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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

CONTROL   AND    INITIATIVE
to newspapers. In this sphere, uniformity would be a
disaster, but would be a very probable result of
unrestricted State socialism.
Men of science, as I pointed out in my third
lecture, could formerly work in isolation, as writers
still can; Cavendish and Faraday and Mendel de-
pended hardly at all upon institutions, and Darwin
only in so far as the government enabled him to
share the voyage of the Beagle. But this isolation is a
thing of the past. Most research requires expensive
apparatus; some kinds require the financing of
expeditions to difficult regions. Without facilities
provided by a government or a university, few men
can achieve much in modern science. The conditions
which determine who is to have access to such
facilities are therefore of great importance. If only
those are eligible who are considered orthodox in
current controversies, scientific progress will soon
cease, and will give way to a scholastic reign of
authority such as stifled science throughout the
Middle Ages.
In politics, the association of personal initiative
with a group is obvious and essential. Usually two
groups are involved: the party and the electorate. If
you wish to carry some reform, you must first
persuade your party to adopt the reform, and then
persuade the electorate to adopt your party. You may,
of course, be able to operate directly upon the
Government, but this is seldom possible in a matter
that rduses much public interest. When it is not
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