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3lr# Qtuatuor ©oronatwum* 




being the TRANSACTIONS of the 




CIRCA, 1500 A.D- 



Printed at *' Keble's Gazette" Office, 
















Straits Settlements 







73, 149,248 




73, 150, 248 

75, 250 






8th January, Audit Report 

4th March 

6th May 

24th June. St. John's in Harvest 

2nd July. Summer Outing ... 

7th October. Alteration of By-Laws . . . 

8th November. Festival and Installation 


Antiquity of Masonic Symbolism 

Apron, An Old 

Chairs, Old, Lodge No. 32 

Consecration Crosses 

Crossle, Bro. ... 

Croyland Abbey 

Culdees at St. Andrews 

Dermott's, Lau., Book-plate 

Folkes, Martin 

Freemasonry and Magic 

Fresco at Rotterdam 

From the Bast through Southern France 

Introduction of Outside Bites into the Craft 

Jewels, Lodge No. 32 

Lady Freemasons 


Masonic Clothing 

Masonry and Death 

Masons and FreemasonB, Yorkshire 

Masons' Aprons 


68, 228 







142, 226, 227 







66, 145 


Table of Contents. 


Masons' Arms, Swindon 

Masons' Marks 

Masters of Como 

Mnrdo's, John, Inscriptions 

Noose and Girdle 

Noose Symbol 

Numeration of Scottish Lodges 

Qualifications for the Chair 

Qaatuor Coronati ... 

Quatuor Coronatorum, Cardinal 

Bandle Holme MS. Charges ... 

Bosicrncians in Denmark in 1484 

Boyal Arch Apron 

Sethos, Life of 


Tatler, The, and Bro. Francis Drake's Address 

Tan, or Cross ... 

Teapot, Masonic 

Yertu, Freemason 




69, 147, 148 


143, 227 

144, 145 






147, 225 




Abrahams, Woodward 

Benson, Nesfield Grant 

Clarence and Avondale, Duke of 

Clerke, Col. Shadwell Henry 

Davis, J. Mortimer 

Fearfleld, John Piggin 

Gough, Col. Foster, LL.D. 

Hayes, James William 

Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik 

King, B. G. 

MacCalla, Clifford Paynter 

McDougall, J. Innes 

Moses, William Stainton 

Richardson, George 

Torgius, L. B. S. ... 

Webb, Joseph 

Wendt, Ernest Emil 

Weiss, Felix 

Williams, William Mattieu 

Woodman, Dr. William Eobert ... 






















Lewis, Prof. T. Hayter 
Manningham, Thos. — B. F. Gould 
Wilson, Gavin 





Brahminical Initiation. — The Noose Symbol, W. Simpson 

Varuna's Noose, Initiation of the Wife, Vaisargina Offerings, 6; Yama's 
Noose, Siva's Noose, 7; Vizaresha's Noose, 8; other Nooses, 9; Abyssinian 
Matab, Australian Initiations, 10; Analogues, 11. 

Table of Contents. 



A Sketch of the Earlier History of Masonry in Austria and Hungary, Lad. 
de Malczovitch 

Deputy Lodges, Deputy Lodge in Vienna of Lodge Frederick, Hanover, ' 15 ; 
Lodge of the Three Hearts, proposals of the Three Firing Glasses, 16; Lodge 
life in Germany in the early years of the 18th Century, 19 ; the High Degrees, 
187; Loge la Parfaite Union, Magdeburg, Lodge de la Felicite, 188; La 
Constance, 189; High Degrees come to Prague from Dresden, 190; Rosicru- 
sians at Prague, 191; de Martin, alias Johnson, 192. 

Who was Naymus of the Greeks? S. Russell Forbes 

Braminical Initiation, John Yarker 

Freemasonry in Holland, Dr. H. W. Dieperink 

Masonic Clothing, Fred J. W. Crowe 

Preliminary, 29 ; in Ireland, Scotland, 30; Royal Arch, 31; in Scotland, 32; 
England, 32 ; Denmark, 32 ; Hungary, Holland, Italy, 34 ; Greece, Switzer- 
land, Canada, Sweden, France, Germany, Portugal", Egypt, Victoria, Liberia, 
U.S.A., Belgium, 35. 

Remarks on the Craft Legend of the Old British Masons, Dr. W. Begemann 

The Masonic Genius of Robert Burns, Dr. B. W. Richardson 

The genius of Masonry in relation to the natural genius of the man, 46 ; initia- 
tion, 47 ; first publication, 49 ; Burns goes to Edinburgh, his Masonic Poems, 50 ; 
his Masonic genius, 52. 

Notes on the History of the Lodge of the Marches, Ludlow, T. J. Salwey ... 

The Tau, or Cross, Harriet G. M. Murray-Aynsley 

Freemasonry in Reference to the Laws of the Realm, W. Fooks 

Masonic Celebrities, No. 4, Thomas Manningham, R. F. Gould 

A Last Word on Freemasonry in Holland, J. P. Vaillant 

The Proper Names of Masonic Tradition, Rev. C. J. Ball 

Hiram Abiff, 136 ; Adoniram, 138; Boaz, Jachin, 139 ; lost words, 140. 

Gavin Wilson, a forgotten Masonic Worthy ... 

Early History of the High Degrees in the Netherlands, J. D. Oortman-Gerlings 

Netherlands Freemasonry in Court, H. W. Dieperink 

Date of Origin of the GrandLodge of the "Ancients," 1751, John Lane 

The Masonic Apron, W. Harry Rylands 

Scottish Aprons, 172 ; Symbolism of the Apron, Atholl Aprons, Foreign Aprons, 
Operative Aprons, 173 ; earliest Apron, speculative, 174 ; linen or leather ? 
earliest official reference to apron, 175; earliest specimens extant, 176; the 
hole in the fall, Dermott on Aprons, 177 ; early decorated aprons, engraved 
aprons, 178 ; official-pattern apron, Grand Lodge Clothing, the Tatler and blue 
aprons, 180 ; Royal Aprons, the fringe, 181 ; the tassels, 182 ; description of 
plates, 183. 

Freemasonry in Prussia, G. W. Speth 

The Assembly, R. F. Gould 

Summary, 201; passages relating thereto from old MSS., 203; Tythings, 
Frank-pledge, Motes, etc., 207; the Sheriff's Tourne, 208; the Leet, 209; 
Articles of Inquiry, 211 ; the Charge, 213 ; the Master, Conclusions, 214. 


15, 187 








Dr. Barlow's Valedictory Address 

Picart's FreemassonB 

Rylands' Royal Arch Chapter of St. James 

Papus' Tarot of the Bohemians 

Bain's Long Livers 

Rosicrucian Transactions, Newcastle College.. 

Book of the Centenary 

Dr. O. D. Miller's Har-Moad .,, 

R. F. Gould 


G. W. Speth 


R. F. Gould 


W. W. Westcott 


G. W. Speth 


G. W. Speth 


G. W. Speth 


G. W. Speth 



REVIEWS —Continued. 

Table of Contents. 

Colston's Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh ... E. F. Gould 

Graham's Freemasonry in Shropshire ... E. F. Gould 

Bates' Freemasonry in Grimsby ... E. F. Gould 

Matthewman's Addresses of T. W. Tew ... E.F.Gould 
C ookson's and Blakehurst's Lodge of Unanimity, 

No. 287 ... ... G. W. Speth 

Jackson's facsimile of Benoist's Geometrical 

View ... G. W. Speth 

Smith's Old Lodge of Dumfries ... E. F. Gould 

McClenachan's Freemasonry in New York ... E. F. Gould 








Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha, in. Corrections, J. Lane 
Installation Address. Prof. T. Hayter Lewis 



Act of Parliament, 39 Geo. III. 



Address, Installation 


Address to Bro. Whymper ... 


Address to Bro. W. H. Eylands 

.171, 201 



Ancients, G. L. of the, date of Origin . 


Antiquity of Masonic Symbolism 

. 68, 228 

Aphrodite's Cestus ... 


Apron, an old 


,, Tassels 


„ the Masonic... 


„ Royal Arch ... 


Aprons, American ... 


„ blue, alluded to in Tatler 


,, decorated 


,, Dermott on ... 


„ early speculative 


„ Egyptian 


„ engraved 


,, first reference to in B.C. 


,, foreign 


,, fringed 


,, Grand Lodge 


„ hole in 


„ linen or leather ? 


„ Masons' 


„ Operative ... 


„ Royal 


„ Royal Arch 


„ Sayers' ... ... ;. 


„ Scottish 


,, Symbolism of 


Articles of Enquiry 


Ashlar, derivation of 


Ashlers, presented to the Lodge 


Assembly, The 




Audit Report 


Austria, Early Masonry 

. 15, 187 

Babel, Tower of 


Babylonian Noose .. 


Balance Sheet, 1891 


Barlow's Valedictory Address 


Bazaar, Dublin 



5, 13 

Berlin, a new Grand Lodge in 




Blue Blanket, The ... 


Book-plate, Dermott's ... 142, 

226, 227 

Brahtninical Initiation 

5, 21 

Burns, Masonic Genius of ... 


Bye-laws of the Lodge, amended 


Cabiri, The.. ... ... 12 

22, 118 

Cabiriac Doctrine of the Temple 


Cabiriac Legend 


Candidates questioned in Sweden 


Cape Town, Lodge Zur Eintracht, healec 


Cardinal Quatour Coronatorum 


Centenary, Book of the 


Cestus, The 


Chair, old, at Lincoln.. 


,, Qualification for the ... 


Chairs of Lodge, No. 32, Liverpool 


Chevalier de l'Aigle. . . 


„ Illustre ... 


„ Sublime ... 


Clermont, Rite de ... 


Clothing, Masonic ... 

29, 142 


Collegia, The 

Committee of Promulgation... 

Como, Masters of ... ... 

Constitution, Ancient mode of 
Correspondence Circle in Queensland... 
Courriers, Monastic .. 
Craft Legend, The, of British Masons 
Cross, The 

„ of Savoy 

„ Temple of the 
Crosses, Consecration 
Croyland Abbey 
Crusaders in Palestine 
Culdees at St. Andrews 










s 224 



86, 224 





Death and Masonry . . ... ... 146 

Deputation to Constitute ... ... 107 

Deputy Lodges .. ... ... 15 

Dermott's Book-plate ... 142, 226, 227 

Dionysian Artificers ... ... 22 

Diploma, Rose Croix, early Dutch ... 160 

Doctrine of the Temple ... ... 123 

Dor-beetle... ... ... ... 224 

Drake, Francis, and the Tatler .. 69 

Eastern origin of ritual ... ... 66 

Ecksteen Legacy ... ... .. 28 

Ecossais ... ... ... .. 187 

Erratum ... ... ... ... 250 

Exhibits in Lodge . . ... ... 46 

Female Masonic Orphan School, Ireland 73 

Eire at Masonic Temple, Capetown ... 74 

Frankpledse ... ... ... 210 

Freemason's Indenture . ... 173 

Freemason's Literary Association ... 74 

Freemasonry and the Laws of the Realm 88 

,, and Magic ... ... 144 

„ in Grimsby ... ... 233 

„ in Holland ... ... 114 

,, in Prussia ... ... 192 

„ in Shropshire ... ... 128 

Fresco at Rotterdam ... ... 143 

Gemot ... ... ... ... 207 

Geom. View of Scald Miserable Masons 236 

Girding the wife .... ... ... 6 

Girdle and Noose ... ... ... 145 

Gothic Style, Rise of ... ... 197 

Grand Cheque- word ... ... 246 

Grand Lodge, A new one in Berlin ... 194 
„ „ of the Ancients, Date of 

origin ... ... 166 

Grand Masters of Scottish Lodges ... 239 

Greek C ollege, Rome ... ... 20 

Grimsby, Freemasonry in ... ... 233 

Guild-Merchant ... ... ...210,220 

Guildship in the Monasteries ... 197 

Hammermen's Company ... ... 77 

Har-Moad ... ... ... 116 

High Degrees, Rise of ... ... 187 

Hiram-Abiff ... ... ... 136 

Holland, Craft in Court ... ... 163 

„ early High Degrees... ... 158 

„ Freemasonry in ... ... 23, 114 

„ Provincial Grand Master 

granted to ... ... 108 

Hungary, Early Masonry in ... ... 15, 187 



Incorporated Trades, Edinburgh ... 125 

Indenture of a Freemason ... ... 173 

Indian (N.A.) Secret Societies ... 244 

Initiation, Australian ... ... 10 

„ Brahminical ... ... 5, 21 

Irregular Makings ... ... ... 103 

Jacolliot on Indian Masonry ... ... 21 

Jewels of Lodge No. 32, Liverpool ... 226 

Jewish Question in Germany ... 193. 
Jonathan and David, and Jesus Christ, 

United Orders of ... ... 162 

Judgment of the Supreme Court of the 

Netherlands ... ... ... 163 

Knight of God ... ... ... 188 

„ of the Holy Sepulchre ... 187 

„ of St. Andrew's ... ... 187 

„ Templar ... ... ... 187 

,, Templarism in the Army ... 102 

Kusti, The ... ... ... ... 9 

Lady Freemasons ... ... ... 66, 145 

Lady of Girdles ... ... ... 9 

Law-day ... ... ... ...209,220 

Laws of the Realm and Freemasonry ... 88 
Lectures — 

R. F. Gould ... ... ... 73, 248 

W. J. Hughan ... ... 150 

R. Hughes .. ... ... 150 

J. Ross Robertson ... ... 75 

G. L. Shackles ... ... 150 

G. W. Speth ... ... 150, 248 

R. T. Wheeler ... ... 73 

Leet ... ... ... .. 209 

Legend of the Craft.. ... ... 37 

Letter of Manningham to Grand Lodge 

of Holland ... ... ... 108 

Letter of Manningham to Sauer at the 

Hague ... ... ... 109 

Lincoln, Old Chair at ... ... 68 

„ Province, Centenary ... 149 

Literary Lodges, Two new ... ... 248 

Lodge-house, The first in America ... 244 
Lodges, Chapters, etc., referred to 

Absalom, Hamburg ... ... 15 

Albion No. 2, Quebec ... .. 245 

Albion, No. 196 ... ... 72 

American Union ... ... 245 

Anchor and Hope, No. 644 ... 131 

Angel, No. 51 ... ... 151 

Anspach-Beyrenth, 2nd Reg. ... 242 

Antiquity, No. 2 ... ... 94 

Apollo, No. 510 ... ... 233 

Arrow, No. 2240 ... ... 77 

Astre de l'Orient ... ... 159 

Athole, No. 413, S.C. ... ... 30 

Audley, No. 1696 ... ... 131 

Aurore ... ... ...158,159 

Aux Trois Canons, Vienna ... 15 

Aux Trois Coeurs, Vienna ... 15,16 

Barry ... ... ... 131 

Ben Johnson's Head ... ... 98,99 

Bien Aimee ... ... ... 159 

Black Rose ... ... ... 191 

Branden. Anspach, 2nd Reg. ... 246 

Brownlow, No. 2131 ... ... 131 

Carmarthen... ... ... 175 

Caledonian, S.C. ... ... 30 

Canongate Kilwinning ... 50, 54 

Capitulum Stutgardianum ... 189 

Castel, No. 1621 ... ... 131 

Centenary, Dublin ... ... 248 

Cerbus Federici ... ... 33 

Cestrian, No. 425 ... ... 130 

Charite ... ... ... 159 

Charity, No. 117 ... ... 131 

Cheshire Cheese ... ... 94, 95 

Christian ... ... ... 33 

Lodges, Chapters, etc., referred to : — 

Clwe, No. 1575 ... ... 131 

Cceurs Unis ... ... ... 158 

Companie Durable ... ... 159 

Concord, Grand Lodge ... 193 

Concorde ... .. 158, 188 

Concordia, Philadelphia .. 132 

Concordia vincit animos 159, 160 

Constance, Magdeburg ... 188 
Credentes vivent ab illo, 

R.C.Ch. ... 158, 159, 160 

Crown Point... ... ... 243 

Doric, No. 362 ... ... 149 

Dragoons 2nd ... ... 243 

17th ... ... 241 

Dumfries Kilwinning ... ... 238 

The Old ... ... 237 

Dundee ... ... ... 31 

Eclectic Union, Mother Lodge ... 193 

Edelmoedigheit ... ... 158 

Edinburgh .. ... ... 31 

Eendracht ...- ... ... 159 

Egerton, No. 445 ... ... 131 

Eskdale Kilwinning No. 134 ... 245 

Felicity, Magdeburg ... ... 188 

Felicity, No. 58 ... ... 106 

Ferdinande Caroline ... ... 193 

Fitzalan, No. 1432 ... ... 131 

Foot 1st ... ... ... 244 

„ 12th ... ... ... 101 

„ 20th ... ... ... 100 

„ 22nd ... ... 241,245,246 

„ 30th ... ... ... 100 

„ 33rd ... ... ... 241 

„ 37th ... ... 241,246 

„ 38th ... ... 241, 246 

„ 43rd ... ... ... 243 

„ 51st ... ... ... 101 

„ 55th ... ... 241, 243 

,. 57th ... ... 242, 246 

„ 60th ... ... ... 241 

„ 67th ... ... ... 100 

Fortitude and Old Cumberland... 94 

Four Evaagelists ... ... 190 

Frederic Royal ... ...158,159 

Friedrich, Hanover ... ... 15, 

Friends in Council, No. 1383 ... 71 

Friends in Council, Ch. No. 1383 72 

Goose and Gridiron ... ... 94, 95 

Gottingen ... ... ... 15 

Grand Scots Lodge, Hague ... 158 

Green Lettice ... ... 95 

Grenadiers, No. 66 ... ... 107 

Hamburg, Grand Lodge ... 193 

Hanover Brigade ... ... 242 

Home Taverne ... 94, 95, 103 

Indissoluble ... ... ... 158 

Industry, No. 578 ... ... 131 

Jesus ... ... ... 162 

Jonathan and David ... ... 162 

Kaiser Frederick, Grand Lodge, 

Berlin ... ... 194 

Kilwinning ... .. ... 31 

King's Arms .. ... ... 104 

Lake George .. ... ... 243 

Leinster Ch. No. 387 I.C. ... 72 

Marches, No. 611 ... ...77,131 

Melrose ... ... ... 31 

Mercian ... ... ... 78, 131 

Metham, No. 1705 ... ... 72 

Minden ... ... ... 101 

Minerva, No. 2433 ... 149, 248 

Moira, No. 92 ... ...99,106 

Montefiore, No. 753 S.C. ... 30 

Moriah No. 132 ... ■ ... 245 
National Grand Lodge, Berlin ... 193 

Northern Star ... ... 33 

No. 22 N.T. (169 A.) ... ... 244 


Lodges, Chapters, etc., referred to : 

No. 26 N.Y. ... 

„ 27 N.Y. ... 

„ 28 N.Y. ... 

„ 29 N.Y. ... 

>, 74 (l.C.) 

„ 210 Ancients 

„ 213 Ancients 



Parfaite Union, Hague 

Parfaite Union, Magdeburg 

Peace and HarmoDy, No. 60 

Pelham Pillar, No. 792 

Philantrope ... 

Profond Silence 

Queen's Head, Knaves Acre 

Queen's Head, Turnstile 

Research No. 2429 


Royal Alpha, No. 16 ... 

Royal Artillery 4th Batt. 

Royal Edward 

Royal Somerset and Inverness ., 

Royal York Grand Lodge 

Salopian, No. 262 

Saxony, Grand Lodge of 

Scarsdale, No. 681 

Scots Lodge, Hague ... 

Shadwell Clerke, No. 1910 

Shropshire Militia 


Sinai, Magdeburg 

Sion, New York 

Sion No. 24, N.Y. 

Sion No. 32, N.Y. 

St. Abb's 

St. Abbe, No. 70 

St. Alban, Adelaide 

St. Alban' s, No. 29 

St. Alban's, No. 1294 ... 

St. Alkmund, No. 2311 

St. Andrew, Dumfries... 

St. Andrew's No. 3. 

St. Andrew's Kilwinning, No. 31 

St. Andrew's R.A.L. ... 

St. David's, Tarbolton 

St. James', No. 510 ... .: 

St. James's R.A. Chapter 

St. James', Tarbolton 

St. John and St. Paul, No. 349 .. 

St. John Baptist, No. 39 

St. John Evangelist, Darmstadt 

St. John, Kilmarnock ... 

St. John, No. 601 

St. John's Indep. R.A.L. 

St. John's Regimental... 

St. John's No. 4, N.Y. 

St. Milburga, No. 1120 

St. Nicholas, No. 6 S.C. 

St. Oswald, No. 1124 ... 

St. Oswald's, No. 910 ... 

St. Patrick's R.A.L. .. 

St. Patrick's No. 12, N.Y. 

Spurn and Humber, No. 61 

Sun, Grand Lodge of the 


Swan and Rummer 

Three Crowned Stars, Prague .. 

Three Globes, Grand Lodge, 

Three Pomegranates, DresdeD .. 
Three Stars, Prague ... 
Turk's Head .. 
Unanimity No. 287 
Union Ch", No. 407 ... 
Union Provinciale 
Union Roy ale 

244, 246 









.158, 159 

. 94, 95 


242, 246 

















Lodges, Chapters, etc., referred to :— 


Urania, No. 510 




Vitus Bataves 


Washington No. 10, N.Y. 


White Bear ... 


Whitchurch, No. 388 ... 


Wrekin, No. 455 


Zetland, No. 515 


Zion, Michigan 




Zorobabel and Frederick of the 

Crowned Hope . . . 


Zur Eintracht, Cape ... 


Lodges, Regimental 

100, 101 

„ warranted in 1891 ... 


Long Livers 


Lost Words 




Magic and Freemasonry 


Mattre Ecossais 


Maitre Elu 


Mamon Gretus 


Manuscript Constitutions referred to :- 





Atcheson Haven 






Dumfries Kilwinning, 1 — 5 


Harris, 1 — 2 ... 




Kilwinning ... 


Lansdowne ... 


Matthew Cooke 







Randle Holme 


Regius Poem... 







William Watson ... 40 





York, No. 6 ... 


Mark-Degree, Earliest mention 


Masonic Bazaar, Dublin 


„ Clothing 



,, Genius of R. Burns ... 


„ Hall, New Orleans ... 


„ ,, Picton, New Zealand .. 


,, Library and Museum, West Yorks 


„ Literary Society, Wakefield .. 


,, Symbolism, Antiquity of 



„ Temple, Cape, Burnt 


Masonry and Death 


,, Indian, Jacolliott's account .. 


„ in Austria and Hungary 



„ Holland... 


„ in New York 


,, Dates of Introduction into 

several of the U.S.A. 


Masons and Freemasons 


,, Arms, Swindon 


„ Marks ... ... 69, 





Masters of Como 


Matab, Abyssinian ... 


Matthewman's Addresses of T. W. Tew 


Megingjardir. Thor's 


Melrose, Morvo's Doorway, etc. 




Mizraim, Rite of 


Monastic Courriers ... 




.Murdo's Insciptions, Melrose 



Namns Greens 



Persons referred to : — 


Naymus of the Greeks 


Brady, Baron J. 


Newcastle Rosicrucian Transactions ... 


Brewer, H. 


New York, City Grand Lodge ... 


Bridgewaters, Captain 


„ Compact of Union 


Broawer, W. D. J. 


„ Country Grand Lodge 


Brown, Rev. H. 


„ Effects of Morgan excitement 


Brownrigg, J. Studholme 


,, English Prov. Grand Masters 


Bunel, P. B. ... 


„ Grand Lodge of ... 


Burns, Gilbert 


„ Lodges under the Ancients 


Buys, J. 


„ Phillips Grand Lodge 




,, Prov. Grand Lodge, Ancients 


Byron, Lord ... 

96, 97, 103 

„ St. John's Grand Lodge 


Caernarvon, Marquis ... 


„ Willard Grand Lodge 


Campbell, J. 


Noose Symbol ... ... 5, 144 


Carmichael, Lord 

... 94, 95 

Norway Masonically Independent 


Carpenter, Col. 

... 94, 95 

„ Statistics ... 






Carysfoot, Lord 

96, 97, 98 

Numeration of Scottish Lodges 


Chandbs, Duke of 

97, 98, 100 



Orientation, A. new method ... 


Cheese, E. 


Outing, Annual ... ... ...149 


Choeke, Alexander 


Outside Eites, Introduction of 


Chomley, W. 


Choppen, Moses 


Painting, possibly a Gainsborough 

Christie, Lieut. J. 




Clarence and Avondale, Duke of 70 

Passing the Chair ... ... 60,61 


Clarke, C. Purdon 


„ „ R.A. Chairs 


Clarke, G. T. 


Past-Master's Degree 


Clarke, Sergt.-Major ... 


Payment first ordered for Constitution 


Clary-Aldringen, Counts 


Persons referred to : — - 

Claus, Daniel 


Aberdour, Lord 




Abrahams, Woodward 


Clerke, P. 


Acton, S. 


Clerke, Col. S. H. 

1, 71, 130 

Agar, J. 




Agnew, Alexander 




' Ahrenberg, Prince of ... 


Cockburn, Dr. J. Balfour 


Albiston, Thomas 


Cohu, Thomas 


Albrecht, Count von ... 


Collier, James 


Alderidge, J. 


Combermere, Lord 


Alexander, Captain J. 


Connor, G. C. 




Cook, William 


Anderson, G. ... 


Cookson, J. ... 


Anderson, J. ... 


Corbett, Sir A. T. 


Anstruther, Col. 


Cornwallis, Lieut.-Col. E. 


Ashley, T. P. 




Ash mole, Elias 


Cowper, W. . . . 


Asperne, J. ... 


Coxe, Daniel... 


Athelstan ... ... ... 37, 38 

Cracall, R. de 


Atwood, H. C. 


Cranstoun, Lord 





... 50,51 

Baker, Fotherley 


Cross, Micajah 


Ball, Rev. C.J. 


Crossle, P. C. 

30, 142 



Cumberland, J. S. 


Barrett, J. 


Cuthbertson, James ... 


Barron, W. 


Dalkeith, Earl of 

94, 95 

Bartane, Hugh 




Beardmore, R. 




Beardsley, Rev. J. 


Dansey, G. H. 


Beattie, W. ... 


Dansey, E. 


Beauchamp, Richard ... 


Darnley, Lord 


Belgioso, A. de 


Davies, J. 

78, 79 



Davis, J. Mortimer 


Bennett, Hon. H. G. ... 


De Bonneville, Chevalier 


Benson, N. G. 


De Campe 


Bergh, M. 


De Consalvin 


Berrington ... 


De la Garde, P. H. G. ... 


Blackerby, N. 


Delorane, Earl 


Blacklock, Dr. 


Dermott, Laurence 


Blair, Sir J. H. 


Desaguliers, Dr. J. T. ... 

94, 95 

Blakehurst, R. C. 


Dewar, R. 


Blayney, Cadwallader, Lord ... 


Dickson, James 


Boetselaer, Baron C. von 


Diepvest, P.... 

160, 162 

Bolt, H. 


Diskard, Baron 


Bookless, G. 


Dodsworth ... 


Bouhuys ... ... 161 


Donne, Rev. J. 


Bouwinghausen, von ... ,., 


Doom, E. C. U. van .„ 


Bowman, E. ... 


Douwens ... ... 



Persons referred to : — 

Persons referred to : — 

Downes, W. ... 


Hollo way 


Downing, George 


Hooks, T. 


Dunckerley, Thomas ... 


Hornbook, Dr. 




Horwood, W. M. 


Dymoke, E. H. 


Hughan, W.J 


Earnahaw, J.... 


Hund, Baron de 


Edwards, Sir H. 

234, 235 



Edwin, Prince 


Ingersoll, Col. Joseph ... 


Egerton, Rev. P. H. ... 


Ingram, J. 

... 78,79 

Ellam, J. 




Ellam, R. 


Jackson, Richard 


Ellis, R. 

78, 79 

Jameson, P. 


Embleton, T. W. 


Jamieson, W. 


Erskine, Major 


Jervis, Chief Justice ... 



37, 39 

Jobling, J. 


Evans, T. 



...188, 192 



Johnson, Col. Guy 


Fearfield, J. P. 


Johnson, Sir John 

130, 241 

Ferdinand, Prince 

100, 102 

Johnson, Sir W. 


Pergusson of Craigdarrook 


Johnston, James 


Ferrers, Earl of 




Feyliugen, von 


Joslin, G. 


Field, Thomas 


Kazinczy, F. 


Findel, J. G. ... 


Kelly, Joseph 


Finlayson, J. F. 


Kerr, Captain A. 


Folkes, Martin 


Kielmannsegge, Ferd. 




Ring, R. G. 


Fourdrinier, J. C. 


Kiugsley, Major Gen. 




Kinigl, Count C. H. 


Frederick the Great 


Kinsky. Count J. J 


Frederick, Prince of Hesse Cassel 1 58 



Frederick, Prince of the Nether- 

Kruse, F. 


lands ... 


La Lippe, Connt 




La Grange, G. F. 


Furttenburg, Baron J. C. 

190, 192 





Laske, Thomas 


Garratt, Sam. 


Lauterbach. Baron de 

... 16, 19 

Garrett, G. ... 


Laver, Dr. H. 

...149, 151 

Gavin, Wilson 


Lavvley, Sir R. 

... 98, 107 

Gemmingen, von 


Lawrence, P. R. 


Gilbert, VV. ... 


Le Constant 


Goelet, Francis 


Lewis, Rev. Francis ... 


Goltz, J. P. de 


Lewis, Prof. T. Hayter 


Gooding, Dr. Ralph ... 



.:. 17 

Gough, Col. Poster 


Lindo, Isaac 


Gould, K. P. ... 


Lisle. Sir G. 


Graeme, W. ... 


Lithelier, J. P. 


Green, W. 


Littler, H. 




Livingston, R. R. 


Griffiths, T. ... 

78, 79 

Lloyd, II. 

... 78, 79 

Greenhouse, J. 


Lote, Stephen 


Gregory, Dr. J. 


Loudon, Earl of 


Gridler, Jeremy 

243, 245 





Lucas, Sir C. 


Gunter, H. ... 


Lumley, Hon. C. 


Hamilton, Gavin 


Liitzow, Count J. 


Hancox, W. 


Macbean, E. 

... 1, 150 

Harley, Lord... 


MacCalla, C. P. 

... 78, 132 

Harnach, von 




Harper, T. ... 


MacDougall, J. I. 


Harrison, George 


Mackenzie, Henry 

... ' 50 

Hastie, John ... 


Makgeorge, W. 




Malczovich, L. de 


Hayes, J. W. 




Heart, Jonathan 


Manningham, C. 


Heineken, A. G. ... ... 162 

Henderson, J. ... ... 62 

Henneberg, J. N. H. ... ... 162 

Hertzveld, L. H. ... ... 109 

Heseltine, J. ... ... 129 

Hinuber, C. F. ... ... 16 

Hiniiber, J. A. ... ... 16 

Hobart, de ... ... ... 16 

Hody, Dr. E. ... ... ... 98 

Hodnett, R. ... ... ... 78 

Hogg, James ... ... ... 54 

Hofmeyr, J. H. ... ... 231 

Manningham, Bishop of Chichester 93 

Manningham, Rev. Dr. ... 95 

Manningham, Rev. Dr. Simon ... 95 
Manningham, Sir Richard 93, 94, 95 

Manningham, Thomas ... 93 

Marches, Marquis des ... 94 

Markham, Admiral A. H. ... 1 

Martin ... ... 192 

Martinelli, J. F. ... ... 190 

Martinitz, C ount F. ... ... 190 

Masse v, J. ... ... 78 

Masters, W. ... ... 149 


Persons referred to :— 

MastertoD, Allan 


Matthews, Sir E. 


McClenachan, C. T. ... 


McCuen, James 




■ McLoughlin, P. 


McMin, George 




Merigeot, J. 




Meyer, C. E. 


Meyrick, T. 


Middleton, Dr. 

244, 245 

Middleton, P. 


Milburne, Captain 


Miller, Dr. 0. D. 


Milne, J. 


Milne, W. 




Moira, Earl of 


Monkman, G. E. 


Montgomery, Col. 


Montgomery, Major-General 


Moore, Dr. J. 


Morgan, J. 


M orley 


Morris, J. B. 

78, 79, 80 

Morton. Earl of 


Moses, W. Stainton ... 


Muir, Robert 


Nagel, Baron 


Nasmith, James 


Nasmyth, A. 


Newall, John 


Newton, James 


Nicol, William 




Ninnis, Dr. Belgrave ... 

1, 88, 149 

Nitzky, Baron G. 


Noordziek, J. F. 


Norton, Jacob 




Oliver, Dr. G. 


Oaghton, Sir Adolphus 


Overy, W. 


Owens, S. 


Paggett, Col. 

... 94,95 

Paisley, Lord 


Parker, Major 


Parker, William 


Parsons, J. 


Payne, G. 

94, 96, 98 



Penny, J. 




Petre, Lord ... 


Philalethes, Eugenius 


Phillips, Captain N. G. 


Phillips, Isaac 


Phillips, Bev. S. 


Place, James 




Pool, G. J. 


Pracht, L. de 

...190, 192 

Prangen, von 


Predergast, Sir T. 

... 94,95 

Preston, William 


Prinzen, Baron de 




Quay, S. 


Queensborongh, Duke of 


Queensberry and Dover, Duke of 239 

Balling, T.J. 


Ramsay, Chevalier 


Ramsay, David 


Reibsch, J. F. 


Reid, A. 



Persons referred to : — 

Revis, John 

100, 1C3, 106 

Rich, Sir R. 


Richardson, G. 


Richmond, Duke of 

... 94, 95 

Ridley, Col. 


Riggs, Richard 


Ripon, Marquess of ... 


Robertson, J. Ross 


.Rodda, Rev. E. 


Rogers, E. 

... 78, 79 

Hogers, W. 


Rosa, Ph. S. 


Rule, John 


Ruspini, Chevalier 


Russell, R. 




Rylands, W. H. 


Sackville, Lord George 

.. 100, 102 

Samber, R. 


Samson, Tam 


Sanderson, Col. 

... 94,95 

Sankey, R. ... 






Schmidburg, Baron C. F. 


Schnurman, J. W. 


Schonaich-Carolath, Pr. H. 

de ... 193 

Scott, Jonathan 

... 98, 106 

Selkrig, James 


Senex, J. 



... 65, 66 



Shadbolt, W. 


Shee, J. 


Shipway, J. 


Shirrefl, Major C. 

129, 130, 131 

Simpson, William 


Skolen, Baron 

...189, 190 

Slaughter, T. 




Smith, General J. Corson 


Smith, James 


Smith, Thomas 


Sorell, Fr. 


Speth, G. W. .. 


Spiers, James 


Spiess, J. 


Sporke, J. F. R. de ... 

... 15, 19 



St. Amphibel 


St. Alban 


St. Clair, William 


Steele, Sir. Richard 


Stewart, Dugald 

... 49,51 



Sutherland ... 


Sword, Patrick 


Taylor, J. 

78, 79 



Tew, T. W. ... 


Teylingen, Is. van 


Thomas, Rev. J. 

77, 78, 79 

Thomson, M. B. 


Thun, Count Joseph ... 


Tilley de Lernais, Marquis 




Tod, James ... 


Toft, Mary ... 




Turner, R. .. 


Urwick, B. 

78, 79 

Teen, J. N- van der ... 


Venhuysen, W. 






Villeneaa, J. ... 





Persons referred to :— 
Ward, Lord ... 
Wardrop, A. ... 
Wakefield, E. 
Wakeman, Sir Offley ... 
Waldegrave, Lord 
Walgreve C. ... 
Wallace, William 
Wahnoden, Th. Frh. v. 
Walter, Eev. William ... 
Walworth, B. H. 
Warmington, W. de 
Warren, Sir Charles ... 
Watson, Steward 
Watson, William 
Watzdorf, Count 
Webb, Joseph 
Weiss, Felix ... 
Wellings, B. ... 
Wellings, H. ... 
Wellings, T. ... 
Welz, von 

Wendt, Emil Ernst ... 
Westcott, Dr. W. W. ... 
Whitall, H. .. 
Whitcombe, B. 
White, W. H. 
Whymper, H. J. 
Wilkinsou, G. 
Willard, John D. 
Williams, B. .. 
Williams, W. C. 
Williams, W. Mattifeu ... 
Williamson, Col. 
Wilson, John... 
Wix, W. 
Wolfe, Major J. 
Wolfing, von 
Woodford, Rev. A. F. A. 
Woodman, Dr. W. E. ... 
Wright, W. B. 
Wynn, Sir W. W. 

96, 97, 98, 100 

















78, 79 







78, 79, 80 



171, 248 

78, 79 














61, 62 

79, 130 




Bosicrucian Transactions, Newcastle 

Bosicrucians, Arrest of 

,, in Denmark 

Botterdam Fresco ... 
Boyal Arch Origin ... 







Picart's Plate, Les Freemassons ... 57 

Pillars, The two of the Flood ... 125 

„ Temple ... 139 

Presentations, Bible-cushion... ... 171 

„ Haud-painted Apron ... 201 

„ Square and Compasses 171 
Prince of Wales, Congratulations and 

Beply ... ... ... ... 5 

Promulgation, Committee of .. ... 62 

Proper Names of Masonic Tradition ... 136 
Provincial Grand Master granted to 

Holland ... ... . . 108 

Provincial Grand Masters, Moderns, of 

New York ... ... ... 241 

Prussia, Freemasonry in ... ... 192 

Qualifications for the Chair ... ... 224 

Quatuor Coronati ... ... ... 66 

Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha, III. 64 

Quatuor Coronatorum, Cardinal ... 142 

Begimental Lodges ... ... ... 101 

Eeport, Audit Committee ... ... 1 

,, Permanent Committee ... 170 

Bite de Clermont ... ... ... 187 

B.M.B.I. Festival ... ... ... 73 

E.M.B.I. Vote ... ... ... 5 

E.M.I.B. ... ... ... ... 149 

B.M.I.G 149 

Savoy, Cross of 

Schism, The 

Scotch (so-called) Lodges 

Scots Masters 

Scottish Lodges, Numeration of 

Sheriff's Tourne 

Shropshire, Freemasonry in ... 

South Africa, Agitation for a G. Lodge 

Statute, 39 Geo. in 

Statutes of Labourers 

Strict Observance Eite 

Su'dime Master, Nimrod 

Svastika ... 

Sweden, Questions to Candidates 

Swedish Kite 

Tables in Lodge 

Tarot, The... 

Tassels of Apron 

Tatler, The ; allusion to blue apron 

,, „ and Francis Drake 
Tau, The... 
Teapot, Masonic 
Temple, Doctrine of the 

,, of the Cross 

Tew 's Addresses 
Thor's Megingjardir 
Tobacco in Grand Lodge 
Tombstone, Masonic 
,, Murdo's 

Trades, Incorporated, of Edinburgh 

Union of the Grand Chapters 

Vaisargina Offerings 



Vertu, Freemason ... 


Vizaresha ... 

Vote to B.M.B.I. ... 

Wakefield, Masonic Literary Society .. 

Warrant of MountVernon Lodge,Albany 

Warrant of Lodge La bien Aimee, 
,, to same as a Scots Lodge 
„ to Grand Chapter of Holland 

Washington Bible, The 

West Yorks Library and Museum 

Wife, Girding the ... 

Word, Grand Cheque 

Words, Lost 

Tama's Noose 

Yorkshire Masons and Freemasons 


228, 243 





147, 225 






81, 224 



















Contributors : — 

Ball, Bev. C. J. 
Baskett, S. B. 
Begemann, Dr. W. ... 
Bodenham, J. 
Bourne, B. W. 
Bywater, W. M. 
Carson, J. L. 
Clendinning, J. H. ... 
Crowe, F. J. W. 
Dieperink, Dr. H. W. 
Dixon, W. ... 





142, 227 



29, 142, 228 

...23, 163, 231, 249 




Contributors (continued). 


Fooks, W. ... ... ... ... 88, 92 

Forbes, Dr. S. R. ... ... ... 20 

Gould, R, F. 53, 55, 58, 67, 68, 71, 93, 125, 
128, 132, 183, 201, 203, 
219, 233, 234, 237, 239 

Illustrations : 

Grandsagne, Count A. de 


Hammond, Dr. W. ... 


Hope, A. ... 


Horslev, Rev. J. W.... 

. 66, 224 

Hughan, W. J. 


Isebree-Moens, J. 


Lamonby, W. F. 


Lane, John 

. 64, 166 

Le Boeuf, Rev. T. H. 


Le Strange, H. 


Lewis, Professor T. Hayter . . . 


Malczovich, L. de ... 

. 15, 187 

McKelvie, W. K. ... 

. 66, 69 

Minos, Rev. P. J. 


M array- Aynsley, Harriett G. M. 

. 81, 147 

Oortman-Gerlings, J. D. 


Papworth, Wyatt 


Poeklington, C. 

142, 224 

Richardson, Dr. B. W. 


Rylands, J. P. 


Rylands, W. H. 13, 69, 91, 147 


, 222, 
228, 229 

Sal wey, T. J. 


Silber'baur, C. F. 

232, 249 

Simpson, W. ... 5, 14, 87, 


145, 225 

Speth, G. W. 13, 57, 67, 91, 92 



142, 145, 192, 


236. 237 

Turner, G. E. 


Taillant, J. P. 


Vernon, W. F. 


145, 227 

Westcott, Dr. W. W. 


Whymper, H. J. 


Williams, W. M. 

. 12, 91 

Yarker, J. 21, 66, 68, 69, 


228, 229 

Chair at Lincoln 



Chairs of No. 32, Liverpool ... 


Clothing, 5 plates ... 


Colchester Castle ... 


„ ,, and Abbey Gate 


„ Priory ... 


„ ' Red Lion Hotel ... 


„ Trinity Church Doorway 


Crosses, 6 plates 


Cyprian Coin, showing J. and B. 


Dermott's Book-plate 


Doorway, Melrose ... 


Fresco, Rotterdam ... 


Gilbert, Dr., portrait 


„ „ tablet ... 


Handkerchief, Masonic 


Jewel, Free Gardeners 


„ of a Past Master (Chinese) 


Jewels, Officers of No. 32 


„ „ of a R.A. Chapter 


MacC'alla, C.P., portrait 


Masons' Arms, Swindon 


,, Aprons, 12 plates 


Marks ... ... 69 

, 147, 149 

Minute of Constitution of Moira No. 92, 



Picture (by Gainsborough ?) . . . 


Rylands, J. P., portrait 


Rylands, W. H., portrait ... frontispiece 

Simpson, W., portrait 




Tombstone, Choppen 


„ W. de Warmington 


„ at Shane's Castle 


Tea-pot, Masonic 


Wilson, Gavin, portrait 


&*&' tynatnov (&jovonatovxttn> 

being the TRANSACTIONS of the 
Lodge Quatuor Coronati of A.F. & A.M., London, 

No. 2076. 


FRIDAY, 8th JANUARY, 1892. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present — Bros. W. H. Rylands, W.M. 
Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, S.W. ; Rev. C. J. Ball, J.W. ; G. W. Speth, Sec. ; E. Macbean 
S.D.; W. Mattieu Williams, J.D. ; R. E. Gould, P.G.D., P.M. & D.C. ; C. Knpfer- 
schmidt, ; W. M. Bywater, P G.S.B., I.P.M.; and Dr. Belgrave Ninnis. Also the 
following members of the Correspondence Circle — Bros. G. R. Cobham ; W. S. Hnnter 
R. Palmer Thomas ; Thomas Cohu ; W. G. P. Gilbert ; E. F. Giraud ; E. H. Ezard 
Colonel Matin Petrie ; W. Masters ; T. Charters White ; E. W. Levander ; W.T.Warner; 
and G. Gregson. Visitor— Bro. N. J. Stanger, Amity Lodge, No. 171. 

The Wobshipfui. Master referred in feeling terms to the death on Christmas 
day last of Bro. Shadwell H. Clerke, Grand Secretary, the only Honorary Member 
of the Lodge, and directed that the brethren should appear in Masonic mourning for 

the spate of three months. The Secretary was instructed to convey to the family of our deceased Brother 

the heartfelt sympathy of the members of the Lodge. 

Bro. E. Macbean was invested aB Senior Deacon, and took his seat. 

The Report of the Audit Committee, as follows, was taken as read, approved, and adopted. 


The Committee met at the Holborn Restaurant on Thursday, the 10th December, 1891, at 6 p.m. 
Present :— Bros. W. H. Rylands, W.M., Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, S.W., Rev. C. J. Ball, J.W., 
W. Mattieu Williams, I.G., R. P. Gould, P.M., D.C, and G. W. Speth, Sec. 

The Secretary produced his books and the Treasurer's Accounts, balanced to the 30th November, 
which were examined by the Committee and are certified correct. 

The Committee agreed upon the following 


In presenting this our fifth Annual Report we are once more enabled to congratulate you upon 
the continued success of our undertaking. There are still difficulties in our way, to one of which we shall 
revert further on, but on the whole our progress has been marked. Our membership has increased, 
our Transactions have maintained their interest and been enlarged in bulk, our meetings have been well 
attended, and, best of all , the number of those who assist us by contributing papers and notes to Ars 
Quatuor Coronatorum has been considerably augmented. 

Death has however been in our midst. It has pleased T.G.A.O.T.U. to deprive us of the fellow- 
ship of several brethren of the Correspondence Circle, and to gather unto Himself one well known to all of 
us, our dear Bro. J. Einlay Finlayson, thus reducing by one our small band of 32 full members. The admis- 
sion into our Inner Circle of Brothers Admiral Markham and Dr. Ninnis, has raised the number to 33. The 
accession of 270 brethren to our Outer Circle has brought the total of C.C. members to 1196. 

We append a statement of the chief Accounts during the past twelve months ; the nature of those 
not specially tabulated will, we think, be easily understood by a reference to the Summary of Cash. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 



Balance from 1890 


Balance brought forward 
Arrears of Subscriptions 
Subscriptions due 

£ s. d. 
44 12 9 
28 7 

£72 19 9 

£ s. d. 

48 10 

8 8 

28 7 

£85 5 


Lodge rent ... ... ... ... 

Quarterage and dues 


Tyler's fees and expenses 

Waiters, reporters, and petty expenses 
Balance i ^ubs. for 1892 in advance 


£ B. 


7 7 

5 10 

3 3 

3 9 




2 2 

46 8 

£72 19 9 


Fourteen brethren in all have availed themselves of this privilege, and the Fund now amounts to £90. 

1890 1 


Balance from 1889 

Subscriptions paid in 1891 ... ... 


£ s. d. 
70 o 
59 3 

£129 3 



Balance of cost of Part III. ; 

Catalogue slips .. ... ... ... 

Authors' Beprints ,. ... ... 

Petty Expenses ... 

Transferred to General Fund Account 

£ s. 

100 11 

2 B 

2 11 

1 8 

22 5 

£129 3 



Subscriptions received in 1890 
.. 1891 
Interest on Consols invested ... 


Balance brought down 

Subscriptions outstanding 
about 280 Vols, of Transactions. 

£ s. d. 

55 14 7 

515 15 11 

3 19 

£574 12 3 

£ s. d. 

63 4 7 

124 3 6 

£187 8 1 


Christmas boxes, various ... ,,. 

St. John's Card, 1890 

Transactions IV. 1 ... ... ... 

IV. 2 

„ iv. 3 (on account) : „ 

Catalogue slips 

Authors' Beprints 

Clerical Assistance ... 

Petty Expenses ... 

Transferred to General Fund Account 

Balance carried forward 


Estimated balance of Part HI. 
Balance, exclusive of Stock on hand 




























£574 12 


£ s. 


127 8 



£187 8 


MED AL S ACCOUNT. — The collection of the large arrears which had been outstanding so 
long, has enabled us to transfer £25 7s. lOd. to the General Fund, leaving no liabilities, and arrears btill to 
come in of £3 10s. 

BINDING ACCOUNT. — Here again the collection of arrears has placed £19 at our 
disposal, leaving a balance of £2 17s. 9d., and arrears £2 7s. 6d., to carry forward, against liabilities £2 ltis. 

REPRINTS, VOL. I. — A slight profit, to cover working expenses, made on the few copies 
which have been offered us for sale, and some arrears which have come in, show a balance of £6 is. 
Volumes n. and vii. have sold well, thus adding to our resources. Vol. n. is now exhausted, but Vol. vn. 
c an still be supplied. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Gorotiati. 


' Subscriptions 




£119 2 6 

Balance brongh't down ... 
Unpaid Subscriptions ... 

£ s. d. 

2 3 

44 12 6 

46 15 6 


Balance from 1 890 
Payments on a/c. to Lithographer 
Circulars and Petty Expenses 


Estimated further Expenditure 

£ s. 


12 13 


102 10 

1 iO 

2 3 

2119 2 


£ s. 



'31 15 


£46 15 


PUBLISHING ACCOUNTS.— At Bro. G. W. Bain's request, we undertook the publication, 
on the usual trade terms, of his facsimile of the " Briscoe " pamphlet. The edition was rapidly exhausted 
and the transaction showB a present small profit of £5 9s., with an additional £5 14s. still to be collected. 
Bro. Whymper has also made arrangements for placing the sale of his " Regius " facsimile in our hands, which 
will, no doubt, prove a small source of income, though the expenses so far have slightly exceeded the 
returns. We see no reason why our members should not oftener confide their interests to our care. 

INVESTMENT EUND.— The scheme of Life Membership necessitated setting apart and 
investing the fund so raised. This amounts at present to £90, and it was felt tLat some of our floating 
capital might also be placed at interest. £150 Stock of Consols has therefore been purchased at the cost of 
£146 5s. 6d., an amount which we hope to increase by degrees. 


To Balance of 1890 ... ... 

„ 1887 Transactions ... ... 

,, 1888 ,, ... ... 

„ 1889 

„ 1890 „ 

„ 1891 „ 

„ Beprints I 

„ n 

>• vn- 

„ Publishing " Secret History ' 
,, Medals account 
„ Cases and Binding account 
„ Balance, carried forward 

£ 8. 


47 16 




20 9 

30 16 

22 5 




6 6 

53 11 

24 16 


5 9 

25 7 



33 16 


£473 14 6 

By Library expenses ... 
„ Miscellaneous Printing 
„ Stationery ... 
„ Postages 
„ Secretary's salary for 1890 

















£473 14 6 

Balance to 1892 ... 

£35 16 6 



Balance from 1899 

1 odge i^u 


Transactions, 1837, 

Account . 








» • 




tt • 

Life Members Subscriptions . 

iledals Account... 





Vol. I. Account . 


„ ii. 

it • 


„ in. 

*> •« 

„ Til. „ 

Bain Publishing Account 
Whymper Publishing Account., 

£ s. 



336 3 


28 7 

Lodge Expenses 



20 9 

30 16 

59 3 

Transactions, 1890, Account .. 

518 17 



46 1 


13 16 

62 2 

65 17 

Medals Account 

48 14 

Bindings Account 

14 2 

Beprints, Vol. i. Account 

53 11 

119 2 


it » in* >t •« 

39 19 

37 10 

Bain Publishing Account 

1 17 


Whymper Publishing Account 

Library Expenses 

MisceBaneous Printing 



Purchase of £150 2f % Consols 
Secretary's Salary for 1890 .. 

51528 9 


£ s. 


24 9 


106 17 
361 7 


41 4 

34 5 

7 16 


104 6 


32 1 

2 2 

51 5 

17 16 

22 17 

181 15 

146 5 


193 19 



£1528 9 1 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 


Lodge Account ... ... ... ... 

Correspondence Circle, 1891, Account 
» » 1892, „ 

„ „ 1893, „ 

Beprints, Vol. m., Accoant 

Bindings Account .., 

Life Fund 

Whymper (Reprints Reserve) Fund ... 


£ s. d. 

48 10 

General Fund ... 

63 4 


Investments Account 

49 19 


Whymper Publishing 

13 16 

Cash in bank 

2 3 

n in hand ••• 

2 17 



105 15 


£376 6 




... M« 

£ s d. 

35 16 6 

146 5 6 

4 6 

150 8 10 

43 10 9 

£376 6 1 

We now come to a matter on which we feel strongly and are compelled to speak seriously, though, 
we trust, with all fraternal courtesy. It will be noticed that the General Fund shows a balance on the 
wrong side. This is entirely owing to the very large amount of arrears outstanding. Oar Secretary natur- 
ally arranges the expenses according to the income he may reasonably expect, and has accordingly this year 
greatly increased the size of the Transactions. If, however, his estimate be not realised, the result must be 
disappointing, and such has been the case this year. The Lodge is perfectly solvent, as a reference to the 
accounts will show. Even if not one penny of the arrears were ever collected, the actual realised assets 
would enable us to pay every imaginable liability ; but the small surplus which was carried forward last 
year has disappeared, although it is latent in the list of arrears. We wish we could avoid printing this list, 
we feel that it reflects upon some of our members, but the time has arrived when, in the interests of the 
Lodge, we must speak plainly. It is as follows : — 


Binding and Cases supplied ... ... ... 

Medals supplied 

" Briscoe " facsimile ... ... ... ... 

Reprints n. ... ... ... ... 

„ in., and W. Watson Roll facsimile ... 

» T " 

Transactions, 1887 ... , 

„ 1888 ... ... ... ... 

„ 1889 


•■ XQJl. ••• •*• ••• •■• 

£ B. 


2 7 


3 10 

5 14 

2 2 

41 12 


3 3 

1 1 

1 7 

7 19 

52 3 

124 3 


£248 2 


This, of course, does not include the large amounts previously written off as irrecoverable, which 
would probably add another £100 to the total. 

Defaulting brethren may be broadly divided into three classes. There is the brother who, having 
subscribed for a vear or two, decides to cease doing so, but omits to make his resolve known to the 
Secretary. As a consequence, he continues to receive the Publications for a whole year more, and during 
the second year receives the summonses only, besides letters five or six times a year calling attention to the 
state of his account. To these he pays no attention, and is finally struck off the roll, having received one 
volume of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum for which he has not paid, and also cost us no small amount in postage. 
Or he finally writes that he meant to resign long ago, but omits to send his arrears of dues, and when 
written to on the subject, preserves an unbroken silence. The result is the same, a dead loss to the 
Lodge. Then there is the new member, who allows a friend to propose him, is accepted and receives 
intimation thereof, the Transactions of the year, and a request to forward his dues. It is an astounding 
fact that some of these, very few fortunately for the credit of the Craft, never take the slightest notice 
of the Secretary's letters ; and from the moment of their election until they are struck oft as defaulters, 
never pay one single penny. It is obvious that with these two classes words of expostulation would be 
thrown away. 

But our appeal is made to the third and larger class, an incomprehensibly large class. Thesa have 
every intention of paying, and do pay ultimately. Meanwhile they receive notice after notice of their 
indebtedness, running over two or three years sometimes, and stave off the duty of paying till some more 
convenient moment. Do they ever consider the loss of time and postage of which they are the cause ? Do 
they realise that the uncertainty as to what the income of the year will be must act prejudicially to the 
interests of the Lodge and of themselves ? Probably not; it is mere carlessness on their part. To these 
members and to their good sense we appeal with confidence. The November and the January summonses 
both call attention to the fact that the subscriptions are due on the 1st December. Surely before putting 
the paper away, it would be easy to post to the Secretary a money -order or cheque ; and if they would but . 
make up their mind to do this, the entire income of the year might be paid in the Treasurer's hands during 
the first month. But some may be uncertain whether they have not already paid, or whether they owe any- 
thing beyond the subscription. Before the end of January, a statement of his account is posted to every 
member; when therefore he receives this, let him resolve that it shall be liquidated at once, with- 
out delay. The mischief is done by putting off the duty till to-morrow or the day after, which often 
eventually means a couple of years hence. There are many members who send in their subscriptions 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 5 

during December, without waiting to be reminded, — to them we tender our cordial thanks. Will not the 
great majority endeavour to earn onr gratitude by similar conduct ? This collection of arrears cramps 
our efforts in every way, and takes up a large proportion of our Secretary's time, which he onght to be able 
to devote to other purposes, more to the advantage of the Lodge. We have expressed ourselves on this 
subject as we feel, strongly. We disclaim any intention of hurting the feelings of anyone, being convince^ 
that the root of the whole evil is procrastination and ignorance of the resulting mischief. 

For the Committee, 


Five Lodges, one Literary Society, and thirty-three Brethren were elected members of the 
Correspondence Circle. 

It was resolved that the sum of Ten Guineas from the Lodge Funds be placed on the list of Bro. 
Macbean, as Steward for the approaching Jubilee Festival of the Koyal Masonic Benevolent Institution. 

The Secretary reminded the Brethren that at their last meeting, which happened to bo the fiftieth 
anniversary of the birth of the M.W.G.M., H.B.H. the Prince of Wales, a telegram of congratulation had 
been sent to Sandringham. The wires, however, were so overworked that the gracious answer of the Prince 
had been delayed till after the brethren had dispersed. He would now read the reply of the M.W.G.M. 

" Sandringham. Worshipful Master, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, Freemasons' Hall, London, W.C. 
I thank you for kind congratulations. Albert Edward." 

The Secretary read the following paper : 




RO. SPTCTH, in his remarks on the paper entitled " Brahminical Initiation,' 
referred to the carious account of Ben-Hadad, I. Kings, xx., 31-33, and natur- 
ally from this made a reference to the cable- tow. The geographical jumps in 
this case, from India to Syria, and from Syria to England, are somewhat like 
Vishnu's three steps, when he conquered the " three- worlds," very big ones ; 
so much so, that one hesitates about assuming any connection in ideas existing 
now so widely apart. Again, the Brahminical cord and the ceremonies 
connected with it, as described in my former paper, are not suggestive in any way of an 
instrument of punishment ; still, I know that in many respects symbols are wonderf ally 
elastic in their meaning, and many of them have undergone very strange transmutations, 
acquiring in the course of time very opposite significations. All I ventured to poin' out 
before was that the young Brahminical noviciate entered on his search for "li^ht" 
surrounded with a " hempen " zone. 

I have since chanced to come upon a number of references to the " noose," which 
show that it was a very prominent symbol, an& that too at a very early period. The 
new matter seems so important, that it is given here as a further addendum to the paper 
on Brahminical Initiation, and others, perhaps, in the coarse of time, may be able to trace 
with greater accuracy the connection further westward. 

Among the many millions of Hindu gods there is one called Varuna ; in Vedic times 
he occupied a distinguished position in the Pantheon. He is an old personification, and can 
be traced back to the Aryan separation. Prof. Max Muller identifies him with Ahura MazdaJ 
— " Ormazdes," the God_ of light and goodness, the enemy of Angra Mainyu — Ahrimanes, 
who represented darkness and death. Varuna has also been identified with the Greek 
Uranos — a point of detail which may perhaps help in the first geographical jump westwards. 
He is described as the all embracing atmosphere, or the firmament. " The grandest cosmical 
functions are ascribed to Varuna. Possessed of illimitable resources [or knowledge], this 
divine being has meted out [or fashioned], and upholds, heaven and earth ; he dwells in all 
worlds as sovereign ruler ; indeed, the three worlds are embraced within him." 2 " He witnesses 
men's truth and falsehood. He instructs the Rishi Vasishtha in mysteries ; but his secrets 
and those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish." 8 " He is to have a hundred, a 

1 Sacred Boohs of the East, vol. IV., Introduction p. lviii. 2 Muir's Sanscrit Texts, vol. v., p. 61. 

3 Ibid, p. 63. It may be worth noting here that Mitra, who was intimately connected with the 
Varuna of Vedic times in India, is the Persian Mithra, whose worship spread westward to Rome, and traces 
of which, supposed to have been brought to this country by the Roman auxiliaries, have been found in the 
line of Hadrian's wall in England — see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. in., p. 59. Here is one instance of 
the " three jumps," but that took place within the historical period. Beyond that, evidence fails us. 

€ Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

thousand remedies, and is supplicated to shew his -wide and deep benevolence, and drive 
away evil and sin; to untie, like a rope, and remove sin. In many places mention is made 
of the bonds, or nooses, with which he seizes and punishes transgressors. Mitra and V aruna 
conjointly are spoken of in one passage as being barriers against falsehood, furnished with 
many nooses, which the hostile mortal cannot surmount." 1 Among the many titles he bore 
was that of " the noose-bearer." 2 

This is sufficient regarding " Varuna's Noose " at the moment, and I now turn to the 
Satapatha-Brdhmana, where, in one of the ceremonies connected with the preparation of the 
altar, there is the following.—" He [the Agnidhra] then girds the wife [of the sacrificer]." 
— that is the wife of the person who is being initiated. " She, the wife, trnly is the hinder 
part of the sacrifice. ' May the sacrifice go on increasing before me ! ' Thus [she thinks 
while] he girds her, thinking, 'may she sit thus girt by my sacrifice ! ' 

He girds her with a cord [yoktra] : for with a cord [yoktra] they yoke the draught- 
animal [yogya]. Impure indeed is that part of woman which is below the navel ; and there 
with she will be facing the sacrificial butter : that part of her he thereby conceals with the 
cord, and only with the pure upper part of her body she then faces the sacrificial butter. 
This is the reason why he girds the wife. 

He girds her over the garment. Now the garment represents the plants, and [the 
cord represents] Varuna's noose [raggu] : hence he thereby places the plants between [her 
and the noose], and thus that noose' of Varuna does not injure her. This is the reason why 
he girds her over the garment. 

He girds her, with the text [Vay. S.I. 30], 'A zone art thou for Aditi!' Aditi, 
indeed, is the earth. She is the wife of the gods, and that one is his [the sacrificer's] wife. 
It is for the latter, accordingly, that he makes it a zone instead of a noose [or string]. A 
zone means a girdle, and he thereby makes it thus for her." 3 

Full as the above is of rather involved explanations, it does not explain all. Professor 
Eggeling, the translator, gives a further piece of significant information derived from au< t'ier 
Sanscrit book. In a note, he says:— "According to Taitt. Br. in., 3, 3, 2-3, the symbolical 
meaning of this act is, that it represents the vratopanayana, or initiation of the wife into the 
sacred rite. The girding of the wife would thus possess a significance similar to that of the 
ordinary npanayana, or investiture of'the youth with the sacred cord." 4 

This implies that the Brahminical cord, in addition to the meaning assigned to it in 
my former paper, was also symbolically a noose. The cord or girdle with which the wife 
was girded was looked upon in this light, and the two ceremonies of investiture are sa d to 
have had the same significance — the one was the counter-part of the other, and from this it 
may be concluded that in both cases the cord represented Varuna's noose. When the 
man is girded with the zone there is no reference to it as a noose, but at what seems to be 
the end of the initiatory ceremony, we have the following rite. 

It is called " the Vaisargina offerings," and their meaning is thus explained : — " And 
again why he performs the Vaisargina offerings. Vishna, forsooth, is the sacrifice ; by his 
strides he obtained [vi-kram] for the gods that all-pervading power [vikranti] which now 
belongs to them ; by his first step he gained this same [earth] ; by the second, the region of 
air ; and by the last, the heaven. And that same pervading power Vishnu, the sacrifice, 
obtains by his strides for this [sacrificer] when he sacrifices." 5 In the paper on Brahminical 
Initiation, it was explained that the person initiated is the " sacrifice" and the " sacrificer," 
and in both he is Vishnu ; as that god gained the three worlds, the sacrificer by moans of 
the Vaisargina offerings does the same. After giving minute details of these offerings, there 
comes the following passage : — " He then walks out [of the cart shed], 6 with, ' Hail ! I am 
freed from Varuna's noose ! ' For he, truly, is in Varuna's noose who is in another's mouth : 
he now frees himself from Varuna's noose, when he says, ' Hail ! I am freed from Varuna's 
noose.' "I The " mouth " here referred to were the jaws of Agni and Soma, which seem to 
have had a similar signification to the noose. 

The man at the finish of the ceremony, when he had realized the full symbolism of 
the rite, and had gained " the three worlds," walks out " freed from Varuna's noose." 
The inference seems plain. The hempen zone with which he began to seek for " light " 
had, amongst its significations, that of a " noose ;" and he escaped from the dangers it 
signified by the proper performance of the initiatory rites. 

1 Ibid, pp. 64-5. 2 Dowson's Classical Hindu, Diet., art. Varuna. 

3 Sat. Brahm., 1 , 3, I., 12-15. Sacred Books of the East, vol. XII., pp. 71-3. A note says that it was 
a triple cord of munga, or reed-grass. 

*Ibid, p. 72. b Ibid, in., 6, 3, 3, vol. xxvi., p. 155. 

6 At the period of the Br&hmanas, the initiation took place on what was called the " Sacrificial 
Ground," which was prepared for the purpose ; amongst other parts was a " cart-shed," with two carts, 
■where some of the ceremonial took place. 

7 Ibid, hi., 6, 3,20, p. lfil. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 7 

The paragraph which follows this, and which ends this part of the ritual, although it 
does not refer to the particular point nnder consideration, may be worthy giving from its 
bearing on initiations in general : — "He then puts a kindling-stick on the Ahavaniya in this 
way, ' Agni, 1 protector of vows, on thee, O protector of vows ' — for Agni is lord of vows 
"to the gods, wherefore he says, O Agni, protector of vows, on thee, O protector of Vows — 
what bodily form of thine hath been on me, [may] that [be] on thee ; what bodily form of 
mine hath been on thee, [may] that [be] here on me ! Our vows, O lord of vows, [have been 
performed] rightly : the lord of consecration hath approved my consecration ; the lord of 
penance hath approved my penance.' Thereby he frees himself visibly from Agni, and 
sacrifices with a self [body] now his own : hence they now partake of his food, for he is a 
man [again] ; hence they now use his [real] name, for he is a man. And as to their not 
eating [of his food] heretofore, it is as one would not eat of sacrificial food, before offering 
has been made thereof : therefore let no one partake of the food of one consecrated. He 
now loosens his fingers." 3 

This shows that among the meanings of the rite penance was included ; but it also 
indicates what seems to have been common to initiatory rites generally in other parts of the 
world He has become another person, and had received another name ; he began the 
ceremony as an embryo with his hands closed, 3 and at the end of the ceremony he loosens 
his fingers. 

I must return again to the noose, for there is another passage which not only shows 
its reference to sacrifice, but it at the same time suggests that it was probably an acknow- 
ledged badge in the ceremony. Following the initiatory ceremony comes one that is called 
the animal sacrifice, and which is evidence that, although the Hindu looks now with horror 
on the killing of a cow, this was not always the case. The animal is of the bovine kind, and 
it has to be bound to the sacrificial stake ; this operation is thus described : — " Having made 
a noose, he throws it over [the victim] with [Vag. S. vi., 8], ' With the noose of sacred 
order I bind thee, oblation to the gods ! ' for that rope, forsooth, is Varuna's : therefore he 
thus binds it with the noose of sacred order, and thus that rope of Varuna does not injure 
it."* The " noose of sacred order " is a sentence which might imply that it had become an 
insignia of some kind, but the description is indefinite. There is no exact explanation in 
the Brdhmana of the meaning of the noose ; its symbolism can only be understood by infer- 
ence ; that it had a reference to death is evident. To be freed from the noose is to escape 
from death. When the sacrificer, as already explained, goes through the ceremony of the 
s: cond birth, he comes out " freed from Varuna's noose." When the animal is led to the 
slaughter, it is bound in the noose. To this may be added an important detail of the ritual, 
the animal is not " quieted," this is the word used — by a knife nor an axe — " They either 
choke it by merely keeping its mouth closed, or they make a noose ; " 5 it was strangled. 
This mode of dispatching the victim may have given the origin to the noose symbolism as 
we see it so intimately connected with the sacrifice. 

There is an additional evidence of the connection between death and the noose, which 
can be brought forward ; this is that Tama, the Hindu god of death, as well as "Varuna, 
carries a noose. 6 Siva, the Hindu god of destruction and. death, also carries a cord in the 
form of a loop, called " pasa." 

As the noose apparently belongs to an early period, one naturally turns to the 
Zoroastrian books to see if it can be found there. WelJ, it is also to be found in these old 
sacred works ; and this becomes fairly substantial proof that the symbol had existed before 
the Aryan Separation. Its symbolism is not quite the same as in the Brahminical system. 
Zoroastrian ideas became confined between the dual principles of good and evil, and the noose 
is limited to the power of death, and connected only with evil. Darmesteterin his introduc- 
tion to the Zend-Avesta, says that among the personations of death there is, — " Ast6 

1 The Ahavaniya was one of the fires on the sacrificial ground. Agni was the deification of fire_ 
one of the principal gods of the Vedio period ; and the sacrificer in the ceremony has become Agni as web 
aa Vishnu. 

2 Ibid, in., 6, 3, 21, p. 161 ; see also i., 9, 3, 23, vol. xii., p. 273. 

3 Sat. Br&hm. III., 2, 1, 6, vol. xxvi., p. 27. 

4 Ibid, in., 7, 4, 1, p. 181. The whole of the ritual in this case appears to refer to an animal, but I 
doubt whether it was so or not — particularly after what Prof. Eggeling says on this subject — see former 
paper on Brahminical Initiation. In one place, Sat. Brahm., n., 5, 2, 16, where a ram and an ewe were to be 
sacrificed, it is stated that they were made of barley, and it may be the same with the cow. Should this be 
the case, the ritual nevertheless shows that at some former period a real cow was immolated, when the 
noose had been used, for it had to be passed " either between the horns [and under the neck ?j] or round the 
"horns." On this supposition the noose would be far older than the date of the Brdhmana. 

5 Ibid, in., 8, 1, 15, p. 190. 

Yama — " He rides upon a buffalo, and is armed with a ponderous mace and a noose to secure hia 
victims." Dowson's Hindu Classical Diet., art. Tama. Amongst his titles, he is called " PilsT, ' the noose- 
•carrier.' " Ibid. 

8 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

vid&tus, ' the bone-divider,' -who, like Tama of the Sanscrit epic, holds a noose around the 
neck of all living creatures." 1 

In the Vendidad are the words : — " Then the fiend, named Vizaresha, carries off in 
bonds the souls of the wicked DaSva-worshippers who live in sin." 3 To this the translator 
gives a note, saying — " Every one has a noose cast around his neck ; when a man dies, if he 
has been a righteous man, the noose falls from his neck ; if a wicked, they drag him with 
that noose down into hell." This might contain the germ of the idea in the Brdhmana of 
getting freed from Varuna's noose. A note explanatory of another passage says — " Of a 
person at the point of death. The demon of death, Asto-vidad, is supposed to cast a noose 
around the necks of the dead to drag them to hell, which only the righteous can throw off." 5 

When a thousand demons were let loose by the evil one on Gay&mard, they did not 
succeed, for" — " his appointed time had not come, and he, [Asto-vidad], obtained no means of 
noosing him."* 

I shall only give another reference ; it is a curious one — the four elements are so 
sacred that they were supposed to be incapable of causing death. Zarathrustra, or Zoroaster, 
is asking Ahura Mazda if water will not kill ; the answer is — " Water kills no man : Asto- 
vidotu ties the noose around his neck, and, thus tied, Vayu carries him off : then the flood 
takes him up, the flood takes him down, the flood throws him ashore ; then the birds feed 
upon him, and chance brings him here, or brings him there." 5 The same answer is given 
about the fire ; it is not the fire that kills, but the noose. 

It would be no exaggeration to say that the identity that has been here worked onfc 
is something startling, — I mean that it must be so to all Craftsmen. And yet, I am not 
inclined to think there is much in it. The geographical stride is so great, and equally so 
the chronological jump, that it would be rashness to hastily conclude the existence of any 
connection between ideas which are separated by a gulf of at least 4,000 years. The 
connection, if it does exist, must be a very indirect one ; perhaps further investigation may 
give additional light, and it will be best for the present to suspend judgment. While thus 
hesitating, I may venture to remark, that what is here written will at least have added to 
our knowledge of the noose, as a symbol ; that it is of a very high antiquity, and that modern 
rituals do not perhaps indicate all the significance that belongs to it. 

Mark Twain's last book describes a Yankee in the Court of King Arthur, how 
he completely discomfited all the Knights of the Eound Table, including the brave Sir 
Launcelot, all of them in full armour, by means of a lasso. It is very amusing, to 
read of the manner in which these gallant heroes are unhorsed by a man without armour, 
and with no other weapon but a noose. The author in this case no doubt picked up his idea 
from the " cow-boys " of the wild west. The notion is not new. Firdusi has a previous 
claim to the copyright. In the Shah Namah all the heroes carried a cord ; one of them, 
Fribnrz, is described as having around his saddle " a cord of might." 6 The mighty Rnstem, 
whose name is to this day the type of valour in the east, is described at times as gaining the 
victory by means of his cord. In the single combat with Kamous, this was the weapon by 
which Rustem won the victory. 

I have here allnded to these heroes, because when I was in Central Asia, the scene of 
most of the exploits in the Shah Namah, I noticed that the Turcomans of the present day carry 
a cord called a " Kamund," attached to their saddles. In their raids they caught and carried 
off animals by this means ; also human captives, to sell as slaves ; and we may have little doubt 
that as the mythic heroes of the Shah Namah used the cord, it has been an article in use in 
that part of the world from our own times, away back to primitive days. The noose was 
the commonly employed instrument of capture, so widely used, that it would be most natural 
to symbolise death, the final captor of all, as accomplishing his purpose by the same means. 
This is only given as a suggestion as to how, and where, the noose symbolism had its first 
beginning. The heroes of the Shah Namah were Aryans ; they were the very people amongst 
whom the noose has been traced in this paper. Even more than that — one of them, Jemshid, 
is now acknowledged to be the Tima, of the Zenda- Vesta, and Tama, the lord of death, 
in the Brahminic mythology, who has been already referred to as the "noose-carrier." 

1 Sacred Boohs of the East, vol. IV., Introduction p. lxviii. 

2 Ibid, Venidad, xix., 2U, p. 212. 

3 D&distan-l-Dtnttc, xxm., 3. Sacred Books of the East, vol. xvnr., p. 52. 
* Bundahis, in., 22. Sacred Books of the East, vol. v., p. 19. 

5 Vendid&d, v., 8, vol. IV., p. 51. 

6 Heroic Tales re-told from the Persians, by Helen Zimmem, p. 221. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 9 


Since the above was written I have, in reading, chanced upon a number of references 
to cords and girdles, which seem to me to be of sufficient importance to add to this paper. 
The cord appears to have been a noose or lasso, and was connected with capture or death ; 
and the girdle, on the other hand, was related to the productive symbolism, or was a source 
of strength and power. It is possible that these two forms of symbolism may have at first 
originated together. In the initiatory rite, as described in the Satapatha Brahmana, the 
combination of both existed ; but, that it was the same in other parts of the world, cannot as 
yet be determined from the detached references I am about to'give. 

The Zend books describe the Kusti, or sacred girdle of the Parsees, as a power or 
defence against sin and evil, as well as a source of moral or spiritual good. The following 
from the Dddistdn-i Dinik is evidently a poetical glorification of the girdle, still it serves to 
show the light in which the followers of Aliura Mazda looked upon this symbolical appendage. 
The destroying power and his army of evil ones, were rushing upwards to heaven, when 
" they saw multitudes of luminaries, and also the barricade and rampart of the Glory 
of the religion, and the girdle [parvand] of the wishes and good works of all, when it 
is arrayed like a brilliant thread-girdle [kustik], and all its luminaries are girded 
[parvasto] by the girdle as the girdle of the omniscient wisdom has girded the all-intelligent 
angels. That great glory of the pure religion, solving doubts, became as beautiful and far- 
adorning as is stated in the liturgy thus : ' The star-studded girdle [] of the 
spirit fashioned, good religion of the Mazda- worshippers.' " x 

This would give a very high and celestial character to the girdle : and the following 
indicates a cosmical meaning, that is, if the author is correct in his speculations on the 
subject. " I do not find any satisfactory Aryan etymology of Alakara, the Indian name 
for Capricorn. It is explained (1) a fabulous animal, emblem of the god of love ; (2) a 
dolphin, and (3) a sea monster; and the ocean is styled 'the receptacle of Makaras.' 

The Bab. — JyT |g[ = the As. tyff ^t£ ; *£$] — Ak. Ma, As. elippu, ' ship,' ; ^g^ 

has several phonetic values, khar, gur, ur, and several meanings, amongst which are ' bond ' 
and ' bracelet,' as that which binds. Makhar might therefore mean ' the-ship-of-the-bond,' 
[rope]. Now the Akkadian Okeanos, which in idea greatly resembles the Homeric, is some- 
times compared to a snake, like the Norse Midhgardhsormr [' Serpent-of-Midgard,' i.e., Earth], 
and sometimes to a rope, and was then called ' the rope of the great God ' 2 and, in accordance 
with this idea, we find that the solar goat-god Uz is depicted as ' watching the revolution of 
the solar disk, which is placed upon a table and slowly turned by means of a rope.' 3 That is 
to say, this Okeanos-rope, which includes the Over-sea in heaven above, by its flowing on 
turns the sun round in it and with it. Hence, ' the Ship of the Rope ' would be the solar 
vessel sailing in the all-encircling Okeanos, and, as such, would be identical with the solar 
Capricorn." 4, 

The Scandanavian Thor possessed a girdle called Megingjardir, it was called the 
Girdle of Might, and the Belt of Prowess. 5 It was endowed with the precious virtue of 
renewing his strength as often as he required it. 6 

From another part of the world we learn that — "At his inauguration the King of 
Tahiti received a sacred girdle of red and yellow feathers, ' which not only raised him to the 
highest earthly station, but identified him with their gods.' " 7 

The Cestus of Aphrodite, " in which all things were contained," was mentioned in the 
previous paper ; to this may be added the celebrated girdle of Hippolyte, the Queen of the 
Amazons, the procuring of which was one of the twelve labours of Herakles. According to 
Dr. Murray, this girdle was " a symbol of the power of a rushing headlong storm." 8 In 
the inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I., the goddess Istar is described as " the lady of girdles." 9 
See also Herodotus, rv., 9, where a girdle is referred to in what might be termed an initiatory 

In the old Persian history, " King Khosrau mounted upon the Crystal Throne, and 
held in his hand the ox-headed mace, and he bore on his head, the crown of the Kainides, 
and a sash of might was girded round his loins." 10 

1 Sacred Boohs of the East, vol. xviii., p. 126. 

s Sayce, Rel. Anct. Babylonians, p. 116. 3 Ibid, 285. 

4 Remarks on the Tablet of the Thirty Stars, Robert Brown, jun., F.S.A. Proceedings, Soo. Bib. 
Archy., January, 1890, p. 149-50. 

5 Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 558. 6 Ibid, p. 94. 

' The Golden Bough, by J. G. Frazer, vol. I., p. 39. This author quotes from Ellis, Polynesian 
Mesearches, iii., 108. 

8 Manual of Mythology, p. 256. 9 Records of the Past, new series, vol. I., p. 92. 

10 The Epic of Kings, by Miss Zimmern, p. 292. 

10 Tansactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

It may be worth, recalling that the word Religion is from religo, "to bind anew." 
Webster says it " seems originally to have signified an oath or vow to the gods, or the 
obligation of such an oath or vow, which was held very sacred by the Romans." It need 
scarcely be pointed out to the Craftsman, if this is correct, how very Masonic it is ; still 
it is more than probable that the nse of a word which implied " binding " in this sense was 
only metaphorical. 

The same might, perhaps, be said of the use of the word " girding," which is often 
repeated in scripture. Isaiah uses the words — " And righteousness shall be the girdle of his 
loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins." 1 Although this is no doubt a poetical way 
of expressing himself on the part of the prophet, we may assume that the simile is founded 
on existing data — similarly, when we speak of any effort being " crowned with success," 
the words imply the existence of crowns, as well as of certain ideas associated with them. 

As a matter of fact, a girdle was worn by the Jewish High Priest as one of his sacred 
vestments ; and it is called. " the Curious Girdle of the Bphod." 2 

The Abyssinian Christians receive at their baptism — which, it should be remembered, 
is an initiatory rite — a blue cord, which they wear round the neck, and in some cases with a 
ring and a cross attached to it. It is called a " Matab," which, according to Isenberg's 
Amharic Dictionary, means a " sign " or a " mark." It is considered by the Abyssinians as 
the outward symbol of their being Christians. During the Abyssinian war, my neck and 
front of my breast were often inspected by people I met, and when they could not find the 
bine cord, they concluded I was either a Mohammedan or a Hindu. To avoid this, I at last 
procured a matab, with ring and cross, and wore it so that it could be seen. I cannot recall 
any similar article having been used by the other Christian Churches, and have always 
wished to know how the Abyssinian Church adopted this symbol of their faith, -hut as yet I 
have come upon no clue to the explanation. 

Initiation among primitive races is still a branch of inquiry which has to be worked 
out. There is, I believe, much to be learned in this direction ; and I give here a slight 
account of an initiatory rite which is gone through by the natives of Australia, where a cord 
occupies a prominent place : — Towards the end of the ceremonies, " when the lads have gone 
through the several degrees described by Mr. Wilhelmi, they are permitted to wear the 
ornaments belonging to men. To each is presented a belt made of human hair, and a tight 
bandage round each of their upper arms ; a cord of opossum hair round the neck, the ends 
dropping down on the back and fastened to the belt, and a bunch of green leaves above the 
pars virilis complete the costume." Four or five months afterwards comes the end of the 
long ceremonial. " The final acts which precede admission to the enjoyments and privileges 
of grown-up men are the tearing off from their necks of the opossum cord, and the sprinkling 
of their bodies with blood." 3 

In this case, the tearing away of the cord suggests that it was done with an idea like 
that of escaping from " Varuna's noose," but unfortunately the author gives no hint as to the 
meaning attached to the act. 

To this I add a further quotation from the same work, which describes some of the 
ceremonial at the death of an Australian native. It does not appear to throw any light on 
the above, but a cord figures in it, and in this case it might be looked upon as having some 
resemblance to " Varuna's noose " ; the man, instead of escaping from the noose, is here at 
last secu rely bound by the cord. 

" One supports his head and shoulders, holding him tenderly in his arms. By his 
side are placed a cord, made of grass or some fibre, his opossum rugSj which are to form his 
pall, and perhaps some favourite weapons or utensils. If of a good heart and stout, the 
dying man regards these preparations without fear, and talks freely of his coming end. 
Watching him carefully, the attendant sees at length that the awful change has come ; and 
when the last breath has been breathed, he raises the body, throws the pall over the head, 
and with the help of his neighbours fastens it tightly, passing the cord twice or thrice round 
the neck. The knees of the body are brought qnite up to the breast, the elbows over the 
trunk and near the hips, and the hands raised and pressed against the chest, and in this 
position the corpse is made fast with eords." 4 Bound, in this position, the body is buried. 

Here is another aspect of the cord amongst these Aborigenes, but in this case 
it is doubtful if there is much more in it than in the fetish of the African races, who 
believe in the virtue or power that resides in any human relic : — " It is usnal to preserve the 
hair of a dead man. It is spun into a cord and fastened around the head of a warrior. 

1 xi., 5. 

2 Ex. xxvm., 8, and xxxix., 5, 20, 21. See also Josephus, Ant. b. in., c. vn., 2, for a description of 
the girdle, as well as the manner in which the High Priest "wore it. The Revised Version calls it " the 
cunningly woven band," which I believe is more correct than the other. 

3 The Aborigenes of Victoria, by K. Brought Smyth, vol. I., 68-9. 4 Ibid, p. 100. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Gomnatt. 11 

Wearing it he sees more clearly, is more active, and can parry with, his shield or avoid the 
speara of his foes in a fight." 1 

It is not so long ago in this country that the hangman was able to add to his earnings 
by selling bits of the rope he had used as charms. Borlase states that it was believed that 
a piece of such a rope would cure a headache if it was tied round the head. It may be 
doubted if this had anything to do with the rope as a noose ; the virtue was more probably 
attributed to it from its connection with death. Still it is evident, from what has been given 
in this paper, that the symbolism of the noose had a relation to death. Varuna's noose had ; 
the Brahman at the end of the ceremony, when he was re-born, considered that he had been 
freed from the danger of Varuna's noose. 

Evelyn in his Diary, under the date of October, 1641, says that when he was at Ghent, 
he saw " the palace wherein John of Gaunt and Charles v. were borne ; the statue of the 
latter stands in the Market-place, on a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which the 
Magistrates and Bergers were wont to repaire on a certaine day every yeare with roaps about 
their necks, in toaken of submission and pennance for an old Rebellion of theirs ; but now 
the hemp is changed to a blew ribbon." This is suggestive of the possibilities of change 
that may have taken place with other ribbons and sashes in former times. 

It has already been stated that the noose is found in the Zoroastrian System as well 
as in the Brahminic. I have now found it also in the Babylonian. Professor Sayce, in his 
Hibbert Lecture, gives a hymn to Mul-lil, who was the " Lord of the ghost- world ; " the 
hymn described him thus " The god of ghosts [Lillam] was the father and mother that begat 
him, mighty is [his] power, the lasso that overthrows the hostile land." 2 In a hymn to 
Adar, who was the son of Mul-lil, he is said to be " the warrior whose lasso overthrows the 
foe." 3 In a hymn to Merodach, there is a reference to "the lasso of battle," 4 shewing that 
it was a recognised instrument of warfare, such as I have already described it in Persia from 
the Shah Namah. Professor Sayce gives another hymn which mentions " [the lasso of] the 
great gods." 6 

This brings the noose as a symbol as far west as Mesopotamia ; but it appears evident 
from the many illustrations in this paper that its symbolism, as well as that the girdle, 
was very widely spread over the ancient world. 

The Hebrew for a cord or rope is 73TT, which in Roman characters might be written 
Hebel, or Chebel — Gesenius identifies it with the English word Gable. Among other 
references given by Gesenius is Ps. xviii., 5, where the " snares of death, of Sheol," occur, and 
" Snares " is expressed by the above word. It is the same in Ps. cxvi., 3. It need scarcely 
be pointed out that we have here a symbolism which appears to be almost identical with 
that of Varuna's Noose. 

But there is another word which ought to be given. According to Gesenius the 
Hebrew word "^Hf has the sense of to "make narrow," to "straiten." This would seem, as 
far as can be made out from Gesenius, to have been the original meaning, but he renders it 
in many ways, as " to imbue one with " any " thing," " to initiate," " to train." " Spoken also of 
things, to initiate, i.e., to dedicate, to consecrate, e.g., a Bouse before entering it, Dent, xx., 5 ; 
the temple, I. Kings, viii., 63, n. Chron, vii., 5." The Arab equivalent he renders " to under- 
stand." The proper name Henoch, or Enoch, TUP!) is from this root, and is given as 
" initiated or initiating." Under the first form of the word, Gesenius refers to other words 
as being either derived from it or closely allied. One of these is pill, which he renders 
" to strangle, to throttle." Prom this a reference is given to p2fc$, which Gesenius identifies 
with the Latin " angi, to strangle, to be in anguish," " to shriek, to groan, to mourn," . . . 
" from the idea of strangling . . . comes also the signif . of collar . . . and to adorn 
with a collar." Another reference is to pljfi " a collar, neck-chain, neck-lace." 

This association of ideas in an old word which included that of "initiation," 
"strangling," and of a "collar," naturally excites a desire to know the conditions which had 
led to this strange melange of meaning in the past ; but, unfortunately, a lexicon gives only 
the definitions of the words, and not the ideas under which the various forms were developed ; 
so that nothing definite can be based upon the above. The word bore also the sense of 
" neck," as a part of the body that is straight and narrow ; and this would account for the 
strangling as well as the collar being associated with it. How the idea of initiation or conse- 
cration of a house had become attached to the word is not so apparent. 

1 Ibid, p. 112. Du Chailhi tells that when in Equatorial Africa, he was one day having his hair 
cut, and the natives gathered up, and even straggled amongst each other for the possession of the cuttings, 
in order to make fetishes of them. 

2 Hibbert Lectures, p. 498. 3 Ibid, p. 479. * Ibid, p. 4S0. 6 Ibid, p. 308. 

1" Transactions of the Lodge Qudtuor Goronati. 

Here is another curious reference, which may he -worth adding, as it comes from one 
of the early Fathers of the Church : — " For [Adam] showed his repentance by his conduct, 
through means of the girdle [which he used], covering himself with fig-leaves, while there 
were many other leaves, which would have irritated his hody in a less degree. He, however, 
adopted a dress conformable to his disobedience, being awed by the fear of God; and 
resisting the erring, the lustful propensity of his flesh [since he had lost his natural disposi- 
tion and child-like mind, and had come to the knowledge of evil things], he girded a bridle 
of continence upon himself and his wife, fearing God, and waiting for His coming, and 
indicating, as it were, some such thing [as follows] : Inasmuch as, he says, I have by disobedi- 
ence lost that robe of sanctity which I had from the Spirit, 1 do now also acknowledge that 
I am deserving of a covering of this nature, which affords no gratification, but whioh gnaws and 
frets the body. And he would no doubt have retained this clothing for ever, humbling him- 
self, if God, who is merciful, had not clothed them with tunics of skins instead of fig-leaves." 1 

The following is important as it refers to an initiatory rite: — The Cabiri. "The 
persons who were initiated received a purple ribbon, which was worn round their bo'dies as 
an amulet to preserve them against all dangers and storms at sea." 2 

Almost all articles which represented the regenerative symbolism became amulets or 
charms, of which a child's caul is a good example ; and the Brahminical cord, from the 
description already given of it, symbolised the caul; hence it was " a source of strength." 
The Zorastrian Kusti was also a means of strength, or power, against evil, and a protection 
of what was good. This in itself may explain many of the references here given. 

In a Christmas book published only the other day, I found a story in which the talis- 
manic power of threads is shown to have been believed in as far west as Ireland. It is 
known as the Legend of Knockmany, and is amusing from the manner in which the wife of 
Fin McCoul, an Irish giant, humbugged the Scotch giant Cucullin. The latter came over to 
Ireland to fight Fin, but as Cucullin was the more powerful of the two, Fin's wife took 
means to preserve her husband ; so she began with a potent spell to find out how he could 
be saved. She " drew the nine woolen threads of different colours, which she always did to 
find out the best way of succeeding in any thing of importance she went about. She then 
platted them into three plats with three colours in each, putting one on her right arm, one 
round her heart, and a third round her right ankle, for then she knew that nothing could 
fail her that she undertook." 3 

The origin of the " Garter " has not as yet been made clear ; and even if the historical 
facts could be discovered, it is doubtful if that would explain its symbolism. 

" Agni, exploring the ancient abode, has extended the celestial cord, Thou, Agni, art 
our cord, and our bridge ; thou art the path which conducts to the gods. By thee may we 
ascend to the summit [of heaven], and there live in joyful fellowship with the gods." 4 

What particular cord this may be is not here defined ; but if it is the Brahminical 
cord, which was Varuna's Noose and a symbol of death, we have here again the ancient 
significance of Life through Death ; the passage from this world to the next ; " the path that 
conducts to the Gods." I put this as little more than a suggestion, for the mass of data here 
collected has been before me for such a short period, that I feel it yet requires time for 
thought to digest it all properly. 

About twenty years ago (it may be a few years more) the late Rev. Mr. Harriot, one 
of the masters at Eton, wrote a work on Christian "Vestments. It so chances that I never 
saw the book, but I had more than one conversation with the author when he was writing 
it ; and I remember his telling me, that from pictures in the catacombs, as well as from other 
sources, the principal features of early vestments in the Christian Church, were a white 
robe, with a long stripe of cloth, probably fastened or sewn on the other, which went ro nnd 
the neck and came down on each side of the dress in front. If I remember right, Mr. 
Marriot considered that the pallium and the stole were both derived from this. I write 
only from memory, but those wishing to study the point should consult Mr. Marriot's work, 
which is well illustrated. 

Bbo. Williams said : — That the noose should hold a prominent place in the symbolism 
of all ancient peoples, is quite to be expected, as it is the most primitive instrument by which 
the most primitive men obtained a mastery over the animals they domesticated or 
captured. Going back, far beyond the reach of any written or graven records of 
humanity, we find evidence to show that the reindeer was one of the most ancient of 
the domesticated animals. His bones are associated with those of man at the time 

1 Irenseus Adversus Scereses, b. iii., o. xxiii., 5. 

2 Smith's Vict, of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Art. Cabiri. 

3 Celtic Fairy Tales, by Joseph Jacobs, Editor of Folk-Lore, p. 170. 

4 Taitt. Brahmana, ii., 4, 2, 6— quoted in Muir's Sanscrit Texts, vol. v., p. 299, note. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 13 

•when the mammoth was yet alive upon the earth, and the position of the bones justify 
the assumption that the reindeer was then domesticated to about the same extent as 
it is now in Lapland. The Laplanders of the present day are perhaps the best living 
representatives of prehistoric man in his most advanced condition. When I visited 
the camp of Laplanders in the Tromsdal a few years ago, I had the unusual privi- 
lege of witnessing the herding and milking of about one hundred of the deer in the early 
morning, the use of the simple lasso afforded quite a revelation of its importance. Without 
it the reindeer would be useless as domestic animals. Their supposed docility is a myth. 
A man cannot approach them near enough to catch them with his hands, and they appear to 
be insensible to the bribery of salt. The only means of catching them, even in an enclosure, 
is by throwing a lasso over their horns, which are well constructed for the purpose. The 
looped cord once over them renders the animal quite impotent to resist the man who 
approaches the timid creature by simply shortening the cord. The herd was being milked 
when I saw them ; the women selected the does required, gave their orders to the men 
accordingly, and these proceeded to capture the indicated does by the lasso, and held them 
while the women did the milking. When required for drawing, they are captured in a like 
manner, and when attached to the boat-shaped sledge they are driven by a noose and single 
rein, which is thrown to one or the other side of the neck, as required for steering. 
Training, in the use of the lasso begins at an early age. I saw a little fellow, not twelve 
years of age, taking his lessons. He managed to entangle his rope in the horns of a deer, 
which then started away, dragging him headlong on the ground to a considerable distance. 
The wild deer of course might be killed, but are only captured alive and made useful 
property by the noose. Hence its great and early significance. 

Beo. Speth said : — I think to properly understand the paper we have just heard read, 
it is well to remember the cause of its being written. When Brother Simpson read his former 
paper on Brahminical Initiation I pointed out that if the cord were indeed a recognised symbol 
of initiation it might explain some of the incidents in the story of Ben-hadad and Ahab. That 
the fact of the messengers presenting themselves with ropes on their heads may have 
awakened the particular attention of the King of Israel, and caused him to make the un- 
expected assertion, " He is my Brother." It may be true that " Brother " was a usual way ' 
for. one King to address another, and no one would like to infer a secret society from this 
expression if it stood alone ; but in view of the rest of the narrative describing how the men 
" watched narrowly lest anything should come from him and caught it up hastily " before 
replying, " Thy Brother Ben-hadad," I think we are justified in suspecting a secret bond of 
union between Ahab, Ben-hadad, and the messengers. It is also curious that I spent an 
hour or two lately to discover in the Bible another instance of one King addressing another 
as Brother, and the only case I lighted upon was as between Hiram and Solomon. But of 
course others may exist, though unknown to me. But the natural objection to connecting 
the ropes of Ben-hadad's servants with the" sacred cord of the Brahmins was that the rope 
around the neck is a well known symbol of submission, and may have been so intended here, 
and that in the paper read by Brother Simpson there was no indication that the cord of 
initiation ever took the form of a noose. This led our Brother to look the matter up and see 
whether any noose symbol could be discovered in connection with the initiatory cord. In 
the paper of this evening he has given us a great many references to the noose, and some 
which seem to point out that the sacred cord and the noose were interchangeable. Some of 
these references may be only metaphorical, but others have a very symbolical appearance, 
and on the whole I cannot but think that the paper has increased the possibility of tracing 
the Gable Tow through the Noose to the Sacred Cord of eastern initiatory rites. 

Beo. Rylands said : — I am sure we have all heard with interest the additional notes 
to his paper entitled " Brahminical Initiation," now brought before the Lodge by Brother 
Simpson, P.M. I must however confess, that I do not quite follow the arguments, nor do I 
see very clearly where the Masonic connexion eilters into the subject. It is always most 
necessary to clearly distinguish between metaphor and symbolism. Nooses, and cords have 
been used, I imagine, from all time, for leading animals to slaughter, and also for making 
and holding them captive. To unfasten, and loosen the bonds was of course to let them free, 
and not to fasten them at all was to grant a similar favour. The use of the word cord or 
noose in many of the quotations given, appears to me to be a very usual metaphor. In 
English we have the very common expressions, " in the meshes," " in the net," or even " in. 
hand," they convey the idea very clearly, but do not contain any deep symbolism. With 
regard to the girdle of the wife, the ceremony of putting it on, may as Professor Eggeling 
supposes, " possess a similar significance to that of the . . . investiture of the youth 
-with the sacred cord," but it does not at all follow that the cord was necessarily a noose. The 

14 Transactions of the Lodge tyuatuor Ooronati. 

cord was a bond, and the girdle was a bond. They both appear to have been looked upon in 
the connexion of tying, which is just what I suggested in my remarks on the former paper. 

While collecting the material for the present paper, it became evident that the noose 
was a very ancient symbol, as well as a primitive article of capture. At least such was one 
of the conclusions that forced itself upon my mind ; and this being the case, I have to thank 
Bro. Williams for a very valuable piece of evidence in confirmation of it. As a symbol, the 
noose seems almost to have dropped out of existence, and it was only by the chance of 
coming upon what are little more than survivals of it that it has been disinterred from the 
past. It is a small matter, but I think I may claim to have discovered this old and almost 
lost symbol. Bro. Speth, by a suggestion helped me to it, and in addition to that I have to 
thank him for his appreciative criticism. Just to save others from making mistakes, it may 
be stated that in giving the collection of data in my paper, it is not assumed that every 
reference is reliable, or bears upon the subject. I have acted upon what ought to be the 
rule with every Collector : — that is, I have seized upon anything that might possibly have a 
relation to the matter, or which might throw light upon the search. I have not said all that 
I could have said on many of the references, because the subject is new, and it requires time to 
see more fully the whole of its bearings. Here, it may be added, that others may be able to 
give further references, and thus increase our knowledge. I may be excused for stating that 
I have no where assumed any connexion between Varuna's noose and our Masonic counter- 
part. On the contrary, I have in the paper distinctly expressed myself as refusing to assume 
such a conclusion. I hold my judgment in suspense. I have no doubt but every Craftsman 
will here see some identity — the connexion, if any exists, may take time to work out. On 
that head I at present affirm nothing. — W. Simpson. 

The W.M. concluded by proposing a vote of thanks to Brother Simpson for his 
interesting paper, which was seconded and cordially carried. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quattior Coronati. 15 



{Continued from Vol. ill., 193.) 

fuTH the destinies of the Lodge " Anx Trois Canons " were in a way entwined, 
IS as has already been shown, those of the Lodge " Aux Trois Cceurs, " which, 
however, was of quite a different origin, affording one of the oldest examples 
of a so-called "Deputy Lodge" (Loge Deputee). A word or two about 
Deputy Lodges in general. In a larger sense a Deputy Lodge is held 
outside the usual residence of a Lodge, by special power for some special 
purpose only, pro hoc vice. This kind of Lodge is also called a " special 
Lodge," or a Lodge held " in the open air" ("a, la belle etoile," "unter freiem Himmel.") 
In such a Lodge the initiation of the Duke of Lorraine had taken place at the Hague, as we 
have already seen. The initiation of Frederick, Crown Prince of Prussia (afterwards 
King Frederick n.), was effected in a Deputy Lodge, held at Brunswick on August 14th, 
1738, of the Lodge " Absalom " at Hamburgh. It is not, however, this kind of a Deputy 
Lodge we are now about to consider, but one in a stricter sense, which is formed, 
when a Lodge fully empowers a number of its members permanently living at a place outside 
of the usual domicile of the Lodge, to assemble there and hold regular Lodge meetings, but 
without forming a new Lodge, only as a part of the original Lodge. This kind is a Deputy 
Lodge properly so-called. Lodges of this sort are governed by a Master appointed by the 
original Lodge ; they have no special lists of members ; send all fees received into the 
treasury of the original Lodge ; and bear in most cases, as is but natural, no special name, 
nor use a special seal. But these rules permit of an occasional exception, as will presently 
be seen. And now let us face our matter. 

John Frederick Raban de Sporcke, Royal Danish " Cammerjunker " (gentleman of 
the bedchamber), a member of the Lodge " Friedrich " at Hanover, arrived at Vienna for a 
stay of some months in the year 1754. Under date of the 12th May of the same year he 
informed his Lodge that he had met at Vienna several members of the same Lodge, who 
(apparently knowing nothing of the existence of a Lodge at Vienna), wished to hold Lodge 
meetings, and the more so as they knew men who desired to join the Craft. Therefore he 
asked, in the name of his friends, for full power " de tenir icy pendant quelque terns £± 
deputee 1 pour pouvoir proceder a la reception des profanes qui se trouveront dignes d'etre 
eclaires, et pour pouvoir par notre travail etendre le venerable art de la Maconnerie." In a 
word, they asked for permission to establish a Deputy Lodge, of which some had already 
issued from the same mother Lodge, especially one at Gottingen, formed in the year 1747, 
which, however, only existed a short time. The request was at once complied with, and 
the Lodge issued a patent, bearing date May 22nd, 1 754, by virtue of which it was decided, 
at the request of Bro. de Sporcke, to depute and confirm, during the stay at Vienna of the 
said Brother, a regular Lodge depending on "ours." It was decided at the same time to 
send, together with the patent, the Lodge furniture, clothes, and the gavel of the Lodge 
of Gottingen, which was no longer in existence. Bro. de Sporcke was appointed Master, on 
condition that the Lodge should be closed on his departure from Vienna ; and at the same 
time the patent, the clothes, furniture, books and papers, and all fees received were to be 
delivered to the Lodge " Friedrich." The Lodge was obliged to conform to Anderson's new 
" Book of Constitutions," as well as to the thirty-six Bye-laws of the Lodge " Friedrich." 
The Patent begins with the words : 

" Wir Jobst Anton Hinuber ordentlich erwahlt und bestatigter Meister vom Stuhl 
nnd iibrige sammtliche Beamte der alten und Ehrwiirdigen Gesellschaft der Freimaurer und 
aufgenommenen Maurer hiesiger Loge Friedrich griissen alle unsere Sehr Bhrwiirdige nnd 
geliebte Briider." . . . 

The conclusion being : 

" Gegeben in der Sehr Ehrwiirdigen Loge Friedrich, am 22 Tag des 5 Monaths im 
Jahre der Freyheit 5754. 

Meister vom Stuhl, Ober Aufseher und iibrige Beamte der Sehr Ehrwiirdigen und 
gerechten Loge Friedrich. 

1 In the documents concerning this Lodge, now existing in the archives of the Lodge " Friedrich of 
the White Horse," Hanover, the word " Lodge " is symbolised by a triangle, or by three dots, thus .'. 

16 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Guronati. 

J. A. Hiniiber, Meister v. Stuhl. 
Fd. Kielmannsegge, 1 Ober-Aufseher. 
Th. Frh. v. Wallmoden, 2 Ober-Aufseher. 
Johann Friedrich. Reibsch, -fi.t., Secretarius." 

Among the by-laws may be mentioned the I5th, which enacts that the ballot taken 
on a candidate proposed mnst be unanimous, one black ball to have rejecting power. The= 
brother casting the black ball is not obliged to make himself or his reason known. The 19th 
by-law enacted that a brother having been E.A. and F.C. during the fixed term can be raised 
to the snblime degree of a M.M. by a majority of votes. 

In a letter, bearing date June 5th, 1754, Sporcke acknowledges the receipt of the 
patent, and after returning his thanks for it, he informs the Lodge that he intends to intro- 
duce three or four worthy men to the Craft. He writes also that he had learnt that a Lodge 
existed at Vienna, but he thought it to be a clandestine one, and he wished to have nothing 
to do with it. He would keep his intentions secret until he had obtained better information. 

A short time later on the Lodge furniture safely arrived, and Sporcke acknowledged 
the receipt thereof in a letter dated June 5th, informing the Lodge at the same time that he 
would shortly open the " Deputy Lodge Friederich " at Vienna. Notice was taken of this 
at the meeting of Lodge " Friedrich " on June 24th. 

The Deputy Lodge was opened on June 21st, 1754, at the house of Sporcke, seven 
brethren being present. First of all the Patent, the Laws, and Charges were read, and a. 
speech on the origin of Freemasonry delivered. Next it was decided : — 

1. The brethren should take special Lodge names (now. de guerre), which should be 
used in the minutes and papers of the Lodge. 

2. The Lodge should take the name " Aux Trois Cceurs" or, " Three Hearts." 

3. The Lodge should at every meeting advise its mother Lodge; and the arms of 
the Lodge should be a shield or (gold), three hearts azure 1 , above it the letters T.F.H. (trois 
fois heureux), beneath it a crane, the symbol of vigilance. 

Strangely enough, the Lodge " Friedrich " took no further notice either of the new 
name taken nor the activity of the Deputy Lodge until the reports made by Sporcke and 
Hiniiber, as we shall see. 

Next a serving brother was initiated, and an address of thanks to the mother Lodge 
voted, which, however, was not issued until some weeks afterwards. This address is dated 
.21/6/5754, and signed by R. de Sporcke, " Maitre depute de la /. "; de Campe, as S.W. ; 
.de Hobart, as J.W. ; and Jolive, as Secretary. Now the three last brethren were received 
on June 28th and July 6th, and it is, therefore, unknown who acted at the first meetings as 
"Wardens and Secretary, as, indeed, are the names in general of the brethren who were then 

The next meeting took place on June 28th, on which occasion " Baron " • Nasrel and 
Hobart, Esq. (a son of Lord Buckingham), were initiated and passed; then Baron Schenck 
was raised. So we see it was usual enough to confer the first two degrees on the same 
occasion. At the following meeting, held on July 6th, were received, Ch. Fr. Hiniiber, a 
Secretary of the Legation of Hanover, and Jolive, Med. Doctor ; also passed. Two serving 
brethren were also initiated, and then a banquet-Lodge (Tafelloge) was held. This meeting 
was at Baron Nagel's house. The next meeting took place at the house of Bro. Hiniiber on 
.July 12th. It was a M.M. Lodge, in which four brethren (Nagel, Hobart, Jolive, and 
Hiniiber) were raised. It was decided to hold each meeting at a different place, so as to 
avoid suspicion ; also to quite give up the ritual banquet-Lodge, and only have a common 
supper on the same or another evening, at the house of one of the brethren. Finally 
Lauterbach, Charge d'affaires of the Margrave of Bayreuth, was proposed and his initiation 
at the next Lodge decided upon. We do not know, however, if this ever took place, nor 
at what time. 

Meanwhile the Lodge entered into communication with the Lodge " Aux Trois 
Canons." It seems they acquired full conviction of its being a regular Lodge. As we have seen, 
the brethren of that Lodge no longer performed any Ritual work, and therefore it is but natural 
that members of it who made de Sporcke's acquaintance begged his permission to attend the 
meetings of the " Three Hearts." This was complied with, the more so as the new Lodge did 
not possess a sufficient number of F.C. 's and M.M.'s to hold Lodges of the 2nd and 3rd 
degrees. The brethren of the " Three Firingglasses " seem to have found pleasure in the 
•work of the " Three Hearts," and, therefore, they proposed to Sporcke to amalgamate the 
Lodges, and to leave them, in case of his departure, the clothes, furniture, and treasure of 
the Lodge. Bro. de Sporcke refused them, as was but natural, he being only entitled to hold 
a deputy Lodge during his stay at Vienna, and being obliged to return all things to the 
mother Lodge. But if they wished to form a new Lodge with the brethren of the " Three- 

1 Probably in this position .". An illustration of the arms or the seal is not preserved. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 17 

Hearts," lie promised to leave them the furniture which could not be sent to Hanover. Now 
it seems that the Vienna brethren aimed more at the treasury of the " Three Hearts " Lodge, 
or, at least, its charity funds, and £hey therefore pretended to know several distressed brethren 
who were in great need of support. Sporcke answered that " those brethren may apply for 
support from the Lodge, which would be given them." This answer seems to have increased 
the ill humour of the Vienna brethren, which came to an outburst at the meeting on the 6th 
July. Two distinguished English gentlemen, who had been tried already by Brother Sporcke 
and found to be Masons, visited the Lodge, where they were put to a new test for formal 
reasons. Strangely enough, two brethren of the " Trois Canons " were entrusted with the ex- 
amination of the brethren. It may be the " Trois Canons " Lodge had, proprio motu, fixed 
quite special and new signs of recognition ; and so the two brethren declared that the visitors 
knew none of the Masonic signs. Sporcke, however, seems to have received full assurance on 
that score, and therefore proposed that they should take the oath, " as was the usage with the 
Grand Lodge of England in dubious cases." This being unanimously carried, the visitors 
took the oath very willingly. The Vienna brethren, having left the Lodge, commented upon 
this event in an offensive manner ; and in consequence they were not invited to the meeting 
of the 12th July. It was resolved not to admit them nntil they had made amends and had 
purged themselves from the suspicion which " we are forced to have ever yet against their 

A short while afterwards Bro. de Sporcke left Vienna. The funds were probably 
brought by him to Hanover. He rendered account of the balance, and then asked that the 
members left at Vienna might be permitted to assemble still and maintain the Lodge, 
also that Bro. Hiniiber might be appointed Deputy-Master in his (Sporcke's) place. In the 
hope that this request would be complied with, he had left behind the furniture, the 
Constitutions, the charity fund, and the patent, as he believed there was no need for a new 
one until a proper occasion arose. At Vienna, it seems, they relied so strongly upon the 
mediation of de Sporcke, that they continued working without waiting for any answer 
from Hanover, especially as a very distinguished man applied for admission whom 
they did not wish to refuse. In a preliminary conference held at the beginning of October, 
1754, the brethren discussed the question whether — with a view to the fact that the Deputy 
Master appointed by the mother Lodge had departed and the Lodge had been closed, they 
would be permitted to re-open the Lodge and effect the initiation in question. It is note- 
worthy that the brethren on this occasion are mentioned by their assumed names only, as 
they thenceforth continued to be with the exception of the newly -initiated, whose names are 
mentioned in an appendix. The Wardens, Bros. Minerve (Campe) and Liberty (Hobart), 
having laid before the Lodge that a noble friend desired to be received into the Holy Order 
who was well worthy of it by his birth and by his personal good qualities, the Lodge finally 
decided in the affirmative, hoping that the " V.W. Mother Lodge" (S.E. Mutter. - .) would 
approve of such a step, as they thought they had already obtained another patent, if circum- 
stances had allowed it. It was resolved to re-open the Lodge. Bro. Oleander (Hiniiber) 
should, till the arrival of his appointment, take the chair ad interim; Bros. Minerve and 
Liberty should, as hitherto, act as Wardens ; Oede (Schenck) should fill the post of the 
Steward; Galene (Jolive) that of the Treasurer ; Cliton (Nagel) should carry out the duties 
of Secretary, as also those of Almoner. All being prepared, the brethren assembled on 
October 10th, 1754, in the house of Cleander. The minutes show that the manner in which, 
they took their places was as follows : 

Oleander in the Chair. 








