caused by the laziness of the Clerk, 
but rather that, according to the old System, a man was ' made ' a Mason 
and then a Master Mason : and those older masons, like the early members 
of Original No. 1, never departed from the ancient customs of Masonry, and 
even in the middle of the 18th century, although they adopted more or less 
the modern nomenclature it was not until the year 1777 that they gave the 
two first degrees separately. 

But let us glance at a few more extracts, not perhaps of great importance, but as 
specimens of what was done in the way of Lectures in this old Lodge. 

1757. Sep. 13. The M 1 '. gave an Extraordinary joyous Lecture and 
all business being done in a most pleasing manner the Lodge was Closed. 

11 Oct. The Master gave a Lecture by his "Warden in the Fellow 
Craft & Enter'd Apprentice part. 

8 Nov. The Master gave a Lecture by lire 1 '. Hammond in a most 
agreeable manner. 

17-38. June 13. A Lecture was given by Bro 1 '. H amnion Sen 1 '. "Warden 
at the Request of Bro 1 '. Nicholson as Master and the proper Healths being 
Drank the Lodge Adjourn' d to the 2 d Tuesday in July being the Election 

17-59. Nov. 8. Being a private Lodge night. . . . There were two 
lectures given in the Enter'd Apprentice and Fellow crafts part by Bro 1 '. 
Hammond who was appointed so to do by our It 1 . "W. M 1 '. 

Queens Arms Lodge. Dec 1 "'. 12. 1758. . . the Masters Lodge being 
Opeu'd. ... a lecture being given in folio the lodge being Closed. 

This is the first mention of the Master's Lodge, and the " lecture in folio " must, says 
Bro. Rylands, be interpreted as " a Lecture in the Fellow Craft's part " given at the 
end of the proceedings. 

1751). Aug. 22. Our ll.W.M. gave Lectures in the Enter'd Apprentice 
and Fellow Crafts parts, and Bro 1 '. Hammond a Charge to the New made 
Bro 1 ' 8 . 

Sep 1 ', the 12th. 1759. . . The R.W.M 1 '. gave a Lecture in the Enter d 
Apprentice part. Drank the Usual Toasts & no other Business Offering the 
Lodge was Closed. 

28th Nov. The Master gave Lectures in the 2 d & 3 d Degree, A: y 
Lodge was closed in due Form. 

1761. Sep. 23. Our R.W.M. Bro 1 '. T. M. Perkins retiring before the 
Lodge was closed, was pleased to invest Bro 1 '. Dr. Jos. Power [a visitor] with 
his Jewel as R.W.M. pro tempore: from whom we had a Lecture in the 
Second and third Degree. 

1702. 10 Nov. The ll.W.M. was pleased to favour us with a Noble 
Lecture in the Third Degree. 

1763. Feb. 9. . . [the lecture] that of the First Degree of Masonry 
was given in a most Excellent & Explicit Manner. 

1765. "Wed. April 24th. The Master examined the Brothers present 
in the three Degrees of Masonry : Agreable songs sang. 

190 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Preston, when he became Master in 1774, held public lectures, which were 
attended with considerable expense, without any emolument, as he himself tells us 
in the State of Fads, and developed a system of instruction peculiarly his own, and 
which later developed into his Grand Chapter of Harodjm, of which little appears to be 
known. Its By Laws have been reprinted several times. 

1777. Jan. 15. A motion was made & seconded, That a Chapter of 
the Order be held at our next meeting, On the Question being put, it passed 
also in the affirmative. 

1777. Fob. 26. [After postponing the Chapter to the 5th March, and 
a number of Brethren bad been " exalted to tho respectable Degree of 
Master masons according to antient form,"] The Brethren then pro- 
ceeded to settle the plan of conducting the Chapter on Wednesday next, 
when the several departments for that occasion were filled up : and a motion 
was made and seconded, That a Committee be appointed to settle matters for 
the more proper management of the Ceremonies, in order that the honour of 
the Lodge may bo duly supported, and on the question being put, it passed 
in the Affirmative unanimously. 

1777. March 5th. Lodge of Antiquity, Mitre Tavern, Chapter Night. 

Members. Visitors. 

Bror. W. Preston, R.W.M. Bror. Phil. Rich 11 . Fendall, King's Head, 

John Wilson, S.W. Poultry. 

Sam : Bass, I.W. ,, Dr. Tho s . Clerke, Canongate 

W. Manning. Kilwinning, Edin r . 

Sam. White. ,, Joseph Perm, No. 23, Globe Lodge. 

Sam Axtell, Steward. „ Henry Cox, No. 128. 

Theoph. Hartley [Sees'. ] „ W. Moody, Lodge of Utility. 

Charles le Caan, Steward. ,, Tho 8 . Loach, No. 243 Dover. 

James Breavley ,, Tho s . Deeble. 

William Barker ,, William Stiles, late of No. 50 1 . 

Benjamin Bradley ,, James Donaldson, Lodge of Utility. 

Henry Miles [and others, see post.'] 

Edward Willets 
Richard Hunt 
John Craigio 
John Hay 
John Sharp 
Ralph Ergas 

Lodge opened in the Third Degree in an adjacent Room, Procession entered 
the Lodge Room, and the usual ceremonies being observed, tho Three Rulers 
were seated. A piece of Music was then performed, and the 12 Assistants 
entered in procession and after repairing to their stations the Chapter was 
opened in solemn form. Brother Barker then rehearsed the Second Section. 
A piece of music was then performed by the instruments. Brother Preston 
then rehearsed the Third Section. An Ode on Masonry was then sung by 
three voices. Brother Hill rehearsed the 4th. Section, after which a piece of 
solemn music was performed. Bror. Brearley rehearsed the 5th. Section, and 
the funeral procession was formed during which a solemn dirge was played 
and this ceremony concluded with a Grand Chorus. Bror. Berkley rehearsed 
the 6th. Section, after which an anthem was sung. Bror. Preston then 
rehearsed the 7th. Section, after a song in honour of masonry, accompanied 
by the instruments was sung. The Chapter was then closed with the usual 
solemnity, and the Rulers and twelvo Assistants made the procession round 
the Lodge, and then withdrew to an adjacent Room, where the Master's 
Lodge was closed in due form. 

'This lodge was erased from the list on the previous 5th February. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Bror. Preston reported that Bror. John Craigie had heen raised to the 
third Degree at the Lodge No, 23, held at the Globe Tavern, Fleet Street, in 
order to attend this Chapter. 

The Assistants who acted at the Chapter were 

Bror. Barker 

The Three Rulers were Bro r . 
Ruler : Maning, Jun r . Ruler. 

Bror. Farmer [James Farmer] 

Preston, Chief Ruler: Wilson, Sen r . 

I quote also Bro. Rylands' remarks upon this unique occurrence :— " I have quoted this 
" minute in full as it is the only instance of the kind occurring in the minute books 
". . . At a much later period these lectures were regularly worked by the members 
" of the Lodge, due notice being given of them on the summons: and then those who 
"officiated were called ' Lecturers ' and ' Clauselioldcrs,' and the meetings were held in 
'' Preston's Lodge of Instruction, which every member of the Lodge was entitled to 
" attend. It will be remarked that the ' Chapter' was not held in the Lodge ..." 

At an early date are noted particulars of what points to duplicate membership: 
in 1737 — "Bro. Berry Blossoms Inn & 3 More [Lodges*] " attended and paid his fee as 
a visitor. We know it was ordained by Grand Lodge on the 19th February, 1723-4, 
" No Brother shall belong to more than one Lodge within the bills of mortality tho' he 
" may visit them all, except the members of a foreign Lodge." Bro. Gould points out 1 
this regulation became obsolete soon after its adoption and was neglected for several 
years until reaffirmed by Grand Lodge on the 23rd March, 1742, upon which occasion 
" Lodges were directed to deliver lists of their members in order that Brethren 
" belonging to more than one Lodge might be called upon to make their election to what 
" Lodge they will belong for the time to come." 

Jewels are noted as early as 1730, and the very handsome set of three for the 
principal officers are illustrated (p. 78) being inscribed — " Ex dono N[athan] Blanch 
Sen 1 '. Warden 1730 " These are still in possession of the Lodge after 182 years' use. 

Attention has been previously drawn to the early mention of the Past Master's 
jewel, presented on 7th November, 1739. A few entries refer to repairs, and as we shall 
presently see, to ribbons for jewels, but there is no record of the purchase of any jewels 
by or for the Lodge. Of the pattern of the jewels we may gather a possible clue in the 
details of those used by the Mourning Bush Lodge (now No. 21, dating fiom 1723) 
which was closely connected with No. 1, visitors from the former being frequently 
present at the latter. The jewels ordered for the Mourning Bush Lodge, 
consisted of the Master's, which " had the representation of a Sun to hang between the 
Collar and the Jewel," the S.W. to have " the representation of the seven stars " in a 
similar position, and " the J.W. to have a half moon bang between as the two others. 
The Treasurer's Jewel to be made after the pattern of that at the Queen's Arms 
Lodge "—i.e., No. 1, Antiquity— " the Past Master's Jewel to have a Sun hang between 
the Compass and Collar. The Sy' s . Jewel to have Cross Pens, the emblem of the 

'Four Old Lodges, p. 13. 

192 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Minute Book, and inkstand at the bottom." These six jewels arid collars for the same 
cost in all £26 14s. Gd. 1 

It is first recorded, in the cash statement of the 4th July, 1738 — " B r . Weddell 
for \ p 5 . [piece] Broad Ribbon for y c Use of y e Lodge Ordered by B r . Wotton and part 
of it used by him — 18 — ." There is no colour mentioned, and it is surmised by Bro. 
Rylands that it may have been green, the colour worn in this Lodge from old times, as 
is pointedly referred to iii the next extract. 

2" d Jan-y. 1738. [1730] Agreed this Evening Norn. Con. that the 
present and all Succeeding Masters and "Wardens shall Wear Aprons lined 
with Green and the Jewells pendant with a Green Ribband to Each and that 
the same bo provided Each at their Expence for the time being Successively 
it being the Ancient Custom of this Lodge. 

In 1739 came the change to white, in conformity to, but long after, the Order of the 
Grand Lodge, 24th June, 1727, and again 17th March, 1731, and the green was 


1739. 1 st May. It was this Evening Agreed that for the future the 
White Ribband be worn in this Lodge in the stead of the Green conformable 
to the Order of the Grand Master. 

On the same evening is the cash entry : — Paid Bro r . Weddall for" Ribband,— 3—." and 
there are many similar ones following, showing that the cost was Is. per yard, — " 3 
Yds. Ribband. — 3 — ." and so on. 

1747. 14 April. Ano 1 '. Order was made that Clean Ribbons for all 
the Jewells of this Lodge be prepared ag st . the ensuing grand ffeast. 

1764. 10 Oct. Then it was agreed that the Lodge be furnished by 
Brother Mason with handsome Plate Laces instead of Ribbons for the Officers' 
Jewels, and the Jewels to bo repaired. 

The Plate Laces were possibly a form of silver thread lace, in use before chains were 
adopted. The Mourning Bush Lodge, to which we have before referred, decided in 
17G2 " the Collars to all the Jewels to be a good Silver Lace of a rich pattern." 

1777. 27 Dec. The Secretary informed the Bretheren that he had 
taken the Liberty with the advice of some of the Members of the Lodge, to 
provide a Sett of broad White Ribbon for the Jewells (the present Laces to 
which the Jewells wore pendent, being in bad Condition), as he was of opinion 
that it would add much to the respectable appearance of the Lodge, but as 
he had purchased them without authority from the Lodge, if the Bretheren 
disapproved of his Conduct, he would chearfully pay the Expence out of his 
own Pocket : The Brethren vnanimously approved what B 1 '. Bradley had 
done & ordered that they might be paid for out of the Fund of the Lodge. 

Aprons and Gloves are frequently referred to in the accounts and minutes, the 
gloves however not being such a prominent item after the early period. It cost the Lodo-e 
at first 1/3 and later 1/6 for each apron presented to the candidate, being charged up 
in the accounts, and gloves were 1/3 to 1/6 the pair, the candidates being clothed at 
the expense of the Lodge, the reverse of the custom in many other old Lodges, where 
the initiate had to "clothe the Lodge," that is, present a pair of gloves to each 
member, and sometimes to a female relative of each 2 . 

1738. r, Dec r . P d . for Gloves & Aprons for B r . Garnit & B r . Midford 
which was Omited when they was Made. — 8 — . 

'Sadler's History of No. 21, Lodge of Emulation, p. 37. 

2 The By Laws of the Lodge at the Bricklayers Arms, Barbican, (in the Rawhn- 
son Collection) provide that the. Candidate shall " pay 2-7-0 at his Making and receive 
Double Oloathing," and a joining Member "to pay Half a Guinea at his Entrance and 
receive single Cloathing." Quoted by Gould, History of Freemasonry, ii., 367, note. 

The Lodge at tlw Goose and Gridiron. 193 

The rules of the Lodge at the Swan and Rummer show what was done at the making 
of brothers, when they had to clothe the Lodge. Rule No. 8 — •" the visitors invited 
" by the Master & Wardens at the making of new Brothers shall be intitled to 
" Cioathing," — and No. 10, — "That none but the Brothers present at a meeting be 
" intitled to Cioathing." 

1739. Aug*. 7th. Tt is Agreed Nomine Con at this Lodge That two 
Aprons bo provided at the Expenoo of this Lodge not exceeding Eighteen 
pence Each for Tiro 1 '. Whitworth & Bro>'. Wright. 

1739. 4 Sep. Order'd & Agreed That for the future that Every 
Brother that shall be Admitted a Member of this Lodge shall pay for their 

But as late as 1753 we find, in spite of this regulation, that 1/6 each is still charged to 
the Lodge for aprons. 

1739. 5 June, paid Bro r . Edward Chapman for two pair of Gloves 
as his ffee, being made in this Lodge, — 3 — . 

1751. 14 April. Joseph Simonds was made a Mason & admitted a 
member the Brethren complimenting our Bro r . with his Apron & p r of 

In 1768 the Tyler was paid 16/- for one dozen aprons, and in 1769 the amount had 
crept up to 18/-. This shows that the apron in use in the Lodge for many years was 
the plain white bather skin, without lining of any sort, and the Master's probably 
lined and turned up with silk, but always, be it noted, in white. 

1769. Wed. 18 Oct. A Motion was made that the R.W.M. sh (1 be 
furnished with an Apron properly lined with Silk, at the Expence of the 
Lodge, which was unanimously approved of. 

and this item cost the Lodge 10 '6, instead of the ordinary 1/6 for the plain skin 

An inventory is often an extremely useful as well as interesting document when 
it occurs in the pages of an old minute book, but in this case there appears to be no 
record of one : only scraps of information are to be picked up here and there of the 
property of the Lodge. An entry is made in 1750 (11th December) — 

By the consent of the whole Lodge these minutes arc made that the 
Tyler is to collect all the old Books & other things relating to the same against 
next Lodge-Night and an envontory to bo taken of them. 

Another is of 1758, 11th July. 

Then Examin'd into what Furniture was left and found all except one 
Square & Lovell, of Wooden Jewells a Checell, a Crimson Velvet Scabbard, 
a p 1 ' Compasses with Brass tops & Steal points. 

Apparently connected with this discovery — "the Lodge thought Right to dis- 
charge the Present Tyler." The compasses had been purchased on the 14lh May, 1751, 
for the sum of ninepence : and in 1759, on the 22nd August, " B r . Moses this night 
made a present to this Lodge of " one pair of Brass Compasses with Steel points, for 
which he was " thank'd & his health drank in due form," 

194 Transactions of the Quntuor Coronati Lodge. 

We have already noted the jewels presented in 1730 by Nathan Blanch, the 
Senior Warden, still in use, and the mention of the Past Master's jewel, together with 
others for the Secretary and Chaplain. The following minutes refer also to jewels. 

1774. 19 Jan. There being 3 old Silver Jewels, brought and deposited 
in the Lodge By B r . John Rigge, on a presumption that they had in some 
former time belonged to the Lodge, tho' he had bought them as old Silver 
and the Bight Worshipfull Master desiring B r . W m . Rigg to return them to 
his Brother which he refused : he was therefore requested to inform his 
brother, that they were ready to be returned to his future order : which 
message B r . W m . Rigg promised to convey. [John Rigge had recently 
resigned on account of ill health.] 

1775. 18th Jan. Wed. A note was received from Bro r . John Rigge 
desiring the restoration of thre old Silver Jewells which he had favored the 
Lodge with the Loan of for some Years which Jewells were sont to him by 
the Bearer of such Note upon his giving a Receipt to the Lodge for the same. 

1775. March 11. B r . Fleetwood Requested the Jewels of tho Lodge 
to Represent a Country Lodge which was proposed seconded & Carried Nem 

April 8th. B r . Fleetwood has returned the Jewels this Night. 

1767. 28 Jan. Mr. Bates made a present to this Lodge of a Mason's 

As regards some other items of property we read : — 

1768. 24 Feb. B r . W. Rigge proposed that two new Fashionable 
Hirams be provided for y c Use of the Wardens of this Lodge, the old ones 
being cumbersome but that y e Old ones be laid on y° Table each Lodge Night 
as part of the Jewells of the Lodge & on Acco*. of their Antiquity be carefully 
preserved, which proposal was seconded. 

They cost £1 per pair. It is curious to note no Hiram of a fashionable sort was 
provided for the Master, who possibly continued to use the cumbersome old kind, the 
maul in common use at that period, as used among the operative masons. 

1763. Oct. 26. It is unanimously agreed to have an elegant perfect 
Ashler & Lewis made with all Materials to hang the same in a Genteel 
Massonic Manner At the expence of the Lodge. 

This perfect Ashler, according to Mr. Pinkney's Bill, cost £2 12s. 6d. Mahogany 
Box for Ditto, £1 18s., and Tressel Board £3 13s. 6d., total £8 4s. 

In 1777, on the 19th November, occurs the following : — " Paid Mr. Manning for 
Furniture belonging to the Lodge of Freedom £12 12s." This Lodge had met at the 
same place as the Lodge of Antiquity, the " Mitre Tavern," from its constitution in 1770 
being erased on the 5th February, 1777, and William Manning of that Lodge, and land- 
lord of the " Mitre," joined No. 1 on the 5th January, 1777. 

In 1759 the Ballotting Box was ordered to be " repaired and a lock put on the 
drawer and that B 1 '. Feild do get the same done." 

The large wooden gilt candlesticks still in possession of the lodge are twice 
referred to : Thomas Nevett mentioned in the second item was tho well known Coach- 
maker of Long Acre, and a friend of Bottomley, the R.W.M. 

1754. 14 May. Our Candlesticks being in very bad Order, B r . Feild 
was so kind as to mend and clean them & put them in proper order at his 
own Expence, the Lodge drank his health in form. 

1777. Bro r . Nevitt having generously at his own Expence new gilded 
& decorated the Lodge Candlesticks, his health was drank with the honours 
of Masonry. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Candles cost usually 7s. 66., or half-a-crown each, of one pound weight "Wax 
Candles the pres 1 . iYaar," " 3 Wax Candles, 7s. 6d.," " for 91b. candles £1 2s. 6d."— a 
multiple of 7s. 6d. 

As our ancient brethren were accustomed to enjoy their Refreshment after labour, 
or even while at work in the Lodge room, we may turn our attention to some entries 
bearing on their creature comforts. We must not forget that in the early days and for 
many years later in the eighteenth century they sat and worked at table, interspersing 
toasts at frequent intervals, as shown by the songs and healths given by Anderson in 
the Constitutions. Preston tells us it was in 1719, at the Feast on June 24th, "the old, 
"regular, and peculiar toasts or healths of the free-masons were introduced" 
by Dr. Desaguliers. Be this as it may, the first Lodge accounts show that little was 
spent on refreshment, and the rules of the Lodge provided for economy. As specimens 
a few items may be taken at random : — 


Wine & Tobacco 

1:3 26' 

More Wine 

More Wine 

Sugar & Lamond 
Leamon & Sugar 

18 — 

— 6 

4 — 

— 12 




On another occasion, when the Master and Wardens were absent, and only eight brethren 
were present, we have this statement : — 





Wine & Toba 

Wine more 

£— 1G — 


— 2 6 

— 19 


— 19 

— 2 



1 1 

— 2 


1 3 8 

1747. 13 Oct. Uro. Trent the present Ma r . have agreed to pay for 
a Bottle of Wine which was call'd for by the Brethren of the last Lodge- 
Night after the Lodge was closed provided that the like be not done again. 

— 2 — . 

This, says Bro. Rylands, "points clearly to the fact the wine & most probably the 
" tobacco also, were consumed in the Lodge. It must not be forgotten that it was not 
" until the year 1755 that smoking was expressly forbidden in the Grand Lodge. There 
"is no doubt that in the early years of Freemasonry the meetings were of a kind very 

1 For 31 present, say 2/- per head for wine & 6d. for tobacco. 

196 Transactions of the Qualuor Corouati Lodge. 

" similar to the ' Club ' of the period. I am inclined to think that, as in the case of the 
" well known picture of the visit of Cagliostro to Original No 1, although perhaps the wine 
" was served at the table lodge, there were intervals during which the Lodge was called 
" from labour to refreshment." 1 

The same Bro. Trent mentioned in the last extract, had occasion ten years later 
to resign on account of a dispute with the landlady. Brother Richard Reddall, the host 
of the " Queen's Arm's " in St. Paul's Church Yard, had for some years signed the 
accounts, and at his decease his wife carried on the business, the receipts being signed on 
her behalf in this fashion—" Rec (1 . in full for Mrs. Riddall. P r . Jn". Bates." 

fobs'. 8th. 1757. B 1 '. Trent has this Night deelar'd he will be no 
longer more a Member of this Lodge til such time as it may be removed to 
some other house on Account of the Insult from M rs . Reddal, who Charged 
him & the rest of the Brethren with the non payment of a bottle of wine. 

At the foot of the same occurs the following note challenging this statement : — 

And B 1 '. Trent came at 8 O'Clock & staid till and wrote the above 
paragraph but went away and did not pay his way as likewise he did one 
night before, so the Lodge being Closed at 10 O'Clock. 

Grand Officers were made welcome when they visited : — 

1700. Feb. 27. The D.G.M. this Night did us the Honour of an early 
Visit. As we had y° honour of a Visit from y° Grand Officers we gave them 
a small Repast. 

But times aross when it became necessary to lay down a limit dictated by Prudence, 
and this is the quaint form of the regulation governing the consumption of liquor: — 

1769. 9 April. A Motion was made. . . . which was seconded and 
thirded, & was put to a publiek Ballot and carried Nem Con that no Wine 
for y° Future is to be carried out of Y° Lodge Room for their Supper under 
no Pretence whatever to be drank at y° Lodges Expence nor to be sent for. 

R.W.M. made a Motion that no Liquor whatsoever or any adherents 
thereto is to be drank at y° Lodges Expence. 

The By Laws of the same year provide — Article X. - "no Liquor drank before Lodge 
hours, or called for after the Lodge is once Closed in due form, shall, on any 
Pretence whatever, be charged to the Lodge." 

1767. 28 Oct. The Irregularity and other 111 Consequences of Ebriety 
which strike at the Root of our well grounded Order having been often beheld 
by the Brethren of this Lodge of Masons, particularly at our last Meeting 
with proper detestation. To prevent such ill Effects for the future. 

It is this Night unanimously determined that no Brother be permitted 
to drink more in the Lodge or during Lodge Hours, than one Pint of Wine 
or one Shillings worth of Punch or Brandy or Rum and Water. Such Wine 
to be of the Common sort at 2 Shillings V Bottle unless any Bro r . choosing 
Wine of a higher Price or having his Pint made into Negus shall make up 
the difference from his own Purse over & above y° usual Contribution to the 
Lodge, but on no Account to be permitted to drink more, so long as the Lodge 

'One of the By Laws of 1760 regulates smoking in lodge. "Article XV. No 
Brother shall offer to smoak at any Time during Lodge-Hours, when this Lodge is 
honoured with a Visit of a Brother who wears a blue Apron, without Leave first 
obtained from the Master; unless such Visitor smoaks a Pipe himself; otherwise the 
offending Brother shall immediately pay One Shilling, and be obliged to leave off 
smoaking." , 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 19? 

shall be open, or afterwards at the Lodges Expence — nor shall more than two 
join in their Liquor and not those unless they sit together upon the Penalty 
of 2 s / 6' 1 for every Breach of any Part of this Order, Malt Liquors with 
Suppers only excepted. 

The laofc Lodge Night referred to above was the occasion of a visit from the 
Constitution Lodge in Bedford Street, Covent Garden, sixteen brethren of that Lodge 
and two other visitors being present, who " this Evening paid us a visit in fform " and 
no doubt did themselves too well, leading to the adoption of the order given on the 28th 

1746. 11 Nov. Bro Wotton [who had been absent for nearly a year] 
out of his great Generosity & Respect to the. Lodge & as an Ackm* there 
of, has been so kind as to present this Lodge with two Bottles of Wine. 

1759. April 10. . . . after the Lodge was open'd in due form, the 
Health of our Absent members was drank. 

10th October. Bro. Luckombe was thank'd & his health drank in form 
for his present of four Doz. of Wine & Rum Tickets for the use of this Lodge. 
Bro. Tucker being going abroad his health was drank and Wish'd a Good 
Voyage f,nd a Safe Return. 

1763. 23 Jan. ... it was proposed and was seconded and thirded 
that B r . Perkins' health be drank each Lodge Night during his Absence on his 
intended Journey. 

1762. June 9. Bro 1 '. Perkins health was drank in full Bumpers. 

1763. 25 May. The R.W.M. and others being present, — their healths 
were drank & Answers made in due form. 

1771. 19 June. The Right Worshipful after obliging the Lodge with 
the Entered Apprentice Song, closed the Lodge in due form. 

1771. Dec. 3. The Master Inform'd the Brethren Bro 1 '. Cox [land- 
lord of the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street] Desir'd their Company to Sup with 
him next Lodge Night, Agreeable to Antient Custom. 

'the Summonses, or " Circular Letters " (also referred to as " Bills "), delivered to 
the members of the Lodge at the hands of the Tyler, are heard of as far back as 1737, when 
they were printed from an engraved plate by Benjamin Cole, a member of the Lodge. 

Bro r . Cole for y° Plate. 2-6-6 

The printing of these is mentioned in numerous items at various times such as the 
following : — 

r P' 1 for 1 Ream 
Edward I Eools Cap Paper — 14 — 

Ryland - 

for Print 8 Letters 

I. 1/6 p r 100 — 15 — 

1744. 3 Hundred of Summonses ... ... — 9 — 

1745. Paid Bro 1 '. Fabor for printing Bills 10 6 

1746. Rec d . for One Hundred Bills three 

Shillings & Six pence 

P Henry Burgh — 3 6 

1747. Recev d . for 200 Bills, printing, & 

all Demands 

P Henry Burgh — 7 — 

1759. Oct. 21. Tt was unanimously agreed That 300 Somonds be 
printed from the new plate presented to the Lodge by Bro r . Perkins & that 
Bro r . Luckombe do get them done this time, but that Bro r . Burgh do them 
the next. 

198 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Nov. 28. B 1 '. Perkins made the Lodge a Present of an exceeding 
handsome Copper Plate for Lodge Letters to summons y° Members, for which 
Thanks were returned to him, and his Health Drank in due form for it. 

12. Dec. B 1 '. Luckombo proposed & was seconded & 3 d ., that 50 of 
y e Lodge Letters should be brought that those that chuse to have one may, 
and that one be glased and framed to be hung up in the Lodge Room. 

An illustration in facsimile of this summons is given at p. 202, dated 5th July, 1760, 
when the title had been adopted of " the West India & American Lodge " : it is signed 

Thomas Marriott Perkins i . W. Tringham Sculp Castle 

11 W M of the Stewards Lodge I Alley Royal Exchange. 

170J. A Motion was made that as the number of members increased 
that Bro r . Ward should assist in delivering letters. 

1761. 8 Aug. [The Senior Warden having died] ... an Order 
was given to y° Tyler to Insert in y e next Somond to meet in time to Aleeo 
a proper person to serve. 

By this it appears that the Tyler not only had to deliver the " letters " but to insert 
particulars of the business to be transacted : also,, from another minute, he had from 
time to time to inform the brethren of the Lodge when any change in the meeting days 
had been decided upon. In 1768 William Cole was paid £2 12s. 6d. for " touching 
the plate," and Mrs. Lewis 17/6 for printing 500 summonses. 

1777. 10 July. That B 1 '. Miles do repair the Cojiper Plate, of which 
our Sum 8 , are printed in [the] neatest manner. 

We do not know much of the Lodge Certificates, the first entry being in the 
year 1760, when on 

Aug 1 - 1 . 13. Cash paid to the G.S. by order of Bro r . Perkins R.W.M. 
for 5 Grand Certificates on Parchment — 1 12. 6. 

This is the pattern known as the ' Cartwright Certificate,' most probably the first 
engraved form used by Grand Lodge : it was ordered on 13th August, 1756, to be 
engraved on copper-plate " for printing the Certificate to be granted to a Brother of 
his being a Mason and that a Dye be cut, & an Engine made, wherewith to seal the 
same." Article viii. of the 1760 By-Laws of the Lodge runs : — 

Each Brother who is Made in this lodge shall be presented with a 
GUAM) certificate on Parchmont at the Lodge's Expence, & every 
Brother who becomes a Member thereof & was not made in it, shall be 
obliged to pay the Treasurer, with & exclusive of his admission Fee, Six 
Shillings and Six pence for a grand certificate on Parchment, on 
Condition of the said Member not having procured one before that Time. 

1764. Wed. 23 May. B r . Theodore Henry Broadhead Esq r . ("who 
was made on the preceding 9th May] was ma do a Master Mason in this 
Lodge, likways had a Certificate from the Grand Lodge & one from this 
Signed by the Master & Wardens, P.M. & Secretary. 

1777. Sep. 17. B 1 '. Bradley moved that the Lodge shall [have] a 
Certificate Plate, which was taking into Consideration. 

Oct. l.j. B 1 '. lo Caan [Sec y .] Moved that the Lodge do purchase the 
Certificate Copper plate which B 1 '. Manning has in his possession, for Five 
Guineas, the Motion was seconded. ... & on the Question being put, 
carried in the affirmative. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 199 

This appears to have been the certificate plate of the Lodge of Freedom, meeting 
at the same place, the Mitre Tavern, of which Manning was the landlord : on the 
extinction of the Lodge he retained the furniture, and sold it in November following 
to No. 1 Antiquity. 

1777. Deo. 3. B r . le Caan reported that he found on Enquiry that the 
large Plate which the Lodge had agreed to purchase of B r . Manning for 
five Guineas, had been sold by Commission for seven Guineas, before it had 
been made known to B 1 '. Manning: but that B r . Manning had resolved to 
give this Lodge the Preference, A Motion was made & seconded that B r . 
Manning be allowed 7 Guineas for the said Plate, tv on the question being 
put, it passed in the affirmative. 

This plate was engraved by Pugh, of Long Acre, and is one of the patterns known as 
the St. Paul's type : an impression from the original plate is given at p. 294, and is a 
valuable addition to the illustrations of this volume of the records. 

We would much like to be able to trace the substance of the document mentioned 
in the next following entries, but there is no information given in connection with the 
same. They must, therefore, be permitted to speak for themselves : — 

1769. 19 April. An Anonimous Letter having been published & trans- 
mitted to this Lodge under the name of "Amicus Pacis & Concordiao " was 
taken into Consideration, and deemed inconsistent with the fundamental 
Principles of our Craft and the express Laws in the Book of Constitutions. 
It was therefore unanimously resolved that the S d . Lre. shall be complained 
of so as to promote an Inquiry after the Author, that he may bo punished. 

1770. 3 Jan. An Anonymous Letter addressed to the Mas 1 ', of this 
Lodge was read and consid d — Whereupon a Motion was made that it should 
be burnt by the Hands of the Tyler, which was seconded. 

The entry in the Cash Account—" To the Tyler as a present,— 10. 6," has no 
reference to this event, as Bro. Rylands suspects, it being his usual Christmas gift, and 
does not relate to the duty of " common hangman " imposed on him by this resolution. 

Two events in the years 1768 and 1769 created some stir in the Craft and are 
noticed in the records, the first being the appointment of Provincial Grand Masters 
for the London District, and the second the proposed Incorporation of the Society, 
which met with great opposition, and was the source of much trouble before the 
project was abandoned. Of the first scheme we find the following noted under the 
date : — 

176-v Wed. U Dec. Two Letters were received from the Deputy 
Grand Master one in Answer to that sent to inform him of the Removal of 
the Lodge. The other informing us that the G. Master had thought proper 
to appoint Officers to inspect our Proceedings, investing them with the Name 
as well as the full Power & Authority of Pro. Grand Masters and thereby 
willing and requiring us to receive the worthy and well beloved Hen*. John 
Marshalls as our Prov cl . during OUR Pleasure. 

1769. Wed. o April. Our R.W.M. next moved to the Lodge whether 
the G.Ma'\ consistent with the Constitutions had the App*. of P.G.M". within 
the District of London and who 1 ', such Officers were Beneficial or not. 

Resolved (with only one dissentient) that Prov 1 . G.M.". in Town are 
not necessary. The O''. Quest", was postponed. 


200 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

17G9. Wed. 19 April. The Question whether the G". Master lias th 
Power of appointing Provincial Grand Masters in London was now resumed, 
when it was the unanimous Opinion of the Members present that he has not 
such Power : but that the appointment of such Officers was confined to the 
Country, & distant Parts only. 

The other scheme sanctioned under the Duke of Beaufort was the incorporation 
of the Society by Royal Charter. Preston tells us : — l 

At a Grand Lodge held at the Crown & Anchor tavern on the 2Sth. 
October 1768, a report was made from the Committee of Charity held on 
the 21st. of that month at the Horn Tavern Fleet Street, of the Grand 
Master's intentions to have the Society incorporated, if it met with the 
approbation of the Brethren, the advantages of such a measure were fully 
explained, & a plan for the purpose was submitted to the consideration of 
the Committee. The plan being approved, the thanks of the Grand Lodge 
were voted to the Grand Master, for his attention to the interests and 
prosperity of the Society. ... The plan being laid before the Com- 
munication, several amendments were made, and the whole referred to the 
next Grand Lodge for confirmation. In the mean time it was resolved, that 
the said plan should be printed, and transmitted to all the Lodges on record. 

At the Lodge of Antiquity, on February 1st, 1769 :— 

The R.W.M. informed us that in consequence of an Advertizem 1 . he had 
attended a Meeting of the Grand Officers and of the Masters of a great 
Number of Lodges convened at the Horn Tavern in Fleet Street the 26th. Ult". 
When the D.G.Master in the Chair informed them that in Consequence of a 
previous Proposition some Steps had been taken for obtaining a Charter for 
the Incorporation of the Society, but that he wished to know the Sence of 
the Members in Gen 1 , before it was further proceeded in, And the R.W.M. 
further informed us that at such Meeting it was agreed to send a Letter 
to the Grand Ma r . thanking his Grace for the Great Regard he show'd to the 
Society, and desiring he wo d . lay before them a Draft of the intended Charter 
for their Approbation. 

1769. Wed. 15 Feb. The R.W.M. acquainted the Lodge that he had 
Rec a . a printed Draft of the Intended Charter of Incorporation, 
Signed Cha B . Dillon, Deputy Grand Master. 

The Lodge in generall Agreed to Postpone the Consideration of the 
aforesaid Charter of Incorporation till the next Lodge Meeting. 

1769. Wed. 19 April. The proposed Charter of Incorporation was 
again taken into consideration : And it was the opinion of the Majr<*. of the 
Members that the Society's being incorporated will tend to render us more 
respectable, and was approved of according to the Plan laid before us. 

Such is all we can learn from these minutes : let Preston complete the story. 

