AUTHORITY AND THE INDIVIDUAL governments, in their turn, must leave as much scope as possible to local authorities. In industry, it must not be thought that all problems are solved when there is nationalization. A large industry—e.g. rail- ways—should have a large measure of self-govern- ment; the relation of employees to the State in a nationalized industry should not be a mere repro- duction of their former relation to private employers. Everything concerned with opinion, such as news- papers, books, and political propaganda, must be left to genuine competition, and carefully safeguarded from governmental control, as well as from every other form of monopoly. But the competition must be cultural and intellectual, not economic, and still less military or by means of the criminal law. In cultural matters, diversity is a condition of progress. Bodies that have a certain independence ofJ the State, such as universities and learned societies, have great value in this respect. It is deplorable to see, as in present-day Russia, men of science com- pelled to subscribe to obscurantist nonsense at the behest of scientifically ignorant politicians who are able and willing to enforce their ridiculous decisions by the use of economic and police power. Such pitiful spectacles can only be prevented by limiting the activities of politicians to the sphere in which they may be supposed competent. They should not presume to decide what is good music, or good biology, or good philosophy. I should not wish such matters to be decided in this country by the personal 108 '