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Automobile 
Engineering 



J Genual Reference IVork 

FOR REPAIR MEN, CHAUFFEURS, AND OWNERS; COVERING THE CONSTRUCTION, 

CARE, AND REPAIR OF PLEASURE CARS, COMMERCIAL CARS, AND 

MOTORCYCLES, WITH ESPECIAL ATTENTION TO IGNITION, 

STARTING, AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS, GARAGE DESIGN 

AND EQUIPMENT, WELDING, AND OTHER 

REPAIR METHODS 



Prepared by a Stuff of 

AUTOMOBILE EXPERTS, CONSULTING ENGINEERS, AND DESIGNERS OF THE 

HIGHEST PROFESSIONAL STANDING 



Illustrated with over Fifteen Hnndnd En c ravin? 



FIVE VOLUMES 



AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY 

CHICAGO 

1917 



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Copyright, 1909. 1910. 1912. 1915. 1916. 191? 

BY 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY 



Copyrighted in Great Britain 
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Authors and Collaborators 



CHARLES B. HAYWARD 

President and General Manager, The Stirling Press, New York City 

Member, Society of Automobile Engineers 

Member, The Aeronautical Society 

Formerly Secretary, Society of Automobile Engineers 

Formerly Engineering Editor, The Automobile 



C. T. ZIEGLER 

Automobile Engineer 

With Inter-State Motor Company, Muncie. Indiana 

Formerly Manager, The Ziegler Company, Chicago 



MORRIS A. HALL 

Formerly Managing Editor Motor IA/e, Editor The Commercial Vehicle, etc. 

Author of "What Every Automobile Owner Should Know". "Motorists' First Aid 

Handbook", etc. 
Member. Society of Automobile Engineers 
Member. American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



DARWIN S. HATCH, B. S. 

Editor. Motor Age. Chicago 
Formerly Managing Editor. The Light Car 
Member. Society of Automobile Engineers 
American Automobile Association 

*>» 

GLENN M. HOBBS, Ph. D. 

Secretary and Educational Director, American School of Correspondence 
Formerly Instructor in Physics. The University of Chicago 
American Physical Society 



HERBERT L. CONNELL, B. S. E. 

Lecturer in Charge, Automobile Division, Milwaukee Central Continuation School 
Editorial Representative, Commercial Car Journal and Automobile Trade Journal 
Member, Society of Automobile Engineers 
Member. Standards Committee of S. A. E. 
Formerly Technical Editor. The Light Car 



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Authors and Collaborators (continued) 



HUGO DIEMER, M. E. 

Professor of Industrial Engineering;. Pennsylvania State College 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



HERBERT LADD TOWLE, B. A. 

Specialist in Technical Advertising 
Member. Society of Automobile Engineers 
Formerly Associate Editor, The AutomotnU 



ROBERT J. KEHL, M. E. 

Consulting Mechanical Engineer, Chicago 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

EDMOND M. SIMON, B. S. 

Superintendent Union Malleable Iron Company, East Moline, Illinois 



EDWARD B. WAITE 

Formerly Dean and Head. Consulting Department. American School of Correspondence) 
Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



F. HALLETT LOVELL, Jr. 

President and Treasurer, Lovell-McConnell Manufacturing Company 



W. R. HOWELL 

President, W. R. Howell and Company, London, England 



WILLIAM K. GIBBS, B. S. 

Associate Editor. Motor Age, Chicago 



JESSIE M. SHEPHERD, A. B. 

Head. Publication Department, American Technical Society 



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Authorities Consulted 



THE editors have freely consulted the standard technical literature 
of America and Europe in the preparation of these volumes. They 
desire to express their indebtedness, particularly, to the following 
eminent authorities, whose well-known treatises should be in the library 
of everyone interested in the Automobile and allied subjects. 

Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable co-oper- 
ation of the foremost Automobile Firms and Manufacturers in making these 
volumes thoroughly representative of the very latest and best practice in 
the design, construction, and operation of Automobiles, Commercial Vehi- 
cles, Motorcycles, Motor Boats, etc.; also for the valuable drawings, data, 
illustrations, suggestions, criticisms, and other courtesies. 



CHARLES E. DURYEA 

Consulting Engineer 

First Vice-President. American Motor League 

Author of "Roadside Troubles" 

OCTAVE CHANUTE 

Late Consulting Engineer 

Past President of the American Society of Civil Engineers 

Author of "Artiacial Flight." etc. 

E. W. ROBERTS, M. E. 

Member. American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Author of "Gas-Engine Handbook." "Gas Engines and Their Troubles," "The Auto- 
mobile Pocket- Book." etc. 

SANFORD A. MOSS, M. S., Ph. D. 

Member. American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Engineer, General Electric Company 
Author of "Elements of Gas Engine Design" 

GARDNER D. HISCOX, M. E. 

Author of "Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles, and Motorcycles." "Gas, Gasoline, and 
Oil Engines," "Mechanical Movements, Powers, and Devices," etc. 

•*» 

AUGUSTUS TREADWELL, Jr., E. E. 

Associate Member, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Author of "The Storage Battery: A Practical Treatise on the Construction. Theory, and 
Use of Secondary Batteries" 



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Authorities Consulted Continued 



BENJAMIN R. TILLSON 

Director, H. J. Willard Company Automobile School 
Author of "The Complete Automobile Instructor" 

THOMAS H. RUSSELL, M. E., LL. B. 

Editor, The American Cyclopedia of the Automobile 

Author of "Motor Boats," "History of the Automobile." "Automobile Driving:, Self* 
Taught." "Automobile Motors and Mechanism," "Ig-nition Timing- and Valve Set- 
tins." etc 

CHARLES EDWARD LUCKE, Ph. D. 

Mechanical Engineering Department, Columbia University 
Author of "Gas Engine Design" 



P. M. HELDT 



Editor, HoreeUse Age 

Author of "The Gasoline Automobile" 



H. DIEDERICHS, M. E. 

Professor of Experimental Engineering, Sibley College, Cornell University 
Author of "Internal Combustion Engines" 



JOHN HENRY KNIGHT 

Author of "Light Motor Cars and Voiturettes," "Motor Repairing for Amateurs," etc. 

WM. ROBINSON, M. E. 

Professor of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering in University College, Nottingham 
Author of "Gas and Petroleum Engines" 

W. POYNTER ADAMS 

Member, Institution of Automobile Engineers 
Author of "Motor-Car Mechanisms and Management" 

**» 

ROLLA C. CARPENTER, M. M. E., LL. D. 

Professor of Experimental Engineering, Sibley College, Cornell University 
Author of "Internal Combustion Engines" 

ROGER B. WHITMAN 

Technical Director. The New York School of Automobile Engineers 
Author of "Motor-Car Principles" 



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Authorities Consulted— Continued 



CHARLES P. ROOT 

Formerly Editor, Motor Ag* 

Author of "Automobile Troubles, and How to Remedy Them" 

W. HILBERT 

Associate Member, Institute of Electrical Engineers 
Author of "Electric Ignition for Motor Vehicles" 



SIR HIRAM MAXIM 

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers 
British Association for the Advancement of Science 
Chevalier Legion d'Honneur 
Author of "Artificial and Natural Flight." etc. 

SIGMUND KRAUSZ 

Author of "Complete Automobile Record," "A B C of Motoring" 



JOHN GEDDES McINTOSH 

Lecturer on Manufacture and Application of Industrial Alcohol, at the Polytechnic 

Institute. London 
Author of "Industrial Alcohol." etc. 



FREDERICK GROVER, A. M., Inst. C. E., M. I. Mech. E. 

Consulting Engineer 

Author of "Modern Gas and Oil Engines" 



FRANCIS B. CROCKER, M. E., Ph. D. 

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University 

Past President. American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Author of "Electric Lighting;" Joint Author of "Management of Electrical Machinery" 



A. HILDEBRANDT 

Captain and Instructor in the Prussian Aeronautic Corps 
Author of "Airships Past and Present" 



T. HYLER WHITE 

Associate Member. Institute of Mechanical Engineers 
Author of "Petrol Motors and Motor Cars" 



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Authorities Consulted -Continued 



ROBERT H. THURSTON, C. E., Ph. B„ A. M., LL. D. 

Director of Sibley College, Cornell University 

Author of "Manual of the Steam Engine," "Manual of Steam Boilers," etc 

*,» 

MAX PEMBERTON 

Motoring Editor. The London Sphere 
Author of "The Amateur Motorist" 

HERMAN W. L. MOEDEBECK 

Major and Battalions Kommandeur in Badischen Fussartillerie 
Author of "Pocket- Book of Aeronautics" 



EDWARD F. MILLER 

Professor of Steam Engineering. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Author of "Steam Boilers" 

ALBERT L. CLOUGH 

Author of "Operation. Care, and Repair of Automobiles" 



W. F. DURAND 

Author of "Motor Boats," etc 



PAUL N. HASLUCK 

Editor, Work and Building World 
Author of "Motorcycle Building" 



JAMES E. HOMANS, A. M. 

Author of "Self-Propelled Vehicles" 



R. R. MECREDY 

Editor, The Encyclopedia of Motoring, Motor News, etc 



S. R. BOTTONE 

Author of "Ignition Devices." "Magnetos for Automobiles," etc 



LAMAR LYNDON, B. E., M. E. 

Consulting Electrical Engineer 

Associate Member, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Author of "Storage Battery Engineering" 



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Foreword 



THE period of evolution of the automobile does not span 
many years but the evolution has been none the less 
spectacular and complete. From a creature of sudden caprices 
and uncertain behavior, it has become today a well-behaved 
thoroughbred of known habits and perfect reliability. The 
driver no longer needs to carry war clothes in momentary 
expectation of a call to the front. He sits in his seat, starts his 
motor by pressing a button with his hand or foot, and probably 
for weeks on end will not need to do anything more serious 
than feed his animal gasoline or oil, screw up a few grease cups, 
and pump up a tire or two. 

•L And yet, the traveling along this road of reliability and 
mechanical perfection has not been easy, and the grades have 
not been negotiated or the heights reached without many trials 
and failures. The application of the internal-combustion motor, 
the electric motor, the storage battery, and the steam engine to 
the development of the modern types of mechanically pro- 
pelled road carriages, has been a far-reaching engineering 
problem of great difficulty. Nevertheless, through the aid of 
the best scientific and mechanical minds in this and other 
countries, every detail has received the amount of attention 
necessary to make it as perfect as possible. Road troubles, 
except in connection with tires, have become almost negligible 
and even the inexperienced novice, who knows barely enough 
to keep to the road and shift gears properly, can venture on 
long touring trips without fear of getting stranded. Astonish- 
ing refinements in the ignition, starting, and lighting systems 



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have lately been effected, thus increasing the reliability of the 
electrical equipment of the automobile as well as adding greatly 
to the pleasure in running the car. This, coupled with the 
extension of the electrical control to the shifting of gears and 
other important functions, has made the electric current assume 
a position in connection with the gasoline automobile second 
only to the engine itself. Altogether, the automobile as a whole 
has become standardized, and unless some unforeseen develop- 
ments are brought about, future changes in either the gasoline 
or the electric automobile will be merely along the line of 
greater refinement of the mechanical and electrical devices used. 

€L Notwithstanding the high degree of reliability already 
spoken of, the cars, as they get older, will need the attention of 
the repair man. This is particularly true of the cars two and 
three seasons old. A special effort, therefore, has been made 
to furnish information which will be of value to the men whose 
duty it is to revive the faltering action of the motor and to take 
care of the other internal troubles in the machine. 

€L Special effort has been made to emphasize the treatment of 
the Electrical Equipment of Gasoline Cars, not only because it 
is in this direction that most of the improvements have lately 
taken place, but also because this department of automobile 
construction is least familiar to the repair men and others 
interested in the details of the automobile. A multitude of 
diagrams have been supplied showing the constructive features 
and wiring circuits of the principal systems. In addition to 
this instructive section, particular attention is called to the 
articles on Welding, Shop Information, and Garage Design and 
Equipment. 

€L For purposes of ready reference and timely information so 
frequently needed in automobile operation and repair, it is 
believed that these volumes will be found to meet every 
requirement. 



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Table of Contents 



VOLUME v 
Electric Automobiles . By Charles B. Haywardt Page *11 

Introduction— Storage Battery: Construction and Action of Typical Cell: Elec- 
trolyte, Hydrometer, Forming Plate, Chemical Action on Charging Plate, 



General Characteristics, Ironclad Exide Type. Starting Batteries, Edison Bat- 
tery—Motor: Essentials of Motor— Principle of Rotation— Armature— Capacity 
for Overloads— Parts of Motor— Motor Speeds— Transmission: Similarity to 
Gasoline Practice— Usual Gear Reductions— Chain Drive— Gear Drive— Worm 
Drive— Control: Counter E.M.F.— Controller— Methods of Control— Office of 
the Shunt— Electric Brake— Caro and Operation of Electrics: Charging Bat- 
tery: Sources of Direct Current, Sources of Alternating Current, Methods of 
Charging. Testing Progress of Charge, Boosting— Care of Battery: Limits of 
Discharge, Sulphating. Condition of Cells — Cleaning and Washing Batteries. 
Avoiding Effect of Sediment, Treating Plates, Renewing Separators. Assembling 
Cells, Charging Process After Washing— Compl ete Renewal of Battery: Dis- 
mantling, Burning Groups, Reassembling' cells. Initial Charge, Test Discharge. 
Recharging— Putting Battery Out of Commission: Storage, Packing the Battery, 
Standard Instructions for Storage Batteries— Sources of Power Loss— Tires and 
Mileage— Electric Indicating Instruments and Their Use— Summary of Instruc- 
tions: Battery: Charging, Boosting, Methods of Charging, Discharge, Electro- 
lyte, Voltage. Hydrometer Readings. Battery Jars. Connectors, Washing Bat- 
tery* Efficiency — Power Usage: Motor Commutator, Brushes, Controller, 
Instruments, Wiring, Fuses, Lamps, Low Mileage 

Steam Automobiles . Revised by Herbert L. Connellt Page 197 

Introduction: Development of Steam Engines. Characteristic Features of Steam 
Cars— Heat Principles: Heat Transmission: Radiation and Absorption. Conduc- 
tion, Convection. Expansion, Laws of Gases, Heat Transformation, Thermo- 
dynamics of Steam. Superheating— Mechanical Elements of Steam Engine: 
General Details— Slide Valve— Superheated Steam and Compound Expansion- 
Valve Gears— Engine Types and Details: Stanley— Doble- National— Fuels and 
Burners: Burner Principles, Pilot Light. Burner Types— Automobile Boilers: 
Fire-Tube Types, Water-Tube Types, Flash Boilers, Special Types— Boiler 
Accessories and Regulation: Check Valves, Stanley, Doble, Ofeldt— Manage- 
ment and Care of Steam Cars: Management on the Road— Firing Up— At End 
of Run— Engine Lubrication — Fusible Plug — Causes of Low Pressure — Scale 
Prevention — Filling Boilers — General Lubrication — Water Pump — Gasoline 
Pump— Engine Bearings— General Remarks on Operating 

Commercial Vehicles . By Charles B. Haywardt Page 265 

Introduction: Development of Field, Scope of Commercial Vehicle, Standard 
Design. Classification— Electric Vehicles: Range of Use— Advantages— Power 
Efficiency— Electric Delivery Wagon: Design. Motive Power, Shaft Drive, Worm 
Gear Transmission, Shaft and Chain Transmission. Unit- Wheel Drive, Current 
and Current Control. Brakes, Tires— Electric Tractors— Industrial Trucks— Elec- 
tric Trucks: Classification. Character of Chassis — Gasoline-Driven Vehicles: 
Gasoline Delivery Wagons: Autocar. White— Gasoline Trucks: Motor Design. 
Ignition, Carburetors, Cooling Systems, Lubrication, Motor Governors, Clutches, 
Transmission. Side-Chain Drive, Worm Drive, Double- Reduction Live Axle. 
Internal Gear-Driven Axle. Differential Lock, Front Drives. Four- Wheel Drives 
—Electric Transmission— Springs— Brakes, Trailers: Utilizing Excess Power, 
Two-Wheel Types, Four-wheel Types— Gasoline-Driven Traction Engines: 
Motor Design, Transmission, Types (Rumely, International. Hart- Parr, Samson. 
Johnson, Auto-Tractor. Holt Caterpillar Tractor. Avery Tractor) 

Glossary Page 359 

Review Questions Page 389 

Index Page 395 



* For page numbers, see foot of pages. 

t For professional standing of authors, see list of Authors and Collaborator! at 
front of volume. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

PART I 



INTRODUCTION 



The electric automobile was the natural and logical outgrowth 
of the storage-battery street car, which, in the early 90's, w r as looked 
upon as having a great future of commercial utility. That electric 
vehicles were being manufactured and marketed on as general a scale 
as the radical nature of the innovation would permit, as early as 1897, 
is accordingly not surprising. The first step away from the time- 
honored horse-drawn hack was the electric cab, a number of which 
were placed in service on the streets of New York City as early as 1899. 

Essential Features. At first the electric vehicle marked the 
closest approach to the "horseless-carriage' ' ideal so much sought 
after by builders in the earlier stages of the development of the 
automobile, and, despite the example and precedents of the gasoline 
machine, it was in many respects but an advanced replica of the many 
forms of horse-drawn vehicles that served as its prototypes up to a 
few years ago. Since then, the electric has been developed along 
new lines, and, like the gasoline car, is a power-driven vehicle on 
the design of which the precedents of horse-drawn-vehicle days no 
longer exert any influence. Its essentials are few in number and 
simple in construction. They* are, first, the storage battery, or 
source of power; second, the electric motor, forming the medium 
through which the current is transformed into mechanical energy; 
and, third, the drive, or means by which the power of the motor is 
in turn applied to the propulsion of the vehicle. Many works on 
the subject have assumed a knowledge of the electric motor and 
storage battery far in advance of that possessed by the average man, 
and, lacking this, it is difficult, if not impossible, for the uninitiated 
to appreciate the reasons why certain of the instructions that fol- 
lowed should be rigidly adhered to, while others that were appar- 
ently of an equal degree of importance could be slighted with more 
or less impunity so far as detrimental results were concerned. With- 
out a fundamental knowledge of underlying principles, the electric 



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2 .. ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

vehicle owner or driver must naturally work in the dark, and while 
blind compliance with the maker's instructions may be faithful at 
the outset, failure to understand the reasons therefor sooner or later 
leads to neglect. 

Similarity of Types. Though there are quite a number of Amer- 
ican-made electric vehicles at present on the market and, while most 
of them .have been manufactured for a number of years, a little study 
suffices to show that both in principle and construction, the majority 
of these are very much alike. In fact, the similarity is so great that 
the beginner will find no difficulty in applying the general knowledge 
gained from the following pages to any vehicle he happens to possess, 
or has a chance to examine. There are, naturally, differences in 
design and in the details by which the power produced at the elec- 
trical end is applied to driving the machine. Where these differ- 
ences are of sufficient importance, they are described in detail, and 
illustrations of the vehicles and their component parts are given, thus 
making it easy to distinguish them. 

FUNDAMENTAL FEATURES OF THE ELECTRIC 
THE STORAGE BATTERY 

There is probably no other single electrical device in general 
use about which there is so much popular misconception as the 
storage battery, or accumulator, as it is more technically known. 
It does not in itself create a current of electricity — as does a primary 
battery, such as the familiar dry cell, in which chemical processes 
actually generate a current of electricity — and for this reason the 
storage cell is called a secondary battery. The word storage in con- 
nection with this type is really a misnomer, as the process by which 
it absorbs and re-delivers electricity is not one of storage in any sense 
of the word, but consists of chemical conversion and reconversion 
upon a reversal of the conditions. As is the case with electric 
vehicles, there are numerous different forms of storage batteries, for 
many of which special advantages are claimed; but in general all 
lead-plate batteries are very much alike, and a description of one 
will make clear the principles upon which all are based. Theoreti- 
cally, the principle of the Edison battery is also the same, i.e., that 
of a chemical reaction upon the passage of the charging current 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 3 

through the cell and a reconversion upon a reversal of the condi- 
tions, but it differs so radically in practice that a detailed descrip- 
tion of its construction is given. 

CONSTRUCTION AND ACTION OF TYPICAL CELL 

General Description. In order to obtain an understanding of 
just how these processes are carried on, it is necessary to become 
familiar with the internal action of the cell on receiving and dis- 
charging a current and, for this purpose, it is essential to delve into 
chemistry somewhat. Before taking up this subject, it may be well 
to mention that a battery is comjwsed of a group of cells, each of which 



Fig. 1. Typical Battery Plates 

is a complete and self-contained unit, though the term battery is 
indiscriminately applied to both. In a description of its working, a 
cell is naturally referred to, as all are alike. A cell consists of two 
seU of lead grids with pockets so cast in them that what is known as the 
"active material" may be securely held even in case of severe jolting and 
vibration. When filled with the active material, these grids are called 
plates and are divided into two groups, one positive or + (plus) in 
character, and the other negative or — (minus), of which typical 
illustrations are given in Fig. 1 . As it is necessary, in order to obtain 
maximum efficiency, to oppose a surface of negative capacity to each 
surface of a positive nature, every storage cell will be found to have 
one more negative than positive plate. It is possible to distinguish 
them in this manner, where other indications are lacking, but as it is 



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4 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

most essential that they be known, the terminals or connections of the 
groups are plainly marked by the makers either by the plus and minus 
signs or in some other equally plain manner, such as painting the 
positive terminal red. These groups of plates are known as electrodes 
and are inserted in a jar containing a solution termed the electrolyte, 
which consists of water and sulphuric acid. Fig. 2 shows a sec- 
tional view of a small cell. 

Electrolyte. The solution in which the elements of the storage 
battery are immersed, or electrolyte, as it is termed, consists of 

pure sulphuric acid and distilled, 
or other pure, water. Concen- 
trated sulphuric acid is a heavy oily 
liquid having a specific gravity of 
about 1.835. A battery will not 
operate if the acid is too strong, 
and it is therefore diluted with suf- 
ficient water to bring it about 1 .275 
for a fully charged cell. While a 
battery is being discharged, the elec- 
trolyte becomes weaker as part of 
the acid is combined in the plates 
in producing the current. This 
weakening of the electrolyte causes 
the specific gravity to drop 100 to 
150 points during the complete 

Fig. 2. Ambled storage Cell discharge. During the charge, this 

acid is returned t6 the electrolyte, 
thus increasing its strength until it again reaches the normal 
gravity. There being no loss of acid, it is never necessary during 
the normal service of a battery to add any acid to the cells. 

Unless acid is actually knoivn to have been lost out of a cell, none 
should ever be added during the entire life of the battery. 

When the cells have been allowed to gas too freely, for reasons 
that are explained later, there is more or less spray of acid through the 
vent holes, but the amount of acid lost in this way is so small as to be 
entirely negligible. The gravity of the electrolyte need not neces- 
sarily be exact, as in a fully charged battery a range of from 1 .250 to 
1 .300 is permissible. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 5 

Purity of Acid and Water. Both the acid and the water used in 
making electrolyte should be chemically pure to a certain standard. 
This is the same standard of purity in acid as is usually sold in drug 
stores as "C P" (chemically pure), or by the chemical manufacturers 
as "battery acid". In this connection, the expression "chemically 
pure" acid is sometimes confused with acid of full strength, approxi- 
mately 1.835 sp.gr., and at the same time chemically pure. If this 
chemically pure acid of full strength be mixed with distilled water, the 
mixture will still be chemically pure but not of full strength. On the 
other hand, if a small quantity of some impurity be introduced into 
the acid, it would not materially reduce the strength, but the acid 
would no longer be chemically pure. 

Determination of Strength of Acid. The usual method of deter- 
mining the strength of electrolyte is by taking its specific gravity, 
this method being possible because of the fact that sulphuric acid is 
heavier than water. Therefore, the greater the proportion of acid 
contained in the electrolyte, the heavier the solution or the higher 
its gravity. By specific gravity is meant the relative weight of any 
substance compared with distilled water as a basis. Pure water, 
therefore, is considered to have a gravity of 1 . An equal volume of 
chemically pure sulphuric acid weighs 1.835 pounds. It, therefore, 
has a specific gravity of 1.835 and is referred to as "eighteen thirty- 
five". As it is customary to carry the gravity readings out to three 
decimal places, the gravity of water, which is 1, is written 1.000 and is 
spoken of as "one thousand". These specific gravity readings are 
usually taken by means of a hydrometer, shown in Fig. 3 and 
discussed latter. 

Temperature Correction. Since the electrolyte, like other sub- 
stances, expands when heated, its specific gravity is affected by a 
change in temperature. If electrolyte has a certain specific gravity 
at 70° F. and is then heated, the heat will cause the electrolyte to 
expand, and although the actual strength of the solution will be the 
same as before heating, yet the expansion will cause it to have a lower 
specific gravity, the difference amounting to approximately one point 
(.001) for each three degrees rise in temperature. For instance, if 
electrolyte has a reading of 1.270 at 70° F. and the temperature be 
raised to 73° F., this increase in temperature will expand the electrolyte 
sufficiently to drop its gravity from 1.275 to 1.274. On the other 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

TABLE I 
Sulphuric-Acid Solutions* 

Baaed on one part acid of 1.835 ap. gr. at 60° F. 



Specific Gravity of 


Parts of Water to One Part Acid 


Percentage of* 


Solution (7(T F.) 


By Volume 


By Weight 


Sulphuric Acid 
in Solutiom 


1.100 


9.8 


5.4 


14.65 


1.110 


8.8 


4.84 


16. 


1.120 


8. 


4.4 


17.4 


1.130 


7.28 


3.98 


18.8 


1.140 


6.68 


3.63 


20.1 


1.150 


6.15 


3.35 


21.4 


1.160 


5.7 


3.11 


22.7 


1.170 


5.3 


2.9 


24. 


1.180 


4:95 


2.7 


25.2 


1.190 


4.62 


2.52 


26.5 


1.200 


4.33 


2.36 


27.7 


1.210 


4.07 


2.22 


29. 


1:220 


3.84 


2.09 


30.2 


1.230 


3.6 


1.97 


31.4 


1.240 


3.4 


1.86 


32.5 


1.250 


3.22 


1.76 


33.7 


1.260 


3.05 


1.66 


35. 


1.270 


2.9 


1.57 


36.1 


1.280 


2.75 


1 49 


37.3 


1.290 


2.6 


1.41 


38.5 


1.300 


2.47 


1.34 


39.65 


1.320 


2.24 


1.22 


42. 


1.340 


2.04 


1.11 


44.1 


1.360 


1.86 


1.01 


46.3 


1.380 


1.7 


.92 


48.4 


1.400 


1.56 


.84 


50.5 


1.450 


1.25 


.68 


55.5 


1.500 


1. 


.55 


60.15 


1.550 


.8 


.44 


64.6 


1.600 


.639 


.348 


69.12 


1.650 


.497 


.27 


73.32 


1.700 


.369 


.201 


77.6 


1.750 


.248 


.135 


82.1 


1.800 


.1192 


.0646 


87.5 


1.835 


o. 


0. 


93.19 



* Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Co. 



land, if the temperature had dropped to 67° F., this would have 
caused the gravity of the electrolyte to rise to 1 .276. Since cha nge of 



16 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 7 

temperature does not alter the strength of the electrolyte but merely 
changes its specific gravity, the gravity reading should be corrected 
one point for every three degrees change in temperature. For con- 
venience, 70° F. is considered normal and is the point from which 
corrections are made. This refers to the temperature of the electro- 
lyte itself and not to that of the surrounding air. Table I shows the 
parts of water by volume, the parts of water by weight, and the per- 
centage of acid to water to produce different specific gravities. 

Replacing Evaporation or Other Losses. The electrolyte, or solu- 
tion, in the cell consists of a mixture of sulphuric acid and water; the 
sulphuric acid does not evaporate, but the water does. When the level 
of the electrolyte becomes low, it is due under normal conditions to the 
evaporation of water, and this loss should be replaced with water only. 
There being no loss of acid, it is never necessary during normal service 
to add any acid to a battery. Of course, if a jar is upset and acid 
spilled, or if a jar breaks and the acid leaks out, it must be replaced. 
Care should be taken to see that the cells do not become flooded with 
water when washing the car; this is apt to short-circuit them across 
the lead connectors and if it enters the cells to disturb the specific 
gravity of the electrolyte. 

Unless acid is actually known to be lost out of a cell, none should 
ever be added during the entire life of a battery. The amount of acid 
lost in the form of spray due to the gassing of the cells is so small that 
it may be neglected. Only distilled water or other water of approved 
purity should be used for replacing evaporation. Most natural waters 
contain impurities, some of which are chemically injurious to the 
batteries, while others are not. Any water to be regularly used in a 
garage for battery purposes without distillation should be submitted 
to the battery manufacturer for approval. 

It is necessary that the plates and separators be covered with 
electrolyte at all times. When adding water, cover the plates about 
\ inch. Do not put in more than this amount on the theory that if a 
little is good more is better, since cells that are over-full tend to slop 
while the car is running and will also be apt to lose electrolyte while 
charging, as gassing raises the level of the solution in the cells. 
Replace evaporation every five to fifteen days, depending upon the 
conditions of service. The best time for adding water is just before a 
charge. This may be done most conveniently with the aid of a 

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8 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

syringe of the type ordinarily used with a hydrometer. Keeping 
the cells filled to the proper level with electrolyte is quite as important 
as not allowing them to stand discharged for any length of time. 
Adjusting the Specific Gravity. The best indication of the condi- 
tion of a storage cell at any time is the specific gravity of its electrolyte 
and the treatment to be given should always be governed by the latter. 
The electrolyte of a fully charged cell of the vehicle type when first 
put into service should have a specific gravity of 1.270 to 1.280. 
Although this will change somewhat with age, the battery will con- 
tinue to give good service between the limits of 1.250 and 1.300. If 
the gravity should ever rise above 1 .300, it should be lowered promptly 
by replacing some of the electrolyte with pure water. Low gravity 
in a cell is usually caused by acid being combined in the plates through 
lack of charge; although, if a jar has been upset and acid spilled, or 
the jar is leaking, no amount of charging will bring its specific gravity 
up to the proper point. A decreasing specific gravity in the electro- 
lyte throughout the cells of an entire battery is an indication that 
sediment is accumulating in the bottom of the jars and that the 
battery requires washing. This is true, of course, only when the low 
reading is not due to insufficient charging. 

Before attempting to raise the specific gravity of any cell by 
adding acid, charge the battery until certain that a maximum gravity 
has been reached or, in other words, that no acid is still combined 
with the plates in the cell. For example, if the electrolyte in a cell 
should be adjusted to 1.275 when 50 points of acid still remain in the 
plates, the gravity would rise to 1.325 if the cell were subsequently 
charged to its maximum. 

To adjust the specific gravity to its proper value (1.270 to 1.280), 
first bring the battery to its true maximum, which can be assured only 
by charging until there is no further rise in gravity during a period of 
at least twenty-four hours of continuous charging at about one-half 
the normal finishing rate. If, after this, the specific gravity is too 
high, remove electrolyte down to the level of the plates with the 
syringe and replace with pure water to £ inch over the plates; if 
the specific gravity is too low, replace with 1.300 electrolyte, adding it 
in small quantities to prevent bringing about the opposite condition. 

When much adjustment is necessary and facilities are available, 
as should be the case in a garage handling many electric vehicles, 



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Fig. 3. 



w 



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it is good practice to pour the electrolyte out of the cells into a glazed 

earthenware vessel or a lead-lined tank, and to raise or lower the specific 

gravity of this electrolyte as conditions demand. About one-third 

of the electrolyte is held in the plates and the separators and cannot 

be poured out, and this 

should be allowed for in ^ 

estimating the proper 

gravity before refilling SH 

the cells. In cases where §fjj 

there is a wide variation 

between different cells, 

further adjustment may 

be necessary. 

Hydrometer and Its 
Use. The specific gravity 
of a liquid is tested by 
means of an instrument, 
termed a hydrometer, con- 
sisting of a weighted 
glass tube having an 
appropriate scale. The 
depth to which this 
instrument sinks in the 
liquid to be tested shows 
its specific gravity by the 
reading of the scale at 
the level of the liquid. 
Fig. 3 shows the several 
types of hydrometers, 
while beside each is an t§ 
enlarged view of the Hz 
scale. The Type V-l is 
more commonly used 
with electric vehicle bat- 
teries, and Type S-l with 
starting and lighting bat- 
teries. Type M is employed in the battery rooms of central stations 
where more exact readings are required. 



/ 



Trpc 
M 



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Types of Hydrometers for Determining 
Specific Gravity 



19 



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10 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Where only occasional readings are taken a testing set, such as 
that shown in Fig. 62, Part II, will serve all purposes, the acid being 
transferred from the cell to the glass tube by means of the syringe, 
putting in just sufficient to float the hydrometer clear of the bottom. 
For constant use in connection with either vehicle or starting and 
lighting batteries, the type shown in Fig. 61, Part II, is most practical. 
The readings may be made more rapidly, and there is no danger of 
spilling acid on the tops of the cells or on the hands. To prevent 
the hydrometer from sticking to the sides of the barrel, it is necessary 
to hold it vertically to take the reading. As some of the cells on 
certain makes of cars are not so situated that the test can be made in 
this way, the soft-rubber plug in the bottom of the glass barrel is 
in the form of a trap so that when sufficient acid has been drawn into 
the barrel, the hydrometer nozzle can be removed from the vent hole 
of the cell and held in a vertical position, and the' acid will not run 
out while the reading is being taken. WhereVer possible, however, 
the reading should be made without removing the syringe from the 
vent hole of the cell so that the acid thus withdrawn may be imme- 
diately returned to the same cell. 

Failure to replace the acid withdrawn for a test in the same cell 
from which it was taken is apt to cause trouble. For example, if acid 
is taken from one cell, and, after making the reading, it is replaced 
in another cell, the result is that the amount of acid taken from the 
first cell is later replaced with water, making the electrolyte that 
much weaker. Likewise the acid which was put into another cell 
will make the electrolyte of that particular cell correspondingly 
stronger, resulting in lack of uniformity of the specific gravity of the 
electrolyte in the different cells. 

To simplify recording the gravity of the cells of a battery it is 
customary to number them consecutively, beginning with the positive 
cell in the front compartment of the car and following the cells in the 
order of the electric circuit. If the trays are removed from the car, 
this can be accomplished by numbering them in the same order, 
i.e., beginning with the positive in the forward tray and marking it 
Xo. 1 and so on through the entire battery, following the course of 
the circuit itself. 

As soon as sufficient electrolyte has been drawn into the barrel, 
care being taken to see that the instrument is not sticking to the sides 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 11 

of the latter, note underneath the level of the liquid the graduation on 
the stem of the hydrometer. Reading the hydrometer by looking 
at the level of the electrolyte from below is found to be more accurate 
than looking down upon it from above. By having a gravity-record 
form tacked on a suitable board and placed on the fender of the car 
one man can easily take the gravity readings with the left hand and 
note the results on the form with the right hand, which will avoid 
spilling acid on the form or, what is more important, on the car 
itself. 

As has previously been explained, the gravity of the electrolyte 
decreases as the batter}' is discharged, owing to the fact that a certain 
percentage of the acid in the electrolyte is absorbed by the plates in 
producing the current on discharge. In this way, during a normal 
discharge, the specific gravity drops from 100 to 150 points, depending 
on the type of cell. Consequently, by noting the gravity of the elec- 
trolyte at any time and comparing it with that of full charge, the state 
of charge can be determined approximately. In the section on "Elec- 
trolyte" mention has been made of the fact that the temperature, 
as well as the proportions of acid and water of which it is composed, 
also affects the specific gravity of the solution. The gravity of the 
electrolyte is assumed to be correct when the readings are taken 
at 70° F. It becomes one point heavier for each three degrees below 
70°, and one point lighter for each three degrees above. 

For the convenience of the tester, a thermometer has been 
designed with a special scale opposite the mercury column. This 
scale corresponds to the temperature scale and indicates at a glance 
the correction required for the temperature reading. See Fig. 9. 
Opposite 70° it will be noted that the scale reads zero; above this the 
correction is plus and below it minus. In making readings, however, 
it is not customary to note a temperature correction for each, but 
simply to record the temperature at which the tests are made, and if 
the variation is sufficient to make the correction important, this is 
done after all have been taken. The necessary temperature correc- 
tions for the specific gravity are given from 30° to 100° F. in Table III, 
Part II, but in this case the rated specific gravity for various stages 
of charge is based on a temperature of 80° F. It is immaterial which 
of these standards is adopted so long as the same one is uniformly 
adhered to in testing all the cells of the same battery. 



21 



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12 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

A hydrometer test, however, cannot always be considered as 
conclusive evidence of the condition of a cell. The hydrometer 
alone may sometimes be a very unreliable guide as to the charged or 
discharged condition of a cell. For example, if electrolyte or acid 
had just previously been added to the cell without the knowledge of 
the tester, the hydrometer reading would apparently show the battery 
to be fully charged w f hen the reverse might be the case. Conse- 
quently, voltage tests must be used in addition as, in the instance just 
cited, the voltmeter would give an indication directly opposite to that 
of the hydrometer. Under average conditions, however, the hydrom- 
eter alone will closely indicate the state of charge, though it is not 
to be relied upon in all cases. When there is not enough electrolyte 
in the cell to make it possible to use the hydrometer for a test, add 
enough distilled water to restore the normal level and then charge 
for at least one hour before making the test, as, when recently added, 
the water will remain at the top of the cell, and the reading thus taken 
will be valueless. Charging the battery mixes the water thoroughly 
with the acid of the electrolyte. 

Specific gravity readings between 1.275 and 1.300 indicate that 
the battery is fully charged ; between 1.200 and 1.225 that the battery 
is more than half discharged ; between 1 . 1 50 and 1 .200 that the battery 
is nearing a fully discharged condition and must be recharged very 
shortly, as otherwise serious damage will result; below 1.150 that the 
battery is exhausted and must be recharged immediately. 

Variations in Readings. Where the specific gravity in any cell 
tests more than 25 points lower than the average of the others in 
the battery, it is an indication that this cell is out of order. Depend- 
ence should not be placed, however, on a single reading where there 
is any question as to the specific gravity. Take several readings and 
average them. Variations in cell readings may be due to short- 
circuits inside the cell; putting too much water in the cell, causing 
loss of electrolyte through overflowing; or to loss of electrolyte caused 
by a cracked, or leaky, jar. Short-circuits may result from a broken 
separator or from an accumulation of sediment in the bottom of the 
jar reaching the plates. 

When first testing the cells, low specific gravity in one or more of 
them may often be equalized by charging, during which frequent 
readings should be taken at short intervals. If the specific gravity 



22 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 13 

in any of the cells does not rise to 1.260 after the other cell readings 
indicate that the battery is fully charged, it is an indication that the 
low cell is in need of internal adjustment, and it must be dismantled 
in accordance with the instructions given under that head. See also 
instructions under "Renewal of an Element* ' for the method of 
remedying the trouble. 

Quite a substantial percentage of battery troubles — and this is 
particularly the case with starting-system batteries that are usually 
neglected until they give out — may be traced to letting the electrolyte 
get too low in the jars. The effect of this is to weaken the battery, 
thus causing it to discharge more readily and frequently resulting in 
harmful sulphating of the plates and injury to the separators. When 
the latter occurs, it permits the plates to come into contact and causes 
an internal short-circuit. The importance of always maintaining 
the level of the electrolyte \ inch above the tops of the plates by fre- 
quent addition of distilled water to bring it up will be evident from 
this. If, after the occurrence of low cells, the battery does not 
regain its full efficiency after one or two days, it is an indication that 
sulphating has taken place, and the remedy as given under that 
heading should be applied without delay, as letting a battery go 
without attention in this condition will ruin it. 

One of the most frequent causes for low electrolyte in a cell is the 
presence of a cracked, or leaky, jar, and if one of the cells requires more 
frequent addition of water to maintain the level of its electrolyte, it is 
a*n indication that it is leaking. Unless the jar is replaced imme- 
diately, the cell itself will be ruined, and it may cause serious damage 
to the remainder of the battery. Jars are often broken, owing to the 
hold-downs becoming loose and allowing the battery to jolt around, or 
it may be due to freezing. The presence of a frozen cell in a battery 
shows that it has been allowed to stand in an undercharged condition 
in cold weather, as a fully charged cell will not freeze except at very 
low temperatures. 

Frozen Cells. In some cases the cells may freeze without crack- 
ing the jars. This will be indicated by a great falling off in the effi- 
ciency of the cells that have suffered this injury or by a totally dis- 
charged condition, which cannot be remedied by continuous charging. 
In other words, the battery is "dead", and the plates are worthless 
except as scrap lead. In all cases where cells have been frozen, 

23 Digitized by G00gle 



14 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

whether the jar has cracked or not, the plates must be replaced at once. 
It must always be borne in mind that low temperatures seriously 
affect the efficiency of the storage battery and this should be taken 
into consideration when making hydrometer tests in cold weather. 
The readings will not be the same in winter as they are in summer for 

the same condition of charge. 

Forming the Plate. The 
first storage battery, invented by 
Plants about half a century ago, 
was composed of nothing more than 
two plain plates of lead and this 
solution. When a current is passed 
through the cell, the acid attacks 
the lead, depositing on the positive 
plate lead peroxide (Pb0 2 ) and on 
the negative plate pure spongy lead. 
When discharged, the active mate- 
rial changes to lead sulphate on 
both plates and remains as a thin 
film of new material on the surface. 
If this charging and discharging is 
repeated a number of times, this 
film gradually becomes thicker. 
Originally, storage batteries were 
manufactured in this manner; but 
the process was a lengthy and 
„ . s tedious one, involving a number 

Fig. 4. Empty Grid ' 6 

of charges and discharges with 
charges in opposite directions, extending over quite a period, with 
the result that the active material thus made was loosely attached 
to the surfaces of the plates and could easily be shaken off. This 
is known as forming the plates, and, naturally, such a cell would 
not be at all adapted to vehicle work, as the material frequently drops 
of its own weight and would be instantly shaken off when subjected 
to vibration. Instead, the plates are cast with the pockets already 
mentioned, as shown in Fig. 4. This is the Faure, or pasted type of 
plate, invented in 1881. The material is forced into the pockets 
under great pressure, so that after the completion of this operation 



24 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



15 



the plate and material are practically integral. Fig. 4 shows an 
empty grid, and Fig. 5 a completed plate of different make. 

Chemical Action on Charging Plate. The number of charges 
and discharges necessary to fit a cell 
made in this manner for use is less than 
by the old forming method. At the 
beginning of the charge, both plates start 
as lead sulphate and, combining with the 
dissociated gases of the water in the 
electrolyte, are converted into a spongy 
form of metallic lead at the negative elec- 
trode and peroxide of lead at the positive. 
While an ability to read and understand 
chemical formulas is not essential to 
becoming familiar with these processes, 
a knowledge of the latter is a consider- 
able aid and serves to make them clear 
with very little study. The fundamental 
action of the cell, already referred to, is 
expressed in a short series of equations 
as follows: 

CHARGE (read -«-«*) ^y^ 

(a) PbO,+H*S04 = PbS0 4 +H,0+0 

(b) Pb +H,S04 = PbS04+H 2 

DISCHARGE (read Wh+) 

(c) PbO,+Pb+2H,S04=2PbS04+2H 2 O i 

(c) = (a) + (b) 

in which (a) is the reaction at 
the positive plate, (b) the action 
at the negative plate, and (c) the 
combined process representing 
the internal action of the cell on 
charge and discharge. As the 
deposit of spongy metallic lead 
is formed at the negative elec- 
trode and the peroxide of lead at the positive, the S0 2 is released and 
combines with the water in the electrolyte to form sulphuric acid, 
H2SO4. Reading from left to right as indicated for the discharge, 
it will be apparent that the action consists of the change of lead 



Fig. 5. Complete Battery Plate 



2J5 






















f.lrt 












































2Tfl 












































200 



































































10 n 20 2S 30 31 

F3ft»*# of OvIpKuriaAckl in Efactroltfte . 

Fig. 6. Variations in Density of Electrolyte 
with Voltage of Cell 



25 



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16 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

and lead peroxide, respectively, on the negative and positive ptales, 
back into lead sulphate, as well as the reduction of the sulphuric acid 
to water. The curve, Fig. 6, indicates the difference in the density 
of the electrolyte, corresponding to the voltage. 

Process of Charging. Precautions Regarding Electrolyte. To 
charge, direct current is passed through the cells in the direction 
opposite to that of discharge. This current passing through the cells 
in the reverse direction reverses the chemical action w r hich took place 
in the cells during the discharge. During the latter the acid of the 
electrolyte penetrates the active material and combines with it, 
filling its pores with lead sulphate and causing the electrolyte to 
become weaker. Reversing the current through this sulphate in the 
plates restores the active material to its original condition and returns 
the acid to the electrolyte. This is why the battery manufacturer 
lays such stress on his instructions never to add acid to the electrolyte 
to bring up the specific gravity. Low gravity indicates that a large 
proportion of the acid is combined with the active material of the 
plates, and that when the cells are recharged this acid will be returned 
to the electrolyte; thus any addition will represent an excess. 

During the charge the electrolyte gradually becomes stronger, 
as the sulphate in the plates decreases until no more sulphate remains 
and all the acid has been returned to the electrolyte, when it will be 
of the same strength as before the discharge, and the same acid will 
be ready to be used over again in the next discharge. Since there is no 
loss of acid, none should ever be added to the electrolyte. The acid 
absorbed by the plates during the discharge is driven from the plates 
by the charging current and restored to the electrolyte during the 
charge. This is the whole object of charging. 

Charging Rate and Time of Charge. It has been said that every 
man has a different method of charging a storage battery, but this 
refers to a variation in the detail of handling the charge rather than 
the method, as the latter must naturally be the same in all cases, i.e., 
direct current must be passed through the cells in the right direction. 
In the use of this current, there are only two factors to be considered, 
rate in amperes, and time. The rate in amperes is limited by the 
state of discharge. When the cells are fully discharged, in which 
condition the plates contain the maximum amount of sulphate, the 
charging current can be utilized at the highest rate. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 17 

Gassing. As the charge progresses and the amount of sulphate 
in the plates decreases, they can no longer absorb current at the same 
rate, and the charge must be reduced. This becomes necessary when 
the cells begin to give off hydrogen gas. This is termed gassing and is 
an important feature of the process of recharging, since gassing shows 
at any time whether or not the charging rate is too high. Passing 
current through a cell will always be followed by a reaction in the cell ; 
just what this reaction will be depends upon the condition of the cell 
at the time. In any case the current will always follow the path of 
least resistance and will accordingly always do the easiest thing first. 
When the cell is in a discharged state, the easiest thing is to decompose 
the lead sulphate. As there is a comparatively large amount of lead 
sulphate in a fully discharged cell, a correspondingly large amount of 
current can be used in charging. But as the amount of sulphate 
progressively decreases with the charge, a point is reached at which 
there is no longer sufficient sulphate remaining to ultilize all the 
current that is passing through the cell. 

The excess current will then begin to do the next easiest thing, 
which is to decompose the water of the electrolyte and produce gas. 
Therefore, when the cells begin to gas freely, it indicates that current 
is being passed through them at too high a rate, and the charge should 
be reduced sufficiently to stop the gassing. As the charge is continued 
at the lower rate, the remaining sulphate will continue to decrease in 
amount until there is no longer sufficient to utilize the smaller amount 
of current, and the cells will again begin to gas. The charge should 
be reduced each time the gassing begins. When the cells begin to gas 
freely at a very low charging rate, it indicates that there is practically 
no sulphate remaining, so that even this small amount of current 
cannot be utilized, and the charge is complete. 

Discharge. The action of the cell on discharge is briefly as 
follows: When the cell is connected up to discharge, the current is 
produced by the acid in the electrolyte combining with the lead of the 
porous parts of the plates, termed the active material which, as 
already mentioned, consists of lead peroxide in the positive plates and 
metallic lead in a spongy form in the negative plates. When the 
sulphuric acid in the electrolyte combines with the lead in the active 
material, a compound, lead sulphate, is formed. This is formed in 
the same way that sulphuric acid dropped on the copper wiring, or 



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18 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

terminals, forms copper sulphate, or acid dropped on the iron work 
of the car forms iron sulphate. In cases of this kind it will always 
be noted that an amount of sulphate is formed out of all proportion 
to the quantity of metal eaten away. In the same manner, the sul- 
phuric acid of the electrolyte combines with lead in the plates forming 
lead sulphate which, on account of its increased volume, fills the pores 
of the active material. 

As the discharge progresses, the electrolyte becomes weaker in 
proportion to the amount of acid absorbed by the active material of 
the plates in the formation of lead sulphate, a compound of acid and 
lead. This lead sulphate continues to increase in quantity and bulk, 
filling the pores of the plates, and, as these pores are stopped up by 
the sulphate, the free circulation of the acid through the plates is 
retarded. Since the acid cannot reach the active material in the 
plates fast enough to maintain the normal action, the battery becomes 
less active, as is evidenced by a rapid drop in voltage. Experiences 
show that at the normal discharge rate, the voltage will begin to drop 
very rapidly soon after reaching 1.8 volts per cell. 

During a normal discharge, the amount of acid used from the 
electrolyte will cause the gravity to drop 100 to 150 points. Thus, if 
the gravity of a fully charged cell is 1.275, it will, at the end of the 
discharge, be between 1.175 and 1.125, depending on the type of cell. 
The battery should never be allowed to drop below this point, but 
should immediately be placed on charge. 

Efficiency of Storage Cell. About 20 per cent of the energy 
employed in charging the cell is lost in the process, so that the effi- 
ciency of the storage cell in good condition is approximately 80 per 
cent, this representing the available output of the fully charged cell. 
By abuse or neglect this percentage of efficiency may fall so low that 
the figures given will be almost reversed, from which the necessity 
for properly looking after the battery may be appreciated, particu- 
larly when it is expressed in terms of miles per charge and the reduced 
capacity may mean stranding at quite a distance from a source of 
current. Fig. 7 shows a typical charge and discharge curve, while 
Fig. 8 shows the peculiar discharge curve of a cell that has stood fully 
charged for some time. 

From the electrical point of view, the chief desideratum in a 
cell is high conductivity of its components, as this makes for 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



19 



efficiency; but for vehicle use, strength, rigidity, and compactness are 
very essential, and the attempt to reconcile these conflicting require- 
ments is accountable for the varying forms and materials commer- 



Mouro 

Fig. 7. Typical Charge and Discharge Curves 

cially employed for the purpose. It is for this reason that the grid 
form mentioned, into which the material is pasted and then com- 
pressed, has been adopted. 

Sulphating. The conversion of the active material into lead 
sulphate, which takes place during the discharge of the cells, is a 

VWt. 



zoc 




















































»* 










































































1 


1110 
























1 


























1 


























1 


its 


































' 












































1*0 



























Fig. 8. 



* 3 -+ 

Houns 

Peculiar Discharge Curve 



normal reaction and as such occasions no damage. If, however, the 
cells are allowed to stand for any length of time in a discharged condi- 
tion, the sulphate not only continues to increase in amount but 



29 



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terminals, forms copper sulphate, or acid dropped on the iron wor 
of the car forms iron sulphate. In cases of this kind it will alway 
be noted that an amount of sulphate is formed out of all proportioi 
to the quantity of metal eaten away. In the same manner, the sul 
phuric acid of the electrolyte combines with lead in the plates forminj 
lead sulphate which, on account of its increased volume, fills the pore 
of the active material. 

As the discharge progresses, the electrolyte becomes weaker in 
proportion to the amount of acid absorbed by the active material of 
the plates in the formation of lead sulphate, a compound of acid and 
lead. This lead sulphate continues to increase in quantity and bulk, 
filling the pores of the plates, and, as these pores are stopped up bv 
the sulphate, the free circulation of the acid through the plates i> 
retarded Since the acid cannot reach the active matenal in the 
plates fast enough to maintain the normal action, the battery become, 
less active, as is evidenced by a rapid drop in voltage Experience, 
show that at the normal discharge rate, the voltage will begin to drop 
very rapidly soon after reaching 1.8 volts per cell 

During a normal discharge, the amount of ac.d used from the 
electrolyte will cause the gravity to drop 100 to 150 points. TW 
rivity of a fully charged cell is 1.275, it wJI, at the end of 
the gravi y depending on the type of cell. 

^e tuer" should never be allowed to drop below this point, bul 
should i-ediatcly^aced on charge. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 



Digitized by 



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ELECTRIC ATT 



- -ml* n^ 



efficiency; but for vehicle use. scracx m ^ 
very essential, and the attempt ai i. — V -^ 
ments is accountable for the T*nc t.tth- at 







cially employed for the pxyj* r 
form mentioned, into wi^- ^ <am~ L 
pressed, has been adopted 

Sulphating. The eam-r* tf : 
sulphate, which take* pb~ Glnjl . / 



ie 

*&■- ic 

•**•*•- in 

ric 
^.- ted 

ua+ .IV. 



Digitized by 



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20 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

becomes hard and white, and the presence of white spots on the plates 
is an indication that the cells have been neglected. In this condition, 
the plates have lost their porosity to a considerable extent and it is 
correspondingly more difficult to force the charging current through 
the active material. This is the abnormal condition usually referred 
to as sulphated. 

Continued and persistent charging at a low rate will restore prac- 
tically any condition of sulphate, the time necessary being in propor- 
tion to the degree to which the condition has been allowed to extend. 
It is entirely a question of time, since a higher rate will only produce 
gassing and high temperature, the low rate being all that the cells in 
this condition are capable of using. 

Time Necessary to Restore a Sulphated Battery, The additional 
length of time necessary to restore a sulphated battery is illustrated 
by the following test: 

Preventing Sulphating. In ordinary charging, there is usually 
not sufficient time to continue the charge until absolutely all the 
sulphate has been converted. To prevent the small amount of 
sulphate remaining from increasing and getting hard, an equalizing 
charge should be given at frequent intervals. Some makers recom- 
mend doing this once a week, others every fortnight, and still others 
once a month. This equalizing charge is an extra long charge at a 
low rate, whereby no more current than can be absorbed by the 
amount of sulphate remaining is passed through the cells. 

A battery was charged to the maximum, and the gravity regulated to exact ly 
1.275, with the electrolyte just one-half inch above the tops of the plates, this 
height being carefully marked. The battery was then discharged and recharged 
to 1.275 at the normal rate in each case. The specific gravity changed from 
1 .265 to 1 .275 during the last hour and a half of the charge. During the following 
twelve weeks the battery was charged and discharged daily, each charge being 
only to 1.265, thus leaving 10 points of acid still in the plate. At the end of the 
twelve weeks the charge was continued, to determine the time required to regain 
the 10 points and thus restore the specific gravity to the original 1.275. Eleven 
hours were needed, as compared with the hour and a half needed at first. 

The test further illustrates why it is necessary to give a battery 
an occasional overcharge, or equalizing charge, to prevent it becom- 
ing sulphated. Had the battery in question been charged daily to its 
maximum of 1.275 and discharged to the same extent during the 
twelve weeks, nine and a half hours of the last charge would have been 
s.ived. It is neither necessary nor desirable, however, to carry every 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 21 

charge to its absolute maximum. The weekly equalizing charge is 
better practice. 

Restoring a Sulphated Battery. It has become more or less 
common to suspect the battery of being sulphated every time it fails 
to give the mileage the user thinks it should give on an electric vehicle, 
or to have the capacity for starting that, in the driver's estimation, it 
should have, on a gasoline car. But if the sediment has not been 
allowed to reach the bottom of the plates, and if the level of the 
electrolyte over the plates has been properly maintained by replacing 
evaporation with distilled water, the battery can be sulphated only 
because it has not been properly charged, or because acid has been 
added to the electrolyte. An individual cell may become sulphated 
through an internal short-circuit, or by drying out as might be caused 
by failure to replace evaporation with water, or failure to properly 
replace a broken jar. 

Sulphate Tests. To determine whether a battery is sulphated 
when it is known that it does not require cleaning, it is advisable to 
remove it from the car, give it the ordinary equalizing charge, and 
discharge it at the normal rate. If it gives its rated capacity, the 
reason for short mileage should be looked for elsewhere in the electric 
vehicle, or in the other essentials of the starting and lighting system 
on a gasoline car. (The removal of the battery refers to an electric 
vehicle and not to a starting and lighting battery.) If the rated 
capacity is not obtained on this discharge, recharge in the usual way. 
When the battery is considered fully charged, take and record a 
hydrometer reading of each cell and the temperature of one cell. 
Charge the battery at a rate as near one-half its normal rate as the 
charging apparatus will permit. If the temperature reaches 110° F., 
reduce the current or temporarily interrupt the charge not to exceed 
this temperature. 

Treatment for Sulphates. A battery is sulphated only when acid 
is retained in the plates. When the specific .gravity of the electrolyte 
has reached a maximum, it shows that there is no more sulphate to be 
acted upon, since during the charge the electrolyte receives acid from 
no other source. Hydrometer readings should be recorded at intervals 
sufficiently frequent (four to six hours apart) to determine if the 
specific gravity is rising or if it has reached its maximum. Continue 
the charge, recording the readings, until there has been no further rise 



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22 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 





Q 



IfiE 



HE 



flflE 



ZDE 



8fl = 



♦ ir 
♦ii 

♦13 
♦14 
♦tt 
♦If 



-♦ 7 

♦ < 

♦ 3 



- I 



in any cell during a period of at least twelve hours. Maintain the level 
of the electrolyte at a constant height by adding pure water after each 
reading with the hydrometer. (If water were added just before taking 

hydrometer readings, the water would 
not have time to mix properly with 
the electrolyte.) Hydrometer read- 
ings should be corrected for any con- 
siderable change in temperature dur- 
ing the charge in accordance with the 
scale shown in Fig. 9. Should the 
gravity rise above 1.300 in any cell, 
draw off its electrolyte down to the 
top of the plates and put in as much 
distilled water as possible without 
overflowing. Continue the charge, 
and if the gravity again goes above 
1.300, it shows that acid has been 
added during the previous operation 
of the battery . The electrolyte should 
then be emptied out, replaced with 
pure water, and the charge continued. 
The treatment can only be considered 
complete when there has been no rise 
in the gravity of any cell during a 
period of at least twelve hours of 
continuous charging. 

Upon completion of the treatment, 
the specific gravity of the electrolyte 
should be adjusted to its proper value 
of 1.270 to 1.280, using distilled water 
or 1.300 acid as may be necessary. 
In cases where one or more individual 
cells have become sulphated, while the 
balance of the battery is in good con- 
dition, it is better to remove such cells anc> treat them individually. 
The active material of sulphated negative plates is generally of light 
color and either hard and dense or granular and gritty, being easily 
disintegrated. It is the negative plates which require the prolonged 



lfi: 



M = 



ME 



ME 




Fig. 9. Fahrenheit Thermometer with 
Special Temperature Scale for Cor- 
recting Density of Electrolyte 



32 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 23 

charge necessary to restore a suphated battery. Sulphated positives, 
unless physically disintegrated or badly buckled, are but little changed 
in appearance and can be restored to operative condition, although 
their life will not be as great as if they had not been subjected 
to this abuse. Sulphated plates of either type should be handled as 
little as possible. By strictly following the simple rules of operation 
given in connection with charging and discharging the battery, the 
expense and trouble inseparable from restoring a sulphated battery 
may be avoided. 

Capacity of Cell. Depends upon Plate Area. The ampere-hour 
capacity of a cell, or the amount of current which it is capable of 
absorbing and reproducing through the medium of the chemical 
processes described, is determined by the area of its plates. This area 



Fig. 10. Complete Battery of Cells for Pleasure Car 

depends upon the area of the single plate as well as upon the number of 
plates the cell contains. It is customary to make both outside plates 
in a cell negatives, so that the cell contains an odd number of plates 
and its capacity is fixed by the number of positives. The ampere- 
hour capacity of a battery, the cells of which are all connected in one 
series, is the same as that of a single cell in the series; just as, in con- 
necting up dry cells or other primary batteries in series, the current 
output is always that of a single cell, while the voltage of the current 
increases with the number of cells thus connected. 

Its capacity, in turrr, limits the safe rate at which its output may 
be discharged. This area may be large or small, but, as high capacity 
and discharge rate are desirable, and as the battery space in a vehicle 
is limited, the makers must use the greatest possible plate area within 



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24 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

limits of good mechanical construction that may be employed in a 
container of given dimensions. 

Depends upon Amount of Active Material. The ampere-hour 
capacity of a plate depends upon the amount of available active 
material it contains. Since acid and lead combine with each other 
in a definite proportion in producing current, it might seem possible 
to have acid and lead in a cell in such quantities that both would 
be completely exhausted. Toward the end of the discharge, however, 
the electrolyte would be so weak that it would not be capable of pro- 
ducing current at a sufficient rate for any practical purpose. For this 
reason it is necessary to have acid in the electrolyte in excess of the 
amount actually used in the plates during discharge. Similarly, if 
all the active material were combined with acid, the plates would lose 
their porosity and conductivity, and an excess of lead active material 
would be provided. 

A complete assemblage of cells for a pleasure car is shown in 
Fig. 10. 

CONSTRUCTION AND EFFICIENCY OF CELL PLATES 

Thick vs. Thin Plates. The idea that a thick plate would give 
longer battery life than a thin one was one of the numerous causes 
of the low efficiency of the early electric vehicles. The weight was 
greatly increased and the capacity of the cell reduced in the same 
proportion, and it was only with a considerable reduction in the 
thickness of the plates with a correspondingly greater number per 
cell that practical mileages were reached. The dimensions adopted 
have been adhered to for a number of years and have become recog- 
nized as standard. However, in the past few years a thin-plate 
type of battery has been developed very successfully. A belief still 
prevails to some extent, however, that the life of the standard cells 
is longer, since it will naturally take longer for the thicker layer of 
active material to slough away from its supporting grid. But storage- 
battery capacity is dependent, among other things, upon the surface 
of the active material presented to the electrolyte. Conversely, the 
rapidity with which this material wears away depends upon the den- 
sity of the current drawn from it. Considering the 35-ampere-hour 
capacity, 4-hour discharge-rate cell composed of 1 1 thick plates, there 
is a discharge of 7 amperes per positive plate. If, as is now frequently 



34 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 25 

done, 15 plates are employed in the same size of jar, the discharge per 
positive plate is only 5 amperes. Therefore, if there is more material 
to slough away in the thick plates, there is, on the other hand, but 
five-sevenths of the sloughing effect on the thin ones. But there is a 
still more important consideration . The active material lying between 
the two plate surfaces is not of the same value as the surfaces them- 
selves, because of mechanical, as well as of electrical, reasons. Once 
the surfaces disintegrate, the bulk of material behind them falls away 
more rapidly and gives poorer efficiency. 

Another advantage of thin plates is the reduced heating effect 
due to high discharge rates on hills or poor roads, such discharges 
being handled better by improved acid diffusion and the larger 
percentage of conducting grid to active material. If vehicles oper- 
ated continuously at full speed without grades or stops, this would 
have little bearing on the question; but as one of the chief functions 
of the electric is its easy and frequent starting ability, it is evident 
that the high currents necessary for this purpose are handled to 
better advantage by many thin plates than by a few thick ones. 

Measurement of Capacity. The standard unit for measuring 
capacity of a storage cell is the ampere hour, which means a current 
of one ampere flowing for a period of one hour. When the capacity 
of a cell is stated as a certain number of ampere hours, this indicates 
that the cell will deliver 1 ampere of current for the period given, 2 
amperes for one-half that period, etc. This does not mean, however, 
that this progression may be carried to the other limit, as th£ effi- 
ciency of the cell falls away as the discharge rate becomes greater. 
In other words, while a 100-ampere-hour cell will produce 1 ampere 
for 100 hours, 2 amperes for 50 hours, 4 amperes for 25 hours, and 
so on in the same proportion, it will be found, as the rate of discharge 
increases, that the capacity will fall off, the same cell not being able 
to deliver 25 amperes for four hours, or 50 amperes for two hours. 

In former years, the capacities of all lead-plate cells for vehicle 
use were based on a four-hour rate of discharge. Thus a 140- 
ampere-hour cell was guaranteed to discharge 35 amperes for four 
hours. Since the introduction and more or less general use of thin- 
ner plates, many makes are sold on a basis of a 5-, 5J-, and even a 
6-hour rate, so that 35 and even 37 or 38 amperes are guaranteed 
for five hours or more from a battery occupying no greater space. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



26 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Rate of Discharge. Since the current is produced by the action 
of sulphuric acid combining with lead in the plates, the rate at which 
the acid can penetrate the active material determines the maximum 
rate at which current can be produced. For instance, if the same 
amount of material used in making a nine-plate cell were employed 
in but two plates, one positive and one negative, the ampere-hour 
capacity at a sufficiently low discharge rate would be just the same as 
if this material were divided into four positives and five negatives. 
At ordinary rates of discharge, however, the acid could not penetrate 
the active material of such a thick plate fast enough to maintain the 
discharge rate for the required time. If these same plates were split 
into thinner plates, the acid could much more readily get to that 
portion of the material which in the thick plates was farther removed 
from the surface, and current could therefore be produced more 
rapidly. It is, consequently, apparent that the material can be 
divided into thinner and thinner plates to maintain an increased rate 
of discharge. But the thinner the plates, the shorter the life of the 
cell under ordinary conditions of service, as has been explained just 
previously. 

Safe Discharge Point for Plates. The point to which the cell 
can be safely discharged is not limited by the period during which 
it is used so much as by the voltage of the cell itself. The discharge 
should never be carried so far that the voltage falls below 1.8 volts 
per cell, while the voltage when charged should be 2.2 volts per cell, 
or slightly in excess of this, especially just after the completion of 
the charge. The majority of vehicle batteries are designed to have 
a normal eight-hour rate of discharge, and their capacity, for pleas- 
ure cars, seldom exceeds 180 ampere hours. Such cells will dis- 
charge 10 amperes for a period of 10 hours without falling below 1.8 
volts, provided conditions of charging and discharging have been 
favorable, and the battery is otherwise in good condition. During 
the discharge the sulphuric acid, as indicated by the chemical equa- 
tion already given, is partially converted into water and lead sul- 
phate, and when carried to extremes, the electrolyte would be 
practically all water, and the voltage would fall to about 1.46, 
virtually ruining the cells. However, the sulphion, or S0 8 , is only 
abstracted from the electrolyte where it is in contact with the plates. 
As it is removed, the density of the fluid decreases, and a circulation 



36 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



27 



is set up, thus permitting fresh acid to take the place of that exhausted. 
The chemical action is naturally most rapid in the minute pores of the 
plates where circulation is most difficult, so that when the cell is 
allowed to stand idle, the fresh electrolyte penetrates the plates and 
there is a correspondingly marked rise in the voltage of the cell. This 
explains what is known as the recuperative power of the storage cell, 
in which the voltage will rise very soon after breaking the circuit, 
even in a cell that has been almost entirely discharged. 

Theoretically, we should be able to take from the storage cell 
the same amount of electricity as is put into it, but this is not the 











































































































































































4 


























p 




$& 


w 


w 
















c* 


nrge ' 


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7ft 


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i 


11 


% 


Ws 


w 


m 


i 


m 


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% 




m 


i 


1 


'f, 


% 


% 


w, 


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■f/< 


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Discharge 














/ AO 


i 


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t.tfU 

tTD 


tj 
































160 
















































/Impure Hours 













Fig. 11. 



50 HX> /50 tOO Z50 300 350 400 

Relation between State of Charge and F..M.F. 
in I^cad Storage Cell 



case. The cell absorbs an amount of electric energy, as represented 
by the following equation : 

W=EXQ 

in which W equals the energy expressed in watt hours, E is the 
terminal e.m.f., or potential, in volts impressed upon the battery, and 
Q is the quantity of electricity in ampere hours absorbed by the 
battery. The loss of energy incidental to the operation of the 
battery is manifested in the reduction of the terminal e.m.f. on 
discharge, or the difference between the potential required to charge 
it and that at which it discharges. Characteristic curves of a lead 
cell showing the voltage on charge and discharge and the relation 
the voltage bears to the state of charge is given in Fig. 11. The loss 
of energy due to the drop in voltage is represented by the cross- 



37 



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28 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

hatched area between the two curves and shows how much more 
current must be put into the cell than can be taken out of it. 

Life of the Cell. In view of the extremely severe nature of 
the service it is to be employed for, when designed for electric vehicle 
use, it will be evident that there are numerous requirements that 
must be met by the successful storage cell made for this purpose. 
The chief difficulty is to be found in the fact that the conditions 
under which the cell must work are directly opposed to the successful 
maintenance of its most necessary features. For instance, to be 
efficient, the plates must be as porous as possible, in order to permit 
of a free circulation of the electrolyte through the active material. 
On the other hand, they must be made as durable as a board, in order 
to withstand the effects of jolting and vibration. The arrangement 
of the grid and the active material should be such that the current 
may flow equally through all parts of the completed electrode. This 
requires that the electrical resistance from any two points in the 
plate should be the same to the connecting lug, something that is 
naturally impossible of achievement and is only approximated as 
closely as conditions will permit. 

Provisions for Expansion and Contraction of Plates. The con- 
struction of the grid must be such as to allow of its expansion and 
subsequent contraction under the heat of charging and discharging, 
without the expulsion of the active material from the containing 
pockets, and without causing it to crack and fall to the bottom of 
the cell. This is doubtless the most prolific single source of storage- 
battery troubles, and the fact that it is one of the most difficult 
requirements to be met in the manufacture of the cell is responsible 
for the maker's injunction never to charge at such a rate that the 
temperature will be greater than 110° F., cells in the center of a group 
being taken as a guide. Unceasing investigation and experiment 
extending over many years have been devoted to an attempt to 
solve this problem without finding an adequate remedy, as the 
expansion during the process of formation, or charging, as it is 
generally called, is very great. In the Edison cell, in which an 
alkaline solution is employed in connection with iron and nickel 
electrodes, the active material is placed in small steel tubes and 
pockets under great pressure, and the latter are then similarly 
fastened in the grids. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 29 

The method of fastening the active material in the grids is really 
the crux of the problem, as it must not alone be mechanically sound, 
but must also make good electrical connection, if the battery is to 
be efficient. Expansion causes the active material to loosen and 
become separated from its metal foundation, and as this progresses, 
the electrical contact becomes poorer and the efficiency of the cell 
decreases. The ultimate loss of contact places the cell out of com- 
mission. There are further requirements in addition to those men- 



Fig. 12. Bijur High-Duty Battery Plate 

tioned, such as the necessity of making the grid proof against corro- 
sion. This is likewise a practical impossibility, but has been over- 
come to the extent of using material so proportioned that both grid 
and active material will have an equal life and may be replaced 
together. Local action, by which is meant the formation of an 
electrical couple through differences in the material of the grid and 
the active material, thus constituting a cell, or many of them, within 
a cell, must likewise be avoided. Quite as important as any of the 

39 



30 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

foregoing is the provision for circulation, and the active material must 
be so disposed as to present the greatest possible amount of surface. 

Some typical forms of grids illustrating the manner in which 
these various conditions have been met by a number of different 
manufacturers are shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, and Fig. 12. A 
section of a complete cell, Fig. 13, shows how its components are 
assembled. 

Use of Separators between Plates. In a storage cell for sta- 
tionary service the plates are separated merely by allowing a certain 

Hrap 
Strap 



Fig. 13. Part Section of Exide Storage Cell Showing Complete Assembly 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia 

space between them, but this would obviously be out of the question 
in a vehicle battery. An insulating separator is accordingly quite 
as important a component of the cells as the electrodes. Very thin 
sheets of corrugated wood are generally employed, with thin sheets 
of perforated hard rubber placed on each side of them. These insulat- 
ing unit groups exactly fill the space between adjacent plates so as to 
permit of no relative movement whatever. No matter how well the 
cell is made, or of what type, where lead grids are employed, disinte- 
gration of the active material is constantly going on in service and 
as this material is an excellent conductor it must not be permitted to 
come in contact with the plates. The latter are accordingly placed 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 31 

on strips of wood to raise them from the floor of the cell and to 
permit the loosened active material, or sediment, to fall clear of 
them. Hard-rubber ribs, integral with the jar, are also used. 

Containers for the Cell. The remaining components necessary 
to complete the cell consist of a suitable container for the electrolyte 
and electrodes, a means of closure, provision for the escape of the gas 
generated during the process of charging, and means for connecting 
the cell electrically to its neighbors on either side that go to compose 
the battery. The containing jars are usually made of hard rubber 
and have covers of similar material which are sealed in place with 
a compound specially made for the purpose and which melts at a 
comparatively low temperature. The connecting lugs project through 
these covers and are usually burned to straps or bars of lead. The 
cover is also provided with a vent for the escape of gas, this opening 
usually being closed with a soft-rubber plug, intended to be taken 
out when the battery is on charge. Groups of cells, usually in fours 
or multiples thereof, are held in oak cases. 

TYPES OF CELLS 

Qeneral Characteristics. It will be noted that there is con- 
siderable difference in the appearance of the various plates illustrated 
here, and it may be added that there is a corresponding difference 
in their construction. Despite the almost innumerable attempts 
that have been made to discover materials that would not have the 
disadvantages of bulk and weight for storage-battery work, the lead- 
sulphuric-acid type is still commercially supreme. Although there 
are many minor variations of design and construction, there are two 
general classes of lead plates employed. These are the Plants and 
the Faure. In both, lead peroxide is the active material at the 
positive electrode and finely divided spongy metallic lead at the 
negative, one of the means of distinguishing the plates apart being 
their color, the negative showing a dull gray, while the positive is red. 
The plates of the Plants type consist of pure lead of relatively small 
sectional area, with all exposed surfaces scored, fluted, or corrugated 
in similar manner to increase the area that can be reached by the 
electrolyte. 

Pure lead is very soft and yielding, and it is often necessary to 
supply a supporting framework of hard cast lead to lend additional 



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32 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

stiffness to the plates, particularly for vehicle work. These plates 
and the electrolyte complete the Plants type of cell, as the active 
material is directly formed electrochemically from the material of 
the plates themselves by being subjected to a series of charges and 
discharges. In the Faure type, a cast grid of comparatively hard lead 
is employed as the foundation, and the active material is placed in the 
interstices in the form of a stiff paste, the whole plate being subse- 
quently subjected to considerable pressure. On this account it is 
usually referred to as a pasted type of plate. The Exide cell, plates 
of which have been illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5, is representative of 
this class. 

Only the Faure type is used for vehicle batteries as the Plants 
is a "formed" plate from which the active material would be shaken 
by the vibration. 

Improved Forms 

Nature of Improvements. The foregoing are what are known 
as flat-plate types of elements, and the life of this form of battery 
is usually measured in terms of the life of the positive plate, as it is 
the latter which suffers most from the charging and discharging 
process. It is nothing unusual for the other elements in the cell 
combination to outlast the positive plate two or three times over, 
new separators being installed with each renewal. Accordingly, the 
problem has been to devise a type of positive plate that would equal 
the negative in durability. Many forms of protective coverings 
designed to prevent the active material from washing out of the 
plate have been tried with varying degrees of success. Among these 
have been plates built up of parallel cylindrical pencils of the active 
material. While the latter did not prove a solution of the problem 
in its simple form, this idea, in combination with a basic principle 
originated by a French maker, served as the foundation for what is 
known as the "Ironclad" Exide type. For this form, the makers 
claim that the positive plate not only lasts practically as long as the 
negative, but that the battery is capable of withstanding the abuse 
of overcharging to a degree never before attained. The importance 
of the latter in the commercial use of electric vehicles can hardly be 
overestimated and is brought out in the paragraphs on "Boosting", 
Part II. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 33 

Ironclad Exide Type. Positive Plate. The Ironclad Exide 
positive plate consists of a grid composed of a number of parallel 
vertical metal rods united integrally to horizontal 
top and bottom frames, the former being provided 
with the usual conducting lug for carrying the 
current. Each vertical rod forms a core, which 
is surrounded by a cylindrical pencil of peroxide 
of lead, which is the active material. These pen- 
cils are enclosed in hard-rubber tubes having a 
large number of horizontal slits, which serve to 
provide access, for the electrolyte, or solution, to 
the active material, but are of such small dimen- 
sions as to practically eliminate the washing out 
of the material. Fig. 14, which shows a vertical 
section of one of these composite pencils, makes 
this construction clear. The outside tubes are 
reinforced by leaving the exposed edge solid, i.e., p . M Vertical Seo- 
without slits. Each tube is provided with two li ^ g^j™ 

parallel vertical ribs projecting on opposite sides 
at right angles to the face of the plate. These ribs not only serve 
to stiffen the tubes, but, being of hard rubber as are the tubes them- 



Fig. 15. Positive Pencil Fig. 16. Assembled Exide 

Showing Rib Positive Plato 

selves, also act as insulating spacers, allowing the use of a flat piece of 
wood veneer in place of the ribs on the wood separators in other types. 

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34 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

The reinforcing rib is shown by Fig. 15, which is a side view of the 
tube. These rubber tubes have a certain amount of elasticity allow- 
ing them to compensate for changes in volume of the active material, 
owing to the expansion and contraction during charge and discharge. 
A complete positive plate of this type is illustrated by Fig. 16. This 
cylindrical form of tube is peculiarly well adapted to perform its 
function, since no amount of expansion or contraction will tend to 
alter its shape, and the internal stresses are thus kept uniform. 
Another advantage is that most of the electrolyte necessary is carried 
within the confines of the plate itself. This is illustrated by a com- 
parison of horizontal sections of portions of the Ironclad Exide plate 
and the standard Exide plate, as shown in Fig. 17. 

Negative Plate. To conform to the construction of the new 
positive, the negative is also modified somewhat, the upper and 



Exide 
Fig. 17. Comparative Sections of "Ironclad" and Standard Exide Plates 

lower edges of the plates being encased in rubber vulcanized in the 
plate. This eliminates the possibility of short-circuits from material 
bridging across from the positive frames. The negative frames are 
undercut, so that the rubber sheathing is flush and does not project 
beyond the face of the plate. The thickness of this negative plate 
is calculated to provide approximately the same life as the posi- 
tive, thus avoiding partial renewals, which cut down the efficiency 
of the cell. 

Separators. The special form of the positive plates renders 
unnecessary the flat perforated rubber sheet used in the standard 
types of cells, the only separator employed being the wood veneer 
mentioned. The greatly increased life of the new cell made it neces- 
sary to employ a separator of greater durability than those in current 
use and, after investigation, a special kind of wood possessing great 
toughness, as well as ability to resist the action of the electrolyte to 



< 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 35 

a remarkable degree, was adopted. These separators are made 
with the grain of the wood running horizontally in order not to 
register with the vertical ribs on the positive plates, which would 
tend to split the wood. The ^>ositive and negative plates are 





Fig. 18. Pillar Type of Strap Connectors 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia 

grouped in the customary manner, the lugs being burned directly to 
the usual lead straps, except that the straps are of the pillar type, 
illustrated by Fig. IS. 

Improved Connectors. Mention has been previously made or 
the necessity of providing the maximum conductivity in the ele- 
ments of the cell as well as in the units of the battery in order to 
keep its internal resistance down, as upon the latter depends its 
ability to discharge its energy at a high rate, this being a valuable 
characteristic for hill climbing or bad road conditions. The usual 
practice has been* to employ the same alloy of lead and antimony 
for connecting the cells, the latter having strips of the metal burned 
to the pillars or other projections designed for receiving the inter-cell 
connections. For this purpose, the makers of the Ironclad Exide 
cells have brought out an improved form of connector, shown in 
Fig. 19. This is known as a built-up type, consisting of thin strips 
of copper, lead-covered to prevent corrosion. A number of these 
strips, depending upon the cur- 
rent to be carried, are laid face 



t±u.cas*4 



tO face, and their ends Cast into Fig. 19. Lead-Covered Copper Connecting Strip 

lead-alloy terminals, a special Court " y of Electric storage Batterv Company 
welding process insuring effective and permanent contact between 
the flexible strips and the cast terminal. By this means, good 
conductivity is obtained under all conditions of vibration and tem- 
perature changes. The lead-alloy terminals are ring shaped to fit 
over the pillar of the strap and are burned in place. The use of 
copper gives a higher conductivity than lead alloy, while the lami- 
nated structure provides a flexible, instead of a rigid, connection. 



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36 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Starting Batteries. The advent of electric starting motors 
on the automobile has been responsible for adding to the problems 
of the storage-battery maker. As outlined in the chapters devoted 
to starting and lighting, the requirements are such that the maximum 
output of which the battery is capable is called for instantaneously 



Fig. 20. Sectional View of Titan Cell Showing Diagonal Ribs of Active 

Material to Lessen Resistance 

Courtesy of Horseless Age 

every time the gasoline motor is started. Any one who has cranked 
a car on a very cold morning after the motor has been idle over night 
will realize the greatly increased effort necessary to move the pistons, 
owing to the adhesion caused by gummed, or partly frozen, lubricating 
oil. Special provision is accordingly necessary to reduce the internal 
resistance of the cells of the battery in order that it may deliver 
its maximum output, the demand usually representing a considerable 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 37 

overload. One method of attaining this is shown in the "Titan" 
cell, in the positive plates of which the conductivity afforded by 
the grid is greatly increased by the provision of diagonal ribs run- 
ning in the general direction of the points where connection is made 
to the strap, as illustrated by Fig. 20, which shows a section of the 
cell. This increased conductivity tends to reduce the tendency of 
the plate to buckle and force out its active material when sub- 
jected to such a heavy demand for current. 

In addition to the service being of such a severe nature, the 
conditions under which a starting battery must operate are equally 
strenuous in other respects.' Touring cars 
are driven at very much higher speeds than 
electric cars and frequently over rough 
roads, which greatly adds to the amount 
of vibration that the plates must endure. 
Special provision must accordingly be made 
for the reception of a greater amount of 
sediment and in a manner which will pre- 
vent the latter from reaching the bottom 
of the plates. This takes the form of an 
increased depth of electrolyte below the 
elements, while the space thus allowed is 

provided with an increased number of ^ 21 Gould Startinp Bat _ 
baffle plates, or partitions, to prevent the tory c ^ n f^ Hl * h 

sediment from being washed about and 

accumulating in one place. The Titan cell is an illustration of this, 
and it is also shown in the Gould cell, Fig. 21, which also incorporates 
the use of built-up connectors of copper and lead. Both of these 
cells likewise embody an improved form of cover. They are 
enclosed by two hard-rubber covers and an intermediate layer of seal- 
ing compound in adhesive contact with the sides of the jar. Sleeves 
of hard rubber permit of some flexibility at the pillars while still 
insuring an air-tight joint with the sealing compound. 

Integral with the lower cover is an expansion chamber communi- 
cating with the interior of the cell and provided with a threaded cap. 
In the case of the Gould cell, leakage is guarded against by the 
inverted conical form of this cap, and as the battery boxes are now 
made in accordance with the S. A. E. standard dimensions, they may 



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38 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

he placed end to end, reducing the thickness to 4£ inches in the largest 
size, and permitting the battery to be suspended between the chassis 
frame and the running board, concealed by an apron. 

Edison Battery. Inasmuch as the Edison battery represents 
the only successful attempt to make use of a reaction other than that 
of the lead-sulphuric-acid couple discovered by Plante\ the inventor 
of the so-called storage battery, the Edison cell is of unusual interest. 
Placing this battery on the market in commercial form is said to 
have involved the expenditure of more than two million dollars, as 
special processes and costly machinery had to be originated for its 
manufacture, while more than fifty thousand separate experiments 
were made in a period of seven years before the solution of the prob- 
lem itself reached the stage where manufacturing could be undertaken. 
. The elements of the Edison cell consist of nickel and iron in an 
alkaline solution, and, as the capacity of a storage cell depends upon 
the area of the active material in contact with the electrolyte and 
upon the conductivity of its members, the problem was to utilize these 
materials in the form best adapted to give efficiency and durability. 
Three years were devoted to this phase of the problem, after the 
reaction giving promise of success had been discovered, before the 
first crude cell was made. 

Composition of Plates. The positive plate of the Edison cell 
consists of vertical rows of thin, perforated steel tubes filled with 
nickel hydrate, these tubes being supported in a steel frame somewhat 
similar in appearance to a pencil-form lead grid, as will be noted by 
reference to Fig. 22, which shows a positive and a negative plate com- 
plete. Rows of flat, perforated steel jackets filled with iron oxide, 
likewise held in a thin steel frame, compose the negative plate. The 
elements are, accordingly, nickel, iron, and steel in a 21 per cent 
solution of potash in. distilled water, and these elements constitute 
a storage cell which differs radically in every respect from the lead- 
plate type. In fact, this is the only storage cell the elements of 
which are not attacked by the electrolyte when left standing in a 
charged, partly-charged, or wholly-discharged condition for any 
length of time. Apparently the potash acts as a preservative of all 
the elements entering into the combination. 

Iron oxide will be recognized as one of man's most .persistent 
and ubiquitous enemies, rust. Nickel hydrate is the product of a 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 39 

special electrolytic process originated by Mr. Edison. When on 
charge, this iron oxide, or rust, of the cell's negative plate is con- 
verted into metallic iron, while the oxygen generated passes over 
to the positive plate and converts the nickel-hydrate content into 
a new form of nickel oxide, previously unknown to science. The 
oxidizing of the nickel hydrate causes it to expand just as the peroxide 



Ffe. 22. Assembled Positive and Negative Fig. 23.- Completely Assembled 

Edison Plates Edison Cell 

of lead of the lead positive plate does, but there is no danger of 
loosening or loss of the active material in this case, as it is held in 
a rigid steel tube. The latter has numerous fine perforations to 
permit access of the electrolyte, but these are so numerous that the 
steel approximates wire netting or gauze. 

The container is of steel welded in a special machine making 
it an integral unit which cannot be opened without destroying it. 

49 



40 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Protruding through the top and surrounded by hard-rubber washers 
are the two tapering terminals, and between them is the filler cap 
through which the solution of potash and distilled water is introduced. 
This cap acts as an automatic relief valve which allows the gas gen- 
erated to escape but prevents the entrance of air. The cells are con- 
nected by nickel-plated solid copper strips fastened to the threaded 
terminals with nuts so that the units of a battery may be taken apart 
readily, Fig. 23. The cells are fitted in wooden trays and tightly 
clamped in place, Fig. 24, 

Advantages and Disadvantages. Chief among the advantages of 
the Edison battery for commercial-vehicle use are its long life and 



Fig. 24. Tray of Four A -4 Ivlison Cells 

its ability to withstand what would be considered flagrant abuse, 
if applied to a lead battery. It may be charged or discharged at 
any rate within the current-carrying capacity of its connections, 
allowed to stand either charged or wholly discharged for any length 
of time, without injury, and in other ways subjected to electrical 
abuse which would ruin a lead-plate battery in a comparatively short 
time. As evidence of its durability and continued electrical efficiency 
even under such treatment, it is guaranteed for four years' use. 



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41 



While the voltage of each cell is but 1.25 volts as compared with 
2 volts for the lead cell, its construction is so much lighter that there 
is a saving in weight in battery of Edison cells when compared with a 



2LO 










—9 




















/JB 












Charae 
























""~ 








f.6 


S 








































Discharge 














t.o 

.8 




















































\ 







Z 3 4 S 6 

Moors 

Fig. 25. Charge and Discharge Curves for Edison Cell 

lead battery of the same voltage and capacity, despite the added 
number of the former necessary to give the same potential. Fig. 25 
illustrates the charge and discharge curve. 

Size of Battery. The voltage of the vehicle circuit has a two- 
fold bearing upon the latter's efficiency. On one hand, there is the 
factor of efficient utilization of the energy and, on the other, of 
the charging efficiency of the battery. Thus there is a constant 
loss at both ends which accounts for the abandonment of 24- and 
30-volt batteries which were common in electric cars of the pleasure 
type about. 1905. The most common voltage of direct -current 
lighting and power circuits is 110. To charge less than 42 or 44 
lead cells or 60 alkaline cells means a loss of current in the rheo- 
stat, this loss increasing as the number of cells decreases. This 
makes the vehicle owner pay for many more kilowatt hours than 
he receives in the form of energy in the battery. With a 30-cell 
lead battery, for example, charging on 110 volts, one-third of the 
current paid for by the user is wasted, so that it is now customary 
to employ 42- or 44-cell batteries on most of the heavy-type commer- 
cial vehicles, though practice in this respect varies on pleasure cars 
according to their weight, the range usually being from 30 to 42 
cells, the former number being used for light three-passenger vehicles 
and the 40- and 42-cell batteries in broughams and limousines. 
With alternating currents this objection does not hold good. 



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42 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

THE MOTOR 

Quite in contrast with that of the gasoline car, the motor of an 
electric vehicle is probably responsible for less of the troubles encoun- 
tered than any other one of the essential- components. While the 
relative amount of attention it requires at the hands of the owner 
of the vehicle is small, a knowledge of its construction and working 
will be found of value in the operation and maintenance of the car. 
It is here that the energy held in reserve in the storage battery is con- 
verted into the mechanical power necessary to move the vehicle. 
The reason for the small amount of attention required is apparent in 
the small number of parts as well as their great simplicity, though 
the great amount of attention that has been devoted to the develop- 
ment of the electric motor over a long period of years is largely 
responsible for the elimination of the numerous shortcomings of the 
earlier types. 

Essentials of Motor. The motor consists of a field, an armature 
suitably mounted on bearings so that jt may be revolved in that field, 
a, frame, a commutator, and brushes. The terra field is the generally 
accepted abbreviation for magnetic field, which is the zone of influ- 
ence exerted by a magnet, and is referred to in terms of its "lines of 
force". A common horseshoe magnet, technically known as a 
permanent wiagnet, will attract to its ends or poles particles of iron 
and steel placed within a certain distance of it. The space bounded 
by the poles of the magnet and the limits to which its attraction 
reaches, is known as its field. With reference to electric motors and 
generators, the word is employed to designate the magnets and pole 
pieces which serve to create this field, rather than the scope of mag- 
netic attraction itself, and it is used to embrace all of them, regard- 
less of their number. 

Principle of Rotation. The fundamental principle upon which 
the functioning of all apparatus of this type is based is to be found 
in the fact that when a current of electricity is passed through a coil 
of wire surrounding a bar or other form of iron or steel, the metal 
becomes magnetic in proportion to the number of turns in the coil 
of wire and the strength of the current employed. Every magnet 
consists of a north and a south pole, and like poles repel while unlike 
poles attract one another. In other words, if two small common mag- 
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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 43 

nets are placed on a table with their like poles, i.e., north to north 
and south to south, facing one another, the magnets as a whole will 
tend to repel one another, and were they sufficiently powerful, would 
actually recede from the common center until the limits of their field 
were reached. By reversing the polarity of the opposing ends of 
the magnets, they w T ould then tend to be drawn to one another until 
the poles butted. This, in brief, sums up the philosophy of the 
electric motor. 

In order to amplify the power, a large number of magnets are 
employed; and in order that the energy thus developed may be 
utilized, one group of magnets is made stationary while the other 
group is free to revolve. In these two groups will be recognized 
respectively the field and the armature of the motor, and each magnet 
of the groups is of the type known as electromagnets, so termed be- 
cause they are magnetic only while a current is passing through their 
exciting coils. Those of the field may be distinguished as they take 
the form of short thick spokes radiating from the rim or frame toward 
the center. They thus surround the space in which the armature 
revolves, and are further provided with what are known as pole pieces 
in order to fill as much of the space with iron as is possible. . As 
already mentioned, the field of a magnet is most powerful in close 
proximity to it and the armature will be seen to run as closely to the 
faces of the pole pieces as good design and construction will permit. 

Now it will be remembered that the direction in which the cur- 
rent of electricity is sent through the exciting coil determines the 
polarity of the resulting magnet. If, with the current traveling round 
the coil in one direction, the right-hand end of a bar becomes of north 
polarity and the left-hand end of south polarity, it will be evident 
that, by reversing the direction of current flow, there will be a cor- 
responding change in the location of the poles. Coming back to 
practice, in which one set of magnets — the field — is held stationary, 
while the other may revolve, it will be apparent that as each of the 
armature magnets approaches a field magnet by virtue of the attrac- 
tion between them, the motion will tend to accelerate up to the point 
where they are opposite, but when the moving magnet passes by, 
the attraction which still exists will tend to stop the rotation. It is 
clear, therefore, that, to bring about the desired rotation of the arma- 
ture some device must be used to reverse the direction of the current 

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44 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

in each electromagnet when it has reached a point opposite the field 
magnet which is attracting it so that the resulting opposite polarity 
may develop a repulsion which will carry the armature in the same 
direction. This is just where the function of the commutator and 
the brushes comes in. The brushes serve to lead the current to the 
circular group of copper bars which forms the commutator, without 
retarding the rotation of the armature. Each section of the com- 
mutator is insulated from its neighbors and as the brushes touch 
opposite sections simultaneously the rotation makes the current enter 
the armature coils first in one and then in the opposite direction, 
through successive sections of the commutator, the current being 
reversed and the polarity of the field magnets being changed for each 
new position. 

The Armature. The foundation of the armature consists of a 
cylinder built up of laminations of iron, or punchings, with recesses 
cut into their circumferences to receive the coils of wire, or windings, 
each one of which converts the particular section of the core that it 
surrounds into a powerful electromagnet when the current is passing. 
All the wire employed is strongly insulated, not only to protect neigh- 
boring turns from one another, but each winding is also well insulated 
from its foundation, whether this be the armature or a field core. 
If this precaution were not taken, short circuits or grounds would 
occur. The former term is really self-defining as it shows that the 
current instead of passing round the entire coil or circuit intended, 
would choose the shorter path thus accidentally provided. A ground, 
on the other hand, is caused where non-insulated portions of two 
different wires carrying a current come in contact with the same or 
a connecting piece of metal, or other conducting medium. This 
opens up a path of practically zero resistance for the current, thus 
diverting it entirely from the path it should follow if its energy were 
to be utilized. 

Both short circuits and grounds are things with which the owner 
of the electric vehicle will have to become familiar to a greater or 
less extent in caring for the battery of his car, as well as the remainder 
of its electrical equipment, so that their nature has been explained 
in detail. While both cause similar results, they are not interchange- 
able terms and are employed to convey the distinction mentioned. 
In other words, a ground may be a short circuit, but a short circuit 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 45 

is not always a ground, as the latter implies the diversion of the cur- 
rent through some normally unused conducting medium, while the 
short-circuit signifies a breakdown of the insulation of the wiring 
or allied appurtenances that permits of the return of the current after 
having traversed but a fraction of the path intended for it. Either 
trouble naturally places the piece of apparatus in which the break 
occurs out of running order until the defect is remedied. In view 
of their nature, grounds are usually much more difficult to locate than 
shott-circuits. Some of their further causes and results are men- 
tioned in the chapter devoted to the care of the batteries, also that on 
the wiring. 

Capacity for Overloads. It is this capacity of the motor to stand 
excessive overloads that fits in with the requirements of the road, 
for it must be borne in mind that the amount of power required to 
keep a vehicle rolling after it is once started is very small as com- 
pared with the pull necessary to start it, or to accelerate its speed. 
The total amount of energy required is in direct proportion to the total 
weight, and to the square of the velocity. 

Motor Stands 500 Per Cent Overload. The pull, or torque of the 
motor as it is called, must be very heavy at starting, particularly 
when on an upgrade, and also for mounting inclines. For this 
reason, the motor employed is of a type capable of standing for short 
periods as much as 500 per cent in excess of its normal rated capacity. 
It will be apparent that this converts the 2J-horsepower motor into 
one of 12 \ horsepower in cases of emergency, without increasing 
its current consumption under the ordinary conditions of load at 
which the greater part of its service is rendered, such as in running 
on the level or ascending ordinary inclines. The available amount 
of power being so closely restricted by the capacity of the battery, 
it will be manifest that this is a most important provision, and as the 
average layman talks in terms of horsepower without adequately 
comprehending the meaning of the latter, electric vehicle makers 
have found it expedient to omit any mention of this factor. The 
electric not only is not intended to be capable of the speeds of the 
gasoline car, but it does not require such an excessive amount of 
reserve power as it has become customary for the manufacturer to 
provide on the latter type. 

Under usual conditions of running, the average gasoline machine 



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46 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

does not employ more than a small fraction of the available power 
of its motor and, in consequence, is seldom being operated at 
what is technically termed its critical speed, that is, the speed at 
which it is most efficient, and therefore most economical. In the 
case of the majority of gasoline cars, this critical speed is from 25 to 
30 miles an hour, or even higher, while for the average electric car 
it is from 10 to 15 miles an hour, a speed which corresponds so 
nearly with the usual speed on the road that the economy of the 
electric is very great. 

Parts of Motor. The foregoing description of the electric 
motor for automobile use will be clear upon reference to Fig. 20, 



Fig. 26. Parts of Typical Electric Vehicle Motor 

which represents a largely used standard type. In the foreground 
is shown the armature, at the left hand of which is shown the com- 
mutator. The coils of wire on the armature run parallel to its 
length, but in order to save them from injury they are protected by 
a covering and this is in turn held on by the circular bands shown, 
which prevent any tendency of the heavy coils to fly out of their slots 
owing to the effect of centrifugal force. At the commutator end of 
the armature will be seen one of the annular ball bearings upon which 
it runs. This is the most advanced type of anti-friction bearing 
extant, and while its first cost is correspondingly high, its use is justi- 
fied by the great power saving accomplishment as well as theextremely 
small need for attention that it involves. These bearings consist of 
two parallel races and a number of very accurately dimensioned 
balls distributed at equal distances around the circle by means of a 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 47 

bronze spacer. Only the very finest materials and the most accurate 
workmanship are permissible in successful bearings of this type. 
They are generally employed in electric vehicles, and a further 
reference is made to them in connection with transmission design. 