The Duke of Beaufort finding that the Society approved of Incor- 
poration, contributed his best endeavours to carry the design into immediate 
execution: though at first he was opposed by a few brethren, who mis- 
conceived his good intentions, he persevered in promoting every good measure 
that might facilitate the plan : and a copy of the intended Charter was soon 
after printed and dispersed among the Lodges. Before the Society, however, 
had come to any determined resolution on the business, the members of a 
respectable lodge, then held at the Half Moon tavern Cheapside, entered a 
caveat in the attorney general's office, against the Incorporation, & this 
circumstance being reported to the Grand Lodge an impeachment was laid 

illustrations, p. 293 (9th ed.). 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 201 

against that lodge, for unwarrantably exposing the private resolutions of 
the Grand Lodge : and it being determined that the members of the said 
lodge had been guilty of a great offence, in presuming to oppose the resolu- 
tion of the Grand Lodge, and endeavouring to frustrate the intentions of 
the Society a motion was made, That it should be erased from the List of 
Lodges, but, on the Master of the Lodge acknowledging the fault, and, in 
the name of himsr-lf and his brethren, making a proper apology, the motion 
was withdrawn, and the offence forgiven. From the returns of the different 
Lodges it appeared, that 168 had voted for the Incorporation, and only 43 
against it: upon which a motion was made in Grand Lodge, on the 28th. 
April 1769, that the Society should be incorporated, which was carried in 
the affirmative by a great majority. 

In 1771, a bill was brought in parliament by the honourable Chas. 
Dillon, then Deputy Grand Master, for incorporating the Society by act of 
parliament: but on the second reading of the bill, it having been opposed 
by Mr. Onslow, at the desire of several brethren, w^ho had petitioned the 
house against it, Mr. Dillon moved to postpone the consideration of it 
sine die : and then the design of an Incorporation fell to the ground. 

The " respectable Lodge " referred to above was the Caledonian No. 325, of 
which Preston was a member. Muller, the Secretary, with Ttnbrocke, a P.M., Vierel, 
B. P. de la Coste, the S.W., and Vestenburg, the J.W., were expelled by Grand Lodge, 
ostensibly for other reasons, but really for the part they had played in this movement, 
the first on the 7th February, 1770, and the others on the 23rd October, 1771, 
Tenbrocke, Muller, and Vestenburg being reinstated in 1777. 

About the raising of the Hall Fcnd, part of the plan already referred to with 
regard to the Incorporation of the Society, there are these brief references. 

1772. Wed. 5 Feb. A Letter was read from the Grand Master and 
Wardens Informing the Lodge that whatever moneys had been or might be 
Collected in Consequence of the New Regulations sho d . be forthwith paid to 
y° G. Secretary for the purpose intended. 1 

1773. Wed. 21 April. A motion was made by y e R.W.M. that y e 
arrears due from y e Lodge under y e new Regulations for Building a Hall, 
may be paid into y" Grand Lodge at y e next Q.Com., and his Motion being 
Seconded y p same was Resolved: and ordered that y p arrears should be paid 
Accordingly amounting to £5.15.0. 

In 1771 Article vi. of the 1760 By-Laws of the Lodge was altered, to divert the fines 
imposed upon the members for sundry offences from the Charity Fund to the Hall 
Fund, and the quarterly contribution of the Lodge was reduced from 3 guineas to 
1 guinea,—" Unless the Lodge dertermine by Ballot to give more." At one time the 
Charity contribution fell into arrear, and the Lodge was in danger of erasure. 

1773. Wed. 7 April. A Lre. from Bro 1 '. Heseltine G a .S. was read 
informing y° Lodge that as nothing had been contributed to y° ffunds of 
Charity for 12 Months past y" Constitution of y" Lodge will probably be 
endangered unless something is contributed y e next quarterly Com. or shew 
cause for omission. 

1 Vide Appendix of 1776 to the 1707 Constitutions,— New Regulations, 

202 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

It will b3 remambered that the Committee of Charity was instituted in 1724 under the 
Duke of Richmond, but the scheme for raising a fund for distressed Masons was first 
proposed and brought into shape by the Duke of Buccleuch. 

176S. Wed. 23 Nov. — the Contributions which voluntarily flow from 
the Generosity of all worthy Members, to remit them quarterly to B'\ Rowland 
Berkeley. Grand Treasurer at No. o Wood Street, who will give a Reo*. for 
the same. 

Brother Rowland Berkeley came up for election as an Honorary Member in the Lodge 
of Antiquity on November 19th, 1777,—" when there appeared above 3 negatives— He 
was accordingly rejected." 

There is singularly little information to be traced of the differences between 
the original Grand Lodge — Moderns— and the Atholl Grand Lodge, from 1751 onwards. 
I have been unable to find more than one instance of any re-making referred to in the 
minutes of the Lodge of Antiquity up to 1778, unlike that of other Lodges, which often 
contain numerous references to this re-making, or, as it was sometimes called, 
translation. It was decided by the Lodge on 11th March, 1767 : — 

That Gentlemen who have been Duly made Irish or York Masons 
may bo made Masons under the English Constitution in all the three Degrees 
in this Lodge at the Expence of One Geanue only which was the TJnim us . 
opinion of the Brethren Present. 

Immediately after this follows the re-making of Mr. William Stewart, " of Crooked 
Lane, Gent., a York Mason, to be made a Mason in this Lodge," and at the following 
meeting he was " made a Mason and past the Second Degree." In the cash account 
is the following entry, — " B r . Stawart's making, — An Irish Mason before, 1. 1. 0." 
It is curious to note the " M r .", pointing to the fact that the brother under the Athoil 
Grand Lodge was not recognised as a Mason at all until he had been re-made, and this 
is as wo find in so many numerous instances in the records of other Lodges. 

Of the Graxd Stewards who were members of the Lodge we may note a few 
interesting particulars. The earliest of them mentioned in the minutes is Josiah 
Yilleneau, Upholder in the Borough, who in 1721, generously took upon himself the 
whole management of the business (of the Grand Feast) and received the thanks of ihe 
Society for his attention. He was Master of Original No. 1 in the second half of 1724, 
and Senior Grand Warden for the year 1721-22 : he also belonged to the Lodge at the 
" Bull Head" in Southwark in 1725, of which he became Master in 1730. Next in 
1740, we trace two Grand Stewards from this Lodge : John Faber the younger (b. 1684 
d. 2nd May, 1746) who was elected as Steward on 30th June, 1739. He was a noted 
mezzotint engraver, and executed many of the portraits of the Kit Kat Club. In the 
same year also George Mason served as Steward : he was J.W. and S.W. in the course 
of the year 1742 and Master in the first half of 1743. James Whitworth was elected 
Grand Steward at the Grand Feast in 1744, but declined the honour : William Rogers 
in 1745 : James Po'lard, 1755 : Thomas Marriott Perkins, who joined the Lodge on 24th 
July, 1759, was a Past Steward (1756) but did not represent this Lodge. Thomas 
Dyne, the Secretary in 1762, was in the same year Grand Steward, and having several 
times teen acting Sword Bearer was elected to that office in 1767. Thomas Alleyne, 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 203 

who rejoined in 1771, was previously a Grand Steward in 1763, and a Past G. Warden. 
John Bottomley, while filling the R.W.M.'s chair in 1771, " Offer'd himself to serve the 
Office of Steward From this Lodge, According to the Resolutions of the Last Quarterly 
Com. which Offer was made a Motion & Seconded by Bro r . Heseltine." 

The references to St. John's Masons commence in 1736, and during the next few 
years they are somewhat numerous. On the 5th October, 1736, '" Kirkman of St. John's 
& Howes D°." attended and paid the usual visiting fee of Is. In 1739 we find two 
others described as of the " Holy Lodge of St. Johns," one of them, Weddell, being a 
former member of this Lodge. Occasionally we find the word "Holy" and "Old 
Lodge of St. John," one instance of the latter has been erased and reads, — " belongs to 
no Lodge": we also find "Old Lodge." After 1740 these references become more 
scattered, and about 1750 very rare. Another way of describing St. John's Masons is : — 
(1753) " Bro. Humphry for a Stranger," — being David Humphries, a former member, 
the one who made several Scotch Master Masons in the Lodge at the Audit meeting in 
1740. Another former member, Abraham Dakiug, is thus described, — " An'. J. Old M. 
S'. Johns." 

By carefully searching into the various entries of the Visiting Brethren we are 
able to identify the Lodges to which many of them belonged, the remainder must remain 
' unidentified,' while of others we glean a few scraps of information ; thus in 1737, the 
Goat Haymarket was not meeting there after 1734 according to Lane's Masonic Records. 
The Black Boy and Sugar Loaf in Stanhope Street (see James Hyde, 1730) 
was constituted 11th April, 1732, but must have been meeting and working at 
least two years before that date. In 1748 two brethren visited from the "King's 
Head, Finchuich Street," but there was no Lodge that we are aware of meeting at 
this tavern prior to 1752. Two other visitors in 1757 came from the " London Punch 
House," which came to be known as " Ashley's London Punch House," and the Lodge 
meeting there was erased in 1748 : was it still meeting there in 1757 ? Of the 
unrecorded Lodges, there are some which may be mentioned, of which, perhaps, 
particulars may yet be found. These were: 

1. The Dog Lodge, Lamb Street, Spittlefields. 1739. 

Probably the one noted under the 
Nos. 25 and 144 in Lane's Masonic 
Records (1895), pp. 45 and 71, both 
under this date, at the Greyhound. 

2. The ffalstaff, Charing Cross. ,, 

I!. The Prince's Dowargers Arms. 1757. 

4. The Greyhound, Fleet Street, to which 

John Senex belonged in 1722. 1723. 

5. The Castle, St. Giles's, probably one of the 

old Lodges which did not join in with 

the others under the Grand Lodge. 1721. 

6. The Swan & Royal Oak, also known as the 

Swan and Olive Tree, Whitecross Street. 1739. 

7. The King's Head and Shearrs, Hollbourn, 1737. 

& the King's Head, probably the same. 1746. 

204 Transactions of the Quatuor Corvnati Lodge. 

8. The Vine, Ludgate Street. 1737. 

There was a Vine in Long Acre, another 
in Great Wild Street, still another in 
Little Minories, and also one in Holborn, 
better known as the Anchor and Vine, 
but none in Ludgate Street. 

9. The George, Castle Street, Leicester Fields. 1744. 

The Red Lion, Saltpetre Bank, Rosemary Lane, is clearly a slip, the Black Lion at that 
place being the tavern intended to be indicated. 

Having now passed hi review the principal events in the history of the Lodge of 
Antiquity down to the time of the Preston Schism and indicated the various customs 
and methods of working in the Lodge, it may be interesting to consider those events 
within our knowledge about which there is no mention whatever in these records, or 
are non-confirmed by these minutes. Commencing with the early days of the Grand 
Lodge, we find no mention of the burning of old and valuable manuscripts, particularly 
the Nicholas Stone MS., by over-zealous brethren in 1720: of the Duke of Wharton 
difficulty, or the Gormogons : of mock processions : of bespeaking a play : of the burial 
of members, or of any Masonic funeral. Anderson still remains the only historian, 
except the anonymous writer of Multa Faucis, of the events connected with the revival 
of 1717, down to the commencement of the official records of Grand Lodge in 1723. 

Though we know there was a widely diffused system of masonry in the latter half 
of the seventeenth century we have to rely almost solely on Aubrey's note in his Natural 
History of Wilts regarding the initiation of Sir Christopher Wi en on the 18th May, 1691, 
at a "great convention at St. Paul's Churcli of the Fraternity of Accepted Masons, 
where Sir Christopher Wren is to be adopt3d a Brother." This, however, was not 
alluded to till 1844, the tradition having grown up independently. Anthony a Wood, 
in his Athense Oxoniensis, says of Aubrey after no less than twenty-five years' 
acquiintance, "he was a shiftless person, roving and magotie-headed. ' 

The Triumvirate said to have compiled the first Book of Cons' itutions of 1723, viz., 
Anderson, Payne, and Desaguliers, makes no mention of Wren either as an accepted Mason 
or as a Grand Master : his colleagues in the Royal Society had no knowledge, so far as 
we can discover, of his connection with the fraternity. Besides Aubrey we can only 
find two newspaper jottings to assist the belief that Wren had a close connection with 
the ancient Craft : No. 5245 of the Postboy— 2nd to 5th March, 1723,— alludes to the 
obsequies of " that worthy Freemason Sir Christopher Wren Knt.", and the British 
Journal No. 25 of the 9th March, 1723, repeats the allusion in almost the same words, — 
"that worthy Freemason." 1 No mention is made of Wren as Grand Master till 
Anderson's 1738 Constitutions appeared. The alleged date of his acception, 1691, seems 
to coincide with that of the formation of original No. 1 as given in the 1729 list of 
Lodges : and that there was some occurrence of Masonic importance in the year named 
appears to be borne out by Samuel Prichard's reference in his Masonry Dissected 
(1730, pp. 6 and 7)—" No constituted Lodges or Quarterly Communications were heard 
of till 1691." The value of the testimony of Masonry Dissected is often belittled, but 

1 Probably Anderson had seen the name of Christopher Wren in the list of Masters 
of original No. 1, and confused the son with the father. It is needless to point out that 
Sir Christopher Wren died in 1723, but that his son, Master in 1729, who lived till 1747, 
is the one mentioned in these records. 

The Ljdge at the Goose and Gridiron. 205 

one statement in that publication Bro. Gould thinks worthy of credence : — " the first and 
oldest constituted Lodge according to the Lodge Book in London, made a visitation to 
another Lodge, on which occasion the deputation consisted of Operative Masons,"— and 
I have above quoted the same writer's opinion as to Prichard's pamphlet being an 
attack, not on Masonry in general, but against the innovations in the operative system. 
He also holds the view, for which there is apparently good reason, that the three senior 
Lodges, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, represented the operative, and No. 4 at the "Horn" the 
speculative element of the Society. 1 

Bro. Gould shows in his History, vol. ii., p. 11, how the fable originated, and how 
it grew through a gradual accretion of error ; and after much careful reasoning, he thus 
sums the matter up — " Wren was never Grand Master, nor has it ever been proved that 
he was a Freemason at all " (vol. i., p. 257, note). 

To this I may, perhaps, be allowed to add the opinion of Bro. Dr. Chetwode 
Crawley 2 : — 

In view of the more recent investigations, the case stands somehow 
thus. Omitting Aubrey's testimony, we find in the course; of the Acception, 
in the stream of family tradition, and in the obituary notice of 1723, such 
grounds for inferring Sir Christopher Wren, like others of his stamp and 
day, to have been connected with the Craft, that we should be justified in 
feeling the liveliest surprise if it could be shewn that the fact was otherwise. 
Admitting Aubrey's testimony, we find the probability turned into such a 
certainty as actuates men in the conduct of their daily life. Rebutting 
evidence there is none. The witness and his testimony are such as the 
Court must admit. It is for the jury to determine the precise amount of 

There are but few errata discoverable in the course of turning over the pages of 
Bro. Rylands' work, and the editorial slips are not many. Besides those already noted, 
only one is of much consequence. The " Ship Hermitage " was an early home of the 
Strong Man Lodge, and is usually described as the Ship, or the China Ship, near the 
Hermitage Bridge, at Wapping. The tavern exists to this day, and is to be found 
just off the High Street, close to Wapping Dock. 

The Queen's Arms, Stra(n)d, Thames, is more correctly "Shad Thames." 

This occurs twice on p. 249. 
P. 239. The Ship was not in St. James's Street, but James Street, 

Covent Garden. 
P. 84. The date at the top of the page is 1738; it should be 1739. 
P. 205. List of members commencing 1660, should be 1760. 
P. 246. Th(omas) Henry Broadhead; ef. p. 233, Theodore. 
P. 264 Edmund Rainshaw or Renshaw, is Edward. 
P. 188 James Fleetwood, Secretary, should be William Fleetwood. 
P. 184. The Mourning Bush was not Aldgate, but Aldersgate. 
P. 206. John Gilbert, who joined on 8th August, 1759, is not accounted 

for in the list of members, p. 206. 
lb. Two members not named ; are not these Christopher Troup and 

Capt. Henry Dickenson ? cf. p. 198. 

'Gould— Four Old Lodges. -A.Q.C., xi., 11. 

206 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

P. 58 &o. Bodythen Sparrow appears in the facsimile autographs 

of pp 64 and 74 to be Bodychen Sparrow, and is correctly 

given on p. 73. 
P. 337. The date at top of page, 5th April, refers to proceedings of the 

Committee of Charity on the following day, 6th April. 

How can this be reconciled ? 

The Index appears to want more correction than the text: a few items tested at 
random point to the need of further checking, for instance : — 

M. Greenwood, p. 83, is not in Index. 

Rowland Berkeley, add references to pp. 144, 167. 

M. Barkley, p. 144, is Rowland Berkeley, the Grand Treasurer. 

(Moses) Moses Junr , son of Philip Moses, is indexed under Alexr. Moses. 

Alexr. Moses. There is no record of his having been .I.W., as stated in 

the Index. 
Harris. Several errors. 


1721 (Antiquity) 1723 (G.L.) 1725 (G.L.). 

18 Sept. 
Mr. Will 1 ". Esquire, Master. 

[or Squire, an Operative Mason, of the Rose Tavern Lodge, Cheapside, in 


Mr. Will 1 ". Low-field "i 

,, T .,. , } Wardens. 

Mr. Lawrence Kirby 7 

[Lowfield in 1725 belonged to the King's Arms Lodge, St. Paul's; and 
Kirby to the Black Posts, Great Wild Street, in 1725.] 

Mr. John Eaden. Jno. Eaden. 

Mr. Barnaby Dover. • 

Mr. Samuel Keck. 

[S.W. of the Griffin in Newgate St., 1723, and Master in 1725.] 
Mr. Gara Strong. Gara Strong. Mr. Gera Strong. 

Mr. HicbA Johnson. » Rich d . Johnson. Mr. Richard Johnson. 

Mr. Tho s . Morris (Sen r . Y) Tho. Morris. Mr. Thomas Morris. 

[Master. 1723 Const" 8 : Stone Cutter, G. Warden 1718, 1719.] 
Mr. John Bristow. Jno. Bristow. Mr. John Bristow. 
Mr. Rich d . Ware. • 

[Master of the Crown and Sceptre, St. Martin's Lane, 1725. Mathematician.] 

Mr. John Adams. 

Mr. Abrani Abbott. Abra Abbott. Mr. Ab r . Abbott. 

[J.W. in 1723 Constitutions.] 
Mr. Andrew Leaper. And r . Leaper. Mr. And. Leper. 

Mr. Edward Walker. ■ 

Mr. Joseph Pratt. 

Mr. Rich*. Truby Jun 1 '. Rich d . Truby. Mr. Rich*. Truby. 

[of the King's Arms, St. Paul's, 1725, S.W. of Antiquity 1730.] 

Mr. David Gardner. " 

[of the King's Arms, St. Paul's, 1725.] 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 207 

1721 (Antiquity) 1723 (G.L.) 1725 (G.L.) 

Mr. Edward Lewis. Edw. Lewis. 

[J.W. of the Rose Tavern, Temple Bar, 1730.] 

Mr. Jonathan Wheeler. 

Mr. John Innis. 

[Bookseller, of King's Arms, St. Paul's, in 1725.] 
Mr. John Cordwell. 

[City Carpenter. G.W. 1718, of the King's Arms, St. Paul's, 1725.] 

Mr. John Warren. 

Mr. Edward Manlove. Edw. Manlove. Mr. Edward Manlove, 

Senior Ward. 

Mr. James Sewars. Ja. Showers. 

Mr. Samuel Weston. Sam". Weston. ■ 

Mr. Joseph Heather. 

Mr. Josias Villeneau. Mr. Josias Villeneau, Mr. Josias Villeneau. 


[G.W. 1721; of Bull Head, Southwark, in 1725, and Master 1730.] 

Mr. Edmund Mandevil. 

Mr. Benjamine Proser. Benj. Prosser. Mr. Benj. Prosser, 

Jun. Warden. 
Mr. Henry Rutherford. Hen. Rutherford. Mr. Hen. Rutherford. 

Mr. John Hart. Jno. Hart. Mr. John Hart. 

Mr. Thomas Curryer. 

Mr. Cha : Stokes. 

[of King's Arms, St. Paul's, 1725.] 

Mr. Rich 4 . Boult. 

[of King's Arms, St. Paul's, 1725.] 

Mr. John Norris. 

Thomas March. 

The Right Hon bl . James 

L d . Waldgrave. 

[of the Horn, Westminster, 1723 and 1725.] 

Colonel Charles Hotham (Bart., M.P.). . 

Tho s . Coke, Esq 1 -. _ 

Adelphus Diisoan Counfaler. 

Mr. Edward Vaughan. 

[Master of the Green Lettiee, Brownlow Street, Holborn, 1725.] 

Nevil Lawther. — 

Thomas Woodard. — 

John L?ake. Mr. John Leake, Mr. John Leake. 

Jun. Warden. 
[of the Sun, Fleet Street, 1730.] 

John Deall (Seall or Peall). 

[Deale of the King's Arms, 1725.] 
John Ward. 

[G. Steward and G. Warden 1733, Dep.G.M. 1735.] 
James Hyde. 

[of Black Boy and Sugar Loaf, Stanhope St., Clare Market, 1730.] 
Benjamin Cole. 

[of Queen's Arms, Newgate St., 1730, and of Antiquity 1730.] 
John Wvatt. . 

[of Old Devil, Temple Bar, 1723, 1725, and 1730.] 

Nathan Blanch. . 

[Book keeper; of St. Paul's Head in Ludgate Street, 1733-34, S.W. of Antiquity 
in 1730, and Master in 1730. G.L. List.] 

—^— — ■ — *■ Richard Cooper, 

15 March, 1725. 
[of Blue Boar, Fleet Street, 1723.] 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

1721 (Antiquity) 

1723 (G.L.) 


1725 (G.L.) 

[of Three Tuns, Billingsgate, 1730.] 

Henry Yoxon. 

Joseph Fecknam. 

John Clans. 

[It is doubtful if these last four 
joined when made Masons.] 

Mr. Joseph Rooker, M. James Booker. 

Sen. Warden. 

Nath 11 . Sharp. 

■ Isaac Woodburn. 

Benj. Ruth worth. Bryan Rushworth, Esq r ., 

[of Baptists Head, Chancery Lane, 1723 and 1725; and of the King's Arms, 
St. Paul's, 1725.] 

W m . Finall. 


(To end of 1779.) 

Notk. — Where no mention of F.C. is given it must be understood that ' making ' 
included the two first degrees. 

Possibly some of the undermentioned were only made or raised in this Lodge 
without becoming members, but this is not always indicated. 

The letters A. and B. refer respectively to the first and second halves of the year 
to which they are attached. 

Abbott, Abraham 
Adams, John 
Allen, John 

Allen, Mundeford 
Alleyne, John 

Alleyne, Thomas 
Alsop, Nathaniel 

Member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists. J.W. 1723. 

Member in 1721 list. Master 1727, 16 th Doc. 

Attorney, Clement's Inn. Visited 1768, 13*' 1 July, of No. 16, 
Crown and Rolls, Chancery Lane (now 23). Joined 1768, 27 th 
July (no date given in G.Lodge Register) 
Secretary in 1769 A., J.W. 1769 B., S.W. 1770 A. 

Joined 1759, 24 th July. Lodge not stated. 

E.A., F.C. 1772, 1 st Jan., and became member, M.M. 15 th Jan. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

No record of admission. 

Visited 1767, 18* and 25* Feb. G.Stwd. 1763. J.G.W. 1764. 

"Re-elected" 1771, 18 th Dec. Not in G.L. Register. 

Visited 1757, 12 th April, was then Master of the Bell, Friday 

Street : and 

1758, 14 th Nov. Of the Coffee House, Queenhithe. 

1763, 12 th Oct. Lodge not stated. 

Joined 1763, Nov. 

J.W. 1764 A., S.W. 1764 B. Died before 8 th Aug., 1764, 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Amies, Thomas A former member " who had been absent several years." 

Visited 1772, 5 th March, and elected Honorary Member. Of 
Exeter (H Swan) Lodge. 

Anderson, Capt. William E.A., F.C., M.M. 176"), 27 th Feb. ? not a member. 

Appleton, William 

Ashton, Charles 
Atwick, Lieut. Richard 
Avery, John 
Axtell, Samuel 

Joined 1754, 9 th July. Lodge not stated. 

J.W. 1758 B., S.W. 1759 A., R.W.M. 1759 B., and 1760 A. 

1762 in Chair as P.M. Not a member in 1768 list. 

Member in 1736, no record of admission or after 1738, 6°' Nov., 

when he visited, of " St. John's." 

At Mr. Crow's opposite Hungerford Market in the Strand. 

1767, 18 th Jan., ballotted for and not admitted. 

Organ builder, King Street, Bloomsbury. 

E.A., F.C. 1776, 16 th Oct. (G.L. Register has 17 th Oct.). 

Printer, Cow Lane, Smithfield (" Ludgato Hill," in G.L. 


E.A. 1775, 1 st Nov. Junior Steward 1777 A. 

Bailey, John 

Baker, Andrew 
Ball, Benjamin 
Bamford, Samuel 

Barker, William 

Bass, George 
Bass, Samuel 1 

Bateman, John 

Beauchant, Theophilus 

Bengough, Thomas 

Benson, John 

Visited 1771, 20 th March, was then S.W. of Lodge of Harmony, 

Horn Tavern, Doctors Commons, 

Joined 1771, 4 th Sept., of "St. John." Not in G.L. Register. 

Member in 1730 list. 

E.A. 1754, 10 th May. No other record. 

Factor.. Joined 1766, 9 th April. (No date in G.L.Register). 

Lodge not stated. 

Member in 1768 list. 

Hairdresser, King Street, Bloomsbury. 

Joined 1774, 3 rd Aug. Former Lodge not stated. 

S.W. 1775 A., W.Dep. Master 1777 B. and 1778 A. and B. 

Member in 1730 list. 

Auctioneer, Birchin Lane, Cornhill ("Pater Noster Row" in 

G.L. Register). Described in Bottoinley and Noorthouck's 

" Memorial "as " Doorkeeper at the Opera House." 

Joined 1775, 21 st June. Lodge not stated. 

Secretary 1776 A., J.W. 1776 B. and 1777 A. and B., 

S.W. 1778 B., W.Dep. Master of the G.Lodge South of the 


Expelled by Grand Lodge 1779, 3 rd Feb. 

Wine Merchant, Cockspur Street. 
Joined 1779, 6 th Oct. Lodge not stated. 
Declined 1783, 6 th March. 

E.A. 1779, 12* May. F.C, 9 th June. 

One of the petitioners to G.L., York, for the G.Lodge South 

of the Trent. 

Not in G.L.Register. 

Broker, of Long Acre. 1770, 7 th Nov. proposed and 21 st Nov. 
elected, "but did not attend on account of illness, of which he 

E.A., F.C, 1777, 16 th July. 
Not in G.L.Register. 

M.M. 19 th Nov. 

1 There is a 
Pinmaker, age 40, 

later entry of another Samuel Bass in 1788, when he is described as 
Cornhill. ' Joined 6 th August. 


Berkeley, Rowland 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Berry, John 
Biekerton, Francis 

Bird, William 

Bird, — 
Blanch, Nathan 

Bolton, John 
Bone, George 

Bone, Robert 

Bothomley, John 

Boult, Richard 
Bowman, John 
Bradley, Benjamin 

Branson, Henry 

Brearley, James, ,SV 

Of No. 6, Devonshire Street, and of No. 5, Wood Street. 
(Chad's How, Gray's Inn Lane, in G.L. Register). Esquire. 
Visited 1746, 9'" Sept. 1748, 10"' May. 1750, 8«> May. 1768, 
8 th June. 1775, 19 th April, of Philanthropic Lodge, Queen's 
Head, Gray's Inn Gate. Was then Master. 1776, 20" 1 Nov. 
1777, 5 th March. Of Mourning Bush, now 21, Master in 1747, 
1758, and 1760. 

G.Stwd. 1759-69. G. Treasurer. 

Joined 1776, 18 th Dec. No date in G.L. "Register. Discon- 
tinued 1777, 1 st Oct. 
Proposed as Hon. Mem., but rejected on ballot. 

Upper Tyler in 1779 A. 

Raised M.M. 1760, 9 th April. No other record. Not in G.L. 


Visited 1739, 1 st May, 3 rd July, 2°" Oct, Lodge not stated. 

Joined 1740, 1 st Jan., made a Scotch Master Mason 17 th June. 

No record after 1740 B. 

Tyler 1757, 12 th July : discharged 1758, 11 th July. 

Book-keeper. Member in 1721 list. 

S.W. and Master in 1730. Gave the old jewels still in use. 

In 1730, also of St. Paul's Head, Ludgate Street. 

Mariner, E.A. 1775, 1 st Nov. No other record. 

Saddler, Half Moon Street. Brother of Robert Bone. 

Proposed 1775, 15 th Nov., ballot postponed 20 th Dec. No 

record of admission, and is not in G.L. Register. 

Shoe Maker, No. 4, Clerkenwell Green (Long Acre in G.L. 


Visited 1775, 19 th April, of Philanthropic Lodge, was then 


Joined 1775, 21 st June. J.W. 1775 B. 

Broker (Pawn Broker), St. Paul's Church Yard. 

Visited 1768, 13 th July, of L'Imniortalite, Crown and Anchor, 


Joined 1768, 27 (h July. No date in G.L. Register. 

Treasurer 1769 A., R.W.M. 1771 A. and B., 1772 A. and B., 

1773 A. and B., and 1774 A., Treasurer 1776 A. and B., and 

1777 A. 

Signed Memorial to G.Lodge re Preston's procession, 1778, 

21 st Jan. 

Gent. Member in 1721 list. 

Also of King's Arms, St. Paul's, in 1725. 

Visited 1757, 11 th Oct., of Horn, Fleet Street. 

Joined 1758, 14 th March. No other record. 

Of No. 3, Clement's Lane, Merchant. (Gent, in G.L.Register.) 

E.A. 1777, 15 th Jan. 

Senior Steward 1777 B., Secretary 1778 A., W.J.W. 1778 B., 

AV.S.W. 1779 A., W.Dep. Master 1779 B. 

Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 3 rd Feb. 

S.G.W. of G.Lodge South of Trent, 

Member in 1730 list. 

Also of Crown behind the Royal Exchange 1725 (now 10). 

Watch Maker, Spa Fields, Clerkenwell. 

Joined 1774 16 th Nov. Lodge not stated. 

S.W. 1776 A. 1778, 5 t!l April, expelled from the lodge. 

Brett, Hose Fuller 

Bristow, John 

Broadhead, Theodore 

Browne, William 

Bruce, Itcv. John 
Bruin, James 
Bryerley, John 

Buchanan, Gilbert 

Burgh, Henry 

Butler, Eev. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 211 

Mariner, E.A. 1775, 1 st Nov. p a member. 

Master in 1722 B., and member in 1723, 1725, and 1730 lists. 

Gent. E.A., F.G. 1764, 10 n May, M.M. 23>' d May. (No date 

in G.L.ltegister). 

Had a certificate of G.L. and of this lodge. 

A member in 1768 list. 

Visited 1769, 18 th Jan. of L'lmmortalite, Crown and Anchor, 


Joined 1772, 16'» Dec. J.W. 1773 A and 1774 A. 

Not in G.L.ltegister. 

Of Virginia. E.A., F.C, M.M. 1775, 6 th March, "as ho was 
to sail from the river tomorrow for Virginia." 

E.A., F.C. 1771, 17 th April, and became member. 

Not in G.L.llegister. 

Merchant. Joined 1766, 9 th April. (No date in G.L.ltegister.) 

Lodge not stated. 

Member in 1768 list. 

Merchant, of Chelsea: also described as Merchant's Clerk: 
in G.L.ltegister " Gent. New Ct., Throgmorton Street." 
E.A., F.C. 1777, 18* June, M.M. 19'" Nov. 
Senior Steward 1778 A., Secretary 1778 B. 
Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 3 rd Feb., but withdrew from the 
Schismatic Lodge of Antiquity : was named in the Warrant 
from G.Lodge of York as J.G.W. of G. Lodge South of the 

Printer. Visited 1744, 3 rd April, 3 rd July, 7 Ul Aug., 4 t!l Sept., 

2" d Oct., 6 th Nov. : 1745, 5 th Feb., 2 nd April, 4° June, 2 nd July. 

Of the Rose, Fleet Lane, Old Bailey. 

Joined 1746, 10 th June. 

J.W. 1747 B. and 1748 A., S.W. 1748 B., R.W.M. 1749 B., 

J.W. 1753 A. & B., S.W. 1754 A., R.W.M. 1754 B., J.W. 1759 B. 

No record after Aug. 1763. 

Visited 1775, 17 th May. Of St. Alban's Lodge (now 29). 
Joined same date. Not in list Dec. 1776. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

Caan. Charles 

Calvert, William 

Campbell, John Stewart 
) enter, — 

Silver Flatter, No. 18, Aldersgate Street. 

E.A., F.C. 1776, 13 th June, and admitted a member (G.L. has 

19th June), M.M. 1777, 26'-' Feb. 

Senior Steward 1777 A., Secretary 1777 B. 

Joined the Schismatic Lodge of Antiquity. 

Coal Merchant, Whitefriars. 

Visited 1769, 15 th Feb. Of Crown and Rolls, Chancery Lane 

(now 23). 

Joined 1769, 15 l " March. 

Treasurer 1771 A. to end of 1775. 

Not in G.L. Register. 

E.A. 1769, 23 rd Jan., M.M. 13 th Feb. 

Candidate for Under Tyler 1760, 25 th June, not elected. 

Master in 1734. 


Carpenter, Jolm 

Carter, Theodore 

Caterway, — 

Clialcraft, Henry 

Chalmers, John 

Chapman, Edward 

Chapman, John 
Chapman, Dr. Robert 
Clanfield, Samuel 

Clarke, — 
Claus, John 
Cleaver, Joseph 

Coke, Thomas 
Cole, Benjamin 

Cole, John Louis 

Cole, William, Jun r 

Collins, Philip 

Compplin, — 
Cookson, James 
Cooper, Richard 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Visited 1739, 2"" Oct. of Mourning Bush (now 21). 

Joined same date, ceased in 1743 B. 

Visited 1744, 2 nd Oct., 1746, 9 th Dec. Of the Fountain, Snow 


Tallow Chandler, Piccadilly. 

Visited 1769, 4 th Jan. Of L'lmmortalite, Crown and Anchor, 


Joined 1769, 1 st Feb. J.W. 1774 A and B. 

Not in G.L. Register. 

Date of admission unknown. 

1765 A., J.W. up to 10 th April. Not a member in 1768 list. 

Attorney at Law. 

E.A., F.C., 1767, 9 ,h Sept., and became member. M.M. 23 lcl Oct. 

No date given in G.L. Register. 

Member in 1744 list. 

Gent., at Mr. Adair's, Leadenhall Street. 
Joined 1776, 17 Ul Jan. Lodge not stated. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

E.A. 1739, 6 th March, M.M. 7 11 ' Nov. 
Secretary in 1740 A. Off in August 1744. 
Visited 1745, 5 th Feb. Of "St. John." 

Visited 1754, ll tl June, "a former member." Of Mourning 
Bush (now 21). No record of admission. 

Member in 1736 B. Attendances fall off in 1739. 
In arrear 1744-46-48. 

Visited 1777, 5 th March. Of Lodge of Utility, White Hart, 

Holborn. Joined same day. Not in G.L. Register. 

A Petitioner to G.L.York for the G.Lodge South of the Trent. 

Member in 1736 B. No further record. 

E.A. 1725, 15 th March. No further record. 

"James" in G.L. Register. Woollen Draper. 

Joined 1759, 24 th July. Lodge not stated. No date given in 

G.L. Register. 

J.W. 1760 A., S.W. 1760 B., J.W. 1765, 10 th April to 24 th June. 

A member in 1768 list. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Member in 1721 and 1730 lists, down to 1738 A. No further 

record. Also of Mourning Bush in 1730. 

E.A., F.C. 1772, 18 th March. No further record, and not in 

G.L. Register. 

Visited 1767, 14 Kl Oct. Of the Pewter Platter, Cross Street, 

Hattou Garden. 

Visited 1768, 10 th Aug. Of Crown, Hatton Garden. 

Visited 1769, 31 st Aug., 20 lh Dec, 1770, 7 ih Jan. Of Lodge of 

Freedom, Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street. 

Joined 1770, 7 th Jan. Not in G.L. Register. 

Mariner, at Mr. Hartley's, St. Katherine's. 

E.A., F.C. 1776, 16 th Oct. No other record. 

Tyler in 1746 A. : died at the end of the year. 

E.A. 1778, 15 th July. No further record. Not in G.L. Register. 

Of Blue Boar, Fleet Street, in 1723. Joined 1725, 15 th March. 

Lodge not stated. 

The Lodge at the Gouse and Gridiron. 


Cord" ell, John 

Cnmsaler, Adelphus 

Courthorp, George 

Cousins, George 

Craigie, John 

Cranston, John 
Creake, — 

Cresswell, Henry 
Crisp, Thomas 

Critchley, James 

Cross, — 
Crowchor, John 

Curryer, Thomas 

City Carpenter. G.W. 1718. Member in 1721 list. 
Of King's Arms, St. Paul's Church Yard, in 1725 list. 

