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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

controls, can do nothing but pass it on to the
superintendent. He, in turn, passes it to the works
manager who puts it on the agenda for the next
meeting. Or the matter may be referred to the
welfare department, a big department in a big
company, and a substitute for the welfare or
personnel manager, himself a substitute for one
role of the managing director or owner, deals with
it or passes it on.
"In the large company there is more than a
sense of frustration; there is a peculiar meaning-
lessness about its operations to the member of the
rank and file* He knows little of the significance
of his job in the company as a whole. He does not
know who is the real boss; he frequently does
not know who is the General Manager, and, often
enough, he has never been spoken to by the head
Works Manager. The Sales Manager, the Cost
Manager, the Planning Manager, the Chief Welfare
Manager and many others, are just people with
good jobs and short hours. He has no part with
them, they do not belong to his group/'
Democracy, whether in politics or in industry, is
not a psychological reality so long as the government
or the management is regarded as "they," a remote
body which goes its lordly way and which it is
natural to regard with hostility—a hostility that is
impotent unless it takes the form of rebellion. In
industry, as Mr. Gillespie points out, very little has