Directly back of the armature is seen the frame, and from the 
description, the field coils and the pole pieces will be readily recog- 
nizable. The great amount of attention that has been devoted to 
making the motor as compact as possible will be evident from the 
mounting of its accessories. It will be seen that the housings are 
designed to carry both the bearings and the brushes, the latter being 
attached to the inner face of the cover plate shown at the right. The 
parts shown in the illustration comprise the motor complete, even 
including the cap screws necessary to assemble it. 

Motor Speeds. Types of Motor Windings. The speed of elec- 
tric vehicles is a most elusive quantity to the uninitiated, prin- 
cipally because the characteristics of the series-wound motor 
employed are not commonly understood by the layman. The series 
type of motor is one in which the windings of the armature and field 
are connected in scries, i. e., so that the entire current fed to the 
motor passes through both of its elements consecutively, so to speak. 
In a shunt-wound motor the field is in multiple with the armature, 
so that, while the entire current passes through the latter, the 
amount taken by the field is always proportioned to that required 
by the armature for the load it happens to be carrying. As this 
type of motor is designed for a constant speed, it is not an economical 
motor to use on the electric vehicle owing to the wide fluctu- 
ation of both speed and load imposed, so that its employment is 
comparatively rare in this field. A compound-wound motor is one 
having both series and shunt-coil windings on the fields. Since 
most commercial motors for driving machinery, elevators, and the 
like are of the constant-speed, compound-wound type, there is a 
general impression that the electric car should have a certain nearly 
constant speed for all road conditions. 

Advantages of Series-Wound Motor. But in the series-wound 
motor, the speed varies inversely as the power produced. In other 
words, its torque, or pulling power, is highest at low speeds, which 
is just the requirement demanded in starting or pulling through 
heavy roads. This type cannot be employed for ordinary com- 



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48 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

mercial use, since it will instantly "run away" or race upon the load 
being released, but it can be employed to advantage on vehicles and 
in railway service because it is never disconnected from the load. 
"Load" in this case refers to the effort required to move the vehicles 
rather than the live load. Series motors are employed on the 
electric car because of their higher efficiency, which is of prime 
importance, since the object is to produce the greatest amount of 
useful energy from a given and limited amount of potential energy 
stored in the battery. Just the opposite of the gasoline engine, the 
chief characteristic of the series-type electric motor is the develop- 
ment of increased power with a decrease in the speed. Therefore, 
as the vehicle requires greater power for bad roads or grades, it 
slows down automatically and in a fixed relation to the power 
demanded. 

High-Speed Singh Motor Present Practice, Opinion and prac- 
tice are divided on the subject of motor speeds. The higher-speed 
motors are more efficient, are better for grades and starting, but 
mechanical limitations frequently make them undesirable. Where 
formerly motor speeds ranged from 650 to 1100 r.p.m., modern 
practice favors higher r.p.m. rates, ranging from 1000 to 2000. 
Normal speeds under 1000 are not satisfactory for most conditions, 
the use of a low-speed type of motor being one of the causes of the 
low efficiency of the earlier electric cars. Another reason was the 
employment of two motors on comparatively light cars. This had 
a certain advantage in eliminating the differential, but its electrical 
efficiency was very low. Modern practice does not sanction the 
employment of more than one motor on even the heaviest of pleasure 
cars and on commercial vehicles up to 3- or 5-ton capacity. Beyond 
that point practice varies somewhat, some makers employing two 
driving units on the ground that no differential is needed, that 
starting torque is bettered by connecting the armature in series, 
and that damage to one motor will still permit the vehicle to travel. 
These advantages are more than offset by the higher efficiency 
possible in a single and larger electric motor, beside the benefits 
derived from the saving in weight of the'inotor and from the ability 
of the manufacturer to combine the two speed reductions necessary 
with two motors into one. This avoids some power loss in trans- 
mission from the motor to the driving wheels. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES • 49 

THE TRANSMISSION 

Similarity to Gasoline Practice. The types of power trans- 
mission on the electric vehicle have been the same as on the gasoline 
car except that the order of their application has been chronologically 
reversed. The latter started in generally as a chain-driven machine, 
and quite a number of years elapsed before any other method of 
transmitting the power to the rear wheels was attempted. The 
electric, on the other hand, began as a gear-driven car, as the practice 
of direct-connecting electrical generators and power units, which 
first assumed a strong vogue shortly prior to the advent of the 
electric automobile, was taken as a precedent. From the point 
of view of operating conditions, there is considerable similarity 
between the gasoline and the electric machine as far as its power 
transmitting system is concerned. 

Usual Gear Reduction. Owing to weight and space limitations, 
the size of the motor is correspondingly limited, and it is accordingly 
necessary to employ high initial rotative speeds, i. e., a very high- 
speed motor is essential in both cases, while the starting torque or 
pull must likewise be very strong in order to enable the vehicle to get 
under way quickly and to start readily on grades. This necessitated 
gearing down to a very great extent, the usual ratio on the majority 
of the electric vehicles being 10 to 1, i.e., for every ten revolutions 
of the motor, the road wheels make but one turn. In order to accom- 
plish such a reduction without employing gear wheels of a prohibitive 
diameter, it was necessary to bring about this lowering of the motor 
speed by means of two steps, or a double train of gears. Spur, or 
plain straight-tooth, gears were employed at first, and proved to be 
not only noisy, but very wasteful of power. 

They were accordingly replaced by chains in many instances, 
and by gears of special types, such as the herringbone reducing gears 
of the Waverley. In some instances, such as the light Baker runabout 
placed on the market several years ago, it was found possible to drive 
directly from the motor to the rear axle through the medium of a 
single chain, but with this exception the custom of employing two 
distinct reductions of speed was generally followed up to a year or 
two ago. While there were several variations in the manner of 
accomplishing this, the general principle was practically the same 



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50 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

in every instance, a single chain being taken from the end of the 
armature shaft of the motor to a countershaft Extending clear across 
the car and having sprockets at each end. The reduction in speed 
from the motor to the countershaft was usually about five to one, and a 
similar second reduction was carried out by means of small sprockets 
on the ends of the countershaft, and large ones on the driving wheels. 
A third class of transmission consists of a combination of gearing and 
chain drive, such as were used on the earlier models of the Woods, 
and the Waverley electrics, the first reduction of which is a silent 
chain. 

Chain Driver* During the past few years, practice in the electric 
field has closely followed that of gasoline car transmission design, 



Fig. 27. Gear Type of Transmission 

where the final drive is concerned, and in some cases anticipated it. 
But for the advent of several low-priced electric cars, some of which 
have perpetuated the single-chain drive — using a roller-type chain 
and sprockets as the second step in the reduction — this form would 
have practically disappeared. It is efficient and reliable, but not 
as clean and sightly as the shaft type, though this objection may 
be readily overcome by enclosing the chain. Economy in initial 
cost is one of its chief advantages and, in the case of cars which are 
sold at a very low figure, this is naturally of paramount impor- 
tance. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 51 

Gear Drive. The self-contained unit shown in Fig. 27 is an 
illustration of what might be termed an instance of reducing the 
power plant and final drive to the last degree of compactness. Refer- 
ing to the figure it will be noticed that the usual type of motor is 
mounted on a forward extension of the rear axle, the first step in 
the speed reduction being a pair of herringbone gears. Apart from 
this, it is practically a replica of gasoline car practice, as the axle is 
of the full floating type commonly employed on the latter, the second 



Fig. 28. Well-Designed Unit of the Shaft-Driven Type 
with Bevel-Gear Rear Axle 



speed consisting of the usual bevel drive, except that the propeller 
shaft is only a few inches long and consequently does not require 
any universal joints. A somewhat similar type of transmis- 
sion is employed on the Broc electrics. A full floating type 
of axle with shaft drive is also a feature of the Borland, this 
form taking its name from the fact that the two driving shafts 
are not rigidly fastened at either end — either the differential or 
the driving-wheel end — the power being transmitted through a 
square-ended section of the shaft floating in the differential and a 
jaw or similar type of clutch at the wheel, the entire weight of the 



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52 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

car being carried by the tubes or axle housing. An example of a 
single reduction-shaft drive is to be found in the Century, using a 
Timken bevel-gear rear axle. 

An equally compact form which gives a better weight distribu- 
tion is the drive illustrated in Fig. 28. This bears a very strong 
resemblance to the driving unit of a well-known light gasoline car. 
It is a type which affords great rigidity with a very simple con- 
struction. The propeller shaft is practically a continuation of the 
armature shaft, no universal joint being necessary. At its after 
end this shaft meshes with a bevel gear giving a reduction of 2 to 1 , 
while a spur-pinion reduction lowers the ratio again 4 to 1, or a 
total of 8 to 1 between the high-speed motor and the driving wheels. 



Fig. 29. Combined Bevel and Spur Gear. Double Speed Reduction 
of the Axle Shown in Fig. 28. 

The arrangement of the two speed reductions in the axle is shown 
by Fig. 29. These bevels have an adjustment by means of a collar 
which can be loosened or tightened until a perfect adjustment is 
obtained. The larger bevel is mounted on a short jackshaft carried 
on ball bearings on both ends, and upon this shaft is mounted the 
small spur pinion. On each side of the jackshaft is a threaded 
collar which allows for the movement of this shaft either in or out, 
which, in conjunction with the adjustment of the bevel gears, permits 
of a perfect setting of both sets of gears. The housings consist of 
tapering swaged steel tubes which extend from each side of the 
differential housing through the brake housings and the wheels, 
while the driving effort is taken on the combined torsion and radius 
rods pivoted on saddles on the axle just inside the brake drums and 
on the rear end of the motor housing. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 53 

In this, as in all representative types of final drive on electric 
pleasure cars, annular ball bearings are used throughout. One of 
these bearings is shown just forward of the small bevel pinion in the 
two-speed reduction axle. This is an advanced type of bearing 
which the automobile has been largely responsible for developing. 
It is far more costly than even the very best of plain bearings, but it 
cuts friction down to a practically negligible factor, while it will also 
run with a very small supply of lubricant and requires a minimum 
of attention. Such bearings are now universally employed, not 
alone in the electric motors of these vehicles, but also for the coun- 
tershafts and wheels, and in similar locations. If the ball bearing 
is not employed, the taper roller type is substituted, the latter 
being very much favored for wheel bearings on both gasoline and 
electric cars, owing to their ability to withstand heavy thrust as 
well as radial loads. 

Worm Drive. Development. What would appear to be the 
ultimate development in electric car transmission, however, has been 
the adoption of the worm drive; and, in taking it up so generally, 
the electric vehicle manufacturers have anticipated what is bound 
to come on the gasoline pleasure car in the near future, as it already 
has in England to a great extent. In this adoption, the history of 
the electric self-starter on the gasoline car has been repeated, in that 
experiments were carried on for a number of years with little progress 
apparent to the world at large, and then, within a comparatively 
short time, the worm drive came into more or less general use. , In 
this case, however, most of the research work was carried out in 
England, and a considerable proportion of the worm drives used on 
American electric cars are imported from that country. In itself, 
this form of drive is not a novelty, the Hindley worm drive, made in 
Philadelphia, having been employed on electric elevators for quite a 
number of years. Its successful application to the automobile 
represented far more of a problem than the bevel-gear type as, 
unless correctly designed and machined to the highest degree of 
accuracy, the friction and thrust are excessive and the resulting 
efficiency is low. 

Advantages of Worm-Gear Transmission. Consideration of the 
fundamentals of electric vehicle design, i.e., a light high-speed 
motor and a comparatively slow axle speed, will make apparent the 



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54 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

great desirability of the worm drive in this connection. It repre- 
sents the most practical means of power transmission from a high- 
speed motor direct to the rear axle by means of a single reduction. 
This means saving in weight and the avoidance of the power loss 
entailed through the use of the second reduction in the gear ratio 
otherwise necessary. A further advantage is its silence in opera- 
tion, the worm and w r orm wheel representing the closest approach to 
this much-to-be-desired feature that is attainable in the transmission 

of pow r er by direct metal con- 
tact. While its initial cost 
is as high, if not higher, than 
even the best forms of double 
reduction, it eliminates sev- 
eral parts, and accordingly 
affords a simpler form of con- 
struction w r ith a more direct 
transmission of the power. 

• Details of Worm Drive, 
Rear Axle, and Brake. The 
worm is of alloy steel while 
the worm w r heel is bronze, a 
multiple thread of long pitch 
being cut on the former 
while the latter is made with 
a special form of tooth, as 
will be noted by the Rauch 
and Lang worm shown in Fig. 

I ig. 30. Ranch and Lung Worm and Gear 30. This is an American 

type developed by the mak- 
ers of the Rauch and Lang electrics especially for this purpose. In 
both this make and the Woods electric the worm meshes with the 
worm wheel on its upper side, the relation being shown by Fig. 31, 
which illustrates the Rauch and Lang motor and propeller shaft in 
addition. Two universal joints, one of them of the slip type to 
allow for relative longitudinal movement between the motor and 
rear axle, are employed. A brake is placed on the forward end of the 
armature shaft, this showing in the same illustration. Fig. 32 shows 
the complete Rauch and Lang motor and driving unit. A torsion 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 55 

rod, parallel with and below the propeller shaft, also serves as a 
distance rod between the motor and rear axle and takes all torsional 
or twisting stresses to which the axle is subjected when under power. 
The forward end of this torsion rod is connected by means of a 



Fig. 31. Raucb and Lang Motor, Shaft, Universal Joints, and Worm and Gear 

flexible joint of the ball-and-socket type, with the top of the torsion 
rod link, which in turn swivels on the rear motor yoke. The rear 
end of the torsion rod is taper fitted into a nickel-steel forging, which 



Fig. 32. Rauch and Lang Motor and Rear Axle Unit 

sets into a vertical taper bearing in the front end of the axle housing. 
The method of hanging the torsion rod leaves the rear axle housing 
perfectly free to adjust itself to the relative movement of the axle 
and frame due to the compression of the springs. The latter are of 
the seven-eighths elliptic type, the upper and lower members of 

65 



50 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



Fig. 33. Rear View of Rauch and Lang Worm Drive Chassis 

which are shackled at the rear ends so that they are flatter than 
usual, thus giving better riding qualities. They are held at three 
points, which decreases the tendency toward lateral movement or 
side sway, the driving strains being taken on the front ends of the 
lower leaves. The worm and worm wheels are adjusted in perfect 
alignment in assembling the unit, and the latter is housed in, so 
that no adjustments can be made from the outside. Contrary to 
the bevel-gear drive, which in course of time wears out of alignment, 
a worm gear continues in alignment regardless of wear, within prac- 



Fig. 34. Forward End Torsion Rod, Spring Suspension and Brake Details on Rauch and Lang Car 

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Fig. 3.V Details of Rear Wheel Brake Construction as Employed on Several Makes 

tical limits, and once properly adjusted can only be deranged by 
subsequent adjustments. A better idea of the various essentials 
of the drive will be obtained by reference to the rear view of the 
Rauch and Lang worm-driven chassis, Fig. 33. As mentioned 
previously, a brake is carried on the armature shaft on this car, the 
second set being of the internal expanding type operating against 
the drums shown attached to the driving wheels, Fig. 34. On the 



Fig. 36. Detroit Worm Drive, Hear Axle and Motor 
Courtesy of Anderson Electric Car Company, Detroit 



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58 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Argo and several other cars both sets of brakes are of the internal 
expanding type, the details of this type of brake construction being 
shown in Fig. 35. 

This is likewise the case on the Detroit electric, the rear axle 
unit of which is shown in Fig. 36, the details of the brake construction 
appearing plainly. The Lanchester (British) type of worm is 
employed on this car. As will be noted from the part sectional 
illustration, Fig. 37, the worm drives through the lower part of the 



Fig. 37. Lanchester Worm Gear Used on the Detroit Electric Car 

worm wheel and runs in a bath of oil, the oil level being shown in 
the figure. In the types previously described, the worm-wheel 
housing itself is partly filled with heavy oil. 

This sectional illustration also shows a marked difference in 
pitch of the worm thread as compared with the Kauch and Lang, 
and makes clear the detail of the mounting. The latter consists 
of a combination radial and thrust annular ball bearing at each end 
of the worm and on each side of the worm wheel. Upon the correct 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 59 

alignment of its mounting and proper provision for taking the thrust, 
quite as much as upon correct design and accurate machining, 
depends the success or failure of any worm drive. 

THE CONTROL 

Unlike the gasoline car, in which the control of its speed and 
climbing abilities is divided between a provision for changing the 
gear ratio existing between the motor and the driving wheels, and a 
means of increasing the speed and power output of the motor itself 
through the admission of more fuel and advancing the point of 
ignition, that of the electric vehicle is entirely electric. This is largely 
responsible for its great simplicity, all changes in either direction 
being effected through a single small lever, the manipulation of which 
calls for no more skill than the shifting of a trolley-car controller. 
But there is quite as much latitude of design to be found in the 
methods of control of electrical vehicles as there is in the method 
of transmitting the power to the rear wheels, though, as in the case 
of the power transmission, there is more or less similarity in the 
principles involved 

Counter-E.M.F. Neither a steam engine nor a gasoline motor 
can be given "full throttle" to start it without danger of damaging 
it. This is due to the inertia of the moving parts, which must be 
set in motion gradually and allowed to attain a certain speed 
before full power is developed. As the electric motor has no 
reciprocating parts, and its revolving armature is carried on the 
finest type of anti-friction bearings, the factor of inertia is prac- 
tically negligible in so far as it affects starting. It has already 
!>een mentioned that the passage of too great an amount of cur- 
rent through a wire, i.e., too great for its carrying capacity, has 
a heating effect. The heating increases in proportion to the 
excess of current flow over the safe capacity of the wire until it is 
sufficient not only to burn off the insulation on the wire, but even 
to fuse the wire itself. 

Now the resistance of the motor armature windings is very low, 
but when the armature is revolving, the electrical resistance is 
increased by two factors — first, a counter-e.m.f., which is developed 
by virtue of the rotation of the armature, and second, the fact that 
the wire in the windings becomes warmer, it being a peculiar and 



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60 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

inexplicable phenomenon that the resistance of a wire increases in 
proportion to its temperature. 

Controller. The inability of the motor to carry more than a 
fraction of its normal operating current when starting makes neces- 
sary the use of something equivalent to the throttle of the steam 
engine for accomplishing this necessary control. As not alone the 
character of the external source of power — in this case the battery 
— is capable of manipulation, but also the internal relations of the 
power-producing elements of the motor itself— the armature and 
the field — are susceptible of various changes, it will be evident that 
the speed range possible under the circumstances may be made as 



Fig. 38. General Electric Controller 

wide as the designer desires. Ordinarily, most electric vehicles are 
provided with a controller giving five speeds forward and two or 
three reverse. 

Drum Type. In the majority of cases, the controller employed 
on the electric automobile is of the drum type, and is practically a 
duplicate on a reduced scale of that employed on street railways, 
except that the automobile controller is what is known as a contin- 
uous torque type. That is, there are no dead spots or idle gaps between 
different speeds, the current always being on except when the con- 
troller handle is at the neutral position. This insures a continuous 
and gradual increase in the speeds without any jerking between 
the various steps, and prevents a sudden heavy load being placed 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 61 

on the motor, as would be the case where a pause was made in shifting 
the handle of the controller over a dead gap. The motor continues 
to run at the lower current value until the next set of contacts on the 
controller is actually delivering a greater voltage or more current. 
The drum, or cylinder, is of insulating material and has mounted 
on it a number of copper segments of substantial thickness. These 
are so spaced that they make contact with corresponding fingers, 
also of heavy spring copper, that are held stationary alongside the 
drum. The copper bars on the drum are "grounded" to provide 
the continuous torque, that is, they have a common return permitting 



Fig. 39. Controller of the Detroit Electric 
Courtesy of Anderton Electric Car Company, Detroit 

the current to reach the motor constantly, i.e., while changing 
speeds. A controller of this pattern is shown in Fig. 38, which is of 
General Electric make. 

The drum in this instance is seen to be but a section of a cylinder, 
on the curved surface of which the spacing of the bars will be ap- 
parent. It will also be seen that there is a corresponding finger 
making contact with each bar, or in a position to do so when the drum 
is turned to bring it around to that particular point. These fingers 
are held against the drum very firmly by springs. The open socket 
visible at the lower end of each finger is intended to receive the bared 
copper wire of which it represents the terminal connection. A varia- 
tion of this type of controller is shown in the illustration, Fig. 39, and 



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62 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

it v/ill at once be evident that it is provided with a greater numbef 
of contacts than is the first controller shown. It should be mentioned 
here that the drum is spring controlled as well as the contact fingers, 
and is also provided with notched stops in order to hold the contacts 
on it directly under the ends of the fingers. In the present instance, 
which represents the type of controller employed on the Detroit 
car, the contact fingers themselves are directly attached to leaf 
springs, which are plainly in evidence. The terminals mentioned are 
also to be seen along the bottom, while at the left there is an exten- 
sion of the shaft on which the drum is mounted. This carries a 



Fig. 40. Chassis of Detroit Electric Car 

lever by means of which the drum may be revolved in order to give 
the different speeds, forward and reverse. The latter is generally 
accomplished by means of a pole reversing switch, most frequently 
incorporated directly in the controller itself, and which always 
remains locked under normal running conditions. In order to 
bring the reverse into play, it is usually necessary to depress a small 
pedal or similar release, in order that the driver may not inadvert- 
ently start the car backward. A view of the Detroit chassis is 
shown in Fig. 40. 

Flat Radial Types. A good illustration of a totally different 
form of controller is found in the Rauch and Lang cars, and is known 
as the flat radial type. In the construction of the earlier models 
of the Rauch and Lang car, it was combined with the motor 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 63 

and countershaft unit, but is now mounted independently and 
in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 41, it is shown separately. 
Instead of being mounted 
on a drum, the contacts are 
placed on a stationary seg- 
ment representing about 

one-fourth of the arc of a 

circle. A pivoted arm, held 

at what would be the cen- 
ter of the circle, is so 

mounted that it may be 

turned in order to make 

contact with the different 

blocks, these in turn being 

electrically connected to the 

terminals shown attached 

to the upright piece at the 

left of the controller. Asa Fig4]L FlatRatliu , controller 

matter of fact, there are 

two separate series of contacts around the arc, and two movable 

levers arranged to be moved over them. In this case, the moving 



rig. 42. nusn iy|>e 01 toniroiHT 



contacts are made of thin copper leaves assembled together and 
are held against the contacts by a spring. 



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64 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Flush Types. Fig. 42 illustrates a type of controller which is 
designed to be countersunk in the seat of its surface so as to be flush 
with the latter. This is a plan view, showing the controller as seen 
from above, the pattern being one in which the drum is a complete 
cylinder. The left-hand panel of the controller holds the fingers 
and contacts for the forward speeds, while those at the right are 
the reverse speeds, there being four in each direction in this case. 
Further to the right is to be seen the operating lever, the pinion visi- 
ble on the end of the drum shaft constituting part of the mechanism 
for advancing or returning the drum. This consists of a rack in the 
shape of a quadrant which meshes with the pinion in question. At 
the extreme left is shown the spring-controlled stop which prevents 

the drum from being rotated 
more than one space at a 
time in either direction, and 
holds it with the fingers 
pressing directly on the con- 
tacts at each point of its rev- 
olution. The type of control- 
ler employed on the Baker 
cars is shown in Fig. 43. 
Magnetic Type. To fa- 
T ,. Att _ . _ „ , ,. . . cilitate the handling of the 

tig. 43. Baker Controller and Operating Lever ° 

comparatively heavy cur- 
rent that is necessary in starting, changing speed in going up hill, 
and the like, without having to employ wiring of large size to a 
point near the hand-control lever, a modification of the multiple- 
unit system of control as used in electric railway service, and par- 
ticularly on elevated trains, has been applied to the electric auto- 
mobile. In this system only a current of small value is actually 
passed through the hand-controlling mechanism, which takes the 
form of a small "controller box", as shown in Fig. 44, which repre- 
sents part of the control of the Ohio. The controller of the Century 
is shown in Fig. 45. By setting this to the speed desired, current 
is passed through a magnet in the controller proper. The arma- 
ture of the magnet is attracted, and in so doing it closes a switch or 
contact for the corresponding speed. There is a magnet or solenoid 
for each speed ahead and reverse, which are so connected that, in 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 65 

changing to a higher speed, the contact of the speed below is not 
broken until either the switch giving the higher current value is 
closed, or the current is shut off, thus releasing all the magnets and 



Fig. 44. Control Disk of the Ohio Magnetic Controller 
Courtesy of Ohio Electric Car Company, Toledo, Ohio 

obtaining the advantages of the continuous-torque type of hand 
controller. The arrangement effected by the opened and closed 
positions of the various magnets determines the direction and 



Fig. 45. Magnetic Controller of the Century Electric Cur 

magnitude of the current in the motor circuit in a similar manner 
to that provided by the segments and fingers of the drum controller. 
The essential difference between the magnetic controller and the 



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66 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

ordinary type is that the former is electrically operated, while the 
latter is mechanically operated. Hence its location is not governed 
by the necessity of mechanically connecting it with the hand lever 
through rods, gears, or chains, and it may be placed in any con- 
venient location. In the Ohio it is placed under the seat. The 
various speeds are obtained by turning the disk on the end of the 
contactor box near the driver's hand. Turning to the right gives 



Fig. 46. Wiring Diagram for Primary Circuit of the Ohio Magnetic Controller 

the various forward speeds in consecutive order. The neutral 
position is, as far to the left as the disk will go; by pushing the button 
on top the controller may be turned still further to the left to give 
the reverse speeds. When in the neutral position it may be locked 
there by pushing in the button at the back, and the controller cannot 
then be operated until unlocked with a key. Buttons are also pro- 
vided for ringing the bell and operating the magnetic brake. The 
contacts are made by spring-held carbon brushes pressing against 
the inner face of the disk. In this system of control there are two 
independent circuits — the primary circuit passing through the mag- 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 67 

netically-operated switches of the controller from the battery to the 
motor, and the secondary circuit, which handles the current of 
lesser value employed to operate the magnets, and which is controlled 
by the movement of the disk mentioned. The primary wiring 
diagram of the Ohio is shown in Fig. 46, and the secondary wiring 
diagram in Fig. 47. 

Duplex Control. To facilitate the handling of closed cars of 
the brougham and other large types of enclosed cars seating five or 
more passengers, duplicate-control wiring and duplicate-brake pedals 



Fig. 47. Wiring Diagram for Secondary Circuit of the Ohio Magnetic Controller 

are provided at two positions; one forward, designed to be operated 
from a front seat, and the other similarly located with relation to 
the rear seat on the same side. Brake pedals and steering connec- 
tions are also duplicated, so that to shift the control of the car from 
one location to the other, it is only necessary to release the steering 
column at one place and insert and lock it in the socket provided 
for this purpose at the other. This enables the driver to keep the 
way clear ahead no matter how many passengers are carried and 
also drive from the rear seat when the load is light. 

Care of Controller. The contacts of the hand-operated type of 
controller should be inspected at intervals to note whether they are 

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68 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

making proper contact or not. In case the spring of one of the fingers 
loses its tension, an arc is apt to form between it and the segment 
on the drum and burn the metal. The presence of such an arc will 
be noted by a peculiar hissing sound which will be plainly audible if 
the cover of the controller box is removed and the car run in a com- 
paratively quiet place. This action will also take place to a certain 
extent if the controller is held between the notches in changing 
speed. The blistered surface of the metal thus resulting will make 
poor contact, and will continue to burn more and more unless this 
condition is remedied by sandpapering the finger and correcting 
the tension of the spring so that contact is made all over the surfaces 
that touch. If a finger has become badly burned, it should be 
replaced and the new one adjusted to an even, moderate tension. 
When necessary to face the fingers to the drum, the sandpapering 
should be done on the fingers themselves rather than on the seg- 
ments of the drum, as the latter are not so easy to replace. The 
drum segments should be kept bright and clean, and should be 
lubricated occasionally by wiping with a linen rag and some vaseline. 

Methods of Control. As it is equally important for the owner 
of an electric vehicle to familiarize himself with the manner in which 
the amount of current sent through the motor is controlled, quite 
as much as with the apparatus for effecting this, it has been thought 
advisable to devote a short section to this subject. Before taking 
up this matter, it will be well to return momentarily to a previously 
discussed subject of series and parallel connections. 

Series and Multiple Connections. Each cell of a storage bat- 
tery is a complete self-contained unit capable of delivering cur- 
rent of a certain amount according to its size and capacity, at an 
electrical pressure of slightly more than two volts when fully charged. 
For purposes of illustration, each individual cell may be likened to a 
pump, capable of exerting a pressure of two pounds. It will be quite 
apparent that if 24 such pumps, corresponding to the 24 cells of a 
48-volt storage battery, were connected together — the outlet of the 
first to the inlet of the second and so on throughout the entire 24 — 
the series of units would be capable of producing a pressure of 48 
pounds. The water delivered could accordingly be forced 24 times 
as far, or as high, as one pump could send it, but the quantity raised 
would only be that of which one unit was capable. This analogue 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 00 

affords a very clear idea of what is meant by a series connection, a$ 
the statement just made regarding the ability of pumps so connected 
applies literally to the storage cells under the same conditions. Again 
taking the 24-cell battery as an illustration, this being the former 
standard for light pleasure vehicle use, it will be seen that the 
output of the battery connected in series, i. e., the positive of one to 
the negative of the next and so on throughout the set, would be the 
ampere-hour capacity of one cell.at 48 volts. The voltage is seldom 
constant, but ranges from 2.2 to 1.7 volts per cell, according to the 
state of charge that the cell is in at the time; but when a number of 
cells are connected in series, the voltage of the battery thus formed 
will always be that of the voltage of one cell multiplied by the num- 
ber in the battery. For purposes of reference, it is customary to 
consider the potential of the storage cell as 2 volts. 

To return to the analogue of the pumps, where the conditions 
are such that a greater quantity of water is required, but it is not 
necessary to raise it to more than half the height to which the 24 
pumps in series are capable of sending it, they may be arranged in 
two series of 12 each. Double the volume of liquid may then be 
raised to a height represented by the ability of the 24-pound pressure 
developed. The two groups of pumps are still in series, so far as 
they alone are concerned, and each group would have but the capacity 
of a single pump at twelve times its pressure. But when the inlets 
and the outlets of the two groups are brought together in the case of 
either pumps or storage cells, the volumetric capacity is increased to 
two units at a pressure of 24 pounds or volts. If, on the other hand, 
all the inlets were brought together into one connection and all the 
outlets into another, there would result a capacity of 12 pumps, at 
the pressure of but one. This last-named arrangement is termed 
a multiple connection, while that described above is a combination of 
the series and multiple connections, and is accordingly designated by 
the term series-multiple. 

Given 24 cells or more, the number of series-multiple combina- 
tions possible is quite extended, but it will be evident that those at 
either extreme of the range would be useless for all practical purposes 
in the running of an electrical vehicle. It is accordingly customary 
to assemble the cells in sets of six or eight connected in series, which 
cells are securely packed in oak cases, the number of the units 

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70 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

employed depending upon the voltage of the motor of the 
vehicle. 

Resistance in Circuit. Another source of control is to be found 
in the motor itself. It will be recalled that the latter generates power 
by means of the alternating magnetic attraction and repulsion of 
the sections of the armature by the field magnets. The strength of 
the latter, as well as that of the electromagnets composing the arma- 
ture, is naturally dependent upon both the amount of current sent 
through them and its voltage. One of the simplest forms of con- 
trol is naturally that in which the entire battery is in series with 
the motor, and in which the relation of the two undergoes no change. 
In.such a case, resistances of the type shown in Fig. 48 are employed 



Fig. 48. Controlling Rheostat 

to cut down the current sufficiently to give what are usually termed 
the starting speeds. In every case, the full energy of the battery is 
being drawn upon, but only a part is being utilized on these first 
speeds, the remainder being dissipated by the resistance in the form 
of heat. In view of the very short period during which they are em- 
ployed, the use of resistances in these starting speeds is not a detri- 
ment. This system of control is to be found on the Rauch and Lang 
cars, among others, and has the great advantage of discharging all 
the cells of the battery uniformly. All the speeds are obtained at 
the same voltage and the motor is working at every position of the 
controller handle, so that there are accordingly no dead spots and 
the circuit is never open, even momentarily. A similar system of 



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control is employed on the Baker vehicles. This will be evident 
upon a little study of the accompanying diagram, Fig. 49, illustrating 
the wiring and all the connections. The large squares, marked plus 
and minus, represent the groups of cells into which the battery is 
divided. The individual cells in each group are connected in series 
and it wall be seen by tracing the connections that the groups are like- 
wise in series, a positive being connected to a negative and so on 
throughout. 

Wiring Diagram. Wiring diagrams appear extremely intricate 
to the uninitiated at first sight, but in each instance the course taken 
by the current may easily be followed after a little study, and as 
familiarizing himself with all the wiring and connections of his car is a 



Fig. 49. Control Wiring Diagram 

part of the education that no plectric vehicle owner should overlook, it 
should not be slighted. The diagram received from the manufacturer 
of his car will be a Wue print similar to the one from which the 
accompanying illustration was taken, so that it may be studied here 
as well as at first hand. Familiarity with one of these diagrams will 
prove an "open sesame" to all others, for, while they all differ to a 
greater or less extent, it will be easy to trace the different circuits, 
once the rudiments are known. 

The fact that all of the cells in the battery are in series has 
already been mentioned. It will be seen that there are 21 cells in 
the battery, giving a working potential of 42 to 60 volts according 
to the state of charge. The different points of the controller are 
represented by the group of parallel bars in the lower center of the 



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72 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

drawing, marked RA, i?-2, etc. In this case it will be noted that 
there are four connections of this nature, RA to RA, these represent- 
ing resistances to cut down the current for starting. They are accord- 
ingly known as starting speeds, and are only designed for getting the 
vehicle under way, an operation that calls for a heavy torque or pull 
on the part of the motor. This requires a large amount of current 
and, as already mentioned, it would be apt to burn out the motor 
windings if sent through the latter before it had attained sufficient 
speed to build up its counter-e.m.f. to a point where the full cur- 
rent may be safely handled. The external resistances themselves 
are represented by the bars marked in the same manner, seen diago- 
nally to the left and above the controller on the diagram, the connec- 
tions between the two being easily traceable. 

Further points on the controller are designated as FA and F-2, 
and FFA and FF-2, and refer to the connections for altering the rela- 
tion of the field and armature. Electric motors employed on auto- 
mobiles are generally of what is known as the series type in which 
the armature and fields are normally in series with one another. In 
other words, the entire current passes through the complete winding 
of the motor. By varying this relation in several w T ays, several steps 
in the speed control are possible without the intervention of any 
resistance. For instance, in the control, as illustrated, the first speed 
is obtained by placing the field in series with a resistance, giving a 
car speed of 8 miles an hour. By cutting out part of the resistance 
and still maintaining the same relation, the car speed is increased to 
10 miles an hour, corresponding to the second point on the controller. 
At the third point, the resistance is eliminated altogether, resulting 
in an increase to 12 miles an hour. A further increase to 14 miles 
an hour is obtained by shunting the fields, while the fifth speed of 16 
miles an hour results from placing the field in series-multiple. The 
last point on the controller shunts the series-multiple field and gives 
19 miles an hour. 

Office of the Shunt. The term shunt may be explained by 
turning again to the water analogy. Electricity, w r ater, or any- 
thing else under pressure will naturally follow the path of least 
resistance. Take, for instance, a two-foot water main, with a one- 
inch outlet tapped into it. The amount of water that will flow 
through the one-inch pipe is not alone dependent upon the pressure 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 73 

in the main, but likewise upon the resistance offered by the one-inch 
pipe. This, by analogy, is practically an application of Ohm's law. 
Substitute for the water main an electric circuit. At a certain point, 
connect to it a by-path in the shape of another circuit of smaller 
wire, and in consequence, representing a greater resistance. The 
current can pass through these two circuits simultaneously and 
the amount of current in the second, or shunt circuit, will be 
smaller than that flowing in the main circuit. In fact, the current 
will divide itself inversely as the resistance; that is, if a shunt has ten 
times the resistance of the wire in the main circuit between the ter- 
minals of the shunt, this shunt circuit will carry only one-tenth of the 
total current. 

The best example of a shunt connection is to be found in the 
case of the volt-ammeter, as shown in Fig. 49. For convenience, the 
voltmeter and ammeter (ampere-meter) are combined in a single case 
as if they were one instrument, but it will be noted that the connec- 
tions are the same as if both were independent. As the voltmeter is 
always in circuit, whether the car is running or not, it is wound to a 
very high resistance so as to consume the minimum amount of current 
for its operation. The shunt marked on the lower part of the diagram, 
just under the position of the instrument, is really a part of the am- 
meter itself. Where only small quantities of current are to be meas- 
ured, the full strength is usually passed directly through the am- 
. meter, but on an electric automobile, this would not be practicable 
in view of the wide range and the sudden variation of the storage- 
battery current, which in starting frequently takes the form of a 
heavy surge. The instrument is accordingly designed to employ but 
a fraction of the total current, this fraction bearing a direct relation 
to the total current passing, the scale reading of the ammeter being 
the same as if the full strength of the current passed through it. 

It will be evident that any circuit, such as the field winding 
of the motor, when placed in shunt with its supply circuit, will only 
take an amount of current depending upon the ratio between its 
resistance and that of the main circuit, and that economy in current 
consumption results. This explains its employment for two of the 
higher speeds of the car, the wiring diagram of which is illustrated in 
Fig. 49. It will be noted that this connection is only employed for 
the higher speeds; in one case, the field windings being in series them- 

83 



74 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

selves, and the whole in shunt with the main circuit, to give 14 miles 
an hour; and in the second, the field windings themselves being in 
series-multiple and in shunt with the main circuit to give a speed of 
19 miles an hour. This is due to the fact that at the higher speeds, 
only a relatively small amount of power is required to keep the ma- 
chine moving. Electric vehicles as a rule do not run at speeds high 
enough to make wind resistance a factor of great importance, and as 
a result operate under ideal power conditions when once under way. 
In other words, the draw-bar pull, by which is meant the effort neces- 
sary to keep the vehicle moving, is very light. At starting, however, 
in common with other cars, it is heavy, so that it will be evident that 
the shunt connection is not applicable to the starting speeds. Its 
role is that of economy, rather than power, and to obtain the latter 
the series connection is necessary. 

Fuses. The fuses are a part of the electrical equipment of the 
car, mention of which may be appropriately made in this connection, 
as their function is that of acting as a safety valve in the control. The 
varying resistances of different kinds of metals have been explained, as 
well as the heating effect incident to sending a current through a wire, 
particularly where the latter is of a size too small to carry the current. 
It is well known that lead and similar materials have a very low melt- 
ing point, and advantage has been taken of this in connection with 
the phenomenon just referred to, to make what are known as electric 
fuses. These are strips of lead alloy of accurately determined sizes, 
each size being designed to carry a certain amount of current at a 
certain voltage. This is known as the capacity of the fuse, and be- 
tween it and the amount of current that the motor or other apparatus 
which the fuse is designed to protect can safely stand there is an 
ample margin of safety. In consequence, whenever there is a rush 
of current through the circuit, as when the controller lever is pushed 
sharply forward toward the full on point, and the brakes happen to 
be holding the car, the fuses will "blow out" or melt, and save the 
motor from destruction. 

Electric Brake. In addition to the usual mechanical brakes, the 
construction of which is along lines practically identical with those 
employed on gasoline cars, some manufacturers equip their cars with 
an electric brake. Just how this acts will be clear from a perusal of 
the chapter devoted to a description of the motor and its method of 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 75 

operation. It will be evident that upon reversing the function of the 
motor and driving it from an external source of power, which in this 
case will be the motion of the car itself, it will act as a generator 
of electric current, and in doing so, it will absorb power in proportion 
to the speed at which it is driven. Connections are accordingly 
provided on the controller to permit of this, but the motor provides 
such an extremely powerful brake, that this has been regarded as a 
disadvantage in some cases, so that certain makes of electrics are 
only equipped with mechanical brakes. 

This disadvantage is doubtless due to the fact that the series 
type of motor ordinarily employed on the electric car does not lend 
itself readily to this service. Its braking power increases as the 
square of the speed of the car, i.e., at sixteen miles an hour, the effect 
is four times as great as at eight miles, and when suddenly applied 
this is apt to stop the car very suddenly, much to the detriment of 
its tires and mechanism, if not to the occupants themselves. Should 
a small particle of dust or burnt metal lodge on a contact and momen- 
tarily prevent the brake from "taking hold", the motor will suddenly 
"build up", with disagreeable results. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

PART II 



CARE AND OPERATION OF THE ELECTRIC 

CHARGING THE BATTERY 

SOURCES OF CHARQINQ CURRENT 

Sources of Direct Current. Small Generators. There are few 
towns, or even villages, in this country at the present day that cannot 
boast of electric-lighting facilities, so that the owner of an electric 
vehicle will find it possible to obtain charging current for the main- 
tenance of this type of automobile regardless of where he lives. 
In case he should reside too far outside the corporate limits of a village 
to find such service at his command, or in case he is of a sufficiently 
meclianical turn of mind to undertake it, he will find apparatus for 
generating the current on his own premises available for a com- 
paratively moderate outlay. Though not the simplest, a small direct- 
current dynamo driven by a gasoline engine requires but little attend- 
ance, and will prove by far the most economical method of charging. 
This is particularly the case where the generating set's chief employ- 
ment is that of lighting the house, although where an isolated plant 
may be installed, the owner of an electric vehicle will find it a great 
advantage for charging purposes alone. 

This may be seen from the fact that in small towns and villages 
rates for electric current are usually high. The power unit, the watt, 
has already been explained. A kilowatt is 1000 watts, and electric 
current is sold by the kilowatt hour, which means the employment 
of one kilowatt of current for one hour. Where current is purchased 
in comparatively small quantities, the rate is seldom less than 10 cents 
per kilowatt hour, and sometimes 15 cents, or more. With an ordi- 
narily efficient generator and gasoline engine, current may be pro- 
duced in a small isolated plant for less than 5 cents per kilowatt hour. 

The average runabout battery requires 75 to 80 ampere hours 

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78 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

for a charge, while a surrey, phaeton, victoria, brougham, or similar 
type will need 100 ampere hours. Current is charged for by the watt 
hour, which is a current of one ampere at a potential of one volt, 
flowing for one hour. 

Service Mains. If the current be taken from the service mains 
at 115 volts, the charge for the runabout battery would be 75X115 
= 8625 watt hours, or more than 8 \ kilowatt hours. The cost of 
this would be 86 cents at a 10-cent rate. Even where current is to 
be had at more favorable rates, such as 7 or 8 cents a kilowatt hour, a 
small engine and dynamo are very much more economical where no 
extra attendance has to be figured on. That is, where there is a man 
of all work about the place, this is something that may well fall within 
his province. Where the generator may also be used for lighting, 
the cost for charging will be reduced to a minimum. In the majority 
of instances, however, the difference in the cost of charging the 
battery in this manner will not be found to represent a sufficient 
inducement to make it practical to undertake the initial outlay 
required for a small current-generating plant, although the saving 
over a period of two or three years would represent no inconsiderable 
offset to the original investment. 

Street Railways. Direct-current service is now seldom obtain- 
able, except where concessions may be made to the automobile owner 
by the local street railway. In the latter case, current is usually 
obtainable at a lower rate per kilowatt hour than would be charged 
by a lighting company, but the advantage is not as great as would 
appear at first sight, owing to the higher voltage. Current from a 
trolley line would be at 550 volts, and the difference between the latter 
and the voltage required to charge the battery would represent a 
loss, as it would have to be dissipated through a resistance. The 
ability to utilize the current from street-railway mains, particularly 
where long tours have been undertaken, has often proved a great 
help, however, and where no other service is available it may be 
employed regularly for charging by installing apparatus for handling 
it. Although a shock from a circuit at this voltage (550) is not 
generally considered fatal, it so often proves otherwise that its use 
involves an element of danger. 

Sources of Alternating Current. Turning now to the usual 
source of electricity, the alternating current, one is confronted with 



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Fig. 50. Motor-Generator Bet, 115 A. C. to 125 D. C. 

the fact that the charging current must in all cases be "direct", never 
"alternating". 

Alternating current has been found much more practical for 
long-distance transmission and distribution, and its use is now very 
general throughout the country, so that where the owner of an electric 



Fig. 51. Motor-Generator Set, 220 A. C. to 110 D. C. 

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80 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

vehicle decides to fit up his own garage for storing and charging the 
car, the first thing to be considered will usually be some means of 
rectifying the alternating current, that is, making it direct. This 
may take several different forms, such as the motor-generator set 
and the mercury arc rectifier, but for reasons which will be made plain 
the mercury arc rectifier will be found the most practical and eco- 
nomical apparatus for the purpose. 

Motor Generator. Where there is a considerable amount of 
charging to be done, the motor-generator set is frequently employed. 



Pig. 52. IMotor-Gcnerator and Charging Panel for Charging Twelve Electric Trucks 
Courtesy of Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia 

This consists of an alternating-current motor and a direct-current 
generator combined in a single unit, both armatures being on the 
same shaft, the supply current simply being utilized to run the motor. 
A set of this kind is shown in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 
50. It has two great drawbacks for private use in that the initial 
investment is high and that skilled attendance is required. Its 
efficiency is also comparatively low, particularly at light loads. 
Fig. 51 shows a smaller type of motor-generator set. In the first 
case, the apparatus is designed to take alternating current at 115 
volts and generate a direct current at 125 volts; while in the second 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 81 

instance the alternating current is 220 volts, and the direct 110, but 
such sets are obtainable for any commercial voltage and frequency 
of alternating current. In Fig. 52 is shown a very well-arranged and 
complete motor-generator charging plant. 

Mercury Arc Rectifier. Owing to its simplicity, as well as to the 
fact that it entirely automatic in action, the mercury arc rectifier 



Fig. 53. Switchboard, Fig. 54. Switchboard, 

Front View Rear View 

has come into very general favor for storage-battery charging. The 
outfits are compact and, while partly of glass, they are durable and 
easily installed. The apparatus itself is showTi in Figs. 53 and 
54, giving, respectively, a front and rear view; the connections are 
shown diagrammatically in Fig. 55. It w T ill be seen that the panel 
board of the instrument incorporates everything necessary for regula- 
ting the charge, including a voltmeter, an ammeter, resistance, main 
switch, starting switch, circuit breaker, and fuses. The circuit 
breaker is a device designed to protect the apparatus with which it is 
connected by opening the circuit when there is an excess of current, 

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82 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



or when the current supply is accidentally cut off. By opening the 

circuit as soon as this occurs a rush of current through the apparatus 

is prevented when the service 

is resumed. Should it fail to 

act, the fuses represent the 

second step in the protective 

link, but naturally their only 

function is to rupture the 

circuit by melting under the 

heating effect of an excessive 

flow of current. 

H As its name indicates, 
the mercury arc rectifier is 
an apparatus in which advan- 
tage is taken of a peculiar 
property of the electric arc 
when established in a vacuum 




Fig. 55. 



Wiring Diagram for Mercury Arc 
Rectifier Circuit 



and in the j/resence of mer- 
cury vapor. •The device con- 
sists of a glass vessel, Fig. 56, 
from which the air has been 
exhausted and a certain quan- 
tity of metallic mercury in- 
serted. The tube, as it is 
called, also has fused into the 
glass the several connections 
necessary. The one negative 
terminal, called the cathode, is 
sealed into the bottom of the 
tube while two positive ter- 
minals, called anodes, are on 
opposite sides and a short dis- 
tance above the cathode. The 
anodes are graphite and the 
cathode mercury. When at 
rest, there is no electrical con- 
nection between them. A starting anode is accordingly provided. 
This is much smaller and is situated close to the cathode. If the tube 



Fig. 56. Mercury Arc Rectifier Tube 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 83 

be rocked gently after the switch has been closed, an arc is established 
between these two points. This liberates sufficient mercury vapor to 
start the main arc, and the apparatus is then in operation. As soon as 
this occurs, the starting switch is opened. A reactance coil,£s§££ 
below the panel board in the illustration, completes the rectifier. It 
sometimes happens that the arc becomes accidently disrupted, 
regardless of the length of time the rectifier has been running, and 
to guard against stopping the charge in this manner, particularly 
where charging is carried on during the night, an automatic starting 
device is provided. This takes the form of a shunt coil and a sole- 
noid, or hollow electromagnet, in which a plunger operates. When 
the arc is broken, the current is shunted through this solenoid and 
the plunger serves to shake the tube gently, exactly as when it is 
started by hand. This immediately re-establishes the arc and the 
charge is continued. Regardless of how often the main arc may be 
broken during the course of a charge, the rectifier is immediately 
restarted as long as the current is on. The theory of the transforma- 
tion from alternating to direct current by the mercury arc is one 
of the most interesting of electrical phenomena, but, as the owner 
of the vehicle only is concerned with its practical side, it would be 
out of place here. 

METHOD OF CHARGING 

Making Proper Connections. At the present day, lead batteries 
are used almost exclusively for electric-vehicle use, and while dif- 
ferent makes will vary slightly in design or construction, the differ- 
ences are rarely material, so that the following description, as well 
as the terms given, applies equally to all. Batteries are not usually 
shipped with the vehicle itself, but are packed separately in a charged 
condition; as a freshening charge is required before the battery is 
used, it will prove an advantage to carry this out before placing the 
battery in the car. The groups of cells must be connected in series — 
the plus terminal of one group to the minus terminal of the next, 
and so on, the final positive and negative terminals of the entire set 
being connected respectively to the positive and negative terminals of 
the source of the charging current. The greatest care must be taken 
to see that the charging current flows into the battery at the positive 
pole, as sending a current through in the wrong direction will not 

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84 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

only fail to charge it, but will do a great deal of damage and seriously 
impair the life of the battery. 

Determining Polarity. Where the polarity of the charging ter- 
minals is unknown, the simplest method of determining it is to take 
a glass of water into which a few drops of acid or a little salt has been 
put. Place the wires in it, taking care to keep them well separated. 
Bubbles of gas will form on both of the wires, but one will give off 
gas much more freely than the other. This is the negative pole and 
should be attached to the negative charging terminal of the battery. 
The other wire will give off comparatively little gas and will rapidly 
blacken. This is the positive pole. There are numerous other 
tests equally simple, but as this calls for apparatus easily obtained 
anywhere, it will be an advantage to memorize it, particularly 
as occasions will arise when the vehicle will have to be charged away 
from home in the absence of the usual facilities. The wire or con- 
nections to the battery from the charging side must be of ample 
size to carry the heaviest current used in charging without undue 
heating. The sizes used in the car itself form the best guide for this. 

Voltage After Charging. The operation of charging will be 
the same whether the battery is in or out of the vehicle, but as the 
battery was fully charged when shipped, this initial charge will be 
a short one. But the greatest care must be taken to charge the 
battery fully. The voltage per cell should reach 2.55 volts, with the 
current still on, when the cell is fully charged. This would mean 
60 to 62 volts for a 24-cell battery. 

These voltages, Table II, are approximate and are intended for 
guidance only. A battery when cold will show a higher voltage than 
one at a higher temperature, and the same thing is true of a new 
battery as compared with an old one. It is not safe to regard a fixed 
voltage as the end of the charge, but a maximum voltage for the 
battery in question. 

The rubber plugs should be removed from the cells during the 
operation, as the cells will be gassing very freely toward the end of 
the charge. This gas is hydrogen and, as it is not only highly 
inflammable, but likewise very explosive when mixed in certain pro- 
portions with oxygen, care must be taken not to bring a naked flame 
anywhere near the battery while in this condition. The plugs may 
be left out for a short time after the charge is finished to permit the 



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TABLE II 
Charging Voltage for Lead Batteries* 



85 





1 —\ 

Volts At 


Number of Cells 








Start 


Finish 


12 


26 


31 


14 


30 


36 


16 


34 


41 


18 


39 


46 


20 


43 


51 


22 


47 


56 


24 


52 


61 


26 


56 


66 


28 


60 


71 


30 


64 


76 


32 


69 


81 


34 


73 


87 


36 


77 


92 


38 


82 


97 


40 


86 


102 


42 


90 


107 


44 


95 


112 


46 


100 


117 


48 


105 


123 


50 


110 


128 



♦Cuahing and Smith, Electrical Vehicle Handbook. 

escape of the gas. The latter carries more or less of the acid elec- 
trolyte with it in the shape of a fine spray, and care should be taken 
to keep this spray from falling on the clothes or similar objects, as it 
causes ruinous stains, and only a comparatively small quantity is 
required to burn holes in cloth. 

Temperature of Battery. When the battery is out of the vehi- 
cle, as in the case under consideration, the matter of temperature is 
not so important, but when it is in the vehicle, precautions must be 
taken to provide all possible ventilation. The charging causes a rise 
in the temperature of the cells and this should never be allowed to 
exceed 110° F. under any circumstances. The lower it can be kept 
the better, and. a battery which is never allowed to exceed 90° F. 
while under charge will last much longer and give better service. 
The reason for this is to be found in the fact that the heating causes 
the active material in the grids to expand. If this expansion be 
excessive, as where the temperature is allowed to get too high, 
the material is apt to bulge completely out of the retaining pockets, 
so that it does not return when cooled off again. This destroys its 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



connection with the lead grid, cutting down its conductivity and 
greatly lowering the efficiency of the cell. Furthermore, after this 
bulging of the paste has occurred, there is the possibility at any 
time that flakes of active material will drop down below the plates 
and cause a short-circuit. Even if it does not cause this trouble, 
the accumulation of the material in the bottom may soon be enough 
to short-circuit the whole cell unless it is of the type provided with 
an especially deep space below the plates. The temperature should 
accordingly be noted from time to time during the charge and, if 
it passes safe limits, the charging rate must either be reduced or 







Fig. 57. Typical Battery-Charging Rheostat 
Courtesy of General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York 

discontinued altogether in order to give the cells an opportunity to 
cool off. 

Experience has shown that the best results are obtainable from 
a storage battery when its temperature is maintained between 70° 
and 90° F. during both the charge and discharge. A considerably 
lower temperature will materially reduce the available charge of the 
battery, but this does not tend to injure it in any way, as a return to 
normal temperature restores its capacity. This is not true of a 
higher temperature, however, for if it is kept above normal for. any 
length of time the wear on the plates is excessive. 

Charging Rate. Every battery has a certain charging rate, and 
this should be taken from the chart sent with it by the manufacturer. 
It will be found that there are two rates — a starting rate and a 
finishing rate — and, as it is during the final part of a charge that the 
greatest wear falls on the battery plates, instructions regarding the 
strength of the current to be employed for starting and finishing the 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 87 

charge should be closely followed. The more slowly a battery can be 
charged within reasonable limits, the better will be its condition at 
all times, and the longer its life. It is not always convenient, how- 
ever, to give a battery as slow a charge as desirable in electric vehicle 
work. On the contrary, the car is often wanted at short notice not 
long after the battery has been discharged, and consequently it 

is abused by being charged at 
an injurious rate for a short 
period. Theoretically, 10 am- 
peres for ten hours and 50 
amperes for two hours are the 
same and should give a battery 
capacity of 100 ampere hours. 
But the "storing" of the cur- 
rent is purely a process of 
chemical conversion that can- 
not be accomplished at a rapid 
rate without injuring the plates. 
The manufacturer specifies 
that each type of cell shall be 
started at a certain charging 
rate, say, 10 amperes. The 
charging rheostat is manipu- 
lated until the ammeter Bhows 
that the amount of current in 
question is going into the bat- 
teries. Figs. 57 and 58 show 
two forms of charging rheo- 
stats. This rate is maintained 

Fig. 68. Typical Charging Rheostat ., ., - , . ,. 

until the voltmeter indicates 
that a certain potential has been reached, which is usually a voltage 
of about 2.55 volts per cell, measured with current flowing. The 
charging rate should then be reduced to 4 amperes, which causes a 
considerable drop in the battery voltage. This reduced charging 
rate is then maintained until the voltage again rises to the point 
at which the voltmeter stood when the current was reduced, i. e., 
until the voltage ceases to rise, which will generally be the same as 
the voltage at which the high rate of charge must be reduced. The 

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88 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

total voltage of the battery is usually taken as an indication, and 
when this fails to reach the desired figure, it is usually a symptom 
that some of the individual cells have defaulted. The remedy for 
this is given later. 

Precautions. At the end of both the starting and finishing 
periods, the cells will be gassing freely, i.e., giving off large quantities 
of hydrogen, and for this reason the battery space of the vehicle 
should be open and the room in which the charging is done should 
be well ventilated. In addition to being highly inflammable and 
explosive, this gas is also very irritant to the throat and lungs and 
when present in any quantity causes constant coughing. Nothing 
but electric light should ever be employed in a private garage used 
for the charging of an electric car. 

There are a number of other precautions to be observed when 
placing the battery on charge in the vehicle besides that of providing 
ample ventilation, as already mentioned. The controller handle 
should be locked in the off position, the lamps switched off, and the 
beU should not be rung during the progress of the charge. The 
reason for the first of these precautions is self-evident and for the 
latter two is found in the increased voltage during the charge, and 
particularly as it approaches completion. This would be sufficient 
to cause the lamps to burn out and to injure the bell. It is important 
that the manufacturer's directions with regard to the charging rate 
be closely observed. In order to be certain that this is done, the 
current should be measured by an accurate ammeter mounted on a 
panel board in the garage. The ammeter on the vehicle should never 
be employed for this purpose, as the vibration and road shocks to 
which it is subjected make the accuracy of such a delicate instrument 
a very uncertain quantity. 

Starting the Charge. To start charging, the rheostat handle 
should be turned so as to throw all the resistance in. The switch 
on the panel board should be open, and the charging plug should 
then be inserted in its receptacle on the car. These plugs are usually 
made so that they can be inserted only in the proper way, and there 
is no danger of reversing the polarity of the current in this manner. 
Where not thus designated, the terminals are properly marked and 
care must be taken to see that the plug is correctly inserted. When 
the plug is in, the switch may be thrown on. Battery manufacturers 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 89 

supply tables showing what the starting and finishing voltages of 
the battery should be, as well as its final voltage; but as this will be 
influenced by varying conditions, such as the temperature of the 
battery and the age of the plates, the figures given are only approxi- 
mate. Furthermore, a new battery will have a higher final voltage 
than an old one under the same temperature conditions, and both 
old and new cells will read higher with the temperature low than 
when it is comparatively high. In view of the foregoing, a fixed 
voltage cannot be considered as an accurate test in determining the 
completion of the charge. Instead, a maximum voltage will be 
found the only certain indication. This may be determined by 
noting when the voltage ceases to rise as the end of the charge 
approaches. 

When charging during the day, the progress of the charge should 
be noted at half-hour intervals, the current being cut off as soon 
as the voltage has stopped rising. One of the commonest ways of 
abusing a battery is to overcharge it. This is most often done under 
the impression that an increased mileage will result, doubtless on 
the theory that if a certain distance can be covered by the vehicle on 
a full battery, "cramming" it a bit should give as many more miles 
proportionately as the excess charge bears to the normal capacity. 
Needless to add, this is a fallacy. No additional mileage will result 
from excessive overcharging, and where this occurs it causes the 
plates to deteriorate and thus reduces instead of increases the dis- 
tance that may be covered. A direct indication of excessive over- 
charge takes the form of a noticeable increase in the temperature of 
the cells. 

The question of temperature during the charge has already been 
touched upon. This should not exceed 110° F., and when charging 
with the battery in the vehicle, as is usually done, the middle cells 
should be taken as a guide. Unless it cannot be avoided, it is prefer- 
able not to allow the cells to rise above 100° F., reducing the charging 
rate or stopping the charge altogether for a time if the temperature 
does reach this point. 

Automatic Charge-Stopping Device. Where constant attend- 
ance during charging is neither practicable nor desirable — as in the 
case of the owner who takes care of his own car — an automatic 
charge-stopping device is a great convenience. This is an attach- 

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ment to the Sangamo ampere-hour meter, which is described in 
detail, page 158. It consists of a solenoid-actuated trip circuit 
breaker, Fig. 59, which is 
set in operation by the 
pointer of the meter when 
closing a circuit on arriv- 
ing at the point of full 
charge, a point which has 
been fixed by the operator 
in advance. However, as 
it is necessary to put more 
current into a storage 
battery than can be taken 
out of it (see Fig. 11), a 
certain amount of over- 
charge must be allowed 
for in every case. The 
amount necessary will 
naturally depend upon 
the condition of the bat- 
tery as influenced by its 
age and the treatment it 
has received, but it can 
be determined readily after a little experience. In the Sangamo 
differential shunt ampere-hour me ter referred to, a sliding adjust- 
ment is provided for this purpose and, once set, it need not be 

disturbed for a consid- 
I I y^i JjTX erable period unless 

made necessary by a 
change in the condition 
of the battery. With 
this adjustment made, 
the charging can be done 
by any unskilled laborer, 
as it is only necessary to 
make the charging con- 
nection and leave it. 
Since the circuit cannot 



Fig. 59. Solenoid-Actuated Trip Circuit Breaker 

Courtesy of Sangamo Electric Company, 

Springfield, Illinois 




To Load 



Fig. 60. 



To Battery 

Circuit Diagram of Charge-Stopping Device, 
Sangamo Amn»»-e-Hour Meter 



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TABLE II! 
Temperature Correction for Specific Gravity of Electrolyte* 



91 



30° F. 


40° F. 


60° F. 


60° F. 


70° F. 


80° F. 


90° F. 


100° F. 


1.317 


1.313 


1.310 


1.307 


1.303 


1.300 


1.297 


1.293 


.12 


.08 


.05 


.02 


1.298 


1.295 


.92 


.88 


.07 


.03 


.00 


1.297 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


.02 


1.298 


1.295 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


1.297 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.60 


.57 


.53 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.55 


.52 


.48 


.67 


.63 


.60 


.57 


.53 


.50 


.47 


.43 


.62 


.58 


.55 


.52 


.48 


.45 


.42 


.38 


.57 


.53 


.50 


.47 


.43 


.40 


.37 


.33 


.52 


.48 


.45 


.42 


.38 


.35 


.32 


.28 


.47 


.43 


.40 


.37 


.33 


.30 


.27 


.23 


.42 


.38 


.35 


.32 


.28 


.25 


.22 


.18 


.37 


.33 


.30 


.27 


.23 


.20 


.17 


.13 


.32 


.28 


.25 


.22 


.18 


.15 


.12 


.08 


.27 


.23 


.20 


.17 


.13 


.10 


.07 


1.203 


.22 


.18 


.15 


.12 


.08 


.05 


1.202 


.98 


.17 


.13 


.10 


.07 


1.203 


1.200 


.97 


.93 


.12 


.08 


.05 


1.202 


.98 


.95 


.92 


.88 


.07 


1.203 


1.200 


.97 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


1.202 


.98 


.95 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


.97 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.60 


.57 


.53 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.55 


.52 


.48 


1.167 


1.163 


1.160 


1.157 


1.153 


1.150 


1.147 


1.143 



•Cushing and Smith, Electric Vehicle Handbook. 

be broken until the predetermined number of ampere hours have 
been absorbed by the battery, the latter will remain connected to 
the mains until fully charged, so that there is no danger of either 
undercharging or overcharging, as may occur where the charge is 
simply limited by the time considered necessary. The circuit of 
this charge-stopping device is shown by the diagram, Fig. 60. The 
circuit breaker also opens the exciting circuit, so that it carries the 
current only for an instant. 

Rated specific gravity for various stages of charge is based on 
a temperature of 80° F. Corrections for temperatures above and 
below this point may be made from Table III. 

Testing Progress of Charge* Upon the completion of the charge, 
the rheostat handle should always be turned back before opening 



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92 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

the battery switch. It is essential that any voltage readings taken 
as a guide of the battery's condition should be noted only while the 
charging current is on. This applies likewise 
to readings during the discharge of the bat- 
tery, which should be taken while the vehicle 
is running, as the voltage with the battery 
standing idle is of no value as an indication 
of its condition. 

But the voltage alone must not be de- 
pended upon. The specific gravity of the elec- 
trolyte as well as the voltage will rise and 
reach a maximum as the end of the charge 
approaches. Specific gravity readings should 
therefore be taken with the hydrometer syringe 
provided for this purpose. This instrument 
consists of a glass syringe in which there is a 
hydrometer, Fig. 61. By inserting the point 
of the syringe in the venthole of a battery, 
it may be filled with the electrolyte, thus 
causing the hydrometer to float. The specific 
gravity of the solution may be noted and the 
latter replaced in the cell without any neces- 
sity for handling. Several cells in various ^ 62 Syringe Hydrom . 
parts of the battery should thus be tested as eterSet 



Fig. 61. Acid Testing Set in Separate Parts 
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93 



TABLE IV 
Baume Scale of Specific Qravities 



Baume 


Specific Gravity 


Baume 


Specific Gravity 





1.000 


18 


1.141 


1 


1.006 


19- 


1.150 


2 


1.014 


20 


1.160 


3 


1.021 


21 


1.169 


4 


1.028 


22 


1.178 


5 


1.035 


23 


1.188 


6 


1.043 


24 


1.198 


7 


1.050 


25 


1.208 


1 • 8 


1.058 


26 


1.218 


9 


1.066 


27 


1.228 


10 


1.074 


28 


1.239 


11 


1.082 


29 


1.250 


12 


1.090 


30 


1.260 


13 


1.098 


31 


1.271 


14 


1.106 


32 


1.283 


15 


1.115 


33 


1.294 


16 


1.124 


34 


1.306 


17 


1.132 


35 


1.318 



a check of the voltage. Another form of testing set is shown in 
Fig. 62. When fully charged, the specific gravity of the electrolyte 
should be between 1.270 and 1.280. Because of the spraying 
through the ventholes when the cells are gassing freely, and the 
loss by sloppage and evaporation, there is a gradual lowering of 
the specific gravity. It may be permitted to run as low as 1.250 
when fully charged. It is not necessary to make both the voltage 
and specific gravity tests every time the battery is charged, but 
they should be carried out at least once a fortnight, when all the 
cells should be tested to determine if they are in uniform condition. 

Baumi Scale. Hydrometers are often graduated according to 
the Baumfe scale. The Baume scale for liquids heavier than water 
is based upon the following equation: 

145 
145 — BaumS degrees 

Table IV gives the corresponding specific gravities and Baum6 
degrees. 

Should the specific gravity of some of the cells be lower than 
the remainder of the battery, the low cells should first be charged 
separately at a low rate. If the specific gravity increases, it is an 
indication that the cell had been discharged to a lower point than the 



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94 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

others and simply needed additional charging. Should this not be 
the case, and if neither the specific gravity increases nor the tem- 
perature rises rapidly during the charge, it indicates that the gravity 
of the electrolyte has been lowered by the addition of water to com- 
pensate for loss due to leakage or similar cause. The cell should 
accordingly be examined for the cause of the loss by sawing through 
the connections or straps and removing the cell from the battery. 
If the jar is found to be broken or cracked, a new one should be 
substituted, new electrolyte of the same specific gravity as that of 
the remaining cells put in, and the cell fully charged. The specific 
gravity of the electrolyte should then correspond with that in the 
other cells. If the loss of electrolyte has been due merely to slopping 
over, electrolyte should be added and the whole tested for the right 
specific gravity. The outside of the jar and the tray beneath it should 
be thoroughly cleaned, and the cell put back and its connections 
burned into place, care of course being taken to have positive and 
negative plates connected as they were before removal. 

As the electrolyte of the Edison cell does not vary with its 
state of charge, the specific gravity test cannot be employed, the 
voltmeter affording an accurate indication of the condition of the 
cells. Electrolyte cannot be lost from the Edison cell as it is sealed 
in, but there is a certain amount of loss by evaporation which must 
be replaced with distilled water. 

Electrolyte, Manufacturers of storage batteries usually recom- 
mend that small users purchase their supplies of electrolyte from them 
in order to be certain of its purity and specific gravity. Where this 
is not convenient, the owner of the electric vehicle may mix his own 
solution. This should consist of distilled water and pure sulphuric 
acid in the proportion by volume of one part acid to four and three- 
quarter parts of water for electrolyte of 1.200 specific gravity, or one 
part acid to three of water for 1.275. A glass, porcelain, or earthen- 
ware vessel must be employed for mixing the solution, and the acid 
must be poured very slowly into the water. Never pour water into 
acid, for while the effect of slowly adding acid to water is negligible, 
the adding of water to concentrated acid is accompanied by violent 
chemical action and an evolution of heat will usually break the 
containing vessel and always cause a dangerous spattering of the 
acid. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 95 

The sulphuric acid should be chemically pure, and, wherever 
possible, distilled water should be used. If this is not obtainable, 
the use of clean rain water is recommended as being likely to contain 
less impurities than any other. The keeping of the electrolyte free 
from impurities is a matter of the utmost importance and one that 
must ever be borne in mind. All dirt and foreign substances, both 
liquid and solid, must be rigidly excluded. A piece of iron in the 
shape of a stray tack, small nut, or wire may fall into a cell and ruin 
it before its presence is discovered. The presence of iron will be 
indicated by the electrolyte and the positive plate becoming a 
dirty yellow color. Some other impurities also make their presence 
readily known, for instance, chlorine will give off fumes that are 
easily recognizable by their disagreeable odor. 

Whenever such a condition is discovered, the only remedy is to 
dismantle the cell immediately, regardless of the state of charge or 
discharge it may be in. Discard the electrolyte and the wood separa- 
tors, and thoroughly rinse in running water all parts of the cell, 
such as the jar, rubber separators, and both of the elements; the 
latter should be washed separately. Reassemble with new electro- 
lyte of the same specific gravity as that discarded, and new wood 
separators. Charge the cell and discharge fully several times. 
After the last of these discharges and before recharging, take the 
cell apart a second time, again discarding the electrolyte, rinsing 
the parts of the cell in running water and soaking the wood separators 
in several changes of water. The cell may now be reassembled 
permanently with electrolyte of 1.200 specific gravity. It should 
be given a long charge before being put into service again. Care 
must be taken not to allow the negative elements to become dry 
at any time during this operation, in fact, it is better to keep both 
sets of plates under water until reassembled. 

Dangers of Overcharging. To revert to the subject of charging 
in general, too much cannot be said regarding the evils of giving an 
excessive overcharge, an abuse which may occur in two ways: charg- 
ing the battery for too long a time, and charging too frequently. 
The commoner of these — that of charging too long a time — is easy 
to avoid. The other is not so apparent, and is the result of a practice 
which is apt to be indulged in by the uninitiated owner of an 
electric car, being due to a desire to have it always ready to run 



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96 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

its available mileage. This is the custom of charging too frequently. 
For instance, if the capacity of the battery will run the car 40 miles 
on a charge, and but 5 miles are covered and a short charge given, 
then 10 miles are covered, and a second charge, followed by a second 
and third installment of 10 miles with a charge between each and 
after the last, it is obvious that but 35 miles have been covered 
altogether, but the battery has been charged four times. This is 
three times more than was necessary under the circumstances, 
besides which the available radius was not covered, so that the 
battery would really not have been discharged had the entire dis- 
tance in question been covered without recharging. The greatest 
wear on the plates of a battery occurs during the final part of a 
charge, so that the oftener the battery is charged the shorter its life 
will be. As stated at the outset, the life of the very best cell made 
is measured by a certain number of discharges, but this is on the 
assumption that it is not recharged until actually discharged each 
time. Where a vehicle is employed for short runs, such as those 
mentioned, the capacity of the battery will not give as great a 
mileage as if the entire distance were covered in one run. When 
covering but a few miles in daily service, it is not advisable to 
recharge until between 50 and 75 per cent of its capacity has been 
exhausted. 

Where it is desired to use the car within a comparatively short 
time after the battery has been exhausted, it is permissible to hurry 
the charge within certain limits by using a higher rate than normal. 
This should not exceed 50 per cent increase under any circumstances 
and should be employed only at the start of the charge. When the 
"finishing" voltage has been reached, the charge should be reduced 
to the normal starting charge, the remainder of the charge being 
carried out as if the battery had been started on the latter. Great 
injury may be done to the plates by "pounding" a nearly full battery 
at a high rate of charge. The foregoing precautions do not apply 
to the Edison cell. 

Time Required to Charge. The time required for charging will 
naturally depend upon the extent of the preceding discharge. If the 
latter has been two-thirds of the rated capacity of the battery, the 
usual pleasure car will require about three hours at the starting rate 
and one and a half to two hours at the finishing rate. In other words, 

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97 



about 10 to 15 per cent in excess of the amount discharged is usual. 
At least once a fortnight, a prolonged charge should be given by 
continuing the charge for one hour after the specific gravity of the 
electrolyte has ceased to rise. Where a vehicle is maintained by its 
owner in a small private garage, and is used more or less during the 
day, it will be found a great convenience to do most of the charging 
during the night, and for this purpose the mercury arc rectifier, 
described in the chapter on "Methods of Charging", will be found 
a great help. Where direct-current service is available at 110, 220, 
or 500 volts, such an adjunct will naturally not be necessary. In 
over-night charging, precautions must be observed to prevent an 
excessive overcharge. To do this, a careful estimate of the current 
required to fully charge the battery must be made before putting it 
on charge, and the rate adjusted accordingly. If 12 hours be avail- 
able for charging and 84 ampere hours are necessary, the average 
rate of charge must be 7 amperes. Should the time be only 9 hours, 
as where a vehicle has been used in the evening and is wanted again 
early in the morning, the average rate would be slightly more than 
9 amperes. Where 72 ampere hours are required in 9 hours, the rate 
would be 8 amperes, and so on. The rate, however, will also depend 
to some extent on the voltage of the charging circuit, in charging 
from a source with constant voltage, the rate into the battery 
will fall as the charge progresses. This is also the case where the 
charging is done with the aid of a mercury arc rectifier. After the 
charge is ended, the voltage will drop immediately when the battery 
is disconnected. 

Charging an Edison Battery. The charging rates of Edison 
cells are based on a voltage of 1.85 volts per cell, so that the potential 
required to charge a battery of this type is as follows: 



Number or Cells 


Volts Across Cells 


10 


18.5 


20 


37.0 


30 


55.5 


40 


74.0 


50 


92.5 


60 


111.0 


70 


130.0 


80 


148.0 


90 


167.0 


100 


185.0 



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These voltages are just sufficient to charge the number of cells 
in question at the normal rate during the end of the charge, as the 
alkaline cell increases its voltage during charge in the same manner 
as the lead cell, there being also a similar drop in voltage when the 
charging current is shut off. While a slight reduction in voltage 
from the potentials given will not materially affect the charge, 
allowance should be made for what is required in every case, if neces- 
sary, by charging the battery in series multiple. 

Owing to their construction the Edison cells are capable of being 

boosted at high rates when it is necessary to charge quickly, but the 

temperature must not be allowed to exceed 115° F. The following 

are the boosting rates recommended by the makers as the result of 

experience: 

5 minutes at 5 times the normal rate 
15 minutes at 4 times the normal rate 
30 minutes at 3 times the normal rate 
60 minutes at 2 times the normal rate 

The sizes, capacities, charge and discharge rates of the Edison 
cells are as follows: 



Type A-4 


A-5 1 A-6 


A-8 


A-10 


A-12 j 


Capacity 150 ampere hours . 
Normal charge 1 ^ 
Normal discharge J 

i 


187.5 

37.5 


225 
45 


300 
60 


375 
75 


450 
90 



They are capable of discharge rates in excess of these figures in 
the same proportion as the boosting rates. 

BOOSTING 

Advantages of Boosting. The term "boosting" as applied to 
electric-vehicle batteries may be defined as "auxiliary charging", and 
must not be confused with its use in connection with the charging of 
large stationary batteries. As the lead-plate cell becomes com- 
pletely charged, its voltage rises to 2.5 volts per cell, which for the 
55 cells required to deliver current at 110 volts, would mean a poten- 
tial of 137.5 volts, or an increase of more than 20 per cent over that 
of the generator. The latter, not only being a constant potential 
dynamo, but also being called upon to deliver current for other 
service while charging the battery, it is necessary to raise the voltage 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 99 

of the charging current in order that it may exceed that of the bat- 
tery without, at the same time, altering the output of the generator. 
For this purpose, what is known as a "booster" is employed, i.e., a 
motor-generator which imposes a higher voltage on the charging 
current than that at which it is produced by the main generator. 

In the case of a vehicle battery, it usually implies a partial 
charge given in a comparatively short time and at current rates con- 
siderably higher than normal, and 
it represents a practice which has 
had an important influence on the 
use of the electric vehicle for con> 
mercial purposes. For example, 
many of New York's several 
thousand electric trucks of three 

to five tons' capacity are now 

sent on trips that were consid- 
ered beyond the range of the 

electric only a few years ago, as 

it is not unusual for five-ton 

brewery trucks to make a fifty-to- 
sixty-mile day's run'in one round 

trip from the plant. How this 

is accomplished with batteries 

whose normal output only suffices 

to run the car forty miles on a 

charge will be apparent from a 

consideration of the practice of 

"boosting" the battery, which is 

J ® Fig. 63. Anderson Charging Regulator 

nOOIl hour. Courtesy of Economy Electric Company, 

Economy, Pennsylvania 

Regulation of Boosting 
Charge. Stress has already been laid on the fact that overcharging 
at high rates is injurious to the lead battery, and is the one 
thing to be most carefully avoided. However, the improved forms 
of vehicle batteries now in use have considerable ability to absorb 
current at high rates under proper conditions. The only factors 
which act injuriously in high-rate charging are gcutxing and heating, 
and these appear only when the battery is receiving more cur- 
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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

TABLE V 
Potential Boosts at Different States of Discharge 



Battery Chahue 


20-MlNUTE 

Boost 
Increase 


40-MlNUTE 

Boost 
Increase 


60-Mikito: 

Boost 
Increase 


Battery fully discharged 


22% | 38% 50% 
19% 33% 42% | 


Battery three-quarters discharged 


Battery one-half discharged 


15% 26% ' 32% 


Battery one-quarter discharged 


10% 16^ 20<^ 1 











rent than the plates can utilize. Therefore, any current rate 
which the cells will absorb without gassing is not injurious, and 
it is upon this principle that boosting is applied. As an auto- 
matic check upon the harmful rise of the temperature in a bat- 
tery, the Anderson regulator, Fig. 63, has been devised. This is 
simply a thermostat designed to cut down the charging current by 
automatically inserting more resistance in the field of the generator 
when the temperature exceeds 100° F., the maximum temperature 
which a storage battery should ever be allowed to reach being 
110° F. The device is inserted through the venthole of one of the 
cells, one of its terminals being connected to the battery and the 
other to the field coils of the generator. As the temperature rises, 
the circuit is closed and the field strength reduced until it drops 
again. It also acts as a check on the height of the electrolyte, as 
it will heat up in direct proportion as the solution is low. 

Possible Safe Charging Rates. The more nearly discharged a 
battery is the higher charging rate it can take, and by starting the 
charge at a high rate and tapering to a low rate at the end, a large 
proportion of the discharge can be replaced in a very short time. 
Table V gives the additional battery capacity which can be ob- 
tained by constant potential boosts with the battery in different 
states of discharge. 

Expressed in terms of mileage, this would mean that a car, 

after having given forty miles on a complete discharge, could have 

its battery boosted as follows: 

In 20 minutes so as to give 9 miles additional 
In 40 minutes so as to give 15 miles additional 
In 60 minutes so as to give 20 miles additional 

Thus, by charging during the noon hour, 140 per cent of the 

battery capacity is obtained in one day, bad weather conditions 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES . 101 

particularly representing conditions under which it is advantageous 
to be able to boost the battery. A battery may have sufficient 
capacity to give the required mileage under normal conditions, but 
not when the roads are heavy, as after a storm, because the current 
consumption is then abnormally high. 

Methods of Boosting. There are several methods by which 
boosting can be practically carried out, and the method chosen 
depends upon the available charging facilities. 

Constant- Potential Method. The ordinary incandescent lighting 
circuit is supplied by a constant-potential generator, i.e., the voltage 
does not vary regardless of the current utilized within the limits of 
the capacity of the generator. Where conditions permit, this is the 
best method because it is entirely automatic and requires little 
attention. It is applicable wherever there is available a voltage of 
about 2.3 volts per cell of battery — say 110 volts for 48 cells — and 
the charging equipment and wiring have sufficient capacity to carry 
current up to four or five times the usual charging rate. A voltage 
higher than 2.3 volts per cell can be reduced by having a set of coun- 
ters, m.f. cells figured at 3 volts per cell, which are always put in 
series with the battery when it is boosted. This is a special type of 
cell designed for this purpose. Thus if the line voltage is 110 and 
the battery consists of 40 cells, a reductioi of 18 volts will be neces- 
sary, and six of the counter-e.m.f. cells will be required. 

With the charging voltage thus fixed at 2.3 volts per cell, a 
battery in any state of discharge can be put on charge and will 
receive in a short time a large proportion of the discharge which has 
been utilized. The current input will taper automatically from 
a high rate at the start to a low rate at the finish, and no attention 
or adjustment is required. The cells will not reach the free gassing 
point or, under normal conditions, a high temperature and, there- 
fore, no harm will result from their being inadvertently left on charge. 
Approximate Constant-Potential Method. This is employed 
with a fixed resistance in series with the battery; and when the time 
available for boosting is one hour or less, the following method is 
often the simplest. Connect a rheostat in series with the battery 
and adjust the resistance so that the voltage across the battery 
terminals corresponds to that given as follows for the approximate 
number of cells. 

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Number of Cells 


Voltage at Battery 
Terminals 


48 
44 
42 
40 
38 


110 
98 
92 
86 
80 



Charging current (amperes) = ; 



The circuit can then be left without attention for an hour or so, 
and the current will taper off as the voltage of the battery rises. The 

table is figured for a line voltage of r^, and the .voltages given are 

to<) high for a boost of more than one hour's duration. 

Constant-Current Method. In some cases it is more convenient 
to boost at a constant rate of current, and, as there is usually a lim- 
ited time available, it is desirable to know under any given condi- 
tions what rate is safe. This may easily be determined as follows: 

ampere hours already discharged 
1 + (hours available for boosting) 

This gives the maximum current which can be employed for the time 
specified without the cells reaching the gassing point. The method 
is most conveniently employed where the car is equipped with an 
ampere-hour meter. For example, 100 ampere hours have been 
discharged and there is one hour available for boosting. Then 

Charging current = - — - = 50 amperes 

In general, this method will not put in as much charge in a 
given time as the constant-potential method, and the current must 
not be continued beyond the time for which the rate is figured, as 
injurious gassing and heating will result. When a considerable 
period is available for boosting, and it is convenient to regulate 
the current at intervals, a greater amount of charge is possible by 
dividing the time into several periods and regulating the amount 
of current for each period separately. It will usually be found 
that one of the methods outlined will be available, but to obtain the 
advantages of boosting without injury to the battery, gassing must 
be avoided and the temperature of the cells kept below 110° F. 

Table VI is based upon the above formula and saves the neces- 
sity of making calculations. 



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TABLE VI 
Boosting Rates* 



[ 






— —r-. : = — t 

Time Available 


. fob Boosting 






Ampere 

Houaa 


yi hour 


H hour 


$4 hour 


1 hour 


\% hours 


1 x /i hours 1 % hours 


2 hours 


Discharged 


















Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


10 


8 


6 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


3 


20 


16 


13 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


30 


24 


20 


17 


15 


13 


12 


11 


10 


40 


32 


26 


23 


20 


18 


16 


14 


13 


50 


40 


33 


28 


25 


22 


20 


18 


16 


60 


48 


40 


34 


30 


26 


24 


22 


20 


70 


56 


46 


40 


35 


31 


28 


25 


23 


80 


64 


53 


45 


40 


35 


32 


29 


27 


90 


72 


60 


51 


45 


40 


36 


33 


30 


100 


80 


66 


57 


50 


44 


40 


36 


33 


110 


88 


73 


63 


55 


49 


44 


40 


37 


120 


96 


80 


68 


60 


53 


48 


43 


40 


130 


104 


87 


74 


65 


58 


52 


47 


43 


140 


112 


93 


80 


70 


62 


58 


51 


47 


150 


120 


100 


86 


75 


67 


60 


54 


50 


160 


128 


106 


91 


80 


71 


6i 


58 


53 


170 


136 


113 


97 


85 


75 


6S 


62 


57 


180 


144 


120 


103 


90 


80 


72 


65 


60 


190 


152 


127 


108 


95 


84 


76 


69 


63 


200 


160 


133 


114 


100 


89 


80 


73 


67 


210 


168 


140 


120 


105 


93 


84 


76 


70 


220 


176 


147 


126 


110 


98 


88 


80 


73 


230 


184 


153 


131 


115 


102 


92 


84 


77 


240 


192 


160 


137 


120 


106 


96 


87 


80 


250 


200 


167 


143 


125 


111 


100 


91 


83 



♦Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company. 

Explanation. In the left-hand column find the figure nearest to the 
ampere hours discharged from the battery; follow across to the column headed 
by the available time. The figure at this intersection is the current to be used. 

Example. Ampere-hour meter reading, 103 ampere hours discharged; 
time available for boosting, one hour. Start at 100 in the left-hand column; 
follow across to the column headed 1 hour and find 50, which is the current to be 
used. 

CARE OF BATTERY 

Importance of Careful Attention to Battery. While it would 
appear that the remainder of the car calls for no little attention, the 
amount, exclusive of that which must be given the battery, is very 
slight as compared with that necessary to maintain either a gasoline 
or steam automobile. The battery is naturally the chief factor in 
any electric automobile and, as its initial cost is no small fraction of 



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104 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

the total cost of the vehicle, its proper maintenance is a matter of 
economy no less than of good service. More so than any other 
piece of electrical apparatus, a storage battery has a definitely deter- 
mined life. Regardless of the care given it, the active period of 
service of which it is capable may be expressed as a certain number 
of discharges. By properly looking after it, this number may be 
realized, and a greater percentage of the energy put into it taken 
advantage of. In other words, its life will not only be longer, but 
its efficiency much higher during that period as the result of proper 
care. It is difficult to impress upon the uninitiated owner the impor- 
tance of paying strict attention to the letter of instructions con- 
cerning the care of the storage battery in a vehicle, and this accounts 
to a greater or less extent for those cases of dissatisfaction with the 
electric vehicle which occasionally come up. For the particular 
service for which it is designed, the electric vehicle has no superior, 
but its advantages are only to be enjoyed to the greatest degree by 
giving it regular and proper attention, and fully 90 per cent of this 
attention must be devoted to the battery. 

It must be borne in mind that the storage battery in an electric 
vehicle must work under conditions which are diametrically opposed 
to those which make for high efficiency in such a piece of apparatus, 
for it is always subject to the destructive effects of vibration and 
jolting. To secure that degree of conductivity which is essential 
to high capacity, the active material should be loose and porous, 
but in order to fit it for vehicle service the plates must be made rigid 
and unyielding. For the same purpose, an ample quantity of elec- 
trolyte, so disposed as to permit of rapid circulation, should be 
employed, but the necessity of not only keeping the plates apart, 
but also of preventing any movement whatever, compels the use of 
separators which occupy space that should be given to the solution. 
The need for compactness is also against the latter. These conflict- 
ing requirements are pointed out here merely as an indication of the 
difficulties that must be met. The aim of storage-battery manu- 
facturers has been to meet vehicle conditions, without impairing 
the electrical efficiency of the battery any more than has been 
absolutely necessary. 

Limits of Discharge. To obtain the best possible service from 
a battery, it should never be discharged below 1.70 volts per cell, 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 105 

or 41 volts for a 24-cell battery, this being measured when the vehicle 
is running at full speed on the level, all of the cells then being con- 
nected in series. If the average discharge rate is for any reason 
considerably more than the normal rate of the battery, the working 
voltage will be correspondingly lowered, so that a slightly lower 
limiting voltage is permissible. In general, however, it is safer not 
to go below 1.70 volts per cell, except momentarily, as when starting 
or on a grade. The battery should never be allowed to stand fully 
discharged, as local action and sulphating rapidly take place. 

Sulphating. ' It has been pointed out in the introductory sec- 
tion of Part I that during each discharge both the positive and 
negative plates become covered with lead sulphate, but in the 
normal use of the battery the sulphate is converted during the 
following charge to lead peroxide on the positive plate and spongy 
metallic lead on the negative. Should the battery be allowed to 
stand in a discharged state for any length of time, however, the lead 
sulphate on the plates will harden, causing what is usually termed 
"sulphating". When the battery is put into use again this will 
result in loss of capacity, buckling, shedding of the active material 
from the positives, and greater heating of the cells due to increased 
internal resistance. Sulphating can be remedied by continuous 
charging for a long period at a low rate, i. e., for 24 to 36 hours, or 
longer, at a rate not exceeding 10 to 15 per cent of normal. This 
loosens the sulphate and reconverts it as previously mentioned, thus 
restoring the plates to their normal condition. The length of time 
and the charging rate necessary to effect a complete restoration will 
be governed by the extent to which sulphating has taken place, and 
the loss of capacity will afford a fairly approximate indication of 
this. The great loss of capacity, with the possible total ruin of the 
battery if allowed to go on long enough, explains [the emphasis laid 
on the instructions — never let the lead-plate battery stand discharged. 

When it is not convenient to have the battery fully charged at 
once, a partial charge should be given and completed as soon there- 
after as possible, and before the battery is again discharged. When 
the vehicle is out of service, the battery should be given a freshening 
charge at least every month, and every two weeks would be pref- 
erable. A cell standing idle tends to discharge itself, owing to the 
unstable nature of the chemical compounds which represent the 

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106 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

stored energy; and if left in a discharged condition for any length 
of time, the cell will deteriorate far more than in the most active 
service under proper conditions. 

As an additional indication of the relative condition of the cells 
in a battery, the voltage of each cell should be taken with a low- 
reading voltmeter — i. e., one calibrated to read to 3 volts by tenths — 
at least once every two weeks, and the specific gravity of the elec- 
trolyte of each cell should also be tested at about the same interval. 
The voltage readings in question should be taken just before the 
end of the, prolonged charge mentioned, or just before the end of 
a complete discharge, and always with the current flowing. Should 
any of the cells read lower than the average, it is an indication of 
trouble and they should be treated as explained later. 

Condition of the Cells. Electrolyte. One of the cardinal points 
to be observed in the care of the battery is to keep the plates covered 
with electrolyte to the depth of at least half an inch, but no more. 
Except where .the level has been lowered by slopping or leaking, any 
loss should be replaced by the addition of distilled water. The water, 
bdng the more volatile part of the solution, is subject to evapora- 
tion, particularly on account of the increase in temperature due to 
the charge. The loss by evaporation causes a rise in the specific 
gravity, which would not be remedied by the addition of electrolyte. 
The latter is only necessary where the loss has been that of the 
solution itself, as from slopping or leakage. Water to replace 
evaporation should always be added at the beginning of a charge. 

, As it is not always convenient to obtain distilled water and as 
neither rain water nor melted artificial ice is available when wanted, 
a small gas-heated still has been placed on the market for this pur- 
pose. This is known as the "Peerless" water still, and is made in 
two or three sizes adapted to the use of private and public garages. 
It consists of a Bunsen burner for gas, an evaporating chamber 
directly over it in the form of a cowl, and a condensing tube which 
is cooled by passing the cold feed water around it. The smallest size 
has a capacity of one-half to one gallon )f distilled water per hour 
and, once adjusted, will operate continuously without further atten- 
tion. It is designed to be fastened to the wall in any convenient 
location, and only requires connecting with the gas- and water- 
supply pipes to put it in operation. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 107 

Connections. Attention should be paid to keeping the con- 
nections and terminals, the outside of the jars, the straps, batten- 
trays, and the battery space in the vehicle dry and free from dirt 
and acid. This is a far more important precaution than may appear 
at first sight, for if not attended 
to, corrosion and loss of capacity 
will result. In storage batteries 
for starting and lighting gasoline 
cars, this difficulty has been ob- 
viated to a considerable extent 
by the use of a special form of 
cover incorporating an expansion 
chamber. 

CLEANINO OR WASHING A 
BATTERY 

Methods of Avoiding Inju- 
rious Effect of Sediment in Cells. 

During the normal use of a bat- 
tery, the gradual wear of the 
plates results in a deposit of sedi- 
ment which collects in the bot- 
tom of the jar where a space is 
provided to hold a considerable 
quantity before it accumulates 
sufficiently to touch the bottom 
of the plates, Fig. 64. The rate 
at which sediment accumulates 
depends very largely upon 
whether the battery is charged 
properly or not. If the battery Fig M E iba on with Low Mud space 

is Charged in SUch a Way as tO and Bolted Connections 

cause excessive gassing, the gas coming out of the pores of the positive 
plates tends to soften and dislodge the active material. This is the 
reason the charging current must be reduced as soon as the cells 
begin to gas freely. If a battery is constantly undercharged, the 
sulphate which is thus allowed to accumulate in the negative plates 
will eventually lose its cohesion and the surface will gradually wash 

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108 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

away, falling to the bottom of the jar as a deposit of sediment. It 
is neither necessary nor desirable that every charge be carried to com- 
pletion, but in order to make certain that the plates do not become 
sulphated, a weekly "equalizing" charge is given. 

If a battery has been neglected so that cleaning is not undertaken 
until the deposit of sediment has actually reached the plates, the 

sediment is then deposited much 
more rapidly. Permanent injury 
and decreased life of the plates 
result. The Elba cell, Fig. 65, is 
designed with a mud space suffi- 
ciently high to accommodate the 
entire deposit of sediment occur- 
ring during the life of the elements, 
so that washing is not necessary 
in this type of cell, the jars only 
being cleaned out when the ele- 
ments are renewed. 

Since the conditions under 
which batteries are operated vary 
so widely, the best method of 
determining when it will be nec- 
essary to clean a battery is to 
remove the element from one of 
the cells after about 100 to 150 
charges have been given it, to 
determine the rate at which the 
sediment is accumulating. From 
the amount of sediment compared 
with the depth of the space in the 
bottom of the jar, it is possible 
to estimate when cleaning will 

Fig. 05. Elba Cell with High Mud Space . - . , , 

be required. Always clean a 
battery before there is any possibility of the sediment reaching the 
bottoms of the plates. To insure this, the entire depth of the space 
should not be taken as a fixed quantity in estimating the rate of 
sediment deposit, but a margin of safety of § to £ inch should be 
allowed, since the jolting of the vehicle is apt to bring the sediment in 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 109 

contact with the plates and short-circuit them momentarily, if allowed 
to rise any closer. At the expiration of the estimated time, cut out a 
different cell and examine it to determine definitely if the time for 
cleaning has arrived. 

Various Conditions to be Found. The method of procedure in 
cleaning will depend upon the condition of the battery, as follows: 

1 . If the battery has not been allowed to become sulphated and the sediment 
has not reached the bottoms of the plates, its cleaning is a comparatively simple 
operation and the only preliminary treatment is to first bring the battery to a 
state of full charge. 

2. If the battery is in a sulphated condition due to improper charging, 
but the sediment has not reached the bottoms of the plates, it should be given 
the treatment detailed under "Restoring a Sulphated Battery", before cleaning. 

3. If the sediment has been allowed to reach the bottoms -of the plates 
because cleaning was not carried out soon enough, the battery will, as a matter 
of course, be in a sulphated condition by reason of the short-circOits through the 
sediment. Such a battery must first be cleaned as described below and after- 
ward given the treatment referred to under "Restoring a Sulphated Battery". 
This treatment cannot be given successfully in its short-circuited condition. 

Materials to Have on Hand. Before starting the work of clean- 
ing the battery, have on hand a set of new wood separators and suffi- 
cient new acid of 1 .300 specific gravity with which to mix new elec- 
trolyte. Many of the old rubber separators can be used again, but, 
as is the case when renewing the entire element of the cell, about 
twenty-five per cent of new rubber separators should be at hand for 
replacements. Three or four extra jars and covers should also be at 
hand, and the trays should be examined to note if their condition is 
such that they may be depended upon to last the remaining life of the 
cells. If new trays are necessary, see instructions under "Renewal". 

In fact, as the process of cleaning is, to a large extent, the same as 
that of renewing the elements, the instructions for dismantling the 
battery are the same. All the connectors should be removed by 
pulling or drilling. The jar covers should be lifted by running a hot 
putty knife around their edges, and the covers should be washed in 
hot water and then stacked one on top of the other with a heavy 
weight on them to press them flat. 

Treating the Plates. Lift all the jars out of the trays, leaving 
their elements in the electrolyte. The trays can then be examined, 
and, if usable, given the treatment described in connection with 
renewals to neutralize any acid in the wood. Proceeding further, 

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110 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

one cell should be treated at a time. The element is pulled out with 
the aid of pliers, meanwhile holding the jar with the feet; it is laid on 
the bench and the plates spread slightly to permit of removing the 
separators, taking care not to injure the rubber sheets, Fig. 66. 
Separate the positive group from the negative. If the active material 
of the negative be swollen beyond the surface of the grid, press it back 
into position before it has a chance to dry by placing boards of suit- 
able thickness between the plates and carefully squeezing the group 
between heavy boards in a vise or press, as shown in Fig. 67. Boards 
of sufficient size and thickness must be used between the plates or 



Fig. 66. Removing Old Separators from 

Elements Fig. 67. Pressing Negative Group 

Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsyltania 

breakage will result. Charged negative plates, when exposed to the 
air, will become hot in a short time and in this event should be allowed 
to cool before reassembling. Remove any loose particles adhering 
to the positive plates by passing a smooth wooden paddle over the 
surface, but do not wash the positive plates. 