Member in 1721 list. 

E.A. 1759, 28"' Nov., M.M., 12 th Dec. No further record. 

E.A. 1777, 21 st Jan. and proposed for F.C. No further record. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

Gent., Brewer Street. 

E.A., F.C. 1777, 19 th Feb. Raised M.M. in Globe Lodge, 

Fleet Street, " in order to attend this Chapter " (of Harodim). 

E.A., F.C, M.M. 1769, 23 rli Jan. 

Joined 1736, 7 th Dec. Lodge not stated. 
Excluded in 1737 A for arrears. 

Fishmonger. Joined 1766, 28 th May. Lodge not stated. No 

date given in G.L. Register. 

Secretary in 1767 A. Member in 1768 list. 

E.A., F.C. in another lodge, not stated. 
Joined 1737, 1 st March. M.M. 7 th June. 
J.W. 1739 B., S.W. 1740 A. 
1740, 17 th June, made a Scotch Master Mason. 
R.W.M. 1740 B. No record after 1744 B. 

Shoemaker. Visited 1754, 12"> Nov. Of "Holy Lodge of St. 
John." Joined same day. No date given in G.L. Register. 
J.W. 1759 A., S.W. 1759 B., J.W. 1764 B., R.W.M. 1765 A. 
and B., and 1766 A. 

Proposed 1759, 10 th July. No other record. 

No record of admission. Not in G.L. Register. 
Secretary in 1767 A and B. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Daking, Abraham Visited 1746, 9 th Sept. Of King's Head Lodge (? King's Head 

and Shearrs, Holborn, an unidentified lodge). Joined same day. 
Secretary 1748 A and B., J.W. 1749 A., S.W. 1749 B. 
Discontinued at end of 1749. 

Visited 1752, 11 th Aug Of Sun, Fish Street Hill. 
Visited 1753, 12 th June, 1754, 12 th Feb. Of "St. John." 
Rejoined 1754, 8 th Oct. Of Queen's Arms, St. Paul's Church 
Yard. Secretary 1755 B. 

De Costa, Daniel Mendez Visited 1777, 19 th Nov., Lodge (? Absolon), Holland. 
Joined same day. Not in G.L. Register. 

De Costa, Jacob Mendez Same entry as last. 

De la Coste, Joseph Of Holland. Honorary Member, Dec. 1776. 

Joined later, but no record. Not in G.L. Register. 

Deale, John Member in 1721 list. Of King's Arms, St. Paul's, in 1725 list. 

Delany, Daniel Gent. Of No. 8, Crown Street, Westminster. 

E.A., F.C. on emergency, 1777, 19 th March, "in order to 
attend the Anniversary of the Dedication of the Hall." 
1777 B., Junior Steward. 


'transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Delvalle, Isaac 

Dematt, — 

Des Barres, Francis 

Desaguliers, l'ev. John T. 
Devorall, Richard 

Dickenson, Cayt. Henry 
Dobee, James 

Dodd, Itev. William. D.D. 

Donaldson, James 

Doria, Urbano Teixera 

Dover, Barnaby 
Dowbycan, — 
Dufneld, John 

Dugood, William 
Dunn, Robert 

Dupont, Matthew 

Dyne, Thomas 

Gent. Featherstone Street. 

No record of making. G.L. Register has 1777. 15 th Jan. 
Reported by Board of Trial as not proficient for 3°, 19'- 1 Feb. 
M.M. 19 th Nov. 

Visited 1740, 7 th Oct. Lodge not stated. 

Joined same day. Off at end of 1740 or early in 1741. 

Gent., of Princes Street, London Wall. 

Visited 1767, 22' ld July, 26"> Aug., 9 th and 23"» Sept., 14 th Oct., 

1763, 23 rd March, 13 th April, 7 th June," 1770, 4<* April. 

Of L'Immortalite, Crown and Anchor, Strand. 

Joined 1769, 21 st June. Not in G.L. Register. 

Visited 1722, 18 th March. 

Joined, ? date. Master in 1723 B and 1724 A. 

F.A. in another lodge, not stated. 

Joined 1739, 2 nd Jan. Of "St. John's." M.M., 7'-' Nov. 

No record after 1740 B. 

Joined 1759, 8 th Aug. No further record. 

I'nder Tyler 1778, 16 th Sept., but declined 1779 A., "being 
Tyler to another lodge." 

Of Argyle Street. G. Chaplain. 

Visited 1775, 17"- May. Of "St. John." 

Joined 1775, 21»* June. Of St. Alban's Lodge (now 29). 

Expelled by G.Lodge 1777, 15 th June. 

Not in G.L. Register 

Factor, Red Lion Court, Watling Street. 

Visited 1777, 5 th March. Of Lodge Utility, White Hart, 


No record of admission. G.L. Register has 1777, 16 u ' April. 

Junior Steward 1778 A., Treasurer 1778 B. 

Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 24" 1 June. 

G. Treasurer of the G.Lodge South of the Trent. 

Wine Merchant. No record: G.L. Register has "Joined 1779, 
21 st April, Declined 1783, 5 th Feb." 

Member in 1721 list. 

Member in 1730 list. 

Gent. Joined 1766, 24 th Sept. Former lodge not stated. No 
date in G.L. Register. 
Member in 1768 list. 

E.A. 1725, 15 th March. No other record. 

Taylor. Joined 1763, 27 th Feb. No date given in G.L. Register. 

Lodge not stated. 

J.AV. 1763 B., R.W.M. 1761 A. : member in 1768 list. 

"Samuel" in Preston's printed list of 18 th Dec. 1776. 

Vintner, " Castle and Falcon," Aldersgate Street. 

G.L. has "Joined 1776, 30 th March." Lodge not stated. 

Linen Draper. 

Joined 1759, 24 th July (no date in G.L. Register). 

Lodge not stated. 

S.W. 1760 A., Secretary 1763 A., R.W.M. 1766 B. 

Member in 1768 list. 

G.Stewd. 1762. G.Swd.Br. 1767. 

Eadon, John 

Eecles, liev. Allen 

Eecles, Robert 
Kmmett, Christopher 

Ergas, Ralph 

Esquire, William 
(? Squire) 

Essex, Thomas 

Evans, Phineas 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 
Member in 1721 and 1723 lists. 


Hector of Bow, Middlesex. 

No record of admission. G.L. Register has " Joined 1777, 19 th 

Feb." Lodge not stated. 

Chaplain 1777 and 1778: preached a sermon on 27"' Dec, 

1777, the occasion of Preston's procession from his church, 

which led to the Schism. 

Proposed 1762, 7"' Oct. No other record. 

Joined 1772, 5 th Aug. Lodge not stated. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

Gent. No. 22, Prescot Street. 

E.A., F.C., and admitted member 1776, 19 th June, M.M. 1777, 

26"' Feb. 

"Operative Mason" in 1721 list. Master in 1721 B. 

Also of Rose Tavern. Cheapside, 1733, kept by Br. Edward 

Rose. (No lodge recorded here till 1732.) 

Taylor, Southampton Street, Covent Garden. 

E.A., F.C. 1776, 20 th March, and admitted a member. 

(G.L. Register has 26* March). 

Member in 1736 R., M.M. —" passed Master 5/s.," 1737, 5 th 


J.W. 1738 A., S.W. 173S B., Master 1739 A. 

No record after 1745 A. 

ffaber, John, Jnn r 

Farre, Richard John 

Farren, John 

Farwinter, Copt. Ralph 

Fecknam, Joseph 
Field, Robert 

Figgis, John 
Finall, William 

Mezzotint engraver. 

Joined 1738, 6 th June. Of Crown, Fleet Market. 

J.W. 1745 A., S.W. 1745 B., Master 1746 A. and B. 

1747 and 48 in arrear, was then dead. 

G.Stwd. 1740. 

Born in Holland 1684, died at his house in Bloomsbury 1746, 

2 nd May. 

Of Barbados, now of Mark Lane, Surgeon. 

E.A., F.C, M.M. 1767, 28 t]1 Jan. No date in G.L. Register. 

J.W. 1767 B. Member in 1768 list. 

E.A. 1739 1 st May, M.M 7 t!l Nov. 

Member down to 1743 B. No further record. 

Honorary Member in 1734. 

Made in the Horn Lodge, Westminster (now 4). 

E.A. 1725, 15 t: > March. 

Cabinet Maker. 

E.A. 1753, 9 th Jan. M.M. 12 th June. 

G.L. Register says he " joined 1753 12 t:i June." 

J.W. 1756 A., S.W. 1756 B., Master 1757 A. 

Member in 1768 list. 

Member in 1736. No record of admission. 

J.W. 1738 B., S.W. 1739 A., Master 1739 B, 

J.W. 1745 B., Master 1748 A. 

No record after 1748 A. 

Member in 1723 list. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge 

Fleetwood, William 

Flude, John 

(? Thomas) 

Foster, John 

Franks, — 
Fredin, — 
Freeman, William 

Visited 1745, 7 Ul May. Of Ship behind the Exchange (Swan 

and Rummer Lodge). 

Visited 1754, 14 lh March, of the same Lodge, and joined same 


Secretary 17/56 A. Member till 1761 A. 

Also of Red Bull, Long Lane (Philanthropic Lodge). 

Pawnbroker, No. 2, Gracechurch Street. 

Joined 1770, Feb. 7 th . Lodge not stated, and not in 

G.L.Register. Member down to 1776. 

Mercer, No. 2, Red Lion Passage, Fleet Street. 
No record of admission. G.L. Register has: — 
"Joined 1774, 2 nd Nov." Lodge not stated. 
J.W. 1775 A., S.W. 1775 B. 

Member in 1749, no other record. 

Tyler, 1758, 11 th July, for a short time only. 

Visited 1739, 7 lh Aug. Of Dog Lodge, Lamb Street, Spital- 
flelds. (An unidentified Lodge, possibly the (Imihuiind.) 
A F.O., Joined same day, M.M. 7'" Nov. 1740, 17 th June, 
made a Scotch Master Mason. Member to 1713 B. 

Gardner, David 
Garnett, George 
Gibbs, Thomas 

Gilbert, John 

Glynn, Sir Richard, 

Goddard, Samuel 

Gower, William 

Grant, Alexander 
Griffith, Gapt. Thomas 

Member in 1721 list. 

Of King's Arms, St. Paul's Church Yard, in 1725. 

E.A., 1737, 1 st March. M.M.—" passed Master, 5/s." 7 th 
June. 1737 in arrear. Off at end of 1739. 

Gent., also described as " Purser." 

Joined 1759, 24 th July. No date in G.L.Register. 

Former Lodge not stated. 

Member in 1768 list. 

Joined 1759, 8 th Aug. No other record. 

Banker, joined 1761, 8 th April. Lodge not stated. 

Was a member of the Mourning Bush Lodge (now 21) in 1761. 

Lord Mayor of London 1758. 

Of "Impress Service, Nightingale Tender, Tower Wharf." 
Visited 1778, 4 th Nov. Of Philanthropic Lodge. 
Joined same day. Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 3 rd Feb. 
G.Stwd. of G.L. South of Trent 1779, 24 th June. 
Secretary of the Schismatic Lodge of Antiquity, 1779 B. Not 
in G.L.Register. 

Visited 1749, 10 th Oct. Of "St. John's." 

Joined 1749, 14 th Nov. 

Secretary 1750 A. and B., 1751 A. and B., 1752 A. 

Printer, Catherine Street, Strand. 
E.A. 1777, 15 th Jan. No other record. 

E.A., F.C., M.M. by Dispensation, 1759, 12 th Dec. 

Haines, Francis 


Joined 1766, 10 th Doc. Former Lodge not stated. No date 
in G.L.Register, which has " Expelled from the lodge for 
arrears and non-attendance 1768, 14" 1 Sept." 

-■i ff» -— - 

The L-nlge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Hall, Richard 

Hamden, John 

Hammond, John 

Harris, Pritchard 
Harris, — 
Hart, John 
Hart, Samuel 

Hartley, Theophilus 

Hawkins, Joseph 
Hay, John 

Heather, Joseph 
Heseltine, James 

Hill, Matthew 

Hill, Nathan 
Hill, Richard 

Hillersden, Edward 
Hillhouse, J. 

Hindson, Joseph 

10. A., K.C., M.M. by Dispensation, 1764, 12°' Sept. 

10 l:i Oct. took leave of tli :> Lodge on his going abroad. Not 

in 1768 list. 


E.A., F.C., M.M. 1767, 

Still a member in 1768. 

28 th Jan., no date in G.L.Register. 

Visited 1744, 7 th Aug. Of Red Cross, Barbican. 

Joined 1745, 5 th Fob. 

J.W. 1747 B., S.W. 1748 A., Master 1748 R. 

J.W. 1752 A., S.W. 1752 R., Master 1753 A. 

J.W. 1757 B., S.W. 1758 A., Master 1758 R. 

S.W. 1761 A., Master 1761 R. 

No longer a member in 1768. 

E.A. 1759, 28 th Nov. M.M. 12 th Dec. 

Tyler, 1736, 5 th Oct. No record after Nov. 1738. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Joined 1739, 6 th March. Lodge not stated. 

Member till 6 th May, 1740. 

Sail Maker, St. Katherine's. 

E.A., F.C., 1775, 1 st Nov. M.M. 1776, 14 th May. 

Secretary 1776 B., 1777 A. and R., W.J.W. 1778 A. 

E.A., 1776, 21 st Feb, admitted a member. F.C., 20* March. 
M.M. 14 th May. Not in 1776 list, or in G.L. Register. 

Gent. Jefferys Square. 

E.A. 1777, 19 th Feb., M.M. 26 th Fob. 

Member in 1721 list. 

No other record. 

"Gent. Doctors Commons," in G.L. Register. 

Visited 1763 13 th July. Joined 27 th July. No. 16, Crown and 

Rolls, Chancery Lane. No date in G.L. Register. 

Secretary 1768 R., R.W.M. 1770 R. Resigned 1773, June. 

G. Secretary 1769, 7 th June. 

Visited 1776, 20 th Nov. 

Also of Horn Tavern, Doctors Commons. 

Watchmaker, Upper Charlotte Street. 

E.A., F.C., M.M. 1777, 19 th Nov. G.L. has 19 th March. No 

other record. 

E.A. 1745, 10 th Dec. Resigned 1747, 10 th Feb. 
Also of Sun, St. Paul's Church Yard. 

Member in 1730 list. 

Visited 1737, 6 th Sept. Of Sun, St. Paul's Church Yard. 

Visited 1738, 6 th Nov. Of "St. John." 

Visited 1739, 6 th March, 1740, 6» May, 1 st July, 7'" Oct., 

1743, 6'* Sept., 1 st Nov., 1745, 2 1 " 1 July, 1747, 14 th April. Of 

Sun, St. Paul's Church Yard. 

E.A. 1740, 1 st April. No record after 1740 R. 

Visited 1763, 23 rd Nov. Of Lodge of Freedom, Mitre Tavern, 

Fleet Street. 

Joined 1763, 14 th Sept. Not in G.L.Register. 

Publican. Of Goose and Gridiron, St. Paul's (Tuscan Lodge). 
Visited 1768, 9 th March. Joined 13 th April. No date in 


Hodges, Tydznch 

Hooper, John 

Hopkins, John 

Hotham, Col. Sir 

Charles, Bart. 

Houghton, — 

Howes, John 

Hughes, Thomas 

Hull, Christopher 
Hull, John 

Hume, George 
Humphreville, — 

Humphries, David 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge 

Hunt, Richard 

Hvde, James 

" Merchant. Queenhive." 

Visited 1708, 10 1 ' 1 and 24"' Aug. Of King's Arms Punch Hous-, 

Shad Thames. 

Joined 14 th Sept. No date in G.L. Register. 

Gent. No. 2, Symonds Inn. 

Joined 1769, 15 th March. Lodge not stated. 

Secretary 1773 A. and B., generally absent. 

Member in Dec, 1776. Not in G.L. Register. 

Gent. E.A. 1775, 1 st Nov., M.M. 15 th Nov. "Gone abroad" 

Dec. 1776. ("East Indies" in G.L.Register.) 

M.P. for Beverley. Member in 1721 list. 

Master in 1726, 6 th March: and in 1730, 24'-' June. 

Visited 1736, 5 th Oct. Of "St. John." 

Joined 1736, 7 fe Dec. 1740, 17 th June, made a Scotch Master 

Mason. Secretary 1737 B., 1738 A. and B., J.W. 1739 A., 

S.W. 1739 B., W.M. 1740 A., J.W. 1742 B., S.W. 1743 A., 

Master 1743 B. Off in 1744 B. 

Joined 1737, 1 st March. Lodge not stated. 

J.W. 1740 B., S.W. 1741 A., Master 1741 B. 

Off in June 1744. 

Secretary 1771 B. No other record, and not in G.L.Register. 

Hatter. No. 41, Holborn. 

E.A., P.O. 1775, 20 t!l Sept., M.M. 15 th Nov. No other record. 

Visited 1779, 14 th July. Of Lodge Perseverance and Triumph, 
No. 2, under the G.Lodge South of the Trent. 
Joined the same day. Not in G.L.Register. 

Visited 1745, 2 nd April, 7 th May. Of Red Cross, Barbican. 
Joined 1715 3 rd Sept. Of the Mitre, Aldgate (same lodge as 
Red Cross, Barbican). 
Paid for three nights only, 1745, 3 rd Sept., 8«> Oct., 12'" Nov. 


Visited 1738, 5 th Dec, 1739, 7 th Nov., 1740, 3'' d Juno, 5 th Aug. 

Of Mourning Bush (now 21). 

Joined 1746, 9 t: ' Sept. 

J.W. 1749 A and B., R.W.M. 1750 A. 

J.W. 1754 A., S.W. 1754 B., R.W.M. 1755 A. 

Treasurer 1756 B. down to 1767 B., resigned. 

R.W.M. 1766. Name still on list 1768. No further record. 

G.Stwd. 1754. 

In 1740 made several members of the lodge Scotch Master 


Leather Seller. Strand. 

No record of making. G.L.Register has 1777, 19 th Feb. 

1777, 5 th Nov., on Board of Trial. 1778, 4«> Feb., moved 

expulsion of Bottomley and Noorthouck. 1778 B., Junior 


Member in 1721 list. 

Of Mack Boy and Sugar Loaf, Stanhope Street, in 1730. (Not 

recorded here before 1732.) 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


limes, John 

Isaacs, Levi 

Bookseller, St. Paul's Church Yard. 

Member in 1721 list (made July or August 1721). 

Of Hummer, Charing Cross, in 1723 and 1725. 

Of King's Arms, St. Paul's Church Yard, in 1725. 

Of Crown, Acton, in 1725. 

Visited 1749, 8 th Aug., ;and raised M.M. here. 

Joined 12 Ul Sept. Of Swan, Fish Street Hill. No record after 

1751 A. 

Jackman, — 

Jackson, Henry 
Jacques, John 

Jaquery, John Ellas 
Jenour, Joshua 

Jepson, Antony 

Johnson, Richard 

Jones, Anselm 


Jones, C'apt. Henry 
Jones, Joseph 

E.A., F.C, M.M., by Dispensation " as his time is short here," 
1764, 1U 1 " Oct. Not in 1768 list. 

E.A. 1762, 13 l '> Jan., M.M. 27 th Jan. Not in 1768 list. 

Visited 1745, 5 th Feb. Of Pod Cross, Barbican. 
Joined same day No record after 1745 B. 

Joined 1759, 24 t:i July. Lodge not stated. No other record. 

Printer, Fleet Street. Made 1777, 19 lh March. No mention 
in these, minutes, but is in G.L. Register. 

Mariner. E.A., F.C. 1775, 20 th Sept., M.M. 15 th Nov. 
1776, Dec, " Gone abroad." 

Member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists. 

Gent. Mile End. Member in 1777. 

No record of admission. G.L. Register has "Made 1777, 19 th 


E.A., F.C, M.M, by Dispensation, 1762, 22" d Dec. 

Member in 1723 and 1730 lists. 

Visited 1746, 12 4 ' 1 Aug. Of Mourning Bush (now 21). 

Rejoined 1746, 9 th Sept. Resigned 1747, 13 t: > April. 

Keck, Samue 

Kellawav, AVi 

Kemp, — 

Kent, Rowley 


Ring, John 
Rirby, Lawrence 

Member in 1721 list. 

Of Griffin Newgate Street, S.W. in 1723, Master in 1725. 

Visited 1753, 8 th May. Of Salutation and Cat, Newgate Street. 
Master at that time. 

Joined later, date not given. Not in G.L. Register. 
R.W.M. 1763 A.: no record after Oct., 1763. 

Joined 1759, 10 th July. Lodge not stated. 
No other record. 

Surgeon, Holborn Barrs. 

Visited 1767, 23 rd Sept., 14 4 ' 1 Oct., 1768, 24"' Feb. 

Of Constitution Lodge (now 21) and of Long Acre Coffee House. 

Joined 176S, 9 th March. No date in G.L. Register. 

Joined 1759, 10 th July. Lodge not stated. 
No ether record. 

No further record. 

Member in 1736 B. 

J.W. in 1721 list. 

Of Black Posts, Gt. Wild Street, in 1725 list. 

Rirkman, Joseph. Jitn 1 '. Of Friday Street. 

Visited 1736, 5* Oct., 1739, 6 th March. Of "St. John." 
Joined 1739, 2" d Oct. 

J.W. 1743 B., S.W. 1744 A., J.W. 1746 A., S.W. 1746 B., 
S.W. 1750 A., Master 1750 B. and 1751 A. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Kirkman, William, Sen''. Of Friday Street. 

Joined 1739, 2" d Oct. Lodge not stated, 
ltesigned 1744, 3 ld July. 

La Coste, Isaac, Jun" 

Leake, John 

Leper, Andrew 

Lewis, Edward 

Lightbourne, Gapt. 

Lindsey, William 
Lloyd, Hugh 

Low-field, William 
Lowther, Nevil 

Luckombe, Philip 

Lundin, — 
Lyon, — 

Merchant, Old Broad Street. 

Visited 1763, 23 rd March, 8 th June. Of Half Moon, Oheapside, 

Constitutional Lodge (now 55). 

Joined 1768, 22 nd June. No date in G.L.Register. 

Secretary 1768 B. 

Member in 1721 list. J.W. 1725, and in 1731) list. 
Also of Sun, Fleet Street, in 1730. 

Member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists. 

Member in 1721 and 1723 lists, and Tyler. 

Also of Rose Tavern without Temple Bar, in 1730 : was then 


K.A. 1759, 28 th Nov., M.M. 12 th Dec. No other record. 

E.A., F.C. 1772, 15 th Oct., M.M. 19 th Nov. 
Not in G.L. Register. ? a member. 

Of Impress Service, Nightingale Tender, Tower Wharf. No 

record of admission, and not in G.L. Register. 

Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 3 rd Feb. 

Visited 1779, 24 th June. Senior Steward 1779 A. 

S.W. in 1721, Master in 1722. 

Also of King's Arms, St. Paul's, in 1725. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Of the Mitre, Reading, in 1725 list. 

Of Coach and Horses, Maddocks Street, in 1730. 

Printer. Visited 1759, 10 th July. Of Sea Captains Lodge, 


Joined 1759, 24 th July. 

Secretary 1760 A., J.W. 1760 B. 

Joined 1759, 24*-' July. Lodge not stated. 

Visited 1746, 9''' Sept. Of Old Lodge (? St. John). 
Joined same day. In arrear 1747 B. Off in June, 1748. 
Visited 1750, 13 th Feb. Of "St. John." 

McCulloh, Robert 
McDougall, Alexander 

Mackenzie, Murdock 

Macomb, James 

Mailard, James 
Mandevil, Edmund 
Manlove, Edward 

E.A. 1759, 8 t:i Aug., M.M. 22 nd Aug. No other record. 

Visited 1745, 5 th Feb. Of Red Cross, Barbican. 
Joined same day. No record after 1745 B. 

Gent. E.A., F.C, M.M. 1775, 19 th April. "Going abroad in 
a few days." 

E.A. 1777, 12 u ' May. A petitioner to G.L.York for the G.Lodge 
South of the Trent 1779, 24 t:i June. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

E.A. 1745, 10 th Doc. No other record. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists. S.W. 1725. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Manning, William 

Mansel, Sir Edward, 

March, Thomas 

Marsam, Capt. William 

Mason, George 

Masters, John 
Matthey, Lewis 

Maycock, William Dollin 
Mayers, Edward Lassels 
Midford, Daniel 
Millar, George 

Miller, Alexander 
Miller, Joseph 
Mills, Henry 

Montgomery, Andrew 
Morley, James Goodman 

Morris, Robert 

Morris, Thomas, Sen 1 . 

Morris, William 

S.W. 1750 B., 

1755 A., Master 

Master 1762 B., 

Landlord of the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street. 

" Hosier, Temple Bar," in G.L. Register. 

Visited 1776, 18 th Dec. Of Lodge of Freedom at his tavern, 

where No. 1 also was meeting. 

Joined same day, on erasure of Lodge of Freedom, and sold 

its furniture to Antiquity. 

1777, 5 th March, as Junior Ruler in Chapter of Harodim. 

Master in 1735, April. Second Baronet. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Joined 1759, 24th July. Lodge not stated. No other record. 

Haberdasher. G.L. has " Dep. Geo. Mason." 

Joined, date unknown. Lodge not stated. G.L. has " 1740." 

J.W. 1742 A., S.W. 1742 B., Master 1743 A., Secretary 

1745 A. and B. 

Master 1747 A. and B., J.W. 1750 A. 

Dep. Sec. 1752 B., J.W. 1754 B., S.W. 

1755 B., Secretary 1758 B., 1759 A. and B. 

S.W. to fill death vacancy 1764 B., S.W. 1765 A. and B., 

S.W. 1767 A. and B. 

Still a member in 1768. 

Visited 1769, 15 th Feb. Of " St. John," late a member of this 


Member in 1730 list. 

Secretary to the Hanoverian Ambassador, also described as 
"Gent. At Lord Waldegrave's, Whitehall." 
E.A., F.C. 1769, 7 th June, and became member. 
Still a member in 1774 and 1776. 

E.A. 1759. 8 th Nov. Of Barbados. No other record. 

E.A. 1759, 28 th Nov., M.M. 12* h Dec. No other record. 

E.A. 1738, 7 th Feb. No record after 1739, 3 rd April. 

" Late Secretary of this Lodge." Petition to Q.Com. against 

him 1764, 28 th Nov. 

No record of his admission. 

Joined 1759, 24 th July. Lodge not stated. 

E.A. 1759, Pdate. No other record. 

Engraver, No. 90, Borough, Southwark. 
E.A. 1776, 21 s * Aug., M.M. 1777, 26 th Feb. 
No further record. 

Tyler 1747, 13 th Jan. to his death in May 1757. 

E.A., F.C. 1777, 20 th Aug., M.M. 19«i Nov. 
Not in G.L. Register. ? a member. 

Stationer, Stone Cutter Street, Shoe Lane. 

Visited 1775, 20"' Sept. Of Queen's Head, Gray's Inn Gate, 

Philanthropic Lodge. 

Joined same day (18 th Oct. in G.L. Register). 

" Stone Cutter." 

Master 1721, 25 th Dec. : member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists. 
Master 1723 B. and 1725 B., S.W. 1730., G.W. 1718-19-21. 
Of King's Arms, St. Margaret's Hill, Southwark, in 1730, 
and of St. Paul's Head, Ludgate Street, in 1730. 

Member in 1730 list. 


Morrison, Thomas 
Moses, Philip, /S'e» r 

'transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

E.A. 1762, 13 u > Jan., M.M. 27 th Jan. Not a member in 1768. 

Visited 1749, 9 th May, Holy Lodge of St. John. 

Joined 1749, 13 th June. 

J.W. 1752 B., S.W. 1753 A. and B., R.W.M. 1754 A., 

S.W. 1758 B., R.W.M. 1759 A. 

Member to 1760 B. 

Nantes, Daniel 

Nelmes, Thomas 

Nevett, Thomas 
Newton, Leonard 

Niblett, Honry 

Nicholson, William 

Nicolson, William 

Norris, John 
Norris, William 

Noorthouck, John 

Merchant's Clerk, Fenchnreh Street. 

Joined 1778. 21 Bt Jan. Lodge not stated. 

Not in G.L. Register. 

Seconder! expulsion of Bottomley and Noorthouck. 

J. Deacon 1778 B., J.W. 1779 A., S.W. 1779 B. 

1779, 3 rd Feb., expelled by G.Lodge. 

Visited 1779, 24 th June. 

J.G.W. of G.Lodge, South of the Trent. 

Joined 1759, 24 th July. Lodge not stated. N;> other record. 

Coachmaker, Long Acre. Friend of Bottomley. 
E.A. 1772, 2 nd Dec. Not in G.L.Kegister. 

Factor. Red Lion Court, Watling Street. 
Joined 1777, 16 th April. Lodge not stated. 
No other record. 

No record of admission. 

J.W. 1736 B., S.W. 1737 A., Master 1737 B. 

Member down to 1743 B. 

Joined 1740, 4 th March. Lodge not stated. 

Visited 1740, 2" d Sept. Of the Fountain, Catherine Street, 


No record after 1743 B. 

? the same person as next entry. 

Visited 1744, 7 th Aug. Of Red Cross, Barbican. 

Joined 1745, 5 th Feb. 

S.W. 1747 B., R.W.M. 1748 A., J.W. 1751 B., S.W. 1752 A., 

R.W.M. 1753 A., J.W. 1756 B., S.W. 1757 A., R.W.M. 1757 B., 

J.W. 1761 A. and B., S.W. 1762 B., R.W.M. 1763 B., 

J.W. 1763 B. No longer a member in 1768. 

Member in 1721 list. 

E.A. 1779, 12 th May. A petitioner to G.L.York for the G.Lodge 
South of the Trent. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

Gent. (G.L. has " Stationer.") Barnard's Inn. 

Visited 1771, 19 th June. Lodge not stated. 

Joined 1771, 3>' d July. (G.L. has "1777, 7"> Aug.) 

Secretary 1771 B., J.W. 1772 A., S.W. 1772 B., 1773 A. and B., 

1774 A. and B. 

1775 A., declined Warden. Treasurer 1777 B. 
Expelled from the lodge 1778, 20 th May. 

Oliver, John 
Osborne, John 

Tyler 1767, 24 th June, to his death in Sept., 1778. 
Member in 1730 list. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Osburne, Edward Oliver K.A., F.C., M.M. 1778, 17"' Nov. "as a case! of emergency, 
l>ci 11 <i obliged to leave town in the Morning on His Majesty's 
Not in G.L. Register. 

Payne, — 
Pearoo, Tsaao. 

Peirson, William 

Joined 1736, 7 th Doe. Lodge not stated. 
Excluded in 1737. ? dat\ 


First record 1760, 24th Dec. No date in G.L.Register. 
S.W. 1761 A. and 15. and in 1762 A. " 1(P> Feb. took the Chair 
in the absence of the Master and opened the Lodge." 

Visited 1762, 10 th Nov. : was then E.A. Lodge not stated. 
Ballotted for same day and approved as member, then raised 
M.M. No other record. 

Perkins, Thomas Marriott Gent. Visited 1759, 10 th July. Of Stewards Lodge. 
Joined 1759, 24 th July. No date in G.L.Register. 
R.W.M. 1760 B., 1761 A. and R., 1762 A. "Gone abroad to 
the West Indies." 
Still a member in 1768. 

G.Stwd. 17.56. Prov.G. Master of the Musquito Shore and 
Jamaica, 1762 and 70. 

Perne, Andrew 
Pinkney, William 

Pollard, James 
Poole, James 

Power, 7)r. James 

Pratt, Joseph 
Preston, Thomas 

Preston, William 

Of Oriel College. 

E.A., F.C. 176S, 27* April. No other record. 

Upholder. St. Paul's Church Yard. 

Visited 1763, 13 th July, of Half Moon, Cheapside. 

Joined 1763, 27 th July. No date in G.L. Register. 

J.W. 1770 A., S.W. 1770 B. 

E.A. 1752, 10 th March. 

J.W. 1758 A. No other record. 


E.A., F.C. 1761, 25 th Feb. No date in G.L.Register. 

Still a member in 1768. 

No record of admission. 

S.W. pro t?.m. 1762, 10 th Feb. 10** March proposed a candidate. 

Not a member in 1768. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Seven Stars, Friday Street. 

Visited 1739, 2"' 1 Oct. Of "St. John." 

Joined same day. 

S.W. 1743 B., Master 1744 A., S.W. 1746 A., J.W. 1746 B. 

Visited 1759, 13 th Feb. Of Red Cross Barbican. 

No record after. 

Printer, Fleet Market: also described as Journeyman Printer. 

In G.L.Register his occupation has been erased, but under 

No. 6, Fortitude, he appears as " Printer," and under No. 558, 

Harodim Lodge, as " Gent." 

Formerly an Atholl Mason, modernised in the Caledonian Lodge 

when it took a "Modern" warrant. 

Visited 1772, 5 th Feb. Of Lodge of Prosperity. 

Joined 1774, 1 st June. G.L. has 15 t: > June. 

R.W.M. 1774 B., 1775 A. and B., 1776 A. and B., 1777 A. and B. 

Assistant G. Secretary to Xmas 1777. 

Also of Hole in the Wall, Hatton Garden, and Philanthropic 


Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 3 rd Feb. 

R.W.M. of the Schismatic Lodge of Antiquity 1779 B, 


Trice, — 

Prosser, Benjamin 
Provost, William 

Transactions of the Qnatuor Goronati Lodge. 

K.A. 1788, 3 rd Oct., M.M. 1739, 2" d Oct. No other record. 

Member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists. J.W. 1725. 

Gent, and Merchant, of New York. 

R.A., F.O. 1758, 14 th Nov., M.M. 12 th Dec, but did not become 

a member. 

Radeliffo, Thomas, ,Tvn r 

Ragg, Richard 

Rainshaw, Edmund 

Rand, William 

Reddall, Richard 

Revis, John 

Rigge, John 

Rigge, William 

Rochford, Frank 

Rogers, — 
Rogers, C. Rlunt 

Rogers, William 

Rooker, Joseph 
Pvowe, Thomas 

Gent. Joined 1766, 24 th Sept. No date in G.L. Register. 
Member still in 1768. 

E.A. 1761, 8 th July. No further record. 

E.A., F.O. 1770, 17 th Oct., M.M. 7" 1 Nov. Not in G.L. Register. 
J.W. 1771 A. and B., S.W. 1772 A. 

Watchmaker, the corner of Mugwell Street in Silver Street. 

Joined 1739 2" d Jan. Of " St. John." 

1740, 17 th June, made a Scotch Master Mason. 

No record after 1740 A. 

Landlord of the Queen's Arms, St. Paul's Church Yard, where 

No. 1 then met. 

Member in 1736 B. "passed Master" 5 th April, 1737. 

Died early in 1746. 

Master in 1729, 29 th Dec, 1731, 1 st March, and 1733, 17 th Dec. 
Visited 1744, 2» d Oct., 1760, 21 st Nov. 
G. Secretary 1734. 

Attorney at Law, of Inner Temple. 

Visited 1766, 12 th Nov., Crown and Rolls, Chancery Lane. 

Also of London Lodge, first S.W. and R.W.M., 1769 A. 

Joined 1766, 26 th Nov. At once became Secretary. 

R.W.M. 1767 A. and B., 1768 A. and B., 1769 A. and B., 

1770 A. Resigned and rejoined 1770. 

Resigned 1774, 19 th Jan., "being disabled from attending by 

infirmity of body." Continued on the books as Honorary 


Attorney at Law (also Gent.), Clements Inn. 

Visited 1767, 8 th April. Lodge not stated. 

Joined 1767, 13 th May. No dato in G.L.Register. 

Secretary 1767 B., J.W. 1768 A. and B., S.W. 1769 A. 

Resigned and readmitted 1774, 3 rd Aug. 

Treasurer 1778 B. till Sept. 16. 

Signed the Memorial against Preston. 

Pawnbroker, Jermyn Street. 

E.A., F.C. 1770, 2" d May. Not in G.L.Register. 

Secretary 1771 A., 1772 A., 1774 B. 

Master 1732, 25"' Nov. 

Admitted 1734, 5 th Nov. Always a regular attendant. 

Master 1736 B., Secretary 1743 B. and 1744 A. 

