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Full text of "Automobile Engineering"

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Automobile 
Engineering 

A General Reference Work ' * - 

FOR REPAIR MEN, CHAUFFEURS, AND OWNERS; COVERING THE CONSTRUCTION, 
CARE, AND REPAIR OF PLEASURE CARS, COMMERCIAL CARS, AND 
MOTORCYCLES, WITH ESPECIAL ATTENTION TO IGNITION, START- 
ING, AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS, GARAGE EQUIPMENT, 
WELDING, FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR, 
AND OTHER REPAIR METHODS 



Prepared by a Staff of 

AUTOMOBILE EXPERTS, CONSULTING ENGINEERS, AND DESIGNERS OF THE 
HIGHEST PROFESSIONAL STANDING 



Illustrated with over Fifteen Hundred Engravings 



SIX VOLUMES 



AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY 

CHICAGO 

1921 



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COPYRIGHT, 1909, 1910. 1912, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920. 1921 
BY 
AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY 



Copyrighted in Great Britain 
All Rights Reserved 



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Authorities Consulted 



THE editors have freely consulted the standard technical litera- 
ture of America and Europe in the preparation of these 
volumes. They desire to express their indebtedness, particu- 
larly, to the following eminent authorities, whose well-known treatises 
should be in the library of everyone interested in the Automobile and 
allied subjects. 

Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable 
co-operation of the foremost Automobile Firms and Manufacturers 
in making these volumes thoroughly representative of the very latest 
and best practice in the design, construction, and operation of Auto- 
mobiles, Commercial Vehicles, Motorcycles, etc.; also for the valu- 
able drawings, data, illustrations, suggestions, criticisms, and other 
courtesies. 



CHARLES E. DURYEA 

Consulting Engineer 

First Vice-President, American Motor League 

Author of "Roadside Troubles" 



OCTAVE CHANUTE 

Late Consulting Engineer 

Past President of the American Society of Civil Engineers 

Author of "Artificial Flight," etc. 

E. W. ROBERTS, M.E. 

Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Author of "Gas-Engine Handbook," "Gas Engines and Their Troubles," "The 
Automobile rocket-Book," etc. 

SANFORD A. MOSS, M.S., Ph.D. 

Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Engineer, General Electric Company 
Author of "Elements of Gas Engine Design" 

GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E. 

Author of "Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles, and Motorcycles," "Gas, Gasoline, 
and Oil Engines," "Mechanical Movements, Powers, and Devices," etc. 



AUGUSTUS TREADWELL, Jr., E.E. 

Associate Member, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
Author of "The Storage Battery : A Practical Treatise on the Construction, 
Theory, and Use of Secondarv Batteries" 



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Authorities Consulted— Continued 



BENJAMIN R. TILLSON 

Director, H. J. Willard Company Automobile School 
Author of "The Complete Automobile Instructor" 



THOMAS H. RUSSELL, M.E., LL.bT 

Editor, The American Cyclopedia of the Automobile 

Author of "Motor Boats," "History of the Automobile," "Automobile Driving, 

Self-Taught," "Automobile Motors and Mechanism," "Ignition Timing 

and Valve Setting," etc. 



CHARLES EDWARD LUCRE, Ph.D. 

Mechanical Engineering Department, Columbia University 
Author of "Gas Engine Design" 

P. M. HELDT *• 

Editor, Horseless Age 

Author of "The Gasoline Automobile" 



H. DIEDERICHS, M.E. *• 

Professor of Experimental Engineering, Sibley College, Cornell University 
Author of "Internal Combustion Engines" 



JOHN HENRY KNIGHT *• 

Author of "Light Motor Cars and Voiturettes," "Motor Repairing for Ama- 
teurs," etc. 



WM. ROBINSON, M.E. *• 

Professor of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering in University College, 

Nottingham 
Author of "Gas and Petroleum Engines" 

W. POYNTER ADAMS *• 

Member, Institution of Automobile Engineers 
Author of "Motor-Car Mechanisms and Management" 



ROLLA C. CARPENTER, M.M.E., LL.D. 

Professor of Experimental Engineering, Sibley College, Cornell University 
Author of "Internal Combustion Engines" 

ROGER B. WHITMAN "** 

Technical Director, The New York School of Automobile Engineers 
Author of "Motor-Car Principles" 



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Authors and Collaborators 



CHARLES B. HAYWARD 

President and General Manager, The Stirling Press, New York City 

Member, Society of Automotive Engineers 

Member, The Aeronautical Society 

Formerly Secretary, Society of Automotive Engineers 

Formerly Engineering Editor, The Automobile 



C. T. ZIEGLER 

Automobile Engineer 

With Inter-State Motor Company, Muncie, Indiana 

Formerly Manager, The Ziegler Company, Chicago 



MORRIS A. HALL 

Editor, Automotive Engineering 

Formerly Managing Editor, Motor Life; Editor, The Commercial Vehicle, etc. 

Author of "What Every Automobile Owner Should Know" 

Member, Society of Automotive Engineers 

Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



DARWIN S. HATCH, B.S. 

Late Editor, Motor Age, Chicago 
Formerly Managing Editor, The Light Car 
Member, Society of Automotive Engineers 
American Automobile Association 



GLENN M. HOBBS, Ph.D. 

Formerly Secretary and Educational Director, American School of Correspond- 
ence 
Formerly Instructor in Physics, The University of Chicago 
American Physical Society 



HERBERT L. CONNELL, B.S.E. 

Late Lecturer, Automobile Division, Milwaukee Central Continuation School 
Editorial Representative, Commercial Car Journal and Automobile Trade Journal 
Member, Society of Automotive Engineers 
Member, Standards Committee of S. A. E. 
Formerly Technical Editor, The Light Car 



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Authors and Collaborators— Continued 



HUGO DIEMER, M.E. 

Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylvania State College 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



HERBERT LADD TOWLE, B.A. 

Specialist in Technical Advertising 
Member, Society of Automotive Engineers 
Formerly Associate Editor, The Automobile 



ROBERT J. KEHL, M.E. 

Consulting Mechanical Engineer, Chicago 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



EDMOND M. SIMON, B.S. 

Superintendent, Union Malleable Iron Company, East Moline, Illinois 



EDWARD B. WAITE 

Formerly Dean and Head, Consulting Department, American School of Cor- 
respondence 
Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



JOHN R. BAYSTON 

Head, Automobile Engineering Department, American School of Correspond- 
ence 
Member, Society of Automotive Engineers 
Formerly Lecturer, Federal Association of Automobile Engineers, Chicago 



W. R. HOWELL 

President, W. R. Howell and Company, London, England 



WILLIAM K. GIBBS, B.S. 

Associate Editor, Motor Age, Chicago 



JESSIE M. SHEPHERD, A.B. 

Head, Publication Department, American Technical Society 



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Foreword 



THE period of evolution of the automobile does not 
span many years, but the evolution has been none 
the less spectacular and complete. From a creature 
of sudden caprices and uncertain behavior, it has become 
today a well-behaved thoroughbred of known habits and 
perfect reliability. The driver no longer needs to carry war 
clothes in momentary expectation of a call to the front. 
He sits in his seat, starts his motor by pressing a button 
with his hand or foot, and probably for weeks on end will 
not need to do anything more serious than feed his animal 
gasoline or oil, screw up a few grease cups, and pump up a 
tire or two. 

C And yet, the traveling along this road of reliability and 
mechanical perfection has not been easy, and the grades 
have not been negotiated or the heights reached without 
many trials and failures. The application of the internal- 
combustion motor, the electric motor, the storage battery, 
and the steam engine to the development of the modern 
types of mechanically propelled road carriages has been a 
far-reaching engineering problem of great difficulty. 
Nevertheless, through the aid of the best scientific and me- 
chanical minds in this and other countries, every detail 
has received the amount of attention necessary to make it 
as perfect as possible. Eoad troubles, excfept in connection 
with tires, have become almost negligible and even the 
inexperienced driver, who knows barely enough to keep to 
the road and shift gears properly, can venture on long tour- 
ing trips without fear of getting stranded. The refinements 
in the ignition, starting, and lighting systems have added 
greatly to the pleasure in running the car. Altogether, the 
automobile as a whole has become standardized, and unless 
some unforeseen developments are brought about, future 
changes in either the gasoline or the electric automobile 
will be merely along the line of greater refinement of the 
mechanical and electrical devices used. 



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C. Notwithstanding the high degree of reliability already 
spoken of, the cars, as they get older, will need the atten- 
tion of the repair man. This is particularly true of the 
cars two and three seasons old. A special effort, therefore, 
has been made to furnish information which will be of value 
to the men whose duty it is to revive the faltering action of 
the motor and to take care of the other internal troubles 
in the machine. 

CSpecial eifort has been made to emphasize the treatment 
of the Electrical Equipment of Gasoline Cars, not only be- 
cause it is in this direction that most of the improvements 
have lately taken place but also because this department of 
automobile construction is least familiar to the repair men 
and others interested in the details of the automobile. A 
multitude of diagrams have been supplied showing the con- 
structive features and wiring circuits of the majority of 
the systems. In addition to this instructive section, par- 
ticular attention is called to the articles on Welding, Shop 
Information, Electrical Eepairs, and Ford Construction 
and Repair. 



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Table of Contents 



VOLUME VI 
Gasoline Tractors (continued) . By Charles B. Hayward t Page *11 

Control Systems: Engine Governors, Tractor Clutches, Friction Drive — 
Tractor Transmissions: Automobile Practice, Types — Final Drive— Trac- 
tor Operation: Motor: Transmission — Running Gear — Lubrication: Gen- 
eral, Clutch, Running Gear — Valves — Pistons — Carburetors — Cooling Sys- 
tem — Horsepower Rating — Engine Troubles: Failure to Start, Operation, 
Engine Noises — Clutch and Transmission — Housing Tractor 

Commercial Vehicles . . By Charles B. Hayward Page 85 

Introduction: Development of Field, Scope of Commercial Vehicle, Stand- 
ard Design, Classification — Electric Vehicles: Range of Use — Advantages 
— Power Efficiency — Electric Delivery Wagon: Design, Motive Power, 
Shaft Drive, Worm Gear Transmission, Shaft and Chain Transmission, 
Unit-Wheel Drive, Current and Current Control, Brakes, Tires — Electric 
Tractors — Industrial Trucks — Electric Trucks: Classification, Character 
of Chassis — Gasoline-Driven Vehicles: Gasoline Delivery Wagons: Auto- 
car, White — Gasoline Trucks: Motor Design, Ignition, Carburetors, Cool- 
ing Systems, Lubrication, Motor Governors, Clutches, Transmissions, 
Side-Chain Drive, Worm Drive, Front Drives, Four-Wheel Drives — 
Electric Transmission — Springs — Brakes — Trailers 

Electric Automobiles 

By Charles B. Hayward. Revised by J. R. Bayston Page 165 

Motor: Essentials of Motor — Principle — Armature — Capacity — Motor 
Speeds — Transmission: Similarity to Gasoline Practice — Usual Gear Re- 
duction — Chain Drive — Gear Drive — Worm Drive — Control: Counter 
E. M. F. — Controller — Methods of Control — Shu.Tt — Care and Operation 
of Electrics: Charging Battery: Direct Current. Sources of Alternating 
Current, Charging, Testing Charge, Boosting— Care of Battery — Sources 
of Power Loss — Tires and Mileage 

Ford Construction and Repair . ..ByJ.R. Bay stem Page 233 

Construction: Frame, Front and Rear Axle, Power Plant and Accessories, 
Springs, Steering Mechanism — Motor: Cycle, Valve Mechanism, Cam- 
shaft, Timing Gears, Piston, Connecting Rod, Crankshaft, Flywheel, Mag- 
nets — Transmission: The Why of the Transmission — Ford Transmission — 
Clutch — Rear Axle Assembly, Brakes, Steering Gear, Overhauling Car: 
Cleaning, Removing Radiator, Preliminary Operations, Removing Valves, 
Crankcase Repairs, Adjusting Connecting Rods and Main Bearings, Piston 
Slap, Grinding Valves, Inlet Valves, Adjusting Valves — Assembling Motor: 
Inspecting Spark Plugs, Wiring, Timer Coil Adjustment — Overhauling 
Transmission: Noisy Transmission, Tearing Down and Assembly — Assem- 
bling Clutch — Overhauling Front Axle System: Adjusting Front Axle, 
Ball Socket — Equipping Hubs with Timken Bearings: Bearing Sets, Re- 
moving Old Bearings, Installing Cups, Making Press Fits, Cones and 
Rollers, Periodic Inspection — Springs: Center Bolts, Spring Clips, Shackles 
and Bushings — Overhauling, Bear Axle Assembly: Removing Rear Axle 
Housing, Bearings, Thrust Rings, Differential Gears, Ring Gears, Pinion 
Gear, Removing Drive Shaft, Drive-Pinion Bearings, Adjustments, Re- 
assembling — Lubrication: Oil Troughs, Reservoir, Level, Circulation, Vis- 
cosity, Carbon Formation and Effects, Oil Film — Carburet ion: Backfire, 
Adjustments, Gasoline Line, Spray Nozzle, Hot-Air Pipe, Throttle Ad- 
justment, Setting Carburetors for Heavy Fuels, Electrical System: 
Insulation, Magnetism. Ignition System: Spark Coils, Vibrator, Con- 
denser, Magneto, Magneto Output, Timer, Ignition Circuit, Testing 
Coils, Spark Plugs, Care of Ignition, Timer Wires. Generators: Func- 
tion, Regulation, Shunt-Wound, Cut-Out on Dash, Cut-Out on Generator, 
Current through Cut-Out, Ford Coil Circuit, Adjusting Cut-Out, Check- 
ing Cut-Out Action, Removing Generator, Armature, Wiring Diagrams, 
Generator Troubles, Generator Reversed, Shorts and Grounds, Brush 
Trouble, Spring Tension, Defective Insulation. Testing: Armature and 
Commutator, Short Circuit, Testing Fields, Open Circuit, Grounds, Re- 
versed Fields, Grounded Terminal. Electric Starter: Construction, 
Principle, Fields, Starter Consumption, Brushes, Removing and Dis- 
mantling Starter, Starter Troubles, Bendix Drive, . Starting Switch. 
Lighting System: Bulbs, Bulb Troubles, Switches, Switch Troubles, Horn 
Operation. General Information. Summary of Instructions. 

Glossary Page 381 

General Index . . . . Page 409 

•For page numbers, see foot of pages. 

tFor professional standing of authors, see list of Authors and Collabo- 
rators at front of volume. 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 

PART II 



CONTROL SYSTEM 
ENGINE GOVERNORS 

Need of Governors. Plowing. In order that a tractor may 
be operated most economically, it must be capable of one-man 
control since, in plowing, conditions are continually encountered 
where the driver's attention must be centered on the management 
of the plows and the steering of the machine to the exclusion of 
everything else. Moreover the demands upon the engine are con- 
fl . tinually varying even when the soil conditions are apparently uni- 

ci form for long stretches. Stones, roots, and extra heavy patches 

Jv of sod all impose considerable extra load pn the engine that can 

i} be met satisfactorily only by an automatically controlled throttle 

$ if a uniform plowing speed is to be maintained. 

^ Belt Work. A far greater load variation is encountered in 

I £ belt work than in plowing, as in the former the engine may be 

' *\ running practically idle at one moment and be almost choked 

Pi] % down" by overloading the next, whereas in the latter there is 
j always a load on the engine and therefore the danger of racing is 

I absent. Irregular speed under changing load, racing of the idle 

engine, and tardy opening of the throttle to meet the increased 
load, all of which are unavoidable with hand control, represent 
I conditions of operation which not only reduce production at the 

; machine being driven but are very bad for the engine itself as 

t they result in overheating, prevent proper lubrication, and, not 

\ infrequently, result in burned-out bearings. In any case the pro- 

vision of a governor on the engine releases a hand for other and 
; more productive labor. The majority of tractors go into service 

? in the hands of an unskilled operator, and unless there is a governor 

! on the engine, his course of instruction is likely to be marked by 

the occurrence of more or less damage that automatic control 
would prevent. 



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98 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

Centrifugal Governors. Despite almost innumerable attempts 
to displace it, the centrifugal principle first taken advantage of 
more than a century ago to control the speed of a steam engine is 
still in almost universal use for this purpose. Most tractor 
engines are equipped with what is commonly termed a fly-ball 
governor, though the details of the mechanism and the character 
of the throttle valve it is employed to control differ more or less. 
In its simplest form such a governor consists of two weights on 
the end of oppositely placed arms which are pivoted on a spindle 
connected to the throttle valve, either directly or through suitable 
linkage, so that any movement of the weights is communicated 
directly to the throttle. On a stationary engine the governor may 



Fig. 58. Simplex Engine Governor 
Courtesy of Duplex Engine Governor Company, Brooklyn, New York 

be placed upright and is not subjected to vibration or jolting, so 
that gravity alone may be depended upon to keep the weights in 
their normal position, but on the tractor springs are usually 
employed, and the governor may then be placed in any position. 
When running below a certain speed, either gravity or the pull of 
the spring is sufficiently strong to keep the weights together against 
the shaft or close to it. But as the speed increases, centrifugal 
force acts on the weights and tends to make them assume a posi- 
tion at right angles to the shaft. The faster the engine runs, the 
closer the weights approach to this position, but as their move- 
ment brings about a proportionate closing of the throttle, the 
engine is not given an opportunity to increase its speed. A well- 
balanced governor of this type will operate so sensitively that 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 99 

there will be practically no perceptible change in speed between 
idling and full load. So far as the tractor is concerned, centrif- 
ugal governors are of two general types, those that are an inte- 
gral part of the design of the engine and are built right into it 
and those that are in the nature of auxiliary devices designed to 
be attached to the inlet manifold between the carburetor and the 
intake valves. 

Auxiliary Types. The Simplex governor, shown in Fig. 58, 
and the Pierce, illustrated in Fig. 59, are examples of governors 
designed to be adapted to any make of motor, the only modifica- 
tion necessary depending upon the details of the drive, since the 
governor must be driven directly from the motor itself. In the 



Fig. 59. Section of Pierce Engine Governor 
Courtesy of Pierce Governor Company, Anderson, Indiana 

Simplex the governor weights, which are housed in the casing just 
under and to the left of the oil plug shown, operate a grid valve 
the openings of which appear in the intake manifold flange at the 
left. The driving attachment, designed in this instance for a 
flexible shaft drive, appears at the right. Fig. 60 shows the 
attachment of a Simplex governor to a Continental motor, the 
drive in this case consisting of a solid shaft and bevel gears 
operating from the camshaft. The governor is set for the maxi- 
mum speed to which the motor on which it is mounted is best 
adapted and is then sealed, as shown at the left end. As the 
governor mechanism runs in a bath of oil, it requires no attention 
except to replenish the oil from time to time. 



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Fig. 60. Installation of Simplex Governor on Continental Motor of Bullock Tractor 
Courtesy of Bullock Tractor Company, Chicago, Illinois 



Fig. 61. Installation of Pierce Governor on Buda Motor 
Courtesy of Pierce Governor Company, Anderson, Indiana 



14 



GASOLINE TRACTORS 101 

The Pierce governor, which is shown in horizontal section, 
operates a conventional butterfly type of throttle valve such as is 
used in the majority of carburetors. This valve is shown at the 
left, while the weights and the driving attachment are at the right. 
Between the two is the spring against which the centrifugal force 
of the revolving weights must act to close the throttle. Just above 



Fig. 62. Built-in Governor of Creeping-Grip Tractor 
Courtesy of Bullock Tractor Company, Chicago, Illinois 

the left-hand end of this spring will be noted a screw adjustment 
by means of which the speed for which the governor is set may be 
altered. Increasing the tension of the spring by screwing this in 
permits an increase in the speed of the motor since the weights 
must then revolve at a higher speed in order to overcome the pull 
of the spring. This is the principle upon which the adjustment of 



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102 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

all centrifugal governors is based. One method of attaching the 
Pierce governor is illustrated in Fig. 61, which shows it mounted 

on a Buda motor and driven 
through bevel gearing from the 
camshaft. 

Built-in Types. The part 
sectional end view of the engine 
of the Creeping Grip tractor, 
Fig. 62, illustrates an excellent 
example of a built-in governor. 
This is driven from a transverse 

Fig. 63. Governor and Magnetic Unit of shaft which takes its power 

Creeping^Gnp Tractor Motor through helical cut gearing from 

Courtesy of Bullock Tractor Company, ° ° ° 

Chicago, Illinois tne timing gear of the motor, the 

same shaft also serving as the magneto drive. In expanding, 
the revolving weights draw in the sliding shaft shown, which is 
linked to a bell-crank lever at its outer end. The lever is attached 
to the throttle, which will be noted just to the right of the carbu- 



Fig. 64. Emerson-Brantingham Motor, Showing Governor 
Courtesy of Emerson-Brantingham Company, Rockford, Illinois 

retor. This bell-crank lever is also attached by linkage to a dash 
pot to prevent the governor from "hunting," or "surging," as it is 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 103 

variously termed, that is, fluctuating violently over a wide speed 
range. This governor is designed to control the speed of the 
motor between a minimum and a maximum of 400 to 700 r.p.m. 
and is adjustable by means of the hand lever shown in Fig. 63, 
which illustrates the combined governor and magneto unit before 
attachment to the motor. 

In Fig. 64, which shows the complete power plant of the 
Emerson-Brantingham 12-20 tractor, is illustrated another type of 
built-in governor, the details of which are clearly shown. This 
governor is driven by a belt and is of the usual steam-engine type 
in which the weights are carried on leaf springs, the movement 
being transmitted to the throttle through the linkage shown. 

TRACTOR CLUTCHES 

Functions of Clutches. Since the internal combustion motor 
cannot be started under load and will stall if the load be applied 
too suddenly, even though the engine is developing its full power, 
it is necessary to employ a means of picking up the load gradually 
as well as of connecting or disconnecting the motor from the load 
as desired. This means is the clutch; and clutch problems on the 
tractor are the same in kind but greater in degree than those 
encountered on the automobile since the load to be started is so 
much greater. An automobile need start its own weight only and 
in doing so it encounters but slight rolling resistance, whereas the 
tractor must not only get a very much greater weight under way 
but in starting it must overcome the far greater resistance repre- 
sented by the plows or other load and also that of the ground 
itself. 

As a general rule the types of clutches employed on tractors 
are the same as those used on automobiles, but they are given a 
considerably increased area of contact surfaces and these surfaces 
are held together under much higher spring pressures in order to 
carry the heavier load. Regardless of its type, the principle of 
the friction clutch is based upon holding the driving surface 
(directly connected to the motor) and the driven surface (directly 
connected to the transmission or speed reduction gear) in contact 
under a pressure per square inch that is greater than that exerted 
by the engine in carrying the load. When the pressure required 



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104 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

to carry the load exceeds that exerted by the clutch spring, the 
contact surfaces slide upon one another and the clutch is said to 
slip. Unless this slipping took place, some one of the links in the 
transmission between the wheels or tracks and the engine would 
have to give way or the engine itself would be stalled by the load. 
It is accordingly the function of the clutch to slip, first, to insure 
gradual engagement in picking up the load and, second, to pre- 
vent damage to the transmission or the motor when the load 
becomes excessive. The latter function, however, is more impor- 
tant in theory than in practice since an excessive load almost 



Pig. 65. Transmission Unit of Illinois Tractor Showing Multiple-Disc Clutch 
Courtesy of Illinois Tractor Company, Bloomington, Illinois 

invariably stalls the motor before the clutch begins to slip, unless 
its surfaces have become glazed through wear or its spring has 
weakened. 