Washing or Renewing Separators and Assembling Cells. Wash 
all the sediment out of the jar to have it ready for the element when 
reassembled. Wash and save the rubber sheets, but throw away 
the old wood separators. "Wash" in this connection means to place 
under running water that is known not to contain any injurious 
impurities, for fifteen minutes or more. Reassemble the positive 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 111 

and negative groups with the plates on edge in order to insert the 
separators. Place a rubber separator against the grooved side of a 
wood separator, Fig. 68, and insert a positive plate near the center of 
the element. The rubber sheet must be against the positive plate 
and the wood separator against the negative plate. In this manner, 
insert separators in all the spaces, working in both directions from 
the center, exactly the same as in renewing the element. An omitted 
separator means a short-circuited cell. 

The separators should be practically flush with the bottoms of 
the plates to bring their tops against the hold-down below the strap, 
and must extend to, or beyond, the 
side edges of the plates. Grip the 
element near the bottom to prevent 
the plates from flaring out while 
placing in the jar. Fill the cell to 
within i inch of the top of the jar, 
using electrolyte of a specific grav- 
ity of 1.250, unless the battery is 
in a sulphated condition, in which 
case, use water. After all of the 
cells have been given the same treat- 
ment and reassembled, place them 
in the trays in the proper position, 
so that the positive of each will be 
connected to the negative of the adjoin- 
ing cell, and connect temporarily 
by pressing the old connectors into 

*^ ' Fig. 68. Wood and Rubber Separator 

Charging Process after Wash- 
ing Battery. Put the battery on charge at the regular finishing rate 
and, after charging about fifteen minutes, note the voltage of each 
cell, recording these readings as mentioned in connection with renew- 
als. This is to insure the cells having been correctly connected with 
regard to their polarity. If this is the case, each cell should read 
above 2 volts; any cell with a lower reading is likely to have been con- 
nected backward. When the cells begin to gas freely and uniformly, 
take and record a hydrometer reading of each cell and the tempera- 
ture of one cell. Reduce the current to one-half the normal finishing 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



t 



rate. Should the temperature reach 100° F., reduce the charge or 
interrupt it temporarily so as to prevent the cells getting any hotter. 
Both hydrometer and temperature readings must be taken at regular 
intervals, say four to six hours apart, to determine if the specific 
gravity is still rising or if it has reached its maximum. Continue 
the charge and the readings until there has been no further rise in any 
cell during a period of at least twelve hours. Maintain the height 
of the electrolyte constant by adding water after each reading. (If 
water were added just before taking the reading, it would not have 
time to mix with the electrolyte, and the reading would be misleading.) 
Should the specific gravity rise above 1.300 in any cell, draw off 
its electrolyte down to the level of the top of the plates and refill with 
as much water as possible without overflowing. Continue the charge, 
and if the specific gravity again exceeds 1.300 all the electrolyte in 

that cell should be dumped 
out and replaced wnth 
water, then continue the 
charge. The charge can 
be considered complete 
only when there has been 
no rise in the gravity of 
any cell during a period 
of at least twelve hours of 
continuous charging. 
Upon completion of the charge, the specific gravity should be 
adjusted to its proper value (1.270 to 1.280), using water or 1.300 
acid as may be necessary, and the electrolyte level adjusted to a 
uniform height of J inch above the plates. 

Discharge the battery at its normal discharge rate (see 
"Renewal") to determine if there are any low cells caused by defective 
assembly, which should immediately be corrected. Recharge and 
then remove the temporary connectors. When the cells are arranged 
in their trays, as shown in the sketch made before the battery was 
taken apart, Fig. 69, put the rubber covers in place, wipe the inside 
edges of the jars dry, and seal with the compound supplied for this 
purpose. Heat the sealing compound, taking care that it is not 
allowed to burn, and apply around the edges of the cover, smoothing 
down with a hot putty knife. 



E. 



Fig. 60. Diagram of Battery Connections Drawn 
before Dismounting 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 113 

It is preferable to use new connectors, but if these have not been 
provided, the old ones may be replaced if sufficient care has been taken 
in removing them. Before putting the connectors in place, scrape 
the posts clean and smooth. In using old connectors, clean out the 
eyes with a knife blade. When the connectors have been put in place, 
tap them down firmly to insure good contact. Before reburning the 
connectors in place, test each cell with a low-reading voltmeter to 
make certain that the cells have all been reconnected in the proper 
direction, i.e., that their polarity has not been reversed. It is not 
sufficient to note that the voltage of the cell is correct, i.e., 2 volts 
or over; but care must be taken also to note that it is in the right 
direction. With a voltmeter having a needle that can move in both 
directions from zero, one polarity will be evidenced by the needle 
moving over the scale to the right of the neutral line, while if the 
polarity be reversed, the needle will move to the left, so that a cell 
having the proper polarity should be tested, and then, to be correct, 
all the remaining cells should cause the needle to move in the same 
direction and read to approximately the same voltage when the 
instrument leads are held to the cell terminals in the same way for 
each. Where the voltmeter needle can move only in one direction, 
i.e., to the right, a change of polarity will be indicated by the needle 
of the instrument attempting to move to the left and, in so doing, 
butting up against the stop provided to prevent this. 

Complete the reassembly of the battery by burning the connec- 
tors of all the cells together, detailed instructions for this being given 
under "Lead Burning". The cleaning of a battery which has been 
properly charged and in which the sediment has not been allowed to 
reach the bottoms of the plates is a simple operation compared with 
treatment necessary to clean and restore a battery which has been 
neglected. The process of cleaning is also frequently referred to as 
"washing the battery", which refers to the internal treatment 
already outlined, and not to washing it outside. 

// is of the utmost importance that the battery be cleaned before the 
sediment is allowed to accumulate to a point where it reaches the plates. 

Replacing a Defective Jar. When a cell requires the addition of 
distilled water more frequently than the other cells in the same bat- 
tery, or does not test to the same specific gravity as the others, it is 
usually an indication that there is a leak in the jar. Failure to give 

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114 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



, Fig. 70. Drilling off Connectors 
Coutiety of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



Pig. 71. Lifting Cell out of Tray 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



124 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 115 

the same gravity reading is not always proof of this condition, as the 

cell may be low from other causes, but the loss of electrolyte is certain 

evidence of it. The only remedy 

is to replace the jar at fault. 

While the following directions 

for doing this apply to the 

Exide battery in particular, they 

will be found equally applicable 

to all other makes. 

After locating the jar at fault, 
first mark its connectors so that there 
will be no mistake in replacing them 
the same way. With a f -inch bit or 
twist drill of the same size, drill the 

connectors centrally in the top of the Fig. 72. Softening Sealing Compound on Cell 
enlarged ends joined to the two cells 

adjacent to the jar that is to be replaced, Fig. 70. Lift the complete cell out 
of the tray, Fig. 71, and with an ordinary gasoline blow torch warm the sides 
of the jar around the top to soften the 
sealing compound that holds the cover, 
Fig. 72. Grip the jar between the feet, take 
hold of the two connectors, and pull the ele- 
ment almost out of the jar, Fig. 73; then grip 
the element near the bottom in order to keep 
the plates from flaring out, Fig. 74, while trans- 
ferring to the new jar, taking care not to let 
the outside plates start down over the outside 
of the jar, Fig. 75. After the element is in the 
new jar, reseal the cell by pressing the sealing 
compound into place with a hot knife. Fill 
the cell with 1.250 electrolyte to the proper 
point, the old electrolyte being discarded. 

Before replacing the connector, clean 
both the post and the inside of the eye of the 
connector by scraping smooth with a knife. 
When the connector has been placed in posi- 
tion, tap it down firmly over the post to insure 
good contact. To complete the connection, 
melt the lead of the connector and the post at 
the top so that they will run together, and, 

while the lead is still molten, melt in more Fig. 73. Lifting Element out of Jar 
lead until the eye of the connector is filled, 

Fig. 76. This is termed lead burning and is described at greater length in :i 
succeeding section. Where no special facilities are at hand for carrying it out, 
it may be done with an ordinary soldering copper. The latter is brought to :v 
red heat so that all the "tinning" is burned off and no flux of any kind is used. 

120 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



Fig. 74. Gripping Element near Bottom Fig. 75. Installing Element in Jan 

to Keep JPlatce from Flaring out 

Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



The method of handling the iron and the lead-burning strip to supply the extra 
metal required to fill the eye is shown in Fig. 77. 

Put the battery no charge, and when the cells begin to gas freely, reduce 
the current to half the "finishing" rate given on the battery name plate, and 



Fig. 76. Reburning Cell with Carbon Arc 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 117 

<»harge at this rate as long as there is any rise in gravity in the electrolyte in this 
or in any of the other cells. The maximum gravity has been reached when there 
has been no rise for a period of three hours. If the gravity of the cell having 
the new jar is then over 1.280, draw off some of the electrolyte and replace with 



Fig. 77. Reburning Cell with Soldering Iron After Replacements Previously 

Described Have Been Made 

Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Penntylvania 

distilled water. If the gravity is below 1.270, draw off some of the electrolyte 
and replace with 1.300 electrolyte. If necessary to put in 1.300 electrolyte, allow 
the battery to continue charging for about one-half hour longer at a rate sufficient 
to cause gassing, which will cause the stronger acid to become thoroughly mixed 
with the rest of the electrolyte in the cell. 



COMPLETE RENEWAL OF BATTERY 

Materials Needed. In garages caring for a number of electric 
vehicles, it is customary to carry out all the repair work demanded by 
the batteries, including the complete renewal of the cells. The 



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118 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

material is ordered from the maker of the battery, and the form in 
which it is sent for will depend upon the facilities at hand. The 
following material is required for a complete renewal: positive 
groups, i.e., plates already burned to straps, or positive plates and 
positive straps, negative groups or negative plates and negative straps, 
connectors, burning strip, wood separators, rubber separators, rubber 
jars, rubber covers, rubber plugs, sealing compound, electrolyte, 
trays, handles, and terminals. 

Note the number of plates and their size and type, this informa- 
tion usually being given on the plate on the tray. Unless facilities 
are at hand for burning the plates into groups, it is better to order 
groups. If the plates are ordered loose, positive and negative straps 
must also be ordered, and, in any case, the following information must 
be given : size and type of plate, number of plates per cell, length of 
jar outside, width of jar outside, height of jar outside, height from top 
of rib of jar. In ordering connectors, give the distance between the 
center of the eyes, noting if more information than the size is 
required. Two pounds of burning strip is sufficient for burning the 
connectors of an ordinary battery; when loose plates are ordered, 
provide one pound additional for each fifty plates. The clippings 
from the plate lugs can be melted down and cast into strips for this 
purpose, if desired. 

Where the separator type cannot be identified by name or num- 
ber, send samples of the old ones to the manufacturer. All new 
wood separators will be necessary, and in ordering these it is advisable 
to provide at least 10 per cent more than are actually required. Most 
of the old rubber separators can be used again, but it is well to provide 
about 25 per cent of new ones. Order three or four extra jars and 
covers, giving the dimensions as already noted. A new set of rubber 
plugs will usually be found advisable. The average pleasure-car 
battery or that of a light truck requires about J pound of sealing 
compound per cell; this compound is supplied in 5-, 10-, and 30-pound 
tins. In dismantling the old battery, measure the amount of electro- 
lyte necessary in one cell to bring its level \ inch over the plates, and 
order sufficient 1.300 electrolyte to fill all the cells. Electrolyte is 
usually longer in transit than any other material, so this must be 
allowed for. In ordering new trays, make a sketch showing the 
inside and outside length, width, and depth, and whether the sides 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 119 

are solid or slatted, also specify the size and type of handles and their 
position. When obtained locally, trays should be well painted with an 
acid-resisting paint. Upon receipt of the material, immediate atten- 
tion must be given the wood separators to prevent their drying out. 
Wood separators must always be kept wet. 

Dismantling the Battery. To dismantle the old battery that is 
to be renewed, first remove all the connectors by drilling centrally in 
the top of the enlarged ends, as already explained in connection with 
the replacement of a jar. Where 
much of this work is done, a device 
termed a "connector puller' ' may be 
obtained from the battery maker. 
After removing the connectors, lift 
all the covers by running a hot 
putty knife around the sealed edges 
and, after they have been taken out, 
clean all the compound off them and 
place them in hot water. This will 
clean the acid from the covers and 
also soften them. In this condi- 
tion, stack the covers and place a 
weight on them to keep them flat. 

Lift all of the cells out of the 
trays. When making a complete 
renewal, the old trays are seldom 
worth saving, but if they are to be 
used again, immerse them in a barrel 
of water in which about 10 pounds 

Of bicarbonate Of Soda (common Fig. 78. Lifting Element out of Jar 

with Pliers , 

baking soda) has been dissolved, 

to neutralize the acid in the wood. After drying, they will be 
ready for use. Grip one jar firmly between the feet and lift out 
the element with the aid of two pairs of pliers, Fig. 78. Spread 
the plates slightly and remove the wood and rubber separators, 
taking care not to injure the rubber sheets. Throw away the 
old wood separators and scrap the old plates. Wash all sedi- 
ment out of the jars to have them ready for assembling the new 
elements. 

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120 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Burning Groups. When new plates and straps have been 
ordered separately and are to be burned into groups, first provide a 

"burning box", as shown in 
Fig. 79. Scrape the plate lugs 
clean and bright and arrange the 
plates as shown in the burning 
box. The height of this box 
should be J inch less than the dis- 
tance from the top of the ribs of 
the rubber jar to the top of the 
jar. The burning iron, which 
acts as a space between the plates 
and as a support for the strap, 
should be made of iron J inch 
thick and slotted to fit the plate 
lugs. This J inch in addition to 
the height of the burning box 

Fig. 79. Assembling Group in Burning Box wil j g j ye ^ r j ght he j ght fop ^ 

strap, the bottom of which should be f inch below the top of the jar. 
^ Place the strap over the plate lugs to rest on the burning iron. 

The plate lugs should be trimmed about flush with the top of the strap. 

After burning, cut off the pro- 
jecting ends of the negative 
straps so that the elements may 
enter the jars, Fig. 80. It is not 
necessary to clip off the ends of 
the positive straps. 

Before dismantling the old 
battery, a sketch of the position 
and polarity of the cells in each 
tray should be made, indicating 
the position of the tray terminals 
and their polarity, that is, wheth- 
er the positive is to the right or 

Ffc. SO. Clipping off End of Negative Strap left slde ° f the tr *V when fftcin g 

the terminal end, Fig. 69. 
Reassembling the Cells. Assemble the new positive and nega- 
tive groups with the plates on edge in order to insert the separators. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 121 

Place a rubber separator against the grooved side of a wood separator, 
Fig. 68, and insert between a positive and a negative plate near the 
center of the element. The rubber sheet must be against the positive 
and the smooth side of the wood separator against the negative, 
Fig. 81. In like manner, insert separators in all the spaces, working 
in both directions from the center. Leaving out a separator means a 
short-circuited cell. The separators should be practically flush with 
the bottom of the plates to bring their tops against the hold-down 
below the strap and must extend to or beyond the side edges of the 
plates. Grip the element near the bottom in order to prevent the 
plates from flaring out when placing the (element in the jar. 

Fill the cells to within J inch of the top of the jars, using electro- 
lyte of a specific gravity of 1.300 and allow the cells to stand from 



Fig. 81. Installing Separators 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Penntyltania 

twelve to twenty-four hours before starting to charge. After all the 
cells have been assembled, place them in trays in the proper position, 
so that the positive of each will be connected to the negative of the 
adjoining cell and connect temporarily by pressing the connectors into 
position by hand, using the old ones if available. 

Initial Charge. Give the initial charge by putting the battery 
on the regular finishing charge rate. After charging about thirty 
minutes, note the voltage of each cell, recording these readings as 
shown in the first column of the form, Fig. 82. 

This is to insure that all the cells have been properly connected 
up, i.e., in the direction as to polarity. If they have been properly 

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122 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

connected, each cell will show in excess of 2 volts. Any cell showing 
less than 2 volts is probably connected backward and should be 
inspected. Then reduce the charging current to as near one-half of 
the regular finishing rate as the charging apparatus will permit 
Select one cell near the center of the battery, which will be the 



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Pilot Cell No. /*< '^ v 



Fig. 82. Specimen Battery Charging Record 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

"pilot cell" throughout the charge. Record readings of time and 
current and the specific gravity and temperature of this pilot cell, as 
indicated in the lower form, Fig. 82, at intervals of from six to twelve 
hours. Should the temperature at any time reach 100° F., reduce 
the current or temporarily interrupt the charge so as not to exceed 
this temperature. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 123 

Maintain the level of the electrolyte by adding water as neces- 
sary. Never add water just before taking hydrometer readings 
because it would not have time to mix with the electrolyte and would 
give a misleading reading. Hydrometer readings should be corrected 
for any substantial change in the temperature, as detailed in the 
section on the Use of the Hydrometer, Part I. When the gravity of 
the pilot cell has shown no further rise for a period of twenty-four 
hours, record hydrometer readings of each cell in the column marked 
"specific gravity", Fig. 82. In recording readings, start at the posi- 
tive terminal of cell No. 1, and follow the direction of the electric 
circuit. Individual cell readings should be recorded at intervals of 
about tw r elve hours to insure that each reaches a maximum. Bear in 
mind that the object of the initial charge is to remove all acid com- 
bined in the plates. 

Do not stop the initial charge just because a specific gravity of 
1.270 or 1.280 may have been reached, because this may not be the 
maximum. Continue to charge as long as the gravity continues to 
rise. The charge can be considered complete only when there has 
been no rise in the gravity of any cell during a period of twenty-four 
hours of continuous charging. In case the gravity rises about 1.290 
in any cell, draw off its electrolyte down to the top of the plates and 
replace with water, saving this electrolyte for adjusting the specific 
gravity of the cells as follows: Upon completion of the charge adjust 
the specific gravity to its proper value (1.270 to 1.280), using water 
or electrolyte as may be required, and bring the level of the electrolyte 
to a uniform height of \ inch above the tops of the plates. Some 
variation on the specific gravity among different cells is to be expected, 
since the amount of water in the separators and difference in level 
when filled affect this. 

Importance of Initial Charge. The foregoing outline of procedure 
is based on the assumption that the initial charge is continuous, since 
this will require the shortest time. It is especially desirable that the 
first twenty-four hours of the charge be given without interruption, 
even if the entire charge cannot be made continuous. Where there 
are interruptions, the twenty-four hours of maximum gravity must 
be actual charging time and must not include any idle time. The 
accuracy of the ammeter should be checked for the current readings 
used. 

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124 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

A battery which has not received sufficient initial charge cannot 
be expected to give satisfactory service and life. Therefore, in case 
of any doubt, prolong the charge rather than run the chance of stop- 
ping it too soon. As a further precaution, it is advisable to see that 
the first few charges after the battery goes into service fire somewhat 
prolonged. 

Test Discharge. After giving the battery its initial charge, 
it is customary to make a test discharge and, if necessary, recharge 
and make a second test discharge, to avoid the possibility of the bat- 
tery being put into service with any low cells in it caused by defective 



[Fig. 83. Wiring Diagram for Battery Test Discharge, Using Rheostat 

assembly. The test is also made to determine its capacity. Capacity, 
however, does not necessarily indicate the completeness or incom- 
pleteness of the initial charge. The only sure indication is the maxi- 
mum specific gravity reached in each cell. This test discharge should 
preferably be made at the normal discharge rate of the battery and 
may be carried out with the aid of a rheostat, as shown in Fig. 83, or, 
where one of this or similar type is not available, by constructing an 
emergency water rheostat, as shown in Fig. 84. The container should 
preferably be a wooden tub or an earthenware jar, as a metal container 
naturally would not be suitable, since the current could then follow 
a shorter path from the electrodes to the container instead of being 
compelled to pass through the solution between the electrodes. The 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 125 

solution employed is weak electrolyte, while the electrodes may be 
either strips of metal or pieces of carbon. They should be mounted 
on a piece of board so that the distance between them may be 
ud justed, as the amount of current that flows will depend upon this 
distance. Separating them further will decrease the amount of 
current passing, while bringing them closer together will increase it, 
the rate of discharge being shown by the ammeter. In case the rate 
is too high at the maximum distance to which the electrodes can be 
separated, weaken the electrolyte solution of the rheostat by adding 
more water or, if necessary, make it plain water. If the rate of dis- 



Fig. 84. Wiring Diagram for Battery Test Discharge, Using Water Rheostat 

charge is insufficient even when the electrodes are brought close 
together, strengthen the electrolyte slightly. A convenient form for 
keeping the discharge record is shown by Fig. 85. Should a second 
test discharge be made, the capacity will be less than the first, but, 
after several discharges, the battery will not only recover but will 
exceed its first capacity. 

Recharging. The battery should then be fully charged, and the 
specific gravity of the electrolyte adjusted to the proper point. On 
this occasion, all the precautions mentioned in connection with the 
initial charge and the polarity of the charging connections must be 



135 



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126 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

observed. The battery should then be fully discharged. (Fig. 83 
shows the method of connecting the battery to discharge through a 
rheostat, while the water resistance described is illustrated by Fig. 84.) 

t*xip~'1-'f/Y DISCHARGE »*___/ 



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REMARKS. 



Fig. 85. Specimen Battery Discharge Record 
Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

If a suitable resistance is not at hand for this purpose, a water resist- 
ance may easily be made as follows: 

Take a vessel of wood, or any other material except metal, and 
fill it almost full of a diluted solution of sulphuric acid and water. Con- 
nect the ammeter to one plate of metal and the battery to a second 
plate of metal, both of which should be suspended in the solution, care 



136 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 127 

being taken to prevent the current from passing from one plate to the 
other except through the solution. The remaining terminal of the 
battery and of the ammeter should be connected together. There is 
then a complete circuit through the improvised resistance, and the 
strength of the current may be varied by placing the plates nearer 
together or farther apart, or by adding acid to the solution, either of 
which operations will decrease the resistance. This should be adjusted 
until the ammeter shows that the battery is discharging through the 
resistance at its normal rate. After cleaning, the capacity of a battery 
may not be as great as it was previous to the operation until it has had 
several charges and discharges. While dismantled, the wood trays 
of the battery should be well rinsed with a strong solution of bicar- 
bonate of soda and water in order to neutralize any acid on them. 
After that, they should be well rinsed with water and, when dry, 
painted with acid-resisting paint. 

PUTTING BATTERY OUT OF COMMISSION 

Methods of Storage. When a battery is not to be used for some 
time, it must be specially prepared before being stored. There are 
two general methods of preparing a battery for storage, one known as 
"wet storage" and the other as "dry storage", the method adopted 
depending upon the condition of the battery and the length of time 
it is to be out of commission. The wet-storage method is usually 
applied to any battery that is to be out of commission for less than a 
year, provided its condition is such that it will not soon require repairs 
necessitating dismantling it. The dry-storage method is used for any 
battery that is to be out of commission for more than a year, Tegardless 
of its condition, and it is also applied to any battery that will shortly 
require repairs necessitating its dismantling. 

Wet Storage. Examine the condition of the plates and separators 
and also the amount of sediment in the bottom of the jars. If it is 
found that there is very little sediment and the plates and separators 
are in sufficiently good condition to give considerable additional 
service, the battery may be put into wet storage by giving it an 
equalizing charge and covering it to exclude dust. Replace evapora- 
tion periodically by adding distilled water to maintain the level of the 
electrolyte § inch above the top of the plates. At least once every 
four months, charge the battery at one-half the normal finishing 

137 Digitized by G00gle 



128 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

rate until all the cells have gassed continuously for at least three hours. 
Any cells not gassing should be examined and the trouble remedied. 

Dry Storage. When the examination shows that the battery 
will soon require repairs that necessitate dismantling, it should be put 
into dry storage. Dismantle the battery in accordance with the 
instructions given in a preceding section under this head, first making 
the sketch of the layout and connections as there illustrated. If the 
positive plates show much wear, they should be scrapped; if not, 
remove any loose particles adhering to them by passing a smooth pad- 
dle over the surface but do not wash the positive plates. Charged 
negative plates will become hot in a short time when exposed to the 
air; they should be allowed to stand in the air until cooled. 

Empty the electrolyte out of all the jars into a glazed earthenware 
jar or lead-lined tank and save it for giving the negative plates their 
final treatment before storage. Wash all the sediment out of the 
jars; wash the rubber separators carefully, dry them, and tie them in 
bundles. Place the positive groups in pairs, put them into jars, and 
store them away. Place the negative groups together in pairs, put 
into the remaining half of the jars, cover them with the electrolyte 
saved for the purpose, and allow them to stand in it for five hours at 
least. Then pour off the electrolyte, which may now be discarded, 
and store away the jars containing the negatives. If the negative 
plates showed any bulging of the active material, they should be 
subjected to the pressing treatment first, using boards and a vise 
as described in connection with dismantling the battery. The jars 
containing the positives, as well as those containing the negatives, 
should be well covered to exclude all dust. 

Make a memorandum of the amount of material required to 
reassemble the battery and, when ordering this, provide for extra 
jars and covers, extra rubber separators, and an entire lot of wood 
separators, with a sufficient excess to take care of possible breakage in 
handling. Unless the old connectors were very carefully removed, 
order a new set. Include a supply of new electrolyte of 1.300 specific 
gravity to fill all the jars. It is always well to advise the customer 
when the battery is put in storage of the material that will be neces- 
sary to reassemble it and request that at least a month's notice be 
given in which to procure it. To reassemble the battery, proceed as 
in making a complete renewal of the elements. 



138 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



129 



MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONS 

Lead Burning. Type of Outfit. In the manufacture of storage 
batteries and in garages where a large number of batteries are 
maintained, a hydrogen-gas apparatus is employed for this purpose. 
For the electric-car owner or the garage doing a comparatively small 
amount of battery repair work, the Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany has placed an arc lead-burning outfit on the market. This 
is low in first cost and, with a little practice, good results can be 
obtained with it. As the battery itself supplies the power neces- 




Fig. 86. Arc-Welding Outfit for Burning Connections 

sary, the only material required is the lead in the form of a flexible 
strip or heavy wire. The complete outfit is illustrated in Fig. 86. 
At one end is the clamp for making electrical connection, while at 
the other is a clamp of different form having an insulated handle 
and holding a quarter-inch carbon rod. The two are electrically 
connected by a flexible cable. This simple outfit can be employed 
in two ways, the second being preferable for the beginner, at least 
until a sufficient amount of skill has been acquired to use the arc 
without danger of melting the straps. 

First Method of Burning. In the first method, a potential of 
from 28 to 30 volts (12 to 15 cells) is required. The clamp should, 
therefore, be fastened to the positive pole of the twelfth to the 
fifteenth cell away from the joint to be burned, counting toward the 



139 



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130 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

negative terminal of the battery. The carbon then forms the negative 
terminal of the circuit. Otherwise particles of carbon will be carried 
into the joint, as the carbon rod quickly disintegrates when it forms 
the positive pole. The carbon should project 3 or 4 inches from the 
holder. The surfaces of the parts to be burned should be scraped 
clean and bright and small pieces of clean lead about i to $ inch 
square provided for filling the joint. The carbon is then touched to 
the strap to be burned and immediately withdrawn, forming an 
electric arc which melts the lead very rapidly. By moving the carbon 
back and forth the arc is made to travel over the joint as desired, the 
small pieces of lead being dropped in to fill the gap as required. 
Owing to the high temperature generated, the work must be carried 
out very quickly, otherwise the whole strap is liable to melt and run. 

As this method is difficult and requires practice to secure good 
results, the beginner should try his hand on some scrap pieces of 
lead before attempting to operate on a cell. Its advantages are 
that, when properly carried out, it takes but a short time to do the 
work, and the result is a neat and workmanlike joint. It is extremely 
hard on the eyes, however, and should never be attempted without 
wearing smoked or colored glasses, and even with this protection 
the eyes should be directed away from the work as much as possible. 

Second Method of Burning. The second method, utilizing the 
hot point of the carbon rod instead of the arc", is recommended for 
general practice. Scrape the parts to be joined and connect the 
clamp between the third and fourth cells from the joint. With this 
method it is not necessary to determine the polarity of the carbon. 
The latter is simply touched to the joint and held there; on account 
of the heavy flow of current it rapidly becomes red- and then white- 
hot. By moving it around and always keeping it in contact with 
the metal, the joint can be puddled. To supply lead to fill the joint, 
an ordinary lead-burning strip can be used, simply introducing the 
end into the puddle of molten lead, touching the hot carbon. The 
carbon projecting out of the holder should be only an inch, or even 
less, in length. After the joint has been made, it can be smoothed 
off by running the carbon over it a second time. 

Use of Forms to Cover Joint. In joining a strap which has been 
cut in the center, it is best to make a form around the strap by means 
of a piece of asbestos sheeting soaked in water and fastened around 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 131 

the strap in the shape of a cup, which will prevent the lead from 
running down. It will be found that sheet asbestos paper is thick 
enough, but it should be fairly wet when applied. By this means a 
neat joint can be easily made. The asbestos will adhere very tightly 
to the metal, due to the heat, but can be removed by wetting it 
again. When burning a pillar post to a strap, a form may be made 
around the end of the strap in the same manner, though this is not 
necessary if reasonable care is used. Two or three pieces of j^-inch 



Fig. 87. Lead-Burning Outfit for Use with Illuminating Gas 
Courtety of Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Penntylvania 

strap iron about one inch wide and some iron nuts about one inch 
square are also of service in making the joint, the strap iron to be 
used under the joints and the nuts at the side or ends to con- 
fine the molten lead. Clay can also be used in place of asbestos, 
wetting it to a stiff paste. As the holder is liable to become so hot 
from constant use as to damage the insulation, besides making it 
uncomfortable to hold, a pail of water should be handy and the 
carbon dipped into it from time to time. This will not affect its 



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132 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

operation in any way, as the carbon becomes hot again immediately 
the current passes through it. 

Illuminating Gas Outfit Heretofore it has not been possible to 
do good work in lead burning with illuminating gas, but a special 
type of burner has recently been perfected by the Electric Storage 
Battery Company which permits of the use of illuminating gas with 
satisfactory results. The outfit consists of a special burning tip and 
mixing valve. Sufficient ^-inch rubber hose should be provided and 
the rubber should be wired firmly to the connections A and B 9 Fig. 87, 
as the air is used at a comparatively high pressure. A supply of com- 
pressed air is necessary, the proper pressure ranging from 5 to 10 
pounds, depending upon the length of hose and the size of the parts to 
be burned. When air from a compressor used for pumping tires is 
utilized for this purpose, a suitable reducing valve must be introduced 
in the supply line. This outfit is designed for use with ordinary 
illuminating gas and cannot be employed with natural gas. 

Connect the air hose to cock A and the gas hose to cock B. The 
leader hose, which should not be more than five or six feet long, is 
connected to the pipe C and to the burning tip D. When the air 
pressure at the source is properly adjusted, close the air cock A and 
turn the gas cock B on full. Light the gas at the tip and turn on the 
air. If the flame blows out, the air pressure is too high and should 
be reduced, preferably at the source. With the gas turned on full, 
the flame will have a ragged appearance and show a waist about 
\ inch from the end of the tip, the flame converging there and spread- 
ing out beyond. Such a flame is not for lead burning. 

Slowly turn the gas off until the outer portion at the waist 
breaks and spreads with an inner tongue of flame issuing through the 
outer ring. The flame will now have a greenish color and is properly- 
adjusted for burning. If the gas is turned off further or if too much 
air is turned on, the flame assumes a blue color gradually becoming 
invisible and is then deficient in heating power. When properly 
adjusted, the hottest part of the flame is just past the end of the inner 
point. Do not hold the flame too close to the work when burning, 
as its heating effect is greatly reduced and the flame is spread so as to 
make control difficult. The burning tip is provided with an outer 
sleeve and lock nut E; this sleeve is removable and can be taken off 
in case any of the holes in the tip become clogged. The position of 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 133 

this sleeve is adjustable, the best position varying with the pressure 
of the flame, and it should be determined by experiment. 

Hydrogen-Gas Outfit, Hydrogen gas gives a hotter flame and 
therefore permits of more rapid work, so that where burning is done 
on a large scale, it is still preferred. The essentials of such an outfit 
are: first, a hydrogen generator; second, a method of producing air 
pressure at approximately 2 pounds to the square inch; and third, 
the usual pipe and tips for burning. If hydrogen gas is purchased in a 
tank and compressed air is available, only the blow pipe, tips, and a 
reducing valve on the air line are necessary. This is an expensive 
method to purchase hydrogen, however, so that it is usually generated, 
and a water bottle is needed between the generator and the blow pipe 
to wash the gas and to prevent the flame from traveling back to the 
generator. 

For this purpose hydrogen gas is generated by placing zinc in a 
sulphuric-acid solution. The generator usually employed for vehicle- 
battery burning requires 50 pounds of zinc, 2 gallons of sulphuric 
acid, and 9 gallons of water for a charge. Where no compressed-air 
supply is available, an air pump and an air tank for equalizing the 
pressure must be used. An outfit of this kind is shown in Fig. 88. 
In preparing the generator for use, connect up as shown in this cut, 
taking care that the hose from the generator is connected to the 
nipple of the water bottle L. Have the water bottle one-half to 
two-thirds full and immerse it in a pail of cold water up to its neck. 
Replace the water in the pail whenever it becomes warm. Have stop 
cock N closed. Put the required amount of zinc, which has been 
broken into pieces small enough to pass through the opening C, 
into lower reservoir. Put on cap A" and screw down with clamp D, 
being sure that the rubber drainage stopper II is well secured in 
place. Pour the proper amount of water into reservoir A and then 
pour in the acid, taking care to avoid splashing. Always pour the 
water in first 

In running the hose from A' to A T , arrange it so that there will be 
no low points for the water of condensation to collect in; in other 
words, this hose should drain back at every point to the water bottle. 
If, however, water should collect in the hose to such an extent as to 
interfere with the flame and it cannot readily be drained off, kink the 
hose between T and U and detach it from A'; close the stop cock at 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



W and pump until a strong pressure is obtained in the tank; then close 
the cock at I r , opening those at S and N and, finally, quickly open W ; 
the pressure in the air tank will then force the water out of the hose. 
The length of the hose from T to U should be such that the mixing 
cocks at S and N are always within easy reach of the man handling 
the flame. 

In preparing the flame for burning, close the air cock at S and 
open iV wide, hold a match to the gas until it lights, then add air 
and adjust the gas cock slowly, turning toward the closed position 





LU 


1 1 


kfeq 




Fig. 88. Diagram of Lead-Burning Outfit, Using Hydrogen Gas 

until the flame, when tried on a piece of lead, melts the metal and 
leaves a clean surface. The tip to be used depends on the work, but 
most vehicle-battery work is done with the medium tip. Replenish 
the zinc every few days, keeping it up to the required amount. When 
a charge is exhausted or the generator is to be laid up for the night, 
the old solution should be drawn off before making up a new charge 
and the generator thoroughly flushed out by running water through A. 
The new charge should not be put in until the generator is to be used 
again. To empty the generator, first pull off the hose at the nipple 
A', then at E, and finally the rubber plug at H. Take care not to 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 135 

allow the solution to splash on anything and not to dump the gener- 
ator where the contents will damage cement, asphalt, or wood walks. 
Freezing. In addition to taking care that the temperature of 
the cells does not exceed 100° F. on charge, precautions are also 
necessary to prevent the temperature of the battery falling too low, 
as a drop in temperature causes a falling off in the efficiency. This 
is particularly true of the alkaline battery, the output curve of 
which drops off rapidly below 60° F., so that this type of battery is 
usually installed in a manner which keeps it at an even tempera- 
ture, making it possible to operate it successfully in zero weather. 
Furthermore, in the case of the lead cell, freezing must be guarded 
against. To avoid this, the battery should always be kept fully 
charged in cold weather, as a charged cell will not freeze in the 
temperatures ordinarily experienced. Electrolyte will freeze at 
various temperatures, according to the state of charge as follows: 

Sp. Gr. 1.120 battery fully discharged 20° F. above zero 

Sp. Gr. 1.160 battery three-quarters discharged Zero F. 

Sp. Gr. 1.210 battery half-discharged 20° F. below zero 

Sp. Gr. 1.260 battery one-quarter discharged 60° F. below zero 

When a battery is stored away for the winter, care should be 
taken not to let the temperature of the place in which it is kept fall 
below 20° F., or else the battery should be kept fully charged. 

Putting New Battery in Commission. One of the things that 
the garage man caring for electric vehicles will be called upon to do 
at intervals will be the ordering and installation of a new battery in a 
car. As received from the manufacturer, the battery is in a charged 
condition, that is, it was fully charged just previous to being shipped, 
but it must be inspected and tested before being placed in the car. 

Inspection of Battery. To avoid spilling the electrolyte from the 
cells, care must be taken in unpacking the trays. After cleaning off 
the excelsior and other packing from the tops of the cells, the soft 
rubber plugs should be removed from all the latter to note if they 
all contain the proper amount of electrolyte. This should be \ inch 
over the tops of the plates. If the electrolyte is uniformly below the 
proper level in all the cells, this is evidently due to evaporation; add 
enough distilled or rain w r ater to bring the level to the proper height. 
But if the level of the electrolyte is found to be low in some cells only, 
this is due to loss of electrolyte. If this has resulted from the trag- 
us 



136 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

having been turned over in shipment, the excelsior around the top of 
the tray will be wet (the acid does not evaporate), and some acid 
would be spilled from all the cells in that tray. In this case, replace 
the amount lost by filling the low cells to the proper height with chemi- 
cally pure electrolyte of 1 .250 specific gravity (seven parts of water 
to two pure sulphuric acid, by volume). 

Replacements. If the electrolyte in a cell is low, due to a broken 
jar, the bottom of the tray will be wet, though the excelsior around the 
the top may be dry. Replace the broken jar as detailed in the instruc- 
tions given under that heading and add sufficient electrolyte of 1.250 
specific gravity to make up for that lost. Should it be found, after 
replacing the broken jar and giving the battery an equalizing charge, 
that the gravity does not reach approximately 1.275, it is due to 
not having replaced the same amount of acid as was spilled. To 
adjust this, draw off with a syringe some of the electrolyte from the 
top of the cell and add water or 1.300 acid to bring the specific gravity 
to between 1.270 and 1.280. 

Charging. Put the battery on charge at the low rate given on the 
name plate on each tray. Charge at about this rate until all the 
cells gas uniformly. Reduce the current to one-half that rate and 
continue the charge for three hours longer, when the battery will be 
ready to put into service. It is advisable, however, before putting 
the battery into service, to take and record the specific gravity of the 
electrolyte of each cell and the temperature of one or more of the cells. 

Packing a Battery. It is sometimes necessary to ship a battery 
back to the manufacturer for repairs, and the amount of damage 
occasioned in transit by improper packing has led the makers to issue 
special instructions for doing this. A box at least 2 inches larger in 
each direction than the overall size of the battery tray should be made 
of strong 1-inch or 1^-inch planks. It should be made with an A- 
shaped top to prevent placing it any other way than upright. Where 
more than one tray is shipped in a box, 2 inches must be allowed 
between the trays. The maximum permissible weight, however, is 
200 pounds. Cover the bottom of the box with a layer of sawdust, 
excelsior, or coarse shavings to a depth of 2 inches, and on this place 
the tray of cells. Over the top of the cells place paraffined paper and 
then cover the whole tray with stout wrapping paper, folding it down 
over the sides of the tray to keep packing material and dust out of 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 137 

the cells. Fill the space around the sides with sawdust or excelsior, 
or even with w r aste paper twisted into balls and wads, ramming the 
whole down tightly so that the tray cannot move. Xail slats on the 
box for a cover (never make a solid cover), and nail a stout strip on 
each side extending beyond the ends, for handles. The slatted cover 
enables the freight handlers to see the contents and makes for more 
careful handling. Label the box "handle with care" and "do not 
drop". Put your own name and address on the package as well as 
that of the battery manufacturer, and notify the latter of the ship- 
ment. Complete batteries should be shipped as "electric storage 
batteries assembled". No railroad caution labels are required as the 
electrolyte in the cells is so dilute that acid in this form is exempted 
from the rules applying to its shipment in other forms. Boxes of good 
elements, or plates, should be shipped as "Lead Battery Plates", 
while worn-out plates may be shipped as "Scrap Lead", boxes of jars 
as "Rubber Battery Jars", covers and separators as "Rubber Goods", 
and empty trays as "Empty Wood Crates". By properly designating 
the material as above in the bill of lading, the most favorable freight 
rate may be obtained. 

Causes of Low Battery Power. A decrease in the speed or mileage 

of a car does not necessarily mean a lack of capacity in the battery. 

If the current consumption is greater than normal, it may be due to 

trouble with the transmission, motor, or running gear — the car 

"runs hard" — or it may be due to poor connections. When other 

causes fail, then it is probably the battery, and its lack of capacity 

may always be traced to some definite cause. There may be a dry 

cell, due to a leaky jar; some or all of the cells may be in a state of 

incomplete charge, due to the battery having been run too low and 

not sufficiently charged. The plates may be short-circuited by 

excessive deposit of sediment, or by something falling into the jar. 

If the trouble cannot be located upon examination, connect the 

battery in series and discharge it at the normal rate through a suitable 

resistance, as already explained. As the discharge progresses the 

voltage will gradually decrease, and it should be frequently read at 

the battery terminals. As soon as it shows a sudden drop, the voltage 

of each cell should be taken with a low-reading voltmeter. While 

the readings are being taken, the discharge rate should be maintained 

constant, and the discharge continued until the majority of the cells 

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138 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

read 1.70 volts. Those reading less than this should be noted. The 
discharge should then be followed by a charge until the cells which 
show 1.70 volts are up. Then the low cells should be cut out and 
examined and the trouble remedied. Assuming that there are no 
short-circuits, low specific gravity of the electrolyte in such a cell 
will indicate sloppage or a leak, the loss from which has been replen- 
ished with water alone. Or it will be a sign of insufficient charge, 
over-discharge, standing in a discharged condition, or a combination 
of these abuses. Any one of these indicates that there is acid in 
combination with the active material of the plates, and it should be 
brought out by a long charge at one-quarter the normal discharge 
rate. Continue charging until the specific gravity of the electrolyte 
stops rising; then adjust to normal (1.270 to 1.280) by drawing off 
some of the electrolyte and adding water if it be above normal, and 
by adding acid if it be below normal. The low cells should be 
grouped by themselves and charged as a separate battery. 

STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR STORAGE BATTERIES 
As Issued by the Society of Automobile Engineers 

1. Batteries must be properly installed. 

Keep battery securely fastened in place. 

Battery must be accessible to facilitate regular adding of water to, and 
occasional testing of, solution. Battery compartment must be ventilated and 
drained, must keep out water, oil, and dirt and must not afford opportunity for 
anything to be laid on top of battery. Battery should have free air space on all 
sides, should rest on cleats rather than on a solid bottom and holding devices 
should grip case or case handles. A cover, cleat, or bar pressing down on the 
cells or terminals must not be used. 

2. Keep battery and interior of battery compartment wiped clean 
and dry. 

Do not permit an open flame near the battery. 

Keep all small articles, especially of metal, out of, and away from, the bat- 
tery. Keep terminals and connections coated with vaseline or grease. If 
solution has slopped or spilled, wipe off with waste wet with ammonia water. 

3. Pure water must be added to all cells regularly and at suffi- 
ciently frequent intervals to keep the solution at the proper height. 

The proper height for the solution is usually given on the instruction' or name- 
plate on the battery. In ail cases the solution must cover the battery plates. 

The frequency with which water must be added depends largely upon the 
battery, the system with which it is used, and the condition of operation. Once 
every two weeks is recommended as good practice in cool weather; once every 
week in hot weather. 

Plugs must be removed to add water; then replaced and screwed home after 
filling. 



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ELECTRICS AUTOMOBILES 139 

Do not use acid or electrolyte, only pure water. 

Do not use any water known to contain even small quantities of salts of any 
kind. Distilled water, melted artificial ice, or fresh rain water arc recommended. 

Use only a clean non-metallic vessel. 

Add water regularly, although the battery may seem to work all right 
without it. 

4. The best way to ascertain the condition of the battery is to 
test the specific gravity (density) of the solution in each cell with a 
hydrometer. 

This should be done regularly. 

A convenient time is when adding water, bid the reading should be token before, 
rather than after, adding the water. 

A reliable specific gravity test cannot be made after adding water and before it 
has been mixed by charging the battery or by running the car. 

To take a reading, insert the end of the rubber tube in the cell. Squeeze 
and then slowly release the rubber bulb, drawing up electrolyte from the cell 
until the hydrometer floats. The reading on the graduated stem of the hydrome- 
ter at the point where it emerges from the solution is the specific gravity of 
the electrolyte. After testing, the electrolyte must always be returned to the cell 
from which it was drawn. 

The gravity reading is expressed in "points", thus the difference between 
1250 and 1275 is 25 points. 

5. When all cells are in good order the gravity will test about the 
same (within 25 points) in all. 

Gravity above 1200 indicates battery more than half charged. 

Gravity below 1200 but above 1150 indicates battery less than half charged. 

When battery is found to be half discharged, use lamps sparingly until, by 
charging the battery, the gravity is restored to at least 1200. See Section 8. 

Gravity below 1150 indicates battery completely discharged or "run down" . 

A run-down battery should be given a full charge at once. See Sections 
7 and 8. 

A run-down battery is always the result of lack of charge or waste of cur- 
rent. If, after having been fully charged, the battery soon runs down again, 
there is trouble somewhere else in the system, which should be located and 
corrected. 

Putting acid or electrolyte into the cells to bring up specific gravity can do 
no good and may do great harm. Acid or electrolyte should never be put into 
the battery except by an experienced battery man. 

6. Gravity in one cell markedly lower than in the others, especially 
if successive readings show the difference to be increasing, indicates that 
the cell is not in good order. 

// the cell also regularly requires more water than the others, a leaky far is 
indicated. 

Even a slow leak will rob a cell of all its electrolyte in time, and a leaky jar 
should be immediately replaced with a good one. 

// there is no leak and if the gravity is, or becomes, 50 to 75 points below that 
in the other cells, a partial short-circuit or other trouble within the cell is indicated. 

A partial short-circuit may, if neglected, seriously injure the battery and 
should receive the prompt attention of a good battery repair man. 



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140 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

7. A battery charge is complete when, with charging current flow- 
ing at the rate given on the instruction-plate on the battery, all cells 
are gassing (bubbling) freely and evenly and the gravity of all cells has 
shown no further rise during one hour. 

The gravity of the solution in cells fully charged as above is 1,275 to 1,300. 

8. The best results in both starting and in lighting service will be 
obtained when the system is so designed and adjusted that the battery 
is normally kept well charged, but without excessive overcharging. 

//, for any reason, an extra charge to maximum specific gravity is needed, it 
may be accomplished by running the engine idle, or by using direct current from an 
outside source. 

In charging from an outside source use direct current only. Limit the 
current to the proper rate in amperes by connecting a suitable resistance in series 
with the battery. Incandescent lamps are convenient for this purpose. 

Connect the positive battery terminal (painted red, or marked POS or 
P or +) to the positive charging wire and negative to negative. If reversed, 
serious injury may result. Test charging wires for positive and negative with a 
voltmeter or by dipping the ends in a glass of water containing a few drops of 
electrolyte, when bubbles will form on the negative wire. 

9. A battery which is to stand idle should first be fully charged. 
See Sections 7 and 8. 

A battery not in active service may be kept in condition for use by giving it a 
freshening charge at least once every two months, but should preferably also be given 
a thorough charge, after an idle period, before it is replaced in service. 

A battery which has stood idle for more than two months should be charged at 
one-half normal rate to maximum gravity before being replaced in service. 

It is not wnse to permit a battery to stand for more than six months without 
charging. 

Disconnect the leads from a battery that is not in service so that it may not 
lose through any slight leak in car wiring. 

SOME SOURCES OF POWER LOSS 

As the power of the electric vehicle is closely limited by the 
capacity of the battery it carries, it is absolutely essential that every 
part of the mechanism be kept in good running order so that none 
of the power may be wasted. Whether the machine is considered 
as a w r hole, or each component is treated separately, the electric 
vehicle is about as simple as it possibly could be. But the number 
of places at which power losses may occur will greatly surprise the 
uninitiated owner when he comes to look into the subject. It is 
nothing unusual for the purchaser of an electric vehicle to write the 
maker a year or so after he has bought it that while the car ran per- 
fectly satisfactorily at first, its mileage has now been very much 
reduced. He has followed instructions implicitly, the battery has been 
well looked after, and, according to all indications, it is in as good 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 141 

condition as ever it was, but it is impossible to obtain anything like 
the rated mileage from a full charge of the battery. A little investi- 
gation will show that, in the majority of cases, the owner, who has 
not had the advantage of a mechanical training, has become so 
impressed with the great importance of properly maintaining the 
electrical end of the car that he has disregarded its mechanical 
efficiency entirely. 

Non-Alignment of Steering Wheels. One of the most prolific 
sources of power losses, and one of the last to be suspected, is non- 
alignment of the wheels. A chance blow in drawing up along- 
side a curb is sometimes sufficient to make one of the front wheels 
"toe in" slightly. The fault is not noticed and may be aggravated 
by subsequent blows at the same spot, or on the other wheel. This 
may cause the bearings to bind to a certain degree and also to impose 
a heavy load on the motor by the new angle which the tires make 
with the road surface. It is difficult for the average layman to 
appreciate how great an increase in the load such a seemingly trivial 
fault as this may create, and it can only be realized to a certainty by 
keeping a record of the ammeter readings at all of the speeds under 
normal conditions. Just how much current is required to start and 
to mount various grades should be noted. As the service of an 
electric vehicle is chiefly confined to urban travel and covers prac- 
tically the same routes day after day, it is possible to keep a close 
check on current consumption by noting how far the ammeter 
needle travels over the dial in running on the level and in mounting 
grades that have to be climbed frequently. Small increases in the 
current required to do the same work at different times would then 
be readily apparent, and as the malady is imposing an extra drain 
on the battery, which is simply a waste of energy, its cause should 
be looked for and remedied. 

The electric vehicle is a power-measuring machine without an 
equal, and' the driver who has familiarized himself with the per- 
formance of his car under favorable conditions should be able readily 
to detect the presence of trouble by the increased current consump- 
tion and the correspondingly decreased mileage per charge. The 
causes may be electrical as well as mechanical, and w r here a car has 
not been properly looked after, it is more than likely that the falling 
off in the available radius on a single charge will be traceable to an 

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142 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

accumulation of causes small in themselves, but of considerable 
importance in the aggregate. Disalignment of the front wheels 
may sometimes be due to the steering gear — that is, the connecting 
rod which serves to keep these wheels parallel — working out of 
adjustment. Unless they are perfectly aligned, they not only make 
more current necessary to propel the vehicle, but they also serve to 
wear out the front tires more rapidly than would otherwise be the 
case. Sagging of the rear axle, which was not an uncommon fault 
in earlier years, but which is now rare, will produce similar conditions 
at the rear wheels and, as the entire power of the car is utilized at 
this point, the result is just that much worse. 

Worn Chains and Sprockets. Next in the order of importance 
to badly aligned driving or steering wheels from a mechanical point 
of view, comes a worn driving chain. This naturally applies to the 
chains employed for either of the reductions in motor speed. It is 
likewise equally true of the sprockets, but a worn sprocket is prac- 
tically always the result of the continued use of an old chain. The 
latter is allowed to wear to a point where its pitch is greater than that 
of the teeth of the sprocket, and, in consequence, the chain shows a 
constant tendency to ride the teeth of the sprocket instead of fitting 
snugly between them, as should be the case. This tightens the chain 
and imposes a greatly added load upon it and the sprocket, with the 
result that the teeth of the latter are also soon worn out of pitch. 
When this occurs, the only remedy lies in the replacement of both 
chains and sprockets, as the fitting of a new chain on a worn sprocket 
aggravates the evil and causes the new chain to wear to a point of 
uselessness in a very short time. The best preventive is to watch 
the driving chains for such conditions and to replace a chain as soon 
as it gives any indication of mounting the teeth instead of running 
smoothly. 

These instructions apply only to pleasure models antedating 
1913-14, as practically all models are now made with the shaft drive 
using a bevel gear or worm; but there are thousands of the older 
chain-driven cars in service, the electric having a much longer 
effective life than the gasoline car. 

Non-Alignment of Axles. On all electric cars, whether chain- or 
shaft-driven — the former being greatly in the majority, of course — 
means are provided for aligning the rear axle. These take the form 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 143 

of distance or radius rods, attached through the medium of a hinge 
joint to the axle and some form of pivot joint at the countershaft, this 
construction having been referred to in connection with the descrip- 
tion of the tFansmission of a double chain-driven car. Although 
effective means of locking these rods are provided, they are sub- 
jected to constant vibration and jolting and sooner or later will 
require attention. It will be apparent that if one is adjusted so as 
to be somewhat shorter than the other, an excessive fraction of the 
load will be imposed on the driving chain on the short side. This 
will also place a very heavy strain on the differential or balance gear, 
and a greatly added amount of power will be required to drive the 
car. The importance of accurately adjusting the distance rods so 
that the rear axle will be at right angles with the frame and of main- 
taining it in that condition may accordingly be appreciated. 

Dry Bearings. It would appear almost superfluous to mention 
lack of oil as a mechanical source of power loss, but many electric 
vehicle owners seldom attach sufficient importance to the necessity 
for oiling the moving parts. It is a popular fallacy, quite generally 
indulged in, that the anti-friction bearing is a mechanical device that 
requires no lubrication. Ball bearings do call for less attention 
in this direction than any other. They need very little oil, and at 
much longer intervals than a plain bearing, but they cannot render 
efficient service without some lubricant. In fact, it is this very abil- 
ity to stand an uncommon amount of abuse that seems to have earned 
for the ball bearing its popular reputation for ability to run quite as 
well whether it is dry or oiled. The lubricant not only serves the 
same end that it does in any bearing — that of reducing friction, but 
it also acts as a preventive of rust — the greatest enemy of the ball 
bearing; and as these bearings are very expensive replacements, it 
pays to avoid this by regular oiling at least once a month. Only the 
best grade of light machine oil should be employed, or a thin-bodied 
and highly-refined vaseline with which the bearing may be packed. 
It is quite essential that the lubricant should be entirely free from 
acid, which would attack the highly polished surfaces of the balls 
and races and destroy the efficiency of the bearing. The electric- 
vehicle user's chief safeguard against this is to confine his purchases 
to brands recommended by the manufacturer of the car. Where 
the presence of acid is suspected, a simple test may be made by 



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144 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

dipping a small piece of cotton waste in the lubricant and then 
wrapping it around a piece of polished steel. This should be plactd 
in the sun and examined at the end of a Keek or more. If the lub- 
ricant contains acid, there will be traces of its etching effect on the 
polished surfaces and it is useless. Oil that is entirely free from acid 
will not affect the most highly polished surface. 

Wheels and axles out of alignment, worn chains and sprockets, 
improperly adjusted brakes, which may be dragging, and neglected 
bearings sum up the chief mechanical sources of power loss. 

It is quite as important, however, that losses of electric power 
be guarded against, as they interfere with the efficient utilization of 
the energy stored in the batteries and decrease the available mileage 
on a charge, regardless of the condition of the mechanism. Vibra- 
tion will prove the undoing of almost anything in the course of time, 
and, w r hile every precaution is taken by the manufacturer to provide 
durable and permanent connections, it seems practically impos- 
sible to provide a form of terminal that will be absolutely proof 
against this influence and still permit of being disconnected con- 
veniently when required. Air interposes a very high resistance 
in a circuit, and but a slight amount of looseness in a connection 
creates an air gap that must be bridged by the current in order to 
complete the circuit. This causes arcing, or a flashing of the current 
across the gap, which is destructive of the terminals and is not in- 
frequently responsible for the ignition of adjacent material. As will 
be apparent from the wiring diagram given, there are quite a number 
of such connections, and going over them systematically at regular in- 
tervals is the only way to guard against current losses from this source. 

Brushes and Commutator. The brushes and commutator are 
the only parts of the electric motor that are subject to wear, and 
the life of the commutator is naturally equivalent to that of several 
sets of brushes, so that the latter constitute practically the sole item 
to be looked after in connection w r ith the motor. They are either 
plain blocks of carbon, or carbon with fine copper wire embedded 
in it, and are held against the commutator by springs. To examine 
their condition closely., the housing should be removed, the rear axle 
jacked up, and the motor run on the first speed. No attempt should 
be made to run it on any of the other speeds when in this condition, 
nor should it be run any longer than necessary. This 4oes not 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 145 

exactly simulate actual driving conditions as, with the wheels off 
the ground, practically no load is imposed on the motor and, while 
the latter may spark badly under load, it will frequently give little 
indication of this form of trouble when running light. 

If the brushes have been sparking badly in actual service there 
will be certain signs of this in the shape of the blackened commutator 
bars. They should be wiped clean and, if any oil has leaked on to 
them from the bearing, all traces of it should be removed. If this 
does not suffice to remove the blackened appearance, the sparking 
has been such as to burn the copper, and this blackened surface 
should be removed with the aid of a piece of very fine sandpaper 
held against the commutator while it is turning slowly. Never use 
emery cloth for this purpose, as the abrasive material employed in 
its manufacture is of a metallic nature, and not only tends to embed 
itself in the insulation between the bars, but, once there, serves as a 
conductor and may short-circuit some of the armature coils, result- 
ing in serious damage to the motor. If the brushes merely appear 
to be glazed but still make good contact all over the bearing surface, 
the latter may be rubbed with the sandpaper as well. If they have 
worn to a point where the contact is not good, new brushes should 
be substituted, and it would be well for the owner of the electric 
vehicle who is not familiar with the motor, to have an experienced 
person put them in for him the first time — every time, in fact, unless 
he is perfectly sure of his own ability in this line. A set of brushes 
will seldom, if ever, need replacement more than once during an 
entire season. 

For instructions covering seating of brushes, testing springs, 
and the like, refer to sections on these faults in the article on 
Starting Motors and Lighting Generators. 

Armature Troubles. When the housing is off, the brush con- 
nections and other motor connections should be inspected for loose- 
ness or other faults. Instructions for locating grounds, short- 
circuits, or open circuits in the armature and field windings are 
given in connection with the articles on Starting and Lighting 
Systems. 

The armature is supported on annular ball bearings in the major- 
ity of cases, and while these bearings require periodical oiling as much 
as the remaining ones of their kind on the car f pains must be taken 

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146 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

to use the oil sparingly in order to prevent it reaching the commu- 
tator at one end or the armature windings at the other. 

Miscellaneous. In speaking of connections, those at the battery 
are included and they should be inspected as well. The connections 
between the different cells are usually made by burning the lead- 
strap terminals together, though some have bolted connections, and 
these may jar loose; but the various groups are connected to one 
another and to the remaining apparatus, and these terminals are 
probably more apt to give trouble than some of the others, as it is 
nothing unusual to remove the battery at times and sufficient care 
is not always exercised to have the connections solidly fast. 

The loss of electrical energy, due to undercharged and short- 
circuited cells in the battery, has been treated in detail in connection 
with the care of the battery. 

Tires are, without doubt, one of the greatest sources of power 
loss on the electric vehicle, and it is one that mystifies the uninitiated 
exceedingly. This matter is gone into at length in connection with 
tire equipment. 

TIRES AND MILEAGE 

Relation of Tires to Mileage. It will appear odd and some- 
what inexplicable at first sight that these two headings should be 
included in the same chapter, for the average man thinks that the 
only thing which has any direct influence on the mileage of the car 
is the amount of energy the battery is capable of giving forth. As 
is pointed out under "Sources of Power Loss", there are many other 
factors that affect the available radius of the car more or less indi- 
rectly. Tires are not included among these indirect sources, as the tire 
equipment has a most direct and, therefore, a most important bearing 
on the distance the electric car is capable of traveling on a single 
charge of the battery. The gasoline machine is endowed with such 
a liberal surplus of driving power that the loss occasioned by tires 
represents but an insignificant fraction of the whole; in other words, 
is a totally negligible factor. Had it not been for extensive experi- 
ments carried out in connection with the electric automobile, the 
importance of these losses would not have been definitely known. 

When all the points which contribute to both the electrical and 
mechanical efficiency of the car have been carefully maintained in 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 147 

proper working order, and still both the speed and total capacity 
of the battery fail to respond, the cause of the trouble may be summed 
up in a single word — "tires". For tires constitute the most impor- 
tant element in the determination of mileage and, though that fact 
is seldom, if ever, mentioned in connection with accounts of phenome- 
nal mileages made on a single charge, they are the chief controlling 
factor. The tires usually employed for such "stunts" are specially 
made for the purpose and are not adapted to ordinary service. They 
have extremely thin walls, with the thread of the fabric reinforcement 
running continuously round the tread of the tire in the same direc- 
tion, and are not only very likely to puncture on slight provocation, 
but are far from durable. The expense of employing such tires 
regularly would be prohibitive, particularly as they are very difficult 
to repair when punctured. 

Kinds of Tires. Pneumatic. For the usual pleasure-car service, 
electric-vehicle manufacturers fit tires that experience has shown 
not alone to be best adapted to the peculiar needs of this type of 
automobile, but likewise sufficiently durable for the purpose. Pneu- 
matic tires are a luxury and will always be a source of considerable 
expense, so that tire life is a factor to be taken quite as much into 
consideration as battery mileage. On the gasoline car, in view of 
the great weights and high speeds, it is solely a question of being 
able to make the pneumatic tire sufficiently strong to stand the 
unusually severe stresses to which it is subjected. To accomplish 
this end, the fabric structure forming the foundation of the shoe, or 
outer envelope of the tire, is made of various layers of heavy canvas 
placed at angles to one another and solidly vulcanized together. 
This construction makes an extremely stiff wall, as is evidenced by the 
difficulty in forcing"a clincher type of tire on to the rim. Such a tire 
will yield to the minimum degree under the weight of the car or road 
obstacles when inflated to the proper pressure. In consequence, it 
absorbs an enormous amount of power. This loss is still further 
increased by the use of chains, studs, or similar anti-skid devices. 
Tests made on the recording dynamometer of the Automobile Club 
of America in New York City have shown that some forms of non- 
skid treads, particularly those employing heavy steel studs embedded 
in thick leather, absorbed as much as 5 horsepower per wheel to 
drive them. Tests showing 2 to 2 \ horsepower per wheel were not 

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148 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

uncommon, and in but few instances did the loss drop below 1 horse- 
power per driving wheel, regardless of the type of tire employed. 

It would be manifestly out of the question to expect much in 
the way of mileage from an electric vehicle if handicapped in this 
manner. Non-skid devices of any kind are rarely seen on electric 
automobiles for this reason, about the only occasion when they are 
in evidence being in winter, when they are actually required on ice 
or slushy pavements to afford sufficient traction. For electric 
service a structure is required in which the fabric foundation is so 
constituted as to be able to adapt itself most readily to the distortion 
caused by being pressed out flat on its contact area w T ith the road. 
A tire constructed wholly of rubber, such as an inner tube, would be 
ideal, but wholly impracticable. The conditions to be met represent 
but another instance of the conflicting requirements found on every 
hand in automobile design. In other words, it is axiomatic that the 
ease with which a tire punctures is in direct proportion to the ease 
with which it runs. 

Next to a pure rubber tire comes one in which threads or cords 
are individually embedded in the rubber. It will be apparent that 
such a tire is far more frail than those in which stiff canvas is 
employed as a foundation, and that the individual threads do not 
present any effective resistance to puncture. To be efficient from 
the point of service, it has been found essential to make a tire in two 
parts, i. e., a tube of pure rubber as an air container, and a shoe or 
outer protective cover to take the strain. Experiments with the 
single-tube tire or "hose-pipe" type, — that is, one in which the air 
container and the shoe are one — demonstrated that it was utterly 
unfitted for gasoline-car w r ork. But the addition of the tube is 
another item that serves to cut dowTi the power of an electric car. 

Solid. Viewed from one aspect, the electric has an advantage 
over the gasoline car. Owing to its greatly reduced speed, the 
owner of an electric finds the solid-rubber tire a practical option. 
Naturally, there can be no comparison between the riding qualities 
of a solid and a pneumatic tire, b t as most electric-vehicle work is 
over smoothly paved streets, and the reasonable driver should never 
take obstructions except at a greatly reduced speed, the solid tire 
provides an amount of comfort out of proportion to its greatly 
reduced cost as compared with the pneumatic. The mileage radius 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 149 

possible with a good solid tire is about the same as that possible with 
the standard fabric type of pneumatic usually referred to by the 
electric-vehicle manufacturer as a "gasoline" type of tire, with the 
advantage in favor of the former in that it is free from puncture. 

Test Curves. An extensive investigation has been made of the 
subject of tires in the past few years and considerable data compiled. 
Herewith is given a series of curves prepared by the builders of the 
Itauch and Lang electrics which will suffice to reveal the great dif- 
ferences in tires where the question of mileage is concerned, Fig. 89. 
The curves show that of the solid types experimented with the 



Fig. 89. Curves Showing Tests of Various Tires Made by Ranch and Lang Carriage Company 

Motz tire rendered the best performance. On referring to the chart, 
it will be apparent that the showing of the tire in question is some- 
what more uniform than the Diamond pneumatic type. At the 
high limit of the range is to be found the Palmer cord tire, which 
is a single-tube type of pneumatic with thread fabric. Bearing in 
mind the fact that increasing speed means a corresponding reduction 
in the mileage, the application of the chart is simple. Taking the 
Palmer tire just referred to as an example, select in the vertical 
column at the left marked "miles per hour", the rate at which the 
car is to travel. Trace this along the horizontal line representing 
the speed, to the right, until it intersects the characteristic curve of 
the tire in question. At that point, rise perpendicularly to the point 

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150 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

where the vertical line meets the top of the chart, which is divided 
into sections giving total mileage, by increments of 10 miles. For 
instance, suppose it be desired to run a car at 15 miles an hour on 
Palmer cord tires. Tracing the 15-mile line to the right, it will be 
found to intersect the Palmer-tire curve at the vertical line corre- 
sponding to 100 miles. A striking example of the manner in which 
mileage increases with reduced speed may be seen by tracing the 
125-mile line to the right until it intersects the Palmer curve. It 
gives a total mileage of 123, or an increase of 23 per cent in the 
distance covered for a decrease of but 2\ miles per hour in the speed. 
By making a further reduction to 10 miles an hour, 130 miles could 
be covered on a charge. This, of course, is not due to any charac- 
teristic of the tire, but to the fact that the lower the discharge rate 
the greater the capacity of the battery, the phenomenal mileages 
given being the result of employing a tire that presents the minimum 
of resistance to bending. 

Such a tire, however, is not only high as to initial cost but it is 
also most susceptible to puncture and difficult of repair, and for these 
reasons is not available for the average user of an electric. The 
expense would be practically prohibitive. The chart shows the 
Morgan and Wright thread-fabric Dunlop to be capable of a very 
excellent speed and mileage performance, and for those who are 
desirous of combining these qualities in an electric, even at an 
increased cost for tire equipment, the vehicle makers recommend 
it. Its liability to puncture is less, and it will give reasonably 
good service, commensurate, of course, with the care given it. The 
solid tire at a 10-mile-an-hour speed is seen to be superior to the 
gasoline type of pneumatic, the latter falling below it in point of 
total distance by fully 12 miles. 

New Tire Equipment. A little study of the foregoing will serve 
to reveal one of the most prolific causes of complaint on the part of 
uninitiated owners of electric vehicles. After wearing out one or two 
tires in service, they instruct the garagemen to put "new ones" in 
their place, or they renew the old ones by purchasing in the open 
market themselves. Unless informed as to the purpose for which 
the tires are needed, both the garagemen and the tire salesman are 
more than apt to supply a gasoline type of tire. A distinct falling 
off in the mileage radius of the car is at once noticeable, particularly 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 151 

if the owner has been in the habit of making use of the 
higher speeds. The cause is apparently inexplicable, and the result 
is a complaint to the manufacturer that something has gone wrong 
or that the car is not fulfilling the promises made for it, when, as a 
matter of fact, greater care should have been taken to maintain the 
tire equipment the same throughout. "A chain is as strong as its 
weakest link/' and an electric is only as fast as its slowest tire. 
Every electric driver should learn the name of the tire which the 
manufacturer has tested out and proved to give satisfaction and stick 
to this make. Something "just as good" will not do. 

Improper Inflation. Tires have been previously mentioned as 
one of the sources of power loss, and the foregoing serves to explain 
to a great degree why this is so. An item of considerable importance 
in the treatment of tires, which has not been referred to, is improper 
inflation. A soft tire naturally consumes more power to drive it 
because of the increased friction due to the greater area of the tire 
in contact with the ground. Such a condition is detrimental to the 
tire itself as it increases the amount of wear and the danger of rim 
cuts. As a means of guarding against this, air-pressure gages are 
most frequently recommended, but their use merely affords an arbi- 
trary standard of pressure that it is not always adaptable to the condi- 
tions. As an ideal condition, a tire should only be pumped sufficiently 
hard to properly carry the load imposed upon it, and with a little 
practice one can readily determine by the eye whether this point 
has been reached. 

If the tire be too soft, the weight of the car will cause it to spread 
unduly at the point of contact with the road and this condition will be 
immediately noticeable. On the other hand, when the tire is pumped 
up too hard, the tire will stand just as if it were bearing no load. Such 
a condition obviously places too great a strain on both the fabric and 
the rubber, and is frequently the cause of tire failures that are usually 
assigned to a totally different reason. With its ordinary load of pas- 
sengers, the electric should only cause a slight flattening of the tires 
at the tread, experiment showing that the best results are obtained 
when the increase in the width of the tire is about 20 to 25 per cent, 
that is, a 3-inch tire when properly inflated should measure approxi- 
mately 3f inches across its horizontal diameter at the part in contact 
with the road. 

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Fig. 90. General Electric Volt-Ammeter 



Fig. 91. Volt- Ammeter with Cushion Base 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 153 

ELECTRIC INDICATING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES 
Volt-Ammeter. With an electric, it is important to watch the 
volt-ammeter. An example of this type of combined instrument is 
shown by the accompanying illustration, Fig. 90. It will be noted 
that the indicating needle of the ammeter does not go to the end of 
its scale, but reads both ways, the scale to the left hand being for 
the charging current, and that to the right for the discharging cur- 
rent. These instruments are manufactured in various forms, one 
type very much in use having the voltmeter and ammeter scales 
parallel in a vertical plane. Some also have the voltmeter scale so 
divided that the reading of the individual cells may be taken. To 
be accurate, the armature of such instruments must be very care- 
fully adjusted on jeweled bearings almost as delicate as those of a 
watch, and as the vibration and jolting of the vehicle are naturally 
detrimental to the maintenance of its accuracy, volt-ammeters are 
now being built with a cushion base, as shown in Fig. 91. 

By becoming familiar with the readings of the instrument and 
by realizing their significance, the driver of an electric automobile 
"is in a position not only to judge whether the battery is giving the 
proper service, but he also has an accurate gage on the con- 
dition of the running gear and transmission of the vehicle itself. 
The instrument is capable, therefore, of giving ample warning 
by its deflections of any weakness, whether electrical or me- 
chanical. 

Ampere-Hour Meter. While the volt-ammeter affords a con- 
stant indication of the working of the battery, as well as the efficiency 
of the transmission, and is accordingly indispensable, it does not 
permit of the direct reading of the state of charge nor indicate off- 
hand how much of the energy has been utilized and how much 
remains available at any given time. For this purpose the Sangamo 
ampere-hour meter has been developed and generally adopted by 
the builders of both pleasure and commercial electric cars. Fara- 
day's law shows a definite relation between the mass of material 
transferred from the plates to the electrolyte of a storage cell and 
the ampere hours. That is, if the number of ampere hours absorbed 
by the battery is known, there is a direct measure of its state of 
charge, and consequently an ampere-hour meter may be used as a 
charge indicator. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



Method of Use. To keep the battery plates in good working con- 
dition, it is necessary to give the battery a certain amount of charge, 
so that under normal conditions more ampere hours must be put into 
the battery than can be taken out of it. (See Fig. 11, Part 1, page 
27.) This difference is the overcharge, and it must be taken into 
account in figuring the number of ampere hours in a battery avail- 
able for useful work. Since the only information desired by the 
driver is how much energy can be taken from the battery, the San- 
gamo ampere-hour meter is designed to compensate for the over- 
charge, and indicates at all 
times the current available 
without the necessity of re- 
setting the pointer every time 
the battery is charged. This 
is accomplished by means of 
a differential shunt, as shown 
by the diagram, Fig. 92. 
Two shunts are employed, 
and the relative value of 
their resistance is adjustable 
by means of the sliding con- 
nection G, so that the meter 
can be made to run slow on 
charge or fast on discharge, 
as desired. The usual method 

Fig. 92. Circuit Diagram of Differential Shunt is to allow the meter to 
Type Sangamo Ampere-Hour Meter .111 

register less than the true 
amount on charge and the exact amount on discharge, the difference 
representing the loss in the battery, or overcharge. Thus the bat- 
tery and the meter will keep in step for considerable periods with- 
out readjustment. 

Readjusting the Meter. However, over long periods of use 
under varying conditions, the battery losses will vary and in time 
the meter and battery will get out of step. Therefore, it is good 
practice to give the battery an extra overcharge at stated intervals 
and reset the meter, a simple device being provided for this purpose. 
Moreover, in vehicle work the batteries are frequently subjected to 
excessively high discharge rates and, under such conditions, the 




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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



155 



battery suffers an actual loss of capacity, which requires further 
compensation, as otherwise the meter will give a false indication of 



! 



Fig. 03. Variation of Useful Ampere-Hour Capacity of Lead Battery with Discharge Rate 

the number of ampere hours available. The variation in the capacity 

of the battery with its discharge rate is shown by the curves, Fig. 99. 

To make clear the method of compensating for this loss, a brief 

description of the meter itself is given. 

Description of Construction Features. This meter is known as 

the "mercury-flotation" type, and consists essentially of a copper disk 

floated in mercury between the 
poles of a magnet, and provided 



CUKfCNT 




Fig. 94. Electric and Magnetic Circuits of 
Sangamo Ampere-Hour Meters 



Fig. 9& Relative Directions of Currents, 

Magnetic Flux and Motion of Disk, 

Sangamo Meters 



with connections to and from the mercury at opposite points. The 
theoretical relations of the various parts are shown in the sketch, 
Fig. 94. The current enters the contact C, passes through the 



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156 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

comparatively high-resistance mercury H to the edge of the low- 
resistance copper disk D, across through the disk to the mercury H 
and out at the contact C%. The magnetic flux cuts across the disk 
on each side from N to S, making a complete circuit through if i, 
and 3/2. The relative directions of the magnetic flux and the cur- 
rent, as well as the resulting motion, are shown diagrammatically by 
Fig. 95. According to the laws of electromagnetic induction, if a 
current-carrying conductor cuts a magnetic field at right angles, a 



Fig. 96. Section of Sangamo Mercury Motor Ampere-Hour Meter with Magnets 
and Recording Mechanism Removed 

force is exerted on the conductor, tending to push it at right angles 
to both the current and the magnetic flux. When connected to an 
eddy-current damper or generator which requires a driving force 
directly proportional to the speed of rotation, the mercury motor- 
generator becomes a meter. The speed of such a meter is a measure 
of the current or rate of flow through the motor element, and each 
motor revolution corresponds to a given quantity of electricity. 
Then by connecting a revolution counter to this motor-gener- 
ator, a means is provided of recording the total amount of electricity 
in ampere hours that is passed through the meter. The method of 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 157 

applying these principles in the construction of the Sangamo ampere- 
hour meter is shown by the sectional view, Fig. 96, in which the 
damping magnets and recording mechanism have been removed, 
though the upper part of the motor magnet, which is a laminated 
iron ring embedded in molded insulation — just above the copper 
disk — is shown plainly. In addition to making the bearing pressure 
independent of the weight of the moving elements, the armature 
disk being also immersed in mercury acts as a buffer and prevents 
injury to the bearings from shock. 

The compensator for loss of battery capacity consists of an 
electromagnet shunted magnetically across the poles of the motor 
field magnet, its winding being in series with the discharge circuit. 



fig. 07. Ampere-Hour Meter Compensation for Discharge Ratea Above Normal 

Current through the exciting winding increases the magnetic flux 
through the motor element, thus speeding up the meter with an 
increase in current according to a definite and predetermined char- 
acteristic. Therefore, under very high discharge rates, the meter 
will register not only the ampere hours used but also those lost 
through excessive current or high discharge rate. The discharge 
curve characteristic, of such a meter is shown in Fig. 97. 

In the Edison battery, the transfer of active material does not 
take place between the electrolyte and the plates, but from one 
plate to the other, as in the ordinary electrolytic cell, commonly 
known as a primary battery. Therefore, the specific gravity of the 
electrolyte does not change with the state of charge and, conse- 
quently, the only direct way to measure the state of charge is with an 

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158 

ampere-hc 
of capacit; 



alkaline c 
does not i 



the drop i 
such that, 
same as w 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 159 

Types of Instruments. The most widely used type of ampere- 
hour meter for electric vehicle service is equipped with a simple 
circular dial, as shown by Fig. 98, the dial being calibrated to read 
to any desired number of ampere hours per revolution. It is custom- 
ary to have one revolution of the pointer represent the total avail- 
able energy of the battery. Where it is desired to keep a record of 
the total amount of electricity either used or furnished by a battery 
in order to keep a check on operating economy, totalizing dials, such 



Fig. 100. Sangamo Ampere-Hour Meter and Weston Ammeter in Same Case 

as are used on the ordinary watt-hour meter in residence and power 
service, are fitted in addition. In cases where it is desired to keep 
a record of both charge and discharge ampere hours, two sets or 
duplex recording dials are fitted. With such a meter the cost of 
energy input in kilowatt hours is reckoned from the charge dials, 
while the ampere-hour output is read directly from the discharge 
dials. 

On pleasure cars, where the presence of a large meter on the 
dash is not desirable for appearance's sake, an extension-dial type 

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160 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

of meter is employed, only the small dial face, Fig. 99, appearing. 
This illustration shows the direct reading pointer and the totalizing 
dials described above. These meters may also be fitted with the 
zero contact or automatic charge-stopping device, as mentioned in 
the article on "Charging"; but in this case the usual resetting device 
is not incorporated, the hand being reset simply by removing the cup 
and turning it with the finger against the pull of the friction drive 
to any desired position, where, upon release, it will be picked up 
again by the driving mechanism. 

But in order to bring the operation of the battery under the 
strictest conditions of economy the single ampere-hour meter is not 
sufficient, a combination instrument being employed. This consists of 
a new type of Weston ammeter mounted in the same case as the distant 
dial of a Sangamo ampere-hour meter, Fig. 100. The latter shows 
the state of charge of the battery, while the ammeter indicates the 
instantaneous current value or the rate of flow into or out of the 
battery. A small hooded light is arranged on the dash of the 
machine over the instruments to illuminate the dials at night. 

SUMMARY OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE INSTRUCTIONS 

While the material comprising the article in Electric Automobiles 
is complete in itself, a series of brief questions clearly answered often 
forms a most valuable summary of a work and makes the article 
doubly useful. It is with this idea in mind that these questions 
and answers have been supplied. They are collected under separate 
heads so that desired questions and answers can easily be found. 

BATTERY 
Life 
Q. What is the normal limiting factor of the life of a storage 
battery? 

A. The number of discharges. 

Q. What are the factors that tend to shorten the useful life 
of a storage battery? 

A. Charging at unnecessarily short intervals; overcharging; 
charging at excessive rates; discharging too low; allowing to stand 
discharged; discharging at excessive rate; short-circuiting of indi- 
vidual cells or entire battery; sulphating of plates; lack of electrolyte 
due to failure to replenish distilled w r ater; and corrosion. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 161 

Charging 

Q. What is meant by charging at unnecessarily short inter- 
vals? 

A. Recharging when only a part of the previous charge has 
been utilized. For example, if the vehicle has a working radius 
of sixty miles on a single charge of the battery, the latter should 
not be recharged before 40 to 50 miles have been run. It should 
not be put on charge again after having run only 10 to 20 miles. 

Q. What is overcharging? 

A. Charging for too long a time or at too high a rate. 

Q. What is apt to be the result? 

A. The temperature of the cells is apt to exceed the safe 
maximum of 110° F. 

Q. Why must so much care be taken to prevent the cells 
from reaching or exceeding this temperature? 

A. Because the heat expands the active material of the plates 
and, if carried beyond this point, the material will be forced out 
of the grids, ruining the battery. 

Q. How can this be avoided? 

A. By reducing the charging rate, or, if the temperature is 
already too close to the danger point, by cutting off the current and 
allowing the cells to cool before resuming the charge. If the ther- 
mometer is not handy, test with the hand; the cells should not 
feel uncomfortably warm. 

Q. How can the length of charge necessary be determined? 

A. By noting the point to which the battery has been dis- 
charged and computing the number of hours necessary to return 
that much energy to the battery at the normal charging rate. 

Q. What is the normal charging rate of a battery? 

A. This differs with the capacity and type of cell and a 
plate or card giving it usually will be found on the car. 

Q. Is this charging rate uniform throughout? 

A. If there is ample time in which to charge at a uniform low 
rate it is preferable, but for ordinary charging, when it is desired 
to have the car ready for service again quickly, there is a starting 
charge rate and a finishing rate. 

Q. How can the proper rate be computed for a uniform 
charge? 



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162 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

A. An estimate of the amount of current necessary to charge 
the battery fully must be made and this quantity divided by the 
number of hours available. For example, if 84 ampere hours are 
necessary and the time available is 12 hours, as overnight, the 
average rate will be 7 amperes. 

Q. What other factors influence a uniform charge? 

A. If the charging circuit has a constant potential, or a mercury 
arc rectifier is employed, the charging rate will automatically decrease 
as the charge progresses, owing to the rising voltage of the cells. 

Q. How high can the average starting rate be for an electric- 
vehicle battery? 

A. If the battery is fully discharged or down to at least 75 
per cent of its capacity, it may be anything up to 35 amperes which 
is about the maximum capacity of the average garage charging 
apparatus. The battery may be put on charge with this starting 
rate even if only half discharged, but the rate will have to be lowered 
much sooner. 

Q. Is it good practice to charge a battery when less than 
half discharged? 

A. No. At least 50 per cent and preferably 75 per cent of 
its capacity should be utilized before recharging. 

Q. What determines the end of the starting period of the 
charge?. 

A. The cells begin to gas freely. 

Q. What is meant by "gassing", and is it injurious to the 
battery? 

A. In the conversion of lead from one form to another by 
the passage of the charging current, hydrogen gas is evolved. When 
charged at too high a rate or for too long a time the gas is generated 
so rapidly that it bubbles out as if the electrolyte were boiling. 
This is termed "gassing freely t \ Gassing in itself is not injurious 
to the battery but it is an indication that conditions which will 
cause injury, i.e., excessive charging and overheating, are present. 

Q. When on charge at the starting rate, what should be done 
when the cells begin to gas freely? 

A. Reduce the charging rate to the finishing rate. 

Q. How low should the finishing rate be? 

A. Generally speaking, it should never exceed 10 amperes. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 163 

It is good practice to make it as much lower than this as possible, 
consistent with completing the charge in the time available. 

Q. Does the use of a high starting rate tend to injure the 
battery? 

A. Not if the rate is lowered to the finishing limit as soon as 
the cells gas freely. 

Q. Which is preferable, the employment of a low average 
rate over a long period, ox a high starting and low finishing rate? 

A. Other things being equal, the lower the charging rate used, 
the longer will the life of the battery be. The adoption of starting 
and finishing rates is simply to cut down the time of charging. 
Q. How can the charge be hurried safely? 
A. Start the charge at the maximum capacity of the charging 
apparatus and as soon as the gassing point is reached, reduce it by 
successive steps down to the normal finishing rate, bearing in mind 
that the gassing point voltage must not be exceeded at a current 
rate higher than 10 amperes. 

Q. What should the charging rate be for overnight or unat- 
tended charging? 

A. The starting rate should be such that as it falls due to 
the rise of the battery voltage, it will reach a minimum of 6 to 10 
amperes when the charge approaches completion. With a mereury 
arc rectifier or the usual incandescent lighting circuit (constant 
potential) the proper starting rate ordinarily will be 18 to 20 amperes. 
With some small motor-generators it may be as high as 35 amperes. 
Q. Is it ever permissible to overcharge the battery? 
A. It is beneficial to overcharge the battery at regular inter- 
vals. Once a month the regular charge should be followed by an 
overcharge at the finishing rate until the specific gravity of every 
cell has stopped rising. (See Hydrometer Readings.) 

Q. When a battery is to remain idle for some time, how should 
it be treated? 

A. Give it an overcharge before putting out of service and 
after this charge flush .the cells right up to the covers with distilled 
water to allow for evaporation and absorption of the acid by the 
plates. Give it a freshening charge at the finishing rate once a 
month. Before putting in service again discharge the battery and 
then overcharge it. 

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164 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Q. Will a battery give its usual capacity upon being put back 
in service after a period of idleness? 

A. No. It may not reach its usual maximum until it has had 
several charges and discharges. 

Q. What precautions should be taken before putting a battery 
on charge? 

A. Lock the control lever in the off position, open the battery 
vents, and lift the hoods to give as much ventilation as possible; 
see that there is no possibility of any loose pieces of metal, such as 
tools, falling on the cells and that no naked flame or spark is brought 
near it. Do not turn on the lamps or ring the bell with the charging 
current on, as the increased voltage may burn them out. 

Boosting 

Q. What is meant by "boosting" the battery? 

A. Giving it a short charge at a very high rate to increase 
the daily mileage radius of the vehicle. 

Q. What are the possible safe charging rates that may be 
employed in boosting? 

A. Any current rate that the cells can absorb without gassing 
is not injurious. See Table VI, page 103. 

Q. Can the Edison battery be boosted the same as a lead^ell 
battery? 

A. This is permissible at even higher rates, as the safe tem- 
perature limit is 115° F. See the table on page 98. 

Q. What are the limitations on charging generally? 

A. The cells must never be allowed to gas freely or to become 
too warm without reducing, or if necessary, stopping the charge 
to allow them to cool. 

Methods of Charging 

Q. What methods of charging electric vehicles are usually 
employed? 

A. In garages that maintain more than one or two electrics, 
a charging panel capable of charging several cars at once is employed. 
This is either connected with the lighting mains where direct-current 
service is available, or is fed by a motor-generator where the service 
is alternating. For taking care of but one or two cars a mercury 
arc rectifier for the alternating current is sometimes used. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 165 

Q. Is the chemical type of rectifier ever employed for this 
purpose? 

A. Its efficiency is too low to make it practical for anything 
but the small batteries of the lighting-and-starting systems of gaso- 
line cars. 

Q. In an emergency, can a vehicle battery be charged from 
direct-current mains without the use of special charging apparatus? 
A. This may be done by employing a bank of lamps in series- 
multiple with an ammeter and a double-pole fused switch on the 
mains. One wire is led directly from the switch to the charging 
connection on the car; the other is connected first to one side of 
the ammeter; from the other side of the ammeter a connection is 
made to one side of the multiple lamp circuit. A wire from the 
other side of the lamps completes the charging circuit. As all cars 
are provided with a charging socket which will take only a special 
plug, it may be necessary to connect the wires directly to the bat- 
tery terminals. Sufficient 32-c-p. carbon-filament lamps must be 
employed to give the proper amount of current; a smaller size may 
be used just as well but more of them will be required. At least 
ten of the larger size will be necessary as they consume approxi- 
mately 1 ampere each, thus giving a charging current of 10 amperes. 
For the higher rate permissible for starting the charge, twenty to 
thirty of these lamps may be necessary. When the battery begins 
to gas on this rate, some of the lamps must be removed, to cut 
down the current. If a rheostat is available, it will be found much 
more convenient; it should be connected in series with the ammeter 
in place of the bank of lamps. 

Q. What precautions must be observed in emergency charg- 
ing? 

A. Only direct current can be used; its polarity must be 
determined so that the positive side of the circuit is connected to 
the positive terminal of the battery. This can be done by inserting 
the bared ends of two wires connected to the mains in a glass of 
water, keeping the wires separated as much as possible. The wire 
from which the greatest amount of gas rises is the negative. As 
the charging plug probably will not be available, care must be taken 
to see that the wires are connected to the battery terminals so that 
all of the cells are in series. To do this it will be necessary to trace 

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166 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

the connections between the two sections of the battery under 
the front and the rear hoods of the car. Thirty-ampere fuses should 
be provided at the switch. 

The hoods must be lifted and the vent plugs of all the cells 
v>pened. Unless a hydrometer or a voltmeter is available for testing 
the state of charge, charging must be discontinued when the cells 
begin to gas freely after the current has been reduced to the finishing 
rate, which should not exceed 10 amperes. In case the car is pro- 
vided with an ampere-hour meter, this maybe relied upon to indi- 
cate when the battery is sufficiently charged. The instructions 
regarding direct current and its polarity naturally apply to charging 
under any conditions, but when the regular charging panel and 
the charging-plug connection are available, no special precautions 
are necessary, as the charging plug can only be inserted in its socket 
the right way. 

Discharge 

Q. How far can a storage battery be discharged safely? 

A. Its voltage should never be allowed to drop below 1.170 
volts per cell. 

Q. Has the rate of discharge any effect on the capacity of 
the battery? 

A. The capacity of the battery will fall off as the discharge 
rate increases. For example, a 100-ampere-hour battery will give 
5 amperes for 20 hours but it will not give 50 amperes for 2 hours. 

Q. How far should the battery be discharged before recharg- 
ing? 

A. At least 50 per cent of its capacity, and preferably 75 to 
90 per cent, provided it is to be recharged as soon as this point is 
reach ed. 

Q. Why is a discharge at a very high rate such as is caused 
by a short circuit injurious? 

A. The chemical reconversion of the active material of the 
plates in producing the current takes place so quickly that their 
temperature rises abnormally, causing them to "buckle". 

Q. Is it ever necessary to discharge the battery down to zero? 

A. Its condition will be improved if discharged to this point 
at intervals of about a month. 

Q. How can this be done? 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 167 

A. Connect the battery terminals through a rheostat so that 
the discharge will be limited to the normal slow rate. This is usually 
done after the battery has been discharged in service down to 80 
to 90 per cent of its capacity. Immediately after reaching 1.170 
volts per cell on discharge, it must be recharged. 

Q. Why must a battery never be allowed to stand discharged? 

A. In this condition what is known as "local action" between 
the plates takes place and they become sulphated. 

Q. What is sulphating? 

A. The lead sulphate evolved during the discharge will harden 
on the plates if the battery is allowed to stand discharged. 

Q. How can a sulphated battery be brought back to good 
condition? 

A. By continuous charging for a long period at a low rate, 
but at a higher voltage than usual, as the latter tends to break down 
the coating of sulphate on the plates. 

Q. What indication is there of sulphating, and how can it 
be determined to what extent it has taken place? 

A. The cell otherwise being in good condition, it will be 
indicated by loss of capacity, and the degree to which the latter 
has fallen off will afford a measure of the extent of the sulphating. 

Q. How long must the charge be continued to remedy this 
condition? 

A. Depending on the extent to which the plates are covered 
with the hard coating of white lead sulphate, it may require any- 
where from 24 hours to a week or more. 

Q. Why cannot a battery be allowed to stand idle without 
being recharged at regular intervals? 

A. Because the cells tend to discharge when standing idle, 
owing to the unstable nature of the chemical compounds which 
represent the stored energy. 

Electrolyte 
Q. Of what does the electrolyte of a storage battery con- 
sist? 

A. A solution of distilled water and chemically pure sulphuric 
acid. 

Q. How is it mixed? 

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168 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

A. By using a porcelain, glass, earthenware, or wooden vessel 
and pouring the acid into the distilled water very slowly, as the 
chemical combination of the acid and water evolves a great amount 
of heat. 

Q. Why should water never be poured into the acid? 

A. It will spatter about with explosive force and the acid 
is extremely corrosive, causing serious burns wherever it touches. 

Q. How is the proper proportion of acid to water to form 
electrolyte determined? 

A. With the aid of the hydrometer. The proportions of 
acid to water are 1 :4f for 1.200 sp. gr. and 1 :3 for 1.275 sp. gr. See 
Hydrometer Readings. 

Q. Is it ever necessary to add electrolyte to the cells? 

A. Very rarely. A battery should go from one washing to 
another without any necessity of adding electrolyte. 

Q. How should losses by evaporation be. made up? 
* A. By the addition of distilled water, rain water, or melted 
artificial ice. 

Q. How often should distilled water be added? 

A. The height of the electrolyte over the plates should be 
noted every time the battery is charged. It should always be kept 
1 to i inch over the plates. 

Q. Does the temperature of the electrolyte have any effect on 
the battery action. 

A. It might have. Extremes of temperature affect the specific 
gravity of the electrolyte and should be avoided. 

Q. Why should ordinary water or ordinary commercial acid 
not be used for electrolyte? 

A. Owing to the impurities they contain which will affect 
the active material of the plates. 

Q. How can the presence of impurities in the electrolyte be 
determined? 

A. By the odor noticeable on charging and by the discolora- 
tion of the positive plates. Hydrogen gas has a distinctive odor 
which will be recognized readily after a few times. 

Q. Is the electrolyte of the Edison cell the same as that of 
the lead cell? 

A. No. It is an alkaline solution of potash and water. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 169 

Q. Is it ever necessary to add new electrolyte to an Edison 
cell? 

A. Nothing but distilled water should be added. 

Voltage 

Q. Why is it necessary that the charging-current voltage 
should exceed that of the battery? 

A. Because the voltage of each cell increases as the charge 
progresses and unless the charging current were at a higher voltage 
it could not overcome that of the battery. The battery would 
then "reverse" until its voltage equalized that of the charging 
current. 

Q. How much should the charging voltage exceed that of 
the battery? 

A. See Table II, page 85. 

Q. Is the voltage of the Edison battery the same as that of 
the lead type? 

A. No. For charging voltages, see the table on page 97. 
Q. Is the voltage a good indication of the condition of the 
cell, and how does it vary? 

A. Next to the specific-gravity reading, the voltage affords 

the best test of condition. The voltage varies from 1.170, when 

completely discharged, to 2.55 volts per cell, when fully charged. 

Q. How must voltage readings be taken? 

A. Only when the battery is either charging or discharging. 

Readings with the battery idle are valueless. 

Q. Does the voltage vary with conditions other than that of 
the state of charge? 

A. Temperature and the age of the cell will cause a variation. 
' The higher the temperature and the older the cell, the lower the 
voltage will be for the same state of charge. 

Q. Which affords the better indication of the state of charge, 
the voltage or the specific gravity of the electrolyte. 

A. The specific gravity of the electrolyte. See Hydrometer 
Readings. 

Hydrometer Readings 

Q. What is a hydrometer, and how is it used? 

A. It is an instrument for determining the specific gravity of 

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170 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

a liquid. For storage-battery use, it is combined with a syringe 
so that some of the electrolyte may be drawn off for a test. 

Q. What is the specific gravity of a liquid? 

A. Its density as compared with distilled water which is 
unity in the specific-gravity scale. 

Q. Are hydrometers ever calibrated in any other standard? 

A. Yes, the BaumS scale. See Table IV, page 93, for com- 
parative readings. 

Q. Why is the hydrometer test employed for the storage battery? 

A. Because it affords the best test of the condition of the cell. 

Q. What should the electrolyte test when the cell is fully 
charged? 

A. 1.270 to 1.280. 

Q. How low may it be permitted to run? 

A. As low as 1.250 in a fully charged cell. 

Q. How should the test be made and how often? 

A. By withdrawing sufficient of the electrolyte in the syringe 
to float the hydrometer. Note the reading and return the elec- 
trolyte to the same cell; test each cell the same way and never 
put the electrolyte from one into another cell. The test should 
be made once every two weeks. 

Q. How close should the readings of the different cells be 
to be considered uniform? 

A. Within 25 points on the scale; i.e., no cell in a battery 
should be below 1.250 or above 1.275 when it is fully charged. 

Q. What do the various readings indicate? 

A. A specific gravity of 1.150 indicates that the battery is 
practically discharged; below 1.150, completely discharged or 
"run down"; above 1.200, more than half charged. 

Q. Is it ever permissible to< bring up the specific gravity of 
a cell by adding electrolyte? 

A. No. It will do no good and is apt to cause great harm. 
The only way it should be raised is by charging the cell. 

Q. When some cells have a much lower reading than others, 
what should be done? 

A. Such cells first should be charged separately at a low r rate. 
If its specific gravity increases on charge, it simply indicates that 
the cell has been discharged lower than the others and needed 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 171 

additional charging. When it has been brought up to the others, 
the whole battery may be charged. 

Q. In case the electrolyte of such a cell does not increase 
on charge and the cell does not increase in temperature, what is 
the trouble? 

A. The gravity of the electrolyte has been lowered by excessive 
additions of water to compensate for leakage or similar cause. 

