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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

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a result of the two World Wars. Freedom of enter-
prise, in the old laissez-Jaire sense, is no longer to be
advocated, but it is of the utmost importance that
there should still be freedom of initiative, and that
able men should find scope for their ability.
This, however, is only one side of what is desir-
able in a large organization. The other thing that is
important is that those in control should not be
possessed of too absolute a power over the others.
For centuries reformers fought against the power of
kings, and then they set to work to fight against the
power of capitalists. Their victory in this second
contest will be fruitless if it merely results in re-
placing the power of the capitalists by the power of
the officials. Of course there are practical difficulties,
because officials must often take decisions without
waiting for the slow results of a democratic process,
but there should always be possibilities, on the one
hand, of deciding general lines of policy democrati-
cally, and, on the other hand, of criticizing the actions
of officials without fear of being penalized for so
doing. Since it is naturaljo energetic men to Jove
power, it may be assumed that officials in the great
majority of cases will wish to have more power than
they ought to have. There is, therefore, in every
large organization the same need of democratic
watchfulness as there is in the political sphere.
The relations of an organization to the outside
world are a different matter. They ought not to be
decided merely on grounds of power > that is to say,