Types of Clutches. In practically every case the flywheel of 
the motor itself forms the driving member of the clutch. The 
driven member may be a cone faced with asbestos-wire fabric, a 
plate faced with similar friction fabric, or a contracting band 
similarly faced which is mounted so as to contact with the rim of 
the flywheel itself or with that of a smaller drum attached to the 
flywheel; or friction-faced shoes may be arranged to expand 
against the inner face of the flywheel. The moving force in every 
ease is the clutch spring. In the order mentioned, these types are 
known as the cone, plate, contracting-band, and expanding-band, 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 



105 



or expanding-shoe, clutches. Where a greater contact area is 
desired than is afforded by the diameter of the flywheel, a series 
of plates or discs is employed. These plates are divided into two 
groups, one of which is carried on spindles or bolts attached to 



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Fig. 66. Section of Dry-Plate Clutch As Used on Moline Tractor 
Courtesy of Moline Plow Company, Moline, Illinois 

the flywheel and forms the driving member, while the second 
group is similarly mounted on members attached to the clutch 
shaft and forms the driven member. When in engagement, the 
two groups are pressed together by the clutch spring in the same 
manner as m other types of clutches. This clutch is known as the 



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106 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

multiple-disc type, and in some instances it operates in a bath of 
lubricating oil, the latter being squeezed from between the plates 
as they come in contact, thus ensuring gradual engagement. In 
Fig. 65 is shown the multiple-disc clutch of the Illinois tractor, 
the clutch being the small group of plates shown at one end of the 
transmission unit. 

Plate Type. The sectional diagram, Fig. 66, not only serves 
to illustrate the details of the dry-plate clutch but also makes 
clear the principles of clutch operation. This is the Borg and 
Beck clutch as used on the Moline tractor. One of the asbestos 



Fig. 67. Main Clutch of Holt Caterpillar Tractor 
Courtesy of Holt Manufacturing Company, Inc., Peoria, Illinois 

rings shown is attached to the flywheel, while the second ring is 
carried on the driven clutch member, while between the two is the 
clutch disc, which is a ring or disc of steel also attached to the 
clutch shaft. By means of the collar and toggle levers which mul- 
tiply the force exerted by the spring, this clutch disc is clamped 
between the two asbestos rings when the clutch is engaged. The 
backward pressure, or reaction of the spring, is taken on the ball 
thrust bearing shown, this being an essential of all types of cone 
or plate clutches since otherwise this back pressure of the spring 
would cause considerable frictional resistance to the revolution of 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 107 

the clutch shaft. The screw marked A is an adjustment to main- 
tain the distance B indicated, this distance being necessary for 
the complete release of the clutch when disengaged. 

Expanding-Shoe Type. The Lauson tractor clutch affords an 
example of the expanding-shoe type which calls for very little 



! • NOTE-THE FORWARD. REVERSE AND STOPPING MOTION IS ACCOMPUSHED 

j BY THK SUOIW MOVKV »T OF TUB BM.T WHF.K SHAI; THE «)ll|Ffc KENT 

J Mui'oK f^CK ANl» KuKrH^wmCH IS W>NE BY A LEVER IN THE CAB. 

Fig. 68. Friction Transmission of Heider Tractor 
Courtesy of Rock Island Plow Company, Rock Island, Illinois 

explanation. Against the inner face of the flywheel are two 
pivoted shoes which are counterbalanced. These shoes are faced 
with asbestos brake lining and are designed to be held in contact 
with the inner face of the flywheel rim by means of the toggle 
mechanism shown. The spring has the same location as in other 



21 



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108 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

types of clutches, while its purpose, like that of other clutches, is 
to hold the clutch friction surfaces together under a pressure 
greater than that exerted by the engine in driving the tractor 
under load. The main clutch of the Holt caterpillar tractor is of 
a similar type, Fig. 67. 

Contracting-Band Clutch. Neither the contracting-band nor 
the cone clutch calls for much description. The contracting-band 
clutch is practically a duplicate of the usual brake mechanism in 
which a friction-lined band is pressed against a revolving drum to 
bring the latter to a stop. In the case of such a clutch the object 
is to bring the contracting band to a stop on the drum, which is 



Fig. 69. Bevel Friction Transmission of Square Turn Tractor 
Courtesy of Square Turn Tractor Company, Norfolk, Nebraska 

the flywheel, so that both the band and the flywheel revolve 
together, this really being the only difference between the brake 
and the clutch mechanism. The contracting band is attached to 
the clutch shaft, or driven member, and when in operation, 
revolves with it, thus carrying the load. This clutch is used in 
connection with a planetary type of transmission and is accord- 
ingly familiar through its employment on many thousand Fords. 
Cone Clutch. In the cone clutch the inner face of the fly- 
wheel is turned to a bevel of approximately 30 degrees to form 
the driving member into which a cone-shaped member with the 
same bevel and lined with asbestos or other friction facing is 

22 

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GASOLINE TRACTORS 109 

pressed by the spring. Owing to the necessarily limited area of 
friction contact in this type of clutch, a high spring pressure is 
necessary where a heavy load must be transmitted. 

On the automobile this spring pressure is very much less than 
on the tractor owing to the slight resistance encountered by the 
machine in starting, so that the clutch may readily be disengaged 
with the foot through the medium of a short lever and pedal, but 
on any tractor except a very light one the effort required to do 
this would be excessive. The usual method of clutch operation on 
the tractor is accordingly by means of a long hand lever provided 
with a ratchet or locking detent, so that the clutch may be held 
out of engagement. Since it does not benefit the spring to keep it 
compressed, the clutch should not be locked out of engagement 
any longer than is necessary to shift the transmission gears to 
neutral, when the clutch should again be allowed to engage. 
Holding the clutch out of engagement overnight or while the 
tractor is standing in the field subjects the clutch spring to abuse 
and will soon result in weakening it to the point where the clutch 
slips whenever any extra load comes on it. 

Friction Drive. While all the types of clutches mentioned 
are, in a sense, a friction drive in that friction is depended upon 
to transmit the power, the so-called friction drive is one in which 
the load transmitting members revolve independently of one 
another except for a single point, or line, of contact. This is 
made clear by the illustration of the friction transmission of the 
Ileider tractor, Fig. 68. The flywheel is the driving member, as 
usual, but in this case its entire outer rim is covered with a 
special friction facing consisting of hard fiber. The flywheel 
rotates between two large steel discs, either one of which may be 
pressed against it. In this instance the left-hand disc is used for 
forward movement and the right-hand disc for backing, or reverse. 
It is also apparent that the point at which the flywheel makes 
contact with the disc determines the speed at which the latter and 
the tractor itself are driven. 

In the position shown the tractor speed will be the lowest 
provided, since the flywheel is in contact with the outer edge of 
the disc, so that the relation of the two is that of a small gear to 
a large one and the speed of the latter is reduced. As the fly- 



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110 



GASOLINE TRACTORS 



wheel moves toward the center of the driven disc, the relationship 
between the two becomes that of driving and driven gears which 
approach closer and closer to the same size, so that the speed of 
the driven member is increased. This movement of the flywheel 
is accomplished by mounting the motor itself on slides on the 
frame and moving it backward or forward by means of a large 
hand lever. The direction of movement of the tractor depends 
upon which disc is pressed against the flywheel. 










r 13 !. 




m 'w/a 






|y?L. 


s&S/i 




4 C 


J 


Jl 


* 


T 









Both Wheels Forward 




1°. 








♦ 


1 


(£\ 


jf 



Botfi Wheels Reversed 



Right Wheel Forward 



Left Wheel Forward 



Right Wheel Reversed 







p, 


Ml * 


£ t||> 


I PJ 


Hei 1 



2>// WteeZ Reversed 



Right Wheel Forward — 
L<?// WfotfJ Reversed 



Left Wheel Forward- 
Right Wheel Reversed 



The two views above show positions of Bevels and 
Cones in making quick short turn either direction 



Fig. 70. Details of Operation of Bevel Friction Transmission 
Courtesy of Square Turn Tractor Company, Norfolk, Nebraska 

Bevel Friction Drive. The form of friction drive employed on 
the Square Turn tractor is shown in Fig. 69. In this drive the 
principle is exactly the same as already outlined, except that 
friction-faced (fiber) conical members take the place of the fly- 
wheel as the driving member and corresponding cones of iron are 
the driven members. The design is also modified to permit of 
driving either rear wheel independently or both in different direc- 
tions at the same time in order to turn short corners. The small 
diagrams showing the different relations in which the driving and 
driven members may be placed, Fig. 70, explain the operations 
much better than a description. A separate hand lever controls 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 111 

each of the driven discs, or traction members. Moving both of 
them forward drives the machine ahead through both driving 
wheels; pulling them back reverses the movement; and each may 
be used independently, so that one drives forward while the other 
is backing, thus turning the machine as if on a pivot. 

TRACTOR TRANSMISSIONS 

Speed vs. Weight. The power generated in an engine, 
whether by the expansion of steam or that of the ignited gases in 
an oil engine, is converted into mechanical energy by applying it 
to the movement of weight, and the power itself is represented by 
the extent of that weight and the number of times per minute 
that it is moved. Hence, for a given power the slower the speed 
at which the engine runs, the heavier must be the weight moved 
since it is set into movement a smaller number of times per min- 
ute. By increasing the speed, or number of impulses per minute, 
the weight moved can be correspondingly reduced. This fact 
explains why 25 hp. may be generated by a single cylinder sta- 
tionary gas engine running at 250 r.p.m. or by a four-cylinder 
motor running at 1000 r.p.m. and why one motor is scarcely more 
than one-eighth the size of the other, although their power output 
is the same. The single cylinder engine will weigh 2 tons or more 
and will have flywheels of large diameter weighing more than the 
total weight of the smaller engine, but both move the same amount 
of weight per minute. 

Automobile Practice. On the automobile the object of the 
designer is to keep the total weight down as much as possible con- 
sistent with reliability, so that light high-speed motors running up 
to 2000 r.p.m. or higher are employed. Such motors are practical 
for automobile use because the speed ratio between the driving 
and driven members — the motor and the rear wheels — is not 
excessive despite the high speed of the motor. 

Tractor Practice. But on the tractor, where the maximum 
speed in plowing cannot exceed three miles per hour and is pref- 
erably less than that (2| miles per hour is recommended by the 
Society of Automotive Engineers and most tractors are designed 
to plow at 2\ miles per hour), the higher the speed of the motor, 
the greater the number of steps required in the gear reductiqn, ancl : 
each step represents a loss of power in friction as well as addfr 



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112 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

tional parts to wear out. Since the tractor is not subject to the 
same weight limitations as the automobile, there is no advantage 
in employing a light high-speed motor. Generally speaking, the 
slower the speed of the motor consistent with the avoidance of 
excessive weight, the better adapted it is to tractor use. The 
slow-speed motor running at 450 to 750 r.p.m. also has the further 
advantage of subjecting its moving parts to less rapid wear in 
service and, other things being equal, should require less attention 
to keep in satisfactory running condition. 

Function of Transmission. In the section on tractor motors 
it has been pointed out that the types in general use belong to 
two distinct classes: those which have developed with the station- 
ary engine as a basis; and those that are an outgrowth of auto- 
mobile practice. In either case the engine will only develop its 
normal rated power when allowed to run steadily at a rate close 
to its maximum speed. A gear reduction must accordingly be 
interposed between the motor and the driving members of the 
tractor; the speed of the motor determines how great this reduc- 
tion must be, while the space and the limit of weight available 
determine what form it will take. Whether consisting of a com- 
pact unit such as is used on the automobile or of large pinions 
and gears occupying the entire space between the frame members 
of the tractor, this speed reducing mechanism is usually termed 
the transmission. This name includes everything between the clutch 
and the final application of the power to the wheels or the tracks, 
which is termed the final drive. 

Wide Range of Types. Since tractor motors differ so widely, 
there is naturally a correspondingly wide range of types of trans- 
missions, the latter varying all the way from what is practically a 
duplicate of the gear train used on heavy steam tractors, or road 
rollers, to the light and compact gear box used on high-speed 
automobiles. A few illustrations of typical examples of each class 
will suffice to give an idea of how widely this feature of the trac- 
tor varies on different designs. In comparing these, it should be 
borne in mind that while increased width of gear face affords & 
larger wearing surface to carry the load and large gear diameter 
means fewer steps in the reduction, these advantages may be offset 
by the" exposure of the gears to dirt and mud. 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 113 

The great differences in size and weight, in many cases where 
the same amount of power is to be transmitted, are accounted for 
by a similarly great difference in the character of the materials 
used. Small pinions and gears running at high speeds must be 
made of alloy steels, hardened and toughened by heat treatment, 
and must be run in a bath of oil. Large broad-faced gears, on 
the other hand, may be made of steel castings or even cast iron, 
and it is the usual practice to run them to a great extent without 
protection. 

Speeds. Since the speed range of the average farm tractor is 
necessarily very low, its requirements are usually covered by the 
provision of but two forward speeds and one reverse. A few 
machines are provided with three speed transmissions, but this is 
the exception and is due to the use of either a high-speed motor 
or an automobile-type transmission. On low gear, which is equiva- 
lent to a forward speed of about one mile per hour, the speed 
reduction between the motor and the driving wheels of the tractor 
may range all the way from 40-1 to 80-1, that is, the motor 
makes 80 revolutions to a single turn of the driving wheels in the 
second case mentioned. Such a great difference between the motor 
speed and that of the machine itself necessitates a number of gear 
reductions, each one of which involves a power loss in itself and 
also presents an extra wearing surface that needs replacement 
sooner or later. Generally speaking, the lower the speed of the 
motor consistent with the avoidance of excessive weight, the less 
loss there will be in the transmission of the power to the rear 
wheels or tracks, as the case may be. The point below which it 
does not pay to reduce the motor speed appears to line between 
400 and 500 r.p.m., as beyond that the weight increases all out of 
proportion to the advantage gained, while the upper limit lies 
between 700 and 800 r.p.m.; that is, a low-speed motor would 
govern between these limits, say 450 to 750 r.p.m., and its trans- 
mission would be designed to take care of the difference between 
750 r.p.m. and the number of turns per minute made by the 
driving wheels, which would depend upon their diameter. 

A high-speed motor, on the other hand, would run at 1000 to 
1200 r.p.m. and its power would fall off very rapidly the moment 
its speed dropped below 800 r.p.m. To avoid an excessive number 



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114 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

of gear reductions, the driving wheels of a tractor equipped with a 
high-speed motor would usually be made comparatively small, 



Fig. 71. Friction Drive of the Port Huron 12-25 H.P. Farm Tractor 
Couriesy of Port Huron Engine and Thresher Company. Port Huron. Michigan 



28 

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GASOLINE TRACTORS 115 

which is a disadvantage since such a tractor is constantly climbing 
the grade formed by its small wheels sinking into soft earth, or 
depressions, and is accordingly expending a large fraction of its 



Fig. 72. Plan View of Avery Transmission 
Courtesy of Avery Company, Peoria, Illinois 



power in lifting itself rather than in driving ahead. It does not 
necessarily follow that a tractor equipped with a high-speed motor 
always has small driving wheels, since the reduction in speed 
required may be taken care of in the final drive. 



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116 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

Heavy Types. Those transmissions which, as already men- 
tioned, represent a continuance of the practice followed for years 
on heavy steam tractors and road rollers are known as heavy 
types. Such a transmission is shown in Fig. 71, which gives a plan 
view of the Port Huron 12-25 friction-driven tractor. It also 
affords an example of a tractor with a comparatively high-speed 
engine equipped with large driving wheels. There are three gear 
reductions in all: the first will be noted at the left; the second is 
from this transverse shaft to a central gear on a shorter transverse 
shaft which also carries two small pinions meshing with the bull 



Fig. 73. Transmission ana Differential ot 75 HP. Tracklayer Tractor 
Courtesy of C. L. Best Gas Tractor Company, San Leandro, California 

gears. Ordinarily the bull gears are attached directly to the driv- 
ing wheels, but in that location it is difficult to protect them, 
while in the present design they are completely encased. 

Since a tractor must make very short turns and both wheels 
must be driven when going straight ahead, a differential is indis- 
pensable. When rounding a short turn, it will be evident that the 
wheel on the outside of the curve must travel a much greater dis- 
tance than that on the inside and that if both were driven at an 
equal speed, one would be forced to slip and impose a heavy 
strain on the machine. If the ground condition were such that 
the wheel would not slip, rounding the turn would be difficult. 



30 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 



117 



In the Port Huron tractor illustrated the differential is located in 
the second transverse shaft which carries the pinions meshing with 
the bull gears. As changes in speed are effected through the fric- 
tion drive, the gears of this transmission are constantly in mesh. 

The Avery transmission shown in Fig. 72, is another example 
of the heavy type, the illustration showing the relation of the 
horizontal motor to the transmission. The two forward speed 
reductions are represented by the two pinions of different sizes 
carried directly on the crank- 
shaft of the motor, while the 
reverse speed is the pinion 
just forward of these. The 
transverse shaft just under 
the rear end of the motor 
embodies the differential the 
housing of which will be noted 
at the right. This shaft also 
carries the pinions meshing 
with the bull gears. The com- 
plete power plant is carried on 
a sliding frame, and the differ- 
ent speed changes are effected 
by moving the motor so as to 
bring the different pinions into 
mesh with the large gear car- 
rying the differential. 

Intermediate Types. Be- 
tween the heavy types just 
described and what is prac- 
tically a motor-truck transmission, there are a number of trans- 
missions that conform to some degree Vith automobile gear-box 
practice but are built on much heavier lines, for example, the 
transmission of the Best 75 hp. tracklayer type tractor shown in 
Fig. 73. Sliding gears are employed for the speed changes, and a 
bevel pinion and driving gear on the counter-shaft which incorpo- 
rates the differential, the internal bevel gear of which shows plainly 
in the illustration. A typical automobile-type transmission is the 
Cotta, Fig. 74, as used on the Four Drive tractor. 



Fig. 74. Cotta -A utomobile Transmission of Dog- 
Clutch Type As Used on Four-Drive Tractor 
Courtesy of Cotta Transmission Company, 
Rockford, Illinois 



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118 GASOLINE TRACTORS 



Fig. 75. TransmissioD and Spring Drive Differential of 16-30 Oil-Pull Tractor 
Courtesy of Advance-Rumely Thresher Company, Inc., Laporte, Indiana 



Fig. 76. Transmission of Turner Tractor 

Courtesy of Turner Manufacturing Company, Port Washington, 

Wisconsin 



32 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 119 

A clearer view of the details of the mechanism of a differential 
is shown in Fig. 75, which illustrates the Rumely 16-30 transmis- 
sion. One of the features of this differential is the use of a series 
of eight springs for taking up the shock of starting which will be 
noted just inside the large gear. Upon engaging the clutch, these 
springs must first be compressed before the load falls upon the gear 
teeth, thus cushioning the latter. Other similar transmissions are 
the Turner, Fig. 76, the Hart-Parr, Fig. 77, and the Nilson, Fig. 78. 



Fig. 77. Transmission of Hart-Parr Tractor 
Courtesy of Hart-Parr Company, Charles City, Iowa 

Special Types. In Fig. 79 is shown a plan view of the trans- 
mission of the Twin City 25-45 tractor, a feature of which is the 
use of toothed, or dog, clutches, the details of which are clearly 
shown. This view also shows the contracting-band clutch used on 
this machine. The dome just to the right of and forward of the 
flywheel houses the engine governor. Automobile practice is 
closely approached in the Yuba transmission, Fig. 80, and in the 
Holt caterpillar transmission, the gear box of the 10-ton Holt 



33 



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Fig. 78. Transmission of Nilson Tractor 
Courtesy of Nilson Tractor Company 



Fig. 79. Contracting-Band Clutch and Transmission of Twin City Tractor 
Courtesy of Minneapolis Steel and Machinery Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota 



34 



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Fig. 80. Dual Automobile Type Transmission of Yuba Tractor 
Courtesy of Yuba Manufacturing Company, MaryiviUe, California 



Fig. 81. Transmission of 10-Ton Holt Caterpillar 
Courtesy of Holt Manufacturing Company, Inc., Peoria, Illinois 



35 



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Fig. 78. Transmission of Nilson Tractor 
Courtesy of Nilson Tractor Company 



Fig. 79. Contracting-Band Clutch and Transmission of Twin City Tractor 
Courtesy of Minneapolis Steel and Machinery Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota 



34 



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Fig. 80. Dual Automobile Type Transmission of Yuba Tractor 
Courtesy of Yuba Manufacturing Company, Marysvdle, California 



Fig. 81. Transmission of 10-Ton Holt Caterpillar 
Courtesy of Holt Manufacturing Company, Inc., Peoria, Illinois 



35 



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122 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

tractor being shown in Fig. 81. Both these types are of the selec- 
tive sliding-gear type generally used in automobiles, the Yuba 



Fig. 82. Worm Drive of Sandusky Tractor 
Courtesy of Dauch Manufacturing Company, Sandusky, Ohio 



Fig. 83. Transmission of Huber Light Four Tractor 
Courtesy of Huber Manufacturing Company, Marion, Ohio 

transmission clearly showing the individual clutches which are 
used in the tracklaying machine to enable the operator to drive 
either track separately when turning. A feature taken directly 



36 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 123 

from automobile practice is the use of the worm drive, Fig. 82. The 
Huber, Fig. 83, is a type that is in a class by itself. Its details 
and method of operation are clearly indicated in the illustration. 
Final Drive. As in the case of the automobile there is a 
further speed reduction between the engine and rear wheels in the 
final drive, but as the speed reduction between the tractor engine 
and its driving members, whether the latter be wheels or tracks, 
is so great, this cannot take the form of a small pair of bevel 



Fig. 84. Sectional View of Emerson-Brantingham Company Transmission, Showing Oil Level 
Courtesy of Emerson-Brantingham Company, Rockford, Illinois 

gears. The usual method is to employ bull gears, or internal gear 
rings of large diameter which are bolted to the driving wheels and 
with which small pinions on the ends of the transverse shafts of 
the change-speed gear mesh. In some instances automobile prac- 
tice is followed by using a live axle. This is a combination of a 
sliding change-speed gear of the selective type with a planetary 
gear. The sectional view of the Emerson-Brantingham transmission, 
Fig. 84, clearly shows the relation of the selective sliding gears and 
the oil level necessary for lubrication. 



37 



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Fig. 85. Details of Final Drive, or Track of Holt Caterpillar Tractor 
Courtesy oj Holt Manufacturing Company, Inc., Peoria, Illinois 



Fig. 86. Final Drive of C. L. Best Tracklayer Tractor 
Courtesy of C. L. Best Gas Tractor Company, San Leandro, California 



Fig. 87. Details of Final Drive of Yuba Ball-Tread Tractor 
Courtesy of Yuba Manufacturing Company, Marysville, California 



38 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 125 

final drive in tracklaying machines is usually through large 
sprockets on the ends of the transverse shaft, these sprockets 
meshing in the track itself. The track runs on rollers or balls 
and passes around an idler at the end of the tread, this idler 
being made adjustable so as to vary the tension on the con- 
tinuous track. The details of the Holt caterpillar, the Best 
tracklayer, and the Yuba ball-tread machines of this type are 
shown in Figs. 85, 86, and 87, which make the principles of 
operation so clear that further explanation is unnecessary. 

