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J General Reference ll'ork 







Prepared hy a Staff' of 


illustrated with orer fifteen Hundred Eai<ravinz< 




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■V' , 

Copyright. 1909. 1910, 1912. 1916. 1916. 191? 



Copyrighted in Great Britain 
All Riff hts Reserved 

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Authors and Collaborators 


President and General Manager. The Stirling Press, New York City 

Member, Society of Automobile Engineers 

Member, The Aeronautical Society 

Formerly Secretary. Society of Automobile Engineers 

Formerly Engineering Editor, The Automobile 


Automobile Engineer 

With Inter-State Motor Company. Muncie. Indiana 

Formerly Manager. The Ziegler Company, Chicago 


Formerly Managing Editor Motor Life, Editor The Commercial Vehicle, etc. 

Author of "What Every Automobile Owner Should Know". "Motorists' First Aid 

Handbook", etc. 
Member. Society of Automobile Engineers 
Member. American Society of Mechanical Engineers 


Editor. Motor Age, Chicago 
Formerly Managing Editor. The Light Car 
Member, Society of Automobile Engineers 
American Automobile Association 


Secretary and Educational Director. American School of Correspondence 
Formerly Instructor in Physics. The University of Chicago 
American Physical Society 


Lecturer in Charge. Automobile Division, Milwaukee Central Continuation School 
Editorial Representative. Commercial. Car Journal and Automobile Trade Journal 
Member, Society of Automobile Engineers 
Member. Standards Committee of S. A. E. 
Formerly Technical Editor, The Light Car 


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Authors and Collaborators (continued) 


Professor of Industrial Engineering. Pennsylvania State College 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 


Specialist in Technical Advertising 
Member. Society of Automobile Engineers 
Formerly Associate Editor, The Automobile 


Consulting Mechanical Engineer, Chicago 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 


Superintendent Union Malleable Iron Company, East Moline. Illinois 


Formerly Dean and Head. Consulting Department, American School of Correspondence 
Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 


President and Treasurer, Lovell-McConnell Manufacturing Company 


President, W. R. Howell and Company. London. England 


Associate Editor. Motor Age, Chicago 


Head, Publication Department. American Technical Society 

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Authorities Consulted 

THE editors have freely consulted the standard technical literature 
of America and Europe in the preparation of these volumes. They 
desire to express their indebtedness, particularly, to the following 
eminent authorities, whose well-known treatises should be in the library 
of everyone interested in the Automobile and allied subjects. 

Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable co-oper- 
ation of the foremost Automobile Firms and Manufacturers in making these 
volumes thoroughly representative of the very latest and best practice in 
the design, construction, and operation of Automobiles, Commercial Vehi- 
cles, Motorcycles, Motor Boats, etc.; also for the valuable drawings, data, 
illustrations, suggestions, criticisms, and other courtesies. 


Consulting Engineer 

First Vice-President, American Motor League 

Author of "Roadside Troubles'* 



Late Consulting Engineer 

Past President of the American Society of Civil Engineers 

Author of "Artificial Flight," etc. 


Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Author of "Gas-Engine Handbook/' "Gas Engines and Their Troubles," "The Auto- 
mobile Pocket- Book," etc. 


Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Engineer, General Electric Company 
Author of "Elements of Gas Engine Design" 


Author of "Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles, and Motorcycles," "Gas, Gasoline, and 
Oil Engines," "Mechanical Movements. Powers, and Devices," etc. 



Associate Member, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Author of "The Storage Battery: A Practical Treatise on the Construction, Theory, and 
Use of Secondary Batteries" 

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Authorities Consulted Continued 


Director, H. J. Willard Company Automobile School 
Author of "The Complete Automobile Instructor" 


Editor, The American Cyclopedia of the Automobile 

Author of "Motor Boats," "History of the Automobile," "Automobile Driving, Self* 
Taught," "Automobile Motors and Mechanism," "Ignition Timing and Valve Set- 
ting." etc. 



Mechanical Engineering Department, Columbia University 
Author of "Gas Engine Design" 


Editor, Horeeleee Age 

Author of "The Gasoline Automobile" 


Professor of Experimental Engineering, Sibley College, Cornell University 
Author of "Internal Combustion Engines" 


Author of "Light Motor Cars and Voiturettes," "Motor Repairing for Amateurs," etc. 


Professor of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering in University College, Nottingham 
Author of "Gas and Petroleum Engines" 



Member, Institution of Automobile Engineers 
Author of "Motor-Car Mechanisms and Management" 



Professor of Experimental Engineering, Sibley College, Cornell University 
Author of "Internal Combustion Engines" 


Technical Director. The New York School of Automobile Engineers 
Author of "Motor-Car Principles" 

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Authorities Consulted— Continued 


Formerly Editor, Motor Ag* 

Author of "Automobile Troubles, and How to Remedy Them** 



Associate Member, Institute of Electrical Engineers 
Author of "Electric Ignition for Motor Vehicles" 


Member, American Society of Civil Engineers 
British Association for the Advancement of Science 
Chevalier Legion d'Honneur 
Author of "Artificial and Natural Flight/' etc 


Author of "Complete Automobile Record/' "A B C of Motoring" 


Lecturer on Manufacture and Application of Industrial Alcohol, at the Polytechnic 

Institute, London 
Author of "Industrial Alcohol," etc 

FREDERICK GROVER, A. M., Inst. C. E., M. I. Mech. E. 

Consulting Engineer 

Author of "Modern Gas and Oil Engines" 


Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University 

Past President, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Author of "Electric Lighting;" Joint Author of "Management of Electrical Machinery" 


Captain and Instructor in the Prussian Aeronautic Corps 
Author of "Airships Past and Present" 


Associate Member, Institute of Mechanical Engineers 
Author of "Petrol Motors and Motor Cars" 

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Authorities Consulted Continued 

ROBERT H. THURSTON, C. E., Ph. B., A. M., LL. D. 

Director of Sibley College. Cornell University 

Author of "Manual of the Steam Engine," "Manual of Steam Boilers," etc 



Motoring Editor. The London Sphere 
Author of "The Amateur Motorist" 


Major and Battalion* Kommandeur in Badischen Fussartillerie 
Author of "Pocket- Book of Aeronautics" 


Professor of Steam Engineering. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Author of "Steam Boilers" 


Author of "Operation. Care, and Repair of Automobiles" 


Author of "Motor Boats," etc 


Editor. Work and Building World 
Author of "Motorcycle Building" 


Author of "Self-Propelled Vehicles" 



Editor. The Encyclopedia of Motoring. Motor News, etc 


Author of "Ignition Devices," "Magnetos for Automobiles," etc 


Consulting Electrical Engineer 

Associate Member, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Author of "Storage Battery Engineering" 

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Courtesy of Remy Electric Company, Anderson, Indiana 


Courtesy of Remy Electric Company, Anderson, Indiana 

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THE period of evolution of the automobile does not span 
many years but the evolution has been none the less 
spectacular and complete. From a creature of sudden caprices 
and uncertain behavior, it has become today a well-behaved 
thoroughbred of known habits and perfect reliability. The 
driver no longer needs to carry war clothes in momentary 
expectation of a call to the front. He sits in his seat, starts his 
motor by pressing a button with his hand or foot, and probably 
for weeks on end will not need to do anything more serious 
than feed his animal gasoline or oil, screw up a few grease cups, 
and pump up a tire or two. 

*L And yet, the traveling along this road of reliability and 
mechanical perfection has not been easy, and the grades have 
not been negotiated or the heights reached without many trials 
and failures. The application of the internal-combustion motor, 
the electric motor, the storage battery, and the steam engine to 
the development of the modern types of mechanically pro- 
pelled road carriages, has been a far-reaching engineering 
problem of great difficulty. Nevertheless, through the aid of 
the best scientific and mechanical minds in this and other 
countries, every detail has received the amount of attention 
necessary to make it as perfect as possible. Road troubles, 
except in connection with tires, have become almost negligible 
and even the inexperienced novice, who knows barely enough 
to keep to the road and shift gears properly, can venture on 
long touring trips without fear of getting stranded. Astonish- 
ing refinements in the ignition, starting, and lighting systems 

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have lately been effected, thus increasing the reliability of the 
electrical equipment of the automobile as well as adding greatly 
to the pleasure in running the car. This, coupled with the 
extension of the electrical control to the shifting of gears and 
other important functions, has made the electric current assume 
a position in connection with the gasoline automobile second 
only to the engine itself. Altogether, the automobile as a whole 
has become standardized, and unless some unforeseen develop- 
ments are brought about, future changes in either the gasoline 
or the electric automobile will be merely along the line of 
greater refinement of the mechanical and electrical devices used. 

C Notwithstanding the high degree of reliability already 
spoken of, the cars, as they get older, will need the attention of 
the repair man. This is particularly true of the cars two and 
three seasons old. A special effort, therefore, has been made 
to furnish information which will be of value to the men whose 
duty it is to revive the faltering action of the motor and to take 
care of the other internal troubles in the machine. 

<L Special effort has been made to emphasize the treatment of 
the Electrical Equipment of Gasoline Cars, not only because it 
is in this direction that most of the improvements have lately 
taken place, but also because this department of automobile 
construction is least familiar to the repair men and others 
interested in the details of the automobile. A multitude of 
diagrams have been supplied showing the constructive features 
and wiring circuits of the principal systems. In addition to 
this instructive section, particular attention is called to the 
articles on Welding, Shop Information, and Garage Design and 

C For purposes of ready reference and timely information so 
frequently needed in automobile operation and repair, it is 
believed that these volumes will be found to meet every 

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Table of Contents 


Electrical Equipment for Gasoline Cars (continued) 

By Charles B. Hay war df Page *11 

Practical Analysis of Electric Starting and Lighting Systems (continued)— 

Delco System (Six- Volt, Single- Unit, Single- Wire; Six-Volt, Two-Unit. Single- 
Wire), Disco System, Dyneto System (Single-Unit. Twelve- Volt, Single- Wire; 
Two-Unit, Six- Volt), Gray & Davis System (Six-Volt, Two-Unit. Single-Wire). 
Leece-Neville System, North East System, Remy System (Six- Volt, Two-Unit, 
Single-Wire; Six- Volt, Single-Unit. Single- Wire), Simms-Huff System.'Splitdorf 
System (Single-Unit, Twelve-Six- Volt. Two-Wire: Two-Unit, Six-Volt). U. S. L. 
System. Wagner System (Single-Unit, Twelve- Volt, Two- Wire; Two-Unit, Six- 
Volt). Weettaghouse System (Twelve- Volt, Single-Unit, Single-Wire; Six-Volt. 
Double-Unit, Single Wire)— Installing Special Starting and Lighting Systems for 
Ford Cars: General Instructions— Cenemotor— Gray & Davis— Heinze-Springfieki 
—Fisher— North East— Splitdorf — Westinghouse— Starting and Lighting Storage 
Batteries: Importance— Principles and Construction: Function of Storage Bat- 
ery. Parts, Charge and Discharge, Capacity, Construction Details, Care of 
Battery, Lead Burning — Installing New Battery— Storing Battery, Charging 
from Outside Source— Methods of Charging — Motor-Generator— A. C. Rectifier — 
Care of Battery in Winter— Testing Rate of Discharge— Testing Rate of Charge- 
Voltage Tests — Joint Hydrometer and Voltmeter Tests— Cleaning Repair 
Parts— Summary of Instructions: Battery: Electrolyte, Hydrometer Tests, Joint 
Hydrometer- Voltmeter Tests, Gassing, Sulphating, Voltage Tests, Sediment. 
Washing Battery, Connectors, Buckled Plates, Low Battery. Specific Gravity. 
Voltage, Charging from Outside Source, Intermittent and Winter Use, Edison 
Battery— Generators: Types and Requirements, Loss of Capacity. Methods of 
Regulation, Regulators, Windings, Commutator and Brushes— Wiring Systems: 
Different Plans, Faults in Circuit, Proper Conduction— Protecting and Operative 
Devices: Fuses. Circuit-Breakers. Battery Cut-Outs. Contact Points. Switches- 
Lighting and Indicators: Lamps, Instruments— Electric Gear Shift 


By Darwin S. Hatch; Revised by Herbert L. Connell Page 327 

Introduction: Standard Specifications. Present Trend— History: Early Types. 
Two-Cylinder Motors, Influence of High-Speed Motors, Modern Improvements- 
Typos of Motorcycles: Smith Motor Wheel, Dayton, Merkel, Cyclemotor, Auto- 
Ped, Light- Weight Motorcycles. Developments in Standard Types— Analysis of 
Motorcycle Mechanisms: Nomenclature — Principles of Engine Operation: Four- 
Cycle. Two-Cycle— Construction Details: Springs and Frames, Motors, Lubrica- 
tion. Starting. Brakes, Drive, Clutches, Gearsets, Electrical Equipment— Special 
Bodies and Attachments— Operation and Repair: Operation Suggestions: Motor. 
Valves, Carburetor, Ignition, Lubrication, Tires. Control— Repair Suggestions: 
Carburetor Troubles, Valve Troubles, Inlet Manifold. Overhauling. Valve Timing, 
Cleaning Chains, Dirty Muffler. Electrical Troubles 

Welding in Automobile Repair Shops! .... 

By Robert J. Kehl Page 403 

Introduction— Welding Processes: Old and New Methods— Oxy-Acetylene Proc- 
ess: Advantages, Gases, Generators, Blowpipes, Oxy-Acetylene Flame, Welding 
Rod, Flux. Strength of Weld, Cutting— Electric Processes: Methods, Spot- 
Welder, Arc Welder— Technique of Oxy-Acetylene Welding: Simple Welding 
Job— Operation and Care of Welding Apparatus: Welding Blowpipe, Regula- 
tors, Hose— Connecting Apparatus: Preliminaries, Lighting. Blowpipe, Back- 
Firing. Flame, Position of Blowpipe, Position of Welding Rod — General 
Notes on Welding— Properties of Metals— Pre-Heating— Steel Welding: Weld- 
ing Heavy Steel Forgings and Steel Castings (Preparation. Expansion and 
Contraction. Welding Heavy Sections)— Cast-Iron Welding: General Considera- 
tions. Expansion and Contraction, Pre-Heating, Welding Rods. Flux, Preparation 
of Welds. Welding Process— Malleable-Iron Welding: Malleable Iron. Brazing 
Malleable Iron— Aluminum Welding: General Considerations, Oxidation. Ex pen- 
sion and Contraction, Welding Rod. Flux. Flame, Sheet- Aluminum Welding. 
Cast-Aluminum Welding — Copper Welding— Brass and Bronze— Miscellaneous 
Methods: Cutting— Lead Burning— Carbon Removing — Examples of Automobile 
Repair— Costs 

Review Questions Page 509 

Index Page 615 

* For page numbers. Bee foot of pages. 

t For professional standing of authors, see list of Authors and Collaborators at 
front of volume. 

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Courtesy of Electric Auto-Lite Company, Toledo, Ohio 


Courtesy of Electric Auto-Lite Company, Toledo, Ohio 

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SYSTEMS— (Continued) 



Six-Volt; Two-Unit; Two-Wire 

Generator. Standard shunt-wound bipolar type, combined 
with ignition timer and distributor driven by a worm gear on the 
armature shaft. The generator is mounted on the left side of the 
engine and is driven by the pump shaft (Haynes 1913 installation, 
and subsequent models to date). 

It differs from the standard shunt-wound machine in that the 
shunt field is connected to the regulating third brush. This brush 
collects current from the commutator and excites the field, so that a 
strong shunt field is provided at comparatively low speeds. As the 
speed increases, the voltage supplied to the shunt field decreases, 
even though the total voltage between the main brushes may have 
increased. This weakens the field and prevents the output of the 
generator from increasing with the increased speed. At higher speeds 
it acts somewhat similarly to a bucking-coil winding in that it further 
weakens the field and causes the generator output to decrease still 
more. The closer the third brush is set to the main brush just above, 
the greater will be the output of the machine; moving it away from 
the main brush decreases the output. 

Regulation. Generators of the 1915 and 1916 models are con- 
trolled by armature reaction through a third brush, the field coils 
receiving their exciting current from the armature through this 
brush. The position of the latter on the commutator is shown at 
J5, Fig. 293. A slight rotation of this brush relative to the com- 


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mutator changes the electnca 1 . output of the machine. As adjusted 
at the fictofy this brush is* set to give a maximum output of 15 

amperes at 1\ volts. (All generators 
for 6-volt systems are wound to pro- 
duce an e.m.f. of 7J volts, or there- 
about, in order that the voltage 
of the generator may exceed that of 
the battery when the latter is fully 
charged. The e.m.f. of generators 
for 12- volt and 24-volt systems also 
exceeds that of their batteries in 
about the same proportion. Other- 
wise, the generator would not be able 
to force current through the battery.} 
Starting Motor. The motor is 
of the bipolar series-wound type 
driving the engine through a roller 
chain and an over-running clutch. 
Instruments. An indicating 

Fig. 293. Diagram of Arrangement of type of battery CUt-OUt is employed, 
Brushes on Leece-Neville - , . . ,«_ - ,. » ., 

6-voit Generator thus combining the functions or the 

cut-out and ammeter in one device. The details of this device are 
shown in Fig. 294. is the winding or coil of the electromagnet 

of which the U-shaped bar 
8 forms the magnetic circuit. 
At 4 is the pivoted armature, 
normally held in the OFF 
position as shown by a spring, 
when no current is passing, 
and adapted to be drawn 
against the pole pieces of 
the magnet when the latter 
is excited by the charging 
current. As the two-wire sys- 
tem is employed, the cut-out 
breaks both sides of the battery-charging circuit and it is provided 
with six current-carrying contacts on each of the sides of the circuit. 
Four of these, which carry most of the current, are copper to bronze, 

Fig. 294. Details of Leece-Neville Indicator 


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while those that take the spark in breaking the circuit are cophite to iron 
and are actuated by a spring. The indicating target 16 is held in the 
OFF position by the spring 19 when no current is passing, and 
this reading appears in the opening of the panel on the cover. 
When the generator starts and the cut-out closes, the target is 
moved to bring the word CHARGING in the opening. The 
same panel also carries the three-w r ay lighting switch controlled 
by buttons. The central button closes the circuit to the head- 
lights and tail lights in the usual manner, while the upper button 
throws the headlights in series-parallel connection. As this doubles 
the resistance, it halves the voltage passing through the lamps, and 
they, accordingly, burn dimly. The lower button controls the cowl 
light over the instruments on the dash. 

Wiring Diagram. Fig. 295 illustrates the Haynes 1915 installa- 
tion. While two wires are employed for connecting all the appara- 
tus, it will be noted that the storage battery and the dry-cell battery 
are grounded by a common ground connection. This is to permit 
using current from the storage battery for ignition, the correspond- 
ing ground to complete the circuit being noted at the ignition coil, 
close to the distributor. The connections G and B on the panel 
board are those of the generator and the battery to the indicating 
battery cut-out, the connections of three lighting switches being 
shown just to the right. In Fig. 296 is shown the Leece-Neville 
installation in White cars. 

Instructions. Never run the engine when the generator is dis- 
connected from the battery unless the generator is short-circuited, 
as otherwise it will be burned out in a very short time. This applies 
to all lighting generators except those protected by a fuse in the 
field circuit, in which case the fuse will be blown. The Leece-Neville 
generator can be short-circuited by taking a small piece of bare 
copper wire and connecting the two brush holders together with it. 
Instructions for short-circuiting other makes are given in connec- 
tion with the corresponding descriptions. 

Later models of the Leece-Neville generator are provided with a 
circuit-breaker. On the Haynes 12-cylinder models, this is mounted 
on top of the generator, while in some cases it is combined with the 
ammeter on the dash. To protect the generator and battery, there 
is a 5-ampere cartridge fuse under the cover of this circuit-breaker. 


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When this fuse blows out, both the generator and the circuit-breaker 
become inoperative. Any one of the following conditions may cause 

Fig. 296. Wiring Diagram of Leece-Neville System on White Cars 

Fig. 297. Wiring Diagram of Generator and Circuit-Breaker Circuit* for Leece-Neville System 
Courteey of The Seece-NeviUe Company, Cleveland, Ohio 

this fuse to blow out : loose or corroded connections at the battery ; an 
open circuit in the wiring on the battery side of the cut-out; not 
sufficient water in the battery; output of the generator too high; 


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allowing the main brush directly above the third brush to stick in its 
holder; a loose connection at the point A 2 , Fig. 297; improper insula- 
tion between the wires B\ and B* in the connector plug, Fig. 297. 
By an open circuit is meant an actual break at a connector or a termi- 
nal, or in the wiring itself, while a loose connection signifies an inse- 
curely fastened terminal or wire, at a junction box, or at any other part 
of the system. If there is a short-circuit in the field winding of the 
generator, this also will cause the fuse to blow out. 

Testing the Field Winding. While a short-circuit in the field 
winding of any generator is a rare fault, there are times when the 
trouble cannot be traced to any other part of the system. To test 
the Leece-Neville generator for this, connect the negative terminal of 
the portable testing ammeter to F u Fig. 297, while the positive termi- 
nal of the motor must be connected to the positive terminal of a 6- volt 
storage battery; the negative terminal of the battery is to be connected 
to the third brush when drawn from its holder. If the indication of 
the ammeter is above 4 amperes, there is a short-circuit in the field 
windings. In such a case, the generator should be returned to the 
manufacturers for repairs. 

With the engine running, the working of the generator should be 
inspected from time to time. In case there is excessive sparking or 
"arcing" between the brushes and the commutator, examine the con- 
nections at Fi and A\ and see that the screws are perfectly tight, 
as these screws sometimes work loose and are responsible for this arc- 
ing which is destructive to the commutator. The loosening of the 
connections at F\ and A x will have no effect on the fuse; but if the 
connection at A 2 loosens, the fuse will burn out. When inspecting the 
operation of the generator, see that the brushes are making good even 
contact with the commutator, and wipe away all particles of dust and 
grit from around the brushes and their holders. With the engine 
stopped, see that the brushes move freely in their holders. This 
should always be done where a car has been laid up for some time 
(before starting the engine) as the brushes, through disuse, will have 
a tendency to stick. 

The fuse in the circuit-breaker has no effect whatever on the 
output of the generator, so that a larger fuse must not be inserted in 
case the generator is not delivering its rated output or more. The 
makers supply a 5-ampere fuse for this purpose, and if a fuse of 


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heavier capacity is employed, it will cause both the circuit-breaker 
and the generator so burn out. This will be the case also where a 
"jumper" is resorted to, i.e., a piece of wire or other metal bridging 
the fuse clips so that the fuse is cut out of the circuit. It must be 
borne in mind, however, that these fuses are more or less fragile and 
are likely to become damaged by careless handling. A fuse whose 
connections have been loosened up is likely to blow out on that 
account, so before inserting a fuse in the clips of the circuit, it should 
be examined to see that the ferrules on each end of the cartridge are 
perfectly tight. Where a good fuse has been inserted and it blows out, 
the cause should be ascertained before inserting another fuse. 

Regulating Brush. In case the generator output falls off as 
shown by its inability to keep the battery properly charged, the 
battery itself and all connections being in good condition, and a 
proper amount of day running being done to provide the necessary 
charging current, the trouble may be in the regulating brush of the 
generator. Test by inserting an ammeter, such as the Weston 
portable or any other good instrument with a scale reading to 30 
amperes, in the line between the generator and the battery. Run 
the engine at a speed corresponding to 20 miles per hour, at which 
rate the ammeter t should record a current of approximately 15 
amperes. If the ammeter needle butts against the controlling pin 
at the left end of the scale instead of showing a reading, it indicates 
that the polarity is wrong, and the connections should be reversed. 
Should there be no current whatever, the needle will stay perfectly 
stationary except as influenced by vibration. If the ammeter shows 
a reading of less than 15 amperes, the current output of the gener- 
ator may be increased by loosening the set screw holding the third 
brush and rotating the brush slightly in the same direction as the 
rotation of the armature. This should be done with the generator 
running and the ammeter in circuit, noting the effect on the reading 
as the brush is moved. To decrease the output, it should be moved 
in the opposite direction until the proper reading is obtained, after 
which the brush must be sanded-in to a good fit on the commutator. 
It may sometimes occur that sufficient movement cannot be given 
the third brush without bringing it into contact with one of the 
main brushes. This must be avoided by loosening the two set 
screws E, Fig. 293, and moving the main brush holder away 


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from the third brush until there is no danger of their touching. 
After securing the desired adjustment, fasten the third brush in 
place again, stop the engine, and then reconnect the generator to the 
battery. Do not cut the ammeter out of the circuit while the gen- 
erator is running. 

To Adjust Third Brush, Before making any adjustment of the 
third brush when it is suspected that any trouble with the current 
supply is due to the generator, the output of the generator should be 
tested. On a car equipped with lamps totaling 250 candle power or 
more (this refers to White busses), the generator should produce 20 
amperes. Run the engine at a speed sufficient to drive the car 15 
o 16 miles per hour on direct drive and note the reading of the dash 
ammeter. In case the car has seen considerable service, it may be 
well to check the dash ammeter with the more accurate portable 
ammeter described in connection with other tests in previous and 
subsequent sections. Where the car lighting system totals 250 c.p. 
or over, and the ammeter reading shows more than four amperes above 
or below 20, the generator should be adjusted to give its rated capacity 
of 20 amperes — as every 15 c.p. less than 250 c.p. used on the car, 
lower the output of the generator by one ampere. By making the 
adjustments in this manner, the storage battery will be amply 

Before making any generator adjustments, test the storage bat- 
tery with the hydrometer. Do not add any distilled water just pre- 
vious to making this test unless the level of electrolyte is right down to 
the plates so that sufficient liquid cannot be drawn into the hydrome- 
ter ; in this case, add water and charge the battery for at least one hour 
before making the hydrometer test. If the specific gravity of the elec- 
trolyte is 1,250 or over, and the generator is found to be delivering less 
than the rated lamp load, no adjustment of the generator should 
be made. 

To increase the output of the generator, rotate the third brush 
in the direction of rotation of the armature; to decrease the output, 
move the brush against the direction of rotation. Adjustments 
should be made with the engine standing. Loosen the screw at the 
rear of the commutator housing shown at the point F, Fig. 293. 
This releases the third brush holder, and the brush may then be moved 
in the direction desired. It should be moved only a short distance, 


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and the generator then should be tested until the desired output is 
secured. In case the third brush should come in contact with the 
main brush above in the course of adjustment, it will be necessary to 
move the main brushes. To do this, loosen the two set screws E t 
Fig. 293, and move the main brush holder far enough away from 
the third brush so that there is no possibility of contact between them. 
When the desired location is found, sand-in the third brush to the com- 
mutator and also clean the commutator with a piece of worn sand- 
paper as described in the section on Sanding-In the Brushes (Delco 
instructions) ; if it has been necessary to move the main brushes, they 
should be sanded-in also. The brush holder screws should be well 
tightened after making any adjustments to prevent any possibility of 
the vibration and jolting loosening them up and throwing the gener- 
ator out of adjustment again. 

Brush Replacements. Never replace any of the brushes on 
either the generator or starting motor with any but those supplied 
by the manufacturer of the system for this purpose. Motors and 
generators adapted for use on electric-lighting circuits are usually 
fitted with plain carbon brushes. These are not suitable for use on 
automobile generators or starting motors owing to their resistance 
being much higher. Due to the low voltage of electric apparatus 
on the automobile, special brushes of carbon combined with soft 
copper are usually employed. Brushes also differ greatly in hard- 
ness, and a harder brush than that for which the commutator is 
designed will be liable to score it badly besides producing a great deal 
of carbon dust, which is dangerous to the windings. This, of course, 
applies to all makes of apparatus and not merely to that under 

Generator or Motor Failure. For failure of the generator or of 
the starting motor, see instructions under Auto-Lite, Delco, and 
Gray & Davis, bearing in mind, however, that the system under 
consideration is of the two-wire type, so that in using the test lamp 
to locate short-circuits a connection to the frame or ground is not 
always necessary. The short-circuit may be between two adjacent 
wires of different circuits. Given properly installed wires and 
cables, there is less likelihood of short-circuits in the wiring of a two- 
wire system. Defective lamps will not infrequently prove to be the 
cause, as, in burning out, a lamp often becomes short-circuited. 


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Twelve- Volt, Sixteen-Volt, or Twenty- Four- Volt; Single-Unit; Single- 
Wire or Two-Wire, According to the Installation 

Dynamotor. The dynamotor is of the four-pole type, with both 
windings connected to the same commutator. It is designed for 
installation either with silent-chain drive — as on the Dodge, Fig. 298, 
in which case the drive is direct either as a generator or as a motor — 
or with a special reducing gear and clutch for driving from the 
pump or magneto shaft of the engine. In the latter type, the start- 
ing switch is mounted on the gear housing, which is integral with 

Fig. 298. North East Dynamotor with Silent-Chain Drive. Starting 

Switch Shown at Right 

Courtesy of North East Electric Company, Rochester, New York 

the bedplate of the dynamotor. In this case the drive as a gener- 
ator is \\ times engine speed, while as a starting motor the 
reduction through the gear is approximately 40 : 1 . 

Regulation. The regulation is by means of a differential wind- 
ing or bucking coil, in connection with an external resistance auto- 
matically cut into the shunt-field circuit by a relay in series with the 
battery cut-out. See "limiting relay", Fig. 299. The "master 
relay" is the battery cut-out, and the condenser is to reduce sparking 
at the contacts of these relays. 

Protective Devices. There is a fuse in the field circuit of the 
generator, but fuses are not employed on the lighting circuits. 

* The voltage of any system may be determined by counting the number of cells in the 
storage battery, and multiplying by 2 in the case of a lead battery, or multiplying by \M where 
an Edison battery is used. 


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resistance, ututino piaster resistance 

relrt. relrt. 

Fig. 299. Diagrammatic Section of North East Dynamotor. Showing Regulator (Limiting 
Relay) and Cut-Out (Master Relay) 


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Wiring Diagrams. A graphic diagram of the North East 







© ^ 

installation on the Dodge is shown in Fig. 300. This is a 6-cell or 
12-volt system single-wire type. The sprocket on the forward end 


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of the machine drives from a similar but much larger sprocket on 
the forward end of the crankshaft of the engine through a silent 
chain. The wiring diagram of the Krit 1915, Fig. 301, will be 

recognized as being the 
same as the Dodge, except 
for the use of two wires 
throughout. Fig. 302 
shows the wiring diagram 
of an 8-cell or 16-volt 
system, but the battery is 
divided for the lighting 
circuits so that 8J — 9-volt 
lamps are used, whereas 
14-volt bulbs are necessary 
on the Dodge installation 
as the entire battery is 
used in series for lighting. 
The wiring of the 12-cell 
or 24-volt system is shown 
in Fig. 303. In this case 
the battery is divided for 
lighting so that 7-volt 
lamps are employed. Such 
a system is usually desig- 
nated as 24 — 6-volt, while 
the previous one would be 
a 16— 8-volt. The North 
East installation for Ford 
cars is 24 — 14-volt. With 
the exception of the Dodge, 
the two-wire system is 
employed on the instal- 
lations mentioned. 

Instructions. The 
indicator shows when the 
battery is charging or dis- 
charging and accordingly 
should indicate OFF when 

TAtl. LAW 

Fig. 302. Wiring Diagram for 16- Volt North East 
System Using S l A — 9- Volt Lamps 


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Fig. 303. Wiring Diagram for 24-Volt North East System Using 7-Volt Lamps 


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the engine is idle and no lamps are lighted. A discharge reading under 
such conditions would indicate the presence of a ground, short-circuit, 
or failure of the battery cut-out to release. Should the generator fail 
to charge the battery, note whether the field fuse has been blown by 
short-circuiting the fuse clips with the pliers or a piece of wire while 
the engine is running at a moderate speed. Look for cause of failure 
before replacing the fuse. If the fuse has not blown, see whether 
battery cut-out is operating; look for loose connections at generator, 
cut-out, and battery. If the battery is properly charged, loose con- 
nections are also most likely to be the cause of failure of the starting 
motor; or, any of the instructions covering brushes, commutator, etc., 
as given previously, may apply. 

Battery Cut-Out and Regulator {Relays). In every case where it is 
necessary to make repairs on starter-generators equipped with the 
earlier type cut-out and regulator (relays), 1283 (12-volt), 1860 
(16-volt), 2501 (24-volt), 1900 (16-volt), and 2503 (12 and 24-volt), 
it is advisable to replace the cut-out entirely, installing a later and 
improved type, 1196 (12-volt), or 1197 (24-volt and 16-volt). In 
order to adapt the starter-generator to the 1196 and 1197 cut-out, or 
relay units, it is necessary to cut out the bosses on the commutator 
end bearing in which the studs holding the original relay were 
screwed. This will provide the clearance required to prevent ground- 
ing of the nuts which secure the units to their baseboard. As a 
further precaution against grounding, it will be necessary to cut away 
that portion of the gasket retainer which would be liable to come 
into contact with the armature of the master relay. 

Fasten down the baseboard which carries the relays by screwing 
the resistance unit studs into the holes which were used for the former 
resistance studs. Before making connections on the relay, draw 
tight all leads which come from inside the starter-generator so as to 
take up whatever slack they have; then tie them together with string 
to prevent their slipping back! No loose wire must be left inside the 
starter-generator, because of its tendency to be drawn in between the 
armature and the pole pieces. The connections on the four-terminal 
type starter-generator are made as follows: 

Looking at the starter-generator from the driving sprocket end, 
the main terminals 1, 2, 4, and 3 of the starter-generator are consid- 
ered as being numbered in anti-clockwise rotation, Fig. 304. Viewing 


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the relay unit as mounted on the starter-generator with the larger, or 
master relay, at the left, the four binding posts a, 6, c, and d are 
designated from left to right in the same illustration. To relay bind- 
ing post a, connect lead (red) coming from starter-generator terminal 
2. To relay binding post b+ 

connect lead (black) coming mZtZZZA ¥ V Q~™> **>>-* 

direct from starter-generator 
terminal 3. To relay binding 
post c, connect lead (green) 
from starter-generator ter- 
minal 4. To relay binding 
post d, connect lead (yellow) 
from starter-generator shunt- 
field coils. It is always advis- 
able to check the identity of the 
leads by inspection and test. 

In order to make a posi- 
tive distinction between the d 
lead and the 6 lead, both of 
which are in electrical connec- 
tion with the starter-generator 
terminal 3, the following test 
should be made: Using the 
test-lamp outfit, send current 
from starter-generator ter- 
minal 3, through each of these 
wires in turn, and note appear- 
ance of the lamp. When the 
direct lead (6 lead) is in circuit, 
the lamp will burn with full 
brilliance, but when the d lead, 
which includes the starter-generator shunt-field coils, is in circuit, the 
lamp will be noticeably dimmer. 

Five- Terminal Type Unit. The connections on the five-terminal 
type generator-starter unit are made as follows: Looking at the 
starter-generator, Fig. 305, from the driving sprocket end, the main 
terminals 1, 5, 2, 4, and 3, respectively, of the unit are numbered in 
anti-clockwise rotation (to the left). Viewing the relay unit as 


i a- 

Fig. 304. 

.+ C - 


Internal Wiring Diagram for North East 
Model "B" Starter-Generator 


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mounted on the starter-generator with the master relay at the left, 
the four binding posts a, 6, c, and d are designated from left to right 
as shown in the illustration. Proceed with the instructions as given 
for the four-terminal type starter-generator as given. The new type 
relays 1196 and 1197 are regularly furnished with local connec- 
tions, as shown in Fig. 304, 

* 6 it n '~^&&2k*i V* 6 *"** but it will be necessary to 

~~ ~~ make the following altera- 

tions when applied to the 
five-terminal type starter- 
generator, so that the relay 
connections will conform to 
the diagram in . Fig. 305. 
Remove the jumper lead that 
connects the frame of the 
master relay to the rear con- 
tact terminal on the limiting 
relay; remove from relay 
binding post a the left-hand 
resistance-unit lead. 
Lengthen this lead by splic- 
ing a piece of the same kind 
of wire to it, and solder it to 
the limiting relay contact ter- 
minal, from which the jumper 
has been removed. To this 
terminal must also be sol- 
dered the lead coming from 
starter-generator terminal 5. 
(In some starter-generators 
this lead includes the field 

The condenser in the early models is mounted between the field 
coils. One condenser lead must either be connected to the relay 
binding post a as shown in either Fig. 304 or Fig. 305 or be spliced 
to the wire leading to it. The other condenser lead must either be 
connected to the relay binding post d or spliced to the shunt-field 
wire leading to it. 

ST/7J?T£JZ- <7£N£R/ITC& 


Fig. 305. Internal Wiring Diagram for Model ' 
and Model "F" Starter-Generators 


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Starting Switch. When its operation indicates that the con- 
tactor blades have worn, the starting switch should be dismounted, 
and, if necessary, new blades should be inserted. To disassemble the 
switch, proceed as follows: (1) Remove the spring 2265, Fig. 306, on 
the switch case 2365; (2) remove the cotter pin from the collar 2416; 
(3) withdraw the shaft and lever 2401, together with the spring 
1818; (4) remove the three screws which hold the cover 2404 in place, 

and remove the cover; 
(5) remove the stop 2457 ; 
and (6) disconnect the 
spring 1813 from the arm 
of the ratchet and re- 
move the contactor mem- 
ber 2344. 

If, upon inspection, 
the contacts are found to 
be in such a condition 
that their renewal is nec- 
essary, make a replace- 
ment of the entire cover 
member 2404 and the 
entire contactor 2344. 
Before placing these new 
parts in the switch, the 
following points should 
receive careful attention : 
the front edges of the contact blocks should be slightly rounded so 
as to eliminate the possibility of these edges catching on each other 
when the switch is being operated. The supports on the cover 
must be adjusted so that they lie parallel with the faces of the 
contact blocks. 

The upper surfaces of the supports must be .010 to .015 inch 
lower than the contact surface of the block. Care should be taken 
that the upper surface of the contact blocks are A inch above the 
inner surface of the cover. A small steel straightedge laid upon 
the face of the contact block and extended over the supports, 
as shown in Fig. 307 (a), will serve as a means of checking these 

fiigfits*** MOT, 

u/jV/A* M/'s ^ ,/>** *»'* 

Top4>bottom vfrw «f sfofi 


Fig. 307. Assembly of Starting Switch 
Courtety of North East Electric Company, Rochester, New York 


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Before placing in service, the contact surfaces must be carefully 
cleaned and lubricated with a very small quantity of vaseline. To 
reassemble the switch: (1) Connect the spring 1813, Fig. 306, to the 
arm of the ratchet; (2) place the contactor member 2344 in 
the switch case in such a position that the ratchet will lie against the 
pawl 1830; and (3) hold the switch case in the left hand, lever side up, 
and insert the right forefinger through the hole in the switch case 
and introduce the pawl into the first notch of the ratchet, Fig. 307 (6) ; 

(4) hold these parts carefully in position and replace the cover 2404, 
Fig. 306, fastening it to the switch case by means of the three screws; 

(5) insert the stop through the hole in the switch case and replace it 
upon the ratchet plate in such a position that the elongated portion 
of the stop will lie between the raised projection which is found on 
the ratchet plate and the end of the short lever on the pawl as shown in 
Fig. 307 (c). It is very important that the stop be placed in the 
switch right side up, Fig. 307 (d) illustrating the proper method of 
doing this. (6) Place the spring on the shaft and replace the shaft in 
the switch, taking care while entering the shaft not to disturb the 
arrangement of any of the switch parts; (7) replace the collar and the 
cotter pin ; arid (8) connect the spring 2265 with the lug on the switch 
case. A drop of light oil should be applied to the bearing point at each 
end of the switch shaft 2401 . 

Switch Tests. To determine whether the switch has been 
assembled correctly, pull the lever through the full length of its stroke 
and allow it to return slowly to its initial position. If the switch 
is properly assembled, three distinct clicks will be heard while the lever 
is being moved through its stroke, and a snap will occur just before 
the lever comes back to its initial position. The switch should be 
tested electrically, as follows: 

Ground Test. Using the lamp-test set as shown in Fig. 263 
and following Part V, hold one contact point on the switch case and 
then connect the other to the two contact studs. The test lamp will 
not light unless there is a ground. 

Operation Test Hold one of the test points in contact with each 
of the two studs, and turn the lever through its stroke. If the switch 
is in proper working condition, the test lamp will light up just after 
the first click of the switch and continue to burn until the final 
snap occurs. 


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Replacing Dodge Chain. When the driving chain on any equip- 
ment operated in this manner has worn to a point where it no longer 
makes proper contact with the sprockets (the chain being adjusted to 
the correct tension), it will be necessary to replace it. While the 
following instructions for "fishing" the chain through the housing 
apply particularly to the Dodge car, with little modifications 
here and there they will be found equally applicable to all similar 

Having removed the old chain, pass a short piece of wire through 
the end of the new chain, Fig. 308. Then start the chain on the 
lower side of the sprocket, as shown in the illustration, hooking the 
wire through the sprocket to keep the chain in mesh, and slowly turn 
the engine over by hand until the chain appears at the top of the 
sprocket. Then remove the wire from the sprocket, hold the end of 
the chain, and continue to turn the engine over until the chain is in 
# \ i a position to apply the 


master link. 

Mechanical and Elec- 
trical Characteristics. 
When it is desired to 
make bench tests of any 
of the North East appa- 
ratus with the aid of the 
outfit described in connec- 
tion with the Gray & 
Davis tests, the data 
shown in Table V will 
be found valuable for 
checking purposes. The 
left-hand columns give 
the mechanical charac- 
teristics, with the aid of 
which the unit may be 
identified, while the right-hand columns give the electrical character- 
istics, such as the charging rate, torque in foot-pounds with given 
current input, cutting-in and cutting-out points of the master relay 
(battery cut-out), air gaps for the limitation relay, and the resistance 
of the units. 

JBter/ cAtrrn est Surer- sJtfe of 
jproc**t, M*oM **/re fArwfA 

ffwtrrrrti* *> Aim ertptrt* t/jr/// tA*r//r 

Fig. 308. — Diagram 8howing Method of Inserting 
Chain in North East Equipment on Dodge Care 


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Six- Volt; Two-Unit; Single-Wire 

Generator. Of the multipolar (four-pole) shunt-wound type 
of generator combined with ignition timer and distributor and 
designed to be driven at 1| times crankshaft speed, several models 
are made, of which one is shown in Fig. 309. In this case, both the 
regulator for the generator and the battery cut-out are mounted 
directly on the generator. On some of the models only the regu- 
lator is so mounted, the cut-out being placed on the dash of the car, 
while on others no 
independent regu- 
lating device is 
required as the 
third-brush type 
of regulation is 
employed (on bi- 
polar generator). 

In accordance 
with the model of 
generator and the 

requirements OI Fig 309 R^y i KI) ition Generator and Distributor 

the engine tO Courtesy of Remy Electric Company, Anderson, Indiana 

which it is to be fitted, either the constant- voltage method of 
regulation using a vibrating regulator mounted on the generator 
or the third-brush method is employed. 

Constant-Voltage Method. The regulator for the generator is 
similar in principle to that described in connection with the Bijur 
system. It consists of an electromagnet; two sets of contact points, 
two of which are mounted on springs; a pivoted armature which may 
move to make or break the circuit; and a resistance unit. When 
running at too slow a speed to produce its maximum output, the 
generator field is supplied with current passing directly through the 
regulator contact points, which are held together by a spring. As 
soon, however, as the speed of the generator increases to a point 
where it tends to cause its output to exceed the predetermined 
maximum, the charging current which is flowing through the coil 
of the electromagnet energizes it so such an extent as to cause it to 


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pull the armature down. This separates the contacts and causes 
the field current to pass through the resistance unit, thus decreasing 
the field current and, in turning, decreasing the generator output, 
which reduces the exciting effect on the electromagnet and causes 
it to release its armature, cutting the resistance out of the field cir- 
cuit. The latter immediately builds up again, and the operation is 
repeated as long as the speed remains excessive for the generator, 
which is thus supplied with a pulsating current to excite its fields, 
and its output is held at a practically constant value. 

Third-Brush Method. The third-brush method of regulation is 
based upon the distortion of the magnetic field of a generator at 
high speeds. When running at low speeds, the magnetic flux of a 
generator is evenly distributed along the faces of its field pole pieces, 
but at high speeds there is a tendency to drag it out of line in the 
direction of the rotation of the armature. It is then said to be 
distorted. The third brush, which supplies the exciting current to 
the field winding, is so located with relation to the main-line brush 
of opposite polarity that this distortion of the magnetic flux reduces 
the current which it supplies to the fields. This decrease in the 
exciting current of the field causes a corresponding decrease in 
the output of the generator, and as the distortion of the magnetic flux 
is proportional to the increase in speed, the generator output falls 
off rapidly the faster it is driven above a certain point, so that it is 
not damaged when the automobile engine is raced. 

Thermostatic Switch. More of the current produced by the 
generator is used for lighting purposes in winter than in summer, in 
the proportion that the demands for house lighting vary with the 
change of the seasons. Added to the decreased efficiency of the stor- 
age battery in cold weather, this tends to place a greatly increased 
load on the generator in the winter months. If the generator, as 
installed, were regulated to produce sufficient current to take care of 
this maximum demand, it would keep the storage battery in a con- 
stant state of overcharge in summer and would be likely to ruin the 
plates through excessive gassing. The Remy engineers have accord- 
ingly developed a method of regulation that will automatically com- 
pensate for the difference in the demand with the changing seasons, 
consisting of a thermostatic switch in connection with the third-brush 
control; it will be found, among others, on the Reo 1917 models. 


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To gain a clear idea of the action of an electric thermostat, the 
heating effect of the current must be kept in mind ; also that different 
metals have different coefficients of expansion, i.e., some will expand 
more than others under the influence of the same degree" of heat. 
Electric thermostats have been 
in use for years as automatic 
fire alarms and as temperature- 
controlling devices in incubators 
and for residence heating, and 
within the past few years* they 
have come into use on the auto- 
mobile to control the circulation 
of the cooling water and the 
suction of the engine in accord- 
ance with variations in the tem- 
perature. The device consists 
of a thermal member, or blade, of 
two different metals riveted together at their ends. This member is 
held fast at one end and at the other it carries a contact point, 
designed to complete the circuit by touching a stationary contact. 
Under the influence of an increase in temperature, one of the metals 

Fig. 310. 

Details of Remy Thermostatic 

Fig. 311. Wiring Diagram of Switch Connections 

expands more than the other and thus springs this member, or blade, 
away from the stationary contact. 

The details of the Remy thermostat are shown in Fig. 310. B is 
the thermo-member carrying the silver contact C, and is supported on 


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a strip of steel A. A also carries the resistance unit E, which is a 
short coil of high-resistance wire wound on heavy mica insulation. 
A and B are riveted together at the end D so as to insulate them from 
each other. The two metals composing B are spring brass and nickel 
steel, the strip of spring brass being placed on the lower side of 
the blade. Sufficient tension is.placed on this strip, by means of the 
adjusting nut F, to keep the points firmly in contact at temperatures 
below 150° F. This adjustment is made by the manufacturer and is 

As shown in the wiring diagram, Fig. 311, which illustrates the 
relation of the thermo-switch to the third-brush method of regulation, 
it will be noticed that the switch is placed near the commutator of the 
generator, as that is the hottest part of the machine when it is in 

j 7i f*tr*r*t/kr ft'*/*/ 

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yf 7o pert+r**tfor /r+fcf 

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Fig. 312. Photographic Reproductions and Diagrams* of Action of Thermostatic Switch 

When Closed andOpened 

Courtesy of Remy Electric Company, Atuierson, Indiana 

operation. It will be noticed also that when the contact points of the 
thermo-switch are open, as shown in the illustration, the current 
supplied to the field by the third brush must pass through the resist- 
ance unit of the switch, thus cutting it down. This is the position 
for warm-weather running, when not so much of the current is required 
for lighting, and when the storage battery is at its best. When the 
temperature of the air about the thermo-switch exceeds 150° F., the 
movable blade is warped upward, owing to the greater coefficient of 
expansion of the brass as compared with that of the nickel steel. The 
contact points will accordingly remain open as long as the temperature 
exceeds this degree. When it falls below that point, the quicker 
contraction of the brass pulls the blade down, and the points again 
make contact, cutting out the resistance and increasing the output 


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of the generator, diagrams of the thermo-switch in its closed and open 
positions being shown at the right, and a halftone of the switch at the 
left in Fig. 312, while the curves, Fig. 313, show the increase in the 
current output brought about by the closing of the thermo-switch 
points. The path taken by the current when the points are open and 
when they are closed is 
indicated by the dotted 
lines in the diagrams, Fig. 
312. The curves show 
that with the thermo- 
switch open, the maxi- 
mum current output of 
the generator is limited 
to 14 to 15 amperes, 
while with the switch 

closed it rises tO 20 tO ^ l *' '**'*• O ut P ut Curves of Reiny Patented Generator 

22 amperes. The switch will normally remain closed after the engine 
has been idle for any length of time; but in summer it will open after 
driving [a [few miles, while in winter it will probably remain closed, 
no matter how much the car is driven. 

Starting Motor. The motor is the 6-volt 4-pole series- wound 
type, illustrated in Fig. 314, mounted either with gear reduction 

Fig. 314. Remy Starting Motor with Outboard Type Bendix Pinion 

and over-running clutch, or with automatically engaging pinion for 
direct engagement with flywheel gear, as described in connection 
with the Auto-Lite. The latter is known as the Bendix gear. The 
control is by independent switch. 

Instruments and Protective Devices. An indicator, or telltale, 
shows when the buttery is charging or discharging, and also serves 


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to indicate any discharge, in all except the starting-motor circuit, 
due to grounds or short-circuits. All lamp circuits are fused, and a 
fuse is inserted in the regulator circuit. 

Remy Single-Unit 

A Mechanical Combination. While termed a single-unit type, 
this is actually two independent units combined, mechanically and not 
electrically, so that it bears no resemblance to the single unit on which 
both field and armature windings are carried on the same pole pieces 
and armature core. The field frame for the two units is a single 

casting, Fig. 315, but the 
magnetic circuits of both 
the generator and the motor 
are entirely independent, and 
each is a separate unit. They 
are combined in this manner 
solely for convenience in 
mounting where space is 
lim ited . The vibrating type 
of voltage regulator is em- 
ployed in connection with 
the generator, while the start- 
ing motor operates through 
a train of reducing gears 
and an over-running clutch. 
Apart from the combination 
of the two units and the 

Fig. 315. Combined Field Frame of Generator method OI Starting drive 

and Motor for Remy Single-Unit System wh j ch ^ ^^ ^ syg _ 

tern is the same in its essentials as where the units are mounted 

Wiring Diagrams. Velie. Fig. 316 shows the installation on 
Velie, Model 22, and the details will be plain with further explanation. 
The "ratchet reversing switch", shown in the diagram, is for 
controlling the ignition current, and it is designed to reverse the 
direction of this current each time the switch is turned on in order to 
prevent the formation of a crater and cone on the ignition interrupter 
contacts, as previously described, thus keeping the points in good work- 


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ing order for a much longer period. The dash and tail lights are 3£- 
volt lamps, wired in series, so that the failure of one puts the other out, 
thus giving an indication at the dash of the failure of the tail light. 

Oakland. The Remy installation on Oakland Model 32 is 
shown in Fig. 317. The chief distinction between this and the pre- 
vious diagram is the employment of a single 10-ampere fuse on the 
lighting circuits instead of independent fuses on each circuit. 
"Breaker box" refers to the ignition-circuit contact-breaker, or 
interrupter, as it is variously termed. The starting motor in this 
case is fitted with the Bendix drive. 

Reo. On the Reo installation, Fig. 318, the starting motor is 
mounted on the transmission housing and drives to a shaft of the 
latter through a worm gear. In this case the starting switch 1 is 
mounted directly on the starting motor, and an ammeter is supplied 
on the charging circuit instead of a telltale, or indicator. 

National. A typical installation of the single unit, or so-called 
double-deck unit, is shown in Fig. 319. This is on the National 
six-cylinder model and is a two-wire system. It is not intercon- 
nected with the ignition system, so there are no ground connections, 
and no fuses are employed. 

Instructions. These instructions cover the systems which 
include the ignition. For instructions applying to the double-wire 
system on cars having an entirely independent ignition system, like 
the National, see instructions under Auto-Lite, Delco, Gray & 
Davis, and others, for failure of generator or motor, short-circuits, 
and the like. 

Battery Discharge. In systems of this type, discharge of the 
battery may be due to failure to open the ignition switch after 
stopping the car. The amount of current consumed is small but 
in time it will run the battery down. The indicator or the ammeter, 
according to which is fitted, will show a discharge. An entire fail- 
ure of the current may indicate: a loose connection at battery ter- 
minals, at battery side of starting switch in connection with a blow T n 
main fuse (Oakland), or a loose battery ground connection; a loose 
connection at motor side of starting switch or at starting motor, 
or a broken wire between the switches. (See previous instructions 
on other makes for testing with lamp set for broken or grounded 


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Failure of Lighting, Ignition, Starting. When the lights and 
ignition fail but the starting motor operates, it indicates a short 
or open circuit between the starting switch and the main fuse (Oak- 
land). This fuse should first be examined and, if blown, a search 
should be made for the ground or short-circuit causing it, before 
putting in a new fuse. The fault will be in the wiring between the 
switch, lights, and ignition distributor. See that all connections, 
including those on fuse block, are tight. When the lights fail but 
the ignition and starting motor operate, the trouble will be found 
either in the circuits between the lighting switch and lamps; in the 
lamps themselves, as a burned-out bulb causes a short-circuit; or 
from loose connections in these circuits. Failure of the ignition, 
with the remainder of the system operating, may be traced to loose 
connections at the ignition switch, coil, or distributor; poor ground- 
ing of the ignition switch on the speedometer support screw; or to 
open or short-circuits between the ignition switch and the distributor. 
Further detail instructions on ignition are given in Ignition, Part II. 

Dim Lights. When all the lights burn dimly, the most prob- 
able cause is the battery, but if a test shows this to be properly 
charged, a ground between the battery and the starting switch or 
between the latter and the generator may be responsible for leakage. 
Other causes are the use of higher candle-power lamps than those 
specified, the use of low efficiency carbon-filament bulbs, or failure 
of the generator to charge properly. 

Examine generator-field fuse and if blown, look for short- 
circuits before replacing, as previously instructed. A simple test of 
the generator may be made by switching on all the lights with the 
engine standing. Start the engine and run at a speed equivalent 
to 15 miles per hour or over. If the lights then brighten percepti- 
bly, the generator is operating properly. This test must be made 
in the garage or preferably at night, as the difference would not be 
sufficiently noticeable in daylight. 

If the generator fuse is intact, examine the regulator relay con- 
tacts. If the points are stuck together, open by releasing the relay 
blade with the finger. Clean and true up points as previously 
instructed and clean out all dust or dirt from relay before replacing 
cover. Particles of dirt lodged between the points will prevent 
the generator from charging properly. 


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The failure, flickering, or dim burning of any single lamp will 
be due to a burned-out bulb, to loose or frayed connections at lamp 
or switch, to a bulb loose in its socket, or to an intermittent ground 
or short-circuit in the wiring of that particular lamp, or to the frame 
of the lamp nor being grounded properly. Where dash and tail 
lamps are in series, examine both bulbs and replace the one that 
has burned out. Test with two dry cells connected in series. 

Ammeter. When the indicator, or ammeter, does not register a 
charge with the engine running with all the lights out, stop the engine 
and switch on the lights. If the instrument gives no discharge 
reading, it is faulty. If it shows a discharge, the trouble is in the 
generator or connections. In case the ammeter registers a discharge 
with all the lights off, ignition, switch open, and engine idle, examine 
relay contacts to see if they remain closed. If not, disconnect the 
battery. This should cause the ammeter hand to return to zero; if 
it does not, the instrument is out of adjustment. With the ammeter, 
or indicator, working properly, and the relay contacts in good con- 
dition, a discharge then indicates a ground or short-circuit. When 
examining the relay for trouble, do not change the adjustment of 
the relay blade. 

Twelve- Volt; Single-Unit; Single-Wire 

Dynamotor. The dynamotor is of the multipolar type having 
six poles, as illustrated in Fig. 320, which shows the field frame, coils, 
and poles. Fig. 322 illustrates the assembled brush rigging, while 
Fig. 321 shows the complete unit with the commutator housing plates 

Regulation. Regulation is by reversed series field, in connection 
with a combination cut-out and regulator. The regulator is of the 
constant-potential type and is combined with the battery cut-out. 
It is connected in circuit with the shunt field of the generator, and the 
vibrating contacts of the regulator cut extra resistance into this circuit 
when the speed exceeds the normal generating rate. There is also 
a differential compound winding of the fields, the two halves of which 
oppose each other at high speeds. 

Instruments. An ammeter is supplied, showing charge and 


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Dynamotor Connections. The dynamotor has two connections, 
one at the bottom of the forward end plate, marked DYX+, and 
the other on top of the field yoke designated as FILED. As the 
system is a single-wire type, the opposite sides of both circuits are 
grounded within the machine itself. The terminals on the cut- 
out are marked BAT+, DYX + , and DYX-, BAT-, and FLD. 

Fig. 320. Field Frame. Poles, and Windings Fig. 321. Brush Rigging for 

for Simms-Huff Dynamotor Simms-Huff Dynamotor 

Fig. 322. Simms-Huff Dynamotor with Commutator Housing 

Plates Removed 
Courtesy of Sitnma Magneto Company, East Orange, New Jersey 

BAT+ connects through a 12-gage wire to the negative side of the 
ammeter and thence to a terminal on the starting switch. This con- 
nects it permanently to +R of the battery through the ammeter. 
This wire supplies the current to the distributing panel, from which 


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current is supplied to the lamps and horn. DYN+ connects through 
a similar wire to the plus terminal of the dynamo, while DYN— and 

Cnoro^no . 

r WB 



Fig. 323. Wiring Diagram for Simms-Huff Starting and Lighting Systems 

BAT— connect with the — L terminal of the storage battery through 
a wire of the same size. 

Change of Voltage. The system is known as 6 — 12-volt type, 
signif ying that the current is generated at 6 volts, but is employed for 


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starting at 12 volts. There are accordingly 6 cells in the storage \ 
battery, and the latter is charged by placing the two halves of it, I 
consisting of two 3-cell units, in parallel. This is indicated in the 

/r/c?//r H£/w L/7/VP 


Fig. 324a. Complete Wiring Diagram for 1916-17 Maxwell Cars (see Fig. 324b) 
Courtesy of Simms Magneto Company, East Orange, New Jersey 

upper diagram, Fig. 323, also in the middle diagram, which shows the 
connections for charging. In the lower diagram of the figure are 
shown the starting connections, the switch being connected to throw 
the 6 cells of the battery in series, so that the unit receives current at 


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12 volts for starting, thus doubling its power. Six-volt lamps are 
employed and are supplied with current from the left-hand section of 
the battery, marked /, as shown in the upper part of the diagram. 

Fig. 324b. Complete Wiring Diagram for 1916-17 Maxwell Cars, Showing Details of Dash 
Panel and Batteries 
Courtesy of Simnu Magneto Company, East Orange, New Jersey 

Starting Switch. This is mounted on the left side of the gear- 
box housing (Maxwell) and is so arranged as to connect the entire 
battery in series for starting, thus giving current at 12 volts for this 
purpose. The same movement of the starting switch also puts the 


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battery in circuit with the ignition system so that, as soon as the 
engine starts and the switch is released, it automatically disconnects 
the battery from the ignition, and the engine then runs on the magneto 
(dual ignition system). 

Wiring Diagram. Fig. 324a and Fig. 3246 show the wiring 
diagram complete of the ignition, starting, and lighting systems as 
installed on the 1916 and 1917 Maxwell cars. The heavy lines indicate 
the starting-system connections, while the light lines are the wires 
leading from the generator to the battery (through the regulator and 
cut-out), and the various connections for the ignition and the lamps. 
They show very plainly, upon tracing them out, the relation of the 
regulator and cut-out to the generator and the battery, as well as the 
method of dividing the six cells of the battery into two units for light- 
ing service, and the coupling of all the cells in series for starting. It 
will be noted also that the storage battery is not utilized for ignition, 
as the starting switch closes the circuit of a dry battery of four cells 
for ignition when starting the engine. As the starting switch auto- 
matically opens this circuit when released, there is no danger of this 
battery being inadvertently left in circuit. 

At the upper left-hand corner of the diagram, complete details of 
the ignition circuit and of the magneto itself are shown. The 
magneto (Simms) is of the true high-tension type, having primary 
and secondary windings on the armature core, as well as a condenser 
incorporated in it. As this sketch shows not only the relation of high- 
tension type of magneto to the plugs but also that of the essential 
parts of the magneto, as well as the relation of the ignition system to 
the starting and lighting systems through the combination starting 
and ignition switch, it will repay close study. The number of wires 
makes it appear as if this were a two-wire system, but upon noting 
the ground connections at the various terminals it will be evident 
that it is not. 

Instructions. The Simms-Huff system as above described is 
standard equipment on the Maxw-ell cars. The combination cut- 
out and regulator is mounted on the rear of the dash panel carrying 
the ammeter and switch. It consists of two distinct devices, the 
cut-out serving the usual purpose of protecting the battery when 
the generator voltage drops, and the regulator limiting the current 
output of the dynamo as the engine speed increases. In connection 


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with it a special regulator switch is provided. This is located on 
the right side of the dash panel and has two positions, HIGH 
and IX)W, the latter inserting additional resistance in the field 
circuit of the dynamo to further limit its output when the car is 
driven steadily at high speed on long runs. This switch is kept in 
the HIGH position for all ordinary driving and only shifted to 
LOW as above mentioned. 

Failure of Cut-Out or of Regulator. Should the ammeter pointer 
go to the limit of its travel on the discharge side, this indicates that 
the cut-out contact points have failed to release on the slowing 
down of the generator. The latter also will continue to run as a 
motor after the engine is stopped. Disconnect the two wires from 
the terminals on the generator and wrap them with friction tape 
to prevent their coming in contact with any metal parts of the car. 
Clean and true up contact points as outlined in previous instruc- 
tions. An unusually high reading on the charge side of the ammeter 
will indicate a failure of the regulator to work. If an inspection 
shows no sign of broken or crossed wires, loose connections, or other 
obvious trouble, the manufacturers recommend that the unit be sent 
to them. In the case of the owner, it is recommended that no 
attempt be made to correct faults in the cut-out or in the regulator, 
but that it be referred to the maker of the device or to the nearest 
service station. 

Generator Tests. To determine whether a short-circuit or a 
ground exists in the brush holder, pull up all the brushes and with the 
aid of the lamp-test set, test by applying one end to the frame and 
the other to the main terminal post. The lamp will light if there is a 
short-circuit or a ground between the brush holder and the frame. 
A similar test may be made for the armature by pulling up all the 
brushes (or heavy paper may be inserted between them and the com- 
mutator) and placing one point on the commutator and the other on 
the shaft. The lighting of the lamp will indicate that the armature is 
grounded. In all tests of this nature where the lamp does not light 
at the first contact, it should not be taken for granted at once that 
there is no fault. Touch various parts of both members on clean 
bright metal. See that the points of the test set are clean, that 
the lamp filament has not been broken, and that the lamp itself has 
not become unscrewed sufficiently to break the circuit between it and 


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the socket. A good rule is always to test the lamp itself first; some- 
times the connecting plug of the set is not properly screwed into the 

While the above test for the armature, if properly carried out, will 
show whether the latter is grounded or not, it will not give any indi- 
cation of an internal short-circuit in the armature itself. To deter- 
mine this, connect the shunt fields and run the unit idle as a motor, 
with the portable ammeter in the circuit, using the 30-ampere shunt. 
While running without any load the motor should not consume more 
than 7 amperes at 6 volts, i.e., using half the battery. Tests for 
grounds in the shunt field may be made with the lamp-test set, but to 
determine whether there is a short-circuit in the field, it is necessary 
to measure the resistance of its windings. If there is neither a short- 
circuit nor a ground in the field, the resistance of the windings should 
calculate approximately 6J ohms on units with serial numbers up to 
27,000, and approximately 4.8 ohms on starters above this serial 

The Simms-Huff is one of the very few, if not the only unit, that 
is belt-driven as a generator. Its normal output is 10 to 15 
amperes; so when the dash ammeter shows any falling off in this 
rate, with the engine running at the proper speed to give the 
maximum charging current, the belt drive of the generator should be 
inspected. If the ammeter reading falls off as the engine speed 
increases, it is a certain indication that the belt is slipping and that 
the generator itself is not being driven fast enough. Adjust the 
tension of the belt and test again. If this does not increase the output 
to normal, inspect the commutator and brushes, brush connections 
and springs, etc. See that the brushes have not worn down too far, 
and if necessary, sand-in. Failing improvement from any of these 
expedients, inspect the regulator. This should not be adjusted to give 
more current until every other possible cause has been eliminated; 
and before making any change in the adjustment of the contacts, see 
if cleaning and truing them up will not remedy the trouble. If 
necessary to adjust, do so very carefully, as increasing the current 
output by this means will also increase the voltage, and if the voltage 
exceeds the normal by any substantial percentage, all the lamps will 
be burned out at once. Trouble in the electrical unit itself will be 
most likely to appear in the brush holder. 


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Whenever it is necessary to remove the front end plate over the 
commutator to inspect the commutator or the brushes, be sure that 
this plate is put back the same way, and not accidentally turned round 
a sixth of a revolution, which would cause the motor to run backward. 
There is a slot in the front end of this plate to permit the brush holder 
to be moved backward or forward so as to give the best brush setting 
as a generator and as a motor. On most of the Simms-Huff units, a 
chisel mark will be found on each side of the fiber insulator under the 
main terminal post, indicating the factory brush setting. Checking 
this brush setting should be one of the further tests undertaken before 
resorting to adjustment of the regulator. To do this, connect the 
portable ammeter in the charging circuit (30-ampere shunt) or, if 
one of these instruments is not available, the dash ammeter may be 
relied upon. 

Run the engine at a speed high enough for the maximum normal 
output; loosen the brush holder and move very slowly backward and 
forward, meanwhile noting the effect on the reading of the ammeter; 
and mark the point at which the best output is obtained. To test 
as a motor, connect the ammeter in circuit with half of the battery 
and run idle. Move brush holder backward or forward to obtain best 
setting point, as shown by the ammeter reading, which, in this case, 
will be the minimum instead of the maximum. The unit should not 
draw more than 7 amperes when tested in this manner. If the best 
points for generating and running as a motor, as shown by these tests, 
are separated by any considerable distance, a compromise must be 
effected by placing the brush holder midway between them. If the 
dash ammeter does not appear to be correct, check it with the portable 
instrument or with another dash ammeter. 

Twelve— Six- Volt; Single-Unit; Two-Wire 

Dynamotor. Both windings are connected to the same com- 
mutator on the dynamotor, which is of the bipolar type. 

Wiring Diagram. As the lamps are run on 6 volts, the 6-cell 
battery is connected as two units of 3 cells each for lighting, and these 
units are connected in series-parallel for charging, as the dynamotor 
produces current at 6 volts. The remaining details of the connections 
will be clear in the wiring diagram, Fig. 325. 


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Six- Volt; Two-Unit 

Control. Switch. The starting switch is mounted on the 
starting motor. This switch automatically breaks the circuit as 
soon as the engine starts. The starting gear slides on spiral splines 
on the armature shaft, so that when the engine gear over-runs it, 
the starting gear is forced out of engagement. This gear is connected 

to a drive rod which also engages a switch rod, so that when the 
gear is forced out of mesh with the flywheel, it carries the switch 
rod with it and automatically opens the circuit. The switch contacts 
cannot stick, and no damage can result from holding down the switch 
pedal after the engine has started. 

Regulation. On the earlier models, a vibrating regulator was 
built in the generator, as illustrated in the section on Constant- 


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Potential Generators, but in later models an external regulator com- 
bined with the battery cut-out is employed. This is a constant 
voltage control of the vibrating type, similar to that described in detail 
in connection with the Bijur system, i.e., an electromagnet operating 
two spring-mounted armatures carrying contacts. 

Instructions. Should a discharge of 3 amperes or more be indi- 
cated on the ammeter when the engine is idle and all lights are off, 
this can be eliminated by slightly increasing the tension of the spring 
at the rear end of the cut-in armature. 

Too great an increase in the tension of this spring will cause the 
cut-in, or charging point, to be raised too high, as indicated by 
the ammeter, which should 
be noted when making the 

The voltage regulator 
as set at the factory is 
adjusted to limit the output 
of the generator to from 7 
to 10 amperes. Should it be 
necessarv to increase this 

for winter running or for c ¥ j<™, s^eZ^Z. 

any other reason, it may Newark ' New Jer ° €y 

be done by increasing the tension of the spring armature. The 
amount of movement of the adjusting screw at the rear end of the 
armature that is necessary will be indicated by the reading of 
the ammeter. The passage of current at the regulating contacts, 
which are in constant vibration while the engine is running above a 
certain speed, tends to roughen them. In time this may affect the 
charging rate and cause the points to stick together, which will be 
indicated by the ammeter showing a permanent increase in the charg- 
ing rate. If the latter becomes excessive, the cover of the regulator 
should be removed, and a thin dental file passed between the contacts 
on the stationary screw R, Fig. 326, and the movable contact on the 
regulating armature until both become smooth. In case it is neces- 
sary to remove the contact screw R for the purpose of smoothing its 
point, be sure to replace it at the same position, taking care that the 
ammeter reading does not exceed 7 to 10 amperes and that the lock- 
nut A r is fastened securely. Under ordinary conditions, these con- 


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tacts should not require attention on an average oftener than once 
a year, but it would be well to examine them occasionally. 

Fig. 327. Wiring Diagram of Splitdorf Lighting Generator and VR Regulator 

By referring to Fig. 327, which is a diagram of the wiring of the 
generator and battery, the relation of these essentials to the regulator 
and cut-out are made clear. The field fuse shown on this diagram is 


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also indicated at F in Fig. 326. This fuse is a small piece of soft-alloy 
wire mounted between the post F and the contact-breaker. By 
referring to the wiring diagram, it will be noted that this fuse is in the 
shunt-field circuit, so that if it has been blown, the machine will not 
generate. It is designed to blow only at high speed with the battery 
off the line and the vibrator contact R stuck. In actual practice, 
the regulator cut-out is mounted directly on the generator itself. 
The colors mentioned alongside the different wires are for purposes of 
identification so that there will be no mistakes in making the 
various connections. 

Starting Motor. The starting motor is of the series-wound type 
and is similar in design to the generator. It is supplied with a Bendix 
drive as shown in Fig. 328. 

The starting motor has been designed so that when the oper- 
ator pushes a foot pedal or pulls a lever, a gear is carried into mesh 

Fi«. 328. Splitdorf 8U Starting Motor 
Courtesy of Splitdorf Electric Company, Newark, New Jersey 

with a ring gear on the flywheel, and when the engagement is made, 
current is supplied to the motor. The gear is movably carried on the 
armature shaft by spiral splines. These splines tend to hold the gear 
in mesh while the engine is being cranked. As soon as the engine 
picks up, it turns faster than the motor pinion which is operated with 
the flywheel, and on account of the spiral splines the pinion is forced 
out of mesh with the gear on the flywheel. The gear, while being 
"drivingly" mounted on the armature shaft, is also mechanically 
connected to a connecting rod, which, as will be noted from the 
illustration, protrudes from the commutator end of the motor. 

The feature of this construction is, that no matter how long the 
operator may hold his foot on the starting pedal, the current is broken 
when the engine starts, as in the manner previously described. The 


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amount of current actually required for turning over the engine is 
thus controlled by the engine itself, and on account of the positive 
connection between one element of the switch and the starting 
gear, all possibility of the jaws of the starting switch sticking is 

Instructions. Apart from the special adjustments of the starting 
switch, as mentioned in the description of its operation, the instruc- 
tions for maintenance are the same as those for other systems. In 
case this switch does not operate properly, the sequence of operations 
as mentioned should be checked up, and the distances given verified. 
In case these distances have become greater through wear, they 
should be adjusted. To replace the brushes, remove the cover strap 
over the commutator end of the unit, either generator or motor, 
put the two screws holding the rocker disc in place, disconnect the 
brush leads, and withdraw the brushes from the holders. It is 
important that the brushes slide freely in the holders and that the 
brush-lead terminals are clean and bright before replacing the 
terminal screws. See that the springs rest fairly on the ends of the 
brushes and that their tension has not weakened. Follow instructions 
given in connection with other systems for care of the commutator. 

Failure of Engine to Start. When the starting motor cranks the 
engine after the starting pedal is depressed but fails to start the engine 
after a reasonable time, release the starting pedal and ascertain the 
cause, which may be due to the following: Ignition off, lack of fuel, 
fuel supply choked, cylinders needing priming due to weather con- 
ditions, or cylinders flooded from too much priming. 

Should the starting motor fail to crank the engine when the 
starting pedal is fully depressed, there is a possibility that the battery 
is run down (which condition will be indicated by an excessive dim- 
ming of the lights), that there is a loose connection in the starting 
circuit, or that the starting switch is not making proper contact. 
The various tests previously given will probably take care of all 
these conditions. 

Oiling of Starting Motor. The starting motor should be oiled 
once every 500 miles with any medium high-grade oil by applying oil 
to the cups, switch rods, guide rods, and pawl; also on the compensat- 
ing device. Starting motors equipped with the Bendix drive are 
fitted with oil cups at each end of the unit. 


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Twenty-Four— Twelve- Volt, and Twelve— Six- Volt; 
Single-Unit; Two-Wire 

Variations. The 24 — 12-volt signifies that the starting voltage 
is 24 and the generating voltage 12, the battery of twelve cells being 
divided into two groups of six each in series-parallel for charging, 
while 12 — 6 signifies that the starting voltage is 12 and the generat- 
ing voltage 6, the 6-cell battery being divided in the same manner. 

The foregoing systems will be found on cars prior to, and includ- 
ing, 1915 models. For 1916 and 1917 models, a 12 — 12-volt system 
of the same single-unit two-wire type is standard. In this system the 
complete battery is used for the lighting as well as the starting, so 
that charging, lighting, and starting are all at the same voltage, using 
the complete battery of 6 cells for both of the former. 

Generator-Starting Motor. The machine is multipolar (either 
six or eight poles) and is designed to take the place of the flywheel of 

Fig. 329. Details of U.S.L. Flywheel Type Dynamotor with Outside Armature 
Courtesy of U. S. Light and Heat Corporation, Niagara Falls, New York 

the engine. All but the 12 — G-volt equipments are made with an 
outside armature, Fig. 329, i.e., the armature revolving outside of the 
field poles which it encloses; and the 12 — 6- volt with an inside arma- 
ture, Fig. 330. As the armature is mounted directly on the end of the 
crankshaft, the drive is direct at engine speed whether charging or 


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One of the advantages of this type of machine, owing to its large 
size, is its ability to generate an amount of current far in excess of any 
ordinary requirement. This permits the employment in the inher- 

ing. 330. U.S.L. Inside Armature Type Dynamotor 
(External Regulator) 

ently regulated type of only three brushes, Fig. 331, when the unit is 
running as a generator, while all the brushes are employed when it 
operates as a starting motor. In the types equipped with an external 

regulator, all the brushes are employed 
for generating as well as for starting. 
Regulation. The 24— 12-voltunit 
in the U.S.L. system is made with two 
types of regulation, one type using an 
external regulator, which is usually 
mounted on the dash, and the other 
of the inherent type. The 12 — 6-volt 
type has an external regulator. These 
two types may be distinguished 
by the presence of the regulator 
in the charging circuit, which, how- 
ever, must not be confused with the 
automatic switch, or battery cut- 
out, which is only employed on the inherently regulated type. The 
details of the regulator are shown in Fig. 332, and it will be noted that 
the regulator also incorporates the battery cut-out as well as an indi- 
cating pointer which shows whether the regulator is working properly 
or not. In operation, the regulator cuts into the generator field 

3 Generating Brushes 

Fig. 331. Location of Generating 
Brushes in U.S.L. Dynamotor 

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circuit a variable resistance consisting of an adjustable carbon pile. 
The connections of the regulator are shown in the [wiring diagrams. 
The regulation of the U.S.L. inherent type is accomplished by 
the combination of a Gramme ring armature, a special arrangement 
of connections and of the field windings, and the use of only a part of 
the armature and fields for generating. This method is, of course, 
special on this make and could not be used on other types of construc- 
tion. The regulation obtained is based on armature reaction and is 
similar to that resulting from the third-brush method, but the machine 

Lower Adjusting Plug 

Fig. 332. External Regulator of the U.S.L. System 
Courtesy of U. 8. Light and Heat Corporation, Niagara Fall*, New York 

reaches its maximum output at a lower speed than would be possible 
with the third-brush method and without the employment of a 
special brush for the purpose. 

Instruments and Protective Devices. In addition to the indi- 
cator, which is combined with the external regulator in the U.S.L. type, 
an ammeter is also employed to show the rate of charge and discharge. 

Two fuses, mounted in clips on the base which holds the bat- 
tery cut-out, or automatic switch, protect all the circuits. The 
smaller of these is a 6-ampere fuse and is in the field circuit of 
the generator, while the larger is a 30-ampere switch and is in the 
generator charging circuit. This applies only to those inherently 
regulated equipments fitted with a special type of automatic switch. 


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Wiring Diagrams. Figs. 333, 334, and 335 show the standard 
wiring diagrams of the three types mentioned, being, respectively, 
the 24 — 12- volt externally regulated type, the 12 — 6- volt external 
regulator and internal-armature type, and the 24 — 12-volt inher- 
ently regulated type. In the diagram proper of each of the 24 — 
12-volt types is indicated the layout for using 7-volt lamps, while the 
extra diagram at the side shows the method of connecting for 14- volt 
lamps. The "touring switch' ' shown on the first two diagrams 
is a hand-operated switch in the charging circuit and is designed to 
prevent overcharging of the battery when on long day runs. The 
inherently regulated type requires very little field current, and on 
most of these the touring switch is of the miniature push-button type, 
like a lighting switch. 

Instructions. Touring Switch. On the types equipped with 
the touring switch, this enables the driver to control the charge. 
Pulling out the button closes the switch and permits the generator 
to charge the battery when the engine reaches the proper speed; 
pushing it in opens the circuit. This switch must always be closed 
before starting the engine, and it must be kept closed whenever 
the lights are on and also under average city driving conditions 
where stops are frequent and but little driving is done at speed. 
When touring, the switch should be closed for an hour or two and 
then allowed to remain open during the remainder of the day, as 
this is sufficient to keep the battery charged, and there is no need 
for further charging until the lamps are lighted. The best indication 
of the necessity for opening the touring switch is the state of charge 
as shown by the hydrometer. The driver should not start on a long 
day's run with the battery almost fully charged, without first opening 
the touring switch, as the unnecessary charging will overheat the 
battery. This switch should be inspected at least once a season. 
Push in the button to open the circuits, remove the screw at the back 
and take off the cover. The switch fingers should be bright and 
make good contact with the contact block; if they do not do so, 
remove and clean them, as well as the contact pieces on the block. 
Do not allow tools or other metal to come in contact with the 
switch parts during the operation, for even though the switch is 
open, a short-circuit may result; then one of the fuses will blow. 
In replacing the fingers, bend sufficiently to make good firm contact. 


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14*111 UMPS 
Fig. 333. Wiring Diagram for 24— 12- Volt Regulator Type, U.S.L. System 


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' vuu LAMPS 
Fig. S&^TTiring Diagram for 12— 0- Volt External Regulator Type, U.8.L. System 


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1 4- Volt Lamps 7- Volt Lamps 

Pig. 335. Wiring Diagram for 24 — 12-Volt Inherently Regulated Type, U.S.L. System 


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Starting Switch. The starting switch is filled with oil, and this 
should be renewed once a year. To do this, the switch must be 
disconnected, and the screws A, Fig. 336, removed; in case the box 
sticks, insert a screwdriver point between the top of the box and the 
bottom of the frame and pry loose. To guard against the switch 
dropping when these screws are removed, hold the hand beneath it 
while taking them out. Before attempting to remove the switch, 
disconnect the positive battery connections Bl+ and B2+ at the 
batter}' as shown in Fig. 335. These are the two main terminals in 
the center. It is unnecessary to tape them, as a short-circuit cannot 
occur. Pour out the old oil, clean out thoroughly with gasoline, 
allow to dry, and refill with transformer oil or light motor oil to the 
proper level with the switch box standing plumb. The proper height 
on the Type E-2 or E-3 box is If inches, on E-4 box 2f inches. Before 

putting in the new oil, however, the 
drum and finger contacts should be 
examined, and, if pitted or dirty, 
should be cleaned with a fine file. 
Make sure that all fingers bear 
firmly against the drum so as to 
Fi«. 336. u.s.L. oil-Fiiied starting make good contact; if they do not, 

Switch ° ' i. , , 

remove and bend them slightly to 
insure this. If the starting switch is abused in operation, or if improper 
oil containing water or other impurities be used, the contacts will 
burn and fail to make good electrical connection. The switch box 
is the only place in the system requiring oil. 

Brush Pressures. There is only one adjustment on the gener- 
ator, viz, the tension of the brush fingers. The brushes should fit 
freely in their holders so as to transmit the full pressure of the 
spring against the commutator. The adjustment as made at the 
factory should not need correction under one or two years of 
service. Pressures required on the various machines are as fol- 
lows: for Type E-12 external regulator, If pounds on each brush; 
If pounds on brushes of all other external-regulator machines; If 
pounds on each of the three lowest brushes on the inherently regulated 
type, these being the only brushes used in generating the charging 
current; 1 \ pounds on each of the remaining brushes of the inherently 
regulated generator. Keep commutator cl^an, as the chief cause of 

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Angular Brush 

failure of the inherently regulated type is an excess of oil or dirt or 
both accumulating on it. 

Radial and Angular Brushes. The brushes employed are of two 
types — radial and angular. Radial brushes are used on external- 
regulator type generators other than those having "Type E-49" on 
the name plate; angular brushes are used on Type E-49 and all inher- 
ently regulated generators. Each radial brush should bear squarely 
against that side of its holder toward which the commutator rotates. 
Each angular brush should 
bear squarely against that 
side of its pocket away from 
which the commutator 
rotates. To sand-in old 
brushes or fit new brushes 
properly, insert a strip of 
No. 00 sandpaper (never use 
emery, paper, or cloth), be- 
tween the commutator and 
the brush, press down on 
top of brush and draw sand- 
paper under it, Fig. 337. If 
the brush is radial, draw the 
sandpaper in the direction 
of commutator rotation; if 
angular, draw the sandpaper 
in the direction opposite to 
that of commutator rota- 
tion. No oil is needed on 
the commutator as the 
brushes themselves contain 
all the lubricant necessary. 

Fine sandpaper, as mentioned above, may be used for cleaning the 
commutator when necessary, the engine being allowed to turn over 
slowly during the operation. 

External Regulator. Should the automatic-switch (cut-out) 
member of the regulator remain closed with the engine stopped, 
start the engine at once, and the switch lever should open. If it 
does not, remove the regulator cover (with the engine running) and 

Radial Brush 

Fiff. 337. Methods of Sanding- In Brushes on 

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pull the lever. open by hand. When the switch lever is correctly 
set, a slight discharge will be noted on the ammeter the moment 
the switch lever opens. This discharge reading should not exceed 
4 amperes; if in excess of this, increase the tension of the switch- 
lever spring by releasing the lock nut on the left side of the plate 
and turning up on the nut at the right until the proper adjustment is 
secured, then retighten the lock nut. The indicating pointer is moved 
by the switch lever in closing, and when it appears in its upper position 
through the sight glass on the cover, the battery is charging; when 
the switch lever opens, the pointer drops against its stop by gravity. 

When the battery shows a lack of capacity, the battery itself 
and all connections and fuses being in good condition, note the 
amount of charging current indicated by the ammeter. If the 
maximum current (external-regulator type) shown by the ammeter 
does not exceed 10 to 12 amperes at full engine speed after the 
engine has been running for fifteen minutes, see that the brushes 
and commutator are in good condition — wipe off the commutator 
with a dry cloth, and, if necessary, sand-in the brushes to a good seat. 
If this does not- increase the generator output as shown by the 
ammeter, test the latter as already noted, i.e., see whether the pointer 
is binding and, if not, check with the portable testing instrument 
or another ammeter of the dash type. Should none of these reme- 
dies correct the fault, screiv in the lower adjusting plug of the 
carbon-pile lever slowly, noting the effect on the ammeter reading 
as the adjustment is made. 

With the external regulator, the charging current should not 
exceed 18 amperes at the highest engine speed. If, at any time, 
the ammeter shows a higher reading than this, screw ovi the lower 
adjusting plug of the carbon-pile lever slowly to decrease the cur- 
rent, stopping when the indication does not go above 18 amperes 
at full speed. 

After making this adjustment of the lower plug, make sure that 
the carbon-pile lever air gap does not exceed f inch, and is not less than 
•fc inch when the engine is stopped. If the gap is too small the 
switch lever will vibrate rapidly at high engine speeds. When 
necessary to adjust this gap, screw the upper adjusting plug in or 
out, but, after doing so, the current output must be checked and 
adjusted by means of the lower adjusting plug. Always tighten 


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the adjustment clamping screws after setting either of the adjusting 

Testing Carbon Pile. If the automatic-switch unit of the gener- 
ator does not cut in with the engine running at speed equivalent to 10 
to 14 miles per hour, test the carbon pile by short-circuiting the 
terminals F+ and A + of the generator with the blade of a screw- 
driver. Speed up the engine slowly and note whether the generator 
cuts in much sooner than when the terminals are not short-circuited. 
Do not run the engine at high speed, nor for any length of time with 
the terminals short-circuited, as an excessive amount of current 
would be generated. If the generator does cut in much earlier 
with the terminals short-circuited than without this, the carbon pile 
needs cleaning. Should the generator not cut in earlier or should 
it fail to operate altogether, when the carbon pile is short-circuited 
the trouble is probably in the brushes of the generator or in the 
touring switch. 

To clean the carbon pile, proceed as follows : Unscrew the plug 
at the upper end of the glass rod and remove the rod ; if any of the discs 
are pitted or burned, rub them together or against a smooth board to 
make them smooth and flat. Remove the end carbons and clean the 
brass plates with fine sandpaper, if necessary. In replacing end car- 
bons, make sure that they fit firmly against the brass end plates and 
that the screw heads do not project beyond the faces of the carbon 
discs. After reassembling the carbon pile, the regulator will need 
adjustment for current output, as previously noted. 

If for any reason it becomes necessary to disconnect the bat- 
tery, either open the touring switch and block it open so that it 
cannot be closed accidentally if the car is to be run, or disconnect and 
tape the right-hand regulator terminal A +. Otherwise, the machine 
will be damaged by operating. 

Battery Cut-Out. Should either of the fuses mounted on the 
automatic switch of the inherently regulated type blow, immedi- 
ately open the touring switch. A loose connection or a short-circuit 
is probably the cause, and the touring switch should not be closed 
again until the cause has been located. 

Ammeter. The ammeter should be checked at least once a year 
by comparing it with a standard instrument, such as the portable out- 
fit mentioned previously, or any other suitable low-reading ammeter 


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of known accuracy. To do this, disconnect the positive wire from 
the ammeter on the dash and connect it to the positive terminal of 
the standard ammeter used for testing; then connect a wire between 






the negative terminal of the standard ammeter and the positive 
terminal of the dash ammeter. With the engine running at various 
speeds, take simultaneous readings of both instruments; any differ- 


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ence between the two should be taken into consideration thereafter 
when reading the dash ammeter. Unless a test of this kind is carried 
out, the battery may be receiving either an insufficient or an excessive 
charge while the ammeter indicates the proper amount. 

U.S.L. 12-Volt System. The U.S.L. 12- volt system generates 
and starts at 12 volts and is 
standard on the 1916 and 
1917 models of the Mercer, 
Fig. 338. It differs from the 
other systems in having a 
magnetically operated start- 
ing switch and a centralized 
control unit, which incor- F * 339 USL Typc ^ 8tartin * 8witch 
porates all the controlling devices of the entire system, the cut-out, 
the ammeter, fuse blocks for generator and lighting circuits, starting 
switch, touring switch, head, side, and tail-light switches, all of 
which are operated by push buttons. All of these switch buttons, 
as well as the fuses, are locked in place, while the buttons may be 
locked in any desired combination of positions. 

Starting Switch. This is of the magnetically operated type and 
is mounted on the top of the field-mounting frame. It operates by 
means of a solenoid and 
plunger, as illustrated in Fig. 
339. Control is by means of 
a spring push button on the 
control unit marked" start", 
Fig. 340. When this button 
is pushed in, it energizes the 
solenoid of the starting 
switch, which causes the 
plunger to close the con- 
tacts. Releasing the button Fig. 340. U.S.L. Control Panel as Mounted on 
,1 .1 • . 1 1 Dash of Mercer Cars 

on the control unit breaks 

the circuit, and the switch itself is then opened automatically by a 
self-contained spring. With this method of control, the current is 
only on as long as the starting button is held in. 

Fuse Blocks. There are two of these, the smaller, illustrated in 
Fig. 341, being the generator fuse block. This contains only two 


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fuses, a large one 9 of 30-ampere capacity in the generator-battery 
charging circuit, and a smaller one 8 of 5-*impere capacity in the 
generator shunt-field circuit. Should either fuse blow, immediately 
push in the touring-switch button, as a short-circuit or an open or a 
loose connection is probably the cause. After 
locating the trouble, remove the generator fuse 
block from the instrument board. To do this, 
unlock the knob, press it inward, and turn } 
revolution to the right or to the left. Replace 
with spare fuses carried in the light fuse block, 
return the generator fuse block to its original 
position, and lock. 

The light fuse block, which is shown in 
Fig. 342, carries a total of seven fuses, of which 
four are in active use, while the remaining three 
are spare fuses for use in replacing blown fuses. On the right-side 
view of this fuse block there appear two large fuses 6 and 7. Fuse 7 
is a protecting link in the ground-return wire of the lighting and horn 
circuits. The small fuse 5 is of 10-ampere capacity and, together with 


Fig. 341. U.8.L. Gener- 
ator Fuse Block 


Fig. 342. 

U.S.L. I^ft-Hand Side and Right-Hand 
Side Light Fuse Blocks 

fuse 6 of 30-ampere capacity, is a spare fuse for emergency use. On 
the left side of the block are three active fuses 1 , 3, and 4 of 10-ampere 
capacity; and one spare fuse £*of 5-ampere capacity. Fuse / is in the 
horn circuit, fuse 3 in the headlight circuit, and fuse 4 is common to the 
tail-, dash-, and side-light circuits. Should any of the fuses on this 
block blow, the trouble is probably a short-circuit on the frame of the 
car which should be remedied before the fuse is replaced. Instructions 


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for the use of the touring switch in this system are the same as 
previously given. 

U.S. Nelson System. This type has been specially designed for 
the Nelson car, which first appeared in 1917, and it differs radically 
from those already described in that it is carried on the forward end 
of the engine crankshaft instead of at the rear. The brushes bear on 
the inside face of the commutator and may be reached through three 
openings in the armature support. To clean the commutator in this 
type, it is necessary to turn the armature so that three of the six 
brushes appear opposite these openings. Fold a small piece of sand- 
paper into a square over one of the brushes and allow the engine to 
turn over for a few minutes. Stop the engine and remove the sand- 
paper through one of the openings. The engine carries a flywheel at 
the rear, as usual, and this provision of flywheel weight at both ends 
of the crankshaft is said to minimize vibration almost to the vanishing 
point while making possible extremely high speeds. 

Twelve- Volt; Single-Unit; Two-Wire (Early Model) 

Dynamotor. The bipolar-type dynamotor has both the series 
and the shunt-windings, i.e., of generator and motor, connected 
to the same commutator. It is driven direct as a generator, and 
through a special planetary gear when operating as a starting motor. 

Regulation. The regulation is of the inherent type, utilizing 
the generator winding to weaken the field with increase in speed, 
i.e., a bucking coil. 

Wiring Diagram. Single-Unit Type. The left side of the 
lower half of the diagram, Fig. 343, illustrates the connections when 
the unit is being used as a starter, as indicated by the arrow showing 
the direction of rotation of the armature. Those at the right are the 
running connections, the armature then rotating in the reverse 
direction and generating current to charge the battery. 

