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Full text of "Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land"

ATLAS OF THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 



OF THE 



HOLY LAND 



/ 



1^ 



ATLAS 



OF THE 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 



OF THE 



Holy Land 



DESIGNED AND EDITED BY 

GEORGE ADAM SMITH, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D. 

PRINCIPAL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN 

FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF OLD TESTAMENT LANGUAGE, LITERATURE AND THEOLOGY 

UNITED FREE CHURCH COLLEGE, GLASGOW 

AND PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

J. G. BARTHOLOMEW, LL.D., F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S. 

CARTOGRAPHER TO THE KING, AT THE EDINBURGH GEOGRAPHICAL INSTITUTE 




LONDON 
HODDER AND STOUGHTON 

WARWICK SQUARE, E.G. 

^^ -^-, MCMXV 



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PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 



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TO 

THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN 

IN MEMORY OF 

THESE HER SONS WHO IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY WERE 

EMINENT IN SEMITIC SCHOLARSHIP AND THE EXPOSITION 

OF THE LITERATURE AND HISTORY OF ISRAEL 

Professor John Duncan, M.A., D.D. 

Professor John Forbes, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 

Professor Andrew Bruce Davidson, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 

Professor William Eobertson Smith, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 

Professor William Gray Elmslie, M.A., D.D. 

AND 

The Reverend Peter Thomson, M.A. 



PREFACE 

AS indicated in the preface to the first edition of The Historical Geography of the Holy Land, this 
Atlas was originally planned by Dr. Bartholomew and myself in 1894. But other literary works 
and the duties of my present office have prevented me from completing my share in it till now. The 
long delay has its advantages. We have been enabled to enlarge our first scheme, and the inter- 
vening twenty-one years of research and debate in both the history and the geography of Syria have 
not only added to but sifted the materials at our disposal. 

The contents of an adequate Historical Atlas of any land must comprise at least the following 
five : — 

1. Some representation of the world to which the land belongs. This should include the 
general features of that world, physical and political, and in particular should exhibit the kingdoms 
and empires between which the land was placed and by which its history and culture have been 
most deeply influenced, along with the delineation of the main lines of its traffic with these. All 
this we have endeavoured to give, for the era of Israel's history, in Part I of the Atlas, Maps 1-8, 
and in Part II, Map 9 ; and for the Christian era in Part IV, Maps 51-53A, 58 and 58a. 

2. The general features of the physical and economic geography of the land itself, as well as 
the detailed representation on a large scale of its various provinces — including natural features, 
towns and villages, with their names at various periods, and the lines of communication between 
them. In this Atlas these are provided in Part II by the general Maps 10-14, and by the large- 
scale map of four miles to the inch, in eight sections, Maps 15-30. 

3. A succession of maps of the political geography of the land, exhibiting its divisions, frontiers, 
and historical sites at various periods. For the era of the history of Israel, so frequently disturbed 
not only through the conquest of the land or of portions of it by foreign powers with the consequent 
alterations in its division and administration, but by the disruption of the Israelite kingdom itself 
and the oscillation of the frontier between the two resultant States, by Israel's revolutions against 
her oppressors, as well as by the rise and fall of petty ''tyrants'' and free cities within and around 
her proper territories, we have felt that not fewer than sixteen maps are necessary (Nos. 31-46), 
which, with plans of Jerusalem at successive periods (Nos. 47-50), compose Part III of the Atlas. 
For the longer but less varied Christian Era fewer maps suffice, and these are given in Part IV by 
Maps 54, 57, 59 and 60, on Palestine in the Fourth Century, at the time of the Crusades, and at 
the present day. We regret that we could not find room for maps to show the growth of the 
Eoman power in Syria, including the addition of new provinces and the alteration of old ones. 

4. Some illustrations of the conceptions of the land and of the world to which it belongs, pre- 
valent at former periods of its history. Such will be found in Maps 6, '' The World and its Eaces 
according to the Old Testament"; 54, ''Palestine according toEusebius"; 55 and 56, "Palestine 
after the Peutinger Tables," and "after Marinus Sanutus" — in fact, all for which we could find 
room. 

5. A series of " Notes to the Maps," including a list of the ancient, or contemporary, and the 
modern, authorities for each ; and, in the case of the most of the historical maps, statements of the 
principal events in the periods to which they refer, with some explanations or arguments for the 
frontiers, lines of traffic, and historical sites which are delineated upon them. I have drawn up 
these notes so as to present an outline of the history of Syria and especially of Israel from the 
earliest times to the reign of the last Jewish monarch, Agrippa II. For Map 51, a summary of 
St. Paul's apostolic journeys is given, and for Maps 57 and 58 a chronological table of the Crusades. 

The authorities cited in the notes form a sufficient guide for the student to the sources of all 
materials necessary for understanding the history and geography of each period. To these authorities 
I add here others dealing, more or less, with the whole subject of the sacred geography, none of which, 
however, covers so long a range of the history as this Atlas, or represents the land on so large a 
scale as Dr. Bartholomew's maps of four miles to an inch. I have consulted and found useful the 
following Atlases : — Dr. Theodor Menke's Bihel Atlas, 1868, and subsequent editions; Dr. Wilhelm 
Sieglin's Atlas Antiquus (Gotha : J. Perthes, 1893 f.) ; the second edition of Dr. R. de Riess' Atlas 
ScripturcB Sacrce by Professor K. Rueckert (Freiburg i. Br., 1906); and, above all, Professor H. 
Guthe's Bibel Atlas in 20 Haupt- und 28 Nehenharten (Leipzig : H. Wagner und E. Debes, 1911), 
which combines the artistic powers of the cartographers who publish it with the experience and 
judgment of the eminent Biblical geographer and historian, its editor, as well as the contributions 
of the geographical expert, Dr. Hans Fischer. Dr. Guthe's Atlas does not pursue the historical 



viii Preface 

geography of Palestine beyond the time of St. Paul, except for a map of Palestine at the present 
day. Though it came into my hands when the most of the work for our Atlas was finished, and 
though I differ from many of the editor's conclusions, I have reason to be grateful for the materials 
which it offers to the historian and cartographer of the Holy Land. One of the most complete 
and compact aids to the student is The Holy Land in Geography and History, 2 vols., illustrated 
by 145 maps and plans, small but admirably clear and vivid, by Townsend MacCoun, A.M. (New 
York: Revell Co., n.d.). Of course, Reland's Palaestina (Utrecht, 1714), Dr. Edward Robinson's 
Biblical Researches in Palestine, etc. (Lond., 1841) and Later Biblical Researches (1856), Dean 
Stanley's Sinai and Palestine (1856), Dr. W. M. Thomson's The Land and the Book (1859), Dr. 
M. V. Guerin's Description de la Palestine (1868), Colonel Conder's Tent Work in Palestine (1878), 
and Dr. F. Buhl's Geographic des Alten Paldstina (Freiburg i. B., 1896) are still indispensable books 
on the subject. Among recent works the student will find useful, in different directions. The 
Development of Palestine Exploration, by F. J. Bliss, Ph.D. (1906), Canaan d'apres V Exploration 
Recente, by P^re H. Vincent (1907), and Palestine and its Transformation, by Ellsworth Hunt- 
ington (1911). But the foundations of all the geography of the Holy Land are the Maps and 
Memoirs of the Palestine Exploration Fund, detailed in the notes on Maps 15-30. 

In the task of reproducing the physical and political geography of Palestine in so many periods, 
from which very different amounts of historical and geographical material have come down to us, it 
is obvious that it is impossible to maintain throughout the same degree of accuracy. The coastlines 
of Western Asia have not been constant. Tyre, which is now joined to the mainland, was in ancient 
times an island, and it is well known that the heads of the Gulf of Suez and of the Persian Gulf 
were differently formed from what they are to-day. Political frontiers cannot be determined 
except approximately, especially where there were no distinct natural lines of demarcation. In such 
circumstances they oscillated from reign to reign, and even probably from year to year, as in the case 
of the border between Northern Israel and Judah, or in the cases of the suburban territories of the 
Decapolis and other free cities of Syria. It w^ould be an even more precarious task to attempt to 
draw the exact frontiers of the Tribes of Israel (see Map 32). On the other hand, it is extremely 
probable that so strong a natural frontier in Moab as the valley of the Arnon was almost constantly 
a political frontier as well ; and the historical evidence is in agreement with this conclusion. 

The identification of ancient with modern place-names has greatly advanced towards certainty, 
since Robinson, with equal prudence and daring, showed us the way. For a quarter of a century 
this question has been the subject of prolonged and thorough discussion, the relative monographs 
having been innumerable. We have emerged from a period of indiscriminate identification into one 
of careful criticism of the identifications produced. We have therefore firmer grounds of confidence 
than were possible last century. Nevertheless that confidence must be still limited. Syria is a 
region in which place-names have always had a tendency to drift, and in which their tradition has 
passed through several languages. Therefore a number of the identifications presented on the maps of 
this Atlas are followed by marks of interrogation. The value of these queries is very various. In 
some cases they represent a great amount of probability, though short of certainty. In others they 
mean only that the identifications to which they are attached, though supported by some degree of 
evidence, are still, in my opinion, far from being proved. 

GEORGE ADAM SMITH. 

Univeesity of Aberdeen, March, 1915, 



LIST OF PLATES. 



INTRODUCTOEY NOTES TO MAPS. 
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 

MAPS. 

Part I— BIBLE LANDS. 

1. THE SEMITIC WORLD. 

2. WESTERN ASIA BEFORE 1400 B.C. 

3-4. EMPIRES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

5. WESTERN ASIA IN THE FOURTH TO SECOND 
CENTURIES B.C. 

THE WORLD AND ITS RACES ACCORDING 
TO THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

7-8. EGYPT AND SINAI PENINSULA. 

Part [\,— GENERAL MAPS OF PALESTINE. 
9. ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES TO PALESTINE. 
10. ECONOMIC MAP OF MODERN PALESTINE. 

11-12. GENERAL OROGRAPHICAL MAP OF PALESTINE 
WITH ROADS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

13. GEOLOGY OF PALESTINE. 

14. VEGETATION OF PALESTINE. 

Palestine on scale of J inch to the mile in Sections. 
15-16. SECTION L PHCENICIA AND LEBANON. 

17-ia „ IL ANTI-LEBANON AND DAMASCUS. 

19-20, „ III. GALILEE. 

21-22. „ IV. GILEAD AND HAURAN. 

23-24, „ V. SAMARIA AND JUD^A. 

25-26. „ VL SOUTH GILEAD AND AMMON. 

27-28. „ VIL BEERSHEBA AND THE NEGEB. 

29-30. „ VIIL MOAB AND DEAD SEA. 

Part \\\.— PALESTINE AT PARTICULAR PERIODS 
IN HISTORY OF ISRAEL 

31. PALESTINE BEFORE THE COMING OF ISRAEL. 

32. PERIOD OF ISRAEL'S SETTLEMENT AND OF 

THE JUDGES. 

33. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF SAUL. 

34. PALESTINE UNDER DAVID AND SOLOMON. 



35. 

36. 
37. 

38. 
39. 

40. 

41. 
42. 
43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 
47-48. 
49-50. 

51. 

52. 

53. 

53a. 

54. 

55. 
56. 
57. 

58. 

58a. 

59. 

60. 



PALESTINE IN THE TIMES OF ELIJAH AND 
ELISHA. 

PALESTINE FROM 720 B.C. TO EXILE OF JUDAH. 

PALESTINE UNDER THE PERSIANS. 

PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF THE MACCABEES. 

PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF ALEXANDER 
JANNiEUS AND QUEEN ALEXANDRA. 

PALESTINE AFTER POMPEY'S REARRANGE- 
MENT. 

PALESTINE UNDER MARK ANTONY. 

PALESTINE UNDER HEROD THE GREAT. 

PALESTINE UNDER HEROD'S WILL AND IN 
THE TIME OF CHRIST. 

PALESTINE IN TIME OF AGRIPPA I. 

PALESTINE UNDER ROMAN PROCURATORS. 

PALESTINE IN TIME OF AGRIPPA IL 

PLANS OF JERUSALEM AT VARIOUS PERIODS. 

PLAN OF MODERN JERUSALEM. 

Part \V.—THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN TO ILLUSTRATE 
ST. PAUL'S TRAVELS. 

ASIA MINOR SHOWING POSITIONS OF THE 
SEVEN CHURCHES. 

THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST 
UNDER TRAJAN. 

THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST 
UNDER CONSTANTINE. 

PALESTINE IN THE FOURTH CENTURY, AC- 
CORDING TO EUSEBIUS AND JEROME. 

PALESTINE AFTER THE PEUTINGER TABLES. 

PALESTINE AFTER MARINUS SANUTUS. 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF THE 
CRUSADES. 

EUROPE IN THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES. 

THE EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY. 

PRESENT POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF PALESTINE 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN PALESTINE. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



NOTES TO MAPS, WITH EXPLANATORY 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. THE SEMITIC WORLD 

Authorities — W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites (Edin.^ 1889), Lect. I; D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East 
(1902); H. Winckler, Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T. (3rd ed., Berl., 1903), pp. 1-112; with other 
ajithorities for Map 2; G. Rawlinson, ITist. of Phoenicia, with map of the Phcenician Colonies (1889). 
Cp. G. A. Smith, ff.G.KL., ch. i., and, for the Semitic characteristics, Early Poetry of Israel (London, 
1912), Lect. IL 

Whether Arabia was the cradle of the Semitic race — the race to which Israel belonged (see further on, 
Map 6) — is uncertain; but that peninsula and the deserts obtruding from it upon Syria have been from 
time immemorial their breeding ground and proper home. Thence they spread, first into Mesopotamia 
(succeeding there before 4000 (?) B.C. the old Sumerian civilisation), Syria, and the Nile Valley; but the 
last was never theirs in the full sense in which the other two belonged to and were pervaded by them. 
Their ancient and more particular world lay within the natural boundaries of the Red Sea, the Levant, 
Mt. Taurus, the mountains of Armenia and Turkistan, the Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean. The moun- 
tains were the most formidable barriers. It is very doubtful how far, or for how long, Assyrian arms or 
influence broke across the Taurus (for instances, see Winckler, p. 77), or how far Asia Minor was penetrated 
by Aramaean influences. In ancient times Asia Minor and Armenia were Hittite, this influence penetrating 
S. to the Euphrates and Lebanon (see Map 2), but by the eighth century they were invaded by Indo- 
European peoples : Modes, Kimmerians, Kelts. Even Islam's conquest of Asia Minor was due not to Arabs 
but to Turks. Westward the Semitic advance followed two other directions : (a) through the Phoenicians, 
by the islands of the Mediterranean and the S. coast of Asia Minor (with extensions into the ^gean and 
even the Black Sea) to Greece, S. Italy, Sicily, Tunis, Morocco, and Spain; (h) through the Arabs, under 
Islam from Egypt along the N. coast of Africa to Spain. These were the limits of the later and wider 
Semitic world. 

Kaphtor, Elissa, and Tharshish appear on the map in accordance with the older views; Kaphtor is 
more probably Crete than either the Egyptian Delta or the S. coast of Asia Minor (see H.G.H.L., 135, 170 f., 
198); for Ehsha=:Alasia or Cyprus, and Tharshish = Tarsus, see Ramsay, Expositor, 1906, 366 ff. In 
Palestine there should be added to the Phoenician colonies Laish, afterwards Dan, at the sources of Jordan 
(Jud. xviii. 27 ff.) and Dor, S. of Carmel (Scylax, Periplus, § 104), both Sidonian ; and there was a Tyrian 
colony in Memphis (Herod., ii. 112), probably by favour of Pharaoh Neco. 

2. WESTERN ASIA BEFORE 1400 B.C. 

Authorities (a) for the Babylonian names — H. Winckler, Die Thontafeln von Tell-el-Amarna (Berlin, 1896), 
Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T., 3rd ed. (with map, Berlin, 1903), pp. 176-184, &c. ; L. W. King, 
*' Assyria '' and "Babylonia" in E.B. (1899); Hommel, Geogr. u. Gesch. d, alten Orients, i. (Munich, 
1904), and "Assyria" and "Babylonia" in Hastings' D.^. : (b) for the Egyptian names — W. M. 
Mtiller, Asien n. Europa, nach altdgypt. Denhndlern (Leipzig, 1893) ; H. G. Tomkins, Records of the 
Past, new series, v. 25 ff.; Budge, Hist, of Egypt (Lond., 1902), iv. ; cp. also G. A. Smith, 
Jerusalem, ii. ch. i., with Plate XI: (c) for the Hittites, J. Garstang, The Land of the Hittites 
(Lond., 1910). 

This map represents Egyptian supremacy over Syria for four centuries, from about 1600 B.C. The limit of 
Egyptian conquest was the Euphrates, and the line indicated thence to the south end of the Taurus. It 
was reached by Thutmosis III, c. 1500, and his successor, Amenhotep II, and their influence extended to 
Armenia. On the Tell-el-Amarna tablets, Amenhotep IV is recognised by the kings north of the Euphrates 
as lord, at least, of Palestine. Their kingdoms were three: Babylonia, under a Kassite dynasty; Assyria 
(Ashshur), her young rival, already strong enough to strike for independence ; and Mitanni, of Hittite origin, 
on i;ne left of the Euphrates, north of the Habur, with probably power on the right of that river as well. 
Across the Taurus were the Khatti (so the Babylonians called them — Egyptian Kheta, Hebrew Hittite) 
pushing down, c. 1400, on Mitanni, and ultimately reaching the Lebanons by the time of Ramses III of 
Egypt. A monument of Sety I, of the same dynasty, was found in 1901 by G. A. Smith at Tell-esh-Shihab, 
thirty miles east of the Lake of Galilee, and Ashteroth-Karnaim and Edrei (Otra a) are given among the 
conquests of Thutmosis III. (See further Notes to Map 31.) 

Suri was the Babylonian name for Asia Minor, as far at least as the Halys, but appears to have also 
crossed the Euphrates southward. It may be the origin of the Greek Syria. The Egyptian Naharin is the 
Biblical Aram-Naharaim. 

Winckler has argued for the existence of an Arab kingdom, Musri or Musur, a name identical with 
the Semitic name for Egypt, and has been followed by some scholars both in Germany and in this country 
(notably Cheyne). It is not probable that two independent States should have confronted each other 
with the same name; and we must keep in mind that Egypt under the name Musr or Misr (Heb. 
Misraim) was not confined to Africa, but included the neighbouring fringe of Asia up to a line from the 
Gulf of 'Akaba to Raphia, S. of Gaza, the region claimed by Winckler for his Arab Musri. The tribes in 
it, whether at any given time independent of Egypt or not, would bear her name (see Jerus., ii. 155 ff.). 
On the map, therefore, Musri stands with a mark of interrogation. 



xii Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



3^. EMPIRES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD 

For the Egyptian Empire compare letterpress to Maps 2, 7, 8, 31; for the Babylonian, that to 1, 2; for the 
Persian, that to 37 ; for the Greek, that to 5, 38, 39 ; and for the Roman, that to 40-46 and 51-55. 

5. WESTERN ASIA IN THE FOURTH TO THE SECOND CENTURIES B.C. 

Authorities — Ancient: The historians of Alexander the Great's expedition; parts of Diodorus Siculus, 
Polybius, and Appian; the Books of the Maccabees; Josephus, xi Antt.y viii.-xii. 5; Reinach, 
Textes dJAuteurs Grecs et Romains relatifs au Juda'isme (1895). Modern: Mahaffy, Greek Life 
from Alexander, etc. (1887); Greek World under Roman Sway (1890); Em^pire of Ptolemies 
(1895); Holscher, Pal. in der Pers. n. Hellenistischen Ze'it (1903); Schlatter, Gesch. Israels von 
Alex, dem Gr., etc. (2nd ed., 1906); E. Bevan, The House of Seleucus; G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, ii. 
ch. XV. ff. 

The principal dates are these: 333, Alexander crosses the Hellespont, defeats the Persians on the 
Granicus, and overthrows Darius at Issus; 332, destroys Tyre; 331, founds [Alexandria, and again overthrows 
Darius at Arbela, and reaches Babylon and Persepolis ; 326, crosses the Indus ; 325, returns to Persia ; and 
323, dies at Babylon. In 323 his Eastern Empire was divided among Perdiccas at Babylon, Antigonus in 
*' Asisi," and Ptolemy, son of Lagus, in Egypt. Palestine was the subject of a varying contest between the 
Seleucids and Ptolemies from 321 to 198, when Antiochus III, the Great, defeated Ptolemy V at Paneion, 
took Sidon and Samaria, and was welcomed by the Jews to Jerusalem. (See also Map 4.) 

6. THE WORLD AND ITS RACES ACCORDING TO THE OLD TESTAMENT 

AuTHOEiTiES — Ancient: Gen. x., xxii. 20-24, xxv. 12-18; with 1 Chron. i. 4-23 (a repetition of the table in 
Gen. X., with textual variations and some omissions); Jer. li. 27 f. ; Ezek. xxvii., xxxviii. 1-13 
xxxix. 1, 6, and other texts in the Prophets, Daniel, and Esther; also references to several of the 
peoples mentioned in these Scriptures in the Assyrian inscriptions of Tiglath Pileser I, Shalmaneser II, 
Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal ; cp. other references in Herodotus. Modern: 
Commentaries on Genesis, especially A. Dillmann's (6th ed., Leipzig, 1892); H. Gunkel's (2nd ed., 
Gott., 1902); J. Skinner's, Intern. Grit. Gomm. (Edin., 1910); H. E. Kyle's, Camb. Bible for Schools 
(1914); Wellhausen, Comp. des Hexateuch (Berlin, 1835); Fried. Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies? 
(Leipzig, 1881); W. M. Mliller, Asien u. Europa nach altdgyptischen Denkmdlern (Leipzig, 1893); 
H. Winckler, in Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T. (3rd ed., 1903); cp. Fr. Brown, art. "Geography," 
in vol. ii. of E.B. (1901), with maps illustrating the extent of Hebrew geography at four different 
periods. 

The table of peoples and races in Gen. x. is a compilation from two (Wellhausen, Gomp., 6 fF. ; Skinner, 
Gen., 188), possibly from three (Gunkel, 74 f.), sources of diflferent dates. The two which are clear, as well 
from their different styles as from the double introduction to Shem (verses 21, 22) and the discrepancies 
as to Havilah and Sheba (Saba), have been discriminated as follows : 

(a) The Jahwist (Yahwist) Document, known as J, of date probably about 800 B.C.: verses 16(?), 8-12, 
13 f., 15-19, 21, 25-30 ; with which must be taken Gen. xxii. 20-24. 

(6) The Priestly Document, known as P, of the sixth or fifth century B.C., but, Hke the other, drawn, 
from far earlier elements: verses la, 2-5, 6f., 20, 22 f., 31, 32; with which must be taken Gen. xxv. 12-18, 
and the references to peoples in Jeremiah, Ezekiel, etc. 

For other details of this analysis, see Wellhausen and Skinner, and for the further analysis of J, see 
Gunkel, as above. 

These lists comprise the peoples of the world known to Israel (with the exceptions of some of their 
neighbours, the mention of whom comes naturally later) at the periods of the documents to which they 
belong. P's list, as might be expected, has a far wider horizon than that of the earher J. For while J 
extends only from the Hittites (in Syria) and Phoenicians on the N. to Egypt and S. Arabia on the S., and 
from Crete on the W. to Babylonia on the E., P adds Asia Minor, Armenia, Media, Elam, Nubia, and the 
Mediterranean coasts and islands as far as the Straits of Gibraltar. 

Both tables arrange the peoples in three divisions, and derive them from the same three sons of Noah. 
The principle of the arrangement is less clear than the exceptions which both tables exhibit to every possible 
principle. In the ancient world derivation from a common ancestor covered more than blood relationship. 
It included political relations, and may sometimes have been suggested merely by neighbourhood. We 
cannot preclude the possibility of genuine traditions of racial affinity as affecting the classification; but, 
on the other hand, the arrangement of both tables undoubtedly crosses and cuts through affinities both in 
language and blood. That J calls Heth (Hittite) the son of Canaan and younger brother of Sidon can 
be justified by community neither of language nor of culture nor of blood, but must reflect some political 
tradition, or more probably a geographical fact. Most of the sons of Shem in P, and all in J, had the 
same group of languages, hence now called Shemitic or Semitic ; but Elam, assigned to Shem by P, did 
not, while Canaan and Kush, assigned to Ham by P, were Semitic both by blood and language. Again, 
many of what we call the *Indo-European peoples are included among the sons of Japhet, but so is 
Clyprus = Chittim, the population of which was at least as Phoenician (Semitic) as anything else. 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xiii 

On the whole, a geographical principle appears most to justify the arrangement, and this is especially 
true of P. Japhet covers the northern peoples, Ham the southern, Shem a middle zone, but only to the 
E. The exception to this is Canaan, and it is probably a reflection either of political conditions in the 
compiler's own time, or of an earlier date, when we know that the coast of Palestine was subject to Egypt. 
(See Map 2.) Lud (see below) is capable of another explanation than that it refers to the Lydians in 
Asia Minor. 

For the individual names the student is referred to the commentaries, especially Skinner*s and Ryle's, 
which give the latest data and theories. But the following need notes here : Magog is very uncertain — it 
covers probably a number of the northern peoples, separately mentioned ; Arphaksad is perhaps a textual 
corruption for Arphah, or Arpak, and Kesed ( = Chald8ea); Dodanim should be Rodaniin as in the LXX 
and Sam. texts, and in 1 Chron. i. 7 ; Lud can hardly be the Lydians of Asia Minor, much more probably 
is it the name of a people above Mash, i.e. N. of Mt. Masius; Javan (Yawan) is without doubt the Greek 
laFcov, and in the O.T. the name for the Greeks, Assyr. Yavanu; with Havilah (Hawilah) cp. Hail in 
Central Arabia. 

7 and 8. EGYPT AND SINAI PENINSULA 

Authorities — Ancient: The relevant parts of the Old Testament and the Greek geographers, with 
C. Miiller's Tabulce in Geographos Grcecos Minores (Paris, Firmin-Didot, 1882), especially v., vi., xi. 
Modern: E. Robinson, Biblical Researches, i. ; E. H. Palmer, The Desert of the Exodus (Camb., 1871); 
H. Clay Trumbull, Kadesh-Barnea (New York, 1884); W. M. Miiller, Asien und Europa; A. Musil, 
Arabia Petrcea, ii. Edom (with maps); Enc. Bibl., artt. "Egypt," "Negeb," and "Trade and 
Commerce," §§ 28-33 ; Pal. Expl. Fund new Map of " The Desert of the Wanderings.'' The Editors 
desire to express their obligation to Mr. Francis L. Griffith for advice as to the spelling of some of 
the ancient Egyptian names. 
Corrections : — G 5, for 'Ain Hawdrah read 'Ain Hawdrah, 

L 4, for Ma* Radjan (Musil's transliteration) read Ma' Ohadyan. 



9. ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES TO PALESTINE 

Authorities — Ancient (including those on the nature and objects of ancient trade with Palestine): Old 
Testament, Gen. x. (with related passages cited in notes to Map 6), passages in Gen. on the journeys 
of the Patriarchs, passages in Exod., Num., and Deut. on the journeys of the Israelites, passages in 
1 Kings on the foreign trade of Solomon and other kings, Ezek. xxvii., etc. ; New Testament, the Bk. 
of Acts; cp. passages in Josephus, Antt. and Wars, on the journeys of Herod and others; inscriptions 
of Babylonian, Assyrian, and Egyptian kings referring to trade ; Aramaean and Himyaritic inscriptions 
in the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum ; various Greek Periploi, or coasting- voyages in the Geo- 

^ graphi Greed Minores, ed. by C. Mtiller (Paris, 1882, etc.) — for detailed references to all the above, see 

Enc. Bibl., art. ''Trade and Commerce" (cited below); Pomponius Mela, De Situ Orbis (ed. Gronovii, 
Leyden, 1722); Strabo, Geographica, bks. iii.-xvii. (edd. Paris, 1815, and Berlin, by G. Kramer, 1852); 
Pliny, Naturalis Historia, bks. iii.-vi. and other passages (Delphin ed., 1685); Ptolemy, Geographice 
Libri Octo (the Cologne ed., with maps by Mercator, 1584) ; Parthey and Pinder's ed. of the Itineraria 
(see further the notes on Map 55). Modern : Bergier, Histoire des Grands Chemins de V Empire Romain 
(ed. 1728); A. Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens (Bern, 1875); Gotz, Die Verkehrswege im Dienste 
des Welthandels (Stuttgart, 1888); H. F. Tozer, Hist, of Ancient Geography (Camb., 1897); E. Speck, 
Handelsgeschichte des Altertums (Leipzig, 1900), vol. i. " Eastern Peoples,'' vol. ii. '' The Greeks,*' vol. iii. 
" Carthaginians, Etruscans, and Komans " ; W. M. Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia Minor and 
other works; C. A. J. Skeel, Travel in the First Century after Christ (Camb., 1901); D. G. Hogarth, 
The Nearer East (London, 1902); and the following articles in Enc. Bibl., "Trade and Commerce," by 
G. A. Smith; '^Palestine," § 20, by A. Socin; Hastings' D.B. Extra Vol., ''Roads and Travel in the 
O.T." by Frants Buhl, and '' In the N.T." by W. M. Ramsay. See further, Maps 11-12. 



10. MODERN PALESTINE-ECONOMIC 

Authorities. — H. J. Van Lennep, Bible Lands, their Modern Customs, etc. (Lond., 1875), Pt. I, chs. i.-viii., 
Pt. n, ch..xii. ; Post, P.E.F.Q., 1891, 110 ff.; Ph. J. Baldensperger, papers on ''The Immovable East" 
in P.E.F.Q. for 1903 and following years— the industries are treated in 1903-4, the agriculture 1904, 
128 ff., 1906, 192 ff., 1907, 10 ff., 269, 1908, 290 ff. ; C. T. Wilson, Peasant Life in the Holy Land 
(Lond., 1906), chs. ix.-xiii. ; G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L. (passim), Jerusalem, vol. i., bk. ii., The Economics, 
chs. iv., v., with the many authorities cited there ; D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East, ch. xii. ; Baedeker's 
Palestine, etc. (5th ed., 1912), pp. lii-lvi; Meyer's Reisehandbuch : Paldstina u. Syrien (4th ed., 1904), 
pp. 38-64, 56 f.; Hope W. Hogg, art. "Agriculture" in E.B.; V. Schwobel, "Die Verkehrswege u. 
Ansiedlungen Galilaas" in Z.D.P.V., xxvii., 1 ff*. ; T. Cana'an, "Der Kalendar des palastineschen 
Fellachen," Z.D.P.V., xxxvi., 266 ff. On bee-culture, W. Baldensperger, Bienen u. Bienenzucht in 
Paldstina (not seen). On the Jewish Colonies see papers in Z.D.P.V., xvi. 193 ff., xvji. 301 f., xxxi. 
235 ff., XXXV. 161 ff. On the ancient agriculture see H. W. Hogg as cited above, and H. Vogelstein, 
Die Landwirtschaft in Paldstina zur Zeit der Mischna (189- ? ; not seen). 



xiv Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

Compare Map 14. As on that Map, the various colours on this can be regarded only as approximately true. 
Recently agriculture and the planting of trees have been developed (it is reported) about Beersheba, and 
patches of wheat and barley have always been grown by Arabs to the south about several of the scattered 
settlements and wells. In the Byzantine period the Negeb was much more extensively cultivated. On the 
E., again, there is some cultivation, on the Jebel Hauran, and even at spots within the Leja. Though Hauran 
N. of the Yarmuk has been slightly coloured for olives, the plantations of these are few and far between on 
the volcanic soil of that region. The olive flourishes best on the limestone of the W. and E. ranges, though 
its cultivation in Moab, once widespread, nearly disappeared owing to political causes, and is only now begin- 
ning to develop again. The berries of trees grown in alluvial soils, though larger, are said to produce less oil 
than those grown on limestone. The best wheat is from Moab, Hauran, and S. of Nablus. The restoration of 
the culture of the vine, prosecuted since the Moslem invasion by hardly more than a few scattered Christian 
communities, has been much developed of late by German (on Carmel and at Sarona) and Jewish colonists, 
and in the Lebanon and the Beka' by French companies and others. The Kali or Kilu (hence our '' alkali") 
is a desert plant, collected in great masses on the steppes E. of Moab, Gilead, and the Anti-Lebanon, the potash 
ashes of which are carried to the soap factories of Gaza, Nablus, and other towns {Jems., i. 320 ; see also Musil, 
Moab, 131, 147 n., with references). The salt of the Dead Sea coasts is coarse, and much mixed withea,rth; 
a finer kind comes from the salt-pans of the Wady Sirhan, on the way to the oasis of El-Jof in Arabia (Jerus., 
i. 319 ; Von Oppenheim, F. Mittelmeer z. Pers. Oolf] i. 318, on the salt marshes at Palmyra ; Musil, Ethn. 
Bericht, 146 f.). On the curing of fish see Jems., i. 317. On economic wood and metals see Jems., i. 305, 
327 ff*. 

The manufactures are chiefly these: — soap from olive-oil and kali (Nablus, Gaza, etc.); tanned hides; 
cotton and silk (Beyrout, Damascus, and parts of the Lebanons) ; cotton and wool (some of the Jewish colonies) ; 
wood and metal furnishings (Damascus); articles for pilgrims (Jerusalem, Bethlehem, etc.); water-skins 
(Hebron) ; pottery, in the suburbs of many large and small towns (especially Jerusalem, Ramleh, Lydda, and 
Gaza) ; milling (mostly still domestic, but also commercial, on the streams of the Maritime Plain, Esdraelon, 
and E. Palestine). See Jems., i. 325 f. 

The names on this Map in large capitals — e.g. EL BELKA — are those of the present political divisions 
of the country, for which see Map 59. 



11-12. PALESTINE— OROGRAPHICAL 

General Map showing Roads and Communications 

Authorities. — These will be found cited in the Enc. Bibl. art. "Trade and Commerce/' by G. A. Smith, 
§§ 34-40, and in Hastings' D.B. Extra Volume, *' Roads and Travel in O.T." by Frants Buhl, and "in 
N.T." by W. M. Ramsay. Consult also authorities cited in notes on Map 9, especially V. Schwobel, 
"Die Verkehrswege, etc., Galilaas/' in Z.D.P.V., xxvii. 1 ff. Additional: — Z.D.P.V., Report on the 
Literatur der Verkehrsgeographie Pal., by H. Fischer ; G. Dalman, " Die Stadt Samaria u. ihre 
Verkehrswege," in the Paldstinajahrbuch (2nd year). 



13. GEOLOGY OF PALESTINE 

Authorities. — Edward Hull, Memoir on the Physical Geology and Geography of Arabia, Petrcea, Palestine, 
and Adjoining districts (Pal. Expl. Fund, 1888) ; also in P.E.F.Q., 1896, pp. 271-3 ; M. Blanckenhorn, 
"Kurzer Abriss der Geologic Palastinas,*' in Z,D.P.V., xxxv. 113 ff., with map; ''Entstehung u. 
Geschichte des Totes Meers," Z.D.P.V., xix. 1-64; ''Geologic der naheren Umgebung von Jeru- 
salem/' Z.D.P.V., xxviii. 75 ff. ; T. G. Bonney, "The Kishon and Jordan Valleys,'' in Geol. Magaz., 
1904, pp. 575-582. Cp. G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, vol. i., chs. iii., iv., with authorities cited there. 



14. VEGETATION 

On this map the distinctions of colour are only approximately correct. In addition to the districts 
depicted as cultivable, there are many other small portions of the surface of Palestine which are cultivable, 
especially round villages and townships. For instance, in the Lebanon (and to a less extent in Anti- 
Lebanon) many narrow shelves and hollows are carefully cultivated as vineyards, mulberry groves, 
gardens of vegetables, and even small fields of grain. The same is true (except for the mulberries) of 
parts of Gilead. Probably Moab, and certainly the Negeb, south of Judsea, were much more extensively 
cultivated in ancient times than now. 

For a concise and adequate sketch of the vegetation of Syria, see Baedeker's Palestine and Syria, 
xlix. ff. ; and on the natural resources and necessary imports of Judaea, see G. A. Smith's Jerusalem, vol. L, 
bk. ii. ch. iv. f. 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography 



XV 



15-30. PALESTINE ON THE SCALE OF i-INCH TO THE MILE IN SECTIONS 

These eight sections (sixteen maps) cover the whole land from about 37 miles N. of Dan to 17 miles S. 
of Beer-sheba, and from the Mediterranean to the Arabian Desert. They are based (1) for W. Palestine, 
on the Pal. Exploration Fund's great Map of Western Palestine (scale, 1 inch to the mile; in 26 sheets, 
with 3 vols. Memoirs and one of Name Lists and one of Index)^ the foundation of all the modern carto- 
graphy of Palestine ; (2) for Moab, on R. Briinnow's Karte der sildl. Belkd, Moab u. Edom, in 3 Blatt, and 
Vbersichtskarte des Ostjordanlandes, in vol. i. of Briinnow's and von Domaszewski's Die Frovincia Arabia 
(Strasburg, 1904); and A. Musil's Karte von Arabia Petrcea nach eigenen Aufnahmen (Vienna, 1907, 
with the author's Moab, topogr. Reisebericht, being vol. i. of his Arabia Petrcea of the same date); (3) 
for N. Moab and Ammon, on Condor's and Mantell's map in the Pal. Expl. Fund's Survey of Eastern 
Palestine, Memoirs, vol. i. (1889) ; (4) for Gilead (from the Jabbok northwards) and Hauran, on G. Schumacher's. 
Karte des Ostjordanlandes, published by the Deutscher Verein zur Erforschung Palastinas (1908 onwards). 
For the Lebanon and Hauran, the following have been consulted: R. Huber, Carte de la Province du 
Liban (Cairo, 1905), and the maps in von Oppenheim's Vom, Mittelmeer zum Persischen Oolf. In 
addition, frequent reference has been made by the editor to the |-inch scale maps of the Pal. Expl. Fund 
(Nos. 2-5), to the Raised Map of Palestine, on the same scale, by G. Armstrong, and to the Map of Tf. 
Palestine, showing Water Basins in Colour, 

In W. Palestine the heights have been taken from the large and other maps of the Pal. Expl. Fund 
up to the N. limit of the former, and in E. Palestine, from Schumacher's map so far as it extends. Else- 
where they have been calculated from a comparison of the various maps given above and of other 
travellers. On the E. of Anti-Lebanon, and generally on the extreme E. of the Trans-Jordan region, they 
must be reckoned as only approximate. 

The spelling of the modern names (in hairline italics) has been carefully revised on the basis of the 
Pal. Explor. Fund Name Lists, collected by Conder and Kitchener, and transliterated and explained by 
Palmer (1881), with consultation of H. C. Stewardson's Index to the Arabic and English Naine Lists in 
A General Index to the P.E.F. Memoirs (1888). All these have been considered in the light of Socin's 
criticisms in the Expositor, 1885, p. 256, and of his paper in the Z.D.P.V., xxii. 18-64, '' Liste Arabischer 
Orts-appelativa." Cp. Schick's and Benzinger's Lists of Names in the nearer and farther environs of 
Jerusalem, Z.D.P.V., xviii. 149-172, xix. 145-220, and many articles in the P.E.F.Q,, Z.D.P.V., and 
Revue Biblique. The following equivalents have been used for those letters in the Arabic alphabet, the 
transliteration of which requires explanation: 



Arabic. 

'Mif 

Ta 

Td 

Gim 

Ha 

Ha 

Dal 

Dal 

Sad 

Dad 



0) 
M 

y 
y 

y 



English. 
' Only expressed when medial 
t 

th 
J 

h 

kh (but in a few cases h) 

d 

dh (but sometimes d) 

s 

d (except in Ard) 



Arabic. 
Ta 
Zd 
''Ain 
Ghain 
Kdf 
Kaf 
Ha 
Waw 
Yd 



(t) 
(a 
(j) 
(^) 

(.) 



English. 

t 

dh (sometimes z) 

gh (in one or two cases r) 

k 

h (not always expressed when final) 

ID (but in a few cases v) 

y or i 



The above table shows that the transliteration of the modern Arabic place-names is not absolutely 
consistent. This is due to the fact that the Editor's work of transliteration has extended over some years, 
during which his views regarding it were altered. Nor did he think it necessary to indicate the exact 
force of a letter in such common cases as Ard, which should read throughout 'Ard, The student must 
also keep in mind that not only does the vocalisation of many names differ from mouth to mouth in 
the same neighbourhood, but that even the grouping of the consonants varies, as, for example, in the 
well-kiiown case of Muhes, which varies from Mkes to 'Umkes (the prosthetic 'elif being prefixed by some 
and omitted by others). The points have not always been placed under h, s, d, t, and k: some of these 
omissions are corrected below, others in the Index. 

All the names other than the present Arabic ones. Biblical as well as post-Biblical down to the 
times of the Crusades, are given on the maps in strong letters. The identifications proposed may seem 
too lavish, but the Editor has deemed it right to mark even some which are uncertain, accompanying 
them with a query, and to omit only such as seem quite unfounded. In the case both of these and of those 
which are without a mark of query it must be kept in mind that they do not imply, nor even always suggest, 
that the very site to which the modern name is attached was also that which owned the corresponding 
or even the equivalent Arabic name. Place-names in Palestine have tended to drift from their original site, 
sometimes to a short, and sometimes to a long distance. 

These maps should be used to expand and to check the information in the historical Maps, 31-48, 
54, 69, 60. 



xvi Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

Some corrections and additions have to be made to the various sections as follows : 
Section 

I. (Maps 15, 16), B 4, read Khan el Kasimfiiyeh, 
C 2, for Maksaba read Maksaba, 
C 5, for Kuseibeh read Kuseibeh, 
D 4, for Belat read Beldt. 
D 6, delete Waters of Merom ? h 
E, 2 and 3, for Nahr Litany read Nahr el LUdny, 
E 6, for el Umm Gheiyar read Umifn el-Gheiyar. 
II. (Maps 17, 18), C 1, for Reyak read BeyaL 

D 4, for Nahr 'Awaj read Nahr 'A'waj, 
F 5, for Match read Matkh. 

III. (Maps 19, 20), A 5, Aphek ?. See letterpress on Maps 33, 35. 

C 3, for Roma read Ruma. 

C 4, Megiddo. Since Schumacher's excavations, 1903 fif., it is probable that the ancient 
Megiddo lay not at the present el-Lejjun, as hitherto believed, for only Roman, 
Byzantine, and later remains have been discovered there, but a little farther 
N.E., on the same continuous field of ruins, at Tell-el-Mutesellim. 
For T'annuk read T'annak, 

D 3, On Betsaanim see H.G.H.L., 395-6, also Masterman, Studies in Galilee, 8. 

E 1, delete Waters of Merom ? ?. 

F 4, Aphek ? ?, hardly a Biblical Aphek, is the Apheka of the Onomastikon, a village in 
the time of Eusebius, near Hippos. 

IV. (Maps 21, 22), B 3, On Aphek? see Notes to Section III ; cp. Notes to Maps 38-42. 

W, Gled sta. : so the name is pronounced, but the proper spelling is W. Kled. 

D 2, for Obtea read Obte'a. 

D 3, delete hyphen in Ba-fat, 

D 4, Ramath ? the most probable site of Ramoth Gilead (see letterpress on Map 35). 

E 3, for [ W. el] Kunawat read Kanawdt, 

E 4, delete Obtaa. 

F 4, for \W, 60- j Zedi read Zeidy, 

G 4, for [ Wady Abu] Hamaka read Hamaka. 
V. (Maps 23, 24), on the three Gilgals on this map, C 3, E 2, E 3, see Maps 33-36. 

B 3, for [Tell er-] Rekkeit read Rekkeit, 

C 3, enter Aphek above Mejdel-Yaba, and see Notes to Map 33. 

D 5, on Kirjath(?) (Kiriath) and Kirjath-Jearim, see Notes on Map 23. 
For [ W, es] Sikkeh read Sikheh. 

D 6, for Beit-sur read Beit-Swr, 

E 2, read en-Nakurah, 

E 4, read (Surdah). 

E 5, for Aziriyeh read el-Aziriyeh, 
For Shafat read Shafat 
VI. (Maps 25, 26), A 2, read Tf. Abu Kaslan and en-Nakurah. 

A 4, for BaithoTnmer read BaithoTnme, 

C 4, for [ W. er] Hetem read Retem, 

E 4, for [ W.] Gawa read Jawa. 

F 2, above Rihab read Beth-Rehob ? (see Notes on Map 34). 

F 4, for [Ras el] Merkeb read Merkeb, 
VII. (Maps 27, 28), A 2, for esh-Shweihi read esh-Shweihi. 

B 1, for [W.] Kemas read Kemas. 

E 1, for Beit-sur read Beit-Sur. 

E 2, on Horeshah, Oresa, see Notes to Map 34 ; for er Rahiyeh read er Rahiyeh. 
VIII. (Maps 29, 30), B C 1, &c. To the names applied to the Dead Sea, add those given on Maps 33-46. 

C 1 , for [ IT. el] Meshaobeh read Meshabbeh. 

C 2, read Seil 'Attun, Seil Skara, Sweiket, and el Mashnekeh, 

C 4, read Seil el Hadite. 

D 1, for Mhayyet read Mkhayyet ; read also el-Maslubiyeh ; and el-Mushakkat 

Medeba — the various forms of this name are : — Heb., MedSba ; Moabite, Mghedeba ; 
Arabic, M^daba ; Greek, Maiha^a, Meha^a, Mr^ha^a ; Latin, Medaba. 

D 2, for M'eyt read M'eyt, 

D 3, for el-Matluta read el-Mathlutha ; for Mis'ar read Mis'ar. 

D 3, 'Ajam is probably the city in the midst of the valley, on which see Notes to Map 34. 

D 4 and 5. The watershed between the Wady Kerak and its tributaries and the 
tributaries of the Wady es-Sultani (continued as the W. Mheirer and the Seil-el- 
Mojib), ignored by previous maps of Moab, has been established by the observations 
of Musil and Brlinnow. On the Roman road between Kerak and Madaba, s^e, 
besides Conder, Brunnow, and Musil as above, G. A. Smith, P.E.F.Q,, 1904, 367 ff., 
1905, 39 ff. ; also on other Biblical sites in Moab, Expositor, July-August, 1908 
(reviewing Musil), and on Deut., chs. ii., iii. in The Cambridge Bible for Schools. 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xvii 

Section. 

VIII. (Maps 29, 30) (continued) — D 5, read el Mehna. 

D 6, read esh-Shkera, 

^ 1, lesid et'Tunaih and (eS'Samik). 

E 1, read el-Mu'akkar. 



31. PALESTINE BEFORE THE COMING OF ISRAEL. 1500 to 1250 B.C. 

Authorities. — Ancient : The Babylonian Monuments and Egyptian Monuments of the Period ; the Tell-el- 
Amarna Tablets, c. 1400 B.C. ; the Israelite traditions from the period, and the archseological 
references in the Hexateuch. Modern : Ed. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterthums (1885) ; W. M. Miiller, 
Asien und Europa (1893), especially chs. 8-18; A. H. Sayce, Patriarchal Palestine (1895), and 
other works; H. Winckler in 3rd ed. of Schrader's Die Keilinschriften und da^ A,T. (1903); 
"Canaan," and other articles in Encyclopsedia Biblica; M'Curdy, History ^ Prophecy, and the 
Monuments (London, 1894). 

The difHculty of the geographical data of this period is due not to their meagreness, but to the fact that the 
races then appearing in Palestine were numerous and in constant movement ; and that the names for them 
were not used in the O.T. nor elsewhere in any exact tense. The period is one of Egyptian influence. About 
1500 Thutmosis (Dhutmes) III conquered Syria up to the Euphrates ; but under Amenhotep IV Egyptian 
sovereignty ceased to be effective. Sety I (c. 1350) reconquered the country as far north as Beirut, pushing 
his arms also east of the Jordan: see on Map 2. Ramses II (1340-1273) had to subdue the maritime plain, 
Ephraim and Galilee, and fought Hittites at Kadesh on the Orontes. But before 1200 all Syria had passed 
from the power of Egypt. 

The name Kana'an (also Kna', Eg. Kenahhi) was first applied to the maritime plain from Gaza to the 
north limit of the Phoenician territories, but was extended over the mountains. The possession of the valley 
between the Lebanon and of the Anti-Lebanon by the Amurru or Amorites is well established. The Baby- 
lonians extended their name over the whole of west Palestine ; and it is probable that as Egyptian authority 
relaxed the Amorites pushed southwards on both sides of the Jordan. Israelite traditions place two Amorite 
kingdoms in Bashan, and in Moab north of the Arnon ; and call the south end of the west range Mount of the 
Amorites ; while the E Document of the Pentateuch and Amos entitle all tribes conquered by Israel Amorites, 
just as the J Document calls them Canaanites. The Hittites by 1300 were on the upper Orontes; but already 
in 1400 (according to the Amarna Tablets), groups of them were acting effectively in Palestine proper; and 
some scholars hold that they penetrated to Hebron, where they are placed by the P Document. But this may 
be as general a use of the name as that of Amorites by E and of Canaanites by J. 

There is evidence for Hivites on Hermon : in the Old Testament they are mentioned with Amorites. Yet 
it is possible that Hivite, like Perizzite, refers not to an ethnic or geographical distinction so much as to a 
definite state of society. We have no evidence for the position of Perizzites or Girgashites. 

In the Amarna Tablets, the Habiri (a name identical with Hebrews) and Shuti, nomadic tribes, roved 
through the land. 

It is uncertain whether the Philistines were yet settled in their territories : their advent seems nearly 
contemporaneous with that of Israel. Similarly Aram. 

The forms of names of towns added to their Biblical forms, are those given on the Amarna Tablets. 



32. PALESTINE.— PERIOD OF ISRAEL'S SETTLEMENT AND OF THE JUDGES. 

BEFORE 1050 B.C. 

Authorities. — Ancient : Gen. xxxviii., xlix. ; Num. xxi. ff. ; Deut. ii. f., xxxiii. ; Josh. ; Jud. ; 1 Sam. i.-viii. 
Modern : Commentaries on these Scriptures, especially Moore's and Budde's on Judges ; the articles on 
the Tribes of Israel in Enc. Bibl. ; Stade, Gesch. des Volkes Israel, 2®^ Buch ; Guthe, Gesch. des Volkes 
Israel, §§ 11-19; H. P. Smith, O.T. Hist, ch. vi.; H.G.H.L., chs. xvi.-xix., xxvi. f . ; Winckler's ed. of 
Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T.; A. MusiFs Moab; Expositor, July-Dec. 1908, pp. 1, 131; Rev. 
Bibl, 1910, '' Les Pays Bibliques et TAssyrie." 

This map gives approximately the disposition of the Tribes of Israel, reflected in the Song of Deborah {circa 
1100 B.C.), with qualifications from the other sources. 