Br. Liberty, Br. Minerve, 
J.W. S.W. 



Bro. Cleander opened the Lodge and called upon the brethren to express their desire 
that he should take the chair, and that they would follow his guidance. The brethren having 
by show of hands answered in the affirmative, and Cleander having thanked them for their 
confidence, Minerve now laid before the Lodge the matter of the proposal of the candidate 
already mentioned, and moved that, as the candidate had shortly to depart, dispensation 
should be given for the interval between, ballot and reception, and that both should be effected 
at the present .*. . 

Then Cleander proposed that one of his servants be received as serving brother. 

Both proposals were unanimously carried, and a successful ballot taken for both 
candidates. The " Chair " sent out Bros. Cliton and Oede to prepare and introduce the first 
candidate. He was then initiated an E.A. and took the name " Xerxes." After him the 

18 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 

other candidate was initiated as serving brother, taking the significant name " Le Constant." 
Then Brother Xerxes was passed, and afterwards proposed and balloted for the M.M. degree. 

In the Lodge of the second degree. Bro. Minerva proposed another " noble " candidate, 
who obtained a favourable ballot. Another candidate, proposed by Bro. Galene, was rejected 
by two balls. After closing the Lodge in the second degree, the brethren sat down " to work," 
and the Lodge was closed at midnight. Under " work " here only the banquet can be under- 
stood. The candidate initiated as Bro. Xerxes was the young Count John Joseph Kinsky, a 
chamberlain, and an ensign in the army ; he was born in 1733 at London, and consequently 
was but twenty-one years old. The name of the serving brother Le Constant was George 
Francis La Grange, born 1729. Strangely enough, in the list he is styled " Ecrivain." 

The meeting fixed for the 15th of October could not be held, but the brethren 
assembled on October 29th in Bro. Oleander's house, and Bro. Xerxes was raised to the M.M. 
degree. Then the candidate who had been lately proposed, Albert de Belgiojoso, a 
chamberlain, and a captain of the guard at Milan, born 1725, was initiated under the name 
" Titus "; also passed. Bro. Galene brought before the Lodge the affairs of a distressed brother 
who had already applied twice to the Lodge, and now again asked for assistance. It was 
resolved to give him the then small contents of the charity funds, together with the fines 
to be collected, which amounted to 7 florins. The circumstance that the fines amounted to 7 
florins, quite a considerable sum for that age, justifies the conclusion that the brethren cele- 
brated the occasion in a very animated manner, it being probably a farewell banquet, 
because the brethren Xerxes and Titus do not appear in the next minutes. The minutes of 
this meeting were confirmed on the 25th November, on which occasion, most likely, only a 
conference was held, at which economical and money matters were transacted, and of which, 
it seems, no minutes were drawn. But an "appendix to the accounts of the Deputy Lodge 
of the Three Hearts " was examined and confirmed. Without entering into details, we only 
mention that since the re-opening of the Lodge there had been a receipt of lllfl. 22£kr., 
expenses for banquet, clothes and candles, 62fl. 57kr. Best, 48fl. 25|kr. It is noteworthy 
that the expenses of the banquet were supplied from the Lodge funds. 

The next minutes are of the 29th December, 1754. Bro. Miner ve proposed that 
the candidate who had been rejected on October 10th should be balloted for and initiated, it 
having appeared that the scruples entertained on his behalf were unfounded, as though not 
very wealthy, he was otherwise a fit " subject," wherefore he proposed he should be initiated 
without asking for the entrance fee. Should, however, the Mother Lodge not approve of 
the step, he would be ready to pay the fees for the candidate. Ballot having been taken, 
the candidate Charles von Albrecht, a Lieutenant in the Army, born 1722 at Pressburgh 
(Hungary), was initiated and passed under the name " Augustus." The Brethren Minerve 
and Oede being on the point of departing, at all events a farewell banquet was held. Most 
likely the minutes of the Lodge, which hitherto had been kept by Bro. Oleander, were 
brought by the said Brethren to Hanover, or afterwards by Bro. Hintiber, as we shall yet see. 

The minutes of the meeting of the 29th December, 1754, are the last ones we have. 
They, however, do uot refer to this as a final meeting of the Lodge at all. On the 
contrary, it seems that Bro. Augustus had been received in order to render possible further 
meetings, but of these we have no particulars. On the other hand, there is evidence 
that Bro. Hiniiber (Cleander) submitted a report concerning the " Three Hearts " Lodge to 
the Lodge " Friedrich " at Hanover on November 14th. 1754, which was taken notice of, it 
being resolved that Bro. Hiniiber should bring all Lodge matters on his forthcoming voynge to 
Hanover. It seems that in March, 1755, Bro. Hiniiber, who formerly had held the office of 
a Secretary, and afterwards held the gavel of a deputy Master in the " Chair," made 
another report, fixing the date of his arrival, as on the 17th March, 1755, it is stated he 
would visit the Lodge " ere long." 

Even if there were further meetings, the " Three Hearts " Lodge must have been 
closed at the end of March or at the beginning of April. 

On the 21st April "Bro. Hiniiber arrived from Vienna, and was introduced to the 
Brethren assembled in Lodge." He read all the minutes of the Vienna Deputy Lodge, and 
made a detailed report of the said " Daughter Lodge." Then he delivered all papers, 
books, clothes, seal, and all other property of the deputy Lodge, which were received by 
the W.M. ; a detailed list of everything being promised for the next Lodge. This 
■was again promised on the 25th May, but seems never to have been given after all. 

Another desire of the W.M., however, was gratified. That is to say, "that the 
names of those Brethren who had been received by the deputy Lodge should be written in 
the books, and should be considered members of this Lodge also." Therefore, Bro. Hiniiber 
wrote the names of those Brethren, in open Lodge held on 25th June, in the " Chief book." 
They were the following twelve: — Von Nagel, Chamberlain, 24 years old (formerly called 
"Baron ") ; Jolive (sometimes misspelt Jolifii), Medicus, 28 years old ; Hobart (who is here 
spelt Howard), Member of Parliament, 26 years old ; Ch. Fr. Hiniiber, Secretary of Legation, 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 19 

32 years old; Baron de Sauterbach, " Kammerjunker " (gentle-man of the bed-chamber), 
and a Privy Counsellor of Legation, 32 years old ; John Joseph Connt Kinsky (here 
called Joseph only), Chamberlain, 21 years old; Alberiqne (formerly Albert), Conte de 
Belgiojoso, Chamberlain and Captain of the Guard at Milan, 28 years old ; Charles von 
Albrecht, Lieutenant, 32 years old ; George Francis (here, George Frederick) La Grange, 
serving brother, 35 years old. There were three more serving brethren, whose names do 
not appear in the minutes. .As we have seen, de Campe and Baron Schenck are not men- 
tioned ; they may have been previously members of the Hanover Lodge before they became 
founders of the " Three Hearts." 

The Lodge treasure was delivered by Hiniiber to Bro. Sporcke, who rendered a full 
account of it on the 21st of July, 1755, delivering 25 ducats as cash balance in hand. 

This was the official end of the deputy Lodge " Aux Trois Coeurs." We are entirely 
ignorant of the destinies of the members who were left behind at Vienna and as to whether 
they formed a new Lodge or not. If they did, they must have got a new Constitution from 
some other Lodge or Grand Lodge, as they certainly received none such from Hanover, nor did 
they apply for one. It is possible that the brethren joined some of the Vienna Lodges, as 
■we have seen that there can be no doubt as to the fact that even as early as 1740-50 
there had been other Lodges at Vienna. We shall see on a further occasion some of those 
■which were founded in 17bO-70. 

And so we may bid farewell to the Lodge " Aux Trois Coeurs." Though composed 
of members who lived at Vienna but a short while, the influence of this Deputy Lodge on 
the Masonic, and perhaps also the non-Masonic life of the period, cannot be denied. As for those 
other Lodges of the 40's and 50's, we have no detailed particulars of them. Most likely their 
papers got into the possession of and were destroyed by the adversaries of the Order. This 
is the more probable, as we owe these few particulars concerning the Lodges " Aux Trois 
Canons " and " Aux Trois Coeurs," only to the circumstance that their papers, by good 
fortune, were brought to Germany. Had they been kept at Vienna, they would have shared 
the destiny of the papers of the rest of the Vienna Lodges, which were engulphed by the 
tide of time. 

And now a few words on Lodge life generally as a conclusion to this chapter. 
Before all things, secrecy was strictly preserved. We have already mentioned how short 
the minutes of the Lodge were. Originally no minutes at all were drawn up, but it 
soon proved necessary to retain evidence of initiation and further progress (passing 
and raising), and it was therefore set down, oftentimes with the assumed names of the 
persons in question. Later still, facts and matters of business were set down. But speeches, 
discussions, public affairs, or acts of charity were never or very seldom mentioned or 
reproduced ; they formed, in the strictest sense, secrets of the Order. On the other hand, 
the young Lodges developed perhaps no special intellectual activity, and were occupied only 
with makings and promotions. And it may be said it was enough for that age if the 
members were given an opportunity of receiving the ideas and doctrines of Masonry, as even 
so the Lodge exercised an elevating influence, not only on those who joined it, but by the 
members upon outsiders also. As there existed hardly any Societies at all at that time one 
may guess the extraordinary influence which was exercised by the Lodge in a great many 
ways on social life. Much intellectual strength that had lain fallow was now collected and 
rendered available by the Lodge. A Prussian author of this century \Preuss: Friedrich des 
Grossen Jugend und Thronbesteigung, Berlin, 1840), says, speaking of Masonry, " 1 am no 
Mason, and speak only of the social blessing which I must attribute to that Order as a 
historian. Before Freemasonry struck root amongst ns (at Berlin), there were but few 
opportunities for personal communication. Only bacchanalian orgies, or else a life of loneli- 
ness. Humanity was a forbidden commodity (contrebande waare). . . . All this was 
changed when the first Lodge was established by the most highly educated people of Berlin 
and formed, in brotherly love, patriotism, and care for the poor, the first charitable Society." 
And the great Hungarian author, Francis Kazinczy (a Mason), calls the Lodge " a Society 
which forms a circle out of the very best men ;" and aprain, the " most perfect school of the 
heart." Thus the very important cultural influence of Masonry is placed beyond doubt. 

And now one or two words about the " Lodge " itself. The room where the brethren 
assembled was, in those times, adorned with no symbols at all. In whatever room a Lodge 
could be held, an oblong quadrangle was drawn with chalk on the floor, within which all the 
members found room. Later on they drew a smaller quadrangle, round which the brethren 
assembled. Afterwards this quadrangle was strewn with snnd, and symbols temporarily 
inscribed, finally the drawn and painted tracing boards (tapis) became fashionable. The 
Rituals were long handed down only orally. This gives an idea of the Lodge meetings at 
the time under consideration. 

(To be continued). 

20 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 



JrHE interesting paper of Brother C. C. Howard is very ingenious, but it contains 
some statements relative to historical data which, I think, should be noted. 

Marseilles and Nismes were not Greek colonies. 

" Massilia was colonized from Phoccea, a town of Ionia in Asia Minor'" 
— Pliny, iii., 5. 

" Massilia, founded by the Phocceans." — Strabo, iv., 1, 4. 

" Nemausus is the metropolis of the Arecomisci, Voices, it has under 
its dominion twenty -four different villages ... It enjoys the rights of the Latin towns, 
so that in Nemausus you meet witb Roman citizens who have obtained the honours of sedile 
and quasstorship, wherefore this nation is not subject to the orders of the praetors from 
Rome." — Strabo, iv., 1, 12. 

Pliny, iii., 5, speaks of Nemausus as a Roman colony. It was certainly not of Greek 
origin, their colonies did not extend so far north. I do not believe that Naymus comes 
from Nemausus, any more than that it comes from the Greek colony of Nemus on the Alban 
hills. The Dionysian or Bacchic Mysteries were not of Greek origin, but Tyrrhenian ; from 
Etruria they were introduced into Rome, and enjoy the doubtful honour of being the first 
religion persecuted by Rome. — Livy, xxxix., 8. 

It seems to be of importance to find out who Naymus Grecus was. Perhaps Rome 
can give the solution to the mystery. I take it that Naymus is a proper name, so we 
should read Naymus of the Greeks. In 1782, Pope Adrian restored an old church in Rome 
that had been built amidst the ruins of a temple dedicated to Ceres, Proserpine, and Bacchus; 
this church is known as S. Maria in Cosmedin, from a place at Constantinople ; attached 
. to it was a Collegia and Schola for the Greek exiles, driven from Greece by the Icono- 
clasts under Constantine Copronimus, 760. From the Schola the church was called S. 
Maria Schola Greca, and is so mentioned by Siric, Archbishop of Canterbury, who visited 
Rome in 990. This became the centre of a Greek quarter in Rome. In Totti's guide to 
Rome, 1637, it is called S. Maria a Schola greca, & e Collegiata. The road on the south 
side of the church is still called Via della Greca. 

The Saxon colony was in the neighbourhood of St. Peter's, where king Casdwell, the 
king of the West Saxons, was buried in 689 ; he died on April 20th. The streets here are 
not called via, but borgo, from the old Saxon word burgh. Their church, S. Spirito in 
Sassia, is not far to the south of St. Peter's. In the middle ages this district was called 
Sassia, and sometimes Saxonum Vicus. 

In 775, 1 Offa, king of the East Saxons, Mercia, came to Rome and founded the 
English Church and College of the Holy Trinity, in the Via Monserrato, now known as S. 
Tommaso degli Inglesi. As far as I can find, Charles Martel, duke of the French, not 
king, never came to Rome. He died in 741. Charlemagne, king Charles the great, visited 
Rome in 774, 781, 787, and 800, when on Christmas day he was made emperor, in St. 
Peter's. In 793 Offa founded the Abbey of St. Alban, on the site where St. Alban was said to 
have been martyred in 305. There was no persecution in Britain at that time ! Offa died in 
795. In 800, Ecgberht was, with the assistance of Charlemagne, made king of the West 
Saxons, and king of England in 827. 

Now, from the above facts, we may assume that during one of his visits king Charles 
the great (Charlemagne) engaged for his Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle, the skilled Mason 
Naymus, of the Greek School and College in Rome ; and that this Nymus of the Greeks 
passed on from Aix to England, and was employed by king Offa at the building of the 
Abbey of St. Alban. On the other hand, Charles Martel may have got Naymus of the 
■■ Greeks from Rome, though I believe Martel was a fighter, not a builder ; and after having 
served him, Naymus went on to England to Offa. Either way, it seems consistent to suppose 
that Naymus came from the Greek colony in Rome. 

This Naymus is connected, by legend, with Solomon's temple. How is that possible 
when he lived in Rome, 1800 years after Solomon? Literally, it is not possible— 
Metaphorically, it is possible. Brethren, he assisted at Solomon's temple as you and I have 
done ; and so became a Master Mason. 

1 This is the date given by the ecclesiastical authorities, but Dyer, in his " History of the City of 
Eome," gives the date as 794. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 21 



jITHOUT appearing to be thought to set myself up as a superior Masonic 
authority, I may perhaps be allowed to say, with bated breath, that all the 
papers on Indian thought that have appeared lack the links which connect 
them with the Craft. India, however, from remote ages, has had its own' 
Freemasonry, which is connected with Brahminism, in the same way as our 
Craft is connected, as I claim, with Gnosticism, Sufeism, Rosicrucianism, etc. 
Professor Jacolliot, the illustrious traveller, has brought from India the 
history of the origin of Masonry, preserved in the Archives of the priests of Benares. I 
translate his remarks from the Bulletin de l-a G.L. Symbolique Eccossaise. " There, the priest- 
hood has, from the commencement, established its power in a fashion more solid than else- 
Vhere ; he has enclosed each man in the fold of a caste, from which neither he nor his 
descendants can depart. He has ascribed to himself as his right, superiority overall others; 
his friend the warrior comes next. Amongst the lower classes taken in, is found that of 
stone-cutters, sculptors, carvers of fluted columns, ■who, at another time, united into a secret 
society, and adopted as a rallying sign the perpendicular. Another class, lower still than 
this, the terrace-makers, hrickmakers, tilers, had also formed a secret society, of which the 
aim was, like that of the first, to aid its members who were exposed to the persecutions of 
the priests and warriors, to protect themselves from them ; the rallying sign of these last 
was the horizontal sign. Almost all other classes followed this example. On what account 
these two principal societies, born from the same needs, living side by side in the same 
country, fell into disagreement, no one knows. But the fact is patent at any rate, and it 
appears that this disagreement lasted during a long succession of centuries, to the great 
jubilation of the priests, the enemy of both. "When at last, at an epoch which precedes our 
era by several thousand ages, the two rival societies, seeing that they were on the point of 
succumbing, made an alliance, united their signs — the (level and plumb) perpendicular and 
horizontal became common to both, then, little by little, they united all the other disinherited 
societies founded as they were to resist the priests, to whom, like themselves, they were 
likely to succumb. Masonry was founded. Its adepts, after having constructed in India 
collossal and strange monuments, so solidly built that they have resisted all the convulsions 
of our globe and have remained standing to our own days, those adepts, I say, spread through- 
out the East." 

So far Jacolliot and his accuracy rests upon the learning of the pundit under whom 
he studied Indian history. There is nothing new under the sun. In the above extract we see 
the same feuds distracting India thousands of years ago, as amongst the French Companion- 
age and the English " Ancients " and " Moderns," but we are fortunately let into the 
"inner life" of the body that Jacolliot alludes to, by a dispute which occurred in 1881 
between Travancore and Cochin, and the body resembles those described in 1775 by 
Hutchinson as Hali-werk-folk. The Madras government undertook to settle this dispute, 
and, as it was a mystic matter, which it was very clear that they could not comprehend, the 
decision gave great dissatisfaction, petitions were sent in, and a pamphlet circulated upon 
the subject, by A. Sankariah, A. B. Naib Devan of Cochin : entitled " Memorandum of the 
President Founder of the Hindu Sabha of the Thatchudaya Kaimal Stanom, of the Temple 
of Kndalmanikham in native Cochin ; Recently the subject of contention between the States 
of Travancore and Cochin, and a decision by the Madras government." You can only find 
space for a very short account of this dispute, but the pamphlet itself ought to be secured 
for your library. A Thachudaya Kaimal is the spiritual head of a Yogam or Lodge, and is 
elected by the Yogakhars of this particular temple when they require it, or meet with a 
competent man, who clearly must be a Yogi, able to perform the miracle of Kudalmawikkum, 
which literally is the "gem absorbed," but esoterically, the saint united to God. The " repair 
of the temple " is the function of this personage, and, esoterically, it is stated that it takes 
ninety years to rebuild a small portion of the sacred places called Sri-Kovil, or Girbha- 
Graham, and it is only then that an appointment is necessary. It is said that an adverse 
decision " will extinguish the only and feeble remnant of ancient Brahman Freemasonry 
carefully concealed in a small native space of the Madras Presidency." Yet it seems to be 
a Sudra Association claiming the rights of equal antiquity with the Brahmins. Both the 
Rajahs of Cochin and Travancore, as well as the Yogakkars, are agreed that once a Chief of 
the Kayankulam Royal family for his merit received the spiritual ordination of Thachudaya- 
Kaimal, but was occasionally represented at the temple by the nomination of a particular 
family of Sudra caste, who were specially trained and inspired by him. The last Kaimal 
"was appointed in 1808 and died in 1851, and on his death the present contention began. It. 

22 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

is said that this contention is the result of "a few schismatic members of the Togam," and 
that the rest had no intention " to consecrate a Thachudtja-Kaimal." This is all that need be 
here stated about the dispute, and I will now add certain remarks of Mr., perhaps he ought 
to be called Bro., A. Sankariah ; premising that these Yogakkars would seem to be speculative 
Masons, who had a temple of their own, and claimed to elect their own spiritual master. 
Some sly fun is got out of a proposal made by the Arbitrator that the " Sacred place," 
which needed repair, should be surveyed. 

" The Masonic institution was wide-spread in India in ancient days and cherished by 
the initiated in secret, if, indeed, India was not the parent of all Freemasonry in the world. 
The truths or secrets of Hindu Theosophy have been inculcated and preserved in the Archi- 
tectural Symbolism of human Art, as well as in the macrocosm and microcosm of Nature. The 
initiates of the Art Fraternity belonged to all castes and races, and the Hindu initiates, called 
at this day the Kammalar castes in many parts of India, wear also the thread or sign of 
Initiation, like the Brahmins who only are entitled to become the Initiates of the Nature or 
"Vedic Fraternity. ' Visvakarman,' meaning the Builder or Mason of the Universe, is the 
Supreme God of the Art School, and corresponds to Brahma of the Brahmins. The truths 
or secrets are precisety the same, though differently symbolized or studied in the two systems. The 
Rishis or founders of the Vedic School were of course also founders of the Masonic. The 
words ' Silpa Thachu' are tantamount to Masonic, the first being a Sanscrit and the second a 
Malaylam word. It will now be clear to the reader why the Masonic initiates, or the 
Hindu castes known as carpenters, masons, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, etc., often dispute the 
authority of the Brahmans, how the Pyramids of Egypt is being discovered to be a stone-bible, 
and why the Hindus prize the worship of idols in temples. Temples, and even private 
houses, in India are built under the rules of the Thacu-Veda or architectural philosophy, which 
has precisely corresponding gods and ceremonies to those of other Hindu Vedas. In Malabar 
this Masonic superstition (as those who do not know style it) is particularly strong, and often 
palaces, and temples, too, have been pulled down for accidents attributed to violation of the 
rules of Thachu-Shastra . I am not surprised that the arbitrator and the Madras government 
have not suspected any such philosophical mystery to exist in the matter, for true initiates 
are rare even amongst the Hindus, who are all blind adherents of the Craft in faith as opposed 
to knowledge. Suffice it for my present purpose to state that the Togakkars of the temple in 
question of Irinjalacooda have from time immemorial constituted a Masonic Fraternity, as 
indeed all Brahman Togams are such, a fraternity to whom Vedic is not different 
esoterically from Thachu . . . Togam, etymologically and popularly, too, means an 
assembling or meeting from yug to join. The religious yoga is joining of the soul to God. 
The secular Udyogam, or appointment in the government service or under a master, is to be 
joined to some work or superior ; Viogam is the break of a connection, and so on. Nor have 
the Arbritrator . . considered the etymology or philosophy of the ' Thachudaya-Kaimal,' 
which, literally, means the Chief having the Thachu secret. The Togam (whether trustees 
or proprietors) of Irinjalacooda then have conferred that spiritual degree, or ' Stancm, 1 on a 
proficient in the Mysteries of their Masonic Craft, if ever they found one worthy of being so 

Ordained The Togakkars do not need instruction from any incompetent 

man. It has not been found that there has been a succession of Thachudya-Kaimals. Even 
in the treaties in connection wibh the T.K. 'repair of the temple,' is alluded to, esoterically, 
as his 'function.' " It would seem that before consecration of this Togi, his horoscope had to 
be cast, and after consecration, the Rajah himself touches his palanquin as an act of vener- 
ation, or as a god even. Petition D says : — " The Sacred Truths of the Vedas and Shasters 
have been, from time to time immemorial, symbolised and inculcated in Masonic forms and 
measurements ; the esoteric significations of which can be understood only by the Initiated." 

I will only mention further a somewhat curious notice. Judge Walhouse, in his work 
on "Devil Worship," mentions a 15th century legend of India. A kalkatti, or stone-cutter, 
named Jackan-achari (? Master Jackan) built most of the exquisite Jain Temples in Canara. 
The tradition is, that he and his wife, having quarrelled with their son respecting a temple 
in course of erection, both committed suicide, and became Bhutes, so malign and feared that 
none dare attempt their exorcism. It is elsewhere claimed that all Indian Temples are built 
so as to symbolise a secret doctrine and esoteric truths, and I do not doubt that the same 
symbolic rule prevailed in Western Masonry, and is resolveable in the Arcane Discipline of the 
Christians, and constituting the real Masonic Secrets. 

As to the Aryan or Indian origin of Freemasony, the term Dionysian Artificers, applied 
to a Greek fraternity resembling our own, would seem to load us to India ; but the tendency 
of modern researches is to a primitive Turanian race, from which both Aryan and Semite 
are derived, which had a priesthood of three degrees, continued by the Magi, Cabiri of 
Samothrace, etc. The Indian derivation of the Dionysian artificers seems to be confirmed 
by two things ; the Greeks are an Aryan race, and the dismissal (Konk Ompax) of the 
Elensinian Mysteries is understood to be the Oanch om Pach used to this day by the Brahmins. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 23f 

in the same sense ; but the mysteries of the Cabiri are said to have used Semitic or Chaldean 
words, hence they would travel to Greece from Babylon : in other words, Masonry coming 
through one line might give us a Rite which became Christianised, and in another race our 
present Craft Masonry. On the other hand, the Mystics of India are advocating a civilisation 
derived from a lost Continent, emigrants of which settled in the Dekkan, whilst, according 
to Egyptian priests, they penetrated to Greece and Lybia, 9000 years before Solon. Le 
Plongeon claims to have found the same legend about Yucatan, and to have discovered that 
the hieroglyphics of its ancient buildings are identical with those of Egypt, and interpretable 
by the language of the people of Patau. Some of the magnificent Cyclopian ruins of this 
submerged race are described by Captain Cooke on the sea-washed shores of Easter Island. 
A Cyclop was a one-eyed giant, that is a man who is represented in the miracle of KudaU 
■manikhum, who sees with the eye of Visvakarman. 



Audi alteram partem. 

G^f^^WS Brother Crowe based his remarks on the above subject (vol. iii., p. 84), on 
// ' '* oflicial information, it was quite natural that Bro. Vaillant should take up 
his defence, and at the same time should seek to justify the position which he 
and the other Grand Officers have lately occupied, and which has, during the 
last two years, disturbed the peaceful Masonic atmosphere of Holland. I do 
not blame Bro. Crowe for having, as an outsider, made a few incorrect 
statements ; but I cannot allow Bro. Vaillant to put the seal of authority on 
assertions which are scarcely borne out by the facts. 

Bro. Vaillant having called the veracity and correctness of my article (vol. iv., p. 24) 
into question, I feel reluctantly obliged to go a little deeper into the matter, although I 
would have preferred to remain silent. Bro. Vaillant has the advantage of writing, 
surrounded by the archives and extensive library of the Order in the Netherlands ; but I 
will endeavour, notwithstanding the slender means at my disposal, to follow him in his legal 
and historical arguments. 

I admit that Dutch Freemasonry, having sprung from the English Grand Lodge, 
originally only worked the three Craft degrees, and that even in 1780 the higher degrees, 
although they were practised much earlier, had not made much headway, nor developed 
a permanent organized system with its own government and administration. Bat 
everything Bro. Vaillant says about the Orders in the 18th century, is beside the question 
at issue, namely : whether at present the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands is composed 
•of three different Rites or systems. Whatever circumstances existed before were altered by 
subsequent events, such as the establishment of a Grand Chapter for the higher degrees, the 
amalgamation of Dutch and Belgian Freemasonry in one Grand East, the creation of a new 
grand body for the Divisions of the Master's degrees, the dissolution of the partnersh ip 
between Holland and Belgium, in 1830, and above all, by the solemn covenant entered into 
between the three Masonic grand bodies in Holland, in 1835, of which I will speak 
later on. 

The quotation from Bro. Gould's " History of Freemasonry " is misleading and 
hardly fair. The words quoted, being put in one set of inverted commas, are represented 
as forming two sentences following directly upon each other, and purport to refer to the 
higher degrees as now practised. The fact, however, is that the first sentence occurs on 
page 204, of vol. hi., and refers not to the Scotch degrees, but to the National Chapter of 
Holland of the Strict Observance, constituted on March 18th, 1780, and of which Prince 
Frederick of Hesse-Cassel was Protector, and Grand Master van Boetselaar, Superior. The 
Strict Observance " never made much progress in the Netherlands, and soon died out " ; 
(Gould, iii., 205,) and therefore this part of the quotation is out of place in a discussion 
about degrees practised in Holland at the present time. 

The second part of the quotation we find four pages further on, at the foot of page 208, 
and is somewhat curtailed. It reads as follows : " Until 1807 it [Dutch Freemasonry] was 
altogether free from (so-called) high degrees ; in that year it accepted the simplest and least 
pretentious of all supplementary rites, and even this is largely replaced by the still simpler 
Additions to the Master's degree (1819). But these inovations have never been allowed to 
assert or exercise any superiority over, or in the Craft." Now this part of the quotation 
•does not prove that the Order in Holland is not " composed of three different systems, which. 

24 'transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

"have each, their separate administration, laws, and finances," nor that Bro. Crowe was right 
when he said : — " The present system in Holland only acknowledges the three Craft degrees, 
etc." On the contrary, Bro. Gould says that in 1807 the high degrees accepted a simple rite,, 
that the Additions to the Master's degree were established in 1819, and that these two- 
systems never exercised a superiority over the Craft ; but he does not say that they do not 
form part of the Order in Holland, and have a co-equal existence. 

As I said before, I readily admit that during the 18th century Freemasonry in 
Holland almost exclusively consisted in the working of the three Craft degrees ; the higher- 
degrees were worked, but had since 1786 given few signs of life. For that reason the Law of 
1798 did not mention the high degrees, and was promulgated without opposition. It was 
only in 1801 that steps were taken to unite the different Chapters again. The result was a. 
meeting, held at the Hague on the 7th June, 1802, at which Bro. van Feylingen was elected 
Grand Master National for the high degrees, and a Committee appointed to report on 
them. This Committee brought up its report on the 30th May, 1803, and proposed 
to work the degrees of Elu, three Scotch degrees, Knight of the Sword or of the East, and 
Sovereign Prince Rose Croix. Laws and Rituals were discussed and passed on the 15th 
October, 1803, and were definitively confirmed in 1806, and it was agreed in 1803 that the 
Grand Chapter should not hold receptions in the three Craft degrees. This Grand Chapter 
had its own Grand Master and administration, its separate laws, and was independent 
of the Grand Lodge of the three degrees. This body is still in existence, and forms part of 
the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands. 

In 1819, Prince Frederick of the Netherlands created the third constituent part of 
the Order, namely, the Chamber of administration of the Divisions of the Master's degree, 
■which had also its supreme Ruler, called Chairman ; its separate government, laws, and 
administration. This body also is still in existence. 

We will now see in how far Bro. Vaillant, from a historical and legal standpoint, is 
correct, when he says that it " is quite a mistake to pretend that the Order- of Freemasonry 
in Holland is composed of three different systems." 

Bro. Gould gives a sufficiently correct account of Dutch Freemasonry in the beginning 
of this century, on page 205, of vol. iii., so that I need not repeat it. On the 2nd June, 
1816, the Grand Lodge resolved to elect Prince Frederick of the Netherlands as Grand 
Master of the blue degrees, on the proposal of Bro. Byleveldt, Past Grand Master. On the 
following day the Grand Chapter for the high degrees, of which Bro. Byleveldt was Grand 
Master, passed a similar resolution, and elected the Prince as Grand Master of the high 
degrees. On the same day (3rd June) a letter was addressed to His Royal Highness by the 
joint Committee, which was appointed by both Grand Bodies, commencing as follows : — " The 
Grand Lodge of Freemasons here having resolved unanimously yesterday respectfully 
to offer to Tour Royal Highness the Grand Mastership of the Symbolic degrees, and this 
laving been also homologated to-day by the Grand Chapter for the high degrees, we perform 
the honourable duty offering to Tour Royal Highness, with all due respect and esteem, ihn 
Grand Mastership of the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands ; delivering herewith, for that 
purpose, the resolutions in original, which were passed yesterday and to-day in the aforesaid 
solemn meetings." This proves that in 1816 the Order in Holland consisted of two different 
bodies or systems, which took combined action for the election of a Grand Master of the 

Prince Frederick was initiated in the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes at Berlin, on 
the 20th June, 1816, by the Grand Master de Gnionneau, and he received there the Fellow 
Craft degree on the 2nd Jnly, and was, on the 25th July, raised to the sublime degree of 
Master Mason. On the 27th July, 1816, he accepted the high position offered to him, as he 
says in his letter : " in the name of the Grand National Lodge, and the Grand Chapter for 
the high degrees," and was installed on the 13th October, 1816, as Grand Master of the Craft 
degrees, and on the following day, as Grand Master of the high degrees. Bro. Gould is not 
quite certain, on page 206 of vol. iii., of the correct dates, but the above will be found a 
reliable statement. 

On the 22nd May, 1820, the Prince, after having created the separate Grand body for 
the Divisions of the Master's degree, resigned as Grand Master of the high degrees, and on 
the 19th May, 1823, the Prince of Orange was elected Grand Master of the high degrees but 
declined to accept that office, when Bro. Joachim Nuhout van der Veen was elected and 

Differences had arisen in the meantime in the Order, chiefly on account of the newly 
created Grand body, and when in 1831, after the separation of Belgium from Holland, a 
commission was appointed to draft new Laws, this commission expressed, in its report of 6th 
May, 1832, the wish that this opportunity should be taken advantage of to remove the 
disputes which had arisen. This led the Grand Master, on the 26th May, 1833, " to appoint 
a Commission to enquire whether unanimity existed in the Order, and if not, to propose- 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 25 

measures to restore it." This Commission reported, on the 18th May, 1834, that since 1819 
the unanimity was disturbed, and that the best remedy would be to restrict the working- of 
the Order to the three Craft degrees ; but as the time had not yet arrived to bring the Order 
back to the three symbolic degrees, the Commission proposed to confer the Grand Master- 
ship of the whole Order on His Royal Highness, Prince Frederick, and to give the different, 
rites an independent and lawful sphere of action, for which purpose it had drafted nine 
articles, which were submitted for His Royal Highness' judgment and further action. This 
report was submitted to the three different grand bodies, and finally to a mixed Commission, 
consisting of three members for each grand body, which, on the 17th February, 1835, entered 
into a covenant, consisting of the following articles : 

Art. 1. — The Order of Freemasons in the Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of 
Freemasons, united in regularly constituted ateliers, of which the lawful existence is 
acknowledged by these articles. 

Art. 2. — A Masonic atelier is not regularly constituted, if it is not legalised or 
acknowledged by the sovereign authority of the Order. It deserves mention that in 
the articles drafted by the Committee of Inquiry the word "Loges" (Lodges) was used, 
■which was altered by the mixed Commission of the Three Rites to " Werkplaatsen " 
(workshops, ateliers), no doubt with the intention of comprising within this one denomination 
the meeting-places of the three different Rites, namely, " Loge " (Lodge) for the blue 
degrees, "Kapittel" (Chapter) for the high degrees, and "Bouwhut" (Building Hut) for 
the Divisions of the Master's degree. 

Art. 3. — The rank of the now existing ateliers is regulated by the date of their 

Art. 4. — No Masonic Rites are allowed in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, other than 
those which- are now accepted and are being worked in it ; namely, " the symbolic degrees, 
according to their laws of 1798 ; the high degrees, according to their laws of 1807 ; and the 
Divisions of the Master's degree, according to their administrative fundamental laws of 1819." 

Art. 5. — The Order in the Kingdom has a general and common centre through the 
Master's degree in the Grand East. 

. Art. 6. — In accordance with the unanimous wish of all the Dutch Freemasons in the 
different centres of the union, mentioned in Article 4, His Royal Highness Prince Frederick 
of the Netherlands is the Grand Master National of the Order in the Kingdom. 

Art. 7. — The Grand Master maintains the dignity of the Order, and watches over its 
prosperity and glory. 

Art. 8. — The Grand Master nominates Deputy Grand Masters National for the 
Symbolic degrees, the High degrees, and the Divisions of the Master's degree, in accordance 
with their laws ; provided that the Grand Master National working or in the High degrees, 
or in the Divisions of the Master's degree, shall never and in no case be allowed to appoint a 
Deputy Grand Master National for that portion of the fraternity, in whose labours he shall 
not take part, except by choice from two brethren, nominated by the body at whose head 
this Deputy Grand Master National shall be placed. 

Art. 9. — The different parts, mentioned in Article 4, enjoy mutually a perfect independence. 
They make in their assemblies all such bye-laws and regulations, as in accordance with 
these articles and the general principles of the fraternity, they shall deem advisable. They 
take care in pursuance of these articles of union, that mutually no stipulations shall appear 
in those laws and regulations which may have a tendency to infringe on what concerns 
the secrecy of principles and ceremonies ; and that in the futare all efforts shall be 
made to strengthen and promote the harmony and concert between the different parts of the 

These articles were approved of by the three Grand bodies, placed in the hands of 
the Committee for framing the new law, and formed, with the articles describing the aim of 
the Order, the First Chapter of the Law of 1837. Prince Frederick resumed the Grand 
Mastership of the high degrees and appointed Deputy Grand Masters for all three bodies. 

Bro. Maarschalk says on page 229 of his " Geschiedenis van de Orde der Frymetse- 
laren in Nederland, etc." (History of the Order of Freemasonry in the Netherlands, etc.) 
" At an extraordinary meeting of the Grand Lodge of Administration on the 13th May, 1837, 
the new book of Laws was at last adopted, in which, in addition to two articles about the 
aim of the Order, the above general regulations were inserted. Hereby the three grand bodies 
are officially acknowledged as constituting the Order of Freemasonry in the Netherlands, and thus 
it has remained till now." This disposes of Bro. Vaillant's dictum that the high degrees 
" are allowed to exist, nothing more." 

26 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

It is significant that Bro. Vaillant, who calls my former paper "neither complete nor 
correct in its statements," and who considers it " necessary to point out some historical 
events," in order "to understand the present state of things in Holland," makes no mention 
whatever of this great "historical event": of the covenant between the three rites, which 
put an end to the disputes which had disturbed the peace of the Order for sixteen years ; 
but, in order to make the present state of things better understood, quotes largely the laws 
and occurrences of nearly 100 years ago. 

The words of Bro. Maarschalk, the historian of Dutch Freemasonry, who wrote in 
1872, are to my mind conclusive " that the Order of Freemasons in Holland is composed of 
three different systems." But there are more "historical events" which prove this. 

In 1871, when the daughter of Prince Frederick was about to be married, the Order 
of Freemasons in Holland presented its Grand Master National with an address of congratu- 
lation, dated 2nd July, 1871, which begins as follows : " The Dutch Freemasons beg to be 
permitted on the occasion of the approaching marriage of Her Royal Highness Madame the 
Princess Wilhelmina Frederika Anna Elisabeth Maria, Princess of the Netherlands, with 
His Serene Highness Wilhelm Adolph Maximiliaan Carl Prince zu Wied, to make known to 
you, Most Worshipful, the respected father of the Royal Bride, their sentiments of rejoicing 
and deep felt sympathy," and it ends thus : "We remain with the highest regard, in the 
name of the entire fraternity in tlie Netherlands, whose sentiments we feel convinced we have 

Your faithful BB." 

and was signed by J. W. Schuurman, 

Deputy Grand Master national for the Division of the Master's degree. 

'Deputy Grand Master National for the Symbolic degrees. 

E. C. D. Van Doorn, 
Deputy Grand Master National for the High degrees. 

(Bulletin vanhet Nederlandsch Groot-Oosten, vol. ii., p. 150.) 
The answer of the Prince is addressed to the three Deputy Grand Masters National 
jointly (Ibid, p. 152). 

In 1874 William hi. had been twenty-five years King of the Netherlands. The . 
Dutch Freemasons resolved to commemorate this " historical event " by striking a medal, 
and to present His Majesty with copies in gold, silver, and bronze, together with an address 
of congratulation. The address was approved by the Grand Officers of the three rites, and 
signed by Prince Frederick as Grand Master, as he expressed it, " in the name of the Order 
of Freemasons in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dependent Colonies, and Territories, to 
show thereby that the said mark of homage was offered to His Majesty the King by the 
entire Fraternity in the Netherlands." On the 20th May, 1874, the Grand Officers of the 
three rites assembled at the palace of Prince Frederick, and from there, headed by the 
Prince, proceeded to the King's palace, where the Grand Master National presented the 
address and medals to his royal nephew. (Bulletin v.h. Ned. G. O., vol. v., p. 24.) On 
the 31st May of the same year, at the annual meeting of the Grand East, the Grand Master 
said "that it had given him pleasure that the Order in the Netherlands, Colonies and Territories 
had offered the King a mark of fealty and sympathy on the occasion of the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of his accession, and it had been a real delight to him, that he had been enabled 
at the head of the Grand Officers of the three rites to offer to His Majesty the address and 
medals." — (Bulletin, vol. v., p. 6). 

I might multiply examples where the three rites have acted together, as con- 
stituting the Order of Freemasonry in the Netherlands, but I think the above cited 
'.' historical events " sufficient for the present. Only one more proof of my assertion that 
the Order in the Netherlands consists of three separate bodies ; and for that purpose I use 
the words of the Grand Master of the blue degrees, who, at the annual meeting of the Grand 
East, held on the 15th June, 1890, spoke as follows : " Two of the three moral bodies, which 
form the Order of Freemasonry in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, namely, the High degrees of 
that Order, and the Division of the Master's degree, dispute to the third part named ' the 
Symbolic degrees, ruled by a chief government,' the exclusive right to, or the disposal of, 
certain funds, inscribed on the National Debt register, and the interests thereof." (Bulletin, 
Tol xiv., p. 106). Later, at the same meeting, the Grand Orator proposed the following 
motion: " The Grand East of the Netherlands, regretting the disputes which have mani- 
fested themselves in the bosom of Dutch Freemasonry, deems it desirable that, to terminate 
the same, an amicable settlement be effected with the High degrees and the Division of the 

(Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 27 

Master's degree." This motion was carried. (Ibid, p. 115). How, after the above declara- 
tion of the Grand Master, Bro. Vaillant, the Grand Secretary, can say that "it is not in 
■accordance with the real state of things to pretend that the Order of Freemasons in 
Holland is composed o€ three different systems," is incomprehensible to me. 
«- Bro. Vaillant says: "The Grand Lodge stood at the head of the Fraternity in general." 

This may in a certain sense be true in the early history of the Order in Holland, when the 
High degrees did not yet exist, or were still in their infancy or not properly organized : but 
since the covenant of 1835 the component parts of the Order were pnt on an eqnal footing, 
except as far as numerical strength of members gave a preponderance of the one above the 
other, but in law no part had a superiority over the other parts, as they enjoyed mutually 
a perfect independence.— (Art. 9 of the covenant.) In how far "subsequent legislation puts 
that simple fact beyond all discussion," is a question, which, strange to say, has been 
discussed during the last two years in the Dutch Masonic press, ad nauseam. For obvious 
reasons which I am certain Bro. Vaillant will appreciate, I decline to discuss that question 
in these pages, unless forced to do so. 

The reason why the acknowledged rites were not enumerated in the law of 1818 was 
because " the least mention of their mutual relations or rights might have given rise to 
discontent and conflicts." — (Explanatory memorandum of the law of 1818.) This had 
reference to the four rites then existing in Belgium, especially the rite of Mizraim, which 
shortly afterwards was declared to he illegal by the new Grand Master National. After 
the separation from Belgium that reason no longer existed, and therefore the different 
rites were distinctly mentioned, and a complete system legally adopted. 

The assertion that it has never been " disputed that the Grand Lodge still is the 
central point of union of the Craft," is difficult to comprehend from the position Bro. 
Vaillant takes up. If the High degrees and the Divisions of the Master's degree are simply 
allowed to exist, but form no part of the Order in Holland, then there is nothing to meet or 
nnite round the Grand Lodge of the blue degrees as a central point, it stands absolutely 
alone. Art. 5 of the covenant, however, stipulates that the Order in Holland has a common 
centre, through the Master's degree in the Grand East, which means, that as all members 
of the High degrees must possess the Master's degree before being initiated in those higher 
degrees, the Master's degree forms the link of connection between them all, but it gives no 
superiority or exclusive right to that degree. But the point was disputed during the 
deliberations of the Commission appointed in 1876, "composed of delegates from the three 
rites to deliberate about the division of the interests of the inheritance Eksteen," Bro. 
Vaillant being one of the delegates on the part of the High degrees. The report of that 
Commission, written by Bro. Vaillant, contains the following words : " In defence of these 
rights (i.e., of the High degrees and Divisions of the Master's degree), attention was drawn 
in the first place to the historical origin of the High degrees and of the Division of the Master's 
degree, especially what concerns the first, which have always enjoyed an independent 
existence, separate from the blue degrees, and which they still possess. It was adduced as 
a proof hereof that this is distinctly evidenced by Articles 6, 10, and 11 of the Laws of the 
Grand East, — (Articles 4, 8, and 9 of the Covenant of 1835). By Article 6 (Article 4 of 
Covenant) it is positively stated that in the Netherlands three independent rites are worked, 
governed in accordance with different laws, enacted for each of them ; that, therefore, 
when Freemasonry in the Netherlands is spoken of, not one of these rites, hut all three are 
equally meant. This argument is strengthened by the wording of Articles 10 and 11 (8 and 
9 of the covenant), in the first of which occurs amongst others, the expression 'part of the 
fraternity' while the other begins with :, ' The different farts, mentioned in Article 6 (Article 
4 of the covenant) enjoy mutually a perfect independence.' " — Bulletin, vol. vi., p. 81.) 

Bro. Vaillant starts a legal quibble, and raises a false issue by saying that " the 
claims of the higher degrees on the funds of Grand Lodge are unjustified, etc." The two 
bodies of the higher degrees have never claimed any funds belonging to the Grand Lodge, but 
they justly lay claim to participation in the revenue of funds belonging to the Order in 
general. If it were " unjustified and opposed to the historical and traditional development 
of Freemasonry in Holland," that the higher degrees should claim participation in the funds 
of the Order, why did Grand Officers of the symbolic degrees, at the annual meeting of the 
Grand East, held on the 11th June, 1876, propose the following motion : " That the chief 
government of the Symbolic degrees be authorised to deliberate with the chief government 
of the other two rites, to settle the manner in which both chief governments shall participate 
in the interests of the inheritance Eksteen." The chairman said on thatoccasion : "Accord- 
ing to the stipulations of the will, the entire Dutch Freemasonry is appointed as heir of the 
inheritance . . . This having occurred. Grand Officers consider that the time has 
arrived to deliberate with the other rites about a division of the inheritance." The motion 
was carried in an amended form. — (Bulletin, vol. v., part 4). 

28 '1 ransactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

With respect to this point I cannot resist the temptation " to point out " another 
" historical event." In 1877 was circulated, along with the letter of convocation of the 
Grand East, the " Report of the Commission composed of delegates of the chief governments 
of the three Bites, to deliberate about the division of the interest of the inheritance of the 
late Widow Eksteen, born Cori Heyligers," and it appears from this document that the 
same Bro. Yaillant, who is now filled with righteous indignation at the " unjustified claim 
of the higher degrees on the funds of the Order," which is "opposed to the historical and 
traditional development of Freemasonry in Holland," was one of the delegates of the higher 
degrees, sent by that body to uphold, defend, and vindicate the justness and fairness of its 
claim, and that moreover he was the reporter or secretary of that Commission. That 
Commission decided by a majority of votes that the " High degrees and the Division of the 
Master's degree were entitled to participate in the inheritance Eksteen." — (Bulletin, vol. vii., 
p. 80, etc.) 

Have Bro. Vaillant's opinions sinee that time been changed by the study of history 
and tradition (which in a court of justice and equity count but little against law), or was he 
then pleading a cause against his own convictions ? 

I hope that this time Bro. Vaillant will not accuse me of incompleteness, as I have 
discussed almost every sentence of his paper. As to correctness, I have not put down any- 
thing for which I cannot quote authority, and I hope that I have been able to demonstrate 
to the satisfaction of every "unbiassed mind that the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands 
is composed of three different, but mutually independent, systems or Bites, each having its 
own separate administration. 

The allotment of the Ecksteen legacy, which is the cause why the original statements 
of Bro. Crowe have been so hotly discussed in these pages, can be of small interest to the 
majority of our members. We have however inserted the above because it contains par- 
ticulars of interest to every student of the History of modern Freemasonry, and because the 
question raised iB an important one, apart from its bearing on the legacy. It is now time to 
close the discussion, lest it become interminable. We feel, however, that Bro. Vaillant has 
been vigouronsly attacked, and cannot refuse him room for a rejoinder. Therewith the 
matter must be allowed to drop, and we trust he will consequently confine himself to 
rebntting the evidence now adduced without opening fresh ground. — Editob. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 20 


Prov. G.O., Devon. 

J>?i^^i5^LTHO'CrGrH sashes, collars, jewels and gauntlets play such a prominent part in. 
' »-■<* ^ ne Masonic clothing of the present day, there can be no doubt that the 

original and distinctive badge of a Freemason was the apron, and the apron 
only, and to this therefore we first turn our attention. Oliver tell us 1 that the 
^j|J^fH\y Apron or Girdle in ancient times was an universally received emblem of Truth. 
^SjjJiQL an ^ Passive duty, and speaks of Elijah and S. John the Baptist as being 
"girded with an apron of (white) leather." In the Persian Mysteries of 
Mithras 2 the candidate was invested with a girdle, a tiara, a white apron and a purple tunic ; 
and in certain Japanese initiations the candidate, when approved, was invested with a loose 
tunic, and a white apron bound round the loins with a girdle. Oliver 3 also says that " all the 
ancient statues of the heathen gods which have been discovered in Egypt or Greece, Persia, 
Hindoostan, or America, are uniformily decorated with superb aprons. . , . . . Some 
were plain white, others striped with blue, purple, and crimson ; some were of wrought gold, 
others adorned and decorated with superb tassels and fringes." Hence the antiquity and 
dignity of this distinctive badge are beyond question, and its fitness to our order especially 
undeniable. Coming from symbolism and tradition to actual history, the immediate 
ancestor of the present masonic apron was the long apron of the operative mason, and 
probably of linen (or leather), although later on and at present made of the skin of a lamb. 
In Hogarth's picture of " Night," reproduced in Ars Quatuor Goronatorum,* the apron shown 
is undoubtedly linen, and reaches nearly to the ankles. The apron of the old Melrose Lodge, 
now so happily placed in such an honourable position on the roll of the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland, is of linen, reaching to the knees (see illustration No. 3), and Brother Mathesen, 
the able Secretary, informs me that it has always been used as now worn. The apron shown 
in the portrait of William St. Clair of Roslyn (1736), Premier G. Master of Scotland, now 
in possession of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, and reproduced as the frontispiece to the 1848 
edition of the Scottish Book of Constitutions, is again the long flowing linen apron of the 
operative mason. In Picart's " Ceremonies " of 1736, which reproduces Pine's Engraved 
List of 1735, the brethren are depicted in long aprons which, by the way they hang, are 
undoubtedly of linen, or some other textile fabric, and not of leather. They also wear 
trowels, which is of interest in reference to Danish and Hungarian custom noted 

Brother Speth 5 thinks that white gloves were always de rigueur, but " confesses that 
his researches have not cleared the ground " as to the evolution of the present clothing from 
its primitive form. By a resolution of June 24th, 1727, the "Worshipful Master and 
Wardens of all private Lodges were ordered to wear " the jewels of Masonry hanging to a 
white ribbon," and on the 17th of March, 1731, the Masters and Wardens and Members 
of px-ivate Lodges were ordered to wear " white leather aprons," lined with white silk ; the 
Grand Stewards to wear aprons and ribbons (or collars) of red silk, their jewels being of 
silver, and not gilt as at present, (En passant as to jewels, it is rather curious that Grand 
Master, William St. Clair, in the picture before referred to, wears his jewel on a long ribbon 
over the right shoulder and under the left arm, the pendant resting on the left hip.) 

The Grand Officers were to wear gold or gilt jewels pendant to blue ribbons about 
their necks, and white leather aprons lined with blue silk ; the word " lined " may in this 
case include "and edged." It must be remembered that at this date (1731) the " Grand" 
Officers were only the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master and Wardens, but in 1776, on. 
February 14th, all Past Grand Officers were allowed to wear similar jewels to the actual 
Grand Officers, but they were to be on an oval or circle, and, save in the Grand Lodge, to be 
worn on the breast. In the 1784 Book of Constitutions, the " Grand Officers of Provinces " 
were empowered to wear the " Cloathing of Grand Officers." Brother Hughan says, that 
the present arrangement of the clothing, tassels, etc., came in at the Union in 1813, and that 
previously the " Ancients " generally had the arms of their Grand Lodge depicted on their 
aprons to distinguish them from those of the "Moderns." He also has kindly 
shown me a photo of an old " Ancient's " apron, in the possession of Brother W. Watson, 
which, in addition to the arms, is elaborately decorated with two pillars; an eye in a 
triangle, tesselated pavement ; Faith, Hope and Charity, with a number of other emblems. 

" Signs and Symbols," Lect. x. " Royal Masonic Encyclopedia," p. 48. 3 Ibid. 

* Vol. ii, pt. 2, p. 90. 6 "A.Q.O.," Vol. 2, p. 90, 

3Q Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

He has also shown me a tracing of a very handsome apron of 1794, " Drawn and Engraved 
by Brother Hegon, 13, Bridge Street, Covent Garden ; and sold by Graffie E. Lay, No. 117, 
Oxford Street, London." The flap, as frequently at that time, was semicircular, and on it- 
was a fine gronp of " Charity," the body of the apron showing " Faith " and " Hope" on 
the uppermost of three steps, and between them the bible, square, compasses, sun, pillars, 
seven stars, and many other emblems. • Almost identical with this tracing is the drawing 
of an apron shown in " Freemasonry in St. Helena," 1 and in his introduction Bro. 
Hnghan says, " Considerable latitude prevailed as to the style of Masonic Clothing 
worn some years ago, both as regards shape and the emblems depicted thereon. A 
fine sample of the more ornate kind is shown by the owner, Colonel Mead, the 
original of which was first printed on vellum, August 19th, 1794 (not 1774), several 
of which are still preserved. The one under consideration belonged to my friend's 
grandfather (Captain J. Alexander), who was a member of the same Lodge," (St. 
Helena, No. 588, erased in 1832). It is a long apron with a semi-circular flap, edged with 
bine, and having two frayed ends of ribbon hanging down which may be meant for tassels. 
In tbe same little volume is a reproduction of a very curious apron, " worn during the early 
part of this century by Bro. James Shipway, and later on by his son, both of whomwere 
members of the St. Helena Lodge, the Hall of which was destroyed by fire on the 15th July, 
1831." This specimen appears to be of brownish (probably dirty) skin, edged, etc., with 
blue, but the shape is shield-like, as in the Dutch specimen shown, as No. 12, whilst the 
flap is small and central, as in the Danish apron C. A most curious effect is further produced' 
by a heavy mass of long silk fringe round this flap, giving it almost the appearance of the 
Highlaud " sporan." In a small coloured print of the last century, in my possession, the 
aprons are not uniform ; one is pink — probably silk — with a white frilled edge, another 
white, with a yellow pocket, and others are plain white ; all the jewels shown (five) are 
worn on white ribbons, and are in three cases the square and compasses, the other two 
being a square and a triangle. 

A cnrions point in the evolution of the apron is the tassels. "When they were 
introduced I cannot tell, but excepting the Australian and Canadian Grand Lodges, which 
naturally copy us, the Grand Lodges of Great Britain are, as far as my researches have gone, 
the only Bodies which wear them, and in the case of Ireland they are strangely enough 
omitted in the aprons of the Grand Officers. The material of the apron is more frequently 
silk or satin on the Continent, than leather, as I shall show later on. 

In Ireland, although the Grand Lodge was formed in 1729, there is not, and Brother 
A. St. George, Deputy Grand Secretary, informs me that to his knowledge there never has 
been, any definition of the colour or pattern of its clothing laid down in its Constitutions, and 
the first and only authoritative statement appears in a book entitled " Clothing and Insignia,'' 
with coloured plates, published in 1860. Brother F. C. Crossle 2 mentions an old Irish apron 
which has stamped on it the arms of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and also observes, 'that up 
till very recent times, the Worshipful Master of the Craft Lodges, in this part of Ireland 
(Down) at least, in order to be properly clothed, was always attired in a red cloak and a 
chimney pot hat. Not only has the oral tradition of my elder Brethren assured me of this 
fact, but I have seen him so attired myself, and in all the old Lodge Chests which I have 
discovered, there has invariably been found the remains of this important item of the insignia, 
of the Lodge." The likeness of the Hon. Mrs. Aldworth, which is so common in Irish 
Lodges, shows her in quite a small apron, with a frilled edging and a circular flap. 

In Scotland the clothing of Grand and Provincial Grand Lodge is of white leather, 
lined and trimmed with thistle green ; but each private Lodge may choose its own colour at 
its formation, and also employ a considerable amount of ornament and embellishment as 
will be seen in the accompanying illustrations, differing in this from our own rigid rules. 
It is worthy of note that the flap of the English apron is triangular ; of the Irish, triangular 
for ordinary clothing, but cut off square for the Grand Lodge ; and that of the Scottish is 
semi-circular. Some of these latter aprons are most gorgeous, notably those of " Montefiore " 
Lodge, No. 753, which is identical with the Grand Lodge Clothing of England ; 
" Caledonian," with its Royal Stuart tartan ; " St. Nicholas " in green and gold, (No. 6) s ; 
and " Athole," No. 413, which has a flap of purple velvet, with G., square and compasses, 
all in gold, with edging on the apron itself of the Athole tartan, and gold fringe and tassels. 

As to the early records of Scottish Clothing, Lyon's " History of Freemasonry in 
Scotland" gives some very interesting particulars. In the "Regulations for the Grand 

3 Printed for and published by Col. Head, for private circulation, 1889. 

3 " Local Evidence," etc., by Francis C. Crossle, Prov- Gr. Sec, Devon, 1889. 

3 All tbe illustrations are first drawn to the same proportionate scale except Nos. 7, 9, and 10, which 
are on a nrach larger scale, as it was impossible to show the details otherwise. The colonrs are indicated by 
heraldic lines, ezcent. of course, in the hand-painted ornamentation, where it is unnecessary. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 31 

Lodge " in 1736, 1 rule 7 provides that the jewels of Grand Master and Wardens shall be 
-worn at a green ribbon. This assumption of green, which is not at all a Masonic colour per 
se, is very strange, and the only possible suggestion to my mind is that it is the colour of the 
national flower leaf, and also of the mantle and ribbon in the national chivalric Order of the 
Thistle. Embroidered aprons 3 with officers' emblems were introduced in 1760, and in 1767 
the " garters " (which in the days of breeches formed part of the clothing) and the " ribbonds 
for the jewels " were to be renewed. 3 The sash of office bearers was introduced in 1744, and 
■jewels began to be worn in 1760. The Lodge of Dundee used white aprons in 1733, and the . 
Lodge of Edinburgh, in 1739, orders "a new blew ribband for the whole fyve jewalls." 
Brother Murray Lyon informs me that the custom of varying the colours in the clothing of 
Lodges was in vogue prior to the formation of Grand Lodge in 1736; and as shown above, 
from 1733 to 1739, we have at any rate blue, green, and white variously used in the 

Of the old Scotch apronsy illustrations 1 and 2 show two aprons of special interest, 
being those of the venerable Mother Kilwinning Lodge. The former, dating from the 
middle of the last century, is of leather, edged with dark green ribbon ; 4 and the latter, early 
this century, of white satin, with edge and flap of green velvet, the emblems being in gilt 
embroidery. No. 3 is the Melrose apron of white linen, with rosettes and edging of light 
blue ribbon, which has always been similar. All these are noteworthy on account of their 
great length, the two former especially, which reach below the knees. No. 4 is of some 
Lodge unknown to me. It is painted on a small square of leather in oil colours, the edges 
being rounded off and a narrow edging of blue ribbon added. It will be observed that it has 
no flap. It is very old and very quaint. No. 5 represents a curious old apron kindly lent 
me by Brother M. B. Thomson of Ayr. The design is painted in colour on linen, and the 
tricolour border of black, red, and blue, evidently indicates that the wearer possessed the 
Arch and Templar degrees as well as the Craft. The tesselated pavement shows the same 
arrangement of colours, as does the semi-circle of the arch, whilst the pillars are in blocks of 
red and blue. The lamb and cock are well known Templar symbols, and the P.M. and Ark 
Mariner degrees are also shown. The lower symbol at the left looks like the " St. Lawrence " 
degree, and the serpent in the centre is also worthy of note. Another apron from Ayr, now 
still used, is of white satin, with edging of a reddish brown and light blue, ornamented with 
gold braid and square and compasses, and G on flap, which is pointed ; it is also noteworthy 
as having no tassels. 

Turning to the Royal Arch degree, we have but the very slightest knowledge of how 
the present clothing originated, but it was certainly not always as now, as the following 
extract made by Brother Hughan from the earliest preserved minutes of the old " Moderns " 
Boyal Arch Chapter meeting in London, on June 12th, 1765, shows. 5 The "Excellent 
Grands " were clothed in proper Robes, Caps on their heads, and adorned with suitable 
jewels, but no aprons. Sojourners appeared " with the emblems of their employment," and 
" all the Companions to wear aprons, except those appointed to wear robes ; the aprons shall 
be all of one sort or fashion, viz : White Leather, indented round with crimson ribbon, and 
strings of the same, with a T. H. in gold, properly displayed on the bible, and purple garters 
indented with pink." What these garters were, and when they were discontinued, is an 
interesting point, as yet unsolved, and the meaning of " indented," as applied to the apron, 
is also doubtful ; unless it means a dog-tooth edging of crimson. Illustration No. 7 shows a 
most interesting Royal Arch apron of the " Ancients," in the possession of Brother Haghan. 
The edging is of purple and red. On the flap are a bible, square, compasses, levels, maul, 
sun, moon and stars. On the body of the apron is printed an elaborate design from an 
engraved plate. At the top is an eye in an irradiated triangle, inscribed " Let there be light, 
and there was light." In the centre are the arms and motto of the Ancients, and on each 
side a large pillar ; that on the left being surmounted by a figure of Faith, and bearing the 
inscription, " Be virtuous, be silent," with emblematical figures of Truth and Justice on the 
base ; that on the right surmounted by Hope, and inscribed at three separate points, Wisdom, 
Strength, and Beauty. There are also a large number of other devices ; the Temple, Ark, 
Pyramids ; an angel bearing a scroll, inscribed " Masonry universal," etc. Standing at the 
bottom corners are two brethren in clothing, and I notice that the collars they wear have 
evidently a hand of colour (probably red) down the centre. Brother Hughan places the 
date of the apron as circa 1800, in which Brother Rylands, who has seen it, agrees. 

- "Lyon's History," p. 169. s Ibid, p. 195. 3 Ibid, 186-7. 

* The great age and long use of this specimen have rendered the ribbon all bnt black, hence the 
artist, who made his drawings by gaslight, accidentally mistook the tint, likewise in No. 8, where the flap 
should be dark blue, and not black. 

* Hughan's " Origin of the English Bite," p. 72. 

32 • Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

In the Modergs "Charter of Compact of Grand Chapter," 1 July 22nd, 1767, the- 
apron is still described as " indented with crimson" ; but with the addition, " and also the- 
indented ribbon or sash of this Order" (the italics are mine). This seems to say that in two- 
years the " garter" had become, in some unexplained way, a "sash." Could " sash" have . 
been possibly meant in the first case ? In the " Laws of the Grand Chapter, A.D., 
1778," 3 the apron is not mentioned, and the robes are nearly as at present, save that all 
the robes are now lined with ermine, instead of "sable" or " grey fnr," and the "facing" 
of purple for Z, and of light blue for H and J are not now used. The J's robe is of light 
blue instead of " light grey," and the " Past Masters " robe of " scarlet, faced light blue, 
trimmed sable furr," is now obselete. The clothing now worn is of course too well known to 
need description, but for the information of foreign brethren, it may be stated that the 
ribbons of the apron, and the sash are of purple and crimson, indented one in the other. 

The Royal Arch clothing of Ireland is quite different to that of England, and is first 
defined in the Constitutions of 1839. The apron is of white lambskin, twelve to fourteen 
inches deep, and fourteen to sixteen inches wide, bordered with two-inch scarlet ribbon, 
with half-inch gold lace in the centre. It has the usual triangle and triple tan on the flap,, 
and gold tassels on crimson ribbons. The sash is plain scarlet ribbon four inches broad ; 
and the only difference in clothing for the Grand Officers is that their aprons are trimmed 
with gold fringe two inches deep. 

In Scotland the companions now wear the same clothing as in England, but did nob 
always do so. Illustration No. 8 shows a very interesting old Royal Arch apron, for which I 
am indebted to the kindness of Bro. Forshaw, D.Prov.G.M., Aberdeen City. The flap is of 
dark blue silk ; the edging and seven rosettes are of light blue ribbon, and the design 
painted in gold and colour. On the top of the steps are three curious blocks of gold, drab, 
and black respectively. I cannot at all nnderstand what they are, but, being carefully 
distinct in colour, they must, I think, be of special importance. Inside the flap is written 
the following : — " 18 8ber, 1837. Worn in Grand Masonic process : for laying foundation 
stone, Mar College, Aberdeen, by the Duke of Richmond, assisted by the Masters of the 
several Lodges present. Charles Cordiner, Chap : St. Machors." Bro. Hughan and myself 
are, however, agreed that the age of the apron is considerably older than 1837. 

The sash in England is only worn in the Royal Arch and certain of the hauts grades, 
but in Scotland sashes are worn by officers of Grand and Provincial Grand Lodge, and also 
by the officers of many private Lodges. Like the apron, the sash is of great antiquity, and 
as space will not permit any further reference in the present article, I refer the reader to- 
Bro. Simpson's admirable papers on " Brabminical Initiation " 3 and " The Noose Symbol "* 
for information on some early forms of it. 5 Gauntlets date from the early part of the 
century, but are only provided for in the revised " Constitutions " of 1884, although worn in 
Grand and Provincial Grand Lodge for years previously. 

On the Continent the differences in clothing are very great, and in commencing with 
Denmark I propose to give some general particulars of Freemasonry there, as so very little 
is known or can be ascertained by the brethren in general with regard to the extremely 
exclusive systems of Denmark and Sweden, which are now practically identical. I wish 
here to express my gratitude to Bro. Simonsen for much valuable information, and specimens 
of clothing, etc., now in my collection. Bro. Mackenzie 6 states that the Rite is that of 
Zinnendorf, since January, 1855, but as that Rite only consisted of nine degrees, and there 
are thirteen now worked, this cannot be so. The Rite is that of Sweden, and Kenning' s 
Cyclopaedia is not quite accurate in its description under that heading, as only twelve degrees 
are there named. The degrees are as follow, and the slight error referred to is due to th& 
fact that the 4th and 5th degrees are conferred at once, althongh distinct ; — 
Symbolic— 1. E.\A.\ 2. F.-.C.-. 3. M.-.M.-. 

g |e.-.A.-. and F.\C.\ Master of St. Andrew. 

6- Master of the Scotch Lodge of St. Andrew- 
8- Kt. of the "West, or Kt. Templar, called 

also True Templar, Master of the Key ; 

and in their Lodges " Favourite Bro. - . of 

10. Preceptor of the Temple ; or, Favourite 

Bro. of S. Andrew. 
12. Dignitary of the Chapter. 

7. Knight of the East and of Jerusalem? 

called also " Steward Brother." 
9. Commander of the Temple ; or Favourite- 

Bro. of S. John. 
11. Master of the Temple; Kt. Commander 

of the Red Cross. 
13. Most Wise Vicar of Solomon, i.e. " Grand 

Master of the Order." 7 

The Deputy Grand Master is called " The Attorney of Solomon." 

1 Hughan's " Origin of the English Kite," p. 134. ' Ibid, 136. 3 A.Q.C., vol. iii., p. 89. 

4 Ibid, in present number. s See also zenaab, " Boyal Masonic Cyclopaedia. 6 Ibid, Denmark. 

7 There is also a Gr.M. of the G.L., i.e. cf the first three degrees ; a separate office from the Gr.M. of the. 
Order, or V.S. ; usually the two offices are held by the same individual, but not necessarily so. 






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Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 33 

The Rite adopted in Denmark in 1855 (March 18th) was practically a Scottish Bite 
addition to the Craft degrees, and on that occasion the Lodge " Cerbus Federici," which is 
now a " St. Andrew's Lodge," was founded at Elsinore, from whence it was removed after 
two jears to Copenhagen. The present Danish Grand Lodge, based on the Swedish Bite, 
was founded on Nov. 16th, 1858, and the first meeting, at which the Consecration ceremonies 
were worked, took place on the 21st of the same month. 

The first three degrees are worked in St. John's Lodges, the next three in St. Andrew's 
Lodges, and the remainder in Grand Lodge. The usnal interval from receiving E.\A.*. 
degree to that of F.'.C. - . is nine months, and the same timefrom F.\C*. to M.\M.*., but (and 
I think wisely) real proficiency is insisted on before advancement, and if the candidate 
blunders badly it may take as much as three years from E.".A.\ to M.\M.\ There is no 
definite length of time necessary before receiving the 4th and 5th degrees, which are conferred 
together, but the candidate must take a sealed letter, called " Forpasningsbrer," from the 
Master of his St. John's Lodge to the Master of the St. Andrew's Lodge in which he seeks 
advancement, and if he endeavours to open this letter and ascertain its contents he will never 
he advanced. The W.\M.\ of the St. John's and St. Andrew's Lodges are elected by the 
members from amongst three, whose names are submitted by the M.W.G.M. These brethren 
may remain in office for any length of time, and need not have previously filled any other 
office in the Lodge, but for the St. John's Lodge the W.\M.\ must be at least of the 5th 
degree, and of the St. Andrew's Lodge, at least of the 8th degree. The Treasurer is elected 
(and may be re-elected) every year by the brethren, but he must belong at least to the 7th 
degree, as he must be a member of the Grand Lodge Directory. The Deputy W.\M.\ and 
"Wardens may be elected for three years at once, but the "W.'.M. - . may cause a new election 
at the end of the first or second year at pleasure. Even this election is not free, but each 
must be chosen from among three named by the W.'.M.". The remainder of the officers are 
appointed by the W.\M.\ himself. All the officers of Grand Lodge must of course possess 
the higher grades, and are nominated by the M.W.G.M. In the 1st degree, the brethren are 
styled ^diligent ; in the 2nd, zealous ; 3rd, worthy ; 4th, elected ; 5th, most worshipful ; 6th, 
shining , 7th, much shining; 8th, most shining ; 9th, enlightened ; 10th, much enlightened ; 11th, 
most enlightened. From the 5th to the 6th degree a period of two or three years generally 
elapses, but after that advancement is very difficult. In Lodges up to the 7th degree 
the brethren wear evening dress and silk hats, except that E.'.A's.'. and F.\Cs.\ may not 
wear the latter in Lodge. 

The clothing of the 1st degree is the leather apron A and a small trowel of unpolished 
silver 1 on a leather string, with the jewel of the Lodge. Of these jewels I am able to show 
four : (W) of Lodge " Zorobabel," which is not working now, being merged in the next 
named ; (X) is the jewel of Lodge Zorobabel and Frederic of the Crowned Hope "; (T) of 
Lodge " Christian," and (R) of " Northern Star." All are worn on a ribbon of red and 
white stripes. Fellow Crafts wear apron B, with a polished silver trowel on white silk 
ribbon, and the Lodge jewel. The edging and rosettes are of white ribbon. Master Masons 
wear apron C, which is edged and lined with sky-blue silk, with rosettes of light blue 
ribbon edged with yellow, and a square of gilt metal on the flap ; a collarette (CI) of ribbon 
similar to the rosettes, to which is suspended an ivory key on a sky-blue ribbon ; a golden 
trowel on blue ribbon ; and the Lodge jewel. 

In the 4th and 5th degres apron D, with collarette Dl and shoulder-belt D2, are worn, 
a dagger being suspended to the latter. The colours are black and white, and the emblems 
of silver. It should be mentioned that the brethren wear small swords in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 
6th, and 7th degrees, and in the 4th and 5th, daggers. 

In the 6th degree apron E is worn, with collarette El and sash E2. The edging of the 
apron, with rosettes and lining, are red, the axe and centre emblem of gilt metal, and the 
sash of crimson edged with green. The collarette is green, with green and silver enamelled 

In the 7th degree apron F, sash Fl, and the same collarette as El is worn, whilst to the 
sash is attached the same key as will be seen on the sash of the 8th degree. The apron is 
white, with green decorations and lining, and the sash green, with five emblems of crimson 
ribbon having a secret symbolical meaning. 

In the 8th degree, apron G and sash Gl is worn, the motto on the key being : on one 
side " aperientem quis claudit "; and on the other " claudentem quis aperit." The narrow 
edging and lining of the apron are scarlet, the broad border and strings black, the cockle- 
shell of metal silvered, and the sword worked in red silk with black shading. The sash is 
black with a red gilt-edged cross. In this degree the brethren receive a ring bearing the 
letters F.D.G., which tjiey wear on the middle finger of the right hand. 

1 Befer to " Freemasonry in Hungary," Freemason, June 6th, 1891, p. 309. 

34 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

In the 9th degree apron H and sash HI are worn. The apron is very handsome ; the 
outer edging is scarlet, the inner of white ribbon pleated ; on the flap is a gilt metal W on a 
circle of blue ribbon ; whilst the crown, cord, and tassels are all of gilt metal. The sash is 
of white silk, with a rose-coloured cross edged with gold braid, to which is suspended a 
handsome gilt cross, having on one side the head of Christ in silver, and on the other, also 
in silver, a lamb with a banner, lying on a closed book ; and surrounded by the letters 

In the 10th degree only the crimson sash I is worn, edged with gold braid ; the cross 
at' its extremity being .enamelled half white and half crimson on both sides. 

In the 11th degree a shoulder-belt of white silk, with stripes of purple and gold and 
a red cross, is worn, but I am unable to show it as I have no specimen. 

It must be observed that the clothing shown of the 8th to 11th degrees is only worn 
in Lodges up to the 7th degree, as in the higher degrees a special habit of the order is worn 
which is not allowed to be seen by other brethren, and I cannot therefore describe it. The 
officers of the Danish Grand Lodge differ from ours, and their titles may be found in the 
" Cosmopolitan Calendar." 1 

The clothing of the present symbolic Grand Lodge of Hungary is very simple. 2 
The E.-.A.". apron is, as usual, white kid ; that of F.'.O". edged with blue ; and that of M.'.M.\ 
edged and lined blue, with three blue rosettes. There is no difference in this respect even 
for the Grand Master, but the Grand Officers wear a very handsome jewel in the form of a 
five-pointed star, engraved with various symbols, suspended from a collar of light blue ribbon 
edged with a narrow border of the national colours, red, white, and green. Under the former 
Grand Orient the Grand Officers wore a small white apron edged with orange (without 
rosettes), and a sash of orange edged with dark green, with square and compasses in brass 
hanging from a green rosette at the bottom. They also wore their official jewels on a collar 
of the same colour. M.'.M's. - . wore blue sashes ornamented with various emblems 
in gold, and with square and compasses, either in brass, or set with crystals pendant 
from a red rosette. Their aprons were very handsome, and by the kindness of my 
friend, Bro. L. de Malczovich, I show two of these. No. 9 is coloured, and No. 10 is 
printed in blue on white kid. Both are lined black for the 3rd degree, as is also 
the sash No. 11. Under the former St. John's Grand Lodge the aprons were as 
now worn, but in Lodges the brethren wore little trowels similar to those described for 
Denmark, and M.'.M's. - . wore ivory keys on a small blue ribbon round the neck. I have 
elsewhere described a number of the Lodge medals and jewels worn in Hungary. 3 

In Holland the clothing of the Grand Officers of the " Grand Orient of the Nether- 
lands " consists of apron and collar. The former is of white silk bordered with blue and 
fringed with gold, with square and compasses embroidered in gold in the centre ; the collar 
of light blue ribbon embroidered in gold with acacia branches. In private Lodges each has 
its own colour or colours, and a large amount of ornamentation may be employed, at the 
discretion of the members. I have to thank Bro. Vaillant for three handsome specimens, of 
which I show two. No. 12 is of white satin, edged with a frill of light blue ribbon and gold 
braiding. The stars (of which three are missing) are of gilt metal, and the square and 
compasses are worked in gold and silver thread, with a fine red crystal in the head of the 
latter. No. 13 is of white satin with black edge and emblems, and was used only in the 3rd 
degree. The third specimen I have is of white ribbed silk, edged with crimson, and a dark 
blue flap, with narrow gold braid. Bro. Dieperink, P.Prov.G.W., S. Africa, has also kindly 
sent me tracings of a set of aprons for the officers of a Lodge, which are shield shape, of 
white satin, edged with green ribbon ; having the letter G in an irradiated triangle on the 
flap, the emblem of office in the centre, and a deep fringe all of gold. 4 

Under the Grand Orient of Italy the 1st degree apron is white, the 2nd white 
leather lined and edged with green, and having a square printed in black on the centre ; the 
M.\M.\ apron is lined and edged with red, and has a square and compasses printed on it (No. 
14). These aprons are similar in shape to those of England, but the edging much narrower. 
Master Masons also wear a broad sash of rich green ribbon, edged with red, and embroidered 
with various emblems, and a gilt jewel at the point; whilst the inside is of black silk, 
with the emblems of mortality embroidered in white " for mourning sittings." Not having 1 
at present a specimen I am unable to give a drawing. I am inclined to think that the green 
sash, etc., inay be traceable to Scotland, as a Lodge of Scottish Jacobite Masons was working 
in Rome in 1735 (although not warranted, in the modern sense) and they would be very 
likely to use the colour of so many Scottish Lodges, and transmit the idea to other brethren 
in Italy. 

1 Gr. Kenning, London. 2 See also Freemason, June 6th, 1891, p. 309. 

3 Freemason, Christmas No., 1891. 4 See also A.Q.C., vol. iii., " Freemasonry in Holland." 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 35 

The Grand Lodge of Greece at present has no special clothing for its Grand 
Officers, who usually wear the ordinary M.M. apron and sash, but on special occasions they wear 
the clothing of the degrees of the A. - . & A.\S.\ Rite, if they belong to these, although the 
Grand Lodge is quite independent of the Sup. Council 33°. Thanks to my friend, Bro. Philon, 
I am able to give drawings of the very handsome M.M. apron and sash as there ■worn. The 
apron is of white satin, edged and lined with crimson ribbon, and hand painted with the 
Tetragrammaton on the flap (which, by the way, is not really a flap, but only a curve of 
ribbon of the same shape), and a temple, pillars, etc., on the lower part (No. 15). The sash 
(No. 16) is of rich blue silk edged with crimson, and a number of emblems beautifully 
embroidered in gold and silver and crimson velvet, the inside being of black silk, with skull 
and crossboDes in silver thread for use in the 3°. 

The Grand Lodge "Alpina" of Switzerland is notable for the simplicity of its 
attire. The B.A. apron is, as usual, white and with rounded base, that of F.O. edged with 
blue and with two rosettes, that of M.M. lined and edged with blue, and with the flap and three 
rosettes of the same colour (No. 17) ; with this a perfectly plain small blue sash is worn, having 
a small white rosette at the end. The Grand Officers wear a plain white apron, edged and 
lined with crimson, without rosettes, and a collar (No. 18) of rose-coloured ribbon edged 
with white, to which is suspended a square and compasses in gold, with a small star 
enamelled with a white cross on a red ground, suspended in the centre of the latter. The 
Grand Master is distingushed by 3 crimson rosettes on the apron. I have to thank Bro. 
Besson, G.Sec, for these specimens. 

The clothing of the Grand Lodge Of Canada is practically identical with that 
under the Grand Lodge of England. 

The clothing of the Grand Lodge of Sweden is similar to that of Denmark, but r 
am only able at present to show two specimens — that of the apron and collarette of the third 
degree. The ribbon is blue, edged with yellow, shading into brown, but instead of rosettes 
the ribbon is made into a sort of inverted level ; and the collarette has an ivory key attached 
(Nos. 19 and 20). 

Under the Grand Orient of France the ordinary clothing is similar to that of 
Greece, and the colours for the Grand Officers are orange and green, as under the former 
Grand Orient of Hungary. 

In Germany, I understand that the ordinary aprons are simply white. 

The Grand Officers of the " United Lusitanian Orient," of Portugal, wear an apron 
of white satin, with a double edging and three rosettes of gold lace, the flap being semi- 
circular. The width at the bottom is more than at the top, being similar in shape to some 
of the Danish aprons, but larger (No. 21). The collar is of light blue, watered silk edged, 
and embroidered with ears of wheat and acacia leaves, in gold. The gauntlets are also blue, 
bearing the letters G. 0. L. TJ. (Grande Oriente Lnsitano Unido) in a circle of gold. 

The clothing of the Grand Lodge of Egypt is similar to that of England, but the 
edging, etc., for ordinary brethren is of a light sea-green colour, and for Grand Officers, of 
dark green (as in the Royal Order of Scotland), the collars, etc., being quite without 
embroidery, although this addition is in contemplation. 

The clothing of the Grand Lodge of Victoria is the same as in England, save that 
in the Grand Officers clothing, the ears of corn and pomegranates used with ns are replaced 
by fern leaves. 

Of the Grand Lodge Of Liberia, which, like the State itself, must be of interest to 
all lovers of liberty and race equality, I can only give a few particulars. It was founded in 
1866 by a number of brethren — principally coloured — who had received the degrees in 
America, or Europe, and is composed of Grand Officers, Present and Past ; Past Masters of 
subordinate Lodges (now in 1892 the Lodges are seven in number) who are elected 
permanent members of Grand Lodge ; and the actual Masters and Wardens of each Lodge. 
The Grand Officers are nominated at the September meeting, and elected at the animal 
meeting in December. The regalia of Grand Lodge consists of aprons and collars trimmed 
with purple ; and in private Lodges, of aprons trimmed with blue. 

In the United States, some Grand Lodges use plain white aprons only, in others 
there are edging and rosettes of blue, but I am informed that all are very simple. 

The clothing worn by the Grand Officers of the Grand Orient of Belgium is very 
handsome, and in some respects of special interest. The apron is square, with the lower 
corners rounded off, and is of lightish blue silk bordered with gold fringe, but without any 
further ornament. The collars, however, are very elaborate, and, to the best of my know- 
ledge, unique, because, instead of jewels being affixed to them for the various Grand Officers 

36 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

in the usual way, the jewel is embroidered on the collar itself at the point, giving thereby a 
distinctive form to these vestments. The collar of the Grand Master and Grand Master 
" adjoint," or Deputy, is of blue silk, lined with black, and having embroidered in gold the 
blazing sun, and acacia branches, with the letters G.'.O."., and a narrow twisted gold cord. 
The collars of the other Grand Officers all bear the acacia branches and G.'.O."., but differ in 
having a gold braided border ; and the jewels embroidered are as follow : — 1st Grand Warden, 
a level and guage ; 2nd Grand Warden, a level and crowbar (the absence of the plumb-rule 
for J.W. is also novel); Grand Secretary, crossed pens -. Grand Treasurer, a closed box, and 
crossed keys ; Grand Expert and Grand Master of Ceremonies each wear a sword and guage, 
with an eye above ; " Grand Econome," an open box, out of which documents are hanging, 
and above two seals crossed ; Grand Orator, an open book, on which is incribed " Maintien 
des reglements et Stat-Genl." The Deputies of private Lodges wear a collar without gold 
braid or acacia branches, on which is embroidered a silver triangle, irradiated with gold, and 
bearing an eye coloured naturally. I have seen no other collars which resemble these, and 
I show the collar of Grand Warden (No. 22), to indicate the curious level used. 

Although this paper is intended to bear principally on Craft and Royal Arch Masonry, 
I should like to name two specimens from among my aprons and sashes of the hauts grades. 
No. 23 is an old Continental apron of the 30°, embroidered and painted on white satin with a 
black border. On the flap is a red Teutonic cross, and on the body of the apron a vase on three 
legs, ornamented with a blazing sun, two crossed swords, and four flags. The first is white 
with a green cross, the second black and white with a red cross, the third green with a white 
cross, and the fourth red with a black cross ; at the base are the figures 30. No. 24 is a very 
beautiful old Continental apron of the 32°. It is of white satin, edged and lined with 
black. On the flap is a group of flags ; green, red, yellow and white, an all-seeing eye, and 
a red Teutonic cross, surmounted by a black double-headed eagle. In the centre is the 
monogram bearing the emblems of the degree, painted in oil colours, and the whole apron is 
embroidered in gold. The aprons are curious and rare because now the members of the 30° 
and 32° do not wear aprons, but only sashes. 

Space forbids my dilating further on this interesting subject at present, but I may 
do so in the future, and meanwhile, I shall be most grateful to any brother for specimens 
from any country or Grand Body as yet unrepresented in my collection. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 37 


By Dr. W. BEGEMANN, Pr.G.M., Rostock, Mecklenburg. 

^UTL indefatigable Bro. at the Antipodes, C. C. Howard, has advanced some new 
theories with regard to several difficult points of the traditional Craft Legend, 
and seems convinced he has arranged them in proper order. I do not 
think he is right, and therefore feel obliged to produce in our columns my 
doubts against his suppositions, which are based, only on few of the MS 
Constitutions now known, and on not a few historic presumptions rather 
inadmissible, or at least far from being proved. I acknowledge with all my 
heart the labour and pains Bro. Howard has dedicated to his Masonic researches, and congratu- 
late him on his successful commentaries on the William Watson MS., now published in our 
Reprints, vol. m., but I am sorry I cannot agree with him in his historic views. 

Bro. Howard is of opinion that the traditions of the Craft Legend must be portions 
of the original deposit committed to the custody of English Masons. I do not think so, but 
am convinced that most of the special legends of older times, as well as of the English 
period, were introduced by degrees, and are of a rather late origin. We may learn this by 
comparing the different versions from the Masonic Poem down to the ordinary form. 

To begin with the introduction of Masonry into England, it is quite clear from the 
Poem and the Cooke MS. that in the early 15th century only Athelstan had been connected 
with English Masons. There is not the least historic probability that by oral tradition any 
other report could have gone through so many centuries without leaving some trace in the 
earliest MS. Constitutions. The Poem mentions king Athelstan several times (lines 62, 
486, 495), and states that in his time Masonry came into England, was favoured by him with 
articles and points (in later times called charges), and allowed to have an assembly every 
year. The same is told in the latter part of the Cooke MS., which is, no doubt, the very old 
Book of Charges mentioned in former passages of this MS. I quite agree therein with Bro. 
Speth, who dealt with the question in his able commentary upon the Cooke MS. From this 
old " book of charges " and the former part of the Poem we may see that at that time only 
Enclid and Athelstan were taken notice of in Masonic tradition. 

But even at this early date the learned compiler of the Cooke version had embellished 
the stock by many additions : all the historic development from ancient times unto his days 
being, no doubt, his own fabrication. He was a learned man, most probably a clergyman, who 
intended to instruct the working Masons under his care in the history of their art. This is 
declared by himself where he says : 

How and in what maner that this worthy sciens of Gremetry began I wole 
telle you. (I. 36-39.) 

Owre entent is principally to trete of fyrst fundacion of the worthe scyens of 
Gemetry. (I. 77-80). 

Therefrom it is clear that the author compiled the whole, excepted only the " book of 
charges," which was added as the standard Masonic book of the time. So the author became 
the first fabricator of a pretended History of Masonry, himself evidently endeavouring to give 
reliable accounts by scrupulously citing his sources. I am convinced that he firmly believed 
in the truth of his statements, though most of them do not stand modern criticism. People 
in former times were more confident and credulous than to-day. 

The author refers several times to Masonic Traditions, as in lines 418-424, where he 

Elders that were bifor us of masons had these chargys wryten to hem as we 

haue now in owre chargys of the story of Enclidnis as we haue seyn hem. 

writen in latyn & in f rensche ; 
and in lines 533, 534 : 

othere chargys mo that ben wryten in the boke of chargys ; 
and in lines 640, 641, 

as is write and taught in the boke of oure charges. 
Here we have three references to one and the same " book of charges," and only on» 
reference to other Masonic sources is met with in lines 563-568, where we read : 

And in othere cronycleos hit is seyd & in olde bokys of masonry that 

Salomon confirmed the chargys that dauid his fadir had yeue to masons. 

38 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

Besides, he refers very often, to the Bible, to Josephns, Isidorus, Methodius, the 
Polycronicon, and " other chronicles," but nowhere is there any reference to oral Masonic 
-tradition. Why not ? There cannot have been any obvious reason for keeping secret such 
historic traditions, on the contrary Masons would certainly have been inclined to boast of 
them in order to get a better position. In fact the history and the charges of Masonry were 
never considered to be secrets of the craft ; but only the signs, grips, words, tokens, and special 
usages which were never committed to writing. Therefore Dr. Plott could obtain access to a 
MS. Constitution, but he knew nothing of the "certain secret signs" mentioned by him, 
though evidently he would have very much liked to know them. 

From all these considerations I come to the conclusion that the history contained in the 
MS. Constitutions was not a gathering of a multitude of Masonic traditions taken from the 
mouths of the Masons, but a sketch of a pretended history of Masonry fabricated by learned 
men, with the object of acquiring a greater influence over working masons under their care 
and survey. I imagine they wanted to invest masonry with a lustre of antiquity and worth, 
in order to imbue Masons with a higher idea of their moral duties. 

From thia point of view we understand at once why the MS. Constitutions lay such 
stress on all the charges given and confirmed by the high protectors of the craft, from 
Nimrod down to Edwin. The Masons of the 14th and 15th centuries must have been very 
factious and rebellious, as we may learn from the Statutes of Parliament always renewed 
from period to period, therefore it would appear desirable to call them to order and obedience 
by every possible influence and to raise them to a better state of morals and self-education. 
And especially might such clergymen as had been appointed surveyors or overseers of a 
body of Masons feel induced to strengthen their ecclesiastical influence by Masonic instruction 
and educational exhortation. 

Take, for instance, this view of the Masonic Poem, and the purpose of the author will 
appear transparent in all parts of his work. At first he took from an old book of charges 
the Euclid charges and the " articles " and " points " ascribed to Athelstan, the first king of 
all England, who raised England " to an unexampled pitch of glory," and under whose reign 
the laws of the " Frith-Guild " system were codified, and especially " the statutes of the 
London Guilds were reduced into writing." I refer for this point to Bro. Gould's able com- 
mentary on the Regius MS. (p. 19), and fully agree with him in saying, "we may safely 
assume that Athelstan having been the first king of all England, was therefore the most 
natural fountain head from which a legendary belief in the grant of a Royal Charter to the 
Masons can be supposed to have arisen." (p. 21). Probably many grants and charters of 
guilds were ascribed in former times to the reign of Athelstan, and it appears only quite 
natural that Masons also referred their first charges and ordinances to that glorious king. 
Though perhaps they had no real claim to this honour, they, no doubt, considered it a great 
honour to date their " articles " back to the " worthy king," as he is styled in the ordinary 
versions. So the name of Athelstan might be well used to raise the importance of their 
charges and enforce their obligation to them in a higher degree, which is evidently the truo 
meaning of the Athelstan legend. Thus we may safely conclude that the most original form, 
of the " book of charges" contained only the Athelstan legend, and that the addition of Euclid 
was already the beginning of leading Masonry and its Charges back to far times, but not, 
without adding in the meantime a few Charges to keep order and good fellowship, so that 
the Euclid legend after all served the same purpose, that is to say to add to the honour of 
Masonry and to the weightiness of its Charges. And it is obvious that it must have been 
a rather learned man who made this first addition, a clergyman or an architect. 

Now I return to the author of the Poem. After having given the Athelstan 
" articles " and " points," he adds another form of the Athelstan legend under a new title : 
" Alia ordinacio artis gemetrie," which he has evidently taken from another source, as it differs 
somewhat from the former. In my opinion this " alia ordinacio " corroborates the original 
absence of the Euclid legend, but in every case the repetition of Athelstan is to raise the 
importance of his statutes and ordinances which were to be confirmed by his successors. 

Then comes " Ars Quatuor Ooronatorum," which is intended to offer an illustrious 
specimen of model Masons, as we learn from the introductory verses : 

Pray we now to God almy3ht, 

And to hys moder Mary bryjht, 

That we mowe keepe these artyculus here 

And these poynts wel al yfere, 

As dede these holy martyres fowre, 

That yn thys craft were of gret honoure. 

The author did not take this history from masonic tradition, but refers for it to the 
legends of Saints. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 39 

Pointing a paragraph by a sign at the margin he goes on with the story of the Tower 
of Babel, which is, strange to say, ascribed to " Nabogodonosor," whilst Oriental tradition 
imputes it to Nimrod, and so does the ordinary version. Our author wants to give his 
auditors a deterrent example of criminal builders, who were rebels against God, and there- 
fore sustained punishment. 

The next paragraph introduces Euclid once more, saying : 
Thro3gh hye grace of Crist yn heven 
He commensed yn the syers seven, 
and dealing with the seven sciences in a manner differing from all other versions, and the 
author finishes with the warm admonition : 

These ben the syens seven, 

Whose useth hem well, he may han heven. 

The concluding paragraphs, taken from two other non-masonic poems of the time, 
are also meant to instruct and educate the Masons as regards decency and good manners, in 
church as well as in society or among gentlemen and ladies. Herein I disagree with Bro. 
Gould, who is of opinion, " these rules of decorum " were intended " for gentlemen of those 
days " (Commentary, p. 49), their applicability to the circumstances of the working Masons 
in the fourteenth or fifteenth century being at once apparent. Certainly these Masons used 
to go to church, and they had, no doubt, sometimes or often, an opportunity to stand before 
a lord or even a lady, when they would want to know how to behave. Therefore, such instruc- 
tions, far from being " out of place," seem to be rather necessary in a code of manners drawn 
up for the information and education of a body of Masons. The introductory lines of these 
two parts confirm also the intention of instruction, upon which the whole is based. 

Even the beginning of the very " book of charges " at the end of the Cooke MS. 
makes apparent that these so-called books were intended for the instruction of Masons. Wo 
read there : 

Good men for this cause and this maner masonry toke firste bpgynnynge, 
and then follows the story of Euclid in Egypt, showing the same particulars as the first 
legend in the Masonic Poem, certainly not gathered from oral Masonic tradition, bnt from 
some literary source by a learned man. 

The compiler of the Cooke MS. adopted a similar introductory phrase, after having 
preluded the whole with a religious " Thanked be God," wherefrom we may also safely 
assume that the author was a clergyman. This learned man, no doubt, was the first that 
amplified the history of Masonry by as many additional features as he could gather from his 
historic sources. His manner of referring to them so pertinaciously makes apparent that he 
is the very author of the whole compilation. Only a few times, as I pointed out above, he 
names a source of a Masonic character, that is to say the old " book of charges," and when in 
the Solomon legend he cites " old books of Masonry," it may be that Solomon was mentioned 
already in some writing or other, but nowhere do we meet any oral masonic tradition. Where- 
fore there cannot remain any doubt, that this so called oral tradition is not a fact, but only a 
fiction, based on mere suppositions without any historic evidence. 

The compiler of this new history of Masonry preserved the features he found in the 
" book of charges," but the Euclid legend as well as the Athelstan legend are embellished 
with some additions, wherefrom we may see how much he was inclined to extend the whole 
to a fall and most exact history. He is very loquacious, and fills 121 lines (418-538) with 
the Euclid legend, repeating some of the particulars two or three times. At first he wants 
to add how that Euclid came to geometry, as it is noted, according to him, in the Bible, and 
in other stories, and so he combines Abraham's going to Egypt, as told in the Bible, with the 
later Oriental tradition of Abraham's profuse learning, and makes Euclid his scholar in 
Egypt. Then Euclid teaches the Egyptians to make walls and ditches, to meet the dangers 
of the flowing Nile, and partitioned the land by geometry, so that every man could close his 
own part, and afterwards the country became so full of all kind of fruit and of young people, 
that they could not live. Here the author inserts the legend as contained in the " book of 
charges," adding the chief charges and referring for other charges to the named book. 
Eour times he repeats that Euclid gave the science the name of geometry, whilst in the " book 
of charges" it is said, that Euclid called it masonry. 

Here we have an instructive specimen of our author's manner of dealing with his 
materials, his chronology being very arbitrary in representing Abraham and Euclid as con- 
temporaries. We may ascribe this blunder to the literary ignorance of that time. 

Let us now consider the Athelstan legend as given by our author. He evidently was 
not satisfied with the tale that in the time of this king Masonry was first introduced into 
England, and therefore imputed the first introduction to St. Alban, the proto-martyr of 
England, as he is styled in one version of the MS. Constitutions. After him the new town 
opposite to old Verulam was called St. Albans, built about 948, according to an old tradition, 
whilst the Benedictine Abbey of St. Albans is said to have been founded about 790. It is 

40 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 

incontestible that our author meant the Saint himself and not the town, therefore Bro. 
Howard's suppositions, based on the text of the later versions, are by no means admissible, 
the less since the reading of the William Watson MS. {St. Amphabell), together with Plott's 
" St. Amphibal " makes it doubtless that the " seyrvt ad hahelle " of the Cooke MS. is only an 
error of the scribe. This was plain enough of itself as well as by a sound criticism, but now 
it is beyond question. I quite agree in this point with Bro. W. H. Rylands {Transactions 
iv., p. 214), who mentions also the fact, that the reference to the town is a later addition in our 
MS. Constitutions. Perhaps there was some old tale, in a chronicle or elsewhere, in the 
neighbourhood of the town, that St. Alban himself had been the builder, as the name cam© 
from him ; but I do not believe that our author knew such account, because in this case, 
according to his practice, he would have cited his source. Wherefore I feel convinced he 
jumped to the conclusion, from the name of the town, that St. Alban had been the builder, 
and thus he might well be considered the first protector of Masonry in England, who loved'well 
Masons and gave them charges and manners. And as our author saw in the Polychronicon 
a notice that St. Amphibalus was the teacher of St. Alban, he thought it necessary to begin 
this part of his history of masonry with St. Amphibal, who came into England and converted 
St. Alban, so forming a link between Gaul and England. From this point of view our 
author would be the inventor of the Alban legend, as he, in fact, introduced it first into the 
so-called history of masonry, which was amplified by him in so profuse a manner. The 
compiler of the version contained in the William Watson MS. added a few particulars and 
embellished the whole. The Cooke version runs thus : 

And Sonne after that come seynt ad habelle into Englond and he conuertyd 
seynt Albon to cristendome. And seynt Albon lovyd welle masons and he yaf 
hem fyrst here charges and maners fyrst in Englond. And he ordeyned 
conuenyent [mede] to pay for ther trauayle. 
After some introductory phrases the William Watson version reads as follows : 

Amphabell came out of ffrance into England & he brought St. Albone into 

Christendome & made him a Christian man & he brought w th him y e charges 

of Masons as they were in ffrance & in other Lands, and in that time y e King 

of y e Land y* was a Panem dwelled there as St. Albans is now & he had many 

Masons working on y e Towne walls, and at y* time St. Albane wasy e Kings 

Steward paymaster & Governour of y* Kings worke & loved well Masons & 

cherished them well & made them good pay, for a Mason took but a penny a 

day and meat & drink, & St. Albone got of y e King y* every Mason should haue 

xxx d a week & iiij d for their non finding & he got them charges if manners as 

St. Amphabell had taught him, & they doe but a little differ from y e charges 

y* be used now at this time. 

It is clear that the author of this version did not feelsatisfied with the scant account 

his predecessor had given of the first introduction of Masonry into England. He therefore 

asserts expressly that Amphabell brought from France the charges of Masons, and afterwards he 

adds : as St. Amphabell had tauqht him. These are additions of his own, no doubt, offering 

themselves from the nature of the whole, no kind of oral or other tradition being necessary 

to account for them. 

Also the increase of St. Alban's merits was added from the author's own invention, 
but doubtless he found in some legend of St. Alban that he was " Steward of the Kingdom " 
(see W. H. Rylands, Transactions, iv., p. 215). Now it seems remarkable that the William 
Watson version brings the " town walls " into connection with the king, that was a pagan, 
who had many Masons working on the town walls, whilst the younger and ordinary version 
transfers the " government of the realm and of the making of the town wall " to St. Alban. 
Besides, the W. Watson reviser added a few words and phrases from other passages of the 
Cooke version ; so Cooke has only " St. Alban loved well masons," W. Watson here adding 
" and cherished them well," as we find with Cooke, lines 349 and 592, in the stories of 
Nimrod and of Carolus secundus, the latter passage immediately before the one in question. 
The concluding phrase, " and they do but little differ from the charges that be used now at 
this time," is a counterpart to a passage in the history of Solomon, where we read : "Solomon 
himself taught them their manners, very little differing from the manners that now are 
used." In the Cooke version (11. 628-631) it is said : " And he (Athelstan's youngest son) 
yaf hem charges and names (i.e., manners) as hit is now vysd in Englond and in othere 
countres," wherefrom the W. Watson reviser took his addition to St. Amphibal : " and he 
brought w ih him y e charges of Masons as they were in ffrance & in other Lands." As to the 
wages granted by St. Alban, they appear rather high for that time. We know, from the 
Statutes of Labourers, that in 1350 and 1360 Masons should not take for their work but in 
such manner as they were wont ; that is to say, a Master Mason fourpence, and other 
Masons threepence a day, that is eighteenpence, for th •» ordinary Mason, a week. It was not 
before 1389 that the wages should be, at Easter and Michaelmas, proclaimed by the justices 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 41 

according to the dearth of victuals. Now we meet in. the "Book of charges," ini the "firste- 
article," the following passage : 

and not yefe more pay to no mason than he wot he may diserne after th» 

derthe of korne <fe vytayle in the conntrey ; 

and the Masonic Poem reads in the " articnlns primus " : 

And pay thy felows after the coste, 
As vytaylys goth thenne, wel thou woste ; 
And pay them trwly, apon thy fay, 
What that they deserven may. 

Besides obtaining from these passages a specimen of the striking resemblance of 
these two old documents, we learn in the meantime that the original " Book of Charges " was 
uot compiled before 1389, the year of the Statute, by which the wages were proscribed to be 
fixed after the price of corn and other victuals. In 1427, the ordinance of 1389 concerning the- 
wages was repeated, but in 1444-5 the wages were again fixed by a new ordinance ; the sum- 
mer wages of a Freemason being fourpence a day, with meat and drink, and fivepence 
without ; the winter wages, threepence with meat and drink, and fourpence without ; whilst- 
a rough Mason was to get threepence with meat and drink, or fourpence without in the 
summer (see Gould's History, ii., p. 362). In 1495 a Freemason as well as a rough Mason, 
were to take fourpence with diet and sixpence without, in summer ; threepence with diet 
or fivepence without, in winter (Gould, Ibid, p. 367). Now, as St. Alban in W.W. is said to- 
have raised the wages of Masons to thirtypence a week, and threepence for their nuncheon. 
(fourpence is a mistake of the scribe), this addition to the legend cannot well have been 
made before 1445, when the wages were fixed in a similar manner. Therefore the first com- 
pilation of the W.W. version may be dated about 1450, when the new charges probably were 
" seen and perused " by Henry vi., as I pointed out in the " Freemason " (February 14th, 
1891), and the increase of the wages of 1445 may have caused the new revision of the 
charges as well as of the craft legend. Henry vr. is not likely to have " seen and perused " 
the charges after 1455, so that all pertinent circumstances point to about 1450. Then, it 
is true, a new copy must have been made after 1471, the year of Henry's death, because in 
W.W., as well as with Anderson, he is styled " our late Sovereign King." Perhaps Plott 
had a more original copy of the new version, as we may conclude from his omitting the word 
" late," and from other peculiarities I hinted at in my " Remarks on the William Watson 
MS." (see Transactions, iv., p. 111). 

I think it is clear that the author of the W.W. version fabricated the Alban legend 
on the ground of the Cooke version, amplifying it by some phrases taken from other passages 
of the same model, and by some additions of his own invention ; especially about the wages- 
granted by St. Alban, which he adapted to the wages of his own time, that is to say, the 
middle of the 15th century. Now it is not less clear that the author of the ordinary version 
of the 16th and 17th centuries based his form of the Alban legend again on the W.W. 
version. The authentic reading thereof is, in my opinion, the following : 

And England in all this season stood void as for any charge of masonry until 

St. Alban's time, and in his days the King of England, that was a painim 

(pagan), did wall the town about that is now called St. Albans. And St. 

Alba a was a worthy knight and steward of tho King's household and had the 

governance of the realm and also of the making of the town walls, and he 

loved well Masons and cherished them much, and he made their pay right 

good standing as the realm did require, for he gave them 2s. 6d. a week and 

3d. for their nuncheons, and before that time through all the land a mason 

took but a penny a day and his meat, until St. Alban amended it and got them 

a charter of the King and his council, for to hold a general council, and gave 

it the name of assembly. And thereat he was himself and helped to make 

masons and gave them charges as you shall hear afterwards. 

A great many of the manuscripts extant omit portions of the above, but by using the exact 

critical method the passage will be found thus restored. The Grand Lodge family has, 

on the whole, preserved the better text, but in some passages the Sloane family excels. The 

Lansdowne MS., which has been relied on in some questions by Bro. Howard as well as 

Bro. Bylands, is mutilated and untrustworthy as to the particulars : certainly it goes back to 

a good old manuscript, but is full of errors and chasms : and though many of them were 

already in the prototype, the scribe of the Lansdowne MS. has added faults and omissions of 

his own, as we see by comparing the Antiquity and Probity MSS. So in the Alban legend 

L. omits all the words behind the first " St. Alban's " above until the second " St. Albans," 

reading : 

And England in that Season stood void as fforagine (i.e., for any) Charge of 
Maions vntill St. Albanos . . . and St. Albanes was a worthy Knight, etc. 

42 Transactions of the Lodge Q,uatuor (Joronati. 

whilst Antiquity and Probity have the omitted passage. These two cannot have been taken, 
from L., but point to an older copy, which must have had already the chasms peculiar to 
this whole branch of MSS. The value of L. is not so high as some students seem to believe 
the MS. being, no doubt, not of the sixteenth century, but of the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, at least not older than 1650. This is apparent from some peculiar specimens of 
spelling as well as from, the handwriting. So we read belongs, methinks, instead of belongeth, 
methmketh : masonry, geometry, astronomy, instead of masonrie, geometrie, astronomie. The MS. 
is written in a clear and current hand, which resembles in a striking manner that of the 
William Watson MS. of 1687. I think it impossible that L. could go back even to 1600, 
though it may be a transcript of a copy of that time, and because L. is rather young and 
very unreliable, we cannot base any opinion on this MS. 