Control; Transmission. Switch. This is a special type of 
drum switch mounted directly on the dynamotor on the same base 
with the battery cut-out. As shown in Fig. 344, when the lever Q 
is thrown to the left for starting, it also serves to tighten the brake 
band on the planetary gear. When moved in the opposite direction, 
it releases this brake, and another set of contacts on the drum of 


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the switch connect the generator for charging. Fig. 345 shows the 
details of this switch: A, B, and C are the contacts on the starting 
side, while H, G, and F are the running-position contacts, as shown 
in Fig. 343. The segments E and L on the drum contact with 

MEAD LlflHT MP* A ft I Ifitf T 

Fig. 343. Wiring Diagram for Wagner Twelve-Volt Single-Unit Two-Wire 
System (Early Model) 

the fingers mentioned when the drum is revolved part way in either 
direction by the lever, shown at the right, which engages the shaft M. 
Battery Cut-Out. This is of conventional design. For description 
and explanation of operation, see previous systems in which a battery 
cut-out, or automatic switch, is employed. Methods of locating 
trouble are given in connection with instructions farther along. 


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Fig. 344. Wagner Control Switch of Drum Type. A— Starter Frame; B— Switch Support; C— 
Outside End Plate Gear Box; D— Return Spring: F— Oil Hole Screw; G— Self-Closing Oiler; 
H — Oil Plug; J— Connecting Rod; K— Brake Band; M— Battery Leads; N— End Plate Screws; 
O — Back End Plate Shield; Q— Starting Switch Lever; R— Brake Band Lever; S— Front End 
Plate Shield 

Courtesy of Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, St. Louie, Mieeouri 

Fig. 345. Exploded View of Drum Switch. A, B, F, G, H, and K— Contact Screws to Contact; 
C — Auxiliary Contact Finger; E— Drum Contact; J — Screw Holding C; L — Auxiliary Drum 
Contact; M—8haft 


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Planetary Gear. The external form of the different gear boxes 
used on the early-model single-unit Wagner starter is the same, but 

Fig. 346. Exploded View of Planetary Gear Transmission. A — Planetary Pinion; B — Rolling 
Pawl; C— Center Pinion; D— Planetary Hub; E— Pawl Seat; F— Pawl Plunger; G— Internal 
Gear; H— Inside End Plate; J— Outside End Plate; K— Oil Plug; M— Sheet-Steel Disc 

Fig. 347. Assembled Planetary Gear. Letters same as Fig. 346 

their internal construction differs somewhat. The details of the 
two types employed are shown in Figs. 346 and 347. The prin- 
ciple employed is that of the planetary gear as used to obtain first, 


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or low, and high speeds on early-model light cars. The unit consists 
of a central, or sun, gear C, Fig. 347, and three planet pinions A 
meshing with the central gear and also with the internal gear ring G. 
For starting, the tightening of the brake band on the outer groove 
of the internal gear holds it fast, so that the drive is through the 
central gear and the reducing pinions in engagement with it and 
the gear ring, while, for running, the rollers B in the clutch D lock 
the gears together so that when generating the gear revolves idly 
as a unit. 

Instructions. The instructions previously given in connection 
with other systems apply here. For failure to generate, lack of 
capacity, grounds, or short-circuits in windings, and for keeping the 

Fig. 348. Jig for Holding Armature and Tooling Commutator 

commutator and brushes in condition, see instructions already 
given, as well as Summary of Instructions at the end of Part VIII. 
Method of Tooling Commutator. A different method of under- 
cutting the mica of the commutator is recommended from that 
already described in connection with the Delco system. This is 
illustrated in Fig. 348. The armature is removed from the generator 
and mounted in a simple jig, as shown. The jig is made of 1-inch oak, 
while ordinary machine screws held in place by lock nuts are utilized 
as the centers. The bar, or guide, on which the cutter operates, can 
be made of i-inch rolled-steel rod, while the cutter itself should be 
made of J-inch drill rod. The point of this cutter is ground sharp, like 
the parting tool used on a lathe or planer, to the thickness of the mica 
between the commutator bars. The cutter is moved backward and 


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{-Heavy Tit 

Tin folded oroond Toot 


Fig. 349. 

Sect ton 

Diagram of Simple Hand Device for Tooling 

forward on its guide in the same manner as a planer or shaper tool, 
and the armature is rotated one segment at a time to bring the mica 
sections under the tool successively. Where there is not sufficient 
work of this nature to make it worth while to build the jig, a simple 
L f i n hand tool may be used, 

Fig. 349. This can be 
made of a discarded 
hacksaw blade or a new- 
one, about 8 inches long. 
One of the ends is 
ground similarly to the cutter described for the jig,, while the other 
should be shaped like a hook, having the same kind of point as the 
cutter end. Around the center of this tool should be folded a piece of 
heavy tin (sheet iron) and the whole wrapped with electric tape. This 
will prevent the brittle saw blade from breaking and make it much 
easier to handle. The mica is removed by forcing the sharp end of 
the tool from the outer edge of the commutator surface to the inner 
edge, and the rough cut thus made is finished by drawing the hooked 
end of the tool back through the groove in the opposite direction. 
To do the job properly, the armature should be held in a vise, other- 
wise it is liable to move, or the tool is liable to slip, and the copper 
be cut away with very poor results. Fig. 350 shows the commutator 

before and after under- 
before cutt i n g t he mica. 

A needle-pointed 
tool should never be used, 
as it will simply, make a 
V-shaped cut in the mica, 
removing too much in 
depth and not enough in 
width. The mica must 
be cut out clean and 
square, and a small mag- 
nifying glass should be 
used to see that all of the 
pieces adjacent to the bars have been removed. After removing the 
mica, the armature should be placed in a lathe, and a light cut taken 
from the commutators, i.e., just enough to remove all roughness 

Fig. 350. 


Diagram Showing Commutator Sections before 
and after Tooling 


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and flat spots. The cutting tool employed should be very sharp, so 
that the soft copper will not be dragged from one segment to another. 
After turning, fine sandpaper should be used to smooth the commu- 
tator. Whether the brushes are replaced with new ones or the old ones 
are retained, they must be sanded-in to the commutator (see Delco 
instructions). The springs also should be tested for tension; they 
must never be allowed to become loose enough to permit the brushes 
to chatter when the generator is running, as this would interfere 
seriously with its output. 

Lack of Capacity through Faulty Gear Box. Should the battery 
not charge properly, note whether in starting the lights brighten 

Fig. 3M. Method of Pulling Wagner Gear Box with a "Come Along" 
Courtesy of Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, St. Isouis, Missouri 

perceptibly with the car running below 5 miles per hour, while at 
high speed they remain dim. This indicates that the brake band of the 
gear box does not release, owing either to improper adjustment of 
the tightening screw or to something getting between the band and 
drum. To remedy, the band adjusting screw should be turned until 
the band feels free when the starting lever is in the running position. 
If something has caught between the band and the drum, its removal 
usually will be the only remedy necessary. 

Should the battery show signs of exhaustion, and if there is no 
noticeable increase in the brightness of the lamps when the car 
reaches a speed of 10 miles per hour or its equivalent, the trouble 


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probably is in the gear box. Remove the front end plate and note if 
the commutator is rotating. If not, and the reason therefor is not 
apparent on an inspection of the gears, it may be necessary to remove 
the gear box. A "come along", such as is employed for taking off 
Ford wheels, is necessary for this, Fig. 351. It may be found that 
some of the parts need replacement, or that an entirely new gear 

box is necessary. 

Failure Due to 
Battery Cut-Out. If 
the failure to charge 
the battery be not 
due to the gear box, 
remove the cover of 
the cut-out and see 
if it is operating 
properly. When the 
engine is running at 
a speed equivalent 
to 15 miles per 
hour, the contact 
should spring away 
from the adjusting 
screw. If it does 
not, connect a volt- 
meter across the 
terminals B and H 
of the switch, Fig. 
352. Should the 
voltmeter needle 
not move, examine 
the contact fingers connected to the studs C and F and see that they 
make firm contact with the drum of the switch. Place the end of a 
pencil on the contact finger D and bear down lightly; if the main 
contact maker then springs away from the adjusting screw, the cause 
of the trouble is an open circuit at this contact. Bend D so that 
it bears down on the drum segments; should the contacts not close 
on making this test, the trouble will be an open connection, either in 
the generator itself or between the generator and the cut-out (switch). 

Fig. 352. Details of Wagner Starting Switch. A and B — Large 
Contact Finger; C — Auxiliary Contact Finger; D— Auxiliary 
Contact; E — Drum Switch; F, G, and H — Drum Switch Studs; 
J — Screw Leading to C; Q— Starting Switch Lever 


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Should the voltmeter give a reading of 6 volts while the contacts 
do not close, it shows that the shunt coil of the cut-out is open and 
indicates that its connections are broken or that the trouble is in the 
coil itself. This may be confirmed by operating the contacts by 
hand — pushing the contact away from the adjusting screw until it 
touches the stationary contact. If it remains in that position, the 
generator is charging the battery, but the shunt coil of the cut-out is 
out of action and the cut-out will function automatically as it should. 

If, under the conditions mentioned in the first paragraph under 
this heading, the cut-out closes, connect the voltmeter as described 
and accelerate the engine to a speed corresponding to 25 miles 
per hour. If the reading is then 15 to 20 volts, the trouble may be 
looked for in a break in the generator connection to the cut-out. 
Should it not be possible to locate any break, it may be in the series 
coil of the cut-out, in which case a new cut-out will be necessary. 

Sivitch or Generator Parts to Be Adjusted. If the starting lever 
of the switch is not returning to the proper position for running after 
starting the engine, it will be indicated by a low battery and dim 
lights. Adjust so that the lever will go to correct position for running 
and see that the contact fingers of the switch are making proper 
contact with the drum. 

In case the battery does not get sufficient charge, connect an 
ammeter to the terminal D of the switch and to W of the cut-out. 
At a speed equivalent to 15 miles per hour, the ammeter should read 
7 to 9 amperes if the generator is working properly. If it does not, 
examine the commutator, brushes, and wiring, as previously described. 

Six-Volt; Two-Unit 

General Characteristics. This type is similar in characteristics 
to most of the other makes of this class already described. 

Generator. The generator is the multipolar (four-pole) shunt- 
wound type. 

Regulation. The regulation is of the inherent or bucking-coil 
type, integral with the field windings of the generator. 

Starting Motor. The motor is four-pole and series-wound, driv- 
ing through a reducing gear mounted on the motor housing, Fig. 353. 

Control. Battery CutrOut. The complete instrument, minus 
its cover, is shown in Fig. 354. It is of standard design and is intended 


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to be mounted in the tool box under the driver's seat. As shown in 
the photograph, the upper binding post is the series-coil connection, 
the central binding post just below it is the shunt-coil connection, 

Fig. 353. Wagner Six- Volt Two-Unit Type Starting Motor. Left— Commutator 

End; Right— Gear End 

Courtesy of Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, Missouri 

while the lowest binding post is a connection completing the circuit 
through both coils to the battery. 

Switch. The switch is of the circular knife-blade type, two sets 
of spring contacts close together being pressed down over the sta- 
tionary contact against the spring, as shown in Fig. 355 which illus- 
trates the parts of the 

Wiring Diagram. A 
typical wiring diagram of 
the Wagner two-unit sys- 
tem as installed on the 
Scripps-Booth four- and 
eight-cylinder models is 
shown in Fig. 356. The 
only difference in the 
wiring of the two models 

Fig. 354. Wagner Cut-Out j^ ^ ^ Q ^ ^ j^ 

tion and merely affects the distributor connections, as illustrated by 
the panel in the upper right-hand corner, which shows the distributor 
and connections for the four-cylinder car. As the system is a single- 
wire type, one side of every circuit is grounded, the spark plugs 
themselves representing the grounded side of the high-tension ignition 


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circuit. The caution on the diagram — Never run generator with battery' 
removed from car nor with wire disconnected from generator — applies 
not only to the Westinghouse system but to practically every other 
system as well. 

Instructions. Ground in Starting or in Lighting Circuits. When 
the blowing of a fuse on one of the lighting circuits is due to a ground, 
or a similar fault is suspected in the starting system, it may be tested 
for either with the lamp outfit already described or with the low- 
reading voltmeter, as follows: 

Disconnect one battery terminal, taping the bare end to prevent 
contact with any metal parts of the car, and connect one side of the 
voltmeter to this terminal. Attach a length of wire having a bared 
end to the other terminal of the voltmeter, as shown in Fig. 357. 

Fig. 35f». Details of Wagner Switch 
Courtesy of Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, Missouri 

Connect the bared end of the free wire to some part of the car frame; 
making certain that good electrical contact is made. Disconnect the 
generator and starting motor completely, open all lighting switches, 
and be sure that ignition switch is off. If there is no ground in the 
circuit, the voltmeter will give no indication. Be sure that none of 
the disconnected terminals is touching the engine or frame; to insure 
this, tape them. 

Should the voltmeter give a reading of 4 volts or more, it indicates 
that there is a ground in the wiring between the battery and the 
junction box, or in the wiring between the junction box and the gen- 
erator or the starting motor. If the voltmeter reads less than 4 


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volts but more than \ volt, all wiring and connections should be care- 
fully inspected for faults. This test should be repeated by reversing 
the connections, that is, by reconnecting the wires on the side of 
the battery circuit that has been opened and disconnecting the 
other side. 



f^ , 


Localizing Any Ground. To localize any fault that the reading 
of the voltmeter may show, reconnect the wires to the starting motor 
and close the starting switch; any reading of the voltmeter with 
such connections will indicate that the ground is in this circuit. 
Should no ground be indicated with these connections, disconnect 

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the starter again and reconnect the generator; if the voltmeter 
records any voltage, the ground is in the generator circuit. With 
both starter and generator disconnected, the voltmeter being con- 
nected first to one side 
of the battery and then 
to the other, operate 
the lighting switches, the 
ignition switch, and the 
horn, one at a time, and 
note whether the volt- 
meter needle moves upon 
closing any of these 
switches. A voltage read- 
ing upon closing any of 
these switches will indi- 
cate a ground in that par- 
ticular Circuit. pig g. 7 Tc8ting for Ground8 ^th Voltmeter in 

Short-Circuit Tests. Two-wi re system 

To test for short-circuits, substitute the ammeter for the voltmeter, but 
do not connect the instrument to the battery. The shunt reading to 20 

Fig. 35S. Testing for Short-Circuita with Ammeter in Two- Wire Sy3tem 

amperes should be employed, one side of the ammeter being grounded 
on the frame as previously described, and the other being connected 
with a short wire that can be touched to the open side of the bat- 


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tery, Fig. 358. Disconnect the starter and the generator and open 
all the switches, then touch the bare end of the wire to the battery 
terminal on the open side as shown. Any reading, no matter how 
small, will indicate a short-circuit (two-wire system) in the wiring 
between the battery and junction box or between the latter and the 
starter, or generator. If the ammeter reading shows a heavy current, 
there is a severe short-circuit. 

Localizing a Short-Circuit. The short-circuit may be localized 
in the same manner as described for the voltmeter test, i.e., connect 
the starter and test; disconnect the starter, connect the generator and 
test. A reading on the generator test may be due to the contacts of 
the cut-out sticking together. If the cut-out contacts are open and 
the ammeter registers, there is a short-circuit in the generator 

Disconnect the generator again, remove all the lamps from the 
sockets, and turn on the lighting-circuit switches one at a time, touch- 
ing the wire to the battery terminal after closing each switch. A 
reading with any particular switch on indicates a short-circuit in the 
wiring of the lamps controlled by that switch. Only one switch should 
be closed at a time, all others then being open. This test should be 
made also with the ignition switch on but with the engine idle. The 
ammeter then should register the ignition current, which should not 
exceed 4 to 5 amperes. If greater than this, the ignition circuit should 
be examined. 

Cautions. Do not attempt to test the starter circuit with tike ammeter 
as it will damage the instrument. To test the starter circyfc, reconnect 
as for operating, removing the ammeter. Close the starting switch; a 
short-circuit in the wiring will result either in failure to operate or in 
slow turning over of the engine. See that the switch parts are clean 
and that they make good contact. If the short-circuit is in the wind- 
ing of the starting motor, there will be an odor of burning insulation 
or smoke. 

The battery must be fully charged for making any of these 
tests. While the effect either of a ground or of a short-circuit will 
be substantially the same, its location and the remedy will be more 
easily determined by ascertaining whether it is the one or the 
other. Instructions for making these tests have already been dis- 
cussed in the Gray & Davis section. 


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Twelve-Volt; Single-Unit; Single-Wire 

Dynamotor. The single unit of the 12- volt system, or the 
"motor-and-generator" as the manufacturers term it, is a bipolar 
machine, both the generator and starting-motor windings of which 
are connected to the same commutator. Installation is usually by 
means of a silent chain, as on the Hupp (1915 and earlier). The 
characteristics of this type of machine are such that when running 
at a speed equivalent to 9 miles per hour or less, it acts as a motor, 
and when the speed increases, it automatically becomes a generator 
and begins to charge the battery. 

Regulation. The third-brush method of regulation is employed, 
the amount of current supplied to the shunt fields by this brush 

Shunt Fit Id 


w$s Hold 


To Iq nit ion 



fuse Block 


Fig. 359. Wiring Diagram for Westinghouse Single-Unit System on Hupmobile 

decreasing as the magnetic field of the generator becomes distorted 
owing to increased speed. 

Control. The switch employed with this type of combined unit 
is the regular single-throw single-pole switch used on lighting- 
plant switchboards. This switch controls both the ignition and 
the* starting-motor circuits and, at starting, is thrown on and left 
closed as long as the car is running. 

Wiring Diagram. The connections of the Hupp installation 
are shown in Fig. 359. 

Instructions. Battery Charging. As the unit acts as a motor 
to drive the engine when the latter is running at a speed of less 
than the equivalent of 9 miles per hour on high gear, slow driving 
or permitting the engine to idle at a very low speed when the car is 
standing will discharge the battery. Where no fault in the wiring 
or connections exists and the battery will not stay charged (the 

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generator, of course, working properly), this practice may be the 
cause of the trouble. If the voltage drops to 10 or 11 volts, with 
the headlights on but with the engine stopped, it indicates that the 
battery is practically discharged. This voltage reading will be 
somewhat higher in summer than in winter. The remedy is to 
run with fewer lights at night or to run the engine for longer periods 
in the daytime, or at higher speeds. Running solely at night will 
not keep the battery sufficiently charged, as most of the generator 
output is consumed by the lamps. Should the battery become 
discharged to a point where it cannot operate the starting motor, 
disconnect the wires C and S at the dynamotor, taping their ter- 
minals to prevent contact with any part of the engine or chassis. 
Start the engine by hand and, when running at a speed of about 
500 r.p.m., reconnect these wires, being sure to connect wire S first, 
when the battery will begin to charge. 

Fire Prevention. Gasoline or kerosene is frequently employed 
to wash automobile engines. Before doing so, be sure that the 
starting switch is open, and disconnect the negative terminal of 
the battery, taking care that it does not come in contact with any 
metal parts of the car. To make certain of this, it is better to tape 
the metal terminal. Allow the gasoline to evaporate entirely before 
reconnecting the battery, as a flash or spark would be liable to ignite 
the vapor. This naturally applies to all cars, although only such as 
are equipped with the Westinghouse single-unit or the Dyneto single- 
unit have starting switches which remain closed all the time the 
engine is running. 

Weak Current If the dynamotor fails to operate when the 
starting switch is closed, open the switch and test with the port- 
able voltmeter. If it indicates less than 11 volts, the battery is run 
down; if it indicates 12 volts or over, look for a loose connection or 
an open circuit (broken wire) either in the connection from the 
battery to the starting switch, from the switch to the dynamotor, 
from the latter to the ground, or from the battery to the ground, in 
the order named. Dim burning of the lamps when the engine is 
stopped also indicates a discharged battery. When this is the case, 
it is advisable to recharge at once from an outside source, if possible. 

A quick method of determining whether there is a ground in the 
wiring is to disconnect the battery wire and, the engine being stopped 


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and ail lights turned off, touch the disconnected wire to the terminal 
lightly. A spark, when this contact is made, will indicate a ground 
between the battery and the dynamotor or the switch. The testing 
lamp should then be used to locate the circuit in which the ground exists. 

Failure to charge properly may be due also to imperfect con- 
tact at the brushes or to a break in the shunt-field circuit of the 
generator, as explained in previous instructions. If the shunt-field 
circuit is found open, the trouble doubtless has been caused either 
by a ground between the battery and the generator or by running 
the generator when it was disconnected. 

To remove the brushes, lift the spring that holds the brush in the 
guide and take out the screw holding the brush shunt, when the brush 

Pig. 360. Westinghouse Bipolar Generator for Six- Volt Double-Unit Single- Wire SyBtem 
Courtesy of Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

can be slipped out. Care should be taken to replace brushes in the 
same position, and if they do not bear evenly over their entire surface 
on the commutator, they should be sanded-in as described in the 
Delco instructions. The latter suggestion also applies to new brushes. 

Six- Volt; Double-Unit; Single-Wire 
Generators. Four types of generators are made, as illustrated 
in Fig. 116, Part III; in Fig. 157, Part IV; and in Fig. 360, shown 
herewith, the fourth being similar to the unit shown on this page 
except for the method of regulation employed, which is of the third- 
brush type. 

Regulation. The reverse series-field winding, or bucking-coil, 
method is used in the first two types of generator, while a voltage 
regulator combined with the battery cut-out is employed on the 


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ftegulatmg Cont acts 

K>/My» Regulating Sen* 

******£=*&& Y//////W/A 

Regulatmq Resistor 


Regulator Shunt Coil 
.Generator Shunt field 






Fig. 361. Wiring Diagram for Westinghouse Generator with Self -Contained Regulator 


1 *■' l~ 

Oil iiaii i |— r ; . — '1 

Closed Open 

Fig. 362. Closed and Open Position of Westinghouse Cut-Out Switch 


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Fig. 303. Wiring Diagram for Westinghouse System with External Regulator 


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third, and the third-brush method on the fourth. This regulator is 
either self-contained, i.e., built in the generator, or is mounted inde- 
pendently. The connections of the built-in regulator are shown in 
Fig. 361. The open and closed positions of the contacts of the exter- 
nal cut-out are shown in Fig. 362. 

Wiring Diagram. Fig. 363 shows the connections of the separately 
mounted regulator together with the charging and lighting circuits. 

Fig. 364. Westinghouse Cut-Out Switch of Generator with Third-Brush Regulation 

Battery Cut-Out. The type of automatic cut-out used with 
the type of generator employing the third-brush method of regu- 
lation is illustrated in Fig. 364. This may or may not be combined 
with a starting switch mounted on the engine side of the dash or 
some similar location. Fig. 365 is a wiring diagram showing the con- 
nections of the separately mounted cut-out with the third-brush 
generator. The cutting-in speed varies from five to ten miles per 
hour on high gear, varying with the gear ratio and wheel diameter of 
the car. This speed may be determined by running the car slowly 
and speeding up very gradually, meanwhile observing the increase in 
speed on the speedometer. The point at which the contacts close 


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will be indicated by a slight quick movement of the ammeter needle. 
The cutting-out speed is slightly below this to prevent constant 

Fig. 365. Diagram of Connections for Complete Westinghouse System 
with Separately Mounted Regulator 

vibration of the cut-out armature when the car is being driven close 
to the cutting-in speed. 


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Starting Motors. Variations. Several types are built to meet 
varying requirements; i.e., with self-contained reduction gearing, 
with single-reduction automatic screw pinion shift (Bendix drive), 
and with automatic electromagnetic pinion shift. The first two will 
be familiar from the descriptions already given of other makes. 
The third is similar in principle to the Bosch-Rushmore, but an 
independent magnet is employed instead of utilizing the armature 
of the motor itself for this purpose. 

Magnetic Engaging Type. This type, as well as the other types 
of starting motors mentioned, may be operated either by a foot con- 
trolled switch or by a magnetically controlled switch put in action 
by a push button. The wiring diagrams, Fig. 366, show the circuits 
of both installations and also make clear the operation of the auto- 

Shiftmg Magnet Storting Motor Electro - Magnetic Storting Mognet^Storting Motor 






Fig. 366. Wiring Diagrams of Motor Connections for Automatic Electromagnetic Pinion Shift 

matic engagement. The armature is mounted on a hollow shaft; 
and on the end of this shaft is carried a splined pinion designed 
to engage the flywheel gear. This pinion is caused to slide along 
the shaft by a shifting rod which is attached to the pinion and passes 
through the hollow shaft. The other end of this shifting rod acts as 
the core of the shifting magnet and will be recognized as the plunger 
of a solenoid. When the motor is idle, a spring holds the pinion at 
the right-hand end of the shaft and clear of the flywheel gear. 

As shown diagrammatically in Fig. 366, when the starting switch 
is closed, the circuit is completed from the negative terminal of the 
battery, through the switch, the shifting solenoid, the armature, and 
the series field of the motor to the frame of the car on which the 
positive side of the battery is grounded. The # large amount of 
current necessary for starting energizes the shifting solenoid suffi- 


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ciently to overcome the force of the spring so that it draws the shifting 
rod to the right through the hollow shaft, meshing the pinion with 
the flywheel gear. When the engine speeds up to the no-load speed 
of the starting motor, the current in the latter falls off so that the 
pull of the solenoid is less than that of the spring, and the pinion is 
automatically disengaged, though the motor will continue to revolve 
until the starting switch is opened. 

Electromagnetic Switch. In principle, the electromagnetic switch 
is the same as that of the automatic engaging device for the pinion. 
The movable double-pole contact, instead of being attached to a rod 
for foot operation, is mounted on the plunger of a solenoid and nor- 
mally is held open by a spring. This solenoid requfres but a small 
amount of current for its operation and is connected on an independent 
circuit with the battery. It is controlled by a push button, and when 
the circuit is closed by means of the latter, the plunger of the solenoid 
is drawn into the coil against the pull of the spring, thus bringing the 
contacts together and holding them there as long as the solenoid 
is energized. 

Instructions. Regulator. When the generator of the voltage- 
regulator type fails to charge the battery properly, all parts of the 
circuits and connections having been examined to determine that 
they are in proper condition, the regulator may be tested for faults. 
With the aid of the portable voltmeter, note at what voltage the 
contacts of the cut-out close or cut in, and at what voltage they 
cut out or open. See that tHe contact points are clean and square 
so that they make good contact over their entire surfaces when 
pressed together with the hand. Iifeufficient charging may be due 
to the voltage regulator keeping the voltage of the generator below 
the proper point for this purpose. A voltage adjusting screw is 
provided to compensate for this. With the voltmeter in circuit 
and the engine running, turn the screw very slowly and note the 
effect on the reading. For proper charging the latter should be 
approximately 7£ to 8 volts, and the screw should be adjusted very 
gradually to bring the voltmeter reading to this value. This screw 
is properly set at the factory and is unlikely to need adjustment; 
so all other possible causes should be investigated before changing 
it. The instructions for the 12- volt system also apply here, except 
that for voltage tests the system operates on 6 volts. 


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a 1 





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SYSTEMS— (Continued) 


General Instructions. Most of the leading manufacturers who 
make the starting and lighting equipment for larger cars also manu- 
facture a special type designed for the Ford. Almost without 
exception these special Ford systems are simple and compact, and 
everything necessary to install them on the machine is provided by 
the maker of the apparatus. Where the system is to be installed, 
either by the owner of the machine or by the local garage man whose 
electrical experience is limited, the choice of the most suitable system 
often is decided by the ease with which it may be installed. In 
practically every case this necessitates the removal of the radiator, 
radiator brace rod, hose connections, fan, fan pulleys and belt, 
cylinder head, and in some cases the timing-gear housing. In the 
majority of instances the ground connection of the headlights— 
which is soldered to the back of the' radiator on 1915 and subsequent 
models provided with electric headlights supplied by the Ford mag- 
neto—must be discarded altogether, as the lights are to be supplied 
by the storage battery. In cases where it is necessary to remove the 
timer (this must be done when the timing-gear housing has to be 
removed), both the timer and the carburetor should be adjusted for 
efficient running before starting to dismantle the engine, and if the 
latter is turned over while the timer is off, the ignition timing must be 
readjusted when the timer is put back. As the removal of all the 
parts mentioned is a simple matter fully covered in the Ford instruc- 
tion books and familiar to practically every garage man in the 
country, they are not repeated here. 

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In starting to install any system, one of the first precautions 
to take before attempting to dismount any of the parts of the engine 
is to check over the list of parts sent with the outfit with those 
actually received. The reason for this is that it at times an essential 
part has been omitted, and this is not discovered until a large part of 
the labor of dismounting the engine has been carried out; the work 
must be done all over again or the engine kept dismounted until 
the missing part arrives. 

Chain-Driven Type 

Mounting Starter. Drain the radiator and remove it with the 
water-pipe and elbow connections from the engine; remove the 
starting-crank claw and take out the starting crank; take the fan-belt 
pulley off the engine shaft, the fan and the supporting arm from the 
cylinder casting, the primer rod from the carburetor and timer- 
advance rod; take out the second and third right-hand crankcase 
bolts A, Fig. 367. Clean the engine thoroughly to insure proper 
seating of the bracket and with a file remove any high spots, or fins, 
on the casting that would interfere. Mount the unit on the engine, 
first inserting the base bolts and then the water-flange bolts with 
elbows. Place gaskets each side of the bracket. Use the plain 
washers between the engine case and the foot of bracket D to insure 
proper support and alignment with the water-pipe connections E 
and F. Attach the driving sprocket G to the crankshaft, using the 
new pin H supplied. It may be necessary to bend the crankcase nose 
slightly at I to provide clearance for the chain on the right side and to 
chip off part of the rivet heads under the sprocket. There should be 
at least £-inch clearance at all points around the sprocket after the 
chain is in place. 

Replace the starting crank and claw and turn the engine over 
slowly by hand to feed the chain on to the sprocket. Connect the 
ends of the chain together, noting the arrows on the side of the chain, 
which show the direction in which it must rotate. Before connecting 
the chain, the Genemotor fan pulley with internal spring should be 
removed as a unit to prevent the possibility of changing the spring 
adjustment. Care should be taken that the slot in the spring support 
into which the forks of the pinion assemble clears the key. These can 


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be brought into lihe by holding the pinion and turning the fan pulley 
in a counter-clockwise direction (to the left). Loosen the clamping 


- 8 ! 


« o 


► strap and tilt the whole unit slightly to receive the chain. Apply a 
straightedge, as shown in Fig. 368, and align the sprocket accurately, 


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making sure that the Genemotor shaft is parallel with the crankshaft 
and that the pinion with bushing is pressed against the ball bearing. 
Allow a slight amount of slack in the chain when adjusting by means of 
the two set screws K, Fig. 367, which raise the unit in its cradle. 
When such adjustment is made, be sure that the starting switch is in 
an upright position on top of the motor and tighten the clamping 
strap. Grease the chain thoroughly and attach the chain guard L. 
Replace the pulley with spring locking with pinion, as when received. 

. Assemble the clamp pulley 
supplied for driving the fan 
on to the regular fan pulley, 
reducing the flanges of the 
latter by filing, if necessary. 
Replace the fan and the 
bracket on the engine. If 
the fan blades should not clear 
the Genemotor pulley, twist 
them slightly with a wrench 
and bend out the tips of the 
fan blades. Put back the old 
fan belt, but do not adjust it 
too tightly. Replace the timer 
rod, bending it as necessary 
to make sure that it clears 
the chain properly. Turn the 
engine over by hand to make 
sure that the chain is free 
and properly adjusted; it is 
Fig. 368. Method of cheeking chain Alignment important that the chain 

with Straightedge j^jj mt ^chOie nose 

piece or forward end of the crankcase or the side rivet heads. 
Before replacing the radiator and hose connections, it is advisable 
to run the engine a few minutes to note alignment, clearance, and 

The dashboard is to be drilled for the lighting switch Q on the 
right-hand side, as viewed from the seat, directly under the carburetor 
adjustment and for the starting-switch rod R on the left-hand side 
close to the coil box. On .the sedan, coupelet, and 1915 models, the 


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lighting switch may be placed on the upper left-hand corner of the 
heel board under the driver's seat, or it can be mounted on the dash 
close to the speedometer. Mount the primer lever and the special 
washer S under the second manifold stud nut, passing the original 
rod through the dashboard. 

Wiring. All of the leads are marked for identification, and the 
wiring diagram will be readily understood from Fig. 369. The battery 
box should be mounted on the right-hand running board so as not to 
interfere with entrance to the car, and so that the hole in the bottom of 
the battery box overhangs the running-board shield, through which 
a new hole must be cut. The battery leads, protected by the circu- 

Fig. 369. Wiring Diagram of Genemotor Ford Installation 

lar loom supplied for the purpose, should be run through this hole. 
The motor cables supplied with this outfit are to be run diagonally 
across the transmission case of the engine from the unit to the battery. 
Where they cross the transmission case, these leads are supported by 
a steel clip furnished for the purpose, the clip being secured under the 
right-hand screw holding the transmission cover in place (next to 
the dash). In installing the leads, the screw in question should be 
removed, the clip placed over the wires, and all secured by returning 
the screw through the clamp to its original position. The two 
hold-down straps are to fasten the battery box securely to the running 
board, the clamps fastening to handles of the battery case and passing 
through the running board. Where wiring passes through holes cut 


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in sKeet-iron parts, it should be protected by extra taping to avoid 
danger to the insulation from chafing. Make certain that all con- 
nections are clean, are properly made as shown on the wiring dia- 
gram, and are clamped tightly. 

On the 1915 and subsequent models, on which the headlights are 
electric and are supplied with current from the magneto, it will be 
necessary to discard the wiring and switch connections and to do away 
with the ground connection soldered to the back of the radiator, as 

Fig. 370. Ford Frame Stripped for Mounting Shaft-Driven Genemotor 

the new system is of the two-wire type throughout, and all the lamps 
are fed with current from the storage battery through a lighting 
switch on the dash. 

Operation. The Genemotor is a single-unit type, the same 
machine performing the functions of both generator and starting 
motor. The starting switch and the reverse current relay, or auto- 
matic cut-out, are in a small housing mounted directly on the machine. 
Starting is effected by pushing the switch rod forward. The switch 
will open automatically when the rod is released. During the first 
hundred miles, it will be necessary to watch the chain carefully and 


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take up the slack as the links seat themselves in the sprockets. When- 
ever it N shows excessive slack, the chain should be tightened so that 
it will not deflect more than f inch from a straight line by the pressure 
of the fingers. It is very essential to the life of the chain that it be 
not allowed to run too slack. The occurrence of any undue amount 
of noise in operation is a sign that the chain is too slack. The chain 
must always be kept sufficiently tight to prevent striking the 
guard or the nose of the crankcase and it is very essential that it 
be greased every two weeks. 

Shaft-Driven Type 

Preliminary Adjustments. Before dismantling the engine, be 
sure that it is in good running condition and that the carburetor is 
properly adjusted. Remove the radiator with the water-pipe and 
elbow connections, starting 
crank and claw or dog clutch, 
fan bracket complete with fan 
and belt, fan-drive pulley on 
crankshaft, timer or commu- 
tator complete, timing-gear 
cover (leave paper gasket 
and engine bolts A and rear 
sill bolt B, Fig. 370). Cut 
out the dashboard as shown. 
Remove the felt packing rings 

USed around the Crankshaft "* 3?1 ' Timing^ear Cover Aa^mbly 

and camshaft from the old timing-gear cover, or housing plate, and 
place them in the new timing-gear cover supplied (sometimes referred 
to as the "cylinder front cover") . Reassemble, putting the new timing- 
gear cover in place, using bolts E, F, G, and H in the holes indicated, 
Fig. 371, and using lock washers. Leave the bolts slightly loose. 
Throw the hand-brake lever into middle position and push the crank- 
shaft back as far as it will go. Assemble the split hub J on the 
crankshaft, inserting the hub pin through a set of holes in the hub 
which give not less than -fa- and not over A-inch clearance between 
the back of the hub flange and the timing-gear housing. 

Drive the hub pin K, Fig. 372, into the crankshaft, being careful 
that the ends are an equal distance below the surface of the threaded 


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portion of the hub. Chisel off parts of the rivet heads XX, Fig. 
373, in the pan of the engine and assemble gear ring L and place on the 
hub. In some cases it may be found necessary to bend out the side of 
the nose pan slightly by means of a wrench, as shown, to obtain 

the necessary clearance for the 
gear ring, which must not be 
less than ^* inch at any point. 
The recess in back of the gear 
ring will facilitate its insertion 
past the front of the crank- 
shaft. Fasten the gear ring 
to the hub flange with the 
Fig. 372. Fitting Split Hub on Crankshaft th ree screws and lock washers 

Throw the hand brake in the extreme forward position to lock 
the engine and screw the hub nut M, Fig. 372, on the hub, tightening 
it with a f -inch steel rod inserted in the holes provided. Replace the 

Fig. 373. Mounting Gear Ring and Adjusting Nose Pan in Genemotor Ford Installation 

starting handle minus its original starting ratchet, or dog clutch, using 
in its place the ratchet pin supplied, and retain it in place with the 
cotter pins N supplied, Fig. 372. Remove the leather coupling P, 


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Fig. 374, complete from the end of the pinion shaft. Unscrew the 
bearing-housing cap Q, Fig. 375, from the timing-gear cover and lay 

the bearing lining with pinion shaft in place. The coupling is keyed to 
the armature shaft and the drive shaft. Always remove the coupling 
complete by driving it off either shaft Do not separate the leather from the 


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Fig. 375. Adjusting Driving Pinion 

flanges. Be sure that the lining screw R, Fig. 375, in bearing the cap 
enters the hole in the bearing lining before replacing the cap, and that the 
shaft does not strike the base of the engine casting, which uxmld spring 

the shaft. If necessary 9 
file away the corner cf the 
engine base to clear the 
shaft by at least -fa inch. 
Adjustment of 
Qears. The steel gear 
must at all times run on 
the fabroil teeth of the 
pinion and not on its steel 
shrouds. To accomplish 
this, rearrange the steel 
pacers S, Fig. 374, on the 
pinion shaft, placing them 
more or less forward or 
back of the lining, as may 
be necessary. In no case should any washers be left out. Throw the 
hand-brake lever into middle position and turn the engine over with 
the crank, feeding in between the gears a strip of the paper T, Fig. 

375, supplied for the purpose. 

Lightly tap the timing gear to the 

left as far as necessary to mesh 

the gears tightly. Tighten up the 

retaining bolts. Turn the engine 

over again to feed the paper out. 

The paper should be evenly marked 

but not cut. If the paper shows 

signsof cuttingthrough atany point 

the gears are meshed too tightly. 

Do not, under any circumstances, 

place any shim between the bearing 

lining and its supporting housing. 

Mounting the Qenemotor. Assemble the motor cradle in place, 

Fig. 376. Place a |-inch spacing washer under the leg nearest to 

the transmission cover and insert the special bolt Al with the lock 

washer from the underside of the car but leave it slightly loose. 

Fig. 376. Motor Cradle Assembly J 


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Put in place the front leg bolt A and the new sill bolt B with lock 
washers but do not tighten up. Insert the Genemotor from the rear 
side of the dash through the hole 
previously cut for the purpose, slid- 
ing it on tQ its cradle, and clamp in 
place with the steel strap, leaving 
about f-inch space, Fig. 377, be- 
tween the motor shaft and the pinion 
shaft. The flat space on the motor 
body should be parallel to the iron 
dash support. 

Motor Alignment. Raise the Fig. 377. Checking up Alignment of Motor 
# . 10 «iii , ,i Shaft and Pinion Shaft 

front leg and the sill leg of the 

cradle by a suitable thickness of spacing washers supplied until 
the ends of the shaft are in line, utilizing the clearance in the bolt 
holes to obtain the sidewise adjustment. The ends of the shafts must 
be lined up accurately to tvithin ^ T inch, or the bearing will overheat and 
be destroyed. Check the line-up as shown in Fig. 377. When the 

Fig. 378. Priming Rod and Ix»ver Adjustment 

adjustment is satisfactory, tighten all the bolts, setting up the lower 
nut on the sill bolt first and re-check the line-up; if necessary, 


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readjust. Remove the bearing cap and the pinion shaft. Assemble 
the leather coupling on the pinion shaft, then assemble the other 
end of the coupling on the motor shaft; both should be a light drive 

^/nside Edge of 3ilL on Left NondJide f 

Fig. 379. Layout on Under Side of Heel Board for Starting Switch and Cutout 

fit. Fill the recesses in the bearing lining and bearing with a good 
grade of non-acid grease. Replace the lining and shaft in the housing 
and secure the cap in place. Fill and fully compress the grease cup 
U twice to assure that the grooves and pockets are filled, Fig. 373. 
Also thoroughly grease the gears and assemble the gear guard with 
its two screws and lock washers. "Gredag No. 32-inch" (semi- 
liquid graohite grease) or its equivalent in powdered graphite lubri- 
cant is recommended for this 

Replace the Ford commu- 
tator, or timer, setting it with 
the steel brush upward when the 
exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1 
is closed, as mentioned in Ford 
ignition instructions. Fit the two- 
piece fan pulley around the neck 
of the Ford fan pulley and secure 
it with screws and lock washers 
provided. Reassemble the fan 
and bracket complete, using anew 
1-inch belt, which is driven from 
the pulley on the gear hub nut 3/, Fig. 372. Replace the radiator and 
the water connections to the engine, using a special bolt for the elbow 
connection nearest the genemotor. Replace the spark-advance rod, 

Fig. 380. Lighting Switch Mounted on 
Steering Post 


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» • i i i 


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bending it to pass over instead of under the water connection, before 
fastening it to the timer. The throttle rod must be turned upside 
down and assembled with cotter pins toward the dash to clear the 
coupling. Attach the primer rod and lever, as shown in Fig. 378, 
using part of the Ford primer rod originally coming through the 
radiator. Mount the starting switch and cut-out on the underside 
of the heel board, Fig. 379. The rubber floor mat must be cut to 
fit the foot plunger. 

Mount the lighting switch on the steering column, Fig. 380, 
clamping the cable attached to it between the recess in the switch box 

Coupe let 

Mole ror Pottery Iscods 

i Dia - £ tfcles - 


HynlCnd^ .. 


/ti 4* 




Fig. 382. Layout of Right Running Board for Mounting Battery Box 
on All Ford Model* 

and column, and wire up the head and tail lights, Fig. 381, with leads 
supplied. Each lead is tagged to correspond with the wiring diagram. 
Drill holes in the right-hand running board for the battery box, 
Fig. 382, including the slot in the side panel where the main cables 
will pass through, and bolt the battery box on to the running board. 
Connect the Genemotor to the switch and cut-out, Fig. 381, placing 
on each battery cable a piece of the circular loom (supplied) at the 
point where the cables pass through the slot cut in the side panel, 
securing the circular loom in place by taping each end of the loom 


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to the cable. Each cable is tagged to correspond with the wiring 
diagram. Place the battery in the battery box, allowing it to rest 
on the wooden supports (supplied) and clamp through the box to 
the running board with battery clamps. Connect the negative lead 
to the negative terminal of the battery, then touch the positive 
lead to the positive terminal. If no spark occurs when the positive 
terminal is touched, connect up permanently; should a spark be 
noticed, it indicates a short-circuit or a leak in the system, and the 
wiring will have to be gone over carefully to correct it before con- 
necting up permanently, otherwise the battery will discharge itself. 
Turn the engine over slowly by hand to see that everything is clear. 
The starter and the lights are now ready for use. 

Operating Instructions. Whenever it is necessary to remove the 
battery for any reason, never operate the generator unless its terminals 
are first connected together with a capper wire or cable, otherwise the 
generator will overheat and injure its windings. The lights cannot 
be used with the battery off the car. Never operate the generator with 
the small regulating brush removed or with its contact surface reduced, 
as normal charging current will not be generated, and the battery will 
not charge properly. 

In extremely cold weather, it is advisable to "break away" 
the engine by hand, giving the crank a few turns to loosen the lubri- 
cating oil on the pistons and bearings, thus preventing undue drain 
on the battery. The starter is designed to spin the engine at a speed 
sufficient to insure easy starting on the Ford magneto. If the engine 
does not fire promptly, pull out the priming rod at the forward end 
of the radiator and turn the engine over two or three times by hand 
before closing the starter switch again. Should the engine still fail 
to start, examine the timer, squirting a liberal supply of one-fourth 
kerosene and three-fourths lubrication oil into it; see that there is 
plenty of gasoline in the tank and that it is reaching the carburetor. 
Turn the carburetor, or gasoline-supply adjustment, on the dash up 
(to the left) to insure a liberal supply of gasoline in cold weather. 
When an easy starting point of this adjustment has been found, it 
should be marked by filing a nick or arrow on the small brass wheel; 
turning the latter with the arrow upright will then insure easy 
starting in cold weather. After the engine has nm a short time and 
become warmed up, the wheel can be turned down 15 to 20 


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degrees (to the right), and several more miles per gallon will be 
secured. When the engine does not get under way promptly, do not 
exhaust the battery unnecessarily by continuing to run the starter. 
In any case where the engine fails to start the first time and exami- 
nation shows everything to be in good condition, operate the starter 
intermittently a few seconds at a time but not continuously. 

Failure to Start. When the starter fails to turn the engine 
over, try cranking by hand to make sure that the crankshaft is free 
to revolve before attempting to make any adjustments. If it turns 
freely by hand but the starter cannot move it, test the condition of 
the battery charge with the hydrometer. In winter, particularly, 
cars are often run for days at a time on very short runs with frequent 
stops and starts, and under such conditions the battery is likely to 
become'exhausted, as the average charge is less than the requirements 
imposed upon it by the great number of starts made. In such cases, 
it may be necessary to give the battery a special charge from an 
outside source oV by running the engine with the car standing. 

Ammeter. A recording instrument is not regularly supplied as 
a part of the system, since the generator is fitted with an inherent 
type of regulation having no moving or vibrating parts, so that as 
long as the system is kept in good condition, charging is assured. 
Where the owner considers the addition of an ammeter desirable as 
a means of checking the operation of the system, the instrument 
can readily be added by removing the jumper wire on the starting 
switch and connecting the ammeter leads across these two posts. 
The lamps recommended for use with the system are 12- and 14-volt 
15-c.p. Mazda or 24-c.p. nitrogen (not desirable, as it causes too 
much glare), and 12- and 14-volt 4-c.p. Mazda for the tail light. For 
care of battery, see sections on Battery Charging and Maintenance. 


Installation. Preparing Engine. Remove the radiator, discon- 
necting the ground wire from it; disconnect the wires from the head 
lamps and remove the head lamps and supports. Take off the bracket 
and fan, Fig. 383, and turn the engine by hand until the pin 2 in the 
fan pulley is straight up and down; remove the pin from the jaw 
clutch and remove the starting-crank 4* belt 6, and the cotter pin, 3; 
take the pin from the fan pulley and remove the pulley 6. Remove 


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the second, fourth, and fifth bolts from the crankcase flange 7, the 
left and front bolt from the side-water connections 8 and 9, as well 
as the second cylinder-head bolt 10. 

Note — The numerals refer to the parts to be removed or replaced, as well 
as the sequence in which the operations are to be carried out, as shown on the 
sketches. Each illustration, however, has its own series of the same numbers, 
which should not be confused with those on other views. 

Lay the chain 1 in the rear of the engine support around the 

crank-shaft, Fig. 384, and then place the original starting-crank jaw 

Fig. 383. Preparing Engine for Mounting Starting Unit 
Courtesy of Oray & Davis, Boston, Massachusetts 

clutch 2 inside of the crankshaft sprocket. Place the crankshaft 
sprocket 3 on the crankshaft and put the new belt 4 around the pulley 
on the crankshaft. Secure the sprocket with the new pin 5 (supplied) 
and then connect the starting crank in its original position. Secure 
the jaw clutch to the starting crank with pin 7. 

Mounting Starter-Generator. In Fig. 385 is shown the starter- 
generator unit, for which note the following instructions: See that 


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Fig. 384. Putting Driving Chain on Crankshaft Sprocket in 
Gray A Davis Ford Installation 

Fig. 385. Details of Gray 4 Davis Generator Unit for Ford Starter 

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the motor terminal 1 is free from contact with any other metal ; also 
that the dynamo terminal 2 and insulation are not injured. Test the 
shaft and gears 3 to see that they turn freely, and then fill the oil 
cups 4 with oil. 

Release the top adjusting screw 5, also two lower clamping lock 
nuts 6 (front), as well as the two upper clamping lock nuts 7 (rear) and 
the single middle clamping lock nut 8 (front). The units must be in 
the lowest position possible on the bracket before placing it on the car. 
In Fig. 386 is shown the starter-generator unit in place on the engine 
with the bolts and nuts all tightened. This is carried out as follows: 

Fig. 386. Starter Unit Mounted on the Engine 
Courtesy of Gray A Davis, Boston, Massachusetts 

Place three f-inch spacers over the first, second, and third holes in 
the crankcase flange 1, and then place the unit on car 2; pass three 
f- by 24-inch bolts through the lower bracket, but do not attach nuts 
3. Tip the starter unit forward and pass the chain over the dynamo 
sprocket 4; attach the bracket by meams of cylinder-head bolt, but 
do not fasten. 

Place a H-inch spacer between the bracket and top water con- 
nection 7 and attach the bracket with ^- by 2|-inch bolts, but do not 
fasten securely; then place ^Vinch spacers 7 A under the bracket 


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so that the chain will be tight when the units are in the lowest possible 
position. Use washers 8 as shims between the bracket and the 
cylinder-head link. Secure the three lower bracket bolts 9 with 
lock washers and nuts, also secure the water-connection bolts 6 and 
7 and the cylinder-head bolt 5. Adjust the bracket stay bolt 10, 
adjust the chain 11 to moderate the tension and lock adjustment, 
securely tighten five clamping bracket nuts, and then crank the engine 
slowly by hand to see that everything turns smoothly. If, through 
some irregularity in the engine casting the bracket should not seat 
properly, it may be necessary to file the bracket holes to meet this 
condition. Be sure that the sprockets are in true alignment, or the 

Fig. 387. Installing Gray 4 Davia Wiring and Lighting Switch on Ford Car 

uneven strain may cause injury. If necessary, elongate the holes in 
the bracket or shim bracket as needed to insure perfect alignment 
of chain. 

When adjusting the bracket stay bolt 10, make sure that it rests 
against the engine casting without strain and secure it with nuts on 
each side of the bracket. Bend the ignition timing to clear the chain, 
if necessary, but after bending, the distance between the ends of the 
rod in a straight line must be equal to its original length. Adjust the 
chain to moderate tension and secure both the adjustment lock nuts 
at the top. If all five nuts holding the adjustable bracket are not 
released before adjusting, uneven strain may cause injury. Securely 


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tighten the sliding-bracket nuts 12 — two at the bottom front side, 
two at the top rear, and one at the front end. Test by turning the 
engine over by hand slowly. 

Remounting Engine Parts. Fit split pulley 1 to the hub -of the 
fan, Fig. 387, and attach split pulley 2 with four screws; slip a new 
belt over the fan pulley, attach the fan, and adjust. Place the radiar 
tor 4 on its support and screw the radiator rod into the radiator and 
secure with check nut 3; secure the hose clamps at the top and side 
water connection 6; place the radiator nuts and secure with cotter 
pins. Attach the lighting switch at the cowl (left) with ^-inch screws 
and attach three lighting- 
cable clips on the rear of 
the dash, using J-inch 
wood screws; cut the 
corner from the toe board 
for clearance. Attach 
three wire clips 10 to the 
left side of the frame and 
attach green wire 11 to 
the dynamo terminal. 
Then connect [the short 
black and red wire to the 
left head lamp. Pass a 
long black and red wire 
through the radiator tube 
to the right head lamp, 
then connect the short 
wire from each head lamp to the metal of the car frame 14. Attach 
the starting cable 15, which has a copper terminal at each end, to the 
starting-motor terminal. Refill the radiator and watch carefully for 
leaks in the circulation system. 

Starting Switch. The location of the starting switch and the 
method of installing it are shown in Fig. 388. Take the plate 1 off 
the starting switch and use it to mark the holes in the floor strip two 
inches in front of heel board and nine inches from the sill, as shown in 
the illustration. Make three holes for the starting switch in the rear 
floor strip 2 and attach the switch with bolt 3 at the side nearest the 
center of the car; then attach the other switch bolt 4, support 

Fig. 3 8. Installation of Starting Switch 
Courtesy of Gray A Davit, Boston, Massachusetts 


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the cable clip holding the two wires, and secure the spring and the 
knob with a pin. 

Priming Device. Connect the priming device 1, Fig. 389. Drill 
a ^nrinch hole in the dash two inches to the right of the coil box and 
six inches above the toe board and pass the upper rod through. Con- 
nect the lever arm 2 vertically to the foremost exhaust manifold bolt 
with stationary member in horizontal position; then connect the lower 
rod 8 to the carburetor priming lever. Work it back and forth several 
times to make sure that it returns to normal position when released. 

Battery. Place the battery box on the right-hand running board. 
Fig. 390, to permit easy opening of doors and access to battery box: 

Fig. 389. Replacement of Carburetor Tinning Rod on Dash 
Courtesy of Gray <fc Davis, Boston, Massachusetts 

then mark four holes with the center punch. Drill four holes ££ inch 
in diameter in the running board 2> using a jack or prop to support 
the running board while drilling. Replace the battery box on the 
running board in order to mark the holes in mud guard for insulating 
cable bushings 3, then make two holes If inches in diameter. Insert 
insulating-cable bushing 4 in left hole and secure with round wooden 
nut; do the same with the right-hand bushing 5. Secure wood nuts 6 
with a wire twisted around the thread. A coat of heavy paint will 
also hold the nut in place and preserve the insulator. Place the two 
flat wood cleats 7 with holes at each end between the battery box and 
the running board ; then pass four bolts 8, | inch by 1$ inches, through 


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lithe battery box, cleats, and running board, and secure them with 
four nuts and lock washers. Place two special-shaped wood cleats 9 

' inside the battery box, one at each end for the battery to rest upon, 
so that holes in the cleats will fit over the bolt heads. Raise springs 
10 and hang on the side of the battery box, placing the battery in the 
box and inserting two J-inch wood strips, one each side between the 
battery and the battery box. Attach two springs 11 at opposite ends 


Fig. 390. Installing Gray & Davis Battery and Wiring 

to hold the battery down securely. Inspect the battery and if the 
solution does not cover the plates at least J inch, add pure water, 
filling the cells to | inch above the tops of the plates. Water for 
battery use should be free from iron or alkali. 

Final Connections and Adjustments. Fig. 391 is a plan view of 
the chassis, showing the entire system in place. Figs. 392 and 393 
show the wiring in plan and in perspective. Drill and attach to the 
woodwork on the underside of the body / three wire clips holding the 


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tail-light wire; see that the wire does not make contact with any metal 
edges. Attach the electric light #. If the tail lamp has a one-point 
wire connector, the lamp body must be metallically connected with 

Fig. 392. View of Complete Wiring System Simplified 

the chassis frame. Be sure the connecting surfaces are clean, free 
from paint, and securely connected. Connect the tail-light wire 8 
to the tail lamp. Tail lamps are usually made with a single wire 
connector, but, if the lamp has two wire connectors, another wire 


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should run from the [second 
terminal of the connector to the 
metal framework of the car. 
Connect the short starting 
cable 4 (negative) and the 
green and red wire to the start- 
ing-switch terminal nearest the 
battery* Then pass the end of 
the battery cable through the 
foremost insulator [in the mud 
guard. Attach the end of the 
starting cable 5, leading 
through the rear hole in the 
mud guard, to the second bolt 
in the transmission case. Use 
a lock washer and a plain 
washer under the head of the 
bolt to insure permanent con- 
tact. Connect the long bat- 
tery cable (positive) to the sec- 
ond transmission bolt and 
secure with a plain washer and 
a lock washer. Then pass the 
end of the cable through the 
rear insulator in themudguard. 
Attach to the starting-switch 
terminal 6, securely, the end 
of the cable which runs to the 
starter. Support the starter 
cable 7 by a clip to the inside 
curved edge of the dash. When 
connecting cables to the bat- 
tery, be sure that the terminals 
are securely fastened — firm 
contact must be made. The 
battery terminals are made of 
lead and must be handled care- 
fully. Battery-cable terminals 


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differ slightly in size and correspond to the holes in the battery 
terminal, the negative-cable terminal being the smaller. Pass the 
foremost cables 8 through the battery-box insulator and connect 
them firmly to the negative battery terminal. Do not connect 
the positive cable to the battery or insert the fuses until the instal- 
lation has been made in accordance with the instructions and tests 
show that wires are not in contact with the frame of the car. Turn 
the lighting switch off and touch the positive terminal lightly to the 
battery terminal. If there is a spark, it indicates a short-circuit or 
a ground, caused by a wire coming in contact with the frame. 
Remedy the trouble before connecting up the battery. If there is 
no spark, permanent connection may be made. The lamp-test set 
may be used to determine 
whether there are any 
grounds or short-circuits, 
before connecting up the 

When all indications 
show that the installation 
has been made properly, 
connect the positive start- 
ing cable to the positive 
terminal 9 of the battery. 
Place and secure the 
cover 10 on the battery 
box. Place fuse 11 in fuse clip of lighting switch. Fig. 394 shows 
details of the different types of lamps. 

Instructions. Oil the two generator bearings and the two motor 
bearings every 200 miles, keeping oil-well covers closed The chain 
must be kept well adjusted. When the unit is first installed or when 
a new chain has been fitted, the chain should be adjusted occasionally 
during the first 500 miles of travel until all stretch has been taken 
out of it. After this distance has been run, the chain stretch will 
be slight. Never allow the chain to run slack. 

To adjust the chain, release five clamping nuts (2 nuts in the rear 
of the bracket at the top, 2 in front of the bracket at the bottom, and 
1 at the right-hand side) a few turns to permit the bracket to slide. 
Then adjust the chain to moderate tension by turning the adjusting 

Fig. 394. Details of Gray & Davis Ford Lamps 


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screw at the top of the bracket and tighten the check nut and adjust- 
ing screw to lock the adjustment. Then retighten all five clamping 
nuts securely. Turn the engine by hand to determine whether the 
chain runs smoothly; the chain should not be too tight. After long 
service, when all chain adjustment has been taken up, the chain may 
be shortened by taking out a pair of links. The latest type of chain is 
supplied with a removable pair of links, retained in position by two 
removable pins. These pins are a trifle longer than the regular 
riveted pins. 

Where the chain has been shortened, it is sometimes necessary 
to lower the supporting bracket slightly by removing some of the 
A-inch washers under the bracket or by filing the spacers slightly, so 
that the chain will be tight when the unit is in the lowest possible 

Wires are subject to dislodgement and injury, hence they should 
be examined carefully to see that they are not resting on sharp edges 
of metal and that the insulation is not worn or injured. See that none 
of the wires are swinging or rubbing against metal, as this is likely to 
injure the insulation. Also examine the cables leading through the 
battery box and mud guards; the bushings must be intact and in place 
to protect the cables from short-circuiting. Wherever injury to any 
part of the insulation is found, wrap the spot carefully with insulating 
tape and bend away from the metal to provide sufficient clearance to 
prevent further damage. 

If the lamps fail to light when the lighting switch is operated, 
the fuse on the back of the lighting switch should be examined; it may 
be burned out, broken, or not properly clamped in its fuse clips. 
The wires may not be properly connected (this should be checked by 
wiring diagram), the bulbs may be burned out, or the filaments may 
be broken. The lamp wiring may be short-circuited or the charging 
circuit may be open. 

Do not run the engine with the battery disconnected or off the 
car without first insulating or removing two of the generator brushes 
to prevent the generator from generating a current. To determine 
if generator is operating properly, turn on the head and tail lamps 
while the engine is idle. Start the engine and accelerate to charging 
speed or over; a perceptible brightening of the lamps will indicate 
that the machine is generating sufficient current both to charge the 


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battery and to light the lamps. Do not open the charging circuit at 
any time when the engine is running. 

Testing Generator with Ammeter. A more accurate determina- 
tion may be made by connecting an ammeter in the circuit. Discon- 
nect the red and green wire connected to the fuse terminal on the back 
of the lighting switch and connect it to one terminal of the ammeter. 
From the other terminal of the ammeter, connect a wire to the fuse 
terminal to which the red and green wire was previously connected. 
Turn the lights on with the engine idle. The ammeter should regis- 
ter "discharge", the reading representing the amount consumed by 
the lamps turned on, i.e., head and tail lamps, 5 to 6 amperes; side and 
tail lamps, 1J to 2 amperes. If the ammeter indicated "charge" 
instead of "discharge", with the lamps turned on and the engine idle, 
reverse the wires connected to the ammeter terminals. In case the 
ammeter does not register, see that the pointer is not jammed, other- 
wise, the circuit is open at some point or the battery is exhausted. 

Run the engine at a speed corresponding to 12 to 15 miles per 
hour, the lights being turned off. If the ammeter registers "charge", 
. the generator is then charging the battery. Increase the engine speed 
to a car speed corresponding to 13 to 18 miles per hour. The ammeter 
reading should then be from 12 to 15 amperes. As the engine speed 
is increased above 18 miles per hour, the charging rate will decrease 
gradually to approximately 10 amperes at very high speed. With the 
engine running at 12 miles an hour or faster, turn the lights on; 
the charging rate should drop according to the number and size of the 
lamps turned on (see current consumed by each lamp as given above). 
Turn the lights off and, while permitting the engine to slow down, 
observe the ammeter. It should drop to zero at approximately 0- 
to 2-ampere charge. 


Preliminary Operations. Before beginning the installation, 
adjust the ignition and the carburetor so that the engine is working 
efficiently. Remove the radiator and the radiator tie rod; disconnect 
the water-inlet pipe from the side of the cylinder, but do not break the 
hose connection; also disconnect the water-outlet pipe from the upper 
forward end of the cylinder block. Remove the priming wire that 
protrudes through the front of the radiator and is connected to the 


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carburetor; disconnect the wires from the headlights, first removing 
the plugs from the sockets; and disconnect the wires from the connect- 
ing plugs. The radiator can now be lifted from the frame. After 
it has been removed, disconnect the water-outlet pipe from the hose 
and discard the latter. Remove and discard the ground-wire connec- 
tion of the Ford lighting system, which will be found soldered to the 
lower left-hand corner of the back side of the radiator. 

Remove the fan and the starting crank and the fan pulley. 
To take off the pulley, first remove the two cotter pins from the pin 
holding the fan pulley on the end of the crankshaft. Throw the speed 
lever in gear (allowing it to go forward to engage the clutch) and push 
the car forward or backward enough to turn the motor over so that 

the pin is in a vertical 

SSr-d /ocAtng nut 

position, which will per- 
mit driving the^pin down 
through the hole in the 
engine frame. Then re- 
move the fan pulley and 
discard it with [its start- 
ing pin and cotters. 

Disconnect the ad- 
vance rod from the timer 
case, placing the rod to 
the right to keep it out of the way of subsequent operations. Take 
out the cap screw running through the breather pipe. This will 
release the spring holding the timer housing in place, and the timer 
housing can be lifted off. Place it to the left, but do not disconnect the 
wires. Note carefully the position of the timer, or commutator- 
brush assembly, and then remove it from the camshaft by taking off 
the nut, the small steel brush cap, and the retaining pin holding the 
brush assembly to the shaft. Do not turn the motor over while the 
timer brush assembly is off, and be sure to replace it in its original 
position when reassembling. In this way the timing of the engine 
will not be deranged. 

The timing gear, or cylinder front cover, should then be removed, 
retaining all the bolts, the nuts, the gaskets, and the cotter pins, for 
replacement in mounting the main-bracket plate 785 of the Heinze 
equipment, Figs. 395 and 396. It is necessary that the felt washers 

Fig. 395 

5. Correct Assembly for Belt Tightei 
Heinse-Springfield Ford Installation 

ner for 


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in this timing-gear cover around the crankshaft and the camshaft 
be removed and inserted in the corresponding positions on the new 
main bracket plate which takes the place of this cover. In case the 
car has seen considerable service and these felt washers are worn, it is 
advisable to replace them with new ones; otherwise, there will be a, 
dangerous leakage of oil from the crankcase. 

Secure the water-outlet header 834, Fig. 396, in place on the 
cylinder-head casting, using tjie original Ford bolts and gasket. 
Place the fan-belt tightener 865, Fig. 395, with the nose away from the 
large gear housing, in the slide provided for it on the main bracket 
plate 785. Remove the fan-adjusting screws and the locking nut 
from the Ford timing-gear housing plate and use them together with 
the two lock washers (9X10) and the plain washer (2X48), as shown 
in Fig. 395. Set the main bracket plate in position on the engine and 
bolt it securely in place, using the original paper gasket, the cap 
screws, the bolts, the nuts, and the cotter pin. Then bolt the main 
bracket plate 785 to the water-outlet header 834, using the two 
bolts (26X1), the lock washers (9X10), and the plain washers (2X48), 
Fig. 396. The commutator-brush assembly and the housing should 
now be r replaced, taking care to put them in their original posi- 
tions; then connect the spark-advance rod on the commutator 

Installing the Unit. Generator-Motor. The generator-motor 
unit should now be placed in position on the main bracket plate 
with the chain-adjusting stud 829 in place on the unit. This chain- 
adjusting stud should rest freely in the bottom of the slot at the top of 
the main bracket plate. Assemble on this chain-adjusting stud 829, 
the plain washer (2X44), the lock washer (9X12), and the nut 
(20X 13). Place the lower adjusting bolt 868 in the slot provided for 
it on the main bracket plate. A lock washer (9X12) and a nut 
(20X13) are provided for this bolt. Place these in their respective 
positions, but do not tighten either the upper or the lower 6hain- 
adjusting bolts at this time. 

With the unit loosely in place, proceed with the chain equipment 
as follows: Place the generator-shaft spacer 856 and the Woodruff 
key (2.1 X9) on the generator shaft, Fig. 396. Place the gear and the 
sprocket assembly 919 also on the generator shaft, so that the large 
gear is on the inside toward the main bracket plate. Place the chain 


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811 around the sprocket 776 and also around the small sprocket on 
the generator shaft, taking particular care that the open side of the 
crankshaft sprocket is toward the front of the car. With the two 
sprockets and the chain in this position, slide the crankshaft sprocket 
776 and the gear and the sprocket assembly 919 into place on the 
crankshaft and on the generator shaft, respectively, taking care that 
the starting-pin hole in both the crankshaft and the crankshaft 
sprocket 776 are in alignment. Insert the starting pin 814 with the 
counterbore of the cotter-pin holes toward the front of the car. 
These holes are also to line up with the two corresponding holes in the 
rear wall of the crankshaft sprocket 776. When the two cotter pins 
(3X7) are inserted, it is necessary that they be placed clear through 
and bent over flat against 
the rear face of the crank- 
shaft sprocket 776. Unless 
secured in this manner, 
Fig. 397, there is great 
danger of the cotter pins 
breaking off and allowing 
the starting pin 814 to 
come out. This will 
result in serious damage 
to the entire system. By 

ffat ooatnstOaeA « 

ffat ooatn 

Z)riv0 cottitrpins 

r'n /lush mtfft 

starting pin. 

Fig. 397. Correct Heinse-Springfield Assembly 
of Crankshaft Sprocket 

means of the fillister-head cap screw (25X1), Fig. 396, in the upper 
chain-adjusting stud 829, raise the generator-motor unit until the chain 
is reasonably tight. Then securely lock it in position by tightening 
the upper and the lower holding-stud nuts (20X13). The generator- 
motor unit and the driving-chain equipment are then securely 

Chain Drive. The chain cover 832 is next to be placed in posi- 
tion, Fig. 396, using the cap screws (26X5) and the lock washers 
(9X9)* to hold it securely to the main bracket plate. Place one of the 
fan-belt guards 841 on the generator shaft, with the three projections 
toward the front of the car. Then assemble the fan-belt pulley 828 
against this guard and complete the fan-belt pulley assembly with the 
other fan-belt guard 841, this time, however, placing the three pro- 
jections toward the rear of the car. These projections serve as 
centering points for the guards on the fan pulley, and the guards must 


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be assembled with the projections toward the pulley. This assembly 
should be locked securely to the generator shaft by the use of the plain 
washer (2X44) and the castellated nut (14X5). The cotter pin 
(3X7) must then be placed through the end of the shaft to lock this 
nut. Next install the motor rear-stiffening bracket 858 on the motor- 
brush head, using the bolt (25X4) and the washer (2X48). under the 
bolt head. Do not tighten this bolt until after drawing down 
the cylinder-head bolt securing the bracket to the engine. 

Over the old Ford fan pulley assemble the two half pulleys 784, 
using the screws 804, the lock washers (9X6), and the nuts 
(13 X 12), Fig. 396. By this means, the fan belt runs closer to the fan 
blades than before. Now mount the fan in position on the main 
bracket plate 785, using the original Ford screw. Place the lock 
washer (9X12) between the Ford fan bracket and the main bracket 
plate, to lock the fan bracket securely in place. Adjust the new fan 
belt 836 over the two pulleys to the proper tension. 

Bendix Drive. Next install the Bendix drive 812 on the starting- 
motor shaft, Fig. 396. Remove the drive bolt of the Bendix unit 
and place the latter on the shaft; then replace the drive through the 
hole in the end of the shaft and secure by means of the lock washer and 
the nut, taking care to bend the small projection on the special Bendix 
lock washer upward against the side of the nut. 

Fined Assembly. Before replacing the radiator, put back the 
hand crank and turn the engine over several times by hand to note 
that everything is properly installed and operates freely. Solder one 
end of each headlight ground wire to the inside face of the radiator, 
bringing the wires out through the holes provided for the headlight 
wiring, and be sure to allow sufficient wire to reach the head- 
light sockets. Then replace the radiator, using all the original bolts, 
nuts, gaskets, and cotter pins. It is advisable to turn the fan blades 
over slowly by hand before using the starting crank to make sure that 
the blades do not interfere with any part of the starting system or with 
the radiator. It is advisable to replace the hose connections of the 
radiator with new ones, and they must be tightened up very carefully 
to guard against leaks. When refilling the radiator, it should be 
noted whether there is the slightest sign of a leak and, if there is, it 
should be corrected at once, as any water falling on the starting 
system will injure it. 


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Switch and Wiring. Remove both the front and the rear floor 
boards from the car. About one inch to the right of where the steer- 
ing post passes through the dash, there is a hole in the toe board, which 
was originally provided for the horn tube. Remove this board and 
enlarge the hole to the left about 1£ inches, using this hole to bring 
the wiring through from the motor to the switch. Remove the Ford 
"magneto to coil" connection and also the "switch to terminal wire" 
connection and discard both of them. Also remove and discard all 
of the old headlight wiring. With the switch bracket in hand, see 
that the stay rod is screwed in flush with the face of the bracket. 
Next place the switch in the bracket so that the "off" position of 
the switch is on top, or nearest the switch-bracket flange. Fasten the 
switch securely to the switch bracket by means of four flat-headed 

Take the complete wiring assembly as received, enclosed in the 
13-inch length of the circular loom, and, with the switch mounted in 
the switch bracket, connect the wires, being careful to assemble the 
proper terminals on the proper binding posts, Fig. 398, as follows: 
one large wire with the terminal SM on the post SM; one large wire 
and one small wire SB on the post SB. There then remain three small 
wires with the terminals C, M, and L, which are to be placed under 
the heads of the spring-terminal posts bearing the corresponding 
letters. The spring terminal AM is for the ammeter only. 

Assemble the switch and the bracket on the dash. By use of the 
two switch-bracket clamps, the fillister-head screws, and the lock 
washers, fasten the switch bracket to the dash, slightly to the left of 
the steering post, in such a position tfyat the hole in the end of the 
stay rod will line up with the Ford body bolt. Remove the nut 
from this bolt and clamp the stay rod securely. The foregoing 
instructions refer to the Ford touring car, the runabout, and the coupe- 
let models. 

In the case of the sedan model, by the use of three round-head 
blued wood screws, fasten the switch bracket to the dash, slightly to 
the left of the steering post, in such a position that the hole in the end 
of the stay rod will line up with the Ford body bolt. Remove the 
nut from this bolt and clamp the stay rod securely. This is a special 
stay rod 943 and is supplied only for the sedan model, so that the 
latter must be specified in ordering. 


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Coil and Magneto Wiring. Extending through the 13-inch length 
of the circular loom are two wires, one end of each being < connected 
to the spring terminals C and M on the back of the switch, Fig. 398. 
Connect the wire from the terminal C to the magneto terminal on the 
rear of the Ford coil box; connect the wire from the terminal M to 
the magneto contact on the flywheel housing. These two terminals 
were formerly connected by the Ford "magneto to coil wire", which 
has been discarded, Fig. 399. 

Charging Wire and Starting Cable. On the back of the switch 
on the post SB are connected one large and one small wire, Fig. 398. 
The small wire is to be connected to the terminal on the regu- 
lator A. On the back of the switch on the post SM is connected 
the "switch to starting motor" cable, on the other end of which the 
terminal M is to be connected to the upper, or positive, starting- 
motor brush. 

Wiring for Lights. On the back of the switch on the spring termi- 
nal post L is connected a lighting cable, which is to be connected to 
the headlights and the tail light, Fig. 398. Three wires are provided 
which are to be used to ground one side of each light. To ground the 
tail light, run the ground wire under the tail-light frame bolt. If an 
oil lamp is used, tape the end of the light wire which is provided for an 
electric tail light and secure it to the tail-light bracket, so that if the 
electric light is subsequently installed, the wiring will be there for it. 
Secure the lighting cable to the car frame at several convenient points 
to keep it free from oil and to prevent chafing, which would cause 
grounding of the lighting circuit. When single-contact lamps are 
used, ground wires are not necessary, as one side of the lamp socket 
itself is grounded. 

Battery Cables. Before connecting the positive (+) battery 
terminal to the switch terminal and the negative ( — ) battery termi- 
nal to the ground cable, be sure that the switch is in the "off" position. 
Then connect these wires as follows : Under the front floor board is the 
Ford transmission-case cover which is held in place by six bolts. 
Remove the upper right-hand bolt and assemble under this the 
starting-cable clamp. From the post SB on the back of the switch, 
Fig. 398, run the positive battery to the switch cable, placing it under 
the starting-cable clamp. Pass this cable through the circular loom 
placed between the running-board apron and the bottom of the body, 


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and through the hole in the battery box to the positive terminal of the 
storage battery. 

Remove the two lowest bolts on the transmission-case cover 
and clean the transmission-case cover with a piece of sandpaper or 
emery cloth to insure a good electrical contact at this point. Under 
these bolt heads, assemble the brass ground strip on one end of the 
negative of the battery to the ground cable and run the other end 
through the circular loom mentioned above, then through the hole in 
the battery box to the negative terminal of the storage battery. 
Tighten these wires securely to the storage-battery terminals, using 
pliers for this purpose. 

Installing the Battery. On all the different types of Ford cars, 
the battery is placed on the right-hand running board, midway 
between the front and the rear fenders, particular notice being taken 
that the battery box does not interfere with opening the door. In the 
bottom of the battery box are six holes, the four inside holes being 
provided for the four carriage bolts holding the battery box on the 
running board, and the two outside holes being provided for the two 
battery hold-down rods which hold the storage battery securely in 
place. Six corresponding holes A inch in diameter must be drilled 
in the running board, to correspond to the six holes in the bottom of 
the battery box. Two wood pads are provided, which are to be 
placed inside the battery box. Two steel reinforcing pads are also 
provided, which are to be used under the running board. Place the 
four carriage bolts down through the wood pads, the battery box, 
the running board, and the steel pads, and clamp by means of 
carriage-bolt nuts. Next place the storage battery in the battery box 
with the positive (+) terminal toward a rear of the car, and by means 
of the hold-down rods which are hooked over the handles of the 
storage battery, fasten securely, using lock washers and nuts. 

At a point midway between the two wire holes in the battery box, 
pry down a part of the running-board apron with a large screwdriver 
or a pinch bar, providing sufficient space between the running-board 
apron and the bottom of the body for the four-inch length of the 
circular loom through which the two battery cables pass. 

Choker, or Priming-Rod, Assembly. On the air-gate lever of 
the carburetor, connect one end of the choker cord under the outside 
bolt which connects the carburetor and the inlet pipe, assemble 


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the choker loop in a vertical position, and pass the choker cord 
through the upper loop. On the dash, to the left of the carburetor 
adjustment, drill a i-inch hole. Through this hole pass the other end 
of the choker cord and connect the choker ring. This choker assem- 
bly displaces the Ford choker wire (carburetor-priming device), 
which extends through the radiator before the starting system has 
been installed. It is used to shut the air supply from the carburetor, 
so as to increase the suction through the carburetor nozzle and facili- 
tate starting. 

Tail and Side Lights, Horn, Etc. The use of an electric tail 
lamp is not necessary to the operation of the system. Provision has 
been made for an electric tail lamp, which is not furnished with the 
equipment, but, owing to the small additional cost and its great 
convenience, its use is advised. It should be wired as shown in the 
wiring diagrams, Figs. 398 and 400. If a single-contact tail lamp is 
used, it is not necessary to employ the ground wire, as one side of the 
lamp socket is already grounded to the car frame. In as much as 
there is emobdied in the lighting system a light-dimming resistance for 
the headlights, which is governed by the combination switch, it is not 
advisable to convert the oil side lamps to electric. The horn supplied 
on the Ford (No. 196 and later models) car is operated by the alternat- 
ing current from the magneto. This horn may be used without inter- 
fering with the starting system, but cannot be operated by the 
storage battery. If desired, a direct-current horn may be installed 
and should be connected as shown in Figs. 400 and 401. 

Ammeter and Dash Lamp. These are not furnished with the 
system as described, but may be had at an additional cost. This 
equipment consists of a switch bracket and an ammeter reading to 30 
amperes, charge and discharge; a single-contact dash lamp with a 
self-contained switch and all the necessary wiring. In order to con- 
nect the ammeter in the charging circuit, there must be a spring 
binding post on the back of the combination switch AM, Fig. 400. 
All of the later combination switches of this make are fitted with this 
binding post. On the back of the combination switch, from the spring 
binding post AM to the round-head screw, there is connected a small 
flat brass strip. Break this strip connection by cutting in the center, 
using the pliers or a hack saw. Connect the ammeter and the dash 
lamp in the circuit, as shown, being very careful to connect the wire 


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from the post SB to the "discharge" side of the ammeter and 
the wire from the spring binding post AM to the "charge" side of the 
ammeter. One end of the charging wire, running from the battery 
positive terminal of the regulator and the cut-out to the terminal SB 
on the back of the switch, must be changed over from the terminal 
SB to the binding post AM, Figs. 398 and 400. 

Testing and Operation. Place the brake lever, the spark, and the 
throttle levers in the usual starting position, then unlock and rotate 
the combination switch lever to any of the three positions desired, 
as follows: "lights off, ignition on"; "lights dim, ignition on"; 
"lights bright, ignition on". Depress the starting button in the 
center of the combination switch. This sends the current from 
the storage battery through the starting motor, and the rotation of 
the starting motor causes the small gear on the Bendix shaft to mesh 
with the gear on the generator shaft. Riveted to this gear is the 
sprocket over which the silent chain runs. During the interval that 
the starting motor is in operation, a heavy current is drawn from the 
storage battery, and, if the lights are on, there will be a perceptible 
dimming caused by the decrease in the battery voltage. This is 
especially noticeable when the battery is nearly discharged, and will 
also be more apparent when the engine is stiff and hard to crank, or 
when there is a loose connection in the battery circuit. Although a 
fully charged battery is capable of cranking the engine for several 
minutes, it is 'not [advisable to continue cranking longer than a few 
seconds, owing to the heavy discharge. If the engine does not start 
in this time, the choking device should be used to prime the carbu- 
retor. Should this not start the engine, investigate the cause before 
cranking further, as otherwise the battery will be exhausted. Fre- 
quent discharging of the battery in this way shortens its life. The 
front and the rear bearings of the starting motor should be oiled every 
500 miles, though the Bendix drive-screw shaft should never be oiled 
nor lubricated in any way. The screw gear works to the best advan- 
tage when the shaft is dry. 

As the mounting bracket is bolted to the machined surface of 
the timing-gear housing of the engine, the silent chain must be 
kept in good alignment at all times, and it must also be kept suffi- 
ciently tight to prevent it from striking the chain guard as well as to 
avoid the possibility of the chain teeth riding the sprocket, in which 


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case the chain will break because of the severe strain placed upon it. 

The battery cut-out is designed to close when the car is traveling 

about 6 miles per hour, at which speed the charging current is 

about 4 amperes, increasing rapidly to 10 to 12 amperes at 10 miles 

per hour. After the car has been run the first hundred miles with the 

starting system in operation, the chain should be adjusted to take up 

the slack caused by the stretch ; after that it should be inspected about 

every 300 miles. The operation of the regulator and the care of the 

system is given in detail in connection with the general descriptions, 

in alphabetical order. 


Preparing Engine. This is a twelve-volt two-unit type, the two 
members of which, for convenience in mounting, are combined as a 

Fig. 402. Crankshaft Pin and Sprocket on Fisher Ford Installation 

single mechanical unit. To install, the radiator, the water connec- 
tions, the fan, the starting crank, and the fan pulley on the crankshaft 
must be removed. The lower water connection, or elbow, at the side 
of the cylinder block need not be taken off, but must be loosened. 
Place the new sprocket 102FB5A, Fig. 402, on the end of the crank- 
shaft, driving the pin // through the cross-hole in the end of the 
crankshaft, burring the pin slightly so that it cannot drop out. This 
secures the sprocket to the engine crankshaft. The pin F is placed 
in the sprocket before shipment. 

Then slip the pulley 102FB7A over the end of the sprocket up to 
the shoulder. Secure the pulley by several center punch marks 
between the end of the sprocket and the internal diameter of the 
pulley at 1). If it is desired to retain the Ford starting crank in place 


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(this is preferable to carrying it in the tool box), cut A inch off the 
crank ratchet C, Fig. 402, at the shoulder B — the original hole in 
the crank ratchet C and the starting crank are not disturbed. If 
there are burrs on the crank ratchet or if it is too large to enter the 
chain sprocket, the tips must be filed off or turned down in a lathe. 

Mounting the Starting Unit. Remove the right-hand bolt of the 
top water connection 102FB16, Fig. 403, and the second bolt on top 
of the cylinder 102FB12. If there are rough places on the casting 
under these bolts, they must be removed. Take from the starting 
unit bracket 102FB3 and place the bracket in the position shown in 
Fig. 403. Between the bracket 102FB3 and the water connection 
is placed a heavy steel spacing washer. The bracket must be bolted 
securely in place against the water connection by the bolt 102FB12. 
The careful placing of the bracket and the clamping of these bolts is 
essential to the successful operation of the installation. After the 
bolts mentioned are securely in place, turn the set screw 102FB10 until 
it rests securely and firmly on the engine casting and, when it is firmly 
bedded, lock it securely by screwing home the lock nut. The purpose 
of this set screw is to take care of the stresses between the shaft of 
the generator and the crankshaft of the engine ; note that the end of the 
screw must rest on the casting, otherwise the driving chain may be 

Place the starting unit 102S1 A on the bracket and clamp it in its 
lowest position with the nuts on the studs. A long-shank T-wrench 
is the handiest to use for this work. The chain, which is coupled with 
a bolt and a cotter pin, may now be put in position. Roll the chain 
under the sprocket 102FB5B and on the sprocket 102FB13 on the 
electric unit. Bring the links together and slip the bolt through 
toward the radiator and put the washer and the cotter pin in place. 
Tighten the chain by loosening the nuts, Fig. 403, holding the 
starter to the bracket and the nuts 102FB18, then turning the set 
screws 102FB11 up until the chain feels taut when pressed with the 
fingers. Tighten the bracket nuts and the lock nuts 102FB18. Turn 
the engine over a few times with the starter and tighten the chain 
again. This should be repeated after the car has been in use a few 
days. The life and the service of the chain will be greatly increased 
by keeping the proper tension on it, particularly during the first few 
days it is in use, when it is stretching. 


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Separate the split pulley 102FB9, Fig. 404, and the clamp* on 
the shaft of the fan between the brass pulley and the fan blades by 
the two screws. The diameter of the bore of this pulley is slightly less 
than that of the neck of the fan so that it may be filed down with a 
round file to fit the neck of the fan pulley. When this pulley is in 
position, hook the round belt 102FB8A, Fig. 403, furnished with the 
equipment, over the pulley on the crankshaft and the pulley 
on the fan. 

Remove the plug from the top of the electric unit and, with the 
aid of a grease gun, squirt one-half pint of good transmission grease 
into the gear case of the unit, and then replace the plug. This will 
lubricate the gears for a period of six months. 



Fig. 404. Part Section of Fisher Split Pulley 

Battery and Wiring. The battery box may be located on either 
running board as convenience dictates, holes being drilled in the 
apron to pass the battery cables. Place short pieces of ^-inch 
"flexduct", or circular loom, in the wiring holes through the battery 
box and the metal apron of the car and the 1-inch flexduct between 
the transmission cover and the engine hanger on the left and let it 
extend back past the brake pedals. Place the instrument board 
carrying the ammeter, the lighting switch, the starting switch, 
and the dash lamp, under the cowl dash to the left of the steering 
column. The length of the wires necessary to connect the battery 
to the various essentials can now be measured to suit this particular 

Run the large negative starter cable from the negative ( — ) post 
of the battery through the flexduct insulation in the battery box and 
by the transmission case to the negative post on the motor. From 


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the positive terminal of the battery, run a cable through the flexduct 
insulation to the binding post of the starting switch, as shown in 

Fig. 405; from the other 
binding post run a cable 
to the positive brush 
holder of the motor. 
The terminals on these 
cables should be sol- 
dered, and the binding 
posts tightened with a 
wrench. (Whenever sol- 
dering has to be done 
on electric wires, use a 
noncorrosive flux and 
not an acid, as the latter 
not only is an electrical 
conductor but will also 
corrode the joint sur- 

Run the lighting 
cable from the lower 
brush G on the starting 
unit and connect to the 
terminal G on the relay. 
Connect another light- 
ing cable from the post 
S on the generator to 
the post S on the relay. 
Run a lighting cable 
from the lighting switch 
to the side lamps, as 
shown, grounding one 
side on some metal part 
of the chassis. Take 
the wire running to the 
headlights from the 
original push-button switch on the car and connect it to the proper 
binding post on the new lighting switch. Connect the lighting cable 


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from one side of the dash lamp to the tail lamp, grounding one side of 
the tail lamp, as shown. When the wiring is finished as above outlined, 
test each circuit, making certain that all the connections have been 
made in accordance with the wiring diagram, Fig. 405. Solder and tape 
all the joints, and tighten all the terminals with a wrench. Close the 
ignition switch, press the starter button, and the engine should be 
turned over by the starting unit. As soon as the engine begins to run 
at a fair speed, the ammeter should indicate a charge going into the 
battery. Then stop the engine and turn on the lights; the ammeter 
should then show a discharge reading. 

Operating Instructions. As is the case with the majority of 
Ford starting systems, the choker wire to the carburetor is taken from 
the front of the radiator and carried up through the dash. In cold 
weather it is always advisable to pull this wire and flood the car- 
buretor when starting. Driving the starter with a loose chain is 
dangerous and should be avoided, so that the tension of the chain 
should be inspected at regular intervals until it has seen sufficient 
service to have stopped stretching. The starter — that is, the gener- 
ator — must not be run with the battery disconnected unless the small 
wire S is removed from the binding post on the generator. Xo 
attempt should ever be made to start with the spark lever advanced. 
Instructions for the care of the brushes and the commutator, the loca- 
tion of short-circuits, grounds, and the like, will be found to be the 
same as those outlined in connection with the description of other 

Ford systems. 


Preparing Engine. While a single unit of the chain-driven type, 
this differs from the others of this type already described only in the 
details of the chain drive. Remove the radiator and the water con- 
nections, the fan, the fan bracket, the screw for adjusting the 
fan, the fan pulley on the crankshaft, the starting crank, the timer 
rod for the advancing and the retarding ignition timing, one bolt 
holding the gear-case cover to make place for the stud 2394, and five 
bolts on the lower flange of engine base to make place for the bolts 2369, 
Fig. 406. Before removing the timer rod, carefully mark the timer 
housing and place a corresponding mark on the timing-gear case in 
order that the ignition timing of the motor may not be altered when the 
new timer rod, provided with the North East equipment, is installed. 


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Mounting Starter. The numbers for the various parts given in 
the following instructions for installing the unit, all refer to the illus- 
tration, Fig. 406. Place 
the chain sprocket 2374 
on. the crankshaft and 
fasten with the pin orig- 
inally used for holding 
the Ford fan pulley; re- 
place a split cotter pin in 
each end of the large pin 
for locking purposes, as 
in the original mount- 
ing. Then replace the 
starting crank. Screw 
the stud 2388 in place 
and lock it by passing a 
split cotter pin through 
the hole at the inner 
end. Be sure that the 
shoulder of this stud 
is brought up tight 
against the finished face 
on the timing-gear hous- 
ing (casting), so that 
the stud will be in abso- 
lute alignment with the 

Screw the stud 2394 
in place and lock it with 
a cotter pin. If the boss 
of the timing-gear hous- 
it should be smoothed 
down with a file before 
screwing home the stud. 
Fasten the hinge bracket 2396 by five bolts 2369, inserting them from 
below, and lock the nuts used on these bolts by split cotter pins; then 
assemble the cradle 2395 with the generator-motor unit in the hinge 

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bracket, being sure to place the split cotter pins at eaph end of the 
hinge pin 2399 for locking purposes. 

If necessary to clear the sprocket bracket, chip off a slight amount 
of the vertical rib on the gear cover of the engine directly over the 
crankshaft bearing. Mount the assembled sprocket bracket 2379 on 
the studs 2388 and 2394. Be sure that one washer 2478 is placed 
on the stud 2388 before mounting the bracket; pay strict attention to 
see that there is no clearance between the shoulder of the stud and 
the bracket. If necessary, place filler washers on this stud so that 
no strain will be placed on the bracket when the nut on the clamp stud 
2394 is securely fastened. It is very necessary that the chain sprockets 
be in absolute alignment. Be sure to use a straightedge tq make certain 
that the sprockets line up accurately. This is very important. To 
take care of any longitudinal variation; filler washers are supplied for 
placing on the mounting studs between the sprocket bracket and the 
shoulders of the studs. These filler washers should be used if neces- 
sary to bring the sprockets into proper alignment. After the sprockets 
have been accurately lined up, mount the timer rod 2475. 

Mount the horizontal chain by threading downward over the large 
sprocket on the countershaft (upper shaft), then around the motor- 
generator sprocket, and make the connection by inserting the master 
link from the rear. Then mount and connect the vertical chain 
in a similar manner. Make sure that the connecting links are 
properly locked after the loose side plates are in place. Adjust the 
vertical chain to a moderate tension by relieving the nut on the clamp 
stud 2394 and screwing down the adjusting screw 601, Fig. 406. 
After adjustment has been made, be sure to lock the adjusting screw 
by means of the jam nut and screw down the nut on the clamp stud 
which has been previously relieved. 

To adjust the horizontal chain, release the clasp nut 626 and turn 
the generator toward the engine. This will take up the slack in the 
chain. Cut off the fan pulley with a hack saw so that the hub on 
the fan will be f inch long, as shown in Fig. 406. Make certain that 
the one fiber] washer 3138 is first placed on the shaft, then the fan, 
then another fiber washer 3138, then the two steel washers 3130 with 
the spring 3140 between them. Pressure should be applied to com- 
press the spring until the cotter pin 646 can be dropped through the 
hole in the end of the shaft. This is important, as it forms a friction 


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clutch strong enough to drive the fan and at the same time provides 
for a certain amount of relief to the sprockets, the chain, and the fan. 

Turn the engine over by hand to inspect the working of the chain. 
Make careful examination to be sure that all the bolts and all the nuts 
are in place and properly fastened. Oil both the chains with a liberal 
amount of semi-liquid graphite grease. 

Mounting Battery. Install the battery on the runabout, as 
shown in Fig. 407; on touring cars the battery should be mounted 
under the rear seat, as far forward as possible. To mount the battery, 
cut holes through the floor board of the car, large enough to clear the 
battery. Lay the board 3141, Fig. 408, on the upper face of the lower 
flange of the frame panels and bolt firmly by using steel clamping 
strips 3142 placed on the underside of the channel frame. Now 
fasten the battery in place by means of the hook bolts 2460, being sure 

1 Cafj/ot/or eai'e m f/oor 

Vr*iv A>*A toward rrtrr ' I 
of car sAoM/rtTf /ocatro* of 
fighting sur/ felt on /tee/- 
*°arcl arret mef/tocf of 
STtourr/irtg 6offiery. 