The centre is Ephraim (a place-name, with a frequent geographical termination, and probably meaning 
" fertile " region ; then the name of a tribe, and in the prophets the name of the N. Kingdom) or Mount 
Ephraim, the designation of the W. Range from Esdraelon as far S. at least as Bethel (Jud. iii. 27, iv. 5 ; 
cf. Jer. xxxi. 4-6 ; Josephus, v Antt, i. 22). It was held by the tribe of Joseph, with two branches, Ephraim 
and Manasseh or Machir (Jud. v. 14), between which no demarcation is possible. No document of the period, 
nor the older forms of the history, JE, say anything of the extension of Manasseh E. of Jordan, but this is 
stated in Deut., and effect is given to it on the map. The particular sites marked (with or without a query), 
explain themselves; the city Ephraim, 2 Sam. xiii. 23 {cf. John xi. 54; Josephus, lY B.J., ix. 9; Jerome, O.S., 
"Efrem'') is usually identified with Et-Taiyibeh; but some hold the name for a mistaken spelling of 
*Ephr-aim or 'Ephr-on (with mitml' ay in), and compare the 'Ophr-ah of Gideon. 'Amalek of Jud. v. 14 
{cf xii. 15) is probably a wrong reading: LXX give in the valley. S. of Ephraim lay Ben-yamin, i.e. Son 
of the Righthand or of the South. 



xviii Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

Without going into the questions of the origin of Judah and of the direction in which it reached W. 
Palestine, we may accept the early isolation of this tribe from the other Hebrews, which seems to be stated in 
Gen. xxxviii. 1. Judah is not mentioned in the Song of Deborah. How far S. it then lay is uncertain ; but 
the facts are clear: (1) a belt of towns still held by non-Hebrew tribes— Gezer, Chephirah, Beeroth, Kiriath- 
Jearim, Gibeon, and Jerusalem (Josh, ix., xvi. 10, Jud. i. 21, 29, 2 Sam. iv. 2 f., xxi. 2) — crossed the range 
between Benjamin and Judah, and the Amorites succeeded in pushing the tribe of Dan out of Sorek and 
Ayyalon ; and (2) Judah was mixed with Canaanites and other tribes, Calebite, Kenite, Kenizzite, and Jerah- 
meelite (Jud. i. 9, 20, &c.). Simeon is also assigned to the S. of Judah, in which it disappears (Jud. i. 3, 17, 
Josh. xix. 1, 9, and lists of towns in Josh, xv., xix.). Dan migrated N. to Laish at the sources of the 
Jordan (Jud. i. 34-36 and xviii.). In Jud. v. 17 f., Dan is mentioned with Asher, but the association is 
moral, not geographical. The allusion to Dan's ships is not to their S. domains towards Joppa, but to the 
Phoenician contacts of their settlement in the N. (cf. Deut. xxxiii. 22, Gen. xlix. 17 ; probably an allusion 
to Dan's strategic position on the gate of invasion from the N.). 

N. of Ephraim and Manasseh were Zebulun and Issachar, the latter in Esdraelon and so subject to 
Canaanite dominion (Gen. xlix. 14 f.), Naphtali and Asher. On the map add ASHER across the region 
W. of NAPHTALI. 

E. of Jordan the exact territories of Gad (in Jud. v. 17, Gilead; but in later times farther south, 
Moabite Stone 10, Num. xxxii.) and Reuben are uncertain. 

To complete the map the sites of some stations on the march of the incoming Hebrews through Moab 
have been added. 

33. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF SAUL. ABOUT 1020 B.C. 

Authorities — Ancient: The First Book of Samuel, with Judges xxi. and 2 Sam. xxi. Modern: A. 
Klostermann, Die Bucher Sam. u. der Kon. (1887) ; S. R. Driver, Notes on the Heb. Text of the Boohs 
of SaTTiuel (Oxf., 1890) ; H. P. Smith, Sainuel, in the Intern. Grit. Comm. (Edin., 1899) ; K. Budde, 
Die Bucher Sam. in the Kurzer Hand-Cfdmrnentar (Tubingen, 1902) ; relevant parts of histories of 
Israel, especially Wellhausens and Guthe's; A. Henderson, Palestine (Edin., 1887); W. Miller, 
The Least of all Lands (Lond., 1888), chs. iv.-vii., on Michmash, Elah, Gilboa, and Shiloh ; cp. G. 
A. Smith, H.G.H.L., especially chs. ix. f., xii., xiii. 4, xix. 3 ; Poels, Le Sanctuaire de Kiriath 
Jearim (Louvain, 1896, not seen); F. Hagemeyer on Gibeah in Z.D.P.V., xxxii. Iff. (1909); Erwin 
Nestle, id., xxxiv. 65-118 (1911); R. A. S. Macalister, "The Topography of Rachel's Tomb/' in 
P.E.F.Q., 1912, 74 ff. ; other articles are cited below. 

The frontiers indicated on the map are, of course, only approximate. This is true in particular of the 
Israelite extension over Galilee, the East of Jordan, and southwards into the Negeb. Note the Canaanite 
wedge between Judah and Benjamin. Some of the place-names require notes : — 

Aphek of 1 Sam. iv. 1 is almost certainly Mejdel-Yaba, above and to the N. of the Wady Deir-Ballut 
(see Map 23, C 3). Here, or n^ar here, stood a tower of Aphek in a.d. 66 (Josephus, ii Wars, xix. 1), and 
the position suits the dat^ in 1 Sam. iv., including the carriage of the news of Israel's defeat the same 
day to Shiloh (Art. ''Aphek" in E.B., by W. R. Smith and G. A. Smith; A. Sanda, Untersuchungen zur 
Kunde des alt. Orients, No. 2 of Mittheilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschafts, 1902; H. Guthe on 
''Aphek" and "Ebenezer" in M. u. N.D.P.V., 1911 and 1912, 50 f.). On the map, therefore, enter Aphek 
6 miles S. of Gilgal on Sharon, and 7| miles N.E. of Ono. But a site so far S. suits neither the Aphek 
of 1 Sam. xxix. 1, from which the Philistines advanced to the Plain of Esdraelon, nor that of 1 Kings xxix. 6, 
where Benhadad of Aram mustered his forces against Israel, aiming, of course, at Samaria. These were 
the same, and lay farther N., either at Kakon {H.G.H.L., 350), or more probably at El-Mejdel (as marked 
on this map and Map 23, C 1). Apuku, of the lists of Thutmosis III, given as between Lyd'da and Ono 
on the S. and Suka and Yhm (Shuweikeh (?) and Yemma(?)) on the N., suits either Mejdel-Yaba or Kakon 
or el-Mejdel (see further E.B., as above, and letterpress to Map 35). 

Kiriath-Jearim (1 Sam. vii. 2, &c.) is marked on this map as the present Ktiryat or Kl. el-'Eynab, 
a site convenient to the other Canaanite towns with which (though it had become Israelite at the time 
of this map) it is associated in Josh. ix. 17 ; suitable to Josh. xv. 9, xviii. 14, and also to the data of 
Eusebius in his Onomastikon. This now seems, on the whole, more probable than the other site at 
Khurbet 'Erma (suggested by Henderson, Palestine, 85, 112, 310). In 2 Sam. vi. 2, K.-J. is Baale of Judah. 

Mispah (1 Sam. vii. 5 f., &c.) was either Neby Samwil (Map 24, D 4) or Tell-en-Nasbeh {id., E 4). 

There were at least four sites called the Gilgal. That in 1 Sam. vii. 16 is either the Gilgal S.E. of 
Shiloh, or that now represented by the ruins el-Juleijil, 2\ miles E.S.E. of Shechem (not marked on this 
map, but see Map 23, E 2), the Gilgal of Deut. xi. 30 {Dent, in Gamb. Bible for Schools). The Gilgal 
of 1 Sam. xi. 15 was either this, or more probably the Gilgal by Jericho (to which Samuel went down). 

In ch. ix. Shalisha is on the E. of Mt. Ephraim ; Sha'alim \_sic'\ may be an error for Sha'alabbim (in 
Ephraim, Jud. i. 35, Josh. xix. 42) ; Zuph {Snph), if this be the proper reading (but^ it may be an error 
for Mispah, cp. the LXX B vaaeifi and the modern Tell en-Nasbeh in Benjamin's territory) was the district 
round Ramah. 

Gibeah (1 Sam. xiii. 2, 15; xiv. 2, 16) should be Geba, the modern Jeba. On Gibeah of Saul, see 
authorities quoted above, 

Horesh should be read for the wood of Evv. in 1 Sam. xxiii. 15, 18, and was, with little doubt, the Oresa 
or Oressa of the Greek period, now Khurbet Khoreisa (see Map 28, E 2). 

The site of Gathis not known with certainty ; nor are the sites of other place-names given in First Samuel 
but omitted from this map. 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xix 



34. PALESTINE UNDER DAVID AND SOLOMON. ABOUT 1015-930 B.C. 

Authorities — Ancient : the Second Book of Samuel ; 1 Kings i.-xi. (cp. 1 Chronicles x. to 2 Chronicles ix.) ; 
Pharaoh Shoshenk's list of towns taken by him in Palestine. Modern : the works given in previous 
list, with I. Benzinger, Die Biicher der Kdnige (1899); C. F. Burney, Notes on Heh. Text of the 
Books of Kings (1903); W. M. Miiller, Asien u. Enropa (1893); G. A. Smith, "Trade and 
Commerce" in E.B., and Jerusaleon, ii., chs. ii., iii., with authorities cited there. 

David, at first King of Judah only, succeeded on the death of Ish-ba'al ( = bosheth), Saul's son, to the 
allegiance of N. Israel, and to these territories — Benjamin, Ephraim, Jezreel (the Plain of), and all Israel to 
the N., with Gilead and the Geshurites (?Heb. text, Ashurites; 2 Sam. ii. 8fF. ; v. 1-4). He gradually 
drove the Philistines off the Judsean highlands, and broke their power by the capture of Gath (v. I7flf., 
viii. 1) ; during this time he took Jerusalem (v. 6 ff.) and made it his capital (for the motives to this, see 
Jems., ii. 32 ff.), and concluded an alliance with Hiram of Tyre (v. 11). He conquered Moab to the 
Arnon (viii. 2), overthrew the Ammonites with their capital (x. 1-14, xi. 16-25, xii. 26-31), defeating 
also their Aramaean allies — Aram Beth-Rehob, probably the district round the present Rihab (Map 26, F 2), 
Aram Sobah, probably in the Lebanon region, and Maacah in Golan, with the men of Tob (x. 6-13); and 
crushed a subsequent Aramaean (Syrian) confederacy at Helam (unknown), E. of Jordan (x. 15-17). The 
phrase Aramceans beyond the River (cp. viii. 3) implies that all the Aramaeans S. of the Euphrates were 
engaged against him, but it is a phrase from the Persian period, and due to a late editor (see notes on 
Map 37). It is also said that he put garrisons in Damascus (viii. 6), and received tribute from Hamath 
(not H. on the Orontes, but H. Sobah, 2 Chron. viii. 3) and other cities. In the S. he subdued the 
Amalekites and smote Edom (not Syria = Ara7n as in Heb. text) in W. el Milh, near Beersheba, and 
made Edom tributary (viii. 12-14). From Jerusalem, he, no doubt, began that absorption of Canaanite 
enclaves in Israel's territory which was completed by Solomon. Ch. xxiv. gives the extent of his kingdom 
as from Aroer, N. of Arnon and its suburb or toll-town below it in the midst of the valley (see on Deut. xi. 36, 
in Gamh. Bible for Schools), across Gilead to the Yarmuk, with an extension, perhaps, into Bashan, but 
exclusive of Geshur in Aram (to be distinguished from the other Geshur, to which Absalom fled, xiii. 37 f., 
XV. 8, where delete in AraTn as a gloss, and which is given in Josh. xiii. 2, 1 Sam. xxvii. 8, as in the 
S.W. of Palestine on the way to Egypt) and Maacah, both of which remained independent. From the 
Yarmuk the list crosses Jordan up to what the text gives as the land of Tahtim-hodshi, to be read either 
as . the land under Hermon or, less probably, land of the Hittites towards Kadesh (an ideal boundary), to 
Dan and Ijon (lyon), which read for Dan-jaan, and thence turns towards Sidon and the fortress of Tyre 
(i.e. the domains of his ally Hiram), and so S. by the absorbed cities of Canaanites and Hivites (with 
the doubtful inclusion of Carmel) to Beersheba in the extreme S., but excluding the Canaanite Gezer 
and the bulk of Philistia, then, or soon after, under Egyptian sovereignty. 

These were the domains which David left to Solomon, with a strong capital, a settled administration, 
a partially organised trade (2 Sam. xiv. 26), a strong mercenary army, and the enrolment, both in civil 
and military life, of many foreigners. Solomon embellished the capital, extended the administration, 
dividing the kingdom into twelve provinces (1 Kings iv. 7), and by fortifying the main avenues to, and 
lines of trafiic through, his kingdom more firmly controlled and vastly extended his trade. In Hasor 
in Galilee he commanded the N. entrance to the land; in Megiddo the pass from Esdraelon to Sharon; 
in Beth-horon, Gezer (and perhaps Baalath ?) the roads from Sharon to Jerusalem ; and in Thamar the 
road S. from Hebron (ix. 15-18). Suppressing a revolt in Edom (xi. 14-22), he kept this road open as 
far as Ezion-geber (Map 8, L 4), beside Elath, from which he sent ships to Ophir (ix. 26 ff.). He thus controlled 
all the trade between Damascus (with Mesopotamia beyond) and Egypt, and between Arabia and Gaza. 
Probably for his services in regard to this, Egypt ceded Gezer to hfm, and he completed the absorption 
and servitude of the Canaanite and Amorite enclaves in Israel (ix. 16, 20). The ascription of power to 
him up to the Euphrates (iv. 21, 24) is doubtful; it includes the post-exilic phrase across the river. The 
only probability is that his commercial influence extended so far. He imported horses, not from Egypt, 
as the Heb. text reads (x. 28), but from the northern Musri and Kue or Cilicia, as the Greek version 
enables us to emend it (see Map 2). He lost little of the territories left him — the district of Kabul 
(ix. 10-14), Damascus, if David had actually occupied it, and perhaps parts of the Negeb and Edom. But 
his severe levies upon Israel, for the enrichment of his capital, roused the discontent which led to the 
disruption of the kingdom under his successor; and the establishment, in spite of him, of a new and 
vigorous Aramaean power in Damascus, prepared for Israel the most fatal opposition the people had yet 
encountered. 

For the topography of Jerusalem and neighbourhod, see JerusalcTii, ii. 39-46, and Nos. 1 and 2 on 
Maps 47, 48 in this volume. 

On this map delete the name Idumceans in the extreme south. 



35. PALESTINE IN THE TIMES OF ELIJAH AND ELISHA. ABOUT 860-800 B.C. 

Authorities — Ancient: 1 Kings xvi. to 2 Kings xiii. (cp. 2 Chronicles xvi.-xxv.); Amos i. 3-ii. 3; the 
Inscriptions of the Assyrian Shalmaneser II (859-825 B.C.), Adad-Nirari (812-783), and of Mesha 
of Moab ("The Moabite Stone"). Modern: Commentaries on the above Scriptures, and relevant 



'y^ 



XX Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

parts of histories of Israel, especially Wellhausen's, H. P. Smith's, Guthe's; Buhl, Geogr. d. alien 
Paldstina (1896); Winckler, Die Keilinschriften u, das A.T. (1903); G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., 
clis. xii., xvi. f., xxvii. ; Jerusalem, ii., ch. iv. 

During this period the frontiers of the various kingdoms were uncertain, and oscillated violently. 

That between Judah and N. Israel (Samaria) moved between Bethel and Geba {H.G.HX., 251): Bethel, 
a sanctuary of N. Israel ; Geba, long remembered as the N. limit of Judah (1 Kings xv. 22, 2 Kings xxiii. 8). 
The gorge of Michmash (W. Suweinit) was the natural line; but Israel strove for a footing to the S. at 
Ramah (1 Kings xv. 17), and Judah to the N. at Bethel (2 Chron. xiii. 19). Geba and Mispah (Neby 
Samwil, or more probably Tell en-Nasbeh, see Map 25) were the two outposts of Judah (1 Kings xv. 21 f.). 
Nor did this frontier run to Jordan by the W. Suweinit, but crossed the latter, and by an uncertain line 
reached the N. end of the Dead Sea, leaving Jericho with N. Israel (1 Kings xvi. 34, 2 Kings ii. 4). On the 
W. we may assume that Israel did not extend so far S. as the Beth-horons, for Gibbethon (?Kibbiah, 16 miles 
S.E. of Joppa) was held by Philistines. The S. limit of Judah must have varied much ; it was assailed 
by Edom and Moab, with whom 2 Chron. xx. 1 associates the Me'unim (sic, and not ATnmon as in the 
text), or people of Ma'an, E. of Petra. Jehoshaphat endeavoured to reopen trade with Ophir through 
Ezion-Geber on the Gulf of 'Akabah, and Amaziah took from Edom a rock-fortress on the way thither, 
in the Valley of Salt, perhaps the W. el-Milh. Judah's W. frontier was uncertain, Gibbethon was Philistine, 
Bethshemesh belonged to Judah (2 Kings xiv. 11), and Libnah was won by the Philistines (2 Chron. xx. 10). 
Gath (site uncertain), said to have been fortified with Mareshah by Rehoboam (2 Chron. xi. 5 ff.), was 
taken by Hazael of Aram (2 Kings xii. 17). 

The territories of N. Israel varied immensely during the period. Omri held E. Palestine from as 
far S. as Medeba, Yahaz, and *Ataroth ; and probably from the Arnon, N. over Gilead, and perhaps 
Bashan as well. In W. Palestine his farthest N. limit is uncertain — ^hardly N. of Dan. But he lost some 
cities to Ben-hadad (1 Kings xx. 34), and Mesha recovered from Ahab Moab, as far N. at least as Medeba. 
Mt. Carmel is assumed by the story of Elijah to have belonged to N. Israel. But neither it nor the 
coast to the S. can have long continued Israelite. The change, under Omri, of the capital from the E. 
watershed to the W. at Samaria, was connected, of course, with the Phoenician alliance, under which alone 
Carmel could have been held by Israel. About 839 the whole of Israel's domains E. of Jordan were lost 
to Hazael of Damascus and the Ammonites (2 Kings x. 32 fF., cp. Amos i. 3, 13). He also invaded W. 
Palestine by Esdraelon and the pass thence by Dothan on to Sharon. Towards the end of the century, 
Aram (Syria) was weakened by Assyrian invasions, Joash of Israel recovered many cities, and the former 
limits of the kingdom were restored under his son, Jeroboam II, except to the S. in Moab. 

The position of Aphek is uncertain. It may have lain in Esdraelon, but was more probably in 
Sharon, to which the Aramaean forces strategically came with the view of attacking Samaria from the W., 
the easiest approach to it. The map places it at El-Mejdel (see also Map 23, C 1). Guthe (M. u. N.D.P.V,), 
1911, 33 f.) argues for Mejdel Yaba, but agrees that this is too far S. for the attack on Samaria; see on 
Map 33. For the site of Abel-Meholah, at Tell el-Hammi S. of Beth-shan, see Holscher, Z.D.P.V., xxxiii. 16 f., 
and Thomsen, id., xxxvii. 187. Ramoth-Gilead (if not Gadara ?) was certainly the modern er-Remtheh (for 
which see Map 21, D 4). Tishbeh, Elijah's home, was in Gilead, and the brook Chereth (usually but 
wrongly identified with W. Kelt above Jericho) was probably a neighbouring wady (perhaps the W. Yabis) ; 
certainly it lay E. of Jordan (1 Kings xvii. 3, before = E. of). The entering in of Hamath was somewhere 
on the Orontes, by Riblah. Karkar, where Ahab and Ben-hadad fought Shalmaneser II, lay N. of this 
map, towards Hamath (see Maps 1 and 2). In 2 Kings vii. 6, for JEgypt=Misraim (whose kings, along 
with those of the Hittites, Aram *' hired against Israel ") read Musri or Musrim, i.e. the Musri of N. Syria, 
off the extreme N.E. corner of the Levant. In 2 Kings viii. 21, for Sa'ir read either with Bwald So'ar, or 
with LXX Se%r, the land of Edom, which is the more probable. 

36. PALESTINE FROM 720 B.C. TO THE EXILE OF JUDAH, 586 flF. 

Authorities— Ancient : 2 Kings xvii.-xxv. (cp. 2 Chronicles xxix.-xxxvi.) ; Isaiah vii.-x., xx., xxxvi. f.; 
Micah and Jeremiah, passim ; Ezekiel xl.-xlviii. ; Ezra and Nehemiah ; the Inscriptions of Sargon, 
Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Assurbanipal, of Assyria. Modern: Besides the relevant commentaries 
and histories, H.G.H.L., ch. xii., and Jerusalem, ii., chs. v.-xiv., with the works cited there. 

In 721, the city of Samaria and the whole of N. Israel fell to Assyria. Under Manasseh, Judah was also 
subject to that power. Only when the Assyrian power weakened was Josiah of Judah able to exercise 
his power at Bethel and in the cities of Samaria (2 Kings xxiii. 15, 19 f.). There were still faithful Jewish 
communities left there (Jer. xii. 4fF.). On the number of Jews left in Judaea during the Exile, and the 
state of Jerusalem, see Jerusalem, ii., ch. x. On the fall of Jerusalem and the deportation of so many of 
its population, the Edomites pressed northwards on the Jewish territory, extending, it would appear, 
beyond Hebron. 

A number of the place-names of this period have not been inserted on the map because their sites 
are uncertain. For example, Altaku, where Sennacherib defeated an army of the confederate States of 
Palestine with Arabs and Egyptians (?), is probably the Eltekeh of Joshua xix. 43 ff., somewhere between 
Ekron and Jerusalem, and near Thimna. 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xxi 



37. PALESTINE UNDER THE PERSIANS. 538 B.C. -332 B.C. 

Authorities.— Ancient : Ezra and Nehemiaji [2 Chron. xv. 9-15, xxx.] ; Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii., Ixiii. 7-lxiv. 11 (?); 
(?) Psalms xliv., Ixxiv., Ixxix., Ixxxix. ; Herodotus, iii. 89 ff. ; the Periplus of Scylax Caryandensis 
(under Darius Hystaspis, in Geogr, Greed Minores, i. 15 ff.), § 104; Josephus, xi Antiquities; 
Eusebius' Chronicon, ii. Modern : Commentaries on Ezra and Nehemiah ; Histories of Israel — especi- 
ally Stade's, ii. 194-269; Wellhausen's, 119-182, and Guthe's, §§ 80-82; Noldeke, art. ^^ Persia" in 
Bncy. Britannica (9th ed.); G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L,, ch. xii., " The History of a Frontier " {i.e. between 
Samaria and Judsea) ; Jerusalem, ii., chs. xii.-xiv. 

Cyrus succeeded in 538 to the Babylonian power in Western Asia. Cambyses (529-522) conquered Egypt 
with the help of the Phoenician cities. Herodotus (iii. 90-94), in recounting the division of the Persian 
Empire into Satrapies, gives as the fifth of these Syria, Phoenicia, and Cyprus. It was called 'Abar- 
Naharah, Bey ond-the- River (Ezra v. 6, vi. 6). This division probably took place under Darius Hystaspis: 
the capital of the fifth Satrapy would be at either Aleppo or Damascus, or Samaria. The maritime cities 
given on the map are those given in the Periplus of Scylax Caryandensis. He says Ake (Akko) and 
Askalon were under Tyre ; Dorus (Dora) under Sidon. He gives the name Coele-Syria to the whole of the 
country from the mouth of the Orontes to Askalon. Ake was the naval base of the Persians in their 
expeditions against Egypt (Strabo, xvi. 25), and was occupied under Artaxerxes II by Pharnabazus. 
Artaxerxes III subdued revolts in Phoenicia, Egypt, and probably Judsea. In 353 he marched through 
Syria, probably took Jericho, and carried into exile a number of Jews (Eus. as above ; Solinus, 354 ; Orosius, 
iii. 76 f.). Sidon and other Phoenician cities fell to him in 348. It may have been at this time that 
his general Bagoas entered Jerusalem and violated the temple (Jos., xi Antt vii.). Egypt was reduced 
by 343, after a disaster to the Persian army at the " Serbonian Bog " (Map 8, G H 1) in 346. 

A small number of Jews returned from Babylon to Jerusalem in 537-6, and completed the building of 
the Temple in 516. Ezra arrived with a company in 458 (?), and Nehemiah, with the King's commission to him 
as Governor, in 445, after which he rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem ; and on a second visit in 432. During this 
century the Jews had been alternately harassed by, and tempted to amalgamate with, the Samaritans. They 
had spread gradually beyond Jerusalem, and settled in a number of their former cities. But progress was slow 
and its stages are uncertain. On their S. they had the Edomites, pushed from their former territories about 
Petra, up on the S. of Judaea. The Jewish frontiers against Samaritans and Idumseans respectively must 
have fluctuated throughout the period. On Nehemiah's arrival, in 445, the towns mentioned as occupied by 
Jews are. (besides Jerusalem and suburbs) Jericho, Gibeon, Mispah, Zanoah, Beth-hakkerem, Tekoah, Bethsur, 
and Keilah (Neh. iii.). A later list (Neh. xi.), probably subsequent to Nehemiah's time, describes them as 
spread as far S. as Hebron, and even Moladah and Beersheba, and S.W. to Lachish^ It is in conformity with 
these data that our map has been coloured in those directions. According to the same list, they also spread so 
far N.W. as to inhabit Lod and Ono. But these districts were still Samaritan in the time of the Maccabees. 
On the map, therefore, a debateable territory has been marked between a line running S. of Lod and Bethhoron, 
but N. of Michmash and Bethel, and another following the course of the River Kanah (Wady Ishar or 
Kaneh), which was the probable frontier after the time of the Maccabees. For details see H.G.H.L., ch. xii., 
"History of a Frontier''; JerusaleTriy ii. 354 ff. Some exclude Jericho from Judsea for strong reasons {Id.. 
354, 355). 

Probably even at this time a number of Jews were scattered throughout Galilee and the E. of Jordan. 
Some think that 2 Chron. xv. 9-15 and xxx. reflect this condition. Gf. 1 Maccabees, v. 

38. PALESTINE IN THE TIMES OF THE MACCABEES. 168-135 B.C. 

Authorities. — Ancient : 1 Maccabees ; 2 Maccabees is of additional, but inferior value (but see on Niese below) ; 
Dan. ch. xii.; probably Ps. Ixviii. (Wellh.) ; Josephus, xii Antt. iv. — xiii vii.; i Wars, i.-ii., 3; 
Polybius, Histories, vii., xvi., &c. ; Diodorus Siculus, xix. 95, 98, based on Hieronymus of Kardia ; 
Appian, Roman History, xi. 1, 8, 11 ; for the Coins, see Eckhel, Doctrina Veterum Numorum, vol. iii. ; 
De Saulcy, Numismatique de la Terre Sainte ; Madden, Coins of the Jews ; Head, Historia JSfuTnoruTn; 
Macdonald, Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, vol. iii. Modern: Schiirer, Geschichte des 
Judischen Volkes, 3rd ed., vol. i. 4-7, 1905 : Fairweather, The First Book of Maccabees {Cambr. Bible 
for Schools), 1897; Ewald, Hist, of Israel, v.; Gratz, Hist, of the Jews, ii. 1898, and other modern 
histories ; Benedict Niese, Kritik der Beiden-Makkabderbilcher, 1900 (a strong appreciation of 2 Macca- 
bees) ; Stark, Gaza und die Philist. Kilste, 1852 ; Buhl, Studien zur Topographic des Nordl. Ostjordan- 
landes, 1894, and Geogr. des Alten Paldstina, 1896; Schumacher, *'Das slid. Basan," Z.D.P.V., xxi. 
65-227 (1897); G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., xii. 252-255, xxvii. 588 ff.; also P.E.F.Q., 1901, 344-360, 1902, 
27 ff., Jerusalem, i. 398-407, ii. 375-456; Peters and Thiersch, Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of 
Marissa (Pal. Explor. Fund), 1895 ; C. R. Conder, Judas Maccabeus, ed. 1894 ; G. Holscher, Paldstina 
in der Pers. u. Hellenistischen Zeit, v.-vii., and in Z.D.V.P., xxix. (1906); the relevant articles in 
the Enc. Bibl., and Hastings D.B. 

The period illustrated in this map really began in 198 B.C., when Antiochus III defeated the troops of 
Ptolemy V at Paneas, and extended the Seleucid domains to Rhinokoroura. All Syria, from this N. to the 
Euphrates, was divided, by the R. Eleutherus, into Seleucis to the N. and Coele-Syria to the S. Of the latter 
the southmost satrapy was Idumsea, including Idumsea proper, Judaea, Moab, and Persea (Died. Sic, xix. 95, 98). 



xxii Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



N. of Idumsea was the satrapy of Samaria, the others being Phoenicia and Coele-Syria proper. Schlirer 
(citing XII Antt. iv. 1, 4) substitutes Judaea for Idumsea. The data differ, and may refer to different periods. 
It is always a difJScult question whether in Maccabees and Josephus ''Idumsea/' '' Judsea" and ''Samaria" are 
used as official (Seleucid) designations or as popular names, and the task of determining their boundaries 
is precarious. 

The Jewish territory was practically the ancient kingdom of Judah minus the region S. of Hebron. The 
N. frontier towards Samaria was uncertain {H.G.H.L., 252 ff.), but crossed the watershed N. of Bethel. 
Emmaus (Amwas), Beth-horon and Timnath were in Judsea (1 Mace. ix. 50), but Aphserema (et-Taiyibeh), 
Lydda, and Ramathaira (? Beit Rima) were still Samaritan Nomoi or toparchies, probably long in debate 
between the Jews and Samaritans, and claimed by the Jews in 145. On the W. the territory of the former 
Philistine cities, now Phoenician and Hellenised, came inland as far as Ekron and Gezer (Gazara), first made 
Jewish under Jonathan and Simon. The frontier was probably the line between the Shephelah and the 
Judsean range (H.G.H.L., 205 f.). The S. frontier is uncertain. Hebron in the time of Judas was occupied by 
Idumaeans (1 Mace. v. 65), but perhaps only temporarily. The name Idumsea seems to have extended some- 
times N. (iv. 15, 29), sometimes to have been confined to the S. (iv. 61), of Hebron; the capital was Marissa, or 
Mareshah, commanding the road from Gaza to Hebron, and the seat of a Phcenician colony with considerable 
Greek culture (Peters and Thiersch, p. 9). On the E. the Jewish frontier ran up the edge of the plateau above 
the valley of the Dead Sea and Jordan (which was at the beginning of the period Idumsean) to an uncertain 
distance above Jericho. But besides the Jewish populations in the above three toparchies, there were com- 
munities of Jews in Galilee, Gilead and Arbatta (probably the 'Araboth, or Plains of Jordan), as we learn from 
the campaigns of Judas for their relief. Tobiah or Hyrkanus, son of Joseph son of Tobiah, had (before 170 ?) 
built a moated palace, Tyrus (*Arak el 'Amir), E. of Jordan, and, collecting cavalry, whom he housed in the 
neighbouring caves, kept the surrounding " Arabs'' in subjection and sustained a principality of his own 
{Jerusalem, ii. 424 ff., with illustrations). 

The following are the chief events and political changes of the period : — 

175, Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) began to reign. 170, He plundered the Temple. 168, Razed the walls of 
Jerusalem, and fortified and garrisoned the ancient citadel, ''the city of David," called henceforth the 'Akra, 
to the S. of the Temple ; and on the altar of the burnt offering built an altar to Zeus. 168-7, Revolt of pious 
Jews under Mattathias of Modein and his five sons, John, Simon, Judas, Eleazar and Jonathan. 166-5, 
Victories of Judas over the Syrians, and his recapture and cleansing of the Temple. 164-3, Judas' campaigns : 
(1) in Akrabattine (not the place of that name S.W. of the Dead Sea, but about 'Akrabbeh between Judsea 
and Samaria ; (2) against the tribe of Baian (unknown) ; (3) against the Ammonites, from whom he took Gazara 
(2 Mace, perhaps Ptolemy's Gadera, in or near Es-Salt); (4) Gilead and farther N. to Bosra, Ramethah (so 
Syr., not Dathema, Gk.) or Remta, and other towns in Hauran (1 Mace, v.), with Ephron (or Gephron on W. 
Ghafr, W. of Irbid) ; (5) Simon at the same time marched into Galilee as far as Ptolemais ; (6) Judas '' smote " 
Hebron, and marched by Marissa to Ashdod or Azotus, but Eleazar was defeated and slain at Beth-sur, and 
the Jews, besieged in the Temple, surrendered Mount Sion, but received liberty to practise their religion. 
Henceforth their struggle was for political independence. 

162-1, Last campaigns of Judas between Jerusalem and Ramleh, and against a Syrian advance from 
Esdraelon through Samaria to Berea (? Beeroth, near Bethel), or, according to some MSS., Beer-zath (? Bir-ez- 
zeit, near Gophna) ; Judas, camping at Eleasa and joining battle, was slain. 

160-158, First campaigns of Jonathan (who with Simon had rallied the Jews in the wilderness of Judsea) 
in Moab and on Jordan ; fortification by Bacchides of many towns. 158-153, Growth of Jonathan's power, 
with his centre at Michmash. 153-143, Contest between the Seleucid factions for the support of Jonathan; 
his establishment in Jerusalem ; capture of Askalon and receipt from Alexander of Ekron and from Demetrius . 
of the high-priesthood and the three toparchies (see above) ; capture of Gaza, Beth-sur, and Joppa, with the 
fortification of Jerusalem and other Judsean towns. Death of Jonathan. 

143-2, Simon fortified the Judsean strongholds and became Ethnarch, took Gezer and the Akra by 
surrender of the garrison. 142-135, The reign of Simon as High Priest, Strategos and Ethnarch, with rights 
of coinage. His sons defeated the Syrian Kandebaus near Jamnia. Simon was slain at Dokus ('Ain Duk), 
and his son, John Hyrkanus, became " king." 



39. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF ALEXANDER JANNAEUS 
(AND QUEEN ALEXANDRA). 103-67 B.C. 

Authorities. — Ancient : Josephus, xiii Antt, xii.-xvi. ; xiv Antt, i. 4; i Wars, iv.; Strabo, Geog., xvi. 15 ff. ; 
Pliny, ir.N., v. 16 [18] ; further ancient material has been handed down by the Byzantine G. 
Syncellus, Ehloge Chronographias, ed. Dindorff, i. 558 ff. For the coins of Alexander and the 
Phoenician cities, see Madden, Coins of the Jews, 1903 (1881), 33 ff. ; Eckhel, Doctr. Vet Num,, 
vol. iii. ; De Saulcy, Numismnatique de la Terre Sainte; Head, Hist. Num., 673 ff. Modern: 
Schtirer, Gesch., i., § 10 f. ; Schlatter, Zur Topogr. und Gesch. Paldstinas 13, 48 f., and Gesch. 
Israels von Alexander, &c., 13-15; Bevan, Jerusalem under the High Priests (Lond., 1904); G. A. 
Smith, Jerusalem, i. 409 f., ii. 458-463. 

This period in Syria may be called that of the ''Tyrants," men of both Greek and Semitic race, who took 
advantage of the weakness of the Ptolemies and Seleucids to usurp domains varying from a single town and 
its surroundings and two or three towns, to territories of a considerable size. The number of autonomous 
cities was thus reduced. 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xxiii 

Alexander, succeeding to Idumsea, Judsea, Samaria, S. Galilee, and part of the Maritime Plain, brought 
under his sway, in the course of several campaigns, more of Palestine than any Israelite prince since Solomon. 
Towards the close of his life in 78, his power was more or less established over the bulk of this territory, and it 
seems to have been retained by his widow, the first Israelite queen since Athaliah, during the nine years of 
her reign. Yet it is uncertain how firmly the subjects of his conquests were held by him or by her. I have 
included with some hesitation the part of Moabitis, S. of Arnon. Yet Josephus appears reliable in his state- 
ments that Alexander took Kabbath-Moab, and Zoara, along with Alousa in S.W. Palestine, from the Naba- 
teans, who, however, about the same time extended their supremacy as far N. as Damascus (c. 85), but held 
this only for a short interval, for it was autonomous again in 70-69. Zeno Cotylas, a tyrant, held Rabbath- 
Ammon and adjacent territory against both Alexander and the Nabateans. Josephus extends Alexander's 
conquests to Rhinokoroura (beyond this map), and on the west Askalon (independent since 104) alone preserved 
its freedom, for Gaza fell to Alexander in 96, and for a time at least he held Strato's Tower and Dora, the 
domains of another tyrant, Zoilus. Josephus also assigns to him Carmel, but he held this probably only 
while he was besieging Ptolemais. This city had but intervals of autonomy during the period, but Tyre and 
Sidon, autonomous since 126 and 111 respectively, retained their freedom. Strabo says that Beyrut and 
Byblus (which for a time before Pompey's arrival had a tyrant of its own, Cinyrus) suffered from Ptolemy, 
son of Mennseus (85-40), a tyrant with effective power as chief of an Itursean confederacy over the Beka', Anti- 
Lebanon as far as Abila (thus threatening Damascus) and S. into N. Galilee, along with a great hold on the 
W. at Botrys and Theoprosoupon. Chalcis was his capital. E. of Jordan the extent of Alexander's conquests 
northwards is uncertain. Seleucia and Gamala, said by Josephus to have been taken by him, are, with most 
authorities, placed in Gaulanitis, over which Itursean influence extended somewhat. But Holscher identifies 
Seleucia with the southern Abila, E. of Gadara, and Gamala with Philoteria, an unknown site on the Lake of 
Galilee, given along with Abila and Hippos by Syncellus. 

The map shows the kingdom claimed for Alexander in its fullest extent. He never can have held it all 
at once, and many of its outlying portions he held only for a short time. 

40. PALESTINE AFTER POMPEY'S RE-ARRANGEMENT. 63-48 B.C. 

Authorities. — Ancient : Josephus, i Wars, vii.-ix. ; xiv Antt., ii.-vi. ; Strabo, Geog., xvi. 15 ff. ; Pliny, H.N., v. 16 
[18] ; Dion Cassius, xxxvii. ; Appian, Syr,, 1., li., Mithr., xvii. Modern: Stark, Gaza u. die Philistdische 
Knste (1852), 503 ff. ; Marquardt, Bomische Staatsverwaltung (ed. 1873), i. 234, 248; Schtirer, Gesch. 
des Judisch. Vollces (3rd ed.), §§ 12 f., with App. I. and II., and § 23 ; Schlatter, Gesch. Isr. von Alex, 
dem Grossen (1900), 16 f. ; G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., 538-547, &c.; Jerusalem, i. 411, ii. 388, and E.B. 
art. '' Decapolis''; Holscher, Pal. in der Pers. u, Hellen. Zeit, 95 ff. ; Z,D.P,V., iv. 245 f. 

The previous map illustrates the period of the " Tyrants " ; this, the limitation of their powers and the 
recovery of the Free Cities under Rome. 

In the spring of 63 B.C. Pompey marched S. by Lysias, near Apamea, Heliopolis, and Chalcis to Damascus 
(xiv Antt., iii. 2, amended by Niese, vol. iii. p. xxii.), executing on the way the tyrants of Tripoli and Byblus, 
but he left Ptolemy Menna^i (see previous map) to his Itursean dominions with reduced authority. Having 
received the rival Jewish princes Hyrkanus and Aristobulus, with representatives of their people, he set out 
against the Nabatseans, but learning that Aristobulus was preparing at Alexandrium (Kurn-Surtubeh) to resist 
the Roman decision if adverse to himself, Pompey turned by Pella, Scythopolis, and Korea (Tell el Mazar, 
above W. Kurawa el-Mas'udy) into Judaea, and, securing a base of supplies at Jericho, besieged and took 
Jerusalem. 

The whole of Syria, from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt (W. el 'Arish), was taken for Rome, and 
organised in such diflferent relations to her authority as were suitable to the various nationalities and their 
politics and histories prior to the conquests of Alexander Jannseus. The Province of Syria was constituted, 
including at first all " Upper Syria " — as far S. as the Lebanons — and the coast land of Palestine — both Phoenicia 
and Philistia, all of it for the first time under the former of these names — as far S. as Raphia. The cities 
released from the tyrants were declared " free," with an '' aristocratic '* constitution (Josephus), and rights of 
coinage, asylum, and property in the surrounding districts, but liable to military service and fiscally subject 
to the province. The relations of Tyre and Sidon to the province may have differed from those of the others, 
for, like Askalon, they had preserved their autonomy. Similar freedom within the province was granted to the 
Greek cities of Ccele-Syria, which term, proper to the valley between the Lebanons, now (and perhaps from an 
earlier time) covered the interior of the country southwards on both sides of the Jordan. 

Soon after this some of these cities formed, in defence against their Semitic neighbours, the league known 
from its original number as Decapolis : — Scythopohs (the only one W. of Jordan, unless, as Marquardt and 
Holscher think, Samaria was included later), Pella, Gadara, and Hippos; Dion, Gerasa, Philadelphia, Raphana 
(unknown), Kanatha, and Damascus later. Other eight were added : Abila, Kanata, Kapitolias, and some of 
the frontier Semitic towns, incorporated in the Empire in 106 B.C. 

The Nabata^ans, again withdrawn from Damascus, had already recovered part of Moabitis from the Jews, 
including all S. of the Arnon, and Alousa, W. of the Dead Sea. 

Idumsea, abandoned to the Nabatseans by Hyrkanus II, appears to have been under the Idumsean Anti- 
pater, whose father (of the same name) had been appointed its governor by Jannseus. Its two chief towns, 
Adora and Marissa, were declared free. 

To Hyrkanus II, with the titles of Ethnarch and High Priest, there were left only the Jewish territories 
of Judsea proper, Galilee and Peraea, but in fiscal subjection to the province. The S. border of Judaea is un- 
certain : the map marks it N. of Adora, but possibly it ought to run S. of that town. In 57 Gabinius deprived 



y 

xxiv Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

Hyrkanus of his civil powers, and divided the country into five Synedria or Synodoi, with separate jurisdic- 
tions and their centres at Jerusalem, Gadara (? Gezer), Amathus, Jericho, and Sepphoris, Antipater being the 
Epimeletes or fiscal superintendent of the whole. In 47 Csesar restored to Hyrkanus the title of Ethnarch, 
and made Antipater Epitropos or Procurator of Judaea in the larger sense, i.e. the above three districts along 
with Idumsea. 

All the above names are on the map. Unknown are the positions of Hyrkanium (taken by Gabinius), 
Thrax and Taurus (forts in the passes leading to Jericho, taken by Pompey), Arethusa (in Phihstia ?), and 
Gaba. 

41. PALESTINE UNDER MARK ANTONY, c. 42-31 B.C. 

Authorities — Ancient : Josephus, i Wars, x.-xix., xiv Antt, xv Antt, i.-v. ; Strabo, Geog., xvi. ; Dion 
Cassius, xlix. flf. For Coins, see notes to Maps 39, 40. Modern: Marquardt, Romische Staats- 
verwaltnng, i. 242 ff. ; Schiirer, Gesch, des Jud. Volhes, § 15 and App. I. f. ; with other works cited 
for Maps 39, 40. 

While Maps 39, 40 illustrate a period of " tyrants " suppressing the free cities, and a period in which the 
''tyrants" were curbed and the free cities restored by the arms of Rome, the next two Maps, 41 and 42, 
show how one great "tyrant,'' Herod, combined the rival interests and established a large kingdom by 
the use both of the Hellenic spirit and the power of the Roman Empire. 

About 47, Antipater, Procurator of all Judsea (see notes to Map 40), appointed his eldest son, Phasael, 
military governor (strategos) of Jerusalem, and Herod, his second, '' with equal authority " in Galilee. 
During the war of Octavian and Antony against Cassius and Brutus, Antony appointed Herod fiscal 
superintendent (epimeletes) of "all Syria." Cassius (Legate 44-42) had "set up" tyrants all over Syria, 
including Marion over the Tyrians. After the battle of Philippi, Antony came to Syria, which, except 
for the Parthian invasion, remained his till 31. He made Herod and Phasael Tetrarchs, a title which 
had lost its original meaning — "rulers of fourth-parts" — and was applied generally to dynasts below the 
rank of kings, " Quarterlings." In 40, Lysanias succeeded Ptolemy Mennsei over the Ituraean confederacy. 
With his help and that of the Parthians who conquered all Syria, Palestine* and Phoenicia (except Tyre), 
Antigonus, son of Aristobulus II, seized Jerusalem. Herod, with his forces, withdrew to Oressa (so rightly 
Schlatter, for Thressa of xiv Antt., xiii. 9, or Ressa, xv. 2\ and, while the Parthians destroyed Marissa, 
put his family in Masada with a few troops, disbanded the rest, and fled by Petra and Egypt to Rome ; 
where Antony had him declared by the Senate King of the Jews (of Idumaaans and Samarians, Appian). 
Ventidius having driven out the Parthians in 39, Herod landed at Ptolemais, collected an army, took 
Joppa, and brought his adherents in Masada and Oressa N. to Samaria, and after further campaigns in 
Idumsea and Galilee, visited Antony at Antioch. Hearing of revolts against his party — the Romans 
apparently held only Samaria and Gittha — Herod returned, and with two legions under Sosius subdued 
Galilee, won a battle at Isanas, N.W. of Bethel, and took Jerusalem, 37 B.C., slaying Antigonus, and so 
becoming king de facto as well as de jure (" Antony then turned them over to a certain Herod to rule," 
Dion Cass.). In 34, Antony gave Cleopatra the Phoenician coast, except Tyre and Sidon, parts of the 
Nabatsean and Itursean domains, and Jericho, which last two she leased to Herod. In 32, he was sent by 
Antony against the Kabatseans, and defeated them at Diospolis or Dioupolis, near Kanatha, probably the 
present Suleim (as, in the Ghronogr. of Joh. Malala, Salamine, a city of Palestine, is said to have been called 
Diospolis by Augustus), was routed by them near Kanatha and at Ormiza (unknown), but vanquished 
them at Philadelphia. He seized Heshbon and Medeba, but the Arnon remained the Nabatsean frontier. 

42. PALESTINE UNDER HEROD THE GREAT. 31-4 B.C. 

Authorities — Ancient: Josephus, i Wars, xx.-xxiii. ; XY-xvii Antt; Strabo, (?6ogr., xvi.; Dion Cassius, 
l.-liv. ; for Coins, see notes on Maps 39, 40. Modern : As in notes to previous maps, and G. A. 
Smith, Jerusalem, ii., chs. xvii., xviii. 

In 32, Octavian defeated Antony at Actium, and Herod, having made his peace with the victor, was 
confirmed as king, and had Jericho restored to him, along with Gadara, Samaria, Gaza, Anthedon (rebuilt 
as Agrippias or Agrippeion, in order to control with Gaza the Nabatsean trade), Joppa, Straton's Tower, 
and probably Ashdod and Jamnia, while Askalon and Dora remained free. In 27 he rebuilt Samaria 
under the name Sebaste, and in 25 began at Straton's Tower the harbour and town which he named 
Caesarea. Sebaste and Csesarea illustrate the fresh, westward exposure of Judaea towards Kome. In 23, 
Augustus gave Herod Trachonitis and Batanaea, and then, or in 20, the domains of Zenodorus (on all of 
which see H.G.H.L. through the index, and for Zenodorus, Schiirer, App. I.). His brother Pheroras 
became Tetrarch of Peraea. In 9 B.C. Herod subdued the Arabs of Trachonitis at Kaepta (unknown), 
garrisoned the district, built for a Babylonian Jew, Zamaris, fortresses in Batanaea, and a village, Bathyra 
(perhaps Busr el-Hariri, on the border of the Trachon or Leja), thus subduing and in part civilising the 
whole region. At Seia, now Si' a, he rebuilt a Nabataean temple, in which the earliest Greek inscription extant 
in the region records the erection of his statue. But disorder soon revived. In 4 B.C., after a vain attempt 
at a cure in the waters of Callirrhoe in Moab (W. Zerka Ma'in, P.E.F.Q., 1905, 170, 219), Herod died. 
His other buildings were the fortress of Alexandrium (K!urn-Surtubeh), Herodium, near Jerusalem, Masada, 
Machaerus, Hyrkania (unknown), and another Herodium (identified by Schlatter with Machaerus). He also 
strengthened Heshbon in Peraea, and Gaba in Esdraelon, rebuilt Kephar Saba under the name Antipatris ; 
and founded in the Jordan valley Phasaelis, now Fusa'il. 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xxv 



43. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST: OR FROM THE DEATH OF 
HEROD THE GREAT. 4 B.C.-37 A.D. 

Authorities.— Ancient : The Gospels and the Book of Acts; Josephiis, xvii Antt., viii to xyiu Antt, vii.; 
I Wars, xxxjii. to ii Wars, xi. ; Pomponius Mela, Be Situ Orbis, i. 10-12 : Strabo, Geogr., xvi. 2 ; Pliny, 
H.JSf., V. 13-19, vi. 32; Ptolemy, Geogr., v. 15-17, with Tabula Asi^ iv. Later: Eusebius and 
Jerome, Onomasticon (ed. Larsow and Parthey, 1862 ; cf. Lagarde's Onomastiea Saera, 1887), and the 
Madaba Map in Mosaic. For the Coins, see the works quoted on Palestine in Maccabean times. 
Inscriptions : Le Bas and Waddington, Inscriptions Grecques et Latines recneillies en Grece et en Asie 
Mineure ; W. Ewing in the P.E.F.Q., 1895 ; Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, pars ii., torn. i. Modern : 
Schiirer, Gesch des Judischen Volkes, etc. (3rd ed.), 16, 17 (see his lists of authorities); Keim, Jesus of 
Nazara (Engl, transl.); Hausrath, N.T. Times (Engl. transL); Merrill, Galilee in the Time of Christ 
(3rd ed.); Henderson, Palestine; Schlatter, Zur Topogr. u. Gesch. Faldstinas; G. A. Smith, Histor. 
Geogr. of the Holy Land, Jerusalem, ii. ch. xx.. Biblical World, 1900, 436 ff., ''The Home of our 
Lord's Childhood ";.W. R. Ramsay, The Education of ' Christ (1902); Furrer, Zeitschrift f. die N.T. 
Wissenschaft, 1902; "Verkehrs Wege u. Ansiedlungen Galilaas," by Dr. V. S. Schwobel, Z.B.P.V., 
xxvii. (1904); "Die Ortschaften u. Grenzen Galilaas nach Josephus," by W. Oehler, Z.B.P.V., xxviii. 
(1905); W. Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels (Oxf., 1903); G. A. Smith, Jerus., ii., ch. xx. ; E. W. G. 
Masterman, Studies in Galilee (Chicago, 1909). 

Herod's will divided his kingdom among his sons. Archelaus was to succeed him as king, Antipas to receive 
Galilee and Persea, and Philip Trachonitis and neighbouring provinces E. of the Lake of Galilee. With 
modifications, this was confirmed by Augustus. 

Tetrarchy of Archelaus. — Archelaus, with the title not of King but of Ethnarch, received Idumsea, 
Judsga and Samaria, with Caesarea, Joppa, and Jerusalem. Gaza (with Gadara and Hippos) was put under the 
Province of Syria ; and Salome, Herod's sister, received Jamnia, Ashdod, and the palace of Askalon, which in 
10 A.D. she left to the wife of Augustus. In the same year Archelaus was banished to Gaul. By irrigating 
"the Plain" with water from the village of Neara, he raised a plantation of palms and built a village called 
Archelais. The site is uncertain, but probably the same as Naaratha of the Onomasticon, 5 r.m. from 
Jericho (see further H.G.H.L., 354 n. 1). His country was brought directly under the Province of Syria, but 
with a special Procurator (eV/rpoTro? ; Jos. eVap;^©? and rjyeficop] N.T. '^yei^cov); Josephus calls it iirapx^a, and 
Tacitus {Ann., ii. 32) provincia. The capital was Csesarea (Tac, ii. 78), but at the Feasts the Procurator went 
up to Jerusalem, where his Praetorium was the Palace of Herod (Jerus., ii. 573 ff.)^ for the Prsetorium in 
Csesarea, see Acts xxiii. 35. The province was for fiscal purposes divided into toparchies. Josephus gives eleven 
— Jerusalem, Gophna, Akrabatta, Thamna, Lydda, Ammaus, Pella, Idumsea, Engaddi, Herodeion, Jericho. Pliny 
{R.N., V. 14) gives ten— Jericho, Emmaus, Lydda, Joppa, Acrabatena, Gophna, Thamna, Betholeptephene, Orina 
and Herodium. Orina, in which was Jerusalem, is doubtless the same as the toparchy Jerusalem of Josephus. 
For the Pella of Josephus (Pella being outside of Judsea) substitute Pliny's Betholeptephene, which Josephus 
himself (iv Wars, viii. 1, Niese's reading) gives as a toparchy, Bethleptenphon, perhaps the present Bet-nettif. 
Schiirer calls Pliny's addition of Joppa erroneous, on the ground that Joppa was not properly a Judsean town 
(p. 182), yet elsewhere he says that it remained constantly united with Judaea proper; and we have seen it 
included with Caesarea in Archelaus' ethnarchy. Joppa had been distinctively Jewish since the Maccabees ; 
Caesarea was very Roman (see H.G.H.L., 136-142). 