Now, on comparing the Alban legend of the ordinary version with that of W.W., we 
see at once that St. Amphibal or Amphabell has been eliminated. I do not quite understand 
the motive, but the fact is sure, as there cannot be any doubt that the author worked from 
the W.W. version. He added some particulars from the Edwin legend, namely the getting 
of a charter from the king, the making of a congregation or council, the giving it the name 
of assembly, the being present thereat. Thus, after omitting Amphabell, the Alban legend 
has been embellished by some features of the Edwin legend, evidently in order to make 
complete the history of the first introduction of Masonry into England 

Next we come to the Athelstan-Edwin legend, and in order to overlook well the whole 
development, let us begin with the " Book of Charges." Here we read as follows (see Cooke 
MS., II. 688-710) : 

In this maner was the forsayde art begunne in the londe of Egypte bi the 

forsayd maister Englat, & so hit went fro londe to londe and fro kyngdome 

to kyngdome. After that many yeris in the tyme of kynge adhelstone, wiche 

was sumtyme kynge of Englonde, [it came into England]. Bi his counselle 

and other© grete lordys of the londe bi comyn assent, for grete defavte y f ounde 

amonge masons, thei ordeyned a certayne reule amongys hem [that] on tyme 

of the yere, or in the iij. yere, as nede were to the kynge and gret lordys of 

the londe and alle the comente, fro pro vy nee to provynce and fro countre 

to countre, congregacions sholde be made bi maisters of alle maisters Masons 

and f elaus in the forsayde art. 

The passage seems to have been somewhat mutilated, but on the whole appears to be 

complete, so that Athelstan is mentioned alone, whilst the author of the Cooke version 

introduced his " youngest son " and some more particulars, the passage running thus : — 

And after that was a worthy kynge in Englond, that was callyd Athelsfcone, 

and his yongest sone lovyd welle the sciens of Gemetry, and he wyst welle 

that hand craft had the practyke of the sciens of Gemetry so welle as masons, 

wherefore he drewe hym to conselle and lernyd practyke of that sciens to his 

speculatyf, ffor of speculatyfe he was a master, and he lovyd welle masonry 

and masons. And he bicome a mason hymselfe. And he yaf hem charges 

and names (i.e., manners) as hit is now vsyd in Englond and in othere countres. 

And he ordeyned that they schulde haue resonabulle pay. And purchesed a 

fre patent of the kyng, that they schulde make a sembly whan thei sawe 

resonably time, a (i.e., and) cum togedir to here counselle, of the whiche 

charges, manors & semble (as) is write and taught in the boke of oure charges, 

wherfor I leve hit at this tyme. 

Nobody will be able to say what the author intended by introducing a youngest son of 

Athelstan. As we know from history that Athelstan had no son at all, we are at a loss to 

■find a solution. Nevertheless, it is a fact that this youngest son appears here for the first 

time, as it is beyond question, that the author compiled this version from several historic 

sources, as well as from his own fancy or pretended knowledge. Certainly this youngest son 

sprang out of the brains of our author, for he does not mention any source to strengthen his 

statement. Perhaps he did not think it proper to a king of England to mingle with masons 

himself, and therefore he provided Athelstan with a youngest son for fraternizing with the 

Masons. Bro. W. H. Rylands (Transactions iv., p. 214) refers to the Lansdowne MS., and 

is of opinion, the reading of this MS. might correct the error of the Cooke MS. I do not 

think so, because the text of the Lansdowne MS. is, no doubt, not the original one, as we 

may see from the agreement of all other really ancient and reliable copies. It is true, 

all the three copies of the branch read : " until the time of King Athelston, in his time there 

was a worthy King in England," nevertheless, this is a corruption of the original reading, 

which is to be found in the Melrose, Dowland, York No. 6, and Wood MSS., where we meet 

with the following passage : " unto the time of King Athelstan('s) days," ("Athelstane his 

days," Wood); and the Aberdeen MS offers, "until the good Athellstone his dayes." 

Evidently the prototype of the Lansdowne branch was taken from a MS. that had " until the 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 43 

time of King Athelstone his days," wherefrom the actual reading is explained at once : the 
scribe misunderstood the real meaning and inserted the word " in," the same scribe or 
perhaps a later one, changed " days " into " time," and " that " into " there." So the 
protector of the masons remains the son of Athelstan. I cannot solve the puzzle of this 
" youngest son," hut the fact is, that the compiler of the Cooke version introduced him into- 
the legend. It strikes me that he did not give him a name, and even this circumstance 
appears to confirm the suspicion that this son ■was an invention of his own. Perhaps also he 
kept in his mind the remembrance of some distinguished " youngest son," and transferred 
him to Athelstan ; for instance, King Alfred the Great was the youngest son of his father 
Ethelwolf. It is impossible to clear up all the difficulties of the Craft legend ; we must he 
satisfied, in more than one case, with finding out the approximate time of their first appear- 
ance. So we may safely assume that the " youngest son of Athelstan " was introduced hy 
the author of the Cooke version in the beginning of the 15th century, say about 1420, or even 
somewhat earlier. Oral Masonic tradition, of course, is out of the question at so late a period. 
The further particulars hy which our author embellishes the Masonic merits of the- 
" youngest son," do not seem to afford any difficulty, as the young Prince was so very fond 
of Geometry that he was not satisfied by dealing with the science, but wanted to learn also 
the practice thereof, and therefore he became a Mason himself. The Masons received Charges- 
and manners of him, as is told of all the other protectors throughout the whole history 
compiled by our author, and besides, the prince amended the wages and got a charter from 
his father. 

Now let us see what has become of the legend in the W.W. version : 

and soe these charges and manners were used many years, & afterwards they 
were almost near hand lost [by great wars] untill y" time of King Ethelstone,. 
w ch said King Ethelstone [brought the land to good rest and peace and 
built many great works, and he loved well Masons and confirmed the charges 
and manners that St. Alban had given to them, and he had a son, that was 
called Edwin, and was the youngest son of King Ethelstone], and y e same 
Edwine loved well Geometry andapplied himselfe busily in learning y*science and 
alsoe he desired to haue y e practise thereof, wherefore he called unto him of y e 
best Masons y* were in y e Realme, for he knew well y* they had y e practise 
of Geometry best of any craft in y* Realme, & he learned of them Masonry 
& cherished & loved them well, & he took upon him y e charges & 
learned y° manners, & afterward for y e loue y* he had unto y e craft, & for 
y good grounding y* it was found in, he purchased a free charter of y e King his 
ffather, y* they should haue such a fredome to haue correction within themselues,. 
& y* they might haue communication together to correct such things as were 
amiss within themselues, and they made a great Congregation of Masons to- 
assemble together at Torke, where he was himselfe, & let call y e old Masons 
of the Realme to y* congregation, & comanded them to bring to him all y^ 
writeings of y e old books of y e craft that they had, out of w* books they 
contrived y e charges by y e divise of y e wisest Masons y* there were, &- 
comanded y 4 these charges might be kept & holden, & he ordained y* such 
congregacon might be called assembly, & he ordained for them good pay, y* 
they might Hue honestly, y e w* charges I will declare hereafter, & this (i.e.,, 
thus) was y e craft of Masonry there grounded and considered (i.e., confirmed) 
in England. 
Here we meet with another historic blunder, as the son of Athelstan is called Edwin,. 
and the first congregation is said to have taken place at York ; besides this, Edwin orders- 
a new book of charges to be compiled from the old books : the other particulars being almost 
the same as in the Cooke version, but that the whole again has been somewhat amplified or 
embellished. A new feature is, that the congregation was named assembly by Edwin, which 
has been transferred to St. Alban in the ordinary version. Bro. W. H. Rylands may be- 
right in supposing that by this Edwin is meant Edwin of Northumbria, who held a parliament 
near York in 627 (Transactions iv., p. 214). Certainly Athelstan's brother Edwin is not likely 
to be the archetype of the Edwin of the legend. The reviser of the legend was sensible of a. 
deficiency because of the missing name of the son of Athelstan, therefore he added a name 
that seemed to be convenient to the whole situation, and so Edwin of Northumbria, who 
lived in the 7th century, became a son of Athelstan, who lived in the 10th century. The. 
reviser, probably, was a man of Northumbria, and had heard something of king Edwin, who- 
was of great renown in former times. After all, the fact is certain that 'Edwin and York do not 
appear in the Craft legend before the middle of the \hth century, when the knowledge of former- 
centuries was not very deep. I trust nohody will undertake to deny that the W.W. version 
is based on the Cooke version, as its whole tenor proves the fact. The passage given above 
within brackets must be supplied, though the original reading may have been somewhat- 

^44 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor (Joronati. 

"different in certain expressions or phrases (see my "Remarks," Transactions iv., p. 111.) I 
am glad to see that Bro. Howard has come to a similar result (J&eprints, vol. iii., pt. iv., p. 
xvii), but he does not add so much as myself. The chasm itself is beyond question. 

Now to conclude for the pr-esent, I give the passage in question as contained in the 
ordinary version, and restored by the critical method: 

Eight soon after the decease of St. Alban there came great wars into England 
of divers nations, so that the good rule of masonry was destroyed until the 
time of king Athelstan, that was a worthy King of England and brought all 
this land into^good rest -and peace, and builded many great works as abbies 
and towers and many other buildings. And he loved well masons, and he had 
a son that hight Edwin, and he loved masons much more than his father did. 
And he was a great praetker of geometry, and he drew him(self) much to 
commune and to talk with masons to learn of them the craft, and afterwards, 
for the love he had to-masons and to the craft, he was made a mason himself. 
And he got of the king his father- a charter and commission to hold every year 
once an assembly, where they would within the Realm of England, and to 
correct within -themselves defaults and trespasses that were done within the 
craft. And he held himself an assembly at York, and there he made masons 
and gave them charges and taught them the manners and commanded that 
rule to be kept for ever after, and gave them the charter and commission to 
keep and made an ordinance that it should be renewed from king to king. 
And when the assembly was gathered together, he made a cry that all old 
masons, that had any writing or understanding of the charges and the manners, 
that were made before in this land or in any other, that they should bring and 
show them forth ; and when it was proved, there were found some in French, 
some in Greek, some in Latin, some in English, and some in other languages, 
and the intent of them was found all one. And he made a book thereof, how 
the craft was first founded, and he himself bad and commanded, that it should 
be read or told, when any mason should be made, for to give him his charge, 
and from that day until this time the manners of masons have been kept in 
that form as well as men might govern it. And furthermore at divers assem- 
blies certain charges have been put to and ordained by the best advice of 
masters and fellows. 
It is easily to be seen that this ordinary form of the Athelstan- Edwin legend is based 
on the "W. W. version given above, all main features being the same, and nothing of import- 
ance having been added ; but that the old writings are said to have been found in different 
languages. This may be caused by a former passage of the Cooke and W. Watson MSS, 
where the charges are said to have been written in Latin and French ; this passage of the 
Euclid legend was omitted by the latter reviser, and he now embellished the Athelstan- 
Edwin legend with these foreign idioms, adding " Greek " and " other languages." Certainly 
the author of the Cooke version was right with his " Latin and French," for these two 
languages were much used in England, and there are, for instance, two Latin ordinances 
among the Fabric Rolls of York Minster, one of about 1350, the other of 1409 ; both of a 
time, near to that of the author of the Cooke version. Bro. Gould (History, ii., p. 341 seq.) 
deals with Regulations for the trade of Masons, A.D. 1356, that are written in Latin and 
French. Therefore it is quite authentic that the author of the Cooke version had seen 
Masonic charges in Latin and French ; but it is equally sure that the author of the ordinary 
"version made use of his own fancy in creating also Masonic writings in " Greek " and in 
" other languages." I mentioned already, that the introduction of the name of Assembly 
was transferred by our author from Edwin to St. Alban. To corroborate my conviction, that 
indeed the ordinary version was based on the W. W. version, I point out a few passages 
that show their origin most perspicuously. "We read in the W. W. : — "they had the 
' practise of Geometry ' . . . . and he ' learned- of them masonry '....' and 
afterwards for the love y* he had unto the craft ' .... he purchased a free' charter of 
y 15 king his father '....' to correct ' such things as were amiss ' within themselves.' " 
The ordinary version runs thus : — " he was a great ' practiser of Geometry ' . . . . ' to 
learn of them the craft ' . . . , and he got ' of the king his father a charter ' . . . 
' to correct within themselves ' defaults and trespasses." The author of the latter lets the 
old Masons bring their writings, and makes a book of charges thereof, just as the W. W. 
version calls the old Masons to bring all writings, wherefrom they contrive the charges. The 
order that the book should be read or told when any Mason should be made, for to give him 
his charges, was taken from the next part of the W. W., where it is said : "that when any 
fellow shall be received and allowed, that these charges might be read unto him and he to 
take his charges." The last account, that at divers assemblies certain new charges have 
been made by the best advice of masters and fellows, has also its model in W. W. : " Right 

, . Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 45 

-worshipful ' masters and fellows ' y* [have] been of ' divers semblies ' and congregations 
, . . . ' hath ordained ' and made ' charges by their best advise.' " 

The Tew MS has preserved another passage of W. W., which has been omitted in all 
Other MSS. of the ordinary version : 

And these Charges have been gathered and Drawne ont of Divers Antient 
books and Writings as they were made & confirmed in Egypt by the King, 
And by the Great Clerk Euclid & by David & Solomon his son & in France by 
Charles Martill who was King of France & in England by St. Alban and 
afterwards by Athelstone & by Edwin his Son that was King after him: 
This snmmary of the history of Masonry was also based on W. W., where we read 
immediately after the passage on Henry vi. and his Council : 

and these charges have been drawne & gathered ont of divers antient books 

both of y e old Law and new Law as they were confirmed and made in Egypt 

by y e King and by y e great Clarke Enclidus & at y e makeing of Solomons 

Temple by King David & by Salom his sonn and in firance by Charles King 

of fErance and in England by St. Albon that was y e steward to y* King y* was 

at y* time, & afterward by King Ethelstone y* was King of England, & by his 

son Edwin y* was King after his fEather. 

Considering all these agreements, we are forced to say that the text of the ordinary 

version was made np from the W. W. : and the surplus of the Tew MS., together with some 

more peculiarities of this remarkable copy, makes me suppose that this MS. forms a kind of 

link between W. W. and the bulk of the ordinary version, so proving to be of special value 

to Masonic students. We learn from it that the obscure " Hermerines " once must have 

been " Pythagoras," and that " Naymns Grecus " or " Maymus Greens " was never 

" Nemausus " or " Nemaus," or the like, but had originaly an M at his head, the Tew MS. 

Teading once "Mammongretus," and once " Memongretus," wherein the t probably was 

mistaken for c. 

I shall deal with these matters in a later continuation : for the present I beg to conclude 
with the statement, that the William Watson version was, to all appearance, revised in the 
16th century, say about 1510 to 1520, and underwent a great many alterations on one side ; 
■considerable reductions and some additions on the other. 

(To be continued). 

FRIDAY, 4th MARCH, 1892. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 6 p.m. Present — Bros. W. H. Bylands, 
P.G.St., W.M. ; W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., I.P.M. ; Dr. W. Wynn Westoott, S.W.; 
Dr. B. W. Eichardson as J.W. ; G. W. Speth, See. j E. F. Gould, P.G.D., D.C. ; and 
0. Kupferschmidt, I.G. Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle— 
Bros. C. Fletcher; Stephen Richardson ; C. B. Barnes; J. Seymour; J. Kemsley; 
T. Charters White ; J. Mortimer Davis ; Mark Newsome ; E. BTaward ; Dr. J. Balfour 
Cockburn; Rev. J. H. Scott ; F.W.Wright; G.Greiner; Hamon Le Strange, J.G.D.; 
W. G. P. Gilbert; E. Palmer Thomas; Col. Martin Petrie; E. A.Gowan; C. F. 
Hogard, P.G.St.B. ; M. C. Peck, P.G.St.B. ; G. Gregson ; J. Newton ; and C. Fruen. 
Also the following visitors — Bros. M. H. Beddington of Lodge No. 10 ; H. Ffrench 
Bromhead of No. 2318 ; H. W. Noakes of No. 108; H. B. Chamberlin of No. 2 Soot- 
land; Mark Scott of No. 556 ; and Dr. Lloyd Tuokey of No. 1694. 

Six Lodges and sixty-five Brethren were elected to the membership of the Correspondence Circle - 
The W.M. called the attention of the brethren to the fact that seventeen of these candidates, the majority 
of whom were Past Grand Masters of Tennessee, had sent in their names through Brother Connor, P.G.M. 
of that State, who, as they would remember, had visited them in November last, and been so pleased with 
the objects and pursuits of the Lodge that he had immediately petitioned to be received into the Outer 
Circle, and had stated his intention of making the existence of the Lodge widely known in his jurisdiction. 
That so soon after his return home he should have been able to send in such a list was gratifying, as it 
distinctly showed that there was still a large number of brethren who would be anxious to join the Circle 
if only its existence could be brought home to them. 

The Secretary exhibited a print of the " Procession of the Soald Miserable Masons," the gift of 
Brother Professor Hayter Lewis, who was, they would be pleased to learn, slowly progressing towards 
better health. 

The following paper was read : — 


m.d., l.l.d., f.r.s., f.s.a. 

Worshipful Master and Brethren, 

^HEN" I speak of the Masonic genius of Robert Burns, I mean that his genius, 
■which is universally admitted, partakes of the genius of Masonic order or type. 
In this discourse I shall consider him first from this point of view. Next, I 
shall speak of his poetic genius as appealing primarily to the Masonic brother- 
hood, and as fostered and fed by that fraternity. I shall then proceed to 
treat of his love for the brotherhood as manifested in the productions of his 
poetic genius. Finally, I shall for a few moments dwell on the tendency and 
tenure of his work as Masonic in quality in the higher and nobler, shall I not say the highest 
and noblest, forms of Masonic liberty and moral amplitude. This will divide my subject 
into four sections or parts, and will enable brethren who may join in the discussion to fix on 
particular points as they follow what I shall venture to lay before them. 

In studying the first section of this division — the genius of Masonry in relation to the 
natural genius of the man — we must know the man from the first, know him from his own 
heart. In an order or fraternity like Masonry there is a true, a deep, and subtle genius 
which holds it together ; and that the order may be held together there must be, in a greater 
or lesser degree, the same kind of genius in every individual member. All fraternities of 
might and effect and endurance, whether they be considered good or bad by outsiders, must 
be constructed on this plan. Orders, in fact, are composed of men born to aptitudes befitting 
the order. There are, of course, exceptions to this general rule. There are in every fraternity 
members who are perfectly indifferent ; there are members who are merely converts ; and 
there are, in all great combinations, a few who may even be inimical. But on the whole the 
strongest societies have for their centre an overwhelming unity, at the head of which are they 
who are particularly bound to the principles that are at stake, and who come into the mastery 
of those principles by what is naturally a common bond. In this position Robert Burns stands 
as regards the Masonic bond and unity. Masonry, when he found it, was akin to his native 
genius ; it was to him that touch of nature which makes all akin. 

For the birth of this sympathy we have to turn to the best picture we can get of the 
poet while his nature was being moulded into the form it took as Mason and poet. Fortu- 
nately for us, owing to the interposition of a very remarkable man, who is now too much 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 47 

forgotten, we have an account of this period of the poet's life from the poet himself. The 
scholar who obtained this treasnre was Dr. John Moore, the father of that illustrious Sir 
John Moore, hero of Corunna, on whom Wolfe wrote the immortal poem beginning, — 

" Not a drum was heard nor a funeral note, 
As Ms corse to the ramparts we hurried, 
Not a soldier discharged a farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our hero we buried." 

Dr. Moore, whose life I have recently written, and of whom I present three portraits 
for your inspection, was by profession a physician, residing first in Glasgow and finally in 
London ; but he added to his Esculapian gifts those of the traveller, the man of the world, 
and the industrious writer. He was in France with the Duke of Hamilton before the days 
of the great Revolution, and with the same clearness of foresight as his friend Smollett, 
predicted the great event that must follow from what he beheld in progress. Again, he was 
in Paris in the early days of the great Revolution itself ; heard the first shots fired at the 
Tnilleries ; attended the meetings of the National Assembly ; and left the finest description 
of Marat, whom he knew personally, that has ever been written on that famous infamous 
person. His journal of the days of the Revolution has been more cribbed from, without 
acknowledgment, than most works of original men. But he was more than the journalist of 
striking events ; he was himself an artist in letters,and his story " Zelncco " was the inspira- 
tion of the poem " Childe Harold," which Byron left to the admiring world. Still further, 
Dr. Moore was of biographic taste, and was anxious, on all suitable occasions, to get from 
their prime sources the histories of remarkable men. Thus it was he got from Robert Burns 
himself that account of his, Burns', early days with which, I doubt Dot, most of yon are 
familiar. Gilbert Burns, brother of the poet, says that in this narrative the poet set off 
some of his early companions "in too consequential a manner," which is perhaps too true, 
for poets are apt to be poets all over, in prose as in verse ; anyway, there is rendered in this 
composition the fact which chiefly concerns us, that companionship of the brotherly type 
was the early love of the after Mason. Burns rejoiced in all social gatherings, and cared 
nothing whatever for his daily work when he was encircled, in the evening of the day, 
with his friends whom, in love or in war, in song or in story, he impetuously led. He was 
mystic from the first, and breathed poetry before he knew it himself. Like Pope : — 
" He lisped in numbers, or the numbers came." 

He was living at Tarbolton with his family when these faculties, belonging to his seventeenth 
year, developed themselves. He possessed, he says, a curiosity, zeal, and intrepid dexterity 
that recommended him as a proper second, and he felt as much pleasure in being in the 
secret of half the loves of Tarbolton as ever did statesman in knowing the intrigues of half 
the courts of Europe. He felt that to the sons and daughters of poverty, " the ardent hope, 
the stolen interview, the tender farewell, are the greatest and most delicious parts of their 
enjoyments." This was a glance at the loves of the simple : he found it to apply, later on, 
to other mysteries, and in all cases his heart beat sympathetically to the sentiment. 

In his nineteenth year he made a change, in his life which is curious, symbolically, 
and perhaps had relation to after Masonic work of the speculative rather than the working 
character. He spent his nineteenth summer on a smuggling coast, a good distance from 
home, at a noted school, to learn mensuration, surveying, and dialling. Here, although he 
took part in scenes which had better have been avoided, he went on " with a high hand " 
at his geometry, " till the sun entered Virgo, which was always a carnival in his bosom," 
and then in a few weeks he left his school to return home. But he had considerably improved, 
and from his studies had certainly learned the use of the tools of a Mason, the rule, the 
compass, the level, and the skerritt. 

All this was congenial towards Masonry in its form of speculative mystery, and we 
need not, therefore, be surprised that it was not long before he joined our ancient order. 
There was, at the time of his residence at Tarbolton, a Masonic Lodge called St. David's. 
The harmony which ought to exist in all Lodges of the Craft does not seem to have been 
perfect in this one. There had been another Lodge in Tarbolton, known as the St. James', 
and some discordant elements might have come down from that Lodge to the St: David's, 
which, for a time, superseded it. Be that as it may, St. David's had the honour of receiving 
the young Scottish poet into its bosom. Burns was initiated in St. David's Lodge, Tarbolton, 
on July 4th, 1781, he being then in his twenty-third year. He became from that moment 
one of the most devoted of Masons. In every way Masonry was congenial to his mind. 
There was in it a spirit of poetry which was all the sweeter to him because it was concealed, 
and there was in it the fact of something done which the best in the world copied from, 
without knowing the source of the inspiration ; something like that which Shelley after- 
wards, unconsciously as applied to this subject, expressed in the exquisite song to the 
skylark : — 

Ir ansae tions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

" Like a poet hidden 

In the light of thought, 
Singing hymns unbidden 

Till the world is wrought 
To sympathy with hopes 

And f ears it heeded not." 

and which Burns himself, in another form and measnre, expressed in the lines :— 

" The sooial, friendly, honest man, 
Whate'er he be, 
'Tib he fulfils great Nature's plan, 
And none bat he. 

Burns had no sooner been initiated into Masonry than he threw himself into work connected 
with it with his whole heart. He found, nevertheless, that even among Masons there may 
be discord. The old feud in the St. David's Lodge increased, and came, at last, to such a 
pitch, that a sharp division took place. In the year 1782 a number of the members of the 
Lodge seceded, and re-formed the old and almost forgotten St. James' Lodge of Tarbolton' 
Burns was amongst the seceders, and the newly-formed Lodge was destined, largely by his 
warm adhesion to it, to become one of the most famous historical Lodges Scottish Masonry 
ever boasted of. In this Lodge the poet found poetry, and in it, above all other prizes in 
the world, he found friendship. This fact leads me, naturally, to the second division of my 
paper : the fostering care he experienced as a poet from Masonic communion and enthusiasm. 

By the time Burns joined the Lodge at Tarbolton he was a poet. He was not a poet 
of any wide renown, but he had written poems which some of his immediate circle of friends 
admired. His life up to this period, had been one of great strain and poverty. Born in a 
little cottage near Alloway Kirk, on the Doon, in Ayrshire, he had moved with his parents, 
when about seven years of age, to a farm in the parish of Ayr, called Mount-Oliphant. The 
farm wrs a ruinous affair. Here he worked on the land as a farm-boy for twelve years, after 
which the family passed, with no better fortune, to another farm, called Lochlea, in the 
parish of Tarbolton. Robert worked like the rest on this farm, but he was not exclusively 
engaged on farm labour. He went, as already told, to a sea coast place, Kirk Oswald, where 
he learned mensuration and other parts of arithmetic, which ultimately fitted him for the 
duties of an excise officer, and on the whole he picked up, at Kirk Oswald parish school, 
much information that served him well, with some tricks which did not serve him so well. 
He returned to the farm at Lochlea in his twentieth year ; resumed work with his brother 
Gilbert, fell in love with a servant-maid, who jilted him, and led rather a wild life altogether. 
He and his brother tried their hands at flax -farming at the neighbouring village of Irvine, 
but during a New Tear's day carousal the flax shop took fire and the whole stock was burnt 
up. Worse still, he got into bad company and into some disrepute. 

Affairs at Lochlea went wrong with the excellent father of the poet, and in February, 
1784, that good man died. The loss of his father incited the poet to a better life, and he 
and his brother took a larger farm at a place called Mossgiel, in the parish of Mauchline, 
near Tarbolton. The farming project failed, and good resolutions failed with it. 

Our Brother the poet Burness, for he assumed the shorter name of Burns later on, was 
not at the moment of his career at which we have arrived, in a very happy or a very hopeful 
condition. He was poverty stricken, he was reckless, he had sent into the world an 
illegitimate child, and he was looked upon askance by those friends about him, who con- 
sidered good morals the first of acquirements. Yet, with it all, he was not the absolute rake 
or prodigal which many have depicted him. He had availed himself of what advantages 
had come before him. He had been for a short time blessed by the instruction of a tutor 
named Murdock, from whom he had learned among other things French, in which language 
he greatly delighted, and he had gathered together various classical and romantic books 
which he read with the avidity a nature such as his alone experiences. He had seen a little 
of the world at Kirk Oswald, and he had acquired some knowledge of the exact sciences. 
But above all, he was a poet and a Mason. 

Opinions have differed since his death, as they differed in his own time and amongst 
his own friends, on the point whether he did ill or well in joining the Lodge in Tarbolton. 
Masonry was rather popular in Scotland, but many thought that Robert Burness had joined 
it, not because of the goodness there was in it, but because of 

" The wale o' cooks for fun and drunkin'," 

and in this view there was much sense for sober going people, since it cannot be denied that 
Scotia's drink was freely floated in the Lodges, when refreshment followed the serious busi- 
ness of labour. Moreover, Robert himself, at his twenty-third year, was a sufficient cause 
for alarm amongst his friends. He was, physically, not well. He had frequent dull head- 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 49 

aches, and lie was laying the seeds for those conditions of faintness and palpitation of the 
heart, which as his brother Gilbert tells ns, were the bodily burthens of after years. 

He was, moreover, ab this time, exceedingly unbridled in his tastes. He was the 
prime spirit of a bachelor's club, which, although the expenses were limited to threepence 
per bachelor each night, was an assembly that did not particularly raise him in public 
estimation ; and he was always in love, not with one object of affection, but with any and 
many, according to fancy, investing, by his fancy, as Brother Gilbert informs us, each of 
his loves with such a stock of charms, all drawn from the plentiful stores of his imagination, 
that there was often a great dissimilitude between the fair captivator as she appeared to 
others and as she seemed when bedecked with the attributes he gave to her. Up to this 
time he was not given to intoxication, and when, with his brother and family he entered 
into partnership for the farm of Mossgiel, he contributed his share of expenses, and lived 
most frugally. He had written songs and other poetical pieces, which pleased those who 
surrounded him, and the poems had accumulated to a goodly number, but they were buried 
in necessity, and it is very doubtful if by his own efforts they would ever have been brought 
to light. 

Day by day his adversity grew more and more pressing. At last a crisis. Amongst 
his many loves there was one who held to him to the end the most firmly, namely, Jean 
Armour, and with her love went so far it could no longer be concealed. In the strait the 
lovers came to a determination. They entered into a legal acknowledgment of " an irregular 
private marriage," and it was proposed that Burns should at once proceed to Jamaica as an 
assistant overseer on the estate of Dr. Douglas. Strangely, the parents of Jean Armour 
objected to the acceptance of the marriage, under the impression that great as had been the 
folly of Jean she might live to do better than tie herself for life to a scapegrace. To Burns 
this slight was intolerable, although in a kind of contrition he seemed to bend to it. It 
settled his resolve, he would go to Jamaica, and by honest work would make up for past 

It happened that much time was required before he could make a start for his new 
sphere of labour, and, meanwhile, as preparations were going on something else occurred, 
on which, as on a pivot, the fate and fame of Robert Burns turned. In the Lodge of St. 
James, Tarbolton, there was an important member, a writer to the signet, living, near by, at 
Mauchline, and the landlord of the farm of Mossgiel. This was Gavin Hamilton, a happy- 
go-lucky, warm-hearted, merry fellow, much attached to the ploughman poet, some of whose 
effusions he had heard in song at least, and towards whom he entertained a sincere admira- 
tion. Hamilton suggested that Burns should collect and publish an edition of his poems, 
and that the expense should be met by a subscription. The plan was after the poet's own 
desire, I may say fervent desire. He longed to leave his name to posterity, and, in fact, 
cared for little else. The ordinary life was to him already a bnrden, but the idea of 
immortal fame was something worth living for, and was even worth the weariness of the 
world. He seized, therefore, on the proposal with avidity. It was early in the year of 1786, 
and his vessel for Jamaica would not sail until November ; let then the proposal, of all 
things, be carried out. 

"With all his faults Burns stood high in his Lodge of St. James, at Tarbolton. In 
1784 he was made Depute Master, Major General Montgomery being Worshipful Master. 
In 1785 he attended Lodge nine times, and acted many times, if not every time, as Master. 
In 1786 he attended nine times, and at the second meeting, held on March the first, passed 
and raised his brother Gilbert. How well he fulfilled the duties of his office is told by no 
less a person than the famous metaphysical scholar, Dugald- Stewart, who had a neighbour- 
ing country residence at Catrine. Stewart specially commends the ready wit, happy concep- 
tion and fluent speech of the Depute Master of St. James' Lodge. There can be no doubt 
that the Lodge, in return, became responsible altogether for the issue of the first volume 
of poems of Robert Burns, not as an official act, but as an act of personal friendship for their 
talented brother ; and, under their initiative, he went to Kilmarnock, in order to see through - 
the Press the new and now precious first edition of poems dated April 16th, 1786. Whilst 
residing in Kilmarnock, he met with the warmest reception and encouragement from the 
Masonic brethren there. He became a visitor of their St. John's Lodge at once, and on 
the 26th of October, 1786, was admitted an honorary member. The brethren of this Lodge 
assisted him also substantially in his venture. Brother Major Parker subscribed to thirty-five 
copies of the book, and Robert Muir, another of the brethren of St. John's, to seventy-five 
copies, whilst a third brother, John Wilson, printed and published the volume. In short, 
the first edition was in every sense such a Masonic edition, we may almost declare 
that but for Masonry the poems of Robert Burns, now disseminated over all the 
"World, had merely been delivered to the winds as the memtal meanderings of a vulgar 

50 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

and disreputable Scottish boor. Thus, tbe genius of Masonry discovered and led forth 
the genius of one of the greatest of the poets of Scotland. 

The good genius of masonry did not end at this point. It brought out the volume of 
poems, and made the author master of a little balance of money for his work ; but, alas, the 
return was not sufficient to prevent the evil fate that would separate him from all he loved 
best. He was still pursued by ill fortune. His little bit of luggage was on its way to 
Greenock, he following it, playing at hide-and-seek, and wishing Jamaica at the bottom of 
the sea, when a letter reached him again from a brother mason, a gentle blind brother, with 
a taste for the muses, Brother Dr. Blacklock, suggesting that a new edition of the 
Kilmarnock poems should be published in Edinburgh, and that their author should go to 
that fair city and superintend the undertaking. Burns at once responded, and on the 26th of 
November, instead of being on the sea for the "West Indies, he was in the modern Athens, and 
in the midst of enthusiastic friends, all warmed to friendship by the mystical fire. Here 
things went grandly. Henry Mackenzie, a good mason and good writer, author of " The 
Man of Peeling," announced through a paper, called the Lounger, that a new poet had been 
born to Scotland ; and David Ramsay, editor of the Evening Courant, another brother, 
represented him to his world of letters as : — 

" The Prince of Poets, an o' pleughmen." 
And so this Prince of Poets ploughed bis way into the best circles of Auld Reekie. He was 
at once great in the Masonic Lodges. The Worshipful Grand Master Charteris, at the Lodge 
of St. An drew, proposed as a toast, " Caledonia and Caledonia's Bard Brother Burns," " a toast," 
the Bard writes, " which rang through the whole assembly, with multiplied honours and 
repeated acclamations ; while he, having no idea such a thing would happen, " was down- 
right thunderstruck, and trembling in every nerve " made the best return in his power. 
Jamaica vanished ! 

Early next year, February 1st, 1787, the Edinburgh edition of the poems, 
being well in hand, Burns was admitted by unanimous consent, a brother of the 
Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, in which on the first of the following month the Master — 
Fergusson of Craigdarrock — dignified him as Poet Laureate of the brotherhood, and assigned 
him a special poet's throne. The time now quickly arrived, April 21st, for the appearance 
of the new volume. The members of the Caledonian Hunt, under the leadership of Lord 
Glencairn, to whom the poet was introduced by Brother Dalrymple, subscribed liberally, 
and altogether a subscription list of 2,000 copies was secured, the Masonic influence again 
leading the way. "Surely," says an anonymous writer on this subject, "a son of the 
Rock," as he styled himself, but whom I have since found to have been Mr. James Gibson, 
of Liverpool, and not himself a Mason, " surely never book came out of a more Masonic 
laboratory. Publisher, printer, portrait painter, and engraver of the portrait were a rare 
class of men — all characters in their way — and all Masons." Creech was the publisher, 
Smellie was the printer, Alexander Nasmyth was the painter, and Bengo was the engraver, 
each and all Masons of the staunchest quality. Under such support the poems were bound 
to go, and they went, carrying their author with them into the glory he most desired. 

As it is not my business to dwell on the life of Burns out of its Masonic encircling, I 
need not to dwell on his later career ; his flirtations with Clarinda, his love with Mary 
Campbell ; his journeyings and jollifications ; his melancholy and his remorse ; his marriage 
with Jane Armour ; his failure as a farmer at Ellisland ; his entrance into the excise ; his 
residence at Dumfries ; his final intemperance and his early death on July 21st, 1796. Let 
it be sufficient to add that St. Abbs' Lodge at Lyemouth made him a Royal Arch Mason, 
omitting his fees and considering themselves honoured by having a man of such shining 
abilities as one of their companions ; that when he settled in Dumfries, the Lodge of St. 
Andrew received him with open arms ; and that to him ever, to use the words of Mr. Gibson, 
" Masonry held out an irresistible hand of friendship." 

I come now to the third point to which, Worshipful Master, I would direct the mind 
of the Lodge — the love of the poet for tbe brotherhood, as represented in his poetical works. 

There are at least eight poems in which Masonry is directly connected with the theme 
©f the poem or song. A short epistle in verse to Brother Dr. Mackenzie, informing him that 
St. James' Lodge will meet on St. John's day, is racy and refers to a controversy on morals 
which had been going on in the little circle. An elegy to Tarn Samson relates to a famous 
seedsman, sportsman, and curler, but above all a Mason of the Kilmarnock Lodge, and a 
sterling friend of all who knew him in friendship's mysteries. 

" The brethren o' the mystic level 
May hing their heads in waefu' bevel, 
While by their nose the tears will revel 

Like ony bead. 
Death's gien the Lodge an unco' devel, 

Tarn Samson's dead." 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati, 51 

In like manner, but with a tender sweetness and more subdued verse, lie writes another 
elegy on one to whom he was bound by the mystic tie, Sir James Hunter Blair. The poem 
is finely conceived. The poet supposes himself wandering in some secluded haunt : — 

" The lamp of day, with ill-presaging glare, 

Dim, cloudy, sinks beneath the western wave, 
Th' inconstant blast howls through the darkening air, 
And hollow, whistles in the rocky cave." 
The moon then rises " in the livid east," and among the cliffs the stately form of Caledonia 
appears " drooped in pensive woe." " The lightning of her eyes " is imbued in tears ; her 
spear is reversed ; her banner at her feet. So attnned she sings her sorrow for the loss of 
her son and the grief of her sons, not omitting the sons of light and science : 

" A weeping conntry joins a widow's tear, 

The helpless poor mix with the orphan's cry ; 
The drooping arts surround their patron's bier, 
And grateful science heaves the heartfelt sigh." 

In an epistle to his publisher, William Creech, whose Masonic virtues I have already 
noted, we get just a glimpse into Kilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, when Willie, that is Creech, 
is on his travels in London. " Willie's awa'." 

" Now worthy Gregory's latin face, 
Ty tier's and Greenfield's modest grace, 
Mackenzie, Stewart, sic a brace, 
They a' maun meet some ither place. 
Willie's awa' ! 
Gregory of the Latin face was the famous Dr. James Gregory, perhaps the purest Latin 
writer medicine ever produced in his country, but better known as the inventor of the most 
nauseous, and yet one of the most useful medicines — Gregory's powder. Greenfield was the 
eminent Professor of Rhetoric ; and Stewart the illustrious Dugald. 

" Willie brew'd a peck of maut " is a Masonic song of genius. Willie was Brother 
William Nicol, of the High School, Edinburgh, with whom the poet made a tour to the 
Highlands ; Allan was Brother Allan Masterton, and Rob was Brother the Poet himself ; 
three Masons holding an informal Lodge at Nicol's place at Moffat during the summer vaca- 
tion. It was such a joyous meeting that each in his own way celebrated it ; Willie— Nicol — 
with the maut, Rob — Burns — with the song, and Allan —Masterton — with the music. 

The poem of Death and Dr. Hornbook is of Masonic origin. Hornbook was Brother 
Wilson, schoolmaster of Tarbolton, and a member of the Lodge, who took to reading medical 
books and dabbling in physic. One night, after going from labour to refreshment, Wilson 
paraded his medical knowledge and skill too loudly to miss the watchful Robert, and Robert, 
on his way home, was accompanied by this mixture of pedantry and physic to a certain 
point, where they shook hands and parted. Left alone, the old fancies of goblins and spirits 
came on the poet; Death came, and after a conversation with that reaper, the flowing satire 
on the poor dominie was composed. These circumstances, Gilbert Burns says, his brother 
related as he repeated the verses to him the next afternoon, while Gilbert was holding the 
plough and Robert was letting the water off the field beside him. How the poem took when 
it was first published is matter of history. It settled poor Brother Wilson for good as a self- 
constituted doctor at Tarbolton, the verse beginning with the words, " A bonnie lass ye 
kenn'd her name," telling with potent effect. 

Wilson, I believe, was the only Mason Burns lampooned, and he without enmity. 
Wilson, however, had to leave Tarbolton, and, retreating to Glasgow, became clerk of the 
Gorhals parish, and lived until 1839, half-a-century after the Tarbolton exodus. Cromek, one 
of the writers on Burns, 1 who knew Wilson in his later days, says Wilson had so little pedantry 
about him that a man who never read the poem would scarcely discover any, and I have heard 
others who also knew him make the same observation. 

The song entitled " The sons of old Killie," beginning — 

" Ye sons of old Killie assembled by Willie 

To follow the noble vocation, 
Your thrifty old mother has scarce such another 

To sit in that honoured station. 
I've little to say, but only to pray, 

As praying 's the ton of your fashion j 
A prayer from the muse you well may excuse, 

'Tis seldom her favourite passion." 

was produced at a festival of the Kilmarnock Lodge, Willie aforesaid being Brother William 
Parker, the Worshipful Master. 

1 Cromek, a Yorkshireman, an art publisher, engraver, and in some sense, an artist, went to Scot- 
land, ten years after the poet's death, to collect materials for a volume on Burns, as a kind of supplement to 
four volumes that had already been written by Dr. Currie. The volume was entitled the " Beliques of 
Burns," and was published by Cadell and Daviea in 1808. 

&Q Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 

I must not weary you with too many of these snatches of Masonic light from our 
immortal brother, but it would be impossible to omit the one jewel of jewels of song which 
he sang, or rather chanted than sang, to the tune of " Good night, and joy be wi' yon a'," 
at the meeting of St. James' Lodge, Tarbolton, at the moment when his little box of luggage 
was on its way to Greenock, and he, very soon as he believed, was bound to follow it. We 
can picture to ourselves the Lodge, Major-General James Montgomery, W.M., in the chair; 
the Wardens in place ; the brethren round the board, and tbe Depute Master, heart-broken, 
"thinking it the last song he shall ever compose in dear old Scotland. We may picture the 
meeting, but the emotion of that moment can be but a faint expression. 

" Adieu ! a heart-warm fond adieu ! 

Dear brothers of the mystic tie ! 
Te favour'd, ye enlighten'd few, 

Companions of my social joy. 
Though I to foreign lands must hie, 

Pursuing fortune's slidd'ry ba\ 
With melting heart, and brimful eye, 

I'll mind you still, though far awa'. 

Oft have X met your social band, 
; And spent the cheerful festive night | 

i Oft, honoured with supreme command, 

Presided o'er the sons of light, 
| And by that heiroglyphic bright, 

Whioh none but oraftsmen ever saw ! 
* Strong memory on my heart shall write, 

Those happy scenes when far awa' ! 

j May freedom, harmony, and love, 

Unite you in the grand design, 
i Beneath the omniscient eye above, 

) The glorious Architect divine ! 

That yon may keep the unerring line, 
< Still rising by the plummet's law, 

i Till order bright completely shine 

Shall be my prayer when far awa'. 

And you farewell ! whose merits claim 

Justly that highest badge to wear. 
Heaven bless your honoured noble name 

To Masonry and Scotia dear. 
A last request permit me here, 

When yearly ye assemble a', 
One round — I ask it with a tear — 

To him, the Bard, that's far awa'." 

The tear was quenched ; in pursuing " fortune's slidd'ry ba " the poet was led to Edina 
instead of Jamaica ; yet even this not without one sorrow, one tear ; for on the very day he 
■entered the beautiful city to be for a flicker her hero of ploughmen, William Wallace, Grand 
Master of Scotland, " To Masonry and Scotia dear," ascended to the Grand Lodge above. 

I pass to the last fragment of my discourse, namely, the tendency and tenure of the 
genius of Robert Burns as a Masonic poet. With the deepest admiration for a poet whose 
words have been familiar to me and whose sentiments have touched my heart from the 
earliest days of my recollection, I am not blind to his sins of emotion. I know his faults. 
But in all the poet said, and, I believe, thought, about the principles of Masonry, he kept by the 
■unerring line, as if indeed the eye omniscient were upon him ; and as if in pure Masonry, in 
its tenets, it symbolisms, and, in the best sense, its practices, there is a secret spell on the 
mind and heart, in which the mind and heart must live and move and have its being. 

The best idea of Masonry on these foundations found its noblest utterance, from our 
poet brother, in his peroration to St. John's Lodge, Kilmarnock. 

" Ye powers who preside o'er the wind and the tide, 

Who marked out each element's border ; 
Who founded this frame with beneficent aim, 

Whose sovereign statute is order. 
Within this dear mansion may wayward contention 

Or withering envy ne'er enter j 
May secrecy round be the mystical bound, 

And brotherly love be the centre." 

Worshipful Sir, let that peroration be mine to-night, to Quatuor Coronati 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 53 

The Worshipful Master having called for comments on the interesting paper which 
had just been read, 

Beo. Gould felt that there could he little to say, except to express his pleasure, and 
he was sure he might add the pleasure of all the brethren present, at the treat which Bro. 
Richardson had afforded them. He would however in passing, make one remark as to the 
supposed and so often alleged laureateship of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge. There was 
nothing to show that such a title had ever been conferred upon the poet until after his death, 
and it certainly was in no way borne out by the minutes of the Lodge. He begged to 
move a vote of thanks to Brother Richardson. 

This was seconded by Beo. Westcott, and supported by Beo. Chambeelin, himself a 
member of the Canongate Kilwinning, and after a few remarks from the Chair, carried by 

Having been requested to make a few remarks on the eloquent prelection which our 
talented Brother Dr. Richardson has delivered on " the Masonic Genius of Robert Burns," 
I feel I cannot allow the opportunity to pass without expressing in the first place my warm 
thanks to him for his very interesting sketch of the Masonic career of Scotia's Bard, and in the 
second place without subjecting some of his remarks to a measure of criticism. But before 
doing so I would add my commendations to those of the other brethren, and must congratulate 
the learned doctor upon the admirable apothegm he has given us in his exordium, viz., "Orders 
are composed of men born to aptitudes befitting the order," which is, I think, a very happy 
and true rendering of the axiom previously formulated, that " In an order or fraternity like 
Masonry there is a true, a deep, and subtle genius which holds it together : and that the 
Order may be held together there must be, in a greater or lesser degree, the same kind of 
genius in every individual member," from which he deduces the truth that " Masonry was 
akin to Burns' native genius, it was to him that touch of nature which makes all akin." It 
was this " one touch of nature," this inborn feeling or perception of the universality of the 
brotherhood of man so frequently expressed in his works, which constituted his Masonic genius. 
For instance, we have in the following lines, which are most characteristic of the writer, the 
fundamental principle or spirit of Masonry : — 

" A' ye whom social pleasure charms, 
Whose heart the tide of kindness warms, 
Wha hold your being on the terms, 

' Each aid the others? 
Come to my bowl, come to my arms, 

My friends, my Brothers." 

And again in the manly lines of the song beginning " Is there for honest poverty, wha 
hangs his head and a' that," this feeling finds expression in the noble aspiration : — 

" Then let us pray that come it may — 
As come it will for a' that — 
That sum and worth o'er a' the earth 
' Kay bear the gree, and a' that, 
For a' that, and a' that, 

It's comin' yec for a' that, 
That man to man, the warld o'er, 
Shall brithers be and a' that." 

Herein lies the great secret of Burns' universal popularity : not only his love of nature, 
which is a common attribute of all poets, but by his intense love of human nature, he was 
■endowed with a deeper sympathy with humanity enabling him to strike a chord in 
all our hearts which vibrates in unison with that which thrilled his own, deepening our 
sympathies towards our fellow men and enlarging our hearts in universal love. This is, with- 
out doubt, the keystone of the great arch of Burns' Masonic genius. 

Our poet's family name, as Brother Richardson observes, was not always Bnrns but 
was originally Burness, and it may interest the brethren that on the 25th of May, 1786, he 
announced to the brethren of the Lodge at Tarbolton that he intended assuming in future 
-the shorter name of Burns, and he accordingly signed the minutes that evening for the first 
time by the now familiar and world-famous name of Robert Burns. Brother Richardson 
informs us of his regular attendance in the Lodge, and mentions that he attended to his 
duties nine times in the year 1785 and the same number of times in 1786, and we find the 
minute book bearing ample and valuable testimony as to his assiduity as a Mason, for page 
after page is filled with his hand writing and his autograph as Depute Master, thus making 
the little volume of this out-of-the-way Lodge more valuable than the records of the most 
ancient Lodge in the world. 

64 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

We come now to Bums' appearance in Edinburgh amongst the brethren there, and 
here I would take objection to the statement that on the 1st of March, 1787, Bro. Alexander . 
Fergusson of Craigdarrock, the Master of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, " dignified him as 
Poet Laureate of the Brotherhood, and assigned him a special poet s throne." There is 
nothing to warrant this assertion, which has been frequently made and as frequently contra- 
dicted, but the idea is a popular one and forms the subject of a well-known picture by the 
late Bro. Stewart "Watson which has done much to perpetuate the fallacy. As. Bro. 
Bichardson says, Burns was assumed a member of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge on the 1st 
of February, 1787, the minutes of the meeting being in the following terms: "The Bight 
Worshipful Master, having observed that Brother Burns was at present in the Lodge, who 
is well known as a great Poetic Writer, and for a late publication of his Works, which have 
been universally commended, and submitted that he should be assumed a Member of this 
Lodge, which was unanimously agreed to, and he was assumed accordingly," but the 
minutes contain no reference to his having been laureated by the Lodge. Bro. Murray 
Lyon, in his well-known History, says, " The 1st of March, 1787, is mentioned by Masonic 
writers as the date of the scene which has been pourtrayed by the artist. Bnt neither the 
minutes of that date, nor of any other during Burns' lifetime contain any record whatever of 
the existence of such an office as Laureate of the Lodge or of that distinction being conferred 
on Burns. The first mention in Canongate Kilwinning minutes of this office having been 
held by the Poet is found under date February 9th, 1815, when the Lodge resolved to open 
a subscription among its members to aid in the erection of a " Mausoleum to the memory of 
Bobert Burns, who was a member and Poet Laureate of this Lodge,' " a very evident 
afterthought which is repeated in the minute of the 9th of June, 1815, and again in that of 
the 16th of January, 1835, which chronicles the appointment of Brother James Hogg, the 
" Ettrick shepherd," to the " honorary office of Poet Laureate of the Lodge, which had been 
' in abeyance since the death of the immortal Brother Bobert Burns.' " 

Dr. Bichardson, like a skilful physician, delicately touches a tender spot, when he says- 
he knows our poet's faults and is " not blind to his sins of emotion." Some persons there 
are who have not this delicacy, and I am sorry to say there are many who do not deal so 
gently or kindly with our brother's memory as he would have done himself in the case of an, 
erring brother, for does he not counsel us to do so in these well-known lines ? — 

" Then gently scan your brother man, 

Still gentler sister woman ; 
Though they may gang a kennin' wrang 

To step aside is human ; 
One point must still be greatly dark, 

The moving Why they do it, 
And just as lamely can ye mark 

How far, perhaps, they rue it. 

Who made the heart, 'tis He alone, 

Decidedly can try us, 
He knows each chord — its various tone, 

Each spring — its various bias ; 
Then at the balance let's be mute, 

We never can adjust it ; 
What's done we partly may compute, 

But know not what's resisted." 

Let us exercise towards his memory then that charity which we, as Masons, profess 
to admire and cultivate, and leave, as he himself would have us leave, the judgment of our 
actions to the Maker of the heart. Like Dr. Bichardson I, too, from my earliest years have 
been acquainted with the works of the poet, and have studied them, and sighed over tho 
short sad story of his life in my maturer years, and the more I study the more I appreciate 
" the God-made king," and thank the Giver of all good who 

" sent his singers upon earth, 

With songs of sadness and of mirth, 
That they might teach the hearts of men, 
And bring them back to heaven again." 

and not the least among them " To charm, to strengthen, and to teach," is our poet brother, 
Bobert Burns. 

One more point and I have done, and sorry am I to have occasion to note this point ; 
it is in reference to a certain obnoxious volume of doggerel which is palmed upon an incon- 
siderate world as Burns' " Merry Muses." I would humbly suggest that the mere fact that 
some of the contents of the book are in the handwriting of Allan Cunningham is no conclusive 
proof that Burns ever wrote a single line of it, because Allan Cunningham was not acquainted 
■with Burns, he was not the poet's friend ; he was a boy of a little over ten years of age when 
the poet died, and it is not likely that Burns would contract a friendship with a* youth of that 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 55 

age, or confide to him songs of such a nature that the rare volume must needs be concealed as 
a forbidden book to the eyes of childhood. *No! a thousand times no ! I have seen and 
read the filthy volume, and there is not one redeeming point in it one can tolerate smut 
■when it is classical or witty, as in the Decameron and some of our ancient masters, but when 
it is unaccompanied by wit or cleverness or sense or reason it is intolerable: and the halting 
lines, the spurious rhymes, and contemptible stuff contained in this volume stamp it as the 
offspring, not of a genius like Burns, but of some grovelling prurient incestuous mind or 
minds. Like Thomas, I doubt and will not believe until I have ample proof, and not till 
I see the lines in his own holograph, or with his name adhibited in his well-known hand will 
I be convinced that our much loved poet, and much maligned by the " unco' guid," ever 
penned these foul effusions. The songs of our country were dross and worse until the advent 
of Burns ; it was he who, by the refining power of his divine gift, turned them into pure 
gold, and gave them a free unsullied gift to his countrymen, and I cannot entertain in my own 
mind for a single moment that he, who had done so much towards purifying the literature 
of his country, would ever leave it such a degrading legacy as the " Merry Muses," which 
I maintain is frequently falsely and calumniously, but I trust thoughtlessly, ascribed to him. 
"We know but too well that there are stains and splashes on his regal robes, but even in 
his cups he never degraded his high office, he never deliberately doffed and dragged those 
robes through the mire. What says his centenary poet ? 

" Though he may yield 
Hard-pressed, and wounded fall 
Forsaken on the field ; 
His regal vestments soiled ; 
His crown of half its jewels spoiled; 

He is a king for all." 

I am sorry that I am compelled to speak so strongly, but I feel strongly, and think 
that as this paper has been devoted to the " Masonic Genius of Burns," it is a fit and proper 
place to enter once for all a protest against the calumny which so often ascribes this foul 
doggerel to the Bard of Scotland. In conclusion, I feel that we all owe Bro. Dr. Richardson 
a deep debt of gratitude for his admirable and eloquent address upon " The Masonic Genius of 
Robert Burns." — W. Fred Vernon. 


PR. Barlow's Valedictory Address. 1 — Attention has already been directed in the 
columns of these Transactions (A.Q.C., iii., 64, 200,) to the high aims with which 
Lodge St. Alban, No. 38, under the registry of South Australia, set out at the com- 
mencement of its career. Nor have the sanguine anticipations of its founders been falsified by 
the result. " The growth of the Lodge," said Bro. Barlow, who had filled the chair of Master 
during the two years of its existence, "and the actions of its babyhood, promise your Master- 
Elect a peaceful and prosperous reign. Starting in December, 1889, with forty members, 
we, notwithstanding three withdrawals, number this evening fifty subscribing members 
. Ton may regard with modest pride the establishment of the St. Alban 
Scholarship at the University of Adelaide. Designed to help the children of worthy 
Brethren, we anticipate that no member of our own Lodge will ever need to propose one of 
his own family as a candidate for it and that thus this Scholarship will remain at once a 
pledge of your generosity and a type of the cnlture which you wish to promote. 

Although the Scholarship was founded within one year about from the date of our 
Warrant, and cost £150, yet our funds are in a flourishing condition. In excluding hospitality 
from the objects to which we apply the Lodge funds proper, we merely adopt in part the 
system practised by the famous Quatuor Coronati Lodge. Every Brother who dines pays for 
himself . . . Lodge St. Alban has not resorted to this plan ; but our rule for establish- 
ing for the purposes of refreshment a special fund — contributed to only by members who 
wish to contribute — will I trust, be maintained, even though it restricts our hospitality 
within moderate limits 

But of all the events interesting to Freemasons which have occurred within the last 
couple of years, the most marvellous is the effect produced by the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 
The development of its Correspondence Circle, which now numbers some 1,000 or 1,100 
members (including Lodges) is simply a revelation. Until the experiment was actually 
tried none thought that our Society embraced so many member earnestly interested in the 

1 An Address, delivered by Bro. W. Barlow, LL.D, W.M. Lodge St. Alban, No. 38, Adelaide, South. 
Australia, 16th Sept., 1891. 

56 -Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

aTchseological lore of our Art, and the Epiphany of whose interest only awaited the birth of 
that Lodge and the publication of its Transactions : for the expansion of the Correspondence 
Circle appears to be due solely to the excellence of the papers published in those Transactions, 
to the eager spirit of investigation awakened and gratified by the topics dealt with in those- 
papers, and to the consummate skill with which subjects of such varied and engrossing interest 
have been handled by Masters in the Art. As means of at once diffusing among the 
ignorant knowledge of a highly special subject, and of educing knowledge from the learned, 
the Lodge and its Transactions can scarcely have been excelled by previous efforts in any other 
department of Science, Art, or Literature. The mere fact that the Lodge has in about four 
years enrolled in its Correspondence Circle 1,000 members, of whom many are Lodges, and 
the object of all of whom must be simply to possess the Transactions, demonstrates how 
intense and widespread must have been the craving — the very existence of which was not only 
unknown but unsuspected — for education in the learning peculiar to the Masonic Art. The 
defect of these Transactions — if it is permissible to specify one defect amid so much surpass- 
ing excellence — is the singular dearth of papers on Masonic Jurisprudence, the subject of 
which seems to engage so much of the highest thought among our Brethren in America, 
which is of such vast importance to Freemasons, especially to those of them whom distance 
keeps out of touch with Masonic knowledge at its central source. It is a characteristic of 
the discussions and papers in those Transactions that they not only convey knowledge, but 
also suggest topics for inquiry, stimulate investigation, and arouse dormant interest. And 
these great results, as wonderful as they are admirable, have been achieved within five years 
by a little group of Brethren fewer than the two score men who banded themselves together 
to slay the dauntless Apostle whom some believe to have been a Freemason. "What are the 
weapons with which these marvellous results have been accomplished ? Versatile learning, 
unwearied research, enthusiasm tempered by good sense and encouraged by success, a singular 
tenacity of purpose, and such a pride by the writers in their articles that no sign of inferior 
workmanship can be detected. 

. . . I hasten to acknowledge our gratitude to Bro. Speth [for] selecting, purchas- 
ing, and superintending the despatch of our treasured volumes . . . our warm thanks 
are indeed owing to him for his fraternal kindness. 

Having acquired these books, I hope my fellow-members will forthwith put them to 
good use ; will study them ; will produce in papers to be read here the results of their study 
Assuming that the requisite papers are forthcoming, some member will ask 
' what opportunities will be afforded for reading and debating them ? ' . . . A two- 
fold answer is ready. "We must resolve that our main purpose shall not be subordinated to 
the mere conferring of degrees . . . We must not enslave ourselves to our own intrants 
. . . By another mode time for discussion may be provided . . . could we read 
the papers before the meeting for discussion, the debate would be much abler. . . . 
Can we afford to print such papers as may, without impropriety, be put into type, and cir- 
culate them amongst the members in advance of the meeting ? ... If we can, then the 
paper might be taken as read. 

The essays must not all have a mere fugitive existence. A selection, at least from 
them must be preserved and recorded in some suitable repository, where members can recur 
to them from time to time ... To this end it is necessary that the Lodge Transactions 
shall be published." 

The excellent address, of which an outline has been given, affords a convincing proof 
— if such, indeed, were needed — of the extent to which the example of the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge, has served to refine and elevate the practice of Freemasonry. On this point, and for 
a further reason to which I shall presently refer, let us again listen to Bro. Barlow : — 

" Papers, too, read before this Lodge need not always be original. Why shall we be 
too conceited to read and discuss in Lodge papers which, when perused in solitude by the 
fireside, charm us ineffably ? The papers recorded in the A.Q.O. were read before distin- 
guished Brethren. Are we so superior that these essays merit no attention from us 
collectively in Lodge, although, individually, we admire and delight in them ? " 

Now, from time to time, papers of more than a passing interest are read in 2076, and 
it is with regard to these, that I shall venture to take up and pursue the line of inquiry 
indicated in the remarks of Bro. Barlow. What is most wanted, in the true interests of 
Masonic study, or perhaps it would be better to say, in the diffusion of genuine Masonic know- 
ledge — is a tabulation of results. Year by year, the early history of onr ancient Craft is 
being gradually unfolded to us. But no Masonic book ever seems to grow out of date. The 
visionary writings of past times, and the more scholarly productions of our own, are perused 
with an equal faith. Old texts are found to yield new readings, but the old readings are not 
thereby displaced. Popular fallacies are exploded, i.e., within a limited circle, — but within a 
larger circle, their vitality remains unimpaired. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 57 

Let me give an example — the degrees of Freemasonry. The first three degrees, as 
•we now have them, though communicated in two steps instead of three, were in existence 
before the era of Grand Lodges. But a popular delusion sprang up, owing to undue weight 
being attached to the evidence of Scottish Masonic documents, that a plurality of degrees 
was unknown before the existence of a Grand Lodge. This delusion, it should be added, was 
deemed to be strengthened or corroborated by the authentic history of English Masonry 
during the first decade of its existence after the formation of a Grand Lodge. 

Recent research, however, has made it quite evident, that the early Masonry of Scot- 
land was one thing, and the early Masonry of England another and very different thing — 
while nothing is clearer than that what passed current until a few years ago, as the 
" authentic history of English Masonry " — 1717-27 — more especially with respect to degrees,, 
was an entire misreading of the evidence. 

Thus, it has now been reduced to actual demonstration, that two degrees and not 
three, were recognized in the first Book of Constitutions (1723), and that two ceremonies 
corresponding therewith,' severally termed the Apprentice and the Master's Parts — were 
known and practised before the era of Grand Lodges. 

Hence, as it appears to me, the cogitations of Masonic writers, with regard to degrees, 
which were expressed when English and Scottish Masonry were supposed to be identical, 
when the present third degree was put down as an invention of about 1717-23, and the 
First Book of Constitutions was understood to refer to three degrees, have become obsolete 
and misleading. 

Some day, perhaps, the books and essays on Masonry, like those on all other subjects, 
will be found to grow out of date by the operation of new discoveries, but that period has 
not yet arrived, and before it does, donbtless much ink will be shed in bolstering up and 
supporting a quantity of delusions — which, if the resnlts of Masonic research were tabulated 
at intervals, would otherwise sink at once into the oblivion that would be the proper place 
for them. 

In now taking my leave of Dr. Barlow, and his excellent " Address," I will just add 
that according to the South Australian Freemason of December 15th last, an exhaustive paper 
by the same Brother was presented at the Annual Festival of Lodge St. Alban, No. 38, 
entitled " The Rights and Privileges of the Entered Apprentices and Fellow Crafts," which 
was taken as read and ordered to be printed and circulated among the members, with the 
object of its being discussed at a future meeting. If the present review has effected the 
object with which it has been written, those brethren who have perused it, will look forward 
with pleasurable anticipation to the date arriving when the addition of Bro. Barlow's latest 
essay to our Lodge Library, is announced by Bro. Speth in one of those leaflets which he 
issues from time to time by way of catalogue. — R. F. Gould. 

Les Freemassons, Plate from Picart's Ceremonies. — The large plate in 
this work, of A.D. 1736, is well known to the Masonic Student. It represents in the fore- 
ground the Worshipful Master, his Wardens and Brethren, all in the costume of the early 
part of last century ; beyond them stretches a table in the shape of a square, and behind this 
table rises a high panelled wainscoting. This panel is divided into 129 smaller squares, 
on each of which appears a number, the copy of a tavern sign, and the name of the tavern, 
in question. On the cornice in the centre we have the coat of arms of Lord Weymouth, and 
immediately below this a medallion likeness of Sir Richard Steele. The panel is in fact an 
artistically arranged version of Pine's " Engraved List of Lodges for 1735." The plate is 
valuable as showing us the Masonic costume of the period, and curious as suggesting that 
Sir Richard Steele must have been a Freemason. It is indeed our only evidence on that 
point, as, although many expressions in his writings might be held to confirm such a view, 
we have no record in Lodge Minutes, or members' lists, that such was the case. Picart's 
" Ceremonies " was published in many editions at various times and places, and in more 
than one language, and I believe all of them originally contained the plate in question, 
although the book is oftener met without it, some Masonic collector having evidently taken 
it out. In many of the later editions the plate is reversed, and the numbers of the Lodges 
run from right to left instead of from left to right. At the same time some inaccuracies in 
the spelling of English names have been corrected. But on the other hand, in one of these 
reversed copies (owned by our Lodge,) Sir Richard is entitled " Richcard," a blunder not 
made in the first edition. All those I have seen are of the same size, 16in. by 12in., exclu- 
sive of the margin, but the plate, in any edition, is becoming somewhat scarce ; and the 
last one I saw advertised, of a late and reversed edition, was quoted at twenty -five shillings. 

Bro. T. W. Embleton of the " Cedars," Methley, Leeds, held, till he lately presented 
it to the Library of the Province of West Yorks, an original edition of Picart with a very 
fine specimen of the plate, and he has deserved well of all students by issuing a very fine 
and well executed facsimile of the plate in question, with a handsome margin all round of 

58 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

5in., which, if nicely framed, would be a desirable addition to any Lodge room or Masonic 
Library. We fear, however, that he has made a mistake in confining the prints to such 
a very small number, and that would-be purchasers must be disappointed. The price, 
five shillings, brings it well within the reach of the humble student. Copies may be procured 
direct from Bro. Embleton, or from me, G. W. Spbth. 

The Royal Arch Chapter of St. James, 1788 - 1888. 1 — The circumstances under 
which the work was written, that it now devolves upon me to review, are tersely related by 
onr W.M. in the page and a half of preliminary matter, forming the preface or introduction 
to his excellent compilation. The chapter of St. James celebrated its centenary in 1888, 
and in the course of the same year, the companions expressed by a formal resolution, that a 
complete list of the members dnring the century of its existence, " would be an interesting 
and, at the same time, a desirable addition to [their] records." This list, together with a 
sketch of the proceedings of the Chapter, extending over the same period, was presented by 
Bro. Bylands at the Convocation held by No. 2 on the 4th of December, 1890, when he was 
further requested to extend his notes so as to render them available for publication. This 
was accordingly done, and the manner in which our W.M. proceeded to finally execute the 
task that had been confided to him, is so well expressed in his introduction, and seems to me 
so worthy of imitation, that I shall give the paragraph in its entirety : — " In compiling this 
history," says Bro. Kylands, " I have, although the temptation was often great, purposely 
avoided extending the text with discussions on well-known facts in the History of Masonry, 
and have simply endeavoured to make the minutes tell their own tale how the work of our 
Chapter was carried forward in bye-gone days, giving here and there only a few explana- 
tions which seemed to me to be necessary." 

Matthew Arnold has finely observed, — " The thoughts which have positive truth and 
value, which are a real acquisition for our minds, are thoughts insisting on the need of limit, 
the feasibility of performance." 2 The same writer also quotes approvingly from Goethe 

" Wer grosses wil* muss sich znsammen raffen : 
In der Beschrfin^ung zeigt sich erst der Meister." 

" He who would do great things must pull himself together : it is in working within 
limits that the master comes out." 

"Very much to the same effect are some observations which Oliver Wendell Holmes 
has put into the month of one of the characters in his " Poet at the Breakfast Table." " Ton 
remember," says the old Master to the Poet, " ' Thomas Prince's Chronological History oj 
New England? I snppose ? He begins, you recollect, with Adam, and has to work down 
five thousand six hundred and twenty-four years before he gets to the Pilgrim Fathers and 
the Mayflower. It was all very well, only it didn't belong there, but got in the way of some- 
thing else." 8 

The task onr Bro. Bylands had undertaken, was to write a history of his Chapter, 
and wisely eschewing the multitude of side issues which so frequently ensnare those who 
enter with a light heart upon what is deemed — though most erroneously — to be the simplest 
and easiest of Masonic achievements, he has succeeded in producing a little masterpiece of 
its kind, which will serve as a model to all future students in the same limited field of 
inquiry. , 

But before proceeding any further with my review, it is essential, for the sake of 
clearness and other reasons, that I should enter upon one at least of those " discussions on 
well-known facts in the History of Masonry," which as our W.M. tells us, were deemed by 
him to have lain altogether outside the proper scope of his own undertaking. 

It is a " well-known fact," that our present third degree, or as it was then called, 
" The Master's Part," was the last and highest Masonic ceremony, with which the brethren 
who founded the Grand Lodge of England, in 1717, were familiar. No other degrees than 
what are now termed the first three, are in any way alluded to by Dr. Anderson in the two 
editions of his Book of Constitutions, published respectively in 1723 and 1738. 

These works are commonly regarded as the basis of Masonic history, and what 
Anderson leaves unsaid, viz., the existence of more than three degrees — is nowhere hinted 
at, or pointed out in any book or manuscript, (known to Masonic students) published or 
written, up to and inclusive of the year 1738. 

This date, therefore is a highly important one. Before it, there were three degrees 
and no more. Afterwards there were additions, but the exact period at which such further 
degrees were known and practised can only, at best, be approximately determined. 

1 Records of the First Hundred years of the Royal Aroh Chapter of Saint James, formerly No. 60, 
now No. 2 ; attached to the Lodge of Antiquity, acting by Immemorial Constitution. Compiled by W. 
Harry Rylands, F.S.A., H., 1891. 

* Essays on Criticism, 2nd series, 313. s Edit. 1872, chap, v., 127. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 59- 

The Royal Arch is first mentioned in a publication of A.D. 1744, but the language 
used with respect to it, indicates very clearly that the degree or ceremony had been known 
and practised for some years previously. The article on this subject, however, by Brother 
Hughan, which appeared in the last number of our Transactions, 1 will render unnecessary 
my dealing with the early documentary evidence relating to the degree, at any greater 
length. But in the piece referred to, a conclusion is advanced, with respect to the origin of 
the Royal Arch, to which I must respectfully demur. In the opinion of Bro. Hughan, the 
degree " is most probably of English origin, about 1735-40, and mainly of British and 
American growth." 3 

The Royal Arch has only taken root in English-speaking countries, hence there is no 
gainsaying the fact, that what may be termed the vogue of the degree, has been acquired by 
its long and patient culture in the British Empire and America. But that it originated in 
this country, I cannot bring my mind to believe, nor do I think it had any existence at all, 
until about the year 1740. 

The earliest of the " additional degrees," which have been engrafted on the stock of 
Ancient Freemasonry, would appear, from the evidence, to have had their origin in the 
fervid imagination of the French Craft. 

Among these, from what I have been able to gather with regard to their general 
tenor, and leading characteristics, do we find the germ, of what on British and American 
soil has developed into the stately proportions of the Royal Arch degree, as known and prac- 
tised by Masons of English birth and descent. 

But the student of Royal Arch Masonry will greatly err, if he accepts for an 
instant, the supposition, that by a sudden transition the Continental degree became, even in 
its essentials, the elaborate single ceremony, with which in its present guise, all 
" companions " will be familiar. 

Before this stage was reached, there were many transformation scenes, and if a 
History of the Royal Arch —at all worthy of the name — is ever written, the author of it will 
be mainly indebted to a class of companions of whom, let us hope, Bro. Rylands is destined 
to be the pioneer, whose laborious researches as " Chapter " Historians, will have alone 
rendered possible so arduous and complicated an achievement. 

The English Royal Arch was at first conferred in Lodges, and restricted to brethren 
who had passed the chair. 

Subsequently, however, the degree drifted into two main channels, one following the 
course of the Regular, and the other that of the Irregular, Grand Lodges of England, which 
struggled for supremacy from about the middle of last century, until their fusion in 1813. 

But besides these leading channels, the degree was also worked independently of them, 
by Lodges and Knight Templar Encampments, both in the British Islands and Dependencies, 
and in America. According to the practice of some systems, the degree was communicated 
in a single step, while in that of others, there was a plurality, — the ampler ceremonial 
generally obtaining in the Masonic bodies — by whatever term named — attached to regiments 
or battalions. 

Confining myself, however, as I am fain to do, within the limits of the two main 
channels to which reference has been made, it may be next observed, with regard to the 
progress, or developement, of the degree, in England — that while worked in the Lodges 
owing fealty to the Irregular Grand Lodge of England ; it was practised for the most 
part in Chapters, working separately from the Lodges, by brethren under the Regular, or 
Constitutional Grand Lodge. 

Eventually, there were two Grand Chapters in England — one, working side by side 
with the lawful or Regular Grand Lodge, by which it was tacitly though not formally 
recognized; and the other, being in point of fact, an inner circle of the Schismatic or 
Irregular Grand Lodge. The two Grand Lodges amalgamated in 1813, and the two Grand 
Chapters in 1817. After the latter date the practice of conferring the Arch in Lodges was 
put a stop to — which affected the brethren formerly under the jurisdiction of the Junior 
or Schismatic Grand Lodge ; and every Chapter was required to be attached to some Lodge 
— which concerned the Royal Arch Masons under the obedience of the Grand Chapter, working 
side by side and in harmony with, the older and Constitutional Grand Lodge. 

The Royal Arch bodies falling within the latter category, seemed to have contracted 
very haphazard alliances with the Lodges to which they became respectively attached. No 
kind of principle appears to have been laid down for their guidance, and the numbers, 
therefore, at which they eventually appeared, when the process of coupling them with 
Lodges had been carried into effect, afford little or no clue to their seniority of constitution 
as Chapters. In 1817, the Chapter of St. James, bore the number 60, but in the following 
year, by an alliance with the Lodge of Antiquity, it became — and still remains — No. 2. 

1 A.Q.C., iv., 220. 3 Hid. 

60 Transactions of the Lodge Qtiatuor Coronati. 

The circumstances which immediately preceded its original constitution, are thus 
narrated by Bro. Bylands : : ' Cadwallader, ninth Baron Blayney, held the office of Grand 
Master, [in the Regular or Constitutional Grand Lodge of England], during the years 1764 to 
1767. On the 11th June, 1766, he ' passed the Arch,' that is to say, was exalted in the 
Grand and Royal Chapter of Jerusalem. Lord Blayney must have been elected ' Grand 
Master ' of the Royal Arch, as it was then called, soon after he was admitted a member. At 
this date the Grand and Royal Chapter was a private body of Royal Arch Masons, working 
without a Warrant, but unconnected with any Lodge. Within a short time from his 
election to the office of Grand Master of the Most Excellent Grand, or Fourth degree, Lord 
Blayney, by a document, commonly called the Charter of Compact, dated the 22nd of July, 
1767, from his position as head of the Order, constituted the particular Chapter, of which 
he was a member, ' the Grand Lodge of the Royal Arch degree.' In 1769 the Grand 
Chapter commenced to issue Warrants, or Constitutions, as they were then called, for 
subordinate Chapters, and at the time the petition for the Chapter of St. James was 
presented, fifty-nine Warrants had been granted. It, therefore, bore the number 60." 

The Warrant is dated June the 6th, 1788, and the earliest minute book in the 
possession of the Chapter, commences with a record of its proceedings on November the 3rd, 

At this period, mention is nowhere made of aprons, and Bro. Rylands is " inclined to 
believe that in the first instance, either no apron at all, or the ordinary ones of the Craft 
were worn. This," as he next proceeds to remark, " would perhaps help to explain the 
reason for the introduction of R.A. emblems into the painted or engraved designs upon 
some of the old aprons." 

Candidates were then " exalted to the Sublime degree of Royal Arch Masons," and 
on May 30th and June 28th, 1792, the Most Excellent Z. reported (on each occasion) that 
he had exalted a Brother, without having received, apparently, the assistance of any other 
member of the Chapter. 

A much greater irregularity, however, occurred on February 26th, in the same year, 
when " Bro. Freeman and Bro. Holloway, of the Burlington Lodge, were raised to the 
degree of Master Masons." 

"At this date," we are told, "and up to a much later period, no Mason could be 
exalted until he had passed the Master's chair, for which a special ceremony was used. It 
is only natural to suppose the members of the Chapter considered, that as they had power to 
open a Lodge, in order to give what has been named the Constructive Degree of Passing the 
Chair, they were not exceeding their rights in holding a Master's Lodge, when it formed a 
necessary prelude to the ceremony of Exaltation." 

The action of the Chapter of Emulation — No. 16, warranted, 1778 — in assuming the 
title, in 1793, of the " Grand and Royal Chapter of Emulation," and. claiming the right " to 
take the future management of RA. Masonry into their bauds," is duly chronicled ; also, 
the fact that the schismatic " Grand" Chapter was erased from the roll of the parent body 
on the 10th of May in the same year. 

Ribbon for the jewels and scarves was provided in 1794. George Downing presented 
" Three elegant gilt Sceptres, for the use of the Principals," in 1796, and at this period, the 
expression " last Chapter Night," or " last Chapter," gave place to that of " last Convoca- 
tion," while the title of M. E. Companion was introduced for the Principals. 

On August 21st, 1796, the Chapter was held by adjournment at the Angel, Ilford, 
Essex, " for the purpose of exalting several of the Provincial Grand Officers of the county 
and other respectable Brethren." £1 7s. was paid by each candidate for exaltation. 

By the printed laws of the Grand Chapter (1796), the Z. of each private Chapter 
was to wear a turban with a triple crown rising from the centre ; the H. an ornamental 
turban or a plain crown ; and the J. a purple Hiera, or cap, with a silver plate in front, 
having " Holiness to the Lord " engraved thereon in Hebrew characters. No mention, how- 
ever, of these ornaments occurs in the later laws of 1802. 

In the opinion of Bro. Rylands, a change took place with respect to the R.A. apron, 
between the dates of issue of the General Laws of 1796 and 1802 (printed 1807). At a 
meeting of the St. James' Chapter, — March 7, 1798 — " Compn Macdonald proposed that 
the Indented Apron to be worn by the Companions of the Chapter sho d be a Red indent 
on a Royal Blue ground, and lined with White Silk, which proposition was unanimously 
acceded to." With reference to the minute last quoted, Bro. Rylands says — " Crimson was the 
Royal Arch colour, and I am strongly inclined to believe it was the only colour upon the 
early R.A. aprons, and that the blue in the border was not introduced until shortly before 
the date of Macdonald's proposition. On April 12th, 1798, " Compn Malton produced an 
elegant drawing for a Certificate," and on November 8th following, the same brother 
exhibiting " an Engraving of the Certificate, one hundred impressions ware directed to be 
struck off and every Companion engaged to take one, paying 2s. 6d. for the same." 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 61 

Under the year 1800, we find that the installation of the Principals was conducted 
privately, and that the past Principals of other chapters were not admitted until after the 
ceremony. It is recorded also that "the M.E.Z. and Officers of the Chapter worked the 
first sections of Royal Arch Masonry." 

In 1801 — April 9th — William Preston 1 was present as a visitor, and later in the year 
— June 25th — Companions William Wix and John Alderidge were passed through the 
various chairs in order to qualify them for installation as Provincial R.A. Superintendents 
for Essex and Hants respectively, the latter item showing " that it was equally the custom 
to go through the form of passing the Chair of a Royal Arch Chapter, as it was to pass the 
Master's Chair of a Lodge, without really serving the office." 

Still later in 1801— October 22nd— the M.E.Z., Walter R. Wright, "stated the 
necessity of a P.Z. presiding in the Lodge Room for the purpose of passing the candidates 
through the preceding degrees previous to their being conducted into the Chapter " ; [and] 
the M.E.Z. selected Compn Corry, P.Z., to discharge the duties of that Exalted Situation." 

The compiler tells us, — ■" In the list of officers Corry is called M. of the Lodge, and 
it is evident from the minute quoted that a ceremony, held in a separate room or Lodge, 
preceded that of Exaltation. There is no doubt it was the usual one of ' passing the Chair,' 
the first edition of the ' Abstract of Laws ' issued by the G. and R. chapter, dated 1778, and 
later editions, direct that candidates for the R.A. 'must have passed through the three 
probationary degrees of Craft Masonry : been regularly appointed and presided as Masters, 
to be justly entitled to, and have received, the Past Master's Token and pass-word.' " 

On November 12th, 1801, the M E.Z. submitted a number of " Regulations to be 
observed by the Officers and Companions of this Chapter," of which the following is a 
specimen : — 

" II. — The three Principals particularly and earnestly request the early attendance 
of the M.E.P.Z., Master of the previous Lodge, and they recommend to his attention the 
most impressive order and solemnity in conducting the business of the Lodge, which should 
always be closed with an appropriate charge." Under the year 1811, we find, — " No 
Master of the Previous Lodge was at this date specially appointed as an officer," the practice 
being that the first Assistant Sojourner should take the Chair and prepare the Candidate for 
the Ceremony of Exaltation according to ancient usage." 

The following is an abstract of this ceremony, as practised about the year 1827, and 
dating (in the opinion of Bro. Rylands) from an earlier period : — 

The Lodge was opened in the three degrees, the candidate successively filling one of 
the Warden's Chairs, being proposed as Master, elected, and duly obligated as such at the 
Pedestal. " He was then raised with — and — took the chair, and exercised the duties of 
W.M.," after which the P.S. as W.M. addressed him, stating that the ceremony he had 
undergone was performed in order to comply with the ancient ordinances of R.A. 
Masonry ; that the secrets of the degree could formerly be only communicated to " those 
who had been regularly installed into the chair of a Craft Mason's Lodge " : that the Grand 
Principals of the order had been pleased to grant a dispensation in favour of brethren who 
had not been so installed," and that the Chapter was " empowered to admit such brethren, 
as candidates for Arch Masonry, as have passed regularly through the 3 deg. of Craft 
Masonry ; who are 23 years of age, and who have been at least one year a M.M." 

The candidate was then told that the proceedings of the evening did not entitle him 
to the rank of P.M., or " to wear the distinguishing badge of a M. of a Lodge," and the 
P.S. went on to say, — " Having proved yourself qualified and having passed pro forma, 
through the Chair of K.S., I must now call upon you to ... . Are you prepared to 
do so ? previously to my entrusting you with the sec : of a Me. of A. & S." 

This having been gone through, the presiding officer continued: — "In order to qualify 
you to be received into a Chapter, I shall put you in possession of the [secrets] of a Me. of 
A. & S., to which you are now entitled." 

Then followed " a retrospect of the degrees in Masonry, through which the candidate 
had already passed. The Lodge does not appear to have been closed, but the candidate, 
after the preparation, etc., was introduced into the Chapter." 

" It will be seen," observes the compiler, " that in the above ceremony the P.S. has 
replaced the First A. S., mentioned in the Bye-laws as Master of the previous Lodge.'. It 
seems clear that in early times the [R.A.] degree was worked in the Lodges, and most 
probably at first not at all regularly, but only as occasion required. The idea of a separate 
body, with more or less permanent officers, was, in my opinion, not the original one, but of 
later introduction. Such a manner of working the degree would go far to explain the 
difficulty in obtaining reliable records of the early period of its history." 

1 If my recollection of the E.A. Minutes in the archives of Gtrand Lodge is to be depended upon, 
there was another William Preston besides the well-known Masonic author. 

62 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

Under 1807, it is recorded that certain -visitors " -who -were exalted in a Chapter 
meeting under the authority of the Athol Masons [were] admitted, on condition that they 
should he obligated and pay the registering fee to the Grand Chapter." 

Of the union of the two Grand Chapters, we are told " that the meeting held on 
the 18th of March, 1817, composed of the members of both Grand Chapters, resulted in the 
formal foundation of the United Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of England. The 
selection of the Lodges to which the various Chapters were to be attached appears to have 
been left to themselves. It is not surprising, therefore, when we consider the number of 
members of the Lodge of Antiquity, who were also members of the. Chapter, that the 
Chapter of St. James, on resigning its old number, 60, became No. 2." 

" On the foundation of the Supreme Grand Chapter, it is evident that some alterations 
were necessary in order to weld the two systems of working this degree into one. I am 
satisfied [continues our Bro. Rylands] that there were differences between the two systems of 
working, and that these differences were not so unimportant as has sometimes been 

" On the 6th of February, 1833, the revision of the ceremonies commenced. The 
alterations were most carefully considered by the Committee of Promulgation elected in 1835, 
composed of Royal Arch Masons selected for their knowledge of the Ceremonies." 

From the date last quoted, the proceedings which cease to be of general interest, are 
wisely shewn in very dim perspective by the historian of the Chapter. The list of Members, 
however, is given in full, and includes the names — to speak only of Companions who have 

fone to their rest — of James Asperne, the Chevalier Ruspini, Walter Rodwell Wright, 
homas Harper, William Shadbolt, the last Earl of Moira, James Earnshaw, Isaac Lindo, 
William Henry White, James Agar, John Henderson, Simon McGillivray, and the Rev. 
A. F. A. Woodford. 

It only remains to be stated, that the History of the Chapter of St. James has been 
privately printed for the use of Members, and that the number of copies was limited to 
seventy-five.— R. F. Gould, P.M. 

The Tarot op the Bohemians, by Papus. (London, Chapman and Hall, 1892.) — 
This is a translation from the French, although the fact is nowhere stated; but the 
phraseology of some paragraphs would reveal the fact, even if the writer of this article did 
not happen to know that M. Papus is a Parisian, and to have read these chapters in their 
original French. 

This work is not our author's first venture into the domain of the occult ; his 
" Traite Elementaire de Science Occulte," Paris, 1887, is in its fourth edition. 

The word Tarot is not yet a household word in England, so it is necessary to 
premise that the " Tarot" is a pack of playing cards, seventy-eight in number, which pack 
has been in some limited use as a game of cards in parts of Italy, Germany, and France 
for several centuries. Like the common pack of fifty-two cards, its origin is enveloped in 
mystery. The explanatory clause in the title of the book, — " of the Bohemians," must not 
be taken to refer to the geographical Bohemia, but rather to the Gypsies, that peculiar 
vagrant race whose members are found scattered all over Europe, and the contention of M. 
Papus is that onr knowledge of the Tarot cards is derived from the Gypsy race, in whose 
possession the Tarot has been for ages, and that the Tarot cards form a concentrated 
essence of the mysterious knowledge of the ancient world. This doctrine is not the 
invention of M. Papus, nor does his book contain much that is original ; he derives his 
knowledge of the subject from the works of Etteilla, 1783 ; -from Court de Gebelin, 1773 ; 
Jerome Cardan, Vaillant, and from Eliphas Levi. Certain references go farther back, even 
to the works of Gulielmus Postellus, 1530-50, and Raymond Sully. Papus also lays under 
contribution the recent writers, Tves d'Alvedyre, Hoene Wronski, and Oswald Wirth, who 
have all written on the Tarot symbolism. Papus has here " made a posy of other men's 
flowers, and nought but the thread which binds them together is his own ;" however, 
beside the little tract by Mathers, this is the only important work on the Tarot in the 
English language. 

It is laid down here that " The people intrusted with the transmission of occult 
doctrines from the earliest ages, was the Bohemian or Gypsy race. The Gypsies possess a 
Bible, which has proved their means of gaining a livelihood, for it enables them to tell 
fortunes ; at the same time it has been a perpetual source of amusement, for it enables 
them to gamble. Xes ; the game of cards, called the Tarot, which the Gypsies possess, is 
the Bible of Bibles. It is the book of Thoth, Hermes Trismegistus, the book of Adam, 
the primitive Revelation of ancient civilizations." " Thus, while the Freemason — an 
intelligent and virtuous man, has lost the tradition ; whilst the priest — also intelligent and 
virtuous, has lost his esoterism, the Gypsy, both ignorant and vicious, has given us the key 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 63 

to all the symbolism of the ages. We nmst admire the -wisdom of the Initiates, who 
■utilized vice, and made it produce more beneficial results than virtue." 

Voila, tout ! our friend Papus is as bold a surmiser as ever Dr. Oliver, or any other 
Freemason ever was. It is a serious question whether Papus' theory has any more solid 
foundation than those of enthusiastic Freemasons have had. Attentive study does seem to 
show marks of great antiquity in these curious cards ; but even if their origin be ever so 
remote, yet the Gypsies may not have been the sole preservers of their integrity, nor may 
Papus have mastered all they ever meant. 

Our author explains that his book is intended for the use of " Initiates," whom he 
describes as " those who are acquainted with the elements of occult science." He asserts 
that the key to Tarot symbolism has never before been revealed ; but if not it is still a 
secret. This book is to supply initiates with an accurate guide, it is also to supply to the 
uninitiated reader the explanation of the philosophy and scienee of ancient Egypt, and 
lastly to offer to Ladies complete instruction in the Art of Divining by the Tarot in seven 
lessons ; but why to Ladies only ? " Because it is traditional that the Future can be read 
through the Tarot, and our feminine friends will never forgive me if I ignore their natural 
curiosity on the subject of the future." 

Part One is the general key which gives the absolute key to occult science : there are 
references to the Tetragrammaton, the powers of numbers, the Major and Minor Arcana. 

Part Two is the general key applied to Symbolism ; here are specified the several 
extant forms of the Tarot cards, with a description of a typical pack of Tarot or Tarocchi, 
noting the four suits, the four court cards, king, queen, knight, and knave of each suit ; 
and the peculiar set of 22 trumps or atouts, which form a group of pictured cards, quite 
distinct from all the others. He describes these 78 cards as forming three septenaries 
corresponding to Theogony, Androgeny, and Cosmogony, subdivided into a series of groups 
of " three summarised in a fourth." 

Part Four includes the applications of the Tarot to Astronomy, to Initiations, and to 
the Kabalah. There is a summary of the opinions of other authors, and then conies the 
speeial Instruction to Ladies. 

The Tarot as a card game is then considered ; and there is a chapter on the unity of 
games, pointing out the resemblances between the modern card pack, chess, dominoes, and 
dice, the goose game of Homer, and the Tarot system. The work concludes with a useful 
list of authors consulted. 

As Freemasons, we are only directly interested by some remarks in the early chapter. 
" The Gnostic sects, the Arabs, Alchemists, Templars, Rosicrucians, and lastly the Free- 
masons form the western chain in the transmission of occult science." " A rapid glance 
over the doctrines of these associations is sufficient to prove that the present form of Free- 
masonry has almost entirely lost the meanings of the traditional- symbols, which constitute 
the trust which it ought to have transmitted through the ages. The elaborate ceremonials 
of the ritual appear ridiculous to the vulgar common sense of a lawyer or grocer, the actual 
modern representatives of the profound doctrines of antiquity. We must, however, make 
some exceptions in favour of great thinkers like Ragon, and a few others. In short Free- 
masonry has lost the doctrine confided to it, and cannot by itself provide us with the 
synthetic law for which we are seeking." " The legend of Hiram is the Bible of Free- 
masonry." " The hour is approaching when the missing word will be refound. Masters ! 
Rosicrucian and Kadosh, you who form the sacred triangle of Masonic Initiation, 
do you remember P Tod-He- Vau-He. Remember the Master, that illustrious 
man, killed through the most cowardly of conspiracies. . . . Remember Rosicrucian, 
the mysterious word which thou has sought for so long, of which the meaning still 
escapes thee. Remember Kadosh, the magnificent symbol which radiated from the 
centre of the luminous triangle, when the real meaning of the letter G was revealed to thee. 
The man, the word, and the symbol indicate the same mystery under different aspects. He 
who understands one of these words possesses the key which opens the Tomb, the symbol 
of the synthetic science of the Ancients ; he can grasp the heart of the Master, the symbol 
of esoteric teaching. The whole Tarot is based upon the word ROTA, arranged as a wheel 
of four spokes, at the ends of which are TARO— INRI and IHVH., thus T.I.I— A.N.H— 
R.R.Y — O.I.H. For INRI is the word which indicates the unity of your origin, Free- 
masons and Catholics. 

Igne Natura Renovatur Integra 

Jesus Nazarais Rex Judeorum 

are the opposite poles, 
of the same doctrine. 

Scientific Religious 

Physical Metaphysical 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

Tod-He- Van-He is the word which indicates to yon both, Freemasons and Kabbalists,. 
the nnity of yonr origin. TAROT, THORA, ROTA are the words which point out to you 
all, Easterns and Westerns, the nnity of yonr requirements and of yonr aspirations in the 
eternal Adam Eve, the source of all our knowledge and of all our creeds." 

If any Brother of the mystic tie be still ignorant of the Masonic secret, it is not the- 
fault of Papus ; it is the work of Gould or Speth, who have de-spiritualized the Freemasonry 
of our time. By the death of our dear Brother, the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, it is feared we 
have lost our only Hermetic scholar, to whom this explanation would have been meat for 
babes, for he was like " Ragon and a few others." 

There is not • much to be said here of the 56 cards of the Tarot pack, but the 22 
special trumps are indeed a very curious object of study and research. They are a mine of 
symbolism, and are evidently derived from a very remote autiquity, and from Egyptian 
sources. They are numbered from 1 to 21, and the remaining one, or the 22nd, is numbered 
0. They are all picture cards, and appear to represent, — The Juggler, High Priestess, 
Empress, Emperor, Pope, the Lovers, the Fool, the World, the Last judgment, Sun, Moon, 
Stars, Chariot, Justice, Hermit, Wheel of Fortune, Strength, Lightning Struck Tower, the- 
Devil, Temperance, Death and the Hanged Man, a curious and heterogeneous collection of 
beings and things, without apparent relation. Could it have been designed only for 
purposes of fortune telling ¥ Who can say ? Papus supplies a short chapter of specula- 
tions on the design and relationship of each of these cards, thus, for example, No. 15, the 
Devil, he associates with Destiny, Chance ; Fatality, the result of the Fall of Adam and 
Eve ; Nahash, the Dragon of the Threshold ; Serpent ; Sagittarius ; November and the 
Hebrew letter Samech or S. 

By such a grouping of associations it becomes possible to cover a great extent of 
data, and so a far-reaching scheme of divination is obtained. 

The four suits of the 56 cards are not like the English pack, bnt are Cups, Swords r 
Pentacles or coins, and Sceptres ; and there are the numbers 1 to 10, and a King, Queen, 
Knight, and Knave of each suit. 

The work is embellished with well-drawn engravings of the several cards, and 
several explanatory diagrams. Yet with all these adventitious aids, the subject remains 
obscure — possibly the reason may be that the True Key is still hidden from public gaze — 
yet it may, perhaps, still exist, and may be obtainable. — Wtnn Westcott, M.B., P.M., P.Z. 



here are a few errors in the transcripts of the documents contained in the last issued 
volume of our Reprints, which, although not of much importance, it would be well 
for the sake of accuracy to make a note of. They are — 







17 (twice), 21 ;^ 





and read & 






; M 






' )) 










5 !> 
J )> 

5 » 

















J » 



learn e 



1 )» 

as well 

to gather 



» ») 




On p. iii. 1. 11, vengence in the original word written; there is a mark added to the 
" e," which, if intentional, converts the word to vengance, but it may perhaps be only an 
accidental smear. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 


SLOANE MS. 3848. 





; for 






J >) 






, after 





note 9 

; after 

made much of add 












interline of 



; for 






I jj 





































(first) and 


























bond man 



















SLOANE MS. 3323. 

ii. 8; for Geometery read Geometry 

ii. 41 ; „ Government „ Goverment 


xix., 5, 23, 26 ; xx., 32, 42 ; xxi., 32 ; l . an(J ^ & 

xxii., 2 (twice), 7 ; xxiii., 4 ; xxv., 18 ; ) J 
for wch read w ch 

„ Doctor „ Doctors 

„ Daughters ,, Daugters 

„ weauing „ weaueing 

„ than „ then 

,, Ninivehet ,, Ninivelet 

„ openly „ oponly 

„ fellows „ fellowes 

., worke „ works 



















— John Lake 


*-■ — • I FE OF SETHOS. — Voici les divers renseignements que j'ai pu recueillir sur le livre 

I I "ViedeSethos." 
• Histoire ou vie de Sethos tiree des Monuments anecdotes de l'ancienne Egypte 

d'nn Manuscrit grec (composee par l'abbe Jean Terrasson). 

Paris — Guerin 

- 1731 

- 3 vol. in 12. 


- 1732 

• 2 „ 

Paris — Desant 

1767 ■ 

2 „ 

Paris — An III. 

1794 - 

2 vol. in 8. 

Nouvelle edition Paris d'Haukel 

1813 - 

6 vol. in 18. 

Lorsque cet ouvrage fut publie pour la premiere fois, un anonyme (le Pere Routh) en 
donna une critique qui a pour titre : 

" Relation fidele des troubles arrives dans l'empire de Pluton au sujet de l'Histoire 
de Sethos en IV. lettres ecrites des Champs Elysees a Mr. TAbbe . . . (Terrason) 
auteur de cette histoire." 

Amsterdam — Wetstein - 1731 - in 8 vols., 212 pages. 

Le Roman de Sethos a servi de base a Gustave Flaubert pour son roman de Salammbo. 

Le Pere Routh qui fit la critique de la vie de Sethos etait un Jesuite irlandais ne le 
11 fevrierl695 et mort a Mons le 18 Janvier, 1768. — A. de Geandsagne. 

66 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

The Quatuor Coronati. — Lewis do Luxemburgh, Archbishop of Rouen, Having 
in 1438 received the temporalities of the See of Ely, was in the following year created 
Cardinal Priest by Pope Bugenius IV., by the title of S.S. Quatuor Coronatorum. 

He presided over this diocese five years and six months, and died at his Manor 
house at Hatfield, Septembei-, 1443, in the church of which place his bowels were interred. 
His heart was carried over into Normandy, by his servant, after his body had been 
conveyed to Ely, and buried in the south side of the Presbytery, where there is a handsome 
altar tomb erected to his memory, with his effigy thereon in stone. From Bentham's 
History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Ely. — W. K. McKelvie, C.E. 

Visvakarma, the God of Indian Masonry. — Visvakarma, in India, is called 
the Carpenter, the Builder, and is represented as tying his son-in-law (Surya) upon his 
lathe ; but in the esoteric allegory, upon the svastika or Lfj cross, which is four squares 
placed with their ends together. Some lines are attributed to Buddha, in which he states 
that the Great Architect will not again erect him an house, that is, he had been born for the 
last time. — John Tabkek. 

From the East through Southern France. — I was much interested in the 
paper on Naymus Grecus and think the explanation was probably right. Some of the 
brethren may not know how much England is indebted to Greek sources in the matter of 
forms of worship and of prayer, and how this element came in by the way of the South of 

This for example is the pedigree of our Liturgy or Holy Communion Service. 

Our Lords words of Institution 
an unknown Apostolic nucleus of a liturgy 

I .1 

Liturgies of S. James, S. Mark, S. Peter Lit. of S. John of Ephesus 

Lit. of Lyons 

. I 
Lit. of Britain and of Tours 

S. Augustine's revised Lit. of Britain. 


Sarum and other English Missals 
our present Liturgy. 

S. Augustine's changes were derived not from the Roman Sacramentary of S. Gregory 
but "from a sister rite, formed in the south of France, by the joint action, probably, of 
SS. Leo and Cassian, about two hundred years before (a.d. 420) ; having -a common basis 
indeed with the Roman office, but strongly tinctured with Gallican characteristics derived 
long ago from the East, and probably enriched at the time by fresh importations of Oriental 
usages." (Archdeacon Freeman's "Principles of Divine Service," n., ii., 405). See also an 
interesting paper on the influence of Greek forms on English rites in one of the volumes of 
essays edited under the title of " The Church and the World," by the Rev. Orby Shipley. — 
Rev. J. W. Hobslet. 

Lady Freemasons. — The following is from Tit Bits, London, January 9th : — I 
have read that there has never been but one lady known to have been admitted into the 
mysteries of Freemasonry ; doubtless, others of your readers have read the same, and it 
may be interesting to those who are Freemasons to know that the writer of this article has 
attended a Lodge to which belonged, as subscribing members, several ladies. 

During the winter of 1887-8 I was at Port Mahon in one of Her Majesty's ships, and 
with others received an invitation to visit the Freemasons' Lodge on shore. We accepted 
the invitation, and, upon being ushered into the Lodge after the usual ceremonies, were 
rather surprised to see several ladies seated in the Lodge and wearing the regalia of their 

In the working of the Lodge the ladies took exactly the same share of work as their 
sterner brethren would have had to have done had there been no ladies to take upon them- 
selves the work, and they did their duty in quite as good a manner as men would have done. 
Two of the ladies had infants in arms, so there were at least two cowans in that Lodge. 

At the conclusion of the ceremonies, I conversed with the Master of the Lodge, who 
was a Spanish military officer exiled during the Carlist troubles, and he informed me that 
quite a number of ladies on the island (Majorca) were Freemasons, that the Order was 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 


worked more after the system of our society of Oddfellows, and that they were peculiarly a 
benefit society among themselves, helping each other out of the Lodge funds when necessity 
compelled — in fact, working the affair in a manner in which a great many people begin to 
think Freemasonry should be worked. 

I have been in various Lodges in and about the world, but this is the only time that 
I was ever in the company, or knew of any living ladies who had been regularly initiated 
into the mysteries of the craft. As I previously said, I was not the only Englishman 
present, so that in case of any doubt about the foregoing article I can forward the names of 
the other Masons who saw this uncommon sight. 

[The writer is wrong in supposing that only the one lady, Miss St. Leger, was ever 
initiated. There are a few other well-known and authenticated cases, but the fame of the 
Irish lady seems to overshadow and eclipse the others. We have attempted to place our- 
selves in communication with the writer of the article, but the editor of Tit Bits has, 
unfortunately, not preserved the address. Can any reader of Ars supply further data ? — 

The Masons' Arms, Swindon. — The accompanying sketch is a very rude attempt 
to delineate an elaborately incised stone built into the walls of a house in Bull Street, 
Swindon. The house itself is comparatively modern, but the stone was originally fixed 
between the upstairs windows of its predecessor, a poor two-storied cottage. The cut 
and information are both derived from Mr. Morris' " Swindon, fifty years ago (more or 
less) " and although it is simply the well-known coat of arms of the Masons' Company, 
Mr. Morris found great difficulty, curiously enough, in ascertaining this fact. The presump- 
tion is that the owner of the house in 1704 was a Mason by trade, or a member of the 
Masons' Company. All this, though interesting, is not remarkable, but the initials at the 
top of the lozenge are curious. They may be, and probably are, the initials of the owner. 
There is nothing to disprove this, but on the other hand, nothing to confirm it, as the history 
of the cottage can only be traced back to 1815, when it was conveyed from William Sevill to 
John Harding Sheppard. It would appear extremely unlikely that H.R.A. should be rightly 
read as Holy Royal Arch, and I think that the bare possibility of this may well be wholly 
overlooked. Will some brother resident in Swindon look through the registers of the 
beginning of the last century, if accessible, and try and trace out anyone with the above 
initials? — Gr. W. Speth. 

The Rosicrucians in Denmark in 1484.— I am indebted to Bro. George F. Fort 
for the following note, which appeared over the signature of that well-known Masonic 
writer, in American Notes and Queries (Philadelphia) of October 24th, 1891 : — " In tracing 
out recently some lines of historical research into old guild life in Northern Europe, I came 
upon a statement of a fact that may be of interest, viz., the existence or rather the establish- 
ment in Sleswic, in Denmark, in the year 1484, of a fraternity of the Rosicrucians : 
' Fraternitas Rosarii slesvici condita, anno 1484 (Fortuyn Be Guildarum Historia, p. 54, 
ed. 1834).' The writer refers in -a foot note for his authority for the preceding extract to 
' Terpager Bipce Cimbricce, p. 438.' If this date be authentic, it is a very old, perhaps the 
most ancient proof yet produced of the venerable lineage of this curious brotherhood." — 

R. F. GrOULD. 

68 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

Sethos (A.Q.C. iii., 240, 247). — The following descriptions are taken from the 
Catalogue in the Brit. Mus. Library : — 

a. — " Sethos, Histoire ou vie tiree des nionumens anecdotes de l'Ancienne Egypte ; 
traduite d'un manuscrit Grec [or rather written by J. Terrasson] 3 torn. Paris, 1731." 

6. — "The Life of Sethos, taken from private memoirs of the ancient Egyptians. 
Translated from a Greek manuscript into French [or rather, an original work by J. 
Terrasson] and now done into English ... by Mr. Lediard, London, 1732." 

Another edition, of whioh there is also a copy in the same national repository, was 
printed at Amsterdam in 1732. — R. F. Gould. 

The Culdees at St. Andrews. — "The diocese of St. Andrews was founded about 
850 A.D., hut the Culdees were in existence centuries before that. Under various titles — such 
as ' Kirkheugh,' ' Provostry of Kirkheugh,' ' Ecclesia Sanctse Marise de Rape,' — has 
this locality been designated ; but until the excavations began its extent was unknown. 
The form is that of most ecclesiastical buildings — a cross lying nearly east and west. The 
length inside the wall is 99ft., the width of the nave 20ft., and the length of the transepts 
84ft. The walls are three feet thick ; and curiously enough, many of the stones bear a 
Masonic mark, the five points being the most prevalent." 

The above extract is taken from the Illustrated guide book to St. Andrews, published 
by Messrs. A. Westwood and Son of Cupar- Fife. The italics are mine. 

Who are the Culdees ? When did they live ? These are questions that are asked 
on reading the above extract. I will endeavour to answer. The word Culdees means servants 
of God. The Culdees were followers of Colum or Colnmba. About the year 545 A.D., there 
came from Ireland to the island of Iona, a currach, or boat made of pieces of wood and 
covered over with skins. This currach brought Colum or Columba, and his twelve com- 
panions. Arrived on Iona, the missionaries built a church and huts of reeds and plastered 
over with clay. They supported themselves by agriculture. From Iona, as the head 
quarters, the Culdees crossed over to Scotland and preached the gospel. " Iona was in fact 
a missionary college where youth were trained to the office of preachers, and where they 
were at the same time taught various mechanical arts." The Culdees established schools 
in many parts of Scotland : Abernethy, Dunblane, Scone, Brechin, Dunkeld, Lochlevan, 
St. Andrews, etc. Culdee missionaries went all over Scotland into the isles of Orkney and 
Shetland, and Iceland ; they even penetrated into J) orthumberland, etc. 

The second question is easily answered. History tells us that it was in the sixth 
century the Culdees began their missionary work. 

The walls of the Culdean monastery are covered at present, but later on I might have 
a chance of copying and describing the Masonic Marks. — Rev. P. J. Oliver Minos, f.e.i.s. 

Antiquity of Masonic Symbolism, No. 8. — An Old Chair at Lincoln.— I enclose a 
drawing of an old oak chair which is now a useful and ornamental piece of furniture in the 
supper room of the Witham Lodge. So far as my limited experience goes, it possesses 
such features of universal interest, together with an historical record as may probably 
interest the members of the Quatuor Coronati and secure a place amongst the Notes and 
Queries of the Transactions. The chair, it is believed was bought from a house in Gloucester- 
shire by a Lincoln dealer, and while in transit through the streets on a railway dray it was 
seen by one of the Lincoln brethren, who ultimately secured it for the Witham Lodge.. 

As the name Pierpoynt upon the chair indicated a connexion with the family of Earl 
Manvers, I wrote to his Lordship enclosing the drawing and asking for any information 
that he could give, and received the following reply : — " From investigations we have made, 
it appears most probable that the chair must have belonged to William, 4th Earl of 
Kingston, who was Lord Chief Justice (in eyre) beyond the Trent, and died in 1690." The 
chair may probably have been carried from place to place to add a kind of dignity to the 
proceedings. A balance is just the sort of emblem one would naturally look for on a judge's 
seat, but I think it is a little remarkable that the Masonic emblems should be added. The 
question is, whether the designer of the chair being a Mason carved these tools on his own 
responsibility or whether they were ordered by the Earl ? If the latter, it is very interest- 
ing, as showing that Speculative Masonry had, in the century preceding the formation of 
Grand Lodge, more aristocratic followers than has been lately imagined. The drawing, which 
is very faithfully executed, is the work of the younger son of our late esteemed brother 
Frederic Watson.— W. Dixon, P.M. 297. 

Introduction of outside rites into the Craft. — Be Austrian Masonry, Chapter 
of Clermont, English Royal Arch, etc. — The interesting papers of Bro. Malczovich have 
raised a point which may assist in clearing up the date of introduction of certain higher 
grades into the Craft. Perhaps he may be able to afford us a little more light upon this 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 


interesting and vexed question. He states that a religio-civil order under the name of the 
Friends of the Cross united with an originally operative Dutch Lodge into which the Count 
de Spork was initiated. At page 187, vol iv., A.Q.O., he gives a medal of a Lodge, founded 
1726, on one side of which is Spork, and on the reverse a representation of the New 
Jerusalem. This symbolism connects the Lodge of 1726 with the grade which afterwards 
became 19th of the Chapter of Clermont, and from which so many other rites have drawn 
their inspiration. The title Friends of the Cross is clearly only a varied translation of the 
latin title of a much older order. In 1587 the Militia Grucifera Fvangelica held a meeting 
at Lunenberg, and in 1604 Simon Studion alludes to the Militia in his book Temple Measuring 
which also contains several allusions to the rose and the cross. Between 1617-28 the well- 
known Andrea was engaged in spreading an association called the Christian Fraternity, and 
lists of members are preserved of later date than Andrea's death in 1654. De Quincey is 
my authority. A little later it is said by Thory and Oliver that Gabrano instituted the 
Order of the Apocalypse, which would seem to have been a branch of the foregoing, though, 
his system is rather connected with the 17th degree. However it is chiefly the possession 
of the grades 17-19th that distinguished the Chapter of Clermont from its other competitors, 
such as the Knights of the East and Adoniramite Masons. I admit this is slender ground 
on which to draw conclusions, but it is the best that we can expect to find. — John Yarker. 