Only a brief mention has been made of a few of the differ- 
ent types of transmissions and final drives employed on tractors, 
there being so many that it would be out of the question to 
attempt to describe all of them, particularly since not a few 
have numerous special features. The foregoing examples, how- 
ever, cover the principles employed in practically all tractor 
transmissions and suffice to make clear the manner in which 
these principles are applied. 

TRACTOR OPERATION 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 

Tractors Different in Design but Alike in Care Required. In 

the foregoing pages an attempt has been made to outline briefly 
the principles of tractor operation with just sufficient references 
to actual types to make the text clear. At the present stage of 
development it is hardly possible to select any one manufacturer's 
product as typical of tractor design in general or as embodying 
throughout those features of design which are most likely to become 
standardized during the next five years of development. There are 
so many different makes on the market and frequently so many 
models of each make that it would require a volume larger than the 
present one merely to give a brief description of all of them. Con- 
sequently, no extended descriptions of any tractors are given here. 
While designs and details of construction differ so widely 
and so frequently, all oil or gas engine tractors are based on 
certain underlying principles and all call for the same kind of 
care. The remainder of this article is accordingly devoted to 
an outline of the methods >f handling tractors in service with a 



39 



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126 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

view to pointing out clearly just the kind of care the machine 
needs to keep it running efficiently. To facilitate reference, this 
information is put in the form of questions and answers grouped 
under the particular subjects which they cover. 

Degree of Care Necessary. Before taking up the detailed 
consideration of tractor operation it is well to revert for a moment 
to the comparison between the automobile and the tractor in 
order to emphasize the great difference in the conditions of oper- 
ation of the two. It is a great mistake for the owner or operator 
of a tractor to conclude that because he can keep his car running 
for weeks at a time and subject it to the severest kind of service 
without being called upon to give it more than passing atten- 
tion at infrequent intervals, the same amount of care will suffice 
to keep the tractor running equally well. The most severe 
service to which an automobile can be subjected is trifling com- 
pared to what a tractor must undergo in plowing ten hours a 
day. No comparison between the two is possible. The atten- 
tion demanded in running a tractor is really only comparable to 
that required by a marine engine which is run steadily at full 
power. 

It is naturally impracticable to employ more than one man 
to run the average tractor so that the single operator must 
assume the combined tasks of the oiler, engine-room attendant, 
and engineer on watch in the engine room of a steamer. He 
must see that every part is constantly lubricated, must watch 
all moving parts in sight from time to time and keep all his 
senses on the alert all the time to detect the first indications of 
overheating or faulty operation as evidenced by the sounds 
produced. 

Parts Giving Most Trouble. Over two thousand tractor 
owners sent in reports in answer to a questionnaire forwarded to 
them by the Department of Agriculture. In answer to the ques- 
tion "What part of your tractor gives you most trouble?" more 
than seven hundred mentioned some part of the motor and of 
that number considerably over one-half gave the ignition as the 
chief source of delay. A leading tractor manufacturer substan- 
tiates this by stating in his instruction book that the motor is 
responsible for fully 75 per cent of all tractor troubles and that 



40 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 127 

70 per cent of the motor trouble is due to the ignition. A 
resum6 of the answers sent in to the questionnaire follows: 



Magnetos 


299 


Cylinders and pistons 


61 


Spark plugs 


110 


Clutch 


59 


Gears 


108 


Valves and springs 


43 


Carburetor 


104 


Lubrication 


29 


Bearings 


80 


Starting 


28 



The figures given in each case represent the number of tractor 
owners who gave the part in question as the chief cause of their 
troubles in operation. These figures do not, however, give any 
idea of the relative importance of the parts as sources of trouble. 
Failure of the magneto, or even of a spark plug, brings the 
tractor to a halt, but the trouble may usually be remedied in a 
very short time and no damage is caused, whereas a breakdown 
due to faulty lubrication, or to the failure of the cooling system, 
which is not mentioned at all, will usually involve the loss of 
anywhere from a day to a week besides a heavy repair bill. 

Supply of Spares Necessary. The cost of an ample supply 
of spare parts is small compared with the time that is saved 
when the part most needed is right at hand and can be installed 
without delay, so that a number of spares of the most necessary 
parts should be considered part of the investment and be bought 
at the same time as the machine. Unless it be an ocean-going 
steamer, there is hardly another piece of machinery that per- 
forms such strenuous service so far from a repair and supply 
base as does the tractor. It would be just as foolish for the 
chief engineer of a steamer to leave port without any spare 
parts in the storeroom and still expect to arrive at his destina- 
tion, regardless of what happened, as it is for a farmer to pur- 
chase a tractor and expect to get through his first, second, or 
any other season of plowing or threshing without vexatious delays 
unless he has on hand spares of the parts most frequently needed. 

Manufacturer's Service Poor. While it would not be just to 
generalize by saying that the service rendered the purchaser by 
every manufacturer of tractors is poor, this is true in many cases 
and must always remain so for the farmer who is located miles 
from the nearest dealer representing the factory. It is nothing 
unusual to waste from half a day to a day, telephoning and 



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128 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

waiting for a part to be sent out or driving in for it. The 
dealer may be off for the day in some other part of the county, 
making a demonstration or closing a sale, and there may be no 
one in his place of business to render the desired service. Mean- 
while, the machine is standing idle. There are few replacements 
that the experienced driver of a tractor cannot make without 
other assistance than that provided by the usual farm shop, so 
that if the parts are on hand little time will be lost in getting 
the machine under way again. 

Parts Needed. While the make of the tractor in question 
will determine the character of many of the spares that should 
be carried by its owner, there are some that are needed with all 
makes. These are valves, valve springs, and small parts needed 
in connection with the valves, ignitors, or make-and-break plugs 
for low-tension ignition systems, also ignitor trip rods, or rather 
the small parts which compose the fittings of the rod rather than 
the rod itself, since the latter is not subjected to wear. Spare 
connecting cables cut to length and fitted with terminals, whether 
for high- or low-tension systems, will often be found valuable. 
Extra fan belts and spark plugs should hardly be called spare 
parts in this connection since they are absolute necessities at 
comparatively short intervals. Hose connections between the 
motor and the radiator are also in the same class. Where a 
motor is equipped with die-cast main bearings or connecting-rod 
bearings, a spare set will often prove to be worth many times 
its cost in the saving of plowing or threshing time, since even 
well-attended machines do suffer breakdowns from burnt-out bear- 
ings at times. Extra piston rings as well as an extra piston 
and a connecting rod are likely to be called for sooner or later. 
The magneto is a pretty expensive piece of equipment and, more- 
over, it is usually so reliable that it will continue to work season 
after season without giving any trouble. But when it does break 
down, it is sometimes beyond the ability of the tractor operator 
to make the repair. Where two or more tractors are operated on 
a farm and the same magneto is standard on all of them, it 
would pay to invest in a spare, though at any time but the 
height of the season the laying up of one tractor would probably 
not cause any trouble. 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 129 

The foregoing discussion has been confined to enumerating 
motor parts or accessories that should be carried as spares since 
they are common to practically all motors. So far- as the rest 
of the machine is concerned, the owner must either learn from 
experience what parts are likely to wear out rapidly and need 
replacement at short intervals, or he must depend upon the 
manufacturer's representative to give him this information. 
Naturally, the maker and his salesmen do not wish to give the 
impression that any of the machine's parts will need replacement 
in a short time, and in a good many instances they are as much 
in the dark as the purchaser is, since it may be that the model 
has just been placed on the market and there has been no oppor- 
tunity to learn its weak points in actual service. 

Both the time spent in getting information of this kind and 
the money invested in the necessary spare parts will return very 
substantial dividends when the occasion arises to use the parts. 
There are some parts that may never be used, such as a steering 
knuckle. Get the manufacturer's representative to give you a 
frank opinion. Point out your position, when isolated, and do 
not content yourself with his first recommendations. Insist on 
finding out what are the weak parts of every important unit. 
The factory man has a good line on this by the extent of the 
demand for certain replacement parts. It will usually be found a 
paying investment to purchase a stock of almost all of them 
rather than take chances on getting the particular part most 
needed at a time when the tractor is worth a good many dollars 
an hour to you. 

LUBRICATION 

MOTOR LUBRICATION 

Q. What grade of lubricating oil should be used for a slow- 
speed tractor motor; for a high-speed type? 

A. Every responsible tractor manufacturer goes to consider- 
able expense to determine just what grade of lubricating oil is 
best adapted to his own engines. His investigation covers every- 
thing from a chemical analysis and flash test of every grade of 
oil recommended for his use to actual tests in service extending 
over considerable periods of time. The tractor owner should 



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130 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

accordingly never use anything but the oil recommended by the 
manufacturer. 

Q. In a motor having any form of splash lubrication, that 
is, one in which part of the supply is carried in the crankcase 
pan, how often should the oil be drained from the crankcase? 

A. The recommendations of different tractor manufacturers 
range all the way from every day to once in two weeks, many 
giving one week as the maximum period of time the same oil 
should be used. 

Q. How often should the oil in a circulating system be 
completely replaced with a fresh supply? 

A. It should be replaced at the intervals given above for a splash 
system since the service demanded of the lubricant is the same. 

Q. Does oil lose its lubricating qualities through use, and 
how can this be determined? 

A. High temperature and pressure completely change the 
character of lubricating oil and destroy its lubricating qualities. 
The lubricating quality of an oil depends upon its viscosity, that 
is, its body, upon which depends its ability to hold apart surfaces 
under pressure by a film of lubricant. Dip the finger ends in 
some old oil from the crankcase and rub together under pressure. 
The oil will have a thin watery feeling and the finger tips may 
be pressed into close contact through it. Try the same experi- 
ment with some fresh oil, and it will be noted that a sliding 
film is formed between the fingers "despite the greatest pressure 
that can be put upon them to squeeze it out. 

Q. What influence has the effect of high temperature and 
pressure on the length of time during which the oil should be 
allowed to remain in the crankcase? 

A. Both the temperature and the pressure conditions differ 
widely in different engines so that in some the oil literally wears 
out much faster than in others and should accordingly be replaced 
oftener. The tractor manufacturer has learned from experience 
the proper period of time for his motors, and his recommenda- 
tion is based on a desire to avoid having his customer pay for 
the same experience. 

Q. Next to labor and fuel, lubricating oil is the most 
expensive item of tractor maintenance. Is it really economy to 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 131 

replace what appears to be good oil as often as the tractor 
manufacturer recommends it? 

A. The cost of repairs due to a single breakdown from 
failure of the lubrication would usually buy anywhere from one 
to five or more 50-gallon barrels of oil, without taking into 
account the loss of time due to the tractor being out of service. 
It is the highest form of economy to follow the maker's instruc- 
tions in this respect; if these are to discard the oil at the end 
of every day's service, it will be found far cheaper in the end to 
do so. Many tractor owners do not regard it as necessary to 
clean out the crankcase more than once or twice a season, but 
instead of saving oil they are simply running up repair bills. 

Q. What other causes tend to destroy the lubricating quality 
of the oil? 

A. Another cause is leakage of the fuel past the pistons so 
that the supply of oil in the crankcase is thinned out by the 
gasoline or kerosene. This is particularly true of kerosene, espe- 
cially if the motor be run at a low temperature so that the kero- 
sene vapor condenses into a liquid. The admixture of carbon and 
dirt with the oil also tends to destroy its lubricating quality. 
Compare the color of oil that has been used for some time with 
fresh oil; the difference is due entirely to the foreign matter that 
has become mixed with it. 

Q. What attention does a force-feed lubricator require? 

A. The sight feeds should be watched frequently to note 
whether oil is constantly passing through them or not. To make 
certain of this, dirt should be wiped from the glasses at least 
once a day. While this type of lubrication has the great advan- 
tage of constantly feeding fresh oil to the bearings almost as fast 
as it is consumed, its factor of safety is not so high as that of 
the splash or circulating type. In other words, failure of the 
part is apt to follow immediately upon a stopping of the feed 
since it usually receives no lubrication from any other source. 
The lubricator must accordingly be watched closely and the 
engine stopped at once if any of the feeds has become clogged. 

Q. How often should such a lubricator be supplied with fresh oil? 

A. The maker's instructions may be followed but a still 
better practice is to get into the habit of keeping the lubricator 



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132 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

constantly filled; that is, of filling it twice or oftener a day, if 
necessary, rather than waiting until the supply runs low. A 
gage glass on the side of the lubricator shows the amount in it. 
The plunger pumps which force the oil to the bearings will 
always work better when there is an ample supply. 

Q. What other precautions should be taken with a force- 
feed lubricator? 

A. When it is driven by a belt, close watch should be kept 
on the belt to see that it does not become too loose, since any 
slackening of the belt slows down the pumps and supplies less 
oil to the bearings. 

Q. How often should a force-feed lubricator be cleaned out? 

A. Two or three times a season should ordinarily be ample, 
but this will depend to some extent upon the care that is exer- 
cised in handling the supply of oil itself. Unless the oil supply 
is kept in a covered oil tank, more or less dust and other foreign 
matter is bound to find its way into it. The presence of dirt 
in the oil will make itself apparent by clouding the inside of the 
sight-feed glasses, making them difficult to read. Oil having 
visible foreign matter, such as small specks of grit, short ends of 
straw, or chaff, in it should never be put into the lubricator 
without straining, as it is liable to clog the pump valves. 

Q. How is a force-feed lubricator cleaned out? 

A. By disconnecting the leads and flushing it out thoroughly 
with gasoline or kerosene. The leads should be disconnected at 
both ends and also flushed out, blowing through them to see 
that they are clear from end to end. 

Q. Are some of these leads more apt to clog up than others? 

A. Those that supply oil to the pistons are most likely to 
clog owing to an accumulation of carbon in the ends opening 
into the cylinder. They should be taken off at shorter intervals 
and all carbon removed in the tube itself as well as in the open- 
ing through which the oil passes through the cylinder wall. 

Q. What attention does a circulating system require? 

A. A circulating system requires replenishing of the entire 
supply after washing out at intervals, as directed in the manu- 
facturer's instructions; examination at short intervals of the oil 
pump; and frequent washing off of the oil pump screen. Keep 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 133 

the sight-feed glasses clean and shut down immediately if an oil 
stream fails to appear in any of them (some tractors have but 
one, others several). 

Q. What general precautions should be observed in clean- 
ing out a lubricating system of any type and in handling oil? 

A. Always avoid the use of waste or rags from which lint 
will detach itself in wiping out the crankcase or any part of the 
system, since these threads will invariably clog an oil pump or 
feeder tubes. All cans or other vessels used in handling oil should 
be kept covered to prevent dust falling in them and should be 
wiped clean before using. Dust is simply fine grit, and its pres- 
ence in the oil converts it into a grinding compound which will 
quickly cut away bearing surfaces. 

Q. What other lubrication does the motor require? 

A. This will depend entirely on the type of motor. Where 
it has overhead valves as used on many tractor motors, the rocker 
arm spindles and pin should be oiled at least once or twice a 
day with a hand oiler. This applies as well to any other external 
moving parts not lubricated by the oiling system of the motor. 
The grease cups on the fan and on the pump should be turned 
down at least once a day. Some tractors are equipped with 
gravity oilers for this purpose. 

CONTROL SYSTEM LUBRICATION 

Q. How is the clutch lubricated? 

A. On some tractors it is enclosed in the same housing as 
the motor and runs in a bath of oil. Where it is not housed in, 
grease cups are usually provided on the clutch, and these should 
be turned down at least once a day. No oil should be allowed 
to fall on the facing, as this would reduce the holding power of 
the clutch and cause it to slip. 

Q. What attention is required to keep the transmission 
properly lubricated? 

A. When the transmission is of the enclosed type, running 
in oil, it should be kept filled to the height given in the maker's 
instructions and with the grade of lubricant recommended. Don't 
attempt to use cup grease, or a home-made compound of grease 
and oil or graphite, as the different materials will separate, nor 



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134 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

should heavy steam cylinder oil be used, since it contains animal 
fats and will become acid, attacking the steel faces of the gears. 
The pressure between the gear teeth in a transmission is very 
high so that the oil wears out in time and should be replaced at 
intervals of two to three months. Watch the transmission hous- 
ing for leaks and renew felt washers or other provision for pre- 
venting leaks. 

Q. How are open transmission gears lubricated? 

A. Where gears are run without a housing, they are not 
intended to be lubricated and care should be taken to see that 
no oil or grease gets on them as it will hold dirt and grit and 
cause the teeth to wear out much faster. The gears should be 
kept free of mud and dirt, but an oily rag or waste should never 
be used for this purpose. This also applies to the bull pinion 
and gear except where completely housed in. 

Q. What attention is required to lubricate other moving 
parts of the tractor? 

A. Grease cups are usually provided on all other moving 
parts, and they should be turned down as instructed by the 
maker. In some instances the directions are to screw these cups 
down as often as twice a day; in others, once an hour. 

ENGINE PARTS 
ENGINE BEARINGS 

Q. How long will motor bearings run without developing 
sufficient play to require adjustment? 

A. This will depend largely upon the motor itself and the 
service demanded of the tractor. If it is being run constantly 
with an overload, they will need attention much sooner than 
when the machine is not called upon to carry more than 75 per 
cent of its load for the greater part of the time. In any case 
the bearings should be examined at least once a week; some 
makers recommend that they be tested for looseness as often as 
twice a week when in constant service. 

Q. How can the bearings be tested for looseness? 

A. They should always be examined just after the motor 
has been shut down and is still hot; the amount of play will be 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 135 

greater when all the parts are cold but some of this will be taken 
up by the thickened oil film then present and their condition 
cannot be determined as satisfactorily. The connecting-rod bear- 
ings are the first to show; signs of looseness. Take the handhole 
covers off the crankcase and turn the motor until two of the 
connecting-rod ends are close to the openings. If there is much 
play, it will be evident upon grasping the connecting rod and 
attempting to lift it, but this amount would usually cause a 
knock in operation. Take a small bar and pry the bearing 
upward from below, keeping the other hand on the rod to detect 
any movement. Do not confuse the side play of the bearing 
with looseness of the bearing itself as a small amount of side 
movement is allowed on all connecting-rod bearings. Apply this 
test to the other two connecting rods also. A bar may also be 
used to detect any looseness of the main or crankshaft bearings. 

Q. Will it do any harm to allow a certain amount of play 
in these bearings? 

A. Nothing will be apt to run up a big repair bill quicker 
than running the motor with the bearings too loose. Every 
reversal of movement pounds the crankshaft and in time will 
cause crystallization of the steel with consequent breakage of the 
shaft. The resulting vibration is also detrimental to every other 
part of the motor. 

Q. How are the bearings adjusted when a test reveals 
play in them? 

A. Most motor bearings are provided with shims, that is, 
small strips of metal placed between the halves of the bearing 
and through which the bolts pass to hold the bearing together. 
Take off one or more shims on each side of the bearing and 
screw down the nuts again tightly. To obtain a proper adjust- 
ment, you must be able to set up these nuts as far as they will 
go without binding the shaft. Open the pet cocks or the com- 
pression release, where one is provided on the engine, and try 
the adjustment by cranking the motor by hand. It will be very 
difficult to turn the motor over if the bearings are too tight. 
They should be adjusted so that the motor turns easily, indi- 
cating that there is sufficient space between the bearing halves 
and the shaft to permit the formation of an oil film between 



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166 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

them. The shaft should be tested for play, as already described, 
to prevent making the adjustment too loose. 

Q. When a bearing is too tight, is it good practice to ease 
off the nuts and let the shaft run that way? 

A. A bearing is not properly adjusted unless the nuts can 
be set up hard on the bearing caps, all adjustments being made 
by removing or re-inserting shims, or laminations of metal only a 
few thousandths of an inch thick. One or two shims should be 
removed from each side at a time and the adjustment tested. 
Care must always be taken to see that the bearing cap is replaced 
on the bearing from which it was taken and that it is put back 
in the same way. 

Q. Is it ever necessary to adjust the piston-pin, or wrist- 
pin, bearing? 

A. This is the bearing which holds the upper end of the 
connecting rod in the piston and if the motor is properly lubri- 
cated with clean oil, it will seldom require any attention. In 
some motors the pin is held fast in the sides of the piston and 
the connecting rod moves on it, and shims are provided on the 
connecting-rod bearing for adjustment. In others the upper end 
of the connecting rod is clamped fast to the pin, and the pin 
moves in bronze bushings in the sides of the piston or bears 
directly on the piston walls. Allowing the big-end connecting- 
rod bearings and the crankshaft bearings to become too loose so 
that the motor knocks is the chief cause of lost motion in the 
wrist-pin bearing. Where the pin bears in the piston walls this 
may wear the holes out of round so that they have to be rebored 
and bushed to make a good bearing. 

Q. When the connecting rod or crankshaft bearings of a 
motor require adjustment at frequent intervals, what is the cause 
of the trouble? 

A. The cause is faulty lubrication: failure to clean out the 
crankcase at the proper intervals, with the result that the oil 
loses its lubricating qualities and the dirt that becomes mixed 
with it cuts away the bearing surfaces. 

Q. Where bearings have become worn to the point where it is 
no longer possible to adjust them properly, is it practical for the 
average operator of a tractor to replace them with new bearings? 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 137 

A. It is not practical unless he has had experience in the 
work, since it requires accurate lining up and scraping in of the 
bearings to a close fit. Unless this is carried out properly, such 
heavy stresses will be imposed on the crankshaft that it will 
break sooner or later. Therefore it is poor economy to attempt 
this repair without actually having had experience in making it; 
it is one of those things that cannot be learned from an instruc- 
tion book. It is necessary to see it done in the shop more than 
once and the first attempt should be made under the supervision 
of one who has had experience. 

VALVES 

Q. What attention is required to keep the valves in good 
operating condition? 

A. The valve stems must be lubricated one or more times 
a day, except on motors provided with special means for doing 
this automatically. The clearance between the valve tappet and 
push rod, or between the end of the rocker arm and the valve 
stem, depending upon the type of motor, must be adjusted at 
frequent intervals and the valves themselves must be ground as 
often as is necessary to keep them tight. 

Q. Why is adjustment of the clearance necessary, and 
what should this be? 

A. The constant hammering of the tappet or rocker arm 
against the valve stem tends to increase this clearance as well as 
to wear away the parts, thus increasing the distance. The greater 
this distance is the less the valve will lift when operated, so that 
less fuel is admitted on the intake stroke and some of the exhaust 
gases are left in the cylinder on the exhaust stroke, thus cutting 
down the power. This clearance should be just sufficient to 
allow the valve to close completely under the pull of its spring 
when the tappet or rocker arm is released by the cam. It should 
be tested and adjusted with the motor hot, since, if made very 
close when cold, the expansion of the parts is apt to prevent 
the valve from closing properly. An ordinary visiting card or a 
piece of tin plate makes a good gage; it should be possible to 
slip this between the tappet and stem easily. In any case the 
clearance should not exceed ■£$ inch. 



