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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

AUTHORITY    AND   THE    INDIVIDUAL
the idle rich; it had lost its biological usefulness, but
remained enjoyable. Combat, of the simple sort
directly inspired by impulse, is now only permitted
to schoolboys, but combativeness remains, and, if
denied a better outlet, finds its most important ex-
pression in war.
Early man, however, was not wholly without
activities that he felt to be useful rather than in-
trinsically attractive. At a very early stage in human
evolution the making of stone implements began, and
so inaugurated the long development that led up to
our present elaborate economic system. But in the
early Stone Age it is possible that the pleasure of
artistic creation and of prospective increase of power
diffiised itself over the laborious stages of the work.
When the journey from means to end is not too long,
the means themselves are enjoyed if the end is
ardently desired. A boy will toil up hill with a
toboggan for the sake of the few brief moments of
bliss during the descent; no one has to urge him to
be industrious, and however he may puff and pant
he is still happy. But if instead of the immediate
reward you promised him an old-age pension at
seventy, his energy would very quickly flag.
Much longer efforts than those of the boy with the
toboggan can be inspired by a creative impulse, and
still remain spontaneous. A man may spend years of
hardship, danger, and poverty in attempts to climb
Everest or reach the South Pole or make a scientific
discovery, and live all the while as much in harmony
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