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been done in this direction, and management is,
with rare exceptions, frankly monarchical or oli-
garchic. This is an evil which, if left unchecked,
tends to increase with every increase in the size of
Ever since history began, the majority of mankind
have lived under a load of poverty and suffering and
cruelty, and have felt themselves impotent under the
sway of hostile or coldly impersonal powers. These
evils are no longer necessary to the existence of
civilization; they can be removed by the help of
modern science and modern technique, provided
these are used in a humane spirit and with an under-
standing of the springs of life and happiness. Without
such understanding, we may inadvertently create a
new prison, just, perhaps, since none will be outside
it, but dreary and joyless and spiritually dead. How
such a disaster is to be averted, I shall consider in
my last two lectures.
An interesting and painful example of the dfecay
of quality through modern machine methods is
afforded by the Scottish tweed industry. Hand-woven
tweeds, universally acknowledged to be of super-
lative excellence, have long been produced in the
Highlands, the Hebrides and the Orkney and Shetland
Islands, but the competition of machine-woven tweeds
has hit the hand-weavers very hard, and the purchase
tax, according to debates in both Houses of Parlia-