J.W. 1744, 6 th Nov., S.W. 1745 A., Master 1745 B. 

1740, 17 tl1 June, made a Scotch Master Mason. No record 

after 1748 B. 

Visited 1744, 7 th Aug. Of Red Cross, Barbican. 
Joined 1745, 5 tjl Feb. No record after 1745 B. 

Member in 1723 list and in 1725. S.W. in 1723 

Member in 1730 list. 

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Rushworth, Benjamin 
(P Bryan) 

Ruspini, Bartholomew 

Rutherford, Henry 
Rutleflgo, Barnabas 


Ryland, Edward 

Member in 1723 and 1725. Master in 1725. 

Of Baptist's Head, Chancery Lane in 1723 and 1725. 

Of King's Arms, St. Paul's, in 1725. 

Dentist, Pall Mall. 

Visited 1776, 20 th Nov. Of Stewards Lodge. 

Joined 1776, 18 th Dec. 

G.Stwd. 1772. 

Member in 1721, 1723, 1725, and 1730 lists. 

Waiter at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street. 

E.A. and F.O. gratis 1771, 17"" April. M.M. 1772, 15 th Jan. 

Upper Tyler in 1778. 

G.Tyler of G.Lodge South of the Trent 1779, 24 th June. 

Engraver and Copper Plate Printer, Old Bailey. 

Elected 1739, 6 th Feb. No record of being made at next 

meeting and no record of attendances. 

Died 1771, 26 th July. 

Savage, Major John 

Sayer, Thomas 
ScatclifE, John 

Scott, David 
Scott, Francis 

Scott, John 
Sealey, John 

Sears, Edward 
Sharp, John 

Sharp, Nathaniel 
Shepherd, William 

Sherlock, Thomas 

Sherman, — 

No. 10, Church Street, Soho. 
Visited 1778, 10 th Nov. Of "St. John." 
Joined same day. Not in G.L. Register. 
G.Swd.Br. of G.L. South of the Trent. 
Visited 1779, 24 th June. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Visited 1768, 10 th Feb., 24 th Feb. Of " St, John," formerly of 
The Goose and Gridiron, (Tuscan Lodge). 
Joined 1768, 24 th Feb. No other record. 

Visited 1747, 13 th Jan. Of Mourning Bush (now 21). 
Joined same day. No other record. 

E.A. in some other lodge not stated. 
F.C. 1777, 13 th Jan. No other record. 
Not in G.L. Register. 

Joined 1759, 24 th July. Lodge not stated. 

Attorney at Law, Austin Friars. 

Visited 1777, 19 th Nov. Of All Souls' Lodge, Tiverton. 

Joined 1777, 3 rd Dec. Not in G.L. Register. 

Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 3 r <> Feb. 

J.W. of Schismatic Lodge of Antiquity 1779 B. 

G. Secretary of G.Lodge South of the Trent. 

Member in 1730 list. 

Member in 1777. No record of admission. 

1777, 17 th Dec, "having been under misfortune was excused 

his quarteridges." 

Member in 1723 list. 

1779, 10 th March elected Honorary Member, "being ordered on 

board a Man of War agreeable to his profession." 

Visited 1779, 24 th June, then of G.L.Lodge South of the Trent. 

Printer, Bow Street, Covent Garden. 

1774, 7 th Sept., present : no record of his admission or other 

particulars. Not in G.L. Register. 

TTnder Tyler 1759 to 1763 A. : elected sole Tyler 1763 B, 
In 1767 indisposed and was superseded. 


Shipton, Thomas 

Showers, .Tamos 

Siddall, William 

Simkins, — 

Simmonrls, Humphrey 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Simmonds, Joseph 
Simmonds, Thomas 

Simpson, John 
Sims, Dr. James 

Skinner, Jacob 

Smallpiece, Mev. Martin 

Smart, Thomas 

Smith, John 

Smith, Nicholas 
Smith, "Robert 

M.M. II' 1 Juno. No other record. 
Of Red Cross, Barbican, 

Hop Factor, No. 21, St. Thomas's, Southwark. 

Also described as Fellmonger. 

E.A. 1776, 21 st Aug. M.M. 19 t: > Nov. 

Expelled by G.Lodge 1778, 3 rd Feb. 

G.Stwd. of G.L. South of the Trent 1779, 24"> June. 

Member in 1721 and 1725 lists. 

A former member, no record. Not in G.L. Register. 

Visited 1779, 9 th June. Lodge not stated. 

1779, 29"' Nov., presided as G.M. over G.L. South of the Trent. 

Visited 1754, 8* Oct. Of Holy Lodge of St. John. 
Joined same day. Off in 1755 Ti. 

Stationer, Holborn. 

Visited 1767, 25 th March, 8 th April, 8*" July. Of Globe Tavern, 

Fleet Street. 

Joined 1767, 22" d July. No date in G.L.Register. 

J.W. 1769 A., 1767, 23 rd Dec, P.M. pro tern.— had not served 

the office of Master. 

E.A. 1751, 14»> April. 

Visited 1745, 5 th Feb. 

Joined same day. Resigned 1746, 8 th July. 

Gent. No. 64, St. Paul's Church Yard. 
Joined 1774, 3 rd Aug. Lodge not stated. 
W.S.W. 1777, 17 th Dec. and 1778 A. 

E.A. 1779, 12* May. Not in G.L.Register. 

Senior Steward 1779 B. 

A petitioner to G.L.York for G.Lodge South of the Trent. 

G. Master of the Ceremonies, G.L. South of the Trent 1779, 

24 th June. 

E.A. 1761, 26* Aug. M.M. 9 th Sept. No other record. 

Visited 1778, 7'" Jan. Of Lodge of Ttility, White Hart, 


Joined same day. Not in G.L.Register. 

No record of admission. 
J.W. 1763 A., S.W. 1763 B. 
Not a member in 1768. 

Fishmonger, St. Paul's Church Yard. Brother of Robert 


Visited 1767, 11"' March. Lodge not stated. 

Joined 1767, 25 th March. 

Declined on removal of the Lodge from the Queen's Arms 

1768, lltn Nov . 

Visited 1769, 18'n Jan. Of "St. John." A former member, 

" made in this lodge." 

Apparently rejoined, but no record, in 1770. 

J.W. 1770, 19«> Sept., S.W. 1771 A. and B., J.W. 1772 B. 

and 1773 B. 

Signed the Memorial against Preston. 

Member in 1730 list and down to 1743 B. 

See also next entry. 

Waiter at the Queen's Arms, St. Paul's Church Yard. 

E.A. 1759, 12"' Dec. M.M. 1760, 23 rd Jan. 

The Lodye at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Smith, Hubert 

Smurthwaite, George 

Solomon, Abraham 

Sparrow, Bodyehen 
Squire, Peter 

Stanhope, Lord Philip 

Stanhope, William 
Stephenson, Robert 

Stevens, Richard 
Stewart, William 

Stokes, Charles 

Strong, Benjamin, ■lun r 
Strong, Gerald, Sen r . 

Vintner, Keeper of the Queen's Arms, St. Paul's. 

Joined 1760, 10 th Dec. 

Secretary 1767 A., Treasurer 1767 B. and 1768 A. and B. 

Declined 1768, 4 th Nov., on removal of the lodge from his house. 

E.A., F.C., M.M. 1760, 25 th June. 

Secretary 1761 A. and B., 1762 A. and B., S.W. 1763 A. 

Not a member in 1768 list. 

E.A. 1751, 28'" May. M.M., 11"' June. 
No other record. 

E.A. 1737, 18 th Aug. No record after 1739 A. 

E.A. 1730, 6 th March. M.M. 7 th Nov. 
Discontinued in 1740 A. 

Afterwards Earl of Chesterfield. 
Member in 1721 list. 

Member in 1721. 

Tobacconist, Temple Bar. 

Joined 1768, 13 th April. Lodge not stated. 

No date given in G.L. Register, and no other record. 

E.A. 1753, 9 th Jan. 

J.W. 1757 A., S.W. 1757 B., R.W.M. 1758 A. 

Gentleman, of Crooked Lane. A York Mason. 

An Atholl Mason remade E.A., F.C. 1767, 25 th March. 

Paid £1-1-0, " an Irish Mason before." 

No date in G.L. Register. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Of King's Arms, St. Paul's, 1723. 

S.W. 1736 B., Master 1737 A. Off 1738 B. 

Member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists, down to 1740 B. 

" Father of the Lodge." 

Master in 1722 A. and 1732 A. 

1740, 17 th June, made a Scotch Master Mason. 

No further record. 

Tatischeff, Lucas 

Tay, Charles 
Teale, Itcv. AVilliam 

Tempest, James 

Thomas, Dr. William 
Thompson, John 

Secretary to Prince Galitzen. 

A F.C, proposed for M.M. 1762, 10 1 ' 1 March. 

No other record. 

Joined 1767, 23 rd Sept. Lodge not stated. 
Noted as "Say" in these minutes. 

Of Barbados. Clerk in Holy Orders. 

Joined, r date. No date in G.L. Register. 

J.W. 1767 A. Expelled for arrears and non-attendance 1768, 

14»> Sept. 

Banker, No. 19, Fleet Street. 

" Gent., Birchin Lane," in G.L. Register. 

E.A., F.C. 1776, 17 t:i Jan., and admitted a member. 

M.M. 14 Ul May. 

Of Barbados. 

E.A. 1761, 26 th Aug. M.M. 9 th Sept. ? a member. 

E.A. 1778, 7°> Jan., approved for F.C. 21 st Jan. 
No other record. Not in G.L. Register. 


Transactions of the Quatunr Coronati Lo<i< 

Trent, William Henry 

Troughton, Nathaniel 
Troup, Christopher 
Trilby, Richard, Jun 1 '. 

Tucker, Capt. Henry 
Tucker, Joseph 


Member in 1743. No previous record. 

S.W. 1744 B., Master 1745 A., J.W. 1747 A., Master 1747 B. 

J.W. 1751 A., S.W. 1751 B., Master 1752 A. 

Secretary 1752 B., 1754 A. and B., and 1755 A. 

J.W. 1755 B., S.W. 1756 A., Master 1756 B. 

Resigned 1757, 8*" Fob. 

E.A. 1759, 26 th Dec. No other record. 

Joined 1759, 8 Ul Aug. Lodge not stated. No other record. 

Member in 1721, 1723, 1725, and 1730 lists. 

S.W. in 1730. 

Of King's Arms, St. Paul's Church Yard, in 1725. 

E.A. 1759, 8"' Aug. M.M. 22"<* Aug. " Going abroad." 
No other record. 

Visited 1744, 7 th Aug. Red Cross, Barbican. 

Tulloh, John 

Visited 1748, 13 th Sept. Of ditto. 

Wine Merchant, Compton Street, Soho. 
G.L. Register has " Fludyer Street." 
Joined 1776, 20"' March. Lodge not stated. 

Unwin, Thomas 

Member in 1736 B. No record of admission. 

Elected J.W. 1737 B. Refused to serve, and paid the fine: 

was then in arrear. No record after 1738 A. 

Vaughan, Edward 

Villeneau, Josias 

Member in 1721 list. 

Master of the Green Lettice, Brownloe Street, Holborn, in 


Upholder. Member in 1721, 1723, and 1725 lists. 

Master in 1723 and 1724. S.G.W 7 . 1721, 24 th June. 

Of Bull's Head, Borough, Southwark, in 1725. Master in 1730. 

Walcott, Eyre 

Waldegrave, lit. Hon. 
James, Lord 

W T alkor, Edward 

Walker, Thomas 

Ward, — 

Ward, Hon. John 

Of Barbados. 
? a member. 

E.A. 1761, 26 th Aug. M.M. 9 th Sept. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Of the Horn, Westminster, in 1723 and 1725 lists. 

Member in 1721 list. 

No record of admission. Rejoined 1738, 6 th June. 
No record after 1743 B. 

Of Mark Lane. No record of admission. 
Secretary, 1765 B. Very careless. 
Not a member in 1768 list. 

Afterwards Lord Dudley and Ward. 

G.Stwd. and J.G.W. 1733, S.G.W. 1734 

G. Master 1742-3. 

No record of admission. Member in 1721 list. 

Rejoined 1735, 3 rd April, "the intended D.G.M 

admitted a Member of this Lodge." 

Of Mitre, Covent Garden, in 1725 list. 

Of Gibraltar Lodge in 1730 list. 

D.G.M. 1735-38, 

The Lodye at the Goose and Gridiron. 


Ward, Joshua 

Wart', Richard 

Warren, John 
Weddell, Samuel 

Welch, John 
Welles, George 

Wells, John 

West, — 

Weston, Samuel 
Wheeler, Jonathan 
White, Nathaniel 

White, Samuel 

Whitworth, James 

Wickham, John 
Wilder, William 

Wilkie, John 

Willets, Edward 

E.A. 1759, 22" d Aug. M.M. 12"> Sept. 

1760, 25°> June, appointed to assist the Tyler in delivering 

the Letters. 

Mathematician. Member in 1721 list. 

Of Crown and Sceptre, St. Martin's Lane, Master in 1725. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Gent. Of Gough Square. 

Member in 1736. No record of admission. 

J.W. 1737 B., S.W. 1738 A., R.W.M. 1738 15. Off June, 1739. 

Visited 1739, 3 rd July, 7 th Aug., 7 Ul Nov. Of " St. John " as 

a "former member of this Lodge." 

Apparently rejoined, a member down to end of 1775. 

E.A., 1759, 22" d Aug. 

1760, 25 th June, Candidate for Under Tyler, not elected. 

Gent. Of No. 64, St. Paul's Church Yard. 

Visited 1775, 16 th Aug. Late of Queen's Head, Gray's Inn 

Gate, Philanthropic Lodge. 

Joined same day. (20 th Sept. in G.L. Register.) 

No record of being a member, and not in G.L. Register. 
1779, 24 th June, a petitioner to G.L. York for the G.Lodge 
South of the Trent, but withdrew. 

Tyler, 1759 A. and B., 1760 A. Upper Tyler 1760 B., 1761 A.. 
Head Tyler 1761 B., 1762 A. and B. 

Member in 1721 and 1725 lists. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Merchant. Of Stanton in New England. 

E.A., F.C., M.M., 1763, 12 lh Oct. "Is going abroad." 

Silversmith, at Mr. Abdy's, Oat Lane. 
Joined 1776, 20 th Nov. Lodge not stated. 

Joined 1737, 1 st March. Lodge not stated. 

J.W. 1740 A., S.W. 1740 B., Master 1741 A. 

1744, 2 nd May, elected G.Stwd., but declined. 

Visited 1755, 12 th Aug. Of " St. John," a former member. 

E.A., F.C., M.M., by Dispensation, 1761, 9 th Sept. 
No other record. 

Visited 1740, 5 th Feb. Of No. 39, Swan and Rummer, Finch 


Joined same day. 

J.W. 1744 A., Master 1744 B., S.W. 1747 A. Nominated 

Master, but declined and paid the fine. 

J.W. 1750 B., S.W. 1751 A., J.W. 1755 A., S.W. 1755 B. 

Still a member in Jan., 1768. 

Bookseller. No. 71, St. Paul's Church Yard. 
Joined 1775, 15 th Feb. Lodge not stated. 

Surgeon. Joined 1777, 19 th Feb. Lodge not stated. 
No other record. 

230 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Wilson, John Attorney at Law. No. 89, Aldersgate Street, and of Furnival's 


E.A., F.C., 1775, 19 th July, and admitted a member. M.M., 
15 th Nov. 

J.W. 1776 A., S.W. 1776 B., and 1777 A. and 15., R.AV.M. 
1779 A. 

1777, 5 t: ' March. As Senior lluler in Chapter of Harodim./ 
Expelled by G.Lodge 1779, 3 r * Feb. 
G. Master of G. Lodge South of the Trent 1779, 24 th June. 

Surgeon, Essex Street, Strand. 

E.A., F.C., 1769, 1 st Feb, " on account of his speedy departure 

abroad." M.M. 15 th Feb., described as " made in this Lodge." 

Distiller. No. 158, Borough, Southwark. 

G.L. Register has " Gent., Yorkshire." 

E.A., F.C., 1776, 17 th Jan., and became membe- M.M. 14 t: > 


Member in 1778, 4 th Nov. No record of admission. 

Not in G.L. Register. 

Member in 1730 list. 

Member in 1723 list. 

Joined 1776, 20 th March. Of London Tavern, Constitution 

Lodge. 1776, 14 th May, rejected on ballot for 3°. 

Secretary 1776 B. Resigned before 16 th Oct., 1776. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Member in 1736 B., no record of admission. 

J.W. 1737 A., S.W. 1737 B., Master 1738 A. 

J.W. 1745 A. 

1747 B., in arrear, absent nearly a year, continued a member 

to 1753 A.; removed to Inglebourne, near Totnes, Devon. 

Ju/i 1 '. Son of Sir Christopher Wren. 

Master in 1729, 26 u > July. Died 1747. 

Visited 1738, 4 th April, "a former member," no record of 

admission, and other lodge not stated. 

Rejoined same day. No record after 1743. 

Member in 1721 list. 

Of Old Devil, Temple Bar, in 1723, 1725, and 1730 lists. 

Wilson, Robert 

Wilson, William ' 

Wiltshire, James 

Wingate, — 
Woodburn, Isaac 
Woods, Thomas 

Woodward, Thomas 

AVotton, Richard 

Wren, Christopher 
Wright, John 

Wyatt, John 

Yarker, Bev. Luke 
Young, Midford 

Of York. E.A., F.C., 1776, 26 th June. No date in G.L. 

Register. No other record. 

Attorney at Law. E.A., F.C., and became member 1767, 12" 1 

Aug. M.M., 26"' Aug. 

1767, 23 rd Sept., P.M. pro tern, (had not served as Master). 

Secretary 1768 A. Declined 28* Sept. 1768. 

E.A. 1725, 15 Ul March. No other record. 

Yoxon, Henry 

1 Another William Wilson was made in 1785, 5 th October 


grt. gotyn'* g)mj in Rawest. 

MONDAY, 24th JUNE, 1912. 

HE Lodge mot at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present: — Bros. J. P. 
Simpson, P.A.G.R., W.M. ; K. H". Dring, S.W. ; R. L. Hawkins, J.W. ; 
W. John Songhurst, P.A.G.D.C, Secretary; W. B. Hextall, S.D. ; 
W. Wonnaeott, J.D. ; John T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; G. Greiner, 
P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; and H. F. Berry. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle: — 
Bros. J. H. Retallack-Moloney, H. H. Riaoh, Rev. Prebendary 
Arthur J. Ingram, P.G.Ch., George Robson, Fred H. Postans, Geo. Thompson, Alex. O. 
Eraser, Rev. John T. Lawrence, P.A.G.Ch., Rev. H. A. Harris, Wm. A. Tharp, John 
Fonlds, Walter Dewes, Col. W. N. Ponton, K.C., Dr. G. A. Greene, E. J. Khory, W. R. 
Day, J. H. Bunn, W. J. Thompson, jun., T. Cooke, Col. D. Warliker, C. Wyndham-Qnin, 
John Church, H. Hyde, Col. Sir Howland Roberts, Bart., Israel Solomons, V. B. M. 
Zanchi, A. C. Powell, George H. Taber, G. A. Crocker, Fred. Armitage, J. Smith, J, 
Procter Watson, F. W. Levander, Geo. C. Williams, A. B. Joscelyne, Jas. J. Nolan, D. 
Book, S. J. Fenton, Curt Nauwerck, Arthur W. Chapman, Jas. T. Phillips, Charles R. 
Arlen, J. F. H. Gilbard, Col. J. Austin Carpenter, P.G.S.B., Joseph T. Whitehead, 
Max Infeld, J. Powell, C. F. Sykes, Henry J. Dalgleish, G. Fullbrook, W. Leonard 
Smith, J. Walter Hobbs, and Dr. S. Walshe Owen. 

Also the following Visitors: — Bros. H. D. Cama, W.M. Cama Lodge No. 2105; 
P. B. Jeejeebhoy, P.M. Eastern Star Lodge No. 1189; D. R. Wadia, P.M. Lodge Rising 
Star of Western India No. 342 (S.C.); W. J. Rees, P.M. Ara Lodge No. 348 (I.C.), 
Prov.G.M., New Zealand (I.C.); R. Pels, Lodge Hammonia zur Treue (Berlin); G. Owen 
Dunn, St. George's Lodge No. o49, P.Dis.G.M., Bombay; H. J. Otten, St. John's Lodge 
No. 1306; Davies Soames. Exonian Lodge No. 3415; and F. W. Lethall, S.D. Junior 
Engineers' Lodge No. 2913. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. J. P. Rylands; 
Dr. W. J. Chetwodo Crawley, G.Treas, Ireland; Edward Macbean, P.M.; William 
Watson ; Admiral Sir A. H. Markham, P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M. ; E. Condor, L.R., P.M. ; 
Edward Armitage. P.Dep.G.D.C. ; George L. Shackles, P.M.; Dr. W. Wynn Westcofct, 
P.G.D., P.M.; R, F. Gould, P.G.D., P.M.; Sydney T. Klein, L.R., P.M.; Fred. J. W. 
Crowe, P. GO.. P.M.; and L. A. de Malczovich. 

232 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

On ballot taken 

Bio. Frederick William Levander, F.R.A.S., P. Pros. Brit. Astron. Assoc, 
Formerly Classical Master in University College School, London. P.M. 
Campbell Lodge No. 1415; P.Pr.G.D., Middlesex; P.Z. Henry Levander 
Chapter No. 2048; P.Pr.G. Treas. (R.A.), Middlesex. Residing at 30, 
North Villas, Camden Square, London, N.W. Author of:— "The Sols 
and some other London Societies of the Eighteenth Century " ; " Notes 
on the Levander- York MS."; and numerous papers and essays which 
have appeared in the Transactions of the Astronomical Societies; 

Bro. Thomas Johnson Westkopp, M.A., M.R.I. A., Civil Engineer, P.M. 
Shakespeare Lodge No. 143 (I.C.); Superintendent of Tabernacles 
(R.A., I.C.). Residing at 115, Strand Road, Sandymount, Dublin. 
Author of: — "Notes on Freemasonry in Cork City," and of numerous 
papers on Irish Architecture, Archaeology and Ethnology, which have 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries, Ireland, etc. ; and 

Bro. Arthur Cecil Powell, Glass Manufacturer. P.M. Royal Sussex Lodge 
of Hospitality No. 187; P.Pr.G.W., Bristol; P.Z. Charity Chapter No. 
187; P.Pr.G. J., Bristol. Residing at The Hermitage, Weston-super-Mare. 
Joint Keeper of the Provincial Archives and Author of "A History of 
Freemasonry in Bristol ' ' ; 

were elected Joining Members of the Lodge. 

Forty-two Brethren were admitted to membership of the Correspondence Circle 

The Secretary called attention to the following 


By Bro. W. S. Lincoln, London. 

M.M. Certificate, issued February 20, 1810, by the Grand Lodge of England to 
John Bloom, a member of the Lodge of United Friends No. 564 (now No. 313) Yarmouth, 
Norfolk. The Certificate is of the ' St. Paul's' type, and is signed by Wm. White, Grand 

Knight Templar Certificate, issued to the same brother by the "Grand Encamp- 
ment held in Newry under the sanction of Warrant No. 914 on the Grand Registry c.f 
Ireland" on Sth October, 1813. It is signed by John M. Court, C.G. ; John Clarke, 
G.M.; Richd. Campbell, F.M. ; James Bowden, G.C. ; Francis Daly, G.S. ; and Walter 

Apron and Sash of Continental make, with emblems embroidered in silk and 

Pro. James Bloom was grandfather of Bro. W. S. Lincoln, 

Exhibits. 233 

By Bro. J. C. Kidd, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. 

Silver Ring, purchased in the City of Mexico, about 17 years ago. The design 
includes a pair of scales upon the Tables of the Law, above them being an irradiated 
eye, and below the letters S.II.I.H. It is not known to what Society this has reference. 
The design is in low relief, and is not intended for use as a seal. 

By Bro. Will. O. Welsford, London. 

Masonic Chart, lithographed and hand-coloured, published by Currier and Ives, 
New York, 1876. 

By Bro. O. A. Clark, Bury St. Edmund's. 

Facsimile of parchment found by Mr. T. W. Brooke at No. 19, Market Hill, 
Sudbury, on 13th May, 1907 (together with the coins mentioned), and presented by him 
to the Stour Valley Lodge. The writing on the parchment is as follows : — 

Anno Domini 1797 

A L 5801 at high 12 

at the North East Corner of this Structure the first Brick was laid in the 
presence of many Witnesses — by William Oliver Jun r Past Master of the 
Philanthropic Lodge holden at Long Melford — in this County — under which 
Brick may be found — 2 pieces of Copper called Sudbury Halfpence two Half- 
pennies & one Earthing of his present Majesties Reign one Dutch Coin & 
a piece of Sealing Wax 

May God preserve this Building for useful purposes & the Society 
of Free & Accepted Masons 

The Philanthropic Lodge (Moderns) was constituted 1788 and erased in 1837. In 
1797 it was meeting at the Cock and Bell, Hall Street, Melford. Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. Dr. Buckland Jones, London. 

Jewel, metal-gilt, presented December, 1806, by the British Lodge, now No. 8, to 
William Virgo, P.M. and Secretary "as a token of respect for his services to this 


f^k ijr\ & I 

f / A 

^^ "*".> 'jitf 1 -' ' 

234 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

■ .■ * 



V ^ 





. ••VJ-V 


■* c 

"'■■'■m-^ K 

Jewel, presented January 26, 1791, to the same brother by the Lodge of 
Regularity "for his eminent services." 

Jewel (Hogarth design), belonging to the same brother in 1789 as a member of 
the Grand Stewards' Lodge. 

Apron, worn by the same brother as Grand Steward. It is about 15|" broad by 11" 
deep, lined with red silk turned over to about 5J". The Lower corners of the apron 
are rounded and the flap is about o\" deep at the centre. The strings are of similar 
red ribbon, 2|" wide by about If yard long, and finished with gold tassels. 

R.A. Sash, very similar to that at present in use, but the edging is about |" wide. 
At the tie there is a rosette of the two-coloured ribbons, edged with narrow gilt lace. 

Cap, of dark blue cloth (Glengarry shape) lined with red silk and with red silk 
ribbons at back. It is ornamented all round with bead-work on red cloth, and the 
button on the top is of similar work. It is stated to have been worn by Virgo as on. 1 
of the Principals in the II. A. He was a member of the Chapter of St. James from 
1791, H, 1792-6. Sword Bearer 1796-7, Treasurer 1798-1801. His last recorded attendance 
was 11th March, 1802. 

By Bro. Tom Mason, London. 

Certificate, issued by the Concordia Lodge at St. Eustatius, Dutch West Indies, 
to Thomas Mason, who " was regularly Enter'd, Passed and Rais'd to the Sublime degree 
of a Master Mason, Pass'd the Chair, and rais'd to the Sublime degree of Excellent 
■Royal Arch Mason ; and after further Trial, was Dubb'd a Knight of that most Holy, 
Invincible, and Magnanimous Order of Knights Templars." The Certificate is dated 
6 April 1793 "of Masonry 5793 & of the Order of Malta 675." It is signed by Robt. 
Hodge, R + . M.L.C.G.W.R.A.C. & G.C.K'.T.E.; Wm. Chadwick, S.W.L.C.G.C.R.A.C. 
& K'.T. ; John Brooks, R + .J.W.L.C. G.C.R.A.C.H.C.Kt.T.E. ; Robt. Clinton, Reg"-., 
K.T.E. Scribe R.A.C. & Secy. C.L. Wax seals of the three bodies are attached, Templar 
on black ribbon, Chapter on red ribbon, and Lodge on light blue ribbon. 

Craft Aphox (leather) edged with faded light blue ribbon, and three rosettes of 
similar colour. The flap is semicircular and plain, all the rosettes being on the body 
of the apron. 



It. A. Apron (leather) edged with red ribbon, the design (tesselated pavement, 
columns, arch, etc.) is hand-drawn and coloured. On the flap is a circular 'mark' with 
the letters H.T.W.S.8.T.K.S. surrounding a five-pointed star, in which is the letter G. 

K.T. Ai'kon (leather) pointed at bottom, with semicircular flap, lined and edged 
with black, and with three black rosettes on the body of the apron. On the flap are a 
skull and cross-bones in silver. 

R.A. Sash, the colours are much faded, but apparently it was originally purple 
with indented edge of light blue. 

Sash, of light blue silk, one side edged with indented pink ribbon and the other 
side with similar light blue ribbon. 

Small Maltese Cnoss, silver-gilt, with paste in centre. 

Jewel, crossed swords, apparently for attachment to sash. 

Six-pointed Stah, with letter J in the centre. In A.Q.C., iv., p. 64, a similar 
jewel is said to have been worn by a member of the "Most Antient and Fraternal 
Order of Masorians, called Stags." 

Mark Jewel, circular, set in silver, with glass front, the design being the same 
as on the flap of the It. A. Apron. The centre portion is raised on a small piece of stone, 
cut with five sides. 

Two Rose-Croix Jewels, one set in paste. 

The whole of the above clothing belonged to Bro. Thomas Mason, and is now 
exhibited by his grandson. 

By Bro. H. Mautin* Holland, London. 

Rose-Oroix Jewel, set in paste, inscribed at the back "A Token of Gratitude to 

]3 TO " The name has been erased, but there is evidence that the 

jewel was a presentation to Sir Henry Yeo, of Pyrland Hall, Somerset, who died in 1861. 

Engraved silver Jewel. 

By Bro. T. A. Withey, Knaresborough. 

Silver Stah, set in paste. In the centre a painted representation of a Knight in 
armour (no doubt intended for the Black Prince) trampling on a flag. Around is engraved 
"The Independent Black Prince Lodge." It is suspended from red and green ribbous. 
On the back is engraved "P. G. Tozcr." 

Silver Square, set in paste. 

Crossed Keys, with hall-mark of 1787, engraved at back " T. R. Tozer." 

236 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

By Bro. Henry Sowden, Bideford, Devon. 

Certificate, issued to John Handford, of Bideford, as a Knight Templar, dated 
25 April 1791, signed by Thomas Dunckerley, M.E. & S. Grand Master. Dunckerley was 
appointed " Grand Master to revive to the Order in England in February 1791," and in 
a letter written by him in the following year he gives a list of Encampments formed by 
him in which Bideford takes the fifth place. The Conclave is called the Trine, and is 
stated to have met at the New Ring of Bells. 

R.A. Apkon, Sash and Jewel, worn by the same John Handford. The jewel is 
dated 1791, and is engraved " Peter Carter fecit." 

K.T. Sash, and Grand Lodge Collar with Jewel of Provincial Grand Treasurer 
attached. The jewel is silver-gilt and has the date mark of 1861. 

By Bro. J. H. Bunn, Bloemfontein. 

Photogkaph of a Resolution passed in 1900 in the Rising Star Lodge No. 1022, 
Bloemfontein, congratulating King Edward VII. (then Prince of Wales) upon his escape 
from death at the hands of an assassin in Belgium. The resolution was proposed by 
Lord Roberts and seconded by Lord Kitchener. 

By Bro. Col. W. N. Ponton, K.C., Dis. Dep. G.M., Belleville, Ontario. 

Linen Apkon, about 2' 4" by 2' 1" wide, with design (arch and pillars, enclosing 
square and compasses, etc.) in coloured ribbons. The apron is edged with dark blue, red 
and light blue ribbon and fringe. On the body of the apron under the flap is the name 
"A Boyd" and "No. 1002." 

Quebec Gazette, No. 1, dated Thursday, June 21st, 1764. On the fourth page is 
the following Advertisement : — 


That on Sunday the 24th, being the Festival of St. Jhon, such strange Bkethken 
who may have a desire of joining the Merchants Lodge, No. 1 Quebec, may obtain 
Liberty, by applying to Miles Prenties, at the Sun in St. John Street, who has 
Tickets, Price Five Shillings, for that Day. 

Certificate, issued to William Bell, on 30th July, 1787, as follows : — 

WE the Master and Wardens of Lodge No. 108 under the Sanction of the Grand 

Lodge of Scotland, held in St. Johns Canada by the 31st Regiment of Foot 

Do hereby Certify that the Bearer hereof our trusty and well beloved 
B r W m Bell was Justly Entered, and to our Several Knowledges always behav'd 
himself as becometh a True & Accepted enterd Aprentice, and Recomends him to all 
Regular Lodges for further light in Masonry, the Removal of the Regiment and His 
leaving it, having prevented the Lodge from doing Him that Justice he is entitled 
to in Masonry : — 

Given under our Hands and Seal of our Lodge At our Lodge Room at 

St. Johns aforesaid this 30 Day of July 1787 And in Masonry 5787. 

James Blonchard Master 

Senior Warden Peter Donker 

Junior Warden Hugh Rankin 
N.B. The Secretary on Duty 
for him 

Peter Donker 

A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to those brethren who had lent objects for 
exhibition or who had made presentations to the Lodge Museum. 

The Secretary read the following paper : — 

Transactions of the Qitatuor Goronati Lodge. 237 


BY BRO. J. E. S. TUCKETT, M.A. {Cantab), F.C.S., R.Frov.G.Reg., Wilis. 

HE Masonic entries in the diary of Elias Ashmole are of exceeding 
interest and value, not only by reason of the fame and learning of the 
author, but also, and more especially, because of their bearing upon 
many important points in connection with the Freemasonry of the 
period immediately preceding the birth of the first Grand Lodge in 
1717, when the Craft was passing from the ' Mainly Operative ' to the 
'Mainly Speculative' condition. Prom this point of view much has 
been written concerning the entries, and the pens of some of our most distinguished 
Masonic historians have been occupied again and again in the task of extracting all 
the information to be derived from these two brief records. The re-opening of this 
discussion could only be justified by the production of new evidence, adding to or 
perhaps modifying the conclusions arrived at by the great authorities referred to. I 
have no fresh evidence bearing upon these matters, and this paper has no concern with 
Masonic Degrees, before or after the ' Revival ' of 1717. 

It is a well-known fact that the printed versions of Ashmole's entries recording 
his Initiation in 1646 and his attendance at the Masons' Hall meeting in 1682 show a 
marked departure from the original text of the Diary, amounting in the latter case to 
a complete change in the meaning conveyed. My object in the following pages is to 
consider the circumstances under which these alterations came to be made, and to 
suggest a theory of my own as to the identity of the author of so daring a piece of 
literary manipulation. To some extent this will necessitate going over ground already 
traversed, but I will avoid this as much as possible, and confine myself strictly to the 
point with which I am more particularly concerned. That it is a side issue of no very 
great importance in the study of Masonic History I am well aware, but I venture to 
hope that it is not devoid of interest, and that its discussion is not out of place in the 
pages of the Transactions of this Lodge. 

An excellent facsimile of the two Masonic entries as they appear in Ashmole's 
original MS. accompanies Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley's account of the Masonic 
MSS. at the Bodleian in A Q.O., vol. xi., pp. 4-39. With his kind permission this 
facsimile is reproduced here. There is in existence another manuscript copy of the 
Diary (namely Dr. Robert Plot's transcript), to which I shall draw attention later. 

The printed versions with which we have to deal are those which appeared at 
various times during the eighteenth century. They are to be found in : — 

(1) The Edition (or Editions) of the Diary dated 1717. 1 

(2) Dr. Anderson's second edition of the Book of Constitutions, 1738. 

1 " Memoirs of the life of that Learned Antiquary, Elias Ashmole, Esq. ; Drawn up by himself by 
Way of Diary. With an Appendix of Original Letters. Published by Charles Barman, Esq ; London, 
Printed for J. Roberts, near the Oxford-Arms, in Warwick-Lane, 1717." 12 m °. 

238 'transactions of the Qualuor Ooronati Lodge. 

(3) Dr. Campbell's Article "Aslimole," contained in Biographia 

Britannica, 1747. 

(4) The ' second ' edition of the Diary, published in 1774. It is here 

included with the celebrated astrologer William Lilly's History 
of his Life and Times. 1 

In chapter xiv. of his History of Freemasonry, Bro. R. F. Gould lias discussed 
these versions and the conclusions to be drawn from them. The result is unfavourable 
to Dr. Campbell, who is charged with "interpolation," and the version in the 1774 
edition is held to be a mere copy of the Doctor's. The impression is conveyed that in 
the edition dated 1717 there is an accurate reproduction of Ashmole's own words. 
Other writers have taken the same view, and in fact it seems to be the accepted 
opinion that the alterations crept in subsequently to the first appearance of the TJiury in 
printed form, and that they are the result of, and to some extent indicative of, that 
development of Masonic thought and practice which are marked characteristics of the 
period succeeding the formation of the premier Grand Lodge. But it will be found 
that all the printed versions are in close agreement with each other and that all differ 
in the same important respects from the original text. 

