AUTHORITY AND THE INDIVIDUAL can make it enormously more difficult than it used to be for people whom the government dislikes to escape. The whole of our daily life and our social organization is what it is because of science. The whole of this vast development is supported nowa- days by the State, but it grew up originally in opposi- tion to the State, and where, as in Russia, the State has reverted to an earlier pattern, the old opposition would again appear if the State were not omnipotent to a degree undreamt of by the tyrants of former ages. The opposition to science in the past was by no means surprising. Men of science affirmed things that were contrary to what everybody had believed; they upset preconceived ideas and were thought to be destitute of reverence. Anaxagoras taught that the sun was a red-hot stone and that the moon was made of earth. For this impiety he was banished from Athens, for was it not well known that the sun was a god and the moon a goddess? It was only the power over natural forces conferred by science that led bit by bit to a toleration of scientists, and even this was a very slow process, because their powers were at first attributed to magic. It would not be surprising if, in the present day, a powerful anti-scientific movement were to arise as a result of the dangers to human life that are resulting from atom bombs and may result from bacteriological warfare. But whatever people may feel about these horrors, they ,dare not turn against the men of science so long as war is at all probable, because if 14 .