0r:;//*,oit/,o/* 3l '' ') 

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Afr/Aocf of w 

Stokfrng Domrn lottery 



Fig. 408. Details of North East Switch Wiring 

that the flat washers and the lock washers are placed between the 
board and the nuts on the bolts. If the muffler interferes, it is well 
to cut a groove in the board to clear it and to place a piece of asbestos 
sheeting between the board and the muffler. 

When the car is not already equipped with electric lamps, it will 
be necessary to install new lights or to mount reflectors in the head- 
lights and adapters, or sockets, in the side and the rear lamps. 
Mount the lighting switch and run wires to all the lamps and to the 
battery location, but do not connect the wires to the battery as yet. 
Also run the wires to the motor-generator, Figs. 407, 408, and 409. 
Special care should be taken that all the wires are made fast to 
the wood body and that the insulation on the wires is doubly pro- 
tected by tape or circular loom where the wires pass through the sheet 
metal. For fastening the wires, use leather cleats and insulated 
staples as supplied. 


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Replace the radiator, taking care not to omit the gaskets and the 
leather radiator seats, and, at the same time, mount the starting 
switch 2367, Fig. 406, by the bolts holding the flange of the return- 
water tube to the engine. After completing this, fill the radiator. 
Also mount the guide bracket 2368 for the starting button 2366, as 
shown in Fig. 409. Connect the switch wires to the motor generator, 
as shown in Figs. 406 and 407. Replace the floor boards, after 
notching them so as to clear the conduit running from the lighting 
switch downward. Carefully connect the battery wires to the two 
wires coming from the general circuit. Connect one lead at a time 
and carefully wrap the connector with tape before making another 
connection. Be sure to use plenty]of insulating tape over these connec- 
tions so that they will be well protected. After the connections 

have been made and 


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efcfcfsti mAomft'ng fl 

fmeatt'ort afpush rwt gufct*- \ \ 

Fig. 409. Details of Dash Wiring for 
North East System 

lated, see that the leads are 
properly fastened. If the 
wires have to be made longer 
to accommodate the coupd 
or the other special bodies, 
care should be taken to see 
that the extensions are made 
of the same size and type of 
wire that is used in the re- 
mainder of the system. Tight 
mechanical joints, well sol- 
The use of any smaller wire will 
Where possible to avoid 

dered and taped, should be made. 

prevent the proper operation of the system 

it, the distance between the battery and the electrical unit should 

never be increased. 

Operating Instructions. After the car has been run a few hun- 
dred miles, inspect the driving chains and, if necessary, adjust to take 
up any slack. This should be done at intervals until all stretch has 
been taken out of the chain. Inspect the chains carefully from time 
to time to see that nothing has disturbed their alignment. The chains 
should be kept clean by w*ashing with gasoline every few weeks and 
applying a new supply of graphite grease to their inside faces. To 
adjust the vertical chain, release the nut on the clamp stud 2394 and 
screw down the adjusting screw 601, Fig. 406. Be sure to lock this 


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screw with the jam nut after adjusting. If after adjusting the vertical 
chain the horizontal chain requires further adjustment, loosen the 
clamp holding the generator unit and turn the latter in a counter- 
clockwise direction until the proper tension of the chain is secured, 
then re-tighten the clasp. 

Inspect the wiring from time to time to make certain that none 
of the connections are loosening up, and when washing the car, see 
that no water is allowed to fall on the generator or on the wiring. 
See that the cover on the rear end of the generator is always tight in 
its place. This cover is detachable for the purpose of inspecting the 
brushes and the commutator. If necessary to remove the generator 
at any time, see that the terminals of all the loose wires are well 
wrapped with electric insulating tape. This is important, since if 
these wires should come in contact with each other or with the metal 
parts of the car, a short-circuit may occur and ruin the battery. In 
disconnecting the wires, be sure to tag them properly so that they can 
be replaced correctly, as improper connections may damage the sys- 
tem. The battery alone will supply the current for the lamps when 
the generator is removed from the car, but if used for any length of 
time w r ith the generator off, the battery will naturally run down 
and have to be recharged from an outside source; care should be 
taken not to permit the battery to discharge too low before doing 

If it should be necessary to run the generator with the battery 
disconnected from the system, remove the small 10-ampcre fuse 1183, 
Fig. 406, located over the brushes inside the detachable hood at the rear 
end of the generator, but be sure to replace this fuse when the battery is 
again connected. If at any time the generator is not charging the 
battery properly, although the system tests out in good condition 
throughout, it is evident that the fuse 1 183 has been blown and should 
be replaced by a new one of the same capacity. The purpose of this 
fuse is to protect the generator from injury. The bearings of 
the generator, when assembled by the manufacturer, are packed 
with a special lubricating compound, so that no provision is made 
for oiling them. 

The lamps required are 14-volt 18-c.p. G-K>£ bayonet-base bulbs 
for the headlights, and 14-volt 4-c.p.'G-8 bulbs with the same type of 
base for the side and rear lights. 


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Preparing Engine. Disconnect all water and gasoline connec- 
tions and the radiator brace rod, which should be pushed back 
through the dash out of the way, and remove the radiator. If the 
machine is fitted with electric lights, disconnect the wiring, Fig. 410. 
Remove the fan and its connections and then turn the engine over by 
hand until the pin holding the fan pulley on the crankshaft is perpen- 
dicular. This brings the pin over the hole in the engine base in 
position to be driven through it. Drive out the pin holding the dog 
clutch of the starting crank and pull out the crank, Fig. 411. Drive 

Fig. 410. Dismounting Radiator Lamps Fig. 411. Removing Hand Crank and Fan 

Courtesy of Splitdorf Electric Company, Courtesy of Splitdorf Electric Company, 

Xtwark, Xcw Jersey Xewark, New Jersey 

out the pin holding the fan pulley to the crankshaft, and a smart blow 
on the pulley itself will free it from the shaft. In case the pin is rusted 
in place, a little kerosene will help to free it. 

Remove bolts B and C\ Fig. 412, then loosen the nut A, but before 
removing it from the bolt tie a piece of twine around the bolt to pre- 
vent it from falling into the engine base or the crankcase. In case 
it should drop, it will remain in the hole, and a sharp tap directly 
beneath it on the crankcase will cause it to jump upward, when it can 
be caught with the fingers. Place the adjustable bracket in position 
and secure it to the engine, using new bolts supplied at B and C with 
the nuts formerly on the old bolts. The bolts and nuts holding the 


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lower part of the bracket must be carefully tightened, as it is impor- 
tant that this part be held firmly. 

Mounting Starter. Place the split taper sleeve on the engine 
shaft, using a fine file if necessary to smooth off any burrs. Drive a 
pin through the sleeve and the shaft until it is flush with the sleeve on 
both sides. With the key in position, place the sprocket on the sleeve, 
registering the keyway with the key. A nut is then turned on to 
draw the sprocket up on the taper sleeve, and it also causes the sleeve 
to grip the crankshaft securely. 

Fig. 412. Placing Adjustable Bracket in Position 
Courtesy of Splitdorf Electric Company, Newark, New Jersey 

Replace the starting crank, start the chain under the sprocket in 
mesh, and with the aid of the crank turn the engine over slowly until 
the chain is drawn through for about half of its length, making certain 
that the chain is working freely, Fig. 413. Then fasten the generator- 
motor unit to the adjustable bracket with the three bolts and lock 
washers furnished. This can be accomplished easily by tilting the 
bracket. Pass the chain over the generator sprocket, joining the 
chain with the pin and locking the pin with a washer and cotter pin. 
Align the crankshaft and generator-motor sprocket by means of the 
adjustable bracket hinge bolt. Adjust the chain to its proper tension, 
i.e., without any slack. The chain should never be allowed to run in 


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a slack condition, as it may break. Adjusting screws on the bracket 
provide an easy means of keeping it at the right tension. 

The fan pulley furnished with the outfit is an aluminum die- 
casting in two parts and is designed to clamp over the Ford fan pulley. 
It is held on by four screws and lock washers and brings the center in 
line for the fan belt. Fill the recess of the fan with grease and replace 
the fan, using the original bearing stud; place the belt on the fan 
pulley and on the generator-motor pulley and adjust to proper ten- 
sion. Like the chain, this pulley should be so tight that there is no 
undue slack, but tightening it too much should be guarded against, 

Fig. 413. Adjusting Driving Chain 
Courtesy of Splitdorf Electric Company, Newark, New Jersey 

as this only places an excessive strain on the shafts and does not make 
the fan run any better. 

Wiring. The details of the various holes to be drilled or cut and 
the wiring to be installed are given in Figs. 414 to 419. Prepare the 
dash for the wiring, as shown in Figs. 415 and 416, which give the 
location and sizes of all holes — A, Fig. 416, for the ignition sw r itch, B 
for the lighting and dimming switch, and C for the wires leading to the 
indicating automatic switch (battery cut-out with indicator to show 
whether the battery is charging or not). Unless a magneto is used for 
ignition, A may be omitted. 

Bore a f-inch hole in the permanent floor board, as shown in 
Fig. 414, following the dimensions there given for its location. Install 


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the starting switch with the front of the switch lengthwise with and 
facing the right-hand side of the car, Fig. 419, and at the same time 

Fig. 414. Details of Wiring for Splitdorf Ford Installation 

-Lighting Switch 3 

Fig. 415. Details of Wiring on Dash 

the light-dimming switch should be placed in position with the coil 
end of the switch facing down. All wire terminals are marked to 


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correspond with similar marks on all parts of the installation. Lay 
wiring assembly in the sill of the car, as shown in Fig. 419, connecting 
the wires to the front of the dash, as in Fig. 415. (Reference to Fig. 

Hood Tie Rod. 

Fig. 41G. Layout of Drilling on Dash for Ford Installation 

418 will facilitate the installation.) Connect wires to indicating 
automatic switch in accordance with diagram on the back of the 
switch, after which fasten the switch to the steering column about 3 \ 
inches from the dash. Connect wires, as marked, to corresponding 

Body Sill 

as To 

Star-ting Switch 
- Running Board Fender 
Zleal Under Bat teru Box 

/funning Board 

Fig. 417. Method of Running Cables from Batteries 
on Splitdorf Inatallation 

terminals on the generator-motor and likewise to the starting switch. 
Prepare the curved running-board guard, or apron, for the battery 
leads and the running board for securing the battery box in accord- 
ance with the instructions given on Fig. 414. Place the battery box 


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on the running board, resting it on the two wood cleats and fasten it 
down with the bolts, nuts, and lock washers furnished. 

Place the battery in the box with the outside terminals toward 
the car. Pass the extension cables under the wood sill of the car 
body and over the channel steel frame of the car, connecting the 
extension leads from the battery to the starting switch, as marked. 
The method of passing the cables around the sill and frame are shown 
in Fig. 418. After connecting the cables to the battery, cover all the 

Fig. 418. Complete 1 Wiring Diagram for Splitdorf Ford I retaliation 

terminals and exposed parts of wires with vaseline or grease to prevent 

Wiring Diagram. In the wiring diagram, Fig. 418, double wiring 
is used throughout, so that there are no ground connections. When 
the engine is running so that the unit is operating as a generator, the 
current flows from terminal +D on the generator to a similarly 
marked terminal on the indicating switch, through the voltage coil of 
the battery cut-out, and thence to the terminal +A on the switch, 
where it divides, one side leading to +/1 on the battery and through 
the battery to —A on the starting switch. The other half of the 
current flows through a jumper in the switch to +B on the starting 
switch, through to the same terminal on the battery, and through 
the battery to —B on the starting switch. It will be noted that 


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the common return points of the current at the starting switch are 
— B and — Z),and from there the current flows to — Don the generator. 

Fig. 419. Plan of Ford Chassis, Showing Installation of 
Splitdorf Starting Switch 

Starting Switch. When the starting switch is closed by depress- 
ing its foot button, the current flows from +A at the battery to +A 


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on the starting switch, through the switch to +M on the switch, and 
tlience to the terminal +M on the motor, through the latter to —B 

— D on the starting switch, and then to — B on the battery, through 
the battery to the +B terminal, and thence to the +B terminal on 
the starting switch, through the switch to — A on the switch, and 
thence to the — A terminal on the battery, and through the battery 
to +A, completing the circuit. 

Instructions. Generator-Motor. See that the unit is lined up 
accurately so that the chain runs perfectly true. If this is not done, 
the chain will be noisy and will wear abnormally on one side and even- 
tually break. A poorly aligned chain will also wear the sprockets. 
Watch the chain carefully during the first hundred miles or so of 
running and, as often as required, take up any slack that appears 
until the chain seats itself. The life of the chain will be greatly 
prolonged by keeping it well lubricated and at the proper tension. 
If for any reason it becomes necessary to remove the battery from 
the car, the engine must not be run without first connecting terminals 

— D and + D of the dynamo with a piece of copper wire. 

The commutator should be kept clean by wiping at regular 
intervals with a clean rag; if it becomes blackened, note whether there 
is undue sparking between the brushes and the commutator and, if 
necessary, sand-in the brushes to correct this. Use No. 00 sandpaper 
for this and also for brightening up the face of the commutator itself. 
After this operation, remove all traces of carbon, sand, and metallic 
dust from the commutator housing as well as from the spaces between 
the commutator segments. Do not change the position of the brushes 
or alter the tension of the brush springs unless they have weakened 
after one or more years of running. See that the brush leads do not 
rub against the armature, as this will chafe the insulation off and 
cause a ground or a short-circuit. The generator-motor should be 
oiled about every thousand miles, using five to six drops of good light 
oil in each oil hole. See that the fan belt is running true on the pul- 
leys, otherwise it will ride the flange of the pulley and either fly off 
or break. 

Starting Switch. If the brushes of the switch wear unduly, see 
that the foot button of the switch is not sticking in the floor board. 
The hole through which the rod of the button operates should be 
large enough to prevent the pedal spring from rubbing against the 


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floor board. The switch sticking down will cause both its own 
brushes and those of the generator-motor to burn and wear badly. 
See that when the starting-switch pedal returns to its normal position 
proper contact is made. This can be determined by removing the 
cover of the switch. 

Indicating Automatic Switch. When the engine is running very 
slowly, the dial may indicate ON and OFF in rapid succession, 
fluttering continually. This is caused by the engine running at, or 
very close to, the speed at w r hich the battery cut-out is designed to 
operate, so that no attention need be paid to it. Should this fluttering 
occur at medium or at high speeds, it indicates a loose connection in 
the wiring, either on the generator line, on the back of the cut-out, 
or in the starting switch. This, if neglected, w r ill cause the contact 
points of the battery cut-out to burn badly, so that all connections 
should be gone over regularly to see that they are kept tight. As the 
generator output is controlled by means of a reversed compound field 
winding, or bucking coil, there is no regulating device combined with 
the battery cut-out. The battery has six cells, all of which are con- 
nected in series for starting, giving current at 12 volts. For both 
charging and lighting, the cells are coupled in two units of three each 
in series-multiple, so that 7- volt lamps are used. They are protected 
by a fuse on the back of the battery cut-out. 


Preparing Engine. Adjust the ignition and the carburetor so 
that the engine fires evenly and regularly before beginning the instal- 
lation. Remove the radiator and water connections, three forward 
left-cylinder head bolts, and the fan and bracket timer. Turn the 
engine shaft until the pin in the fan pulley is in a perpendicular 
position h, and then remove the starting crank and the fan pulley, 
Fig. 420. Use a bulldozing tool to expand the front end of the engine 
oil pan, Figs. 421 and 422. (This tool is obtainable from the West- 
inghouse Company.) It is very important that at least f-inch clear- 
ance beyond the sprocket be obtained, as shown in Fig. 433. Be sure 
to use the bulldozing tool with the spacing hub XI, Figs. 421 and 
422, always next to the engine case. The tool is made in two parts 
and is reversible so as to be available for right-hand and left-hand 


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Mounting Starter. The crankshaft sprocket // is assembled by 
the manufacturer and adjusted to the correct tension. Dismantle the 

Fig. 420. Ford Engine Ready for Installation of 
Westinghouse Electric Equipment 

sprocket. See that the pin hole in the crankshaft is in a vertical 
position h, Fig. 420, and then drive the new sprocket hub H, Fig. 423, 
in place so that the hole in the sprocket is in line with the hole in the 

Fig. 421. Use of Bulldozing Tool on Fig. 422. Using Hammer to Help 

Westinghouse Ford System Bulldozing Tool 

crankshaft. The sprocket hub must be a tight fit on the crankshaft 
and should be driven into place by means of copper or brass bar, as 


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shown at 6, Fig. 423. Drive the pin 77-7, Fig. 424, through the 
sprocket hub 77 and the shaft, and be sure that the head end is flush 
with the surface of the hub. If the pin 77-/ is not a tight fit in the 

Fig. 423. Putting on Crankshaft iSprocket Hub in 
Wcstinghouse System 

shaft, it should be bent slightly at the center to make it tight. Use a 
drift for driving pin H-l into place so as not to injure the pin or the 

Fig. 424. Inserting Sprocket Pin with Drift 

hub. To be sure that the pin 77-7 in not projecting too far at the 
extended end, place the sprocket II-4, Fig. 425, on the hub and turn 
it several revolutions. If it does not turn freely, the pin 77-/, 


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Fig. 424, probably strikes the inside of the sprocket, and therefore 
the pin should be trimmed until it just clears. 

Remove the sprocket H-4 and place one of the friction collars 
11-5 on the hub. Xow spring the spring ring 77-^, Fig. 425, into place 
on the hub 77, so that the small 
hole in the ring engages with the 
projecting end of the small pin. It 
will not go into place any other 
way. Be sure that the free end of 
the spring ring projects at least ^ 
inch out from the surface of the 
sprocket hub, Fig. 425. Place the 
chain 7 under the sprocket hub. 
Slide the sprocket 77-4 over the 
spring ring. Pack the sprocket 
with good cup grease and place the 
other friction washer 77-5 on the Fi «- *-•"> Assembly of we8tin K housc 

C'riuik*hnft Sprocket 

forward side of the sprocket. Xow 

place the stationary washer 77-tf over the keyway in the sprocket hub 
and put the spring washer 77-7 on the outside of this and fasten it in 
place with the nut 11-8, as shown in Fig. 425. The nut 11-8 should 
be tightened until the mark "O" on the nut corresponds with the 
mark in the keyway a on the hub, Fig. 420. The grooves in the face 
of the nut should register with the flukes of the 
spring washer. 

Remove the nut from the forward left-hand 
bearing bolt and replace it with a special flat 
Westinghouse nut 6'-/, as shown in Fig. 420. 
Place the lock washer G~2 on top of this nut 
and screw the cylindrical nut G down tight with 
the lock washer. Replace the Ford timer. Set 
_ Anr ~ , .. , the Westinghouse electric unit A, Fig. 427, in 

Fifc. 420. Detail of ° l ° 7 

Sp TdfvLtment ing pl»<"e on the engine, using in the cylinder head 
the three special screws 1) (furnished for this pur- 
pose) and the special cylindrical nut G (provided). Adjust the 
center distance between the engine crankshaft and the electric-unit 
shaft, as shown in Fig. 427. The distance should be 1 1 g inches, 
as shown, and all three points of support should touch. 


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Remove the sprocket B from the electric unit shaft, Fig. 42S. 
Insert the sprocket in the endless driving chain I and press the 

Fig. 427. Adjusting Distance between Centers of 
Crankshaft and Motor Shaft 

sprocket on the shaft, as shown. When the sprocket is in place, there 
should be at least 10 pounds tension on the chain. If the tension is 

Fig. 428. Putting on Shaft Sprocket and Chain 

less than 10 pounds, adjust the center distance as directed until the 
required tension is obtained. A new silent chain is elastic to some 


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extent, and, for this reason, a new chain is adjusted to run under the 
tension mentioned. After running about 2000 miles, the chain may 
be loose enough to strike the chain guard. This is a warning to tighten 

Fig. 429. Diagram Showing Chimin Adjusting Bolts 

the chain. To do this, loosen the three bolts, Fig. 429, about one 
full turn from the top supporting bracket. Tighten the adjusting 
bushings nearest the radiator until the tension is correct. Set the 
other bushings to agree and tighten all the support bolts. Do not run 

Fig. 430. Tightening Mounting Bracket with 

Shaft Pulley in Plates 

Courtesy of Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, 

East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

the chain under tension after the first adjustment. This is very impor- 
tant. If the chain is too tight, it will produce a grinding noise. When 
properly adjusted, the chain should be so loose that when pressed on 
with the finger it will give about \ inch. 


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After replacing the fan pulley B-l and tightening the nut B-2, be 
sure to replace the cotter pin B-3, Fig. 430. Mount the chain guard 

Fig. 431. View of Westinghouse Installation, Showing Chain Guard 
and Part of Wiring Arrangement 

Fig. 432. Fan in Place and Headlights Mounted 

L on the unit and see that it lines up, as shown in Fig. 431. Clamp 
the split fan pulley ,/ on the Ford fan pulley, as shown in Figs. 428 
and 430, and replace the fan on the engine, using the new fan belt A", 


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Fig. 432. Bend the fan blade sligfttly to clear the electric unit. 
Instead of the Ford cranking claw and pin, use the Westinghouse 
sleeve II-9 and pin H-10, respectively, Fig. 433. When the Ford 
starting crank is replaced, it may be found slightly out of alignment. 

Insert a bar in the starting- 
crank bearing and spring the 
bearing into alignment. This 
completes the installation of 
the unit itself. 

Lighting and Starting 
Switches. Mount the two- 
gang lighting switch P on the 
right-hand side of the dash. 

Fig. 434. Diagram Showing Mounting of Starting Cut a rectangular hole in the 
Switch and Cut-Out j^ ^ & ^ , qw en()Ugh ^ 

that the carburetor adjusting rod will not touch the contact screws of 
the switch when it is fastened in place by means of four wood screws 
to the cover plate on the face of the dash. Mount the fuse Q just 
below the lamp switch on the engine side of the dash, as shown in 

Fig. 431. Note that on 1915 Ford cars 
the new cowl dash may make it necessary 
to change the location of the speedometer 
slightly in order to provide space for the 
lamp switch. 

The starting switch and generator 
cut-out 0, Fig. 434, should be located on 
the heel board at the left-hand side of 
the car, approximately 2 inches from the 
car frame. The terminals should be 
toward the right side of the car. Mount 
the battery box on the right running 
board, as shown in Fig. 435, and drill two 
Fig. 435. Method of Mounting J-inch holes in the mud shield to match 

Battery Box on Right Kunniiig . . . _. . 

Board in Westinghouse the holes in the battery box, rig. 43b, and 

Syntem # 

fasten down with the holding-down bolts. 

Wiring. The wiring should now be fastened in place, as shown 

in Figs. 437 and 43X. If Westinghouse lamps are used, the dimmer 

should be removed. Except where wood screws may be used to 


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IS 3 


■— * 

s r 





attach holding cleats to wood parts, all the holding cleats should be 
fastened under the bolts already on the Ford chassis. Be very carefvl 

that the cable terminals do not 
touch any part other than the studs 
to which they should be fastened. 
Carelessness in this particular 
will result in burned-out appa- 
ratus and may actually ruin the 
battery before the car is ever run. 
It is equally essential to prevent 
the metal armor on the cables 
from touching any of the con- 
necting studs or the terminals. 
The 'ground wire should be fas- 
tened at one end under one of the 
supporting bolts of the starting 
switch and cut-out and at the 
other end by fastening the con- 
nection together with a cleat 
under the bolt holding the brake 
and clutch rod to the frame. Do 
not connect the ground wire front 
the battery until all the other wires 
are in place and fastened. The 
ground connection of W is made 
by fastening the connection 
under a bolt- of the muffler sup- 

Attach the lamp connections 
to the wires. These are of the 
solderless type which are con- 
nected by removing the con- 
nector from the lamp, Fig. 439. 
Slip the casing a back over the 
cable and push the wires through 
the collar b. Strip the insulation 
from the wire about \ inch back from the end. With a small screw- 
driver applied to the sleeve d, remove the little metal socket c from 


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Fig. 137. Pictorial Wiring Diagram of Westinghouse Ford System with 
Other than Wcstinghouse Ford Lamps 


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Fig. 438. Pictorial Wiring Diagram for Wcatinghouw Installation when 
Westingnouse Ford Lamps Arc Used 


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the connector. Insert the bare ends of the wire in the socket and 
fasten with small set screws. Replace the socket and fasten it by 
screwing up on the sleeve d. Be sure that none of the strands of the 
wire project outside of the insulation piece e. Attach the head and 
tail lamps, insert the connecting plugs, and try all circuits to deter- 
mine if everything is operating satisfactorily. 

When Westinghouse Ford electric head lamps are used, Fig. 438, 
connect them as shown in the diagram, grounding one w r ire from each 
lamp, also one wire from the tail-light socket. One switch button 
will give a dim light and the other switch will give a bright light. 
If other than the above lamps are used, such as the double-bulb two- 
wire type headlights, one wire from each lamp socket 
must be grounded to the lamp housing or the car 
frame, and the dimmer should be disconnected. If 
side lights are used instead of double-bulb headlights, 
with two-wire (double contact) lamps, both wires 
in cables W-7 and W-8 can be used for the head- 
lights, as shown in the diagram for the Westing- 
house Ford lamps. The dash end of one w T ire in 
each cable must be grounded instead of connecting 
it to the switch. An additional wire from the switch 
should be run to one terminal in each side light, and 
Fig. 439 Detail* of the other lamp terminal should be grounded. The 

Westinghoiwe Lamp . . 

Connector dimmer should then be disconnected. 

If side lights are used instead of double-bulb headlights with 
single-wire lamps, both ends of one wire in the cables W-7 and IF-tfare 
useless and should be taped up. An additional wire from the switch 
should be run to each side light. 

Westinghouse Ignition. Assembly. If the Westinghouse igni- 
tion system is also to be installed, it should be assembled in place at 
this time, i.e., before replacing the Ford timer housing, the radiator, 
and other parts, which have been removed to install the electric 
starting and lighting unit. Remove the timer, or spark advance, rod ; 
the steel bush; the Ford roller contact; the coil box; and all igni- 
tion wiring. Place the Westinghouse gear Z-/, Fig. 432, on the cam- 
shaft in place of the Ford timer roller contact, and fasten it in place 
with the same pin, cap, and nut used to hold the roller contact. Take 
out the spark plug of the first cylinder. Turn the engine over until 


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the piston of cylinder No. 1 is exactly at the upper dead center on the 
firing stroke, that is, when the piston is at the top of the cylinder with 
both valves closed. The position of the valves and the piston may be 
seen through the spark-plug hole. Mount the ignition unit in the 

Fig. 440. First Step in Fig. 441. View of Ignition 

Installing Westing- Installation, Showing 

house Ignition Timing Position 

supporting bracket and put the holding screw in place. Be sure that 
the ignition unit turns freely in the bracket. Remove the distributor 
block and slide the ring cover up. Turn the entire unit until it is in 
the position shown in Fig. 441. Hold the unit firmly in this position 

Fig. 442. Arrangement of Westinghouse Ignition Wiring 

and turn the distributor brush arm counter-clockwise (to the left) 
until the contact brush is in the position shown in Fig. 441 and the 
interrupter contacts are just beginning to open. Clamp the unit in 
place on the engine exactly in this position. Use the two special 
screws Z~4 to hold the bracket in place on the engine. 


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Connect the timer rod Z-5, furnished with the equipment, to the 
ignition unit, as shown in Fig. 442. Operate the spark lever on the 
steering post and see that the Westinghouse ignition unit follows the 
movement of the control lever. Mount the cover plate on the dash 
over the holes left by the Ford coil unit and cut a rectangular hole in 
the dash to receive the Westinghouse ignition switch. Fasten the 
cover plate and the ignition switch to the dash with the screws 
furnished for the purpose. Put the distributor block in place on the 
ignition unit and connect the wires to the spark plugs, as shown in 
Fig. 442. Be sure to connect each plug to the point shown in the 
diagram. Connect one end of the small wire Z-7 to the terminal at the 
side and near the bottom of the ignition unit that has no other connec- 
tion and connect the other, end to the terminal on the ignition switclj. 

There are terminals provided for the purpose of reversing the 
current through the interrupter contacts; changing the short connec- 
tion from one side to the other side and changing the primary wire 
reverses the current direction. Connect the terminal B on the switch 
to the negative side of the battery. This connection can be made most 
easily by using the terminal B-l on the starting switch, as shown in 
Figs. 437 and 438. The positive side of the battery is grounded. 
The engine may now be started in the usual way. 

Operating Instructions. The Westinghouse-Ford system is a 
12- volt single-unit single-wire type, the complete unit being per- 
manently connected to the enginge by the silent-chain drive. The 
driving sprocket has a cushioned positive drive in the starting direc- 
tion and a friction drive in the generating direction. This friction is 
adjustable for wear without removing any part of the equipment, as 
described later under Failure of Generator. 

A battery cut-out, or magnetic switch, in the generator circuit 
serves to protect the battery; it cuts in when the engine attains a 
speed approximately equivalent to nine miles an hour on the direct 
drive. On low, it will naturally operate at a very much lower car 
speed as the engine is then running very much faster. If no lights 
are on, the battery begins to charge as soon as the cut-out operates; 
with lights burning, part of the current is diverted to them, but, at 
fifteen miles an hour or over, sufficient current is furnished to light 
all the lamps and charge the battery. The details of the cut-out, also 
of the starting switch, are shown in Fig. 443, while the method of 


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reassembling the carburetor choker, strangler, or priming device, as 
it is variously termed, with the new equipment provided, is shown in 
Fig. 444. In case the engine fails to start after the starting motor 
has operated five to ten seconds, the ring on the dash should be pulled 
as far as it will go and held there for a few seconds while the starting 
motor is operated again. Do not hold the ring down too long; if the 

t- -J To 6roun<f 

Fig. 443. Construction of Westinghouse Starting Switch and Cut-Out 

engine does not start promptly with the carburetor choked, the fail- 
ure must be caused by something else, and continuous running with 
the carburetor air inlet closed will quickly flood the engine with 
liquid gasoline. 

Starting Troubles. If the electric motor fails to start when the 
switch is closed, open the switch and test out as follows, using a direct- 
current voltmeter: Connect voltmeter to give a reading of over 12 


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volts and test the battery. If the reading with the lamps on is 11 
volts or less, the battery is practically exhausted. Instructions for 
keeping the battery in good condition will be found under its appro- 
priate heading in the section on Storage Batteries. Trouble of this 
nature, particularly in cold weather, is frequently caused by not driv- 
ing the car long enough between stops, so that the generator has no 
opportunity to charge the battery. Look for an open circuit, i.e., 
broken wire or loose terminal, in the wires W, W-l, and W-2, Figs. 
437 and 438. Remove the spring collar over the brushes and see 
that they are in good condition, not sticky or gummed with oil and 
dirt, and are making good contact over their entire bearing surface on 
the commutator. 

To Remove Brushes. Lift the spring that holds the brush in the 
guide and take out the screw holding the brush shunt, when the brush 

can be slipped out. In re- 

moving each brush, it should 
be noted which side was turned 
up, and each brush should 
be replaced in its original 
holder in the same way. In 
putting in new brushes, care 
should be taken to see that 
they have a good bearing fit 
over their entire surface on 
be sanded-in (see 

Fig. 444. Layout of Carburetor St rangier 

the commutator. To obtain this, they must 

Delco instructions). Only brushes supplied by the manufacturers of 

the system should ever be employed. 

Battery Does Not Stay Charged. If the car is not run for a 
sufficient length of time during the day or at a speed high enough to 
charge the battery, there may a ground in the wiring. With the 
engine idle and the lights off, disconnect the battery wire and touch 
it lightly on the terminal a few times. If a spark occurs, there is a 
ground in the wiring. The battery may not charge even at high 
speeds, owing to different causes. If there is a loose connection between 
the starting switch and the electric unit, see that the terminals hold 
the wire W-2 tight and examine the wire between the terminals for 
breaks. The cut-out may not be operating properly. With the 
engine running, vary the speed and watch the contacts of the cut-out 


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to see that they connect the battery in the circuit at a speed above 
nine miles an hour and break the circuit again when the speed drops 
below this point. The cut-out contacts should be separated when 
the engine is not running, and they should remain closed as long as 
the engine runs above a certain speed. This cutting-in speed varies 
slightly. If the contacts do not close, there may be oil on the brushes 
or on the commutator; or one of the brushes may be w r orn too short; 
or one of the brush springs may be too loose. 

Loose Friction Drive. If the commutator, the brushes, all the 
connections, and the wiring are in good condition, the trouble may be 
caused by the generator drive. To find out whether the friction 
sprocket has lost its tension or not, try to turn the electric unit by 
hand in both directions with the engine stationary. If it can be 
turned by hand easily in one direction, the nut H-8 should be tight- 
ened sufficiently to enable the engine to drive the electric unit, Fig. 
425. When running at 15 to 20 miles an hour, a faint click may be 
heard about every five minutes. If the clicking is more rapid than 
three or four times every five minutes, tighten the adjusting nut one- 
third to one-half turn. 

The shunt-field brush a may not touch the commutator, Figs. 
437 and 438. Adjust this brush, sanding it in, if necessary, and if this 
does not correct the trouble, test out the shunt-field circuit for open 
connections. This includes all circuits through the starting switch 
and the shunt-field winding. If the shunt-field winding is found to 
be open-circuited, the trouble was, no doubt, caused by an open 
circuit between the generator and the battery or by running the 
generator disconnected from the battery. 

Lamps Do Not Light. If confined to a single lamp, this may be 
owing to the bulb having burned out, to an open circuit, or to a broken 
connection in the wiring. Should replacing with a new bulb not 
correct the trouble, test all the connections and the wiring and see 
that the lamp socket is grounded. When none of the lamps will light, 
test for a voltmeter reading with the lamps turned on but with the 
engine idle. If the voltmeter shows no reading, this may be owing 
to a broken connection at the battery or to the terminals having 
become so corroded as to amount to the same thing. The wire W may 
be disconnected or broken. If the voltmeter reading is correct, the 
trouble may be caused by a blown fuse. Should this be the case, do 


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not replace it immediately, but look over the wiring and the con- 
nections for an accidental ground or a short-circuit. In looking for 
grounds, hunt for abrasions of the insulation on the wire or for 
mechanical contacts between the ends of the cables or current- 
carrying parts of the wiring devices and the metal of the car, the socket, 
the shells, etc. When the trouble has been located and corrected, 
replace the blown fuse with another of the same type and capacity. 
If the trouble cannot be located immediately, turn off the switch on 
the damaged circuit and do not use until it can be remedied. Should 
the trouble be in a particular lamp socket, disconnect the attachment 
plug from this socket until the difficulty can be remedied and see that 
the removed attachment does not dangle against the metal of the 
car in such a way as to cause short-circuits. 

All the lamps may be burned out. This is likely to happen when a 
battery wire breaks or becomes disconnected. It is also not unlikely 
that the battery may be entirely exhausted, though it will seldom get 
down to a point where the lamp filaments will not glow at least a 
dull red, without its condition having been detected. If the lamps 
become dim as soon as the engine stops, this indicates an exhausted 
battery, and if not convenient to drive the car to recharge it, the 
battery should be charged from an outside source. When the lamps 
flicker or go out momentarily, there is a loose connection, and the 
fact that all the lamps are thus affected indicates its location at the 
battery or in the wire W-l , Fig. 437. Should but one lamp be affected, 
only its particular circuit is at fault, and the trouble will usually be 
found in the socket itself, though a parted ground connection, which, 
owing to the vibration, will sometimes touch and at other times be 
shaken away from its contact, may be responsible. ' As a 6-cell 
battery is supplied, 14-volt lamps must be used. 

Operation of Ignition Unit. The vertical ignition unit of the 
Westinghouse type is composed of four essential units, viz, the inter- 
rupter, or contact-breaker; the induction coil; the distributor; and the 
condenser. The operation of the interrupter may be observed by 
lossening the thumb screw E and sliding upward the loose section of 
the insulating housing which forms the interrupter cover, Fig. 445. 
With the ignition switch "On" and the engine running, each segment 
of the interrupter cam, in turn, passes on and off the fiber bumper, 
Fig. 445. As each cam passes off the bumper, the interrupter contacts 


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close, closing the circuit from the battery to the primary winding 
of the coil. Then, as they are lifted by the bumper, the contacts are 
separated, suddenly opening the circuit and inducing a high-tension 
current in the secondary of the induction coil. This current is directed 
by the distributor on top of the ignition unit to the proper spark 
plug. The ignition switch is a simple, single-pole type connecting 

Fig. 445. Parts of Weatinghouse Ignition Unit 

the negative side of the battery to the ignition terminal, Fig. 446. 
This switch is a reversing type, i.e., it changes the direction in which 
the current passes through the interrupter contacts each time it is 
operated. Particular attention is directed to the rear view of the 
switch. As received, this switch does not operate to reverse the 
current direction. If it be desired to utilize this feature, remove the 

Fig. 446. Front and Back Views of Weatinghouse Ignition Switch 

metal strip that connects two of the three terminals on the ignition 
unit. Also remove the metal strip that connects two of the four 
switch terminals. Connect the terminal on the switch to the center 
terminal on the ignition unit. Obtain two extra wires, like the one 
supplied to connect the switch and the ignition unit, and connect the 
two switch terminals to the two outside terminals on the ignition unit. 


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Ballast Resistor. This is a resistance unit which will be noted 
mounted on the rear face of the switch, Fig. 446. It is connected in 
series with the primary ignition circuit and is an important part of 
the ignition system, its function being to protect both the ignition 
system and the battery. In case this resistance unit should become 
broken or inoperative from any cause, a standard 5-ampere fuse may 
be used in an emergency, but a fuse of more than 5-ampere capacity 
must never be employed in any case. Unless absolutely necessary to do 
so in order to run the car, the ignition system should never be oper- 
ated without the ballast resistor, as serious injury is likely to result. 
A very fine piece of wire, such as a single strand of lamp cord, should 
be used for bridging the gap. 


General Plan. One of the more recent additions to the electrical 
equipment of the automobile that the installation of a generator and 
a constantly charged storage battery on the car has made possible is 
the electric gear-shift. While it has not yet been extensively adopted, 
it is already in use on a number of cars and is slowly coming into 
favor, and from now on the garage man will find more machines thus 
fitted coming into his hands and will be called upon to give attention 
to this as well as to the other parts of their electrical equipment. 

In the standard three-speed and reverse gear of the selective type, 
four movements are necessary to engage all the speeds. These 
changes in the relations of the gears are carried out by means of a 
sliding pinion for first and second speeds, a toothed clutch for direct 
drive, and the interposition of an idler between two of the driving 
gears to give the reverse, all these movements being accomplished by 
means of a yoke on the member to be moved. This yoke is mounted 
on a movable rod, or bar, which is, in turn, connected through con- 
venient linkage to the hand lever. In the electrically operated gear, 
all these parts, with the exception of the hand lever, which is dis- 
pensed with, remain the same and their functions are unaltered. The 
bars on which the yokes are mounted, two in number, Fig. 447, are 
lengthened somewhat, and their extended ends form armatures, or 
cores, for four solenoids. 

Principle of Action. As has been explained in the introductory 
in connection with electromagnetism, passing a current through a 


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Push-Dutlons ffre 

Mounted Under Steer- 
ing Wheel 



solenoid will cause it to draw its core into the coil. This is the prin- 
ciple on which the electric gear-shift operates. There is a solenoid 
for each movement necessary. For example, to obtain first speed, 
the bar A, which carries the yoke attached to the sliding gear (not 
shown), must be moved to the left, Fig. 447. To accomplish this, 
button / is pressed. This closes the circuit through the solenoid 1, but 
no current flows through its winding until the master switch control- 
ling the current supply to all the solenoids is closed. The master 
switch is operated by pushing the clutch pedal forward, exactly as 
when shifting a gear by hand. This energizes solenoid 1, the bar A 
moves to the left, carrying the sliding pinion with it by means of the 
usual yoke, and the first- 
speed gear is engaged. The 
operation throughout is the 
same. A neutralizing device, 
described later, opens the 
master switch and cuts off 
the current. The speed de- 
sired is selected by pushing 
the numbered button under 
the steering wheel, the clutch 
is disengaged momentarily by 
pushing the pedal all the way 
forward when the change is 
desired, and the gears shift 
automatically. Thus the solenoid 2 moves the bar A to the i igh t to gi ve 
second, or intermediate, speed; solenoid 3 moves the bar B to the left 
to give the direct drive, or high speed; while R moves the same bar to 
the left to give the reverse engagement. 

The buttons on the steering post, when pressed do not entirely 
close the circuit but merely place the particular solenoid which they 
control in connection with the master switch. They are known as 
"selector switches". They select in advance the circuit which will be 
energized when the master switch is closed. To do this, the clutch 
pedal must be depressed all the way, in order to permit de-clutching 
without bringing this switch into action, that is, when the clutch pedal 
is depressed only part way, as in cutting off the power, no contact is 
made at the master switch. 


Qeor Shifting Mechanism is Mounted on Top of 
Transmission Cose 

Fig. 447. 

Diagram Showing Principle of 
Electric Gear-Shift 

Courtesy of Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing 
Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 


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Stopping the Car. When it is desired to stop the car, the clutch 
pedal is depressed all the way, after the neutral button has been 
pressed. Pressing this button breaks any contacts that may have 
been made previously by the selector switch buttons, and depress- 
ing the clutch pedal then brings into action what is termed the 
neutralizing device. For example, the car has been running on high, 
the neutral button is pressed and the clutch pedal pushed all the way 
forward. This causes the operating lever K to move ahead, Fig. 
448. Then the neutralizing cams F pull on the boss on the shifter 
forks as if a shift were to be made, and the master switch M will also 
close; but, as the neutral button has opened all the selector switches, 

Fig. 448. End View of C-H Neutralising Mechanism 

and Master Switch 

Courtesy of Cuttler- Hammer' Manufacturing 

Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

no current flows, and as the solenoids are not energized, the gears 
remain in neutral. Fig, 449 shows a plan view of the neutralizing 
mechanism and the master switch, while Fig. 450 illustrates the 
solenoids (two of them) and their mounting in detail. The relative 
locations of these solenoids to the remainder of the operating mech- 
anism is shown by the phantom view of the complete gear box, 
Fig. 451. The solenoids are identified by the letters Bl,2, etc., and 
their cores by the letters Cl, 2, etc. A complete wiring diagram is 
given in Fig. 452. 

Starting First Speed. Assuming that the gears are in neutral 
and it is desired to start, then first-speed button of the selector switch 
on the steering wheel is pressed, partly closing the circuit of one of 


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the magnets. Depressing the clutch pedal all the way rotates the 
lever K through the connecting rod L which is linked to the clutch 

Fig. 449. Plan View of C-H Neutralizing Mechanism and Master Switch 
Courtesy of Culler- Hammer Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

j>edal. This pulls the blades of the master switch M into contact, com- 
pleting the circuit and energizing the solenoid. As the gears engage, 

Fig. 450. View of Magnet Case and Electric Solenoids 
Courtesy of Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Company, Milicaukee, Wisconsin 

and the sliding member is within \ inch of being "home", the pawl 
G 9 Fig. 448, falls back, owing to the pull of the magnet against the 


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neutralizing cams F, causing it to strike against the trigger N, which 
is attached to the switch-operating pawl L. This action causes the 
pawl L to be raised out of engagement with the stem of the master 

switch, and the latter snaps open instantly, owing to the pull of the 
spring 0, Fig. 449. The actual time of engagement, during which 
current is being drawn from the battery, is said to be less than one- 
third of a second. 


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From First to Intermediate or High. Being in first speed and 
desiring to shift, the button corresponding to the speed desired, i.e., 
either intermediate or high, is pressed at the convenience of the 
driver. When it is desired to make the change, the clutch pedal is 
pushed all the way forward, this action rotating the operating lever 

Fig. 452. Complete Wiring Diagram for C-H 
Electric Gear-Shift 

K and its shaft w T hich carries the rocker arm / and its attached 
mechanism. As the first gear, or whichever gear has been previously 
operated, is still in mesh, the latch H is in engagement with the pawl 
G of the neutralizing mechanism, and, as the operating lever and the 
rocker arm / are rotated, the latch H presses against the pawl G, 
causing both of the neutralizing cams F to rotate toward the center, 


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owing to their being engaged through the teeth P. On the central 
side of the shifter forks D, Fig. 451, there is a boss, and as the neutral- 
izing cams F rotate, they press against the boss on whichever side is 
in engagement. This mechanically pulls the shifter fork and the gear 
with which it is engaged back to the neutral position before the next 
shift can be made. As the gear reaches the neutral position, the end 
of the latch H strikes the knockout pin. This action releases the 
latch from engagement with the pawl G, and as the operating lever K 
is moved ahead by the driver's foot on the clutch pedal, the switch 
operating pawl L pulls against the switch stem, closing the circuit at 
the master switch. This action is the same for all speeds in the gear 
box. In case of failure of the current through exhaustion of the bat- 
tery or other cause, an emergency hand lever may be inserted in the 
socket S and the gears may be changed in the usual manner by hand. 

Wiring. Referring to the wiring diagram, Fig. 452, it will be 
noted that the wiring is very simple. To permit the removal of the 
gear box, if necessary, without having to disconnect any permanently 
fastened cables, all the wires are led to a terminal block, the actual 
location of which is shown on the gear box, Fig. 451. Connections 
at this terminal block are simplified by making each terminal a differ- 
ent size so that the wires can be replaced only on the terminals which 
correspond to them. There is, accordingly, no risk of confusing them. 
A single wire leads from each magnet coil through the terminal block 
to its particular speed button on the selector switch, while the other 
lead from the coil is connected to a neutral wire directly through the 
terminal block and the master switch to the battery. Another wire 
from the battery passes through the terminal block to the contact of 
the selector switch which is common to all speeds. The circuit is 
accordingly from the positive terminal of the battery through the 
depressed push button on the selector switch, through the winding 
of the coil to which the button in question corresponds, and back 
through the master switch to the other terminal of the battery. 

Operating Trembles. A failure on the part of the gear box to 
shift electrically would be likely to occur, after considerable usage, 
in about the following order: 

(1) A break in the linkage connecting L with the clutch pedal, 
which would prevent the neutralizing mechanism from coming into 
operation, and would also prevent the master switch from closing. 


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(2) Dirt or wear which would prevent the fingers of the master 
switch from making proper contact; failure of the spring 0, of the 
master switch, through breakage, so that the master switch would 
not open automatically immediately upon completing the shifting of 
the gears, as is normally the case. 

(3) Excessive jolting and vibration causing some of the leads to 
shake loose from the terminal block. 

(4) Breakage or loosening of some of the connections at the 
selector switch owing to the same cause. (The wiring itself is so well 
protected that any injury to it is remote.) 

(5) Jamming of the solenoid cores in the brass tubes in which 
they slide in the coils, owing to the shaft getting out of alignment. 
To operate properly, it should be easy to move the entire shifting 
mechanism by hand with very little effort. 

(6) Exhausted storage battery which, as a matter of fact, should 
always be tested first, but which, like the empty gasoline tank, is 
such patent cause of failure that it seems almost unnecessary to 
mention it, either first or last. As is pointed out at considerable 
length under the appropriate heading, there are numerous causes for 
the exhaustion of the battery, so that its condition should always 
be inspected before attempting to investigate the shifting mechanism. 

Should an examination prove the battery to be sufficiently 
charged, the electric test-lamp set— described in connection with 
trouble hunting in the starting and lighting systems— will prove a 
valuable aid in running down the open circuit or the short-circuit 
that is preventing the gear box from operating. Test the circuit 
of each solenoid in turn; inspect the connections of the master switch 
and the condition of its contact fingers, also the connections at the 
terminal block and at the selector switch. The test lamp should 
quickly reveal just which circuit is at fault. 


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w 1 












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SYSTEMS— (Continued) 


Importance of the Battery in Starting and Lighting. In the 
last analysis, every electric lighting and starting system on the 
automobile is necessarily a battery system. An electric starter 
is, first and last, a battery starter, since no system can be any more 
powerful than its source of energy. In other words, the storage 
battery is the business end of every electrical starting and lighting 
system. Just as the most elaborate and reliable ignition apparatus 
is of doubtful value with poor spark plugs, so the finest generators, 
motors, and auxiliaries become useless if the battery is not in proper 
working order. 

Storage Battery Requires Careful Attention. A little experience 
in the maintenance of electric starting and lighting systems will 
demonstrate very forcibly that the relative importance of the storage 
battery is totally disproportionate to that of all the remaining 
elements of the system put together. The latter essentials have 
been perfected to a point where they will operate efficiently without 
attention for long periods. The battery, on the other hand, requires 
a certain amount of attention at regular and comparatively short 
intervals. Usually, this attention is not forthcoming, or it may be 
applied at irregular intervals and with but scant knowledge of the 
underlying reasons that make it necessary. Consequently, the battery 
suffers. It is abused more than any other single part of the entire 
system and, not being so constituted that it can withstand the effects 
of this abuse and still operate efficiently, it suffers correspondingly. 
Then the entire system is condemned. 


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Other things being equal, the successful operation of any starting 
and lighting system centers almost wholly in the proper maintenance of 
the storage battery. Not all the defections that this part of the elee- 
trical equipment of the car suffers are caused by the battery, but unless 
properly cared for, it will be responsible for such a large proportion 
that the shortcomings of the rest of the system will be entirely for- 
gotten. To make it even stronger, it may well be said that unless 
the storage battery is kept in good condition, the rest of the system 
will not have an opportunity to run long enough to suffer from wear. 
In a great many cases that come to the repair man's attention, the 
battery is ruined in the first six months' service, usually through 
neglect. For this reason, considerable attention is devoted to the 
battery and its care in this connection, despite the fact that it is 
very fully covered in the volume on Electric Vehicles. The condi- 
tions of operation, however, are totally unlike in the two cases. 
In one instance, the energy of the battery is called for only at a rate 
of discharge which is moderate by comparison with the ampere-hour 
capacity, while the battery itself is constantly under the care of a 
skilled attendant. In the other instance, the demand for current is 
not alone excessive but wholly disproportionate to the total capacity 
of the battery when it is used for starting, and intelligent care is 
usually conspicuous by its absence. 


Function of Storage Battery. In the sense in which it is commonly 
understood, a battery does not actually store a charge of electricity. 
The process is entirely one of chemical action and reaction. A battery 
is divided into units termed cells. Each cell is complete in itself 
and is uniform with every other cell in the battery, and one of the 
chief objects of the care outlined subsequently is to maintain this 
uniformity. Each cell consists of certain elements which, when a 
current of electricity of a given value is sent through them in one 
direction for a certain length of time, will produce a current of 
electricity in the opposite direction if the terminals of the battery 
are connected to a motor, lamps, or other resistance. The cell will, 
of course, also produce a current if its terminals are simply brought 
together without any outside resistance. This, however, would 
represent a dead short-cirevit and would permit the battery to dis- 


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charge itself so rapidly as to ruin its elements. This is one of the 
things that must be carefully guarded against. When attending 
a battery, see that its terminals are not left exposed where tools may 
accidentally drop on them. When the current is being sent into the 
battery, as mentioned above, it is said to be charging; when it is 
connected to an outside resistance, it is discharging. 

Parts of Cell. Elements. These are known as the positive 
and negative plates and correspond to the positive and negative 
electrodes of a primary battery. They consist of a foundation com- 
posed of a casting of metallic 
lead in the form of a grid, the 
outer edges and the connecting 
lug being of solid lead, while 
the remainder of the grid is like 
two sections of lattice work so 
placed that the openings do not 
correspond. Every manufacturer 
has different patterns of grids, 
but this description will apply 
equally well to all of them. Fig. 
453 illustrates the grid of the 
Philadelphia battery. The ob- 
ject in giving them this form is 
to make the active material of Fig 453 ^ Grid Ready for Activc Material 

the plates mOSt accessible tO Courtesy of PhUaddphia Storage Battery 

t Company, Philatidphia, Prnnsylvanm 

the electrolyte, or solution, of 

the battery, and at the same time to insure retaining this active 

material between the sides of the grid. 

This active material consists of peroxide of lead (red lead) in 
the positive plate and litharge, or spongy metallic lead, in the nega- 
tive plate. The plates are said to be pasted, to distinguish them 
from the old-style plates which were "formed" by a number of charges 
and discharges. The active material is forced into the interstices 
of the grid under heavy pressure, so that when completed the 
plate is as hard and smooth as a piece of planed oak plank. The 
positive plate may be distinguished by its reddish color, while the 
negative is a dark gray. Each positive plate faces a negative in 
the cell, and as the capacity of the cell is determined by the area 


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of the positive plates, there is always one more negative plate than 
positive plates in a cell. The lead connectors of each of the plates 
is burned to its neighbor of the same kind, thus forming the positive 
and negative groups which constitute the elements of the cell. 

Separators. As the elements must not be allowed to come in 
contact with each other in the cell because to do so would cause an 
internal short-circuit to which reference is made later, and as the 
maximum capacity must be obtained in the minimum space, the 
plates are placed very close together with wood and perforated 
hard rubber separators between them. These are designed to fit 
very snugly, so that the combined group of positive and negative 
plates is a very compact unit. When reassembling a cell, it is impor- 
tant that these separators be properly cared for in accordance with 
the directions given later. 

Electrolyte. To complete the cell, the grouped elements with 
their separators are immersed in a jar holding the electrolyte. This 
is a solution consisting of water and sulphuric acid in certain pro- 
portions, both the acid and the water being chemically pure to a 
certain standard. This is the grade of acid sold by manufacturers as 
battery acid and in drug stores as C.P. (chemically pure), while 
the water should be either distilled, be cleanly caught rain water, 
or melted artificial ice. In this connection, the expression "chemi- 
cally pure" acid is sometimes erroneously used simply to indicate 
acid of full strength, i. e., undiluted, as used in the cells in the form 
of electrolyte. It will be apparent that whether at its original 
strength or diluted with distilled water, it is still chemically pure. 
In mixing electrolyte, a glass, porcelain, or earthenware vessel 
must be used and the acid must always be poured into the water. Never 
attempt to pour the water into the acid, but always add the acid, 
a little at a time, to the water. The addition of the acid to the water 
does not make simply a mechanical mixture of the two but creates a 
solution in the formation of which a considerable amount of heat is 
liberated. Consequently, if the acid be poured into the water too 
fast, the containing vessel may be broken by the heat. For the same 
reason, if the water be poured into the acid, the chemical reaction 
will be very violent, and the acid itself will be spattered about. 
Sulphuric acid is highly corrosive; it will cause painful burns whenever 
it comes in contact (even in dilute solution) with the skin and will 


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quickly destroy any fabric or metal on which it falls. It will also 
attack wood, for which reason nothing but glass, earthenware, or 
hard rubber containers should be employed. 

Specific Gravity. The weight of a liquid as compared with 
distilled water is known as its specific gravity. Distilled water at 
60° F. is 1, or unity. Liquids heavier than distilled water have a 
specific gravity greater than unity; lighter liquids, such as gasoline, 
have a specific gravity less than that of distilled water. Concentrated 
sulphuric acid (battery acid, as received from the manufacturer) 
is a heavy oily liquid having a specific gravity of about 1.835. A 
battery will not operate properly on acid of full strength, and it is 
therefore diluted with sufficient water to bring it down to 1.275. 
This, however, is the specific gravity of the electrolyte only when the 
battery is fully charged. The specific gravity of the electrolyte 
affords the most certain indication of the condition of the battery 
at any time, and its importance in this connection is outlined at 
considerable length under the head of Hydrometer Tests. The 
following table shows the parts of water by volume, the parts of 
water by weight, and the percentage of acid to water to produce 
electrolyte of different specific gravities. 

Action of Cell on Charge. When the elements described are 
immersed in a jar of electrolyte of the proper specific gravity, and 
terminals are provided for connecting to the outside circuit, the 
cell is complete. As the lead-plate storage battery produces current 
at a potential of but two volts per cell, however, a single cell is 
rarely used. The lowest number of cells in practical use is the 
three-cell unit of the 6-volt battery used for starting and lighting 
on the automobile. The different cells of the battery are usually 
permanently connected together by heavy lead straps, while detach- 
able terminals are provided for connecting the battery to an outside 
circuit. When the charging current is sent through the cell, the 
action is as follows: The original storage-battery cell of Plants 
consisted simply of two plates of lead; when the current was sent 
through such a cell on charge, peroxide of lead was deposited on the 
positive plate and spongy metallic lead on the negative. This was 
termed "forming" the plate. By modern methods of manufacture, 
this active material is formed into a paste with dilute sulphuric acid, 
and is pressed into the grids. On being charged, this acid is forced 


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out of the plates into the electrolyte, thus raising the specific gravity 
of the electrolyte. When practically all of this acid has been trans- 
ferred from the active material of the plates to the solution, or 
electrolyte, the cell is said to be fully charged and should then show 
a specific gravity reading of 1.275 to 1.300. The foregoing refers of 
course to the initial charge. After the cell has once been discharged, 
the active material of both groups of plates has been converted into 
lead sulphate. The action on charge then consists of driving the 
acid out of the plates and at the same time reconverting the lead 
sulphate into peroxide of lead in the positive plates and into spongy 
metallic lead in the negative plates. 

Action of Cell on Discharge. The action of the cell on discharge 
consists of a reversal of the process just described. The acid which 
has been forced out of the plates into the electrolyte by the charging 
current again combines with the active material of the plates, 
when the cell is connected for discharge to produce a current. When 
the sulphuric acid in the electrolyte combines with the lead of the 
active material, a new compound, lead sulphate, is formed at both 
plates. This lead sulphate is formed in the same way that sulphuric 
acid, dropped on the copper-wire terminals, forms copper sulphate, 
or dropped on the iron work of the car, forms iron sulphate. In cases 
of this kind, it will always be noted that the amount of sulphate 
formed is all out of proportion to the quantity of metal eaten away. 
In the same manner, when the sulphuric acid of the electrolyte com- 
bines with the lead in the plates to form lead sulphate, the volume 
is such as to completely fill the pores of the active material when 
the cell is entirely discharged. This makes it difficult for the charging 
current to reach all parts of the active material and accounts for the 
manufacturers' instructions, never to discharge the battery below a 
certain point. 

As the discharge progresses, the electrolyte becomes weaker by 
the amount of acid that is absorbed by the active material of the 
plates in the formation of lead sulphate, which is a compound of 
acid and lead. This lead sulphate continues to increase in bulk, 
filling the pores of the plates, and as these pores are stopped up by 
the sulphate, the free circulation of the acid is retarded. Since 
the acid cannot reach the active material of the plates fast enough 
to maintain the normal action, the battery becomes less active. 


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which is indicated by a rapid falling off in the voltage. Starting 
at slightly over 2 volts per cell when fully charged, this voltage 
will be maintained at normal discharge rates with but a slight drop, 
until the lead sulphate begins to fill the plates. As this occurs, 
the voltage gradually drops to 1.8 volts per cell and from that point 
on will drop very rapidly. A voltage of 1.7 volts per cell indicates 
practically complete discharge, or that the plates of the cell are 
filled with lead sulphate and that the battery should be placed on 
charge immediately. 

During the normal discharge, the amount of acid used from the 
electrolyte will cause the specific gravity of the solution to drop 
100 to 150 points, so that if the hydrometer showed a reading of 
1.280 when the cell was fully charged, it will indicate but 1.130 to 
1 .180 when it is exhausted, or completely discharged. The electrolyte 
is then very weak ; in fact, it is little more than pure water. Practically 
all of the available acid has been combined with the active material 
of the plates. While the acid and the lead combine with each other 
in difinite proportions in producing the current on discharge, it is 
naturally not possible to provide them in such quantities that both 
are wholly exhausted when the cell is fully discharged. Toward the 
end of the discharge, the electrolyte becomes so weak that it is no 
longer capable of producing current at a rate sufficient for any 
practical purpose. For this reason, an amount of acid in excess of 
that actually used in the plates during discharge is provided. This 
is likewise true of the active material. 

Capacity of a Battery. The amount of current that a cell will 
produce on discharge is known as its capacity and is measured 
in ampere hours. It is impossible to discharge from the cell as much 
current as was needed to charge it, the efficiency of the average cell 
of modern type when in good condition being 80 to 85 per cent, 
or possibly a little higher when at its best, i.e., after five or six 
discharges. In other words, if 100 ampere hours are required to 
charge a battery, only 80 to 85 ampere hours can be discharged 
from it. This ampere-hour capacity of the cell depends upon the 
type of plate used, the area of the plate, and the number of plates 
in the cell, i.e., total positive-plate area opposed to total negative- 
plate area. To accomplish this, both outside plates in a cell are 
made negative. The ampere-hour capacity of a battery, all the 


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cells of which are connected up as a single series, is the same as that 
of any single cell in the series; as in connecting up dry cells in series, 
the current output is always that of a single cell, while the voltage 
of the current increases volts for each cell added to the series. In 
the case of the storage battery, it increases two volts for each cell. 
The capacity of the cell as thus expressed in ampere hours is 
based on its normal discharge rate or on a lower rate. For example, 
take a 100-ampere-hour battery. Such a battery will produce current 

at the rate of 1 am- 

/-Unscrt^ This Cop 

pere for practically 100 
hours, 2 amperes for 50 
hours, or 5 amperes for 
20 hours; but as the dis- 
charge rate is increased 
beyond a certain point, 
the capacity of the bat- 
tery falls off. The battery 
in question would not 
produce 50 amperes of 
current for 2 hours. This 
is because of the fact that 
the heavy discharge pro- 
duces lead sulphate so 
rapidly and in such large 
quantities that it quickly 
fills the pores of the 
active material and pre- 
vents further access of 
the acid to it. Thus, 
while it will not produce 
50 amperes of current for 2 hours on continuous discharge, it will be 
capable of a discharge as great or greater than this by considerable, if 
allowed periods of rest between. When on open circuit, the storage 
battery recuperates very rapidly. It is for this reason that when 
trying to start the switch should never be kept closed for more than 
a few seconds at a time. Ten trials of 10 seconds each with a half- 
minute interval between them will exhaust the battery less than will 
spinning the motor steadily for a minute and forty seconds. 

Fig. 454. Section of Willard Starting Battery, 
Showing Mud Space 


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Construction Details. For automobile starting and lighting 
service, the elements of the cells are placed in insulating supports 
in the bottom of the hard rubber jars and sealed in place. These 
supports hold the plates off the bottom of the jar several inches in 
the later types of starting batteries. Figs. 454 and 455 show sections 
of the Willard starter battery and another standard type This is 
known as the mud space and is designed to receive the accumulation 
of sediment consisting of the active material which is shaken off the 
plates in service. This ac- 
tive material is naturally a 
good electrical conductor, 
and if it were allowed to 
come in contact with the bot- 
toms of the groups of plates, 
it would short-circuit the 
cell. Sufficient space is usu- 
ally allowed under the plates 
to accommodate practically. 
all of the active material that 
can be shed by the plates 
during the active life of the 
cell. In a battery having 
cells of this type, it is never 
necessary to wash the cells, 
as the elements themselves 
would require renewal be- 
fore the sediment could 

reach the bottom Of the F**- 455 - Typical Starting Battery with Platea Cut 

Down, Showing Assembly 


In sealing the elements into the jar, a small opening is left for 
the purpose of adding distilled water as well as to permit the escape 
of the gas when the battery is charging. Except when being used 
for refilling the jars, this opening is closed by a soft rubber stopper 
which has a small perforation through which the hydrogen passes 
out of the cell when the latter is gassing, as explained later. The 
different cells of a battery are electrically connected by heavy lead 
straps, these strips being usually burned onto the plates by the 
lead-burning process. ' 


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Edison Cell Not Available. It will be noted that the foregoing 
description has been confined entirely to the lead-plate type of storage 
battery and that no mention has been made of the Edison cell. The 
latter is not available for starting service on the automobile, because 
its internal resistance is too high to permit the extremely heavy 
discharge rate that is necessary. In extremely cold weather or where 
the engine is unusually stiff for other reasons, this may be as high 
as 300 amperes momentarily, while, under ordinary conditions, it 
will reach 150 to 200 amperes at the moment of closing the switch. 
The efficiency of the Edison cell also drops off very markedly in cold 

weather, though this is 
also true to a lesser extent 
of the lead-plate type. 


The following in- 
structions are given 
about in the order in 
which it is necessary to 
apply them in the care of 
a storage battery. 

Adding Distilled 
Water. In order to func- 
tion properly, the plates 
in the cells must be cov- 
ered by th^ electrolyte at 
all times to a depth of half an inch. Fig. 456 shows a handy method of 
determining this definitely. A small piece of glass tube, open at both 
ends, is inserted in the vent hole of the battery until it rests on the tops 
of the plates. A finger is then pressed tightly on top of the upper end 
of the tube, and the tube is withdrawn. It will bring with it at its 
lower end an amount of acid equivalent to the depth over the plates. 
This should always be returned to the same cell from which it was 
taken. The electrolyte consists of sulphuric acid and water. The 
acid does not evaporate, but the water does. The rapidity with 
which the water evaporates will depend upon the conditions of charg- 
ing. For example, if a car is constantly driven on long day runs and 
gets very little night use, the storage battery is likely to be contin- 

Fi«. 456. 

Diagram Showing Method of Measuring Height 
of Electrolyte over Plates 
Courtesy of U. S. Light and Heat Corporation, 
Niagara Falls, New York 


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ually overcharged and may need the addition of water to the elec- 
trolyte as often as every three days, whereas, in ordinary service, 
once a week would be sufficient. Even with intermittent use, the 
battery should not be allowed to run more than two weeks without 
an inspection of the level of the electrolyte and the addition of 
distilled water, if necessary. Distilled water is always specified, 
since the presence of impurities in the water would be harmful to 
the battery, this being particularly the case where they take the 
form of iron salts. Where it is not convenient to procure distilled 
or rain water in sufficient quantities, samples of the local water sup- 
ply may be submitted to any battery manufacturer for analysis. 

While it is necessary to maintain the electrolyte one-half inch 
over the plates, care must be taken not to exceed this, for, if filled 
above this level, the battery will flood when charged, owing to the 
solution with the increasing temperature. The best time for adding 
water is just before the car is to be taken out for several hours of use. 
It may be done most conveniently with a glass and rubber syringe 
of the type used with the hydrometer. Care should be taken when 
washing the car to see that no water is allowed to enter the battery 
box, as it is likely to short-circuit the cells across their lead connectors 
and to carry impurities into the cells themselves. 

Adding Acid. When the level of the electrolyte in the cell 
becomes low, it is, under normal conditions, caused by the evaporation 
of the water, and this loss should be replaced with water only. There 
being no loss of acid t it should never be necessary to add acid to the 
electrolyte during the entire life of the battery. When a jar leaks or 
is accidentally upset, and some of the solution lost, the loss should be 
replaced with electrolyte of the same specific gravity as that remaining 
in the cell, and not with full strength acid nor with water alone. The 
former would make the solution too heavy, while the latter would 
make it too weak. Consequently, unless acid is actually known to 
have escaped from the cell, none should ever be added to it. Under 
the sections on the Hydrometer and Specific Gravity, further reasons 
are given why no acid or electrolyte should be added to the cell 
under normal conditions, and the causes which would seem to make 
the addition of acid necessary are explained. 

Hydrometer. . Next to the regular addition of distilled water 
to the cells, the garage man will be called upon most frequently to 


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test the condition of the cells with the hydrometer. This is termed 
taking the specific gravity and is one of the most important tests 
in connection with the care of the battery. The specific gravity of 
a liquid is determined by means of an instrument consisting of a 
weighted glass tube having a scale marked on it. This instrument is 
the hydrometer, and in distilled water at 60 degrees it should sink 
until the scale comes to rest at the surface of the liquid at the division 
l.(KM). The lighter the liquid, the further the instrument will sink 
in it; the heavier the liquid, the higher the 
instrument will float. For constant use in 
connection with the care of lighting and 
starting batteries, the hydrometer shown in 
Fig. 457 will be found the most convenient. 
Where the battery is located on the run- 
ning board of the car, the test may be made 
without removing the syringe from the cell, 
but care must be taken to hold it vertical 
to prevent the hydrometer from sticking to 
the sides of the glass barrel. Wherever pos- 
sible, the reading should be made without 
removing the syringe from the vent hole of 
the cell, so that the electrolyte thus with- 
drawn may always be returned to the same 
cell. Where the battery is located in a posi- 
tion difficult of access, as under the floor 
boards, the syringe may be drawn full of 
electrolyte and then lifted out; as the soft 
rubber plug in the bottom of the glass barrel 

FiK.4o7. Syringe Hydrom- is in the foFm ° f a tT *P> when the in S trU ~ 

etcrSct ment is held vertical, the solution will not 

run out while the reading is being taken. 

Failure to replace the electrolyte in the same cell from w T hich 
it was taken will result in destroying the uniformity of the cells. 
For example, if electrolyte has been withdrawn from cell No. 1 of 
the battery and, after taking the reading, it is put into cell No. 2, 
the amount taken from No. 1 must later be made up by adding water, 
and the solution will be that much weaker, while the electrolyte 
of No. 2 will be correspondingly stronger. 


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Hydrometer Tests. In taking a hydrometer reading, first see 
that the instrument is not held by the sides of the glass syringe 
barrel; then note the level of the instrument in the liquid by looking 
at it from below, i.e., hold it up above the level of the eye. Reading 
the hydrometer in this way is found to give more accurate results 
than looking down upon it. While the hydrometer affords the best 
single indication of the condition of the battery — the cells should 
test 1.250 to 1.300 when fully charged and 1.150 when fully dis- 
charged, below which point they should never be allowed to go — 
there are conditions under which the instrument may be entirely 
misleading. For example, when fresh distilled water is added to a 
cell to bring the solution up to the proper level, the additional water 
does not actually combine with the electrolyte until the cell has 
been on charge for some time. Consequently, if a hydrometer 
reading were taken of that particular cell just after the water had 
been added, the test would be misleading, as it would apparently 
show the cell to be nearer the fully discharged state than it actually 
was, owing to the low specific gravity of the electrolyte. If, on the 
other hand, fresh electrolyte or pure acid has been added to a cell 
just prior to taking readings, and without the knowledge, of the tester 
the reading would apparently show the battery to be fully charged, , 
whereas the reverse might be the case. In this instance, the specific 
gravity would be higher than it should be. To determine accurately 
the condition of the cells in such circumstances, the hydrometer 
readings would have to be checked by making tests with the volt- 
meter, as described later. 

Under average conditions, however, the hydrometer alone will 
closely indicate the state of charge, and its use should always be 
resorted to whenever there is any question as to the condition of 
a battery. For instance, an irate owner will sometimes condemn the 
battery for failure of the starting motor to operate and will be 
absolutely positive that the battery has been fully charged, since he 
has been driving in daylight for hours. The hydrometer reading will 
show at once whether the battery is charged or not. If it is not, it will 
indicate either that the generator, its regulator, or the battery cut-out 
are not working properly, or that there is a short-circuit or a ground 
somewhere in the lighting or ignition circuits which permits the 
battery to discharge itself. Another more or less common complaint, 


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the cause of which may be definitely assigned one way or the other 
by the aid of the hydrometer is that "the battery is not holding 
its charge". Except where it is allowed to stand for long periods 
without use, as where a car is laid up for a month or more, there is 
no substantial decrease in the capacity simply through standing, 
unless the battery is allowed to stand in a discharged condition. 

Consequently, the owner's impression that the charge of the 
battery is mysteriously leaking away overnight through some short- 
coming of the cells themselves is not correct. If there is a fault, it 
is probably in the wiring; or a switch may have been left on inadvert- 
ently; or, as is very often the case, the car is not driven long enough 
in daylight to permit the generator to charge the battery sufficiently. 
When driving at night with all lights on, as is commonly the custom, 
the generator supplies very little current in excess of that required 
by the lamps. As a result, the battery receives but a fraction of 
its normal charge, so that one or two attempts to use the starting 
motor exhaust it. A hydrometer test made just before using the 
starting motor will show that there is only a small fraction of a charge 
in the cells, so that they are not capable of supplying sufficient current 
to turn the engine over longer than a few seconds. The hydrometer 
is equally valuable in indicating when a battery is being overcharged, 
though this is a condition which carries its own indication, known 
as gassing, which is described in detail under that head. 

Variations in Readings. Specific-gravity readings between 
1.275 and 1.300 indicate that the battery is fully charged; between 
1.200 and 1.225, that the battery is more than half discharged; 
between 1.150 and 1.200, that the battery is quickly nearing a fully 
discharged condition and must be recharged very shortly, otherwise 
injury will result. Below 1.150 the battery is entirely exhausted and 
must be recharged immediately to prevent the plates from becoming 
sulphated, as explained in the section covering that condition. 

Where the specific gravity in any cell tests more than 25 points 
lower than the average of the other cells in the battery, it is an 
indication that this cell is out of order. Dependence should not be 
placed, however, on a single reading where there is any question as 
to the specific gravity. Take several readings and average them. 
Variations in cell readings may be caused by internal short-circuits 
in the cell; by putting too much water in the cell and causing a loss 


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of electrolyte through flooding or overflowing; or by loss of electro- 
lyte from a cracked or leaky jar. Internal short-circuits may result 
from a broken separator or from an accumulation of sediment in the 
mud space of the jars reaching the bottom of the plates. 

Quite a substantial percentage of all the troubles experienced 
with starting batteries, which are only too often neglected until 
they give out, is caused by letting the electrolyte get too low in the 
jars. The effect of this is to weaken the battery, causing it to dis- 
charge more readily, and frequently resulting in harmful sulphating 
of the plates and injury to the separators. When such sulphating 
occurs, it permits the plates to come into contact with each other, 
and an internal short-circuit results. The importance of always 
maintaining the electrolyte one-half inch above the tops of the plates 
will be apparent from this. 

One of the most frequent causes of low electrolyte in a Single 
cell is the presence of a cracked or leaky jar. If one of the cells 
requires more frequent addition of water than the others to maintain 
the level of its electrolyte, it is an indication that it is leaking. Where 
all the cells of a battery require the addition of water at unusually 
short intervals, it is an indication that the battery is being constantly 
overcharged. (See Gassing.) Unless a leaky jar is replaced 
immediately, the cell itself will be ruined, and it may cause seriotts 
damage to the remainder of the battery. Jars are often broken owing 
to the hold-down bolts or straps becoming loose, thus allowing the 
battery to jolt around on the running board, or they may be broken 
by freezing. The presence of a frozen cell in a battery shows that 
it has been allowed to stand in an undercharged condition in cold 
weather, as a fully charged cell will not freeze except at unusually 
low temperatures. 

Frozen Cells. In some cases, the cells may freeze without crack- 
ing the jars. This will be indicated by a great falling off in the 
efficiency of the cells that have suffered this injury, or in a totally 
discharged condition which cannot be remedied by continuous 
charging. In other words, the battery is dead and the plates are 
worthless except as scrap lead. In all cases where cells have been 
frozen, whether the jar has cracked or not, the plates must be 
replaced at once. It must always be borne in mind that low tempera- 
tures seriously affect the efficiency of the storage battery and that 


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care should be taken to keep it constantly in a charged condition. 
A variation in the temperature also affects the hydrometer readings 
themselves. The effect of the temperature on the hydrometer tests 
is explained .under Adjusting the Specific Gravity. 

Low Cells. When one cell of the battery tests more than 25 
points below the specific gravity of the others, as shown by the 
average of several readings taken of each, it should be placed on 
charge separately from an outside source of current. This may be 
done without removing it from the car or disconnecting it from the 
other cells, since the charging leads may be clipped to its terminal 
posts. If no other facilities are available and direct-current service 
is at hand, use carbon lamps as a resistance in the manner illustrated 
on another page. As the normal charging rate of the average starting 
battery is 10 to 15 amperes or more, that many 32-c.p. carbon 
filament lamps may be used in the circuit. Where only alternating 
current is available, a small rectifier, as described under Charging 
from Outside Sources, will be found most convenient in garages 
not having enough of this work to warrant the installation of a 
motor-generator. After the low cell has been on charge for an hour 
or two, note whether or not its specific gravity is rising, by taking a 
hydrometer reading. If, after several hours of charging, its specific 
gravity has not risen to that of the other cells, it is an indication 
that there is something wrong with the cell, and it should be cut 
out. (See Replacing a Jar and Overhauling the Battery.) 

Adjusting the Specific Gravity. Except in such cases as those 
mentioned under Hydrometer, where water has been added to the 
electrolyte just before testing, or electrolyte has been added without 
the knowledge of the tester, specific gravity of the electrolyte is the 
best indication of the condition of the cell, and the treatment to be 
given should always be governed by it. As explained in the section 
on Action on Charge and Discharge, the acid of the electrolyte com- 
bines with the active material of the plates to produce the current on 
discharge. The further the cell is discharged the more acid there 
will be in the plates, and the less in the solution. Consequently, 
low-gravity readings practically always mean lack of acid in the 
solution, and that implies lack of charge. Unless there is something 
wrong with the cell, charging will restore the acid to the electrolyte 
and bring the specific-gravity readings up to normal. In case a jar 

. 206 

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is leaking or has been overturned and lost some of its electrolyte, no 
amount of charging will bring its specific gravity up to the proper 

The gravity readings of the cells vary somewhat in summer and 
winter, and they also decrease with the age of the plates, but the 
battery will continue to give good service as long as its specific 
gravity rises to between 1 .250 and 1 .300 when fully charged. In case 
it rises above 1.300, there is an indication that excess acid has been 
added to the electrolyte, and this must be corrected by drawing off 
some of the electrolyte with the syringe and replacing it with distilled 
water. A gradually decreasing specific gravity in all the cells 
of a battery is an indication that sediment is accumulating in the 
bottom of the jars and that the battery, if of the old type with 
low mud space, requires washing; if of the later type with high 
mud space, that its elements require renewal. Before accepting 
this conclusion, however, make certain that the low reading is not 
due to insufficient charging. In actual practice, starter batteries 
seldom remain long enough in service without overhauling even 
to need washing. 

Many starter batteries are kept in an undercharged condition 
so constantly, owing to frequent use of the starting motor with but 
short periods of driving in between, that they should be put on 
charge from an outside source at regular intervals. In fact, this 
is the only method of determining definitely whether the battery 
itself is really at fault or whether it is the unfavorable conditions 
under which it is operating. Where the cells give a low reading, 
no attempt should ever be made to raise the specific gravity of 
the electrolyte by adding acid, until the battery has been subjected 
to a long slow charge. The maximum specific gravity of the electro- 
lyte is reached when all the acid combined in the active material 
of the plates has been driven out by the charging current. Adding 
acid will increase the specific gravity, but it will not increase the 
condition of charge; it will simply give a false indication of a charged 
condition. For example, if the electrolyte of a cell tested 1.225, 
and, without giving it a long charge, acid were added to bring the 
specific gravity up to 1 .275, it would then rise to 1 .325 if put on charge, 
showing that 50 points of acid had remained combined in the plates 
when the low readings were taken. 


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The necessity for adjusting the specific gravity of the electrolyte 
in a cell can only be determined by first bringing it to its true maxi- 
mum. To do this with a starter battery, it must be put on charge 
from an outside source at a low rate, say 5 amperes, and kept on 
charge continuously until tests show that the specific gravity of 
the electrolyte has ceased to rise. This may take more than twenty- 
four hours, and readings should be taken every hour or so, toward 
the end of the charge. Should the battery begin to gas violently 
while tests show that the specific gravity is still rising, the charging 
current should be reduced to stop the gassing, or, if necessary, 
stopped altogether for a short time and then renewed. 

If after this prolonged charge, the specific, gravity is not more 
than 25 points below normal, some of the solution may be drawn 
off with the syringe and replaced with small quantities of 1.300 
electrolyte, which should be added very gradually to prevent bring- 
ing about an excess. Should the specific gravity be too high at 
the end of the charge, draw off some of the electrolyte and replace 
it with distilled water to the usual level of one-half inch over the 
plates. A charge of this kind is usually referred to as a conditioning 
charge and, given once a month, will be found very greatly to 
improve starter batteries that are constantly undercharged in service. 

Temperature Corrections. All specific-gravity readings mentioned 
are based upon a temperature of 70° F. of the electrolyte, and as 
the electrolyte, like most other substances, expands with the heat 
and contracts with the cold, its specific gravity is affected by variations 
of temperature. This, of course, does not affect its strength, but 
as its strength is judged by its specific gravity, the effect of the 
temperature must be taken into consideration when making the tests. 
The temperature in this connection is not that of the surrounding 
air but that of the electrolyte itself, and as the plates and solution 
of a battery increase in temperature under charge, the electrolyte 
may be 70° F. or higher, even though the outside air is close 
to zero. Consequently, the only method of checking this factor 
accurately is to insert a battery thermometer in the vent hole of the 
cell. If, on the other hand, the battery has been standing idle for 
some time in a cold place, the electrolyte has the same temperature 
as the surrounding air, and a hydrometer reading taken without 
a temperature correction would be very misleading. 


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For example, assume that the car is standing in a barn in which 
the temperature is 20° F. and that it has not been running for some 
time so that the electrolyte is as cold as the surrounding air. A 
hydrometer reading shows the specific gravity of the electrolyte to 
be 1 .265, which would indicate that the battery was approximately 
fully charged. But the correction for temperature amounts to one 
point (.001) for each three degrees above or below 70° F., and in this 
case a, difference of 50 degrees would have to be allowed for. This 
amounts to practically 18 points, and the specific gravity of the 
cells is 1.265 minus 18, or 1.247. The battery is accordingly three- 
quarters charged, instead of fully charged as the uncorrected reading 
would appear to indicate. The electrolyte contracts with the drop 
in temperature, and its specific gravity becomes correspondingly 
higher without any actual increase in its strength. The opposite 
condition will be found when the battery has commenced to gas 
so violently that the temperature of the electrolyte is raised to 
100° to 105° F. At the former figure there would be a difference 
of 30 degrees, or 10 points, to allow for, in which case a specific gravity 
reading of 1.265 would actually be 1.275. Hydrometer scales, with a 
a temperature scale showing at a glance the corresponding correction 
necessary, simplify the task of correcting the readings; but to do 
this properly a battery thermometer must be employed, as the 
temperature of the electrolyte itself is the only factor to be considered. 
Qassing. When an electric current is sent through a storage- 
battery cell, it immediately attacks the lead sulphate into which 
the active material of both the positive and the negative plates 
has been converted during the discharge and begins to reconvert 
it into peroxide of lead at the positive plate and into spongy metallic 
lead at the negative. As long as there is an ample supply of this 
lead sulphate on which the current may work, as in a fully discharged 
battery, the entire amperage being sent through the battery is restricted 
to carrying on this process. In other words, the current will always 
do the easiest thing first by following the path of least resistance. When 
the cell is in a discharged state, the easiest thing to do is to decompose 
the lead sulphate. A$ there is a comparatively large amount of 
this lead sulphate in a fully discharged battery, a correspondingly 
large amount of current can be used in charging at the start. But 
as the amount of sulphate progressively decreases with the charge, 


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a point is reached at which there is no longer sufficient sulphate 
remaining to utilize all the current that is passing through the cell. 

The excess current will then begin to do the next easiest thing, 
which is to decompose the water of the electrolyte and liberate 
hydrogen gas. This gassing is not owing to any defect in the battery, 
as some owners seem to think, but is simply the result of over- 
charging it. In one instance, a car owner condemned the starting 
battery with which his machine was equipped, for the reason that 
it was "always boiling". In fact, it "boiled" itself to pieces and 
had to be replaced by the manufacturer of the car after only a few 
months of service; while, as a matter of fact, the conditions under 
which the car was driven were wholly responsible. It was used for 
long runs in the day time with infrequent stops, and was rarely run 
at night; therefore, the battery was continually charging but seldom 
had an opportunity to discharge. 

This erroneous impression is also closely interlinked with another 
that is equally common and equally harmful. This is that one of 
the functions of the battery cut-out is to break the circuit and prevent 
the battery from becoming overcharged. It is hardly necessary 
to add that this is not one of its functions, but that as long as the gen- 
erator is being driven above a certain speed, the cut-out will keep the 
battery in circuit, and the generator will continue to charge it. Its 
only purpose is to prevent the battery from discharging itself through 
the generator when the speed of the generator falls to a point where 
its voltage would be overcome by that of the battery unless the 
battery were automatically disconnected. The cut-out does not 
protect the battery from being overcharged; only the driver or the 
garage man can do that by noting the conditions under which the 
car is operated and taking precautions to prevent the battery 
from overcharging. 

Gassing is simply an indication that too much current is being 
sent into the battery. Another indication of the same condition 
is the necessity for refilling the cells with distilled water at very 
short intervals, as an excess charge raises the temperature of the 
electrolyte and causes rapid losses by evaporation. That is the 
reason why it is likely to be so harmful to the battery unless remedied, 
as if allowed to exceed 1 10° F., the active material is likely to be forced 
out of the grids, and the cells to be ruined. While it is essential 


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that the battery be fully charged at intervals and that it be always 
kept well charged, continuously overcharging it is likely to be as 
harmful as allowing it to stand undercharged. Where the conditions 
of service cannot be altered to remedy the trouble, the regulator 
of the generator should be adjusted to lower the charging rate, or, 
if nothing else will suffice, additional resistance, controlled by an 
independent switch, may be inserted in the charging circuit. (The 
U.S.L. system has a provision to safeguard the battery against 
overcharge, termed the touring switch.) 

Higher Charge Needed in Cold Weather. While the regulator 
of the generator is set by the manufacturer to give the best average 
results, and some makers warn the user against altering its adjustment, 
experience has demonstrated that a fixed adjustment of the regulation 
will not suffice for cars driven under all sorts of service conditions, 
nor for the same car as used at different seasons of the year. The 
efficiency of the storage battery is at its lowest in cold weather, 
which is the time when the demand upon it is greatest. A battery 
that would be constantly overcharged during the summer may not 
get more than sufficient current to keep it properly charged in 
winter, though driven under similar conditions in both seasons. 
On the other hand, a battery that is generally undercharged under 
summer conditions of driving will be practically useless in winter, 
as it will not have sufficient current to meet the demands upon it. 

It may be put down as a simple and definite rule that if the 
battery of a starting system never reaches the gassing stage, it 
is constantly undercharged and is rapidly losing its efficiency, as 
the sulphate remaining on the plates becomes harder with age 
and prevents the circulation of the electrolyte. Even when in the 
best condition, the electrolyte cannot reach all of the active material 
in the plates, so that any reduction means a serious falling off. Like- 
wise, when a battery is constantly gassing, it is in a continuous 
state of overcharge and is apt to be entirely ruined in a comparatively 
short time. The danger from undercharging is known as sulphat- 
ing — the plates become covered with a hard coating of lead sulphate 
that the electrolyte cannot penetrate — while that from overcharging 
is due to the electrolyte and the plates reaching a dangerous tempera- 
ture (105° F. or over) at which the active material is apt to be stripped 
from the grids. The conditions of service, on the average, are such 


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that a battery can seldom be kept in good condition for any length 
of time on the charging current from the generator alone. 

The hydrometer should be used frequently to keep track of 
its condition and, at least once a month, it should be given a long 
conditioning, or equalizing, charge, as it is variously termed. 
This charge is required because of the fact that, under ordinary 
conditions, a battery seldom receives a complete charge and that 
every time it is discharged without this being followed by a charge 
which is prolonged until the electrolyte has reached its maximum 
specific gravity, more lead sulphate accumulates in the plates. The 
object of the long charge is to convert this lead sulphate into peroxide 
of lead at the positive plate and into spongy metallic lead at the 
negative plate, as explained further under the head of Sulphating. 

Sulphating. At the end of a discharge, both sets of plates 
are covered with lead sulphate. This conversion of the active material 
of the plates into lead sulphate, which takes place during the discharge, 
is a normal reaction and, as such, occasions no damage. But if the 
cells are allowed to stand for any length of time in a discharged 
condition, the sulphate not only continues to increase in bulk, but 
becomes hard. It is also likely to turn white, so that white spots 
on the plates of a battery when it is dismantled are an indication that 
the cells have been neglected. In this . condition, the plates have 
lost their porosity to a certain extent and it is correspondingly 
more difficult for the charging current to penetrate the active material. 
When a battery has stood in a discharged condition for any length 
of time, it becomes sulphated. The less current it has in it at the 
time and the longer it stands, the more likely it is to be seriously 

Where a car is used but little in the daytime, and then only 
for short runs with more or less frequent stops, the battery never 
has an opportunity to become fully charged. The demands of the 
starting motor and the lights are such that the battery is never 
more than half charged at any time. Consequently, there is always 
a certain proportion of the lead sulphate that is not reconverted, 
but which remains constantly in the plates. As already mentioned, 
this condition does not remain stationary; the sulphate increases 
in amount and the older portions of it harden. This represents 
a loss of capacity which finally reaches a point where the cells are 


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no longer capable of supplying sufficient current (holding enough 
of the charge, as the owner usually puts it) to operate the starting 
motor. A battery that has been operating under conditions of this 
kind is not prepared for the winter's service, which accounts for 
the great number of complaints about the poor service rendered 
by starting systems in the early part of every winter. As long as 
the weather is warm, the battery continues to supply sufficient 
current in spite of the abuse to which it is subjected, but when 
cold weather further reduces its efficiency, it is no longer able to 
meet the demand. 

The only method of preventing this and of remedying it after 
it has occurred is the equalizing charge metioned in the preceding 
section. Long continued and persistent charging at a low rate 
will cure practically any condition of sulphate, the time necessary 
being proportionate to the degree to which it has been allowed to 
extend. It is entirely a question of time, and, as a high rate would 
only produce gassing, which would be a disadvantage, the rate of 
charge must be low. In case the cells show any signs of gassing, 
the charge must be further reduced. 

Extra Time Necessary for Charging. The additional length of 
time necessary for charging a battery that has been constantly 
kept in an undercharged condition is strikingly illustrated by the 
following test made with an electric vehicle battery: The cells 
were charged to the maximum, and the specific gravity regulated 
to exactly 1.275 with the electrolyte just £ inch above the tops of 
the plates, this height being carefully marked. The battery was 
then discharged and recharged to 1.265 at the normal rate in each 
case. The specific gravity rose from 1.265 to 1.275 during the last 
hour and a half of the charge. During the following twelve weeks, 
the battery was charged and discharged daily, each charge being 
only to 1.265, thus leaving 10 points of acid still in the plates. At 
the end of the twelve weeks, the charge was continued to determine 
the time required to regain the 10 points and thus restore the specific 
gravity to the original 1.275. Eleven hours were needed, as compared 
with the hour and half needed at first. This test further illustrates 
why it is necessary to give a battery an occasional overcharge or 
equalizing charge to prevent it becoming sulphated. Had the battery 
in question been charged daily to its maximum of 1 .275 and discharged 


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to the same extent during the twelve weeks, 9£- hours of the last 
charge would have been saved. These periods of time, of course, 
refer to the charging of the electric-vehicle battery, but they indicate 
in a corresponding manner the loss of efficiency suffered by the- start- 
ing battery owing to its being continually kept in an undercharged 

Restoring Sulphated Battery. There are only three ways in 
which a battery may become sulphated : The first and most common 
of these is that it has not been properly charged; second, excess 
acid has been added to the electrolyte; third, an individual cell 
may become sulphated through an internal short-circuit or by drying 
.out, as might be caused by failure to replace evaporation with 
water, or failure to replace promptly a cracked jar. The foregoing 
only holds good, however, where the sediment has not been allowed 
to reach the bottom of the plates, and where the level of the electrolyte 
has been properly maintained by replacing evaporation with 
distilled water. 

To determine whether a battery is sulphated or not — it having 
been previously ascertained that it does not need cleaning (washing) — 
it should be removed from the car (the generator should not be run 
with the battery off the car without complying with the manufac- 
turer's instructions in each case, usually to short-circuit or bridge 
certain terminals on the generator itself) and given an equalizing 
charge at its normal rate. The normal rate will usualy be found 
on the name plate of the battery. If the battery begins to gas at 
this rate, the rate must be reduced to prevent gassing, and lowered 
further each time the cells gas. Frequent hydrometer readings should 
be taken, and the charge should be continued as long as the specific 
gravity continues to increase. A battery is sulphated only when there 
is acid retained in the plates. When the specific gravity reaches 
its maximum, it indicates that there is no more sulphate to be acted 
upon, since, during the charge, the electrolyte receives acid from 
no other source. With a badly sulphated battery, the charge should 
be continued until there has been no further rise in the specific 
gravity of any of the cells for a period of at least twelve hours. Main- 
tain the level of the electrolyte at a constant height by adding pure 
water after each test with the hydrometer (if water were added just 
before taking readings, the water would rise to the top of the solution 


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and the reading would be valueless). With a battery on a long 
charge, the battery thermometer should be used at intervals to check 
the temperature of the electrolyte, and the hydrometer readings 
should be corrected in accordance with the temperature. 