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138 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

Q. How often should the valves be ground? 

A. When a tractor is being used ten hours a day and six 
days a week, they will doubtless require grinding once every four 
to six weeks, depending more or less on the motor itself; some 
motors run very much hotter than others and in some the pro- 
vision for cooling the exhaust valve is inadequate, so that more 
frequent attention is necessary. 

Q. How may the valves be tested for leakage without 
taking the motor down? 

A. Turn the motor over by hand about one-third of a revo- 
lution, until two of the pistons are within an inch or two of the 
upper dead center. At this point the pressure in the cylinder 
that is then on the compression stroke should be highest. Hold 
the piston up against this pressure, just exerting sufficient pull 
to cause the piston to move if the compression leaks away. In 
a motor that is in good condition, there should be no perceptible 
movement due to leakage in the course of two or three minutes, 
and if the pull of the hand is slackened, the piston should tend 
to push the starting crank down again under the influence of 
the pressure in the cylinder. Apply the test to each cylinder in 
turn and any difference in the compression-holding power of the 
different cylinders will be noticeable. 

Q. When the usual adjustment of the clearance does not 
correct a loose and noisy valve action, what is apt to be the 
cause of the trouble? 

A. The pin of the cam roller has probably worn so that 
there is considerable lost motion between the roller and the pin 
on which it turns. The only remedy is to replace the roller 
and pin or maybe the tappet complete. Any lost motion at 
this point permits the roller to move upward the distance repre- 
sented by the wear before the tappet itself can lift. While the 
play at any one point may be very small, when it is increased 
by an equivalent amount at two or three other points, the total 
is sufficient to reduce the effective valve opening considerably, 
with a corresponding decrease in the power. When new parts 
are not readily obtainable, this condition may be remedied by 
boring out the holes of the cam roller and the rocker lever and 
fitting them with bushings. 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 139 

Q. When grinding valves, is it necessary to continue the 
operation until the entire valve and seat have taken on a polish? 

A. No; the operation may be considered complete when 
both the valve and the seat are smooth all around and com- 
pletely free from any sign of pitting. A polished surface may 
give a little closer fit, but the difference is not enough to com- 
pensate for the time necessary to produce it. The grinding 
operation should always be finished by the use of the fine grind- 
ing compound. 

Q. In case a motor has been allowed to run until the valve 
seats have become very badly pitted, is it necessary to cut these 
down by grinding alone? 

A. No; a valve-seat reaming tool should be employed for 
cutting away the metal until the pitting has almost disappeared, 
and the remainder of the operation should then be carried out 
by grinding in the usual manner. No more metal than necessary 
should be removed with the reamer as cutting too deep will 
simply shorten the life of the cylinder casting. Valves are made 
in two standard tapers, 45 degrees and 60 degrees, and care 
must be taken to see that the angle of the reamer blades corre- 
sponds to that of the valve seat before beginning to cut. 

Q. Is there any way of testing the tightness of the valves 
before putting them back into the motor? 

A. When the valves are in cages, they may be tested by 
pouring some gasoline into the cage and noting whether it leaks 
past the valve or not. 

Q. Does a rapid loss of compression under such a test 
always definitely indicate that the valves are at fault? 

A. No; the piston rings may be worn or the lubrication 
may be poor, so that there is not a good compression seal in 
the cylinder. To definitely ascertain the trouble, take out the 
spark plugs and pour an ounce or two of heavy cylinder oil into 
each cylinder. Turn the motor over fifteen to twenty times 
with the plugs out to work this oil down on the pistons, replace 
the spark plugs and repeat the test as first described. Failure 
to hold compression will then mean poorly seating valves almost 
invariably, since, with a fresh oil seal, even loose piston rings 
will hold compression when the motor is being turned over by 



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140 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

hand. The necessity for putting in this oil indicates that the 
oil in the crankcase or the circulating system needs renewing. 
This test for loss of compression should be carried out with the 
motor cold. 

Q. What is the test method of grinding the valves? 

A. With a valve-in-head type of motor, take the valve 
cages over to the bench so that there is no risk of getting any of 
the grinding compound into the cylinders. Use nothing but the 
specially prepared grinding compound designed for this purpose; 
ordinary emery and oil should never be employed as it will score 
the valve and its seat. When a special valve grinder is not at 
hand, a screw driver bit in an ordinary brace makes the best 
grinding tool. Smear some of the compound on the valve, drop it 
on its seat and turn it first one way and then the other, making 
about a quarter turn in each direction without exerting much 
pressure. When the compound has been squeezed out, put in 
more and continue the operation, repeating this for fifteen to 
twenty minutes. Wash the valve and seat off with kerosene and 
examine to see if all signs of pitting have been removed and the 
valve has a bright uniform band around its entire circumference. 
The presence of any breaks in this ring indicates low spots and 
calls for further grinding. Never turn the valve completely 
around when grinding, making only a quarter turn, since the com- 
plete turn will score the seat. Be careful to flush off every trace 
of the grinding compound with kerosene when through to prevent 
any trace of it getting into the cylinder. Otherwise, the engine 
will be ruined. Where the valves cannot be taken away from the 
motor for grinding, the greatest care must be exercised to prevent 
any of the compound from getting into the cylinders or down into 
the valve guides. 

Q. Why is it necessary to grind the valves at such short 
intervals? 

A. The exhaust valves in particular are subjected to exceed- 
ingly high temperatures that pit the metal face of the valve. 
Once this pitting starts, it proceeds rapidly and if the valves are 
allowed to run too long without grinding, these pits in the valve 
face will be so deep that new valves will be necessary. They will 
also be deep in the valve seat with the result that a correspond* 

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GASOLINE TRACTORS 141 

ingly longer time is required to grind them out. By grinding at 
the proper intervals, only fifteen to twenty minutes will be 
required for each valve, whereas if they are allowed to run too 
long, it may take an hour or more to get each valve and its seat 
into proper condition again. The motor will also run very much 
better and deliver more power if the valves are kept in good con- 
dition. 

Q. What is the cause of a valve leaking very badly at 
times? 

A. Hard particles of carbon from the cylinder may lodge in 
the pitted face of the seat or valve and prevent if from closing 
tightly. Even though the valve be held off its seat only a few 
thousandths of an inch, it cannot hold any compression. 

Q. What is the cause of a valve binding so that it will not 
operate? 

A. Worn valve guides will sometimes permit sufficient side 
play to cause the valve stem to become bent. Lack of lubrication 
and an accumulation of dirt and carbon in the valve guide will 
cause the valve stem to expand to a point where it binds hard 
and fast in the guide. 

Q. What causes a valve head to warp so that the valve 
must be replaced? 

A. It may be caused by overheating of the motor due to 
partial failure of the cooling system, such as may be caused by a 
slipping fan belt, trouble with the circulating pump, shortage of 
water in the system, or the clogging of some of the pipes or the 
radiator. An accumulation of sediment or scale in the jackets or 
the radiator may have the same effect. 

Q. Do valve springs ever need replacement? 

A. In the course of a season's use, the temper may be 
drawn sufficiently to make the valve action sluggish, particularly 
in a motor that runs very hot, but ordinarily the valve springs do 
not often need replacement. 

Q. Is it ever necessary to check the valve timing of the 
engine? 

A. It is never necessary except in reassembling the engine 
after it has been taken down. Since the camshafts are made with 
the cams integral, no relative movement of the cams is possible 



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142 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

and it is only necessary to time one cylinder. Most engines have 
reference points by which the valve timing may be checked when 
reassembling the engine. 

PISTONS 

Q. What attention do the pistons require? 

A. The piston rings will wear to such a degree that the 
pistons no longer hold the compression and there is a substantial 
falling off in the power, 

Q. How often should it be necessary to replace the piston rings? 

A. This will depend entirely upon the care that is taken to 
keep dirt out of the lubricating oil and to prevent its entrance to 
the motor through the carburetor. If the oil is handled carelessly, 
containers being allowed to stand uncovered and a film of dust 
settling on them, or if the carburetor is not provided with an air 
cleaner, a great deal of grit will find its way into the motor and 
will grind the piston rings down rapidly and also the bearings. 

Q. How may the pistons be tested for tightness? 

A. The valves being in good condition, preferably recently 
ground, the test may be made as previously described for testing 
the valves; or, with the handhole plates off the crankcase, have an 
assistant turn the motor over slowly and note whether there is any 
sound of air blowing down past the pistons into the crankcase. 
Put a few ounces of fresh oil into each cylinder through the spark 
plug openings, replace the plugs, and repeat the test. Loss of 
compression may be due entirely to poor lubrication. Drain the 
crankcase, wash out with kerosene, and replenish the oil supply; 
and test in the same manner. 

Q. Is wear of the piston rings the only cause for loss of 
compression, aside from pitted valves? 

A. An accumulation of carbon under the piston rings may 
be holding the piston ring joints apart or the latter may have all 
worked into line so that the pressure is escaping through them. 
If, with good tight valves, there is still a loss of compression after 
putting fresh oil into the cylinders, it is an indication that the 
piston rings need attention. 

Q. Does the compression fail in all the cylinders equally, or 
is one of the cylinders likely to be worse than the rest? 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 143 

A. The wear is likely to be uneven, so that one or two of 
the cylinders will be found very much worse than the rest. Some- 
times only one cylinder will fail to hold compression. Test in the 
same manner as described for the valves, pulling the crank up 
very slowly to note the resistance offered by each piston in turn 
as it comes up on the compression stroke. It may be found much 
easier to move one of the pistons than the others. When this is 
the case, it will be necessary to fit new rings on that piston.. 

Q. How are new piston rings fitted? 

A. Oversize piston rings are supplied for this purpose. 
They are slightly larger (a few thousandths of an inch) than those 
originally supplied with the motor in order to compensate for the 
wear of the cylinder. Take the old rings off by inserting thin 
strips of steel (old table-knife blades or discarded hack saws are 
excellent for the purpose) at three or four points around the piston 
and under the ring. Scrape and wash out all carbon and gummed 
oil in the slots. Do not use a file for this purpose. First try the 
new rings by fitting them in the cylinder, which operation will 
show how much will have to be taken off to allow them to enter 
the bore. They must be small enough to insert an inch or two 
into the cylinder, since it is turned somewhat larger for a short 
distance at the end. If the rings are too large, take a few cuts 
with a fine file across the faces of the joint, being careful to keep 
the surfaces square and parallel. Very little must be taken off 
each time and the ring tried in the cylinder again. The job must 
be carried out with painstaking care as unless it is properly done 
the new rings will be no better than the old ones. When they 
have been properly fitted, use the same strips to place them on 
the piston, care being taken not to spring the rings out of round 
in putting them on. 

Q. When fitting rings in the cylinder as a preliminary to 
putting them on the piston, should the break come together for a 
good fit? 

A. No; allowance must be made for the lengthwise expan- 
sion of the ring due to the high temperature, and this allowance 
must be greater for the top ring than for the lower ones as it 
becomes hotter. Depending upon the diameter of the cylinder, 
it is customary to allow -nHhr to -nHhr * nc h between the ends of the 



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144 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

topmost ring and jrfwu to y^lhr inch for the other two. Bearing 
shims are often stamped with the thickness in thousandths of an 
inch and may be used as a gage. Unless this allowance is made, 
the expansion of the ring will cause it to bind against the cylinder 
wall and may cause scoring. 

Q. Must the piston ring be a tight fit in the piston slot? 

A. Allowance for expansion must also be made here. After 
scraping the piston slots free of carbon and washing them out 
with kerosene so that they are perfectly clean, insert the ring and 
see that it turns freely in the slot. A piece of coated catalog 
paper has a thickness of ttjW to nnnr inch and it should be possi- 
ble to insert a piece of this paper between the ring and the slot. 
If the rings are too tight they will bind on the piston and cause 
damage as mentioned above. Unless they can be moved freely in 
the slots, they will have to be made smaller by taking metal off 
the bottom edge of the ring. Smear some valve grinding com- 
pound on a flat metal plate or a smooth piece of hardwood plank 
and rotate the ring in this under pressure with the hand. Be sure 
to wash off all traces of the grinding compound before trying on 
the piston again. 

Q. Do the pistons themselves ever have to be replaced? 

A. The same condition that causes rapid wear of the piston 
rings, that is, dirt in the lubricating oil, will also cause equally 
rapid wear of the pistons. When this wear amounts to t^thf to 
1 gg g inch, the piston will rock on the piston pin in the cylinder 
and produce a distinctive noise, known as piston slap, which can- 
not be traced to any other cause. At first, it is likely to be attrib- 
uted to a loose bearing, and as it increases it will greatly resemble 
a bearing knock. When one piston reaches this stage, it is better 
to replace all of them with oversize pistons. The cylinders should 
be examined carefully for scoring and tested to see if they have 
worn out of round as it may be necessary to rebore "them or to 
replace the cylinder casting to make a good job of it. 

Q. Can the pistons be tested for looseness without taking 
the motor down when a knock cannot be traced to any other 
cause? 

A. The amount of wear that will cause considerable piston 
slapping is so small that it would be difficult to detect it without 



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having the cylinder and piston on a bench where the fit can be 
examined closely. The average driver would never attribute the 
loud knocking caused by a loose piston to the apparently slight 
amount of play that is revealed when the piston is examined. 

Q. What causes besides dirt in the lubricating oil will 
bring about rapid wear of the pistons or scoring of the cylinders? 

A. Other causes are the use of a poor grade of oil, using the 
same oil too long, or any other condition that results in inefficient 
lubrication, such as overheating due to partial failure of the cooling 
system. Unless there is a good oil film between the piston and 
the cylinder, the metal comes into actual contact and scoring fol- 
lows. Too thin an oil wall be burned away by the heat of the 
explosion as fast as the film is formed on the cylinder, while too 
heavy an oil may not reach the upper end of the cylinder bore 
owing to failure to pass the piston rings. Worn piston rings will 
permit particles of carbon from the combustion chamber to work 
between the piston and the cylinder wall. Partial failure of the 
lubrication system, such as the clogging of an oil lead in a force- 
feed system, the clogging of the screen or of the pump in a circu- 
lating system, or an insufficient supply of oil in a splash system, 
will result in scoring. 

Cylinder scoring may be due to the piston ring binding 
owing to failure to allow for expansion in fitting or to the piston 
sticking owing to an accumulation of carbon under it. The wrist 
pin may become loose and move endways so that it scrapes against 
the cylinder wall; or in assembling the piston and connecting rod, 
the wrist pin may be so placed that it presses the piston unevenly- 
against one side of the cylinder. Carelessness in valve grinding 
that results in some of the compound getting into the cylinder will 
cause serious scoring sooner than almost anything else. 

CARBURETOR 

Q. What attention does the carburetor need? 

A. It should be drained at frequent intervals to remove the 
accumulation of sediment. Care should be taken to prevent dirt 
from getting into the fuel, and the latter should be strained as it is 
poured into the tank. In making needle-valve adjustments, the 
needle must never be screwed down hard on its seat, since this is 



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146 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

likely to turn a shoulder on it so that proper adjustments cannot 
be made with it. 

Q. When the carburetor floods, what is the usual cause of 
the trouble? 

A. The usual cause is dirt lodging under the needle valve in 
the float chamber. Where a hollow copper float is used, it may 
have sprung a leak, causing it to sink. 

Q. How should the carburetor be adjusted to give the maxi- 
mum power with the most economical fuel consumption? 

A. Definite instructions covering every make of carburetor 
cannot be given, but the same principles can be applied to all. 
With the motor running, cut down the fuel supply gradually until 
the motor begins to run irregularly or to miss. The fuel mixture 
is thus made leaner, and in some cases the motor will back fire 
through the carburetor when the mixture becomes too lean. 
When the point of adjustment has been found at which the motor 
is not getting sufficient fuel, turn back slightly until just enough 
fuel is being supplied to permit it to idle regularly. This is 
termed the low-speed adjustment and some carburetors have no 
other, that is, only the fuel supply can be regulated. Others have 
a high-speed adjustment as well; this controls the air supply and 
takes the form of an adjustable auxiliary air valve. Speed the 
motor up and release the tension of the auxiliary air valve spring 
until the point is reached where too much air is being admitted 
and the mixture again becomes too lean. Then turn back slowly 
until as much air is being admitted as is possible without causing 
irregular operation. 

Q. Does the working of any other part of the motor influ- 
ence the carburetor adjustment? 

A. Unless all other parts of the motor are in good working 
condition, it will be found impossible to make a satisfactory car- 
buretor adjustment. Valves in need of grinding, excessive clear- 
ance between valve tappets and stems or rocker arms, worn piston 
rings or pistons, and worn valve guides will all influence the adjust- 
ment of the carburetor. Air drawn in through worn valve guides, 
a leaky intake manifold, or a leak at the throttle valve of the 
carburetor will weaken the mixture and make it too lean, so that 
the motor loses power and overheats. With the motor running, 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 147 

take a squirt can and put some gasoline on the intake manifold 
gaskets and around the valve stems and note whether it is drawn 
in or not. New gaskets will remedy trouble of this nature at the 
manifold. Whenever the manifold has to be taken down, it is 
always better to replace the gaskets, since it is difficult to make 
used gaskets tight. 

Q. The float valve and needle adjustment being in good 
condition, what is the cause of the trouble when a regular flow 
of fuel cannot be obtained at the nozzle in the mixing chamber? 

A. The supply line may be partially clogged or the vent hole 
in the top of the carburetor may be stopped up. This is a small 
opening designed to admit air in order that there may be atmos- 
pheric pressure on the fuel in the float chamber. If this clogs up, 
a partial vacuum is formed. In a gravity system the air vent on 
the tank may have become stopped up and the fuel will not flow 
to the carburetor owing to the lack of atmospheric pressure on top 
of, the supply. In a pressure or a vacuum tank supply system the 
trouble may be with the pump, or with, loose joints, or with the 
tank itself. 

Q. When difficulty is experienced in making a satisfactory 
low-speed adjustment, what is likely to be the cause? 

A. The needle valve may have been forced down on its seat 
so that a burr or ring has been formed on the needle. The latter 
should be taken out and repointed. 

Q. Is an air cleaner indispensable in connection with a 
tractor carburetor? 

A. It will save its cost and the time required to attend to it 
many times over. Without it, pistons, rings, and bearings will 
grind out very rapidly, and trouble will be experienced with 
accumulations of carbon, more than half of which will be nothing 
more nor less than dirt drawn in through the carburetor. 

Q. What attention does the air cleaner require? 

A. Frequent cleaning is the only attention needed. When 
the cleaner is of the dry-air type, the engine should always be 
shut down before emptying it. If it is a washer type, see that it 
is constantly supplied with plenty of water. Clean out either 
type twice a day or ofteiler, if necessary, rather than wait until it 
is full. Analyses of carbon accumulations taken from automobile 



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148 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

cylinders have shown them to consist of 65 per cent, or more, of 
road dirt. 

Q. How can an over-rich mixture be detected? 

A. Note the color of the exhaust from the muffler. The 
presence of black smoke indicates that too much fuel is being fed; 
blue smoke, too much lubricating oil; and grayish-white smoke, 
poor combustion of kerosene usually due to an excess of water. 
An over-rich mixture, particularly when kerosene is being used, will 
cut the lubricating oil from the cylinder walls and cause scoring 
unless remedied. 

Q. What is the object of feeding water with the fuel? 

A. To assist in keeping the temperature of the engine down 
to the proper point for satisfactory working. The steam generated 
rapidly absorbs a great deal of the heat and has the further 
advantage of preventing the formation of carbon in the cylinders. 
It also causes better combustion, particularly in the case of kerosene. 

Q. Should water be fed with the fuel regardless of the 
grade of oil employed? 

A. Little or no water is necessary when using gasoline, but 
the majority of motors will not operate satisfactorily on kerosene 
without it. 

Q. Is there any danger of feeding too much water, par- 
ticularly when the motor is running very hot and appears to 
need it? 

A. Excess water fed with the fuel is liable to lower the 
temperature to the point at which kerosene recondenses to a 
liquid; in such a case considerable of it works its way past the 
pistons and down into the crankcase. This destroys the film of 
lubricant on the cylinder walls and is liable to cause damage, not 
alone to the cylinders themselves but likewise to the bearings; 
thinning the oil in the crankcase destroys its lubricating qualities. 
If the motor appears to be getting too hot, the trouble should be 
remedied by locating the fault in the cooling or the lubricating 
system and not by attempting to overcome it by increasing the 
amount of water fed. 

Q. What indication is there of excessive water in the fuel? 

A. A grayish white smoke will appear at the exhaust indi- 
cating that the kerosene is not being completely burned in the 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 149 

cylinders. Cut down the water supply very gradually until the 
smoke disappears, the motor being kept running at a good speed, 
since if run too slowly on kerosene the combustion of the latter 
will not be complete owing to the drop in temperature. 

Q. Are all tractor motors provided with hand=controlled 
apparatus for feeding water? 

A. No; some carburetors are designed to feed water auto- 
matically as . it is needed, while in others the use of a wet air 
cleaner is depended upon to supply the proper amount of water 
required. 

Q. Where hand control is provided, should the water be 
fed as long as the engine is running? 

A. It is better to shut it off five minutes or so before the 
motor is to be stopped, and the fuel should be switched from kero- 
sene to gasoline at the same time, as this will leave the motor in 
better condition and facilitate restarting. 

Q. What precautions should be taken with the water sup- 
plied for this purpose? 

A. Clean rain water should be used, and it is well to strain 
it through two or three thicknesses of cloth to prevent the entrance 
of any dirt. 

COOLING SYSTEM 

Q. When the engine overheats despite the fact that the 
cooling system is working properly, what is the cause of the 
trouble? 

A. It may be due either to an over-rich or an over-lean 
mixture. In either case combustion is slow instead of taking the 
form of the explosion required to produce the maximum power. 
The mixture continues to burn throughout the stroke and in the 
exhaust passages and muffler. Flame issuing from the exhaust is 
an indication of this condition. The ignition may be retarded too 
far and bring about the same condition. 

Q. What are. some of the causes of failure of the cooling 
system? 

A. Among the causes are the following: insufficient water 
supply; fan belt slipping; pump running too slow when driven by a 
belt; insufficient lubrication; leaks in radiator or at pump packing 
permitting water to escape or air to enter; and clogging of radia- 



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150 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

tor, circulating pipes, or water jackets with an accumulation of 
sediment. The cooling system should be drained at frequent 
intervals and flushed out with clean water. An accumulation of 
carbon in the cylinders will also cause the engine to overheat and 
if allowed to become very bad, will cause preignition, which 
imposes very heavy stresses on all moving parts of the engine. 

Q. When hard water has to be used in the cooling system 
and scale forms, how can this be removed? 

A. A strong soda solution made by adding several pounds of 
common washing soda to enough boiling water to fill the system 
should be used for a day or so in place of ordinary water. The 
system should then be drained and flushed out. The use of rain 
water will prevent the formation of scale. Particles of iron rust 
in the water when the system is flushed should not be confused 
with scale; these will always be found, even if the system is 
drained every day. 

Q. Do the flexible-hose connections ever cause any trouble? 

A. The inner plies of the hose sometimes become detached 
owing to the high temperature of the cooling water and either 
partially or wholly clog the passage. The passage is liable to 
become wholly clogged with the pump type of circulation owing to 
the much smaller diameter of the hose used. To guard against 
trouble of this nature, use nothing but the hose connections sup- 
plied by the manufacturers as replacements since this hose is 
specially made to withstand hot water. Ordinary hose will dis- 
integrate rapidly when employed for this purpose and should 
never be so used except to tide over an emergency, being replaced 
with a new connection as soon as possible. 