JKsCcsorvs 'JKcorkj ; GW Cathedral. 

/ttfy &yv^Ltrof0Ua^cyv, S.Si'Jcoff. Trcmiefrtr. <^//, 0n Tier of 0c£aj0i,,J r -'r}\'e- if £&*/&. 
Z, {, (,,?, (fat, €. it'dc <f/X. Transe/it •£ ^^ P™ )ftf<ef* c>fS. TnznJefitr. 

ti f /3 f /?, On, MW.KeroJ&daqorv IrvJfaro tiffh- 

Masons' Marks. — I send you herewith a few copies of the Masons' Marks in Ely 
Cathedral, all of which I understand are on Norman work. At a future time, if desired, I 
shall be glad to send another selection. Those that I send appear frequently, and are more 
or less distinct, according to the manner in which the coating of whitewash had been 
removed, but some of them are nearly obliterated, owing to the rough manner in which, 
that work was performed. The whitewash is quite visible in most of the marks, thus 
proving that the latter were previously in existence. — W. McKelvie. 

Randle Holme MS. Charges. — In the introduction to Vol. in. of the Lodge 
Reprints (Harl. MS. 2054) Bro. Speth, following Bro. Gould, mentions that in my notes on 
Handle Holme and Freemasonry, I have made the statement that the second Randle Holme 
died 1st Charles n. [1649]. To prevent future error, I may mention that this is simply a 
misprint for the 11th of Charles n. In the original proof the printer allowed one of the 
figures to drop out, and knowing that the first (as it then stood) regnal year of Charles was 
not 1659, I unfortunately, without reference, reduced the date ten years, and changed it to 
1649, whereas I ought instead to have added the figure 1 in its proper place in the number 
of regnal years. — W. H. Rylands. 

The Tatler and Bro. Francis Drake's 1725 Address to his Grand Lodge. 

- — It is now well known that No. 26 of The Tatler (1709) alludes to Freemasons having 
signs and tokens ; but I think it has not hitherto been noticed that Bro. Drake, in his 
speech to the G.L. of all England at York, in 1725, has extracted from The Tatler. The 
extract alludes to the different humours of Englishmen, as derived from Danes, Saxons, 
Normans, and "Welshmen, and will be found verbatim in No. 75 (Oct. 1st, 1709). — Johit 

70 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 


* J | ' GRIEVOUS loss has been sustained, not only by tbe Craft, but by the nation at 
y""i large, in the untimely death, on the 14th January, of the elder son of H.R.H. the 
^J' ' Prince of Wales, M.W.G.M. Our late royal Brother, the Duke op Clarence and 
Avondale, had but completed his 28th year on the previous Friday, and all England was 
looking forward in pleasurable anticipation to bis marriage with Princess " May " of Teck, 
when on Monday the public was struck aghast with the information that he lay seriously ill 
of the prevailing epidemic, influenza, to which he finally succumbed. It scarcely needed 
such a blow as this to assure his august parents of the deep sympathy of the British nation 
in their welfare, yet even in such sorrow as is theirs at this time, the unaffected and 
universal mourning of a whole people must be, we trust, some slight consolation. Prince 
Albert Victor of Wales was initiated into Freemasonry in the Royal Alpha Lodge, No. 16, 
on the 17th March, 1885, the ceremony being performed by his father, the M.W.G.M. On 
the 7th May he was passed in the Lodge of Friendship, No. 100, Yarmouth, and raised on. 
the 8th June in the Isaac Newton University Lodge, No. 859, Cambridge. In 1887, during 
the Jubilee year of his Grandmother, our gracious Queen, he was appointed Senior Grand 
Warden, and in 1890 he was installed by the Prince of Wales personally as the Provincial 
Grand Master of the Province of Berkshire, then newly separated from Buckinghamshire. 
To all appearance his future career, both Masonic and public, was destined to be a bright 
one, whilst his domestic and private life seemed to be assured of felicity in the apprc aching 
union with an amiable princess, who bid fair to rival her mother in the affections of the 
people of these realms. But it has pleased T.G.A.O.T.U. to ordain otherwise, and we can 
but bow in submission to His will, believing that what He does is for the best. 

We regret to record the death of Brother George Richardson, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
on the 14th December last. He had only joined our Circle in the previous May. 

Also of Brother John Piggin Fearfield, W.M. of Moira Lodge, No. 92. Though 
W.M. of one London Lodge, and member of another (No. 29), Brother Fearfield was a 
resident of Nottinghamshire. He was an Alderman on the County Council, a Captain of 
Volunteers, and a Provincial Grand Officer of Derbyshire. 

Also of Brother R. G. King, of Gosport, who joined us in January, 1888, and entered 
into rest on the 7th January, 1892. 

Also, in January, of Brother L. E. S. Torgius, of Johannesburg, who joined us in 
March, 1889. 

William Robert Woodman, M.D. — This well-known Brother, and member (since 
June 1887) of the Quatuor Coronati Correspondence Circle, died on December 20th, 1891,. 
after a month's illness ; but he had been gradually failing in health for several years. He 
was initiated in St. George's Lodge, No. 112, at Exeter, in 1852, and joined the Grenadiers 
Lodge, No. 66, of which he became W.M. in 1863. Exalted in the Royal Arch in the 
Britannic Chapter, No. 33, he subsequently occupied its chair as First Principal. He was a 
Past Prov. Grand Steward of Middlesex, and was appointed Grand Sword Bearer to the 
M.W.G.M. in 1875. Brother Woodman was a respected and eminent member of the medical 
profession, and had served as a Volunteer Surgeon in Paris in the coup d'etat of 1851. For 
many years he filled the office of Grand Recorder to the Order of the Red Cross of Rome and 
Constantine, of which he subsequently became Grand Treasurer. But it was to the 
Societas Rosicruciana that he gave his most earnest and willing services ; he became 
Secretary General in 1867, Junior Substitute Magus in 1876, Senior in 1877, and finally 
succeeded Robert Wentworth Little as Supreme Magus in 1878, an office which he held 
until his death. For eleven years he acted as Editor of the quarterly periodical, the 
" Rosicrucian," and contributed to it many scholarly articles. He was an excellent Hebrew 
scholar, and one of the few English masters of the Hebrew Kabalah ; he was also an authority 
on the Gnosis and the Tarot. Dr. Woodman was also one of the few living members and 
teachers in the little-known Hermetic Society of the G.D. He has left by deed a collection 
of valuable books on occult subjects, to the conjoined library of the Hermetic and 
Rosicrucian Societies. The Metropolitan College of the Soc. Ros. has published annnal 
reports for the last six years, and in these will be found several learned articles on the 
Kabalistic philosophy from his pen. He was an amiable man, an enthusiastic Freemason, 
and a sincere friend ; his loss is deeply felt by all those who were associated with him,, 
alike in Masonry, professional life, and in the social circle. — W. Wtnn Westcott. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 71 

The Craft in general, and his Province in particular, have sustained a great loss in. 
the death, on the 1st February, of Colonel Foster Gough, LL.D., Past Grand Standard 
Bearer, Provincial Grand Master of Staffordshire. From the date of his initiation, in 1856, 
he had been a diligent student of Masonry in all its degrees, as shown by his having taken 
the Royal Arch in 1857, become a Knight Templar in 1858, and followed these by joining 
the 18th and the Mark Degrees in 1859. To those who only knew him in later years it may 
probably be a surprise to learn that he was Deputy Provincial Grand Master so long ago as 
1865, and for a time undertook a very active supervision of the Province. His energies 
were in a few years diverted to Mark Masonry, and the Provinces of Stafford and Warwick, 
organized by his zealous labours, were put under his charge as Prov. G.M.M , in 1882. 
When he again gave his special attention to the Craft, a few years since, as Deputy for 
Colonel Tudor, he devoted all his leisure to the work of the Province, and on succeeding 
that Brother as Prov. G. Master and Grand Superintendent in 1889, it became the ruling 
business of his life. Within the nine months preceding his death, he paid no less than 53 
"visits to Lodges aud Chapters within the Province. During the past year he devoted 
special attention to the promotion of uniformity of ritual, and organised Lodges of Instruc- 
tion with competent Preceptors in connection with nearly all the Lodges. He also held 
three special meetings for instruction in, and correction of, ritual, to bring the Province into 
conformity with the Emulation working, securing for this purpose the assistance of Brother R. 
E. Sudlow, P.G.Std.B. It was specially characteristic of him to devote all his energies to one 
purpose, and he lately announced that he considered the work of settling the ritual fairly 
set on foot, and his next effort would be the advocacy of the Masonic Charities. He only 
lived to set an example by contributing a vice- President's qualification to each of the three 
institutions. Courteous, genial, and always readily accessible to the Brethren of the 
Province, he will long be remembered as an example of what a Provincial Grand Master 
may be, and the present generation of Masons must pass away before his memory can cease 
to be recalled with esteem and affection. Our Brother was an early member of the Corres- 
pondence Circle, and took a lively interest in the Quatuor Coronati. His Provincial Grand 
Lodge and Chapter were among the first Provincial bodies to be enrolled on its list. He 
published several small pamphlets and lectures on Masonic subjects in his earlier days. 
Outside Masonry he took an active interest in scientific subjects, especially electricity and 
electro-metallurgy, was the second President of the Wolverhampton Literary and Scientific 
Society, and for some years commanded with his customary zeal and energy the local regi- 
ment of Volunteers. — J. Bodenham. 


The death of Colonel Shadwell Henry Clerke, Grand Secretary of English Free- 
masons, which occurred on Christmas Day last, will be deeply lamented throughout the vast 
jurisdiction, in which for the last twelve years he was the moving spirit. 

Our late Brother came from an old military stock, his father, General St. John 
Clerke, K.H., Colonel of the 75th Foot, and also his uncle, Major Shadwell Clerke, having 
served with distinction in the Peninsular War. 

Shadwell Henry Clerke — born March 28th, 1836 — served with the 21st Fusiliers in 
the Eastern Campaign of 1854-5, including the battle of Alma, siege and fall of Sebastopol, 
attack of the Redan on the 18th June, when he commanded the scaling-ladder party, and 
was mentioned in despatches. Served as Adjutant at the fall of Sebastopol and expedition 
to Kinburn. For these services he received the Crimean medal' with two clasps, also the 
Sardinian and Turkish medals. His earlier commissions bear date- — Ensign, Dec. 3rd, 1852 ; 
Lieutenant, Nov. 6th, 1854 ; and Captain, March 26th, 1858. In 1860, the 21st Foot was in 
the West Indies, and in that year General Sir Josias . Cloete, commanding at Barbados, 
selected Captain Clerke as his Aide-de-camp, from which office he was advanced to that of 
Military Secretary by General Brooke, the successor to Sir Josias. The latter appointment 
he held for the regulation period of five years, when he returned to England, and a few 
years after purchased a majority, his name appearing in the Gazette the day before Purchase 
in the Army was abolished. Subsequently he became Lieutenant Colonel and (Honorary) 

In 1875 he was appointed to a vacancy in the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at- 
Arms, and remained a member until his death. 

Our late brother, then Lieutenant Clerke, was made a Mason in the Zetland Lodge, 
No. 515, Malta, by bis friend Captain N. G. Phillips, in 1857. In the following year he 
joined St. John and S. Paul, No. 349, also at Valetta, and became W.M. on December 27th, 

In 1872, he joined the Friends in Council Lodge, No. 1383, and was made W,M. in 
1876 ; in 1880, the Royal Alpha, No. 16, of which the Grand Secretary for the time being is 
always the Secretary ; and the Shadwell Clerke Lodge, No. 1910, in 1885, whereof he was 

72 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

installed W.M. in November last. He was exalted to the degree of R.A. at Malta, in the 
Leinster Chapter, No. 387, I.C., and he became Z. of the Friends in Council Chapter, No. 
1383, in 1879. 

Besides the foregoing, there are other Lodges and Chapters of which he is said to 
have been a member — notably the Albion, No. 196, Barbados, and the Metham, No. 1705, 
Stonehonse (Lodges) ; also the Union Chapter, No. 407, Malta ; but his name is not 
registered in the books of our Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter as having actually belonged 
to any one of them. It is certain, however, that after leaving Malta, and during the 
remainder of his military service, he must have participated in Masonic Fellowship with 
the members of many Lodges and Chapters, and of the manner in which he was esteemed by 
those with whom he was thus brought in contact, a gratifying proof was afforded him 
while stationed with his regiment at Plymouth, by his successive appointment as Provincial 
Grand Sword Bearer and Senior Grand Warden of Devonshire. In 1878, he was appointed 
S.G.D. of the Grand Lodge, and Principal Sojourner of the Grand Chapter, while two years 
later he was successively inducted into the two offices of Grand Secretary and Grand 
Scribe E., which he continued to hold until his untimely decease. 

Besides the distinctions enumerated, he attained the highest, or nearly the highest, 
position in a vast number of Orders and Bites, the membership of which is restricted to 
Freemasons. Thus, he was Great Sub-Prior of the Knights Templars, a Sovereign Graud 
Inspector General 33°, and for several years Grand Secretary General of the Supreme 
Council, a Past Grand Warden of. the Mark Degree and — without having exhausted the list 
of his dignities — Prov. G.M. of the Royal Order of Scotland. 

But it was in the high and important office of Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, 
that the work done by Shadwell Clerke, will longest survive in the memory of his contem- 
poraries. The duties of Grand Secretary, at no time light, increased by leaps and bounds 
during his tenure of the appointment. This embraced a period of twelve years — January, 
1880 to December, 1891. The last Lodge on the roll for 1879 was No. 1854 (Weald of Kent), 
and the latest in the Freemasons' Calendar of current date (November, 1891), is No. 2419 
(Hope). The additional Lodges, therefore, that have swelled the muster roll of the Grand 
Lodge of England, during the Grand Secretaryship of Colonel Clerke, may be put down 
at about 565. The number of additional Chapters was also large, perhaps more so pro- 
portionately, than the Lodges. A considerable number of these Lodges and Chapters,— it 
will be within the mark if I put them at 150, — were actually consecrated by the late Grand 
Secretary in person, and of the remainder, it may be said with truth, that every one of them 
added more or less to the already heavy burden of his correspondence. 

But whatever amount of work was cast upon him, Colonel Clerke invariably performed 
it with a zeal and efficiency which left nothing to be desired. The varied duties of his high 
office were always discharged with dignity and precision, and his genial manner on all 
occasions of purely social intercourse, left a charm behind it, which will not readily be for- 

The opinion may be expressed, without erring on the side of panegyric, that a better 
Grand Secretary than Shadwell Clerke never existed, and to this brief notice of a much 
lamented member of our Inner Circle, I shall add an earnest hope, that the influence of his 
bright example may long survive in an equally prudent administration of the affairs of 
Grand Lodge, by every future brother destined to follow him in the succession. — R. F. Gould. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 73 



*^ ' HE 50th Anniversary Festival of the Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution for Aged 
\G\ Freemasons and Widows of Freemasons was held at Covent Garden Theatre, 
under the presidency of the Earl of Mount Edgcnmb, Deputy Grand Master. 
Prov.G.M. of Cornwall, on Wednesday, the 24th of February. The amount collected 
exceeded the sum of £63,000, far and away the largest amount ever collected at any charity, 

Thb Lodges warranted by the United Grand Lodge of England in 1891 are as follows;-; 

No. 2386. Clarence. Chester. 

„ 2387. Manchester Dramatic. Manchester. 

„ 2388. Harmony. Stutterheim, South Africa (E.D.) 

„ 2389. Avondale. Middlewich, Cheshire. 

„ 2390. Exmoor. Minehead, Somerset. 

„ 2391. Orde-Powlett. Middlesborough, W. Yorkshire. 

„ 2392. Victoria. Accra, West Africa. J. 

„ 2393. Charleville. Charleville, Queensland. . -. 

„ 2394. Galen. London. - 

„ 2395. Avondale. Brixton, London. 

„ 2396. Bighopsgate. London. 

„ 2397. Columbia. London. 

,,2398. Holborn. London. 

„ 2399. Ordnance. Plumstead, Kent. 

„ 2400. Brentford. Brentford, Middlesex. 

„ 2401. Klip River County. Ladysmith, Natal. 

„ 2402. St. George's. Larnaca, Cyprus. 

„ 2403. Borneo of Harmony. Sandakan, Br. N. Borneo. 

„ 2404. Lord Charles Beresford. Chatham, Kent. 

„ 2405. Ionic. St. Helens, Lancashire West. 

„ 2406. Amatole. Alice, Victoria E., South Africa (E.D.) 

„ 2407. Hicks-Beach. Stroud, Gloucestershire. 

„ 2408. Hampstead. South Hampstead, London. 

„ 2409. Woodgrange. Forest Gate, London. 

„ 2410. jEsculapius. London. 

„ 2411. Clarence and Avondale. Leytonstone, Essex. 

„ 2412. Ashfield. Sutton-in Ashfield, Nottinghamshire. 

„ 2413. Trinity. Cairns, Queensland. ' 

„ 2414. Wychwood. Burford, Oxfordshire. 

„ 2415. Tristram. Shildon, Durham. 

„ 2416. Hiram. London. 

„ 2417. Bolingbroke. Clapham, London. 

„ 2418. Hedworth. South Shields, Durham. 

„ 2419. Hope. Allora, Queensland. 

Our Brother C. Purdon Clarke, CLE., has been recently promoted to be Keeper, 
of the South Kensington Museum by the death of Mr. Wallis, and Assistant Director through; : 
the retirement of Mr. R. A. Thompson. : 

Lectures on "The Degrees of Masonry " were delivered by Bro. R. F. Gould before 
the Earl of Mornington Lodge, No. 2000, London, on the 11th February and the 12th March^ 
A third, completing the series, will be delivered by the same Brother at the next regular 
meeting of the Lodge. ' 

On the 11th February also, at the Graystone Lodge, No. 1915, Whitstable, Bro. R. T.; 
Wheeler read a paper on " The Ancient Egyptian Mysteries in relation to Freemasonry." 


Our Brethren across St. George's Channel are making great preparations to worthily 
commemorate the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Masonic Female Orphans 
School of Ireland, which, established in 1792, now educates and supports 80 Masonict ; 
orphans. The buildings and grounds of the Royal Dublin Society at Ball's Bridge have" 
been engaged, and the whole week commencing May 16th will be occupied by the*- 

74 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

festivities ; which include a Bazaar and Fancy Fair, a representation of Old Dublin, open 
air Fete, a Loan Collection of paintings, &c, Athletic Meeting, and other gaieties. Pupils 
are maintained in the school till the age of 16, and the prime object of the Festival is to 
raise a Centenary Fund, out of which they may be assisted to establish themselves in their 
future careers after leaving school. 


Melbourne. — From the " Australasian Keystone," of the 2nd November, we learn 
that on the 15th October a " Freemasons' Literary Association " was founded in the city 
of Melbourne, with Bro. Rev. B. Rodda, P.S.G.W., as president. Constitutions were 
adopted and officers appointed, and the President promised that at the next meeting, 19th 
November, he would read a paper on " Characteristics of American Freemasonry in the 
Indian Territory." From all we can gather the Association seems to be starting nnder 
very favourable auspices, and we trust to hear further of its proceedings in good time. 

Queensland. — In a circular issued at the new year " to the members of ' The Circle ' 
in Queensland," Brother Spiers remarks, "At my appointment as Local Secretary, in 
January last, our Colony was represented on the Roll of the Correspondence Circle by three 
Brethren. Since then one District Grand Lodge, four Lodges, one Royal Arch Chapter, 
•one Literary Society, and thirty-one Brethren have become members, giving us now a total 
membership of forty-one." Few things are more calculated to please the founders of No. 
2076 than the enthusiasm with which they have been supported in the Colonies, and con- 
sidering how sparsely Queensland is peopled, the above record is a remarkable one for 12 
months' work. Brother Spiers, however, omits to state that the Literary Society mentioned 
by him is a Masonic one, and directly due to his initiative and our example. 

Picton, New Zealand. — Brother Howard writes, "We have just about finished the 
internal decoration of our Lodge-room. It is, to my mind, as pretty a Hall as one could 
hope to find in so small a place. Picton is only a little lake-side village, as you would term 
it, with 800 inhabitants, at the head of a sound, the outlet of which is 25 miles distant, so 
that from Picton it looks like a lake. But there is more ' go ' about the Colonies than in 
the ' Old Country.' We have our Mayor and Corporation, our Newspaper, Waterworks, 
Public Library, Public Hall, Public Tennis Courts, Post and Telegraph buildings, Custom 
House, Resident Magistrate's Court, and all the paraphernalia of municipality. Of course 
our Masonic Hall is on a small scale, 48 feet by 24. There is a mortgage on it, but we are 
onr own creditors. Two of our Brethren built it at their own cost, we paying them five per 
cent, on the outlay. It was opened three years ago, but we could not see our way to com- 
pleting the internal decorations till now. And we have yet to wait for some desirable 
furniture. We have a fine Canopy for the throne, handsomely draped, but the throne 
itself is a common Windsor arm-chair, and the Wardens' seats are Austrian bentwood chairs 
without arms." 


A Capetown correspondent, writing under date of February 23rd, says — A fire 
occurred here on Sunday which not only burned down the theatre, the offices of the 
Secretary for Native Affairs, some adjacent cottages, and placed the Government House 
itself in extreme peril, but has destroyed, beyond recovery, the Temple of the Lodge de 
Goede Hoop, said to be the finest Temple in the world, with the exception of that at Malta. 
*Efee Temple was built in 1800-3, at a cost of about £4,000, and was of the substantial 
masonry which distinguishes the old Dutch buildings in the colony. Internally it was 
fitted with remarkable completeness, and great and loving care had been bestowed upon 
itby the Brethren for nearly a century, the latest touches in the shape of painted windows, 
afi entire renovation of the refectory and general re-decoration having been completed 
within the past few weeks. Happily, the archives were rescued at an early stage of the 
fire by Brother Dr. Herman, P.M., Brother Tiffany, secretary; and other Brethren, and 
the massive character of the Master's Chamber saved it from destruction, but the whole of 
the fittings, the portraits of successive Masters, and the fine statuary have all been lost. The 
saddest part of a sad business is that the Temple ought never to have been exposed to the 
risk which ultimately brought about its destruction. The theatre, where the fire originated, 
was a huge iron-wooden structure, originally used for an inter-colonial exhibition, and was 
isiimmediate proximity to the Temple. For years it has been the common saying that 
■me day the theatre would make a big blaze, but no one seems to have dreamt that the 
fo% blaze might include the Goede Hoop Temple, and all the surrounding buildings. It was, 
Moreover, like the Native Affairs office, the property of the Lodge, and was a source of 
•iderable revenue, which was applied to the Education Fund, and there was a great and 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 75 

natural temptation to let the building remain standing, at all events, until the new theatre, 
now in course of erection, was completed. Never was the proverb " Delays are dangerous " 
better illustrated than by the events of Sunday. Some members of the Potter Bellew 
Company, who have been enjoying a remarkably successful season in Capetown, had been at 
work mending the stage, when fire was discovered in a corner of the building near the gas 
meter. An alarm was at once raised, but in twenty minutes the roof fell in, and the whole 
place was a heap of smoking ruins. Unfortunately, the wind was westerly, and drove the 
flames directly on to the Temple, whilst masses of burning wood fell upon the roof, with 
the result that, as I have said, the interior was entirely gutted, leaving only the bare walls 
standing. The banqueting hall, a detached building, also succumbed, and to-day the ruins 
stand a sad monument to human folly. You will be glad to know that it is in contempla- 
tion to rebuild the Temple and its accessories, but nothing can, of course, ever replace the 
Masonic treasures that have been lost through this most regrettable calamity. 

A few words as to the Lodge which gave its name to the Temple, now no more, will 
be of interest. Established in 1772, nnder the G.E. of the Netherlands, the Lodge de 
Goede Hoop (Anglice, Good Hope Lodge) is the Mother of nearly all, if not all, the Lodges 
in South Africa, of which there are very many working under the Dutch, the British and the 
Scottish Constitutions. And she well deserves the title of Mother, for in the perfection and 
fidelity of her working, in the zeal and earnestness with which she throws herself into 
everything that makes for the good of Masonry in general, she still, as she has ever, sets an 
example to all Lodges in South Africa, as, indeed, everywhere. There was a period at the 
close of the last, and dnring a few years of the present century — a stormy period in Cape 
history — when the B.B. " rested," owing to a state of political disorder, and later on in 
consequence of dissensions among the B.B. ; but in 1807 the breaches were healed, and from 
that time to the present harmony has prevailed, and the Lodge is now in a better and more 
prosperous condition than at any stage of its interesting history. It has numbered amongst 
its members most of the leading Dutch residents in the colony, whilst at the present moment 
the roll inclndes a large number of English born Brethren. 

As will be seen from the newspapers, the Temple and Refection Booms have not 
been insured for anything approaching the sum which they cost when built early in this 
century, when labour was much cheaper than at present, and when the talented Brother 
Ahnrelt, artist and sculptor, who moulded the glorious figures which adorned the interior, 
received but a trifling remuneration for work bestowed even on non-Masonic objects. What 
he did for the Temple may be considered as veritable labours of love. 


Our Brother J. Ross Robertson, Grand Master of the G.L. of Canada, has been 
particularly hard at work lately. In a circular before us he announces his " Route." From 
Monday, 11th January, to Wednesday, 17th February, he visited 64 towns, in each of which 
the local Lodge was summoned to meet him at an hour fixed beforehand, in order that he 
, might make the acquaintance of the Brethren, and personally enquire into their circum- 
stances. In return he entertained them each in turn with a lecture entitled " A Hundred 
Years with the Craft in Canada," with incidents and anecdotes of Craft life. The days 
over which the tour extended were 37, those on which visitations were made were 27, and 
only in four cases did one lodge-meeting comprise the whole of the day's work ; whilst in 
one case four towns were visited and four meetings held in the day, in 12 cases three towns 
and meetings, and on all other days two towns. Our Brother stipulated in the circular that 
nnder no circumstances was there to be any expense incurred by the Lodge in connection 
with his visit. Many of the Lodges were summoned for 10 o'clock in the morning, this 
early hour being obviously necessary when the G.M. had to travel to two other towns and 
lecture at each on the same day. Many of us have had the pleasure of making the personal 
acquaintance of Brother Robertson, and know what a sturdy frame he possesses ; without 
which qualification we think that few would care to undertake such a task as he has success- 
fully accomplished. 


Three Grand Lodge systems follow the Swedish Rite. They are the Grand Lodge of 
Sweden, that of Denmark, and the National Grand Lodge of Germany (so called 1 ) at 
Berlin. The Rite is based upon an alleged Templar origin of Freemasonry ; and in imitation 
of that knightly Order, all Europe is divided by it into provinces. Germany occupies the 
seventh province, Denmark the eighth, and Sweden the ninth. The others are allotted but 
unoccupied, because the Rite of Freemasonry elsewhere has long since given up any preten- 

1 There are seven other Grand Lodges in Germany. 

76 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

tions to a Templar origin. Norway until 1814 formed part of the kingdom of Denmark, 
and its Lodges were previously tinder the Grand Lodge of that country, which at that 
time had not adopted the Swedish Rite. But in 1814 the Lodges in Norway came under 
the rule of the Grand Lodge of Sweden. With this slight preamble the following transla- 
tion of a recent decree will be better understood. 

We, Oscar, by the grace of God King of Sweden and Norway, Ruler of the 
Goths and Wends, High Protector of the Fraternity of Freemasons, Wise 
"Vicar of Solomon and Grand Master of the IX Province of the Order, to you, 
Free and Accepted Masons, in the name of T.G.A.O.T.U., Fraternal Greeting. 

Be it known by these presents 

That whereas the Chapters and Lodges in our kingdom of Norway 
which practise the Royal Craft according to the doctrines laid down in the 
IX Province of the Order, show such an increase and development, that the 
question has quite naturally arisen, whether a more independent position in 
the Order may not be conceded to them. 

And whereas the Provincial Chapter of Norway has petitioned that we 
should grant it the Constitution of a Grand Chapter, and therewith con- 
sequently that of a Grand Lodge, to the intent that it may rule and govern 
thereby the Chapter*? existing and working in Norway, as also the Scots 
Lodges of the Order of St. Andrew, and the Lodges of St. John. 

Therefore and in accordance therewith and by virtue of the Power in the 
Fraternity of Freemasons vested in us, have we thought fit to grant unto the 
Fraternity in Norway the right to found within the Order a separate Province, 
which under our sway as Grand Master shall bear the number X among the 
Provinces of the Order. 


Given at Stockholm, in the High Place of the Orient of that name, where 
we are enthroned, this 10th day of May, 1891. 



A. Eckstrom, Hugo Martin, 

Chancellor of the Order. Director of the Chancellery. 

Norway thus acquires for the first time in history the position of Masonic independence. 


According to the Berlin Latomia, 'a candidate for the privileges of the Craft in this 
country has to answer the following questions, and his admission depends upon his reply. 

1. — To which, religious persuasion do you belong, and do you consider it the only true 
one, or do you profess it only from habit ? 

2. — We also profess a religious belief. Will you accede to it, even though it prove 
to be contrary to your conviction r 

3. — A poor widow needs assistance. Will you afford it her, and if so, will you do so 
this very evening, or to-morrow ? 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 71 



The Mercian Lodge, Ludlow, and The Silurian Lodge, Kington. 


LTHOUGH the Lodge of the Marches, Ludlow, has a fairly low number (611) 
Jim on the register of the Grand Lodge of England, it can hardly claim to be of 

great antiquity, and an examination of the records of Grand Lodge will show 
? that Freemasonry flourished in adjoining towns at a much earlier date than 

in Ludlow. 

Whether it was affected by the existence, in a greater or less state of 
activity, of guilds of operative tradesmen is a subject to consider.. In Ludlow 
there was no Masons' Company, but there was a " Hammermen's Company," which included 
the Masons. The term Freemason was in use in the neighbourhood in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, as Thomas Tunford of Orleton, Herefordshire, who was party to a deed 
made in 1654, was described simply as " Freemason." This may have meant that he was 
one of our modern speculative body, or that he was a member of a trade guild that enjoyed 
the freedom of some municipality. 

Masonic students lament that the secrecy which necessarily exists with regard to some 
of the essentials of Freemasonry has been unnecessarily extended in the past to its history ; 
and this general regret is increased when by some happy exception old documentary 
evidence throws most interesting light on the past. These notes have accordingly been 
compiled with a view of recording in small space such matters as come within the subject, 
the evidence of which may be lost or die out of the memories whifch are now their sole 

The Lodge of the Marches was warranted in the year 1853, but it has Masonic con- 
nections of much earlier date, which will be referred to first. 

It must have been about the year 1790 that brethren of the town of Kington, 
Herefordshire, petitioned Grand Lodge for a "Warrant of Constitution as a regular Lodge, 
which was granted on the 25th January, 1791, the name of the new Lodge being the 
Silurian Lodge. The number was 576, which in the following year was changed to 485. 
Unfortunately, few records of the Silurian Lodge are in existence. The Lodge was short- 
lived and the minute book has disappeared. 

An enquiry from the Provincial Grand Secretary of Herefordshire only elicited the 
information that the Provincial records did not go back to the time of the Silurian Lodge. 
An application at Freemasons' Hall, however, brought forth more encouraging results, the 
register of the Lodge showing a membership between 1791 and 1796 of thirty- five. One of 
the fonnders was a Bro. Robert "Williams, and it is a curious fact that the first Worshipful 
Master of the Arrow Lodge, Kington, No. 2240, was another Bro. Robert Williams. One 
of the initiates in 1794 was the Rev. John Thomas of whom more hereafter. 

In the register there are two columns for " Of what other Lodges Members," and 
" Remarkable Occurrences," but no entry appears in either of them. The contributions to 
the funds of Grand Lodge were 

£2 2 in April 1792. 

£3 12 in N"ovr. 1793. 

£2 11 in April 1795. 

£2 1 in April 1796. 

1796 seems to be the last year in which anything was done and the Lodge lingered a few 
years. Some light is thrown on the subject by a local historian some years later. On 
turning to " The History of Kington," etc., " by a member of the Mechanics' Institute at 
Kington," published in 1845, we find a short notice of the Craft in general and the Silurian 
Lodge in particular. The writer apparently was not a Mason or he would not, while admit- 
ting the distinguishing feature of" Freemasonry, have referred to the Lodges as " harmless 

78 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

and social meetings," or alluded to the ceremonies as " innocent mystification." Whatever 
his views may have been he was able, even after the lapse of forty years, to get pretty 
accurate information from some source as the following extract will show. 

" The Silurian Lodge of Free and accepted Masons was first opened on the 10th of 
March at Mr. John Morris's house, called the Sun Inn, in the Town of Kington in the year 
1791 and in the following year or soon after the Lodge was removed to the King's Head 
kept at that time by Mr. William Hobby. 

" Names of the Officers. 

" Rev. Samuel Phillips R.W. Master 

" Edmund Cheese Senior ") Wardens 
'• Roger Whitcombe, Junior ) 

" William Rogers, Mercer Treasurer 

" Thomas Knowles Secretary 

" Rev. J. Donne Chaplain 

" This Lodge continued in existence until the year 1800, or following year, and then 
separated and divided the cash among the brethren ; the Lodge furniture was sold in the 
year 1804 by the Treasurer to a person in Ludlow for the sum of twenty-two pounds and 
ten shillings." 

The Grand Lodge register shows the first part of this Extract to be correct, and 
subsequent events, although not referred to by the Kington historian, will be alluded to in 
these pages as showing the probability of the latter part. 

Having traced the History of the Silurian Lodge from its formation we will make a 
digression in the direction of the Statutes of the Realm. 

In the year 1799 an Act of Parliament was passed against Secret Societies, but an 
exemption was made in favour of existing Freemasons' Lodges. The exemption being under- 
stood not to apply to future Lodges, Grand Lodge conceived the idea of keeping alive the 
warrants of Lodges that had ceased working, and by reissuing them with a certificate of 
transfer, really formed fresh Lodges which were supposed to come within the exemption in 
favour of Lodges formed before the Act. This is just what happened to the warrant of the 
Silurian Lodge. Brethren in Ludlow desired to form a Lodge to be called the Mercian 
Lodge, and having purchased the furniture of the Silurian Lodge procured the transfer of 
the warrant by memorandum endorsed in 1805. Unfortunately very little record remains 
of the doings of the Mercian Lodge, the only book known to be in existence, being that con- 
taining the bye-laws which will be referred to a little later. The register is in direct con- 
tinuation of the Silurian, and on the same page, but makes no mention of the change of 
name, nor of the brethren who received the Warrant. Between 1805 and 7th September, 
1813, there appear to have been twenty-eight initiates. The columns for " What other 
Lodges," etc., and " Remarkable Occurrences," are also blank. 

So matters stood at the date of the union of the Regular and Ancient Grand Lodges 
when a fresh register, numbered 528, was made commencing with the existing members. It 
is made out in an entirely different form and shows what contributions to Grand Lodge 
funds were, made by each brother. There are variations between these lists which are 
instructive. The last initiation was in 1821 and the last Grand Lodge dues paid in 1826. 
At the foot is a memorandum " Erased at the alteration of the Nos. in 1832." 

On referring to the register of the Royal Edward Lodge, Leominster, (a predecessor 
of the present Lodge of that name,) it will be seen that Bros. Morris, Lloyd, Russell, 
Griffiths, and Acton, presumably some of the founders of the Mercian Lodge, were initiated 
therein, Bro. E. Wellings, the other founder remaining in 1813, having been initiated in the 
Palladian Lodge, Hereford. 

There is in the possession of the Lodge of the Marches, and much valued by that 
body, a book given to the Mercian Lodge in 1805 by Bro. Edward Wellings. Originally it 
was intended to contain the by-laws and annual lists of officers. The first three pages con- 
sist of very fine pen and ink drawings of Masonic subjects. These are immediately followed 
by a transcript of the by-laws, twenty-four in number, which were made on the 7th May, 
1805, and received the signatures of the following brethren : — John Beebee Morris, Edward 
Wellings jun., Thomas Griffiths, John Taylor, Henry Lloyd, Samuel Acton, John Ingram, 
Richard Ellis, Thomas Wilkinson, Richard Russell, Richard Hodnett, James Davies, 
Win. Whitney, Geo. Anderson, John Griffiths, Edward Rogers, Procter, B. Urwick, 

William Green, Tho. Penny, James Campbell, Stephen Owens, John Greenhouse, Rich a . 
Wakefield, Henry Whitall, John Thomas, Thomas Meyrick, Henry Wellings, Tho 8 . Wellings, 
Thomas Evans, Jon n . Massey, G. H. Dansey, (Lord) Harley, E. Dansey, W m . Downes. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 


Several of the brethren who signed the by-laws were never registered as belonging to the 

A page near the end gives the names and occupations of the first and second years' 
officers under the title of " List of Officers of the Mercian Lodge from its commencement." 


John Beebee Morris 




Edward Wellings jun. 


Senior Warden 


Thomas Griffiths 


Junior Warden 


John Thomas 




John Taylor 




Henry Lloyd 




John Ingram 

Linen draper 



Richard Ellis 




John Beebee Morris 



Edward Wellings 



Thomas Griffiths 



John Taylor 



Tho "Wilkinson 


Richard Ellis 
Jas Davies 

Hatter ") 
Glover ) 


Of these, Bros. Taylor, Ingram, Ellis, and Wilkinson, do not appear to have been registered- 
It is assumed that Bro. Thomas, who was appointed Chaplain, was the Bro. Thomas initiated 
at Kington in 1794. Unfortunately the later lists of officers were not put in the book, and 
no means seem to exist by which it is possible to ascertain who they were. 

The by-laws do not differ materially from those in use at the present time, but th& 
regulations as to refreshment are curious, more attention to that question apparently being 
necessary than now. The 5th by-law contains a statement that " the Craft hath suffered 
greatly in its reputation and happiness by low and inferior persons nowise fit to become 
members of our ancient and honorable institution whereby men of knowledge and educa- 
tion are oft deterred from associating with the brethren at the public meetings," and 
charges every brother proposing a candidate to be particularly caref ul that he shall be " one 
whose temper and disposition may cement the Harmony of the Lodge and whose conduct 
and circumstances in life are such as may not tend to diminish the credit of it." This book 
will be referred to again. 

On referring to the Grand Lodge register it will be seen that on Bro. H. Wellings 
ceasing to subscribe in 1823 there were only five members left, viz. : — Bros. J. B. Morris, 
G. Anderson, B. Rogers, B. Urwick, and J. Davies, and in 1826, which was the last year in 
which a contribution was made to the funds of Grand Lodge, they were rejoined by Bro. T. 
Griffiths. There is a tradition in the Lodge of the Marches that the Mercian Lodge towards 
the close of its existence passed a resolution not to initiate another candidate, but whether 
that was the cause or the result of the smallness of the numbers after 1822, is a matter for 
any amount of mental speculation that the reader may think fit to bestow upon it. 

Although active Masonry disappeared in Ludlow for upwards of the next twenty 
years the furniture, jewels, etc., were taken care of by the surviving brethren of the Mercian 
Lodge, or at all events by the survivors of those who were members in 1826, who had come 
down in 1853 to three, Bros. G. Anderson, B. Urwick, and T. Griffiths. Bro. H. Whittal 
also appears to have still been living. 

In the latter year, or possibly in the preceding one, a revival of Masonry seems to 
have taken place in the town, perhaps stimulated by the knowledge of the existence of the 
furniture and jewels, but strange to say, only one of the old Mercian brethren, Bro. T. 
Griffiths, took part in it. The history of the revival is so obscure at present that we have 
to begin with the Warrant itself of the Lodge of the Marches, No. 887, dated 28th February, 
1853. The Minute Book commences with an entry dated 14th March, 1853, showing that 
the Lodge met on that day at the Lion Hotel, Ludlow, and commenced work under a 
dispensation dated 9th March, 1853, granted by the R.W.P.G.M. of Shropshire and North 
Wales, Bro. Sir W: W. Wynn. 

The first business taken in hand was pleasing. It was unanimously declared that all 
surviving members of the Mercian Lodge should be members of the Lodge of the Marches 

$0 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

gn payment of Grand Lodge dues only. Consecration of the Lodge took place on the 13th 
June, 1853, and judging from the following extract from the Minute Book, must have been 
looked upon as an important function by those outside the Order : " The R.W.P.Gk Master, 
Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., M.P., accompanied by his B..W. Deputy B. H. Dymoke, 
Esq., and a number of the P.O. Officers and brethren arrived by special train amidst the 
firing of cannon and the ringing of the bells of St. Lawrence Church." After the Conse- 
cration the R.W.P.G.M. presided at a banquet, at which there were no less than twenty 
toasts with music after each. 

For the next four years the Lodge appears to have had various Aps and downs, 
chiefly downs, as it was several times in danger of extinction ; such a crisis occurring in 
1860 when a debate arose as to whether it was desirable to carry on the Lodge or not, and 
its continuance was decided by a majority of one vote. Matters have improved since then, 
the Lodge being now in a flourishing state in its membership, ceremonial, and finance, not 
forgetting support of the charities. 

In conclusion it may be stated that amongst the possessions of the Lodge are the 
pedestals, gavels, two large pillars with globes, candlesticks, a curious engraved apron, 
and the jewels of the W.M., S.W., J.W., Treasurer, and Secretary, purchased from the 
Silurian Lodge ; also a curious P.M. breast jewel, presented to Bro. J. B. Morris in 1815, 
an engraved glass goblet, made for the Silurian Lodge in 1791, and recently presented 
to the Lodge of the Marches by W. Bro. H. Brown, P.P. G. Chap., Wore. ; a handsome tobacco 
box, presented by Bro. Whittal to the Mercian Lodge in 1815, with Craft and Arch 
emblems on it ; and three very handsome chairs which may have come from Kington, but 
are stated by the senior member of the Lodge to have been in use in Ludlow Castle at some 
time — they present the appearance of being ecclesiastical furniture and are quite uniform. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 81 




£lR J. GARDNER WILKINSON", in his work on the Ancient Egyptians, calls 
the tau, plate i., figs. 1 and 2, " the sacred sign, or the sign of life." " Its 
origin," he continues, " I cannot precisely determine, but this carious fact is 
connected with it in later times, — that the early Christians' of Egypt adopted 
it in lieu of the cross, which was afterwards substituted for itj prefixing it to 
inscriptions in the same manner as the cross in later times, and numerous 
inscriptions headed by the tau are preserved to the present day in early 
Christian sepulchres at the great Oasis." In another place he says " The coronation of the 
Egyptian Kings was attendant with great ceremony. They were anointed with oil after they 
had been attired in rich robes. A part of the same ceremony was the blessing bestowed by the 
gods on the King at the moment when he assumed the reins of government. The gods laid 
their hands on him and presented him with the tau or symbol of life, which emblem, together 
with the sceptre of purity (fig. 3) was usually placed in the hands of the gods." Elsewhere 
he adds, " The Egyptians constructed and accurately levelled dykes and canals, in order that 
every cultivator might receive the benefit of the inundations of the Nile. Its rise and fall 
was exactly measured by Nilometers, by particular persons appointed to that office in 
order to note its daily change, and on their reports depended the time for opening the canals. 
These were closed until the river rose to a fixed height when they were opened by cutting 
away the dam of earth which separated them from the Nile." It would seem not improbable 
that the gift of the tau or crux ansata, as it has been called, 1 to the Sovereign at his coronation 
may have been intended to signify the bestowal on him by the gods of a typical key of the 
waters of the Nile — that it was a token of supreme power. It would thus not unnaturally 
be regarded as the sign of life, for without it the land could not yield her increase. In like 
manner the tau or cross may have come to be worshipped as the symbol of light and genera- 
tion or feared as an image of decay or death. At first sight it is not very apparent why the 
scarab — the beetle — should have been sacred to the Egyptians, but if we examine one of these 
insects we shall find that the sutures down the back and across the thorax form a T 
Curiously enough, the peasantry in some parts of England call this insect the tor or dor 

One of the first things which struck the Spaniards on their arrival in Mexico is said 
to have been the large stone crosses on the coast and in the interior of the country, which 
were objects of veneration and worship. It was with them a symbol of rain — the fertilizing 
element — or rather of the four winds, the bearers of rain, as the Spaniards were informed ; 
but it would appear also to have had another signification for them, since near the spot 
where Vera Cruz was afterwards built there was a cross of marble surmounted by a golden 
crown, and in answer to the enquiries of the Spanish ecclesiastics the natives said that " One 
more glorious than the sun had died upon a cross." In Lord Kingsborough's Work on 
Mexican Antiquities, there is a sketch of a monument lepresenting a group of ancient 
Mexicans in attitudes of adoration around a cross of the Latin form. The Mexican name for 
the cross, Tonacquahuitl, tree of life, or flesh, conveys both ideas to a certain extent. 
" Figures of the tau," says Jomurd, 3 " are numerous in the buildings, bas-relief s, and even in 
the form of the lights of the ancient city of Palenque in. Central America, although it is 
impossible to form an opinion upon them in our present state of knowledge." Again, in 
vol. iv., page 317, of Bancroft's " Native Races of America," is a representation of a figure 
wearing an ornament in the form of a tau, some windows of this form also exist in the 
Tucay valley, Peru ; and Captain Bourke, U.S.A., in his work on the " Moquis of Arizona," 
says, " preparatory to taking part in the snake dance, all, old and young, of both sexes put on 
curious head-dresses of thin boards, painted pea-green or sky-blue with tips of red or yellow, 
in which were incisions either in the shape of the crescent, the cross, or the letter T." 

Mons. Churnay, who returned in 1884 from a second visit to Palenque, describes a 
building there which is known under the name of the Temple of the Cross. It rises from a 
truncated pyramid, its form is a quadrilateral, with three openings in each face, all at right 
angles leading into an inside gallery communicating with three small rooms. The central 
one of these, contains an altar, on which was originally placed the so-called tablet of the 
cross. This was torn from its position by the hand of a fanatic, who chose to see in it a sign 
of the Christian faith, it was thrown into the forest where some Americans found it, and 

1 Italian, ansa= handle. 2 Bull. Soc. Geog. de Paris, vol. v., series 2, p. 620. 

82 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

placed by them in the National Museum at Washington, U.S.A. The centre of this tablet 
represents a cross resting upon a hideous figure, and surmounted by a grotesque bird. On 
the right a figure is offering gifts, on the left another figure in a stiff attitude, seems to be 
praying to the divinity. 

Maler, in his explorations, 1 found a sanctuary with another sculptured cross of the 
same character. In this latter case the cross is surmounted by a strange looking head, 
having round the neck a collar with a medallion. Above this head is a bird, and on either 
side of it are figures exactly resembling those of the Temple of the Cross. "With these people 
such would appear to have been (like the Byzantine representations of our Blessed Lord and 
the Saints) , an established conventional religious type from which custom permitted the 
artist no deviation. 

At the meeting of the British Association in Birmingham in 1886, Mr. R. G. Halli- 
burton read a paper containing " Notes on a tau cross on the badge of a medicine man of the 
Queen Charlotte Isles." " This badge," said Mr. Halliburton, " is noteworthy, as these 
islands form one of the most isolated groups of the Northern Pacific. The symbol was used 
by them on large sheets of copper, to which they assigned a high value, and each of which 
they called a tau. The connection of the name with the symbol is world-wide. Our T is 
simply the tau and is called the tee or tau. The medicine men bear the tau sometimes on the 
forehead. The ancients used to mark the captives who were to be saved with a tau or cross." 

It is only within the last few years that the cross has been recognized as existing 
amongst the pre-historic peoples of North America as well as amongst some of its present 
Indian tribes, who use it both as a sun and a weather symbol. 

In his " Records of Ancient Races," Mr. McAdams has called attention to certain 
vases for water (now in the possession of the St. Louis Academy of Science), on which are 
painted various figures, circles with spots, circles with crosses, circles with painted rajs. 
Of the crosses found on the pottery he says, " The peculiar cross with the curved arms (the 
Svastika V) is a very common feature on the ancient pottery from Illinois, Missouri, and 
Arkansas, some of the most beautiful burial mounds are decorated with it." 

The mound builders of St. Louis were also familiar with the cross. In a narrow 
valley near the little town of Tarlton in Ohio, there is a remarkable earth work in the form 
of a Greek cross. It measures 90ft. each way, and is raised about 3ft. above the adjacent 
surface, around it is a shallow ditch which corresponds to its outline, in the centre of the cross 
is a circular depression 20ft. across and 20in. in depth. Amongst other relics which have been 
found on opening some of these mounds are inscribed shells — or shell goigets as they have 
been styled. One of the most remarkable is the so-called bird gorget, plate i., fig. 10, in the 
centre of which is a cross of the Greek type, placed within a circle, round which is a star of 
eight points, an apparent combination of the cross and the sun, this again is enclosed in a 
square of four lines twisted at each corner. Outside this again and opposite to each arm of 
the cross are four rudely drawn birds' heads. Some have been called spider gorgets, the 
centres of the disc have a figure of this insect ; on other examples is found the Greek cross, 
the wheel cross, and a singular form of the Svastika, plate i., fig. 14. 

The cross which the Missionaries and the Spanish explorers brought with them was 
probably the Latin cross ; if borrowed from them one would expect to find that form. 

The Indian tribes of North America use the cross both as a sun and a weather symbol. 
The Aborigininal tribes used symbols and signs to express astronomical facts. Many of 
these signs were common to, and therefore could be understood by, different tribes : they 
could thus be used as mediums of intercommunication when difference of language was a 
bar to nearer intercourse. Their sign language treated of the common affairs of life. 

The Black-feet Indians are in the habit of arranging boulders in the form of a cross ; 
according to them, stones when thus arranged symbolize the " Old man in the sun who rules 
the winds," they mark his resting places, the limbs of the cross represent his body and 
arms. Amongst the Delawares, the rain-makers draw upon the ground the figure of the 
cross, and cry aloud to the spirit of the rains. The Navajoes have an allegory that when the 
first man came up from the ground, the four spirits of the cardinal points were already 
there. It is, and will probably remain, a mystery to us how and whence the cross reached 
these prehistoric peoples : from its presence in the mounds of St. Louis the presumption is 
that it was used by races of whom, we have absolutely no knowledge, except from their rude 
primitive monuments and relics. Capt. Bourke (whom we have already quoted) says of 
the Moquis of Arizona, a people living on the borders of Mexico, " that they wear necklaces 
of globular silver beads, having the double or Archiepiscopal cross as a pendant;" and adds 
that their introduction dates back to the re-conquest of Mexico by Espejo in 1692-94, when 

1 See " Nature " for Oct. 4th, 1879. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 83 

the natives were required to wear them as a mark of subjection to the crown of Spain and 
to the religion of which that country was the champion. 1 

The Hindus have given the form of the Greek cross to some of their most celebrated 
temples. This fact was noticed by Mons. Tavernier, a French traveller in India in the early 
part of the 17th century. When speaking of the most celebrated Pagodas in India he says, 2 
" These idolaters have many temples large and small in their cities and also in the country, 
in which they pray to their gods and offer them gifts. The poor people who live in the 
jangles and mountains far from the cities, grave an idol roughly out of a stone, they give it 
a kind of head, nose and eyes, and daub it with yellow or red. Their four most celebrated 
Pagodas are Jaggernath, Benares, Matura (Muttra), and Tripeti, each of which merits 
a separate description. Jaggernath is the name of one of the mouths of the Ganges, where 
the Brahmin, who is their great priest, resides. The interior form of that pagoda and 
of nearly all the others is a cross. The body of that at Benares is also built in the form of 
a cross, just like all the others, the four arms are of equal length." Mons. Tavernier goes on 
to describe this temple more particularly and the singular ceremonies he witnessed in it. 
His narrative is most interesting, since this building was destroyed not very long afterwards 
by the Moghul Emperor Aurungzebe ; one of its walls now serves as the back wall of a 
mosque erected by him. He says of the temple at Bindrabun, about six miles from Muttra, 
in the N.W.P., " that it is one of the most superb buildings in all India, .... though 
standing in a low situation it is so lofty, so magnificent, that it can be seen five or six leagues 
off, it is built of red sand-stone, coming from a large quarry near Agra. It is built in the 
form of a cross, like all other pagodas (a Greek cross), in the centre is a large dome, there are 
smaller ones on each side of it, these cover the arms of the cross." 

Bindrabun possesses this one old monument dedicated to Govind Deva, and several 
modern temples, all cruciform. That of Govind Deva, when we visited it, was in process of 
restoration at the cost of the Indian Government. It is a monument well worth preserving. 
It will never again (as we were told by a high caste native, who was deputed to accompany 
us), be used by them for religious purposes, for in the days of its grandeur, when the people 
heard that Aurungzebe, the great temple destroyer, was in the vicinity, they removed the 
idol which was in it to Jeypore, where it still remains. This building combines in a most, 
effective manner the perpendicular lines of a Gothic cathedral, with the ordinary horizontal 
lines of Hindu architecture. It was built in 1590 by Rajah Man Singh of Jeypore, a friend 
of the Emperor Akbar ( Aurungzebe' s great grand-father) . Its ground plan is cruciform, its 
vaulted and groined nave, pointed arches, and dome over the crossing, remind one strangely 
of a Gothic cathedral. The transepts, or side limbs of the cross, are divided into two parts 
by low pillars, over these a wall is carried up pierced with small windows, like a clerestory. 

Another instance in which the Great Cross, or the Cross of Savoy has been adopted 
in the temple architecture of India, exists in the anti-temple of a shrine at Old Gaya in 
Bengal : it is said to be about 100 years old and is dedicated to Vishnu-pad (foot of Vishnu). 
The general form of the interior is that of the Greek cross, the four arms of the cross have 
each a double row of pillars, in the centre is a large dome from which start four half-domes 
covering the arms of the cross. 3 The use of the pre-Christian cross would appear to be . 

Lieut. Gen. Pitt-Rivers, Inspector of Ancient Monuments in Britain, in a paper read 
by him in June, 1890, before the London Society of Antiquaries, states "that the cross would 
not appear to have become common in Europe before the fifth century," he also adds " that 
at whatever time it came into use in Southern Europe, it seems certain that it was the 
monogram and not the cross which was used by the early Christian Church in Britain." He 
cites as examples ancient stones at "Whithorn Priory and at Kirkmadrine, N.B., as specimens 
of what he styles the Ghi-Bho — or the two first Greek letters chi and rho of the word Christ, 

1 When we come to speak of the Christian forms of the cross, it will be seen that this should rather 
be styled the cross of Caravaca, that it is a Spanish form of that symbol. An interesting legend is connected 
with it. 

2 Translated from " Travels in Turkey, Persia, and India," by Gio. Batt. Tavernier, Baron 
d'Aubonne. Italian edition taken from the French, and published in Bologna in 1690. 

3 A curious fact in connection with the Cross of Savoy is worth noting here. A collection of mottoes 
is extant called the prophecy of St. Malachi, and dating from the 12th century. It professes to be an 
ordered list relating to the later occupants of the See of Rome. According to tradition St. Malachi was an 
Irish Bishop, a kind of hermit or pilgrim prelate, who marched up and down Ireland driving a white cow 
before him, whose milk was his chief article of food. It is stated that each Pope and each Cardinal assumes 
a personal motto, several recent Popes hare had careers parallel to the descriptions assigned to them by the 
true or pseudo Malachi. Especially was this the case with Pius IX., to whom its order in this document 
gave the words Crux a crucis, " Your affliction from the Cross (of Savoy)." He never adopted this oracle, 
but Leo xiii. seems to have been so struck with the coincidence that he took the next designation accord- 
ing to St. Malachi, Lumen de cielo, or "Light from Heaven," not an inappropriate one, since the light of 
the temporal power of the Papacy seems to be extinct. 

84 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 

as an emblem. He is of opinion that all the earliest crosses in Europe are simply chi's with 
the ends of the arms expanded, and not crosses. 

Of the same character are most probably Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 on plate ii., they have an 
Eastern or rather a Moorish type. No. 1 forms the centre of an Arab tile in one of the best 
preserved Moorish buildings in Algiers, it is interesting as showing the influence of Moorish 
art in England, it is used as a consecration cross on the wall of the Church at Studland in 
Dorset. No. 2 is also taken from a beautiful arid elaborate tile from the same source. The 
interlaced forms on Nos. 3 and 4 are decidedly Moorish in character, they are taken from 
sculptures on tombstones near St. David's in South Wales. 1 

Figs. 1, 2, and 3 on plate iii., are curious specimens of the crucifix taken from an old 
Latin work, De Glavis Dominicis? Fig- 4 is a crucifix bought in Norway which has pendant 
sun symbols. 

Fig. 1 is the representation of a crucifix in cedar wood, supposed (according to this 
author), to have been engraved by Nicodemus the Pharisee and to have belonged to St. 
Luke. Eig. 2 is an image of our Lord upon the cross, made in mosaic in the time of Pope 
John vh. about the year 706. It was formerly placed above the " Holy " door of the old 
church of St. Peter at Rome. It has this peculiarity, that Christ is represented wearing the 
seamless robe. The attitude of the Saviour in Fig. 3 is also an uncommon one. Fig. 4, too, 
is very interesting as showing that when this type of cross was made the Norwegians were 
still attached to their old sun symbols, and were permitted by their teachers to combine 
these with the emblem of their new faith. A similar one, in a museum in Scandinavia, is 
there classed as belonging to the eleventh century. In an article 3 descriptive of the 
apparently little known church of Ste. Marie de Sion in the Canton Valais, Switzerland, 
mention is made of the so-called " Cross of God," " a characteristic tenth century emblem," 
as the writer says. Eig. 1, plate iv., is a sketch of this 6ross. It commends itself to me as 
the perfection of symbolism, carrying one's thoughts back to the time when religion and art 
went hand in hand, when men's faith and the daily devotion of their lives showed themselves 
in their works. The whole conception, the form, the interlacing bands, the ever-present eye, 
seems to be a careful realization of the attributes and work of the Deity. 

Fig. 2 is a sketch of what has been styled the cross of Jerusalem. It figures on the 
breastplate and on the shield of the bronze statue of Godefroi de Bouillon, the first titular 
king of Jerusalem, in the Cathedral at Insbriick — one of the numerous statues which seem 
to be always keeping watch and ward over the tomb of the Emperor Maxmilian I. This 
form of the cross is worn by the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, of whom the Marquis of 
Bute is one. It would seem a reasonable conjecture that the large cross was intended to 
represent the Church at Jerusalem, and the four smaller ones to figure the Patriarchates of 
Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome. 

The cross used by the members of the Greek Church (fig. 3) is somewhat peculiar ; 
the tradition regarding it is that when the true cross was found by the Empress Helena, 
the footpiece was found displaced, therefore this form was adopted and has ever since been 
retained by their communion. 

The Christian Church, I need hardly remind my readers, owes much of its progress 
to the sword. Her missionary bishops were not backward in donning their mail. Germany 
produced not a few of these warlike proselytisers, and none more notable than St. Ulric, 
bishop of Augsburg in the tenth century (923-973), and his contemporaries or immediate 
successors, Gerhard, Gebehard, and Berns. Both the officers and the soldiers of St. TJlric's 
army wore peculiar forms of the cross as distinguishing badges. Those of the former were 
of silver gilt, the rank and file were content with gilt bronze, or bronze pure and simple. 
The obverse and reverse of one of the latter is given in fig. 4. On one side is a figure in 
the foreground which is intended apparently for the bishop himself, and beneath are the 
words, " Crux . S . Udalrici ." The figures on the other side are much defaced, traces of an 
inscription are still visible. 

In the mythology of the North, the tau was held to symbolise Mjolmir, the formid- 
able cross-shaped hammer of Thor. Karl Blind says of this, 4 " The hammer of Thor had 
the shape of one of the numerous forms of the Christian cross, and early pre-Christian 
Runic crosses are found .... It may also be considered as a tree-shaped cross and 
may have been connected with the Indian sacred tree (Soma ?) partly from the form of the 
tau and possibly from the outstretched human form." Fig. 5 represents a Norwegian 
brooch in the form of a hammer, with pendant suns. Some of these hammers have evidently 

1 Unfortunately Mrs. Murray -Aynsley forgot to number these four separately, and as she is now in 
India we are unable to ask her to supply the deficiency. — Editob. 
3 F. Corneli Corti, Antwerp, 1670. 

3 Anglican Church Magazine, Sept. 1887. 

4 See Fraser's Magazine for June 1879 and January 1881. 


Plate 1 


Plate 2 

Nos. 1 to 4 




Plate % 


Plate 4 




t 3 








Plate 7 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 85 

been worn round the throat as amulets, in many instances the chain by which they were 
suspended has been found with them. 

On plate v., figs. 1 and 2, are given the obverse and reverse of a large processional 
jewelled cross, which was found a few years ago on a bill called the Schloss-Berg, close to- 
Freiburg im Breisgau, Grand Duchy of Baden : it is now in the treasury of the Cathedral 
at that place. The cathedral dignitaries had hitherto refused to allow any drawings or 
photos of it to be taken ; it was only through considerable interest that this was done. The 
actual form of this cross is Byzantine in character, but the scroll-work ornamentation on the 
obverse points to a later date — probably the latter part of the 15th century. The reverse is- 
very puzzling. The Lamb and the Flag on the centre medallion, and the ornamentation on 
the cross belong to an earlier style of workmanship than the emblems of the four Evange- 
lists in the spaces between the arms of the cross. The designs on the obverse are in high 
relief ; here, again, it is remarkable to find figures of the sun and moon on either side of 
the crucifix, the former on the proper right, the latter on the proper left, the moon being 
represented as sending out five rays towards the sun. 

Fig. 1, plate vi., is one of the most curious crosses in my possession ; so far as I know- 
it is unique of its kind. Senor Don Juan de Riafio, the distinguished Madrid archaeologist; 
told the writer that it was of a type quite unknown to him, though he had been a collector 
for many years. It represents, apparently, a peasant who has come to cut down an old tree,, 
and who finding our Lord hanging upon it has thrown down his axe, and assumed an 
attitude of adoration. On the proper left is the ass, which was to be laden with the wood. 
The trunk of the tree has originally had two branches, owing to the loss of one of thes& 
only conjectures can be formed as to their significance. Fig. 2 is a drawing of a very finely 
worked silver gilt and enamelled cross purchased in Switzerland. In form, it much 
resembles fig. 1, and yet it would not appear to be Spanish work ; possibly it may have- 
been made in the Netherlands when that country was under Spanish influence : the reverse 
is not a cross as in the last case, but a palm tree. Fig. 3 is an Abyssinian High Priest's cross 
copied from one in an old church at Adijerat, not far from Magdala. 

On plate vii., figs. 1 and 2, I give examples of a very elaborate and well-known form 
of the crucifix, the " caravaca " as it is sometimes called. I have met with a plainer variety 
in Guernsey — a brass crucifix dug up in a field adjoining the ancient (perhaps ninth century) 
chapel, or chantry, of St. Apolline. 1 — Day, Esq., F.S.A., writing in 1879 to a friend in 
Guernsey, who had sent him a photo of this cross, writes : " It is the same in material and 
outline as the cross described at Youghal, in Ireland, as having been found in the tomb of 
Bishop Bennett of Cloyne, in 1814. It is described and figured by Rev. Canon Hayman in 
the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol ii., p. 114, 1854. The obverse has a figure of the 
ciucified Redeemer, and above this the letters INRI, in Roman capitals, and upon the lower 
crossing, or arm, the prayer of the penitent thief ' Domine Memento Mei,' the three last 
letters placed perpendicularly downwards from the feet of the figure. This cross (like one 
in my collection) is hollow within the interior, for the reception of relics. The Youghal 
cross dates from the reign of Henry vm. or thereabouts, as John Bennett was consecrated 
in 1499 and died in 1566. Some twenty years ago, when making excavations near Armagh 
Cathedral, another cross of a similar form in bronze was found, which I now have. It 
differs from the Youghal cross in that it has two angel supporters one at either side of the 
horizontal limb beneath the lower arm, they are in a flying position, grasping the cross." 

I have given drawings of the obverse and the reverse of both the forms mentioned by 
Mr. Day. My specimens were bought in the weekly open air fair at Seville. An interesting 
legend concerning this cross is given by Padre Alfonso Ciacone in his work, " De Signis- 
S. S. Crucis," which I will here transcribe : " Caravaca is a Mediterranean city placed on 
the summit of a steep mountain in the province of Carthagena, now called the kingdom of 
Murcia, and subject to the Knights of St. James of the Sword. It has a very strong citadel 
well garrisoned and armed, with caves in the basement hollowed out of the solid rock. 
These, in former days, when the city was subject to the Moors, served as dungeons, wherein 
were kept the captured Christians. Now upon one occrsion, when the king of the Saracens 
visited Caravaca, he was pleased to inspect the citadel ; and he directed that all the slaves 
therein imprisoned should be taken out and brought before him. When he saw how filthy,, 
emaciated, and pale they were, he felt great pity and compassion for their misery and slavish 
condition, and ordered that for the future they should be no more shut up in prison ; and 
having interrogated them kindly in turn of what country and condition they were, and what 
art they knew how to practise, commanded that each one of them should be exercised in his- 
own art. Amongst the rest there was presented to him a Priest, who, when the king asked 
him who he was, answered that he was a Christian Priest, that his trade was more noble and 

1 St. Apoline (probably a corruption of St. Paul) stands near Perelle Bay, on the west coast of 

86 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

excellent than any other art, and that in dignity it exceeded the royal power. The king, 
on hearing this, said he shonld like to see his trade, and commanded that he should celehrate 
Mass in his presence ; but the Priest answered that he had not the sacred vestments and 
other things which were necessary to perform the Holy Sacrifice. The king ordered that 
from the nearest Christian land they should cause to be brought all that was requisite for 
the celebration of the Holy Mysteries. Thereupon an altar was prepared on the rock, and 
on this was placed the consecrated stone. The Priest vested and got ready ; there was the 
chalice and the host and the wine to be consecrated. It was the third day of May, on which 
is kept the feast of the Invention (or discovery by St. Helena) of the Holy Cross, the Priest 
was about to begin the Mass, but stopped. There was wanting, he said, the crucifix, which 
they were always accustomed to place upon the altar during the Holy Sacrifice, but especially 
on that day. Scarcely had he finished speaking, when behold ! the ceiling of the chamber 
in which the altar was prepared flew open. A great splendour appeared, and through the 
opening two angels were seen to descend from heaven, carrying a cross of wood about two 
palms in length, which they placed on the altar. At the sight of so great a miracle, the 
Moorish King and all his court were filled with the greatest wonder, while the Christians 
present wept for joy and spiritual consolation, so that they could scarcely intone the proper 
praises and thanks to God. The King, with all his followers, embraced the Holy Faith, gave 
liberty to all the Christians, and having caused a chapel to be built in the citadel, placed 
there that angelic cross, to be kept in a precious case fastened with three locks, of which one 
key is kept by the Governor of the Citadel, the second by the Chief Priest, and the third by 
the Senate of Caravaca. Every year, on the third of May, on which day is made commem- 
moration of the Invention of the Cross, and on which that cross was brought there by 
angels, it is carried with solemn pomp and a public procession from the citadel to an enclosed 
fountain. Three times it is plunged in the waters, which by its touch are sanctified so 
greatly as to relieve many infirmities and many evils in those who drink. To this truly 
miraculous spectacle immense crowds of people from all parts of Spain come ; to adore that 
holy and venerable cross." 

All this, and much more, relates the Padre Ciacone concerning the celestial cross of 
Caravaca, he also says : " As to the emblems upon the cross, the angels appearing on the 
upper arm are clearly illustrative of the history. The figures on the lower arm seem to be 
the Priest with Christians on the right and the crowned King of the Moors on the left. The 
figure at the foot I take to be the Pilgrim who has brought the cross from Caravaca." 
(Compare this with obverse on Fig. 1.) 

Before the Conquest, in the consecration of churches in England, an important part 
of the service consisted in the anointing of erosses upon the walls by the officiating Bishop. 
Twenty-four different spots were chosen, equally distributed throughout the building, three 
crosses being placed upon each of the, four walls, north, south, east, and west, inside and out. 
They were of four kinds : of carved stone work, of plaster, painted usually in red, and of 
metal. An instance of a second subsequent consecration in the early Church of St. John, 
Syracuse, Sicily, has been mentioned in Archasologia (vol. xxv., p. 275), in which both the 
earlier and the later crosses exist, one set above the other, carved in relief. Under one of 
these pairs a tablet is let into the wall, with an inscription recording the fact that both are 
consecration crosses — the lower one being the older. One of the most notable examples of 
consecration crosses of a comparatively late date is to be found on the walls of Salisbury 

In Bacon's " Reliques of Rome," p. 257, amongst other ceremonies connected with the 
hallowing of churches is the following : " There must be made in the pavement of the church 
a cross of ashes and sand, wherein the whole alphabet, or Christ's crosse shall be written in 
Greek and Latin letters." 

Sir Thomas Moore speaks of " Crosse rowe printed on cards for learners," and doubt- 
less some of my readers will have seen the " horn books " of the ancient dame's school, with 
the alphabet in a form such as I give in Fig. 5, plate ii., called Cris-cross-row. 

To the brass cross, fig. 6 (an old Spanish type), I cannot venture to assign either date 
or signification. It is but a slight departure from the Egyptian Tau, or Thor's hammer. 
The obverse only is given. An intricate scroll-work pattern on the reverse is decidedly 
Eastern in character. 

Much more might be said upon these forms and uses of the cross. There is the old 
English custom of nailing up a cross of wood (of the Cross of Savoy form) on the eve of May 
day over the door of house or stable, in order, as the people say, to drive away evil spirits. 
There are the crosses, or quasi sepulchral monuments which King Edward I. erected to mark 
the places where rested the body of his Queen when they conveyed her from Notts to 
London. There is the quaint architectural device of inclining the chevet of a church towards 
the north. Numberless other suggestive uses of this emblem might be adduced, but I fear 
that 1 have already far exceeded my space. 

Transactions of the Lodge Qitatuor Goronati. 87 

I have tried to trace the development of the cross as a pre-historic and as a religions 
symbol. I would again lay a special stress npon its nse among snch people as those at 
Palenque, who, so far as we know, never came into contact with aught of Christianity. 
The whole subject opens out a vast field for conjecture and research. 

Note bt Beo. W. Simpson, P.M. — The statement that Hindu temples are cruciform 
has often been repeated in books, but it is, doubtless, founded on a misconception. Plans 
of these temples, particularly the more elaborate ones, have the appearance of a cross, but 
this is from accident, and cannot be ascribed to intention. The main part of the temple is 
a square cell, which contains the image of the god, or his symbol ; and any details that may 
give this square form the character of a cross, are simply due to the architectural condi- 
tions. Here is what the late Dr. Rajendralala Mitra affirms regarding the form of 
temples : — " Generally speaking, temples in Northern India are not only rectangular in 
plan, but cubical in the form of their body. From Orissa to the foot of the Himalaya, there 
is scarcely a single exception to this rule. In the Agni Purana, it is ordained, that the 
ground plan of every building should have four equal sides, and the Jnana-ratna~prakasa 
and the Mdnasdra support the same opinion." — Indo-Aryans, vol. i., p. 53. The peculiar 
crescent form at the lower part of the Abyssinian cross, plate vi., was, I believe, originally a 
serpent, or dragon. I base this conclusion upon a comparison of Abyssinian crosses with 
those of the Greek Church, of which I have drawings and photographs in my possession. 
The Abyssinian priests put a long strip of bright coloured cloth through the opening 
formed by the crescent form, and this hangs down like a streamer when it is carried on 
the end of a pole — the cross represented is a processional one for it has the brass tube to 
receive the pole. I have a small cross that I bought at Chelicut, near Antalo, and it has 
the piece of cloth still hanging to it. The Jerusalem Cross, or Cross of the Holy Sepulchre, 
plate iv., fig. ,2, is rudely represented, but correct enough. The Cross, said to have been worn 
by Godfrey de Bouillon, is still kept by the Latin monks at the Holy Sepulchre. I sketched 
it at the time when the Marquis of Bate was made a Knight, as well as Godfrey's sword and 
spurs, which are used in the ceremony — these will be found in the Illustrated London News, 
April 17th, 1869. The spur, as it has a roulette, cannot, I understand, be so old as 
Godfrey's time ; such being the case, there may be a doubt also about the sword and the 
cross. Judging by the illustrations, Mrs. Murray -Aynsley is to be congratulated on her 
collection of crosses. I have for many years been collecting, but I find some that are new to 
me in this article. 

FRIDAY, 6th MAY, 1892. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 6 p.m. Present — Bros. W. H. Eylands, P.G.St., 
W.M. j W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., I.P.M.; G. W. Speth, Sec; B. Macbean, S.D. ; 
W. Mattien Williams, J.D. ; C. Knpferschmidt, I.G. ; and Dr. B. W. Richardson. 
Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle — Bros. F. W. Levander as 
S.W.; J. Balfour Cockburn as J.W. ; C. N. Mac Intyre North; W. Fooks; Dr. R. A. 
Douglas Lithgow j R. A. Gowan; Rev. Hugh Thomas; J. W. Stevens; Professor 
F. W. Driver; E. Haward; G. Greiner; F.A.Powell; T. Charters White ; H. H. 
Riach; C. B. Barnes; G. Gardner; J. S. Cumberland; G. Gregson; and H. M. 
Ffrench Bromhead. Also the following visitors — Bros. J. J. Newland, J.W., 1949 ; 
J. H. Davis, P.M., 33; Dr. H. Putsche, Lodge Charlotte of the Three Cloves, 
Meiningen; and Dr. Fletcher Beech, P.M., 1837. 

Four Lodges and sixty-five Brethren were elected to the membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The Secretary announced that he had that afternoon received a post-card from Brother C. E. Meyer, 
of Philadelphia, announcing the death, after an illness of only a few hours, at Port Said, on Sunday, the 24th 
April, of Brother Clifford P. MacCalla, Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania. The W.M. and other Brethren 
having expressed their grief, the Secretary was directed to convey the condolences of the Lodge to the 
family of our late Brother, and it was moved and carried " That the Lodge do record its great sorrow and 
flense of loss on the minutes." 

The Secretary announced that at the Grand Festival on the 27th April the M.W.G.W. had been 
pleased to appoint as one of his Grand Standard Bearers Brother Dr. Belgrave Ninnis, Dep. Inspec. Gen. 
R.N., a member of the Lodge. The Secretary was instructed to convey to Brother Ninnis the congratula- 
tions of his brethren. 

The following paper was read : 




'HEN some few weeks ago our excellent and learned Brother Dr. B. W. 
Richardson suggested to me that I should read to this august hody of 
Masons — a Lodge that has by the researches of its members in the History 
and Literature of the Craft, now earned deserved distinction— I say when 
my good friend Brother Richardson suggested that I should read to this 
Lodge a paper bearing on the subject of Freemasonry and the Law — I 
confess that I felt that the suggestion was the offspring of his fraternal 
goodwill and friendly partiality, ever ready to attribute to others the power which he 
possesses of imparting instruction and exciting interest in whatever subject he undertakes 
to illustrate. But when to his suggestion and enconragement there was added the cordial 
request of our most considerate and helpful Brother Secretary, Brother Speth, it seemed to 
me that to decline, or to further hesitate to adopt the suggestion, would be to exhibit an 
affectation of modesty and a spirit of churlishness unbecoming a Brother Mason. Pending 
the short interval between the time at which I had determined to acquiesce in the request 
and that of Brother Speth kindly remitting to me the volume of Gould's History of Free- 
masonry now in my hand, I made such independent research as my leisure from other 
avocations would allow. The result of my enquiries found me at their termination some- 
what in the position of Canning's needy knife grinder — 

" Story, God bless you, 
I have none to tell, Sir." 

In reference to Freemasonry as an institution, there are, it will be found, but two 
■epochs in the whole course of authentic record, in which the Craft and those concerned 
therein can be said to have attracted the attention of the legislature : once, as will presently 
be seen, by way of repression, and once by way of recognition and encouragement. 

The invaluable work of Brother Gould, with all its minute inquiry, wealth of detail, 
and copiousness of reference, leaves me of the same opinion, and I can only conclude that 
■" Freemasonry with reference to the laws of the Realm " has not been the subject of con- 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 89 

sideration, as a subject apart and complete in itself, because as regards historical facts in 
relation thereto there is really but little recorded or to be said. 

The first of the Statutes of Labourers was passed in the 23rd of Ed. in., and was the 
Parliamentary enactment in 1350, so as to give statutory force to a previous royal 
proclamation. These Statutes were not, I think, directly connected or intended to be 
considered as expressly directed against or passed with reference to Freemasonry. They 
are directed against and affect to control all able-bodied persons — men and women alike — 
getting their living by manual labour. Historical evidence to connect these statutes with 
any body or bodies of Masonic artificers or any principles advocated or inculcated by them, 
or to show that they were passed " in terrorem " of Masonry appears to me to be wanting. 
In the first mentioned Statute the curious expression " Master Mason (of or in) free stone " 
(" Mestre Mason de franche peer " in the original Anglo-French of the Statute as passed), 
occurs, and is noticeable, but it obviously refers, as it seems to me, to a more skilled class of 
workman in his calling ; and whether or not Masonry then existed as an esoteric moral institu- 
tion, the Statutes of Labourers are generally accepted ashaving been the outcomeof the scarcity 
of workmen consequent on the havoc committed, especially among the poorer classes, by death, 
the constant attendant on the then ever recurring plague. These Statutes, as they were from 
time to time enacted, were passed, and would have been passed independently of anything 
that the Masonic body would then be presumed to be teaching, and whether or not such a 
body bad ever existed. 

This remark appears to me to be applicable to similar* repressive and directory 
Ordinances and Statutes, of which the invaluable work of Brother Gould furnishes us, so 
complete a repertory. It may have been, I should say certainly was the case that 
individual Masons not infrequently found their just freedom of action hampered and often 
denied by restrictive legislation as to employment and price of labour ; but this was so, not 
because of their membership in the Craft, but because of their status as subjects, and such 
restrictions as any such Mason was exposed to were common to persons of the like class 
with him who were not Masons. 

The 1st Chapter of the 3rd Statute, passed in 1425, in the reign of Henry vi., marks 
the first of the two epochs to which I referred, and in that Statute we find, as I think, the 
laws of the realm expressly directed against the Masonic body. The terms of this Statute 
are brief, and are as follows : — 

" First, Whereas by the yearly Congregations and Confederacies made by the 
Masons in their general Chapiters assembled, the good Course and Effect of 
the Statutes of Labourers be openly violated and broken, in Subversion of the 
Law, and to the great damage of all the Commons : our said Lord the King 
willing in this Case to provide Remedy, by the Advice and Assent aforesaid, 
and at the special Request of the said Commons, hath ordained and established, 
that .such Chapiters and Congregations shall not be hereafter holden : and if 
any such be made, they that cause such Chapiters and Congregations to be 
assembled and holden, if they thereof be convict, shall be judged for Felons; 
and that all the other Masons that come to such Chapiters and Congregations, 
be punished by Imprisonment of their Bodies, and make Fine and Ransom at 
the King's Will." 

It is to be noted that this Statute refers to the Statutes of Labourers, and for this 
reason it may be that some have inclined to the view that there was some connection 
between the Statutes of Labourers and Masonry, in the sense that the existence of Masonry 
was one of the provoking causes of the making of the Ordinance and passing of the Statute 
of Labourers which I have referred to ; but it appears to me that the following considerations 
offer a truer and better solution. 

The true operative Mason concerned in the erection of stately edifices and with mind 
directed to the harmony and beauty of the architectural types on which he was engaged — 
with an eye to observe and capacity to appreciate at once the due bound and perfect liberty 
of his work, could not but have aroused within him, till it finally permeated his moral being, 
a sense of the real harmony there is between Order and Liberty. The Square, the Level, 
the Plumb Rule, the Arch, all capable of infinite extension, but all necessary, limited in 
application, because man's powers themselves are subject to limitation, must have impressed 
on the thinking mind of the true Mason this as a practical truth, viz., that the freedom of 
the Unit may well co-exist with the order and regularity of the whole made up of individual 
units, and have led him to see, not merely the possibility of, but the desirability of such 

This truth— it may be at first dimly perceived — would take form, shape, meaning, 
and action, when the undue restriction and inroad upon individual freedom, which it cannot 
now, I think, be disputed the Statutes of Labourers worked, came to be felt, and we are 

90 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

merely making a justified stretch of imagination when we picture to ourselves our ancestry 
in the Order raising a firm protest and a clear and unmistakeable voice against a social 
system which by the destruction of the individual must in logical outcome work ruin to the 

We shall look in vain in the times when the bonds of the feudal system were at their 
tightest and strictest, for the answer which a legislature truly representative of all classes of 
the community would gives to a complaint and struggle against manifest oppression, which 
the legislature had by its own enactments inflicted on the members of the community least 
able to help themselves. The narrow spirit of those times saw the Statutes of Labourers 
disregarded, and those who unduly controlled the powers of government felt the interfer- 
ence with their own personal interests, but did not see the real injury, which the laws that 
had been enacted restricting the freedom of labour, were inflicting upon the community — 
and the answer to the sturdy resistance, which we may well conclude our noble ancestors 
in the Craft in those days offered by practice and precept to the worst of class legislation', 
was attempted to be checked and overcome by the enactment which I have read, and by 
which it was supposed (it may well be presumed) that the voice of that resistance could . 
never be heard, because by the enactment of the law it was to be reduced to such a position 
that it could never be effectively raised. 

Thus it was, as it seems to me, that the Statute expressly and in terms directed 
against our Order came to be passed, and thus our Order came, for the first and happily 
for the last time, to be directly in conflict — I may say righteous conflict — with the Laws of 
the Realm. But there are Laws and Laws, and this Statute practically became a dead 
letter from the time of its enactment, because of its inherent impossibility of execution. 
The stress of its provisions, could it have been effectively laid upon those against whom it 
was directed, would have prevented the inculcation and maintenance of the very principles 
which every government that pretends to the title of a good government would have main- 
tained. Masons from time immemorial have been ever inculcating the due order and regula- 
tion of the entire body, while preserving and regarding the freedom and liberty of its several 
parts. All the practical lessons and all symbolical teaching of Masonry have ever been and 
must be directed to that end. Kings, princes, priests, lawyers, and craftsmen of all kinds 
are initiated on such principles, which are the basis on which the whole Order exists, and 
this Statute, the first and last of its kind, as it was the offspring of ignorance, so also was 
best respected by neglect. Cotemporary accounts, which might afford some olue to the why 
and wherefore of such an enactment, I have searched for in vain. I believe that none such 
exist, and no constitutional historian, so far as I am aware, deals with anything beyond the 
fact of its having been enacted. That Freemasons, when all the parts of the whole govern- 
ment are well ordered, should be in conflict with any part, is quite contrary to the principles 
and tenets of the Order : but that in this case, and for the reasons which I have surmised, 
Freemasonry and the legislature of the times should have been for once in direct antagonism 
is a fact, in reference to which the whole body of Freemasons, and every individual thereof, 
may well be content to feel, as I myself do feel, a great and lasting satisfaction. 

This Statute, which as I have said was never practically enforced, became virtually 
repealed in the early part of Elizabeth's reign, but remained on the Statute Book until 1825, 
when by 6 Geo. rv., cap. 129, sec. 2, it was repealed in terms. 

A long period of upwards of 370 years ensues before Freemasons, in reference to the 
laws of the realm, are directly noticed. 

The eternal principles on which the Craft claims, and as I believe rightly claims, to 
be founded, and on which it had acted, had no doubt been having their due, but perhaps un- 
recognised, influence upon the social body Politic, and in the year 1799 — and this is the second 
epoch to which I sometime since referred — Free Masonry, by the 5th, 6th, and 7th sections 
of the Act of 39 Geo. m, cap. 79, may be said to have received its legislative recognition 
and sanction. This Act, which was an Act to suppress societies established for seditious and 
treasonable purposes, in substance provides by the 5th section that the Act was not to 
extend to existing Lodges of Freemasons; by the sixth, that two members of the Lodge shall 
certify that the then existing Lodges are such ; and by the seventh, that upon evidence that an 
alleged Masonic Lodge is only a treasonable society its meetings may be discontinued, as by 
the Act provided. I have brought my volume of the Statutes containing this Act for the 
perusal of such as desire to see the precise terms of the enactment. 

Divers Acts, both before and since this Statute, had and have been passed for the 
suppression of seditious assemblies, but that the Lodges or Chapters of Freemasons could, 
by any reasonable stretch of legal intendment, be brought within such Acts, never seems to 
have been suggested, and the provisions of the Act of 39 Geo. in., cap 79, are at once a 
testimony in favour of the uprightness of Freemasons before the law, and the security for 
heir rights to meet in peace to promote, as they have and I trust always will, the well 
betng of society and of the individual members thereof. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 91 

Thus we find, as I have already pointed, two special events, and as I believe 
only two, in the history of legislation in which the legislature, for the time being, 
expressly deals with the Masonic body. 

That this should be so cannot, I think, be otherwise than a subject of congratulation, 
though it makes the story to be told rather short. A voluntary institution, such as Masonry 
on its moral side is and ought to be, ought not to appear in the records of the Statute Book, 
either as needing to be suppressed, or as requiring special regulation — ah externo. And as 
in future times the legal historian will search in vain for, say, our Worshipful Master and 
our worthy Brother Secretary, having so lawlessly conducted themselves that the records 
of justice are encumbered with accounts of the means taken for their repression or control 
— so I think it no shame, that it is found when we come to take stock of past legal history 
that Masonry improving itself, growing in the strength of its own excellence, and claiming 
only to be a peculiar system of morality, and not the only source of good conduct and 
morals, has come down the stream of time but little, perhaps the least noticed, of all institu- 
tions in reference to the Laws of the Realm. 

While however the special occasions on which the Craft has been treated as a subject 
of particular legislation are few, we congratulate ourselves that to the lawyer and the 
legislator we have presented an attractive and desirable system so that — at all events during 
the present century — the names of well-known lawyers and politicians, as influential 
brethren of the Order, occur with satisfactory frequency : and not the least present testimony 
to the excellence of the Order is the fact that the present holder of the Great Seal, Lord 
Halsbury, — the Head of the Law, the keeper of the Royal Concience, and the Speaker of 
the House of Lords — and as Sir Hardinge Giffard, an influential member of the legislature in 
the House of Commons — is a distinguished Brother in the Craft. 

That Freemasonry should be thus attractive is surely to be desired. It must be 
satisfactory to the brethren of the Order to feel and know that its principles are such as 
to attract and to win the confidence of the lawyer and legislator, that they come in numbers 
and without undue solicitation to enrol themselves under its banners, whilst the order of 
its proceedings, the tenets it holds, and the principles it inculcates, are such that the laws of 
the realm have nothing now to say to it, except by way of safeguard of its freedom. 

Brethren, I trust I am only echoing the voices of your own Masonic hearts when I 
say, in language known to you all, " So may it long continue " — " So mote it be." 

The W.M. having asked whether any brother had any criticism to offer or points to 

Bro. B. W. Richardson said he would like to ask a question with a view to start a 
discussion. It was this, Did Brother Fooks think it certain that the bodies respectively 
affected by the two statutes he had quoted were one and the same ? 

Bro. W. Mattieu Williams wished to suggest that it was possibly the very fact of the 
restrictions imposed in the first of the two statutes which had led to the Masons meeting 
secretly and thus paved the way for our present system. 

Bro. Speth confessed he was surprised at the question of Brother Richardson, for if 
there was any one point in Masonic Archaeology which was considered proved beyond doubt, 
it was the lineal descent of the present Freemasons from the medieeval Masons. At what 
date Speculation first entered into the old organisation might be matter for dispute, but that 
it existed in 1717 was known, and the very day in 1717 when the old organisation gave way 
to the new was matter of history, the names of the participants and the modus operandi being 
all historically recorded. He would, however, point out that by the statute of 1799 only 
those Lodges were acknowledged legal which were already in existence. This was the only 
interpretation to be accorded to the wording of the statute ; in what position did the thousands 
of Lodges subsequently warranted by the Grand Lodge of England therefore stand ? 

Bro. W. H. Rtlands thought there could be no doubt we were all much indebted to 
Brother Fooks for devoting so much time and troubleto this subject, one which his profession 
made him peculiarly competent to deal with. If he had not found much, that was simply 
because very little to the purport existed ; but it was a satisfaction to know this. Brother 
Gould, as acknowledged by the lecturer, had previously undertaken the same toil, and 
devoted a chapter of his history to the enquiry, but the book was not in the hands of every 
brother ; and here we had the subject condensed, with the advantage of the personal views 
of Brother Fooks to compare with those of Brother Gould. The suggestion of Brother 
Williams might account for meetings of Masons being kept secret, but would not account for 
the ritual. He called upon Brother Fooks to reply. 

Bro. W. Fooks, in the course of an eloquent reply, said that he had no doubt that the 
Masons referred to in one and the other statute were the same body. He thought this was 

92 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

proved up to the hilt. In reply to the Secretary, he would state that the portion of the 
statute to which he had referred, had subsequently been expressly repealed. There need, 
therefore, be no alarm as to the absolute legality of our position. 

Bro. Richardson explained that his question was not made in ignorance of the facts 
alluded to by the Secretary, but solely for the purpose of raising a discussion, and to give 
our Brother Fooks an occasion for a display of that eloquence which had just charmed them 
all. He thought he might congratulate himself and the Lodge that he had succeeded 

Bro. W. M. Bywater then proposed a vote of thanks to «the lecturer, which was 
seconded by Bro. Williams and supported by Bro. MacIntyre North, who. made some very 
interesting observations from an architect's point of view. 

The vote having been acknowledged, the Lodge was closed. 


Dear Bro. Fooks, — If I rightly understood you at Lodge, you mentioned that the 
clause of the Act of 1799, which confers protection of those Lodges only which were already 
in existence, has since been repealed or modified in some way. Will you oblige me by giving 
a reference to the Statute which you had in your mind, as it would be of great interest to 
all British Masons ? 

There appears to be a general impression among Masons who have looked into the 
matter, that in an absolutely strict sense the statute must be so interpreted as to render our 
Lodges, warranted since 1799, technically illegal. For practical purposes this is of no 
moment, as he would be a foolish man who in England should attempt to question the status 
of our Lodges. But a reference to the modifying statute would be welcomed. — Tours very 
fraternally, G. W. Speth. 

My Dear Brother Speth-, — I fear there must have been some misunderstanding. I 
recollect a question being asked by, I think, yourself, as to Section iv. of the Act, and I said 
it was repealed; and afterwards some other brother asked me when such section was 
repealed, and I said to the best of my recollection such section was repealed by the Statute 
Law Revision Act, 1871, 34 and 35 Vic. cap. 116. This, I find, is the case, but beyond that 
I made no statement. 

The Unlawful Oaths Act, 37 Geo. in. cap. 123 (on which the Act of 39 Geo. in. cap. 
79 was founded), does not appear to have been interfered with by any repeal, and the 26th 
sec. of 59 Geo. in., cap. 19, still further guarantees our body from interference, but beyond 
this I say nothing, and am not at all disposed to dispute the soundness of your criticism, 
provided it ought to be granted that — -prima facie — every Freemason's Lodge must be 
regarded as an unlawful society within the meaning of the Acts of Parliament : but this latter 
admission I am by no means disposed to make. Whether, however, for abundant caution 
and to obviate the least suspicion of stigma, some further words ought not now to be intro- 
duced into some Act of Parliament especially directed to the protection of all Lodges now 
and hereafter to be formed, much may be said. I am sorry if any words of mine have, 
however unintentionally, led you into some misconception of what I said. — Tours sincerely 
and fraternally, William Fooks. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 93 


No. 4.— THOMAS MANNINGHAM, M.D., Deputy Grand Master, 1752-56. 


j^HE pre-eminence of the Society of Freemasons over all other Guilds, Corpora- 
tions, or Sodalities, arises from the fact that it possesses very ancient writings, 
in which is embedded its traditionary history, and a venerable Symbolism, 
now, alas, only partially understood, but which is, nevertheless, the solitary 
channel through which any part of the learning of an age far remote to our 
own has descended to us. 

The ancient writings referred to are our Manuscript Constitutions, and 
in the Symbolism which we so imperfectly grasp the meaning of, are contained the secret 
lore or atropprfra of Freemasonry. 

An explanation of our written, and a discovery of the lost meaning of our symbolical 
traditions, together constitute the goal of the student, which though still a long way off., 
and scarcely likely to be reached within the memory of men yet living, has been brought 
sensibly nearer to us by the combined efforts of the members and associates of the Quatuor 

But besides these two leading objects of research, there are a number of subsidiary 
puzzles which, let us hope, the patient industry of some of our body may, at no distant date, 
help to unravel. By way of illustration, I may cite Harleian MS., 1942, with its " New 
Articles;" Old Regulation mi. (1723), forbidding the working of the " Master's Part " in 
private Lodges ; the interpolation of Scottish operative terms into the English Constitutions 
and Ritual ; Antiquity MS. and its attestation clause ; the great falling off in the number 
of Lodges about the close of the first decade of the Grand Lodge era ; Dr. Anderson's retire- 
ment from Masonry between June, 1724, and June, 1731 ; the origin and early history of 
the Royal Arch and Knight Templar degrees ; and, not to swell the list unduly, the causes 
of the Great Schism in English Masonry, together with the real difference between the 
Masonry practised in the Lodges of " Ancients " and " Moderns " — to use the phrase by 
which the brethren in the rival camps are usually distinguished from each other. 

Towards the elucidation of certain problems on the roll, the present essay is in some 
sort a contribution. The formation of a second or Schismatic Grand Lodge of England in 
1753 was preceded by a period of supineness or lethargy on the part of the lawful or 
Constitutional Grand Body which it sought to displace. During the period in question, Dr. 
Thomas Manningham made a considerable mark in Freemasonry, which may be accepted as 
a fact — albeit the details connected therewith are very shadowy and indistinct — from the 
circumstance that without having held any higher previous office than that of Grand 
Steward, he was appointed to the responsible position of Deputy Grand Master, on the 
awakening of the original, or only lawful Grand Lodge of England, in 1752. 

Thomas Manningham, M.D., was the second son of Sir Richard Manningham, 
himself also the second son of an earlier Thomas Manningham, D.D., who became Dean of 
the Chapel Royal, Windsor, in February, and Bishop of Chichester in November, 1709 ; 
his death occurred in 1722, at what was probably an advanced age, as there is a printed 
sermon preached by him in 1679, to be met with in the British Museum collection. 

Sir Richard Manningham (son of the Bishop), who was born in Hampshire, took the 
degree of LL.B., at Cambridge (comitiis regiis), 1717 ; and in the following year built Park 
Chapel, Cheltenham. Whether he was ever in holy orders is uncertain. We know, 
however, that shortly after this he devoted himself to physic. On the 24th March, 1719-20, 
he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, and on the 30th September, 1720, a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians. He practised chiefly as an accoucheur, and 
attained to great eminence in that department of the profession. He was knighted by King 
George I., 18th February, 1721, and, dying on the 11th May, 1759, was buried at Chelsea. 

Sir Richard Manningham gained much credit by detecting and exposing the 
imposture of Mary Toft, the rabbit breeder of Godalming in Surrey, who had succeeded in 
deceiving, not only her own medical attendant, Mr. R. Howard, but also Mr. Ahlers and 
Mr. St. Andre, the former domestic, and the latter sergeant-surgeon, to George' I., who had 
sent them to Godalming to inquire into the circumstances. To Queen Caroline, then 
Princess of Wales, is ascribed the merit of having been active in promoting measures to 
detect the imposition. The miraculous Mary Toft, was, therefore, brought to town, where 
she could be more closely watched than at Godalming, and prevented, from obtaining the 
means of carrying on her imposture. Sir Richard Manningham was among those who took 

94 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 

a part on this occasion ; and he had at length the satisfaction of detecting her. The woman 
held out till her courage was shaken by a threat to perform a dangerous operation npon 
her, which threat was backed up by another from a magistrate, that she should be sent 'to- 
prison. She then confessed the fraud, and the farce terminated by the Godalming miracle- 
monger being committed to Tothill Fields' prison. Sir Richard published in 1726 his 

Exact Diary of what was observed during a close attendance upon Mary Toft, the pretended 
Eabbit Breeder, from November 28th to December 7th following, together with an Acc'ount of the 
Confession of the Fraud. 

He was the author also of 

Artis Obstetricae Compendium, tam theoriam quam praxin spectans. 4to. Lond., 1739. 

This was afterwards newly arranged and re-published, 1756, under the title 
" Aphorismata Medica," l2mo. 

An Abstract of Midwifery. 8vo. Lond., 1744. 

The Plague no Contagious Disorder, published anonymously in, 1744 ; but reprinted in 1758, with 

alterations and his name, under the title of " A discourse concerning the Plague and Pestilential 

Fevers ; plainly proving that the general productive causes of all Plagues or Pestilence are from 

some fault in the Air, or from ill and unwholesome Diet. 

A Treatise on the Symptoms, Nature, Causes, and Cure of the Febricula, or Little 1 Fever. 8vo. 

Lond., 1750. 1 

Sir Richard Manningham was a Freemason, and it would seem that he must have 
become a member of the Society several years at least before its sudden rise into popularity 
at the close of the second decade of the eighteenth century. Upon this point, however, 
the evidence which I shall proceed to unfold, will enable the reader to exercise an indepen- 
dent judgment. 

In the earliest Minute Book of the Grand Lodge of England, the first written words 
that meet the eye, are the following: — "This Manuscript was begun the 25th November, 
1723. The R' Hon Ue Francis, Earl of Dalkeith, Grand Ma* ; B r John Theophilus Desaguliers, 
Deputy Grand Ma*. 

Francis Sorell, Esq r ., \ Q , Wardens 
Mr. John Senex, J Urand Wardens - 

A List of the Regular Constituted Lodges, together with the names of the Masters, 
Wardens, and Members of each Lodge." 

The Lodges which head the list are thus shewn : — 

" The Goose and Gridiron in St. Paul's, Church Yard." Now The Lodge of 
Antiquity. Twenty-two names are given, but the only one of even passing note is that of 
the Master, Josias (or Josiah) Villeneau, an Upholder in the Borough of Southwark, who 
was S.G.W. in 1721, and took upon himself the regulation of the Grand Feast in the same 

" The Queen's Head in Knave's Acre." Now Fortitude and Old Cumberland, 
No. 12. This Lodge, which by the acceptance of a " Constitution " — a term that will again 
come before us — was adjudged to have forfeited its privilege of meeting by inherent right, 
possessed in 1723, fifteen members, Anthony Sayer, the premier Grand Master, being the 
only one of whom anything is known. 

The Queen's Head, Turnstile, Holborn. Now extinct. It was given the second place 
on the first list wherein the Lodges were shown in the order of their seniority (1727). 
Twenty-one names appear in the list of 1723. 

The Cheshire Cheese, in Arundell Street." Twelve names. 

The Horne Tavern at Westminster." Now The Rotal Somerset House and Inver- 
ness Lodge, No. 4. This was the junior of the Four Old Lodges, the founders and creators 
of the earliest of Grand Lodges. In the list I am quoting from, there appear the names of 
seventy-two members, among them being, " The Duke of Richmond, Master," G.M. 1724 ; 
"Mr. George Payne, Deputy Master," G.M. 1718 and 1720; Alex. Chocke, D.G.M. 1727; 
William Cowper, G. Sec. 1722-25, D.G.M. 1726; Nath. Blackerby, D.G.M. 1728-30, G Treas. 
1731-37; Jas. Anderson (the Father of Masonic History); Hon. Chas. Lumley; Lord 
Paisley, G.M. 1725 ; Duke of Queenborough ; " S r Rich. Manningham"; Count La Lippe 
{afterwards a prominent actor in Continental Freemasonry) ; Lord Waldegrave ; Baron 
Diskaw; S r Adolphus Oughton ; Earl Deloraine ; Colonels Williamson, Montgomery, 
Ridley, Anstruther, Carpenter (Hon.), Sanderson (Hon.), and Paggett ; Major Erskine ; 
Capt. Archibald Kerr ; S r Robert Rich ; Count Watzdorf ; Marquis des Marches ; S r Thomas 
Prendergast, J.G.W. 1725 ; and Lord Carmichael. 

1 William Munk, M.D., Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd edit., 1878, ii., 75 ; 
Sketches of Imposture, Deception, and Credulity, 142 ; Gent. Mag., xxix, 146 ; Haydn, Book of Dignities, 
433, 474. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 95 

The so-called List of 1723, is actually a List of 1724, J as will appear from the following : 

" There was a great Lodge of the ancient Society of the Free Masons held last week 
at the Horn Tavern, in Palace Yard: at which were present the Earl of Dalkeith, their 
Grand Master, the Deputy Grand Master [Dr. Desaguliers], the Duke of Richmond, and 
several other persons of quality, at which time, the Lord Carmichael, Col. Carpenter, Sir 
Thomas Prendergast, Col. Paget, and Col. Saunderson, were accepted Free Masons, and 
went home in their Leather Aprons and Gloves." 2 

A later list of Lodges and Members, is given in the same Minute Book of Grand 
Lodge, made up November 27th, 1725. 

According to this roll, the membership was, 

Goose and Geidieon, 15 ; Queen's Head, in Knave's Acre, 14 ; Green Lettice, in 
Brownlow Street, previously Queen's Head, Turnstile, Holborn, 20 ; Cheshire Cheese, 
defunct; and " Horn at West m ," 71. 

Among the members of the last named, we again find " S r Rich. Manningham," and 
also meet with the name of Dr. Desaguliers, G.M. 1719, which in the earlier list had been 
placed at the head of the roll, amongst the Grand Officers. 

The Lodges at the Goose and Gridiron; the Queen's Head in Knave's Acre; the 
Queen's Head, Turnstile, Holborn; and the Horne, Westminster, as shewn in the list of 
1723, were the memorable Four, by whom the Grand Lodge of England was established in 
1717. It is therefore a little remarkable that six years after that notable event, the entire 
body of nobility and gentry — so far as may be reasonably inferred — to be found in the total 
membership of the Four, should have been borne on the roll of the youngest Lodge of all. 

From this, many inferences may be deducible, but I must leave them for the consider- 
ation of some future historian of present No. 4, which as the Masonic home of Payne,, 
Anderson, and Desaguliers, has deserved a better fate than the contemptuous indifference of 
its members of this century, with regard to the leading part played by the Old Horn Lodge. 
in the past one. 

But I shall ask the reader to bear in mind — for reasons more immediately connected 
with the subject of the present sketch — the Masonic Status of Sir Richard Manningham, as- 
indicated by the character of the Lodge to which he belonged, and the opportunities that 
were doubtless afforded him, of conversing freely with the best informed brethren of that 

The date of the birth of Thomas Manningham, second son of Sii Richard, I have 
been unable to discover, but his marriage is recorded under the year 1747: — "Sept. 10, 
Thomas Manningham, M.D. — to Miss Warner, of [St.] James-street, 5,0OOL" s 

His mother's death occurred in 1771: — "At her house in Little Chelsea, aged 90, 
Lady Manningham, relict of the late Sir Richard Manningham, Physician to King George 
I. and II."* 

Also, the obituary notices of three persons bearing the same family name, any one of 
whom may have been his elder brother, are thus given in the periodical mentioned below : — 
"Sept. 8, 1743, Charles Manningham, Esq., of Sussex"; "May 4, 1750, Rev. Dr. 
Manningham, prebendary of Westm. and rector of Slinfold and Selsey, in Sussex "; " April 
29, 1767, Rev. Dr. Simon Manningham, rector of Jervington, Sussex." 5 

Dr. Munk tells us, — " Thomas Manningham, M.D., was the second son of Sir Richard 
Manningham, an obstetric physician. He was a doctor of medicine of the University of St. 
Andrew's, of the 24th May, 1765; and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June following. He resided' for some years in Jermyn Street, but in 1780 
removed to Bath, where he died — 3rd February, 1794." 6 

The date here assigned as that in which Thomas Manningham attained the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine, is a little confusing, but the writer from whom I have last quoted, 
explains, " I may mention in regard to the arrangement followed throughout the following 
pages, that in order to bring mj record in accord with the printed annual lists of the 
Fellows, Candidates, Licentiates, &c, of the College, I have been obliged to enter each 
individual at the date of his admission to the highest order in the College to which he ever 
attained. Thus, a Fellow appears at the date of his admission as such, no matter when he 
first joined the College as Candidate, Inceptor- Candidate, or Licentiate ; and one, originally 
an Extra-Licentiate, who subsequently became a Licentiate, in which class he remained tilL 
the last, will be found entered at the date of his admission as Licentiate." 7 

1 Lane, Bandy Boole to the List of Lodges, 5. 

2 The Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer, March 28th, 1724. 

3 Gent. Mag., xvii., 447. 

• 4 Annual Register, xiv., 179. 

5 Gent. Mag., xiii., 498 ; xx., 236 ; xxxvii., 279. 

6 Boll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, ii., 267. 

7 Ibid, i., preface, v. 

96 Transactions of the Lodge Quattior Coronati 

Yet, whatever may have been the date at which Thomas Manningham graduated as 
M.D., those letters were certainly appended to his name from the year 1747, both in the 
Minutes of the Grand Lodge, and in the public journals. 

The only London Lodge of which it can be proved that he was a member, is the 
present St. Albans, No. 29, by which body he was probably sent up as Grand Steward in 
1747. Bro. Henry Sadler, the courteous sub-librarian of the Grand Lodge, from whom this 
information is derived, also acquaints me with the fact that the list of members of the " Old 
Horn " — afterwards the " Somerset House " — Lodge (among whom Manningham may have 
been, and in all likelihood was, at some time to be found), was not furnished to the Grand 
Secretary until long after 1768." 1 

His name is first met with in the records of the Grand Lodge, in connection with the 
proceedings of April 30th, 1747, when Lord Byron was invested as Grand Master, in the 
presence of George Payne and Lord Ward, " late Grand Masters," and a numerous 
company. After dinner " the Stewards were called up & had Thanks returned them for 
the care they had taken of the Feast, When they respectively named their Successors." 

The names are then set out in the Minutes, and among them that of " Thomas 
Manningham, M.D.", together with a note — " that Brothers Peter Clerke, Spranger, 
Manningham, Hartley & Berrington, served in the place of Brothers Farmer, Williams, 
Sauret, Topscot & Perrin, who declined." 

Lord Byron, whose tenure of office as Grand Master extended from April 30th, 1747, 
until March 20th, 1752, was only present in the Grand Lodge on those dates, and on March 
16th, 1752, when he proposed Lord Carysfoot as his successor. During the presidency of 
this nobleman, which lasted for five years, the affairs of the Society were much neglected, 
and to this period of misrule — aggravated by the summary erasure of numerous Lodges — 
we must look, I think, for the cause of that organised rebellion against authority, resulting 
in the great Schism. Only one Grand Lodge (besides the Grand Feast of April 30th) was 
held in 1747 ; in 1748 there were two ; in 1749 and 1750, one each ; and 1751, two. 3 
Between, moreover, these several Communications, there were, in two instances, great 
intervals of time — thirteen and fifteen months respectively, having elapsed without a session 
of the Grand Lodge, immediately before the meetings in June, 1750, and September, 1751. 

The same Grand Officers and Grand Stewards continued in office from 1747 until 
1752, which is the more remarkable, because the honours of the Craft were much coveted. 
The Stewards were a highly influential body, and from 1728 to 1747, with but two 
exceptions (1742-43, and 1745-46), when Lords Ward and Cranstoun each had a second 
term as Grand Master, twelve Grand Stewards were annually appointed. 

In The Complete Freemason, or Multa Paucis for Lovers of Secrets [1763-64], a state- 
ment occurs, which, though the work is one of very doubtful authority, I think must have 
had some foundation in fact, the more especially, as the event it professes to record is only 
said to have happened about eleven or twelve years previously, and, therefore, stands on 
quite another footing, historically speaking, from the earlier portion of the same publication. 3 

The passage referred to is as follows: — "Grand Master Byron was very inactive. 
Several years passed by without his coming to a Grand Assembly, nay, even neglected to 
nominate his successor. The Fraternity, finding themselves intirely neglected, it was the 
Opinion of many old Masons to have a consultation about electing a new and more active 
<J0>t*cmi> truster, and assembled for that Purpose, according to an Advertisement,* 
which accidentally was perceived by our worthy Brother, Thomas Manningham, M.D., who, 
for the Good of Masonry, took the trouble upon him to attend at this Assembly, and gave 
the Fraternity the most prudent Advice for their future Observance, and lasting Advantage. 
They all submitted to our worthy Brother's superior Judgment, the Breach was healed." 6 

The Minutes of the Grand Lodge convey very little information with regard to the 
period under examination (1747-51). The Deputy G.M. — Fotherley Baker — was present at 
all the Meetings which took place during the absence of Lord Byron, and presided at each 
of them, except on March 7th, 1748, when the chair was filled by Lord Ward, a former 
Grand Master. 