Specific Gravity too High. Should the specific gravity of any 
of the cells rise above 1.300, draw off the electrolyte down to the top 
of the plates and put in as much distilled water as possible without 
flooding the cell. Continue the charge and, if the specific gravity 
again exceeds 1.300, this indicates that acid has been added during the 
previous operation of the battery. The electrolyte should then be 
emptied out and replaced with distilled water and the charge con- 
tinued. The battery can only be considered as restored to efficient 
working condition when there has been no rise in the specific gravity 
of any of the cells during a period of at least twelve hours of continu- 
ous charging. 

Upon completion of the treatment, the specific gravity of the 
electrolyte should be adjusted to its proper value of 1.280, using 
distilled water or 1.300 acid, as necessary. In cases where one cell 
has become sulphated while the balance of the battery is in good 
condition, it is usually an indication that there is a short-circuit or 
other internal trouble in the cell, though this does not necessarily 
follow. To determine whether or not it is necessary to dismantle 
the cell, it may first be subjected to a prolonged charge, as above 
described. If its specific gravity rises to the usual maximum, the 
condition may be considered ks remedied without taking the cell 
apart. It is the negative plate which requires the prolonged charge 
necessary to restore a sulphated battery. . When sulphated, the 
active material is generally of light color and either hard and dense 
or granular and gritty, being easily disintegrated. Unless actually 
buckled or stripped of considerable of their active material, the 
positive plates are unchanged in appearance and can be restored 
to operative condition, though their life will be shortened by this 
abuse. Sulphated plates of either type should be handled as little 
as possible. By keeping close check with the hydrometer on the 
condition of the starting battery and, where it is not being kept in 
an overcharged condition constantly, giving it an equalizing charge 
once a month, the charge being continued until the cells no longer 
increase in specific gravity after a period of several hours, and the 


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reading of all the cells being within at least 25 points of each other, 
sulphating may be avoided entirely. 

Internal Damage. This trouble is usually caused by a short- 
circuit, owing either to an accumulation of sediment reaching the 
plates or to the breaking of a separator, which may be caused by the 
active material being forced out of the grid, usually termed buckling, 
which is caused by overheating. It is important to be able to deter- 
mine whether or not the low efficiency of a certain cell is caused by 
internal trouble without having to dismantle the cell. The repair 
man's most important aid for this class of work is the high-grade 
portable voltmeter mentioned in connection with other tests of the 
starting and lighting system. 

Voltage Tests. Under some conditions, the voltmeter will also 
indicate whether the battery is practically discharged or not, but, 
like the hydrometer, it should not be relied upon alone. To insure 
accuracy, it must be used in conjunction with the hydrometer. 
Since a variation as low as .1 (one-tenth) volt makes considerable 
difference in what the reading indicates regarding the condition of 
the battery, it will be apparent that a cheap and inaccurate voltmeter 
would be a detriment rather than an aid. The instrument illustrated 
in connection with tests of other parts of starting and lighting systems 
(see Delco) is of the type required for this service. Complete 
instructions for its use will be received with the instrument, and these 
must be followed very carefully to avoid injuring it. For example, 
on the three-volt scale, but one cell should be tested; attempting 
to test the voltage of more than one cell on this scale is apt to burn 
out the three-volt coil in the meter. The total voltage of the number 
of cells to be tested must never exceed the reading of the particular 
scale being used at the time; otherwise, the coil of the scale in question 
will suffer, and the burning out of one coil will make it necessary 
to rebuild the entire instrument. 

Clean Contacts Necessary. Where the voltage to be tested is 
so low, a very slight increase in the resistance will affect it considerably 
and thus destroy the accuracy of the reading. Make certain that 
the place on the connector selected for the contact point is clean 
and bright, and press the contact down on it firmly. To insure a 
clean bright contact point, use a fine file on the lead connector. 
The contact will be improved by filing the test points fairly sharp. 


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Even a thin film of dirt or a weak contact will increase the resistance 
to a point where the test is bound to be misleading. The positive 
terminal of the voltmeter must be brought into contact with the posi- 
tive terminal of the battery, and the negative terminal of the volt- 
meter with the negative of the battery. If the markings of the cell 
terminals are indistinct, connect the voltmeter across any one cell. 
In case the pointer butts up against the stop at the left instead of 
giving a reading, the connections are wrong and should be reversed ; 
if the instrument shows a reading for one cell, the positive terminal 
of the voltmeter is in contact with the positive of the battery. This 
test can be made with a voltmeter without any risk of short-circuiting 
the cell, as the voltmeter is wound to a high resistance. and will pass 
very little current. . Connecting an ammeter directly across a cell, how- 
ever, would short-circuit it and instantly burn out the instrument. 

How to Take Readings. It is one of the peculiarities of the 
storage cell that when on "open circuit", i.e., not connected in 
circuit with a load of any kind, it will always show approximately 
two volts, regardless of whether it is almost fully charged or almost 
the reverse. Consequently, voltage readings taken when the battery 
is on open circuit, i.e., neither charging nor discharging, are valueless, 
except when a cell is out of order. Therefore, a load should be put 
on the battery before making these tests. This can be done by 
switching on all the lamps. With the lights on, connect the volt- 
meter, as already directed, and test the individual cells. If th$ 
battery is in good condition, the voltage readings, after the load 
has been on for about ten minutes, will be but slightly lower than 
if the battery were on open circuit. This should amount to about 
.1 (one-tenth) volt. Should one or more of the cells be completely 
discharged, the voltage of these cells will drop rapidly when the 
lamps are first switched on and, when a cell is out of order, will 
sometimes show a reverse reading. Where the battery is nearly 
discharged, the voltage of each cell will be. considerably lower than 
if the battery were on open circuit, after the load has been on for 
five minutes. 

Detecting Deranged Cells. To distinguish the difference between 
cells that are merely discharged and those that are out of order, 
put the battery on charge, either from an outside source or 
by starting the engine, which should always be cranked by hand 


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when any battery trouble is suspected. Then test again with the 
voltmeter. If the voltage of each cell does not rise to approximately 
two volts after the battery has been on charge for ten minutes or 
more, it is an indication of internal trouble which can be remedied 
only by dismantling the cell. (See instructions under that heading.) 

Temperature Variations in Voltage Test. When making voltage 
tests, it must be borne in mind that the voltage of a cold battery rises 
slightly above normal on charge and falls below normal on discharge. 
The reverse is true of a warm battery in hot weather, i.e., the voltage 
will be slightly less than normal on charge and higher than normal 
on discharge. As explained in connection with hydrometer tests 
of the electrolyte, the normal temperature of the electrolyte may 
be regarded as 70° F., but this refers only to the temperature of 
the liquid itself as shown by the battery thermometer, and not to 
the temperature of the surrounding air. For the purpose of simple 
tests for condition, voltage readings on discharge are preferable, 
as variations in readings on charge mean little except to one expe- 
rienced in the handling of storage batteries. 

Joint Hydrometer and Voltmeter Tests. As already explained 
above, neither the hydrometer nor the voltmeter reading alone 
can always be taken as conclusive evidence of the condition of the 
battery. There are conditions under which one must be supple- 
mented by the other to obtain an accurate indication of the state 
of the battery. In making any of the joint tests described below, 
it is important to take into consideration the four points following: 

(1) The effect of temperature on both voltage and hydrometer 
. readings. 

(2) Voltage readings should be taken only with the battery 
discharging, as voltage readings on an idle battery in good condition 
indicate little or nothing. 

(3) Never attempt to use the starting motor to supply a 
discharge load for the battery, because the discharge rate of the 
battery is so high while the starting motor is being used that even 
in a fuljy charged battery it will cause the voltage to drop rapidly. 

(4) The voltage of the charging current will cause the voltage 
of a battery in good condition to rise to normal or above the moment 
it is placed on charge, so that readings taken under such circumstances 
are not a good indication of the condition of the battery. 


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In any battery which is in good condition, the voltage of each 
cell at a normally low discharge rate, i.e., 5 to 10 amperes for a starter 
battery of the 6-volt type or slightly less for a higher voltage battery, 
will remain between 2.1 and 1.9 volts per cell until it begins to 
approach the discharged condition. A voltage of less than 1.9 volts 
per cell indicates either that the battery is nearly discharged or is 
in a bad condition. The same state is also indicated when the 
voltage drops rapidly after the load has been on for a few minutes. 
The following joint hydrometer and voltmeter tests issued by the 
Prest-O-Lite Company of Indianapolis will be found to cover 
the majority of cases met with in actual practice. 

(1) A voltage of 2 to 2.2 volts per cell with a hydrometer reading of 1.275 
to 1.300 indicates that the battery is fully charged and in good condition. 

(2) A voltage reading of less than 1.9 volts per cell, with a hydrometer 
reading of 1.200 or less indicates that the battery is almost completely discharged. 

(3) A voltage reading of 1.9 volts or less per cell, with a hydrometer 
reading of 1.220 or more, indicates that excess acid has been added to the cell. 
Under these conditions, lights will burn dimly, although the hydrometer reading 
alone would appear to indicate that the battery was more than half charged. 

(4) Regardless of voltage — high, low, or normal — any hydrometer reading 
of over 1.300 indicates that an excessive amount of acid has been added. 

(5) Where a low voltage reading is found, as mentioned in cases 2 and 
3, to determine whether the battery is in bad order or merely discharged, stop 
the discharge by switching off the load, and put the battery on charge, cranking 
the engine by hand, and note whether the voltage of each cell rises promptly to 
2 volts or more. If not, the cell is probably short-circuited or otherwise in bad 

Cleaning a Battery, Electric vehicle batteries usually receive 
such careful and intelligent attention that the life of the battery 
is measured by the maximum number of charges and discharges of 
which the plates are capable under favorable conditions. To prevent 
any possibility of short-circuiting, a cell is cut out and opened after 
a certain number of discharges, and if the amount of sediment in 
the jar is approaching the danger point, the entire battery is opened 
and cleaned. With the old type starter cell, tfcis would be necessary 
if the battery received the proper attention; with the modern or 
high mud-space type, cleaning is never necessary as the space is 
designed to accommodate all the active material that can fall from 
the plates without touching their under sides. As a matter of fact, 
the batteries of starting and lighting systems never last long enough 
to require cleaning out. They are either kept undercharged and 


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thus become badly sulphated, or they are overcharged to a point 
where the temperature passes the danger mark frequently. When 
hot, the acid attacks and injures the wood separators so that the 
average life is about one year. Exceptions to this are found in 
those cases where the battery has been given proper attention, 
which results in unusually long life without the necessity of opening 
the cells for either cleaning or the insertion of new separators. These 
cases are so in the minority, however, that the battery manufacturers 
usually recommend that the car owner have his starting battery 
overhauled in the fall to put it in the best of condition for the winter 
as well as for the following year. Even where a battery has been 

Fig. 458. Drilling Off Connectors 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

given conscientious attention, the conditions of charging on the 
automobile are likely to vary so radically that it will be found almost 
impossible to keep the cells in a good state. Consequently, it is 
considered the. best practice to give all starter batteries an over- 
hauling once a year. The method of doing this is described in 
succeeding sections. 

Replacing a Jar. When a cell requires the addition of distilled 
water more often than the other cells of the battery, or does not 
test to the same specific gravity as the others, it is usually an indica- 
tion that there is a leak in the jar. Failure to give the same specific- 
gravity reading is not proof of this condition, as the cell may be 


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low from other causes, but the loss of electrolyte is certain evidence 
of it. The only remedy is to replace the jar at fault. 

After locating the cell in question, carefully mark the connectors 
so as to be sure to replace them the same way. Disconnect the 
cell from the others in the battery. This may be done either with 
the aid of brace and bit, which is used to drill down through the 
post of the connector, Fig. 458, or with a gasoline torch which should 
be applied carefully to the strap at the post. When the metal has 
become molten, pry the strap up on the post with a piece of wood. 
Do not use a screwdriver or other metal for this purpose as it is 
apt to short-circuit one or more of the cells. Care must also be 
taken not to apply so much heat that the post itself will be melted as 
this would make it difficult to reconnect the cell. For one not 
accustomed to handling the 
torch, it will be safer to drill out 
the post, as illustrated. Lift the 

complete cell out of the battery 

box and then use the torch to 

warm the jar around the top 

to soften the sealing compound 

that holds the cover, Eig. 459. 

Grip the jar between the feet, 

take hold of the two connectors 

and pull the element almost out 

of the jar, Fig. 460. Then grip r ,. a t . n ,. ^ J „ , 

, Fig. 453. Softening Sealing Compound on CeL . 

the elements near the bottom 

to prevent the plates flaring out while transferring them to the new 
jar, taking care not to let the outside plates start down the outside 
of the jar, Fig. 461. After the element is in the new jar, reseal the 
cell by pressing the sealing compound into place with a hot putty 
knife. Fill the cell with 1.250 electrolyte to the proper point, the 
old electrolyte being discarded. 

Before replacing the connectors, clean both the post and the 
inside of the eye of the connector by scraping them smooth with 
a knife. When the connector has been placed in position, tap it 
down firmly over the post to insure good contact. To complete 
the connection, melt the lead of the connector and the post at the 
top so that they will run together, and while the lead is still molten, 


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melt in some more lead until the eye of the connector is filled level. 
This is termed lead burning and is described at greater length in 
a succeeding section. Where no facilities are at hand for carrying 
it out, it may be done with an ordinary soldering copper. The 
copper is brought to a red heat so that all the tinning is burned 
off, and no flux of any kind is used. The method of handling the 
soldering copper and the lead-burning strip to supply the extra 
metal required to fill the eye is shown in Fig. 462. 

Fig. 460. Lifting Elements out of Jar Fig. 461. Installing Elements 

by Hand in Jar 

Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Put the battery on charge from an outside source, and when 
the cells begin to gas freely, reduce the current to half the finishing 
rate given on the battery name plate and charge at this rate as long 
as there is any rise in the specific gravity of the electrolyte in 
this or any of the other cells. The maximum gravity has been 
reached when there has been no rise in the specific gravity for a 
period of three hours. If the gravity of the cell having the new jar 
is then over 1.280, draw off some of the electrolyte and replace it 
with distilled water. If the gravity is below 1.270, draw off some of 
the electrolyte and replace it with 1.300 electrolyte. If necessary 


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to put in 1.300 electrolyte, allow the battery to continue charging 
for about one-half hour longer at a rate sufficient to cause gassing, 
which will cause the stronger acid to become thoroughly mixed with 
the rest of the electrolyte in the cell. 

Overhauling the Battery. As already mentioned, it will be 
found desirable to overhaul the majority of starter batteries at 
least once a year. The expense to the car owner will be less than 

Fig. 462. Reburning Battery Connectors with Soldering Iron 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

the cost of the frequent attention required by a run-down battery 
with complete renewal at no distant date, and the service rendered 
by the battery will be much improved. The best time of year to 
do this is in the late fall, so that the battery may be at its best during 
the cold weather. Before undertaking the work, have on hand a 
complete renewal set of rubber and wood separators as well as suf- 
ficient fresh acid of 1.300 specific gravity with which to mix fresh 
electrolyte. Use the good separators, particularly the rubber ones. 


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Dismounting Cells. Remove the connectors by drilling, heating, 
or pulling (in the same manner as a wheel is pulled), and loosen 
the jar covers by heating or running a hot putty knife around their 
edges so that they may be lifted off. The covers should be washed 
in hot water and then stacked one on top of the other with heavy 
weight on them to press them flat. Lift the jars out of the battery 
box and note whether any of them have been leaking. A cracked 
jar should of course be replaced. Treat one cell at a time, by 
pulling the element out of the jar with the aid of the pliers, meanwhile 
holding the jar with the feet. Lay the element on the bench and 

Fig. 463. Removing Old Separators Fig. 464. Pressing Negative Group 

from Elements 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

spread the plates slightly to permit removing the separators, taking 
care not to injure the rubber sheets, Fig. 463. Separate the positive 
group from the negative. If the active material of the negative 
be swollen beyond the surface of the grid, press it back into position 
before it has a chance to dry, placing boards of suitable thickness 
between the plates and carefully squeezing the group between heavy 
boards in a vise or press, as shown in Fig. 464. Boards of sufficient 
size and thickness must be used between the plates or breakage 
will result. Charged negative plates will become hot in a short 
time when exposed to the air and, in this event, should be allowed 
to cool before reassembling. Remove any loose particles adhering 


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to the positive plates by passing a smooth wood paddle over the 
surface but do not wash the positive plates. 

Treating the Plates. If the positive plates show signs of buckling 
or stripping of the active matter, or if the negative plates have the 
light spotted appearance indicative of sulphating, it may be necessary 
to replace them altogether. In case sulphating appears to be the 
only trouble, the groups should be reassembled in an open jar with 
distilled water and given a long, slow charge, testing with the hydrom- 
eter at frequent intervals to note whether the specific gravity is 

rising or not. Twenty-four hours 
or more may be necessary for 

this charge, and two or three days 

will be nothing unusual. This 

charging, of course, is carried on 

from the lighting mains through 

a rectifier or a motor-generator, 

unless direct-current service is 

available. If it is necessary to 

prolong the charge over two or 

three days, and the specific grav- 
ity still continues to rise slowly, 

it may be preferable to replace 

the plates. 

Reassembling Battery. Wash 

all the sediment out of the jars, 

also wash and save the rubber 

sheets, unless thev happen to be 

7 J rv Fig. 465. Wood and Rubber Separator 

broken, but throw away the old 

wood separators. The rubber sheets should be placed in clean 
running water for about a quarter of an hour. Reassemble the 
positive and negative groups with the plates on edge in order to 
insert the separators. Place a rubber separator against the grooved 
side of a wood separator, Fig. 465, and insert a positive plate near 
the center of the element. The rubber sheet must be against the 
positive plate, and the wood separator against the negative plate. 
In this manner insert separators in all the spaces, working in both 
directions from the center. Care must be taken not to omit a separ 
rotor as that would short-circuit the cell. 

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The separators should be practically flush with the bottoms of 
the plates to bring their tops against the hold-down below the strap, 
and must extend to or beyond the side edge of the plates. Grip 
the element near the bottom to prevent the plates flaring out while 
placing the element in the jar. Fill the cell to within one-half inch 
of the top of the jar, using electrolyte of 1.250 specific gravity. If 
the negative plates show signs of sulphating, but not enough to call 
for the special treatment mentioned above, use water instead of the 
electrolyte. After all of the cells have been given the same treatment 
and reassembled, return them to the battery box in their proper 
positions, so that the positive of each cell will be connected to the 
negative of the adjoining cell and connect temporarily by pressing 
the old connecting straps in place by hand. 

Checking the Connections. Put the battery on charge at its 
finishing rate (usually about 5 amperes) and, after charging about 
fifteen minutes, note the voltage of each cell. This is to insure 
having reconnected the cells properly with regard to their polarity. 
If this be the case, they should all read approximately 2 volts. Any 
cell that reads less is likely to have been connected backward. When 
the cells begin to gas freely and uniformly, take a hydrometer reading 
of each cell and a temperature reading of one of them. Reduce the 
current to one-half the finishing rate. Should the temperature of 
the electrolyte reach 100° F., reduce the charge, or interrupt it 
temporarily, to prevent the cells getting any hotter. Both hydrometer 
and temperature readings must be taken at regular intervals, say 
four to six hours apart, to determine if the specific gravity is still 
rising or if it has reached its maximum. Continue the charge and 
the readings until there has been no further rise for a period of at 
least twelve hours. Maintain the height of the electrolyte constant 
by adding water after each reading. (If water were added before 
the reading, it would not have time to mix with the electrolyte, 
and the reading would not be correct.) 

Should the specific gravity rise to about 1.300 in any cell, draw 
off the electrolyte down to the level of the tops of the plates and 
refill with as much water as possible without overflowing. Continue 
the charge, and if the specific gravity again exceeds 1.300, dump 
out all the electrolyte in that cell, replace it with water, and continue 
the charge. The charge can be considered complete only when 


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Fig. 466. Wiring Diagram for Discharging 
Battery through Rheostat 

/fw meter 

there has been no rise in the gravity of any of the cells during a period 
of at least twelve hours of continuous charging. Upon completion 
of the charge, the electrolyte 
should have its specific gravi ty 
adjusted to its proper value 
(1.270 to 1.280) using water 
or 1.300 acid, as may be nec- 
essary, and the level of the 
electrolyte adjusted to a uni- 
form £ inch above the plates. 
Discharge the battery at 
its normal discharge rate to 
determine if there are any 
low cells caused by defective 
assembly. The normal dis- 
charge rate of the battery is 
usually given on its name 
plate. To discharge the bat- 
tery, the current may be 
passed through a rheostat, as 
in Fig. 466, or if no panel 
board of this type be avail- 
able, through a water resist- 
ance, as shown in Fig. 467. 
The resistance of a water rheo- 
stat increases with the dis- 
tance between its plates and 
decreases according to their 
proximity and to the degree 
of conductivity of the water ^**' e ' fr ?f** 
itself. If the resistance is 
too high with the plates close 
together, add a little acid to 
the water. It will be neces- 
sary, of course, to have an 
ammeter in the circuit to show the rate at which the battery is 
discharging. In case any of the cells are low, owing to being assem- 
bled defectively or connected with their polarity reversed, as shown 

HTetfges for Holding 

Fig. 467. Wiring Diagram for Discharging 
Battery through Water Resistance 


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by the voltmeter test (they should all register two volts or slightly 
over at the beginning of the discharge and should fall off slowly) such 
cells should be remedied at once. Recharge the battery and then 
remove the temporary connectors, wipe the inside edges of the jars 
dry, and put the rubber covers in place. Heat the sealing compound 
which is supplied for this purpose and apply around the edges of the 
covers, smoothing it down with a hot putty knife. Care must be 
taken not to burn the sealing compound when heating it. 

Reconnecting Cells. If the old lead connecting straps have been 
removed carefully, they may be used again, though in many cases 
it will be found preferable to employ new straps. Before putting 
the straps in place, scrape the posts clean with a knife and clean 
out the eyes of the straps themselves. When the connectors have 
been put in place, tap them down firmly to insure good contact. 
Before reburning the connectors in place, test each cell with a low- 
reading voltmeter to make certain that the cells have been connected 
in the right direction, i.e., that their polarity has not been reversed. 
It is not sufficient to note that the voltage of each cell is correct, 
i.e., 2 volts per cell or over, but care must be taken also to note that 
it is in the right direction. With a voltmeter having a needle that 
moves in both directions from zero, one polarity will be evidenced 
by the needle moving over the scale to the right of the neutral line, 
while if the polarity be reversed, the needle will move to the left. 
One cell having the proper polarity should accordingly be tested 
and then, to be correct, the remaining cells should cause the needle 
to move in the same direction and to approximate the same voltage 
when the instrument leads are held to the same terminals in the 
same way for each. Where the voltmeter needle can move in but 
one direction, i.e., to the right, a change of polarity will be indicated 
by the needle of the instrument attempting to move to the left 
and, in so doing, butting up against the stop provided to prevent 
this. Complete the reassembly of the cells by burning the connectors 
together, as detailed under the head of Lead Burning. 

Renewals. In many cases it will be found necessary upon 
overhauling a battery to renew the elements. These may be purchased 
either as loose plates or as groups ready to assemble in the battery. 
Except in garages doing a large amount of this work, it will not 
be advisable to buy the loose plates and burn them into groups. 


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The new groups should be assembled with rubber sheets and wood 
separators, as directed in overhauling the battery, the jars filled 
with fresh electrolyte of the proper specific gravity and the battery 
given a test charge and discharge with temporary connections. The 
electrolyte should be of 1.250 specific gravity, or seven parts of 
water to two of pure sulphuric acid by volume. If the test charge 
has been carried to a point where the specific gravity has ceased to 
rise for several hours, and the discharge shows no defectively 
assembled cells, the cells may be permanently connected. 

Lead Burning. Type of Outfit, In the manufacture of storage 
batteries, and in garages where a large number of batteries are 

Fig. 46S. Aro- Welding Outfit for Burning Connections 

maintained, a hydrogen-gas apparatus is employed for this purpose. 
For the electric-car owner or the garage doing a comparatively small 
amount of battery repair work, the Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany has placed an arc lead-burning outfit on the market. This 
is low in first cost and, with a little practice, good results can be 
obtained with it. As the battery itself supplies the power neces- 
sary, the only material required is the lead in the form of a flexible 
strip or heavy wire. The complete outfit is illustrated in Fig. 468. 
At one end is the clamp for making electrical connection, while at 
the other is a clamp of different form having an insulated handle 
and holding a one-fourth inch carbon rod. The two are electrically 


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connected by a flexible cable. This simple outfit can be employed 
in two ways, the second being preferable for the beginner, at least 
until sufficient amount of skill has been acquired to use the arc 
without danger of melting the straps. 

First Method of Burning. In the first method, a potential of 
from 28 to 30 volts (12 to 15 cells) is required. The clamp should, 
therefore, be fastened to the positive pole of the twelfth to the 
fifteenth cell away from the joint to be burned, counting toward the 
negative terminal of the battery. The carbon then forms the negative 
terminal of the circuit. Otherwise particles of carbon will be carried 
into the joint, as the carbon rod quickly disintegrates when it forms 
the positive pole. The carbon should project 3 or 4 inches from the 
holder. The surfaces of the parts to be burned should be scraped 
clean and bright, and small pieces of clean lead about \ to \ inch 
square provided for filling the joint. The carbon is then touched to 
the strap to be burned and immediately withdrawn, forming an 
electric arc which melts the lead very rapidly. By moving the carbon 
back and forth the arc is made to travel over the joint as desired, the 
small pieces of lead being dropped in to fill the gap as required. 
Owing to the high temperature generated, the work must be carried 
out very quickly, otherwise the whole strap is liable to melt and run. 

As this method is difficult and requires practice to secure good 
results, the beginner should try his hand on some scrap pieces of 
lead before attempting to operate on a cell. Its advantages are 
that when properly carried out it takes but a short time to do the 
w r ork, and the result is a neat and workmanlike joint. It is extremely 
hard on the eyes, however, and should never be attempted without 
wearing smoked or colored glasses, and even with this protection 
the eyes should be directed away from the work as much as possible. 

Second Method of Burning. The second method, utilizing the 
hot point of the carbon rod instead of the arc, is recommended for 
general practice. Scrape the parts to be joined and connect the 
clamp between the third and fourth cells from the joint. With this 
method it is not necessary to determine the polarity of the carbon. 
The latter is simply touched to the joint and held there; on account 
of the heavy flow of current it rapidly becomes red and then white 
hot. By moving it around and always keeping it in contact with 
the metal, the joint can be puddled. To supply lead to fill the joint, 


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an ordinary lead-burning strip can be used, simply introducing the 
end into the puddle of molten lead, touching the hot carbon. The 
carbon projecting out of the holder should be only one inch, or even 
less, in length. After the joint has been made, it can be smoothed 
off by running the carbon over it a second time. 

Use of Forms to Cover Joint. In joining a strap which has been 
cut in the center, it is best to make a form around the strap by means 
of a piece of asbestos sheeting soaked in water and fastened around 
the strap in the shape of a cup, which will prevent the lead from 
running down. It will be found that sheet asbestos paper is thick 
enough, but it should be fairly wet when applied. By this means a 
neat joint can be easily made. The asbestos will adhere very tightly 
to the metal owing to the heat, but can be removed by wetting it 
again. When burning a pillar post to a strap, a form may be made 
around the end of the strap in the same manner, though this is not 
necessary if reasonable care is used. Two or three pieces of j^-inch 
strap iron about one inch wide, and some iron nuts about one inch 
square are also of service in making the joint, the strap iron to 
be used under the joints, and the nuts at the side or ends to confine 
the molten lead. Clay can also be used in place of asbestos, wetting 
it to a stiff paste. As the holder is liable to become so hot from 
constant use as to damage the insulation, besides making it uncom- 
fortable to hold, a pail of water should be handy, and the carbon 
dipped into it from time to time. This will not affect its operation 
in any way, as the carbon becomes hot again immediately the current 
passes through it. 

Illuminating Gas Outfit. Heretofore it has not been possible to 
do good work in lead burning with illuminating gas, but a special 
type of burner has recently been perfected by the Electric Storage 
Battery Company, which permits the use of illuminating gas with 
satisfactory results. The outfit consists of a special burning tip and 
mixing valve. Sufficient A-inch rubber hose should be provided, and 
the rubber should be wired firmly to the corrugated connections, Fig. 
469, as the air is used at a comparatively high pressure. A supply of 
compressed air is necessary, the proper pressure ranging from 5 to 10 
pounds, depending upon the length of hose and the size of the parts to 
be burned. When air from a compressor used for pumping tires is 
utilized for this purpose, a suitable reducing valve must be introduced 


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in the supply line. This outfit is designed for use with ordinary 
illuminating gas and cannot be employed with natural gas. 

Connect the air hose to the right-hand cock and the gas hose to 
the left-hand cock. The leader hose, about five or six feet long, is 
connected to the lower pipe and to the upper end of the burning tip. 
When the air pressure at the source is properly adjusted, close the 
air cock and turn the gas cock on full. Light the gas at the tip and 
turn on the air. If the flame blows out, reduce the air pressure, 
preferably at the source. With the gas turned on full, the flame 

Fig. 460. Lead-Burning Outfit for Use with Illuminating Gas 

Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

will Have a ragged appearance and show a waist about J inch from 
the end of the tip, the flame converging there and spreading out 
beyond. Such a flame is not for lead burning. 

Slowly turn the gas off until the outer portion at the waist 
breaks and spreads with an inner tongue of flame issuing through the 
outer ring. The flame will now have a greenish color and is properly 
adjusted for burning. If the gas is turned off further or if too much 


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air is turned on, the flame assumes a blue color gradually becoming 
invisible and is then deficient in heating power. When properly 
adjusted, the hottest part of the flame is just past the end of the inner 
point. Do not hold the flame too close to the work when burning, 
as its heating effect is greatly reduced and the flame is spread so as to 
make control difficult. The burning tip has at its lower end an 
outer sleeve and lock nut; this sleeve can be taken off in case any 
of the holes in the tip become clogged. The position of this sleeve 
is adjustable, the best position varying with the pressure of the 
flame, and it should be determined by experiment. 

Hydrogen Gas Outfit Hydrogen gas gives a hotter flame and 
therefore permits of more rapid work, so that where burning is done 
on a large scale, it is still preferred. The essentials of such an outfit 
are: first, a hydrogen generator; second, a method of producing air 
pressure at approximately 2 pounds to the square inch; and third, 
the usual pipe and tips for burning. If hydrogen gas is purchased in a 
tank and compressed air is available, only the blowpipe, tips, and a 
reducing valve on the air line are necessary. This is an expensive 
method to purchase hydrogen, however, so that it is usually generated, 
and a water bottle is needed between the generator and the blowpipe 
to wash the gas and to prevent the flame from traveling back to the 

For this purpose hydrogen gas is generated by placing zinc in a 
sulphuric-acid solution. The generator usually employed for vehicle- 
battery burning requires 50 pounds of zinc, 2 gallons of sulphuric 
acid, and 9 gallons of water for a charge. Where no compressed-air 
supply is available, an air pump and an air tank for equalizing the 
pressure must be used. An outfit of this kind is shown in Fig. 470. 
In preparing the generator for use, connect up as shown in this cut, 
taking care that the hose from the generator is connected to the 
nipple of the water bottle L. Have the water bottle one-half to 
two-thirds full and immerse it in a pail of cold water up to its neck. 
Replace the water in the pail whenever it becomes warm. Have stop 
cock N closed. Put the required amount of zinc, which has been 
broken into pieces small enough to pass through the opening C, 
into the lower reservoir. Put on cap X and screw down with clamp D, 
being sure that the rubber drainage stopper H is well secured in 
place. Pour the proper amount of water into reservoir A and then 


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pour in the acid, taking care to avoid splashing. Always pour the 
water in first. 

In running the hose from A' to N, arrange it so that there will 
be no low points for the water of condensation to collect in; in other 
words, this hose should drain back at every point to the water bottle. 
If, however, water should collect in the hose to such an extent as to 
interfere with the flame and it cannot readily be drained off, kink the 
hose between T and U and detach it from K; close the stop cock at 
W and pump until a strong pressure is obtained in the tank; then close 

Fig. 470. Diagram of Lead-Burning Outfit, U«ing Hydrogen Gas 

the cock at V, opening those at S and N and, finally, quickly open TV; 
the pressure in the air tank will then force the water out of the hose. 
The length of the hose from T to U should be such that the mixing 
cocks at S and N are always within easy reach of the man handling 
the flame 

In preparing the flame for burning, close the air cock at S and 
open N wide, hold a match to the gas until it lights, then add air 
and adjust the gas cock slowly, turning toward the closed position 
until the flame, when tried on a piece of lead, melts the metal and 
leaves a clean surface. The tip to be used depends on the work, but 
most vehicle-battery work is done with the medium tip. Replenish 


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the zinc every few days, keeping it up to the required amount. When 
a charge is exhausted or the generator is to be laid up for the night, 
the old solution should be drawn off before making up a new charge 
and the generator thoroughly flushed out by running water through A. 
The new charge should not be put in until the generator is to be used 
again. To empty the generator, first pull off the hose at the nipple 
K, then at E, and finally the rubber plug at H . Care should be 
taken not to allow the solution to splash on anything and not to 
dump the generator where the contents will damage cement, asphalt, 
or wood walks. 

Installing New Battery. In not a few instances, it will be neces- 
sary to renew the entire battery. As received from the manufacturer, 
the battery is in p charged condition, i.e., it was fully charged just 
previous to being shipped, but it must be inspected and tested before 
being installed on the car. Care must be taken in unpacking it to 
avoid spilling any of the electrolyte. After cleaning off the packing 
from the tops of the cells, take out the rubber plugs and see that the 
electrolyte is i inch over the plates. If it is uniformly or approxi- 
mately below the proper level in all the cells, this is simply the loss 
due to evaporation. But if low in only one or two cells, this is 
evidently caused by loss of electrolyte. In case this loss has resulted 
from the case being turned over in shipment, it will be indicated 
by the presence of acid on the packing on top of the battery (the 
acid does not evaporate), and some of the electrolyte will have 
been lost from all the cells. Replace the amount lost by refilling the 
cells with electrolyte of 1.250 specific gravity, as already directed. 
In case the loss of electrolyte is caused by a cracked or broken 
jar, the packing under the battery will be wet. Replace the broken 
jar as instructed in the directions under that heading and add sufficient 
electrolyte of 1 .250 specific gravity to make up for the loss. Should 
it be found, after replacing the broken jar and giving the battery 
an equalizing charge, that the specific gravity does not reach approxi- 
mately 1.275, it is due to not having replaced the same amount of 
acid as was spilled. To adjust this, draw off the electrolyte from 
the cell with the syringe and add water or 1.300 acid to bring the 
specific gravity to between 1.270 and 1.280. 

Storing a Battery. There is an amusingly erroneous idea 
prevalent to some extent that the charge of a storage battery is 


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represented by its electrolyte; that pouring off the electrolyte takes 
takes the charge with it; that, in case it is desired to store a battery, 
all that is necessary is to pour off the electrolyte and store the empty 
battery and the solution separately; and when it is desired to put 
the battery back in commission, it is then only necessary to pour 
the electrolyte back into the cells and, presto! they are ready to 
start the engine right away. Unfortunately for this theory, the charge 
is in the active material of the plates and not in the electrolyte. 

It is frequently necessary to allow the battery to remain idle 
for a considerable length of time, in which case it should be put 
out of commission. If the battery itself is in good condition at 
the time and if it may be wanted for service again at short notice, 
this need only consist of giving it a long equalizing charge -until 
the specific gravity has ceased to rise for several hours, then filling 
the cells to the top with distilled water and putting the battery away 
in a handy place. It should be given a freshening charge every 
two weeks or, at least, as often as once a month. If it is actually 
to be stored, there are two ways of doing this. 

One is known as the wet storage method, and the other as 
the dry, the one to be adopted depending upon the condition of the 
battery and the length of time it is to be out of commission. The 
wet storage method is usually applied to any battery that is to be 
out of commission less than a year, provided that it will not soon 
require repairs necessitating dismantling it. The dry storage method 
is used for any battery that is to be out of commission for more than 
a year, regardless of its condition, and it is also applied to any battery 
that will shortly require repairs necessitating its dismantling. It 
will be apparent that this last-named class includes most starter 
batteries after they have seen several months of service, so that the 
majority can be placed in dry storage when necessary to put them 
out of commission. 

Examine the conditions of the plates and the separators and 
also the amount of sediment in the bottom of the jars. If it is found 
that there is very little sediment and the plates and separators are 
in sufficiently good condition to give considerable additional service, 
the battery may be put into wet storage by giving it an equalizing 
charge and covering it to exclude dust. Replace evaporation 
periodically to maintain the level of the electrolyte J inch above the 


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tops of the plates. At least once every four months, change the 
battery at one-half its normal finishing rate (see name plate on 
battery box) until all the cells have gassed continuously for at least 
three hours. Any cells not gassing should be examined, and the 
trouble remedied. 

When examination shows that the battery will soon require 
dismantling, it should be put into dry storage. Dismantle the cells 
in accordance with the instructions already given. If the positive 
plates show much wear, they should be scrapped; if not, remove 
any loose particles adhering to them by passing a smooth wood 
paddle over the surface, but do not wash the positive plates. Charged 
negative plates will become hot in a short time when exposed to 
the air. They should be allowed to stand in the air until cooled. 

Empty all the electrolyte out of the jars into a glass or glazed 
earthenware jar or a lead-lined tank and save it for giving the negative 
plates their final treatment before storage. Wash all the sediment 
out of the jars and wash the rubber separators carefully, then dry 
them and tie them in bundles. Place the positive groups together 
in pairs, put them in the jars, and store them away. Then put the 
negative groups together in the same way, place them in the remaining 
jars, and cover them with the electrolyte saved for the purpose, 
allowing them to stand in it for five hours, at least. Then pour off 
the electrolyte, which may now be discarded, and store away the 
jars containing the negatives. If the negative plates show any 
bulging of the active material, they should be subjected to the pressing 
treatment first, using boards and a vise, as described in a previous 
section. All of the jars should be well covered to exclude dust. 

Make a memorandum of the amount of material required to 
reassemble the battery, and, when ordering this, provide for extra 
jars and covers, extra rubber separators, and an entire lot of wood 
separators with a sufficient excess to take care of breakage in handling. 
Unless the old connectors were carefully removed, order a new set. 
When a battery is put in storage, it is well to advise the owner in 
regard to the material necessary to reassemble, and to request at least 
a month's notice to procure it. 

Charging from Outside Source. Theoretically at least, the 
starter battery on the automobile should be kept in an ideal condition. 
It is constantly under charge while the car is running at anything 


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except the lowest starting speeds and should accordingly alwa; 
be fully charged. The generator is designed to take care of 
storage battery and usually has sufficient capacity to light all 
lamps in addition. Practice, however, does not bear out 
theoretical view of the favorable conditions under which the s 
battery is supposed to operate. It will be apparent at the v 
outset that the method of charging and discharging is not benefieiaL 
To insure long life to a storage battery, it should be fully charged 
and then discharged to at least seventy-five per cent of its maximum 
capacity before recharging. It should never be allowed to stand 
discharged for any length of time. If exhausted, it should be 
recharged immediately. It should not be charged to half its capacity 
and then discharged. It should not be overcharged to the point 
where it continues to gas violently nor where its temperature exceeds 
100° F. 

All of these are things that should not be done to the storage 
battery, but it will take only a little experience to enable the garage 
man to recognize that all these are things which are constantly being 
done to the majority of storage batteries on gasoline automobiles. 
Most batteries receive treatment that reaches one extreme or the 
other, though it will be apparent that the middle course is almost 
as injurious to the battery. Either a battery is constantly kept 
undercharged so that it has insufficient charge to spin the engine 
more than once, and its operation is accordingly unsatisfactory, or 
it is constantly kept overcharged with the result that the hot acid 
makes comparatively short work of the plates, and they must be 
renewed in considerably less than a year of service. The mean course 
between these two is found in the case of the battery that is only 
charged to about half its capacity before being discharged again by 
the use of the starting motor. This treatment results in sulphating. 

To keep the storage battery of the starting system in anything 
like efficient operating condition, it cannot be left on the running 
board with nothing but the generator of the starting and lighting 
system to charge it. Hydrometer and voltage tests will be valueless 
unless the conditions they indicate are remedied, and this cannot 
be done with the car generator as the sole source of charging current. 
Here is a typical instance: The battery is in good condition and it 
is fully charged. On a cold morning, it is drawn on intermittently 


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dt almost fifteen minutes by the starting motor before the engine 
ires. As a result, it is practically discharged. The car is driven only 
i few miles, stopped and after a rest started again. What charge 
he battery received by the short run is again lost. The car is run 
or a little longer time and returned to the garage. The battery 
las received about one-fourth its normal charge. It stands this 
way for several days. 

The weather being warmer, the engine starts in a much shorter 
time, but not before the starting motor has exhausted the small 
amount of charge in the battery. It is not run enough that day to 
charge the battery nor when taken out again that night, as all the 
lights are switched on, and under such conditions the battery receives 
very little current. Multiply this treatment by five or ten repre- 
senting the number of days the car is driven during the month. 
At the end of that time, the battery no longer has sufficient charge 
to operate the starting motor at all and is condemned, as usual, 
by the car owner as being worthless. This is only one instance of 
many that are so similar that a few changes -in detail would cover 
them*' 'all. No battery ever made could possibly operate efficiently 
under such conditions. After the car in question had been used a 
few days, a hydrometer test of the battery would have indicated 
its need of charging. 

Equalizing Charges Necessary. Even where a battery receives 

almost 100 per cent of its normal charge before being discharged again, 

there will be numerous occasions on which the charge is not carried 

to completion. As mentioned under the head of Sulphating, 

that means so much acid left in the plates at the end of the charge. 

That acid represents lead sulphate which continues to increase in 

quantity as long as the acid remains in contact with the active 

material. To drive it out of the active material into the electrolyte, 

which is the function of charging, the charge must be carried to 

completion. This is termed an equalizing charge, and it should be 

given not oftener than once in two weeks, but at least once a month. 

To do this, it is necessary to charge the battery from an outside 

source, as it is seldom convenient to run the engine for the long 

period of time needed to complete such a charge. Except in cases 

where the battery is chronically overcharged, as indicated by its 

violent and continued gassing, it will usually be found necessary 


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to give it an equalizing charge once a month. The constantly over- 
charged condition is quite as injurious as its opposite, and it can be 
cured only by cutting, down the output of the generator or increasing 
the demand upon the battery for current. 

Methods of Charging. The apparatus employed for charging 
starter batteries will naturally vary in accordance with the number 
that are looked after in the garage. It may range from the makeshift 
consisting of a bank of lamps up to an elaborate panel board designed 
to provide charging connections for a dozen or more batteries at once. 
Where direct current is available — and only a few starter batteries 
need this attention — a bank of lamps in connection with a fused 
double-pole switch will be found to fill all the requirements. Note 
the charging rate (finishing) given on the name plate of the battery 
and make the number of lamps in accordance. A 32 c.p. in the 
circuit is practically the equivalent of one ampere of current entering 
the battery, i.e., it requires one ampere to light a lamp of this size 
and type (carbon filament) to incandescence. A number of standard 
lamp sockets should be mounted on a board, connected in multiple, 
and the group connected in series with the switch and the battery. 
(See illustration in r6sum6 of questions and answers on the battery.) 
As many lamps as necessary may then be screwed into the sockets. 
The more current needed, the more lamps and the higher power 
lamps will be necessary. Tungsten lamps may be employed as well 
as the carbon-filament type, but as they take so much less current, 
lamps of higher candle power will be needed. For example, to 
replace a 32-c.p. carbon-filament lamp, a 100-watt tungsten lamp 
will be required. 

Charging in Series for Economy. Where several starter batteries 
are to be charged at the same time, it will be found more economical 
to connect them in series and charge them all at once. The difference 
between the 110-volt potential of the lighting mains and the 6 to 8 
volts needed to charge a single three-cell battery represents that 
much waste, as the drop in voltage has to be dissipated, through a 
resistance, to no purpose. In this way, any number of 6-volt storage 
batteries, up to twelve, can be charged from a 110-volt circuit (direct- 
current) with the same expenditure of current as would be required 
for a single battery. This is owing to the fact that, in any storage 
battery, the capacity of the battery is the capacity of one cell, 


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where all are connected in series. Consequently, it will take 10 to 
15 amperes to charge one 6-volt battery from the lighting circuit, 
and when several more units of the same size are connected in series 
with it, the current consumption will still be the same, but a smaller 
part of the voltage will have to be wasted through a resistance. 

Motor-Generator. Direct current will be found available in 
comparatively few places to-day, so that some means of rectifying 
an alternating current, in order to use it for charging batteries, will 
be necessary. Where quite a number of batteries are to be cared 
for, the motor-generator will be found to give the highest efficiency, 
besides proving more economical in other ways. As its name indicates, 
it consists of a motor wound for alternating current and fed from 
the supply mains of the garage, and a direct-current generator which 
is driven at its normal generating speed by the a.c. motor. There is 
no electrical connection between the two units. Electrical power 
in the form of an alternating current is converted into mechanical 
power in the a.c. motor which drives the armature of the d.c. generator 
and again converts it into electrical power in the form of a direct 
current. The first cost of a motor-generator is such that its use is 
usually confined to large establishments handling quite a number of 
batteries, though motor generators are now made in much smaller 
sizes than formerly. 

A.C. Rectifiers. Where the amount of charging to be done 
does not warrant the investment in a motor-generator, a rectifier 
is usually employed. There are several makes of different types on 
the market: the chemical type, which employs lead and aluminum 
plates in an acid solution; the mercury-arc type, in which mercury 
is vaporized in a vacuum by the passage of the current; and others, 
in all of which the principle is the same. This consists in utilizing 
the current on but one part of the wave, so that the efficiency of 
these rectifiers ranges from 60 to 75 per cent. It is accordingly not 
good practice to employ them except in the smaller sizes. While 
the mercury-vapor rectifier is made for charging private vehicle 
batteries, the other types are ordinarily confined to sizes intended 
for charging small batteries. 

A recent addition to the list that is available for this purpose is 
the Tungar rectifier, made by the General Electric Company. The 
principle on which this works is the same, but the medium is a new 


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one. This is a bulb exhausted of air and filled with a special gas in 
which a heavy tungsten-wire filament is brought to incandescence 
by the passage of the alternating current. This filament is very 
short and thick, its diameter depending upon the capacity of the 

rectifier, and it is placed horizontally. It 
constitutes the cathode of the couple. 
Directly opposite it, but a short distance 
away, is the anode of graphite in the form 
of a button, the lower face of which is 
presented to the tungsten wire. It is made 
in three sizes, the smallest of which has a 
capacity of but 2 amperes and is designed 
for charging the batteries of small portable 
lamps, such as are used by miners; and 
for charging ignition, call bell, burglar 
alarm batteries, and the like. 
Fig - 47 A* ™^5 nt view of We sue J n the larger size, as shown in Fig. 

G. E. Tungar Rectifier # ° y m ° 

471, the bulb is mounted in an iron case, 
on the face of which are mounted the switch for alternating cur- 
rent; an ammeter on the d.c. side, showing the charge received 
by the battery; and a dial switch for adjusting the voltage to 
the number of batteries to be charged. There is a compensator 
with 15 taps, and the current is adjustable by steps up to 6 amperes. 
Anything from a single three-cell battery up to ten of such units 

Fig. 472. Interior View of Small Sixe G. E. Tungar Rectifier 
Courtesy of General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York 

(30 cells in all) may be charged at once. The batteries must be 
connected in series and then it is only necessary to turn the switch 
of the a.c. circuit. In case the alternating-current supply should fail, 
the battery cannot discharge through the rectifier, and the latter 


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will assume its task again automatically as soon as the current comes 
on. This is the 6-ampere 75-volt size. It is also made in a 6-ampere 
15-volt size designed for the charging of a three- or six-cell starter 
battery in the home garage. Fig. 472 shows an interior view of this 
size, illustrating the position of 
the converting bulb, the compen- 
sator, the reactance coil, and the 
fuses, while Fig. 473 illustrates 
the 6-ampere 75-volt size, shew- 
ing the panel instrument, i.e., 
switch, ammeter, and regulating 
handle, as well as the bulb and 
fuses. A closer view of the bulb 
itself is shown in Fig. 474. 

Care of Battery in Winter. 
There is a more or less general 

impression that special treatment Fig. 473. interior view of Large siBe g.e. 
must be given the storage battery ungar 

during cold weather. This is probably owing to the fact that lack 
of attention makes itself apparent much more readily in winter than 
in summer because of the lower efficiency of the battery resulting 
from the lower temperature. The care necessary in winter does not 
vary in any respect from 
that which should be given 
in warm weather, except 
possibly that replacement of 
the water due to evapora- 
tion is not called for so 
often, but unless it is con- 
scientiously carried out, the 
battery is apt to suffer to a 

greater extent. In speak- Fig> 474> Tungar Rectifying Buib-the Heart of 
ing of low temperatures, it the Rectifier 

must be borne in mind that this always refers to the temperature 
of the electrolyte of the battery, and not to that of the surrounding 
atmosphere. The latter may be considerably below freezing, whereas 
the liquid in the cells may be approaching 100° F. when the battery 
is under charge. 


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Make the usual hydrometer and voltage tests, as described 
under the headings in question, and see that the battery is constantly 
kept more fully charged than would be necessary to render satisfactory 
service in wanner weather. This is important for two reasons: 
first, because of the greatly increased drain on the battery owing to 
the difficulty of starting the engine when cold; and second, because 
of the liability of the electrolyte to freeze if the battery is allowed 
to stand discharged in very cold weather. There is not the same 
excess supply of current available for charging the battery in winter 
as there is in summer, as the lights are in use during a much greater 
part of the time and not so much driving is likely to be done during 
the day. As the lamp load consumes almost the entire output of the 
generator in the average starting and lighting system, there is very 
little left for the battery when all the lamps are in use. The practice 
of turning on all the lights on the car — headlights, side lights spot 
light, and instrument lights — whether they are necessary or not, 
should be discouraged in winter, as it is likely to result in exhausting 
the battery. The instrument lights are usually in series with the 
tail light, and so cannot be dispensed with, but it is never necessary 
to have the headlights and side lights going at the same time, and 
this also applies to the spot light, which consumes almost as much 
current as one of the headlights and should be restricted to the use 
for which it is intended, i.e., reading signs by the roadside. 

Unless the lamp load is reduced, it may be necessary to increase 
the charging rate of the generator during the cold months, and this 
is not beneficial to the battery, as it may cause severe gassing and 
injury to the plates when continued too long. In case the car is 
not driven enough to keep the battery properly charged, it may be 
necessary to charge it from an outside source or, if the latter be not 
available, to run the engine with the car idle just for this purpose. 
Care must be taken to prevent any danger of freezing, and the best 
method of doing this is to keep the battery fully charged, as when in 
this condition it will freeze only at very low temperatures. The 
more nearly discharged a battery is, the higher the temperature at 
which it will freeze, and freezing w T ill ruin the cells, regardless of 
whether it happens to crack the jars or not. 

Why Starting Is Harder in Cold Weather. The electric starting 
and lighting system, or rather the storage battery, which is its main- 


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stay, is much more severely taxed in winter than in summer for the 
following four reasons: 

(1) The efficiency of the storage battery decreases with a 
decrease in temperature, because the action of the storage battery is 
chemical, and chemical action is dependent upon heat and, therefore, 
always decreases as the temperature decreases. 

(2) The lower the temperature the stiffer the lubricating oil, 
which gums the moving parts together, adding a very considerable 
load to the ordinary amount of inertia which the starting motor 
must overcome and likewise adding to the difficulty of turning the 
engine past compression. 

(3) Gasoline will not vaporize readily at a low temperature, so 
that it is necessary to turn the engine over a great many revolutions 
before the cylinders become sufficiently warmed from the friction 
and the repeated compression to create an explosive mixture. The 
better the mixture the more readily it will fire, and consequently 
a greater heat value is required in the spark to ignite it where the 
mixture is poor or only partly vaporized. Anything that reduces 
the efficiency of the storage battery likewise reduces the heat value 
of the ignition spark. 

(4) Low heat value of the spark often makes it difficult to 
start an engine when cold. This lack of heat in the spark is caused 
by a partially discharged battery as well as the lower efficiency of 
the battery caused by the cold weather; also by the necessity for 
repeated operation of the starting motor, whereby the voltage of the 
battery is temporarily cut down. 

Intermittent use of the starting motor with a brief period between 
attempts will frequently result in starting a cold engine where 
continued operation of the starting motor will only result in exhausting 
the battery to no purpose. The longer the starting motor is operated 
continuously the lower the voltage of the battery becomes, with a 
corresponding drop in the heat value of the ignition spark. Cranking 
intermittently a number of times has practically as great an effect 
in warming the cylinders and generating an explosive mixture as 
running for the same period (actual operating time in each case), 
while the brief periods of rest permit the battery to restore its normal 
voltage, which increases the heat value of the spark and causes the 
engine to fire. Both the storage battery and the remaining essentials 


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of the starting and lighting system are designed to give satisfactory 
service in cold weather, but as a very low temperature brings about 
conditions representing the maximum for which the system is designed, 
more skillful handling is necessary in winter than in summer to obtain 
equally good results. 

To Test Rate of Discharge. If the battery terminals are 
removable, take off either the positive or the negative terminal, 
and connect the shunt of the ammeter to the terminal post and to 
the cable which has been removed, binding or wiring it tightly in 
place to insure good contact. Where the battery terminals are 
not easily removable, insert the shunt in the first joint in the line, 

Fig. 475. Setup for Testing Rate of Discharge of Small Storage 


Courtesy of Prest-O-Lite Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 

as shown in the illustration, Fig. 475. Then connect the ammeter 
terminals to the shunt. In case the instrument shows a reverse 
reading, reverse the connections to the shunt. When the ammeter 
is connected to test for discharge, the starter must never be used 
unless the 300-ampere shunt is in circuit, as otherwise the instrument 
is likely to be damaged. If a shunt of smaller capacity or a self- 
contained ammeter, i.e., one designed to be connected directly in 
the line is employed, and it is necessary to start the engine, either 
crank by hand or disconnect the ammeter before using the starting 


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When the ammeter is connected to show the discharge and no 
lights are on, the engine being idle, no current is being used for any 
purpose, and the pointer of the ammeter should remain at zero. If 
any flow of current (discharge) is indicated, it shows that there is 
a ground or a short-circuit (a leak) somewhere in the system. In 
such a case, apply the usual tests described under the appropriate 
headings for locating grounds and short-circuits. 

With the ammeter connected up as shown in the illustration, 
the discharge rate of the battery under the various loads it is called 
upon to carry may be checked up, and, if it proves to be excessive 
in any case, the trouble may be remedied. For example, with the 
300-ampere shunt in the line, the amount of energy consumed by 
the starting motor may be checked. Without knowing how much 
current a certain make of starting motor should consume in turning 
over a given type of engine, it will naturally be impossible to make 
any intelligent comparisons with the result of the tests. This infor- 
mation, however, is readily obtainable from the manufacturer of 
the starting system, and it will be found advantageous to obtain 
details of this nature covering the various systems in general use in 
your locality, as it will enable you to make these tests valuable in 
correcting faults. While the starting loads imposed on the electric 
motor by different engines will vary greatly, the general nature of 
the load will be practically the same in all cases. When the starter 
switch is closed, there will be an excessive discharge rate from the 
battery for a few seconds, the discharge falling off very rapidly as 
the inertia of the engine is overcome and it begins to turn over, 
with a still greater drop to a comparatively small discharge the 
moment it takes up its cycle and begins to run under its own power. 
Before undertaking such tests, see that the battery is in good 
condition and fully charged. Make several tests. Note in each 
case whether the maximum discharge at the moment of closing the 
switch exceeds the maximum called for by the maker of the starting 
system. If a great deal more current is necessary to turn the engine 
over than should be the case, it is an indication either that the 
starting motor is in need of attention or that the engine itself is 
unusually stiff. Atmospheric conditions will naturally have a decided 
effect on the result of such tests, as an engine that has stood overnight 
in a cold garage will be gummed up with thick lubricating oil and 


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will require more power to move it at first than if it had been running 
only a few minutes before. As a general rule, more power will 
always be needed in winter than in summer, unless the tests are 
carried out in a well-heated garage. The condition of the engine 
itself will also have an important bearing on the significance of the 
tests, as, if the engine has been overhauled recently, its main bearings 
may have been tightened up to a point where the engine as a whole 
is very stiff. 

Note also whether the discharge rate falls off as quickly as it 
should when the engine begins to turn over rapidly. If it does not, 
this also is an indication of tight bearings, gummed lubricating oil, 
or similar causes, rendering the engine harder to turn over. In 
the case of a cold engine, stiffness due to the lubricating oil may be 
remedied by running it for ten or fifteen minutes, and a subsequent 
test should then agree with the manufacturer's rating. Where the 
discharge rate does not drop to a nominal amperage within a few 
seconds from the time of closing the switch, it is simply an indication 
that the essentials of the engine are not in the best of working order. 
The carburetor may not be working properly, or the ignition may 
be sluggish. 

In case the discharge rate is very much less than that called for 
by the manufacturer for that particular engine, it is an indication 
that the starting system itself is not in the best condition. Poor 
connections, worn brushes, loose brush springs, a dirty switch, or 
some similar cause is greatly increasing the resistance in the starting 
circuit, thus cutting down materially the amount of current that the 
battery can force through it. In such circumstances, the discharge 
may not reach so high a rate as that called for by the manufacturer, 
but to effect a start, even with the engine in normally good condition, 
a high rate will have to be continued longer, to the correspondingly 
greater detriment of the battery. In other words, a great deal more 
current must be drawn from the battery each time the engine is 
started. Thus, testing the rate of discharge may be made to serve 
as an indication of the condition of both the starting system and 
the engine itself. Should it be necessary to make more than eight 
or ten starts to determine definitely the cause of any variation between 
the discharge rates shown and those that should be indicated, with 
everything in normally good condition, the battery should be fully 


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recharged before proceeding any further, as using it for this purpose 
when almost exhausted is very likely to damage it. Tests of this 
kind show also whether the efficiency of the battery has fallen off 
substantially or not, as indicated by its condition after making 
several starts in succession. When this has been done, the battery 
may be tested with the voltmeter and hydrometer to ascertain how 
far it has been discharged. The fact that after having been in service 
for some time a starting system will not start the engine so many 
times without exhausting the battery as it would when new may 
be due either to a loss of efficiency in the battery or to the poor 
condition of the other essentials of the system. In the majority of 
cases, however, it will be due to the condition of the battery. 

By substituting the 30-ampere shunt for the 300-ampere, the 
load put on the battery by the lights when switched on in various 
combinations may be checked and compared with the manufacturer's 
ratings. Where the discharge rate for the lights is less than it should 
be, it may be due to the use of bulbs which have seen a great deal 
of service, the resistance of the filaments increasing with age, or 
other causes which place more resistance in the circuit, such as poor 
connections, loose or dirty switches, and the like. Tests may also 
be made of the ignition system where the battery is called upon to 
supply current to a distributor and coil by putting the 3-ampere 
shunt in the circuit. The amount of current required by the ignition 
system is very small when everything is in normal working order, 
usually not more than \\ to 2 amperes. This also can be obtained 
definitely from the maker of the apparatus. Any great increase 
in the amount of current necessary would usually indicate arcing at 
the contact points, which should prove to be in poor condition; a 
subnormal discharge would signify a great increase in the resistance 
as in the foregoing cases, and should be evidenced by poor ignition 

To Test Rate of Charge. To determine the rate at which the 
battery is being charged (the small dash ammeters are only approxi- 
mately accurate), reverse the ammeter connections and start the 
engine by hand. If the car is equipped with a straight 6- or 12-volt 
system and a dash ammeter is used, see that its reading agrees 
approximately with the portable ammeter. Should the variation 
be small, advise the owner so that he may correct his readings 


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accordingly when noting the instrument on the road. In case it is 
very large, the dash ammeter itself should be adjusted, which can 
frequently be done merely by bending the pointer. 

With the engine running fast enough to give the maximum 
charging rate, which is indicated by the fact that the ammeter 
needle stops rising, check the charging rate shown on the portable 
ammeter, bearing the following in mind: In the majority of cars, 
the generator is regulated to charge the battery at from 10 to 15 
amperes. Some are designed to charge at as low a rate as 7 amperes. 
Unless the proper charging rate is definitely known, whatever 
maximum the portable ammeter shows may usually be assumed to 
be correct. Where the rate is less than 7 amperes it may generally 
be taken for granted, however, that the battery is undercharging, 
and the various tests, described in detail under appropriate headings, 
may be applied to locate the trouble either in the generator or in 
the automatic cut-out. This applies where the charging rate is too 
high as well as where it is too low. 

The charging rates mentioned above naturally apply only to a 
6-volt battery, or to a battery having a greater number of cells, 
which is connected in series multiple so as to charge at 6 volts. 
In the case of a six-cell battery permanently connected in series so 
that it both charges and discharges at 12 volts, the above figures 
must be cut in half. Twelve-cell batteries are employed in some 
cases, but the total voltage of the battery is used only for starting, 
the cells being divided into four groups in series multiple so that 
each group of three cells charges at 6 volts. 

With the generator charging at 10 to 15 amperes, turn on all 
the lights. If more current is being drawn from the battery than 
is being supplied by the generator, this will be indicated by the 
ammeter showing a reverse reading or discharge. It signifies 
that there is a short-circuit in the lighting switch or the lamps, or 
in the wiring between the switch and the lamps, or that additional 
lights, other than those furnished originally with the system, have 
been added, or larger candle-power bulbs substituted, thus placing 
too great a demand on the battery. 

If the system has been out of adjustment for any length of 
time, it is quite likely that the battery will shortly need repairs or 
replacement, because charging at an excessive rate causes the plates 


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to buckle and break through the separators, forming an internal 
short-circuit, while charging at too low a rate causes a constantly 
discharged condition of the battery, due to more current being 
normally called for than is put in. This results in injurious sulphating 
of the plates. 

In case additional equipment has been added, the entire 
equipment should be turned on, and the total current required should 
be noted when making discharge-rate tests. Where the generator 
cannot supply sufficient current to permit the battery to take care 
of this extra equipment, the battery should be charged from an 
outside source at regular intervals. It is poor practice to increase 





Connect Jhunt Here For 
Test On Charge 







Connect Shunt Mere For 
Test On Charge - 


Fig. 476. Setup for Twelve-Volt Battery Wired to Charge and Discharge 
through Starting Motor at Twelve Volts and through 
Lamps at Six Volts 

the charging rate of the generator, as it is likely to injure the battery 
through overheating. Where it is necessary to have a higher charging 
rate, than that originally called for by the system, it is preferable to 
substitute a larger battery. The charging rate of the generator may 
then be safely increased in accordance with the demand. 

In cold weather, it may be necessary to slightly increase the 
charging rate of the generator in order to compensate for the extra 
current the battery is called upon to supply. This is owing, not only 
to the fact that there is a much greater demand on the starting 
system in cold weather, but also to the fact that the battery is less 
efficient under winter conditions of operation. 

85 V 

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Connections for Two-Voltage Batteries. Where the battery is of 
either three or six cells, all connected permanently in series, the 
foregoing suggestions for connecting the testing instruments apply. 
They must be varied, however, where tests are to be made of batteries 
connected in series multiple, which may be termed two-voltage 
batteries since they supply current at one voltage for lighting and 
at another for starting. In Fig. 476 is shown a battery of this type 
which is connected so as to charge and discharge -through the starting 
motor at 12 volts, but which discharges at 6 volts to supply the 
lamps through a neutral lead in the center of the battery. The 
sketch indicates where to connect the ammeter shunt on charge at 




e | © >& 

Fig. 477. 

Twelve-Volt Battery Connected Up to Make Two 6- Volt 
Batteries in Parallel 

12 volts and on discharge at 6 volts. When testing the starting-motor 
discharge, it would be connected for 12 volts. 

Test the 12-volt circuit with the engine running to get the 
charging rate; stop the engine, reverse the ammeter terminals and 
see whether there is any discharge indicating a short-circuit. Also 
test the discharge rate on the 6-volt circuit with the lights turned off 
and again with all lights on. These tests should show whether or 
not there is a short-circuit in the system. Before attempting to 
test the discharge rate of the starting motor, be certain that the 
300-ampere shunt is in the circuit. A 12-volt battery will discharge 
only about half the current necessary to start the engine with a 
6-volt battery, but no shunt smaller than the 300-ampere size can 
be depended upon to carry the load safely and protect the instrument. 


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Fig. 477 shows a 12- volt battery connected up in such a manner 
that it is practically two 6-volt batteries in parallel. The battery 
is charged at 6 volts, and both the lights and horn are supplied with 
current at this voltage, but the discharge through the starting motor 
is at 12 volts. Note the two positive cables leading to the center 
of the battery. To test the charging rate, the ammeter shunt should 
be connected first in one of these cables and then in the other, and 
the two readings added together to obtain the charging rate for the 
entire battery. The same locations for the shunt, and the same 
method of adding the readings also apply on discharge. Ammeter 
readings in the connections shown will indicate whether or not 
there are any short-circuits, except, of course, in the starting-motor 

Voltage Tests. An equally important instrument for the testing 
of the storage battery is the voltmeter. It is chiefly useful in showing 
whether a cell is short-circuited or otherwise in bad condition. Under 
some conditions, it indicates when the battery is practically 
discharged, but, like the hydrometer, it must not be relied upon 
alone. It should be used in conjunction with the hydrometer readings 
to insure accuracy. Since a variation as low as .1 (one-tenth) of a 
volt makes considerable difference in what the reading indicates as 
to the condition of the battery, it will be apparent that a cheap 
and inaccurate voltmeter is likely to be misleading rather than 
helpful. For garage use, a good reliable instrument with several 
connections for giving a variable range of readings should be employed. 
Instructions furnished with the instrument give in detail the method 
of using the various connections, and these instructions should be 
followed closely, as otherwise the voltmeter is likely to be damaged. 
For example, on the 3-volt scale only one cell should be tested. 
Attempting to test any more is likely to burn out the 3-volt coil 
in the meter. The total voltage of the number of cells tested must 
never exceed the reading of the particular scale being used at the 
time, as otherwise the instrument will be ruined. 

Always make certain that the place on the connector selected 
for the contact of the testing point is clean and bright and that 
the contact is firm, as otherwise the reading will be misleading, 
since the increased resistance of a poor contact will cut down the 
voltage. The positive terminal of the voltmeter must be brought 


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in contact with the positive terminal of the battery, and the negative 
terminal of the voltmeter with the negative terminal of the battery. 
If the markings of the cell terminals are indistinct, the proper terminals 
may be determined by connecting the voltmeter across any one cell. 
Should the pointer not give any voltage reading, butting up against 
the stop at the left instead, the connections are wrong and should 
be reversed ; if the instrument shows a reading for one cell, the positive 
terminal of the voltmeter is in contact with the positive of the cell. 
This test can be made with a voltmeter without any risk of short- 
circuiting the cell, since the voltmeter is wound to a high resistance 
and will pass very little current. This is not the case with an ammeter, 

Fig. 478. Proper Setup for Testing Voltage of Batteries 

however, as connecting such an instrument directly across the 
terminals of the battery will immediately burn out the ammeter. 

Inasmuch as any cell, when idle, will show approximately 2 
volts, regardless of whether it is fully charged or not, voltage readings 
taken when the battery is on open circuit, i.e., neither charging 
nor discharging, are practically valueless, except when a cell is out 
of order. Therefore, a load, such as switching on the lamps, should 
be put on the battery before making voltage tests. With the lights 
on, connect the voltmeter as explained above and test the individual 
cells, Fig. 478 (Prest-O-Lite). If the battery is in good condition, 
the voltage readings after the load has been on for about five minutes 
will be but slightly lower (about one-tenth of a volt) than if the battery 
were on open circuit. If any of the cells are completely discharged, 


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the voltage of these cells will drop rapidly when the load is first 
put on and, sometimes when a cell is out of order, even show reverse 
readings. Where the battery is nearly discharged, * the voltage of 
each cell will be considerably lower than if the battery were on open 
circuit after the load has been on for five minutes. In the case of an 
electric-vehicle battery, the lights alone would not provide sufficient 
load for making an accurate test, so that one of the rear wheels may 
be jacked up and the brake set lightly until the ammeter on the 
dash of the car shows 50 to 70 per cent of the usual normal reading. 
To do this, start the motor on first speed with the brakes loose, 
and apply the brakes slowly until the desired load is shown by 
the ammeter reading. Never, under any circumstances, attempt to 
start with the brakes locked or on hard, as both the battery and the 
motor will be damaged. In the case of a starting-system battery, 
the lights alone are sufficient load, as they consume about 10 amperes. 

To distinguish the difference between cells that are merely 
discharged and those that are out of order, put the battery on charge 
(crank the engine by hand in the case of a starter battery) and test 
again with the voltmeter. If the voltage does not rise to approxi- 
mately 2 volts per cell within a short time, it is evidence of internal 
trouble which can be remedied only by dismantling the cell. 

Temperature Variations in Voltage. It must be considered, in 
making voltage tests, that the voltage of a cold battery rises slightly 
above normal on discharge. The reverse is true of a really warm 
battery in hot weather, i.e., it will be slightly less than normal on 
charge and higher than normal on discharge. As explained in 
connection with hydrometer tests of the electrolyte, the normal 
temperature of the electrolyte may be regarded as 70° F., but this 
refers only to the temperature of the liquid itself as shown by a 
battery thermometer, and not to the temperature of the surrounding 
air. For the purposes of simple tests for condition, voltage readings 
on discharge are preferable, as variations in readings on charge mean 
little except to one experienced in the handling of storage batteries. 

Joint Hydrometer and Voltmeter Tests. In making any of the 
joint tests described below, it is important to take into consideration 
the following four points: 

(1) The effect of temperature on both voltage and hydrometer 


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(2) Voltage readings should only be taken with the battery 
discharging, the load being proportioned to the size of the battery, 
as voltage readings on an idle battery in good condition indicate 
little or nothing. 

(3) In the case of a starter battery, never attempt to use the 
starting motor to supply a discharge load for the battery, because 
the discharge rate of the battery while the starter is being used is so 
heavy that even in a fully charged battery in good condition it 
will cause the voltage to drop rapidly. 

(4) The voltage of the charging current will cause the voltage 
of a battery in good condition to rise to normal or above the moment 
it is placed on charge, so that readings taken under such conditions 
are not a good indication of the battery's condition. 

In any battery which is in good condition, the voltage of each 
cell at a normally low discharge rate (20 to 30 amperes for a vehicle 
battery or 5 to 10 amperes for a starting-system battery) will remain 
between 2.1 and 1.9 volts per cell until it begins to approach the 
discharged condition. A voltage of less than 1 .9 volts per cell indicates 
either that the battery is nearly discharged or that it is in bad 
condition. The same state is also indicated when the voltage drops 
rapidly after the load has been on a few minutes. The joint hydrome- 
ter and voltmeter tests given below will be found to cover the 
majority of cases met with in actual practice. 

(1) A voltage of 2 to 2.2 per cell with a hydrometer reading 
of 1.275 to 1.300 indicates that the battery is fully charged and in 
good condition. 

(2) A voltage reading of less than 1 .9 per cell with a hydrometer 
reading of 1.200 or less indicates that the battery is almost completely 

(3) A voltage of 1 .9 or less per cell with a hydrometer reading 
or 1.220 or more indicates that excess acid has been added. Under 
these conditions, lights will burn dimly, although the hydrometer 
reading alone indicates the battery to be more than half charged. 

(4) Regardless of voltage — high, low or normal — any hydro- 
meter reading of over 1.300 indicates that an excessive amount 
of acid has been added. 

(5) Where a low voltage reading is found, as mentioned in 
cases 2 and 3, to determine whether the battery is in bad order or 


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merely discharged, stop the discharge by switching off the load, and 
put the battery on charge (crank the engine by hand in the case of 
a starter battery) and note whether the voltage of each cell promptly 
rises to 2 volts or more. If not, the cell is probably short-circuited 
or otherwise in bad condition.* 

Cleaning Repair Parts. The advent of electric starting and 
lighting systems has added appreciably to the amount of attention 
required by machines in the garage, particularly as this essential 
is a part of the car about which its owner generally knows little. In 
fact, it is not overstating it to say that fully 25 per cent of all the 
repair work now carried on in the garage has for its object the keeping 

Hot Water 

Tank Ho, J 

Hot Water 

Tank Ho. Z 

Caustic Sock ' 
Or Potash 


Jar Hoi. Jortkl 

Cold Water 


Cold Water J 

Fig. 479. Layout for Battery Cleaning Outfit 

of the electrical equipment of the car in good operating condition. 
Where many cars are cared for and repairs to their electric systems 
are made as far as possible right in the garage, it will be found 
advisable to install a method for cleaning parts. Owing to the accumu- 
lations of dirt and grease that parts carry after having been in service 
for a year or more, cleaning them thoroughly before making any 
repairs makes it possible to detect defects which might otherwise 
pass unnoticed. The following instructions are reprinted through 
the courtesy of the makers of the Delco apparatus, and they strongly 
recommend that the solutions mentioned be used in the exact manner 

* From instructions issued by the Prest-O-Lite Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. 


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directed, as they are the result of several years' experience in this 
work, and considerable care has been used in checking them. The 
sizes of the tanks given are merely indicative of what a very large 
repair shop would require and are comparative only. They will 
naturally vary with the amount of work to be done. 

Cleaning Outfit. The cleaning outfit should consist of three 
sheet-steel tanks, Fig. 479, of suitable size (35 gallons for a large 
shop) mounted so that their contents may be kept heated to the 
desired temperature, three stone jars of approximately 15 gallons 
capacity, and a sawdust box. Two of the steel tanks should be 
equipped with overflow pipes so that they can be kept about two- 
thirds full at all times. These are tanks No. 1 and No. 2. They are 
used for clear hot water for rinsing parts after they have been cleaned. 
The third tank does not require a drain nor an overflow pipe and is 
used for the potash or caustic soda solution. This can be used for 
a long time without changing by simply adding a small amount of 
soda as the solution weakens. All three tanks are maintained at a 
temperature of 180° to 212° F., or approximately the boiling point. 

The three jars mentioned are used for the acid solutions and are 
referred to as jars No. 1 , No. 2, and No. 3. A wood tank large enough 
to hold the three jars and divided into two compartments, as shown 
in Fig. 479, should be provided. This is important, as the parts 
cannot be rinsed in the same cold water after being immersed in the 
different acid solutions. The solutions recommended are in tanks 
1 and 2, clear hot water; tank 3, a solution consisting of one pound 
of caustic soda per gallon of water. Jar No. 1 is filled with a solution 
consisting of four gallons of nitric acid, one gallon of water, and six 
gallons of sulphuric acid. The water is placed in the jar first, the 
nitric acid is added slowly, and the sulphuric acid is poured in last. 
This order must be strictly followed, as it is dangerous to mix a 
solution of these acids in any other manner. In jar No. 2, the solution 
is one gallon of hydrochloric acid to three gallons of water, while 
jar No. 3 contains a solution of one-half pound of Cyanide to a gallon 
of water. Tank No. 2 should be used only for parts which have 
been in the potash solution and for no other purpose. Tank No. 1 
is for general rinsing purposes. 

Method of Cleaning Parts. Various metals are cleaned as follows: 
Steel is boiled in the potash solution until the dirt is removed, which 


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should require only a few minutes. The steel part is then rinsed 
in tank No. 2 and dried in sawdust. Vast iron parts are boiled 
in the potash solution to remove dirt, rinsed in tank No. 2, dipped 
in the acid solution in jar No. 1, rinsed thoroughly in cold clear 
water, dipped in the cyanide solution, rinsed again in cold 
clear water, then rinsed in tank No. 1 and dried in sawdust. Copper 
can be cleaned in the same manner. Polished aluminum should 
first be thoroughly washed in gasoline, rinsed in tank No. 1, dipped 
in the acid solution in jar No. 1, rinsed thoroughly in cold clear 
water, rinsed in tank No. 1, and dried in sawdust. Plain aluminum, 
unpolished, should be dipped in the potash solution, rinsed in tank 
No. 2, dipped for a few seconds in the acid solution, rinsed in 
tank No. 2, dipped for a few seconds in the acid solution in Jar 
No. 1, rinsed in cold water, then rinsed in tank No. 1, and dried in 

It will be noticed that when aluminum is put into the potash 
solution the metal is attacked and eaten away rapidly, so that 
polished parts of this metal should not be put into this solution, 
and any aluminum parts should not be left in for a moment longer 
than necessary. Where the parts are covered with caked deposits 
of hard grease, they should first be washed in gasoline. Aluminum 
parts should never be put into the potash solution unless they can 
be put through the acid immediately after, as the acid dip neutralizes 
the effect of the potash solution. Parts should only be held in the 
acid for a few seconds. Paint should first be removed with a good 
paint or varnish remover unless it is present in very small quantity, 
and unless the aluminum parts are to go through the potash solution. 
Enameled work should be washed with soap and water, dried 
thoroughly, and then polished with a cloth dampened with a good 
oil, such as Three-in-One. These cleaning methods apply only 
to solid parts and should never be employed on any plated pieces, 
as the caustic and acid would immediately strip off the plating. 
Such parts can be cleaned only in gasoline. It will be apparent, 
however, that cleaning in this manner will be found advantageous 
for many parts of the car that have to be repaired other than those 
of the electric equipment, and, in view of the increasing cost of 
gasoline, will be found much more economical as well as much more 


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Courtesy of Bosch Magneto Company, New York City 


Courtesy of Bosch Magneto Company, New York City 

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SYSTEMS— (Continued) 


It will be apparent from the foregoing description of the various 
systems that while the majority differ more or less in detail all are 
based on a comparatively small number of well-defined principles, 
and that once these are mastered their application in any system 
under consideration will be clear. To avoid unnecessary duplication 
in the instructions covering points that are common to all, general 
instructions have been given only in connection with one or two 
systems, and it will be understood that descriptions of the methods 
of locating short-circuits or grounds, of caring for brushes and com- 
mutator, and of testing with a portable lamp or with the volt-ammeter 
are equally applicable to all. The instructions given with other 
systems accordingly are limited to special references to the details 
of installation that will make it easier to locate faults in that par- 
ticular system. 

In order to bring the two together in such form that the par- 
ticular information desired may be found instantly, a summary 
of all the instructions given in the preceding sections is outlined here 
in questions and answers. 

Types and Requirements 

Q. How many types of generators are used in starting and 
lighting service on the automobile? 

A. Practically all are of one type, i.e., compound-wound, but 
this is subdivided into other types, such as differential compound- 


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wound, cumulative compound-wound, and the like, that is, all 
lighting generators have a shunt and a series winding on their fields, 
but the relation of these windings to one another differs, depending 
upon the characteristics of the remainder of the system. 

Q. What is a differential compound-wound generator? 

A. One in which the series winding is reversed, i.e., wound in a 
direction opposite to that of the shunt winding so that its exciting 
effect on the field magnets opposes that of the shunt winding. The 
series winding is then termed a bucking coil because it bucks, 
or opposes, the exciting effect of the shunt winding on the field mag- 
nets as the speed increases. The series winding in this case is used 
simply for regulating the generator output. 

Q. What is a cumulative compound-wound generator? 

A. One in which the exciting effect of the series coil is added to 
that of the shunt coil, the series coil in this case having no connection 
with the regulation of the generator output. 

Q. As one of the chief requirements of an efficiently operating 
system is the control of the generator output under widely varying 
speeds, how is a generator of the cumulative compound-wound type 
employed on the automobile? 

A. The series winding is in practically an independent circuit 
in connection with the lamps of the car so that its exciting effect is not 
added to the field magnets except when the lights are switched on. 
This automatically increases the generator output in accordance with 
the number of lights turned on so that the lights have no effect on the 
battery charging rate, which remains the same whether the lights are 
on or off. An external regulator is employed to control the battery- 
charging rate. 

Q. How does the generator differ from the motor? 

A. Its essentials are all the same, i.e., it has a wound armature 
revolving in a magnetic field, commutator, brushes, etc., exactly the 
same as the generator. 

Q. This being the case, why are the two not interchangeable? 

A. To a certain extent they are, that is, when a current is sent 
through the generator from an outside source, it becomes motorized 
and will run as a motor. But the two are far from being interchange- 
able on the automobile, owing to the widely differing requirements for 
which they are designed. The generator is wound to produce a cur- 


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rent seldom exceeding a value of 20 amperes while being driven over a 
wide range of speeds, and. it is in constant operation. The starting 
motor, on the other hand, is designed to utilize an extremely heavy 
current, ranging up to 300 amperes or more at the moment of starting 
and is only used for very short periods. 

Q. How are these widely varying requirements reconciled in 
the single-unit type, in which both the generator and the motor are 
combined in one machine? 

A. The machine is practically two units in one, i.e., there are 
two totally different windings on the same magnet cores, a fine wind- 
ing with shunt fields for the generator, and a very heavy simple series 
winding for the motor end. In some cases, as in the Delco, the differ- 
ent windings on the armature are brought out to independent commu- 
tators. While combined on one set of magnet cores, there is no 
connection whatever between the two windings in such a machine, so 
that when operating as a generator the motor windings are dead, and 
the reverse is true when being used as a starting motor. 

Q. What are the characteristics of the single-unit type of 
machine which is simply placed in circuit with the battery by a hand- 
operated switch when starting and left in that relation as long as the 
engine is running? 

A. This is a variable-potential type in which the relation that it 
bears to the battery and to the engine is entirely dependent upon the 
speed of the engine, that is, the speed at which the machine is driven. 
When the switch is closed, current from the battery operates the 
machine as a starting motor; as soon as the engine starts and attains 
a certain speed, the voltage of the machine overcomes that of the 
battery, the direction of current flow is reversed, and the battery begins 
to charge. Whenever the driving speed falls below a certain point, 
there is another reversal, and the generator once more becomes a motor 
until the engine speed increases. 

Loss of Capacity 

Q. What are the chief causes for the falling off in output of 
the generator? 

A. In about the order of the frequency of their occurrence, 
these are as follows : dirty or worn commutator ; worn brushes making 
poor contact; dirty or loose connections causing extra resistance 


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at generator, regulator, cut-out, ground, or battery terminals; 
failure of cut-out to operate at proper voltage; worn or pitted con- 
tacts in regulator or cut-out; loose connections at brush holders; 
short-circuited coils in the armature; some of the armature-coil 
connections broken away from the commutator; short-circuited 
bars in the commutator. 

Q. How can the generator output, be tested? 

A. The simplest method is to switch on all the lamps with 
the engine idle. Start the engine and speed up to equivalent of 
15 miles per hour. The lights should brighten very perceptibly, 
the te*st being made indoors in the daytime with the lights directed 
against a dark wall, or preferably at night. A more accurate test 
can be made with the portable volt-ammeter, using the 30-ampere 
shunt. Most generators have an average current output of 10 to 
12 amperes, but the normal output as given by the maker should 
be checked before making the test. Generators having a constant- 
voltage control will show a greatly increased output if the battery 
charge is low, running up to 20 amperes or over. On such machines, 
the condition of the battery should be checked either with the 
hydrometer or with the voltmeter before making the test. The 
charging current should be 10 to 12 amperes with a fully charged 
battery, and more in proportion when only partly charged. 

Q. What other simple method is there of determining quickly 
whether the generator is producing its normal output or not? 

A. On generators having an accessibly located field fuse (there 
are several makes) lift this fuse out and, with the engine running 
at a speed equivalent to 10 miles per hour or more, touch the fuse 
terminals lightly to the clips. If the machine is generating properly, 
there will be a bright hot spark. Should no spark appear, replace 
the fuse and bridge the terminals with a pair of , pliers by touching the 
jaws to the fuse clips; if a spark appears, the fuse has blown. Before 
replacing with a new fuse, find the short-circuit or other cause. 

Q. Granting that the fuse has not blown, that the cut-out, 
regulator, and wiring are all in good condition, and still the gen- 
erator does not produce any current, what is likely to be the cause? 

A. One of the brushes may not be touching the commutator, 
a brush connection may have broken, or carbon dust may have short- 
circuited the armature or field windings. Test for short-circuits. 


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Q. If the machine is generating current, and the auxiliary 
devices and wiring are in good condition, but the battery does not 
charge, what is the cause? 

A. Short-circuit in the battery due to active material having 
been forced out of the plates, or accumulation of sediment touching 
plates at their lower ends. (See Battery Instructions.) 

Q. Is the regulator ever responsible for a falling off in the 
current or for generation of excessive current? 

A. Yes. Any irregularity in the operation of the regulator 
will affect the output of the generator. 
Q. How can this be overcome? 

A. This will depend upon the type of regulation employed 
(see Regulation). Where the method of regulation is inherent, 
i.e., forming part of the construction of the generator itself, such 
as the third-brush method, or a bucking coil, it may be remedied 
by cleaning and seating the brush properly or by testing the bucking- 
coil winding to see if its connections are tight and clean, or if it is 
short-circuited (see Windings). If cleaning and sanding-in the 
brush do not cause the generator to produce its normal output, the 
brush itself may be adjusted by shifting its location. Moving it 
backward or against the direction of rotation of the commutator 
will reduce the output; moving it forward or in the direction of 
rotation will increase the output. This refers specifically to the 
Delco regulation already described. To adjust properly, the port- 
able ammeter should be put in circuit, and the effect on the reading 
noted as the brush is moved, clamping it back in place when the 
proper point is found. The brush should then be sanded-in to the 
commutator, as it will not have a good bearing if its original location 
has been disturbed. 

Methods of Regulation 

Q. Why is it necessary to control the output of the generator? 

A. As explained in the section on electric generators, the 
amount of current produced depends upon the excitation of the fields, 
and the faster the armature revolves before the pole faces of the field 
magnets, the greater the amount of current that is sent through the 
windings of the magnets. As the speed of the automobile engine 
varies between such extremely wide limits, it will readily be seen that 


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it may rise to a point where this increase in the field excitation will 
cause so much current to be generated that the armature windings 
will be literally burned up. This happened very frequently in the 
early attempts to produce a lighting dynamo for automobile service. 
Regardless of how fast the generator may be driven, it is essential that 
its current output does not exceed a certain safe limit. 

Q. What is the usual safe limit in the majority of generators? 

A. Most automobile lighting-system generators are designed to 
produce 10 to 15 amperes at a normal speed, i.e., sufficient to light all 
the lamps and still provide a slight excess for charging the battery. 
No matter how fast its armature revolves, it must not exceed this by 
more than ten to twenty-five per cent, as a rule, this being well within 
its factor of safety. In some instances, where a voltage system of 
regulation is employed, the output of the generator depends upon the 
condition of charge of the battery. If the battery is practically 
discharged, the generator will charge the battery at a rate of twenty 
amperes or over. As the charge proceeds, the battery voltage 
increases and the resistance is increased correspondingly, thus cutting 
down the amount of current that the generator can force into the 

Q. How is the current generated kept from exceeding this safe 

A. Mechanical methods were employed at first, a centrifugal 
governor being used to operate a slipping clutch. The generator 
was driven through this clutch, and the speed at which the armature 
revolved depended upon the engagement of the clutch; at low speeds 
both shafts would turn at the same rate. As the driving-shaft speed 
increased, the governor decreased the pressure on the clutch spring, 
and the clutch faces slipped on one another, so that the driven shaft 
turned proportionately slower than the driving shaft. The earliest 
types of governors, employed about 1903 to 1905, were not successful, 
but about 1908 a type was developed that worked effectively on 
thousands of cars. It has since been superseded by electrical methods 
of regulation, and practically all of those now in use are electrically 

Q* How many electrical methods of regulating the amount of 
current generated are in general use? 

A. So far as their principle goes, practically all are the same, 


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They depend upon weakening the excitation of the fields of the gen- 
erator to cut down the output. It is in the methods of accomplishing 
this that they differ. In the latter respect they may be divided into 
two general classes: those that are inherent in the design of the 
machine, i.e., the regulating device is actually a part of the machine 
itself; and those in which an external regulator is employed. Those 
most commonly employed are, in the first class, the bucking-coil 
winding and the third-brush method; in the second, an external 
regulator is usually combined with the battery cut-out and designed 
to keep either the voltage or the current at a uniform value, usually 
the voltage. 

Q. What is a bucking-coil winding, and why is it so called? 

A. We have seen that in a series-wound machine all of the 
current generated in the armature passes through the field windings 
and energizes the field magnets; in the shunt- wound machine the wires 
carry only a part of the current which is proportional to the resistance 
that the shunt winding of the fields bears to the resistance of the out- 
side circuit. As this outside resistance (the load) increases, more current 
will be diverted through the path of lesser resistance, or the shunt- 
wound field, and the output of the machine will increase accordingly. 
In the compound-wound machine, the relation of the series to the 
shunt winding is such that it is called upon chiefly to help carry any 
extra load. In other words, as the demands upon the machine 
increase, the series winding adds its energizing effect to that 
of the shunt coil. A generator with a bucking-coil winding is a com- 
pound-wound machine, but the series winding is in the opposite 
direction from that of the shunt winding. Consequently, instead of 
adding to the field excitation caused by the latter, it opposes or bucks it, 
and the more current there is produced in the shunt field by the rise 
in speed, the more the series winding, or bucking coil, tends to neutral- 
ize this excess, thus keeping the amount of magnetic effect produced 
in the field poles practically uniform, regardless of the speed. 

Q. What is the third-brush method of regulation? 

A. In a conventional shunt-wound generator, the field windings 
are directly in shunt with the armature through the brushes; hence, a 
certain proportion of all the current induced in the armature windings 
will find its way through the field magnet windings, in proportion 
to their relative resistance to the outside circuit at the time. Where a 


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third brush is employed, the main brushes are not in shunt with 
fields, and they are not depended upon to supply the exciting current 
for the latter. The third brush instead is used for this purpose. As is 
well known, the output of a generator depends very largely upon the 
position of its brushes. In the immediate vicinity of the proper loca- 
tion for a brush, there is a short zone of maximum intensity. As we get 
away from this toward the next brush, it decreases until at a point 
midway between the two there is a neutral zone. The third brush is 
accordingly placed between the two main brushes, and its distance 
from the nearest main brush determines the amount of current that it 
diverts from the armature to the field windings. See illustration 
of Delco generator in section on Methods of Regulation. This 
method has the advantage of supplying a strong shunt field at low 
speeds. As the speed increases, the voltage applied to the shunt field 
decreases, even though that between the two main brushes may have 


Q. What is a regulator, and what is its purpose? 

A. It is an instrument somewhat similar to a battery cut-out, 
and its purpose is to regulate the output of the generator in order that 
the latter may not exceed safe limits at high speeds. The regulator 
is usually combined with the cut-out. 

Q. How does the constant-voltage type of regulator operate? 

A. The instrument consists of a magnet winding and a pivoted 
armature, normally held open by a spring and a resistance unit. 
The winding of the magnet has sufficient resistance to prevent the 
core becoming energized to a degree where it will attract the armature, 
unless the voltage exceeds the safe limit determined for the circuit. 
The voltage increases with the speed of the generator, so that when the 
latter is driven too fast the attraction of the magnet core for the arma- 
ture becomes sufficient to overcome the pull of the spring which 
normally holds the contacts apart. (See description of Bijur voltage 
regulator.) When the contacts come together, the field circuit of the 
generator is shunted through the resistance unit; this cuts down the 
amount of current energizing the fields, the voltage falls off, and the 
contacts again separate. Unless the speed of the generator is 
decreased, this action is rapidly repeated, so that the regulator arma- 

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~vxre vibrates at a high speed as long as the voltage is sufficiently high 
to energize the magnet. 