The limits of Idum^a, Jud^a, and Samaria have already been described in connection with other Maps. 
Here it need only be said that Josephus states that the maritime parts of Judaea extended to Ptolemais, i.e. to 
the borders of the territory of that city which probably included Carmel {E. Bib., col. 3972). But Dora remained 
under the province of Syria, and the border of Judaea ran between it and Caesarea. The N. border of Samaria 
is set by Josephus at Ginae, modern Jenin ; it ran therefore along or near the S. edge of Esdraelon. The S. 
border Josephus fixes at the Akrabatta toparchy, and again at Anuath or Borkeos, perhaps the modern Burkit ; 
it ran therefore along the natural line of the W. Ishar. Jewish pilgrims from Galilee to Judaea had thus to 
traverse some 23 miles of Samaria. 

Tetrarchy of Herod Antipas ; Galilee and Per^a. — For the limits of Galilee and its divisions, see 
H.G.H.L., ch. XX., 415 ff., and art. '' Ptolemais," § 9, E. Bib., col. 3971 f., and Oehler, Z.B.P.V., xxviii., 49 ff. The 
most southerly town was Xaloth (modern Iksal), on N. edge of the " Plain " (iii Wars, iii. 1), which may have 
been divided between Samaria and Galilee, With the territory of Scythopolis running well up into it from the E. 
The border ran W., S. of la^a, modern Yafa, a Galilean village (Jos., Vita, 45), and Simonias, '' on the confines of 
Galilee" {id., 24), the modern Semuniyeh, but N. of Gabaa, which belonged to Carmel (iii Wars, iii. 1), hardly 
therefore Jebata, but possibly Sheikh Abreik (Oehler), and Besara ''in the confines of Ptolemais" [Vit., 24), 
now unknown. The W. border of S. Galilee ran N. to the W. of Chaboulon (iii Wars, iii. 1) or Cabul and Gabara 
(i Wars, xviii. 9), modern Kabra, E. from Ptolemais, and so along or near the edge of the hills, about 60 stadia 
E. of Ptolemais (ii Wars, x. 2). The W. border of Upper Galilee is not so certain. It must have run much 
farther E. than that of Lower Galilee : a natural line would be the watershed from the E. of Rameh, by Beit 
Jenn, then across the Jebel Jermak and by the Jebel ' Adathir, W. of Sasa. It is also only on the E. of this line 
that we find Jewish towns of Upper Galilee mentioned by Josephus, Gischala (el Jish) and Meroth (the border 
town according to in Wars, iii. 1), if that be the modern Meiron with many Jewish remains. But Meiron is 
too far E. to be the border town. Kefr Birim, farther N. on the watershed, has the remains of two syna- 
gogues, very like those of Meiron {P.E.F. Mem., i. 252 ff.), and at it, according to Renan {Mission en Phenicie, 

d 



V 
xxvi Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

p. 772), the Jewish or Galilean region commences in the most unmistakable manner. Perhaps, then, the 
W. border of Galilee (though the date of these Jewish remains is doubtful) ran in the first Christian century 
as far N. as Kefr Birim or even Yarun. The N. border was S. of Kadesh, which was Tyrian. Baka is set 
on the N. border, but is unknown (iii Wars, iii. 1). The E. border was the Jordan. Whether the jurisdiction 
of Antipas covered the E. coast of the Lake of Galilee (as the name Galilee did later) is uncertain and impro- 
bable. Philip's jurisdiction, we know, came S. to at least Bethsaida-Julias, and Hippos and probably Gamala 
were Greek. 

Galilee was separated by an uncertain size of Decapolitan territory from Per^a. Josephus extends 
Persea from Pella to Machserus, just S. of the W. Zerka Ma'in (probably the frontier was the W. Waleh or W. 
Mojib, the Arnon), and from Philadelphia {i.e. the territory of that town) to the Jordan. 

Antipas founded Tiberias between 20 and 26 A.D., and probably between 20 and 22 {H.G.H.L., 448, n. 2) 
made it his capital in place of Sepphoris. In Persea he fortified Betharamptha, the O.T. Beth-haram or 
-haran, and called it Julias, after the wife of Augustus. Euseb. and Jer. call it Livias, the Empress' own name 
being Livia. It is the modern Tell er-Ram. Antipas was deposed by Caligula in 39 a.d., and his tetrarchy 
given to Agrippa. 

Tetrarchy of Philip : Trachonitis, &c. — Philip, BtC. 4-a.d. 34, received Paneas, Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, 
Batana3a, and Auranitis, with a certain part of the domain of Zenodorus about Ivvavco, i.e, the Ina of Ptolemy, 
(modern Hine), just S. of Kefr Hawar. This tetrarchy extended from Mt. Hermon and the sources of Jordan to 
the Lake of Tiberias, and from an unknown village Arpha to Bethsaida-Julias and the Jordan. The S. border 
ran S. of Hebran and Kanatha, but N. of Bosra and Salkhad, which were Nabatsean (H.Q.KL., pp. 540 f., 617, 
619, 621). The domain of Zenodorus lay between Trachon and Galilee, and contained Ulatha and Paneas; on 
the map it is extended N. so as to include Ina. Gaulanitis lay to the S. of Zenodorus' domain along the Jordan 
and the lake, practically the modern Jaulan less the territory of Hippos. Auranitis was the great plain, 
Hauran, E. of Gaulanitis, with an extension S. Batanaea was an elastic name, sometimes stretched over all the 
region N. of the Yarmuk, sometimes limited to the toparchy called Batansea (bounded by the Trachonitis) prob- 
ably the modern en-Nukra between the Leja to N.E. and Gilead to the S.W. Trachonitis was the country of 
the two Trachons (Strabo, xvi. 2, 20), the great stretches of lava to the S.E. and S. of Damascus, of which the 
more southerly was the Trachon. Properly Trachonitis consisted of this plus the territory to the N.W. towards 
the domains of Zenodorus. Philo applies the name to the whole tetrarchy of Philip (Legat ad Gajum, 41). 
Luke iii. 1 describes Philip's tetrarchy as tt}? 'Iroupa/a? Kal T/)a;^G)z^mSo9 %o)/oa9, which (since there is no known 
instance of the use of 'Irovpaia as a noun before the fourth century) should be translated the region Iturcean 
and of Trachonitis. For details see H.G.H.L., ch. xxv. pp. 5i0-547, 554. Philip built two towns. Paneas 
{H.G.H.L., 474) he embellished, giving it the name of Caesarea, to which common use added his own C. Philippi, 
to distinguish it from his father's on the sea coast. Bethsaida he also rebuilt, calling it Julias after the 
daughter of Augustus. Philip died in 34 B.C., and his tetrarchy was incorporated in the province of Syria. 
In 37, Caligula gave it to Agrippa. 

Abilene, the tetrarchy of Lysanias (Luke iii. 1) lay N. of Philip's, on the upper Abana (modern Barada), 
and in the Beka* was Chalcis. 

Damascus had been a semi-independent city under Syria, and a member of the Decapolis, with a large 
territory (G. A. Smith, ''Damascus," E. Bib., col. 992), but before Paul's visit to it (Acts ix.) it was under an 
ethnarch of Aretas (Harith), the Nabatsean king ; in Nero's reign, 53-68, it was again under Rome. 

The Decapolitan Region has already been described in connection with Map 40. 

Arabia was the name applied in N.T. times to everything E. and S.'of the tetrarchies of Philip and 
Antipas and the Decapolitan territories, but sometimes in common use may have included the E. portions of 
these. The personal names of the Iturjsans were Syrian; Vibius Sequester (ed. Hesse, Hi. 155) calls them 
Syrian, but they were sometimes called Arabs (Dion Cassius, lix. 12). The Nabat^eans, though speaking 
Aramasan, were Arabs (Appian, xii. 106, and frequently in Josephus). Their kingdom, in existence since 
100 B.C., had its capital at Petra. Two inscriptions by their strategi on the Arnon {G.I.S., par. ii., tom. i. 
183 ff.) are from about this time. They commanded the trade routes from Damascus to the Red Sea, and as 
far into Arabia as at least Hejra or Meda'in Salih (el-Hejr). Their trade passed to the Mediterranean through 
Gaza, Anthedon, and Pomponius Mela (i. 10) adds Azotus. Its range to the W. is indicated by three Nabatsean 
inscriptions at Rome and Puteoli from the first decade of the Christian era (G.I.S., p. ii., t. i. 157-159). 

On the names Syria, Ccele-Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine see notes on previous maps. 

Apart from place-names in the quotations from the O.T., the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles give some sixty- 
four geographical and topographical terms within Palestine, Phoenicia, Syria, and Arabia. These, where their 
sites are known, are marked on the map. For the others, the student is referred to Hastings' B.B., the E. Bib., 
Sanday's Sacred Sites of the Gospels, and G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, ii. chap. xx. 

44. PALESTINE UNDER AGRIPPA I. 37-44 A.D. 

AuTHOKiTiES — Ancient : Acts xii., 2 Cor. xi. 32 ; Josephus, ii Wars, ix~xi. ; xviii Antt., v.-viii. ; xix Antt, 
iv.-ix. ; Dion Cassius, lix. 12 ; Tacitus, Ann. xii. 23 ; Coins and Inscriptions as in previous notes. 
Modern: Marquardt, Rom. Staatsverwaltung, i. (1873), 252; Schiirer, Gesch., §§ 18, 23; G. A. Smith, 
H.G.H.L., 538-547, 619-621, Jerusalem, i. 427; Schlatter, Gesch. Isr., &c., 203-206. 

In 37 and 40 a.d., Herod Agrippa I, son of Aristobulus son of Herod the Great, received from Caligula 
the tetrarchies of Philip, Lysanias and Herod Antipas, with the title of king; and in 42, from Claudius, 
Judaea and Samaria, which he held till his death in 44, their administration by Procurators being interrupted 
for three years. His domains were thus virtually those of his grandfather. On the coast he held from 



Notes on Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xxvii 

Raphia, if not Rhinokoroura, to Csesarea, except Askalon, while -Joppa had possibly a free constitution. 
Dora he did not hold. In Ptolemais Claudius settled a colony of veterans. In Judaea and Samaria things 
were pretty much as under Herod (Shechem, e.gr., did not become Neapolis till under the Flavian dynasty). 
Scythopolis was independent, and so probably the rest of the Decapolis, including Hippos and Gadara 
which had been Herod's. Philadelphia, with Philadelphine, was independent in 44. Heshbon— Esebon 
or Esbus — with its. district Sabonitis, seems also to have been outside Persea. Probably Medaba and Libba 
were again Nabataean. In Hauran the S. frontier between Agrippa and the Nabatseans ran between Hebran 
and Bosra {H.O.H.L.y 621). On the E. his power reached Nela (Mushennef), where an inscription of his 
has been found. Compassing Jebel Hauran on the E., the Nabatseans extended to Damascus (2 Cor. xi. 32). 
Probably Agrippa's power was continuous from Galilee to Abilene, formerly the tetrarchy of Lysanias, yet 
Mt. Hermon rnay have been still held by Ituraeans. Herod, Agrippa's brother, held Chalcis with the title 
of king till his death in 48. To the N. was the Itursean kingdom of Soemus. 

45. PALESTINE UNDER ROMAN PROCURATORS. 6-41 and 44-70 A.D. 

Authorities — Ancient: Matthew xxii. 15-22, xxvii., xxviii. ; Mark xii. 13-17, xv.; Luke iii. 1, xx. 20-25, 
xxiii. ; John xviii. 28, xix. ; Acts xxi.-xxvi. ; Josephus, iii and iv Wars; relevant passages in Tacitus; 
Coins and Inscriptions as in previous notes. Modern : Marquardt, Schiirer, Smith, Schlatter as on Map 44. 

In 6 A.D., Judaea was taken from Archelaus, and placed by the Emperor in charge of a Procurator. The 
oflScial designation of this officer was Epitropos, for which the N.T. has, Hegemon, Governor ; but Josephus, 
£Jparchos=PrcefeGtus. The Procurators were under the Legate of the Province of Syria. The succession 
of them was interrupted from 42 to 44 A.D., during which years Judsoa was under Herod Agrippa I (see 
Map 44). On his death their administration was resumed. This map illustrates the political state of 
Palestine in their second period, 44-70 a.d. For their first period, 6-41 a.d., see Map 43. Under the 
Procurators the civil jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin was confined to Judaea proper, and did not include the 
right to inflict the capital penalty; but its religious authority extended to Jewish communities beyond, as 
we see from Acts ix. 1 f. 

46. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF AGRIPPA II. 48-70 A.D. 

Authorities — Ancient: Acts xxv., xxvi. ; Josephus, ii Wars, xi. 6, xii. 1, f., xiii. 2; xix Antt, ix. 2, 
xx Antt i. 3, V. 2, vii. 1, viii. 4 ; Coins and Inscriptions as in previous notes. Modern : As in previous 
notes. 

In 48 A.D., or possibly not till 50, Herod of Chalcis was succeeded by his nephew, Agrippa II, who in 53 
resigned the kingdom of Chalcis and received the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias, with the territory of 
Varus in the Ituraean parts of Anti-Lebanon and later from Nero a part of Galilee, including Tiberias and 
Tarichese, with the city of Julias. The region under Roman Procurators is the same as indicated on Map 45 ; 
only that the parts of it coloured red are those which constituted the areas of the Jewish and Idumsean 
revolt against Rome. 

47-48. PLANS OF JERUSALEM AT VARIOUS PERIODS 

AND 
49-50. PLAN OF MODERN JERUSALEM 

For these, see G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, &c., vols. i. and ii., and various authorities cited there. 

51. ST. PAUL'S TRAVELS 

Authorities. — Ancient: The Book of the Acts of the Apostles; Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, i. 15 ff. ; and 
references in other of his Epistles; cp. the ancient authorities cited for Maps 19, 42, 52. Modern: 
Sir W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, St Paul the Traveller, etc, and other 
volumes, also art. "Roads and Travel in the N.T.'' in the extra volume of Hastings' D.B. ; J. Smith 
of Jordanhill, Voyage and Shipwreck of St Paul (4th ed., 1880); Bp. Lightfoot, The Epistle to the 
Galatians (1865, 10th ed., 1880); J. Stalker, Life of Paul in Handbooks for Bible Glasses (Edin., 
1884); G. G. Findlay, art. "Paul the Apostle," in Hastings' D.B., vol. iii.; J. Moffatt, The Historical 
N.T. (Edin., 1901); C. A. T. Skeel, Travel in the First Century after Christ (Camb., 1901). 

The four apostolic journeys of St. Paul were as follows : — 

1. Acts xiii. 4-xiv. 26, from Antioch of Syria by Seleucia to Cyprus at Salamis, thence across the island 
to Paphos, thence by sea to Attalia for Perga in Pamphylia, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, and 
back by Lystra, Iconium, Antioch, Perga, and Attalia, whence by sea to Seleucia and Antioch of Syria. 

2. Acts XV. 36-xviii. 32, with Silas, from Antioch of Syria through Syria and Cilicia to Derbe and Lystra, 
"through the cities" (xvi. 4), the Phrygian region of Galatia, when, being forbidden to speak in Asia, he came 
over against Mysia, and having essayed Bithynia, and passing by Mysia, he descended to Troas ; thence by 
Samothrace to Neapolis, Philippi, Amphipolis, ApoUonia, Thessalonica, Bercea, Athens, Cenchrea, and across 
to Ephesus; thence by sea to Csesarea of Palestine, Jerusalem, and Antioch in Syria — 49-52 a.d. The red line 
of this journey in the Map is interrupted between Pisidia and the valley of the Rhyndacus, down which Paul 



xxviii Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

probably came towards Troas, because during the interval his course is quite uncertain, and authorities greatly 
differ as to its probable direction, some taking him as far round as Ancyra in N. Galatia, others bringing him 
either directly or by Dorylaion, to the Rhyndacus. 

3. Acts xviii. 22, xix. 1-xxi. 17 (2 Cor. ii. 12 ? etc.), from the Syrian Antioch, through the Galatian region 
and Phrygia and the upper coasts to Ephesus, where he stayed for two years, thence (by land ?) to Troas and 
across to Macedonia and those parts (? Achaia, lUyricum — see Moffatt) to Corinth ; thence back through 
Macedonia and over the sea by Troas, Mitylene, Chios, and Samos to Trogyllium, Miletus (whence he sent 
to Ephesus), Cos (or Coos), Rhodes, Patara, Tyre, Ptolemais, CsBsarea, Jerusalem — 52-56 a.d. 

4. Acts xxvii., xxviii., voyage in a ship of Adramyttium from Csesarea, Sidon, and under Cyprus over 
the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia to Myra of Lycia; thence in a ship of Alexandria till they came over against 
Cnidus, and thence under Crete past Salmone to the Fair Havens near Lasea; thence in a tempest to the 
wreck of the ship off Melita; thence, after three months, in another ship of Alexandria, by Syracuse and 
Rhegium to Puteoli ; and so by Appii Forum and the Three Taverns to Rome. 



52. ASIA MINOR-OROGRAPHICAL 

Showing Positions of the Seven Churches 

Authorities. — Ancient: The Booh of the Acts of the Apostles; The Apocalypse {Revelation) of St. John the 
Divine, chs. i, — iii. Modern: the works cited for Map 51, and in addition Sir W. M. Ramsay, The 
Church in the Roman Empire (Lond., 1893), Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia (Lond., 1895-7), The 
Letters to the Seven Churches (Lond., 19Q5) ; for the natural features, see Ramsay's Hist Geog, of 
Asia Minor (1890) and D. G. Hogarth's The Nearer East. 



53. THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST UNDER TRAJAN, c. 110 A.D. 

Authorities. — Ancient: In the N.T. the Acts and Epistles; Dion Cassius, Ixviii. ; Letters of the Younger 
Pliny ; Roman Inscriptions of the period. Modern : Gibbon's Decline and Fall of tJie RoTnan Empire, 
ch. i. ; Stuart Jones, The Roman Ernpire (in The Story of the Nations series); Ramsay, The Church 
in the Roman Empire, Historical Commentary on Galatians (1895), section 15, and other works; 
Harnack, The Expansion of Christianity. 

In addition to the regions coloured as representing the expansion of Christianity, it must be kept in mind 
that Christian communities already existed at such centres as Athens, Corinth, and Rome, and that there was 
a Christian Diaspora throughout many other regions (cp. 1 Peter i.); but to colour these as Christian would 
give an exaggerated idea of the extension of the new faith. 

53a. THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST UNDER CONSTANTINE. 

Authorities. — Ancient : The Ecclesiastical Historians who report on this period ; the Notitia Dignitatum in 
Partibus *Orientis (ed. Booking, Fasciculi i. and ii.). Modern : Gibbon, chs. xv .-xviii. ; Stuart 
Jones, The Ronnan Empire (in the Story of the Nations), and the other works mentioned in the note to 
the previous map. 

The Christians suffered little persecution from the Imperial authorities between the time of Marcus Aurelius 
and that of Decius, who in the middle of the third century cruelly oppressed them. When his persecution 
ceased in 260 a.d., the Church, fortified and fertilised by her period of martyrdom, began a time of rapid 
expansion. The conversion of Armenia took place towards the end of the third century. In 303 persecution 
broke out again under Diocletian, but in 311 Constantine adopted Christianity, and in 325 presided at the 
Council of Nicaea. It was, however, under Theodosius (378-395) that orthodox Christianity triumphed and 
the final divorce took place between the Empire and Paganism. 

54. PALESTINE IN THE FOURTH CENTURY ACCORDING TO EUSEBIUS 

AND JEROME. 

AcTHORiTiES. — Ancient: Eusebius and Jerome, theiv Onomastika — (1) Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, JJepi roov 
TOTTiKoov ovoiJLaTwv Tcov €v T^ Qela ypacf)^, c. 330 A.D. ; (2) Hieronymus (Jerome), De Situ et Nominibus 
Locorum Divince Scripturce, c. 390 a.d. The Greek versions of the O.T. assist both in determining 
some sites, and in fixing the spelling of many of the names given by Eusebius, who used probably 
Origen's Hexaplar and Josephus. The mosaic map of Madaba is largely based on Eusebius, and 
affords material for the determination of sites and lines of communication. Procopius of Gaza, On 
Justinian's Buildings, has also been used by Klostermann (see below). Modern : The Onomastika of 
Eusebius and Jerome are printed in parallel pages in F. Larsow and G. Parthey's Eus. Onom. cum latino 
Hieron. interpretatione (Berlin, 1862), and are given separately with other materials in P. de Lagarde's 



^ 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xxix 

Onomastica Sacra (alterwm edita) (Gott., 1887); E. Klostermann, Das Onom. der Bihl, Ortsnamen in 
vol. iii. of Eusebius' works (Leipzig, 1904); C. R. Conder, ^'The Onom." in P.E.F.Q., 1896, pp. 229-245 ; 
P. Thomson, ^'Palastina nach dem Onom. des Eus." in Z.D.P.V,, 1903, pp. 97-188, with map (cp. W. 
Kubitschek, Jahreshefte des osterreich. archdol. Inst (1905) ; A. Schulten, Lie Mosaikkarte von Madaba, 
&G., with reproductions (Berlin, 1900); W. Kubitschek, Die Mosaikkarte Paldstinas (reprint from the 
Mitth. d. kJc. Geogr. Gesellsehaft, Vienna, 1900). 

The civitates marked on the map are those called by Eusebius iroXei^, or in fewer cases TroXiyvm ; the other 
sites are those he describes as Kcofxai^ villages, Jer. vici. Eusebius and Jerome not infrequently differ in their 
locations of sites; the Map follows in each case the more probable alternative, with modifications suggested by 
Biblical and other evidence. Jerome, knowing the land better, is often the more correct {e.g. in the distance of 
Chorazin from Capernaum). The Map follows mainly Jerome's spelling of the names {e.g. Sichar for Eusebius' 
Suchar, Modeim for Eusebius' Modeeim). Some emendations of the spelling suggested by Klostermann and 
Thomson have been adopted. Some duplicate names have been omitted for want of space. Thus Jerome's 
Stagnum Gennezar or Genesareth=^ Vevrja-aplrL^ Xljuvrj of Eusebius, is also called Stagnum Tyheriadis= 
ri \lixvy] Ti^epidSog, and the Mare Salinarum sive Mortuum=Qa\a(rcra ^ aKvKrj^rj KaXovjuLevr] i/e/c^oa of Eusebius, 
is also called Mare Asphalti id est hitu7ninis=' Aa-cpaXrlTL's. (On this Map J has to be pronounced /, G 
corresponds to the Greek K, and ch to X). Eusebius calls the whole land from the border of Phoenicia 
(sweeping by Carmel inland and then N. to Dan) to the border of Egypt ^ \laXaL(TTivri (Jer. Palsestina, extend- 
ing it even to Ailath on the Gulf of 'Akabah). But both often use Judsea of the land from Dan to Beersheba, 
sometimes dividing it from Arabia on the E. by the Lake of Tiberias and the Jordan, and again giving the 
frontier as far E. as Arbela, while the S. border is fixed at Arad. The larger divisions marked on the map — 
on the E. Golan, Batanaia, Decapolis, Persea, Araboth Moab, Arnonas ; on the W. Galilee, Saron, Acrabittene, 
Thamnitica, Sephela, Daroma — are given both by Eusebius and Jerome ; the latter alone adds Guphnensis. 
They are probably all popular names of the time — partly geographical, partly reflections of official political 
divisions in earlier centuries. Galilsea should come farther S. than on the Map— as far as Nazareth and 
Esdraelon. Idumsea (=:the O.T. Edom, to the E. of the 'Arabah, and called in Eusebius' time Gebalene), Ausitis, 
the Trachon and Trachonitis, Damascene and Itursea, all lie beyond the limits of our Map. Eusebius calls 
Esdraelon " The Great Plain" (so Josephus, but including the Jordan valley), sometimes with the addition '' of 
Legio" or "beside Mt. Thabor." The Jordan valley, from Lebanon to the S. of the Dead Sea, he calls ^Ae 
Aulon. 

Thomson's map gives a network of roads and lines of communication deduced from the data of Eusebius. 
Kubitschek' s strictures on this are hardly successful. 

55. PALESTINE AFTER THE PEUTINGER TABLES 

Authorities. — The two earliest editions known to the editor are : Fragmenta Tabulce antiquce in quis aliquot 
per Rom. provincias itinera, ex Pentingerorum bibliotheca, ed. etc. M. Velsero Matei F. Aug. Vind. 
(Venetiis, apud Aldum, 1591), and Tabula itineraria ex illustri Peutingeroru7)% bibliotheca quce 
Augustce Vindehorum est (Antwerp, Offic. Plantiniana, 1598). The present reproduction, that of 
Segment ix., is from the Tabula Militaris Itineraria, Theodosiana et Peutingeriana nuncupata 
(engraved from the Vindobensian edition of 1753), by Podocatharus Christianopulus (1793). The two 
most useful editions are those of Konrad Mannert, Tab. Itineraria Peutingeriana, with Introduction 
(Leipzig, 1824), and of Ernest Desjardins, La Table de Peutinger, with text (Paris, 1809 onwards). See 
further, Konrad Miller, Lie Weltkarte des Gastorius (Kavensburg, 1887-8); the lasted, of Th. Menke's 
Bibel-Atlas (Gotha); H. F. Tozer, A History of Ancient Geography (Camb., 1897), pp. 310-312; K. 
Rohricht in Z.L.P.V., xxi. (1898), p. 85 ; P. Thomson, " Untersuchungen zur alteren Palastinaliteratur," 
in Z.L.V.P., xxix. (1906), pp. 103, 117 ; C. A. J. Skeel, Travel in the First Century after Christ (Camb., 
1901), pp. 23 ff. 

This Table, now in the Imperial Library of Vienna, owes its present name to Conrad Peutinger of Augsburg, 
to whom it was bequeathed by Conrad Celtes, who discovered it in a monastery in 1507. It is the copy by a 
monk of Colmar in the thirteenth century of an earlier map of the eleventh or twelfth century, the original 
of which was probably compiled in the fourth century (about 366, says Rohricht) from earlier Roman Itineraria 
based on materials which Agrippa {d. 12 B.C.) seems to have been the first to collect. This history explains 
the presence in it of the data of many periods. In the main it is a military map of the Roman Empire, in the 
third and fourth centuries, the only surviving specimen of the Imperial "itineraria picta." (In his paper, 
cited above in the Z.L.P. V., xxix., P. Thomson gives a comparative table of the Palestine data in Ptolemy, the 
Tab. Pent., the Antonine Itinerary, and the anonymous map of Ravenna, and also a map of Palestine after the 
data of Ptolemy and the Notitia Lignitatum, which it will be useful for the student to compare with the 
details of the Peutinger Table.) But it contains some details from Christian and Jewish sources. 

The Tabula, 21 feet long by over a foot broad, extends from the S.E. coast of .Britain to the limit of 
Alexander the Great's march, and even to the mouth of the Ganges and Taprobane (Ceylon). As the com- 
piler's aim was to give the lines of roads throughout the Empire, with their stations and the distances between 
these, the shapes of lands and seas are even more distorted than upon the maps of modern American railway 
time-tables. The natural features (except rivers) are seldom traced ; the smaller towns are indicated by two 
or three houses, but a great one by a circuit of walls with towers ; and each watering-place by a tank sur- 
rounded by a bath-house. The Table is divided into xii. Segments, of which only the sixth, covering part 
of Asia Minor, with Rhodes and part of Cyprus, Palestine from Damascus and Abila, the Desert of the 



XXX Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

Wanderings, and the Delta, is reproduced here. Northern Syria (with Antioch) and the rest of Cyprus appear 
on Segment x. 

In the Note under the Title, for third century read fourth century, 

56. PALESTINE AFTER MARINUS SANUTUS, 1611 

Authorities. — Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos sive Orientalis Historia, Tomus Secundus : Liber Secretorum 
Fidelium Grucis auctor Marinus Sanutos (or Sanuto) dictus Torsellus de civitate Rivoalti . . . 
Patricius Venetus nunc primum cum libello ejusdem argumenti sine auctoris nomine ex M.S.S. 
veteribus editus (Hanovise, mdcxi), with Sanuto's Map of the World, Paraplus, or Map of the coasts 
of the Levant and the Sinai Peninsula, Map of Palestine, and Plans of Jerusalem and Acco(n) ; Pales- 
tine Pilgrims' Text Society, xxix. (1896), reproduces the Palestine Map, the Paraplus, and the Plan 
of Jerusalem ; R. Rohricht, " Marino Sanudo, sen., als Kartograph Palastineas," in Z.D.P.V,, xxi. (1898), 
pp. 84-126, with reproductions of all the maps and plans. 

Marino Sanuto, sen., a Patrician of Venice, visited the Holy Land five times, but for the preparation of his 
volume and maps probably drew besides on the results of the geographer Pietro Visconte of Genoa, who 
published Atlases between 1311 and 1318 (Jomard, Les Monuments de la Geographic, Paris, 1847, planche ix.). 
The importance of his work for us lies in this, that, as Rohricht says, it furnishes ''den Niederschlag des zeitge- 
massen kartographischen Wissens und Konnens." There are two codices in England, one in the British 
Museum, No. 27,376, and one at Oxford in the Bodleian, Cod. Tanneri, 196. For other codices see Rohricht, 
who states many of the differences of detail among them. In Bongar's edition of Sanuto s work, Liber 
Secretorum Fidelium Grucis, the portions relevant to the Map of Palestine, which is here reproduced, are 
contained on pp. 243-262, and entitled " Quartadecima Pars continet Locorum dispositionem, maxime Terrse 
Sanctse, habens capitula xii." 

We are ignorant of the principles or the data on which the map is divided into squares — said to be the 
earliest of its kind to be so. It extends from (Damascus, the Lebanons, and) Dan to Beersheba and the S. 
end of the Dead Sea, and from the Coast to the Arabian Desert. For further details of the coast and for the 
Peninsula of Sinai, Sanuto s other map, the Paraplus, should be consulted. 

57. SYRIA AND PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES AND THE 

LATIN KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM 

Authorities — Contemporary (and nearly so); Recueil des Historiens des Groisades (Paris, 1841 to the 
present date), containing both the Western and Eastern historians, of whom the following are the 
most valuable geographically: William of Tyre (1095-1184), Hist, Rerum. in partibus transmarinis 
Gestarum, &c. ; Geoffrey de Vinsauf, ItinerariuTn Regis Anglorum Richardii, &c. (1187-1193); 
Bernard le Tresorier, De Acquisitione Terrce Sanctce; also in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (1611); 
Vinsauf, Englished in Bohn's Chronicles of the Grusades, and in Palestine Pilgrims Text Society's 
Library; Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani mxcvii-mccxci, ed. by R. Rohricht (Innspruck, 1893), 
with an additamentum (1904); Ambroise, L'Estoire de la Guerre Sainte, a rhyming chronicle of 
the Third Crusade, with translation, glossary, and index of names (rich in geographical material), 
by Gaston Paris (Paris, 1897); Bohaeddin, Life of Saladin, with excerpts from the history of 
Abulfeda, edited, with a Latin translation, by A. Schultens (Leyden, 1732) ; Benjamin of Tudela s 
Travels, 1160-1173, Englished in Bohn's Early Travels in Palestine (1848), text and English by 
M. N. Adler in J.Q.R., 1905-6. Modern: Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chs. Iviii., lix. (in Bury's ed., 
with a map); Maundrell, Journey from, Aleppo to Jerusalem in 1697 (in Bohn's Early Travels)] 
E. Ray, Les Golonies Franques de Syrie, au xii^^ et xiii"^ Siecles (Paris, 1883); W. Heyd, Histoire 
d. Commerce d. Levant au Moyen Age (Leipzig, 1885-86), 2 vols., and Les Gonsulats etablis en 
Terre Sainte au Moyen Age, etc. (traduit par M. Furcy Raynaud) ; Prutz, Die Besitzungen des deutschen 
Ordens im Heiligen Lande (Leipzig, 1877), and "Die Besitz. des Johanniter Ordens in Palast. u. 
Syrien," in Z,D,P,V., 1881, pp. 157 ff.; Rohricht, Gesch. des Konigreichs Jerusalem, 1100-1291 
(Innspruck, 1898); W. B. Stevenson, The Grusades in the East (Cambridge, 1907), with maps. 

This Map presents the political divisions in Syria and Palestine during the period of the Crusades (1096- 
1291) — which includes that of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1097-1185) — with subdivisions, and the 
names of towns, castles, casales, and natural features. It is impossible, of course, to include the names of 
all the casales and estates into which Palestine was parcelled by the Crusaders, but the Map gives the 
most important, whether with regard to the history of the time or the modern task of identifying the 
ancient sites. The names are spelt as in the original documents given above (with some requisite emen- 
dations). Appended is a chronological table. It must be kept in mind that different authorities number 
the Crusades differently. "Together they form a continuous stream for the greater part of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. The numbering of a selected few obscures this fact. Only the First Crusade is 
rightly defined by the numeral attached. Similar expressions applied to the other Crusades should seldom 
or never be used " (Stevenson, p. 3). This is true at least beyond the third. Thereafter the numbers 
differ, as indicated by the brackets in the following : 

I. 1096-99, Peter the Hermit, Godfrey; 1098, Antioch taken; 1099, Kingdom of Jerusalem founded; 
1100, Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem; 1101, Stephen of Blois, the Wolf of Bavaria, &c., reached 



Notes to Maps, with Explanatory Bibliography xxxi 

the Halys River, and their hosts are scattered there; 1101, Baldwin takes Tripoli; 1118, 
Baldwin II, Order of Temple founded about this time; 1124, Tyre surrenders; 1131, Fulke 
of Anjou king; 1143, Baldwin III; 1146, Nureddin conquers Damascus and Edessa. 
II. 1147-49, Bernard, Louis VII, and Emperor Konrad III, Crusaders advance to Damascus; 1153, 
Baldwin III takes Acre, Askalon surrenders; 1162, Amalrich king; 1171, Saladin overthrows 
the Fatimite Khalifate of Egypt; 1173, Baldwin IV; 1183, Saladin conquers the most of 
Syria, but neither Tyre nor Tripoli; 1185, Baldwin V; 1186, Guy of Lusignan,*^ 1187, Saladin 
takes Jerusalem, after defeating Christians at Hattin. 

III. 1189-92, Gregory VIII, Friedrich Barbarossa, Eichard Lionheart, Philip Augustus of France; 

1189-91, Siege and capture of Acre; 1193, Saladin leaves the coast from Jafa to Acre to the 
Christians, Death of Saladin. 

IV. 1197-98, Innocent III, Heinrich VI, Conrad of Mainz. 

V. (IV according to some). 1202-4, Venice under the Doge Dandolo, the Latin occupation of Con- 
stantinople; 1212, the Children's Crusade. 
(V. according to some). 1218-21, Andrew of Hungary and Austrians ; fruitless expeditions from Acre 
to the sources of Jordan and Mt. Tabor ; expedition to Egypt ; Damietta taken and surrendered. 
VI. 1228-29, Friedrich II obtains by treaty the cession of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, Tibnin 

and Sidon to the Christians. 
VII. 1239-41, Richard of Cornwall ; 1244, the Charesmians devastate Palestine. 
VIII. (VI according to some). 1248-54, St. Louis of France, expedition to Egypt, Damietta taken and 
surrendered. 
IX. (VII according to some). Louis IX invades Tunis, English fleet under Edward I delivers Acre 
from siege, and returns. 
1271, Sultan Baibars takes Antioch, Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights of St. John (who had 
held it since 1180), and afterwards Montfort from the German Knights, 1287 Margat, and 
1289 Tripoli, Sidon, Tyre, Jaffa, &c. ; 1291, his son. Sultan El-Ashraf, takes Acre and then 
'Athlit, the last Christian stronghold held by the Templars. 

58. EUROPE TO ILLUSTRATE THE CRUSADES 

Authorities. — See Notes to previous Map. 
The different lines mark the advance of the Firs t and Third^ Crusades. 

58a. EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY 

Authorities.— See Notes to Maps 53 and 53a. 

59. PRESENT POLITICAL DIVISIONS. 

Authority : The SahiamS or Turkish Government *' Blue-Book " — see the editions of recent years. 

Reports and Notices. — G. Holscher, "Die administrative Einteilung des heutigen Syriens," if. u. JSf.D.P.V., 
1907, pp. 49-57, with G. Dalman's notes on this, Id,, 1909, p. 14; Br. Blau, "Die autonome Provinz 
Libanon," in Altneuland, 1907, pp. 266-268 (not seen). On von Oppenheim see below. 

Maps: A. Durand, Empire Ottoman: Turquie d' Europe, T. d'Asie, Nouvelle Carte administrative econ. et 
consulaire (Paris, 1908 — not seen); K. Huber, Empire Ottoman, Division Administrative, after the 
Turkish Salname of 1899 (Constantinople, 1905 — not seen) ; Carte de la Province du Liban (Cairo, 
1905). On von Oppenheim see below. 

The Ottoman Government of Syria comprises two Vilayets or Wilayets (each under a Waly) : — Beyrout and 
Damascus, each divided into SanjaJcs or Mntasarrifliks (each under a Mutesarrif) and two additional Sanjaks 
or Mntasarrifliks : — Jerusalem and the Lebanon, both directly responsible to the Ottoman Ministry of the 
Interior. A Sanjak is divided into Kadds (districts, or circuits or arrondissements) each under a Kaimmakan, 
and the Kadas again into ndhiyahs (cantons or communes) under a Mudir. 

I. The five Sanjaks or Mntasarrifliks of the Vilayet of Beyrout are those of 

1. Beyrout, covering the Kadas of Sidon, Tyre, and Merj 'Ayun. 

2. 'Akka (Acre), covering the Kadds of Haifa, Tiberias, Safed, and Nazareth (but according to 

if. n. N.D,P.V., 1907, pp. 23 f., this has since 1906 been attached to the Sanjak of 
Jerusalem) ; as well as the nahiyahs of Sahil, Sha'iir, and Shefa 'Amr. 

3. Tarabulus (Tripoli), of which only part lies within this map. 

4. Ladakiyeh (Latakiah), which lies beyond the map. 

5. Belka (so called because formerly it included the region called The Belka, E. of Jordan : see 

H.G.H.L., 535 f.), or properly Nablus (with its capital at Nabltis, covering the nahiyahs 
first and second Jemma'In, and Jemmaln, and the Kadds Jenin and BenI Sa'b. 
II. The four Sanjaks of the Vilayet of esh-Sham (Syria or Damascus) are those of : 

1. Sham Sherif (Damascus), covering the Kadas of Ba'albek, Bika' el-' Aziz (capital Mu'allaka), 

Wady el 'Ajam (capital Katana), Duma, Nebk, Hasbeiya, Rasheiya, Zebdany, and el-:K:uneitra, 

2. Hamah (Hamah ?), only partly in the map. 



xxxii Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 

3. Hauran (capital formerly at Sheikh Sa'ad, now elsewhere), covering the ndhiyahs of 

Ghabaghib and Jasim, and the Kadas of 'Ajlun (capital Irbid), Suweideh (or Sueida), Busr el- 
Hariri (on S. border of the Leja'), ed-Dera'ah, Salkhad, and 'Ahire. 

4. Kerakj with the nahiyahs Khanzireh and Diban; and the Kadas, es-Salt, and et-Tafileh, and 

Ma*an. On the map es-Salt is reckoned to Hauran, but the change has been made recently. 
Dalman reports the addition of the nahiyahs of esh-Shobak and el-'Akabah (if. u, N.D.V.F», 
1909, 14). 

III. The Sanjak of Jerusalem (Arab. Kuds Sherif) consists of the nahiyahs Beit-Lahm (Bethlehem) 
Kamallah, Safa, and 'Abwain, and the kadas Yafa (Joppa), Ghazzeh (Gaza), Khahl (Hebron), Bir Seba' 
(Beersheba); and to these the IJada of Nazareth appears to have been added (see above). Dalman {loc. cit.) 
reports that the hada of Bir es-Seba' has been changed into a Sanjak or Mntasarrifiik Mu'awinliyeh. 

IV. The Sanjak of Lebanon consists of the Kadas Shuf, Metn, Kesrwan, Batrun, Jezzin, Kura, Zahleh, 
and what was formerly the nahiyah of Deir el-Kamr, directly under the Mutesarrif, but appears now to be a 
Kada. The town and environs of Beyrout do not belong to the Sanjak of Lebanon, but are in the vilayet of 
Beyrout. The government of the Sanjak is based on the '' Reglement Organique du Liban," constituted by the 
Sublime Porte, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Austria, and Russia in 1861. The Mutesarrif must be a 
Christian, and has the rank of a Vizier with the title of Pasha. For further details see von Oppenheim, Vom 
Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, i. 32 ff., with a map, ''Die Verwaltungs-Eintheilung des autonomen Bezirks 
des Lebanon, 1898." 

60. CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 

The data for this map have been obtained from missionary reports of the different denominations, and by the 
Editor on successive journeys through the country. See also J. Richter, Mission und Evangelisation ira 
Orient, the 2nd vol. of the Allgemeine Evangelische Missionsgeschichte (Giitersloh, 1908) ; W. A. Essery and 
J. H. Thomson, The Ascending Cross : some Results of Missions in Bible Lands (London : Religious Tract 
Society, 1905); A. Forder, Ventures among the Arabs in Desert, Tent, and Town (1905); H. A. Krose, 
Katholische Missionsstatistik (Freiburg i. Br., 1908). 



EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS IN THE FOREGOING 

LETTERPRESS 

A.T.=(das) Alte Testament. 

E.B. and Enc. Bibl. = Encyclopcedia Biblica, ed. by T. K. Cheyne, D.D., and J. Sutherland Black, LL.D., 

(London, 1899-1903). 
H,0,H,L.=^ Historical Geography of the Holy Land, by George Adam Smith (London, 1st ed. 1894; 4th ed. 

1897). 
Hastings, D.B.=A Dictionary of the Bible, ed. by James Hastings, D..D., vols, i.-iv. (Edin., 1898-1902); with 

Extra Volume (1904). 
J. Q,R.= Jewish Quarterly Review (London). 

Josephus, Antt.—Flavii Josephi Antiquitatum Judaicarum Libri xx., ed. Benedictus Niese (Berlin, 1887-90). 
Josephiis, Wars. =^Flavii Josephi De Bello Judaico Libri vii., ed. as above (Berlin, 1894). 
M. u, N.D.P,V.=Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des Deutschen Paldstina-Vereins (Leipzig). 
P,E.F, Mem, == The Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, ed. for the Palestine Exploration Fund, 3 vols. 

(London, 1881-83); Jerusalem, 1vol. ('84); Eastern Palestine, 1 vol. ('89). See further Letterpress 

to Maps 15-30. 
P,E.F.Q.= Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (London). 
Pliny, HN, =Historia Naturalis, See further. Letterpress to Map 9. 
Rev. Bibl. —Revue Biblique Internationale publiee par FEcole Pratique d'Etudes Bibliques, etablie au couvent 

Dominicain St. Etienne k Jerusalem (Paris and Rome). 
Z.D. V.P. =Zeitschrift des Deutschen Paldstina- Vereins (Leipzig). 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES 

\* c. =■ circa — about, A date cJpposite the mere name of a King signifies the year of his accession. 

L— SOME OF THE EARLIEST DATES {very uncertain) 



B.C. 


EGYPT. 


CANAAN AND SYRIA. 


BABYLONIA, ASSYRIA, &C. 


B.C. 


c, 4000 


Menes : Beginning of Dynasty I. 




First Semitic Immigration from Arabia into Baby- 
lonia, probably after 

Sargon I of Agade, monarch of Babylonia ; accord- 
ing to Babylonian reckoning before 3750, possibly 
not till 

Rise of Hittite Civilisation in Asia Minor before 


4000 

c. 3200* 
3000 


c. 3000 




Settlements of Stone Age. 






aft. 3010 


Dynasty IV: The Pyramids. 








c. 2500 




Semitic Immigration into Canaan . 


co-seval with Second Semitic Immigration, some- 
times called " Canaanite," into Babylonia. 


c. 2500 


? 


Dynasty VI : First Egyptian 


invasions of Canaan. 


The Beginnings of Assyria. 
Hammurabi of Babylon. 


c. 2300 
c. 2280 



See footnote on pp. 90 f. of G. A. Smith's Modern Criticism and the Preaching of the Old Testament, 

Il.-THE SECOND MILLENNIUM BEFORE CHRIST 

*^ * Modern reckonings of Egyptian dates vary considerably 



B.C. 



ief. 1800 

c. 1800 

c> 1550 

c. 1515 

c, 1480 

aft. T450 



• c. 


1400 


c. 


1350 


[or 


1300) 


c. 


1340- 


I 


275 


aft. 


1270 


(1225?) 


bef 


1200 


c. 


1200 



Wall-paintings of Beni Hassan : Asiatic 

traders or immigrants in Egypt. 
Hyksos invasion of Egypt. 



Thutmosis I . 
Thutmosis JII 



Amenhotep II (according to some, 

Pharaoh of the Oppression (? ?) ) 
Amenhotep III ... . 



the 



Amenhotep IV: 
}sety I 



Egypt 



Bameses II (according to the usual 
( view the Pharaoh of the Oppression) 
Me(r)neptah (according to the usual 
view the Pharaoh of the Exodus) 

Egypt's hold 

Conditions now most . . . . 
Rameses III 



CANAAN AND SYRIA. 



overrunning Canaan and Syria 
subdues Canaan and Syria 



The Tell-el-Amarna Lettters. 
Abd-Khiba, Egyptian vassal in Jerusalem, 
loses her Syiian provinces. 
I invades Canaan and .... 
I in the Lebanon region. 
) invades Canaan and .... 
) at Kadesh on the Orontes. 
fights with " Israel " in Canaan. 



on Canaan relaxes. 

favourable for Israel's entry to Canaan. 

fights with the Phihstines. 

Song of Deborah. 

Saul, and beginning of Monarchy in Israel. 



BABYLONIA, ASSYRIA, &C. 



Hittites overthrow ist Babylonian Dynasty. 
Assyria independent of Babylon before 
reaches the Euphrates, 
up to the Euphrates, probably . 
but some say not till 



fights the Hittites 
fights the Hittites 



The Hittite Empire breaks up. 



Tiglath-Pileser establishes Assyrian power from 
N. Syria to Lake Van, onwards from . 



c. 1800 
1600 
c. 1550 
C' 1515 
c. 1480 



aft. 1450 
c, 1400 



c. 1340- 

1275 



c, 1200 
c. 1200 



1 120 

c. 1020 



III.— THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BEFORE CHRIST 
(I) TILL THE RETURN OF THE JEWS FROM EXILE 









THE 


SYRIA, PHCENICIA, PHILISTIA, 






B.C. 


JUDAH. 


ISRAEL. 


PROPHETS. 


ETC. 


ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA. 


B.C. 


c. 1000 


David, King of. 


all Israel. 










till 950 \ 

or 935 J 


Solomon. 
























^.935 


Rehohoam. 


Disruption of the Kingdom. 
Jeroboam I. 










c. 930 


Shoshenk of Egypt 


invades Palestine. 










c. 923 


Abijam. 












c. 920 


Asa. 












c. 918 




Nadab. 










c. 915 




Baasha. 










c. 891 




Elah. 










c. 888 




Zimri. Omri. 










c. 876 




Ahab. 


) 


Revolt of Mesha of Moab ; the 






^.874 


Jehoshaphat. 




\ Elijah. 


Moabite Stone [circa 860). 






854 




First contact of Israel 


f . . . 


and Syria with Assyria at the 


Battle of Karkar. 


854 


c. 853 





Ahaziah. 


) V 










c. 852 




Joram. 












850 










\ Campaigns in all these three 


years by Shalmaneser 11 of 


fSso 


c. 849 


Jehoram. 








\ Assyria against Dadidri or 


Hadadezer of Damascus. 


i 849 


846 










j Revolt of Edom from Judah 




1 846 


c. 844 


Ahaziah. 








(2 Kings viii. 20 ff.). 






c. 842 
... 


Athaliah. 


Jehu. 






War of Hazaei with . . . 


Tribute from Jehu. 
Assyria. 


842 


839 






, Elisha. 


War of Hazaei with . 


Assyria. 


839 


c. 836 


Joash. 








^ Hazaei subdues Gilead (Amos 




r836 


c. 814 




Jehoahaz. 






J> i. 3); attacks Gath, but is 
j bought off from Jerusalem. 




-^814 


812 












Accession of Ramman-Nirari. 


812 


806 










Arpad, campaign against, by . 


Assyria. 


806 


803 










Damascus, under Meri, . 
A year of pestilence. 


besieged and taken by Assyria. 


803 


c. 798 




Joash. 


/ 








c. 797 


Amaziah. 












c. 783 




Jeroboam II. 






Shalmaneser III. 


783 


c. 778 


Uzziah (Azariah). 












775 










Expedition to Cedar Country. 


775 


773 




Jeroboam re -conquers 




Damascus, campaign against, 


by Assyria. 


773 


772 




Moab, Gilead, and | 




Hadrach, campaign against. 


by Assyria. 


772 


765 




J part of Aram. [ 




A pestilence. 

Hadrach, campaign against. 


Accession of Assxir-da,Ti-il. 

by Assyria. 


765 


l^Z 


Total eclipse of the 


sun on June T5th, 


• • . 


visible at 


Nineveh. 


763 


759 








A pestilence in Western Asia. 




759 


755 








Hadrach suffers attack from 


Assyria. 


755 


754 






> Amos. 


Arpad suffers attack from 


Assyria. 


754 


753 






( 




Accession of Assur-Nirari. 


753 


745 






J 






Accession of Tiglath-Pileser III. 


745 



XXXIV 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



III— THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BEFORE CHRIST— continued 

(I) TILL THE RETURN OF THE JEWS FROM EXILE— con^intied 









THE 


SYRIA, PHCENICIA, PHILISTIA, 






B.C. 


JUDAH. 


ISRAEL. 


PROPHETS. 


ETC. 


ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA. 


B.C. 


743 




Zechariali (6 months). 
Shallum (i month). 
Menahem. 




lArpad besieged, and after two 


or three years taken by Assyria. 


[743 

- 


742 








J 




742 


741 






A Hosea. 


J 




V41 


740 


"Ihe year King 












736? 


Uzziah died." 
Jotham sole ruler. 












738 




Menahemis 


, ^ 


mentioned as tributary to . 


Assyria. 


738 


^. 737 




Pekahiah. / 










c. 736 


Ahaz. 


Pekah, the Gileadite. 










735 


Ahaz is attacked 


both by Pekah and 




by Rezin of Damascus (Isa. vii.) 




735 


734 




Captivity of Gilead, Galilee, 






by Assyria (Isa. viii. , ix.). 


734 


733 






1 Isaiah. 


Damascus besieged and taken 


by Assyria. 


733 


732 






at Damascus to the King of 


Assyria. 


732 


731 










Tiglath-Pileser becomes King of 


731 


c. 730 




Hoshea. 






Babylon under the name of Pul. 




c. 727 


Hezekiah. 








Shalmaneser IV. 


727 


72s 




Siege of Samaria begins. 










722 or I 




Fall of Samaria, and de- 


portation 


of her people by . . . 


Sargon. 


722 or I 


720 or 19 








Gaza overthrown by . 


Sargon as he marches past Judah 
and defeats Egypt at Raphia. 


722 or 19 


715 




Samaria repeopled 






by tribes deported from Assyria. 


715 



711 

709 

705 

701 

692 

691 

c. 685 ? 

681 
678 
676 

675 
674 

671 

c. 670 

668 

666 
c. 664 



c. 663 

662 

652 

649 

647 
645 

c. 641 
c. 639 
c. 630 
627 
c. 626 

625 



621 



c. 620 
610 

608 



607-6 
604 

602 or 600 
599 or 597 



597 



594 
593 
589 

587-6 



573 
569 
561 



^- 560-550 
554 



Allied with Egypt, 



Defeat of Egypt 
Taharka. 