Q. Is partial or total failure of the cooling system the only 
cause of overheating? 

A. No; there are numerous other causes of overheating. 
The motor may be run with the ignition retarded; the lubrication 
may not be efficient; or carbon may have accumulated in the 
combustion chambers, as pointed out in a previous answer. 

Q. How can carbon be prevented from accumulating in the motor? 

A. After the motor has been shut down for the day and is 
very hot, take out the spark plugs, turn the motor over by hand 
until all the pistons are at approximately the same height, and 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 151 

pour into each cylinder about an ounce of kerosene, letting it 
stand this way over night. Do not use more than this amount of 
kerosene (a tablespoon will hold about an ounce) on the theory 
that if a little does good, more will do better, since more kerosene 
will cut the lubricating film off the cylinder walls and thin the oil 
in the crankcase. 

Q. How can the fan belt be kept in~good condition? 

A. Make adjustments only when the motor is hot and do 
not put any more tension on the belt than is necessary to prevent 
slipping. A belt that is set up too tightly will wear very quickly 
besides imposing undue stresses on the pulley bearings. Keep the 
leather soft by applying neatsfoot oil from time to time. 

Q. How often should the radiator and cooling system be 
drained? 

A. Two or three times a season are sufficient in summer if 
clean rain water is being used and it is strained before being put 
into the radiator. In winter it will be found better practice to 
drain the entire system every night rather than to depend upon 
an anti-freezing solution, since the latter lowers the boiling point 
of the water to such an extent that it is likely to boil away. In 
any case, if alcohol is used in the anti-freezing solution, it is 
likely to boil out of the water, so that the latter cannot be left in 
over night with safety. Some tractors are cooled by oil, and in 
cold weather it is necessary to thin this oil with kerosene before it 
will circulate freely. 

Q. When it is discovered that a considerable quantity of 
the water has boiled away and the motor is very hot, is it good 
practice to fill up with cold water immediately? 

A. This should not be done, particularly in winter, as the 
fresh supply is likely to be very cold and the sudden contraction 
would impose severe stresses on the radiator joints, starting leaks. 

Q. What attention does the pump of a circulating system 
require? 

A. See that the glands are kept tight. The appearance of a 
drop of water at the gland indicates the beginning of a slow leak. 
Give the gland nut a partial turn to tighten it; if water still 
appears, it will be necessary to repack the stuffing box. Use oil- 
soaked cotton wick or graphite packing. 



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HORSEPOWER RATINGS 
Q. Why are tractors rated as 10-20, 16-30, etc., always 
giving two horsepower ratings? 

A. Tractors are designed to be used for belt as well as for 
field work. In doing the latter, the tractor must use a substantial 
percentage of its power to move itself. The lower rating accord- 
ingly expresses the amount of power available for plowing. When 
standing, as in performing belt work, the only losses are caused by 
whatever transmission gearing is interposed between the engine 
a-nd the belt pulley, so that almost the entire output of the power 
plant is available for driving other machinery. 

Q. What constitutes an overload, and why do all manu- 
facturers warn the tractor user so strongly against subjecting 
the machine to overloads? 

A. Considerable confusion exists as to the meaning of the 
term horsepower. For a few minutes, as in pulling out of a hole, 
a heavy draft horse is capable of exerting 600 to 800 pounds draw- 
bar pull, which is the equivalent of more than 1 hp., but the 
same horse cannot exert much more than an average of 100 pounds 
drawbar pull at a speed of three miles an hour in hauling a load 
all day. The fact that a tractor having a field rating of 16 hp. 
may be pulled out of a bad place by three heavy horses does not 
indicate that the team is capable of doing as much work as the 
machine. The animals can only exert this much power for a very 
short period. The tractor will generate an amount of power at 
the drawbar equivalent to fourteen or fifteen horses at the usual 
plowing speed and will keep it up all day. A load such as 
twelve horses could haul all day would represent the practical 
working maximum for such a machine. A heavier load than this, 
apart from emergencies which call for all the power the machine 
can produce for only a very short period, would represent an over- 
load for that tractor. In other words, the tractor should not be 
steadily subjected to L load amounting to more than 75 per cent 
of its capacity. Manufacturers warn tractor owners against over- 
loading their machines because tractors will wear out very quickly 
under the excessive strain and will noY give satisfactory service 
during the machine's greatly reduced useful life. Regardless of 
the plow rating of the tractor, as for instance, three-plow or four- 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 153 

plow, the number of plows used should depend upon the nature 
of the soil. When the latter is very heavy, or the plowing has to 
be done on an up grade, fewer plows should be used. More and 
better work will be done by not subjecting the tractor to any 
greater load than it can pull without exerting more than 75 per 
cent of its power. 

ENGINE TROUBLES 
FAILURE TO START 
Q. What are some of the commoner causes of failure to 
start? 

A. Over 95 per cent of all failures to start are due to either 
lack of fuel or lack of the spark to ignite it. Part of the remain- 
ing 5 per cent are due to the failure of the two to come together 
at the right time, while the rest may be put down to faults hav- 
ing no connection with either the carburetor or the magneto. 

Q. Does lack of fuel in this connection mean an empty 
tank and nothing more? 

A. While a great deal of energy has been expended to no 
good purpose in trying to start an engine that was connected to 
an empty gasoline tank, lack of fuel implies a great deal more 
than that. It does not do much good to have a full tank unless 
the fuel is actually getting into the cylinders every time the 
engine turns over. There may be a stoppage between the tank 
and the carburetor or between the latter and the cylinders. A 
plugged air vent either at the tank or at the carburetor will pre- 
vent the liquid fuel from reaching the carburetor nozzle. A 
stopped-up carburetor nozzle will not vaporize any fuel, while a 
broken throttle connection which leaves the throttle closed will 
not permit any spray from an open nozzle to reach the motor, or 
at least not enough to render starting easy. Air leaks at the 
carburetor, the manifold, or the valve stems will weaken the 
mixture considerably. 

Q. Is it not as hard to start with too much fuel as with 
too little? 

A. Flooding the cylinders makes starting very difficult, and 
when this has occurred, the only remedy is to shut off the supply 
entirely and crank the motor for a few minutes to clean out the 



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cylinders. Priming too freely is a bad practice, since the liquid 
gasoline cuts the lubricating oil from the cylinder walls and 
destroys the compression to such an extent that in an old engine 
it is next to impossible to start even though the fuel and the 
spark come together in the right place at the right time. This is 
one of the unspecified causes responsible for part of the 5 per 
cent of the failures to start mentioned previously. There will be 
a weak explosion every time a cylinder should fire, but not 
enough power will be produced to cause the engine to take up its 
cycle and run. 

Q. When the cylinders have been flooded by over-priming 
with gasoline, what should be done? 

A. Close the throttle and open the air valve or choker, so 
that no gasoline is drawn through the carburetor. Take out the 
spark plugs and put 2 or 3 ounces of heavy cylinder oil into each 
cylinder. Replace the plugs and turn the motor over for two or 
three minutes with the ignition off. 

Q. Has the position of the throttle lever any effect on the 
fuel supply at starting? 

A. Some engines can only be started readily with the throttle 
at a certain position, usually not more than one-third open and 
sometimes considerably less. On a cold morning opening the 
throttle too far is liable to allow too much gasoline in liquid form to 
find its way into the cylinders, so that the effect is the same as 
that of over-priming or flooding. 

Q. How should an engine be primed? 

A. Gasoline should be carried in a squirt can for this pur- 
pose and not more than a teaspoonful should be squirted into each 
cylinder through the pet cocks. If the engine does not start after 
priming two or three times, look for some other cause of. fuel or 
ignition failure. If the engine starts and only turns over a few 
times and then stops, the cause is likely to be lack of fuel as 
indicated by the fact that it ran on what was injected into the 
cylinders. In priming the float in the carburetor is also depressed 
by means of a button or lever provided for the purpose. This 
floods the carburetor and causes the gasoline to overflow through 
the nozzle into the mixing chamber. The moment any gasoline 
leaks out of the carburetor, the float should be released, since 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 155 

otherwise the cylinders will be flooded. Never prime the car- 
buretor just as the engine is starting, as this will produce an 
over-rich mixture and probably cause a pop back which may ignite 
the gasoline in the carburetor. 

Q. Is water in the gasoline a frequent cause of failure to start? 

A. It may not be a very frequent cause, but the occurrence 
of any water in the gasoline will make it difficult to start the 
motor. Being heavier than gasoline the water sinks to the bot- 
tom of the tank and there may be enough of it to partly fill the 
carburetor. The remedy is to drain the carburetor, taking out 
a half-pint or so. 

Q. What effect does the use of kerosene as fuel have on 
the starting of the motor? 

A. It has no effect, if the matter is properly handled. At 
least five minutes before the engine is to be stopped the kerosene 
should always be shut off and the engine allowed to run on gaso- 
line so that all traces of kerosene will be cleaned out of the 
cylinders and the manifold. If this has not been done, it will 
take considerable cranking to start the engine, and it may also be 
necessary to inject 2 or 3 ounces of fresh oil into each cylinder to 
renew the compression seal since the kerosene condenses in the 
cylinders as soon as they get cold and then runs down past the 
pistons into the crankcase. 

Q. Will an adjustment of the mixture make starting any 
easier? 

A. The actual adjustment of the carburetor itself should 
never be disturbed for starting purposes, as, if this is done, 
either the carburetor will seldom be properly adjusted for efficient 
running or a great deal of time will be spent unnecessarily in 
making adjustments. Moreover the carburetor parts will soon 
wear badly and make efficient adjustment impossible. Most car- 
buretors are provided with a choker which, when closed, causes all 
the air to be drawn past the nozzle, thus increasing the suction 
and giving a rich mixture. This should be closed for starting and 
opened the moment the motor gets under way. Ordinarily the 
running mixture is too lean to make starting easy. 

Q. What are the commoner causes of failure to start 
through ignition trouble? 



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156 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

A. Among the causes are the following: a ground or short- 
circuit in the wiring; points of plugs burned too far apart; moisture 
on the distributor of the magneto; failure of the contact points in 
the breaker box of the magneto to separate when the cam strikes 
the hinged lever; impulse starter of magneto stuck or spring 
broken; putting plug cables on wrong plugs when a change has 
been made just before attempting to start; badly sooted plugs; 
spark lever advanced too far; and loose connections, particularly 
where a separate coil is used with the magneto. 

Q. What simple test can be made to determine whether 
the spark is occurring in each cylinder at the proper time? 

A. Take out the plugs, leaving the cables attached to them, 
and lay the plugs on the cylinder head. Then turn the motor 
over slowly and note whether or not the sparks occur at the 
plugs in the proper sequence. Note whether there is a strong 
blast of air from one of the spark plug holes each time the motor 
is turned over; if not, pour an ounce or two of fresh oil into each 
cylinder. The failure to start may be due to lack of compression. 

Q. If, when the spark plugs are thus placed, no spark 
occurs at them, where should the trouble be sought? 

A. Take off the cover of the contact breaker of the magneto; 
have an assistant turn the motor over slowly, and note whether 
the points of the contact breaker separate twice per revolution 
(four-cylinder motor). If they do separate, note whether the 
faces of the contact points are clean and square. If they are 
blackened or pitted, clean and true them up with a very fine file 
or a strip of fine sandpaper, and then so adjust them that they 
come together firmly when the cam is horizontal and do not 
separate more than ^ inch when the cam is vertical. By giving 
the motor a sharp turn beyond a compression point a spark will 
be noted between the points; or the impulse starter may be used 
and the result noted. 

Q. Assuming that a spark takes place between the contact 
points of the magneto, but none occurs at any of the spark plugs, 
where should the trouble be sought? 

A. Open up the distributor of the magneto and wipe it free 
of any moisture or dirt that may have accumulated on it. Turn 
the motor over and note whether the distributor brush revolves as 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 157 

it should. Adjust all the spark plug gaps to not more than -£* 
inch; see that the plugs are properly cleaned and that they are 
lying on their sides on the cylinder heads, so that only their 
bodies come in contact with the metal. If they are so placed 
that the central electrodes are touching, the current will pass 
through them without causing a spark, since there are then no 
gaps for it to jump. In case none of these tests produces a 
spark at the plugs, there is more than likely to be some internal 
trouble with the magneto, though this is of comparatively rare 
occurrence. 

Q. When the impulse starter fails to operate, what is likely 
to be the cause of the trouble? 

A. Either the mechanism has become gummed up with oil 
and dirt or the spring has broken. Cleaning out the impulse starter 
with gasoline and re-oiling will remove the former cause. 

Q, When the engine fails to start after having been primed 
once or twice and cranked several times, in what order should 
the cause of the trouble be sought? 

A. This will depend largely upon weather conditions. In 
very cold weather it is quite likely that nothing but the low tem- 
perature is the cause of difficulty in starting. Results will usually 
follow continued cranking, as this warms the engine up somewhat 
and makes it turn over easier, with the result that the first weak 
explosions may cause it to take up its cycle. In warm weather, 
if a start does not follow several attempts at cranking, test the 
ignition first and then the fuel supply, applying the different tests 
already outlined and in about the order given. 

Q. Are there any other points in the ignition system that 
are likely to be responsible for failure to start? 

A. If, when turning over, the motor produces a spark at the 
contact breaker but none at the plugs, investigate the magneto 
switch. It may have become broken or its connections may be 
faulty. See that it is in the right position, since many tractor 
motors can only be stopped by short-circuiting the magneto by means 
of the switch. In case the switch is in the S TOP position, no spark 
will occur at the plugs. On some tractors the spark-advance lever 
takes the place of the switch; by fully retarding it the magneto is 
short-circuited, and the motor cannot be started. 



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Q. Do the magnets of the magneto lose so much of their 
strength that no current is produced? 

A. In time, the heat and vibration are liable to weaken the 
magneto, but this is far from being a common source of trouble. 
If, after making the tests mentioned, no spark is produced, take 
off the distributor plate of the magneto and rest a screwdriver 
blade on the gear casing so that its end comes within | inch of 
the collector ring. Turn the motor over, and note whether a 
spark jumps this gap. A £-inch spark at this point will indicate 
that there is no falling off in the power of the magneto. If a 
spark cannot be produced in this way, there is something wrong 
with the magneto itself, and it should be sent to the manufac- 
turer for repairs. Ordinarily remagnetization is only necessary if 
the magneto has been taken apart and the magnets allowed to 
stand without a "keeper," or piece of soft iron across their ends, 
or if they have been removed from the magneto and reassembled 
in the wrong way. 

Q, When the contact points have become so badly pitted 
and burned away that they cannot be properly adjusted after 
cleaning and trueing up, what should be done? 

A. One or both of the contacts should be replaced and 
adjusted properly. The magneto manufacturer usually supplies a 
special wrench for this purpose, one end of it serving as a gage 
for the proper gap between them. The lock nut of the movable 
point should always be screwed down firmly after the adjustment 
has been made or it will back off owing to the vibration. 

Q. Are there any connections on the magneto which are 
likely to become short-circuited or grounded? 

A. When the wire is brought out through the side of the 
magneto, the insulation may become so worn that the metal 
touches the side of the opening, causing a short-circuit. In the 
inductor types of magneto, such as the Remy and K-W, this is 
most likely to occur at the grounding screw where the wire is 
fastened to the side of the magneto. In shuttle-wound types, 
such as the Eisemann, Kingston, and Bosch, the break may be 
at the point where the wire is fastened to the armature or where 
it is fastened to the collector ring. 

Q. Can the contact breaker become short-circuited? 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 159 

A. Metallic dust or filings will be liable to cause this; the 
remedy is to clean out the inside of the box with gasoline. When- 
ever an adjustment is made, the contact points must always be 
redressed so as to come together squarely. For this purpose use 
only the small file supplied by the manufacturer, and take off just 
as little of the platinum as possible, since it is worth consider- 
ably more than gold. 

Q. How can the contact-breaker box be tested for a short- 
circuit? 

A. Remove it from the magneto, place a piece of paper 
between the points, and then hold the box within § inch of the 
shaft while the magneto is turned over with the other hand. No 
spark should occur; if it does, it indicates that the insulation of 
the adjustable contact point is poor and should be replaced. 
The test should then be repeated with the paper removed so that 
the points are in contact; a spark should then occur when the 
armature is turned over, the breaker box being held within | 
inch or less. 

Q. Does oil getting on the parts injure the magneto in any 
way? 

A. If allowed to get between the contact points in the 
breaker box, it will insulate them. On the shuttle-wound types of 
magneto there is a collector ring and brush, and allowing any oil 
to get on them will prevent the operation of the magneto alto- 
gether. Oil usually carries more or less dirt with it, and if 
allowed to get on the distributor, it is liable to cause leakage of the 
high-tension current, so that no spark occurs at the plugs. 

Q. How often should the contact points of the magneto 
need attention? 

A. This will depend more or less on the particular type of 
magneto and the engine, but they should be inspected at least 
once every thirty days while the tractor is in service steadily and 
trued up with the sandpaper or special file whenever the slightest 
irregularity of their surfaces is evident. Taking off a little at fre- 
quent intervals will keep the points in much better condition and 
will save the costly platinum, since once the points start to pit 
this process proceeds very rapidly. Emery should never be used 
on the points. 



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Q. Is excess oil in the motor ever a cause of failure to start? 

A. When there is so much oil in the motor that considerable 
of it finds its way into the combustion chambers, it will collect on 
the spark plug points and insulate them, if unburned, or short- 
circuit them, if carbonized. The fact that the motor apparently 
ran satisfactorily just before being shut down the last time is not 
conclusive evidence that the spark plugs are in good condition. 
The magneto generates a high voltage when running at full speed, 
and the motor will often continue to operate in spite of poor con* 
ditions whereas it cannot be started again, once it has become 
cold, without first remedying the faults. 

Q. What is the commonest cause of failure to start a motor 
equipped with low-tension ignition? 

A. Dirty plugs; or ignitors, are probably the most frequent 
cause. As in the case of the high-tension spark plugs just men- 
tioned, the engine may continue to run with the plugs in poor 
condition, but once it has been shut down and allowed to become 
cold, the magneto will not produce a spark at the dirty plugs at 
the low speed at which the engine is cranked. Whenever an 
engine with this type of ignition is difficult to start, the first 
thing to do is to examine the plugs. Give them a thorough clean- 
ing with gasoline and a wire brush, taking out the moving contact 
to remove any soot that has been forced into the bearing. These 
plugs may be tested by laying on the cylinder head, contacts up, 
and snapping the contact with a small piece of wood while an 
assistant turns the motor over so that the magneto is generating. 

Q. What other attention do these plugs require? 

A. The contact points burn away rapidly and need frequent 
dressing up to keep their contact faces from becoming pitted. 
They should be trued up in the same manner as directed for the 
magneto breaker-box contact points, and while the material is not 
so expensive, no more than necessary should be taken off. The 
operation should be repeated at frequent intervals to keep the 
plugs in good condition. 

Q. How may the low=tension magneto be tested to find 
out whether it is generating or not? 

A. Place a screwdriver blade against the single terminal of 
the magneto and hold the end against some metal part of the 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 161 

motor while the motor is cranked. Move the tip of the screw- 
driver over the metal while maintaining contact with the terminal 
at the other end and sparks will be noted at the tip. A similar 
test may be made by disconnecting the cable leading from the 
coil. Rub the metal terminal of this cable over different adjacent 
parts of the motor so that contact is made and broken while the 
engine is being cranked, and much larger sparks will be noted. 

Q. If, after making tests successfully, no spark is obtain- 
able at the ignitor plug itself, what is the cause of the trouble? 

A. The plug is likely to be at fault. Oil that has been used 
for any time carries in solution a considerable percentage of 
carbon in a finely divided state. When hot, this oil is thin and 
is forced into the insulation of the plug, short-circuiting it, 
though apparently there is nothing wrong with it. The only 
remedy is to renew the insulation of the plug. 

Q. Though a test of the ignitors shows them to be in good 
working condition, the motor still fails to start and examination 
shows every other part to be working properly, so that the fault 
is evidently with the ignition, what is the cause? 

A. Either some part of the ignitor tripping mechanism has 
failed, so that the contacts do not separate, or the timing has 
become deranged, so that the separation takes place at the wrong 
moment. In the latter case the spark is occurring in the cylinder, 
but it is taking place either too soon or too late to fire the charge. 
Check up the timing of the ignitor mechanism in accordance with 
the maker's instruction book. 

Q. How can the dry cells ordinarily used for starting with 
low-tension ignition be tested? 

A. A pocket ammeter, or so-called battery tester, should be 
used for this purpose. Hold the tips on the cells only long enough 
to allow the instrument needle to come to rest, since the ammeter 
represents a dead short-circuit on the battery and will run it down 
very quickly. If the reading of the ammeter shows less than 10 
amperes, the batteries are of no further use for starting purposes 
and should be renewed. Any other method of testing will only 
show whether the battery is actually dead or not, and dry cells 
may make a fairly large spark through the coil but will give a 
reading of only 2 to 3 amperes on the instrument and will fail to 



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162 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

ignite the charge in the cylinder. Batteries when this low give 
out very quickly. If the switch has been left on the battery side 
inadvertently, give the cells ten to fifteen minutes to recuperate 
and then test again. 

Q. What is likely to go wrong with the wiring of a low- 
tension system? 

A. About the only thing that can happen to this wiring is a 
loose connection at the magneto, at the ground on the motor, at 
the ignitor* connection, or at the switch. The switch itself may 
become short-circuited and thus prevent any current from reach- 
ing the plugs. 

Q. Does the tripping mechanism of a low=tension system 
require frequent attention? 

A. The trip-rod mechanism should be inspected from time 
to time to see that it is working normally, as the vibration is likely 
to knock it out of adjustment. The springs should be replaced 
whenever they show any signs of weakening. 

RUNNING TROUBLES 

Q. What causes the engine to emit smoke? 

A. Among the causes are the following: an over-rich mixture 
caused by faulty adjustment of the carburetor; and flooding of the 
carburetor due to a leaking metal float or a water-logged cork 
float. In either of these cases the smoke will be black. Oil get- 
ting into the combustion chambers in excess, caused by feeding 
too much oil or by broken or stuck piston rings, will produce a 
blue smoke. Feeding an excessive amount of water when burning 
kerosene or running the engine too cold will produce a white or 
gray smoke, indicating that the kerosene is not being entirely 
consumed. 

Q. What is the cause of back firing through the carburetor? 

A. A slow-burning fuel mixture is being fed, that is, one 
either too lean or too rich, usually the former, so that there is 
still flame in the cylinder when the valve opens. At times this 
will occur to such an extent that the flame issues from the exhaust 
pipe at the end of the muffler. This is an indication that the 
mixture is too rich, since it is still burning after being exhausted 
from the cylinder. One of the valves may not be closing properly; 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 163 

it may be held off its seat slightly by an accumulation of carbon, 
or its stem may have become bent, so that the spring cannot 
close it. When the ignition has been dismantled, reassembling 
the cables on the wrong plugs so as to alter the firing order will 
cause a back fire, but in this case the engine cannot be started. 
An air trap in the fuel line or partial clogging of the latter will 
also cause this at times. 

Q, What are the commoner causes of missing? 

