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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

CONTROL   AND    INITIATIVE

decision of the members, so long as there is no in-
fringement of the law. Although the relations of a
body to its members should be decided by the
members, there are some principles which, if
democracy is to have any reality, it is to be hoped
that the members will bear in mind. Take, for
example, a large business. The attack upon capitalism
by Socialists has been concerned, perhaps too exclu-
sively, with questions of income rather than with
questions of power. When an industry is transferred
to the State by nationalization it may happen that
there is still just as much inequality of power as
there was in the days of private capitalism, the only
change being that the holders of power are now
officials, not owners. It is, of course, unavoidable
that in any large organization there should be execu-
tive officers who have more power than the rank and
file, but it is very desirable that such inequality of
power should be no greater than is absolutely neces-
sary, and that as much initiative as possible should be
distributed to all members of the organization. In
this connection a very interesting book is Mr. John
Spedan Lewis's Partnership For All—A %4-jear Old
Experiment in Industrial Democracy. What makes the
book interesting is that it is based upon a long and
extensive practical experience by a man who com-
bines public spirit with experimental boldness. On
the financial side he has made all the workers in his
enterprises partners who share in the profit, but, ia
addition to this financial innovation, he has

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