Q. What is the principle on which this type of regulator 

A. The principle that in a circuit having considerable self- 
induction the amount of current which may be sent through the 
circuit will decrease if the current be pulsating instead of steady. 
Every time the contacts of the regulator open, a pulsation, or surge, 
of current is sent through the field windings of the generator; when 
t:hey close because of the higher voltage, the current is shunted 
through the resistance unit, thus cutting it down. The decrease in 
"the amount of current is in proportion to the number of pulsations per 
minute, i.e., the rapidity with which the vibrating contact operates. 
The circuit having considerable self-induction is that of the field 
winding of the generator, owing to its heavy iron core. (See Induc- 

Q. What is the constant-current type of regulator, and how does 
it differ from the constant-voltage, or potential, type? 

A. It consists of an electromagnet and a spring-controlled 
pivoted armature, so that it is of practically the same construction as 
the constant-potential type, but it is connected in circuit with the 
armature of the generator and it is wound to operate under the 
influence of the current rather than the voltage. Consequently, 
the pivoted armature is attracted, opening the circuit when the cur- 
rent exceeds a certain predetermined value, usually 10 amperes. In 
operation, the armature vibrates the same as in the voltage regulator, 
but the condition of the charge of the battery has no effect on it, so 
that when set to limit the current to 10 amperes, it will always charge 
the battery at approximately that rate regardless of the condition 
of the battery. The only practical difference is that it is wound to 
actuate under the influence of changes in the current flow and is 
connected in the armature circuit, whereas the constant-potential 
regulator is influenced by variations in the voltage and is connected in 
the field circuit of the generator. The latter has the advantage of 
charging the battery at a higher rate when the charge is most needed. 
Q. What other forms of regulators are employed on lighting 

A. The foregoing comprise practically all of the principles 


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employed, but the regulators differ more or less in design and opera- 
tion. For example, in the Bosch-Rushmore generator, a bucking 
coil is employed in connection with what is termed a ballast 
resistor, or resistance unit. This is of iron wire, and it is based on the 
fact that resistance increases very rapidly with the temperature. 
The size of the wire is such that it allows 10 amperes to flow without 
undue heating, so that its resistance is practically unchanged ; above 
this point it heats rapidly and increases in resistance so greatly that all 
excess current is shunted through the bucking coil. In the Splitdorf 
generator, the regulator is built in, projections of the pole pieces of the 
field being utilized in connection with special windings, instead of an 
independent electromagnet as in the Ward-Leonard and the Bijur. 
In the U.SX. generator of the inherently regulated type, regulation is 
accomplished by the combination of a Gramme ring armature, a 
special arrangement of connections and of the field windings, and the 
use of only a part of the fields and armature for generating current. 
The regulation obtained is based on armature reaction and is similar 
in effect to the third-brush method. The U.S.L. external type of 
regulator cuts into the generator field circuit a variable resistance 
consisting of an adjustable carbon pile. In the Adlake regulator, 
which is of the constant-potential type, a solenoid operates a switch 
over the contacts of a variable resistance. The plunger of the sole- 
noid is counterbalanced by a weight, which must be raised to operate 
the switch. It is adjustable by increasing the weight of this counter- 

Q. What attention does the regulation of the generator require? 

A. This will depend upon the method employed in each case. 
Where an external regulator is employed, whether of the constant- 
potential or the constant-current type, the attention required is 
practically the same as in the case of the battery cut-out. See that 
the points are not sticking, and when badly burned or pitted, smooth 
and true up, taking off as little of the contact point as possible to effect 
this. When the points have become so badly pitted that this cannot 
be done, new parts will be necessary. 

With the third-brush method, the attention required by this 
brush is the same as that which must be given the other brushes, i.e., 
sanding-in at intervals and replacement when worn too short to 
permit the spring to hold the brush firmly against the commutator. 


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Where the generator fails to produce sufficient current to keep the 
battery charged, all other parts of the system being in good condition 
and the car driven long enough in daylight to charge the battery under 
normal conditions, the position of the third brush may be shifted to 
increase the output. Care must be taken not to let it come in contact 
with the main brush. (See Delco instructions.) In the case of a . 
bucking-coil winding, no attention is necessary, as this is an integral 
part of the machine itself. As the Splitdorf regulator has moving 
contact points, the attention necessary is the same as that required 
for an external regulator of this type. Special regulators, such as the 
U.S.L. external type, require attention covered by the maker's instruc- 
tions. (See U.S.L. system.) 

Q. When the generator fails to keep the battery charged prop- 
erly, a normal amount of daylight driving being given the car, is the 
fault most likely to be found in the regulator? 

A. No. It is much more likely to be caused by a dirty commu- 
tator, worn brushes, loose connections, or some similar cause which 
inserts extra resistance in the charging circuit. The movement of 
the regulator armature is very slight, and the current handled by the 
contact points is small, so that it will seldom be the cause of the 
trouble. Other causes, such as those above enumerated, should 
always be sought first. (See instructions under Generator.) 


Q. Are faults in the generator windings frequent? 

A. They constitute one of the least frequent sources of trouble 
with the machine. 

Q. What is likely to cause them? 

A. Dousing the machine with water is likely to be one of the 
most frequent causes of short-circuits or grounds in the generator 
windings. All electrical machinery is intended to be kept dry. 
Except where provided with a field fuse, running the generator when 
disconnected from the battery or with the battery removed from 
the car is another cause. Excessive speed, in some instances, may 
generate sufficient centrifugal force to lift the armature coils out 
of their slots so that the insulation becomes abraded by rubbing 
against the pole pieces, but this is very unusual. In rare instances, 
a hard kink left in the wire when winding may crystallize the metal 


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and make it break at that point, due to the vibration. Unless cleaned 
out at intervals, fine carbon dust from the wear of the brushes may 
accumulate in the interstices of the windings, and, when aggravated 
by moisture, this is apt to cause short-circuits. 

Q. What are the usual indications of such faults? 

A. With a short-circuited generator coil (armature), all other 
parts of the apparatus and circuits being in good condition, the 
charging rate will be lower than normal. The ammeter needle will 
vibrate violently when the engine is running at low speeds, and two 
or more adjacent commutator bars will burn and blacken. With 
an open armature coil (broken wire), the indications will be prac- 
tically the same, and there will be severe sparking at the brushes, 
causing serious burning of the commutator bar corresponding to 
the open coil. A grounded armature coil will give the same general 
indications, and if the machine is a single-unit type, the cranking 
ability of the starting motor will be seriously impaired. The 
ammeter, however, will not vibrate as in the former cases. There 
will be practically no charge from the generator, and the battery 
will be discharged very rapidly by the starting motor. 

In a single-unit machine, when the windings of the generator 
and the starting motor become interconnected, the indications 
will be practically the same as those of a grounded armature coil. 
If the motor windings of a single-unit machine become grounded, 
there will be an excessive discharge from the battery, while the 
motor will develop but little power. 

Q. How may such faults be located? 

A. With the aid of the testing-lamp outfit. Remove the 
brushes (when replacing them later, be sure to put each brush 
back in the holder from which it was taken), or the brushes may 
be insulated from the commutator by placing paper under them. 
For a grounded coil, place one test point on the commutator and 
the other on the frame; if grounded, the lamp will light. For inter- 
connected motor and generator windings in a single-unit machine 
having two commutators, insulate the brushes as mentioned and 
place the test points one on each commutator. The light will burn 
if the two windings are connected. For a grounded-motor winding, 
test from the motor commutator to the frame; the light should 
not burn if the insulation is all right. For a break or open circuit 


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in the field winding, touch the terminals of the latter with the test 
points, the commutator being insulated or the armature removed. 
The lamp should light. For a blown field fuse on machines so 
equipped, place the points on the clips; if the fuse is intact, the 
lamp will light. 

Q. Are these tests conclusive? 

A. No. They will indicate any of the faults mentioned, 
but they will not reveal an internal short-circuit in the windings, 
which cuts some of the armature or field turns out of action but 
does not break the circuit as a whole. Such a short-circuit reduces 
the output of the generator and can be determined definitely only 
by measuring the resistance of the windings. This requires special and 
expensive testing instruments, such as the Wheatstone bridge, so that 
where all other tests fail to reveal the cause of a falling off in the out- 
put of the generator, it should be sent to the maker for inspection. 

Commutator and Brushes 

Q. What does a blackened and dirty commutator indicate? 

A. Sparking at the brushes or an accumulation of carbon 
dust due to putting lubricant on the commutator. 

Q. What is the cause of sparking at the brushes? 

A. Poor brush contact, due to worn brushes; brush-holder 
springs too loose, so that brushes are not held firmly against the 
commutator; excessive vibration, which may be due to a bent shaft, 
an unbalanced gear pinion, or improper mounting; using too much 
oil, or using grease in the ball bearings, which gets on the commutator 
and, acting as a solvent for the binder of the carbon, forms a pasty 
mass which prevents proper brush contact; worn or roughened 
commutator on which the mica needs undercutting; overload due 
to failure of regulator or to grounded coils in armature. 

Q. What is the remedy for sparking? 

A. Clean the commutator with fine sandpaper and sand-in 
the brushes to a true bearing on the commutator as directed in the 
Delco instructions. See that the brush springs have sufficient 
tension to keep the brushes firmly pressed against the commutator 
when the machine is running. If the mica protrudes above the 
commutator bars, it must be undercut as directed, and the commu- 
tator smoothed down again after the operation to remove any burrs. 


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Q. Why do some commutators need undercutting and others 

A. Undercutting is required only on machines equipped with 
brushes that are softer than the mica. Copper-carbon brushes, 
as employed on starting motors to reduce the brush resistance, are 
hard enough to keep the mica worn down with the copper of the 
commutator itself. 

Q. If, after smoothing off and undercutting the mica, the 
commutator still has an uneven and irregular surface, what is the 

A. The armature should be removed from the machine, and 
the commutator trued up in the lathe, taking as light a cut as possible 
consistent with obtaining a true round and smooth surface. 

Q. How can excessive commutator wear be prevented? 

A. Inspect at regular intervals and on the first sign of sparking 
smooth up the surface and sand-in the brushes. Keep the com- 
mutator clean and do not permit carbon dust or oil to accumulate 
in the commutator and brush housing. Never replace brushes or 
brush springs with any but those supplied by the manufacturer 
for that particular model. The machine will work with any old 
brush and any old spring that fits, but they will prove detrimental 
to its operation in a comparatively short time, and its working under 
such conditions will never be satisfactory. 

Q. Is discoloration of the commutator ever caused by anything 
else than sparking? 

A. Not actual discoloration which requires cleaning, but the 
normal operation of the machine produces a purplish blue tinge on 
the bars, which is sometimes mistaken for discoloration by the 
inexperienced. This color, in connection with a high polish of the 
metal, indicates that the commutator is in the best of condition. 
Once the commutator takes on this high polish, it will operate for 
long periods without other attention than the removal of dirt by 
wiping with a clean rag. Sanding to remove this purple tinge is a 
mistake, as it only destroys the polish without having any beneficial 

Q. Is it necessary to lubricate the surface of the commutator? 

A. No. The brushes employed are usually of what are termed 
a self-lubricating type and require no attention in this respect. 


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Q. Will any harm result from putting light grease, vaseline, or 
lubricating oil on the surface of the commutator? 

A. As all lubricants are insulators to a greater or less extent, 
the efficiency of the machine will be reduced and, as the voltage is 
very low, but a slight falling off is necessary to represent a very sub- 
stantial percentage of the maximum. The use of lubricant of any 
nature on the commutator also has another harmful effect in that it 
collects the carbon dust resulting from the wear of the brushes, caus- 
ing it to lodge against them as well as between the commutator bars. 

Q. Why should particular care be taken to remove all carbon 
dust from the commutator housing of both the generator and the 
motor (two-unit system) or the single unit where both functions are 
combined in one machine? 

A. Carbon dust is an excellent conductor of electric current 
and, when spread over the surface of an insulator, it causes the latter 
to become conducting as well. Consequently, it is likely to short- 
circuit the commutator bars by lodging between them. It will cause 
leakage across fiber or other insulating bushing of brush holders when 
a sufficient deposit accumulates on them. It will penetrate the arma- 
ture and field windings of the machine and may cause trouble by 
grounding or short-circuiting them. Especial care should be taken 
to remove all traces of carbon dust after sanding-in the brushes. 

Q. How often should the commutator be inspected? 

A. The commutator is the most vulnerable part of any direct- 
current machine, whether it be a generator or motor, and it should 
accordingly be inspected at more frequent intervals than any other 
single part of the entire system. The efficiency of both the generator 
and the motor depend upon it to a very great extent. Most of the 
failures of starting and lighting systems that are not due to poor 
condition of the battery may be traced directly to the commutator. 

Q. What is the function of the brushes? 

A. To conduct the voltage and current induced in the armature 
by its revolution through the lines of force created by the magnetic 
field, to the outer circuit, in the case of an electric generator; and to 
conduct the operating current to the armature windings from the 
battery, in the case of the starting motor. 

Q. Why must the brushes bear evenly over their entire surface 
on the commutator? 


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A. Because their current-carrying capacity depends upon their 
size, and the latter is based upon the entire surface of the end of the 
brush making efficient contact. If the brush does not make uniform 
contact, those parts of it that do not touch the commutator will cause 
arcing or heavy sparking at the gap thus created, resulting in 
damage to both the commutator and the brush. 

Q. Why are springs of different strengths used on generators 
and motors of different makes to hold the brushes against the commu- 
tator, though the machines are of practically the same capacity, 
operate at the same voltage, and are in other respects very much alike? 

A. The carbon compounds of which the brushes are manufac- 
tured differ greatly in their conductivity and resistance offered to the 
passage of the current, and these differences call for greater or less 
spring pressure to hold the brush against the commutator surface in 
order to make efficient contact over the entire surface of the brush. 
Every maker has his own standard in this particular respect. 

Q. Why is it not advisable to use brushes other than those 
supplied by the manufacturer as replacements on a machine? 

A. For the reasons just given above. The manufacturer has 
adopted certain standards for the operation of his machines, and the 
brushes supplied have been made particularly to comply with those 
standards. No other brushes will do so well, and some will result in 
injury to the machine. 

Q. When inspection shows that the brushes have worn down 
unevenly, what should be done? 

A. They should be sanded-in with a, strip of fine sandpaper, 
such as No. 00, preferably already worn if the brushes are very soft. 
(See instructions for doing this properly in connection with machines 
of different makes.) No more should be removed than is absolutely 
necessary to bring the end of the brush to a firm contact all over its 
bearing surface on the commutator; and the end of the brush, after 
the completion of the operation, should not show any deep scratches 
or pit marks. Unless the surface is smooth and true, injurious spark- 
ing will result, and the efficiency of the machine will be decreased. 

Q. If, with a smooth and true surface, the brush still fails to 
make good contact, what is the trouble? 

A. The brush has probably worn down until it is too short for 
the spring to exert sufficient force against it to hold it against the 


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commutator properly, or the spring itself may be at fault. Wear of 
the brush beyond the point where it is any longer of service will most 
often be the cause. 

Q. Where the brushes are true and are making good contact 
against the commutator, but the machine is inoperative, all other 
parts of the system being in good condition, what is likely to be the 

A. One of the pigtails, or short flexible connections, of the 
brushes may have shaken out from under its spring clip. This breaks 
the circuit, just as a parted wire or a ruptured connection at a terminal 
in any other part of the system would. 

Q. How often is it necessary to replace the brushes? 

A. This differs so much with different makes of machines that it 
cannot be answered definitely, even as an average. On two-unit 
systems, the generator brushes will naturally require replacements 
much sooner than those of the starting motor, as the starting motor is 
only in operation for very short periods, while the generator is working 
constantly. On single-unit types, this naturally does not apply, as, 
whether the armature has one or two sets, they are always in use. 
Ordinarily, brushes should not require replacement under a year, and 
frequent instances are known of their having lasted for two years or 
more. It depends upon the care given the commutator and brushes 
quite as much as upon the mileage covered, as, if allowed to run dirty 
for any length of time, the brushes will wear away much faster than if 
kept in good condition. The best rule for the replacement of the 
brushes on all makes of machines is to renew them as soon as they 
have worn to a point where the springs no longer hold them firm 
against the commutator. When they have reached this condition, the 
vibration and jolting of the car is likely to shake them out of contact, 
which results in sparking. 

Q. What is the "third brush", and what is its function? 

A. This is an extra brush used on a generator. Its purpose is to 
control the amount of current supplied by the armature to the shunt- 
field winding as the speed increases. In other words, it regulates the 
output of the machine and prevents it from being burned out when 
the speed of the engine becomes very high. 

Q. Does it differ from the other brushes in construction or in 
the care required? 


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A. It is a carbon brush of the same nature as the others used on 
the same machine, and the care required to keep it in good condition 
does not differ. However, it is mounted in an independently adjust- 
able holder so that it may be moved backward or forward with relation 
to the main brushes in order to increase or decrease the output of 
the generator. (See instructions [Delco] on this point.) 

Q. Is it ever necessary to alter the location of the brushes 
of a machine? 

A. Except on generators fitted with the third-brush method of 
regulation, on which it may be necessary to shift the main brushes 
slightly to avoid having the third brush come in contact with one of 
them when moved to change the output, it should never be necessary 
to shift the location of the brushes. Brush location has an important 
bearing on the operation of the machine, and, in designing it, the maker 
has fixed the location of the brushes to conform to its other charac- 
teristics. Many machines have no provision for adjusting the 
brushes in this respect, while some manufacturers caution the user 
particularly against altering their location. 

Q. How much spring pressure is usually employed to hold the 
brushes of the generator and starting motor against the commutator? 

A. This varies with different makes of machines and should be 
ascertained from the maker's instructions in every case in order to 
check up properly. In the various models of the Gray & Davis 
starting motors, this spring pressure ranges from 2J to 3J pounds, 
which is the minimum necessary. In other words, the brush must be 
held against the commutator with this amount of pressure in order to 
operate efficiently. While there will be a loss if the pressure drops 
below the minimum, there is no advantage in greatly exceeding it, as 
excess pressure simply causes greater friction loss without any com- 
pensating gain in power. Generator-brush pressures are much less 
than those employed on starting motors, owing to the smaller amount 
of current handled. 

Q. How can the proper spring pressure of the brushes be 

A. With the aid of an ordinary spring scale of the direct-pull 
type, in which the pull on the hook draws the pointer down over the 
scale. A scale reading to five pounds is adequate for the purpose; 
one intended for heavy weights is not likely to be so accurate. Attach 



tJie hook of the scale to the brush and pull until the brush is just clear 
of the commutator. The scale will then register the pull in pounds. 
Where there is nothing on the brush to which to attach the hook, such 
as a screw, place a thin piece of wood on the brush faoe before passing 
the hook of the scale around it, to prevent injuring the contact face 
of the brush. In this case, the spring pressure as shown on the scale 
will exceed the necessary minimum, as the spring must be compressed 
further than it would be when in operation, in order to operate the 
scale. This should be allowed for when taking the reading. 

Q. When is it advisable to check the spring pressure of the 

A. When there is undue sparking at the commutator, while the 
commutator and brushes are all in proper condition, i. e., clean, and 
bearing uniformly over their entire surface so that the sparking is not 
due to any fault in either of these essentials. 

Q. When the brushes and commutator are in good condition 
and the spring-scale test shows that the brushes are being held 
against the commutator with the necessary amount of pressure, what 
is likely to be the cause of the sparking? 

A. There may be a short-circuited or open coil in the armature. 


Q. In what way does the starting motor of a two-unit system 
differ from the generator? 

A. It is a simple series-wound machine having but one winding 
of coarse wire on the fields, and all the current from the battery 
passes through its armature coils and field windings. 

Q. Is it subject to electrical faults other than those already 
referred to in connection with the generator? 

A. No. The care and the nature of the tests required to 
locate faults are the same. The commutator should be kept clean, 
brushes bearing firmly on commutator, and all connections kept 
tight. The same instructions for sanding-in brushes and keeping 
the commutator in good condition apply as in the case of the 

Q. When the starting motor fails to operate, what is likely 
to be the cause? 

A. In the majority of instances, a low state of charge or a 


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wholly discharged battery will be responsible. If the battery b 
all right, a loose connection at the battery, switch, or motor, or a 
short-circuit in some part of this wiring may be the cause. Should 
the battery be properly charged, all wiring and connections in good 
condition, switch contacts clean, etc., the starting gears may be 
binding, owing to dirt or lack of alignment between the motor shaft 
and the flywheel of the engine. In this case, the motor will attempt 
to start when the current is first turned on, but will be held fast. 
Loosen the holding bolts and line up the motor, cleaning the gear 
teeth if necessary. 

Q What is likely to be the cause of the starting motor running 
slowly and with very little power? 

A. Exhausted battery, poor switch contacts, loose connec- 
tions, partial ground or short-circuit in wiring causing leakage, 
improperly meshing gears, dirty commutator, brushes making poor 
contact owing to weak springs or worn brushes, or a ground in the 
motor itself. The remedies for all these faults have been given already. 

Q. When the battery and all connections and wiring are in 
good condition, but the motor fails to crank the engine, what is likely 
to be the cause? 

A. The engine may be too stiff. If it has been overhauled 
just previously, the main bearings may have been set up too tight. 
Test with the starting crank to see if it can be turned over easily 
by hand. If unusual effort is required, easing off the bearings should 
remedy the trouble. Should the engine not turn over as soon as 
the switch is closed, release immediately, as otherwise the battery will 
be damaged. 

Q. When the engine does not start within a few seconds, why 
is it better to use the starting motor intermittently than to run it con- 
tinuously until the engine does fire? 

A. The intermittent use of the starting motor, say ten seconds 
at a time, with a pause of half a minute or a minute between attempts 
is easier on the battery. If allowed to rest for a short period, the 
storage battery recuperates very rapidly. Consequently, the opera- 
tion of the starting motor for two minutes, divided into twelve periods 
of ten seconds each, will not run the battery down to anything like the 
extent that its continuous operation for the same length of time would. 
Moreover, this intermittent method of operation increases the chances 


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of starting under adverse conditions, as, in very cold weather, every 
time the battery is allowed to rest, it will be able to spin the engine at 
its normal starting speed, whereas if the starting motor is operated 
continuously, the battery will become so weak that the engine will be 
turned over very slowly toward the end of the period in question. 

Q. Why is it that a starting motor capable of turning an engine 
over at a speed anywhere from 75 to 150 r.p.m. will sometimes fail 
to start the engine, whereas hand cranking subsequently resorted 
to will succeed? 

A. It must be borne in mind that the operation of starting an 
engine in cold weather involves several factors. (1) The pistons, 
crankpins and crankshaft (bearings) must be broken away, i.e., 
forcibly released from the hold that the gummed lubricating oil has on 
them, before they can be moved. The great difference between the 
power required to do this in summer and in winter is shown by the 
greatly increased amount of current used by the starting motor. 
(2) Gasoline and air must be drawn into the cylinders, to effect which 
in sufficient quantity to start the engine requires quite a number of 
revolutions. (3) The gasoline must be vaporized so that it will mix 
with the air, which involves more turning of the engine to create the 
necessary heat by compression in the combustion chambers and the 
friction of the moving parts. In the application of energy in any 
form, two factors are always involved, i.e., the unit, or quantity of 
power applied, and the length of time during which it is applied. The 
starting motor cranks the engine at a comparatively high speed for a 
brief period. In hand cranking, a smaller unit of power is employed, 
and the speed of cranking is accordingly less, but its application is 
continued for a much longer time. The failure of the starting motor is 
not due to its inferiority to hand cranking, but simply to the fact that 
the battery has become exhausted. Success in hand cranking where 
the starting motor has failed is usually due to the fact that the starting 
motor has done all the preliminary work, failing in the end simply 
because the storage battery did not have sufficient energy to finish 
the task. No electrical starting system can ever be any stronger than 
its storage battery, or source of energy. 

Q. Why is it not necessary to protect the starting motor or its 
circuit by fuses or other protective devices as in the case of the 


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A. A simple series-wound machine (practically all electric start- 
ing motors are of this type) is capable of standing exceedingly heavy 
overloads for short periods, it being nothing unusual for these small 
motors to have a factor of safety of five, or even seven, for a limited 
time, that is, they will take five to seven times the normal amount 
of current for a brief period without injury. As a matter of fact, the 
starting motor can utilize all the current the battery is capable of 
supplying, provided the motor is free to move. If .the engine is stuck 
fast or some part of the starting system has gone wrong so that the 
electric motor cannot turn over, then there is danger that the motor 
may be damaged unless the switch is opened at once. This, together 
with the fact that the maximum load which may be placed on the 
motor at different times is such a variable quantity, would make it a 
difficult matter to provide a fuse that would not blow unnecessarily. 
The only object of the fuse would be to protect the motor windings, 
and, as the latter can stand all the current the battery can supply, the 
only source of danger is the possibility of the motor being held fast 
so that ijts armature cannot revolve. 

Different Plans 

Q. What is the difference between the single-wire and the 
two-wire systems? 

A. In the single-wire there is but one connection to the operat- 
ing circuit by means of a wire or cable, the circuit being. completed 
in every instance by grounding the other side of the circuit. For 
this reason the single-wire is also referred to as a grounded system. 
In the two-wire system, copper wires or cables are employed to com- 
plete the circuits between the generator and battery and between 
the battery and the starting motor, as well as to the lamps. 

Q. What forms the return circuit of a single-wire system? 

A. The steel frame of the chassis. 

Q. How are the various circuits grounded? 

A. In the case of the battery, a special ground connection is 
usually made by drilling the frame and fastening a clamp to it. 
The ground cable from the battery is attached to this clamp. The 
generator and starting motor are grounded internally, i.e., the end 
of a winding or of a brush lead that would be taken out to form the 


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return side of a two-wire system is connected to the frame of the 
machine, and the latter completes the connection to the chassis 
through its holding bolts or other means of attachment. One side 
of all lamp sockets is usually grounded, so that the bulb itself com- 
pletes the connection when fastened in place. Sometimes there 
is a special ground connection from the battery for the return side 
of the ignition or lighting circuits, and this ground wire is fused. 

Q. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the single- 
wire system? 

A. It greatly simplifies the wiring, as but one wire connection 
is necessary to the apparatus for each circuit, but this advantage 
renders it more susceptible to derangement through unintentional 
grounds or short-circuits, since the touching of any metal part of 
the chassis by a bare wire will cause a short-circuit. This depends 
to a very great extent, however, on the thoroughness with which 
the wiring is protected, and, with the armored cables or loom and 
the junction boxes used on modern installations, it is reduced 
to a point where both systems are practically on a par in this 

Q. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two- 
wire system? 

A. Each circuit is complete in itself thus rendering it easier 
to locate faults, while no one connection coming in contact with 
a metal part of the chassis will cause a ground. The wiring itself, 
however, is much more complicated, and, with the small space 
available on the bulb connections, it is more difficult to insulate 
them properly. 

Q. Which system of wiring is favored? 

A. The single-wire system will be found on the majority of 
cars, and the number of makers adopting it is steadily increasing. 

Faults in Circuit 

Q. What is the difference between a ground and a short- 

A. So far as the effect produced is concerned, they are the 
same; the difference in the terms referring solely to the method of 
producing it. For example, if the cable of the starting motor circuit 
becomes abraded and the bare part touches the chassis or some 


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connecting part of metal, this is a ground. But it is also a short- 
circuit in that the circuit to the battery is completed through a 
shorter path than that intended. On the other hand, if, in a two- 
wire system, the two cables of the same circuit become chafed close 
together and their bared parts touch, this is a short-circuit, but 
it is not a ground. For all practical purposes, however, the two 
terms are really interchangeable when applied to faults in the circuit. 
(See Gray & Davis instructions.) 

Q. How may grounds be located in a single-wire system? 

A. In any of the fused circuits, the fuse will immediately 
blow out. Remove the fuse cartridge and shake it; if it rattles, 
the fuse wire has melted and the fuse is blown. If it does not 
rattle, short-circuit the fuse clips with the pliers or a piece of metal; 
a spark will indicate the completion of the circuit and will also 
indicate that the fuse has blown. If, on bridging the fuse clips, 
the lamp lights, or other apparatus on the circuit operates, the 
short-circuit was only temporary. This does not mean, however, 
that the fault has been remedied ; the vibration of the car may 
have shaken whatever caused it out of contact and further vibra- 
tion sooner or later will renew the contact with the same result. 
Inspect the wiring of that particular circuit and note whether the 
insulation is intact throughout its length. See that no frayed ends 
are making contact at any of the connections and that the latter 
are all tight and clean. In case the lamp does not light on bridging 
the fuse clips, see if the bulb has blown out; if not, use the test 
lamp by applying one point to the terminal and the other to various 
points along the wiring. 

Q. Does the blowing of a fuse always indicate a fault in the 

A. No. A bulb, in blowing out, frequently will cause a tem- 
porary short-circuit that will blow the fuse. To determine this, 
apply the points of the test-lamp outfit to the bulb contacts; if the 
test lamp lights, the bulb is short-circuited, and a new fuse and bulb 
may be inserted without further inspection of the circuit. In case 
the test lamp does not light on this test, it does not necessarily 
indicate a fault in the wiring of that circuit, though inspection is 
recommended before putting in new fuse and bulb. The blowing 
out of the bulb may cause a short-circuit, which is ruptured by the 


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current burning away the light metal parts that were in contact, 
such as a small piece of the filament. 

Q. Can a short-circuit or ground occur without blowing a fuse? 

A. Yes. No fuses are employed on starting-motor circuits 
owing to the very heavy current used and its great variation depend- 
ing upon the conditions, such as extreme cold gumming the lubri- 
cating oil, tight bearings, binding of the pinion and gear, sprung 
shaft, starting motor out of alignment, or the like. On other circuits, 
the amount of current leaking through the fault in the circuit may 
not be sufficient to blow the fuse, as the capacity of the latter is 
such that it will carry the maximum current which the apparatus in 
that circuit will carry without damage — usually 5 or 10 amperefc 
on lighting circuits and 10 amperes on generator-field circuits. 

Q. How can such faults be noted? 

A. The ammeter, or indicator, will show a discharge reading 
when the engine is idle and all lamps are switched off. 

Q. What is the usual nature of such a fault? 

A. The battery cut-out may have failed to open the circuit 
completely; a frayed end of the stranded wire at one of its con- 
nections may be making light contact which will permit a small 
amount of current to pass; a particle of foreign matter of high 
resistance may be bridging a gap either at the cut-out or some 
other part of the circuit; or the ignition switch may have been 
left on the battery contact so that current is flowing through the 
ignition coil. 

Q. How may faults be located in a two-wire system? 

A. With the aid of the test lamp, placing the points along 
the two wires of the circuit at fault from one set of terminal con- 
nections to the other, examine all connections in the circuit in 
question; note whether any wires have frayed ends and, if so, wind 
them tight together and dip in molten solder. See whether any 
moving part is in contact with one or both of the wires and whether 
the insulation of the latter has been worn off. In some two-wire 
systems there is a ground connection to the battery for the ignition 
system, in which case tests for grounds in the circuit in question 
must also be made. Examine the ignition switch for faults; also 
the switch of the circuit under test. This applies to single-wire as 
well as to two-wire svstems. 


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Q. What is one of the most frequent causes of short-circuits 
in a two-wire system? 

A. The bulbs and their sockets, owing to the very small 
amount of space available for the insulation. Dirt or particles of 
metal may be bridging the small gaps between their insulated con- 
tacts. A blown-out bulb also may be responsible, as previously 

Proper Conduction 

Q. Why are different sizes of wire employed in the various 

A. To permit the passage of the maximum current necessary 
in each circuit consistent with the minimum drop in voltage due 
to the resistance of the wire and its connections. The voltages 
employed are so low that any substantial drop due to this cause 
would seriously impair the efficiency of the system and particularly 
of the starting motor. For the latter the cables employed are not 
only large, but they are also made as short and direct as possible 
to save current as well as expense in the installation. 

Q. What is the smallest wire that should be employed in 
automobile wiring? 

A. No. 14 B. & S. gage, and this should be used only for the 
tail lamp, dash lamp, primary circuit of the ignition, or similar 
purpose. No. 10 or No. 12 is usually employed for the other lighting 

Q. When, in making alterations on a car, it becomes neces- 
sary to extend a circuit, what should be done? 

A. The ends of the wires should be scraped clean and bright 
for at least 2 inches, and a lineman's joint made with the aid of 
the pliers to insure having it tight. A lineman's joint is made by 
crossing the bared ends of the wires at their centers at right angles 
to each other, then wrapping or coiling each extending end tight 
around the opposite wire; the joint then should be soldered and 
well taped. A circuit should be extended only by using wire of the 
same size and character of insulation. None of the foregoing applies 
to the starting-motor circuit. It is inadvisable to lengthen this 
circuit if avoidable, but in the rare instances when it would be 
necessary, new cable of the same size or larger and with the same 
insulation should be cut to the proper length and the old cable 


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discarded. All terminals should be solidly fastened to the new cable 
by soldering. 

Q. Why is it necessary to use such heavy cable for the connec- 
tion of the starting motor to the battery? 

A. It is essential that the exceedingly heavy starting current 
be transmitted with the minimum of loss. 

Q. What is considered the minimum permissible loss in the 
starting-system wiring? 

A. One maker specifies that the starting cable must be large 
enough to transmit a maximum current of 400 amperes with not over 
one-fourth volt total loss. 

Q. Why is it important to hold the voltage drop down to a maxi- 
mum so small as to be negligible in almost any other application? 

A. Owing to the heavy current necessary, as a drop of but J 
volt in potential with a current of 400 amperes represents a loss of 100 
watts, or close to } horsepower. Of course, the current seldom 
reaches such a high value as this except when a motor is exceptionally 
stiff, as in severe cold weather or just after its bearings have been set 
up very tight; moreover, this loss takes place at the instant of starting 
only, but it is just at this time that the highest efficiency and full 
battery power is needed to start without spinning the engine too much. 

Q. On some of the early systems whose efficiency was not of 
the best, how can the proper size of cable to use between the starting 
motor and battery be determined? 

A. Test the starting motor with a high-reading ammeter (scale 
should read to at least 300 amperes) after having made certain by 
hydrometer and voltage tests that the storage battery is fully charged. 
(See instructions regarding this.) Carefully note ammeter reading 
exactly at instant of closing switch, to determine maximum current 
flow. Measure the length of cable between the battery and the 
starting motor, i.e., both sides of starting switch. Then maximum 
starting current times 10.7 times number of feet of cable used, divided 
by .25 will give the cross-section of the wire in circular mills. For 
example, assume that the starting motor required a maximum of 300 
amperes momentarily to break away the engine, and five feet of 
cable are employed for the connections. Then 

3Q0X10JX5 = 128,400 circular mills 


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By referring to Table I, Part I, which gives the various size wires in 
circular mills and their equivalent in gage sizes, it will be noted that 
the closest approach to this is No. 00 cable, which is 133,079 circular 
mills, so that the largest size cable would have to be used. If the 
starting cable used on an old system which does not show particularly 
good efficiency is much smaller than this, it would probably be an 
advantage to replace it with larger cable, assuming, of course, that 
every other part of the system is in good condition and working 

Q. Why should connections be inspected frequently? 

A. The vibration and jolting to which they are subjected in 
service is so severe that no mechanical joint can be depended upon 
to remain tight indefinitely. 

Q. What harm does a loose or dirty connection occasion? 

A. A loose connection causes the formation of an arc between 
its contacts whenever vibration causes the parts to separate tem- 
porarily. This wastes cuirent and burns the metal away, leaving 
oxidized surfaces which are partially insulating, thus increasing 
the resistance at the connection. Dirt getting between the surfaces 
of the connector has the same effect; the resistance is increased and 
there is a correspondingly increased drop in the voltage of the 
circuit, which cuts down its efficiency. 

Q. Why should all terminals be well taped when the battery, 
starting motor, generator, or other apparatus is temporarily dis- 
connected for purposes of inspection or test? 

A. To prevent accidental short-circuits which would be caused 
by these terminals coming in contact with any metal part of the 
chassis on a single-wire system. Such a short-circuit would ruin 
the battery and burn out any lamps that happened to be included 
in the circuit. This precaution applies with equal force to the two- 
wire systems, as in this case the terminals of the different wires 
might come together, or there might be a ground connection in 
the system. 


Q. What are the protective devices usually employed on 
electric systems? 

A. Fuses in the separate lamp circuits, in the ground con- 


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nection, and in the field circuit of the generator on some machines; 
battery cut-out for the charging circuit; circuit-breaker which 
takes the place of the fuses. 


Q. What is a fuse and what is its function? 

A. A fuse consists of a piece of wire of an alloy which melts 
at a low temperature and which will only carry a certain amount of 
current without melting, the latter depending upon the diameter 
of the wire, i.e., cross-section and the nature of the alloy. The fuse 
is usually in the form of a cartridge, the wire being encased in an 
insulating tube having brass ends, to which the ends of the wire are 
soldered. These brass ends are pressed into spring clips to put the 
fuse in circuit. In some cases open fuse blocks are employed, the 
wire itself simply being clamped under the screw connectors on the 
porcelain block. The function of the fuse is to protect the battery 
and the lamps when, by reason of a ground or short-circuit in the 
wiring, an excessive amount of current flows. 

Q. When a fuse blows out what should be done? 

A. Investigate the cause before replacing it with a new one. 
(See Wiring Systems.) 

Q. Is it permissible to bridge the fuse gap with a piece of 
copper wire when no replacements are at hand? 

A. Only in cases of emergency and after the short-circuit 
which has caused the fuse to blow has been remedied. The finest 
size of copper wire at hand, such as a single strand from a piece of 
lamp cord, should be used. If this burns out, there being no ground 
or short-circuit in the wiring, use two strands. Remove the wire 
as soon as a new fuse is obtainable. 

Q. Why are fuses not employed in the starting-motor circuit? 

A. In the starting circuit the current necessary is so heavy 
and varies so widely with the conditions that it would not be 
practicable to provide a protecting fuse. 

Q. What does the intermittent blowing of the fuse on the same 
circuit indicate? 

A. A short-circuit that is caused by the vibration, or jolting, of 
the car. The wire, lamp socket, or other part of the circuit that is at 
fault is shaken loose at times so that the circuit is operative, and a new 


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fuse may be inserted without instantly blowing, as it would do were 
the short-circuit constant. This is often the case as the car is stopped 
to inspect the wiring and insert the new fuse, and standing still lets the 
part drop out of contact; starting up shakes it into contact once 
more and blows the new fuse. Loose connections, wires with abraded 
insulation, and bulbs loosely inserted in their sockets are apt to cause 
trouble of this nature. 

Q. Does the blowing out of a fuse necessarily indicate a fault in 
the wiring or in some other part of the system? 

A. No, since a bulb in burning out will frequently cause the fuse 
to blow out. This is due to the fact that in breaking, the end of the 
parted filament of the bulb may fall across the other terminal where it 
comes through the glass, thus causing either a short-circuit or such a 
reduction in the ordinary resistance as to permit a much heavier rush 
of current than normal, with the result that the fuse goes. To test, 
leave burnt-out bulb in place temporarily; short-circuit fuse clips with 
screw driver or pliers, just touching them momentarily; if no spark 
results, replace bulb with a new one and test again; if a spark occurs, 
remove old bulb and test again with no lamp in place; then if no spark 
occurs in bridging the fuse terminals, the circuit is all right, and the 
fuse may be replaced. 

Q. When all the lighting fuses blow out at once, what does 
this indicate? 

A. A short-circuit across the lighting-switch terminals would 
cause this. In some switches with exposed rear terminals, it is 
possible to place a screwdriver or similar piece of metal in such a posi- 
tion that it bridges practically all the switch terminals. If the light- 
ing switches were all closed at the time, this would short-circuit them. 


Q. What is a circuit-breaker, and what is its function? 

A. The circuit-breaker is an electromagnet with a pivoted 
armature and contacts, similar in principle to the battery cut-out. 
All the current used in the various circuits, except that of the start- 
ing motor, passes through it, and its contacts normally remain closed. 
The winding of the magnet coil is such that the normal current 
used by the lamps or ignition does not affect it, but the passage 
of an excessive amount of current will energize the magnet, attract 


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the armature, and break the circuit. The spring holding the arma- 
ture away from the magnet will again close the circuit, and the 
circuit-breaker will vibrate until the cause has been removed. This 
is usually a ground or short-circuit. The function of the circuit- 
breaker is to protect the battery and lamps in place of the usual fuses. 

Q. If the circuit-breaker operates when there are no faults 
in the wiring, what is likely to be the cause? 

A. Its spring may have become weakened so that the vibra- 
tion of the car causes it to operate on less current. The Delco 
circuit-breaker is designed to operate on 25 amperes or more, but, 
once started, a current of 3 to 5 amperes will keep it vibrating. 
If tests show that no faults in the wiring or connections exist, 
increase the spring tension with the ammeter in circuit until the 
reading of the latter indicates that the circuit-breaker is not operat- 
ing on the current of less value than that intended. See that the 
contacts are clean and true. 

Battery Cut-Out 

Q. What is a battery cut-out? 

A. It is an automatic double-acting switch which is closed 
by the voltage of the generator and opened by the current from 
the battery. 

Q. Of what does it consist? 

A. It is essentially a double-wound electromagnet with a 
pivoted armature and a pair of contacts. One winding, known as 
the voltage coil, is of fine wire and is permanently in circuit with the 
generator. The second winding of coarse wire is termed the current 
coil and is put in circuit by the contacts. 

Q. Why is a cut-out necessary? 

A. To protect the storage battery. When the generator 
speed falls below a certain point, it no longer produces sufficient 
voltage to charge the battery, and the latter then would discharge 
through the generator windings if not prevented. This discharge 
would always take place when the generator was idle, except for 
the cut-out. 

Q. How does it operate? 

A. When the generator voltage approaches the value nec- 
essary for charging, it energizes the magnet through the voltage 


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coil and closes the contacts, cutting in the current coil, which fur- 
ther excites the magnet and holds the contacts firmly together. 
The closing of these contacts puts the battery in circuit and it 
begins to charge. As soon as the generator speed falls below the 
point necessary for charging, the battery voltage overcomes that 
of the generator and sends a current in the reverse direction through 
the current coil, causing the contacts to separate and cutting the 
battery out of the charging circuit. 

Q. If the generator is run for any length of time at or near 
this critical speed, what is to prevent the cut-out from vibrating 
constantly instead of working positively one way or the other? 

A. The resistance of the windings is so proportioned that 
there is a difference of 1 to 2 volts between the cutting-in and the 
cutting-out points. 

Q. What is the result when the battery cut-out — which is 
variously termed a cut-out, a circuit-breaker, an automatic switch, 
and a reverse-current relay or an automatic relay — fails to operate? 

A. If it fails to cut in, i.e., the contacts do not come together, 
the battery does not charge and will quickly show a falling-off in 
capacity, such as inability to operate the starting motor properly or 
to light the lamps to full brilliance. If it fails to cut out, the battery 
charge will be wasted through the generator windings with the same 
indications of lack of capacity. 

Q. What is the most frequent cause of trouble? 

A. Automatic cut-outs have been perfected to a point where 
but little trouble occurs. Freezing or sticking together of the 
contacts due to excessive current will most often be found to be 
the cause of the device failing to cut out when the generator is 
stopped. The points should be cleaned and trued up as described 
in previous instructions. Loose or dirty connections making poor 
contact may insert sufficient extra resistance in the circuit to 
prevent the device from cutting in at the proper point. Excessive 
vibration, particularly when the cut-out is mounted on the dash, 
may prevent the contacts from staying together as they should 
when the engine is running at or above the proper speed. See that 
the cut-out is solidly mounted. Temporary loss of battery capacity 
may be due to slow driving over rough roads at about the speed 
at which the cut-out is designed to put the battery in circuit. 


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Q. None of the above causes existing, what further tests may 
be made? 

A. The windings may be tested as already described for the 
generator windings, but trouble from this source is equally rare. 
If the contacts are clean and true and the connections are tight, 
look for a loose connection elsewhere, as at the generator or battery 
or the ground on the frame. A loose connection vibrates when the 
car is moving, constantly opening and closing the circuit and causing 
the cut-out to do likewise, so that the battery does not charge. A wire 
from which the insulation has been abraded will also vibrate, owing 
to the movement, causing an intermittent short-circuit. With all con- 
tacts and connections in good condition, failure to cut out indicates a 
ground or short-circuit between the battery and cut-out; failure to cut 
in indicates similar trouble between the generator and the cut-out. 

Q. Is a battery cut-out necessary on every electrical system? 

A. No. On single-unit systems of the type of the Dyneto, 
in which the generator becomes motorized as soon as its speed and 
consequently its voltage drops below a certain point, the battery 
is always in circuit. A plain knife-blade switch, which also controls 
the ignition, is closed to start and left closed as long as the car is 
running. But the engine must not be allowed to run at a speed 
below which it generates sufficient voltage to charge the battery, 
nor must the switch be left closed when the engine is not running; 
otherwise, the battery will discharge through the generator windings. 

Q. After having trued up points of a battery cut-out, what pre- 
cautions should be taken in adjusting them? 

A. To insure proper operation, they must be set to the distances 
given in the manufacturer's instructions. This refers not only to the 
gap between the contact points themselves, but also to the distance 
that the armature must be set from its backstop when the points are 
open and to the air gap between the armature and the magnet. 
These distances are very small in every case, and it is important that 
they be adjusted accurately. They differ slightly on cut-outs of 
different makes and also on different models of the same make. For 
example, in the Gray & Davis cut-out, the distance between the con- 
tact points should be .015, the air gap between the armature and its 
backstop not less than .010, and the armature air gap, or distance 
between the armature and the magnet face, .030. These dimensions 


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refer to the flexible, or spring-arm type, while in the solid-arm type 
of the same make, they are .010 for the distance between the contact 
points and .015 for the armature air gap, it being necessary that the 
armature should be set parallel with the pole face of the magnet. 

Q. How can these small distances be accurately determined 
with the facilities ordinarily found in a repair shop? 

A. The manufacturers usually supply a small adjusting wrench, 
the different edges of which have been ground to varying thicknesses 
representing the proper distances for the various gaps. Lacking one 
of these, small pieces of strip brass or steel may be ground or filed 
down to the proper size and gauged with a micrometer, which should 
be part of the equipment of every garage. The strips should be 
stamped with the dimensions and name of gap for identification. 

Q. How often will the point of a battery cut-out need adjust- 
ment, or truing up? 

A. Service conditions vary so greatly that it is impossible to give 
any definite average for this, particularly as the instruments them- 
selves also are a variable quantity, but, under ordinarily favorable 
conditions, they should not require attention more than once a year. 

Contact Points 

Q. Why is it necessary to make contact points of such an expen- 
sive metal as platinum, and why is the latter sometimes alloyed with 
i iridium? 

A. There is no other metal which withstands the oxidizing 
effect of the electric arc and still maintains a clean and bright con- 
ducting surface as does platinum. Irridium is added to make the 
platinum harder, so that it will be more durable. On cheaply made 
instruments in which no platinum has been used in the contacts, 
trouble will be experienced constantly with the contacts. 

Q. Is there any substitute for platinum or any metal that 
approaches it in adaptability for contact points? 

A. There is no substitute for platinum, and the only metal that 
approaches it is silver. Where contact points only separate occa- 
sionally at intervals, as in the Remy thermoelectric switch, the use of 
silver contacts is permissible; but in a battery cut-out, or a regulator 
in which the vibration of the points is more or less constant, nothing 
will serve so reliably as platinum. 


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Q. What is the cause of the platinum contacts burning into such 
irregular ragged forms? 

A. When a current of electricity passes through a contact of this 
nature, the material of the positive electrode (i.e., contact point 
connected to the positive side of the circuit) is carried over by the 
current in the shape of metallic vapor, or infinitely fine particles, and 
deposited on the negative electrode. The positive consequently takes 
on the form of a sharp point, while the negative has a depression 
formed in it, usually referred to as a "peak and crater", which the two 
points resemble in miniature after long use. This peak and crater 
effect is much more noticeable in an old-style carbon arc lamp after 
it has been burning only a few hours. 

Q. What can be done to prevent this? 

A. The passing of the metal from one electrode to the other 
cannot be prevented, as it is a function of any arc or spark. It can 
be minimized, however, by keeping the contacts in good condition so 
that the sparking is reduced to a minimum. 

Q. Can the formation of the pack and crater effect, which so 
greatly reduces the efficiency of the contacts, be avoided? 

A. The use of a reversing switch in the circuit, as in the case of 
the magneto or the battery-type interrupter which changes the direc- 
tion in which the current flows through the points every time it is 
turned on, will overcome this. Where there is no reversing switch 
in the ignition circuit or where one cannot be used, attention to the 
points at regular intervals will prevent this effect from reaching a 
stage where most of the point has to be filed away to true it up. 

Q. In the use of the file, sandpaper, or emery cloth in this con- 
nection, just what is meant by truing the points up? 

A. Their surfaces must be made exactly parallel to one another 
so that when the points come together they touch uniformly over 
their entire surfaces. In the hands of the unskilled user, there is a 
tendency to bear down sidewise with the file, thus forming rounded 
edges on the points. In addition to having the faces of the two points 
perfectly parallel, the face of each point must be at right angles to its 
sides. Otherwise, there is bound to be unnecessary sparking between 
the points, and this causes them to burn away again much sooner. 
It is scarcely necessary to add that as little as possible of the metal 
should be removed. As long as there is enough of the platinum left 


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to make true parallel surfaces, the points need not be replaced 
the means for adjustment permits utilizing them when worn far downj 

Q. What is the cause of the points freezing, or sticking, 

A. Permitting them to wear down to a point where they are in 
very poor condition and where the gap between parts of their surfaces 
causes the formation of a heavy arc, or hot flash of current, which 
practically welds them together. By giving them the necessary 
attention at regular intervals, this may be avoided. 

Q. How often should the contact points need attention? 

A. When new, they should run for a year or more without any 
attention. After they have been trued up, the succeeding interval 
will often depend upon the skill and care with which this has been 
carried out. 


Q. How do switches as employed on the automobile differ 
in principle and operation? 

A. Starting-circuit switches are either of the knife-blade or 
the flat-contact type, while in the majority of cases the lighting 
switches are of the push-button type, though knife-blade switches 
are used for this purpose also. In some instances, one of the brushes 
of the machine is made to serve as a switch, as in the Delco. Ordi- 
narily, the switch is normally held open by a spring and is closed 
by foot pressure, the spring returning it to the open position as 
soon as released. A variation of this is the Westinghouse electro- 
magnetically operated switch in which a solenoid takes the place of 
foot operation. The circuit of the solenoid is controlled by a spring 
push button, which is normally held out of contact. Single-unit 
systems, such as the Dyneto, in which the machine automatically 
becomes motorized when the speed drops below a certain point, 
are controlled by a standard single-throw single-pole knife-blade 
switch which is left closed as long as the machine is running. 

Q. What faults may be looked for in switches? 

A. Loose connections; weakening of the spring; burning of 
the contact faces in the knife-blade type, due to arcing caused by 
releasing too slowly; dirt or other insulating substance accumulating 
on the contact faces of the flat-contact type; failure to release through 


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Q. Why is it important to keep the switch contact faces clean 
tnd bright? 

A. Dirt or burned surfaces increase the resistance and cause 
a drop in the voltage at the starting motor. The energy represented 
by an electric current is a measure of the volume or amperes times 
the voltage or pressure under which it flows, and, as such low voltages 
are used, only a slight falling off represents a serious percentage 
of "the total potential. With a dirty switch or one that makes poor 
eontact, current that should be utilized in the starting motor is 
wasted in overcoming the resistance of the switch. 

Q. Why is it inadvisable to insert an extra switch in the start- 
ing circuit, as is done in some cases by owners to insure against 

A. Because of the drop in voltage. The loss in switches as 
designed for lighting circuits is about 1 per cent, or a little over 1 
volt. If the same switch is used on the low voltage of the starter 
system, the loss is then equivalent to about 10 per cent. 


Q. How many types of bulbs are there in general use on 

A. Four: miniature and candelabra screw base, and single- 
and double-contact bayonet-lock base, both of the latter being of 
the candelabra size. 

Q. Are these types equally favored? 

A. No. The screw-base type, particularly in the miniature 
size, will be found only on old cars, and this type, generally speaking, 
is practically obsolete on the automobile, as the vibration tends to 
unscrew the lamp. Of the bayonet-lock type, the single-contact 
style is steadily gaining favor. Ten million bulbs for automobile 
lighting were produced in 1915 (S.A.E. report) and of these 67 
per cent were of the single-contact type. 

Q. In how many different voltages are these bulbs made? 

A. Four: a 6 — 8-volt bulb for a 3-cell or 6-volt system; 12 — 
16-volt bulb for 6-cell or 12-volt systems; and 18 — 24-volt bulbs for 
9-cell systems; 3 — 4- volt bulbs for tail-light and dash-light use, 
where these lights are burned in series on a 6-volt system. 


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Q. Are these the only voltages in which the bulbs are made? 

A. No. They are the types that are being standardized 
to reduce the stock of replacements that it is necessary for a garage 
to carry. It has been customary for the lamp manufacturer to 
supply bulbs made exactly for any voltage that the maker of the 
electric system ordered. Taking into consideration only the standard 
sizes now listed for use on 3-, 6-, and 9-cell systems, and the different 
bases regularly used, there are about twenty-four different bulbs 
that should be stocked by a garage. In addition, about forty other 
sizes are in general use, and if individual voltages had to be sup- 
plied, considering the different standard bases, a stock of over 
two-hundred different bulb sizes would be required. 

Q. Why is the voltage of a bulb expressed as "6—8", "12 — 
16", etc.? 

A. Owing to the rise and fall of the battery voltage according 
to its state of charge, this variation must be provided for, or the 
lamps would be burned out when the battery was fully charged. 
Headlight bulbs for 3-cell systems are made for 6$ volts, while the 
side, rear, "and speedometer lights are made for 6J volts, owing to 
the lesser voltage drop in their circuits, but they will all operate 
satisfactorily on a potential that does not exceed 8 volts or does not 
drop below 6 volts. 

Q. When all the lamps burn dimly, what is the cause? 

A. The battery is nearly exhausted, in which case its voltage 
will be only 5.2 to 5.5 volts for a 3-cell system. The car should be 
run with as few lights as necessary to permit the generator to charge 
the battery quickly. 

Q. What is the cause of one light failing? 

A. Bulb burned out or its fuse blown; examine the fuse before 
replacing the bulb and if blown, examine the wiring before putting 
in a new bulb. Poor contact; see that the lamp is put in properly 
and turned to lock it in place. A double-contact bulb may have 
been put in single-contact socket, or vice versa. 

Q. Why will one lamp burn much brighter than the other? 

A. A replacement may have been made with a bulb of higher 
voltage; a 12- volt bulb will give only a dull red glow on a 3-cell 
system. Where the difference is not so marked as this, but still 
very perceptible, it may be due to the difference in the age of the 


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lamps. As a bulb grows old in service, its filament resistance 
increases, so that it does not take so much current and will not 
burn as brightly as when new. 

Q. Will the failure of a bulb cause its fuse to blow though 
there is no fault in its circuit? 

A. This sometimes happens owing to the breaking down of 
the filament, causing a short-circuit when the lamp fails. 

Q. Can the proper voltage bulbs needed for any system always 
be told simply by taking the total voltage of the battery, i.e., the 
number of cells times 2? 

A. No. Always examine the burned out bulb and replace 
with one of the same kind. Many 6-cell systems use 6-volt lamps 
and are known as 12 — 6-volt systems. The battery is divided into 
two groups in series parallel for lighting and sometimes for charging, 
all the cells being in series for starting. Other arbitrary voltages 
are also adopted; for example, 14- volt bulbs are used on 12-cell 
systems, the battery being divided in the same manner, so that 
this would be a 24 — 12-volt system. The only safe way to order 
replacements is to give the voltage on the printed label on the old 
bulb and state the make of the system on which it is to be used. 

Q. What type of bulb is used where the current is taken from 
the magneto, as on the Ford? 

A. As supplied by the maker, only the headlights are wired, 
and they are in series, and in recent models a 9-volt bulb is used, 
but the above instructions for replacements will apply here also. 
Ordinarily, double-contact bulbs are required, unless the fixtures 
are insulated from one another, in which case the single-contact 
type can be used. 

Q. Why is a bulb of a voltage lower than that of the system 
itself often employed on 6-, 9-, and 12-cell systems? 

A. The lower the voltage, the thicker the filament can be made. 
A short comparatively thick filament concentrates the light and 
makes the bulb easier to focus; it is also much more durable than 
the thin filament required for higher voltages. 

Q. Under what conditions will the best results be obtained 
from the head lamps? 

A. When the bulbs are in proper focus with the lamp reflectors. 
The usual focal length for headlight bulbs is tt inch, and the 


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focal length of the reflector is made greater than this to permit of 
adjustment. The center of the filament should be back of the focu? 
of the reflector to spread the beam of light. In this position a 
greater number of the light rays are utilized and redirected by the 
reflector, producing a higher beam candlepower. If the center of 
the filament is forward of the focus, the lower part of the reflector 
will produce the most glare and throw it into the eyes of pedestrians 
and approaching drivers. 

Q. How can the headlights be focused? 

A. Place the car in position where light can be directed against 
a wall about 100 feet distant. Adjust the bulbs backward or forward 
until the spotlight on the wall is most brilliant and free from black 
rings and streaks. When this position is found, lock the bulb securely 
in place. Focus each headlight separately. See that the lamp 
brackets are set so that the light is being projected directly ahead. 

Q. How can metal headlight reflectors be cleaned when 

A. Wash by directing a gentle stream of cold water against 
the surfaces and allow to dry without touching them. The reflectors 
should never be rubbed with cloth or paper as it will scratch the 
highly polished surfaces. If they become very dull, it will be neces- 
sary to have them replated. 

Q. What is the meaning of the identification marks usually 
placed on bulbs, in addition to the voltage, such as "Q-6"? 

A. This refers to the size and shape of the bulb. The diameter 
of the glass bulb is expressed in eighths of an inch and its shape by 
a prefixed G for round (globular), T for tubular, S for straight- 
side, etc. Thus, G-6 is a round bulb f inch or J inch in diameter. 


Q. What instruments ordinarily are employed in connection 
with electric systems on the automobile? 

A. Either a double-reading ammeter, a volt-ammeter, or an 
indicator, the first named being employed generally. The ammeter 
shows whether the battery is charging or discharging or whether no 
current is passing; the indicator reads either Off or On; while the 
voltammeter gives the voltage, usually upon pressing a button to 
put it into operation, in addition to the readings already mentioned. 


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Q. On what circuits are the indicating instruments placed? 

A. The charging circuit from the generator to the battery, 
and the lamp and ignition circuits. 

Q. Why is an ammeter not used for the starting-motor circuit? 

A. The current is so heavy and varies so greatly with the 
eonditions that an ammeter designed to give an accurate reading 
of it would net be sensitive enough to indicate the smaller amounts 
of current used by the lamps, or produced by the generator for 
charging. Furthermore, the starting motor is intended only to 
be used for very short periods, while the other circuits are in 
constant use. 

Q. Do the small ammeters employed fail very often? 

A. Considering the unusually severe treatment to which they 
are subjected by the vibration and jolting of the car, their failure 
is comparatively rare, but as the conditions are so severe for a 
sensitive indicating instrument, too much dependence should not 
be placed on the ammeter reading when making tests. 

Q. What are the usual causes of failure? 

A. Failure to indicate — the generator, wiring, and other parts 
of the circuit being in good operative condition — may be caused by 
the pointer becoming bent, so as to bind it; the pointer may have 
been shaken off its base altogether by the jolting, or one of its connec- 
tions may have sprung loose from the same cause. 

Q. How can the ammeter reading be checked? 

A. By inserting the portable testing voltammeter in circuit 
with it, using the 30-ampere shunt and comparing the readings. 
The dash ammeter must not be expected to give as accurate a 
reading as the finer portable instrument. Failing the latter, a spare 
dash ammeter may be employed in the same manner and the spare 
may be tested beforehand by connecting to a battery of 4 dry cells 
in series; if brand new, they should give a reading of 18 to 20 amperes. 
Do not keep the ammeter in circuit any longer than necessary to 
obtain the reading, as it only runs the cells down needlessly. 

Q. Should an ammeter ever be used in testing the storage 

A. No. Because it practically would short-circuit the battery, 
burn out the instrument, and damage the battery itself. Nothing 
but a voltmeter should be employed for this purpose, as its high 

__ 301 

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resistance coil permits only a small amount of current to pass. An 
ammeter reading from a storage battery gives no indication whatever 
of its condition, whereas the voltage affords a close check on the 
state of charge, varying from 1.75 for a completely discharged cell 
to 2.55 volts for a fully charged one, the readings always bein£ 
taken when the battery is either charging or discharging. The 
voltage on discharge will not be as high as on charge, the conditions 
otherwise being the same. 

Q. Why are indicators employed on some systems instead 
of ammeters? 

A. As the indicator is not designed to give a quantitative 
reading, it need not be so sensitive as an ammeter and accordingly 
can be made more durable. 

Q. What are the most frequent causes of failure of an indi- 

A. Usually of a mechanical nature caused by the jolting, such 
as the target being shaken off its bearings, broken wire, etc. 

Q. When the engine is running slowly, and' the ammeter or the 
indicator flutters constantly, going from "On" to "Off" at short inter- 
vals, in the case of the indicator, or from a small charging current to 
zero, in the case of the ammeter, what does this signify? 

A. That the setting of the battery cut-out is very sensitive 
and that the engine is then running at or about the speed that the 
instrument should cut-in. Since the speed of an engine varies con- 
siderably when running slowly, picking up momentarily and then 
falling off for a longer period, there is a corresponding variation in the 
potential, causing the cut-out to operate intermittently. This is a 
condition that seldom occurs and results in no harm when it does. 

Q. When the ammeter or indicator flutters in the same manner 
with the engine running at medium or at high speed, what does it 

A. That there is a loose connection between the generator and 
the cut-out, or an intermittent short-circuit or ground caused by a 
chafed wire alternately making contact with some metal part owing 
to the vibration. It is much more likely to be simply a loose connec- 
tion and will be found most often on the back of the cut-out itself. 
This should be remedied at once. If neglected, it will cause abnormal 
wear of the platinum points in the cut-out. 


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Q. When the ammeter does not indicate "Charge" though the 
engine is speeded up, but does register a discharge when the lights 
are turned on and the engine is idle, what is the nature of the trouble? 

A. Either the generator is not producing current or the regula- 
tor (where an external type is employed) is not working properly. 
The generator brushes may not be making proper contact with the 
commutator, or there may be a loose, corroded, or broken connection 
in the generator cut-out battery circuit. Where a belt drives the 
generator, it may be too loose to run the machine at its proper speed. 
Q. When the ammeter gives no charging indication though the 
lamps are off and the engine is speeded up, and gives no discharging 
indication though the engine is idle and lamps are switched on, what 
is likely to be the cause? 

A. There is an open or a loose connection in the battery circuit 

or in the battery itself. The ammeter may be at fault. See that its 

indicating pointer has not become jammed nor dropped off its bearings. 

Q. In case the ammeter indicates "Discharge" though the 

engine be idle and all lights turned off, what is the trouble? 

A. There is a short-circuit or a ground somewhere in the light- 
ing circuits or between the battery and the ammeter, as the discharge 
reading in such circumstances indicates a leakage of current; or the 
cut-out has failed to operate and still has the battery in circuit with 
the generator, though the engine is stopped. The ammeter pointer 
may be bent. 

Q. When the meter indicates a charge though the engine is at 
rest, what is the nature of the fault? 

A. The ammeter pointer has become bent or deranged so that 
it is stuck fast in place, showing a charge. 

Q. When the ammeter charge indications are below normal, 
what is apt to be the cause? 

A. The generator commutator or brushes may need attention, 
such as cleaning or sanding-in, or new brushes may be necessary. 
The generator speed may be too low; in case of belt drive, it may not 
be getting the benefit of the full speed of the engine owing to a slipping 
belt. The regulator (external type) may not be functioning properly, 
or there may be an excessive lamp load on the generator. 

Q. When the ammeter charge reading is above normal, what 
is likely to be the cause? 


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A. There may be a short-circuited cell in the battery, or a short 
in the charging circuit, or the regulator (external type) may not be 
working properly. 

Q. What will cause the discharge reading of the ammeter to 
become abnormally high? 

A. The lamp load may be excessive, as where higher candle- 
power bulbs are used, or more lights than originally intended are put 
in the circuit. There may be leakage in some part of the lighting 
circuit, or the regulator contacts may be stuck together, permitting a 
discharge through it or through the generator. 


Q. What is the operating principle upon which the electric gear- 
shifting mechanism is based? 

A. That of the solenoid and its attraction for its core when a 
current is passed through its winding. 

Q. What is the source of current supply for the electric gear- 

A. The storage battery of the lighting system. The operation 
of gear-shifting is carried out so quickly that only a nominal additional 
demand is made on the battery. 

Q. How is the electric gear-shift controlled? 

A. By a series of buttons corresponding to the various speeds 
and located on the steering wheel, and by a master switch. 

Q. What is the object of the buttons, and what are they termed? 

A. To partly close the circuit to the particular solenoid of the 
speed desired. They are termed "selector switches" since they per- 
mit selecting in advance the speed desired. 

Q. Why is a master switch employed, and why is it so called? 

A. To avoid the complication which would otherwise result 
from the necessity of providing two switches for each change of speed, 
i.e., a selector switch and an operating switch. It is termed a master 
switch because it controls the current supply to all of the circuits. 

Q. Why is a neutral button provided in addition to the but- 
tons for the various speeds on the selector switch? 

A. To return any of the selector buttons to neutral without 
the necessity of going through that speed in case it is not desired to 
engage the speed in question after the button has been pushed. Also 


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to open any of the selector switches that may be closed when it is 
desired to stop. 

Q. What is the neutralizing device? 

A. It is a mechanism incorporated with the shifting mechanism 
to open the master switch automatically after the gears have been 

Q. Why is the neutralizing device necessary? 

A. If it were not provided, the master switch would remain 
closed, causing a constant drain on the battery and rendering the 
mechanism inoperative after one shift had been made. 

Q. How many solenoids are provided in the standard three- 
speed and reverse gear box? 

A. One for every movement necessary. 

Q. Is the current sent through a solenoid in one direction to 
pull the shifting bar into it and then in the opposite direction to move 
the bar the other way? 

A. No, the current is not reversed through the same solenoid. 
After the left-hand solenoid, operating the first-speed gear, for 
example, has pulled the shifter bar to the left, a second solenoid, 
on the opposite end of the same bar, is energized to pull it back to the 
right, to shift to second or intermediate. The current is sent through 
a different solenoid by means of the selector switches for each shift 

Q. When the electric gear-shift failed to operate, where would 
be the most likely place to look for the cause of the trouble? 

A. First see that the battery is not exhausted, then that no 
connections between the battery and the terminal block have parted, 
thus cutting off the current supply. The wiring is so simple and so 
strongly protected that it is very unlikely to have anything happen to 
it except at the connections. This is likewise true of the solenoids. 

Q. In case the battery is amply charged and nothing is wrong 
with the connections, what procedure should be followed? 

A. Use the lamp-testing set described in connection with the 
lighting and starting systems and test out the various circuits as 
shown on the wiring diagram. In using this test, it must always be 
borne in mind that touching the two points to the same or connecting 
pieces of wire or metal will always cause the lamp to light. It is useful 
in this way for indicating the continuity of a wire, i.e., that it has not 


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broken under the insulation, but, until experience has been gained in 
its use, it will be nothing unusual to find that the points have been 
touched to connecting pieces of metal which have no relation to the 
circuit. As such metal will complete the circuit through the lamp, 
the latter will light, but without indicating anything of value to the 
trouble hunter. Always test the lamp itself before proceeding. It 
may have become partly unscrewed in its socket or its filament may 
have been broken. 



Q. Why is it necessary to refill the battery jars at regular 

A. Because the heat generated in the cells eyaporates the 
water from the electrolyte, and, if the latter is permitted to fall 
below the tops of the plates, they will dry out where they are 
exposed, and the heat of charging will then cause them to disinte- 
grate, ruining the battery. 

Q. Why should this be done at intervals of not less than 
two weeks? 

A. Because the limited amount of electrolyte permitted 
by the restricted size of the cells over the plates — usually one-half 
inch — will be evaporated in that period by a battery that is in 
more or less constant use. 

Q. Why should water alone and never acid or electrolyte 
be used to make up this loss? 

A. Only the water evaporates, so that if either acid or fresh 
electrolyte is added, it will disturb the specific gravity of the solu- 
tion in the cells and totally alter their condition. 

Q. What is the reason that battery manufacturers insist 
that only distilled water or its nearest equivalent, rain water or 
melted artificial ice, be used for this purpose? 

A. Because ordinary water contains impurities that are 
apt to harm the plates, such as iron salts, or alkaline salts that will 
affect both the plates and the electrolyte. 

Q. What should be done to a battery that has had its efficiency 
impaired by being filled with impure water? 

A. The cells should be taken apart, the separators discarded, 
the plates thoroughly washed for hours in clean running water 


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without exposing them to the air where they would dry, the jars 
washed out, the plates reassembled with new separators, the jars 
filled with fresh electrolyte of the proper specific gravity, and the 
battery put on a long slow charge from an outside charging source, 
i.e., not on the car itself. Unless there are proper facilities for 
carrying this out, it will be preferable to ship the battery back to 
the maker so that it can be given proper treatment, particularly 
as it is necessary to reseal the cells. 
Q. How is electrolyte prepared? 

A. By adding pure sulphuric acid a very little at a time to 
distilled water until the proper specific gravity is reached, and then 
permitting the solution to cool before using. The mixture must 
always be made in a porcelain, hard rubber, or glass jar; never 
in a nofetal vessel. Commercial sulphuric acid or vitriol should 
not be employed, as it is far from pure. Never add acid to water. 
When the two are brought together, their chemical combination 
evolves a great amount of heat, and the acid will be violently 
spattered about. 

Q. How often should distilled or rain water be added to the 

A. This will vary not alone with different systems but with 
different cars equipped with the same system, owing to the difference 
in conditions of operation. The only way to determine this definitely 
is to inspect the cells at short intervals and note how long they will 
operate before the electrolyte gets close enough to the tops of the plates 
to require additional water. This may be a week, ten days or two 
weeks, or even more, if the car is not run much. 

Q. When a battery requires the addition of water at very short 
intervals to keep the level of the electrolyte one-half inch above the 
plates, what does this indicate? 

A. It shows that the battery is being constantly overcharged, 
which keeps it at a high temperature, causing excessive evaporation. 
This will usually occur where a car is in constant use during the day 
but is driven very little at night. It may be remedied by adjustment 
of the regulation so as to reduce the output of the generator. Where 
this is not possible, as in the case of simple bucking-coil regulation 
which is entirely self-contained and permits no variation, additional 
resistance may be introduced in the generator-battery circuit. This 


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may take the form of a small-resistance unit consisting of German 
silver or other high-resistance wire wound on a porcelain tube and 
mounted on the forward side of the dash. A single-pole knife-blade 
switch should be placed in the circuit with the resistance so that 
the latter can be cut in or out of the generator circuit as circum- 
stances may require. 

Q. How can the amount of resistance to be inserted in the 
circuit be figured? 


A. By the use of Ohm's law. In this case, it would be -^r= C 


or resistance divided by voltage equals current. How much resist- 
ance to use can only be answered by the conditions of operation. 
Where a car is used steadily during the day and very seldom at night, 
it may be necessary to reduce the charge by two-thirds. In the case 
of a 6-volt system normally charging at 12 amperes, this would 
require approximately 28 ohms additional, since ^ = 4 amperes. 
This is on the assumption that the battery actually receives 12 
amperes through the resistance of its original circuit. Seven is used 
as the voltage, since the generator of a 6-volt system generates current 
at 7 to 1\ volts in order to overcome the voltage of the battery when 
fully charged. The amount of resistance wire necessary to give this 
resistance or any other resistance necessary may be found in tables 
of wire sizes and resistances of special wire employed for this purpose. 
The wire is bare and must be wound on the tube so that adjacent 
coils do not touch. An extreme instance is cited here. It may be 
necessary in many cases to reduce the charging rate by a very much 
smaller fraction. Unless trouble of the nature mentioned is experi- 
enced, the charging rate should not be altered. 

Q. When the battery is constantly gassing, or "boiling", 
as the car owner usually puts it, what is the trouble? 

A. It is being constantly overcharged. This will greatly reduce 
the life of the battery, and the charging rate should be reduced, as 
mentioned in the preceding answer. It is essential that the battery 
be kept fully charged; but if it is continually overcharged, this will 
keep the cells at an abnormal temperature which is injurious to the 
plates. The treatment to be given the battery will vary with the 
season, for the demand upon it is much heavier during cold weather 
than in summer. 


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Hydrometer Tests 
Q. Why should the battery be tested with the hydrometer 
at regular intervals of a week or so? 

A. Because the specific gravity of the electrolyte is the most 
certain indication of the battery's condition. 

Q. What should the hydrometer read when the battery is 
fully charged? 

A. 1.280 to 1.300. 

Q. What point is it dangerous to permit the specific gravity 
of the electrolyte to fall below, and why? 

A. 1.250; because below this point, the acid begins to attack 
the plates and the battery plates sulphate. The lower the specific 
gravity, the faster sulphating takes place. 

Q. What should be done when the hydrometer reading is 
1.250 or lower? 

A. The battery should be put on charge immediately, either 
by running the engine or by charging from an outside source of 
current until the gravity reading becomes normal. 

Q. If the hydrometer reading of one cell is lower than that 
of the others, what should be done? 

A. Inspect the cell to see if the jar is leaking; note whether 
electrolyte is over the plates to the depth of £ inch and whether 
the electrolyte is dirty. If these causes are not apparent, the cell 
will have to be opened and inspected for short-circuits from an accu- 
mulation of sediment in the bottom of the jar or from buckling of 
the plates. 

Q. Are hydrometer tests alone conclusive? 

A. No. To be strictly accurate, they should be checked by volt- 
age tests, in addition. 

Q. How should these voltage readings be taken? 

A. With the aid of a portable voltmeter, using the low-reading 
scale, i.e., 0-3 volts, and always with the battery discharging, the load 
not exceeding its normal low discharge rate. 

Q. Why should the test not be made with the starting-motor 

A. Because the discharge rate while the starting motor is being 
used is so heavy that even in a fully charged battery in good condition 
it will cause the voltage to drop rapidly. 


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Q. Why should the voltage readings not be taken while the 
battery is charging? 

A. Because the voltage of the charging current (always in 
excess of six volts) will cause the voltage of a battery in good condition 
to rise to normal or above the moment it is placed on charge, such 
readings are not a good indication of the battery's condition. 

Q. What should the voltage of the cells be? 

A. In any battery in good condition, the voltage of each cell at 
the battery's normal low discharge rate (5 to 10 amperes, as in carry- 
ing the lamp load) will remain between 2.1 and 1.9 volts until it begins 
to approach the discharged condition. A voltage of less than 1 .9 volts 
per cell indicates either that the battery is nearly discharged or that 
it is in bad condition. The same state is also indicated when the 
voltage drops rapidly after the load has been on a few minutes. 

Joint Hydrometer-Voltmeter Test 

Q. What should the hydrometer and voltmeter readings be for a 
fully charged battery in good condition? 

A. Hydrometer 1.275 to 1.300; voltage 2 to 2.2 volts per cell. 

Q. What does a hydrometer reading of 1.200 or less with a 
voltage of 1.9 volts or less per cell indicate? 

A. This shows that excess acid has been added to the electro- 
lyte. Under these conditions, the lights will burn dimly even though 
the hydrometer test alone would appear to show that the battery is 
more than half charged. 

Q. What does a hydrometer reading in excess of 1 .300 indicate? 

A. It indicates that an excessive amount of acid has been added 
to the electrolyte, regardless of whether the voltage reading is high, 
low, or normal. 

Q. Where a low voltage reading is found, how can it be deter- 
mined whether the battery is in bad condition or merely discharged? 

A. Stop the discharge by switching off the load (lamps) and put 
the battery on charge, cranking the engine by hand. After a few 
minutes of charging, note whether the voltage of each cell promptly 
rises to 2 volts or more. Any cells that do not are probably short- 
circuited or otherwise in bad condition. 

Q. How can a rough test of the condition of the battery be made 
without the use of any instruments? 


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A. On systems fitted with a battery cut-out in the generator 
battery circuit, remove the cover of the cut-out (the generator being 
stationary) and momentarily close the cut-out points with the finger. 
The discharge shown by the ammeter the monent the points are 
closed should be anywhere from 10 to 20 amperes, differing, of 
course, with different systems. In any case, it should be equal to or 
greater than the maximum normal output of the generator, provided 
the battery is at least three-quarters charged. 

Q. What effect will allowing the electrolyte to fall too low in 
the cells have, apart from the damage that it will cause to the plates? 

A. It will tend to increase the voltage if the battery is otherwise 
in good condition, and this may be carried to a point where it will 
burn out the lamps. 

Q. What is meant by 'floating the battery on the line"? 

A. This describes the relation of the battery to the generator 
and lighting circuits in systems where the current for lighting is taken 
directly from the generator when running, any excess over the require- 
ments of the lamps being absorbed by the battery. The moment the 
generator speed falls below the point where it supplies sufficient cur- 
rent to supply all that is needed for the lamps, the battery automati- 
cally supplies the balance. When the generator is idle, the battery, 
of course, supplies the current for lighting as well as for starting. 


Q. Why should the cell tops be wiped dry from time to time 
and the latter as well as the terminals be washed with a weak 
solution of ammonia and water? 

A. As the charge approaches completion, the cells gas; when 
overcharged they gas very freely. This gas carries with it in the 
form of a fine spray some of the electrolyte, and the acid of the latter 
will attack the terminals and corrode them. Wiping clean does 
not remove this acid entirely, so the ammonia solution is necessary 
to counteract its effect, the ammonia being strongly alkaline. 

Q. Why should an unprotected light, i.e., any flame or spark, 
not be allowed close to a storage battery? 

A. Because the gas emitted by the battery on charge is hydro- 
gen, which is not only highly inflammable but, when mixed in 
certain proportions with air, forms a powerful explosive mixture. 


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Q. What is the cause of gassing? 

A. When a battery is charged, the water of the electrolyte 
is decomposed by the current into gases. During the early part 
of the charge these gases unite with the active material of the plates, 
but as the charge proceeds, more gas is evolved than the plates 
can take care of and it bubbles up through the electrolyte. This 
is known as the gassing point, and the temperature of the cell also 
begins to rise at that point. 

Q. Is gassing harmful to the battery? 

A. The greatest wear on the positive plates takes place during 
the gassing period, and, if carried too far, they may be injured by 
reaching a dangerous temperature (105° F., or over) which will tend 
to loosen the active material. 

Q. How can gassing be checked? 

A. By cutting down the charge. In some systems this can 
be effected by the insertion of extra resistance provided for the 
purpose. Where this cannot be done and it is necessary to keep 
the car running, turn on all the lamps or start the engine once or 
twice to reduce the charge of the battery. As the lamps usually 
consume 80 to 95 per cent of the generator output, they should be 
sufficient to prevent a further overcharge. 

Q. Can the generator be disconnected from the battery to 
prevent overcharge? 

A. Not unless it is short-circuited, as directed in the instruc- 
tions covering different systems. Otherwise, it will blow its field 
fuse or, where one is not provided, burn out its windings, except 
in cases where special provision is made to guard against this. 


Q. Why must a battery never be allowed to stand in a fully dis- 
charged state? 

A. Because the acid of the electrolyte then attacks the plates 
and converts the lead into white lead sulphate which is deposited 
on them in the form of a hard coating that is impenetrable to the 
electrolyte, so that the plates are no longer active. The battery 
then is said to be sulphated. 

Q. Can a sulphated battery be put in good condition, and what 
treatment must be given it to do so? 


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A. If the sulphating has not gone too far, the battery may 
be brought back to approximately normal condition by a long heavy 
charge at a higher voltage than ordinary. Where the battery has 
become badly sulphated, it is preferable to remove it from the car 
and charge from an outside source of current, as it may require 
several days to complete the process. (Note instructions regarding 
the running of the generator when disconnected from the battery, 
as otherwise it may be damaged.) If avoidable, the car should not 
run with the battery removed. If the battery has not stood dis- 
charged for any length of time, the charge may be given on the 
car by running steadily for 8 to 10 hours with all lights off. No 
lamps must be turned on, as the increased voltage is liable to burn 
them out. 

Voltage Tests 

Q. What is the purpose of the voltmeter in connection with the 

A. It is chiefly useful for showing whether a cell is short- 
circuited or is otherwise in bad condition. 

Q. Can the voltmeter alone be relied upon to show the condition 
of the cells? 

A. No; like the hydrometer, its indications are not always con- 
clusive, and it must be used in conjunction with the hydrometer to 
insure accuracy. 

Q. What type of voltmeter should be employed for making 
these tests? 

A. For garage use, a reliable portable instrument with several 
connections giving a variable range of readings should be employed. 
For example, on the 0-3 volt scale, only one cell should ever be tested; 
attempting to test any more than this is apt to burn out the 3-volt 
coil in the meter. The total voltage of the number of cells tested 
should never exceed the reading of the particular scale being used at 
the time, as otherwise the instrument will be ruined. 

Q. Must these readings be particularly accurate? 

A. Since a variation as low as .1 volt (one-tenth of a volt) makes 
considerable difference in what the reading indicates as to the condi- 
tion of the battery, it will be apparent that the readings must not only 
be taken accurately, but that a cheap and inaccurate voltmeter is 
likely to be misleading rather than helpful. 


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Q. What precautions should be taken before using the volt- 

A. Always see that the place on the battery connector selected 
for the contact is bright and clean and that the contact itself is firm, 
otherwise the reading will be misleading since the increased resistance 
of a poor contact will cut down the voltage. 

Q. How is the instrument connected to the battery? 

A. The positive terminal of the voltmeter must be brought in 
contact with the positive terminal of the battery and the negative 
terminal of the voltmeter in contact with the negative terminal of 
the battery. 

Q. In case the markings on the battery are indistinct, how can 
the polarity be determined? 

A. Connect the voltmeter across any one cell. Should the 
pointer not give any voltage reading, butting against the stop at the 
left instead, the connections are wrong and should be reversed; if the 
instrument shows a reading for one cell, the positive terminal of the 
voltmeter is in contact with the positive terminal of the battery. 
This test can be made without any risk of short-circuiting the cell, 
since the voltmeter is wound to a high resistance and will pass very 
little current. Such is not the case with the meter, which should 
never be used for this purpose. 

Q. When the battery is standing idle, what is the cell voltage 
and why is this not a good test? 

A. Approximately two volts, regardless of whether the battery 
is fully charged or not. Voltage readings taken when the battery is on 
open circuit, i.e., neither charging nor discharging, are only of value 
when the cell is out of order. 

Q. If the battery is in good condition and has sufficient charge, 
what should the voltmeter reading show? 

A. Using the lamps for a load, the voltage reading after the load 
has been on for five minutes or longer should be but slightly lower 
(about .1 volt) than if the battery were on open circuit. 

Q. When one or more cells are discharged, what will the read- 
ing show? 

A. The voltage of these cells will drop rapidly when the load is 
first put on and sometimes even show reverse readings, as when a cell 
is out of order. 


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Q. What will the voltmeter indicate when the battery is nearly 

A. The voltage of each cell will be considerably lower than if on 
open circuit after the load has been on for five minutes or more. 

Q. How can the difference be distinguished between cells that 
are merely discharged and those that are in bad condition? 

A. Put the battery on charge, cranking the engine by hand to 
start, and test again with the voltmeter; if the voltage does not rise to 
approximately 2 volts per cell within a short time, it is evidence that 
there is internal trouble which can be remedied only by dismantling 
the cell. 

Q. What effect has the temperature on voltage readings? 

A. The voltage of a cold battery rises slightly above normal on 
charge and falls below normal on discharge. This last is one of the 
chief reasons for its decreased efficiency in cold weather. 

Q. What is the normal temperature of the battery and to what 
does this refer? 

A. The normal temperature of a battery is considered at 70° F., 
but this refers to the temperature of the electrolyte in the battery as 
shown by a battery thermometer and not to the temperature of the 
surrounding air. If the battery has been charging at a high rate for 
some time, it may be normal even though the weather be close to zero 
at the time. 


Q. What is the cause of sediment or mud accumulating 
in the jars, and why must it be removed before it reaches the bottoms 
of the plates? 

A. This sediment consists of the active material of the plates, 
which has been shaken out, due to the loosening caused by the charg- 
ing and discharging, and aggravated by the constant vibration. It 
must never be allowed to reach the plates, as it is a conductor and 
will short-circuit them and thus ruin the battery. 

Q. How long will a battery stay in service before this occurs? 

A. This depends on the type of jar employed and the treat- 
ment that the battery has received. If it has been kept constantly 
overcharged, or if discharged to exhaustion in a very short period, 
as by abuse of the starting motor when the engine is not in good 


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starting condition, or if it has been subjected to short-circuits by 
grounding or by dropping tools on its terminals, the plates will 
disintegrate much quicker than where proper treatment has been 
given it. With the old-style jar, only an inch or so is allowed to 
hold this accumulation of sediment below the plates, while in later 
types fully 3 inches or more are allowed in the depth of the cell for 
this purpose. A battery with jars of the latter type that has been 
cared for properly should not require washing out under two years. 
The procedure is the same as that given for removing the effects of 
impure water. The plates must never be allowed to dry. 

Washing the Battery 

Q. What is meant by washing the battery, and why is it 

A. Washing a battery involves cutting the cells apart, wash- 
ing the elements and the jars, and reassembling with new separators 
and new electrolyte. It is necessary to prevent the accumulation 
of sediment, consisting of active material shaken from the plates, 
to a point where it will touch them and thus cause a short-circuit. 

Q. How often is it necessary to wash a battery? 

A. This will depend on the type of cell in the battery and the 
age of the latter. If the battery has the modern-style jar with extra 
deep mud space, it probably will not be necessary to wash it 
until it has seen two to three seasons' use. With the older form 
of cell in which the space allowed for sediment is much less, washing 
doubtless will be necessary at least once a season. As the battery 
ages, it will be necessary to wash it oftener. 

Q. What other causes besides the type of jar and the age of 
the battery influence the frequency with which it is necessary to 
wash the battery? 

A. The treatment the battery has received. If it has been 
abused by overcharging and permitting the cells to g$t too hot, 
the active material will be forced out of the grids much sooner. 

Q. How can the necessity for washing be determined? 

A. The presence of one or more short-circuited cells in a 
battery that has not been washed for some time will indicate the 
necessity for it. Each cell should be tested separately with the 
low-reading voltmeter; a short-circuited cell will either give no 


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voltage reading or one much below that of the others. Cut such' 
a cell out and open it; if the short-circuit has been caused by an 
accumulation of sediment, the others most likely are approaching 
the same condition. 

Q. How is a battery washed? 

A. By cutting the cells apart, unsealing them, and lifting out 
the elements which should be immersed immediately in a wooden 
tub of clean pure water. The separators then are lifted out and 
the positive and negative groups of plates separated, but they must 
be marked so that the same groups may go back in the right cells. 
Before disposing of the old electrolyte, its specific gravity should 
be noted, as new electrolyte of the same density must be used. 
The plates should be washed in copious running water for several 
hours, but their surfaces must never be exposed to the air. Reas- 
semble with new separators, fill the jars with fresh electrolyte of 
the same specific gravity as that discarded, and keep the elements 
under water until ready to place in the jars, which then should be 
sealed and the lead connectors burned together again. 

Give a long slow charge after reassembling. The battery will 
not regain its normal capacity until it has been charged and dis- 
charged several times. 


Q. Why should lead connectors be employed, and why is 
it necessary to burn them together? 

A. Any other metal will corrode quickly. Burning is necessary 
to make good electrical connection, except where bolted connectors 
are employed. 

Q. When connections have become badly corroded or broken, 
what should be done with them? 

A. They should be replaced with new lead-strap connectors 
supplied by the makers. If they are not obtainable and the battery 
must be in service meanwhile, the old ones can be cleaned by cutting 
away the corroded parts and burning new lead on them to bring 
them to normal size. If broken, burn together with lead in the 
same way. Heavy copper cable can be used temporarily but must 
be removed as soon as possible, as it will corrode quickly. Never 
use any other metal except lead or copper and never use light copper 


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wire. It will either be burned up in a flash or it will cut down the 
amount of current from the battery, thus causing unsatisfactory- 

Buckled Plates 

Q. What is the cause of badly disintegrated or buckled plates? 

A. Sudden discharge due to a short-circuit or to constant 
abuse of the starting motor on an insufficiently charged battery. 

Q. Is there any remedy for such a condition? 

A. If the plates are not badly buckled and have not lost much 
of their active material, the cells may be put in service again by 
washing and reassembling as described, but if there is any con- 
siderable loss of active material, new plates will be necessary. 

Low Battery 

Q. What are the indications of a low battery? 

A. The starting motor fails to turn the engine over, or does so 
very slowly, or only a part of a revolution. The lights burn very dimly. 
The hydrometer shows a specific-gravity reading of 1.250 or less. 
Voltmeter test shows less than 5 volts for a 3-cell battery (for greater 
number of cells, in proportion), or 1.75 volts or less for each cell. 

Q. What are the causes of a low battery? 

A. The electrolyte not covering the plates, or being too 
weak or dirty. A short-circuit in the battery due to the accumulation 
of sediment reaching the bottom of the plates. An excessive lamp 
load, all lights being burned constantly with but little daylight 
running the car. Generator not charging properly. 

Specific Gravity; Voltage 

Q. What are the specific gravity and voltage of fully discharged 
and fully charged cells? 

A. Total discharge : 1 . 1 40 to 1 . 1 70 on the hydrometer ; and 1 .70 
to 1 .85 volts on the voltmeter. Fully charged : 1 .276 to 1 .300 specific 
gravity; 2.35 to 2.55 volts. 

Q. Are these readings always constant for the same conditions? 

A. No. The charging voltage readings will vary with the 
temperature and the age of the cell; the higher the temperature 
and the older the cell the lower the voltage will be. Hydrometer 


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readings also depend on the temperature to some «extent. For 
every ten degrees Fahrenheit rise in temperature, the specific gravity 
reading will drop .003 or three points, and vice versa. 

Q. Under what conditions should voltage tests be made? 

A. Only when the battery is either charging or discharging. 
Readings taken when the battery is idle are of no value. 

Q. Under what conditions should hydrometer tests be made? 

A. The electrolyte must be half an inch over the plates and 
it must have been thoroughly mixed by being subjected to a charge. 
Hydrometer readings taken just after adding water to the cells 
are not dependable. 

Q. When should acid be added to the electrolyte? 

A. As the acid in a battery cannot evaporate, the electrolyte 
should need no addition of acid during the entire life of the battery 
under normal conditions. Therefore, if no acid has leaked or splashed 
out and the specific gravity is low, the acid must be in the plates 
in the form of sulphate and the proper specific gravity must be 
restored by giving the battery an overcharge at a low charging rate. 

Q. What does a specific gravity in some cells lower than 
in others indicate? 

A. Abnormal conditions, such as a leaky jar, loss of acid 
through slopping, impurities in the electrolyte, or a short-circuit. 

Q. How can it be remedied? 

A. Correct the abnormal conditions, and then overcharge 
the cells at a low rate for a long period, or until the specific gravity 
has reached a maximum and shows no further increase for 8 or 10 
hours. If, at the end of such an overcharge, the specific gravity is 
still below 1.270, add some specially prepared electrolyte of 1.300 
specific gravity. Electrolyte should not be added to the cells under 
any other conditions. 

Q. Is an overcharge beneficial to a battery? 

A. The cells will be kept in better condition if a periodical 
overcharge is given, say once a month. This overcharge should 
be at a low rate and should be continued until the specific gravity 
in each cell has reached its maximum and comparative readings 
show that all are alike. To carry this out properly will require 
at least 4 hours longer than ordinarily would be necessary for a 
full charge. If the plates have become sulphated due to insufficient 


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charging, it may be necessary to continue the overcharge for 10 to 
15 hours longer. Should the specific gravity exceed 1.300 at the 
end of the charge, draw off a small amount of electrolyte with the 
syringe from each cell and replace with distilled water. If below 
1 .270, proceed as mentioned above for addition of acid. 

Charging from Outside Source 

Q. What is meant by charging from an outside source? 

A. A source of direct current other than the generator on 
the car. 

Q. Why is it necessary to charge the battery from an outside 

A. When the battery has become sulphated, has been standing 
idle for any length of time, or has been run down from any other 
cause so that it is out of condition, a long charge at a uniform rate 
is necessary, and it would seldom be convenient to run the car for 
8 or 10 hours steadily simply to charge the battery; frequently, a 
longer charging period than this is necessary. 