A. The most frequent cause is a defective spark plug. 
Owing to the heat and the vibration the porcelain of a plug will 
break, but the cracks will be so small that they are invisible. 
The pressure forces carbon-laden oil into these cracks and the 
plug becomes short-circuited, though apparently in good order. 
Test by short-circuiting the plugs in turn with a wooden-handled 
screwdriver. When short-circuiting a plug causes no perceptible 
difference in the running of the engine, replace it. Pitted and 
badly worn contact points in the magneto breaker box will also 
cause irregular running. (See the directions given under Failure 
to Start.) Missing may also be caused by the fuel mixture being 
too rich or too lean, partial stoppage of the fuel line, water in the 
gasoline, defective insulation or loose connections, carbon dust on 
the distributor plate of the magneto, or a sticking valve. 

Q. In what other ways may spark plugs fail besides the 
porcelain cracking? 

A. Very frequently the electrodes burn too far apart, so that 
the current is unable to jump the gap, or if it does, the spark is 
weak and irregular. Plugs become foul through an accumulation 
of soot in them, and to clean a badly sooted plug out thoroughly, 
it may be necessary to take it apart. The insulation of a mica 
plug will fail in time through the hot oil and carbon being driven 
into it under pressure, and the only remedy is to replace the 
insulator. Leakage around the gasket sometimes occurs, and 
when it is not sufficient to cause a hissing noise, it will be indi- 
cated by the porcelain of the plug becoming very dirty. Squirt a 
little oil on the porcelain when the engine is running and bubbles 
will form at the gasket if the plug is leaking. Cheap plugs are 
made with iron electrodes, and the latter burn away so fast that 
it may be necessary to adjust the gap once a day. 



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164 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

Q. What is the cause of preignition? 

A. Usually an accumulation of carbon in the combustion 
chamber. This carbon deposit often takes the form of small 
cones which become incandescent when the engine is running 
under full load so that the fresh mixture is ignited the moment 
it enters the cylinder. When running on kerosene, the piston 
head may become so hot as to produce the same result. In 
either case, preignition will be evidenced by a heavy pounding 
and the engine should be stopped at once as this imposes a very 
heavy stress on all the moving parts. Increasing the amount of 
water fed with the fuel will remedy it when it is due to over- 
heated pistons and the use of kerosene. Otherwise, the engine 
will have to be cleaned out to remove the carbon. 

Q. How can the accumulation of carbon be prevented? 

A. By using only the grade of oil recommended by the 
manufacturer of the tractor; cleaning it out and putting in a 
fresh supply as often as directed; keeping the piston rings in good 
condition, so that an excessive amount of oil cannot find its way 
into the combustion chambers; and keeping the carburetor 
properly adjusted, so that too rich a mixture is not used. Feed 
the proper amount of water when burning kerosene. In spite of 
these precautions, more or less carbon will always accumulate in 
the cylinders. This amount. can be kept down to a minimum by 
pouring a few ounces of kerosene into each cylinder at the end of 
a day's run when the engine is still very hot and leaving this in 
the cylinders over night. Before starting up in the morning, the 
compression seal should be renewed by putting a few ounces of 
fresh oil into each cylinder. 

Q. When the engine fires regularly but the explosions are 
so weak that very little power is produced, what is the cause of the 
trouble? 

A. Some of the commoner causes are as follows: spark plug 
points burned too far apart; excessive clearance at the valve stem 
tappets or rocker arms, so that only a fraction of the fuel required 
is being admitted; valves in need of grinding; poor compression 
caused by oil not being renewed at sufficiently short intervals; 
broken or stuck piston rings; leaks around spark plugs; use of a 
fuel mixture that is too lean or too rich, so that slow burning 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 165 

results instead of an explosion; a weakened or broken valve 
spring; clogging of the passages of the muffler with carbon; or 
any obstruction in the exhaust piping. 

Q. What causes the engine to run regularly for a time 
and then to misfire badly? 

A. This may be caused by switching to kerosene before the 
engine has run long enough on gasoline to become thoroughly 
warmed up; a valve with a bent stem that operates properly at 
times and then sticks during a few revolutions; air leaks around 
the valve steins or in the intake manifold; dirt in the carburetor, 
so that the nozzle is partly clogged at times and free at others; 
clefective insulation or a loose connection which interrupts the 
circuit from time to time owing to the vibration of the engine, 
causing it to change position; water in the gasoline; carbon on the 
distributor plate of the magneto; or faulty spark plugs which will 
permit the engine to run regularly when idling but which will fail 
the moment the load is applied. A spark plug with fine cracks in 
the porcelain will fail under load owing to the greatly increased 
pressure in the cylinder, but will often spark regularly when the 
engine is running without load. A loose connection or weak spot 
in the insulation is the most puzzling of these causes since it is 
often the most difficult to find. 

Q. What causes the engine to stop suddenly? 

A. This is generally due to a failure of the ignition, owing 
to a break in the circuit caused by a connection dropping off, the 
switch suddenly opening under the vibration, or some part of the 
wiring becoming short-circuited. Clogging of the fuel line or of 
the carburetor nozzle or an empty tank will also result in the 
engine stopping. Where the stoppage is due to failure of the fuel 
supply from any cause, the engine will not usually come to as 
sudden a stop as when the ignition fails. The contacts in the 
breaker box of the magneto may have stuck together. If the 
cooling or the lubricating system fails, it will also take more time 
to bring the engine to a stop and there will be noises that give 
ample evidence of the cause of the trouble. The engine should be 
shut off the moment these noises occur for otherwise it will be 
forcibly stopped by the binding of the pistons, thus putting the 
engine out of commission. 



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166 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

ENGINE NOISES 
Q. How are the different engine noises that signify trouble 
in the operation of the motor characterized? 

A. Experienced motor mechanics give a different term to 
each one of several distinct classes of noise indicating faulty 
operation, such as knock, hammer, pound, and slap, and to the 
ear that is familiar with them each can be distinguished. 

Q. What do these different noises signify to the experi= 
enced ear? 

A. A knock is the first indication of looseness in a bearing, 
usually a connecting-rod big end, and the sound is generally that 
of a sharp metallic blow. When it is allowed to develop or when 
looseness in the crankshaft bearings develops, the sound becomes 
louder but not so sharp and is more aptly described as hammer- 
ing, owing to its similarity to the blow of a sledge. Pounding is 
caused by preignition and by overheating and is so violent as to 
rack the whole motor very badly. Slap is the result of worn 
pistons, the skirts or lower ends of which are banged against 
the cylinder walls every time the motor fires. The noise pro- 
duced is very similar to that of a knock and is often mistaken 
for the latter, though an experienced mechanic will seldom go 
wrong on this. In addition to the noises mentioned, there is 
another that is readily distinguished by the experienced ear, and 
that is the clatter caused by a loose valve motion, indicating 
that an excessive amount of clearance has been allowed to develop 
between the valve tappets and stems or in the rocker arms. To 
the inexperienced ear all strange noises will be knocks and it may 
seem to be drawing too fine distinctions to differentiate between 
knocking, hammering, and pounding, but familiarity with a motor 
will enable the operator not only to make these distinctions but 
to know as well what causes the different noises. 

Q. Which of these noises calls for immediate attention on 
the part of the operator to prevent damage to the motor? 

A. A very good rule to follow is to shut the motor down 
the moment any of these noises is heard and correct the trouble, 
but those that call for immediate attention to prevent serious 
damage are hammering and pounding. The first indicates a very 
loose bearing which may result in a broken crankshaft if allowed 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 167 

to run a moment longer than necessary, while pounding not only 
imposes exceedingly heavy stresses on every part of the motor 
but may also be the first sign of failure of either the cooling or 
the lubricating system. The cause may be nothing more serious 
than lack of sufficient water when burning kerosene or the fact 
that the spark lever may be advanced too far. 

GOVERNOR 

Q. What causes the engine to race when the load is thrown 
off? 

A. The governor needs adjustment, or the connection between 
it and the throttle has parted. 

Q. What attention does the governor ordinarily need? 

A. This depends largely upon the type of governor. Some 
are housed in and the lubrication provided for by filling the 
housing with oil; such a governor needs very little attention, 
except to adjust it when it permits the engine to idle too fast. 
An adjusting screw is provided for this purpose. With the engine 
running, turn the screw gradually until the engine slows down 
to a point where it idles satisfactorily. The governor spring 
weakens in time, and the adjustment is provided to permit of 
increasing the tension. Apart from this, the only regular atten- 
tion required by those types which are not automatically lubri- 
cated is to oil the bearings at regular intervals and see that the 
connecting linkage is in good order. 

CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 

Q. What provision is made for taking up wear in the clutch? 

A. The friction surface, which is usually asbestos on a wire 
foundation, should be replaced when worn sufficiently to require 
it. After considerable service the spring pressure may let up 
sufficiently to cause unsatisfactory operation of the clutch. An 
adjustment is provided for increasing the tension of the spring, 
and this should be tightened just enough to make the clutch hold 
under load; but it is not good practice to attempt to make up for 
a badly worn friction facing by increasing the tension of the 
spring. Replace the facing first. This, of course, does not apply 
to the type employing metal to metal contact surfaces. Apart 



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168 GASOLINE TRACTORS 

from this, the chief attention required is lubrication, which should 
be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 
some clutch mechanisms calling for oil as much as two or three 
times a day. 

Q. Is it good practice to let the machine stand with the 
clutch out of engagement? 

A. No; as it only weakens the clutch spring and shortens 
its life. Whenever the machine is to stand more than a few 
moments, the gears should be shifted to neutral and the clutch 
allowed to engage. It is particularly bad practice to let the 
machine stand over night with the clutch out of engagement. 

Q. Are a worn friction facing and a weak spring the only 
causes of a slipping clutch? 

A. Allowing oil or grease to fall on the friction faces of the 
clutch will cause it to slip badly. 

Q. What attention does the transmission require? 

A. Maintain the oil level as indicated in the manufacturer's 
instructions and use only the oil called for by the latter. Drain 
as often as instructed, and wash out with gasoline or kerosene 
before refilling. This is usually two to three times a season, 
though some types may require it oftener. When the case has 
been cleaned out, inspect the gear teeth carefully for breaks, 
and see that any chips or foreign matter are removed. By 
filtering the old oil through several thicknesses of cloth, it may 
be used for other farm machines which do not require the same 
high degree of lubrication as the tractor. 

Q. Does the differential require any special form of attention? 

A. The differential is frequently combined with the trans- 
mission, so that it is lubricated by the same supply of oil. Where 
it is separate from the transmission, the attention required is the 
same as that just mentioned for the transmission. 

HOUSING TRACTOR 

Q. Does it pay to build a special shelter for a tractor? 

A. It will undoubtedly be found a good investment, since 
the cost of a building large enough to shelter the tractor and 
provide a working bench beside it will usually be less than the 
added depreciation incurred by leaving it exposed to the weather. 



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GASOLINE TRACTORS 169 

Q. When the tractor is put up for the season, what atten- 
tion should be given it? 

A. Before putting the machine away for the winter, the valves 
should be ground, the bearings adjusted, the valve mechanism 
and the magneto overhauled, the oil drained from the crankcase 
and the transmission, and the latter washed out and provided 
with a fresh supply of oil. Wash the cylinders and pistons by 
putting a pint or more of gasoline in each cylinder and running 
the motor for half a minute. Then put a pint of fresh oil in 
each cylinder and turn the motor over by hand a few times to 
spread it over the surfaces; otherwise, the cylinders and pistons 
may rust. Coat all exposed parts with grease and cover the 
machine with a tarpaulin or old canvas. Make a list of all 
replacement parts necessary and order them at the time the 
machine is put away in order that they may be installed during 
the winter. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



INTRODUCTION 

Development of Field. While the development of the com- 
mercial car was slow at first owing to the numerous shortcomings 
of early types, it has advanced with wonderful rapidity during the 
past few years and bids fair to supersede, in a comparatively short 
time, the use of the horse-drawn vehicle for business purposes, not 
only in the large cities but also on the farm. As in the case of the 
pleasure car, Europe led in the development of the automobile for 
transportation purposes, chiefly with military necessities in view, as 
without power-driven vehicles it would be impossible to move the 
enormous food and ammunition supplies required by an army of 
present-day proportions. However, American manufacturers have 
advanced so rapidly in the production of commercial cars during the 
past few years that in 1916 the registration of New York City alone 
showed a greater number of these vehicles than were reported by the 
census of 1915 for the whole German Empire and more than half the 
number reported in service in Great Britain during the same period. 

Scope of the "Commercial Vehicle". It is important to know 
the reasons for the revolution which is now in active progress, as well 
as to become familiar with the prevailing practices in America and 
abroad in the construction, operation, and maintenance of that large 
and varied class of automobiles employed exclusively for business 
purposes. Regardless of type, class, or method of propulsion, these 
are commonly referred to as "commercial vehicles". This classifi- 
cation embraces not only motor delivery wagons and trucks for the 
transportation of merchandise, but also taxicabs, omnibuses, sight- 
seeing vehicles, motor road trains, farm tractors, emergency repair 
or tower wagons for street-railway service, and also vehicles for 
special municipal service — ambulances, patrol wagons, fire engines, 
street-sprinkling and garbage-removal wagons, and the like. In fact, 
it may be said that any automobile not devoted to pleasure is a com- 
mercial vehicle, and, as was to be expected, the first types of these 



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2 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

vehicles were merely pleasure cars transformed to suit the needs of 
the occasion. To a certain extent, this still continues to be the case. 

Standard Design. Whether it be electric-, steam-, or gasoline- 
driven, the general design of the motive power, as well as that of its 
transmission to the driving wheels, is practically the same in the 
commercial vehicle as it is in the pleasure car, except that the chain 
drive has now almost disappeared on the latter, and all the com- 
ponent parts — bearings, frames, axles, steering gear, and compen- 
sating mechanism — are the same. In other words, the chassis in 
both cases is composed of similar members. For the sake of brevity 
in the present treatise, it is assumed at the outset that the reader 
has become familiar with motor-car engineering so far as it relates to 
pleasure-car construction; that he understands, from previous study 
and the actual handling of machines, the theory of the operation of 
the internal-combustion engine; that he is conversant with the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of the several types of engines as well as 
with their advantages and limitations; and that he is acquainted with 
the types of transmission systems ordinarily employed on pleasure 
cars — in brief, that he understands any reference to component parts, 
to their functions, and to their relation to one another, without the 
necessity of explanation. 

In common with the pleasure car, the commercial vehicle is 
capable of traveling at various speeds wherever road conditions will 
permit it to go. Both comprise in a single entity a wheeled vehicle 
suitable for transportation purposes, fitted with an independent, self- 
contained power plant, and both present the same engineering prob- 
lems so far as they relate to the construction of the motor, its control, 
and the transmission of its power to the road wheels, the design of the 
running gear, and the control of the vehicle itself. Divergence in 
practice is encountered with the consideration of the purposes for 
which each vehicle is designed. The pleasure car is not intended to 
be a very efficient vehicle. Its carrying capacity bears a compara- 
tively insignificant ratio to its total weight, and, usually, the car is not 
designed to work under the same severe and continued conditions 
of service that are the first requirements of the commercial vehicle 
It must be capable of high speed with its maximum load of passen- 
gers and must combine reliability with endurance to an extent 
sufficient to meet the demands of its owner when on pleasure bent. 



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Classification. In order to make the subject as clear as possible 
and to facilitate reference on the part of the student, industrial motor 
vehicles as a whole have been classified, first, by their motive power; 
and second, by the uses for which they are intended. Thus there 
are, today, in the order of their relative importance: 



Motive Power 



Types of Vehicles ■* 



Electric vehicles 
Gasoline-driven vehicles 
Gas-electric vehicles 
Steam vehicles 

Industrial electric trucks 

Delivery wagons 

Trucks, vans, and similar freight carriers 

Passenger vehicles — stages, busses, taxicabs, sight-seeing 
cars, etc. 

Municipal vehicles — patrol wagons, ambulances, fire appa- 
ratus, garbage-removal wagons, street sprinklers, etc. 

Special types — railway tower wagons, emergency repair 
wagons, farm tractors, road trains, etc. 

This classification has been made advisedly, for, though kerosene 
and alcohol are being experimented with as fuels for the internal- 
combustion engine and particularly for commercial purposes, by 
far the greater majority of types marketed at present are driven 
by gasoline fuel. 

Each of the foregoing principal divisions is susceptible of further 
subdivision, but this is neither necessary nor desirable. Commer- 
cial motor vehicles are now built for almost every conceivable 
purpose involving freight hauling or the transportation of pas- 
sengers and include many special uses, such as hauling huge reels of 
telephone cable and drawing the cable through the underground 
conduits, transporting and hoisting safes and pianos, delivering coal 
with special dumping wagons, and the like. They differ only in the 
special equipment with which they are provided for the service in 
view, and, as their construction otherwise is the same, it would only 
lead to confusion to attempt to consider them separately. 

ELECTRIC VEHICLES 

Range of Use. Owing to the general recognition of its simplicity 
and economy, which has been brought about by a co-operative 
propaganda fostered by the electric lighting and power companies, 



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4 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

the growth of the use of the electric commercial vehicles during the 
past few years has been little short of phenomenal. One New York 
firm alone uses nearly 350 electric delivery wagons, several have 
nearly 100, while no fewer than forty-five have "fleets" of 10 cars or 
more. All told, there are several thousand electric vehicles in New 
York City and more than 100 garages and charging stations, while 
the demand for current has been so great that the minimum for 
charging batteries has recently been reduced to $10 per month. 
Current is supplied at a preferred rate under special contract, which 
calls for the charging of the batteries during those hours of the night 
when the load on the central stations is lowest. 

Advantages of the Electric Type. Simplicity. One of the chief 
advantages of the electric vehicle, when judged from the purely com- 
mercial point of view, is its great simplicity, which, to a very large 
extent, solves the labor question that has proved such a deterrent to 
the adoption of the gasoline vehicle for commercial service. As the 
duties of the driver of an electric vehicle do not extend beyond its 
actual starting, stopping, and guidance while under way, anyone 
who has been accostumed to the use of horses can master its operation 
in the course of a few hours. This also appears to be equally true 
of men who have never driven any type of vehicle previous to their 
taking the wheel or steering tiller of an electric. Apart from the actual 
mechanical control of the vehicle, the driver's only other care is to 
keep informed as to the state of charge of the battery by watching 
the voltmeter, in order to prevent running the car with the batteries 
exhausted, as this is very detrimental to their continued usefulness. 
However, as the batteries of most commercial vehicles are charged 
every twenty-four hours and the car run is planned to lie within its 
traveling radius on a single charge, with a factor of safety allowed in 
addition, this is not a very onerous duty. The further requirement 
of noting the current consumption on starting and running, as indi- 
cated by the ammeter, in order that any defect in the operation of the 
running gear of the car may be detected and remedied, is also a very 
simple one, so that an unskilled driver is available at a correspond- 
ingly lower charge for labor cost in the operation of the vehicle. The 
adoption of the ampere-hour meter showing the actual consumption 
of battery energy has simplified the task of the driver still 
further. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 5 

Efficiency and Long Life. Broadly speaking, short runs with 
many stops are the province of the electric, so that probably 80 
per cent of all average city deliveries come within its economic field. 
Its labor cost is much lower than that of the gasoline car, since an 
unskilled hand can operate it efficiently, while one man at the garage 
can take care of nearly twice as many electrics as of gasoline cars. 
The electric is easier on tires, owing to its reduced speed, insurance 
rates are lower, and its depreciation can be figured on a much more 
favorable basis, as it has been shown to have an average effective 
life of ten years. The fact that all its moving parts revolve has a 
most important influence on its low maintenance cost and reliability, 
many electric trucks showing an average of 297 days in service of 
the 300 working days in a year. 

Power Efficiency. The amount of power available on a single 
charge of the batteries without unduly increasing the weight is so 
limited that in the design of the electric great care must be taken 
to eliminate friction and other sources of power loss at every possible 
point. This is further necessitated by the gradually decreasing 
efficiency of the batteries with age. Starting with 80 per cent 
when new, the efficiency may drop rapidly to 50 per cent or below 
unless the batteries are properly maintained, which is likewise true 
of the transmission efficiency of the running gear of the vehicle; so 
that while unskilled labor may be employed for the operation of the 
vehicles this is not the case where their maintenance is concerned. 
Power losses due to the tires are also an important factor, and as 
the pneumatic tire can very seldom be considered for commercial 
service, the same degree of efficiency is not obtainable from the busi- 
ness electric wagon as from the pleasure type employing the same 
motive power. Road conditions must also be considered — despite the 
fact that electrics are employed almost exclusively for city or near-by- 
suburban service — as mud, snow, and ice in winter, and poor pave- 
ments at any time cause an increase in the current consumption. 

ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGON 

General Specifications. Whether considered from the point of 
view of design and construction or from that of operation, the 
electric delivery wagon is, without doubt, the simplest vehicle in 
the commercial field. As already mentioned, its operation may be 



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6 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

mastered in a comparatively short time, either by the ex-horsedriver 
or by a person who has never had any experience in the control of a 
vehicle, so that the labor cost — always an item of importance in this 
field — may be materially reduced without fear of the equipment 
suffering in consequence. It is usually customary with manufac- 
turers of these vehicles to adopt a standard form of design, which is 
employed throughout in every size listed by the same maker, the only 
differences being those of dimension, load capacity of the vehicle, 
and capacity of the battery to take care of the increased weight. 

Package delivery wagons and express wagons of the electric 
type have a useful load capacity ranging from 1000 to 2000 pounds, 
though a very few of less than 1000 pounds' capacity were employed 
at first. The 40-mile run is standard and is based on an average 
speed of 10 to 20 miles an hour, including stops, as the necessity 
for frequently stopping and re-starting the car in delivery service 
has an important bearing on the mileage of which the car is capable 
on a single charge. The latter is naturally figured on the maximum 
efficiency of the car as a whole, so that in practice this is seldom 
fully realized, owing to the deterioration of the batteries in service. 

Design. The electric has progressed through the stages repre- 
sented by the angle-iron frame, the armored wood frame, and the modi- 
fications of the two as employed on gasoline cars to the now generally 
current type of pressed-steel frame. This frame has the advantage 
of being extremely strong for its weight. It is composed of side and 
transverse members produced in hydraulic presses directly from 
steel plates of about ^-inch thickness, these members being riveted 
together and further reinforced by gussets at the corners. On 
account of the height of the vehicle, the frames are made perfectly 
rectangular and without either a drop or narrowing forward. 

The types of suspension employed also show the same variations 
as are to be found in the gasoline-driven cars, some of the smaller 
electrics having the full elliptic springs ordinarily employed on 
wagons, while intermediate and heavy vehicles have either straight 
semi-elliptic springs front and rear or a half-platform type of sus- 
pension in the rear. A study of the Baker and General Vehicle 
types of delivery wagons and trucks will show how closely they 
approach, as a whole, to what is considered general practice in the 
automobile field. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 7 

Because of the heavy loads carried and of the fact that solid 
tires are used, the entire running gear has to be planned on a very 
liberal scale. This is likewise true of the springs. While it is desir- 
able that the latter afford as much protection to the mechanism as 
possible, sufficient stability to carry the load is of more importance 
than flexibility, as the comparatively slow speeds do not occasion 
the violent shocks met with in the pleasure car. 