Taharka defeated at 

Memphis 
Taharka regains 

Egypt. 



JUDAH. 



Judah revolts from Assyria. 
Invasion of Judah 
Deliverance of Jerusalem. 



Events in Isaiah xxxvii. 9 ff. ? 
Manasseh. 



Manasseh and 



THE 
PROPHETS. 



Micah. 
y Isaiah. 



Taharka overthrown, 
Dodekarchy estab- 
lished 

Urdamman over- 
thrown and Thebes 

Psamtik I 

Psamtik I 



Necho II 

Necho defeats and 



Necho defeated 



Psamtik II 



Uah-ab-ra 

(Hophr^, Apries) 



Ahmose II. 



Manasseh and 



Amon. 
Josiah. 



Jeremiah appears. 



Book of the Law (Deut. v.- 
xxvi., xxviii.) discovered. 

Josiah's reforms begin. 
Passover (2 Kings xxii., 
xxiii.). 



slays Josiah at Megiddo 
Judah Egyptian vassal. 
Jehoahaz reigns three 

months: taken to Egypt. 
Jehoiakim succeeds. 



Judah vassal 
Judah withholds . 
Judah invaded 
jehoiachin yields 
First Great Exile . 
ZedeMah vassal . 



Revolt delayed by Jeremiah 
offers help to Zedekiah, who 



Jerusalem taken . 
Second Great Exile 



Close of Book of . , 

Jehoiachin released (2 Kings 
XXV. 27-30). 



Harder times for the Jewish 



Zephaniah. 



? Hahak- 
kuk. 



? Nahum. 
) Jeremiah. 



SYRIA, PHCENICIA, PHILISTIA, 
ETC. 



Ashdod taken by 



(Isa. XXX., xxxi.). 
and all Palestine 
Siege of Ekron. 
at Battle of Eltekeh 



Sidon subdued and Sidonians 
21 Palestine princes pay tribute 

also Greek princes of Cyprus. 
Arabia invaded .... 
Sinai invaded .... 
Tyre besieged .... 



21 Palestine princes pay tribute 
(Palestine princes aiding) . 



Tyre and Arvad taken 
Palestine princes, Arabia, Lydia 



Hauran, N. Arabia, and Edom 
Ammon, Moab, and Nabataea 
Usa "by the sea " and Akko 
Tyre assists, against Arvad, 



Western Palestine 



by Moab, Ammon, and Aramaeans 



Ezekiel. 



Ezekiel. 



Lamentations. 



'Isaiah," 
' chs. xl.-lv. 



ASSYRIA, BABYLONIA, ETC. 



Sargon (Isa. xx. i). 

Sargon takes Babylon from 

Merodach-Baladan. 
Death of Sargon. Sennacherib. 
by Sennacherib (Isa. xxxvi. -xxxvii. 

8). 
by Sennacherib. 
Sennacherib destroys Babylon. 
War with Merodach-Baladan. 

Sennacherib niurdered . Asarhaddon, 

deported by Asarhaddon. 

to Assyria: 



by Asarhaddon. 
by Asarhaddon. 
by Asarhaddon. 

by Asarhaddon. 
Assurbanipal. 

to Assyria. 



by Assurbanipal. 

( taken on 2nd Egyptian campaign 

\ of Assurbanipal. 

by Assurbanipal. 

Elam, and Babylon revolt. 

Assurbanipal reduces Elam and 

Babylon. 
I reduced in two campaigns by 
\ Assurbanipal. 
punished by Assurbanipal. 
Assurbanipal. 

Scythians invade Western Asia. 

invaded by Scythians. 
Assur-itil-ilani. 
Nineveh attacked by Medes. 
Nabopolassar independent in 
Babylon. 



Sin-sar-uskin. 

and Nebuchadrezzar on Euphrates, 



Fall of Nineveh to Medes and 
Chaldaeans under Nabopolassar. 

by Nebuchadrezzar at Car- 
chemish. 

Nebuchadrezzar. 

of Babylon (2 Kings xxiv. i). 

tribute from Babylon (2 Kgs.xxiv.i). 

in alliance with Babylon. \ , ^. 

to Nebuchadrezzar. ( ^"^ ^^^^^^ 

to Babylonia. ( 



of Babylon. 



xxiv. 

-17). 



against Babylon (Jer. xxxvi. f. 
revolts from Babylon. 



by Nebuchadrezzar. 

to Babylonia. 

Battle of the Eclipse: 

League, Babylon. 

Lydia. 



(2 Kings 
xxiv. 20- 

XXV. ). 

Triple 
Media, 



Nebuchadrezzar dies. 

Evil-Merodach. 

Neriglissar. 

exiles under Nabunahid (Nabonidos) 
Fall of Median Monarchy. Cyrus. 
Cyrus is repulsed from Baby- 
lonia. Invades Lydia ; takes 
Sardis and King Croesus. \ 



Chronological Tables 



XXXV 



III.— THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BEFORE CHRIST— continued 

(2) FROM THE RETURN OF THE JEWS TO THE BIRTH OF CHRIST 



538 
537 

536 

529 

525 
522 

521 
520 

516 
515 



€. 500 



490 



485 
484 
480 



479 
477 
476 
470 
46s 
464 

460 

458 

455 

450 I 

449 i 

445 

444 

c. 440 
432 
431 

c. 430 

424 
423 

c. 410 

^.404 

401 
c. 400 

^.396 

393 
387 
376 
361 

358 
350 
350 



345; 

343 

338 



335 

334 
333 
332 
331 



330^ 
323J 

322 
320 

^.315 
312 

3ii 
306 

301 

297 
287 
286 

280 
264 
261 

250 

248 
247 

246 
226 
223 
222 

218 



Assuan colony, 
Conquest of Egypt by 



Hagg'ai. Zechariah (i.-viii.), 

Building of the Temple begun. 
Completion of Temple. 



Egypt revolts under 
£gypt subdued. 



Second Egyptian re- 
volt. 
Egypt aided 



Egypt subdued 
Egypt invites Greeks 
again. 



Egypt revolts. 
Nepherites. 



Hakar. 



War with . 
Tachos 
Nectanebus : 



THE JEWS. 



The Jews return to Jerusalem 

Zerubbabel and Joshua. 
Restoration of altar, 
foundation-stone of Temple (?) 
Attacks of Samaritans begin, 
and temple, of Jews. 



Khabash. 



"Malachi." 

Ezra arrives at Jerusalem. 



Nehemiaharrives at Jerusalem 
Establishment of the Law. 
Rebuilding of walls. 



Nehemiah's return to Jerus. 
Pentateuch virtually complete 



Joel. 



War in Egypt. 



Egypt reduced . 



Insurrection in Judah. Much 
bloodshed there (Jos., xi 
Ant. vii. I ; Solinus, xxxv. 
4). Jews subdued by Olo- 
phernes (Diod. xxxi. 28: 
cf. Book of Judith). Many 
Jews taken to Hyrcania. 



Invasion of Egypt, after marching past Judah, 
Alexander leaves Egypt, marches past Judah, 



Ptolemy I (Soter). 
Ptolemy . 



Ptolemy 
Ptolemy 
Ptolemy, 
Ptolemy 



Ptolemy 



Ptolemy II 

(Philadelphus). 



Egypt's 



Egypt 
Ptolemy III 

(Euergetes). 



Ptolemy IV 

(Philopator). 



' ' Zechariah " (ix.-xiv.) 

takes Jerusalem (?) . 



? Book of Jonah. 

regains Coele- . 



SYRIA AND CYPRUS. 



In Syria 



Phoenician fleet at Cyprus 

Salamis of Cyprus, 
Phoenicians devastate 



To Cyprus 
Cyprus taken 



At Cyprus . 
from Cyprus 



Siege of Citium 
Revolt of Megabyzus : 



Phoenician fleet 

army, assembled at Acco . 



Tachos in Phoenicia . 



Revolt of Phoenicians and 
Cyprus. 



Invasion of Syria and re- 
duction of Sidon . 



and besieging Tyre and Gaza, 
visits Samaria, . 



Cyrus takes Babylon, 
from Babylon under 



Cyrus dies. Camhyses. 

Cambyses. 

Cambyses commits suicide. 

Pseudo-Smerdis. 

Darius I (Hystaspis). 

Darius overcomes insurrections, 

visits and conciliates Egypt. 

Persian Satrapies organised. 

Darius 



aids Darius against 

but are afterwards defeated 

The Persians take 
Persians defeated by . 

Darius dies. Xerxes I. 
Babylon revolts and is taken 
Xerxes sets out from Sardis 



Persians defeated at 



Persians cleared out of 

80 Persian ships taken 

Xerxes assassinated. ArtaxerxesI 

(Longhand). At Persian court 



by Artaxerxes ; annihilation 



Persians assist Samos to revolt : . 



In Persian armies 
Artaxerxes dies. Xerxes II. 
Darius II (Nothus). 
Unsuccessful revolt of Medes. 

Darius dies. Artaxerxes II 

(Mnemon). Account of Persian 
Cyrus loses battle of Cunaxa 



Tissaphernes defeated near Sardis 

of Persia 

Peace of 

by Persia, and including 
revolts against Persia by aid of 
goes over to the Persians. 
Artaxerxes III (Ochus). 
Artabazus satrap of Phrygia 
Satraps of Ciliciaand Syria driven 
back by Mentor sent by Necta- 
nebus. 



by Artaxerxes III, aided 
by Artaxerxes. 

Artaxerxes III dies. Arses, the 
creature of Bagoas. 

Bagoas kills Arses. Darius III 
(Codomannus). Bagoas killed. 



Darius defeated at Issus 

defeats Darius at Arbela, and 
takes Babylon, Susa, Persepolis. 



crosses to Europe, and with 
help of Macedonians crosses 
Danube and invades Scythia. 

lonians revolt. 

the Greeks, who win at 

Ionia. 

Euboea. 

Greeks at Marathon. 



(Herod., i. 183). 

against Greece. ♦ 

Battles of Thermopylae and 

Salamis (Themistocles). 
Plataea. 

the Greeks sail (Herod., i. 129) 
by Athens, 
continent of Europe, 
by Cimon. Ionian coast free. 



Themistocles arrives, 
by 200 Athenian ships. 



of Greek army in Egypt. 

by Greeks. 

his son flies to Athens. 

it is taken by Athens. 



Peloponnesian War begins. 
Greek mercenaries. 



Athens forced to treaty. 
Close of Peloponnesian War. 
court by Ctesias. 
with 13,000 Greek mercenaries, 
Xenophon and the Ten 

Thousand, 
by Agesilaus of Sparta, 
defeats Sparta. 
Antalcidas. 
Greek mercenaries. 
Greeks under Chabrias. 



flies to Philip of Macedon. 



Isocrates urges Philip to at- 
tack Persia. 



by 10,000 Greek mercenaries. 



Battle of Chaeronea. 
Philip master of Greece; desig- 
nated leader against Persia. 



Alexander crosses Hellespont, 
by Alexander, 
by Alexander. 



Darius killed in Bactria. 
Conquests to Oxus and Indus of Alexander. 
Death of Alexander. 



wars for Palestine 

Probable close of Prophetic 
Canon. 

About this time Greek trans- 
lation of Pentateuch. 



Palestine overrun . 



and conquers Syria and Cyprus. 

Syria taken by Antigonus, who expels Seleucus from Babylon. 

defeats Demetrius at Gaza. Seleucus retakes Babylon. Beginning of Seleucid era. 

driven from Syria by Antigonus, who by treaty retains Syria. 

Antigonus, and Seleucus assume title of kings. 

loses Cyprus to Antigonus, through defeat at sea by Demetrius. 

Syria. Antigonus slain by Seleucus at battle of Ipsus. 

Cyprus retained by Demetrius, son of Antigonus. 

Demetrius invades Palestine ; two years later takes Athens. 

Cyprus taken from Demetrius by Seleucus. 



Antiochus I (Soter). 

with Syria break out again. 

Antiochus II (Theos). 



and S)nria make peace by marriage of Antiochus II with Ptolemy IPs daughter. 



Seleucus II (Callinicus). 
Seleucus III (Ceraunus). 
Antiochus III (the Great). 



by Antiochus III, 



538 



529 
527 
522 

521 

520 
517 
516 
515 



c. 500 



490 



485 
484 
480 



479 
477 
476 
470 

465 
464 

460 
458 
455 
450 
.449 
445 



440 
432 
431 
^.430 
424 

423 
410 
408 
404 

401 



^.396 
393 
387 
376 
361 

358 

350 

'350 

347 



.345 
343 
338 



335 

334 
333 
332 
331 



330 
323 



320 

^•315 
312 

311 
306 



301 

297 
287 



280 

264 
261 



248 

246 
226 
223 

218 



XXXVl 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



III.— THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BEFORE CHRlST^confinued 

(2) FROM THE RETURN OF THE JEWS TO THE BIRTH OF CliRlST—co7t^znued 



B.C. 


EGYPT. 


THE JEWS. 


SYRIA AND CYPRUS, GREECE AND ROME. 


B.C. 


217 


Ptolemy IV 


at Raphia compels 


Antiochus to retreat (Dan. xi. 10). 


217 


205 


Ptolemy V 

(Epiphanes). 








202 




Palestine taken . 


by Antiochus. 


202 


200 


Egypt 


takes Palestine. 






198 




Palestine again taken . 


by Antiochus (Dan. xi. 13 ff.). 


iq8 


197 


Egypt. . 


giving up Palestine to . 


Syria, makes treaty with latter by marriage (Dan. xi. 17). 


197 


187 






Seleucus IV (Philopator). 


187 


181 


Ptolemy vi (Eupator). 
Ptolemy VII 

(Philometor). 








X76 


/Simon, intriguing against) 
t the High Priest Onias III, j 


( incites Seleucus IV to make an attempt on the Temple treasure : 

\ in vain (Dan. xi. 20). 


176 




175 




Attempts to Hellenise Judah 


Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) (Dan. xi. 21-45). 

by Antiochus IV. 


175 


170 


Ptolemy VIII killed. 
Ptolemy IX 

( Phy scon ) , joint king 
with Ptolemy VII. 


Jerusalem surprised 


by Jason. 


170 


169 




The Temple plundered 


by Antiochus IV, 


169 


168 




Persecution of Jews, to de- 










stroy their religion, . 


by Antiochus IV. 


168 






Syrian garrison and altar to 










Zeus in Jerusalem (Daniel 






167 




Revolt of Mattathias and his 










five sons . . . . 


against Syria. 


167 


166 




Judas Maccabseus. 
Book of Daniel. 






165 


Ptolemy VII alone. 


Purification of the Temple. 






164 






Antiochus V (Eupator). 


164 


162 






Demetrius I (Soter). 


162 


161 




Jonathan Maccabseus. 






153 




Jonathan High Priest. 






150 






Alexander (Balas). 


150 


145 


Ptolemy IX alone. 




Demetrius II (Nicator) : Antiochus VI rival king for a few years. 


145 


142 




Simon Maccabseus. 










Judah's independence . 


acknowledged by Syria, 


142 


139 




The Jewish state . 


acknowledged by Rome. 


139 


13s 




Hyrcanus I. 






133 




Jerusalem besieged 


by Antiochus VII (Sidetes). 


133 


129 






Antiochus VII slain by Parthians. 

Demetrius Nicator. ' 


129 


125 






Antiochus VIII (Grypus). 


125 


117 


Ptolemy XJSoter II). 




Antiochus IX (Cyzicenus). 


116 


106 


Ptolemy XI rival king. 








103 




Aiistobulus I. 






102 




Alexander Ja,miseus. 


Seleucus VI. 

Antiochus X. 

Antiochus XI rival king. 
Philippus I holds }^^arts of Syria. 


96 
94 


88 


Ptolemy X alone. 




Demetrius III holds C oele-Sy r ia. 


88 


81 


Ptolemy XII. 








80 


Ptolemy XIII. 








78 




Queen Alexandra. 


Antiochus XIII (Asiaticus). 


69 


66 




Hyrcanus II. 
Aristobulus II. 


Antiochus XIII dismissed by Pompey 


6s 


63 




Pompey takes Jerusalem. 


Syria becomes a Roman province. 


63 


62 




Hyrcanus II a Roman vassal. 






SI 


Ptolemy xiv. ) 
Cleopatra. ) 




jointly under guardianship of Roman Senate. 


51 


47 


Ptolemy XV. 








42 




Palestine .... 


and Syria under Mark Antony. 


42 


41 


Cleopatra and 
Csesarion(Pt. xvi.) 








40 




Invasion of Palestine . 
Antigonus. 


by the Parthians. 


40 


37 




Herod. 






32 


Death of Cleopatra. 




Octavian defeats Antony at Actium. 


32 


31 


Egypt Roman prov. 








4 




Death of Herod. 







*^* For additional dates during this period see notes to Maps 38-42. 



IV.— PRINCIPAL DATES IN THE CHRISTIAN ERA 
(I) THE ROMAN PERIOD 



A.D. 

Judaea a Roman Province under Procurators 6 

Ministry of Jesus Christ 26-29 

Martyrdom of St. Stephen 30 

Apostolic Journeys of St. Paul 34-5^ 

St. Paul's Voyage to Rome 59. 60 

66-70 
70 
106 
130 

132-5 

136 

c. 218 



Wars of the Jewish Insurrection 

Siege and Conquest of Jerusalem by Titus .... 

Formation of Roman Province of Arabia by Trajan 
Jerusalem rebuilt by Hadrian ...... 

Final Revolt of Jews under Bar-Khokhba and its suppression 

^lia Capitolina founded on site of Jerusalem 

Origen in Palestine 



The Decian Persecutions c, 250 

Diocletian's Persecution . . from 303 

Eusebius, Archbishop of Caesarea . 315-318 

Constantine the Great 323-336 

Jerome (Eusebius Hiercnymus Sophronius) in Palestine . . . 385-420 

Final overthrow of Paganism in Palestine c. 400 

Extinction of the Western Empire 476 or 479 

Justinian Emperor — Buildings in Palestine ...... 527-565 

Chosroes I invades Syria 540 

Great Plague 542 

Conquest of Syria by Chosroes II 611 



(2) THE MOSLEM PERIOD 



A.D. 

Birth of Mohammed 569 

He begins to prophesy at Mecca 609 

The Hejra or Flight of Mohamme I 622 

Moslem Conquest of Arabia . . . . 629-32 

The Emperor Heraclius receives an Embassy from Mohammed at 

Emesa 629 

Death of Mohammed 632 

Moslem Conquest of Syria 633-8 

Siege and Capture of Damascus 634 (635) 

Battle of the Yarmuk . . . 636 

Siege and Capture of Jerusalem by the Saracens 636 or 637 

Omeijjade Khalifs make Damascus their capital 661 

Moslem Conquest of Africa . 698-709 

Moslem Conquest of Spain ......... 713 



Moslem Invasion of Europe reaches its limit at Tours, and is turned 

there by Charles Martel 732 

Rise of the Abbasside Khalifs from 7^6 

Harun er-Rashid, his Campaigns against the Romans . . . 781-805 

Invasion of Syria by the Seljuk Turks 1070-85 

First Crusade 1097-98 

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1098-1187 

Overthrow of Crusaders by Saladin in the Battle of Hattin . . . 1187 

*^* For a list of the dates of the various Crusades see notes to Map 57. 

Sultan Beibars and the overthrow of the Franks in Palestine . . c. 1270 
Mongol Invasions of Syria, the last by Timur or Tamerlane 1240, 1260, 1400 

Siege and Capture of Constantinople by Mohammed II . . . 1453 

Invasion of Syria from Egypt by Napoleon, and his Retreat . . 1799 



IMFIEES 0> Z:MI 




AlfCailff W®RIiB 



HISTORICAL Atlas OF HOLY Land 4 





EBYWl & SMi 



HISTORICAL ATLAS OF Holy Land ZO 




Historical ATLAS OF Holy LAND 12 




MOB£KH 




'AMSTIME 



Historical Atlas OF Holy Land 14" 




INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 




BECi^i. 



IMMAMBM 




INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 



Scale, of Sidex 




ARABIA 



SECTMH II - AMTI-LEBAIf Q:^f '& DAMASCUS 




INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 



Scale: of JnA»x 




ARABIA 



SECXIOH m 




Railways, Ms r 



:t3,,iatjiXJ-.J Hc^ls -n fee. above Med.tonanBia Se 



Historical ATLAS OF Holy Land 20 




■ft-MJ . Modsrn 



INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 




S1CTI©H W - GIL 




Sues > iiz-^t Htigl.ls 



Em ^ HABKiiH 



Historical Atlas of Holy Land 22 







INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 




SECTION Y - SAMARIA & JUB.£4 






■ 

4 
5 

/ 






L1.A 


i 




S 




1 V\)e^^ 




■ 

1 

r 

5 




1/ y^"^ 




4\V ~V^^ 




1^ 




^^^jy^ / 




a:S.m^I j, 






SS^-^H 




*S 












^3=^ N \-^^ . ^i^ A_J5^ 


Lj.^.^cr-'^^^^ V 'Jl 






A.J^' 


^^"^^^5^^^ 








6 






^;^:?^ 


^k 


■^ JV N^^ J 


^8 


^^^^^^^^ 








i 
j 


pc;— ^^ 


^?^'" 






^A:-^ 


j 






^^S 




^ 




B 


C ^'-, ^™.™:^,:,i,.i™-OT )) 






F 


J 



uSsito .-.SoiiJinm *' Heights' in fiKt above M'editerranMn Sea »i« 



^^^^ 






INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 



Scale, of Jhdex- 




A Jl A B I A 



SEctmm-n-5.r 




Mj. Ra«)5 Pilha & Int 



INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 



Scale of Jrvdex 




ARAB 



EBA AUD THE NE6EB 



Historical Atlas OF Holy Land 28 




INDEX TO SECTION MAPS 




SEGTl©m Yin - MUM h DIA© SEA. 




51 




Historical ATLAS OF Holy Land 52 




FAILISTIMI 

PERIOD OF ISRAEL'S SETTLEMENT 

AND OF THE JUDGES 

BEFORE 1060 B.C. 



Historical Atlas OF HOLY Land 54 



UNDER DAVID AND SOLOMON 
ABOUT 1015-930 B.C. 




% / o\pM ft A f/ s'^ ^ 

.''^ _L 1. .^ I I ( B \ 



ly the Egyptians 
I I States which maintained %l 

I . JlndepeiiaenceoE Israel 

' 1 PhUistia. which in the time of 

I. I David and So? " -■■ 

■-^de^ the 3ov 



Historical ATLAS OF HOLY Land 56 




^'"^^ 






i^^~' 



f^~^CM 




HiSTORioAuATLAS OF HOLY Land 38 




^ 



PALESTINE 

TIME OF ALEXANDER JANN^US 
AND QUEEN ALEXANDRA 




EiPLAN4TI0ir OF COLOTjai^Q 
I I Kingdom of Alt 11 

tl^ ^ennCotjIas 

I I K-oiemj Mcnnal 



Historical Atlas of Holy Land 4;0 




41. 




Historical Atlas OF Holy Land 42 




Historical Atlas OF Holy Land 4^4? 




Historical ATLAS OF HOLY Land 4^6 




EXPLABTATION OP COI/OOMlfO 

I l Agrlppan 

I J Phamldn 

I J DeiapoIia 



JEEUSALIM A7 I)J, 



I '- "" - • " ' UNDER SOLOff 




y.""^ " IN THE TIME OF THE MACCABEES 168 B C. ONWARDS -" ^" 1 f^-^~^-^ *" ^ 



IN THE HERO 




NOTE.— The outline of the Ancient fiity in red i 



!' ' rljKJDDS 



Historical ATLAS OF Holy LAND 48 



^™ \^- ^IZI i 



UNDER THE LATER MOKARCHY AND AFTER THE EXILE 




16 Walb ta Hsrod's time are sliown by rod 

theN^ which Is mknowD Tbe XhiM wSl 

added by Agrtppa is shown by red dotted lines 

\ on the Ihie of the present North Wall of the 



ILLUSTRATING RECENT DISCOVERIES 




Historical Atlas of holy land S4f 




FALESTIMl 

m THE 4.th CENTURY 
ACCORDING TO 

EUSEBIUS AND JEROME 



ASIA MINOR, EGYPT & PALESTINE—Facsimile of Section of the "Tabula Feutingeriam " 

NOTE,— This Map was based On a Roman Map of ihe Military Roads of the third century, probably based on earlier materials. 



-■'^^>^^^*^''^i'^''-^^^=3a^^^^:%%'^^^ 






PALEST INE— Facsimile of Map of Marinus Sanutus, 1611 








;":Lio 



y 




-jfj^"'^j 



r=^ -si 









} •*& tW'" 



I 



^M4 ^ FM,ESf IHE 

IN THE TIME OP THE CRUSADES AND 
LATIN KINGDOM OF JEBTJSALEM 



BXPL\NATI05 OF COLOCIRINU 
I [Egypt 

[_ I Kingdom ol Jetus»Ietn 

I I ComM of Tripoli 

{-;/yj Territory of AsBssalmi 
I I Principality oi Antioch 

f ' [ Kingdom of Anoenlii 



Medern namts are m Mitline w{ 



HISTORICALATLAS OF HOLY LAKD SSScSS-*" 




iue0feandthekmeee east'' 

IN THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES 







MODEKIf I 



PRES££YT 

POLITICAL BIVISI0HS 




iTIME 



Historical Atlas OF HOLY Lakd 60 




GENERAL INDEX 



^ Each of the divisions of the degree-net formed by the intersection of the lines of latitude and longitude is indicated by capital 
letters running along the top borders of the map's, and by numerals down the side borders. The letters and figures after the names in 
the Index indicate the division in which and the number of the map on which each name will be found. Thus : Damascus D 4 18 
will be found on map No. 18, in the division under the letter D on the top border, and along from the numeral 4 on the side border 
of the map. 

Biblical names and those in the Apocrypha are printed in heavy-faced type, thus : Jerusalem. 

A mark of interrogation (?) attached to a name indicates that its identification is doubtful. 

The Arabic article, el, and its coalescent forms before solar letters of ed, edh, en, er, es, esh, and et, is placed behind the name (except 
in the references within brackets). The scheme of transliteration of Arabic letters will be found in the letterpress to maps 15-30. 



'Abadeh, el- . . . 


F 3 


17 


Abana, R. (Nahr Barada) 


D 3 


17 


'Abanni . . . . 


C^3 


22 


Abarim, Mountains of 


Di 


29 


'Abasiyeh, el- . 


C4 


18 


'Abdeh (Abdon, Hebron) . 


B6 


16 


'Abdeh . . . , 


K2 


8 


Abdera . . . . 


B4 


1 


^Abdin . . . . 


B3 


21 


Abdon fAbdeh) . . 


B6 


16 


'Abdun . . . . 


E 4 


26 


'Abediyeh, el- . 


E3 


20 


'Abeiyeh . . . . 


D 2 


15 


Abel-beth-maaeha (Abl) . 


r>s 


16 


Abel-maim (Abl) . . 


D5 


16 


Abel-Meholah CAin Hel- 






weh) . 


2 


25 


Abel-Shittim (Khurbet el 






Keffrein) 


04 


25 


Abelin . . . . 


6 


57 


'Abellin . . . . 


C.s 


19 


Abellin . . . 


D I 


26 


Abil(Abfla) . . . 


C 3 


21 


Abila (Abil) 


3 


21 


Abila (Silk Wady Barada] 


3 


17 


Abilene, ^ee Abila . 


3 


17 


Abl (Abel-beth-_maacah, 






Abel-maim) . . 


i>5 


16 


Ablah . . . . . 


B I 


17 


Abodu . 


C4 


2 


Abrikha . . . . 


s 


16 


Abu'Alanda 


E 4 


26 


AbuDis . . . . 


E 5 


24 


Abu el-Hin . . . . 


Di 


17 


Abu Ghosh 


C 6 


60 


Abu Hamdun . 


D2 


15 


Abu Hamid (el-Mureijime 


) D 2 


29 


Abu Homiuos . . 


B I 


7 


Abu 5:amhah . . . 


E4 


16 


AbuKhaled . ; . 


A2 


27 


'Abud . . . . . 


B3 


23 



Abukir (Bukiris) . . B i 

Abut:ir Bay . . . B i 

Abuksa . . . .0 5 

Abu'l-Aswad River . _ . B4 

Abu Mina ? (Amira) . . A i 

Abu Nar . . . . B 5 

Abu 'Obeida . . . C 2 

Abu QprnSff . . . . C 8 

«lLaiUMcbe . . . E 5 

j^bn Senin » . . « 2 

AibuShAhub . . . B 3 

Abu Shdban . . . B 3 

AbtxrShush^ . . .54 

Abu Shusheh . - . C 4 

Abu Sigan . . . . D 2 

Abu Sir (Busiris) . . D 2 

Abusir (Taposiris) . . A 2 

Abusir, Pyramids of , . D 4 

Abu Tumeis . . ^ • Gr 3 

Abu Yazid . . . . E 4 

Abu Zkakih . . . B 2 

*Abwein . . . . E 3 

Abydos . . . . H 3 

Accaron (Acre) . . . B 6 

Aecaron ('A^ir) . . . . B 4 

Accaron ... . B 7 

Acohar ... .06 
Aceo, Accho, or Ptolemais 

(Acre, 'Akka) . . B 2 

Accon (Acre) . . . B 6 

Acli^a . . G 4 1 ; F 3 

Aehor, Valley of . . B 4 

Achzib (ez-Zib) . . .A 6 

Aehzib ('Ain el-Kezbeh) . 5 
Acre, or *Akka (Acco, 

Ae^ho. Ptolemais) . . B 2 

Aore,Bayof .- . . B2 

Acre et l^r, Territoire de . 6 

Aiitium . . . . G 4 

Aouze, el- . . . • D 5 

Adadah ? CAdadah) . . F 3 

Adam (ed-Damieh) . . 3 

» Adainah? <I>amieh) . . D3 
Adam!? (Khurbet Adma). E 4 

Adaua . . . .02 

' Adasa-(Khurbet *Adaseh) E 4 

Addir , ... . D4 

•Adesiye, d- . . . E 4 

Adidbbene . . ' • . L 4 

Adida (Haditheh) . . 4 

'Adiliyeh . . . . E4 

Aditha j . . . . . G 3 

'Adlun (drmthppolis) . B4 

AdoraJtbiirat) . . . E i 

Aioriilm {Bur&) . . E i 28 



7 

7 

7 

16 

7 

19 

25 

7 

3& 
19 
27 

24 

29 

7 

7 

7 

22 

18 

27 

23 

1 

57 

24 

57 

57 

19 
57 
51 
25 
16 
24 

19 
19 
57 

1 
30 
28 
25 
20 
20 
57 
24 
30 
20 

1 
23 
18 



Adraha . . . . D 6 

AdramyUion .. . . H 3 

Adria . . . . . D 4 

Adriatic . . . . 2 
Adullam (Khurbet 'Aid 

el-Ma) . . . . T>6 

Adum (Edom, Se'ir) . . K 2 

Aduma . . . . 4 
Adummim (T'alat ed- 

Dumm) . . . . B I 

iEgean Sea .■ . . G 3 

Aenus ? . . . . F 4 

'Aere . . . . . F 4 

Acre (es Sunamein) . . D6 

'Afana * . , . . . D i 

Aforea (el-'Afuleh) . . 4 

'Afuleh, el- (Aforea) . . 4 

Agade (Akkad) . . • E 3 

Agamatanu . . . F 3 

Agraena (el-Jurein) . . F 2 

Agrippa, Kingdom of . M 6 

'Agrud, Fort (Migdol)" . F 3 

Ahamant (Ma'an), . .08 

'Ahiry . . . . . F 2 
Ahnas el-Medineh ( ?Ehnes, 

Herakleopolis) . . 5 

Aia (Aii) . - . . . 5 
Ai or Aiath (Khurbet 

-Haiyan) . . . . E 4 

Aienat, el- . . . • D 3 

'Aiha . ... . B 3 

Aii (Aia) . ' . . . 5 

'Ailbun ... . D 2 

'Ailun . . . . . D 5 

'Ailut . . . . . 3 

'Ain, el- . . . . B 2 

'Ainab . , . . D 2 

'Ain Abu Museir . • E 3 

'Ain Abus . . . . E 3 

'Ain Anub . . . . D 2 

'Ain 'Arab . . . . B 3 

'Ain'Arik(Arclii) . . D4 

'Ain 'Atan . . . . B 5 

'Ain Beit .' . . . D2 

'Ain Dakar . . . 2 

'Ain ed-Duk (Docus) . B 4 

'Aine, el- . . . . B 6 

'Ain el-'Arufl . - , . B 6 

'Ain^-Bd^a . . . B s 

'Hmt^-Beedy . , .1)4 

'Attiel.Far4h . ^ . B2 

'Am e|.F©«f|ikliah . . B i 

'Amd-CftiaBia . . . B2 
'Ain rf-€&udy€ui (&tolt 

Geber?) . I 6 t; L 4 

'Ain el-Ghiiweir , . B 2 

'Ain el-Haramiyeh . . E 4 

'Ainel-Hekr . . . D4 

'Ain el-Hubeishiyeh . • B 5 
^A in el-Kezbeh (Achzib, 

Chezib) . . . . 5 

'Ain el-Lebweh . . . E 3 

'Ain el-Mellahah . . D6 

'Ain el-Mudauwerah . . E 2 

'Ain el-Weibeh . . . L 2 
'Ainesh-Shemsiyeh? (Beth 

Shemesh) . . . B 5 
'Ain es-Sakut . . . i 
'Ain et-Tanniir . . . B i 
'Aiji et-Tin . . « E 5 
'Ain et-Tmeh . , . E 2 
'Ain et-Tmeh . . . B 5 
'Ain et-Trabeh . . . B 2 
'Ain ez-JZeitun . . . B 2 
'Ain ez-Zerka . . . B i 
'Ain Faluj . . . . F 3 
'Ain Fit - . . . . E 5 
'Ain Hajlah (Beth Hoglah) i 
'Ain Hamul (Hammon) . B 6 
'Ain Haud . . . .A3 
^Ain Haud (En-Shemesh) E 5 
'Ain Hawar . . ,02 
'Ain Hawarah (Marab) . G 5 
'AinHelweh . . . i 
'Ain Helweh (Abel- 
Meholah) . . . 2 
'Ain Hemar . i . B 3 
'Ain Hersha . . . E 4 
'Ain Hesban . . . B i 
'Ainlb'al .... B 5 
'Ain Ibl ... .06 
' Ain Ibrahim . . . B 4 
'Alnltha (Beth Anath?) . 6 
'Ain Jadur . .' . B 3 
'Ain Jalud (? Well of 

Harod), . .,_ • • !> 4 



57 
51 
51 
51 

24 
8 
2 

29 
51 

7 
22 
18 
26 
19 
19 

2 

2 
22 
51 

7 
57 
22 

7 
30 

24 
29 
17 
30 
20 
60 
19 
If 
15 
26 
23 
15 
17 
24 
24 
15 
21 
25 
30 
30 
30 
IS 

29 
21 



23 
26 
16 

24 
15 
16 
20 
8 

20 
25 
29 
16 
20 
16 
29 
20 
29 
15 
16 
29 
16 
19 
24 
17 
8 
25 

25 
26 
16 
29 
16 
16 
19 
16 



1 



'Ain Ja*rub 

Ain Jidy (En-Gedi) . 

'Ain Jeimeh 

'Ain Joseleh 

'Ain Kadeis (Kadesh 

Barnea) . ... 
'Ain J^ana . 
'Ain Kanieh 
'Ain Karim (Beth-car) 
'Ain Khurwa'ah 
'Ain Kunyeh 
^4Lin Mahil (Nahallal?) 
'Ain Musa . 
'Ain 'Oneibeh 
'Ain Rubia 

•'Ain Sarah (Sirah Well) . E 
^AinBha'in (Shihon?) . 
'AiQ Shems (Beth- Shemesh) 
'Ain Sinia (Isana) , . E 
*"Ain Sitti Miriam . . B 
'Ain Sofa . . '. . E 
'Ain But. . . . . B 
'Aintab (Hamtab) . . E 



C 3 
B3 
B I 
C 3 

K2 

C 3 

B4 

BS 

E5 

E 4 

D3 

G4 

B3 

E 2 

I 

3 

5 

4 

5 

2 

S 
I 



E 4 

. B2 

(Tubania) B 4 

. F 2 

. . . E5 

. E 4 

. E 2 

. . . E 3 

. . . E s 

. B6 

. . . E 3 

. B2 

. . .06 

, B 6 

. . . F 3 

B4 

D4 

D3 



'Ain Tantah 

'Ain Treks . 

'Ain Tuba'un 

'Ainiin 

'Ain Yal5 , 

'Ain Yebrud 

'Ain Zahalteh 

'Ain Zibdeh 

'Aisawiyeh, el- . 

'Aita esh-Shaub 

'Aitenit 

/Aithatii . 

'Aitherun' . 

Aithire (Tireh) . 

'Aithy . 

Ajalon, Valley of 

Ajalon (Yalo) . 

^Ajam . . . 

'Ajjeh . . . . . E I 

'Ajjur . . . . .05 

"Ajliin . . . . . B I 

'Ajul . . . . . E 3 

'Akabah (Elath, Eloth) . L 4 

'Akabah, Gulf of (Sinus 

^lanites) - . . . K 6 
"Akabeh . . . . B i 
'Akauber . . . . E 2 
^Akbara .' . . . B 2 
Akhut-Aten (TeU el- 

Amama) . . .08 

'A]^ir(Akkaron, Ekron) . B 4 
'Akka, div. . . . 5 

Akkad. . . . . E^3 
Akkad (Agade) . ; . . E 3 
Akkar (or Jibeltar) , . . B 4 
Akkaron ('AJkir) . . B 4 
Akko . . . . .03 
Akoris (Tehna) . . . C 7 
'Akraba . . . . E 4 
'Akraba, el- .• . . B 3 
Akrabatta ('Akrabeh) . F 3 
Akrabbim, Ascent of? . B 6 
"Akrabeh - . . . .06 
'Akrabeh (Akrabatta, Ek- 

rebel) . . F 3 23; B 
Akrith . . . . B 



'Af al . ... 

'Al, el- .... 

'Al, el- (Elealah) 

Alam-melech (Wady el- 
Melek) .... 

Alapia (Haleb, A.leppo) . 

Alashia . . . . 

'Aleih, and sta. . 

Alema? ('Alma). 

Alema? (Kefr el-Ma). 

Alemeth (Khurbet 'Almit) 

Aleppo (Haleb, Alapia) . 

Alexandretta (Alexandria 
Minor) . . . . 

Alexandria (Rakoti, Iskan- 
deriyeh) . . 

Alexandria^ Minor (Alex- 
andretta) . 

Alexandrium (Kum Sur- 
tubeh) . . . . 

Alexandroscene (Iskan- 
deruneh) 

'Alkin el-Kebir . . 

'Alkin es-Sughir . . 

'Allan . ' . 

'Allar . . . 7-^^ . 



30 


'Ahna (Alema?) . . 


29 


'Alma . . ' . 


26 


'Ahna esh-Sha'ub 


25 


Almon (Khurbet 'Ahnit) . 




Alouros (Hulhul) 


8 


Alps, The* . ' . 


20 


'Aluk . ^ . . . . 


24 


Amad (Khurbet el-'Amud ?) 


24 


Amad ed-Bin . . . 


16 


Amara . . . 


16 


Amasia . . . 


20 


Amatha (el-Hammi) 


8 


Amathus .' . . . 


30 


Amatin . ... 


26 


Amca 


28 


Amchit .... 


20 


Amegarra .... 


24 


Amira (? Abu Mina) . 


23 


Amisus . , . . 


24 


Amka . . 


15 


Ammaga, el- 


16 


' Amman, and sta. (Rab- 


57 


bath Ammon, Phila- 


16 


delphia) .... 


15 


'Ammata .... 


20 


'Ammi^ .... 


23 


Ammon . . 


24 


Amphipolis 


24 


'Amrawa (Khan es-Sul- 


15 


tani) . . . . 


15 


Amu (Kom el-Hish) . 


24 


Amuda .... 


16 


'Amiidiyeh, el- . 


15 


Amurru . . . 


15 


'Amwas (? Emmaus) . 


16 


Anab ('Anab) . 


57 


Anaharath? (en-Na'urah). 


15 
24 


Ananiah (Beit Hannina) . 
'Anata (Anathoth) . 


24 


Anathoth ('Anata) . 


29 


Anazarbus . . 


23 


Ancona 


24 


Ancyra .... 


26 


'Anebta . . . 


23 


Aneth . 


8 


Aneyza . . . 




j Anim (Ghuwein) 


8 


'Anin . . ... 


25 


'Anjar (Ohalcis) 


17 


'Anjara . . . . 


20 


'Annabeh . . . 




Ansariyeh, el- . 


7 


Antartus (or Tortosa) 


24 


Anteliyas . . 


59 


Anthedon (Teda) 


2 


Anti-Libanus (Jebel esh- 


2 


Sherlfi) .... 


57 


Antioch K 3 51 ; N 4 51 ; 


24 


Antioche, Principaut^ d* . 


2 


Antiochus, Kingdom of . 


7 


Antipatris (l^ul'at Ras el- 


lA 


'Ain) .... 


29 


Antura- . . . 


23 


Anz 


30 


'Anza . . 


18 


Apamia (Famiyeh) , 




Apennines .... 


25 


Aphairema (et-Taiyibeh) . 


16 


Aphek? (el-Mejdel) . 


24 


Aphek??(Fik) . . . 


21 


Aphroditopolis (Atfih) 


21 


ApoUo.nia (Arsuf) ' *. 


29 


Arab Emirates. Bee 




Hama,_also Homs 


19 


Arab (Khurbet er-Rabiyeh) 


57 


'Arab Salim 


2 


Arabah 


15 


Arabia ... . 


22 


Arabia Petreea . 


21 


Arad (Tell 'Arad) . . 


24 


Aradus .... 


57 


'Ara'ir, el- (Aroer) . 




'Arak . . 


57 


'Arak el-Emir (Hyrcani- 




um, Tyrus) 


7 


'Ara^ el-Menshiyeh . 




Aram . . . . . 


57 


'Aramun . . 




Arantu (Orontes) R. 


25 


Arar 




Ar'ara' . . . . 


16 


'Ararah .... 


18 


Ararat, Mt. . . 


18 


Aratot .... 


26 


Arbattis? . . . . 


57 


Arbela . ... 



E3 

6 
B 6 
Es 
E I 

B2 

E3 
A6 
E 2 
I>3 

N2 

B3 

1 5 
B2 

6 
B2 
C 5 
Ai 
N2 
B2 
I>5 



E4 
2 
E 2 
E 4 
G2 

C 3 
B 2 
I 
B 2 
B3 
O4 
B2 
B4 
E5 
E5 
Es 
I 
E3 
L3 

B2 

C 7 
L7 
E 2 

B4 
B2 

B2 

04 
B4 
O4 
B I 
A I 



16 
16 
24 
28 

1 
26 
16 
23 

2 
51 
21 

1 
23 
57 
60 
57 

7. 
51 
19 
30 



26 
25 
15 
26 
51 

21 

7 
57 
21 

2 
24 
28 
20 
24 
24 
24 
57 

1 
51 
23 
57 

1 
28 
19 
17 
26 
24 
16 
57 
15 
27 



B2 17 

B2 67 

r>3 57 

M4 51 



C 3 
60 A 

55 

E I 

B3 
E3 
E 4 

As 

B3 

S5 
B 2 



57 
1 
24 
19 
21 
7 



E2 

B4 
B6 

^ 7 
J 4 

E3 
Ms 

C S 

D4 

B 6 

KS 

B2 

B2 
D3 
B4 
BS 
L4 
D3 
E3 

E2 



28 
16 
30 
1 
8 
28 
51 
29 
30 

26 
24 

1 
15 

2 
21 
28 
19 

1 

2 
.23 

2 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



Arbela (Irbid) . . . 


D3 


20 


'Ayun Kussabeh 


2 


27 


Arbela tirbid) . . . 


C4 


21 


'Ayun Musa 


D I 


29 


'Arbin 


E3 


17 


'Azebiyeh el-Foka 


T>3 


15 


Archelais ? . . . . 


B3 


25 


'Azebiyeh et-Tahta . 


B3 


15 


Archi ('Ain 'Arik) . 


D4 


24 


Azekah ? (Zakariya) . 


C 5 


24 


Ardashir . . . . 


D 8 


1 


•"Azireh . ... 


F I 


15 


Ard el-Fedayan 


F s 


18 


^Aziriyeh (Bethany) . 


ES 


24 


Ardel-Huleh . . 


D6 


16 


Azmaveth (Hismeh) . 


E 5 


24 


Ard el-Muse' 


F4 


18 


'Azmut . . 


E 2 


23 


'Areiyah, and sta. 


D I 


15 


Azot 


B 7 


57 


Areopolis (Rabba) 


D4 


30 


Azotus, Mt. (Bir ez-Zeit) . 


E 4 


23 


Aribi . ... 


B3 


2 


Azotus (Esdud) . 


A 5 


24 


Arimathea? (Beit Rima) . 


D3 


23 


'Azra . . . 


F 3 


17 


'Arin, el- (Pharbsethus) . 


E 2 


7 


Azuniyeh .... 


E 2 


15 


'Arish, el-,(Laris, Larriz) 


A7 


57 


Azur ..... 


B3 


15 


'Arish, el- (Rhinocolura) . 


I I 


8 


'"Azzun , . 


D2 


23 


^Arjan 


B5 


21 








'Arjan 


E 4 


26 








Ark el-Abrek 


1)3 


28 


Ba'abdeh . . . 


E I 


15 


Arka 


D4 


57 


Ba'aklin .... 


D2 


15 


Arm^nie, Royaume d' 


C I 


57 


Baalah. See Kirjatl 


i 




Arnon, R. (Wady Mojib) . 


G 3 


29 


Jearim 






'Amun . . . . 


D4 


16 


Baalath ? (Bela'in) . 


D4 


24 


'Amy 


B4 


18 


Baalbek .... 


E I 


60 


Aroer (el-'Ara'ir) 


D3 


29 


Baal Gad ? (Banias) . 


Es 


16 


Arpad 


K4 


1 


Baal-Hazor (Tell 'Asur) . 


E4 


23 


'Arrabeh . . 


C 5 


19 


Baal-Meon (Ma'in) . 


D I 


29 


'Arrabet el-Buttauf . 


T>2 


20 


Baal Shalisha (Kefi 






'Arraneh . . . . 


5 


20 


Thilth) .... 


D3 


23 


Ar-Razib . . . . 


E4 


26 


Baal Zephon ? (Suez) 


Q4 


8 


Arsinoe . . . . 


^3 


8 


Babdeh, and sta. 


T> I 


15 


Arsinoe (Medinet el-Fai- 






Babel (Babylon) 


L 5 


1 


yum) . . . . 


C'5 


7 


Bab el-Wad 


^ S 


24 


Arsuf (ApoUonia) 


B 2 


23 


Babliyeh . 


C4 


16 


Arsul (Arsur) ... 


B 6 


57 


Babylon (Babel) 


L 5 


1 


Arsur, and Seigneurie de . 


B6 


57 


Babylon (Fostat) 


D4 


7 


'Artuf . . . . . 


C 5 


24 


Babylonia . . 


L5 


1 


'Artus 


C 4 


18 


Bacchis ? (Dima) 


C4 


7 


Arumah (el-'Ormeh) 


E3 


23 


Bagdad . . . ' . 


L 5 


1 


'Ariira . . • . 


E3 


23 


Baghuliyeh 


C 3 


15 


^ Arvad (Island of Arwad) . 


C4 


57 


Baheiret el-Huleh (Waters 






Arwad . . . . 


r>3 


2 


of Merom)' 


1)6 


16 


Arx Ad j Inn 


C 4 


57 


Bahhur .... 


Bs 


16 


Arx Assassinorum (Mas- 




! 


Bahjeh, el- .... 


B2 


19 


yaf) 


D3 


57 


Bahr Lut (Dead Sea, 






Arz Baalbek 


D4 


57 


Salt Sea) . . . 


B3 


29 


Arziyeh . . . . 


B4 


16 


Bahr Maryut (L. Mareotis] 


A I 


7 


'Asal el-Werd . 


E I 


17 


Bahret el-Hijuneh . 


F 5 


18 


Asban ? f Aseileh) 


D2 


28 


Bahret el-JKIibliyeh . 


F4 


18 


Ascalon fAskalan) . 


B I 


27 


Bahr Tubariya (L. oi 






Asoalon (Skalona) 


^7 


57 


Gennesaret, L. ol 


I 




'Aseileh (? Asban) . 


D2 


28 


Tiberias, Sea of Galilee, 






Ashdod (Esdud) . . 


As 


24 


Sea of Chinnereth) . 


E3 


20 


Asher ? (Sahel Mukhnah). 


E3 


23 


BahrYusef . . . 


C 6 


7 


Ashkelon CAs^alan) . 


B I 


27 


Baiae . . . . . 


D2 


57 


Ashrnun . . . , 


3 


7 


Baithonuner (Beitiinia) . 


D4 


24 


Ashmunen (Klimun, Her- 






Ba^a . . . . . 


D2 


23 


mopolis Magna) 


C 8 


7 


Baka 


B5 


19 


Ashnah ? (Kefr Hasan) . 


C 5 


24 


Baka (Khurbet et-Tuba^a) 


C 6 


16 


Ashrafiyeh . . . 


I>4 


18 


Bakfeiya . . 


E I 


15 


'Ashrafiyeh, el- . 


C 4 


18 


Balah Lakes . . . 


F 2 


7 


Ashtaroth (Tell 'Ashturah) 


D3 


21 


Ba'lin . . . J . 


Bs 


24 


Ashur . . . . 


E2 


2 


Balkans .... 


03 


1 


'Asiret el-Hatab (Esora) . 


E2 


23 


Baltim .... 


D I 


7 


'Asiret el-lj:ibliyeh . 


E 2 


23 


Balii'a, el 


D3 


30 


Asiy 

'As^alan (Ascalon, Ash- 


3 


2 


Ba'lula . . . 


E 3 


15 






Ba'neh, el- . 


02 


19 


kelon) . . . . 


B I 


27 


Banias (Baal Gad, Dan ?, 






'As^alam, el- . . . 


B4 


21 


Csesarea Philippi) . 


Es 


16 


Asl^aliHia . . 


C 3 


2 


Barazein . . 


E-i 


29 


'Askar (Sychar) . . . 


E 2 


23 


Barbara .... 


E4 


20 


Asklepios, R. (Nahr el- 






Barcelona .... 


03 


1 


Barghut) 


C 3 


15 


Bardawil, el- 


r>4 


26 


Asochis, Plain of (Sahel 






Bardsha .... 


C 2 


15 


el-Buttauf) . . . 


C 3 


20 


Bariha, el- . . . . 


B4 


21 


Asphar, * Pool of (Bir 






Barin 


D4 


57 


Selhub) . . . . 


F 2 


28 


Barra^at .... 


C I 


29 


Assassings . . . . 


D3 


57 


Baruk, and Pass 


E2 


15 


Assos . . . . . 


H3 


51 


Barut^ (Beirut) . 


C 5 


57 


Assyria . . 


L4 


1 


Barza . . . . . 


T>2 


29 


Astr-tu . . . . 


^3 


2 


Bashan . . 


C 2 


21 


Atai, Montes 


J 7 


8 


Basir . . . 


D6 


18 


Atareb (Tereb) . 


D2 


57 


Baskinta .... 


^3 


60 


Ataroth (Attarus) 


D2 


29 


Basse, el- . 


A6 


16 


Ataroth-Addar (Attara) . 


E 4 


24 


6asseh, el- . 


C4 


60 


'Ateibeh, el- . . . 


F 4 


18 


Batan, el- . 