The Diary first appeared in print in the year 1717, but it is not generally 
recognized that there are two editions, or at any rate two issues, bearing that date. 
The tille-pages are practically identical ; on each is the statement that the book is 
" Published by Charles Burman, Esq.," and " Printed for J. Roberts, near the Oxford- 
Arms, in Warwick Lane, 1717." As Dr. Chetwode Crawley reminds us, the name of 
J. Roberts of Warwick Lane is familiar in connection with Masonic publications of this 
period. 2 The two issues, however, differ in their half-titles, for in the one we have 
only " Memoirs of the Life of Elias Ashmole, Esq ; " while in the other there is 
an additional line " Price Is. Gd." There are also other differences, chiefly 
in appearance, which distinguish the latter and much rarer variety from the 
other. Dr. Chetwode Crawley, in a footnote to his article, mentions a copy of the 
rarer issue at the British Museum, and there is another at the Bodleian. On page 160 
of A.Q.G., vol. xi., the late Bro. Hughan has a note on a specimen in the collection of 
Bro. G. W. Bain at Sunderland, in which he says, alluding to the added line on the 
half-title : — ■ 

That is new to me, for it contains the price, all other' copies that I know 
of have only the first four 3 linos. . . . This seems to point to there 
having been two issues in 1717, possibly two different editions, as the two 
issues do not look quite tbe same else. It is a wee gem of a book and of 
considerable value and interest from a Masonic point of view, as well as 


' The Lives of those Eminent Antiquaries, Elias Ashmole, Esquire, and Mr. William Lilly, 
written by themselves; containing, first Wm. Lilly's History of His Life and Times, With Notes, 
by Mr. Ashmole : secondly, Lilly's Life and Death of Charles the First : and lastly, The Life of 
Elias Ashmole, Esquire. By Way of Diary. With Several Occasional Letters, By Charles Burman, 
Esquire. London: Printed for T. Davies, in Kussel-Street, Covent Garden, mdcclxXiv." 8 v »- 
Their two portraits on one plate engraved by J. Lodge. 

2 See A.Q.C; vii., p. 87, viii., p. 35, xi., p. 5, xiii., p. 180, and sxi., p. loo. 

3 Bro. Hu"han wrote four, but it is an obvious slip for five. " Price Is. 6d." makes the sixth 

Dr. Richard Rawlinson and the Masonic Entries in Elias Ashmole's Diary. 239 

I possess a very fine copy, of which the interest and value are greatly 
enhanced by reason of its having originally been in the possession of the famous 
Dr. Richard Rawlinson, whose armorial bookplate it contains: — " Ric Rawlinson, 
A.M. e Coll Di Io Bapt Oxon et R.S.S." 1 

Bros. Songhurst and Thorp very kindly drew my attention to the lemi-colcn in 
the half-title after ' Esq.' whether followed by a sixth line or not. This suggests that 
the sixth line appeared in the earlier copies and was subsequently removed. Moreover 
there can be little doubt that Richard Rawlinson would have been one of the 
first to procure a copy of the Diary directly it issued from the Press, and the fact that 
his copy is of the rarer " Price Is. 6d." variety, tends to assign priority of issue to that 
particular'edition. I shall however speak of this little book as the 'Rawlinson Copy,' 
and shall continue to refer to the other issue as the ' First Edition,' as it is generally 
so described. 

I will now give an exact transcription of the earlier entry of 1646 as found in 

the Rawlinson Copy : -- 

(1646) [15] 

Octob. 16. 4 Hor. 30 Minutes post merid. I 
was made a Free-Mason at Warrington in Lan- 
cashire, with Colonel Henry Mainivaring of Kar- 
ticham in Cheshire ; the Names of those that were 

C 2 

then at the Lodge, Mr. Richard Fenket Warden 
Mr. James Collier, Mr. Richard Sanhey, Henry 
Littler, John Ellam, Richard Ellam, and Hugh 

The versions in the less rare issue dated 1717 and in the so-called ' second ' 
edition of 1774 are identical with the one just given. On comparing with the original 
MSS. it will be noticed that many words and Christian names which are abbreviated 
in the written record are given in full in the printed versions. Thus : — Coll. becomes 
Colonel, Rich becomes Richard, etc. The only difference of any importance is the use 
of the word "at" instead of "of " in the first line of p. 16. In the original MS. 
there is a flourish which is as much like the one word as the other. But Ashmole 
certainly intended 'of' for precisely the same flourish occuis in the entry of 1682 in 
the expression "M r : of the Masons Company." Bro. Gould is of the opinion that 
Ashmole's own words "then of the Lodge" imply "that some of the existing members 
were absent, or that at a previous period the lodge-roll comprised other and additional 
names." If 'at' be substituted for 'of,' or if 'of' be understood to mean 'present 
at,' this argument is strengthened, but the conclusion that the Warrington Lodge was 
essentially speculative (based upon the evidence supplied by Bro. W. H. Rylands that 
all the Brethren present were speculatives) is in a corresponding degree weakened. 2 
Whatever the change may imply, the word ' at' appears in both of the 17)7 editions, 
and also in the 1774 edition. There is also the substitution of " Karticbam " for 
" Karincham," but, to judge by the entries in the Diary itself, almost any spelling 
which ends in ' ham ' will do to indicate this particular place. 3 

1 See A.Q.C., vol. xi., p. 12. 

2 Some Brethren would suggest that the meeting of 16th October, 1646, was a gathering of 
Speculative members of the Lodge practising a kind of Freemasonry unknown to the main body, 

3 See A.Q.G., vol. xi., p. 6. Footnote, 

240 Transactions of the Quaiuor Goronati Lodge. 

Drs. Anderson and Campbell do not attempt to reproduce the words of the 
Diary. A paraphrase of the Initiation entry is given by each of them. 

Dr. Anderson. Constitutions, 1738. 

Thus Elias Ashmole in his "Diary " page 15, says, — I was made a Free 
Mason at Warrington, Lancashire, with Colonel Henry Manwaring, by 
Mr Richard Penket the Warden, and the Fellow Crafts (there mention'd) 
on 16 Oct. 1646. 

Dr. Campbell. Biog. Brit., 1747. 
On the Sixteenth of October 1646, he was elected a brother of the 
ancient and honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, which he 
looked upon as a very distinguishing character, and has therefore given 
us a very particular account of the lodge established at Warrington in 
Lancashire, and in some of his manuscripts there are very valuable 
collections relating to the history of Free-Masons. 
The Masons' Hall entry of 1682 as it appears in the Rawlinson Copy runs thus : 

1682. Mar. 10. About 5 Hor. post merid. I re- 
ceived a Summons, to appear at a Lodge to be 
held the next Day at Masons Hall in London. 

11. Accordingly I went, and about Noon 
were admitted into the Fellowship of Free- 
Masons, by Sir William Wilson, Knight ; Captain 
Richard Borthwick, Mr. William Wodman, Mr. 
William Grey, Mr. Samuel Taylour, and Mr. Wil- 
liam Wise. 

I was the Senior Fellow among them (it be- 
ing 35 Years since I was admitted,) there was 
present besides my self the Fellows after na- 
med, Mr. Thomas Wise, Master of the Masons- 
Company this present Year ; Mr. Ihomas Shor those, 

Mr. Thomas Shadbolt, Waidsfford, Esq. ; Mr. 

Nicholas Young, Mr. John Shorthose, Mr. William 
Ramon, Mr. John Thompson, and Mr. William 
Stanton. We all dined at the Half - Moon - Tavern 
in Cheapside, at a noble Dinner prepared at the 
Charge of the new accepted Masons. 
As in the case of the Initiation entry, Dr. Anderson is content with a para- 
phrase, in his Constitutions, 1738, p. 105: — 

On the 10 March 1682. I received a Summons to appear next Bay 
at a Jjodge in Masons-Hall London, ivhen we admitted into the Fellowship 
of Free Masons Sir William Wilson, Capt. Richard Borth wick, and four 
more. I ivas the senior Felloiv, it being 35 Years since I was admitted ; 
and with me were Mr. Thomas Wise (Master of the London Company of 
Masons) and eight more old Free Masons. We all dined at the Half-Moon 
Tavern in Cheap-side, a noble Binner, prepared at the Charge of the neip 
accepted Masons. 

Dr. Richard Rawlinson and the Masonic Entries in Elias AshmoWs Diary. 241 

Of this Bro. Gould (p. 170) says :— 

The later entry of 1682 was both garbled and certified in a similar 

manner, though, except in the statement that Sir 1 Thomas Wise and 

the seven other Fellows present, besides Ashmole at the reception of the 

New-Accepted masons were '' Old Free Masons," there is nothing that 

absolutely conflicts with the actual words in the "Diary." 

As it is a paraphrase and makes no claim to be a faithful reproduction of Ashmole's 

own words, it calls for no comment from me. But the versions of Dr. Campbell and 

in the second edition of the Diary, 1774, do purport to be the actual entries of the 

original Diary. The same distinguished Brother thus comments upon them (p. 172) :■ — ■ 

Dr. Campbell then proceeds to give the entries, dated the 10th and 11th 
of March 1682, relating the meeting at Masons' Hall, only through 
interpolating the word " by " before the name of Sir William Wilson — 
an error into which subsequent copyists have been beguiled — he 
rather leaves an impression upon the mind, that the "new-accepted 
masons " were parties to their own reception, in a sense never contem- 
plated by Elias Ashmole. 

Again on p. 173 : — 

The misleading transcripts of Drs. Anderson and Campbell. 
The second edition of the Diary published in 1774 which adopts the 
interpolation of Dr. Campbell, changes "were" into "was," and makes 
Ashmole . . goon to state: — "[March] 11. Accordingly I went, 
and about noon was admitted into the fellowship of Free-Masons, 1y Sir 
William Wilson, Knight, Captain Richard Borthwick, . . ." 

A little lower : — ■ 

it will be seen that the oldest Freemason present at the meeting is 
made to declare that he was "admitted into the fellowship" by the 
candidates for reception. 

Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley (A.Q.G., vol. xi., p. 7) is equally severe: — 

There are discrepancies between the first and second editions of the 
Diary. The entry of Ashmole's attendance at Lodge in 1682, in 
particular, is so altered in the edition of 1774 as to be quite misleading. 
. This perversion, or rather inversion, of the relation of 
initiator and initiated is so devoid of apparent object as to disarm 
suspicion. An equally purposeless, though less important, deviation 
from strict accuracy marks Dr. Anderson's quotation in the Book of 
Constitutions. As a natural consequence more than one historian of 
eminence has been beguiled into misapprehension of Ashmole's real 

From the paragraphs just quoted it would appear that : — 

(1) Campbell first introduced the important word 'by.' 

And that he represents all the six candidates as parties to their 
own reception " in a sense, &c, &c." 

(2) The ' second ' (1774) edition differs materially from the " First " (1717). 

It perverts or inverts the relation of initiator and initiated by 
representing all the six candidates as ' admitting ' Ashmole. 

1 " Sir" is a slip. Dr. Anderson has " Mr. " which is correct. Also he gives the right number 
of " Fellows," namely, Ashmole, Wise and eight others. 

242 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

In order to facilitate an examination of these charges, I have made a Tabulation 
which permits at a glance a comparison between the original MS. of Ashmole 
(Column A) and the versions of the two 1717 editions -which are absolutely identical 
(Column B). Columns C and D exhibit all the variations in the Campbell and 1774 
versions from those of the two 1717 editions. 

As regards A and B we notice abbreviations of words and names and an antique 
style of spelling in the former, while words and names in full and a more modern 
style of spelling are characteristic of the latter. There are also some unimportant 
changes in punctuation, hyphens and apostrophes, and the names "Woodman" and 
"Waindsford" become " Wodman " and "Waidsfford" in print. But the only 
material alterations affecting the meaning of the message conveyed are : — 

(1) The addition of the word "by" before "Sir William Wilson." 

(2) The substitution of a semi-colon for a comma after the word 

" Knight." 

Comparing C and D with B there are four changes in capitals, two added hyphens, 
one apostrophe, ' myself ' and ' afternamed,' ' 11th ' and ' thirty five,' ' Woodman ' once 
more (Campbell) and the omission of names after 'Thomas Shorthose' (Campbell). 
And the only material alteration is : — 

" Was admitted" ('Second' edition, 1774). 

It is therefore quite clear that it was not Campbell who "interpolated" the word 

"by." 1 He copied it together with the equally significant semi-colon after "Knight" 

(which seems to have escaped the notice of previous writers) from one or other of the 

two 1717 editions, which he doubtlets nsed without giving himself the trouble of 

consulting the original MS. at Oxford. 

I have no doubt that was in " was admitted" (1774 edition) is intended to be 

plural and to refer to the candidates who, in all the printed versions, are represented 

as five in number not six, and do not include Sir William Wilson. Many instances of 

a similar plural use of ' was ' could be given. One occurs only six lines lower in this 

very entry, and it is common to the two 1717 editions, Dr. Campbell and the 1774 

edition : — 

there was present besides my self the Fellows after 


The sentence which commences with the words "accordingly I went," in the original 

MS. can mean only this : — 

Accordingly I went and about noon six gentlemen (including Sir William 
Wilson; were received into the Fellowship of Freemasons. 

The altered version in all four of the printed issues, allowing for the added woid "by," 
the semi-colon after "Knight," and admitting & plural use of "was" means :— 

Accordingly I went and about noon five gentlemen were received into 
the Fellowship of Freemasons, Sir William Wilson being the officer of 
the Lodge who performed the ceremony of Initiation or Rtception. 

That this is the meaning intended by the perpetrator of the alteration is clear, although 
we may not greatly admire his method of indicating it. 

1 Bro. Hughan drew attention to tjie word "by" in the 1717 edition. See A.Q.C., vol. xi. 
P- 40, 

Dr. Richard Rawlinson and the Masonic Entries in Elias Ash-mole's Diary. 243 

These considerations, I venture to think, exonerate Dr. Campbell and dispose of 
the " perversion or inversion " difficulty. They establish the practically complete 
agreement of the printed forms of the famous entries, thus proving that they are a 
perpetuation of the change made when the Diary first issued from the press. 

My next task will be to try to discover the real author of the alteration. A 
very careful consideration of this question leads me to suggest the name of Dr. Richard 
Rawlinson, and I will proceed to state my reasons for doing so. But I do not 
pretend to prove that this conjecture is correct. The Preface to the 1717 editions 
contains some valuable as well as interesting information as to the circumstances 
attending the publication of the Diary, and, as I think it has never been reprinted 
before, I give it in full. 



The bare Mention of the Person, whose Diary and Letters are 
now published, may sufficiently satisfie the World from whence they 
originally came, and where they are still preserved: The Copy, from 
whence these Papers are published, is in the Hand- Writing of Robert 
Plot, l.d. late Professor of Chymistry, Chief Keeper of the Ashmolean 
Musffium in the University of Oxford, and Secretary of the Royal Society, 
and was by him transcribed for the Use of a near Relation of Mr 
Ashmole's, a private Gentleman in Staffordshire, who has been pleased 
to think they may be acceptable to the World for their Exactness and 
Singularity. They were collated a few Years since by David Parry, 
M.A. of Jesus College in Oxford, and Head-Keeper of the same Place, 
who corrected from the original Manuscript (a) some few literal Errors. 
The Character of Mr Ashmole is so well known, and so excellently, 
though concisely drawn in these Papers, as well as in that Article 
published under his Name, in the Supplement to the learned Mr. Collier's 
Historical Dictionary, partly extracted from these Materials by the justly 
celebrated Mr. Edward Llwyd, Superior Bedel of Divinity in the 
University of Oxford, that no Recommendation of an obscure Editor can 
be of any Service, after so noted Names : The Usefulness of this Kind 
of Works I shall not descant upon; but only say thus much, That they 
let us into the secret History of the Affairs of their several Times : 
Discover the Springs of Motion, and display many valuable, though 
minute Circumstances overlooked, or unknown to our general Historians, 
and to conclude all, satiate our largest Cariosity. 

Newington, Charles Bueman 

Feb. 1716—7. 

(a) Inter M.S. Ashmol. Oxon. Num. 1136. 

First of all, who was the Editor ? Apparently Burman — for he would hardly 
refer to another in the Preface as " obscure." Charles Burman was a near kinsman of 
Dr. Robert Plot who made the copy of the original Diary MS. which was used for 
publication purposes. Ashmole and Plot had many interests in common, and the two 
men became intimate friends. They were both admitted F.R.S., the former in 1661, 

244 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

the latter in 1677, and later Plot was one of the Secretaries of that distinguished body. 
There are many references to the association between them in the Diary itself, 
commencing with a letter (printed in full in the Appendix) from Evelyn (1677) to 
Ashmole, strongly recommending Plot to his good offices in connection with an 
appointment at Oxford. The Ashmolean at Oxford was instituted in 1683, and Plot 
was selected for the post of " Keeper," and at about this time he became Reader or 
Professor of Chemistry in the University. He dedicated his Be Origine Fontium to 
Ashmole {Diary, p. 59, November 19th, 1684), and presented him with his Natural 
History of Staffordshire (ib, p. 78, .Tune 23rd, U86). In 1687 he resigned his appoint- 
ments at Oxford on receiving the offices of Mowbray Herald and Secretary and 
Registrar of the Earl Marshal's Court (ib, p. 81, October 7th, 1687). Ashmole died 
May 18th, 1692, and Plot April 30th, 1696, so that the copy of the MS. must have 
been made at some time between these two dates. The identity of the private 
gentleman in Staffordshire, a near relation of the diariot, does not transpire, but it is 
to him, apparently, that we are indebted for the publication. 

Plot's manuscript copy subsequently passed through the hands of Edward Llwyd 
(or Lhuyd), who succeeded Plot at the Ashmolean. He made use of it in writing his 
biographical notice of Ashmole for Collier's Historical Dictionary (1707), but as he 
makes no mention of Freemasonry he does not help us. Llwyd died in 1709. Wo next 
hear of the MS. (Plot's) as collated by another Keeper of the Ashmolean, David 
Parry, a "few years" before 1717— say about 1712. He found only "some few 
literal errors " to correct. The important alteration in the Masons' Hall entry cannot 
possibly be referred to here, and must therefore have been made after the transcript 
left Parry's hands. Here I will pause for a moment to say that, until my visit to 
Oxford in connection with this paper I was not aware that this transcript by Dr. Plot 
was still in existence and had found its way to safety at the Bodleian, and I do not 
think that any notice of the fact has been taken by previous writers. I found Plot's 
very MS. catalogued as MS. Bodl. Add. A. 211, and I carefully compared the 
Masonic entries in it with those in Ashmole's original MS., and (except in one respect 
to be mentioned later) I found them in close agreement. This document is of such 
interest generally, and of such great importance in connection with the publication of 
the Diary, that I need not apologise for the appearance here of a facsimile (slightly 
reduced) of the folios containing the two Masonic entries. To resume the argument at 
the point where I left off, Plot's transcript was now in the charge of Burman, who, if 
we trust the title-page, was solely responsible for seeing the book through the press. 
But we know that Dr. Richard Rawlinson, D.C.L. and F.R.S., was an ardent admirer 
of Ashmole (he later endowed the Keepership of the Ashmolean), and Bro. Gould (vol. 
ii., p. 18) has expressed the opinion that : — 

We may safely assume that whatever was current in Masonic or literary 
circles — at London or Oxford — respecting the life or opinions of Ashmole, 
Rawlinson was familiar with. 

We know too that at about this time he was taking a very lively interest in the 
famous antiquary's literary remains, and that he became the possessor of a portion of 
his MSS. What more natural than that Burman, if he was the Editor, should codsuH 
Rawlinson in the matter of the printing of the Diary ? But was Burman the sole 
editor? The Rev. W. D. Maeray, P.S.A., in his article "Rawlinson" in the 
Dictionary of National Biography, includes Ashmole's Diary in the list of works which 
Richard Rawlinson claimed to have " written or edited," but he does not state his 

Dr. Richard Rawlinson and the Masonic Entries in Elias Ashmole's Diary. 245 

authority. This statement is of such importance in adding weight to my argument 
that I decided to make an effort to determine the authority upon which it is based. In 
reply to a letter of enquiry, the Editor of the D.N.B. wrote a very kind and courteous 
note, in the course of which he says: — ■ 

I have no doubt that the Rawlinson MSS. at the Bodleian support any 

statement that Mr. Macray makes in his article. It would appear that 

an edition of Ashmole's Memoirs came out in 1717. I imagine the 

original is at Oxford, and that it would be in accordance with the fact 

to assign their publication to Rawlinson. 

Acting upon Sir Sidney Lee's valuable suggestion, I next addressed myself to the 

authorities at the Bodleian, and I was indeed fortunate to secure the help of Mr. 

Falconer Madan, M.A., Fellow of B.N.C., upon whose shoulders the responsibility 

of the charge of the famous library now rests. He most kindly searched the 

Rawlinson MSS. for the reference I wanted, and in a very short time he was able 

to give it me. It is :— Bodl. MS. 15068 (=MS. Rawl. J. 4° 1), fol. 351. I journeyed 

to Oxford to inspect the MS., which is in Rawlinson's own handwriting, and consists 

of a catalogue of works that he claims to have written or edited, and in which he 

includes a list of books that he had a hand in producing, and amongst them is 

Ashmole's Diary. I give a facsimile of the folio 351 upon which the entry is to be 

found. Thus the statement of Mr. Macray in D.N.B. was justified, and we now know, 

at first hand from Dr. Rawlinson himself, that he was actively concerned in the 

publication of the Diary in 1717, and at least lent the editor a helping hand in seeing 

the proofs through the press. 

Now the Doctor was doubtless a worthy man and excellent Mason, but it is 
impossible to shut our eyes to the fact that very unfavourable opinions are entertained 
of his editorial methods. He is known to have taken very considerable liberties with 
a document in which, curiously enough, the name of Dr. Plot is also concerned. I will 
give in full the comment upon this affair which Dr. P. Bliss makes in his edition of 
Anthony a Wood's Athenie Oxonienses 1819-20, vol. iv., col. 775 : — x 

In Miscellanies on Several Curious Subjects published from their respective 
Originals, London, for E. Curll, 1711 8vo. page 43, is A Oopy of a Letter 
from Robert Plott, L.L.D., design d to be sent to the Royal Society in London. 
This has been reprinted in the first volume of Nichols's Bibliotheca 
Topographica, page 62, and has been attributed to Plott by the writer of 
his life.. He had, however, no claim to the authorship. The original 
letter is now among Dr. Rawlinson's collections in the Bodleian (Miscell. 
390), and the fabrication of Plott's name must be ascribed to the Dr., 
who was editor, or rather the colleetor of Curll's Miscellanies. The 
original letter was written by some person to his father, and the writer 
after desiring his duty to his mother, and grandmother, his love to his 
\ brother and sister, and some doubts whether his money would hold out 

to carry him home, signs himself a " moste obedient son." The latter 
part of the letter Dr. Rawlinson has omitted, and altering the word son 
to servant, has compleatly erased the name and substituted the initials 
R.P. Why he should have been guilty of so unnecessary a forgery, is 

1 " Anthony a Wood. Athena; Oxonienses, an exact History of all the Writers and Bishops 
who have had their Education in the University of Oxford; to which are added The Fasti, or Annals 
of the said University : new edition, with Additions and a Continuation by Philip Bliss. 1813-1820." 
4 vols., 4*o- 

246 transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge- 

not easy to determine ; unless he fancied Plott's name of greater celebrity 
than the real author, and adopted it accordingly to give credit to his 
book. I may add that in the same volume [Rawl. Misc] (390) will be 
found a fragment of a Kentish tour in the same handwriting as that of 
the letter just mentioned, which differs from the usual style of Dr. Plott 
as much as well can be. 

His performance in regard to Elias Ashmole's History and Anliqudics of Berkshire, 
which he edited in 1719 and furnished with an introductory memoir of its author, gave 
very little satisfaction. The following quotation from Reliquim Heamianise (ed. Dr. 
Bliss, 1857), 1 vol. ii., p. 422, shows the opinion entertained of it by Thomas Hearr.e 
(1678-1735), the famous Oxford antiquary: — 

As soon as I opened it-., and looked into it, I was amazed at the abominable 
impudence, ignorance, and carelessness of the publisher. . . . Mr. 
Ashmole is made to have written abundance of things since his 

And this is what John Loveday, of Magdalen, the friend of Hearne, has to say 
concerning it : — 

This is printed by E. Curl in 3 vols. 8vo. under the title of Ashmole's 
History and Antiquities of Berkshire; but they are interpolated throughout, 
there being several things after Ashmole's death ; so that one knows not 
what is Ashmole's and what not. The publisher and interpolator was 
Dr. Richard Rawlinson. 

This last quotation is from Bliss's Athen. Oxon., 1819, vol iv., col. 360. 

It would seem, therefore, that Dr. Rawlinson made rather a speciality of 
"interpolation" and "misleading transcription." We may and perhaps ought to 
ascribe this to excess of zeal and lack of modern precision, but it is difficult to avoid 
the conclusion that in Rawlinson we have just the man to 'amend' Ashmole's 
written statement, and to go to press— no doubt with the very best intentions — 
without one word of warning to the reader that any departure from the original had 
taken place. 

At this point 1 think we should enquire whether the alteration — I refer to the 
insertion of the word 'by ' and the substitution of the semi-colon for the comma— could 
possibly constitute a correction of something wrong or misleading in the entry made by 
Ashmole. As I have pointed out, the effect of the alteration is to represent Sir 
William Wilson as the officer of the Lodge who admitted the other five, in which case 
he must have been a speculative Freemason for some time at least before the date of 
the meeting at Masons' Hall in 1682. Authorities are agreed that the Brother in 
question is rightly identified with Sir William Wilson (1640-1710), a native of 
Leicester, an Architect and Builder, knighted at Whitehall on March 8th, 1C81. He 
was the sculptor of a statue of King Charles II. on the West Front of Lichfield 
Cathedral. Bro. Gould, remembering Ashmole's fond attachment to the place of his 
birth (Lichfield), suggests the approaching initiation of one concerned in the restora- 

1 " ReHquias Eearnianisa; the Remains of Thomas Hearne, being extracts from his MS. Diaries, 
collected, with a few notes by Philip Bliss. Oxford, 1857." With portrait, 2 vols, royal 8™> Of a total 
impression of 200 copies 50 were printed on large paper. 

Dr. Richard E iwlinion and the Masonic Entries in Elias Ashmole's Diary. 247 

tion of its Cathedral as the reason why he (Ashmole) received a summons to attend the 
Lodge on March 11th, 1682. ' But apart from the entry in the Diary there is no 
evidence of any kind connecting Wilson with Speculative Freemasonry, so that the 
belief that he was an initiate on this occasion rests upon Ashmole's testimony and upon 
that alone. We must therefore concede that it is just barely possible that Wilson in 
1682 was an officer of the Lodge and did receive or admit the others and that Rawlinson 
knew of the fact and altered the reading of the Diary accordingly. But I should 
hesitate to put forward a conjecture so completely devoid of evidence in support. 

Moreover, there is a point in connection with Ashmole's original MS. which, 
so far as I am aware, has never received the consideration it merits, and which shows 
that the 'alteration' is not a ' correction.' The point is that the line immediately 
above Sir William Wilson's name is incomplete, a space amounting to one-third of the 
whole line being left between the word " Masons " and the word " Sir," which comes 
first on the new line, thus : — 

11. Accordingly I went, & about Noone were admitted 
into the Fellowship of Free Masons, 

S r : William Wilson Knight, Cap': Rich: Borthwick, 
M 1 ': Will: Woodman, M 1 ': W m : Grey, M 1 : Samuell 
Taylour & M r William Wise. 

It should be particularly noticed that the six names (including Wilson's) are written a 
little inside the left edge of the previous lines and of those which follow. 2 This 
shows that in Ashmole's mind the six were to be grouped together as candidates. The 
incomplete line suggests that perhaps Ashmole, when writing up his Diary, failed to 
remember something which he deemed of importance ; that he accordingly left a space 
to be filled in later, but omitted to do so. Whether this be so or not Wilson is clearly 
bracketed with the others. 

The conclusion I have come to is that the alteration is not a correction, and that 
it is to be accounted for in the following way : The person who made it, finding the 
vacant space, felt impelled to supply the deficiency somehow, and did so by the simple 
process of adding the word 'by' and separating Sir William Wilson, Knight, from 
the others by the substitution of a semi-colon for the comma after his title. He thus 
produced a statement convincingly simple and straightforward in appearance and 
complete in every detail, and no doubt he was well pleased with the result. It was the 
action of one who did not fully realise the sacred responsibilities of editorship, and such 
a man was our worthy Brother Dr. Richard Rawlinson. Moreover, the weight of his 
authority to some extent accounts for the perpetuation of the error in subsequent 

To those whose kindly assistance I have already gratefully acknowledged I would 
add the names of the Rev. Canon Christopher Wordsworth, M.A.,of Salisbury, and Bro. 
Songhurst. To Bro. Songhurst I am deeply indebted for help and advice and never- 
failing patience. 

1 See " History of Freemasonry," vol. ii., p. 163. 

2 In Dr. Plot's transcript the blank space and this peculiarity of arrangement are not pre. 
served. Also he adopts the more modern style of spelling. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lod'je. 

Original MSS. 

March. 1682 

About 5n : p.m. 
I recJ : a Sumons to appe 
at a Lodge 
to be held the next day, 
at Masons Hall London. 
11. Accordingly I went, 
& about Noone 
were admitted into the 
Fellowship of Free Masons, 
S r : William Wilson Knight, 
Capt: Rich : Borthwick, 
Mr: Win . Woodman, 
Mr : Wm Grey, 
Mr: Samuell Taylour 
& Mr William Wise. 
I was the Senior Fellow 

among them 
(it being 35 yeares since 
I was 
admitted) There were 
pesent beside my selfe 
the Fellowes after named. 
Mr: Tho: Wise 
Mr: of the Masons Company 
this p°sent yeare 
Mr: Thomas Shorthose, 
Mr: Thomas Shadbolt, 

Waindsford Esqr 
Mr : Nich : Young. 
Mr: John Shorthose, 
Mr: William Hamon, 
Mr : John Thompson, 
& Mr : Will : Stanton. 
Wee all dyned at the 

halfe Moone Taverne 
in Cheapeside 
at a Noble Dinner 
prepaired at the charge 
of the New-accepted 


B. The two 1717 Editions. 

1682. Mar. 10. 

About 5 Hor, post, merid. 

I received a Summons, to 

appear at a Lodge 
to be held the next Day 
at Masons Hall in London. 
11. Accordingly I went, 
and about Noon 
wore admitted into the 
Fellowship of Free-Masons, 
by Sir WilliamWilson , Knight; 
Captain Richard Borthwick. 
Mr. William Wodman, 
Mr. William Grey, 
Mr. Samuel Taylour, 
and Mr. William Wise. 
I was the Senior Fellow 
among them 
(it being 35 Years eince 

I was 
admitted) there was 
present besides my self 
the Fellows after named, 
Mr. Thomas Wise, 
Master of theJf asons- Company 
this present Year; 
Mr. Thomas Shorthose, 
Mr. Thomas Shadbolt, 

Waidsfford, Esq. ; 
Mr. Nicholas Young, 
Mr. John Shorthose, 
Mr. William Hamon, 
Mr. John Thompson, 
and Mr. William Stanton. 
We all dined at the 

in Cheapside 
at a noble Dinner 
prepared at the Charge 
of the new accepted 


C. Dr. Campbell, 1747. D. The Second Ed. 1774. 
{Variations from B only are shewn). 







thirty five 



thirty five 

fellows afternamed 


Mr. Thomas Shorthose,&c. 

[Dr. Campbell does not 
give these names.] 


Discussion. -49 

A vote of thanks was unanimously passed to the writer of the paper, 

Bro. Simpson said : — 

It is very difficult to make any useful comments on this paper. At the com- 
mencement Bro. Tuckett says that he writes with some diffidence, having regard to the 
fact that lie is going over what is mostly old ground. That donbtless, is true : for the 
greater part of the paper does go over old ground. But this really is a very important 
subject, because as there are so few references to Freemasonry before 1717, it is indeed 
useful that we should go hack sometimes, and endeavour to get even a little fresh 
* evidence with regard to the period. Brethren will realise that although this is to some 

extent rather a ' dry ' piper, it deals with the earliest account we have of a Speculative 
Lodge in the City of Lonion, though I think it is quite possible there may be many 
others locked up in our Libraries and elsewhere. Of course we know that Ashmole had 
been initiated in a Lodge at Warrington in 1646 ; and we want to arrive at what was 
y? the correct account of the Lodge meeting which he attended in London in 1682. 

The paper is divided into practically two parts, in the first of which our Bro. 
Tuckett puts forward facts regarding the editions of Ashmole's Diary, which were 
printed in 1717 and 1771, and he also tells us that he has discovered Dr. Plot's trans- 
cript of the original MS. of Ashmole in the Bodleian Library. 

The second part of the paper deals with the alterations in the printed editions 
. from the original MS. of the Diary : and Bro. Tuckett asks himself the question — who 

made these alterations ? In this he begins to break new ground, and he comes to the 
conclusion that the alterations were made by Dr. Richard Rawlinson, who was a celebrated 
man in Oxford at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and a man well known in 
Masonry. Bro. Tuckett says that he does not like to put this forward as proved in 
any shape or form, but I would go farther and say that from the evidence he has 
brought forward, I consider that his contention is proved. 

Although Bro. Tuckett does not enter into it very fully, thei-e is a very interest- 
ing-question which then arises — why this alteration? Assuming that Dr. Rawlinson 
made the alteration, why did he make it ? Publishers of memoirs or diaries have from 
time to time made alterations or interpolations, which certainly ought not to have been 
made. All such alterations, without explanation, are quite inexcusable, and the reasons 
for making: them may, I think, be divided into four. First of all, they may occur from 
gross carelessness ; secondly they may be made intentionally, so as to give an appear- 
ance of support to certain contentions of the editors or publishers ; thirdly they may be 
made in order that the text may read more smoothly and be more intelligible to the 
reader, and that is the reason that our Bro. Tuckett puts down as the most probable 
in the present case, namely, that a blank was found in the Diary, and Rawlinson added 
a word which would make it smoother reading and more intelligible. Then there is the 
fourth reason— that the publisher or editor has found from his own personal knowledge 
or information that the entry is incorrect. Naturally the better method of correcting 
a MS. in these case* is to print it as it stands, adding a foot-note to the effect that in 
the opinion of the publisher or editor the statement made is incorrect. 

Bro. Tuckett considers that the alterations in Ashmole's Diary were made in 
order to render the extract more intelligible and to make it appear that the Master of 
the Lodge was Sir William Wilson, who initiated the five gentlemen who appear after his 
name.. In the original MS. that is not clear, but it seemed most probable that Sir 

250 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

William Wilson was intended to appear as one of the initiates. This is the crux of the 
whole matter. Bro. Tuokett thinks that the word " by" was pat in in order to make 
it more clear. I am not quite so sure about this, because Dr. Rawlinson was perfectly 
conversant with Masonry in London at that particular time, and moreover he was 
closely in touch with the guilds and societies of London a little later on. His father 
was Lord Mayor in 1705, and he had a brother an Alderman of Cheapside, which is 
where they dined, at the Half Moon. His brother, Thomas Rawlinson, lived there, 
and was Lord Mayor of London in 1755. Undoubtedly therefore, Bro. Rawlinson must 
have had the most intimate connection with the Masons' Company. My opinion is 
that he probably made enquiries as to what actually happened on that particular day in 
1682, and that he made the alteration knowingly, so that the Diary should give an 
account of what actually occurred on the occasion. 1 think that this is extremely 
likely — at any rate, quite as likely as the idea of Bro. Tuckett, that the alteration was 
made in order to give a more intelligible meaning to the passage. 

Bro. Dring said: — 

I quite agree with the W.M. that, although the subject of the paper may at first 
sight appear to be somewhat trivial, working round one or two little words, yet the 
paper is of very great importance to Masonic historians, principally because, as has 
already been observed, it deals with the first known entry of the kind in a diary ; and 
Bro. Tuckett has pointed out in the paper that in his opinion the printed versions of 
that entry have all been incorrect. But although I think Bro. Tuckett has proved his 
contention, there are one or two minor points on which I do not agree either with him 
or with onr W.M. 