MOTIVE POWER 

Type of Motor, As already mentioned, the motive power of 
the majority of smaller electric vehicles consists of a single motor, 
and, in several makes, such as the Waverley, G.V., G.M.C., and 
Detroit, this practice extends to heavy units, with a corresponding 
increase in the efficiency of the vehicle as a whole. In order to keep 
down the weight as well as the space occupied, these motors are very 
small for their power output, and consequently have to be wound for 
high rotative speeds. They are usually of the series type of the 
General Electric or the Westinghouse make and are designed to 
carry heavy overloads for short periods, to enable the car to pull out 
of a bad place, to start with full load on a heavy grade, or to meet 
similar emergencies, the motor, under such conditions, delivering 
an amount of power greatly in excess of its normal rating. 

Motor Suspension with Chain Drive. Since the use of spur-gear 
drives has decreased, the motor is usually suspended from the frame 
by means of transverse members riveted to the side rails and is 
placed near, or slightly forward of, the center of the chassis, in 
order to give the best distribution of weight. This is an advantage 
not obtainable when the motors are hung from the rear axle or too 
close to it. In view of the high speed at which the motors run — 1800 
to 2000 r.p.m. or more — a reduction in two stages is necessary to 
avoid the employment of excessively large sprockets. The first step 
is from the motor to a countershaft by means of a single silent chain 
of the Morse or the Renold type, the motor being suspended in such a 
manner that it may be moved a short distance one way or the other 
to permit the adjusting of this chain to the proper tension, Fig. 1. 
The large sprocket on the countershaft, which serves to cut down the 
speed in the proportion of about 1 to 5, also embodies a differential, 
or compensating, gear of the usual bevel or spur type, thus making 



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8 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

it possible to employ a solid one-piece axle instead of weakening 
the latter by inserting the balance gear in it. This is an important 
feature, as the rear axle must bear 60 to 70 per cent of the total weight 
of both the car and the load. From the countershaft, chains are run 
to each of the driving wheels. The relative positions of the counter- 
shaft and the rear axle are maintained by heavy adjustable radius 
rods, attached forward to the outer ends of the countershaft and, at 
the rear, to the axle. These rods take the stress of the drive off the 



Fig. 1. Motor Suspension and Silent-Chain Drive on Baker Trucks 

springs and counteract the tendency of the chains to draw the rear 
axle toward the countershaft, under the pull of the motor. 

Motor Suspension with Shaft Drive. On light delivery wagons of 
the shaft-driven type, three methods of motor suspension may be 
noted. In the first method, the motor is placed just forward of the 
rear axle, its housing being practically integral with that of the axle. 
Either a wormdrive permitting of a single-speed reduction or a two- 
speed gear through spur gears is employed. As the motor moves with 
the axle and their relations are fixed, flexible joints are not required. 
A modification of the first method consists in placing the motor under 
the car at about the center and mounting it on a flexible suspension 
so that it can move under stress without disturbing its alignment; 
while the third method provides for taking such stresses on universal 
and slip joints interposed between the motor and the rear axle. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



> 
6 



3 



93 



10 COMMERCIAL VEHICI.ES 

The relative locations of the various essentials of a delivery 
wagon of the single-motor side-chain-drive type are clearly shown 
in Fig. 2 that illustrates a G.V. chassis of 4000 pounds' capacity, this 
being the same except for the differepgain size. 

Worm-Gear Transmission. mSHe the power is transmitted 
through a combination-chain drive, i.e., silent chain for the first 
reduction and roller chains for the final drive, on the majority of 
delivery wagons, the practice of utilizing the worm drive, which has 
recently been adopted on the pleasure cars, has also been taken up 
in this field on the light vehicles. An example of this is represented by 



Fig. 3. Rear Axle of Commercial Electric Delivery Wagon 

the G.V. 1000-pound delivery wagon, equipped with a single motor 
driving through a propeller shaft having two universals and with 
a David Brown (British) type of worm-gear rear axle. On machines 
of this class, it is customary to mount the motor on a flexible support, 
which permits it to adapt itself to variations in the angularity of 
the propeller shaft, thus reducing the load imposed on the universal 
joints and, at the same time, avoiding the effects of torsional stresses 
on the motor. As the location of the motor is such as to prevent 
the suspension of the battery below the frame in the usual cradle, 
it is carried forward under a bonnet, or hood, and the wheel-base of 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 11 



Fig. 4. G.M.C. Chassis with Combination Shaft and Chain Drive 

the chassis correspondingly lengthened. This is not the case with 
the Commercial worm-driven delivery wagon, as in this instance the 
motor is placed almost directly on the rear axle, as shown in Fig. 3, 
thus eliminating the propeller shaft and the necessity for universal 
joints. The spring suspension of the motor will be noted protruding 
above its forward end. 



Fig. 5. Motor, Drive Shaft, and Jackshaft Assembly for G.M.C. Electric Wagon 

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12 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

Shaft and Chain Transmission. The G.M.C. (General Motors 
Company) electric embodies a combination of shaft and chain drive, 
as shown by the chassis, Fig. 4. This drive incorporates an ingenious 



Fig. 6. Details of Motor Mounting, Brake, and Drive, G.M.C. Electric Delivery Wagon 

feature consisting of the use of a spring steel shaft, as shown by the 
detail view, Fig. 5. The design of these cars, as shown by the chassis, 
is standard for all capacities ranging from a 1000-pound delivery 



Fig. 7. Chassis of Waverley 5-Ton Electric Truck, Showing Battery Installation 

wagon up to a 6-ton truck, and, in each case, the section of this shaft 
is calculated to transmit the power necessary, with a predetermined 
degree of flexure in starting, which serves to cushion the mechanism 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 13 

as well as the tires. The pin attachment at the motor and the bevel- 
gear-driven countershaft eliminate the necessity for universal joints 
in this member while still permitting a rigid mounting of the motor 
on its sub-frame. As will be noted in Fig. 6, which shows the details 
of the complete drive, this sub-frame is carried in bearings on a 
tubular transverse member, thus allowing for relative movement in a 
longitudinal plane, the shaft itself compensating for torsional stresses. 
Unit-Wheel Drives. Mention has already been made of the 
abandonment of two-motor drives on comparatively light cars, as 
well as the successful employment of a single motor on vehicles up 
to 5 tons' capacity, as in the case of the Waverley 5-ton chassis, 



Fig. 8. Two-Motor Axle with Spur-Gear Drive, Commercial 2-Ton Truck 

Fig. 7. The Commercial electric is an exception to this in that it 
shows the successful employment of two motors on cars as small as 
one-ton capacity. The rear axle of this car is a complete self- 
contained unit, as will be seen upon referring to Fig. 8 illustrating 
the drive of a 2-ton Commercial. The form of mounting employed 
is clear in the illustration, while Fig. 9 shows the details of the gear 
reduction between the motor and the driving wheel. This concern 
also makes a four-wheel drive, which is employed on vehicles of 3| to 
7 tons' capacity. On these machines, both front and rear axles are 
alike. One of them is illustrated in Fig. 10, in which it will be noted 
that the motor and the driving wheel are an integral unit pivoted in 



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14 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

the axle to permit of utilizing all four wheels for steering. The speed 
reduction in this instance is simply a double spur-gear train meshing 
with an internal gear cut on a drum in the rear wheel. 

Couple-Gear Truck Drive. A particularly ingenious example of 
the ease and directness with which electricity lends itself to special 



Fig. 9. View of Spur-Gear Reduction of Commercial Electric Drive 

forms of construction is to be found in the drive of the Couple-Gear 
truck, so called because all four wheels are not only driven by electric 



Fig. 10. Two-Motor Axle of Four-Wheel Drive of Commercial Heavy Trucks 

motors but are utilized for steering purposes. These vehicles are 
built as straight electrics, using a storage battery as the source of 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 15 

current; and as gas-electric vehicles, a gasoline engine and generator 
forming the power plant, the remainder of the design and construc- 
tion being the same in both cases. Fig. 11 illustrates the detail of 
the axle design employed, each wheel being carried on a steering 



Fig. 11. Couple-Gear Axle for Unit-Wheel Drive 

spindle, and all four wheels coupled to act in unison, permitting the 
car to turn in a very short radius. The parts shown on the right- 
hand spindle in the illustration are the fields of the motor, the wind- 



Fig. 12. Dismounted Couple-Gear Truck Wheel, Showing Motor Parts 

ings being just visible in the armature tunnel. They are made in 
this form, as the motor is practically a part of the wheel. 

The motor is built directly into the wheel, as will be apparent 
from the illustration of a dismounted wheel shown in Fig. 12. The 



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16 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

motor is of bipolar type, designed with flat fields in order that it may 
fit within the wheel without unduly increasing its section, and is held 
by its attachment to the axle. The wheel accordingly revolves about 
the motor, being driven by the two small pinions which are noticeable 
on opposite ends of the armature shaft and which mesh with the 
circular racks attached to the periphery of the wheel. The brushes 
are carried in a yoke bolted to the outer half of the field casting, so 



Fig. 13. Walker Electric Chassis, Showing Combined Motor Axle 

that the removal of the latter makes everything accessible. The 
cables for the motor current are led through the hollow axle. Apart 
from this feature and the employment of a four-wheel steer, the 
vehicle itself follows more or less conventional lines. 

Balanced Drive. The transmission on the Walker cars, known 
as a "balanced drive ,, , is another radical departure from current 
practice in this respect. These cars are built in capacities ranging 
from 750 to 7000 pounds and have been in successful service for a 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 17 

number of years. As will be noted in Fig. 13, a single motor is 
employed, and it is built practically as an integral part of the rear 
axle, the housings of which form the fields. The armature of the 
motor is at right angles to the driving wheels, and its shaft is extended 
both ways to form the drive. At the outer ends, this shaft carries 
small spur pinions which mesh with two large gears. The latter, 



Fig. 14. Details of Walker Electric Wheel Drive 

in turn, mesh with an internal gear bolted to the inner face of the steel 
rims of the driving wheels themselves. The detail of this is made 
plain in Fig. 14, showing one of the wheels with the outer protecting 
disc removed. It will be apparent that this constitutes not only 
an unusually compact motor unit and transmission, having the great 
advantage of being always in direct line with its drive, but that it 
likewise dispenses with a differential, as the wheels themselves are 
balance gears. 



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18 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

CURRENT AND CURRENT CONTROL 
Battery Equipment. As the motors commonly employed are 
wound to take current at #0 to 85 volts, the battery consists of 44 
cells, divided into three or four groups of cells held in separate oak 
boxes, or "trays", as they are termed, to facilitate handling. This 
voltage is standard, regardless of the size of the vehicle, the latter 
being compensated for by changing the capacity of the battery. 
Thus, for light delivery wagons, each cell contains three positive and 
four negative plates of medium size, giving an 85-ampere-hour dis- 
charge capacity, while a 1000-pound wagon is equipped with a bat- 
tery having nine-plate cells with a capacity of 112 ampere hours; a 
2000-pound wagon, eleven-plate cells of larger dimensions, giving 
140 ampere hours; and so on in accordance with the size of the 
vehicle and the load it is designed to carry. Most electric vehicles 
have the battery underslung, i.e., carried in a cradle supported from 
the frame of the chassis. The cradle is enclosed in a battery box for 
protection against mud and water and has hinged doors at the ends 
through which the battery may be introduced or removed. By this 
arrangement, the weight of the battery, which is the heaviest single 
item in the entire construction, is distributed evenly between the 
forward and rear wheels, which leaves the entire floor space of the 
wagon available for the load. In special types, such as the G.V. 
1000-pound worm-driven delivery wagon, the usual practice in the 
pleasure-car method of carrying the battery under a hood forward is 
followed. All the wiring between the battery, controller, and motor 
is carried beneath the floor and is protected from injury by running 
it through iron conduits. 

Controller. In the case of delivery wagons and light trucks, 
the controller itself is placed either beneath the seat or under the 
footboards and is similar in construction to those employed on street 
cars, but much smaller in size, owing to the low voltage and com- 
paratively small amount of current to be handled. It is operated by 
a small hand lever and usually provides four speeds ahead and two 
reverse, all of which are obtainable by moving the same lever, 
although a special lock, or catch, must first be operated before the 
vehicle can be moved backward. This usually takes the form of a 
pedal, or kick plate, which may be depressed with the heel and must 
frequently be held down while reversing. When released, it auto- 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 19 

matically returns the controller to the ahead position, in order to 
prevent the vehicle from being backed inadvertently. 

Departures from the usual method of placing the controller are 
to be found in some of the medium-capacity vehicles, such as the 
Baker, in which the controller is located on the steering column just 
below the footboards; in the Urban, it is placed in a special dash 
compartment, the lever being on the steering wheel. This compart- 
ment also contains the ampere-hour meter, a type of instrument 
which records in watt hours the amount of power drawn from the 
battery and, at the same time, 
indicates the available amount 
remaining at any time. Ampere- 
hour meters are coming more and 
more into general use on both 
pleasure and commercial electrics, 
and a detailed description of the 
instrument and its use is given 
in connection with electric pleas- 
ure cars. In service, this dash 
compartment is protected by an 
aluminum plate through which 
the dial of the meter appears. On 
the Commercial, the controller is 
mounted directly on the steering 
column and is operated by a sec- 
ond smaller wheel, Fig. 15. The 

^11 *j. ip • j.i i_ .1 Fig. 15. Commercial Electric Controller on 

Controller itself IS thus above the Steering Column 

footboards, and by the removal 

of the protective housing shown becomes very accessible. In cases 
where it is necessary to provide for handling heavy currents, a 
railway type of controller is employed. 

A novel controller installation that gives instant accessibility is 
found on the G.M.C., as shown in Fig. 16. The controller proper, 
as well as all wiring terminals, fuses, and meters are mounted under 
a short hood, the resistance being suspended just beneath the con- 
troller, while the charging receptacle is below the center of the bumper. 
This view illustrates the forward side of the dash, while Fig. 17 shows 
the side facing the driver. The connection between the control lever 



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20 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

over the steering wheel and the controller is through a shaft and 
a bevel gearing, as shown in Fig. 16. In the illustrations, this lever is 



Fig. 16. Controller Installation of G.M.C. Electric Delivery Wagon 

at the neutral position, successive movement from this point forward 
giving five speeds ahead and two reverse speeds backward. The 



Fig. 17. Simple Control of G.M.C. Electric 



G.V. control is equally compact, being mounted in a steel box form- 
ing the driver's seat, as shown in Fig. 18. The safety switch and 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 21 

the plug connection for an inspection lamp are seen on the outside at 
the left. Inside are, first, the switch connections, then the fuses, and, 
next, the fingers of the controller. At the upper right hand (driver's 
left) is the control lever, while just visible below the box is the 
resistance. 

Safety Devices. In view of the fact that the average driver of 
an electric delivery wagon or a truck is either a graduate from the 
reins or has had no experience in handling vehicles at all, it has 
become customary to provide safety devices which, to a large extent, 



Fig. 18. Controller Box of G. V. Electric Delivery Wagon 

prevent accidents that might otherwise result from this lack of 
experience. 

Cut-Out Switch Connected to Brake. The brake is usually inter- 
connected with a cut-out switch which automatically shuts off the 
power independently of the controller simply by the application of 
the former. While the brakes are sufficiently powerful to stop the 
machine even with the current on, forgetting to shut off the current 
would either blow out the fuses or result disastrously to the motor. 

Circuit-Breaker and Hand Switch. A circuit-breaker is provided 
on some cars to obviate the necessity for frequent replacing of the 
fuses, this being the usual practice in street railway and other electric 
work. Frequently, a hand-operated cut-out switch is also installed 



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22 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

to permit of inspecting or working on the controller without the 
necessity of disconnecting the battery, as a failure to do so where 
no switch is provided is apt to result in painful burns, owing to the 
large amount of current. 

Charging Circuit-Breaker. Another safeguard is an automati- 
cally operated circuit-breaker to protect the battery from being 
overcharged. This is used in connection with the Sangamo ampere- 
hour meter, which is described under the head of "Meters". Unlike 
the Anderson device described previously, which can be employed 
only where connection can be had to the field coils of the generator, 
this circuit-breaker operates exactly the same as the circuit-breaker 
in a generating station, which opens the line when an excess amount 
of current passes through it, except that in this case its operation is 
not controlled by the number of ampere turns on the circuit-breaker 
itself, but by a trip switch actuated by the ampere-hour meter when 
its dial records that the battery is fully charged. 

Devices to Prevent Accidental Starting or Tampering. Devices 
are provided to prevent the accidental starting of the vehicle when 
not anticipated by the driver; also to guard against tampering by 
the ubiquitous small boy. On the G.V. 1000-pound worm-driven 
delivery wagon, for example, the emergency brake cannot be locked 
on except when the "running switch" is in either the neutral or the 
charging position, and cannot be released until thrown into the run- 
ning position. Moreover, this switch can be thrown to the running 
position only when the controller is at the "off" point, or neutral 
position. The interconnection of the brakes and the controller 
"throw-off" allows the driver to use both hands for steering, in an 
emergency and, at the same time, to cut off the power and apply 
both brakes with his feet. This emergency-brake lock compels the 
driver to turn off the current by throwing the running switch to 
neutral when leaving the car; it also prevents the brake from being 
released by an unauthorized person, as the driver can take the switch 
handle with him. As the brake cannot be released until the switch 
is thrown on, the driver is reminded of that fact. The running- 
switch lock prevents the accidental starting of the vehicle, which 
might happen if the controller had been tampered with during the 
driver's absence, and if, upon his return, he threw the running switch 
on without first looking at the controller handle. 



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Brakes. Owing to the comparatively low speeds, the braking 
equipment in the earlier designs usually consisted of a single set of 
drums attached to the driving wheels. Against the inner faces of 
these steel drums bronze shoes were expanded by means of a pedal 
and the usual brake rigging beneath the car. As was the case in 
practically all early chain-driven cars, the braking drums carried the 
driving sprockets on their outer faces. 

But in this, as in many other essentials, practice has been 
improved along the lines followed in the gasoline car. It is now cus- 
tomary to employ two sets of brakes, one for regular service and one 
for emergencies. Usually, both sets of brakes are carried in drums 
on the driving wheels, either side by side or concentrically, a friction 
facing of asbestos on a woven-wire foundation being employed. In 
some cases, the service brake operates on a drum carried on the 
armature shaft of the motor. 

Tires. While solid rubber tires are most generally employed, 
they are not necessarily so, as pneumatic tires are to be preferred 
where the merchandise to be carried is of a light or fragile nature 
or where speed is one of the chief features of the delivery service. 
They not only reduce the liability to breakage, but also lessen the 
cost of maintaining the vehicle in repair. However, as there are 
comparatively few branches of commercial service in which the pneu- 
matic tire is economically practicable, its use is very limited. The 
solid tires employed vary in size from two to four inches, and for 
weights in excess of the capacity of the latter, they are used in twin 
form on the rear wheels. 

SPECIAL FORMS OF THE ELECTRIC 

Electric Tractors. The huge street-cleaning or garbage-removal 
truck, shown in Fig. 19, is drawn by a 5-ton G.V. electric tractor, 
the combination being along lines somewhat similar to the front- 
driven electrics adopted by the Paris street-cleaning department for 
the same purpose, except that the latter have a two-wheel tractor 
and are fitted with a specially designed covered steel body. One use 
of the electric tractor built along the lines just referred to is shown 
by the Couple-Gear propelled steam fire engine, Fig. 20. Part of 
the battery is carried on the frame and the remainder is suspended 
beneath it, the power consisting of two Couple-Gear motor wheels 



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Fig. 19. Five-Ton G. V. Electric Tractor Hauling Garbage Wagon 

mounted on steering spindles and operated by a street-railway type 
of controller which will be noted at the left of the driver. The entire 
power plant is a complete unit, which is bolted directly to the engine 
without further alteration than the removal of its front truck. 



Fig. 20. Couple-Gear Tractor Drawing Steam Fire Engine 
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Industrial Trucks. One of the most important developments 
of the past few years has been the widespread adoption of the so-called 
industrial truck. In a broad sense, the term represents a classification 
rather than a type, as there are several different types of chassis built 
for this purpose. Probably the first of these to be placed in service 
was the Lansden dock truck, designed for handling cargo on steam- 
ship piers. In addition to this, there are baggage and mail trucks for 
use in railway depots, also truck cranes and tractor trucks, and it will 
be apparent that they are designed for service where no other form of 
power than electricity would be either convenient or permitted. The 
battery truck crane, the baggage truck, and the tractor trucks are 
merely modifications of the simple freight truck, their functions vary- 
ing somewhat in each case. The baggage truck has a field of its own 
in the handling of baggage and mail, some being of the drop-frame and 
double-platform type and others having the battery and mechanism 
placed below the loading platform, which is made of railway-car 
height. 

The simple industrial, or freight, truck is built in sizes and capaci- 
ties suitable for moving loads on piers, in freight sheds, warehouses, 
factories, and industrial establishments generally. Its short wheel- 
base permits it to pass through congested spaces, going backward or 
forward with the same facility, while it is capable of ascending gradi- 
ents of 10 to 25 per cent. On piers and at railway terminals it can 
deliver its load on the deck of a vessel or in a box car. The capacity 
of such trucks seldom exceeds 2000 pounds, this figure being found 
the practical limit for trucks capable of the widest range of action. 
The loading space of a truck of this capacity is 28 square feet, while 
the total area required for movement is only 34 square feet, the 
machine having an extreme width of 4 feet and an extreme length 
of 8 feet, so that an industrial truck can be operated wherever a hand 
truck can go, while the former will ascend grades impossible to the 
latter. 

Fig. 21 shows a standard G.V. 2000-pound industrial truck, of 
which there are several hundred in use. Both the battery and the 
driving mechanism are suspended below the platform, which has 
rounded corners and is extended to protect the mechanism at every 
point. Its speed on hard level surfaces is 7 miles per hour; its average 
radius, 25 miles on one charge of the battery, the current consumption 



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26 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

for a full charge amounting to 6 to 8 kilowatt hours. For grades up 
to 10 per cent, only one motor is employed. When equipped with 
two motors, each rear wheel is driven by an individual motor geared 
to a housed spur gear fastened to the wheel. A spring-returned con- 
troller is used, the operating lever returning to neutral when released 
by the driver. The brake is also spring-operated and is normally set, 
so that in order to run the car the driver must keep the brake pedal 
depressed. A further safety precaution is an automatic cut-off 



Fig. 21. G.V. One-Ton Industrial Truck Handling Freight 

switch connected with the brake, so that in releasing the pedal of the 
latter the power is cut off automatically. In addition to this pedal, 
two operating handles are provided, one for the controller and the 
other for steering, the truck being capable of turning around in a 
7-foot radius. In general freight-shifting service, the hauls averaging 
from 200 to 800 feet, each truck displaces from four to six men with 
hand trucks. The efficiency of these trucks is frequently increased by 
using them in connection with trailers and large numbers are employed 
in factories for transporting material from one department to another. 



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ELECTRIC TRUCKS 

Classification. There is little, if any, difference in design between 
delivery wagons and trucks, the frames, axles, wheels, springs, and 
transmission simply being made heavier in proportion to the great 
increase in load to be carried, while there is a corresponding difference 
in the power of the motor or motors and in the size of the chains or 
other essentials of the transmission. As already mentioned, some 
makes, such as the Walker, adhere to the single-motor power plant 
even in sizes up to 2 and 3^ tons' capacity, and the G.V., Lansden, 
Waverly, and G.M.C., up to 5 and 6 tons, on the score of increased 
economy and higher efficiency, while others, such as the Commercial, 
employ two motors on vehicles as small as the 4000-pound size and 
four motors on larger trucks. 