C 3 


29 


Atfih (Aphroditopolis) 


r>s 


7 


Batansea .... 


E3 


22 


Athens . . . . 


G4 


1 


Batansea (el-Buthene) 


H2 


22 


'Athlit (Chateau des 






Bathyra (Busr el-Hariri) . 


F 2 


22 


P^lerins) . . . 


A3 


19 


Batra, eL . . ' . 


DS 


30 


. Athlith . . . . 


B6 


57 


Batroun . . . . 


D I 


60 


Athribis (Tell Etrib) 


D3 


7 


Batruny .... 


C 3 


17 


'Athshith . . 


C4 


16 


Baushriyeh 


Di 


15 


'Atil . . 


(^3 


22 


Baweidah, el- . 


T>4 


18 


Atra 


L4 


1 


Bazuriyeh, el- . . . 


B 5 


16 


'Atshis . . . . 


5 


16 


Bcherre .... 


E 2 


60 


Attalia . . . . 


K4 


51 


Beaufort (KuFat esh- 






Attara ... 


E 3 


23 


Shuljif) .... 


Ds 


16 


Attara . . . . 


D2 


23 


Beba 


C6 


7 


Attara { Ataroth- Addar ) . 


E 4 


24 


Bedarus .... 


E 6 


16 


Attarus (Ataroth) . 


D2 


29 


Bediyeh, el- 


D 2 


26 


'Attn 


D I 


23 


Beer ? 


E 2 


29 


'Attit ...... 


B5 


16 


Beeroth (Bireh) . 


E 4 


24 


At-tuku Succoth ? (Tell el- 






Beersheba (Bir es-Seba") . 


C 3 


27 


Maskhuta) . . 


F 2 


7 


Behariyeh . . . . 


F3 


17 


Augsburg . . . 


E2 


1 


Behbit el-Higarah (Pe- 






Auja, el- (Awja) . ; . 


J 2 


8 


hbeyt, Iseum) 


D I 


7 


'Aula.m . . . : . 


1)3 


20 


Behneseh, el- (Oxyrhyn- 






Aun (el-Matarieh) . .. 


D3 


7 


chus) . 


C 6 


7 


Autaya . . . ; 


E3 


17 


Beirut (Berytus) 


C I 


15 


'Awaniah, el- 


'E3 


20 


Beisan (Beth-shean, Scytho- 




Aweilet N'a*'ur . 


E4 


26 


polis) .... 


P 5 


20 


'Awertah (Gibeah, of 






Beisan sta 


D4 


20 


Phlnehas) 


E 3 


23 


Beita 


E 3 


23 


Awja, el- . 


J 2 


8 


Beit 'Afleh . ; . . 


B6 


24 


Ayalona . . . . 


D3 


2 


Beit Akkar 


c 3 


21 


Ayat, el- ... . 


D4 


7 


Beit Alam . ... 


C6 


24 


•Ayun Kara . . . 


B4 


24 


Beit 'Anan . ^ . . 


D4 


24 



Beitariyeh . . . . E 5 

Beit 'Atab (? Etam) . . D 5 

Beit Aula (Bethuel) . . D 6 

Beit Dejun . . . . B 2 

Beit Dejun . . . B 3 

Beit Duras . . . . B 5 

V Beit Durdis . . . B i 

Beit Eddin . . . D 3 

Beit Edis . . . . B 5 

Beit el-Karm . . . D 4 

Beit E116 (Elon?) . . D 4 

Beit Eased . . . . C 5 

Beit Fejjar . . . D 6 

Beit Furik . . . . E 2 

BeitHannina (Ananiah) . E5 

Beit Hanun . . . B i 

Beit Iba . . . . E 2 

Beit Iksa . . . . E 5 

Beit Ima . . . . C 4 

Beit Imrin . . . . E 2 

Beitin (Bethel, Luz) . . E 4 

Beit Izza . . . . D 4 

Beit Jala (? Gallim) . . E 5 

Beit Jemal . . . . B 6 

Beit Jenn . . . • B 5 

Beit Jenn . . . . D 2 

Beit Jerjah . . . B i 
Beit Jibrin (Eleuthero- 

polis) . . . .06 

Beit Jubr . . . . B 4 

Beit Kad . . . . D 5 

Beit Lahi (Bethelia) . . A i 

Beit Lahm (Bethlehem) . E 5 
Beit Lahm (Bethelehem 

of Zebiilon) . . . 3 

Beit Laya . . . . E 4 

Beit Lif (Heleph?) . .06 

Beit Likia .• . . . D 4 

Beit Lud . . . . D 2 

Beit Mahsir . . . D 5 

Beit Miry . . . . D i 

Beit Mizmir . . . E 5 

Beit Nabala (Neballat) . 4 

Beit Na'im . . . E 3 

Beit Nakuba . . . D 5 
Beit Kettif (Bethleptepha) 5 

Beit Nuba (Nebo?) . . D 4 

Beit Nusib (Nezib) . .06 

Beit Has (Oapitolias) . 4 
Beit Rima (Arimathea? 

Ramathaim ?) . . . D 3 

Beit Sabir . . . . 4 

Beit Sahur . . . . E 5 
Beit Sira (Uzzen-Sherah) D 4 

Beit Suf afa . . . E 5 

Beit Sur (Beth-zur) . . D 6 

Beit Surik . . . . 1> 5 

Beit Ta'mir . . . E 5 

Beit Tuna . . . . B i 

Beit Udhen . . ^ • E 2 

Beit Ummar . . . B 6 

Beitiinia (Baithommer) . D.4 
Beit '0r el-Fo^a (Beth- 

Horon, Upper) . . D 4 
Beit 'tTr et-Tahta (Beth- 

Horon, Lower) . . D 4 

Beit Yafa . . . . B 4 

Beit Yahiin . . .06 

Beit Zerah (Jazer?) . . D 4 

Bekfeiya . . , . D 2 

Bekka . . . ; . 3,3 

Bekka . . . , • & 5 

Belad Besharah . . . C 5 

Belad er-Riihah , . B 4 

Belad esh-Shuki , . . C 4 

Belah D i 

Bela'in (Baalath?) . . D 4 

Bela*'ma . . . . F 2 

Belat E 4 

Belat . . . . . D 4 
Belfort (Kul'at esh-Shu- 

^if) D 5 

Belideh . . . .06 

Belinas (Banias) . . 5 

Belka, el-, div. . . .06 

Belled esh-Sheikh . . B 3 
Belvoir (Kaukab el- 

Hawa) . . . .06 

Bene Berak (Ibn Ibrak) . B 3 

Benediction, Trees of . E 2 

Benha . . . . . D 3 
Beni Hasan (Menat-Khu- 

fu, Speos Artemidos) . 8 

Beni Na'im (Janum) . E i 

Beni Suef . . . . D 5 

Beracah, Valley of . . D 6 

Beramyha . . . . 3 

Berea F 2 

Berfilya . . . . 4 

Berkusieh . . . -65 
Bersabea (Bethgibelin, 

Gibelin) . . . . B 7 

Berukin ... • D 3 

Beruna . . . . 3 

Berweh, el- . . . 2 

Berytus (Beiriit) . . i 

Berzethu (Bir ez-Zeit) . E 4 

Beshit B 5 

Bessan (Bethsan) . .06 

Bessima . . . . D 3 

Bestan . . . .A3 

Beteddin . . . . D 2 

Betel . . . . . 7 

Betenoble . . . . 7 
Bethabara ? (Makht 'Aba- 

rah) . . . . . E 4 

Beth Anath? ('Ainitha) . 6 

Bethany ('Aziriyeh) . • E 5 



18 


Beth-aven, Wilderness of . 


E4 


24 


24 


Beth - barah ? (Makht 






24 


'Abarah) .. . . 


E 4 


20 


25 


Beth-Bireh (Khurbet Bel- 






23 


yud). . . . 


E3 


28 


24 


Beth-car CAin Karim)' . 


DS 


24 


27 


Beth-Dagon (Dajun) 


B4 


23 


15 


Bethel (Beitin) . 


E 4^ 


24 


21 


Bethelia (Beit Lahi) . 


A I 


27 


30 


Bether?(Bittir) . 


D5 


24 


23 


Beth-Gamul ? (el .Jema'il) . 


E3 


29 


24 


Bethgebelin Gibelin, Ber- 






24 


sabea) .... 


B7 


57 


23 


Beth-Haram (Tell Rameh) 


I 


29 


24 


Beth Hoglah ('Ain Hajlah 


I 


29 


27 


Beth-Horon, Lower (Beit 






23 


'Ur et-Tahta) 


D4 


24 


24 


Beth-Horon, Upper (Beit 






18 


'Ur el-Foka) . . . 


D4 


24 


23 


Beth-Jeshimoth? (Sueimeh) i 


29 


24 


Beth-Lebaoth (Khurbet 






24 


Beiyud) .... 


E 3 


28 


24 


Bethlehem (Beit Lahm) . 


Es 


24 


60 


Bethlehem of Zebulon 






18 


(Beit Lahm) . 


3 


19 


20 


Bethleptepha (Beit Nettif ] 


5 


24 


27 


Beth-Meon (Ma'in) . 


D I 


29 




Beth-Nimrah (TellNimrin) 


04 


25 


24 


Beth-Peor ? (esh-Sheikh 






25 


Jayel) .... 


D I 


29 


20 


Bethphage (Kefr et-for) . 


E 5 


24 


27 


Beth Rehob? (HunTn) 


D5 


16 


24 


Bethsaida (et-Tell) . . 


E 2 


20 




Bethsan (Bessan) 


6 


57 


19 


Beth-shean (Beisan) 


F 5 


20 


16 


Beth-ShemeshCAinShems) 5 


24 


16 


Beth Shemish fAin esh- 






24 


Shemiyeh) 


I>S 


20 


23 


Beth Shittah (Shutta) 


B4 


20 


24 


Bethsurie .... 


7 


57 


15 


Beth Tappuah (Tuffiih) . 


E I 


28 


24 


Bethuel (Beit Aiila) .' . 


D6 


24 


23 


Bethulia (Methelieh or 






17 


Meselieh). 


C 5 


19 


24 


Beth-Zacharias (Khurbet 






24 


Beit Skaria . ' . 


I>5 


24 


24 


Beth Zenita (Khurbet 






24 


Zuweinita 


I 


19 


21 


Beth-^zur (Beit Sur) . 
Betsaanim (Sahel el- 


D6 


24 


23 


Ahma) . . . 


D3 


20 


18 


Bezek? (Bez^ah) 


4 


24 


24 


Bezek (Khurbet Ibzik) . 


Bi 


25 


24 


Bezkah (? Bezek) 


O4 


24 


24 


Bhannis .... 


D I 


15 


24 


Bhazir 


2 


15 


24 


Biddu . . . . 


D4 


24 


24 


Bidias . . . . . 


Bs 


16 


27 


Bika% el- (VaUey of 






23 


Mizpeh?) . . 


F 2 


15 


24 


Bilbeis (Pharbaethus) 


E3 


7 


24 


Bileam (Wady BeFameh) 


cs 


19 




Bint Umm Jubeil 


6 


16 


24 


Bir 


K2 


8 




Bir 'Adas .... 


C 3 


23 


24 


Bir al-Hafir . . . 


K2 


8 


21 


Bir Bir'ein .... 


J 2 


8 


16 


Bireh . . . . 


D2 


28 


26 


Bireh (Beeroth) . . . 


E4 


24 


60 


Bireh, el- .... 


B2 


21 


17 


Bir^, el- . . 


E3 


26 


22 


Bireh, el- . . . 




20 


16 


Bireh, el- . . . 


5'V 


f$ 


19 


Bir el-*Ajam . 


¥6 


16 


16 


Bir es-Seba' (Beersheba) . 


es 


27 


23 


Bires-Sui: . . . . 


Ar 


29 


24 


Bir ez-Zeit (Berzethu, Mt. 






26 


Azotus) .... 


E4 


23 


18 


Bir Hooker 


B3 


7 


16 


Biria . . . . . 


D2 


20 




Bir ibn Turkiyeh 4 27 ; 


B7 


57 


16 


Birket'Ata . . 


A 5 


19 


16 


Birket el-Arais . . . 


B3 


21 


57 


Birket el- Jamiis 


4 


24 


59 


Birket el-Jish . . -. 


D I 


20 


19 


Birket el-Kateineh . 


B4 


30 




Birket el-Khulil 


B 3 


29 


57 


Birket Jiljiilieh (Gllgal) . 
Birket Qarun (Tia,ke 


B4 


25 


23 






20 


Moeris) . 


C 5 


7 


7 


Birket Ram (L. Phiala) . 


Es 


16 




Bir Nebala . . 


E4 


24 


7 


Bir Salem .... 


B.6 


60 


28 


Bir Selhub (Pool of 






7 


Asphar) . . 


F 2 


28 


24 


Bir Shene^ 


B 3 


27 


15 


Bir Umm Deraj 
Bir ummu 'Ur^an 


F 2 


28 


51 


A 3' 


27 


24 


Birut . . . . 


I>3 


2 


24 


Birutu .... 


B3 


2 




Bishard .... 


4 


21 


57 


Bisiba 


D3 


15 


23 


Bithir ..... 


D3 


15 


2 


Bithynia and Pontus 


K2 


51 


19 


Bitter Lakes, Great and 






15 


Little .... 


F 3 


7 


23 


Bittir (Bether) . 


D5 


24 


24 


Bizariah, el- . . . 


D2 


23 


57 


Blancha Garda . 


B7 


57 


17 


Bley, el- .... 


F s 


18 


19 


Bliidan .... 


2 


17 


15 


Boghaz Keui (Pteria) 


2 


2 


57 


Bohan, Stone of ? (Hajr el- 






57 


AsHlh) . . ' . 


B I 


29 




BolTiitine (Rosetta) . 


B I 


7 


20 


Bblbitinic (Rosetta) Mouth 






16 


. of Nile .... 


B I 


7 


24i 


Bologna .... 


E3 


t 


r 









Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



Boreyda L 6 

Borkeos (EJaurbet Berklt) E 3 

Borsippa C 9 

Bos or (Busr el-Hariri) . F2 

Bosor'a (Bosra eski-Sham) F 4 

Bosphorus . . • . I 2 
Bosra eski Sham (Bosora, 

Bozrah) . . . . F 4 

^ Bostra . . . . D 6 

Bostrenus, R. (Nahr el- , 

'Auwali) . . . .03 

Bouser . . . . D 6 

Boutron . . • . C 4 

Bozrah (Bosra eski-Sham) F 4 

Breit:a '. . . . C 4 

Breikah, el- . . . F 6 

Breka . . . . . E 3 

Brikeh . . . . E 4 

Brummana . . . D i 

Brundisium . . . T> 2 

Btathir . . . . D 2 

Bubastis (Tell Basta), . D 2 

Bueida, el- . . . . D 4 

Buf event (Buffaventum) A 3 

Buffaventum (Buf event) . A 3 

Buk'asem . . . . B 4 

Bu^'ati, el- . . . E 5 

Bufezei'a, el- . . . B i 

Bu^eia% el- . . . B 2 
Bu^ei'a, el- (Valley of 

Rephaim) . . . E 5 

Bukiris (Abukir) . . B i 

Bura^, el- . . . . D 5 

Burak (Constantine ?) . E 5 

Burberah . . . . B i 

Burd . . . . . G s 

Bureij, el- . . . • C 5 

Bureir B i 

Burghuz . . . . D 4 
BMn . . . . .02 

Burin E 2 

Burj, el- . . . . A 4 

Burj, el- . . . . D 4 

Burj 'Alawei . . . 5 

Burj Bardawil . . . E 4 

Burj el-Barak . . . E 4 

Burj eMIawa . . . B 5 

Burj el-:^ibly . . . B 5 

Burj esh-Shemaly . . B 5 

Burj Maleh (Forbelet) . 6 

Burka . * . . . . E 2 

Burkah . . . . B 5 

Burkah . . . . E 4 

Bur^in . . . - 5 

Burkash . . . . B 4 

Burliia, Lake . . . i 

Burma , " * . . D2 

Burr EUas . . . . B 2 

Burzeh . . . . . D 3 

Buseiliyeh . . . . B 2 

Buseireh, el- . . . L 2 

Busiris (Abu Sir) . . D 2 
Busr el-Hariri (Bosor, 

Bathyraj . . . F 2 

Butani, el- . . . . B 5 

Butani esh-Shert:iyeh, el- B 5 

Buthene, el- (Batansea) . H 2 

Butmiyeh, el- . . . 2 

Buto (Tell el-Fera'in) . i 

Butrentum . • • B i 



Oabbon (el-Kubeibeh) . D i 
Cabor (Kabul) . . .06 
Oabul (Kabul) . . . 2 
Oacho (Oaco, or Chaco) . 6 
Caco (Ohaoo, or Cache) . 6 
Gademois (Kadmous) . D 3 
Cadiz (Gadira) . . . A 4 
Csesarea, Comte de , . B 6 
CsBSarea (Kaisarieh) . . A 4 
Casarea Philippi (Banias) E 5 
CsBSarea (Seijar) . . D 3 

Cagliari (Caralis) . . D 4 
Cairo . . D 3 7; I 5 
Calansue (Kulansaweh) . 6 
Calcalia . . . .06 
Oallirrhoe (Baths of Herod) 2 
Calquis . . . • E 3 
Cana of Galilee (Kefr 

Kenna) . . . . D 3 
Cana Galilee . . .06 
Cana (Khurbet K^ana) . O 3 
Canamelle . . . . 2 
Candayra (Kandara) . A 3 

Canna . . . . . 5 
Cannetum Sturnellorum . B 7 
Canopic Mouth (Canopus, 

Pa-gut) of Nile . . B i 
Cahsir (Khanzireh) . • 5 
Cal>ernaam (Khurbet Mi- 

nieh) . . . . E 2 
Oapharnaum (Kefr Lam) B 6 
Capitolias (Beit Ras) . C4 
Gappadocia . • • M 3 
Capua . . . . . B 2 
Caput Gloriate (Ras Ibn 

Hani) . . . . C 3 
Caralis (Ca^iari) . . D 4 
Garia . . * . • I 4 
Carmel . . . . 7 
Garmel (el-Kurmul) . . E 2 
Carmel, Mount (Jebel 

Kurmul) . . . . B 3 
Carpaa (Sanctus Andreas) B 3 
Carthage . . . . B 4 
Casal des Destmx . . B 6 
Casale de Gezin (Jezzin) . C 5 



27 
57 
19 
57 
57 
57 
1 
57 
19 
16 
57 
1 
1 
57 
57 
29 
57 

20 
57 
20 
57 
57 
57 
57 

7 
30 

20 
57 
21 
51 
51 

57 
1 
51 
57 
28 

19 
57 
1 
57 
57 



Casale Gezin (Jezzin) • D 3 15 
Oasale Maktara (el Mukh- 

tara) . . . . D 3 15 

Casale Maktara . . . 5 57 
Oasale Somelaria Templi 

(es-Semeriyeh) . . 5 57 

Oasal Imbert . . . 5 57 

Casphor (el-Mezeirib) . D 3 21 

Oaspin (el-Mezeirib) . . D 3 21 
Oastellum Ourdorum (Hisn 

el-Akrad) . . ' . D 4 57 

Oastellum Peregrinorum . B 6 57 

Oastrum Album (Halba) . D 4 57 
Oaymont and Seigneurie 

de 6 57 

Cayphas and Seigneurie de 6 57 
Oedron, The Brook (Wady 

en-Nar) . . . . E 5 24 

Cedron? (Katrah) . . B 5 24. 

Cefrquenne . . . 6 57 

Cenehrea . . . F 4 51 

Oerep (Tereb) . . . D 2 57 

Ohaco (Oaco or Oacho) . 6 57 

Ohakra sta. . . . E 2 22 

Chalcis (^Anjar) . . B 2 17 

Chaldsea . . . . M 5 1 

Charakmoba (el-Kerak) . D 4 30 

Chastel Blanc (Safita) . D 4 57 

Ohastelet (Ka§r el-Athara) 5 57 
Ohdteau des Pelerins 

f Athlit) . . . . A 3 19 
Chat de la Valine de Moise 

(el-Weyra) . . . 8 57 
Chephar - Hammon - Ai ? 

(Kefr Ana) . . . E 4 23 

Chephirah (Kefireh) . . D 5 24 

Oherines (Ghyma) / .A3 57 

Chesalon (Kesla) . . D 5 24 

ChesuUoth (Iksal) . . 3 20 

Chezib CAin el-Kezbeh) . 5 24 
Chinnereth, Sea of (Bahr 

Tubariya) . . . E 3 20 

Chios G 3 51 

Chittiml. . . . . I 4 1 

Chorazln (Kerazeh) . . E 2 20 
Chozeba (Khurbet Kueizi- 

ba) . . . . . D 6 24 

ChUSl (:K:uzah) . . . E 3 23 

Ohypre, Be de . . . A 4 5t 

Cidnus, R B i 57 

Cllicia . ... . L 4 51 

Gilician Gates . . . M 4 51 

Cinnar . . . . D 4 30 

Citium . . . . L 5 51 

Clauda . . . - . G 5 51 

Oleopatris . . . . G 4 8 

Cnidos . . . . H 4 51 

Coele Syria . . . A 2 17 

Ooliath . . . . 4 57 

Colosse . . . I 4 51 

Constantine ? (Bwak) . E 5 18 

Constantinople . . . H 3 1 

Coos . . . . . H4 51 

Coquet (Kaukab el-Hawa) 6 57 

Cordova . . . . B 4 1 

Corinth . . . . F 4 51 

Corsie . . ... . 6 57 

Costigan, Point . . . B 3 30 

Crete . . . . . G 5 51 

Crocodile R. (Nahr ez- 

Zerka) . . . . A 4 19 
Crocodiles, Fleuve des 

(Nahr ez-Zerka) . . B 6 57 

Ctesiphon . . . • L 5 1 

Gush 18 1 

Cynopolis (el-Qes) . . 7 7 

Cyprus . . . . L 5 51 

Cyrenaica . . . . G 5 1 

Gyrene . . . . G 5 1 

Cythera . . . . F 4 51 

Oyzicos . . . . H 2 51 



Dabaritta (Deburieh) . D 3 20 
Dabbasheth? (Khurbet 

Dabsheh) . . . 2 
Dabbuseh . . . . B 3 
Daberath (Deburieh) . B 3 
Dabura . . . . D 6 



Da'el sta. . . . . D 3 

Dahab ? (Dizahab) . . J 7 

pahr el-Ahmar . , . . F 3 

Dahshur, Pyramids of . D 4 

Daibon (Dhiban) . . D 2 

Dajiin (Beth Dagon) . B 4 

Daliet el-Kurmul . • B 3 

Daliet er-Ruhah . . B 4 

Dalmatia . . . . D i 

Dama el-'Alya (Dametha) F 2 
Damanhur (Dimen-Hor, 

Hermopolis Parva) . B i 

Damascus, vilayet . . E 3 
Damascus (Dimeshk esh- 

Sham) . . . . D 4 

Dametha (Dama el-'Alya) F 2 

Damieh (Adamah) . . D 3 

Daniieh, ed- (Adam) . 3 

Damietta(Phatnitic ),Mouth 

of Nile . . . . E I 

Damyat (Tamiathis) . E i 

Dan? (Banias) . . . E 5 

Dan? (Tell el-Kady) . . D 5 

Danian . . . . A 6 ' 

Dann, ed- . . . . E 6 

Dannah (Idhna) . . D 1 

Danube, R. . . H 3 

Danuriyeh, ed- . . . B 2 



19 
21 
20 
16 
21 

8 
15 

7 
29 
23 
19 
19 
51 
22 

7 
59 

18 
22 
20 
25 

7 
7 
16 
16 
16 
16 
28 
1 
21 



DaphnsB (Tell Defneh) . F 2 

Daraya . . . . D 3 

Daraya . . . . D 4 

Dareiya * . . . D 4 

Daria D 5 

Darius Stele . . . . F 3 

Daroma (ed-Deir) . . A 2 

Darra, ed- . . . . E 2 

Darum, Baronnie de • B 7 

Darum (ed-Deir) . . A 2 

Darum (Deir el-Balah) . B 7 
Dariit en-Nakl (Hermo- 

politana Phylake) . .08 
Darut esh-Sherif (The- 

baica Phylake) . .08 

Datras (Thorma) . . D 5 

Dawaimeh, ed- . . . D i 
Dead River (Nahr el- 

Mef jir) . . ' . . A 5 
Dead Sea (Bahr Liit) . . B 2 
Debbeh, ed- ' . . . B 6 
Debir (edh-Dhaheriyeh) . D 2 
Debir (Thogret ed-Debr) . F 5 
Deburieh (Daberath, Daba- 
ritta) . . . . D 3 
Debweh, el- . . . E 6 
Decapolis . . . B-E 4 
Deffen ... . G 5 
Behama . . . . D 5 
Deir Aban . . . . D 5 
Deir Abu Da'if . . . Ds 
Deir Abu Meshal . . D 4 
Deir 'AH (Leboda) . . D 5 
Deir *Ammar . . . D 4 
Deir 'Aziz . . . . B 2 
Deir Ballut . . . D 3 
Deir t)ama el-Jua'ni . F 2 
DeirDibal . . . . 5 
Deir Diwan . . . E 4 
Deir Dughiya . . • 5 
Deir, ed- (Daroma, 

Darum) . . . . A 2 

Deir -el-'Abud . . . G 4 

Deir el- Adas . . .06 

Deir el-'Ashayir . . 3 

Deir el-Ashek . . . 5 

Deir el-Asl . . . . D 2 
Deir el-Balah (Darum, 

Daron) . ' . . . B 7 

Deir el-Ghazal . . . 2 

Deir el-Ghusun . . . D i 

Deir el-Hajar . . . E 4 

Deir el-Harf . . . E i 

Deir el-Hatab . . . E 2 

Deir el-Hawa . . • D 5 

Deir el-Kamr . . . D 2 

Deir el-Khuwat . . F 3 

Deir el-I^ula' . . . D i 

Deir el-Leben . . . G 3 

Deir el-Lebwa , . . D 2 

Deir el-Mukhallis . . 3 

Deir en-Nidham . • D 3 

Deir es-SaUb - . . . E 5 

Deir es-Sa'ne . . . B 4 

Deir esh-Sheikh , . D 5 

Deir es-Sudan . . • D 3 

Deir es-Suras . . . E 6 

Deir es-Surian . . '05 

Deir Eyub . . . . D 5 

Deir Ghabiyeh . . . D 4 

Deir Ghussaneh . • D 3 

Deir Ghuzaleh . . . D 5 

Deir Halaweh . . • E 5 

Deir Hanna • . . D 2 

Deir Ibzia . . . D 4 

Deir Kanun . . • B 5 

Deir Kaniin and sta. . 3 

Deir Makarius . . . B 3 

Deir Mimas . . • D 5 

Deir Nakhas (Ir-Nahash) . 6 

Deir Ra-fat . . . E 2 

Deir Selman . . . E 4 

Deir Sheraf . . . E 2 

Deir Sineid . . . . B i 

Deir Yesin . . . . E 5 

Deir Zaherany . . . 4 

Deir Zeinun . . . B 2 

Deishun . . . . D 6 

Delata . . . . D i 

Deleilat, ed- . . . D 2 

Delhamiyeh, ed- . . E 6 

Delhenayeh, ed- . . 4 

Delingat . . . . 2 

Denaba (Saidahaya) . E 2 

Denna . . . . D 4 

Dennabeh . . . . D 2 

Denn, ed- . . . . D 3 

Dera'a sta. . . . . D 4 

Dera'ah, ed- (Edrei) . . D 4 

Derail sta. . . . • D 5 

Deratiyeh . . . . E 2 

Derb es-Sultani to Homs . E 3 

Derbe . . . . . L 4 

Dereijat . . . • E 3 

Derij D 3 

Destroit (Khurbet Dus- 

trey) . . . .A3 

Desiiq i 

Deyr, ed- . . . . D i 

Dhafre . . . . D 2 

Dhaheriyeh, edh- (Debir) . D 2 

Dhahr Selmeh . . . B 3 

Dhahret el-Kolah . . F 2 

Dheliir . . . . F 6 

Dheibe, edh- . . . D 2 

Dhenebbeh, edh- . . C 5 

Dhenei)3e, edh- . . • C 3 

Dhiban (Dibon, Daibon) . D 2 



7 


Dhikerin 


. 6 


24 


15 


Dhuneibeh . 


. E 4 


16 


18 


Dhuneibeh . 


. E 2 


22 


16 


Diateh 


. F 2 


22 


57 


Dibbin 


. D4 


16 


7 


Dibl . 


. 6 


16 


27 


Dibon (Dhiban) . 


. D2 


29 


29 


Diklat, R. (Tigris) 


. E3 


2 


57 


DiUy . 


. D2 


21 


27 


Dima (? Bacchis) ' 


. 04 


7 


57 


Dimas, Khan 


. 3 


17 




Dimaska 


. B3 


2 


7 


Dimen-Hor (Damanhur) . B i 
•Dimeshk esh-Sham (Dam- 


7 


7 


ascus) 


. D4 


18 


30 


Dimon? (Medeiyineh' 


. E 2 


29 


28 


Dimonah? (Khurbet 


edh- 






Dheibeh) . 


. E3 


28 


19 


Dionysias (Qasr Qarun) . B 5 


7 


29 


Dizahab? (Dahab) . 


. J 7 


8 


30 


DOCUS ('Ain ed-Duk) 


. B4 


25 


28 


Dok . 


. 6 


57 


24 


Dokara . . . 


. B4 


21 




D5meh (Dumah) 


. D2 


28 


20 


Domeh 


. B3 


25 


16 


Dor or Dora (Tanturah) . A 4 


19 


21 


Dorea (ed-Dur) . 


. F 3 


22 


22 


Dorylaion . 


. K3 


51 


21 


Dothan, Plain of 


. 5 


19 


24 


Dotiian (Tell Dothan] 


. 5 


19 


20 


Drepanum Promontory . I 8 


8 


23 


Dubbiyeh, ed- . 


. 2 


15 


18 


Dubbuk 


. D3 


26 


23 


Dubil . . . . 


. B 3 


19 


21 


Duer, ed- . 


. E 3 


20 


23 


Duerban 


. E 3 


20 


22 


Diiket-Kafr-'akib 


. E2 


20 


16 


Dulbeh* 


. E 4 


18 


24 


Duma . . 


. E 3 


17 


16 


Dumah (Domeh) 


. D2 


28 




Dummar, and sta. 


• D3 


17 


27 


Dunib .... 


. B3 


2 


22 


Dur, ed- (Dorea) 


. F3 


22 


18 


Dura (Adora, Adoraim) . E i 


28 


17 


Dura, Plain of . 


. D9 


1 


24 


Duri, ed- . 


. A2 


27 


28 


Duweir, ed- 


. 4 


16 




Duweir, ed- 


. B5 


21 


57 


Duweirib, ed- . 


. F3 


22 


17 








23 








18 


Ebal, Mt. (Jebel 


Esla- 




15 


miyeh) 


. E2 


23 


23 


'Ebdis . . . . 


. B 5 


24 


24 


Ebkuriye, el- 


. B2 


ti 


15 


Ebroil (Hebron) 


. 7 


57 


22 


Ecbatana . 


. M4 


1 


15 


Edessa, Comt6 d' 


. E I 


57 


22 


Edku, Lake 


. B I 


7 


21 


Edom (Idumsea) 


. Ki 


8 


15 


Edrei (ed-Dera'ah) . 


. D4 


21 


23 


Eglon (Khurbet 'Ajlun) . i 


27 


24 


Egypt (Musr) 


. C 2 


7 


21 


Egypt, River of (Wady el- . 




24 


*Arish) . 


. J 2 


8 


23 


Ehnes ? (Ahnas el-Medineh) 5 


7 


16 


Ehsun, el- . 


. B3 


21 


16 


Eib .... 


. D6 


18 


24 


Eidun .... 


. 4 


21 


18 


Eitha (el-Hit) . 


. G2 


22 


23 


Ekdippa (ez-Zib) 


. A6 


16 


20 


Ekrebel (^Akrabeh) . 


. B3 


25 


20 


Ekron ('Akir) . 


. B4 


24 


20 


Eli^eir, el- . 


. 3 


21 


24 


Elah, Valley of (Wady es- 




16 


Sunt) 


. 5 


24 


17 


Elam .... 


. Ms 


1 


7 


Elamtu . . 


. F 3 


2 


16 


Elath . . 


. K6 


1 


24 


Elath ('Akabah) 


. L4 


8 


28 


Elealah (el-'Al) . . 


. D I 


29 


18 


Eleasa (Khurbet H'asa) . D 4 


24 


23 


Eleutheropolis (Beit 


Jib- 




27 


rin) .... 


. 6 


24 


24 


Eleutherus, R. . 


. C 5 


57 


16 


Elim? .... 


. H5 


8 


17 


Elisha .... 


. F4 


1 


16 


'EUar .... 


. D I 


23 


20 


Elon? (Beit Ella) . 


..D4 


23 


29 


Eloth CAkabah) 


. L4 


8 


16 


^Emara, el- 


. A3 


27 


18 


Embaba 


. D3 


7 


7 


Emessa (Horns) 


. D4 


57 


17 


Emmaus? (^Amwas) . 


. 4 


24 


20 


Emmaus? (!l^ul6nieh 


) . D5 


24 


23 


Endor (Endor) . 


. D4 


20 


29 


Engaddi 


. C7 


57 


21 


Engannim (Jenin) 


. 5 


20 


21 


En-Gannim (Khurbet 


Umm 




18 


Jina) 


. 5 


24 


60 


En-Gedi ('Ain Jidy) B 3 29 ; L 


I 8 


17 


Enghib . . 


. E3 


20 


51 


En Hazor? (rhurbet 




28 


Hazireh) . 


.06 


16 


17 


En - Rimmon (Khurbet 






Umm er-Rumamin) . D 2 


27 


19 


En-Shemesh ('Ain Haud) E 5 


24 


7 


En-Tappuah? (Yasuf) . E 3 


23 


29 


Ephesus . H 4 


1; H4 


51 


29 


Ephraim (et-Taiyibeh) . E 4 


24 


28 


Ephraim, Mount 


. D3 


23 


23 


Erech .... 


. M5 


1 


28 


Eridu . 


. F3 


2 


18 


Eriha (Jericho) . 


. B4 


25 


29 


Erka Sakra. 


. . D4 


28 


24 


Erkheim 


. E4 


20 


21 


Ermemin . 


. D6 


60 


29 


Eryx . 


. E4 


% 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



Esbitteh . T . . B 2 21 
Esdraelon, Great Plain of 

(Merj Ibn 'Amir) . . C4 19 

Esdud (Ashdod, Azotus) A 5 24 

'Esfia B 3 19 

Eshean? (es-Simia) . . E 2 28 

'Eshsheh, el- . . . C 2 21 

Eshtaol (Eshu'a) . .D5 24 

Esht«moa (es-Semu'a) . E 2 28 

Eshu'a (Eshtaol) . . D 5 24 

Esora (Asiret el-Hatab) . E 2 23 

Etam (Urtas) .' * . . E 5 24 

Etam? (Beit'Atab) . . D5 24 

Etam (Khurbet 'Aitun) . D 2 2» 

Etham, Wilderness of . H 5 8 

Ether (Khurbet el-'Atr) .06 24 

Ethiopia . . . . I 8 1 

Etna, Mt F 4 1 

Etsa C ; 7 

Euboea . . . . F 3 51 

Euphrates, R. . . . L 4 1 

Euxine Sea . . . K i" 51 

Ezaz E 2 57 

Ezbuba . . . C 4 19 
^zion - Geher? ("Ain el- 

Ghudyan) . I 6 1; L 4 8 

Ezra'a (Zorava, Zoroa) . E 2 22 

,Ezra sta E 2 22 



Fair Havens . . . G 5 51 

Faiyum el- (Limne) . . C 5 7 

Faku'a . . . . C 3 29 

Falujeh, el- . . . B 6 24 

Famagusta . . . B 3 57 

Famiyeh ( Apamia) . . D 3 57 

Fandacomie . . . G 6 57 

Faqus . . . . . E 2 7 

Fara' . ... . 6 16 

Fara' C i 25 

Fas . . . . . C 5 30 

Fashn . . . . . C 6 7 

Fedein, el- . . . . G 2 26 

Feir Filsieh . . . C 5 16 

Fejja C 3 23 

Felamieh . , . . D 2 23 

Fenan L 2 8 

Fendakumiyeh . . . E 2 23 

Fer, R. (Orontes) . . D 2 57 

Fer'am . . . . E 2 20 

Ferasin . . . . B 5 19 

Fer'ata . . . . D 2 23 

Ferj, el- . . . . B 2 21 

Feron . . . . . D 2 23 

Ferwan . . . . D 2 26 

Feve . . . . . C'6 57 

Fez B 5 1 

Fhes . . . . . D 3 26 

Fijeh, el- . . . . D 3 17 

Fife: (Aphek??) . . . B 3 21 

Fonduk, el- . . . D2 23 

Forbelet (Burj Maleh) . C 6 57 

Forum Api . . . A 2 51 

Fostat (Babylon) . . D4 7 

Fraghiyeh . . . . C 3 15 
Frank Mountain (Jebel 

Fereidis, Herodium) . E 6 24 

Freika . . . . E 4 20 

Fua . . . . . C I 7 

Fu'aja . . . . B 4 21 

"Fu^u'a . . . . I>5 20 

Fuleh, el- . . . . C 4 20 

Furdisia . . ' . . D 2 23 

Fureidis, el- ... A 4 19 

Furum . . . . C 5 16 

Fusa'il (Phasaelis ?) . , B 3 25 



Gaba (Jeba') . . * . B 4 24 

Gabara (Khurbet Kabra) C 2 19 

Gabatha (Jebata) . . C 3 19 

Gabulum . . . . C 3 57 

Gadara (es-Salt) . . D3 26 

Gadara (Mukes) . . B 4 21 

Gadda? . . - . P 3 26 

Gadira (Cadiz) . . . A 4 1 

Gadora (es-Salt) . . D 3 26 

Galatia . . . . L 3 51 

Galilee, Principaute de . C 6 57 

GaUlee .... 20 
Galilee, Sea of (Bahr 

Tubariya) . . . E 2 20 
Gallim? (Beit Jala) . . E 5 24 
Gamala? (I^uFat el-Hosn) E 3 20 
Gath? (Tell e^-Safi) . . B 5 24 
Gath-Hepher? (el-Meshed) C 3 20 
Ga'ton (Khurbet Ja'thiin) C i 19 
Gaulanitis (Golan) . . B 2 21 
Gaza (Ghuzzeh) . . A i 27 
Gazri . . . . .03 2 
Gftzzat . . . . 3 2 
G»Mi(Jeba') , * . .A 4 19 
Geba^Jeba'K i . . E 4 24 
G«ba (Jeba') ... E 2 23 
Oederah ( Jedireh) . . E 4 24 
Gederah of Judah (Khur- 
bet Jedireh) . . . C 5 24 
Gederoth? (Katrah) . . B 5 24 
Gedor (Khurbet Jedur) . D 6 24 
Ge-harashim . . . C 4 23 
Qennesaret, Lake of (Bahr 

Tubariya) . . . E 3 20 
Gennesaret, Plain of (el- 

Ghuweir) . . . E 2 20 

Gerar (Umm Jerar) . . A 2 27 

Gerasa (Jerash) . . . E 2 26 

Gerba (Jorba) . . .0 8 67 

Gergesenes? (Kersa). . E 3 20 



Gerin . . . ..06 
Gerizim, Mt. (Jebel et-Tor) E i 



Glorieta . . . • 3 
Golan (Gaulanitis) . . B 2 
Golan (Sahem ej-J^ulan) . 3 
Gophna ( jufna) . . E 4 

Goshen, Land of . . F 2 
Gosu (el-Kusiyeh) . .08 
Great Sea (Mediterranean 

Sea) . . . G T 8 ; F 5 
Great Sea of the West . 3 
Gr6c, Pointe de la . ^ ^ 4 
Greece ... 
Guadalquivir, R. . . B 4 
Gubl . . . . . D 3 
Gubla . . . . . D 3 
Guglag . . . . B I 



Habab sta. . . . D 6 

iiabbush \ -. . . D 4 

Hable ... . . 5 

Hableh . . . . C 3 

Habs, el- . . . . D 5 

Habs, el- . , . . E3 

Ha4ab, el- . . . . E 2 

Hadashah . . . . B 5 

Haddadeh . . . . E4 

Haddar . . . . B 3 

Haddatha . . . .06 

Hadeth, and sta. . . D i 

Hadid (Haditheh) . .0 4 

Hadidet el- Jerash . . E 4 

Ha^irt al-Jebu . . . F 4 

Haditheh (Adida, Hadid) . 4 

Hadr, el- . . . . F 5 

Hadr, el- . . . . G i 

Hadram€iut . . . N 8 

Hadrumete . . . E4 

Hafar . . . . . E 6 

Hafir . . . . . E 2 

Hafret Ka^dan . . . E 4 

Hai (Khurbet Haiyan) . E 4 

Haifa, and sta. . . . B 3 

Haifa,el-'Atikah(Heiphah) A 3 

Hajily, el- . . ..A3 

Hajira, el- . . . . D 4 

Hajj Road . D 5 21 ; F 4 

Hajr el-Asbah (Stone of 

' Bohan?) . . B i 

Hakama . . . . 4 

Halak, Mount (Jebel 

Halak) . . . . K2 

Haiaweh . . . . E 5 

Halba (Castmm Album) . I> 4 

Halbu (Haleb) . . . D 2 

Halbun (Helbon) . » D3 

Haleb (Alapia) . . . E 2 

Halhul (Hulhul) . . . E i 

Halibna . . . . B3 

Haliusiyeh, el- . . • 5 

Halys, R. . . . . i 

Hama . . . . • D 3 

Hamah, div. . . . F 2 

Hamameh , . . . A 5 

Hamat • . . , D 2 



57 
23 
24 
18 
27 
30 
21 
30 
16 
7 
22 
60 
15 
18 
30 
25 

25 
22 



Gezer (Tell Jezar) . . 4 

Ghabaghib, and sta. . . P 6 

Ghadir ecJ-Dabi . . O4 

Ghadir el-Abyad . . E 5 

Ghadir el-Bustan . . 2 

Ghadir es-Sultan . . E 5 

Ghajir Bridge', el- . . B 5 

Gharag, el- . . . 5 

Ghautha . . . . F 4 

Ghazir . . . . D i 

Ghaziyeh . . . '03 

Ghazuleh, el- . . . E 4 

Ghor, el- . . . . B 5 

Ghor, el- . . . . 4 
Ghor es-Seiseban (Shittim 

Valley) . . . . 4 

Ghureiyeh, el- . . • E 3 

Ghusam . . . . F 4 22 

Ghuwein (Anim) . . E 2 28 
Ghuweir, el- (Plain of 

Gennesaret) . . . E 2 

Ghuzluniyeh . . . E 4 

Ghuzzeh (Gaza) . . A i 

Ghuzzeh. . . . . E 2 

Ghyma (Chorines) . .A3 

Gibbethon (Klibbiah) . r> 4 

Gibeah (Jeba') . . . D 5 
Gibeah of Phinehas (' Awer- 

tah) . . . . . E 3 

Gibeah (Jeba^) . . . E 4 

Gibeah (Jebia) . . . D 4 

Gibeleth . . . . 4 
Gibelin (Bethgibelin, Ber- 

sabea) . . . • B 7 

Gibellum . . . . 4 

Gibeon (el- Jib) . . . E 4 

Giblet . . . . . O 4 

GUboa (Jelbian) . . . D 5 
Gilboa, Mt. (Jebel Fi^ku'a) D 4 

Gilead D i 

Gnead (Jela'ad) . . . D 3 

Gilgal (Jiljilia) . . . E 3 

Gilgal (Jiljulieh) . . 3 
Gilgal (Juleijil) . A 2 25; E 2 
Gilgal (Birkef Jiljulieh) . B 4 

Giloh (Khurbet Jala) . D 6 

Gimzo (Jimzu) . . . O4 

GinoBa ( Jenin) . . '05 

Gischala (el-Jish) . . D i 

Gitta (?:uryet Jit) . . E 2 

G^zeh, Pyramids of . . D 4 

Gizeh . . . . . r> 3 



20 
18 
27 
15 
57 
23 
34 

23 
24 
24 
57 

57 
57 
24 
57 
20 
20 
26 



23 

23 

25 

24 

24 

20 

20 

23 

7 

7 

57 

21 

21 

23 

7 

7 

1 

2 

57 

51 

1 

2 

2 

57 



Hamath . . . . K4 
Hami i^^ur^uh . . . F 6 
Hammam, el- . . . E i 
Hammam Ibrahim Basha 

(Hammath) . . . E 3 
Hamman . . . . E 6 
Hammana . . . . F 2 
Hammas . . . . F 55 
Hammath (Hammam 

Ibrahim Basha) . . E 3 
Hammi, el- . . . F 3 

Hammi, el- ( Zaphon, 

Amatha) . . • B 3 

Hammon ('Ain Hamul) . A 6 
Hamtab (^Aintab) . . Ei 

Hamy, el- D 3 

Hana^ein, el- . . . E 4 
Han ez-Zebib . . . F 2 
Hanigalbat . , . D 2 

Hanij, el- . . . . D 2 
Haphraim? . . . 4 

Hara B 6 

Haram, el- . . . . B 2 
Haram, el- (Harrames) . B 6 
Haran . . . . . D 2 



1)3 
B3 

E3 
D6 

D2 



Harbaj . . . . 

Harbaj, el- . . . 
Harestat el- Basal 
Hareth (KJiaras) 
Harim or Harreno 
Harithiyeh,el- (?Haro- 
" sheth) .... 
Harod, Well of CAin 

Jalud) 
Harosheth?(el-Harithiyeh)B 3 
Harrames (el-Haram) . B 6 
Harran , ". . . F 2 
Harran el-*Awamid . . F 
Harrenc or Harim . . D 

Harta 

Haruf ..... 
Haruph (Khurbet Kharuf ) 
Ha^beiya . . . . 
Hashmush . 

Hasif, el- .... 
Hat-hri-ebe (Tell Etrib) . 
Hatim 

Hatita . . 

Ha(t)-ka-ptah (Mat Ra- 
heneh) 



D4 



4 

2 

3 
4 
6 
E 4 
2 
B3 
D3 
B4 
F3 



Haiteh 

Hattin . D 3 20 ; 

Haud, el- .... 

Hauran . . \ 

Hauran . . . . 

Hauran, div. . . • 

Hausan .... 

Haush, el- . . . 

Haush, and Reyak sta . 

Haush Hala 

Haush Hammar 

Hauwar 

Hawara C 5 7 ; 4 21 ; 

Hayil . . . 

Hazal 

Hazi, el- ... . 
Hazm, el- . . - . 
Hazor (lOiurbet ^azzur) . 
Hazor? (el-Khureibeh) . 
Hazor (el-Hu^eireh) . 
Hazor? (Jebel Ha^ireh) . 
Hazrama . . 
Hebran (Hebrana) . 
Hebrana (Hebran) . 
Hebron ('Abdeh) 
Hebron (el-Khulil) . 
Hebrus .... 
Heiphah (Haif ael-' Atikah) 
Heisan .... 

Heit . . 
Helaliyeh, el- . 
Helbon (Halbun) 
Heldua. See Mutatio 

Heldua .... 
Heleph? (Beit Lif) . . 
Heliopolis ^el-Matarieh) 
Hellespont . 
Helwan ... 
Henawei . . 
Henu el-Ford . . 
Heraclea . . . 
Herakleopolis (Ahnas el- 

Medineh) 
Herbieh * . 
Hermon, Mt. (Jebel esh- 

Sheikh, or Jebel eth- 

Thelj) . . 
Hermopolis Magna (Ash 

miinen) . 
Hermopolis Parva (Daman 

hiir) . . . . 

Hermopolitana Phylake 

(Darut-en-Nakl) . 
Herod, Baths of (Callirr- 

hoe) . . . . 

Herodium (Jebel Fereidis, 

Frank Mountain) . 
Hero6polis (Tell el-Mask - 

huta) .... 
Hesban (Heshbon) . 
Heshbon (Hesban) . 

Hetal 

Hibbariyeh, el- . . 
Hibeh, el- (? Hipponon) . 
Hieromax, H. (Nahr Yar- 

muk) . F 3 20; 
Hierosolyma . . . 
Hierusalem 



4 
B 6 
6 
4 
E3 
D2 
D 6 

r>5 

C I 
C I 
B I 
F4 
B4 
E I 
L 6 

E2 

E 2 
F 6 

ES 
D6 
F 2 
D6 
F 3 
G4 
G4 
B6 
E I 



2 
6 
B3 

H2 

D4 
B5 
I 

K2 



5 
B I 



. F4 

8 

B I 

O 8 

2 

Es 

F 2 
D I 
D I 

B3 

•E 4 
6 

B3" 
7 
7 



20 
18 
26 
22 

20 
20 

21 
16 
57 
17 
30 
29 

2 
26 
19 
18 
23 
57 

2 
29 
19 
17 
24 
57 



B3 .19 



20 
19 
57 
22 
18 
57 
21 
16 
22 
16 
17 
27 
7 
21 
26 

7 
24 
57 
25 
22 
21 
59 
^4 
17 
17 
17 
18 
21 
29 

1 
29 
26 
18 
24 
16 
28 
16 
17 
22 
22 
16 
28 
21 
19 
18 
21 
15 
17 

15 
16 

7 
51 

7 
16 
29 
51 

7 
27 



Hijaneh .... 
Hileh . - . . . . 
Hinnom, Valley of . 

Hiny . . . . . 

Hipponon ? (el-Hibeh) . 

Hippos (Susiyeh) F 3 20 

Hirabu (Haleb) . . . 

Hismeh (Azmaveth) . • . 

Hisn el-Akrad (Krak des 
Chevaliers, Oastellum 
Curdorum) . . . 

Hit, el- (Eitha) . . . 

Hofa 

Hola, el- ... . 

Homoncea? (Umm Jiinieh) 

Homs (Emessa) 

Horeb, Mt. (Jebel Musa) . 

Horeshah (Khurbet Kho- 
reisa) .... 

^Ireibe .... 

Hreibe, el- . 

Sudeireh, el- (Hazor) 

Hufeir . ' , 

Hiij 

Hukkok (Yakuk) 

Huleh, Lake (wrongly 
' marked Waters of 
Merom) . 

Huleikat, el- . . . 

Hule Rurri ... 

Hulhul (Alouros, Halhul) 

Hulhuliti ^Khulkhuleh) . 

Hume, el- . .' 

Hummana . 

Hummarah 

Humrawiyeh, el- 

Huni, el- . . 

Hunin . 

Hunin (Beth Rehob?) 

Hureiyik, el- 

HurjiUeh 

Hursi, el- . 

Hush, el- 

Hu^n, el- 

Huwarah 

Huwarah (Idalah ?) 

Hyrcania 

Hyrcanium ? (^Arak el- 
Emir) 



F4 
F 2 

S5 
B4 

6 

; D 

D 2 

E4 



18 
17 
24 
18 
7 

4I 

2 

24 



X)4 

G2 

B4 
T)S 

E3 
D4 
J 6 

E 2 

J 2 

3 

F 2 

E3 
B I 
D 2 



B I 

C 4 
E I 
F 6 

D2 

E^ 

S^ 

E 4 
D 2 

5 
D5 

E3 
D4 
A 2 
D4 

5 
E3 
3 

N4 



larda ? (Tell Arad) • 

Ibdar (Lidebir) . . 

Ibl . . . . . 

Ibleam? (Khurbet Yebla) 

Ibn Ibrak (Bene Berak) . 

Ibsarr . . . 

Iconium . A i 57; 

Idalah (Huwarah) 

Idaiion ' 

Idhna (Dannah) 

Idumsea (Edom) 

Ifry . . . 

Ijseir . 

Ijzim . 