Q. How is charging from an outside source effected? 

A. This will depend upon the equipment at hand and the nature 
of the supply, i.e., whether alternating or direct current. If the 
current is alternating, a means of converting it to direct current is 
necessary, such as a motor-generator, a mercury-arc rectifier, chemi- 
cal or vibrating type of rectifier. These are mentioned about in the 
order of the investment involved. In addition, a charging panel is 
needed to complete the equipment, this panel being fitted with 
switches, voltmeter, and ammeter, and a variable resistance for regu- 
lating the charge. Where direct-current service is obtainable at 110 
or 220 volts, the rectifier is unnecessary. 

Q. How can a battery be charged from direct-current service 
mains without a special charging panel? 

A. By inserting a double-pole single-throw switch and 10- or 15- 
ampere fuses on taps from the mains and ordinary incandescent 
lamps in series with the battery to reduce the voltage, Fig. 480. 

Q. How many lamps will be needed? 

A. This will depend upon their character and size, as well 
as upon the amount of charging current necessary. For a 10-ampere 
charge for a 6- volt storage battery, seven 110-volt 100-watt (32 


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c.p.) carbon-filament lamps, or their equivalent, will be needed; 

i.e., fourteen 110-volt 50-watt (16 c.p.) carbon-filament lamps; 

eighteen 110-volt 40-watt tungsten lamps, or twenty-eight 110-volt 

25-watt tungsten lamps. For a 

1 2- volt or 24-volt battery the number 

of lamps will have to be decreased 

in proportion in order not to cut the 

voltage of the supply current below 

that of the battery. For 220-volt 

d.c. supply mains, if a three-wire 

system is employed, the taps should 

be taken from the center wire and 

one outside wire; this will give 110 
volts. If the service is 220-volt two- 
wire, more lamps will be needed to 
reduce the voltage, which should 
exceed that of the battery by only 1£ 
to 2 volts, except where a high volt- 
age charge to overcome sulphating 
is being given, in which case it may 
be slightly higher. 

Q. Where no outside source 
of current is available, or where no 
rectifier is at hand to convert alter- 
nating current, how can the battery 
be given the long charge necessary? 
A. Run the engine. Supply it 
with plenty of oil and provide hose 
connections from the water supply 
to the filler cap on the radiator and 
a drain from the lower petcock. 
Open the latter and turn on just 
sufficient water to keep the engine 
reasonably cool; increase if necessary 
as it runs hotter. 

Q. What precaution must be taken always before putting the 
battery on charge from an outside source? 

A. The polarity of the circuit must be tested in order to 

Fig. 480. Diagram of Connections for 

Charging Six-Volt Storage Battery 

from Lighting Circuit 


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make certain that the battery will be charged in the proper 

Q. How can this be done? 

A. If a suitable voltmeter is at hand, i.e., one of the proper 
voltage for the 110-volt current, connect it to the mains. If the 
needle does not move over the scale but shows a tendency to butt 
against the stop pin at the left, reverse the connections. The needle 
will then give a proper reading and the positive connection to the 
meter must be used for the positive side of the battery. Should no 
voltmeter of the right voltage be available, connect two short wires 
with bared ends to the fused end of the switch. Dip the bared ends 
of the wire in a glass of water, being careful to keep them 
at least an inch apart. When the switch is closed, fine bubbles 
will be given off by the wire connected to the negative side. The 
battery terminals are stamped Pos. and Neg., and the connec- 
tions should be made accordingly. 

Intermittent and Winter Use 

Q. What should be done with an idle battery? 

A. If it is to be idle for any length of time, as where the car 
is to be stored, it should be given a long overcharge as described 
above before being put out of service. Fill the cells right to the top 
with distilled water to allow for evaporation and absorption of 
acid by the plates. Give the battery a freshening charge at a low 
rate once a month. Discharge the battery and re-charge before 
putting it into service again. If it has stood out of service for a 
long period, the battery will be found at a low efficiency point and 
will not reach its maximum capacity again until it has had several 
charges and discharges. 

Q. Does cold weather have any effect on the storage battery? 

A. It causes a falling off in its efficiency. If not kept charged, 
the electrolyte will freeze under the following conditions: battery 
fully discharged, sp. gr. 1.120, 20° Fahrenheit; battery three-quarters 
discharged, sp. gr. 1.160, temperature zero; half discharged, sp. gr. 
1.210, 20 degrees below zero; one quarter discharged, sp. gr. 1.260, 
60 degrees below zero. When storing away for the winter, the bat- 
tery must either be kept charged or put where the temperature 
does not go lower than 20 degrees above zero. 


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Edison Battery 

Q. Is it ever necessary to wash out an Edison battery? 

A. No. The cells are permanently sealed, as the active 
material cannot escape from its containers. 

Q. Do all of the foregoing instructions apply to the Edison 
as well as to the lead-plate battery? 

A. No. The Edison requires very little attention, practically 
the only care necessary being to keep the cars replenished with 
distilled water at intervals. 

Charging rates for Edison cells are given on pages 97 and 98, 
Electric Automobiles. S.A.E.-standard instructions for lead-plate. 
cells are given on pages 138-140, Electric Automobiles. 


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Evolution of the Motorcycle. The same period which has 
brought the automobile to its present state of perfection has also 
witnessed the birth and development of the motorcycle. This two- 
wheeled motor vehicle was developed from the bicycle; in fact, the 
first motorcycles were bicycles with motors attached. However, 
owing to the comparatively high speed attained, the strains put upon 
the bicycle frame were too great, and extensive modifications were 
carried out, which resulted in a distinctive design and construction 
to stand the requirements of the service. It is significant of the 
general improvement in the construction that several motor bicycles 
have recently been designed and are giving good service. 

The motorcycle started entirely as a pleasure, or sporting, vehicle, 
used by a few bicycle enthusiasts who desired greater speed or by 
racing men for pacemaking. Gradually, however, the utility of the 
machine in many directions became established, and now its place in 
its own field is as surely fixed as that of the automobile itself. For 
single or tandem road work, for package delivery, for messenger 
service, for military duty, and for a hundred other important offices, 
it is unexcelled, and the thousands upon thousands of machines that 
are sold every year in this country alone bear testimony to its popu- 
larity. There are other indications in some recently developed types 
that the field of usefulness of this flexible machine will be broadened 
still further. 

Standard Specifications. The conventionalized American motor- 
cycle is of two-cylinder construction. The frame is tubular and 
diamond shaped, with a double crossbar at the top, between which 
bars are located a gasoline tank and an oil tank. At its lowest point 
the frame is in the form of a loop, in which is clamped the aluminum 
crankcase of a twin-cylinder air-cooled motor, with the cylinders set 
V-shaped and a carburetor fitted between. Separate exhaust pipes 
lead from each cylinder to a muffler. The motor is of the L-head 
type, with the cylinders, as a rule, cast in one piece. The exhaust 


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valves are at one side of the motor and are operated by cams on the 
lower side of the crankcase. The same cam often operates both 
exhaust valves. 

In a removable cage on the roof of the valve pocket just over the 
exhaust valve, is located the intake valve, which is operated by a 
rocker arm above it, controlled by a push rod running up the side of 
the motor from the cam case. The crankcase contains two flywheels, 
which form also the crank arms of a built-up crank. Both connecting 
rods are fastened to the same crankpin, and these rods run down 
between the flywheels. 

In the cam case is a small plunger oil pump which pumps oil in 
small quantities to the forward cylinder, this oil being delivered 
through the wall of the cylinder directly onto the piston at the lower 
end of its stroke. From this point the oil drops into the crankcase 
and is thrown up through the rest of the motor by the splash system. 
The crankshaft on one side runs into the cam case, from which a train 
of gears drives a magneto for ignition. The advance and the retard of 
this magneto are controlled by twisting one of the handlebars of the 
motorcycle, this motion being ordinarily transmitted to the magneto 
through a series of bell cranks and rods. The throttle is controlled 
by twisting the opposite handlebar; so the control of the entire 
machine is always within the driver's grasp. 

The right end of the motor shaft projects beyond the right side 
of the case and ends in a small roller-chain sprocket, from which a 
chain runs to a larger sprocket on a countershaft set at the base of 
(or just back of) the vertical frame-tube member. Since change- 
speed gearsets are becoming common, this shaft is generally located 
back of the seat-post tube. The large countershaft sprocket connects . 
with a small countershaft sprocket or with a gearset by means of a 
multiple-disc friction clutch, either of the dry fabric-faced type or of 
the metal type. This clutch may be operated by a lever in front 
of the driver's seat or by a foot pedal or by both. From the counter- 
shaft, a chain runs from a smaller sprocket to a larger sprocket on the 
rear wheel hub of the motorcycle. In this hub is located a brake (or 
brakes) of the expanding or contracting type or of both, operating on 
a brake drum. The rear end of the frame is often mounted on springs 
from the seat-post back, the lower frame forks being pivoted and the 
upper connection sprung. Within this triangle and generally back of 


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the seat post is fitted a tool box, while over the wheel a luggage carrier 
forms the stock equipment. A stand is always fitted on the rear 
wheel to enable one to leave the motorcycle without its falling over. 
The saddle is very large, as compared with a bicycle seat, and has 
sensitive springs, as well as being mounted usually in a spring-seat 
post located in the vertical-tube member. This saddle is always 
placed as low as possible on the frame. The front forks are mounted 
on some sort of springs — generally of the flat-leaf type — in order to 
absorb the shocks and thus avoid metal fatigue in the machine as 
well as bodily fatigue in the rider. This, in outline, is the American 
motorcycle of today. 

Present Trend of Models. This outline is that of what might 
be called the American heavy-duty motorcycle. About 1914 or 1915, 
it looked as if this twin-cylinder type, with a change-speed mechanism, 
would soon displace all other designs. Later developments, however, 
have brought out several decidedly light-weight machines and at 
least two motor wheels, so that for 1917 there are more types than 
ever before. One set of riders has been demanding greater power and 
greater comfort in each season's models, until we have the expensive 
high-powered three-speed electric-lighted machines, suitable for all 
kinds of cross-country work; another class has been clamoring for 
a light machine of minimum cost both for initial price and for up-keep. 
These light machines are, of course, limited to city work and other 
more or less ideal conditions, but they are meeting the want of a large 
class of buyers. Many of the designs are very similar to the experi- 
mental machines developed abroad in the* last few years preceding 
the war. 


Early Machines. The first motorcycle built was the work of 
Gottlieb Daimler, who in 1885 built a two-wheeled vehicle to try out 
a gasoline motor with which he was experimenting. This machine 
was the forerunner not only of the motorcycle but of the automobile 
as well. De Dion of France, with Karl Benz of Germany, developed 
along with the automobile the gasoline motor, and the De Dion type 
was soon applied to a motor tricycle, followed by a motor bicycle 
using the same motor. 

This motor was the predecessor of the motorcycle motor of 
today. The cylinder arrangement and the location of the compression 


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chamber were almost identical. Two flywheels were used, with a 
connecting rod between, and the flywheels were entirely enclosed in 
the crankcase. Viewed in the light of modern design, the motor was 
very crude but developed horsepower enough to drive this early 
machine at what was then considered an astonishing speed — 30 
miles per hour. 

The foreign machines were developed between 1894 and 1898, 
when an American inventor, who had been building racing bicycles, 
took up the motor-driven tandem as a pace-making mount for bicycle 
racing. As the motorcycle is all wheel base and no tread, it has no 
difficulty in holding the road at any speed; a fact which made it 
very adaptable to this kind of service. The transmission of this 
machine, designed by Oscar Hedstrom, was the basis of the formation 
of a company for the manufacture of motor bicycles, with George 
M. Hendee as the business manager of the concern. At about the 
same time, the Thomas, the Holly, the Orient, and the Mitchell 
motorcycles were being developed. 

Two-Cylinder Motors. Glenn Curtiss was one of the first to 
develop a two-cylinder motor. It was in connection with his experi- 
ments with motors that he built a motorcycle equipped with an eight- 
cylinder V-type motor, which, covering a mile in 26.4 seconds — the 
fastest mile ever covered by man — held the record until recent date. 

The first motors built were small-power engines of about the 
same stroke as bore; they attained surprising speed and cooled very 
successfully with flanges of small area. 

Starting with 2.5-horsepower motors, power and weight were 
continually added until motors of 12- and even 14-horsepower have 
become common practice. The latter are, for the most part, of large 
bore and of comparatively slow speed, but, through the activity of 
European developments, light-weight machines with high-speed 
motors are coming into prominence. 

Influence of High-Speed Motors. In the early days, when 
materials and workmanship were questionable except at a great 
expense, high speed in a motor was a disadvantage and tended toward 
short life. Belt drive from the motor to the rear wheels was common, 
and hence motors could not be geared below a certain ratio without 
having the belt pulley too small to transmit the power. Flat belts 
became very popular in America and were used on such machines as 


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the Excelsior, the Harley-Davidson, the Yale, etc., while the Reading- 
Standard and the Indian factories consistently held to chain drive. 
Within the past few years, with the introduction of change-speed 
gears and high-speed motors, a positive drive has become a necessity, 
and chain drive with reduction to a countershaft located between the 
motor and the rear wheel has become almost standard practice. 
Foreign designers still favor the belt to transmit the power from the 
countershaft to the rear wheel, claiming that this gives greater flexi- 
bility of drive. American makers obtain smoothness of action by 
incorporating a slipping clutch in the transmission. 

Light-Weight Machine. First to bring into prominence the 
light-weight motorcycle and high-speed motor was the Douglas 
Company, of England, which built a small horizontal-opposed two- 
cylinder air-cooled motor — a success above 4000 r.p.m. by virtue of 
its almost perfect balance of moving parts. This motor was set 
fore-and-aft in a light frame, with a chain taking the power from 
the motor to a countershaft at the frame junction below. A 
V-type pulley was the front member of the belt-driven system, and 
the gear reduction of the first chain drive threw a minimum strain on 
the belt and hence proved very reliable. This machine weighed, 
complete, about 183 pounds, and yet it was capable of the same road 
performance as the high-power American machines of greater weight. 
In developing the new series of light-weight machines, already 
mentioned, the American designers have undoubtedly been influenced 
by the English successes along these lines. The single cylinder has 
been retained, and the two-cylinder opposed engine is coming rapidly 
to the front. 

Modern Improvements. While the light machines have been 
developing, the refinement of the standard twin V-type has gone stead- 
ily on. The greatest improvements of recent date have been toward 
making the motorcycle more comfortable, cleaner, easier to operate, 
more reliable, and more foolproof. This, in nearly every case, has 
meant an increase in cost rather than a decrease, but buyers prefer a 
completely equipped machine at higher prices to partially developed 
mounts at lower figures. Four-cylinder machines are becoming 
popular with each succeeding year, and the manufacturers are also 
incorporating three-speed gearsets, self-starting systems, and other 
automobile features to as great an extent as possible. 


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With the many, improvements in construction, convenience, and 
reliability in the motorcycle has come a broadening of its field of 
usefulness. Fitted with a sidecar and with an extra wheel, it has 
become the family carryall or has been utilized for city runs and 
delivery purposes. In the recent wars, motorcycles have played a 
very important part in the transmission of messages and in the quick 
dispatch of repair men and scouts for emergency service. A number 
of the sidecar vehicles have even been fitted with machine guns and 
very successfully used for rapid reconnoissance work. 


Smith Motor Wheel. Although not a motorcycle in itself, the 
Smith Motor Wheel for attachment to bicycles has added hundreds of 

Fig. 1. Smith Motor Wheel Attached to Rear of Bicycle 
Courtesy of A. O. Smith Corporation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

enthusiasts to the motorcyclist family. This wheel is a self- 
contained power plant consisting of a single-cylinder four-cycle air- 
cooled engine, having a bore of 2| inches and a stroke of 2\ inches. 


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The engine is carried upon a bed which is flexibly attached to the 
bicycle frame, the motor wheel following slightly behind the rear 



3 3 



wheel of the bicycle, as shown in Fig. 1. One end of the engine crank- 
shaft carries the flywheel, while the other end is geared internally to 


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the driving wheel. The effect of this attachment is very much the 
same as that of the person running along the side of a bicycle rider 
and pushing him by means of the seat post, the connection between 
the motor wheel and the bicycle being quite flexible. This motor 
wheel has been adapted to all kinds of service, such as light delivery 

Fig. 3. Rear of A. O. Smith Buckboard 

vans and children's automobiles. The Smith Company has recently 
brought out a very light four-wheeled buckboard, Fig. 2, carrying 
two passengers and driven by the motor wheel. The rear connection 
of this model is shown in Fig. 3. 

Dayton. Using the same construction of power plant, the Davis 
Sewing Machine Company has developed the Dayton Motor Bicycle, 
which has a motor wheel suspended between the front forks in place 


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Fig. 4. Dayton Motor Bicycle Showing Power Plant in Front Wheel 
Courtesy of Davis Sewing Machine Company, Dayton, Ohio 

Fig. 5. Engine Side of Merkel Motor Bicycle 
Courtesy of Merkel Motor Wheel Company, New York City 


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of the ordinary front bicycle wheel, Fig. 4. The illustration also 
indicates the location of the gasoline tank on the handlebars. 

Merkel. Newest in the motor-wheel development is the design 
of Joseph F. Merkel, who is well known in the motorcycle world 
through the success of the Merkel Flyer. This Merkel motor wheel 
is a combination of single-cylinder engine and rear bicycle wheel. 

Fig. 6. Flywheel Side of Merkel Motor Bicycle 
Courtesy of Merkel Motor Wheel Company, New York City 

The engine is on one side of the wheel, Fig. 5, and the flywheel and 
magneto is carried on the other side, Fig. 6. The whole assembly is 
intended to replace the rear wheel of an ordinary bicycle, Fig. 7. 

Cyclemotor. Besides this crop of motor wheels and of motor- 
wheel applications, there has appeared again a group of engines to be 
attached to the frame of the bicycle, driving through a belt to a pulley 


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added to the rear wheel. Some years ago the same idea was attempted, 
but, owing to mechanical imperfections, did not seem to be success- 
ful. The big advance, however, which has been made in the design 



1 ^Lyli 

, MS* 

^•■' m 

*£■ # 

'TT'^ jfR y 

Fig. 7. Complete View of Merkel Motor Bicycle 

Fig. 8. Side View of Cyclemotor with Belt Drive 
Courtesy of Cyclemotor Corporation, Rochester, New York 

and construction of small gasoline engines and in the accessories 
employed with them, bids fair to make a success of these newer 
developments; in fact, some of them have been on the market long 


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enough to have made a favorable impression already. A good example 
of this type of machine is the cyclemotor, illustrated in Fig. 8. 

Auto-Ped. It would be h&rdly fair to leave this crop of near 
motorcycles without mention of the Auto-Ped, which is a device on 
two wheels, with a small board between, and with an engine attached 
to the front wheel. The operator stands upon the board between the 
two wheels, as on a child's coaster, and controls the device through a 
handle which takes care of the steering. 

Light- Weight Motorcycles. No attempt will be made to describe 
or to even list all the light-weight machines that are now r on the 
market. Short descriptions, however, will be given of the machines 
which are representative of a certain type of construction. In rela- 

Fig. 9. Exoelaior Light- Weight Motorcycle 
Courtesy of Excelsior Motor Manufacturing and Supply Company, Chicago, Illinois 

tion to the light-weight movement, the two-cycle engine has come 
back into striking prominence. 

Excelsior. One of the best examples of the two-cycle engine is 
the Excelsior Light-Weight model, Fig. 9, which employs a single- 
cylinder two-cycle engine of 2ir-inch bore and 2f-inch stroke, giving 
a piston displacement of 22.87 cubic inches. The ignition is provided 
for by a high-tension magneto driven by a silent chain, and the drive 
is through a two-speed gear and V-belt. The ratio on high speed is 
5A to 1 and on low speed 8H to 1 . This design shows well-developed 
springing and a kick starter. 

Indian. Of the two-cylinder opposed chains the Indian Light 
Twin, Fig. 10, is among the most interesting. The cylinders lie fore- 


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and-aft at the bottom of a very large loop in the frame and are air 
cooled. The bore is 2 inches and the stroke is 2\ inches, giving a total 

o 8 



piston displacement of 15.7 cubic inches. The Dixie magneto is 
mounted directly over the crankshaft. A three-speed sliding-gear 


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transmission, and a dry-plate clutch deliver the power to the final 
roller-chain drive. 

Thor. While cost of purchase and of upkeep have undoubtedly 
been the leading factors in developing these light-weight machines, 

lightness, for its own 
sake, has a strong ap- 
peal to a large class of 
riders, and the Thor line 
includes a light twin of 
the V-cylinder construc- 
tion, Fig. 31, in which 
I low purchase cost does 
S not enter into considera- 
$ tion. This machine has 


\ £ cylinders with a 2f-inch 
o| bore and a 3J-inch 
2 | stroke, or a total dis- 
!| * placement of 38.6 cubic 
5 I inches, and is provided 
§^ with a high-tension 
| magneto and with all the 
other refinements of its 
brother Thor machines 
£ I of double the horse- 
's' power. 

| Developments in 

J Standard Types. Tux>- 
Cy Under. So much for 
the general types repre- 
sentative of the new 
light-weight high-speed 
engine movement. 
Turning to the more 
standard American ma- 
chines, we find no radical changes in the twin-cylinder V-models or in 
the four-cylinder machines. There are, however, the usual improve- 
ments and refinements, with a seeming tendency to decrease the 
number of models by discarding the two-speed gear and standardizing 


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the three-speed type. This is probably owing to the fact that every 
machine sold is more than liable to have a sidecar, a rear car, or some 
other kind of a car or freight-carrying attachment placed upon it, and 
the three-speed machine has now been developed to a point where it 
can adequately take care of this kind of service — a demand which, a 
few seasons ago, the makers were inclined to feel was an abuse. 
Fig. 12 shows the latest of the Harley-Davidson Twins, the engine 
having a bore of 3A inches and a stroke of 3J inches, which gives it 
a piston displacement of 53.55 cubic inches. The dry-plate clutch, 

Kg. 12. Harley-Davidson Standard Twin-Cylinder Three-Speed Motorcycle 
Courtesy of Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

the three-speed transmission, the kick starter, and other features 
are not new, the only changes being slight refinements, which each 
season brings about. 

In passing, it should not be forgotten that the large single- 
cylinder type, which was the predecessor of the V-type, is still on the 
market, although its demise was predicted several seasons ago. This 
is because a number of large public-service corporations have found 
this type so successful in their trouble departments that they insist 
upon purchasing more of them each season. The wide-awake com- 
panies, however, are beginning to look more favorably upon the twin- 


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cylinder three-speed machines for their heavy service, and there is no 
question but that the large slow-speed single-cylinder type will in 
time drop out of sight. 

Four-Cylinder. The Henderson Motorcycle Company, of Detroit, 
has been the successful champion of the four-cylinder design, 
Fig. 13. These engines are air cooled and have a bore of 2 J inches and 
a, stroke of 3 inches, giving a piston displacement of 58.9 cubic inches. 
The Henderson has been on the market for several years, and the 
construction in the past has included a bevel gear at the rear of the 
crankshaft, which drove through a chain to a planetary two-speed 
transmission incorporated in the rear hub. For the coming season, 

Pig. 14. Side View of Militaire Four-Cylinder Motorcycle 
Courtesy of Militaire Motor Vehicle Company, Buffalo, New York 

this construction has been replaced by a three-speed sliding gear at 
the rear of the crankshaft, with a chain drive back to the standard 
types of hub and band brakes. One of the features of the four- 
cylinder machine is its very rapid acceleration, which makes it very 
easy to handle in traffic — excellent for police-department work. 

Another four-cylinder machine, the Militaire, has recently been 
announced, which is illustrated in Fig. 14. This carries an engine of 
2H-inch bore and 3-inch stroke, with a piston displacement of 68 
cubic inches. The specifications list such unusual features as a selec- 
tive sliding-gear shaft having three speeds forward and a reverse, 
which forms a unit with the engine. The drive is by propeller shaft, 


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Fig. 15. Rear View of Militaire Motorcycle, Showing Auxiliary Wheels 

in Position for Supporting Motorcycle 

Courtesy of Militaire Motor Vehicle Company, Buffalo, New York 

and the wheels are of artillery rather than wire type. In Fig. 15 
it will be noted that there are two auxiliary wheels which swing up 
off the ground; in their normal position, they lie at each side of 


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the rear wheel. These auxiliary wheels are lowered, as shown in the 
figure, when the machine is left standing or when it is driven in 
very slow heavy traffic where the motorcyclist so often has to drag 
his feet upon the ground. 


Nomenclature. Before going on with a discussion of engines and 
how to take care of them, it is best to make sure that the reader under- 


Fig. 16. Diagrams of Various Parts of Motorcycle 

stands the names and purposes of the various parts that go to make 
up the complete machine. When dealing with the principles of the 
internal-combustion engine, we always deal with the single-cylinder 
type for the sake of simplicity, pointing out that in the two-cylinder 


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and four-cylinder engines there has been but a combination of several 
single-cylinder engines. 

Referring to Fig. 16, we have at A the cylinder casting, which is 
made of gray cast iron, although in some cases it does not look it. 
owing to methods of sand blasting, enameling, etc. The cooling ribs 
are cast integral and are not of a different material shrunk on as was 
tried on some air-cooled automobile engines. At B is the crankcase, 
which is an aluminum casting, usually highly polished. Most 
automobile crankcases are split along a horizontal plane, but the 
motorcycle crankcase is divided in the verticle plane and bolted 
together as shown. Piston, connecting rod, and flywheel assembly is 
shown at C. The piston moves up and down in the bore of the 
cylinder. It is usually made of cast iron and often drilled with a 
number of comparatively large holes to decrease its weight and also to 
assist in the lubrication of the cylinder wall. Aluminum is gaining in 
favor as a piston material because of its light weight. The purpose 
of the connecting rod is to change the back and forth, or reciprocating, 
motion of the piston into rotary motion at the crankshaft. This 
means that there are bearings at both ends. At the upper end, the 
bearing is called the wrist-pin bearing, because the small shaft across 
the piston is called the wrist pin. At the lower end, the bearing is 
known as the connecting rod bearing and the big end bearing. 

One of the main differences between the general design of the 
motorcycle engine and that of a small marine or an automobile engine 
is in construction. In the ordinary design, a one-piece crankshaft, 
as at Z), is used, and this extends through the crankcase with the single 
flywheel E fastened on the outside, as in the Motor Wheel and in the 
Indian Light Twin. In all other motorcycle designs in this country, 
however, enclosed flywheels are used. In this case there is a flywheel 
on each side, as shown at F, these being housed inside the crankcase. 
The counter weights to balance the inertia forces of the piston are cast 
as part of these flywheels instead of being fastened on as is sometimes 
done with automobile crankshafts. 

A valve assembly is shown at (?, giving the valve, the valve seat, 
the valve spring, the tappet, and the cam. The valve usually has a 
bevel seat, as shown, but in some cases it is flat. As the cam is 
revolved by the gearing from the crankshaft, the high portion comes 
under the bottom of the tappet and raises it upward. The tappet, 


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in turn, raises the valve from its seat, allowing gases to enter or to be 
exhausted from the cylinder, as the case may be. There is often an 
arm, or cam follower H, interposed between the cam and the lower 
end of the tappet, but the general action is the same. 

It is quite common to use an overhead valve for the inlet, and hi 
that case the valve often works in a removable cage H instead of 
seating directly on the cylinder casting. In order to get the action 
of the cam carried to the valve, the tappet raises a long push rod and 
this, in turn, raises one end of a rocker arm, the combination of motions 
opening the valve. 


Classification. Motorcycle engines of all designs are of the 
internal-combustion engine type, which means that fuel is burned, or 
exploded, inside the cylinder of the engine, where the heat energy 
liberated is transformed into mechanical energy. An example of an 
external-combustion engine is the ordinary steam engine, where the 
burning of the fuel takes place outside of the engine itself. 

There are two general types of the internal-combustion engine, 
known as the four-cycle and the two-cycle engines. Since these 
terms refer to the number of strokes of the piston for each power 
impulse for one particular cylinder, it would be more proper to speak 
of them as the four-stroke-cycle and the two-stroke-cycle, but custom 
has dropped the word stroke. 

Four-Stroke-Cycle, or Four-Cycle. Taking up the four-cycle 
operation first, as it is the more important so far as the number of 
machines is concerned, we will assume' that the piston has passed the 
upper dead center, as at A, Fig. 17, and that at this point the inlet 
valve is well open. As the piston travels downward, the explosive 
mixture is drawn into the cylinder, and at the lower dead center the 
inlet valve closes. As the piston travels back, both valves are closed 
B, and the mixture is compressed to from sixty to ninety pounds 
per square inch. At the time the piston reaches the top of the 
stroke again C, the spark occurs at the plug, igniting the charge. 
The rapid expansion, or explosion, of the gases, drives the piston down, 
this being known as the power stroke. The other two strokes are 
called the intake, or suction, and the compression strokes. At the 
end of the power stroke the exhaust valve opens D, and as the piston 


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Compression stems 

Met \bioe 


Exhaust stmoxe 

Fig. 17. Diagrams of Various Operations of Four-Cycle Engine 
Courtesy of "Motor Age", Chicago 


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returns to the top position, the burned gases are pushed out through 
the exhaust valve. The cycle of events is then repeated. Thus, 
we have four strokes of the piston for each power impulse, and this 
requires two complete revolutions of the crankshaft. 

Two-Stroke-Cycle, or Two-Cycle. In the two-cycle engine, the 
same series of operations is performed in two strokes of the piston, 
or one revolution of the crankshaft; and this is accomplished by the 
use of crankcase compression and the difference in density of hot and 
cold gases. Referring to Fig. 18, it will be noticed that instead of the 
usual poppet valves of the four-cycle engine, the two-cycle engine has 

Fig. 18. Diagrams of Operation of Three-Port Two-Cycle Engine 
Courtesy of " Motor Age", Chicago 

openings in the side of the cylinder, which are known as ports. There 
are two classes of these engines, based upon the number of ports 
employed. The more common is the three-port engine, in which 
the carburetor is connected by a passage to the crankcase, the port 
of this passage being opened and closed by the skirt of the piston. 

Starting with the piston at the lower dead center and traveling 
upward, there will be a partial vacuum produced in the crankcase 
which is air tight. When the skirt of the piston uncovers the inlet 
port, the vacuum will cause a rush of explosive gas into the crankcase 
A, Fig. 18. When the piston has reached the top dead center and 


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started down again, it will shut off this gas passage, and its further 
travel will compress the mixture in the crankcase to a few pounds 
pressure. Near the lower dead center B, the top of the piston will 
uncover the port of the by-pass from the crankcase to the chamber 
above. The gas in the crankcase, being under slight pressure, will 
rush up into the combustion chamber with considerable velocity, and, 
being colder than the spent gases of the preceding explosion, will drive 
these hot gases out through the third port, which was uncovered by 
the top of the piston a moment before it uncovered the by-pass. 

Fig. 19. Diagrams of Operation of Two-Port Two-Cycle Engine 
Courtesy of " Motor Age", Chicago 

In order that the fresh gases shall not pass directly across the 
piston and out through the exhaust port, leaving burned gases in the 
top of the cylinder, the piston is provided with a deflector so as to send 
the cold gases up to the top of the cylinder, driving out the exhaust 
with as little waste of the fresh gases as possible. As the piston 
continues to pass upward, both the by-pass and the exhaust ports 
are closed again and the remainder of the stroke compresses the fresh 
gases. At the end of the compression stroke, that is, just after the 
piston passes upper dead center C, the spark occurs, igniting the 
charge and giving the power impulse to the piston. Thus we have 
inlet, compression, firing, and exhaust taking place in two strokes of 


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the piston, or, in other words, there is a power impulse for every 
revolution of the crankshaft. 

Upon the face of things, one might think that the two-cycle 
engine of equal dimensions and running at the same speed as a four- 
cycle engine would have exactly double the power of the latter. This, 
however, is not so, as the method of getting the gas into and out of the 
cylinder is less efficient in the two-cycle than in the four-cycle design. 

The two-port two-cycle engine varies from the three-port in but 
one particular, and that is that the passage between the crankcase 
and the carburetor is closed by an automatic spring-controlled valve 
instead of by the opening and closing of a port by the skirt of the 
piston. This is clearly shown in Fig. 19. 


Spring and Frame Construction. 

Seat-Post Springs. The springs used on 
a motorcycle to absorb the road shocks or 
to add to the comfort of the rider are 
usually located on the front forks, in the 

rear frame, or in the seat post. One of Fig ^ ^ Mcrkcl Spring 
the first firms to adopt a spring-seat Seat Poet 

post was the Harley-Davidson, but the Merkel had used a spring- 
frame construction some time previous. The more prominent of the 
modern spring constructions will be illustrated and discussed. 

The Merkel spring-frame construction is shown in Fig. 20, a 
coil spring being fitted under the saddle and forming a continuation 
of the upper forks. In action, the lower forks are pivoted about the 
crankshaft of the motor below, this acting as a radius for the rear 
axle. The upper forks support the entire weight of the motorcycle 
on the coil spring. 

The Harley-Davidson and the Dayton systems, which are very 
similar, are illustrated in Figs. 21 and 22. In these constructions, the 
vertical tube of the frame contains a plunger operated from a fixed 
center with a coil spring on either side. The saddle fastens to a radius 
rod at the top of this plunger, the front end of this radius rod being 
bolted to a clutch on the frame. The entire weight of the rider is 
supported through the saddle on the coil spring below, allowing a very 
easy-riding action. 


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Rear and Front Frame Springs. The Pope uses a leaf-spring 
front fork and a spring type of rear suspension, Fig. 23. The suspen- 
sion consists of a drop-forged bracket on each side, brazed to the rear 
end of the frame, with a tension spring fastened to the top surface of 
the bracket. Double guide rods, as shown in the figure, are used, 
these rods carrying an axle yoke which is free to move between the 
jaws of the bracket, thus allowing the spring to absorb the rear 
vibration. Fig. 24 illustrates the Indian cradle-spring frame at the 
rear. This construction has the lower forks pivoted as on the Merkel. 

Fig. 21. Harley-Davidson Spring Seat Poet Fig. 22. Dayton Spring Seat Post 

but the weight of machine and rider is supported on the two leaf 
springs, as shown. The details of the front-fork leaf springs of the 
Indian are shown in Fig. 25. 

Types of Frames. There are two types of frames ordinarily used 
in motorcycle construction. One is formed with a loop, as shown in 
Fig. 26, the motor fastening to lugs on either side of the loop. This 
construction makes the machine very easy to assemble, and the 
frame is equally strong whether the motor is in or out of the frame. 
The other construction is similar to this, except that the loop below 
is eliminated, as shown very noticeably in Fig. 9. The lugs fasten 


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directly to the crankcase of the motor, which thus becomes the lower 
member of the frame. 

Motors. Motors for motorcycle use are usually of the four-cycle 
air-cooled variety. These 
motors, as previously 
described, are now built 
with one, two, and four 
cylinders. Water-cooling 
has been tried abroad on 
motorcycles with consid- 
erable success, but so far 
has not been applied in 

Single -Cylinder 
Type. We have already 
predicted the disappear- 
ance of the large size sin- 
gle-cylinder engine which 

is Still favored by SOme Fig. 23. Pope Rear Frame Spring Arrangement 

of the public-service cor- 
porations, and, at the 
same time, have pointed 
out the crop of new 
machines of the light- 
weight type which em- 
ploy the one-cylinder 
engine, to say nothing of 
the popular motor-wheel 
type. Some of these light 
singles work upon the 
four-cycle principle, while 
there is also a large crop 
of the two-stroke variety. 
Fig. 27 shows a section of 
the Excelsior light- 
weight two-cycle engine, 
in which one of the points 

Worth noting is the de- Fig. 24. Indian Rear Cradle-Spring Rim 


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Sector built into the piston head foi\ the purpose of causing the fresh 
gases to sweep clear around the dome of the cylinder before reaching the 
exhaust port. It may also be noted that the top piston ring is pinned. 

Fig. 25. Indian Front-Leaf Spring 

Fig. 26. Loop Frame Showing Lugs for Motor Attachment 

as should be the case in all two-cycle engines in order to prevent the 
ends of the rings from working around and becoming snapped off at 
the cylinder ports. The piston is drilled full of large holes in order to 




assist the lubrication and, at the same time, reduce the weight. This 
is another one of the engines with the outside type of flywheel and with 
the split-bushing-capped connecting-rod end, both similar to auto- 
mobile practice. The valve at the upper left-hand portion of the 
combustion chamber has nothing to do with the two-cycle operation, 
but is merely a relief valve which releases the compression at the time 
of cranking. 

Another single-cylinder type, Fig. 28, is the Smith Motor Wheel 
power plant. This type works on a four-cycle principle. The inlet 
valve above is of the auto- 
matic type, that is, instead of 
being opened mechanically, it 
is opened by the difference 
in pressure during the suc- 
tion stroke. The exhaust 
valve is mechanically opened 
by the usual valve mechan- 
ism. Again, we have the 
outside flywheel and the split 
lower end to the connecting 
rod. In this case, the lubri- 
cation is by splash, and a 
large dipper will be noted 
upon the lower half of the 
connecting-rod cap. The 
construction of the Dayton 
Motor Bicycle engine is the 

Twn-Ciilirulpr Tunp Tn Fig. 27. Single-Cylinder Motorcycle Motor 

lWV-^yiVTUWT lypt. Ill Cour(e9y o/ Exed9ior Motor Manufacturing and Supply 
the tWO-Cylinder field the Company, Chicago, IUxnou 

V-type engines seemed to be supreme in 1915; but again the light- 
weight brothers have disturbed the trend of practice, and the two- 
cylinder four-cycle opposed engine is making as hard a fight for popular 
favor in the light-weight field as the single-cylinder two-cycle. In the 
Indian model, a cross-section of which is shown in Fig. 29, we have 
an example of this construction. It is the same general design 
which English makers have been able to run at 4000 r.p.m. in their 
light-weight machines. The crank throws are set at 180 degrees. In 


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the V-machines the cylinders stand at from 42 to 50 degrees between 
the center lines, depending upon the ideas of the designer. An inter- 
esting feature of the design is to be noted in the placing of the valves at 
an angle in the combustion chamber, making the engine very compact. 
The split connecting-rod bushing and the external flywheel are used. 

Fig. 28. Diagram of Smith Motor-Wheel Power Plant 
Courtesy of A. O. Smith Corporation, Milwaukee, Wiscontin 

In Fig. 30, we come back to w T hat we have come to think of as 
the highest development of American motorcycle practice, namely, 
the two-cylinder V-type engine. This particular figure shows the 
Harley-Davidson power plant, which is of the L-head cylinder con- 
struction with the inlet valve above the exhaust and operated 
mechanically by a push rod and rocker arm. Other engines of the 


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V-type have the inlet and the exhaust valves side by side in the bot- 
tom of the combustion chamber, while the third school of design places 
both the inlet and the exhaust valves in the top of the cylinder head, 
operating them through rocker arms as just described. 

Instead of an external single flywheel, as we have just described 
in several cases, the V-cylinder engines have enclosed flywheels with 
the crankpin and two crankshafts fitted into them by stout tapers. 

Fig. 29. Section of Indian Twin-Cylinder Opposed Engine 
Courtesy of Hendee Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Massachusetts 

The counterbalances for the inertia forces of the piston are cast as 
part of the flywheels. With the single crankpin and the two rods, 
there are two possible constructions for the lower-end bearings. One 
would be with the rods placed side by side, while the other would 
be the forked rod as shown in Fig. 31. This is the design that has 
become standard practice. Although at first the amateur might 
think that these rods would interfere with each other, the relative 
motion between them is really very slight. 

, 366 

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In the highest development of these machines, roller bearings 
are used at the big end of the connecting rods instead of the split 

bushing, which has been 
referred to in the light- 
weight engine described. 
Great skill is required in 
fitting these bearings, for 
if one roller is larger than 
the other rollers by a very 
small fraction of an inch, 
there will be a binding of 
the bearing upon the 
shaft. When they are 
correctly fitted, however, 
and properly lubricated, 
their life is very long, and 
the friction loss is held at 
a minimum. 

Instead of the cams 
working directly upon the 
ends of tappets to raise 
the valves, it is usual to 
interpose arms, or followers, as 
shown in Fig. 30. Just above 
the cam wheel or the large gear 
is a small rack or portion of a 
gear. This is connected to the 
compression relief and w r hen it 
is desired to relieve the com- 
pression to the motor, this part 
gear is rotated and, through a 
lever connected to it, raises 
both inlet valves slightly off 
their seats so that the compres- 
sion is materially decreased. 
Four-Cylinder Type. Figs. 
32 and 33 illustrate the Hen- 

Typical Forked Piston Rods for V-Type , • i* i A 

Twin-Cylinder Engine derson four-cylinder motor- 

Fig. 30. Side View of Harley-Davidaon 
Twin-Cylinder Engine 

Fig. 31. 


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oycle. This is also air-cooled and of the L-head type, with overhead 
i nlet valves. It is designed for medium-high speed , has a three-bearing 
four-throw crankshaft, three-ring pistons, an enclosed flywheel, and a 
bevel-gear reduction. The motor is lubricated by splash from the oil 
in the base of the crankcase, as will be noted in Fig. 33. This motor 
is particularly neat, noiseless, and flexible. 

European High-Speed Type. Foreigners, with their generous 
experimenting, have gone farther in motorcycle design than have our 

Fig. 32. Rear View of Henderson Four-Cylinder Engine and Transmission 
Courtesy of Henderson Motorcycle Company, Detroit, Michigan 

designers in America. The progress, however, has been in the line of 
experimental work and individual building rather than in workman- 
ship or in accuracy of production, the latter being the American's 
strong specialization. America, in spite of its heavy road conditions, 
is not experimenting with water-cooled motors for motorcycles, 
though England uses them to a limited extent. One of the most 
prominent motorcycle builders in England departs from standard 
practice in adopting both water-cooled and two-cycle principles. 


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Consistent performance as a result of these innovations, coupled 
with good workmanship, has given this machine great prominence. 

Fig. 33. Side and End Sections of Henderson Four-Cylinder Motor 

Europe's greatest advantage, however, in motorcycle construc- 
tion has been exemplified by the development of the high-speed 

motorcycle motor. This is ordinarily 
of the horizontal-opposed type, the 
most prominent high-speed low- 
weight construction being the 
Douglas, a British machine. This 
motor is able to maintain this high 
speed through a crankshaft balance 
which is practically perfect, allowing 
it to run at the abnormally high speed 
of 4000 r.p.m. for long periods without 
fatigue of material, and hence with 
great efficiency. The motor is of the 
L-head type, with air-cooled cylinders 
and an outside flywheel. The cylin- 
ders being placed opposite each other, 
the counterbalanced cranks are set 180 
degreesapart. The en tire motorcycle is 
TC „ , . T u . . said to weigh under 200 pounds and at- 

Fig. 34. Excelsior Lubricating a ° r 

System tains speeds well above a mile a minute. 

Water cooling is another English experiment, which has proven 
successful. It has not been generally adopted in Europe, however, 
and air cooling has been perfectly satisfactory in this country. 

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Lubrication. Path of Oil. A lubricating system, as used on 
the Excelsior motorcycle motor, is shown in Fig. 34, and gives the 
particularly neat method by which motors of 
this type are oiled. In this case, the oil is first 
fed to the main bearing on the cam-case side, as 
shown by the arrow. This oil is fed by pressure 
from a pump and, after covering this bearing, 
is forced out at the end and flows through the 
drill hole shown, which brings it out above by 
centrifugal force to the connecting-rod bearing. 
This bearing throws the excess oil out, splash- 
ing it in all directions and up through the slot 
through which the connecting rod runs. From 
here it runs out on either side and gathers in a 
groove at the bottom edge of the cylinder. The 
bottom of the piston drops into this trough of 
oil every time it comes down, thus carrying the 
even film with it up the walls of the cylinder. 
The excess oil flows down the side of the crank- 
case and feeds the right-hand bearing. Excess Fig 35 Excelsior oil 
from here is caught on the outer end of the Pump 

shaft and returned to the 
crankcase, where it is 
splashed up again into 
the motor for further use. 

In a V-type twin- 
cylinder motor where the 
oil trough at the bottom 
of the cylinder cannot 
catch an even amount on 
account of the cylinder 
angularity, the oil is gen- 
erally allowed to drain 
back at once on the rear 

Cylinder, and, instead Of Fig. 36. IwUan Roller-Cam Oil Pump 

going to a main bearing first, it is fed to the forward cylinder. 

Oil Pumps. Fig. 35 shows a type of oil pump which is used to 

feed the oil to the motor. In this construction a small worm drive 


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from the cam case or the magneto gear case turns a small crank which 
operates a vertical plunger. This plunger cylinder is so arranged that 
on the top of the stroke oil may flow into the cylinder space, a ball 

check valve holding the 
oil from being sucked into 
the cylinder. On the 
down stroke, the oil inlet 
is covered by the piston, 
and the ball check valve 
opens toallow r the plunger 
to force the oil in the cyl- 
inder out of the motor. 
Fig. 36 illustrates a 
special type of pump, in 
which the plunger P is 
operated by a peculiar- 
Fig. 37. Excelsior Starter with Compressed Air Control shaped roller Cam H. 

Fig. 38. Indian Kick Starter 
Courtesy of Hendee Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Massachusetts 

The shaft of this roller cam contains the elements of a rotary valve, 
with openings at A and D, so that the oil is fed positively through a 
sight feed G on its way to the motor. There are no ball check valves in 
this construction, and a screw J enables one to adjust the amount of 


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oil delivered to the motor within very narrow limits. The intake oil 
pipe is shown at S. The oil is fed to the motor through the opening 
G. Since oiling is so important a part of the high-speed motor opera- 
tion, the development of this device has made a change in the 
reliability of the modern motorcycle. 

The quality of the oil used is of great importance in the life of a 
motorcycle. Each maker recommends oils suited to his machine, and 
it is well to follow these suggestions. 

Starting. It is hardly probable that the complication of electric 
starting will be adopted widely for motorcycle use, as it is generally 
more trouble to operate a power starter and keep it in repair than to 
use the simple form of .kick starter which has become so popular and 
which now is fitted to almost 
all American machines. 

Figs. 37 and 38 show 
forms of starters in use on the 
Excelsior and Indian motor- 
cycles, respectively. The 
main shaft on one side or the 
other is fitted with a small 
gear pinion which is fastened 
to the shaft on a ratchet or 

1 j. u f\cc j. F*S- 39. Typical Expanding-Band Brake 

over-running clutch. Off to CourUay of Harley _ Datid90n Motor company, 
one side is pivoted a gear MUuxtukee, w«con*in 

quadrant fastened to a pedal, which is often of the folding type. 
Pushing down qn this pedal with the foot meshes the pinion with the 
quadrant, and a quick thrust or kick of a quarter-turn will then turn 
the motor over several times at fair speed. When the motor starts, 
the small pinion is released, and a strong pull brings the quadrant 
back to its former position, out of mesh with its pinion. The pedal 
is generally fastened in this upward position by means of a clip so 
that it cannot rattle. 

Brakes. A number of types of brake construction are used on 
motorcycles, but they are mostly of the expanding- or contracting- 
band variety. Fig. 39 shows the construction of an expanding-band 
brake. The band is of springy material and covered with a brake- 
lining material. The shoe, or ring, fits inside the brake drum which 
is keyed to the rear-wheel hub. Operation of the lever pushes 


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the ends of the band apart so that it expands forcibly against the 
interior of the drum. 

A similar band may be fitted outside the drum, but in this 
case the fabric will be on the inside of the band, and the lever will 
pull the band tight on the outside of the drum. This is knowTi as the 
contracting-band brake. Fig. 40 shows the brake used on the Excelsior 
motorcycle combining both types, the expanding and contracting 

Fig. 40. Typical Double-Acting Band Brake 

Courtesy of Excelsior Motor Manufacturing and Supply 

Company, Chicago, Illinois 

bands being shown in section with their linings in place. The 
operation is by two levers, shown in the lower part of the illustration. 

Fig. 41 illustrates the pedals fitted to the Henderson motorcycle, 
which operate the brakes of this complete little machine. 

Drive. Belt Drive. The early motorcycles employed belt 
drives of either the V- or the flat-faced types. As the power output 
increased, the belt slippage became excessive and the chain drive 
began to predominate. In the new light-weight machines, however, 
the belt drive has reappeared, especially in the V-type of construction, 


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which consists of a continuous two- or three-ply belt of leather with 
blocks of leather riveted to it, Fig. 42. The blocks are about 1 inch 
thick, and the sides are beveled off at the same angle as the V-pulleys. 

Fi£. 41. 

Henderson Foot Rest and 
Brake Pedals 

Fig. 42. Peerless V-Belt for Motorcycle Drive 
Courtesy of Peerless V-Belt Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Shaft Drive. The Pierce Company of Buffalo at one time built a 
shaft-driven four-cylinder motorcycle, but discontinued it after a few 
seasons. The shaft drive is again announced on the Militaire, a 
four-cylinder machine, already shown in Fig. 14. 

Fig. 43. Indian Multiple-Disc Clutch and Three-Speed Gear Set 

Chains. For heavy powers the roller chain seems to have proved 
itself the most efficient. This construction is the outgrowth of bicycle 
practice, and we now usually find two chains, one from the engine to 
the gearset and the other from the gearset back to the rear hub. The 


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chain is made up of a series of rollers turning on hardened pins which 
stand between the side bars. If kept in proper condition, the friction 

loss is very small. 

Clutches. Several kinds of clutches 
are used on motorcycles, the one most used 
being of the multiple dry-disc type, as 
shown at the left end of Fig. 43. This 
consists of a number of thin metallic discs 
faced with fabric brake-lining material and 
keyed alternately to the center shaft and 
the containing drum. When springs are 
allowed to thrust these plates tightly 
together, the amount of friction generated 
makes a reliable drive between the drum 
and the central shaft. Suitable mech- 
anism is arranged so that, when it is desired 
to disengage the clutch, a lever or pedal 
can release this spring pressure and allow 
the discs to run free without friction 

Fig. 44. Sectional View of Reading- . , 

Standard Cone Clutch between them. 

Fig. 45. Indian Neutral Countershaft 
Courtesy of Hendee Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Massachusetts 

Metal-to-metal clutches consist of a set of metal discs brought 
into or out of contact by means of a lever. These are generally run 


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in oil to prevent their heating. When the spring pressure is applied, 
it takes a number of revolutions to drive out the oil from between the 
plates and thus prevent a grabbing clutch. 

The Reading-Standard motorcycle, instead of employing a 
countershaft back of the motor, fits an internal-gear countershaft to 
the side of the crankcase and drives from this to the main drive 
sprocket by means of an ordinary automobile-type cone clutch. 
This clutch is shown in Fig. 44. A cone on this clutch is faced with 
leather and operates exactly like an automobile clutch. 

Qearsets, or Change-Speed Mechanisms. Modern motorcycles 
are almost invariably fitted with change-speed gears, which might 
be classed as one-, two-, 
and three-speed types. 

One-Speed. The 
one-speed gear — if it 
can be so called — is 
merely a dog-clutch ar- 
rangement, Fig. 45, used 
to disconnect the motor 
from the rear wheels 
when the clutch is in 
engagement. The cen- 
tral part is a ring which 
can be moved from 
right to left in order to 

fit the notches in its Fig. 46. Dayton Multiple-Disc Clutch'and Sliding- 

# . A . , Gear, Two-Speed Transmission 

face into those on an 

adjacent ring connected to the driving sprocket. The sliding of this 

member is accomplished by means of the small lever. 

Two-Speed Planetary. Where but two speeds forward are 
desired, the planetary, or epicyclic, gearset has proven popular. 
This type, which is sometimes called the sun and planet gear, is 
made up of a nest of small gears which usually mesh with an internal 
gear at the same time that they are revolving about a common center 
gear. The small gears not only revolve in space, but also revolve 
upon their own axes. By holding the internal gear in place, a desired 
reduction can be obtained. Such gears were employed upon the 
Harley-Davidson and the Henderson; but, as mentioned before, the 


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trend is toward the three-speed sliding-gear transmission, and none of 
the late catalogues of the well-known makers list the planetary gear. 
Two-Speed Gear. Fig. 46 shows a Dayton sliding ring two-speed 
transmission fitted with a multiple-disc clutch, shown in section. 
This clutch is operated by a lever or pedal and, when in engagement, 
enables the sprocket at the left to drive through the gear mechanism 
to the middle, or main drive sprocket. If the small cam ring, shown 
in the center of the gearset, is moved to the left by a lever, the 
dogs engage a shaft from the lfeft sprocket direct to the main sprocket, 
so that one is driving on high gear. On releasing the clutch, the cam 

Fig. 47. Harley-Davidson Three-Speed Transmission 

ring in the center of the gearset can be shifted to the right to mesh 
with the smaller gear on that side, which is driven by the sprocket at 
the left. This gear now drives through the two lower back gears, back 
through the upper left-hand gear to the main sprocket, which now, 
instead of traveling with the left one, travels at about half its speed. 
This is low-gear position. This type of gearset is used on a number 
of prominent motorcycles, the differences being mainly in details. 
Three-Speed Gear. Fig. 47 shows a three-speed gear fitted to 
the Harley-Davidson, operating on the same principle as the two- 
speed gears just mentioned. At the extreme left is shown the clutch 
and the large and small sprockets. The lower shaft to the gearset is 


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the main shaft, and the two gears at the right on this lower shaft slide 
on keys on the shaft. The shaft is driven by a big sprocket, while the 
smaller sprocket is fast- 
ened to the left-hand 
gear. If the two sliding 
gears are shifted to the 
left, a dog engages them 
with the left-hand gear, 
these dogs being clearly 
seen in the cut. If the 
gears move to the posi- 
tion shown in the cut, 
the machine is on 
second speed, driving 
through the four gears TC o w L J , w . „, 

Fig. 48. Method of Mounting Transmission in 
Which are in mesh. If Harlcy-Davidson Frame 

the two gears are shifted farther to the right, the right-hand one 
of the two lower gears comes in mesh with the right-hand big gear, 
and the machine is on its lowest gear ratio. The method of mount- 
ing this gearset on the Harley- 
Davidson is shown in Fig. 48. 

A smaller three-speed gearset 
used on the Indian motorcycle is 
shown in Fig. 43 in connection 
with the disc clutch attached. In 
this case a single sliding gear on 
the princpial shaft makes all the 
connections and gives a progres- 
sive gearset of extreme simplicity. 
A gearset is a necessity on motor- 
cycles intended for passenger use. 

Electrical Equipment. Devel- 
opment from Battery Current. In 
the earlier davs of the motorcvcle, 

* \ Fig. 49. Itemy Generator as Used on Harley- 

the electrical Current for Ignition Davidson Motorcycle 

w r as furnished by dry cells and stepped-up to the required voltage by 
an induction coil. The next development was the almost universal 
equipment with high-tension magnetos, which generated the spark 


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mechanically and directly furnished high-tension current. With the 
coming of electric lighting and starting equipment on all automobiles, 

the motorcycle enthusiast saw 
the advantage of the electric 
head and tail lights, to say 
nothing of a warning signal, 
and was not slow to demand 
this upon his own type of ma- 
chine. The very nature of dry 
cells works against their con- 
tinual use for supplying head- 
light current, and the storage 
battery has therefore been the 
only solution of the problem. 
A storage battery, however, to 
be carried upon the motorcycle 

Fig. 50. Splitdorf Magneto Generator as Used A . . .. . * . 

on the Indian Motorcycle must be rather Small m Size 

a and thereby limited 

in capacity. 

In the history 
of automobile light- 
ing, the owner soon 
demanded that a 
generator be driven 
by the engine for 
the purpose of 
keeping the storage 
battery in a 
charged condition, 
instead of having to 
take it some place 
f for charging from 
an external source. 

Fig. 51. Parte of Splitdorf Mag-Generator The Same thing fol- 

Courtety of Splitdorf Electric Company, Newark, New Jersey \f\\v^A in +h*» mr»tr»i» 

cycle field ; and we have seen developed a series of generators, Fig. 49, 
driven mechanically by the engine, which are capable of keeping the 
battery floating on the line or of sometimes taking care of the lights. 


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Magneto Generators. These generating machines — the Splitdorf 
type shown in Fig. 50 is used on the Indian — are a unique conception 
and apparently have not been influenced by automobile practice, 
for the instruments usually combine a high-tension magneto and a low- 
tension generator. This combination makes a single-unit machine 
mechanically, but a double-unit machine electrically, there being two 
separate armatures, as shown in Fig. 51, the same field winding 
exciting both fields. In a way, it is wrong to speak of this as partly 
a magneto, because the term magneto implies the use of permanent 
magnets for the production of the mag- 
netic field. The armature, however, is 
of the regular magneto type and delivers 
a high-tension current to the spark plug. 
The generator armature is wound so as 
to deliver about three amperes of cur- 
rent at thirty miles per hour, charging 
a 6-volt battery. The above description 
covers, in general, the Splitdorf system. 

In automobile practice it is very 
common, at present, to use the battery 
or generator current for the ignition; 
and, in order to do this, a transformer 
coil is used to step-up the 6-volt current 
to the extremely high voltage required to 
jump the spark gaps. This coil is very 
often mounted right on the generator. 

The Same practice is followed On SOme Fig 52 Midco Magneto-Generator as 

of the motorcycle systems, one being the cI^^tKc^, 
Midco system used upon the Excelsior, Cleveland, dhio 

Fig. 52. The ignition current is stepped-up by two small coils which 
are mounted in a protecting case directly above the generator, as 
shown in Fig. 53. In a system of this kind there must be both a 
circuit-breaker and a distributor; these two devices are mounted upon 
the end of the main drive shaft of the machine as shown. 

Automatic Switches. In all electrical systems charging the stor- 
age battery, it is necessary to have an automatic switch between the 
generator and the battery and also some kind of device for regulating 
the output of the generator so that it will not rise to too high a value 


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"» $ 

■2 ^ 

w if 



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at very high speeds of the engine. The first instrument is variously 
known as a cut-in, cut-out, relay, etc., and is merely a device to keep 
the circuit open as long as the battery voltage is higher than the 
voltage being delivered by the generator. Of course, when the engine 
is at rest, the generator voltage is zero, and it is not until a road speed 
of some 8 to 12 miles per hour is attained that the voltage rises above 
the 6 or 6£ volts of the storage battery. If the circuit was not kept 
open during this period of still engine or of slow running, the battery 
would discharge itself through the generator. These relay cut-in 
switches are usually of the electromagnetic type; and the pull of the 
magnet when the generator is giving out seven volts closes the circuit, 
and the generator begins to charge the storage battery. If the lights 
are on, the generator may take care of the light load and, at high speed, 
charge the battery besides. As 
the engine slows down, our con- 
ditions for wasting the storage- 
battery current through the 
generator appear again, and 
the automatic switch opens 
the circuit. 

Regulation. Roughly 
speaking, the voltage and 
therefore the current, other 
things remaining equal, of a 
generator increases with the speed of the machine. If the generating 
device is designed to keep the battery in a charged condition at 
reasonable driving speeds, one can imagine the high charging rate 
that would result if there were no regulation of the output, and the 
driver "let her out" for several miles over a fine stretch of country 
concrete. Such a charging rate would probably burn out the winding 
of the generator itself and also cause serious damage to the battery, 
owing to overheating and a resulting buckling and falling to pieces 
of the plates of the battery. One method of regulation is to take 
advantage of the distortion of the field and attach one end of the 
field windings to a third brush, as at A, Fig. 54. This is known as 
the third-brush regulation and as the speed increases, the strength 
of the field automatically decreases, thus counteracting the effect 
that speed ordinarily has upon the current output. In other cases 

© ^^p^ ©J 

Fig. 54. Midco Third- Brush Regulation 


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the regulation is accomplished through the throwing in of resistance 
into the field circuit, which is done automatically by means of an 

electromagnetic device very similar to and often combined with the 
relay switch. 


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One- and Two-Wire Systems. There is the same variation in 
practice in the motorcycle field as on the automobile in regard to the 
one- and two-wire systems. The one- 
wire system is also known as the single- or 
grounded-return system, and the two-wire 
as the ungrounded-circuit system. In 
the grounded-return system but one w r ire 
is led to each lamp, and the current passes 
back through the fixture and through the 
metal parts of the motorcycle to the 
grounded side of the storage battery. In 
the two-wire system a wire runs both to 

. . i i 11 if Fig- 56. Splitdorf Ammeter 

and from each bulb, and there are two 

contact points in the base of the lamp bulb. Thus, in purchasing 
lamp bulbs, one must examine the old light to see w r hether it is of 
the single- or the double-contact type. 

It is not advisable to add much more electrical equipment than 
comes with the machine, such as cigar lighters, hand warmers, and 
what not, for these put a load upon the storage battery not calculated 
in the design, which will cause not only unsatisfactory holding of the 
charge but also a possible heating and buckling of the plates, ow T ing to 
excessive discharge. Fig. 55 shows the wiring diagram of the Midco 
system on the Excelsior amd indicates a double headlight of nine 
candle power and four candle 
power and a tail light of two 
candle power. It will be noted 
that the bulbs are marked 7-volt, ^f^ 9 / 
while the Midco is a 6-volt sys- 
tem. Seven-volt lamps are used 
because they give satisfactory 
light and still have a very long 
life. Six or six and one-half volt 
lamps will work perfectly well, wrwConn,eh7z 
but will burft somewhat more 
brightly and will not last as long. Fig 57 Co »' bination Hcadli « ht and Hom 

Ammeter. In case one has an electric generator and a storage 
battery upon his machine but no ammeter, it is well to provide such 
an instrument, shown in Fig. 56, as it gives a close check on the condi- 


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tion of the system at all times. The most valuable type is that with a 
zero in the center and a charge scale reading one way and a discharge 
scale reading the other. These instruments are usually wired into the 
system, so that they do not show the actual generator output, but 
rather the output and input of the storage battery. The rider, how- 
ever, soon learns to know whether or not the generator is more than 
able to take care of the lamp load at any certain speed, that is, whether 
it also can charge the battery. One of the valuable features of the 
instrument is that it will show a short-circuit of any account. 

Fuses. Another device in the electrical system is the fuse. 
This is a piece of wire which will melt when a current of greater value 

than is normal for the system is passed 
through it. The wire is carried in a 
small cartridge which slips between the 
clips on the fuse block. 

There is hardly another place where 
space is at a greater premium than upon 
the modern motorcycle; and to assist in 
its conservation a combined headlight 
and horn, shown in Fig. 57, has been 
brought out. 

Storage Batteries. The storage bat- 
tery, Fig. 58, which is such an essential 
part of the new complete electric-lighting 
and ignition equipment, is made up of 
a series of composition lead plates and a 
solution of sulphuric acid known as the 
electrolyte. The plates of two kinds, 
positive and negative, are assembled 
alternately positive and negative to form 
a cell. Each cell has a potential of a 
little over 2 volts, and there are therefore 3 cells connected in 
series to form a 6-volt storage battery. The capacity of the battery, 
that is, its ampere-discharge rate, is dependent upon the number and 
the size of the plates. Because of the very limited space on the motor- 
cycle, it can be understood that only a battery of small capacity 
can be used. It is, therefore, even more necessary than in automobile 
work to make sure that the generator is charging at its proper rate. 

Fig. 58. Typical Motorcycle 

Storage Battery 

Courtesy of Willard Storage Battery 

Company, Cleveland, Ohio 


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When the battery is fully charged, and everything is in good 
condition, the density of the electrolyte should be from 1250 to 1300, 
as read by the hydrometer syringe. As the battery discharges, the 
density decreases and should not be allowed to drop below 1 150. The 
charging and discharging of the battery results in the generation of a 
certain amount of heat, which causes the water in the electrolyte to 
evaporate through the vent plugs. This must be replaced at least 
once a week with distilled water which has not come in contact with a 
metal vessel. Ordinary drinking water or distilled water which 
has been kept in a metal vessel contains enough minerals to cause 
local action within the battery, which greatly shortens its life. The 
Society of Automobile Engineers has formulated a set of rules for 
the proper care of a storage battery. These rules will be found in 
the article on Electric Automobiles, or can be provided by the battery 
manufacturers. They should be carefully read by every storage- 
battery owner. 

Spark Plugs. While on the subject of electrical equipment, it 
may not be out of place to mention the variety of spark-plug stand- 
ards. The majority of motorcycles 
use what is commonly known as the 
metric plug, which means that the fine 
threads on this plug are cut according 
to the metric system. The £-inch pipe- 
thread plug, which is cut upon the 
same taper as the usual pipe standards, 
also is used in motorcycle engines. 
There is still another very common plug 
standard, which does not seem to have 
been taken up by the motorcycle 
makers, but which might be purchased 

easily by mistake. This is the S.A.E. Fig. 59. Simple Passenger Attachment 

for Motorcycle* 

J-inch plug with eighteen threads per 

inch. In the early days of the automobile industry, this same plug, 
which is distinguished by a shoulder and a copper gasket, was known 
as the ALAM plug. Every motorcycle owner should know with 
what type of plug his machine is equipped, so that he will not be 
buying and carrying about with him, for an emergency, plugs which 
would be of no service. 


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Passenger Attachments. The motorcycle has become so popular 
a vehicle that owners wish to take their friends with them, hence 
has come about the popularity of passenger attachments. Fig. 59 

Fig. 60. Harley-Davidaon Side Car 
Courtesy of Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

shows the simplest type of passenger attachment for motorcycles. 
This attachment consists of an extra seat that fastens at the back of 

Fig. 61. Harley- Davidson Commercial Van 
Courtesy of Harley- Davidson Motor Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

the driver's seat, which makes a tandem vehicle of the machine. 
Many thousands of these are in use in America. While at first they 
were viewed with a certain degree of contempt by the automobilist, 


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they have become accepted as a proper means of conveyance. Many 
motorcycle owners who are not possessors of this attachment fit a 
heavy cushion to the luggage carrier over the rear wheel and mount 
a passenger on this. 

Seeking for more dignity in a passenger attachment, motorcycle 
riders have adopted sidecars, shown in Fig. 60, as a solution. Separate 
upholstered body constructions are fitted with an extra wheel, all of 

Fig. 62. Rear View of Flxible Side Car Showing Truss Frame and Spring Arrangement 
Courtesy of Flxible Side Car Company, Loudon ville, Ohio 

which attaches to the side of an ordinary motorcycle so that the 
passenger may be carried in a comfortable conveyance alongside 
the driver. 

The Harley-Davidson Company also manufactures what is 
called a commercial van, Fig. 61. This, it will be noticed, is built 
on the same chassis as the regulation sidecar, Fig. 60, a box taking 
the place of the passenger body. Sidecars are becoming more popular 
every year, as the length of good roads is increasing. Their chief 


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disadvantage is the side strain caused by the pull of the third wheel. 
Improvements have been made in sidecar construction, as well as 
in all other motorcycle developments, and the design known as the 
Flxible Sidecar, shown in Fig. 62, is intended to relieve much of the 
side strain on the machine when rounding corners. Not only do we 
have sidecars and rear seats for carrying passengers, but there is man- 
ufactured a series of rear cars, which goes so far as to include a lim- 
ousine, Fig. 63. 

The framework for these sidecars, rear cars, etc., furnishes an 
opportunity for all kinds of commercial applications, and besides the 

Fig. 63. Unique Motorcycle Limousine 
Courtesy of Cygnet Rear Car Company, Buffalo, New York 

light delivery in all forms, including the motor wheel, the motorcycle 
chassis has been fitted out to carry machine guns, fire-fighting equip- 
ment, life-saving apparatus, etc. 

Cripples have also taken advantage of the sidecar and have had 
levers and rods rearranged, until it is possible for them to ride in the 
car and operate the whole machine therefrom. 

Novelties in Motorcycle Equipment. The motorcycle manu- 
facturers have lately made other substantial additions to their 


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equipment. One of these is the three-wheeled motorcycle in which 
seats for two or three passengers are built around the rear axle; but, in 




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the face of the failure of the cyclecar and the light-car type sand the 
consequent reduction of the price of the smaller standard-tread cars 


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to considerably less than $500, this new form of tricycle seems hardly 
justified. Improvements in the styles of package vans also have been 
made. Still another novelty has been put out by the Davis Sewing 
Machine Company, which consists of a three-wheel chassis carrying 
a fully equipped chemical engine, Fig. 64. Such a device has so much 

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more speed than the horse-drawn chemical engine and is so much 
lighter than the combination chemical and steam fire engine that its 
adoption should be a matter of time only. So many fires are put out 
by the aid of a few hand grenades or by the "chemical" that a light 
engine of this type, capable of 30 to 45 miles per hour, would be a 


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distinct advantage. These are useful in suburban districts where 
neither the water supply nor the fire-fighting equipment are always 

This tri-car is well built, the chemical equipment being carried 
on a steel frame running from the front axle to the crankcase. The 
load is carefully balanced, and seats are provided for two men. 

Front Stand. Each year brings out some small device which adds 
to the comfort of the motorcycle rider. Among the latest of these 
small improvements is the front stand, by which the motorcycle can be 
made to stand alone with the front wheel removed, as shown in Fig. 65. 
This will be particularly appreciated when the rider is in the country 
and has to work upon either the front tire or the front wheel itself, as 
that is the time when the soap box support is never available. 


The Motor. When the motor is in good working order, it 
requires practically no attention other than to supply it with fuel and 
keep it properly lubricated. When any serious trouble occurs, a safe 
plan is to take the machine to an expert and have it properly repaired. 
This will usually prove the cheapest way in the end. Some of the 
more common sources of trouble may, however, be located by the use 
of a little common sense and judgment. It is of fundamental impor- 
tance that the motor should be securely attached to its base, as other- 
wise it may be twisted around by the belt or chain, and thus thrown 
out of alignment. It is, therefore, a good plan to go over the motor 
and its connections from time to time, tightening up all loose nuts. 

A very common form of trouble is indicated by a knock, or 
pound, which will ordinarily be found to be due either to lost motion 
or to premature ignition. The pounding due to lost motion indicates 
too much play between parts which have relative motion and would 
most commonly be caused by looseness of connecting-rod or crank- 
shaft bearings. Premature ignition, on the other hand, causes 
pounding of a sharper and more metallic sound and may be due either 
to overheating or to the fact that the spark is advanced too far. In 
some cases it also may be caused by carbon deposits in the cylinder, 
which become incandescent and in this manner cause premature 
ignition of the gas, A good way to locate a knock is by the sense of 


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sound, which may be assisted by putting one end of a piece of metal, 
such as a heavy wire, against different parts of the motor and holding 
the other end between the teeth. The source of the trouble will then 
be indicated by excessive vibration as the wire approaches it. 

The forming of carbon in the cylinder is objectionable, since it 
causes overheating and loss of power as well as premature ignition. 
This can be avoided by occasionally injecting into the cylinders a 
small quantity of kerosene while the motor is warm, turning the 
engine over a few times, and leaving it thus over night. In the morning 
the kerosene should be forced out by turning the motor over; the foul 
oil should be drained from the crankcase and replaced with fresh oil. 

The leakage of gases from the cylinder, escaping past the pistons, 
because of wear either in the cylinder or in the piston rings, is likely to 
cause overheating of the upper part of the crankcase. When it is 
found difficult to turn the engine over, the cause is probably the over- 
heating and consequent binding of the piston. 

Valves. In order to obtain the best results from the motor, it 
is important that the valves should be properly seated, and that the 
springs should be neither too stiff nor too weak. It is somewhat com- 
monly supposed that grinding the valves will prove a cure for almost 
any of the ills to which the gasoline motor is heir. This is a mistake, 
and valve grinding should not be resorted to unless it is necessary. 
The grinding of valves is a comparatively simple process, but one that 
should not be carried to excess as it lowers the valve on its seat; 
this produces the same effect as does the lengthening of the valve 
stem, namely, prevents the valve from seating properly, thereby 
causing a difficulty greater than that which the grinding was expected 
to relieve. In order to grind a valve, a paste should be made from 
emery and oil. This should be put both on the seat and on the edge 
of the valve itself. Then the valve should be placed in position and 
turned slowly in its seat by means of a screwdriver, a steady pressure 
being maintained meanwhile; the turning should, for the most part, 
be in one direction but an occasional part-turn backward should be 
taken. During the process, care should be exercised to see that the 
pressure is in a perfectly vertical direction, as otherwise an uneven 
grinding will result. In order to tell when this process has been con- 
tinued long enough and the valve is properly ground, the surface of 
the valve seat and also of the valve may be coated with smoke from a 


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candle; the valve should then be placed carefully in its seat, turned 
completely around once, and examined. If the grinding has been 
properly done, a complete bright ring will be seen all the way around. 
Breaks in this ring indicate that the grinding should be continued. 
Carburetor. The proper action of the carburetor is of vital 
importance to the smooth operation of the motor, and, on this account, 
when anything goes wrong, it is very common for a beginner to 
decide at once that the trouble is in the carburetor and begin 
to tinker with it. As a matter of fact, however, it would be wise for 
the novice not to attempt any adjustment of the carburetor until 
he has made a careful study of the type he is using. 

Ordinarily, the motor should start without priming the carbu- 
retor, unless it has been standing a long time, or unless the weather 
is cold. In case it does not start readily, priming may be resorted to, 
although it should be remembered that over-priming does more 
harm than good, since the motor then becomes supplied with too 
rich a mixture, which is as hard to fire as one which is not rich enough. 
If the gasoline refuses to flow altogether even after priming, the 
trouble can sometimes be relieved by blowing into the opening of 
the gasoline tank. Ordinarily, about the only attention the carbu- 
retor requires is an occasional cleaning, the frequency of which 
depends very largely upon the quality of the fuel used and the care 
with which it is strained. In case the spray nozzle becomes so 
seriously choked that blowing into the tank will not relieve it, the 
difficulty can usually be overcome by holding the finger on the prim- 
ing pin until the carburetor floods, simultaneously racing the motor. 
The adjustment of the carburetor can be determined by observ- 
ing the exhaust. If the mixture is too rich, black smoke and red 
flame will appear. If it is not rich enough, it will be indicated by a 
yellow flame, while normal conditions are indicated by a blue flame. 
An important point to bear in mind is that the proper mixture varies 
with atmospheric conditions and that a richer mixture is required in 
cold or damp weather than when it is hot or dry. 

Ignition. In connection with the ignition system, it is necessary 
to be sure that all connections are clean and firmly made and that 
the insulation is sound throughout. In case of battery ignition 
it is, of course, necessary to see that the batteries are in good con- 
dition. In order to get the best results from the batteries, it is well to 


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have an ammeter with which to test them. New batteries should 
test from 15 to 18 amperes and about 1.5 volts. When a battery has 
run down to 4 or 5 amperes, it can no longer be depended upon and 
should be thrown out. Each cell should be tested separately, and it is 
never well to connect an old cell with new ones, as the old cell tends 
to reduce the life of the new ones. The terminals of a battery should 
never be short-circuited by testing directly across them with a wire or 
screwdriver, as a battery can be completely exhausted in this way in a 
short time. It is well to go over all joints and connections period- 
ically, making a careful examination to see that all binding posts and 
set screws are tight and that all points of electrical contact are bright 
and clean. The insulation also should be examined from time to 
time, looking not only for spots where the insulation has been worn 
away by chafing, but also for any places where it has become satu- 
rated with oil. Inspection of this sort is particularly important in 
the secondary winding, because the insulation in this winding must be 
much more perfect, on account of the high voltage employed, than in 
the low-tension primary wiring. In regard to the contact-breaker, 
it is important to see that it is properly adjusted and that the plati- 
num tip is clean and bright. 

A common cause of trouble in the ignition system is due to soot 
on the points of the spark plug. The spark plug should accordingly 
be removed occasionally and the points cleaned. 

The magneto is very seldom the cause of trouble and, under 
ordinary conditions, should not be tampered with by an inexperi- 
enced person. One common source of trouble with the magneto, 
which can be easily relieved, is the binding of the carbon brush in its 
holder, thereby preventing proper contact between the brush and 
the commutator. The same thing will, of course, result if the spring 
which holds the brush against the commutator becomes weak or is 

Lubrication. The matter of lubrication has already been men- 
tioned, but it is so vital to the satisfactory operation and to the life 
of a motorcycle that it will bear repetition. The oiling should not 
be a perfunctory operation to be taken care of at random, but should 
be done methodically at intervals depending upon the grade of oil 
used. Of course, it is possible to go to extremes and oil too frequently, 
but too much oil is more preferable than too little. 


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Only the best grade of oils should be used, as the difference in 
cost is only slight, and a poor oil is sure to cause trouble. The manu- 
facturers are always glad to give advice as to the kind and grade of 
oil best suited to their make of motor, and one would do well to be 
guided by such advice, since no one knows a machine so well as the 
maker, and it is also to his interest that the machine give a good 
account of itself. 

Tires. The principal point to be borne in mind in connection 

with the tires is that they should be kept pumped up hard, as riding 

on soft tires is likely to injure both the casing and the inner tube, as 

well as requiring more power to drive the machine. A tire pump 

should always be carried when on the road, and the condition of the 

tires should be examined frequently for any indication of softness. 

A spare inner tube, sprinkled with tire powder, carefully 

folded, and enclosed in a separate package, should be carried along 

for replacement in case of a puncture or a blow-out. In addition, a 

tire-repair outfit for making quick repairs on the road should always 

form part of the rider's equipment. 

In replacing tires with metal tire tools, care should be taken 
not to chip the enamel off the rim, as this will cause it to rust, and 
the rust will, in turn, injure the tires. On this account, it is well to 
paint the rims occasionally as a guard against rust. Grease and oil 
are very injurious to rubber and should never be allowed to remain 
on the tires, but should be washed off at once with gasoline. 

Control. The speed and the amount of power developed by a 
motorcycle depend upon two factors: the quantity of gas supplied 
to the motor; and the time at which the spark occurs with relation 
to the position of the piston in its travel back and forth in the cylinder. 
The devices for controlling these two factors or for regulating 
the throttle and the spark should be conveniently located so that they 
can be manipulated instantly, while at the same time keeping the 
hands in position upon the handlebars. 

Nearly all the earlier machines were equipped with the twist- 
grip type of control in which twisting one grip varied the position of 
the throttle and the other the position of the spark. This type of 
control has the disadvantage that in heavy going where a firm hold 
on the handlebars is necessary the rider is in danger of twisting one 
or both of the grips unintentionally, thereby varying the position of 


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the throttle or spark at the wrong time. This objection is overcome 
to a large extent by having the twist grip located in front of secondary 
grips which are rigidly attached to the handlebars. 

Handlebar, or lever, control is rapidly coming into favor. This 
form of control consists of levers placed in front of the grips with rod 
and knuckle joints or with wire cable leading therefrom to the car- 
buretor and to the spark mechanism. Cable seems to be the more 
satisfactory, for with its use there is no lost motion as is the case with 
the rod and knuckle-joint system. An advantage of the lever type 
of control is that the exact position of the levers can be seen at a 

Whatever the type of control, the rider should so accustom 
himself to its manipulation that he can, in case of emergency, throw 
off the power and apply the brakes instantly. In fact, these opera- 
tions should be so familiar as to become automatic. 

General Instructions. Before starting out, the rider should be 
sure that he has an ample supply of gasoline and oil in the tanks, 
never using anything but strained gasoline. The machine should be 
well oiled and the tires examined to see if they have sufficient air. 
All bolts, nuts, and screws should be gone over, and tightened if 
necessary. The wiring should be examined for loose connections 
or breaks in the insulation, and the batteries should be tested with 
an ammeter. Any excessive slack in belt or chain should be taken 
up. If these matters are attended to systematically before starting 
out, many an awkward and embarrassing delay on the road will be 

The matter of physical comfort while on the road is of impor- 
tance, and in order that the greatest degree of comfort be obtained 
the saddle should be placed fairly low and not too far back. The 
handlebars should be high enough to avoid the necessity of stretching 
or bending forward, and the bars should be so shaped that the hands 
rest upon them in a position which is easy upon the wrists. 

The rider should become so familiar with his machine that he 
can tell by the sound when it is running properly. Any unusual 
noise is a sure indication of something wrong, and the machine should 
be stopped instantly and examined for the cause. It is probable 
that the trouble can be located and repaired in a moment if attended 
to at once; but, if allowed to go on, it might easily develop into some- 


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-thing which would cause serious injury to the machine. The motor 
should not run for long periods of time on the stand and should 
never be allowed to race unnecessarily. 

No definite rules other than those which would be dictated by 
common sense can be given for governing the rider's conduct when 
on the road. A proper consideration for the rights of other vehicles, 
and particularly for pedestrians, should be observed, and one must, of 
course, take into consideration the rules in regard to speed limit which 
obtain in the particular locality through which he is driving. The 
machine should be kept under control at all times, so that it can be 
brought to a stop almost instantly in case of any sudden obstruction in 
the traffic. Also it is well not to drive too close to the vehicle ahead, 
as this may stop suddenly, while the one behind you may not stop, 
thus causing an awkward, if not serious, situation. In turning corners 
or in passing other vehicles, a wide curve should always be taken in 
order to avoid the tendency to skid, which arises from taking sharp 
turns at high speed. Always slow up when turning a corner. 

One of the principal causes which has brought the motorcycle 
into disrepute is the excessive noise caused by riders opening the 
muffler cut-out unnecessarily. There are times when it is necessary 
to do this, but the use of the cut-out should never be carried to excess. 
When starting on a trip which will keep the rider out after dark, 
the lighting system should be examined to see that it is in good con- 
dition, as it is required that the motorcyclist show a headlight and a 
tail light at all times after dusk sets in. 

Upon returning from a ride, the motorcycle should always be 
cleaned before putting it away or at least as soon as possible there- 
after. The longer the cleaning process is delayed, the more difficult 
an operation does it become. Mud which is allowed to cake upon the 
cooling flanges of the motor cuts off the circulation of the air and 
causes overheating. Oil running down from the bearings collects 
dirt, which is sure to work back into the bearings sooner or later and 
cause trouble, while the presence of mud and moisture on the machine 
causes rust, which soon injures the appearance of the machine, 
if it does not do more serious harm. In fact, cleanliness at all times 
and in connection with all parts of the machine is a golden rule of 
motorcycling, and is an investment of time which will give large 
returns in the satisfactory operation and life of the machine. 


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Carburetors. Probably the greatest number of calls made upon 
the motorcycle repair man are for the readjustment of the carburetor. 
This is flften simply a matter of ordinary adjustment, but where the 
owner finds himself unable to get a satisfactory adjustment, although 
he has been able to do so in the past, it is usually because of some fault 
in the carburetor or in its control mechanism. A common source of 
trouble is the sticking of the auxiliary air valve, which the repair man 
may often cure by a drop of oil on the shaft. 

In the types of carburetors where the amount of opening of the 

throttle valve controls 
some other function, as 
the lift of the needle 
valve, a great deal of 
trouble will be experi- 
enced by wear and subse- 
quent play of the shaft 
and connections carrying 
the throttle valve. The 
action will be very 
erratic, depending upon 
which way the play hap- 
pens to be when the 
throttle is being closed 
or opened; in fact, the 
engine may even speed 
up during the closing 
operation. The repair 
for this is usually a small bushing to bring the shaft back to firm 

When flooding of the carburetor is not caused by dirt under the 
float valve, it is usually a matter of a fuel-soaked float. These floats 
are generally made of cork, and the cure is to dry them out and recoat 
with yellow shellac. When the floats are made of metal, tiny pin 
holes, or porous places, in the soldering sometimes develop, which 
allow gasoline to enter and causes flooding. To discover the place 
of the leak, the float should be submerged in very hot water, which will 

Fig. 66. Di. 

lagrani Showing Bad Results from Using 
Valve Lifter with Too Great Pressure 


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cause the gasoline to vaporize and bubble through the leaking portion. 
After this has been marked, a fair size hole should be punched in the 
•top of the float, through which the entrapped gasoline may be drained 
out. The portion showing the leaks should then be soldered, and, 
after the float has cooled down, the hole in the top should be closed 
-with solder. If this top hole is closed before the leaks are soldered, 
the heat of soldering will cause a partial vacuum inside the float, 
resulting in a seepage of gasoline through a seemingly tight float. 
Valve Troubles. A great many times the carburetor and car- 
buretor adjustment will be blamed by the owner when the trouble is 
from some other source. For instance, the back-firing, which is the 
usual indication of a lean mixture, may be caused by poorly seating 
inlet valves. On the other hand, the galloping of the engine, which 
is usually the symptom of too rich a mixture, may be due to leaking or 
sticking exhaust valves. On the modern machines one of the causes 
for faulty valve spring and valve action is very often the accumulation 
of dirt inside the sleeves which cover the valve mechanism. The 
cure, of course, in this case, is a thorough cleaning. The cure for 
leaking valves is a matter of grinding in. 

Removing Valves. In the Temoval of valves the use of valve 
lifters has become very common, and their operation is so simple that 
little need be said concerning them. However, there is one warning 
which is worth while, particularly when using a type of lifter with 
which the operator is not familiar, and that is, that he does not catch 
the spring retaining-pin in the lower part of the lifter at the same time 
that pressure is being exerted upon the top of the valve, Fig. 66. The 
result in such a case would be a bent valve stem, which is very hard 
to remove. 

Air Leaks in Inlet Manifold. Irregular running may be caused 
by air leaks at the joints of the inlet manifold. The repair man's 
test for this is to take the priming gun in the gasoline tank and squirt 
a good quantity of fuel around all the joints. If these joints leak, 
the engine will die from an over-rich mixture. The same galloping 
effect that was noted from the poorly seating exhaust valve also may 
be caused by weak exhaust-valve springs. 

When an engine is cold, a certain amount of clearance must be 
left between the top of the tappet and the valve stem. This is in 
order that the valve may expand upon heating up and still not ride 


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upon the tappet, which would cause a poor seating of the valve. So 
far as wear upon the cam and upon the valve mechanism is concerned, 
it is fortunate that the motorcycle rider is not the fiend for silence that 
his cousin, the automobilist, has become. For this reason, the valves 
are set with plenty of clearance, .008 of an inch being good practice. 
In some cases the design is such that the cylinder actually lengthens 
more than the valve, owing to the heat of running. In such a case the 
tappet clearance would be increased instead of decreased upon 
warming up, and the noise would probably be excessive. Such 
engines, of course, may be adjusted much closer than the figure above 

Fig. 67. Handling Tappet Nuta with Two Wrenches 
Courtesy of Hendee Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Maasachusetta 

given. Both the owner and the repair man should have a set of 
feelers and also two wrenches of the size of the tappet nuts, Fig. 67, 
so they need not be forced to use a bicycle wrench for making these 
adjustments. With air-cooled motors, it is surprising how often the 
tappet clearances have to be checked up for good results. 

Overhauling. Where an overhauling job is on hand, the first 
thing, of course, is the stripping of all connections between the engine 
and the frame of the machine. In the repair shop, it is usually 
handiest to do all the overhauling work on the bench ; therefore the 
whole engine is at once removed from the frame. 


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Valves. The scraping of carbon and the grinding of valves go, as 
a matter of course, with every overhauling job; and, where the major- 
ity of the work is with one make of machine, considerable time may be 
saved in grinding in the valves by having a dummy valve seat. It 
has been found, particularly in the case of badly-pitted exhaust valves, 
that it takes a much longer time to obtain a satisfactory surface on 
the valve itself than it takes on the cylinder seat, and, therefore, this 
dummy will save the unnecessary cutting down of the motor casting. 
The dummy may be made of cast iron, from a special pattern, or it 
may be a portion of an old damaged cylinder. Another thing used by 
one of the large motor-car companies, and justifiable only where a 
great many machines of the same make are worked upon, is to have 
made up a special seating reamer that will give a convex surface rather 
than a flat conical one to the seat in the cylinder. The advantage 
claimed for this is, that it takes less grinding to obtain a gas-tight 
joint, and that the pounding action of the valve tends constantly to 
widen the seat. Some valves are designed with a flat instead of 
conical seat, but the grinding process is the same. 

Piston Pins. Whenever the engine is down, the repair man 
should not fail to look at the fastening of the piston pin to see whether 
there is any trouble in that direction. A piston pin which comes loose 
and works sideways will act exactly like the tool in a shaper, cutting a 
broad groove down the side of the cylinder. As a general rule, the 
piston-pin bearings are bronzed bushings, and, although wear at this 
point is not commonly excessive, poor lubrication or very great 
mileage will produce play. This causes a knock which is very often 
mistaken for a piston slap. The remedy, of course, is a new bushing 
or, very possibly, both a bushing and a pin. 

Big-End Piston Bearings. At the lower end of the rod, the big- 
end bearings in the large twin machines are usually of the roller type, 
and when these give trouble, new sets of rollers have to be fitted. In 
case it is simply a matter of wear from long service, slightly oversized 
rollers are used. This particular job is one requiring unusual care and 
skill, and the repair man should be absolutely certain that the rod can 
be spun on the shaft for any length of time without the rollers climbing 
or jamming owing to the presence of some of slightly different size. 
In some of the older machines, bronze bushings were used for the big- 
end bearings and these, of course, are much more easily renewed. 


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Gaskets and Washers. It has been found that it does not pay to 
try to use any of the old gaskets in putting the job back together, as 


Fig. 68. Set of Centers Made up for Handling Crankshafts 

they are almost sure to leak. New felt washers at the crankcase 
should also be used, even though the old ones seem in pretty fair 

Fig. G9. Method of Marking Timing Gears 
Courtesy of Hendee Manufacturing Company, Spring fidd, Massachusetts 

shape, for, before another overhauling, it is more than likely that the 
old ones will begin to leak oil. 

Truing up Crankshafts. When the built-up type of crankshaft 
and the double flywheel have been torn down, for the fitting of new 


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bearings or for some other purpose, it is practically sure to be out of 
true when reassembled. In some cases, a line is marked upon the 
surface of both flywheels, and the truing is done by placing the crank- 
shaft ends on blocks and striking with a soft hammer until a steel 
straightedge may be laid across the flywheels so as to exactly coincide 
with the two lines and show no light underneath on the flywheel 
surfaces. An even better way of truing the assembly is to have made 
up a set of centers, similar to Fig. 68, and, by the use of a machinist's 
gauge discover where the crankshaft is out of true. It is then 
straightened by the hammer method. In the first case, it is really the 
flywheels that are being trued, 
while in the second case, it is the 
more important shaft itself. Before 
the truing operation, the nuts may 
be drawn up good and snug; but, 
after the truing is done, it is found 
that they carf be drawn still tighter. 
Valve Timing. Marking Gears. 
In a complete overhauling job, it is 
more than likely that the timing 
gears have been removed for clean- 
ing and inspection, in which case 
the engine has to be re-timed 
upon assembling. It is usual for 
the manufacturer to place marks, 
in the form of little cuts or prick- 
punch centers, on the gears, Fig. 69 r 
so that they may be replaced in the 
proper manner. One method is to 
prick-punch each set of teeth while 
under some certain conditions, such as at the point of closing of the 
exhaust valve. Another method is to line up certain marked teeth 
with marks made in the back wall of the gear case. It sometimes 
happens that the manufacturer's marks are not found, and a new set 
of marks is put on by the repair man before disassembling the job. 
At a later date, both sets of marks may show up, with a resulting con- 
fusion. It is well, then, to know something of the valve timing, 
instead of having to depend blindly upon the marking of the gears. 

Fig. 70. Method of Following Out Valve 
Timing by Means of Scale 


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OjMiing of Valves Not on Dead Center. In the discussion of the 
principle of operation of a four-cycle engine, one would be led to 
believe that the inlet valve opened exactly on upper dead center and 
closed on lower dead center, while the exhaust valve had an opposite 
performance. This is theoretically true; but practice has shown that, 
owing to the inertia of the flow of gases and other little-known con- 
ditions within the engine, the valve timing can be changed consider- 
ably from the dead center points, giving marked improvement in 
the power output of the engine. 

Marking Flywheels — Automobile Practice. In automobile prac- 
tice, it is customary to speak of valve timing in degrees on the crank- 
shaft circle, and the openings and closing of the valves are usually 
laid off and marked upon the rim of the flywheel. Since in most of 
the motorcycles the flywheels are enclosed, this method is not em- 
ployed, and where the maker furnishes information as to the valve 
timing, it is in terms of the travel of the piston from the upper or 
from the lower dead center, as measured in inches. 