Q. When putting new electrolyte in cells after washing them 
out, what precaution must be observed? 

A. The new electrolyte must be of the same specific gravity 
as the old. 

Q. Can the specific-gravity test be employed with the Edison cell? 

A. No. As its electrolyte does not vary in this respect with 
state of charge, the voltage test must be employed. 

Q. Does the temperature affect the hydrometer reading? 

A. It will be lower at low temperatures, and should be watched 
rather carefully. Note the variation between 30° F. and 100° F. 
in Table III, and study its temperature effect in Part I. 

Battery Jars 

Q. Of what are the battery jars composed? 

A. Usually hard rubber in the case of the lead cell, and stamped 
steel for the Edison cell. 

Q. To what faults are lead-cell jars usually subject? 

A. Leakage caused by not having the battery firmly clamped 
in place. This permits movement of the cells and one or more of 
them is apt to become cracked. 

Q. How can a leaky jar be recognized? 

A. Leakage due to cracks in the jar usually is very gradual, 
but it will be noted that a leaky cell requires refilling oftener than 
the others. After a short period its specific gravity will differ 
from that of the others, owing to loss of electrolyte. 

Connectors 

Q. How can the lead straps and piHars forming the connectors 
be kept in good condition? 

A. By wiping them and the tops of the jars dry with a clean 
rag after charging. If the battery has "gassed" strongly, dip the 
rag in a solution of ammonia and water as the gas carries with it 

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172 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

a fine spray of electrolyte and the acid will cause corrosion unless 
counteracted. A good preventive of this corrosion is to smear the 
entire tops of the jars and the connectors with a light coating of 
vaseline. 

Q. When a cell has to be disconnected for any reason, how 
is it reconnected to the remaining cells? 

A. By burning the lead strap together if it has been cut, or 
burning it to the pillar. 

Q. In case the lead strap cannot be burned at the time, is 
it ever permissible to use any other connector? 

A. Heavy copper wire or a strip of copper or brass may be 
soldered or bound on, but it should be removed as soon as possible. 

Washing the Battery 

Q. What is meant by "washing" the battery, and why is it 
necessary? 

A. Washing a battery involves cutting the cells apart, washing 
the elements and the jars, and reassembling with new separators 
and new electrolyte. It is necessary to prevent the accumulation 
of sediment in the mud space of the battery from reaching the 
bottoms of the plates; this sediment is the active material shaken 
from the plates and, , as it is a good conductor, it would cause a 
short circuit and probably ruin the battery. 

Q. What are the elements of a battery? 

A. The positive and negative groups of plates. The positive 
is a dull red and the negative a grayish color. 

Q. How often is it necessary to wash a battery? 

A. This will depend on the type of jar and the age of the 
elements. With the modern style jar having an extra deep mud 
space, it will probably not be necessary to wash the battery until 
it has seen two or three seasons' service. With the older form in 
which the space allowed for sediment is much less, washing may be 
necessary once a season. As the battery ages it will be necessary 
to wash it oftener. 

Q. What other causes besides the type of jar and age influence 
the frequency of washing? 

A. The treatment the battery has received. If it has been 
abused, active material is forced out of the plates much sooner. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 173 

Q. How can the necessity for washing be determine4? 

A. The presence of a short circuit in one of the cells. Cut 
out the cell and open it. If the short circuit has been caused by 
an accumulation of sediment, the others are in practically the same 
condition and will soon become shorted also. 

Q. How is a battery washed? 

A. By cutting the cells apart, unsealing them, and lifting out 
the elements, which immediately should be immersed in a wooden 
tub of clean pure water. The separators are then lifted out and 
the positive and negative groups of plates separated and marked so 
that they may be put back in the same cells. Before disposing 
of the old electrolyte, its specific gravity should be noted. The 
plates should be washed in copious running water for several 
hours, never allowing their surfaces to become exposed to the air. 
Reassemble with new separators, fill jars with fresh electrolyte of 
the same specific gravity as that discarded and keep elements under 
water until ready to place in jars, which should then be sealed and 
the lead connectors burned together again. Give a long slow charge 
after reassembling. 

Q. Why should lead connectors be employed, and why is 
it necessary to burn them together? 

A. Any other metal will quickly corrode. Burning is neces- 
sary to make good electrical connection, except where bolted con- 
nectors are fitted. 

Q. Is it ever necessary to wash out an Edison battery? 

A. No. The cells are permanently sealed as the active material 
cannot escape from the containers. 

Efficiency 

Q. What is the efficiency of the storage battery? 

A. About 80 per cent under favorable operating conditions. 
See Fig. 11, page 27. 

Q. What affects the efficiency of the battery? 

A. Sulphating; very low temperatures; loss of electrolyte; 
dropping of active matter from the plates; partial internal short 
circuit between the plates; use of impure water; failure to keep 
properly charged and to discharge fully at regular intervals; and 
undercharging and overcharging. 



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174 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Q. Is the efficiency of the battery affected by temperature 
changes? 

A. When the weather is very cold, the efficiency of the battery 
is cut down substantially, and this will be very perceptible by the 
reduced mileage available on a charge on the coldest days of winter. 

Q. What instruments should be kept handy for testing the 
battery? 

A. A hydrometer syringe, a good thermometer, and a low- 
reading voltmeter. 

Q. What other causes will tend to reduce the efficiency of 
the battery? 

A. The presence of impurities in the electrolyte caused by 
using ordinary water or commercial sulphuric acid. 

POWER USAGE 
Motor Commutator 

Q. What attention is necessary to keep the motor of an 
electric vehicle in good running condition? 

A. The commutator and brushes should be inspected at 
regular intervals. If the commutator is discolored and dirty, it 
should be wiped off with a clean rag moistened in good lubricating 
oil but very little of it. 

Q. If this does not remove the discoloration, what should be 
done? 

A. Take a strip of No. 00 sandpaper, the width of the com- 
mutator, jack up one rear wheel, run motor slowly on first speed, 
and hold sandpaper to commutator. If this does not smooth 
commutator off to a uniformly clean surface, it will be necessary 
to remove armature and take a light cut off the commutator in 
the lathe to remove any depressions or ridges. Smooth down with 
sandpaper after turning off. 

Q. Is the commutator discolored when it shows a bluish 
metallic tinge? 

A. No. It is then in the best running condition and should 
not be touched with sandpaper. Discoloration is black and usually 
consists of an accumulation of dirt and oil, or it may be caused by 
sparking at the brushes. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 175 

Q. Does a commutator need oiling? 

A. No more than can be applied by wiping with a clean 
oiled rag. 

Q. When a commutator is worn down, what should be done 
with it? 

A. Turn down in a lathe and smooth with sandpaper, as above. 

Brushes 

Q. What is the cause of sparking at the brushes? 

A. Uneven contact on the commutator; weak brush-holder 
springs; an accumulation of carbon dust and oil on the commu- 
tator; running the motor under excessive overload; or a short- 
circuited or grounded armature coil. 

Q. What is the usual remedy? 

A. "Sand in" the brushes, by placing a strip of No. 00 sand- 
paper on the commutator, face up. Jack up a rear wheel and have 
an assistant turn it by hand to turn the motor over. The brush 
should be sanded down to a close and uniform fit over its entire 
surface at the point of contact with the commutator. Proceed 
in the same way with each brush. If, with a clean and smooth 
commutator, this does not remedy the trouble, see if the brush- 
holder springs are holding the brush firmly against the commutator. 
Never use coarse sandpaper or emery. 

Q. What does excessive sparking at adjacent commutator 
bars indicate? 

A. A short-circuited or open armature coil. 

Q. How often should brushes be replaced? 

A. When they have worn dowTi to a point where the spring 
can no longer press them against the commutator properly; this 
rarely will be oftener than once in a season. 

Q. Is it permissible to replace worn brushes with any standard 
carbon brushes that will fit the holders? 

A. The motor will operate with such brushes but this should 
not be done if it can be avoided, and then only temporarily — new 
brushes supplied by the maker of the car being inserted as soon as 
they can be obtained. 

Q. Is a "carbon brush" a fixed quantity, or do they differ 
particularly? 

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176 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

A. There are hundreds of different carbon brushes and prob- 
ably no two are exactly alike; their resistance and their hardness 
both differ and they are made in a great variety of shapes to fit 
different holders, so that no brushes except those supplied by the 
maker of the car should be used as replacements. Trouble is bound 
to follow, otherwise. 

Controller 

Q. What is the function of the controller? 

A. To vary the amount of current supplied to the motor and 
thus vary the speed of the car. 

Q. How many types of controllers are there in use on electric 
cars? 

A. Two general classes: one in which the operation is manual, 
i.e., the actual closing of the various switches representing the 
different steps in the control is carried out by moving a lever by 
hand; while in the other, known as a magnetic controller, shunt 
circuits operated by push buttons are utilized to energize electro- 
magnets which in turn close the actual switches. 

Q. What faults are to be looked for in the manually operated 
controller? 

A. Poor contact of the switch fingers, due to loosening of the 
holding screws or weakening of the springs; burned contact fingers 
or segments, usually due to the same causes. 

Q. How can they be corrected? 

A. By cleaning with fine sandpaper and if the finger does not 
make uniform contact over its entire surface, bending slightly to 
make it do so. These fingers usually have curved up ends which 
cause them to engage the segments of the drum and stay in the 
position to which they are moved. Care must be taken in bending 
them, not to bend down too far, as the finger is then apt to catch on 
the segment or contact plate instead of riding over it. If the finger 
is making good contact all over its surface, it will not be possible 
to insert a thin piece of paper between it and the segment; nor, if 
inserted by lifting the finger, can the paper be pulled out. It 
should hold fast and tear when an attempt is made to draw it out 
from under the finger. There is danger of short-circuiting if the 
adjustment of the fingers is not carried out properly. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 177 

Q. What should be done before attempting to do any work on 
the controller? 

A. Disconnect the battery and wrap the terminals of the 
cables with friction tape so that they cannot make electrical contact 
with any metal parts. 

Q. What faults are apt to occur with the magnetic type of 
controller? 

A. Broken or loose connections either at the push-button end 
of the control or at the electromagnets. The switches actuated by 
the magnets are usually fitted with carbon contact blocks which will 
give service for a long while without any attention. In time, how- 
ever, the faces of the blocks are likely to become burned or pitted 
and will need squaring up. 

Q. When the car refuses to run, the battery being in good 
condition, is the controller necessarily at fault? 

A. This does not always follow, as there may be a broken 
connection between the battery and the controller or between the 
latter and the motor; or the motor brushes may not be making con- 
tact with the commutator. 

Q. In case the car will run on certain speeds but not on others, 
what is the cause? 

A. Either the contact finger representing the speed in question, 
or some of the contact fingers below it, i.e., in the order of closing 
the circuit, may not be making contact. Each contact finger is not 
an independent unit but often depends upon those below it in the 
order of closing the circuits. For example, if a car having five 
speeds will run on speeds 1, 2, and 3, but not on speeds 4 and 5, the 
trouble may be due to poor contact of fingers 2 or 3. 

Q. When the car will run forward but not backward, what is 
the cause? 

A. Usually failure of the reverse switch to operate, and this 
naturally is the case also where it will run backward but will not 
run forward. 

Q. What is a reverse switch, and how does it operate? 
A. It is a double-pole double-throw switch with cross-connec- 
tions; i.e., if the connections at one side of the switch are positive- 
negative, they will be negative-positive on the other side. By 
shifting the switch from one set of contacts to the other, the polarity 



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178 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

of the battery with relation to the motor is altered and the direction 
in which the current passes through the motor is reversed. This 
will cause it to start in the opposite direction to which it would run 
with the switch in the other pair of contacts. Once started, the 
operation of the motor is the same, regardless of the direction in 
which it is running. 

Q. Does the controller provide as many speeds backward as 
forward? 

A. Not as a rule; it is neither necessary nor safe to run the car 
backward at high speed, so that fewer reverse speeds are provided. 

Q. Where is the reverse switch usually located? 

A. In some cases, it is combined with the controller and this 
is particularly the case with the magnetic type; in others, it is 
entirely separate. For example, on the Ohio, the reverse is in the 
contactor box of the controller; on the Anderson, it is located at the 
foot of the control mast and is accessible from the outside by the 
removal of a small plate. 

Q. Is it necessary to lubricate the controller? 

A. The bearings should be oiled at regular intervals the same 
as any other moving parts, but owing to their limited and slow 
movement but little oil is required. The contact fingers should also 
be lubricated; in some cases, as on the Anderson, special provision 
is made for this in the form of oil pads which should be saturated 
with oil once in six months. 

Instruments 

Q. What are the functions of the ammeter and voltmeter on 
the electric vehicle? 

A. The ammeter has a double reading scale, the needle moving 
to the left to show the amount of current going into the battery on 
charge, and to the right to indicate the amount of current used by 
the motor in driving the car. The voltmeter indicates the total 
voltage of the battery and shows the condition of charge, as the 
voltage accurately checks the amount of energy in the battery. 

Q. When should such readings be taken? 

A. Only when the battery is being charged or discharged, as in 
running the car. Instrument readings with the battery idle are of 
no value. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 179 

Q. What does an erratic jerky movement of the voltmeter 
needle indicate? 

A. The presence of a loose connection which is making contact 
at times and at others is being shaken loose. 

Q. What is the trouble when the voltmeter gives no reading? 
A. A break in the circuit between the battery and the instru- 
ment. 

Q. What should the voltmeter read when the battery is fully 
charged? 

A. The equivalent of 2.55 volts per cell while the battery is 

charging. The moment the charging circuit is opened, the voltage 

will drop off somewhat. For a 40-cell battery this reading should 

be 100 volts or a little over at the completion of the charge and before 

the charging circuit is broken. When the needle indicates only 68 

volts, the battery is exhausted; the reading should not be allowed 

to go below 76 volts for a battery of this number of cells, and in the 

same proportion for a greater or lesser number, i.e., the equivalent 

of 1.9 volts per cell. 

Q. Are the instruments liable to defection in service? 
A. The vibration and pounding due to running over uneven 
pavements are extremely severe on a delicate instrument. If the 
ammeter fails to register when the vehicle is started, examine the 
connections; see that the needle has not become bent so as to bind 
it, or see whether it appears to have been shaken out of its bearings, 
though this rarely will happen. To make certain that the instru- 
ments are correct, they should be checked at least once a season by 
comparing with a standard instrument and any variation found 
allowed for in making subsequent readings. This is particularly 
important with the voltmeter on which a slight variation would 
give a misleading indication of the state of the battery, as a differ- 
ence of two or three volts would make it appear that it was fully 
charged before this was actually the case, or nearer exhaustion than 
in reality. 

Q. When the voltmeter needle drops to zero and the car will 
not run, what is the cause? 

A. Trouble in the battery such as a short circuit, or a break in 
the battery wiring such as would be caused by a broken connection. 
See that the battery is properly connected and all connections in the 

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180 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

circuit are clean and tight. Examine the level of the electrolyte in 
all the cells and replenish with distilled water, if necessary. Look 
for cracked or broken jars where electrolyte is very low in a cell. 

Q. When the voltmeter reads normally, but the ammeter does 
not register and the car will not run, what is the trouble? 

A. Most of the late-model electrics are provided with a cut- 
out operated by the brake; see that the brake is released all the way 
and that the cut-out is operating to close the circuit. Examine the 
contacts of the latter and all the contacts and connections of the 
controller. Do the same for the reverse switch. Note whether 
brushes are making good contact with the commutator. 

Q. When the ammeter reading is very high, but the car will 
not start, what is apt to be the cause? 

A. The brakes may be binding or something may have gone 
wrong with the universal joint or with the gears or bearings of the 
differential. Jack up one wheel and see if it can be turned freely 
by hand. If it cannot be turned and the brakes are free, remove 
the rear axle and examine the universal joint, gears, and bearings. 

Q. If the car runs, but the ammeter reading is unusually high, 
what is the trouble? 

A. The brakes may be dragging; see that they release fully 
when the pedal is all the way back. See that the front wheels are 
properly lined up; they are usually given a camber of J to f inch, i.e., 
when viewed from the front they apparently "toe-in". A plumb 
line held at the top of the tire should strike the floor that distance 
away from the tire. The front wheels may not be in line with the 
rear wheels; this usually is caused by running against a curb or 
, dropping into a bad hole, which bends the steering connections. If 
the wheels do not line up properly, adjust the steering connections; 
it may be necessary to bend a part back to bring the wheels into 
line, and this should be done cold. Examine the differential and all 
bearings and driving connections to see that they are properly lubri- 
cated. See that the tires are properly inflated and that only "elec- 
tric" tires are fitted. (See Tires.) 

Q. When the reading of the ammeter is normal, but the speed 
and mileage are low, what is the trouble? 

A. The battery or the motor may be at fault. (See Low 
Mileage.) 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 181 

Q. What is considered a normal ammeter reading? 

A. On smooth hard pavements and in good weather, a car 
provided with a40-or42-cell battery should draw about 30 amperes 
on its highest regular speed after it has finished accelerating and is 
running easily. With a battery of a smaller number of cells, this 
will be higher. It will also be much higher on the accelerated speed 
which is only designed for employment in emergencies. 

Q. Are any instruments other than the voltameter ever 
employed? 

A. Many cars are fitted with ampere-hour meters which show 

how many ampere-hours have been put into the battery on charge 

and how much has been taken out in running. They give a direct 

reading of the amount of energy available in the battery at all times. 

Q. To what faults are such instruments liable? 

A. Broken connections, loose or dirty connections, or a broken 

wire are the only causes of failure that can be remedied in the garage. 

If the instrument is not working properly, due to any other cause, 

it will be necessary to return it to the makers. 

Wiring 

Q. Is trouble often experienced with the wiring of an electric 
vehicle? 

A. Very rarely; the cables are usually of ample size to carry 
the loads for which they are designed, i.e., the lamps or the motor, 
and they are protected by steel armor in the majority of instances. 
On older cars on which adequate protection to the wiring was not * 
always the rule they may be found to have suffered at times from 
mechanical injury. 

Q. What faults are most apt to occur in the wiring? 

A. Loose or broken connections at the terminals, whether at 
the motor, battery, controller, or* reverse switch. This is due simply 
to the vibration and jolting, and when trouble is experienced in the 
running of the machine on the different speeds, the various connec- 
tions should all be examined, first, however, disconnecting the 
battery as mentioned for inspection of the controller. 

Q. Are there any grounded connections on the electric vehicle, 
as in the case of lighting-and-starting systems on the gasoline car? 

A. No. All circuits are of the two-wire type and considerable 

191 



182 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

care is taken to insulate all cables and wires from the chassis of the 
machine. Frayed ends of stranded cables may sometimes cause a 
ground which will announce its presence by blowing the fuse on 
that particular circuit. 

Q. Is there any way of detecting the presence of loose con- 
nections except by inspection? 

A. A jerky movement of the voltmeter needle indicates that 
the circuit is being made and broken at intervals, as would be caused 
by the vibration at a loose connection. 

Fuses 

Q. Where are the fuses located, and what circuits on the 
electric car are protected by fuses? 

A. Usually on a small panel board or junction box on the 
forward face of the dash under the hood; sometimes under the floor 
boards (consult the wiring diagram). Only the lamp circuits are 
protected by fuses, as the load imposed on the motor in starting 
the car in heavy snow or similar bad conditions w T ill often cause the 
ammeter needle to go the limit of its travel, so that fuses on the 
power circuit would not be practical. 

Q. When a fuse blows, what does it indicate? 

A. Usually that a lamp has burned out and in doing so has 
caused a temporary short circuit on that line. This may also be 
caused by a ground or short circuit in the wiring, generally at the 
lamp socket, as the wires themselves are usually well protected from 
injury. Before replacing a burned-out lamp, inspect the terminals 
and connections. 

Q. If the same fuse blows repeatedly, where should the cause 
be sought? 

A. Should inspection show that none of the connections at 
the lamp or the junction box are at fault and the wiring is intact, 
see if the battery connections are properly made, if the battery has 
been overhauled. See that the proper type of lamp is being used 
for replacement and that it is of the proper voltage. 

Lamps 
Q. What is the voltage of the lamps usually supplied on the 
electric car? 

A. Generally that of the total nominal voltage of the battery, 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 183 

i.e., on a car having a 40-cell battery, 80-volt lamps would be used. 
On cars having what is termed a double- voltage system (Ohio), the 
battery being coupled in two units of 20 cells each connected in 
parallel to give certain speeds, instead of employing a resistance, 
40-volt bulbs are used. 

Q. Why should the lamps never be lighted while the battery 
is on charge? 

A. The excess voltage may burn them out or blow the fuses. 
Q. What causes one lamp to burn much brighter than the other? 
A. A bulb of higher voltage may have been used as a replace- 
ment in one socket, or one of the bulbs may be much older than the 
other. The filament increases in resistance with age so that it takes 
less current and gives correspondingly less light. 
Q. If a lamp fails to light, what is the cause? 
A. The fuse on its circuit may have been blown out, or the 
lamp itself may not be making good contact in the socket; the 
wiring may have become grounded or short-circuited, usually at the 
lamp socket. The bulb may be burned out, or its filament broken. 

Low Speed and Mileage 

Q. What are the chief causes of low mileage per charge? 

A. (Battery) The battery may not have been fully charged 
before starting out; the level of the electrolyte in the cells may be 
too low, or there may be a leaky jar. The battery may have lost 
a considerable percentage of its efficiency through abuse or age, or 
it may be new. Full mileage is never obtained on the first run or 
two with a brand new battery or a battery that has just been over- 
hauled; it will not give its normal output until it has been charged 
and discharged four or five times. The battery may not be connected 
up properly; check with the wiring diagram. 

(Motor) See that the commutator is clean and bright, that 
the brushes are making good contact with it over their entire sur- 
face, that they have not been worn down too far and that the springs 
have sufficient tension to keep them firmly pressed against the com- 
mutator. See that all connections are clean and tight. Examine 
the armature connections and see that none have become broken or 
short-circuited; this will usually be indicated by the condition of the 
commutator and is at best a rare cause of trouble. 

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184 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

(Brakes) See that the brakes are properly adjusted and are 
not rubbing against the drums at any point when fully released. 
This will usually be indicated by a high ammeter reading. 

(Lubrication) Neglect to keep the differential housing filled 
to the proper level with the right kind of oil (worm drive), or with 
the proper grease (bevel gear drive), and failure to lubricate the 
motor and wheel bearings will increase the draft on the battery and 
cut down the mileage. The use of grease in the differential of the 
worm drive or the employment of a heavier grease than that recom- 
mended by the maker for a bevel drive will do likewise. 

(Controller) Note whether all the contact fingers of the con- 
troller bear firmly against the segments and whether there is any 
arcing at the contacts when they are operated. Clean and adjust 
as explained under "Controller". Examine reverse switch or 
switches (duplex drive) for the same causes of trouble. 

( Tires) Underinflated tires or the use of a "gasoline" type of 
tire, even on but one of the wheels, will cut down the mileage very 
perceptibly. Nothing but electric-car tires should ever be employed, 
and if tires intended for a gasoline car have been fitted, replace them. 

(Driving) Low mileage is due as frequently to improper 
handling of the car as to any other cause. Excessive use of the 
accelerator speed causes an abnormally heavy draft on the battery 
and the mileage will be considerably reduced. Failure to take advan- 
tage of grades to coast, or to shut off the power sufficiently in advance 
of a stopping place to permit the car to come to a halt without more 
than a gentle pressure on the brake pedal, will do likewise. Attempt- 
ing to start before fully releasing the brakes will also waste a great 
deal of power, if it does not result in badly burning the commutator 
or burning out the armature windings. Making an unusual number 
of stops and short runs in a day's use will cut down the mileage. 

(Weather Conditions) The normal mileage per charge is based 
on favorable road conditions and, as the latter are affected by bad 
weather, the car will not run as far on a charge in rain or snow as in 
dry weather. Wet pavements cause the driving wheels to slip in 
starting, thus causing a loss of power, while the presence of snow or 
mud on the streets will call for a greatly increased amount of power 
to cover the same distance. 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 



INTRODUCTION 

Development of Steam Engines. That steam could be employed 
to produce mechanical motion was first noted in history about 130 
B. C, but it was not until the seventeenth century that it found 
practical application in the industries. The developments were com- 
paratively slow, however, until James Watt (1769) developed his 
engines to a point where they employed practically all the principles 
of the modern double-acting, condensing steam engine. 

With these rapid inprovements came the idea of using the steam 
engine as a means of road locomotion, and in the opening years of the 



Fig. 1. Early Steam Carriage Built by Cugnot (France) in 1770 

nineteenth century such machines were actually built and known as 
"road locomotives", Fig. 1. These machines might be called the 
forerunners of the steam automobile, although structurally they 
more nearly resembled the later traction engines. Bad roads, great 
weight, public opinion, and the development of railroads caused road 
locomotives to drop out of sight until the real coming of the automo- 
bile almost a hundred years later. 

In the meantime the steam engine — both stationary and loco- 
motive types— had reached a high state of development and hence 
many of the early automobiles carried this type of power plant. 



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2 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

Later improvements were made and are still being made along lines 
peculiar to steam automobile construction. Although during the 
last few years the steam car has not kept pace in numbers with 
other types of automobiles, it has certain characteristics, such as 
strong pulling powers at low speeds, capacity for big overloads, and 
ease in driving on the road, which make it especially useful under 
some conditions, the success of the London steam omnibuses being a 
good example. 

CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF STEAM CARS 

In the modern steam automobile the power plant is made up of 
the same general units as make up the stationary power plant, the 
only difference being the extreme compactness necessary and the 
development of the great flexibility required to meet the sudden 
changes in load conditions. With both plants there must be a supply 
of fuel, a means of burning it, a boiler or steam generator, a supply of 
water, an engine, and various means of controlling the amounts of 
fuel, water, and steam. 

Location of Engine* With steam automobiles there is no uni- 
formity of practice as to the placing of the different units in the 




Fig. 2. Plan View of Stanley Steam-Car Chassis 
Courtesy of Stanley Motor Carriage Company, Newton, M as$achusett* 

running gear or chassis. For instance in the Stanley, Fig. 2, the 
boiler is under a hood in front of the driver and the engine is geared 
directly to the rear axle. In the case of the White cars, Fig. 3, which 
were built in comparatively large quantities from 1904 to 1910, the 
engine was placed under the hood in front with a shaft running back 
* to the rear axle. In the White car, a set of gears was also used in the 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES y 3 

drive, by which the relation of engine to wheel speed could be reduced 
to one-half the usual amount, thus doubling the driving effort, or 
"torque". The White boiler was under the front seat. The new 
Doble, Fig. 4, uses the same general arrangement as the Stanley. In 



.1 



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the Leyland steam truck, Fig. 5, and the National busses, both of 
England, the boilers are in front, the engines are under the floor 
boards, with a countershaft and final chain drive, as in Fig. 5, or a 
shaft drive direct to the rear axle. 



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4 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

Boiler and Engine Types. Almost equal variation is found in 
the types of boilers and engines. The difference between fire-tube, 



Fig. 4. Side View of Doblc Steam-Car Chassis 
Courtesy of General Engineering Company, Detroit, Michigan 

water-tube, and flash generators is taken up in the section devoted to 
boilers, while the engine types are taken up in their respective section. 



Fig. o. Lcyland Steam Truck with Chain Drive to Rear Wheels 
Courtesy of Lcyland Motors Company, Ltd., Englaiid 

Some of the cars use the water over several times by condensing the 
steam in coolers, or "condensers", placed at the front of the car. The 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 5 

White and Lane did this, and it is now done by the Stanley, Doble, 
and most of the English steam cars and trucks. The Stanley, up to 
1915, had no condensers, allowing the steam to escape into the air 
after it had passed through the feed-water heater. 

Simplicity of Control. As a general rule, the steam cars do not 
employ a transmission for giving various forward-gear ratios and 
a reverse. The extra heavy loads, as in starting, are taken care of 
V>y lengthening the cut-off and by "simpling", terms w T hich will be 
more fully explained later. Instead of running the engine always in 
one direction and using a gearset for reversing the car, as is done on 
gasoline automobiles, the engine is itself reversed by means of chang- 
ing the timing of the valves through the aid of the valve gear, or 
linkage. 

This change of the valve-timing is used only at starting, reversing, 
or under very heavy load conditions, all ordinary running being 
accomplished with the cut-off in one position. The control of the 
speed of the car, therefore, is accomplished under normal conditions 
by changing the amount of steam going to the engine. The steam is 
turned on or shut off by a hand-operated valve, known as the "throttle 
valve", and this valve is turned by a lever, or second small wheel, 
just above or below the steering wheel. Thus the actual driving of a 
steam car consists of steering and operating the throttle. There are, 
however, numerous gages, valves, etc., which have to be worked upon 
when firing up, and which have to be given occasional attention on 
the road; these w r ill be considered in detail in the following pages. 

Having treated in a general way the different types of steam cars 
and their parts, the theory underlying the behavior of steam will be 
touched upon before taking up the details of construction and the 
operation of the various units. 

HEAT AND WORK 
HEAT TRANSMISSION 

All forms of energy, such a^; light, sound, electricity, and heat, 
are believed to be different forms of vibration either of the molecules 
of material substances or of the ether which is believed to pervade 
all space. 

Energy is indestructible, but any form of energy may be con- 
verted into any other form. Steam engines are classed as heat 

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6 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

engines since they are employed to transform heat energy into me- 
chanical work. Heat may be transmitted from one body to another 
in three ways, namely, by radiation and absorption, by conduction, 
and by convection. 

Radiation and Absorption. Radiation is the transfer of heat 
from one body to another body not in contact with it. It takes place 
equally well in air or in vacuo. The rate of heat transferred depends 
partly on the distance separating the two bodies, and partly on the 
nature of their surfaces. In general, light-colored and polished 
metal surfaces radiate heat more slowly than rough and dark-colored 
surfaces. The laws governing absorption are the same as those 
governing radiation. 

Conduction. Conductioh is the transfer of heat through the 
substance of a body — solid or liquid — to other portions of the same 
body, or to another body in physical contact therewith. Metals arc 
the best conductors of heat, but some metals, such as copper, are 
better conductors than others. Other solids, such as stone, wood, etc. , 
rank after the metals. Liquids are very poor, and gases still poorer, 
conductors of heat. A vacuum is perfectly non-conducting, though 
radiation may still take place through it. 

Convection. Convection is the term applied to the absorption 
of heat by moving liquids or gases in contact with heated surfaces. 
If a blast of air be directed on a piece of hot iron, the iron cools far 
more rapidly than it would in still air. The reason is that, as the air 
is a poor conductor, its molecules do not transmit heat readily from one 
to the next, but if each molecule on becoming heated is immediately 
replaced, heat is rapidly transferred. This property of air of taking 
up heat rapidly when blown over a hot surface is employed in 
gasoline automobiles to cool the so-called "radiators". In reality, the 
heat radiated cuts a small figure compared with that dispersed by 
convection. 

What has just been said regarding air is equally true of other 
gases. It is also true of most liquids. 

Relative Conductivity. Heat conducting qualities vary for 
different substances. Silver, copper, and aluminum conduct heat 
very rapidly, while asbestos is a poor heat conductor and is therefore 
used around the outside of automobile boilers. 

Expansion. Another heat property which has to be con- 



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sidered in the selection of material for steam cars is that of expansion. 
Some metals expand much more than others for each degree of rise 
in temperature. Since brass and copper both expand under heat 
much more than iron they are used in preference to iron in the con- 
struction of expansion tubes, which are fully described later. 

Temperature Measurement Scales. Temperature, which is the 
measure of the intensity of heat, is expressed by means of divisions 
called degrees on some thermometer scales. The 
two thermometers in most general use are the 
Fahrenheit and Centigrade; the former being the 
more common in America and England for both 
engineering and household use, while the latter 
is used exclusively on the Continent. 

Freezing of water occurs at 32° F. (Fahren- 
heit) and boiling of water at 212° F. The scale 
between these two points is divided into 180 equal 
parts. On the Centigrade scale, the points of 
freezing and boiling occur, respectively, at 0° C. 
and 100° C, and there are, therefore, 100 equal 
divisions between the two points, Fig. 6. Thus 
it is seen that every 5 degrees Centigrade equal 9 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

Conversion of Scales. To convert readings in 
one scale to readings in the other, the reading 
given is substituted in the following equation: 



-17.8*- = 



°F-32 
180 



100 



Fig. 6. Centigrade and 
Fahrenheit Thermome- 
ters, Showing Com- 
parison 



Thus, if a temperature is given as —5° C. it is 
equal to 23° F.; 23° C. equals 73.4° F. Conver- 
sion tables over large ranges are given in engineering handbooks, 
such as Kent. 

Absolute Zero. In engineering calculations the absolute zero and 
the absolute scale are sometimes spoken of. This absolute zero, which 
will be mentioned again, is taken as —270° on the Centigrade scale 
and -460.6° on the Fahrenheit scale. Thus -5° C. equals +265° on 
the C.-absolute scale and +483.6° on the F.-aboslute scale. 



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8 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

LAWS OF QASES 

Almost all substances expand with rise of temperature. Solids 
expand least, and in some the expansion is imperceptible. Liquids 
expand about as much as solids, sometimes slightly more. Gases 
and vapors expand a great deal if free to do so. 

Boyle's Law. Before considering the expansion of gases under 
changes in temperature, let us see how they act when the temperature 
is unchanged. A gas is perfectly elastic, that is, if not confined in any 
way it would expand indefinitely. The attraction of gravity is all that 
prevents the atmosphere surrounding the globe from dispersing into 
infinite space. When air is partly exhausted from a closed vessel, 
the remainder, no matter how small, expands so as to distribute itself 
equally throughout the vessel. 

If a cubic foot of air at atmospheric pressure be compressed 
into one-half cubic foot without change in temperature, its pressure 
will be precisely twice what it was before. In speaking of gas pres- 
sures in this manner, it is customary to deal with absolute pressures, 
that is, pressures above a perfect vacuum. Thus atmospheric pressure 
at sea level is approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch, and a cubic 
foot of air reduced one-half in volume will have an absolute pressure 
of 29.4 pounds. 

This relation of pressure and volume is expressed in "Boyle's 
Law", which states that, so long as the temperature is unchanged, 
the product of the pressure and volume of a given weight of gas is 
constant. That is 

PV = C 

This is the most important of all the laws of gases. 

Curve Expressing Boyle's Law Relation. Fig. 7 expresses the 
relation between volume and pressure of a given weight of air starting 
at atmospheric pressure and compressed to a pressure of 500 pounds 
without change in temperature; also expanded to a pressure of 
one pound absolute. Horizontal distances represent volumes, the 
volume at atmospheric pressure being unity; and vertical distances 
represent absolute pressures. To find the pressure of the air for any 
volume greater or less than one, locate the given volume on the 
base line, then, from this point, read up to the curve and find the 
desired pressure by moving horizontally from the curve to the 
scale at the left. 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 9 

Behavior of Gases with Changes of Temperature. As heat is a 
mode of motion, it follows that when all heat is withdrawn motion 
ceases, and the molecules, even of a gas, become fixed. From experi- 
ments and theoretical considerations the absolute zero, representing 
the absence of all heat, is believed to be —273° C, or approximately 
— 460° F. In most theo- 
retical studies of the 
behavior of gases, tem- 
peratures are reckoned 
from absolute zero in- 
stead of from the arbi- 
trary zeroes of the con- 
ventional thermometer. 
When a gas of given 
weight at an absolute 
temperature of 273 de- 
grees — that is, 0° C. on 
the customary scale — is 
raised in temperature one 
degree without change 
in pressure, its volume 
is increased si *• A sec- 
ond degree of added tern- votum* 

perature increases its Vol- Fig. 7. Curve Showing Relation between Volume 

* and Pressure of Air 

ume the same amount, 

and so on. In other w T ords, for each degree Centigrade of added tem- 
perature its volume is increased y\j of its volume at 273° A. 

If degrees Fahrenheit are taken instead of Centigrade, the 
expansion is ? J ? of the volume at 32° F. for each degree of rise in 
temperature. Five degrees C. equal nine degrees F. 

If the gas thus heated is so confined that it cannot expand, it 
will suffer an increase in pressure in the same proportion, that is, *4 y 
of its pressure at 0° C. for each degree Centigrade. If the gas, instead 
of being heated, is cooled, its shrinkage in the one case or its loss 
of pressure in the other will follow the same rule as above. Theoret- 
ically it follows that at —237° C. — absolute zero — the gas would 
have no volume at all. Of course that is impossible, but at ordinary 
temperatures the gases behave as if the assumption were true. 



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10 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

HEAT TRANSFORMATION 

Specific Heat. The temperature of a body and the heat it con- 
tains are two different things. A gallon of water at 100° F. contains 
twice as much heat as half a gallon at the same temperature. That 
is to say, twice as much heat was imparted to it in raising it to that 
temperature. 

Like quantities of different substances at the same temperature 
do not always contain the same quantity of heat. A pound of water 
contains more heat than a pound of oil or alcohol at the same tem- 
perature. It requires 7.7 times as much heat to raise a pound of 
water one degree in temperature as a pound of cast iron. 

The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a 
given weight of a substance one degree, compared with that required 
to change the temperature of the same w r eight of water a like amount, 
is called the "specific heat" of that substance. 

Specific heat varies considerably for different substances, and for 
different temperatures and states of the same substance. Thus the 
specific heat of steam is much less than for water and varies slightly 
as the temperature and pressure of the steam is varied. 

British Thermal Unit. The quantity of heat required to raise 
the temperature of one pound of water one degree F. is known as the 
"British thermal unit" (B.t.u.). Another unit is the "calorie", which is 
the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilo- 
gram (2.2046 lb.) of water one degree Centigrade. One calorie equals 
3.968 B.t.u. The B.t.u. is the unit generally used in this country 
for engineering calculations. The latest investigations lead to 
slightly different and more complicated definitions of the B.t.u. 
from the one given above, but this is near enough for practical 
calculations. 

Heat Value of Fuels. The number of heat units liberated by 
burning a pound of fuel varies for different fuels. The heat value for 
fuels is determined by experiment, and by calculation when the 
chemical composition is known. Due to the variation in the com- 
position of commercial gasoline, different samples will give different 
results, but for most calculations the figure of 19,000 B.t.u. Kerosene 
has a slightly higher value. 

Force. Force is defined as that w T hich produces, or tends to 
produce, motion, and in practical work is usually expressed in units 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 11 

of weight, for example, pounds, kilograms, or tons. A force may 
exist without any resulting motion, and therefore without work being 
done. For example, the weight of any object represents the force of 
gravity attraction between the earth and that body. The atmos- 
phere exerts a pressure or force of approximately 14.7 pounds per 
square inch at sea level. 

Work. Work is done when force is exerted by or on a moving 
body, and is measured by the product of the force into the distance 
through which it is exerted. A convenient unit of work is the "foot- 
pound", which is the work done in lifting a weight of one pound 
against the force of gravitation a vertical distance of one foot, or 
exerting a force of one pound in any direction through a distance of 
one foot. 

Power. Power expresses the rate at which work is done. If a 
foot-pound of work is performed in a minute, the power is small. 
If it is done in a second, the power is 60 times as great. The cus- 
tomary unit of power is the horsepower, which is 33,000 foot-pounds 
per minute. Whether a force of 33,000 pounds be exerted through 
one foot of distance, or one pound be exerted through 33,000 feet in 
the same time, the power is the same. 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. Heat may be converted into 
work or work into heat. Experiments have been made in which water 
was agitated ia a closed vessel by means of paddles run by falling 
weights and the resulting rise in temperature of the water carefully 
determined. From these and other experiments, it has been ascer- 
tained that one British thermal unit is the equivalent of 778 foot- 
pounds of work. That is, a weight of one pound falling 778 feet, or 
778 pounds falling one foot, develops sufficient energy to raise one 
pound of water one degree F. in temperature. A horsepower, there- 
fore, equals 42.416 B.t.u. per minute. The combustion of one pound 
of either gasoline or kerosene liberates approximately 19,900 B.t.u., 
but the kerosene is heavier for equal bulk. One U. S. gallon of 
gasoline weighs about 5.6 pounds; of kerosene, about 6.25 pounds. 
The combustion of a gallon of kerosene per hour develops theoret- 
ically about 49 horsepower but the actual amount of energy obtained 
falls far short of this. Owing to heat losses in the boiler and exhaust, 
and to radiation, etc., only a small fraction of this energy can be 
converted into useful work. 

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THERMODYNAMICS OF STEAM 
Latent Heat. If water be heated in an open vessel it will reach 
a temperature of approximately 212° F. (100° C.) and will then boil 
away without further rise in temperature. The added heat is 
absorbed in converting the water into steam. 

It takes far more heat to convert water into steam than to raise 
its temperature. A pound of water heated to boiling from 32° F. 
absorbs only 180 B.t.u., but in boiling away at 212° F. it absorbs 
966 B.t.u. additional. At atmospheric pressure the vol- 
ume of the steam is 1645 times the volume of the water 
whence it came. This bulk of steam must displace an 
equal bulk of air, and part of the heat energy represented 
by the steam has been spent in pushing back the air to 
give it room. This will be made clearer from the sketch, 
Fig. 8, showing a long tube open at the top and containing 
a little water at the bottom. On top of the water is a 
piston, supposed to be air-tight and without weight or 
friction. If the water be boiled into steam, the piston 
will be pushed upward against the atmospheric pressure 
a distance equal to 1645 times the original depth of the 
water. The work in foot-pounds thus done will be 14.7 
times the area of the piston in square inches times the 
distance in feet through which it has moved. Approxi- 
mately 7.45 per cent of the heat imparted to the steam 
represents work done against the atmosphere; the remain- 
der is spent in overcoming the mutual attraction of the 
molecules of water. The heat which has been absorbed 
by the" change in state from w T ater to steam without 
change in temperature is called the ' 'latent heat of vapor- 
ization". 

If a vessel containing water at 212° F., which is the 
atmospheric boiling point, be put under the receiver of 
an air pump and the air partly exhausted, boiling will 
take place spontaneously without further addition of heat. At the 
same time the temperature of the water will decrease, because part 
of the heat contained in it has been absorbed by the conversion of 
water into vapor. If the air pump keeps on working, the water will 
boil continuously while its temperature steadily descends. If the 



a 



Fig. 8. Expan- 
sion of Water 
into Steam 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 13 

experiment be carried far enough, with the vessel so supported that 
it can absorb little or no heat from adjacent objects, and if the 
vapor given off be rapidly absorbed, for example, by placing a tray 
of quick-lime or sulphuric acid adjacent, the water may actually be 
frozen by its own evaporation. 

This experiment shows that the boiling point of water — and 
this includes other liquids also — is not a fixed temperature but 
depends on the pressure. All volatile liquids when exposed to partial 
or complete vacuum give off vapor; on the contrary, this vapor when 
subjected to pressure partly re-condenses and a higher temperature 
is needed to produce boiling. Under an absolute pressure of 147 
pounds or 10 "atmospheres", the boiling point is 356.6° F. At 500 
pounds absolute pressure the boiling point is 467.4° F. (242° C). 

The "total" heat of steam at the boiling point corresponding 
to a given pressure is the sum of its latent heat of vaporization and 
the heat contained at the same temperature in the water from which 
the steam was formed. The total heat of steam increases slowly, but 
the latent heat diminishes nearly in proportion as the boiling point 
rises. The space occupied by a given weight of steam diminishes 
approximately in proportion to the increase in pressure. In this 
respect the steam resembles a perfect gas without change of tempera- 
ture in accordance with Boyle's Law. Tables showing the pressures, 
temperatures, latent heat, etc., of steam are given in Kent and other 
handbooks. 

The experiment just cited of producing spontaneous boiling 
in water by exhausting the air above it, may be duplicated with hot 
water at any temperature and pressure. For example, the boiling 
point of water under 100 pounds absolute pressure is 327.6° F. 
If, in a boiler containing water at that temperature and pressure, 
the pressure be reduced to 50 pounds by the withdrawal of steam, the 
water will boil spontaneously, absorbing its own heat in doing so, 
until it reaches a temperature of 280.9° F., which is the boiling point 
for 50 pounds absolute pressure. 

Cause of Boiler Explosions. Owing to the property of giving 
off steam under reduction of pressure, every steam boiler constitutes 
a reservoir of energy which may be drawn upon to carry the engine 
through a temporary period of overload. In other words, the boiler 
will give out steam faster than the fire generates steam, the difference 

209 



14 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

being supplied from the heat stored in the water itself. This is an 
exceedingly useful feature of the ordinary steam boiler. At the 
same time, and for the same reason, it is a source of danger in case of 
rupture of the boiler shell. If a boiler explosion involved simply 
the release of the steam already formed it would not be so serious a 
matter; but when a seam starts to "go" the adjacent portions are 
unable to carry the abnormal strain put upon them, and the result 
is a rent of such proportions as to release almost instantly the entire 
contents of the boiler. The hot water thus suddenly liberated at 
high temperature bursts into steam until the whole mass drops to a 
temperature of 212 degrees, and this steam is many hundred times 
the volume of the water from which it came. It is to this fact that the 
violence of boiler explosions is due. 

To take an extreme case, if a boiler bursts under 500 pounds 
pressure, approximately thirty-seven per cent of the water it contains 
will pass instantly into steam, and at atmospheric pressure the volume 
of che steam will be over 600 times the volume of the entire original 
liquid contents of the boiler. 

Automobile boilers and steam generators are so designed as 
to minimize the danger of explosion, and only ordinary care is needed 
to insure entire safety. 

Superheating. The foregoing paragraphs have dealt exclusively 
with steam at the boiling temperature due to its pressure. Such 
steam is called "saturated" fcteam. Steam will not suffer a reduction 
of temperature below this point; if heat be absorbed from it a portion 
will condense. On the other hand, steam isolated from the water 
whence it came may be raised in temperature indefinitely. It is then 
called "superheated" steam. The more it is superheated the more 
nearly does it act like a perfect gas. 

Superheated steam is preferred for power purposes to saturated 
steam, for the reason that the latter condenses more or less, both in 
the pipes on its way to the engine and in the engine itself. Steam 
which condenses thus is a total loss, and it is more economical to add 
sufficient heat- to it before it reaches the engine to replaces radiation 
losses, etc., without cooling the steam to the saturation point. To 
accomplish this in automobiles, the steam from the boiler is led 
through one or more pipes exposed to the maximum temperature of 
the fire. These pipes are called superheaters, or superheating pipes. 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 15 

MECHANICAL ELEMENTS OF THE STEAM ENGINE 

General Details of Steam Engine Parts. In Fig. 9 a plan view 
of a stationary steam engine is given, with the cylinder and valve 
chest shown in cross section, and with the various parts marked by 
letters. A view of a stationary engine is used because it is not so 
condensed as an automobile engine, and the parts are therefore 
easier to mark and pick out. The relations and names of parts are 
the same in an automobile engine. 



Fig. 9. Plan View of Typical Stationary Engino 

A, Cylinder. B, Outer cylinder head. C, Piston rod. D, Crosshead. E, Connecting rod. 
F , Crankpin. Q, Crank. H, Crankshaft. J, Eccentric. J, Eccentric rod. A", Eccentric 
crosshead. L, Valve stem. 3f, Steam chest. N, Steam pipe connection. PP % Flywheels. 
Q, Crosshead guides. R, Valve stem guide. 5, Engine frame. T, Stuffing box. U, Piston. 
V, Wristpin. WW, Steam ports. X t Slide valve. Y, Eccentric strap. Z, Clearance space 
between piston and cylinder head at end of stroke. 



A is the cylinder to which steam is admitted through the pas- 
sages, or ports, W W, which connect it with the steam chest M. The 
opening and closing of these ports is accomplished by the movement 
of the valve X. Because of its shape, the valve here shown is called 
a D-slide valve. Other types of valves are piston valves and poppet 
valves, names which explain themselves. The valve is attached to 
the valve stem L and is guided by the valve-stem guide R. Motion 
back and forth is given the valve by the eccentric /, which is a circu- 
lar disk on the crankshaft, with its center offset from the center of 
crankshaft H. 

Returning to the cylinder, U is the piston, which is driven back 
and forth by the steam. Connected to the piston is the piston rod C, 

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which passes through the gland, or stuffing box T. This gland is for 
the purpose of holding the packing which prevents the escape of 
steam around the piston rod. The end of the rod, or crosshead D 
slides back and forth in the crosshead guides Q Q. To the crosshead 
is attached the connecting rod E, by means of the wristpin V. In 
the lower end of the connecting rod is the crankpin F . 

In steam automobile engines the flywheels P P are usually not 
needed and are consequently omitted. The rim of the gear wheel, 
when the engine is geared directly to the rear axle, has a slight fly- 
wheel action. 

SLIDE VALVE 

The leading mechanical elements of the steam engine have been 
briefly described. It remains now to show the precise manner in 
which the steam is used. 

Elementary Slide Valve. Fig. 10 represents an elementary slide 
valve. In order to indicate the movements of the crankpin and the 
valve eccentric on one drawing, the crankshaft center is located at 

A . B represents the 




V. 






Fig. 10. Elementary Slide Valve — Valve in Mid-Position 




Fig. 11. Elementary Slide Valve — Inlet and Exhaust Ports 
Partly Uncovered 





Fig. J 2. Elementary Slide Valve — Inlet and -Exhaust Porta 
Fully Opened — Piston in Mid-Position 



crankpin center with 
the piston C at the 
inner end of its 
stroke. The larger 
dotted circle is the 
crankpin circle, and 
the small circle is that 
in which the center 
D of the eccentric 
moves. With the 
crankpin traveling as 
the arrow shows, the 
valve is in mid-posi- 
tion when the piston 
starts to move, and 
the first effect of its 
movement is to un- 
cover the steam port 
E, at the same time 
establishing com- 



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STEAM AUT0M0BILE3 



17 



munication between port E' and exhaust port-F, Fig. 11. At half- 
piston stroke the ports are wide open and the valve starts to return, 
Fig. 12. When the crankpin reaches the outer dead center G the 
ports are again closed. 

Use of Steam Cut-Off. A steam engine with valve arranged as 
above would take steam through the entire stroke, and would exhaust 
at boiler pressure. It would develop the maximum power of which it 
was capable at that pressure, but no use would have been made of 



fO LBS. 


6 


A 






S ** 7 








* 

1 








/ 


%'+7 F 


3 




J c 




O 


i 

D ! 


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I 






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PS-SB| 








m_- — _, 










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H '; 








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Fi«. 13. Theoretical Indicator Diagram for One-Half Cut-Off 

the expansion force of the steam. For this reason, all practical steam 
engines are made to admit steam only for the first portion of the 
stroke, that is, about one-half stroke or less, the remainder of the 
stroke being devoted to expansion. In Fig. 13, suppose A represents 
the position of a piston moving from left to right. The horizontal 
distance B C represents the stroke, and vertical distances represent 
steam pressures. D E is the line of zero pressure, and F C that of 
atmospheric pressure. Suppose steam is admitted at 50 pounds gage 
pressure during the first half of the stroke from G to //; the steam 
port then closes and the steam expands with diminishing pressure 
along the curve H I. Since work is the product of force into distance 
traveled, it follows that for each fraction, such as B J of the piston 
travel, the included area BG KJ will represent the work done 
during that portion of the stroke, and the area of the entire card 
BG H I C will represent the work done during the whole stroke. 



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Fig. 14. Theoretical Indicator Diagram for One- 
Quarter Cut-Off 



In the case under consideration, the area of the whole diagram is 
84.4 per cent of that which would have been produced if the steam 
had entered during the entire stroke, yet only half as much steam 
is used. 

Indicator Diagrams. A diagram such as Fig. 13 is called the 
"indicator diagram" or "indicator card", and is employed to study 

the internal action of 
the engine. The expan- 
sion curve of steam fol- 
lows Boyle's Law with 
sufficient closeness for 
practical purposes. Fig. 
14 is similar to Fig. 13 
except that the steam is cut off at one-quarter stroke, point H. 
In the foregoing, no mention has been made of the contents of 
the steam passages between the slide valve and the cylinder, or of the 
clearance volume between the piston and the cylinder head when the 
crank is on dead center. These clearance spaces cannot wholly be 
avoided, but it is desirable to reduce them as much as possible. It 
is customary in indicator cards to represent the clearance space 
by an area to the left of the actual indicator card. This area is 
F LG B in Fig. 13 and Fig. 14. Its volume averages about 5 per 
cent of the volume swept by the piston. Owing to the necessity 

of taking the steam in 
the clearance space into 
account, the actual steam 
consumption in Fig. 14 is 
a trifle more than half 
that in Fig. 13. 

Effect of Compres- 
sion on Indicator Card. 
The objectionable influ- 
ence of the clearance 
may be neutralized by 
closing the exhaust port 
before the piston has finished its return stroke, thereby trapping 
the remaining steam at atmospheric pressure and compressing it to 
boiler pressure. If this is done, none of the entering steam is wasted 




Fig. 15. Actual Indicator Card, Showing Compression 



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merely in filling the clearance space. Fig. 15 shows the effect of 
compression on an actual indicator card. It is not carried to boiler 
pressure, but only to point A. 

Another reason for using compression is to cushion the recipro- 
cating parts at the end of their stroke and prevent the shock which 
may otherwise occur on suddenly admitting live steam. 

Effect of High Pressure and Early Cut-Off. As Fig. 14 shows, 
no great advantage is gained when working with steam at 50 pounds 

by cutting off earlier 
than one-third stroke. If 
higher pressure is used, 
however, the cut-off can 
be considerably short- 
ened. Fig 16 is a theo- 
retical indicator diagram 
for 200 pounds gage 
pressure (214.7 absolute). 
The clearance is 5 per 
cent of the piston dis- 
placement, and cut-off 
occurs at one-tenth 
stroke. The weight of 
steam per stroke is about 
the same as in Fig. 14, 
but the work done by the 
higher pressure is nearly two-thirds greater. This shows strikingly 
the economic advantage of using high pressure, provided the cut- 
off is shortened to correspond. 

Effect of Adding Steam Lap, To produce a short cut-off, what 
is known as outside lap or steam lap is added to the edges of the slide 
valve A A, Fig. 17. To produce 
compression inside exhaust lap 
B B is also added. Figs. 18 and 19 
show how the valve mechanism 
is affected by these changes. In 
Fig. 18 the piston is about to begin its stroke, but the valve is no 
longer in mid-position. Instead, the eccentric has had to be ad- 
vanced through an angle, known as the "angle of advance", in order 




Fig. 16. Theoretical Indicator Card for One-Tenth 
Cut-Off 




Fig. 17 



Section of Slide Valve, Showing 
Steam and Exhaust Laps 



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Fig. 18. 



Elementary Slide Valve, Showing Effect of 
Adding Laps 




Fig. 19. Elementary Slide Valve, Showing Adjustment 
of Lead 



to open the port as the piston starts to move. The necessary travel 
is also increased in order to accomplish the idle movement when all 
ports are closed. As the diagrams show, the valve reaches the end 

of its movement, re- 
turns, and closes the 
steam port while the 
piston is in the first 
quarter of its move- 
ment. It then con- 
tinues to move, but 
with only the exhaust 
open. 

It is customary, 
as Fig. 19 shows, to 
open the steam port 
a trifle before the 
piston begins its 
stroke in order to 
avoid wire drawing of the steam before the port goes fairly open. If 
this were not done, there would be an appreciable drop in pressure 
at the beginning of the stroke. The amount of this premature open- 
ing of the valve is called its "lead". 

SUPERHEATED STEAM AND COMPOUND EXPANSION 

Superheating to Avoid Cylinder Condensation. When steam 
expands its temperature drops by reason of expansion, causing the 
cylinder walls to assume an average temperature which slightly 
increases from contact with the hot steam and slightly diminishes at 
the end of every stroke. The hot entering steam condenses on the 
walls, and re-evaporates near the end of the stroke. This is very 
undesirable, and is avoided by superheating the steam sufficiently 
to compensate for the initial loss of heat to the walls. In addition, 
heat loss by radiation is minimized by lagging the cylinder w r alls and 
heads with asbestos, magnesia, or other non-conducting coverings. 

When steam is used at pressures above 100 pounds, compound 
engines are preferable, although not always used. 

Compound Engines. In a compound engine the work done by 
expansion is divided as nearly equal as practicable between two 



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cylinders, called respectively the high-pressure and the low-pressure 
cylinder. The high-pressure cylinder is the smaller in diameter, 
and it exhausts into the low-pressure cylinder instead of into the 
atmosphere. In the diagram, Fig. 20, showing the elements of 
a compound engine, the 
steam is being transferred 
from the high-pressure 
cylinder to the low-pres- 
sure cylinder. The steam 
expands by reason of the 
difference in the areas of 
the two pistons. 

A compound engine 
may be considered as 
though the steam were 
expanded wholly in the 
low-pressure cylinder, and 
the indicator diagrams of 
the two cylinders may be 
combined to show the total 
work done, by shortening 
the horizontal distances of 
the high-pressure card in proportion to its smaller piston area. 
Comparison of Indicator Diagrams for Stationary and Automobile 
Engines. Fig. 21 is a combined diagram from the high- and low- 
pressure cylinders of a stationary compound engine. Both cards are 
drawn to the same scale as regards stroke, but the low-pressure card 

reads from right to left. 
F is the point of admis- 
sion to the high-pressure 
cylinder. The slight peak 
at A is due to the inertia 
of the in-rushing steam. 
At B the admission valve 
closes. At C the steam is 
released and goes into 
the receiver between the 

Indicator Diagram of a Stationary Compound i* i t\ r< • j_i 

steam Engine cylinders. D L is the 




Fig. 20. Elements of a Compound Steam Engine 




Fig. 21. 



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22 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

exhaust line, and E F the compression line. From DtoE steam passes 
from the high- to the low-pressure cylinder, the difference between 
the two lines being due to frictional resistance of the passages. At G 
the exhaust valve opens. HI is the compression line of the low- 
pressure cylinder. 

Use of Condensers. In the foregoing paragraphs steam is 
supposed to be exhausted at atmospheric pressure. In other words, 
the steam in the working end of the cylinder must overcome a back 
pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch in the exhaust end. If the 
exhaust steam were discharged into a closed vessel and condensed, 
a vacuum would be formed containing only water vapor at a pressure 



Fig. 22. Stanley Radiator Fig. 23. Doble Radiator 

proportionate to its temperature. This would mean the addition of 
5, 10, or even 12 pounds to the height of the indicator card without 
having to increase the heat units put into the steam. To do this 
requires considerable apparatus — condenser, vacuum pump, etc., all 
of which it has been found inadvisable to install on an automobile. 

Condensers on steam cars are not for the purpose of increasing 
the total expansion by dropping below atmospheric pressure, but to 
condense the water at atmospheric pressure so as to be able to use it 
again and avoid having to fill the water tank so often. 

As shown in Figs. 22 and 23, both the Stanley and the Doble 
use condensers of the same general construction and appearance as 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 23 

the radiators used on the ordinary gasoline car. The exhaust steam 
from the engine enters at the top of the radiator and is forced down- 
ward by the steam which is following. As it passes down the radi- 
ator, the air going through the spaces between the water passages 
cools it, until, by the time it reaches the bottom, it has been con- 
densed into water. 

VALVE GEARS 

Throttling and Reversing. Steam engines are regulated partly 
by the cut-off and partly by throttling. As has been pointed out 
above, it is impracticable to use a cut-off so short as to expand the 
steam to, or below, exhaust pressure. Beyond this point reduction 
of power must be had by throttling the steam on its way to the engine. 
The shortening of the cut-off, and the complete throwing over of the 
valve timing to the other side of the dead center to reverse 
the engine, may be accomplished by shifting the angular position 
of the eccentric on the crankshaft or by the use of one of several 
valve gears or linkages. 

Types of Gears. Up to the last few years the most common 
gear was the "Stephenson Link", developed by Robert Stephenson 
and Company, in 1842. In locomotive work the Stephenson gear 
has been largely displaced by the Walschaert gear. Practically all 
the earlier steam automobiles used the Stephenson, but later some 
changed to the "Joy Gear", which is one of a number of radial gears 
employing linkages without the use of eccentrics. 

Stephenson Link. The Stephenson link is shown in Fig. 24. It 
consists of two eccentrics A on the crankshaft — one for the for- 
ward motion and the other for the reverse. The two eccentric rods 
are pinned to the link B, in which there is a curved slot. In the 
slot is carried the block C, which is a sliding fit and is pinned to 
the valve stem. 

By means of the hanger rod D and the reverse lever arm E f 
the link is moved up and down, so that the slide is in different posi- 
tions from the center of the slot. When the block is on one side of the 
link center it partakes of the motion of one of the eccentrics, and 
when on the other side of the motion of the other eccentric. Thus 
the valve timing is changed from the forward running position to the 
reverse by changing the position of the block in the curved slot. 



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It is a feature of the Stephenson link motion that by rocking 
the link toward (but not to) its mid-position the valve travel and 
cut-off are shortened, and this feature is utilized to improve economy . 
At the same time the lead is increased, that is, steam is admitted 
before the piston begins its new stroke. This is not a disadvantage 



Fig. 24. Stephenson Link Motion Used on Stanley Steam Cars 

at high speeds, as the fresh steam has a cushion effect on the recip- 
rocating parts. At low speeds, however, the engine runs jerkily, and 
consequently the cut-off is shortened only at medium to high speeds. 
Joy Gear. The Joy gear is a well known English development, 
which is used on a number of steam automobiles. Its operation may 




Fig. 25. Diagram of Joy Valve-Gear Mechanism 

be understood by referring to Fig. 25. A link is pinned at one end to 
the engine at H and at the other end to a link, which in turn is pinned 
to the connecting rod at C. To this second link is pinned the link 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 25 

D E, to the upper end of which is attached the rod E G, which moves 
the valve. At A on D E is pivoted the block A, which slides in the 
slotted guide, the guide being slightly concave on the side toward 
the valve. This guide is pinned to the engine frame at its center 
point P. In the position of the guide, as shown, the valve is in full 
gear for forward running, but if the guide is swung about the point P, 
by means of a connection at F, until it is in the position B F, the 
engine will then be in full reverse. 

As with the Stephenson, the moving of the Joy toward the half- 
way point shortens the cut-off. This gear has an advantage over the 
Stephenson in that the lead is not increased and the distribution of 
steam to the two ends of the cylinder on short cut-off is more nearly 
equal. The Joy gear also gives a rapid opening and closing to the 
valve. 

ENGINE TYPES AND DETAILS 

Although makers have their individual preferences in engine 
types as regards the placing of the cylinders, compounding, and 
other features, the practice of using two cylinders has become almost 
universal. 

Stanley. An example of the two-cylinder type is the Stanley 
engine, which, in the present models, is made in three sizes of the 
following bore and stroke: 3£ by 4 \, 4 by 5, and 4| by 6£ inches. 
This engine is geared directly to the rear axle by a spur gear mounted 
on the crankshaft, as shown in Fig. 26, and the frame rods are 
attached radially from the axle housing. The cylinder end is attached 
to the frame of the car. The rear-axle gear ratio in the small light 
runabout model is 30 to 56, and in the heavy delivery car is 40 to 80. 
With a gear ratio of 40 to 60 in one of the touring cars the engine 
turns over at 447 r.p.m. when the car is running 30 miles per hour. 

Both cylinders take high-pressure steam at both ends, the engine 
being of the double-acting, simple type. The steam chest, Fig. 27, 
lies between the two cylinders, with the D-slide valves driven by the 
eccentrics lying next to the drive-shaft gear. In Fig. 26 is shown 
the Stephenson link by which the cut-off is hooked up and the reversing 
of the engine accomplished. This valve gear has been described in 
detail on page 23. The cross shaft, working the link, and the hook, for 
holding it in the normal position, are shown just to the left of A. 

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26 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

The hooking up is done by the left pedal, which can be released by a 

pedal beside it called the clutch pedal. 

Roller and ball bearings are used extensively in the Stanley 

motor. The crosshead bears on a plain crosshead guide, and the 

connecting-rod and eccentric- 
strap bearings are of the ball 
type. The counterweights are 
also shown in Fig. 26. 

Lubrication of the outside 
parts is effected by enclosing the 
gears, crankshaft, and other parts 
in a sheet-metal case, which is 
kept about half full of moderately 
thin mineral oil. The lubrication 
of the cylinder walls is accom- 
plished by feeding the oil into the 
steam line, and the special super- 
heated steam-cylinder oil recom- 
mended is given fully in a later 
section. 

The Stanley power pumps 
for water, fuel, and oil, shown in 

Fig. 20. Stanley Two-Cylinder Steam Engine, Fig. 46, are driven from the rear 

Showing Link Motion and Balanced Shaft 

axle. 
Doble. The Doble engine, shown in full length section in Fig. 
28, is made up of two cylinders of the same size. It is of the simple- 
expansion double-acting type, and the interesting feature is that the 

uni-flow principle is employed. The 
cylinder bore is 5 inches and the 
stroke is 4 inches. 

On top of the cylinders are the 
valve chests. Each valve is made 
up in two pieces so that it may lift 
when the compression pressure ex- 
ceeds the steam pressure, as some- 
times happens in slow running. This 

Fig. 27. Cylinder Construction of Stanley Construction alk)WS the USe of high 
Steam Kngino, Showing Steam . 1 • i • i • i ^ u.i_ 

chest in center compression, w r hich is desired at the 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 27 

higher speeds. The gear used to control the valve motion is a 
modification and simplification of the Joy gear, Fig. 25. In the 

Doble gear the connecting 
and anchor links are done 
away with, and a straight 
rocker guide is employed. 
In starting, the cut-off is 
five-eighths stroke, and this 
same position is used for 
heavy pulling. For ordinary 
running, one-fifth stroke cut- . 
off is used, while for econ- 
omy and high speed it is 
•| reduced to one-eighth 
§ stroke. 
g i By the uni-flow prin- 

j|5 ciple is meant that the 
3 | steam moves in but one 
2 J direction within the cylin- 
g | der. It enters through the 
I .g inlet passage at the extreme 
. c5 end of the cylinder, expands 
^ | against the piston head, and 
fo 2, passes out of the exhaust 
J ports, which are uncovered 
§ by the piston a little before 
it reaches the end of the 
stroke. It is claimed for 
this system that the thermal 
conditions are so good that 
the use of superheated 
steam, with its attendant 
troubles, is unnecessary. 

Aluminum is employed 
for the crankcase, with large 
cover plates, top and bot- 
tom, for easy access to the 
moving parts. The accessibility of the valve gear is very well 

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28 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

shown in Fig. 29. The case, which has its cover removed, con- 
tains all the moving parts of the engine with the exception of the 
valves and pistons; and, since the case and the axle tubes, which 
are bolted to it, are oil-tight, all these parts are "kept in a bath of 



Fig. 30. Piston and Crosshead Guide of Doble Engine 

oil. This oil keeps comparatively cool and as there is no combus- 
tion, it does not deteriorate as in the gasoline car. 

A special design of long cast-iron gland is used for the piston 
rod at the cylinder, and there is a stuffing box where the rod passes 
into the crankcase. The crosshead guide is part of a cylinder, as 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 29 

slown in Fig. 30, giving a large bearing surface. Annular roller 
bearings are used for the big end of the connecting rod, for the 
crankshaft, and for the differen- 
cial. Hardened steel, running in 
hardened steel bushings, is used 

for all the other bearings. 

Being geared at practically a 

1 to 1 ratio to the axle shafts, the 

engine always runs at compara- 
tively slow speed. A 47-tooth 

pinion is carried on the engine 

crankshaft and to this is fastened 

the counterbalance. This gear 

. . , p , Fig. 31. Top View of National Power Plant 

meshes With One OI 49 teeth On bfor London Steam Omnibuses 

.i j./« ,. i .j mi ].* Courtesy of Society of Automobile Engineers, 

the differential spider. Ine dif- New Yorkaty 



Fig. 32. Separate Engine and Dynamo for Lighting National Busses 
Courtesy of Society of Automobile Engineers, New York City 

ferential is of the three-pinion bevel-gear type. Meshing with the 
axle gear is an idler, and then a gear on the electric generator, which 
furnishes current for the combustion system and the lights. 

National. In the National steam omnibuses of London, Eng- 
land, the engines are placed under the floor boards, Fig. 31, and, 



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30 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

unlike any of the American engines, the two cylinders lie across the 
chassis. The drive is taken by a shaft to worm gearing at the rear 
axle. These engines have a Joy gear, and the pumps for the water 
and kerosene are driven from a cross shaft, which in turn is driven 
by a worm gear off the extension of the crankshaft, as is shown in the 
illustration. An interesting feature of the National chassis is the use 
of an entirely separate steam engine for driving the electric-lighting 
generator, which supplies the large number of lights used inside the 
busses. This auxiliary engine is shown in Fig. 32. 

From what has been said it must not be supposed that all auto- 
mobile steam engines use two-cylinder engines with either D or piston 
valves. The Pearson-Cox steam truck of England has a three- 
cylinder vertical engine with poppet valves in chambers at each side 
of the cylinders, and the whole engine looks very much like a vertical 
poppet-valve gasoline motor. 

A number of very heavy English trucks, or "lorries" as they call 
them, are driven by steam, and are very popular in England. These 
carry from 3 to 10 tons, and the boilers and parts of some of them 
are very large. 

FUELS AND BURNERS 

Gasoline and Kerosene as Fuels. Energy for driving steam 
engines is derived, of course, from the fuel burning and forming 
steam from the water, the steam in turn doing mechanical work by 
its expansion in the engine. In an automobile it is of prime^impor- 
tance that the fuel be as easily handled, carried, and purchased as 
possible. Of the commercial fuels, gasoline and kerosene come the 
nearest to these ideals and are, therefore, the most jypular. Kero- 
sene is less expensive than gasoline, but does not vaporize at as low a 
temperature while, as a rule burners are specially designed for kero- 
sene, many modern burners will handle either of these fuels or a 
mixture of them. 

To burn either of these fuels the vapor must be mixed with air, 
which supplies the necessary oxygen for combustion. Either of these 
vapors, if mixed with the right amount of air, is highly inflammable 
and explosive, and therefore, care must be taken in storing and 
in filling the fuel tank, not to have open lights about — not even 
lighted cigars. 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 



31 



Burner Principles. Bunsen Burner. The purpose of the burner 
is^first to vaporize t hejiguid fuel by heating it and then to mix it 
with enough air to produce the hottest possible flame under the 
boiler. In principle the burner is the same as the ordinary Bunsen 
burner, Fig, 33, in which the gas passes under moderate pressure 
through the small opening b. In going up the tube a it draws 
in a certain amount of air through the openings o, the fuel gas and 
air becoming well mixed in the tube before reaching the flame. In 
case either too much or too little air is mixed with the gas, the flame 
will run back through the tube 
a, and will burn at o. This is 
called "popping back", and not 
only takes away the effect of the 
flame but will ruin the burner if 
allowed to continue in operation 
in this way. 

Modifications for Automobile 
Work. In automobile work the 
burner is somewhat modified in 
order to a ct ove r a large area and 
to give a flame of more intense 
Keat. Forjthe purpose of feeding 
more gas, and_to mix, it- more 
quickly with the air, the fuel i§ 
fed under considerable pressure. 

The correct mixture of air 
and fuel gas gives a blue flame,, 
just slightly tinged with orange at 
the top, and burning rather close 
fo IHe burner. If too much air is given the mixture, the flame will start 
a considerable distance above the burner and will be very blue. The 
excess air tends to cool the flame. Too little air is equally bad, for 
the combustion will then be incomplete and, since gasoline and 
kerosene are hydrocarbons, soot will be deposited on the surfaces 
above the flame. Such a flame is indicated by a yellow color. As in 
the ordinary Bunsen burner, poor mixtures are apt to pop back. 
When this happens the operator must turn off the burner and relight 
it. The popping back is indicated by a roaring sound. 




Fig. 33. Typical Bunsen Burner 



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32 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

Pilot Light. As the demand for steam is not constant in an 
automobile, it is desirable to have the main burner come on and off 
automatically. In order to light the main burner whenever it may 
come on, a small light is kept burning continuously while the car is 
in use, whether running or standing still. It is even the practice of 
some owners to keep this pilot light, as it is called, lighted over night. 
Besides relighting the main burner when the car is running, the pilot 
is lighted first when firing up a cold boiler. The burning of the pilot 
serves to heat the vaporizer of the main burner as well as to light the 
main fire. The handling of the pilot in firing up will be taken up later. 
Due to its easier vaporization, gasoline is always used for the 
pilot-light fuel even when kerosene is used for the main burner. It 
is also quite general to have the two fuel systems separate, although 
both may be using gasoline. In starting up a cold system the pilot 
vaporizer must be heated by some outside means. This is done in 

several ways: one is to use 
a separate gasoline torch; 
another is to use an acety- 
lene torch instead of a gas- 
oline torch; and a third 
method is to light a little 
pool of gasoline below the 
vaporizer, similar to the 
method used in many gas- 
oline cook stoves and plumb- 
ers' torches. 

Types of Burners. Dif- 

Fig. 34. Stanley Burner, Showing Vaporiser and ferent makers, of COUrse 

Courtesy of Sla^^J^cTrria^ Company, USe SOmewhat different COn- 

Ncvton, Massachusetts structions for their burners, 

but in all cases the fuel gas is vaporized by heat and mixecHn a burner 
of the Bunsen type. As a fair example of all the burners, that of 
the Stanley will be described in detail, while short descriptions will 
also be given of other makes. 

Stanley. Either gasoline, kerosene, or a mixture of the two can 
be burned in the Stanley main burner. The burner, Fig. 34, consists 
of a corrugated casting with a large number of slots cut across the 
peaks of each parallel corrugation. Vaporization of the fuel takes 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 33 

place in the two coiled tubes A A which lie directly over the fire. 
From the vaporizing tubes the gas flows at high velocity through the 
nozzles B B into the mixing tubes C C drawing with it the air 
necessary for good combustion. The mixing tubes lead under the 
burner, and combustible gas issues through the fine slots, where it 
burns with an intensely hot blue flame tipped with orange. No air 
currents are present to blow or cool the flame, for the burner casting 
excludes all air except that drawn in and mixed with the gas through 
the tubes C C. To adjust the amount of air to give the correct color 
to the flame, bend the nozzles closer to the opening of the mixing 
tube for less air, and vice versa. 

Between the two main-burner vaporizer tubes is located the 
pilot light, which is a small independent casting. The pilot burns 
gasoline, supplied from a separate tank, irrespective of whether the 
main burner uses gasoline or kerosene. Due to the position of the 
pilot, it keeps the main-burner vaporizer warm when the main burner 
is shut off by either the automatic or hand valve controlling it. When 
the main burner is turned on, the pilot flame ignites the gas. Since 
the pilot is independent of the main-burner valves, it remains lighted 
until turned off by its own hand-operated valve. The heat from the 
pilot is sufficient to hold steam in the boiler for several hours after the 
car is stopped and the main burner shut off. 

In starting up the pilot of the Stanley when cold, an acetylene 
torch is played on the pilot vaporizer to vaporize the first gasoline, 
after which the heat from the pilot light itself keeps the pilot vapor- 
izer warm. The acetylene is carried in a "Prest-O-Lite" tank and 
turned on by a valve at the tank. The torch lights by simply apply- 
ing a match, and should be played on the pilot vaporizer until it is 
sizzling hot, which takes between 15 and 30 seconds. The torch is 
then moved so that the flame enters the peek-hole, lighting the pilot, 
after which the torch is played upon the upper part of the vaporizer 
for 15 to 30 seconds, until the main burner nozzles are sizzling hot. 

After closing the acetylene-tank valve the main-burner valve is 
opened and closed quickly several times until the gas from the main 
nozzles is dry. It is then left open, being lighted by the pilot flame. 
The pilot nozzle is provided with a wire which is filed off on one side 
to allow the passage of the gas. If the pilot light does not seem to 
burn strongly, it can be cleaned while burning by turning the outside 



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34 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

screw back and forth with a screwdriver. If this does not suffice, 
the wire should be taken out and cleaned; it is good practice to do 
this every day before firing up. The color of the flame can be adjusted 
by bending the nozzle tube to bring the nozzle in or out from the 
mixing tube, the same as is done in adjusting the main burner. 

In the older models of Stanley cars, which used only gasoline as 
the main-burner fuel, the pilot fuel system was a branch of the main 
system, and the pilot vaporizer was heated by a gasoline torch. 



Fig. 35. Section through Combustion Chamber and Boiler of Doble Car 
Courtesy of General Engineering Company, Detroit, Michigan 

Doble. Very radical departures from the long-established Bun- 
sen type of burner have been made in the combustion system on the 
new Doble car. The fuel is ignited by electricity and there is no 
pilot light. Kerosene is used for both starting and running and is 
fed from the main fuel tank to a float chamber by an air pressure of 
three pounds per square inch. From the float chamber, which is of 
the standard gasoline-carbureter type, the fuel passes through a spray 
nozzle, which is located in the throat of a Venturi tube leading to 
the combustion chamber. 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 35 

Air for the support of the combustion of the fuel is drawn 
through the radiator by means of a multiple-vane fan driven by a 
small electric motor. It passes the jet with sufficient velocity to 
draw out the fuel and atomize it. Owing to the enlarging of the 
passage directly beyond the throat, the velocity is decreased in order 
to give time for the complete 
combustion of the gas by the 
electric spark, which takes place 
at this point. 

The combustion chamber, 
Fig. 35, is completely closed and 
lined with a highly refractory 
material. As soon as the com- 
bust ion has bee n s tarted ^ the 
electric spark is automatically 

.--- : — . - .' . « ,, Fig. 36. Ofeldt Blue Flame Kerosene Burner 

shut oft, and the burning ol the CourusyofF.w.ofeidt and Sons, 

.— - - -— - .. . . Nyack-on-the-Hudson, New York 

gas is continuous untiLJt. is 

stopped by the action of the automatic steam control, as described 
later. The lining of the chamber not only has the property of 
resisting high heats, but it holds and gives back the heat so as to 
assist in completely burning the gases. The combustion chamber 
is also well illustrated in Fig. 41, page 40. 

Ofeldt. The Ofeldt burner, Fig. 36, is designed especially for 
the use of kerosene as a fuel. Forming the foundation of the burner is 



Fig. 37. Kerosene Burner, Used on National Busses with Starter 
Courtesy of Society of Automobile Engineers, New York City 

a galvanized iron pan, lined around the sides with millboard asbestos. 
In t he bottom o f the pan are drilled rows of small holes. Since these 
holes are in straight lines under the burner pieces, and of equal size, 
they admit even amounts of air throughout the lengths of the burner 
pieces. 

Cast iron is used for the burner pieces, which radiate from a 

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36 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

central gas-distributing chamber, into which they are screwed. The 
gas flows through fine slots cut in the burner pieces. Surrounding the 
mixing tube is the main vaporizer A, which passes through the outside 
of the pan, ending in the nozzle B at the opening of the mixing tube. 
The mixing tube is a part of the central gas-distributing chamber. 
Attached below the burner pan is the pilot D, where its flame 
heats both the main and the pilot vaporizers and the mixing tube. 
By means of a hand valve the pilot flame can be adjusted to keep up 

steam when the main burner 
is out, or it can be turned 
down so as to keep only the 
main vaporizer warm. 

A comparative ly low 
pressure_-Js_used on the~ 
Of eldt system, the fuel being 
kept under about 60 pounds 
per square jnch. 

National. Kerosene is 
used as the fuel in the 
National busses. These 
burners are quite different 
in appearance from those 
described above, as is shown 

Fig. 38. Stanley.Fire-Tube Boiler in Fig. 37. 

AUTOMOBILE BOILERS 

Classification. In stationary steam-power plants there are two 
distinct classes of boilers, the fire-tube and the water-tube. These 
two types are also used in automobile work, together with a third 
type, the flash boiler, which is a development of the wat er-tube type. 

Fire-Tube Boilers. In principle the fire-tube boiler is like a big 
tea-kettle filled with vertical tubes, which run from the bottom to the 
top for the purpose of carrying up- the flame and hot gases. This 
construction gives a very large surface on one side of which are water 
and steam and on the other flame and hot gases. 

Stanley. One of the simplest of the fire-tube boilers is the 
Stanley, Fig. 38. This is made up of a pressed-steel shell, which 
includes the lower head, the upper head being a separate piece. 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 37 

Between these two heads run a large number of tubes of %i inch 
outside diameter, which are expanded into the heads by a taper 
expanding tool. Stanley boilers are made in three sizes, 20, 23, and 
26 inches in diameter and 14 and 16 inches in height, respectively. 
The number of tubes is 550, 751, and 999, giving 77, 104, and 158 
square feet of heating surfaces. To keep down the radiation losses, 
the boiler shell is lagged with asbestos, and the strength of the shell 
is greatly increased by winding it with steel piano wire. 

To keep a reserve of steam, and to have the steam free from 

particles of water, the boiler is kept only about two-thirds full of 

water, the upper space being filled with steam. To fur ther^insure 

d ry steam_at the engine the steam is led by a pipe from the top of the 

'"Boiler d own t o a superheating coil directly over the burner. 

Fusible Plug. As a warning against too low water the side of 
the boiler is provided with a fusible plug, held in a fusible-plug tnbe 
which, in turn, screws into a steel fitting. The elbows on this fitting 
are made on a taper and are driven into two short tubes in the boiler. 
As long as the water level is above these tubes the circulation prevents 
the plug from melting. If the water gets below the plug and about 
3 inches from the bottom of the boiler, the plug will melt and the 
noise of the escaping steam will warn the operator of the danger* — not 
danger of an explosion of the boiler, but danger of doing the boiler 
damage by heating it without water. There are other means by 
which the operator may know that the water is getting low before it 
gets low enough to blow out the plug, and these will be taken up in 
detail later, together with the causes of unexpected low water and 
other points. 

The fusible plug may melt out, not only from low water but also 
because of dirt or something retarding the circulation of water around 
the tubes or fittings. The blowing off of the steam will usually remove 
the obstruction. If the escaping steam is dry, it is a sign that the 
melting has been caused by low water, but if it is wet the trouble is due 
to faulty circulation. It is good practice to replace the fusible plug 
once every two or three weeks, doing this when the boiler is cold. 

Since the addition of the condenser to the Stanley in 1915, these 
boilers have been made without the fusible plugs. Among other 
improvements in these boilers is the brazing, or welding, of the tubes 
in the lower heads. This is to prevent any trouble from oil, which 



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38 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

might be carried over into the condensing system. Before the boilers 
are turned out from the factory, they are tested by a water pressure 
of from 1500 to 1800 pounds jjei 4 square inch. 

Water-Tube Boilers. Water-tube boilers also are made up of 
tubes, but in this case the tubes carry the water and steam inside and 
the fire and hot gases pass over the tubes. The metal hood over this 
type of boiler carries no pressure, but merely serves to keep in and 
direct the hot gases. In stationary practice the tubes are often 
straight or only slightly bent, but to economize space the automobile 

boiler has the tubes^coiled to give the 
most surface to the fire in the least 
possible space. 

Ofeldt. The Ofeldt safety water- 
tube boiler, Fig. 39, is built about 
a central standpipe of 5 inches or 
more in diameter, with a bottom of 
^-inch metal welded in. Threaded 
into the upper end of the standpipe 
is a steel cap with three arms, to the 
ends of which the sheet-metal hood, 
or cover, is fastened. 

The object of the standpipe is to 
hold a reserve of water at the bottom 
Fig. 39. ofeldt Safety Water-Tube and of steam at the top, and to dis- 
tribute the water to the coils. In 
the coils and standpipe the reserve of water varies from 3 gallons in 
the small sizes to 8 gallons in the 24-inch size. 

Water is fed to the bottom of the standpipe, from where it flows 
into the coils. As it passes up the coils it turns into steam. A 
pipe from the center of the standpipe carries the steam down to 
the superheater, which lies under the boiler directly over the burner, as 
shown in Fig. 39. From the superheater the steam is carried by the sec- 
ond straight pipe back to the top of the boiler and then to the engine. 
These boilers are supposed to supply steam at 250 pounds pres- 
sure but are tested up to 1000 pounds per square inch. 

Doble. Almost as great a departure from ordinary practice has 
been made in the Doble boiler as in the combustion system previously 
described. The generator is of the water-tube type, with the tubes 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 39 

arranged in rows, which are really separate sections, Fig. 40. There 
are 28 of these sections in the generator part of the boiler. The 
tubes are made from seamless drawn-steel tubing of about §-inch 
diameter and are swaged down to a diameter of about f inch at the 
ends. These ends are welded into the top and bottom headers, 
thus making each section a continuous piece of steel. 

Besides the 28 sections of tubes in the generator portion, there 
are 8 more sections in the economizer or feed-water heater. The 



Fig. 40. One Section of Doble Boiler 
Courtesy of General Engineering Company, Detroit, Michigan 

arrangement of all these sections is clearly shown in Fig. 41, the view 
being cut across each of the 36 sections, similar to Fig. 40. The 
picture does not show all the details but has been arranged to give an 
idea of the general layout and the direction of flow of the hot gases and 
of the water and steam. The boiler sections are completely covered 
over, except at the bottom, by a f-inch wall of heat-resisting and 
insulating Kieselguhr material. Over this is a planished iron jacket. 
All of the sections are connected together by headers, which run 
along the sides of the boiler. One of the features of the construction 
is that if anything should go wrong with a section of tubes, it can be 

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40 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

very easily cut out of operation by means of the side headers, until 
such time as it is convenient to replace the section. 

In Fig. 41, the direction of flow of the hot gases of combustion 
is shown by the heavy arrows, while the flow of the water and steam 
is indicated by the small arrows. From the combustion chamber at 
the bottom of the boiler, the gases pass upward and then over the top 
of the fire wall between the generator proper and the economizer. 
Here they turn and pass downward in order to escape through the 



Fig. 41. Section through Doblc HoiWr, Showing Combustion Below and Economizer 
Section at Ki^ht 

exhaust at the bottom. It should be noted that the power-driven 
feed pump forces the water in an upward direction in the economizer 
tubes, exactly opposite to that of the gas flow outside of the tubes. 
From the top headers of the economizer sections, the water over- 
flows through a manifold to the lower headers of the generator 
sections. An automatic valve controls the feed water, so that the 
water in the boiler, under normal conditions, stands about half-way to 
the top. On the road, the usual pressure is around GOO pounds per 
square inch, which is maintained by an automatic valve controlling 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 41 

the fuel supply. Each section of the boiler is tested to a water pres- 
sure of 5000 pounds per square inch. The actual bursting pressure 
is said to be over 8000 pounds. As a precaution against any danger, 
however, a safety valve is attached to the boiler. 

Flash Boilers. Flash boilers differ from the fire- or water-tube 
types, both of which have a reserve of steam, in that the steam is 
generated only in the quantity jemanded each moment by the 
wigine. The se hoilfii^ consist of a continuous metal tube in one or 
more coils lying over the burn er. As the water from the reservoir 
passes along the tube it gets hotter and hotter until at some point 
in the t ube it Burst s into steam. During the rest of its travel the 
steana js superhea ted. 

A s practically no steam is kept in reserve^ the capacity of the 
bo iler and burner mustjj gjgreat enough to supply at once the maxi- 
mum demand for h ill climbing. The relations of water and fire must 
be nicely b alanced at all tim es to prevent top much superheat on one 
ha nd and wet steam on thej>ther. 

Safetyjigainst a dangerous explosion is the leading argument for 
the flash type of boiler. Since there is no reserve of steam or hot 
water under^presstire, there is no large amount of energy to be 
liberated in case of a rupture of any part of the boiler. 

Serpollet System. In the early days of steam automobiles a 
Frenchman named Serpollet reduced the amount of water in a boiler 
to an extremely small amount. To give the maximum of heating- 
surface area together with a minimum of cross-sectional area, the 
tubes were made a U-section instead of circular; this type, however, 
was abandoned later. 

With the Serpollet system the fuel and water were fed simul- 
taneously, one lever varying the strokes of both pumps. To avoid 
trouble from extreme superheat, single-acting pistons and poppet 
valves were employed. The valve cut-off was variable and worked in 
conjunction with the fuel and water supplies. Since there was no 
reserve of energy to the system, it took a great deal of skill to handle 
it smoothly, especially in hilly country. * 

White. A great improvement over the Serpollet system was the 
flash generator of the White Company. Although the White steam 
cars were discontinued in 1911, they were the leading example of the 
flash system in this country. 

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42 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

In the White j^ener^tor Jtheig was a suff icie nt sup ply of wRterto 
serve as a reserve in caseso f sudden demand . Referring to Fig. 42, 
it will be noted that the boiler was made up of several rows of tube *, 
each coiled in a horizontal pKp^, »"d each connected +*» t.b^J^ 
below by a tube which first passes to the top of th e boile r. Unlike 
the ordinary fire-tube or water-tube boilers, the wa ter entered th e 
White boiler at the top, through the pipe 128. The upper coil was b 
the coolest portion of the gases from the burner. After passing 
through the top coil, the water flowed through the tube at the end of 
the coil, being carried up and over the top of the boiler and then 
down to the second coil, and so on down from coil to coil. Bei ng 
nearer the burner, each coil was hotter than_ihe_J>ne above, and, 



Fig. 42. Generator, Burner, and Fuel Connections Formerly Used on 
White Steam Cars 

since the vertical pipes at the ends of the coils kept the hot water 
from circulating back to the coil above, there was some point in the 
lower coils where the water burst into steam. The_steam J>ecajue 
superheated during the remainder of its travel through the coils ana 
left the boiler by the pipe 129. 

These principles of construction were held to in all the White 
steam cars from 1904 to 1911 inclusive. Because of the strength of 
the small-diameter tubes and the small amounts of steam and water 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 43 

the boiler at any one time, it was possible to carry a working 
p>x"cssure in these generators of 600 pounds per square inch. 

Special Types. Lane. The Lane boiler, Fig. 43, was a combina- 
tion of the fire-tube and flash systems. The main part of the boiler 
was of the fire-tube type, with very 
large tubes. Above this were several 
ooils of brass tubing, the water entering 
±\\e top and getting hotter as it passed 
down the tubes until it was partly con- 
verted into steam by the time it passed 
Into the main part. The water was 
here separated from the steam, falling 
t:o the bottom of the boiler, while the 
s*team was superheated by coming in 
contact with the hot upper portion of 
t:he fire tubes. 

National. For the National Lon- 
don busses a water-tube boiler is used, Fi «- 43 - ^^ Boiler 
and these stand a great deal of abuse, often being run dry by the 
carelessness of the drivers. As is shown in Fig. 44, these boilers are 



Fig. 44. Water-Tube Boiler Used on National London Busses 
Courtesy of Society of Automobile Engineers, New York City 

built around a central steel drum, which is pressed from a single piece 
of metal. 



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44 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

BOILER ACCESSORIES AND REGULATION 

Besides the main units of burner, boiler, and engine on the steam 
automobile, there have to be many other small units, most of them 
automatic in their operation, for the control of the fire, water feed, 
and engine to meet the conditions of the wide variations in road and 
driving conditions. These are the power pumps, the hand pumps, 
valves, feed-water heater, condensers, and others. 

Check Valves. In the lines where it is desired to have the fuel, 

water, or steam pass in but one direction there are placed valves 

which allow only this one-way passage and are known as check valves. 

There are several types, including poppet, hinged, and ball checks. 

The latter, Fig. 45, is very largely used and consists of a ball which 

rests on a seat forming a ground, fluid-tight 

joint. When the fluid is passing in the desired 

direction it lifts the ball off the seat. The 

body of the valve is so made that it keeps the 

ball from being carried on down the line with 

the fluid. As soon as the direction of flow or 

pressure changes to the opposite direction the 

Fig. 45. Crane Ball Check ba H dr °P S ° nt ° * ts Seat > closing the Valve 

Valve against this opposite flow. 

Check valves are used in many places in the fuel, water, and 
steam lines, as is indicated by the diagrams further along. For 
instance, there are check valves on the inlet and outlet sides of the 
water pumps. When the piston is on the suction stroke, the inlet 
check is open while the outlet check is closed, keeping the water 
already pumped from being drawn back. As soon as the piston 
starts on the delivery stroke the inlet check closes and the outlet 
valve opens. This action applies to all the types of check valves. 

If dirt lodges on the seats of a check it will leak and, if the dirt 
cannot be forced off by vigorous action through the valve, the valve 
must be opened up and the seat cleaned and possibly ground. In 
most check valves this can be done without removing the whole 
valve from the line. 

Fuel System. Considerable fuel-carrying capacity is always 
provided in automobiles, and for this reason there should always be 
enough in the car for more than one run. Before starting out it is 

240 



STEAM AUTOMOBILES 



45 



always well to see that there is plenty of fuel in the main and pilot 
supply tanks. Not only is running out of fuel on the road very 
inconvenient, but the running-dry of the tanks may air-lock the 
pumps and cause a loss of considerable extra time in getting the 



Fig. 46. Power Pumps of Stanley Engine 

system back into smooth action. The above applies equally well to 
the water supply. 

As mentioned in the section on burners, the fuel is fed under 
pressure. In some cases the pressure is carried on the main tank, 
while in other cases it is carried by air or spring pressure on small 
auxiliary tanks. The power and 
hand pumps on steam cars are 
of the plunger type. 

Due to the interrelations be- 
tween the demands for steam, 
water, and fuel and the auto- 
matic devices, one controlled by 
the other, it is difficult to deal 
separately with the various 
units. For this reason one com- 
plete fuel, water, and steam sys- 
tem will be discussed and then 




4=^ 



Fig. 47. Fuel Pressure Tanks on Stanley Cars 



descriptions of other makers' units and methods of operation will be 
taken up. The Stanley system will be used to show the relation and 
operation of the various units. 

Stanley Fuel, Water, and Steam Systems. Fuel System, On the 
Stanley cars the main fuel tank is carried under atmospheric pressure 
and the fuel is drawn from the tank by the power-driven pump, 
Fig. 46. In series with the power fuel pump is a hand pump for use 



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46 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

when the engine is not running or if the power pump should be out 
of order. The small 'pressure tanks on the Stanley are shown in 
Fig. 47. The fuel does not flow through the left tank, marked 2, but 
merely rises and falls in it, the tank acting 
as a pressure equalizer between the strokes 
of the power pump, similar to the standpipe 
in many city waterworks systems. Tank 
number 1 , on the right, is filled with com- 
pressed air, which is supplied by the power- 
driven air pump or by the hand air pump. A 
pressure gage on the dashboard show's the 
operator what the pressure is on the tanks. 
From the auxiliary tanks the fuel passes to 
the vaporizer. 

Since the fuel power pump has a capacity 

greater than that usually demanded by the 

burner an automatic by-pass valve, called the 

fuel automatic relief, Fig. 48, is placed in the line. When the fuel 

from the pump is at a higher pressure than is being carried on the 



Fig. 49. Stanley Fuel System 
Courtesy of Stanley Motor Carriage Company, Xewton, Massachusetts 

pressure tanks, the needle valve of this fuel automatic relief is raised 
and part of the fuel is returned to the main tank, as shown in the 
layout of the fuel system, Fig. 49. 

Should this needle valve fail to seat properly, it is probably due 

242 



STEAM AUTOMOBILES 



47 



to dirt between the needle and the seat. This can often be removed 
by taking the tension off the spring by unscrewing the adjusting nut 
and then pumping fuel with the hand pump. If this does not cure 
the trouble the whole valve should be taken 
apart and cleaned and, if necessary, the needle 
ground into the seat. 

Beyond the pressure tanks there is a fuel 
filter which should be watched for leaks and 
cleaned every once in a while. Near the tanks 
is also a pressure-retaining valve, which may be 
closed by hand when the car is left standing, 
the purpose being to keep the pressure on the 
tanks, as it might otherwise be lost, due to slow 
leaks in the lines, and thereby necessitate the 
pijmping-up of pressure by hand. 

Actual fuel supply to the vaporizer, and 
hence to the burner, is governed by the steam 
automatic regulator, or "diaphragm regulator", 
as it is sometimes called, Fig. 50. This regula- 
tor governs the relation between the steam 
pressure and the fuel supply to the burner. It 
consists of a metal diaphragm, clamped 
between the cap and the body. When the 
steam pressure rises above the predetermined 
amount, the pressure against the diaphragm 
causes it to bulge and thus move the rod 
attached to it so as to keep the ball valve from 
leaving its seat, thereby shutting off the fuel to 
the boiler. 

The strength of the spring determines at 
what steam pressure the fuel is shut off. To 
regulate the strength of the spring the adjusting screw is moved 
in or out. The valve stem is provided with a stuffing box which 
can be tightened up to stop leaks through the gland. The screw 
locks the gland in place after the adjustment is made. Care must' 
be taken not to get the gland too tight. 

Upon the older Stanley models, in which gasoline was used for 
the fuel of the main burner as well as for the pilot light, the line for 




Stanley Steam 
Automatic \ alve 



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48 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

the latter was a branch of the main fuel line. In the newer models, 
the pilot system is entirely separate, so that kerosene may be used for 
the main burner. The pressure on the separate gasoline tank is 
pumped up by a hand pump and should be kept at from 20 to 30 
pounds per square inch. In leaving the pilot burning over night the 
pressure will not fall over 5 to 10 pounds. 