Iksal (ChesuUoth) 

Iktaba 

lUyricum . 

Imtune, el- 

Inkheli 

Inkhil . . 

Irbid-(Arbela) . 

Irbid (Arbela) . 

Ir-Nahash (Deir Nakhas) 

Iron (Yarun) 

Irpeel? (Rafat) . 

Irta . 

Isana ('Ain Sinia) 

Iseum ^Behbit el-Higarah) 

Jskanderiyeh (Alexandria) 

Iskanderuneh (Alexandro- 

scene, Scandalion) 
Isma'ilia 

Itai el-Barud (Teh)* 
Italy . . . 
Itanos . . 
'lyun . , 
Izmal . 



Jabbok, R. (Wady ez- 

Zerka) 
Jabbiil . . 
Jabir . 

Jabneel (Yebnah) 
Jabneel? (Yenama) 
Jabneh (Yebnah) 
Jacob's Daughters, Bridge 

of (Jisr Benat Ya']kiib) . 
Jacob's Well ... 
Ja'^eideh .... 

Jafa 

Jaf ar 

Jahaz? (Umm el-Walid) , 

Jaidiyeh . . 

Jalud ..... 

Jamhur sta. 

Jamia el-Amud . 

Jamleh 

Jamnia (Yebnah) 

Janoah? (Yanuh) 

Janohah (Yanun) 

Janum vBeni Na'im) 

Japha (Yafa) 

Japhe . . . . . 

jAphe et d'Ascalon, Oomt6 

Japhia (Yafi) ! I \ 



E3 
B4 
D4 
D4 
B3 
B4 
L4 

3 

1 4 
D I 
Ki 
•D3 
B6 
A4 
3 

D2 

E 2 
G2 
B2 
6 
D3 

O4 
6 
6 
E 4 

D2 

E 4 
D I 
A I 

A 6 
F 2 
2 
B2 
H4 
H4 
B4 



D2 

E4 
E 4 
B4 

r>3 

B4 

E I 

E2 



E 

D 
E 
F 
E 
D 

E2 

3 

B4 
B5 
B3 
E I 

B3 
B6 



J?7 
C 3 



57 
22 
21 
16 
20 
57 
8 

28 
8 
29 
28 
17 
27 
20 



27 
27 
28 
18 
29 
15 
15 
26 
26 
57 
16 
22 
18 
27 
60 
21 
23 
19 
1 



D4 26 



28 
21 
16 
20 
23 
21 
51 
19 

1 
28 

8 
17 
24 
19 
20 
23 
51 
22 
21 
18 
20 
21 
24 
16 
24 



7 
7 

16 
7 
7 

51 
1 

22 

21 



26 
20 
22 
24 
20 
24 

20 
23 
18 
60 
80 
29 
18 
23 
15 
23 
21 
24 
16 
25 
28 
23 
.57 

67 
19 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



Jariyeh, el- ... 


4 


16 


Jarmuth (Khurbet el-Yar- 






muk) 


5 


24 


Jasim ... . . 


D2 


21 


Jasuweh . . . 


E I 


22 


Jattir (Khurbet 'Attir) 


B2 


28 


Jauf .... 


K6 


1 


Jaulan 


B 2 


21 


Ja'unah (Roshpinah) 


E2 


20 


Javan ..... 


G4 


1 


Jawa ..... 


E 4 


26 


Jay eh-, ej- . 


B I 


27 


Jazer? (BeitZerah) . 


D4 


26 


Jbeibat, el- ... 


B3 


27 


Jeba' 


B5 


18 


Jeba' (Gaba, Geba, Gibeah 


IE4 


24 


Jeba' (Gibeah) . . . 


r>s 


24 


Jeba' (Geba) 


A4 


19 


Jeba' (Geba) . . . 


E2 


23 


Jeba'a ... 


D 3 


15 


Jebab . . . 


D6 


18 


Jeba'd .... 


r>3 


15 


Jebail ... 


D I 


60 


Jebalieh .... 


A I 


27 


Jebata (Gabatha) , 


C 3 


19 


Jebel Abu 'Ata . . . 


E3 


17 


Jebel'Ajlua . . . 


E I 


26 


Jebel 'Anazeh . . 


C I 


29 


Jebel Aswad ... 


D4 


18 


Jebel Dara .... 


G8 


8 


Jebel Duhy ... 


D4 


20 


Jebel ed-Driiz . 


G4 


22 


Jebel el-Am'az . . 


F4 


28 


Jebel el-' Arab . . . 


B6 


18 


Jebel el-Baruk . 


E 2 


15 


Jebel el-Breij 


C 3 


27 


Jebel el-Galala . 


F 6 


7 


Jebel el-Manara . . 


C 3 


29 


Jebel el-Meshetta 


F I 


29 


Jebel el-Mhajin . 


C4 


30 


Jebel el-Mkeimen 


E 4 


28 


Jebel el-Qatrani 


B4 


7 


Jebel er-Ram . 


E 3 


29 


Jebel esh - Sheikh (Mt. 






Hermon) . . 


F4 


16 


Jebel esh-Sherki (Anti- 






Libanus) ... 


D2 


17 


Jebel-ash Shreif . 


O4 


27 


Jebel es-Sih 


D,3 


20 


Jebel Esiamiyeh (Mt. 






Ebal) . . . . 


E2 


23 


Jebel es-Suwaga 

Jebel eth-Thelj (Mt. Her 


F 3 


29 






mon) .... 


F4 


16 


Jebel et-Tih 


I 5 


8 


Jebel et-T6r (Mt. Gerizim) E 2 


23 


Jebel et-T6r (Mt, Tabor) . 


D3 


20 


Jebel et-Tor (Mt. ol 






Olives) . . . . 


E5 


24 


Jebel ez-Zohr 


E4 


16 


Jebel Fereidis (Herodium, 






Frank Mountain) . 


E 6 


24 


Jebel Fu^'a (Mt. Gilboa) D 4 


20 


Jebel Gabelia 


H6 


8 


Jebel Gharib . 


G7 


8 


Jebel Gilead (Jele'ad) . 


D3 


26 


Jebel Hadireh (Hazor?) . 


D6 


16 


Jebel Hariia 


L 3 


8 


Jebel Hauran . . 


G3 


22 


Jebel Helal . 


J 2 


8 


Jebel Huma ... 


D2 


29 


Jebel Jiyal .... 


F 3 


29 


Jebel Kalabat el-Mazzeh . 


D4 


18 


Jebel Kalamun . 


E 3 


17 


Jebel TjjTasyun . . 


D3 


17 


Jebel Katerina . . 


I 6 


8 


Jebel Khalasa . 


Ki 


8 


Jebel Khiyara . ... 


D5 


18 


Jebel Kuneiyiseh 


E I 


15 


JebelKurmul(Mt.Carmel) B 3 


19 


Jebel ;^uruntul . 


B4 


25 


Jebel Labru^ . . . 


5 


30 


Jebel Libnan (Mt. Leba- 






non) . . 


E2 


15 


Jebel Manila . . . 


D4 


18 


Jebel Mu'arra . 


E2 


17 


Jebel Musa (Mt. Horeb, 






Mt. Sinai) . . . 


J 6 


8 


Jebel Neba (Mt. Nebo, or 






Hsgah).. . . . 


D I 


29 


Jebel Niha .... 


r>3 


15 


Jebel 'Oaha' (Penuel?) . 


D3 


26 


Jebel Rahwah . . 


C 2 


17 


Jebel Rihan 


r>4 


16 


Jebel Sarfa 


c 3 


30 


Jebel Sheraif 


J 3 


8 


Jebel Sunnin 


F I 


15 


Jebel Tammun . 


B2 


25 


Jebel To/an 


D3 


20 


Jebel Umm el-Tenassib . 


F 6 


7 


Jebel XJmm^ Hsaira . 


J 3 


8 


Jebel UnriTn 'Ajwa . 


C 3 


27 


Jebel Umm Shomer . 


I 7 


8 


Jebel Usdum . 


B 5 


30 


Jebel Wuta ... 


H5 


8 


Jebel Yellek . . . 


H3 


8 


Jebel Zebdany . . . 


C 2 


17 


Jebel Zeit .... 


I 8 


8 


Jebel Zeitun 


E5 


20 


Jebia (Gibeah) . 


D4 


24 


Jebna Ibelin . . . 


B7 


57 


Jedeideh . 


C 5 


16 


Jedeideh . . 


D4 


18 


Jedireh (Gederah) . 


E4 


24 


Jediyeh . . . . 


6 


18 


Jedul . . . . . 


E2 


22 


Jehosaphat, Valley of 


ES 


24 



Jehud (el-Yehudiyeh) 

Jeida . 

Jela'ad (Gilead) 

Jelameh 

Jelameh 

Jelameh 

Jelamet el-Mansurah 

Jelamet es-Sabha 

Jelbun (Gilboa) . 

Jelil, el- 

Jelkamus . 

Jelul ... 

Jema'il, el (Beth-Gamul ?) 

Jemmain" . 

Jemmalah . 

Jemmeh 

Jendal . 

Jenin .',... 

Jenin (Engannim, Ginoea) 

Jennata 

Jerablus 

Jerash (Gerasa) . 

Jericho (Eriha) . 

Jerisheh 

Jerjua . . . 

Jermuk 

Jerusalem, sanjak 

Jerusalem (el-I$;uds) . E 5 

Jeshimon .... 

Jeshua? (Khurbet SaVeh) 

Jett . . 

Jett . 

Jezlret el-Melat . 

Jezreel? (Khurbet Istabul) 

Jezreel (Zerin) 

Jezreel, Valley o| (Nahr 

Jalud) 
Jezzazeh 
Jezzin (Casale do Gezin) 

Jhenisalem 

Jiba^in 

Jib, el- (Gibeon) 

Jibeltar (or Akkar) 

Jibia . 

Jibin . 

Jib Jenin . 

Jijin . 

Jilia 

Jilime, ej- . 

Jiljiha (Gilgal) 

Jiljulieh (Gilgal) 

Jimzu (Gimzo) 

Jinsafut 

Jiplithah? (Khurbet , 

Jish, el- (Gischala) 

Jisl, el- ; . 

Jisr Benat Ya^kub (Brid^ ^ 

of Jacob's Daughte 
Jisr ed-Damieh 
Jisr el-' Allan 
. Jisr el-I^adi 
Jisr er-Rukkad 
Jisr Khurdela 
Jisr Mujamia 
Jisr Rummany 
Jiyeh, el- (Porphyreon) 
Jiyus . 
Jize 
Jmirrin 
Jobar . 
Jogbehah (el-Jubeihat, el- 

Kebireh) 
Jolcneam of Carmel 

!Kleimun) 
Joppa (Yafa) B 
Joppe . . . 
Jorba (G^rba) . 
Jordan^ R. (Nahr Hasbany, 

Nahr esh-Sheri'ah) 

C2 25; 
Joseph's Tomb . . 
Jotapata (Khurbet Jefat) 
Joza . . . 
Juba, el- . . . . 
Jubal (Sapirine I.) . 
Jubb 'Adin 
Jubbett es-Safa 
Jubeihat 

Jubeihat, el- (Jogbehah) . 
Jubeb ^. . 
Jubshith . . . 

Jttdoa 

Judeidah . . . . 
Judeideh . . . 
Judeideh, and sta. . 
Judeideh, el- . . . 
Judeideh el-Khas . . 
Judeiyideh, el- . 
Jueismeh, el- . 
Jueizeh, ej- 

Juffein .... 

Jufna (Ophni, Gophna) . 
Juhfiye .... 
Julias Bethsaida (et-Tell) . 
Julis . . . . 
Jumeijmeh, el- . 
Jumha . . . . 

Jun . .- . . 
Jiineh ... 
Juneineh . ^ . 
Jurah, el- . 

Jurba, el- . . . . 
Jurein, el- (Agraena) 
Jurish . . . 
Jutta(Yutta) . . . 
Juweimeh • • • . 



Jefatl 



ers) 



(Tell 
23- 



C 3 


23 


Juwehra 

Kaa, Plain of el, (Wilder- 


. B 5 


16 


Kefreureh . 


. G s 


19 


B3 


19 






Kefreiya 


. E 2 


15 


I>3 


26 


ness of Sin ?) . 


I 7 


8 


Kefr el-Lebad . 


. D2 


23 


B3 


19 


Kftbarta (el-Kabry) . 


. B I 


19 


Kefrel-Ma. . . 


. B5 


21 


C 4 


20 


■^abba'ah . . 


. E2 


20 


Kefr Etta . 


. B3 


19 


A 5 


19 


?:abres-Sitt 


. E 4 


18 


Kefr et-T6r (Bethphage) 


. Es 


24 


B 3 


19 


Kabr Hiram 


. BS 


16 


Kefr Falus . 


. C 3 


15 


D4 


30 


Kabry* el- (Kabarta) 


. B I 


19 


KefrHarib . . 


. E3 


20 


D 5 


20 


Kabu, el- . . . 


B4 


21 


Kefr Haris . 


. I>3 


23 


B 3 


23 


Kabu, el- . . 


:d5 


24 


Kefr Hasan (Ashnah?) 


. 5 


24 


D 5 


20 


Kabul (Cabul) . 


C 2 


19 


Kefr Hauwar 


. 04 


18 


E I 


29 


Kabul (Cabor) . 


6 


57 


Kefr Hayn . 
KefrJa'iz . . . 


. D2 


15 


E 3 


29 


Kabun 


D3 


17 


. B4 


21 


E 3 


23 


Kadem, el- . 


1)4 


18 


Kefr Jemmal 


. D2 


23 


r>4 


23 


Kades (Kedesh Naphtali) D 6 


16 


KefrJerrah 


. c 3 


15 


G 5 


22 


Kadesh Barnea ("Ain 






Kefrl^addiim . . 


. D2 


23 


C 4 


18 


Kadeis) . 


K2 


8 


Kefr Kama 


. D3 


20 


B4 


21 


Radish (Kedesh?) . . 


E3 


20 


Kefr ?ar'a . . 


. B4 


19 


C 5 


20 


Kadmous (Oademois) 


D3 


57 


Kefr l^asim 


C 3 


23 


B5 


16 


Kadshu 


D3 


2 


Kefr Kenna (Cana ol 






K4 


1 


KafrAbba. 


C 5 


30 


Galileo) . . . 


D 3 


20 


E2 


26 


Kafr ed-Dawar . 


Bi 


7 


Kefr Kifya 


B4 


21 


B4 


25 


Kafr esh -Sheikh - 


I 


7 


KefrKila . 


D5 


16 


B3 


23 


Kafrinji .... 


D2 


26 


Kefr !E^ud (Kaparkotia) 


C 5 


19 


r>4 


16 


Kafr Khali . . . 


E I 


26 


Kefr?:ufe: . . 


B3 


17 


r)4 


16 


KafrSaqr .... 


E2 


7 


Kefr La^if .... 


D-2 


23 


B 7 


59 


Kafsa 


2 


25 


Kefr Lam .... 


A4 


19 


24, 


etc. 


Kahf, el- .... 


E 4 


26 


Kefr Lam (Capharnaum) . 


B6 


57 


F2 


28 


K;ahweh, el- . . 


B I 


19 


Kefr Malik. . . . 


E4 


23 


D 3 


28 


Kaisarieh ( Caesar ea) . 


A4 


19 


KefrMenda 


C 3 


19 


B 5 


19 


IfCaka'iyeh . . 


C 5 


16 


Kefr Milkeh 


C 3 


15 


C 2 


19 


Kak5n .... 


I 


23 


Kefr Mishkeh 


E3 


15 


A 4 


19 


JKaia'at Sahiun (Saone) . 


D3 


57 


KefrMisr .... 


D4 


20 


E2 


28 


Elala^at es-Subebe (L'Asse- 






KefrNaffukh . 


E 6 


16 


C 4 


20 


beibe) , , 


C 5 


57 


Kefr Nasij .... 


6 


18 






KaFatBlat . . 


F 4 


26 


KefrNebrak . 


D 2 


15 


r>4 


20 


Kal'at el-Fenish 


B6 


24 


KefrRaa'y . . . 


B5 


19 


D2 


26 


:^arat er-Rabad 


D2 


26 


KefrRahta 


B4 


21 


C 5 


57; 


KaFat ez-Zerka, and sta. 


F 3 


26 


Kefr Ruaysat . 


E2 


15 


D 3 


15 


Kaldu 


F3 


2 


Kefr Saba .... 


2 


23 


C 7 


57 


Kalkilieh .... 


2 


23 


KefrSabt .... 


D3 


20 


D4 


16 


Kamarein, el- . 


D4 


30 


Kefr Shems 


C 6 


18 


B4 


24 


Kamid el-Lauz . 


E3 


15 


Kefr Sib .... 


D I 


23 


D4 


57 


Kamm 


B4 


21 


KefrSdm .... 


B3 


21 


D4 


23 


Kamon (Kumeim) . 


B4 


21 


Kefr Som . . . 


B5 


24 


B 3 


21 


Kana (Kanah) . . . 


Bs 


16 


Kefr Sumeia' 


2 


19 


E 3 


15 


Kanah (Kana) . 


B5 


16 


Kefr Sur .... 


D 2 


23 


B4 


21 


Kanah, R. (Wady Kanah) 


r)3 


23 


Kefr Susseh 


D3 


17 


C 5 


24 


Kanata (el-Kerak) • . 


E3 


22 


KefrThilth (Baal Shalisha) D 3 


23 


D4 


30 


Kanatha (K^unawat) . 


O3 


22 


KefrYasif .... 


B 2 


19 


E 3 


23 


Kanef . . . . 


B2 


21 


Kefr Yuba .... 


B4 


21 


c 3 


23 


Kannir .... 


B4 


19 


KefrZebad 


B2 


17 


04 


24 


Kantara (Oandayra) . 


A3 


57 


Kefr Zeit .... 


E4 


16 


.5)^ 


23 


Kantara, el- . . 


C 5 


16 


Kefr Zibad 


D2 


23 


C 2% 


19 


Elantir, el- . 


B 2 


23 


Keilah (Khurbet KTla) . 


D6 


24 


is 


20: 


Kaparkotia (Kefr J^ud) . 


C 5 


19 


Keires . . 


F4 


22 


20^ 


Kaphtor I. . 


G4 


1 


iE^eisa, el- . 


F4 


18 




» : 


?:ara . . 


r>5 


18 


Kenakir .... 


C 5 


18 


^^V 


2a* 


I^arahta .... 


E 6 


16 


Kenakir .... 


F4 


22 


c^g. 


?5 


Karak (Krak) . 


C 7 


57 


Kenath-Nobah (i^unawat) 


O3 


22 


C 2 


21 


Karat ..... 


H4 


1 


Keneiseh, el- . 


B3 


17 


D2 


15 


Kara Shihan 


I>3 


29 


Keniset er-Rawat 


^5 


24 


02 


21 


Kari'at Shihan . . . 


1)3 


29 


Kepber 


E4 


1 


D4 


16 


Karifeh .... 


D2 


21 


Kerak, div. 


D 8 


59 


E4 


20 


Karish . . . . 


B4 


16 


Kerak (Tarichsea) 


E3 


20 


2 


17 


Karpathos I. . 


H4 


1 


Kerak, el- (Kanata) . 


E3 


22 


2 


15 


Karteia .... 


A4 


1 


Kerak, el- (Kir of Moab, 






D2 


23 


I^asebi, el- , 


B2 


21 


Kir Haraseth, Kir Heres, 






E4 


22 


Kasil . . . . . 


F5 


22 


Oharakmoba) . 


D4 


30 


F4 


22 


Kasion (Ras el-]^asrun) . 


G I 


8 


Keratiya . 


B6 


24 


E3 


17 


Kasr 'Antar 


F4 


16 


Kerazeh .... 


C 5 


24 






!^asr el-Athara (Chastelet) 


C 5 


57 


Kerazeh (Chorazin) . 


E 2 


20 


E3 


26 


Kasret-Tub 


B5 


30 


Kerloth Hezron (Khurbet 










Kastra? (Kh. Kefr es- 






Kureitein) 


E 2 


28 


B 4 


19 


Samir) . . 


A 3 


19 


Kerkha .... 


C 3 


15 


M6 


51 


Kastra de Gelil (Khurbet 






Kerkiir .... 


A5 


19 


B6 


57 


Jelil) . . . . 


B6 


16 


Kersa (Gergesenes ?) . 


S3 


20 


8 


57 


Kastal, el- . 


E I 


29 


5^erye, el 


54 


30 






Katana .... 


04^ 


18 


lE^eryeh, el- (? Zoar) . 


B5 


30 


D4' 


16; 


Katrah (Cedron, Gederoth? 


)Bs 


24 


Kesla (Chesalon) 


S5 


24 


E 2 


20 


Katrane, el- . . . 


F4 


30 


Kesweh, el- . . . 


D4 


18 


E 2 


23 


Klatrat er-Riez . 


B4 


16 


Kfeir Abu Sarbut . 


D r 


29 


2 


19 


Kaukab . . . . 


C 3 


19 


Kfeir el-Wusta . 


D I 


29 


4 


30 


Kaukab (Kochaba) . 


C4 


18 


Kfte 


2 


2 


I> 5 


30 


Kaukab . . . 


E 3 


15 


Kfur, el 


O4 


16 


I 8 


8 


Kaukaba . . ' . 


D4 


16 


Khabel . . 


C 5 


30 


F 2 


17 


Kaukabah .... 


B I 


27 


Khaiber .... 


L 6 


1 


r>5 


18 


Kaukab el-Hawa (Belvoir, 






Khalasa, el- 


C4 


27 


E3 


26 


Ooquet) . 6 57 ; 


E4 


20 


KhaUfs of Egypt, Terri- 






E 3 


26 


Kbeibat, el- ... 


C 3 


27 


tory of the 


A 8 


57 


F4 


22 


Kebtoy .... 


C4 


2 


KhaUsah, el- . . 


B5 


16 


4 


16 


Kedemoth? (el-Meshreik) 


E2 


29 


Khalladiyeh, el- . . . 


S^ 


19 


C 5 


24 


Kedemoth, Wilderness of 


E3 


29 


Khan, el- . 


B5 


16 


B5 


21 


Kedesh? (Kadish) . 


E3 


20 


Khan Abu Shusheh . 


E 2 


20 


D4 


16 


Kedesh or Kidshun (Tell 






Khanasira . . . . 


B5 


21 


D 3 


17 


Abu Kudeis) . 


C4 


19 


KhanBandak E 6 16 


; Fi 


20 


E I 


23 


Kedesh Naphtali (Kades) . 


D6 


16 


Khan Budhekan . . 


D 2 


15 


F4 


18 


Kedron, TheBrook (Wady 






Khan Dennun sta. 


I>5 


18 


B2 


19 


en-Nar) .... 


A I 


29 


KhanDimas . . . 


C 3 


17 


E 4 


26 


Kefarat, el- ... 


B 3 


21 


Khan el-Ahmar . 


E4 


20 


E 6 


16 


Kefireh (Chephirah) . 


D5 


24 


Khan el-Ahmar . 


E5 


24 


E 5 


20 


Kefr Abas .... 


B4 


21 


Khan el- Jedeed ... 


C 2 


15 


E4 


23 


Kefr'Abbush . 


1)2 


23 


Khan el-ICasimiyeh . 


B4 


16 


B 5 


21 


KefrAbil .... 


A 5 


21 


Khan el-Mereijst; and sta 


E2 


15 


eI 


20 


Kefr Adan . . . , . 


C5 


19 


Khan esh-Sha'baniyeh 


B2 


21 


A 5 


24 


Kefr^an .... 


B4 


21 


Khan esh-Shiha 


04 


18 


C 5 


16 


Kefr 'Ana (Ono) . . 


C 3 


23 


Khan es-Suk . . , . 


D4 


16 


B4 


21 


Kefr 'Ana (Chephar- 






Khan es-Sultani ('Am- 






C 3 


15 


Hammon-Ai ?) 


E 4 


23 


rawa) . . 


S^ 


21 


C4 


18 


Kefr '^Anan 


D2 


20 


Khan es-Sumrah 


B5 


19 


H2 


22 


Kefr Asad . . . 


B4 


21 


Khan et-Tujjar . . . 


1)3 


20 


B I 


27 


Kefr'Awan . . . 


B 5 


21 


KhanezZ.yat . 


D5 


18 


q 


19 


Kefr Bi/im . . 


6 


16 


Khan Khuldah (Mutatio 






F 2 


22 


Kef r Dinis . . . . 


F 3 


15 


Heldua) .... 


2 


15 


E 3 


23 


Kefr Dunin 


C 5 


16 


Khan Meitheliin 


C 3 


17 


E2 


28 


Kef rein . 


B4 


19 


Khan Neby Yunis . 


2 


15 


D2 


21 


Kefrein, el- 


F4 


18 


Khanzireh (Cansir) . 


C 5 


80 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



Khanzireh, el- . 
Kharaba 
Kharaj 

Kharas (Hareth) 
Khartum 



. B5 

. F4 

. B4 

. D6 

. B4 



Khashm Sufra es-Sana . A 3 
Khashm Zanna . . • D 3 
Khatti . . . . D 2 

Khayara . . . • D 5 
Khazar Kingdom . . K 2 
Khazati . . . • 3 
Kheil '. . . . . E 4 
Kheimeh, el- . . • B 5 

Kheta D 2 

Khiam, el- . . . . D 5 
Khirbeh, el- . . • C 2 
Khirbet er-Ruha . . F 3 
Khirbet es-Samra sta. . F 3 
Khisfin . . . . B2 
Khmun (Ashmunen) . C 8 

Khneizir, el- . . . B 4 
Khobbeizeh . . . B 4 
Khom aharz . . . E 4 
Khuglr.el- . . . . D 5 
Khu4r, el- . . . . B 4 
Khufy, el- . . . . E i^ 
Khuldeh . ...05 
Khulil, el- (Hebron, Kir- 

jath-Arba) . . . E i 
Khulkhuleh (Hulhuliti) . F 6 
Khufbet Abu esh-Sheba . D2 
Khurbet Abu Felah . . E 3 
Khurbet Abu Gheith . C 2 
Khurbet Abu Jerrah . B2 
Khurbet Abu Khuff . . D 2 
Khurbet Abu Rizik . . C 2 
Khurbet Abu Bukeiyik . B 2 
Khurbet Abu Rusheid . C 2 
Khurbet Abu Samarah . C 3 
Khurbet ^Adaseh (AAasa) E 4 
Khurbet Adma (? Adami) E 4 
' Khurbet 'Aid el Ma ( Adul- 

lam) r> 6 

Khurbet 'Aitun (Etam) . D 2 
Khurbet 'AjlunlEglon) . C i 
Khurbet 'Almit (Alemeth, 

Almon) . . . . E 5 
Khurbet 'Attir (Jattir) . E 2 
Khurbet 'Atuf . . . B 2 
Khurbet Beit 'Ainun 

(Beth Anoth) . . E i 

Khurbet Beit Mizza (Mo- 

zah) . . . . . D 5 
Khurbet Beit Sawir . . D 6 
KhurbetBeit Skaria(Beth- 

Zacharias) . . • D 5 
Khurbet Beiyud (Beth- 

Bireh, Beth-Lebaoth) . E 3 
Khurbet BeUed el-FoIja . C 5 
Khurbet Bqrkit (Borkeos) E 3 
Khurbet Bemikieh . . C 3 
Khurbet Bir el-Edd . . E 2 
Khurbet Breikut . . D 6 
Khurbet Buteihah . . C 2 
Khurbet Dabsheh (?Dabba- 

sheth) . . . .02 
Khurbet Dariah . . D 4 
Khurbet Deir Ibn Obeid . E 5 
Khurbet Dufna . . . D 5 
Khurbet Dustrey (Des- 

troit, Petra Incisa) . A 3 
Khurbet ed-Dawaseh . D 3 
Khurbet edh-Dh©ibeh (?Di- 

monah) . . . . E 3 
Khiy-bet edh-Dlira'a . D 4 

Khurbet el-'Abde . . D 5 
Khurbet el-Ahmar . . A i 
Khurbet el-' Alya . . F 4 
KhurbiBt el-'Amriyeh . D 4 
Khurbet el-'Aseiferiyeh . A 2 
Khurbet el-Asfir . . E 2 
Khurbet el-'Ashik . . . E 3 
Khurbet el-'Askar . . B 6 
Khurbet el-'Atr (Ether) .06 
Khurbet el-'Auja et-Tah- 

tani (? Naarah) . . B 4 
Khurbet el-Beida . . B 3 
Khurbet el-Beiyudat . B 4 
Khurbet el-Bir .^ . . B 2 
Khurbet el-Buweiri Seidur B 4 
Khurbet el-Fityan . . E 4 
Khurbet el-Ghazali sta. . E 3 
Khurbet el-Ghurab . . 1 D 4 
Khurbet el-Hai . . . E 4 
Khurbet el-Herri . . E 2 
Khurbet el-Hummam . i 
Khurbet el- Jind/ . . B 2 
Khurbet el- Jubara . . 2 
Khurbet el-Jubbein . • 3 
Khurbet el-Kady . . 2 
Khurbet el-Keffrein ( Abel- 

Shittim) . . . . 4 
Khurbet el-Kemseh . » A 3 
Khurbet ol-Kesih . . 2 
Khurbet el-Khamaseh . D 5 
Khurbet el-Khureitun . E 6 
Khurbet el-Khuzneh . 4 
Khurbet el-Kofkhah . . B 2 
Khurbet el-Kura (Kur) . C 6 
Khurbet el-Lahm (? Lah- 

mas) . . , . . D I 
Khurbet el-Loz . . . D 5 
Khurbet el-Loziyeh . . E i 
Khurbet el-Makhaz . . i 
Khurbet el-Mazara' . . E 5 
Khurbet el - Met:enna 

(Mekonah) . , C s 

Khurbet el-Menarah • B 5 



21 
22 
21 
24 
16 
29 
28 

2 
18 

1 

2 
22 
24 

2 
16 
25 
15 
26 
21 

7 
21 
19 
22 
24 
16 
22 
24 

28 
18 
20 
23 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
24 
20 

24 
28 
27 

24 
28 



24 
24 

24 

28 
24 
23 
23 
28 
24 
27 

19 
24 
24 
16 

19 



28 
26 
30 
29 
26 
26 
27 
28 
20 
30 
24 

25 
19 
25 
27 
21 
30 
22 
30 
24 
29 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

25 
19 
27 
24 
24 
19 
27 
16 

28 
24 
20 
27 
16 

24 
16 



Khurbet el-Mendur . . A 2 
Kiiurbet el-Meshrefeh . A 2 
Kliurbet el-Mezra^h . . 4 
Khurbet el-Mikyal . . E 4 
Khurbet el-Mleih . . D 2 
Khurbet el-Mujedd'a . D 5 
Khurbet el-Mukeiinin . 2 
Khurbet el-Muntar . . B 
Khurbet el-Murjnakh . 
Khurbet el-Murus^us . E 
Khurbet el-Musheirefeh . A 
Khurbet el-Muweileh . 
Khurbet el-Yarmuk (Jar- 

muth) . . . .0 
Khurbet el- Yeriha . . 
Khurbet en-Nahl 
Khurbet en-Nasara (on the 

Plain of Mamre) . 
Khurbet en-Numus . 
Khurbet 'Erma (Kirjath 

Jearim) ^ . . _• ? 5 24 



E5 

E I 

A 2 



27 
27 
20 
20 
29 
20 
27 
23 
27 
24 
16 
27 

24 
21 
24 

28 
27 



Khurbet er-Rabiyeh (Arab) E 2 
Khurbet er-Ras . . D 3 

KhTirbeter-Raseifeh . . F 
Khurbet er-Reseim . . B 
Khtu*bet er-Resm . . B 
Khurbet er-Ronak . . E 
Khurbet er-Rujliyeh . 
Khurbet es-Saireh . . D 5 
Khurbet e^-Sannin . . D 2 
Khurbet esh-Sharra . . E3 
Khurbet esh-Shelendy . D 2 
Khurbet esh-Sheluf . . A 2 
Khurbet es-Sirah . . A 2 
Khurbet es-Sireh . . D 4 
Khurbet es-Suk . ' . E 4 

Khurbet es-Sukriyeh . i 
Khurbet es-Simirah (Zem- 

araim) . . . . B 4 
Khurbet es-Sumrah . . B i 
Khurbet et-Tubaka(Baka) 6 
Khurbet Fahil (Pella) . E 5 
Khurbet Farah (Gorge of 

Pheretai, Parah) . . E 4 
Khurbet Farriyeh . . B 4 
Khurbet Futeis . . . B 2 
Khurbet Ghuzaleh . . E 2 
Khurbet Haiyan (Ai, Hai, 

Aiath) ' . . . . E 4 
Khurbet Hariri . . . E 3 
Khurbet Harrah . . D 6 
Khurbet Hazireh (En 

Razor?) .' . . .06 
Khurbet Hazzur -. . D 2 
Khurbet Hazzur (Hazor) . E 5 
Khurbet Heiderah el 

Jileimeh . . . . A 4 
Khurbet Heiyeh . . E 2 
Khurbet Hora . . . D 3 
Khurbet Huneh . • D 3 

Khurbet Hurab Diab . B 2 
Khurbet Husheh (Oshah) B 3 
Khurbet Ibreiktas . . A 5 
Khurbet Ibzik (Bezek^ . B i 
Khurbetha Ibn Harith . D 4 
Khurbet irasa (Eleasa) . D 4 
Khurbet In'alia . . B 6 

Khurbet Inbeh . . . E2 
Khurbet Istabiil (? Jez- 

reel) . . . . . E 2 
Khurbet Jala (Giloh) . D 6 
Khurbet Jalluh . . . 2 
Khurbet Ja'thun (Ga'ton) i 
Khurbet J^zur . . . D 4 
Khurbet Jedireh (Gederah 

of Judah) . . .05 
Khurbet Jedur (Gedor) . D 6 
Khurbet Jefat (? Jiphthah, 

Jotapata) . . . 2 
Khui-bet Jehara . . B»4 
Khiu'bet J'eimar . . D 2 
Khurbet Jelil (Castra de 

Gelil) . . , . B 6 
Khiu-bet Jibeit . . • B 3 
Khurbet Jubb Yusef . E 2 
Khurbet Kaa^un . • D 5 
Khurbet Kabra (Gabara) .02 
Khurbet Kabiir er-Resas . B 5 
Khurbet Iglana (Can a) . 3 
Khurbet Kauwukah . . B2 
Khurbet Kefr es-Samir 

(Kastra ?) . . .A3 
Khiu'bet Keisun . . D 6 
Khurbet Kerkefeh . • B 5 
Khurbet Kharuf (Haruph) 6 
Khiu'bet Khoreisa (Hore- 

shah, Oresa) . . . E 2 28 
Khiu'bet Kiieiziba (Cho- 

zeba) . . . . D 6 
Khurbet Kufjn . . . D 6 
Khurbet !^^mran . . B i 
Khurbet Kureitein (Keri- 

oth ftezron) . E 2 

Khiu'bet Kurm 'Atrad . B i 
Khurbet Labrush Nawa- 

mis B 5 

Khurbet Lasan . . . B i 
Khurbet Lezka . . . B 4 
Khurbet Ma'in (Maon) . E 2 
Khurbet Mansurah . . A 2 
Khurbet Marrina (Mero- 

noth) . . . . D 6 
Khurbet Mejadil . . D 2 
Khurbet Mer'ash (Mare- 
shah) . . ..06 
Khurbet Mic^eh . . 4 

Khurbet Minieh , (Caper- 
naum) . . . . E 2 20 



28 
26 
27 
27 
26 
27 
24 
21 
26 
27 
27 
27 
26 
26 
27 

25 
29 
16 
20 

24 
19 
27 
20 

24 
22 
16 

16 
20 
24 

19 
23 
28 
15 
27 
19 
19 
25 
24 
24 
16 
?8 

28 
24 
19 
19 
30 

24 
24 

19 
21 
28 

16 
25 
20 
20 
20 
16 
20 
27 

19 
16 
24 
22 



24 
24 
29 

28 
29 

30 
27 
24 
28 
27 

24 
27 

24 
24 



Khurbet Mird . . . B i 
Khurbet Mofia . . . 2 
Khurbet Mohammed 'Ali . 4 
Khurbet Mugheisil . .02 
Khurbet Muntaret el-- 

Baghl . . . . B 2 
Khurbet Murran . . D 2 
Khurbet Muslih (? Misha, 

or Misheal) . . . B 2 
Khurbet Na^aur . . D 4 
Khurbet Rakah . . E 2 

Khurbet Risha . . ^ G 4 
Khurbet Rubba (Rabbah) 6 
Khurbet Rumah (Ruma) 3 
Khurbet Riiman . . D 4 
Khurbet Sar . . . D 4 
Khurbet SaVeh (?Jeshua) D 3 
Khurbet Seir . . .06 
Khurbet Selim . . • 5 
Khurbet Sellameh . . D 2 
Khurbet Serada , . • D 5 
Khurbet Shaireh . -03 
Khurbet Shemsin . • E 3 
Khurbet Shora . . . E 2 
Khurbet Shuweikeh (Sho- 

coh) . . . . . 5 24 
Khurbet Shuweikeh (So- 

coh) .... . E 2 
Khurbet Sihan . . . B 2 



29 
25 
16 
27 

27 
27 

19 



KhurbetS6merah(?Shamir)D 2 



E 



Khurbet Sukereir 
Khurbet Surafend 
Khurbet Surik (Sorek) 
Khurbet Suweiykeh 

(? Sechu) . 
Khurbet Tafsah (?Tiphsah) E 
Khurbet Tat Reit ? . . D 
Khurbet Tekua (Tekoa) 
E 6 24 ; 
Khurbet Tibnit . 
Khiu?bet Umm Adrah 
Khurbet Umm Ameidat . 
Khurbet Umm Baghleh . 
Khiu'bet Umm Dabkal . 
Khurbet Umm el-'Akud . 
Khurbet Umm el-Hasn . 
Khurbet Umm er-Ruma- 

min (En-Rimmon) 
Khurbet Umm Haretein . 
Khurbet Umm Jina (En- 

Gannim) .... 
Khurbet Umm Kelkhah . 
Khurbet Umm Mu'arrif . 
Khi^Jj^ Umm Rijl . 
Khfirbet tknm Toba 
jKhurb^t Wady Alin . 
-'Khurbet Yanin . 
iKhUrbct :^bla (Ibleam) . 
•.Khu/b^t Yerzeh 
Kb^itbet Yukin . 
Khurbet Zak 



F 1 
1)4 

B'2 

2 

D 2 

2 

5 

B 2 

D 2 
D 2 



D4 
B 2 
E 2 
D 2 



Khurbet Zanuta (Zanoah) D 2 



28 
27 
28 
24 
24 
24 

24 
23 
28 

28 
16 
27 
27 
28 
27 
24 
25 

27 
27 

24 
27 
27 
27 
24 
24 
19 
20 
25 
28 
27 
28 
27 
28 
27 
27 



Khurbet Zara . . . 2 
Khurbet Zatut . . . F 2 
Khurbet Zeidan . . i 
Khurbet Zubalah . . 2 
Khurbet Zuheihkah (? Zig- 

lag) . . . . . B 2 27 
Khurbet Zuweinita (Beth 

Zenita) . . . . i 
Khurdableh . . . F 3 
Khiu^ibeh, el- . . • B 5 
Khureibeh, el- (? Razor) 
D6 16; 



E I 

1)3 
B 2 
D4 
D4 



19 
26 
18 

20 
15 
21 
16 
23 



Khureibeh, el- . . 
Khushniyeh, el- . 

Khutweh .... 
I^ibbiah (Gibbethon) . 
Kidron, The Brook (Wady 

en-Nar) . . . . E 5 24 
Kidshun, or Kedesh (Tell 

Abu Kudeis) . " . . C 4 19 
Kieleh . . . . C 3 15 

Kilti . . . . . D 3 2 
ISalya . . . . . D 4 16 
Kinakhi . . . 0, D 3 2 
Kirateh . . . . E 2 22 
kir Haraseth (el-Kerak) . D 4 30 
Kir Heres (el-Kerak) . D 4 30 
Kiriathaim (E:ureiyat) . D 2 29 
Kirjath (Kuryet el-'Enab) D 5 24 
Kirjath-Arba (el-Khulll) .- E i 28 
Kiq'ath Arim. See Kir- 
jath Jearim 
Kirjath Baal. See Kir- 
jath Jearim 
Kirjath Jearim ? (Khurbet 

'Erma) . . . . D 5 
Kirmil . . . • 3 

Kir of Moab (el-Kerak) . D 4 
Klirwan . . . . E 4 
Kishon, R. (ISTahr el- 
Mukutt'a) . . . B 3 

Kisra 2 

ij^sren . .' . . B 2 

Kisve sta. . . . . D 4 
Kition . . . . I 5 

Klysma (Kom el-Kulzum) F 4 



Kneitra, el- . . '03 

Kneiye, el- . . . . F 3 

Kochaba (Kaukab) . . 4 

Kohle . . . "^ . E 3 

Kois ? (Sakha) . . . C i 

Kom el-Hish (Amu) . . B 2 
K5m el-]§!ulzum (Klysma) F 4 

K5m el-5u9ub . . . 3 

Kom et-Tawil . . . Di 

K5m Hamada . . . 2 



24 
2 

30 
1 

19 

20 

21 

18 

1 

7 

29 

26 

18 

28 

7 

7 

7 

21 

7 

T 



E 5 


18 


M4 


61 


Bs 


25 


E I 


15 


E4 


28 


E2 


57 


4 


16 


B6 


16 


D4 


28 


E4 


28 


E4 


28 


E4 


28 



Kom Masik . . . 
Korasion . . . 
Korea (Tell el-Mazar) 
Kornayl . . . . 
Kornub (Thamara) . 
Koros . . . 
Kotrat ez-Zyeit . 
!K6zah, el- . . . 
Koz el-Manjar . 
:^oz el-Mdeifi . . . 
Koz Fa'i . ... 
5oz Shokb .... 
Krak de la Pierre du 

Desert (Petra Daserti) . 
Krak des Ohevaliers (Hisn 

el-Akrad) 
Krak et Montreal, Seig- 

neurie de ... 

KreijSUa 
ICreyk, el- . 
Krokodilopolis (Medinet 

el-Faiyiim) . . . 5 
Kseife . . . . . E 3 
Kubab. . D 6 18; E 1 
Kubab, el- . . . . 4 
Kubalan . . . . E 3 
Kubar . . . . . D 4 



7 57 
D4 57 



C7 
D4 
D I 



Kubara 

Kubatieh .... 

Kubbeh . . . . 

KubbElias 

Kubbet edh-Dhahr . 

Kubbet el-Asafir 

Kubeibe, el- 

Kubeibeh, el- 

Kubeibeh, el- . 

Kubeibeh, el- (Cabbon) . 

iKudditha , . 

Kuds, el- (Jerusalem) 

Kue 

Kueijiyeh, el- . 

Kufaikef, el- 

Kufeir .... 

Kuffin .... 

Kufr,.el- .... 

Kulai'at . . . . 

l^ulansaweh (Oalansue) . 

Kur at Bustra ... 

!Kurat el-H6sn (Gamala) 

KuFat el-!^urein (Mont- 
fort) .... 

gurat esh-Shu^if (Belfort, 
or Beaufort) . 

Kula't Jiddin 

nKurat Marun 

Kul'atMeis 

:is:urat Ras el-'Ain (Anti- 
patris) .... 

Kur at Serba 

Kul*"at Shema' . 

Kul'at Subeibeh 

Kulat Umm Baghek 
' (Thama) . 

Kuleh . . . . . 

Kuleia, el- . 

Kulei'ah, el- . 

]^ul5nieh (? Emmaus) 

IKulundia . . . . 

Kulunsaweh . . 

Kulwat el-Biyad 

i^umbazeh .... 

Kumeim (Kamon) 

Kumieh .... 

^unawat (Kena^h-Nobah, 
Kanatha) 

I^uneitrah, el- . E 6 16; 

j^uneitrah, el- . 

Kuneiyeh 



E 6 
C 5- 

E 6 
E 2 
B 2 

F3 
D 2 

D4 
B4 
D I 

b2 
E5 

2 

D I 
D6 
E 4 
B5 
G4 
4 
B6 



57 
30 
29 

7 
28 
22 
24 
23 
23 
18 
19 
18 
15 
21 
17 
29 
24 
24 
27 
20 
24 

2 
29 
30 
16 
19 
22 
57 
57 
16 
20 



B6 16 



5 
2 

5 

4 

3 
4 
6 

5 

4 

3 

D4 

2 

D5 
E 4 
2 
E 4 
B4 
B4 
D4 

G3 
A 6 
B 2 
T> 6 



Kiinin 6 

:^uniyeh, el- . . . E 3 

Kunnabeh . . . . E 4 

Kur (Khurbet el-Kura) . 6 

Kur . . . . . D 2 

Kurawa el-Masudy . . B 3 

Kurawa Ibn Hasan . • D 3 

Kurawa Ibn Zeid . • D 3 

Kurbeh, el. . . .•C 6 
Kureim . . D 6 18 ; E 1 

Kureinein, el- . . . E 3 

i^ureiyat (Kiriathaim) • . D 2 

Kureiyeh . . . . G 4 

?!uriyat . . . . E 3 

Kurkama . . . . E 5 

Kurmul, el- (Carmel) . E 2 

l^um Hattin . . . D 3 
!^um Surtubeh ( ? Alexan- 

drium, Sartabeh) . • B 3 

Kurun . . . • E 3 
ICuryet el-'Enab (Kirjath) D 5 

l^^uryet 5ajja . . . D 2 

l^luryet Jit (Gitta) . . D 2 

KussB (el-|Cu§iyeh) . .08 

^usbiyeh, el- . . . B 2 

l^useibe . . . . 2 

;^u§eibeh . . . . 5 

!]^usein . . . . E 2 

!§!u§eir, el- . . . • 5 
Kusiyeh, el- (Gosu, Kusse) Q 8 

l^usr Abu'l-Harak . . E 3 

l^usrah . . . • E 3 

;^usr 'Atra . . . E i 

;^nsr Berdawil . . • B 3 

IKusr Busheir . . . E 3 

;^usr ed-Dirse . . • E 3 

;^usr el-Kharaze . • E 3 

]^u?r el-Yabis . . . E 5 

i^usr Maumaneh . . E 3 

^u^r Nimrud . . . D i 



16 
19 
16 
16 



16 
16 
16 

30 
23 
16 
21 
24 
24 
23 
16 
19 
21 
20 

22 
18 
21 
18 
16 
22 
16 
16 
23 
25 
23 
23 
16 
22 
26 
29 
22 
23 
20 
28 
20 

25 
15 
24 
23 
23 

7 
21 
17 
16 
23 
16 

7 
30 
23 
20 
21 
30 
29 
29 
30 
26 
17 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



^u9rBabba 




D4 


80 


5usr Shohar 




E6 


30 


Kustah . . 




C 3 


15 


Kustineh, el- 




B5 


24 


jglustiil 




D5 


24 


Kuteibeh . 




E 3 


22 


Kuteibeh . 




D I 


21 


:^uteifeh 




F 2 


17 


Kutha . . . 




D 8 


1 


Kuweh, el- . 




E 3 


15 


Kuweikat . 




B 2 


19 


Kuweiris, el- 




G4 


22 


iE^uzah (Chusl) . 




B3 


23 


Kuzaniyeh . . , 




C 4 


16 


Kythera 




G4 


1 


Kythron 




G4 


1 


La Berrie (Wildernes 


3S of 






Sin) . . . 




B 8 


57 


Lachish (Tell el-Hesy 


) . 


C I 


27 


La Colee 




L>4 


57 


Lagash (Sirpuria) 




F3 


2 


La Grande Rividre ( 


Nahi 






el-'Aujeh) 




B6 


57 


Lahiteh 




G 2 


22 


Lahmas ? (Khurbet 


el- 






Lahm) 




D I 


28 


Lahun, el- . 




5 


7 


Laish, or Leshem (Te 


11 el- 






K:a4y) . . 




i>5 


16 


Lajazzo . . 
Lakish . . 




C 2 


57 




c s 


2 


Lala . 




E3 


15 


Lampron . 




B I 


57 


Laodicea . . H 


1 1; 


3 


57 


Lapathos 




1 4 


1 


Laris (el-'Arish) 




Ay 


57 


Larissa 




i^'.s 


51 


Larnaca 




A4 


57 


La Ros (Beirut) 




05 


57 


Larriz (el-*"Arish) 




Ay 


57 


Larsa . 




i^'3 


2 


Lasea . 




05 


51 


L'Assebeibe (Kala'at 


es- 






Subebe) . 




C 5 


57 


Latrori 




5 


24 


Lawiyeh, el- 




F 2 


20 


Lebanon, prov. . 




D 1 


59 


Lebanon, Wt (Jebel 


Lib- 






nan) 




E 2 


15 


Lebbunah . 




x\ 6 


16 


Leben . 




G5 


1 


Leboda (Deir 'Ali) 




D5 


18 


Lebonah (el-Lubban) 




3^i3 


23 


Le Destroit 




B 6 


57 


Legio, Lyon 




C 6 


57 


Lehun, el- . 




E3 


29 


Lehzia 




C3 


57 


Leileh . 




B 5 


16 


Leja,el-(Trachon)E( 


5 18; 


F 2 


22 


Lejjun, el- . . 
Lejjiin, el- (Megiddo) 




.E4 


30 




B4 


19 


Le Krak do Montreal 




C 8 


57 


Lemba (Libb) . 




D2 


29. 


Lemnos I. . 




H4 


1 


Leontopolis (Tell el-Y 


'ehu- 






diyeh) 




1^3 


7 


Leptis . 




^5 


1 


Lesbos . . G 3 


51; 


B 2 


52 


Leshem, or Laish (Te 


11 el- 






?:a4y) . . 




D5 


16 


Le Soudin (es-Suweid 


ryeh) 


C 2 


57 


Letopolis^ (Usim) 




i>3 


7 


Libb (Lemba) . 




D2 


29 


Libbeiya 




J^3 


15 


Libiiah (Tell es-Safi) 




B5 


24 


Libya . 




Ky 


51 


Licia . 




3 


57 


Lidebir (Ibdar) . 




B4 


21 


Lifta . . . 




E5 


24 


Lilybs&um . 




E4 


1 


Limassol (Lime9on) 




A4 


57 


LimeQon (Limassol) 




A4 


57 


Limn6 (el-Faiyiim) 




C 5 


7 


Lisan, el- . 




B4 


30 


Lisbon 




A4 


1 


Lisht . . . . 




D4 


7 


Livias (Tell Rameh) 




C I 


29 


Liyeh, el- . 




D4 


16 


Lod (Ludd) 




C4 


24 


Lohf el-Leja 




D6 


18 


Lubanam . 




B 6 


57 


Lubban, el- (Lebonah 




E3 


23 


Lubban, el- 




D3 


23 


Lubben 




E4 


26 


Lubein 




F2 


22 


Lubie . 




C 6 


57 


Liibieh 




D3 


20 


Lud? . . . . 




G5 


1: 


S 


ee also Map 6. 


Ludd (Lod, Lydda) 




04 


24 


Luhith, Ascent of? (I 


'al'at 






Heisah) . 




D I 


29 


Lunel . 




c 3 


1 


Lusah . 




D4 


16 


Luweiziyeh (? Luz) 




D5 


16 


LUZ (Beitm) 




E 4 


24 


Luz ? (Luweiziyeh) 




D5 


16 


Lycaonia . . L 4 


51 


E 2 


52 


Lycia . . . I 4 


51 


I 4 


52 


Lydda (Ludd) . . 


, 


C 4 


24 


Lydde (St. George's) 




By 


57 


Lydia . .HI 


35; 


B 2 


52 


Lyon, Legio 




C 6 


57 


Lyons . . . . 




