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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

CONTROI     AND    INJTIATIVr
fortunately there can be government without initia-
tive.
The primary aims of government, I suggest, should
be three: security, justice, and conservation. These
are things of the utmost importance to human happi-
ness, and they are things which only government can
bring about. At the same time, no one of them is
absolute; each may, in some circumstances, have to
i>e sacrificed in some degree for the sake of a greater
degree of some other good. I shall say something
about each in turn.
Security, in the sense of protection of life and
property, has always been recognized as one of the
primary purposes of the State. Many States, however,
while safeguarding law-abiding citizens against other
citizens, have not thought it necessary to protect
them against the State. Wherever there is arrest by
administrative order, and punishment without due
process of law, private people have no security, how-
ever firmly the State may be established. And even
insistence on due process of law is insufficient,
unless the judges are independent of the executive.
This order of ideas was to the fore in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries, under the slogan ' liberty
of the subject" or ' 'rights of man/' But the "liberty"
and the "rights" that were sought could only be
secured by the State, and then only if the State was
of the kind that is called "Liberal." It is only in the
West that this liberty- and these rights have been
secured,