Water and Steam System. From the main water tank the water 
is drawn by two opposite power-driven pumps. Fig. 46, and follows 
the course shown in Fig. 51. A hand pump is also provided for U9e 



Fig. 51. Diagram of Stanley Water System 
Courtesy of Stanley Motor Carriage Company, Newton, Massachusetts 

when the car is standing still or in case of a failure of the power 
pumps. Beyond the pumps are by-pass valves, the opening of which 
allows the water to return to the supply tank. The rear by-pass is 
operated by the usual type of handle, while the one in front is con- 
trolled by a lever on the steering post. The handling of these by-pass 
valves will be taken up in relation to the general operation of the car. 
On the way to the boiler, the water passes to the water-level 
indicator, which is explained in detail in the following paragraph, and 
then to the feed-water heater. Over the water pipes in the feed-water 
heater the exhaust steam from the engine is passed. In this way 

244 



STEAM AUTOMOBILES 49 

much of the otherwise waste heat of the exhaust is given back by 
heating the water before it reaches the boiler, resulting, of course, in a 
saving of fuel. The feed-water heater also serves as a muffler for the 
sound of the engine exhaust. 

The water-level indicator is for the purpose of showing the opera- 
tor the amount of water in the boiler. It consists of three tubes, Fig. 
52, M , N, 0, which are brazed together. The middle one N is a part 
of the water column, that is, its lower end connects with a pipe leading 



Fig. 52. Diagram Showing Stanley Low-Water Automatic Valve with 
Three-Tube Indicator Body 

to the bottom of the boiler and its upper end is in communication 
with the top of the boiler, so that the water stands in this column at 
the same height that it does in the boiler. At the lower end of tube 
N is the low-water try cock. 

Tube M , at the left, is part of the water system from the pumps 
to the boiler and, when the car is running, water is constantly passing 
through it. The standpipe is closed at its upper end and at its 
lower end is connected by a copper tube to the glass water glass on 

245 



50 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

the dashboard in front of the driver. The standpipe, tube, and glass 
form a U-tube which is filled with water, the level of which, when cold, 
stands about an inch above the bottom of the glass. 

If the water level in the boiler, and therefore in the tube N, is 
above the top of the standpipe 0, the cold water passing through Af 
on its way to the boiler will keep the standpipe comparatively 
cool, and the water in the glass will show about an inch above the 
bottom; but if the water in the boiler falls below the top of the stand- 
pipe, it will no longer keep cool and the resulting heat will turn some 
of the water in the standpipe into vapor. Since the end of the stand- 
pipe is closed, the pressure of the vapor will cause the water in 
the glass to rise, showing the driver that the water in the boiler is 
getting low. 

It is important to remember that when the water is high in the 
glass it is law in the boiler. It should also be noted that the glass 
gives the correct reading only when the car is running, and that when 
the boiler is cold the water in the glass will be at the bottom whether 
the boiler is full or empty. A false reading of the glass may also 
occur from the heating-up of the indicator body when the car is left 
•standing with steam up. This will make the water rise in the glass, 
apparently showing the water to be low in the boiler even though it 
were full. Directly upon starting the car, water will be pumped 
through tube M and the indicator body will cool down, giving a 
correct reading in the glass. 

To fill the standpipe, U-tube and glass with water, the plug is 
removed from the top of the standpipe and water is poured into the 
glass faster than it can flow out of the standpipe. When all the air 
has been forced out in this way, the screw is replaced while the water 
is still running, but is screwed down only lightly. The water is then 
shut off and, when the level in the glass has gone down to about an 
inch above the bottom, the screw in the top of the standpipe is 
tightened up. 

In freezing weather an anti-freeze solution should be used in the 
U-tube and glass. This can be made of equal parts of glycerine and 
water or of alcohol and water. A test of the indicator can be made 
when steam is up by opening the low-water pet cock until the water 
rises in the glass and then pouring cold water over the body of the 
indicator, which should cause the water in the glass to fall. 

246 



STEAM AUTOMOBILES 51 

When the boiler is cold the amount of water in it is determined 
by opening the low-water pet cock. If water flows it shows that there 
is enough in the boiler to allow firing up. If no water comes and a 
wire run in the pet cock shows that it is not stopped up, water should 
be pumped in the boiler by hand. When trying the water level by 
the pet cock the water should be allowed to run several seconds so as 
to be sure that it is not merely the condensation which may have 
gathered. 

If dirt or incrustation should stop up the lower end of the water 
column, it would cause false readings of the indicator and try cock. 
It is therefore important that this be guarded against by blowing 
down the boiler regularly. The procedure in blowing down will be 
referred to later. 

Another protecting device of the Stanley is the low-water auto- 
matic valve, which in its action and location is closely connected to 
the water-level indicator. The purpose of this valve is to shut off 
the fuel supply in case the water becomes low in the boiler. As shown 
in Fig. 50, it consists of a valve B in the fuel line, an expansion tube 
D and two rods C, the latter forming a framework or support. 

When the water in the boiler and water column gets below the 
try cock, the expansion tube D fills with steam and the heat of this 
steam causes the tube to become longer. This expansion moves the 
valve stem E, connected to the end of the tube, and this closes the 
valve, shutting off the fuel to the burner. 

In case the low-water automatic valve closes, first make sure that 
there is water in the main tank, and that the pumps are working 
properly. Then with both by-pass valves closed run the car as far 
as it will go. By this time the pumps probably will have delivered 
enough water to cover the bottom of the expansion tube, allowing the 
fuel valve to open again. If not, the engine can be run with the 
wheels jacked up or water can be pumped by the hand pump. 

There are four other accessories to the Stanley and other power 
plants, which have not yet been mentioned : the safety valve, steam 
gage, siphon, and oil pump. 

The safety valve is connected to the boiler and will blow if the 
steam pressure exceeds the amount for which the valve is set. The 
steam gage is placed on the dash and indicates the steam pressure 
in pounds per square inch. The steam itself does not actually enter 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 



1 



the gage, but the pressure in the system is communicated to the gage 
by means of a tube filled with oil, which will not freeze in winter. 

When it is desired to draw 
water from a water trough or 
some other "place from which it 
cannot be run into the tank from 
a faucet, the siphon is used. This 
is a hose, a branch of which is 
connected to the steam system 
by a hand valve. One end is 
placed in the tank-filler opening 
and the other end, which is pro- 
vided with a screen, is put in 
the supply of water. The steam 
is turned on and, due to an in- 
jector action, draws the water up 
into the tank. 

Driven by the same mech- 
anism which drives the Stanley 
fuel and water pumps, is the oil 
pump, Figs. 46 and 53. From the 
oil tank the pump forces the oil 
through the sight feed on the 
dash, from which it is led into 
the steam line to the engine. 

In the oil pump, Fig. 53, the 
plunger A is set in its extreme 
foreposition, so that the end will 
just come to the outlet. This is 
done by removing the delivery 
stub cap and delivery check ball 
and inserting a small wire in the 
outlet. When the driving cross- 
head is in the extreme position, 
the plunger should come to a 
point where it will strike the 
wire; the lock nut B is then tightened. This adjustment should be 
looked to if the position of the driving crosshead becomes changed. 




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STEAM AUTOMOBILES ' 53 

To vary the amount of oil pumped, the distance between the 
end of the adjusting piston C and the pump inlet is varied. The 
shorter this distance the less the amount of oil pumped. The adjust- 
ment is made by removing the cap D and adjusting the set nut E. 
If the oil tank is allowed to run dry the pump may become air-locked, 
and it is then necessary to disconnect the copper pipe and work the 
pump until the air is expelled. 

All ordinary steam-cylinder oil is not suitable for use in these 
engines because of the high degree of superheat. The Stanley 
Company recommend either the "Harris superheat steam-cylinder 
oil" or the "Oilzum high-pressure superheated steam-cylinder oil". 
Other makers recommend different classes of oils best suited to their 
particular engines and these will be noted later. 

Now that a general idea of the make-up and operation of the 
power-plant accessories has been given in the description of 
the Stanley layout, attention will be turned to the characteristics 
of the accessories offered by other makers. 

Doble. The details of construction of the Doble combustion 
chamber and boiler have already been shown in Figs. 35 and 41, and 
discussed on pages 34 and 40. The water level in the boiler is kept 
at the half-way point by an automatic by-pass valve, which is oper- 
ated by the expansion of a regulator tube. As the water rises in the 
boiler, the tube is filled from an outside pipe with comparatively cold 
water. The decided change of temperature causes the tube to 
contract again, and the water is by-passed to the supply tank. The 
steam pressure is maintained around 600 pounds by another automatic 
device, which controls the fuel system. 

From the upper headers of the generator sections, the live steam 
passes into a manifold which leads it through the throttle valve and 
then to the engine. From the engine, it passes back to the condenser, 
being forced along by the following steam. 

A non-rusting alloy is used for the seats of the throttle valve. 
The valve, shown in Figs. 28 and 29, is a compound design, being a 
combination of a poppet and piston valve. The piston portion regu- 
lates the flow of steam, while the poppet serves to keep the valve in a 
tight, or non-leaking, condition. 

The force of the steam constantly coming from the engine causes 
the steam to pass from the top to the bottom of the radiator condenser 

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54 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

and, under normal conditions, the steam has been completely con- 
densed to water before it reaches the bottom. This water of conden- 
sation enters the water tank very near the bottom, so that any steam 
which still remains will be condensed as it bubbles up through the 
tank. Rapid acceleration from a slow speed or very hard slow pulling 
are the two conditions under which some steam may remain uncon- 
densed in passing through the radiator. As a safety measure, in case 
of a very long stretch of slow heavy pulling, the water tank is pro- 
vided with a vent at the top. With this condensing system, it is said 
that a car will run 1500 miles on one filling of water. 

Doble Lubrication. Another one of Doble's departures from 
standard steam-automobile practice is in the matter of lubrication. 
The throttle, engine valves, cylinder walls, water pumps, and interior 
of the generator are all lubricated by regular gasoline-engine oil 
instead of ^ the heavy steam-cylinder oil used in power plants. 

This comparatively light mineral oil at once forms an emulsion 
with the water, due to the shaking up from the roughness of the road 
and the agitation of the feed water as the condensation enters the tank 
from the radiator. The oil, therefore, is sent into the generator along 
with the feed water and gives the interior of the tubes a very thin 
coating of lubricant. How thin this is may be judged by the state- 
ment that the generator temperature is 485° F. at the working pres- 
sure of 600 pounds. This coating not only prevents the tubes from 
rusting, but keeps scale from forming as it cannot stick to a greasy 
surface. The oil in the water also prevents scale from forming in other 
places and pipes, for it coats each particle of lime, etc., which may be 
thrown down and keeps it from sticking to any other particle and 
building up a deposit. It is this same oil that is carried over with 
the steam that lubricates the throttle valve and cylinder parts. The 
condenser saves the oil supply as well as the water, so that the lubri- 
cant is used over and over again, and a car is said to run 8000 miles 
on one gallon of oil. 

Steaming Test. One of the main features claimed for the Doble 
design is the short length of time required to raise steam to a working 
pressure, that for ordinary running being 600 pounds per square inch. 
The following test was recently given out by the company. 

The generator had approximately 150 square feet of surface and 
contained, when the water was at its normal level, 8J gallons. Corn- 
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justion started with the water in the generator at 66° F. The first 
■race of steam came in forty seconds. 



Pressure 
lb. per sq. in. 


Elapsed Time 


Pressure 
lb. per sq. in. 


Elapsed Time 


Trace 

100 


40 sec. 
1 min., 20 sec. 

1 min., 45 sec. 

2 min., 10 sec. 
2 min., 25 sec. 
2 min., 40 sec. 
2 min., 50 sec. 


700 

800 


3 min. 

3 min., 10 sec. 
3 min., 15 sec. 
3 min., 20 sec. 
3 min., 25 sec. 
3 min., 30 sec. 


200 

300 


900 

1000 


400 


1100 


500 

600 

1 


1200 



Ofeldt. Fuel, Water, and Steam Connections. Fig. 54 gives a 
clear idea of the fuel, water, and steam connections of the Ofeldt 



Fig. 54. Diagram of Connections for Ofeldt Boiler Feed and Fuel Systems 
Courtesy of F. W. Ofeldt & Sons, Nyack-on-the- Hudson, New York 

system, the burner and boiler of which have been described pre- 
viously. The feed-water pump A and the fuel pump e are usually 
on opposite crossheads of the engine, but to make the two systems 
clearer they have been separated in the diagram. 

The Ofeldt Company makes these accessories either for use as a 
complete system, as shown in the diagram, or for use with other 
units. The company does not make a complete automobile. 



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56 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

An expansion tube N is the basis of the Ofeldt water regulator. 
This tube stands at right angles to the middle point of the boiler 
water column P, and when the water becomes low enough in the 
boiler and column for the tube to fill with steam, the expansion causes 
the closing of the water by-pass valve through the movement of the 
linkage 0, M , L. When used with the Ofeldt water-tube boiler it is 
claimed that a water-level glass is unnecessary. 

Fuel regulation is accomplished by the diaphragm valve, tr. 
This is made up of two concave discs with a steel diaphragm fastened 
between them. Combined with the upper disc is the valve controlling 
the fuel supply. When the steam pressure on the lower side reaches 
the point for which the valve has been adjusted, the diaphragm pushes 
upward, shutting off the fuel. Upon the decrease of the steam pres- 
sure, the natural spring of the diaphragm again opens the fuel valve. 
Where used with a pilot light the closing of the valve completely 
shuts off the fuel to the main burner, but where no pilot is used just 
enough fuel is allowed to pass to keep the fire burning. 

Automatic Fuel Feed. Possibly the most interesting of the 
Ofeldt accessories is the automatic fuel feed i, in which a spring is 
used to keep the fuel under pressure. It consists of a brass cylinder, 
18 to 36 inches long and 4 inches in diameter, which is plugged at one 
end and capped at the other. Running the length of the cylinder is a 
coil spring with a piston at one end. The engine fuel pump e, or 
hand pump d, forces the fuel into the tank, pushing back the piston 
and compressing the spring. This spring keeps the pressure on the 
fuel the same as is done by the air tanks in the Stanley system. As 
part of the pressure layout is a safety or by-pass valve J, which can 
be set for the desired pressure on the fuel, the excess fuel from the 
by-pass valve and from the leakage past the piston in the regulator 
are returned to the fuel tank. 

MANAGEMENT AND CARE OF STEAM CARS 

In the preceding description considerable has been said as to ' 
the management and care of the units, but in this section some 
further hints will be added on the operation of steam automobiles. 

Management on the Road. As will be understood from the fore- 
going, the operator's part in managing the power plant — other than 
attention to the throttle — is ordinarily limited to watching the water- 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 57 

level indicator and managing the by-pass valve — if not automatic — 
in accordance with the water level. When the level drops, the 
by-pass valve must be closed, thereby causing all the water pumped 
to enter the boiler. When the water level exceeds the proper height, 
the by-pass valve is opened and water ceases to enter the boiler. 
It is not practicable to open the by-pass valve part way, as this would 
cause the water to go through the valve at boiler pressure and, in 
time, the scouring action due to the pressure would make the valve 
leak. 

Blind adherence to the above rule will not always give as good 
results as may be obtained through manipulation. For example, if 
one sees a hill ahead, he can fill the boiler somewhat higher than its 
usual level and give the added water time to get hot before the hill is 
reached. This affords a reserve supply for surmounting the hill. In 
the average hilly country, one can make a practice of pumping water 
on down grades when little or no steam is being used and the heat of 
the fire is available to heat the incoming water. Near the bottom of 
the hill the by-pass valve is opened and the ascent taken in good 
style. If the accumulated pressure has caused the fire to shut off, the 
throttle may be opened just before the bottom of the hill is reached, 
and the drop in pressure will bring the fire on while impetus is being 
gained. It is a general rule for all classes of steam- cars that the fire 
should, if possible, be "on" before an up grade is begun. By proper 
management the fire may be kept burning continuously in a hilly 
country, while power is used only on the up-grades. 

In applying the above principles it should be remembered that 
only the wetted inside surface of the boiler is available for making 
steam. If the water is low, steam cannot be raised as rapidly as 
when the boiler is full, assuming that the water is hot in both cases. 
On the other hand, if the boiler is worked too full one may get wet 
steam despite the superheater, with loss of power due to condensa- 
tion. In an extreme case, enough water might even be carried through 
to choke the clearance spaces at the cylinder ends. This would 
probably result in a head being knocked out or a connecting rod or 
crank bent, as the water could not be ejected quickly enough by the 
lifting of the slide valve to save the engine from severe shock when 
the piston reached the end of its stroke. A boiler of the Lane type, 
in which the water is partly converted into steam in coils above the 

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58 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

boiler proper, and in which the fire tubes are large enough to penra 
combustion to take place inside of them, is an exception to the above 
in that superheating takes place chiefly in the "boiler". 

The more rapidly fuel is supplied to the burner, the hotter wil 
be the fire. Where ample power is desired, therefore, the burne 
is worked under more than ordinary pressure. In the Stanley cars 
which carry pressure only in the auxiliary tank, 120 to 140 pounds i 
recommended. 

Firing-Up. The following remarks apply particularly to car 
with the Stanley type of burner and boiler. In the case of the Dobk 
car, the constructions are so different that many of the instruction? 
will not apply. The Doble system has been described in detail in the 
preceding pages, and the rea'der is referred back to these paragraphs 
for the firing-up of the boiler, etc. As will be explained later, it i* 
customary at the end of a run to blow down the boiler for the purpose 
of ridding it of whatever sediment may be present. The blow-off 
valve is shut when a few pounds of pressure still remain, and the con- 
densation of this remaining steam should suck the boiler full of water, 
provided the by-pass valve is closed. The presence of this water is 
desirable to protect the superheating coil when the fire is started. 
Therefore, if the car has a conventional fire-tube boiler with super- 
heating coil beneath, the first step is to ascertain whether the boiler 
is actually full. Close the by-pass (if open), open the upper try cock. 
and if no water comes out, work the hand pump. See that the water 
tank is full. Open the throttle and the drip valve on the steam chest 
and continue pumping by hand till water comes out. Leave them 
open while starting the fire, to allow the water to expand. 

If there is no pressure in the fuel tank, pump it up to the mini- 
mum working pressure by hand. Heat the pilot, either by burning 
gasoline in a cup, by an alcohol wick, or by the modern acetylene 
torch, as the case may be. When thoroughly heated, slowly open 
the pilot-light supply valve. If a blue flame does not result, close the 
supply valve and admit more gasoline to the cup. 

After starting the pilot light, allow it to burn till the vaporizer 
is hot, then open the main-burner valve carefully. If it fires back 
into the burner, shut it off, wait a minute or two and try again. 
Turn the burner to full height gradually. If the flame is yellow 
or smoky, it is not getting enough air; if it is noisy and lifts off the 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 59 

burner, it is getting too much air. Once adjusted for a given fuel 
pressure, the nozzle or air shutter should not need changing. 

While the water is getting hot, the oiling up can be attended to. 
As soon as the pressure begins to rise, water will issue from the drip 
cock on the steam chest. Close this cock and the throttle valve as 
soon as clear steam comes out. 

When pressure reaches 100 or 200 pounds, get into the car, throw 
the reverse lever to its full forward or backward position, open the 
throttle slightly and then close it at once. Repeat till the engine 
starts. With some yards of clear way, work the reverse lever back and 
forth with the throttle open only a crack, so that the car "seesaws" 
slowly. This will work the water out of the engine and warm up the 
cylinders till the entering steam ceases to condense. This process 
must not be hurried. An attempt to cut it short is likely to result in 
damage to the engine. As long as water is present the engine will 
run jerkily. When it runs smoothly the car is ready to start. 

On starting, the first few blocks should be run slowly to com- 
plete the warming-up process. If the air pressure is below normal 
the air pump should be kept going. 

At the End of a Run. On finishing a run, the boiler should be 
blown down with the fire turned off. This should be done by open- 
ing the blow-off valve near the bottom of the boiler. The escaping 
water will carry with it all the mud and precipitate that have accumu- 
lated. Close the blow-off valve at about 100 pounds, and the sub- 
sequent condensation will fill the boiler by suction from the tank. 
If the water in the tank is covered with oil, the end of a hose should 
be inserted and the tank flushed out to get rid of the oil. It is a good 
plan to put a cupful of kerosene into the tank. It will not only 
loosen whatever oil may be clinging there, but will help loosen the 
scale liable to form from hard water. 

A thermostat water-level indicator operates only when steam 
is up. When the boiler is cold it indicates high water whether water 
is present or not. When the car is running, a faulty reading of the 
water level is usually soon noticed, and if it is overlooked there is 
still protection of the fusible plug. If, however, the boiler should 
be fired up with no water in it, the fusible plug would melt without 
the fact being heralded by escaping steam. Therefore, the fusible 
plug, like the water-level indicator, is useful only when steam is up. 

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60 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

Engine Lubrication. For the older cars not using superheated 
steam, the regular power-plant steam-cylinder oil is usually recom- 
mended. This is a mineral oil mixed with tallow to make it hold on 
the wet cylinder walls. It often contains graphite. This type of oil 
will not stand the high temperatures of superheated steam, and special 
oils must be used. As an example, the Stanley Company has recom- 
mended either "Harris superheat steam-cylinder oil" or "Oilzum high- 
pressure superheated steam-cylinder oil". The Doble uses the same 
kind of gasoline-engine oil as is used by the ordinary motor-car driver. 
Other engines use different grades of oil to the best advantage, and it 
is best in each case to find out the maker's recommendations. 

The Fusible Plug. If the fusible plug blows out when the car 
is running, the escape of steam may be shut off by closing a valve 
usually interposed between the boiler and the plug. The fire should 
be shut off at once and, if possible, the car should be run to reduce the 
pressure, thereby allowing the boiler to cool somewhat. When the 
drop in pressure compels a halt, close the by-pass valve and pump 
water in by hand till it shows in the lowest try cock. Then, after 
replacing the fusible plug, the fire may be relighted and the water 
level restored while the car runs. 

If the plug blows simply because the by-pass valve has been 
open too long, the by-pass can be closed, the main fire shut off, and 
the engine run by jacking up the rear wheels, till water shows in 
the lowest try cock. 

Causes of Low Pressure. Low pressure is generally due to 
insufficient fire. If the burner pressure is low, steam will not be made 
rapidly. If the burner pressure is all right, the burner nozzle may 
be clogged or the vaporizing tube may be choked with carbon. The 
nozzle may usually be poked out with a bent wire without turning off 
the fire. If, however, the vaporizer is clogged it will have to be 
removed when the car is cold and cleaned, with a drill or otherwise, 
as the makers direct. 

Occasionally the valve controlled by the diaphragm regulator 
may be choked, and rarely the main-burner valve. Either can be 
cleaned by disconnecting and running a wire through. 

Occasionally the pilot light may clog in the same way, usually 
at the nozzle. The remedy is the same as for the main burner. 

If the air pump fails to raise the pressure on the fuel tank to 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 61 

the required degree, it is probable that the intake or outlet check 
valves leak. If, as is likely, they have oil on them, the oil may have 
gathered dust. The valves should be taken out and cleaned, and a 
drop of oil put on them to make them tight. 

The various packings about the engine and auxiliaries require 
occasional tightening, and once in a while new packing is necessary. 
If the new packing is soft, like wicking, it may be put on top of the 
old, otherwise the old must be removed. The packing should not 
in any case be tighter than necessary to prevent leakage, for unnec- 
essary friction would thereby be caused. A slight leakage about the 
water and air pumps may be permitted to save friction. As the hand 
pumps are rarely used their packings can be looser than those of the 
power pumps. 

Scale Prevention and Remedies. In sections where hard water 
is used, the subject of scale is a serious one, and its treatment will 
depend on the character of the mineral contained in the water. Fre- 
quently it is possible to precipitate the mineral before putting the 
water into the tank. Sometimes the addition of a small quantity of 
lime will do this, sometimes carbonate of soda or "soda ash". Still 
other waters are successfully treated by adding caustic soda. Some- 
times the simple addition of kerosene to untreated water will loosen 
the scale as above indicated. If these remedies are not successful, 
the user is advised to send a sample gallon of water to a maker of 
boiler compounds and have it analyzed, after which a suitable com- 
pound can be recommended. Scale allowed to accumulate by neg- 
lect is not only very detrimental to the boiler by interfering with the 
free flow of heat, but it also seriously reduces the steaming power. 
Instances have been known of the steaming capacity of boilers being 
reduced fifty per cent or more by scale. At the same time the shell 
and tubes get hotter than they should, resulting in unequal expansion 
and leakage. 

Filling the Boiler. Before firing up, be sure that the boiler and 
superheaters are full. To be sure of this, open the throttle valve and 
steam-chest drip, close the by-pass valve and work the hand pump 
until water comes from the steam-chest drip. If more convenient 
fill the boiler from the town supply by means of the coupling fur- 
nished for this purpose, connecting to the blow-off valve. Never 
light the fire until you are sure that the boiler is full. 

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62 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

At the end of a run open the blow-off valve at the front of the 
boiler, and blow down to about 100 pounds. Fill the water tank and 
close the by-pass valve, and the condensing steam in the boiler will 
siphon the boiler full. Before blowing down, see that the pilot light 
is out, as well as the main burner. It can be extinguished by blowing 
into the pilot mixing tube. 

Raising Gasoline Pressure. If the pressure tanks are empty 
and the pressure zero, proceed as follows: 

Open the hand gasoline-pump valve and work the pump till 
the air gage registers 10 or 15 pounds. Tank 2, Fig. 47, is now full of 
gasoline, and tank 1 is full of compressed air. Attach the hand air 
pump to air valve and pump air into tank 1 till the gage indicates 
80 or 90 pounds, which is the working pressure for the burner. 

If now the fire is lighted and the car stands still, the pressure 
will gradually drop, but may be raised in a moment by working the 
hand gasoline pump. When the car runs, the power pump main- 
tains the supply. 

The air in tank 1 is gradually absorbed, and additional air is 
required. This is indicated, first, by the vibration of the air-pressure- 
gage needle when running; second, by a rapid drop of pressure when 
the car stands still. In case of doubt whether the drop is due to lack 
of air or to a leak in the automatic or pump valves, close the pressure- 
retaining valve. If the pressure still falls the air is insufficient. 

Occasionally empty the pressure tank by opening valve Z>, and 
refill in order to determine definitely the amount of gasoline in it. 

If the car is to stand some time with pilot burning, close the 
pressure-retaining valve to prevent the gasoline from leaking back 
through the valves and automatic. Be sure to open again on starting. 

General Lubrication. On page 60, are mentioned the different 
grades of oil suitable for cylinder lubrication in the various types of 
engines. The lubrication of the cylinder walls and valves, however, is 
not the end of the subject, for, wherever there are two moving surfaces 
in contact, there must be lubrication in order to keep the friction losses 
at a minimum. Useless friction in the running parts of the engine and 
chassis of the car means an increased consumption of fuel. This, 
however, is often of secondary consideration in comparison with the 
wear and resulting repair bills, often caused by lack of lubrication. 
When a bearing becomes dry, it usually heats up and expands, and 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 63 

in case this is continued to the point of "freezing", the car may be 
completely disabled on the road. 

Of course all parts of the car do not have the same amount of 
motion and, therefore, do not require the same amount of lubrication. 
All makers of cars issue instruction books for each model and, when 
possible, the operator should provide himself with a copy and follow 
the oiling instructions. This, however, is often impossible, and it is 
then a matter of good judgment based on the known requirements of 
other cars. Outside of the power plant there is no particular differ- 
ence between the construction and care of a steam- and a gasoline- 
engine driven car, and the lubrication chart of any of the later makes 
can be safely followed. 

In the modern Stanley and Doble types, the crankshaft, cross- 
head, and other moving engine parts, other than piston, together with 
the rear-axle bearings, are all lubricated by splash, the crankcase being 
thoroughly oil-tight. The level of this oil should be inspected every 
two months, although it will probably not need renewing that often. 
Some of the older cars require that the eccentric be given a squirt 
of oil daily, by a hand gim. It is a good habit to give all grease cups 
a turn-down each day. 

Water Pump. If the water pump fails to work, first see if the 
tank is empty. In addition to this there are three other causes to 
which failure is mainly due, viz, (1) The pump may be air-bound. To 
remedy, open the by-pass valve and run the engine. The air will work 
out readily, since there is no pressure against it. (2) The check valves 
may leak. There are three check valves, one on the pump intake, 
another on the outlet, and the third at the boiler. The intake valve 
is the most likely to leak. Remove the valve cap and clean the valve 
ball and its seat, being careful not to scratch them. If the boiler 
check valve is leaking, it will permit steam to escape into the water 
tank when the by-pass valve is open. This valve can only be exam- 
ined when there is no pressure. (3) The pump packing may leak. 
Tightening the packing nut generally suffices, but occasionally 
repacking is necessary. Do not screw the packing nut tighter than 
is necessary, as it causes needless friction; a slight leakage may be 
tolerated. In case the power pump fails, use the hand pump, first 
running with the main fire off till the pressure is reduced to about 100 
pounds. After pumping, close the valve with the pump plunger in. 

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64 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

Gasoline Pump. In most respects the gasoline pump resembles 
the water pump. If it becomes air-bound, it can be primed by using 
the hand gasoline pump, which is much larger and, drawing through 
the power pump, will suck out the air. 

The gasoline pump packing should not leak at all, as it is both 
wasteful and dangerous. The pump is so small that adjusting is 
seldom needed. 

If the hand gasoline pump becomes air-bound, unscrew the valve, 
which is open when the hand pump is used, till it comes out. Press 
the thumb over the valve-stem hole when the pump plunger is pulled 
out, and lift it off when the plunger is forced in. Repeating this 
several times will expel the air. 

If the hand gasoline pump and hand water pump work together, 
the packing nut on the gasoline pump should be just tight enough 
to hold the gasoline, and the water pump should have its packing 
so adjusted that the pump will run perfectly free. 

To pack the gasoline pump, put in first a thin leather washer, 
then three of the special packing rings supplied by the makers, then 
another thin leather washer, and screw the stuffing-box nut only 
hand tight. Do not use a tool to tighten it, otherwise the plunger 
will cut out the packing. 

Care of Engine Bearings. If the engine is regularly lubricated 
the bearings will seldom require adjustment. If the bearings show 
the slightest discoloration from rust they have been insufficiently 
oiled. Adjustments are made as follows: 

The crosshead guides are taken up by screwing down the nut 
on the bolt holding the frame rods together. The crosshead balls 
must be under sufficient pressure to keep them from slipping. 

The wrist pins are taper and are adjusted with a screw held by 
a lock nut. First loosen the lock nut, turn up the screw till it stops, 
then back it one-eighth turn and tighten the lock nut. 

The crankpin ball bearings are adjusted by removing the 
bolt, taking out the plug, and reducing it slightly by filing. When 
correctly adjusted the bearings should have no perceptible play. 

The main bearings and eccentrics can only be adjusted after 
the engine is taken out of the car. They are adjusted to take up lost 
motion by filing or grinding down the face of the bearing cap, which 
must be very carefully done. 



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 65 

Be sure the engine-frame hangers are properly adjusted. Should 
the nuts work loose, the front end of the engine will sway, to the 
damage of the engine case and gears. In adjusting the engine-frame 
hangers do not set them up so tight that they will not swivel around 
the rear axle. If necessary insert shims of paper or thin brass, 
removing the rear engine case to gain access. 

Operating the Cut-Off and Reverse. In the more recent Stanley 
cars the cut-off is variable from one-quarter to one-half stroke. On 
the engine is a quadrant from which the reverse lever works in con- 
nection with the reverse pedal. The quadrant has one notch, into 
which a dog attached to the reverse lever drops when the engine is 
"hooked up", that is, operating on short cut-off. To hook up the 
engine, press on the reverse pedal only. To release the dog, press a 
pedal beside the reverse pedal, called the clutch pedal. This releases 
the reverse pedal and a spring pulls it back, allowing the engine to cut- 
off at half-stroke. The car should always be started with the reverse 
pedal released, and the cut-off should not be shortened until the 
engine attains good speed. If it operates jerkily, release the reverse 
pedal by pressing the clutch pedal. 

Care of the Burner. If the car does not steam well, look at the 
fire first. See that the gasoline pressure is not below 100 pounds. 

If the pressure is right, the gasoline line may be clogged in the 
automatic valve, vaporizer, burner nozzle, or main-burner valve. 
If the burner has two mixing tubes, see if both sides are affected; 
if so, the trouble is probably in the automatic valve. If the two 
burner flames are unequal, the trouble may be in the vaporizing 
tubes or the nozzle, more likely the latter. Clean the nozzles by run- 
ning a small wire through them with the screw out, or by using a bent 
wire without removing the screw. 

If the vaporizing tubes are clogged, uncouple at the back of 
the burner, take out the bundle of wires from the tubes, and clean 
the tubes and wires thoroughly, using the bundle as a swab. Extin- 
guish all fire before beginning. 

If the pilot-light nozzle becomes clogged, use a screwdriver 
to turn the horizontal nozzle screw back and forth. A wire projects 
from this screw through the nozzle orifice and turning the screw 
causes the wire to clean the nozzle. Do this only with the pilot 
burning. 

261 



66 STEAM AUTOMOBILES 

To regulate the air received by the pilot, bend the pilot vaporizer 
tube slightly away from the mixing tube for more air, or inward for 
less air. The pilot should burn with a blue flame slightly tinged 
with yellow, and may be adjusted while lighted. 

Never use a reamer for cleaning either the pilot or main-burner 
nozzle, as it is likely to enlarge the hole, which is that of a No. 62 drill. 

Sometimes after the automatic valve closes, the gas pressure 
at the nozzles will reduce gradually, causing the burner to light- 
back. When next the automatic valve opens, the fire will burn inside 
the mixing tubes with a roaring sound. This sound should be the 
instant signal for closing the main-burner valve and allowing the 
mixing tube to cool. 

If the burner should fire back frequently and with a sharp 
explosion, it would indicate either a leak in the burner or a leak of 
steam in the combustion space. To test for a steam leak, first get 
up steam pressure, then take off the burner and examine the boiler, 
then run the front wheels against something immovable and open 
the throttle valve to see if steam escapes from the superheaters. 

To Adjust the Throttle. If the throttle valve leaks it must be 
reground or a new valve substituted. It may, however, appear 
to leak owing to improper adjustment. There should be some 
tension on the valve stem when the lever is locked in the closed 
position. There is a distance rod running from the body of the 
throttle valve through the dashboard close to the throttle^valve 
stem. To increase the tension on the throttle, adjust the nuts on the 
distance rod. 

To Adjust the Automatics. To carry a higher steam pressure, 
screw the adjusting screw on the automatic valve further in; for a 
lower pressure, screw it out. The same regulation of the gasoline 
relief valve will produce similar variations of the fuel pressure. 

To Lay Up for the Winter. Run the car, on the road or with 
the rear wheels jacked up, till everything is hot, then extinguish the 
fire and blow off the boiler. While steam is escaping, open the 
safety and siphon valves and take out the fusible plug to clear them 
of water. Empty the tank, take off the caps of the check valves, 
and blow into the suction holes to clear the water from the checks 
ahead. Take off the water indicator and empty it, unless it is filled 
with non-freezing mixture. 

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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 67 

General Remarks on Operating. The commonest fault of 
Stanley operators is opening the throttle too abruptly on starting. 
This is bad enough if the cylinders happen to be clear of water; 
if they are not clear, the results may be destructive. Always start 
slowly, and do not come up to road speed till the engine runs 
smoothly. 

Never open any of the valves more than two or three full turns. 
They are screw valves, and if turned a dozen or more times they 
will come clear out. 

Practice reversing where you have plenty of room. The ability 
to look and steer backward while operating the reverse pedal and 
throttle is not a natural gift. After reversing, be sure that the pedal 
has been released, by pressing the clutch pedal before giving steam. 



263 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



INTRODUCTION 

Development of Field. While the development of the com- 
mercial car was slow at first owing to the numerous shortcomings 
of early types, it has advanced with wonderful rapidity during the 
past few years and bids fair to supersede, in a comparatively short 
time, the use of the horse-drawn vehicle for business purposes, not 
only in the large cities but also on the farm. As in the case of the 
pleasure car, Europe led in the development of the automobile for 
transportation purposes, chiefly with military necessities in view, as 
without power-driven vehicles it would be impossible to move the 
enormous food and ammunition supplies required by an army of 
present-day proportions. However, American manufacturers have 
advanced so rapidly in the production of commercial cars during the 
past few years that in 1916 the registration of New York City alone 
showed a greater number of these vehicles than were reported by the 
census of 1915 for the whole German Empire and more than half the 
number reported in service in Great Britain during the same period. 
Scope of the "Commercial Vehicle". It is important to know 
the reasons for the revolution which is now in active progress, as well 
as to become familiar with the prevailing practices in America and 
abroad in the construction, operation, and maintenance of that large 
and varied class of automobiles employed exclusively for business 
purposes. Regardless of type, class, or method of propulsion, these 
are commonly referred to as "commercial vehicles". This classifi- 
cation embraces not only motor delivery wagons and trucks for the 
transportation of merchandise, but also taxicabs, omnibuses, sight- 
seeing vehicles, motor road trains, farm tractors, emergency repair 
or tower wagons for street-railway service, and also vehicles for 
special municipal service — ambulances, patrol wagons, fire engines, 
street-sprinkling and garbage-removal wagons, and the like. In fact, 
it may be said that any automobile not devoted to pleasure is a com- 
mercial vehicle, and, as was to be expected, the first types of these 

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2 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

vehicles were merely pleasure cars transformed to suit the needs of 
the occasion. To a certain extent, this still continues to be the case- 
Standard Design. Whether it be electric-, steam-, or gasoline- 
driven, the general design of the motive power, as well as that of its 
transmission to the driving wheels, is practically the same in the 
commercial vehicle as it is in the pleasure car, except that the chain 
drive has now almost disappeared on the latter, and all the com- 
ponent parts — bearings, frames, axles, steering gear, and compen- 
sating mechanism — are the same. In other words, the chassis in 
both cases is composed of similar members. For the sake of brevity 
in the present treatise, it is assumed at the outset that the reader 
has become familiar with motor-car engineering so far as it relates to 
pleasure-car construction; that he understands, from previous study 
and the actual handling of machines, the theory of the operation of 
the internal-combustion engine; that he is conversant with the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of the several types of engines as well as 
with their advantages and limitations; and that he is acquainted with 
the types of transmission systems ordinarily employed on pleasure 
cars — in brief, that he understands any reference to component parts, 
to their functions, and to their relation to one another, without the 
necessity of explanation. 

In common with the pleasure car, the commercial vehicle is 
capable of traveling at various speeds wherever road conditions will 
permit it to go. Both comprise in a single entity a wheeled vehicle 
suitable for transportation purposes, fitted with an independent, self- 
contained power plant, and both present the same engineering prob- 
lems so far as they relate to the construction of the motor, its control, 
and the transmission of its power to the road wheels, the design of the 
running gear, and the control of the vehicle itself. Divergence in 
practice is encountered with the consideration of the purposes for 
which each vehicle is designed. The pleasure car is not intended to 
be a very efficient vehicle. Its carrying capacity bears a compara- 
tively insignificant ratio to its total weight, and, usually, the car is not 
designed to work under the same severe and continued conditions 
of service that are the first requirements of the commercial vehicle. 
It must be capable of high speed with its maximum load of passen- 
gers and must combine reliability with endurance to an extent 
sufficient to meet the demands of its owner when on pleasure bent. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 3 

Classification. In order to make the subject as clear as possible 
and to facilitate reference on the part of the student, industrial motor 
vehicles as a whole have been classified, first, by their motive power; 
and second, by the uses for which they are intended. Thus there 
are, today, in the order of their relative importance: 



Motive Power 



Types of Vehicles 



Electric vehicles 
Gasoline-driven vehicles 
Gas-electric vehicles 
Steam vehicles 

Industrial electric trucks 

Delivery wagons 

Trucks, vans, and similar freight carriers 

Passenger vehicles — stages, busses, taxicabs, sight-seeing 
cars, etc. 

Municipal vehicles — patrol wagons, ambulances, fire appa- 
ratus, garbage-removal wagons, street sprinklers, etc. 

Special types — railway tower wagons, emergency repair 
wagons, farm tractors, road trains, etc. 

This classification has been made advisedly, for, though kerosene 
and alcohol are being experimented with as fuels for the internal- 
combustion engine and particularly for commercial purposes, by 
far the greater majority of types marketed at present are driven 
by gasoline fuel. 

Each of the foregoing principal divisions is susceptible of further 
subdivision, but this is neither necessary nor desirable. Commer- 
cial motor vehicles are now built for almost every conceivable 
purpose involving freight hauling or the transportation of pas- 
sengers and include many special uses, such as hauling huge reels of 
telephone cable and drawing the cable through the underground 
conduits, transporting and hoisting safes and pianos, delivering coal 
with special dumping wagons, and the like. They differ only in the 
special equipment with which they are provided for the service in 
view, and, as their construction otherwise is the same, it would only 
lead to confusion to attempt to consider them separately. 

ELECTRIC VEHICLES 

Range of Use. Owing to the general recognition of its simplicity 
and economy, which has been brought about by a co-operative 
propaganda fostered by the electric lighting and power companies, 

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4 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

the growth of the use of the electric commercial vehicles during the 
past few years Tias been little short of phenomenal. One New York 
firm alone uses nearly 350 electric delivery wagons, several have 
nearly 100, while no fewer than forty-five have "fleets" of 10 cars or 
more. All told, there are several thousand electric vehicles in New 
York City and more than 100 garages and charging stations, while 
the demand for current has been so great that the minimum for 
charging batteries has recently been reduced to $10 per month. 
Current is supplied at a preferred rate under special contract, which 
calls for the charging of the batteries during those hours of the night 
when the load on the central stations is lowest. 

Advantages of the Electric Type. Simplicity. One of the chief 
advantages of the electric vehicle, when judged from the purely com- 
mercial point of view, is its great simplicity, which, to a very large 
extent, solves the labor question that has proved such a deterrent to 
the adoption of the gasoline vehicle for commercial service. As the 
duties of the driver of an electric vehicle do not extend beyond its 
actual starting, stopping, and guidance while under way, anyone 
who has been accostumed to the use of horses can master its operation 
in the course of a few hours. This lalso appears to be equally true 
of men who have never driven any type of vehicle previous to their 
taking the wheel or steering tiller of an electric. Apart from the actual 
mechanical control of the vehicle, the driver's only other care is to 
keep informed as to the state of charge of the battery by watching 
the voltmeter, in order to prevent running the car with the batteries 
exhausted, as this is very detrimental to their continued usefulness. 
However, as the batteries of most commercial vehicles are charged 
every twenty-four hours and the car run is planned to lie within its 
traveling radius on a single charge, with a factor of safety allowed in 
addition, this is not a very onerous duty. The further requirement 
of noting the current consumption on starting and running, as indi- 
cated by the ammeter, in order that any defect in the operation of the 
running gear of the car may be detected and remedied, is also a very 
simple one, so that an unskilled driver is available at a correspond- 
ingly lower charge for labor cost in the operation of the vehicle. The 
adoption of the ampere-hour meter showing the actual consumption 
of battery energy has simplified the task of the driver still 
further. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 5 

Efficiency and Long Life. Broadly speaking, short runs with 

many stops are the province of the electric, so that probably 80 

per cent of all average city deliveries come within its economic field. 

I*ts labor cost is much lower than that of the gasoline car, since an 

unskilled hand can operate it efficiently, while one man at the garage 

can take care of nearly twice as many electrics as of gasoline cars. 

The electric is easier on tires, owing to its reduced speed, insurance 

rates are lower, and its depreciation can be figured on a much more 

favorable basis, as it has been shown to have an average effective 

life of ten years. The fact that all its moving parts revolve has a 

most important influence on its low maintenance cost and reliability, 

many electric trucks showing an average of 297 days in service of 

the 300 working days in a year. 

Power Efficiency. The amount of power available on a single 
charge of the batteries without unduly increasing the weight is so 
limited that in the design of the electric great care must be taken 
to eliminate friction and other sources of power loss at every possible 
point. This is further necessitated by the gradually decreasing 
efficiency of tne batteries with age. Starting with 80 per cent 
when new, the efficiency may <*k>p rapidly to 50 per cent or below 
unless the batteries are properly maintained, which is likewise true 
of the transmission efficiency of the running gear of the vehicle; so 
that while unskilled labor may be employed for the operation of the 
vehicles this is not the case where their maintenance is concerned. 
Power losses due to the tires are also an important factor, and as 
the pneumatic tire can very seldom be considered for commercial 
service, the same degree of efficiency is not obtainable from the busi- 
ness electric wagon as from the pleasure type employing the same 
motive power. Road conditions must also be considered — despite the 
fact that electrics are employed almost exclusively for city or near-by 
suburban service — as mud, snow, and ice in winter, and poor pave- 
ments at any time .cause an increase in the current consumption. 

ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGON 

General Specifications. Whether considered from the point of 
view of design and construction or from that of operation, the 
electric delivery wagon is, without doubt, the simplest vehicle in 
the commercial field. As already mentioned, its operation may be 



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mastered in a comparatively short time, either by the ex-horsedrive? 
or by a person who has never had any experience in the control of a 
vehicle, so that the labor cost — always an item of importance in thb 
field — may be materially reduced without fear of the equipment 
suffering in consequence. It is usually customary with manufac- 
turers of these vehicles to adopt a standard form of design, which i> 
employed throughout in every size listed by the same maker, the only 
differences being those of dimension, load capacity of the vehicle. 
and capacity of the battery to take care of the increased weight. 

Package delivery wagons and express wagons of the electru 
type have a useful load capacity ranging from- 1000 to 2000 pounds. 
though a very few of less than 1000 pounds' capacity were employed 
at first. The 40-mile run is standard and is based on an average 
speed of 10 to 20 miles an hour, including stops, as the necessity 
for frequently stopping and re-starting the car in delivery service 
has an important bearing on the mileage of which the car is capable 
on a single charge. The latter is naturally figured on the maximum 
efficiency of the car as a whole, so that in practice this is seldom 
fully realized, owing to the deterioration of the batteries in service. 

Design. The electric has progressed through the stages repre- 
sented by the angle-iron frame, the armored wood frame, and the modi- 
fications of the two as employed on gasoline cars to the now generally 
current type of pressed-steel frame. This frame has the advantage 
of being extremely strong for its weight. It is composed of side and 
transverse members produced in hydraulic presses directly from 
steel plates of about T V-inch thickness, these members being riveted 
together and further reinforced by gussets at the corners. On 
account of the height of the vehicle, the frames are made perfectly 
rectangular and without either a drop or narrowing forward. 

The types of suspension employed also show the same variations 
as are to be found in the gasoline-d riven cars, some of the smaller 
electrics having the full elliptic springs ordinarily employed on 
wagons, while intermediate and heavy vehicles have either straight 
semi-elliptic springs front and rear or a half-platform type of sus- 
pension in the rear. A study of the Baker and General Vehicle 
types of delivery wagons and trucks will show how closely they 
approach, as a whole, to what is considered general practice in the 
automobile field. 



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Because of the heavy loads carried and of the fact that solid 
tires are used, the entire running gear has to be planned on a very 
liberal scale. This is likewise true of the springs. While it is desir- 
able that the latter afford as much protection to the mechanism as 
possible, sufficient stability to carry the load is of more importance 
than flexibility, as the comparatively slow speeds do not occasion 
the violent shocks met with in the pleasure car. 

MOTIVE POWER 

Type of Motor. As already mentioned, the motive power of 

the majority of smaller electric vehicles consists of a single motor, 

and, in several makes, such as the Waverley, G.V., G.M.C., and 

Detroit, this practice extends to heavy units, with a corresponding 

increase in the efficiency of the vehicle as a whole. In order to keep 

down the weight as well as the space occupied, these motors are very 

small for their power output, and consequently have to be wound for 

high rotative speeds. They are usually of the series type of the 

General Electric or the Westinghouse make and are designed to 

carry heavy overloads for short periods, to enable the car to pull out 

of a bad place, to start with full load on a heavy grade, or to meet 

similar emergencies, the motor, under such conditions, delivering 

an amount of power greatly in excess of its normal rating. 

Motor Suspension with Chain Drive. Since the use of spur-gear 

drives has decreased, the motor is usually suspended from the frame 

by means of transverse members riveted to the side rails and is 

placed near, or slightly forward of, the center of the chassis, in 

order to give the best distribution of weight. This is an advantage 

not obtainable when the motors are hung from the rear axle or too 

close to it. In view of the high speed at which the motors run — 1800 

to 2000 r.p.m. or more — a reduction in two stages is necessary to 

avoid the employment of excessively large sprockets. The first step 

is from the motor to a countershaft by means of a single silent chain 

of the Morse or the Renold type, the motor being suspended in such a 

manner that it may be moved a short distance one way or the other 

\ to permit the adjusting of this chain to the proper tension, Fig. 1. 

The large sprocket on the countershaft, which serves to cut down the 

speed in the proportion of about 1 to 5, also embodies a differential, 

or compensating, gear of the usual bevel or spur type, thus making 



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it possible to employ a solid one-piece axle instead of weakening 
the latter by inserting the balance gear in it. This is an important 
feature, as the rear axle must bear 60 to 70 per cent of the total weight 
of both the car and the load. From the countershaft, chains are run 
to each of the driving wheels. The relative positions of the counter- 
shaft and the rear axle are maintained by heavy adjustable radius 
rods, attached forward to the outer ends of the countershaft and, at 
the rear, to the axle. These rods take the stress of the drive off the 



Fitf. 1. Motor Suspension and Silent-Chain Drive on Baker Trucks 

springs and counteract the tendency of the chains to draw the rear 
axle toward the countershaft, under the pull of the motor. 

Motor Suspension with Shaft Drive. On light delivery wagons of 
the shaft-driven type, three methods of motor suspension may be 
noted. In the first method, the motor is placed just forward of the 
rear axle, its housing being practically integral with that of the axle. 
Either a worm drive permitting of a single-speed reduction or a two- 
speed gear through spur gears is employed. As the motor moves with 
the axle and their relations are fixed, flexible joints are not required. 
A modification of the first method consists in placing the motor under 
the car at about the center and mounting it on a flexible suspension 
so that it can move under stress without disturbing its alignment; 
while the third method provides for taking such stresses on universal 
and slip joints interposed between the motor and the rear axle. 



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The relative locations of the various essentials of a deliver;. 
wagon of the single-motor side-chain-drive type # are clearly shown 
in Fig. 2 that illustrates a G.V. chassis of 4000 pounds' capacity, this 
being the same except for the difference in size. 

Worm-Gear Transmission. While the power is transmitted 
through a combination-chain drive, i.e., silent chain for the first 
reduction and roller chains for the final drive, on the majority of 
delivery wagons, the practice of utilizing the worm drive, which has 
recently been adopted on the pleasure cars, has also been taken up 
in this field on the light vehicles. An example of this is represented by 




Fig. 3. Hear Axle of Commercial Electric Delivery Wagon 

the G.V. 1000-pound delivery wagon, equipped with a single motor 
driving through a propeller shaft having two universals and with 
a David Brown (British) type of worm-gear rear axle. On machines 
of this class, it is customary to mount the motor on a flexible support, 
which permits it to adapt itself to variations in the angularity of 
the propeller shaft, thus reducing the load imposed on the universal 
joints and, at the same time, avoiding the effects of torsional stresses 
on the motor. As the location of the motor is such as to prevent 
the suspension of the battery below the frame in the usual cradle, 
it is carried forward under a bonnet, or hood, and the wheel-base of 



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Fig. 4. G.M.C. Chassis with Combination Shaft and Chain Drive 

the chassis correspondingly lengthened. This is not the case with 
the Commercial worm-driven delivery wagon, as in this instance the 
motor is placed almost directly on the rear axle, as shown in Fig. 3,' 
thus eliminating the propeller shaft and the necessity for universal 
joints. The spring suspension of the motor will be noted protruding 
above its forward end. 




Fig. 5. Motor, Drive Shaft, and Jackshaft Assembly for G.M.C. Electric Wagon 

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Shaft and Chain Transmission. The G.M.C. (General Motors 
Company) electric embodies a combination of shaft and chain drive, 
as shown by the chassis, Fig. 4. This drive incorporates an ingenious 



Fig. 6. Details of Motor Mounting, Brake, and Drive, G.M.C. Electric Delivery Wagon 

feature consisting of the use of a spring steel shaft, as shown by the 
detail view, Fig. 5. The design of these cars, as shown by the chassis, 
is standard for all capacities ranging from a 1000-pound delivery 



Fig. 7. Chassis of Waverley 5-Ton Electric Truck, Showing Battery Installation 

wagon up to a 6-ton truck, and, in each case, the section of this shaft 
is calculated to transmit the power necessary, with a predetermined 
degree of flexure in starting, which serves to cushion the mechanism 

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■ COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 13 

as well as the tires. The pin attachment at the motor and the bevel- 
gear-driven countershaft eliminate the necessity for universal joints 
in this member while still permitting a rigid mounting of the motor 
on its sub-frame. As will be noted in Fig. 6, which shows the details 
of the complete drive, this sub-frame is carried in bearings on a 
tubular transverse member, thus allowing for relative movement in a 
longitudinal plane, the shaft itself compensating for torsional stresses. 
Unit-Wheel Drives. Mention has already been made of the 
abandonment of two-motor drives on comparatively light cars, as 
well as the successful employment of a single motor on vehicles up 
to 5 tons' capacity, as in the case of the Waverley 5-ton chassis, 



Fig. 8. Two-Motor Axle with Spur-Clear Drive, Commercial 2-Ton Truck 

Fig. 7. The Commercial electric is an exception to this in that it 
shows the successful employment of two motors on cars as small as 
one-ton capacity. The rear axle of this car is a complete self- 
contained unit, as will be seen upon referring to Fig. 8 illustrating 
the drive of a 2-ton Commercial. The form of mounting employed 
is clear in the illustration, while Fig. 9 shows the details of the gear 
reduction between the motor and the driving wheel. This concern 
also makes a four-wheel drive, which is employed on vehicles of 3| to 
7 tons' capacity. On these machines, both front and rear axles are 
alike. One of them is illustrated in Fig. 10, in which it will be noted 
that the motor and the driving wheel are an integral unit pivoted in 

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14 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

the axle to permit of utilizing all four wheels for steering. The speed 
reduction in this instance is simply a double spur-gear train meshing 
with an internal gear cut on a drum in the rear wheel. 

Couple-Gear Truck Drive. A particularly ingenious example of 
the ease and directness with which electricity lends itself to special 



Fig. 9. View of Spur-Gear Reduction of Commercial Electric Drive 

forms of construction is to be found in the drive of the Couple-Gear 
truck, so called because all four wheels are not onlv driven bv electric 



Fig- 10. Two-Motor Axle of Four- Wheel Drive of Commercial Heavy Trucks 

motors but are utilized for steering purposes. These vehicles are 
built as straight electrics, using a storage battery as the source of 



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^ixrrent; and as gas-electric vehicles, a gasoline engine and generator 
f <^ roiing the power plant, the remainder of the design and construc- 
ts ion being the same in both cases. Fig. 11 illustrates the detail of 
tlr*e axle design employed, each wheel being carried on a steering 



r 



Fig. 11. Couple-Gear Axle for Unit- Wheel Drive 



spindle, and all four wheels coupled to act in unison, permitting the 
car to turn in a very short radius. The parts shown on the right- 
hand spindle in the illustration are the fields of the motor, the wind- 



rig. 12. Dismounted Couple-Gear Truck Wheel, Showing Motor Parta 

ings being just visible in the armature tunnel. They are made in 
this form, as the motor is practically a part of the wheel. 

The motor is built directly into the wheel, as will be apparent 
from the illustration of a dismounted wheel shown in Fig. 12. The 



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motor is of bipolar type, designed with flat fields in order that it may 
fit within the wheel without unduly increasing its section, and is held 
by its attachment to the axle. The wheel accordingly revolves about 
the motor, being driven by the two small pinions which are noticeable 
on opposite ends of the armature shaft and which mesh with the 
circular racks attached to the periphery of the wheel. The brushes 
are carried in a yoke bolted to the outer half of the field casting, so 



\'<u. 1 i. Walker Ucctru- Cha^is, Showing Combined Motor Axle 

that the removal of the latter makes everything' accessible. The 
cables for the motor current are led through the hollow axle. Apart 
from this feature and the employment of a four-wheel steer, the 
vehicle itself follows more or less conventional lines. 

Balanced Drive. The transmission on the Walker cars, known 
as a "balanced drive", is another radical departure from current 
practice in this respect. These cars are built in capacities ranging 
from 7o0 to 7(KJ() pounds and have been in successful service for a 



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number of years. As will be noted in Fig. 13, a single motor is 
employed, and it is built practically as an integral part of the rear 
axle, the housings of which form the fields. The armature of the 
motor is at right angles to the driving wheels, and its shaft is extended 
both ways to form the drive. At the outer ends, this shaft carries 
small spur pinions which mesh with two large gears. The latter, 



Fig. 14. Detail* of Walker Electric Wheel Drive 

in turn, mesh with an internal gear bolted to the inner face of the steel 
rims of the driving wheels themselves. The detail of this is made 
plain in Fig. 14, showing one of the wheels with the outer protecting 
disc removed. It will be apparent that this constitutes not only 
an unusually compact motor unit and transmission, having the great 
advantage of being always in direct line with its drive, but that it 
likewise dispenses with a differential, as the wheels themselves are 
balance gears. 

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18 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

CURRENT AND CURRENT CONTROL 
Battery Equipment. As the motors commonly employed are 
wound to take current at 80 to 85 volts, the battery consists of 44 
cells, divided into three or four groups of cells held in separate oak 
boxes, or "trays", as they are termed, to facilitate handling. This 
voltage is standard, regardless of the size of the vehicle, the latter 
being compensated for by changing the capacity of the battery. 
Thus, for light delivery wagons, each cell contains three positive and 
four negative plates of medium size, giving an 85-ampere-hour dis- 
charge capacity, while a 1000-pound wagon is equipped with a bat- 
tery having nine-plate cells with a capacity of 112 ampere hours; a 
2000-pound wagon, eleven-plate cells of larger dimensions, giving 
140 ampere hours; and so on in accordance with the size of the 
vehicle and the load it is designed to carry. Most electric vehicles 
have the battery underslung, i.e., carried in a cradle supported from 
the frame of the chassis. The cradle is enclosed in a battery box for 
protection against mud and water and has hinged doors at the ends 
through which the battery may be introduced or removed. By this 
arrangement, the weight of the battery, which is the heaviest single 
item in the entire construction, is distributed evenly between the 
forward and rear wheels, which leaves the entire floor space of the 
wagon available for the load. In special types, such as the G.V. 
1000-pound worm-driven delivery wagon, the usual practice in the 
pleasure-car method of carrying the battery under a hood forward is 
followed. All the wiring between the battery, controller, and iftotor 
is carried beneath the floor and is protected from injury by running 
it through iron conduits. 

Controller. In the case of delivery wagons and light trucks, 
the controller itself is placed either beneath the seat or under the 
footboards and is similar in construction to those employed on street 
cars, but much smaller in size, owing to the low voltage and com- 
paratively small amount of current to be handled. It is operated by 
a small hand lever and usually provides four speeds ahead and two 
reverse, all of which are obtainable by moving the same lever, 
although a special lock, or catch, must first be operated before the 
vehicle can be moved backward. This usually takes the form of a 
pedal, or kick plate, which may be depressed with the heel and must 
frequently be held down while reversing. When released, it auto- 



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19 



matically returns the controller to the ahead position, in order to 
prevent the vehicle from being backed inadvertently. 

Departures from the usual method of placing the controller are 
to be found in some of the medium-capacity vehicles, such as the 
Baker, in which the controller is located on the steering column just 
below the footboards; in the Urban, it is placed in a special dash 
compartment, the lever being on the steering wheel. This compart- 
ment also contains the ampere-hour meter, a type of instrument 
which records in watt hours the amount of power drawn from the 
battery and, at the same time, 
indicates the available amount 
remaining at any time. Ampere- 
hour meters are coming more and 
more into general use on both 
pleasure and commercial electrics, 
and a detailed description of the 
instrument and its use is given 
in connection with electric pleas- 
ure cars. In service, this dash 
compartment is protected by an 
aluminum plate through which 
the dial of the meter appears. On 
the Commercial, the controller is 
mounted directly on the steering 
column and is operated by a sec- 
ond smaller wheel, Fig. 15. The 
controller itself is thus above the 
footboards, and by the removal 

of the protective housing shown becomes very accessible. In cases 
where it is necessary to provide for handling heavy currents, a 
railway type of controller is employed. 

A novel controller installation that gives instant accessibility is 
found on the G.M.C., as shown in Fig. 16. The controller proper, 
as well as all wiring terminals, fuses, and meters are mounted under 
a short hood, the resistance being suspended just beneath the con- 
troller, while the charging receptacle is below the center of the bumper. 
This view illustrates the forward side of the dash, while Fig. 17 shows 
the side facing the driver. The connection between the control lever 




Fig. 15. Commercial Electric Controller on 
Steering Column 



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20 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

over the steering wheel and the controller is through a shaft and 
a bevel gearing, as shown in Fig. 16. In the illustrations, this lever is 



Fig. 16. Controller Installation of G.M.C. Electric Delivery Wagon 

at the neutral position, successive movement from this point forward 
giving five speeds ahead and two reverse speeds backward. The 



Fig. 17. Simple Control of G.M.C. Electric 

G.V. control is equally compact, being mounted in a steel box form- 
ing the driver's seat, as shown in Fig. 18. The safety switch and 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 21 

the plug connection for an inspection lamp are seen on the outside at 
the left. Inside are, first, the switch connections, then the fuses, and, 
next, the fingers of the controller. At the upper right hand (driver's 
left) is the control lever, while just visible below the box is the 
resistance. 

Safety Devices. In view of the fact that the average driver of 
an electric delivery wagon or a truck is either a graduate from the 
reins or has had no experience in handling vehicles at all, it has 
become customary to provide safety devices which, to a large extent, 



Fig. lfS. Controller Box of G. V. Electric Delivery Wagon 

prevent accidents that might otherwise result from this lack of 
experience. 

Cut-Out Switch Connected to Brake. The brake is usually inter- 
connected with a cut-out switch which automatically shuts off the 
power independently of the controller simply by the application of 
the former. While the brakes are sufficiently powerful to stop the 
machine even with the current on, forgetting to shut off the current 
would either blow out the fuses or result disastrously to the motor. 

Circuit- Breaker and Hand Switch. A circuit-breaker is provided 
on some cars to obviate the necessity for frequent replacing of the 
fuses, this being the usual practice in street railway and other electric 
work. Frequently, a hand-operated cut-out switch is also installed 



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22 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

to permit of inspecting or working on the controller without the 
necessity of disconnecting the battery, as a failure to do so where 
no switch is provided is apt to result in painful burns, owing to the 
large amount of current. 

Charging Circuit- Breaker. Another safeguard is an automati- 
cally operated circuit-breaker to protect the battery from being 
overcharged. This is used in connection with the Sangamo ampere- 
hour meter, which is described under the head of "Meters". Unlike 
the Anderson device described previously, which can be employed 
only where connection can be had to the field coils of the generator, 
this circuit-breaker operates exactly the same as the circuit-breaker 
in a generating station, which opens the line when an excess amount 
of current passes through it, except that in this case its operation is 
not controlled by the number of ampere turns on the circuit-breaker 
itself, • but by a trip switch actuated by the ampere-hour meter when 
its dial records that the battery is fully charged. 

Devices to Prevent Accidental Starting or Tampering. Devices 
are provided to prevent the accidental starting of the vehicle when 
not anticipated by the driver; also to guard against tampering by 
the ubiquitous small boy. On the G.V. 1000-pound worm-driven 
delivery wagon, for example, the emergency brake cannot be locked 
on except when the "running switch" is in either the neutral or the 
charging position, and cannot be released until thrown into the run- 
ning position. Moreover, this switch can be thrown to the running 
position only when the controller is at the "off" point, or neutral 
position. The interconnection of the brakes and the controller 
"throw-off" allows the driver to use both hands for steering, in an 
emergency and, at the same time, to cut off the power and apply 
both brakes with his feet. This emergency-brake lock compels the 
driver to turn off the current by throwing the running switch to 
neutral when leaving the car; it also prevents the brake from being 
released by an unauthorized person, as the driver can take the switch 
handle with him. As the brake cannot be released until the switch 
is thrown on, the driver is reminded of that fact. The running- 
switch lock prevents the accidental starting of the vehicle, which 
might happen if the controller had been tampered with during the 
driver's absence, and if, upon his return, he threw the running switch 
on without first looking at the controller handle. 



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Brakes. Owing to the comparatively low speeds, the braking 
equipment in the earlier designs usually consisted of a single set of 
drums attached to the driving wheels. Against the inner faces of 
these steel drums bronze shoes were expanded by means of a pedal 
and the usual brake rigging beneath the car. As was the case in 
practically all early chain-driven cars, the braking drums carried the 
driving sprockets on their outer faces. 

But in this, as in many other essentials, practice has been 
improved along the lines followed in the gasoline car. It is now cus- 
tomary to employ two sets of brakes, one for regular service and one 
for emergencies. Usually, both sets of brakes are carried in drums 
on the driving wheels, either side by side or concentrically, a friction 
facing of asbestos on a woven-wire foundation being employed. In 
some cases, the service brake operates on a drum carried on the 
armature shaft of the motor. 

Tires. While solid rubber tires are most generally employed, 
they are not necessarily so, as pneumatic tires are to be preferred 
where the merchandise to be carried is of a light or fragile nature 
or where speed is one of the chief features of the delivery service. 
They not only reduce the liability to breakage, but also lessen the 
cost of maintaining the vehicle in repair. However, as there are 
comparatively few branches of commercial service in which the pneu- 
matic tire is economically practicable, its use is very limited. The 
solid tires employed vary in size from two to four inches, and foj 
weights in excess of the capacity ,of the latter, they are used in twin 
form on the rear wheels. 

SPECIAL FORMS OF THE ELECTRIC 

Electric Tractors. The huge street-cleaning or garbage-removal 
truck, shown in Fig. 19, is drawn by a 5-ton G.V. electric tractor, 
the combination being along lines somewhat similar to the front- 
driven electrics adopted by the Paris street-cleaning department for 
the same purpose, except that the latter have a two-wheel tractor 
and are fitted with a specially designed covered steel body. One use 
of the electric tractor built along the lines just referred to is shown 
by the Couple-Gear propelled steam fire engine, Fig. 20. Part of 
the battery is carried on the frame and the remainder is suspended 
beneath it, the power consisting of two Couple-Gear motor wheels 

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24 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



Fig. 19. Five-Ton O. V. Electric Tractor Hauling Garbage Wagon 

mounted on steering spindles and operated by a street-railway type 
of controller which will be noted at the left of the driver. The entire 
power plant is a complete unit, which is bolted directly to the engine 
without further alteration than the removal of its front truck. 



Fig. 20. Couple-Gear Tractor Drawing Steam Fire Engine 
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Industrial Trucks. One of the most important developments 
of the past few years has been the widespread adoption of the so-called 
industrial truck. In a broad sense, the term represents a classification 
rather than a type, as there are several different types of chassis built 
for this purpose. Probably the first of these to be placed in service 
was the Lansden dock truck, designed for handling cargo on steam- 
ship piers. In addition to this, there are baggage and mail trucks for 
use in railway depots, also truck cranes and tractor trucks, and it will 
be apparent that they are designed for service where no other form of 
power than electricity would be either convenient or permitted. The 
battery truck crane, the baggage truck, and the tractor trucks are 
merely modifications of the simple freight truck, their functions vary- 
ing somewhat in each case. The baggage truck has a field of its own 
in the handling of baggage and mail, some being of the drop-frame and 
double-platform type and others having the battery and mechanism 
placed below the loading platform, which is made of railway-car 
height. 

The simple industrial, or freight, truck is built in sizes and capaci- 
ties suitable for moving loads on piers, in freight sheds, warehouses, 
factories, and industrial establishments generally. Its short wheel- 
base permits it to pass through congested spaces, going backward or 
forward with the same facility, while it is capable of ascending gradi- 
ents of 10 to 25 per cent. On piers and at railway terminals it can 
deliver its load on the deck of a vessel or in a box car. The capacity 
of such trucks seldom exceeds 2000 pounds, this figure being found 
the practical limit for trucks capable of the widest range of action. 
The loading space of a truck of this capacity is 28 square feet, while 
the total area required for movement is only 34 square feet, the 
machine having an extreme width of 4 feet and an extreme length 
of 8 feet, so that an industrial truck can be operated wherever a hand 
truck can go, while the former will ascend grades impossible to the 
latter. 

Fig. 21 shows a standard G.V. 2000-pound industrial truck, of 
which there are several hundred in use. Both the battery and the 
driving mechanism are suspended below the platform, which has 
rounded corners and is extended to protect the mechanism at every 
point. Its speed on hard level surfaces is 7 miles per hour; its average 
radius, 25 miles on one charge of the battery, the current consumption 

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28 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

for a full charge amounting to 6 to 8 kilowatt hours. For grades up 
to 10 per cent, only one motor is employed. When equipped with 
two motors, each rear wheel is driven by an individual motor geared 
to a housed spur gear fastened to the w T heel. A spring-returned con- 
troller is used, the operating lever returning to neutral when released 
by the driver. The brake is also spring-operated and is normally set, 
so that in order to run the car the driver must keep the brake pedal 
depressed. A further safety precaution is an automatic cut-off 



Fig. 21. G.V. One-Ton Industrial Truck Handling Freight 

switch connected with the brake, so that in releasing the pedal of the 
latter the power is cut off automatically. In addition to this pedal, 
two operating handles are provided, one for the controller and the 
other for steering, the truck being capable of turning around in a 
7-foot radius. In general freight-shifting service, the hauls averaging 
from 200 to 800 feet, each truck displaces from four to six men with 
hand trucks. The efficiency of these trucks is frequently increased by 
using them in connection with trailers and large numbers are employed 
in factories for transporting material from one department to another. 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 27 

ELECTRIC TRUCKS 
Classification. There is little, if any, difference in design between 
delivery wagons and trucks, the frames, axles, wheels, springs, and 
transmission simply being made heavier in proportion to the great 
increase in load to be carried, while there is a corresponding difference 
in the power of the motor or motors and in the size of the chains or 
other essentials of the transmission. As already mentioned, some 
makes, such as the Walker, adhere to the single-motor power plant 
even in sizes up to 2 and 3J tons' capacity, and the G.V., Lansden, 
Waverly, and G.M.C., up to 5 and 6 tons, on the score of increased 
economy and higher efficiency, while others, such as the Commercial, 
employ two motors on vehicles as small as the 4000-pound size and 
four motors on larger trucks. 

Next to the delivery wagon, in which electric power has scored a 
great success, trucks of 2-ton and 3-ton capacity are the most com- 
mon forms of electric vehicles — though the 5-ton size has come into 
general use for brewery service — several hundred being run by brewers 
in New York, while one St. Louis company has nearly a hundred. 
Electric trucks of 6- and 7-ton capacity are also built. In order to 
obtain the increase in load-carrying capacity, the size of the motor 
must naturally be enlarged, with a corresponding increase in the power 
consumption, which calls for a very much larger battery. In order 
that the capacity of the battery may be sufficient to give the vehicle 
a practical radius of travel on a single charge without unduly adding 
to the weight, the speed is reduced, so that electric trucks of 2-ton 
capacity usually have an average speed of 8 to 10 miles an hour; 
3-ton trucks, 6 to 9 miles an hour; while 5-ton trucks seldom exceed 
7 miles an hour. 

Characteristics of Chassis. The electrics listed by the General 
Vehicle Company afford an excellent example of a standard design 
of chassis applied to cars ranging from 1000 pounds up to 5 tons' 
capacity, the intermediate sizes being 2000 pounds, 2 tons, and 3£ 
tons. Naturally, the first two are delivery wagons and are capable 
of traveling 45 miles on a single charge of the battery at a maximum 
speed of 12 and 10 miles per hour, respectively. The 2-ton wagon, 
while capable of the same mileage, has a maximum speed of but 9 
miles per hour. This is further reduced to 8 miles per hour for the 
3$-ton truck, which has a radius of 40 miles on a charge, while the 

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28 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

5-ton truck travels only 7 miles an hour as a maximum and has an 
extreme radius of 35 miles on a charge. In every case, only a single 



Fig. 22. Rear View of G.V. 4000-Pound Chassis 

motor is used, and as the design in all other respects is also standard 
for all sizes, a description of the 4000-pound wagon will suffice. 



Fig. 23. General Electric Motor 

With the exception of the use of a single-motor drive, a large 
number of the parts employed are practically the same as those used 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 20 

in other makes of electrics. The foundation of the entire car consists 
of a pressed-steel frame, to which are directly riveted the cradle for 



Fig. 24. Rear Axle of G.V. 2-Ton Truck 

carrying the battery, the spring hangers, and the supports for the 
countershaft bearings. 

A view of the complete chassis will be found in Fig. 2. 
The view is taken -from above and illustrates every essential except 
the battery. At the rear are the semi-elliptic springs, the solid-steel 
axle, artillery wheels with solid rubber tires and large driven sprockets, 
driving chains, the single motor suspended from a transverse tubular 
member on the frame, the enclosed silent-chain drive from the motor 
to the countershaft, the wiring in conduits from the controller to the 
motor, and the countershaft with its radius rods to equalize and 
maintain its distance from the rear axle. These rods also serve to 



Fig. 25. Front Axle of G.V. 2-Ton Truck 

take the stresses of driving off the rear springs. Just in front of the 
countershaft is the steel cradle for the battery trays; at the left, that 
is, at the front of the truck, is the steering gear, forward axle, springs, 
and wheels. 

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30 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

An excellent view of the entire bottom construction, which gives 
a clear idea of the arrangement of the power and the drive, is shown 
in Fig. 22, while the essentials comprising it are shown in detail in 
Figs. 23, 24, and 25. Fig. 23 is a G.E. multipolar, ironclad motor. 
Fig. 24 shows the rear axle, while the forward axle and its steering 
attachments are shown in Fig. 25. A 44-cell storage battery furnishes 
current at 85 volts, the motor being wound to operate economically 
at this voltage. The battery is in sectional form, in crates of such 
weight and size as to permit of easy removal or of replacement from 
either side of the vehicle. It is so arranged that it may be recharged 
without disturbing it; but, where two batteries are employed, a 
charged set may be easily and quickly substituted for the exhausted 
battery. 

The controller is of the continuous-torque type which will per- 
mit of changing the motor speeds by degrees without interrupting the 
power between any of the steps. This gives a gradual and steady 
acceleration, without the jerk and strain so detrimental to the life and 
efficiency of every part of the vehicle. The motor is designed along 
the lines which have proved so successful in street-railway work. It 
has a very heavy shaft as well as a simple and durable brush rigging 
and is wound to show not only a high efficiency but also a high capac- 
ity for overload. The armature shaft, which is carried on annular 
ball bearings that tend to greatly increase the efficiency of the motor 
as a whole, is suspended on a transverse bar pivoted to the side mem- 
bers of the frame forward of the rear axle. This pivoted suspension 
keeps the motor shaft parallel with the countershaft throughout the 
entire range of chain adjustment and permits the use of an efficient 
silent-chain drive, which, as will be noticed in Fig. 2, is enclosed in 
an aluminum housing. 

The countershaft is housed in and is carried on four taper-roller 
bearings inside the tube, the latter being held in self-aligning ball 
sleeves in hangers riveted to the sides of the frame. The two short 
driving shafts are connected by a spur differential and carry at their 
outer ends small sprockets for the roller chains to drive the rear 
wheels, the entire countershaft being a complete unit. It is driven by 
a silent chain of ample width running over a small pinion on the motor 
and over the gear of the differential. Altogether, this is a very effi- 
cient form of truck. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 31 

GASOLINE VEHICLES 

GASOLINE DELIVERY WAGONS 

Classification Limits. It will be found on a brief examination of 
the subject that this is a far more comprehensive heading than would 
appear at first sight, as it includes everything from the little three- 
wheeler up to the type known as the "light truck", but which is, in 
reality, also a delivery wagon with an open platform, or stake type of 
body. The range of carrying capacity is from one to two hundred 



Fig. 20. Autocar Two-Cylinder Delivery Wagon 

pounds up to one ton, or slightly more, as many delivery wagons and 
light trucks are built with a load capacity of 2500 pounds or even 
3O00 pounds. 

Autocar. The Autocar delivery wagon, Fig. 26, affords an excel- 
lent example of a vehicle designed especially for the most severe 
business conditions. The motor is of the two-cylinder, horizontal, 
opposed, four-cycle type, the cylinder dimensions being 4f-inch bore 
by 4J-inch stroke, and is rated at 18 horsepower. The crankshaft is 
mounted on imported annular ball bearings, which not only add 
greatly to the efficiency of the motor as a whole, but do away with the 
attention necessary to adjust plain bearings. This construction, 



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32 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

which is far more expensive than plain bearings, also reduces the 
number of parts which are subject to damage should the driver 
neglect to provide sufficient oil. The lubrication system is entirely 
automatic in operation. Two flywheels are carried on the crankshaft, 
the forward one having its blades cast staggered so as to set up a 
strong current of air, thus eliminating the necessity of a belt- or gear- 
driven fan, while the rear flywheel carries the clutch. The impor- 
tance of providing ample weight in the balance wheel is something to 
which insufficient attention has been devoted in the past, its influence 
upon the starting ability and the smooth-running qualities of the 
vehicle being extremely marked, especially where a two-cylinder motor 
is employed. Both flywheels on the Autocar motor are counter- 
weighted, and this, supplemented by a careful balance of all the 
reciprocating parts, makes an extremely smooth- and quiet-running 
motor with- unusual starting and grade-climbing ability for its size. 

The crankcase is split horizontally into two sections, the lower 
half carrying the cylinders, crankshaft, camshaft, and water pump, 
while ths upper half carries the push-rod guides, the magneto, the 
oiler, and a gear for driving the water pump. The magneto and 
oiler are both driven through bevel gears and short shafts, reducing 
the possibility of failure in these two highly important essentials — 
ignition and lubrication — to a minimum. The upper section of the 
crankcase is readily removable, carrying its parts with it and thus 
giving access to the crankpin bearings without the necessity of 
dismantling the motor. A Bosch magneto with a fixed firing point 
is employed, thus taking this element of control out of the hands of 
the driver. Lubrication is by a force-feed oiler delivering oil through 
a sight feed to the crankcase, from which the pistons, crankpins. 
and main bearings are lubricated by splash. Both the magneto and 
the lubricator are simply attached to the crankcase by w T irig nuts 
so that they may be removed without the aid of tools. A hydraulic 
speed regulator, connected in the circulation circuit of the cooling 
water, controls a throttle placed in the intake manifold between the 
carburetor and the cylinders, limiting the speed of the motor to 1400 
r.p.m. and that of the vehicle to 18 to 20 miles per hour. 

A patented floating-ring clutch, which has been developed on the 
same make of pleasure cars and used for a number of years, constitutes 
the first step in the transmission. It consists of a bronze floating 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 33 

ring, lined with cork inserts on its inner face, and is mounted on four 
keys on the inside of the rim of the rear flywheel, thus rotating with 
the latter. Two cast- 
iron rings, adapted to 
clamp the bronze ring 
when the clutch is en- 
gaged, are mounted on •• 
the clutchshaft which 
extends into the trans-, 
mission case. Engage- 
ment is accomplished by FiR 2 ? - Autocar ^m^*«i™*™ F, » ati »« *"* Axl « 
a sliding trunnion and four -toggle links, the motion of which is 
checked by a dashpot and k plunger. This insures gradual automatic 
action, entirely free from jerk, regardless of the care exercised by the 



Fig. 2S. Rear Vii-w of Antomt IVIivcry Wnyn 



driver. The addition of small springs to the flouting ring eliminates 
all noise, whether the clutch be engaged or not. 



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34 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

The transmission housing is all in one piece, except its cover plate, 
and has been so designed that all the shafts and gears may be removed 
without disturbing the housing itself. The shafts are large and are 



Fig. 29. Autocar Engine and Transmission Mounted on Separate Sub-Frame 

carried on adjustable roller bearings, while the gears have broad faces 
and heavy teeth. Three speeds forward and one reverse, operating 
progressively, are provided, lubrication being obtained by covering 
the shafts and gears w T ith a bath of semi-fluid oil. 



Fig. 30. Autocar Mrw-ine and Transmission — Plan View 

Both front and rear axles have been designed especially to meet 
the requirements of the heavy service imposed upon them in carrying 
the load on solid rubber tires. The front axle is of the tubular type, 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 35 

with extra heavy yokes for the steering spindles, which are made 
integral with the spring saddles. Adjustable roller bearings are 
employed in the wheel hubs. The rear axle is of the full floating 
type, with a double-gear reduction. A bevel pinion at the end of the 
propeller shaft meshes with a large bevel gear on a short transverse 
shaft, from which the drive is transmitted to the differential case by 
means of a pair of substantial spur gears, the method of mounting 
them being shown by Fig. 27. The complete axle, as well as the 
spring suspension, the brakes, and other details are shown in the 
rear view, Fig. 28. 

One of the chief features of advantage on the Autocar delivery 
wagon is the mounting of the complete motor and transmission, 
hairing the rear axle, on an independent sub-frame, as shown in Figs. 



Fig. 31. Plan View of White Delivery Wagon Chassis 

29 and 30. An illustration of the complete chassis would show every 
part of the power plant to be accessible by lifting the bonnet, while 
the complete unit, as shown separately, may be removed from the 
chassis and replaced by another. The rear view of the chassis, 
Fig. 28, shows the relative location of all the essential parts, including 
the gasoline tank, which is placed transversely on the main frame 
directly under the driver's seat. The frame is of pressed steel, 
perfectly rectangular and heavily reinforced. Two sets of brakes 
act on drums attached to the driving wheels, while the suspension 
consists of double-elliptic springs in the rear and semi-elliptic springs 
placed forward directly under the motor. 

White. This may be regarded as a representative standard 
design, as will be evident from the photo of the chassis, Fig. 31 , show- 

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36 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

ing that it differs from heavier-capacity vehicles of the same make 
only in being shaft-driven and having lighter dimensions. It is built 
in 1500- and 3000-pound sizes, the chassis illustrated being of the 
latter capacity. Single rear tires are usually fitted on the smaller 
car, and pneumatics are frequently employed to take advantage of the 
higher speed thus made possible, an example of this practice being 
illustrated by Fig. 32. Apart from the difference in dimensions and 
tire equipment, both sizes are the same, each being equipped with a 
3|- by 5^-inch motor, the cylinders of which are cast in one piece, 



Fig. 32. White Delivery Wagon with Light Top Body and Pneumatic Tires 

with the intake and exhaust passages integral. This motor is rated 
at 30 horsepower and fitted with a compression release for starting. 
A single-nozzle water-jacketed carburetor supplied with hot air from 
a jacket on the exhaust pipe, a high-tension magneto for ignition, 
and a gear-driven centrifugal water pump comprise its auxiliaries. 

GASOLINE TRUCKS 

Load Efficiency Increases with Size. It will be apparent that 
above the 2-ton size the load efficiency increases, as, once a certain 
point is reached, additions to the weight caused by increasing the 
dimensions of the load-carrying space and adding to the power of the 
motor are disproportionately small as compared with the increase in 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 37 

load capacity. For example, one truck of 3-ton capacity has a chassis 
weighing only 4500 pounds, which tips the scales at 5200 pounds 
completely fitted, or "all on"; on the other hand, another chassis 
for the same nominal carrying capacity, i.e., 3 tons, weighs 6000 
pounds. However, as no standard for rating the load-carrying 
capacity of gasoline trucks has ever been attempted, and one maker's 
5-ton truck is sometimes no larger than the 3-ton truck of another, 
it is often difficult to make comparisons that will be fair on a basis of 
catalogue weights alone. 

MOTOR DETAILS 
Design 

Both the design and construction of internal-combustion motors 
for commercial use are along lines similar to those employed on 
pleasure automobiles except as modified by the requirements of 
the more severe service. This necessitates a higher factor of safety 
throughout, such as increased provision for lubrication and cooling; 
extra large bearing surfaces, which must be readily accessible for 
adjustment, except, of course, where antifriction bearings are 
employed; increased crankshaft dimensions; broad gear faces; and 
a considerably increased weight of flywheel in order that the motor 
may develop as high a torque as possible at low speeds. The greater 
amount of weight in the rim of the flywheel also eliminates motor 
vibration to a considerable extent and makes the engine run much 
more smoothly. Such variations of design as are usual in the pleasure- 
car motors are to be found in the commercial type; in fact, where a 
manufacturer builds both types, the same lines are followed in each 
case, the only practical difference being in the dimensions and speeds. 
It will be necessary, accordingly, to refer to only a few of the more 
representative makes. 

Long Stroke, Low Speed. Generally speaking, a commercial 
motor is of the long-stroke low-speed type, some idea of the propor- 
tions being obtainable by the dimensions of the White and the 
Pierce-Arrow motors for 5-ton trucks. The former has a 4J-inch 
bore by a 6f-inch stroke, while the latter measures 4J by 6 inches. 
Similar small variations in dimensions are to be noted in practically 
every make, in conformity with the varying standards of compression 
and volumetric requirements adopted by their designers. This will 

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38 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

be apparent by a comparison of a few makes, such as the Locomobile, 
5 by 6 inches; G.V. and Mercedes, 4.25 by 5.9 inches; Peerless and 
Kelly, 4 \ by 6 \ inches; Vulcan, 4f by b\ inches. No increase is made 
in motor dimensions above the 5-ton size, the extra carrying capacity 
being gained by higher gear reductions and lower speeds, the Vulcan 
motor mentioned being employed on both the 5- and 7-ton sizes of 
that make. These motors are variously rated at 35 to 40 horsepower. 



Fig. 33. Peerless 5-Ton Motor, T-Head Type 

viz, Vulcan, 36 horsepower; White, 40; Kelly, 38.3; Peerless, 32.4; 
Pierce- Arrow, 38. 

Causes of Variations in Ratings. The variation in the ratings 
is due to a number of causes, although one of the chief reasons is the 
differences in the practice followed, i.e., in some cases, the power 
stated is the maximum indicated horsepower based on the dimensions 

and worked out bv the S.A.E. formula of - - , in which D is the 

2.o 

bore, A r the number of cylinders, and 2.5 an arbitrary constant 

derived from taking the speed characteristics of a large number of 

motors and striking an average representing a piston speed of 1000 

feet per minute. In other eases, it is the result of actual brake tests 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 30 



Vik. III. White lO-Hor^power Work-Type- Motor for .VTon Truck 



Fig. 35. Pierce-Arrow Motor for 5-Ton Truck 



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40 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

and is accordingly based on the maximum r.p.m. rate of the motor: 
while in still others it is the power which the motor is capable of 
developing at the speed at which it is controlled by the governor, 
usually 800 to 1000 r.p.m., to give the best service from the truck of 
the capacity for which it is designed. For instance, the rating of 
the Kelly motor is based on a speed of 900 r.p.m., while that of the 
Peerless, Fig. 33, of the same dimensions, is its indicated horsepower 
figured according to the above formula. The White motor, Fig. 34, 
is an example of the L-head type; while the Pierce-Arrow, Fig. 35, 
like the Peerless already mentioned, is of the T-head type. 

Accessories 

Ignition. In every department of commercial-car practice, the 
designer aims to make the operation of the machine as nearly auto- 
matic as possible and to that extent to relieve the driver of any 
opportunity to exercise his discretion. The usual practice is to 
employ a magneto fitted with an automatic spark-timing device. 
This operates on the principle of the centrifugal governor and is 
controlled entirely by the speed of the motor, so that when the motor 
is stopped the spark timing is fully retarded and there is no danger 
from a "back-kick" as is the case where this precaution is inadvertently 
overlooked. As the motor speed increases, the occurrence of the 
spark in the cylinders is automatically advanced to correspond, 
thus relieving the driver of this important function and preventing 
the abuse of the motor in unskilled hands. The same slight differ- 
ences in detail as found on the pleasure type are also found in the 
ignition systems of commercial cars. 

Carburetors. Carburetors also are the same both in principle 
and construction as on the pleasure cars, except in instances where 
they have been specially designed for commercial service, in which 
case the modification applies to the construction. In view of the 
very general custom in this country of leaving the design of auxiliaries 
to the accessory manufacturer, the number of these instances is very 
small, so that in the majority of cases the carburetor manufacturer 
sells the same carburetor for either type of vehicle. To permit of the 
efficient utilization of lower-grade fuels, ample provision is usually 
made for heating the carburetor by a large warm-water jacket and a 
supply of hot air taken from a collector located on the exhaust pipe. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 41 

Cooling Systems. The so-called direct system, in which air is 
relied upon to keep the cylinder walls of the motor at a temperature 
that will permit of efficient operation without danger of seizing, 
was never attempted on commercial vehicles except in the lighter 
sizes. Most of these were light delivery wagons, although one make 
of 3-ton trucks employed a blower system for several years. How- 
ever, air as the cooling agent without an intermediary in the form of 
a water circulation has been definitely abandoned on the commercial 
car. Both the principles and the operation are the same as on pleas- 
ure cars, due allowance being made for the more severe service by 
increasing the size of the pump, the section of the cylinder jackets, 
the area of radiating surface, and the diameter of the connections. 
Radiator Construction. The radiator is the most vulnerable 
part of the truck, and precautions are therefore taken to protect 
it from injury. In order to be proof against the constant vibration 
and jolting, the gilled-tube type of radiator is employed in the 
majority of instances. Accidental damage is usually provided against 
by extending the frame and equipping it with a bumper, and further 
protection is sometimes afforded by mounting a heavy wire screen 
in front of it. This is done more frequently on honeycomb, or 
cellular, radiators, as they are liable to suffer severely when prodded 
with the steel-shod pole of a horse-drawn truck, and are difficult 
and expensive to repair. In the case of the gilled-tube type, only 
those tubes actually struck are likely to be damaged and they will 
frequently bend without rupture, while often nothing more serious 
happens than the bending and derangement of the cooling fins 
with which each tube is surrounded. These tubes are placed ver- 
tically and, in the case of the Reo 2-ton truck radiator, Fig. 36, 
are made demountable, so that a damaged tube may be easily replaced 
in a short time without the necessity for making any soldered repairs. 
It will be noted that each pair of tubes is held in place by a bolted 
yoke, so that upon loosening the yoke they may be lifted out. This 
illustration also clearly shows the flat copper tubes, which are placed 
with their narrow edges facing the air current, as well as the copper 
radiating fins attached to them. The upper and lower parts of the 
radiator are hollow castings, which form tanks, the sides merely 
providing a support and spacer for the tubes. The usual construction 
consists of a removable tank, which forms the top and bottom 



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42 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

chambers,, with a bank of gilled tubes having their ends expanded 
and soldered into perforated plates, the solder playing an unim- 
portant part, as such joints cannot be relied upon where there is 
much vibration. 

Unless properly provided against, one of the chief sources of 
injury to the radiator arises out of the twisting of the frame under 
torsional stresses. Flexible joints between the radiator and motor 
are accordingly necessary to take care of relative movement, and it is 

common practice, both 
in this country and 
abroad, to employ rubber 
hose for this purpose. 
By reason of the heavy 
loads carried and the use 
of solid tires, this precau- 
tion is not sufficient to 
guard the radiator 
against the effects of 
vibration and road 
shocks, so that it is usu- 
ally mounted on some 
kind of spring suspension. 
This spring suspension 

Fi K . 30. Reo Demountable-Section Gilled-Tubc Radiator USUally Consists of a pair 

of helical springs, one on 
either side, so that the radiator has no solid connection with its sup- 
port. In some instances, the radiator is hung on a pair of trunnions, 
similar to a gun mounting, but this form, while providing ample 
allowance for movement, does not cushion it against shocks. Still 
another method consists in mounting the radiator on an extension 
of the motor, the motor itself being carried on a three-point support, 
so that the radiator and motor move together; but, unless provided 
with some form of spring buffer between them, this type suffers 
from the same disadvantage as the one just mentioned. Figs. 37 
and 38 show some typical methods of radiator protection. 

Fans. In every case, the radiator is supplemented by a fan 
driven at high speed, and, in view of the slow travel of the heavier 
trucks, the proper working of the cooling system depends upon the 



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43 



efficiency of the fan, since the speed of the vehicle cannot force a 
strong draft of air through the radiator as it does in a touring 
car. Thus, the fan is a very important part of the cooling system 
on a slow-moving vehicle, as it 
must provide an ample draft, no 
matter how low the road speed 
may be, otherwise the engine is 
liable to heat beyond the point 
where the oil begins to lose its 
lubricating qualities. An ineffi- 
cient fan allows excessive heat- 
ing every time it is necessary to 
climb a long hill. 

Circulating Apparatus. In 
the majority^of cases, the cooling 




Fig. 37. White Radiator Mounting, Provid- 
ing Spring Cushioning and Relative 
Niovement through Clevises 



water is circulated by a pump on commercial-car motors, though 
many heavy trucks, such as the Kelly-Springfield, have thermosiphon 
circulation. This pump is of the centrifugal type and is capable 
of delivering a much greater volume of water than are those employed 
on pleasure-car motors of corresponding power, owing to the reduced 
road speeds of trucks. These pumps vary more or less in design, 
but are based almost without exception on the centrifugal principle, 
as the latter is the only one which will permit of a thermosiphon 
circulation through it in case the impeller ceases to revolve. A 
stoppage of the gear type of pump also stops the circulation at once. 
Lubrication. Granting that an excess can be prevented from 
reaching the combustion chambers of the cylinders, it is axiomatic 
that the power plant of a motor 
truck cannot have too much oil. 
In commercial service, this de- 
mands upon the lubricating sys- 
tem are quite as severe as they 
are upon the cooling system, and 
the failure of one usually involves 
the failure of the other in a short 
time. Hence, a greater amount 
of oil must be provided and every precaution taken to insure its 
reaching the bearings. Except for the increase in the quantity of 




Fig. 38. 



Spring Hangers Combined with 
Front Hanger Bracket 



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44 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

lubricant, this does not differ in any way from the requirements of 
the pleasure car. Consequently, the'systems employed are practically 
the same in both cases. The White lubrication system shown in 
Fig. 39 illustrates a typical sight -feed system. 

Motor Governors 

Of the two chief evils that beset the motor truck in the hands 
of the untrained driver — speeding and overloading — the former is 
the more destructive, as the driver who will overload his truck will 
also run at excessive speeds, and, with a heavy load, this is severe 
punishment for the entire mechanism. The practice became so 
common in the early days of the motor truck — nearly all drivers 



Fig. 39. Sight-FtMxl (Drop) Lubricating System as Uned on Whit© Trucks 

then being graduates from the pleasure-car field — that it has now 
become customary to govern the speed of the motor. The governor 
itself is usually sealed to prevent its being tampered with by the driver. 
General Characteristics. The most generally accepted type is 
that of the usual centrifugal governor attached directly to the motor 
and operating a butterfly valve in the intake manifold between the 
regular carburetor throttle and the valve ports. Owing to the high 
motor speeds and the slight amount of movement necessary, the gover- 
nor is very small and compact, so that it will frequently be found incor- 
porated in the crankcase at the end of the camshaft. A variation 
from this is a drive taken from an outside auxiliary, such as the mag- 
neto shaft or water-pump shaft. In either case, the speed of the 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 45 

governor is always directly proportional to that of the motor itself 
and bears no relation to that of the vehicle. This is a disadvantage 
at times, as in pulling through a heavy road on low speed when the 
maximum power of which the motor is capable is required. 

Controlling Car Speed. An improvement on this practice has 

been the adoption of a vehicle "speed controller" which, while acting 

on the motor itself in the same manner as the usual motor governor, 

is controlled directly by the speed of the car and bears no relation to 

that of the engine. With this type, the motor is free to run at any 

speed at which the hand-operated throttle will supply it w T ith fuel, 

so long as the speed of travel does not exceed that for which the 

governor, or controller, is set. So far as the motor is concerned, it is 

not directly governed and may be speeded up to any extent necessary 

to pull the car through heavy going or out of a ditch, as the controller 

does not come into action while the car is moving slowly. Practically, 

the only disadvantage of this type is the fact that it does not prevent 

the motor from racing, as does the former, when the load is suddenly 

removed, with the throttle open. The vehicle speed controller is 

driven either from one of the front wheels or from a shaft of the 

transmission, as its operation depends entirely upon the speed of 

the car. In addition to the centrifugal method of speed control, the 

hydraulic principle is also employed. It will be apparent that as 

the motor speed increases the circulation of the water, as driven 

by the pump, does likewise, and there is a corresponding rise in 

pressure in the cooling circulation. This rise in pressure is utilized 

to act on a large diaphragm connected with a plunger attached 

to a butterfly valve. A description of some of the governors in use 

will make clear the method of taking advantage of the different 

principles of operation. 

Centrifugal Type. In Fig. 40 is illustrated a typical centrifugal 
governor designed for attachment to one of the auxiliary shafts, as 
will be noted by the driving gears at the bottom. As the revolving 
weights tend to spread against the compression of the helical spring 
surrounding the spindle on which they revolve, they push up a yoke 
to which a shaft directly connected with the throttle valve is attached. 
As in the case of the steam engine, this valve is entirely independent 
of the hand-operated valve which may thus be left all the way open. 
The details of construction of the Pierce governor are shown by 



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the sectional view, Fig. 41, in which the weights are at the right. 
As the triangular weights open under the centrifugal force generated, 
they push the rod forward, and, as this rod has a rack cut on it 




Seel ion of Governor 
ond Drwiny Geary 



r frorr Carburetor 
Intake Manifold Section 



Voire Cfperotinq 
Mechanism 



Fig. 40. Sectional Diagrams of Centrifugal Type of Governor 

that meshes with a pinion on the butterfly valve, this action tends 
to close the valve. A spring keeps this rod pressed against the 
spindle on which the weights are mounted, but is not connected with 
the spindle in any way. As is true of all governors in this service, 



Fig. 41. Sectional View of Pierce Centrifugal Motor Governor 

a speed adjustment and a method of sealing it against tampering 
are provided. 