D-2 


1 


Lystra . L 4 


51; 


E 3 


52 



Ma*ad . . . . . E 4 

Ma' an (Ahamant) . .08 

Ma'arabun . . . .02 

Ma'arra . . . • D 3 

Ma'aser, el- . . . D 2 

Macedonia . . G 3 1 ; E 2 

MachsBrus (Mukaur) . . 2 

MMeba (Medeba) . . D i 

Madema . . . . E 2 

Madhak . . . . G 4 

Madher . . . . D 3 

Madin (?Madon) . . D 3 
Madmannah (Umm Deim- 

neh) . . . . D 2 

Madmen ? (Medeiyineh) . E 2 

Madon ? (Madin) . . D 3 

Maerib sta. . . • D 3 

Magan (Makan) . . F 4 

Magdala (Mejdel) . . E 3 

Maghagha- . . . .06 

Magidda . . . • 3 

Mago . . . . . 4 

Mahadja sta. . . . E i 

Mahas . . . . . D 4 
Mahomerie, Grande et 

Petite . . . . y 

Mahrakah, el- . . • B 3 

Mahri, el- . . . • B 5 
Ma'in (Baal-Meon, Beth- 

Meon) . . . . D I 

Ma'in . . . . . A 2 

Maioumas ? . . . 4 

Makan (Magan) . • F 4 

Makedoin . " . . • y 
Makhadet Abarah (? Bet- 

habara, Beth-bara) . E 4 
Makhadet Hajlah (Ford) i 

Makhadet es-Seiyarah . E 2 

Makhanat . . . . E 4 

Makhruk, el- . . • 3 
Makhtara (Oasale Mak- 

tara) . . . • 5 
Makkedah ? (el-Mughar) . B 4 

Maksaba . . . . 2 

Malaca . . . • B 4 

Malaca . . . • F 3 

Malek A3 

Malhah . . . . E 5 

Malia . . . . . i 

Malka B 3 

Malkiyeh, el- . . . D 6 

Malta (Melita) . . . B 5 

Malta% el- . . . • B 3 

Malul . . . . .03 

Ma' Martaba . . • 3 

Ma^'mas . . . . A 4 

Mamestra . . , . 2 

Mamre, Plain of . . E i 

Mamriyeh . . . . 3 

Manahath (Malhah) . . E 5 

Manakere sta. . . -03 

Manara, el- . . • 3 

Mandesic Mouth of Nile . F i 

Manidea . . . -05 

Mansiira . . . . D i 

Mansura, el- . . ' . . E 6 

Mansiirah . . . . E 2 

Mansurah, el- . . . B 2 

Mansurah, el- . , . D 2 

Mansurah, el- . . • B 5 

Mansiirah, el- . . . 4 

Maon (Khurbet Ma'in) . E 2 

Maon, Wilderness ol . . F 2 

Ma'raba . . . • D 3 
Ma^ Radyan (or Ghad- 

yan) . . . . . L 4 

Marah, el- . '. . . A 4 

Mar ah ('Ain Hawarah) . G 5 

Marakah . . ^ . B 5 

Marash (Maresia) . . D i 

Marat el-Jeneidleh . • L) 3 

Marbiyeh . . . -03 

Mardocha (Murduk) . . G 3 

Mar Elias ,. . . . E 5 

Mare Galilese . . .06 

Mare Mortuum . . . y 
Mareotis, Lake (Bahr 

Maryut) . . . . A i 
Mareshah (Khurbet 

Mer'ash) . . . .06 

Maresia (Marash) . .Eg 

Maret el-Beidha . . E 6 

Margat (Merkab) . . 3 

Mariyeh, el- . . • D 5 

Mar Saba . . . . E 5 

Marseilles . . . • D 3 

Ma'runeh . . . . E 3 

Martaba . . . . B 3 

Maru . . . . . 4 

Mariin er-Ras . . .06' 

Masada (Sebbeh) . . B 4 

Maslubiyeh, el- . . . D i 
Maspha ? (Neby Samwil) D 4 

Masuh, el- . . . . D i 

Masy I 

Masyat (Arx Assassino- 

rum) . . . • D 3 
Matarieh, el- (P're, Aun, 

Heliopolis, On) . . D 3 

Matkh Bahret . . . F 5 

Mathlutha, el- . . . D 3 

Mauritania . . . • B 5 
Mayumas Gaza (el-Mmeh) A i 

Mazar, el- . . . . D 4 

Mdeine, el- . . . '03 

Meander, R. . . • I 4 

Mearah? (Mogheiriyeh) . 3 

Mebn el-Beit . . . F 3 



20 


Mecca 


L y 


t 


Mezra'h . . . . 


C 5 


16 


57 


Medaa . . 


F3 


17 


Mezra'h, el- . . 


B2 


19 


17 


Medaibiye, el- . 


D5 


30 


Mezra'h esh-Sher]kiyeh 


E3 


23 


57 


Medain es-Salih 


K6 


1 


Mezra't Umm el-Ame 


D6 


18 


15 


Medama , . . . 


F4 


1 


Mezzeh, el- . . . 


D4 


18 


51 


Medbah, el- . . . 


D3 


28 


Mgheriyeh . . . . 


C 5 


16 


29 


Medeba (Madeba) . 


D I 


29 


Mhayy (Moka) . , . 


E5 


30 


29 


Medeineh, el- 


E 3 


29 


Mi'ar 


2 


19 


23 


Medeiyineh (Dimon, Mad- 






Michmash (Mukhmas) 


E4 


24 


22 


men ?) . . . 


E 2 


29 


Michmethath(Sahel Mukh- 






20 


Media . . . . . 


M4 


1 


nah) . . 


E3 


23 


20 


Medina (Yathrib) 


L? 


1 


Middin, el- . 


D5 


30 




Medinet el-Faiyum (Kro- 






Midian, Land of 


L 5 


8 


28 


kodilopolis, Arsinoe) 


C 5 


7 


IVIidieh (Modin) . . . 


D4 


24 


29 


Mefrak, el- . 


G 2 


26 


Mifaleh . . . . 


G3 


22 


20 


Megiddo (el-Lejjiin) . 


B4 


19 


Migdal-Gad (el-Mejdel) . 


A5 


24 


21 


Megiddo, Great Plain of 






Migdala (Mejdel) 


F3 


22 


2 


(Merj Ibn 'Amir) . 


04 


19 


Migdol . . . . 


C 3 


2 


20 


Mehalla el-Kubra 


D2 


7 


Migdol (Fort 'Agrud) 


F3 


7 


7 


Mehna, el- . 


D5 


30 


Migdol? (Tell el-Her) . 


G 2 


7 


2 


Meidan el-'Abd . 


B4 


25 


Miletus . . . . 


H4 


51 


1 


Meidiim 


D5 


7 


Mimis . . . 


E 4 


16 


22 


Meiron '. . 


D2 


20 


Mineh, el- (Majmmas Gaza) 


A I 


27 


26 


Meis 


D6 


16 


Minet Abu Zaburah . 


A 5 


19 




Meithalun . . , . 


E I 


23 


Minet el-Kula* . 


A5 


24 


57 


Me jar ah . . . . 


E 3 


17 


Minet Rubin . . 


B4 


24 


19 


Me Jarkon (Nahr el-'Auja) 


C3 


23 


Minia . . , 


C7 


7 


30 


MejdalTyeh, el- . 


B 2 


21 


Minyeh . . . - . 


I 


29 




Mejdel . . 


A I 


17 


Mirabel (Ras el-'Ain) 


6 


57 


29 


Mejdel (Magdala) 


E3 


20 


Mirr, el- ... . 


C 3 


23 


27 


Mejdel (Migdala) 


F3 


22 


Miryamin . . . . 


E5 


20 


30 


Mejdel, el- . 


B3 


19 


Mis'ar . . ... 


D3 


29 


2 


Mejdel, el- . . 


D2 


23 


Misdah, el- . . . 


D4 


30 


57 


Mejdel, el- . . . . 


B 6 


16 


Mishal or Misheal (Khur- 








Mejdel, el- (? Aphek) 


A5 


19 


betMuslih) . 


B 2 


19 


20 


Mejdel, el- (Migdal-Gad) . 


A5 


24 


Miskeh . . . . 


2 


23 


29 


Mejdel 'Anjar . 


B 2 


17 


Mitanni ... 


D2 


2 


20 


Mejdel Bern Facjl 


B3 


25 


Mit Ghamr 


D2 


7 


1 


Mejdelein . . . . 


D3 


30 


Mlt Raheneh (Ha(t)-ka- 






25 


Mejdel esh-Shems 


E5 


16 


ptah,Menfe, Noph, Mem- 








Mejdel IsHm 


C 5 


16 


phis) . . . . 


D4 


7 


57 


Mejdel Ma'iish . - . 


D2 


15 


Mitylene . 


H3 


51 


24 


Mejdel Yaba (Aphek) 


C 3 


23 


Miwamiyeh 


C 3 


15 


15 


Mejidiyeh . , . . 


D5 


18 


Mizpah?* (Neby Samwil) . 


D4 


24 


1 


Mekita . . . . 


C 3 


2 


Mizpah? (Tell en-Nasbeh) 


E 4 


24 


1 


Mekonah (Khurbet el- 






Mizpeh (Suf ) 


E2 


26 


27 


Mekenna) . . 


C 5 


24 


Mizpeh, Valley of? (el- 






24 


Mekr, el- . . . . 


B 2 


19 


Bika') . . . . 


F 2 


15 


19 


Meleh, el- . 


E3 


28 


Mkhayyet, el- . 


Di. 


29 


21 


Melihat'Aly 


F3 


22 


Moab 


D4 


30 


16 


Melihat Hazkin . 


D 6 


18 


Mocha . . . . 


L9 


1 


51 


Melita (Malta) E 4 1 ; 


B5 


51 


Modin (Midieh) . 


D4 


24 


27 


Mellawi . . . . 


8 


7 


Moeris, Lake (Birket 






19 


Melos I. . . . 


G4 


1 


Qarun) . . . . 


C 5 


7 


27 


Melukhkha . . 


D4 


2 


McBsia Superior 


Ei 


61 


19 


Memphis (Mlt Raheneh) . 


O4 


7 


Mogharet es-Safra, el- 


B5 


16 


57 


Menarah, el- 


E3 


20 


Mogheiriyeh (? Mearah) . 


C 3 


15 


28 


Menat-Khufu(Beni Hasan) 


8 


7 


Moka (Mhayy) . 


E5 


30 


15 


Mendah . ./ . . 


E4 


20 


Molyneux, Point 


B4 


30 


24 


Mendes (Tell er-Rub') 


E I 


7 


Mens Kasius (Ras el- 






21 


Menfe 


4 


2 


!Kasrun) . . . 


G I 


8 


29 


Menfe (Mit Raheneh) 


O4 


7 


Mens RegaHs . 


8 


67 


7 


Menin . . . ... 


E3 


17 


Montfort (Kul'at el- 






57 


Menin , . . . 


D4 


18 


!Kurein) . . . . 


B6 


16 


7 


Menjah . . 


E I 


29 


Mont Gizard (Tell Gezer) . 


By 


57 


16 


Menshiyeh, el- . 


B 2 


19 


Montpellier 


C3 


1 


15 


Menuf 


C 3 


7 


Morocco . . . 


B5 


1 


21 


Menzala . . . . 


Ei 


7 


Morte, R. (Nahr el-Mef jir) 


B 6 


57 


20 


Menzala, Lake . 


F I 


7 


Mote, el- ... . 


I>5 


30 


16 


Me'rad, el- . . . . 


D 2 


26 


Motye . 


E4 


1 


24 


Merda . 


E3 


23 


Mozah (Khurbet Beit 






28 


Meristeh . . . . 


1)3 


15 


Mizza) . . . . 


D5 


24 


28 


Merjany 


E5 


18 


Mra' 


C 3 


29 


17 


Merj /Ayun 


D5 


16 


Mreigha, el- . , . 


B5 


30 




Merj el-Ghuruk . 


E I 


23 


Msa^ed . . . . 


B3 


27 


8 


Merj el-Hadireh 


6 


16 


Msammat, el- . 


C 3 


30 


19 


Merj Ibn 'Amir (Great 
Plain of Esdraelon) 






Mshash, el- . , . 


D3 


28 


8 


4 


19 


Mu'adamiyeh 


D4 


18 


16 


Merkab (Margat) 


C 3 


57 


Mu'addamiyeh . 


F 2 


17 


57 


Merkebeh . . . . 


1^5, 


16 


Mu'akkar, el- . 


F I 


29 


15 


Merkeh . . . 


C5' 


19 


Mu^alakah and sta. . 


F I 


15 


15 


Merkez, el- . . . . 


D 2 


21 


Mu'allaka . . . . 


2 


15 


22 


Merle 


B 6 


57 


Mu''arabeh, el- . 


F 4 


22 


24 


Merle (Tanturah) 


A4 


19 


Mu'arra . . . , 


E2 


17 


57 


Meroe . . . . . 


I 8 


1 


Mughair, el- . . . 


D5 


20 


57 


Meronoth (Khurbet Mar- 






Miighar, el- (? Makkedah) . 


B4 


24 




rina) . . 


D6 


24 


Mughar, el- . . . 


D2 


20 


7 


Meruj, el- . 


E I 


15 


Mugheir, el- . . . 


B3 


25 




Mesaai, el- . . 


E 5 


16 


^i;igheir, el- . . . 


2 


23 


24 


Mes'adiyeh, el- . 


E 2 


20^ 


Ml%heiyer, el- . 


4 


21 


57 


MeseHeh (Bethulia) . . 


C 5 


ir 


•^ftigheiyir, el- . 


E5 


22 


18 


Mesha 


D3 


23 


Mugheyir, el- . 


4 


21 


57 


Mesha . . . 


D3 


20 


MughulUs . . . 


C 5 


24 


16 


Meshamis . . . . 


D 2 


26 


Muhajjeh . . . . 


E 2 


22 


24 


Meshaherah, el- 


A I 


27 


Muhammediyeh 


E3 


17 


1 


Meshed, el- (Gath-Hepher) 


C 3 


20 


Muharakat, el- . 


D4 


80 


17 


Meshetta, el- . ..-. . 


E I 


29 


Muhatet el-JIajj ; . 


D3 


29 


27 


Meshghara . .trf . 


D3 


15 


Muheiditheh, el- 


E3 


15 


21 


Meshhed Abi Taleb" . . 


D5 


30 


Mujeibil, el- . . . 


F4 


22 


16 


Meshnekeh, el- . 


2 


29 


Mujeidel, el- . . . 


E2 


22 


30 


Meshreik, el- (? Kedemoth] 


E 2 


29 


Mujeidel . . . . 


G2 


22 


29 


Mesmie sta. 


E5 


18 


Mujeidel 


G3 


22 


24 


Mesmiyeh, el- . 


B5 


24 


Mujeidil . . . 


C5 


16 


29 


Mesopotamia . . . 


L4 


1 


Mujeidil, el- . 


C 3 


19 


17 


Messina . . . . 


B3 


51 


Mu eimir, el- . . . 


•F4 


22 




Metem, el- . . . . 


E I 


15 


Mukam Imam 'Aly . 


B4 


26 


57 


MetheHeh (Bethulia) . 


C 5 


19 


Mukaur (Machserus) . 


O2 


29 




Meyal, el- . 


D4 


30 


Mukeibileh . . . . 


4 


20 


7 


M'eyt . . . . 


D2 


29 


Mukes (Gadara) 


B4 


21 


18 


Mezar el-Khalidiyeh 


D5 


18 


MukhaUd . . . . 


2 


23 


29 


Mezeirat el-I^bliyeh , . 


D4 


24 


Mukhmah . 


E 3 


26 


1 


Mezeirib, el- (Casphor, 01 






Mukhmas (Michmash) 


E4 


24 


27 


Oaspin), and sta. . 


D3 


21 


Mukhraba . . . . 


E4 


20 


20 


Mezra', el- . . 


B4 


30 


Mukhtara,el (Oasale Mak- 






29 


Mezra'a . . 


D3 


15 


tara) 


B3 


15 


51 


Mezra'a, el- 


E5 


16 


Mukhuby, el- 


B I 


25 


15 


Mezra'ah, el- 


F3 


22 


Mukna . . . 


K7 


8 


22 


Mezra'atDeirel-'Ashair . 


B5 


18 


Mulebbis 


C3 


23 



8 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Liand 



Mumeseh . . . . E 6 

Muneidhira . . . G 5 

Munich . . . . E 2 

Muntar, el- . . • F 5 

Muntar, el- . . . B i 

Murduk (Mardocha) . . G 3 
Mureijime, el- (Abu Hamid) D 2 
Mureijmeh esh-Sherkiy©h> 

el- . . . . . D 2 

Muru§§u9, el- . . . D 4 

Murwaniyeh, el- . . C 4 

Museifireh, el- . . . E 4 

Mushakkar, el- . . . D i 

Mushbak, el- . . . B 2 

Musheirife, el- . . . E 3 

Musheirfe, el- . . . E 4 

Musherfawi, el- . . . B 2 
Musmeih, el- (Phaena) . E 6 

Musmus . . . . B 4 

Musr (Egypt) . . . F 2 

Musri . . . . . C 3 

Mutabin . . . . D 6 

MutaUa', el- . . . D 3 

Mutallah, el- . . . D 5 
Mutatio Heldua (Khan 

Khuldah) . . .02 

MuwelUhrel- . . . L 8 

Muzeir'ah, el- . . -03 

Myos Hormos ? . . .18 

Myra . . . . K 4 
Mysla . . H 3 51 ; B 2 



Naamah (Na^aneh) . . C 4 
Na'aneh (Naamah) . . C 4 



Zerka 



B4 
M5 

H3 
E 2 
C 3 



Naarah ? (Khurbet el-'Auja 

et-Tahtahi) . 
Naarde (Nahardea) 
Nabara (Nimra) 
Nablus (Shechem) 
Nafa'ah 
Nahaliel (Wady 

Ma'in) . . . . C 2 

Nahallal? fAin Mahil) .' I) 3 

Nahardea (Naarde) . • L 5 

Naharin . . . . D 2 

Nahel . . . . . D 5 

Nahiteh . . . . E 3 

Nahr Abu '1-Aswad , . B 4 

Nahr Adasiyeh (Buri- 
kiyeh) . . 

Nahr 'Ajny 

Nahr AVaj (R. Pharpar) 

Nahr Banias 

Nahr Barada (R. Abana) 

Nahr Barbar 

Nahr Baraighit . 

Nahr Baruk . . 

Nahr Beirut (Magoras) 

Nahr Burikiyeh 

Nahr Buseibleh . . 

Nahr ed-Damiir (Tamyras) 

Nahr ed-Dufleh . 

Nahr el-' Allan . . . 

Nahr el-'Auja (Me Jarkon) 

Nahr el-'Aujeh (La Grande 
Rividre) ... 

Nahr el-'Auwali (Bostre- 
nus) . . . . 

Nahr el-Barghut (Askle- 
pios) . . . 

Nahr el-Berdy . . . 

Nahr el-Falik fRoche- 
taill^e) . . . 

Nahr «1-Ghadir . 

Nahr el-Harush 

Nahr el-Hasbany (R. Jor- 
dan) . * . 

Nahr el-l^a^imiyeh . 

Nahr el-Leddan 

Nahr el-Mefjir (" Dead 
River") . ... 

Nahr el-Mukutf a (R. 
Kishon) . . 

Nahr, en- . . . . A 2 

Nahr er-RuVkad . . C 2 

Nahr esh-Sheri'ah (R. Jor- 
dan) . . . . . C 2 

Nahr es-Sabirani . . C 4 

Nahr ez-Zaharany . , . C 4 

Nahr ez-ZerJ^a { ?R. Shihur ; 



C 4 
B4 
D4 
D5 

C 4 
D5 
D 2 
D I 

C 4 
D 2 
C 2 
A4 
3 
3 



03 
D4 

B 2 
D 2 
E 4 

B5 
5 
D 5 



B3 



. A4 



B 6 
D I 
4 



29 
20 
16 
22 
29 
21 
39 
20 
21 
18 
19 
7 
2 
18 
28 
16 

15 
8 

23 
8 

51 

52 



20 
1 
2 
30 
22 
16 

16 
18 
18 
16 
17 
18 
16 
15 
15 
16 
15 
15 
19 
21 
23 



B6 57 
3 15 



15 

18 

23 
15 

18 

16 
16 
16 



A 5 19 



19 
27 
21 

25 
18 
16 



Crocodile R.) 
Nahr ez-Zerka D 2 -:^ ; F 3 
Nahr ez-Zerka (Fleuve des 

Crocodiles) 
Nahr Hummana 
Nahr Ibrahim 
Nahr Iskanderuneh (Salt 

R. ; R. Salee) A 5 19 ; B 6 57 
Nahr Jalud (Valley of 

Jezreel) '. . . , D 4 20 

Nahr Jennany . . . B 5 18 

Nahr Kuti . . . . D 9 1 

Nahr Litany . , . E 2 . 15 

NahrMalka . . . C 8 1 

Nahr Mefshukh . . . B2 19 

Nahr Na'man . . . B 2 19 

Nahr Rubm . . . B 4 24 

Nahr Safa . . . . D 2 15 

Nahr Sahma . . . . D i 15 

Nahr Sanik ... . C 3 15 

Nahr Sukereir . . . A 5 24 

Nahr Taura . . . D 3 17 
Nahr Yarmuk (R. Hiero- 

max) . . . . B 3 21 

Nahr Yezid . . . E 3 17 

Nahr Za'ur . . . F 2 15 

C 6 57 



Na'imeh, en- 

Nain (Nein) 

Nakiirah, en- 

Nakurah, en- 

Na^lin . . . 

Namara (Nimra) 

Namir . 

Naples (Neapolis) C 6 57 ; 

Naples, Seigneurie de 

Narbonne .... 

Nasar ... 

Nasib, and sta. . 

Nasir . . . . . 

Nasirah, en- (Nazareth) . 

Natron Turo Militum 

Natrun Lakes 

Naucratis (Nebire) . 

Na'urah, en- ( Anaharath ?) 

Naure 

Nawa (Neve) 

Nazareth (en-Nasirah) 

Neapolis . . B 2 and 

Neapolis (Naples) 

Neba 'Anjar . 

Neba' el-Leddan 

Neba' el-Madineh 

Neballat (Beit Nabala) . 

Nebatiyeh et-Tahta . 

Nebire (Negrash, Nau- 
cratis) .... 

Nebk ..... 

Neba? (Beit Nuba) . 

Nebo (Nuba) . 

Nebo, Mt. (Jebel Neba ) . 

Neby Belan 

Neby Habil 

Neby Hud, en- . 

Neby Kasim 

Neby Lawin 

Neby Mashiil^ 

Neby Mfisa 

Neby Sa'in 

Neby Saleh 

Neby Samwil (? Maspha, 
Mizpah) . . 

Neby Sebelan (Zebulun) . 

Neby Shit .... 

Neby Suf a . . . 

Neby thari . 

Negrash (Nebire) 

Nehhalin . . . . 

Neifa*"a . . . 

Nein (Nain) . . 

Nejed . . . . 

Nejha . . . . 

Nejran . . M 8 1 ; 

Nekhl (?Pharan) 

Nephin . . . . 

Nesheinesh, en- . 

Net (Weset) 

Neve (Nawa) 

Nezib (Beit Nusib) . 

Nf ayh . ... 

Nicaea . . . . . 

Nicomedia . . . . 

Nieopolis 

Nicosia ... 

Nijdi . . . 

Nile, R. (Ytr, or Y.e'or) . 

Nimra (Nabara) . 

Nimreh .... 

Nimrim, Waters of (Wady 
Nimeirah) . 

Nimrin . ... 

Nina (Ninua) 

Nineveh .... 

Ninua (Nina) . . . 

Nippur 

Nishabiyeh, en- 

Nisin . . . . 

Noleh ..... 

Noph (Mitraheneh) . 

Nora . . 

Nuaran . . 

Nuba (Nebo) ... 

Nueijis, en- 

Nu'eimeh, en- . 

Nuhf . . . : 

Nukra, en- . . 

Nusf Jebil ... 

Nuzlet esh-Shferkiyeh 

Nuzlet et-Tanat 



C 2 
D4 
A6 
E 2 
D4 
H5 
E3 
E3 
C 6 

C 3- 
C 4 
E 4 
H5 
C 3 
C 7 
B3 
B 2 
D4 
C 6 

D2 

C 3 

G 2 

C 6 

B 2 

E5 
D4 
C 4 
D4 



B 2 

F I 

D4 

D 6 

D 

E 

C 

E 

B 

E 

B 

B 

C 



. D3 

D4 
D I 

C I 
E3 
C 3 
B 2 

D5 
E 4 
D4 
B I 
E 4 
F 2 

i 4 
C 4 
D5 
C 4 

D2 

C 6 
D I 
I 2 
I 2 
E3 
A3 
D 2 
C 6 
H3 
G4 



C 5 

D3 

E 2 

L4 

E 

F 

E 

F 

E 

C 



2 
3 
4 
3 
4 
4 

D4 

E 6 

D6 

E 

E 

G 

C 



15 
20 
16 
23 
24 
22 
22 

1 
57 

1 
16 
22 
22 
20 
57 

7 

7 
20 
57 
21 
20 
51 
57 
17 
16 
16 
23 
16 

7 
60 
24 
24 
29 
23 
17 
26 
16 
23 
16 
29 
20 
23 

24 
20 
17 
15 
23 

7 
24 
26 
20 
27 
18 
22 

8 
57 
30 

2 
21 
24 
29 
51 
51 
51 
57 
26 

7 
22 
22 

30 

20 

2 

1 

2 

2 

18 

2 

18 

7 

1 

16 

24 

26 

22 

20 

21 

23 

19 

19 



Obta' . . . . . 


D3 


21 


Obtaa 


E c; 


22 


Obte'a - . . . . 


D 2 


21 


"Odeitha . . . 


D 5 


16 


Odroh . . 


L^ 


8 


Odruh . . . 


C 8 


57 


Olives, Mt. of (Jebel et- 






Tor) . . . . 


E S 


24 


On (el-Matarieh) 


D3 


7 


Onias (Tell el-Yehudiyeh) 


B3 


7 


Onne 


Ly 


8 


Ono (Kefr 'Ana) 


C 3 


23 


Ophani . . . . 


F5 


16 


Ophni (Jufna) . . 


E4 


23 


Ophrah (et-Taiyibeh) 


E4 


24 


Oporto . . . . 


A3 


1 


Oreb, Rock ? (Osh el-Ghu- 






rab) . . . . . 


B4 


25 


Oresa (Khurbet Khoreiaa) 


E 2 


28 


'Ormeh, el- (Arumah) 


E3 


23 


Ornithopolis ('Adliin) 


B^ 


16 


Orontes, R. (R. Far) . 


K4 


1; 




D2 


57 


Osara . . . . . 


B6 


21 



Oshah (Kh. Husheh) . B 3 19 

Osh el-Ghurab (?Rock Oreb) B 4 25 

Osu D 3 2 

ptra'a . . . . . D 3 2 

bultre Jourdain . . C 7 57 
Oxyrhynchus (el-Behne- 

seh) C 6 7 

Padua B 2 1 

Pagrse . . . . D 2 57 
Pa-gut (Canopic Mouth of 

Nile). . . . . B I 7 

Palmer (or Segor) . . C 7 57 
Palmyra . . . K 5 1, etc. 

Pamphylia . . . . K 4 51 

Paphlagonia . . . L 2 51 

Paphos . . . . I 5 1 

Parah (Khurbet Farah) . E 4 24 

Paran, Wilderness of . J 4 8 

Pares . . . . . G 4 1 

Parthia . . . . O 4 1 

Patara . . . . I .^ 51 

Patmos L . H 4 51 ; B 3 52 
P-Atum, Etham (Tell el- 

Maskhuta) . . . F 2 7 
Pe-hbeyt (Behbit el-Hi- 

garah) . . . . D i 7 

PeUa (Khurbet Fahil) . E 5 20 

Pelusiac Mouth of Nile . F i 7 

Pelusium (Tell Farama) . G i 8 

Penuel ? (Jebel Osha') . D 3 26 

Perga . . . . . K 4 51 

Pergamos . . H 3 51; B 2 52 

Pe-Sapdu(Saftel-Henneh) E 2 7 

Pessinus . . . . K 3 51 

Pethor (Pitru) . . . D 2 2 

Petit Hermon . . . C 6 57 

Petra (Wady Miisa) . . L3 .8 
Petra Deserti (Krak de la 

Pierre du Desert) . . C 7 57 

Petra Incisa . . . B 6 57 
Petra Incisa, or Destroit 

(Kh. Dustrey) . . A 3 19 
Phfiena (el-Mushmeih) . E 6 18 
Phakusa (Saft el-Henneh) E 2 7 
Pharan (Nekhl) . . .14 8 
Pharaon . . . . C 6 57 
Pharbsethus (el-'Arin) . E 2 7 
Pharbsethus (Bilbeis) . E 3 7 
Pharpar, R. ? (Nahr Awaj) D 4 18 
Phasselis (Fusa'il) . . B 3 25 
Pheretai, Gorge of (Khur- 
bet Farah) . . . E 4 24 
Phiala, Lake (Birket Riim) E 5 16 
Philadelphia ("Amman) . E 4 26 
Philadelphia . I 3 51 ; C 2 52 
Philippi . . . G 12 1 
Philippolis (Shahba) . G 2 22 
Philistla . . . B I 27, etc. 
Philoteras . . . . G 6 8 
Phoenics . . . . G 5 51 
Phrygia . I 3 51 ; D 2 52 
Pilgrims' Road . . . D 2 21 
Pi-Beseth (Tell Basta) . B 2 7 
Pisgah, Mt. (Jebel Neba) . D i 29 
Pisidia . K 4 51 ; D 3 52 
Pitru (Petlior) . . . D 2 2 
Phatnilic (Damietta) Mouth 

of Nile . . . . E -I 7 

Platana (Ras-ed-Damur) . € 2 15 

Platanon (Ras ed-Damiir) C 2 15 

Po, R. . . . . D 2 1 

Polemon, Kingdom of . N 2 51 

Pont deFer ... D 2 57 

Pont de Sennabra . . C 6 57 

Pontus and Bithynia . L 2 51 

Porphylia . . . . C 7 57 

Porphyreon (el-Jiyeh) . C 2 15 

Port Said . . . . F i 7 
Portus Sancti Simeonis 

(es-Suweidiyeh) . . . C 2 57 
Posidium, Prom. (Ras 

Mohammed) . . . J 8 . 8 

Posidium . . . . G 5 8 

P're (el-Matarieh) . . D 3 7 
Promontorium Album 

(Ras el-Abia4) . . A 6 16 
Promontorium Posidium 

(Ras Mohammed) . . J B 8 

Propontis . . . . H 2 51 

Pteria (Boghazs Keui) . C 2 2 

Ptolemais. See Aceo . B 2 19 

Purattu, R. (Euphrates) . E 3 2 

Put30li . . . . B 2 51 

Pyramids, The . . . I^ 4 7 



C 5 7 

D3 7 

B 5 7 

C 7 7 



Qalyub 

Qasr Qariin (Dionysias) 

Qes, el- (Cynopolis) . 



D5 20 



Raba (Rabbith ?) 

Rabba (Rabboth Moab, 
Areopolis) . . 

Rabbah (Khurbet Rubba) 

Rabbath-Ammon ('Am- 
man) 

Rabbith r (Raba) . 

Rabboth Moab (Rabba) , 

Rabueh, er- . . 

Rachel's Tomb (so called) 

Rafat (?Irpeel) . . 

Raf at . . . . . E 2 



D4 
C 6 

E 4 
D5 
D4 
D3 
E5 
E 4 



Rafat . 

Rafeh . 

Rafid, er- . 

Rafidh 

Rafidia 

Ragaba (Rajib) 

Rahiyeh, er- 

Rahiib, er- . 

Ra'ith . 

Rajib (Ragaba) 

Rakhm 

Rakkath (Tubarlya) 

Rakkon (Tell er-Rekkeit) 

Rakoti (Alexandria) 

Ram, er- (Ramah) 

Ramah (er-Ram) 

Ramah (er-Rameh) 

Ramah (Ramia) 

Ram Allah . 

Ramath? (Remtheh) 

Ramathaim ? (Beit Rima) 

Rame 

Rameh, er- ... 

Rameh, er- (Ramah) 

Ramia (Ramah) 

Ramin .... 

Ramleh .... 

Ramleh, er- ... 

Ramleh, er- ... 

Rammiin (Rock Rimmon) 

Ramses? (Tell Abii Isle- 
man) 

Rankush 

Rantieh 

Raphania . 

Raphiah (Refah) 

Rapih . 

Ras, er- 

Ras, er- 

Ras Abu Hammur 

Ras Beiriit . 

Ras Burdess 

Ras ed-Damur . 

Ras el-Abadia . 

Ras el-Abia4 (Promon- 
. torium Album, Scala 
Tyriorum) . 

Ras el-AbyacJ . . 

Ras el-Ahmar . 

Ras el-'^Ain (Mirabel) 

Ras el-'Ain 

Ras el-'AIkra 

Ras el-Hasi (Ras er- 
Rassit) . . ... 

Ras el-;E^asriin (Mons Ka- 
sius, Kasion) . 

Ras el-Merkeb . 

Ras el-Metn 

Ras el-Mhayyet 

Ras el-Musheirif e 

Ras en-Nakiira (Ladder of 
Tyre; Sulma Shel Sor, 
Scala Tyriorum) . 

Raser-Rassit (Ras el-Hasi) 

Ras esh-Shuljf 

Ras es-Sirr . 

Ras Fartak 

Ras Feshkhah 

Ras Gharib 

Rasheiya 

Rasheiyet el Fukhar . 

Rashid (Rosetta) 

Ras Hirfi . . . 

Ras Ibn Hani (Caput 
Gloriate) 

Ras Ibzik , . 

Ras Jadir . . 

Ras Jemsa . . . . 

Ras Jidrah 

Ras Melkarth . 

Ras Mer§id . . . 

Ras Mesalta 

Ras Metarma . . 

Ras Mohammed (Prom. 
Posidium) 

Ras RumeiTeh . 

Ras Sebila .... 

Ras Sheratih . . 

Ras Shukhair . 

Ras Siaghah 

Ras Budr .... 

Ras Siifsafeh . 

Ras Umm el-Kharrubeh . 

Rasiin 

Rawiyeh, er- 

Red Sea . . . 

Refah (Raphiah) 

Rehoboth (er-Rheibe) 

ReimiJn 

Reineh, er- . . 

Reiyah .... 

Rekem (Wady Musa) 

Remtheh (? Ramath) 

Rentis .... 

Rephaim, Valley of (el 
Bukei'a) .... 

Resm el-Atawineh 

Reyak 

Rhegium .... 

Rheibe, er- (Rehoboth) . 

Rhinocolura (el-'Arish) 

Rhodes 

Rh6ne, R. 

Riadh, er- 

Riblah 

Riha, er- 

Rihab (Beth-Rehob ?) 

Rihan .... 



D3 

D2 

C 2 

53 
E 2 

D 2 
E 2 
C 4 
C I 

D2 

E3 
E3 
B3 
A I 
E 4 
E 4 

D2 

B 6 
E 4 

g4 
D3 
B7 
D I 

D2 

B 6 
D 2 
A I 
C4 

S4 

E 4 

E 2 
E 2 
C 3 
D4 
J I 
C 3 

C 3 
D4 
C I 
H6 
C 2 
F4 



G I 

F4 
D I 
D I 
F4 



A6 
C 8 
B 2 
D4 
K7 
B I 

H7 
^ 3 
E4 
B I 
B5 

S^ 
B I 

B 2 

I 8 

C 2 

E 4 
B 2 
F4 
05 

J 8 
C 3 
I 7 
H6 

S7 
D I 

G4 
I 6 
B 2 

B5 
E 6 
J 8 
J I 

B4 
D 2 
C 
C 



3 

3 

L3 

D4 

r>3 
E5 

B2 

C I 
B3 
B4 
I I 

I 4 
C 3 
M7 

1)3 
F ^ 

r>4 



21 
21 
15 



21 
17 
26 
22 
20 
23 

7 
24 
24 
20 
16 
24 
21 
23 
57 
23 
20 
16 
23 

7 
24 
26 
24 

7 
17 
23 
57 

8 

2 
24 
29 
30 
15 

8 
15 

7 



16 
57 
16 
57 
16 
25 



C 8 57 



8 
26 
15 
29 
26 



16 
57 
29 
28 

8 
29 

8 
15 
16 

7 
30 

57 
25 
25 

8 
15 

1 
29 

7 

8 

8 

15 

8 

8 

8 

29 

8 

8 

25 

21 

16 

8 

8 

27 

26 

20 

15 

8 

21 

23 

24 

27 

17 

51 

27 

8 

51 

1 

1 

1 



16 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



9 



Rihan . . . . 


E3 


17 


Salt R. (Nahr Iskan- 






Rijm 'el-'Al 


. E3 


29 


deriineh) 


A5 


19 


Rijm es-Sami 


. E4 


26 


Salt Sea (Bahr Lut) . 


B3 


29 


Rijm Selim . . 


. E2 


29 


Salt, Valley of ? (es-Sabkha) B 5 


30 


Rimeh 


. B4 


18 


Samaga (es-Samik) . 


E I 


29 


Rimet el-Khalkhal . 


. F3 


22 


Samaliit . . . 


7 


7 


Rimmon (Rummaneh) 


. C3 


20 


Samar .... 


B3 


21 


Rimmon, Rock (Rammun 


)E4 


24 


Samaria (Sebustieh) . 


E2 


23 


Rochetaillee (Nahr el 






Samaria . . . C 


), F2 


23 


Fali^) . 


B 2 


23 


Sami^, es- (Samaga) 


E I 


29 


Rodanl. . 


H4 


1 


Samma .... 


B4 


21 


Rome .... 


E3 


1 


Samme . . 


F3 


22 


Rosetta (Bolbitine,Rashid) B i 


7 


Samos . . H 4 51 ; 


B3 


52 


Rosetta (Bolrbitinic, Mouth 




Samothracia G 2 51 ; 


A I 


52 


of Nile) . 


B I 


7 


Samra ..... 


^E 3 


28 


Roshpinah (Ja*'iinah) 


E 2 


20 


Samrah . . 


E3 


20 


Rubb Thelathin 


D5 


16 


San (Sa'ne, Zoan, Tanis) , 


E I 


7 


Ruhineh, er- 


F 6 


16 


Sana 


L 8 


1 


Rujib ... . 


E 2 


23 


Sanafir Island . 


KB 


8 


Rujm al-Haz'ali 


04 


27 


Sanctus Andreas (Oarpas) 


B3 


57 


Rujiu 'Attarua . 


D2 


29 


Sa'ne (San) 


E I 


7 


Rujm el-Bahr . 


C I 


29 


Sane, es- . 


B3 


27 


Rujm el-Is .... 


G2 


22 


Sangarius, R. K 2 51 ; 


D 2 


52 


Rujm Selameh . 


F 3 


28 


Sanur 


E I 


23 


Ruk^ad, Sources of the . 


C 2 


21 


Saone (IKZala'at Sahiun) . 


B3 


57 


Rukleh . . 


B3 


17 


Saphet 


6 


57 


Ruma, (Khurbet Rumah) 


C 3 


20 


Saphir? (Suafir esh-Sher- 






Rumeideh .... 


D I 


17 


kiyeh) . . . . 


B5 


24 


Rumeil, er- ... 


E 2 


29 


Sapirine Island (Jubal) . 


I 8 


8 


Rumeileh . . . 


C 3 


15 


Saqqara, Pyramids of 
Sarafend (Sarepta, orZare- 


D4 


7 


Rumeiah . . . . 


C 6 


16 






Rumiinan, er- . . . 


E3 


26 


phath) . . . 


B4 


16 


Rummaneh 


D3 


15 


Sardanaia . ... 


1)5 


57 


Rummaneh (Rimmon) 


C3 


20 


Sardinia .... 


I>3 


1 


Rummaneh 


04 


19 


Sardis . . I 3 51 5 


O2 


52 


Rumrama .... 


B5 


21 


Sardone .... 


D2 


57 


Rumsheih .... 


D3 


15 


Sarepta or Zarephath 






Rusas ..... 


G4 


22 


(Sarafend) 


B4 


16 


Rusheif .... 


6 


16 


Sarfa . . . . . 


3 


30 


Rushmia .... 


A3 


19 


Sarid, or Sadid (Tell Shah- 






Ruzaniyeh, er- , 


E 6 


16 


dud) .... 


4 


19 








Sarifa . . . . . 


5 


16 








Sarlh . . . . 


O4 


21 


Sa'adeh, es- . . . 


D5 


18 


Saris . . . . . 


D5 


24 


Sa'adi, es- . . . . 


B4 


27 


Saron, R. . . . 


2 


57 


Sa ai 


I>3 


2 


Sarona .... 


D3 


20 


Saba 


L 8 


1 


Sarruj . . . . 


E3 


26 


Sabarim Samarita ? . 


6 


57 


Sartabeh (^urn Surtubeh) 


B3 


25 


Sabeinat .... 


D4 


18 


Sa^sa* ..... 


5 


18 


Sabkha, es- (Valley of 






Sa'sa' 


D I 


20 


Salt) .... 


B5 


30 


Sa'sa' 


6 


16 


Sabkhet Bardawil (Sir- 






Sauda . . 


B4 


18 


bonis Lake) . 


Hi 


8 


Savara (Suwarat el-Ke- 






Sabliyeh . . . 


C 3 


15 


bireh) .... 


F 6 


18 


Saocgea (Shukkai) 


H2 


22 


Sawel el-Kararah 


E4 


22 


Sa^hra . . . 


E I 


26 


Sawieh, es- ... 


E3 


23 


Sadid. See Sarld . 


4 


19 


S'baita .... 


K2 


8 


Sadjara sta. 


B3 


21 


Sbalat abu Susein . 


B3 


27 


Sa el-Hagar (Sais Sai) 


2 


7 


Scala Tyriorum (?) (Ras el- 






Saesta (Sidon) . 


05 


57 


Abiad) .... 


A6 


16 


Saette (Sidon) . 


C 5 


57 


Scala Tyriorum (Ras en- 






Safa 


D6 


24 


Nakura) ... 


A6 


16 


Safed 


D2 


20 


Scandalion (Iskandenineh] 


A6 


16 


Saff, es- . . . . 


D4 


7 


Scandarium (Iskanderiine) 


5 


57 


Saffuri .... 


B3 


21 


Schweir . 


D2 


60 


Safinyeh .... 


C4 


23 


Scytale Island (Shadwan) 


J 8 


8 


Safita (Chastel Blanc) 


D4 


57 


Seythopolis (Beisan) . 


E5 


20 


Saftel-Henneh (Pe-Sapdu, 






Sebaste .... 


6 


57 


Phakusa) 


E 2 


7 


Sebbeh (Masada) 


B4 


30 


Safut . . . . . 


E3 


26 


Sebennytic Mouth of Nile 


I 


7 


Sagette (Sidon) . 


S5 


57 


Sebennytos (Semennud) . 


D2 


7 


Sagette, Seigneurie de 


S^ 


57 


Sebiya, es- . 


B4 


21 


Sagista (Sidon) . . 


C 5 


57 


Sebustieh (Samai:ia) . 


E2 


23 


Sahara, The . . 


E 6 


1 


Sechu? (Khurbet Suweiy- 






Sahel el-Ahma (Betsa- 






keh). ... 


E4 


24 


anim ?) . 


D3 


20 


Seda ... 


E4 


22 


Sahel el-Buttauf (Plain of 






Sefarin .... 


D2 


23 


Asochis) . ! 3 ; 


D3 


20 


Seffurieh (Sepphoris) 


3 


19 


Sahel el-Wata . 


E I 


17 


Sefineh .... 


E4 


16 


Sahel Judeideh . 


B2 


17 


Segor (or Palmer) . ' . 


07 


57 


Sahel Mukhnah (Michme- 






Sehwet el-Blat . 


G4 


22 


thath, Asher) . 


E3 


23 


Sehwet el-Khudr 


H4 


22 


Sahem ej- Jaulan (Golan) . 


03 


21 


Seia (Si'a) .... 


03 


22 


Sahem el-Kefarat 


B3 


21 


Seidur . . 


B4 


21 


Sahhab, es- . . . 


E4 


26 


Seijar (Osesarea) 


D3 


57 


Sahnaya . , . 


D4 


18 


Seijur 


2 


20 


Sahr 


E 6 


18 


Seil ^Attiin . . . . 


2 


29 


Sahra, es- . . . C 


,I>3 


17 


Seil e^-Dabie 


2 


29 


Sahwet el-Kamh 


F4 


22 


Seil el-Buksase . 


4 


30 


Saida . . . '...... 


B5 


19 


Seil el-Fawwar . , . 


O4 


30 


Saidanaya (Denaba) 


E 2 


17 


Seil el-Hadite . 


4 


30 


Saida (Sidon) . 


3 


15 


Seil el-Mojib . . 


E 3 


29 


Sais Sai (Sa el-Hagar) 


2 


7 


Seil en-Nimr 


3 


29 


Sakha (? Kois) . . . 


I 


7 


Seil esh-Shkeifat 


D3 


29 


Sakhni, es- . 


E4 


20 


Seil esh-Shkeik . 


3 


29 


Sakia . . . 


3 


23 


Seil es-Sadde 


4 


30 


Sakib . . . . . 


D2 


26 


Seil Hei dan . . . 


3 


29 


Sakiyeh . . . 


5 


18 


Seil Jerash .... 


E2 


26 


Sal 


04 


21 


Seil Skara . . . . 


2 


29 


Salahib .... 


Di 


7 


Seil ummu Urkan 


A3 


27 


Salamis . * . 


I 4 


1 


Seihin (Shiloh) . . . 


E 3 


23 


Salamig I. . . . . 


G4 


1 


Se'ir (Adum, Edom) 


K3 


8 


Salbud, es- . 


F4 


26 


Seir, Mount . L 3 8 ; 


D5 


24 


Salcah (Salkhad) . . 


H5 


22 


Seiyadeh .... 


E3 


20 


Salee, R. (Nahr Iskan- 






Sejed 


5 


24 


deruneh) . . 


B 6 


57 


Sekka 


E 4 


18 


Saleph, R. . . . . 


A 2 


57 


Sela (Wady Miisa) . 


L3 


8 


Salhaneh .... 


B6 


16 


Selaema (Suleim) 


G3 


22 


Salheh .... 


6 


16 


Sela-Ham-Mahlekoth 






Salhieh . . . , 


F 2 


7 


(Wady Malaki) . 


F 2 


28 


Salihiyeh, es- 


D3 


17 


Selbit (Shaalabbin) . . 


A 


24 


Salim (Salim) . . , . 


E 2 


23 


Seleueia . L 5 1 ; L and M 4 


51 


Salima .... 


E I 


15 


Seleucia, Antioche . 


2 


57 


Salkhad (Salcah) 


H5 


22 


Seleueia, Armenie 


A2 


57 


Sal mono. Cape . 


S^5 


51 


Seleucia (Selukiyeh) . 


B I 


21 


Salt . . 


6 


57 


Selfit . . . . . 


E 3 


23 


Salt, es- (Gadata, Gadora) 


D3 


26 


Selim 


Di 


26 


SaltPiUai? .... 


B5 


30 


Selinus • « • • 


L4 


51 



Selmeh 


. B 3 


23 


Selii^iyeh (Seleucia) . 


. Bi 


21 


Selwad 


. E 4 


23 


Sema . . . . 


. E4 


22 


Semakh 


. Es 


20 


Semeiriyeh, es- . 


. B2 


19 


Semen, es- . . . 


. D4 


28 


Semennud (Tob-nutar, Se 






benny tos) . . 


D2 


7 


Semkaniyeh 


D2 


15 


Semlein 


6 


18 


Semma^aiveh . . 


B,5 


16 


Semmu 


B4 


21 


Semu'a, es- (Eshtemoa) 


E2 


28 


Semunieh ( Simon ias) 


3 


19 


Senjirli . . . 


K4 


1 


Senures . 


5 


7 


Sepharvaim 


L,5 


1 


Sephorie 


6 


57 


Sepphoris (Seffiirieh) 


3 


19 


Sera^Tn 


I 


17 


Sesames . 


I S 


1 


Sex . ..... 


B4 


1 


Seylon .... 


6 


57 


Shaalabbin (Selbit) . , 


4 


24 


Sha'ara . . . . 


D6 


18 


Shab el'Harik . 


E 3 


23 


Shadwan (Scytale I.) 


J 8 


8 


Sha'fat .... 


E 5 


24 


ShafiinTyeh . . 


E3 


17 


Shaghur .... 


D I 


29 


Shahba (Philippopolis) 


G2 


22 


Shahim . 


3 


15 


Shahmeh .... 


B 5 


24 


Sha'ib . . . . 


2 


19 


Shaibeh . . 


Di 


17 


Sha'it . .... 


E4 


16 


Shajarat esh-Shbul . 


04 


21 


Shakif Arnun (Belfort, 






Beaufort) . 


05 


57 


Shal^ra .... 


5 


16 


Shamarta sta. . 


B3 


19 


Shaubek . . 


8 


57 


Shamir (Khurbet S5merah) D 2 


28 


Sharf at el - Menadireh (R. 






Yarmuk) ... 


^3 


20 


Sharon, Plain of A 5 19 ; 


I 


23 


Sharuhen (Tell esh-She- 






rfah) . . 


2 


27 


Shasu (or Shos) . 


3 


2 


Shawashna . . 


5 


7 


Sheba 


E4 


18 


Shebin el-Kom . . . 


D2 


7 


Shechem (Nablus) . 


E2 


23 


Shefa 'Amr 


B3 


19 


Shefeia ... 


A 4 


19 


Sheikh Abreik . 


B 3 


19 


Sheikh Ahsen . 


B 2 


21 


Sheikh el-Balluta 


3 


23 


Sheikh Helu . . . 


A 5 


19 


Sheikh Hezkin , 


B I 


25 


Sheikh Jayel, esh-(? Beth- 






Peor) . . 


i) I 


29 


Sheikh Misldn . 


D2 


21 


Sheikh Mu'annis 


B3 


23 


Sheikh Sa'ad . . 


D2 


21 


Sheikh Shelman el Farsi . 


E 2 


23 


Shejarah, esh- . 


3 


21 


Shejera, esh- 


1^3 


29 


Shejerah, esh- . 


D3 


20 


Shejre 

Shelif 


4 


21 


3 


15 


Shemiseh .... 


E3 


15 


Shephelah . . . . 


6 


24 


Sherafat .... 


E 5 


24 


Sherbin .... 


D I 


7 


Sherhabil . 


E 5 


20 


Shib^a . . . . . 


E4 


16 


Shihan .... 


D3 


26 


Shihin 


B6 


16 


Shihon ('Ain Sha^in) . 


r>3 


20 


Shihur, R. ? (Nahr ez- 






Zerka) .... 


A4 


19 


Shikmonah ? (Tell es- 






Semak) . 


A3 


19 


Shile, es- . 


D3 


29 


Shiloh (Seiliin) . 


E3 


23 


Shilta . . . . . 


D4 


24 


Shittim Valley (Ghor es- 






Seiseban) 


4 


25 


Shkek 


D 2 


29 


Shkera, esh- 


D6 


30 


Shocoh (Khurbet Shu- 






weikeh) . . . 


5 


24 


Shos ..... 


D 3 


2 


Shos (or Shasu) . . . 


3 


2 


Shtora, and sta. . . . 


F 2 


15 


Shual, Land of ? 


A 3 


25 


Shubeiki Plain, esh- . 


F4 


30 


Shubrakhit 


C 1 


7 


Shuf eh ... 


D 2 


23 


Shuggera . . 


M6 


1 


Shugr, esh- 


D3 


57 


Shuhur ... 


5 


16 


Shukbah . . 


D4 


23 


Shukeiyif .... 


B 2 


21 


Shukkai (Saccsea) 


H2 


22 


Shukrah .... 


E 2 


22 


Shukraniyeh, esh- 


F5 


18 


Shumaneh . . . . 


D ^ 


15 


Shumlan . ... 


D2 


15 


Shunem (Solam) 


D4 


20 


Shur, Wilderness of . 