At a subsequent Communication, held May 26th, 1749 : — '•' The Complaint against 
Bro. Mercado for making Masons irregularly was heard, When he acknowledged the same 
& expressed his Concern that he had given occasion for the Complaint, & promised to 

1 It may be convenient to state that returns of the members of private Lodges, were not required 
to be sent to the Grand Lodge between 1730-32 and 1768. 

2 Deo. 16th, 1747 j March 7th and Deo. 22nd, 1748 ; May 26th, 1749 ; June 25th, 1750 ; Sept. 4th 
and Oct. 24th, 1751. 

3 See my Hist, of F., ii., 37, 280, 391, 395. 

4 This I sought to discover in 1884, with the assistance of our present W.M., by a lengthened ex- 
amination of the file of Xewspapers at the Brit. Mus. Library. Bat oar search was a fruitless one. 

5 Multa Paucis, 105. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quattior Coronati. 97 

behave a3 a Mason for the future. And it appearing that [the] persons so made had at his 
request Agreed to be regularly made the next Lodge Night at the George, in Ironmonger 
Lane, He. was, at the Intercession of the Master and Wardens of the said Lodge, forgiven." 

Lord Byron, " who had been abroad for several years," proposed Lord Carysfort as 
his successor, on March 16th, and the latter was duly proclaimed and invested as Grand 
Master, on March 20th, 1752, " all expressing the greatest Joy at the happy Occasion of 
their Meeting, after a longer recess than had been usual." 

Dr. Manningham, who had been a Grand Steward under the administration of Lord 
Bryon, was appointed deputy Grand Master, although unlike all his predecessors in that 
office from 1735, he had not previously served as a Grand Warden, a qualification deemed 
so indispensable in later years, as to have been affirmed by a resolution of the Committee of 
Charity, April 8th, 1767. 1 This points to his having rendered signal services to the 
Society, which would so far harmonise with the passage in Multa Faucis, and be altogether 
in keeping with the character of the man. 2 

On June 18th, 1752, Dr. Manningham presided as Grand Master, and " A Complaint 
was made in general of the Frequency of irregular Makings, When the D.G.M. recom- 
mended it to the Brethren to send to him or the G.S. the names of such as shall be so 
irregularly made & of those who make them." 

At this date, however, the schism or secession had assumed form and cohesion, and 
although the recusant Masons had not yet formed a " Grand Lodge," they were governed by 
a " Grand Committee," which was the same thing except in name. 8 

At the next three meetings of the Grand Lodge, Lord Carysfort, G.M., occupied his 
own chair, being duly supported by his deputy. On the last of these occasions — April 3rd, 
1753 — the former having been re-elected and re-invested, — " dinner being over, the Grand 
Master made the Procession about the Hall ; and, being returned to Solomon's chair, 

Thomas Manningham, M.D., deputy Grand Master ; who had distinguished his 
abilities for that office, and zeal for Masonry, by visiting the Lodges in the remotest parts 
of the town, or wherever his presence was thought necessary ; redressing what was amiss in 
the execution of the laws, and giving them the most prudent advice for their future 
observance and lasting advantage ; the whole of his proceedings being conducted with such 
candour and affability, as endeared him to all the Brethren." 

1753.— June 14th. — The Deputy Grand Master in the Chair. " A Motion was 
made for the opinion of the Grand Lodge, Whether the Treasurer of [the] Society is a 
Grand Officer by Virtue of his office & as such to be elected from amongst the Brethren who 
had served the Stewardship ; it was, after a long debate, carried in the affirmative almost 

November 23rd.— "*A Letter from several Brethren at Norwich was read, Com- 
plaining that a Lodge in London had made a person of that place a Mason & raised him the 
same Night, whose Character was so very bad that (tho' he had offered large sums) all the 
Lodges at Norwich had refused him — 

The D.G.M. therefore proposed for By Laws, 

That no Lodge shall ever make a Mason without due Inquiry into his 
Character. Neither shall any Lodge be permitted to make & raise the same 
Brother at one and the same Meeting, without a Dispensation from the 
G.M., which on very particular occasions may be required. 

That no Lodge shall ever make a Mason for a less sum than one Guinea . 

Which, on the Question [being] put were severally agreed to." 

1754. — March 8. — Lord Carysfort proposed the Marquis of Caernarvon as his 
successor, and on March 25th the latter was invested, in the presence of (his father) " the 
Duke of Chandos, and Lord Ward, late Grand Masters, and near three hundred other 
brethren," Thom'as Manningham, M.D., being reappointed Deputy Grand Master. 

June 27. — The new G.M. was present and supported by his Deputy. Then 
they took into consideration the 'state of the Country Lodges ; and it was resolved, that 
each, brother should, according to his opportunities, make the utmost enquiry touching the 

1 From 1735 down to 18 12, every D.G.M. except Manningham and John Kevis (1757-61) was a past 
Steward and Grand Warden. The latter, however, served the Stewardship in 1729, and was Grand 
Seoretary 1734-56. 

2 See infra, tinder April 3rd, 1753. 

3 Hist, of F., chap. xix. — q.v. * 

4 Where not otherwise stated, passages within quotation marks are taken from the actual 
Minutes or the printed Constitutions of the Grand Lodge. 

98 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 

meetings and conduct of said Lodges, and. give proper intimations thereof to the next 
Quarterly Communication ; and that such of those Lodges of which no satisfactory account 
could be then given, should be erazed from the book of Lodges. 

A memorial presented by Brother Jonathan Scott . . . proposing that a Com- 
mittee might be appointed to revise the Constitutions, formerly prepared for the press by 
the Reverend Brother Anderson, and to make the necessary alterations and additions : it 

Resolved, that the said book of Constitutions should be revised, and necessary altera- 
tions and additions made, consistent with the laws and rules of Masonry ; and that the 
right worshipful Grand Master, 1 the other present Grand Officers ; George Payne, Esq., the 
Earl of Loudon, Duke of Cl.andos, Lord Ward, and Lord Carysfort, late Grand Masters ; 
Sir Robert Lawley, Bart., Edward Hody, M.D., late Deputy Grand Masters ; Thomas 
Smith Esq., late Junior Grand Warden ; together with the Rev. John Entick, M.A., Arthur 
Beardmore, and Edward Bowman, gent., be the said Committee : and that the Grand 
Master, or Deputy Grand Master [Dr. Manningham], with any three others of the said 
Committee, have power to proceed to business, and to call in to their assistance any other 
brethren they might from time to time think proper." 

The labours of the above Committee resulted in a third edition of Dr. Anderson's 
original Booh of Constitutions, edited by the Rev. John Entick, and published in 1756. 

November 29th. — Present: the G.M., D.G.M., and others. The following New 
Laws were agreed to, 

1. No Lodge to be deemed regularly removed, unless by permission of the 
G.M., or his Deputy. 

2. No Mason, without the special permission of the G.M. or D.G.M., to attend 
in Masonic attire at a Euneral. 

3. No Mason to Tyle or assist as Tyler at any "pretended Lodges of Persons 
calling themselves Masons, not being a Regular Lodge acknowledging the 
authority of the Rt. Worshipful Grand Master." 

1755. — March 20, — Lord Caernarvon in the Chair. " The D.G.M. made a 
Complaint to the Grand Lodge of the Master and Wardens of the Lodge No. 94, held at the 
Ben Johnson's Head in Pelham Street, Spital Fields, for forming and assembling with other 
Members of that Lodge under the Denomination of a Lodge of Ancient Masons, Who as 
such consider themselves as independent of this Society, & not subject to our Laws or the 
Authority of our Grand Master, When he took notice of the great necessity there was to 
discourage all such Meetings, not only as the same were contrary to our Laws, & 
particularly that made at the last Q.C., & were also a great Insult on the Grand Master & 
the whole Body of Free and Accepted Masons, But as they likewise tended to introduce into 
the Craft the Novelties & Conceits of opinionative Persons, & to create a Belief that there 
have been other Societies of Masons more Ancient than that of this Ancient and Honourable 

When Part of the 8th old Regulation & the new Regulation, made the 19th day of 
February, 1724, touching the forming Lodges without leave of the' G.M. being read, 2 the 
D.G.M. desired the said Master & Wardens to give their Reasons for such their Behaviour. 

The said Brethren thereon insinuated that as at these Meetings they in nowise 
interfered with this Society, either by making Masons or otherwise & met together only as 
private Persons that they apprehended they had a right so to do. But on being asked they 
acknowleged the Charge against them with respect to their Forming & Assembling as a 
Lodge of MasoDS, independant of this Society & under no Subjection to our Laws or the 
Authority of our Grand Master, & that they were generally tyled, & that their Tyler 
y/as one Micajah Cross, who not long ago was relieved at a Committee of Charity." 

" The Question being put, it was resolved that the meeting of Brethren under any 
denomination of Masons, other than as Brethren of this our antient and honourable Society 
of Free and Accepted Masons, is inconsistent with the honour and interest of the Craft, 
and a high insult on our Grand Master, and the whole body of Masons. 

The Deputy Grand Master then moved, and it was agreed, that the consideration of 
the irregular proceedings of the said Brethren be postponed till next quarterly communica- 
tion, that a thorough sense of their misconduct, and a determination not to be guilty of the , 
like for the future, might reconcile them to the Grand Lodge." 

1 In their retention of this prefix, instead of adopting the title of " Most Worshipful," as now com- 
monly used to designate the Grand Master, the Masons of Pennsylvania claim to have successfully resisted 
a modern innovation. 

2 O.E. vin. — " If any Set or Number of Masons shall take upon themselves to form a Lodge, without 
the G. Master's Warrant, the regular Lodges are not to countenance them." N.E. VIII. — " None 'who form a 
stated Lodge without the G. Master's Leave shall be admitted into regular Lodges till they make Submission 
and obtain Grace." 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. .99 

April 10. — The Marquis of Caernarvon continued as Grand Master, and Dr. 
Manningham as Ms Deputy. 

July 24. — The D.G.M. presided, when it was "Ordered that every certificate 
granted to a Brother of his heing a Mason shall for the future be sealed with the seal of 
Masonry & signed by the G.S., for which five shillings shall be paid to the use of the 
General Charity. 

The Complaint against the Lodge held at the Ben Johnson's Head, in Spital Fields, 
postponed at the last Q.C., was'taken into consideration, And the Master & Wardens of the 
said Lodge being present, & the Minutes of the said last Q.C. touching the said complaint 
read to them, The D.G.M. informed them that the Grand Lodge was ready to hear what 
they had to say. 

The said Master & Wardens thereupon spoke what they thought proper for their 
Defence, which they were many times (& more particularly Bro. John Merigeot, one of the 
said Wardens) indulged the Liberty of doing, and they sometimes insinuated (contrary to 
admission of their Master and Wardens at the last Q.C.) that the Charge against them was 
unsupported by any Proof, & attempted to induce a Belief that their Meetings complained 
of were regular, and in consequence of their Constitution from this Society, & that those 
Meetings & the Transactions therein were no Novelties, bnt agreeable to those of this 
Society, & free & open to every Brother. But the contrary was made appear by Bro 18 
Jackson and Pollard, who had been refused admittance at those Meetings, -until they 
submitted to be made in their novel and particular Manner under the Denomination of 
Ancient Masons, for which they paid the Expence of the Meeting. 

The said Master and Wardens then insinuated (as was done at the last Q.C.) that 
they apprehended they had a Right to meet as private Persons under any denomination, 
And, thereupon, after some debate about the Question to be proposed, The following 
Question (in Compliance with what they themselves desired) was put (viz*) — 

That the Members of the Lodge at the Ben Johnson's Head be permitted to meet, 
independant of their Constitution from this Society under the denomination of a Lodge of 
Ancient Masons, 

Which was carried in the Negative, almost unanimously. 

A Question was then put, That the Lodge No. 94, held at the Ben Johnson's Head, in 
Pelham Street, Spital Fields, be erased from the Book of Lodges, & that such of the 
Brethren thereof who shall continue those irregular Meetings be not admitted as Visitors in 
any Lodge, 

Which was carried in the Affirmative." 

At this Meeting of Grand Lodge — according to the Minutes of that body — The Lodge 
at the Swan, Mount Street, Grosvenor Square (now the Moira Lodge, No. 92), paid in for 
their " Constitution," £2 2s. — an entry to be again referred to, in connection with a 
department of Masonic labour devolving upon the Deputy Grand Master of those days, 
which I shall be able to illustrate in some degree by the aid of original documents in my 

December 4. — " The Lodge took into Consideration the Resolution of the last C.C. 
[Committee of Charity 1 ], That the smoaking Tobacco or other Thing should not for the 
future be permitted at any C.C. or Q.C. [Quarterly Communication] until all Business is 
over. When the D.G.M. observed that it was not only highly disagreeable & incon- 
venient to the many not used to it, But was also an Indecency that should never be 
suffered in any solemn Assembly, & was a great Interruption to the Business of the Lodge, 
as it prevented that due Attention which every Brother ought to have to what was 
transacting. And therefore moved that the said Resolution of the said C.C. be made a Law 
of the Grand Lodge, Which was agreed to." 

1756. — April 8. — The Marquis of Caernarvon consenting to a third term of office,, 
again appointed Dr. Manningham his Deputy — May 10th. 

August 13. — The Deputy presided as Grand Master. 

1757. — January 14. — Grand Lodge was held in ample form, bnt on May 5th the 
G.M. was again absent, and Dr. Manningham took his place. 

May 18. — In the presence of the Marquis of Caernarvon, G.M., Thomas Manning- 

1 Regulations of the Committee of Chabity. — Art. xv. — " At the Grand Lodge on 13th December, 
1733, upon the Motion of Strathmore G. Master in the Chair, it was resolv'd, that all Masters of regular 
lodges that have contributed to the Charity, within twelve months past, shall be members of the Committee, 
together with all former and present Grand Officers. 

Art. xvi. — Considering that the usual business of a Quarterly Communication was too much for 
one time, whatever business cannot be dispatched here, shall be referred to the Committee of Charity, and 
their opinion reported to the next Grand Lodge." — Constitutions, 1784. 

100 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. ' 

ham D.G.M., the Earl of Morton, the Duke of Chandos, and Lord Ward, late Grand Masters, 
Sholto Douglas, Lord Aberdour, G.M. elect, was invested and proclaimed, his choice of a 
Deputy falling on John Revis, who had served as Grand Secretary since December 20th, 

October 31. — Manningham was present and sat in his old chair, John Revis, the 
D.G.M. acting as G.M. ~~~ 

1758. — February 14. — Present, "Lord Aberdour, G.M. ; John Revis, D.G.M. ; 
Thomas Manningham, late Deputy Grand Master," and others. 

April 14. — The Doctor was absent — for the first time since his appointment as a 
Grand Officer, but he attended on June 1st — when Lord Aberdour and John Revis were 
continued as G.M., and Deputy respectively — also on September 14th, again acting as 

1759. — February 5 and May 24. — Present, John Revis, D.G.M., as G.M. ; and 
Thomas Manningham as Deputy. 

1760. — January 14. — The same brethren in the two principal chairs. — "Resolved, 
That the sum of fifty pounds be sent to Germany, to be distributed among the soldiers who 
are Masons in Prince Ferdinand's army, whether English, Hanoverians, or Hessians. 

The deputy Grand Master acquainted the brethren, that Major General Kingsley, 
now in Prince Ferdinand's Army, was a Mason ; and that if it was agreeable he would 
write to him, and desire he would distribute the aforesaid sum amongst the Masons ; which 
passed unanimously. Ordered, that the treasurer do pay fifty pounds into the hand of the 
deputy Grand Master, to remit to General Kingsley for the aforesaid purposes." 

May 14. — J. Revis and Manningham as G.M. and Deputy. "The Deputy G.M. pro- 
duced a letter from Major General Kingsley, with a list of the Masons in Prince Ferdinand's 
army ; also a receipt for the fifty pounds sent to Germany by order of the last Quarterly 

At the period we have now reached (1760), and until a much later date, Regiments 
in the British Army were known and described by the names of their Colonels, which a 
short reference to the history of one gallant corps — afterwards the 20th Foot — will make a 
little clearer, and at the same time (let me hope) afford a certain amount of information to 
those Masonic Knights Templars who are desirous of investigating the origin and propaga- 
tion of that Order or degree. 

The 20th Foot — to use the numerical title by which it afterwards became (in more 
senses than one) distinguished — received in December, 1748, a Warrant of Constitution 
(No. 63) from the Grand Lodge of Ireland. 

This Warrant was granted to Lord George Sackville (Colonel and first Master), 
Lieutenant- Colonel Edward Cornwallis, and Captain Milburne. 

The Colonelcy of the Regiment had been conferred — April 9th, 1746 — on Lieut. -Colonel 
Lord George Sackville, who retired from it, November 1st, 1749. 

On March 20th, 1 750, Major James Wolfe (afterwards Major-General and Commander 
of the expedition against Quebec) was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, vice Lieutenant- 
Colonel the Hon. Edward Cornwallis, appointed Governor of Nova Scotia. 

Lieut.-Colonel Cornwallis sailed for Nova Scotia in charge of eleven hundred and 
forty-nine settlers, and he was the first Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), and founder 
of the Province of Nova Scotia. 

This gallant officer, whose zeal for Masonry was again apparent in his new sphere of 
action, became a Lieutenant- General, 1760, Governor of Gibraltar, 1762, and died 1776. 

Colonel William Kingsley was gazetted to the Colonelcy of the 20th Foot on May 
22nd, 1756. 

In the same year the Regiment was augmented, receiving a second Battalion, which 
in 1758 became the 67th Foot, James Wolfe being transferred with it as its Colonel. 

Within the ten years immediately following the grant of a Lodge Warrant (1748), 
the 20th Foot served in the Netherlands and France, and on May 26th, 1758, a force of 
about 13,000 fighting men in all, under the command of the Duke of Marlborough, embarked 
at the Isle of Wight, forming the Expedition to St. Malo. 

The Regiments of the 2nd Brigade were -Kingsley' s (20th). Wolfe's (67th), and 
Loudoun's (30th). 1 

The whole force returned to England, June 30th, 1758. 

1 Lodge Warrants were issued to the 30th and 67th Foot, in 1738 and 1772 respectively, in the 
former instance by the Grand Lodge of Ireland (No. 85), and in the latter by the (Schismatic) Grand Lodge 
of England (No. 175). 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 101 


In the same year, the 20th was selected to proceed to Germany, in order to join the 
allied army in that country, under H.S.H. Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. It landed at 
Embden, August 3rd, and advancing up the country, joined the Army before the end of the 

The Corps was in winter quarters, in Munster, on the river Aa, from November, 
1758, until the Spring of 1759. 

The famous battle of Minden was fought on August 1st, 1759, the English Infantry 
being formed into two Brigades, the 1st of which included the 12th, 23rd, and 37th Regi- 
ments, and the 2nd comprising the 20th, 25th, and 51st. 

The 20th Foot was on the right of the line in the 2nd Brigade, commanded by the 
Colonel of the Regiment, Major General William Kingsley. 

The great mortality sustained by the Battalion at Minden, caused the following 
General Order to be issued by Prince Ferdinand : — 

" Minden, 2nd August, 1759. 
" Kingsley's regiment of the British line, from its severe loss, will cease to do duty." 
But the zeal and esprit de corps which animated the survivors of the 20th, is shown 
in the subsequent G.O. dated, 

" Minden, 4th August, 1759. 
" Kingsley's regiment, at his own request, will resume its portion of duty in the line." 

From its gallant conduct in the above action tbe regiment acquired the highly 
honourable appellation of " Kingsley's Stand," by which and " The Minden Boys," it long 
continued to be described. 

The total casualties — killed, wounded, and taken prisoners — of the 20th Foot, during 
the three years the regiment served in Germany, were twenty-eight officers, twenty-five 
sergeants, and five hundred and thirty men. 

On January 25th, 1763, the 20th commenced its march to Williamstadt, where it 
embarked for England in February. 

After the great victory referred to, No. 63 (I.R.), attached to the 20th Foot, adopted 
the name of the " Minden Lodge," under which it celebrated its centenary in 1848. 

The Lodge is now extinct (1850), but an excellent little history of it exists, written 
by Sergeant Major John Clarke, in 1849. 

Unfortunately, the records prior to 1802, have disappeared, so we cannot tell whether 
James Wolfe, like the other Colonels who were his contemporaries in the regiment, was a 
Mason and a member of No. 63. 

As previously stated, the British line at the battle of Minden, was divided into two 
Brigades. Each of these consisted of three regiments, and the whole of the six Battalions, 
with one possible exception, are known to have had Lodges attached to them at the time. 1 
The exception referred to has reference to the 51st Foot, warranted in 1761, but a Lodge may 
well have existed in it for many years prior to that date. Such was the case in the 12th 
Regiment, to which a Charter was granted by the G.L. of Scotland in 1747 (No. 58), in 
response to a petition averring that a " Mason Lodge " had been erected in the above corps 
as far back as 1685 ? 

The 12th Foot was stationed in Germany and Flanders, 1743-45, and present at the 
battles of Dettingen and Fontenoy. It served again in Germany, 1758-63, and, witbthe 8th 
Regiment, was at Fritzlar in Lower Hesse, in 1760. In the following year, the 5th, 12th, 
24th, and 37th Regiments formed a Brigade in the Marquis of Granby's Division, and were 
employed in Hesse, Hanover, and Osnaburg. Every corps enumerated except the 24th 
Foot, which, however, obtained an English Warrant in 1768, was accompanied by a Regi- 
mental (and Chartered) Lodge. 2 

The continued vitality of some of these " Travelling," " Field," or " Camp " Lodges, 
is often borne witness to in very out-of-the-way documents. For example, the Minutes of 
St. Abb Lodge, No. 70, Eyemouth, Berwickshire, inform us with respect to No. 92 (I), in 
the 25th Foot, that the " Lodge Chest" having been lost at Munster in Germany, a new 
one was " consecrated " at Berwick, December 2nd, 1763. 

While the British Regiments I have alluded, to (and others), were serving on the 
Continent, before, after, and during the continuance of, the Seven Years War, the Rite or 
System called The Strict Observance, was in existence. This was based upon the fiction 
that at the time of the destruction of the Templars a certain number of Knights took refuge 

1 1st Brigade,— 12th E., 58 (S), 1747; 23rd E., 63 (S), 1751 ; 37th E., 52 (A), 1756. 2nd Brigade, 
20th E., 63 (I), 1748; 25th E., 92 (I), 1749; 51st E., 94 (A), 1761. 

2 5th E., 86 (I), 1738 ; 8th E., 255 (B), 1755; 24th E., 426 (E), 1768. The letters I, S, E, A, in 
this and the preoeding note, denote Irish, Scotch, English (original G.L.), and English (so-oalled "Ancient " 
or Schismatic G.L.) respectively. 

102 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 

in Scotland, and there preserved the due succession cf the Order. For various reasons 
also, these Knights were said to have joined the Guilds of Masons in that Kingdom, and 
thus to have given rise to the Society of Freemasons. The great doctrine laid down for 
the followers of the Rite was " that every true Mason is a Knight Templar." 

The triumph of the Strict Observance over every other Masonic rite in Continental 
Europe was complete, but short-lived. During its predominance, however, every class of 
society, i.e., among the Masonic body, was influenced by the doctrine it proclaimed. 

Lodges in British Regiments (the proceedings of which, if expatiated upon at the 
length which they deserve, would fill a volume) must have constantly worked side by side 
with the Lodges nnder the Strict Observance — which, for twenty years at least, pervaded 
all Continental Europe. During the military operations, moreover, in which the allied 
Army was engaged, many prisoners were made on both sides, and that the Masons among 
them fraternised in each case with their captors, must be taken as a certainty. It may be 
stated, also, that wherever there were depots of prisoners-at-war — in the British Islands, 
equally with all other countries — Lodges composed of such detenus, invariably sprang into 

The degree of Knight Templar, became a very favourite one in' the Lodges of the 
British Army, and there can, I think, be little or any doubt, that by them it was introduced 
into England and America. The next link in the chain, — the probability, not to say 
certainty, of these Military and Masonic bodies, having acquired their knowledge of the 
degree, from associating with the Lodges and brethren under the Strict Observance, 
cannot, however, be discussed at any further length in the present digression, which with a 
passing notice of Prince Ferdinand, the Victor at Minden, and of two English Generals, 
who were also present at that battle, will be brought to a close. 

Ferdinand, Duke op Brunswick, was born in 1721 and died in 1792. He served in 
several campaigns under Frederick the Great, and became one of the best soldiers of his 
time. His initiation took place, December 21st, 1740, in the Lodge of the Three Globes. 
In 1770 he was appointed English Prov. G.M. for the Duchy of Brunswick, but in January, 
1771, he forsook English Masonry and was admitted into the Strict Observance. 

Lord George Sackville, third son of the first Duke of Dorset, was born in 1716, 
entered the Army at an early age, and joining the British forces in Flanders, was present 
at the battles of Fontenoy and Dettingen. On the 1st of November, 1749, he was trans- 
ferred from the 20th Foot to the Colonelcy of the 12th Regiment of Dragoons. Became a 
Major-General in 1755, Colonel of the 2nd Dragoon Guards, and Lieutenant-General of the 
Ordnance in 1757 ; and in the following year a Lieutenant- General in the Army, and one of 
the Members of the Privy Council. 

In June, 1758, he served in the expedition against the coast of France ; and in the 
following October succeeded the Duke of Marlborough as Commander of the British forces 
in the army of Prince Ferdinand. At the battle of Minden — August 1st, 1759 — he was at 
the head of all the British and German Horse. The enemy being thrown into disorder, by 
the allied infantry, Prince Ferdinand, the Commander-in-Chief, despatched an aid-de-camp 
with orders for Lord George Sackville to advance. 

But the critical minute passed away, the British cavalry lost their share in the glory 
of the action, and the French retreated in some order. Tet it is supposed that had Lord 
George obeyed the command of Prince Ferdinand, the enemy would have been left without 
an army in Germany. 

For this, Lord George was deprived of all his military employments, upbraided by 
the public with cowardice, and on January 26th, 1760, declared, by a court-martial unfit to 
remain in his Majesty's service. 

On the accession of George in., he was restored to favour, and, in 1775, obtained the 
office of First Lord of trade and plantations, which he exchanged for that of Secretary of 
.State for the Colonies in 1776, a post he retained up to the conclusion of the disastrous 
American war. 

He was suspected of having written the Letters of Junius, though there cannot be a 
doubt that his abilities were decidedly unequal to the production of even the most inferior 
of those mysterious epistles. 

He was created Viscount Sackville in 1782, and died April 26th, 1785. 

His Masonic record, after 1748, is a blank, with the exception of the following item, 
which I derive from the Grand Lodge Minutes of the Schismatics or " Ancients " : — 

April 1, 1752. — " Three brethren reported that they had waited on Lord George 
Sackville, who was about to attend his father, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, but 
upon his return would either accept the chair [of the Grand Lodge] or recommend 
them to another nobleman." 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 103 

William Kingslet served for many years in the Foot Guards. Of the 3rd Regiment, 
of which he was nominated the Lieutenant-Colonel in 1752, having already attained the 
higher Army rank of Colonel in 1750. Transferred to the Colonelcy of the 20th Foot, May 
22nd, 1756. In the following year served with the expedition employed on the coast of 
France, nnder Sir John Mordannt. Promoted Major-General, January, 1758. Served in 
the Seven Tears War, and greatly distinguished himself at the head of the 2nd Brigade of 
British infantry, at the battle of Minden. Appointed Governor of Fort William, March 
22nd, 1760, promoted Lieutenant-General in the same year. Died, November, 1769. 1 

1760. — June 5. — Assembly andFeast — "Dinner being over, the Grand Officers walked 
round the hall in procession, music playing before them : when returning to the chair, the 
several ensigns of the late Grand Officers were surrendered to Thomas Manningham M.D. 
late Deputy Grand Master, who took'the chair, and in the name of Lord Aberdour appointed, 

John Revis, Esq., Deputy Grand Master," etc. 

November 17.— Present, John Revis, T. Manningham (as deputy), " — Franklyn 
Esq., Provincial G.M., and — Franklyn Esq., G. Secretary, of Philadelphia." 

1761. — June 5. — Manningham sat as D.G.M. 

1762. — March 29. — The Doctor was absent, but on May 3rd he was again present, 
and witnessed the investiture of the Earl of Ferrers, " Master of the Horn Lodge in West- 
minster," as G.M. A break of nine years then occurs, and his name once more appears 
under the date of May 6th, 1771 (Grand Feast). He next came to Grand Lodge April 29th 
(Election of Lord Petre as G.M.) and May 4th, 1772 (Grand Feast). Another year passes, 
and his presence is again recor. ed under April 26th, 1773 (Grand Feast). After this date 
the Minutes of Grand Lodge contain no record of his attendance. 

In 1780, the subject of the present sketch removed from London to the then most 
famous inland watering place in this country, where I thought it possible that like a former 
Grand Master of England— Dr. Desaguliers, he might have solaced his old age by partici- 
pating in Masonic fellowship with the members of the Royal Cumberland Lodge, present 
No. 41. But Bro. T. P. Ashley, P.M., treasurer and historian of the Lodge, to whom I 
imparted my conjecture, kindly informs me that he has vainly searched the records of No. 
41 for any evidence that will support it. His death occurred on the 3rd of February, 1794, 
and was thus recorded:- — "At an advanced age, Thomas Manningham, M.D., of Bath; 
a gentleman of great skill and reputation in his profession, and of the most pious and 
benevolent disposition." 2 

The virtual government of the English Craft, or what, if we slightly anticipate, may 
be styled the older or more legitimate section of it, passed into the hands of Manningham 
at a very critical period. The conjecture is permissible, that during his period of office as a 
Grand Steward, 1747-52, if he had not altogether put the contending faction to the rout, he 
had at all events recalled many waverers to the lawful standard. 

In short, but for him, the success of the Schismatics might have swelled into an 
absolute triumph over those Brethren who remained faithful to their allegiance. 

The origin of the Great Schism in English Masonry has been variously explained, 
but I see no reason to qualify the opinion which I expressed in 1885, when dealing with 
this subject in my History of Freemasonry 3 : — " It appears to me that the summary erasure 
of Lodges for non-attendance at the Quarterly Communications, and for not ' paying in 
their charity,' was one of the leading causes of the Secession, which I think must have 
taken place during the presidency of Lord Byron (1747-52). In the ten years, speaking 
roundly, commencing June 24, 1742, and ending November 30, 1752, no less than forty-five 
Lodges, or about a third of the total of those meeting in the metropolis, were struck out of 
the list." 

Some of these Lodges, no doubt, continued to meet "without the leave of the Grand 
Master," precisely in the same way as they had hitherto done, before his permission for 
them to assemble as associations of " regular " Masons, had been revoked. 

From a very early period in the history of the Grand Lodge of England, there were 
" irregular makings," 4 but they differed greatly in degree (although equally censured by the 
Governing Body), in the estimation of the Brethren at large. Thus, to make a Mason 
" clandestinely," i.e., in a Lodge assembled ad hoc, without the sanction of a " Constitution," 

1 Cannon, Historical Records of the British Army ; Trimen, Regiments of the British Army ; Smyth, 
Hist, of the XX. Regiment ; The Georgian Era ; Haydn, Book of Dignities ; Clarke, Mist, of the Minden Lodge, 
No. 63 ; Army Lists ; Hist, of F. ; Allgemeines Handbuch der F. 

2 Gent. Mag., lxiv., 187. 3 ii., 398, 399. 4 Hist, of F., ii., 385. 

104 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

was alike reprehensible and inexcusable, whether judged by the written or unwritten 
custom of the " Regular ' n Masons. 

But the presence of a " Constitution " made a great difference, and whether the same 
had passed through various hands — by mortgage, foreclosure, or purchase — as a kind of 
negotiable instrument, or even if the original authority to assemble had been revoked by 
the Grand Lodge, the continued use of it at meetings, was deemed to be by the parties 
concerned, if an offence at all — a very minor irregularity. 2 It would, therefore, appear that 
the only security against the misuse of a lapsed " Constitution," was afforded by its being 
delivered up or " surrendered." to the Grand Lodge. This point, however, together with 
some others, to which I shall presently refer, will be made clearer by the following : — 

" 25 Nov., 1723. — No New Lodge is own'd, nor their officers admitted into the 
G. Lodge, unless it be regularly constituted and registered." 8 

" 19 February, 1724. — None who form a Stated Lodge without the G. Master's 
Leave shall be admitted into regular Lodges, till they make Submission and obtain Grace." 

" 27 Dec, 1729. — Every New Lodge, for the Future, shall pay two Guineas for 
their Constitution to the General Charity." 

26 Nov., 1728. — A petition was presented from the " Master and Wardens of a 
Lodge held for some time past at Bishopsgate Coffee Hpuse, declaring their intention and 
earnest desire to be Constituted as soon as it will suit the conveniency of the deputy Grand 
Master to confer the honour upon them." 4 

24 June, 1742.—" The Master of the Turk's Head Lodge, in Greek. Street, Soho, 
acquainted the Grand Master, that as the said Lodge was greatly declined, he and the 
members had joined the King's Arms Lodge, No. 38, held at the Cannon, Charing Cross ; 
and that by the consent of the said Turk's Head Lodge, he did surrender the Constitution 
thereof ; for which they were much applauded by the Grand Master." 6 

8 Feb., 1743. — "The Brethren were highly satisfied with the conduct of the Lodge 
held at the Rose in Cheapside ; who, finding their state in great decline, had joined them- 
selves to the Swan and Rummer in Bartholomew-lane, near the Royal Exchange, and 
surrendered their Constitution to the Grand Master at the Communication." 6 

26 February, 1745. — " The Master and Wardens of the Lodge No. 185 surrendered 
their Constitution to the Grand Master." 7 

22 Dec, 1748.—" The Lodge held at the White Bear, in Old Broad-street, having 
declined, the Master, by the consent of the other members, surrendered the Constitution into 
the hands of the Grand Master." 8 

It will be shown as we proceed, that in the opinion of Thomas Manningham, the 
ceremonial of Ancient, was preserved in the degrees of Modern Masonry, 9 but it has been 
argued that besides the degrees of E.A., F.C., and M.M., that of Installed Master had also 
an existence in a period of time, at least equally remote. This contention, or to be more 
precise, the proposition sought to be established that the degree of Past Master was worked 
under the Grand Lodge of England, between 1717 and 1738, might indeed be dealt with 
Tery summarily, since at the period referred to there was in existence no such degree to be 
worked, or it could be proved to demonstration, that though, without doubt, the degree 
existed in the second half of the last century, it was not adopted by the Mother Grand Lodge 
of the world, until 1810. 10 

Yet as " men generally believe with willingness, and are quite ready to. believe what 
they wish to be true," 11 — so because there is an Installation ceremony at the present day, 
and because in Dr. Anderson's Book of Constitutions of 1723, in what is there termed " The 
Antient Manner of Constituting a Lodge," the Master and Wardens of a New Lodge were 
Installed ; the degree of Past Master is believed by many persons to have come down to us 
from those very early times. 

It should, however, be carefully borne in mind, that in the period alluded to, or let 
TLB say during the fifteen years ranging from 1723, the date of the first Book of Constitu- 
tions, to 1738, the date of the second (and, no doubt, both earlier and later), Lodges at their 

1 i.e., the Brethren owning, or owing, fealty to the Grand Lodge. 

2 See Hitt. off., ii., 471. 

3 This, and the two entries which next follow, are taken from the New Regulations, ».e., the Laws 
passed in Grand Lodge, after the publication of the first Book of Constitutions (1723). 

4 O. L. Mm. j Hist, of F., ii., 384. * Constitutions (1784) 247. ' Ibid, 246. 

I Ibid, 250. 8 I%«d,2S4. 

* To obviate any possible misunderstanding, let me explain that the terms Ancient and Modern 
above, are merely used to denote the Masonry before and after the creation of the Grand Lodge system 
(1717), respectively. See J..Q.C. Hi-, 7. 10 Htrt; oJ^F., ii., 501. 

II " Fere tibenter homines id, quod volnnt, crednnt." — Cmsar. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quattior Goronati. 105 

formation, were not consecrated, as they now are, but constituted, and this was done by the 
Grand Officers, who certified in writing that the Lodge had been constituted in proper form 
— which certificate served as its warrant or charter, though styled in those times, its 
" Constitution." 

The practice, in the case of Lodges at a distance from the metropolis, was a little 
different. A Brother or Brethren, was or were, locally " Impowered and Authorised," in 
writing, to perform the duty which, in strictness, should have devolved upon the Grand 
Officers. This written authority, or deputation, as it was called, often becoming in due 
course the " Constitution;" or, as we should now say, its warrant. 

As Bro. Lane well observes in his really wonderful Handy Book to the Lists of Lodges, 1 
the ceremony of constituting a New Lodge, was to be the personal Act of the Grand Master, 
or his representative. The object of this proceeding was to extend the authority of the 
Grand Lodge, by characterizing as irregular and clandestine, any Lodges that met without 
the leave (or written licence) of the Grand Master, 

The Master of a New Lodge was "Installed," it is true, but so also were the 
"Wardens, and the ceremony was as simple and devoid of the elements making up a degree, 
in the one case as in the other. 

II n'y a que le premier pas qui coute. 

" The only difficulty is the first step," — A convenient gloss having been placed on 
the words of Dr. Anderson (1723), with respect to New Lodges, it was easily assumed to be 
of like applicability to the proceedings of the Old ones. There was yet another, or third 
" step " — but it will be best to give the items making up the entire assumption, seriatim : 

1st. That at the Constitution of a New Lodge, the brother placed in the chair, 
received the degree of an Installed Master ; 

2dly. That the same ceremony was performed in all Lodges, old as well as new, on 
the induction into office of a Master, and ; 

3dly. That the custom fell into disuse, whence conies the corollary with which we 
are greeted in the second half of the last century — when the degree of past master actually 
springs into existence — that it was a revival of the lapsed degree, and not by any means a 
new creation. 

With regard to the first item, the Master of a New Lodge was installed in his office, 
by the representative of the Grand Master, with no more and no less formality than was 
observed at the recent installation of Sir Daniel Lysons as Constable of the Tower of 
London, by the Lord Chamberlain, representing Her Majesty the Queen. 

The remaining " steps " are, that the Masters of all Lodges, old as well as new, were 
— in 1723 and later — made Installed Masters, or in other words, that they received a degree ; 
and lastly, that the usage fell into disuse. 

Why indeed, we might well ask, if a particular ceremony did take place at the con- 
stitution of a New Lodge by the Grand Officers, should it necessarily follow that a similar 
ceremony occurred whenever there was a change of Master in a private Lodge ? Masters, 
in those early days, and long afterwards, were generally elected every three months, and 
Lodge records abundantly testify to the extreme simplicity of the procedure consequent upon 
a change of officers. If there was a new Master, like the other officers, he took, or was 
given the jewel appertaining to his office, and that was all. The minutes of the early 
Lodges are very precise with regard to the business transacted, and their uniform silence, 
therefore, with regard to more than the first three degrees having been worked during the 
first half of the Jast century, is, to my mind, conclusive on the subject. 

It is, indeed, quite impossible to conceive, that if such a fourth degree existed, it 
would have been worked secretly, and as it were, under a veil. What would there have 
Veen to conceal ? 

If we allow>ourselves to suppose for a moment that the Grand Master or his Deputy, 
really did communicate certain chair secrets to the Masters of New Lodges, and a further 
if, — if the said secrets were also imparted to all Masters of Lodges, we should be led 
irresistibly/to the conclusion, that the working of such a degree, must have been a matter of 
the utmost notoriety. 

The third degree was enveloped in no such mysterious secrecy, as witness the 
numerous " Masters' " Lodges ; nor is it entertainable for an instant, that there was & fourth, 
but that the slightest reference to it in a Lodge Minute Book was forbidden. Also, if such 
a fourth degree had then existed, it would have been passed on to the Grand Lodge of Scot- 
land, which virtually adopted the English Masonic system in its entirety, and as many 

1 Chap. ii. 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 

readers of these Transactions are aware, permission to work the degree of Installed Master, 
•was only granted to the Scottish Lodges, by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, in 1872. 1 

Here a pause must be made, in order that the manner of Constituting a New Lodge 
in 1755 may be introduced, after which the opinion of Dr. Manningham — as expressed in 
two letters still extant — with respect to the subject of degrees in Masonry, will be submitted 
for the consideration of the reader. 

The present Moira Lodge, No. 92, (of which I am the Secretary,) formerly The 
Lodge of Freedom and Ease, and at a still earlier period designated by the " Sign of the 
House" where it assembled, was established (or constituted) on the 17th June, 1755. On 
the first page of the earliest Minute Book (1755-67) there appears : — 

" To the Et. Worshipfull, the Marquess of Carnarvon, Grand Master, Doct r Thomas 
Manningham M.D., D.G.M., The Worshipfull Grand Wardens — 

We the Underwritten being regular made Masons humbly Petition your Lordship to 
grant us a Constitution & permitt us to assemble & hold a Lodge, promiseing Obedience to 
your Lordship's orders & y e Laws of y e Grand Lodge & your Petitioners as in duty Bound 
shall ever pray " 

To the above Petition for a " Constitution " twenty-two names are appended, and on 
the left hand margin there appears 



There next follows on folio 2 the entry of which a facsimile is annexed, and over leaf 
the remaining names of the " Constituting " Grand Officers are thus given, — 

" Geo. Clarke, G.T., John Revis, G.S., Jon th Scott, Master of the Bell, Noble Street, 
as Sword Bearer." 

Arthur Beardmore was J.G.W. in 1754, and James Dickson in 1755. Henry Gunter 
was a Grand Steward (nominate). George Clarke filled the office of Grand Treasurer from 
1753 to 1765. John Revis (G. Sec, 1734-56) succeeded Thomas Manningham as D.G.M. ; 
and Jonathan Scott (to whom I have previously referred, under the date of June 27th, 
1754), served as Grand Steward in 1758. 

The Minute Book of the Moira Lodge (1755-67), shows that at first the chair was 
vacated every quarter ; thus on March 6th, 1760 — " B r Dodsworth by desire accepted of the 
Master's Jewell," and on June 16th, in the same year — " It being Election Night the Brethren 
proceeded to Business. B r Strong declar'd Master duly elected." 

But a little later — December 20th, 1762 — " It was agreed that Election-night should 
be every Six months." 

Only two ceremonies are specifically referred to (1755-67), the "making" of Masons, 
and the " raising " of Masters. These " steps " comprising no doubt between them those of 
E.A : F.C : and M.M., were not conferred on a candidate at a single sitting, except in a 
solitary instance, as follows : — 

1766. — 2 April. — " B r Samuel Garratt was made a Mason in due form & likewise 
Rais'd Master by desire and consented to and paid . . . 1 : 11 : 0." 

In connection with the Act of Constituting a Lodge, and to illustrate what he 
considers to have been the practice in early days ; Bro. Lane refers us to the History of the 
Lodge of Felicity, now No. 58, " which shows that its Members met several months before 
being constituted as a Regular Lodge. On the 27th July, 1737, it was agreed by the 
Members ' to petition the Rt. Worshipful Grand Master that this Lodge may be constituted 

1 The ceremonial of Installation was recognized in 1872 by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, not for 
the purpose of introducing a new degree in Freemasonry, but to authorize the ritual of Installed Master, as 
used in England, and thereby remove the disqualification which prevented Soottish P.M.'s from being 
present at the Installation of Masters in English Lodges. 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 107 

according to the Bales of Masonry forthwith.' They accordingly addressed a Petition to 
the . . . Earl of Darnley, Grand Master," the D.G.M., and Grand Wardens, " desiring 
leave to meet at the ' Gun Tavern in Jermain Street, and that your Lordship and your 
Grand Officers will be pleas'd to constitute us into a regular Lodge.' The assent to the 
petition was subscribed by the Grand Master thus : 

' I grant the prayer of the above petition, and do appoint Wednesday the 
24th of Aug. 1737 for the Constitution at 8 in the evening. 

Darnley, G.M.' 

The Lodge having been duly constituted, the petition was endorsed : 

' Westminster August 24th 1737 
We whose Names are hereunto subscribed did meet at the house of Our 
Brother Joseph Parsons, the Gun Tavern in German Street, and did then 
& there constitute the before written Petitioners into a regular Lodge in 
full form, and did appoint Bro : W m Barron, Master, and Bro : Isaack 
Barrett & George Evans Monkman, Wardens. 

Darnley G.M. 

Robt. Lawley pro D.G.M. 

W. Graeme S.G.W. 

Thos. Slaughter J.G.W.' 

Similar details are given in relation to the Constitution of the ' Peace and Harmony 

Lodge,' now No. 60 About April 1738 certain Brethren ' made in Regular 

Lodges ' petitioned the Grand Master, Deputy, and Grand Wardens to be Constituted into 
a Regular Lodge the following statement [is] endorsed on the petition : 

' London May 3d 1738 
Wee the under Written, did meet at the House of our Bro r William Overy, 
the Signe of the Angel & Crown in Crispin Street, Spittle Fields, and did 
then and there Constitute the Before Written Petitioners into a Regular 
Lodge In full form — and did Appoint onr Bro T George Garrett Esq r 
Master, — And our Bro r Mr Timothy Hooks, Seinior Warden, — And our 
Bro r William Chomly, Junior Warden." 1 

[Here follow the signatures of the G.M., D.G.M., and Grand Wardens.] 

" Neither of the foregoing Documents," continues Bro. Lane, " can properly be desig- 
nated a Warrant. In each case it was simply a Certificate of the Lodge having been 
duly Constituted, and it is noteworthy in regard to the latter (No. 60), that it remained the 
sole authority under which that Lodge met and worked from 1738 to 1884, in which last 
mentioned year the Members applied for and obtained a Warrant of Confirmation." 2 

A similar certificate of Constitution to those cited by Bro. Lane, was shewn to me 
several years ago by the then Secretary of the Grenadiers Lodge, No 66, in the earliest 
Minute Book of that body, dating from 1739. 

Of the other early documents, which served as Warrants, but should more properly 
be termed Deputations, several examples are given by Bros. Lane 8 and Hughan 4 . 

The Deputation, or authority to constitute, used at the formation or " regularization " 
of one of them — St. John the Baptist Lodge, No. 39, Exeter — in 1732, which has been 
printed by the last named writer 5 , still does duty, I believe, as the " Charter or Warrant," 
sanctioning its assembly. 

The formalities observed at the Constitution of new Lodges, by the Schismatics or 
Seceders, were of a somewhat different character 6 , but I am only concerned with showing 
what the practice was, under the original Grand Lodge of England, while Manningham 
served as Grand Steward and Deputy, just before and just after the outbreak of the Great 

My task approaches a close, but there yet await our consideration letters written by 
Dr. Manningham in 1756 and 1757 respectively, which have only recently been made public 
in the columns of the Jaarboekje voor Nederlandsche Vrijmetselaren, or Dutch Freemasons' 

The first letter was dated December 3rd, 1756, and forwarded, by order of the Grand 
Master, the Marquis of Carnarvon, to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Holland. It runs : — 

1 Lane, Handy Book to the Lists of Lodges, 16, 17. s Ibid, 18. 

3 Op. eit. * Origin of the Eng. Eite, 28. 6 Ibid, 29. 8 See Hist of F., chap. xix. 

108 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

" Gentlemen & Brethren ! 

The Marquis of Cabnabyan Grand Master of Masons being absent in the Country has 
occasion'd my Neglect in not answering your Letters address'd to our late worthy Grand 
Master Lord Caetsfoet, & communicated the Contents to his Lordship, as well as to the 
present Grand Master. ' 

As. I presume the English Tongue is understood by several of our Brethren in 
Holland, I thought it more advisable to send my Answer in English, than French. 

The Grand Master is at all times willing to oblige the Craft, & is very sorry it is not 
in his Power to grant the Request contained in your Letters : as I am not perfect Master of 
the French Language, perhaps I may have mistook, & interpreted their Purport wrong ; 
therefore I now write them, as I understood them, & annex the Grand Masters Answer to 
the separate Articles. 

1 st . You desire the Grand Masters Permission to hold Scotch Lodges, & institute 
the Brethren according to their Method. 

This cannot be allow'd, as we know no Distinction of Lodges, Free Masonry being the 
same in all Parts of the World ; I am sure it ought to be so, or it could never be general : 
Unless you are cautious, you may be misled. By your kind Letter, I find the craft flourishes 
in Holland, & I sincerely wish it may without Cavils and Dissentions. The Methods of 
Lodges will sometimes differ a little, but I trust not materially, and that the ancient Land 
Marks will always continue. Of late some fertile Genius's here, have attempted consider- 
able Innovations, & their manner of working in Lodge, they term sometimes Irish, another 
Scotch Masonry, why, or wherefore they themselves best know ; this I am certain off, all 
Innovations in our Society must tend to Confusion. Harmony & Union in Masonry all the 
world over, is to be wish'd for, & cultivated. I dare believe the Brethren in Holland will 
subscribe to such Unanimity, & choose to be known as Free Masons, without other appella- 
tive Distinctions, & will excuse the Grand Master from saying, He cannot grant your first 
request, w ch seems to design Innovations, or new Methods, if not Variation in the Signs, 
Tokens & Words, & thereby ruin, instead of support, the Society. 

2. — To elect a Grand Master for your Provinces, & their Dependancies, 

This will readily be granted, & if you will transmit a Memorial io the Grand Master 
(signifying the Brothers Name or Title that you would choose to preside over you in 
Holland, as likewise wither you would have the Deputation for an annual or provisional 
Election, with the Grand Masters Approbation) the Grand Master will appoint such Person 
his Provincial in Form. In your Letter you ask for a Grand Master over your Provinces, 
we allow but one Grand Master, who is generally call'd Grand Master of Masons, yet have 
several under the Denomination of Provincial Grand Masters, who are Brethren of Fortune 
and Character, & are appointed to act under the Grand Master as his Deputy, & to govern 
their respective Province with the Grand Masters Authority, such an Officer I presume is 
what you mean by your Request of a Grand Master. The last Edition of our Constitution 
Book, printed this year, contains a List, together with the Duty, & Power, of Provincial 
Grand Masters. As I suppose you have not got the last Edition of the Constitutions, I have 
bought one for you (w ch cost twelve Shillings) & have given it with this Letter to the Dutch 
Ministers Secretary who has promis'd to convey it to you, & to that I refer you for the 
Rules & Regulations of the Society. 

3. — To grant Power of giving Constitutions to such as are desirous of it, & that you 
should think worthy ; at least not to permit any Constitutions from England 
without your Consent & Approbation. 

This third Request is granted in the Second, for when a Provincial is appointed, the 
Grand Master always leaves the Government of such Province, to his Provincials Manage- 
ment, & does not interfere with his Authority unless the Provincial is negligent or remiss 
in his Office, & neglects sending proper & annual Accounts to the Grand Master of his 

I have lately received from Holland a long List of Lodges, great Numbers of w ch we 
know nothing off, neither should we acknowledge them : Those under our Constitution in 
Holland are but few, & you will find them specified in the Book of Constitutions, under their 
respective Dates, all, except one, constituted since, viz n°. 215 the Lodge of Peace at 
Amsterdam, constituted in London the 23 Sept* 1756. 

The Grand Master desires his Respects to all the Brethren with you, particularly the 
Members of your Lodge, & I beg leave to add my Compliments likewise, who am 

Gentlemen & Brethren 
London, Y r most obed* & affect** humble serv* 

3 Dec 1 1756. , T. Manningham, D. G. M." 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 109 

The second letter — July 12th, 1757 — may be appropriately introduced in the words 
of Bro. L. H. Hertzveld to Bro. J. G-. Findel, as appearing in the Freemasons' Magazine of 
August 15th, 1868 :— 

" A witness, whose honour and competence no one can dispute, has risen from the 
tomb after more than one hundred years slumber, to testify to some historical facts. 

By means of a happy event, there has come into my hands a communication from the 
famous Deputy Grand Master of England, Bro. Manningham, to the then Grand Lodge of 
the Netherlands, dated London, 12th July, 1757, which proves (1) That no higher degrees, 
with the only exception of the three craft degrees, belong to pure ancient Freemasonry ; 
(2) That before 1717 the now existing rituals have been worked ; (3) That the introduction 
of the so-called high degrees took place after 1740. 

This estimable document, put down in the archives of our Grand Lodge, I have 
published, with other letters belonging to it, and my remarks and notes in the ' Jaarboekja 
voor Nederlandsche Vrijmetselaren' [Freemasons' Year Book]." 1 

Dr. Manntngham to Bro. Sauer at the Hague, July 12th, 1757. 

" Sr.: 8r Br.-.! 

I am quite asham'd that your obliging Letter should lay by me so long unanswer'd, 
but I hope you will excuse me when I assure you it was not owing to Neglect or Disrespect, 
but want of Opportunity to satisfye myself on some Points relating to the Variety of 
Masonry, w ch you mention under the Name of Scotch Masonry. 

I was determin'd to consult our Brethren in Scotland, particularly our Brother Lord 
Abeedour, who is Son & Heir to the Earl of Morton, & an exceedingly good M ason j as 
such He has fill'd the chair in Scotland, & his Lordschip is now elected Grand Master in 
England, on the Marquis of Carnarvon's Resignation. 

Lord Aberdour, & all the Scotch Masons (or rather Scotch Gentlemen that are 
Masons) that I have convers'd with, & I have made it my Business to consult many, are 
entirely unacquainted with the Forms & Titles you mention, & w ch you justly call the 
charlatanery of Masonry. Amongst some of our lowest Brethren, I have met with, & 
frequently heard of such Irregularities ; Irregularities I justly call them, because they 
deviate so much from our usual Ceremonies, & are so full of Innovations, that in process of 
Time, the antient Landmarks will be destroyd, by the fertile genius of Brethren who will 
improve or alter, if only to give Specimen of their Abilities, & imaginary consequence ; so 
that, in few Tears it will be as difficult to understand Masonry, as to distinguish the Points 
or Accents of the Hebrew or Greek Language, now almost obscur'd by the Industry of 
Criticks & Comentators. 

Three foreign Gentlemen & Masons lately visited the Lodge I belong to, & were 
introduc'd by me to the Grand Lodge & the Grand Eeasfc ; by discoursing with these Gentle- 
men I find Germany, Holland & Switzerland in some Places have Orders of Masons unknown 
to us viz Knights of the Sword, of the Eagle, of the Holy Land, with a long train of et 
caetera's ; surely these Points of Masonry must be wonderfull ; I am certain they are very 
new ; beside, these dignified & distinguished Order I find have Signs, Tokens, &c. peculiar 
to their respective Dignities, & adorn themselves with different colour'd Ribbons. 

I should be glad with your Assistance & the Assistance of the Brethren in Holland, 
to settle these intricate & confus'd Points, & wish to know (especially from the Brethren 
who distinguish themselves by the Denomination of Scotch Masons) from whence they 
receiv'd their constitution, the Grand Master of Scotland, who I presume they acknow- 
ledge Head of their Society, being entirely unacquainted with their Order: To Lord 
Aberdour & several other Scotch Noblemen, & Gentlemen that are good Masons, I have 
communicated your Letter, likewise the Information I receiv'd from those foreign Brethren, 
one of w ch was an Officer in the Dutch Service ; but from the strictest Enquiries I can 
make, can only say they have rack'd their genius with Endeavours to make Masonry unin- 
telligable and useless. 

These Innovations are of very late Years, & I beleive the Brethren will find a 
Kfliculty to produce a Mason, acquainted with any such Forms twenty, nay, ten. Tears. My 
own Father has been a Mason these fivety Tears & has been at Lodges in Holland, France, 
and England. He knows none of these ceremonies : Grand Master Patn, who succeeded Sr. 
Christopher Wren, is a stranger to them, as is likewise one old Brother of Ninety, who I 
convers'd with lately : this Brother assures me He was made a Mason in his youth, and has 
constantly frequented Lodges, 'till rend'red incapable by his advanc'd Age, & never heard, 

1 The parts, or numbers, of the Masonic journal, referred to above, were sent me — September 
9th, 1880— by Bro. Hertzveld, and from them are now reprinted the two letters of Dr. Manningham. - 
These epistles — published (in the Dntoh "Freematon's Tear-hook") with a scrupulous fidelity to their 
original text — were accompanied by a re-production in lithographed facsimile of the final sentence in each 
etter, together with the signature of the writer. 

110 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

or knew, any other Ceremonies or "Words, than those ns'd in general amongst tis ; snch Forms 
"were deliver'd to him, & those He has retain'd : As to Knights oi the Sword, Eagle, &c. 
the knowledge of them never reach'd his ears, till I inform'd him of them. The only Orders 
that we know are Three, Masters, Fellow-Crafts & Apprentices, & none of them ever 
arrive at the Honour of Knighthood hy Masonry ; & I beleive yon can scarcely imagine, 
that in antient time the Dignity of Knigthood flonrishd amongst Free Masons ; whose- 
Lodges here to fore consisted of Operative, not Speculative Masons. Knights of the Eagle, 
Knights of the Sword, T have read in Romance, the great Don Quixote himself was Knight 
of the Brazen Helmet, when He had vanquished the Barber. Knights of the Holy Land, St. 
John of Jerusalem, Templars, &c, have existed, & I beleive now exist in the Knights of 
Malta, but what is that to Masonry ? I never heard that those Orders or Honours were 
obtain 'd by skill in Masonry, or that they belong'd to the Fraternity of Free Masons, tho' I 
do not doubt they have now, & have had, many Free Masons worthy Members of their 
Order & Honour, but imagine they did not think such Titles obtain'd by Masonry alone. 

Universal Benevolence, Brothery Love, Friendship & Truth, acting by the Square 
& living within Compass, are or ought to be, the Tenets of Masonry, the Rule & Guide of 
our Actions. Let us be good Masons, we may look with Scorn, on other Honours or Titles, 
it is at all Times in our Power, to be good Masons, & I think we ought to be contented, & 
not search the aerial Fields of Romance for additional Titles. Use our utmost Endeavour 
Dear Brother to prevent a realy valuable Society, from degenerating, and being lost in 
Obscurity, by aiming at Titles, to which the very Nature of our Society can not give us a 

The only distinction of Ribons or Jewels, that we make in our Lodges, you will find 
in our Book of Constitutions ; viz, Grand Officers wear their Jewels gilt, pendant on blue 
Ribons, & their Aprons lin'd with blue: Those Brethren that have "Serv'd the Office of 
Steward at our Grand Feast (from w ch Number all Grand Officers, except Grand Master, 
must be elected) wear their Jewels of Silver on red Ribons, & line their Aprons with red ; 
all other Brethren wear white Aprons & their Jewels pendent on white Ribons, neither 
are they suffer'd to wear other Jewels thans the Square, Level and Plumb, the Compass 
belonging only to the Grand Master. 

You mention your design of electing a noble Grand Master amongst yourselves, 
I have communicated that Part of your Letter to our Grand Lodge, they have no Objection 
to such Election but seem pleas'd with your Intention, neither will they claim more than 
brotherly Love & friendly correspondence from your Grand Master, and will use their 
utmost Endeavours to settle every thing on a proper Basis & be cautious how they interfere 
or grant Constitutions for Holland : The Constitutions already granted by us, I presume 
your Grand Master will not disaprove ; their Titles & Places of meeting our Constitution 
Book will inform you. Our Grand Master commands me to inform you, that He is desirous 
of'a Correspondence with your Grand Master when elected, & we will use our Endeavours 
that it be properly maintain' d by the respective Deputies or Grand Secretaries, as we cannot 
expect Grand Masters either in England or Holland to give themselves such trouble at all 
times ; & I hope you will find future Deputies more alert in their Correspondence, than I 
have been to you, for w ch I sincerely ask your Pardon and Forgiveness. 

The three Questions you ask me, the Constitution Book will resolve. The Grand 
Master or Deputy Grand Master always preside in Grand Lodge ; & whenever they honour 
a private Lodge with a visit, the Master of such Lodge immediatly resigns the Chair to 
them, if they choose to accept it, for they have votes & preside over all Lodges by Virtue of 
their high Office ; when they visit in Form they always take the Chair, but if the visit is 
private, they accept or refuse it, as they think proper ; The Grand Wardens never act as 
Grand Wardens, but when the Grand Master or his Deputy presides. 

If the Master of the Lodge is absent, the past Master or the Senior warden of the 
Lodge supply his- Place, just as the private Regulations of such Lodge direct. 

Our Healths in Lodge are first, the King & the Craft with 3,3. 2 d The Grand 
Master w th 3,3, the D. G. M. & G. W 3 with 3, then we drink past G. M., foreign Brethren of 
Distinction by Name as the Emperor, King of Prussia &o. after that the General Toast of 
the Craft. 

The Marquis of Carnarvon has resign'd the Chair to Lord Aberdour, who is now 
G. M., & our worthy Br. Revis, D. G. M. but I have permission to sign this Letter as 
D. G. M., & if you favour us with a Line, take the same Method as before by Mr. Hopp's 
secretary, who will convey your Commands to me, & I will take care they are properly 

The late & present G. M. desire their Respects to our Brethren, please to accept 
likewise of the Respects of 

Br. Sr. 8f Br. 
Jermyn Street, Yr. most affect. Br. 8f obedt. humble servt., 

12 July 175 7. T. Manningham, D. G. M." 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. Ill 

It has been finely said, " No great man lives in rain. The history of the world is 
hut the biography of great men." 

Thomas Manningham was a leading figure among the Constitutional party, or 
Regular Masons, at the outbreak of the Great Schism in English Masonry. But there are 
other reasons besides his participation in that momentous struggle, which have led to his 
literary portrait being added to those of the other " Masonic Celebrities," of whom sketches 
have appeared in like manner from my pen, in the columns of these Transactions. 

Foremost among the reasons I have referred to, is the manner in which he expressed 
himself, in the two letters printed above, with respect to what was a burning question in 
his own time, and if their tone and tenor seem to wear an aspect that conflicts with the 
indifferentism and apathy, displayed in these days in relation to the manufacture of New 
Degrees, or the survival of Old ones, it should be remembered, that by the reproduction of 
these missives, some tints are being revived, which had faded on the canvas of Masonic 

Before, however, proceeding to appraise the weight due to the carefully written 
epistles of Dr. Manninghan, let us, in the first instance, examine for ourselves, and apart 
from the shadow of his great name, the manner in which any inquiry into the existence and 
origin of degrees should be conducted. 

Froude (in his Life of Garlyle) tells us : — " In arts and sciences the authority is the 
expert who understands his business," — which is a little vague, as where will you find a 
specialist of any kind with the slightest misgiving as to the limitation of his gifts ? But 
the same writer goes on to say, what is more in point, — " No one dreams of discovering 
a longitude by the vote of a majority ; and those who trusted to any such methods would 
learn that they had been fools by running upon the rocks." 

In a similar vein of metaphor, our Bro. Simpson has observed: — "It is always 
important to know where we are, — to know what ground we have gone over, so that we may 
have an idea of what is before us. Those who have sailed on the sea will understand why 
the captain is so particular about his latitude and longitude." 1 

It will, indeed, be familiar to a vast number of the brethren by whose support this 
Lodge thrives and flourishes, that every day at noon, weather permitting, in ocean-going 
ships, the captain and his ofiicers, each sextant in hand, take up their positions on deck, 
and duly scan the horizon. 

This is called " taking an observation ; " and the sun's altitude having been ascer- 
tained, noon is proclaimed, and shortly afterwards — in many passenger- vessels — the latitude 
and longitude, together with the course run, and the distance from the point of departure, 
or the latest land sighted, are posted up for the general information. 

But let us suppose, that in lieu of this time-honoured usage, the captain of a vessel 
were to assemble the ship's company, and ask them to determine their exact position on the 
ocean, without the aid of a sextant, and with no other assistance than their knowledge of 
navigation aDd general experience as seamen might be calculated to afford them. 

The result — if the vote was subsequently adopted, of a majority — would be curious, 
but not more so, I venture to think, than are many of the conclusions which almost pass 
unchallenged as being among the best attested facts in Masonic history. 

Freemasonry is not yet an exact science, although if the labours of this Lodge are 
happily prolonged for another generation or so, it may become one — hence I shall not 
contend that any working hypothesis we may set up is entitled to be treated as a 

But our latitude and longitude — our position on the chart — in our voyage of dis- 
covery into the regions of Masonic archaeology, to again adopt the words of Bro. Simpson, 
are being laid down as we proceed, and duly posted up in these columns, for the information 
of our "passengers," by which name I may venture to describe those brethren whom we 
carry with us (in spirit) along the course we are traversing. 

It was a happy remark of Fontenelle, — " that if the truth of a fact were always 
ascertained before its cause were inquired into, or its nature disputed, much ridicule might 
be avoided by the learned." 

Of late years many alleged facts on which theories have been erected — notably with 
regard to Masonic degrees — have crumbled away, but the theories linger though the "facts" 
have disappeared. 

I am not contending that an investigation of the early ritual of Freemasonry is an 
easy task. It demands both patience and assiduity. 

He that would have the fruit must climb the tree. 

Neither, on the other hand, do I admit, that a study of the subject is surrounded by 
any insuperable difficulty. 

1 A.Q.C., in., 26. 

112 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

At a first view, indeed, any inclination in that direction might be ascribed to a very 
ruling principle, 

Omne ignotum pro magnifico, 
" Everything of which we are ignorant is taken for something magnificent," or it may be 
explainable in a slightly different way, — " I had taken, when a child," says Crabb Robinson 
in his Diary, " a great fancy to the Book of Revelation, and I have heard that I asked our 
minister to preach from that book, because it was my favourite. ' And why is it your 
favourite, Henry ? ' ' Because it is so pretty and so easy to understand ! " 

The secrets of Masonry are not to be proclaimed from the house top, nor is it 
possible to indicate, except within the tyled recesses of a Lodge, how an investigation of the 
early symbolism of the Craft should be conducted. A few there are, indeed, though their 
numbers may be reckoned on the fingers of a single hand, to whom the study of our ancient 
ritual is familiar, and by such the wording of the old proverb will be understood, 

He that has been in the oven himself, knows where to find the pasty, 

Each one of the brethren referred to will take the " latitude and longitude " in a 
scientific way, and mark his position on the chart, as we progress on our voyage of dis- 

But the great body of subscribers to Ars Quatuor Ooronatorum are of the " passenger" 
class, and the navigation and management of the vessel, they leave with confidence in the 
hands of the officers and the ship's company. 

The point is now reached when the further use of nautical metaphor may be 
dispensed with, and in proceeding to wind up the biography of Thomas Manningham, I 
shall venture to anticipate that the few remarks that have yet to be made before this article 
is concluded, will find a readier echo among the brethren, if they will so far oblige me as to 
at least read through the preliminary observations to which I have just given expression. 

That the usages and customs of the Freemasons are of undoubted antiquity will not 
be denied, but the precise date to which they can be carried back, and the variances that 
from time to time are recorded, have been fiercely canvassed in the past, and are likely to 
remain the subjects of an abiding "interest in the future. 

The researches of experts in symbology lead them a certain way along the labyrinth, 
but their conclusions, if adopted at all, are generally taken at hap-hazard, upon trust, and 
without being examined. A large and increasing number of Freemasons, moreover, are in 
substantial agreement with Voltaire, who laid down that " the history of human opinions is 
scarcely more than the history of human errors." 

Of one who is convinced by any reasoning of the present day, they are apt to say, — 

He loathes the spring-head and drinks the foul stream. 

To such brethren, however, and there are many of them, the evidence, at first hand, of a 
famous deputy Grand Master, who flourished in the middle of the last century, brings with 
it a weight of authority which it would be difficult to rate too highly. 

The dicta of Dr. Manningham, in his letter of July 12th, 1757, as summed up by Bro. 
Hertzveld, are three in number : 

1°. No higher degrees than the first three belong to Pure and Ancient Freemasonry. 

2°. The secrets of the first three degrees were the same before the year 1717, as after 

3°. The so-called High Degrees were introduced after 1740. 

"With the sole distinction, that in the third paragraph, for " after 1740," should be read 
"about 3 740," the axioms laid down by the Deputy Grand Master of 1752-56, are in exact 
harmony with the discoveries of modern Masonic science. But as many will listen to Dr. 
Manningham, who would turn a deaf ear to the utterances of even our most advanced 
students, a pause will be made, while the grounds on which his judgment is based, are 
inquired into. 

" The only Orders we know," observes the doctor, " are three, — Masters, Fellow 
Crafts, and Apprentices." There were no more and no less. " My own father," he con- 
tinues, " has been a Mason these fifty years." According to this, Sir Richard Manningham 
must have been initiated, about 1707, three years after Governor Belcher had gone through 
a similar ordeal, 1 and two years before the remarkable allusion in the Tatler, to a "set of 
People," who "have their Signs and Tokens like Freemasons." 2 

The " old brother of ninety, who was made a Mason in his youth," must have been 
admitted a member of the Society in the last quarter of the 18th century, and may be 
roughly set down as a contemporary of Randal Holme. 3 

1 Hist. ofF.,il, 269. 2 Hid, 276. ' Ibid, 179, et seqq. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 


The two brethren, whose testimony — as we have seen — was relied npon by Dr. 
Manningham, may, I think, be regarded without doubt by ourselves, as the witnesses of 

" It is of paramount importance," observes one of the deepest thinkers and most 
accurate writers of the current century, " that truth, and not error, should be accredited ; 
that men, when they are led, should be led by safe guides ; and that they should thus 
profit by these processes of reasoning and investigation, which have been carried on in 
accordance with logical rules, but which they are not able to verify for themselves." 1 

We are further told by the same great scholar and philosopher of human nature, 
that " the credibility of a witness to a fact seems to depend mainly on the four following 
conditions, viz. — 

1. That the fact fell within the range of his senses ; 

2. That he observed or attended to it ; 

3. That he possesses a fair amount of intelligence and memory ; 

4. That he is free from any sinister or misleading interest ; or, if not, that he is 
a person of veracity." 3 

The question, whether the secrets imparted to Masonic candidates in 1757, were the 
same as those existing at the close of the 17th, and beginning of the 18th century, is. such 
an exceedingly simple one, that — in the case before us — the various canons above may be 
safely reduced to a single one, namely, whether the two witnesses called by Dr. Manning- 
ham are to be regarded as " persons of veracity ?" 

If they are not, then — and then only — shall we be justified in believing that Sir 
Richard Manningham and " the old brother of ninety," together with the founders and early 
members of the Grand Lodge of England (1717-23), looked calmly on while the forms and 
ceremonies, to which they had been previously accustomed, were as suddenly metamorphosed 
as it has become, in some degree, the fashion to assume. 8 

It should be recollected, moreover, that in 1747, when the younger Manningham first 
appears on the Masonic stage, neither Jacob Lamball, Grand Warden, 1717, or George 
Payne, G.M., 1718, had retired from it. Indeed, he mentions the fact that the latter brother 
(whose death only occurred on January 3rd, 1757) had extended to him his confidence with 
respect to degrees that had been worked in his time. 

There are other passages in the two letters, upon which it would be easy to enlarge, 
but to use the quaint words of George Herbert, in his Jacula Prudentum, 

Its good tying the sack before it be full. 

My record of Thomas Manningham here comes to an end, and if it should interest in 
the slightest degree any readers of our Transactions, I shall be more than compensated for 
the time I have devoted to its preparation. 

1 Sir Gr. C. Lewis, on the Influence of Authority in Mattert of Opinion, 9. 

2 Ibid, 21. 3 Sea Hist, of F., ii., 266, 364. 

114 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 



/•T would take too much room to give a full answer to Bro. Dieperinck's last 
paper on this subject, but I cannot withhold a few remarks, as Bro. 
Dieperinck's attacks are somewhat personal. 

I take once more the only standpoint a historical student ought to 
take, that of seeking the truth with the utmost impartiality, relying merely 
on the official proceedings of Grand Lodge. 

Bro. Dieperinck pleads a cause, and rests his argument on an existing 
misrepresentation of facts, which has a certain currency amongst a part of the Dutch 

Some years ago the existence of a Covenant, dating from 1835, was invented. 
Bro. Dieperinck calls it the " solemn event." The fact is that a Covenant never was made 
or adopted in the common sense of the term. 

What then happened ? On the occasion of the revision of the Law of Grand Lodge 
(Great East) in 1831-35, a committee was appointed by Grand Lodge, and composed of 
members of that body, to propose measures in order to settle the difficulties existing at that 
time, in consequence of the introduction of the Divisions of the Master degree by Prince 
Frederick, the Grand Master. That committee proposed some alterations in the first 
Chapter of the Law of 1818. In that law was an article providing that all Masonic 
systems, at that period professed, should be allowed to work as they liked to do. 

The alteration consisted in enumerating the titles of the systems, viz., the Symbolic 
Degrees, the Higher Degrees, the Divisions of the Master Degree, and the renewing of 
Prince Frederick's appointment as National Grand Master ad vitam 

This proposition was submitted to a combined committee of the three systems, who 
agreed upon it, save some emendations in the wording of no real importance. 

This first chapter of the General Laws of the Order was thereupon adopted by the 
Grand Lodge, and incorporated with the other chapters. It is inscribed, " General Rules," 
in the same manner as in the year of 1818. 

The mistake is that the first chapter of the Laws does not have the character or 
significance of a covenant. The assent of the higher degrees does not alter its true character 
as a part of the Laws of the Grand Lodge, legally passed by that body only. It had never 
in itself an existence apart from that law, as is believed by some brethren. 

I regret to state that Bro. Dieperinck is not correct in his quotations. He says that 
in 1816 the Grand Mastership of the Order was offered to Prince Frederick by a " joint " 
Committee, which was appointed by both Grand Bodies, the Grand Lodge of the Blue 
Degrees and the Grand Chapter of the Higher Degrees. The truth is that the Grand 
Mastership was offered by a Committee appointed only by the Grand Lodge. The Higher 
Degrees gave their assent to its doing so. In that way they acknowledged the Grand 
Lodge as the Supreme authority in the Order. (Ataurschalk's History, p. 155-157.) 

[This closes the discussion. In our next number we hope to give some curious 
particulars regarding the origin and growth of the High Degrees in the Netherlands, which 
are interesting from an historical point of view, but which we trust will not be utilised to 
re-open the question of supremacy or subordination. — Editor.] 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 115 


BAIN Reprints, No. 2. — This is a facsimile of the Dedication "To the Grand Master, 
Masters, Wardens, and Brethren of the Most Ancient and Most Honourable Frater- 
nity of the Freemasons of Great Britain and Ireland," prefixed by Eugenius 
Philalethes to his " Long Livers, a Curious History . . "with the rare Secret of 
Rejuvenescency . . ," published in 1722. The Dedication occupies some 40 pages, and 
is reproduced in photo-lithography. The rest of the original book, being merely an account 
of the lives of persons, mythical, traditional, historical, and biblical, who had exceeded the 
average age of the ordinary man, has no interest for Masons and is not reproduced. But 
the Dedication is curious from two points of view. It is either the first or the second book 
published, dealing at any length with Masonry ; the other being the so-called Roberts Con- 
stitutions which were printed in the same year, 1722; — and in the quaint, stilted, and 
mystic language of the address, may be found phrases and expressions which have induced 
many students to see therein a suggestion that at that early epoch degrees beyond the three 
well-known degrees of the Craft already existed. The book, moreover, is a rare one, and 
Bro. Bain has undoubtedly deserved well of all Masonic Students in making it the second of 
his series of Masonic Reprints. 

The reproduction is prefaced by an introduction, extending over some 1 7 pages, by 
Brother R. F. Gould. Bro. Gould has very rightly supposed that in order to judge of the 
real import of the words previously alluded to, a clear idea mast first be formed of the 
personality of the writer. We are, therefore, not only introduced to Robert Samber (who 
wrote under the name of Eugenius Philalethes), shown his surroundings, and treated to such 
glimpses of his character as it is now possible to glean ; but we are presented with a long, 
and probably complete, list of all the works of this voluminous author and plagiarist. The 
result of the enquiry leaves his scholarship in some doubt, and his honour in very little, and 
so far detracts from the value of the passages referred to. Bro. Gould then considers these 
expressions from other points of view, and devotes some consideration to the possible 
influence of Hermeticism on the probably still plastic Craft, but concludes that, after all, 
there is nothing in the words, made so much of by some, to warrant the conclusion that 
further degrees existed at that epoch. The introduction is, like all which flows from our 
Brother's pen, careful, accurate and thorough, and adds greatly to the value of the Reprint. 

It only remains to add, that the book has been published for Bro. Bain by Lodge 
Quatuor Coronati, that the edition was only 200, that all except a very few were taken up 
by subscription of our members at 6s. before publication, and that the half-dozen or so still 
left may be obtained of the Secretary at 21s. each. — G. W. Speth. 

Societas Rosicruciana. — Transactions of the Newcastle College. — Part ii. of 
these interesting publications is now before us, and well fulfils the promise held out in 
the first. The printing and general get-up are excellent, with large margins, clear 
type, good paper, and careful editing. The contents are varied, and the promised forth- 
coming papers in future numbers bid fair, in more than one instance, to be of interest to the 
majority of Masonic Students, whether members of the Rosicrucian Society or not. The 
first few pages of the present number contain the names of the Officers of the Province and 
College, and here it is with satisfaction I note how large a proportion of these are members 
of our own Correspondence Circle. Then we have an obituary notice to the late Sup. Magus 
of the Society, Bro. Dr. Woodman, at one time, and until illness prevented him, a constant 
attendant at the Q.C. meetings. The next few pages give a fairly detailed resume of the 
activity of the College during the past year, and the organisation of the Society is clearly set 
forth. I am glad to see that the Library and Museum has benefited largely by the 
generosity of the members, and even of non-members. We are also assured that the 
finances are satisfactory, and that the College has more than paid its way. Considering the 
necessary expenses of starting such an organisation, and the large amount of printing 
already accomplished, this must be as surprising to the members as gratifying, and speaka 
well for the management. Next we have a translation, very vivid and idiomatic, of " The 
Shield of Truth," a pamphlet in defence of the Rosicrucians, of 1618. Other translations of 
similar pamphlets are promised, and if equally well carried out cannot fail to supply the 
interested English reader with a means of making himself acquainted with much of a curious 
nature, which few would be able to read in the original ; for it is not a question of under- 
standing classic, or even monkish, Latin, or modern German, but often, as in this case, of 
being able to read crabbed and antiquated German, of a nature to puzzle many a fair 
scholar. I have been unable to discover the name of the translator in the copy before me, 
and venture to suggest that, in justice to his labours, the omission should not be allowed to 
occur again. As two similar pamphlets are announced as to be translated by Bro. W, 

116 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

Davidson, we shall probably not err in attributing the present effort to his pen. The 
Editor begs all criticism to be reserved till the series, which he promises shall contain both 
sides of the question, attack and defence, be completed. I think the request is wise and 
shall certainly not venture to disobey it myself. Bro. Tarker's remarks on the Tallismanic 
medals, cuts of which were given in the first part, are all too short for the ordinary reader. 
His suggestions may be, and possibly are, quite clear to the members of the Society, but person- 
ally I should have liked him to take a little pity on novices like myself, and explain himself 
at greater length. Bro. Hughans's introductory remarks on a reprint of the Constitutions 
of The Tylers' Company, Coventry, by Bro. Whymper, are an interesting contribution. I 
see with pleasure that the Editor announces his intention of opening a column for Notes and 
Queries. This is sure to be interesting, and, judging by Ars Quatuor Goronatorum, popular. 
Finally we have the allocution of the new Supreme Magus of the Society, Dr. W. Wynn 
Westcott, the Senior Warden of our own Lodge. — G. W. Speth. 

Book of the Centenary. — This is in the first place a guide to the entertainments 
and the Masonic Fair in Dublin which have proved so great a success, and were held in 
commemoration of the centenary of the Masonic Female Orphans' School of Ireland, and in 
aid of the funds thereof. It is quaintly got up, and compiled by Brother Thomas Stuart. 
But it is far more than an exhibition guide and catalogue ; indeed, the first half of the book 
is entirely devoted to information of a much more interesting and less evanescent kind. 
Omitting the introductory chapter, treating of the origin and progress of Masonry since the 
Creation, which is far too imaginary and legendary, and which 1 wish had been entrusted 
to a brother with more sober knowledge and less vivid fancy ; we have a series of chapters 
dealing in a charming manner, both statistical and archaeological, with the history of the 
Masonic Female School; the history of the Boys' School; of the other Irish Masonic 
Charities ; of the Centenary movement ; of the Grand Lodge of Ireland ; with the annals of 
the Dublin Lodges, and of the Provincial Grand Lodges ; and with the celebrated Mrs. 
Elizabeth Aldworth, the Lady-Mason. Numerous portraits from photographs adorn the 
pages, and the description of the fair-buildings includes necessarily a slight but interesting 
disquisition on Old Dublin, many of the extinct buildings of which were re-produced in 
card and lath. It must be evident that given a jurisdiction like that of Ireland, whence 
scarcely ever any Masonic information reaches the Brotherhood outside its bounds, about 
which less has been printed than concerning any other jurisdiction of the Fraternity, this 
little handbook supplies a want. It imparts some information which is not readily accessible, 
and if it does not absolutely satisfy our cravings, it at least somewhat slakes our thirst for 
knowledge. The chief fault I have to find with it is that there is not enough of it, but I 
welcome heartily what there is. 

The book itself has been published for the benefit of the Centenary fund, and may be 
procured post free from Bro. J. W. Goddard, 136, Leinster Road, Rathniines, Dublin, for 
the small sum of 2s. It is well worth the money, and Masonic Medallists will be pleased to 
find among the illustrations one of the curious and beautiful Mossop's Masonic Medal, 
symbolical of Masonic Charity nourishing the children. — G. W. Speth. 

Dp. O. D. Miller's " Har-Moad." 1 — This book, which has been kindly presented 
to us by the publisher, may be regarded in a two-fold light — as the monument (posthumous 
as so many monuments are) of the life-work of a highly gifted student, and as also a 
monument to the splendid and generous friendship which the publisher entertained towards 
the writer. For we learn from the introduction that, after graduating at Norwich Univer- 
sity, Vermont, the author, first entered the field of engineering, next that of law, and finally 
the Christian ministry, in which latter he earnestly worked for twelve years, all the time 
studying oriental and modern languages, so as to prosecute those researches which have 
culminated in the book in question. At length, finding that all his time and forces were 
necessary for the work, he resigned his cure. But meanwhile he had convinced Mr. Whipple 
of the importance and truth of his views, with the result that Mr. Whipple voluntarily 
undertook for a long series of years to provide for his maintenance and that of his family. 
For over twelve years more than half Mr. Whipple's earnings passed to Dr. Miller, either 
directly or indirectly, in the procuring of books and other means of study. Surely such 
friendship is rare ! Dr. Miller died in 1888, and though he completed his book he did not 
live to see it published. 

This is neither the place, nor have I the ability to more than glance at the conten- 
tions of the author. Criticism must be left to far abler hands and to pages devoted to other 

1 Har-Moad or The Mountain of the Assembly, a series of archaeological studies, chiefly from the 
stand-point of the cuneiform inscriptions by Rev. O. D. Miller, D.D., . . North Adams, Mass. Published 
by Stephen M. Whipple, 1892. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 117 

subjects than those which claim the chief place ^in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. To give an 
idea of the scope of the work, I quote the authors introductory words. " The particular 
field of antiquarian studies to which in the main my inquiries have been directed, compre- 
hends the entire pre-historic period, especially in Asia, including the primitive traditions of 
mankind and the origin of the ancient civilisations. One of the principal objects which I 
have had in view has been to ascertain the real character, and to trace the actual origin, of 
those ideas that formed the theoretical basis of the religious, political, and social institutions 
of the ancient world. But a still more definite aim in this direction has been to discover 
the primitive stratum of conceptions and doctrines which may be regarded as fundamental 
to the two religions of the Bible, constituting historically the germ of their development. 
Another prominent object has been to determine the locality, geographically, from which 
these traditionary ideas, inherited alike by nations widely separated, had been at first 
derived ; "the locality, in fact, from which the different races had departed toward the 
countries occupied by them since the opening of the historical period. In connection with 
these matters I have made the attempt, however hazardous it might seem, to fix chrono- 
logically the epoch, by means of certain astronomical data, to which the primeval traditions 
definitely appertained." 

As for his results, some are new and some have already been arrived at by former 
students. Without attempting to distinguish between these classes, I will merely recapitu- 
late the chief conclusions broadly and as succinctly as possible, and in the order which a 
perusal of the book has impressed upon my mind, but which is not the order in which they 
have been arrived at. 

Dr. Miller upholds the following theses. Civilisation is not a gradual outcome and 
development of barbarism, but the earliest civilisations can be shown to be in the shape of 
something resembling colonies from a central birthplace of civilisation. This he maintains 
holds good with Accadian and Babylonian civilisation, which was Cushite ; with Egyptian, 
which was Hamite; with Chinese, Phoenician, Assyrian, and Semitic, equally so with 
Iranian or Aryan, or any other ancient civilisation known to us. He shows that with all 
these nations the direction from whence they immigrated into the countries where we find 
them historically, can be gathered by one means or another; and that all these lines 
converge in one well defined geographical region, the plateau of Pamir, in the north-east of 
India. That this district is identical with the Har-Moad of Isaiah, the Eden of Genesis, the- 
Ararat of the Deluge, the Meru of the Hindus, the Abordj of the Persians, the Kharsak- 
kurra of the cuneiform tests, the Asgard of the Scandinavians, the Olympus and Ida of the- 
classics, the Five Summits of the Chinese, the Solar Mountain of the Egyptians, and the 
Paradise of the Bible. That this original habitat of the human race was symbolically 
reproduced in all their wanderings, and became the geographically symbolical type of the 
countries in which we find them. That its chief features in their minds were, a mountain 
rising to and piercing the skies, a terraced mountain, each of whose stages was dedicated to 
one of the seven stars ; that these stars only became in later times identical with the seven 
planets, referring in the first instance to the seven bright stars of Ursa Major, which never 
sink below the horizon, but continually revolve around the pole ; that God was conceived as 
residing at the celestial pole, or summit of the mountain, and that therefore to this particu- 
lar earthly paradise corresponded a celestial paradise, one particular space of the heavens ; 
that all countries were supposed to be similar in formation to this particular earth and sky ; 
that the tower of Borsippa (Babel) and other towers and temples were built in conscious 
imitation of this conception ; that the departed really dwelt on the slopes of this mountain, 
the Mount of Assembly (which thus became not only the mount of the living and the 
dwelling of God and the gates of heaven, but also the abode of the dead), which, however, 
in later times, by a process of reasoning which he accounts for, was transferred to the lower 
regions, as Amenti, Hades, or Sheol ; and finally, by comparing the zodiacs of the Semites, 
Babylonians, and others, he arrives at the conclusion that the time of the formation of the 
zodiac, by which means the earliest history of the human race was indelibly inscribed in 
the heavens, mnst be co-eval with the creation of man, and must have occurred as nearly as 
possible some 12,500 years ago. His reasons for this conclusion are, that at the time of the 
invention of the zodiac, the sign Gemini must have been in the constellation Capricorn, and 
the polar star must have been Vega ; and therefrom a calculation, founded on the known 
rate of the precession of the equinoxes, gives the date 12,500 years ago. But even if we 
grant his premises, it appears to me he has overlooked one fact, which might possibly 
shorten the interval considerably. He admits the actual deluge, no matter what science 
may have to say on the subject, and therefore is bound, if he wishes to be consistent, to take 
it into account. Would not the addition of so large a quantity of water, or even the dis- 
placement of the same amount, produce a sudden variation in the balance of the earth ? 
alter the direction of the axis or poles ? By this means the displacement which he considers 
due to the precession of the equinoxes, instead of taking thousands of years to accomplish, 

118 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

might be produced almost instantaneously. This is, of course, a question for astronomers, 
and I suggest it with bated breath. Interesting are his researches into the question of 
orientation, and he shows that this habit did not arise from a preference to any particular 
point of the compass, but rather in reference to the four cardinal points, an imitation of 
Mount Meru, which was supposed to be a square facing the four points, with four countries 
lying one on each side of it. Brother Simpson has prepared a long paper on this very 
interesting subject, which I hope soon to bring before our Lodge, and his views are more 
than once strongly corroborated by Dr. Mille.r. All this T have not the knowledge requisite 
to discuss, nor, although intensely interesting to us all, whether Masons or not, would these 
pages be exactly the right place to do it in ; but there are passages in the book which 
concern us as Masons, and to which I would refer at some length. 

There is perhaps no more mysterious group in the whole of classic mythology than 
that of the Cabiri : even their numbers are in dispute, much more their origin and signifi- 
cance. Their connection with the Craft has been stoutly maintained by more than one 
writer, and as vigorously denied. Our late Bro. Woodford, in Kenning's Cyclopcedia, thus 
treats of them. 

" Cabiri. — There are several views among students on this debatable subject. Some 
hold that the Cabiri were the inhabitants of a portion of Boeotia, and that one of them, 
Prometheus, received Ceres when in search of Proserpine, and that she confided to him a 
mysterious ' cista ' or chest, which was preserved with great care, and was the origin of the 
mysteries of Ceres. But all this must be relegated to the age of /xv#os, and if it points 
to anything it is to the Noachidal ark. Others have regarded the Cabiri as identical with 
the Curetes, the Corybantes, and the Dactyli. Others again have said that the Cabiri were 
actual divinities whose worship the Pelasgians introduced into Samothrace, and of which 
Aetion was the founder. Their true origin and meaning are, however, still doubtful. They 
have been declared to be the descendants of Cabiria, the daughter of Proteus, the wife of 
Vulcan, while Ceres has also been called Cabiria. Some writers affirm that the Cabiri 
constituted a triad, others only two, others four, and others eight, but divinities, and 
allegorically represented the planetary and mundane system. Faber asserts that they 
represented Noah and his three sons, and that Cabiric medals exist with the Ark upon them 
and the word Noe. When doctors differ who shall agree ?" 

" Cabiri, Mysteries of. — These mysteries were named after the Cabiri, and were 
first apparently celebrated at Samothrace, where was an oracle second only to that of 
Delphi. They were afterwards celebrated at Athens and specially at Thebes. They are 
supposed to have passed from -Egypt to Phoenicia, where they were celebrated, it is asserted 
at Berytus and Tyre. Some consider them as identical with the Egyptian mysteries. 
Early writers have affirmed that many kings and sages were admitted into these Cabiric 
mysteries, and profess to know that a crown of olive and a purple scarf were placed on each 
initiate, amid rejoicing hymns and festal dances. Undoubted it is that the ceremony was 
called 6p6vwris, or dpovurfws, the enthronement. These mysteries were had in the 
greatest veneration, it has often been said, and that they existed long after the Christian 
era. Their connection with Masonry, if any, independently of the general one of mysteries 
proper, arises from their Phoenician use, as well as their Egyptian origin, if such be correct." 

Dr. Miller claims that these Cabiri are identical with a race of king-priests, a 
fraternity of learned men, who acquired their knowledge at the fountain-head in the focus 
of the human race, the pioneers and conductors and rulers of every immigration from that 
region, the inventors of writing, of building, of metallurgy, the teachers of the primeval 
religion, priests of God and rulers of men, and that Melchisidek was even such a one. That 
they built the first historical erection after the Deluge, the Tower of Babel, and therein 
symbolised both their religion and the Har-Moad itself ; that Nimrod, afterwards honoured 
as Marduk or Mercury, was the first Historical Cabirus ; that they were the earliest 
practisers of mysteries in order to preserve a knowledge of the true God amid an age of 
ever darkening idolatry ; and that all other mysteries, Egyptian, Greek, or Phoenician, were 
derived from these. He further asserts that they were the depositaries of a " doctrine of 
the Templum." The whole of chapter in. is devoted to elucidating this theory, and so close 
is the attention given to minute details, which nevertheless are absolutely necessary to 
understand the argument ; so varied are the sources from whence he draws his material ; so 
elaborate is his reasoning that I hardly see my way to re-produce even a shadow of it with- 
out quoting very extensively. It is almost impossible to condense his treatise on this 
subject, and my remarks must therefore far overstep the usual limits of a review. Yet I 
think that the interest inherent in the enquiry will justify this, although I wish the task 
had fallen to one more used to deal with oriental archaeology. I shall not attempt to 
criticise, but confine myself to representing, as well as I can, the contentions of our 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 119 

It may be as well to state that Dr. Miller was a Freemason ; but there is not an 
expression, with one exception, which would betray this in the whole of his book. Indeed, 
it is evident that he had not really studied the antiquities of the Craft, and that of all our 
ancient documents,-only one small excerpt from the Handle Holme MS. was known to him 
by means of a quotation in an article, by E. Rich, on the Cabiri. He himself states : — " We 
value the quotation — (referring to the four children of Lamech) — simply for the singular 
item of Masonic History given. Our investigations are in no sense related to Masonry, 
except in so far as the facts gleaned from antiquity may be construed in this light. Our 
search is for the simple, naked truth, without reference to any existing organisation, political, 
religions, or mystical. One thing, however, is certain : the Masonic Order of to-day does 
not date from ancient Rome, according to the theory of an eminent French writer belonging 
to this fraternity. Its history evidently goes back into the night of ages." 

In his concluding remarks, Dr. Miller has the following fine passages. " The 
tradition of the ' Golden Age ' then, was not a myth. The old doctrine of a subsequent 
decadence, of a sad degeneracy of the human race, from an original state of happiness and 
purity, undoubtedly embodied a great but lamentable truth. Our modern philosophies of 
history, which begin with the primeval man as a savage, evidently need a new introduction. 
Those writers who would derive the origin of religion and civilisation from a condition of 
savagism should go back of Mount Meru to do it, and not content themselves with citing 
the customs of existing barbarous tribes. No ; the primeval man was not a savage. He 
was born of the Heaven-Father and Earth-Mother. He was the beautiful, pure image of 
both. Sweet nature caressed him on her generous lap ; she would tell him her secrets 
without asking, for she fondly trusted that he would not betray her. Heaven itself con- 
versed with him ; and the constellations taught him the music of the spheres. There was 
nothing that he did not love, and there was nothing that did not love him. All things 
whispered to him what they were and why they were. The sun and moon were his 
companions, almost a brother and sister. To the primeval man Nature was conscious ; and 
her consciousness was a part of his own. Eternal Mind was present to him, in all that he 
beheld, in all that he felt. The golden gates of the senses were constantly thronged with 
tender sympathies, with loving messages, from the great world about him. Such was 
creation's first-born child, with whom the Holy One himself came down to dwell. 

" But there came that cruel hour when man fell ! Nature was ashamed and drew the 
veil over her face. Man, too, was ashamed, and sewed fig-leaves together to hide his naked- 
ness. But God was angry, and he cursed the ground that had witnessed an act, a calamity, 
so terrible. The betrayer also met his doom, and his everlasting sentence was written in 
the sky." (The constellations of Draco and Hercules.) ' l Thus, the light of that beautiful 
civilisation flickered for awhile, like the candle in its socket, and then went out. 

" But before the flames had died down on the primitive altars, a faithful band had 
kindled their torches, that they might conduct the race through the long night, and finally 
renew the fires in other times and in other climes. If the evidences adduced in the third 
chapter did not fully establish the fact, then I think the frequent additions of proof in later 
studies have served to demonstrate that there existed an ancient order of priest-kings, 
having its origin in the very dawn of history, through whom the sacred tradition and 
science had been transmitted to subsequent ages. The striking uniformity in the several 
versions of the primitive doctrines as inherited by different nations so widely separated, 
and at a period so early as to preclude the idea of their being derived one from the other — 
a uniformity so great that we have been able to detect a precise astronomical feature 
common to all — this surprising analogy, I say, cannot be accounted for on the principle of 
ordinary transmission of ideas from age to age, especially in the absence of written 
documents scrupulously preserved. Nor are these exact resemblances discoverable only in 
the cosmogenies ;- they crop out in many a legend or custom where we are least prepared to 
find them. To illustrate, recall the Chinese legend of the Tortoise, having the images of the 
seven stars of the chariot (Ursa Major), of the eight celestial regions, and of the five 
summits on its shell ; a triple reference to the sacred mount of paradise, which admits of no 
other interpretation. But from China we go now to Rome, where we find in the location of 
the axis of the Pantheon another reference to the seven stars, and to the eighth celestial 
region, considered as the seat of the gods, especially of Jupiter ; a singular proof of the 
exactness with which the primeval traditions had been preserved by these two nationalities 
so distantly removed from each other. It seems to me impossible that such accuracy should 
be maintained through ages even, and by different races, except by the vigilant care of a 
class of personages, regularly organised, and specially charged to preserve the ancient 
doctrines in their purity. Eneas, whose Cabiriac character is quite well established, is 
supposed to have brought the sacred science from Troy to Rome. The seats of the Cabiriac 
worship were the most ancient of any, both in Egypt and Babylonia. It is hardly to be 
doubted, I think, that members of the same mystic order laid the foundations of the Chinese 

120 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

Empire. When the old civilisation centring in Mount Meru was broken down, it is evident 
that those ancient priest-kings, whose symbol was the Dragon, one with the Biblical 
Cherubim, conducted the great migrations diverging from the original focus of populations 
into the different quarters of the world ; into China, Egypt, Babylonia, etc. ; carrying with 
them the primeval doctrines which served the theoretical basis of subsequent foundations in 
these various countries. The fact tends powerfully to support this hypothesis that, 
uniformly in antiquity, the Cabiri were the reputed founders of the ancient civilisations and 
kingdoms. That even the Chinese Empire should be included in this category is quite 
clearly proved from the employment of the written character Tsing, denoting the constella- 
tion of the Dioscuri, who were certainly Cabiriac deities, as otherwise the symbol of 
territorial divisions, and of the rales for founding the state. 

" Tt is then, quite apparent to whom we are indebted for the transmission of those 
grand ideas which had constituted the theory of a brilliant civilisation, whose antiquity was 
so great that its memory even had been but faintly preserved at what is usually termed the 
opening of the historical period. We are fully justified in attributing the invention of 
letters and the authorship at least of many of the sacred books of antiquity to the same 
class of personages. ... 

" Like everything human, it is doubtless true that the ancient order of priest-kings, 
otherwise termed the Cabiri, suffered a gradual degeneracy and corruption, although it is 
probable there were some rare and noble exceptions to the general rule. It was through 
the fidelity and devotion of these few, under the guidance of a Divine Providence, that the 
wisdom of the past was still preserved, serving the basis of new epochs and new dispensa- 
tions. Thus the sacred fires, first kindled on the heights of Har-Moad, were never wholly 
extinguished on the earth. They were successively renewed on the holy ' highlands ' of the 
past, and their light has been reflected through all the ages. ... A divine priesthood, 
charged with the preservation of the truth and to effect the final redemption of the world, 
has been contemporaneous with the entire life of humanity." 

We now turn to the Tower of Babel. Our Masonic Manuscript Constitutions 
invariably ascribe its erection to Nimrod, the son of Cush, the son of Ham. There is 
nothing strange in this, as the statement is purely Biblical. But the addendum is remark- 
able, " There was Masonry first made much of," in other words we might say, " This was 
the beginning of the Masonic organisation." In the valley of the Euphrates, at Borsippa 
near Babylon, and believed to have been once included within the circuit of that city, are still 
extant the ruins of a terraced pyramidal temple, now called Birs Nimroud, the mount of 
Nimrod. Archaeologists are fairly well agreed that it is indeed the very Tower of Babel. 
At all events, Nebuchadnezzar thought so, for there Sir H. Rawlinson recovered some 
inscribed cylinders of that monarch, wherein he distinctly refers to it as having been built 
by " the most ancient king," " but he had not completed it to the top. Since the days of 
the deluge it had been abandoned," etc. Dr. Miller argues that the early traditions of 
mankind were all connected with their place of origin, the Har-Moad, and that not only 
had the official geography of their new residences to conform with that of the old, however 
different in reality, but that their temples were built in direct, though symbolical imitation 
of it. They all had reference to a particular earth and a particular sky, or rather a 
particular and well defined portion of these. They were cosmical, but not in a wide sense, 
they symbolised only the first cosmos known to the human race. He quotes (p.67) 
Nebuchadnezzar, who calls the Tower of Babel " The temple of the foundation of the 
earth." The meaning of Babylon itself, whence Babel, would be in Akkadian, Kd-An-ra-M, 
" the gate of the god of the deluge," and in the Semitic tongue, Bab-ilu, gate of El, =z gate 
of God." Har-Moad joined the terrestrial paradise to the celestial, heaven and earth, hence 
it was the gate of God. We all know that a Freemasons' Lodge represents both Mount 
Moriah and also heaven and earth. The chequered floor is earth, the canopy contains the 
seven lights of heaven, the form is that of a cube. Let us compare this to the Tower of 
Babel, or the' other terraced temples in the Euphrates valley, and we shall see the same 
symbolism carried out. Nebuchadnezzar calls it " The temple of the seven lights of the 
earth," referring of course to the seven super-imposed terraces. Dr. Miller states that the 
" foundation was put for the Earth. In this foundation was the sanctuary of the God Anu, 
who has the mystical title of Susru, ' the founder,' that is, the founder par excellence." 
" The seven stages represented the seven planetary spheres ; its summit, or eighth stage 
was a symbol of the heaven of the fixed stars" (p. 81). Nebuchadnezzar says that he 
completed it to the top, according to the original design. The Rev. G. Rawlinson has 
represented it in its restored state, and shows the eighth stage, dedicated especially to Nabu 
or Mercury, as a sanctuary of a cubical form. Throughout his book Dr. Miller brings 
forward evidence to connect these stages with the seven Cabiri, and the cube with the 
eighth Cabirus. And here we have a curious coincidence, if such it be ; viz., that from the 
earliest times to which we can refer with certainty, it has been necessary to have seven 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 121 

members present to make a Mason legally, who then becomes the eighth. This eighth is 
often spoken of as a rough ashlar who gradually is transformed into a perfect one, i.e., a 
cube. Not that Dr. Miller notices these points ; as already stated, he does not appear to 
have Masonry in his mind at all, and I wish it to be understood that in every case they are 
suggestions which have been forced upon me, and which have induced me to enter at such 
length into the consideration of the book before me. 

It has been already stated that the number of the Cabiri varies. Dr. Miller quotes 
many authorities who refer to these personages, and says (p.88), 

" It would accord perfectly with the genius of ancient mythologies to suppose the 
existence of a Cabiriac triad consisting of three chief personages (which would be also 
thoroughly Masonic) ; and that they were often limited to this number considered as 
divinities cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, if we look to Egypt, Phoenicia, and to Chaldea, 
evidently the more primitive seats of the Cabiriac Worship, we find the number eight 
always connected with these divinities. There were the eight gods assisting Thoth in the 
work of creation, the eight sous of Sydik, and the eighth stage of the tower of Borsippa 
dedicated to Mercury, one of the Carbiri. It is probable, therefore, that this number was 
in some sense a typical one. It was sometimes, however, increased to nine. The Phoenician 
Sydik, father of the eight Cabiri, was not unfrequently included with them, being thus the 
ninth. So the Egyptian Thoth, assisted by the eight great gods in the work of creation, 
was himself a Cabirus, aud would constitute the ninth. Nevertheless, as cosmical agents, 
and as denoted by their various symbols, it is obvious that the numeral eight is to be 
regarded as paramount in its application to them." 

There is one legend relating to the Cabiri, which is interesting to us, unfortunately 
Dr. Miller does not dwell upon it. It is that one Cabirus was killed by his brother or 
brothers. If the Cabiri were really, as maintained, a building-craft, such a legend was 
inevitable ; every large building almost has some such reference ; see my review in this 
number, of Bro. D'Alviella's " Hibbert Lectures." It is a subject I hope to find time to 
look up some day, and put into the shape of a paper for our proceedings. But the question 
here is, were the Cabiri the originators of this legend, or did they follow a custom which 
had evolved in the course of ages ? is the legend, as connected with them, original or of 
subsequent date ? 

If, as many archaeologists are willing to admit, Birs Nimroud be really the earliest 
erection known to us ; and if, as Dr. Miller maintains, the Cabiri with Nimrod at their head 
were really the builders ; then the Masonic assertion 'that " There was Masonry first made 
much of," acquires an unexpected significance. It is also curious, even if only a coincidence, 
that Nebuchadnezzar applies to Nimrod a title which has been translated by Professor 
Schrader as " Sublime Master." 

Many pages of this third chapter are devoted to a philological enquiry into the 
fundamental ideas involved in several series of names, the enquiry being a very important 
stage in our author's argument. Unfortunately, I know nothing of cuneiform literature, 
and so in attempting to summarise this I run a double risk. First, that 1 may unwittingly 
misrepresent Dr. Miller ; and secondly, that I may lay myself open to the derisien of such 
masters as, say, our Bro. Ball. But the risk must be run. 

Lik-Bagas, the first known king of Chaldeea, assumes the title of Pa-te-shi, " an 
expression often occurring in the cuneiform texts, having the sense of sovereign-pontiff, 
priest-king. Lik-Bagas was literally a priest-king, like Melchisedek, who was king of 
Salem, and at the same time a priest of El-elyon, or the Most High God. Abraham must 
have recognised at once the exalted character of Melchisedek, for he was born in TJr of the 
Chaldees, which was the chief capital of Lik-Bagas, and the order of priest-kings was well 
known at Babylon. At the earliest period of which the inscriptions afford us any know- 
ledge, the country of Assyria also was governed by sovereign-pontiffs, or Pa-te-shi." Dr. 
Miller then urges that the title was originally employed in a purely technical sense, and 
thus analyses its fundamental conceptions. Pa := anoint, Te — corner stone, foundation, 
and Shi — to strike. Pa-te-shi tsi-ri is explained by Dr. Schrader as Sublime Master, who 
also assimilates the word Pa-te-shi " to the Hebrew Pat-tish, a hammer, a well known 
symbol of the Cabiri, whose mysteries were celebrated throughout antiquity." "• A still 
further confirmation of our view here, amounting almost to demonstration, is found in the 
term patoeei, habitual designation of the pigmy images of the Cabiri." Dr. Miller thus 
suggests that the Cabiri came to be nominated by the name of their chief tool, the hammer 
or gavel, a devolution which we all know has found its counterpart in comparatively recent 
times, as witness the " hammer-men." In Masonry the opposite would seem to be the case, 
inasmuch as the gavel is often alluded to by the name of the wielder thereof, and called the 
" Hiram." 

Page 69. " We assume without hesitation then, the original identity of the two 
terms Pa-te-shi and Patoeei, as denoting primarily a hammer, and thence as symbolical 

122 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

designation of the Cabiri, the reputed sovereign-pontiffs, or priest-kings, like those of the 
valley of the Euphrates. We have, 1st. Their exact phonetical equivalence ; the reading 
Pa-te-si, often adopted by cuneiform scholars, can hardly be distinguished from Pa-toe-ci, so 
frequently applied to the Cabiriac images. 2nd. The assimilation of Pa-te-shi by Dr. 
Schrader to the Hebrew Pat-tish, hammer, accords perfectly with Dr. Movers' derivation of 
Patceci from Patasso, denoting thus, a hammer. 3d. Both terms were unquestionably 
employed with reference to a priest-class, in whom the civil and sacerdotal functions were 
united. The data thus briefly presented must go far to establish the conclusion, not only 
that the priest-kings of the Chaldseo- Assyrian empire were Cabiri, technically so designated 
by the term Pa-te-shi so often applied to them, but that the chief builders of the Tower of 
Babel, identified with that of Borsippa, were also Cabiri, among whom the Cushite hero 
Nimrod, under the title of Pa-te-shi tsi-ri, was recognised as a Sublime Master." 

From the Accadian Ak, to build, to make, Dr. Miller derives Ta-dk, Talc, Tag, a stone, 
mountain, and Akka, a building, temple, sanctuary. But he shows that Ak is also the 
monogram for the Babylonian Mercury, Nabu, already identified with Nimrod, showing that 
"originally Mercury attached to himself a definite cosmical character among the Babylonians, 
the same as with the Egyptians." He then quotes from Jacques De Rouge. " The term 
Sesun in the Egyptian language designates the numeral eight. This number relates to the 
eight gods who assisted Thoth (Mercury) in his character as creator of the world. Thoth, 
the god of intelligence, the inventor of writing, compared by the Greeks to Hermes, had his 
principal cnltus in the city of Sesun. Dr. Miller then proceeds, "If now we compare the 
Accadian Ak with the Egyptian Sesun, it will be seen at once that a direct relation exists 
between them, not only in respect to the form of the two paleographic symbols, but also as 
regards the conceptions attached to them." He points out, at some length, that they are 
both composed of eight parallel lines, in two fours, that both are connected with the god 
Mercury, and in both cases the notion of building is fundamental. " As the Egyptian Sesun 
definitely related to the cosmical character of Mercury, there can be no doubt of a similar 
reference involved in the Accadian Ak, taken as a monogram of this divinity." The 
conception of eight thus shown also to lie in Ak is afterwards of importance. In the same 
way he compares the Chinese Kuas, showing that the eight lines in this character have also 
a cosmical import. " So that the Accadian Ak, Egyptian Sesun, and Chinese Kuas, exhibit 
at a glance their direct relation to each other, both in form and in the ideas attached to 
them. They may be traced respectively to the earliest historical period of the populations 
employing them ; showing that they were not derived the one from the other, but had a 
common origin, probably outside the countries occupied subsequently by these nationalities." 

