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spread provided a less abundant nourishment than
they had enjoyed in the tropical jungles of Africa.
Sir Arthur Keith estimates that primitive Man re-
quired two square miles of territory per individual to
supply him with food, and some other authorities
place the amount of territory required even higher.
Judging by the anthropoid apes, and by the most
primitive communities that have survived into
modern times, early Man must have lived in small
groups not very much larger than families—groups
which, at a guess, we may put at, say, between fifty
and a hundred individuals. Within each group there
seems to have been a considerable amount of co-
operation, but towards all other groups of the same
species there was hostility whenever contact occurred.
So long as Man remained rare, contact with other
groups could be occasional, and, at most times, not
very important. Each group had its own territory,
and conflicts would only occur at the frontiers. In
those early times marriage appears to have been con-
fined to the group, so that there must have been a
very great deal of inbreeding, and varieties, how-
ever originating, would tend to be perpetuated. If a
group increased in numbers to the point where Its
existing territory was insufficient, it would be likely
to come into conflict with some neighbouring group,
and in such conflict any biological advantage which
one inbreeding group had acquired over the other
might be expected to give it the victory, and there-
fore to perpetuate its beneficial variation. All this has