Bro. Tuckett tries to shnv that tha original alteration was made in order to 
complete the line ; I do not think so. The entry runs " Accordingly I went, and about 
Noon were admitted into the Fellowship of Freemasons "—Now in the present day, 
after that we should probably put a colon and a dash, and begin a new line with : — 

Sir William Wilson, Knight, etc., 
and I think that is the way in which Ashmole intended the entry to read. This con- 
clusion is strengthened by the fact that the names are slightly ' indented ' so as to shew 
a tabulation which includes Sir William Wilson, and so I feel quite sure that a very 
great deal of time has been wasted by some of our early archaeologists in trying to 
find out when this brother was made a Mason. 

Bro. Tuckett mention two editions of this book in 1717. In one place he says 
the only difference between them is that on the half-title of one issue appears " Price 
Is. 6d." but a little farther on he says that there are other differences, chiefly of appear- 
ance. Now he does not state what those differences are, and I have not recently had an 
opportunity of comparing the two issues. I would suggest that some brother who is so for- 
tunate as to possess both issues might examine them, and see if there be any real differ- 
ences. I am inclined to think that in the first issue of the book the half-title did not have 
particulars of the price, and that the publisher, noticing this, cancelled the half-title 
and added a new one, putting under the last line " Price Is. 6d." If I am correct in this 
it will be found that in the copies with the price, the half-title has been pasted in, the 
original half-title having been cancelled. 

biscussidii:' "" 

As to the word " at," I have referred to the facsimile of the original MS. which 
appeared in vol. xi. of our Transactions, and the word is undoubtly " of." It cannot be 
read in any other way. 

Bro. Johx T. Thorp said that he had very few remarks to make, except to thank 
Bro. Tuckett for his paper. It had been a puzzle to him and to many others as to how 
these strange mistakes had been made in the transcription of the MS. for the printed 
editions. He possessed both issues of the 1717 edition, and had compared them care- 
fully, but could see no difference except the addition of " Price Is. 6d." upon the half- 

Bro. W. B. Hextall writes: — 

Whilst thoroughly appreciating Bro. Tuckett's paper, I think the grounds on 
which he bases conclusions adverse to Dr. Rawlinson p3rsonally are insufficient. 

Looking at facsimiles of Ashmole's Diary entry of 11th March, 1682, I am not 
so much impressed as is Bro. Tuckett with the arrangement of words and spaces. As 
a spaca is left after " the Fellowship of Free Masons," in the first portion of the entry, 
so is there another space, though a smaller one, after "the Fellowes after named" in 
the later portion; while the inner margin in which the names of Sir William Wilson 
and others appear is also perceptible in the first of the five lines which contain the 
nam?s of Mr. Tho. Wise, etc.; and it may be that the 'writing out' of the four last lines 
was accidental merely. The comma which follows "the Fellowship of Free Masons" 
appears to suggest that the entry was not left incomplete, but, on the contrary, that we 
have it in its entirety in the original MS. 

Passing by the three variants of the Cheshire place-name, Keringham, Caring- 
sham, and Karticham, in the printed copies, there are other mis-spellings which occur 
in passages of the Diary quite unconnected with the Craft, and are common to the two 
editions of 1717 and 1774. On the first page, a Warwickshire place name is given as 
Ausley; no such place exists, but there are Ansley (or Anesley) and Austrey in 
Hemlingford hundred, and there is Ansty in Knightlow hundred. 1 Under date, 1642, 
August 9th, Drayron, in Buckinghamshire, is clearly a mistake for Drayton. 1652, 
October 3rd, a Mr. Anthony Diot is mentioned. Now the Dyotts of Freeford Hall, 
near Lichfield, were an old Staffordshire family long before the time of Ashmole, and it 
is very unlikely he would mis-spell a name so well-known to him. 2 1680, September 
24th, he records the death of " M r . John Staniesby " of Derbyshire, where Stainsby is 
met with, both as a proper and a place name, but the spelling attributed to Ashmole is 
unknown. 1685, July 9th, " M>'. Frasier " is named ; " Frazier " sometimes occurs, but 
the probability that the form given is correct seems remote. Whilst allowing for 
arbitrary spelling in former days, it would be desirable for the original diary to be 
compared with the printed copies in the above respects ; when, if the prints of 1717 and 
1774 are found incorrect, a strong inference will arise that the errors were those of 
carelessness, and not of intention ; and the same would not unreasonably also apply to 
the two passages of Masonic interest which have occasioned so much commentary. It 

1 Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire, 1730, vol. ii. 

2 In March, 1643, Lord Brooke, whilst directing the Parliamentary cannon on Lichfield Cathedral, 
was shot dead from the central tower by "dumb Dyott," of tliat family. 

252 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

is noticeable that the fac-simile given of a portion of the MS. copy made by Dr. Plot, 
contains a variance from the original entry of which it purports to be a faithful 

The ostensible editor of the 1717 print was one, Charles Burman, of whom 
nothing seems to be known ; and but for the statement of Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley 
(A.Q.U. xi., 5".), that " Charles Burman was a son-in-law of Dr. Robert Plot, according 
to some ; a step-sou, according to others," 1 should be tempted to conclude that the 
name was a fictitious one. As it is, our only information seems to be that in 1690, Plot 
married at Canterbury the widow of Henry Burman of London, who survived him, and 
diedin 1713; that her son, John Burman, took his 'SI. A. degree at Oxford in 1705, in 
which year the second edition of Plot's Oxfordshire appeared, "with a short account of 
the author by J.B., M.A " ; and that "Dr. Plot's MSS. came after his death into the 
hands of John Burman his son-in-law." 1 Of Charles Burman, we get no further 
information than is furnished by the prints of Ashmole's diary, 1717 and 1774, of 
which all that Wood's Athenm says is, " the publisher was Charles Burman." 

Concerning Dr. Robert Plot, some of his contemporaries wrote with much 
candour ; e.g., the Edward Llwyd named in Charles Burman's 1716-7 Preface, and who 
succeeded Plot at the Ashmolean, after relating certain matters not creditable to the 
latter, concludes, " But enough of Dr. Plot at present and for the future.''- So that, 
even if a real Charles Burman was a relative or connexion, and presumably the associate 
of Plot, it may be well to avoid too readily accepting all that we find in his Preface, 
including the alleged collation by David Parry, Keeper of the Ashmolean, 1709-14, as 
to which no corroboration is offered. 

The three imputations upon the character of Dr. Rawlinson which are cited by 
Bro. Tuckett, must not be accepted without scrutiny. The first of these — that he in 
effect forged a letter in order that it might be wrongly attributed to Plot — was only 
publicly made in 1820, when Rawlinson bad been dead over sixty years. The remaining 
two depend wholly upon Rawlinson's supposed editorship of Ashmole's The Antiquities 
of Berkshire, 1719, which rests upon the assertion of John Loveday, one of the accusers, 
who died in 1789, and whose statement did not appear in print till 1819. Publication 
of the Berkshire was preceded by an advertisement of E. Curll, the printer, describing 
the forthcoming work as "Brought down to the present Time; by Dr. Rawlinson," 3 but 
the Berkshire itself contains no reference to Rawlinson, whose name appears nowhere in 
it ; Mr. Macray does not include it in his list of books attributed to Rawlinson, 4 and no 
mention of Rawlinson in connexion with it appears either in Upcott's English Tojwgraphy, 
1818, i., 9-10, or in the British Museum Catalogue. 'The other adverse critic, Thomas 
Hearne, left a voluminous diary, from 1705 to his death in 1735, which "gives Hearne's 
sentiments on things and persons in a very outspoken way ; and contains a good deal 
of acrimony against those with whom he came into collision." 5 Apart from aught else, 
unless Rawlinson can be definitely shown to have edited Ashmole's Berkshire, 
animadversions founded upon that assumption must wholly fail. 

There are these circumstances against the probability of Rawlinson's having had 
to do with the publication of Ashmole's diary in 1717 : (1) He had evinced no absence 

1 Erdeswicke's Survey of Staffordshire, by Harwood, 1844, liii. ; Foster's Alumni Oxonienses, 
1500-1714, 214; Wood's Athenm Oxonienses, by Bliss, 1820, iv., 773'", 776. 

2 Wood, ibid, 777. 

3 Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, 1812, i., 454. In later years Kawlinson wrote of Curll as " that 

4 Dictionary of National Biography, xlvii., 331. 

' Annals of the Bodleian Library, by Rev. W. D. Macray, 1890, 245. 

Discussion. 253 

of inclination to take credit for works for which lie is known to be responsible, and of 
which several had then appeared ; (2) Nothing is to be found in the printed Diary, as 
it appeared, which points to Rawlinson ; (3) The statement in Mr. Maeray's Annals of 
the Bodleian Library, 1890, page 241", as to certain papers there relating to Ashmole, 
"with relation to these Rawlinson says in a letter dated Peby. 25, 1736-7 that he had 
bought, about two years since, some of Ashmole's papers from his heirs, including some 
of Dugdale's (Ballard MS. ii., 11)." Is there anything, with the sole exception of the 
assertion made by Loveday, forthcoming to show that Rawlinson's attention had been 
directed to the subject of Llias Ashmole before the time of the above purchase, which 
occurred some seventeen or eighteen years after the Diary was first printed in 1717 Y 
\\) The ascription to Rawlinson by Mr. Macray — in qualified terms only — of the Diary, 
includes also Mr. William Lilly's History of Ms Life and Times, 1715, ' and appears to bo 
based on the " catalogue " at the Bodleian, of which a portion only is before us. That, 
Rawlinson is supposed to have edited Lilly's History will be new to most bibliographers, 
and I would ask whether this catalogue includes Lilly's True History of Kimj James L. 
and Kin (j Charles I., also of 1715; also published by J. Roberts in Warwick Lane; 
and also included in the 1774 " Charles Burman " reprint: and if no 4 , why not Y 

ft is well we should remember that although Dr. Richard Rawlinson incurred 
ridicule by parsimonious habits, he was "never convicted of real meanness or 
unkindness." 3 

Bro. Woxxaoott said : — 

In supporting the vote of thanks to Bro. Tuckett I should like to congratulate 
him o:i the discov-jry of th 3 additional MS. copy by Plot, which has came to light 
through his researches, the identical copy from which Burman (and perhaps Rawlinson 
also) produced the first printed version of 1717. Bro. Tuckett fixes the date of this as 
between the death of Ashmole, 1692, and the death of Plot, 1696,— " so that the copy 
of the MSS. must havj been made at soma time between those dates." But Bro. 
Tuckett does not appear to have considered the possibility of Plot having made his 
MS. extracts from Ashmole's Diary at, an earlier date. We are told Ashmole and Plot 
were intimate, certainly from 1677 onwards, and from 1683 to 1C87 Plot was Keeper 
in charge of the Ashmolean. Is there not some likelihood of his having access to such 
of Ashmole's papers as remained from the fire at the Temple, and were not yet made 
over to the museum at Oxford ? " But much more was burned " (in 1679). And as they 
frequently met at the Royal Society's meetings, while Plot was still the Keeper of the 
Ashmolean, as well as afterwards, when he had taken up the duties of Mowbray Herald, 
there is the probability of Plot having had access to Ashmole's Diary at any time after he 
penned the later entry of 10th March, 1682. In my opinion it is more likely that Plot 
made his copy during his Keepership (1683-Oct. 1687), than during the four years 
following the death of Ashmole (1692-95). 

With reference to the collation of the MS. entries by David Parry (ca. 1712), 
only "some few literal errors" being found incorrect, — is there any trace of these 
corrections that Bro. Tuckett has seen and noted Y 

1 Diet. Nat. Biog., ibid. 

■ Bro. Dr. Clietwode Crawley, A.Q.C., xi., 12. 

254 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Undoubtedly Dr. Campbell lias now been exonerated from all blame, be having 
merely followed the 1717 editions, and incidentally Dr. Robert Plot is also held 
blameless. But on the other hand, in suggesting that Rawlinson is the editor who 
must be saddled with the responsibility of the alteration to the 1682 entry, owing to 
the insertion of the word " by," Bro. Tuckett has not sufficient confidence in his own 
argument to press home his contention, for he says " 1 do not pretend to prove that 
this conjecture is correct." 

In A.QC. xix., p. 19, our W.M. (Bro. Simpson) gave a brief note on Sir 
William Wilson. Having some years ago made some researches on this interesting 
personage, the present opportunity of referring to a few details of his life and work 
prompts me to contribute them to the pages of our Ars, and to expand somewhat the 
brief note in Le Neve's Pedigree of Knights — " Sir William Wilson of ye Towne and 
City of Leicester knighted at Whitehall 8 March 1681." 

Ashmole evidently attached some importance to the occasion of Wilson's initia- 
tion in 1682, and perhaps the fact that lent lustre to the proceedings was that 
a friend and former pupil of Wren himself was about to join the Fellowship of Free 
Masons. The story of William Wilson, so far as can be gathered, is an interesting one, 
and shows liim to, have been an architect and sculptor of some eminence. Born at 
Leicester in 1640, we hear first of him in London at the age of 20 years as a sculptor 
and draughtsman, at first under the tuition and later in the employment of Sir 
Christopher Wren, perhaps at the busiest time in the career of the great restorer of 
London : here he continued until 1677, being only casually mentioned as an assistant, 
in which year he managed to secure for himself an independent commission, which 
brought about a great and fortunate change in his career. It was Lady Jane Pudsey who 
entrusted him with the task of setting up a memorial of more than usual importance 
to the memory of her deceased husband, Henry Pudsey, of Langley Hall, Sutton 
Coldfield. We are unaware of the manner in which the introduction to the lady was 
secured, but Wilson executed his commission to her entire satisfaction, and showed in 
a sort of alcove two busts of Henry and his lady, disclosed by the drawing back of a 
pair of curtains. The memorial is mentioned (1762) in the London Chronicle and the 
draperies met with the special praise of its critic. 

These, though overlooked by the incurious, are remarkable, being 
so well designed in their folds, and executed with such an easy flowing 
of the drapery, as would not have disgraced Roubilliac. 

Possibly Wilson's previous work at Nottingham Castle was the means by which 
he came into touch with his wealthy patron. He had executed the equestrian statue 
there of the first Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme (ob. 1676), which for a long time 
stood over the entrance, and very likely the eastern facade also was his work. The 
guardian of the duke's heir was John Holies, Earl of Clare, a native of Sutton Coldfield, 
who probably was the party who recommended Wilson to Lady Pudsey. The statue 
referred to was supposed to have been sculptured from an entire block of stone, bat 
when the mob in 1831 broke into the Castle and carried it off as a trophy it proved to 
be of wood, and its fragments went to feed the bonfire of the rioters. 

Wilson had also executed a full length statue of Charles II. for Dr. John Hacket 
(ob. 1670), Bishop of Lichfield, who was engaged in extensive repairs to the cathedral 
church. This effigy was intended to ornament the west gable, which had lost its 
image of the Virgin in the assault of the stormers. It stood for a long time in its 
position, but being executed in the soft stone of the district, became so weatherworn 

Discussion. 255 

as to be almost unrecognisable, and was taken down in the modern renovations. It lias 
since been destroyed. This may have been another work which led to the recognition 
of Wilson's merits and his subsequent success. 

Lady Pudsey chose William Wilson to be her second husband, in spite of the 
remonstrances and protests of her relatives. One of her daughters is said to have 
taunted her with the disgrace that a lady who had lived in a moated house should 
marry a stonemason. Wilson replied to the taunt: — " So far as the moated house goes, 
madam, I can easily build her another," and he made his new house in the mam street 
of Sutton Coldfield with a dry ditch, over which, until recent years, the visitor 
approached the house by a bridge. Another relative threatened at his decease to 
prevent the admission of his colfin to the family vault. " Bury me outside," said 
Wilson, " and as I am a stonemason I will work my way in." At his death in 1710 
Wilson was buried outside the Pudsey vault, tinder a long Latin inscription extolling 
his virtues and exploits, and owing to recent additions to the church of his adopted 
town, the tomb is now under its roof. 

In 1681, Lady Pudsey obtained the honour of knighthood for her husband, the 
sculptor-architect, owing to family interest and her own influence at court, and the 
couple settled down at Sutton Coldfield where he built himself his " moated house." 
In 1694 he was entrusted with the rebuilding of St. Mary's Church at Warwick, 
through the influence of his former master — Wren, and produced a work of fine 
proportions, but with somewhat incongruous detail, which has often called forth equal 
praise and censure, although Walpole maintained it could only have been from the 
hand of Wren himself. It seems fairly proved to have been Wilson's work. 

Many houses in Staffordshire and Warwick were executed by Sir William 
Wilson prior to the date of his initiation, but nearly all have been destroyed or altered 
beyond recognition. He affected very largely the style of Inigo Jones, and by adopting 
details of an even earlier period still, his executed works had an air of being older than 
their actual date. One large house he executed about 1680 for Lord ffolliott of Bally- 
shannon, Four Oaks Park, was only recently removed to create sites for surburban 
residences on the fringe of Birmingham. This is the only one we know of which a 
picture was engraved, and it can be seen in Dugdale's Warwickshire, 2nd edition. It 
was twice altered, and on its sale in 1749 by Lady ffolliott, widow of its builder, it 
came into the hands of Simon Luttrell of Luttrellstown, Ireland. On its internal 
fitting's and conveniences Wilson appears to have expended much care, and its destruc- 
tion within the last few years bore witness to the excellence of its building. 

Such is the man whom Ashmole has perpetuated in his Diaty, and whose 
admission to the Fellowship he witnessed in March, 1682. In Leicester his memory 
is still treasured for sundry charitable bequests to his fellow-townsmen. 

Bro. Tuckett writes iu reply as follows : — 

It is very gratifying to me to learn that my paper was considered to be of interest 
and even of importance, and 1 am sincerely grateful for the many kind references to my 
efforts, and for the unanimous vote of thanks. 

It was only to be expected that there would be considerable difference of opinion 
concerning my theory of Dr. Rawlinson's responsibility, but I note with pleasure that 
the Worshipful Master and Bro. Dring consider that my contention was proved, and 

256 Transactions of the (Juatnor t'oronali Lodge. 

in a characteristically kind letter of appreciation Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley asks to be 
taken as endorsing my conclusions. The W.M. is of opinion that the alteration in the 
second entry was in reality a correction of a misstatement by the original diarist. This 
was my own opinion at first, but I subsequently abandoned it as I failed to find any 
evidence in support. Bro. Wonnacott's notes on the career of Sir William Wilson make 
a welcome addition to the subject. I assumed that Plot's transcript must have been 
made after the death of Ashmole, and 1 still find it difficult to believe that Ashmole 
would have suffered so private a document as his diary to be copied during his own 

Bro. Dring asks for information concerning the half-title of the Rawlinson-Copy 
of the 1717 Diary, and suggests that it may have been stuck in. I have submitted it 
to two of the most expert bookbinders in the west of England 1 and they state that 
they are certain that the half-title is not stuck in, but is one with page viii. of the 
preface, and is sewn in (the thread being plainly visible) and the section complete, and 
of the same laid paper throughout. The section consists of the half-title (verso blank), 
the title (verso blank), the preface 3 pp. (verso of last blank). To me it seems that 
the " Price Is. 6d." variety must have come first, and when subsequently the l: issue " was 
altered the price was taken out, but the semi-colon after" Esq." by accident allowed to 
remain. I did not say that this " Price Is. 6'd." was the only difference, on the contrary 
I at once went on to note a difference of appearance, and (in reply to Bro. Thorp) I may 
draw attention to the remark of our late Bro. W. J. Hughan : — " the two issues do not 
look quite the same else." 

My wording of the paragraph concerning the incomplete line in Ashmole's MS. 
has given rise to some misconception of my meaning, especially in the cases of Bros. 
Dring and Hextall. The line is certainly incomplete, in the sense that there is a blank 
in it, and I go on to say that perhaps Ashmole left it with a purpose, but : — 

Whether this be so or not he clearly included Wilson with the others. 
My argument was not that Ashmole must have intended some later addition to what 
he had written, but that the vacant space suggested that idea to llawlinson. I am 
surprised to find no reference in the discussion to the semi-colon after " Knight " — to my 
mind it is full of significance. 

Bro. Hextall's defence of Dr. Rawlinson has received my most careful attention, 
and the study of it has given me intense pleasure, but with all deference to his 
experience — far greater than mine — I find that I still regard the worthy Doctor as the 
most likelv man to have made the important change. That Rawlinson was never con- 
victed of real meanness or unkindness we can safely agree while lamenting his question- 
able editorial methods and lack of modern precision. I can see no reason to doubt that 
Charles Barman was a real personage, for we know that there was a family of that 
name, and that Plot did marry into it. Nor can I see why we should hesitate to accept 
the statements in the Preface — why should the shortcomings of Dr. Plot affect 
the credibility of those statements? One of the most important, namely, that Plot 
made a transcript of the Diary, is certainly true — the transcript is in existence to-day 
at the Bodleian, and the agreement in meaning of its Masonic entries with the original 
is complete, but there are many variations in spelling, contractions, etc. 

The evidence of the manipulation of the letter attributed to Dr. Plot does not 
satisfy Bro. Hextall. Dr. Bliss, in 1819-20, stated that the original document was at 
the Bodleian, and it is there still, amongst the Rawlinson papers— the reference is MS. 

1 Messrs, Langdon & Davis, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol. 

Discussion. 257 

Rawl. D. 390, fol. 95. I give a photographic reproduction of the whole letter, so that 
the statements of Dr. Bliss may be put to the test. It will be seen that the word 
" servant" was originally " son," and the handwriting of the letter should be compared 
with that in the facsimile of the Masonic entries in Dr. Plot's MS. transcript. The last 
letters of " servant," the signature " R.P." and the note at the side— "Dr. Plot's letter 

to Mr. " should be compared with the facsimile of Dr. Kawlinson's writing in 

the "catalogue,"— see also Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley's article in A.Q.G., vol. xi. 

As regards the Antiquities of Berkshire, Bro. Hextall himself quotes the advertise- 
ment of the printer, E. Curll, which preceded the publication in 1719, " Brought down 
to the present time ; by Dr. Rawlinson." And Bro. Gould (Hist., vol. ii., p. 17) says : 
" There appears no reason to doubt that the work was edited and the memoir written 
by Dr. Richard Rawlinson." Bro. Hextall asks if there is anything other than the 
assertion of Loveday to show that Rawlinson's attention had been directed to Ashmole 
before (about) 1734. In the face of that assertion should we not rather ask if there is 
anything to show that it had not been so directed ? 

It is not suo-o-ested that Dr. Rawlinson's share in the publication of the Diary in 
1717 amounted to more than lending the editor a helping hand, therefore it is not 
surprising that there is nothing in the printed Diary as it appeared which points to 
Rawlinson. That he does claim that much is certain. The following is a quotation 
from Mr. Falconer Madan's letter to me, announcing his discovery of the reference: — 
I have just found the MS. where Dr. Richard Rawlinson claims a share 
in the edition of Ashmole's Diary (1717). He was a young man at the 
time. It is in Boll. MS., 15068, etc., etc. Rawlinson himself is writing 
a list of books he wrote or edited, and among others there is a list of 
books, run together in one paragraph, books he had a hand in. That is 
the expression to use. 
As stated in my paper, I went to Oxford and examined the MS. in question. After 
reading the notes on the discussion I wrote to Mr. Madan again, and his reply is as 
follows : — 

There is no heading to the paper— the fact occurs as I wiote. Rawlinson 

made collections for a continuation of Wood's Athenie Oxonienses. He 

himself was an author, so he writes titles of the books he wrote. Among 

these titles occurs a paragraph obviously giving short titles of books he 

had to do with. 

I must not conclude without expressing my sincere thanks to Mr. Madan for his 

kindness and courtesy. It is very largely due to his assistance that I am able to claim 

that my contention is at least probably correct. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

"Poet Laureat to the Lodge of St. David." 

BY BRO. A. M. MACKAY, P.M., Lodge St. David, Edinburgh, No. 36. 

PART 1. 

Shoemaker and Freemason. 

y\i YXp 

" — polish'd Leather Boxes, Cases, 
So well known now in many places. 
With Powder Flasks, and Porter Mugs, 
And jointed Leather Arms and Legs, 
Design'd for use as well as show, 
Exempli gratia, read below, 
Were his invention " : 

Gavin Wilson. 

N Ars Quatuor Corcnatorwm, vol. v., p. 154, there is reproduced the 
portrait of Bro. Gavin Wilson, drawn and etched in 1787 by John 
Kay, engraver and portrait painter in Edinburgh, for Bro. Wilson's 
Collection of Masonic Songs, published in 1788. There also appears 
an article on the poetical shoemaker, first printed in The Gentleman's 
Magazine of April 17th, 1793, and dated " Glasgow, March 20th." 
As the article referred to contains much that is pertinent to the 
subject of this sketch, it will be unnecessary I hope to apologise for inserting, as briefly 
as possible, what has already appeared in the pages of the Transactions. 

" For the art of hardening and polishing leather, and the manufac- 
turing of various implements and utensils from it, superior for many uses 
to those formed of other materials, the world is indebted to Gavin Wilson, 
a journeyman bootmaker, of the City of Edinburgh. The extensive circula- 
tion of the polished leather powder-flasks, drinking mugs, snuff-boxes, ink- 
eases, and numerous other useful articles in this branch of manufacture, of 
which he was the original maker, has rendered this invention famous not 
only over Europe, but in other quarters of the globe ; although the name 
of the inventor is almost entirely unknown. His abilities were not limited 
to the producing of the articles in this line of manufacture which are in 
common use; his ingenuity enabled him to form a German flute and a violin, 
both of leather, which for neatness of workmanship and melodiousness of 
tone were neither of them inferior to any instruments of the same kind, 
formed of wood, by the workmen whose peculiar province it is to make 
these instruments. The exertions of his genius went yet farther, and he 
contrived artificial arms and legs of the same materials, which not only 
remedied the deformity arising from the want of a natural limb, but in a 
great measure supplied that loss, in itself one of the most distressing that 
can befal any individual. The unexampled success of his endeavours in this 
way, and the very imminent advantages the maimed derived from his inven- 
tions, may be best instanced by the following copy of a letter, written by a 
person who was unfortunate enough to be deprived of both his hands while 
serving in the Royal Navy; by the assistance of Gavin Wilson this man was 

Gavin Wilson. 259 

enabled both to convey his sentiments by writing, and to perform many 
useful offices about his own person. The letter was first published in the 
Caledonian Mercury, for 1779, along with an advertisement of the ingenious 
mechanic who was the means of rendering this author a comfort to himself, 
and in some measure an useful member of society." 

"To the printer of the Caledonian Mercury. 
" Sir, 

"As I am a reader of your Mercury, I indulge myself with the hope, 
that you will admit my short misfortunate narrative into a corner of your 
extensively useful paper. I belong to the royal artillery, and, on the 23 rd 
of April, 1776, I embarked on board the Fleetwood transport, Captain 
Slazier, from Woolwich, and arrived at Quebeck the 1 st of June the same 
year, where we had a very restless and troublesome campaign ; but especially 
to my experience, in the engagement on Lake Champlain, near Ticonderago, 
where I was in a gun-boat, and serving the vent; at this duty we have 
occasion for extending both hands towards the vent, and mine being in that 
position, an eighteen-pound shot from the rebels came and carried away both 
my hands, the right hand about an inch and a half, and the left about six 
inches below my elbow. 

" Thus I was rendered useless to my king, my country, and myself; but 
I gratefully acknowledge, that the honourable Board of Ordnance have made 
proper provision for me ; but, alas ! they could not make me useful to myself. 

"Very lately 1 heard of one Gavin Wilson, in the Cannon-gate. I 
applied to him, and he has made me two jointed hands of leather, with which, 
besides writing these few lines to you, I can do a great many very useful 
things to myself. 

"And as Mr. Wilson has far exceeded my expectation, in what he has 

done for me, I think it is my duty, in justice to him, and in sympathy to 

others in my unhappy situation, to give this public intimation, that any 

who needs his help may know where to apply. I am, 

" Sir, 

"Perth, 15 April, "Your humble servant 

1779. " James Craioie. 

" P.S. Lately the honourable Board of Trustees for Fisheries, Manu- 
factories, and Improvements in Scotland, honoured the inventor of leys and 
arms with a genteel premium on that account." 

Were any further testimony requisite to evince the high utility of this 
deserving artist's contrivances, besides the approbation of the Patriotic Board 
which honoured his ingenuity by a premium, the authority of two of the most 
celebrated medical practitioners of the present age might be produced; Dr. 
Alexander Monro, present Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in the 
University of Edinburgh; and Mr. Benjamin Bell, author of the System of 
Surgery, published at Edinburgh. 

Dr. Monro, in his lectures for these many years past, has annually 
honoured the memory of Gavin Wilson with a public encomium, as the 
inventor of the improved artificial arms and legs; and Mr. Bell, in the 6 th 
volume of the work above mentioned, pays the following tribute to his merit. 

" These artificial legs and arms are preferable to any I have ever seen. 
The leg, when properly fitted, proves equally useful with the common timber- 
log, and is preferable for being neater ; at the same time that it is not 
liable to break, an accident to which the others are very liable; and it answers 
better than a leg made of copper, from being considerably lighter, and not 
apt to be hurt in shape by bruises. They are so constructed as to be fixed 
on by means of straps, and hooks and buckles, in such a manner, that the 
weight of the person's body does not rest upon the stump of the amputated 

260 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

limb, but hangs quite free within the ease of the artificial leg. This in the 
most effectual manner prevents the pain and excoriation which otherwise 
would be apt to happen from the friction of the stump against the machine. 
When a limb is amputated above the knee, a joint is formed in the artificial 
limb at the knee. In walking, the limb is made steady by a steel bolt, running 
in two staples on the outside of the thigh, being pulled down ; and when the 
patient sits down, he renders the joint flexible by pulling the bolt up. This 
is easily done, and adds much to the utility of the invention. Mr. "Wilson's 
artificial limbs, besides being made of firm, hardened leather, are covered 
with white lambskin, so tinged as very nearly to resemble the human skin. 
The nails arc made of white horn, tinged in such a manner as to be a very 
near imitation of nature. The wrist-joint is a ball and socket, and answers 
all the purposes of flexion, extension, and rotation. The first joints of the 
thumb and fingers are also balls and sockets made of hammered plate-brass, 
and all the balls are hollow to diminish their weight. The second and third 
joints are similar to that which anatomists term Ginglimus, but they are so 
far different as to admit of any motion, whether flexion, extension, or lateral. 
The fingers and metacarpus (wrist) are made up to the shape, with soft 
shamoy leather and baked hair. In the palm of the hand there is an iron 
screw . in which a screw-nail is occasionally fastened. The head of this nail 
is a spring-plate, contrived in such a manner as to hold a knife or fork, which 
it does with perfect firmness. And by means of a brass ring fixed on the first 
and second fingers, a pen can be used with sufficient accuracy for writing. 
When the arm is amputated above the elbow, the artificial limb is made with 
an elbow-joint. This part of it is made of wood, and has a rotary motion as 
well as that of flexion and extension." 

Mr. Bell concludes his description with the following well-deserved 

panegyric : 

"I have given this particular account of Mr. Wilson's invention, from 
a conviction of its being superior to any with which the public is acquainted. 
J am also pleased at having it in my power to let the merit of such an artist 
be more generally known than it otherwise might be. Indeed, his merit in 
matters of this kind is so conspicuous, as well as in the management of 
distorted limbs, that his death I would consider as a public loss; at the same 
time I have often wished that some public encouragement were given him, 
to enable him to communicate as much as possible the result of his experience 
to others." 

Notwithstanding the benevolent wish expressed by Mr. Bell for render- 
ing the experience of this ingenious mechanic of permanent benefit to society, 
nothing was done in that respect; and he died, unnoticed, at Edinburgh, 
within these few years. From having but little intercourse with that city, I 
have been able to pick up but few anecdotes of his life, and cannot even 
give any account of his birth, parentage, or decease; the latter, however, 
must have happened at some period since the publication of Mr. Bell's work 
in 1789. His sign-board is still extant in the street called the Cannongate, 
with this humourous inscription, " Gavin Wilson, arm, leg, and boot-maker, 
but not to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales " ; for this singular genius 
had also pretensions to wit, and was occasionally a votary of Apollo and the 
Tuneful Nine. The above sportful effort of his fancy was set up at a time 
when a rage for obtaining, even at an exhorbitant price, the titled honour of 
an office under royalty was predominant amongst all ranks of his fellow- 
citizens. The ridicule in this mirthful effusion was so happily conceived, and 
so well directed, as to be universally well received; and probably it contributed 
in no small degree to exterminate the then prevalent and preposterous taste 
against which it was aimed. He was a regular attendant at the Lodges of 
the freemasons, and a warm friend of the fraternity. By his propensity for 

Gavin Wilson. 261 

versifying, and composing songs and short stories in rhyme, he contributed 
much to the social mirth and enjoyment of their meetings, and to the good- 
humour and amusement of all companies where he came. He frequently sang 
and recited his own productions in the lodge-meetings: from this circum- 
stance he was elected Poet Laureat to the Lodge of St. David, at Edinburgh, 
of which he was a member. After receiving this distinguished mark of 
honour, in the year 1788. he published a collection of his poetical per- 
formances, under the title of "A Collection of Masonic Songs, and entertain- 
ing Anecdotes, for the I'se of all the Lodges. By Gavin Wilson, Poet Laureat 
to the Lodge of St. David, Edinburgh." To this publication is prefixed a 
portrait of the author, decorated with Masonic insignia. By people who were 
acquainted with him, I have been told that it is a very good likeness." 

A 1., the writer of the foregoing article, has fortunately given us much 

interesting information regarding this clever son of the " gentle craft " of St. Crispin. 
Fortunately, because despite "the approbation of the Patriotic Board," in whose 
records I have been unable to discover any reference to the "genteel premium," and 
the testimony of Doctois Alexander Monro and Benjamin Be)], the name of Gavin 
Wilson has been almost entirely forgotten. His connection with Lodge St. David, 
Edinburgh, No. 36, was an inducement to me to try and add any information I could 
to what is already known regarding this eighteenth century poet-laureate of the 
fraternity. His name first appears in the records of the Lodge in a minute of the 
monthly meeting held on 21st October, 1766, as follows: — 

" Bro. Peter Smith in name of B 1 '. Gavin Wilson of St. Pauls Glasgow pre- 
sented this Lodge with two handsome large Leather mugs of his own work- 
manship, for which the Brethren unanimously expressed their thanks by 
drinking his health, and also assumed him as a Member of this Lodge." 

Uufortunatelv the Leather mugs have long since disappeared. Bio. Peter Smith, 
through whom they were presented, was a shoemaker in Edinburgh. He became a 
member of Lodg; St. David on 22nd April, 1765, and during the years 1767 to 1770 
was one of the Lodge Stewards. In 1768-69 he was one of the Grand Stewards of the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

St. Paul's Lodge, Glasgow, was instituted 15th May, 1758. On 25th May, 1762, 
the name was changed to Lodge Thistle and Rose, at which it now remains, No. 73 on 
the roll of Grand Lodge. I am informed by the Secretary, Bro. P. C. H. Millar, that 
the existing records do not go far enough back to contain any information about Bro. 
Gavin AVilson. From the fact that the original name of the Lodge is given in the 
St. David minute it is likely that he was a member of St. Paul's previous to the change 

in 1762. 

In the eighteenth century, and now, it has been the custom in Lodge St. David 
to elect along with the other Office Bearers, on St. John's day in winter, five Stewards, 
and from 27th December, 17G7, until 27th December, 1771, inclusive, we find Bro. 
Gavin Wilson elected as one of the Stewards of the Lodge. He appears to have been 
a regular attendant, taking part in the work, especially " At Harmony," as the follow- 
ing extracts from the records show. The minute of the monthly meeting held 15th 
August, 1769, concludes— 

"After the most agreeable Entertainment from Vocal & Instrumental 
Music particularly from Br. Wilson who gave us several original songs on 
ye occasion. And after ye usual healths & Toasts were drunk, the Lodge 
was decently closed." 

262 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Later in the same year, at an Emergency meeting held on 28th November, Bro. 
Wilson acted as Senior Warden, pro tempore, and at the monthly meeting held 
21st August, 1770, 

"the Brethren were entertained with an Original Song from B 1 '. Gavin 

Monthly meeting 16th October, 1770. 

"the Brethren were entertained with Vocal Music from Brs. Esplin, Pillans, 
Downie, &c, and the New Song of St. Davids by Particular ' desire from 
Brother Gavin Willson. After the visitors were gone the Lodge unani- 
mously made choice of Br. Gavin Willson to be their Grand Steward for 
the ensuing year." 