" "We pass to the Aryans of Central Asia, and the races diverging from this common 
centre. The Aryan radical Ak, to penetrate, to pierce, constitutes the theme of a multitude 
of words under different forms, some of which obviously relate to our subject." " Akana, 
stone ; . . . Akri, angle, corner, like that of a corner stone ; Akman, stone and heaven, 
the Sanskrit form denotes a stone, while that of the Zend signifies heaven. To the same 
belongs the Greek Akmon or Acmon, father of Uranos (heaven), also anvil. The Greek 
Aktnon, anvil, was another name applied to one of the chief Cabiri, to be compared with the 
Hebrew Pat-tish, hammer. Aktan, eight, and Aktama, the eighth, to which belong the 
Greek and Latin Okto, and Octo, eight." To which I would venture to add the Saxon cehia, 
and thence the German acht, and the English eight. 

" The derivation here shown of the Aryan word for the numeral eight is quite 
important, and it merits a particular attention. From its theme Ak, to pierce, to penetrate, 
together with its cognates, such as Akana, a stone ; Akra, sharp point ; and Akri, corner, 
angle ; it is plain that the material object, constituting the basis of the notion eight in this 
case, is no other than a stone with its sharp angles and corners. But it is necessary to 
conceive a definite and limited number of these angles or corners, corresponding to the 
numeral it3elf. In a word, a dressed stone with eight corners, having thus a cubical or 
oblong form, constituted the original symbol of the notion involved in Aktan, the Aryan 
numeral eight." 

And here I venture another suggestion. In the dictionaries at my command I fail to 
find any derivation for the word Ashlar, a prepared cubical stone. Is it not probable that it 
is derived more or less remotely from this root Ak, with its derivitaves, signifying corners 
and eight ? We shall see later on that Ak was often softened into Ash, or Esh. 

" The form Akman, stone, symbol also of heaven, is of especial importance. The 
corresponding Greek form, Akmon, constitutes the title of the father of Uranus, heaven, but 
it signifies likewise an anvil, and is the name of one of the chief Cabiric divinities. 

" In the Phoenician mythology the eighth son of Sydik is called Eshmun, whose name 
signifies the eighth, and he was thus reckoned the eighth Cabirus, in relation to the other 
sons of Sydik. Eshmun represented heaven, that is, the heaven of the fixed stars, regarded 
as the eighth celestial region in relation to the seven planetary spheres, assimilated to the- 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 123 

brothers of Eshmun. Eshmun represents heaven, and Ahman signifies heaven. Eshmxin 
signifies the eighth, and Ahman, since it denotes heaven and'is radically akin to AMan, eight, 
evidently referred to the same celestial region. Again, Ahman denotes a stone, as well as 
heaven, in which case it is evident the stone is a symbol of heaven. Finally we know that 
Eshmun was a title of the eighth Cabirns, and that the Greek Ahmon was actually the name 
of a Cabiriac deity. It is thus quite certain that this Greek Cabirus was the eighth, and 
that the ancient form Ahman had a similar reference. It is impossible not to admit the 
common origin of these various conceptions, and the primary reference to the cubical stone 
as symbol of the eighth region of heaven. But the Greek form means also an anvil. This 
may be explained by the fact that the first anvils were meteoric stones, or masses of iron 
that had fallen from heaven. M. Lenormant shows that the first workers in this metal 
employed the meteoric iron, and not that produced from ores, and that the Greek for iron, 
sideros, is related to the Latin, sidus, sidiris, a star. 

" We thus readily account, and probably correctly, for the transfer of the Aryan 
Ahman, a stone, to signify a meteoric stone, and thence, an anvil. But does this prove that 
Ahman originally designated a meteoric stone. I think no, . . . It is only under the 
Greek form that this Aryan "term ever signifies an anvil, . . . All analogies derived 
from the root Ah . . . tend to the conclusion that the ordinary stone was originally 
intended. Finally we are to consider that an inclosed cubical space, like the stone dressed 
in this form, usually represents heaven in architecture. . . . The Holy of Holies in the 
Hebrew tabernacle was in the form of a cube, and was put for heaven. . . . 

" The Cabiri were evidently associated with this symbol, whether as denoting the 
cubical stone or the anvil, and it follows that the Cabiriac fraternity were originally workers 
in stone, instead of in iron and the metals generally." 

The above is interesting as bearing upon one of our Masonic worthies. We all know 
that he to whom we allude as the chief architect of the Temple, was historically a metal- 
worker, rather than a Mason, and it is curious to find the same confusion of terms and 
occupations not only reproduced in the earliest ages of the world, but the confusion so 
satisfactorily accounted for. 

" The simple existence of a dressed stone thus wrought, with which were connected 
symbolical ideas of the nature already indicated, pre-supposes the existence also of a 
regularly organised craft of workers in stone ; for among labourers promiscuously associated, 
no such idea would be likely to prevail. This organised Craft could be no other than the 
Cabiriac fraternity. 

" We must conclude then, that the Cabiri were originally workers in stone ; that as. 
such exclusively, they belonged to the period before the discovery of the art of working 
metals, that is to say, to the stone age. Subsequently they became workers in metal like- 

" But a dressed stone with notions of a symbolical and sacred character connected 
with it, supposes a sacred edifice, a temple, for which it is designed as material for construc- 
tion. The Cabiri were thus originally an organized temple-craft ; and the symbolical 
conceptions connected with the material thus wrought and employed by them pre-suppose 
the existence of certain esoteric ideas peculiar to their organisation ; in a word, it is neces- 
sary to admit here the existence of a Traditional Doctrine of the Templum." 

" We have introduced already some proofs, of a nature quite conclusive, that the 
Cabiri, as an organized priest-class, were the chief constructors of the pyramid of Borsippa, 
usually identified by cuneiform scholars with the original tower of Babel. In addition to 
these proofs it will be regarded as significant, if we find that the Cabiriac worship was 
actually connected with this very structure. . . . This conjecture is confirmed by the 
fact that Mercury himself, to whom the superior sanctuary was dedicated, was reckoned as 
one of the Cabiriac divinities. Drs. Movers and Gesenius have shown that Mercury, or 
Hermes, under the names Gadmilus and Oasmilus, was included among the Cabiriac deities 
adored at Samothrace, whose mysteries were so celebrated in antiquity. . . . Now this 
pyramid of Borsippa was mystically called Bit-Zida, temple of the right hand. It was thus 
according to M. Lenormant, an artificial Mount Ida, mountain of the right hand, and it was 
with the Mount Idas of antiquity that the Cabiriac worship and mysteries were especially 
associated. The same author describes minutely an ancient cylinder, upon which a pyramid 
in stages is represented, with a colossal hand erected upon the upper stage, around which 
are grouped eight personages, obviously intended for the Cabiri, who according to the 
mystical idea involved, are born from the hand. The author has no doubt of the reference 
of this cylinder to the tower of Borsippa, and it affords a complete explanation of the phrase 
Bit-Zida, temple of the right hand, applied to it. 

" The fact then of the primitive association of the Cabiri and the Cabiriac cultus 
with the pyramid of Borsippa, and consequently with the tower of Babel itself, is here 
clearly demonstrated. That the chief personages engaged in this construction were a 

124 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 

temple-craft, and that they possessed certain esoteric doctrines relative to the temple, is qnite 
apparent from the circumstances now familiar to us, and the data already established render 
it difficult to entertain serious doubts upon the matter. The seven stages are the seven 
degrees of the temple, corresponding to the seven planetary orbits, and these are expressly- 
compared by M. Lenormant and Dr. Movers to the seven sons of Sydik, whose Cabiriac 
character is well understood. Then the eighth stage or degree answering to the eighth 
celestial region, the heaven of the fixed stars, is not only dedicated to Mercurj', one of the 
Cabiriac deities, but its direct connection with Eshmun, the eighth son of Sydik and eighth 
Cabirus has been already established. The pyramid itself is styled by Nebuchadnezzar, 
' the temple of the seven lights of the earth,' a phrase whose mystical import, in connection 
with the seven degrees of the structure itself, is apparent at a glance. In addition to these 
facts, we should call to mind here the connection of Nimrod with this temple-structnre, to 
whom Nebuchadnezzar applies the phrase Pa-te-shi tsi-ri, or, Sublime Master, appropriating 
often the same title himself. The technical application of the term Pa-te-shi to the priest- 
kings of Babylon on the one hand, and its identity with the word Patceci on the other, an 
ordinary designation of the Cabiriac images, are points with which the reader is already 
familiar. Another circle of conceptions previously developed has an obvious connection 
with the subject matter now before us. Nabu, or Mercury, is a Cabiriac divinity, and the 
eighth stage of this tower, representing heaven, is especially dedicated to him. One of the 
monograms for Nabu is the sign Ak, to make, to build, whose relation to the Accadian Tab, 
stone or brick, whose relation also to the Aryan Ak, from which are derived Aktnan, stone, 
heaven, and Aktan, eight, are points which have been fully illustrated. We see here 
certain mystical ideas, evidently originating in Central Asia, and around the ' mountain of 
the assembly of the stars,' to which M. Lenormant alludes ; ideas brought by the Cu shite 
emigrants from the east of Babylon, and these re-embodied in an artificial mountain of 
degrees, an imitation of that from which they journeyed, These ideas have obvious refer- 
ence to the temple, and they constitute a Traditional Doctrine of the Templum. . . . Not 
only had there been inherited by the Cabiri a Traditional Doctrine of the Temple, but this 
Doctrine had for its basis their theory of the Cosmos and of the Creation of the World. 
The three phases of character, as creative powers, as priest-kings, and as a temple-craft, are 
in reality so blended in ; the Cabiri that it is often difficult to distinguish between them. 
They were pre-eminently the founders in every sense ; founders of the world, of civil and 
religious institutions, and of temples and sacred edifices generally." 

The notions and symbols to which we have alluded, " must be assigned to the first 
ages of hnmanity, and from the same primitive era must date the existence of that 
mysterious class of personages through whom these doctrines were transmitted to sub- 
sequent ages. These personages, whoever they were and by what name we call them, were 
the founders of the ancient civilisations, the first prophets and teachers of mankind ; they 
built the first temples, and they were the inventors of the useful arts." 

Those who are willing to admit Dr. Miller's conclusions, need surely seek no higher 
antiquity, no more glorious ancestors for the Fraternity of Freemasons ! But, unfortunately, 
the difficulty will always be, not to find analogies of a very startling nature, but to prove 
the connecting links between then and now. Indeed, this and the next chapter contain still 
a few more curious points, possibly only coincidences, which, in spite of the length to which 
my remarks and quotations have already extended, I feel bound to notice. 

" We proceed now to the consideration of the Cabiri as fire-gods and workers in 
metals. As such they undoubtedly pertain to an immensely remote epoch, for Tubal-Cain, 
who is nsnally identified with this class of personages, lived a thousand years before the 
deluge, being an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron. Notwithstanding this high 
antiquity, I still maintain the hypothesis that the Cabiri were originally workers in stone. 
Modern science establishes the fact that the stone age as a distinct era, preceded that of 
metallurgy. This accords perfectly with our theory, and with the data already introduced 
in this discussion. Every thing indicates to my mind, two distinct characteristic phases in 
the history of the Cabiri ; although investigators, so far as my knowledge extends, have 
never made this a special point of enquiry." 

As representatives of the Cabiri in the latter phase, he looks, in the chief place, upon 
the Dactyli, who lived at the foot of Mount Ida in Phrygia. Into these arguments we will 
not follow him, but I desire to point out a curious fact in this connection. All four children 
of Lamech find an honourable place in our Masonic traditions, but the only one who has 
preserved a niche in our ritual, is the metallurgic Cabirus, Tubal-Cain. 

Our traditions further inform us that these four children, knowing that God would 
take vengeance of man by fire or flood, wrote their sciences in two pillars, that one or the 
other might be found after the catastrophe, and civilization thns continue without break. 
There is nothing very remarkable in this, because the legend might have been obtained 
from Josephus. But it is interesting to find that it might have descended to us by some 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronaii. 125 

other road, as, in the very earliest historical times, a legend to a like purpose not only 
existed, but was believed in. I cannot now quote all that Dr. Miller has to say on this 
subject, but will merely mention that the authorship of the writings is attributed, by 
turns, to Seth and Enoch (whose name signifies ' the initiated'), and that the legend is 
expressly supported by Berosns, who lived long anterior to Josephus, in his account of the 
Deluge. There were two Thoths, one before, and one after the Deluge, the first being 
identified with Enoch. The Egyptian Manetho ascribes the legacy to the first Thoth, and 
makes the second, or Hermes, discover them ; which agrees with our own traditions. But 
Dr. Miller draws attention .to the suspicion held by savants, that tbis passage in Manetho is 
spurious. The Babylonian monarchs believed the writings to be contained in two tablets, and 
buried by Nimrod under the corner stone of the Tower of Babel, having been carried there 
by Xisuthrus (Noah) after the Deluge. Or rather it was thought that Noah's tablets were 
copies of the originals. Any way, various kings of Babylon sought for them for centuries,, 
and it was only at length, shortly before the overthrow of Babylon, that Nabunahid records 
in an inscription, having found them. 

There is one more curious circumstance to be noted in connection with our Masonic 
version of this tradition. Our Manuscript Constitutions record that the writings were 
inscribed on two pillars of Marble and Brick, others using the terms Marble and Laterns, or 
some similar word, which is always taken to mean brick. The idea was that marble would 
not 'burn, and brick would not drown. Now this is unscientific in the extreme, because 
marble disintegrates in great heat, and antediluvian brick would certainly dissolve and 
return to clay by prolonged exposure to water, i.e., it would certainly drown. Dr. Miller 
mentions one form of the tradition which affirms that, " while one pillar was of brick, as 
best adapted to resist the element of fire, the other was of cast brass, as admirably calculated 
to resist the force of water." This is sense. Now I can find no warrant for translating 
Laterns as brick, but I do find that Latten is a name given to brass or bronze, and suggest 
that the correct reading of the original of our manuscripts, if ever discovered, will be found 
to be brick and lattens, omitting the marble altogether. 

I will now conclude this over-long review with a final quotation from our author. 

" I do not admit that there was no Divinity shaping the course of history in those 
primitive times. He whose fiery breath melts down sun and planet, ceaselessly roaring in 
the great furnace of existence, kindles the flames also upon the tongue of the prophet ; and 
the Divinity who merely veils himself behind the living screen of nature, steps forth anon 
to lead a chosen race through unknown paths, prompting it to illustrious deeds. It is of 
such races that the redeemers of the world are born. It was of such men, cradled at the 
hearthstones of primeval humanity, with the fire-god for their foster-father, that the first 
priest-hoods were formed, the first mystic corporations organized, and it was through these 
that the sovereign-pontiffs of antiquity might trace their lineage back almost to the natal 
hour of humanity itself. It was these mystic fraternities, in fact, with their strong hands 
clasped across the dark periods, the frightful chasms of the world's history, like iron links 
bridging the abyss that roars below, through whom the sacred inheritance of previous 
epochs was transmitted, to become the germinal centres of new creations and of new eras." 
— G. W. Speth. 

The Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh. 1 — The author of this work informs 
us in his preface — " Several years ago, I was requested by various members of the 
Convenery, to write a History of the Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh." But his spare 
time being then fully occupied, his acquiescence in their proposal only bore fruit in 1891, 
when a variety of most interesting notes on the " Ancient Trades and Arts Combinations " 
in the Scottish capital were published to the world in a handsome volume, which it now 
becomes my privilege to review. 

In his prefatory remarks, Mr. Colston says, — " An attempt has been made to bring 
together all the various charters granted by the Town Council to these bodies. - . .\ .". 
Reference also may be made to the apparently quaint mode of spelling to be found in those 
charters, and the notable want of uniformity in the orthography of the period. The same 
words are sometimes spelt in a variety of ways in the same charter. This anomaly is not 
to be wondered at. Proficiency in spelling is regulated chiefly by what may be called the 
♦Memory of the Eye.' [The general public] bad, indeed, nothing to read except the 
mottoes or short passages of Scripture which occasionally were placed as daily monitors 
over the doorways or on the fronts of some of the buildings of the period. Although the 
art of printing was introduced into England by Caxton in 1474, it was not until 1507 that 
the first printing press was established in Edinburgh, by Walter Chapman and Andro 
Myllar, who obtained from King James iv. a royal privilege for their work." 

1 The Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh, with an Introductory Chapter on The Bite and Progress of 
Municipal Government in Scotland, by James Colston, Edinburgh, 1891. 

126 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

The " Introductory Chapter, which extends to 35 pages, supplies in a popular form a 
very excellent sketch of the early history and onward progress of Municipal Government in 

" The country was a feudal kingdom, split up into many small principalities, almost 
independent, and held together by a feeble and nearly imperceptible bond of union. The 
want of great cities contributed largely to increase the power of the baronial sway, and 
weaken the throne. The division of the country into clans conduced to a similar end." 

" In Scotland, in the formation of associations, or gilds, for protecting trade, the 
towns belonging to the Crown seem to have taken the foremost part. These associations of 
traders were eventually recognised by, and received the direct sanction of, the Crown, who 
fostered them by granting them protection from outside injury and oppression." 

" To what period, in the history of Scotland, the first erection of Royal Burghs can 
be traced, it is impossible now to prove. The generally accepted idea is that David I., who 
reigned between 1123 and 1153, was their chief promoter, if not their first originator." 

" While Trade-gilds, or Craft-gilds, became prevalent in the towns of England, as 
they were also on the Continent, there seems no evidence whatever of their existence in 
Scotland. Indeed, there is no trace of the original development of the Gild — the social and 
.religious one — which existed in other countries. The Gild seems in Scotland to have been 
confined solely to the Merchant or Burgensic class. Nevertheless, there were early 
appearances of organisations among the Crafts for mutual help and defence. In the days 
of James I. (1424) a Statute was passed empowering handicraftsmen, in their different 
branches, to elect a preses, who was called a ' Deakon or Kirkmaster,' which would serve to 
prove that they were somewhat numerous at the time. The words of the Act are as 
follow : — ' That in every towne of the realme, of ilk sindry Craft usyt tharin, thar be 
chosyn a wise man of thar Craft be the layff of the Craft, and be the counsel of the 
officiaris of the towne, the quhilk sail be haldyn Dekyn or Maister-man owre the layff, for 
the tyme till hym assignyt, till assay and govern allwerkis that beis made be the werkmen 
of his Craft, sua that the Kingis lieges be nocht defraudyt and scathyt in tyme to cum, as 
thai have bene in tyme bygane through untrew men of Craftis.' " 

" The original constitution of these Trade- Societies, or, as they became afterwards 
better known by Trade Incorporations, seems to have flowed out of a desire for union, self- 
protection, and self-government among the members. They also, in pre-reformation times, 
had religious duties strictly to fulfil. The members were bound to pay, in addition to other 
benefactions, the ' ouklie penny ' (weekly payment) for the maintenance of the altar, and 
sustenance of the jpriest attached thereto. Each of these art or trade organisations had a 
patron saint, to whom they dedicated an Altar in St. Giles' Church. Their charter of 
incorporation consisted in a ' Seal of Cause ' (sigillum ad causas), granted by the Lord 
Provost, Magistrates, and Town Council, on the requisition of the body ; and in the earlier 
charters there were strict rules laid down for the observance by the Members of their 
religious duties." 

" The earliest trace of the Town Council, which was chiefly composed of the 
Merchant class, receiving into their civic counsels- the trades, was in 1469, when it was 
enacted that two of the Craftsmen should have a voice in the ' chusing' of the Magistrates ; 
and in 1475 they began to gpant Charters of Incorporation. The Wrights, Masons, and 
Weavers received a Charter during that year, the Hammermen in 1483, the Butchers in 
1488, and the Cordiners in 1489. These Seals of Cause practically re-enact the regulations 
which the self-constituted bodies had previously passed among themselves for their own 

Our author next examines in detail the various laws passed from time to time, in 
regard to the trades, to many of which the English Statutes of Labourers present a strong 
family likeness. He then proceeds, — " In many of the Burghs there existed a central body 
among the trades, called the Convenery, or Convener's Court. Its functions were to consult 
regarding the general interests of the various Incorporations," etc. 

" The Convenery existed in Edinburgh, Glasgow (there denominated the Trades 
House), Aberdeen, Dundee, Banff, Perth, Inverness, and several other Burghs. As a rule 
the body consisted of the Deacons of the various Incorporations, who elected out of their 
number a preses, who used to be called the Deacon-Warden, but is now designated the 
Deacon-Convener or rather Convener of Trades. Strange to say, there has never been a 
similar Court in any of the Continental Towns." 

The Incorporated Trades of the City of Edinburgh are the Chieuegeons (and 

The Hammermen, consisting, in 1753, of blacksmiths, cutlers, saddlers, locksmiths, 
lorimers, armourers, pewterers, and sheersmiths, to which were subsequently added many 
others. The meetings — held usually in the beautiful little chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, in 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 127 

the Cowgate — were, like most, if not all, the other Incorporations, always constituted by- 
prayer. The tasks, or " essays," or to use a more modern phrase, the " entrance 
examinations," were of a varied character, and numerous examples of these preliminary 
tests are given by Mr. Colston. In connection with this subject, an article, written by Mr. 
W. C. Little, in 1792, entitled, " Some Observations on the Hammermen of Edinburgh," 1 will 
yet repay perusal. 

The Goldsmyths, whose present Deacon is Mr. John Crichton, the well-known and 
highly respected Freemason. The Baxters, apparently by far the oldest civic incorporation 
of Edinburgh. The Fleschouris. 

The Incorporation of Mart's Chapel. This, we are told, " which at first included 
only the Wrights and Masons, is at the present time the strongest, most important, and 
most flourishing of all the civic organisations of former days. Its Seal of Cause dates back 
to October 15th, 1475. The trade of the Coopers was added on, August 26th, 1489," and 
"April 18th, 1633, several other Arts." Still later— March 5th, 1703— the Masons 
received the Bowyers, Glaziers, Plumbers, and Upholsterers ; while with the Wrights were 
united the Painters, Slaters and Sievewrights. 

" The proceedings of each meeting were opened by the Deacon offering up the follow- 
ing Prayer, which has been attributed to the pen of John Knox : — 

' O, Lord, — We most humbly beseech Thee to be present with us in mercy, and to 
bless this our Meeting, and whole Exercise which we have on hand : O, Lord, enlighten our 
understandings, and direct our hearts and minds, so with Thy good Spirit, that no partial 
respect, either of feed or favour, may draw us out of the right way ; but Grant that we may 
so frame all our purposes and conclusions, as they may tend to the Glory of Thy Name, and 
all the welfare of our Brethren, — Grant these things unto us, O Lord, and what else Thou 
seest necessary for us, and only for the sake of Thy Dear Son, Jesus Christ, our alone 
Saviour and Mediator, to whom with Thee, O Most Merciful Father, and the blessed Spirit 
of Grace, we render all praise, honour, and glory, for ever and ever — Amen.' " 

A further, though shorter prayer, was said before the meetings were dismissed. 

" There are now only Representatives of the Mason and Wright fraternity, all the 
others having died." 

The Skinners and Furriers. The Cordwainers (Cordiners). The Talzouris. The 
Wobstairis (Weavers). The Waekaris or Waulkers. The Bonnet-Makers, whose Seal of 
Cause, granted in 1530, ordains (Art 5), " that every Member of the Company, working 
either for himself or herself, shall pay at their admission, a Freeman or Freewoman, the 
sum of thirty shillings, Scotish money, to be employed in the support of the Altar of St. 

After the Incorporated Trades, a list is given of the Deacon-Conveners from the year 
1578, the first Mason whose name appears on the roll being John Milne, who filled the office 
in 1653, 1G54, 1657, 1658, 1663, and 1664. The next was Andrew Wardrop, 1721, 1722. 
After whom come, Patrick Jameson, 1759, 1760; William Milne, 1765 ; William Jamieson, 
1783,1784; Robert Dewar, 1786; Alexander Reid, 1790 ; George Bookless, 1822; William 
Beattie, 1851, 1852 ; and Thomas Field, 1869. 

The Appendix (87 pp.) begins with the " Other Incorporated Crafts, not represented 
in the Convenery." These are two in number, the Candlemakers, from whose original 
Seal of Cause I extract the following — 

Art. 2. — " That na Maner of Man nor Woman occupy the said Craft, as to be ane 
Maister, and to set up Buit, bot gif he be ane Freman, or ells ane Freman's Wife of the said 
Craft allanarlie," etc. — 

And the Barbers, separated from the Surgeons in 1722, when a Constitution and 
Rules were framed, among which occurs — 

Art 2. — " That none be hereafter admitted a free Barber, but such as is Son, or Son- 
in-law of, or has served his Apprenticeship to, or discharged of his said Indentures from a 
free Barber ; or is the Son or Son-in-law of a Chirurgeon, in the Terms of that Decreet," etc. 

We next meet with a list of 26 Inferior Crafts, headed by the Armourers, and 
concluding with the White Ironsmiths. These were all at one time separate companies, 
though gradually absorbed, for civic purposes, within the fourteen Incorporations. 

Then follows a most interesting account of the " Trades Maiden Hospital." " The 
Merchant Company of Edinburgh, in the year 1695, projected a scheme for the erection of 
an Hospital for the maintenance and education of poor maidens by charitable benefactions." 

Nor were the Incorporations of Craftsmen (or Trades) very long in following in their 
wake, and the Trades Maiden Hospital duly received a Royal Charter in 1707. 

At the opening of the Hospital, there were twenty-three inmates, but the number 
resident there at present is more than double the original roll. 

1 Archwologia Scotica, i., 170-75. 

128 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 


An Historical Account of the Blue Blanket or Crafts-Men's Banner, being a reprint 
of the well-known treatise bearing that name, by Alexander Penneeuik, published August 
1st, 1722, concludes the volume. Quoting from the " Instructions," of King James vi. (of 
Scotland), on ascending the throne of England, " to his son Prince Henry," Mr. Colston 
repeats the following, — " The Craf tes-men think we should be content with their worke, how 
bad and dear soever it be, and if they in anything be controlled, up goeth the blew blanket." 1 

To the care of the Convener of Trades has been entrusted the Blue Blanket referred to. 2 

" Penneeuik wrote in a highly stilted style, and many may be apt to discredit his 
account of the ' Blue Blanket,' and rather concur with Maitland as to its origin." 3 

" Maitland [History of Edinburgh] thus writes : — ' To [the Convener of Trades] is 
committed the custody of the Flag, falsely called The Banner of the Holy Ghost, but commonly 
called the Blue Blanket; which is delivered from Convener to Convener with great 
ceremony, as a valuable jewel ; the origin of which, according to an idle tradition, is that a 
number of Scotish Tradesmen, chiefly Edinburghers, having amongst other great feats 
performed in the Holy War, were the first who fixed their Banner on the Wall of Jerusalem ; 
and that such of them as retnrned being called Knights of the Holy Ohost had many privileges 
granted them, and their Banner hung up at St. Eloi's Altar, in St. Giles' Church in Edin- 
burgh. But this deserves not the least credit ; for the present Flag, properly called the 
Tradesmen s Banner, but vulgarly the Blue Blanket, so denominated from its colour, was 
granted to the Crafts of Edinburgh by King James in. .". .'. in the year 1472 .*. .'. At the 
appearance of this Banner, attended by the Deacon-Convener, ' tis said that .\ all the 
Artisans or Craftsmen throughout Scotland are .to resort to it, and to fight under the 
command of the said Convener.' "* 

The illustrations dispersed throughout the volume, include the " Blue Blanket " ; the 
"Trades Maiden Hospital" (original and present buildings) ; and the Coats of Arms of the 
various Corporations — which are given in every case at the end of the letter press, devoted 
to these associations respectively. 

In conclusion I cannot better express the pleasure I have derived from a perusal of 
the book under review, than by stating that it induced me to visit the British Museum 
library, with the hope of finding there two other works by the same author, notices of which 
are bound up with The Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh. One of these, indeed, The Guildry of 
Edinburgh (1887), I was so fortunate as to see in the collection referred to, and it interested 
me greatly, but the other I regret to say, does not appear in the catalogue of books at our 
National repository. It is entitled " The Edinburgh and District Water Supply, a Historical 
Sketch," and as Mr. Colston aUudes (in the volume I am reviewing), to Dr. Desaguliers as 
" the engineer who brought a supply of ' sweet water ' from the country into Edinburgh," 
I was desirous of ascertaining whether the book in question contained any information that 
would be new to me in reference to the third Grand Master of English Freemasons. — 
R. F. Gould. 

Freemasonry in Shropshire. 6 — In a handsome octavo of 232 pages, Bro. 
Alexander Graham has succeeded in doing on a small scale, for the province of Shropshire, 
what was so happily accomplished — with ampler materials — on a larger one, by Bro. F. H. 
Goldney in his History of Freemasonry in Wiltshire. But as the proverb tells us, 

Everyone stretches his legs according to his coverlet. 

The evidence so laboriously collected by Bro. Graham, has disclosed few facts that 
are of prime interest to the Fraternity. Though it will be doing him no more than bare 
justice to affirm that he has written an excellent little work, which while supplying a much 
needed want in the province of Shropshire, will also be found a very useful work of 
reference by all students of Masonic history. 

The Table of Contents is quite a long one. It begins with references to a Preface by 
the Compiler, an Introduction by Bro. Hughan, and a List of Subscribers to the work. 
Then follow 29 items, chiefly relating to statistics, but those to which the generality of 
readers will turn in the first instance, are the "Histories" respectively of Freemasonry in 
the Province, and of Salopian Lodge, No, 262. 

With regard to the former of these sketches, tbe writer informs us that the office of 
Provincial Grand Master was first created in the year 1726 (though on this point Bro. 

1 Introd. Chap., xl. 2 Ibid slvii. 3 Pref. xi. 

4 Introd. Chap., xlviii. 

5 A History of Freemasonry in the Province of Shropshire, and of the Salopian Lodge, 262, by 
lexander Graham, J.D., 262 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 129 

Hughan's Introduction should be consulted), and five years later Sir Edward Matthews was 
appointed to preside over the Province of Shropshire. 

Bro. Graham thinks "it not improbable that some of the travelling bands of Masons 
mentioned in Dr. Plott's Natural History of Staffordshire, had early crossed the border into 
Shropshire," and in support of such opinion adduces from the Much Wenlock Church 
Register the following : — " Walter Hancox, freemason, was buryed the 16 day of September 
[1599]. This man was a very skilfall man in the art of Masonry," etc. 

With some passing remarks on the Provincial Grand Masters who succeeded Sir 
Edward Matthews, and seem without exception to have been rulers of the Province only in 
name, we are brought to the year 1783, when Masonry was practically extinct in the county, 
remaining so until 1785 ; the chief actor in the revival being a half-pay officer — Major 
Charles Shirreff, who in 1784 had retired from active service and settled down at 
Whitchurch. The letters of this Masonic worthy, after a long interment, appear to have 
been first exhumed by Bro. Henry Sadler, and used by him in his Masonic Facts and 
Fictions, for the purpose of showing that communications intended for one of the rival Grand 
Lodges — during the pendency of the Great Schism — often strayed into the possession of the 
other, and were dealt with in precisely the same way as if they had arrived at their proper 

Thus, a letter from Shirreff, who was desirous of founding a Lodge at Whitchurch, 
fell into the hands of the Grand Secretary for whom it was not intended, and what is more 
curious still, the old soldier whose sympathies were entirely with the other side, eventually 
accepted a Warrant of Constitution, November 15th, 1785, at his hands. 

Having founded a Lodge (under the Older Sanction), Shirreff s next step was to bring 
about the re-erection of Shropshire into a Masonic Province. From the letters which he from 
time to time addressed to Bro. William White, Grand Secretary of the (Original) Grand 
Lodge of England, all the passages are given, which, in the judgment of our author, " may 
interest Salopians." 

From these I extract the following: — Oct. 31, 1785. — "I shall observe the same 
Rules in this Lodge [i.e., the Whitchurch Lodge, on the eve of being constituted], as I 
always did to admit none but Gentlemen, and as this is the first instance of one ever known 
here, in all probability as I will not admit the 2nd class, they may form a Body, if so I hope 
their Warrent will express that they are to Look on our Lodge as the Head," etc. 

Nov. 30, 1785. — " You will oblige me to Let me know .'. what respect is Customaiy 
to be shown to the Founder of a Lodge: and the Past Master: as I do not mean always to 
be a Hack." 

Oct. 1, 1786. — "The Revd. Mr. Egerton I had the Honour of Installing him our 
P.G.M., on the 10th of August, who appointed me his Deputy." 

July 6, 1789. — " 1st. Myself as founder of the Lo. & of Course P.M., whether or not 
in the absence of the Mr. as P.M., & all P.M. have not a Right to the Chair & to do the 
business in Preference to the S.W. .'. .'. .". for P.M. to be Governed by Novices appears to 
me not Masonic. 

2nd. In my official capacity as D.P.G.M. have I not a Right to the Chair when I 
chuse it on any meeting of Masons to open and close the Lo. & to do the business." 

Dec. 21, 1789. — " This morning I sent you off by waggon for the blossoms Inn, 
Lawrence Lane address'd for you as this le'r a turkey kill'd yesterday .". hope it will get safe 
and prove acceptable to your good woman." 

Sept. 14, 1790. — " The Different Bodies assembled at Shrewsbury on the 31st Augt., 
din'd together, 88 of us, everything was conducted to give satisfaction, and would have been 
completely so had it not been for the OfEciousness of a Brother, whom 1 was Obliged to call 
to order several times ; he was a visitor & the most troublesome one I ever had to manage, 
the Brethren tho't I was too mild with him, but Lenity I think at all times is best. He is 
by his own Acct. a very great Mason, now Master of Three Lodges, and S.W. of a fourth 
Lodge in London, & pretends to have a thorough knowledge of you & my worthy Bro. 
Hesseltine, 1 & I am since inform'd he disapproves of my conduct, & means to relate it to 
you .'. .*. he talks much of his power, and if Justice is not done him, he can have you 
[William White 2 ] & I turn'd out of office .'. .". taking him altogether to be not right in his 
head, I tho't it best to act as I did." 

Jan. 11, 1791. — "The name you wish to know — shall inform you, but it must rest 
with yourself, I take him to be a very Eccentric man. Look at your Alphabet in the 7th 
Degree, and observe the follg. — will tell you his name (here follows the name in cypher) 

1 James Heseltine served as Grand Steward, 1767; Grand Secretary, 1769-84; Senior Grand 
Warden, 1785; and as Grand Treasurer, 1786-1805. 

2 Grand Secretary of the original or constitutional Grand Lodge of England with James Heseltine, 
1780-84; sole Grand Secretary, 1784-1810. 

130 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

.'. .'. Two letters have pass'd between me & Captain Bridgewaters at Ludlow, wanting the 
P.G.M. to let him act nnder the Old Wart, granted to the Sion Lodge in 1772, in New York, 
& sign'd Peter Middleton, Bsqre., D. P.G.M,, under Sir John Johnson, Bart., P.G.M. My 
answer is as there is no one Bro. but himself present belonging to that Lodge, he can't act 
as an Individual by that "Wart." 

The name given in cypher in this letter, Bro. Graham considers, is evidently that of 
the " Officious Brother " mentioned in the previous one, and the person referred to, he 
believes to have been Thomas Dunckerley. 1 Further particulars of the "Sion" (or "Zion") 
Lodge, will be found by the curious reader, in either of the Histories of Freemasonry in the 
State of New York, for which Bros. Barker and McClenachan are severally responsible. 

Jan. 3, 1795. — " You may depend upon it, so long as the Present person acts, Masonry 
will dwindle, for he is despised by us all ,\ /. as for a deputy [Mr. Egerton] will nod it a 
difficult matter to find one after his treatment of me." 

After this, the old soldier, who had received his conge from the Prov. Grand Master, 
passes away from the scene. But his words were prophetic, and Masonry did " dwindle " 
in the connty. 

Bro. Graham observes, — " It is not a very easy question to decide whether or not 
Egerton was ever at the head of a real Provincial Grand Lodge of Shropshire." But he 
goes on to say, — " Yet it is evident that there was at first a careful personal supervision of 
the Lodges by the D.P.G.M., which continued until the dispute in 1795." 

"From 1798 to 1817, Egerton's name does not appear in the books of the Salopian 
Lodge. On December 29th in the latter year, it is recorded that a proposal was made ' that 
the Secretary write to Grand Lodge, and request that a Provincial Grand Master be 
appointed instead of the Rev. F. H. Egerton, who has been absent many years." 

The new Masonic ruler of the Province was the Hon. Henry Grey Bennett, 1819-26, 
though whether he was ever actually installed in office is doubtful, and after 1826 it 
remained for a quarter of a century without even a nominal head. 

In May, 1843, Sir Andrew V. Corbett was invited to accept the office which had been 
so long vacant, but though he had apparently acquiesced in the first instance, after his 
actual appointment by the Grand Master, he returned the patent and declined to act. 

Another pause ensued, but on the 9th of March, 1852, Sir Watkin "Williams "Wynn 
was installed as Provincial Grand Master of the joint province of North "Wales and Shrop- 
shire, there being at the time only two working Lodges in either moiety of the jurisdiction. 
Sir Watkin, whose death occurred March 9th, 1885, was Worshipful Master of the 
Cestrian Lodge, No. 425, in 1851. Among its active members at that time were Lord 
Combermere, Lord Chief Justice Jervis, and Mr. Welsby, Recorder of Chester. 

Twenty-four Lodges came into existence in the joint Province during the administra- 
tion of Sir Watkin "Wynn, eight of these being in Shropshire, and we are told, that with 
only two exceptions, he was present at the consecration of them all. 

The great extension of the Craft necessitated, however, a sub-division of the Province 
at his decease, and Sir Offley Wakeman, Bart., who for three years had filled the office of 
Deputy, was installed as Provincial Grand Master of Shropshire by the late Grand Secretary, 
Colonel Shadwell H. Clerke, at the Lion Hotel, Shrewsbury, October 22nd, 1885. There 
are at the present moment twelve Lodges on the muster-roll of the Province. 

In his History of the Salopian Lodge, Bro. Graham observes with regard to present 
No. 262 : — " Its origin, constitution, and progress are faithfully recorded in its own minute 
books . - . .'. I propose to let these minute books, as far as possible, tell their own story ,\ 
.'. I have also thought it best to place [the] extracts in proper chronological order." 

No better way of compiling a Lodge history could by any possibility be devised, nor 
should I omit to note, that in all respects the execution comes up to the design. 

But the proceedings of Lodges wax fainter in interest, the more nearly they approach 
our own times. Veritable records, dating from the first quarter of the 18th century, are of 
priceless value to the students of Freemasonry. A step onward — to the 2nd quarter, and 
their importance has seriously diminished ; in the 3rd quarter, there is a further remove 
from the highest standard of value; and in the 4th (1775-1800), they cease to be of any 
utility whatever, as exponents of pure and ancient Freemasonry. 

But the progress and development of the Masonic Institution, in a Lodge or Province, 
will ever possess an interest for all those who are closely connected with either the one or 
the other. Collateral subjects, too, the diffusion of " fancy " degrees, the influence of Army 
Lodges, and the like, derive much light from the minutes and proceedings of Masonic bodies 
in existence at the close of the last and beginning of the present century. 

" Salopian Lodge, No. 1," was opened at the " sign of the Fox," July 3rd, 1788, the 
Rev. F. H. Egerton being then P.G.M., and Major Charles Shirreff (who procured the 
warrant), his deputy. 

1 See A.Q.C., iv., 164. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 131 

" The Warrant was issued by the authority of the P.G.M., though never actually 
signed by him, and the Salopian Lodge, like many others, especially in Yorkshire, has never 
possessed any full "Warrant from Grand Lodge." 

Among the officers (1788) were Deacons, whose election took place on the Lodge 
night preceding the Festival of St. John (in Winter), upon which day they entered on their 
respective offices. The two Wardens were also elected, and not chosen by the Master. The 
fee payable on initiation was £2 15s. 6d., which included 5s. for registration in Grand 
Lodge, 2s. 6d. for the Lodge Secretary, and Is. 6d. for the Tyler. A further sum of half-a- 
guinea was payable on the performance of each of the ceremonies of passing and raising. 
The subscription of members was Is. a month for the funds of the Lodge, and Is. 6d. a night 
for refreshments, and also the sum of Is. to the funds of the Lodge, unless they were 
subscribers to some other Lodge. 

The Salopian Lodge, though constituted under the " Regular " Grand Lodge, adopted 
as an ordinary part of its system, three of the features, which in the opinion of Bro. 
Graham, mainly distinguished the Lodges in the opposite camp from their rivals of earlier 
date, these being, the appointment of Deacons, the regular installation of the W.M., and 
the careful observance of both the Festivals of St. John. 

For these anomalies, the influence of Major Shirreff must, of course, he held respon- 

In connection with the Feast of St. John the Evangelist, 1788, there is the entry, — 
" visited the Barry Lodge at Bro. Cottoms, when they returned and spent an hour with us." 

This visit was paid at the Trumpet Inn, and the Barry Lodge was attached to the 
34th regiment of Foot. 

Under 1789, Major Shirreff is quoted as having written, — " that the candidate held 
back for fear of the marking irons." 

In the following year, December 27th, " Bro. Loxdale resigned the Chair, and Bro. 
Barkley was elected unanimously in his place, and duly installed ; he then immediately 
resigned office, and Bro. Loxdale was re-elected Master, and installed in proper form." 
This, we are told, is the only instance of " Passing the Chair " without duly serving the 
office of W.M., recorded in the annals of the Lodge. 

The office of Deacon was abolished in 1791, and next year the by-laws were revised, 
whereby the appointment of Wardens and of the Secretary was vested in the W.M., subject 
to the approval of the Lodge ; an inclusive fee of three guineas (to cover the whole charge 
for Degrees) was to be paid on initiation ; and all polls and ballots were to be taken by the 
Junior Warden. 

On November 20th, 1793, — The sum of five guineas was voted to the " relief of the 
British troops then in Flanders." 

After this date the proceedings, though of considerable local interest, record very 
little that would possess any attraction for non-residents in the Province. 

The office of Deacon was quietly re-established in 1817. Two years later the Secretary 
was directed to write to Grand Lodge " to know whether the Lodge No. 186 (now No. 117) 
of the Shropshire Militia, had a right to initiate persons who were not military men, and 
also if they had a right to admit persons who had been rejected by another Lodge." 

In the report of the Board of General Purposes on this matter, given in the Grand 
Lodge Proceedings of June, 1819, it was laid down : — " The Laws of the Grand Lodge 
relative to Military Lodges being general, and prohibiting them from initiating any person 
who does not belong to the Military profession, the Lodge [No. 186] was informed that 
though it was stationary, it could not initiate a civilian." 

The following entry (under the year 1826) shows that the brethren used sometimes 
to have their supper after Lodge was opened, and resume work when sapper was finished. — 
" Agreed, that no brother who was in Lodge previous to its being called off to supper, should 
leave the same immediately after supper, without having previously to its being so called 
off, had the permission of the W.M. for that purpose." 

A proposal was carried in April, 1842, that " a little ale be procured on every regular 
Lodge night for the refreshment of the labouring brethren." This, in the opinion of Bro. 
Graham, was designed for consumption while the actual work of the Lodge was in progress. 

The Centenary of the Salopian Lodge was duly celebrated in 1888. 

Among the minor contributions of Bro. Graham to the full Provincial History con- 
tained within the covers of his excellent compilation, are Lists of existing Lodges and 
Chapters, of extinct Lodges, of Provincial Grand Officers, and of the Masters of the Salopian 
Lodge. Also, notices of the following Lodges : — Nos. 2311, St. Alkmund ; 388, Whitchurch ; 
445, Egerton; 2131, Brownlow ; 1896, Audley; 1621, Castle ; 578, Industry; 1575, Clive ; 
644, Anchor and Hope; 1432, Fitzalan ; 1124, St. Oswald; 1120, St. Milburga ; 611, 
Marches; 528, Mercian; 601, St. John; 445, Wrekin; and 117, Charity. 

132 Transactions of the Lodge Qtiatuor Coronati. 

In the appendix will be found copies of the original Warrant of Constitution (1788), 
and of the Centenary Warrant (1888) of the Salopian Lodge, present No. 262 ; of the " Bye 
Laws for the Good Rule and Government" of the same Lodge, "Adopted, August 20th, 
1788" ; and as full and complete a list of its members during the 104 years it has been in 
existence, as the compiler has been able to draw up, by aid of the original Minute-books and 
the Register of Grand Lodge. 

It would be difficult to over-rate the service which Bro. Graham has rendered to his 
Province by taking upon himself the role of its historian, and in terminating this review, I 
desire not only to congratulate him upon the successful performance of a very arduous task, 
but to predict, from the exceedingly workmanlike manner in which it has been accomplished, 
that a new and valuable recruit has been enlisted under our banner, upon whose willing 
co-operation we may safely rely, in carrying on and continuing, the special labours of the 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge. — R. F. Godld. 



E regret to record the death in April last of Brother J. Innes MacDougall, of 
Greenock, who joined us in November, 1890. 

Also of Brother Nesfield Grant Benson, of Coonoor, Madras, who had only joined 
us in January of this year. He had been invalided home, but died at his father's house 
at Bath, on the 20th April. 

Also of Brother Felix Weiss, L.D.S., R.C.S., aged 70, who joined us in January, 
1890, and died 22nd May last. 

From the Indian Masonic, Review we glean the sad tidings that Brother James 
William Hates, senior, who joined us in January, 1889, passed to his rest on the 8th April, 
at the age of 68. He was born at Mysore, initiated at Bangalore in 1842, and there died, 
having, so far as we can judge, lived all his life in India. He had been 50 years a Mason, 
and devoted a large amount of his time, and best energy to the Craft, and was presumed at 
the time of his death to be the oldest Mason in the District of Madras. Both in the Craft 
and in the Arch he had attained to high District Grand Rank, and was an adherent of 
every society founded upon Masonry in the province, such as the Mark, K.T., etc., of all 
which he was an active member at the time of his death. " His knowledge of and influence 
with the natives of Mysore led to the reception of many of them into Freemasonry, and he 
was one of the founders of Lodge Mysore, which is now well supported by the best class of 
natives in the state. At the time of his death, Brother Hayes was engaged in writing on 
the resemblances between Brabminical rites and the R.A. degree, a subject as to which he 
had special opportunities of procuring information, and we hope that his notes may 
ultimately see the light in some form or another." 

He was interred with Masonic rites, Bro. Travers-Drapes, a member of our C.C., and 
late Local Secretary for Burma, conducting the service. 

Clifford Paynter MacCalla. 
At the end of the work you may judge of the workman. 

The distressing intelligence of the death of the late Grand Master of Pennsylvania, 
cast a gloom over the proceedings of our last Lodge meeting, and the universal regret 
expressed by all classes of Masons at his loss, has been deepened and intensified in the case 
of those brethren of 2076, who for many long years enjoyed the privilege of his friendship, 
and were participants in the studies which were dearest to his heart. 

Clifford Paynter MacCalla was born June 11th, 1837, educated at Philadelphia 
— where he graduated as M.A., 1855 — and admitted to the Bar in the same city, 1858. 

He received the three degrees of Pure and Ancient Freemasonry, in Concordia 
Lodge, No. 67, in 1869 ; became W.M. in 1874, and served as Secretary from 1876 to 1888. 

In 1882, he was elected to his first office in the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, that of 
Junior Grand Warden, which he continued to fill for two years, and passing successively 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 133 

through, the chairs of S.G.W. and D.G.M., was elected Grand Master in 1889, and again in 

From a very early period of his life he showed an extreme partiality for literature, 
for even as a boy we find him conducting (and writing) a small monthly magazine, the 
only subscribers being his father and mother. When he became a man several newspapers 
in turn received him on their staff, and with this preparation for what may be fitly termed 
the chief work of his Masonic life, he settled down in 1869, shortly after his initiation, as 
editor-in-chief of the Keystone — then barely two years old — which his facile pen was 
destined to raise to the proud position of being everywhere acknowledged as the best 
Masonic newspaper in his. own, or perhaps any other country. 

Among his literary productions, most, or all of which originally appeared in the 
Keystone, and were subsequently reprinted in book form, are the following : — 

1. — Ancient Abbeys and Cathedrals of Great Britain : 

2. — Philadelphia, the Mother City of Masonry in America : 

3. — Early History of St. John's Lodge, Philadelphia : 

4. — Sketch of the life of Col. Daniel Coxe, the Father of Freemasonry in 

America : 
5. — Early Newspaper Accounts of Freemasonry, in Pennsylvania, England, 

Ireland, and Scotland, from 1730 to 1750. Reprinted from Franklin's 

Pennsylvania Gazette. 

The second work on the foregoing list brought Bro. MacCalla much renown, which 
was increased by the publication of No. 3, wherein was made public his discovery of Liber 
B, being the Secretary's ledger of St. John's Lodge, dating from June 24th, 1731, to June, 
1738. This, together with a code of By-laws compiled in 1732, in the handwriting of 
Benjamin Franklin, also brought to light by our late brother, made patent to the world 
that the earliest known Lodge in America was established in Philadelphia. 

It has been averred that " the strong man channels his own path, and easily persuades 
others to walk in it" — the remark will apply to MacCalla, and by no means in any other 
than a good sense. It is the fate, with hardly an exception, of Masonic journals, to 
resemble too closely the Sun-dial, which takes note of those points only on which the light 
happens to fall. But, I)oce ut discas — " teach that you may learn " — was a maxim observed 
by the editor-in-chief of the Keystone, and in order that such a man might learn, it 
necessarily followed that the teaching must be of a high order. 

Animo vidit ; ingenio com plexus est ; eloquentia illuminavit. 

" The various subjects he saw by the power of his mind ; he comprehended them by 
his understanding ; and by his eloquence he cast a brightness on them." 

Nor was he forgetful that no permanent addition is ever made to our knowledge, 
unless the results of special research are translated into such language as will render them 
available to every person of intellect and education. 

The weighty words of Bunsen seemed to be ever present to his mind, — " Tour work 
is not finished when you have brought the ore from the mine. It must be sifted, smelted, 
refined, and coined, before it can be of real use, and contribute towards the intellectual food 
of mankind." 

The late Grand Master did not disdain to take the trouble of separating the metal 
from the ore, to purify or to strike it into current coin. 

Week after week, in the columns of the Keystone, there flowed from his pen the most 
exquisite thoughts, and tke most powerful expositions of Masonic science, that have ever 
been addressed — at the same short intervals — to the readers of a single newspaper. 

If I were asked to characterize what in my judgment was the most remarkable gift 
possessed by the deceased, I should unhesitatingly reply, — his absolute control over the 
English language as a vehicle for the transmission of the most pregnant thoughts. 

As a popular expositor of the Royal Art, he was unrivalled, and the literary merits 
of any essay or article written by him when enacting this familiar role, seem to me so well 
mirrored in some words of Carlyle, that I shall not hesitate to reproduce them : — - 

" The built house seems all so fit, every way as it should be, as if it came there by 
its own law and the nature of things ; we forget the rude disorderly quarry it was shaped 
from. The very perfection of the house, as if Nature herself had made it, hides the 
builder's merit." 

Above all, his was eminently a practical mind, " Excursions dans l'infini " — sallies 
into the region of theories — were his aversion. 

134 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

One of the earliest and warmest supporters of this Lodge, his interest in its 
proceedings never abated. In a letter before me — the last I ever received from him — he 
says, " Present my cordial regards to my good friends of the Quatuor Coronati. I expect to 
be in London from May 28th to June 6th. Of course I shall greet you. Could I do more ? 
Would I do less ?" 

Twice was he our visitor 1 — September 4th, 1890, and July 31st, 1891 — and the 
pleasure derived by three or four of us, on the first occasion, from meeting in the flesh, one 
with whom for many years there had been a constant interchange of Masonic sentiment, 
was both heart-felt and abiding. 

On February 6th, he took passage iD the " Fulda," for Gibraltar and Genoa, whence 
it was his intention to proceed to Rome, Naples, Athens, Alexandria, Cairo, Jerusalem, 
Damascus, Baalbec, Symrna, Ephesus, Constantinople, Vienna, Paris, and London. 

The Keystone (Philadelphia) of April 30th, prints the following cable messages : — 
Port Said, Egypt. — April 23rd, — " MacCalla dangerously ill, in British Hospital here " : 
April 24th, — " MacCalla died at noon to-day." 

In the same issue of the paper, there is — as might be expected — a lengthened notice 
of the deceased, from which I extract the following : — 

" Last year he went abroad for pleasnre, and while in England was the recipient of 
the highest honours and warmest welcomes that could be given to a Mason. Here he met 
with Bros. Hughan, Gould, Speth, "Whytehead, Col. Shadwell Clerke, Brown, Wylie, Lyon 
and others. It was then his intention to go to the Holy Land, but the party was abandoned 
and fell through. This year he left home on February 6th, 1892, and sailed direct to 
Genoa, and thence working his way east, reached Jerusalem, and thence passing North, was 
on his way home, when he was taken sick, of what, or how, or when, we cannot tell, but 
this we do know, that he is dead. 

The R.W. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has cabled to have Bro. MacCalla's body 
carefully prepared and embalmed, and forwarded to this city, in order that the Brethren 
may unite in paying their final tribute to his memory." 

The Keystones for April 30tb, May 7th, and May 14th, contain Letters from the late 
Editor-in-chief, dated Cairo, March 19th ; Jerusalem, April 2nd ; and Damascus, April 12th, 

These are all models of style and descriptive power, and their perusal under the 
present sad associations recalls a passage in the late Grand Master's last letter to myself, 
which should have found an earlier place in the present article. He there states, " Bro. 
Chas. E. Meyer will have charge of ' The Keystone ' during my absence, but all the 
editorial leaders will be from my pen." 

Is it unreasonable to assume, the possibility of our highly gifted brother having been 
comforted in his last moments, by the reflection that for some time, at least, his heart would 
continue' to go out, in the old familiar fashion, to the Brethren of his native state, through 
the columns of the paper with which his name and fame were so inseparably connected P 

" E'en from the tomb the voice of nature cries, 
E'en in our ashes live their wonted fires." 

In the Keystone of May 14th, the latest that has come to hand (at the present 
time of writing), there is the following announcement: — 

" The death of Clifford P. MacCalla, lamented as it is, will not interfere with the 
continuance of the Keystone. As its editor, he has given it a marked character. It will be 
the aim of the management of the paper that it shall maintain this reputation. The 
financial affairs of the Keystone will be solely under the control of Willard A. MacCalla." 

Mr. (or perhaps I ought to say Bro.) W. A. MacCalla, a partner in the firm of 
MacCalla and Co., is the eldest son of the late Grand Master, and the best wishes of the 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge, with respect to the future of the journal, over which he exercises 
a monetary supervision, are tendered by me on its behalf. 

A shade of anxiety, nevertheless, cannot but pass over one's mind. 
" Scanderberg's sword must have Scanderberg's arm," 
or, to slightly vary the expression, 

" Doctor Luther's shoes will not fit every village priest." 

A great and good man has departed from our midst, and it would be the merest 
affectation to speak of his loss as one that can very readily be repaired. — R. F. Gould. 

1 A.Q.C. iii., 122, iv., 181. 

24th JUNE, 1892. 

j HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, London, at 5 p.m., to celebrate the Festival of St. 
John in Harvest. The following members were present : — Bros. W. H. Bylands, 
P.G.St., W.M. ; W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., I.P.M.; Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, S.W. ; 
Bev. C. J. Ball, J.W. ; G. W. Speth, See. ; W. Mattieu Williams, J.D. ; C. Ktipfer- 
sohmidt, I.G. ; and W. J. Hughan, P.G.D. Also the following members of the 
Correspondence Circle — Bros. B. Haward; Rev. C. H. Maiden, local secretary for 
Southern India ; General J. J. Boswell ; B. Palmer Thomas ; General J. Carson 
Smith, Past Grand Master Illinois ; Rev. H. Carmichael ; C. Lazenby ; C. B. Barnes ; 
Col. M. Ramsay, Dis. G.M. Malta ; Dr. E. H. Ezard ; Dr. J. Balfour Cockbarn, local 
seoretary for the Channel Islands ; R. A. Gowan ; F. W. Levander, local secretary 
for Middlesex ; Bev. H. Thomas; J. Bobbins; Col. J. Mead: J. Sykes Bymer j T. 
Cohu; H. B. Chamberlin; J. H. Davis; B. G. L. Bremner; N. Ffrench Bromhead j 
G. Gregson; Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey ; J. Bodenham, P.G.A.D.C., local secretary for 

StafEords. and Salop; C. Fruen; J. S. Cnmberland; W. F. Ternon, local secretary for South Scotland; 

and J. B. Mackey. Also the following visitors — Bros. Dr. H. Putsche, Lodge Charlotte zu den drei Nelken, 

Meinigen; and T. Hunter Boyd, Lodge St. John Kilwinning, No. 28 (S.C.) 

Bro. Gen. J. C. Smith, P.G.M. Illinois, having been saluted in ancient form, addressed the Lodge in 
acknowledgement. As a souvenir of his visit he begged to present the brethren with a model in metal of 
the Masonic Temple at Chicago, the tallest building in the world, consisting of no less than 21 floors. 

Two Lodges, one Literary Society, and fonrty-four Brethren were elected to the membership of the 
Correspondence Circle. 

Bro. J. Balfour Cockburn exhibited a large oil painting which had been lent to him for that purpose 
by a friend, a judge and collector. It represented an archway entrance to a building at the head of a flight 
of steps. On these in the centre was a figure in the dress of the end of the last century, with a blue mason's 
apron and red collar. On either side of him, at a lower level, was a similar figure, the three apparently 
representing the W.M. and Wardens. From peculiarities of treatment the owner believed the picture to be 
a Gainsborough, and even thought that the figure on the spectator's right was the portrait of Gainsborough 
himself. It has, however, never before been suggested that the celebrated painter was a Freemason. The 
thanks of the Lodge were tendered to Bro. Cockburn by the W.M., who expressed a hope that the donor 
would grant permission for the picture to be reproduced in the Transactions. Bro. Cockburn promised 
to use his influence to attain that desirable object. 

Bro. Steer, of Bhyl, having asked the Secretary to exhibit a jewel which he had recently acquired 
and take the sense of the Lodge as to its origin, the jewel, which was a handsome one in silver, four inches 
high, consisting of the crossed square, and compasses resting on the Bible open at the Book of Job, at the 
bottom of all being a pruning knife, opened at right angles, was immediately recognised by several members 
as a past master's jewel of the Order of Free Gardeners, and, therefore, not Masonic. A sketch of it 
(reduced to half the height) is appended. 

A letter from the M.W.G.M., H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, thanking the Lodge for the volumes of 
their Transactions recently sent for his gracious acceptance, was read. As was also a letter from the 
son of our late Brother, Past Grand Master C. P. MacCalla, in acknowledgment of the condolence of the 
Lodge transmitted to him by the Secretary. 

A letter from the Tyler, Bro. J. W. Freeman, asking the Lodge to accept a rough ashlar, and a 
smooth ashlar and tripod which he had prepared, was read. The rough ashlar was part of the buildings of 
an ancient Monastery which formerly stood in the Broadway, Daptford, the first stopping place of the 
Canterbury Pilgrims, and had been taken by him from the cellars which still existed in his time under his 
former place of business. The smooth ashlar was curious in construction and ornamentation, and had been 
lying about for years, but he was unable to trace its history, whilst the shearlegs were made out of some 
portions of the old oak furniture used in Grand Lodge in 1775. The Secretary was instructed to convey to 
Bro. Freeman the thanks of the Lodge in writing. 

136 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

The following address was delivered : » 



Member of Council of the Royal Asiatic Society, and of the Society of Biblical Archaeology ; 
Member of the Deutsche Morgenlanditche Qesellschaft. 

ROPER names, like common names, are in ordinary use no better than 
arbitrary symbols or counters, by means of which we exchange our ideas. 
At the outset, all names, proper or common, are significant of some particular 
meaning, which, in the course of time and the vicissitudes that mark the 
growth of speech, as all other growths, is by degrees forgotten, until at last 
the primary notion may be altogether lost to the common apprehension, and 
the term may be applied in a sense quite different from that which its origin 
might warrant. Tet the etymological signification of a word often throws the clearest light 
upon obscure problems of language and of thought. Ancient words and names have 
frequently been compared to those fossil remains -which preserve for us the history of the 
changes through which the physical life of the earth has passed ; they render an analogous 
service to the history of human institutions ; they are landmarks in the history of 
civilisation; they are imperishable monuments of the primitive stages of thought aDd 
action. • 

These and the like considerations suggest that, in face of the cloud of mystery which 
encompasses the beginnings of our Craft, it may not be wholly without interest or profit to 
investigate the prime significance of some of those famous names, mostly of Semitic and 
Canaanitish origin, around which the strange and beautiful symbolism of Masonic ritual 
revolves in unchanging order. One of the first lessons of philosophy is that Nothing is by 
chance ; as Aristotle put it, Chance is our name for an unknown cause ; and if it be said 
that chance suggested the adoption of Semitic names as the nucleus around which Masonic 
legend might grow and gather, no more is legitimately intended than that we know neither 
the land nor the people nor the speech in which these quaint and curious legends first began 
to rise and spread. 

The fact that the names with which I propose to deal are all found in the older 
portion of the Book of the Sacred Law would seem to favour the supposition that Masonry, 
as we know it, either originated among the Jews, or was transmitted through them to the 
nations of modern Europe. It may, indeed, be objected that if Masonic rites originated, as 
is possible, among those nations themselves at any period since the Christian era, the prime 
authors of the traditions, whoever they were, might very likely choose a Hebrew stage for 
their drama, and Hebrew names for their protagonists, in order to invest the whole repre- 
sentation with an air of immemorial antiquity. "We must, in fact, remember that, until the 
dawn of modern philological science, it was universally believed that Hebrew was the one 
primeval language, the speech of Adam in the earthly Paradise, and even of the angels in 
the Paradise above. The answer is, that while proper names may be thus accounted for, 
we cannot so account for Hebrew, neo-Hebrew and Aramaic terms, phrases, and sentences, 
which, as I shall show, are embedded in our traditions. These imply some knowledge of 
the languages in question on the part of the first framers of the legend or their advisers. 
But from the fourth century, a.d., to the Revival of Learning, Hebrew was practically 
unknown in Christendom, except to the Jews, who had their separate quarters in medieval 
cities. The great Fathers of the Church, it is well known, with the exception of Origen 
and St. Jerome, were ignorant of the language of the Old Testament. 

It is not, however, my purpose to attempt the task of tracing the historical beginnings 
of Freeemasonry. The scope of this paper is rather to discuss certain leading names and 
phrases from the point of view of philology. 

Hikam Abiff. 

I start with the name of the Master, Hiram, who cast all the bronze-work of 
Solomon's Temple, and in particular the two sacred pillars, Jachin and Boaz. Of him we 
are told that he was the son of a widow woman of the tribe of Naphtali, his father being 
' a man of Tyre, a worker in bronze " (l. Kings, vii., 14) ; so that this famous artificer was 
of mixed Israelite and Canaanite (i.e. Phoenician) blood. At that time, towards the end of 
the tenth centenary, B.C., and many centuries earlier, in the time of Tutmes in. (about 
1600 B.C.), the countrymen of Hiram were renowned for the production of works of art. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 137 

Anderson in the Book of Constitutions issued in 1738, says (p. 12) : " Solomon had 
the Labourers of his own ; hut was much obliged to Hiram King of Tyre, for many of the 
Ghiblim and JBonai, who lent him his best Artists, and sent him the Firs and Cedars of 
Lebanon : But above all, he sent his Name sake Hiram Abbif , who in Solomon's Absence 
fill'd the Chair as Deputy Grand Master, and in his Presence was the Senior Grand Warden, 
or principal Surveyor and Master of "Work." 

To the name of the Principal Architect of the Temple, the following note is added : 

" In II. Chron. ii., 13, Hiram King of Tyre (called there Huram) in his letter to King 
Soloman, says, I have sent a Cunning Man le Huram Abbi ; which is not to be translated, 
like the Yulgate Greek and Latin, Huram my Father ; for his Description verse 14 refutes 
it ; and the Words import only Huram of my Father's, or the Chief Master Mason of my 
Father Abibalus. Yet some think that King Hiram might call the Architect Hiram his 
Father, as learned and wise Men were wont to be call'd by Royal Patrons in old Times : 
Thus Joseph was call'd Abrech, or the King's Father ; and this same Hiram the Architect 
is call'd Solomon's Father, n. Chron. iv., 6. 

" Gnasah Churam Abbif la Melech Shelomoh (Did Hiram his Father make to King) 
Solomon. But the difficulty is over at once by allowing the Word Abbif to be the Surname 
of Hiram the Artist, call'd above Hiram Abbi, and here call'd Huram Abbif, as in the 
Lodge he is called Hiram Abbif, to distinguish him from King Hiram : For this Reading 
makes the sense plain and compleat, viz. that Hiram King of Tyre, sent to King Solomon 
the cunning Workman call'd Hiram Abbif. 

" He is described in two Places, i. Kings, vii., 13, 14, 15, and n. Chron., ii., 13, 14. In 
the first place he is call'd a Widow's Son of the Tribe of Naphtali, and in the other he is 
called the Son of a Woman of the Daughters of Dan ; but in both, that *is Father was a 
Man of Tyre : That is, she was of the Daughters of the City Dan, in the Tribe of 
Naphtali, and is call'd a Widow of Naphtali, as her Husband was a Naphtalite ; for he is 
not call'd a Tyrian by Descent, but a Man of Tyre by Habitation, as Obed Edom the 
Levite is call'd a Gittite, and the Apostle Paul a Man of Tarsus. 

" But tho' Hir'am Abiff had been a Tyrian by Blood, that derogates not from his vast 
Capacity ; for the Tyrians now were the best Artificers, by the encouragement of King 
Hiram ; and those Texts testify that God had endued this Hiram Abbif with the Wisdom, 
Understanding, and mechanical Cunning to perform every Thing that Solomon required, 
not only in building the Temple, with all its costly magnificence, but also in founding, 
fashioning and framing all the holy utensils thereof, according to Geometry, and to find out 
every Device that shall be put to him ! and the Scripture assures us that He fully 
maintain'd his character in far larger Works than those of Aholiab and Bezaleel, for which 
he will be honoured in the Lodges till the End of Time." 

In the older account, that of the book of Kings, the Master's name is usually written 
Cyn, Hiram, but in the younger record of Chronicles we find 0"^n, Huram, through- 
out. The difference might be due to the common confusion of the letters 1 and 1, yod and 
waw (y, w), in Hebrew manuscripts ; a confusion which in the present instance may perhaps 
be the fault of a transcriber. At all events, the spelling Hiram, is preferable. There was 
another pronunciation of this name, dV^n, Hirom, which occurs only once in the Bible 
(i. Kings, vii., 40), but is proved to be authentic by the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria. 
Sennacherib, whose records of his campaigns are now in the British Museum, mentions 
T -<^ 'jJTT CCTfT >t£- Hi-ru-um-mu, i.e., Hlrum (Assyrian ii z= Hebrew 6), as king of Tyre, 
in his day (8th century B.C.) ; and Josephus, who cites Dius and Menander for the history 
of Tyre, also writes "Eipw/ios Hiromos, for Hiram. From the Jewish historian we learn 

that the king Hirom of Solomon's day was son of Abibalos, or Abibaal ( ^JD^IN ), and 
that he lived fifty-three years, and reigned thirty-four. Among other things, it is interest- 
ing to note that this king dedicated the golden pillar in the temple of the Tyrian Zeus (Jos. 
contr. Ap, i., 17, 18). 

In view of the peculiar part sustained by his name-sake Hiram, the artificer, in the 
Masonic legend, it seems well worthy of our notice that the name Hiram is etymologically a 
popular abreviation of Ahiram (D^flN), which was the name of a clan of the tribe of 
Benjamin (Num. xxvi., 38). Contractions of this kind are frequent in Phoenician and 
the cognate languages ; e.g., the Punic Himilco, and Hamilcar, so familiar to us from the 

pages of Livy, appear to represent an original rfyTD^nN Ahimelkart, " Brother of 
Melkart" ; Melkart, whose name means " king of the city " (]"np "I/IO), being the Tyrian 
Sun-god. Hirom or Hiram, accordingly, has the highly suggestive meaning of " Exalted 
Brother," or perhaps, " Brother of the Exalted One." 

138 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

In the duplicate account of Solomon's buildings, which we read in the second book of 
Chronicles, Huram or Hiram, the artist, is called by Hiram, the king of Tyre, " Huram 
my father," that is, according to a well-known Hebrew usage, " Huram my master" (adviser 
or counsellor) ; just as Joseph is said to have become " a father " to Pharaoh (n. Chron. ii., 
13, 14 ; cf. Gen. xlv., 8). 1 In a subsequent passage, II. Chron. iv., 16, Hiram the artist or 
grand architect is similarly called Solomon's " father " or master. The words run : " The 
pots also and the shovels . . . did Huram his father make to king Solomon, for the 
House of Jehovah, of polished bronze." Now this expression Huram his father is of great 
interest to Masons ; for the Hebrew phrase V3N Dlin Huram 'dbiv, has given rise to 
the familiar expressions " Hiram Abiff," and its various farther corruptions " Hiram of If," 
etc., etc. To my mind, it is perfectly clear that, like the old translators of our English 
Bible (see n. Chron. ii., 13), the persons who embodied this Hebrew phrase in the Masonic 
legend did not understand its real significance. They seem, in fact, to have regarded the 
metaphorical expression 'dbiv, " his father," i.e., his master or adviser, as a proper name ; a kind 
of mistake sometimes exemplified in the Greek version of the Old Testament, which we must 
remember was made by Jews. At the same time, it is pretty evident that the framers or 
embellishers of the legend, or at all events those whom they consulted, were persons who 
could spell out a Hebrew text, and probably, therefore, were Jews. Now as Masonry 
appears to have existed already in the 14th century, and as from the time of Origen and 
Jerome down to the revival of learning, Hebrew was a language unknown in Christendom, 
and kept alive only among the scattered communities of Jews ; it follows — if we may 
assume that this expression Hiram Abiff was part of the original legend, and not a modern 
interpolation — that the origin of European Freemasonry, whether it be referred to the 
Roman or to the medieval period, cannot have been altogether independent of the activity 
or co-operation of the Jewish Dispersion. 

In a curious work, entitled Solomon in all his glory (1768), instead of " Hiram 
Abiff," we read of "Adoniram our father." This fact proves that the would-be reformers 
of our Craft had access to Jews, who, of course, knew that TUN meant " his father," though 
probably they did not know why Hiram was so designated in relation both to his own 
sovereign and to king Solomon. 

The substitution of Adoniram for Hiram is very curious. Adoniram was a sort of 
clerk of the works, or task-master-in-chief, to king Solomon. In I. Kings iv., 7, we are told 
that " Adoniram ben Abda was over the levy " (of the Canaanites and Israelites, who were 
forced to labour upon the public works : cf. also I. Kings v., 13, 14). Now the name 
Adoniram O'T'J'lN > 'Adoniram, means " Exalted Master," or " Lord," or possibly, " My Lord 

(or Master) is exalted " : and consequently is so far suitable for the purposes of Masonry. 
In ii. Samuel xx., 24, and I. Kings xii., 18, the same man is called D"! 1 !"!^) Adoram ; 

and that this is probably not a mere error of transcription, in spite of the evidence 
of the Septuagint and the Syriac, appears from the fact that in n. Chron. x., 18, the name 

is written D"l*nn, Hadoram. The interest of these variants is greater than appears on 

the surface. They give us a cine to the origin of this great officer, who served as Master of 
the Corvee of David and Solomon in succession, and was murdered by the incensed rebels, 
whom he was sent to coerce at the outset of the reign of Rehoboam. Add or Hddo is a 
divine title, probably identical with the Addu of the cuneiform inscriptions (-*■] 4i"^-), 
which, again, is the equivalent of Hadad, the god of the Syrians of Damascus. Hado-ram, 
" Hadad is exalted," is thus an Aramean proper name, and points to an Aramean origin for 
Adoniram. This inference is confirmed by the name of Adoniram's father, fc^^y 'Abda, 

which is the Aramaic equivalent of- the Hebrew TIlJ? l ^bed, " slave." We thus learn 
that Solomon's great Taskmaster, like his great Architect Hiram, was a foreigner. It is 
strange that the Hebrew sources tell us nothing of a sudden 2 death in the case of Hiram the 
Tyrian, while they do expressly record the murder of Hadoram- Adoniram 3 

From the Master's names I pass to his works. 

1 The Authorised Version renders n. Chron. ii., 13, wrongly, but the Revisers have corrected the 

2 Constitutions, 1738, p. 14. 

3 It should be noted that the title Adon, Adoni, was common to all the national Semitio gods. In 
Israel it, of course, meant Jehovah, as in Aram it meant Hadad or Addu, also called Rimmon. Hadoram 
would, therefore, naturally be called Adoniram, when he took service with the kings of Israel. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 
The Two Brazen Pillars. 


Among the more notable of the works of Hiram's art in connexion with Solomon's 
Temple, were the two pillars of brass or bronze, which he erected in front of the Sanctuary, 
and called by the symbolical names of Jachin and Boaz (i. Kings, vii., 15, 21). These 
pillars were no mere supports for roof or architrave. The researches of Semitic scholars 
have demonstrated that they had a religious significance, and were, in fact, symbols of 
deity, though after-ages misunderstood their meaning and purpose. They correspond to the 
stone pillar or maccebdh which Jacob sets up at Bethel, and then pours oil upon it as an 
offering. Such sacred pillars appear to have marked the sites of all the old Canaanite 
sanctuaries. The use of stone cippi, often simply set upright in their native roughness, 
preceded, and down to the latest times survived alongside of, the use of images as symbols of 
gods. Bearing in mind that the artificer Hiram came from Tyre, we see the importance of 
the statement of the old Greek historian Herodotus (ii., 44, 1), that in the temple of the 
Tyrian Herakles {i.e., Melkart) there were two pillars a-nfkat the one of refined gold, the 
other of smaragdus (perhaps a highly polished green marble). As these two pillars in the 
great Temple of Tyre were twin symbols of Melkart, the god of Tyre, so, in all probability 
the two pillars set up by the Tyrian Master, before the Temple of Jerusalem, were intended 
as symbols of Jahoah, the God of Israel. Their very names bear out this inference. Not 
only would it have been contrary to usage and entirely superfluous to give individual names 
at all to such common architectural .details as columns ; not only are the ordinary pillars of 
the temple simply designated as such by the sacred writer (i. Kings, vii., 2, 3, 6). The 
names of " The Two Pillars " — the Hebrew text has the definite article — are themselves, 
strictly speaking, designations of Jahoah, or, as we say, Jehovah. Boaz t3^!Si> probably 

denotes " He in Whom is strength " (from *& bo, " in him," and TJ7 dz, " strength ") ; 
which is a natural epithet of the Strength of Israel, the Rock of Ages. Numberless 
personal names of the Hebrews embody or imply a reference to Jehovah ; and this accounts 
for Boaz as the personal name of David's ancestor in the book of Ruth. The same root 
T137. ~\y , " strong," " strength," which we see in Bo-az, is seen also in 1iTTT}f Azaziah (" Jab 

is strong "), bfc^ty Uzziel (" Strength of El "), and other personal names ; cf. also 
1u?"TV mn 1 "Jehovah is Strength unto them" (Psalms xxviii., 8). Jachin (P?^, Ydkiri), 
" The Stablisher," " He that establisheth," or " maketh firm and fast," is also used in. 
personal names, both with and without the Divine prefix ; as in pU'VT' > Jeho- Jachin, also 

called rT23' 1 , Jechon-Jah, a king of Judah, and Jachin, a son of Simeon (Gen. xlvi., 10). 
These instances are quite sufficient to show the implication of the term as the designation 
of a sacred pillar. I will only add that the two pillars of the Tyrian god re-appear in the 
Pillars of Herakles at the mouth of the Mediterranean, which were doubtless so named by 
Phoenician mariners at a very early period. 

The probable form of the two pillars may be seen in Perrot and Chipiez, Histoire de 
V Art, vol. iii., fig. 81 ; in the Corpus Inscr. Semit. I., plate 29 ; and on the coins of Paphos, 
with their representation of the temple of the Phoenician Astarte. 

See also Menant, Qlyptique Orientate, ii., fig. 46. 

140 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

Lost Words. 

Mysterious names, which it is unlawful for a man 

to utter, have played a great part in the sphere of the oldest and most powerful of all 
influences upon the spirit and life of man. In the sphere of Religion, which itself always 
reposes upon a hasis of inexplicable mystery, we may trace the existence of such names from 
the earliest times of which any record is left us. To take an early, perhaps the earliest 
instance, in an inscription from Tel-loh now to be seen in the Louvre, Gudea, an ^ncient 
Babylonian sovereign, who reigned some 2,500 years before the Christian era, or some 
centuries more than 4,000 years ago, uses these words, speaking in that primitive Accadian 
tongue of which Chinese is the nearest existing representative : Gudea B., col. viii., line 48. 

'L xjf Mum oiMcic 








£} \7 ot m 

" The god Enzu (Lord of knowledge), whose name man uttereth not." 

Bnzu was a title of the moon-god. He had many names, and among them, it would 
seem, an esoteric one which was not to be spoken. 

The forefathers of the Hebrew tribes were, according to tradition, emigrants from 
Ur Casdim, and therefore from the very land where these old-world memorials were found ; 
and it is well-known to Semitic scholars that many religious ideas and customs of the Jews 
had their origin in Babylonia. In the later period of Jewish history, after the return from 
the Babylonian exile, a practice gradually prevailed of avoiding all utterance of the name 
of the God of Israel. Among the later substitutes for the name we find in the Biblical writers 
Adonai, "Lord "or Elohim, " God " ; later still, Shamayim, "Heaven" (i. Mace.) ; Mdqom, 
"The place " (Rabbinical writers), and so on. In the Greek translation of the Old Testa- 
ment, called the Septuagint, of which the oldest portion belongs to the third century B.C., 
no attempt is made to transliterate the Ineffable Name, but Kvpios "Lord" is always 
written in its place, as also in the New Testament. An early trace of this scrapie may be 
seen in the words of Amos vi., 10 : " Then shall he say, Hold thy tongue : for we may not 
make mention of the name of the Lord " (Heb. mi-p). The ultimate result was that the 
true pronunciation of the name was forgotten, though apparently not at a very early period, 
for Theodoret, a Christian father, informs us that the Samaritans of his time pronounced 
it *Ia/3e that is, Tahveh HVTV 

The other pronunciations preserved by Greek writers, as the 'law of Diodorus or 
the 'laov of Clemens Alexandrinus, belong rather to the shortened forms Jahu, Jah, >irP , PP 
the former of which is only found as the second element in proper names, like Zedekiah, 
(Heb., cidql-yahu). Now Yahveh phonetically pre-supposes an earlier Yahvah, TV\TXl ; 

and this is the pronunciation actually found in certain Babylonian cuneiforn tablets of the 
sixth century B.O., which supply us with the proper names J^} tfy>- i:^]} |^ £|Gamar-Yava, and 
Banava, corresponding to the Hebrew Gemaryahu, " Gemariah," and Benayahu, " Benaiah." 
The contracted endings — yahu — yah have displaced the uncontracted Yahvah everywhere in 
the present text of the Old Testament, so that we nowhere find such a compound as 
Gemaryahvah, but always Gemaryahu or Gemaryah. The cuneiform evidence, however, 
proves that in the time of Darius this was not so. 1 

The increasing awe with which this holy Name was regarded naturally degenerated 
at last into superstition ; and all kinds of magical powers were attributed to the utterance 
of a name which men had long ceased to utter, sCnd of which the true sound was, in fact,, 
forgotten. According to Rabbinic legend, Solomon coerced the demons into forced, labours 
upon his great public works, by means of this dread Name, which was graven upon his 
signet. The Masonic tradition is centred upon the building of the Temple 

1 See my revision of the article Jbhovah in the forthcoming new edition of Smith's Dictionary of 
the Bible. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 141 

There is nothing unusual in the corruptions to which certain Masonic phrases have been 
■subjected in the mouths of persons ignorant of the original idiom to which those phrases 
belong. Unless every Past Master were an adept in the " langnage of Canaan," such 
■corruptions were inevitable. Many variants due to this source are of little or no consequence. 
What is important for our purpose is the traditional meaning of words, whenevei attainable. 
This may prove to be a valuable guide to their original form 

These desultory notes may, I trust, prove to be of some interest to the members of 
-the Lodge. They demonstrate that the non-English terms and sentences, which are met 
with in the old legends of Masonry, are no mere nonsensical expressions arbitrarily 
coined for the mystification of the Craft, but genuine though more or less corrupted 
locutions derived from those ancient Semitic tongues which are the original idiom of our 
oldest scriptures, as well as, perhaps, of the primary documents of our Craft. 

My warmest thanks are due to our Worshipful Master and oar Secretary, for the 
ready kindness with which they have placed at my disposal for the purposes of this investi- 
gation the treasures of their Masonic learning ; thus ensuring that accuracy of historic 
statement, without which the linguistic argument could only have been unfolded at 
considerable disadvantage. 

The paper was discussed by Bros. Spkth, Hdghan, and Rtlands, and a vote of thanks 
was heartily accorded the lecturer on the motion of Bros. Hughan and Bywater. 

[It will be understood that the discussion, and a considerable part of the lecture 
itself, do not lend themselves to publication.] 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 


BRO. CROSSLE. — 'Transactions of Lodge Quatuor Goronati, page 30, footnote 2. — Bro. 
F. C. Crossle, Prov.G.Sec., Devon, should read Prov.G.Sec., Down. Bro. Crossle 
has the finest collection of Aprons and copies and diagrams of Aprons in Ireland. 
The province of Down comprises fifty Lodges in the County of Down, Ireland. Bro. 
Crossle's address is " The Chestnutts," Newry. — Jos. L. Carson. 

Masonic Clothing. — The letters on the jewel numbered H 1 in my article in Part r. 
of the present volume of the Transactions, are given there as T.P.M.A.D.Q., but they should 
be A.D.Q.T.P.M. for Agnus Dei qui tolis peccata mundi. I have read with much interest 
Bro. Gould's review of the History of the St. James' Chapter : and the information on page 
60 as to the introduction of the " Red and Royal Blue " indented ribbon on the Royal Arch 
apron, appears to me to fill the hiatus on that point in my own article on page 32. — F. J. 
W. Crowe. 

QuatUOP CoPOnatOPUm", Cardinal. — Amongst the York marriage licenses, under 
date January 21, 1521, is the following : — 

" Dispensation for Henry Brigge and Elizabeth Oldfield to marry. Related twice 
in 4th degree. Issued by Laurence Cardinal Quatuor Coronotorum 1st January, 
8th Leo x."— W.M.B. 

Laurence Depmott's Book-Plate. — Whilst on 
Bro. Horatio "Ward of Canterbury, our host showed us 

v-O ^ fzrrx x-, Zojrj>oxr. C^ bel \ ev ? his book -P la ^! h t as 
-*< ,- v V -^ N made known. — G. W . Sp: 

a visit with Bro. Hughan to 
his Masonic books. We were 
delighted to find in a copy of the first 
edition of the Ahiman Rezon the book-plate 
of the author, the celebrated Laurence 
Dermott. The accompanying cut is a fac- 
simile. Although -containing features not 
unlike the armorial bearings of the Painters 
and Stainer^, the likeness to the following 
is much more pronounced, and there can be 
little doubt as to the source whence Dermott 
obtained the coat. 

" MacDermot (Chiefs of Moylurg, 
Co. Roscommon ; an ancient Irish Sept, 
descended from Maolroona, second son of 
Teige, King of Connaught, in the seventh 
century), Argent, on a chevron gules, 
between three boars' heads erased azure, 
tusked and bristled or, as many cross- 
crosslets or. Crest, a demi-lion rampant 
azure, holding in the dexter paw a sceptre 
crowned or. Motto (over), Honor et 
Virtus. Motto, Honor probataque Vir- 

Any little fact pertaining to this re- 
' ^ markable man must be of interest, and I 

never before been 

Royal Apch ApPOn. — It would appear that the photo of the " Ancient " apron in 
the possession of Bro. W. Watson, and the tracing of an apron of 1794 drawn and engraved 
by Bro. Hegon, are identical with the Royal Arch apron depicted in plate 2, No. 7, in 
the last number of the Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati, which Bro. Hughan and 
Bro. Rylands date as circa 1800. The same design is depicted upon a painted panel in the 
possession of Bro. W. H. Rylands, circa 1680, and the Lodge of Harmony 272, Boston, has the 
same beautifully engraved and painted in colours on satin, and at the foot, printed, " Dedi- 
cated to the Brethren at Large of the Ancient and Honorable Free and Accepted Masons by 
their sincere and well wisher, Bro. R. F. Newman, 1807." It may be interesting to state 
that the two Brethren near the pillars have blue coats, yellow breeches and buckled shoes. 
— Cabouen Pocklington, P.M. 272. 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 143 

John Murdo's Tomb in Melrose Abbey (p. 176). — May I give another copy 
of this curious inscription which it appears is never to he given in the same words, probahly 
due to effacement. The lines over (not on) the shield are — 

Sa gaes ye compass even about 
Sa truth and laute do but doute 
Behalde to ye hende. John Murvo. 

On the shield is a pair of compasses laid across a square which is end upwards ; in the top 
corners are two fleur-de-lis and one at the bottom. Then the epitaph which reads better 
than that given, is 

John Murvo some tyme callit was I 

And born in Parysse certainlie 

And had in kepying all mason wyrk 

Of Sanct Andrewys the hye kyrk 

Of Glasgo Melros and Paisley 

Of Niddysdale and of Galway 

Pray to God and Mary baith 

And sweet Sanct John to keep this haly 

Kyrk f ra Skaith. 

Probably this is all in capitals, with dots between each word, as shewn on p. 176, 
and also in the inscription of 1624, of Andrew Mein, which is likewise at Melrose (Vol. IV., 
233). It seems that his name is read Murdo, Mordo, Morow, and Morvo, and was perhaps 
truly "Jean Moreau" of Paris. There is no date on the stone. — Wtatt Papworth. 

VePtU, Freemason. — I have lately been working at an early minute book contain- 
ing contemporary records of proceedings of the Chapters of the Order of the Garter between 
21 Edward iv., and 21 Henry viii. It came into my hands accidently, and is older than any 
records of the Garter at Windsor or in the Herald's College. I send you herewith an extract 
from the proceedings of a Chapter held at Windsor on the 10th of May, 15 Henry viii. 
(1523), which mentions a "freemason " of the name of Vertue — the blank for his Christian 
name or style exists in the original. It is the only entry of the sort in the volume, and 
though possibly " Yertu " was only the architect or master builder of St. George's Chapel, 
the extract may be worth enshrining in a corner of the A.Q.G. — Hamon Lb Strange, G.D. 
Waller M.S., fo. 220. 

"towards the parfourmance of the Roode lofte and lantarne of the' College of 
" Saint George at Wyndesore. 

" That the lord Rychart ffox bischop of Wynchester and prelate of the 
" Ryght noble ordre of the gartier hath grauntyd of his good mynde and frewyll 
" towards the said byldyng a C li as Mr. amen' docter Raulin Mr docter Dent 
" and vertu fremason doth Reporte and certefle." 

A Fresco in the Great or St. Lawrence Church at Rotterdam. — The 

building of this parish church, consecrated to St. Lawrence, was begun A.n. 1412. It was 
not until 1436 that the building was so far advanced that public worship could be per- 
formed, though at that time the choir and the steeple failed. From different causes, 
— quarrels with the administration of dykes and canals for the acquisition of the ground, 
civil wars, etc. — the building was not completed until the year 1513, and thus occupied just 
a century in building. In this church were sixteen chapels, of which four were placed in 
the choir. Of these latter, the earliest was built at the south side of the choir, in 1491, by 
the Masons-Guild and consecrated to their patroness Sancta Barbara ; two years later an 
altar was placed in this chapel. It is said that the Masters of this Guild held meetings in 
this chapel as late as the middle of the eighteenth century, to discourse concerning their 
mutual interests and to examine the claims of those desiring to be received into the Guild. 
The church was Roman Catholic until 1572, since when it has beeD possessed by the 
Protestants. At that time it was that the altars, statues, etc., were removed. In the course 
of years the interior of the church has undergone several alterations, has been plastered and 
white-washed, but about 1879 the plastering was removed and the interior restored to its 
former state. In consequence of this restoration, has been removed also a more or less 
damaged fresco on the west wall of the Masons' chapel. Before its removal a fine sketch of 
the fresco was taken. By the kindness of Bro. H. T. Rover, architect at Rotterdam, a very 
fine copy was made and given to the Lodge " Frederic Royal " at Rotterdam and hung in its 

According to a description of the church, this fresco was painted by F. Wouters in 
1641. The description is, however, not in accordance with the sketch. The description 
runs as follows: — " This painting represents the uppermost part of an antique building, of 
which the remaining portion is covered by a hanging cloth. • Above the middle stands an 
angel's (or saint's) statue, with an open book and a feather in its hand. Before the cloth 

144 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, 

is to be seeD an elegant chiselled square pedestal, whereon are tbese words in Old German 
characters : ' Thou art built upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ 
himself being the chief corner-stone. — Ephes. ii.' Four children stand or sit on this pedestal, 
and bear all sorts of masons' tools, -wherewith also its base is covered. On both sides two 
Fellows of the Guild bear standards, on whose upper ends a trowel and a hammer are 
attached, and on which are shown the armorial bearings of the Deacons of the Guild — Jan 
Dz. van Cap, C. Mz. van Schoonhoven, Hugo Az. Zkoepfer, and Sander Tz. van Vuren." 
As it is shown, however, in the copy of the sketch, nothing is to be seen of a hanging cloth 
with the square pedestal and inscription, nor of the standard bearers. The sketch repre- 
sents an elaborate painting of an erection ; the undermost part is supported by four and the 
upper part by two pillars with capitals of different orders of architecture. On the top are 
the remains of a pedestal whereon probably the statue mentioned in the description stood. 
On the left side stand two figures ; they are both barefooted; the uppermost wears a golden 
crown and bears a compass in his right hand ; the nethermost wears a cap and bears a 
golden trowel in his right hand. The fignres on the right sid6 are wanting altogether. 
Between two of the undermost pillars is painted an escutcheon with the armorial hearings 
of Orange-Nassau, the then reigning Stadtholder. Though this wall painting, dating from 
the time of the Guilds, has no relation to modern Freemasonry, it is not improbable, how- 
ever, that in the Masons-Guild at Rotterdam to the end of the 15th century, the masters of 
the craft and architects of this Gothic church were incorporated, and one hundred and fifty 
years later the remembrance of them was preserved in this painting. 

The existence of a Masons-chapel in a church of the middle ages, and especially the 
figures, the uppermost wearing a golden crown, and both holding Masonic emblems, is, how- 
ever, remarkable enough for publication as a link between ancient and modern Freemasonry. 


Freemasonry and Magic. — Referring to Bro. Gould's statement (History, vol. i., 
p. 6) that in India the Masonic Hall is familiarly called the " Shaitan Bungalow " or Devil's 
House, the following extract may be of interest. In Sir Richard F. Burton's " Sind 
Revisited" (vol. I., p. 71), he says, speaking of Karachi — " There is even reform and repair 
in the uncanny-looking yellow and white building of the old Freemasons' Lodge, accommo- 
dating some nine different items, for which I must refer you to handbooks ; the natives will 
call it Jadii-ghav, or ' Sorcery-house.' The vulgar estimate of the respectable order is that we 
represent a band of sorcerers, who meet in the <pi\ah\<pciov to worship the Shaytan, the 
' horned man in the smoky house,' and to concert diabolical projects against the Chosen 
People of Allah themselves. The more learned Oriental believes the mystic Craft to be a 
relic of Monotheism, and especially of Guebrism, embedded in the modern structure of 
Christianity. It is the fashion, I may observe, with Moslem free-thinkers to hold the 
Emperor Aurelian's opinion that, ' among all the gods, none is truly worthy of adoration but 
the sun;' and, impressed with this idea, Mr. Bull, their minds naturally detect lurking 
Guebrism in all beliefs." 

Can any Brother say where the quotation " horned man in the smoky house " is taken 
from? — S. R. Baskett. 

The Noose Symbol. — The following is from a volume entitled Heth and Moab, 
by Major Conder, R.E., one of the publications of the Palestine Exploration Fund : — " The 
Bektashi Derwishes, who are not one of the twelve great orders, belong to a society founded 
by Bektash of Bokharah, who lived in the fifteenth century and is buried in Asia Minor. 
They wear a vestment without sleeves, having twelve symbolic stripes ; their rules include 
contemplation, retreat, and chastity. They have a sacred girdle [like the Persian Kosti] 
made of white wool with three knots. They have also a secret sign, like other orders, some of 
whom pass their hands over their beards in a particular manner ; and the candidates are 
admitted in secret meetings, when they are said to stand naked on an altar with arms 
crossed and a rope round their neck, one foot resting on the other, as in the attitude of 
contemplation among the Malawiyeh, and among Buddhists in India. The altar is said to 
be twelve sided, with a seat each side for the initiators, and a candle burning upon it. The 
candidate swears obedience, chastity, and other vows ; prayers are offered on the door-sill, 
and a sheep is sacrificed, of whose wool the girdle is made. . . . Many of the details of 
initiation recall the practices of the Templars and of the early Gnostics." 

The italics in the above, it may be mentioned, are not in the original. The import- 
ance of the statements in this paragraph need scarcely be pointed out. It would be of high 
value to know whether Bektash introduced the use of the " sacred girdle " and the " rope " 
in the initiatory rite, from Bokhara ; or, if he found them existing among the secret sects of 
Western Asia. We ought also to be quite certain that these peculiar features of the 
Bektashi Derwishes date as far back as the fifteenth century. The sacred girdle, made of 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 145 

wool, so similar to the Zoroastrian Kusti, 1 suggests the probability of the more eastern 
origin. — William Simpson. 

The Noose and Girdle. — The valuable paper of Bro. Simpson on these subjects 
may be supplemented from the Rites of the Dervishes, for they use both the noose of capture 
and the girdle of initiation. The sects are of Persian origin and I quite believe the system 
to be the Islam version of the ancient Magian ceremonies. The candidate having under- 
gone a year's probation is initiated. A Cord, is made for his neck and a Girdle for Ms loins, 
from the wool of a sheep ; he is divested of clothing, and by two godfathers led into a square 
room, and presented as a slave ; he is seated upon a large stone on which are twelve escallops, 
with his arms crossed on his breast, his body inclined forwards, and his right toes extended 
over his left foot. In this position, with his hand gripping that of the Sheik, he takes his 
oath. I quote from my own " Speculative Freemasonry," but full information will be found 
in " The mystical principles of Islamism," by John P. Brown. 

I fancy the last word has not been said upon Bro. Howard's contention as to Nismes; 
and no amount of mere denial will ever convince me that the essentials of our Three Craft 
Degrees are modern ; and everything touching* upon present Bites leads on tc a Saracenic 
descent for 1717 Masonry of the South. The arguments of Bro. Dr. Begemann on the 
growth of our Charges is thorough and sound ; but after all, the compiler of the first part 
of the Cooke MS. may have merely amplified an older legendary Charge. The Athelstan 
Charge will not coalesce or join on with the present Craft rites. — John Yarker. 

The Nooze Symbol. — In W. Bro. Simpson's interesting paper on the Noose 
Symbol, reference is made on page 6 to the girding of the wife. Does not this correspond 
with what is stated by Ovid in the following allusion to the Mysteries ? 

" Vacca sit an taurus, non est cognoscere promptam : 
Pars prior apparet ; posteriora latent." 

Fastorum iv., 717. 

In this instance the lower or inferior parts of both male and female are concealed. — Geo. E. 
Turner, P.M. 1266. 

Lady Freemasons. — Brother Hart, the W.M. of the Melrose Lodge No. I 2 , in a 
brief, historical sketch of that ancient Lodge, printed along with the Bye-Laws, mentions 
that there was once upon a time a lady Freemason connected with the Lodge, in the follow- 
ing passage : — " After removing from Newstead, the meetings were held in. hired rooms for 
some years. It was about this period that the Lodge could boast of a lady member. The 
matron, a true daughter of mother Eve, somehow obtained more light upon the hidden 
mysteries than was deemed at all expedient; and, after due consideration of the case, it was 
resolved that she must be regularly initiated into Freemasonry. This, we believe, was 
actually done, with the best results, — the initiate ever remaining a true and faithful Sister 
among the Brethren." As this is merely a tradition, I have not mentioned it in my history 
of Melrose, preferring to abide by the written testimony of the preserved records, but I have 
been frequently assured, that although not mentioned in the minutes, that it is none the 
less a fact, the lady's name being given as " Tib Skin," which is the vernacular for Isabella 
Scoon. It is said that she was so impressed with the solemnity of her obligation that she 
ever afterwards distinguished herself in works of charity. This is another addition to the 
list of lady Freemasons, and I have no doubt other ancient Lodges have their lady members 
just as ancient buildings have their haunted chambers. — W. Feed. Vernon. 

Croyland, otherwise Crowland Abbey. — A short description of the nature of 
the foundations of this ancient Benedictine Monastery, which was founded by the Saxon 
King Ethelbald in 716 A.D., may interest some of the readers of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, 
and especially a description of the memorial stones, pass, and Masonic marks, connected 
with this truly venerable building found during the under-pinning and rebuilding of the 

1st. — As to the foundations. — These were laid in 947 A.d. by Abbot Thurkytel on 
unsolid ground. The descriptions as given by Abbot Ingnlph (1076) and by the Bev. Dr. 
Stukeley (1708) are perfectly correct. " The Foundation lys on huge piles of wood, drove 
into the ground with gravell and sand." During the underpinning of the Tower, the 
following measurements were taken by the present Rector of Croyland- (Rev. T. H. Le 
Bceuf) :— 

1 See A.Q.O., vol. in., p. 93. 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 




1-ft. 1-in. 

1-ft. 3-in. 

6-in. of peat (oak piles were found driven through this peat bed and 
into the gravel. Length of oak piles, 5^-ft. ; may now be seen in the 
south recess in porch.) 
4-in. Helpston stone laid dry (i.e., without mortar) and on their edge. 
Light stone quarry dust. 

Helpston stone very small, laid on their bed. 
Light stone quarry dust. 

Helpston stone, very small, laid on their bed. 
Tower base below present ground level. 

Total depth 7 -ft. 8-in. from ground level. 

Is it not a mystery that the building has stood the storms of centuries resting on 
such unsolid foundations ? 

2nd. — As to the Memorial Stones found during the under- pinning and re-building. 

I. William of Warmington's Memorial Stone (which 
forms the subject of our present sketch) was found 
over the old entrance into the North Aisle or present 
Parish Church forming part of the floor of the old 
library or Parvis. The length of this stone is 6-ft. 
1^-in., width 2-ft. 5-in., and 6-in. thick. In 1427 the 
Western Tower was re-built, and the north aisle 
vaulted with stone, by William of Warmington. 

Warmington is a village twenty-one miles from 
Crowland, and near to Peterborough. This is no 
doubt the " William of Croyland " mentioned in Bonn's 
edition of the History of Croyland. 

Therefore to the memory of this faithful Mason a 
memorial stone was placed in a most honoured position 
over the entrance, in the Parvis, which here forms a 
Latin cross. The border legend of the stone reads 
thus : — 

" Here lies Master William of Warmington, the 
Mason, to the soul of whom God of His Grace 
grant absolution. 

The Compass and Square are plainly visible. This 
stone is now placed in the belfry. 

In a future paper we may give an account of another 
stone, a Mason's pass, and the Masons' marks on the 
Norman work of the Abbey. 

Unfortunately the Rector of Croyland has been 
compelled to stop the work of making safe and secure 
this venerable Abbey by reason of want of funds. 
£2,000 are still required. Six out of ten sections are 
completed, but the Quatrefoil with its sculptural 
legendary history is crumbling to dust from age. It 
is to be hoped that those of our friends whom God has 
blessed with this world's wealth, may be led to send an 
offering to the Rector. We, of the present day, form 
the connecting link between the past and the future ; 
therefore let us do our duty in helping to hand down 
to future generations this Venerable National Relic of 
Past Ages. 

Order cheques should be crossed and made payable to — The Rev. T. H. Le B<euf, 
Rectob of Croyland, near Peterborough. 

Masonry and Death. — Brother Count Goblet D'Alviella has favoured the Lodge 
Library with a copy of the " Hibbert Lectures, 1891," delivered by him. I have no inten- 
tion of reviewing the lectures as a whole, for absorbingly interesting as they are, and not 
least so for Freemasons, the subject, " Origin and Growth of the Conception of God," is 
hardly one which our Lodge was intended to deal with. But two passages, incidental to his 
argument, are of great interest, and these I append : — 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 


Page 31. — " In certain departments of France, when the peasants enter npon a newly-, 
built house, they cut a chicken's neck and sprinkle the blood in all the rooms. In Poitou, 
the explanation given is, that if the living are to dwell in the house, the dead must first 
pass through it. Thus presented, the custom is without meaning ; but it is no longer so if 
we bring it into connection with the belief, almost universal amongst people who possess 
the art of Masonry, that the soul of a victim buried under the foundations protects the 
solidity or guards the approaches of the edifice. And if we combine this belief with the 
principle, no less widely, spread, that in the matter of sacrifice (as we shall presently see) 
the inferior may be substituted for the superior, an animal for a man, the whole meaning of 
the ceremony becomes clear. In Germany, it is often an empty coffin that is built into the 
foundations ; whilst the Bulgarians confine themselves to the pantomime of throwing in the 
shadow of some passer-by. To find the explanation of this last trait, we have only to 
transport ourselves into the ideas of the numerous people who regard a man's shadow as the 
spiritual part of him — that is to say, as his soul." 

Page 93. — " Elsewhere death and resurrection are re-produced in pantomime as an 
affirmation of belief in survival after death. Thus certain Australian tribes celebrate 
initiatory rites in which one of the neophytes lies on the ground whilst the rest cover him 
with dust, after which he rises again amidst general rejoicings." — G. W. Speth. 

The Svastika. — The accompanying form of the Svastika I found recently on the 
pavement of the stylobate or platform of the Taj at Agra; its resem- 
blance to a design on one of the American shell gorgets is remarkable 
{The Tau or Gross, pi. I, fig. 14.) 

Since our return to India I remarked the Svastika symbol 
tatooed on the back of the hand of an apparently wealthy high caste 
native lady, who travelled on one occasion in the next railway carriage 
to us, and I have also observed it frequently on the back walls of the 
small safes built into the walls of jewellers shops in more than one 
native city. 

Masons' Marks. — I also add a few Mason's marks from the Ram Bagh at Agra : — 

J. «w>. 


H. G-. M. Morray-Aynsley. 

Masons' Marks at Al-Hadhr (Hatra). — The following letter appeared in the 
Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology for March, 1892, and it is of such interest 
that I give it you in full. — W. Harry Rylands. 

11, Wolverton Gardens, 

Hammersmith, W., 
Dear Mr. Rylands, January 22nd, 1892. 

The recent publication, by the Royal Institute of British Architects, of Mr. R. 
Phene Spiers' valuable paper on Sassanian Architecture, has re-awakened the interest I 
have always felt in certain marks met with on the stones of the great building at Al-Hadhr 
(ancient Hatra). My impression is that there must be some meaning in these marks. Sir 
Henry A-uatin Layard appears to be satisfied that they are mere building marks, but they 
are not on all stones, and when present a certain prominence is given to them so as to at 
once attract the eye. In "Notes on the Ruins of the Palace at Al Hather" (Hadhr), 
communicated by the Rt. Hon. Sir Henry Layard, G.C.B., and published by Mr. Spiers, 
from a MS. preserved in the library of the Royal Institute of British Architects, the writer 
says as follows : — 

" Mr. Ainsworth, in his memoir, has mentioned the peculiar marks which are to be 
found on almost every stone employed in the buildings of Al Hather, and has given 
representations of many of them ; he seems to attribute some mysterious meaning to them. 
I have found similar marks on numerous buildings of the Sassanian epoch, for example, at 
Bisutun and Ispahan. In the latter city I was first induced to look for Sassanian ruins by 
seeing these marks upon stones employed in modern edifices, and I soon succeeded in 

148 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 

finding several fine Sassanian capitals. I believe these marks to be purely fanciful, and not 
to be the letters of any particular alphabet, letters from a variety of alphabets may be 
traced amongst them. They appear to have been used for building purposes, and not to 
have reference to religion or astronomy. They are on the face of the stones, in the centre, 
each stone being provided with one mark." 

Now, I did not attach any mysterious meaning to these marks, but what I wanted to 
show was that they had a meaning, and were not, as Sir Henry Layard opines, " purely 
fanciful, " or merely " used for building purposes," although I am by no means so sure upon 
the latter point. But if so, they would be Masonic, and have not Masonic signs a meaning ? 
Experience shows that the Ancients were not in the habit of using signs without a meaning. 

Dr. Ross gives some examples of the writings on the wall at p. 470 of the 10th 
volume of the Journ. Boy. Qeo. Society. (By-the-bye, Mr. Spiers is in error when he says, 
" Sir Henry Layard's description of these details will be found on page 27, and it was to 
him that both Ross and Mr. Ainsworth were indebted for their drawings." Now, Dr. Ross 
visited the place in 1836 and 1837, and the details and ground plan of the city, attached to a 
memoir by Capt. Blosse Lynch on " the Tigris between Baghdad and Mosul," were his own. 
Sir Henry Layard's and my visit to the ruins was not made till 1840.) 

Dr, Ross looked upon these marks, like Sir Henry Layard, as the builder's number, 
' "as," he adds, "they are seen in the midst of broken walls," where they could not have 
been exposed when the structure was perfect. But this, strange to say, does not agree with 
what I myself and Sir Henry Layard observed. In a note to my memoir (p. 13, vol. xi., 
Journ. Roy. Qeo. Society), I say, " the letters were generally about one or two inches in size, 
and carefully sculptured, one in the centre of the face of each stone ;" and in the memoir 
(penned in 1846) attached to Mr. Spiers' Paper, Sir Henry Layard says of the marks, 
letters or signs, " They occur on the face of the stones, in the centre, each stone being 
provided with one mark." What I myself said respecting the marks was to the following 
effect : — 

" Every stone, not only in the chief building, but in the walls and bastions and other 
public monuments, when not defaced by time, is marked with a character, which is for the 
most part either a Chaldaic (Khaldi) letter or numeral. But some of them could not be 
deciphered either by Mr. Rassam (Esau Rassam), or by a Jewish Rabbi of Jerusalem, 
whom we consulted at Mosul ; for it is necessary to remark that the Chaldeans or Chaldees, 
since their conversion to Christianity, have uniformly adopted the Syriac letters, which 
were used by the Apostles and fathers of the Church, regarding the pagan writing (or 
Tergum as they call it), as an abomination. The Jews, however, who learnt it in their 
captivity, have retained, except in their Talmud, and some other works written in the 
Hebrew character, the use of Chaldean letters. 

" Some of the letters at Al Hadhr resembled the Roman A, and others were 
apparently astronomical signs, among which were very common the ancient mirror and 
handle, emblematic of Venus, the Mylitta of the Assyrians, and Alitta of the Arabians, 
according to Herodotus ; and the Nani (Hyde, p. 92), or Nannaia (Rawlinson, Journ. Boy. 
Qeo. Society, Vol. IX., p. 43), of the Syrians. 

" Mr. Ross makes a mistake, which it is important to correct, when he says that 
these letters are only seen in the midst of broken walls, where they could not have been 
exposed when the structure was perfect. It is quite evident, from the prominent situation 
which they occupy iu the interior of the great halls and sanctuaries, that their object was 
much more important than a mere arrangement of the stones. 

" The characters alone indicate their antiquity, and as to their use, they appear to 
have a distant relation to practices carried to a further extent by the Assyrians and 
Babylonians, and by the Egyptians. In whatever obscurity the meaning of these signs or 
letters may be now involved, they still possess great interest to the archaeologist as proving 
the Chaldaen origin of the building in question." . 