I 2 


8 


Shurek, esh- 


E4 


22 


Shutta (Beth Shittah) 


d4 


20 


Shuweifat .... 


D2 


15 


Shuweikeh . . . . 


Di 


23 


Shuweiya , • . . 


E4 


16 



Shweihi, esh- 

Shweimi 

Sra (Seia) . . 

Si'air ( Zior, properly Si'or) 
Sibmah ? (Sumia) 

Sicily . 

Side . 

Sidi Salem . 

Sidon (Saida) . 

Siduna 

Sifin ... 

Sifleh, es- . 

Sijn, es- . . 

Sijud . 

Sil'ah . . ' . : 

Silet edh-Dhahr 

Sily ... 

Simbellawein 

Simia, es- (? Eshean) 

Simirra . . " 

Simonias (Semiinieh) 

Simsin . . 

Sin (Tell Farama) 

Sin, Wilderness of ? (Plain 
of el-Kaa) 

Sinai, Mt. ( Jebel Musa) 

Sinai, Peninsula of 

Sinai, Wilderness of 

Sindianeh . 

Sinlbl 

Sinja . 

Sinnabris (Sinn en-Na- 
brah) 

Sinope 

Sinus jElanites (Giilf of 
*Akabah) 

Sinus Heroopolites (Gulf 
of Suez) . 

Sir . . 

Sirah Well CAin Sarah) . 

Sirbonis Lake (Sabkhet 
Bardawil) 

Sireh, es- 

Sirls . . ' . 

Sirpurla (Lagash) 

Sisia 

Siyara . 

Skalona (Ascalon) 

Skek . 

Skufiyeh 

Smyrna 

Soada (Suweideh) 

Soba . • . . D 3 2 ; 

Sobak, es- . . . . 

Socoh (Khurbet Shu- 
weikeh) . 

Sogane (Sukhnin) 

Sokhar . . 

Solam (Shunem) 

Solyma (Suleiiti) 

Som . " . . 

Sorek (Khurbet Surik) 

Sorek, Valley of (Wady 
es-Surar) . . . 

Speos' Artemidos (Behi 
Hasan) .... 

St. Abraham, Baronnie de 

St. Abraham (Hebron) 

St. GiUes . . . . 

St. George's Bay 

St. George's (Lydde) 

St. Georges de Shaman . 

St. Helen's Totver . . 

St. Job .... 

Suafir es-Gharbiyeh . . 

Suafir esh-Shemallyeh 

Suafir esh Sherkiyeh ( Sap- 
hir) .... 

Subari . . . . 

Subbann ... 

Subburah' . . 

Succoth (Tell Deir 'Alia) . 

Sueimeh (Beth-Jeshimoth) 

Sueiseh . ... 

Suez Canal . . . . 

Suez (?Baal Zephon) 

Suez, Gulf of (Sinus Hero- 
opolites) . 

Suf (Mizpeh) '. 

Suffa . 

Sufsaf . 

Sughbin 

Suhete (Suwete) 

Suhmata , 

Suhmur, 

Sukhnin (Sogane) 

Suk Wady Batada (Abila) 

Suleim (SelsBtn^, or Solyma) 

Sulma Shel Sor (Ras en- 
Na^ura) . . 

Sultan Yakub . - 

Sumad 

Sumeid . . 

Sumei . . . 

Sumer . . . 

Sumia (Sibmah?) 

Summaka . 

Summakiyat, es- 

Summeil 

Summeil 

Sunamein, es- (Aefe 

Sundela . . ' 

Sunziir 

Sur, es- (Tyre) . 

Suraf^nd . A 4 19; 

Sur'ah (Zorah) . 

Sur Bahir . 

SurdSh (Zereda or Seredah) 



A 2 


27 


F3 


29 


G3 


22 


D6 


24 


Di 


29 


E4 


1 


1 4 


1 


I 


7 


c 3 


15 


C 3 


2 


B4 


21 


D5 


24 


F 3 


22 


D4 


16 


C 5 


16 


E 2 


23 


4 


19 


D2 


7 


E 2 


28 


D3 


2 


e 3 


19 


B I 


27 


G I 


8 


I 7 


8 


J 6 


8 


I 6 


8 


I 6 


8 


A4 


19 


E 5 


16 


E3 


23 


E 3 


20 


K3 


1 


K6 


8 


G6 


8 


E I 


23 


E I 


28 


a I 


8 


E5 


16 


E 2 


23 


F ,3 


2 


I 


57 


D I 


29 


By 


57 


E5 


16 


B3 


21 


H 3 


51 


G3 


22 


1)5 


24 


L 2 


8 


E 2 


28 


2 


19 


05 


22 


04 


20 


G3 


22 


B4 


21 


5 


24 


B5 


24 


8 


7 


C 7 


57 


C7 


57 


6 


57 


Di 


15 


B 7 


57 


C5 


67 


B4 


16 


C 5 


57 


B5 


24 


B5 


24 


B5 


24 


D2 


2 


B4 


19 


C 3 


17 


2 


25 


I 


29 


2 


21 


F I 


7 


G4 


S 


G6' 


8 


E 2 


26 


D4 


24 


D I 


20 


E 3 


15 


6 


57 


I 


20 


E3 


15 


2 


19 


C 3 


17 


^3 


22 


A 6 


16 


F3 


15 


F5 


22 


G 2 


22 


E 3 


22 


E 3 


2 


Di 


29 


E 6 


16 


F 5 


22 


B5 


24 


B3 


23 


D6 


18 


O4 


20 


D2 


2 


B5 


16 


€4 


24 


V 


24 


E 5 


24 


E4 


24 



10 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



Sureyeh 

Surghaya and sta. 
Suri . . 
Surif ... 



(Sa- 



Surra . 

Surraman . 

Surni . 

Surubbin 

Surtih 

Susa (Shushan) 

Sushan „ 

Susieh . 

Susiyeh (Hippos) 

Suwarat el-Kebireh 
vara) 

Suwarat es-Saghireh 

Suweideh (Soada) 

Suweidiyeh, es- (Le Sou- 
din, or Portus Sancti 
Simeonis) 

Suweit, es- . 

Suwete (Suhete) 

Sweil^et . . 

Sweime, es- 

Sycaminon ? (Tell 
Semak) . 

Sychar ('Askar) . 

Syout . 

Syracuse . • F 

Syrtis . 



D2 
C 2 
D2 

D 6 
E 2 
E 6 
C 3 
C 6 
B 6 
M5 
F 3 

E2 

F3 



F 6 18 
a I 22 
G3 22 



4i; 



A3 
E 2 

C4 
B4 

07 



Taanach (T*annak) . 
Taanath Shiloh (T'ana) 
Taarah 
Tabarie 
Tabariyeh . 
tabghah, et- 
Tabishe . . . 
Tabor, Mt. (Jebel et-^or) 
Tabsor 



04 
B 2 

F3 
C 6 

B3 
E 2 
A2 

?3 

C 2 



57 
26 
57 



19 
23 
2 
51 
51 



Tafileh, at- (Taphilia) C 8 67 ; L 2 8 

Tagus, R. . . . . A 4 1 

Tahpanhes (Tell Defneh) F 2 7 

Ta'illeh . . . . G 2 22 

Taiyibe, et . . . . E 4 22 

taiyibeh, et- . . . D 5 16 

Taiyibeh, et- . . . D 2 23 

taiyibeh, et- . . . 4 18 

Taivibeh, et- . . . D 4 20 

taiyibeh, et- . . . E i 28 

taiyibeh, et- . . . B 4 21 
taiyibeh, et (Ephraim, 

Ophrah, Aphairema) . E 4 24 

Taiyibet Lism . . . D 3 21 
T'alat ed- Dumm (Adum- 

mim) . . . . B I 29 
Tal'at Heisah (Ascent of 

Liihlth) . . . .Di 
Talkha . . . . D i 



Tamia . . . . . C 5 

Tamiathis (Damyat) . E i 

Tammiin . . . . B 2 

Tamyr€is (Nahr ed-Damiir) C 2 

T*ana (Taanath Shiloh) . B 2 

Tanis(San) . . . E i 

Tanitic Mouth of Nile . F i 

Tannoch . . . . C 6 

Tannak (Taanach) . . 4 

Tanniir, et- . . . E 2 

Tannurin . . . . D i 

Tanta C 2 

Tanturah (Dora, Dor, 

Merle) . . . . A 4 

Taphilia (et-Tafileh) . C 8 

Taposiris (Abusir) . . A 2 

Tara'in (Tharais) . . C 5 

Tarentum . . . . C 2 

Tarfawiye, et- . . . D 5 

TarichaesB (Kerak) . • E 3 

Tarsus M4 51; F 3 52; B 2 

Tasseiya . . . • I> 3 

Tavium . . . • M 3 

Teda (Anthedon) . . A i 

Teh (Itai el-Barud) . . C 2 

Tehna (Akoris) . . • C 7 

Teia^ir . . . . B i 

Teim, et- . . . . D i 

Teir Dubbeh . . • . B 5 

Teir Samhat . . . C 5 

Teirshiha . . . . C i 

Teir Zinbeh . . • C 5 

Teitaba . . . . D i 

Tekoa(KhurbetTeku'a) . E 6 

Tekoa, Wilderness of . *E 6 

Teleil, et- . . . . D 6 

Telestan . . . . E 6 

Tel'et ummu Radim . E 3 

Telfit E 3 

E 4 
E 2 

05 
C 2 
E 6 
B 2 

. E 2 



Tell,et- . . . . 
Tell, et- (Bethsaida, Julias) 
Tell 'Abd el-Mar 
Tell Abu Dilakh 
Tell Abu el-Khanzir . 
Tell Abu Hureireh . 
Tell Abu Isleman 

(? Ramses) 
Tell Abu Kudeis (Kedesh 

or Kidshun) . 
Tell Abu Neda . 
Tell Abu Yusef . 
TellAkhyar . 
Tell Akrabah . . 
Tell*Ammar 
TeirArad ( Arad, larda) 
Tell Ash'ary 



H4 
F 2 

E3 
D3 



Tell 'Ashtarah (Ashtaroth) D 3 



19 
16 
16 
17 
22 
22 
28 
21 
21 



I 
E5 
E5 
B 6 
G 2 
E5 
C I 

B7 
C 6 

B3 
G3 



I>5 
B4 
C 6 

G4 
B3 



Tell 'A9ur (Baal-Hazor) , E 4 
Tell Barada . . . C 5 
Tell Bashir (Turbaysel) . E 2 
TeU Basta (Pi-Beseth, Bu- 

bastis) . . . . D 2 
Tell Beit Miirsim* . . D 2 
TeU Da'iik . . . . B 2 
Tell Defneh (Daphnse, 

Tahpanhes) . . . F 2 
TellDeir'AUa(Succoth) . C 2 
Tell Dothan (Dothan) . C 5 
Tell Dubbeh . . . B 5 
Tell ejpJabiyeh . • . C 2 
Tell ej- Jena . • . EL 4 
TellEktanu • . . D.i 
Tell el-Abeid . . . B 3 
Tell el-'Ajjul . . A 2 

Tell el-Akh^ar E 2 15 ; A 5 
Tell el-Amama (Akhut- 

Aten) . . . .08 
Tell el-Bergeh . . . 5 
Tell el-Breij . . . C 3 
Tell el-Fare . . .A3 
Tell el-Fera'in (Ubtu, 

Buto) . . . . 
Tellel-FiU .... 
Tell el-Hammi . 
Tell el-Hara 
Tell el-Her (? Migdol) 
Tellel-Hery 

Tell el-Hesy (Lachish) . 
Tellel-Hesy 
Tell el-Judeiyideh 
Tell el- Jurn . . 
Tell el- Juweilil . . 
TeU el-^a4y (? Dan Laish 

or Leshem) . 
TeU el-Kharubbeh . 
TeU el-Krim 
TeU el-^Culeib . . 
TeU el-]?:ussis . ; 
TeU el-Maskhuta (P.-Atum 

Etham, Heroopolis, 

? At-tuku Succoth) . F 2 
TeU el-Mazar (Korea) . B 3 
TeU el-Miskin . . . E 4 
TeU el-MuleUiah . . C 2 
TeU el-Mutesellim . . C 4 
Tell el-Wawiyat . . C 3 

TeU el-Yehud (Vicus 

JudsBorum) . . . E 3 
TeU el-Yehudiyeh (Leon 

topolis, Onias) , 
TeUen-Nahl 

TeU en-Nasbeh (? Mizpah) E 4 
TeU en-Nejileh . . . C i 
TeU er-Re^^eit (Rakkon) B 3 
TeU er-Rub (Mendes) . E i 
TeU esh-Sherfah (Sharu- 

hen) .... 
TeU esh-Shih 
Tell esh-Shihab . . 
Tell es Safi . . 
TeU es-Sa'idiyeh 
TeU es Salihiyeh 
TeUes-Seba"^ 
TeU es-Semak (? Shikmo 

nah, Sycaminon) . 
TeU es-Semeiriyeh 
TeU es-Si^i 

TeUes-Sultan . . . 
Tell eth-Thoghrah . 
TeU Etrib (Athribis, Hat 

hri-ebe) . . . . 
Teilet-Tmny . 
TeU et-Turmus . . . B 5 
TeU ez-Zif (^iph) . . E 2 
TeU Farama (Sin, Pelu- 

sium) . . . . G I 
TeU Faras . . . . C 2 
TeU Gezer (Mont Gizard) . B 7 
TeU Ghassul . . . C i 
TeU Hadid . . . . F 3 
Tell Hammum . . . D 4 
Tell Handakuk . . . C 2 
Tell Hozeineh . . . H 3 
TeU Hudeiweh . . . C 2 
TeU Hum . . . . E 2 



TeUIbues-Sakim(Thmuis) E 2 



Tell Jezar (Gezer) 
TeU Jifnak ... 
Tell Kardaneh . . . 
Tell Keimun (Jokneam of 

Carmel) .... 
TeU Kharakah . 
TeU Mer'y . . . 
TeUMu'akkar . 
Tell Muhajar . . 
TeU Nimrin (Beth Nimrah) 
TeU Rameh (Beth-Haram, 

Livias) . . 
Tell Sandahannah 
TeU Shahdud (Sarid, or 

Sadid) . . 
Tell Sharamam sta. . 
TeU Shakib 
TeU Shihan 

Tell TaUajab ibn Hallaweh 
TeU Tawahin 
Tellul Sha'ar . 



TeU Zara^a 

Tembris, R. . K 3 

Temesa 

Temnin 

Terliye, et- . 

Tereb (Cerep, Atareb) 

Terkumieh . 

Teyma 



C 4 
B3 
D5 
G 2 
C 2 
G4 
. 05 
. E 4 
51; D 2 
. F4 
. B I 
. D4 

. D2 

. E I 
. K6 



19 

7 
25 
19 
18 
21 
22 
29 
25 
27 
19 

7 
18 
27 
27 

7 
24 
20 
18 

7 
18 
27 
57 
24 



I>3 
B3 



C 2 
G5 
C 3 
C 5 
C 2 

E3 
D3 

A3 
B 2 
B 2 
B4 
B5 

D3 
B4 



C 4 
H4 
B 2 

B4 

I 
6 
2 
2 
4 



7 
19 
24 
27 
23 

7 

27 
22 
21 
24 
25 
17 
27 

19 
19 
21 
25 
16 

7 
25 
24 
28 

8 
21 
57 
29 
22 
26 
25 
22 
27 
20 

7 
24 
22 
19 

19 
27 
18 
21 
22 
25 

29 
24 

19 
19 
18 
22 
17 
22 
18 
20 
52 
1 
17 
30 
57 



ThaJy, eth-. . . . F 3 22 
Thama (!l^ulat Unun Bag- 

hek) . . . . B 4 30 

Thamara (Komub) . . E 4 28 
Thamna (Tibneh) . . D 3 23 
Thapsacus . . . . K 4 1 
Thapsus ... . E 4 1 
Tharais (Tara'in) . . C 5 80 
Tharros . . . . D 4 1 
Tharsish . . . . B 4 1 

Tharu C 3 2 

Thasos I. . . . . G 3 1 
Thebaica Phvlake (Daru 

esh-Sherif) . . . C 8 
Thebes . . . . G 4 
Thebez (Tubas) . . » . B 2 
Thekua . . . . C 7 
Thelthatha . . . E 3 

Theral. . . . . G 4 



Thessalonica . . . F 2 

Thessaly . . . . E 3 
Thimnathah (Tibneh) . D 3 
Thio (Tine) . . . C 4 

Thmuis (TeU Ibu es- 

Salam) . . . . E 2 
Thoghreted-Debr(Debir) . A i 
Thogret ed-Debr (Debir) . E 5 
Thorma (Datras) . ' ^ 5 
Thormasia (Turmus ^Aya) E 3 
Thrace . . . . G 2 

Thrayyjd . . . . E 3 
Three Taverns . . . A 2 
Thyatira ... . I 3 
Tiberias, Lake of (Bahr 

TPubariya) 
Tiberias (Tubariya) 
Tibna (Timnah) 
Tibnah (Timnath) 
Tibne . . . 
Tibneh (Thamna, Thim- 

natha) 
Tibneh 

Tibnin (Toron) 
Tigris, R. . 
TiU . . . 
Timashgi (Damascus] 
Timask 

Timnah (Tibna) 
Timnath (Tibnah) 
Timsah, Lake 
Tine (Thio) 
Tineh, et- . 
Tiphsah 
Tiphsah? (Khurbet Taf- 

sah) . 
Tiran Island 
Tireh (Aithire) 
Tireh, et . 
Tireh, et- . 
Tireh, et- . 
Tireh, et- . 
tireh, et- . 
l^reh, et- . 
Tkitti . 

Tob-nutar (Demennud) 
Toledo 
Tomat Niha 
Tor . ' . 
Torah . 
Tor'an 

Toron (Tibnin) C 5 16 ; 
Tortosa 

Tortosa (or Antartus) 
Tour des Salines . . B 6 
Tour Rouge . . . B 6 

Tours C 2 

TowUa Island . . .18 

Trachon (el Leja) E 

Tremithoussia . 

Tripoli . . . 

Tripoli, Comte de 

Tripolis 

Troas . 

TrogyUium 

Tsil . 

Tubal . . 

Tubania 

Tubania ('Ain Tuba'im) . 

Tubariya (Tiberias, Rak- 

kath) . . . . E 3 
Tubas (Thebez) . . . B 2 
Tubk ^Amriyeh . . . B i 
tubliat el-Musheirife , E 4 
tudela . . . . B 3 

Tueileh . . . . D 4 
Tuf . . . . . E 6 
tuffas . . . . • r> 3 
Tuffuh (Beth Tappuah) . E i 
Tukbul . . . . B 4 

Tukh D 3 

Tulfita . . . . E 2 

Tul Keram . . . D 2 

tuUuza . . . . E 2 
Tuhil ed-Dahab . . C 2 

Tumrah . . . . B i 
tumrah . . , . D 4 
tumrah . , . . C 2 
Tunaib, et- . . . E i 

Tunip . . i . . D 3 

Tunis E 4 

Tur, et- T> 5 

Tiira . . . . . D 4 
Turbaysel (TeU Bashir) . E 2 
Turbui. . . . . B 2 
Turmus 'Aya (Thormasia) E 3 
Turra . . . . C, D 4 
Tut, et- . . . . A 2 
Tuweiyil Abu Jerwal . C 3 



E3 
E3 
D5 

C 5 

B5 

D3 
1)6 

C5 
L 4 
E 2 

S3 
1^3 
I>5 
C 5 
F 2 

C4 
B5 
K4 



E3 

K8 
C 6 

A3 
C 2 

C 3 
C 6 

r>3 
D4 

E 2 

D2 

S4 
B3 
I 7 
B5 
D3 
C 6 
C 3 
C 4 



6 18; F 2 

A3' 
D I 

D4 

C4 
G3 
H4 
C 2 
H4 
C 6 
D4 



7 
1 
25 
57 
15 
1 
51 
51 



24 
30 
23 
51 
29 
51 
51 

20 
20 
24 
24 
21 

23 

18 

16 

1 

23 

2 

2 

24 

24 

7 

2 

24 

1 

23 

8 

57 

19 

23 

23 

16 

21 

24 

26 

7 

1 

15 

8 

16 
20 
57 
1 
57 
57 
57 
1 
8 
22 
57 
60 
57 
57 
51 
51 
21 
1 
57 
20 



25 



Twane et- . 
Twoyye 

Tyr{Terr. Acre et-) . 
Tyre (es-SiJr) . . 
Tyre, Ladder of (Ras en- 
Na^ra) .... 
Tyrrhenian Sea . 
Tyrum .... 

Tyrus 

Tyrus ('Arak el-Emir) 



L 2 

F 3 
C 5 
B5 

A6 
A3 
05 
5 
D4 



8 
29 
57 
16 

16 
51 
57 
57 



Ubtu (TeU el-Fera'in) 

Udayyet es-Seime 

'UUaka, el- 

Umm 'Abbad 

Unom 'Ader 

Umm 'Ajwa 

Umm Deimneh (Mad- 

mannah) 
Umm Dukha 
Umm ed-Daraj . 
Umm ed-Deraj . 
Umm el-'Alak . 
Umm el-'Amad . 
Umm el-'Amdan 
Umm el-^Azam . 
Umm el-Bikar . 
Umm el-Brak . 
Umm el-Edam . 
Umm el-Fahm . 
Umm el- Glieiyar 
Umm el-Hammat 
Umm el-Haretein 
Unrni el-Haretein 
Umm el-Harltheh 
Umm el-Jemal 

hireh 
Umm el-Kanatir 
Umm el-^Cenafid 
Umm el-!ljuseir . 
Umim el-I<;usur . 
Umm el-Meyadin 
Umm el-Walid (? Jahaz) 
Umm er-Rasas . 
Umm er-R jam . 
Umm er-Rumman 
Umm esh-Sharait 
Umm esh-Shuf . 
Umm esh-Shukf 
Umm es-Semma!^ 
Umm et t^rra . 
Umm et-Tiit 
Urmn ez-Zeinat . 
Umm Hel^nni . 
Umm Hrom 

Umm Jerar (Gerar) . . A 
Umm Junieh (Homoncea) E 
Umm Keisuma . . . C 
Umm Lakis . . . C 
Umm Rummane . . E i 
Umm Sdeid . . . B4 
Umm Suffah . . . D 3 
Umm Sur . . . . C 2 
Umm Walad . . . F 4 
Umtaiyeh, el- . . . E 5 
Ur of the Chaldees M 5 1 ; F 3 
Ureinbeh, el- . . . E 2 

Urif E 3 

Urka (Ur of the Chaldees) F 3 
Urtas (Etam) . . . E 5 
Urusalim . . . • D 3 
Usim (Letopolis) . . D 3 
Uslahah . . . . F 3 

Uttica D 4 

Uz L 5 

Uzzen-Sherah (BeiU^ira) . D 4 



C I 

D5 
E 6 

B3 
B4 
B3 

D2 

F3 

D2 

C 2 
F 2 
E I 
E5 
D4 
C I 
E I 
D4 
B4 
E 6 

D6 
F 6 
B4 

E5 

B2 

D4 
E I 

D5 
E 4 
E 2 
E 2 
B4 
05 

D2 

B4 

S3 
E4 
D I 

A4 
B4 
D3 
3 
2 

3 
4 

I 



7 
80 
16 
27 
27 
27 

28 
15 
26 
25 
22 
29 
20 
28 
27 
29 
21 
19 
16 
30 
18 
18 
19 



21 
26 
29 
18 
22 
29 
29 
27 
22 
26 
19 
19 
26 
21 
19 
19 
27 
27 
27 
20 
27 
27 
29 
27 
23 
23 
22 
22 
2 



24 
2 
7 

22 
1 
1 

24 



Venice • • # . 

Via Appia . 

Vicus JudfiBorum (Tell el- 
Yehud) . . . . 
Vienna . . • . 



Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 



Abellin . 
Abu 'Abeideh 
Abu edh-Dhaheb 
Abu Dubba . 
Abu el-Haiyat 
Abu el-Hamam 
Abu Had 
Abu Hama^a 
Abu Himan . 
Abu Hindi 
Abu Kanadu . 
Abu l^aslan . 
Abu Khuneifis 
abu'l 'Azam . 
Abu Muhair . 
Abu Muhammed 
Abu Nar . 
Abu Nejein 
Abu Ruf al 
Abu Rukbe 
Abu Sidreh 
Abu Turra 
Abu Zarun 
Abu Zeiyad . 
Abu Zerka 
ad-Deike 
Adhra 
'Aere 
'Ain , 



E 2 
C 2 

E3 
F 2 



B 2 

B4 
B 2 
B 5 
B4 
F I 

G7 
G4 



C 

. E 

. I 

. E 

. E 

. C 

. C 

. B 

. B 

. E 

. D4 

. E5 

. C 2 

. C 4 

. I>3 

. E 4 

. B3 

. D4 

. B 2 

. E 4 

. F 2 



1 
51 

7 
1 



19 
25 
19 
25 
25 
28 

8 
22 
27 
24 

8 

23 
18 
27 
25 
16 
19 
24 
27 
30 
25 
25 
30 
20 
25 
28 
25^ 
22 
26 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



II 



Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wadv 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wadv 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wadv 
Wady 
Wady 



'Ain 'Arik 

'A^aba . 

al-Haimuam 

'Ali . 

al-Khaz'ali 

al-Manjar 

al-Matiyye 

al-Watar 

'Aly . 

'Alya 

^Amman 

"*Amr 

Amud 

'Anazeh 

'Arah 

Araba 

Ar'ara' 

*'Arus 

'Ashur 

'Asluj 

at-Treibe 

Auba 

'Ayun 

'Ayun edh-Dhib 

'Ayun el-Khanis 

'Aynn Musa . 

^Azziin 

Ba^r 

Balu'a . 

Barrakat 

Baruka . 



Batat 

Bedarus . 

Beidan . E 2 23 ; 

Beit Hannina 

Berameh (Bileam) . 

Beni Hasan 

Bir es-Seba* 

Bir Isir . 

Dabura . 

Dar el- Jerir 

Deir Ballut 

Delhati . 

Dib . 

Difleh 

Dirmeh . 

ed-Dabba 

ed-Dahab 

ed-Deir . 

ed-Dekakin 

ed-Derajeh 

ed-Dersa . 

ed-Dufleh 

edh-Dheiheifi 

edh-Dhikah 

el-Abeigl , 

el-Abia4 . 

el-Abya(J 

el-Adeimeh 

el-Afranj 

el-'Ain . 

el-'A^biyeh 

el-'Akkab 

el-Am'az . 

el-' Arab E 4 20 ; B 4 



el-'Arabah . . L 2 
el-'Areijeh . • B 3 
el-'Arish (River of 



Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wadv 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wadv 
Wady 
Wady 

Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
Wady 
• Wady 
Wadv 
Wady 



el-*Arrub 

el-'Asal . 

el-'Ashar 

el-'Anjah 

el-'Auwaj 

el-Ayan . 

el-Azarek 

el-Bahhath 

el-Baruk . 

el-Bassa . 

el-Bassah 

el-Bheira 

el-Blar . 

el-Bireh 

el-Biyar . 

el-Bukeia' 

el-Burak . 

el-Burj 

el-Burshein 

el-Busharat 

el-Bufcm E 5 

el-Bwera . 

el-Ehreir . 

el-Ehreir . 

el-'Eshsheh 

el-'Ezziyeh 

el-Gerafi . 

el-Geraia . 

el-Ghafr . 

el-Ghar F 

el-Gharabi 

el-Ghariye 

el-Ghueit 

el-Ghurab 

el-Ghurra 

1-Ghuweir 

el-Habis . 

el-Habur 



el-Hadad 
el-Halib . 
el-Halzun 
el-Hamam 
el-Hamar 
el-Ham4 . 
el-Haramam D 
el-Harram 
el-Hawa . 



D4 
J 4 
F 2 
D5 
B3 
D4 
F 2 

04 
B3 
E5 
E 4 
C I 

D2 

C I 
B5 

r>3 

D6 
B5 

C4 
E 4 
6 

g4 
D I 

H3 
D I 

D2 

B4 

r>3 

C I 

B4 
E6 
E 4 
E 6 
A 2 
E5 
C 5 
E 4 

C 5 
B5 
D6 
E 4 
C3 
C4 
H8 
B 2 

r>3 

E 4 

D3 
E 2 
B I 
B 2 
H4 

A4 
D4 

D2 

B4 
J 2 
C 3 
C I 
D I 
C5 

5^ 
B5 

A5 



J2 

E 6 

^4 
1)5 
B4 
E 5 24 ; A I 
D6 
J 2 
D4 

H3 
E 6 
A2 

E3 

D6 

E 4 20 ; B I 



J 5 

. B2 

. D2 

• S^ 

. B5 

. E3 

22; E 2 

. K3 

. C 3 

. D2 

. E 4 

. B5 

. K3 

. J 3 

. B4 

22 ; F I 

. D6 

. E3 

• B5 
. 1)5 
. E3 
. D4 
. D I 
. B 6 

27; D3 
. B 4 
. B I 
. B 2 
. E3 
. D5 
. D6 
2l5;E3 
. E 2 
. D I 



8 
21 
21 
20 
16 
8 
8 
21 
28 
16 
22 
24 
24 
28 
30 
29 
24; 
28 
21 
27 
19 
20 
24 
16 
26 
22 
17 



Wady el-Hazim 
Wady 'l-Hemri 
Wady el-Herri . 
Wady el-Hery . 
Wady '1-Hesa . 
Wady el-Hesy . 
Wady el-Hirreh 
Wady el-Hoshaba 
Wady el-Hubeishiyeh 
Wady el-Humr . 
Wady el-Humra 
Wady el- Ja'ar . 
Wady '1- Jaiz . 
Wady el- Jdera . 
Wady el- Jebb . 
Wady el- Jeib 
Wady el- Jerabi . 
Wady el- Jeradat 
Wady el-Jib 
Wady el-Jideid . 
Wady el- Jihar . 
Wady el- Jindy . 
Wady el-Jizair . 
Wady el Jorf eh . 
Wady el- Judeiyideh 
Wady el-?:adi . 
Wady el-]^ady . 
Wady el-§[anawat 
Wady el-]^anawat 
jWady el-Kara . 
Wady el-Kbede 
Wady el-Kelb . D 
Wady el-?:elt . 
Wady el-]^em . 
Wady el-Kerad . 
Wady el-Khafuri 
Wady el-Khalladiyeh 
Wady el-Khan . 
Wady el-Khashab 
Wady el-Kliasheibeh 
iWady el-Khashneh 
Wady el-Khubb 
Wady el-Khubera 
Wady el-KJiu^eirah 
Wady el-Khuia . 
Wady el-Kittar . 
Wady el-Kotneh 
Wady el-Kub . 
Wady el-ICueUby . B, 
Wady el-Kuneiyeh 
Wady el-!Kum . 
Wady el-!^urri . 
Wady el-!l^usab 
Wady el-Lehham 
Wady el-Libbeh 
Wady el-Ma 
Wady el-Majnuneh 
Wady el-Maleh A 5 19 l 
Wady el-]Vrallaka 
Wady el-Maluk . 
Wady el-Masaud 
Wady el-Medineh 
Wady el-Melek (Alam- 

melech) . 
Wady el-Mellahah 
Wady el-Menakh 
Wady el-Menka* 
Wady el-Meshabbeh 
Wadv *1-Mheires 
Wady el-Milh . 
Wady '1-Mingesh 
Wady el-Mshash 
Wadyel-Mu'alla^ E 6 24; 
Wady el-Mioleihah 
Wady el-Musetterah 
Wady el-Muweily 
iWady el 'Oshsheh 
Wady el-Wakkas 
Waiiy el- War 
Wady el-Werd . 
Wady el-Wkeir . 
Wady '1-Yabis . 
Wady el-Yehudi 
Wady en-Najil . 
Wady en-Nar (Cedron or 

Kidroii Brook) E 5 24 ; 
Wady en-Nar . 
Wady en-Nas 
Wady en-Nimr . 
Wady en-Nusf . D 5 20 ; 
Wady er-Retem 
Wady Erkas 
Wady er-Rih 
Wady er-Rishash 
Wady er-Roz 
Wady er-Rul^kad 
Wady E§fera 
Wady esh-Shabit 
Wady esh-Shaghur 
Wady esh-Sha^ir E 2 23 ; 
Wady esh-Shebib 
Wady esh-Shefeid 
Wady 'sh-Shejera 
Wady esh-Shellal 
Wady esh-Shellale 
Wady esh-Sherar 
Wady esh-Sheri'ah 
Wady esh-Sherky 
Wady esh-Sherrar. 
Wady esh-Shita 
Wady esh-Shkeib 
Wady esh-Shukeiyif 



B I 

D4 
E 2 
D I 
D6 
B I 
B I 
E5 
B5 
B3 
E5 
C4 
D6 

D3 
L 2 
B6 
E 4 
F I 

E3 
D I 
F I 

D I 
I 

g 6 

D2 

E I 

E3 
E 2 
C 3 
D4 
B3 
B4 
F3 
B3 
F4 

2^ 

E 2 
C 2 

B3 
B I 

B5 

A3 
A5 
D3 
F4 
D4 
E3 
3 
C4 
B 6 

D3 
B4 
D3 
C I 

05 

B2 

C I 

B3 
B4 

B3 
E 4 



B 



C 

E 

C 

E 

B 

F 

D4 

A 2 

C 2 

B3 

C4 

E 2 

E I 

E5 
D^ 
B4 
E 4 

E5 
5 



29 
30 
29 
59 
30 
27 
25 
16 
16 
25 
20 
24 
30 
29 
8 
30 
28 
28 
23 
29 
28 
24 
27 
29 
24 
15 
28 
22 
22 
17 
27 



25 
7 
19 
28 
20 
29 
25 
24 
29 
19 



24 
23 
21 
30 
16 
30 
19 
23 
25 
16 
19 
25 
27 
25 
21 
24 

19 
25 
24 
24 
29 
30 
19 
30 
27 
29 
27 
25 
19 
20 
20 
24 
24 
27 
30 
20 
24 



Wady esh-Shukf . . B 2 29 

Wady esh-Shweimi . . E 3 29 

Wady es-Safieh . . . 6 24 

Wady es-Sa'ideh . . B 3 29 

Wady es-S'alik . . . C i 19 



A I 
B3 

D2 

E 
B 
C 
F 
E 
B 
D 
F 
B 
E 
C 
A 2 

B2 

C 
F 
C 
C 
C 
B 
F 
D 
D 



29 
27 
27 
23 
25 
25 
7 

16 
25 
23 
16 
21 
29 
19 
25 
21 
21 
30 
23 
21 
25 
27 
28 
20 
26 
D3 27 
E22O; 
A 2 21 



Wady es-Sarabit 


. D2 


29 


Wady Meiron 


. D2 


20 


Wadyes-Seba' . 


. . B3 


25 


wady Meithehin 


. 3 


17 


Wady es-Semak 


. B 2 


21 


wady Meleh . . 


. E3 


28 


Wady es-Semen 


. . D4 


27 


wady Mer j 'Erzy . 


. E3 


23 


Wady es-Sennein 


. F 2 


28 


wady Meshash . 


. B 2 


29 


Wady es-Sfeiyat 


. E 2 


20 


Wady Meshun (or Tesh) 


.0 3 


15 


Wadyes-Sidd . 


. .03 


27 


Wady Midan . . 


. 4 


25 


Wady es-Sidr . 


. . B I 


29 


WadyMighaz ... 


. E4 


30 


Wady es-Sidr . 


. . D4 


20 


wady Minsef • Abu Zeid 


D 2 


29 


Wady es-Sidr . . 


.03 


25 


WadyMojib(R. Arnon) 
wady Mu'akkor 


. 3 


29 


Wady es-Sihaniyeh 


. . F 2 


28 


. B 2 


21 


Wady es-Sikheh 


. . D 5 


24 


wady Mughaniyeh . 


. B5 


18 


Wady e?-Sini 


. . B3 


27 


wady Mukelik . B 5 25 


; Bi 


29 


Wady es-Sitt . 


. . B 4 


19 


wady Musa (Petra, Re- 






Wady es-Siyale . 


. . Di 


29 


kem. Seta) 


■ L3 


8 


Wady es-SkuT . 


. E 6 


30 


wady Mussin . 


. Di 


23 


Wady es-Siikiyeh 


. F 2 


28 


wady Musurr . 


. B5 


24 


Wady es-Sultane (Brook 




wady Na'aur . 


. D4 


26 


Zered) . . 


. . E5 


30 


wady Nahel . . 


D5 


30 


Wady es-Sunam 


. . B2 


21 


WadyNasb . . 


J 6 


8 


Wady es-Sunt (Valley ol 




wady Nimeirah (Waters 






Elah) . . 


. .05 


24 


of Nimrim) 


5 


30 


Wady e§-Sur 


. . D6 


24 


wady Nimreh . 


G2 


22 


Wady e§-Surar (Valley of 




wady Nimrin . 


O4 


25 


Sorek) * . C 


5 24;C 4 


23 


wady Nueiameh 


B4 


25 


Wady et-Taiyibeh 


. . B4 


21 


wady Nughl . . 


A4 


19 


Wady et-Tamad 


.. .06 


30 


wady Nusrah . 


B3 


23 


Wady et-Tawahin E 


5 16; D 2 


20 


Wady Qena 


G8 


8 


Wady et-Tebban 


. F 2 


28 


wady Rabah . . 


C^3 


23 


Wadyet-Teim E 


4 IB ; 3 


17 


WadyRafi^ah . . 


F4 


26 


Wady eth-Thamad 


. E 2 


29 


Wady Rajib 


D2 


26 


Wady et-Tin . 


. D2^ 


23 


wady RamHa . 


F,4 


7 


Wady et-Tuffah 


. . D2 


20 


wady Rasein 


B5 


19 


Wady et-Twoyye 


. . F3 


29 


wady Ras el-Bedr . 


G4 


22 


Wady ez-Za'tari 


. . E5 


22 


wady Rizia 


4 


23 


Wady ez-Zawatin 


. B 2 


21 


wady Robla 


I 4 


8 


Wady ez-Zeidy . 


. . F4 


22 


wady Rubbet el- Jamus . 


F3 


28; 


Wady ez-Zeidy . 


. D,E4 


21 




A4 


30 


Wadyez-Zeit . 


. . B3 


25 


wady Rujm el-Khulil 


F 2 


28 


Wady ez-Zer^ar . 


. A 6 


16 


wady Rummaneh . 


3 


20 


Wady ez-Zerlsa . 


. . D4 


23 


wady Sahrij 


E I 


17 


Wady ez-Zer^a (R, Jabbok) D 2 


26 


wady Sahury . . 


3 


23 


Wady ez-Zeyyatin 


. . B3 


21 


WadySaliheh . . . 


r>3 


29 


Wady Ezrak 


. . D3 


26 


Wady Saliyeh . 


E3 


29 


Wady Fa'i . 


. . F4 


28 


wady Samar 


B3 


21 


WadyFarah . 


. . B2 


25 


Wady Samieh . 


B4 


25 


Wady Farah 


. . E5 


24 


WadySaVeh . . . 


D3 


28 


Wady Fejjas 


. . E3 


20 


WadySehweh . 


G4 


22 


Wady Fetah 


.12 


8 


WadySeiyal . 


A3 


30 


wady Fik . . 


. E3 


20 


wady Selhab . 5 19 


Ai 


25 


Wady Fikre 


. L 2 


8 


WadySelukieh . 


5 


16 


WadyFu^ni . 


. B3 


25 


Wady Selukiyeh 


B 2 


21 


Wady Gawa ( Jawa) 


. E4 


26 


Wady Selman . 


D4 


24 


Wady Gefi . . . 


. J 2 


8 


Wady Serbah . . 


3 


15 


Wady Gera 


. J 5 


8 


WadySeyal . . . 


H8 


8 


WadyGhueir . . 


. C I 


29 


WadyShabat . 


I 


17 


Wady Ghuweir . 


. B 2 


29 


Wady Sha'ib 2 19 ; 


D4 


26 


Wady Gled (|Pet) stc 


I. . B 3 


21 


wady Shene^ . . . 


B3 


27 


Wady Haf or . 


. E 6 


16 


WadyShiKa . . . 


E4 


16 


Wady Halbun . 


. D3 


17 


WadyShokb . . . 


E4 


28 


Wady Hamis . 


. E4 


24 


wady Shiibash . 52O , 


Bi 


25 


Wady Haniinur 


. D2 


26 


WadySikake . 


F3 


22 


Wady Hassani . 


. D4 


7 


WadySikiab . 


E4 


20 


Wady Hathrurah F - 


; 28 ; A 4 


30 


wady Sir . . . . 


D4 


26 


Wady Hawara . 


. C I 


29 


wady Sleikhat . 


2 


25 


Wady Hawashia 


. G7 


8 


wady Sofara . 


2 


25 


WadyHesban . 


. Di 


29 


wady Subburah 


3 


17 


Wady Hindaj . 


. D6 


16 


WadySudr 


Or 4 


8 


Wady Husasah F i 


28; B 2 


29 


wady Sufeisif . . . 


A3 


30 


Wady Ibtein Ghazal 


. 3 


25 


wady Surar 


D5 


24 


Wady Ishar 


. E3 


23 


wady Suweinit . 


E4 


24 


Wady Ishkar 


. 3 


23 


wady Tahma . 


J 6 


8 


Wady Ishkararah 


. 3 


25 


wady Tamireh E 6 24 


; A2 


29 


Wady Isma'in . 


. D5 


24 


WadyTarfa . . . 


E7 


7 


Wadyltmy- . 


. D3 


28 


Wady Tell esh-Shihab . 


03 


21 


Wady Jeraba 


. E 2 


20 


Wady Tenassib . 


G6 


8 


Wady Jerf an 


. B 2 


29 


Wady Tesh (or Meshun) . 


3 


15 


WadyJermuk . 


. D4 


16 


WadyThalith . . . 


E3 


22 


WadyJerra . E 


2 23; A 2 


25 


WadyTufileh . . . 


B6 


30 


Wady Jessarah . 


. B2 


29 


Wady Umm Baghek 


A 4 


30; 


Wady Jessireh . 


. C 6 


16 




F 3 


28 


Wady Jillm 


. D3 


21 


wady Umm el-Bedan 


A 4 


30; 


Wady Joramayah 


. B 2 


21 




F3 


28 


Wady Joreif Ghuza 


I 




wady Umm el- Jeradi 


O4 


27 


B 


5 25 ; B I 


29 


Wady Umm Helkum 


O3 


27 


Wady Joseleh . 


. B3 


25 


wady Umm Hweitat 


E4 


28 


Wady Kafur . 


. C4 


16 


wady Umm Jemat . 


F2 


28 


WadyKafrinji . , 


. C 2 


25 


Wady Umm i^aleib . 


I 


29 


Wady Kalkilieh 


. C 2 


23 


wady Um Mangul . 


H8 


8 


Wady Kanah . 


' . T>3 


23 


Wady Umm 'Urkan . 


4 


27 


Wady Kar . . 


. D2 


23 


Wady Unkur edh-Dhib . 


B3 


25 


WadyKefrein . 


. D4 


26 


WadyUrag . . . 


E4 


7 


Wady Kemas . 


. B I 


27 


wady Useymer . 


E5 


30 


Wady Kerahi . 


. 05 


30 


WadyWaleh . 


D2 


29 


Wady Kerak . 


. C 4 


30 


wady Warr'an . . . 


D5 


21 


WadyKerkera . 


. A 6 


16 


WadyWaset . 


E4 


30 


Wady Kharrad . 


.02 


17 


WadyWuta 


H5 


8 


Wady Khuweilf eh 


. 2 


27 


WadyYabis . E 5 20 


; ci 


25 


Wady Kumran . 


. B I 


29 


Wady Yahmur . 


B5 


19 


Wady Kumkka 


. D4 


30 


wady Zamur 


B 3 


25 


Wady Kuseib . 


. . D4 


26 


wady Zeimer . 


D2 


23 


Wady La'abani . 


. D6 


30 


wady Zeizun 


3 


21 


Wady Lehiane . 


. L3 


8 


Wady Zerka Ma'in (Na- 






Wady Liwa 


. F 6 


18 


haliel) . . . . 


C 2 


29 


Wady Lubbat . 


• E3 


28 


WadyZirdab . 


D 2 


29 


Wady Ludd 


. O4 


24 


Wady Zuhluk . 


E 2 


20 


Wady Lussan 


. J 3 


8 


wady Zuweirah A 4 30 


; F 3 


28 


Wady Madhy . . 


. A4 


19 


Wakkas . . . . 


F 3 


20 


Wady Mahras . 


. B3 


29 


Wa'ret es-Siikiyeh . 


5 


18 


Wady Makarfet Katt 


um . B I 


29 


Wasta . . . . . 


1)5 


7 


Wady Maktal el-Imtc 


Jir . D 4 


30 


Wasta, el- . 


B4 


16 


Wady Maktul . 


. D2 


20 


Watan, el- . 


3 


27 


Wady Malakah . 


. D4 


24 


Welejeh, el- . . . 


D5 


24 


Wady Malaki (Sela-I 


lam- 




Welgha . . , . 


F 3 


22 


Mahlekoth?) . 


. F 2 


28 


Weset (Net) 


4 


2 


Wady Marhaleh 


. E I 


17 


W'eyra, el- (Chat de la 






Wady Mayein . 


. J 3 


8 


Vallee de Moise) . 


8 


57 


Wady Mazeira . 


. J 3 


8 


Widade . . . , 


3 


29 



ii 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land 



Xaris C 3 60 



YabTd . . 

Yadude, el- 

Yafa (Japhia) . 

Yafa (Joppa, or Japha) 

Yafufa, and sta. 

Yahmur 

Yajur . , . 

Yajus . 

Yakuk (Hukkok) 

Yakusa, el- 

Yalo (Ajalon) . 

YamSn, el- 

Yanuh 

Yanuh (Janohah) 

Yanun (Janohah) 

Yapu ... 

Yarmuk, R. (Sharf at el- 

Menac^ireh) 
Yarun (Iron) 
Yasid . 

Yasuf (En-Tappuah) 
Yasur . 
Yater . 

Yathrib (Medina) 
Yazidiyeh, el- 
Yazoun Casal des Plains 



B5 
E 4 
C 3 
B3 
C I 

D5 
B3 

B3 
D 2 

B3 
D4 

C 5 
C 2 
B5 
B3 
C 3 



E 4 
C 6 
E 2 
E3 
B5 
B 6 

L7 
I>3 
B 6 



20 
16 
23 
23 
24 
16 
1 
26 
57 



Yazur . . . . . B 3 23 
Yebnah (Jabneel, Jabnehy 

Jamnia) . . . . B 4 24* 

Yebmd . . . . E 4 23 

Yehem . . . . C 3 2 

Yehudiyeh, el- . . . B 2 21 

Yehudiyeh, el- (Jehud) . C 3 23 

Yemma . . . . D i 23 

Yemma (Jabneel) . . D 3 20 

Ye'or (R. Nile) . . .06 7 

Yerka C 2 19 

Yetma . . . . E 3 23 

Ytr (R. Nile) . . .067 

Yubla . . . . . 3 21 

Yuhmiir . , . . D 4 16 

Yuntah . . , . B 3 17 

Yutta (Jutta) • . . E 2 28 



Zabu Elia .... E 2 2 

Zabu Supalu . . . E 2 2 

Za*'fa**an, ez- , . . E 2 29 

Zagazig . . . . D 2 7 

Zahat el-'Akabi . . B 4 21 

Zahar en-Nasara . . B 4 21 

Zahleh . . . . F i 15 

Zakariya (? Azekah) . . 5 24 

Zanoah (Zanua) . . 5 24 

Zanoah (Khurbet Zanuta) D 2 28 



Zanua (Zanoah) . . 5 
Zaora . . . . . E 5 
Zaphon (el-Hanuni) . • B 3 
Zara, ez- . . . . C 2 
Zarephath, or Sarepta 

(Sarafend) . . . . B 4 
Zawata . . . . E 2 
Zawieh . . . . D 3 
Zebda . . . . . E 4 
Zebda . . . . . A 4 
Zebdah . . . . 3 
Zebdin ... 

Zebeda (ez-Zebedani) 
Zebedani, ez- (Zebeda) 
Zebedel . . 
Zebene 
Zebireh 

Zebulun (Neby Sebelan) 
Zehilteh 
Zeit Bay 






B 
E 
E 
D 

D3 
I 8 
Zeita .' . . . . B 5 



Zeita . . . . , B 6 
Zeizun , . . . 3 

Zekweh . . . . F 2 
Zekzekiyeh . . . B 4 

Zemaraim? (Khurbet es- 

Sumrah) . . . . B 4 
Zephathah, Valley of . 6 

Zer ? E 3 

Zerakieh sta. . . . D 5 
Zerariyeh . . . « 4 



24 
16 
21 



16 
23 
23 
20 
21 
19 
16 
17 
17 
57 
22 
22 
20 
15 
8 
19 
24 
21 
15 
16 

25 
24 
20 
18 
16 



Zered, Brook (Wady ea- 

Sultane) . . . . E 5 8Q 

ZeredaorSeredah (Surdah) E 4 24 

Zerin (Jezreel) . . . 4 20 

Zernukah . . , . B 4 24 

Zeynab . ' . . " . E 2 29 
Zibdin . . . . E 4* 18 

Zib, ez- ( Achzib ; Ekdippa) A 6 16 

Zidun . . . . . 3 2 

Zifta . . . . . D 2 7 

Zifteh 4 16 

Ziglag ? (Khurbet Zuheili- 

kah) . . . . B 2 27 

Zimmarin . . . . A 4 19 

Zin, Wilderness of . . L 2 8 

Zior (Si'air) . . . D 6 24 

Ziph (Tell ez-Zif ) . . E 2 28 

Ziph, Wilderness of . . F 2 28 

Ziza . . . . . E I 29 

Zoan . . . . . I 5 1 

Zoan (San) . . . . E i 7 

Zoar? (el-Keryeh) . . B 5 30 

Zor 3 2 

Zorah (Sur'ah) . . . 5 24 

Zorava (Ezra'a) , . E 2 22 

Zoroa (Ezra'a) . . . E 2 22 

Zubeir, ez- . . . . E i 29 

Zublsin . . . . B 6 16 

Zubya B 5 21 

Zuk Mekaije . . . D 3 60 

Zumal, ez- . . . . D 4 21 



MEANING OF ARABIC WORDS ENTERING INTO THE COMPOSITION OF 

MANY PLACE-NAMES 



'Ain . 


. spring, fountain. 


Bab . . 


. gate. 


Bafer . 


. sea. 


Beit (Hebrew, Beth) . house. 


Beled . 


. village, town. 


Bir . . 


. both well and cistern 


Birkeh, Birket 


. pond, pool, tank.' 


Burj . . . 


. tower. 


Deir . . 


. convent. 


Derb . . . 


. way. 


Gebel (Jebel) 


. mountain. 


Hajj . . 


. pilgrim. 


Hosn . 


. fortress. 


Jebel . 


. mountain. 


Jezireh . 


. island, peninsula. 


Jisr 


. bridge. 


Kalat (Kurah) 


. castle. 


Kasr . 


. tower, castle. 


Kefr(Kafr) . 


. village. 


Khan . 


. inn. 



Khashm and Khasha 


Khirbeh (Khurbeh, 


Khurbet) . 


Koz 




Merj 




Nahr 




JNeby 
Kas 




Sahel 




Seil , 




Sheikh 




Tell 




Wady , 





Wely 



a prominent mountain-ridge. 

an eminence. 

meadow, apt to become a 
swamp. 

river. 

prophet. 

cape, headland. 

plain. 

torrent. 

chief, elder. 

mound. 

properly the ItBlmnfiumana; 
a watercourse dry in sum- 
mer, but applied also to 
perennial springs and the 
valleys through which these 
pass. 

a saint's tomb. 



\ 



EDINBUEGH GEOGRAPHICAL INSTITUTE 



f^