Hydraulic Type. An example of the hydraulic type of governor 
is shown in section in Fig. 42, while the application of this form of 
governor is illustrated by the Reo 2-ton truck motor, Fig. 43. As 



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47 



will be seen in the section, this type consists of a water chamber, 
diaphragm, spring, and operating lever; the operating mechanism 



Fik- J2. Hydraulic Type of Governor 



being combined with the 
governor proper results in 
a simple and compact 
unit which requires only 
one connection. This 
connection is led from the 
circulating system on the 
cold-water side, as will be 
noted in Fig. 43, in order 
to bring it close to the 
pump. As the speed of 
the pump increases, the 
pressure increases, and 
the diaphragm is forced 
down against the spring, 
carrying with it the lever 
operating the valve 



■VI. Hydraulic Governor as Installed on Reo 2-Ton 
Truck Motor 



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48 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 1 

through a rack and a pinion. As the pressure decreases, the spring 
returns the diaphragm, and with it the valve, to its normal position. 
The water chamber, operating-lever housing, and the spring-retaining 
plug are sealed so that the adjustment cannot be varied without 
disturbing one of these seals. In this, as well as in the centrifugal 
type where the adjustment is effected by altering the tension of a 
spring, it will be obvious that the spring could readily be screwed 
up so tightly that no speed of which the motor was capable would 
have any effect on the governor, thus practically cutting out its 
action altogether. 

POWER TRANSMISSION DETAILS 
Clutch and Transmission 

Clutches. Cone Type. A comparison of the specifications of a 
number of representative makes of trucks reveals a variation in 
clutch design about equivalent to what would be found on an equal 
number of pleasure cars, except that a greater number of instances of 
the leather-faced cone occur in the trucks. This is the oldest type 
employed on the automobile and is likewise the simplest in construc- 
tion, which probably accounts for its more general retention in the 
commercial field. What is termed the direct conical type, in wliich 
the leather-faced cone engages by moving forward into the corre- 
sponding wedge-shaped recess of the flywheel, is in more general use 
than the indirect, or internal, cone in which the male member moves 
backward into engagement. An example of the latter type is found 
on the Peerless trucks, while the Garford, Kelly, Vulcan, Mais, and 
Pierce are representative of the former. In the case of the Pierce, 
the cone operates in an oil bath, the others running dry, as is more 
often the case. 

Multiple-Dine Type. The Packard and Autocar in this country 
and the De Dion in France have long been fitted with a three-plate 
type, the Albion (British) having a single-plate form of clutch in the 
heavier sizes. Multiple-disc clutches are found on the Locomobile, 
the Mack, and the Reo, and other American makes. 

Transmission. Owing to the great reduction in speed necessary 
between the motor and the driving wheels, transmission plays a 
more important part on the commercial vehicle than it does on the 
pleasure car. On the Latter, its services can be dispensed with in an 



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emergency, as the car can be started on the direct drive in case of 
accident to the intermediate speeds, but this would manifestly be 
impossible on a heavily loaded truck. In this connection, it is to be 
noted that the term "transmission" has come to signify the "change- 
speed gearset" alone, doubtless owing to the awkwardness of the latter 
appellation, and does not apply to the transmission of the power 
from the motor to the rear or front wheels or to all four, as the case 
may be. 

Sliding-Gear Type. In the majority of instances, the sliding-gear 
type of transmission is employed for commercial work, in which the 
gears are actually slid into engagement with each other to effect 
the various ratios of driving and driven members. This type is 



Fig. 44. Type of Transmission Employed on White Shaft-Driven Trucks 

practically universal on the pleasure car, so that only a brief reference 
to it is necessary here. On almost all except the lighter vehicles, it 
provides four forward speeds, the others having but three speeds and 
reverse. Fig. 44 shows the White transmission as employed with 
a shaft drive. Owing to the controlling connections being absent, 
this has been inadvertently photographed with both the first, or 
lowest speed, and the direct, or highest speed, engaged. The large 
gear at the left, shown in engagement with its corresponding gear on 
the layshaft, gives the first speed. By moving it forward until the 
gear just ahead, with which it is integral, meshes with the next gear 
to the right on the layshaft, the second speed is obtained. Moving 
the single gear at the right back until it meshes with the right-hand 
gear of the pair on the layshaft gives third speed. For fourth speed, 

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50 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

or direct drive, this same gear is moved forward, its forward face 
being cut in the form of a dog clutch that engages a similar gear 
permanently attached to the clutchshaft. This is unusual, as the 
dog clutch is generally formed of a smaller diameter extension on 
the hub of the direct-drive gear. The two gears at the extreme right- 
hand end are permanently engaged and serve to drive the layshaft. 
By moving the largest gear to the extreme left, the reverse is engaged, 
this being effected through an intermediate pinion, or idler, part of 
which is just visible below the main shaft at that point. The moving 
members slide on splines cut on the main shaft, the sliding being 
sometimes effected by making the main shaft of square section. 



Fig. 4o. Peerless Transmission and Countershaft 

A similar transmission, combined with a bevel drive and spur- 
gear differential on a jackshaft for side-chain final drive, is that of the 
Peerless, Fig. 4"). This is shown engaged on the direct drive, so 
the dog clutch is not visible. The material used in the housing is 
usually aluminum, sometimes cast iron, and, in the case of the 
Locomobile, manganese bronze. Annular ball bearings are employed 
in many instances, the bearings themselves being apparent in the 
White transmission and their mountings in the Peerless. Taper 
roller bearings are also employed for the same purpose. Operation 
is almost invariably by the selective method, the gear lever being 
shifted across through a gate to pick up one or* the other of the 
sliding members shown. The control lever of the White, which is 
mounted directly on the transmission housing, is shown in Fig. 46. 
This lever is more often mounted at the side in a fixture also carrv- 



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ing the emergency-brake lever, as on the Pierce. On this truck, 
only three forward speeds are provided. 

Mack Transmiss-ioti. The Mack transmission, Fig. 47, is a 
selectively operated type in which the gears of the various speeds 
are always in mesh, small clutches being designed to slide in either 
direction on the squared main shaft, engaging the particular speed 
desired. These clutches are practically small gears which mesh 



Fig. 46. Completely Assembled White Transmission, Showing 
Control Lever 

with internal-gear members attached to the driving members. 
They will be noted lying between the driving gears on the main shaft, 
in the illustration. The gear housing in this case is of phosphor bronze. 
Use of "Dog" Clutches. A variation of the Mack type of trans- 
mission employs what are known as "dog" clutches, probably from 
the fact that they apparently bite into one another, being cut with 
a comparatively small number of heavy teeth on their end faces. 
These teeth, if they can be properly so-called, are of heavy section 



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52 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

and are cut with an easy angle which insures ready engagement 
This will be noted in the direct-drive engagement of the White gear- 
set. The dog-clutch type of gearset has been employed more in 
Great Britain than in this country. Its great advantages are that 
the driving gears are constantly in mesh and that the dog clutches 
can be engaged without particular attention being paid to the speed 
at which the two shafts are revolving, as is necessary with the sliding- 
gear type. The details of a transmission of this kind, as well as 



Fig. 47. Mack Transmission Used on Manhattan Trucks 

of the method of operation, are clearly shown in Fig. 48, which is a 
Cotta transmission designed for use on worm-driven trucks. As 
shown in the illustration, the first, or low, speed is engaged, the 
clutch on the layshaft at the lower right-hand corner being in mesh 
with its counterpart on the large, or low-speed, gear. The clutch- 
shaft being at the right-hand end of the gear box, as shown, the drive 
is then through the pinion on it, the large gear below, with which 
it is in mesh, and then through the layshaft and the pair of gears 
at the left-hand end, these gears being fastened to their respective 



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shafts. The other gears, with the exception of the clutchshaft 
pinion previously mentioned, are free to rotate on their shafts and 
are permanently in mesh. However, the male members of the 
individual clutches, while free to slide on the shafts, must turn with 
them, so that when engaged they "pick up" the various gears cor- 
responding to the different speeds. 

Silent-Chain Transmission. Another form of transmission, 
which has been used to a greater or less extent abroad, but which 
has found little favor here, is the silent-chain type. This is along 
similar lines to the Mack transmission illustrated, except that roller 
chains take the place of the permanently meshed gears, dog clutches 
being engaged to pick up the latter according to the speed desired. 

Final Drive 
Until a few years ago, there was a sharp line of demarcation 
between the pleasure car and the commercial vehicle where the 



Fijr. 48. Cotta Individual (Dog) Clutch Transmission 
Designed for Worm-Driven Trucks 

important final drive was concerned. Practically all pleasure cars 
were shaft-driven, and, to the same extent, commercial cars were 
chain-driven. The tendency that has manifested itself in the interim 
makes it apparent that the history made in the development of the 
pleasure car is apt to repeat itself in commercial-car development. 
In other words, chain-driven trucks were largely in the majority 
a few years ago, but the recent advances made in live-axle construction 
have had a marked effect and their adoption has now reached such 
a scale that, barring something unforeseen, the chain on the truck 
will soon disappear as it has from the touring car. 



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54 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

Classification. As at present employed, there are four general 
classes of final drive on commercial cars. In the order of their age 
and present comparative importance, these are: first, the double 
side-chain from a centrally located countershaft carrying the differ- 
ential and the bevel drive, and usually combined with the gearset, or 
transmission, so called; second, the worm drive, which differs from 
the bevel-gear type only by the substitution of a worm and a worm 
wheel for the bevel gear and the pinion; third, the double-reduction 
live axle, in which a bevel-gear drive is employed in connection with 
a second reduction in speed through the spur gears; fourth, the so- 
called internal-drive rear axle, in which the first reduction is through 
the conventional bevel gear and the second is by means of a small 
spur pinion meshing with an internal gear cut on the inner face of a 
drum attached to the driving wheel. It may occasion some surprise 
to note in this connection that the worm drive is mentioned as being 
second in point of seniority, and further that no mention is made of 
the standard bevel-gear live axle. In the first place, the use of the 
worm on automobiles dates back to its employment on the Lan- 
chester pleasure cars in 1898 and its adoption on the Dennis busses 
in London in 1903, on which it has been regularly used ever since. 
No mention is made of the standard bevel-gear axle here, since the 
latter is only adapted for use on light cars. The higher speeds at 
which these vehicles run do not necessitate the employment of 
extremely high reduction ratios, so that a live axle of this type may be 
employed without having to make the bevel gear of a size that would 
seriously reduce road clearance, on the one hand; or a bevel pinion 
that would exceed the mechanical limitations of this form of drive, 
on the other. It is rarely employed, however, on vehicles of more 
than 1£ tons' capacity, and the ease with which the entire speed 
reduction necessary may be carried out in a single step by means of 
a worm gear will doubtless make the straight bevel type obsolete 
on commercial vehicles within the next few years. 

Side-Chain Drive. Until the introduction in this country, at a 
comparatively recent date, of the worm drive, some form of double- 
reduction gearing has been used on all heavy motor trucks. The 
form most commonly used has been the double side-chain final drive, 
in which the primary gear reduction is obtained by means of a bevel 
gear driving the jackshaft and a secondary reduction in the chains 



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and sprockets. This type of drive, utilizing roller chains, has been 
used on nearly all heavy motor trucks since the inception of the com- 
mercial vehicle. With but one or two exceptions, on all these 
trucks of American manufacture no attempt has been made to house 
the chains in, and they run exposed to dirt, mud, and water. 

Standard Types. A typical American side-chain drive for trucks 
of medium capacity is shown in Fig. 49, which illustrates a Timken 
unit. Except for the provision of brakes and sprockets at its outer 
ends instead of wheels, the countershaft, or jackshaft, is practically 



Fijr. 49. Timken Standard Jaekshaft for Side-Chain Drive 

a bevel-gear live axle. The rear axle is what is known as a "dead" 
axle in that it has no moving parts other than the wheels which 
revolve on bearings mounted on it. The two wheels are kept at a 
predetermined distance apart, and their parallelism is preserved by 
two distance, or radius, rods. A little consideration will make it plain 
that the thrust of repulsion against the ground of the driving wheels 
must be taken up on the vehicle before the latter can move, other- 
wise the rear axle would tend to travel forward independently until 
checked by the springs, which would then take the driving effort. 

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This is frequently done on pleasure cars, and makes a flexible powr- 
transmission which is easy on the mechansim and the tires, but which 
is not practical with the heavy loads handled on trucks. Hence, the 
radius rods are employed to transmit this strain to the frame o* 
the car, but, at the same time, they must provide for a certain amount 
of relative movement in both a vertical as well as a horizontal plane, 
besides affording a certain amount of flexibility. 

Radius and Tonjue Rods. Fig. 50, which represents a well- 
worked-out radius-rod design, illustrates how these various require- 
ments are met. Starting at the right-hand end of the rod which i> 
attached to the rear axle, it will be seen that this design consists of 
a connecting-rod type of bearing that permits movement in a vertical 
plane, as this bearing is held on a tubular section of the axle an<) 




esta 



i 




Fig. ">0. Flexible I'nivorsiilly Jointed Radius Rod for Double Sid^-Ohuin Drivo 

is kept well lubricated. Just forward of the bearing is a heavy spindle 
which pivots the rest of the roil on the rear bearing, so that ample 
provision is made for lateral movement. The rod proper is in two 
parts held together by the compression of a heavy helical spring, which 
relieves the mechanism and tires of the initial thrust of starting, and 
also prevents shocks to the rear axle reaching the frame via the 
radius rod. Further provision for movement in a vertical plane is 
made by the attachment of the forward end of the rod to the frame, 
which forms a pivoted yoke. The threaded portion and the locked 
collar, noticed at the forward end, allow for adjustment in the length 
of the rod, this adjustment being provided for in the spring rod 
by the nut shown inside the yoke at the forward end. On shaft- 
driven cars, a torque rod is employed to take this thrust and also 
to take up the twisting effort, or "torque," of the propeller shaft. 



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Speed Reduction. The rear axle proper is simply a drop forging 
of I-beam section representing the strongest and lightest cross- 
section for a beam. It is forged integral with the pads, or saddles, for 
attaching the springs and is machined to receive the wheel bearings 
and the bearings of the radius rods which complete its construction. 
The driving sprockets are bolted to the pressed-steel or cast-steel 
brake drums and the latter are in turn bolted to the wood artillery 
wheels. On trucks of two to seven tons' capacity, the speed reduc- 
tion between the motor and the rear wheels ranges all the way from 7 
to 1 to 14 or 15 to 1. The first step in the reduction is carried out in 



Fig. M. Hear of Packard 5-Ton Cha.s.sis, Showing Size of Driving Sprockets 

the bevel-gear drive of the countershaft and rarely exceeds 4 or 5 
to 1 , as the use of a larger bevel would involve the use of a cumber- 
some and weighty housing. The remaining reduction is accom- 
plished by the difference in the driving and driven sprockets. How 
great this second reduction may be can be seen from Fig. 51, which 
is a rear view of a standard design of side-chain-driven heavy truck, 
the Packard. A study of this illustration will make clear several of 
the details of axle, spring, brake, and radius-rod construction 
described in previous paragraphs. 

Worm Drive. The worm gear was tried tentatively on steam 
traction engines in England as early as 1850, but it was not until 

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58 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

1898, when it was applied to the driving of the Lanchester car, that 
it was seriously taken up for this purpose. The Lanchester worm is 
a peculiar variation of the more familiar Hindley type and is placed 
under the wheel to insure lubrication. An illustration of this worm 
gear will be found in the section devoted to the transmission of 
electric pleasure vehicles, as worm gears of this type are imported 
from England for use on the Detroit electric cars. The first rear- 
axle motor-truck drive of the worm type was a 3^-ton Dennis bus 



V\ii. ")2. Phantom View of Pierce Worm-Driven Rear Axle 

and quite a number of worm-driven Dennis busses have been in 
service in London for several years. Dennis was also the first to 
running in London. This was first put in service in 1903 and, though 
its introduction met with considerable opposition, it proved a success, 
mount the worm over the wheel, producing the so-called "overhead" 
type, which feature also came in for much criticism owing to its 
alleged failure to provide lubrication. It will be perfectly obvious 
that with the worm-wheel housing only partly full of oil this criticism 
would be unfounded, as the wheel acts as an excellent conveyor 
to carry the oil up to the worm. Eight years' use in London without 
failure of lubrication bears out this statement. 



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Development. The London General Omnibus Company was the 
first to design and manufacture on a large scale a new type of worm- 
gear axle in which the worm gear w r as mounted on a separate assem- 
bly. This design has superseded others until now, with some modi- 
fication, it is accepted practfce. The worm and the wheel are 
mounted in a very rigid block and, with their bearings, housings, 
etc., form a complete unenclosed transmission unit, as seen in 
Fig. 52, which is a phantom view of the worm gear employed on the 



Fig. "ui. ChasMis of Pierce ">-Ton Worm-Driven Truck 

Pierce trucks, the makers of the latter having been the pioneers 
in introducing this type into the United States. This unit is dropped 
into the bowl-shaped rear-axle housing and bolted in place. This 
mounting lends itself readily to accurate machining, every part 
being open and easily accessible. This is also true of the unit as 
a whole where inspection, adjustment, and repair are concerned. 
This housing is of heavy construction and, as it is rigid, prevents 
road shocks or stresses, other than those coming through the driving 

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axles, from disturbing the alignment of the worm gear. The housings 
of the driving shafts, or axles, are tubular, and the shafts themselves 
are assembled through the tubes into the squared sockets in the 
differential. This makes a very accessible assembly as, by pulling 
out the driving axles and disconnecting the universal joint, the worm 
unit can be lifted out of its housing. The socket, with several 
keyways in it extending forward from the worm proper, is for the 
reception of the splined end of the propeller shaft from the gearset. 
This keyed socket is the slip end of the rear universal joint in the 
shaft line and is designed to prevent relative movement of rear axle 
and of gear set from imposing excessive stresses on the propeller shaft. 

The driving thrust and the torque are taken on a short heavy 
torque rod, which will be noted extending forward from the rear- 
axle housing just below the universal joint. This is a heavy drop 
forging and, as will be clear, is mounted on a heavy spindle at the 
axle housing, allowing for movement in a horizontal plane; while at 
its forward end, which is made in the form of a yoke, it is carried 
on a horizontal pin permitting a vertical movement to compensate 
for variations in the vertical distance between the axle and frame 
caused by the compression and recoil of the springs. Its location 
is made clear in the chassis view, Fig. 53. 

Fig. f>4 shows the form of mounting adopted by the Timken 
Company for the David Brown type of worm drive which they 
manufacture. This is the same as that employed on the Pierce 
trucks, but both the method of mounting and the bearings differ. 
The Timken Company use their own taper roller bearings, while the 
Pierce Company use annular ball bearings. The worm is of the 
so-called straight type, meaning that it is of uniform diameter 
throughout its length as distinguished from the "hourglass" type. 

Standard Types of Worm Gears. In the straight type, the worm 
is cylindrical through its entire length, and the worm wheel into 
which it meshes is concave. In the hourglass type, both worm and 
worm wheel are concave. The advantage claimed for the latter 
form is the greater area of engagement, thus spreading the driving 
strain over a greater number of teeth and reducing the pressure on 
the surface of both. On this type, however, there is only one position 
in which the worm and the worm wheel can be located with respect 
to each other in order to take advantage of this greater area of con- 



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tact, while on the straight type it is necessary only to locate the worm 
correctly, with respect to the worm wheel, in one direction, since the 
worm is cylindrical and uniform in diameter throughout its entire 
length. The straight type is therefore much less liable to damage 
through misalignment. With the hourglass type, a slight misplace- 
ment in any direction is liable to prove fatal, so that the chances of 
trouble in practical operation are greatly reduced in the straight type. 
Efficiency of Worm Gears. In an elaborate test of three differ- 
ent types of worm gears (by types in this connection being meant 



Fig. 54. David Brown Type of Worm Gear as Mounted on Timken Axle 

differences in tooth form and pitch) made at the Brown and Sharpe 
plant to determine which form was best adapted to automobile use, 
efficiencies ranging from 90.2 to 95.5 were obtained on the first speed, 
91.3 to 93.4 per cent on the second speed, and 90.1 to 97.0 per cent 
on the direct drive. The results obtained with a bevel-gear-drive 
test made for comparison were 91.4 to 9(3.6 per cent on first speed, 
94.5 to 99.3 on second, and 94.0 to 99.2 on direct drive. So far as 
the life of the worm is concerned, mileage records obtained on com- 
mercial cars range from 40,000 to 110,000 miles, the lower figure 

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62 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

being considered only fair for a well-made straight type of worm; 
while, on pleasure cars, three years of constant service was not 
thought at all unusual. 

Double-Reduction Live Axle. As sufficient drop in speed can- 
not, be had with a bevel gear through a single reduction without 
making the driven bevel gear of impracticable proportions, thus 
involving excessive weight in the rear-axle housing and a dangerous 
lack of clearance between the latter and the ground, an intermediate 
spur reduction is introduced just forward of the bevel gears. One 
method of accomplishing this is illustrated by Fig. 55, which shows 
the extra speed reduction combined in the same housing as the 
differential and the bevel drive, an extra cover plate making it 
accessible. It will be noted that helical-cut gears are employed 



Fijr. ."i;V White Differential, Showing Second-Reduction Gear 

instead of the straight-spur type, this form of tooth giving greater 
bearing surface, closer engagement, i.e., less backlash, or lost motion, 
between the gears and far less noise in running. Another form of 
double-reduction axle is the special type developed on the Autocar 
delivery wagon and illustrated in connection with the description of 
that vehicle. 

Internal Gear-Driven Axle. The internal gear-driven type of 
axle is another form of final drive that has been introduced in this 
country after a long and successful record abroad. Like the worm 
gear, it aspires to the honor of replacing the side chains and, like that 
form, also has already made considerable progress in this direction. 
In principle, this form of drive consists of making the driving axles in- 
dependent of, and external to, the rear axle proper, which, in this case, 



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is of the "dead" type, usually a solid section, such as a square or an 
I-beam forging. Its function is merely to carry the weight of the 
car, although it also is made to serve both as a support and as a rein- 
forcement for the live axle. In the case of the Mercedes (German) 
trucks, on which it has been used since 1900, the driving axle is 
placed forward of the dead axle. At their outer ends, the shafts of 
the latter carry small spur pinions which mesh with large internal 
gears cut on rings attached to drums on the rear wheels. One of 
these wheels and the driving pinion on the end of the live shaft are 
illustrated in Fig. 56, which shows this construction as carried out 
on an American-built replica of the German truck in question. 

This same form of axle has been employed also for a number of 
years in Paris by the builders of the De Dion cars for their commer- 
cial types, chiefly busses. In this case, the live axle is carried above 



Fig. 56. Mercedes (German) Internal Gear Drive. Showing Principle of Action and 
Assembled Rear Wheel l 

its support. More than a hundred of these busses have been in 
service in New York for several years and, as more are ordered 
from time to time to meet the increasing requirements, it must be 
concluded that they have been satisfactory. The builders of the Mais 
trucks were doubtless the pioneers in the commercial use of this form 
of axle in this country, and the Mais internal gear-driven rear axle is 
probably the form in which this type is most generally used. In this 
case, the driving axle is placed forward of the dead axle. Upon com- 
paring the size of the driving pinion at the rear wheel with the internal 
gear, it will be apparent that a very large gear reduction is conven- 
iently obtainable by this method without in any way interfering with 
the road clearance of the vehicle. The first reduction consists, of 
course, in every case, of the conventional bevel-gear drive, but, as will 
be noted from the part sectional views of the Torbensen and Garford 

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types of internal gear-driven axles, as shown in Figs. 57 and 58, there 
is very little reduction between the bevel pinion and its gear. This 
decreases the amount of leverage the pinion has to exert and conse- 




Torbensen Internal Gear-Driven Kr.ir Axle 



quently decreases the tooth pressure in proportion. In the Torben- 
sen axle, the live member, or countershaft, is placed to the rear of the 
I-beam supporting member, while in the Garford this is reversed. On 
the Jeffery "Quad", it is placed directly over the wheel support, as 



Fig. 58. Garford Internal Gear-Driven Rear Axle 

shown by Fig. 59, which illustrates the driving pinion and the wheel 
with its internal gear. As this truck steers, drives, and brakes on all 
four wheels, a universal joint is placed directly behind the pinion. 
Fig. 60 shows the wheel and its gear ready for mounting. A some- 



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what similar design is found on the Christie front-drive tractor for fire 
apparatus, with the added distinction that on this machine only the 
rim of the driving wheel revolves and is carried on a ball bearing 
which is practically the size of the wheel itself. On the Jeffery, the 
wheel revolves on the two taper roller bearings shown. 

Differential Lock. The function of the differential, balance gear, 
or compensating gear, as it is variously called, is naturally the same 
on the commercial vehicle as it is on the pleasure car, i.e., that of 
permitting one wheel to run free in rounding a turn so that it may 
travel the greater distance represented by the outside circle in the 

same time that the inner 

takes to traverse its orbit ; 

but the differential has 

the unfortunate draw- 
back of not permitting 

any f power to reach one 

of the driving wheels in 

case it is held while the 

other is free. This fre- 
quently occurs where the 

truck settles into a ditch 

or extra deep rut in a 

soft road, leaving the 

other wheel more or less 

in the air. Under such 

conditions the entire 

power goes tO the free Fig. 59. Jeffery Rear-Axle Driving Mechanism 

. . - . . . and Bearings 

wheel, making the prob- 
lem of extricating the machine from this predicament much more 
difficult. To overcome this disadvantage of the balance gear, it 
is customary to provide a differential lock. One form of this lock 
is illustrated in Fig. 61. On the right-hand side a four-jaw clutch is 
keyed to the drive shaft, but is left free to slide into mesh with its 
corresponding member on the differential housing to permit of lock- 
ing the differential gears. This clutch is operated through a suitable 
linkage from the driver's seat. By locking the differential, the sunken 
wheel will pull itself out if the truck is capable of exerting the 
necessary power. 



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Front Drives. Early Development. One of the earliest applica- 
tions of power proposed for road locomotion was the attachment of 
a self-contained power unit to existing horse-drawn vehicles, and a 
number of different types of such units were built in Europe in the 
early days of the industry. For some reason, none of them developed 
to the point of a commercial success. The front-wheel drive, which 
seems to have been discarded almost entirely for some years, has 
recently come to the fore again and has been developed very success- 
fully for fire apparatus, on which both mechanical and electrical 
methods of transmission have been utilized. 



Fig. »'»<). .leffrry Whorl with Intcriml dear Heady for Mounting on Axle 

Electric Front Drive. The electric front drive has been utilized 
in numerous lines of business, more particularly for brew r ery and 
municipal service, for several years; the Couple-Gear type of electric 
motor wheel, previously described in the section on the transmission 
of power on electric cars, was employed for this purpose. In some 
instances, a single power wheel is used to haul a dump cart or similar 
slow-moving vehicle; or a unit, comprising a storage battery, con- 
troller, steering gear, axle, and two of these power w ? heels, is per- 
manently coupled to a truck in place of the axle and wheels used 
when drawn bv horses. 



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The power to drive these motors may be supplied by the current 
from a storage battery or from a gasoline-electric generator. The 



Fig. 01. Bevel-Driven Commercial-Car Axle Fitted with Differential Loek 



Fig. 02. Electric Front Drive Using Couple-Gear Motor Wheels 

dynamo supplies the power directly to the wheel motors through a 
three-point controller, there being no other intermediate electric 



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68 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

member. This controller is fitted with two forward speeds and a 
single reverse, the speed and amount of power utilized being con- 
trolled chiefly by means of the spark lever and the throttle of the 
gasoline motor in the conventional manner. Fig. 62 illustrates a fire 
engine gasoline-electric tractor using Couple-Gear drive. 

Four-Wheel Drives. To meet the requirements of military 
service, a truck must be able to travel "wherever a team of mules can 
haul a load". Consequently, like that useful quadruped, it must 
be equipped with power-transmitting members at all four points of 
contact with the ground. While the conventional type of truck 
with one or the other of the standard forms of transmission driving 
only two rear wheels has proved eminently satisfactory for service 
wherever a solid roadbed or its equivalent is to be found, it is of 
little use off the beaten track. Ditches, soft ground, sand, and mud, 
which .do not even embarrass the army mule or, for that matter, the 
average team of farm horses, render the. average motor truck abso- 
lutely helpless. To be able to extricate itself from bogs and ditches, 
it is necessary to be able to "git up and git" on all fours. 

To take advantage to the full extent of this form of transmission, 
the majority of four-wheel-driven cars both drive and steer through 
all the wheels. Accomplishing this presents no particular mechani- 
cal difficulties. Three forms of drive have been developed for this 
purpose; one in which the power is transmitted through bevel gears 
mounted on the steering knuckle, while a second employs the internal- 
gear type of drive using universal joints on the driving shafts just 
back of the wheels. The third type drives directly to the hubs 
of the wheels through hollow steering knuckles. This last type 
presents the simplest layout and was one of the first to be developed 
in this country on a commercial scale, having been built for several 
years by the Four Wheel Drive Automobile Company. 

This transmission is a simple modification of the three-speed 
individual-clutch type transmitting the power through a broad silent 
chain to a parallel shaft placed at the left to clear the engine. This 
can be seen more clearly in the photograph of the chassis, Fig. 63. 
This chain also serves as the first reduction in the speed, the second 
being through the conventional form of bevel gears at the rear and 
front axles. Each of these bevel-gear drives incorporates a differ- 
ential for balancing the tractive effort at the wheels, while a third 



I 



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differential centrally placed on the parallel driving shaft balances the 
amount- of power transmitted to each pair of wheels. This third 
differential is built in the large sprocket of the silent-chain drive and 
is provided with a locking device controlled by the driver. A brake 



Fig. 03. Chusiiist of Fdur-Whrel Drive Triu-k 



drum is mounted on the parallel shaft on either side of the main 
differential. These transmission brakes are for regular service, the 
emergency brakes being mounted in drums on the rear wheels. 



Fig. 04. Chassia of Jeffery "Quad", Showing Four-Whi-t'l Drivr 

Owing to their location, the former retard all four wheels simul- 
taneously. There are, of course, four universal joints. Steering is 
accomplished by means of the front wheels only, so that the rear 
axle is of the conventional full-floating construction. 



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Jeffery "Quad". This truck is representative of the second 
class, or internal gear-driven type mentioned, and has been devel- 
oped particularly to meet' the United States Army requirements. 
The motor is a four-cylinder block-cast type with L-hedd cylinders 
rated at 32 horsepower and is fitted with duplex ignition, i.e., using 



Courtesy of Jlorxtiess Age 

two sets of spark plugs simultaneously. The motor is offset to the 
right side of the frame and mounted on a three-point suspension, 
as shown by the plan view of the chassis, Fig. 64. The drive is 
by shaft to a centrally placed four-speed selectively operated gearset 
of the sliding-gear type, but the latter differs from the conventional 



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form of this type of gearset in that it has no direct drive. The pro- 
peller shafts are gear driven from the layshaft of the transmission, 
this construction bringing the forward one sufficiently to one side to 
clear the motor. Three differentials are employed, one on each axle 
and one in the gear box, all being of the Wayne gearless type. Both 
axles are "dead" and are fitted with steering knuckles. The trans- 
verse driving shafts at either end are placed above the axles and 
springs and have universal joints just inside of the wheels and directly 
over their steering pivots, as shown by the sectional view, Fig. 65. 
The driving pinion is supported from the steering knuckles between 
two taper roller bearings and drives an internal gear mounted in the 
enlarged wheel hub. Bolted to this large hub and the wheel itself is 



Fig. 00. Chassis of Jcffcry "Quad" 

a pressed-steel drum for an external brake, a dust-excluding felt 
packing being fitted between the drum and the gear ring. The 
ability of the four-wheel drive to extricate itself from heavy mud and 
sand with the same amount of power is due to the tendency of the 
front wheels to climb over obstacles and, at the same time, assist in 
the propulsion of the weight. Enclosed wheels are employed to cut 
down the resistance, Fig. 60. 

Electric Transmission 
Advantages. The practice of utilizing electricity for power dis- 
tribution in manufacturing plants was already well established before 
the advent of the automobile on a commercial scale, and attempts 
were made at an early day to utilize its advantages for transmitting 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



€50 



the power on the latter. Despite the numerous difficulties met with 
at the outset in the application of the sliding-gear transmission, the 
employment of electricity has never become as general as its advan- 
tages would appearto warrant. A great amount of experimental work, 
how r ever, has been done, and numerous different systems evolved. 
Probably the only example of the consistent employment of electric 
transmission at the present date is to be found in its use on gasoline- 
electric-railway motor cars, of which quite a number are in service. 
As the limitation of weight, one of the most important factors to be 
considered on the automobile, is lacking in this application, it can 

hardly be said to represent an 
/ exact parallel. 
■'I One of the chief advan- 

tages of the employment of 
electric transmission is the 
possibility of running the 
gasoline motor constantly at 
its normal speed, at which it 
develops its rated output 
most economically and with a 
minimum wear. The sharp 
contrast between the speed 
variations required of the gas- 
oline motor employed with a 
mechanical transmission and 
with one of the electrical type 
is shown by the curves in 
Fig. 67. With the electric transmission, the gasoline motor speed 
remains constant from the time of starting right up to 50 miles 
an hour. 

Several Systems. To those familar with electric practice it 
will be plain that several methods of utilizing electricity for the 
transmission of the power on an automobile are available. In general, 
however, they may be divided roughly into three divisions. The 
first of these is simply a replica of that commonly employed in manu- 
facturing plants, i.e., mechanical energy as produced by an engine 
is converted into electrical power, transmitted to an electric motor 
at a distance, and there reconverted into mechanical energy. This 




?J 30 

Miles per Hour 

Fig. 07. Curves Showing Variations of Engine 
Speed for Gasoline-Electric Transmission 



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double conversion naturally entails a loss of efficiency; but, in manu- 
facturing practice, this is considerably less than where the power is 
directly transmitted from the engine to the tool at which it is to be 
used, and the efficiency increases with an increase in the distance 
between the two. 

The second system involves the conversion of mechanical into 
chemical energy in the storage battery, from which the current is 
drawn to operate electric motors in the usual way, Fig. 68. This is 
really a self-contained electric in that it carries its own charging plant, 
with the further advantage, how r ever, that the excess capacity of the 
generator is always available for driving the vehicle. Or, to put it 



Fig. C8. Couple-Gear Gasoline-Electric System 

the other way around, the greater part of the current from the gasoline 
motor electric-generator unit is employed for running the car, and 
the excess current utilized for charging the storage battery, which 
is then said to be "floated on the line." 

The third system is based on the principle employed in the cradle 
type of electric dynamometer, in which an electric generator is so 
mounted that its field may revolve in response to the drag exerted 
on it by the armature, this tendency being counteracted by a balance 
lever attached to the field. By means of weights placed on this 
lever, the effort exerted may be accurately weighed, and the power 
developed by the prime mover driving the generator may be calcu- 
lated within close limits. 



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74 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

DETAILS OF CHASSIS AND RUNNING GEAR 
Springs 

The problem of providing a form of spring suspension that will 
not be overstiff when the car is empty and still provide sufficient hold- 
ing powers to withstand rough road work with a full load, which the 
designer of the touring car has had to face, is aggravated a hundred- 
fold on heavy trucks. Between the "load" and "no load" points 
of the pleasure car, there is a comparatively small range. When a 
touring car weighing 4000 pounds, all on, has its full load of seven 
passengers .averaging 150 pounds each, their combined weight 
represents only 25 per cent of the weight of the vehicle itself, but 
when a 5-ton truck, weighing slightly over five tons when empty — say 
11,000 pounds — receives its full load of five tons plus anywhere from 
10,000 to 14,000 pounds, the increase, instead of being from to 25 

per cent, is from to 100 
per cent plus. There is 
also the far greater tend- 
ency to side sway, owing 
to the height at which 
the load is ordinarily 
carried. 

Semi-Elliptic Usual 

Fig. 69. Principle of the Compensating Spring Tvn*» A a it normitc 

Support Employed on Heavy Trucks * jP e - ^ s ll P ermilb 

keeping the center of 
gravity down, gives less recoil under heavy shock, and is less subject 
to lateral stresses, the flat semi-elliptic type of spring is almost 
universally employed on commercial vehicles, from a delivery wagon 
up to a 7-ton truck. By delivery wagon in this connection is meant 
the type specially designed for commercial service and not the con- 
verted touring-car type in which pleasure-car standards remain 
unaltered, and the high three-quarter elliptic spring at the rear 
is not uncommon. 

It will be apparent, however, that no form of spring suspension 
would be sufficient in itself to cover such an extended range of loading 
as that mentioned and still give even a fair approximation to efficiency 
at either extreme. Maximum carrying ability is the chief thing to 
be provided, and using springs that will do this alone would be an 
easy matter; but the problem is to guard against the maximum 

338 



COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 75 

stresses to which the springs will be subjected under heavy loads and 
still have a suspension that will prevent the motor and driving 
mechanism of the truck from being pounded to pieces when the 
vehicle is running without a load. To achieve this, it is customary to 
employ rocking shackles at one end and some form of sliding, or com- 
pensating, support at the other, although in numerous instances the 
springs are shackled at both ends in the same manner. As the driving 
strain is practically always taken on radius, or distance, rods in the 
ease of side-chain-driven cars, and on torque rods on cars of the shaft- 
driven type, there is ample altitude for variation in this respect. 

Principle of Compensating Support. The sketch, Fig. 69, illus- 
trates the principle upon which all compensating supports for the 
springs is bas^d. Of course, this applies only to the rear- wheel springs, 
which are usually called upon to bear anywhere from 60 to 85 per 
cent of the useful load. The front springs are usually pinned to 
the dropped dumb ends of the frame forward and shackled to brackets 
at their rear ends. The front end of a rear spring is shown by the 
illustration. Given a suspension sufficiently stiff to withstand the 
maximum load of which the truck is capable, it will be apparent 
that when empty the body will be lifted and the sliding end of the 
spring will be against the right-hand end of the support. The spring 
is then under its minimum compression and will respond more readily 
to shock. 

Brakes 
Usual Types. In as much as the greater loads carried far more 
than offset the lower speeds at which commercial cars travel as com- 
pared with the pleasure type, there can be no comparison of the 
braking requirements of the two. This is particularly the case in as 
much as the greatest strain does not come on the brakes because of 
the infrequent necessity for stopping suddenly but on account of 
their continued use in holding the loaded truck back on long hills. 
Commercial-car brake design naturally varies with the type of vehicle 
and likewise with its carrying capacity. On light delivery wagons, 
the type employed is the same as used on touring cars, viz, internal- 
expanding and external-contracting asbestos-fabric-lined shoes in 
pressed-steel drums on the rear wheels. In some instances, the 
practice, usually confined to the higher-priced pleasure cars, of placing 
the two sets of brakes side by side so that they contact on the same 

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7G COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

drum and can be enclosed against the entry of dirt and water, is also 
found. An example of the first type mentioned is shown in Fig. 70, 
which illustrates a Timken worm-driven rear axle. The brakes on 
the Reo chassis are shown in Fig. 71. 

Braking All Wheels. Considerable discussion has arisen from 
time to time regarding the advisability of braking on all four wheels; 



I 



Fig. 70. Timken Worm-Driven Rcar'Axle, Showing Brakes 

but, prior to the advent of the four-wheel drive, this was tried in only 
a comparatively few instances. In addition to providing greater 
retarding power, the advantage of eliminating the tendency to skid 
has also been attributed to the front-wheel brake. When all four 



Fig. 71. Brake Detail, Reo 2-Ton Chassis 

wheels are driven, brakes are applied to all simultaneously, the brak- 
ing effort at each wheel being equalized by a compensating device. 
On the Jeffery "Quad", these brakes are applied directly to the 
wheels themselves and consist of a simple and well-worked-out 
internal-expanding cam-actuated type, as shown by Fig. 72. 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 77 

TRAILERS 
Utilizing Excess Power. Trucks, like all other motor vehicles, 
must necessarily be equipped with power plants capable of success- 
fully meeting exceptionally severe conditions imposed by heavy 
grades and by muddy, sandy, and snowy road surfaces, as well as 
the normally easy grade and road conditions encountered by the 
average truck during a very large proportion of its service. Hence, 
there is a large reserve power-plant capacity idle for a great part of 
the time. From the economic standpoint, it is a wasteful condition 
for a truck with sufficient power to handle a ten-ton load on smooth 




Fi*. 72. 



Internal Expanding Cam-Actuated Type of Brake 
Employed on the Jeffery '"Quad" 



level roads to be restricted to the five-ton load which its structural 
parts permit. This applies proportionately to all sizes of commercial 
vehicles, from the very lightest up, and it accounts for the widespread 
use to which trailers are being put. 

Two-Wheel Types. For light- and medium-capacity service, 
trailers can be made with only two wheels, thus keeping the wheel- 
base of the double unit down and permitting of much higher speeds. 
Trailers designed for use in connection with the lightest types of 
delivery wagons, such as the Ford, or for the thousands of ex-touring 
cars that are spending the second period of their existence in a com- 
mercial r6le, usually carry a load of about 400 pounds. They are 



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78 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

made to fit any standard make of automobile, a special bracket 
being fitted to the rear of the frame of the car. Connection is made 
by means of a tongue fitted with a swiveling pin and locked with a 
thumb nut, so that the trailer may be attached or detached quickly 
without using tools; the pin in question, together with the fact that 
the trailer has only a single axle, allows for universal relative move- 
ment between it and the towing car. 

Four-Wheel Types. It is in the employment of what is prac- 
tically a second truck, where its carrying capacity is concerned, that 
the use of the trailer shows the greatest operating economy, and 



FiR. 73. Troy Trailer for Motor Trucks 

specially designed vehicles have been developed for this purpose. 
The builders of the Troy wagons have evolved a special type of 
trailer for the motor truck, as shown in Fig. 7.J. 

Troy Trailer. It will be noted upon referring to the illustra- 
tion, Fig. 73, previously mentioned, that the construction of the 
Troy trailer is along very similar lines to those generally followed in 
motor-truck construction. In fact, the trailer is practically a motor 
truck without power and, as it is subjected to even heavier loading 
and more severe strains than the latter, is built accordingly. 

Both sets of wheels are designed to steer and are controlled by 
the drawbars at each end of the trailer, the cross-connecting rod of 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 79 

the steering gear being attached to the under side of the drawbar 
near its rear end. As the drawbar follows its towing truck around 
corners, it also serves to swerve the front wheels of the trailer in the 
same direction. 

GASOLINE-DRIVEN TRACTION ENGINES 

Greatest Field of Usefulness. Under this head falls a type of 
machine which might be thought of as hardly coming within the 
category of the commercial vehicle at all; but it represents an 
extremely important branch which is just beginning to come into its 
own and which, in the course of the next ten years or so, is destined 
to prove a powerful factor in the elimination of the horse from many 
classes of work now entirely monopolized by animal traction. Thus 
far, haulage has formed only a comparatively small part of the work 
of the gasoline traction engine and probably will not be generally 
used for this purpose for some time to come. So far, its greatest 
value has been in the carrying out of purely agricultural operations 
on the large scale demanded by modern farming. 

MECHANICAL DETAILS 

Motor Design. Students of automobile engineering will recall 
that the first attempts at automobile design in this country consisted 
of nothing more than the adaptation of the ordinary stationary 
engine to a running gear, and, further, that it was the dogged adher- 
ence to this abortive combination that did so much to keep the 
American automobile so far behind its European competitors in 
the first years of the last decade. 

The early agricultural tractors were likewise little more than 
stationary engines of the horizontal type, mounted on a running 
gear suited to the needs of the machine. The design was not as 
poor a one for the purpose as was the case with the automobile, since 
the conditions of service are totally different. Speeds are neces- 
sarily very low, as plows or other tools cannot be handled properly 
at a rate of travel in excess of a few miles an hour, while weight is a 
desideratum rather than otherwise, in order to obtain the tremendous 
tractive power needed to start and haul loads involving such a 
great drawbar pull as is required to break a number of furrows in 
hard soil. 



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80 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

The practice of simply mounting a stationary engine on wheels, 
which characterized early agricultural tractor design, has been prac- 
tically abandoned and in its place has come a tendency to adopt the 
automobile motor pretty much as it stands. Between these two 
extremes are found motors which have been specially designed for 
this form of service and which accordingly reflect the trend that 
future developments are apt to take better than does either of the 
others. Not that some of the automobile types of motors have not 
been specially built for the purpose, which is probably the case in 
most instances where they are used ; but it is to be questioned whether 



Fig. 74. Seeor Kerosene Engine of Runiely Tractors 

the light, high-speed type of motor is the best form of power plant 
for such heavy, slow-moving machines. 

Rumely Kerosene Motor. The agricultural tractor, to be gener- 
ally adopted, must be capable of operating on a cheap and universally 
obtainable fuel. At present, the only fuel that fills this requirement 
is kerosene. Gasoline cannot be shipped on passenger steamers, 
while railway freight on it is so high for long hauls as to make it 
almost prohibitive in some parts of this country, notably in the 
states of the great western plains; hence, most tractor motors are 
fitted to use kerosene, including those used on the Rumely tractors. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 81 

These motors are built in two sizes. The smaller size is a single- 
cylinder 15-horse power unit, while the larger is a two-cylinder, 
the constructional details of the last named being made plain by the 
phantom view, Fig. 74. They operate on the Secor-Higgins principle, 



Fig. 75. Details of Transmission, Sanison Tractor 

which, in brief, is that of mixing water directly with the fuel, the 
amount being regulated automatically in accordance with the load. 
At the moment of explosion in the cylinder, the water is evaporated 
and dissociated into its elements — hydrogen and oxygen. As the 



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82 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

piston advances and the temperature drops, some of it is converted 
into steam and liberates its heat, thus maintaining the pressure over a 
longer proportion of the stroke, so that the engine develops a high 
mean effective pressure on a comparatively low initial compression. 
In addition to facilitating the combustion of the non-volatile fuel, 
the nascent oxygen liberated has a high affinity for carbon and 
materially assists in keeping the cylinders clean, while hydrogen 
has a fuel value and is highly explosive when mixed with the proper 
proportion of oxygen, so that it also assists in the quick and thorough 
combustion of the kerosene. 

Multi-Cylinder Motors. As already mentioned, these motors 
follow the standards which have become familiar in automobile motor 
design. They are usually of the four-cylinder vertical type, and 
their construction and auxiliaries are practically identical with those 
ordinarily employed on automobiles. In fact, the builders of the 
British Daimler tractors employ the same Knight sleeve-valve engine 
on these machines that they do on their high-priced pleasure cars. 
The four-cylinder motor employed on the Samson tractor is shown 
incidentally in Fig. 75, this illustration being chiefly intended to 
reveal the details of the type of transmission employed. 

Transmission. In this essential, a radical departure from auto- 
mobile practice must naturally be followed, in view of the very low 
speeds— usually not exceeding 2 to 2\ miles per hour for plowing — and 
the tremendous tractive effort that must be exerted in hauling a 
gang plow through heavy wet soil; consequently, it would be out of 
the question to build the transmission in the form of a small gear 
box, as is done on automobiles. While motors of the automobile 
type are employed, their speed is usually very much lower; the motor 
of the Samson tractor, for example, running at 525 to 575 r.p.m. 
Still, to give the two forward speeds of 2 and 4 miles an hour, it is 
evident that there must be a great reduction between the motor and 
the driving wheels, particularly as the wheels are very large and 
make comparatively few revolutions per mile. A double-drum 
expanding friction clutch is built in the large bevel gears to form 
the first step in the transmission, a small spur pinion on the same 
shaft as the large bevels meshing with a large spur gear on a trans- 
verse shaft. The latter carries two fixed gears, w r hile a sliding pair 
is mounted on a parallel shaft just forward of it. When the left- 



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hand one of these is meshed with the left-hand fixed gear, the tractor 
drives at 2 miles an hour through still another speed reduction 
between the second transverse shaft and the rear axle. By meshing 
the right-hand gears, the higher speed is obtained. It will be noted 
that there are four different steps in the speed reduction between the 
motor and the rear axle and that the gears and shafts are of large 
dimensions. 

TYPES 

Rumely. The Rumely tractor, shown in Fig. 76, is a close 
approach to what may be regarded as standard practice in this field, 



Fig. 76. Rumely Kerosene Engine Tractor 

so far as its construction details are concerned. It takes but a glance 
to recognize the influence of the steam traction engine and the steam 
road roller of American design. One of these machines, which hauls 
a gang plow turning eight furrows, is shown in Fig. 77. 

International. The International tractor is practically nothing 
more than one of the stationary engines made by this company, 
mounted on the platform of a heavy, four-wheeled truck, Fig. 78. 
The engine in question is of the single-cylinder long-stroke type, with 
the valves in the head, the exhaust valve being mechanically operated, 
while the inlet valve is automatic. The governor, as is customary in 
stationary practice, is of the hit-and-miss type acting on the exhaust 



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84 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

valve. In governors of this class, centrifugal force is taken advantage 
of to make the exhaust^valve rod hit or miss the valve tappet, opening 
the latter or allowing it to remain open, according to the speed and 



Fig. 77. Kerosene Tractor Hauling Heavy Gang Plow 



Fig. 78. Gang Plow and Gasoline Motor Tractor in Heavy Soil 

the requirements of the load. As the automatic inlet valve depends 
upon atmospheric pressure for its operation, it cannot open unless 
the exhaust valve has closed on the stroke just preceding, so that no 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 85 

fuel enters the combustion chamber except when an explosion is 
necessary. As the governor is also usually designed to trip the 
igniter mechanism out of action at the same time, such engines are 
very economical of both fuel and electric current. The cylinder is 
of large bore, and a low compression is employed as compared with 
automobile motor practice, two huge flywheels being utilized to give 
the engine a smooth-running balance. The engine is cooled by 
means of a modified form of water tank placed forward. This 
tank is provided with a large wire^gauze screen with sloping sides, 
over which the hot water is sprayed immediately on leaving the 
water jacket; the water is then collected in the tank below and 
circulated. 

The drive wheels are entirely of metal, having a 50-inch diameter 
and an 18-inch face; they have heavy lugs bolted to the tires to 
provide ample traction, even on soft ground. Two friction clutches 
are employed, a large one for the forward speeds and a smaller one 
for the reverse. The drive is through two sets of pinions and large 
gears, a sliding pinion on the crankshaft of the engine driving a large 
differential gear on a countershaft carrying two pinions at its outer 
ends, which engage large gears on the road wheels. Reverse is 
obtained by shifting a lever which throws the large clutch out of 
engagement and engages the small one driving an intermediate gear. 
The same lever gives both the forward and reverse speeds, while a 
foot lever applies a band brake that operates on the differential. 
The foregoing serves to describe the small-size International 
tractor, which is fitted with a 15-horsepower single-cylinder engine, 
although it generally covers the construction of the larger sizes also. 
Hart-Parr. The Hart-Parr tractor, which has achieved con- 
siderable success, was one of the first to depart from the practice 
of employing the ordinary stationary engine as its motive power. 
As will be seen from the illustration, Fig. 79, the engine is of the two- 
cylinder horizontal type, the cylinders being placed beside each 
other and having all the valve mechanism in the head, which makes 
it very accessible. The crankshaft has the two throws placed 180 
degrees apart, so that the heavy pistons are always moving in oppo- 
site directions. This gives an excellent mechanical balance and 
accounts for the single flywheel of greatly reduced size. The use of 
an auxiliary exhaust valve, or port, uncovered by the piston just before 

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86 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

the end of its outward travel on the power stroke, is also a feature 

of this engine and insures cool running under the heaviest loads. 

An original and ingenious system of oil cooling is employed, 

making it unnecessary to take any precautions to prevent freezing in 



p 



Fig. 79. Motor of Hart-Parr Traction Engine 



Fig. Si). Hart- Parr Traction Engine 

cold weather. As will be seen from the illustration of the complete 
Hart-Parr machine, Fig. 80, this system consists of a special type of 
radiator mounted on the forward end of the platform. This radiator 



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is formed of a number of thin corrugated sections covered by a 
conical hood and a short stack. The supply of oil is circulated 
through these sections of the radiator and through the jackets of 
the cylinders by means of a centrifugal pump mounted directly on 
one of the cylinders. The exhaust from the engine is led into the 
hood over the radiator, and in the upper faces of the exhaust pipes 
under the hood are drilled a large number of small holes, causing 
the exhaust gases to be discharged upward in numerous fine jets, 
which not only act as a muffler, but also set up a strong draft of 



Fig. 81. Samson 3- Wheel "Sieve-Grip" Tractor 

air through the radiator. As the oil never reaches a temperature 
sufficiently high to boil it and there is therefore no waste, the original 
supply should last as long as the engine, barring accidents. The 
engine is capable of delivering 45 horsepower, according to the 
usual rating, but as the machine is intended to displace 22 draft 
horses, the tractor is given a nominal rating of the latter figure. 
Samson. In contrast with this, the Samson, w r hich is built on 
the Pacific Coast, represents a much closer approach to a three- 
w r heel automobile or at least to an automobile tractor. Apart from 



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its motor and transmission, which have already been referred to, 
this machine is distinguished by the use of what is termed sieve- 
grip driving wheels. These will be noted more in detail in 
Fig. 75, from which it will be plain that they are in reality skeleton 
wheels, the treads of which consist of series of angle bars riveted to 
their supports in a staggered relation to one another where the two 
wheels are concerned, thus giving the maximum traction. One of 
these tractors is shown in service in Fig. SI. 

Johnson. Fig. 82 illustrates a tractor of this type in service — 
plowing an orange grove — and shows that it differs radically from 
either of the foregoing. Like the Samson, it is a three-wheeler; 
but there the resemblance between the two ends. The engine is 



Fig. 82. Johnson Agricultural Tractor Plowing an Orange Grove 

placed horizontally and drives through side chains and sprockets, 
which accounts for a large part of the speed reduction necessary. 
Instead of depending upon the natural movement of the air to 
assist in cooling the radiator, the latter is carried in a housing which 
contains a high-speed fan and which provides the necessary draft. 
Auto-Tractor. As the time is already at hand when even a 
greater proportion of the farming population boasts of automobiles 
than city dwellers can be credited with, this tractor has been so 
designed as to enable the farmer to use his car for actual farm work 
in addition to its other services. The tractor accordingly consists 
simply of a long steel frame, a pair of standard steel tractor wheels 
fitted with a gear drive, and a standard automobile radiator, as will 

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t>e seen in Fig. 83. The only modification required on the auto- 
mobile itself is the fitting of a pair of small spur gears to the rear 
wheels. The car is backed up over the tractor frame, and ropes 



Fig. 83. Auto-Tractor Ready for Attachment 

attached to the rear of the tractor are then passed around the hubs 
of the rear-wheel gears mentioned. By running the car in reverse, 
it hauls itself up the incline of the frame until the rear axle rests in 
bearings provided for it. At this point, the wheel pinions mesh 



Fig. 84. Method of Mounting and Attaching an Automobile to the Auto-Tractor 

with large spur gears of almost the same diameter as the tractor 
driving wheels. The front end of the tractor frame is then lifted 
and made fast to the forward end of the car frame, the connections 
of the extra radiator on the tractor are made with the cooling system 



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of the car, and the automobile is ready to run as a tractor. Fig. 84 
shows the car hauling itself into place on the tractor frame. When 
attached to the tractor, the automobile motor may also be utilized 
as a stationary engine. 

In addition to the speeds available on the automobile, the 
tractor gearing also provides two speeds which permit the machine to 
travel at 2 or 4 miles per hour. The power is taken from the hub 
gears on the automobile close' to the center of the axle instead of 
from the tire; and, as the weight of the car is entirely removed from 
the rear axle and there are no road shocks, the most injurious fea- 
tures of ordinary automobile operation disappear. The gearing is so 
designed that the car is run on high speed entirely, even when start- 
ing under load, although the intermediate speeds may be resorted to 
in case of extra heavy pulls. This means that when the tractor is 
plowing at the rate of two miles per hour, the automobile engine is 
running at its normal speed of 800 to 1000 r.p.m., at which speed it 
is designed to give its best efficiency and run constantly without 
strain. The use of one of these tractors in an Oregon orchard is said 
to show a reduction from $3.40 per acre per year with teams to 
$1.20 per acre per year with the machine, the cost per acre for each 
cultivation with the machine being only 24 cents. 

Holt Caterpillar Tractor. For agricultural operations in alluvial 
lands, reclaimed swamps, and rice fields, or other ground so soft that 
the wheel type would become mired, the so-called caterpillar tractor 
has been developed. Tractors of this type have been in successful 
operation in various parts of the world for a number of years. They 
are built in two sizes, 30- and GO-horsepower. Fig. 85 shows one 
of the smaller size and makes the appropriateness of the title apparent. 
Apart from the variation in dimensions, the only difference between 
the two is the provision of a forward steering truck on the large 
tractor. From an engineering point of view, the Holt tractor is 
of more than usual interest, as it is the only form of locomotion not 
involving the use of wheels in contact with the ground. 

As its name indicates, the tractor literally crawls over the 
ground by means of blunt-toothed endless chains. This must not 
be taken to signify that its speed is simply a crawl, as the tractor 
illustrated hauls a gang plow at the rate of 2\ miles an hour, plowing 
speeds for tractors generally being from 2 to 2^ miles an hour, regard- 
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less of type. The motor is a four-cylinder vertical gasoline engine of 
special design, the cylinders being cast independently with separable 
heads. The valves are placed in these heads and operated by 
rocker arms from a single camshaft. To provide the maximum 
accessibility, the crankcase is of practically the same height as the 
cylinders and is provided with large handholes through which the 
pistons can be withdrawn; in fact, the crankshaft can be taken out 
without disturbing the cylinders, manifolds, or ignition system. A 
dual-ignition system, comprising a high-tension magneto for running 
and a battery-and-coil auxiliary for starting; constant-level splash- 



Fig. So. Holt Caterpillar Tractor for Plowing 

lubricating system with an auxiliary force-feed oiler supplying oil 
directly to the main bearings; a Schebler carburetor; and a centrifu- 
gal pump for circulating the cooling water constitute the motor 
essentials. Two flywheels are fitted, one of them being of unusually 
liberal diameter and weight which permits the motor to develop its 
rated output at the low speed of 600 r.p.m. A standard type of 
fly-ball centrifugal governor mounted outside the crankcase on an 
extension of the camshaft and acting directly on the throttle pre- 
vents this speed from being exceeded. The cooling system consists 
of a vertical tube radiator, a fan, and a large water tank, the mounting 
of the motor and radiator being in accordance with standard truck 
practice. 

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Caterpillar Dricc. From the motor, the power is transmitted 
through a multiple-disc clutch consisting of two large bronze discs 
and three of iron, the former being carried on a steel ring driven by 
casehardened lugs in the flywheel rim. The weight of the clutch 
itself is carried by a self-aligning annular ball bearing mounted on 
the end of the crankshaft. A heavy universal joint interpose! 
between the clutch and the transmission takes care of any relative 
movement. The relative locations of the motor, clutch, and trans- 
mission can be noted in the illustrations of the frame, Fig. 86, the 
motor being at the right, the clutch in the opening just back of 
the transverse brace, while the lower half of the transmission case is 



Fig. 86. Frame or Holt Caterpillar Traetor 

bolted directly to the frame and has the bearings cast in gerally. 
The forward, reverse, and bevel-reduction gears are located in this 
case, the final, or main, driving gears, which run in oil, being placed 
on each side of the housing in the broad troughs showTi. A shaft 
extends outward from each one of these main driving gears and 
carries on its outer end a spur pinion meshing with a large gear on 
the same shaft as the sprocket, which is shown at the right of 
Fig. 85. Each of these sprockets is controlled by a friction clutch 
so that the two driving units are operated independently, and 
no differential is required. 

Engaging these sprockets are heavy block chains, the links, or 
blocks, having blunt teeth to give traction in moist ground. As 

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shown in Fig. 85, the weight of the tractor is carried by five grooved 
steel wheels on each side, these wheels being mounted on a spring- 
supported frame. On the upper side of this frame are three heavy 
rollers to prevent the chain from the sagging due to its weight, while 
at the forward end it is guided around a plain idler, or free-running 
pulley. The driving effort is taken on the straight rod that bears on 
the sprocket shaft at the rear end and is bolted directly to the frame 
at its forward end. All bearings are lubricated by grease cups. 
The chain links, or "track shoes", which are detachable, are made 
heavy enough to withstand the most severe usage. They have 
curved ends and overlap each other, so that there is no opening 



Fig. 87. Holt Caterpillar Tractor Plowing 

between them, even when the chain, or "track", is curved around 
the sprocket. Owing to the great area in contact, there is practically 
no friction between the shoes and the ground, and the track cannot 
slip. The truck illustrated is for service on comparatively hard 
surfaces, its width being increased in accordance with the nature 
of the ground, and some of the tractors being fitted with tracks 30 
inches in width. The upper face of the shoes forms a smooth steel 
track on which the five weight-carrying wheels run. The rails of 
the caterpillar track are made high and have openings at the side, 
so that any dirt falling into the track is forced out through these 
openings by the teeth of the track sprocket. As each track may be 
driven separately through its friction clutch, the tractor can turn 
in practically its own length by driving one of the tracks and letting 

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94 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

the other remain idle, thus causing the machine to revolve almost 
as if it were on a pivot. Fig. 87 illustrates one of these tractors 
hauling a disc harrow and a leveling drag. 

Avery Tractor. The Avery tractor, shown in Fig. 88, has 5 to 10 
horsepower and has developed to meet the demand of the very small 
farmer, gardener, orchard man, and even the contractor, for hauling 
purposes, especially in connection with road building and road repair- 
ing. This tractor will take the place of an ordinary four-horse team 
and it can be easily adapted to any operation within its range of power. 



Fig. 88. Avery 5 to 10 Horsepower Farm Tractor 
Courtesy of Acery Company, Peoria, Illinois 

The motor has heavy-duty bearings, large crankshaft, and heavy 
drop-forged connecting rods; the cylinders are cast en bloc, with ample 
water-cooling space. The wheel-base is 108 inches; two driving 
wheels in the rear, 38 inches high and 5 inches wide, are provided 
with internal gears, through which the engine power is delivered by 
means of compensating gears mounted on the countershaft. 

The rear frame is provided with a drawbar having a series of holes 
crosswise of the machine to which implements or trailers may be 
attached. The machine will burn gasoline or motor spirits, a tank 
carrying 11 gallons being provided at the rear of the seat. 



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GLOSSARY 



THE following glossary of automobile teijms is not intended in any sense 
as a dictionary and only words used in the articles themselves have been 
defined. The definitions have been made as simple as possible, but if 
other terms unf amiliar to the reader are used, these should be looked up in order 
to obtain the complete definition. 



A. A. A.: Abbreviation for American Auto- 
mobile Association. 

Abrasive: Any hard substance used for 
grinding or wearing away other substances. 

Abeorber, Shock: See "Shock Absorber". 

Accelerate: To increase the speed. 

Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity 
of a moving body. In automobiles, the ability 
off the car to increase in speed. Pickup. 

Accelerator: Device for rapid control of the 
speed for quick opening and closing of the 
throttle. Usually in the form of a pedal, 
spring returned, the minimum throttle open- 
ing being controlled by the setting of the 
hand throttle. 

Accessory: A subordinate machine that 
accompanies or aids a more important 
machine; as, a horn is an accessory of an 
automobile. 

Accumulator: A secondary battery or 
storage battery. It usually consists of 
chemically prepared lead plates combined 
with an acid solution. Upon being charged 
with an electric current from a primary 
source, a chemical change takes place which 
enables the plates in their turn to give a 
current of electricity when used as a source 
of power, the plates at the same time return- 
ing to their original chemical state. 

Acetone: A liquid obtained as a by-product 
in the distillation of wood alcohol, and used 
in connection with reservoirs for storing 
acetylene for automobile lights, as it dis- 
solves many times its own volume of acety- 
lene gas. 

Acetylated Alcohol: Alcohol which has been 
denatured by the addition of acetylene, 
which also increases its fuel value. See 
"Alcohol, Denatured". 

Acetylene: A gaseous hydrocarbide used as 
an illuminant; is usually generated for that 
purpose by the action of water on calcium 
carbide. 

Acetylene Generator. A closed vessel in 
which acetylene gas may be produced by the 
action of water on calcium carbide and which 
supplies the gas under uniform pressure. 

Acetylene Lamp: A lamp which burns 
acetylene gas. 

Acetyllte: Calcium carbide which has been 
treated with glucose. It is used to obtain 
a more uniform and slower production of 
acetylene gas than can be obtained with the 
untreated calcium carbide. 



Acid: In connection with automobiles the 
term usually means the liquid or electrolyte 
used in the storage battery. See "Electro- 
lyte". 

Acid Cure. Method of rapid vulcanisation 
of rubber without heat. Used in tire repairs. 
The agent is sulphur chloride. 

Acldlmeter. An instrument for determining 
the purity of an acid. 

Active Material: Composition in grids that 
forms plates of a storage battery. It is this 
material in which the chemical changes occur 
in charging and discharging. 

Adapter: Device by which one type of lamp 
burner may be used instead of the one for 
which the lamp was designed. Usually a 
fitting by which a gas or oil lamp may be 
converted into an electric lamp. 

Adhesion: That property of surfaces in con- 
tact by virtue of which one of them tends 
to stick to the other. It is used as synony- 
mous with friction. The adhesion of wheels 
acts to prevent slipping. 

Adjustment: The slackening or tightening 
up of parts to compensate for wear, reduce 
friction, or secure better contact. 

Admission: In a steam engine, the letting 
in of the steam to the cylinder; in gas engine, 
the letting in of mixture of gas and air to the 
cylinder. 

Advanced Ignition: Usually called advanc- 
ing the spark. Setting the spark of an inter- 
nal-combustion motor so that it will ignite 
the charge at an earlier part of the stroke. 

Advance Sparking: A method by which the 
time of occurrence of the ignition spark may 
be regulated, by completing the electric 
circuit at the earlier period. 

Advancing the Spark: See "Advanced Ig- 
nition". 

Aerodynamics: The science of atmospheric 
laws, i.e., the effects produced by air in 
motion. 

After-Burning: Continued burning of the 
charge in an internal-combustion engine 
after the explosion. 

After-Firing: An explosion in the muffler or 

exhaust passages. 

A-h: Abbreviation for ampere hour. 

Air Bottle: A portable container holding 
eomprt*sscd air «>r carl>on dioxide for tire 
inflation. 

Air-Bound: See "Air Lock". 



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Air Compressor: A machine for supplying 
air under pressure for inflating tires, starting 
the motor, etc. 

Air Cooled: Cooled by air direct. Usually 
referring to the cylinder of an engine, whose 
heat caused by the combustion within it 
is carried away by air convection and radia- 
tion. 

Air Cooling: A system of dispersing by air 
convection the heat generated in the cylinder 
of an internal-combustion motor. 

Air Intake: An opening in a carbureter to 
admit air. 

Air Leak: Entrance of air into ihe mixture 
between carbureter and cylinder. 

Air Lock: Stoppage of circulation in the 
water or gasoline system caused by a bubble 
of air lodging in the top of a bend in the 
pipe. 

Air Pump: A pump operated by the engine 
or by hand to supply air pressure to the oil 
tank or gasoline tank; sometimes called 
pressure pump. 

Alr-Pump Governor: A device to regulate 
the speed of the air pump so as to give a 
uniform air pressure. 

Air Resistance: The resistance encountered 
by a surface in motion. This resistance in- 
creases as the square of the speed, which 
makes it necessary to employ four times as 
much power in order to double a given speed. 

Air Tube: See "Pneumatic Tire". 

Airless Tire: Name of special make of non- 
puncturable resilient tire. 

A. L. A. M.: Abbreviation for Association 
of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, now 
out of existence. 

A. L. A. M. Horsepower Rating: The horse- 
power rating of an automobile found by the 
standard horsepower formula approved by 
the Association of Licensed Automobile 
Manufacturers. Since the dismemberment 
of this organisation, the formula is usually 
called the S.A.E. rating. This formula is 
h.p. «=bore of cylinder (in inches) squared X 
No. of cylinders-r-2 . 5, at a piston speed of 
1000 r.p.m. 

Alarm, Low-Water: See "Low- Water 
Alarm". 

Alcohol: A colorless, volatile, inflammable 
liquid which may be used as fuel for internal- 
combustion engines. 

Alcohol, Denatured: Alcohol rendered unfit 
for drinking purposes by the addition of 
wood alcohol, acetylene, and other sub- 
stances. 

Alignment: The state of being exactly in 
line. Applied to crankshafts a..d transmis- 
sion shafts and to the parallel conditions of 
the front and rear wheels on either side. 

Alternating Current: Electric current 
which alternates in direction periodically. 

Ammeter: An instrument to measure the 
values of current in an electric- circuit directly 
in amperes. Also called ampere meter. 

Amperage: The number of amperes, or cur- 
rent strength, in an eleetrie circuit. 

Ampere: The practical unit of rate of flow 
•if electric current, measuring the current 
intensity. 

Ampere Hour: A term used to denote the 
capacity of a storage battery or closed-circuit 
primary battery. A battery that will deliver 



three amperes for six hours is said to have an 

eightcen-ampere-hour capacity. 
Ampere Meter: See "Ammeter". 
Angle-Iron Underframe: An underfrarne 

constructed of steel bars whose cross section 

is a right angle. 
Anneal: To make a metal soft by heating and 

cooling. To draw the temper of a metal. 
Annular Gear: A toothed wheel upon which 

the teeth are formed on the inner circum- 
ference. 
Annular Valve: A circular valve having a 

hole in the center. 

Annunciator: An installation of electric 
signals or a speaking tube to allow the pas- 
sengers in an enclosed car to communicate 
with the driver. 

Anti-Freezing Solution: A solution to be 
used in the cooling system to prevent freezing 
in cold weather; any harmless solution whose 
freezing point is somewhat below that of 
water may be used. 

Anti-Friction Metal: Various alloys of tin 
and lead used to line bearings, such as Babbitt 
metal, white metal, etc. 

An ti -Skid Device: Any device which may 
be applied to the wheels of a motorcar tc 
prevent their skidding, such as tire coverings 
with metal rivets in them, chains, etc. 

Apron: Extensions of the fenders to prevent 
splashing by mud or road dirt. 

Armature: In dynamo-electric machines, 
the portion of a generator in which the 
current is developed, or in a motor, the por- 
tion in which the current produces rotation. 
In most generators in automobile work, the 
armature is the rotating portion. In mag- 
netic or electromagnetic machines the arma- 
ture is the movable portion which is attached 
to the magnetic poles. 

Armature Core: The iron portion of the 
armature which carries the windings and 
serves as part of the path for the magnetic 
flux. 

Armature Shaft: The shaft upon and with 
which the armature rotates. 

Armature Winding: Electrical conductors, 
usually copper, in an armature, and in which 
the current is generated, in case of a gen- 
erator, or in which they produce rotation in 
a motor. 

Artillery Wheel : A wheel having heavy wood 
spokes. 

Aspirating Nozzle: An atomising nossle to 
make the liquid passing through it pass from 
it in the form of a spray. 

Assembled Car: A car whose chief parts, 
such as engine, gearset axles, body, etc., are 
manufactured by different parts makers, 
only the final process of putting them to- 
gether being carried out in the car-making 
plant . 

Atmospheric Line: A line drawn on an in- 
dicator diagram at a point corresponding 
with the pressure of the atmosphere. 

Atmospheric Valve: See "Suction Valve". 

Atomizer: A device by which a liquid fuel, 
such as gasoline, is reduced to small particles 
or to a spray; usually incorporated in the 
carbureter. 

Auto: (1) Popular abbreviation for auto- 
mobile. (2) A Greek prefix meaning self. 



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Auto-Bus: An enclosed motor-driven public 
conveyance, seating six or more people; 
usually has a regular route of travel. 

Autocar: A motorcar or automobile; a trade 
name for a particular make of automobile. 

Auto-Cycle: See "Motorcycle". 

Autodrome: A track especially prepared for 
automobile driving, particularly for races. 

Autogenous Welding: See "Welding, Autog- 
enous". 

Auto-Igniter: A small magneto generator 
or dynamo for igniting gasoline engines, the 
armature of which is connected with the 
flywheel by gears or by friction wheels, so 
that electric current is supplied as long as 
the engine revolves. 

Autoist: One who uses an automobile. 

Automatic Carbureter: A vaporizer or car- 
bureter for gasoline engines whose action is 
entirely automatic. 

Automatic Cut-Out: See "Cut-Out, Auto- 
matic". 

Automatic Spark Advance: Automat io 
variation of the instant of spark occurrence 
in the cylinder. Mechanical advancing and 
retarding of the spark to correspond with and 
controlled by variations in crankshaft speed. 

Auto-Meter: Trade name for special make 
of combined speedometer and odometer. 

Automobile: A motor-driven vehicle having 
four or more wheels. Some three-wheeled 
vehicles are proDerly automobiles, but are 
usually called tricars. 

Automobilist: The driver or user of an auto- 
mobile. 

Auto Truck: A motor-driven vehicle for 
transporting heavy loads; a heavy com- 
mercial car. 

Auxiliary Air Valve: Valve controlling the 
admission of air through the auxiliary air 
intake of a carbureter. 

Auxiliary Air Intake: Opening through 
which additional air is admitted to the car- 
bureter at high speeds. 

Auxiliary Exhaust: Ports cut through cyl- 
inder walls to permit exhaust gases to be 
released from the cylinder when uncovered 
by the piston. These are sometimes used 
as an additional scavenging means for the 
regular exhaust valves. 

Auxiliary Fuel Tank: See "Fuel Tank, 
Auxiliary". 

Auxiliary Spark Gap: See "Spark Gap, 
Outside". 

Axle: The spindle with which a wheel revolves 
or upon which it revolves. 

Axle, Cambered: An axle whose ends are 
slanted downwards to camber the wheels. 

Axle, Channel: An axle which is U-shaped 
in cross section. 

Axle, Dead: Solid, fixed, stationary axle. 

An axle upon which the wheels revolve but 

which itself does not revolve. 
Axle, Dropped: An axle in which the central 

portion is on a lower level than the ends. 
Axle, Floating: A full-floating axle. A live 

axle in which the shafts support none of the 

car weight, but serve only to turn the wheels. 
Axle, I -Beam: An axle whose cross section 

is in the shape of the letter I. 
Axle, Lire: An axle in which are comprised 



the driving shafts that carry the power of the 
motor to the driving wheels. 
Axle, Semi-Floating: A live axle in which 
the driving shafts carry a part of the car 
weight as well as transmitting the driving 
torque. 

Axle, Three-Quarters Floating: A live 
axle in which the shafts carry a part of the 
weight of the car, but less than that carried 
by the semi-floating axle. It is inter- 
mediated by a floating axle and the semi- 
floating axle. 

Axle, Trussed: An axle in which downward 
bending h prevented by a truss. 

Axle, Tubular: An axle formed of steel tub- 
ing. Usually applied to the front axles, but 
somttimrs used in referring to tubular shafts 
of rear axles. 

Axle Casing: That part of a live axle that 
encloses the driving shafts and differential 
and driving gears. Axle housing. 

Axle Housing: See "Axle Casing". 

Axle Shaft: The member transmitting the 
driving torque from the differential to the 
rear wheels. 

B 

Babbitt: A soft metal alloy used for lining 
the bearings of shafts. 

Back -Firing: An explosion of the mixture 
in the intake manifold or carbureter caused 
by the communication of the name of ex- 
plosion in the cylinders. Usually due to too 
weak a mixture. Popping. 

Back Kick: The reversal of direction of the 
starting, caused by back-firing. 

Backlash : The play between a screw and nut 
or between the teeth of a pair of gear wheels. 

Back Pressure: Pressure of the exhaust 
gases due to improper design or operation of 
the exhaust system. 

Baffle Plate: A plate used to prevent too 
free movement of a liquid in the container. 
In a gas engine cylinder, a plate covering the 
lower end of the cylinder to prevent too 
much oil being splashed into it. The plate 
has a slot through which the connecting rod 
may work. 

Balance Gear: See "Differential Gear". 

Balancing of Gasoline Engines: Insuring 
the equilibrium of moving parts to reduce 
the vibration and shocks. •' 

Ball-and -Socket Joint: A joint in which a 
ball is placed within a socket recessed to fit 
it, permitting free motion in any direction 
within limits. 

Ball Bearing: A bearing in which the rotat- 
ing shaft or axle is carried upon a number of 
small steel balls which are free to turn in 
annular paths, called race*. 

Balladeur Train: A French name for a slid- 
ing change-speed gear. 

Barking: The sound made by the explosions 
caused by after-firing. 

Base Bearing: See "Main Bearing". 

Base Explosion: See "Crankcase Explosion". 

Battery: A combination of primary or 
secondary cells, as dry cells or storage cells. 

Battery, Dry: See "Dry Battery". 

Battery, Storage: See "Accumulator". 

Battery Acid; The electrolyte in ft storage 
battery, 



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Pfcrtery-Charglng Plug: Power terminals 
to which the leads of a storage battery may 
be connectec for charging the battery. 

Battery Gage: (1) Voltmeter or ammeter 
or voltammeter (or testing the specific 
gravity of the electrolyte in a secondary 
battery. 

Battery Syringe: A syringe used to draw out 
a part of the electrolyte or solution from a 
storage battery cell to test its density and 
specific gravity. 

Baume: A scale indicating the specific 
gravity or density of liquids and having 
degrees as units. Gasoline of a specific 
gravity of .735 has a gravity of 61 degrees 
Baume. 

Bearing: A support of a shaft upon which it 
may rotate. 

Bearing, Annular Ball: A ball bearing con- 
sisting of two concentric rings, between 
which are steel balls. 

Bearing, Ball: A bearing in which the 
rotating shaft and the stationary portion of 
the bearings are separated from sliding con- 
tact by steel balls. A steel collar fitted to 
the shaft rolls upon the balls, which in turn 
roll upon steel cellar attached to the station- 
ary portion of the bearing. 

Bearing, Cup and Cone: A ball bearing in 
which the balls roll in a race, which is formed 
between a cone-shaped fixed collar and a 
cup-shaped shaft collar. 

Bearing, Main: The bearing in which 
rotates the crankshaft of an engine. 

Bearing, Plain: A bearing in which the 
rotating shaft is in sliding contact with the 
bearing supporting it. 

Bearing, Radial: A bearing designed to 
resist loads from a direction at right angles 
to the axis of the shaft. 

Bearing. Roller: A bearing in which the 

Journal rests upon, and is surrounded by, 
tardened steel rollers which revolve in a 
channel or race surrounding the shaft. 

Bearing. Thrust: A bearing designed to 
resist loads or pressures parallel with the 
axis of the shaft. 

Bearing Cap: That portion of a plain bear- 
ing detachable from the stationary portion, 
and which holds the bearing bushing and 
shaft. 

Bearing Surface: The projected area of a 
bearing in a perpendicular plane to the 
direction of pressure. 

Beau de Rochas Cycle: The four-stroke 
cycle used in most internal-combustion 
engines. This cycle was proposed by M. 
Beau de Rochas and put into practical form 
by Dr. Otto. See "Four-Cycle". 

Belt and Clutch Dressing: A composition 
to be applied to belts and clutches to prevent 
them from slipping. 

Belt Drive: A method of transmitting power 
from the engine to the countershaft or jack 
shaft by means of belts. 

Benzine: A petroleum product having a 
specific gravity between that of kerosene and 

Sasoline. Its specific gravity is between 60 
egrees and 65 degrees Baumd. 

Benzol: A product of the distillation of coal 
tar. Coal tar benzine. Used as a rubber 
solvent and in Europe as a motor fuel. 

Berllne Body: A limousine automobile body 
having mora than two seats in the back part. 



Bevel -Gear: Gears the faees of whose teeth 
are not parallel with the shaft, but are on a 
beveled edge of the gear wheel. 

Bevel-Gear Drive: Method of driving one 
shaft from another at an angle to the first. 
The chief method of transmitting the drive 
from the propeller shaft to the rear axle 
shafts. 

B. H. P.: An abbreviation for brake horse- 
power. 

Bicycle: A two-wheeled vehicle propelled by 
the pedaling of the rider. 

Binding Posts: See "Terminals'*. 

Bleeder: A by-pass in the sight-feed of a 
mechanical oiling system by which the oil 
delivered through that feed is allowed to 
pass out instead of going to the bearings- 
Blister: A defect in tires caused by the 
separation of the tread from the fabric 

Block Chain: A chain used in automobiles* 
bicycles, etc.. of which each alternate link 
is a steel block. 

Blow-Back: The backward rushing of the 
fuel gas through the inlet valve into the 
carbureter. 

Blower Cooled: A gas engine cooled by 
positive circulation of air maintained by a 
blower. 

Blow-Off: A blow-out caused by the edge of 
the bead of tire becoming free from the rim 
and allowing the tube to protrude through 
the space thus formed. 

Blow-Out: The rupture of both the inner 
tube and outer casing of a pneumatic tire. 

Blow-Out Patch: See "Patch, Tire Repair". 

Body: (1) The superstructure of an auto- 
mobile; the part that resembles and repre- 
sents the body of a horse-drawn vehicle. 
(2) In oils, the degree of viscosity. The 
tendency of drops of oils to hang together. 

Body Hangers: Attachments to or exten- 
sions of the frame for holding the body of the 
vehicle. They should be properly called 
frame hangers. 

Boiler: A vessel in which water is evaporated 
into steam for the generation of power. 

Boiler, Fire-Tube: A tubular steam boiler 
in which the end plates are connected by a 
number of open ended thin tubes, the spaces 
around which are filled with water, the hot 
gases passing through the tubes. 

Boiler, Flash : A steam boiler in which steam 
is generated practically instantaneously. 
There is practically no water or steam stored 
in the boiler. A flash generator. 

Boiler, Water-Tube: A steam boiler in 
which the water is carried in metal tubes, 
around which the hot gases circulate. 

Boiler Alarm: See "Low- Water Alarm". 

Boiler Covering: A non-conducting sub- 
stance used as a covering for boilers to pre- 
vent loss of heat by radiation. 

Boiler-Feed Pump: An automatic and self- 
regulating pump for supplying a boiler with 
feed water. 

Boiler-Feed Regulator: A device to make 
the feed- water supply of the boiler auto- 
matic. 

Bonnet: (1) The hood or metallic cover 
over the front end of an automobile. See 
"Hood". (2) The cover over a pump- 
valve box, or a slide-valve casing. (3) A 
cover to enclose and guide the tail end of a 



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srteam-engine-valve spindle or the cover of a 
piston-valve casing. (4) The pan under- 
neath the engine in an automobile. 
Boot: A covering to protect joints from dirt 
and water or to prevent the leakage of grease. 
(2) Space provided for baggage at the rear 
of a car. 
Bore: The inside diameter of the cylinder. 
Boas: An enlarged portion of a part to give 

a point for attachment of another part. 
Bottom: The meshing of gears without 

clearance. 
Bow Separator: A part to prevent chafing 

of the bows of a top when folded. 
Boyle's Law of Gaaea: A law defining the 
volume and pressure of gases at constantly 
maintained temperatures. It states that 
the volume of a gas varies inversely as the 
pressure so long as the temperature remains 
the same; or, the pressure of a gas is propor- 
tional to its density. 
Brake: An apparatus for the absorption of 
power by friction, and by clamping some por- 
tion of the driving mechanism to retard or 
stop the forward motion of the car. 
Brake, Air-Cooled : A brake whose parts are 
ridged to present a large surface for trans- 
ferring to the air the frictional heat generated 
in them. 
Brake, Band: A brake which contracts 
upon the outside of a drum attached to some 
part of the driving mechanism. 
Brake, Constricting Band : A form of brake 
applied by tightening a band around a pulley 
or drum. 
Brake, Differential: A brake acting upon 

the differential gear. 
Brake, Double- Acting: A brake which will 
hold when the drum is rotating in either 
direction. 
Brake, Drum, and Band: See "Brake, 

Band". 
Brake, Emergency: A brake intended to be 
used in case the service brake does not act 
to a sufficient extent. 
Brake, Expanding-Band: A drum brake in 
which the braking force is exerted by a band 
forced outward against the inner rim of a 
pulley. 
Brake, External-Contracting: A brake 
consisting of a drum affixed to a rotating 

Eart, the outer surface of whieh is encircled 
y a contracting band. 

Brake, Foot: A brake designed to be oper- 
ated by the driver's foot. A pedal brake. 
Usually the service brake. 

Brake, Front-Wheel: A brake designed to 
operate on the front wheels of the car. 

Brake, Gearaet: A brake designed to act on 
the transmission shaft and attached to the 
gearbox. 

Brake, Hand: A brake designed to be oper- 
ated by means of a hand lever. Usually the 
emergency brake. 

Brake, Hub: A brako consisting of a drum 
secured to one of the wheels. This is the 
usual type. 

Brake, Internal: A brake in which an ex- 
panding mechanism is contained within a 
rotating drum, the expansion bringing pres- 
sure to Dear on the drum. 

Brake, Internal-Expanding: A brake con- 
sisting of a drum, against the inside of which 
may So expanded a Dand or a shoe. 



Brake, Motor: A brake in an electric vehicle 
which acts upon the armature shaft of the 
motor. 

Brake, Service: A brake designed to be used 
in ordinary driving. It is usually operated 
by the driver's foot. 

Brake, Shoe: A brake in which a metal shoe 
is clamped against a revolving wheel. 

Brake, Transmission: A brake designed to 
act upon the transmission shaft. 

Brake, Water -Cooled: A brake through 
which water may be circulated to carry off 
the frictional heat. 

Brake Equalizer: A mechanism applied to a 
system of brakes operated in pairs to assure 
that each brake shall be applied with equal 
force. 

Brake. Horsepower: The horsepower sup- 
plied by an engine as shown by the applica- 
tion of a brake or absorption dynamometer. 

Brake Housing: A casing enclosing the 
brake mechanism. 

Brake Lever: The lever by which the brake 
is applied to the wheel. 

Brake Lining: The wearing surface of a 
brake; usually arranged to be easily replaced 
when worn. 

Brake Pedal: Pedal by which the brake is 
applied. 

Brake Pull Rod: A rod transmitting the 
tension from the lever or pedal to the mova- 
ble portion of the brake proper. 

Brake Ratchet: A device by which the brake 
lever or brake pedal can be set in position and 
retained there; usually consists of a notched 
quadrant with which a movable tongue on 
the lever head or pedal engages, 

Brake Rod: The rod connecting the brake 
lever with the brake. 

Brake Teat: A test of a motor by means of a 
dynamometer to determine its power output 
at different speeds. 

Braking Surface: The surface of contact 
between the rotating and stationary parts of 
a brake. 

Braze: To join by brasing. 

Brazing: The process of permanently joining 
metalparts by intense heat. 

Breaker Strip: A strip of canvas placed 
between the tread and body of an outer tire 
casing to increase the wearing qualities. 

Breather: An opening in the crankcase of a 
gas engine to permit pressure therein to 
remain equal during the movement of the 
pistons. 

British Thermal Unit. The ordinary unit of 
heat. It is that quantity of heat required to 
raise the temperature of one pound of pure 
water one degree Fahrenheit at the tempera- 
ture of greatest density of water. 

Brougham Body: A closed-in automobile 
body having windows at the side doors, and 
in front, but with no extension of the roof 
over the front seat. 

Brush Holder: In electrical machinery, an 
arrangement to hold one end of a connection 
flexible in contact with a moving part of the 
circuit. 

B. T. U.: Abbreviation for British Thermal 

Unit. 
Buckboard : A four-wheeled vehicle in which 

the body and springs are replaced by an 

elastic board or frame 



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GLOSSARY 



Buckling: Irregularities in the shape of the 
plates of storage cells following a too rapid 
discharge. 

Bumper: (1) A contrivance at the front of 
the car to minimise shock of collision; it con- 
sists of plungers working in tubes and gain- 
ing elasticity from springs. (2) A bar placed 
across the end of a car, usually the front 
end, to take the shock of collision and thus 
prevent damage to the car itself. A rubber 
or leather pad interposed between the axle 
and frame of a car. 

Burner, "Torch** Igniter: A movable auxil- 
iary vaporiser for starting the fire in steam 
automobile burners. 

Bushing: A bearing lining. Usually made 
of anti-friction metal and capable of adjust- 
ment or renewal. 

Bus-Pipe: A manifold pipe. 

Butterfly Valve: A valve inserted in a pipe, 
usually circular and of nearly the same 
diameter as the pipe, designed to turn upon 
a spindle through its diameter and thus shut 
off or permit flow through the pipe. Usually 
employed for throttle valves and carbureter 
air valves. 

Buzzer: (1) A name sometimes applied to 
the vibrator or trembler of a jump-spark 
ignition coil. (2) A device used in place 
of a horn, and consisting of a diaphragm 
which is made to vibrate rapidly by an 
electromagnet. 

By-Pass: A small valve to provide a second- 
ary passage for fluids passing through a 
system of piping. 



C: Abbreviation for a centigrade degree of 
temperature. 

Calcium Carbide: A compound of calcium 
and carbon used for the generation of acety- 
lene by the application of water. 

Calcium Chloride: * A salt which dissolved 
in water is used as an anti-freezing solution. 

Cam: A revolving disk, irregular in shape, 
fixed on a revolving shaft so as to impart to 
a rod or lover in contact with it an intermit- 
tent or variable motion. 

Cam, Exhaust: A cam designed to operate 
the exhaust of an engine. 

Cam, Ignition: A cam designed to operate 
the ignition mechanism. In magnetos it 
operates the make-and-break device. 

Cam, Inlet: A cam designed to operate the 
inlet valve of an engine. 

Camber: (1) The greatest depth of curva- 
ture of a surface. (2) The amount of 
bend in an axle designed to incline the 
wheels. 

Camber of Spring: The maximum distance 
between the upper and lower parts of a 
spring under a given load. 

Cambered Frame: A narrowing of the front 
of a motor car to permit of easier turning. 

Cam Gear: The gear driving the camshaft 
of a gas engine. In a four-cycle engine this 
is the same as the two-speed gear. 

Camshaft: A shaft by which the valve cams 
arc rotated ; also known as t he secondary shaft. 

Camshaft, Overhead: The camshaft carried 
along or above the cylinder heads, to operate 
overhead valves. 

Camshaft Gears: The gears or train of 
gears by which the camshaft is driven from 



the crankshaft. Half-time gears, timing 

gears, distribution gears. 
Canopy: An automobile top that can not be 

folded up. 
Capacity of a Condenser: The quality of 

electricity or electrostatic charge. Of a 

storage oattery, the amount of electricity 

which may be obtained by the discharge of 

a fully charged battery. Usually expressed 

in ampere hours. 
Cape Hood: An automobile top which is 

capable of either being folded up or extended. 
Car: A wheeled vehicle. 
Carbide: See "Calcium Carbide". 
Carbide Feed : A type of acetylene generator 

in which the calcium carbide is fed into the 

water. 

Carbon Bridge: Formation of soot between 
points of spark plug. 

Carbon Deposit: A deposit upon the inte- 
rior of the combustion chamber of a gasoline 
engine composed of carbonaceous particles 
from the lubricating oil, too rich fuel mix- 
ture, or road dust. 

Carbon Remover: A tool or solution for 
removing carbon deposits from the cylinder, 
piston, or spark plug of a gasoline engine. 
Carbonization: The deposit of carbon, 
Carbureter: An appliance for mixing an 
inflammable vapor with air. It allows air 
to be passed through or over a liquid fuel 
and to carry off a portion of its vapor mixed 
with the air, forming an explosive mixture. 

Carbureter, Automatic: A carbureter so 
designed that either the air supply alone or 
both the air and gasoline supplies are regu- 
lated automatically. 

Carbureter, Constant-Level: A carbureter 

the level of the gasoline in which is main- 
tained automatically at a constant height. 
A float-feed carbureter. 

Carbureter, Exhaust -Jacketed : A carbu- 
reter whose mixing chamber is heated by the 
circulation of exhaust gas. 

Carbureter, Multiple- Jet: A carbureter 
having more that one spray nozzle or jet. 

Carbureter, Water- Jacketed : A carbureter 
whose mixing chamber is heated by the cir- 
culation of water from the cooling system. 

Carbureter Float: A buoyant part of the 
carbureter designed to float in the gasoline 
and connected to a valve controlling the 
flow from the fuel tank, designed to main- 
tain automatically a constant level of the 
gasoline in the flow chamber. 

Carbureter Float Chamber: A reservoir 

containing the float and in which a con- 
stant level of fuel is maintained. 

Carbureter Jet: The opening through which 
liquid fuel is ejected in a spray from the 
standpipe of a carbureter nozile. 

Carbureter Needle Valve: A valve control- 
ling the flow of fuel from the flow chamber 
to the standpipe. 

Carbureter Nozzle: See "Carbureter Jet". 

Carbureter Standpipe: A vertical pipe 
carrying the nozzle. 

Carburetlon: The process of mixing hydro- 
carbon particles with the air. The action in 
a carbureter. 

Cardan Joint; A universal joint or Hooke's 

coupling, 



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GLOSSARY 



Cardan Shaft: A shaft provided with a 

Cardan joint at each end. 
Casing: The shoe or outer covering of a 

double-tube automobile tire. 
Catalytic Ignition: See "Ignition.Catalytic". 
Cell: One of the units of a voltaic battery. 
Cell, Dry: See "Dry Cell". 
Cell, Storage: See "Accumulator". 
Cellular Radiator: A radiator in which the 
openings between the tubes are in the form 
of small cells. The same as a honeycomb 
radiator. 
Cellular Tire : A cushion tire which is divided 

into compartments or cells. 
Center of Gravity: That point in a body, 
which, if the body were suspended freely in 
equilibrium, would be the point of applica- 
tion of the resultant forces of gravity acting 
upon the body. 
Center Control: The location of the gear- 
shift and emergency brake levers of a car in 
the center of a line parallel to the front of 
the front seat. 
Centigrade Scale: The thermometer scale 
invented by Celsius. Used universally in 
scientific work. 
Century. In automobiling, a hundred-mile 

run. 
C. G.S. System: Abbreviation for centi- 
meter-gram-second system of measurement; 
the standard system in scientific work. 
Chain, Drive: A heavy chain by which the 
power from the motor may be transmitted 
to the rear wheels of an automobile. 
Chain, Roller: A sprocket chain, the cross 

bars of whose links are rollers. 
Chain, Silent: See "Silent Chain". 
Chain, Tire: A small chain fastened about 
the tire to increase traction and prevent 
skidding. 
Chain Wheel: A sprocket wheel for the 
transmission chains of a motor-driven 
vehicle. 
Change-Speed Gear: See "Gear, Change- 
Speed". 
Change-Speed Lever: See "Lever, Change- 
Speed". 
Charge: The fuel mixture introduced into 
the cylinder of a gas engine. The act of 
storing up electric energy in an accumulator. 
Charging: The passing of a current of elec- 
tricity through a storage cell. 
Charles* Law of Gases: See "Gases, Gay 

Lussac's Law of". 
Chassis. The mechanical features of a motor 
car assembled, but without body, fenders, or 
other superstructure not essential to the 
operation of the car. 
Chauffeur: In America this term means the 
paid driver or operator of a motor car. The 
literal translation from the French means 
stoker or fireman of a boiler. 
Check, Steering: Sec "Steering Check". 
Check Valve: An automatic or non-return 
valve used to control the admission of feed 
water in the boiler, etc. 
Choke: The missing of explosions or poor 

explosions due to too rich mixture. 
Circuit, Primary: Sec "Primary Circuit". 
Circuit, Secondary: See "Secondary Cir- 
cuit". 



Circuit Breaker: A device installed in an 
electric circuit and intended to open the 
circuit automatically under predetermined 
conditions of current flow. 

Circulating Pump: A pump which keeps a 
liquid flowing through a series of pipes which 
provides a return circuit. In a motor car. 
water and oil circulation is maintained by 
circulating pump. 

Circulation Pump: A mechanically oper- 
ated pump by which the circulation of water 
in the cooling system is maintained. 

Circulating System: The method or series 
of pipes through which a continuous flow of 
water or oil is maintained and in which the 
liquid is sent through the system over and 
over. 

Clash Gear: A sliding change-speed gear. 

Clearance: (1) The distance between the 
road surface and the lowest part of the 
under-body of an automobile. (2) The 
space between the piston of an engine when 
at the extremity of its stroke, snathe head 
of the cylinder. 

Clearance, Valve: See "Valve Clearance". 

Clearance Space: The space left between 
the end of the cylinder and the piston plus 
the volume of the ports between the valves 
and the cylinder. 

Clevis: The fork on the end of a rod. 

Clevis Pin: The pin passing through the 
ends of a clevis and through the rod to which 
the clevis is joined. 

Clincher Rim : A wheel rim having a turned- 
in edge on each side, forming channels. Into 
this the edge or flange of the tire fits, the air 
pressure within locking the tire and rim 
together. 