Getting Valve Timing with Scale. Where the cams are all made 
integral, only one point of the timing can be controlled, the other 
points being in a fixed relation, the accuracy of which depends upon 
the workmanship in the cam-grinding department. Since the closing 
of the exhaust and the opening of the inlet is important for smooth 
running, this is the point that is taken for setting the valves. Fig. 70 
shows a very easy method of following out the valve timing. A scale 
is dropped through one of the openings in the top of the cylinder, 
possibly the spark-plug hole, and, after the dead-center points have 
been noted, the crankshaft is revolved until the scale shows that the 
piston has moved down or up the desired distance from dead center. 
With the crank at this point, the gears are slipped into mesh so 
that the valve will be just opening or closing, as the case may be. 

In some cases, the inlet and exhaust valves can be timed sep- 
arately. Owing to the inaccuracies in grinding, one seldom can obtain 
both the opening and the closing points stated by the manufacturer. 
It is best, therefore, to set the timing on the closing of the exhaust and 
the opening of the inlet, letting the opening and closing, respectively, 
take care of themselves. 

The following timing instructions are taken from the instruction 
book of a well-known maker and are illustrative of the form: 


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Twin-Cylinder Motor 

The exhaust valve "should open when the piston is | inch to } inch before 
bottom center and should close A inch to A inch after top center. The inlet valve 
should open ^ inch to A inch before top center and close J inch to J inch after 
bottom center. With advanced spark, the motor should fire J inch to A inch 
before dead center. Time each cylinder separately as the interrupter housing 
steel segments are often out of line 

Single-Cylinder Motor 

The exhaust valve should open { inch to i inch before bottom center and 
close ^ inch to fy inch after top center. The inlet valve should open on dead center 
and close J inch to 1 inch after bottom center. The spark timing is the same as 
that of the twin. 

Oily Clutches. The dry 
clutches with alternate discs 
covered with a woven fabric of 
asbestos and brass or with copper 
wire give considerable trouble 
from slipping, owing to the 
presence of grease or to the glaz- 
ing of the surfaces. When grease 
is the cause, the clutch is disa- 
ssembled and washed in gasoline. 
One shop takes the plates and 
piles them in pairs and then sets 
fire to pieces of oil-soaked waste, 
shown in Fig. 71 , in order to com- 
pletely burn out all the grease. 
The surface is then roughened 
up with coarse emery cloth and 
chalked, after which the clutch is again assembled. The chalk is for 
the purpose of soaking up the grease and of giving a fairly harsh engage- 
ment. In case the trick has been overdone, a little engine lubricating 
oil squirted into the clutch will make the engagement easy again. 

The most clutch trouble has come when a side car has been 
added; and in one case the makers provided for this by so designing 
the clutch that the usual equipment of eight springs could be increased 
by eight when a sidecar or a delivery van was attached to the machine. 
This makes the clutch action suitable under all kinds of service. 
Most motorcycle clutches, whether of the cone or of the disc type, 

Fig. 71. Burning Oil Off Clutch Discs ] 


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have more than one clutch spring — usually three or five. It is of very 
great importance, therefore, in adjusting one of these clutches, to give 
the nuts on each spring exactly the same number of turns, otherwise 
the action will be very unsatisfactory and the clutch liable to serious 
damage. On some of the older cars with belt drive, the clutch has 
been accused of slipping, when, in truth, the trouble was with the 
belt. This resulted in continued adjustment of the clutch, until the 








rVGHT war. 


Fig. 72. Method of Sanding- In Brushes 

load imposed upon the thrust bearing was so great that it went to 

Cleaning Chains. A roller chain and set of sprockets is a highly 
efficient transmission unit when kept in good condition, but not 
otherwise. One or more times during a season, depending upon the 
mileage, the chains should be removed, cleaned well in gasoline or 
kerosene, and then let soak over night in oil. The next day, they 
should be hung up to drip until they are dry. There is no use trying 
to hurry the oiling process, as the object is to let the lubricant work 
into the small bearings between each pin and roller. 


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Although chains and sprockets are laid out by the designers, 
with such a number of teeth that the one particular link of the chain 
will be a long time reaching a particular tooth for a second time, it 
does sometimes happen that the wear is not evenly distributed. In 
such a case, a chain which was satisfactorily quiet and apparently 
having considerable service left in it will be found noisy, or will bind 
when replaced after the overhauling. As a matter of precaution 
before their removal, therefore, it is not unwise to mark, in some way, 
the position of the chains in relation to the sprockets and to return 
them to the same location after the cleaning process. 

19 - ** 



Storting groovm 


Fig. 73. Method of Undercutting Mica Insulation on Commutator 

Dirty Muffler. There is one unit of the machine which the care- 
less repair man or the amateur may neglect to go over in the over- 
hauling job, and that is the muffler. This is a grave mistake, for an 
air-cooled motor naturally burns a good deal of cylinder oil; and it 
will be found that after a season's running the muffler will be pretty 
well choked up with carbon. With an engine which has been burning 
an excessive amount of oil, there may even be an accumulation of 
carbon and oil in the muffler, which will be of the consistency of wet 
cement. These conditions produce a back pressure upon the engine, 
which cuts down the power no matter in what mechanical condition 
the engine may be. It is the allowing of dirty mufflers that probably 
causes so many riders to annoy the public with the use of the muffler 
cut-out. If the muffler is clean and clear, there is really no excuse for 


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the cut-out except in testing for engine operation, for, under these 
conditions, the difference in power attained is almost negligible. 

Electrical Troubles. Electrical troubles may be classified under 
two heads: short-circuits and open circuits. In the first case, there is 
a path back to the generator or storage battery before the current has 
reached the desired point. This is usually due to chafed installation 
or to a loose strand of wire. The open circuit means a break in the 
path of the current and often occurs at the point where the wire enters 
the connection to a lamp, a horn, etc. 

Short-Circuits and Open Circuits. A serious short-circuit will 
blow the fuse, and there is no object in replacing it with a new fuse 
until the point of trouble has been found, as the new fuse will, in turn, 
be blown out. A trouble lamp may be inserted in the fuse block, as 
shown in the Excelsior diagram, Fig. 55, and as soon as the difficulty 
is found, the lamp will go out. The open circuit is usually easier to 
trace, as the lamp or the horn in that circuit will fail to work, while 
the rest of the system will be in good order. 

Lubrication of Electrical Equipment Requires Care. Over-lubri- 
cation of a generator is a serious matter, for if oil works its way into 
the windings, it is liable to soften the installation and also to cause other 
damage. On the other hand, all bearings must be lubricated, particu- 
larly those running at the high speed that armature bearings do. 

Care of Brushes. In time, the brushes may need dressing and 
\ the armature brightening up. Fine sandpaper can be used for this 
purpose, as shown in Fig. 72. Emery cloth should never be used on 
the brushes or the armature of a generator, as emery is a conductor of 
electricity, and if it becomes embedded between the commutator 
segments, it will cause a short-circuit in the armature. After long 
service, the mica installation between the commutator bars may need 
dressing down, and the method of doing this is shown in Fig. 73. 

Storage Batteries. So far, the demand for storage-battery work 
on motorcycles has not become extensive enough for many motor- 
cycle repair shops to put in a battery charging and overhauling 
department. Many shops will probably do so soon, as the number of 
electrically equipped machines keeps increasing and small-capacity 
charging sets are being developed. At present, the regular battery 
service stations are best equipped to handle all major battery work. 


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Welding Field. The welding process is undoubtedly one of the 
greatest contributors to the efficient and economical manufacture of 
the modern automobile. It has made possible higher standards of 
body design and may be given almost exclusive credit for the light 
weight and great strength of the present-day motor car, producing 
stronger and better working parts through the use of pressed steel 
instead of the heavy castings or riveted parts, such as axle housings, 
Fig. 1, and manifolds, tanks, bodies, etc., Fig. 2. 

In the field of automobile repair it is rapidly assuming an equally 
important place, affording a quick and inexpensive means of perma- 
nent repair to parts no longer obtainable from the supply house or 
manufacturer and permitting the building up of weak parts or the 
altering of the chassis, as may be required. This great adaptability 
of the welding unit has made it an essential part of the equipment of 
every efficiently managed repair shop. 


Old and New Methods. The old systems — blacksmith, or forge, 
w r elding, and brazing — are now seldom used in automobile work. 
In fact, most blacksmiths have equipped themselves to do welding in 
the modern way, using it almost exclusively for their repair work 
because it is cheaper, simpler, more efficient, and can be used on 
materials which could not be welded by means of the old-style 
methods. The modern systems of welding include the flame and 
electric processes. Because it is almost universally used in repair 
shops, the flame process and the apparatus required in its use will 
be discussed first. Several flame-welding processes have, from time 
to time, been introduced, all utilizing oxygen in combination with 
some fuel gas, such as acetylene, hydrogen, city gas, natural gas, 
liquid gas, Blau gas, carbo-hydrogen, thermaline, etc. Many enthu- 


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FSg. 1. Oxy- Acetylene Welding in Manufacture of Rear Axle Housings 

Fig. 2. Ozy-Acetylene Welding in Manufacture of Automobile Bodies 


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siastic claims of superiority have been made for each of these combi- 
nations by their advocates. 


Advantages. The easy control and intensity of the heat devel- 
oped by the oxy-acetylene flame (approximately 6300° F.) and the 
adequate supplies of carbide and dissolved acetylene which are 
maintained in every industrial center In the tJnited States have 
proved the greater desirability, economy, and efficiency of the oxy- 
acetylene process. 

Another factor which has contributed largely to the popularity 
of the oxy-acetylene process is the comparatively inexpensive appara- 
tus required and the low cost of its operation. Its speed, portability, 
and the ease with which its method of operation may be learned by 
any intelligent workman make it especially well fitted to the nfeed of 
the automobile repair shop. Very seldom is any extensive disman- 
tling of parts necessary in making an oxy-acetylene repair and, for this 
reason, it simplifies greatly the work of the repair man. 

Gases. As is generally known, two gases are used in the oxy- 
acetylene process — oxygen and acetylene. 

Oxygen. Oxygen is manufactured from air by liquefaction or 
from water by electrolysis. The former method is by far the greatest 
source of supply, furnishing practically all the oxygen used in this 
country and abroad. Oxygen made by the liquid-air process can 
contain only an impurity such as nitrogen, which cannot possibly do 
any harm. On the other hand, oxygen made by the electrolytic 
method contains some hydrogen, which will render it dangerous to 
handle if more than two per cent is present. 

Because of the very high cost of an oxygen plant and the ease 
with which an adequate supply of compressed gas may be obtained 
from manufacturers' supply stations, it has been found impractical 
for even the largest consumers to attempt the manufacture of their 
own oxygen. 

Almost everybody is familiar with the appearance of the oxygen 
cylinder, shown at the right in Fig. 3, which plays so important a 
part in present-day manufacturing. These steel cylinders contain 
100 or 200 cubic feet of gas compressed to a pressure of 1800 pounds 
per square inch. They are furnished to the consumer without charge, 


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the customer paying only for the oxygen and returning the cylinder to 

the manufacturer when the gas has been exhausted. 

Acetylene. The acetylene may be obtained in cylinders, shown at 

the left in Fig. 3, containing 100 or 300 cubic feet, or, where large 

quantities are re- 
quired, it is generated 
on the premises. 
Though frequently re- 
ferred to as com- 
pressed, the acetylene 
in cylinders is really 
not compressed, but 
is dissolved in a sol- 
vent which has the 
property of absorbing 
many times its own 
volume of acetylene as 
pressure is applied. 
This liquid in which 
the gas is dissolved in 
no way affects the flow 
of gas except when the 
acetylene is drawn off 
from the cylinder at 
too rapid a rate. Ex- 
perience has proved 
that when the gas is 
used at a rate greater 
than one-seventh the 
capacity of the cylin- 
der per hour, the 
solvent is very likely 

Fig. 3. Welding Unit for Use with Acetylene in Cylinders, 

Mounted on Emergency Truck to travel With the 

Courtesy of Oxxodd Acetylene Company, Chicago, IUinoit A , , , . 

acetylene, lowenngthe 
temperature of the flame and thus hindering the work. To overcome 
this difficulty, where it is necessary to supply gas at a greater rate, 
several cylinders may be coupled to a manifold, or header, so that the 
total capacity is at least seven times their hourly discharge. 




Generators. By means of the acetylene generator it is possible 
to produce pure acetylene at less than half the cost of dissolved acety- 
lene, so that if any considerable work is to be done a generator 
will pay for itself within a few months or a year. In these generators 
small quantities of calcium carbide are automatically fed into a large 

Fig. 4. Low-Pressure Acetylene Generator 
Courtesy of Oxweld Acetylene Company, Chicago, Illinois 

quantity of water, producing the gas at just the rate required by the 
work in hand. 

There are two recognized systems of generating acetylene — 
the low-pressure system and the pressure system. 

Loiv-Pressure Generator. This type of generator, Fig. 4, delivers 
acetylene to the blowpipe under a pressure of less than one pound. 
This system has the advantage of maintaining at all times an abso- 


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lutely constant pressure, which is an essential requirement. The 
carbide feed is controlled by the rise and fall of the gas bell, in which 
the pressure is always the same, without the use of any pressure- 
regulating device. 

Pressure Generator. The pressure generator, Fig. 5, delivers 
acetylene at a pressure of more than one pound. The carbide feed is 
controlled by the pressure in the generator. As the acetylene is 
drawn off and the pressure decreases, carbide is fed into the water; 

Fig. 5. Portable Pressure Acetylene Generator 
Courtesy of Oxwrld Acetylene Company, Chicago, Illinois 

this generation of gas increases the pressure and the feeding stops. 
In order to compensate for this pressure variation, a pressure-dia- 
phragm regulator, or reducer, is necessary so that the acetylene may 
be supplied to the blowpipe at a constant pressure. 

The low-pressure generator furnishes the most satisfactory 
service under average conditions, though where portability is essen- 
tial, pressure generators of compact construction may be obtained to 
meet this need. 


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Welding Blowpipes. There are two types of oxy-acetylene 
welding blowpipes, namely, the low-pressure, or injector, type and 
the equal-pressure type. 

Fig. 6. Oxy-Acetylene Welding Blowpipe 
Courteey of Oxweld Acetylene Company, Chicago, IUinoti 

Injector Blowpipe. In the injector type, Fig. 6, the acetylene is 
delivered to the blowpipe at a pressure of only a few ounces. The 
oxygen at a higher pressure passes through the injector, Fig. 7, and 
expands rapidly into the mixing chamber. This rapid expansion 
and high velocity of the oxygen form a suction and draw in the acety- 
lene at a constant ratio. A slight variation in pressure of either 

Fig. 7. Section of Injector-Type Blowpipe 

the oxygen or acetylene is automatically taken care of by the injector, 
so that a neutral flame is maintained at all times. 

Pressure Blowpipe. In this blowpipe the acetylene is used at 
almost the same pressure as the oxygen. The oxygen enters the 
mixing chamber at the rear and the acetylene through a couple of 
holes at the side. 

Fig. 8. Section of Pressure-Type Blowpipe 

In the injector blowpipe the rapid expansion into the tapered 
mixing chamber sets up a whirling action and produces an intimate 
mixture of the oxygen and acetylene so that a ratio of 1.05 parts 
oxygen to 1.00 part acetylene is obtained, which is almost the theo- 


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retical or perfect ratio of 1 .00 to 1 .00. In the pressure blowpipe there 
is no means of obtaining such an intimate mixture of the gases in the 
mixing chamber; Fig. 8, which in most cases is not tapered, and con- 
sequently about the best ratio obtainable is 1.14 to 1.00. This larger 
amount of oxygen is, of course, wasted and, besides, tends to produce 
an oxidized weld. It is the surface oxidation, or burning, of the 
molten metal that leads some operators to believe that they are 
welding fast, while in reality they are only burning the surface and are 
not fusing the metal underneath. 

Oxy-Acetylene Flame. The oxy-acetylene flame is the hottest 
flame obtainable. Its temperature of 6300° F. is 2000 degrees above 
that of any of the other flames. This high temperature allows the 
work to be done quickly and with only a very slight loss of heat due 
to conduction and radiation. 

There are three phases of the oxy-acetylene flame, Fig. 18, 
namely, the neutral, or welding, flame; the carbonizing, or reducing, 
flame; and the oxidizing flame. Each of these has its characteristic 
appearance and it takes only a little practice to instantly recognize 
them. The appearance of these will be taken up later under "Flame 
Regulation ,, , page 25. 

Expansion and Contraction. These natural changes of the work, 
due to the heat of the welding, are taken care of in the case of rolled or 
forged materials by proper spacing of the edges or by holding the work 
in suitable jigs and, in the case of castings, by proper pre-heating and 
cooling. The most satisfactory methods of handling this feature will 
be taken up under the instructions for welding various materials. 

Preparation of the Work. This is a very important feature and 
should receive the operator's best thought and effort. A fair amount 
of reasoning and planning on the part of the operator before he 
attempts a job will save considerable time and keep the cost of the 
welding low. The operator should figure out several ways and means 
of handling the particular task at hand, and should then select the 
best. This applies especially to castings, such as crankcases and 
cylinders, which may be welded perfectly if the operator uses good 
judgment but which will be ruined if he does not. 

Welding Rod. Thin plates may be welded by bringing the edges 
into contact and fusing them together. For heavier work, the edges 
are beveled to form a groove, and a filling material, or "welding- 


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rod", is fused into the groove. In most cases a material similar to 
the work being welded is used. The operator may build up the weld 
by means of the welding rod so that the section at the weld is greater 
than the section before welding, thus insuring a strength even greater 
than the rest of the piece. 

Flux. A. suitable flux is used in cast iron, aluminum, brass, 
copper, etc., welding to dissolve any impurities and to give a film, 
or protecting coating, to the fused material to prevent oxidation. 

Both the welding rod and the flux used are extremely important 
factors in the welding and should be obtained from a reliable manu- 
facturer who supplies only materials that are tested and analyzed to 
determine their purity and suitability for the work. 

Strength of Weld. With proper equipment and suitable rods 
and fluxes, the strength of the weld will depend mainly upon the skill 

Fig. 9. Oxy- Acetylene Cutting Blowpipe 
Courtesy of Oxxoeld Acetylene Company, Chicago, Illinois 

and care of the operator. An operator who has had considerable 
experience and who is careful with his work should be able to obtain 
as high as 95 per cent the strength of the original material, although 85 
per cent may be taken as a safe lower limit for the average good welder. 

Working and Hammering. If the weld is hammered when at 
the proper temperature, its strength will be increased, in the* case of 
welds in steel, by making the grain of the material finer. 

Experience of Operator. Poor work due to carelessness or 
inexperience of the operator, poorly designed and cheaply constructed 
apparatus that is not capable of handling the work, may be held 
responsible for such failures as may occur in the oxy-acetylene process. 

The handling of the process is not difficult and, therefore, some 
operators undertake difficult jobs before they are sufficiently capable 
or experienced. When such a job fails, it is but natural that both the 


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customer and the operator should blame the process rather than the 
way in which the work was handled. Time may be very profitably 
spent in practice on scrap material before undertaking work on mate- 
rials with which the operator is unfamiliar. By thus laying the 
foundation for a satisfactory result, the operator may quickly develop 

Fig. 10. Electric Spot-Welding Machine 
Courtesy of Thomson Spot Welder Company, Cincinnati* Ohio 

his skill to the point which will bring him the confidence and patron- 
age of a constantly increasing number of customers. r 

Oxy-Acetylene Cutting. Cutting by the oxy-acetylene process 
is done by means of a separate blowpipe, Fig. 9, quite different in 
construction from that used for welding. A more detailed description 
of the cutting process is given on page 77. T 


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Methods. For a number of years electric welding was used as a 
laboratory experiment, but recently the process has been more fully 
developed. Two distinct methods are utilized: one, the electric- 
resistance welder, or spot-welder, Fig. 10; and the other, the electric- 
arc welding machine, Fig. 11. 

Spot-Welder. The electric-resistance welding process provides 
for the passage of a heavy current through the joint between the 
pieces to be welded, allowing the resistance of the bad contact to heat 
them locally until they are soft enough to stick together; squeezing 

Fig. 11. Portable Arc- Welding Outfit 
Courtesy of C & C Electric and Manufacturing Company, Garwood, New Jersey 

the pieces while soft will then cause them to adhere. This process is 
used mostly in making light automobile parts, such as mud guards, 
bonnets, etc., rather than for repair. It is also used to some extent 
instead of small rivets in light sheet-metal work and for spotting, or 
tacking, small parts together preparatory to welding them with the 
oxy-acetylene flame. 


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Arc Welder. In order to do welding with the electric arc, after 
suitable equipment has been provided, it is necessary to first connect 
the work to the positive side of the power-supply circuit and the 
welding electrode to the negative side of the circuit by means of wires 
or cables, with the regulating devices in circuit to control the amouut 
of current flowing. The negative electrode is then placed lightly in 
contact with the work and quickly withdrawn to make the circuit 

Fig. 12. Operator Using Metallic Electrode 
Courtesy of C & C Electric and Manufacturing Company, Garwood, New Jersey 

and draw the arc, thus providing the high temperature required for 

Electric-arc welding usually consists in using the heat of the arc 
to fuse, or melt, the filling material into the place to be filled, although 
the article worked upon may be melted down sufficiently to fill the 
space if it is large enough at the point to be welded. 

Two methods, or processes, using the arc for welding, are in 
commercial use, these being the metallic and the graphite, or carbon, 
processes. f 


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Metallic Electrode. The metallic welding process consists in using 
a piece of wire of the proper kind as the negative electrode of the arc 
and fusing it into place, drop by drop, Fig. 12. 

Graphite Electrode. The graphite process consists in using a piece 
of graphite, or carbon, as the negative electrode and fusing a piece of 
metal into place by the heat of the arc. 

Apparatus. It is possible, though not practical, to do electric- 
arc welding, having nothing but a source of primary current, and some 





Fig. 13. Wiring Diagram for C 6 C Welding System 

means for regulating the amount of current flowing, but the use of 
resistance only as a means of regulating the amount of current flow is so 
wasteful that other apparatus must be used for the sake of economy. 
It is well known among electrical men that a motor-generator set 
gives the best regulation of voltage, therefore, the leading arc-welding 
outfits in use today consist of a motor-generator set with suitable 
rheostats, resistances, circuit-breakers, fuses, indicating instruments, 
and switches for controlling the motor-generator and welding cir- 
cuits, Fig. 13. 


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From the foregoing description, it will be surmised that an electric- 
arc welding equipment will be too expensive in initial cost for the 
average auto repair shop. However, it finds a useful field in the 
welding of very heavy work where there is sufficient volume of it to 
justify the investment. 


Apparatus Required. The material in the following paragraphs 
must not be considered as instructions for welding but merely as a 
brief discussion of the various steps in making a simple weld. Com- 
plete instructions for connecting and operating the equipment are 
given in detail later. In general, the following equipment is needed 
for every welding job, no matter how small: 

(a) A welding blowpipe 

(b) A supply of oxygen 

(c) An oxygen regulator 

(d) A supply of acetylene 

(e) An acetylene regulator 

(f) Hose to connect blowpipe to oxygen and acetylene supplies 
Preparing the Metal. First, the edges of the two pieces of metal 

to be welded are chamfered or beveled, so that when they are placed 
together the two beveled edges form a V, the width of the V being 
about equal to the thickness of the metal. 

Next, the two pieces are placed together on a flat surface of fire 
brick, or other nonconductor of heat, so that the edges just touch at 
the bottom of the groove. This gives the line of the weld. The two 
pieces are then ready to be welded as soon as the apparatus is con- 

Connecting the Apparatus. To connect the apparatus, the 
following steps should be taken: 

(1) The oxygen regulator is connected to the oxygen cylinder. 

(2) The acetylene regulator is connected to the acetylene cylinder. 

(3) The one hose is connected to the oxygen regulator and to the 


(4) The other hose is connected to the acetylene regulator and to the 




(5) A welding head is selected and attached to the blowpipe. 

(6) The oxygen and acetylene are turned on and the blowpipe is 


Welding. The operator is now ready to weld. He takes the 

lighted blowpipe in his right hand, Fig. 14, and plays the flame upon 

the beveled edges of the two pieces of metal to be welded. The 

intense heat of the flame melts the edges and they flow together. As 

Fig. 14. Simple Job of Welding 

the edges flow together, the operator melts in new metal from a rod 
which he holds in his left hand, so that the entire goove is filled up, 
producing a perfect union or weld. 

When the entire groove has been filled in this manner, the 
operator turns out the blowpipe, and allow the metal to cool. 

The foregoing is a brief outline of the steps taken by an operator 
in performing a simple operation of welding two small pieces of steel. 

We will now take up these different steps and will give more 
specific and detailed descriptions of the welding apparatus and com- 
plete instructions in its operation and use. 


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Necessity for Care. It is proper that in the operation of the 
welding apparatus we should lay stress upon the importance of careful 
and orderly methods in the handling of such apparatus. It should 
be borne in mind that the regulators and gages are sensitive measuring 
devices, that in the blowpipe the orifices are carefully designed and 
accurately machined to permit the passage of a definite quantity of 
gas and, therefore, that rough usage and abuse will certainly decrease 
their efficiency. It is not necessary in this place to give detailed 
instructions for the operation and care of the various makes of appara- 
tus, because these are invariably furnished by the manufacturers with 
their equipment. 

Because of the fact that dissolved acetylene is most generally 
used in garages and small job shops, we will confine our explanations 
to the. use of apparatus with cylinder equipment. Owing to the 
greater simplicity of handling, however, the operator will have no 
difficulty in making use of generated acetylene when the opportunity 
arises. . 

Necessary Welding Apparatus. A complete welding station, 
Fig. 15, for use with acetylene dissolved in cylinders, consists of the 
following apparatus: 

Welding blowpipe G with set of welding heads 

Oxygen welding regulator C with two gages 

Acetylene regulator D with one or two gages 

Adapter L for acetylene cylinder 

Two lengths high-pressure hose E and F 

Darkened spectacles, wrenches, hose clamps, etc. 

Welding Blowpipe. The two types of welding blowpipes were 
described on pages 7 and 8, and need no further explanation as to 
the principles of operation. They are furnished by the manufacturers 
in various lengths to take care of various classes of work, from short 
light-weight blowpipes less than a foot long for light sheet-metal work 
up to blowpipes several feet long, which allow the operator to stay 
away from the intense heat as far as possible when working on heavy 

Welding Heads and Tips. About ten sizes of welding heads, 
or tips, are supplied for use on different thicknesses of metal and vari- 
ous classes of work, each giving its own special size flame. The ( 


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oxygen consumption of the various size heads ranges from about 4 to 
70 cubic feet per hour. In some makes the heads are made of one 

Fig. 15. Complete Welding Station 

piece, while in others they consist of a brass or bronze body and a 

copper tip, which can be easily and cheaply replaced when necessary. 

Working Pressures. The necessary pressures of the gas that are 

required by the different size welding heads are given by the manufac- 


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turers, and it is very important that the operator use only the pres- 
sures recommended if he wishes to get the best economy and the 
strongest weld possible. Some operators believe that by increasing 
the pressure above that specified by the maker of the apparatus that 
they are able to do the work more quickly and easily. This idea is 
wrong, because when the pressure is increased, the larger volumes of 
oxygen and acetylene cannot mix as well, so that oxide forms in the 
weld and has to be removed. This takes more time and is very likely 
to leave a slightly oxidized and weak weld. 

If the welding head being used is not large enough, use a larger 
size; never try to increase the ability of the smaller head by increasing 

the pressure. 

It is equally bad to use a pres- 
sure that is too low. If this is done, 
continual back-firing will result. 

Care of Blowpipe. If the blow- 
pipe is handled properly there will 
be very little deterioration. It 
should only be necessary to clean 
the replaceable and working parts 
and occasionally ream out the tips. 
The^ tips should never be 
reamed out with any instrument 
Fig. 16. cleaning Bio*™,* by Means of other than a copper or brass wire 

Oxygen under Measure ^^ ft , Qng ^^ Qm ^^y 

be taken that the orifices of the tips are not enlarged by reaming. 
If they become enlarged, they may be closed slightly by placing a 
conical swag over the end and tapping lightly with a hammer. The 
end of the tip should then be dressed off square by means of an 
extra fine file, and the orifice trued round by reaming with a twist 
drill of the proper size. 

The blowpipe may be cleaned by removing both the acetylene 
and the oxygen hose and connecting the tip to the oxygen hose. 
Fig. 16, and turning on the oxygen to a pressure of about 20 pounds 
per square inch, having the acetylene needle valve open and the oxygen 
needle valve closed, so as to drive any obstructions .through the larger 
acetylene passages of the blowpipe. Then close the acetylene valve 
and open the oxygen valve to clean out the oxygen passages. 


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Regulators. There are various types of regulators on the 
market today, but the most successful ones are very similar in design 
and construction. The principal parts of a constant-pressure regu- 
lator, Fig. 17, consist of the body proper, regulator valve, diaphragm, 
pressure-adjusting spring, safety-relief valve, and gages. 

The diaphragm may be either special reinforced rubber sheeting 
or phosphor bronze. The former is preferred, because it is less likely 
to crack, or split, is more readily replaced, and gives more sensitive 
regulation because of its finer elastic properties. 

Fig. 17. Section of Pressure Regulator 
Courtesy of Oxweld Acetylene Company, Chicago, Illinois 

Operation of the Regulator. Gas passes from the cylinder valve 
through the passageway to the regulator valve. The pressure over- 
comes the tension of the inner spring and moves the sleeve-piece 
toward the back of the regulator, opening the valve. This allows gas 
to pass into the diaphragm chamber and out of the regulator by way 
of the hose connection. As the pressure in the diaphragm chamber 
increases, the tension of the pressure-adjusting spring is overcome, 
the diaphragm deflects, the sleeve-piece moves forward, and the valve 


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closes partly op all the way. Then, as gas passes out of the regulator 
and the pressure in the diaphragm chamber decreases, the tension 
of the pressure-adjusting spring and the pressure of the gas entering 
the regulator move the sleeve-piece backward, admitting more oxygen 
to the regulator. The pressure in the diaphragm chamber builds up 
as before, the diaphragm deflects, the sleeve-piece moves outward, 
and the valve closes. 

Oxygen Welding Regulator. This is an automatic regulator 
which is especially designed for welding operations. It is connected 
to the oxygen cylinder and is designed to deliver oxygen to the blow- 
pipe at any uniform pressure at which the regulator is set. To do 
successful welding, the oxygen regulator must be as nearly perfect as 
it is possible to construct it. This device is required to reduce a 
pressure which may be as high as 1800 pounds per square inch in 
the cylinder and which is constantly varying, down to a pressure 
from 10 to 30 pounds per square inch; at the same time the regulator 
must keep the lower pressure constant. 

Oxygen regulators are usually equipped with two gages. The 
high-pressure gage shows the pressure of the gas in the cylinder and 
may be used to determine the amount of oxygen in the cylinder (see 
under Measuring Oxygen, page 99). The low-pressure gage shows 
the operating pressure at which the oxygen is being supplied to the 

Acetylene Regulator, The acetylene regulator is used with 
acetylene supplied in cylinders. It is connected to the acetylene 
cylinder adapter, and this to the acetylene cylinder. The acetylene 
regulator is designed to deliver acetylene at a uniform pressure, as 
needed by the blowpipe. 

Acetylene regulators are usually equipped with a large gage that 
shows the pressure in the cylinder, but which cannot be used to 
accurately determine the contents of the cylinder (see Measuring 
Acetylene, page 102). A small gage is not necessary with the low- 
pressure, or injector, blowpipe, because the acetylene pressure required 
by this type of blowpipe is very low — only a few ounces. With the 
pressure blowpipe, however, a small gage is necessary, because it is 
important to know that the acetylene pressure, which ranges from 2 
to 13 pounds per square inch, is supplied to the blowpipe at the 
required pressure for the tip used. 


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Care of Regulators. Never drop or jar a regulator. Do not use oil, 
grease, or any organic material for lubrication in connection with regu- 
lator. If it becomes necessary to lubricate the pressure-adjusting 
screw, or to repack a needle valve, make use of a little glycerine — 
nothing else. 

Do not allow dust to enter the regulator. Always insert the 
dust plug when the regulator is not in use. These are supplied with 
most regulators and are intended to keep dust out of the regulator 
when it is not in use and to protect the union nipple at the back. 

Do not change the regulator from one cylinder to another without 
releasing the pressure-adjusting screw. The diaphragm is liable to be 
ruptured if there is tension on it when the sudden rush of gas takes 
place as the cylinder valve is opened. 

Do not attempt to repair, adjust, or change the internal mechan- 
ism of the regulator, other than replacing the diaphragm and resurfac- 
ing or replacing the valve seat. Send it to the manufacturer for 

Do not replace diaphragms or valve seats with any material 
other than that supplied by the manufacturer for this purpose. 

Hose. The best hose that it is possible to obtain should be used, 
because it is really the most economical in the end, although it might 
cost more at the beginning. A good grade of two-ply hose will be 
found to be flexible, Jight weight, easy to handle, and, at the same 
time, will not kink easily nor be permanently flattened if heavy 
objects happen to accidentally fall on it. In selecting a hose, the 
welder should see that he gets a hose that has a finished inside surface, 
so that small particles of rubber and dust will not flake off and be 
blown into and clog the blowpipe or welding head. 

It is best to use different colored hose for the oxygen than for 
the acetylene to prevent errors in connecting and to avoid any pos- 
sible danger from interchanging. 

Care of Hose. Both the acetylene and the oxygen hose should be 
blown out occasionally so that dirt and dust will not be carried into 
the blowpipe. This can be done by removing the hose from the 
blowpipe, connecting each in turn to the oxygen regulator, and 
allowing oxygen of about 20 pounds per square inch to blow through 
it. Examine the hose, from time to time, for leaks by immersing in 
water when under pressure. 


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Preliminary Operations. The following directions are given 
as a starting point for beginners in the operation of welding equipment. 
The letters given refer to the labeled parts in Fig. 15, page 17. 

1. First open the oxygen cylinder valve B for a moment to 
blow out any dirt or dust which may have collected in the valve, so 
that it cannot enter the oxygen regulator when it is attached to the 

2. Remove the regulator dust plug and attach the oxygen 
regulator C to the oxygen cylinder A. 

3. Connect the oxygen hose E to the oxygen regulator and to 
the oxygen hose connection on the blowpipe G. The hose connec- 
tions are usually readily distinguished by markings on the needle 

4. Release the pressure-adjusting screw on the oxygen regulator 
by turning to the left until it is perfectly free. 

Do not open the valve on the oxygen cylinder until positive that 
the adjusting screw on the regulator is fully released. The diaphragm 
may be ruptured and the regulator put out of commission. 

5. Slowly open the oxygen cylinder valve B as far as it will go. 
Not part way. 

Do not leave the valve on the oxygen cylinder only part way open. 
This valve seats when fully opened or closed, but is likely to leak when 
open only part way. 

Do not handle the regulator with greasy hands nor allow any oil, 
soap,' or organic matter to come in contact with any part of the regu- 
lator or cylinder valve. Oxygen under high pressure coming in con- 
tact with these substances is dangerous. 

6. Wipe out the acetylene cylinder valve to remove any dirt 
or dust which may have collected in the valve, so that it cannot enter 
the acetylene regulator when it is attached to the cylinder. 

7. Attach the adapter L to the acetylene cylinder K. 

8. Remove the regulator dust plug and attach the acetylene 
regulator D to the adapter. 

9. Connect the acetylene hose F to the acetylene regulator and 
to the acetylene hose connection on the blowpipe G. 

10. Release the pressure-adjusting screw on the acetylene 
regulator by turning to the left until it is perfectly free. 


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11. Open the acetylene cylinder valve about three full turns by 
means of the wrench J. 

12. Select the welding head of the size suitable for the work in 
hand. Screw the welding head down firmly, but not too tightly, into 
the head of the blowpipe with the wrench provided for that purpose. 

Starting the Work 

How to Light the Blowpipe. 1 . Take the blowpipe in hand and 
open the oxygen needle valve fully. 

2. Turn the oxygen pressure-adjusting screw to the right until 
the required pressure for the welding head being used shows on the 
low-pressure gage. See the maker's chart for the correct pressure. 

3. Close the oxygen needle valve. 

4. Open the acetylene needle valve fully. 

5. Turn the acetylene pressure-adjusting screw to the right until 
a good jet of acetylene issues from the welding-head orifice. In the 
case of pressure blowpipes, turn the screw until the required pressure 
for the welding head being used shows on the low-pressure gage. (See 
the maker's chart for the correct pressures). 

6. Open the oxygen needle valve slightly and light the blowpipe 
by means of the pyro-lighter that is usually furnished. 

7. Open the oxygen needle valve fully. 

Note: A back-fire might occur when turning on the oxygen if there is not 
enough acetylene being supplied. If this occurs, increase the acetylene supply 
by turning the acetylene pressure-adjusting screw farther to the right. 

8. Adjust the acetylene pressure-adjusting screw to give a 
slight excess of acetylene to the flame. 

9. Adjust the acetylene needle valve to give a neutral flame 
(see under Flame Regulation, page 25). 

How to Shut Off the Blowpipe. In the case of the injector type 
blowpipe, first close the acetylene needle valve, and then the oxygen 
needle valve. 

In the case of pressure blowpipes, first close the oxygen needle 
valve, and then the acetylene needle valve. 

When laying aside the blowpipe for a short time, the pressure- 
adjusting screws on both regulators should be released by turning to 
the left until free. 

When work is suspended for any considerable time, the valves 
on both cylinders should be closed. 


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Never light the blowpipe unless some oxygen is passing through it. 
If the blowpipe is lighted, or burned, with only acetylene passing 
through it, there will be a deposit of carbon made in the tip, which will 
in time clog the orifice and interfere with the perfect operation of 
the blowpipe. 

Back-Firing. If the flame is not properly adjusted, or the tip 
becomes clogged, the blowpipe may back-fire. When this occurs, 
first close the acetylene needle valve quickly, then open it again fully 
and relight the blowpipe. If the back-fire continues, close both the 
acetylene and oxygen needle valves. Then relight the blowpipe and 
proceed in the usual manner. 

If the blowpipe becomes overheated, it may back-fire. When 
this occurs, it may be cooled by plunging it into a bucket of water. 
Be sure that the acetylene has been shut off and a small quantity 
of oxygen is flowing through the blowpipe to prevent water backing 
into the tip and causing further back-firing when the blowpipe is 

Oxy-Acetylene Blowpipe Flame 

Character of Flame. The oxy-acetylene flame consists of two 
parts — an innef cone, which is incandescent; and an outer envelope, 
or nonluminous flame, which is sometimes called the secondary flame. 

The temperature of the oxy-acetylene flame, taken at the extrem- 
ity of the inner cone, is very much higher than that of all other flames. 
It is calculated to be approximately 6300° F. One of the main reasons 
for the superiority of the oxy-acetylene flame over all other welding 
lies in the fact that this high temperature is concentrated at the point 
of inner cone. 

The character of the oxy-acetylene flame depends upon the 
proportion of oxygen and acetylene contained in the mixture and 
the thoroughness of the mixture as it issues from the tip of the blow- 
pipe. Varying proportions of the gases produce three characteristic 
types of flame, Fig. 18, called, respectively, reducing, or carbonizing, 
flame ; neutral, or welding, flame ; and oxidizing flame. Each type has 
its characteristic appearance, and it takes only a little practice to 
instantly recognize each. The welder should at all times observe 
carefully the type of flame produced and promptly correct any 


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Neutral, or Welding, Flame. A neutral flame is produced when 
acetylene and oxygen burn in the proper proportion, theoretically 
1.00 volume of oxygen to 1.00 volume of acetylene. The appearance 
of this flame is characteristic, Fig. 18 b. It is made up of a distinct 
and clearly defined incandescent cone, or jet, of bluish hue, surrounded 
by a faint secondary flame, or envelope, purplish yellow in color and 
of a bushy appearance. 

The incandescent cone may be from ^ to J inch in length and is 
usually rounded or tapered at the end. The maximum temperature 
of the oxy-acetylene flame is ^ to A inch beyond the extremity of 
this cone. 

Fig. 18. Oxy-Acetylene Flame. Top, Reducing Flame; Middle, Neutral Flame; 
Bottom, Oxidising Flame 

The middle illustration in Fig. 18 shows roughly the character- 
istic appearance and formation of the neutral, or welding, flame. 
This flame is the one most extensively used, and no welder is proficient 
until he is thoroughly familiar with its appearance and distinguishing 
characteristics and is able to maintain this flame under working 

Flame Regulation. The neutral flame is obtained by starting 
with a flame having a slight excess of acetylene and gradually cutting 
down the acetylene supply by means of the blowpipe needle valve. 
As this is done, the streaky appearance of the inner cone will 

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gradually diminish. The flame is neutral when the streakiness just 

Carbonizing, or Reducing, Flame. The reducing, or carbonizing, 
flame is produced when there is an excess of acetylene in the flame. 
This flame is of an abnormal volume, dirty yellow in color, of uniform 
consistency, and has a streaky appearance. By gradually decreasing 
the acetylene supply at the needle valve, the size of the flame is 
decreased, and gradually a white cone of great luminosity appears at 
the blowpipe tip. The extent of the reducing, or carbonizing, action 
of the flame is judged practically by the size and definition of the 
luminous cone. When this cone becomes more clearly defined and 
takes the form and color of a bluish white incandescent cone, or pencil, 
the streakiness is further diminished, and the flame approaches the 
neutral stage. The upper illustration in Fig. 18 shows a reducing, or 
carbonizing, flame that has a fair but not large excess of acetylene. 
The temperature of the reducing flame is considerably lower than that 
of the neutral flame. 

Use of Reducing Flame. A slight excess of acetylene is used in 
the welding of brasses, bronzes, aluminum, and certain alloy steels 
to guard against the burning out of easily oxidized elements. It has 
also been used in the case of certain mild steels to increase the carbon 
content to secure greater hardness. In this connection it must be 
remembered that increase in hardness is usually accompanied by 
decrease in strength, so that in general welding an excess of acetylene 
should not be used. 

Oxidizing Flame. An oxidizing flame is produced .when there is 
an excess of oxygen in the flame. The effect of too much oxygen is to 
diminish the size of the flame, blunt or blurr the inner cone, and pro- 
duce a weak, streaky, or scattering flame. In some blowpipes, the 
inner cone is not only diminished in size but is slightly bulged at its 
extremity as compared with the neutral flame, which is shown in 
the middle of Fig. 18. The lower illustration in Fig. 18 shows the 
oxidizing flame. 

Caution Against Oxidizifig Flame. An oxidizing flame should be 
carefully guarded against or it will become a source of trouble. An 
excess of oxygen will burn the metal, causing weak welds, and in the 
case of cast iron it will produce a hard weld that will be difficult to 


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Manipulation of Blowpipe and Welding Rod 
Position of Hose. Occasionally the hose is thrown over the 
operator's shoulder. In this case the weight of the blowpipe is sus- 
pended and held by the hose so that it is only necessary to impart the 
peculiar welding motion to the 
blowpipe, which can usually be 
done by the fingers. However, this 
method is not generally recom- 
mended, as it seriously hinders the 
free movement of the welding 
flame. It should be used only as 
a relief when the work is of long 
duration and the operator's wrist 
and forearm become tired. 

Position of Blowpipe. The 
operator, having lighted the blow- 
pipe and properly adjusted the 
flame, is now ready to begin weld- 
ing. Grasp the blowpipe firmly 

in the hand, as shown in Fig. 19. **• 19 - wS Bi^?p^ f Holding 
The blowpipe is so designed that it 

balances properly when grasped at this point. It is not good practice 
to hold the blowpipe in the fingers, because it is not possible to 

Fig. 20. Blowpipe Should Fig. 21. Blowpipe Should Fig. 22. Blowpipe Should 

Not Be Inclined Too Much Not Be Held Too Vertical Not Travel Backward* 

manipulate the flame with as great regularity and control, nor will 
it be possible to do as heavy work without tiring. 

Inclination of Blowpipe. The head of the blowpipe should be 
inclined at an angle of about 60 degrees to the plane of the weld. 


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The inclination of the head should not be too great, Fig. 20, because 
the molten metal will be blown ahead of the welding zone and will 
adhere to the comparatively cold sides of the weld. On the other 
hand, the welding head should not be inclined too near the vertical, 
Fig. 21, or the secondary flame will not be utilized to its full value for 
pre-heating the metal ahead of the actual welding. 

In ordinary welding practice it is best that the top of the blow- 
pipe be so inclined and so directed that the maximum amount of pre- 
heating is obtained without blowing the molten metal ahead. 

Travel of Blowpipe. The travel of the blowpipe should be away 
from the welder and not toward him, Fig. 22, as the work can be 
observed more closely and done more easily and quickly. 

Movement of Blowpipe. In making a weld a simultaneous fusion 
of the edges of the parts to be joined and the welding rod is necessary. 
If this does not occur, a true weld is not produced. 

Fig. 23. Circular Motion of Blowpipe for Fig. 24. Oscillating Motion of Blowpipe 

Welding Light Sections for Welding Heavy Sections 

In the case of parts which have been chamfered out and which 
require the use of filling material, a peculiar motion must be imparted 
to the blowpipe, which will take in both edges of the weld and the 
welding rod at practically the same time. 

In comparatively light work a motion is imparted to the blowpipe 
which will cause the incandescent cone to describe a series of over- 
lapping circles, as shown in Fig. 23. This overlapping extends in the 
direction of the welding. This motion must be constant and regular 
in its advance so that the finished weld will have a good appearance. 
The speed of progress should be such that complete fusion of the three 
members referred to is secured. The width of this motion is depend- 
ent upon the size of the material being welded and varies accordingly 
with the nature of the work. It does not take much experience to 
establish the proper size motion and the proper rate of advance for 
the various sizes and kinds of metals. 


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In very heavy work, if the above system were used, a great deal 
of the motion would be superfluous. Consequently, a movement 
in which the cone of the flame will describe semi-circles should be used, 
as shown in Fig. 24. This confines the welding zone and concentrates 
the heat. While the progress is not so fast, it is more thorough than 
the other system for this class of work. 

Importance of Movement. To the average beginner the regular 
control from these motions is difficult. It requires considerable 
practice and experience to become skilled in this, but it is the regu- 
larity of these motions that produces the characteristic rippled surface 
of good welding. The progress of a welder and the quality of his 
work can be determined to some extent by the skill with which he 
produces this effect. 

Position of Welding Rod. 
After the beginner has mastered the 
peculiar motions of the blowpipe, 
his next step will be to properly 
introduce the welding rod into the 
weld in such a manner that the 
regular advance of the blowpipe 
will not be hindered or retarded. 

The Welding rod, Or Wire, j^ 25< Correct Method of Holding 

should be held and inclined, as weidingRod 

shown in Fig. 25. In this position a sufficient quantity of material 
may be added at the right time. If the welding rod were held in a 
vertical or horizontal position, the welder would be liable to add an 
excess of metal, part of which would not be properly fused. 

When to Add Welding Rod. Great care must be taken in adding 
this metal that the edges of the weld are in their proper state of fusion 
to receive it. If the metal is not hot enough, the added material will 
simply adhere to the sides, resulting in adhesion only, not a true weld. 
It is, therefore, necessary to produce equal fusion at the edges of the 
weld with that of the welding rod by the correct motion of the 

How to Add Welding Rod. W T hen the proper time arrives to add 
the filling material, the welding rod is lowered into the weld until it is in 
contact with the molten metal of the edges. When in this position the 
flame of the blowpipe is directed upon it, and thus fusion is produced. 

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In welds of unusual depth the end of the rod is immersed in the 
molten metal and the blowpipe flame is played around it. The 
material is thus protected from the air and the gases of the blowpipe. 
The heat of fusion in this case is supplied mostly from the molten 
metal which surrounds the rod. 

Faults to Be Avoided. The usual faults of the average beginner 
are: first, failure to introduce the welding rod into the welding zone 

at the proper time; second, to hold 
the rod at the wrong angler and 
third, to fuse either too little or 
too much of the rod. The filling 
material when melted should never 
be allowed to fall into the weld in 
drops, or globules, Fig. 26. 

Building Up the Weld. In 

welding it is customary to build up 

the welded portion in excess of the 

Fig. 26. welding Rod should Not Be thickness of the original section. 

Allowed to Fall into the Weld in Drops ° 

There are several reasons for doing 
this. First, the weld is reinforced and the strength is accordingly 
increased. Second, in case it is desired to finish the surface there is 
sufficient stock to allow machining. Third, in some cases small pin- 
holes or blowholes may be found just under the surface of a weld, 
which do not extend to any depth in the weld and may be removed 
by filing or machining. 


The above are basic principles involved in producing all good 
oxy-acetylene welds. There are many detailed operations which 
must be learned by practice for the successful handling of the 
different metals, but by keeping in mind these basic principles and 
by applying them properly, the more difficult operations can be readily 

Haste Fatal to Good Welding. It is a fundamental rule for 
successful welding that the operator must give his undivided attention 
to the work in hand. Do not try to hurry over or slight any step of the 
work. You cannot weld faster than the metal will melt and fuse 


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Burning a Hole in the Metal. Occasionally an operator becomes 
so interested in some minor detail of his work that he allows the flame 
to burn through the metal and form 
a hole. 

How to Weld Up a Hole. It is 
a difficult operation for a beginner 
to fill these holes. His first at- 
tempts usually result in enlarging 
the holes instead of closing them. 
The proper way to take care of 
this is to incline the blowpipe so 
that the flame is almost parallel to 

the Surface Of the WOrk, Fig. 27. Fig. 27. Method of Filling in a Deep 

. . Hole—Start at the Upper Edge 

With the blowpipe in this position, 

play the flame upon the upper edge of the hole until the sides* become 
plastic, taking care that the edges do not become entirely fused. 
When the edge is in the proper condition, the welding rod is interposed 
and a small amount of metal is added to the top edge of the hole. 
This operation is repeated until the hole is filled in. As the work pro- 
gresses, the blowpipe is gradually raised until it resumes its normal 

Overhead and Vertical Welding. In welding overhead, Fig. 28, 
or vertically, Fig. 29, the same 
procedure is followed as in filling a 
hole. The metal should not be 
allowed to reach the state of fusion 
that is secured in ordinary weld- 
ing. It should be hot enough to 
assimilate the welding rod, but not 
so fluid that it will flow out of the 
weld. In overhead welding care 
should be taken that oxidation 
does not occur, because the 
molten oxide will flow from the 

weld and seriously inconvenience jig. 28. Overhead welding 

the operator. 

Beginning a Long Weld. In beginning a long weld pains should 
be taken to see that it is started properly, and at this point of the 



work time should not be spared. When the weld is properly started 
the speed may be increased. As the weld advances the speed becomes 

Kg. 29. Vertical Welding 

greater, because the material becomes heated up and the blowpipe 
action is faster. 

Defects in Welds. There are a number of sources of defects 
in welds, and the average beginner usually encounters all of them 
before he becomes a skilled welder. 

Improper Flame Adjustment. If the flame is not properly 
adjusted the weld will be inferior. The commonest fault is the 
presence of too much oxygen in the welding flame. Unless the 
operator takes a great deal of care in removing the oxidized particles, 
they will be incorporated in the weld, Fig. 30. The oxide, of course, 

Fig. 30. Oxidiied Weld Fig. 31. Failure to Completely Penetrate to the 

Bottom of the Weld 

greatly decreases the strength and greatly affects the other mechanical 
properties of the weld. 




Failure to Penetrate. A fault, not only of the beginner but also of 
the skilled operator, is failure to penetrate to the bottom of the weld, 
Fig. 31, and is the cause of a great many defective welds. In his 
desire to complete a weld as soon as possible, the operator very often 
hastens over the most important 
part of the work, which is to 
secure the absolute fusion of the 
edges at the bottom of the weld. 
Failure to do this not only 
reduces the section of the metal 

at the weld, but also gives a line of weakness in case the welded 
pieces are submitted to bending or transverse strains. 

Adhesion of Added Metal. When molten metal from the welding 
rod is added to the edges of the weld which are not in fusion, a weld 
is not secured. The added metal merely adheres to the cooler metal, 
Fig. 32, and perfect fusion is not secured. Adhesion may be caused 
by improperly chamfering the pieces to be welded, by improper incli- 
nation of the blowpipe, by improper use of the welding rod, or by 
faulty regulation and manipulation of the welding flame. 

The tendency of beginners is to not prepare the pieces properly 
for welding. Usually the chamfering, or grooving, is either not deep 
enough, that is, does not extend entirely through the section to be 
welded, or it is not wide enough. In welding pieces improperly 
prepared the tendency of adhesion is great. 

The most common fault is the addition of the welding rod to the 
edges of the weld before they are in fusion. The adhesion in this case 
is applied to both edges. Sometimes one edge of the weld is in fusion, 
but the other is not. In this case adhesion is applied to only one side, 

Fig. 33. Weld Not Properly Reinforced Fig. 34. Weld Properly Reinforeed 

but with the effect that the strength of the weld is lessened the same 
as when adhesion occurs on both sides. 

In some cases the edges of the metal are brought to a state of 
fusion too soon, so that oxide has an opportunity to form on the edges 



of the weld. Then, when the welding rod is added, adhesion occurs 
with a film of oxide separating the edges and the added material. 

Often an operator will concentrate the flame upon the welding 
rod and the edges of the weld. Then, as the blowpipe is played 
around the welding rod, some of the molten metal is forced ahead. 
The metal ahead is not in the proper state of fusion and consequently 
adhesion results. 

Insufficient Reinforcing. It is not uncommon to see welds 
produced that do not contain enough metal, Fig. 33. All welds 
should be reinforced with additional metal as in Fig. 34. In case a 
smooth finish is desired this excess metal can be removed by grinding 
or machining. Too great an excess of metal must not be added be- 
cause this takes extra time and the gases are wasted. 


Before the beginner takes up the actual welding of metals, it is 
necessary that he study their properties, peculiarities, and behavior 
under the action of the welding flame. Some of the physical proper- 
ties of the more common metals are given in Table I. 
. Melting Point. The first property that the welder should 
consider is the melting point or temperature at which the metal will 
fuse or become fluid. The average welder is usually fairly familiar 
with the difference in melting points of lead or zinc, and iron or steel; 
but he is usually not familiar with the difference between the melting 
points of brass, bronze, copper, white cast iron, gray cast iron, etc. 
This knowledge is especially important if it becomes necessary to weld 
members of dissimilar materials. 

Thermal Conductivity. The conductivity of a metal is its 
ability to transmit heat throughout its mass. This property, which 
is not the same for all metals and varies within wide limits, is of great 
importance to the welder. It can be seen that if one metal conducts 
or transmits the heat from the welding blowpipe more rapidly through- 
out its mass than another, it is necessary that allowance be made both 
as to the pre-heating equipment and the size of the blowpipe used. 

In welding metals of high thermal conductivity, it is necessary 
to use oversize blowpipes — as in the case of copper. Although the 


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melting point of copper is low, yet the conductivity is high, and 
consequently, a blowpipe of the same size as would be used on a smal- 
ler section of steel must be used. 

The conductivity of a metal will have a great bearing on tht 
consideration of expansion and contraction. If one metal absorbs 
or leads the heat away from the welding blowpipe more rapidly thac 
another, the heated area will become very much larger, and, conse- 
quently, the expansion and contraction more severe. 

Specific Heat The specific heat of a metal is the amount of 
heat that is absorbed when it is raised through a certain range of 
temperature. A metal having a low melting point but relatively 
high specific heat may require as much heat to bring it to its point of 
fusion as a metal of high melting point and low specific heat — as in 
the case of aluminum compared to steel. 

Coefficient of Expansion. The linear increase per unit length 
when the temperature of a body is raised through one degree is its 
coefficient of expansion. 

The coefficient of expansion varies materially with the different 
metals. Of the metals most commonly welded, as seen from Table I, 
aluminum has the greatest expansion, bronze and brass next, then 
copper, steel, and iron. Aluminum expands almost twice as much 
as iron or steel, consequently, in dealing with aluminum work it is 
necessary that this feature be considered very seriously. 

Expansion and Contraction. When a body of any material is 
subjected to an increase in temperature, it expands and its volume 
and linear dimensions are increased. When the temperature is 
lowered a reverse action takes place, the body contracts, and its 
volume and linear dimensions decrease. Metals or metallic bodies 
are very susceptible to this change in volume due to variations in 

The effect of this expansion and contraction is of great impor- 
tance to the welder. It is impossible for the welder to produce satis- 
factory work until he has a knowledge of the nature and the amount 
of expansion usually encountered and of how to compensate for it. 

The expansion and contraction of the welded piece cannot 
be controlled or arrested mechanically, because the force of expansion 
is irresistible. In malleable, or ductile, metals the expansion is liable 
to produce warping or deformation of the piece, while in materials 


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that are not of this nature — brittle materials — such as cast-iron, the 
result of the expansion and contraction, unless properly taken care of, 
is fracture. 

If the expansion can take place in all directions, it will give the 
welder no trouble, as the piece will expand equally all over, and upon 
cooling will contract to its original volume. If, however, the welding 
takes place at a point that is confined by various parts or by the par- 
ticular construction of the piece, it is then necessary to give it due 

The resultant effect of contraction, produced by the cooling of 
the welded object, must be considered equally with that of expansion. 
Contraction produces as much cracking, or checking, and warping as 
does expansion. Therefore, it is essential that the welder study not 
only the effect of expansion, but also the subsequent result produced 
by contraction. 

Methods of Handling Expan- 
sion and Contraction. There are 
many ways of taking care of 
expansion and contraction, such 
as heating the entire piece to a 
dull red heat, simultaneously 
heating opposing similar parts, 
and breaking the piece at certain 
points to allow free expansion and then re-welding at the break. If the 
material is ductile or malleable, it may be warped or bent out of 
shape to such an extent that the spring will take up completely the 
opposing force of expansion and contraction. This, however, entails 
an accurate calculation and should not be used except where no other 
means are feasible. 

Handling Simple Case of Expansion and Contraction. We will 
first consider the simplest condition of welding. Assume that a long 
bar which is free at each end has broken at point A, Fig. 35. In this 
case the welding may be carried out without any fear of encountering 
difficulties due to expansion and contraction. The bar is free to 
expand and contract at each end. While there might be some warp- 
ing or deformation due to the heat of welding if the blowpipe is not 
handled properly, yet, there is very little danger of weakening the 
weld because of internal strains. 

Fig. 35. Simple Case of Expansion and 


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Now let us assume that this bar is part of a casting, as shown at C, 
which is surrounded and joined to a rigid frame B and D. In this 
case the expansion and contraction due to welding must be taken 
care of. It is readily seen that the expansion is not the force that will 
cause trouble, because when the two pieces expand during welding, 
the metal, which is in a fused condition, is so soft that the expansion 
will take place in the weld and the edges will approach each other. 
This will not affect the confined frame. However, consider the action 
on the metal when it starts to cool. Contraction sets in and, as it is 
irresistible, there must be some compensation for the shortening of 
the bar C. If the material is ductile and one that will stand bending, 
deformation or warping will occur. But, if it is of low ductility, such 
as cast iron, a break will occur either at the weld or at a line of less 

Methods of Handling. In welding an article of the general 
nature, shown in Fig. 35, when the break is in an internal member, 
such as at C, there are several ways of handling it. 

Heating Entire Casting. The entire piece can be raised to a high 
temperature as referred to above and in this way produce an expan- 
sion in the entire mass, and, consequently, equal contraction. How- 
ever, this is not necessary, and in some cases is not possible; the 
operation also takes more time and costs more. It is only necessary 
at the time of welding to heat simultaneously similar parts to a good 
red heat, in order that the stiffness of the frame may be lessened, and 
thus take care of the contraction. 

Heating Confining Members. In the example referred to, the 
application of a pre-heating burner at the points B and D will cause 
the frame to expand in the linear direction of the expansion and con- 
traction produced by the weld. Therefore, when the weld is finished 
and the frame starts to cool and contract, the parts B and C, in as 
much as they were raised to practically the same temperature as the 
metal surrounding the weld, will contract equally and, therefore, a 
successful weld will be produced. 

Use of Wedges. If it is impossible to apply pre-heating at the 
points referred to, another method may be used. By the use of 
jacks, wedges, or similar devices, the casting may be sprung or bent 
out of shape, as shown by the dotted line, and the edges of the part to 
be welded may be separated. After the weld is executed and con- 


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traction sets in, the jacks, wedges, etc., may be withdrawn. The return 
of the sprung parts to their original positions will compensate the 
contracting strains. 

Breaking Another Member. Another method of taking care of 
expansion and contraction is that of breaking the piece at some extra- 
neous point, such as at E. In this case the expansion and contraction 
will be free to act at the point C without any fear of serious after- 
effect, as the casting is free to spring in any direction, because of the 
loose joint at E. As the point E is not confined, it is an easy matter 

Fig. 36. Complex Case of Expansion and Contraction 

to reweld this break without fear of any bad results. This method, 
however, is dependent upon the thickness of the metal and is one 
that should not be attempted unless no other means are feasible. 

While this diagram is extremely simple, nevertheless the prin- 
ciples to be considered and the methods of handling them are indenti- 
cal with those experienced in all practical work. A clear conception 
of the forces acting, the nature of their action, and how to counteract 
them, is essential in work with the oxy-acetylene blowpipe. 

Handling Complex Case of Expansion and Contraction. A good 
example of a complex case of expansion and contraction is the fly- 
wheel or pulley with broken spokes, as shown in Fig. 36. 


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Assume that the spoke is broken at A. If this were welded with- 
out considering and allowing for expansion and contraction, the 
shrinkage strain would be so great that failure would occur. 

Pre-heating the rim from W to X to a dull red heat will cause the 
rim to expand outwardly, separating the edges of the broken spoke. 
While in this state the weld should be made rapidly and then the 
entire wheel allowed to cool slowly. Thus a good weld without the 
presence of internal strains will be produced. The expansion of the 
rim, due to the pre-heating, will offset the contraction of the weld 
in the spoke. 

If the crack in the spoke is near the rim, it is only necessary to 
apply a gas or oil burner to the rim at M until it is at a red heat. 
This will expand the spoke and rim, and separate the edges of the 
break sufficiently to offset the contraction of the weld. 

The spoke may be welded at A without pre-heating if the confin- 
ing member — in this case the rim — is broken to lessen the rigidity. 
In order to do this the rim must be broken at a point P, always close 
to the spoke. First one side of the spoke is strongly tacked at the 
weld. Then the other side is welded two-thirds the way through. 
The tack is then melted out and the weld completed. The rim is then 
welded at point P. If the edges do not meet accurately, they may be 
brought to do so by heating either at M or 0, according to which edge 
is low. 

If two spokes are broken as at A and B, the same general pro- 
cedure as given above may be followed. In case it is necessary to 
pre-heat a large portion of the casting it is important that the pre- 
heated area always extend beyond the spokes adjacent to those 
fractured, from Y to Z. 

If two diametrically opposite spokes are broken such as B and C, 
each may be treated as independent of the other and welded by any 
of the methods given above. 


Reasons for Pre-Heating. Pre-heating is employed for three 
fundamental reasons: 

To Compensate for Expansion and Contraction. When pre-heat- 
ing is used to counteract the effects of expansion and contraction, it 
is necessary that the casting be heated either in certain confined 


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localities or entirely to a dull red, or in some cases to a bright red heat. 
With this treatment the internal strains existing in all welds are 
reduced to a minimum. 

To Decrease Cost of Welding. When a weld is being executed 
on a large casting, it is too expensive to supply the total amount 
of heat required from the blowpipe alone. To offset this, pre-heating 
by some cheaper method is used, and the result is usually a saving 
of from 25 to 60 per cent of the cost of welding by means of the blow- 
pipe alone. Then, too, it is possible to accomplish the welding with 
greater speed, due to the casting being at a higher temperature. 

To Make Metal More Receptive to Action of Welding Flame. When 
the temperature of a metallic body is raised, the state of the metal 

Fig. 37. Pie-Heating with Welding Blowpipe Fig. 38. Gas Burner for Pre-Heating 

surrounding the weld is more nearly that of the molten metal in the 
weld, and the result is a more homogeneous and smoother-grained 
fusion, dependent upon the temperature reached in pre-heating. 

Methods of Pre-Heating. There are various means of carrying 
out this preliminary heating. The method used should be governed 
by the particular work in hand. 

Pre-Heating with Welding Blovrpipe. The simplest method and 
the one most used on light objects is that of utilizing the flame of the 
welding blowpipe, Fig. 37. In welding thin castings, it is only 
necessary that the flame of the blowpipe be played upon the parts at 
the line of the weld for a few moments, in order that the pieces may 
obtain a red heat. This is, however, expensive, and should only be 
employed on small objects. 



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Gas and Oil Burners. If the article to be welded is of fairly large 
size, the use of gas, Fig. 38, or oil burners, Fig. 39, is economical. 

Fig. 39. Oil Burner for Pre-Heating 
Courtesy of Ox weld Acetylene Company, Chicago, IUinoit 

Fig. 40. Charcoal Fire for Pre-Heating Castings 

These pre-heating torches, however, limit the area of the surface 
covered, so consequently are used more successfully on that work 


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which requires localized pre-heating. The flames produced are of 
sufficient temperature, but not the necessary volume to evenly heat 
the entire casting. 

Charcoal Fire. The most satisfactory method of pre-heating is 
by means of a charcoal fire built around the article to be welded. 
The usual procedure is to build a small temporary fire-brick furnace 
around the piece and fill in with charcoal, Fig. 40. This is ignited by 
means of kerosene. As the progress of the ignition of the charcoal 
is rather slow, the pre-heating is carried out gradually. The nature of 
this pre-heating flame is of such evenness and volume that the tem- 
perature imparted to the casting is the same throughout its mass. 

In welding large castings of a complicated nature, such as engine 
cylinders, it is necessary that they be pre-heated evenly throughout 
and that the welding be carried on while the casting is at a dull red 
heat. Therefore, the most satisfactory means of accomplishing this 
is by embedding the casting in charcoal and carrying on the work 
while it is embedded in the hot coals. 


General Considerations. The welding of steel is apparently 
simple, but in reality it is a fairly difficult material to weld and 
should receive the welder's best thought and care. It is. simple to 
produce a nice looking weld that has a smooth even surface, but it is 
not easy to produce a weld that is strong and will stand up under 
service. Welds of high strength are absolutely necessary in cases like 
automobile frame and crankshaft repairs, because a poor weak weld 
might prove fatal. 

Oxidation. It is practically impossible to prevent a certain 
amount of oxidation; but it is very important that it be kept to a mini- 
mum. The oxide that forms on the top of the weld may be removed 
quite easily, because it melts at a lower temperature than the metal. 
It may be floated off the weld while hot, or removed as a thin skin 
after the weld becomes cold. Care must be taken, when adding the 
welding rod, Fig. 30, page 32, that this film of oxide is penetrated, 
because if this is not done the oxide will be incorporated in the weld, 
which will therefore be very weak. 

Expansion and Contraction. The effect of expansion and con- 
traction is not as severe in steel welding as in cast iron or aluminum; 


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but, nevertheless, it must receive due consideration. In steel castings 
it is taken care of in a manner similar to that used for cast iron, that 
is, by pre-heating. In sheet-steel work the creeping, or drawing, of 
the edges is taken care of by arranging the edges of the sheets at an 
angle, or by tacking, or by the use of jigs to hold the work. 

Welding Rod. Each welding head is designed for use with a 
certain thickness of metal. As the volume of the flame varies with 
the size of the welding head, care must be used to select a welding 
rod of the correct size in making welds in sheets of various thickness. 
There is great danger of burning a welding rod that is too small, or, 
if the rod is too large, it may not melt through and will enter into the 
weld in a semifused condition and not be thoroughly incorporated in 
the weld. The following table shows the proper size of welding rod 
to be used for the different thicknesses of sheets: 

Thickness of Shkst 8ik of Welding Rod 

Up to i inch ^ inch 

| to A inch i inch 

J to f inch A inch 

£ and over i inch 

Never use twisted wire made up of two or more strands, because 

this offers a very large surface for oxidation, which is a condition 

operators must try to avoid. 

Neutral Flame. The importance of maintaining a neutral flame 
at all times cannot be emphasized too strongly. An excess of acety- 
lene in the flame tends to carbonize the work, resulting in a hard 
brittle weld; while an excess of oxygen will oxidize or burn the metal. 
It is seldom necessary to adjust the flow of gases through the blowpipe 
after correct adjustment has once been made, except in the case of 
very heavy welding where the intense heat of the molten metal tends 
to expand the orifice in the tip of the welding head. This has some 
effect on the size and shape of the flame and necessitates more or less 
frequent adjustment to keep the gases in correct proportion to main- 
tain the neutral flame. 

Movement of Blowpipe and Addition of Welding Rod. In welding 
sheet steel, it is necessary that the oscillating movement previously 
referred to be imparted to the blowpipe and used continuously — 
both because of its high-melting point and the behavior of the molten 
metal under the action of the blowpipe flame. Steel cannot be pud- 


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died and it is therefore necessary to add the filling material in thin 
overlapping layers. The importance of securing a perfect bond 
between every two layers can be readily seen. To make a true weld, 
a simultaneous fusion of the edges of the sheets and the welding rod 
must be produced. 

To do this with light- and medium-weight sheets, a motion is 
imparted to the blowpipe which will cause the flame to describe a 
series of overlapping circles as previously described, page 28. This 
overlapping extends in the direction of the welding and, in order to 
make a weld of good appearance, must be constant and regular in 
its advance. 

In heavier plates, while the same rule governing simultaneous 
fusing of the edges of the sheets and welding rod apply, the filling of 
the groove is accomplished in a slightly different manner. On 
account of the depth of the weld the flame is not large enough to 
fuse a body of metal of so great an area, and it is impossible to fill the 
groove entirely from bottom to top with one layer of metal. The 
bottom edges of the groove must first be thoroughly fused for an inch 
or two before adding metal. When this is done, bring the flame back 
to the starting point and when the metal is in the proper molten 
condition add the filling material, oscillating the blowpipe in a series 
of semicircles, as previously recommended for welding heavy sections, 
page 29. Follow this method of filling the groove in sectional layers 
until the proper height is reached, making sure that thorough fusion 
is accomplished between the layers themselves and the edges of the 
sheet and the layers of filling material. 

After- Treatment. Correct after-treatment is as essential for 
successful welding of steel as the actual welding operation. Proper 
after-treatment will inprove the grain of the metal and will materially 
increase the strength and toughness of the weld. There are three 
principal treatments that will benefit the material and are easily 
employed in the repair shop. These are called annealing, hammering, 
and quenching. 

Annealing. Annealing consists of reheating the work to the 
proper temperature and then allowing it to cool slowly. The work 
should be heated to a bright cherry red by means of a blowpipe or 
suitable burner, or in a furnace that can be carefully regulated. Care 
must be taken that the work reaches the bright cherry red* because 


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heating to a lower temperature will be detrimental and may leave the 
weld weaker than if not annealed at all. After the work has been 
heated, it should be allowed to cool very slowly and evenly. It 
should be covered over with asbestos or dry sand, packed in lime, or 
left to cool in the furnace. Care must be taken that cold air currents 
do not strike the work before it has become cold. 

Hammering. Hammering consists of reheating the weld to 
the proper temperature and then hammering while at this tempera- 
ture with a hand hammer. The weld should be heated to a bright 
yellow heat and then hammered with quick light blows. Heavy 
hammers or heavy blows should never be used. The hammering 
should cease as soon as the weld falls to a dull red, for otherwise 
the fine grain of the metal will be spoiled and the weld will be weak. 

Quenching. Quenching consists of reheating the work to the 
proper temperature and then plunging it into water, brine, or oil. 
This method is used mainly for small articles. It is used quite often 
for hardening and tempering. Quenching should be employed only in 
special cases, because, although it will make the work strong, it will 
also make it hard and brittle. 

Light Sheet-Steel Welding 

Preparation. In welding two short pieces of flat steel, up to A 
inch in thickness, no special preparation of the plates is necessary, 

except to have them flat as possible 

and to be sure that the edges are 

reasonably true. The two pieces of 

metal should be placed on a level 

surface, preferably -fire brick or 

some other nonconductor of heat. 

E x p a n s ion and Contraction. 

With light sheet, expansion and 

contraction are cared for by tacking 

the seam at certain intervals or by 

arranging the sheets so that the 

Fig. 4i. Light sheets in Position for edges to be welded are set at a 

e slight angle rather than parallel, 

Fig. 41. The correct amount of divergence is determined by the 

thickness of the metal and should be from 2\ to 6 per cent of the 


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length of the weld. The amount of divergence between these limits 
varies also with the speed of welding, fast welding requiring less 
spread. After the plates are in this position, place two pieces of flat 
bar steel on each side, about \ inch from, and parallel to, the line of 
the weld. Clamp or weight these pieces down so that they cannot 
be readily moved. The work is now in position for welding. 

Jigs. In making this type of weld in flat sheet steel in longer 
lengths, up to several feet and up to A inch in thickness, a welding 
jig made up with two slotted jaws hinged at one end and provided 
with hold-down clamps at the other end will be found more conven- 
ient than the individual hold-down bars. 

Fig. 42. Jig for Holding Light Sheet Cylinders for Welding 

For welding short cylinders, a jig made similar to that shown in 
Fig. 42 will be found satisfactory. 

Tacking. Tacks, or short welds, at intervals of from 2 to 6 
inches, according to the thickness of the sheet, can be made the entire 
length of the seam to hold the edges in position for welding if jigs 
are not available. 

One of the above methods must be used to take care of the 
creeping action owing to expansion when the flame of the blowpipe 
is applied to the metal. If this action is not provided against and 
the two sheets are placed with parallel edges, they will first diverge 


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when the welding is started, as in a, Fig. 43, and then gradually come 
together. When about half of the weld has been made, they will again 
become parallel as in 6. From this point on as the welding continues 
the sheets will draw together until they overlap, as shown in c. 

(a) (6) (c) 

Fig. 43. Result of Not Providing for Expansion 

Welding Light Sheet* Select the welding head and a piece of iron 
welding rod of the size suitable for the thickness of the sheet and 
place the work in position for welding. 

As steel is very sensitive to the action of the carbonizing 
flame and particularly to that of the oxidizing flame, a constant, 
nonvarying, neutral flame should be maintained. The incandescent 
jet should be of maximum size and clear outline at all times. 

With the correct neutral flame, start welding at the point 
where the two sheets meet. Impart the circular motion to the 
blowpipe, described under Movement of Blowpipe, page 28, to 
produce the correct rippled surface on the finished weld. When the 

Fig. 44. Appearance of Good Weld in Light Fig. 45. Appearance of Poor Weld in light 
Sheet Steel Sheet Steel 

weld is finished, turn out the blowpipe and allow the work to cool 
until the metal is black. 

Then remove the hold-down bars and examine the weld. If 
you have followed instructions, your weld will have the appearance 
shown in Fig. 44 and will not be like that shown in Fig. 45. On 


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closer examination you will find that all the particles of dirt and 

impurities you noticed floating on the top of the molten metal when 

you were welding are now lying with the oxide 

on top and alongside of the weld where they can 

be readily brushed or scraped off. Now take s iMwCu£ 

your job to the shears and cut off one or two 

pieces. Upon examination, the cross-section should present the 

same uniform texture and color in both the weld and the sheet. 

Types of Welds in Light Sheet Lap Weld. Lap joints, either 

single or double, Fig. 46, should never be used 

in welding sheets of any thickness because ^■^■^■■■■■^■^ 

the weld will be subjected to a shearing strain. Fig. 47. Butt wdd in 
«t 1 1 1 1 11111 1 u 9h t sheet 

Welds when completed should be under 

tension or compression strains, never under shear or bending strains. 

BvM Weld. The most common and the simplest weld to prepare 
in light sheet is the butt joint, shown in Fig. 47. 

Flange Weld. Another type of weld in light" 1 
sheet, but one that entails some preparation, is ***- ^udfifiSE}*** "* 
made by flanging up the welding edges about A 
to & inch, Fig. 48, laying the two pieces flat and parallel on the weld- 
ing table and executing a flange, or 
edge, weld. It is not necessary to 
use welding wire with this type of 
weld, because the metal in the 
flanges when they are fused to- 
gether acts as a filling agent. By 
careful manipulation the edges can 
be fused down to a small bead, 
practically flush with the surface 
of the sheet. 

Cylinders. In welding light 
sheets that have been rolled in 
cylindrical form, the separation of 
the edges can be accomplished by r 49 Method of Wclding l^ Sheet 

placing a Wedge about tWO-thirds C^indere-Using Wedge to Space the Edge. 

of the way down the length of the seam after the welding is started, 
Fig. 49. As the welding progresses the wedge should be moved further 
along the seam and withdrawn entirely as the work nears completion. 


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Tacking can also be resorted to in welding cylindrical forms, 
although this results in the deformation of the cylinder, as shown 

in Fig. 50, and makes it necessary 
to hammer or re-roll the cylinder 
into shape. 

The edges of very light sheet 
cylinders can be flanged and an 
edge, or flange weld, executed; but 
this method cannot be recom- 
mended with sheets heavier than 
tV inch. 

Corner Welds. In making a 
comer weld in the lighter gage 
sheets up to A inch, the edges of 
the sheet should be flanged, as 
shown in Fig. 51. In sheets from 
Fig. 50. Result of Tacking a Light sheet A to A inches in thickness, it is 

Cylinder— The^Weld Draws up Pointed , , t . . - 

only necessary that the edges of 
the sheets run as true as possible in position, as shown in Fig. 52. 
Tacking is necessary in this case, as the sheets, due to expansion, 


Fig. 51. Corner Weld Fig. 52. Corner Weld Fig. 53. Sharp Corner 

for Very Light Sheets, for Light Sheets, & to Weld for Light Sheets 

up to A Inch Thick A Inch Thick 

readily move out of position when welding is commenced. On welds 
of this latter type it is necessary to use welding wire. 

Two other forms of corner 

welds are illustrated in Figs. 53 

and 54. These sheets should be 

tacked and, if tV inch or thicker, 

, * ^ , ^ «r ^ * welding wire should be used. 

Fig. 54. Broad Corner Weld for ° . 

light sheets Tank Heads. In making 

tanks when either a bottom or heads in both ends are required, the 
method of putting in the heads is governed by the design and pur- 
pose for which the tank is intended. 


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Storage Tanks. If the tank is to be used as a storage receptacle, 
such as gasoline tanks, the heads can be cut to the outside diameter 
of the shell, laid flat on the end of the shell and tacked at intervals 
all the way around, Fig. 55. Then the shell, with the heads securely 
tacked in place, is laid on its side and the welding is started at any 
point, the tank being turned, from time to time, as the welding 
progresses. Or, the heads can be flanged to any depth desired, 
and backed into the shell until the edge of the flange and the edge of 
the shell are even, Fig. 56, making sure that the head fits the shell 
snugly. They are then tacked and welded in an upright position. 
This latter method is the better of the two from the welding stand- 

Pressure Tanks. When a tank is built to stand a considerable 
pressure, such as air-compressor tanks, the heads should always be 
dished and flanged, the boiler-maker's standard specifications govern 

Fig. 55. Head Weld 
for Storage Tanks 

Fig. 56. Head Weld for 
Storage and Medium- 
Pressure Tanks 

Fig. 57. Head Weld 
for Pressure Tanks 

this. The heads can be either backed in and an edge weld made, 
Fig. 56, or set up so that the edges of the flange exactly meet the 
edges of the shell, Fig. 57. In either case the parts should be tacked 
together before welding. In the second case, care should be used 
in flanging to have the outside diameter of the flange exactly the 
same as the outside diameter of the shell. This method is the best 
because the weld is under direct tension or straight pull. 

Tubes. Light-weight tubing should be squared off and fitted 
nicely before t welding is attempted. It should be tacked in several 
places and then welded. 

Heavy Sheet-Steel Welding 

Preparation. In welding heavy sheet metal above A inch in 
thickness, a certain amount of preparation is necessary. The 
success of the weld depends in a great measure upon the proper 


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preparation of the work to be welded. While the preparation is 
governed largely by the particular location of the weld and form 
of the sheets to be welded, there are certain general rules that must 

always be observed. 

In making a perfect 
weld it is necessary that 
the metal at the weld 
be completely fused 
throughout its entire 
thickness. In light sheets 
the projection of the 
flame is great enough to 
produce this result, but heavy sheets would require a flame of such 
magnitude that it could not be readily handled. Therefore, in order 
to facilitate complete fusion, the edges of the sheets to be welded are 

Fig. 58. Heavy Sheets in Position for Welding 

Fig. 59. Welding Heavy Plate Steel Cylinder 
Note grooving of edges, spacing clamps and wedge about half way along the seam 

chamfered or beveled to form a V-groove, the width of this V being 
equivalent, or nearly so, to the thickness of the metal. 


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Expansion and Contraction. With heavy sheet, expansion and 
contraction are cared for by observing the same rules of spacing, 
Fig. 58, and clamping, Fig. 59, or, in some cases, tacking, in order 
to hold the work in position for welding, as described for light 
sheets on page 47. 

Welding Heavy Sheet Select a welding head and a piece of 
iron welding rod of the proper size to accomplish the work in hand. 

Because steel is sensitive to the carbonizing and oxidizing flames, 
it is necessary to maintain the correct oxygen pressure and a neutral 
flame at all times. In ordinary heavy sheet welding there are two 
general methods of procedure, either of which will produce a good 
weld when properly executed. These methods may be called weld- 
ing by sections, and continuous welding. 

Welding by Sections. Welding is started by first playing the 
flame of the blowpipe along the edges of the pieces to be welded. 
This is done merely as a preliminary heat treatment. The flame 
is then played on the bottom of the groove at the beginning of the 
weld until the edges are in a molten condition, at which time the 
blowpipe is momentarily withdrawn and the molten metal allowed 
to flow together. This is done without the aid of any filling material. 
Care must be exercised at this point, because successful welding 
depends upon complete penetration and perfect union of the bottom 
edges. When a perfect union of the two members is secured for 
about one or two inches, the welding rod is brought into use. By 
playing the flame around the welding rod in contact with the edges 
of the weld instead of directly on the welding rod, it is possible 
to bring them both to the point of fusion simultaneously. The rod 
is then gradually added to the weld, layer by layer, until this par- 
ticular section of the weld is built up to the required height. The 
flame is then played on the face of the metal just added and on the 
bottom of the groove until fusion of these parts is secured. The 
welder then repeats the operation described above until the next 
small section of the groove is filled up to the proper level. The 
welding progresses by means of these small sections, each being built 
up completely before another is started. 

While the metal is in a fused condition, the velocity of the flame 
will cause the. molten metal to become slightly indented. The 
flame should be withdrawn momentarily, from time to time, thus 


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allowing the fluid metal to flow back to its normal level, in which 
position it will solidify. Skill in steel welding depends greatly on 
this manipulation, as the flowing together of the different molten 
centers produces the weld. 

Continuous Welding. In this method the weld advances con- 
tinuously with each addition of metal. By this method the metal 
is added in short layers, sloping rather than horizontal, The weld 
is started by fusing together the bottom edges of the groove as pre- 
viously described. The filling material is then added so that it 
will be from J to J inch high at the starting point and slope to nothing 
in a length of 1 or 1$ inches along the bottom of the groove. This 
will give an inclined surface to which the filling material is added 
in parallel layers. The added metal being on a sloping plane, the 
fusion of the bottom edges is always carried ahead with the welding, 
as each layer includes a small section of the bottom of the groove. 

Types of Welds in Heavy Sheet Lap Weld. As explained on 
page 48, the lap weld should never be used. 

Butt Weld. The beveled or grooved butt joint is the only 
welded joint that should be employed on heavy sheets, Fig. 60. 

The most satisfactory method of 
fl L^| I handling the work is to space the 

edges, because tacking is very 

Fig. 60. Butt Weld in Heavy Sheet ,., , . . , ,, , . 

likely to not hold on heavy sheets. 

Never weld sheets from both sides, because unequal strains 
are likely to be introduced by localized heating when working on 
the second side. 

Cylinders. Heavy cylinders should also be prepared for the 
grooved butt weld, for the same reasons as for heavy sheets. 

I w ■ CO 

Fig. 61. Corner Welds for Heavy Sheet* 

Corner Welds. The two most satisfactory corner welds for 
heavy sheet are shown in Fig. 61. Although the second is a little 


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more costly to prepare, it is more satisfactory than the first because 
it insures better penetration. 

Tank Heads. In welding bottoms or heads in tanks of heavy 
sheet, the purpose for which the tank is to be used governs the method 
of constructing the heads as it does in welding tanks of lighter gage. 
The same general rules apply in both cases, the main difference being 


Fig. 62. Head Weld for 
8torage Tanks 

Pig. 63. Head Weld for 
Medium-Pressure Tanks 

Fig. 64. Head Weld for 
High-Pressure Tanks 

that the edges of the heavy shells and heads are chamfered, de- 
pendent on the design of the tank. All require tacking to hold the 
members in position for welding. 

Storage Tanks. In the case of putting on a flat head, the edge 
of the head only is chamfered, Fig. 62, while in putting in a flanged 
head where an edge weld is to be executed, as in Fig. 63, both shell 
and head are chamfered to make the V-groove. 





Fig. 65. Welds for Tank Reinforcing Rings 

HighrPressure Tanks. When a head is put in, as shown in 
Fig. 64, both the edge of the flange and the edge of the shell are 
chamfered. This type of head is the best for high-pressure tanks 
because the weld is in tension. 

This method also applies to the welding of two cylindrical 
shells end to end in making tanks of such dimensions that one 
single sheet of steel is not large enough to make a complete shell. 


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Tank Rings. In welding angle-iron rings to tanks of the same 
thickness, it is necessary that the edges of both ring and shell be 


Fig. 67. Welds for Pipe Heads 

Fig. 66. Various Pipe Joint Welds 

beveled as at the left, Fig. 65. Two methods of welding heavy 
rings to lighter shells are shown at the middle and right. The inside 
weld at the right should be only enough to smooth off the joint. 

If too much heat is applied from the 
inside there is likely to be trouble from 
warping or buckling. Rings should always 
be tacked to prevent bowing, twisting of 
the rings, and buckling of the shell.] 
Tubes and Pipes. Various tube and pipe welds are given in 
Fig. 66. 

The methods for closing the end of a pipe with a head are 
shown in Fig. 67. The first is the easier and stronger of the two. 


Fig. 68. Welds for Pipe Flanges 

Three methods of welding flanges to pipe are shown in Fig. 68. 
The first method is easier to weld than the second; but the latter 


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Fig. GO. Preparation of Heavy Forgings for 

is the stronger. The third method is the best method of welding 
flanges to pipe, but is, of course, a special type of flange. 

Welding Heavy Steel Forgings and Steel Castings 

Preparation. In welding heavy steel sections, such as crank- 
shafts, axles, and the like, the weld is prepared by grooving or beveling 
from both sides. This is done 
because it is easier for the oper- 
ator to do the work and for the 
sake of economy, because by 
beveling from both sides less 
filling material is necessary and, 
consequently, less time and gas 
are needed. 

Square Sections. Square or rectangular sections of forgings 
are best prepared by beveling half way through from each side, 
Fig. 69. After the welding has 
been carried on from one side, 
the piece turned over and the 
welding completed from 
the second side, there will 
probably be a slight bow, or 
curve. In the case of forgings, 
this is not objectionable, be- 
cause the work can be, and, in fact, should be, reheated and straight- 
ened. The reheating in the case of forgings is beneficial to the grain 
of the material and the 
strength of the weld. With 
castings, however, this bend- 
ing is not possible. There- 
fore, to keep the work in 
alignment, it is best to pre- 
pare the work as shown in Fig. 70. The welding is carried on two- 
thirds of the way through from the first side, and then finished 
by turning over and working from the second side. 

Round Sections. Round or elliptical sections should be prepared 
by beveling the ends to a wedge as indicated in Fig. 71. They should 
never be turned down to a point. By preparing the pieces as shown 

Fig. 70. 

Preparation of Heavy Castings for 

Fig. 71. Preparation of Round Sections for Welding 


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in the illustration, the welder will have a flat surface to build his 
weld upon. If the work were prepared to a point, the filling material 
when added would have no surface to lie upon and would run down 
in drops, necessitating burning or melting away when the work 
is turned over, and probably resulting in a weak weld with con- 
siderable oxide. 

Expansion and Contraction. Expansion and contraction will 
probably cause very little trouble to the operator in the case of 
shafts and other heavy pieces that are not connected. The only 
difficulty the operator will encounter in these cases will be the possible 
bending, which was noted above, when welding from two sides. 
However, if the broken part is confined by rigid members, the work 
should be handled either by pre-heating, or one of the other methods 

recommended and ex- 
plained under Expan- 
sion and Contraction, 
pages 36 to 40. 

r- Blocks. When 
w r elding shafts, it is ad- 
visable to line them up in 
position on V-blocks, so 
that they may be turned 
over and still kept in 
Fig. 72. "v- Block, for Weidi ng sh.ft. alignment, Fig. 72. 

Heavy Welding Section. In the case of a heavy section select 
the proper size welding head and a piece of welding rod of the cor- 
rect analysis for the particular work at hand, and place the work in 

If the section is over or about one inch, it should be pre-heated 
by means of a gas or oil burner until it is at a red heat. This will 
save oxygen and acetylene, and will bring the material to a tempera- 
ture at which it will be more receptive to the action of the welding 
flame and thereby insure a more homogeneous weld. If not objec- 
tionable to the operator, it is advisable to let the pre-heating burner 
play on the work while the welding operation is going on, taking 
care, of course, that the materials of combustion of the pre-heating 
burner do not strike the molten metal and have a detrimental effect 
on the weld. 


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The welding flame is first played on the edges at the bottom of 
the groove until they are in a molten condition. The flame is then 
momentarily withdrawn to allow them to flow together and "set", 
and form the bottom of the weld. When a perfect union of the bottom 
is secured all the way across, the welding rod is brought into use. 
By playing the flame around the welding rod and the edges of the 
weld instead of directly on the welding rod, it is possible to bring 
them to a fusing temperature at the same time. The rod is then 
gradually added to the weld, layer by layer, until the entire groove 
has been filled up. The welding rod is kept plunged into the molten 
metal all the time to prevent oxidation. Any oxide that forms during 
the welding is floated to the top and removed by scraping with the 
welding rod, or by blowing away with the force of the welding flame. 
The welder must be careful that he does not allow the molten metal 
to run over the sides of the weld. Each layer is added in such a 
way that it extends slightly beyond the end of the groove. Then, 
from time to time, as the groove is filled up, the operator smooths 
down the two ends. 

Hammering. As each section, about i inch thick, is added 
to the groove, the operator stops the welding operation, heats the 
work to a bright yellow, and hammers the weld lightly but rapidly 
to give it as fine a grain as possible. After the weld has been com- 
pleted, it is either hammered or annealed, as directed on page 45. 


General Considerations. Many defects are experienced by the 
beginner in welding cast iron because of its peculiar properties. The 
two principal faults noticed are the production of hard, glassy, and 
brittle metal in the weld, and subsequent cracks, breaks, and checks 
either in the weld or in the adjacent metal, owing to excessive internal 
strains set up by unequal contraction. Both are serious defects, and 
the liability of their occurrence is so great that proper preventive 
methods should be continually borne in mind and applied while 
welding this material. 

Oxidation. Cast iron melts at about 2000° to 2190° F., and 
iron oxide melts at about 2450° F. The oxide is formed, however, 
at low temperatures, a bright red heat being sufficient to cause 
the combination of oxygen from the air with the iron of the casting. 


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■ t ; material 

-e o produce 

p^p al, retards 

^ les. The 

>f this ele- 

^_ on content 

grade cast 

e free from 

is usually 

inch. In 

are welded 

* elder is to 

■ !, to reduce 
the molten 

aterial, and 

■ 1 here to this 
\y with the 

> up this film 

en, or slag, 
will dissolve 

also to float 

It forms a 

and increases 

i pounds often 
a flux. Their 
of their use. 
i welding heavy 
and grate cast- 
Both tend to 
put on the market 
se powders cannot 
i hers contain potas- 
Still others contain 
say, powders of J^*" 

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It is not possible to melt this oxide and flow it from the weld, so it 
remains in the casting in the form of thin flakes or crust. This 
not only prevents the alloying of the molten metal, but also combines it 
with the free carbon and is, consequently, conducive to the formation 
of white iron. Therefore, this oxide must be removed or destroyed. 

