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INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL ETHICS
quite separately, one as the Law, the other as the
Prophets. In the Middle Ages there was the same
kind of distinction between the official morality in-
culcated by the hierarchy and the personal holiness
that was taught and practised by the great mystics.
This duality of personal and civic morality, which
still persists, is one of which any adequate ethical
theory must take account. Without civic morality
communities perish; without personal morality their
survival has no value. Therefore civic and personal
morality are equally necessary to a good world.
Ethics is not concerned solely with duty to my
neighbour, however rightly such duty may be con-
ceived. The ^performance of public duty is not the
wholejof^v^atwmakes a gopdjife^ there is „ also the
pursuit of private excellence.) For man, though
partly social, is not wholly so. He has thoughts and
feelings and impulses which may be wise or foolish,
noble or base, filled with love or inspired by hate.
And for the better among these thoughts and feelings
and impulses, if his life is to be tolerable, there must
be scope. For although few men can be happy in
solitude, still fewer can be happy in a community
which allows no freedom of individual action.
Ind^vidud^xcellence, although a great part^c^it
consists in right behaviouF to wards other people, has
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also another aspect.Q^yo^^^^y01^ duties for