This latter statement, in view of the general Sassanian character of the building, 
must be modified. The Sassanians, when in Assyria and Mesopotamia, may have employed 
Assyrian masons, or they may have used the Assyrian or Khaldi alphabet marks or signs. 1 
I have given some forty examples of these marks in the memoir above alluded to, and I 
now enclose a copy from my original note book of the same marks as made on the spot, some 
by myself and some by Mr. Rassam, so that no error may creep into their representation as 

1 The " Mission to the Assyrians " under the auspices of His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
have adopted that name both for the Khaldis and the so-called Nestorians. The first were only so called 
when they were converted to Kornan Catholicism, the latter has been shown to be a misnomer. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 149 

csy/iuii^Kjr T.Uh^^y 

Copibb bt Mb. Ahtsworth. Copied by Mb, R-assah. 

My object in doing this is to endeavour to obtain your opinion, or that of any of the 
learned members of the Society of Biblical Archaeology to whom you may be kind enough 
to show them, as to their meaning, if any. 

The art of decyphering ancient writings, as for example in the Hittite inscriptions, 
has, under the auspices of the Society, attained to a perfection unknown in 1840, and some 
new light may be thrown upon the marks when seen by competent observers. 

Believe me, 

Tours faithfully, 

"William Francis Ainsworth. 



' jj 'T the Grand Festival on the 27th April, the M.W. Grand Master was pleased to 
■ TJ appoint as one of his Grand Standard Bearers our Bro. Dr. Belgrave Ninnis, Deputy 
<^ ■ * Inspector General, R.N., a member of our Lodge. On the same occasion Bro. W. 
Mastees, who joined our Correspondence Circle in 1889, was appointed Grand Steward. 

Bro. Dr. W. "Wynn Westcott, S.W., 2076, has been elected Supreme Magus of 
the Rosicrucian Society of England, in succession to our deceased brother, Dr. "Woodman. 

At the 104th Festival of the Royal Masonic Institution for Girls, which was held on 
"Wednesday, 18th May, under the Presidency of H.R.H. the Duke of Connanght, the sum 
of £10,000 was collected. 

At the 94th anniversary Festival of the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys, held 
on Wednesday, the 29th June, under the presidency of Bro. Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, 
Prov. G.M. for Gloucestershire, the sum of £12,224 10s. Od. was collected. 

The annual outing of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati took place on Saturday, 2nd July. 
The day was simply perfect, and owing to the assistance of Bro. Railing, Prov. G Sec, 
Essex, in making the preliminary' arrangements, and the valuable services on the day itself 
of Bro. Dr. Laver, the well-known local antiquary, the brethren were enabled to enjoy the 
antiquities of Colchester with profit and comfort. It was a most pleasurable trip, and a full 
account will appear in our next number. 

Birkenhead. — Bro. Patrick Sword, our Local Secretary at Liverpool, reports that the 
brethren in that city and across the water, inspired by the example of our Lodge, have 
determined to found a literary and scientific lodge for their own use, and to follow as closely 
as possible in our footsteps. A warrant was therefore petitioned for and granted, and the 
new Lodge will meet at the Masonic Chambers, Birkenhead, under the name and number, 
Minerva, 2433. A large proportion of the members are, as might be supposed, members 
already of our Correspondence Circle. The brethren hope to get in working order by 
October, and we shall look forward to their future proceedings with interest. 

Lincolnshire. — The brethren in this county celebrated the Centenary of its erection 
into a Masonic Province, on Thursday, the 9th June, at Grantham, under the banner of 
Doric Lodge, No. 362, in the Theatre Royal. The festivities included a performance of 
Mozart's " Masonic Cantata," a feature which was suggested in the first place by the paper 
on " Masonic Musicians," read at our Lodge by our late Bro. Dr. Barrett, in May, 1891. 
This selection was the more appropriate, inasmuch as the cantata itself was composed 
almost exactly a century ago, i.e., on the 15th November, 1791. Provincial Grand Lodge 
also attended Divine Service in St. John's Church, Spittlegate, and the proceedings were 
brought to a close by a banquet at the Exchange Hall. 

150 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

Lectures. — Bro. Hughan has been particularly active since our last chronicle, and 
delivered lectures as follows : — On the 9th. May, in the Masonic Temple, Canterbury, on 
" The Rise and Progress of Freemasonry, during the last Five Centuries ;" the next night, 
in the Royal Kent Lodge of Antiquity, No. 20, Chatham, on " Old Lodges in England ;" 
on the 27th, in the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, on " A Retrospect of Five Centuries ;" and 
on the 11th June, he addressed the Cornish Lodge, London, on the "Masonic History of 

On the 21st April, in the Abbey Lodge, 1184, Battle, our Local Secretary for East 
Sussex, Bro. R. Hughes, delivered an interesting paper on " The Legend of the Third 
Degree," which he has since repeated at the Rye Lodge. 

On the 1st April, before the Wakefield Masonic Literary Society, our Local Secretary 
for North Torks, Bro. G. L. Shackles, read a paper on " Masonic Medals," a subject with 
which no one in England is better acquainted. 

And on the 28th April, Bro. G. W. Speth, addressed the brethren of Pattison Lodge, 
913, Plumstead, on " Some Lapsed Masonic Symbols." 


Bro. E. Macbean, S.D. 2076, has been elected Grand Chancellor of the Supreme 
• Royal Arch Grand Chapter of Scotland. The Lodge tenders its congratulations. 


The Bazaar at Ball's Bridge, Dublin, in aid of the Masonic Female Orphan School, 
which extended over the week commencing 17th May, proved a great success. The Roman 
Catholic Archbishop of Dublin took occasion by a communication read in all the churches, 
to warn all his co-religionists that by participating in even a work of charity under the 
patronage of the Fraternity, or countenancing it by their mere presence, they rendered 
themselves subject to pains and penalties, and acted contrary to the injunctions of their 
Church. How far this illiberal announcement may have deterred members of his flock 
from attending the festivities, is of course impossible to determine, but the results of the 
undertaking, socially, financially (£20,000), and generally, would appear to be eminently satis- 
factory, in spite of the Archbishop's efforts. We remember reading some few years ago of 
a Roman Catholic missionary in some island lying off the coast of China appealing in vain 
for funds to build a small chapel and feed his converts, until the local Freemasons took the 
matter in hand and supplied him with all his requirements. 


Bro. L. de Malczovich, oar Local Secretary in Hungary, who is contributing to our 
pages the interesting series of papers on " Early Austrian Masonry," has been appointed 
by the Grand Lodge of Ireland their Representative at the Grand Lodge of Hungary, and 
they have at the same time conferred upon him the rank and title of Past Grand Warden. 
Hearty congratulations. 


New Orleans. — The new Masonic Temple of the Grand Lodge of Loaisiana in this 
city, was formally dedicated by the Grand Master and Grand Lodge, on the 24th June. 
Illustrated papers which have reached us, show it to be a very handsome building indeed, 
of six floors or more, and covering a large area. The Masonic Halls in America far exceed 
ours in England in outward appearance, but this may be accounted for by the fact that it is 
only the upper floors which are used for Craft purposes, the lower ones being let out as 
business premises ; whereas with us, a Masonic Hall is usually reserved for Masonic purposes 
only, or at most some portion of the building is occasionally let for concerts, balls, and other 
like occurrences. 


Bro. General Sir Charles Warren, our first Master, has been elected President of the 
Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

THIS page will be reserved for advertising the wants of our own members only. 
The charge will be One Shilling for a line of 12 words, strictly payable in advance. As 
the Secretary's time is too fully occupied to permit him to act as intermediary, all replies 
must be addressed direct to the advertisers. 


H. Whymper, Gora Gully, East India :— Constitutions 1873, 8vo. ; 1855, 32mo. ; 
1861, 32mo. ; 1867, 32mo. ; Williams' Constitutions 1815, 4to. ; Marvin's Medals of the 
Masonic Fraternity ; Jachin and Boaz, all editions. 

Col. J. Mead, Red Hill, Surrey : — History L. of Relief, No. 42. ; Centenary of Lodge 
St. John, 191. ; History of Britannic Lodge ; Stray Leaves from a Freemason's Note Book ; 
Foster's History Priory and Gate of St. John ; Mrs. Blake's Realities of Freemasonry ; 
History of Mother Kilwinning Lodge ; Freemasonry, its Antiquity and Excellence, by Rev. 
C. Lee ; History of Cheshunt Great House ; Historical Account of Blue Blanket; Centenary 
of Jerusalem Lodge, 197 ; Freemasonry in Staffordshire ; College of St. Mary Winton, near 
Winchester ; Address at Centenary of Grand Master's Lodge ; History of Mourning Bush 
Tavern; History of Doyle's Lodge of Fellowship, Guernsey; Whytehead's Some Early York 
Masons and their Haunts; Ditto, Freemasonry from old Newspapers, 1884; and Ditto, 
Freemasonry in York, 187rf. 


Duplicates of the Lodge Library, as follows : — ■ 

Dallaway's Discourses upon Architecture . . and an Historical Account of Master and 

Freemasons. Original boards, clean and perfect. 7/6. 
Anderson's Consiitutions, 1738. Old binding, one side off, good condition, but wanting 

frontispiece, title, and last page of corrigenda and advertisements. These can be 

supplied in perfect facsimile. £6 6/- 
Smith's Use and Abuse op Freemasonry, 1783, half-calf, clean, perfect. 12/6. 

Carl Paul's Annals of the Grand Lodge of Frankfurt, 1766-1883, German, paper, clean and 
perfect. .5/- 

Constitutions, Grand Orient op France, 1826, half-calf, excellent condition. 10/- 

„ ,, ,, „ 1854, paper, excellent condition. 5/- 

New Zealand Masonic Jouhnal, Vol. II., unbound, 1888-9. 

New Zealand Craftsman, Vol. II., unbound, 1890-91. 

Proceedings, G.L. British Columbia, 1891, paper. 

Iowa, 1889, paper. 

Iowa, 1890 & 91, in one vol., cloth. 

Ohio, 1886-7-8, in one Vol., cloth. 

Illinois, 1889, paper. 

Tbnnesse, 1892, paper. 
Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction, U.S.A., 1888, cloth. * 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati ■ 151 


SATURDAY, 2nd JULY, 1892. 

I HE following Brethren, viz. : Bros. W. M. Bywater, R. F. Gould, G. "W- 
Speth, Stephen Richardson, T. Charters White, R. A. Gowan, C. Fruen, Dr. 
G. Gregson, T. Cohu/ J. J. Pakes, E. T. Edwards, R. T. "Webster, J. 
Robbins, H. Poston, A. D. Green, and G. H. Piper, met at the Liverpool Street 
Station of the Great Eastern Railway and proceeded by the 9.45 a.m. train to 
Colchester. On arrival at ] 1 o'clock, the party was met by Bro. T. J. Railing, 
Prov. Grand Secretary for Essex, to whose kindness in making tbe preliminary 
local arrangements, much of the complete success of the day was due. Under the broiling 
heat of a July sun, the long pull up the hill to the town might bave proved a serious trial, 
even to the junior members of the party, but the thoughtful provision of a well-horsed brake 
reassured even the veterans. The town itself was gaily bedecked with flags and ornamented 
with flaring posters, the parliamentary election being fixed for the Monday following. As 
it was also market day, there was no lack of life in the place, and there is some reason to- 
think that the harmless brakeful of peacable Freemasons, intent only on enjoying themselves 
and improving their minds, was at first mistaken for an invasion of hustings-speakers. It 
certainly created some little excitement and a few cheers. Passing down the handsome and 
unusually broad High Street, with a passing glance of admiration at the old gate-way of 
the Red Lion Hotel, with its wooden carvings of the time of Henry vn., the first visit was. 
made to tbe Castle. Here the brethren were met by Bro. Dr. Henry Laver, M.R.C.S., 
F.L.S., a well-known local antiquary, who had kindly consented to devote a whole day of bis- 
valuable time to the service of bis brethren. The huge parallelogram, now unroofed, bears 
distinct evidence, as pointed out by Dr. Laver, that it is of Roman construction, although 
subsequently adapted and added to by the Normans. - It stands upon the site of a Roman 
Temple, erected to the emperor Claudius. Colchester was, as is "well known, tbe most 
important military station of the Romans in Britain, and bad been a fortified place of the 
Britons themselves previously. Since then it has been in constant occupation by Romans, 
Normans, and English ; alwayp a place of war, and to this day a military depot. That 
Boadicea sacked it and put the inhabitants to the sword ; that Danes and Saxons fought for 
it, so that in 921 Edward the Elder was obliged to repair the walls ; that in king John's, 
reign it was besieged by Saher de Quincey, Earl of Winchester ; that in 1208 it was taken 
by the Dauphin, Louis of France, and held for a short time ; that in 1648 the Castle was 
held, dnring a terrible seige of 76 days, for the King against Fairfax, at the conclusion of 
which the gallant Royalists, Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle, were barbarously shot 
in cold blood ; that in 1683 it was actually bought for the purpose of destroying it and using 
the building material, but that the " Colchester Vandal," John "Wheeley, had to desist after 
doing immense damage, simply because the work of destruction was too arduous and costly, 
so well had it been built; all this is -matter of history, and was interestingly explained by 
Dr. Laver. Less easily verified by history, but still interesting, is tbe tradition that here 
lived King Coel, " the jolly old soul," father of Helena, who in A.d. 264 was betrothed to 
Constantius, the Roman general, and antagonist of her father, and who in 265 gave birth to 
Constantine the Great. The public museum in some of the still existing chambers of the 
Castle contains one of the finest collections of Roman antiquities to be met anywhere, with 
this additional interest, that they are all gathered in the precincts of the town itself. These 
also were described and expatiated on by Dr. Laver, who then conducted the brethren 
through the apartments formerly used as a prison, and then round the exterior of the Castle, 
not forgetting to point out tbe exact spot where the two Royalist captains met their sad 
fate as became gallant English gentlemen. 

And then, it being long past high twelve, back, as Pepys might have said, to the Cups 
Hotel with a marvellous fair appetite. At lunch the brethren were joined by Bro. 
Jones, the W.M., and Bro. Francis the S.W. and M. elect of the Angel Lodge, No. 51, 
Colchester. In the few speeches which were indulged in, Bro. Bywater, I.P.M., (who, in 
the absence of the W.M. filled the chair), expressed to Bros. Laver and Railing the thanks 
of the brethren for all the trouble they had taken, and which had resulted in so pleasurable 
and instructive a visit. 

The oldest Lodge in the Province, the Angel, No. 51, meets at this hostelry (The 
Three Cups), and was originally constituted at an Inn bearing the same name, towards the 
close of 1735. The earliest minute is dated November 25th in that year, and briefly records 
that the Lodge was regularly " open'd." Five brethren only were present. 

Contrary to the general usage in the first half of the last century, the Master appears, 
at least in the very early records, i.e., on June 24th, 1736, to have been elected for a year, 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

instead of for six months, as was the more common practice. Subsequently, however, the 
method of annual, gave way to that of half-yearly elections, and the former habit was not 
resumed until 1814. 

Newly received candidates were not admitted as " members of our Ancient and 
Honourable," but as " Brothers of our' Antient and Worshipful Society." 

There is mention of a visit paid by Thomas Dunckerley to the Lodge, and a letter is 
still preserved in the handwriting of that worthy, which runs : l — 

"Hampton Court Palace, May 10th, 1787. 
Dear Brother 

I send this blank Form, for a list of your present members, to be delivered to 
me in the Grand Lodge at Booking, the 19th of this month, when I shall be happy 
to see as many of your Lodge as can make it convenient to attend, and must desire 
you will acquaint my worthy Deputy what number will go, that he may send a 
line to inform the Master of the White Hart Inn at Booking — how many Brethren 
from Colchester intend to dine. 

I must desire all the Brethren to wear Coek'd Hats in the Procession to 
Church — Present my affectionate Greeting to all the Brethren — and believe me 
your affectionate Brother, Thos. Dunckerlby. 

To the R.W. Master of the Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, held at the Angel, 

Colchester, Essex." 

The above letter is written on the back of a blank form of return, which seems to 

have been afterwards filled in — May 15th, 1787 — with the names of 18 brethren, 13 of 

whom are individually described as " Knight Templar," 3 as " Master Mason," and 2 as 

" Entered Apprentice." 

These gleanings from the old records of No. 51, were hastily made while the 
members of the party were resting themselves at the Three Cups Hotel, during which 
period, Bro. T. J. Railing, Prov. G. Secretary, who is the Secretary of the Angel Lodge, 
exhibited a choice variety of ancient relics and early documents, in the possession of that 

The existing records of but few English Lodges begin so far back in the last 
century as 1735, and the pleasure, therefore, was great, of the visitors to Colchester, at the 
highly congenial treat which the thoughtful kindness of the Secretary of No. 51 had 
provided for them. 

After lunch a fresh start was made, again 
under the excellent guidance of Dr. Laver. 
Visits were paid to the following objects of 
interest. The " Balkon," a bastion of the old 
walls, of Roman construction, with the old 
guard room still distinctly traceable. As far 
back as 1437 we find this called " Colkynge's 
Castle," giving an evidence of the early and 
enduring belief in " Old King Cole." Trinity 
Church with its Saxon Tower and arched 
doorway. In the in- 
terior, on the north 
wall is a mural tablet 
to William Gilbert, 
M.D., born in the 
parish in 1540. This 
remarkable man should 
be one of the scientific 
heroes of England, 
having been far in 
advance of his age ; 
yet in his native town 
not even a monument 
exists to his memory. 
" They manage these 
things better in 
France." He acquired 

so high a reputation both abroad and in 
England that queen Elizabeth made him her 

1 Printed in Sadler's Life of Dunckerley, 174. 

POSVERVMT imtcrornvMAMMowt 

&.GvlilLM»» GiUWRO }N MCmft'MM 
PlCTM-i* FMYMMtGinltlMluillUD 

Simon! wmfcind*. MtpiclN;*. 
Hie raiMCV. FiLlv* HinoNMiCuuo 
MMieni NtfMKrvkutCMXi 
SirnMit UJroiivf rMMJ*uomTi m! 
.THiGilfl*rL.M»MSLoN0iHl HSMyft 

oil rrivccmMj Rni lAcMCnnivh 


C<m*xi'rr Oii'rr Aiwo REDMrTiiws 


KTur'n svw. 63 

0%. GfftBERT 
ny>M the roimvur 

Nil Till 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 


chief physician, and granted him a pension. He was the inventor of two highly ingenious 
instruments for finding the latitude at sea, he discovered several properties of the loadstone, 
anticipated the great Newton in the discovery of gravitation, was the first to assert the 
theory that the earth itself was a great magnet, knew more about electricity than was 
known by others till the beginning of the century, he even suggested the means by 
which electric signals could be made at a distance, thus being the first inventor 
of the telegraph; and yet, but for the timely intervention of Dr. Laver, his sole 
memento, the mural tablet, would have been thrown on the rubbish heap some few years 
back when the church was being enlarged. The ruins of St. Botolph's Priory Church, 
an establishment of the Austin Friars, dating from the 12th century. Here again the rich 
stores of Dr. Laver s archaeological lore were made available for the benefit of the brethren ; 
and even in its ruins this venerable structure is a rare delight for those who can appreciate 
beauty of form and colouring. The Church of St. Giles, remarkable for its ugliness, and 
for the slab of black marble which formerly covered the vault of the two royalists so often 
mentioned, but which now lies in the north aisle. The inscription is cut upon its surface in 
unusually large and deep characters, and is as follows. 

" Under this marble ly the Bodies of the two most valiant Captains Sir Charles 
Lucas and Sir George Lisle, Knights, who for their eminent Loyalty to their 
Soverain, were on the 18th of August, 1648, by the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, 
the General of the Parliamentary Army, in cold blood barbarously murdered." 
In the church yard is another tombstone, of interest as being that of a Freemason, We 
give a sketch of it, and call attention to the quaintness of the concluding lines. 

rJtt /u*tomRj of 

IYFMoses Choppen 

vvho departed tins Life VUrcb f 12 ^ 
yso m ids S8' k Year of his .Age 

Herelyelh onQ vwio was- lelovect by all 
But HhiLotA wisTWscd for him toCall 
Death at Hie Door did Knock full foon 
Hw Morning Sun vm Jett a\ noon 
H« time vm Jhort his LiJ« vms jmil .. 
I hope in Heaven wi lb him lb meet /// 

To Prevent Mistakes the •ddty** 

w Moses Choppen vus | 

,, ,A Victualler injLOND™ ' 


Standing close by, the gateway of St. John's Abbey, the only pari of the establish- 
ment remaining, was visited. The Benedictine Abbey dated from the time of the Normans, 
but the gateway is only of that of Henry vn., and is a beautiful example of squared 
flintwork. The last abbot was ordered to be beheaded by Henry vn., in 1539. But there 
was not a town magistrate daring enough to beard the lion in his den, so the worthy, but 
treacherous, dignitaries of the town courteously invited his reverence to a feast, and then 
took him out and hanged him hefore meat. 

The last visit of the day was paid to the private residence and museum of George 
Joslin, Esq., outside the town proper, on the London road. This is the finest private 
colleotion of Roman antiquities anywhere, most of which were discovered by the owner in. 
digging the foundations of his own house, which occupies part of the site of the old Roman 
cemetery. It is a most interesting collection, and most perfectly arranged ; but its chief 
pride, (and justly so, for not one such other is to be found in all England,) is the 
monumental figure of a Roman centurion in full armour, carved in stone in bold relief, some 
three-and-a-half feet high under a canopy, which with the base, is six feet high by two-and- 
a-half broad. Every detail of the costume is perfectly preserved, as is also the inscription, 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

the only damage being a small one to the nose. Mr. Joslin himself received the brethren, 
and for over an hour assisted Dr. Laver in exhibiting the treasures of his collection, being 
formally thanked for his kindness in speeches by Bro. Piper and Bro. Gould, and by the 
plaudits of all present. 

The brake was then once more put into requisition to convey the party back to the 
Hotel, where an hour was disposed of in discussing a cup of tea ; after which came the ride 
to the station, the lingering farewells to the local brethren whose kindness and invaluable 
services had been of such assistance towards rendering the day the complete success it 
proved, a splendid run back to town by the 6.47 train, and the general dispersion at the 
London Station. 

(The photographs are by Bros. Dr. T. Qharbers White and J. J. Pokes, the cuts are kindly lent by Bro. Rolling.) 


[Our attention has been called by Bro. B. J. Stringfellow, of Crewkerne, to the 
following article in the The Gentleman s Magazine, of April 17th, 1793. Bro. Gavin Wilson 
is hardly entitled to be included in the gallery of " Masonic Celebrities," to which Bro. 
Gould is contributing, but we think him worthy of being enshrined in our pages never- 
theless, and shall at all times be pleased to receive notices of other curious characters who 
may have belonged to the Fraternity. — Editor.] 

Mr. Urban, 

Glasgow, March 20 

JrHB world often profits by the inventions of the ingenious artisan, and enjoys 
the conveniences which are the fruits of his labour, without indulging a 
thought upon the obligations it lies under to their inventor, and without enter- 
taining a wish to trace from obscurity the name or history of the person whose 
exertions have, in reality, been of more advantage to mankind than all the 
pursuits of an hundred other individuals, whose names are held in high 
esteem, and even their foibles venerated, for ages of ages after they have 
ceased to exist. The ingenious artist who is the subject of the following desultory remarks, 
as having contributed very considerably to the ease and convenience of many ranks of people 
by his useful inventions, is surely not undeserving of mention in the pages of Biography. 

For the art of hardening and polishing leather, and the manufacturing of various 
implements and utensils from it, superior for many uses to those formed of other materials, 
the world is indebted to Gavin Wilson, a journeyman bootmaker, of the City of Edinburgh. 
The extensive circulation of the polished leather powder-flasks, drinking mugs, snuff-boxes, 
ink-cases, and numerous other useful articles in this branch of manufacture, of which he was 
■ the original maker, has rendered this invention famous not only over Europe, but in other 






Bjr lind permission ofBro, T. J. Balling. 





ass QnATtTOR cobonatobum. 


■ -- 



By kind permission of Bro. T. J. Baiting. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 155 

quarters of the globe ; although the name of the inventor is almost entirely unknown. His 
abilities were not limited to the producing of the articles in this line of manufacture which 
are in common use ; his. ingenuity enabled him to form a German flute and a violin, both of 
leather, which for neatness of workmanship and melodiousness of tone were neither of them 
inferior to any instruments of the same kind, formed of wood, by the workmen whose 
peculiar province it is to make these instruments. The exertions of his genius went yet 
farther, and he contrived artificial arms and legs of the same materials, which not only 
remedied the deformity arising from the want of a natural limb, but in a great measure 
supplied that loss, in itself one of the most distressing that can befal any individual. The 
unexampled success of his endeavours in this way, and the very imminent advantages the 
maimed derived from his inventions, may be best instanced by the following copy of a letter, 
written by a person who was unfortunate enough to be deprived of both his hands while 
serving in the Royal Navy ; by the assistance of Gavin "Wilson this man was enabled both 
to convey his sentiments by writing, and to perform many useful offices about his own 
person. The letter was first published in the Caledonian Mercury, for 1779, along with an 
advertisement of the ingenious mechanic who was the means of rendering this author a 
comfort to himself, and in some measure an useful member of society. 

" To the Printer of the Caledonian Mercury. 

" As I am a reader of your Mercury, I indulge myself with the hope that you will 
admit my short misfortunate narrative into a corner of your extensively useful paper. I 
belong to the Royal Artillery ; and on the 23rd of April, 1776, I embarked on board the 
Fleetwood transport, Captain Slazier, from Woolwich, and arrived at Quebeck the 1st of 
June the same year, where we had a very restless and troublesome campaign ; but especially 
to my experience, in the engagement on Lake Champlain, near Ticonderago, where I was in 
a gun-boat and serving the vent ; at this duty we have occasion for extending both hands 
towards the vent, and mine being in that position, an eighteen-pound shot from the rebels 
came and carried away both my hands, the right hand about an inch and an half, and the 
left about six inches, below my elbow. 

" Thus I was rendered useless to my king, my country, and myself ; but I gratefully 
acknowledge that the Honorable Board of Ordnance have made proper provision for me ; 
but, alas ! they could not make me useful to myself. 

"Very lately I heard of one Gavin Wilson, in the Cannon-gate. I applied to him; 
and he has made me two jointed hands of leather, with which, besides writing these few 
lines to you, I can do a great many very useful things to myself. 

" And as Mr. Wilson has far exceeded my expectation in what he has done for me, 
T think it is my duty, in justice to him, and in sympathy to others in my unhappy situation, 
to give this public intimation, that any who needs his help may know were to apply. 

" I am, Sir, your humble servant, 

(Signed) "James Cragie. 
" Perth, April 15, 1779. 

" P.S. Lately the honourable Board of Trustees for Fisheries, Manufactories, and 
Improvements, in Scotland, honoured the inventor of legs and arms with a genteel premium 
on that account." 

Were any farther testimony requisite to evince the high utility of this deserving 
artist's contrivances, besides the approbation of the Patriotic Board which honoured his 
ingenuity by a premium, the authority of two of the most celebrated medical practitioners 
of the present age might be produced; Dr. Alexander Monro, present Professor of Anatomy 
and Surgery in the University of Edinburgh ; and Mr. Benjamin Bell, author of the System 
of Surgery, published at Edinburgh. 

Dr. Monro, in his lectures for these many years past, has annually honoured the 
memory of Gavin Wilson with a public encomium, as the inventor of the improved artificial 
arms and legs ; and Mr. Bell, in the 6th volume of the work above mentioned, pays the 
following tributes to his merit. 

" These artificial legs and arms are preferable to any I have ever seen. The leg, when 
properly fitted, proves equally useful with the common timber-leg, and is preferable for 
being neater ; at the same time that it is not liable to break, au accident to which the others 
are very liable ; and it answers better than a leg made of copper, from, being considerably 
lighter, and not apt to be hurt in shape by bruises. They are so constructed as to be fixed 
on by means of straps, and hooks and buckles, in such a manner, that the weight of the 
person's body does not rest upon the stump of the amputated limb, but hangs quite free 

156 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 

■within the case of the artificial leg. This in the most effectual manner prevents the pain 
and excoriation which otherwise would be apt to happen from the friction of the stump 
against the machine. "When a limb is amputated above the knee, a joint is formed in the 
artificial limb at the knee. In walking, the limb is made steady by a steel bolt, running in 
two staples on the outside of the thigh, being palled down ; and when the patient sits down, 
he renders the joint flexible by pulling the bolt up. This is easily done, and adds much to 
the utility of the invention. Mr. Wilson's artificial limbs, besides being made of firm, 
hardened leather, are covered with white lambskin, so tinged as very nearly to resemble the 
human skin. The nails are made of white horn, tinged in such a manner as to be a very 
near imitation of nature. The wrist-joint is a ball and socket, and answers all the purposes 
of flexion, extension, and rotation. The first joints of the thumb and fingers are also balls 
and sockets made of hammered plate-brass, and all the balls are hollow to diminish their 
weight. The second and third joints are similar to that which anatomists term Ginglimus, 
but they are so far different as to admit of any motion, whether flexion, extension, or lateral. 
The fingers and metacarpus (wrist) are made up to the shape, with soft shamoy leather and 
baked hair. In the palm of the hand there is an iron screw, in which a screw nail is 
occasionally fastened. The head of this nail is a spring-plate, contrived in such a manner 
as to hold a knife or fork, which it does with perfect firmness. And by means of a brass 
ring fixed on the first and second fingers, a pen can be used with sufficient accuracy for 
writing. When the arm is amputated above the elbow, the artificial limb is made with an 
elbow-joint. This part of it is made of wood, and has a rotary motion as well as that of 
flexion and extension." 

Mr. Bell concludes his description with the following well-deserved panegyric : 

" I have given this particular account of Mr. Wilson's invention, from a conviction of 
its being superior to any with which the public is acquainted. I am also pleased at having 
it in my power to let the merit of such an artist be more generally known than it otherwise 
might be. Indeed, his merit in matters of this kind is so conspicuous, as well as in the 
management of distorted limbs, that his death I would consider as a public loss ; at the 
same time I have often wished that some public encouragement were given him, to enable 
him to communicate as much as possible the result of his experience to others." 

For an account of the machine used for the cure of distorted limbs, whish is also 
formed of hardened leather, as well as for farther information relative to the artificial arms 
and legs, I must refer to Mr. Bell's publication, which is in the hands of every surgical 

Notwithstanding the benevolent wish expressed by Mr. Bell for rendering the 
experience of this ingenious mechanic of permanent benefit to society, nothing was done in 
that respect ; and he died, unnoticed, at Edinburgh, within these few years. From having 
but little intercourse with that city, I have been able to pick up but few anecdotes of his 
life, and cannot even give any account of his birth, parentage, or decease ; the latter, how- 
ever, must have happened at some period since the publication of Mr. Bell's work in 1789. 
His sign-board is still extant in the street called the Cannongate, with this humourous 
inscription, " Gavin Wilson, arm, leg, and boot-maker, hut not to his Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales ;" for this singular genius had also pretensions to wit, and was occasionally 
a votary of Apollo and the Tuneful Nine. The above sportful effort of his fancy was set up 
at a time when a rage for obtaining, even at an exhorbitant price, the titled honour of an 
office under royalty was predominant amongst all ranks of his fellow-citizens. The ridicule 
in this mirthful effusion was so happily conceived, and so well directed, as to be universally 
well received ; and probably it contributed in no small degree to exterminate the then 
prevalent and preposterous taste against which it was aimed. He was a regular attendant 
at the Lodges of the free-masons, and a warm friend of the fraternity. By his propensity 
for versifying, and composing songs and short stories in rhyme, he contributed much to the 
social mirth and enjoyment of their meetings, and to the good-humour and amusement of 
all companies where he came. He frequently sang and recited his own productions in the 
lodge-meetings : from this circumstance he was elected Poet Laureat to the Lodge of St. 
David, at Edinburgh, of which he was a member. After receiving this distinguished 
mark of honour, in the year 1788, he published a collection of his poetical per- 
formances, under the title of " A Collection of Masonic Songs, and entertaining Anecdotes, 
for the Use of all the Lodges. By Gavin "Wilson, Poet Laureat to the Lodge of St. David, 
Edinburgh." -To this publication is prefixed a portrait of the author, decorated with 
Masonic insignia. By people who were acquainted, with him, I have been told that it is 
a very good likeness ; it is drawn and etched by a very ingenious artist, Mr. John Kay, 
engraver and portrait painter, in Edinburgh, whose abilities as a caricaturist have already 
acquired him extensive celebrity, and bid fair, in the estimation pf posterity, to rival the 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 157 

fame of the celebrated Hogarth. The author talks very contemptuously of his own 
compositions in the following lines of his Preface ; and, as an excuse for publishing them, 
pleads the importunities of his friends : 

" Courteous Reader, 
" You are inquisitive, no doubt, 
How this odd fancy comes about, 
That old unletter'd leather-toaster 
Should now commence a poetaster; 
For to a more deserving name 
His mean productions found no claim. 
These trifles in your hand you hold 
Some are ! bove thirty winters old j 
Though others of more recent date 
His home-spun Muse did instigate. 
He, when with choice companions set, 
Would sometimes one or more repeat. 
For copias many did insist ; 
Some gratified in their request ; 
But to give every friend his share 
Would take more time than I could spare." 

The following whimsical advertisement may serve as a not unfavourable specimen 
of his poetical attempts : 

" G. Wilson, humbly, as before, 
Resumes his thankfulness once more 
For favours formerly enjoy'd 
In, by the public, being employ'd, 
And hopes this public intimation 
Will meet with candid acceptation. 
The world knows well he makes boots neatly, 
And, as times go, he sells them cheaply ; 
'Tis also known to many a hundred, 
Who at his late inventions wond"red, 
That polish'd leather boxes, cases, 
So well known now in many places, 
With powder-flasks, and pjrter-mugs, 
And jointed leather-arms and legs, 
Design'd for use as well as show, 
Exempli gratia, read below, 1 
Were his invention ; and no claim 
Is just by any other name. 
With numbers of productions more, 
In leather, ne'er perform'd before. 
In these dead times, being almost idle, 
He try'd, and made a leather fiddle 
Of workmanship extremely neat, 
Of tone quite true, both soft and sweet ; 
And, finding leather not a mute, 
He made a leather German flute, 
Which play'd as well, and was as good, 
As any ever made of wood. 

" He, for an idle hour's amusement, 
Wrote this exotic advertisement, 
Informing you he does reside 
In head of Cannongate, South side, 
Up the first wooden-railed stair, 
You're sure to find his Whimship there. 
In Britain none can fit you better 
Than can your servant the Boot-maker'' 

" (Signed) Gavin Wilson." 

Inclosed I have sent you the print prefixed to his publication, that you may favour 
your numerous readers with the portrait of this singular genius and eccentric humourist in 
one of your plates. Under the original are the Masonic emblems, as in the plate ; and this 
inscription : " Gavin Wilson, Edinburgh, leg, arm, and boot-maker, inventor of hardened 
and polished leather." A 1. 

[Can any Brother in "Auld Reekie" give further particulars as to his Masonic 
-career, or present the Library with a copy of his book of " Masonic Songs ?" — Editor.] 

1 See the letter to the Printer of the Caledonian Mercury, p.308. 

158 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 



Grand Master of the High Degrees. 

4^, ;Hi VVi' HE exact relations between the Craft and the High Degrees in the Netherlands 
}// 1 ;B| _) mL have of late attracted considerable attention and discussion in the pages of 
^■kY II [/& J ^ rs Q ua tuor Coronatorum. Without wishing in the least to touch upon 
_^MjHnA_ this question, I cannot but think that a sketch of the origin and rise of these 
^j/M^Cs) degrees, so far as concerns my own country, must prove of interest to many 
jl^atJiSS of our members. Brother W. D. J. Brouwer, a member of the Historical 
Committee of our Grand Chapter, published a pamphlet on this subject in 
1888, entitled, " Beknopt Historisch Overzicht der Hooge Graden in Nederland," etc., i.e., " A 
compendious historical view of the High Degrees in the Netherlands," etc. Leaving 
aside entirely the later history as being now discussed by Bros. Vaillant and Dieperink, and 
confining myself to the first nineteen pages of this publication, I proceed to condense and 
translate a few extracts, for the benefit of those of onr members who are unable to read the 

The High Degrees of the Netherlands, also called Red Masonry, acquired their name 
in 1803, and were constituted from out the Grand Scots Lodge working at The Hague in the 
degrees of Elu and JEcossais, and a Chapter at Amsterdam of Sovereign Princes Rose-Groix, 
called Credentes Vivent Ab ILlo. 

The Grand Scots Lodge was erected in 1776, the first meeting being on the 20th May, 
and thirty brethren participated under the presidency of Bro. Carel, Baron van Boetselaer. 
From the minutes, the objects appear to have been threefold — to establish uniformity in 
working, to prevent clashing with the Symbolic Degrees, and to put an end to the arbitrary 
proceedings of persons who pretented to have a right to confer the high degrees. 

A preliminary general meeting had been held on the 27th April, 1776, with 14 lodges 
represented. Baron van Boetselaer, Grand Master of the Craft Degrees, was elected Grand 
Master National. The second Grand Scots Lodge was held on the 19th May, 1777, and 
statutes, consisting of 19 articles were drawn up. There were 17 Lodges represented. Lodge 
Pallas belonging to the Grand Master was ordered to be closed, as it was feared that many 
brethren, although living nearer to other Lodges, might give this one an undue preference. 

At the Grand Communication of the 18th May, 1778, protests were received from 
several Lodges, stating that they had worked the Scots degrees for years previously, and 
therefore objected to making payment for a new warrant under the new rules. Resolved, 
that Lodges Le Profond Silence, Les Gceurs Unis, La Vertu, U Indissoluble, L'Aurore, Be 
Edelmoedigheid, and La Concorde, should receive letters of Constitntion without payment. 

In a very short time overtures were made from Germany, with the result that the 
Grand Scots Lodge established friendly relations with the Provincial Grand Master Termin 
of Stuttgart, with the brethren in Hamburg, and in 1779 with the Grand Easts of Germany, 
Sweden and Denmark, and with Prince Frederick of Hesse-Cassel. 

At the meeting of the 5th June, 1786, it was explained that no Lodge had been called 
since 1779, and a committee was elected to consider, 1°. — What means should be taken to 
increase the stability of the Scots Grand Lodge. 2°. — To procure more imiformity in 

No further assembly was held till 1801. Thereto were summoned for the 10th April, 
by the Scots Lodge Frederic Royal of Rotterdam, all known existing Scots Lodges, also 
sometimes called Chapters. A committee was then appointed which submitted a report on 
the 13th September. At the summons of Bro. Is. van Teylingen, Grand Master National, 
the brethren working in the High Degrees assembled on the 7th June, 1802. A government 
was elected and a committee appointed to organise the rite. The committee reported on the 
3rd May, 1802, and advised the following scheme : — 

1st degree, Elu or Select Master. 

2nd degree, the three Scots Grades. 

3rd degree, Knight of the Sword or of the East. 

4th degree, Sovereign Prince Rose-Croix. 

The first three degrees to be really worked, the last one to be merely communicated. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 159 

On the 15th October 1803, this "was accepted in a general assembly, called Grand 
East of the High Degrees. New statutes were submitted and adopted, the old ones revoked, 
and new warrants of constitution granted. The proposed rituals of the first three degrees 
were approved, but as regards the Rose-Croix, it was decided that the Grand Lodge had no 
power over it unless the same should be granted it by the "Chapter of a foreign constitution 
already established." This chapter, Gredentes Vivent Ab Mo of Amsterdam, then invested 
the Grand Lodge with its own inherent powers and declared itself closed. 

It has never been satisfactorily ascertained whence all the Scots Lodges derived their 
constitutions, but the following dates of erection are known. 1755, the Scots Lodges La 
Bien Aimee, Concordia Vincit Animos and La Charite at Amsterdam, — 1764, Frederic Boyal 
at Rotterdam, — 1768, La Paix, Amsterdam, — 1777, L'Aurore, Brielle, La Vertu, Leyden, La 
Philantrope and La Oompanie Durable, Middelburg, Le Profond Silence, Kampen, and L' Union 
Provinciate, Groningen, — 1779, L' Union Boyale, The Hague, — 1785, De Eendracht, Rotterdam, 
— 1789, Les Vrais Bataves, The Hague, — 1791, La Parfaite Union, Dordrecht, and in 1800, 
L'Astre de L' Orient, Flushing. 

La Bien Aimee's Constitution is dated Dublin, 26th December, 1755, as follows : — 

We, Grandmaster, Substitute of the Very Illustrious and Very Worshipful 
Grandmaster of Great Britain, do hereby declare and attest, that by letters dated 
10th December 1 755, it has been given us to know that several of our Brethren, 
(who, for the greater spreading of our effulgent lustre, had travelled abroad,) had, 
in the month of December at The Hague in Holland, received Pieter Bucherius 
Bunel, calling himself Grandmaster 1 of a certain Lodge in Amsterdam, ' La Bien 
Aimee,' with full ceremonial into the true secrets of Ecossais and Elus. 

Therefore we do so acknowledge him, and, moreover, as he is highly recom- 
mended by our very excellent Brothers in the letter above named, we do empower 
him, as Grandmaster, to work in a Scots and Select Lodge, and to instruct other 
brethren in the mysteries of Ecossais and Elus, and even, in urgent cases, withont 
full ceremonial ; nevertheless, not otherwise than is set out in his secret instruc- 

Further we do confer upon him the special privilege that he may appoint 
brethren belonging to our assemblies to be Grandmasters of other Lodges now 
existing or to be erected hereafter, throughout the cities and lands under the juris- 
diction of the Honourable States General of the United Netherlands. 

Nevertheless he shall be careful not to appoint himself or others to the 
dignity of a Grandmaster in foreign lands, unless he be himself resident there. 

Given in Dublin in our Lodge the 26th day of December 1755, under our 
hand and seal. 

C. Walgreve, S.M. 
James Pitt Lithelier. 
W. Cuxtost Williams. 

This letter is written in Latin on parchment, at the head is affixed an impressed 
wafer seal, and the same seal is attached to the end in green wax. This is the seal :— 

The document is endorsed — 

La Bien Aimee, Amsterdam. 

And somewhat lower down — , 

These Constitutions, with all consequent thereon, 
transferred by me to the Worshipful Lodge La Bien Aimee 
or to its Grandmaster for the time being, without any reserve 

Actum Amsterdam 25 Dec. 1784. 
P. B. Bunel. 

In February, 1756, Brother Bunel gave the Lodge the following document : — 

The desire to promote the Sublime Knowledge of the honoured Craft of 
Masonry having induced the members of the Worshipfull Lodge La Bien Aimee to 
petition the Very Worshipful Brother Pieter Bucherius Bunel, their Very Illus- 
trious Grand Master to enlarge their knowledge by communicating to them the 
sublime mysteries of the Ecossais and Elus, and to work their Very Worshipful 
Lodge in future after the manner of the Scots and Selected, and such request 

1 During last century a usual title for the W.M. of a Lodge in many Continental oountriesjwas 
Grand Master. He must not be confounded with the Grand Master of the Jurisdiction, often styled 
Grand Master National. — Editoe. 

160 Transactions of the Lodge Quotum Coronati. 

Laving been communicated by the Secretary in the most solemn manner in the. 
name of all the members, and the Very Worshipful being willing to grant it freely, 
did question the members on certain points, to which the brethren agreed with 

Therefore, the aforesaid "Worshipful Master has thought fit to declare and 
constitute, and does hereby declare and constitute, (in accordance with the power 
vested in him,) the Thrice Worshipful Lodge La Bien Aimee, a Very Illustrious 
Scots Lodge. 

In confirmation whereof the Very Illustrious Master has hereto appended 
his signature. 

Actum in Lodge the 8th day of February 1756 and of the Royal Art, 384 or 

P. B. BlJNEL. 

By order of the Very Worshipful Lodge, 
Jacobus Buys. 

The Scots Lodge was thus constituted on Sunday, 8th February, 1756, by Brother 
Bunel. The minutes, which run from that date to Tuesday, 23rd December, 18D0, show 
that the degrees conferred were first the Scots grades and then the Elu, — that the meetings 
were called sometimes Elu, or Select Master, at other times Lodges or Chapters, and in 
other places Elu Lodge, or Chapter of the Sword and Elect of King Solomon, — that in still 
other places, after receiving the three Scots grades of Scots Apprentice, Fellow, and Master, 
the grade of Knight of St. Andrew was conferred, — that often after the meeting there was 
a banquet, — that there is evidence, especially between the years 1793 and 1795, of the 
influence of the French Revolution by the use of the words, ' Liberty, Equality, and Frater- 
nity,' — and that the vulgar year 1803 was equal to the Scots year 428. 

It may further be stated that on the 12th April, 1 780, the first meeting was held in 
Amsterdam of the newly established Order of Knights of the East, which was called a 
Chapter or Orient Lodge. It then became known that already other brothers possessing this 
degree had assembled in the Hartestraat, Amsterdam, in the house of Rijk Everts, under the 
presidency of Bunel. The brethren received into this decree were called Princes. 

Over and above this, on the 10th January, 1786, the Chapter of Princes of 
Jerusalem was inaugurated by Bro. Douwens, by transferring his inherent powers to the 
officers of La Bien Aimee. 

The Scots Lodge, Concordia Vincit Animos, Amsterdam, held its Charter of 14th 
April, 1755. from Edinburgh. In their report of the 10th June, 1843, a committee of the 
High Degrees doubted the authenticity of this warrant, but in the Grand Assembly of the 
1st June, 1844, Bro. G. J. Pool produced and read a letter from Bro. John Jobling, of 
Newcastle, Prov. Grand Master of the Lodges in Northumberland, declaring that the warrant 
of the Lodge was genuine, and an endorsement to that effect was made on it by the Grand 
Secretary of Scotland. 1 

At the meeting already mentioned of the 15th October, 1803, it was agreed that the 
Rose-Croix Chapter, Credentes Vivent Ah Illo, should prove its legal existence, and hand 
over its powers to the Grand Scots Lodge, so long as this should endure, but resume its old 
position and powers should the Grand Lodge be dissolved. Bro. Pieter Diepvest, W.M. of 
Lodge Concordia, was also Master of the Chapter Credentes V.A.I., and from the minute-book 
of the Masters' Lodge the said Chapter was proved to be a Chapter of Knights of the Eagle 
(not Phoenix) and Pelican, and that it was entitled to confer the highest degrees of the 
Rose-Croix. It was further stipulated that the Chapter, before closing, should meet for a 
last time in order to promote some of the brethren as Knights Elus and Knights of the East, 
which was done. 

The diploma granted by this Chapter to its members reads as follows : — 

In furtherance of Peace and Harmony, 
Chapter Credentes Vivent Ab Illo, 
To all well-inclined Brother Readers, worthy thereof, 
Health, Happiness, and Welfare ! 
In the meeting of Very Worshipful and Illustrious Brother-Knights of the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem is enacted and agreed to promote to the dignity of 
Fellow-Knight of the said Order the noble, worthy, gentle, and highly -recommended 

1 It is quite true that the Lodge in question was warranted by the G.L. of Scotland as a Lodge under 
their authority, and naturally working their rite. But from the above quotations it might be assumed that 
the G.L. of Scotland warranted them as what is known as a " Scots Lodge," which would be a mistake, as 
the G.L. of Scotland never worked, or authorised, or acknowledged in any way these degrees. It cannot bo 
too often repeated, because so often forgotten, that the so-called Scots Degrees are NOT of Scottish origin 
at all. — Editoe. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 161 

man .... he having surmounted the six ordinary grades, and he is hereby 
this day admitted. 

Thus it is that we, by these presents, do declare, that the above named 
Brother .... is duly accepted and appointed Commander of the Temple at 
Jerusalem, and empowered to take his place and vote in the assembly of the 
Illustrious Knights, but under the following conditions. He shall never assist at 
an illegal meeting, nor give it his countenance, but shall make known immediately 
its existence to a lawful Chapter, and shall at all times and everywhere carry out 
all orders given to him by the authorities of this Chapter, and shall at least once in 
three years attend this Chapter, or else excuse himself by letter. 

Conducting himself thus as a worthy Knight, we do recommend him to the 
protection of all Chapters in general and all Knights in particular, with the prayer 
in every case when he may be in need of their assistance, to afford the same 
according to the charitable institutions of onr Order. 

As a pledge of legitimacy, the owner, Knight .... shall put his hand 
and seal to the margin hereof, whereof a copy remains in our possession. 

Given in our Chapter aforesaid, in the neighbourhood of Amsterdam, and 
certified under the Great Seal, on the . . day of the . . month, in the year 
of the Order . . . and according to the vulgar reckoning. . . 

To this document was appended by a red ribbon a seal, bearing a cross charged 
with three roses on which were the letters C.V.A., and on the cross the letters I.N.R.I., to 
the right a pelican with its young, to the left an eagle, the legend being 

" Sigillum Magnum. R. — 

~ Batavorum, A: C: 759." 


This 759 is the date of establishment of the Chapter, and is 1788 of our chronology- 
These documents ceased to be issued in 1803. 

The deed transferring all its powers to the Grand Chapter is as follows : — 

In the name of our Lord, to all our brethren, Greeting. Diploma transferring 
all rights and power in the affairs of the Holy Order of the Rosy Cross, to summons 
meetings of the Knights and piously united to work under God's blessing for the 
welfare of the same, under a true and lawful oath taken in our presence, and signed 
by the Illustrious Brother Commander of the Knights. 

Under the hand of Illustrious Brother Commander of Palestine, 

De La Garde. 
M. Bergh. 
Commander of the Brothers Knights of Palestina, 105. 

"We, Commanders in chief of the Rosy Cross, principal Substitutes, Presidents, 
and Head-Masters, Ac, &c, do grant by these presents the power and the might to 
summon meetings of the Knights, and to hold theni,but always in a convenient and 
seemly place. In confirmation whereof we do appoint as Master in the Chair the 
Very Worshipful, Trustworthy, Illustrious and Free Man and Noble Brother 
Knight of the Rosy Cross, Brother Hendrik Bolt, a worthy Amsterdam Master of 
the Society Concordia Vincit Animos, in order that he, in compliance with the Holy 
Rites of our Order and the obligations of our Ancient Society, may do all the good 
in his power, labouring for the welfare of our trusty master-builders and that of 
mankind, as every Master knows to be his duty ; to control all acts of the lodge under 
his hand and sign manual as President ; and to require account at the hands of the 
head-masters, at all times and in every way, whether in the presence or absence of 
ourselves or of our Inspectors. 

We do not complete this, and we shall not respect it, if, which the Holy 
Trinity forbid, an unjust administration should arise ; saying only, ' If God be with 
us, who shall be against us.' 

And we do grant these presents under our Great Seal and sign-manual, and 
with the highest authority, where, by the Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, Peace and 
Unity are enthroned and founded upon the sure rocks of Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
in the year of our reckoning 496, to Henri Bolt, Sublime Master of the Rose- 

Dalm ENCOURT, Sublime Vicar-General. 

De Consalvin, Secretary. 

F. H. G. De La Garde, Commander of the Princes of Palestine. 

True Copy. J. Bouhots, Chancellor. 

Dctbienne, Chief Confidant. 

162" Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

The agreement itself reads as follows : — 

In virtue of an agreement of the 15th day of the 8th month of the year of the 
Order 774 (vulgar era 1803) made between the Governing Body of the High 
Degrees of Freemasonry in the Batavian Republic on the one part, and Gredentes 
Vivent Ab Illo, as the only le^al Chapter of the Eagle or the Rosy Cross in the said 
Republic, on the other part, We the undersigned, as the rulers of said Chapter, do 
declare and ordain that unto the said Governing Body is transferred all the power 
and authority of which the said Chapter is at present seized in virtue of its constitu- 
tion (witness foregoing copy). 

Done near Amsterdam, under the Great Seal of the Order, on the 6th day of 
the 2nd month of the year of the Great Light 775. 


Magistr. J. N. H. Hennebeeg R .-. + 
A. G. Heineken R . - . + Insp. Sec. 

Inspe. Gen. W. Veenhutsen R .•. + 
Feedeeik Keuse Junior R .\ + Thes. 

Insp. Sec. J. Bouhuys R .-. + 


From the foregoing documents it is not possible to determine whence they issued or 
derived their authority. The names, however, of De La Garde, Bergh, Dalmencourt, De 
Consalvin, are to be found on old documents and certificates issued by a Chapter named 
' Jesus,' and another called ' Jonathan and David,' of Avignon, France, in 1788. 

The Bro. Bolt who was thus authorised to erect Chapters of the Rosy Cross, was also 
empowered to constitute Chapters of the United Orders of Jonathan and David, and Jesus 
Christ, by a document of which the following is a part. 

Les Grand-Maitres plenipotentiaires des ordres fraternels et confederes de 
Jonathan et David et Jesus Christ, au nom et sous l'auspice et la tolerance 
mysterieuse de Sa Saintete, Pius Pontife Souverain ! Magistre Supreme et 
Oecumenique ! Serviteur des Serviteurs de Dieu ! par la clemence divine. . . 

The Chapters to pay a contribution in order that sooner or later the said Order may 
acquire possession of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, the holy site of St. Catherine on 
Mount Sinai, and other holy places in Palestine, and the document concludes : — 

Donne a Avignon, et expedie par transmission suivante a Amsterdam, le 
vingt septiSme Decembre, l'an de la confederation 2853 ; de l'orde 468 ; et de 
grace 1788. 

At the end of the document are two seals in red wax, with the name " Carpentras." 
That on the left bears the word " Gradidatio," and that on the right shows a Tiara with two 
crossed keys and the date 1788. On the inside of the document is a miniature portrait of 
St. Francis, with a skull and flagellum, and the symbol of the Rosy Cross, the Virgin and 
child standing on the globe, which bears the words " Refugium peccatorum." The 
suggestion which arises from this document granted to Bro. Bolt is, that the Church of 
Rome organised the Rose Croix in order to regain power over Freemasonry. If so the events 
of 1792 perhaps prevented this. a 

The subsequent history of the High Grades in the Netherlands has lately been a 
subject of discussion in these pages, and may also be referred to in Bro. Gould's " History," 
so that I refrain from further translating Bro. Brouwer's pamphlet, but I hope that the 
documerts and data I have given here may be considered of sufficient interest to warrant 
their insertion in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 163 


|T is fortunately very seldom that Freemasonry has recourse to Courts of Law 
to settle its differences. Yet in some few cases it has been found impossible 
to avoid this, and such cases increase the number of " Remarkable occurences 
in Freemasonry." In this connection we may refer to the dispute early last 
century between the Lodge of St. Mary's Chapel, Edinburgh, and their off- 
shoot, the Journeymen Lodge : in which case resort was had to legal pro- 
ceedings, although the quarrel was finally settled by a " Decreet Arbitral " 
in 1715. As Brethren will have gathered from the discussion in our pages foi some time 
past, a little family difficulty has lately occurred in the Netherlands. A legacy having 
been left the Fraternity, the Grand Lodge claimed to be the sole recipients and administra- 
tors thereof as representing the whole Craft. To this the supreme authority of the High- 
Degrees as also that of the " The Divisions of the Master's Degree " demurred, asserting 
that the Order in the Netherlands consisted of three independent and co-equal bodies, and 
demanding their shares. In justice to our Dutch Brethren it is right to state that, as far 
as we can gather, the legacy itself has been throughout of less importance to the disputants 
than the principle involved in its distribution. It has served to raise a question which 
required settling ; and we believe either side would willingly have lost the mere money, 
if it could establish the principle for which it was contending. We regret that the matter 
has not been settled out of court, but we are not in a position to decide whether any one 
of the three parties is to blame, neither do we know whether other means might have been 
found to settle the point at issue. The case became the subject of an appeal to the Supreme 
Court of the Netherlands, and a judgment has been rendered, of which Bro. Dieperink 
has supplied us with a translation. In the history of Dutch Freemasonry this judgment 
will always figure as a " Remarkable Occurrence," for which reason it now finds a place in 
our Transactions. — Editor. 

JUDGMENT delivered on the 24th JUNE, 1892, by the SUPREME COURT OF 
THE NETHERLANDS, at the Hague, in the case of the ORDER OF FREEMASONS 
THE MASTER'S DEGREE to be allowed to intervene as eo-defendants. 

" The Supreme Court of the Netherlands 

Having heard the parties. 

Having heard the Advocate-General Patyn, on behalf the Attorney-General, in his 
conclusion, tending to, etc. 

Having examined the documents. 

Considering with regard to the facts, that the Government of the Netherlands by 
summons of the 12th October, 1891, at the instance of the Order of Freemasons in the 
Netherlands, dependent Colonies and Countries, established at the Hague, represented by its 
Chief Board of Management, which Chief Board of Management consists at present of Mr. 
P. J. G. van Diggelen and nine other gentlemen, named in the summons, the office of Junior 
Grand Warden being vacant, has been summoned to pay to the plaintiff on withdrawal of 
4 saldo-notes, the interest on the entry in the Great Book of the 2| per cent, national debt, 
under letter N, volume nine No. 2485, due on the 1st January and 1st July of the years 
1890 and 1891, amounting together to f.11455, with the lawful interest on this sum, from 
the date of the summons. 

Considering, that the defendant, in consequence of a writ, concerning this interest of 
the Great Books served at the instance of the Bodies named hereafter, on the 3rd December, 
1889, on the Board of Management of the Great Boohs of the National Debt in the Netherlands, 
has caused this summons to be served on : 

I. the moral body : " the High Degrees of the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands, 
dependent Colonies and Countries," established at the Hague, being represented in law by the 

"Chief Board of Management, called : " the Board of Grand Officers," and consisting at present 
of Messrs. /. D. Oortman Gerlings, and 8 others, and 

II. the moral body : " the Divisions of the Master's Degree of the Order of Freemasons 
in the Netherlands, dependent Colonies and Countries," established at the Hague, being 
represented in law by the Chief Board of Management, called : " the Chamber of Administra- 

164 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

tion," and consisting at present of Messrs. D. P. van Beysen and 6 others ; in order that 
those signified, deeming it advisable, may intervene in the suit and look after their interests. 
Considering that the said Chief Boards of Management have on the 28th October, 
1891, presented to the Supreme Court a request to that effect, therein alleging : 

That the summons served on the 12th October, 1891, on the Government is issued at 
the instance of a board of management, which unjustly calls itself " the Chief Board of 
Management of the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands, dependent Colonies and 
Countries," and unjustly claims to represent the Order as such: 

That the entry in the Great Book of the .National debt, which is here concerned, has 
been made in the name of " Netherlands, dependent Colonies and Countries (the Order of 
Freemasons in the Kingdom of the) represented by the Grand Master National and the 
Board of Grand Officers, now and for the future t " 

That they, the petitioners, together with the Symbolic Degrees, who are plaintiffs in 
this lawsuit now pending, form " the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands, dependent 
Colonies and Countries," and for that reason they have opposed by writ dated 3rd December, 
1889, served on the Management of the Great Book of the National Debt, any further payment 
of interest on the capitals, inscribed in the name as above indicated, to — and also any total 
or partial writing off or transfer of these capitals at the request of — others than the three 
parts of the Order of Freemasons jointly, being : the High Degrees, petitioners sub. I ; the 
Divisions of the Master's Degree, petitioners sub. II ; and the Symbolic Degrees, the present 
plaintiffs, — moving for these reasons that the Supreme Court allow them to intervene in 
the pending suit, between the original plaintiff and the original defendant, with condemna- 
tion in the costs of this interpleader, against those parties, who shall oppose this motion. 

Considering that these arguments, repeated before the Court, have been disputed by 
the original plaintiff, also before the Court, by asserting that what has been alleged by the 
petitioners for intervention, is contradicted by the fact : 

That the entry, of which the interests are demanded has been effected in the name of 
a representative of the same Order, of which the Board of Management which now appears 
in law as the representative of the Order, is the perfectly legitimate successor in law : 

That, even if the present petitioners for intervention should be able to substantiate 
rights to possessions belonging to this Order, and particularly to the above named entry or 
the interests thereof, it does not follow therefrom that the complaining Board of Manage- 
ment, which appears as representatives of the Order for the collection of interest, due by 
the Government on an entry in the Great Book, standing in the name as quoted above, 
should not be entitled to this representation for that purpose, and as a consequence thereof, 
to the collection of the same : 

That the allegations of the petitioners cannot influence the decisions thereon, while 
this decision can not infringe their rights, in so far as they might arise from their 
allegations : 

That the petitioners have therefore failed to prove that they have a real interest at 
law in the granting of their request. 

Upon which the plaintiff has demanded : 

That the petitioners for intervention shall be declared not admissible in their request 
and the motion made by them, and shall be non-suited cum expensis. 

Considering that the Government of the Netherlands has declared, with regard to the 
request for intervention, to submit itself to the decision of the Supreme Court : 

That petitioners have caused to be submitted a further argument in refutation of 
what the original plaintiff has alleged against them, pointing out in the first place : 

That what the plaintiff represents as a fact, against which the allegations of 
petitioners are of no effect, that the plaintiff should be the perfectly legitimate successor in 
law of the representative of the Order in whose name the entry in the Great Book has been 
made, is in reality the point in dispute, and 

That thereupon the case has been argued on both sides. 

Considering, with regard to law : 

That — except the final result, towards which a more thorough inquiry, than is* 
required at the decision of a request for intervention, would lead — the allegation of 
petitioners that the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands, dependent Colonies and 
Countries is composed of three separate divisions, having each an independent existence, 
appears to the Supreme Court not to be unacceptable. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 165 

Considering particularly that for this view seems to plead, what the petitioners sub. 1 
submit in confirmation thereof by the production of the documents, numbered eleven, 
twelve, and thirteen (which docnments were registered on the 6th February, 1892, at the 
Hague by the Receiver of Civil Deeds van Nouhuys), especially the articles 4 and 9 of the 
so-called General Stipulations, considered in their mutual relations; which stipulations, 
according to the letter of H.R.H. the Grandmaster National of the 11th May, 1835, appear 
to have been generally and properly approved of by all those concerned therein. 

Considering now, that if this supposition be correct, the said 3 divisions must be 
considered, if the contrary be not proved, to be equally and jointly entitled to co-operate in 
the receipt of money, jointly belonging to them. 

Considering that although the plaintiff — who does not deny to be also the 
government of the Symbolic Degrees — alleges that she alone to the exclusion of others, is 
entitled to the collection of the present interest of the Great Book, but under the circum- 
stance that she appears under a name, not altogether synonymous with that, in which the 
entry is made, she contents herself with the unproved and even doubtful assertion, that she 
is the legitimate successor in law of the representative of the Order, which the Great Book 

Considering that under these circumstances the request of the petitioners must be 

Considering indeed, that in the supposition, from which according to the considera- 
tions heretofore stated, must be proceeded, the interest in law of the petitioners to prevent 
that a Board, which up to now does not appear to be exclusively entitled to collect the said 
revenues on behalf of the whole Order, and performs that collection on its own authority, 
cannot be doubted. 

Having seen Articles 286 and following of the Code of Civil Law 

Admits both petitioners as interveners in the action brought by summons of the 12th 
October, 1891, by the Order of Freemasons in the Netherlands, dependent Colonies and 
Countries, established at the Hague, represented by the Chief Board of Management, now 
consisting of the gentlemen named in the summons, against the Government of the 

Condemns the plaintiff in the costs of this incident, occasioned by her opposition to 
the request for intervention, taxed till before this judgment on the part of the first 
petitioners, the advances to f.55.29, and the salary to f. 150 ; on the part of the second 
petitioners, the advances to f.55.29 and the salary to f.150; and on the part of the Govern- 
ment of the Netherlands, the advances to f.l8.90| and the salary to f.36." 

A true translation by me, 


Sworn Translator of the Supreme Court 
of the Cape of Good Hope. 

166 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, 


"ANCIENTS," 1751. 



IN his otherwise admirable paper on "Thomas Manningham, M.D., Deputy 
Grand Master, 1752-56," 1 our esteemed Bro. R. F. Gould perpetuates the 
notion that the formation of the "Ancient" Grand Lodge dates from 1753 
only, whereas it should be 1751. 

Bro. Gould refers to " the formation of a second or schismatic Grand 
Lodge of England in 1753," and in reference to the year 1752 he remarka 
that " At this date, however, the schism or secession had assumed form and 
cohesion, and although the recusant Masons had not yet formed a ' Grand Lodge ' they were 
governed by a ' Grand Committee,' which was the same thing, except in name." 

It is this point, whether there was a Grand Lodge prior to 1753, that needs to be 

I am extremely unwilling even to appear to disagree with Bro. Gould, but as the 
Members of No. 2076 are never likely to be guilty of "sheep-walking," I thiuk, whenever 
we do not see eye to eye, the publication of our diverse opinions may probably tend to a 
clearer elucidation of the truth. 

It will doabtless be remembered that the old " large folio bound in while vellum," 
known as " Morgan's Register," which was first brought to the notice of the Craft by me in 
the Freemason of 18th October, 1885, is the earliest and only authentic record we possess 
giving any detailed particulars (and these are not many) as to the formation of the Rival 
Grand Lodge. From these, their own Records, however, it appears that the Members of 
several Lodges constituted themselves into a separate Society on the 17th July, 1751, and 
this Register (which was commenced by Bro. John Morgan, their first Grand Secretary) 
contains certain " Rules and Orders to be observ'd by the Most Ancient and Honble. 
Society of Free and Accepted Masons, as agreed and settled by a Committee appointed by a 
General Assembly held at the " Turk's Head," in Greek Street, Soho, on Wednesday, the 
17th of July, 1751, And in the year of Masonry, 5751." This is signed by Philip 
McLoughlin, Saml Quay, James Shee, Josph Kelly, and " Jno Morgan, Gd Secrety, viz., for 
the Grand." 

These " Rules and Orders" were evidently drawn up by brethren who believed that 
they had been engaged in constituting a Grand Lodge ; and although they had no Grand 
Master at that period (to which point I shall advert later on) their General Assembly was an 
aggregate of Members of several private lodges, who intended the enrolment of these 
separate bodies into one Organization to be nothing more nor less than another Grand 
Lodge in direct opposition to the Original Grand Lodge which was constituted, in a 
somewhat similar way, in 1717. 

I will quote from these " Rules and Orders" of a.d. 1751, in their own language. 

" 7th. 

" That all Complaints and Appeals must come before this Lodge by Petition." 

" 9th. 

" That on St. Johns day the 24th of June & St. Johns day the 27th of Decem r , the 
Master of every Lodge shall deliver into the Secretary of the Grand Lodge the Names of the 
Masters & "Wardens that are appointed to serve for the Ensueing Half Year." 

" 10th. 
" That on the first Grand Lodge Night after each St. Johns day the Master of every Lodge 
shall deliver into the Grand Secret* the Names of the Members of his Lodge together with 
their Half Tear's Dues. That is the Members of each Regular Lodge, for the use of 
Indigent Brethren or otherways as the Grand Lodge shall think proper, One Shilling each 
Member pr. Quarter. 

1 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, vol. 6, p. 93, et seq. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 16? 

" 11th. 

*' That if a Lodge should grow to (sic) Numerous that Lodge to appoint Masters & 
"Wardens to form, a New Body, they applying to the Grand Lodge for Warrants & 
Constitution in one Month after the first Sitting Night and that no Lodge shall sitt on the 
First Wednesday of each Month, it being Grand Lodge Night when the Mast" & Wardens 
are requir'd to attend." 

" 12th. 

■" That every Person who shall be made a Mason in any Regular Lodge shall pay for his 
Register in the Grand Lodge Booh for the sum of One Shilling." 

" 13th. 

" That no Person or Member of the Grand Lodge at the time of Sitting shall Interupt the 
Grand Master or Grand Officers or any Brother then Speaking," &c. 

" 14th. 

" That if any member of a Private Lodge shall be desierous of leaving the Lodge he 
belongs to to join another, he must have a proper Certificate from the Mastf of that Lodge 
and Notice to be given to the Secret* of the Grand Lodge of his leaveing the same, and the 
Mast r of Lodge the s d Brother shall join shall report him to the Grand Lodge in Order to 
have him Register 'd in the Grand Lodge Book," &c. 

" 15th. 

" That the following be the Charges & Paid for the Constitution of a New Lodge, viz. 

£ s. d. 
For the Warrant 10 6 

Regester for each Member 10 Each 

Pursevant ),.„,-, JT j 036 
Tyler j ° y Grand Lodge q 2 6 " 

" 16th. 

" That the Grand Master have Power to Call a Committee at Pleasure or Deputy G.M. or 
G.W. or whoever shall be in the Chair in their Absence ; and such Committee to Consist of 
Masters of Lodges only, and their Resolutions to be laid before the Grand Lodge, the Next 
insueing Night after such Committee held and that the s d Committee have Power to 
Adjourn from time to time not exceeding three Grand Lodge Nights." 

" 17th. 

" That each Officer, viz., Masters & Wardens of all Regular Lodges under the Constitution 
of this Grand Lodge, who thro. Negligence or Omission will be absent on a Grand Lodge 
meeting (he or they having a proper Summons sent him or them) shall be fin'd as the 
Grand Rules Specify," &c. 


" . . . . . It is further Agree'd (To support the Dignity of this W.G. 
Lodge) that no Mem. hereof (on any Grand Lodge meeting) be admited (sic) to Sit herein 
without his proper Cloathing and jewell," &c. 

Bro. Sadler 1 rightly says that " Sixteen [i.e. the first sixteen] of these rules were 
evidently written by John Morgan, who in the absence of evidence to the contrary, we must 
look upon as the first Grand Secretary of the Ancients." 

Rules 17 and 18, however, appear to be in another handwriting, and were agreed to 
respectively on the 6th April and 1st July 1752, long previous, it will be observed, to the 
election of a Grand Master. The inference that there could be no Grand Lodge without a 
Grand Master will not, in my opinion, commend itself to the Fraternity at large. There is, 
of course, no doubt but that the new Organization was at its commencement composed of 
men who were mainly of an inferior social status ; and that there was some difficulty in 
obtaining " a Noble Personage " at their head is a point on which all are agreed. Dermott 
himself states this in the preamble to the Agreement for the appointment of a Grand 
Committee, thus, — " Whereas it is highly expedient for the Universal Benefit of the 
Ancient Craft that a Grand Master and Grand Lodge shou'd govern and direct the proceed- 
ings of the several Ancient Lodges held in and about the Cities of London- and Westminster. 

1 Masonic Facts and Fictions, p. 75. 

168 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

And as the present low condition of the Ancient Society of Free and Accepted Masons 
renders the hope of obtaining a Noble Personage to preside over ns at this time very 

" In Order to preserve the present remains of the true Ancient Craft, &c, We the 
under Named, being the present Masters and Wardens of the Several Masonieal Meetings 
called Lodges of true Ancient Masonry aforesaid, do agree (pursuant to the powers vested in 
ns by our Respective Brethren of the several lodges) to form a Grand Committee (we mean 
such a Committee) as may supply the deficiency of a Grand Master nntill an opportunity offers 
for the choice of a Noble Personage to govern our ancient Fraternity. And that We will 
therein (by the Authority Aforesaid) make Statutes or laws for the better government 
and well Ordering the said Fraternity, Receive Petitions, hear Appeals, and Transact 
business (that is to say such Business as ought to be peculiar to a Grand Lodge) with 
Equity and Impartiality. Dated in our Grand Committee Room on Thursday the fourteenth 
day of September, New Stile, 1752, And in the year of Masonry 5752," &c. 

" And whereas several of the lodges have congregated and made Masons without any 
Warrant (not with a desire of Acting wrong, but thro, the Necessity above mention'd) in 
order to Rectify such irregular proceedings (as far as in our power) it is hereby Order'd 
That the Grand Secretary shall write Warrants (on Parchment) for the Unwarranted 
Lodges, viz., The Lodges known by the Title of No. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and that all the said 
Warrants shall bare (sic) date July the/Seventeenth One thousand Seven hundred fifty 
' and One being the day on which the said lodges met (at the Turk's head Tavern, in Greek 
street, Soho) to revive the Ancient Craft," &c, &c. 

" Signed, by Order, Lau. Dermott, G.S." 

It will be observed that the Resolution or Agreement to appoint this Grand 
Committee was not adopted until the 14th September 1752, whereas the Grand Lodge 
was formed on 17th July 1751, so that for fourteen months at least the work of the 
Grand Lodge had been carried on without the assistance of this " Grand Committee." But 
all this time (i.e. prior to the appointment of the Grand Committee, as well as subsequently 
thereto, down to the election of the first Grand Master Bro. Robert Turner on 5th December 
1753, who was " nominated and unanimously chosen, Instal'd and Saluted" on the same 
day 1 ) the brethren were clearly of opinion that they constituted a Grand Lodge and acted 

This is manifest enough in the "Rules and Orders" already quoted, dated 17th 
July 1751. It is further proved by a reference to their own Registers and Records. 

Tn their first Minute Book, under date 5th February 1752, when there were present 
the Officers of Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, being the representatives of all the Ancient 
Masons in and adjacent to London, it is stated that " An order was made in a General 
Assembly of Ancient Masons at the Turk's Head Tavern, in Greek St. Soho, upon the 17 day 
of July 1751 wherein the Masters of Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 2 were authorized to grant 
Dispensations & Warrants 8f to act as Grand Master " ; and as a result of this the Warrant 
of No. 8 was so issued to hold a Lodge at the sign of the Temple and Sun, in Shire lane, 
Temple Bar, London. 

Down to this period Bro. John Morgan had acted as Grand Secretary, but having 
now obtained an appointment on board of one of His Majesty's Ships, he " advised the 
Grand Committee to chuse a new Secretary," whereupon " after a long and minute exami- 
nation Relative to Initiation, Passing, Instalations and General Regulations, &c, &c, &c, 
Brother John Morgan declared that Brother Laurence Dermott was duly qualified for the 
Office of Grand Secretary, whereupon the Worshipful Master in the Chair put the names of 
John Morris and Laurence Dermott separately, when the latter was unanimously chosen 
Grand Secretary, and accordingly he was Installed (in the ancient Manner) " &c. " After 
which Brother Morgan (at the request of the President) proclaimed the new Grand 
Secretary thrice, according to ancient custom." 

Now all this would have been quite unnecessary for, simply, the Secretary of a Grand 
Committee. The obvious inference is that the new Society was from its organization on 
17th July 1751 a Grand Lodge de facto as well as dejure. Surely it can never be seriously 
argued that Dermott was elected and installed Secretary of a Committee. 

Further, the Minutes of 6th May, 1752, show that the Grand Committee could only 
have been another name for the Grand Lodge, for on that day " A motion was made — That 
this Grand Committee be removed back to the Turk's head Tavern, in Greek Street, Soho, 
where it had long been held under the title of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons 
of the Old Institution," Whether this motion meant that the Grand Lodge had previously 

1 Gould's Hist, of Freemasonry , Vol. 2, p. 441. 

2 " Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 " are only mentioned in the original Agreement. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 


" been long held " at the Turk's Head, or only that the title of Grand Committee was 
sought to be altered to that of Grand Lodge, may not be qnite clear. I incline to the 
former view, but in either case the fact is recognized that the Organization was a Grand 
Lodge to all intents and purposes, although not possessing at that period any Grand 

It is highly probable, I think, that the Grand Committee mentioned in these Minutes 
of 5th February and 6th May, 1752, refer only to the Masters of Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, who 
were appointed to exercise the functions of the Grand Master, and that the subsequent 
Resolution of 14th September, 1752 (already cited) was an enlargement of that Committee, 
by granting to it extended powers and privileges, and also, possibly, by augmenting the 
number of its members. But these appointments were made by the Grand Lodge to assist in 
carrying out its work, and not in any way to supersede it, or to derogate from its position 
as a Grand Lodge. 

Again, the Extract I have previously given of the appointment of the " Grand 
Committee " from " Morgan's Register " bears this significant heading : — 

" General Register, Grand Lodge" and is dated "Sep r 14 1752, N Stile, Geo. Hebden, 
Mast r No. 4 in the chair." 

And likewise in the Second Manuscript list of Lodges of the " Ancients," at the end 
of the same Volume, appears the following : — 

" Dec. 27, 1752, Anno Lap. 5752 Grand Lodge in due form assembled at the Five 
Bells Tavern, Wich Street, London. Br. Thos Blower, Mast r of (then) No. 8, in the chair." 

And from the Minutes we find that on 2 d September 1752 " The Lodge was opened 
in Ancient form of Grand Lodge and every part of real Freemasonry was traced and 
explained," by the Grand Secretary, whilst on 3 d January 1753 it was resolved "That the 
G. Secretary be free from Contributions or reckonings, whilst being entitled to every 
benefit of the Grand Lodge, except a vote in chusing Grand Officers." 

These extracts might doubtless be considerably extended by reference to the 
Original Books in Grand Lodge, but I submit that the evidence given is conclusive that the 
" Ancient " Body from the very commencement of its Organization in July 1751 always 
claimed to be, and in fact was, an actual Grand Lodge. 

I hope the outcome of this will have the practical effect of the alteration of the date 
of the " Athol Grand Lodge " (in the Yearly Grand Lodge Calendars) to 1751-1813. 

FRIDAY, 7th OCTOBER, 1892. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5.30 p.m. Present — Bros. W. H. Rylands, 
P.G.Stwd., W.M. ; W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., I.P.M. ; Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, S.W. ; 
G. W. Speth, Secretary; E. Maobean, S.D.; E. F. Gould, P.G.D., P.M., D.C. ; 
C. Kupferschmidt, I.G. ; Prof. T. Hayter Lewis ; and Sidney T. Klein. Also the» 
following members of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. G. Gregson ; Rev. Hugh 
Thomas; S. L. MacGregor Mathers; C. W. Buck; Col. J. Mead; E. H. Cartwright ; 
F. W. Wright ; J. H. Davis ; Max Mendelssohn ; G. R. Cobham ; Rev. H. C. Houndle ; 
H. C. Monro; Robert Roy; Dr. J. Balfour Cockburn ; F. W. Levander, as J.W. ; 
Thomas Cotm ; R. A. Gowan ; W. T. Nesbitt ; J. Leach Barrett ; R. Palmer Thomas ; 
J. B. Mackey ; J. Glass; C. B. Barnes ; W. M. Denholme ; G. A. Knock ; Hamon Le 
Strange, P.G.D. ; F. F. Giraud ; C. N. Maclntyre North; H. Ffrench Bromhead ; 
and C. Fruen. Also the following visitors : — Bros. Dr. Moscvietz, Lodge Demokra- 
tien, Hungary; W. B. Storeham, P.M. Robinson Lodge, 2046 ; C. E. Monro, Lodge 

Friends in Council, 1383 ; W. C. Stunt, W.M. Lodge of Harmony, 133 ; J. B. James, W.M. ^sculapius Lodge> 

2410 ; and P. James, Ivy Lodge, 1441. 

Six Lodges and 38 brethren were elected to the membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The Secretary read the following report of the Permanent Committee, the recommendations therein 
contained being adopted by the Lodge nem. con. 

Permanent Committee. 

The Permanent Committee met on Monday, the 25th July, at the Holhorn Restaurant, 
at six p.m. There were present : Bros. W. H. Rylands, W.M. ; Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, 
S.W. ; Rev. C. J. Ball, J.W. ; R. P. Gould and W. M. Bywater, Past Masters ; W. Mattieu 
Williams, J.D. ; and G. W. Speth, Secretary. 

The Committee begs to tender the following 


W.M. and Brethren, 

The printed copies of the By-laws, as last amended on the 2nd June, 1887, requiring 
renewal, we have taken the whole subject into consideration, and submit the following 

After the Seventh By-law, to add a new By-law, as follows : 

" Eighth Bt-law. Notice shall be given on the summons of all special money- 

The " Eighth By-law " to be in future the " Ninth By-Law." 

To add : 

" Tenth By-law. No brother shall be elected an Honorary Member of this 
Lodge unless he be of literary, artistic, or scientific distinction ; nor without the same 
formalities being observed as in the case of joining members." 

To add : 

"Eleventh By-law. No proposal to add to, or alter, these By-laws shall be 
made except at a regular meeting of the Lodge. Every motion to that effect shall be 
made in writing and handed to the Master in the Chair. If seconded, it shall be in- 
serted in the proceedings and discussed at the next regular meeting, or at a special 
meeting called for the purpose; due notice of the proposed amendments being given on 
the summons. Any alteration, then or subsequently, carried, and confirmed at a 
following regular meeting, shall, after approval of the M.W. Grand Master, become a 
valid By-law." 

Should these amendments be passed and confirmed by the Lodge, and approved by 
the M.W.G.M., we advise that a new edition of the By-laws embodying them be printed for 
the use of the members. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 171 

"We farther beg to report that our Library, Museum, and other property in the custody 
of the Secretary, being now of some considerable value, we have instructed him to effect an 
insurance on them against loss by fire. 

We are also of opinion that the position of the Editor of our publications shall, so far 
as control by the "W.M. is concerned, be distinct from that of the Secretary. The Editor 
shall be elected by the Permanent Committee, hold office during its pleasure, and be under 
its control. The Editor, in any case of doubt, shall immediately communicate with the W.M., 
requesting him to bring the matter in question before the Committee on the earliest 
possible day. 

We invite the Lodge to give effect to our opinion by a formal vote. 

Signed on behalf of the Permanent Committee, 


A ballot was taken for a Worshipful Master for the ensuing year, and Bro. T. Hayter Lewis was 
unanimously elected to the office. 

The Wokshipful Master having announced the result in due form, took advantage of the oppor- 
tunity to thank his officers during the past year for their valued assistance, and the brethren generally for 
their kindness. He had lately been informed that one of their esteemed Past Masters, Brother W. Simpson, 
was at that moment confined to his chamber by a serious illness, and he did not doubt for one moment that 
he was trying to express the feelings of the brethren in moving that a vote of sympathy be entered on the 
minutes and conveyed to our Brother by the Secretary. Brother Simpson had from the very first been a 
devoted member of the Lodge, and rendered yeoman's service. He need only remind them of the many 
papers they owed to his pen : papers which, whether they could always agree with the author's conclusions or 
not, were very valuable as placing on record a series of curious facts and beliefs, bearing on many subjects, 
and in a great measure new to students of Freemasonry. In fact the very books from which 
Bome of the notes were gathered had only lately been translated. The preparation of these papers must 
have occupied a considerable time, although their Brother was a busy man : they showed much careful reading 
and labour. Then again, Bro. Simpson had always placed his artistic talents at the disposal of the Lodge, 
and out of five St. John's Cards, no less than four were from his designs. 

Brother Gould in seconding the. motion, said that while refraining from touching upon any of 
those topics which had been so well handled by the W.M., he should like to bear witness to the Mndly 
disposition and geniality of their Brother, which had endeared him to all the members. The vote waa 
accorded with many expressions of sympathy by the brethren, and the Secretary was instructed to 
communicate the same to Bro. Simpson. 

Brother Walter Besant, Treasurer, and Bro. J. W. Freeman, Tyler, were unanimously re-elected. 

A handsome emblazoned velvet cushion for the Volume of the Sacred Law, and a beautifully 
engraved silver Square and Compasses, were presented for the use of the Lodge by Bros. J. S. Cumberland 
and Thomas Cohu respectively. 

The Secretary announced that Bro. H. J. Whymper, G.I.E., had been appointed by H.B.H. the 
M.W.G.M., District Grand Master of the Punjab. It was moved, and carried unanimously: — "That this 
Lodge is most gratified by the well-deserved promotion of one of its esteemed members to such high office, 
and that this resolution, together with the hearty congratulations of the Brethren be suitably engrossed and 
forwarded to Bro. H. J. Whymper." 

It was moved, and carried unanimously: — "That Brother William Harry By lands, Past Grand 
Steward, having completed his year of office as Worshipful Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, 
the thanks of the brethren be, and hereby are, tendered to him for his courtesy in the Chair, and efficient 
management of the affairs of the Lodge, and that this resolution be suitably engrossed and presented to 

Brother Dr. J. Balfour Cockburn exhibited a curious gold jewel, evidently manufactured in 
China, and probably a presentation jewel to some P.M. of a Lodge in China. It had belonged to an official 
of the Royal Court of Guernsey, now deceased, but Bro. Cookburn was unable to state how it came into his 
possession. The same Brother exhibited three pierced brass B.A. Officers' jewels, the property of Bro. A. C. 
Quick, a member of the Correspondence Circle residing in Guernsey, a zealous collector and Masonic student. 
They came into his possession some four years ago, but Bro. Quick is quite unable to give any history of 
them. All he can say is, that he supposes, from the source from which he obtained them (a more or less 
indigent brother passing through the island), that they originally belonged to some Chapter in the Midlands. 

The Secretary exhibited, on behalf of Bro. Vernon of Kelso, a curious handkerchief, 25-ins. by 
16-ins., covered with Masonic emblems in red. 

(All the above exhibits will be found illustrated in this number.) 
The following paper was read : 

172 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 



P.G.Stewaed, Worshipful Master. 

BOUT this simple but important part of Masonic clothing, like so many other 
matters connected with our Craft, almost all that has been written is of little 
real value. The very slightest examination of facts would have prevented many 
errors and misleading statements which have from time to time appeared in 
print. It is this slight examination which it is now my intention to attempt. 
The selection of notes and illustrations, which will be here placed on record, 
within the reach of Masonic students, may naturally be added to by other 
enquirers, but I may express the hope never again to meet with the absurd statements and 
ded actions often repeated even at the present time. 

In his recent paper, printed in the present volume of our Transactions (vol. v., 
p. 29-36), Brother Crowe has stepped much beyond the usual style of these communications, 
and has collected together a quantity of useful notes and illustrations of foreign and other 

One of the great difficulties in an examination of this kind is the lack of materials. 
Not that aprons, both old and interesting, do not exist, but it is at times a little difficult to 
obtain descriptions of them. Another difficulty is, that so long as so much latitude in the 
form and decorations existed, it was quite within the power of each Mason to invent for 
himself almost any apron he pleased. Such examples, however, I feel sure, can be easily 
selected, when we are in possession of the needful facts. 

It must be admitted at once that the evolution of the Masonic apron, is not of vital 
importance in our history. It must, however, be also allowed that in the consideration of 
these by-paths of study, valuable information, not to be obtained elsewhere, is very often 

What is required is definite information about all the old aprons which still exist in 
private hands. A good number have been exhibited and catalogued in the Masonic 
exhibitions and elsewhere, but it is much to be regretted that the descriptions are so. often 
imperfect. A little more care and system would have saved much trouble, and at the same 
time rendered these catalogues permanent books of reference instead of, in some instances, 
almost useless and imperfect lists of objects. 

The interest of Brother Crowe appears to be centred more particularly upon the 
elaborate examples of the aprons in use in Scotland and on the Continent, whereas I 
have given more attention to the earlier forms used in our own country. All aprons of 
ornate character belonging to pure masonry are, in my opinion of late date, and I consider 
that whenever certain signs and symbols appear on foreign examples, it is simply a copy, 
extension, or modification of something first adopted in England. All foreign Freemasonry 
is to be traced to the United Kingdom, and very naturally the aprons, and other forms of 
clothing to a large extent went with it. 

With regard to Scotland, the question of aprons follows, in my opinion, very much 
the same course, whatever may have been the original basis to which elaborate ornaments 
were from time to time added. That different colours were used in Scotland, as Murray 
Lyon states prior to 1736, for Masonic clothing, i.e., for the ribbons by which jewels were 
suspended round the neck, is very possible. I do not, however, consider it likely that the 
same amount of difference existed in Scotland with regard to the colours upon the aprons 
before the year 1736, as exists at the present time. Indeed I should be inclined to place 
the adoption of such differences much later. In every instance so far as I have been able to 
discover the mention of coloured ribbon refers to the collars for jewels, and never to the 
edging of the apron. I may quote several references given in Murray Lyon's History. In 
1723, 1724, (p. 325-6) " white aprons and gloves " are mentioned, and again' in 1730, (p. 186,) 
1733, (p. 187). In 1740 (p. 188) leather aprons were ordered to be purchased by the 
Treasurer, and again in 1747, (p. 193,) reference is made to leather aprons. 

The early Scotch aprons were, I imagine, of very much the ordinary operative form, 
particularly when in so many instances the Lodges retained for a long period their operative 
character. The bordering with ribbon and decorations were, I think, introduced by the 
Speculative Masons, and may perhaps have been a mark of distinction. The decorations 
were however not a necessary badge or mark of the Lodge. In the minutes of St. John's 
Old Kilwinning Lodge (No. 6 of Scotland), Inverness. (Hist, of Freemasonry in Inverness,hj 
Alex. Ross, 1877, pp. 85, 118, 200, 167, 174, 199, 112, 146). An order for a procession to be 
held on St. John's day, 1768, states, " the brethren are to have their aprons ornamented or not 
as they please." Again in 1797, the brethren are to attend the procession, " with white stock- 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 173 

ings and aprons without ornaments." In the minutes of St. Andrew's Kilwinning (Scotland 
No. 31), there is a similar order for the same procession on St. John's Day, 1797. The 
same Lodge on the 28th of December, 1769, ordered their treasurer " to pay eighteen shillings 
for two dozen of aprons." The cost of aprons in 1776 is thus charged in the minutes: — 

To 2 doz. Approns at 12s. per doz. - £14 

March 25, To cleaning 14 at 3d. each - 3 6 

The same price is charged on January the 18th, 1796, and on November the 30th, 1797 

" By cash received for old leather aprons sold to Dr. Robertson, £0 8 0." 

From this it is quite clear that the aprons were of leather. The officers aprons were 
to be different from those of the ordinary members of the Lodge, for the minutes of St.. 
John's Kilwinning, record that nine new aprons were ordered on the 28th of March, 1788; 
"to be chosen and prepared" for the officers of the Lodge. In 1816, the same minutes 
record the order for the funeral of a member, when the brethren were to appear in " white 
gloves, and white aprons trimmed with blue." 

Of much of the symbolism of the Freemason's apron ordinarily received at the present 
time, I have found nothing which would lead me to believe that it is of very early date. 
Probably it came in when the newer symbolism was introduced, otherwise it is difficult to 
account for so many aprons being made of silk, velvet, satin, cloth, canvas, linen, and even 
chamois-leather, which might be called the skin of the goat !• Aprons were, I believe, for a 
considerable time made from the skin of the sheep, that of the lamb being much too small 
for the size required. 

It will be noticed that I do not draw a wide difference between the aprons in use by 
members of the two Grand Lodges, the Regular and Dermott's. At first, I feel sure they 
both used one and the same form, a long leather apron, and this was continued in both 
bodies for some time. The Atholl Masons appear to have retained the long form of apron, 
perhaps to the last, whereas the Regular Masons adopted a more convenient size, and 
possibly allowed more latitude in the choice of the shape. Decorations and adornments 
seem to have beeu used by the members of both bodies. 

Of early examples of the Masons' apron, few, if any, have come down to us, but it 
seems to me that the aprons of the Operative Masons are not likely to have been changed 
very much in form, from those in use by the same body at an early period. 

What was the form of the early foreign Operative Masons' apron I have never 
troubled to enquire, but all of the early foreign Freemasons' aprons appear to have been of 
smaller size than ours. It may be worth noting that at an exhibition held by the Society 
of Arts of Dresden, in September, 1881, I saw a modern picture of a " Maurer " squaring 
stones. He was clothed in a square leather apron, evidently double, with a square raised 
fall, and reaching to his knees or a little lower. Again, October, 1881, 1 spent much time 
in the cemetery at Niirenberg, which contains the most extraordinary collection of graves I 
ever saw. Others of the same kind are also preserved in the Museum. Those in the 
cemetery are very numerous, one, No. 613, particularly attracted my attention. ' It is the 
altar- tomb of Johannes Friedhoff. The decoration consists of a carved bronze plate, with 
an inscription in an ornamental panel, stating that the grave belongs to Martha Fliegel, her 
brothers and sisters and their heirs. Below the panel is a shield-like ornament, upon 
which is represented a Mason in a plumed hat at work squaring a stone. At his feet lies 
his square, and against the side of the surrounding border rests an object probably intended 
for a rule, being divided into spaces. In the upper corners is represented a kind of winged 
sun, on one side, and on the other a mark presumably that of the Mason. I have no doubt 
a more careful search among these tombs than I was able to pursue, would reveal many 
interesting pictures referring to the guilds. Some discrimination would, however, be 
required, as if my memory is correct, I was told that many of the inscriptions were not of 
the age they professed to be. 

It is not my intention at the present time to do more than glance at the operative 
apron, in order to lead up "to that used by the English Freemasons. The following inden- 
ture of apprenticeship (dated the 2nd of February, 1685), which I bought some months ago, 
is interesting, although it follows pretty much the same form as the usual documents of 
the kind, because it is the only indenture of a Mason that has up to the present tinae been, 
found, and mentions the apron specially : — 

This Indenture made the Second day of ffebruarie in the yeare of our Lord according to the English 
Accompt One Thowsand Six hundred Seauenty and ffiue, Witnesseth that Symon Bond sonne of Mary 
Tompkins Wife of Richard Tompkins of BPP» llohington in the County of Warwick yeoman late 
Widdowe and Relict of John Bond with the consent of bis said ffather in Lawe and Mother hath putt 
himselfe an Apprentice With John Cooke of Harbury in the said County of Warwick ffree Mason 
And as an Apprentice him to serve to learne the trade of a ffree Mason from the date hereof 
Vnto the full end and Tearme of seauen yeares next ensuing, during which tyme the said Apprentice 

174 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

his said Master faithfully shall serve his seoretts shall keepe, his Commandements lawfull and honest shall 
obey, he shall not comitt ffornicaoon nor contract himselfe in Matrimony, Nor Inordinately wast 
his Masters goods Nor lend them without his leane, Tavernes nor Alehowses of cnstome he shall not 
haunt neither shall he play at Tnlawfull Games, Bat shall behaue himselfe as a dutiful] servant 
both in word and deed, And the said John Cooke his said Master doth hereby Covent that he the said 
John Cooke will teach and Instruct his said Apprentice in the Trade of a ffree Mason by the 
best meanes he can, And will during the said tearme allow him sufficient wholsome and competent 
Meate drinke Lodging and Aprons (All the Rest of his Apparrell being to be p'vided by his said — 
parents during all the said tearme) In Witnes whereof the said John Cooke and his said apprentice 
to these p'sent Indentures Interchangeably hane putt theire hands and seales the daie and — 
yeare first aboue written :j:/^ 

Sealed and deliu'd in the 

p'sence of vs :/,/ 

Rob. Archer 

John Sherley /^~~\ 

the m'ke of ( SEAxU do ! lb ^" h ! aae 5 
i »J!<-»-ME a gi e displayed 

a - b- \ / 

Symon Bond 

T am informed that some years ago leather was the material ordinarily used for 
Masons aprons, that they reached nearly to the ankles, the fall was held up by a thong of 
leather which passed round the neck, and that they were fastened by two other thongs 
which were tied round the waist in front. The introduction of a woven apron among 
Operative Masons is a very modern introduction. The leather aprons cost two shillings or two 
shillings and sixpence each, which would be about the equivalent of the prices so often 
mentioned in the old minutes of Lodges. Messrs. Deed & Co. inform me that skins can be 
purchased at any price, from about six shillings a dozen ! 

I am indebted for the above information about the form and change in material of 
Operative Masons aprons to Brother James Place, who has considerable technical know- 
ledge of the subject. Brother Cohu very kindly arranged for us to meet, after the meeting, 
at which I read this paper, and I add these notes as they complete the information about 
Operative aprons, and explain a difficulty raised by Bro. Speth in his remarks. 

It must always be remembered that primarily the operative apron was made for use 
and not for ornament ; we shonld, therefore, expect to find it exactly what it is — a covering 
capable of protecting both the body and the garments of the wearer. In order to do this, it 
should of course be strong, not expensive and of considerable size, and the most lasting 
and suitable material for this purpose would be leather. 

The earliest representation we possess, as far as I am aware, of the Freemasons apron, 
is that in the engraved portrait of Anthony Sayer, who occupied the office of Grand Master 
in 1717. It is clearly represented, but unfortunately only the upper portion is visible in the 
picture. The flap is raised, and upon the portion where the bow formed by the strings 
would be, he places his open hand, so this also is hidden. The apron is, I think, evidently 
a long skin of leather and probably reached nearly to the feet. The next in date is the 
frontispiece of Anderson's Constitutions issued in 1723. In it a man, who we may presume 
is intended for the Tyler or Guarder as he was called, is represented on the dexter side of 
the plate bringing into the hall a number of aprons and gauntlets or gloves. The aprons 
which are thrown over the man's arm have long ties or strings attached, from the form and 
flatness of which, it seems clear thongs of leather are intended. The aprons are evidently 
of considerable size, quite large enough to reach almost to the feet of the wearer, and I feel 
sure they are of leather. It is however, impossible to say with certainty what was the 
exact shape. 

Unfortunately, though it is hardly necessary, I have not been able to discover any 
distinct statement of the same date (1717-23) as to the material of which the apron was 
ordered to be made. This omission, I conclude, happens because it was perfectly well 
known to everyone that the Freemasons simply used the ordinary leather aprons of the 
operative masons, with whom they were at that period largely associated. I have long 
contended that the earliest form of the Freemasons apron even from an earlier date than 
either 1717 or 1723, up to a later period, was the long leather operative masons' apron, 
indeed the descent is so natural that it would be difficult to imagine it otherwise. 

I cannot agree with Bro. Crowe, that linen was the material ordinarily used for 
them, nor that linen aprons are " undoubtedly " intended to be represented in Hogarth's 
picture " Night." They are, 1 feel certain, the usual long leather aprons, tied in front over a 
short fall, thus forming a somewhat important feature in the picture. I have added two 
others for comparison from Hogarth's plate, " The mystery of Free Masonry brought to 
light by y e Gormagons," one worn by a man, and the other by a monkey. Others will 
easily be recognised in the plates. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 175 

The very fact that the Melrose apron is made of linen, and not leather, would in my 
opinion go very far to prove that it is not of great antiquity. The rosettes as well as the 
rounded flap lead to the same conclusion. 

I have not seen the original painting of William St. Clair of Roslyn, the first Grand 
Master of Scotland (1736), but only the lithograph in the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland 1848, afterwards used by Laurie in his History (1859). I cannot there- 
fore judge fairly of the apron, but it should be pointed out that this picture is not 
of certain authenticity according to Murray Lyon. In his History of the Lodge of 
Edinburgh (p. 182), he writes, " There is another portrait of Mr. St. Clair in the Lodge 
Room of Canongate Kilwinning, in masonic costume, and a copy of this picture stands in 
Freemasons' Hall, and a lithographed copy is in Laurie's History. There is, however, no 
trace of its origin. It is known to have been in possession of the Canongate Kilwinning 
Lodge from about the year 1793 ; but it bears slight resemblance to the one in the Archers' 
Hall. We are of opinion that it is neither genuine nor a correct likeness of its subject." 

With this opinion, as far as it is possible to judge from the lithograph, I have always 
been inclined to agree. The small button or rosette on the flap of the apron, is a difliculty, 
and even more the sash from which hangs a jewel of strange composition, which even the 
remarks in the introduction (Constitution of Grand Lodge of Scotland, 1848, note p. xx.) do 
not satisfactorily explain. As for the material of the apron, it would be more possible to 
judge from the painting itself. 

Bro. Crowe also expresses the opinion that the aprons of the plate in Picart's 
Ceremonies of 1735-6 as represented are " undoubtedly linen or some textile fabric and not 
leather." Here again I cannot agree with him. Supposing them to be correctly engraved, 
they are, in my opinion, undoubtedly leather, because, no linen could arrange itself in 
similar folds to those represented. It is the usual leather apron, perhaps in some instances 
a little more trimmed on the edges, but still reaching to the knees. The flap also is a little 
more rounded than in the earlier examples, as was usual to some extent at the period. It 
is well tied round the body, the upper portion of the apron, as may be seen from one figure 
with his back to the spectator, reaching on both sides well upon the hips, with the bow 
evidently in front. I may mention that this manner of tying, exactly following the operative 
custom lasted till a late period, even when silk or linen strings were used, the only 
difference being that sometimes the knot and bow were above the flap, and sometimes 
underneath it. 

Bro. Crowe draws a comparison between these figures who " wear trowels," and some 
of the customs used among the Freemasons of Hungary. The figures, however, it must 
be remarked do not wear trowels, except in one instance, possibly the Master, where the 
trowel is suspended round the neck by a ribbon, as also a jewel of a very confused and 
extraordinary description. They carry them, and I think a comparison may be here better 
drawn between this plate and the minutes of the Caermarthan Lodge, printed by Bro. 
Woodford from information supplied by Bro. J. Marsden (Mas. Mag. vol. v., 1877-78, p. 450) 

" 24th June 1754." 

" To cash paid Bro. Gwynn, for 5 trowells and mending 12 others 4 10. 

Another instance may be quoted. In the minutes of St. Andrew's Kilwinning (No. 
31, Scotland), already quoted from the book by Brother Ross (p. 152), there is an entry of 
12 trowels and nine hammers having been purchased from Robert Arnatt in the year 1 736. 
It must be remembered that although the Lodges were operative, i.e., composed to a greater 
or lesser extent of operative masons, no building operations are likely to have been carried 
on at the stated meetings, therefore; unless the Lodge supplied its operative members with 
tools, they must have been purchased for some regular purpose. 

It is of course possible that an individual mason may have had his apron made of 
some woven fabric, in early times, but such a form must have been unusual, and contrary to 
custom as well as the regulations. Very often, it may perhaps be said to some extent to 
have continued nearly to the time of the Union, it was a common practice for the Lodge to 
buy aprons to sell to the initiates, and for the use of its members, as well perhaps for 
visitors. 1 Constantly the entiy of the purchase of one or more dozens of aprons, occurs in 
the old minutes of both English and Scotch Lodges, as quoted above, the price varying from 
one shilling to one shilling and sixpence each. 

The first reference to the Apron in the Book of Constitutions is found in the New 
Regulations (Constitutions 1739, p. 153): on the 17th March 173£ (i.e., 1731) it was resolved 
that " Masters and Wardens of particular Lodges may line their white Leather Aprons with white 
Silk, and may hang their Jewels at white Ribbons about their Necks." This regulation is 

1 Murray Lyon in his History quotes a minute of 1740 (p.188). Leather aprons were to be 
purchased by the Treasurer " for accommodating the visitors from other Lodges, and even for the members 
■of this Lodge, as they shall have occasion." 

176 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. ^ 

repeated up to the edition of the Booh of Gonsitutions dated 1784 (p. 395). The Stewards also 
(Constitutions 1738, p. 167) article xxiii. of the new Regulations of 17 March 173f [1731] 
orders, " The Stewards of the year were allow'd to have Jewels of Silver (tho' not guilded) 
pendent to Red Ribbons about their Necks, to bear White Rods, and to line their White 
Leather Aprons with Red Silk. Former Stewards were allow'd to wear the same Sort of 
Aprons, White and Red." Indeed the only material ever specified is white leather, and the 
only addition allowed is the different coloured lining worn by the Grand Officers and 
Grand Stewards. 

In America, I believe, the plain white apron has been retained, though there is 
evidence according to Mackey, that rosettes were at one time in use. 

The edition of Jachin and Boaz, 1762, although an unworthy authority, may be 
accepted I think in such a case as the present one. It is there stated " Every Brother has 
an apron made of white skin, and the strings are also of skin, though some of them chuse to 
ornament them with ribbons of various colours." In the Inventory preserved at York, 
dated 15 Sept., 1779, are entered " Four aprons lined with pink silk," these, however, may 
have been intended for the Stewards. The order of the Constitutions, states, that 
" The Masters, Wardens, and Members of particular Lodges, if they choose to line their 
white Leather aprons, are to do it with white Silk; and the officers to wear their Jewels 
pendant to white only." I can very well understand the use of this lining, as undyed 
leather, unless the surface undergoes some treatment is always liable to leave white marks 
upon the clothes. In the Constitutions dated 1784 (p. 444), the last song given is one 
without a title, to be sung to the tune of " Rule Britannia," the last verse commences — - 

" Our leathern aprons may compare 

With garters red and bine 
Princes and Kings onr brothers are, 

While they our rules pursue," etc. 

Having, I think, established what was the material from which they were made, it 
will be interesting to consider the shape and form of these old aprons. They were simple 
skins of leather, the legs of the animal having been cut off and a thong of leather about one 
inch wide, knotted or perhaps in some instances stitched to the two corners from which the 
fore legs had been removed. 

The only specimens now in existence, so far as I am aware, are those preserved in 
the Grand Lodge collection, of which other examples still remain in the Royal Arch Chapter 
at Colne. It is true they are aprons of the Royal Arch, but the Royal Arch Aprons were 
naturally the ordinary masonic apron, with the emblems or badges of that degree added. 
Bro. Sillitoe very kindly brought some to London for me to examine, and allowed me to 
have them to copy. They are peculiarly interesting and of their exact date there is no 
doubt whatever, they were ordered, made, and used in the Chapter at Colne in Lancashire in 
the year 1783. The Royal Arch Chapter at Colne was founded on the 12th of May, 1769, under 
the name of the Cana, or First Miracle. The Lodge at Colne was warranted the 4th of February, 
1762. These dates would, at first sight, appear to be late for the present purpose. 
It must, however, be remembered that the minutes of the Colne Lodge go back to 1760, 
and there is good evidence of a previous existence to which it would be difficult to affix a 
date. Doubtless when the Royal Arch aprons were obtained in 1783, they very naturally 
were made to follow the fashion of those already for some time past in use in the Lodge, 
in fact the common form of apron of the time. Thus this pattern of the apron may very 
well be carried back to a date earlier than either 1769 or 1783. 

Fortunately however, this fact, strong though I consider it to be, is by no means all 
there is left to rely upon, other and contemporary evidence exists which makes the matter 
perfectly clear. 

As aprons were less and less used for operative purposes, and the Lodges were 
composed more of speculative masons, the old cumbersome apron was reduced in size. A 
copy of the edition of Cole's Constitutions of 1728-9, formerly in the possession of Brother 
Richard Spencer, contained an engraving, reproduced by him in The Constitutions of 
Freemasons, (introduction p. xxiv.) The centre one of the three figures (the W.M. 
with his two wardens), there represented wears an apron, which is almost identical with 
those used at Colne. The date of this engraving appears to be within a few years of the 
year of the publication of the Constitutions, or about 1731. It occurs as the frontispiece of 
the edition of Cole's engraved Constitutions of that year. 

In the plates will be found a series of sketches taken from engravings of various 
dates. Portrait of Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, Grand Master 1717. Anderson's Constitu- 
tions (frontispiece) 1723. Spencer's copy of Cole's Constitutions 1730-1. Picart's plate of 
the 1736 list of Lodges, 1735-6. Smith's Pocket Companion (frontispiece) 1736. Hogarth's 
picture Night, before l738 (see my paper A.Q.C., vol n., p. 146). Portrait of Montgomerie, 
Grand Guarder 1738. Engravings of the interior of a Lodge, about 1745. Freemasons' 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 177 

Pocket Companion (frontispiece) 1754. Print, a Freemason made out of the Materials 
of his Lodge, 1754. Engraving recording the discovery of secrets at Canterbury, 1754, 
Engraved summons of the Anchor and Hope Lodge, No. 37, Bolton 1767. Engraved 
Summons of the Lodge of Unanimity, now No. 208, engraved in 1772 or 1773, as well 
as others of different dates. 

I have also added a number of aprons from Foreign works, for comparison. The 
authorities being given in the explanation of the plates, they need not be repeated here. 

Most of the English aprons are of the long form, i.e., the simple skin with the sides and 
lower edge sometimes trimmed straight. The length may easily be judged when the whole 
figure of the mason is engraved, but we must always remember that skins are rarely either the 
same size or shape, no two of the Colne aprons are exactly alike. Wherever aprons appear 
represented alone, without the figure it is difficult to arrive at the size really intended, but 
in every early example the apron reaches either to the knees or below them. It will be 
noticed in some instances that the fall appears to be a narrow curve round the waist, this, 
I think, is the Master Mason's apron, a portion of the fall having been removed. In others it 
will be noticed the hole is still evident in the fall. Messrs. Deed aDd Co. the well-known 
leather merchants very kindly gave me all the information I required in technical leather 
dressing. This hole which in the best engraved plates is carefully represented, plays no 
part iu any of the processes through which the skin passes in its manufacture. 

The following extract, however, very well explains its purpose : — In l'ordre des 
Francs-macons Trahi, 1 745 (p. 116 note) it is stated that the Fellow Craft attaches the bib of 
bis apron to his coat, and the Master allows it to fall down. Les Francs-Masons ecrases, 
1747 (p. 221), states that the apron only differs as above in the degrees. The Master of 
the Lodge is the only person who wears it changed, according to the difference of the 
degrees, the apron lying on the pedestal is also changed. I have added an example of 
the apron lying upon the pedestal, from which it will be seen that the simple skin of 
leather, with leather thongs attached, was used for this purpose. Unfortunately most of 
the other French examples are not represented as being worn, but are added to the plates 
more in the form of ornaments, and explaining the contents of a Lodge. 