Expansion and Contraction. Cast iron is absolutely lacking in 
elasticity, and its tensile strength is very low. In preparing work 
for welding, it is always necessary to take fullest precautions against 
the bad effects of expansion and contraction. Expansion and con- 
traction should be treated with more importance in the welding of 
cast iron than in any other metal. 

When the internal strain produced by contraction is greater 
than the tensile strength of the section to which it is confined, fail- 
ure will occur. When the strain is not great, but still exists, the 
resistance of the section to external stresses is reduced in proportion. 
Thus a casting may appear to be normal after welding but the 
excessive internal strains caused by the welding process may make it 
fail at the slightest shock. 

One of the three general methods of coping with the forces of 
expansion and contraction, which are given on pages 36 to 40, 
must be used when welding cast iron. The proper method to pursue 
is determined by the size and shape of the casting and the native 
and location of the break. A very large percentage of the failures 
due to shrinkage cracks may be prevented by an intelligent anticipa- 
tion of the forces of expansion and contraction and the proper hand- 
ling of the work to overcome these. 

Pre-Heating. Pre-heating should be used to some extent in 
all cast-iron welding. If the piece is small and the break is so located 
that it is not necessary to consider expansion and contraction, the 
blowpipe should be played upon it until the chill is removed from 
the casting. If the casting is large, an oil or gas burner, or charcoal 
fire can be used. In a large casting this preliminary heat treatment 
not only favors the execution of a good weld but also requires less 
oxygen and acetylene because of this large volume of heat from a 
cheap source, thereby reducing the cost of welding. 

Welding Rods. The success of cast-iron welding depends 
greatly upon the selection of a suitable welding rod. It has been 
proved time and again that hard, brittle, and weak welds have been 


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produced for no other reason than because inferior filling material 
was used. 

The presence of silicon in proper proportion tends to produce 
a soft gray-iron weld. It increases the fluidity of the metal, retards 
oxidation, and prevents decarbonization and blowholes. The 
success of the filling rod is dependent upon the amount of this ele- 
ment it contains. From 3 to 4 per cent is the average silicon content 
of good welding rods. The welding rod must be of high-grade cast 
iron, soundly cast and absolutely homogenous. It must be free from 
all sand, grit, and rust. For convenience in handling, it is usually 
cast in 24-inch lengths of three diameters, i, f , and £ inch. In 
case either a longer or heavier rod is desired, two or more are welded 

Flux. The principal problem that confronts the welder is to 
prevent the formation of oxide, and in case it is formed, to reduce 
it and remove it from the weld. If this is not done, the molten 
metal will be enclosed in a thin film of nonmetallic material, and 
any additional metal that may be fused or added will adhere to this 
film rather than break through it and fuse homogenously with the 
other metal. It is not possible to satisfactorily break up this film 
mechanically, therefore it must be reduced to a molten, or slag, 
condition. To accomplish this a suitable flux is used that will dissolve 
the oxide. 

A flux is not used solely to dissolve the oxide, but also to float 
off other impurities, such as sand, scale, and dirt. It forms a 
protecting glaze on the weld and surrounding surfaces and increases 
the fluidity of the molten metal. 

Borax and salt (sodium chloride) are two compounds often 
used by welders, but they really contain little merit as a flux. Their 
low fusibility seems to be the only point in favor of their use. 
Occasionally, they may be employed to advantage in welding heavy 
sections or burned iron, such as are found in firebox and grate cast- 
ings, but their function is only that of a cleanser. Both tend to 
produce hard iron. There are certain flux powders put on the market 
that contain large proportions of manganese. These powders cannot 
help but have a hardening effect on the iron. Others contain potas- 
sium perchlorate, a virulent oxidizing agent. Still others contain 
material that chlorinize the weld. Needless to say, powders of this 


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kind must not be used. It is best to guard against the purchase of 
such defective mixtures by obtaining flux powders from reliable 

It is necessary that the welder learn to apply flux properly. 
An excess will cause as much trouble as an insufficient quantity. 
Blowholes may be increased in size and number by using too much 
flux. Also the molten iron will incorporate certain constituents 
of the flux if it is applied in excess. The amount to be applied depends 
upon the flux used. A welder must learn to know his flux as well 
as his blowpipes. 

The powder should be applied regularly by dipping the hot 
welding rod into it. The quantity adhering is sufficient. Do not 
throw large quantites into the weld as plenty will be added by the 
welding rod. 

Preparation of Welds. All cast iron over J inch in thickness 
should be beveled or chamfered before welding. If this is not done, 
it is necessary that the metal be burned out by the blowpipe in order 
that complete penetration be assured. This is bad practice as it is 
almost impossible to do it without either changing the state of the 
metal in the groove due to the forced flame, or causing partial ad- 
hesion. The chamfering should be a little wider than on other 
metals for the reason that it is good practice to introduce as much 
special metal from the welding rod as possible. 

The chamfering can be done by various means. If the casting 
is light and broken in two pieces, it may be taken to an emery wheel 
and the edges ground off. If the casting is too heavy to move, a 
portable grinder or cold chisel and air or hand hammer can be used. 
If the casting is only cracked, the cold chisel and air or hand hammer 
are the most satisfactory tools to use. 

After the weld has been beveled satisfactorily, the adjacent 
metals should be cleaned about \ to \ inch from the edge. This 
is important, because all dust, sand, scale, etc., should be removed 
from the welding zone. 

To Prevent Crack from Extending. If the defect in a casting 
is a crack that shows a tendency to extend upon heating, a hole 
should be drilled in the casting a short distance from the end and 
in the direction the crack would follow. The crack will not extend 
beyond this hole, and the hole can be very easily filled in. 


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Welding Process. Although the melting point of cast iron 
is not high, the total heat required to bring it to fusion is great, 
therefore a blowpipe of large size is used. The speed of welding 
is increased considerably, and the selection of the proper size blow- 
pipe is influenced by the extent of the pre-heating. 

Cast iron melts very rapidly after the fusing point is once 
reached, and when molten is extremely fluid. Because of this 
property, the welding should be carried on horizontally, otherwise 
the metal will flow toward the lowest point. This is not desired, 
because it will tend to produce adhesion. In case it is not possible 
to arrange the casting so that the weld will be horizontal, the welding 
must be started at the lower end, and skill must be used to prevent 
the too rapid advance of the molten metal. It is very difficult to 
produce vertical and overhead welds because of the fluidity. In 
welding thin sections of cast iron, the rapidity with which it melts 
and its fluidity often cause the metal to sink, bulge downward, or 
drop in. Consequently, it is necessary that close observation and 
careful manipulation be used on this kind of work. 

Flame. The incandescent jet of the oxy-acetylene flame should 
never impinge on the molten metal. The tip of this jet should be 
held at a distance of J to \ inch from the metal according to the 
thickness. The molten iron is seriously influenced by the high 
temperature of this jet and may become oxidized and decarbonized. 
This must be rigidly observed except when it is necessary to use 
the jet to burn out sand holes, blowholes, etc. 

Manipulation of Blowpipes and Welding Rods. Because cast 
iron fuses rapidly when once the melting point is approached and 
the molten iron is extremely fluid, the circular or oscillating motion 
imparted to the blowpipe need not be so pronounced. The welding 
of cast iron is nothing but a succession of overlapping miniature 
pools, or puddles, of molten metal. 

The weld is started by playing the blowpipe on the two lower 
edges of the weld. The flame should strike the weld almost perpen- 
dicularly, because if the blowpipe is inclined, the flame will blow 
the molten metal ahead of the weld, and adhesion will result. When 
at the proper temperature, these edges are fused together without 
any filling material by the aid of a little flux. It is important 
that this first operation be carefully carried out, as the strength of 


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the weld is dependent upon a good bottom and top. When th 
first fusion has been successfully obtained, the welding rod is brougi 
into play and the high silicon metal is added. With each additio 

Fig. 73. Warm Welding Rod Is Dipped into the Fig. 74. For Cast-iron Welding. Bio* 

Flux before Each Addition to the Weld pipe and Welding Rod Are Held Almoei 


the welding rod is previously dipped into the flux can, and th< 
adhering flux introduced in the weld, Fig. 73. As the welding o 
cast iron is a comparatively rapid procedure, the welding rod cai 

Fig. 75. Dirt May Be Scraped off by Means of the Fig. 76. Welding Rod Should Not Be 

Welding Rod Held Too Far from Welding Zone 

be held more vertically and added faster, Fig. 74. In welding "dirty" 
iron it is sometimes convenient to hold the rod in a horizontal position 
and scrape out sand, carbon, or any other dirt by means of the rod 


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as soon as it appears, Fig. 75. In this connection, it may be added 
that the welding rod should be used constantly to work out impurities 
and blowholes. The welding rod should be melted as much as possible 
in the molten metal of the weld. It should be plunged into this 
liquid, and the fusion carried out by playing the flame around it. 
The welding rod should not be held too far from the welding zone, 
Fig. 76, nor should it be added to the weld drop by drop as shown 
in Fig. 77. 

As a section of the weld is finished, it should be scraped or rubbed 
with a file while red hot, Fig. 78, to remove the film of flux, scale, 
sand, and dust that is present. This film if allowed to cool becomes 
very hard and is quite resistant to machine tools. Regardless of the 

Fie. 77. Welding-Rod Should Not Be Fig. 78. Scraping Finished Weld with File to 

Added Drop by Drop Kemove Scale 

quality of metal beneath it, many welds have been rejected because 
of the hardness of this superficial surface. 

If the weld is carefully executed and the surface is cleaned, 
it will look like the left of Fig. 79, while if poorly executed and not 
cleaned, it will look like the right of Fig. 79. 

Never go over a weld the second time if it can be avoided. In 
case it is absolutely necessary, always add fresh metal from the 
welding rod, as a failure to do this will cause a loss of silicon in the 
weld and destroy its value to the metal. 

Always perform the welding as fast as possible, because extended 
heating will tend to lower the silicon content of the weld, with the 
resultant formation of hard iron. 


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Blowholes. Blowholes occur frequently in the weld and are 
particularly troublesome if in the bottom of the weld. Their presence 
can be caused by mechanically enclosed gases or by improper blow- 
pipe handling. When blowholes appear in the weld, they should be 
instantly worked out. This may be done by forcing with the welding 
rod and applying flux. In beginning a weld, it is necessary that 
the presence of blowholes be guarded against, as it is difficult to work 
out a blowhole at the bottom of the weld after it is finished. Occasion- 
ally, in going over a weld, a blowhole is discovered; this must first be 

Fig. 79. Appearance of Cast-iron Welds That Have Been 
Properly (left) and Poorly (right) Executed 

burned out by the white jet of the flame and then worked over with 
the welding rod. 

After- Treatment. The rate of cooling materially influences the 
structure of the metal in the weld. If rapid cooling is allowed, hard 
brittle iron is produced. If slow cooling is employed, soft gray 
iron is formed. Internal strains and stresses may be distributed 
and adjusted or, in some cases, eliminated by proper cooling and 

Castings which are not large or which it has not been necessary 
to pre-heat extensively may be satisfactorily annealed by playing 
the blowpipe on the weld and surrounding metal until it is at a 
bright red heat. The heated portion is then covered with asbestos 


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paper, cinders, or other nonconducting material that will retain 
the heat and protect the castings from air currents. For small 
castings, a barrel or bin of hydrated lime and fiber asbestos is recom- 
mended. This makes a convenient arrangement and is very satis- 
factory as an annealing agent. 

Where it is necessary to heat the entire casting in a charcoal 
or coke fire, the same temporary furnace used for pre-heating may 
be used in annealing. After the welding has been completed, the 
casting should be covered over with hot coals and ashes, and the 
furnace should be bricked up, i. e., all large air ports closed, the top 
covered with asbestos paper, and the casting allowed to cool with 
the fire. 

The castings should never be removed from the annealing fire 
until they are entirely cold. This is imperative, as cold air currents 
on the warm castings may cause checks or cracks. In some cases, 12 
to 24 hours are required for satisfactory cooling. 

Use of Carbon Blocks. In case it is not possible to line up 
the weld horizontally, or it is necessary to fill in a wide hole, carbon 
blocks or steel plates are sometimes used to dam or retard the flow 
of the metal. 


Malleable Iron. Malleable cast iron, or malleable iron, as it 
is commonly called, is used extensively in castings where toughness, 
malleability, and resistance to sudden shock are required. The 
characteristic that gives malleable iron its greatest value as compared 
to gray iron is its ability to resist shocks. Malleability in a light 
casting, \ inch thick and less, means a soft pliable condition and 
the ability to withstand considerable distortion without fracture, 
while in the heavy section, J inch and over, it means the ability 
to resist shock without bending or breaking. 

In the manufacture of malleable-iron parts, white iron castings 
are packed in annealing pots with suitable material, such as mill- 
scale borings, etc., and subjected to a cherry red heat for from 48 
to 96 hours, after which they are allowed to cool slowly. During 
this annealing process, the material in which the castings are packed 
absorbs the carbon from the surface of the casting. In this way the 
surface becomes really a steel, while the inside, or core, becomes 
gray cast iron. 


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Straight Weld Not Possible. When malleable iron is heated 
to a fusing heat the malleable properties are destroyed and cannot 
be regained. 

Brazing Malleable Iron. The most successful method of joining 
malleable iron with the oxy-acetylene blowpipe is by brazing with 
Tobin bronze. While this gives a joint of different color, yet the 
strength, malleability, and machining qualities are satisfactory. 

The two pieces to be joined are beveled as for cast-iron welding. 
The edges are brought to a point just below fusion, great care being 
taken that they do not become fused. When the edges are at the 
right temperature, a rod of Tobin bronze is fused into the groove 
with the aid of a good brass flux. The work should be carried out by 
using a flame having a slight excess of acetylene and should be done 
as rapidly as possible to prevent oxidation of the bronze. 


General Considerations. When aluminum approaches its melt- 
ing point, it does not change color in ordinary light, but retains its 
silvery appearance even when in the molten condition. When 
molten, it is very fluid and is, therefore, rather difficult to control 
under the welding flame. 

Oxidation. Aluminum oxidizes very easily when in a molten 
condition, forming an oxide that melts at about 5400° F. The oxide, 
therefore, cannot be penetrated by means of the flame, but must 
be removed either chemically by means of a flux or mechanically 
by means of a paddle. 

Expansion and Contraction. Because of the high heat con- 
ductivity of aluminum, expansion and contraction do not give great 
difficulty owing to localized heating. However, because aluminum 
expands greatly and is very weak when at high temperatures, con- 
traction strains are very likely to produce cracks or checks unless 
the work is allowed to cool evenly and slowly. It is advisable to 
pre-heat aluminum castings to between 300° and 400° F. to aid the 
distribution of the heat and prevent warping. 

Welding Rod. In welding sheet aluminum, such as automobile 
bodies, the welding rod should be clean material of the same alloy 
as the sheets that are being welded. If wire cannot be obtained 
of the same composition as the sheets, narrow strips should be 


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sheared from the sheets themselves and used for a filling material. 
The strips should be sheared about as wide as the sheets are thick. 

For aluminum castings, such as crank cases, a good grade of 
aluminum wire about } inch in diameter should be obtained. Welders 
should not use the cheap solders or very low fusing cast rods that 
are sometimes sold, and for which great claims are made. The 
operator will readily appreciate that when these materials are added 
to the weld they will merely adhere to the sides, because, while the 
filling material will be quite fluid, the edges of the weld will not be at 
a fusing temperature. 

Flux. It is impossible to weld sheet aluminum without the 
use of a good flux to dissolve the oxide and float it to the top as a 
slag. In cast-aluminum work a paddle may be used to accomplish this 
result, but such a device is not practical for sheet work. The flux 
may be applied either by dipping the warm welding rod into the 
flux powder or by mixing the flux with water to form a paste and 
applying this to the joints by means of a brush. Care must be taken 
that too much flux is not used, because an excess will produce a 
porous weld and one with a poor surface. After the work has been 
completed the flux should all be washed off with warm water. 

Flame. In order to be sure that an oxidizing flame is not 
being used, it is permissible and advisable to use a flame showing 
a slight excess of acetylene. This flame will also have the advantages 
of being slightly larger in volume than the neutral flame and of lower 
temperature, this last feature being helpful, especially to the new 


Sheet-aluminum work may be handled very similarly to sheet 
steel as regards preparation and allowance for expansion and 

Types of Joints. For light sheets under ^ inch the flange 
weld should be used. The butt joint may be successfully made on 
light sheets by an experienced operator, but there is a great deal 
of danger of burning through and having to fill up holes, which will 
leave a poorly finished weld. 

For sheets above ^ inch the butt weld is found to be the best, 
and for sheets above | inch the edges should be beveled the same 
as for steel plates. 


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Welding Process. Select the proper size blowpipe and welding 
rod, a good flux, and arrange the work for welding. Start the welding 
by playing the secondary flame of the blowpipe over the parts 
surrounding the weld, to warm them up slightly. If the flux is to 
be applied with a brush, it should be done at this time, because the 
heat will evaporate the water and leave the solid flux evenly dis- 
tributed over the weld. Welding should then be started from f to 1 
inch from the end — not at the end. The blow pipe should be handled 
about the same as for steel welding, care being taken that the inner 
cone of the flame does not come in contact with the metal. For 
very thin sheet welding it is not necessary to give the circular or 
oscillating motion to the blowpipe; it is merely necessary to move 
it forward in a straight line. 

On the heavier work, however, the same motions should be 
used by the welding operator as are used for steel. The welding 
wire is best held directly in line with the weld and always in contact 
with the metal just ahead of the blowpipe. If the wire is not in con- 
tact with the edges when they become molten, they will be likely 
to curl up or draw away instead of flowing together. After the 
main weld has been completed, the operator should go back and 
weld the short section that was left unwejded at the very beginning. 
After the work has cooled the flux should be removed by washing 
off with warm water. 

Re-Welding. The operator should be careful that the weld is 
completed as he goes along, so that he will not have to go back to 
make repairs or to do re-welding. If it is necessary to go back over 
a weld, cracks or checks are very likely to result because of the 
weak condition of the metal when it is at a fusing temperature. If 
it is necessary to re-weld a certain portion of the joint, the surface 
should be chipped off so as to present a clean surface for the new 
filling material to fuse to. Following the suggestions already made, 
the seam and the surrounding surfaces should be thoroughly pre- 
heated before the welding is started to prevent cracking as much 
as possible. 

After- Treatment. If possible, welds in aluminum sheet should 
be reheated evenly to equalize any internal strains. Then, after the 
weld has become cold, it should be hammered to improve the grain 
of the metal in the weld. 


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Cast Aluminum Welding 

Aluminum Castings. Most aluminum castings are alloys of 
aluminum, zinc, and copper; the alloy being added to the aluminum 
to give it a higher tensile strength and increase its resistance to 
shock. The welding of cast aluminum is different from that of 
sheet aluminum and resembles in a general way the welding of 
cast iron. Oxidation is taken care of by using flux or by scraping the 
oxide out by means of a paddle. The second method is faster and 
is the one preferred by most operators. 

Paddle. The paddle is made by flattening down the end of a 
J-inch steel rod to a smooth short flat blade about f inch wide. 
The handle may be left straight or bent to suit the operator. The 
paddle should be used only when just below a red heat. If it is 
cold, the molten metal will stick to it, and if it is too hot it will burn 
and the metal will stick to the roughened surfaces. 

Preparation. Sections if over J inch in thickness should be 
chamfered before the welding is started. Sections thinner than 
this may be worked without beveling. The old metal may be scraped 
out by means of the paddle in order to give a clean bright surface 
for the new material to be added to. 

Pre-Heating. Because aluminum alloy castings are not very 
ductile and are weak when at a high temperature, expansion and 
contraction must be taken care of. This is handled in the same 
general way as in the case of cast-iron work. The casting should 
be pre-heated either partially or wholly by some slow heating agent, 
such as a gas burner or mild charcoal fire. The pre-heating should 
never be carried to too high a temperature, because of the danger 
of the metal sinking, or caving in. The casting will be sufficiently 
warm for welding when a file or chisel will mark it easily, or when 
a piece of dry pine stick is charred upon being drawn across the 
heated section. 

Welding Process. When a flux is used in welding cast alumi- 
num, the work is carried on in the same general manner as in welding 
cast iron, and the same general precautions regarding the peculiari- 
ties of the metal are to be observed as in welding sheet aluminum. 

If a paddle is used to break the film of oxide and scrape it out of 
the weld, the edges are brought to a state of fusion for a length of 
about 1 or 1 \ inches. The paddle is then used to scrape out the weld 


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to make a slight bevel and present clean surfaces for the filling mate- 
rial to be added to. The welding rod is then introduced into this 
groove. The paddle is used continually to work in the filling material, 
scrape off any oxide that forms, and then to smooth off the surface 
of the weld. After a small section of the joint has been completed, 
the casting is turned over, and the weld for this length is smoothed off 
on the underside by means of the blowpipe and paddle. The welding 
is carried on in this manner, section by section, until the entire joint 
is completed. If the weld were completed on the first side and then 
turned over and smoothed its entire length On the underside, cracks 
would develop, and the casting would warp out of shape. 

After-Treatment When the welding has been completed, the 
casting should be reheated slightly to remove any local strains and 
should then be covered over with asbestos paper to protect it from 
drafts and to allow it to cool very slowly. If the cooling is carried on 
rapidly, or if air currents are allowed to strike the casting, it will very 
likely crack either in the weld or some weak section. 


General Considerations. Because of the high thermal 
conductivity of copper, the heat from the blowpipe is conducted 
back into the work rapidly and is lost to the weld. This necessitates 
the use of a large size welding head or the use of an auxiliary source 
of heat to assist the welding flame in the case of heavy work. When 
at high temperatures, copper is weak in tensile strength the same 
as aluminum. Because of these two factors the effects of expansion 
and contraction must be carefully considered, so that the work will 
not cool too rapidly after the welding has been completed, and will 
not crack at high temperatures. 

Oxidation. Copper oxidizes quite readily, forming an oxide 
which dissolves in the molten metal and changes the structure of 
the weld. The amount of oxide that can be absorbed is very high, 
consequently great care must be exercised to keep the absorption 
at a minimum. Welding rods containing a small percentage of 
phosphorus and suitable fluxes are used to counteract the oxide and 
reduce it as much as possible. 

Welding Rod. For successful copper welding, it is necessary 
to use electrolytic copper containing about one per cent phosphorus, 


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supplied in coils and drawn rods. The cast copper alloy rods that 
are on the market are not satisfactory, because the structure and 
composition will vary even in a single rod to such an extent that a 
homogeneous weld cannot be made. 

Flux. In welding copper the flux is used not only to cleanse 
the weld, but also to protect the metal adjacent to the welding zone 
from the gases of the flame. When welding sheet copper it is advisable 
to make a paste of the flux by adding water and to coat the metal 
about one inch adjacent to the edge of the weld. When this flux is 
melted, it will form a glassy film that will protect the metal from the 
gases of the flame and the air surrounding the work. Additional 
flux is added to the weld as the work progresses, by dipping the 
warm rod into the dry flux, as in welding other materials. 

Flame. It is very important that the neutral flame be 
maintained at all times, and the operator should use great care in 
adjusting his gases, so the flame will not have an excess of acetylene 
nor be oxidizing. Because of the peculiar properties of the metal, 
the gases of the reducing flame are very likely to be absorbed, and 
because of the ease with which the metal oxidizes, oxidation is 
liable to occur if the flame contains an excess of oxygen. 

Preparation. Sheets that are less than J inch in thickness 
may be butted together without beveling. Sheets heavier than 
this should always be beveled, and no attempt should be made 
to depend upon the flame to penetrate this heavier thickness. In 
all cases of copper welding, the edges to be joined and the material 
adjacent to the edges should be scraped or filed to present a clean 
surface for the filling material to be added to. 

Welding. The edges of the metal surrounding the weld should 
be raised to a fairly high temperature before the actual welding is 
started. On small pieces and light-weight work, this may be done 
by means of the welding blowpipe, but for heavy work and long 
welds, it is best to do this by means of a gas or oil pre-heating burner. 
After the work has been brought to a high temperature, the welding 
should be started at one end and should be performed as rapidly 
as possible. The welding rod and edges of the weld should reach 
the state of fusion at the same time, so as to prevent adhesion and 
to insure a good weld. This feature is harder to accomplish in welding 
copper than in other metal, because the heat is conducted back into 


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the rod or into the work very rapidly, necessitating very careful 
and skillful manipulation of the blowpipe and rod. The blowpipe 
should be held almost vertical, about the same as in the case of 
cast-iron welding. If held at too great an angle, the molten metal 
will be blown ahead and will adhere to the cold edges of the weld 
in advance of the blowpipe. The inner cone of the flame should 
never come in contact with the metal, but should be held about 
i or £ inch above the surface of the weld to prevent burning the 
metal. The oscillating motion should be carried on about the same 
as in steel welding but a little more rapidly, and should consist of 
smaller circles. The welding rod should be plunged into the molten 
metal all the time and should be continuously moved around or 
stirred, so that it will be thoroughly incorporated and will bring the 
oxide and slag to the surface. The weld should be built up above 
the surface of the sheets, so there will be enough material to allow 
for hammering after the welding has been completed. 

Re-Welding. In case it is necessary to re-weld a portion of the 
joint, it is necessary that the old material be chipped out and new 
material added. 

After-Treatment. After the welding operation has been 
completed, the work should be heated very carefully and evenly 
until it is almost at a bright red heat. The weld should then be 
hammered while hot, so that the strength of the joint will be increased 
as much as possible. After the hammering has been finished, the 
work should be again reheated to a red heat and cooled quickly 
by means of an air blast or chilled by plunging in water. Care must 
be exercised in this operation if the work be a casting having confined, 
or rigid members, so that cracking, or checking, does not occur. 


General Considerations. Brass and bronze are both alloys of 
copper, brass consisting mainly of copper and zinc, and bronze 
of copper and tin. Both brass and bronze are welded in about the 
same general manner as copper, but because of the peculiar properties 
of the alloying metals, zinc and tin, it is necessary that they receive 
certain variations in welding. 

Oxidation. In both brass and bronze, the alloying metal is 
greatly affected by the high temperature of the flame, and the material 


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will be subject to a loss of zinc or tin, unless proper precautions are 
taken. These metals will combine with the oxygen and pass off as 
white vapor, and leave a weld of different composition and color. 

Absorption of Gases. The molten metal in both brass and bronze 
absorbs certain gases very readily, and unless this absorption is 
counteracted, the weld will be spongy and weak. This may be taken 
care of by using a suitable welding rod and flux. 

Welding Rod. Because of the varying composition of brass 
and bronze, and because of the loss of the alloying elements when 
welding, it is practically impossible to produce welds of the same 
color as the original material. When welding brass, a good grade 
of drawn brass will be found most satisfactory, and in the case of 
bronze, a good drawn bronze, such as manganese or Tobin bronze. 
The cast rods that are on the market are not satisfactory, because it is 
quite impossible to cast a rod having the same composition throughout. 
Flux. The flux used for brass and bronze is practically the 
same as that used for copper. It should be applied by dipping the 
warm welding rod into the powder and adding it to the weld in this 
manner. It is not necessary to use as much flux as in welding pure 
copper, and care must be taken that an excess is not used, because the 
weld may become porous. 

Flame. A neutral flame must be maintained at all times for 
the same reasons as explained under copper welding. The blowpipe 
should be held between J to J inch from the metal. If the flame 
is held too close in the case of bronzes, the concentrated heat will 
cause a segregation or separation of the tin from the copper, and 
it will be practically impossible to again unite these elements. 

Preparation. The edges of the metal for a thickness of less 
than J inch may be merely butted together and welded, while for 
metals above this thickness the edges * should be beveled or cham- 
fered, so as to allow penetration of the flame and insure a good weld. 
Welding. Because of the high conductivity of these materials, 
it is b$st that they be pre-heated to bring them to a suitable condition 
for rapid welding. Care must be lak^n when pre-heating brojn^e 
that it does not get too hot, because it is weak at high temperatures 
and is liable to break or crack under its own weight. The 
welding is carried on in about the same manner as for copper, and 
the blowpipe is handled in practically the same way. The welding 


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rod should be in contact with the edges of the metal at all times, 
and the blowpipe should be played constantly on both the rod and 
the edges of the metal to keep them at the same temperature in order 
that adhesion may be prevented. 

Re-Welding. Re-welding should be avoided, but if it is 
absolutely necessary to re-weld the work, the section should be 
chipped out, and new material added, as in the case of copper. 

After-Treatment Both brass and bronze should be annealed 
after welding by reheating evenly, and then allowed to cool slowly. 
Brass may be improved by hammering before the final annealing. 
Brass of low zinc content, i.e., red brass, should be hammered 
while hot, while brass of high zinc content, i.e., yellow brass, 
should be hammered cold. 

Cutting In Automobile Repairs. The oxy-acetylene cutting 
blowpipe finds considerable application in the automobile repair 
shop for beveling the ends of shafts 
and other pieces of work preparatory 

Fig. 80. Beveling Ground Shaft for Welding. Fig. 81. Beveling End of Heavy 

The other piece u on the table Square Shaft for Welding 

to welding, Figs. 80 and 81, cutting reinforcing plates out of large 
sheets for frame repairs, altering chassis, etc., Fig. 82. The cutting 


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blowpipe is capable of doing this work cheaply and quickly, two 
necessary factors for the successful first-class repair shop. 

Principle of Cutting with Oxygen. At ordinary temperatures, 
steel oxidizes in the air, forming what is commonly called "rust". 
At a white heat it will oxidize more rapidly, as is seen in the black- 
smith shop when pieces are brought to a very high temperature. 
When steel is heated to a red heat, and 
a stream of pure oxygen is directed on 
it, the oxidation takes place more rap- 
idly and more violently and is restricted 
to the locality upon which the stream 
of oxygen is played. This localized oxi- 
dation is the basis upon which the oxy- 
acetylene cutting blowpipe operates. 

Metals That Can Be Cut. Steel and 
wrought iron are the only metals that 
can be cut successfully by means of 
the oxygen jet. Although cast iron, cop- 
per, brass, bronze, aluminum, etc., oxi- 
dize easily, nevertheless they cannot 
be cut. 

When the oxygen combines with 
the iron, heat is generated. This heat ^ g2 CuttingReinforcin PIate 
of formation, with the aid of the heat 0utof ^mei&£i? ° r 

supplied by the pre-heating flames of 

the blowpipe, brings the oxide to a molten condition. The molten 
oxide either flows or is blown out of the cut and leaves a fresh 
thoroughly heated line through the metal for the further action 
of the cutting oxygen. In the case of steel and wrought iron, the 
oxide melts at a much lower temperature than the material being 
cut and therefore blows out without melting the surface of the 
material. In the cases of cast iron and certain alloy steels, the 
melting temperature of the oxide is as high and in some cases 
higher than that of the metal, and therefore melts the edges or 
freezes in the kurf and so hinders the cutting. Also, in the case 
of some of these materials, the heat of formation produced by the 
combination of the oxygen with the metal is not sufficient to carry 
the cut through the thickness of the work. 


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Necessary Cutting Apparatus. A complete cutting station, 
Fig. 83, consists of the following apparatus: 

Cutting blowpipe with set of cutting nozzles 
Oxygen cutting regulator with two gages 
Acetylene regulator with one or two gages 
Adapter for acetylene cylinder 
One length high-pressure rubber hose for acetylene 
One length copper armoured hose for oxygen 
Darkened spectacles, wrenches, hose clamps, etc. 

Cutting Blowpipe. 

In the cutting blowpipe, 
Fig. 9, page 9, there 
are usually six small 
oxy-acetylene flames sur- 
rounding a center orifice 
through which pure oxy- 
gen is directed. The six 
heating jets are used 
only for the purpose of 
bringing the edge of the 
material to a tempera- 
ture at which the jet of 
pure oxygen will unite 
rapidly with the steel, 
as explained above. 

Cutting Nozzle. 
There are usually four 
sizes of cutting nozzles 
furnished for handling 
work of various thick- 
nesses, from very thin 
plate up to material 14 
and 16 inches thick. 
Besides these, some 
manufacturers also fur- 

Fi«. 83. Cutting Unit for Use with Acetylene in Cylinders, n Jgh what is knOWH as 
Mounted on Emergency Truck 
Courtesy of Ox wdd- Acetylene Company, Chicago a "rivet CUtting nOZZfe". 

This is a thin flat nozzle that can be laid against the sheet, allowing, 
the rivet head to be cut off close to the sheet. 


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Working Pressure. The necessary pressures of the gas that are 
required by the different sizes of cutting nozzles and for the different 
thicknesses of material are given by the manufacturers. It is very 
important that the operator use these pressures instead of higher 
pressures because of the increased amount of oxygen used and the 
consequent high cost of operation, also because the cut will not be 
smooth if too much oxygen is used. 

Care of Blowpipe. If the blowpipe is handled properly there 
will be very little deterioration. It should only be necessary to 
clean the replaceable and working parts, repack the valves, and 
occasionally ream out and true up the nozzles. Care should be taken 
that the orifices of the nozzles do not become enlarged by reaming, 
because the heating jets will be made thicker and shorter and the 
cutting jet will spread rather than leave the blowpipe as a long 
thin stream. 

The blowpipe may be cleaned the same as the welding blow- 
pipe by removing both the acetylene and oxygen hose and connecting 
the nozzle to the oxygen hose, Fig. 16, page 18, and turning on the 
oxygen to a pressure of about 20 pounds per square inch, having 
first the cutting oxygen valve open, then the acetylene needle valve, 
and lastly the oxygen needle valve. This will allow the large particles 
to be blown out of the larger passages before they have a chance 
to clog up the smaller passages. 

Regulators. The cutting regulator, in principle, is the same as 
that described on page 20, but in size it is much larger than the 
welding regulator and is capable of both a higher delivery pressure 
and a greater volume. 

The acetylene regulator is the same as is used in the welding 
equipment, and described on page 20. v * 

Care of Apparatus. The regulators and hose should receive 
the same care and attention as is explained for the welding apparatus 
on pages 18 to 21. 

Instructions for Connecting Apparatus. The regulators and the 
blowpipe are connected up in the same manner as the welding 
apparatus, and therefore the operator is referred to pages 22 to 30 
for instructions. 

How To Light the Blowpipe. (1) Take the blowpipe in hand 
and open the oxygen cutting valve fully. 


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(2) Turn the oxygen pressure-adjusting screw to the right 
until the required pressure for the work to be done shows on the 
low-pressure gage. (See the maker's chart for the correct pressure.) 

(3) Close the oxygen cutting valve. 

(4) Open the acetylene needle valve fully. 

(5) Turn the acetylene pressure-adjusting screw to the right 
until a good jet of acetylene issues from the heating orifices. In 
the case of pressure blowpipes, until the required pressure for the 
thickness to be cut shows on the low-pressure gage. (See the maker's 
chart for the correct pressure.) 

6. Open the oxygen needle valve one-quarter turn and light 
the blowpipe by means of the pyro-lighter that is usually furnished. 

Note — A back-fire might occur if there is not enough acetylene being 
supplied. If this occurs increase the acetylene supply by turning the acetylene 
pressure-adjusting screw farther to the right. 

7. Adjust the acetylene pressure-adjusting screw to give a 
slight excess of acetylene to the flame. 

8. Adjust the acetylene needle valve to give a neutral flame 
(see under Flame Regulation, page 25) when the cutting oxygen 
valve is open. 

To Shut off the Blowpipe. In the case of the injector type of 
blowpipe, first close the acetylene needle valve and then the oxygen 
needle valve. 

In the case of pressure blowpipes, first close the oxygen needle 
valve and then the acetylene needle valve. 

To Cut. With the cutting valve closed apply the heating flames 
to the, edge of the metal, keeping the nozzle at such a distance that 
the small flames barely touch the metal. As soon as the metal 
becomes heated to a cherry red, open the cutting valve, raise the 
blowpipe slightly to increase the distance between the nozzle and 
metal, and then move it along the surface as fast as a distinct and 
and clear kurf can be secured. The blowpipe should be held at a 
constant distance from the work. It should travel away from the 
operator in order that he may watch the cut advance. 

Back-Firing. Occasionally, particles of molten metal will 
impinge on the nozzle of the blowpipe, or the operator will allow 
the nozzle to touch the surface of the metal, and the blowpipe will 
back-fire. When this occurs, first close the acetylene needle valve 


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and allow oxygen to clear the passage, then open the acetylene 
needle valve fully and relight. If the back-firing continues, close 
both the acetylene and oxygen needle valves, cool the blowpipe by 
plunging in water and relight. Other causes of back-firing are 
loose internal and external nozzles or dirt on the nozzle seat. These 
can be eliminated by tightening the nozzles and cleaning the seat. 
These back-fires are usually only a series of pops or sharp reports, 
and, as a rule, will not extinguish the flame. 

Notes on Cutting. Heating Flames. The heating flames 
should be small to produce smooth cutting. If the flames are too 
small, the blowpipe is liable to back-fire. If they are large, the top 
edges of the cut will melt and produce a rough cut. 

Speed of Cutting. The speed of the blowpipe travel should be 
slow enough to allow the oxygen jet to penetrate yet not so slow 
that the oxygen will be wasted. 

Restarting Cut. If the blowpipe travels too fast, and the cut 
is "lost", it is necessary to shut off the cutting oxygen and apply the 
heating flames to the point of stopping until the metal is hot enough 
to start the cut again. 

To Cut Round Shafts, Etc. The cutting of round pieces will 
be made easier if the surface of the work is first chipped with a chisel. 
This will present a good edge for the cutting blowpipe to bite on. 

To Pierce Holes. When piercing holes, a high oxygen pressure 
is necessary, and the metal must be brought to fusion before the 
cutting oxygen is employed. The blowpipe is held at a slight angle so 
the sparks will be blown out of the hole and away frbm the blowpipe. 

Cutting Dirty and Poor Material. If there is considerable rust, 
scale, paint, etc., on the surface, the cutting will be interfered with 
by small particles flying against the end of the nozzle and perhaps 
causing back-firing. To overcome this, the heating flames may be 
made longer, allowing the blowpipe to be held farther away from 
the surface, or the scale or paint may be removed by first passing 
the flame over the line of cutting before the cutting is started. 


Different Methods. Formerly, lead burning, or lead welding, 
was confined to garages and service stations that catered to the electric 
automobile only, but since the introduction of electric lighting and 


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starting batteries for gasoline automobiles, lead burning has become 
one of the works of the repair man in all garages. It is therefore 
important that the repair man have a sufficient knowledge of this 
class of work to enable him to handle any work of this nature that 
may happen to come into his shop. 

Up to the time of the recent development of a very small oxy- 
acetylene blowpipe for lead-burning work, the hydrogen air burner 
was used by most lead burners. The pxy-acetylene blowpipe, how- 

Fig. 84. Oxy- Acetylene Lead Burning Apparatus 
Courtesy of Oxweld Acetylene Company, Chicago 

ever, is rapidly supplanting the old method and, as a matter of fact, 
within two years it has become universally accepted as being far 
superior to the old method in handiness of operation, speed, and 
consequent economy, and has been adopted by the large battery 
makers in both their factories and service stations. 

When an operator accustomed to the old flame tries the oxy- 
acetylene blowpipe, he is very likely to discredit it at first and claim 
that it is not satisfactory. However, every operator who gives the 
oxy-acetylene lead-burning blowpipe a fair trial and uses it in 
accordance with the methods recommended by the manufacturers 


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of the apparatus must acknowledge it as being superior to any 
method he has ever used. Its advantages are emphasized even more 
emphatically if he returns to the old, sltfwer, and more costly methods. 
Lead-Burning Apparatus. A complete lead-burning station 
for use with oxygen and acetylene, Fig. 84, consists of the following 

Lead-burning blowpipe with set of tips 

Oxygen regulator with low-pressure gage 

Acetylene regulator with low-pressure gage 

Adapter for acetylene cylinder 


Two lengths of high-pressure hose to connect regulators to valve block 

Two lengths of small hose to connect blowpipe to valve block 

Lead-Burning Blowpipe. To make the blowpipe as light in 
weight and as handy as possible there are no large valves. Instead, 
a valve block is furnished for regulating the gases, which may be 
attached to a bench or a wall. In order to make minor or finer 
adjustments of the flame, and to allow various size tips to be used 
on the blowpipe and still maintain a perfect flame, an adjustable 
injector is provided at the top of the blowpipe within reach of the 
operator's fingers. 

Tips. There are about five sizes of tips supplied for use on 
different thicknesses and various classes of work, each giving its 
own special size flame. The oxygen consumption of the various 
size tips ranges from J to 6 cubic feet per hour. For storage-battery 
work the average consumption is about 2 cubic feet per hour. 

Regulators. The regulators supplied with lead-burning apparatus 
operate on the same principle as the regulator described on page 19, 
the only difference being that they are of smaller size and especially 
adapted to small flames. 

Operation of Lead-Burning Apparatus. The apparatus is 
connected in the same general manner as the welding apparatus 
for which instructions are given on pages 22 to 30. The needle 
valves on the valve block are used to obtain approximate adjust- 
ment of the flame, and then the small thumb-nut on the blowpipe 
is used to make the finer adjustment. The pressure-adjusting 
screws should be set to give pressures of about 10 pounds per 
square inch for the oxygen, and 2 pounds per square inch for 
the acetylene. 


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The blowpipe, regulators, hose, etc., should receive the same care 
and attention as the welding apparatus and for which suggestions 
are given on pages 18 to 21* 

Lead-Burning Process. The oxy-acetylene blowpipe should be 
handled in such a manner that the flame strikes the work perpen- 
dicularly. If the blowpipe is used on a slant, the inner cone will 
not bring the work to the fusing temperature as rapidly as if held 
vertically, and the secondary flame, or outer envelope, will be very 
likely to heat the surrounding metal to such a temperature that it 
will give way and break under its own weight. When working with 

the oxy-acetylene flame on stor- 
age batteries and the like, the 
operator should do the burning 
quickly. He should bring the 
flame down to the work, fuse the 
metal, add the necessary burn- 
ing bar, or filling wire, smooth 
off the work, and remove the 
flame, all as rapidly as possible. 
Burning Terminal Groups. 
When burning plates to terminal 
bars, a small flame should be 
used, and the work should be 
held in a fixture, as shown in 
Fig. 85. The small ends on the 
„. om A ^. m . *~ plates should extend up into the 

Fig. 85. Assembling Terminal Groups * # r 

terminal bar slots about two- 
thirds of the way. The burning should be carried on by first fusing 
the ends of the plates to the bottom of the slots, and then filling up 
the rest of the slot by adding lead from a coil of wire or a burning 
bar. After several plates have been burned on in this way, the flame 
should be moved perpendicularly over the surface to smooth it off 
and leave a nice finish. The flame should not be held flat against 
the work. It will take longer to smooth off the work, and it will 
not have nearly as neat an appearance if the flame is used flat. 

Burning-On Connecting Links. The terminal poles should 
extend up into the links about one-third of the way. The flame 
should be brought down into the hole until the inner cone almost 


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touches the top of the pole, and the pole fused and united with the 
bottom of the link as quickly as possible. After a good union has 
been secured in this manner, the burning bar should be introduced 
and the rest of the cavity filled up, Fig. 86. When working on links 
and poles it is advisable to do only part of one pole, move to another 
for a few minutes, and then come back to the first for a few minutes. 
This will allow the work to cool off slightly and will prevent breaking 
down or melting away. When burning this class of work, especially 
if the lead is old and pitted with dirt and cut by acid, it is advisable 
to increase the supply of oxygen 
and use an oxidizing flame 
when working down in the 
pocket. This will burn out any 
dirt and will prevent the blow- 
pipe from puffing out when it is 
burning in the rare atmosphere 
that exists in the pocket. 

Forms or Molds. Small steel 
frames, or molds, are found very 
convenient, especially when 
working on terminal links. 
These are shaped «to conform to 
the work and are placed around 
it while it is burning. They are 

a great help in preventing the ^ ^ Burning0n connecting Link, 

corners of the work from break- 
ing down and melting away and, in this manner, relieve some of 
the tediousness of the work and allow the operator to work under less 
strain, and permit the work to be done by men who are not skilled 
lead burners, but who have occasional work of this sort to do. 


Old Process of Removing Carbon. Up to within the last few 
years the methods used for removing the carbon from gas-engine 
cylinders were very impractical and unsatisfactory. To do this 
work meant the dismantling of the motor, the removal of all the 
parts, and the scraping of the cylinder walls by hand. Because this 


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operation necessitated a great deal of work it was not done, in most 
cases, until the carbon deposit became very heavy. 

Oxygen Process. The introduction of the inexpensive process 
of removing the carbon by burning it out by means of pure oxygen 
has replaced the old methods and they are no longer used. This 
new process is so simple, necessitates so little work, can be done so 
quickly and cheaply, that it can be employed every few months and, 
in that way, keep the cylinders free from carbon. 

Carbon-Removing Apparatus. Complete apparatus for remov- 
ing carbon by means of oxygen, Fig. 87, consists of the following: 

Carbon-removing handle with flexible tube 
Oxygen regulator with low-pressure gage 
One length of high-pressure rubber hose 

It will be seen from this list that all that 
is necessary for a garage to have in addition 
to its welding equipment is the carbon- 
removing handle with a flexible tube. 

Burning Out Carbon. Shut off the gas- 
• oline at the tank or just in front of the 

carburetor and allow the engine to run until 
it has sucked the gasoline out of the lines. 
Remove the valve caps and spark plugs 
from all the cylinders. 

Turn the engine over by hand until 
the first piston is at the upper end of its 
stroke and both its valves are closed. Intro- 
duce a small quantity of kerosene into the 
cylinder head by means of an oil can or a 
Fig. 87. Carbon-Removing piece of saturated waste. Light the kero- 
sene in the cylinder, introduce the end of 
the flexible tube into the cylinder and allow the oxygen to play 
on the carbon at a pressure of about 5 pounds per square inch. 
The carbon deposit will eatch fire and will continue to burn as 
long as there is carbon present. Of course, if the carbon is depos- 
ited in patches it will be necessary, after one patch has been 
removed, to start another by means of kerosene. 

After the first cylinder has been thoroughly cleaned, turn the 
engine over by hand until the piston of the second cylinder is at 


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its upper stroke with its valves closed, and then proceed to remove 
the carbon from this cylinder in the same manner. 

After all the cylinders have been thoroughly cleaned, clean the 
valve caps and spark plugs by scraping or by burning off the carbon 
and then replace them in the engine. 

Notes on Carbon Burning. Before burning out the carbon be 
sure that there is no chance of gasoline being present which might 
cause back-firing into the intake manifold. 

The oxygen pressure should not be too high. Only enough oxygen 
should be supplied to keep the carbon kindled. Too much pressure 
will waste oxygen and increase the cost of burning out the carbon. 

Too much kerosene must not be used, because there is a chance 
of the operator burning his hands with the sudden burst of flame 
that might result. 


Pressed-Steel Parts. All pressed-steel parts of automobiles, 
such as frames, bodies, fenders, axle housings, tubing, etc., should 
be welded, using a pure iron welding wire for a filling material. 

Frames. Almost all frame repairs necessitate a certain amount 
of dismantling of other parts. The extent of the dismantling depends 
upon the location of the proposed weld. If the work is to be done 
under the body, it is best to remove the car body. This is not 
absolutely necessary, however, because the work can be done by 
merely jacking up the body several inches to give enough room to 
do the work, and protect the body from the heat of the welding 
flame. If the weld is to be done close to the radiator, this should 
be removed so that the solder will not be melted out, Fig. 88. If 
the weld is about 12 inches from the radiator, the solder can be 
protected by placing sheet asbestos over the radiator. In this 
connection it is well to remind the operator that it is always advisable 
to cover the parts of the car near the welding with sheet asbestos 
to protect them from any possibility of the flame or heat getting 
too close. 

Jacks should be placed under the frame and the frame brought 
into alignment before the welding is started; the jacks should not 
be removed until the weld has been completed and has become 
thoroughly cooled. 


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It is always advisable to bevel the work by chipping. In the 
case of frames of light-weight pleasure cars this may be dispensed 
with if the operator is careful to penetrate through the thickness 
of the material. All paint, dirt, and grease must be scraped off 
next to the weld from both the inside and outside of the frame 
before the welding is commenced, to prevent dirt from being 
incorporated in the weld. 

A reinforcing plate should be prepared about the same thickness 
as the frame, as wide as the frame is high, and about three times 

Fig. 88. Radiator Is Removed if Welding Flame Is Near It 

as long as it is wide. This may be cut out of sheet steel by means 
of the cutting blowpipe, Fig. 82, page 77, or by means of a hack saw. 
The blowpipe is the quickest and easiest method, especially for 
cutting plates for curved frames such as are used on pleasure cars. 
The weld will look better if the reinforcing plate is welded on the 
inside of the frame, but in some cases that is impossible without a 
great deal of extra dismantling. It is then allowable to weld it on 
the outside. 

The welding should start at the lower end of the frame and 
move upward as explained under Vertical Welding, page 31 • The 


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two flanges of the channel should then be welded, starting at the 
corner and moving toward the edge. When welding the lower 
flange, the work should be carried on as explained under Overhead 
Welding, page 31. After the frame has been welded, the reinforcing 
plate should be welded on by welding the horizontal edges first 
and the ends last. 

The weld will be materially strengthened if it is hammered 
during the process of welding, as explained under Hammering, 
page 46. 

Fig. 89. Badly Bent Frame 

The oxy-acetylene blowpipe is also very valuable in straightening 
frames that have become bent in accidents. A frame of this sort 
is shown before and after straightening in Figs. 89 and 90. 

Bodies and Fenders. Bodies and fenders that have been torn 
can be successfully welded if the operator uses his best efforts and 
is careful. 

Fenders, as a rule, do not present very much difficulty because 
the break usually extends to the edge. It is advisable to pack wet 
asbestos along both sides of the weld to prevent buckling as much 
as possible, Fig. 91. The wet asbestos will absorb the heat and will 
not allow it to be conducted back into the sheet. 


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Bodies should be welded in a similar manner when they an 
torn. If possible, it is advisable to bend the edges outward slighth 

Fig. 00. Frame after Heating with Welding Flame and Straightening 

before welding. Then as the 
weld is cooling, hammer it flat 
to compensate for the contraction 
that takes place. 

If a patch must be welded 
in, it should be prepared either 
round or oval, or should have 
rounded corners of large radii. 
The patch should be dished to 
compensate for the contraction 
that will take place when the 
work cools. The hole in the 
body and the patch should be 
trimmed so they fit well. When 
the patch is ready, it should be 
tacked in place. The welding 

Fig. 91. Welding Torn Fender. Wet Aabeatoe should be Carried On as quickly 
Along Weld Will Prevent Buckling .« « A ». .* i i i 

of Light sheeu as possible. After the weld has 


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been completed, the flame should be played on it to heat it evenly. 
As the weld starts to cool, the center of the patch should be heated 

Fig. 02. Broken Front Axle 

Fig. 93. Welded Front Axle 

Fig. 94. Crankshaft in Crankshaft Jig Table for Welding 

slightly so that it will stretch easily and compensate for the con- 
traction taking place in the weld. 


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Springs. The welding of springs should not be attempted 
except for emergency repairs to allow the car to be used until a new 
spring can be obtained. A steel welding rod of low-carbon content 

Fig. 05. Pre-neating Crankshaft with Gas Fig. 96. Welding Crankshaft. Note that 

Burner the Pre-Heating Burner Is Used to 

Assist the Welding Flame 

should be used for filling material. No attempt should be made 
to re-temper the spring, because the average garage is not equipped 
to handle work of that nature and, consequently, the spring is very 

Fig. 97. Welded Crankshaft 

likely to be worse if a poor job of tempering is done than if tempering 
is not attempted. It is well to pack wet asbestos around the spring 
next to the weld to prevent the heat being conducted back into the 
rest of the spring. 


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Shafts and Axles. Shafts and axles are alloys of nickel, nickel 
and chromium, or chromium and vanadium. It is desirable to have 
the filling material of the same composition as the shaft or axle, 
but this is practically impossible. The most suitable welding rod 

Fig. 98. Broken Malleable-Iron Rear-Axle Housing 

that can be obtained for this work is one containing about 3.50 
per cent nickel, or one containing about 0.20 per cent vanadium and 
0.12 per cent chromium. This latter steel is more difficult to handle 
under the welding flame, so that most welders prefer the 3.50 per 
cent nickel rod. 

Square shafts, Figs. 92 and 93, and round shafts, Fig. 80, page 
75, should both be beveled by means of the cutting blowpipe or by 
grinding, and should then be placed in alignment or in suitable 
jigs, Fig. 94. A gas or oil pre-heating burner should then be directed 

Fig. 99. Repaired Malleable-Iron Rear-Axle Housing 

on the point of welding, Fig. 95, and the work heated to a red heat 
before welding is started. The welding should then be carried on, 
Fig. 96, according to the instructions given under Welding Heavy 
Sections, page 58. After the welding has been completed the work 
should be reheated and any straightening done that is necessary. 


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The weld should then be heated up evenly, covered over with sheet 
asbestos, and allowed to cool slowly. The finished weld is shown 
in Fig. 97. 

Axle Housings. If the housing is of pressed steel, it will not 
present any particular difficulty to the welder, except that he -will 
have to take care that it does not get out of alignment. A pure iron 
welding wire should be used, and the work should be prepared and 
carried on as explained under Light Sheet-Steel Welding, pages 
46 to 50 

If the housing is of malleable iron, Figs. 98 and 99, it should 
be beveled, placed in alignment, and then brazed, using Tobin bronze 

for a filling material as 
explained under MaJle- 
able-Iron Welding, page 
67. The work may be 
pre-heated slightly to re- 
lieve the effect of expan- 
sion and contraction, but 
must not be heated above a 
dark red. The operator 
must be very careful to 
not bring the malleable 
iron at the weld to too 
high a heat or its mal- 
leable properties will be 
destroyed and the hous- 
ing will be weak. 

Manifolds. Pressed- 
steel manifolds should be 

Fig. 100. Welding Broken Flange on Manifold weUed according to the 

directions given under Light Sheet-Steel Welding, pages 46 to 50. 
Cast-iron manifolds, as a rule, have only simple breaks to be 
repaired, such as broken flanges, Fig. 100. These should be beveled, 
and the parts clamped to a flat surface to keep them straight. They 
should then be pre-heated in the vicinity of the weld by means of 
the welding blowpipe before the welding is started. After the weld 
is completed they should be reheated evenly and then covered 
over and allowed to cool slowly. 


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Engine Cylinders* If the water jacket is cracked, the crack 
should be chipped out and the surface of the casting next to the 
groove should be cleaned by scraping. If the cylinder is cracked in 

Fig. 101. Water Jacket Cut Away to Allow for Welding Cylinder Wall 

the head end, it will be necessary to cut away a section of the water 
jacket by drilling or sawing, Fig. 101. After the cylinder head has 
been welded, the water-jacket section can be welded back into place, 
Fig. 102. Sometimes it is quite difficult to detect how far the crack 
really extends, therefore, care must be taken to be sure that it is 
chipped out its entire length. 

All of the plugs and other fittings must be removed from the 
cylinders before pre-heating. The cylinders should be placed in 

Pig. 102. Cylinder Wall Welded and Section of Water-Jacket Replaced 

the pre-heating fire with the open end of the cylinder upward, 
Fig. 103. They may be placed on a slant if the crack is on the side 
of the water jacket; but they must be in such a position so there 


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will be no chance for dead air to remain in them. If this precaution 
is not taken, the cylinder walls are very likely to crack. 

The welding should be carried on according to the directions 
given under Cast-iron Welding, pages 59 to 67. The cylinders 
must be left in the charcoal fire all during the welding. It is even 
advisable to keep the top of the fire covered over and to weld through 
a hole in the asbestos paper, Fig. 103, to prevent air currents from 
striking the cylinder while it is hot. After the welding has been 

Fig. 103. Welding Cylinders and Preparing Pre-Heating Fire for Cylinders 

completed, the fire should be started up enough to heat the entire 
casting evenly, and should then be covered over and allowed to die 
out. The cylinder must not be removed until it has become cold 
enough to be handled with bare hands. 

Protection for Machined Surfaces. The finish in the bore of the 
cylinder will be affected by the heating if some means is not used 
to protect it. The best protection that can be used is to coat it and 
other machined surfaces with flaked graphite and oil. This can 
be made into a paste and painted on, or the surfaces can be oiled 

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Fig. 104. Water Jacket Plugged and Welds Being Tested 
with Gasoline 

and the graphite dusted on. The latter method is really the best 
if carefully applied. The graphite must be coarse; the fine flake 
will not do. 

Testing Welded Cyl- 
inders. There are sev- 
eral ways of testing 
welded cylinders. The 
two most generally used 
are by water pressure 
and by gasoline. In the 
first method, the water 
jacket is tightly plugged, 
filled with w r ater, and 
then subjected to pres- 
sure by means of a hand 
pump. The method of 
using gasoline is simpler 
and quicker. The water 
jacket is plugged and 
filled with gasoline, Fig. 
104. If there are any 
cracks or leaks the gas- 
oline will work its way 
through and will spread 
out over the surface sur- 
rounding the crack or 

Crankcases and 
Transmission Cases. It 
is usually necessary to 
remove the case from the 
car. But, if the arm is 
broken some distance 
from the main case, it 
may be welded while in 
position, as shown in Fig. 105. When welding in this manner, it is 
necessary to cover the parts near the welding with asbestos sheets 
to protect them from the flame of the blowpipe. The arm should be 

Fig. 105. Welding Arm of Crankcase without Dismantling 


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t~II W hi dxmurt 5;r i*i i5r t^ remain in them. If this precaution 
^ n;c ^ligi. tin* r^Tniftrr waJs are it g v likely to crack. 

Ti* -rearing smuiii be csrani on. according to the directions 
r~*si intifT »-\«-Z^:ii W^£n^ p*£es oO to 67. The cylinders 
Ti'iirC re jcr: n tne ~tare*ftL :ire *Z c^zin^ the welding. It is even 
*l *^i*:ie - iz?-; tie t:c :£ tie ire covered over and to weld through 
iiiMMi ne j&oesc:£ 3l^^e^- Fj£. I TV. to prevent air currents from 
-e-kir^r tie r.^mir wiiie. it s b:<- After the welding has been 

^viT- vitrei t^* ir*f scjccjd i* started op enough to heat the 
^>c ^ ^~-r"; - xtii scxx^i tiec hr covered over and allowed 
;i> t TSf : ;^oer zr-^s aoc be moved until it has 
^rvcir^ t,* Sf TJLieled with bait hands. 

r^ a .„, ( n ~ r Hac't-ttM $%~>jk*9~ The finish 
c; r : \k * .1 Sr j^v%\£ by tie beating 
:v r*r cw<: it. TS* Kks rrv*«e£mj 
;cvr xrao>i:wc scrraces with 
^ t,\*o* irro a p*sse aad 


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pre-heated slightly by means of the welding blowpipe before the 
actual welding is started, and, after the welding has been completed, 

it should be reheated to relieve 
any internal strains, and must 
then be covered over to allow it 
to cool slowly. 

Some operators spend a great 
deal of time trying to keep the 
bearing of the case in line, and 
while doing this they allow the 
rest of the case to twist, so that 
it is necessary to take a machine 
cut off the edges in order that 
they may fit the other half of the 

¥ig ' 106 M£t d Ete Pl^H^aSd aiTo?™ Caae ~~ case * ft * s muc h better to keep 

the edges true and dress up the 
bearings, because it is quite likely that the bearings will have to be 
trued up anyway. The case should be clamped flat against tw6 
straightedges, but not too tight, or the case might crack from the 

strains produced when heat is 
applied. The case should be 
placed on the welding table in 
such a position that the welder 
can work on the outside and 
smooth off the inside without 
having to disturb its position. 

Fig. 107. Lower Half of Crankease with Piece The most Satisfactory 

Broken Out— Must Be Entirely Pre-Heated ... * 

method of pre-heatmg is to place 

Fig. 108. Upper Half of Crankease with Piece Broken Out and Missing 

a gas burner under the case and let it burn without an air blast. If an 
air blast is turned on, the case is liable to become overheated and 


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cave in. In fact, unless there are holes to allow some of the heat 
to escape, the case is liable to become overheated with only the 
soft gas flame. If the case is broken at one end, as shown in Fig. 108, 
it is only necessary to heat the one end; but it is very necessary to 
heat both sides of that end to prevent warping. If like the case 
shown in Figs. 106 or 107, it is best to heat the entire case. This 
can best be done by using two gas burners so that the heat will 
surely spread. 

If the case is cracked or a piece is broken off, the welding should 
start at the inner end of the crack and move toward the edge or corner. 
The welding should be carried on 
as directed under Cast Aluminum 
Welding, page 71. 

If a piece has been broken 
out and lost necessitating building 

Fig. 109. Sheet-Iron Form to Back Up Section to Be Welded-In 

up a section of the casting, Fig. 108, it is necessary to back-up the 
work by means of a piece of sheet iron bent to the required shape, 
Fig. 109. The welding should be started at one edge and should 
move across the space in a line parallel to the edge. When the 
added material gets almost to the opposite edge, the welding should 
stop, the edge of the case and the edge of the new added section 
should be cleaned, and then the weld completed in the same manner 
as for welding up a crack, Fig. 110, as outlined above. 


The cost of welding varies within wide limits for the different 
metals and the different classes of work. It is, therefore, not possible 
to give cost tables that will apply to all work. The costs given in 
Tables II and III are for steel work under fair conditions. 

Measuring Oxygen Consumption. Oxygen is supplied 
compressed to 1800 pounds per square inch, in cylinders containing 


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Welding Cost Table 


of Metal 


(ft. per hr.) 


per Linear Foot 

(cu. ft.) 


per Linear Foot 

(cu. ft.) 

per linear Foot 

Labor 45c 

Oxygen 2c 

Acetylene. . 2Jc 


















$ .024 

Cutting Cost Table 


of Metal 


(ft. per hr.) 


per Linear Foot 

(cu. ft.) 


per Linear Foot 

(cu. ft.) 

per Linear Foot 

Labor 45c 

Oxygen 2c 

Acetylene . . 2|c 





$ .014 



















































Factors for Correcting Oxygen Volumes 

Deg. F. 


Deg. F. 


Deg. F. 

































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100 and 200 cubic feet. The amount of oxygen in a cylinder can 
be measured quite accurately by means of the high-pressure gage 
on the regulator. Most of these gages are supplied with two rows 

Fig. 110. Upper Half of Crankcasc with Section Built-in 

of figures on the dial, Fig. 111. The outer circle gives the pressure 
in the cylinder in pounds per square inch, and the other circle gives 
the per cent of oxygen remaining in the cylinder. The latter set of 
numbers makes the calculation very easy: e.g., if a 100-cubic foot 
cylinder is being used and the gage hand indicates 73, there is 73 

Fig. 111. Dial of High-Prceeure Gage of Oxygen Regulator 

cubic feet of oxygen in the cylinder. IT a 200-cubic foot cylinder is 
being used, there is 200X0.73=146 cubic feet in the cylinder. 
The amount of oxygen indicated by the gage reading is more or less 
approximate and depends upon the temperature of the oxygen in the 


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cylinder. The correction factors given in Table IV should be used 
to determine the volume of the oxygen at "standard temperature", 
60° F., if an accurate measurement is required, e.g., if in the case 
given above the temperature is 50° F., then the real volume at 
standard temperature would be 146X1.020 = 148.9 cubic feet. 

Measuring Acetylene Consumption. The amount of acetylene 
in a cylinder cannot be determined by means of the high-pressure 
gage. All the high-pressure gage can be used for, in the case of 
acetylene, is to indicate very roughly the amount of acetylene in 
the cylinder. There is only one method that can be used to determine 
the amount of acetylene used, and that is to weigh the cylinder. 
Each pound by weight of acetylene is equal to 14.5 cubic feet. There- 
fore, to determine the amount of acetylene used on a certain job, it is 
necessary to weigh the cylinder before and after welding and 
calculate the volume of acetylene used from the difference in weight, 
e.g., if the cylinder weighs 217 pounds before welding and 207£ 
pounds after welding, then (217 -207£)X 14.5 = 9^X14.5 = 137.7 
cubic feet. 


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1. Explain the action of the regulating third brush as used in 
the Leece-Neville system. 

2. How may a Leece-Neville generator be short-circuited? 

3. What must be done to increase and decrease the output of 
the generator in a Leece-Neville system? 

4. How is regulation obtained in the North East system? 

5. Explain the constant voltage method of regulation used in 
Remy systems. 

6. What tests should be made in an Oakland when lights and 
ignition fail but the motor operates? 

7. How may the generator in a 1917 Maxwell be tested? 

8. How is regulation obtained in the Splitdorf system? 

9. Explain the action of the touring switch in the U.S.L. 

10. What starting system is used on the 1917 Mercer? 

11. What special features does the U.S.L. "Nclmi" system 

12. How may a ground in the starting system be located in a 
Srripps-Booth "Four"? 

13. How may an ammeter test for short-circuits be made? 

14. W T hat should be done when a generator of the voltage- 
regulator type fails to charge the battery properly? 

15. Sketch the Hupmobile installation. 

16. Explain the action of the Wagner switch. 


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1. (Jive the method of mounting a generator. 

2. What adjustments must be made before installing a genera- 

3. In a generator installation can the lights be used if the 
battery has been removed? 

4. How would you determine that the regulator was not work- 
ing properly in a Gray & Davis installator? 

5. What lamps are required in a Gray & Davis Ford installator? 

6. Why is no provision made for oiling the Gray & Davis 
generator bearings? 

7. Describe the method of testing a generator with an ammeter. 

8. Sketch the Heinze-Springfield Ford installation. 

9. Sketch the Fisher Ford installation. 

10. What must be done if it is necessary to run the generator 
with the battery disconnected, in the North East system? 

1 1. Sketch the North East dash wiring. 

12. How can a horizontal chain be adjusted? 

13. At about what car speed should the battery cut-out close, 
in the Heinze-Springfield system? 


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1. What causes sulphating and what can be done with a badly 
sulphated plate? 

2. If a battery has been kept in an undercharged condition for 
some time, what percentage of the time necessary to charge it 
originally will now be required to charge it? 

3. What is gassing and what does it indicate? 

4. Give the correct method for adjusting the specific gravity 
of the electrolyte in a cell. 

5. What may be learned from a hydrometer test and how 
should the tests be carried out? 

6. If, in making a test, a voltage reading of 1.9 volts per cell 
and a hydrometer reading of 1.220 or more are obtained, what 
does this indicate? 

7. Outline the proper method of cleaning a battery and re- 
placing a broken jar. 

8. Show by a sketch the proper method for discharging battery 
through a water resistance. 

9. Give two methods of lead burning. 

10. What is the difference between dry and wet storage? Out- 
line the proper procedure in each case. 

11. When should a battery be given an equalizing charge? 

12. Discuss the proper methods of battery charging, including 
descriptions of motor-generators and rectifiers. 

13. How should a battery be taken care of in the winter? 


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1. How many cylinders has the conventional American 
motorcycle, and what type motor is usually used? 

2. In what way has the installation of high-speed motors 
influenced the design of motorcycles? 

3. Give a complete description of the Smith motor wheel. 

4. What is a cyclemotor? 

5. Give specifications for the engine used in the Excelsior No. 9. 

6. What American companies manufacture 4-cylinder motor- 

7. Give complete specifications for the engine used in the 
Henderson motorcycle. 

8. What is the difference between a 4-cycle and a 2-cycle 

9. Describe the spring frame construction used in the Merkel. 

10. What two main types of frames are used in motorcycle 

11. How are the crankshafts fitted on flywheels in 5-cylinder 

12. Describe the action of the Indian roller-cam oil pump. 

13. What type of transmission is used in the Harley-Davidson? 

14. Describe the principle of operation of the Midco magneto- 
generator as used on the Excelsior. 

15. Describe the Harley-Davidson commercial van. 


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1. Name two methods of welding heavy sheet steel and describe 
one of them. 

2. Give the characteristics of the low-pressure acetylene gene- 

3. Name and describe the characteristics of the three types of 
blowpipe flames. 

4. What kind of welding rod and what flux are used in welding 

5. In what essentials does the cutting blowpipe differ from the 
welding blowpipe? 

6. Give the method of measuring the oxygen used in a welding 

7. Describe the essentials of an electric welding outfit. 

8. Draw a simple diagram showing the essential parts of an 
acetylene welding outfit and their location. 

9. Describe the process of welding up a hole which has been 
accidentally made in the work. 

10. Why is pre-heating important? 

11. Give the important distinctions between the treatment of 
steel, cast iron, aluminum, and copper during the welding process. 

12. What is the action of the acetylene regulator? 

13. Give the various steps in butt-welding a pair of steel plates, 
showing how to manipulate the blowpipe. 

14. What are the principal factors in the production of defective 
welds and what can be done to avoid them? 


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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The page numbers of this volume will be found at ike bottom of the pages; 
the numbers at the top refer only to the section. 




Bodies and fenders 


A. C. rectifiers 




Action of cell on charge 


Brass and bronze welding 


Action of cell on discharge 


Brazing malleable iron 


Adding acid 


Burning hole in metal in welding 


Adding distilled water 


how to weld up hole 


Adjusting specific gravity 


Burning out carbon 


temperature corrections 


Adjustment of gears 



Advantages of oxy-acetylene process 

j 403 

After-treatment in brass and bronze 


Capacity of storage battery 




Carbon-removing apparatus 


After-treatment in copper welding 


Carbon removing by use of oxygen 


Air leaks in manifold of motorcycle 


burning out carbon 


Aluninum castings 


old process of removing carbon 


Aluminum welding 


Carburetors 385 




Care of apparatus 




Care of battery 




a. c. rectifiers 


general considerations 


adding acid 




adding distilled water 


welding rod 


adjusting specific gravity 




care of battery in winter 


Ammeter and dash lamp 


charging from outside source 


Analysis of motorcycle mechanisms 


charging in series for economy 


Apparatus for simple welding job 


cleaning battery 


Arc welder 

cleaning repair parts 




detecting deranged cells 


graphite electrode 


equalizing charges necessary 


metallic electrode 




Auto-Ped motorcycle 


higher charge needed in cold 




how to take readings 






Battery cut-out 


installing new battery. 


Battery and wiring 


internal damage 


Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 


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Care of battery (continued) 

joint hydrometer and voltmeter 

test 218 

lead burning 229 

methods of charging 240 

motor-generator 241 

overhauling battery 223 

replacing jar 220 

restoring sulphated battery 214 

specific gravity too high 215 

storing battery 235 

sulphating 212 
temperature variations in voltage 

test 218 

to test rate of charge 249 

to test rate of discharge 246 

voltage tests 253 
why starting is harder in cold 

weather 244 

Care of battery in winter 243 

Cast aluminum welding 471 

after-treatment 472 

aluminum castings 471 

pre-heating 471 

preparation 471 

welding process 471 

Cast-iron welding 459 

expansion and contraction 460 

flux 461 

general considerations 459 

oxidation 459 

pre-heating 460 

preparation of welds 462 

welding rods 460 

welding process 463 

Chain-driven Genemotor 100 

mounting starter 100 

operation 104 

wiring 103 

Character of oxy-acetylene flame 424 

carbonizing, or reducing flame 426 

caution against oxidizing flame 426 

flame regulation 425 

neutral, or welding flame 425 

oxidizing flame 426 

use of reducing flame 426 

Charging battery from outside source 237 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 


Charging in series for economy 240 
Classification of motorcyle engine 

operation principles 345 
Cleaning battery 219 
Cleaning motorcycle chains 396 
Cleaning battery repair parts 257 
cleaning outfit 258 
method of cleaning parts 258 
Clutches, motorcycle 364 
Coefficient of expansion 430 
Connecting welding apparatus 414 
Construction details of motorcycles 349 
brakes 361 
clutches 364 
drive 362 
electrical equipment 367 
gearsets, or change-speed mech- 
anisms 365 
lubrication 359 
motors 351 
regulation 371 
spring and frame construction 349 
starting 361 
Control, electric starter * 

battery cut-out 83 

Splitdorf system 56 

Wagner system 83 

Westinghouse system 89 

Control, transmission 75 

battery cut-out 76 

planetary gear 78 

switch 75 

Copper welding 472 

after-treatment 474 

general considerations 472 

preparation 473 

welding 473 

Cutting blowpipe 478 

care of blowpipe 479 

cutting nozzle 47S 

working pressure 479 
Cutting in automobile repair shops 476 

back-firing 480 

care of apparatus 479 

cutting blowpipe 478 

how to light blowpipe 479 


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Cutting in automobile repair shops 
instructions for connecting apparatus 479 
necessary cutting apparatus 478 

notes on cutting 481 

principle of cutting with oxygen 477 
regulators 479 

to shut off blowpipe 480 

Cyclemotor 334 



Dayton motorcycle 

Defects in welds 

adhesion of added metal 
failure to penetrate 
improper flame adjustment 
insufficient reinforcing 

Detecting deranged battery cells 

Developments in standard motor- 
cycle types 338 
four-cylinder 341 
two-cylinder 338 

Dirty motorcycle muffler 397 

Drive, motorcycle 362 

belt drive 362 

chain drive 363 

shaft drive 363 


North East system 20 

Simms-Huff system 47 

Splitdorf system 55 

Wagner system 75 

Westinghouse system 89 
Dynamotor connections, Simms-Huff 48 


Early motorcycles 327 

Electric gear-shift 182 

from first to intermediate or high 187 

general plan 182 

principle of action 182 

starting first speed 184 

stopping car 184 

wiring 188 

Electric welding processes 

arc welder 412 

methods 411 

spot- welder 411 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 

Electric starting and lighting systems 11 
installing special systems for Ford 

cars 99 

practical analysis of types 11 

starting and lighting storage bat- 
teries 191 

Electrical equipment 367 

automatic switches 369 

development from battery current 367 
magneto generators 369 

Electrical troubles 398 

care of brushes 398 

lubrication of electrical equipment 

requires care 398 

short-circuits and open circuits 398 
storage batteries 398 

Engine cylinders, welding 496 

protection for machined surfaces 496 
testing welded cylinders 497 

Evolution of motorcycle 325 

Examples of automobile repair by 

welding 487 

axle housings 494 

bodies and fenders 489 
crankcases and transmission cases 497 

engine cylinders 495 

frames 487 

manifolds 494 

pressed-steel parts 487 

shafts and axles 493 

springs 492 

Expansion and contraction in cast- 
iron welding 460 
Expansion and contraction in heavy 

sheet-metal welding 453 
Expansion and contraction in light 

sheet-steel welding 446 

jigs 447 

tacking 447 

Expansion and contraction in 

welding 408, 436 

methods of handling expansion and 

contraction 437 

Expansion and contraction in welding 

alumimum 468 


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Fisher Ford starter. 142 
battery and wiring 145 
mounting starting unit 143 
operating instructions 147 
preparing engine 142 
Flame, welding 469 
Flux for welding 409, 461 
Four-cycle motorcycle engine 345 
Frames, welding 487 
Front stand attachment for motor- 
cycle 381 
Function of storage battery 192 

Gases for welding 






Gassing of storage battery 


Gearsets, motorcycle 








Genemotor (Ford starter) 


chain-driven type 


shaft-driven type 


General characteristics of Wagner 

starter 83 

General considerations in aluminum 

welding 468 

General considerations in brass and 

bronze welding 474 

absorption of gases 475 

flame 475 

flux 475 

oxidation 474 

welding rod 475 

General considerations in copper 

welding 472 

flame 473 

flux 473 

oxidation 472 

welding 472 

General considerations in steel welding 443 
after-treatment 445 

annealing 445 

Note. — For page numbere §ee foot of pages. 


General considerations in steel welding 
expansion and contraction 443 

hammering 446 

movement of blowpipe and welding 

rod 444 

neutral flame 444 

oxidation 443 

quenching 446 

welding rod 444 

General notes on welding 430 

burning hole in metal 431 

defects in welds 432 

haste fatal to good welding 430 

overhead and vertical welding 431 

Generator-starting motor in U. S. L. 

system 61 

Generators, acetylene 405 

low-pressure 405 

pressure generator 406 

Gray and Davis Ford starter 114 

installation 114 

instructions 125 

testing generator with ammeter 127 

Handling complex case of expansion 

and contraction 439 

Handling simple case of expansion 

and contraction 437 

breaking another member 439 

heating confining members 43S 

heating entire casting 438 

methods of handling 438 

use of wedges 438 

Heavy sheet-steel welding 451 

expansion and contraction 453 

preparation 451 

types of welds in heavy sheet 454 

welding heavy sheet 453 

Heavy welding section 45S 

hammering 458 

Heinze-Springfield Ford starter 127 

ammeter and dash lamp 138 
choker, or priming-rod, assembly 137 

installing battery 137 


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Heinze-Springfield Ford starter (con- 

installing unit 130 

preliminary operations 127 

switch and wiring 133 

tail and side lights, horn, etc. 138 

testing operations 140 
Higher battery charge needed in cold 

weather 211 

History of motorcycle 327 

early machines 327 

influence of high-speed motors 328 

light-weight machine 329 

modern improvements 329 

two-cylinder motors 328 

Hose for welding apparatus 421 

care of 421 

How to light blowpipe 423, 479 

How to take voltage readings 217 

Hydrometer 201 

frozen cells 205 

hydrometer tests 203 

low cells 206 

variations in readings 204 


Ignition, motorcycle 383 

Importance of battery in starting 

and lighting 191 

Influence of high-speed motorcycle 

motors 328 

Installation, Gray and Davis Ford 114 
battery 120 

final connections and adjustments 121 
mounting starter-generator 115 

preparing engine 114 

priming device 120 

remounting engine parts 119 

starting switch 119 

Installing new starting and lighting 

battery 235 

Installing special systems for Ford cars 99 
Fisher system 142 

Genemotors 100 

Gray and Davis system 1 14 

Heinze-Springfield system 127 

Not*. — For pago number » §— foot of pag§s. 

Installing special systems for Ford cars 

North East system 147 

Splitdorf system 154 

Westinghouse system 162 
Installing Heinze-Springfield Ford 

unit 130 

Bendix drive 132 

chain drive 131 

final assembly 132 

generator-motor 130 
Instructions for operating starting 

Gray and Davis Ford starter 125 

Leece-Neville system 1 1 

North East system 24 
battery cut-out and regulator 

(relays) 26 

five-terminal type unit 27 

starting switch 30 

Remy system 42 

ammeter 47 

battery discharge 42 

dim lights 46 
failure of lighting, ignition and 

starting 46 

Simms-Huff system 52 

failure of cut-out of regulator 53 

generator tests 53 

Splitdorf system 161 

generator-motor 161 

indicating automatic switch 162 

starting switch 161 

U. S. L. system 64 

ammeter 71 

battery cut-out 71 

brush pressure 68 

external regulator 69 

radial and angular brushes 69 

starting switch 68 - 

testing carbon pile 71 

touring switch 64 

Wagner system 85 

cautions 88 

failure due to battery cut-out 82 
ground in starting or in lighting 

circuits 85 


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Instructions for operating starting 

Lead-burning apparatus 


systems (continued) 



lack of capacity through faulty 



gear box 


Lead-burning process 


localizing any ground 


burning-on connecting links 


localizing short-circuit 


burning terminal groups 


method of tooling commutator 


forms or molds 


short-circuit tests 


Leece-Neville starting system 


switch or generator parts to be 

Lighting and starting switches, West 





Westinghouse system 


Light sheet-steel welding 


battery charging 


expansion and contraction 


fire prevention 






welding light sheet 


weak current 


Light-weight motorcycles 


Instructions for connecting welding 







manipulation of blowpipe 




welding rod 


Lubrication of motorcycles 359 

i, 384 

oxy-acetylene blowpipe flame 


oil pumps 


preliminary operations 


path of oil 


starting work 





Leece-Neville system 


Simms-Huff system 


Malleable-iron welding 


Instruments and protective devices 

brazing malleable iron 


Remy system 


malleable iron 


U. S. L. system 


straight weld not possible 


Internal damage to storage battery 


Manifolds, welding 


clean contacts necessary 


Measuring acetylene consumption 


voltage test 


Measuring oxygen consumption 
Manipulation of blowpipe and weld- 



ing rod 


position of blowpipe 


Joint hydrometer and voltmeter 

position of hose 





position of welding rod 
Mechanical combination in Remy 





Lead burning 









different methods 


wiring diagrams 


first method of burning 


Melting point of metals 


hydrogen gas outfit 


Merkel motorcycle 


illuminating gas outfit 


Methods of charging batteries 


second method of burning 


Methods of pre-heating in welding 


use of forms to cover joint 


charcoal fire 


Note. — For page numbers tee foot of page*. 


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Methods of pre-heating in welding 

North East regular system 





gas and oil burners 




pre-heating with welding blowpipe 


protective devices 


Miscellaneous processes in automo- 

switch tests 


^J bile welding 


wiring diagrams 


carbon removing by use of oxygen 


Notes on oxy-acetylene cutting 



cutting dirty and poor material 


examples of automobile repair 


heating flames 


lead burning 


restarting cut 


Modern motorcycle improvements 


speed of cutting 


Motorcycle control 


to cut round shafts, etc. 


Motorcycle mechanism nomenclature 343 

to pierce holes 





analysis of motorcycle mechanisms 343 

construction details 


Oily motorcycle clutches 


evolution of 


Old and new methods of welding 




Old process of removing carbon 


operation and repair of motorcycles 

\ 381 

oxygen process 


overhauling and repairing of motor- 

Operating instructions 



Genemotor Ford system 


present trend of models 


North East Ford system 


principles of engine operation 


Westinghouse Ford system 


special bodies and attachments 


ballast resistor 


standard specification 


battery does not stay charged 


types of motorcycles 


lamps do not light 


Motors, motorcycle 


loose friction drive 


four-cylinder type 


operation of ignition unit 


single-cylinder type 


to remove brushes 


two-cylinder type 


starting troubles 


Mounting Genemotor Ford starter 


Operating suggestions for motor- 

motor alignment 




Mounting starter 



Genemotor Ford system 




North East Ford system 




ttplitdorf Ford system 




Westinghouse Ford system 









Necessary welding apparatus 


Operation of Genemotor 


Necessity of care in welding 


Operation and care of welding appa- 

Nomenclature, motorcycle 




North East Ford system 


general notes on welding 


mounting battery 


hose for welding outfits 


mounting starter 


instructions for connecting appara 

operating instructions 




preparing engines 


necessary apparatus 


Note. — For page numbers Bee foot of pagee. 


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Operation and care of welding appa- 
ratus (continued) 
necessity for care 416 
regulators 419 
welding blowpipe 416 
Operation and repair of motorcycle 381 
operating suggestions 381 
repairing motorcycles 388 
Overhauling and repair of motor- 
cycles 388 
air leaks in inlet manifold 390 
carburetors 388 
cleaning chains 396 
dirty muffler 397 
electrical troubles 398 
oily clutches 395 
overhauling 390 
tires 385 
valve timing 393 
valve troubles 389 
Overhauling battery 223 
checking connections 226 
dismounting cells 224 
reassembling battery 225 
reconnecting cells 228 
renewals 228 
treating plates 225 
Overhauling motorcycles 390 
big-end piston bearings 392 
gaskets and washers 392 
piston pins 391 
truing up crankshafts 392 
valves 391 
Overhead and vertical welding 431 
beginning long weld 431 
Oxidation 46S 
Oxy-acetylene cutting 410 
Oxy-acetylene flame 408 
Oxy-acetylene process 403, 424 
advantages of 403 
character of flame 424 
expansion and contraction 408 
flux 409 
gases 403 
generators 405 
oxy-acetylene cutting 410 
oxy-acetylene flame 408 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 


Oxy-acetylene process (continued) 

preparation of work 408 

strength of weld 409 

welding blowpipes 407 

Parts of storage cell 


Passenger attachments for . motor- 
cycles 376 
Position of blowpipe in welding 427 
importance of movement 429 
inclination of blowpipe 427 
movement of blowpipe 428 
travel of blowpipe 428 
Position of hose in welding 427 
Position of welding rod 429 
building up weld 430 
faults to be avoided 430 
how to add welding rod 429 
when to add welding rod 429 
Practical analysis of starting and 

lighting types 11 

Leece-Neville system 1 1 

North East system 20 

Remy system 35 

Simms-HufT system 47 

Splitdorf system 55 

U. S. L. system 61 

Wagner system 75 

Westinghouse system 89 

Pre-heating in cast-iron welding 460 

Preliminary operations in welding 422 

Preparation of cast-iron welds 462 

to prevent crack from extending 462 

Preparation of work 408 

Preparing engine for Ford starter 

Fisher system ' 142 
North East system 147 
Splitdorf system 154 
Westinghouse system 162 
Preparing metal for simple welding 414 
Principle of action of electric gear- 
shift 182 


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Principle of cutting with oxygen 


Regulation of starting and lighting 

metals that can be cut 


systems (continued) 

Principles and construction of starting 

Wagner system 


and lighting storage battery 


Westinghouse system 89, 91 

action of cell on charge 


Regulation in construction of motor 

action of cell on discharge 




capacity of battery 




construction details 




Edison cell not available 


one- and two-wire systems 


function of storage battery 


spark plugs 


parts of cell 


storage batteries 


specific gravity 


Regulators for welding apparatus 419, 479 

Principles of engine operation 


acetylene regulator 




care of regulators 


four-cycle motor 


operation of regulator 


two-cycle motor 


oxygen welding regulator 


Properties of metals 


Remy single-unit type 


coefficient of expansion 




expansion and contraction 


mechanical combination 


handling complex case of expansion 

Replacing jar 


and contraction 


Restoring sulphated battery 


handling simple case of expansion 

and contraction 



melting point 


specific heat 


Shaft-driven Genemotor 


thermal conductivity 




Protective devices for starting systems 

; 20 

adjustment of gears 


failure to start 



mounting Genemotor 


operating instructions 


Reasons for pre-heating 


preliminary adjustments 


to compensate for expansion and 

Shafts and axles 




Sheet-aluminum welding 


to decrease cost of welding 


types of joints 


to make metal more receptive to 

welding process 


action of welding flame 


Simple welding job 


Regulation of starting and lighting 

apparatus required 



connecting apparatus 


North East system 


preparing the metal 


Remy system 




constant-voltage method 


Simms-Huff system 


thermostatic switch 


Single-cylinder motor 


third-brush method 


Smith motor wheel 


Simms-Huff system 


Special motorcycle bodies and attach 

Splitdorf system 






front stand 


U. S. L. system 


passenger attachments 


Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 


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Specific gravity 
Specific heat 
Splitdorf Ford starter 


mounting starter 

preparing engine 

Splitdorf starting and lighting system 

six-volt; two-unit 

twelve-, six-volt; single-unit; two- 
Spot-welder, electric 
Spring and frame construction of 

rear and front frame springs 

seat-post springs 

types of frames 
Springs, repairing 





Sulphating in storage cells 212 

extra time necessary for charging 213 
Switch and wiring of Heinze-Spring- 
field system 

battery cables 

charging wire and starting cable 

coil and magneto wiring 

wiring for lights 
Switch tests for North East system 

ground test 

mechanical and electrical charac- 

operation test 

replacing Dodge chain 

Starting and lighting storage batteries 191 
care of battery 
principles and construction 
Starting motorcycles 
Starting motors for starting and light- 
ing systems 
Leece-Neville system 
Remy system 
Simms-Huff system 
Splitdorf system 
Wagner system 
Westinghouse system 
electromagnetic switch 
magnetic engaging type 
Steel welding 

general considerations 
heavy sheet-steel welding 
light sheet-steel welding 
welding heavy steel forgings and 
steel castings 
Stopping car with electric gear-shift 
Storage battery requires careful at- 
Storing battery 
Straight weld not possible 
Strength of weld 

experience of operator 
working and hammering 




















Tail and side lights, horn, etc. 138 

Technique of gas welding 414 

operation and care of welding appa- 
ratus 416 
simple welding job 414 
welding different metals 434 
Temperature variations in voltage 

test 218 

Testing generator with ammeter, 

Gray and Davis system 127 
Testing operations with Heinze- 

Springfield system HO 

Thermal conductivity 434 

Tires, motorcycle 385 

To test rate of charge connections for 

two-voltage batteries 252 
To test rate of discharge 246 

Twelve- volt; single-unit; single-wire 
Simms-Huff system 
change of voltage 49 

dynamotor 4i 

dynamotor connections 48 

instructions 52 

instruments 47 

regulation 4/ 

Twelve— six-volt; single unit; two- 
wire Splitdorf system 55 
dynamotor 55 

wiring diagram 55 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 


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Twelve-volt; single-unit; single-wire 

Westinghouse system 89 

control 89 

dynamotor 89 

instructions 89 

regulation 89 

wiring diagram 89 
Twelve-volt; single-unit; two- wire 

Wagner system 75 

control 75 

dynamotor 75 

instructions 79 

regulation 75 

wiring diagram 75 

Twenty-four — twelve-volt, and twelve — 

six-volt; single-unit; 

two-wire U. S. L. 

system 61 

generator-starting motor 61 

instructions 64 

instruments and protective devices 63 

regulation 62 

U. S. L. 12-volt system 73 

U. S. Nelson system 75 

wiring diagram 64 

Twin-cylinder motorcycle motor 395 

Two-cylinder motorcycle motor 328 

Types of joints in sheet aluminum 

welding 469 

Types of motorcycles 330 

Types of welds in heavy sheet 454 

butt weld 454 

corner welds 454 

high-pressure tanks 455 

lap weld 454 

storage tanks 455 

tubes and pipes 456 

' Types of welds in light sheet 449 

butt weld 449 

corner welds 450 

flange weld 449 

lap weld 449 

storage tanks 451 

tank heads 450 

tubes 45 1 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 


U. S. L. system 

twenty-four — twelve-volt, and 
twelve — six-volt 
U. S. L. 12-volt system 

fuse blocks 

starting switch 
U. S. Nelson system 




Valve timing for motorcycles 393 
getting valve timing with scale 394 
marking flywheels — automobile 

practice 394 

marking gears 393 

opening of valves not on dead center 394 

Valve troubles of motorcycles 389 

removing valves 390 

Valves 382 

Variations 61 

Voltage tests 253 

temperature variations 255 


Wagner starting and lighting system 75 

six- volt; two-unit 83 
twelve-volt; single-unit; two-wire 

(early model) 75 

Welding blowpipes 407, 416 

injector blowpipes 407 

pressure blowpipe 407 

welding heads and tips 416 

working pressures 417 

Welding brass and bronze 475 

re-welding 476 

Welding copper 473 

re-welding 473 

Welding different metals 434 

aluminum 468 

brass and bronze welding 474 

cast aluminum welding 471 

cast-iron welding 459 

copper welding 472 

malleable-iron welding 467 

pre-heating 440 

properties of metals 434 


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Welding different metals (continued) 

sheet-aluminum welding 469 

steel welding 443 

Welding heavy sheet 453 

continuous welding 454 

two methods of welding 453 

welding by sections 453 

Welding heavy steel forgings and 

steel castings 457 

expansion and contraction 459 

heavy welding sections 458 

preparation 457 

Welding in automobile repair shops 401 

electric processes 411 

miscellaneous processes 476 

oxy-acetylene process 403 

technique of gas welding 414 

Welding process for cast iron 463 

after-treatment 466 

blowholes 466 

flame 463 
manipulation of blowpipes and 

welding rods 463 

use of carbon blocks 467 

Welding process in sheet-aluminum 

welding 470 

after-treatment 470 

re-welding 470 

Welding processes 401 

old and new methods 401 

Welding rods 460, 468 

Westinghouse Ford starter 162 

ignition 174 

lighting and starting switches 170 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 

Westinghouse Ford starter (continued) 
mounting starter 163 

operating instructions 176 

preparing engine 162 

wiring 170 

Westinghouse ignition 174 

assembly 174 

Westinghouse starting and lighting 

systems 89 

six-volt; double-unit; single wire 91 
twelve-volt; single-unit; single- wire 89 
Why starting is harder in cold 

weather 244 

Wiring for different operating trou- 
bles with electric gear- 
shift 188 
Splitdorf Ford starter 156 
starting switch 160 
wiring diagram 159 
U. S. L. system 64 
Westinghouse system 170 
Wiring diagrams 
Leece-Neville system 13 
to adjust third brush 18 
brush replacements 19 
generator or motor failure 19 
regulating brush 17 
testing field winding 16 
North East system 22 
Simms-Huff system 52 
Splitdorf system 55 
Wagner system 75, 84 
Westinghouse system 89, 94 



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