Clincher Tire: A pneumatic tire design to 
fit on a clincher rim. 

Clutch: A device for engaging or discon- 
necting two pieces of shafting so that they 
revolve together or run free as desired. 
Clutch Cone: A clutch whose engaging sur- 
faces consist of the outer surface of the 
frustrum of one cone and the inner surface 
of the frustrum of another. 
. Clutch, Contracting- Band: A clutch con- 
sisting of a drum and band, the latter con- 
tracting upon the former. 
Clutch, Dry-Plate: A clutch whose friction 
surfaces are metal plates, not lubricated. 

Clutch, Expanding- Band: A clutch consist- 
ing of a drum and band, the latter expanding 
within the former. 

Clutch, Jaw: A clutch whose members lock 
end to end by projections or jaws in one 
entering corresponding depressions in the 
other. 

Clutch,< Multiple-Disk: A clutch whose 
friction surfaces are metal plates or disks, 
alternate disks being attached to one mem- 
ber and the rest to the other member of the 
drive. 

Clutch Brake: A device designed to stop 
automatically the rotation of the driven 
member of a clutch after disengagement 
from the driving member. 

Clutch Lining: The wearing surface of a 
clutch. This may be easily removed and 
replaced when worn. 

Clutch Pedal: The pedal by which the 
clutch may be disengaged, engagement being 
obtained automatically by means of a spring. 



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Clutch Sprint: A spring arranged to either 
hold a clutch out of gear or throw it into 
gear. 

Coasting: The movement of the car without 
constant applications of the motive power, 
as in running downhill with the aid of grav- 
ity or on the level, through the momentum 
obtained by previous power applications. 

Cock, Priming: A small cock, usually 
operated by a lever, for admitting gasoline 
to the carbureter to start its action. 

Coll, Induction: See "Spark Coil". 

Coll, Non- Vibrator: A coil so designed that 
it will supply a sufficient spark for the igni- 
tion with one make and break of the primary 
circuit. 

Coll, Primary: See "Primary Coil". 

Coil, Secondary: See "Secondary Spark 
Coil". 

Coil, Spark: See "Spark Coil". 

Coil, Vibrator: A spark coil with which is 
incorporated an electromagnetic vibrator to 
make and break the primary circuit. 

Coil Vaporizer: An auxiliary vaporiser to 
assist in starting a steam boiler. It is a coil 
of tubing into which liquid gasoline is ad- 
mitted and burned to start the generation of 
gas in the main burner. 

Cold Teat: The temperature in degrees 
Tahrenheit at which a lubricant passes from 
the fluid to the solid state. 

Combustion Chamber: That part of an 
explosive motor in which the gases are com- 
pressed and then fired, usually by an electric 
spark. 

Combustion Space: See "Clearance" and 
"Clearance Space". 

Commercial Car: A motor-driven vehicle 
for commercial use, such as transporting 
passengers or freight. 

Commutator: In the ignition system of an 
explosive motor, the commutator is a device 
to automatically complete the circuit of 
each of a number of cylinders in succession. 

Commutator of Dynamo or Motor: That 
part of a dynamo which is designed to cause 
the alternating current produced in the 
armature to flow in one direction in the 
external circuit j in a motor, to change the 
direct current in the external circuit into 
alternating current. 

Compensating Carbureter: An automatic 
attachment to a carbureter controlling 
either air or fuel admission, or both, so that 
the proportion of one to the other is always 
maintained under any vibration of power 
required. 

Compensating Gear: See "Differential 
Gear". 

Compensating Joint: See "Universal 
Joint". 

Compound Engine: A multiple-expansion 
steam engine in which the steam is expanded 
in two stages, first in the high-pressure cyl- 
inder and then in the low-pressure cylinder. 

Compression: (1) That part of the cycle 
of a gas engine in which the charge is com- 
pressed before ignition; in a steam engine it 
is the phase of the cycle in which the pres- 
sure is increased, due to compression of the 
exhaust steam behind the piston. (2) The 
greatest pressure exerted on the gas in the 
compression chamber. 



Compression Chamber: The clearance vol- 
ume above the piston in a gas engine; also 
called "Compression Space". 

Compression Cock: See "Compression-Re- 
lief Cock". 

Compression Line: The line on an indi- 
cator diagram corresponding to the phase of 
the cycle in which the gas is compressed. 

Compression-Relief Cock: A small cock by 
which the compression chamber of an inter- 
nal-combustion motor may be opened to the 
air and thus allow the compression in the 
cylinder to be relieved to facilitate turning 
by hand, or cranking. 

Compression Space: See "Compression 

Chamber". 

Compression Teeter: A small pressure gage 
by which the degree of compression of the 
mixture in a gas-engine cylinder may be 
tested. 

Compressor, Air: See "Air Compressor". 

Condenser: (1) In a steam motor, an 
apparatus in which the exhaust steam is 
converted back into water. (2) A device 
for increasing the electric capacity of a 
circuit. Used in an ignition circuit to 
increase the strength of the spark. 

Cone Bearing: A shaft bearing in which the 
shaft is turned to a taper and the journal 
turned to a conical or taper form. 

Cone Clutch: A friction clutch in which 
there are two cones, one fitting within the 
other. 

Connecting Rods: The part of an engine 
connecting the piston to the crank, and by 
means of which a reciprocating motion of 
the piston is converted into the rotary 
motion of the crank. 

Constricting Band Brake: See "Brake, 
Constricting Band". 

Constricting Clutch: A friction clutch in 
which a band is tightened around a drum to 
engage it. 

Contact Breaker: A device on some forma 
of gasoline motors having an induction coil 
of the single junu>spark type, to open and 
close the electric circuit of the battery and 
coil at the proper time for the passage of the 
arc or spark at the points of the spark plug. 

Contact Maker: See "Contact Breaker". 

Continental Drive: Double-chain drive. 

Control: The levers, pedals, etc., in general 
with the speed and direction of a car is regu- 
lated by the driver. In speaking of right, 
left, or center control, the gearshift and 
emergency brake levers only are meant. 

Control, Spark: Method of controlling the 
power of an engine by varying the point in 
the stroke at which ignition takes place. 

Control, Throttle: Method of governing 
tho power of the engine by altering the area 
of the passage leading to the admission 
valve so that the amount of the fuel intro- 
duced into the cylinder is varied. 

Controller, Electric: Apparatus for secur- 
ing various combinations of storage cells and 
of motors so as to vary the speed of the car 
at will. 

Converter: A device for changing alternat- 
ing current into direct current for charging 
storage batteries, etc. Converters may be 
any of three kinds: rotary, electrolytic, or 
mercury-vapor. The mercury-vapor con- 
verter is most widely used. 



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GLOSSARY 



Convertible Body: An automobile body 
which may be used in two or more ways, 
usually aa an open or closed carriage, or in 
which several seats may be concealed, and 
raised to increase the seating capacity. 

Cooling Fan: Fan used in automobiles to 
Increase the current of air circulating around 
the cylinders, or through the radiator. 

Cooling System: The parts of a gas engine 
or motor car by which the heat is generated in 
the cylinder by the combustion of the fuel 
mixture. See "Water Cooling" and "Air 
Cooling". 

Cork Inserts: Pieces of cork inserted in 
friction surfaces of clutches or brakes to 
give softer action. 

Cotter Pin: A split metal pin designed to 
pass through holes in a bolt and nut to hold 
the former in place. 

Coulomb: The unit of measure of electrical 
quantity. Sometimes called "Ampere Sec- 
ond". It is equivalent to the product of 
the current in amperes by the number of 
seconds current has been flowing. 

Counterbalance: Weights attached to a 
moving part to balance that part. 

Countershaft : An intermediate or secondary 
shaft in the power-transmission system. 

Coupe: An enclosed body seating one or two 
passengers and the driver, all within. 

Coupling, Flexible: See "Universal Joint". 

Cowl: That portion of the body of the car 
which forms a hood over the instrument 
board or dash. 

Cowl Tank: A fuel tank carried under the 
cowl and immediately in front of the dash. 

Crank: A lever designed to convert recipro- 
cating motion into rotating motion or vice 
versa; usually in the form of a lever formed 
at an angle with the shaft, and connected 
with piston by means of connecting rod. 

Crank, Starting: A handle made to fit the 
projecting end of the crankshaft of a gas 
engine, so that the engine may be started 
revolving by hand. 

Crankcase: The casing surrounding the 
crank end of the engine. 

Crankcase Explosion: Explosion of un- 
burned gases in the crankcase. 

Crank Chamber: The enclosed space of 
small engines in which the crank works. 

Cranking: The act of rotating the motor by 
means of a handle in order to start it. Turn- 
ing the flywheel over a few times causes the 
engine to take up its cycle, and after an 
explosion it continues to operate. 

Crankpin: The pin by which the connecting 
rod is attached to the crank. 

Crankshaft: The main shaft of an engine. 

Crankshaft, Offset: A crankshaft whoso 
center line is not in the same plane as the 
axis of its cylinders. 

Creeping of Pneumatic Tires: The tend- 
ency of pneumatic tires to push forward 
from the ground, and thus around the rim, in 
the effort to relieve and distribute the 
pressure. 

Cross Member: A structural member of the 
frame uniting the side members. 

Crypto Gear: See "Planetary Gear". 

Crystallization. The rearrangement of the 
molecules of metal into a crytrtallinc form 
under continued shocks. This is often the 



cause of the breaking of the axles and jprings 
of a motor car. 

Cup, Priming: A small cup-shaped device 
provided with a cock, by which a small 
quantity of gasoline can be introduced into 
the cylinder of a gasoline engine. 

Current: The rate of flow of electricity; the 
quantity of electricity which passes per 
second through a conductor or circuit. 

Current Breaker: See "Contact Breaker'*. 
Current Indicator: A device to indicate 

the direction of current flow in a circuit; a 

polarity indicator. 

Current Rectifier: A device for converting 
alternating current into direct current. See 
"Converter". 

Cushion Tire: See "Tire, Cushion". 

Cut-Off, Gas Engine: That point in the 
cycle of an internal-combustion engine at 
which the admission of the mixture is dis- 
continued by the closing of the admission 
valve. 

Cut-Off, Steam Engine: That point in the 
cyle of a steam engine, or that point on an 
indicator diagram, at which the admission 
of steam is discontinued by the closing of the 
admission valve. 

Cut-Out, Automatic: A device in a bat- 
tery charging circuit designed to disconnect 
the battery from the circuit when the cur- 
rent is not of the proper voltage. 

Cut-Out, Muffler: A device by which the 
engine is ^ made to exhaust into the air 
instead of into the muffler. 

Cut-Out Pedal: Pedal by means of which 
the engine is made to exhaust into the air 
instead of into the muffler. 

Cycle: A complete series of operations 
beginning with the drawing in of the work- 
ing gas, and ending after the discharge of 
the spent gas. 

Cycle, Beau de Roches: See "Beau de 
, Rochas Cycle". 

Cylinder: A part of a reciprocating engine 
consisting of a cylindrical chamber in which 
a gas is allowed to expand and move a 
piston connected to a crank. 

Cylinder Bore: See "Bore". 

Cylinder Cock: A small cock used to allow 
the condensed water to be drained away 
from the cylinder of a steam engine, usually 
called a drain cock. 

Cylinder Head: That portion of a cylinder 
which closes one end. 

Cylinder Jacket: See "Jacket, Water". 

Cylinder Oil: Lubricant particularly adapt- 
ed to the lubrication of cylinder walls and 
pistons of engines. 

D 

Dash : The upright partition of a car in front 
of the front seat and just behind the bonnet. 

Dash Adjustment: Connections by which 
a motor auxiliary may be adjusted by a 
handle on the dash. Usually applied to 
carbureter adjustments. 

Dash Coil: An induction coil for jump- 
spark ignition, having an element for each 
cylinder, with dash connections to the com- 
mutator on the engine or camshaft. 

Dash Gage: A steam, water, oil, or electric 
gage placed upon the dash of the car. 



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Day Tjrpe of Engine: The two-cycle inter- 
nal-combustion engine with an air-tight 
crankcase. 

Dead Axle: See "Axle, Dead". 

Dead Center: The position of the crank and 
connecting rod in which they are in the same 
straight line. There are two positions, and 
in these positions no rotation of the crank- 
shaft is caused by pressure on the piston. 

Decarbonizer: See "Carbon Remover". 

Deflate: Reduction of pressure of sir in a 
pneumatic tire. 

Deflector: In a two-cycle engine, the curved 
plate on the piston head designed to cause 
the incoming charge to force out the exhaust 
gases and thus assist in scavenging. 

Deflocculated Graphite: Graphite so finely 
divided that it remains in suspension in a 
liquid. 

Demountable Rim: A rim upon which a 
spare tire may be mounted and carried, and 
so arranged that it may be easily and quickly 
taken off or put on the wheel. 

Denatured Alcohol: See "Alcohol, De- 
natured". 

Densimeter: See "Hydrometer". 

Depolarizer: Material surrounding the nega- 
tive element of a primary cell to absorb the 
gas which would otherwise cause polarising. 

Detachable Body: A body which may be 
detached from and placed upon the chassis. 

Detachable Rim: See "Demountable Rim". 

Diagram Indicator: See "Indicator Card". 

Diagram, Jeantaud: A diagrammatic rep- 
resentation of the running gear of an auto- 
mobile, showing it turning corners of various 
radii for the purpose of determining the 
front-axle and steering connections. 

Diesel Gas Engine: Four-cycle internal- 
combustion engine in which the explosion of 
the charge is accomplished entirely by the 
temperature produced by the high com- 
pression of the mixture. 

Differential, Bevel-Gear: A balance gear in 

which the equalising action is obtained by 

means of bevel gears. 
Differential. Spur-Gear: A differential gear 

in which the equalising action is obtained by 

spur gears. 

Differential Brake: See "Brake, Differen- 
tial". 

Differential Case: See "Differential Hous- 
ing". 

Differential Gear: A mechanism to permit 
driving the wheels and yet allow them to 
turn a corner without slipping. An arrange- 
ment such that the driving wheels may turn 
independently of each other on a divided 
axle, both wheels being under the control 
of the driving mechanism. Sometimes 
called balance, compensating, or equalizing 
gear. 

Differential Housing: The case that en- 
closes the differential gear. 

Differential Lock: A device which prevents 
the operation of the differential gear, so that 
the wheels turn as if they were on a solid 
shaft. 

Dimmer: An arrangement for lowering the 
intensity of, or reducing the glare from 
headlights. 

Direct Current: A current which does not 
change its direction of flow, as the current 



from a battery or a direct-current generator. 
Distinguished from an alternating current, 
which reverses its direction many times a 
minute. 

Direct Drive: Transmission of power from 
engine to the final driving mec hanis m at 
crankshaft speed. 

Discharge: In a storage battery, the passage 
of a current of electricity stored therein. In 
the ignition circuit, the flow of high-tension 
current at the spark gap. 

Disk Clutch: A clutch in which the power 
is transmitted by a number of thin plates 
pressed face to face. 

Distance Rod: See "Radius Rod". 

Distribution Shaft: See "Camshaft". 

Distributor: That part of the ignition svs- 
tem which directs the high-tension current, 
to the respective spark plugs in the proper 
firing order. 

Double Ignition: A method of ignition 
which comprises two separate system*, 
either of which may be used independently 
of the other, or both together as desired. 
Usually distinguished by two current 
sources and two sets of plugs. 

Drag: That action of a clutch or brake 
which does not completely release. 

Drag Link: That rod in a steering gear 
which forms the connection between the 
mechanism mounted on the frame and the 
axle stub, and transmits the movements of 
steering from steering post to wheels. 

Drive Shaft: The shaft transmitting the 
motion from the change gears to the driving 
axle; the torsion rod. 

Driving Axle: The axla of a motor car 
through which the power is transmitted to 
the wheels. 

Driving Wheel: The wheel to which or by 

which the motion is transmitted. 
Dry Battery: A battery of one or more drv 

cells. 

Dry Cell: A primary voltaic cell in which a 
moist material is used in place of the ordi- 
nary fluid electrolyte. 

Dual Ignition: An ignition system compris- 
ing two sources of current and one set of 
spark plugs. 

Dust Cap: A metal cap to be screwed over 
a tire valve to protect the latter from dust 
and water. 

Dynamo: The name frequently applied to a 
dynamo-electric machine used as a gener- 
ator. Strictly, the term dynamo should be 
applied to both motor and generator. 

Dynamometer: The form of equalising gear 
attached to a source of power or a piece of 
machinery to ascertain the power necessary 
to operate the machinery at a given rate of 
speed and under a given load. 

E 

Earth: See "Ground". 

Economizer, Gas: An appliance to be 
attached to a float-feed carbureter to im- 
prove the mixture by automatically govern- 
ing the amount of air in the float chamber. 

Eccentric: A disk mounted off-center on a 
shaft to convert rotary into reciprocating 
motion. 

Economy, Fuel: The fuel economy of a 
motor is the relation between the heat units 



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in the fuel used in the motor and the work 
or energy given out by the motor. 
Efficiency: The proportion of power ob- 
tained from a mechanism as compared with 
that put into it. 
Efficiency of a Motor: The efficiency of a 
gasoline motor is the relation between the 
heat units consumed by the motor and the 
work of energy in foot-pounds given out by 
it. Electrical efficiency of a motor is the 
relation between the electrical energy put 
into the motor and the mechanical energy 
given out by it. 
Ejector: An apparatus by which a Jet of 
steam propels a stream of water in almost 
the same way as an injector, except that the 
ejector delivers it into a vessel having but 
little pressure in it. 
Electric Generator: A dynamo-electric ma- 
chine in which mechanical energy is trans- 
formed into electrical energy; usually called 
dynamo. 
Electric Horn: An automobile horn elec- 
trically operated. 
Electric Motor: A dynamo-electric machine 
in which electrical energy is transformed into 
mechanical energy. 
Electric Vehicle: An automobile propelled 
by an electric motor, for which current is 
supplied by a storage battery carried in the 
vehicle. 
Electrolyte: A compound which can be 
decomposed by electric current. In refer- 
ring to storage batteries, the term electro- 
lyte means the solution of sulphuric acid in 
water in which the positive and negative 
plates are immersed. 
Electromagnet: A temporary magnet which 
obtains its magnetic properties by the action 
of an electric current around it and which 
is a magnet only as long as such current is 
flowing. 
Electromotive Force: A tendency to cause a 
current of electricity to flow; usually syn- 
onymous with potential, difference of poten- 
tial, voltage, etc. 
Element: The dissimilar substances in a 
battery between which an electromotive 
force is set up, as the plates of a storage 
battery. 
Emergency Brake: A brake to be applied 
when a quick stop is necessary; usually 
operated by a pedal or lever. 
En Bloc: That method of casting the cylin- 
ders of a gasoline engine in which all the 
cylinders are made as a single casting. 
Block casting; monoblock casting. 
End Play: Motion of a shaft along its axis. 
Engine, Alcohol: An internal-combustion 
engine in which a mixture of alcohol and air 
is used as fuel. 
Engine, Gasoline: An internal-combustion 
motor in which a mixture of gasoline and air 
is used as fuel. 
Engine, Kerosene: An internal-combustion 
engine in which a mixture of kerosene and 
air is used as fuel. 
Engine, Steam: An engine in which the 
energy in steam is used to do work by 
moving the piston in a cylinder. 
Engine Primer: A small pump to force fuel 

into the carbureter. 
Engine Starter: An apparatus by which a 
gasoline engine may be started in its cycle of 
operations without use of the starting crank. 



It belongs usually to one of four classes: (1) 
Mechanical or spring actuated, such as a 
coil spring wound up by the running of the 
engine or a strap around the flywheel; (2) 
fluid pressure, Buch as compressed air or 
exhaust gases induced into the cylinder to 
drive the piston through one cycle; (3) the 
electric system, in which a small motor is 
used to turn the engine over; (4) combina- 
tions of these. 
Epicyclic Gear: See "Planetary Gear". 
Equalizing Gear: See "Differential Gear". 
Exhaust: The gases emitted from a cylinder 
after they have expanded and given up their 
energy to the piston; the emission of the 
exhaust gases. 
Exhaust, Auxiliary: See "Auxiliary Ex- 
haust". 
Exhaust Horn: An automobile horn in 
which the sound is produced by the exhaust 
gases. 
Exhaust Lap: The extension of the inside 
edges of a slide valve to give earlier closing 
of the exhaust. Also called inside lap. 
Exhaust Manifold : A largo pipe into which the 
exhaust passages from all the cylinders open. 
Exhaust Port: The opening through which 
the exhaust gases are permitted to escape 
from the cylinder. 
Exhaust Steam: Steam which has given up 
its energy in the cylinder and is allowed to 
escape. 
Exhaust Stroke: The stroke of an internal- 
combustion motor during which the burned 
gases are expelled from the cylinder. 
Exhaust Valve: A valve in the cylinder of 
an engine through which the exhaust gases 
are expelled. 
Expanding Clutch: A clutch in which a 
split pulley is expanded to press on the inner 
circuraferenco of a ring which surrounds it, 
and thus transmits motion to the ring. 
Expansion, Gas Engine: _ That part of the 
cycle of a gas engine immediately after 
ignition, in which the gas expands and drives 
the piston forward. 
Expansion, Steam Engine: That portion 
of the stroke of the steam engine in which 
the steam is cut off by the valves and con- 
tinues to perform work on the piston, increas- 
ing in volume and decreasing in pressure. 
Explosive Motor : See ' ' Internal-Combustion 
Motor". 

F 

Fan, Cooling: A mechanically operated fan 
for producing a current of air for cooling the 
radiator or cylinder of a gas engine. 

Fan, Radiator: A mechanically operated 
rotary fan used to induce the flow of air 
through the radiator to facilitate the cooling 
of the water. 

Fan Belt: The belt which drives the cooling 
fan. 

Fan Pulley: A pulley permanently attached 
to the fan and over which the fan belt runs 
to drive it. 

Fat Spark: A short, thick, ignition spark. 

Feed Pump: A pump by which water is 
delivered from the tank to the boiler of a 
steam car. 

Feed Regulator: A device to maintain a 
uniform water level in a steam boiler by 
controlling the speed of the feed pump. 



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GLOSSARY 



Feed-Water Heater: An apparatus for 
heating the boiler-feed water, either by 
means of a jet of steam or steam-heated 
coils. 

Fender: A mud guard or shield over the 
wheels of a car. 

Field, Magnetic: Space in the neighborhood 
of the poles of a magnet in which the mag- 
netism exerts influence. Field also refers to 
the coils which produce the magnetism in an 
electromagnet. 

Fierce Clutch: A clutch which cannot be 
engaged easily. A grabbing clutch. 

Filler Board: Woodwork shaped to fill the 
space between the lower edge of the wind- 
shield and the dash. 

Fin: Projections cast on the cylinders of a 
gas engine to assist in cooling. 

Final Drive: That part of a car by which the 
driving effort is transmitted from the parts 
of the transmission carried on the frame to 
the transmission parts on the rear axle. 
The propeller shaft in a shaft-drive car. 

Fire Teat: A test of a lubricant to determine 
the temperature at which it will burn. 

Firing: (1) Ignition of the charge in a gas 
engine. (2) The act of furnishing fuel 
under the boiler of a steam engine. 

First Speed : That combination of transmis- 
sion gears which gives the lowest gear ration 
forward. Blow speed; low speed. 

Flash Boiler: A boiler arranged to generate 
highly superheated steam almost instan- 
taneously, by allowing water to come in 
contact with very hot metal surfaces. 

Flash Generator: See "Flash Boiler". 

Flash Point: The temperature at which an 
oil will give off a vapor that will ignite when 
a flame comes in contact with it. 

Flash Teat: A test to determine the flash 
point of oils. 

Flexibility: In an engine the ability to do 
useful work through a range of speeds. 

Flexible Coupling: See "Universal Joint". 

Flexible Shaft: A pliant shaft which will 
transmit considerable power when revolving. 

Flexible Tubing: A tube for the conduction 
of liquids or gases, which may be bent at a 
small radius without leaking. 

Float Carbureter: A carbureter for gasoline 
engines in which a float of cork or hollow 
metal controls the height of the liquid in the 
atomising noztle. Sometimes culled float- 
feed carbureter. 

Float Valve: An automatic valve by which 
the admission of a liquid into a tank is con- 
trolled through a lever attached to a hollow 
sphere which floats on the surface of the 
liquid and opens or closes the valve accord- 
ing as it is high or low. 

Floating Axle: See "Axle, Floating". 

Floating the Battery on the Line: Charg- 
ing the battery while it is giving out current. 

Flooding: Excessive escape of fuel in a 
carbureter from the spraying nozzle. 

Flushing Pin: In a float-feed carbureter, a 
pin arranged to depress the float in priming. 
Also called primer and tickler. 

Flywheel: A wheel upon the shaft of an 
engine which, by virtue of its moving mass, 
stores up the energy of the gas transmitted 
to the flywheel during the impulse stroke 
and delivers it during the rest of the cycle, 
thus producing a fairly constant torque. 



Flywheel Marking: Marks on the face of a 

flywheel to indicate the time of valve open- 
ing and closing and thus assist in valve 
setting. 

Foaming: See "Priming'*. 

Fore Carriage: A self-propelled vehicle in 
which the motor is carried on the forward 
trucks, and propelling and steering is done 
with the forward trucks. 

Fore-Door Body: An automobile body hav- 
ing doors in the forward compartment. 

Four-Cycle or Four-Stroke Cycle: The 
cycle of operations in gas engines occupying 
two complete revolutions or four strokes. 

Four-Wheel Drive: Transmission of driving 
effort to all four wheels. 

Fourth Speed: That combination of trans- 
mission gears which gives the fourth from 
the lowest gear ratio forward. Usually the 
highest speed. 

Frame: The main structural part of a chas- 
sis. It is carried upon the axles by the 
springs and carries the different elements of 
the car. 

Frame Hangers: See "Body Hangers". 
Free Wheel: A wheel so arranged that it 

can rotate more rapidly than the mechsvniam 

which drives it. 

Friction: The resistance existing bet-ween 

two bodies in contact which tends to prevent 

their motion on each other. 
Friction Clutch: A device for coupling said 

disengaging two pieces of shafting while in 

motion, by the friction of cones or plates on 

one another. 
Friction Disk: The thin plate used in a disk 

or friction clutch. See * T Diak Clutch". 
Friction Drive: A method of transmitting 

power or motion by frictional contact. 

Fuel: A combustible substance by whose 

/ combustion power is produced. Gasoline 

and kerosene are the chief automobile fuel*. 

Fuel Economy. See "Economy, Fuel". 

Fuel Feed, Gravity: See "Gravity Fuel 
Feed". 

Fuel Feed, Pressure: See "Lubrication, 
Force-Feed. " 

Fuel Feed, Vacuum. See "Vacuum Fuel 
Feed". 

Fuel-Feed Regulator: A device in the fuel 
system of steam motor by which the rate of 
flow of fuel to the burner is automatically 
regulated. 

Fuel Level: The height of the top of the fuel 
in the float chamber of a carbureter. 

Fuel-Level Indicator: An instrument either 
permanently connected to the fuel tank or 
which may be inserted thereon to indicate 
the quantity of fuel in the tank. 

Fuel Tank, Auxiliary: A tank designed to 
hold a supply of fuel in addition to that 
carried in the main shaft. 

Fuse: A length of wire in an electric circuit 
designed to melt and open the circuit when 
excess current flows through it and thus pre- 
vent damage to other portions of the circuit. 

Fusible Plug: A hollow plug filled with an 
alloy which melts at a point slightly above 
the temperature of the steam in a boiler, as 
when the water runs low, thus putting out 
the firo and preventing the burning out of 
the boiler. 



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Gage: (1) Strictly speaking, a measure of, or 
instr ument for determining dimensions or 
capacity. Practically, the term refers to an 
instrument for indicating the pressure or 
level of liquids, etc. (2) The distance be- 
tween the forward or rear wheels measured 
at the points of contact of the tires on the 
road. Tread; track. 
Gage Cock: A small cock by which a pipe 

leading to a gage may be opened or closed. 
Gage Lamp: Lamp, usually electric, placed 
above or near the gages to enable them to bo 
read at night. 
Gage, Oil: See "Oil Gage". 
Gage, Tire: See "Tire-Pressure Gage". 
Gap: In automobiles, the spark gap. 
Garage: A building for storing and caring 

for automobiles. 
Garage, Portable: A garage which may be 
moved from one place to another either as a 
whole or in sections. 
Gaa: Matter in a fluid form which is elastic 
and has a tendency to expand indefinitely 
with reduction in pressure. 
Gaa Economizer: See "Economiser". 
Gaa Engine: An internal-combustion motor 
in which a mixture of gas and air is used as 
fuel. The term is also applied to the gaso- 
line engine. 
Gaa Engine, Otto: A four-stroke cycle 
engine developed by Otto and using the 
hot-tube method of ignition. 
Gaa Generator: An apparatus in which a 

gas is generated for any use. 
Gaa Lamp: See "Acetylene Lamp". 
Gases, Boyle'* Law of: See "Boyle's Law 

of Gases . 
Gaaea, Gay Lussac*s Law of: Called 
Charles* • Law and the Second Law of Gases. 
Law denning the physical properties of 
gases at constantly maintained pressure. 
It states that at constant pressure the vol- 
ume of gas varies with the temperature, the 
increase Deing in proportion to the change of 
temperature and volume of the gas. 
Gasket: A thin sheet of packing material or 

metal used in making joints, piping, etc. 
Gasoline: A highly volatile fluid petroleum 
distillate; a mixture of fluid hydrocarbons. 
Gasoline-Electric Transmission: A sys- 
tem of propulsion in which a gasoline engine 
drives an electric generator, and the power 
is transmitted electrically to motors which 
drive the wheels. 
Gasoline Engine: An internal-combustion 
motor in which a mixture of gasoline and air 
is used as a fuel. 
Gasoline Primer: The valve on the car- 
bureter of a gasoline engine by which the 
action of the engine can be started. 
Gasoline-Tank Gage : A fuel-lever indicator 

for gasoline. 
Gasoline Tester: A hydrometer graduated 
to indicate the specific gravity of gasoline, 
usually in degrees Baume. 
Gate: A plate which guides the geexshift 

lever in making speed changes. 
Gather: Convergence of the forward por- 
tions of the front wheels. Toeing in. 
Gay Lussac's Law of Gases: See "Gases, 
Gay Lussac's Law of". 



Gear, Balance: See "Differential Gear'*. 
Gear, Bevel: See "Bevel Gear". 
Gear, Change-Speed: An arrangement of 
gear wheels which transmits the power of 
the motor to the differential gear at variable 
speeds independently of the motor speed. 
Gear, Differential: See "Differential". 
Gear, Fiber: A gear cut from a vulcanised 

fiber blank. 
Gear, Helical: A gear whose teeth are not 

parallel to the axis of the cylinders. 
Gear, Internal: A gear whose teeth project 
inward toward the center from the circum- 
ference of gear wheel. 
Gear, Planetary: See "Planetary Gears". 
Gear, Progressive: See "Progressive Change- 
Speed Gears". 
Gear, Rawhide: A gear cut from a blank 

made up of compressed rawhide. 
Gear, Selective: See "Selective Change- 
Speed Gears". 
Gear, Timing: See "Timing Gears". 
<Gear, Worm: A helical gear designed for 
transmitting motion at angles, usually at 
right angles and with a comparatively great 
speed reduction. 
Gearbox : The case covering the change-speed 

gears. 
Gear Shifting: Varying the speed ration 
between motor and rear wheels by operating 
the change-speed gears. 
Gear-Shift Lever: A lever by which the 

change-speed gears are shifted. 
Geared -Up Speed: A speed obtained by an 
arrangement of gears in tho gearset such that 
the propeller shaft rotates more rapidly than 
the crankshaft. 
Gearset: See "Gear, Change-Speed". 
Generator, Acetylene: See "Acetylene Gen- 
erator". 
Generator, Electric: See "Electric Gener- 
ator". 
Generator, Steam: A steam boiler. 
Generator Tubing : Tubing by which acety- 
lene is conducted from the generator to the 
lamp. 
Gimbal Joint : A form of universal joint. 
Gong: A loud, clear sounding bell, usually 
operated either electrically or by foot power. 
Governor: A device for automatically regu- 
lating the speed of an engine. 
Governor, Dynamo: A method of auto- 
matic control of the generator (usually an 
ignition generator, in automobile work) by 
which its speed is maintained approximately 
constant. 
Governor, Hydraulic: A governor applied 
to engines cooled by a pump circulation of 
water in such a way that the throttle opening 
is controlled by the pressure of the water. 
Governor, Spark: A method of automati- 
cally controlling the speed of the engine by 
varying the time of ignition. See "Gov- 
ernor". 
Grabbing Clutch: See "Fierce Clutch". 
Gradometer: An instrument for indicating 
the degree of the gradient or the per cent of 
the grade. It consists of a level with a 
graduated scale. 
Graphite: One of the forms in which carbon 
occurs in matter. Also known as black Uad 



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GLOSSARY 



and plumbago. Used as a lubricant in pow- 
dered or flake form in the cylinders of 
explosive engines. 

Gravity-Feed Oiling System: See "Lubri- 
cation, Gravity". 

Gravity Fuel Feed: Supply of fuel to the 
carbureter from the tank by force of gravity. 

Grease and Oil Gun: A syringe by means 
of which grease or oil may be introduced 
into the bearings of the machinery. 

Grease Cup: A device designed to feed 
grease to a bearing by the compression of a 
hand screw. 

Grid: A lead plate formed in the shape of a 
gridiron to sustain and act as a conductor of 
electricity for the active material in a 
storage battery. 

Grinding Valves: See "Valve Grinding". 
Gripping Clutch: See "Fierce Clutch". 
Ground: An electric connection with the 
earth, or to the framework of a machine. 

H 

Half-Motion Shaft : See "Half-Time Shaft". 

I la If -Time Gear: See "Timing Gears". 

Half -Time Shaft: The cam shaft of a four- 
cycle gas engine. It revolves at one-half 
the speed of the crankshaft. 

Hammer Break : A make-and-break ignition 
system in which the spark is produced when 
the moving terminal strikes the stationary 
terminal like a hammer. 

Header: A pipe from which two or more 
pipes branch. Manifold. 

Heater, Automobile: A device for warming 
the interior of an automobile, usually electric, 
or by means of exhaust gases or jacket 
water. 

High Gear: That combination of change- 
speed gears which gives the highest speed. 

High -Tension Current: A current of high 
voltage, as the current induced in the second- 
ary circuit of a spark coil. 

High-Tension Ignition: Ignition by means 
of high-tension current. 

High-Tension Magneto: A magneto which 
delivers high-tension current. 

Honeycomb Radiator: A radiator consist- 
ing of many very thin tubes, giving it a 
cellular appearance. 

Hood: (1) That part of the automobile 
body which covers the frame in front of the 
dash. The engine is usually under the hood. 
(2) The removable covering for the motor. 

Hooke's Coupler: See "Universal Joint". 

Horizontal Motor: A motor the center line 
of whose cylinder lies in a horizontal plane. 

Horn, Automobile: A whistle or horn for 
giving warning of the approach of the 
automobile. 

Horsepower: The rate of work or energy 
expended in a given time by a motor. One 
horsepower is the rate or energy expended 
in raising a weight of 550 pounds one foot 
in one second, or raising 33,000 pounds one 
foot in one minute. 

Horsepower Brake: The power delivered at 
the flywheel of an internal combustion 
engine as ascertained by a brake test. 

Horsepower, Rated: The calculated power 
which may be expected to be delivered by a 
motor* In America the term usually refers 



to the horsepower as calculated by the 
D.A.hi. formula. 

Hot-Air Intake: The pipe or opening con- 
veying heated air to the carbureter. 

Hot-Head Ignition : The method of igniting 
the charge in a gas-engine cylinder bv main- 
taining the head of the combustion chamber 
at a high temperature from the internal heat 
of combustion, as in the Diesel engine. 

Hot-Tube Ignition: An ignition device 
formerly used for gas engines in which a 
closed metal tube is heated red-hot by a 
Bunsen flame. When the compressed gasea 
in the cylinder are allowed to come in con- 
tact with this, ignition takes place. 

Housing: A metallic covering for mo vine 
parts. ^ 

H *!VL **) Abbreviation for horaewnoer. (2) 

Abbreviation for high pre*»ure. 
Hub Cap: A metal cap placed over the outer 

end of a wheel hub. 
Hydrocarbons: Chemical combinations of 

carbon and hydrogen in varied proportions. 

usually distillates of petroleum, sush as 

gasoline, kerosene, etc. 
Hydrometer: An instrument by which the 

specific gravity or density of liquids may be 

ascertained. 

Hydrometer Scale, Baume's: An arbitrary 
measure of specific gravity. 



I-Beam: Sometimes called I Section. A struc- 
tural piece having a cross section resembling 
the letter I. I-Beam front axle. 

Igniter: An insulated contact plug without 
sparking points, used in make-and-break 
ignition with low-tension magneto. 

Igniter, High-Speed: An igniter having a 
short spark coil for high-speed engines. 

Igniter, Jump-Spark: A system of ignition 
m which is used a current of high pressure, 
which will jump across a gap in the high- 
pressure circuit, causing a spark at the gap. 

Igniter, Lead of: Amount by which the igni- 
tion is advanced. See "Advanced Ignition". 

Igniter, Primary: The apparatus in a pri- 
mary circuit for making and breaking the 
circuit. 

Igniter Spring: A spring to quickly break 
the circuit of a primary igniter. 

Ignition, Advancing: See "Advanced Ig- 
nition". 

Ignition, Battery: A system which gets its 
supply of current from a storage batterv or 
dry cells. This system usually consists of a 
battery, a step-up coil, and a distributor for 
sending the current to the different spark 
plugs. 

Ignition, Catalytic: Method of ignition for 
explosive motors based on the property of 
some metals, particularly spongy platinum, 
of becoming incandescent when in contact 
with coal gas or carbonised air. 

Ignition, Double: See "Double Ignition". 

Ignition, Dual: See "Dual Ignition". 

Ignition, Fixed: Ignition in which the 
spark occurs at a given point in the cycle 
and cannot be changed from that point at 
the will of the operator except by retiming 
the ignition system. Fixed spark. 

Ignition, Generator : Ignition current which 
is furnished by a combination lighting 
generator and magneto. The generator i* 



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fitted with mn interrupter and distributor. 
Sometimes refers to system in which a gener- 
ator charges a battery and the latter fur- 
nishes the ignition current in connection 
with a coil and distributor. 
Ignition, High-Tenelon: Sometimes called 
jump-spark. Ignition which is effected by 
means of a high-tension or high-voltage 
current which is necessary to jump a gap in 
the spark plug. 
Ignition, Hot-Head: See "Hot-Head Igni- 
tion". 
Ignition, Jump-Spark: See "Ignition, 

High-Tension' ' . 
Ignition, Low-Tension: See "Ignition, 

Make-and-Break' ' . 
Ignition, Make-and-Break: A system in 
which the spark is produced by the breaking 
or interruption of a circuit, the break 
occurring in the combustion space of the 
cylinder. The current used is of low-volt- 
age, hence the synonym, low-tension ignition. 
Ignition, Magneto: Ignition produced bv 
an electric generator, called a magneto, which 
is operated by the gas engine for which it 
furnishes current. Dynamo ignition. Gen- 
erator ignition. 
Ignition, Master Vibrator: A system which 
uses as many non-vibrator coils as there 
are cylinders, and one additional coil, called 
the master vibrator, for interrupting the 
primary circuit for all coils. The master 
vibrator also is used with vibrator coils in 
which the vibrators are short-circuited. 
Ignition, Premature: Ignition occurring so 
^ar before the top dead center mark that the 
explosion occurs before the piston has reached 
upper dead center. 
Ignition, Primary: An ignition system in 
which a low-tension current flows through a 
primary coil, the circuit being mechanically 
opened, allowing a high-tension spark to 
jimp across the gap. See "Primary Cod . 
Ignition, Retarding: Setting the spark of 
an internal-combustion motor so that the 
ignition will occur at a later part of the 
stroke. 
Ignition, Self: Explosion of the combusti- 
ble charge by heat other than that produced 
by the spark. Incandescent carbon will 
cause this. Motor overheating because of 
lack of water is another cause. 
Ignition, Single: A system using but one 

source of current. 
Ignition, Synchronized: Ignition by means 
of which the timing in each cylinder of a 
multicylinder engine is the same. In syn- 
chronised ignition the spark occurs at the 
came point in the cycle in each cylinder. 
This type of ignition is obtained with a 
magneto and is lacking in a multi-coil sys- 
tem using vibrator coils. 
Ignition, Timing of: The adjustment of the 
ignition system so that ignition will take 
place at the desired part of the cycle. 
Ignition, Two-Independent: See "Igni- 
tion, Double". 
Ignition, Two-Point: A system comprising 
two ignition sources, or a double-distributor 
magneto, and two seta of spark plugs, both 
of which spark at the same time. 
Ignition Distributor: See "Distributor." 
Ignition Switch: A control or switch for 
turning the ignition current on and off volun- 
tarily. 



I. H. P.: Abbreviation for indicated horae- 

power. 
Indicated Horsepower: (1) The horse- 
power developed t>y the fuel on the pistons, 
in contradistinction to brake horsepower. 
See "Horsepower, Brake". (2) The horse- 
power of an engine as ascertained from an 
indicator diagram. 
Indicator: An instrument by which the 
working gas in an engine records its working 
pressure. 
Indicator Card: A figure drawn by means 
of an indicator by the working gas in an 
engine. Also called indicator diagram. 
Induction Stroke: The downstroke of a 
piston which causes a charge, of mixture to 
be drawn into the cylinder. 
Inflammation: The act or period of com- 
bustion of the mixture in the cylinder. 
Inflate: To increase the pressure within a 

tire by forcing air into it. 
Inflator, Mechanical Tire: A small power- 
driven air-pump for inflating the tire; either 
driven by gearing, chain, or belt from the 
engine shaft, or by friction from the flywheel. 
Inherent Regulation: Expression applied 
to elec*ric generators which use no outside 
means of regulating the output, the regula- 
tion being affected by various windings of 
the armature and fields. 
Initial Air Inlet: See "Primary Air Inlet". 
Initial Preasure: Pressure in a cylinder 
after the charge has been drawn in but not 
compressed. 
Injector: A boiler-feeding device in which 
the momentum of a steam jet, directed by a 
series of conical nozzles, carries a stream of 
water into the boiler, the steam condensing 
within and heating the water which it forces 
along. 
Inlet, Valve: The valve which controls the 
inlet port and so allows or prevents mixture 
from passing to the cylinder. 
Inlet Port: Passage or entrance in the cylin- 
der wall through which the fuel mixture is 
taken. Sometimes called intake port. 
Inlet Manifold: Sometimes called intake 
manifold or header. A branched pipe con- 
nected to the mixing chamber at one end 
and at the branch ends to the cylinders so as 
to communicate with the inlet ports. 
Inlet Manifold, Integral: A manifold or 

header cast integral with the cylinder. 
Inner-Tire Shoe: A piece of leather or 
rubber placed within the tire to protect the 
inner tube. 
Inner Tube: A soft air-tight tube of nearly 
pure rubber, which fits within a felloe upon 
the casing. 
Inside Lap: See "Exhaust Lap". 
Intake Manifold: The large pipe which 
supplies the smaller intake pipes from each 
cylinder of a gas engine. 
Intake Pipe: Sometimes made synonymous 
with inlet manifold. Correctly, the pipe 
from the carbureter to the inlet manifold. 
Intake Stroke: See "Induction Stroke". 
Intensifler: See "Outside Spark Gap". 
Intermediate Gear: A gear in a change- 
speed set between high and low. In a 
three-speed set it would be second speed- 
In a four, either second or third, 



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GLOSSARY 



Intermediate Shaft: See "Shaft, Inter- 
mediate". 

Internal-Combustion Motor: Any prime 
mover in which the energy is obtaineJ by 
the combustion of the fuel within the 
cylinder. 

Internal Gear: See "Gear, Internal". 

Interrupter: 8ee "Vibrator". 



Keyway: Slot in a rotating member used to 

hold the key 
Kick Switch: Ignition twitch mounted so 

that the driver can operate it with the foot. 

Kilowatt: An electrical unit equal to IPX) 
watt*. 

Knuckle Joint: See "Swivel Joint". 



Jack: A mechanism by which a small force 
exerted over a comparatively large distance 
is enabled to raise a heavy body. Used for 
raising the automobile axle to remove the 
weight from the wheels. 

Jacket, Water: A portion of the cylinder 
easting through which water flows to cool 
the cylinder. 

Jacket Water: The cooling water circulating 
in a water-cooling system. 

Jackshaft: Shaft used in double-chain drive 
vehicles. Shaft placed transversally in the 
frame and driving from its ends chains which 
turn the rear wheels mounted on a dead 
axle. 

Jeantaud Diagram: See "Diagram, Jean- 
taud". 

Joint Knuckle: See "Swivel Joint." 

Joule's Law of Gaaea: See "Gases, Joule's 
Law of". 

Jump Spark: A spark produced by a sec- 
ondary jump-spark coil. 

Jump Spark, Circuit Maker: A mechani- 
cally operated switch by which the circuit in 
a jump-spark ignition system is opened and 
closed. 

Jump-Spark Coil: An electrical transformer 
ana interrupter, consisting of a primary 
winding of a few turns of coarse wire sur- 
rounding an iron core, and a secondary 
winding consisting of a great number of 
turns of very fine wire. The condenser is 
usually combined with this. Also known as 
secondary spark coil. 

Jump-Spark Igniter: See "Igniter, Jump- 
8park'\ 

Jump-Spark Plug: See "Spark Plug". 

Junction Box: A portion of an electric- 
lighting system to which all wires are carried 
for the making of proper connections. 

Junk Ring: A packing ring used in sleeve- 
valve motors. It has the same functions as 
a piston ring. See "Piston Ring". 

K 

Kerosene: A petroleum product having a 
specific gravity between 58° and 40° Baumo*. 
It is used as a fuel in internal-combustion 
engines and can often be used in gasojine 
engines by starting the engine on gasoline, 
then switching to kerosene. 

Kerosene Burner: A burner especially 
adapted to use kcroseno as a fuel. 

Kerosene Engine: An engine using kero- 
sene as fuel. 

Key: A semicircular or oblong piece of 
metal used to hold a member firmly on a 
revolving shaft so as to prevent the member 
from rotating. 

Key, Baldwin : A key with an oblong section. 

Key, Woodruff: A key with a semicircular 



Labor: The jerkv operation of an engine. 
The engine is said to labor when it cannot 
pull its load without misfiring or jerking. 

Lag, Combustion: The time between the 
instant of the spark occurrence and the 
explosion. 

Lag, Ignition: The time between the instant 
of spark occurrence and the time at which 
the spark mechanism producing it begins 
to act. 

Lamp, Trouble: Sometimes called inspec- 
tion lamp. A small electric bulb carried in 
a suitable housing, and attached to a long 
piece of lamp cord. Used for inspecting 
parts of the car. 

Lamp Bulb: The incandescent bulb used in 
a lamp. 

Lamp Bracket: A support for a lamp. 

Lamp Lighter: An apparatus for lighting 
gas lamps by electricity. The lamps are 
usually so arranged that by pushing the 
button the gas is turned on and the spark 
made at the same time. 

Landaulet: A type of car which may be 
used as an open or closed car. The rear por- 
tion of the body may be folded down like a 
top. 

Landaulet Body: An automobile body 
resembling a limousine body, but having a 
cover fitted to the back, which may be let 
down, leaving the back open. The top 
generally extends over the driver. 

Lap: To make parte fit perfectly by operat- 
ing them with an abrasive, such as ground 
glass, between the rubbing surfaces. To 
finish. 

Lap of Steam Valves: In the slide valve of 
a steam engine, the amount by which the 
admission edges overlap the steam port when 
the valve is central with the cylinder case. 

Lay shaft: A countershaft or secondary shaft 
of a gearset operated by the main or shifter 
shaft. 

Lead, or Lead Wire: Any wire carrying 
electricity. 

Lead: In a steam engine the amount by 
which the steam port is opened when the 
piston is at the start of its stroke. 

Lead Battery: See "Accumulator". 

Lead of Igniter: See "Igniter, Lead of". 

Lead of Valve: In an engine the amount by 
which the admission port is opened when the 
piston is at the beginning of the stroke; 
according as this is greater or less, the admis- 
sion of working fluid is varied through 
sever" 1 fractions of the stroke. 

Lean Mixture: Fuel after leaving the car- 
bureter, which contains too much air in pro- 
portion to the gasoline. Sometimes called 
thin mixture, rare mixture, or weak mixture. 

Lever, Brake: See "Brake L^ver." 

Lever, Change-Speed: Lever by which the 
different combinations of change gears are 
made so as to vary the speed of the driving 



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wheels in relation to the speed of the engine; 
also called gearshift lever. 

Lever, Spark: Lever by which the speed and 
power of the engine are controlled by adjust- 
ing the time of ignition. 

Lever, Steering: See "Steering Lever". 

Lever, Throttle: A lever by which the speed 
and power of the engine are controlled by 
adjusting the amount of mixture admitted 
to the cylinder. 

Lever Lock: An arrangement for locking the 
gearshift lever in free position so that with 
the engine running the driving axle will not 
be driven. 

Lift: The distance through which a poppet 
valve is moved in opening from fully-closed 
to fully-open position. 

Lifting Jack: See "Jack". 

Lighting Outfit, Electric: An outfit for 
electrically lighting an automobile. This 
usually consists of a dynamo, storage bat- 
tery, and lamps and switchboard, with the 
necessary wiring and cut-outs. 

Limousine Body: An enclosed automobile 
body having the front and sides with side 
doors. The top extends over the seat of the 
driver. 

Liner: One or more pieces of metal placed 
between two parts so they may be adjusted 
by varying the thickness of the liner. Some- 
times called a shim. Also refers to a tool 
used for lining up parts. 

Liner, Laminated : A liner or shim made in 
a number of parts, the thickness being 
varied by removing or adding parts. 

Lines of Force: See "Field, Magnetic". 

Link Motion: In a steam engine, the name 
for the arrangement of eccentric rods, links, 
hangers, and rocking shafts by which the 
relative motion and position of the slide 
valves are changed at will, providing for 
varying rates of expansion of the steam and 
thus varying the speed for either forward or 
backward motion. 

Live Axle: See "Axle, Live". 

Lock, Auto Safety: A device arranged so 
that it is impossible to start the motor car 
except by the proper combination or key. 

Lock Nut: A nut placed on a bolt immedi- 
ately behind the main nut to keep the main 
nut from turning. 

Lock Switch: A switch in the ignition cir- 
cuit so arranged that it can not be thrown on 
except by the use of a key. 

Lock Valve: A valve capable of being secured 
with lock and key. 

Long-Stroke: A gas engine whose stroke is 
considerably greater than its bore. 

Lost Motion: Sometimes called play or 
backlash. Looseness of space between two 
moving parts. 

Louver: A slit or opening in the side of a 
hood or bonnet of a motor car. Used to 
allow air from the draft to escape. A venti- 
lator. 

Low Gear: The lowest speed gear. First 
speed in a change-speed set. 

Low-Speed Adjustment: A carbureter ad- 
justment which regulates the mixture when 
the motor is operating slowly, with little 
throttling opening. 

Low-Speed Band: The brake or friction 
band which controls the low speed of a plan- 
etary change-speed set. 



Low-Tension Current: A current of low 
voltage or pressure, such as is generated by 
dry cells, storage battery, or low-tension 
magneto. 

Low-Tension Ignition: See "Ignition, 
Make-and-Break". 

Low -Tension Magneto: A magneto which 
initially generates a current of low voltage. 

Low-Tension Winding: The winding of a 
transformer or induction coil through which 
the primary or low-tension currentfiows. 

Low Test: Gasoline which has a high den- 
sity, thus giving a low reading on the Baume* 
scale. Low-grade gasoline. 

Low-Water Alarm: An automatic arrange- 
ment by which notice is given that the 
water in the boiler is becoming too low for 
safety. 

Lubricant: An oil or grease used to dimin- 
ish friction in the working parts of machin- 
ery. 

Lubrication: To supply to moving parts 
and their bearings grease, oil, or other lubri- 
cant for the purpose of lessening friction. 

Lubrication, Circulating: A system in 
which the same oil is used over and over. 

Lubrication, Constant-Level: A system 
in which the level in the crankcase is kept to 
a predetermined level by means of a pump. 

Lubrication, Force-Feed: Method of lubri- 
cating the moving parts of an engine by 
forcing the oil to the points of application by 
means of a pump. 

Lubrication, Gravity: Method of supplying 
oil to moving parts of an engine by having a 
reservoir at a certain height above the highest 
point to be lubricated and allowing the oil 
to flow to the points of application by 
gravity. 

Lubrication, Non-Circulating: A system 
in which the same oil is used but once. 

Lubrication, Pressure-Feed: See "Lubri- 
cation, Force-Feed". 

Lubrication, Sight-Feed: System of lubri- 
cation in which the oil pipe to different 
points of application is led through a glass 
tube in plain sight ; usually at a point on the 
dashboard. 

Lubrication, Splash: Method of lubricat- 
ing an engine by feeding oil to the crank- 
case and allowing the lower edge of the 
connecting rod to splash into it. 

Lubricator: A device containing and supply- 
ing oil or grease in regular amounts to the 
working parts of the machine. 

Lubricator, Force-Feed: A pump-like de- 
vice which automatically forces oil to the 
moving parts. 

M 

Magnet: A piece of iron or steel which has 
the characteristic properties of being able to 
attract other pieces of iron and steel. 

Magnet, Horseshoe: A magnet shaped like 
the letter U. 

Magnet, Permanent: A magnet which 
when once charged retains its magnetism. 

Magnetic Field: See "Field, Magnetic". 

Magnetic Spark Plug: A spark plug used 
in a make-and-break system of ignition in 
which contact is obtained by means of a 
magnet. 

Magneto: See "Ignition, Magneto". 



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GLOSSARY 



Magneto: See "Magneto-Electric Gener- 
ator". 

Magneto, Double-Distributor: A magneto 
with two distributors feeding two sets of 
spark plugs, two in each cylinder and both 
sparking at once. See "Ignition, Two- 
Point." 

Magneto, High -Tension: A magneto has 
two armature windings and requires no out- 
side coil for the generation of high-tension 
current. 

Magneto, Induction: A type of magneto in 

which the armature and fields are stationary 

and a rotator or spool-shaped piece of metal 

is used to break the lines of fore**. 
Magneto, Low-Tension : See ' ' Low-Tension 

Magneto". 
Magneto, Rotating Armature: A magneto 

in which the armature winding revolves. 
Magneto Bracket: A shelf or portion of the 

crankcase web used to support the magneto. 
Magneto Coupling: A flexible joint which 

connects the magneto with a revolving 

motor shaft. 

Magneto Distributor: See "Distributor". 

Magneto-Electric Generator: A machine 
in which there are no field magnet coUs, the 
magnetic field of the machine being due to 
the action of permanent steel magnets. 
Usually contracted to magneto. 

Main Bearing: A bearing used for support- 
ing the crankshaft. 

Manifold: A main pipe or chamber into 
which or from which a number of smaller 
pipes lead to other chambers. Sec "Intake 
Manifold", "Exhaust Manifold", and "Inlet 
Manifold". 

Manometer: A device for indicating either 
the velocity or the pressure of the water in 
the coiling system of a gasoline motor. 

Master Vibrator: A single vibrator which 
interrupts the current to each of a set of 
several spark coils in order. 

Mean Effective Pressure: The average 
pressure exerted upon a piston throughout 
its stroke. 

M. E. P.: Abbreviation for mean effective 
pressure. 

Mercury Arc Rectifier : A mercury vapor con- 
verter. See "Mercury Vapor Converter"*. 

Mercury Vapor Converter: An apparatus 
for converting alternating current into direct 
current by means of a bubble of mercury in 
a vacuum. The vapor of mercury possesses 
the property of allowing the flow* of current 
in one direction only. Its principal use is 
for charging storage batteries. 

Mesh: Two gears whose teeth are so posi- 
tioned that one gear will drive the other are 
said to be in mesh. 

Misfire: Failure of the mixture to ignite in 
the cylinder; usually due to poor ignition or 
poor mixtures. 

Miss: The failure of a gas engine to explode 
in one or more cylinders. Sometimes called 
misfiring. 

Mixing Chamber: A pipe or chamber 
placed between the carbureter and inlet 
manifold. Sometimes integral with the car- 
bureter or manifold. 

Mixing Tube: A tubular carbureter for a 
gas or gasoline engine. 

Mixing Valve: A device through which air 
and gas are admitted to form an explosive 



mixture. The carbureter of a gasoS-w 
engine combines the mixing valve ssi 
vaporiser. 

Mixture: The fuel of a gas engine, consist^ 
of sprayed gasoline mixed with air. 

Mono bloc: Cast en bloc or in one pier* 
Refers usually to cylinders, which are csrf 
two or more at once. 

Motocycle: A trade name for a special wwl* 
of motorcycle. 

Motor, Electric: See "Electric Motor". 

Motor, Gasoline: See "Gasoline Motor". 

Motor, High-Speed: A gas engine wb.w 
rotative speed is very high and whose p*»«- - 
output goes up with the speed to an unusui 
degree. 

Motor, Horizontal: A gas engine whose c\ - 
inder axis lies in a horizontal plane. 

Motor, I-head: A gas engine which ha* 

cylinders, a section of which resembles th«- 

letter I. This type has the vr.lves in tbt 
head. 

Motor, L-Head: A gas engine in which a 
section of cylinders resembles the letter L. 
The valves in this type are all on one &ide. 

Motor, Long-Stroke: See "Long-Strokt 
Motor". 

Motor, Non-Poppet: A gas engine whose 
valves are not of the poppet type. In ihi* 
class is the Knight sleeve valve, the rotary 
valve, and the piston valve. 

Motor, Overhead Valve: A motor with cyl- 
inders whose valves are in the head. 

Motor, Piston Valve: A gas engine using 
valves which are in the form of pistons. 

Motor, Poppet: A gas engine using poppet- 
type valves. See "Poppet Valve". 

Motor, Revolving Cylinder: A motor whose 
cylinders revolve as a unit. 

Motor, Rotary Valve: One in which the 
valves consist of slots cut out along cvlin- 
drical rods which rotate in the cylinder 
casting. 

Motor, Sliding Sleeve: The Knight type 
motor in which thin sleeves slide up and 
down in the cylinder, the sleeves having 
ports which register with the inlet and 
exhaust manifolds. 

Motor, T-Head: A gas engine with the 
valves on opposite sides of the cylinders, a 
section of which resembles the letter T. 

Motor, V-Type: A motor whose cylinders 
are set on the crankcase so as to form an 
angle of 45 to 90 degrees between them. 

Motor, Vertical: A motor with the cylinder 
axis in a vertical plane. 

Motorcycle: A bicycle propelled by a gaso- 
line engine. 

Mud Guard: Metal or leather strips placed 
over the wheels to catch the flying mud and 
to prevent the clothing from coming in con- 
tact with the wheels when entering and 
leaving the car. 

Muffler Cut-Out: See "Cut-Out, Muffler". 

Muffler Cut-Out Pedal: See "Cut-Out 
Pedal". 

Muffler Exhaust: A vessel containing par- 
titions, usually perforated with small holes 
and designed to reduce the noise occasioned 
by the exhaust gases of an engine, by forcing 
the gases to expand gradually, 



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Muffler Explosion: Explosion of unburned 
gases in exhaust passages of the muffler, 
usually due to poor ignition or poor mixture. 

Multiple Circuit: A compound circuit in 
which a number of separate sources or 
electrically operated devices, or both, have 
all their positive poles connected to a single 
positive conductor and all their negative 
poles to a single negative conductor. 

N 

N.A.A.M.: Abbreviation for National Asso- 
ciation of Automobile Manufacturers. 

Naphtha: A product of the distillation of 
petroleum use.d to some extent for marine 
engines. 

Needle Valve: A valve in a carbureter used 
for regulating the amount of gasoline to flow 
in with the mixture. 

Negative Plate: Plate of a storage battery to 
which current returns from the outside 
circuit. 

Negative Pole: That pole of an electric 
source through which the current is assumed 
to enter or now back into the source after 
having passed through the circuit external 
to the source. 

Neutral Position: The position of the 
change-speed lever which so places the gears 
that the motor may run idle, the car remain- 
ing still. 

Non-Defla table Tire: See "Tire, Non- 
Puncturable". 

Non -Freezing Solution: A solution placed 
into the radiator of a motor car to prevent 
the water therein from freeiing. Alcohol 
and glycerine arc the usual anti-freezing 
agents. See "Anti-Free«ing Solution". 

Non-Puncturable Tire: See "Tire, Non- 
Puncturable". 

Non-Skid Device: See "Anti-Skid Device". 



Odometer: (1) The mileage-recording mech- 
anism of a speedometer. (2) An instrument 
to be attached to an automobile wheel to 
automatically indicate the distance traveled. 

Odometer, Hub: A speed-recording device 
which is placed on the nub cap of a wheel. 

Offset: Off center, as a crankshaft in which 
a line vertically through the crankpins does 
not coincide with a line vertically through 
the center of the cylinder. 

Ohm: (1) Unit of electrical resistance. (2) 
Amount of electrical resistance. Such resist- 
ance as would limit the flow of electricity 
under an electromotive force of one volt to 
a current of one ampere. 

Ohm's Law: The law which gives the rela- 
tion between voltage, resistance, and current 
flow in any circuit. Expressed algebraically, 

C— -= where C is the current flowing in am- 

K 
peres, J the voltage and R the ohmic resist- 
ance. 

Oil Burner: A burner equipped with an 
atomizer for breaking up liquid fuel into a 
spray. 

Oil Engine: An internal-combustion motor 
using Kerosene or other oil as fuel. 

Oil Gage: (I) A gage to indicate the flow 
of oil in the lubricating system. (2) Used 
to show the level of oil in a compartment in 
the base of a gas engine. 



Oil Gun: A cylinder with a long point and a 
spring plunger for squirting oil or grease 
into inaccessible parts of a machine. 

Oil Pump: A small force pump providing a 
constant positive supply of oil under pres- 
sure; usually considered to be more reliable 
than a lubricator. 

Oiler: An automobile device for oiling 
machinery. 

Opposed Motor: A gasoline engine whose 
cylinders are arranged in pairs on opposite 
sides of the crankshaft, both connecting 
rods of each pair being connected to the 
same crank, so that the shock of the explo- 
sion in one will be balanced by the cushion- 
ing effect of the compression in the other. 
In general these motors are two-cylinder, 
horizontal. 

Otto Cycle: See "Four-Stroke Cycle". 

Outside Spark Gap: See "Spark Gap, Out- 
side". 

Overcharged: The state of the storage bat- 
tery when it has been charged at too high a 
rate or for too great a length of time. 

Overhead Camshaft: A camshaft which is 
placed above the cylinder of a gas engine. 

Overhead Valves: See "Motor, Overhead 
Valve". 

Overheating: The act of allowing the motor 
to reach an excessively high temperature 
due to the heat of combustion being not 
carried away rapidly enough by the cooling 
devices, or to insufficient lubrication. Over- 
heating of a bearing is due to insufficient 
lubrication. 

P 

Packing: The material introduced between 
the parts of couplings, joints, or valves, to 

f>revent the leakage of gas or liquids to or 
rom them. 

Panel, Charging: A small switchboard for 
charging a storage battery. 

Parallel Circuit: See "Multiple Circuit". 

Patch, Tire-Repair: Rubber strips for mak- 
ing repairs in punctured or ruptured tires. 

Petcock: A control cock which when open 
allows gas or liquid to escape from the cham- 
ber to which it is attached:. 

Petrol: Word used in 'England for gasoline. 

Picric Acid: Acid which may be added to 
gasoline to increase the motor efficiency. 
Gasoline will absorb about five per cent of 
its weight of picric acid. 

Pin, Taper: A conically shaped pin. 

Pinch: A cut in an inner tube caused by the 
tube being caught or pinched between the 
outer casing and the rim. 

Pinion: (1) The smaller of any pair of 
gears. (2) A small gear made to run with 
a larger gear. 

Piston: The hollow, cylindrical portion 
attached to the connecting rod of a motor. 
The reciprocating part which takes the 
strain caused by the explosion. 

Piston Air Valve: A secondary air valve in 
the piston of earlier types of gas engines to 
compensate the imperfect operation of sur- 
face carbureters used with those engines 
and to secure the injection of a sufficient 
quantity of air to insure the combustion of 
the charge. 

Piston Head: The top of the pistoi). 



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PUton Pin: A pin which holds the connect- 
ing rod to the piston. 

Piston Ring: (1) A metal ring inserted in a 
groove cut into a piston assisting in making 
the latter tight in the cylinder. There are 
usually three rings on each piston. (2) 
Rings about the circumference of a piston, 
whose diameter is slightly greater than that 
of the piston. These are to insure closer fit 
and prevent wearing of the piston, as the 
wear is taken up by the rings which may 
be easily removed. 

PUton Rod: Usually called connecting rod* 
The rod which connects the piston with 
the crankshaft. 

PUton Skirt: The portion of a piston below 
the piston pin. 

PUton Speed : The rate at which the piston 
travels in its cylinder. 

PUton Stroke: The complete distance a 
piston travels in its cylinder. 

Pitted: Condition of a working surface which 
has become covered with carbon particles 
which have been imbedded in the metal. 

Planetary Gear: An arrangement of spur 
and annular gears in which the smaller gears 
revolve around the main shaft as planets 
revolve around the sun. 

Planetary Transmission: A transmission 
system in which the speed changes are ob- 
tained by a. set of planetary gears. 

Plate: Part of a storage battery which holds 
active material. 8ee "Negative Plate". 

Pneumatic Tire: A tire fitted to the wheels 
of automobiles, consisting usually of two 
tubes, the outer of India rubber, canvas, and 
other resilient wear-resisting material, and 
the inner composed of nearly pure rubber 
which is inflated with compressed air to 
maintain the outer tube jn its proper form 
under load. 

Polarizing: Formation of gas at the negative 
element of a cell so as to prevent the action 
of the battery. This formation of gas is 
caused by the violent reaction taking place 
in a circuit of low resistance. 

Pole Piece: A piece of iron attached to the 
pole of a magneto used in an electric gener- 
ator. 

Poppet Valve: A disk or drop valve usually 
seating itself through gravitation or by 
means of springs, and frequently opening by 
suction or cams. 

Port: An opening for the passage of the 
working fluid in an engine. 

Portable Garage: See "Garage, Portable". 

Positive Connection: A connection by 
which positive motion is transmitted by 
means of a crank, bolt, or key, or other 
method by which shipping is eliminated. 

Positive Motion: Motion transmitted by 
cranks or other methods in which slipping 
is eliminated. 

Positive Plate: Plate in a storage battcrv, 
from which the current flows to the outside 
circuit. 

Positive Pole: The source from which elec- 
tricity is assumed to flow; the opposite of 
negative pole. In a magnet the positive pole 
is the end of the magnet from which the 
magnetic flux is assumed to emanate. 

Pounding in Engine: Pounding noise at 
each revolution, usually caused by either 



carbon deposit, loose or tight piston, loose 
bearing or other part, or pre-ignition. 

Power Stroke: The piston stroke in a gas 
engine in which the exploded gases are 
expanding, thus pushing the piston down- 
ward. 

Power Tire Pump: A pump which ie oper- 
ated by a gas engine and is used to inflate 
the tires of a motor car. 

Power Unit: The engine with fuel, cooling, 
lubrication, and ignition systems, without 
the transmission or running gears. Some- 
times the gearset and driving shaft are 
included by the term. 

Pre-Ignitlon: See "Premature Ignition". 

Premature Ignition: Ignition of fuel before 
the proper point in the cycle. 

Pressure-Feed: See "Lubrication, Force- 
Feed". 

Pressure Gage: A gage for indicating: the 
pressure of a fluid confined in a chamber, 
such as steam in a boiler, etc. 

Pressure Lubricator: A lubricating device 
in which the oil is forced to the bearings by 
means of a pump or other device for main- 
taining pressure. 

Pressure Regulator: A device for main- 
taining the pressure of the steam in the 
principal pipe at a constant point irrespective 
of the fluctuations of pressure in the boiler. 

Primary Air Inlet: The main or fixed air 
intake of a carbureter. 

Primary Circuit: The circuit which carries 
low-tension current. 

Primary Coil: A self-induction coil consist- 
ing of several turns of wire about an iron 
core. 

Primary Spark Coil: An induction coil 
which has only a single winding composed 
of a few layers of insulated copper wire 
wound on a bundle of soft iron wires, known 
as the core, also as a wipe, or touch, spark coil. 

Primer: A pin in a float-feed valve so 
arranged that it may depress the float in 
priming a gasoline engine. Also called 
tickler and flushing pin. 

Priming: (1) The carrying of water over 
with the steam from the boiler to the 
engine, due to dirty water, irregular evapo- 
ration, or forced steaming. (2) Injecting; a 
small amount of gasoline into the cylinder 
of a gasoline engine to assist in starting. 

Priming Cock: A control cock screwed into 
the cylinder and which when open com- 
municates with the combustion chamber 
allowing gasoline to be poured into the 
cylinder. 

Progressive Change-Speed Gears: Change- 
speed gears so arranged that higher speeds 
are obtained by passing through all the 
intermediate steps and vice versa. 

Prony Brake: A dynamometer to indicate 
the horsepower of an engine. ^ A band 
encircles the flywheel of the engine and is 
secured to a lever, at the other end of which 
is a scale to measure the pull. 

Propeller Shaft: The shaft which turns the 
rear axle of a motor car. The drive shaft. 

Pump, Centrifugal: A pump with a hollow 
hub and curved blades which by centrifugal 
force throw water or oil into the system 
requiring it. 

Pump, Circulation: See "Circulation 
Pump". 



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Pomp, Fuel-Peed: A mechanically oper- 
ated pump for insuring positive feed of fuel 
to the burner of a steam engine or carbureter 
of a gas engine. 

Pump, Oil: See "Oil Pump". 

Pump, Plunger: Sometimes called piston 
pump. One containing a piston which 
forces a liquid to a system. 

Pump, Power Tire: See "Tire Pump". 

Pump, Steam Boiler-Feed: See "Boiler- 
Feed Pump". 

Pump, Water Circulating: See "Circula- 
tion Pump". 

Pump Gear: A pump composed of two 
gears in mesh placed in a housing. When 
the gears revolve they carry oil or water, as 
the case may be, on their teeth, which deliver 
it to an outlet. 

Puncture: The perforation of an inflated 
rubber automobile tire by some sharp sub- 
stance on the roadbed. 

Puncture-Closing Compound: A viscous 
compound placed within the inner tire tube 
to close the hole caused by a puncture. 

Push Rod: A rod which operates the valves 
of a poppet-valve motor. A rod which 
imparts a pushing motion. 



Race: (1) The parts upon which the balls 
of a ball bearing roll. (2) When referring 
to a gas engine, to operate at high speed 
without a load. 

Racing Body: A low, light automobile body, 
having two seats with backs as low as possi- 
ble; designed for large fuel capacity and 
very high speed. 

Radiator: A device consisting of a large 
number of small tubes, through which the 
heated water from the jacket of the engine 
passes to be cooled, the heat being carried 
away from the metal of the radiator by air. 

Radiator, Cellular: See "Honeycomb 
Radiator". 

Radiator, Tubular: A radiator consisting 
of many tubes, through which water passes 
to be cooled. 

Radiator Protector: See "Bumper". 

Radius Rod : A bar in the frame of an auto- 
mobile to assist in maintaining the proper 
distance between centers. Also called 
distance rod. 

Rawhide Gear: Tooth gears, built up of 
compressed rawhide, used for high-speed 
drive. Sometimes a metal gear is merely 
faced with rawhide for the purpose of reduc- 
ing noise. 

Reach Rod: See "Radius Rod". 

Reciprocating Parts: The parts such as 
pistons and connecting rods which have a 
reciprocating motion. 

Rectifier, Alternating-Current: See "Cur- 
rent Rectifier". 

Relief Cock : See "Compression-Relief Cock". 

Removable Rim : See "Demountable Rim". 

Resiliency: That property of a materia 
by virtue of which it springs back or recoils 
on removal of pressure, as a spring. 

Resistance, Electrical: (1) A part of an 
electric circuit for the purpose of opposing 
the flow of the current in the circuit. (2) 
The electrical resistance of a conductor is 



that quality of a conductor by virtue of 
which the conductor opposes the passage of 
electricity through its mass. Its unit is 
the ohm. 

Retard: With reference to the ignition sys- 
tem, causing the spark to occur while the 
piston is retarding or moving downward on 
the working stroke. 

Retarding Ignition: See "Ignition, Retard- 
ing". 

Retarding the Spark: See "Ignition, Re- 
tarding . 

Retread: To replace the tread of a pneu- 
matic tire with a new one. 

Reverse Cam: On a gasoline engine a cam 
so arranged that by reversing its motion or 
shifting it along its shaft it will operate the 
valves and cause the engine to reverse. 

Reverse Gear: In a steam engine, a device 
by which the valves may be set to effect 
motion of the car in either direction. In a 
gasoline > automobile, the reversing gear is 
usually incorporated with the change-speed 
gears. 

Reverse Lever: A lever by which the direc- 
tion of movement of the driving wheels may 
be reversed without reversing the engine. 
This is usually combined with the change- 
speed levers. 

Rheostat: A device for regulating the flow 
of current in a closed electrical circuit by 
introducing a series of graduated resistances 
into the circuit. 

Rim: The portion of a wheel to which a solid 
or pneumatic tire is fitted. A circular, 
channel-shaped portion attached to the 
wheel felloe. 

Rim, Demountable: A rim which may be 
removed from the wheel easily in order that 
another with an inflated tire may take its 
place. 

Rim, Quick-Detachable: A rim made of 
two or more parts so that the tire may be 
detached and attached quickly. 

Rim, Removable: See "Demountable Rim". 

Road Map: A map of a section or locality 
showing the best roads for motor-car travel, 
and usually the best stopping places and 
repair stations. 

Roadster: A small motor car designed to be 
fairly speedy; usually has carrying capacity 
for an extra large quantity of fuel and sup- 
plies; generally seats two persons, with pro- 
vision for one or two more, by the attach- 
ment of a rumble seat in the rear. 

Rocker Arm: A pivoted lever used to oper- 
ate overhead valves in a T-head motor. 

Rod, Radius: See "Radius Rod". 

Rod, Steering: See "Steering Rod". 

Roller Bearings: See "Bearing, Roller". 

Roller Chain: A chain whose links are pro- 
vided with small rollers to decrease the mo- 
tion and the noise. 

Rotary Valve: A type of valve somewhat 
similar to the Corliss engine valve used on 
automobile motors. 

Rumble: A small single seat to provide for 
an extra passenger on a two-seated vehicle. 
Usually detachable. 

Runabout: A small two-seated vehicle, usu- 
ally of a lower power and lower speed, as 
well as lower operating radius, than a road- 
ster. 



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Running Board: A horizontal step placed 
below the frame and used to assist passen- 
gers in leaving and entering a motor car. 

Running Gear: The frame, springs, motor, 
wheels, speed-change gears, axles, and 
machinery of an automobile, without the 
body; used synonymously with chassis. 

S 

Safety Plug: See "Fusible Plug". 

Safety Valve: A valve seated on the top of a 
steam boiler, and loaded so that when the 
pressure of the steam exceeds a certain point 
the valve is lifted from the seat and allows 
the steam to escape. 

Saturated Steam: The quality of the 
steam when no more steam can be made in 
the closed vessel without raising the tempera- 
ture or lowering the pressure. 

Scavenging: The action of clearing the cyl- 
inder of an internal-combustion motor of 
the burned-out gases. 

Score: To burn, or abrade a moving part 
with another moving part. 

Screw: An inclined plane wrapped around a 
cylinder; a cylinder having a helical groove 
cut in its surface. 

Searchlight: A headlight designed to throw 
a very bright light on the road. Electricity 
or acetylene is usually used as an illuminant, 
and the lamp has a parabolic reflector and 
may be turned to throw the light in any 
direction. 

Secondary Battery: See "Accumulator". 

Secondary Circuit: A circuit in which the 
electromotive force is generated by induc- 
tion from a primary circuit in which a varia- 
ble current is flowing. The high-tension 
circuit of a jump-spark ignition system. 

Secondary Circuit : The circuit which carries 
high-tension current. 

Secondary Spark Coll: An induction coil 
having a double winding upon its core. 
The inner winding is composed of a few 
layers of insulated wire of large size, and 
the outer winding consists of a great many 
layers of very small insulated copper wire. 
Also known as a jump-spark coil. 

Seize: Refers to moving parts which adhere 
because of operation without a film of oil 
between the working surfaces. 

Selective Change-Speed Gears: Change- 
speed gears sO arranged that any desired 
speed combination can be obtained without 
going through the intermediate steps. 

Self -Firing: Ignition of the mixture in a 
gas engine due to the walls of the cylinder or 
particles attached to them becoming over- 
heated and incandescent. 

Self-Starter: See "Engine Starter". 

Separator, Steam: A device attached to 
steam pipes to separate entrained water 
from live steam before it enters the engine, 
or to separate the oily particles from exhaust 
steam on its way to the condenser. 

Series Circuit : A compound circuit in which 
the separate sources or the separate elec- 
trical receiving devices, or both, are so 
placed that the current supplied by each, or 
passed through each, passes successively 
through the other circuits from the first to 
the last. 

Set Screw: A small screw with a pointed 
end used for locking a part in a fixed position 
to prevent it from turning. 



Setting Valves: See "Valve Setting**. 

Shaft, Intermediate: The shaft placed 
between the first and third motion gearing 
and acting as a carrier of motion between 
the two. 

Shaft Drive: System of power transmission 
by means of a shaft. 

Shim: See "Liner". 

Shock Absorber: A device attached to the 
springs or hangers of motor cars to decrease 
the jars due to rough roads, instead of 
allowing them to be transmitted to the 
frame of the carriage. 

Short Circuit: A shunt or by-path of com- 
paratively small resistance around a portion 
of an electric circuit, by which enough cur- 
rent passes through the new path to virtu- 
ally cut out the part of the circuit a around 
which it is passed, and prevent it from 
receiving any appreciable current. 

Sight Feed: An indicator covered with glass 
which shows that oil is flowing in a system. 
A telltale sight. A check on the oiling 
system. 

Side- Bar Steering: See "Steering, Side- 
Bar". 

Side-SUpping: See "Skidding**. 

Silencer: See "Muffler, Exhaust*'. 

Silent Chain: A form of driving chain in 
which the links are comprised of sections 
which so move over the sprocket that prac- 
tically all noise is eliminated. Silent chains 
are used specially for driving timing gears, 
gearsets, etc. 

Skidding: The tendency of the rear wheels 
to slide sideways to the direction of travel, 
owing to the slight adhesion between tires 
and the surface of the roadbed, also called 
side-slippinj. 

Skip: See "Miss". 

Sleeve Valve: A form of valve consisting of 
cylindrical shells moving up and down in 
the cylinders of such a motor as the Silent 
Knight. 

Sliding Gears: A change-speed set in which 
various gears are placed into mesh by the 
sliding on a shaft of one or more gears. 

Sliding Sleeve: See "Motor, Sleeve- Valve**. 

Slip Cover: A fabric covering for the top 
when down or for the upholstery of a motor 
vehicle. 

Smoke in Exhaust: Smoky appearance in 
the exhaust due to too much oil, too rich 
mixture, low grade of fuel, or faulty ignition. 

Solid Tire: See "Tire, Solid". 

Sooting of Spark Plug: Fouling of the 
spark plug with soot, due to poor mixture, 
impure fuel, or improper lubrication. 

Spare Wheel: An extra wheel complete 
with inflated tire, carried on the car for quick 
replacement of wheel with damaged tire. 

Spark, Advancing: See "Advanced Igni- 
tion". 

Spark Coil: A coil or coils of wire for pro- 
ducing a spark at the spark plug. It may 
be either a secondary or primary spark coil. 

Spark Gap: A break in the circuit of a 
jump-spur k ignition system for producing a 
spark within the cylinder to ignite the 
charge. The spark gap is at the end of a 
small plug called the spark plug. 

Spark Gap, Extra; See "Spark Gap, Out- 
side", 



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Spark Gap, Outside: A device to overcome 
the short circuiting in the spark gap due to 
fouling and carbon deposits between the 
points of the high-tension spark plug. It is 
a form of condenser, or capacity in which 
the air acts as the dielectric between two 
surfaces at the terminals of a gap in a high- 
tension circuit. 

Spark Intenslfier: See "Spark Gap, Out- 
side". 

Spark Lever: See "Timing Lever". 

Spark Plug: The terminals of the secondary 
circuit of a jump-spark ignition system 
mounted to leave a spark gap between the 
terminals projecting inside the cylinder for 
the purpose of igniting the fuel in the cylin- 
der by means of a spark crossing the gap 
between them. 

Spark Plug, Pocketing: Mounting the 
spark plug in a recess of the cylinder head to 
reduce the sooting of the sparking points. 

Spark Plug, Sooting of: See "Sooting of 
Spark Plug". 

Spark Regulator: A mechanism by which 
the time of ignition of the charge is varied 
by a small handle on or near the steering 
wheel. 

Spark, Retarding: See "Ignition, Retard- 
ing". 

Spark Timer: See "Timer, Ignition". 

Speaking Tube: See "Annunciator". 

Specific Gravity: The weight of a. given 
substance relative to that of an equal bulk 
of some other substance which is taken as a 
standard of comparison. Air or hydrogen 
is the standard for gases, and water is the 
standard for liquids and solids. 

Specific Heat: The capacity of a substance 
for removing heat as compared with that of 
another which is taken as a standard. The 
standard is generally water. 

Speed-Change Gear: A device whereby the 
speed ratio of the engine and driving wheels 
of the car is varied. 

Speed Indicator: An instrument for show- 
ing the velocity of the car. 

Speedometer: A device used on motor cars 
for recording the miles traveled and for 
indicating the speed at all times. 

Speedometer Gears: Gears used to drive a 
shaft which operates the speedometer. 

Speedometer Shaft: A flexible shaft which 
operates a speedometer. 

Spiral Gear: A gear with helically-cut 
teeth. 

Splash Lubrication: See "Lubrication, 

Splash". 
Spline: A key. 

Spontaneous Ignition: See "Self-Firing". 
Sprag: A device to be let down (usually at 

the rear of the car) to prevent its slipping 

back when climbing a hill. 

Spray Nozzle: That portion of a carbureter 
which sprays the gasoline. 

Spring: An elastic body, as a steel rod, 
plate, or coil, used to receive and impart 
power, regulate motion, or diminish con- 
cussion. 

Spring, Cantilever: A type of spring which 
appears like a semi-elliptic reversed; and 
which is flexibly attached in the center, 
rigidly at one end, and by a shackle at the 
other. 



Spring, Elliptic: A spring, elliptic in shape, 
and consisting of two half-elliptic members 
attached together. 

Spring Semi-Elliptic: A spring made up ot 
a number of leaves, the whole resembling a 
portion of an ellipse. 

Spring, Supplementary: See "Shock Ab- 
sorber". 

Spring, Underslung: A spring which is 
fastened under the axle instead of over it. . 

Spring Hangers: 8ee "Body Hangers". 

Spring Shackle: A link attached to one end 
of a spring which allows for flattening of the 
spring. 

Sprocket: A wheel with teeth around the 
circumference, so shaped that the teeth will 
fit into the links of a chain which drives or 
is driven by the sprocket. 

Starboard: The right-hand side of a ship or 
vessel. 

Starter, Engine: See "Engine Starter". 

Starting, Gas Engine: The operation neces- 
sary to make the engine automatically con- 
tinue its cycle of events. It usually consists 
of opening the throttle, retarding the spark, 
closing the ignition circuit, and cranking the 
engine. 

Starting Crank: A crank by which the 
engine may be given several revolutions by 
hand in order to start it. 

Starting Device: See "Engine Starter". 

Starting on Spark: In engines having four 
or more cylinders with well-fitting pistons, 
it is often possible to start the motor after it 
has stood idle for some time by simply clos- 
ing the ignition circuit, provided that the 
previous stopping of the engine was done 
by opening the ignition circuit before the 
throttle was closed, leaving an unexploded 
charge under compression in one of the 
cylinders. 

Steam: The vapor of water; the hot invisible 
vapor given off by water at its boiling point. 

Steam Boiler: See "Boiler". 

Steam Condenser: See "Condenser". 

Steam, Cycle of: A series of operations of 
steam forming a closed circuit, a fresh series 
beginning where another ends; that is, 
steam is generated in the boilers, passes 
through the pipes of the engine, doing work 
successively in its various cylinders, escap- 
ing at exhaust pressure to the condenser, 
where it is converted into water and returned 
to the boiler, to go through the same opera- 
tions once more. 

Steam Engine: A motor depending for its 
operation on the latent energy in steam. 

Steam Gage: See "Pressure Gage". 

Steam Port: See "Admission". 

Steering, Side-Bar: Method of guiding the 
car by means of an upright bar at the side 
of the seat. 

Steering Angle for Front Wheels: Maxi- 
mum angle of front wheels to the axle when 
making a turn; should be about 35°. 

Steering Check: A device for locking the 
steering gear so that the direction will 
not be changed unless desired. 

Steering Column: See "Steering Post". 

Steering Gear: The mechanism by which 
motion ia communicated to the front axle of 
the vehicle, by which the wheels may be 
turned to guide the car as desired. 



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Steering Knuckle: A knuckle connecting 
the steeling rods with the front axle of the 
motor. 

Steering Lever: A lever or handle by which 
the car is guided. 

Steering Neck: The vertical spindle carried 
by the steering yoke. It is the pivot of the 
bell crank by which the wheel is turned. 

Steering Pillar: See "Steering Post". 

Steering Poet: The member through which 
the twist of the steering wheel is trans- 
mitted to the steering knuckle. The steering 
post often carries the spark and throttle 
levers also. 

Steeling Rod: The rod which connects the 
steering gear with the bell cranks or pivot 
arms, by means of which the motor car is 
guided. 

Steering Wheel: The wheel by which the 
driver of a motor car guides it. 

Steering Yoke: The Y-shaped piece in 
which the front axle terminates. The yoke 
carries the vertical steering spindle or 
steering neck. 

Stephenson Link Motion: A reversing gear 
in which the ends of the two eccentric rods 
are connected by a link or quadrant sliding 
over a block at the end of the valve spindle. 

Step-Up Coll: A coil used to transform low- 
into high-tension current. 

Storage Battery: See "Accumulator". 

Stroke: See "Piston Stroke". 

Strainer, Gasoline: A wire netting for pre- 
venting impurities entering the gasoline feed 
system. 

Strangle Tube: The narrowing of the 
throat of the carbureter just above the air 
inlets in order to increase the speed of the 
air, and thus increase the proportion of gas 
which will be picked up. 

Stroke: The distance of travel of a piston 
from its point of farthest travel at one end 
of the cylinder to its point of farthest travel 
at the other end. Two strokes of the piston 
take place to every revolution of the crank- 
shaft. 

Stud Plate: The plate or frame in a planet- 
ary transmission system carrying studs upon 
which the central pinions revolve. 

Suction Valve: The type of admission valve 
on an internal combustion engine which is 
opened by the suction of the piston within 
the cylinder and admits the mixture. The 
valve is normally held to its seat by a spring. 

Sulpha ting of Battery: The formation of 
an inactive coating of lead sulphate on the 
surface of the plates of a storage battery. 
It is a source of loss in the battery. 

Superheated Steam: Steam which has been 
still further heated after reaching the point 
of saturation. 

Supplementary Air Valve: See "Auxiliary 
Air Valve". 

Swivel Joint: The joint for connecting the 
steering arm of the wheel or lever-steering 
mechanism to the arms on the steering 
wheel. Also called knuckle joint. 



Tachometer: An instrument for indicating 
the number of revolutions made by a machine 
in a unit of time. 

Tandem Engine: A compound engine hav- 
ing two or more cylinders in a line, one 



behind the other, and with pistons attached 
to the same piston rod. 

Tank Gage: See "Fuel-Level Indicator". 

Tappet Rod: See "Push Rod". 

Taxlcab: A public motor-driven vehicle in 
which the fare is automatically registered by 
the taximeter. 

Taximeter: An instrument in a public 
vehicle for mechanically indicating the fare 
charged. 

Terminals: The connecting posts of elec- 
trical devices, as batteries or coils. 

Thermal Unit: Usually called the British 
Thermal Unit, or B. t. u. A measure of 
mechanical work equal to the energy re- 

auired to raise one pound of water one 
egree Fahrenheit. 

Thermostat: An instrument to automati- 
cally regulate the temperature. 

Thermoelphon Cooling: A method of cool- 
ing the cylinder of a gas engine. The water 
rises from the jackets and siphons into a 
radiator from whence it returns to the 
supply tank, doing away with the necessity 
for a circulating pump. 

Three-Point Suspension: A method used 
for suspending motor car units, such as the 
motor, on three points. 

Throttle: A valve placed in the admission 
pipe between the carbureter and the admis- 
sion valve of the motor to control the speed 
and power of the motor by varying the 
supply of the mixture. 

Throttle, Foot: See "Accelerator". 

Throttle, Lever: A lever on the steering 
wheel which operates the carbureter throttle. 
See "Throttle''. 

Throttling: The act of closing the admistuon 
pipe of the engine so that the gas or steam is 
admitted to the cylinder less rapidly, thus 
cutting down the speed and power of the 
engine. 

Thrust Bearing: A bearing which takes 
loads parallel with the axis of rotation of the 
shaft upon which it is fitted. 

Tickler: A pin in a carbureter arranged to 
hold down the float in priming, also called 
flushing pin and primer. 

Timer, Ignition: An ignition commutator. 

Timing Gears: The gears which operate the 
camshaft and magneto shaft. The camshaft 
gear is twice as large as the crankshaft gear. 

Timing Lever: A lever fitted to gas engines 
by means of which the time of ignition is 
changed. Also called spark leper. 

Timing Valve: In a gas engine using float- 
tube ignition, a valve controlling the opening 
between the combustion space and the 
igniter. 

Tip, Burner: A small earthen, aluminum, or 
platinum cover for the end of the burner 
tube of an acetylene lamp. It is usually 
provided with two holes, so placed that the 
jets from them meet and spread out in a 
fan shape. 

Tire, Airless: See "Airless Tire". 

Tire, Clincher: A type of pneumatic tire 
which is held to a clincher. 

Tire, Cushion: Vehicle tire having a very 
thick rubber casing and very small air space. 
It is non-puncturable and does not have to 
be inflated, but is not as resilient as a pneu- 
matic tire. 



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25 



Tire, Non-Delia table: See "Tire, Non- 
Puncturable". 

Tire, Non Pu net urable: A tire so construct- 
ed that it cannot be easily punctured or will 
not become deflated when punctured. 

lire. Punctures in: Holes or leaks in pneu- 
matic tires caused by foreign substances 
penetrating the inner tube and allowing the 
air to escape. 

Tire, Single-Tube: A pneumatic tire in 
which the inner and outer tubes are com- 
bined. 

lire. Solid: A tire made of solid, or nearly 
solid rubber. 

Tire Band: A band to protect or repair a 
damaged pneumatic tire. See "Tire Pro- 
tector*. 

Tire Bead: Lower edges of a pneumatic tire 
which grip the curved portion of a rim. 

Tire Case: (1) A leather or metal case for 
carrying spare tire; same as tire holder, 
(2) The outer tube. 

Tire Chain: See "Anti-Skid Device". 

Tire Filling: Material to be introduced into 
the tire to take the place of air and do away 
with puncture troubles 

lire Gage: Gage used for measuring the air 
pressure in a pneumatic tire. 

lire Holder: A metal or leather case for 
carrying spare tires. 

Tire-Inflating Tank: A tank containing 
compressed air or gas for inflating the tires. 

lire Inflater, Mechanical : A small mechan- 
ical pump for inflating pneumatic tires. 

Tire Patch: See "Patch, Tire Repair". 

Tire-Pressure Gage: A pressure gage to 
indicate the pressure of air in the tire. 

Tire Protector: The sleeve or band placed 
over a tire to protect it from road wear. 

Tire Pump: A pump for furnishing air under 
pressure to the tire, may be either hand- or 
power-operated. 

Tire Sleeve: A sleeve to protect the injured 
part of a pneumatic tire. It is a tire pro- 
tector which covers more of the circumfer- 
ence of the wheel than a tire band. See 
"Tire Protector". 

Tire Tape: Adhesive tape used to bind the 
outer tube to the rim in repairing tires. 

Tire Tool: Tool used to apply and remove a 
tire. 

Tire Valve: A small valve in the inner tube 

to allow air to be pumped into the tube 

without permitting it to escape. 
Tires, Creeping of: See "Creeping of Tires". 
Tonneau: The rear seats of a motor car. 

Literally, the word means a round tank or 

water barrel. 
Torque: Turning effort, or twisting effort of 

a rotating part. 

Torque Rod: A rod attached at one end to 
the rear axle and at the other to the frame; 
used to prevent twisting of the rear-axle 
housing. 

Torsion Rod: The shaft that transmits the 
turning impulse from the change gears to 
the rear axle. Usually spoken of as the 
ehafl. 

Touch Spark: See "Wipe Spark". 

Tourabout: A light type of touring car. 

Touring Car: A car with no removable rear 



seats, and a carrying capacity of four to 
seven persons. 

Town Car: A car having the rear seats 
enclosed but the driver exposed. 

Traction: The act of drawing or state of 
being drawn. The pull (or push) of wheels. 

Tractor: A self propelled vehicle for hauling 
other vehicles or implements; a traction 
engine. 

Transmission, Individual Clutch: - A 
transmission consisting of a set of spur gears 
on parallel shafts which are always in mesh, 
different trains being picked up with a 
separate clutch for each set. 

Transmission, Planetary: A transmission 
system in which a number of pinions revolve 
about a central pinion in a manner similar to 
the revolution of the planets about the sun; 
usual type consists of a central pinion sur- 
rounded by three or more pinions and an 
internal gear. 

Transmission, Sliding Gear: A trans- 
mission system in which sliding change-speed 
gears are used. 

Transmission Brake: Brake operating on 
the gearset shaft or end of the propeller shaft. 

Transmission Gears: A set of gears by 
which power is transmitted. In automo- 
biles, usually called change-epeed gears. 

Transmission Ratio: .The ratio of the speed 
of the crankshaft to the speed of the trans- 
mission shaft or driving shaft. 

Tread: That part of a wheel which comes in 
contact with the road. 

Tread, Detachable: A tire covering to pro- 
tect the outer tube, which may be taken off 
or replaced. 

Trembler: The vibrating spring actuated by 
the induction coil magnet which rapidly 
connects and disconnects the primary circuit 
in connection with jump-spark ignition. 

Truck: (1) A strong, comparatively slow- 
speed vehicle, designed for transporting 
heavy loads. (2) A swiveling carriage 
having small wheels, which may be placed 
under the wheels of a car. 

Try Cock: A faucet or valve which may be 
opened by hand to ascertain the height of 
water in the boiler. 

Tube Case: See "Tire Case". 
Tube Ignition: See "Hot-Tube Ignition". 
Tubing, Flexible: See "Flexible Tubing". 
Tubular Radiator: An automobile radiator 

in which the jacket water circulates in a 

series of tubes. 

Tungsten Lamp: Incandescent bulb with 
the filament made of tungsten wire. 

Turning Moment: See "Torque". 

Turning Radius: The radius of a circle 
which the wheels of a car describe in making 
its shortest turn. 

Turntable: Device installed in the floor of a 
garage and used for turning motor cars 
around. 

Two-Cycle or Two-Stroke Cycle Engine: 

An internal-combustion engine in which an 
impulse occurs at the beginning of every 
revolution, that is, at the beginning of every 
downward stroke of the piston. 

Two- to-One Gear: The system of gearing in 
a four-cycle gas engine for driving the cam- 
shaft, which must revolve once to every two 
revolutions of the crankshaft. 



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26 



GLOSSARY 



u 

Under Frame: The main frame of the 
chassis or running gear of a motor vehicle. 

Unit -Power Plant: A power system consist- 
ing of a motor, gearset, and clutch which 
may be removed from the motor car as a 
unit. 

Universal Joint: A mechanism for endwise 
connection of two shafts so that rotary 
motion may be transmitted when one shaft 
is at an angle with the other. Also called 
universal coupling, flexible coupling, Cardan 
joint and Hooke's joint. 

Upkeep: The expenditure for maintenance 
or expenditure required to keep a vehicle in 
good condition and repair. 



Vacuum Fuel Feed : A system of feeding the 
gasoline from a tank at the rear of an auto- 
mobile by maintaining a partial vacuum at 
some point in the system, usually at the dash, 
the fuel flowing from this point by gravity to 
the carbureter. 

Vacuum Line: In an indicator diagram, the 
line of absolute vacuum. It is at a distance 
corresponding to 14.7 pounds below the 
atmospheric line. 

Valve: A device in a passage by which the 
flow of liquids or gases may be permitted or 
stopped. 

Valve, Admission : The valve in the admis- 
sion pipe of the engine leading from the car- 
bureter to the cylinder by which the supply 
of fuel may be cut off. 