Curiously enough when I was at Messrs. Deed & Company's I saw a man clothed in 
a long leather apron, the fall hanging down, with the hole as it appears in the early 
Masonic apron. He informed me, just what I expected, that it was a button hole to 
fasten the apron to the waistcoat, in order to protect the upper part of his clothes. This 
operative usage is well and clearly represented upon the figures in the rare engraving of the 
Canterbury incident commonly called " Old Molly," dated 1754. 

I have made and now exhibit a leather apron exactly like those at Colne except in 
the fall, which follows an earlier example, that of 1736. If the fall is a little reduced in 
size so as to cut off the button bole, it will correspond in form exactly with the Colne aprons. 

In the plate will be found several sketches of operative aprons, including those of 
the masons and carpenters of the Preston Guild, co. Lane, as they appear in the proces- 
sion of the Guild from engravings executed in 1762. It is interesting to notice that the 
long leather apron belongs to the masons, while the carpenters wear a short rounded one. 
Carpenters were, it must be remembered, also builders, and we may perhaps have here a 
key to the source whence the rounded aprons were obtained, if it did not originate in the 
reduction of the fall as I have already mentioned. On the engraved plate illustrating the 
procession, the masons are described as the Masons' Company, but I am rather inclined to 
believe that it was the Lodge or Lodges of Freemasons who are there represented. A care- 
ful examination of the Guild records at Preston, if made for the purpose, wonld probably 
bring to light some interesting points in Masonic history. 

Writing in 1764 (Ahiman Rezon, pp. xxiv-xxxi,) Dermott, who never lost a chance 
of ridiculing and abusing his enemies, after giving an amusing account of Geometry com- 
bined and demonstrated in the " Knife and Fork Degree," enters upon the subject of the 

" There was another old custom that gaye umbrage to the young architects, i.e. the 
" wearing of aprons, which made the gentlemen look like so many mechanicks, therefore it 
" was proposed, that no brother (for the future) should wear an apron. This proposal was 
" rejected by the oldest members, who declared, that the aprons were all the signs of 
" masonry then remaining amongst them, and for that reason they would keep and wear them. 
" It was then proposed, that (as they were resolved to wear aprons) they should be turned 
" upside down, in order to avoid appearing mechanical. This proposal took place and answered 
" the design, for that, which was formerly the lowest part, was now fastened round the 
" abdomen, and the bib and strings hung downwards, dangling in such a manner as might 
" convince the spectators, that there was not a working mason amongst them. 

" Agreeable as this alteration might seem, to the gentlemen, nevertheless it was 
" attended with an ugly circumstance : for, in traversing the lodge, the brethren were 

178 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

" subject to tread upon the strings, which often caused them to fall with great violence, so 
" that it was thought necessary, to invent several methods of walking, in order to avoid 
" treading upon the strings. In brief, every meeting produced an addition or a palinody. 
" Amongst other things they seized on the stone masons Arms which that good natured 
" company has permitted them to wear to this day, for which reason several of the brethren 
" have turned their aprons in the old fashion, and affect to imitate the operative masons. ." 
This is a curious sentence, which it is difficult to understand, if it is really meant to- 
be taken at all literally, if not, it may possibly simply be intended partly to give the oppor- 
tunity for the statement that nothing was left of true masonry but the apron, or the inven- 
tion of " several methods of walking " may refer in some way to the division of degrees. 
Under any circumstances it points out that the old apron was of the operative shape, and 
possibly that about the year 1764, or a little earlier, some change had been made in its form. 
This change may have been the squaring of the skin at the lowest edge, or the sides. It is, 
however, interesting to notice the aprons figured in a very rare engraving entitled, " The 
ceremony of making a Free Mason." Tbey are long in form, running down to a sharp 
point at the bottom, a shape which could only be obtained in an uncut skin, by turning it 
upside down, and fastening the waist thongs to the hind legs of the animal instead of the 
fore legs. This change would also shorten the fall. 

At a fairly early period, it seems probable that certain simple designs were drawn in 
Indian ink upon the apron, such as the all-seeing eye on the fall, the columns, and perhaps 
the square and compasses. Several of these are extant. Examples of them will be found 
in the plates, one which though of later date explains the idea, belonged to a member of 
my own family who was a Master Mason in 1796. 

There is also the apron commonly represented in the plates of the "True Masonic Chart," 
by Jeremy L. Cross, (2d ed. 1820). Another example painted upon leather, is in the possession of 
the Shakespere Lodge, No. 426, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, (Mas. Mag., 1876, vol. ii., p. 257.) 
Bro. J. Jarvis Rainey, P.M. 426, and a member of our Correspondence Circle, has very 
kindly supplied me with information about it. It is an interesting specimen, but unfortu- 
nately there is no record of its origin or when it came into the possession of the Lodge. It 
will be observed that it is wider at the bottom than the top, the former being 17f inches, 
and the latter 15f . Being rounded at the bottom, the total depth 15 inches is reduced at 
the sides to 13 J inches. The rounded fall is 4 inches deep. Unfortunately it has been 
fastened upon a board, and Bro. Rainey informs me that he observes a mark all round the 
board as if a knife had been used to make the edges smooth. It is therefore not easy to say 
with certainty whether the apron was ever ornamented with a border, though it seems most 
probable that it was edged with a narrow blue ribbon as was so often the case. 

In L'ordre des Francs Macons trahi, 1745 (p. 38), the statement quoted above from 
Jachin and Boaz is repeated, that the aprons and strings were of white leather, and the 
author adds " that some have them without any ornament, others edge them with blue ribbon," 
thus we learn that the blue edging of ribbon was in use to some extent before 1745. Again 
he adds, " I have seen some which have upon that part called the flap (bavette), the symbols 
of the Order, which are as I have already stated, a square and a compass." Blue, probably 
dark blue narrow ribbon, had been introduced as a border, and Jachin and Boaz refers 
to ribbon collars of blue in 1762. Dermott, in another part of the Ahiman Bezon, 1764 
(p. 51), in a note on the regulation of Grand Lodge with reference to blue (that is really 
purple) being the peculiar badge of the grand officers, says "he is certain that every member 
of the Grand Lodge has an undoubted right to wear purple, blue, white, or crimson." As 
jewels, differences of rank, and other matters increased in number, so the taste for symbols 
and the decoration of aprons advanced, and they became more and more ornate. It appears 
to me probable that at about the same period (say about 1760 — 1770), when printed pottery, 
summonses engraved with symbols, and other decorated objects were invented, at that time 
the printed (engraved) aprons came into use, succeeding perhaps some of the more elaborate 
painted or embroidered ones, though these were still made up to a later date. I am inclined 
to believe also, that just as the decorations of some of the engraved summonses are similar 
to those found npon the kind of pottery called printed ware, invented by Sadler, of Liver- 
pool, about 1750, so the designs of the aprons were also used for pocket handkerchiefs, the 
latter having naturally more easily perished than the aprons. 

I have also a specimen of the plain white rounded apron, also a family apron, which 
may be compared with those figured by Thomas Palser in 1809 and 1812. Sketches of both 
will be found in the plates. 

A fair number of the engraved aprons have survived, some of them printed in red and 
some in black, the latter being occasionally painted by hand. They were printed upon 
white leather, silk, satin, and linen, and it will easily be seen that the apron without the 
fall would be readily converted into a pocket handkerchief, as the decoration is often con- 
tinued under the fall. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 179 1 

The designs of several of the engraved aprons are very good, perhaps the best being 
the one with the large figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

The most elaborate of the series is probably that by Robert Newman, which is dated 
1798. It was several times imitated, just as was the case with the certificates formerly 
granted by private Lodges to their members, the imitations being generally inferior to the 
original. It may be noticed that in this particular engraving the old long shape is preserved. 
The entire space covered being 18-inches in depth and 14-inches in width, with a flap of 
5J-inches. It has sometimes been called an Atholl apron, I suppose from the arms in the 
centre, being those of Dermott's Grand Lodge. I am doubtful, however, if it was peculiar 
to that division of the Craft, although in it was retained the old long shape, whereas the 
regular Grand Lodge appears to have adopted the smaller sized or rounded apron. 

Messrs. Spencer & Co. have at the present time a very fine and interesting example 
of Newman's apron, edged with three colours for the Royal Arch, and through their kind- 
ness I am able to exhibit it. It is printed on leather, and as is usually the case, the 
engraving has been painted by hand. 

Another apron, of which several copies are extant, is in the possession of Bro. 
Hughan, who very kindly sent it to me to copy. It is edged with crimson and dark blue. 
Another more interesting and very perfect example from the same plate, printed on leather, 
is in the possession of Bro. William Watson, who very kindly had it photographed for me. 
It is curious, as it shows that it was not intended to be made up in the cornered shape. 
The rounded edges are clearly marked from an inked block or roller. A sketch of Bro. 
Hughan's specimen will be found on plate 2 of Bro. Crowe's paper. They are poor copies of 
Newman's design, the decorations being so compressed (12-inches by 11-inches) as to form 
when made up a shorter apron than the original of 1798. 

There is also the very interesting apron in the possession of Colonel Mead, worn by 
his great-grandfather, Captain J. Alexander, " drawn and engraved by Bro. Hixon, 18, 
Brydges Street, Covent Gardens, and sold by Griffin and Lay, 117, Oxford Street. Pub- 
lished August 19th, 1794." It is edged with narrow blue ribbon, having charity with the 
three children on a rounded fall, below stand Hope on the dexter and Faith on the sinister 
side on three steps, and between them a trophy of Masonic symbols, including the Bible, 
square and compasses, sun, level, plumb etc., over which is the irradiated eye. It is figured 
in Col. Mead's Freemasonry in St. Helena. An example of this apron, narrower at the 
top than the bottom, is described in the Masonic Magazine (vol. in., p. 187). Another 
apron, size about 20-inches by 17-inches, is printed in black from an engraved plate, dated 
March 31st, 1813, by L. Hayes, Bristol. At the top in the centre is a portrait of Lord 
Moira, with motto ribbons on each side bearing the words " The Moira Apron." In the 
centre are several figures, the whole design covering the body of the apron ; below are some 
verses in praise of Lord Moira. Other patterns are extant, and I hope at some future time 
to be able to give an account of the engraved and embroidered aprons which now exist. 

It is clear that in 1786 the apron was greatly reduced in size, in some instances at 
least. In the engraving which represents the visit of Balsamo or Cagliostro to that division 
of the Lodge of Antiquity, which at that time was on the roll of the Grand Lodge, and 
perhaps likely therefore to be rather scrupulously correct in its clothing, there are some 
peculiarities worth noting in the aprons. They are all of small size, and decorated with 
emblems. On some of them also, a jewel seems to be shown suspended over the apron 
in front. 1 In the plates I have given sketches of every example, including those of 
Cagliostro, and his friends. They all appear to have a narrow border of ribbon and 
it will be noticed are all rounded at the lowest edge. This was also the form of the Grand 
Steward's apron, in the portrait of James Asperne, who was Grand Steward in 1814 (see 
plate). It was evidently a very small apron in depth, from the scale of the drawing. The 
fall also was entirely of the colour of the border-ribbon as in the Scotch aprons of the 
present time. 

The engraved, or elaborately decorated aprons appear to have belonged more particu- 
larly to Master Masons. I think also an explanation may be found for the introduction of 
many symbols which cannot be said to legitimately belong to pure Freemasonry, in the fact 
that the use of the aprons was not confined to the Lodge alone, but was extended to other 
gatherings of masons. As I have stated elsewhere 2 I am pretty certain that in early times 
there was no apron specially set apart for the Royal Arch, but that the ordinary apron 
of a Master Mason was used. 

I must point out again that in the Colne Royal Arch aprons the fall has been partially 
cut away, and to some extent resembles that commonly found on the engraved aprons. This 

1 They may be fastened to the edge of the fall, but it appears to me more like a ribbon. 

2 Records of the E.A. Chapter of St. James, No. 2, p. 13, etc. 

180 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

would be perfectly suitable in both, instances, as the falls of neither of them would ever have 
to undergo another change. 

It must be remembered that for some time there was considerable laxity, usage only 
being followed and no definite law laid down as to uniformity. Provided the apron was 
white leather, or silk or satin, but white, its face might be decorated with any number of 
Masonic or other symbols and pictures without infringing the law, provided always that it 
did not interfere with the privileges of the Grand Officers who used a purple edging to 
their aprons. 

Such a state of affairs must, in due course, come to an end ; diversity in aprons has, 
doubtless, a very pretty effect, but is very confusing and of no real use. The size, also, had 
grown smaller and smaller, probably more particularly under the rule of the Regular Grand 
Lodge, and was reduced to convenient and portable dimensions. 

When the Lodges ceased to supply them, and the fashion arose for decorations and 
of Masons possessing and carrying about their own aprons, it seems probable that silk and 
linen came into use. They are much more easily printed or painted upon than leather, and 
the impression would wear much longer. One of the first decisions of the United Grand 
Lodge was with regard to the aprons. On the 2nd of March, 1814, the pattern was sub- 
mitted, and agreed to on the 2nd of May, when the Grand Lodge very wisely ordered a general 
•uniformity. The descriptions are printed in the reports of the date and in the Constitutions 
of 1815, and the aprons are almost identical with those in use at the present time. They 
were to be edged with sky blue, and it must be remembered that there was from early times, as 
we have already seen, a blue border, certainly in some instances dark blue, composed of plain 
silk ribbon of any kind, watered silk being a later introduction. Even then I imagine the 
aprons were not all exactly alike. Several times upon making enquiry about old Masonic 
clothing, I have received the reply, " Oh ! his apron was nothing of importance, it was 
made at home ! " I have selected a few examples of aprons of this time from my own 
collection, in order to show the difference in the width of the edging. One of them is curious, 
it is of wash-leather, long-shaped and rounded, the border being decorated with three 
bands of white silk ribbon. The old simple undecorated skin of leather used by the Craft 
in early times, I am glad to think, though much reduced in size, was to some extent retained. 
It took its proper place when it was ordered to be used on, as I think, the most important 
ceremony, i.e., when a man is made a Mason. 

With regard to Grand Lodge clothing, ifc is very difficult to say at what date exactly 
the custom came into use of distinguishing the aprons of the Grand Officers with a lining of 
blue. It has always been concluded that it dated after the ordinarily accepted time of the 
foundation of the Grand Lodge. This, however, is only a conclusion entirely unproved, based 
upon the supposition that the important event which took place in 1717, was not a continua- 
tion or revival, as it has always been called, but a foundation. With such a conclusion I 
have never been able to make myself agree. That it was the first time the governing body 
of Masons in London, other than the Masons' Company, which had at that time and much 
earlier, ceased to be of the importance it formerly was, was called a Grand Lodge, may 
possibly be correct. But that there were central ruling powers throughout the country, as 
well as in London, I feel certain : to what extent, however, their powers reached, it is diffi- 
cult now to know. It must be remembered that Pritchard staets, however worthless his 
authority, no such thing as a Quarterly Communication of the Freemasons was known till 
1691. I have always had the suspicion that the meeting mentioned by Ashmole as taking 
place in London in 1682 had some connexion with such an organization. 

Some months ago when reading the Tatler I met with the following sentence. It 
occurs under the date September 27th, 1709 [No. 73], in a letter signed " Monoculus " : — 
" All persons of Quality admire me, tho,' rot me, if I value a Blue Garter any more than I 
do a Blue Apron," &c. In later times the expression Blue Apron would have a very clear 
meaning, but in the present case it presents some difficulty, which perhaps may be solved in 
time. That Sir Richard Steele was a Freemason, I feel almost cei-tain, and possibly at 
some future time I shall have the pleasure of laying before the Lodge, a series of notes 
which go far to prove, in my opinion, that such was the case. If Sir Richard Steele was a 
Freemason, it is only natural that he should use masonic expressions. If the Blue Apron 
mentioned is not a masonic one, I am quite at a loss to know to what it refers. Evidently 
from the context it is to be considered an honour, though "Monoculus" certainly does 
not deem it of much value. If it does refer to some rank corresponding to that of Grand 
Lodge, then it is one step behind the usually accepted date of 1717. 

The first mention of a Blue Apron in the Constitutions occurs in the New Regulations 
(Constitutions, 1738, p. 153) on 17 March 173? " The Grand Lodge, to cure some Irregulari- 
ties, order'd, that None but the G. Master his Deputy and Wardens (who are the only 
Grand Officers') shall wear their Jewels in Gold pendant to Blue Ribbons about their Necks, 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 181 

and White Leather Aprons with Blue Silk ; which Sort of Aprons may be also worn by 
former O. Officers. 

Evidently this Resolution does not point out a new idea, but appears to refer to the 
fact that others than Grand Officers had already in 1731, or earlier, commenced to make 
alterations in their white leather aprons, and possibly line and border them with dark blue. 
In 1745, as quoted above, this was already the custom in some instances. 

I have often stated that the words " lined with blue," were to be taken as meanings 
" lined and turned over blue." The following extract from the Rawlinson MSS. will 
probably settle the question. 

" Two Grand Masters aprons Lined with Garter blue silk and turn'd over two inches, 
" with white silk strings. 

" two deputy Grand Masters aprons turn'd over one inch <fe \ : ditto. 

" one apron lined with the deepest yellow silk for the Grand Masters Sword Bearer. 

" The order for aprons, at the Constitution of the Lodge at the Prince of Orange's. 
" Head in Mill Street Southwark given by Tho : Batson Esq r D.G.M. 1734." 

This interesting note also informs us the colour of bine used for Grand Officers' 
aprons, the difference between the width of the borders of the aprons of the Grand Master 
and the Deputy Grand Master, also that the apron of the Sword Bearer was to be lined 
with yellow silk. It does not state that it is to be " turned over." 

These 1 imagine were plain white squared leather aprons edged and lined with garter 
blue. Since writing the above, Bro. Sadler has kindly called my attention to a very fine 
and interesting engraved portrait, in the collection of Grand Lodge, of Cadwallader Lord 
Blayney, who was Grand Master from 1764 to 1766. It is the earliest engraving of a 
Grand Lodge apron I have yet met with, and appears to correspond with what I supposed. 
It will be remarked that the flap is covered with blue silk (or satin), and that the lowest 
edge of the apron is rounded. 

At the Grand Lodge held on April the 15th, 1767, it is resolved that the Dukes of 
York, Gloucester and Cumberland, having been initiated into masonry, " be presented with 
an apron, lined with blue silk, and that in all future processions they do rank as past grand 
masters, next to the grand officers for the time being." — -(Const. 1784, p. 290). 

In 1777, some decoration had already commenced, unless it was specially ordered, as 
more suited to the tastes of a Nabob, for at the Grand Lodge held on February the 5th, 
1777, it was announced that the eldest son of the Nabob of the Carnatic had been initiated 
into Masonry at Trichinopoly, near Madras. It was " Resolved, That a complimentary 
letter be sent to him on the occasion, accompanied with the present of a blue apron elegantly 
decorated."— (Const. 1784, p. 322). 

Bro. Sadler some months ago kindly called my attention to two receipts preserved in 
the collection of the Grand Lodge. One is dated the 7th of April, 1787, and is the Bill for 
the Prince of Wales' making. " To an apron lin'd with Blue Satten Double Gold fring &c. 
1 1 0." The other is for " A Blue Satten apron, double gold fringe for his Royal Highness 
the Duke of York," the price is the same, one guinea, and the receipt is dated Dec r . 1 st [1787]. 

They are interesting, as showing that the Grand Lodge aprons of the Royal Princes 
at this period, were ornamented with satin. Fringe as a part of the decoration of the 
Grand Lodge apron, as will be seen from the above, was in use before the Union, though 
more was added at that time or a little earlier. I am rather inclined to believe that the 
" double gold fringe " was used for the ends of the waist-strings and not for the apron 
itself. Again I think " Jachin and Boaz," 1762, may be accepted in this matter as evidence. 
" On the grand days, such as quarterly communications, or general meetings, the grand 
officers' aprons are finely decorated." In the plates will be found a few representations of 
Grand Lodge aprons taken from portraits of various dates. They have no fringe on either 
the apron or fall, but the ends of the strings are ornamented with fringe. 

There is no mention of such ornaments in the Constitutions of 1784, the last before 
the Union, which edition I have principally used for that reason. In the portrait of Thomas 
Dunckerley, however, published in 1789, he is represented wearing an apron very similar to- 
the Grand Lodge aprons now in use, edged with dark ribbon of " Garter blue," with 
a narrow strip of braid to which is attached a deep fringe, probably both of gold. It 
will be noticed that although unlike the other engravings of Grand Lodge aprons both apron 
and fall are edged with the same fringe. The fall is still of coloured ribbon, like the Grand 
Stewards' aprons already mentioned, and not white leather edged with colour. 

Another example possibly intended for a Grand Officer's apron is in the collection of 
the Grand Lodge. It is the engraving of 1794, by Hixon, similar to that in the possession 
of Colonel Mead. It has an edging of dark blue plain silk about 2 inches wide. 

The fringe, though not upon the fall, appears also to have been the decoration of the 
aprons of Dermott's Grand Lodge. In the Ahiman Rezon, of 1778, an engraved frontispiece, 
designed by Dermott, shows a circular temple with certain adornments. The conical roof 

182 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

-is supported in front by three columns, tied to each is an apron, they bear separately the 
arms of England in the centre, Scotland on the dexter, and Ireland on the sinister sides. 
They are all fastened by ordinary ribbons, as they would be on the human body, and are 
called " Masons Aprons," in the explanation of the plate. They are simply the ordinary 
square-cornered skin apron with a flap, or bib not decorated, but round the outer edge of the 
apron itself on three sides there is a fairly deep fringe. 

These were intended for Grand Lodge aprons symbolising the connexion claimed by 
Deroiott's Grand Lodge with those of Scotland and Ireland. The following Resolution 
(Ahiman Bezon, 1807, pp. 90-91), bears on this point. " Sep br 2nd, 1772. It having been 
*' represented to the Grand Lodge that several Brethren had lately appeared in public, with 
*' gold lace and fringe, together with many devices on their aprons, &c, which was thought 
" inconsistent with the dignity, propriety, and ancient custom of the Craft Resolved and 
" ordered, 

" That for the future, no Brethren, Grand Officers excepted, shall appear with gold 
" lace, gold fringe, gold embroidery, or anything resembling gold, on their Masonic cloathing 
■" or ornaments." 

There is no mention of purple or blue in the border of the Atholl Grand Lodge apron, 
and it appears to me not to be unlikely that the combination of purple and gold, was 
considered to be the union of the badges of the two Grand Lodges. 

No difficulty need arise, I think, as to the origin of the two tassels which are not 
found in some of the early aprons of the ordinary mason. They were simply the decorated 
ends of the two ribbons by which the apron was fastened round the body. When tied 
under the flap the ends would naturally hang down, and show little more than the 
ornamented ends. This is quite clear in the portraits of Lord Blayney, 1764-66, the Duke 
of Sussex, Deputy Grand Master, by Drummond, presented by him in 1812 to the Lodge of 
Antiquity and now in their possession, as well also in other examples given in the plate. 
The apron is edged with a broad border of blue. The flap, which is also entirely of dark 
blue, is semi-circular. There does not apjiear to be any gold fringe or other ornament. 
These ornamented ends being, no doubt, inconvenient, were retained as tassels, and 
thus became a portion of the decoration itself. 

This appears to have first taken place in the Grand Stewards' apron. The order of 
1814 states that those " formerly entitled '' are to wear the new aprons, showing that the 
old form, which I imagine was that already mentioned from the portrait of Asperne, 
was not the same. It also adds that they are to have silver tassels. The addition 
of tassels to the M.M. apron was made sometime between 1827 and 1841, and is first 
mentioned in the Constitutions of the latter date. At first they appear to have been placed 
near together in the centre of the apron, as in Asperne's Grand Steward's apron, thus 
imitating the ends of the old strings. I have added a sketch of one having the tassels so 
placed. It belonged to the late Bro. J. C. Fourdrinier, who was made a Mason in June, 1833. 
In the portrait of the Duke of Sussex, painted and drawn by John Harris, in 1833, 
the tassels as separate ornaments are very distinct. In another engraved portrait of 
the same distinguished Grand Master, a very ordinary form of tassel will be seen, placed 
at the top corner of the apron. The position agrees with the figure of the apron 
of the Grand Master (Scotland), given by Laurie in his history, 1859. It seems 
certain that the ordinary apron never had tassels, as will be seen from those represented 
in the plates, and perhaps not even ornamented ends to the strings, before about 1830, 
and that the tassels were added for the sake of uniformity. With regard to the 
origin of the emblems now worn on the Past Master's apron, I have no information. It may 
be connected with the idea of embroidering the badges of officers upon the apron. The order 
of the Grand Lodge of 1814 states that they are to be " perpendicular lines upon horizontal 
lines, thereby forming three several sets of [fa#o] right angles ; the length of the horizontal 
lines to be two inches and a-half each, and the perpendicular lines one inch; these emblems 
to be of riband, half an inch broad." It seems possible from this, that the ornament 
represents two masters' squares placed back to back. That it was a comparatively modern 
idea there seems to be little doubt, and that its adoption took place probably some time near 
the date of the union of 1813. Although the decorations of the old aprons often included 
a multitude of symbols I have never observed this particular one among them. It has, how- 
ever, a slight resemblance to the level. I cannot suggest any satisfactory origin for the 
adoption of rosettes. (See No. 60 of the plates.) 

In the above notes, I have simply made a selection, in order to carry forward in 
the main line the descent of the Masonic Apron. 1 shall hope to continue these researches 
at a future time, and consider some other forms. I would, however, ask those Brethren 
who have curious aprons in their possession to be good enough to communicate with me, in 
order that, when the subject is continued, I may be able to make it as complete as possible. 

Transactions of the Lodje Quatuor Coronati. 183 

Bro. Gould said that the paper they had just listened to was so complete in itself, 
and the evening so far advanced, that there was little left for thern to do, except to pass a 
cordial vote of thanks to the W.M. — which he had much pleasure in proposing. Two points 
came out strongly in the address which had been delivered that evening. One, that the 
W.M. had given them the result of much inquiry and of long and patient observation. The 
other, that he had by him, " pigeon-holed " as it were, in his repositories, a variety of notes 
on a number of other Masonic subjects, which in due time would be expanded into 
" papers," and read before the Lodge. The manner in which Bro. Rylands bad acquitted 
himself on all previous occasions, and the paper of the evening, left no room for doubt as to 
the bright prospect that was foreshadowed with regard to future volumes of their 
Transactions. Upon the lecture of that night he (Bro. Gould) would only say a few words. 
■The newspapers of 1724, gave an account of a Lodge meeting, tbe Grand Master and other 
noblemen being present, and several " persons of quality, were accepted Free Masons, 
and went home in their Leather Aprons and Gloves." 1 The words last cited, fully 
•corroborated the view taken by the W.M. Finally, be would observe, that the Aprons 
kept at Freemasons' Hall for the use of the actual Grand Officers, were without tassels, 
from which the inference would be permissible that in that particular feature of it at least, 
the Apron of a serving Grand Officer was a survival of a plainer — or less ornate — species 
of regalia than is now in general use. 

Bro. Speth, in seconding the vote of thanks, enquired whether the price usually 
mentioned in old minutes as paid for a dozen aprons did not preclude the possibility of their 
being leather. .-""iJ ^ 

Bro. Mathers wished to know whether the lecturer did not think that some connec- 
tion could be traced between the sacrificial apron of the Egyptian priests and kings and 
that of the Freemasons. They were remarkably alike in many respects. 

Bro. Rtlands thanked the brethren for the vote they bad so kindly passed. As 
regards the price of aprons, he had made enquiries, with the result that he had been 
assured that they could still be furnished, that is, a plain skin, for any price from six 
shillings a dozen upwards. Considering the rise in the value of money during the last 
century and a half, this left ample margin. As for any connection between the Egyptian 
apron and the Masonic apron as we now have it, he could see none, no matter how similar they 
might appear, because the original of the apron was, as he had endeavoured to show, a 
plain white skin, bearing no resemblance whatever to that of Egypt, and its subsequent 
development into its present, form could be fairly well traced. 

1 A.Q.C., v., 95. 


In the following notes I have placed the sketches under the dztes of the books from\whic\ 
they were obtained, except when a date is given upon the engraving itself. When no date is to be 
found upon the engraving I have added the word undated. 


1 1717 — Portrait of Anthony Sayer, Grand Master 1717. I. Highmore Pinxt. Faber fecit. 


2 1722-3 — Frontispiece, Anderson's Constitutions. First edition 1723. Engraved by John 

Pine. Used also in the editions of 1738 and 1746. 

3 1731 — Frontispiece, Cole's engraved "Ancient Constitutions." Second edition 1731. 

Engraved by Benjamin Cole, (undated). 

1736 — Plate, Picart's Ceremonies Religieuses, 1735-6, containing the list of Lodges of 
1735. Engraved by Bernard Picart. (undated). 

7 1736 —Frontispiece, Smith's Pocket Companion. First edition 1738. T. Worlidge del, J. 
Clark, sc. (undated). 

8 1 738 (before) —Hogarth's picture " Night." Engraved by himself. Dated 1738. 

9 1738 — Engraving " On Masonry, a new Song, the Words by Mr. Digby Cole, set to Music 
by Mr. Carey." H. Roberts fecit 1738. 

10 1738— Portrait of Montgom3rie, Grand Guarder. A. F. V. Muelen Pinx, A. V. Haecker, 

fecit 1738. 

4 5 6 









20 21 

184 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

1742 — Engraving by Hogarth, " The Mystery of Masonry brought to light by y e 
Gormagons." Engraved by himself, (undated). 

1745c. — Engravings, Interiors of Lodges, (undated). French. No name of engraver. 
1746 — Frontispiece, Les Francs-Maeons ecrases 1747 etc. S. Fokke inven. et fee. 1746. 
1747 — Plate, L'ordre des Francs-Maeons trahi. Plates iii. & vi. (undated). S. F[okke] f. 
1747 — Plates of Altar Apron, Les Francs-Magons ecrases 1747 etc. (undated). No name 
of engraver. 

1751-1783— Engraving, Frederick the Great as a Freemason in the year 1740. Painted by 
19 G. W. Hoffman, 1751-1796. Engraved by B. Calan 1724-1783. Apron of Prince 

William of Prussia, brother of Frederick the Great, (undated). See A.Q.O. 

Vol. ii. p. 182. The aprons may be those in use in 1740. 
1754 — Frontispiece, Freemason's Pocket Companion. First edition 1754. I. S. inv. L. P. 

Boitard, del. (undated). 

1754 — Engraving, A Freemason made out of the Materials of his Lodge. A Slade delin. 

22 Published according to Act of Parliamt. August 15th, 1754. By W. Tringham. No. 
36, Hosier Lane, West Smithfield. 

1754 — Engraving, The Free-masons surpriz'd or the secret dis-cover'd. A true tale from 
a Masons Lodge at Canterbury. Printed for T. Wilkins in Rupert Street and 
Publish'd according to Act of Parliam*. Dec r . 26, 1754. I have given a group of 
figures from this plate, as the aprons are very interesting. The exact shape is 
given, and some will be observed with the flap buttoned up. Another engraving of 

23 this incident was Printed for Robert Sayerin Fleet Street. There is also a painting 
preserved in the Lodge-room of the Lodge of Relief, No. 42, Bury, co. Lancashire. 
It was very kindly shown to me in August, 1887, when I went to Bury to inspect 
their very interesting old Warrant. The picture appears to have been painted by 
a member of the Lodge about 1771-75. (See History of the Lodge, pp. 9 & 73. 

n. „- no 1766c. — Engraving, " The CeremoDy of making a free mason." (undated). Reversed skin 
aprons. (?) cf. The remarks by Dermott, above p. 178. 

176" — Engraved Summons of the Anchor and Hope Lodge, Bolton, co. Lane. No. 37. 
27 Undated, but paid for 19th March, 1767. Engraved by John Barlow. (See History 

of the Lodge, p. 16). 


17... — Song, The Freemason's Health, S. Marini. Inv. et Delin. B. Cole, sculp, 

29 1776 — Frontispiece of Jachin and Boaz. Edition of 1795. Dated, 5776. 

30 1776 — Frontispiece, Three Distinct Knocks. Edition of 1811. Dated, 5776. 

1783 — R.A. Apron in possession of the Chapter at Colne. co. Lane. Obtained in the 
above year, but evidently a pattern continued from an earlier date. It is a 
skin of leather as usually sold, and measures (over all) 2ft. 3in. in height, 2ft. 

31 4iin. in width, with the neck of the animal turned over and forming a fall 5fin. 
deep. The ornamentations are of red silk and twisted silk cord. In the sketch 
I have marked the coloured ribbon with lines. The strings are pieces of the 
same leather knotted to the remains of the fore-legs of the animal. 


1789 — Portrait of John Coustos, from his Unparalleled Sufferings. S. Sketchley inv. 
Tolley sculp, (undated). 

1807 — Punch Bowl preserved in the Mayer Museum, Liverpool. Made by Wedgewood 
for the Etruria Lodge. Dated 5807. 

1811- — Engraved Summons of the Atholl Grand Lodge. Date toritten on the Summons. 
Apron worn under the coat. Apparently no flap, unless turned up. 


1745— Title Page, L'ordre des Francs-Magons Trahi. S. F[okke] in. [et] f[ecit]. 

1751-1786— Engraving of Frederick the Great as a Free Mason 1740. (See No. 19.) The 
seated figure is that of Frederick the Great, (undated). 

1775— Portrait of the Hon. Mrs. Aldworth (Miss St. Leger), the Lady Freemason, 
(undated). Before 1775, the date of her death. 

1768 — Les plus secrets mysteres des hauts grades, etc. (undated.) 

1786 — Frontispiece, La maconnerie adonhiramite (undated). Angular falls. 

42 43 44 1786— Engraving representing the visit of Cagliostro to the Lodge of Antiquity. The 
45 46 47 Apron of Cagliostro is No. 45. Officers' badges are shown upon the aprons, and 

Plate vi. jewels appear to be suspended by ribbons or fastened to the flap. Dated. 

36 37 38 
40 41 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati. 185 

17... — Leather Apron in the possession of Col. Mead, placed here for comparison with 
that of Mrs. Aldworth. Width at the top, 15in. ; Height, 12in. ; Depth of Fall, 
5§in. ; Width of Fall, 6Jin. at the top. The edging is sky blue silk, ljin. wide, and 
the fall has also a sky blue fringe about 3Jiu. deep. It is marked on the back 

48 e p (See Freemasonry in St. Helena, Col. Mead.) No satisfactory explanation 
Pl. v. T.b'. has been offered of these letters. E.P. may mean Entered Prentice, T.B. 

5 the initials of the name of the owner. The apron is known to have been 

worn in the Lodge at St. Helena in the early part of this century by James 
Shipway. It appears to me probable that it is of Irish extraction. The fringe 
is very light. 
1776-78— Portrait of Richard Linnecar, K.W.M. of the Lodge of Unanimity, No. 202, 
[now 154], Wakefield, and one of H.M. Coroners for the County of York. Painted 
by H. Singleton. Engraved by T. Barrow. Bro. Hedley, the Sec. of No. 154, has 
kindly informed me that Linnecar was W.M. from 1766 to 1788. It is worth 

49 remarking that he is represented wearing the present indented, sash of the R.A., 
Pl. viii. also a ribbon collar of three colours to which is suspended the ordinary Jewel of 

the order. The apron resembles the old Grand Lodge apron, having a broad 
border, rounded fall of the same material, aud ornamented strings showing in the 
centre. Had he been a Grand Officer, it would probably have been stated on 
the picture. 

17... — Scotch, Painted Apron, exhibited at and presented to the Lodge on the 8th of 
Nevember, 1892, by Bro. W. F. Lamonby. Leather (sheep skin) edged with blue 
ribbon, a dark shade of light blue, turned over about § of an inch. Fall, a separate 

50 piece of leather. Decorations hand painted in gold, blue, brown, yellow, and 
Pl. vii. black, unlined, painted on the rough side of the skin. Total depth, 17Jin., depth 

of flap, 6in. Tapered, width at the top, 14Jin., at the bottom, 16Jin. Worn by 
Bro. Graham, who was Bro. Lamonby's maternal grandfather, in the Lodge at 
Banff about 1780-1790. 
1796c— Apron decorated with Indian Ink drawings. Kid leather, not lined, edged with 
Jinch ribbon of very pale blue silk, measures 14in. wide and llfin. deep, depth of 

51 flap, oin. The levels are of blue silk, and appear to have been a later addition, as 
Pl. viii. they cover a portion of the drawing. In my possession. Formerly belonged to 

Thomas John Kirkland, Surgeon, who was made a Mason in the Tyrian Lodge, 

Derby, No. 379 (now No. 253) on Aug. 2nd, and made a M.M. on Nov. 22nd, 1796. 

He was born in 1760, and died in 1824. 

180... — French M.M. apron, white satin, lined with pale blue silk, false flap, edged with 

thin satin, about fin. wide of a dark shade of pale blue, slightly gauffered. 12gin. 

**" in width, 12in. in depth. Depth of (false) flap, 4Jin. In my possession, with the 

viii. sash. Both are decorated with gold and silver braid and spangles, as well as 

stones. The sash is watered silk. 

1796c — Wash-Leather Apron, lined with canvas or linen, 15Jin. wide, and 15|in. deep. 
Depth of flap, 8Jin. Apron and flap edged with two rows of white silk ribbon, jin. 
*** wide. Compare Palser's engraving, dated 1809. No. 57. In my possession. 

Formerly belonged to Thomas John Kirkland, Surgeon, as above No. 51. 

54 1797— Frontispiece, Jachin and Boaz. Ed. 1807, dated 1797. 

17... — Painted leather apron, in the possession of the Shakspere Lodge, Spilsby, co. 
Lincoln, No. 426. Tapered, 15|in. at the top, 174in. at the bottom, total height, 

55 15in., Depth of Fall, 4in. (see plate Masonic Mag. Dec. 1876, vol. iv. 257). No 
record of how it came into the possession of the Lodge. No edging, there being 
evidence of its having been cut round with a knife after mounting on a board. 


1807 — Painted Punch Bowl in the Mayer Museum, Liverpool, made by Wedgwood for the 
Etruria Lodge. Dated 5807 (cf. No. 34.) 

_,_ 1809, etc. — Engraved and Coloured Plates of Lodges, published by Thomas Palser, Surrey 

67 side Westminster Bridge, 1809-1812. Compare No. 49. 

18... — Apron made of "Jean," lined with linen, 14Jin. in width, depth 12|in, angular 
flap 6in. in depth. No Tassels, edged with plain sky blue " sarcenet " all through, 

58 Jin. wide, blue sarcenet levels. In my possession. Formerly belonged to Timothy 
Barney who was, according to his Lodge certificate, dated 1st Sep. 1813, A.L. 5817, 
made a Mason and admitted a M.M. in No. 471, St. John's Lodge, Leicester (now 
No. 279). His Grand Lodge certificate is dated the 17th June, 1814. 

18... — Kid apron, depth 12£in., width 16in., angular flap 5jin. deep, sky-blue silk edging on 

59 apron If in. wide, on flap ljin., blue silk levels, lined pale blue silk. No Tassels. 
Marked, Barney Bawncliffe Lodge, 608. This Lodge was warranted 19th July, 1834, 
and erased on the 1st June, 1853. 

18... — Kid apron, lined sky blue silk, 14iin. wide and 13in. deep, angular flap 6in. deep, 
edged with pale blue watered silk 1 Jin. wide. Tassels of silver braid in the centre, 

60 fastened to watered silk pale blue ribbon 2iin. wide, worked with the initials J.C.F, 
under the flap. In my possession. Formerly belonging to John Coles Fourdrinier, 
who was made a Mason in the Jordan Lodge, June the 20th, 1833. 

A _ 1820 — American. Engraved Plates in the " True Masonic Chart," by Jeremy L. Cross. 

61 Second edition, Newhaven, Conn., U.S.A., 1820. (undated). 

~n 1843 — From Plates F.J.B. Clavel, Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Maconnerie 1843. 

"* (undated). He figures also plain aprons of much the same shape. 

186 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati 

... — German. From Medal, Marvin, No. xiii., PI. in., said to have been struck for the? 
Lodge of The Three Golden Keys, Halle, on the Feast of St. John Baptist, 1744, 
from the date it bears on the reverse. Other somewhat similar aprons will be 
found on the Medal, Marvin No. xvi. (PI. in.) attributed to 1755. Rosettes will 
be observed on the aprons. I have, therefore, placed the aprons here withont a 
date. If the German Lodges were the first to adopt the rosette, then its origin 
must be looked for in that country. No such decoration appears, however, in the 

63 engraving of Frederick the Great. (See Nos. 37, 38). The mason wearing the 
apron figured here, bears the square suspended round his neck. The Medal (Marvin 
No. xvi.) was engraved by Stockmar. There were three medallists of this name, 
the last of whom died in 1812. A really scientific study of the early Masonic 
Medals, dealing with their style and engravers, would form a very interesting paper. 
I commend this suggestion to the consideration of those brethren who are the 
fortunate possessors of fine collections, as enabling them to make their treasures 
serve a useful purpose. 

64 Present pattern, 14 to 16in. wide, 12 to 14in. deep. 


1764-66- Portrait of Cadwallader Lord Blayney, Grand Master 1764 to 1766. Undated. 
No name of engraver. The earliest engraving of a Grand Lodge apron I have yet 

65 met with. It is the long skin of leather edged with broad blue ribbon, rounded 
at the bottom, rounded blue flap, and strings with tassels at the ends tied in front. 

1789 — Portrait of Thomas Dunckerley, painted by Thomas Beach, engraved by J. Jones, 

66 published Dec. 21st, 1789. The apron has a gold fringe round three sides, and the 
flap appears also to be fringed. The latter may, however, be an artistic arrange- 
ment of the tassel ends of the belt. 

1801-2 — Profession of the R.M.I for Girls. Painted by Brother Stothard, R.A., London. 
Published June 1st, 1802, by Yfm. Jeffryes & Co., Earl Street, Blaokfriars. 

67 Engraved by Brother Bartolozzi, R.A. Aprons worn by George, Prince of Wales, Sir 

68 John Earner, and Ruspini. There appears to be an error in the upper portion of 

69 the apron worn by Ruspini. It is represented as if the fail was white leather 
edged with purple, which is not so in the other aprons. 

1802 — Portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Grand Master. Drawn and engraved by 
Edmund Scott. Published June 1, 1802. 

1804 — Portrait of Lord Moira, A.G.M., " Drawn by F. Bartolozzi •. the Portrait Painted by 

J. Hoppner, R.A. Engraved by H. Landseer." Published by Henry Landseer and 

71 others, February 25th, 1804. The shape of the apron is very evident, — short, 

rounded, with rounded flap of the same dark colour as the border. No tassels, no 

fringe, but with tasselled ends to the belt, which show from underneath the fall. 

1806 — Portrait, the Rev. Richard Underwood, D. Prov. G.M., Herefordshire. A. J. 
Oliver Pinxt. Cha s . Turner, Sculpt., London. Published 14th April, 1806, by Rt. 
Cribb, 288, Holborn. I am indebted to Bro. H. Sadler for the knowledge of this 
interesting example. 

1811 — Portrait of the Earl of Moira, A.G.M. Painted by James Ramsay, engraved by C. 
Turner. Published 1811. 

1812— Portrait of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, D.G.M. Painted by Drummond, pre- 
sented by him to, and now in the possession of, the Lodge of Antiquity. 

75 18...— Portrait of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, G.M. (Undated). No name of artist, 

1814 — Portrait of James Asperne, Grand Steward 1814. Painted by S. Drummond. 

76 A.R.A., engraved by T. Blood. Old form of Grand Stewards' apron. 

1778 — Frontispiece Ahiman Rezon, the Book of Constitutions of the Atholl G. Lodge 

77 (Third edition). Law. Dermott, Inv. M. A. Booker delin'. ec Sculp. This plate 
was repeated in other editions, and afterwards re-engraved up to 1807. 


1762 — Plates from " The History of Preston in Lancashire together with the Guild 
Merchant," etc., 1822. Plates representing the procession of Trades, etc. They 
are from an earlier book on the same subject published in 1762. That of the 
" Mason's Company " is marked '' B. Mayor del et sculp. Published according to 
Act, 1762, by T. Anderson." 

78 Masons' Company, with long leather aprons. 
79 80 Carpenters, etc., Company, including Joiners, Coopers, etc., with short aprons. 

81 Smiths' Company. ^ 
_ I With long leather aprons 

82 Butchers' Company. J- 
_ , „ I without any fall. 

83 Tanners Company. J 





FIG. 4 

FIG. 7. 

FIG. 8. 

W. H. R. del. 

Aprons 1. 


FIG. 9. 

FIG. 10. 

FIG. 15. 

FIG. 16. 

W. H. R. del. 

FIG. 17. 

FIG. 18. 

Apkons 2. 






FIG. 23. 

FIG. 22. 

FIG. 24. 

W. H. R. del. 

FIG 25. 

FIG. 26. 

FIG. 28. 
Aprons 3. 


FIG. 29. 

FIG. 30. 

FIG. 33. 

FIG. 32. 

FIG. 31. 

FIG. 34. 

FIG. 35. 

FIG. 36. FIG. 37. 

W. H. R. del. 

FIG. 38. 

Aprons 4. 


FIG. 39. 

FIG. 40. 

FIG. 41. 

FIG. 48. 

W. H. R. del. 

Aprons 5. 


FIG. 42. 

FIG. 55. 

FIG. 43. 

FIG. 53. 

FIG. 44. 

FIG. 45. 

FIG. 46. 

W. H. R. del. 

FIG. 47. 

FIG. 57. 

FIG. 54. 

Aprons 6. 


FIG. 50. 

W. H. R. del. 

Apbons 7. 

Presented to the Lodge Quatuor Goronati by Bro. W. F. Lamonby, 
8th November, 1892. 


FIG. 51. 

FIG. 52. 

W. H. R. 

Aprons 8. 



*V- ■, ,.,'. i i 'I '.I'.lnllilll.'lJjMlfAl 

FIG. 58. 

FIG. 59. 

FIG. 60. 

FIG. 62. 

FIG. 63. 


FIG. 56. 


FIG. 65. 

FIG. 66. 

FIG. 67. 

FIG. 68. 

FIG. 69. 

FIG 70. 

FIG. 71. 

W. H. R. del. 

Aprons 10. 


FIG. 72. 

FIG. 73. 

FIG. 74. 

FIG. 75. 

FIG. 76 

W. H. R. i 

FIG. 77. 

Aprons 11. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 187 


(Continued from page 19.) 

III. . 

Rise of the nigh Degrees and their influence on Craft Masonry. 

Austrian elements in Magdeburg Military Lodges. 

The Clermont Rite in Bohemia and Austria. 

History of the "Three Crowned Stars" Lodge (continued), and of the Chapter of the "Four Evan- 
gelists " at Prague. 

Lodge of the " Generous," or Lodge "Royale Militaire," at Vienna and the High Chapter " St. Polten." 

Austrian and Hungarian elements in Lodges at Dresden. 


Baron de Hund's Eite " The Strict Observance," and the Templar Prefecture " Rodomskoy," at 

Lodges " Sincerity " and " Three Comets." 

IITHERTO we have considered the origin and destinies of the oldest Lodges 
existing at Prague and Vienna until about 1760. Before proceeding further 
in our history, we must stop awhile and record a fact which proved to be of 
general and extreme importance in the history of Masonry by the great 
influence it exercised on the further evolution of Masonic organisms and 
forms. This was the rise and progress of high or additional, degrees which 
threw Continental Masonry into a state of most deplorable confusion. It lies, 
of course, very far from the object aimed at by the present sketch to give an exhaustive 
account of the origin and history of the high degrees, but I think it proper to state the 
main features of that movement, inasmuch as it is necessary for a better understanding of 
the matter now under consideration. 

The very oldest of the " hauts grades " was that of the " Scotch Master" or " Maitre 
Ecossais," also called " Knight of St. Andrew," which sprang up in France about 1736. 
The general belief is that it was created by exiled followers of the Stuarts for political 
purposes. Some supporters of the high degrees say that this is not so, but that the new 
degree was originally a free union of Master Masons with the object of regenerating the 
Parisian Lodges already corrupted by that time. It is also asserted that these brethren 
took the name of " Freres Acassois " (brethren of the acacia), which afterwards was 
changed (but why ?) into " Preres Ecossois — Ecossais." 

Now the reason of the changing of the name, if, as pretended, Scotch elements had 
nothing to do with the movement, is not quite clear ; on the other hand, the symbol of 
the new degree, viz., a lion wounded by an arrow, escaped from the stake to which he had 
been bound, with the broken rope still round his neck, lying at the mouth of a cave bestrewn 
with mathematical instruments, would rather prove the Jacobite origin of it, as also does 
its colour, which was (thistle) green (the colour of hope at same time), seeming to 
indicate Scotland and the hopes entertained by the Jacobite party with regard to the throne 
of Great Britain. 

Well, be this as it may, the origin of the new degree is quite irrelevant for us now, 
as we only wish to state the fact that the "Scotch Master" became a new fourth degree, 
worked in " Scotch Lodges," sometimes called " Chapters," their symbol being a square, 
with a St. Andrew's cross inscribed g|, and whose members sought to assume the directo- 
rate of the Blue Lodges. About 1772 the degree was imported into Germany, whence it 
came to Austria. It was soon considered a necessary supplement of Masoniy, not even a 
higher degree in a strict sense. Afterwards it was split up into the " Scotch Entered 
Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Scotch Master " degrees. 

Of the high degrees in a stricter sense, bearing more or less a chivalric 
character, the Chevalier Ramsay must be considered the father : in his famous speech 
delivered at Paris in 1737,hefirst connected — without historical foundation — Masonry with the 
Crusades and the great historical orders of Knighthood. He established three degrees, viz., 

(1) Ecossais ; (2) Novice ; (3) Knight Templar. Out of this system sprang up, with a 
number of others, the so-called Rite de Clermont, founded at Paris in 1754 by the Chevalier 
de Bonneville. Some pretend it was of Jesuit origin, which others deny. To the 4th 
degree (Maitre Ecossais) it added three others : (1) Maitre Elu or Chev. de l'aigle ; 

(2) Chevalier illustre or Templier, also called Knight of the Holy Sepulchre ; (3) Chevalier 

188 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

Sublime or Knight of G-od. Accordingly the chapter was called (in 1) Capitulum electnm, 
(in 2) Capitulum illustre, and (in 3) Capitulum sublime. A distinguished member of this 
Rite, the Marquis Tilly de Lernais, was brought to Berlin as a prisoner of war in 1757. He 
induced the Baron de Prinzen, Grand Master of the " Three Globes," to adopt the system. 
In consequence they established a Grand Chapter of the Order called " Capitulum Hiero- 
Bolymitanum Supremnm " at Berlin, 1760. This sent out Ph. S. Rosa to propagate the new 
Rite in Germany, who succeeded in founding Chapters in Jena, Magdeburg, and Dresden. 
From Dresden the Rite came to Prague as we shall see hereafter. It is noteworthy that 
Rosa made some additional alterations in the Clermont Rite by omitting some degrees and 
creating others in their places, or, at least* changing their names, there being five, other say 
six, degrees beyond the symbolical degrees. This modified Clermont- Rosaic Rite was after- 
wards superseded by the well-known adventurer Johnson, and this by Baron de Hund's 
famous Templar system or the " Strict Observance." 

All these rites were of importance to Masonry in Austria and Hungary, as we shall 
see. But before doing so let us face — en passant — another matter likewise of interest for 
our present object. 

We have already seen a Lodge, the " Three Hearts," founded at Vienna by foreigners. 
Now we are going to see, on the other hand, Lodges established outside the Austrian 
dominions, but containing Austrian elements, exerting a subsequent influence on Austrian 
Masonry. . 

Magdeburg, the strong fortress, was the scene of a very variegated life at the verge 
of the fifties and sixties of the last century, owing to the numerous foreign officers who had been 
made prisoners by the Prussians during the Seven Years War, and brought there to await 
the close of hostilities. Now in 1759 or 60, a number of Austrian, Swedish, and Wiirtem- 
bergian officers, being Masons, resolved to found a lodge there, temporarily, and during their 
detention, in order to exercise themselves in the Royal Art and to extend its member- 
ship. And this was for them not only a distinction but really a high moral blessing, 
a fact everybody will admit if we consider that almost the only place for these 
officers to meet with their comrades in arms on neutral territory was the inn, a place not 
offering much at that time to the educated man. For those desirous of anything better and 
higher there existed one place more : the Lodge. So the resolution just mentioned was not 
only a laudable, but a very natural one. The Lodge was established, and, with a view to 
the various nationalities of its members present and future, it took the beautiful name of 
" La Parfaite Union." 

As it was contemplated to be only a snug nook of refuge for the uncertain time of 
their captivity, they did not apply for a warrant to any Grand Lodge beforehand. By -and- bye 
the captive officers obtained their liberty and returned to their respective homes. In 1762 nearly 
all but the Wurtembergian members — sixteen in number — had left. They resolved not to 
dissolve the Lodge but to carry it with them home. 

In the same year an officer of higher rank, von Gemmingen, joined them. He 
seriously advised them to apply for a warrant to the Mother Grand Lodge of Berlin, of 
which he was himself a member, in order to make the Lodge just, perfect, and regular. This 
they did, and through Gemmingen' s mediation they obtained a warrant dated March 5th, 
1762. It was brought by a special delegate who instructed them in the higher degrees at the 
same time. The warrant contained also the power to transfer the Lodge to Wiirtemberg in 
due course. At the installation of the Lodge, von Gemmingen was approved of as " Grand 
Master," von Harnach as " Ruling Master," and von Wolfing and von Prangen as Wardens. 
The war being closed by the peace of Hubertusburg, 1763, the Lodge was transferred first 
to Ludwigsbnrg, afterwards to Stuttgart. It worked the Clermont Rite, and numbered in 
1770 not less than 71 members, amongst them 22 who were not soldiers. At that period 
Major General von Gemmingen was Grand Master and Magnus Prior, Colonel von Harnach 
Ruling Master of the Scotch Lodge, and Major General von Bouwinghausen (later on a 
zealous Rosicrucian), Ruling Master of the Blue Lodge. 

Amongst the members there were 12 Bquites Hier. Ordinis Sublimioris, 3 Equites Hier. 
Ord. Inferioris, and 17 Scotch Masters and Knights of St. Andrew. The Lodge and Chapter 
ceased working in 1784. Be it mentioned, Harnach came immediately after the war to 
Bohemia, where we shall meet him as a member of the Lodge " Sincerite." After that it 
seems he went to Wurtemburg. Another member of the " Parfaite Union," von Prangen, 
we shall meet likewise on a future occasion. 

Now let us return to Magdeburg again. Another Lodge was founded there by 
French refugees and German and Austrian officers, with thename " de laFelicite." It procured 
a constitution from the Berlin Lodge " La Concorde," 1761. This being but a daughter Lodge, 
and not empowered to establish or warrant Lodges, the " Three Globes" protested against the 
new Lodge, but, nevertheless, recognized it to be regular later on. Very early, however, 
differences sprang up between the French and German brethren, which culminated in the 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Ooronati; 189 

departure of the Germans, who now established a new Lodge in their turn, calling it " La 
Constance." This commenced working in December, 1761, the first Master being von 
Welz, an Austrian officer. They applied for and obtained a warrant — on the recommendation of 
their French sister, a fact which deserves recognition — dated February 28th, 1762. Among 
the members we meet both Austrian and Hungarian names, which is noteworthy and of 
interest for us. 

By the way we may mention that in the next year, 1763, one more military Lodge 
arose under the name " Zu den drei Saulen " (of the three pillars). As it contained purely 
Prussian elements, it has no further interest for us at present. Moreover, it seems to have 
ceased soon after the war, as did the Lodge " La Felicite," both disappearing about 1764. 

The Lodge " La Constance " remained at Magdeburg, and joined the " Strict 
Observance " Rite in 1767. Its trace ceases soon after. 

In all probability all the Magdeburg Lodges followed the Clermont Rite. It is 
mentioned above, that a special delegate was sent from Berlin to the " Parfaite Union " with 
a view of giving them instruction in the higher degrees. This " Legatus Capituli 
Hierosolymitani Berolinensis " was, most likely, no other than Rosa, who founded as a 
common centre for the German Lodges at Magdeburg the Scotch Lodge " Sinai " and a 
Jerusalem Chapter, which, with a view to its transference in due time, took the name 
" Capitnlnm Sturtgardianum." A member of the Scotch Lodge and the Chapter just 
mentioned was Bro. Welz, whose name we have seen already above. He joined afterwards 
the " Strict Observance " and going with the Army to Italy was honoured with the power to 
found Lodges in the Italian countries, if possible. " As appears from a letter of his dated 
January 6th, 1775, he did not succeed in doing so, but there can be no doubt that he, as well 
as many of his fellow-officers, did much for the propagation of Masonic principles, and that 
once more in their own homes they became, in grateful remembrance, zealous apostles of the 
institution which had — in sorrowful times —permitted them to find true brethren and friends 
who, offering them a helpful hand and a loving heart, had made them forget their sorrows 
and troubles, and given them a. new bright home when they had been prisoners far from 
their own native countries. 

As a matter of fact, it was chiefly by officers of the Army Masonry spread so rapidly 
over the whole Continent, and thus over the Austrian and Hungarian dominions also, in a 
short space of time. 

And now, after this excursion, let us go back again to our well-known Lodges, first 
of all to the " Three Crowned Stars " at Prague, subsequently to the Lodge of the 
" Generous " in Vienna, and see the influence which the High Degrees exercised on them. 

It has been already mentioned (iv., p. 23) , that the " Three Stars " Lodge at Prague had, 
through the good offices of Bro. Count Rutowski, obtained a warrant from Berlin in 1742, to- 
gether with the power to work the fourth, or " Scotch" degree, already known there at that 
time. After the fractions of the Prague Lodge had been re-united under the name of the 
" Three Crowned Stars " Lodge, this new Lodge continued for a considerable space of time 
working the four degrees. The archives of the Lodge (a part of which reach back as far 
as about 1760) were afterwards brought to Hungary, and this circumstance accounts 
for their being preserved to the present day. (They are now kept at the Castle Degh, 
County of Veszprem, Hungary). They prove that the Prague brethren maintained a brisk 
correspondence with German (Saxon) Lodges, especially with the Lodge of the " Three 
Pomegranates " at Dresden, which had been established about 1761, got a warrant from the 
"Three Globes," Berlin, 1762, and adopting the Clermont Rite obtained from Berlin a 
Patent as Chapter in the next year, 1763. Our brethren at Prague may have acquired some 
vague notions about a new Rite, with chivalric features, which had rapidly spread over 
Germany, and seized by the desire after anything which they thought to be better and 
higher, they opened negociations with the " Pomegranates " in that direction. A 
distinguished member of the Prague Lodge, Captain Baron Skolen, had private corres- 
pondence and conferences with Bro. John Spiess, treasurer of the Dresden Lodge on that 
behalf. Bro. Spiess assured Bro. Skolen in a letter dated 27th September, 1763, that his Lodge 
was a mother Lodge, and fully entitled to establish new Lodges, wherefore the desire of 
the Prague brethren could easily and forthwith be accomplished. It was desired, however, 
that a Brother should be sent to Dresden in order to receive the new warrant and patent, 
together with the copies of the new constitutions, rituals, etc. The cost would be about 
130 ducats, but their own (the Dresden Brethrens') expenses were over 400 ducats, which, 
indeed, was a great difference. But, at least, they would be in connection with all just and 
perfect Lodges. The Prague brethren, doubting the genuineness of their working warrant, 
found it insufferable to regard themselves as irregular Masons and their Lodge as 
clandestine : therefore, well knowing every new warrant to be connected with indispensable 
expenses, they silently and with dignity accepted the position and its consequences, and 
decided to put, as soon as possible, an end to their untenable state. 

190 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

On August 5th, 1763, they forwarded a formal written application to the '• Mother 
Lodge of the Three Pomegranates " at Dresden, in which they asked for a warrant, the 
needful rules and regulations, and everything else needed for a just and perfect Lodge. 
The application was signed by the most distinguished members of the Lodge, amongst them 
were two Counts Clary Aldringen (Francis Charles and Philip), John Count Liitzow, 
Francis Charles Count Martinitz, Inspector and Royal Chamberlain ; Charles William Baron 
Sk5len, Captain in the Army (a born Saxon) ; John Francis de Goltz ; John Charles 
Baron Purttenburg ; Leopold de Pracht, Lieutenant-Colonel and Quartermaster General, 
afterwards Colonel and Governor; Joseph Francis Martinelli, and others. Among the 
members of the Lodge who did not sign we may name here the following : Charles Frederick 
Baron Schmidburg, Lient.-Colonel ; Joseph Count Thun, Chamberlain and Colonel (after- 
wards Major-General) ; Caspar Herman Count Kinigl, a son of Sebastian, the zealous 
Mason already mentioned as the first Master of the " Three Crowned - Stars " Lodge ; 
James Baron Brady, Captain of the Grenadiers, a born Irishman, who was a valiant soldier, 
became afterwards Colonel and Chamberlain, and obtained the greatest military distinction 
known in Austria, the Cross of Maria Theresa. He had been initiated and passed at Vienna 
on June 18th, 1762 (perhaps in the Lodge of the " Generous "), affiliated in the same year 
with the " Three Crowned Stars " at Prague, was raised January 24th, 1763, and received the 
Scotch Masters' degree November 4th, 1764. 

The brethren Skolen and Furttenbnrgh were entrusted to go to Dresden in 
order to present the petition and receive the warrant, etc. They were provided with full 
and unlimited power. Thus they tried to obtain at Dresden as much as possible, and their 
endeavours were, at last, crowned with success. Difficulties appeared at the beginning. Be it 
that the Dresden "brethren had some scruples about their authority, or be it that they 
missed some documents of importance, or were there other reasons : in a word, the 
Saxon brethren hesitated, and so the negociations and the stay of the Prague brethren 
were prolonged ; so much the more so, as the delegates strove to obtain more than 
was originally intended. They were not satisfied with the mere warranting of the Lodge, 
which was the business they had been entrusted with, but they wished to procure a patent for 
a Chapter (Clermont Rite) for the whole realm of Bohemia, which impliedly included the 
power to found Lodges. After some conferences the negociations came to a satisfactory 
conclusion. The Dresden brethren gave in and declared themselves willing to grant both 
the warrant and the patent, on condition, however, that the working of both the Lodge and 
Chapter should be strictly according to their rules, and the labours should be begun 
under direction of a special commissioner sent from Dresden. The fee of the patent was 
likewise agreed to and fixed at 300 ducats, and 20 ducats were promised to Bro. Benard, 
the secretary of the Dresden Lodge, for copying the constitutions and rituals, etc., of all the 
seven degrees. Skolen and Furttenburg stayed at Dresden until all was ready — from 
August 25th to September 2nd. In the meantime also appointments were effected, 
SkOlen being appointed Master of the " Three Crowned Stars " Lodge, whilst Furttenburg 
was nominated Prior of the Chapter, and in virtue of that dignity the head of all the 
higher degrees. The new -founded Chapter took the name of " The Four Evangelists." All 
being in order the two brethren took their leave : however, not being prepared for so long a 
stay and the unforseen expenses, they gave a bill of change for the 300 ducats and 
remained in debt for the rest. 

So they returned to Prague, and bringing even more with them than was hoped for, 
were most probably received with great rejoicings. Next they furnished their Lodge 
and Chapter according to the new regulations, thus being all ready at the beginning 
of November to have the Lodge and Chapter duly installed. In conformity with the agree- 
ment above mentioned they applied to the Dresden Mother Lodge to despatch the 
commissioner and have the installation performed. This, however, did not take place. The 
reason was the death of the Elector August —also King of Poland — in consequence of which 
none of the Saxon brethren could leave Dresden. And, therefore, in a letter dated 
November 25th, 1763, the Dresden Mother Lodge empowered the new daughter Lodge to 
begin their work in the Royal Art, admonishing the brethren to do everything according to 
the rules and regulations, likewise to let them know the names of members and officers of 
the Lodge. No doubt the Lodge began working accordingly in November, 1763. Almost at 
the same time Furttenburg opened, with the assistance of three of the most worthy Scotch 
Masters, the new chapter ; the " Tripartite " constitutions as well as the rituals of reception 
and " Leges," divided into " Terniones," being read on the occasion. But when they arrived 
at the explanation given in those degrees of the Hyram legend, it appeared that neither 
Furttenburg nor Skolen knew it exactly. On January 22nd, 1764, they addsessed them- 
selves to the " Capitnlo Supremo Dresdensi" for the true explanation " Hyrami " and for 
the revelation of the whole secret. At the same time they informed the Dresden Chapter 
that they had received as members of their Chapter two worthy brethren, Lieutenant-Colonel 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 191 

Pracht and Lieutenant-Colonel Schmidbnrg. For the present they did not desire to initiate 
any more members, as they wished to be very careful for fear of receiving unworthy persons 
into the Holy Order. They were forced to do so, so much the more as the rituals bid them 
reveal at initiation the whole secret " Hyrami," which, however, was not quite clear 
to them, and some symbols unintelligible, probably the explanation having been forgotten 
to be given them. The Dresden Chapter in reply praised their carefulness, and congratu- 
lated them on the choice of two so worthy and respectable men as the brethren named, 
hecause not quantity, but quality, came into consideration. At the same time they 
complained of other chapters not being so careful and receiving unworthy men. No 
■wonder quite new things arose in the Order and unheard of matters happened, so that they 
were led to doubt the often praised fidelity of brethren. This bitter remark alluded to 
Johnson, of whom they had beard already, though they had not yet decided as to what 
standpoint they should take against him. Anyhow, they judged it advisable to give the 
Prague brethren a hint, and admonish them to be firm should false prophets make their 
appearance. In the same letter, Capitnlum Dresdense Capitulo Hier. Pragensi, dated 
February 20th, 1764, they declared that they dare not give the desired explanation by 
letter that had been given to the two delegates when in Dresden. So the brethren must be 
patient, as there would be an opportunity for them to get a full explanation shortly. 

Scarcely were the Prague brethren somehow consolidated in the new Lodge and 
Chapter, when an event of a very unpleasant nature interrupted their labours and filled them 
with great anxiety. Some clandestine Masons and Rosicrucians had been arrested. 
Replying to a question made to this effect from Dresden, the Prague Lodge declared that 
none of its members were Rosicrucians, the declaration being signed by all the members. Bro. 
Goltz refused to sign because he knew that some of the members were, in spite of 
their denial, Rosicrucians. He was of opinion not to report on the matter at all, for fear of 
incurring new inconveniences. Nevertheless, the paper was sent to Dresden and replied to, 
but the working of the Lodge was suspended, that of the Chapter likewise, so much the more 
so as the Prior Furttenburg. who seems to have been really a Rosicrucian, resigned his 
office, and the appointment of a new Prior had to be awaited. The arrested brethren were 
mostly Rosicrucians. Suffice it to state in this place, — this fraternity, a branch of which 
ceased to exist at the end of the 17th or at the beginning of the 18th century, was revived 
about the middle of the last century, one of its circles being founded at Prague about 1760. 
It numbered many distinguished persons among its members. There was for instance a 
Prince of Ahrenberg. There can be no doubt that some brethren of the " Three Crowned 
Stars " Lodge belonged to the Rosicrucian Circle. In both military elements prevailed. The 
Superior of the Prague Circle, which was called the " Black Rose," was Baron George 
Nitzky. Next to him in the ruling of the Circle stood Vernier and the Secretary Kozaro. 
They took very high fees of entrance from their candidates, and seem to have given 
nothing of what they had promised, viz., alchemical secrets of practical value. This led 
to a denunciation, one or more members bringing a charge against the brethren mentioned, 
in consequence of which they and all members who could be identified were arrested and — 
being mostly officers of the army— examined and tried by the military authorities. Thegreater 
part of them escaped with an honourable confinement of some few days, whilst the heads 
just mentioned were sentenced for a term of six years on the ill-renowned and dreaded 
Spielberg. Kozaro, moreover, had to stand in the pillory. To this the statement of a con- 
temporary seems to refer, who says that the Empress placed in the pillory a Bohemian 
Drother for his being Secretary of a Lodge. This statement was anything but correct, as 
Kozaro had not been Secretary of a Lodge, nor was he placed in the pillory for being a 
Secretary of a Lodge or of a Rosicrucian Circle. On the contrary there are other particulars 
— being of no special interest for us now — which seem to prove that Kozaro was, indeed, 
found guilty of punishable actions. 

Now this deplorable event was of serious consequence to the Masonic Lodge also, 
as Freemasons were often confounded with Rosicrucians and other secret societies, and an 
Imperial Order prohibited further assemblies of Rosicrucians and Freemasons altogether. 
At this time the Dresden brethren wished and felt it their duty to prepare their friends 
at Prague for a great Masonic event which had already cast its shadow before as far as 
Dresden. Great changes were about to take place within the Order. To their extreme 
astonishment they had become aware that the path they had hitherto trodden was a false 
one, and what they had believed to be their leading light was a deceptive will-o'-the-wisp 
only. But they hoped to catch some rays from the new star which had just arisen in Jena, 
and to let their Prague brethren enjoy some scintillations of it also. 

More they could and durst not tell beforehand. But they again warned the Prague 
hrethren not to give ear to emissaries or delegates, wherever they might come from, if even 
from Ber.[lin], nor to permit foreign brethren to enter their Lodge if not personally known 
to them, and to be extremely careful at receptions. A little time and patience would 


Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

resolve their puzzles. These two official letters, whose contents we have just mentioned,, 
were accompanied by a private letter of Bro. Spiess, likewise full of mysterious allusions. 
It ran in such phrases : . . . " You will be greatly astonished now, but in a short while 
you will say, 'What a happy hour it was when we resolved to turn our steps to Dresden.' " 
And then he assured them "it would be broad day ere long." These letters arrived at 
Prague on February 27th, 1764. In a following letter our good old Bro. Spiess says, " If the 
day is not going to break now, then I am convinced it will remain dark as long as the world 
shall exist." And then he gives a hint that a very great union is projected, and that the 
Prague Lodge will shortly be summoned to send delegates to some Convent. Now all these 
official and private letters resulted in just the contrary to what they aimed at, mightily stir- 
ring up the minds of the Prague brethren, who necessarily were led to believe that they again 
had been deceived, and had not got a step nearer to the true light by the Constitution they 
had procured from Dresden. Nor was the Dresden Chapter in a position to dissipate scruples. 
Meanwhile Bro. Pracht had been appointed Prior of the Prague Chapter instead of Bro. 
Purttenburg. He confessed he had great pains to maintain, under the circumstances, the 
faith of the brethren, and not to succumb together with them under the suspicions evoked 
and the prevailing inconsistency. He asked them to hasten the new day-break as much as 

At last the long-promised light made its appearance. True, from elsewhere and in a 
different manner from that which was most likely expected. Its first ray was a letter from 
Jena, dated March 6th, 1764, written by a Brother named Mender, a physician, who was a 
member of the "Three Pomegranates'* at Dresden, but staying for the time at Jena as 
representative of his Lodge at the High Chapter, having its seat there. After introducing 
himself, he confessed that he was the author of the two official letters sent by Spiess to the 
Prague Lodge. Then he proceeds to say that he felt it his strict duty to be fully sincere 
with the Prague brethren. He told them that the Grand Lodge of Berlin had, for a, 
number of years, deceived very many respectable and worthy men, by usurping the power 
which it never rightly had of establishing new Lodges, not to speak of Chapters. Thus 
they had cheated honest men of their money. - This mean proceeding had, at last, induced 
the high and true Order to make an end to these abuses, to which end they had authorised 
and empowered a great Prior, in order to carry out and to effect a reformation among the 
brethren ; to point out the true path to the virtuous and the righteous, and to lead them to 
the true light ; to separate the unworthy and to cast them out of the honourable society ; 
the same fate awaiting obstinate and disobedient Lodges. 

And there let us stop a while. Only two words more just to state that this Masonic 
Messiah who was about to regenerate the Order was an adventurer of the basest sort. 
Most probably he was of Jewish origin : it is, however, difficult to know his real name, as 
he bore a dozen at various times and places. He had been initiated in the " Three Pillars " 
Lodge at Prague under the false name of " de Martin," as mentioned already at another 
place (vol. iv., p. 24). After having done much mischief at many places he reappeared at 
Jena, 1763, where he took the name of "Johnson," by which we may call him, this being his 
last one. Before returning to this interesting personage in detail let us pause and have 
another glance at Vienna. 

(To be continued). 



1THIN the last few months a series of important events have taken place in 
Berlin, with which I regret to say, I am only imperfectly acquainted. I will> 
however, in view of their importance, endeavour to give such an account of 
them as my scanty information may permit, and possibly some of our German 
members may be induced to supply what is deficient. 

There are in Berlin three Grand Lodges : — 
The "Mother Grand Lodge of the Three Globes," exclusively Christian 
in doctrine, and following a rite that includes " High Degrees," the members of which are 
privileged above the ordinary Master-Mason. 

The " Grand Lodge, called Royal York of Friendship." This system is not sectarian, 
and therefore admits Jews to its ceremonies. It possesses an "Inner Orient," to which 
privileged members are admitted with initiatory rites, but it does not claim to confer " High 
Degrees " in this " Orient." It calls the instruction there afforded " Steps to Knowledge " ; 
its members are not entitled to precedence because of their possession of this knowledge,. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 193 

but because they are members of the Inner Orient, which is, as it were, a Committee of 
Grand Lodge, with the special duty of preserving the dogma and ritual. The distinction 
would appear a fine one, but I believe I have stated with sufficient accuracy the position 
taken up by this Grand Lodge. 

The " National Grand Lodge of all German Masons," which is strictly Christian, 
following the Swedish Rite, and has a very developed hierarchical system of "High 

There are five other Grand Lodges in the German Empire : — 

The " Grand Lodge of Saxony " ; the " Mother Grand Lodge of the Eclectic Union," 
Frankfort-on-Maine ; the " Grand Lodge of Hamburg " ; the " Grand Lodge Concord " at 
Darmstadt: and the " Grand Lodge of the Sun " at Bayreuth. These, without exception, 
admit candidates of all religions. 

There are also five independent, but thoroughly recognised, Lodges. 

Exclusive territorial Grand Lodge jurisdiction is not recognised or insisted upon by 
any of these Grand Lodges, except in the case of Saxony. There is, of course, a tendency 
for the Lodges to group themselves according to territory, but no rule exists on the subject 
and lodges of different jurisdictions may be found side by side in one town ; for instance, in 
Hamburg, which is also the seat of a Provincial Grand Lodge of the National Grand Lodge 
at Berlin. But although Prussian Lodges exist all over Germany, except in Saxony, yet in 
" Old Prussia " itself only Lodges depending upon the three Berlin Grand Lodges are 
known ; not through any objection on the part of the said Grand Lodges, but because a 
royal decree of 1789 recognised these three Grand Lodges only with their offshoots, and 
this decree has not been repealed. 

Occasionally the German view of jurisdiction comes into conflict with the English or 
American, as it did when German Lodges were years ago established in the United States, or 
more recently at Cape Town ; such Lodges are not recognised by the jurisdiction invaded, and 
as a natural result either die out or are healed and absorbed. But the Jewish question is a 
more serious one. Many countries, and not England only, while admitting the hopelessness 
of forcing the two Grand Lodges in Berlin, which differ from us in this point, to initiate 
Jewish candidates, have insisted that, either their own certificates must be recognised as valid, 
and their members, whether Jews or not, acknowledged as Masons, or friendly relations must 
be broken off. The result of this is, that Jewish Masons, if regularly made elsewhere, are 
admitted as visitors in all German Lodges. 

Such was the position of affairs a few months ago when a lamentable dissension broke 
out in the "Royal York" Grand Lodge, which may perhaps ultimately lead to the establish- 
ment of a fourth Grand Lodge in Berlin. The German papers are not very explicit on the 
subject, but the points in dispute seem to have been the " Jewish Question " and the " High 
Degrees." This is curious, because of the three systems, that of the "Royal York" is 
apparently the least open to objection on the part of any fair-minded man. It certainly 
admits the Jews, at least in theory ; perhaps its practice is divergent : and it professes to 
work no high degrees, but only to afford further historic and dogmatic information to 
members of a certain committee. Be this as it may, Brother Settegast, the G.M., a 
distinguished man in every way, 73 years old, a professor and a Privy Councillor, fell out 
with the Inner Orient, resigned his office of Grand Master, and ultimately even his member- 
ship of the system of the " Royal York." All this happened three years ago, towards the 
end of 1889, and in March, 1890, Prince Heinrich zu SchOnaich-Carolath was installed in his 

Bro. Settegast allowed his reasons for the steps he had taken, to appear in the 
papers of the Fraternity, such as the Bauhuette and the Latomia. According to these, he 
had come to the conclusion that certain reforms proposed by him more than a year pre- 
viously were an absolute necessity for. the future welfare of the " Royal York"; and further, 
that the way in which the religious question was treated in the daughter Lodges was 
contrary to the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge, a state of things, he considered, ought to 
be put an end to. His proposals weru handled in a dilatory manner and postponed for a 
year, and finally, when he at length insisted on their being brought forward, rejected. 
Regarding his position at the head of the jurisdiction as placing him on a footing with that 
of a Minister of State, and finding himself deprived of the confidence of his colleagues, he 
had resigned. He had been asked to delay his resignation of membership, but this he had 
felt bound to carry out, in order that in the evening of his life he might not be forced to 
abandon an idea for which he had fonght up to his 73rd year, and hoped to continue fighting 
for to the end. 

This explanation does not seem to have been given till September, 1891, and mean- 
while on the 28th June, 1891, he had been received as a joining member of the Hamburg 
Lodge, " Ferdinande Caroline," having chosen this Lodge because the Constitution of the 
Grand Lodge of Hamburg was the one most in consonance with his own sentiments. On 

194 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

account of his age and health, and to avoid the long journey, a deputation of the Hamburg 
Lodge came to Berlin and opened the Lodge there, at the restaurant of Bro. Schutz. How 
this -was possible, legally, under the royal decree of 1789 previously alluded to, I do not know: 
it is one more curious feature in a strange tale. 

The papers of the week next after Brother Settegast's explanation appeared present us 
with the other side of the question, apparently from an official source. It is declared that the 
former statement contains inaccuracies, and pictures the occurences thus. The consideration 
of the new Statutes to come into force on St. John's day (24th June), 1890, was remitted to 
a Committee elected by the Grand Lodge, and its president was Bro. Settegast, the Grand 
Master. He moved certain amendments in reference to the religious question. These amend- 
ments were not, as stated, treated in a dilatory manner, but passed by the examining 
committee. In the middle of November, Brother Settegast moved a resolution entailing an 
alteration in the Constitution of " Royal York." This did not meet with the approval of the 
committee. Immediately upon this Bro. Settegast laid down the gavel of G.M., and thus 
deprived himself of the opportunity of actively working for the adoption of bis proposals. 
Their postponement for a year was subsequent to this, in the Plenary Meeting of the Grand 
Lodge in May, 1890 ; and they were finally rejected in the Grand Lodge meeting of May, 

These accounts, it will be seen, are curiously at variance : I have noticed no further 
statement on the part of Brother Settegast. 

It would appear, however, that Brother Settegast has, on reflexion, come to the 
conclusion that his ideas can find no footing under existing circumstances in Prussia proper, 
because only Lodges under the three Berlin Grand Lodges are sanctioned by the State. To 
form a fourth Grand Lodge in terms, would hardly be allowed either : but perhaps it might 
be possible to constitute a Berlin Club under the ordinary police laws regulating such 
associations, which would be to all intents and purposes a Grand Lodge, with daughter clubs 
(or lodges) attached to it elsewhere. This seeming evasion of the law, partaking rather of 
the wisdom of the serpent than of the gnilelessness of the dove, hardly appears quite Masonic, 
however good the intention may be ; but it is difficult to judge of these matters from a 
distance. Brother Settegast seems to have a very respectable following, both as regards 
numbers and position, and so, on the 1st August last, a Constituent Assembly of the new Club 
(Verein) known as the " Grand Lodge of Prussia, called Kaiser Frederick of Masonic Fidelity," 
met to finally arrange matters. In his opening address Bro. Settegast insisted that the object 
of their association was to reintroduce into Prussia trne and genuine Freemasonry as they had 
originally received it from England, and his chief complaint against existing systems is 
evidently the " High Degrees " and " Anti-semiticism." He acknowledged that the police 
might insist upon an official being present at all their meetings, as they conld not claim the 
protection of the 1789 decree; but he thought that this was scarcely likely to occur, and if it did, 
there need be no objection to confidentially entrusting such an official with their secrets (!) He 
insisted that, although for police reasons they called themselves a Club, yet they were to all 
intents and purposes, a "' just, perfect and regular Lodge." Further they must assume the 
position of a Grand Lodge, otherwise it would not be possible to form new lodges, or affiliate 
already existing ones. Forty-one brethren then subscribed their adhesion to the new- 
organization and declared that they were willing to have their names forwarded to the 
authorities as founders. After that a long list of candidates was proposed, whose acceptance 
will be a matter for future consideration. The draft Constitutions were then unanimously 
approved en bloc. They consist of 21 clauses, of which we may mention : — 

§ 4, which insists upon a recognition of the Deity, and the immortality of the Soul. 

§ 5. Membership to be open to all free men of good repute, irrespective of race, 
position, religion or politics. 

§ 6. The Fraternity takes as its model the genuine Freemasonry of England at the 
beginning of the 18th Century. 

§ 7. The Apprentice may become a Fellow after one year, and a Master after one 
year more. There is to be nothing beyond this. 

The choice of a ritual was remitted to a committee, but the president expressed his 
preference for the so-called " Schroeder Ritual," or that of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. 
Of twelve officers then elected, at the least six, to judge by their names, are Jews, and 
possibly two or three more. Other matters were settled, and the proceedings concluded by 
every brother swearing fealty to the Constitution by placing his hand in that of the president. 

Thus far may be gleaned from the German papers to hand. Are we in the presence 
of a new departure which may deeply impress itself on German Freemasonry, or will it 
merely prove an eight days' wonder ? 

gs&tival of tJj£ gctxv (Browned &lixv\t)x&* 



i. 392 ; G. R. 
F. Tweedie, 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present : — Bros. W. H. RylandS, 

P.G.Stewd., W.M.; W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., I.P.M.; Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, S.W.; 

G. W. Speth, Secretary; R. F. Gould, P.G.D., D.C. ; C. Knpferschmidt, I.G. ; 

ProfeESOr T. Hayter Lewis; Sidney T. Klein; Dr. B. W. Richardson; and Col. S. 0. 

Pratt. Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle— Bros. W. F. 

Lamonby, P.G.W. of Victoria ; Stephen Richardson ; B. C. L. Bremner ; B. Palmer 

Thomas ; J. F. Ferris Bailey ; Robert Roy ; W. T. Newitt as J.W. ; T. C. Lazenby ; 

H. H. Shirley ; Dr. J. Balfour Cockburn ; Rev. C. H. Maiden ; C. B. Barnes ; F. W. 

Wright ; W. H. Lee ; E. T. Edwards ; H. Ffrench Bromhead ; W. G. P. Gilbert ; 

B. M. Bannatyne; T. Cohu; G. A. MacDowall ; F. A. Powell; J. Castello ; R. 

Gowan; J.Seymour; E. Haward ; G. A. Knock ; G. Gregson; J.Thompson; Dr. G. 

Grant; H. Scott-Smith; and J. J. Hall. Also the following visitors — Bros. J. 

O'Niell, Tennant Lodge, No. 1992 ; P. L. Roy, Courage with Humanity Lodge, 
Langley, Bushey Park Lodge, No. 2381; C. F. A. Gibbs, Brixton Lodge, No. 1949; and 
Moira Lodge, No. 92. 


Two Lodges and twenty-five brethren were elected to the membership of the Correspondence 

Professor Thomas Hayter Lewis, F.S.A., Past Vice-President of the R.I.B.A., Emeritus Professor 
of Architecture, University College, was duly installed into the Chair of King Solomon by Past Master 
Brother R. F. Gould. 

r were appointed as follows, those present 



W. H. Rylands, P.G.Stew. 



Dr. Wynn Westcott. 



Rev. C. J. Ball. 



Walter Bbsant. 



G. W. Speth. 



E. Macbean. 



W. M. Williams. 



R. F. Gould, P.G.D„ P.M. 






C. Pubdon Clarke, CLE. 



J. Freeman. 

The W.M., Bro. T. Hatter Lewis, delivered the following 


HAVE now to return to you very sincere thanks for the honour which you 
have conferred upon me. 

After the long and interesting ceremony in which you have taken part, 
you will not care to be detained by a long address : but I have noted down a 
few words to which I hope that you will have patience to listen ; and as my 
profession was tbat of an architect, 1 hope that you will accord a little extra 
patience towards my treating the subject in a more architectural way than usual. 
Our very active Secretary made an appeal at our last meeting for assistance in the way 
of papers to be read and published: and that brought to my mind a saying of our Treasurer, 
Brother Walter Besant, viz., " that he had always felt, since his initiation, that there was an 
" immense mass of information in all countries and belongings to every age which could be 
" collected and put together from a Masonic point of view " : and feeling this very strongly 
myself, I have ventured to allude to some subjects which are somewhat, perhaps, outside the 
usual range of our papers and in which some extra knowledge has, recently, been obtained. 
The first subject which I will notice was entered into with great ability by our Past Master, 
Sir Charles Warren, viz., " The Orientation of Churches, Synagogues, and Temples." This, 
of course, carried us back to the early ages of Christianity, still farther backward to those of 
the Jews, Greeks, and Egyptians— the latter subject having since been taken up in a very 
interesting discourse by Bro. Simpson. It is a difficult one inasmuch as the directions of 

196 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 

Temples vary in a very remarkable way, and it has, recently, been investigated from an 
astronomical point of view, in Egypt, by Mr. Norman Lockyer, and in Greece, by Mr. 
Penrose, who is specially qualified for the investigations as being eminent as architect, scholar, 
and astronomer. 

The results are recorded in the last number of the Proceedings of the Society of 

Mr. Penrose fixed the exact present direction of 17 of the most noted Greek Temples, 
determined, so far as he could, the star which governed each and then, by calculating the 
time at which the axis would have been trnly turned to that star, determined the date of the 
Temple's Erection. 

Such a calculation is entirely new in our architectural work, but so important is it 
viewed by such Societies as the Royal and the Hellenic that the former has voted £100 and 
the latter £25 towards its further investigation. 

Prom the Temples of Egypt and Greece one naturally turns to the Temple — Solomon's. 

I will not detain you with any discussion as to this, the most celebrated of all, the 
subject being too large to be treated now : but I must say a few words as to the foundation 
stones of its outer walls, discovered at such great risk by our Past Master, Col. Warren. 
Whether these enormous blocks were really the actual stones laid by the Great King is 
disputed. I confess to a wishful feeling that they may be proved to be so : but when I read 
my paper here some few years since, the peculiar facing, viz., with a smooth margin had not 
been found on masonry of an earlier date than about the 6th cent. B.C., and then far off in 

Recently, however, such stones, but worked with a different tool, have been found by 
Dr. Petrie in excavating at Lachish, the date which he assigns to them being the 8th cent., B.C. 

But they had, evidently, formed part of an earlier edifice ; and if we may thus assign 
this peculiar masonry to the 9th century, we shall have found, in the old Amorite City of 
Lachish, a near approximation to the date of the Great King. 

Prom the masonry of those old times, we naturally turn to the Mason's marks upon 

One of the best known is the Swastika which has been found on pottery of the 
respectable date of 2500 B.C., and has beeen used in masonry down to the present day. 

It has long been suspected that this was an ancient symbol of the sun, and our Past 
Master, Col. Pratt, so alluded to it in one of our meetings. This conjecture has recently 
been quite confirmed, from two different standpoints, by Prof. Max Miiller and Mr. Percy 

Now I quite agree with my old friend, Dr. Barlow, that these marks are Emblems — ■ 
Symbols, Type, .... representing something else — and we may hope that others of them 
may soon have to deliver up their meanings. 

Take the Pentalpha — a complex form (not a letter), as ancient and as common as the 
Swastika, and used by our masons now. 

It was a favourite mark in the Middle Ages ; is the only one used by Viilard de 
Honnecourt, in his 13th century sketch book, and was employed by him to give the main 
outlines of bird, beast and man in his designs. 

What is it ? What does it (or did it) mean ? That it was Pythagorean may be true 
enough, but it was used some 2000 years before that mystic was born. 

There are special reasons for studying these marks now, inasmuch as they may be of 
great importance with respect to the connection, newly suggested, between. Egypt and 
pre-historic Greece in very ancient times. The results of recent excavations in Egypt and 
Palestine, chiefly conducted by Dr. Petrie, as compared with those of Schliemann's at Tiryus and 
Mycenra, have brought this question to the front. Dr. Petrie claims for pre-Hellenic Greeks, 
or men from the Egean seas, that they were in Egypt, either as friends or captives, in 2500 B.C., 
much of their pottery bearing ornaments unknown in Egyptian work. 

This is quite a new and very interesting reason for a careful study of these marks ; for 
if Dr. Petrie be correct, and the old Greek civilization be really found to be far advanced at 
c. 1000 years before the generally accepted date of the Trojan war, a new vista as to the arts 
of the West would seem to be opening before us as to the pre-historic art of Etruria and 

At present, however (no doubt to your great relief) I shall confine my remarks to so 
much of the Roman arts as have a special bearing on our Craft. 

Now there can be no doubt that the architecture of the Romans was, in the main, 
copied from that of the Greeks, although there are certain forms peculiar to the Romans, 
owing to the difference in the habits and customs of the two nations, the most remarkable 
being the Amphitheatres and Basilicas. 

But with such exceptions, the Greek forms, in mass and in detail were Romanized, but 
so changed in what, to an untrained eye, would appear to be minute particulars, viz., in the 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 197 

curves of the mouldings, the carving of the leaves, and other details, as to show to the 
architect that the work was distinctly Roman. 

And this change was made not only in Rome, but in all the Roman provinces, and 
even in the far eastward Palmyra we can see that its grand buildings were Roman and no 

Now certainly there was a long range of time (more than a century) between Augustus 
and Hadrian, but even such a time could scarcely have produced such an uniformity of work 
without the aid of some such definite agency as the Collegia. 

A considerable number of Mason's marks has been found on Roman work in Rome 
itself, and a large number also in the Great Piscina at Constantinople, reputed to be the work 
of its great Emperor, and a list of them has been kindly obtained for me by my friend, Canon 
Curtis ; but these marks bear little resemblance to any ancient or mediaeval ones. 

Whether these Collegia survived the shocks by which the Roman Empire was broken 
up, and if so, whether any portion remained to join any of oar Craft in the South of France, 
or in Northern Italy, is more than I can venture to say. 

Now I come to the work of the 12th and 13th centuries. The Norman and Anglo- 
Saxon style, whose peculiarities are so well known that I need not particularize them, appears 
to have been perfected and to have had its head-quarters in the North of France ; and 
although Romanesque architecture on the Rhine has many features in common with the 
Norman, the latter stands out clearly and distinctly from it. 

The same remark applies to France, south of the Loire, which river is also the 
boundary of many details characteristic of the south. 

At about the middle of the 12fch century signs of a change became apparent in the 
general forms of the style, giving to them lighter proportions, less pronounced Norman 
details, and above all, a rapid change from the round to the pointed arch ■} these changes 
taking place not only in France, but also in England and other countries, the name of the 
style, thus altered, being well known as Transitional. At that time Palestine was in the 
hands of the Crusaders (who came chiefly from the "various provinces of France), who 
entered Jerusalem in 1099, and were not expelled from it until 1 L87. This period embraces 
the greater part of that of the Normans and the Transition in Britain, and witnessed an 
enormous amount of building in Palestine by the Crusaders, whose work was all in the Tran- 
sitional style, with which we are so familiar, but varying in detail. 

Now what was the mode in which so great a change was effected, contemporaneously, 
in so large a tract of country ? 

The greatest of the early workers in it were, no doubt, the Monastic Orders whose 
homes were in Burgundy, and were the storehouses of all that was learned and artistic of the 
times. I am afraid that in this belief I somewhat differ from many writers of our Craft, but 
I confess that I agree with Viollet le Due, that the 11th century, if Cluny were withdrawn 
from it, would be little more than a time of ignorance, and with Archp. Trench that literature 
and art could not have been preserved without the Monks. 

Cluny was founded in 910, and to shew its enormous influence, it had in the middle of 
the 12th century 2,000 houses, mostly French. The Cistercian Order was founded in 1098, 
and soon had extensive possessions in England from their great abbeys in Yorkshire down to 
the beautiful Tintern, and one can see, therefore, at once that both these great orders, together 
with that of the Carthusians, which was founded in 1084<, must have had an immense power 
wherever exerted. 

But the area to be affected, viz., over the Holy Land, France, and Britain was so vast 
and the time for doing so short, that one wonders as to how the design for its building could 
have been made known over eo wide a space and so quickly as it was. 2 

The question has, I think, received its solution to a very great extent at least, in a 
paper lately published in the journal of the Royal Archaeological Institute on " Guildship in 
Anglo Saxon monasteries," in which Father Hirst gives the results of a Government investiga- 
tion into the old MSS. of German monastic buildings. 

The present publication of the MSS. reaches only to the end of the 9th century ; before 
therefore, the foundation of Cluny. Father Hirst has kindly put me in the way of obtaining 
the report, which I shall be happy to present to our Library. It appears that the connection 
between the various monasteries at home and abroad was vastly more frequent and more 
extensive than we had understood. 

It was not a new thing to learn that such a brotherhood as we find snbsisted at Mainz had 
friendly relations with our English at Canterbury, Worcester, Winchester, York, Rochester, 

1 Mr. Edmund Sharpe gives Malmsbury Abbey, founded in 1145, as that of the earliest building 
shewing the use of the pointed arch in Great Britain. 

1 He further states that of all the Cistercian monasteries he does not know one, the general plan of 
which is not in accordance with that of all the rest. 

198 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

Wearmouth, and Ripon, or that Tours was in brotherhood with many monasteries in 

England, Jerusalem, Spain and Germany, but the very close relationship and the very frequent 

intercourse between these great monastic seats of learning was not, so far as I know, at all 

realized by any one. 

The manner in which it was carried out will strike you at once as being an admirable 
mode of communication, and will make it clear that such a learned man as Bede, e.g., writing 
quietly in his cell would, perhaps, be better acquainted with what was passing in the world of 
religion, science and art, than many a man now in the country who derives his knowledge 
from newspapers and books. 

I give to you the modus operandi mainly from Father Hirst's paper condensed, premis- 
ing that his descriptions relate entirely to obtaining the accustomed R.O. prayers for the 

Tou will remember the words of the refrain in Longfellow's beautiful Golden Legend. 

Wake, wake, 
All ye that sleep 

Pray for the Dead. 

The facts as given by Father Hirst are as touching although less poetical. He states 
that " When the death of any Abbot .... or some great Teacher as the Venerable Bede 
occurred, the name was engrossed on a strip of parchment wrapped round a . . . . 
wooden roller, fastened at each end with a . . . . cap to prevent the parchment slipping off. 

This was fastened round the neck of a messenger, the monks wishing him God-speed 
on his pious journey. 

" At times there would be hundreds of these couriers hurrying to and fro throughout 
Western Christendom. Wherever the courier went he received a welcome rest, lodging, and 

His errand, however, was not like that of the Fiery Cross, so beautifully described by 
Sir Walter Scott ; for at each abbey or monastery, the courier rested for a day, sometimes 
for two days, then sped on with perhaps mournful news of another death. 

To shew the extent to which this brotherhood at last extended it is recorded that in 
1464 one such monastic courier visited 623 religious houses, and we can easily understand 
how, with such effective machinery, as is described in the ninth century, perfected, no doubt, 
in later times, the knowledge of the change in any architectural forms and other subjects of 
any kind of interest could have been spread abroad in an astonishingly quick time, and 
instructions and designs could be sent from well recognized centres, to the abbot or bishop 
who was about to undertake any great work. 

A large force of workmen would then be gathered together under the immediate 
command of the Master Mason and his foremen, who would work out the requisite details, the 
chief direction laying of course with the abbot or bishop, to whom the general instructions 
would be originally sent. 

We have, e.g., in one case the Bishop of Salisbury, Robert Beauchamp, styled " Master 
and Surveyor of the Works " — not Master Mason. As the buildings progressed fewer Masons 
would be required, and then a number of them might be spared to erect smaller churches in 
the neighbourhood. 

This would well account for the striking likeness of the details in many churches near 
some great building of nearly their date, the Master Mason marks being also similar. 

That the original design was not given by the Master Mason in early times, except 
perhaps, in some special cases, I have little doubt. To verify this question as to the design I 
have thought it well to refer to some of the contracts, the MSS. of which have been preserved 
to us in various ways. Unfortunately, we have none of an earlier date than early in the 14th 
century, viz., that of a house at Lapworth which, however, throws no light upon the matter 
in question. But the next, though of much later date, is very important. 

It is given in Rymer's Fcedera, and is between the King Richard 2nd and two Masons 
(not .Freemasons), to raise the walls of Westminster Hall, and they agree to raise the said 
walls " selon le purport d'une fourme et molde faitz," devised by Master Henry Zeneley. 

They also agree to carve every corbel in conformity to a pattern shewn to them by the 

Then in another contract of the same year, this same Zeneley or Teneley agrees, in 
conjunction with Stephen Lote (" citeins Masons de Londres "), to build for the king a marble 
tomb for the queen. " Selon le manere et forme d'un patien eut fait demeurans as ditz 

The best account of Zeneley with which I am acquainted is in Wyatt Papworth's 
Dictionary of Architecture, and from this it appears that he was a Master Mason and chief 
mason of Westminster Abbey, and that he also designed the south aisle to the church of St. 
Dunstan in Thames Street. This, however, a Master Mason might very easily have done ; 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 199 

"but the design for the tomb of a queen is a very different matter, and seems to suggest that 
Zeneley was an architect as well as Master Mason ; bat Mr. Burges in his notes appended 
to Sir Gilbert Scott's Westminster Abbey, points out that the above tomb was almost a copy 
■of that of Edward in., (who died 1377) close by, so that we must ignore this Master Mason's 
claim to be an architect. 

Another contract is dated 1432, and is the well-known one for Catterick Church. It is 
between Dame Katerine and Richard of Cracall, Mason. 

It describes the length and breadth, the windows (of two, three, and four lights), 
buttresses, etc., etc., but says nothing as to design or detail. 

Then comes the equally well-known one of Fotheringay, given in Dugdale's Monasticon, 
signed by Will Horwood, .Freemason. 

The new church is to be of the same height, breadth, etc., as the quire . . . the 
windows like those of quire . . . the buttress so likewise. 

No designs, drawings, or architects are referred to. 

Then at Hengrave phe contractor is to make a house ... of all manner of Mason's 
work . . . according to a frame which he has seen at Coventry. 

In no one case does the architect's name appear in these contracts. But we have it, 
there is not much doubt in the next contract, viz., between the Provost of King's 
(Cambridge) with the advice and approval of Mr. Thomas Larke, surveyor of the king's 
work, than (e. 1450) with John Wartell, Master Mason of the said works, viz., the vaulting. 

Kow this gentleman, without any prefix of monk or cleric to his name, was, very 
probably, the actual designer of this grand roof. 

And I may also claim, as most probably architect of the vaulting of the roof of the 
choir at St. George's, Windsor, c. 1484, Richard Beanchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, designated 
the master and surveyor, under whom Hylmer and Virtue, .Freemasons, undertook to do the 

I think that it is pretty clear that those Masons who undertook to carry out work, 
according to the frame or model supplied by any one else, or those who merely undertook to 
copy some pre-extant building, were not the designers nor architects- of the work they did. 

This agrees with the idea which Mr. Ferguson bad, viz., that the Masons never 
exercised their calling except under the guidance of some superior . . . Bishop, or Abbot, 
or accomplished Layman. In the great age of Gothic art there is no instance of a Mason of 
any grade as furnishing a design." 

I must ask your attention now for a few minutes to the work which the Crusaders did 
in Palestine. 

They were in possession of Jerusalem for little more than three-quarters of a century, 
but the amount of work which they did in that time all over Palestine was enormous, and the 
influence which that work received from Eastern civilization was great and lasting. 

The greater part of this work has been destroyed, but I have a few photographs of 
some of its ruins which will give some idea of the style in which they were designed. I shall 
be happy to present these to the Lodge in case our careful Secretary thinks them worthy of it. 

Their dates are several years before the great era of the building of our grand 
Abbeys by the Cistercians — but in each of the Palestine examples all the arches are pointed, 
the heavy cylindrical piers have given place to square ones with columns at angles and no 
such thing as a cushion capital or other genuine Norman one is to be found. 

But the general outline of nave and chancel, aisles, groins, and other parts are precisely 
like ours, nor would anyone unless skilled in art, recognise much difference in the general effect. 

A short walk in Cairo, even now, will shew the causes which produced the change to 
which I have alluded in the Crusaders work, and which, soon afterwards, worked a great 
change in our construction in Europe. 

You will find, on going through one of the most interesting buildings in Cairo, in the 
mosque of Tulun, that every arch is pointed, every pier square, and every capital moulded 
with some leaf ornament. 

I saw this years ago, before it fell into its present state, and I may say on better 
authority than my own, viz., Mr. Stanley Lane Poole, that it had then been well-nigh un- 
touched since the date of its completion in 878 a.d. 1 

What I believe then as to Crusading work in Palestine is that the general design was 

1 All in the East is so fascinating as a study that I cannot resist the temptation of alluding again 
to the Mosque. For Mr. Stanley Lane Poole says, in relation to it, " that it is a singular fact that wherever 
" the rude Tartars penetrated they inspired a fresh and vivid enthusiasm for art. They stirred Egyptian 
" art into new life." How was it that these Turks and Memlouks and Circassian slaves, whose very names 
are associated with rapine and murder — as wild and savage tribes, who found a smiling garden before them 
and left a track marked out by fire and blood. How was it that they could strike this new life out of the 
decaying ashes of Egypt and give to us works so exquisitely beautiful as the grand mosque tombs, which 
mark the burial places of the Mamlook Sultans. To search for an answer to Mr. Poole's remark would take 
the best part of a life-time — and be worth it. 

200 Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. 

sent from the great French Abbeys, and that the Master Masons, in directing the works (which 
must have required the aid of a great many of the skilled native workmen) learned from them 
and adopted the pointed arch and a general lightness of detail. 

I believe also that our Masons Marks were adopted in Britain in a similar way, and 
that they were not used by the inferior workmen, but were the distinguishing marks of 
approval used by the Master Mason and the foremen under him. It is quite clear that some 
of these marks were used in England before the Crusaders as one could suppose owing to the 
great traffic which existed with the East even so early as Charlemagne, but it was not until 
the eleventh century that their use became general. 

After the expulsion from Jerusalem a great change occurred in the architecture of 
Europe. Up to that time France and England had gone fairly hand in hand in architecture, but, 
soon afterwards, they went somewhat different ways. In our country we see there the rise of 
our beautiful early English style — one as peculiar in its ornamental details as was the later 

A change might have been, to a certain extent, easy in France in the comparatively 
peaceful and luxurious state in which that country was under Philip Augustus. 

But let us see what the opening of the 13th century meant for England. 

It saw our land convulsed with the Civil War between King John and the Barons, and 
the signing of our great Charter at Runnymede (1215). 

It saw the invasion of England by the French and the signing of the Treaty of Peace 
by the son of the French King here, in our London (1217). 

And it saw such signs of decay in the great monastic bodies that the Fransiscans and 
Dominican Friars had to be called into being to supplant them (1215). 

And all this but a few years after the thousands of Christians of every grade, from 
Prince to beggar, had been flung back from the Saracens in the East to find a home or a grave 
here in the West, as they might. 

In what quiet nook in England could the Monk in his cell or the Laymen in his work- 
shop have found leisure to design our glorious 13th century cathedrals and the hundreds of 
the churches in our land ? 

But there was, at the same time, a most vital change in the position of the leaders in 
our craft ; for, at the end of the 12th century and onward, the names of the designers of some 
of the grandest works in Europe are given as being, distinctly, their architects, these same 
architects being, further, distinctly defined by our great modern writer, Viollet le Due, as 
being Laymen — the results of the enfranchisement of the cities from the control of the Noble 
and the Priest. Now what is a Layman or was in the 13th century ? Most men would, I 
snppose, reply that he was not in Holy Orders — not in fact, a priest. 

But, if that be so, a large number of the Monks would be Laymen. This may, probably, 
surprise many, so I have provided myself with a quotation from an unexceptionable authority, 
viz., Guizot's History of Civilization in France, which runs thus in his 14th lecture : — 

" Not only are monks regarded as ecclesiastics, but they are, by many people considered 
as so to speak, the most ecclesiastical of all ecclesiastics . . . it is an impression full of error. 
At their origin the monks were not ecclesiastical at all. They were laymen . . . with a 
common religous object .... but altogether apart from the clergy. 

And this primitive character . . . which is so generally unheeded, has prominently 
influenced its whole history." 

Further he says, speaking of their development: — "some were ordained to make them 
Priests or even Bishops, and yet they were still laity . . contracting no kind of religious 
engagement, often even purposely separating themselves from the clergy and always distinct 
from it." In time, no doubt, the monks became more priestly, yet Dr. Hook, writing of them 
at a much later date says " whether of Holy Orders or not." 

Now this may give us a clue to the true history of what took place, and throw light 
likewise upon the era which, to my mind, is the most important to our Craft. 

For it is perfectly certain that the works on which these great lay architects were 
engaged were not for the cities — the great lay bodies — but for some of the grandest 
ecclesiastical buildings existing — buildings which could only have been erected by the direct 
assistance of the clergy. 

These architects, too, were highly thought of and honoured, for in nearly every case 
their names, are given in full in some conspicuous and honourable place in the building. 

Viollet le Due (whose volumes of his Dictionary are as complete records of mediaeval 
art as our Bro. Gould's incomparable history is of our Craft) gives copies of these epitaphs, 
and I notice that each man is described as " Maistre," and sometimes a wife is described also. 
There can be little doubt but that these great architects were Laymen. 

Then how did they obtain their knowledge ? I know that this question has puzzled a- 
more diligent student than I have been, viz., Mr. Wyatt Papworth, whose name albeit it,, 
though he is not one of our Craft, must be welcomed by every Freemason. 

Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Goronati. 201 

The lovely Sainte Chapelle at Paris, the cathedrals of Cambrai, of Reims and Strasburg 
— surely it is strange that all these should have been designed by men without monastic 

The probable solution appears to me to be this. The great bodies of Masons who had 
been brought up to work on the lines of Norman architecture had been able to follow, to a 
very limited extent only, the change to the beautifully graceful early pointed work here and 
in France ; and their former chiefs, the Master Masons, would bnt imperfectly understand its 
peculiar mouldings and its lovely foliage ; nor perhaps feel quite at home at the finer 
masonry, altered tools, and often altered quarries, and that it became necessary that the 
architect should emerge from his former seclusion in the monastery and take the direct 
personal supervision of the work for, at least, a time. His emergence from the monastery could 
be no greater step, I apprehend, than that of Era Angelico or Fra Bartolomeo. Tf he did not 
get his training from the monks, as a monk himself amongst them, from what possible source 
could he have got it. Assume some such scheme as I suggest and we then have the 
Architect, Master Mason, and Fellow Craft in their proper positions. 

But let us look at this 13th in another way. 

Wherein do we find in it any clear trace of our Freemasonry ? I am afraid that at 
present we must agree with Bro. Gould, that before the 14th century there is nothing to guide 
tis but tradition. It is scarcely to be doubted that much will, however, eventually be found, 
because the Masonic MSS. of the Begins and Cooke's date from the first half of the 15th, 
at which time those MSS.'s clearly shew that our Craft was well recognized. But I quite 
agree, as to our present knowledge, that we have, up to that time, so far as I can see, no direct 
link, except perhaps the Masonic marks which, I have not the slightest doubt, came from the 
East. No doubt, owing to our traffic with those countries, such marks had been known in 
England before the Crusaders, but it was by the Crusaders that they were acclimatized here 
to the extent which we find that they were. 

I have now ventured to point out a few subjects which may, perhaps, come within the 
range of our Treasurer's views, but there are others which have been already touched upon 
by our Brethren in their various papers supplied to us, and so I may briefly direct your atten- 
tion to the question as to what connection, if any, there was in the matter of our symbols or 
ceremonies with Persia and far distant India. 

Many of our Brothers could well enlighten us upon these points. 

Then again, when and whence came these ceremonies and the strange oaths, which to 
a certain extent unmeaning now, had, I feel convinced, a very definite meaning in bygone times, 
for I look upon them as mere survivals of what once were very definit