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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

TECHNIQUE    AND    HUMAN    NATURE
with his own impulses as the boy with the toboggan,
provided he ardently desires the end and puts his
pride into overcoming obstacles. As the Red Indian
said, "there's glory in it."
The introduction of slavery began the divorce
between the purpose of the work and the purposes
of the worker. The Pyramids were built for the
glory of the Pharaohs; the slaves who did the work
had no share in the glory, and worked only from fear
of the overseer's lash. Agriculture, when carried on
by slaves or serfs, equally brought no direct satis-
faction to those who did the work; their satisfaction
was only that of being alive and (with luck) free
from physical pain.
In modern times before the Industrial Revolution,
the diminution of serfdom and the growth of handi-
crafts increased the number of workers who were
their own masters, and who could therefore enjoy
some pride in what they produced. It was this state
of affairs that gave rise to the type of democracy
advocated by Jefferson and the French Revolution,
which assumed a vast number of more or less
independent producers, as opposed to the huge
economic organizations that modern technique has
created.
Consider a large factory, say one that makes motor
cars. The purpose of the organization is to make cars,
but the purpose of the workers is to earn wages.
Subjectively, there is no common purpose. The uniting
purpose exists only in owners and managers, and may