Valve, Automatic: See "Automatic Valve". 
Valve, Inlet: See "Inlet Valve". 
Valve, Mixing: See "Mixing Valve". 
Valve, Muflaer Gut-Out: See "Cut-Out. 
Muffler". 

Valve, Overhead: See "Overhead Valve". 

Valve, Poppet: See "Poppet Valve". 

Valve, Rotary: See "Motor, Rotary Valve"- 

Valve, Suction: An admission valve which 
is opened by the difference between the pres- 
sures in the atmosphere and in the cylinder. 

Valve Cage: A valve-retaining pocket which 
is attached to the cylinder. 

Valve Clearance: The clearance of play 
between the valve stem and the tappet. 

Valve Gear: The mechanism by which the 
motion of the admission or exhaust valve is 
controlled. 

Valve Grinding: The act of removing marks 
of corrosion, pitting, etc., from the seats and 
faces of poppet or disk valves. The surfaces 
to be ground are rotated in contact with each 
other, an abrasive having been supplied. 

Valve Lift: See "Lift". 

Valve Lifter: A device for raising a poppet 

valve from its seat. 
Valve Seat: (1) That>portion of the engine 

upon which the valve rests when it is closed. 

(2) The portion upon which the face of a 

valve is in contact when closed. 
Valve Setting: The operation of adjusting 

the valves of an engine so that the events of 

the cycle occur at the proper time. Also 

called valve timing. 
Valve Spring: The spring which is around 

the valve stem and is used to return the 



valve to closed position after it has been 
opened by the cam: 

Valve Stem : The rod-like portion of a poppet 
valve. *~*rwr- 

Valve Timing: See "Valve Setting". 

Vaporizer: A device to vaporise the fuel for 
an oil engine. In starting it is necessary to 
heat the vaporizer, but the exhaust gaae* 
afterwards keep it at the proper tempera- 
ture. The carbureter of the gas engine 
properly belongs under the general head of 
vaporizer, but the term has become restricted 
to the vaporiser for oil engines. 

Variable-Speed Device: See "Gear, Change- 
Speed". 

Vertical Motor: An upright engine whose 
piston travel is in a vertical plane. 

Vibrator: The part of the primary circuit of 
a jump-epark ignition system by which the 
circuit is rapidly interrupted to give a trans- 
former effect in the coil. 

Vibrator, Master: See "Master Vibrator". 

Volatile: Passing easily from a liquid to a 
gaseous state, in opposition to fixed. 

Volatilization: Evaporation of liquids upon 
exposure to the air at ordinary temperatures. 

Volt: Practical unit of electromotive force - 
such an electromotive force as would cause 
a current of one ampere to flow through a 
resistance of one ohm. 

Voltammeter: A voltmeter and an ammeter 
combined; sometimes refers to wattmeter. 

Voltmeter: An instrument for measuring 
the difference of electric potential between 
the terminals of an electric circuit. It 
registers the electric pressure in volts. 

Vulcanization: The operation of combining 
sulphur with rubber at a high temperature 
either to make it soft, pliable, and elastic, or 
to harden it. 

Vulcanizer: A furnace for the vulcanisation 
of rubber. 

W 

Walking Beam: See "Rocker Arm". 

Water Cooling: Method of removing the 
heat of an internal-combustion motor from 
the cylinders by means of a circulation of 
water between the cylinders and the outer 
casing. 

Wa ,5 er . Gage: An instrument used to indicate 
the height of water within a boiler or other 
water system. It consists of a glass tube 
connected at its upper and lower ends with 
the water system. 

Water Jacket: A casing placed about the 
cylinder of an internal-combustion engine to 
permit a current of water to flow around it 
for cooling purposes. 

Watt: The unit of electric power. It is the 
product of the current in amperes flowing in 

a circuit by the pressure in volts. It is -— 

74d 
of a horsepower. 
Watt Hour: The unit of electrical energy. 
The given watt-hour capacity of a battery, 
for instance, means the ability of a battery 
to furnish one watt for the given number of 
hours or the given number of watts for one 
hour, or a number of watts for a number of 
hours such that their product will be the 
given watt hours. 

Welding, Autogeneous: A method of joining 
two pieces of metal by melting by means of a 



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GLOSSARY 



27 



blow torch burning acetylene in an atmos- 
phere of oxygen. This melts the ends of the 
parts and these are then run together. 
Wheel, Artillery: A wood-spoked wheel 
whose spokes are in line with a line drawn 
vertically through the hub. 
Wheel, Dished: A wheel made concave or 
convex so that the hub is inside or outside as 
compared with the rim. This is to counter- 
act the outward inclination of the wheel due 
to the fact that the spindle is tapered and 
that its outward center is lower than its 
inner center. 
Wheel, Double-Interacting: The mecha- 
nism by which two wheels are hung on one 
hub or axle, the outer being shod with an 
ordinary solid tire and the inner with a 
pneumatic tire, so that the weight of the 
vehicle bears against the lowest point of the 
pneumatic tire of the inner wheel to give the 
durability and tractive properties of a solid 
tire with the resiliency of a pneumatic. 
Wheel, Spare: See "Spare Wheel". 
Wheel Steering: See "Steering Wheel". 
Wheel, Wire: A wheel with spokes made of 

wire. 
Wheel Puller: A device used for pulling 

automobile wheels from their axles. 
Wheel Steer: A method of guiding a car by 

means of a hand wheel. 
Wheel, Steering Angle for: Tho angle 
which the steering column makes with the 
horizontal. It varies from 90° to 30° or less. 
Wheelbase: The distance between the road 
contact of one rear wheel with the point of 
road contact of the front wheel on the same 
side. 
Wheels, Driving on All Four: The method 
of using all four wheels of an automobile aa 
the driving wheels. 
Wheels, Driving on Front: The method of 

using the two front wheels as the drivers. 
Wheels, Steering on Rear: Method of 
guiding the vehicle by turning the rear 
wheels. 



Whistle: An automobile accessory consisting 
of a signalling apparatus giving a loud or 
harsh sound. Also called a horn. 

Wind Guard: See "Wind Shield". 

Wind Shield: A glass front placed upright 
on the dash to protect the occupants of the 
car from the wind. 

Wipe Spark: Form of primary sparking 
device in which a spark is produced by a 
moving terminal sliding over another ter- 
minal, the break thus made causing a spark. 
Also called touch spark. 

Wipe-Spark Coil: A primary spark coil 
with which the spark is made by wiping 
contact. 

Wire Drawing: The effect of steam passing 
through a partially closed valve or other 
constricted opening; so called from the thin- 
ness of the indicator diagram. 

Working Pressure: The safe working pres- 
sure of a boiler, usually estimated as ft of 
the pressure at which a boiler will burst. 

Worm : A helical screw thread. 

Worm and Sector: A worm gear in which 

the worm wheel is not complete but is only 

a sector. Used especially in steering 

devices. 
Worm Drive: A form of drive using worm 

gears. See "Gears, Worm". 
Worm Gear: The spiral gear in which a 

worm or screw is used to rotate a wheel. 
Worm Wheel: A wheel rotated by a worm. 
Wrist Pin: See "Piston Pin". 



X Spring: A vehicle spring composed of two 
laminated springs so placed one upon the 
other that they form the letter X. 



Yorke, Steering: See "Steering Yoke" 



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REVIEW QUESTIONS 



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REVIEW QUESTIONS 

ON THE SUBJECT OF 

ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

PART I 



1. Why is the Edison battery of special interest? 

2. What are the advantages of a series-wound motor? 

3. Why is the electric automobile essentially a pleasure vehicle? 

4. Give a description of the construction of the Edison nega- 
tive plate. 

5. Describe the drum type of controller. 

6. What is the standard unit for measuring the capacity of 
a storage cell? 

7. What is the strongest recommendation for an electric car? 

8. Make a control wiring diagram. 

9. Give a short description of the Arrol-Johnston electric car. 

10. Describe the positive plate of the Ironclad Exide type. 

11. What are the essentials of an electric motor? 

12. State the advantages of worm-gear transmission. 

13. What is the office of a shunt? 

14. Of what is a battery composed? 

15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Edison 
storage batteries? 

16. How is counter-e.m.f. developed in an electric motor? 

17. What is the office of a fuse? 



391 

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Googk 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

ON THE SUBJECT OF 

ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

PART II 



1. At what temperature will an electrolyte freeze which has 
a specific gravity of 1.210? 

2. What parts of an electric motor are subject to wear? 

3. Which is the corresponding specific gravity for 30° Baume? 

4. What is one of the commonest ways of abusing a battery? 

5. By what is the power of an electric vehicle limited? 

6. What is the lowest limit to which a battery could be dis- 
charged? 

7. Describe the Fritchle Milostat. 

8. Why are solid rubber tires adaptable to electric cars? 

9. What should be the specific gravity of the electrolyte when 
fully charged? 

10. Describe the automatic charge-stopping device. 

11. The price of one kilowatt of electricity for charging storage 
batteries is 7 cents; what will 76,560 watts cost? 

12. State the constituents of the electrolyte and their pro- 
portion. 

13. State the cause of low battery power. 

14. Discuss the danger of overcharging. 

15. What are the dangers of sulphating and how can we guard 
against it? 

16. Describe the different steps necessary in starting an electric 
car. 

17. State the most important point to be observed in the care 
of the battery. 



392 



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REVIEW QUESTIONS 

ON THE SUBJECT OF 

STEAM AUTOMOBILES 



1. Define radiation, absorption, conduction, and convection. 

2. What is absolute zero? What molecular state does it 
theoretically represent? 

3. Discuss the location of the steam engine on automobiles. 

4. Convert 65 degrees Fahrenheit into centigrade. 

5. State Boyle's Law. 

6. Define force, work, power, and horsepower. 

7. Describe and sketch the action of an elementary slide 
valve. 

8. Define British thermal unit. 

9. Draw a theoretical indicator card for one-fourth cut-off. 

10. • Define latent heat. How many British thermal units are 
absorbed in boiling away a pound of water at atmospheric pressure? 

11. Discuss the effect of compression on the indicator card of 
an engine. 

12. Why is the explosion of a stationary boiler so destructive? 

13. Define superheat. What is its object? 

14. What is the purpose of condensers if used on steam cars? 

15. Describe and sketch the Stephenson link valve motion. 

16. Describe the Bunsen burner. 

17. What is the object of the pilot light? 

18. Describe the Ofeldt burner. 

19. How are automobile boilers classified? 

20. Explain the principles of the fire-tube boiler. 

21. In what way do flash boilers differ from the other types? 

22. For what purpose are check valves used; how are they 
constructed? 



393 



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REVIEW QUESTIONS 

ON THE SUBJECT OF 

COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



1. Classify commercial vehicles as to power used. 

2. State briefly the advantages of the electric. 

3. What methods of motor suspension are used on light shaft- 
driven delivery cars? 

4. Describe rear-axle construction of the 2-ton Commercial. 

5. What are the peculiar advantages of the Couple-Gear 
truck? 

6. What transmission is used on the Walker electric? 

7. Why are safety devices installed on most all up-to-date 
trucks? Describe action of the charging circuit-breaker. 

8. Where is the controller located in the Baker? 

9. How many plates are used per cell in light delivery wagons? 

10. What are the dimensions and horsepower of motor used on 
the Autocar delivery wagon? 

11. Give bore and stroke of motors used on the White 5-ton 
trucks; on the Pierce Arrow; on the Locomobile; on the Vulcan. 

12. What type of radiator is usually used on trucks; why is it 
used? 

13. Sketch the White sight-feed lubricating system. 

14. Explain the action of the Pierce centrifugal motor governor. 

15. Describe the Jeffery Quad. 

16. Explain the principle of compensating spring support. 



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GENERAL INDEX 



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GENERAL INDEX 



In this Index the Volume number appears in roman numerals — thus: 
I, II, III, IV, etc., and the Page number in Arabic numerals— thus: 
1, 2, 3, 4, etc. For example: Volume IV, Page 327, is written, IV, 327. 

The page numbers of this volume will be found at the bottom of the pages; 
the numbers at the top refer only to the section. 



Vol. Page 



A. C. rectifiers 


IV, 


241 


Accurate filing in automobile 






repair shop 


H, 


361 


draw filing 


H> 


362 


filing to a micrometer fit 


II, 


362 


revolving filing 


II, 


363 


use of safe edges 


II, 


361 


Accessories for gasoline truck 






motors 


V, 


304 


carburetors 


V, 


304 


cooling systems 


V, 


305 


ignition 


V, 


304 


lubrication 


V, 


307 


Action of storage cell on charge 


IV, 


195 


Action of storage cell on discharge IV, 


196 


Action of steering-gear wheels on 




turning 


II, 


13 


Adjusting annular bearings 


I, 


435 


Adjusting clutch pedals 


I, 


392 


Adjusting fans 


I, 


316 


Adjusting pumps 


I, 


317 


Adjusting spring hangers 


II, 


110 


Adjusting specific gravity of 






electrolyte 


IV, 


206 


Adjusting tension of valves 


I, 


271 


Adjustment of air and gasoline sup- 




ply in carburetors 


I, 


116 


auxiliary air valve 


I, 


117 


double carburetors for multi-c> 


lin- 




der motors 


I, 


121 


double-nozzle carburetors 


I, 


119 


multiple nozzle carburetors 


I, 


122 



Vol. Page 
Adjustment of air and gasoline sup- 
ply in carburetors 
(continued) 
nature of new developments in 

carburetors 
use of by-pass 
usual forms of auxiliary air-inlet 

valve 
Venturi-tube mixing chamber 
water-jacketing 
Adjustment of connecting-rod bear- 
ings 
babbitting bearings 
drilling thin shims 
kinks in adjusting-bearings 
mandrel for lapping 
special sleeve replaces shims 
Adjustment of carburetor nozzle 
Advance and retard ignition adjust- 
ments III 
adjust ing for time factor of coil III 
analysis of oscillograph 

diagrams 
calculation of small time allow- 
ance 
magneto timing 
Mca method of advancing 
spark 
Advantages of boosting in charging 

batteries V 

Advantages of electric transmission 

in motor trucks V, 335 



III 

III 
III 

III 



120 
120 

117 
118 
116 

79 
79 
82 
79 
82 
81 
210 

139 
140 

144 

140 
142 

145 

108 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 



Advantages of oxy-acetylene wcld- 



Vol. Page 
Automatic engagement devices for 



ing process 


IV, 


403 


electric starters 






Air-cooling system for motors 


I, 


314 


(continued) 






air jackets 


I, 


315 


Bendix drive III, 


309 


,348 


blowers and fans 


I, 


315 


Bosch-Rushmore type 


III, 


309 


flanges or fins 


I, 


314 


Automatically timed systems 


III, 


14$ 


internal cooling and scavenging I, 


315 


. Eisemann centrifugal-governor 






Air leaks in manifold of motor- 






type 


III, 


149 


cycle 


IV, 


390 


Herz ball-governor tyj>e 


III, 


150 


Air-supply system for public 






Automobile boilers for steam cars V, 


232 


garages 


n, 


338 


flash boilers 


v, 


237 


Alignment of front wheels 






special types 


v, 


230 


troublesome 


n, 


69 


water-tube boilers 


v, 


234 


Ammeter, typical 


iv, 


114 


Auto-tractor 


v, 


352 


Ammeter and dash lamp 


IV, 


138 


Auxiliary air valve of carburetor 


I, 


117 


Ampere-hour meter 


V, 


163 


Avery tractor 


v, 


35S 


methods of use 


V, 


164 


Axle bearings 


II, 


67 


readjusting meter 


V, 


164 


ball bearings 


II, 


6S 


types of instruments 


V, 


169 


classification 


11, 


67 


Analysis of motorcycle 






roller bearings 


II, 


68 


mechanisms 


IV, 


343 


Axle carrying load and drive 


II, 


150 


Anti-freezing solutions 


i, 


313 








Apparatus for simple welding job IV, 


414 


B 






Arbor presses and gear pullers 


n, 


411 






Arc welder 






Back-firing 


IV, 


424 


apparatus 


iv, 


413 


Back-kick releases 


III, 


312 


graphite electrode 


iv, 


413 


Ball and Ball carburetor 


I, 


163 


metallic electrode 


iv, 


413 


adjustments 


I, 


165 


Architectural appearance of public 




pick-up device 


I, 


165 


garage 


ii, 


323 


Ball bearings I, 348 


; ii, 


68 


Armature of electric vehicle motor V, 


54 


Basis of classification of springs 


ii, 


96 


Armature troubles 


V, 


54 


adjusting spring hangers 


ii, 


110 


Armature windings 


in, 


48 


cantilever 


ii, 


100 


Atwater-Kent ignition system 


in, 


182 


full elliptic 


ii, 


98 


Auburn-Delco starter 


in, 


334 


Hotchkiss drive 


ii, 


102 


Autocar gasoline delivery wagon 


V, 


295 


platform 


ii, 


99 


Auto-Lite starting and lighting 






semi-elliptic 


ii, 


97 


system 


in, 


346 


shackles and spring horns 


ii, 


110 


Automatic battery cut-out 


in, 


296 


spring construction and 






Adlake type 


in, 


297 


materials 


ii, 


112 


Ward-Leonard type 


in, 


297 


spring lubrication 


ii, 


111 


Automatic gear-cutting machines I, 


423 


spring troubles and remedies 


ii, 


112 


Automatic charge-stopping devit 


e 




three-quarter elliptic 


ii, 


98 


for batteries 


V, 


99 


unconventional types 


ii, 


103 


Automatic engagement devices for 




varying methods of attaching 






electric starters 


III, 


309 


springs 


ii, 


108 


Auto-Lite type 


III, 


309 


Battery cut-out III, 350; 


iv, 


9i 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



398 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 

Battery equipment for electric cars V, 282 

Bearing scraping II, 360 

Bearings I, 86, 344 

ball bearings I, 348 

blearing wear I, 87 

combined radial and thrust 

bearings I, 351 

crankshaft pounding I, 88 

holding for bearing caps I, 89 

plain bearings I, 345 

roller bearings I, 346 

test for tightness I, 88 
types of bearings required for 

different locations I, 344 
Becker gear-cutting machine I, 438 
Bench work II, 353 
bearing scraping II, 366 
chipping and filing II, 355 
cutting gears II, 406 
drilling II, 382 
filing methods II, 357 
fitting piston rings II, 373 
fitting taper pins II, 393 
forging II, 401 
hand keyseating II, 394 
lapping cylinders II, 379 
miscellaneous bench methods II, 410 
reaming II, 389 
rebabbitting bearings II, 364 
riveting II, 396 
soldering II, 371 
tapping II, 385 
use of micrometers II, 377 
work bench design II, 353 
work vises II, 354 
Bending oil pipes I, 343 
Bennett carburetor I, 197 
adjustment I, 200 
installation I, 199 
kerosene modified adjustments I, 200 
Bent needle- valve stem I, 207 
Bevel gears I, 442 
Bevel type friction disc trans- 
mission I, 416 
Bijur starting and lighting system III, 355 
Bilgram gear-planing machine I, 441 
Blacksmi thing repair outfit II, 402 



Vol. Page 

Blowouts in tire repair II, 261 

inside and outside method II, 263 

inside repair method II, 262 

Boiler accessories and regulation 

in steam cars V, 240 

check valves V, 240 

Doble V, 249 

fuel system V, 240 

Ofeldt V, 251 
Stanley fuel, water and steam 

systems V, 241 

Boiler and engine types V, 200 

Boosting in charging batteries V, 108 

advantages of V, 108 

methods of V, 111 

possible safe charging rates V, 110 

regulation of boosting charge V, 109 

Boring II, 426 

Bosch-Rushmore starting and 

lighting system III, 372 

Boyle's law V, 204 

Brake adjustment on gasoline cars II, 181 

Brake lubrication on gasoline cars II, 181 

Brake linings II, 396 

riveting lining II, 306 

types of rivets II, 396 

Brake troubles and repairs II, 185 

dragging brakes II, 185 

dummy brake drum useful II, 186 

eliminating noises II, 188 

stretching brake lining II, 188 

stopping brake chattering II, 186 

truing brake drums II, 180 

Brakes II, 172; IV, 361; V, 287, 339 

brake adjustment II, 181 

brake lubrication II, 181 

brake troubles and repairs II, 185 

braking all wheels V, 340 

classification II, 173 

double brake drum for safety II, 178 

electric brakes II, 181 

external-contracting brakes II, 173 

function of brake II, 172 

hydraulic brakes II, 182 

internal-expanding brakes II, 174 

methods of brake operation II, 178 

recent developments II, 181 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



399 



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Google 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 



Brakes (continued) 






usual types 


V, 


339 


vacuum brakes 


11, 


183 


Braking on all wheels 


v, 


340 


British thermal unit 


v, 


206 


Brown and Sharpe gear-cutting 






machine 


I, 


437 


Browne-Branford carburetor 


I, 


144 


Browne carburetor 


I, 


142 


Brushes and commutator of electric 




vehicle motor 


v, 


154 


Buick-Delco type of starter 


III, 


330 


Building materials for public 






garages 


II, 


321 


availability 


II, 


322 


fireproof 


II, 


322 


first cost 


II, 


321 


Burner principles 


v, 


227 


Bunsen burner 


v, 


227 



modifications for automobile 

work V, 227 

Burning hole in metal in welding IV, 431 

Bushing removers I, 66 



Cable and rope drives I, 416 
Cadillac carburetor I, 186 
Camber II, 63 
Cams I, 246 
Cantilever spring II, 100 
Capacity of battery IV, 197 
Capacity of condensers III, 39 
Carburetor operation and adjust- 
ments I, 122, 209 
Ball and Ball carburetor I, 163 
Bennett carburetor I, 197 
Browne-Branford carburetor I, 144 
Browne carburetor I, 142 
Cadillac carburetor I, 186 
carburetors on Ford cars I, 134 
Carter carburetor I, 182 
Deppe gas generator I, 204 
Edwards carburetor I, 149 
foreign kerosene carburetors I, 193 
"H. & N." duplex carburetor I, 201 
Holley carburetors I, 134, 137, 192 
Johnson carburetor I, 179 

Note. — For page number 8 tee foot of pages. 



Vol. Pap 

Carburetor operation and adjust- 
ments (continued) 
Kingston carburetors I, 134, 139 

Longuemare carburetor I, 151 

Marvel carburetor I, 169 

Master carburetor I, 148, 195 

need for heavy fuel carburetors I, 192 
Newcomb carburetor I, 166 

oxygenerator vaporizing device I, 189 
Packard carburetor I, 1S5 

Ray field carburetor I, 159 

Schebler carburetors I, 172 

Senrab carburetor I, 195 

Stewart carburetor I, 176 

Stromberg carburetors I, 122 

Sunderman safety carburetor I, 150 

"~ Webber automatic carburetor I, 155 
Zenith carburetors I, 127 

Carburetor troubles and remedies I, 206 
adjustment of nozzle I, 210 

bent needle-valve stem I, 207 

causes of misfiring I, 215 

cleaning the carburetor I, 212 

engine should start on first turn I, 206 
gasoline strainer a source of 

trouble I, 207 

pre-heating the air I, 214 

smallest detail important I, 213 

throttle loose on shaft I, 20S 

Carburetors I, 109; IV, 383, 388; V, 304 
classification of I, 111 

effect of heavier fuels I, 109 

floats I, 115 

on Ford cars I, 134 

function of I, 109 

needle valves I, 114 

throttle valves I, 113 

Carburetors and carburet ion I, 109 

adjustment of gasoline supply I, 116 
carburetor operation and adjust- 
ment I, 122 
carburetor troubles and remedies I, 206 
kerosene and heavy fuel car- 
buretors I, 192 

Care of storage battery IV, 200; V, 113 
a. c. rectifiers TV, 241 

adding acid IV, 201 



400 



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INDEX 



1 


Vol. 


Page 




Vol. 


Page 


3are of storage battery (continued) 




Carter carburetor 


I 


182 


adding distilled water 


IV 


200 


Cast aluminum welding 


IV 


471 


adjusting specific gravity 


IV 


206 


after-treatment 


IV, 


472 


charging from outside source 


IV 


237 


aluminum castings 


IV 


471 


charging in series for economy 


IV 


240 


pre-heating 


IV 


471 


cleaning battery IV, 219; V 


117 


preparation 


IV 


471 


cleaning repairs parts 


IV 


257 


welding process 


IV 


471 


complete renewal of battery 


V, 


127 


Cast axles 


II 


63 


detecting deranged cells 


IV, 


217 


Cast-iron welding 


IV, 


459 


equalizing charges necessary 


IV, 


239 


expansion and contraction 


IV, 


460 


gassing 


IV, 


209 


flux 


IV, 


461 


higher charge needed in cold 






general considerations 


IV, 


459 


weather 


IV, 


211 


oxidation 


IV, 


459 


how to take readings 


IV, 


217 


pre-heating 


IV, 


460 


hydrometer 


IV, 


201 


preparation of welds 


IV, 


462 


installing new battery 


IV, 


235 


welding process 


IV, 


463 


internal damage 


IV, 


216 


welding rods 


IV, 


460 


joint hydrometer and volt- 






Cast-steel wheels on gasoline com 






meter test 


IV, 


218 


mercial cars 


II, 


207 


lead burning 


IV, 


229 


Causes of ignition failure 


III, 


202 


methods of charging 


IV, 


240 


failure of current to supply 


III, 


203 


miscellaneous operations 


V, 


139 


short-circuits 


III, 


202 


motoi>generator 


IV, 


241 


weak magnets 


III, 


203 


overhauling battery 


IV, 


223 


Causes of boiler explosions 


V, 


209 


putting battery out of commis 


- 




Causes of low battery power 


V, 


147 


Bion 


V, 


137 


Causes of misfiring in engine 


I, 


215 


replacing jar 


IV, 


220 


bent float spindle 


I, 


216 


restoring sulphated battery 


IV, 


214 


carburetion and fuel 


I, 


215 


specific gravity too high 


IV, 


215 


leaky float 


I, 


216 


storing battery 


IV, 


235 


obstructed spraying nozzle 


I, 


216 


sulphating 


IV, 


212 


Causes of variations in ratings of 






temperature variations in 






truck motors 


V, 


301 


voltage test 


IV, 


218 


Cell types, general characteristics 


» v, 


41 


to test rate of charge 


IV, 


249 


Centrifugal type of motor governor V, 


309 


to test rate of discharge 


IV 


246 


Central location for public garage 


II, 


284 


voltage tests 


IV, 


253 


Chain drive 


V 


60 


why starting is harder in cold 






for camshafts 


I, 


278 


weather 


IV 


244 


Chain-driven Genemotor 


IV 


100 


Care of burner on steam cars 


V, 


261 


mounting starter 


IV 


100 


Care of engine bearings 


V 


260 


operation 


IV 


104 


Care and operation of electrics 


V 


87 


wiring 


IV 


103 


care of battery 


V 


113 


Changes in construction of manifold I 


222 


charging battery 


V, 


87 


Changing tires, gasoline cars 


II 


218 


electric indicating instruments 






interchangeable Continental 






and their uses 


V 


163 


tires 


II 


220 


some sources of power loss 


V, 


150 


interchangeable Michelin tires 


II 


219 


tires and mileage 


V, 


156 


possible tire changes 


II 


219 


Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 














401 





Vol. 
V 
V 
V 
IV 
V 



Charging battery 

boosting 

method of 

outside source 

sources of charging current 
Charging an Edison battery 
Charging process after washing 

battery 
Charging rate of batteries 
Chassis group 

characteristics of parts 

frames 

shock absorbers 

springs 
Checking up Ford axles 
Chemical effect of current 
Check valves 
Chemical action on charging 

battery plate 
Chemical sources of current 

primary -batteries 

storage cells 
Chevrolet-Auto-Lite starting and 

lighting type III 

Chipping and filing in automobile 
repair 

chipping 

chisels 

chisel types 
Circuit-breaker III, 298, 

Circuits III, 21 



V 
V 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
III 
V ; 

V 
III 
III 
III 



multiple or shunt circuit 

Series circuit 

series-multiple circuit 
Circulation, water 

Cadillac system 

pumps 

thermosiphon 
Classification of 

axle bearings 

carburetors 

connecting-rod troubles 

engine operation principles 

final drive 

gasoline automobiles 

generators 

pneumatic tires 



III 
III 
III 

I 
I 



II 



IV 

V 

II 

III 

II 



INDEX 

Page Vol. Page 

87 Classification of (continued) 

108 rear axles II, 149 

93 tire troubles II, 260 

237 types of front axles II, 57 « 

87 Cleaning I, 316 

107 aluminum I, 98 

camshaft gears I, 284 

121 carburetor I, 212 

96 chains IV, 396 

74 cylinder after grinding in 

74 automobile repair II, 382 

75 files in automobile repair shop II, 363 
115 repair parts IV, 257 

96 transmission gears I, 428 

171 Cleaning and fitting connecting-rod 

29 bearings II, 367 

240 cleaning parts II, 367 

cutting-in bearing II, 368 

25 filing shims II, 368 

96 scraping process II, 368 

96 Cleaning or washing a battery V, 117 

97 charging process after washing 

battery V, 121 

334 materials to have on hand V, 119 

replacing a defective jar V, 123 

355 treating the plates V, 119 

357 washing or renewing separators 

355 and assembly cells V, 120 

356 Clearances in reamer teeth II, 391 
337 Clincher rims for gasoline car 

43 wheels II, 222 
23 Clutch accessibility I, 384 
21 Clutch adjustment I, 384 
23 Clutch bearings I, 383 

307 Clutch facings II, 397 
310 preparing leather II, 397 

308 proper clutch leathers II, 397 
310 putting leather on clutch II, 397 

riveting process II, 397 

67 Clutch group I, 17, 365 

111 friction disc I, 415 

75 individual clutch I, 409 

345 miscellaneous types I, 416 

318 planetary gears I, 413 

173 sliding gear I, 395 

44 transmission troubles and repair* I, 423 
213 types of clutches I, 365 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



402 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX 





Vol. Page 


Clutch pedals 


I, 381 


Clutch spinning 


I, 389 


Clutch and transmission 


V, 312 


clutches 


V, 312 


transmission 


V, 312 


Clutch trouble and remedies 


I, 384 


cork inserts 


I, 389 


failure of clutch to take hold 


I, 394 


fierce clutch 


I, 388 


Ford clutch troubles 


I, 388 


handling clutch springs 


I, 387 


loss of power 


I, 393 


lubricating multiple-disc clutches I, 393 


multiple-disc clutches failing 


to 


hold 


I, 393 


replacing clutch leathers 


I, 385 


slipping clutch 


I, 384 


spinning 


I, 389 


throwing in clutch 


I, 393 


troubles outside of clutch 


I, 393 



Clutches III, 310; IV, 364; V, 312 

cone type V, 312 

loss of power in I, 393 

lubrication of I, 382 

multiple-disc type V, 312 

necessity for disengaging devicelll, 310 
operation, methods of I, 380 

requirements applying to all I, 365 
roller type III, 312 

Coefficient of expansion IV, 436 

Coil spring absorber II, 117 

combinations II, 118 

double-coil-spring types II, 119 

springs alone II, 117 

Coils and vibrators III, 100 

complication of multi-vibrator III, 101 
function of the coil III, 100 

master vibrator III, 101 

necessity for vibrator III, 100 

non-vibrator coil III, 102 

Cold-riveting metals II, 398 

Combinations for firing order III, 155 
Combined radial and thrust bear- 
ings I, 351 
Commercial vehicles V, 265 



classification 



V, 267 



Commercial vehicles (continued) 
construction of frames II 
electric vehicles V, 
gasoline vehicles V, 
Commercial-car wheels on gasoline 
cars II 
cast-steel wheels II 
miscellaneous wheel types II 
modern status of spring wheel II 
requisites II. 
wheel troubles and repairs II 
wood wheels II 
Commutator maintenance III 
Commutators III 
Complete renewal of battery V 
burning groups V 
dismantling the battery V, 
initial charge V, 
materials needed V, 
reassembling the cells V, 
recharge V, 
test discharge V, 
Condenser III 
Conduction V, 
Conductors III 
Cone clutch I 
Connecticut battery system III 
Connecting rods * I 
bearings I 
design characteristics I 
troubles and repairs I 
Connecting welding apparatus IV 
Constant-current generator III 
Constant-potential generators III 
Construction of motorcycles IV. 
brakes IV, 
clutches IV 
drive IV 
electrical equipment IV 
gearsets, or change-speed mecha- 
nisms IV, 
lubrication IV 
motors IV 
regulation IV 
spring and frame construction IV, 
starting IV, 



Vol. Page 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



403 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 



INDEX 



Vol. I 
Construction and action of typical 

. cell " y, 

chemical action on charging 

plate V, 

discharge V, 

efficiency of storage cell V, 

electrolyte V, 

forming the plate V, 

general description V, 

process of charging V, 

restoring a sulphated battery V, 
sulphating V, 

Construction and efficiency of cell 

plates V, 

containers for the cell V, 

life of the cell V, 

measurement of capacity V, 

rate of discharge V, 

safe discharge point for plates V, 

Contact makers or timers III, 

Atwater-Kent interrupter III, 

roller contact timer III, 

Containers for cell V, 

Contracting-band clutch I, 

Control of starting and lighting 

systems III, 301; IV 



battery cut-out IV, 76, 

controller V, 

counter e.m.f. V, 

electric brake V, 

fuses V 

methods of V 

office of shunt V, 

planetary gear IV, 

Splitdorf system IV, 

switch IV, 

transmission IV, 

Wagner system IV, 

Westinghouse system IV, 
Controller for electric vehicles V, 70, 

care of V, 

drum type V, 

duplex control V, 

flat radial type V, 

flush type V, 

Note.— For page number 8 see foot of pages. 



'age 

13 

25 
27 
28 
14 
24 
13 
26 
31 
29 

34 
41 
38 
35 
36 
36 
99 
99 
99 
41 
368 

83 
83 
70 
69 
84 
84 
78 
82 
78 
56 
75 
75 
83 
89 
282 
77 
70 
77 
72 
74 



Vol. Page 
Convection V, 202 

Cooling systems for gasoline 

motors I, 300; V, 305 



adjusting fans 

adjusting pumps 

air cooling 

circulating apparatus 

cleaning 

fans 

radiator construction 

replacements 

washing 

water cooling 
Copper welding 

after-treatment 

general considerations 

reparation 

welding 
Cork inserts in brakes 
Counter-e.m.f. 
Crankcases 

arms and engine supports 

construction 

materials 

modern tendencies in design 

oil for 

troubles and remedies , 
Crankshaft bearings 
Crankshaft lapping 
Curing excessive lubrication 
Curing noisy tappet 
Current and current control on 
electric cars 
battery equipment 
brakes 
controller 
safety devices 
tires 
Cut-outs, muffler 
Cutting blowpipe 
Cutting gears in repair work 
Cutting valve-key slots 
Cyclemotor 

Cycles of engine operation 
Cylinder heads 
Cylinder repairs 



I, 316 

I, 317 

I, 314 

V, 307 

I, 316 

V, 306 

V, 305 

I, 316 

I, 316 

I, 300 

IV, 472 

IV, 474 

IV, 472 

IV, 473 

IV, 473 
I, 389 

V, 69 
I, 94 
I, 97 
I, 95 
I, 97 
I, 96 
I, 343 
I, 98 
I, 85 
I, 93 
I, 70 
I, 266 

V, 282 
V, 282 
V, 287 
V, 282 
V, 285 
V, 287 

I, 300 

IV, 478 

II, 406 

I, 272 

IV, 334 

.•I, 21 

I, 49 

I, 41 



404 



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Google 



INDEX 



D 
Dangers of overcharging 
Dayton motorcycle 
Defects in welds 
Delco instructions 
adjusting third brush 



Vol. Page 

V, 105 
IV, 334 
IV, 432 
III, 402 
III, 403 
commutator maintenance III, 414 

general instructions III, 402 

seating brushes 111, 412 

testing armatures III, 415 

testing circuit breaker III, 411 

testing cut-outs III, 408 

testing field coils III, 420 

tests of wiring III, 405 

Delco starting and lighting 

system III, 191, 381 

earlier model interrupter III, 192 

ignition relay III, 195 

instructions III, 402 

interrupter for higher-speed 

engines III, 196 

six-volt; single-unit; single-wire III, 381 

six- volt; two-unit; single-wire III, 397 

timer with resistance unit III, 193 

Deposits of carbon in cylinder I, 45 

Deppe gas generator I, 204 

Development of steam engines V, 197 

Dies in repair work II, 388 

Differential lock V, 329 

Dimming devices III, 325 

Disc clutch I, 370 

Discharge V, 27 

Disco starting and lighting 

system III, 425 

Dismounting motor for repair II, 360 
Distributor III, 103 

Dixie magneto III, 122 

Doble steam car V, 222, 249 

lubrication V, 250 

steaming test V, 250 

Double brake drum for safety on 

gasoline automobiles II, 178 
Double spark ignition III, 134 

Dragging brakes on gasoline cars II, 185 
Drainage of public garages II, 334 

Drill presses II, 418 

function of II, 418 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Drill presses (continued) 
lubrication in drilling 
met hod of act ion 
securing work 

Drilling hard metals 



Vol. Page 

II, 420 
II, 419 
II, 420 
II, 411 

Drilling in modern repair shop II, 382 

grinding drills II, 384 

lubrication II, 385 

sizes of drills II, 384 

speed of drills II, 385 

types of drills II, 382 

Drive for motorcycles IV, 362 

belt drive . IV, 362 

chain drive IV, 363 

shaft drive IV, 363 

Drop forged axles II, 64 

Dry bearings V, 153 

Dual ignition system III, 128 

Bosch type III, 128 

details of typical distributor III, 131 

Rerny type III, 130 

typical wiring diagram III, 132 

Duplex ignition system III, 133 

Dynamotor connections IV, 48 

Dynamotors III, 61, 381 

Disco type III, 425 

Dyneto type III, 425 

North East type IV, 20 

Simms-Huff type IV, 47 

Splitdorf type IV, 55 

Wagner type IV, 75 

West inghouse type IV, 89 

E 

Early motorcycles IV, 327 

Edison battery V, 48 

advantages and disadvantages V, 50 

composition of plate V, 48 

size of battery V, 51 

Edison cell not available IV, 200 

Edwards carburetor I, 149 

Effect of compression on indicator 

card V, 214 
Effect of high pressure and early 

cut-off V, 215 

Efficacy of storage cell V, 28 



405 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 



INDEX 



Electric automobiles 
essential features of 
similarity of types 

Electric brakes 

Electric circuit 

Electric delivery wagon 



Vol. Page 
V, 11 
V, 11 
V, 12 
II, 84; V, 84 
III, 13 
V, 269 



current and current control V, 282 

design of V, 270 

general specifications V, 269 

motive power V, 271 

Electric drive I, 418; II, 55 

Electric gearshaft IV, 182 

Electric horns III, 319 

Electric indicating instruments V, 163 

ampere-hour meter V, 163 

volt-ammeter V, 163 

Electric motor principles III, 57 

Electric starting and lighting 

system III, 281; IV, 11 

Electric tractors V, 287 

Electric transmission I, 419; V, 335 

advantages V, 335 

several systems V, 336 

Electric trucks 

characteristics of chassis V, 291 
classification V, 291 
Electric vehicles V, 267 
electric delivery wagon V, 269 
electric trucks V, 291 
special forms of V, 287 
Electrical devices, inherent weak- 
ness of III, 11 
Electrical equipment IV, 367 
automatic switches IV, 369 
development from battery 

current IV, 367 
electric starting and lighting 

systems HI, 281 
elementary electrical principles III, 12 
ignition III, 91 
magneto generators IV, 369 
Electrical pressure III, 14 
Electrical principles III, 12 
Electrical troubles IV, 398 
care of brushes IV, 398 
lubrication of electrical equip- 
ment requires care IV, 398 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Electrical troubles (continued) 

short-circuits and open circuits IV, 39S 
storage batteries IV, 39S 

Electrically operated gears I, 407 

Electrolyte V, 14, 104 

adjusting specific gravity V, IS 

determination of strength of acid V, 15 
purity of acid and water V, 15 

replacing evaporation or other 

losses V, 17 

temperature correction V, 15 

Electromagnets • III, 32 

Elementary dynamo III, 44 

Elementary slide valve V, 212 

Elevator vs. ramps for large size 

garage II, 302 

Elliott type of front axle II, 58 

Emery paste for lapping work II, 381 
Engine cylinders IV, 496 

Engine group I, 13 

carburetion sub-group I, 13 

cooling system I, 15 

cylinder and crankshaft sub- 
group I, 13 
exhaust system I, 15 
flywheel I, 17 
ignition system I, 15 
inlet and exhaust valves I, 15 
lighting system I, 17 
lubrication system I, 16 
starting system I, 16 
Engine lubrication V, 256 
Engine troubles I, 25 
Engine types and details on 

steam ears V, 221 

Doble V, 222 

National V, 226 

Stanley V, 221 

Evolution of motorcycle IV, 325 

Exhaust-valve setting I, 263 

Expanding band clutch I, 369 

Expansion and contraction in 

welding IV, 408, 436, 

446, 453, 460, 468 
External-contracting brakes II, 173 

External lubrication I ; 332 



406 



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INDEX 



11 



Vol. Page 



Vol. Page 



Four-wheel driving, steering, and 



Fans 


I, 


312 


braking 




II 


48 


Faulty ignition cause of trouble 


III, 


91 


Four-wheel steering arrangement 


II 


49 


Fellows gear shaper 


I, 


438 


Frames 


11, 75, 


IV 


487 


Field magnets 


III, 


50 


bracing methods 




11 


95 


forms of 


III, 


56 


classes of 




11 


76 


permanent field used in mag- 






effect on springs 




II 


79 


neto 


III, 


50 


general characteristics 




II 


75 


self-excited fields 


III, 


53 


presscd-steel 




II 


78 


Fierce clutch 


I, 


388 


rigid 




II 


79 


Filing methods in automobile 






sub-frames 




II 


79 


repair 


II, 


357 


tendency in design 




II 


77 


Final drive 


V, 


317 


troubles and repair 




11 


81 


classification 


V, 


318 


types of 




II 


81 


differential lock 


V, 


329 


Friction disc 




I 


415 


double-reduction live axle 


V, 


326 


Frictional plate shock absorber 


11 


116 


four-wheel drives 


V, 


332 


Front axles 




II 


57 


front drives 


V, 


330 


bearings 




II 


67 


internal gear-driven axle 


V, 


326 


materials 




11 


63 


side-chain drive 


V, 


318 


troubles and repairs 




II 


69 


worm drive 


V, 


321 


types 




II 


57 


Fire-tube boilers 


V, 


232 


Front drives 




V 


330 


fusible plug 


V, 


233 


early development 




V 


330 


Stanley 


V, 


232 


electric front drive 




V 


330 


Firing-up 


V, 


254 


Fuel feeding 




I 


223 


Fisher Ford starter 


IV, 


142 


Fuel supply 




I 


223 


battery and wiring 


IV, 


145 


Fuel system 


1,230 


;v 


240 


mounting starting unit 


IV, 


143 


Fuels and burners for steam cars 


V 


226 


operating instructions 


IV, 


147 


burner principles 




V 


227 


preparing engine 


IV, 


142 


gasoline and kerosene as fuels 


V 


226 


Finish filings 


11, 


395. 


pilot light 




V 


228 


Firing orders 


III, 


153 


types of burners 




V 


228 


Fitting piston rings II, 


373 


,376 


Fuels and oils for public 


garages 


11 


336 


Fitting taper pins 


II, 


393 


Full elliptic springs 




II 


98 


Flash boilers 


V, 


237 


Full floating axle 




11 


154 


Floats 


1, 


115 


Fuses III, 


317, 339 


;v 


84 


Flooding of carburetor 


I, 


217 


Fusible plug 




V 


256 


Flux for welding IV, 


109 


, 461 










Flywheel characteristics 


I, 


351 


G 








Flywheel markings 


I, 


260 








Ford clutch troubles 


I, 


388 


Garage furniture 




ii 


339 


Ford magneto 


III, 


134 


Garage tools 




ii 


345 


Ford planetary type 


I, 


414 


Gases 




IV 


403 


Ford steering gear 


11, 


31 


Gasoline automobiles 




ii 


11 


Foreign kerosene carburetors 


I, 


193 


chassis group 




ii 


74 


Forming battery plate 


V, 


24 


final-drive group 




ii 


137 


Four-wheel drives 


V, 


332 


steering gears 




ii 


11 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



407 



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Google 



12 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 



Gasoline delivery wagons 


V, 


295 


Autocar 


v, 


295 


classification limits 


v, 


295 


White 


v, 


299 


Gasoline-driven traction engines 


v, 


343 


mechanical details 


v, 


343 


types 


v, 


347 


Gasoline pump 


v, 


261 


Gasoline strainer a source of trouble I, 


207 


Gasoline trucks 


v, 


300 


details of chassis and running 






gear 


v, 


338 


motor details 


v, 


301 


power transmission details 


v, 


312 


Gasoline vehicles 


v, 


295 


gasoline delivery wagons 


v, 


295 


gasoline-driven traction engines V, 


343 


gasoline trucks 


v, 


300 


trailers 


v, 


341 


Gasoline and kerosene as fuels 


v, 


226 


Gassing of battery electrolyte 


iv, 


209 


Gear cases 


I, 


97 


Gear drive 


v, 


61 


Gear pitch and faces 


I, 


447 


Gear pullers 


1, 


425 


Gear troubles 


I, 


447 


Gears 


I, 


435 


Gearsets 


IV, 


365 


Generator principles 


III, 


44 


Generator-starting motor 


iv, 


61 


Generator tests 


III, 


354 


Generators III, 347, 355, 372, 






397, 426, 430, 44fl 


i, IV 405 


Gleason gear planer 


I, 


439 


Gradual clutch release 


I, 


381 


Gravity feeding 


I, 


331 


Gray & Davis starting and light- 






ing systems 


iv, 


114 


adjusting cut-out 


111, 


447 


adjusting regulator 


111, 


449 


generator test chart 


III, 


442 


installation of Ford starter 


iv, 


114 


instructions for operating Ford 






starter 


iv, 


125 


six-volt; two-unit; single-wire 






system 


111, 


430 


starting-motor test chart 


III, 


446 



Vol. Page 
Gray & Davis starting and light- 
ing systems (continued) 
testing generator with am- 
meter on Ford 

starter IV, 127 

Grease cups I, 344 

Grinders II, 415 

Grinding drills in repair shop I, 384 

Grinding-out cylinder bore I, 51 

Grinding valves I, 272 

H 

" H. & N " duplex carburetor I, 201 
adjustments I, 203 
installation precautions I, 202 
starting I, 203 
Hand keyseating II, 394 
finish filings II, 395 
keyseating process II, 3&4 
Woodruff keys II, 396 
Hand tools for public garages II, 344 
Handling clutch springs I, 387 
Handling crankshaft in machines I, 91 
Handling expansion and contrac- 
tion in welding IV, 439 
heating confining members IV, 438 
heating entire casting IV, 438 
use of wedges IV, 438 
Handy spring tool I, 431 
Handy test set for electric circuit III, 340 
Hart-Parr tractor V, 349 
Headlight glare III, 324 
Heat treatment in automobile 

repair II, 403 

bonding rods II, 406 

hardening high-speed steel II, 405 

hardening steel II, 404 

self-hardening steel II, 405 

tempering steel II, 403 

Heating transformation V, 206 

Heat transmission V, 201 

conduction V, 202 

convection V, 202 

expansion V, 202 

radiation and absorption V, 202 

relative conductivity V, 202 

temperature scales V, 203 



Note. — For page numbers sec foot of pages. 



408 



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INDEX 



13 



Vol. 

Heat value of fuels V, 

Heat and work V, 

heat transformation V, 

heat transmission V 

laws of gases V, 

thermodynamics of steam V 

Heating effect of current III 

Heating for public garages II 

Heavy sheet-steel welding IV 

Heavy welding section IV, 

Heinze-Springfield starting and 

lighting system III 

Heinze-Springfield Ford starter IV 

Helical and herringbone gears I 

High-tension ignition system III 

High-tension magneto III 

Hoists and cranes for repair work I 

Holley carburetors I, 134, 137 

Holt caterpillar tractor V, 

Hot-riveting metals II, 

Hotchkiss drive II 
Hydraulic analogy for ignition 

system III, 

Hydraulic brakes for gasoline cars 1 1 

Hydraulic transmission I 

Janney-Williams I 

Manly I 

Hydrometer IV, 

frozen cells IV, 

low cells IV, 

tests IV, 

variations in readings IV 



I 

Ignition III, 91, 179 

fundamental ignition principles III, 91 

ignition, motorcycle IV, 383 

ignition setting point III, 151 
ignition system, fixed timing 

point III, 148 

ignition systems III, 128 

ignition systems on motor trucks V, 304 
ignition trouble eliminated by 

efficient devices III, 202 

modern battery ignition system III, 179 

sources of current III, 90 

spark timing III, 139 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Page Vol. Page 

206 Ignition (continued) 
201 standard types 

206 testing, adjustment and main- 

201 tenance 

204 Improper inflation of tires 
208 Improved forms of battery types 

28 Edison battery 

333 ironclad Exide type 

451 nature of improvements 

458 starting batteries 

Incandescent lamps 
449 Bosch type 

127 Mazda type 

443 tungsten and other filaments 

94 Indicator diagrams 
115 Individual clutch 

28 Induction 
, 192 Inductor-type magneto 
354 Industrial trucks 
398 Inherently controlled generator 
102 Inlet manifold 

design and construction 
109 troubles 

182 Inner tire tube repairs 
417 Inside tire casing forms 
417 Installation of Gray & Davis Ford 
417 starter 

201 battery 

205 final connections and adjust- 

206 ments 

203 mounting starter-generator 

204 preparing engine 
priming device 
remounting engine parts 
starting switch 

Installing battery IV, 

Installing special system for Ford 

cars 

Fisher 

Gencmotor 

Gray & Davis 

Heinze-Springfield 

North p;ast 

Splitdorf 

Westinghouse 
Interchangeable Continental tires II, 
Interchangeable Michclin tires II, 



III, 128 



III 

V 

V 

V 

V 

V 

V 

III 

III 

III 

III 

V 

I 

III 

III 

V 

in 

i 
i 

ii 
n 

IV 

iv 

IV 
IV 

iv 

IV 
IV 
IV 
137 

IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



409 



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Google 



14 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Interlocking devices I, 405 

Internal cooling and scavenging I, 315 
Internal-expanding brakes II, 174 

Internal-gear drive II, 153 

Internal gear-driven axle V, 326 

International tractor V, 347 

Ironclad Exide battery V, 43 

improved connectors V, 45 

negative plate V, 44 

positive plate V, 43 

separators V, 44 

Instructions 
Apperson starter equipment III, 368 
Dyneto starter III, 426, 429 

for connecting welding appara- 
tus IV, 422 
Gray & Davis Ford starter 

III, 439; IV, 125 
Heinze-Springfield system III, 452 

Hupp starter equipment III, 367 

Jeffery (Chesterfield six) equip- 
ment III, 366 
Leece-Neville system IV, 11 
North East system IV, 24 
Packard starter equipment III, 370 
Remy system IV, 42 
Scripps-Booth starter equip- 
ment III, 369 
Simms-Huff system IV, 52 
Splitdorf system IV, 161 
U. S. L. system . IV, 64 
Wagner system IV, 85 
Westinghousc system IV, 89 
Winton starter equipment III, 363 



Jacking-up troubles 


N, 


162 


Jeffery-Bijur starter 


in, 


337 


Jeffery "Quad" 


v, 


334 


Johnson carburetor 


I, 


179 


Johnson tractor 


v, 


352 



Joint hydrometer and voltmeter 

tests IV, 218, 255 



K 
Keyseating process 
Kingston carburetors 



II, 394 
I, 139 



Vol. Pago 
Kingston carburetors (continued) 

dual form , I, 140 

enclosed type I, 139 

model L I, 141 

Knight sleeve valves I, 286 

Knocking in engine I, 25 



Lamp voltage 


HI, 


322 


Lapping engine cylinders 


II, 


379 


cleaning after grinding 


II, 


382 


cleating down castings 


II, 


380 


emery paste 


II, 


381 


lapping by drill press 


II, 


381 


lapping by hand 


II, 


379 


proper fit for piston 


II, 


380 


worn cylinders 


II, 


379 


Large size garage 


II, 


302 


Latent heat 


v, 


208 


Lathe equipment 


II, 


423 


Lathe work 


II, 


424 


Lathes 


II, 


421 


Laws of gases 


v, 


2(H 



behavior with changes of tem- 
perature V, 205 
Boyle's law V, 2M 

Laws of magnetic attraction and 

repulsion III, 31 

Lead burning V, 139 

first method of burning V, 139 

hydrogen-gas outfit V, 143 

illuminating gas outfit V, 142 

second method of burning V, 140 

type of outfit V, 139 

use of forms to cover joint V, 140 

Leece-Neville starting and lighting 

system IV, 11 

Lemoine type of front axle II, 60 

Lighting III, 321 

dimming devices III, 325 

headlight glare III, 324 

incandescent lamps III, 321 

lamp voltage III, 322 

lighting batteries III, 322 

lighting of public garage II, 330 

reflectors III, 323 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



410 



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INDEX 



15 



Vol. Page 

Lines of magnetic force III, 35 

Longuemare carburetor I, 151 

adjustments I, 153 

changing choke tubes I, 155 

operation I, 152 

Loosening seized pistons I, 65 

Lost motion and backlash II, 35 

Low-tension magneto III, 113 

Lubrication IV, 359, 384; V, 307 

drilling II, 395, 420 

multiple disc clutches I, 393 

oil pumps IV, 359 

path of oil IV, 359 

steering-gear assembly II, 46 

transmission gears I, 434 

Lubrication troubles and remedies I, 339 

bending oil pipes I, 343 

care of lubricant in cold weather I, 339 

mammoth grease gun I, 339 

oil filtering outfit I, 342 

oil settling tanks I, 342 

oil tank and outfit for testing 

bearings I, 340 

M 

Machine tools for public garages II, 345 

drill press II, 346 

emery wheel or grinder II, 346 

grinding in lathe II, 348 

hack saw II, 346 

lathe II, 345 

lathe accessories II, 345 

milling in lathe II, 348 

utility of portable electric motor II, 349 

Machines and machine processes II, 411 

Machining crankcases I, 99 

Magnetic clutch I, 378 

Magnetic field III, 33 

Magnetism III, 30 

electromagnets III, 32 

laws of magnetic attraction 

and repulsion III, 31 

lines of magnetic force III, 35 

magnetic field III, 33 

magnetic substances III, 32 

natural and artificial magnets III, 30 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Magnetism (continued) 

poles of a magnet III, 31 

solenoids III, 35 

Magneto, working principle of III, 112 

Magneto mounting III, 177 

Magneto speeds III, 147 
Major equipment for public garage II, 330 

Malleable iron IV, 467 

Malleable-iron welding IV, 467 
Management and care of steam 

cars V, 252 

adjusting throttle V, 262 

care of burner V, 261 

care of engine bearings V, 260 

causes of low pressure V, 256 

end of run V, 255 

engine lubrication V, 256 

filling boiler V, 257 

firing-up V, 254 

fusible plug V, 256 

gasoline pump V, 261 

general lubrication V, 258 

management on road V, 252 

operating instructions V, 262 

operating cut-off and reverse V, 261 

raising gasoline pressure V, 258 
scale prevention and remedies V, 257 

water pump V, 259 

Mandrel for turning pins I, 67 

Manifolds, engine IV, 494 
Manipulation of blowpipe and 

welding-rod IV, 427 

Marmon self-lubricating axle II, 61 

Marvel carburetor I, 169 

adjustments I, 171 

fuel supply I, 172 

Master carburetor I, 148 

Materials for front axles II, 63 

cast axles II, 63 

change of axle type simplifies II, 66 

drop forgings II, 64 

forgings H» 64 

prcssed-steel axles II, 65 

tubular axles II, 65 

Measuring acetylene consumptionlV, 502 

Measuring oxygen consumption IV, 499 



411 



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16 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Mechanical connection of Remy 

starter IV, 40 

National IV, 42 

Oakland IV, 42 

Reo IV, 42 

wiring diagrams IV, 40 
Mechanical elements of steam 

engine V, 211 
slide valve V, 212 
superheated steam and com- 
pound expansion V, 216 
valve gears V, 219 
Mechanical equivalent of heat V, 207 
Medium size garage II, 296 
typical arrangements II, 296 
Melting point of substances IV, 434 
Merkel motorcycle IV, 334 
Methods of arranging cars in 

public garage II, 286 
Methods of boosting in battery 

charging V, 111 
approximate constant-poten- 
tial method V, 111 
constant-current method V, 112 
constant-potential method V, 111 
Method of battery charging V, 93 
automatic charge-stopping de- 
vice V, 99 
charging an Edison battery V, 107 
charging rate V, 96 
dangers of overcharging V, 105 
electrolyte V, 104 
making proper connections V, 93 
precautions V, 98 
starting charge V, 98 
temperature of battery V, 95 
testing progress of charge V, 101 
time required to charge V, 106 
voltage after charging V, 94 
Methods of casting cylinders I, 34 
cast in pairs I, 35 
cast separately I, 34 
cast together I, 35 
Methods of control of electrics V, 78 
resistance in circuit V, 80 
series and multiple connections V, 78 
wiring diagram V, 81 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Pagp 

Methods of cylinder lapping I, 51 

Methods of fastening flywheels I, 353 

Methods of pre-heating in welding IV, 441 
charcoal fire IV, 443 

gas and oil burners IV, 442 

pre-heating with welding blow- 
pipe IV, 441 

Methods of regulation of electric 
starting and light- 
ing systems III, 287 
constant-potential generators III, 292 
independent controllers III, 291 
inherently controlled generator III, 289 
necessity for control of genera- 
tor output III, 287 

Methods of storage of batteries V, 137 
dry storage V, 138 

wet storage V, 137 

Milling machines II, 431 

cutters II, 431 

types II, 431 

Modern battery ignition systems III, 179 
effect of starting and lighting 
developments on 
ignition III, 179 

generator design follows mag- 
neto precedent III, 179 
typical arrangement III, 181 

Motor design for tractors V, 344 

multi-cylinder motors V, 346 

Rumely kerosene motor V, 344 

Motor governors for trucks V, 30S 

centrifugal type V, 309 

controlling car speed V, 309 

general characteristics of V, 309 

hydraulic type V, 310 

Motor lubrication I, 319 

external lubrication I, 332 

gravity feeding I, 331 

individual pump pressure feeding I, 331 
interior and exterior demands I, 319 
single-pump pressure feeding I, 322 
splash lubrication I, 332 

splash-pressure feeding I, 320 

Motor windings and poles III, 303 

commercial forms III, 304 

standard design III, 303 



412 



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INDEX 



17 



Vol. 


Page 


Motor-car construction 




12 


clutch group 




17 


engine group 




13 


final drive group 




18 


frame group 




20 


steering group 




19 


transmission group 




17 


Motorcycles 


IV 


325 


analysis of motorcycle 






mechanisms 


IV 


343 


construction details 


IV 


349 


control 


IV 


385 


evolution of 


IV, 


325 


history 


IV, 


327 


light-weight types 


IV, 


336 


mechanism nomenclature 


IV 


343 


operation and repair of motor- 






cycles 


IV, 


381 


overhauling 


IV 


388 


present trend of models 


IV, 


327 


principles of engine operation 


IV, 


345 


special bodies and attachments IV, 


376 


standard specification 


IV, 


325 


types of motorcycles 


IV, 


330 


Motors, electric 


V 


52 


armature 


V, 


54 


capacity for overloads 


V, 


55 


essentials of motor 


V, 


52 


motor speeds 


V, 


57 


parts of motor 


V 


56 


principle of rotation 


V 


52 


Motors, motorcycle 


IV 


351 


four-cylinder type 


IV 


356 


single-cylinder type 


IV 


351 


two-cylinder type 


IV 


353 


N 
National steam car 


V 


225 


Natural and artificial magnets 


III 


30 


Necessary equipment for public 






garage 


II 


330 


air-supply system 


II 


338 


drainage 


II 


334 


fuels and oils 


II 


336 


garage furniture 


II 


339 


garage tools 


II 


344 


heating 


11 


333 



Vol. Page 



Necessary equipment for public 
garage (continued) 

lighting 

major equipment 

provision for moving cars 

provision for power 

special stands for units 

ventilation 

water supply 

work benches 
Needle valves 

external needle type 

external sectional needle type 

internal needle type 

simple vertical tube 
Neglect of lubrication 
New developments in carburetors 

effect of heavier fuels 

effect of motor changes 

effect of vacuum feeds 
Newcomb carburetor 

adjustments 

dashpot 

mixture indicating pointer 

starting device 
Noise in gear operation 
Noisy bevel gears 

lining up axles 

Packard bevel adjustment 

repair for broken spring clips 

taking out bend in axle 
Noisy valves 
Non-alignment of axles 
Non-alignment of steering wheels 
Non-conductors of electricity 
Non-leaking piston rings 
North East Ford starter 

mounting battery 

mounting starter 

operating instructions 

preparing engine 
North East starting and light- 
ing system 

dynamotor 

instructions 

protective devices 

switch tests 



II, 


330 


II, 


330 


II, 


335 


II, 


335 


II, 


343 


II, 


333 


II, 


333 


II, 


341 


I, 


114 


I, 


115 


I, 


115 


I, 


114 


I, 


114 


I, 


344 


I, 


120 


I, 


121 


I, 


121 


I, 


121 


I, 


166 


I, 


169 


I, 


167 


I, 


168 


I, 


167 


I, 


423 


II, 


167 


II, 


169 


II, 


167 


II, 


168 


II, 


169 


I, 


274 


v, 


152 


v, 


151 


III, 


20 


I, 


69 


IV, 


147 


IV, 


151 


IV, 


148 


IV, 


152 


IV, 


147 


IV, 


20 


IV, 


20 


IV, 


24 


IV, 


20 


IV, 


31 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



413 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
North East starting and light- 
ing system (continued) 
twelve- volt; sixteen- volt, or 
twenty-four - volt; 
single-unit; single- 
wire, or two wire IV, 20 
wiring diagrams IV, 22 

Notes on cutting 

cutting dirty and poor material IV, 481 
cutting round shafts, etc. IV, 481 

heating flames IV, 481 

piercing holes IV, 481 

restarting cut IV, 481 

speed of cutting IV, 481 



Obstruction in carburetor needle 

valve 
Ofeldt boiler system 

automatic fuel feed 

fuel, water and steam connec- 
tion 
Ohm's law 
Oil filtering outfit 
Oil settling tanks 
Oil tank and outfit for testing 
Oils and greases 

characteristics of good oils 

principles of effective lubrica- 
tion 

testing oils for acid, etc. 
Oily motorcycle clutches 
Operating cut-off and reverse on 

steam cars 
Operating instructions 

Gray & Davis Ford starter 

North East Ford starter 

Westinghouse Ford starter 
Operating suggestions for motor- 
cycles 

carburetor 

control 

ignition 

lubrication 

motor 

tires 

valves 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



I, 


217 


V, 


251 


V, 


252 


V, 


251 


III, 


15 


I, 


342 


I, 


342 


1, 


340 


1, 


336 


I, 


336 


I, 


337 


1, 


337 


IV, 


395 


V, 


261 


IV, 


113 


iv, 


152 


iv, 


176 


iv, 


381 


IV, 


383 


iv, 


385 


iv, 


383 


iv, 


384 


iv, 


381 


IV, 


3S5 


iv, 


3S2 



IV, 


416 


IV, 


430 


IV, 


421 


iv, 


422 


iv, 


416 


iv, 


416 


iv, 


419 


iv, 


416 



IV, 3S1 



Vol. Page 
Operation and care of welding 
apparatus 

general notes on welding 

hose 

instructions for connecting ap- 
paratus 

necessary apparatus 

necessity for care 

regulators 

welding blowpipe 
Operation and repair of motor- 
cycles 
Operation principles of electric 
motors 

rotation, how produced 
Outer shoe, or casing, repairs 

blowouts 

classifying troubles 

retreading 

rim-cut repair 

sand blisters 

use of reliner 
Overhauling and repair of motor- 
cycles 

air leaks in inlet manifold 

carburetors 

cleaning chains 

dirty muffler 

electrical troubles 

oily clutches 

overhauling 

valve timing 

valve troubles 
Overhead and vertical welding 

beginning long weld 
Overload springs 
Oxidation in welding process 
Oxy-acetylene cutting 
Oxy-acctylene flame IV, 408, 424 

carbonizing, or reducing flame IV, 426 

caution .against oxidizing flame IV, 426 

flame regulation IV, 425 

neutral, or welding flame IV, 425 

oxidizing flame IV, 420 

removing carbon IV, 485 

use of reducing flame IV, 420 



in, 


5S 


in, 


58 


ii, 


260 


ii, 


261 


ii, 


260 


ii, 


26i 


ii, 


263 


ii, 


261 


ii, 


266 


IV, 


388 


iv, 


390 


iv, 


38S 


IV, 


396 


IV, 


397 


iv, 


398 


iv, 


395 


IV, 


390 


iv, 


393 


IV, 


389 


iv, 


431 


iv, 


431 


II, 


124 


iv, 


468 


iv, 


410 



414 



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19 



Vol. Page 

Oxy-acetylene process IV, 403, 424 

advantages of IV, 403 

character of flame IV, 424 

expansion and contraction IV, 408 

flux IV, 409 

gases IV, 403 

generators IV, 405 

oxy-acetylene cutting IV, 410 

oxy-acetylene flame IV, 408 

preparation of work IV, 408 

strength of weld IV, 409 

welding blowpipes IV, 407 
Oxygenerator vaporizing device I, 189 

adjustments 1, 192 



Packard carburetor I, 

adjustments I, 

Packing a battery 
Parker pressed-steel wheels 
Parts of storage cell 

electrolyte 

elements 

separators 
Parts of electric motor 
Passenger attachments for motor- 
cycles 

novelties in motorcycle equip- 
ment 
Peening 

Perlman tire rim patents 
Piston and ring troubles and repairs I 

bushing removers 

curing excessive lubrication 

loosening seized pistons 

mounting pistons on lathes 

non-leaking rings 

removal and replacement of 
pistons 

testing size of new piston 

tracing a ring knock 
Piston construction 
Piston pins 
Pistons and accessories 

characteristics of piston rings 

piston construction 

piston pins 



185 
186 
146 
203 
193 
193 
193 
193 
56 

376 

378 
410 
236 
63 
66 
70 
65 
71 
69 

63 
69 
70 

58 
62 
58 
59 
58 
62 



216 

220 

31 

25 



Vol. Page 
Pistons and accessories (continued) 

types of piston rings I, 61 

Platform springs H, 99 

Pleasure-car wheels II, 192 

Parker pressed-steel wheels II, 203 

sheet-steel wheels II, 200 

wire wheels H> 196 

wood wheels H, 192 

Planetary gears I, 413 

Ford planetary type I, 414 

Pneumatic drive I, 418 

Pneumatic gear-shift 1, 409 

Pneumatic tires II, 213 

changing tires II, 218 

classification II, 213 

proper tire inflation pressures II, 

recent tire improvements II, 

Poles of a magnet III, 

Popping in carburetor I, 

Position of blowpipe in welding IV, 427 

importance of movement IV, 429 

inclination of blowpipe IV, 427 

movement of blowpipe IV, 428 

travel of blowpipe IV, 428 

Position of hose in welding IV, 427 

Position of welding rod IV, 429 

building-up weld IV, 430 

faults to be avoided IV, 430 

when to add welding rod IV, 429 

Position of work in soldering II, 372 

Pouring babbitt in bearings II, 365 

Power hack saws II, 420 

allowance for cut II, 421 

method of action II, 420 

pressure for different metals II, 421 

pressure on blades II, 420 

Power transmission details in 

trucks V, 312 

clutch and transmission V, 312 

electric transmission V, 335 

final drive V, 317 

Practical analysis of types III, 327 

Auto-Lite system III, 346 

Bijur system III, 355 

Bosch-Rushmore system III, 372 

Delco system III, 381 

Disco system III, 425 



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Vol. Page 
Practical analysis of types (con- 
tinued) 
Dyneto system HI, 425 

Gray & Davis system III, 430 

Heinze-Springfield system III, 449 

Leece-Neville system IV, 11 

North East system IV, 20 

Remy system IV, 35 

Simms-Huff system IV, 47 

Splitdorf system IV, 55 

U. S. L. system IV, 61 

use of protective and testing 

devices III, 337 

Wagner system IV, 75 

Westinghouse system IV, 89 

Pre-heating air for carburetors I, 214 

Pre-heating in cast-iron welding IV, 460 

Preparing engine for Ford starter 

Fisher IV, 142 

North East IV, 147 

Splitdorf IV, 154 

Westinghouse IV, 162 

Preparation of cast-iron welds IV, 462 
to prevent crack from extending IV, 462 
Pressed-steel axles II, 65 

Pressed-steel frames II, 78, 81 

Pressing gears on shafts I, 425 

Pressure and voltage III, 40 

fall in pressure III, 40 

Primary batteries III, 96 

defects of dry cells III, 96 

liquid batteries III, 97 

Principle of compensating support V, 339 
Principle of cutting with oxygen IV, 477 
metals that can be cut IV, 477 

Principles and construction of 
starting and light- 
ing storage battery IV, 192 
action of cell on charge IV, 195 

action of cell on discharge IV, 196 

capacity of battery IV, 197 

construction details IV, 199 

Edison cell not available IV, 200 

function of storage battery IV, 192 
parts of cell IV, 193 

specific gravity IV, 195 

Note. — For page numbers Bee foot of page*. 



Vol. Page 
Principles of engine operation IV, 345 
classification IV, 345 

four-cycle type IV, 345 

two-cycle type IV, 347 

Process of charging storage bat- 
teries V, 26 
charging rate and time of charge V, 26 
gassing V, 27 
precautions regarding electrolyte V, 26 
Progressive type of sliding gear I, 395 
Proper tire inflation pressures, 

gasoline cars II, 216 

standard pressure and oversize 

tires II, 217 

Properties of metals IV, 434 

coefficient of expansion IV, 436 

expansion and contraction IV, 436 

handling complex case of ex- 
pansion and con- 
traction IV, 439 
handling simple case of expan- 
sion and contrac- 
tion IV, 437 
melting point IV, 434 
specific heat IV, 436 
Protective devices III, 296, 387; IV, 20 
automatic battery cut-out HI, 296 
battery cut-out HI, 387 
circuit-breaker III, 388, 398 
various forms III, 296 
Provision for moving cars in 

public garages II, 335 

Provision for power in public 

garages II, 335 

Public garages 
designs of public garages II, 291 

finances and building costs II, 316 

necessary equipment for garage II, 330 
preliminary problems II, 281 

typical exterior design II, 321 

Push rods and guides I, 280 

Putting new battery in commis- 
sion V, 145 
charging V, 146 
inspection of battery V, 145 
replacements V, 146 



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Putting the battery out of com- 
mission V, 137 
methods of storage V, 137 

Q 

Q. D. type for straight sides II, 228 
Quick-detachable rims for gasoline 

car wheels II, 222 

quick-detachable No. 2 II, 225 

Quick-detachable clincher forms II, 227 

R 
Radiation and absorption V, 202 
Radiators and piping I, 303 
modification of cellular and tubu- 
lar forms I, 306 
types of cells I, 305 
types of tubes 1, 305 
Railway car needs I, 409 
Range of business in public garages II, 281 
financial problems II, 283 
selling accessories II, 282 
selling cars as side line II, 282 
service of public garage II, 281 
special side lines II, 283 
Range of use of electric vehicles V, 267 
Rate of discharge of storage cells V, 36 
Rayfield carburetor 1, 159 
adjustments I, 160 
Reading micrometer II, 379 
Reamers II, 392 
fluted chucking II, 392 
spiral-fluted II, 392 
three-flute chucking II, 392 
Reaming in shop II, 389 
characteristics of hand reamers II, 392 
clearances II, 391 
function of reamer II, 389 
kinds of reamers II, 392 
number of teeth II, 390 
Rear axles II, 137, 165 
assembling II, 167 
disassembling rear construction II, 166 
rear-axle troubles and repairs II, 162 
transmission II, 137 
truss rods II, 165 
types of rear axles II,_149 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 

Rear-axle housings II, 157 

Rear-axle lubrication II, 162 

Rear-axle troubles and repairs II, 162 

checking up Ford axles II, 171 

jacking-up troubles II, 162 

locating trouble II, 170 

noisy bevel gears II, 167 

rear-axle II, 165 

universal-joint housings II, 164 

workstand equipment II, 163 

Rear-end changes in frames II, 87 

Rear-wheel bearings II, 161 

Reassembling calls V, 130 

Rebabbitting bearings II, 364 

finishing bearing II, 366 

pouring the babbitt II, 365 

types of jig use II, 364 

Recharging batteries V, 135 

Reflectors III, 323 

comparison of parabolic with lens 

type III, 323 
parabolic type III, 323 
types for various locations III, 323 
Regulation of electric generator III, 346 
North East system IV, 20 
Remy system IV, 35 
Simms-Huff system IV, 47 
Splitdorf system IV, 56 
U. S. L. system IV, 62 
Wagner system IV, 83 
Westinghouse system IV, 89, 91 
Regulation in construction of motor- 
cycles IV, 371 
Regulation of starters III, 355, 398, 372 
ballast coil employed III, 372 
Delco system III, 384 
Disco system III, 425 
Dyne to system III, 426 
Gray & Davis system III, 431 
Heinze-Springfield system III, 450 
Regulators in welding IV, 419, 479 
acetylene regulator IV, 420 
care of regulators IV, 420 
operation of regulator IV, 419 
oxygen welding regulator IV, 420 
Regulator cut-out III, 434 
to check candle power of lamps III, 434 



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Vol. Page 

Regulator cut-out (continued) 

to check cutting-out point III, 435 

to check for adjustment III, 434 

to check for closing voltage III, 434 

Relation of tires to mileage V, 156 

Relative conductivity • V, 202 

Removal and replacement of piston I, 63 

Removal of carbon 1, 41 

Removing steering gear II, 34 

Removing valve I, 266 

Removing valve spring I, 267 

Remy system III, 188; IV, 40 

detecting grounds III, 189 

igniting switch III, 190 

instructions IV, 42 

interrupter and distributor III, 190 

mechanical combination IV, 40 

Repairing cracked water jackets I, 53 

Repairing poppet valves and 

valve parts I, 266 

Repairs, engine I, 26 

general instructions I, 26 

hoists and cranes I, 28 

Replacing clutch leathers I, 385 

Replacing defective battery jar V, 123 

Replacing pistons in cylinders I, 56 

Reserve tanks I, 229 

Resistance III, 15 

Restoring a sulphated battery V, 31 

sulphate tests V, 31 

treatment for sulphating V, 31 

Retreading tires II, 264 

building up tread II, 265 

repairing carcass II, 264 

Rims for gasoline car wheels II, 222 

clincher rims II, 222 

demountable rims II, 228 

kinds of rims II, 222 

Perlman rim patents II, 236 

plain rims II, 222 

quick-detachable tire rims II, 222 

standard sizes of tires and rims II, 237 

Riveting II, 396 

brake linings II, 396 

clutch facings II, 397 

cold-riveting metals II, 398 

hot-riveting metals II, 398 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 



Riveting (continued) 








installing new ring gear 




II, 


399 


Riveting frame 




II, 


93 


Roller bearings 


1,346, 


II, 


68 


Rumely tractor 




v, 


347 



s 

Safe discharge point for plates V, 36 

Safety devices V, 285 

charging circuit-breaker V, 286 

circuit-breaker and hand switch V, 285 

cut-out switch connected to 

brake V, 285 
devices to prevent accidental 

starting or tamperingV, 286 
Sagging of frames II, 91 
Samson tractor V, 351 
Sand blisters in tire repairs II, 261 
Scale prevention and remedies V, 257 
Schebier carburetors I, 172 
adjustment of model "L" I, 172 
adjustment of model "R" I, 174 
adjustment of model "S" I, 174 
adjustment of model "T" hori- 
zontal I, 175 
Seating brushes, Delco III, 412 
Self-induction • III, 38 
Selling accessories for public 

garage II, 282 
Selling cars as side line in public 

garages II, 282 

Semi-elliptic springs II, 97 

Semi-reversible gear II, 33 

Senrab carburetor I, 195 
Separate casing moulds for patch 

work II, 249 

Service of public garage II, 281 
Shackles and spring horns for 

springs II, 110 

Shaft-driven Genemotor IV, 105 

ammeter IV, 114 

adjustment of gears IV, 108 

failure to start IV, 114 

mounting Genemotor IV, 108 

operating instructions IV, 113 

preliminary adjustments IV, 105 

Shaft and axle IV, 493 



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Shaft and chain transmission V, 276 
Shapers II, 428 
characteristics II, 428 
clamping work in shaper II, 428 
operation suggestions II, 430 
Sheet-steel wheels II, 200 
Shock absorbers II, 115 
coil springs, alone and in com- 
bination II, 117 
frictional plate type II, 116 
function II, 115 
general classes of absorbers II, 115 
overload springs II, 124 

Shop information for garages II, 353 

bench work II, 353 

importance of equipment II, 353 
machines and machine processesll, 411 

Side chain drive for trucks V, 318 

radius and torque rods V, 320 

speed reduction V, 321 

standard types V, 319 

Simple welding job IV, 414 

apparatus required IV, 414 

connecting apparatus IV, 414 

preparing the metal IV, 414 

Single-cylinder motor IV, 395 

Single-pump pressure feeding I, 322 

Marmon I, 326 

methods of driving pumps I, 327 

Stearns I, 324 

types of oil pumps I, 326 

Single-wire and two-wire start- 
ing systems III, 283 

Six-volt; two-unit, Disco III, 425 

instructions III, 425 

units HI, 425 

Six-volt; two-unit Dyneto III, 426 

instructions III, 429 

generator III, 426 

starting motor III, 428 

wiring diagram III, 428 

Six-volt; two-unit; single-wire 

systems III, 346,397,430,449 

battery cut-out III, 350 

battery cut-out tests III, 355 

generator III, 346, 397 

Gray & Davis III, 430 

Note. — For page numbers eee foot of page*. 



Vol. Page 
Six-volt; two-unit; single-wire 
systems (continued) 
Heinze-Springfield III, 449 

instructions III, 351 

instruments III, 351 

regulation III, 347, 398 

starting motor III, 348, 398 

starting switch III, 399 

wiring diagram III, 351, 399 

Size of conductors III, 26 

Sizes of drills in automobile repair II, 384 
Sliding gear I, 395 

Slide valves V, 212 

effect of adding steam lap V, 215 

effect of compression on indica- 
tor card V, 214 
effect of high pressure and early 

cut-off V, 215 

elementary slide valve V, 212 

indicator diagrams V, 214 

use of steam cut-off V, 213 

•Slipping clutch I, 384 

Small tool equipment for tire repair 

shop II, 255 

Small size public garage II, 291 

Smith motor wheel IV, 330 

Soldering II, 371 

general instructions II, 371 

heavy work II, 372 

light work II, 372 

position for work II, 372 

soldering flux II, 371 

special stoves and irons II, 373 

use of blow torch II, 372 

Soldering flux II, 371 

Solenoids IN, 35 

Solving ignition troubles III, 204 

breakdown of magneto 111,206 

care of Ford magneto IN, 210 

effect of compression on spark 111,205 

inspection of contact breaker III, 204 

leakage at distributor IN, 205 

magnet recharger III, 208 

remagnetizing HI, 207 

sparking at safety gap 111,206 

Sources of current IN, 96 



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Vol. 


Page 


Sources of current (continued) 






alternating current 


V, 


88 


charging current 


V, 


87 


chemical sources of current 


III, 


96 


direct current 


V, 


87 


induction sources of ignition cur- 




rent 


III, 


112 


voltage and spark control de 






vices 


III, 


98 


Sources of power loss 


V, 


151 


armature troubles 


V, 


155 


brushes and commutator 


V, 


154 


dry bearings 


V, 


153 


non-alignment of axles 


V, 


152 


non-alignment of steering 






wheels 


V, 


151 


worn chains and sprockets 


V, 


152 


Spark plugs 


III, 


104 


electrode arrangement 


III, 


106 


fundamental requisite 


III, 


105 


magnetic plugs 


III, 


107 


plug threads 


III, 


108 


priming plugs 


III, 


108 


series plugs 


III, 


107 


waterproof plugs 


III, 


108 


Spark timing 


III, 


139 


advance and retard 


III, 


139 


automatically timed systems 


III, 


148 


effect of irregular sparking 


III, 


139 


firing order 


III, 


153 


ignition setting point 


III, 


151 


magneto speeds 


III, 


147 


Special side lines in public garage 


II 


283 


Special types of drive 


II 


46 


electric drive 


II, 


55 


four-wheel driving, steering and 




braking 


II 


48 


four-wheel steering arrangement 11 


49 


front wheel drive 


II 


46 


Specific gravity 


iv, 


195 


Specific heat IV, 436; V 


,206 


Speeding up old engines by lighten- 




ing pistons, etc. 


I 


67 


Spiral bevels 


I, 


445 


Spiral gears 


I, 


444 


Splash lubrication 


I, 


332 


Splash-pressure feeding 


I, 


320 



Vol. Page 
Splitdorf Ford starter IV, 154 

Splitdorf starting and lighting sys- 
tem IV, 55 
Spring and frame construction of 

motorcycles IV, 349 

Springs II, 96; IV, 492; V, 338 

basis of classification II, 96 

construction and materials II, 112 

lubrication II, 111 

principle of compensating sup- 
port V, 339 
semi-elliptic type V, 338 
spring troubles II, 112 
Spot-welder IV, 411 
Spur gears I, 442 
Standard sizes of tires and rims II, 237 
Standard threads in tapping II, 385 
Standard types of ignition sys- 
tems III, 128 
double-spark ignition III, 134 
dual ignition system III, 118 
duplex ignition system III, 133 
Ford magneto III, 134 
Stanley fuel, water and steam sys- 
tems V, 241 
Stanley steamer V, 221 
Starting and lighting storage 

batteries IV, 191 

Starting motor III, 299, 348, 

357, 372, 398, 428 
Gray & Davis III, 431 

Heinze-Springfield III, 450 

Leece-Neville IV, 12 

method of operation III, 372 

motor windings and poles III, 103 

Remy IV, 39 

Simms-Huff IV, 51 

Splitdorf IV, 59 

starting switch III, 373 

voltage III, 303 

Wagner IV, 83 

Westinghouse IV, 96 

Starting switch III, 399 

Steam automobiles V, 197 

boilers V, 200, 232 

boiler accessories and regulation V, 240 
characteristic features V, 198 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



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Steam automobiles (continued) 
engine types and details 
fuels and burners 
management and care of steam 

cars 
simplicity of control 
Steel welding 

general considerations 
heavy sheet-steel welding 
light sheet-steel welding 
welding heavy steel forgings 
and steel castings 
Steering gears 

action of wheels in turning 
Ford steering gear 
general characteristics of steer- 
ing gears 
general requirements 
inclining axle pivots 
removing steering gear 
steering-gear assembly troubles 

and repairs 
steering levers in front of axle 
worm-gear types 
Steering-gear assembly troubles 
and repairs 
lost motion and backlash 
Steering rod, or drag link 
Steering wheels 
Stewart carburetor 
Storage battery 

construction and action of 

typical cell 
construction and efficiency of 

cell plates 
purity of acid and water 
types of cells 
Stoves and soldering irons 
Straightening axle 
Strength of weld 
Stretching brake lining 
Stromberg carburetors 
general instructions 
preliminary adjustments 
starting adjustments 
Sub-frames 



V, 221 
V, 226 

V, 252 
V, 201 
IV, 443 
IV, 443 
IV, 451 
IV, 446 

IV, 457 

II, 11 

13 

31 



IV, 
II, 

II, 
II, 
II, 
II, 

II, 
II, 
II, 

II, 
II, 
II, 
II, 
I, 
V. 



16 
11 
12 
34 

35 
14 
21 

35 
35 
40 
36 
176 
12 



V, 13 



V, 

V, 

V, 

II, 

II, 

IV, 

II, 

I, 

I, 

I, 

I, 
II, 



Vol. Page 


V, 29, 


115 


V, 


30 


I, 


150 


V, 


210 


v, 


216 


III, 


313 



Sulphating 

preventing sulphating 

Sunderman safety carburetor 

Superheating 

Superheated steam and com- 
pound expansion 

Switches 

electrically operated switches III, 316 
miscellaneous starting switches III, 315 
Westinghouse starting switch III, 314 

Switch and wiring IV, 133 

battery cables IV, 136 

charging wire and starting 

cable IV, 136 

coil and magneto wiring IV, 136 

wiring for lights IV, 136 

Switch tests IV, 31 



T 



34 

15 

41 

373 

71 

409 

188 

122 

122 

123 

123 

79 



Tables of valve settings 


i, 


248 


Tank placing 


i, 


223 


Tapping in repair shop work 


ii, 


385 


dies 


ii, 


388 


standard threads 


ii, 


385 


tapping process 


ii, 


388 


taps 


ii, 


386 


Technique of gas welding 


IV, 


414 


operation and care of welding 






apparatus 


IV, 


416 


simple welding job 


IV, 


414 


welding different metals 


IV, 


434 


Temperature scales 


v, 


203 


absolute zero 


v, 


203 


conversion of scales 


v, 


203 


Temperature of battery 


v, 


95 


Test curves for storage batteries 


v, 


159 


Test discharge 


v, 


134 


Testing, adjustment, and main- 






tenance of starters 


III, 


202 


causes of failure 


III, 


202 


solving troubles 


III, 


204 


testing 


III, 


203 


trouble eliminated by efficient 






devices 


III, 


. 202 


Testing armatures for Delco 


1 




system 


III, 


, 415 


Testing cut-outs, Delco 


III, 


, 408 



Note.— For page numbers see foot of pages. 



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Vol. Page 

Testing field coils, Delco III, 420 

Testing generator with ammeter IV, 127 

Testing ignition system III, 203 

Testing oils for acid, etc. I, 337 

Tests of wiring, Delco III, 405 

. Thermal conductivity IV, 434 

•Thermodynamics of steam V, 208 

Thick vs. thin battery plates V, 34 

Three-quarter elliptic springs II, 98 

Three-quarter floating axle II, 156 

Throttle valves I, 113' 

Timing the Knight motor I, 290 

Tire construction II, 241 

bead II, 242 

composition and manufacture II, 241 

tire valves II, 243 

Tire repair equipment II, 245 

Tire repairs II, 245 

inner tube repairs II, 257 

inside casing forms II, 251 

layouts of equipment II, 253 

materials II, 257 

outer shoe, or casing, repairs II, 260 

re-treating vulcanizers II, 252 

separate casing molds for patch 

work II, 249 

side- wall vulcanizer II, 251 

small tool equipment II, 255 

types of vulcanizing outfits II, 247 

vulcanizing kettles II, 250 
vulcanization of tires for repair 

man II, 245 

Tire valves II, 243 

Tires II, 213; IV, 3S5; V, 287 

Tires and mileage V, 156 

improper inflation V, 161 

kinds of tires V, 157 

new tire equipment V, 160 

test curves V, 159 

Tool equipment for public 

garages II, 349 

Torque bar and its function II, 145 

Tracing for grounds III, 338 

Tracing a ring knock I, 70 

Trailers V, 341 
Transmission II, 137; V, 312 

adjustment I, 413 

Note. — For page numbers zee foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 



ransmission (continued) 






bearings 


I, 


413 


chain drive 


v, 


60 


gear drive 


v, 


61 


driving reaction 


II, 


147 


location 


I, 


399 


lubrication 


I, 


412 


Mack 


v, 


315 


operation 


I, 


412 


silent chain 


V, 


317 



similarity to gasoline practice V, 59 

sliding-gear type V, 313 

slip joints II, 139 

stands I, 429 

torque bar and its function II, 145 

types II, 140 

units in final drive II, 137 

universal joints II, 138 

use of "dog" clutches V, 315 

usual gear reduction V, 59 

Transmission and regulation de- 
vices III, 305 
automatic engagement III, 309 
back-kick releases III, 312 
clutches III, 310 
driving connections III, 308 
electric horns III, 319 
fuses III, 317 
installation III, 305 
switches III, 313 

Transmission troubles, summary 

of I, 434 

adjusting annular bearings I, 435 

change-speed lever indicates 

some impediment 

in transmission I, 434 

lubricating transmission gears I, 434 

Transmission troubles and repairs I, 423 

care in diagnosis I, 420 

cleaning transmission gears I, 428 

gear pullers I, 425 

handy spring tool I, 431 

heating I, 424 

lifting out transmissions I, 429 

noise in gear operation I, 423 

poor gear shifting I, 426 

possible transmission troubles I, 432 



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27 



Vol. Page 
Transmission troubles and repairs 
(continued) 
pressing gears on shafts I, 425 

saving the balls I, 431 

transmission stands I, 429 

working on bearings I, 430 

Truing brake drum on gasoline car II, 189 
Tubular axles II, 65 

drop-forged ends II, 65 

Twelve-volt; single-unit, Disco III, 425 
dynamotor III, 425 

operating devices III, 425 

regulation III, 425 

Twelve-volt; single-unit; single- 
wire, Dyne to III, 425 
dynamotor III, 425 
instructions III, 426 
Twelve- volt; single-unit; single- 
wire 
Simms-Huflf 

change of voltage 
dynamotor 

dynamotor connections 
instructions 



instruments 
regulation 
Splitdorf 
dynamotor 
wiring diagram 
starting switch 
Westinghousc 
control 
dynamotor 
instructions 
regulation 
wiring diagram 
wiring diagram 
Twelve- volt; single-unit; two- 
wire (early Wagner 
model) IV, 

control, transmission IV, 

dynamotor IV, 

instructions IV, 

regulation IV 7 , 

firing diagram IV, 

Twelve-volt; two-unit ; single-wire 

Bosch-Rush more 111, 

Note. — For page numbers sec foot of pages. 



IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 



47 
49 
47 

48 
52 
47 
47 
55 
55 
55 
51 
89 
89 
89 
89 
89 
89 
52 



75 
75 
75 
79 
75 
75 

372 



Vol. Page 
Twelve- volt; two-unit; single- wire 
Bosch -Rush more 
(continued) 
generator III, 37*2 
instructions 111, 376 
instruments and protective de- 
vices III, 374 
regulation III, 372 
starting motor ' III, 372 
wiring diagram III, 376 
Twenty-four-twelve-volt, and 
twlevc -six-volt ; 
single-unit; two- 
wire U. S. L. IV, 61 
generator-starting motor IV, 61 
instructions IV, 64 
instruments and protective de- 
vices IV,* 63 
regulation IV, 62 
U. S. L. 12-volt system IV, 73 
U. S. Nelson system IV, 75 
variations IV, 61 
wiring diagram IV, 64 
Twin-cylinder motor IV, 395 
Twisted camshafts I, 285 
Two-cylinder motors IV, 328 
Two- wheel types of trailers V, 341 
Typical valve actions I, 250 

U 

Unconventional types of springs II, 103 

electric car springs II, 107 

• Ford II, 106 

Knox II, 104 

Locomobile II, 107 

Marmon II, 103 

semi-elliptic truck springs II, 104 

Winton II, 105 

Unit wheel drives V, 277 

balanced drive V, 280 

couple-gear truck drive V, 278 

Universal joint housings II, 164 

Universal joints II, 138 

U. S. L. 12-volt system IV, 73 

fuse blocks IV, 73 

starting switch IV, 73 

U. S. Nelson system IV, 75 



423 



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28 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Use of blow-torch in soldering 



Vacuum brakes on gasoline cars 
Valve caps 
Valve enclosure 
Valve gears 

throttling and reversing 

types of gears 
Valve guides 
Valve-stem clearance 
Valve timing 

exhaust-valve setting 

relation of settings in each 
cylinder 

system applies to all types of 
motors 

valve-stem clearance 
Valve timing for motorcycles 

getting valve timing with scale 

marking flywheels automobile 
practice 

marking gears 

opening of valves not on dead 
center 
Valve troubles of motorcycles 

removing valves 
Valves I, 241; 

Ventilation of public garages 
Venturi-tube mixing chamber 
Volt-ammeter 
Voltage 

after charging 

drop 

standards 

tests 
Voltage and spark control devices 

charges in ignition methods 

coils and vibrators 

condenser 

contact makers, or timers 

distributor 

hydraulic analogy for ignition 
system 

spark plugs 
Vulcanization of tires for repair 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 



II, 


372 


Vulcanizing kettles 








horizontal type 


II, 250 






large vertical type 


11, 250 


II, 


183 






I, 


283 






I, 


275 


W 




v, 


219 


Wagner starting system 


IV, 75 


v, 


219 


six-volt; two-unit 


IV, 83 


v, 


219 


twelve-volt; single-unit; two-wire 


I, 


282 


(early model) 


IV, 75 


I, 


262 


Water cooling 


I, 300 


I, 


260 


anti-freezing solutions 


I, 313 


I, 


263 


circulation 


I, 307 






fans 


I, 312 


I, 


263 


radiators and piping 


I, 303 






water-jacketing 


I, 301 


I, 


264 


Water-jacketing I, 


116, 301 


I, 


262 


built-on jackets 


I, 302 


IV, 


393 


internal jackets 


I, 301 


iv, 


394 


welded applied jackets 


I, 302 






Water supply for public garages 


II, 333 


IV, 


394 


Water-tube boilers 


V, 234 


IV, 


393 


Webber automatic carburetor 


I, 155 






Welding blowpipes IV 


, 407, 416 


IV, 


394 


injector blowpipes 


IV, 407 


iv, 


389 


pressure blowpipe 


IV, 407 


IV, 


390 


welding heads and tips 


IV, 416 


iv, 


382 


working pressures 


IV, 417 


II, 


333 


Welding brass and bronze 


IV, 475 


I, 


118 


Welding breaks in cylinders 


I, 53 


v, 


163 


Welding copper 


IV, 473 


III, 


303 


Welding different metals 


IV, 434 


v, 


94 


aluminum 


IV, 468 


III, 


19 


brass and bronze welding 


IV, 474 


III, 


298 


cast aluminum welding 


IV, 471 


iv, 


253 


cast-iron welding 


IV, 459 


III, 


98 


copper welding 


IV, 472 


III, 


98 


malleable-iron welding 


IV, 467 


III, 


100 


pre-heating 


IV, 440 


III, 


104 


properties of metals 


IV, 434 


III, 


99 


sheet-aluminum welding 


IV, 469 


III, 


103 


steel welding 


IV, 443 






Welding process for cast iron 


IV, 463 


III, 


109 


Welding process in sheet-aluminum 


III, 


104 


welding 


IV, 470 






Welding rods IV, 


460, 468 


11, 


245 


Welding shafts and cases 


I, 94 



424 



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INDEX 



29 



Vol. ] 


Page 


Westinghouse Ford starter 


IV, 


162 


ignition 


IV, 


174 


ignition unit 


III, 


181 


lighting and starting switches 


IV, 


170 


mounting starter 


IV, 


163 


operating instructions 


IV, 


176 


wiring 


IV, 


170 


Westinghouse starting and light- 






ing system 


IV, 


89 


six-volt; double-unit; single- 






wire 


IV, 


91 


twelve- volt; single-unit; single- 




wire 


IV, 


89 


Wheel pullers 


II, 


211 


Wheel troubles and repairs 


II, 


211 


Wheels 


II, 


190 


commercial-car wheels 


II, 


204 


pleasure-car wheels 


II, 


192 


White gasoline delivery wagon 


V, 


299 


Whiton gear-cutting machine 


I, 


436 


Wiring 


III, 


172 


effect on lights 


III, 


175 


importance of voltage drop 


III, 


174 


operating troubles 


IV, 


188 


Wiring diagram III, 351, 357, 376, 




389, 399, 


429, 


435 


Apperson 


III, 


360 


Buick 


III, 


392 


Cadillac 


III, 


389 


diagrams for single-wire systeir 


HI, 


330 


explanation of 


HI, 


327 


Heinze-Springfield 


III, 


452 


Hupp 


HI, 


360 


Jeffery 


III, 


357 


Leece-Neville 


IV, 


13 


North East 


IV, 


22 



Vol. Page 



Wiring diagram (continued) 

Scripps-Booth III 

Simms-Huff IV 

Splitdorf IV, 

Wagner IV, 75, 

Westinghouse IV, 89, 

Winton III 

Wire wheels for pleasure cars II, 

Wobbling wheels II 

Wood frames II 

Wood wheels II, 192, 

Worm-gear transmission V, 

Worm drive V, 63, 
advantages of worm-gear trans- 
mission 
details of worm drive, rear 

axle and brake V> 

development V, 63 

efficiency of worm gears V, 
standard types of worm gears V, 

Worm steering-gear types II 

bevel pinion and sector II 

Hindley worm gear II 

worm and full gear II 

worm and nut II 

worm and partial gear II 

worm and worm II 



Zenith carburetors I, 

changing the compensator I, 

changing the main jet I, 

duplex model adjustments I, 
horizontal type adjustments 

and changes I, 

slow-speed adjustment I, 



360 

52 

55 

84 

94 

357 

196 

73 

81 

205 

274 

321 

63 

64 

323 

325 

324 

21 

28 

30 

22 

24 

21 

27 



127 
128 
128 
132 

131 
131 



Note. — For page numbers ace foot of pages. 



425 



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