AUTHORITY AND THE INDIVIDUAL
pains to give to each employee a feeling that he
shares actively in the government of the whole enter-
prise, though I doubt whether, by his methods, it is
possible to go as far as we ought to go towards
democracy in industry. He has also developed a
technique for giving important posts to the men
most capable of carrying on the work involved. It is
interesting to observe that he has arguments against
equality of remuneration, not only on the ground
that those who do difficult work deserve better pay,
but, on the converse ground, that better 'pay is a
cause of better work. He says: "It is quite false to
imagine that ability and the will to use it are both of
them what mathematicians call, I believe, 'constants'
and that all that varies is the income that the worker
happens to get in return. Not only your will to do
your best but your actual ability depends very largely
upon what you are paid. Not only are people highly
paid because they are able; they are also able be-
cause they are highly paid."
This principle has a wider application than Mr.
Lewis gives it, and it applies not only to pay but also
to honour and status. I think, in fact, that the chief
value of an increase of salary lies in increase of status.
A scientific worker whose work is generally ac-
claimed as important will get the same stimulus
from recognition as a man in another field might get
from an increase of income. The important thing, in
feet, is hopefulness and a certain kind of buoyancy,
a thing in which|Europe has become very deficient as