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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

AUTHORITY   AND   THE   INDIVIDUAL
natural instinct. .But when such behaviour strains
natural instinct too severely nature takes her revenge
by producing either listlessness or destructiveness,
either of which may cause a structure inspired by
reason to break down/'
Social cohesion, which started with loyalty to a
group reinforced by the fear of enemies, grew by
processes partly natural and partly deliberate until it
reached the vast conglomerations that we now know
as nations. To these processes various forces contri-
buted. At a very early stage loyalty to a group must
have been reinforced by loyalty to a leader. In a large
tribe the chief or king may be known to everybody
even when private individuals are often strangers to
each other. In this way, personal as opposed to tribal
loyalty makes possible an increase in the size of the
group without doing violence to instinct.
At a certain stage a further development took
place. (Wars, which originally were wars of exter-
mination, gradually became—at least in part—wars
of conquest^ the vanquished, instead of being put to
death, were^rnade slaves and compelled to labour for
their conquerors. When this happened there came to
be two sorts of people within a community, namely,
the original members who ajbne were free, and were
the repositories of the tribal spirit, and the subjects
who obeyed from fear, not from instinctive loyalty.
Nineveh and Babylon ruled over vast territories, not
because their subjects had any instinctive sense of
social cohesion with the dominant city, but solely
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