The appointment to Grand Stewardship of the Grand Lodge of Scotland was at 
that period left to the various Lodges, probably those then meeting in, and about 
Edinburgh. The minutes of Lodge St. David from its erection in 1738 record the 
names of its members appointed Grand Stewards, usually about October, " That if 
approven of they might be sworn into office " at the Quarterly Communication of the 
Grand Lodge held annually in November, so that they could take part "in the manage- 
ment of the Great Feast on St. Andrews day." Grand Lodge approved of the appoint- 
ment of Bro. Wilson at the Quarterly Communication held 13th November, 1770. 

Lodge St. David at its monthly meeting on 15th October, 1771— 

"continued our Bro 1 '. Gavin Willson Grand Steward for the ensuing year." 

The appointment was again accepted by the Grand Lodge, on 12th November, 
1771, and the minutes of the Quarterly Communication on that date contain the follow- 
ing regarding the Grand Stewards — 

"Who being all present were Unanimously Approven of, and accepted of 
the same and took the Oath de Fideli. And they Retired and made choice 
of Brother Gavin Wilson for their Master who was also approven of. 

"The Grand Lodge agree to the Proposals given by Br. Wilson for 
the Entertainment on Saint Andrews day next except as to Article third 
& fourth of the same." 

Articles third and fourth, taken exception to, are not given in the minutes of the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland. The festival of St. Andrew was held on the 2nd of December 
1771, Patrick, fifth Earl of Dumfries, Grand Master Mason (1771-72) being present — 

"The Most Worshipfull The Grand Master attended by the Officers of the 
Grand Lodge, And the Masters and Officers of the above Lodges [detailed 
in G.L. minutes] with upwards of five hundred Brethren made a Procession 
in the usual way from the Parliament House to the Assembly Hall, where 
an Elegant Entertainment was prepared, And where they passed the 
Evening in that solemn and harmonious manner customary amongst Masons, 
And in due time the [Grand] Lodge was closed and the Brethren dismissed 
in the usual form." 

Gavin Wihon. 263 

The result of Bro. Wilson's stewardship is given in the records of the Grand 
Lodge as follows — • 

"Committee Meeting. Exchange Coffee house Edin r ., 13 th Decern 1 . 1771. 

" Brother Gavin Wilson having given in his Accounts of the Enter- 
tainment in the Assembly Hall on the Festival of last St. Andrews day, 
the Amount whereof is £76 -4-1 and the Discharge or Outlay by him 
amounting to £66-9-2-J. The Ballance being £9 • 14 • 10i was instantly 
paid over by the said Gavin Wilson into the Funds of the Grand Lodge 
and he discharged of the same." 

It is of some importance to rote, in view of his assumption of the title of "Poet 
Laureat to the Lodge of St. David," of which more hereafter, that the last reference 
to Bro. Gavin Wilson in the books of the Lodge is contained in the minute of an 
Emergency meeting, held on 9th October, 1772, when it is stated that he acted as Junior 
Warden, pro tempore. 

In 1774 it is recorded in the minutes of the Grand Lodge that he represented, as 
Proxy, the Lodge of Glamis, Glamis, Forfarshire, instituted 11th November, 1765, 
originally No. 126 and now No 99 on the roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. On 
communicating with Bro. Silvester Snttie, the Secretary of that Lodge, he kindly 
copied out for me all the information contained in the old records in connection with 
Bro. Wilson. 

" Glammiss 30 th Nov. 1774. 
" The late Master and wardens reported to this meeting that a Letter had 
lately come from Brother Gavin Wilson at Edinburgh importing that he 
had been aggreably to the desire of our Lodge appointed by the Grand 
Lodge Our Proxy and had in consequence of that appointment attended 
the Quarterly Communications and other meetings of the Grand Lodge. 

" Reported also that there came inclosed in the l d Letter the Resolu- 
tions and orders of the three Grand Lodges of Britain and Ireland with 
respect to a Mutual Correspondence betwixt them. Both the Letter and 
orders being read the meeting ordered both to be kept in Betentis. And 
the late Master and Wardens having signified that they had ansered the 
above Letter and had sign'd the same in the Lodge name constituting 
Brother Gavin Wilson our Proxy and Representative at the Grand Lodge, 
This meeting approved and acquiesed in their conduct. 

(Signed) "James Miller. 

" Glammiss 30 th Nov. 1775. 
"The Lodge considering that they are in arrears to the Right Worshipful 
the Grand Lodge for a number of Members presently entered resolved to 
send Brother John Barry to Edin. to our Proxy Brother Gavin Wilson 
with one pound five shillings sterling as dues for our brethren and the 
Lodge agree to give Brother Barry a resonablo allowance for his Trouble 
upon his producing the Grand Treasurer and Clerk their receipt on St. 
Johns Day when the Lodge is to meet by 12 o'clock midday precisely. 

(Signed) " J-vmes Miller. M. 

264 Transactions nf tlie Quatuor Goronnti Lodge. 

PART 2. 

" Sir Maccaroni " of the Cape Club. 

Anld Reikie ! wale o'ilka toon 
That Scotland kens beneath the moon ; 
Whare couthy chields at e'ening meet 
Their bizzin craigs and mon's to weet ; 
And blythely gar anld Care gae by 
Wi' blinkit and wi' bleerin eye." 

Robert Fergijsso.w 

Before proceeding to deal with Bro. Gavin Wilson as Poet Laureate of Lodge St. 
David, and with his Collection of Masonic Songs, some notes regarding his connection 
with one of the old Edinburgh clubs, may be found interesting as they give us further 
insight into the character of "That old unletter'd leather toasttr " as he calls himself 
in the preface to his poems. 

In all the published works descriptive of Edinburgh during the eighteenth 
century, reference is made to the convivial habits of its citizens of all classes, and to the 
many social Clubs then in existence in the city. One of the foremost among these was 
the Cape Club, celebrated in Robert Fergusson's poem of " Auld Reikie." 

" — chief, Oape ! we crave thy aid, 
To get our cares and poortith laid. 
Sincerity, and genius true, 
Of knights have ever been the due. 
Mirth, music, porter deepest dyed, 
Are never here to worth denied." 

In the " Traditions of Edinburgh," Robert Chambers informs us that the club 
originated as follows : — 

" The name of the club had its foundation in one of those weak jokes 
such as 'gentle dulness ever loves.' A person who lived in the Calton was 
in the custom of spending an hour or two every evening with one or two 
city friends, and being sometimes detained till after the regular period when 
the Netherbow Port was shut, it occasionally happened that he had either 
to remain in the city all night, or was under the necessity of bribing the 
porter who attended the gate. This difficult pass — partly on account of the 
rectangular corner which he turned, immediately on getting out of the Port, 
as he went homewards down Leith Wynd — the Calton burgher facetiously 
called doubling the Cape; and as it was customary with his friends, every 
evening when they assembled, to inquire ' how he turned the Cape last night,' 
and indeed $o make that circumstance and that phrase, night after night, 
the subject of their conversation and amusement, ' the Cape ' in time became 
so assimilated with their very existence, that they adopted it as a title; and 
it was retained as such by the organised club into which, shortly after, they 
thought proper to form themselves." 

The club appears to have been duly constituted in the year 1764, its meeting 
place for a considerable period, where Cape Hall was nightly inaugurated, being the 
"Isle of Man Tavern," Craig's Close, High Street. The first Sovereign of the Order 

I epitaph 

Gavin Wilson. 265 

was Bro. Thomas Lancashire, the comedian, on whom Fergusson the poet wrote the 

"Alas, poor Tom! how oft, with merry heart, 
Have we beheld thee play the sexton's part, 1 
Each comic heart must now be grieved to see 
The sexton's dreary part perform' d on thee." 

Bro. Lancashire was initiated in Lodge St. David on 25th October, 1766, but the 
records of the Lodge fail to show that he took any active part in Freemasonry. He 
kept a tavern at the head of the Canongate, removing about 1770 to the new town of 
Edinburgh, to a house he called " Comedy Hut," where the Cape Club occasionally held 
high festival. His title in the club was " Sir Cape." Among other prominent 
members of the Cape may be mentioned, Robert Fergusson the poet, admitted 10th 
October, 1772, and dubbed " Sir Precentor," who acted occasionally as Secretary. 
Fergusson's friend and biographer, Thomas Sommers, His Majesty's Glazier for 
Scotland, Deacon of the Masons (Incorporation of Mary's Chapel), and for several 
years Grand Secretary to the Grand Lodge of Scotland. David Herd, " Sir Scrape " ; 
who succeeded Lancashire as Sovereign, the editor of what Sir Walter Scott calls the 
first classic edition of Scottish Songs. Jacob More, the landscape painter, who acted 
as Secretary under Herd ; Alexander Runciman, " Sir Brimstone," the celebrated 
historical painter; Walter Ross, the antiquary, and Sir Henry Raeburn, the artist, who 
was dabbed a knight under the title of " Sir Toby " before King George IV. created him 
Sir Henry. The insignia of the order were, a cape, or crown, which was worn by the 
Sovereign, and which, in the palmy days of the club was adorned with gold and jewels, 
two maces in the form of large steel pokers, which formed the sword and sceptre of his 
majesty in Cape Hall. Sir Daniel Wilson in his " Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden 
Time," gives the form of inauguration of a Knight of the Cape as follows:— 

"The novice, on making his appearance in Cape Hall, was led up to 
the sovereign by two knightly sponcers, and having made his obeisance, was 
required to grasp the large poker with his left hand, and laying his right 
hand on his breast, the oath de fideli was administered to him by the 
sovereign,— the knights present all standing uncovered,— in the following 

words: — ,, • ,• i . 

"I swear devoutly by this light, 

To bo a true and faithful knight, 

With all my might, 

Both day and night, 

So help mo Poker ! 

" Having then reverentially kissed the large poker, and continuing to grasp 
it, the sovereign raised the smaller poker, with both his royal fists, and 
aiming three successive blows at the novice's head, he pronounced with each, 
one of the initial letters of the motto of the club, C.F.D., explaining their 
import to be Concordia fratrum decus. The knight elect was then called 
upon to recount some adventure or scrape which had befallen him, from 
some leading incident in which the sovereign selected the title conferred on 
him, and which ho ever after bore in Cape Hall." 

To this society Bro. Gavin Wilson made application for membership, but in vain. 

Nothing daunted, he re-petitioned as follows : — 

" Worthy Soveraign & Knights 

" It gave me great unhappyness to hear that my petition was unsuccess- 
ful!, and that some weighty objections lay against me ; but as one of these 

1 Grave-digger in Hamlet. 

266 Transaction* of the Qualv.or Coronal i T.odije. 

objections may be tolerably moderated, and the other three totaly removed; 
1 determined to Reclaim, and once more lay my petition before the "Worthy 
Society, in hopes of your favorable acceptance. 

" The first objection I am told, was the tallness of my person, this not 
so much my fault, as it is my infelicity, when it lys against my admission, but 
I humbly think that that objection ought to have operated as powerful}- 
against the Soveraign, and Depute Soveraign [Lancashire and Herd] : but 
perhaps what may be thought a fault in a Subject is sometimes thought an 
Excellence in a Soveraign, but this fault cannot be encreasing one, as 1 was 
at my full length twenty years agoe, and I find that fault upon the deminish- 
ing hand; but if I am admitted, I shall wear my shoes as low in the heels 
as possible; and if there be a chair in the room lower than another, I 
shall beg to be possed of it : which allong with contracting my figure as 
much as I can, I make no doubt but I shall by these means, bring myself 
nearly upon a levell with the middle-sized knights. The second objection 
was the largeness of my hatt, this objection shall be totaly removed, for I 
shall have a new Macroni hatt, which I will call my Cape hatt; and if it 
be not the least hatt in the society, I will bind myself over to drink the 
fill of it, either in Ale, porter, or punch, every time it comes to my turn 
to drink. The third objection was I wore a black wigg; the objection shall 
also be removed; though I have not wore a powdered wigg these thirty 
years, I will powder my wigg when I come to the Cape. In the fourth 
objection, I am affraid that my accomplishments have been over rated, and 
that I have got credit for qualifications I have no pretension to : none of 
the Knights of the Society, whoso Oratorial powers have gained them so 
much reputation, for eloquence and poignant witt, will need to have the 
smallest apprehension that their glory shall be eclipsed by such a rival, for 
I declare that I will (like many of the Knights of the Cape) speake very 
little ; but will listen (like them) with the greatest Attention to the Floride 
Speeches and Brillant Sallys, of the Orators and witts, and join with them 
in the laugh of aprobation. 

" Nor need the Poets have any suspicious apprehension of any endeavour 
of mine, to establish my character in opposition or derogation of theirs: for 
I promise that I will not be concerned in writting or composing either song, 
ode, tragedy, comedy, or farce, on any subject whatever concerning the 
Cape : without the express desire, consent, and licience of the said Poets, 
Orators, and Witts; and agreeable to this Resolution, although I could 
have expressed my sentiments tolerably in verse, I rather chuse to lay this, 
my Petition before the Society, in plain homiest prose by which the affor- 
said Orators. Poets, and Witts may see that they have nothing to fear from 
my small ability in their way: but that they will continue undesturbedly 
to enjoy the happyness of excitting the Admiration and Applause of all the 
Silent Knights. I therefore hope that this petition written on this and 
the two precedding pages will be taken into your serious considderation, 
and Admitt your humble petitioner into all the Honnours and privileges of 
your worthy Society, and your Pettitioner shall ever pray. 

" Ga : Wilson. 

All opposition to his admission gave way before this whimsical reclaiming petition 
and he was duly admitted a Knight of the Cape on 30th January, 1773, under the title 
of " Sir Maccaroni." It is not recorded, however, whether this title was derived 
through his " Macroni Hatt," or Macaronic verse. The letter, written in Bro Wilson's 
own hand, is supported and indorsed with the signatures of three knights of the Cape, 
who on investigation I find to have been also members of Lodge St. David, viz., Bros. 
John Bonnar, Painter: William Downie, Watchmaker; and William Reid, Writer. 

Gavin Wilsuii. 267 

On 23rd June, 1780, Bio. Wilson and a dozen others are recorded as having forfeited 
the honours and privileges of the club, " For failling to attend once in the Year, and 
rejecting the repeated indulgences granted in their favour." 

From Sir Daniel Wilson's notes we are informed that: — 

" The Club whose honours were thus carefully hedged in by solemn 
ceremonial, established its importance by deeds consistent with its lofty pro- 
fessions, among which may be specified the gift by his Majesty of the Cape, 
to his Majesty of Great Britain, in 1778, of a contribution from the knights 
of one hundred guineas, ' to assist his Majesty in raising troops.' In 1780, 
when letters of marque were issued against the Dutch, the knights, at a very 
thin meeting of the order, on the 26th December, subscribed two hundred 
and fifty guineas towards fitting out a privateer. 

" The entry money to the club, which was originally half-a-crown, 
gradually rose to a guinea, and it seems to have latterly assumed a very 
aristocratic character. A great regard for economy, however, remained 
with it to the last. On the 10th of June 1776, it is resolved ' that they shall 
at no time take bad halfpence from the house, and also, recommend it to 
the house to take none from them! ' and one of the last items entered on 
their minutes, arises from an intimation of the landlord, that he could not 
afford them suppers under sixpence each, when it was magnanimously 
determined by the club, in full conclave, ' that the supper shall be at the 
old price of fourpence halfpenny ! ' 

" Provincial Cape Clubs, deriving their authority and diplomas from 
the parent body, were successively formed in Glasgow, Manchester, and 
London, and in Charleston, South Carolina, each of which was formally 
established, in virtue of a royal commission granted by the sovereign of the 

The Diploma of Knighthood is given as follows : — 

' ' Be it known to all mortals, whether clerical or laical, that We 
Sir . the Super Eminent Sovereign of the Most Capital Knight- 

hood of the Cape, Having nothing more sincerely at heart than the Glory 
and Honour of this Most Noble Order, and the happiness and prosperity of 
the Knights Companions; And Being desirous of extending the Benign and 
Social Influence of the Order, to every region under the Grand Cape of 
Heaven ; Being likewise well informed and fully Satisfied with the Abilities 
and Qualifications of Esq r ., with the Advice and Concurrence of 

our Council do Create, Admit, and Receive him a Knight Companion of 
this Most Social Order, By the Title of Sir , and of C.F.D. Hereby 

giving and granting unto him, all the Powers, privileges, and preeminences 
that do or may belong to this most Social Order. And we Give Command 
to our Recorder to registrate this our Patent in the Records of the Order, 
In Testimony whereof We have subscribed these presents with our own 
proper fist, and have caused appended the great Seal of the Order. At 
Capo-Hall, this day of the month called , in the year of 

grace 17 . 

" Entered in the records of the Order 
by Recorder. 


The " Great Seal of the Order," inclosed in a tin box, has the letters C.F.D., 
surmounted by a Celestial Crown and Cap of Maintenance, enclosed with laurel, and 
the whole encircled with the words — " Sigillum commune Equitum de Cape — Concordia 
fratrum decus." 

268 Transactions of the Quatuor Guronati Lodge. 

This jovial fraternity appears to have existed in Edinburgh until 1843, when its 
regalia and records were handed over to the custody of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, to whose courteous Assistant Secretary, Dr. Joseph Anderson, I am much 
indebted for permission to look over the minutes, petitions, and roll of members. 

PART 3. 
The Poet Laureateship, and Collection of Masonic Songs. 

" forsakes his store of shoes 

St. Crispin quits, and cobbles for the muse." 

Lokd Byko.n. 

" You are inquisitive, no doubt, 
How this odd fancy comes about 
That old unletter'd Leather toaster 
Should now commence a poetaster ; 
For to a more deserving name, 
His mean productions found no claim." 

Gavin Wilson. 

In the Edinburgh Evening Courant newspaper of Saturday, 15th December, 17e7, 
appeared the following advertisement :— 

In the Press, and speedily will be Published. 

Dedicated by Permission 

To the Right Honourable and Most Worshipful 

Lord Elcho 

Grand Master of Freemasons in Scotland 

A Collection of Masonic Songs 


Entertaining Anecdotes 

For the use of all Lodges 

Ornamented with a Print of the Author taken from the Life by J. Kay 

By Gavin Wilson 

Poet Laureat to the Lodge of St. Uavid 

Leg, Arm, and Boot Maker : 

Inventor of Hardened and Polished Leather. 

This book which appears to have been published in 1788, bears on its title page the 

following' : — 

h A 



Masonic Songs 


Entertaining Anecdotes 

For the Use of all the Lodges 

By Gavin Wilson 
Poet Laureat to the Lodge of St. David 



Gavin Wilson. 269 

In the newspaper advertisement and on the title page of his book of poems we 
find the same statement, " Toet Laureat to the Lodge of St. David," yet there is no 
reference in the minutes of the Lodge to the appointment of Bro. Gavin Wilson as Poet 
Laureate. As already stated, his name appears for the last time in the Lodge records 
on 9th October, 1772, when he acted as Junior Warden, pro tempore. As a matter of 
fact there is no evidence that the ' office ' of Poet Laureate was recognised officially by 
the Scottish Craft in the eighteenth century, though the 'title' may have been used 
on oecasion. Bro. Gavin Wilson probably applied for and obtained permission from 
the Lodge to use the title in his advertisement and book, and was in all likelihood 
known as its Poet Laureate from the time he began to entertain the members at 
harmony with his original songs. The first reference to the office in the books of 
Lodge St. David, is contained in a minute of Committee meeting, held 23rd December, 
1833, for the purpose of selecting office-bearers for theensuing session, when aBro. Charles 
Doyne Sillery, and Bro. Henry Scott Riddell, the author of " Scotland yet " and other 
poems, were nominated for the Poet Laureatship. At the Festival of St. John the 
Evangelist, on 27th December, Bro. Sillery was elected Poet Laureate of the Lodge, 
and since that time the office has been regularly filled. Bio. Henry Scott Riddell 
succeeded Bro. Sillery and held the office during the years 1838—39—40, He was also 
Bard of Lodge St. John, No. Ill, Hawick, from 1863, until his death on 2nd August, 

It is a curious circumstance that there is the same want of documentary evidence 
(in 1787) in connection with Bro. Robert Burns and the Poet Laureatship of Lodge 
Canongate Kilwinning, No. 2, Edinburgh. There is no reference in the records of 
either Lodge to the office of Poet Laureate being in existence during the eighteenth 
century and in the case of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, it appears to have been created 
in 1835, two years later than in Lodge St. David, when Bro. James Hogg, the Ettrick 
Shepherd, was elected. The only reference to the Poet Burns in the Canongate 
Kilwinning minutes during his lifetime is that which records his being assumed a 
member of the Lodge, on 1st February, 1787, but it is not improbable that at this, or 
some subsequent meeting, the title of Poet Laureate may have been associated with the 
name of Robert Burns in much the same way as it was in the case of Gavin Wilson and 

Lodge St. David. 

The only copies I have seen of Bro. Wilson's Collection of Masonic Songs and 
Entertaining Anecdotes, are those in the libraries of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, 
Edinburgh, and the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, London. Both are in excellent 
preservation, but in the Grand Lodge of Scotland copy the portrait of the author is 
unfortunately amissing. The book, an octavo, is well printed, and contains over one 
hundred pages inclusive. The Dedication, in prose, " To the Right Honourable and 
Most Worshipful Lord Elcho," Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1786—87, is written 
in the elaborate and extravagant style of the period, and concludes with the lines:— 

' ' These are the devout wishes, fervent 
Of me, my Lord, your humblest servant." 


Then follows a preface, in verse, in which we are informed of the reasons for the 
publication of his poetical productions: — 

" He, when with, choice companions set, 
Would sometimes one or more repeat. 
For copies many did insist 

270 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Some gratified in their request ; 

But to give every friend his share 

Would take more time than I could spare. 

A publication oft propos'd, 

My timid modesty oppos'd. 

But teaz'd with almost persecution, 

was foro'd to adopt the motion. 
It was express solicitation 
That urged on this publication." 

Bro. Wilson's " timid modesty " no doubt arose from the fact that he considered 
himself a very indifferent poetaster, as he informs us : 

" — to a more deserving name, 
His mean productions found no claim." 

In a very scarce and curious volume published at Edinburgh in 1798, entitled " An 
Introduction to the History of Poetry in Scotland, from beginning of thirteenth century 
down to the present time, with a conversation on Scottish Song," the author, Alexander 
Campbell, states : — " I knew Gavin Wilson, he was an honest merry fellow, and a good 
boot, leather-leg, aim, and hand maker, but as sorry a poetaster as ever tryed to make a 
couplet." A perusal of 13ro. Wilson's songs and amedotes will convince the reader of 
the truth of Mr. Campbell's statement. 

The songs, to the number of eighteen, occupy pages 1 to 23 of the book and all 
contain references to Craft masonry. In the first part of this article notice is taken of 
the fact that on 16th October, 1770, Bro. Wilson entertained the members, by particular 
desire, with the " New Song of St. Davids." This is probably Song X., page 12, one 
of the most interesting in the whole collection, as from it we get some idea of 
the characters of the brethren of the Lodge, most of whom were for many 
years regular in their attendance at the meetings long before, and after, Bro. Gavin 
Wilson's " timber tune " was heard in the old hall of St. David in Hyndfords Close. 
In giving the song here I have added short notes, placed oq the right of the verses, 
which may be found interesting. Attention is also directed to the order in which the 
office-bearers, and past office-bearers are mentioned. 

Song X. The ( 'haracters of the Brethren of St. David's Lodge, 

Will ye go to St. David's Lodge, The members of Lodge St. David met in 

Igo arid ago, their own hall at Hyndfords Close, 

The time spent there you'll never grudge, Netherbow, High Street, Edinburgh, 

Iram coram dago. from 1757 to 1860. 

Good entertainment you shall find, ' ' The Brethren united their Joint Efforts 

Igo and ago, to Inspire universal Harmony and Joy. 

Both to the palate and the mind, Musick both Vocal and Instrumental 

Iram coram dago. lulled asleep every care. Happiness 

prevailed and the Brethren over a frugal 
Banquet acknowledged that Masonry 
was better calculated to give men ex- 
perience of true happiness than all the 
Philosophy of the Antients." 

Extract from Minutes in 1774. 




Right Worshipful Balfour doth shine, 

Igo and ago, 
In eloquence correct, sublime, 

Irani coram dago. 

P.W. Master. Andrew Balfour, Advo- 
cate, initiated 19th August, 1766. 
R.W.M. 1770 and 1785-86. Senior Grand 
Warden of Scotland 1771-72. 

And brother Stirling all the while, 

Igo and ago, 
Applauds with grave and placid smile, 

Irani coram dago. 

There Brother Yulo in sportive mood, 

Igo and ago. 
At breaking jests he's very good, 

Irani coram dago. 

There brother Home of honest heart, 

Igo and ago, 
In social friendship still alert, 

Irani coram dago. 

Brother Baillie, he'll be there, 

Igo and ago, 
Tn gesture manly debonair, 

Iram coram dago. 

There social brother Brown does sing, 

Igo and ago, 
A song that makes our glasses ring, 

Irani coram dago. 

There game brother Duncan sits, 

Igo and ago, 
"With glee he sings correctly writs, 

Irani coram dago. 

There brother Leslie, wise and good, 

Igo and ago, 
Of most approved rectitude,* 

Irani coram dago. 

If brother Ferguson attend, 

Igo and ago, 
You'll see a social faithful friend, 

Iram coram dago. 

Sagacious Bowie, there alert, 

Igo and ago, 
Masonic virtue does impart, 

Iram coram dago. 

Senior Warden. Sir James Stirling, 
Baronet. S.W. 1770. Grand Master 
Mason of Scotland 1798-99. Lord Pro- 
vost of Edinburgh 1799-1800. Died 17th 
February 1805. 

Junior Warden. Andrew Yule, Mer- 
chant, initiated 5th September 1766. 
J.W. 1770, R.W.M. 1773, in which year, 
on 23rd February, he died. 

Depute Master. Bailie Robert Home, 
Merchant, initiated 20th April 1762. 
D.M. 1770, R.AV.M. 1771, in which year, 
on 31st July, he died. 
Grand Steward 1764. 

Immediate Past Master. William Baillie, 
Advocate, afterwards Lord Polkemmet, 
initiated 10th August 1763. R.W.M. 
1768-69. Junior Grand Warden of Scot- 
land 1769-70. Died 14th March 1816. 

Treasurer. Samuel Brown, Watch- 
maker, affiliated from Count Munichs 
head Lodge, London, on 6th July 1753. 
Treas r . 1770-71. Grand Stewart 1755. 

Secretary. John Duncan, Merchant, 
initiated 1st April 1762. Secretary 1769 
to 1772. 

Past Master. David, Earl of Leven and 
Melville. Born 4th May 1722, initiated 
12th February 1757. R.W.M. 1758 to 
1763. Grand Master Mason of Scotland 
1759-60. Died 1802. 

Past Master. Walter Ferguson, Writer, 
initiated 21st November 1752. R.W.M. 
1754. Died 1797. 

Past Depute Master. Patrick Bowie, 
Merchant, initiated 28th November 1755. 
D.M. 1764-65. Moderator of the Edin- 
burgh High Constables 1749. 

I His Lordship's characteristic in the Royal Order is Pectitude. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

There's brother Esplin full of spirit, 

Igo and ago, 
A brother of distinguish' d merit, 

Irani coram dago. 

There's open hearted brother Syme, 

Igo and ago, 
In masonry there's few like him, 

Irani coram dago. 

There brother Wardrope acts with ease, 

Igo and ago, 
The gentle acts that always please, 

Irani coram dago. 

Fast Depute Master. Bailie Alexander 
Esplin, Merchant, initiated 24th Decem- 
ber 1756. D.M. 1766-67. Grand Steward 

Fast Depute Master. George Syme, 
Slater, initiated in Lodge St. David, 
22nd February, 1754. D.M. 1757. 
R.W.M. of the Lodge of Edinburgh 
(Mary's Chapel) No. 1. 1759 to 1764. 
Master of the Grand Stewards 1754. 
Moderator of the Edinburgh High Con- 
stables 1756. 

Fast Depute Master. David Wardrobe, 
Merchant, initiated 8th November 1758. 
D.M. 176S-69 and 1771. R.W.M. 1772. 

There's brother Ferguson, brisk Tar, 

Igo and ago, 
A glorious thunder-bolt of war, 

Tram coram dago. 

Fast Depute Master. Captain James 
Ferguson, R.N., initiated when a Mid- 
shipman on 6th January 1753. D.M. 
1771. Son of the above Bro. Walter 
Ferguson, P.M. 

You'll get a song from brother Hewit, 

Igo and ago, 
There's not a man can better do it, 

Irani coram dago. 

James Hewit, Jeweller, initiated 15th 
October 1763. Deacon of the Goldsmiths 

There you'll hear brother Downie sing, 

Igo and ago, 
Ye never heard a better thing, 

Irani coram dago. 

William Downie, Watchmaker, initiated 
15th December 1767. 

There brother Fife enchants the ear, 

Igo and ago, 
With skill compleat, and pipe so clear, 

Irani coram dago. 

Alexander Fyfe, Musician, initiated, 

gratis, on 29th November, 1752, "to 

serve the Masons with Tunes on the 

There you'll hear brother Hect. M° Neill, 

Igo and ago, 
Who sings a song excessive well, 

Iram coram dago. 

Hector MacNeill, initiated 16th Novem- 
ber 1769. 

There brother Cook will fit your taste, 

Igo and ago, 
With dumb, dumb, dumb, or wedding feast, 

Iram coram dago. 

Daniel Cook, initiated 6th October, 

There you'll hear Wilson's timber tunc, 

Igo and ago, 
And hob'ling rhime like auld wife's cruno, 

Iram coram dago. 

Gavin Wilson, " Poet Laureat." 

When Sandy Noble lights the lusters, 

Igo and ago, 
Then a' the lodge with briliance glisters, 

Irani coram dago. 

Gavin Wilson. 273 

Alexander Noble, Tyler 1770 to 1777. 

If brother Fyffe the glasses ting, 

Tgo and ago, 
You'd think you heard the sirens siug, 

Irani coram dago. 

And if you hear the organ play, 

Igo and ago, 
Your soul in rapture dies away, 

Irani coram dago. 

You'll say we do so much enjoy, 

Igo and ago, 
We'll all be mellow by and by, 

Irani coram dago. 

Rut stop I pray, you err my friend, 

Igo and ago, 
We decently begin and end, 

Irani coram dago. 

John Fyfe, Musician. In September 
17G4 the Lodge resolved to purchase a 
set of Musical Glasses through tiro. Fyfe 
at a cost not exceeding Six Guineas. 

In 1744 an organ was presented to the 
Lodge by liro. Peter Cleland one of the 
members. Another was purchased in 
17G4 and is probably the one referred to. 

Mirth and Harmony beamed from every 
Countenance. And the Lodge was closed 
at high twelve with all Decorum." 

Extract from Lodge Minutes of the 

Among the other songs of Masonic historical interest may be mentioned 
(he following : — 

XI. Wrote upon the occasion of Lord Buchan, Grand Master of Scotland, visiting 

the Lodge of St. David. 

XII. Wrote upon the occasion of Lord Elcho, Grand Master of Scotland, visiting 

the Lodge of St. David. 

XIII. To the memory of the right honourable George Drummond, Esq. ; Grand 

Master of Scotland, and three times Lord Provost of the city of 

XIV. To the memory of the worthy and right worshipful James Home, Esq ; late 

Master of the Lodge of St. David. 

XV. Wrote to the memory of Lieutenant General Adolphus Oughton, late Grand 

Master of Scotland. 

XVI. To the memory of Bailie Robert Home, late Master of the Lodge of St. David. 
Following the songs are what Bro. Wilson calls "Whimsical Anecdotes," stories 

in verse of which there are thirty-three, pages 24 to 89. There is nothing Masonic or 
interesting in these anecdotes and the verse is of very poor quality. Anecdote XV., 
however, entitled the Battle of Bannockburn, is worthy of note from the fact that it was 
written for one of the oldest and most select of the grades connected with Freemasonry, 
the Royal Order of Scotland, of which it appears Bro. Wilson was a member. In his 
attempt to describe the famous battle of 24th June, 1314, he manages to introduce his 
" Characteristic " in the following lines : — 

' ' Muse, thy assistance lend to paint the warlike scene, 
Or Description* will be lost in so lofty a theme." 

2/4 Transaction* of the Qnatuor Coronidi Lodge. 

The asterisk denotes we are informed in a footnote, " The Authors characteristic 
in the Royal Order, for which Body he composed this historical Ballad." 

It is not surprising to find him a member of this grade in Freemasonry, as 
membership in the Royal Order of Scotland and in Lodge St. David during the 
eighteenth, and also at different periods of the nineteenth century, appears to have been 
practically synonymous. In fact the following occurs in a minute of the Lodge dated 
17th October, 1769, in connection with the order meeting in St. David's Lodge-room. 
" Several years ago the Society called the Royal Order of Masonry, at that time 
consisted chiefly of Brethren of this Lodge." (see Notes on the Royal Order of 
Scotland, A.Q.G. ocxii,. pp. 59-61). 

A song dealing with woman's inquisitiveness regarding Masonry, and also "The 
Authors whimsical Advertisement " follow the anecdotes. In the advertisement Bro. 

Wilson informs us that : — 

" — he does reside 
In head of Canongate, south side, 
Up the first wooden railed sitair," 

This was probably at the Playhouse Close situated near the " head of Canongate, 
south side," where, we are informed in Grant's Old and New Edinlurgh, he resided 
in 1784. He appears to have removed, subsequent to the publication of his book 
of poems, to the north, side of the High Street, where, according to the article in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, his sign-board was still extant in 1793. In a picture of the 
" High Street from John's Knox's House in 1793" by David Allan, his shop is placed 
at the right hand bottom corner immediately under the stair leading to the Lease of the 
great Scottish reformer. 

Bro. Wilson has included in his book, pages 93-94, th^letter to the printer of 
the Caledonian Mercury written by James Craigie, Perth, and given in Part I. of this 
sketch. Immediately following, on page 95, is an " Epitaph for the Author, or any 
other soutar," the last and the best thing in his volume of songs. A glossary at the 
beginning of the book contains the following statement : — 

" To those unacquainted with the metaphoric allusions, or technical terms, 
in the shoemakers dialect, the following explanation will be necessary to 
understand the epitaph in page 95." 

In introducing the Epitaph I have placed the " metaphoric allusions or technical 
terms" in juxtaposition to the lines with which they are connected. 

My Cutting-board's in pieces split, A shoemaker is said to split his Cutting- 

My Size-sticks measures no more feet, board, when he has failed in his circum- 

My Lasts are broken all in holes, stances. 
My bunted Knives cuts no more soles, 

My Fuddling-cap to thrums is worn, Formerly, when journeymen shoemakers 

wont on the ramble, they wore the best 
stripped worsted caps they used to sit 
at work with, and it was called the 
Fuddling-cap, but they arc more modish 
of late, and wear the hat upon these 

Gavin Wilson. 


My Apron is to targets torn, 

My Walt-eye's out, my Aides are broken, 
My merry Tales and Somjs forgotten, 
No more J use Black-ball nor liosin, 

My Copras and my Shop-kit's frozen, 
Farc-wel old Crispan's festive board, 
"Where I have been as drunk's a lord, 

Adieu to Heel-blocks and Saint Mondays, 
Which made me oft keep watery Sundays. 

No more I'll Caison course of work, 

Nor count Dead-horse, nor kick the Cork. 

The Walt-eye, the right eye, most neces- 
sary for a shoemaker. 

Shop-kit, tub, or anything to hold water, 
when that and his Copras water is frozen 
he cannot work. 

Ileel-block, the treat a shoemaker gives 

his comrades when lie goes to a new 


Saint Mondays, a Monday ramble, very 

common among the shoemakers. 

Caison, a technical term for asking work 
from a new master, a corruption of the 
word occasion. 

Counting a Dead-horse, is getting wages 

for work before it is finished, and the 

finishing is called skinning the dead 


Kicking; the Code, is borrowing money 

from the master. 

My Pinchers are by age worn smooth, 

And Saint Hugh's Bones have lost their worth. 

My Ua miner-head's broko off the shaft, 

And now no more I'll stump the Craft. 
My Lap-stone's broke, my Colour's done, 
My Gum-glass broke, my Paste is run, 
My Xippers, Tacks, my Strip and Hag, 

And all my Kit have got the Bag, 

My Ends are sewed, my Pegs are driven, 

Stumping the Craft, braging to a better 

Getting the Bag, is the turning away a 
person or thing. 

