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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

CONTROL    AND    INITIATIVE
dismal by boredom and monotony. Many people,
especially while they are young, welcome a spice of
dangerous adventure, and may even find relief in war
as an escape from humdrum safety. SegirijtyJ}y: itself
is a negative aim inspired by fear; a satisfactory life
must Have a positive aim inspired by hogŁ. This sort
of adventurous hope involves risk and therefore fear.
But fear deliberately chosen is not such an evil thing
as fear forced upon a man by outward circumstances.
We cannot therefore be content with security alone,
or imagine that it can bring the millennium.
And now as to justice:
Justice, especially economic justice, has become, in
quite recent times, a governmental purpose. Justice
has come to be interpreted as equality, except where
exceptional merit is thought to deserve an excep-
tional but still moderate reward. Political justice, i.e.
democracy, has been aimed at since the American
and French Revolutions, but economic justice is a
newer aim, and requires a much greater amount of
governmental control. It is held by Socialists, rightly,
in my opinion, to involve State ownership of key
industries and considerable regulation of foreign
trade. Opponents of Socialism may argue that eco-
nomic justice can be too dearly bought, but no one can
deny that, if it is to be achieved, a very large amount
- of State control over industry and finance is essential.
There are, however, limits to economic justice
which are, at least tacitly, acknowledged by even the
most ardent of its Western advocates. For example,