And now I'm on the tramp for H- 

■n. Tramp, on a journey. 

At what date Bro. Gavin ^ilson's death occurred, or, as he himself puts it, when 
he went " on the (ramp for H— n," I have been unable to discover. It appears to have 
taken place subsequent to the publication, in 1789, of Mr Benjamin Bell's work on the 
System of Surgery and previous to March, 1793, when the article in the Gentleman's 
Magazine was written. And so, we are informed, " be died unnoticed, at Edinburgh, 
within these few years," this ingenious mechanic, and warm friend of the fraternity, who 
contributed much to the social mirth and enjoyment of their meetings, and to the good 
humour and amusement of all companies where he came. According to a contemporary 
he was an honest merry fellow— but as sorry a poetaster as ever tried to make a couplet — 
this poet laureate to the Lodge of St. David. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Corouati Lodge. 


NTI-GREGORIANS.— In comments on Bro. W. H. Rylands' " Notes on 
the Society of Gregorians," A.Q.G. xxi., 91, allusion was made to a 
possibility of the name having reference to the " new style '' of 
reckoning the calendar, which came into force in September, 1752, 
and occasioned much excitement and controversy. The following 
extracts from The Gentleman's Magazine, xxiii., 49 (January, 1753), 
may have some significance : — 

" Quainton in Buckinghamshire, Dec. 24 [1752]. Above 2000 people 
came here this night, with lanthorns and candles, to view a black-thorn 
which grows in this neighbourhood, and which was remembered (this 
year only) to be a slip from the famous Glastonbury thorn, that it always 
budded on the 24 th , was full blown the next day, and went all off at night : 
but the people finding no appearance of a bud, 'twas agreed by all, that 
Vecemb. 25 N.S. could not be the right Ghristmas-Vay, and accordingly 
refused going to church, and treating their friends on that day, as usual : 
at length the affair became so serious, that the ministers of the neighbour- 
ing villages, in order to appease the people, thought it prudent to give 
notice, that the Old Christmas-Day should be kept holy as before. 

Glastonbury. A vast concourse of people attended the noted thorns 
on Christmas-Eve, New-Stile ; but to their great disappointment, there 
was no appearance of its blowing, which made them watch it narrowly 
the 5 th of Jan. the Christmas-Day, Old Stile, when it blow'd as usual. 

Worcester, Jan 11. [1753]. Friday last being Old Christmas-Day, 
the same was observ'd, in several neighbouring places, by means of the 
Anti- Gregorians, full as sociably, if not so religiously, as usual: tho', it 
seems, at some villages, the parishioners so strongly insisted upon having 
an Old-Stile nativity sermon, (as .they term'd it) that their ministers 
could not well avoid preaching to them : and, at some towns, where the 
markets are held on Friday, not a butter basket, nor even a Goose, was to 
be seen in the market-place the whole day." 

1 have not met with any other mention of " Anti-Gregoiians." 

W. B. Hextall. 

David Ramsay Hay, born at Edinburgh, in March 1798, died 10th September, 
1866, referred to by Bro. W. B. Hextall, in " The Old Landmarks of the Craft " (A.Q.G. 
ante, 104) was elected an Honorary Member of Lodge St. David, Edinburgh No 36, on 
27th December 1838. The Hall in Hyndfords Close, High Street, Edinburgh, then 
the property of, and meeting place of Lodge St David, was in that year re-painted and 
re-decorated by Bro. Hay. His name does not appear on the Register of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland (1817-1845) as a member of any of the Edinburgh Lodges. 

A. M. Mack ay. 

Aes Quatuor Coronatorcm. 

Robert Ferguksox's Petition to the Cafe Club, Edinburgh. 

Photo by Bro. William Lawson, P.M. 36, S.C. From Petition Book of the Cape Club. 
By kind permission of the Society of Antiquaries, Scotland. 

Notes and Queries. 277 

Robert Fergusson's Petition to the Cape Club, Edinburgh. 

To the Sovereign & Knights Companions 

of the Cape 

The Petition of Robi Ferguson Writer in Edinb r . 

Humbly Prays 

That he may have the Honour of being Admitted 

a Member of their Society 

(signed) R Fergusson 

Recommended by 

M 1 ' Gilson who Likewise prayes 

Uavid Herd Do 

James Cummyng Ditto 

Presented on Saturday the 3'. 1 of October ) , „„,, 

J V 1772 

Night of Ballotting Saturday the 10i h Inst' J 

Speak Sec!7 

Capehall Saturday 10 ll > of October 1772 

Ballotted & Admitted by 13 against 2 Balls 

by the title of Sir Presentor 

The poet was dubbed Sir Precentor most probably from his fine musical voice. 
The foregoing petition is drawn out by David Eerd, the antiquary, one of his proposers. 
The others who recommended him probably were Cornforth Gilson, Music Master in 
Edinburgh, and James Cummyng, of the Herald Office, on whom Fergusson, in 1773, 
wrote a poem, entitled " The Antiquary." Fergusson, who occasionally acted as 
Secretary of the Club, appends his knightly signature in the minute book under the 
killowing dates, 18th and 22nd January, 10th and 14th April, 1st and 7th September, 
and 12th October, 1773, and his own signature is likewise preserved in the petition 
book as follows, January 13th, recommending as a candidate, a Mr. John Hepburn, 
student of divinity (the whole of this petition in the poet's holograph); July 1st, 
recommending a Mr. William Murray, writer in Edinburgh; 1st September, recom- 
mending a Mr. William Logan, Merchant in Edinburgh ; 7th September, recommending 
a Mr. George Cameron, engraver; and 12th October, recommending a Mr. Dougall 
Campbell, writer, Campelton, all 1773, and all of whom were duly admitted. 

Enquiries have at different times been made, but no evidence has yet been 
brought forward to show that Robert Fergusson was a Freemason. Many of his 
acquaintances, and most men of his social disposition, were at the period members of 
the Edinburgh Lodges. He was born in a small house in the Cap and Feather Close, 
Edinburgh, on which the present North Bridge Street now stands, on the 5th of 
September, 1750, and he died on 10th October, 1774, having only shortly completed his 
21th year. Only one of his poems is associated with Freemasonry in the following 

Ox seeing Scales used in a Mason Lodge. 

Why should the Brethren, met in lodge, 

Adopt such awkward measures, 
To set their scales and weights to judge 

The value of their Treasures ? 

278 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodye. 

The Law laid down from age to age, 

How can they well o'ercome it ? 
For it forbids them to engage 

With aught but Line and Plummet. 

Bro. Robert Burns on his first visit to Edinburgh erected, in 1787, a head stone over 
the grave of Fergusson in the Canongate Churchyard. On one side is the well known 
Epitaph : * 

No sculptur'd marble here, nor pompous lay, 

' No storied urn, nor animated bust,' 
This simple stone directs pale Scotia's way 

To pour her sorrows o'er her poet's dust. 

The other side bears this inscription 

By special grant of the Managers 

To Robert Burns, who erected this stone, 

This burial-place is ever to remain sacred 

to the memory of 

Robert Fergusson. 

A. M. Mack ay. 

John Theophilus DesagulierS, LL.D., F.R.S., Grand Master, England. 1719, 
Dep.G. Master, 1722-26, and the Freedom of the Royal Burgh of Dunfermline. 

In the Annals of Dunfermline, by Ebenezer Henderson, LL.D., appears the 
following : — 

Free Honorary Burgesses of Dunfermline.— The Rev. D r . J. T. Desagulier, 

LL.D., London, and M 1 '. William Walls, were this year made free 

burgesses. — " 26 lh August, 1720 : The Councill appointed y c Clerk to writ 

out, Seall and Subscribe two burges and Gild tickets, y e ane for M r . 

William Walls, and y c oy 1 ' for John Theophilus Desaguliers, docter of 

laws, fellow of y e royal society and chaplain to his grace y e Duke of 

Chandos, And to transmit y™ to Captain Halket, now in London. (Sic 

Subs r ) Pet. Halket." (Bur. Bee.) Why these gentlemen were made 

burgesses of Dunfermline is not now known. The Ilecords do say — " Dr. 

Desagulier was an eminent scientific man, Public Lecturer on Natural 

Philosophy in London, and author of several scientific works." Of M 1 '. 

Walls nothing is known. 

Sir Peter Halket, of Pitfirrane, Provest of Dunfermline, 1705-1731, we are informed by 

Dr. Henderson, was a friend of Dr. Desaguliers, " at whose suggestion it would appear 

the Doctor and his friend, Mr. Walls, were made Free Burgesses of the Burgh." Dr. 

Desaguliers was in Scotland in 172 L (a year later), on business connected with the 

Edinburgh and District Water Supply, and in August visited the Lodge of Edinburgh 

(Mary's Chapel), No. 1. A. M. Mackay. 

Transactions of the Q.uatuor Coronati Lodge. 279 


T is with regret that we record the loss by death of the following 
Brethren : — 

William Baker, of Eastern Road, Romford, Essex. P.M. 
Liberty of Havering Lodge, No. 1437, P.Pr.G.D. ; P.Z. of No. 1437, 
P.Pr.A.G.So. ; who joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 
1901. He was buried at Romford Cemetery on 25th April, 1912. 

Albert Gallatin Brice, 7,733, Maple Street, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. 
A Past Grand Master of Louisiana, and a member of the Correspondence Circle from 
March, 1891, he died on 1st July, 1912. 

Col. Henry Buxton Browne, F.S.A. (Scot.), 16, Club Arcade, Smith Street, 
Durban, Natal. Born in 1845, at Bakewell, Derbyshire, Bro. Browne, who followed the 
profession of an Incorporated Accountant, was an ardent supporter of the leading 
rifle associations in Durban, and his name was prominent in all military affairs there. 
For twenty-three years be served as an officer of the 4th Volunteer Battalion, "The 
King's," from which be retired with the rank of Major. He was also Commander of 
the Natal Militia Reserve, and was in command of the Durban Reserves during the 
second Boer War, receiving a medal for his services. He was one of the first Officers 
of Volunteers to obtain the Volunteer Officers Decoration (V.D.). In (he Craft, 
he was Past District Grand Warden, was District Grand J. in the Ro3'al Arch, and held 
high rank in various other degrees, being District Grand Master of the Mark degree 
at the time of his death. He joined our Correspondence Circle as early as November, 
1889, and had been our Local Secretary for Natal since April, 1909. Bro. Browne died 
on 8th June, 1912, and was buried at Durban on 10th June, a memorial service being 
held by Lodge Etekwini No. 2623, of which he was Secretary. 

Edward James Castle, late Royal Engineers, K.C., 89, Harcourt Terrace, 
South Kensington, London, S.W. P.M. Middlesex Lodge No. 143, Past Deputy Grand 
Registrar, England. He joined the Quatuor Coronati Lodge on 4th May, 1888, was 
Worshipful Master in 1902-J, and died on 27th 1912. 

Albert Ephraim Coveney, of 76, Park Road West, Clanghton, Birkenhead, on 
23rd June, 1912. He was a P.M. of Lodges Cotnbermere No. G05 and Wirral No. 2496, 
Past Provincial Grand Warden of Cheshire, and Chairman of the Benevolent 
Committee of that Province. He was Master of the Lodge of King Solomon's Temple 
No. 3464 at the time of his death. He was elected to our Correspondence Circle in 
March, 1905, 

Major H. H. Hewitt Dowding, late Essex Regiment, of Birchfield, Roehampton, 
London, S.W., on 8th May, 1912. A member of Mount Everest Lodge No. 2439 
Darjeeling, Bengal; and of our Correspondence Circle since January, 1898. 

280 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Thomas A. Lindsay, Carnoustie, Scotland, on 9th April, 1912. Bro. Lindsay 
was a Life Member of the Correspondence Circle, to which he was elected in May, 1894, 
and was Past Master of Lodge Dalhousie No. 679, Carnoustie, and also P.Frov G.H., of 
the Province of Angus and Mearns. 

Dr. Charles Thomas McClure, of Koffyfontein, Orange Free State, a member 
of the Richard Giddy Lodge No. 1574, who joined the Correspondence Circle in 
October, 1908. 

William Metcalfe, Mount Pleasant, Waltham Cross, London, N., on 30th July, 
1912. Bro. Wm. Metcalfe was a most active worker in the Craft, both in London and 
the Provinces, and the number of Lodges, etc., to which he belonged v\as very large. 
He was initiated in 1885 in the King Harold Lodge No. 1327, and became its Master. 
Besides being Founder of numerous Lodges, he was successively Pr.G. Pursuivant, 
Pr.G. Sword Bearer, and Pr.G. Treasurer of the Province of Herts., Pr.G. Deacon 
of Middlesex, and Pr.G. Warden of Essex. In the Royal Arch degree he was exalted 
in the Sincerity Chapter No. 174 in 1896, and was Pr.G. Scribe N. and Pr.G. 
Treasurer of Herts. In 1905 he was appointed Past Grand Standard Bearer in Grand 
Lodge and P.A.G.D.C. in Grand Chapter. Bro. Metcalfe also belonged to a great 
number of Lodges and Chapters, etc., of the Mark, Ark Mariner, Knight Templar, 
Red Cross of Constantine, Allied, and Cryptic Degrees, besides being a member of the 
Order of the Secret Monitor, the Royal Order of Scotland, Ihe Order of Light, and 
the English Rosicrucian Society. He was also 30° under the A. & A. R. In the Mark 
degree he had been Pr.G.D., and Pr.G.W. of Middlesex, Pr.G.M.O , Herts., and 
Pr.G.W. of Essex. He was also P.A.G.I.G. in Grand Mark Lodge. The funeral of our 
Brother took place on 2nd August, at St. James's, Enfield Highway, and his remains 
were interred in the Cemetery at Enfield Highway, in the presence of a large number 
nf Freemasons, 

FRIDAY, 4th OCTOBER, 1912, 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hal), at 5 p.m. Present: — Bros. J. P. Simpson, 
P.A.G.K., W.M. ; E. TT. Dring, S.W.; E. L. Hawkins, J.W. ; Rev. Canon J. W. 
Horsley, P.G.Ch., P.M., Chap. ; W. John Songhurst, P.A.G.D.C., Secretary; W. B. 
Hextall, S.D. ; W. Wonnacott, J.D. ; Sydney T. Klein, L.R., P.M.; R. P. Gould, 
P.G.D., P.M. ; and F. W. Levander. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle--Bros. Fred. 
H. Postans, W. W. Mangles, Howard R. Justice, John Church, John Foulds, 
Dr. D. F. de l'Hoste Ranking, Donald J. Grant, Bedford McNeill, W. S. Furby, F. Cracknell, C. Lewis 
Edwards, Edwin A. Wallis, Curt Nauwerck, Dr. W. Blake Marsh, Wm. J. D. Roberts, H. H. Riach, 
H. Squire Smith, P.A.G.D.C., Dr. Wm. F. Willis, A. B. Joscelyne, George Robson, James J. Hall, 
J.Arthur Formoy, S. V. Williams; James Speedy, H. J. Otten, H. A. Badman, William A. Dodd, 

F. Postaus, W. Lee Roberts, W. Leonard Staines, G. A. Crocker, F. Baden Fuller, D. Bock, G. Vogeler, 

G. Hudson, Fred. Armitage, Charles H. Scarlett, F. H. Shipton, R. W. Anderson, J. R. C. Lyons, J. C. 
Zabban, J. R. Thomas, J. Smith, Henry Budd, Arthur W. Chapman, A. E. G. Copp, H. Bernard 
Watson, H. F. Whyman, Col. C. H. L. Baskerville, C. Isler, C. F. Sykes, H. F. Bayliss, Hy. T. Wood, 
Rev. C. E. L. Wright, P.G.D., H. G. Warren, W. J. Hodge, Herbert Burrows, Henry J. Dalgleish, 
J. Procter Watson, G. Trevelyan Lee, L. Danielsson, Edward Hall, Reginald C. Watson, James Powell, 
Dr. S. Walshe Owen, Robt. A. Gowan, W. J. Spratling, P.G.S.B., G. Fullbrook, and W. Busbridge. 

Also the following Visitors — Bros. John A. Pruen, Astolat Lodge No. 2858, P.Pr.G.D., Surrey ; 
Dr. IT. Buckland Jones, W.M. Thomas Proctor Baptie Lodge No. 3302; E. Schneider, Strand Lodge 
No. 1987; Chas. A. Oliver, P.M. St. John's Lodge No. 828; Angus B. Hay, Albany Lodge No. 389; 
W. R. Cawthorn, S.W. St. Michael's Lodge No. 2136; P. H. Hood, Lewis Lodge No. 1185; W. T. 
Dunn, P.M., Evening Star Lodge No. 1719, L.R. ; J. Dunbar, S.D. Alexandra Palace Lodge No. 1541 ; 
and H. Neville Harris, Avenue Lodge No. 3231. 

Letters of apology for non attendance were received from Bros. Edward Macbean, P.M.; Dr. 
W. J. Chetwode Crawley, G.Treas., Ireland; J. P. Rylands ; E. Conder, L.R., P.M.; Admiral Sir A. II. 
Markham, P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M. ; Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk, P.M. ; G. Greiner, 
P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; E. Armitage, P.Dep.G.D.C. ; L. A. de Malczovich; John T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; 
Geo. L. Shackles, P.M.; William Watson; and Fred. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., P.M. 

282 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Bro. Edmund Hunt Dring was elected Worshipful Master for the ensuing year, Bro.' Hamou le 
Strange, Prov.G.M., Norfolk, was reelected Treasurer, and Bro. J. H. McNaughton was reelected 

Three Lodges and forty-five Brethren were elected to membership of the Correspondence 

The Secretary called attention to the following 


By Bro. A. Cecil Powkll, Bristol. 

Five Jewels, Metal-gilt, triangular, — four of which are engraved with the names of the degrees 
to which they belong, viz. : — Red Cross of Babylon, Intendant of the Buildings, Prussian Knight, 
and Provost and Judge. The fifth Jewel has not yet been identified. It has the following 
inscription : — 

L P A T S R E — E8SGJ4S- A.M. 299 5 

on the three sides of the triangle. In the centre is a representation of two men lowering a third into 
a pit, a pyramid in background. 

These jewels were made by W. Arter, Bristol, who was possibly Wallace Arter, in business at 
10 College Street, Bristol, from 1854 to 1882. 

By Bro. W. Wonnacott. 

Photograph of Sword presented in 1877 By Bro. Dr. Scoffern to the Dunheved Lodge No. 789, 
Launceston, and now used by the I.G. of that Lodge. The sword was taken from the bedroom 
of the Emperor Napoleon III. at St. Cloud Palace, when the Silesian JSgers were investing Paris 
in 1870. 

By Bro. A. Davis, Croydon. 

Leaden Badge, found at Exeter, composed of live-pointed star, square and compasses, enclosing 
sun, moon, stars, etc. The design is the same as that on a cast-iron medallion in the Lodge Museum, 
which came from the Bull Inn, Horncastle. 

By Bro. W. B. Hextall, on behalf of Bro. G. J. Gissing, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Large Silk Handkerchief, about 2ft. 9in. by 2ft, 6in., with blue border, printed from an engraved 



By Bro. Doxali) J. Gbaxt, Pr.G.S.B., Shropshire. 

State Sword of the "Royal Arch Constitutional Sols." This Sword was presented by Bro. 
William Henry White to the Provincial Grand Lodge of North Wales and Shropshire in 1860. -At the 
division of this Province, it passed into the possession of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Shropshire, 
and is now exhibited by the kind permission of R.W. Bro. Sir Offley Wakeman, Prov. Grand Master. 

It measures 58 inches in length over all. The handle, which is altogether 17 inches long, is formed 
from a piece of ivory 10 inches long, decorated with gold wire. On the knob is a representation of the 
Sun, while at the point of the scabbard is a crescent moon. On each side of the hilt is a figure which 
appears to be intended for King Solomon, and seems to support the suggestion made by Bro. Levander 
as to the origin of the word " Sols " (see p. 34 ante). The blade of the sword is by Andrea Ferara, 
and is 41 inches in length. One of the bands has an inscription relating to the presentation by Bro. 
William Henry White, in which it is stated that he was for 60 years Grand Secretary. As a matter of 
fact, Bro. White was appointed Joint Grand Secretary of the ' Moderns' with his father in 1810, and 
Joint Grand Secretary with Edwards Harper at the Union of the two Grand Lodges in December, 1813, 
He became sole Grand Secretary in 1839 and resigned in 1857, He died on 5th April, 1866. 

Engraved Silver Jewel. The Legends read — on one side "Amor Honor et Justitia," "las 
Green," " Anc 1 : & Hope," and on the other " Sit Lux et Lux Fuit," "Lodge No. 160," and the date 

' *isifr* 

This was possibly issued by the Lodge constituted at Liverpool in 1755, under No. 214. In 1770 
it became No. 160, and then met at the Hope and Anchor Tavern in that city. Later it was known 
as the Sea Captains' Lodge. It was erased in 1S23. 

284 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

By Bro. B. Kenyon, Oswestry. 

Apron, of black silk, with emblems embroidered in coloured silks. The apron is edged with 
narrow blue, white, red and black ribbon, but the flap (which is curved) is without the blue. The 
design consists of two pillars supporting an arch, an open book with square and compaBses ; at 
the right is what is probably intended as a burning bush. Outside the arch are two other pillars, 
surmounted by globes. Other emblems are a sword, a ladder with five rungs, sun, moon, and stars, 
level, plumb-rule, trowel, maul, coffin, rule, cock and lamb, serpent, etc. Upon the flap is the letter G, 
enclosing an eye, with the motto "Hollixess to the Lord." This apron was bought in July last, at 
Penybryn, Dolgelly. 

Apron, of white silk, lined with linen, and edged with gold and blue, with design hand-painted. 
On the flap, which is black, are a square and compasses enclosing an irradiated star, and also the sun, 
moon, and seven stars. On the body of the apron are two columns supporting an arch, surmounted by 
angels blowing trumpets, and enclosing a shield on which is a combination of the square, compasses, 
and plumb-rule. Under the shield is an open book resting on a pedestal, round which is a wreath of 
thistles. Other emblems are a plumb-rule, crossed keys, bee hive, burning bush, hour-glass, sword and 
serpent, rule, triangle, anchor, globe, and all-seeing eye. Above the arch is the motto "We Have 
Found It," and within the arch " Deus Noster St. Spes." 

By Bro. Kichard Lambert, Grand Secretary, New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Medals, copper and white metal, struck in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the 
foun lation of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, 1812. Presented to the Lodge, 

By Bro. John Foulds, London. 

Large leather Apron, about 26in. long, hand-painted, formerly belonging to the Old Monklands 
St. James' Lodge, No. 237. 

Iron Plate, about 14in. by 12in., formerly belonging to the Orange organization " Ancient Sons of 
William Royal Black Preceptory No. 118." 

Small silver Plate, engraved with Masonic emblems, and the inscription " Sir James Duff Knight 
Templar of St. John's Lodge Dunse No. 8, 1st July 1828." 

Certificate, issued July 19th, 1813, to Joseph McClean, by Irvine St. Andrew's Lodge No. 149 
(formerly 198), Scotland, signed by William W. Gray, Master; A. McLachlan, S.W. ; John Kier, J.W. ; 
Jamas Duulop, Sec. 

A hearty vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to those brethren who had lent objects for 
exhibition or who had made presentations to the Lodge Museum. 

Bro. S. T. Klein read the following paper : 

Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 




Illustrated by Physical Experiments. 
BY SYDNEY T. KLEIN, F.L.S., F.R.A.S., etc. 

HE proof that the human race is still in its infancy may be seen in the 
fact that we still require Symbolism to help us to maintain and carry 
forward abstract thought to higher levels, even as children require 
piclure-books for that purpose. The glamour of Symbolism, rapture of 
Music, and ideal of Art, which come to us in later years, had their 
beginning when to the child every blade of grass was a fairy tale and 
a grass plot a marvellous fairy forest. The great aspiration of the 
human race is to gain a knowledge of the Reality, the Noumenon behind the 
phenomenon, but the fact that from infancy we have been accustomed to confine our 
attention wholly upon the objective, believing that to be the reality, has surrounded us 
by a concrete boundary wall, through which we cau only at times, with difficulty, get 
transient glimpses of that which is beyond; it is only in recent years that we have been 
able to realise that it is the invisible which is the real, the visible is only its shadow or 
manifestation in the Physical Universe, and that time and space have no existence 
apart from our physical senses — they are only the modes or limits under which those 
senses act, and by which we gain a very illusory knowledge of our surroundings. Our 
very consciousness of living depends upon our perception of multitudinous changes in 
our surroundings, and our very thoughts are therefore also limited by time and space, 
because change is dependent on these two limits, the very basis of perceived motion 
being the time that an object takes to go over a certain space ; we must, therefore, look 
behind consciousness itself, beyond the conditioning in time and space, for the true 
Reality of Being. In my Installation Address (A.Q.G., vol. x., p. 201), I attempted 
to elucidate the two mysterious infinities of time and space, and we seemed to see that 
the true conception of the creation of the whole Physical Universe was the materialisa- 
tion of the thought or will of the Great Architect ; time and space can have no 
objective reality to Him; He does not require time to think, as we do; the whole 
Universe is, therefore, an instantaneous thought of the Great Reality; the forming of 
this world aud its destruction, the appearance of man, the birth and death of each one 
of us, are absolutely at the same instant; it is only from the fact of our finite minds 
requiring that thought to be drawn out into a long line, and from our want of 
knowledge and inability to grasp the whole truth, that we are forced to conceive that 
one event happens before or after another. In our finite way we examine and strive 
to understand this wondrous thought, and at last a Darwin, after a life-time spent in 
accumulating facts on this little spot of the Universe, discovers what he thinks to be a law 
of sequences, and calls it the evolution theory ; but this is probably only one of countless 
other modes by which the intent of that thought is working towards completion, the 
apparent direction of certain lines on that great tracing board of T.G.A.O.T.U. whereon 
is depicted the whole plan of His work. I shall now try to carry our thoughts a step 

2 §6 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

further towards appreciating that in this wonderful thought of the Great Architect 
whose mind may be said to be omnipresent, each individual is a working unit in the 
plan of creation ; each unit, as it gains knowledge of this thought, forms for itself a 
personality, helping forward the great work to its fulfilment ; without that knowledge 
there can be no personality, no unit in the great completed thought, no life hereafter. 

The longer one lives and the more one studies the mystery of " Being " the more 
one is forced to the conviction that in every Human Being there are two Personalities, call 
them what you like, "The Real Personality and its Image," "The Spiritual and its 
Material Shadow," or " The Transcendental and its Physical Ego." The former in each 
of these duads, is not conditioned in Time and Space, is independent of Extension and 
Duration and must therefore be Omnipresent and Omniscient ; whereas the latter being 
subservient to Time and Space can only think in finite words, requires succession of 
ideas to accumulate knowledge, is dependent on perception of movements for forming 
concepts of its surroundings and, without this perception, would have no knowledge, no 
consciousness of existence. 

Let us first try and understand the conditions under which phenomena are 
presented to us. In our perception of sight, we find the greater the Light, the greater 
the shadow ; a light placed over a table throws a shadow on the floor though not suffi- 
cient to prevent our seeing the pattern of the carpet, but increase the light and the 
shadow appears now so dark that no pattern or carpet can be seen ; not that there is 
now less light under the table, but the light above has to our sense of sight created or 
made manifest a greater darkness, and so, throughout the Universe, as interpreted by 
our Physical Ego, we find phenomena ranging themselves under the form of positive 
and negative, the apparently Real and the Unreal : 

The Good making manifest its negative the Evil. 
The Beautiful „ „ „ j; the Ugly. 

The True „ „ „ „ the False. 

Knowledge ., „ „ „ Ignorance 

Light ■, „ „ ,, Darkness. 

Heat „ „ „ „ Cold 

but, apart from our limited range of Sensations, the negatives have no real existence. 
As in the case of light, we see that the shadow is only the absence of light, so the 
negative of Goodness, i.e.. Evil, may in reality be looked upon as folly or wasting of 
opportunity for exercising the Good ; owing to their limitations our thoughts are based 
upon relativity and it is hardly thinkable that we could, under our present conditions, 
have any cognizance of the positive without its negative ; it is therefore by the examin- 
ing of the Physical, the negative or shadow, that we can best gain a knowledge of the 
Spiritual, the positive or real. 

It is between The Spiritual and the Physical, the Real and its Image, Good and 
Evil, the Knowledge and ignorance of the Good, Beautiful and True, that Freewill has 
to choose. Let us try to get a clearer understanding of this. First let us clearly 
recognise that it is not we (the Physical Egos) who are looking out upon Nature, but 
that it is the Reality or Spiritual which is ever trying to enter and come into touch with 
us through our senses and is persistently trying to waken within us the sublimest 
truths ; it is difficult to realise this, as from infancy we have been accustomed to con- 
fine our attention wholly upon the objective, believing that to be the reality; in the 
sense of sight we have no knowledge of the only impression made upon our bodies, 
namely, the image itself formed upon onr retina, nor have we any cognizance of the 

Hidden Mystery No. VII. 287 

separate Electro-magnetic rills which, reflected from all parts of the Object, fall upon 
the eye at different angles constituting form, and at different frequencies giving colours 
to that image ; that image is only formed when we turn our eyes in the right direction 
to allow those rills to enter, whereas those rills are incessantly beating on the outside 
of our sense organ, when the eyelid is closed, and can make no image on the retina, 
unless we allow them to enter by raising that shutter ; it is not then any volition from 
within that goes out to seize upon and grasp the truths of Nature, but the phenomena 
are, as it were, forcing their way into our consciousness. This is more difficult to 
grasp when the objective is near, as we are apt to confound it with our sense of touch, 
which requires us to stretch out our hand to the object, but it is clearer when we take 
an object far away. 

With our telescopes we catch the rills of light which started from a star a 
thousand years ago, and the image is still formed on the retina, although those rills are 
a thousand years old and have been falling upon mankind from the beginning of life on 
this globe, ready to get an entrance to consciousness ; it was only when, by evolution 
of thought, the knowledge of optics had evolved the telescope and spectroscope, that it 
became possible, not only to allow that star to make itself known to us, but to teach us 
its distance, its size and conditions of existence, and even the different elemental sub- 
stances of which it was composed a thousand years ago ; yet, when we now allow it to 
form its image on our retina, our consciousness insists on fixing its attention upon that 
star as now existent, refusing to allow that it is only an image on our retina, and 
making it difficult to realise that that star may have disappeared and had no existence 
for the past 99J years, although, in ordinary parlance, we are looking at and seeing 
it there now. 

I have referred to the sense of touch. It is, I think, clear that the first 
impression a child can have of sight must take the form of 'feeling' the image on its 
retina, as though the object were actually inside the head, and it could have no idea 
that the object was outside, until, by touching with the hand, it would gradually 
learn by experience that the tangible object corresponded with the image located in the 
head; this is borne out by the testimony of men who, born blind, had, by an operation, 
received their sight late in life ; their first experience of seeing gave the impression 
that the object was touching the eye, and they were quite unable to recognize by sight 
an object such as a cup or plate or a round ball which they had often handled and 
knew perfectly well by touching; in fact, the idea of an object formed by the sense of 
touch is so absolutely different to that formed by the sense of sight that it would be 
impossible, without past experience, to conclude that the two sensations referred to 
one and the same object. The image formed on the retina has nothing in common with 
the sense of hardness, coldness, and weight experienced by touch, the only impression 
made on the retina being that of colour or shades and an outline; it is, however, hardly 
conceivable that even the outline of form would be recognized by the eye until touch 
had proved that form comprised also solidity, and that the two ideas had certain 
motions iu common, both in duration of time and extension in space. Again, our 
senses of sight and hearing are alike based on the appreciation of vibrations or 
frequencies of different rapidity ; brightness and colour in light are equivalent to 
loudness and pitch in sound, but in sound we have no equivalent to perception of form 
or situation in space, we have no knowledge of the existence of an object when situated 
at great distances, nor can we follow its movements even at shortest distances without 
having material contact by means of the air with that object ; light, indeed, appears 
to have to do with space— and sound with time— perception. 

288 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

In examining Nature, by means of our senses, we are in this position : we find 
that Perception without knowledge leads to false concepts, which lead us into 
difficulties, and this fact is indeed our greatest incentive to acquire further knowledge ; 
but our thoughts are so hemmed in by what we have always taken for granted, and 
so bound down by modes of reasoning derived from what we have seen, heai'd, or felt, 
in our daily life, that we are sadly hampered in our search after the truth. It is 
difficult to sweep the erroneous concepts aside and make a fresh start. In fact the 
great difficulty in studying the reality underlying Nature, is analogous to our inability 
to isolate and study the different sounds themselves which fall upon the ear, withont 
being forced to consider the meaning we have always attached to those sounds, when 
words of our own language are being uttered; however hard we may try, it is hardly 
possible when hearing the sound, to dissociate the meaning or prevent our mind from 
dwelling upon the thoughts which have hitherto been allocated to those sounds. Our 
other great difficulty is that our Physical senses only perceive the surface of things, 
we are most of us looking upon the woof of Nature as though it were the glass of a 
window upon which are seen patterns, smudges, dead flies, etc., etc. ; it requires a 
keener perception than that of sight to enable us to look through the glass at the 
Reality which is beyond. Let us therefore now try and see when and how this higher 
perception was first given to humanity. 

Let us go back into the far distant past, before the frame and brain of what we 
now call the genus homo was fully developed ; he was then an animal pure aud simple, 
conscious of living but knowing neither good nor evil, there was nothing in his thoughts 
more perfect than himself, it was the golden age of innocency, a being enjoying himself 
in a perfect state of nature with absolute freedom from responsibility of action ; but, 
as ages roll on, under the great law of evolution his brain was enlarging and gradually 
being prepared for a great and wonderful event which was to make an enormous 
change in his mode of living and his outlook on the future. As seeds may fall 
continually for thousands of years upon hard rock without being able to germinate, 
until gradually by the disintegration of the rock, soil is formed, enabling the seed at 
last to take root; so for countless ages was the mind of that noble animal being 
prepared, until, in the fulfilment of time, the Spiritual took root, manifesting a Physical 
Ego and he became a living soul. The change was marvellous ; he was now aware of 
something higher and more perfect than himself, he found that he was able to form 
ideals above his ability to attain to, resulting in a sense of inferiority akin to a ' Fall ' ; 
he was conscious of the difference of Right and Wrong and felt happy and blessed 
when he followed the Good, but ashamed and accursed when he chose the Evil; he 
became upright in stature and able to communicate his thoughts and wishes to his 
fellows by means of language ; and by feeling his freedom to choose between the Good, 
Beautiful and True, on the one hand, and the Evil, Ugly and False on the other, he 
became aware that he was responsible and answerable to a mysterious higher Being 
for his actions. All these at once raised him far above other animals and he gradually 
began to feel the presence within him of a wonderful power, the nucleus of that 
Transcendental Self which had taken root, and which, from that age to this, has urged 
Man ever forward first to form, and then struggle to attain, higher Ideals of Perfection. 

As a mountaineer, who, with stern persistence struggles upward from height to 
height, gaining at each step a clearer and broader view, so do we, as we progress in 
our struggle upwards toward the understanding of Perfection, ever see clearer and 
clearer that the Invisible is the Real, the visible is only its shadow, that our Spiritual 
Personality is akin to that Great Reality, that we cannot search out and know that 

Hidden Mystery No. VII 289 

Personality, it is not an idea, it cannot be perceived by our senses any more than we can 
see a Sound by our sense of Sight, or measure an Infinity by our finite units ; all we 
can so far do is to feel and mark its effect in guiding our Physical Ego to choose the 
real from the shadow, the plus from the minus, receiving back in some marvellous 
mode of reflex action the power to draw further nourishment from the Infinite. As 
that Inner Personality becomes more and more firmly established, higher ideals and 
knowledge of the Reality hud but, and as these require the clothing of finite expressions 
before they can become part of our consciousness, so are they clothed by our Physical 
Ego and become forms of thought, and although the Physical Ego is only the shadow or 
image of the Real Personality, projected on the physical screen, we are able by 
examining these emanations and marking their affinity to the Good, the Beautiful and 
the True, to attain at times to more than transient glimpses of the loveliness of that 
which is behind the veil. As in a river flowing down to the Sea, a small eddy, however 
small, once started with power to increase, may, if it continues in mid-stream, instead 
of getting entangled with the weeds and pebbles near the bank, gather to itself so large 
a volume of water, that, when it reaches the