Next to the delivery wagon, in which electric power has scored a 
great success, tracks of 2-ton and 3-ton capacity are the most com- 
mon forms of electric vehicles — though the 5-ton size has come into 
general use for brewery service — several hundred being run by brewers 
in New York, while one St. Louis company has nearly a hundred. 
Electric trucks of 6- and 7-ton capacity are also built. In order to 
obtain the increase in load-carrying capacity, the size of the motor 
must naturally be enlarged, with a corresponding increase in the power 
consumption, which calls for a very much larger battery. In order 
that the capacity of the battery may be sufficient to give the vehicle 
a practical radius of travel on a single charge without unduly adding 
to the weight, the speed is reduced, so that electric trucks of 2-ton 
capacity usually have an average speed of 8 to 10 miles an hour; 
3-ton trucks, 6 to 9 miles an hour; while 5-ton trucks seldom exceed 
7 miles an hour. 

Characteristics of Chassis. The electrics listed by the General 
Vehicle Company afford an excellent example of a standard design 
of chassis applied to cars ranging from 1000 pounds up to 5 tons' 
capacity, the intermediate sizes being 2000 pounds, 2 tons, and 3£ 
tons. Naturally, the first two are delivery wagons and are capable 
of traveling 45 miles on a single charge of the battery at a maximum 
speed of 12 and 10 miles per hour, respectively. The 2-ton wagon, 
while capable of the same mileage, has a maximum speed of but 9 
miles per hour. This is further reduced to 8 miles per hour for the 
3^-ton truck, which has a radius of 40 miles on a charge, while the 



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28 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

5-ton truck travels only 7 miles an hour as a maximum and has an 
extreme radius of 35 miles on a charge. In every case, only a single 



Fig. 22. Rear View of G.V. 4000-Pound Chassis 

motor is used, and as the design in all other respects is also standard 
for all sizes, a description of the 4000-pound wagon will suffice. 



Fig. 23. General Electric Motor 

With the exception of the use of a single-motor drive, a large 
number of the parts employed are practically the same as those used 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 29 

in other makes of electrics. The foundation of the entire car consists 
of a pressed-steel frame, to which are directly riveted the cradle for 



Fig. 24. Rear Axle of G.V. 2-Ton Truck 

carrying the battery, the spring hangers, and the supports for the 
countershaft bearings. 

A view of the complete chassis will be found in Fig. 2. 
The view is taken from above and illustrates every essential except 
the battery. At the rear are the semi-elliptic springs, the solid-steel 
axle, artillery wheels with solid rubber tires and large driven sprockets, 
driving chains, the single motor suspended from a transverse tubular 
member on the frame, the enclosed silent-chain drive from the motor 
to the countershaft, the wiring in conduits from the controller to the 
motor, and the countershaft with its radius rods to equalize and 
maintain its distance from the rear axle. These rods also serve to 



Fig. 25. Front Axle of G.V. 2-Ton Truck 



take the stresses of driving off the rear springs. Just in front of the 
countershaft is the steel cradle for the battery trays; at the left, that 
is, at the front of the truck, is the steering gear, forward axle, springs, 
and wheels. 



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30 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

An excellent view of the entire bottom construction, which gives 
a clear idea of the arrangement of the power and the drive, is shown 
in Fig. 22, while the essentials comprising it are shown in detail in 
Figs. 23, 24, and 25. Fig. 23 is a G.E. multipolar, ironclad motor. 
Fig. 24 shows the rear axle, while the forward axle and its steering 
attachments are shown in Fig. 25. A 44-cell storage battery furnishes 
current at 85 volts, the motor being wound to operate economically 
at this voltage. The battery is in sectional form, in crates of such 
weight and size as to permit of easy removal or of replacement from 
either side of the vehicle. It is so arranged that it may be recharged 
without disturbing it; but, where two batteries are employed, a 
charged set may be easily and quickly substituted for the exhausted 
battery. 

The controller is of the continuous-torque type which will per- 
mit of changing the motor speeds by degrees without interrupting the 
power between any of the steps. This gives a gradual and steady 
acceleration, without the jerk and strain so detrimental to the life and 
efficiency of every part of the vehicle. The motor is designed along 
the lines which have proved so successful in street-railway work. It 
has a very heavy shaft as well as a simple and durable brush rigging 
and is wound to show not only a high efficiency but also a high capac- 
ity for overload. The armature shaft, which is carried on annular 
ball bearings that tend to greatly increase the efficiency of the motor 
as a whole, is suspended on a transverse bar pivoted to the side mem- 
bers of the frame forward of the rear axle. This pivoted suspension 
keeps the motor shaft parallel with the countershaft throughout the 
entire range of chain adjustment and permits the use of an efficient 
silent-chain drive, which, as will be noticed in Fig. 2, is enclosed in 
an aluminum housing. 

The countershaft is housed in and is carried on four taper-roller 
bearings inside the tube, the latter being held in self-aligning ball 
sleeves in hangers riveted to the sides of the frame. The two short 
driving shafts are connected by a spur differential and carry at their 
outer ends small sprockets for the roller chains to drive the rear 
wheels, the entire countershaft being a complete unit. It is driven by 
a silent chain of ample width running over a small pinion on the motor 
and over the gear of the differential. Altogether, this is a very effi- 
cient form of truck. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 31 

GASOLINE VEHICLES 

GASOLINE DELIVERY WAGONS 

Classification Limits. It will be found on a brief examination of 
the subject that this is a far more comprehensive heading than would 
appear at first sight, as it includes everything from the little three- 
wheeler up to the type known as the "light truck", but which is, in 
reality, also a delivery wagon with an open platform, or stake type of 
body. The range of carrying capacity is from one to two hundred 



Fig. 26. Autocar Two-Cylinder Delivery Wagon 

pounds up to one ton, or slightly more, as many delivery wagons and 
light trucks are built with a load capacity of 2500 pounds or even 
3000 pounds. 

Autocar. The Autocar delivery wagon, Fig. 26, affords an excel- 
lent example of a vehicle designed especially for the most severe 
business conditions. The motor is of the two-cylinder, horizontal, 
opposed, four-cycle type, the cylinder dimensions being 4f-inch bore 
by 4^-inch stroke, and is rated at 18 horsepower. The crankshaft is 
mounted on imported annular ball bearings, which not only add 
greatly to the efficiency of the motor as a whole, but do away with the 
attention necessary to adjust plain bearings. This construction, 



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32 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

which is far more expensive than plain bearings, also reduces the 
number of parts which are subject to damage should the driver 
neglect to provide sufficient oil. The lubrication system is entirely 
automatic in operation. Two flywheels are carried on the crankshaft, 
the forward one having its blades cast staggered so as to set up a 
strong current of air, thus eliminating the necessity of a belt- or gear- 
driven fan, while the rear flywheel carries the clutch. The impor- 
tance of providing ample weight in the balance wheel is something to 
which insufficient attention has been devoted in the past, its influence 
upon the starting ability and the smooth-running qualities of the 
vehicle being extremely marked, especially where a two-cylinder motor 
is employed. Both flywheels on the Autocar motor are counter- 
weighted, and this, supplemented by a careful balance of all the 
reciprocating parts, makes an extremely smooth- and quiet-running 
motor with unusual starting and grade-climbing ability for its size. 

The crankcase is split horizontally into two sections, the lower 
half carrying the cylinders, crankshaft, camshaft, and water pump, 
while the upper half carries the push-rod guides, the magneto, the 
oiler, and a gear for driving the water pump. The magneto and 
oiler are both driven through bevel gears and short shafts, reducing 
the possibility of failure in these two highly important essentials — 
ignition and lubrication — to a minimum. The upper section of the 
crankcase is readily removable, carrying its parts with it and thus 
giving access to the crankpin bearings without the necessity of 
dismantling the motor. A Bosch magneto with a fixed firing point 
is employed, thus taking this element of control out of the hands of 
the driver. Lubrication is by a force-feed oiler delivering oil through 
a sight feed to the crankcase, from which the pistons, crankpins, 
and main bearings are lubricated by splash. Both the magneto and 
the lubricator are simply attached to the crankcase by wing nuts 
so that they may be removed without the aid of tools. A hydraulic 
speed regulator, connected in the circulation circuit of the cooling 
water, controls a throttle placed in the intake manifold between the 
carburetor and the cylinders, limiting the speed of the motor to 1400 
r.p.m. and that of the vehicle to 18 to 20 miles per hour. 

A patented floating-ring clutch, which has been developed on the 
same make of pleasure cars and used for a number of years, constitutes 
the first step in the transmission. It consists of a bronze floating 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 33 

ring, lined with cork inserts on its inner face, and is mounted on four 
keys on the inside of the rim of the rear flywheel, thus rotating with 
the latter. Two cast- 
iron rings, adapted to 
clamp the bronze ring 
when the clutch is en- 
gaged, are mounted on 
the clutchshaft which 
extends into the trans- 
mission case. Engage- 
ment is accomplished by Fig 27 " Autocar Double - Reduction Floatin * *« A * le 
a sliding trunnion and four toggle links, the motion of which is 
checked by a dashpot and a plunger. This insures gradual automatic 
action, entirely free from jerk, regardless of the care exercised by the 



Fig. 28. Rear View of Autocar Delivery Wagon 

driver. The addition of small springs to the floating ring eliminates 
all noise, whether the clutch be engaged or not. 



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34 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

The transmission housing is all in one piece, except its cover plate, 
and has been so designed that all the shafts and gears may be removed 
without disturbing the housing itself. The shafts are large and are 



Fig. 29. Autocar Engine and Transmission Mounted on Separate Sub-Frame 

carried on adjustable roller bearings, while the gears have broad faces 
and heavy teeth. Three speeds forward and one reverse, operating 
progressively, are provided, lubrication being obtained by covering 
the shafts and gears with a bath of semi-fluid oil. 



Fig. 30. Autocar Engine and Transmission — Plan View 

Both front and rear axles have been designed especially to meet 
the requirements of the heavy service imposed upon them in carrying 
the load on solid rubber tires. The front axle is of the tubular type, 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 35 

with extra heavy yokes for the steering spindles, which are made 
integral with the spring saddles. Adjustable roller bearings are 
employed in the wheel hubs. The rear axle is of the full floating 
type, with a double-gear reduction. A bevel pinion at the end of the 
propeller shaft meshes with a large bevel gear on a short transverse 
shaft, from which the drive is transmitted to the differential case by 
means of a pair of substantial spur gears, the method of mounting 
them being shown by Fig. 27. The complete axle, as well as the 
spring suspension, the brakes, and other details are shown in the 
rear view, Fig. 28. 

One of the chief features of advantage on the Autocar delivery 
wagon is the mounting of the complete motor and transmission, 
barring the rear axle, on an independent sub-frame, as shown in Figs. 



Fig. 31. Plan View of White Delivery Wagon Chassis 

29 and 30. An illustration of the complete chassis would show every 
part of the power plant to be accessible by lifting the bonnet, while 
the complete unit, as shown separately, may be removed from the 
chassis and replaced by another. The rear view of the chassis, 
Fig. 28, shows the relative location of all the essential parts, including 
the gasoline tank, which is placed transversely on the main frame 
directly under the driver's seat. The frame is of pressed steel, 
perfectly rectangular and heavily reinforced. Two sets of brakes 
act on drums attached to the driving wheels, while the suspension 
consists of double-elliptic springs in the rear and semi-elliptic springs 
placed forward directly under the motor. 

White. This may be regarded as a representative standard 
design, as will be evident from the photo of the chassis, Fig. 31, show- 



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36 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

ing that it differs from heavier-capacity vehicles of the same make 
only in being shaft-driven and having lighter dimensions. It is built 
in 1500- and 3000-pound sizes, the chassis illustrated being of the 
latter capacity. Single rear tires are usually fitted on the smaller 
car, and pneumatics are frequently employed to take advantage of the 
higher speed thus made possible, an example of this practice being 
illustrated by Fig. 32. Apart from the difference in dimensions and 
tire equipment, both sizes are the same, each being equipped with a 
3|- by 5|-inch motor, the cylinders of which are cast in one piece, 



Fig. 32. White Delivery Wagon with Light Top Body and Pneumatic Tires 

with the intake and exhaust passages integral. This motor is rated 
at 30 horsepower and fitted with a compression release for starting. 
A single-nozzle water-jacketed carburetor supplied with hot air from 
a jacket on the exhaust pipe, a high-tension magneto for ignition, 
and a gear-driven centrifugal water pump comprise its auxiliaries. 

GASOLINE TRUCKS 

Load Efficiency Increases with Size. It will be apparent that 
above the 2-ton size the load efficiency increases, as, once a certain 
point is reached, additions to the weight caused by increasing the 
dimensions of the load-carrying space and adding to the power of the 
motor are disproportionately small as compared with the increase in 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 37 

load capacity. For example, one truck of 3-ton capacity has a chassis 
weighing only 4500 pounds, which tips the scales at 5200 pounds 
completely fitted, or "all on"; on the other hand, another chassis 
for the same nominal carrying capacity, i.e., 3 tons, weighs 6000 
pounds. However, as no standard for rating the load-carrying 
capacity of gasoline trucks has ever been attempted, and one maker's 
5-ton truck is sometimes no larger than the 3-ton truck of another, 
it is often difficult to make comparisons that will be fair on a basis of 
catalogue weights alone. 

MOTOR DETAILS 
Design 

Both the design and construction of internal-combustion motors 
for commercial use are along lines similar to those employed on 
pleasure automobiles except as modified by the requirements of 
the more severe service. This necessitates a higher factor of safety 
throughout, such as increased provision for lubrication and cooling; 
extra large bearing surfaces, which must be readily accessible for 
adjustment, except, of course, where antifriction bearings are 
employed; increased crankshaft dimensions; broad gear faces; and 
a considerably increased weight of flywheel in order that the motor 
may develop as high a torque as possible at low speeds. The greater 
amount of weight in the rim of the flywheel also eliminates motor 
vibration to a considerable extent and makes the engine run much 
more smoothly. Such variations of design as are usual in the pleasure- 
car motors are to be found in the commercial type; in fact, where a 
manufacturer builds both types, the same lines are followed in each 
case, the only practical difference being in the dimensions and speeds. 
It will be necessary, accordingly, to refer to only a few of the more 
representative makes. 

Long Stroke, Low Speed. Generally speaking, a commercial 
motor is of the long-stroke low-speed type, some idea of the propor- 
tions being obtainable by the dimensions of the White and the 
Pierce-Arrow motors for 5-ton trucks. The former has a 4J-inch 
bore by a 6f -inch stroke, while the latter measures 4| by 6 inches. 
Similar small variations in dimensions are to be noted in practically 
every make, in conformity with the varying standards of compression 
and volumetric requirements adopted by their designers. This will 



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38 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

be apparent by a comparison of a few makes, such as the Locomobile, 
5 by 6 inches; G.V. and Mercedes, 4.25 by 5.9 inches; Peerless and 
Kelly, 4§ by 6 J inches; Vulcan, 4| by 5? inches. No increase is made 
in motor dimensions above the 5-ton size, the extra carrying capacity 
being gained by higher gear reductions and lower speeds, the Vulcan 
motor mentioned being employed on both the 5- and 7-ton sizes of 
that make. These motors are variously rated at 35 to 40 horsepower, 



Fig. 33. Peerless 5-Ton Motor, T-Head Type 

viz, Vulcan, 36 horsepower; White, 40; Kelly, 38.5; Peerless, 32.4; 

Pierce- Arrow, 38. 

Causes of Variations in Ratings. The variation in the ratings 

is due to a number of causes, although one of the chief reasons is the 

differences in the practice followed, i.e., in some cases, the power 

stated is the maximum indicated horsepower based on the dimensions 

DXN 
and worked out by the S.A.E. formula of , in which D is the 

z.o 

bore, N the number of cylinders, and 2.5 an arbitrary constant 

derived from taking the speed characteristics of a large number of 

motors and striking an average representing a piston speed of 1000 

feet per minute. In other cases, it is the result of actual brake tests 

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 39 



Fig. 34. White 40-Horsepower Block-Type Motor for 5-Ton Truck 



Fig. 35. Pierce-Arrow Motor for 5-Ton Truck 



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40 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

and is accordingly based on the maximum r.p.m. rate of the motor; 
while in still others it is the power which the motor is capable of 
developing at the speed at which it is controlled by the governor, 
usually 800 to 1000 r.p.m., to give the best service from the truck of 
the capacity for which it is designed. For instance, the rating of 
the Kelly motor is based on a speed of 900 r.p.m., while that of the 
Peerless, Fig. 33, of the same dimensions, is its indicated horsepower 
figured according to the above formula. The White motor, Pig. 34, 
is an example of the L-head type; while the Pierce-Arrow, Fig. 35, 
like the Peerless already mentioned, is of the T-head type. 

Accessories 

Ignition. In every department of commercial-car practice, the 
designer aims to make the operation of the machine as nearly auto- 
matic as possible and to that extent to relieve the driver of any 
opportunity to exercise his discretion. The usual practice is to 
employ a magneto fitted with an automatic spark-timing device. 
This operates on the principle of the centrifugal governor and is 
controlled entirely by the speed of the motor, so that when the motor 
is stopped the spark timing is fully retarded and there is no danger 
from a "back-kick" as is the case where this precaution is inadvertently 
overlooked. As the motor speed increases, the occurrence of the 
spark in the cylinders is automatically advanced to correspond, 
thus relieving the driver of this important function and preventing 
the abuse of the motor in unskilled hands. The same slight differ- 
ences in detail as found on the pleasure type are also found in the 
ignition systems of commercial cars. 

Carburetors. Carburetors also are the same both in principle 
and construction as on the pleasure cars, except in instances where 
they have been specially designed for commercial service, in which 
case the modification applies to the construction. In view of the 
very general custom in this country of leaving the design of auxiliaries 
to the accessory manufacturer, the number of these instances is very 
small, so that in the majority of cases the carburetor manufacturer 
sells the same carburetor for either type of vehicle. To permit of the 
efficient utilization of lower-grade fuels, ample provision is usually 
made for heating the carburetor by a large warm-water jacket and a 
supply of hot air taken from a collector located on the exhaust pipe. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 41 

Cooling Systems. The so-called direct system, in which air is 
relied upon to keep the cylinder walls of the motor at a temperature 
that will permit of efficient operation without danger of seizing, 
was never attempted on commercial vehicles except in the lighter 
sizes. Most of these were light delivery wagons, although one make 
of 3-ton trucks employed a blower system for several years. How- 
ever, air as the cooling agent without an intermediary in the form of 
a water circulation has been definitely abandoned on the commercial 
car. Both the principles and the operation are the same as on pleas- 
ure cars, due allowance being made for the more severe service by 
increasing the size of the pump, the section of the cylinder jackets, 
the area of radiating surface, and the diameter of the connections. 

Radiator Construction. The radiator is the most vulnerable 
part of the truck, and precautions are therefore taken to protect 
it from injury. In order to be proof against the constant vibration 
and jolting, the gilled-tube type of radiator is employed in the 
majority of instances. Accidental damage is usually provided against 
by extending the frame and equipping it with a bumper, and further 
protection is sometimes afforded by mounting a heavy wire screen 
in front of it. This is done more frequently on honeycomb, or 
cellular, radiators, as they are liable to suffer severely when prodded 
with the steel-shod pole of a horse-drawn truck, and are difficult 
and expensive to repair. In the case of the gilled-tube type, only 
those tubes actually struck are likely to be damaged and they will 
frequently bend without rupture, while often nothing more serious 
happens than the bending and derangement of the cooling fins 
with which each tube is surrounded. These tubes are placed ver- 
tically and, in the case of the Reo 2-ton truck radiator, Fig. 36, 
are made demountable, so that a damaged tube may be easily replaced 
in a short time without the necessity for making any soldered repairs. 
It will be noted that each pair of tubes is held in place by a bolted 
yoke, so that upon loosening the yoke they may be lifted out. This 
illustration also clearly shows the flat copper tubes, which are placed 
with their narrow edges facing the air current, as well as the copper 
radiating fins attached to them. The upper and lower parts of the 
radiator are hollow castings, which form tanks, the sides merely 
providing a support and spacer for the tubes. The usual construction 
consists of a removable tank, which forms the top and bottom 



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42 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

chambers, with a bank of gilled tubes having their ends expanded 
and soldered into perforated plates, the solder playing an unim- 
portant part, as such joints cannot be relied upon where there is 
much vibration. 

Unless properly provided against, one of the chief sources of 
injury to the radiator arises out of the twisting of the frame under 
torsional stresses. Flexible joints between the radiator and motor 
are accordingly necessary to take care of relative movement, and it is 

common practice, both 
in this country and 
abroad, to employ rubber 
hose for this purpose. 
By reason of the heavy 
loads carried and the use 
of solid tires, this precau- 
tion is not sufficient to 
guard the radiator 
against the effects of 
vibration and road 
shocks, so that it is usu- 
ally mounted on some 
kind of spring suspension. 
This spring suspension 

Fig. 36. Reo Demountable-Section Gilled-Tube Radiator USUally Consists of a pair 

of helical springs, one on 
either side, so that the radiator has no solid connection with its sup- 
port. In some instances, the radiator is hung on a pair of trunnions, 
similar to a gun mounting, but this form, while providing ample 
allowance for movement, does not cushion it against shocks. Still 
another method consists in mounting the radiator on an extension 
of the motor, the motor itself being carried on a three-point support, 
so that the radiator and motor move together; but, unless provided 
with some form of spring buffer between them, this type suffers 
from the same disadvantage as the one just mentioned. Figs. 37 
and 38 show some typical methods of radiator protection. 

Fans. In every case, the radiator is supplemented by a fan 
driven at high speed, and, in view of the slow jtravel of the heavier 
trucks, the proper working of the cooling system depends upon the 



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43 




Fig. 37. White Radiator Mounting, Provid- 
ing Spring Cushioning and Relative 
Movement through Clevises 



efficiency of the fan, since the speed of the vehicle cannot force a 
strong draft of air through the radiator as it does in a touring 
car. Thus, the fan is a very important part of the cooling system 
on a slow-moving vehicle, as it 
must provide an ample draft, no 
matter how low the road speed 
may be, otherwise the engine is 
liable to heat beyond the point 
where the oil begins to lose its 
lubricating qualities. An ineffi- 
cient fan allows excessive heat- 
ing every time it is necessary to 
climb a long hill. 

Circulating Apparatus. In 
the majority^of cases, the cooling 
water is circulated by a pump on commercial-car motors, though 
many heavy trucks, such as the Kelly-Springfield, have thermosiphon 
circulation. This pump is of the centrifugal type and is capable 
of delivering a much greater volume of water than are those employed 
on pleasure-car motors of corresponding power, owing to the reduced 
road speeds of trucks. These pumps vary more or less in design, 
but are based almost without exception on the centrifugal principle, 
as the latter is the only one which will permit of a thermosiphon 
circulation through it in case the impeller ceases to revolve. A 
stoppage of the gear type of pump also stops the circulation at once. 

Lubrication. Granting that an excess can be prevented from 
reaching the combustion chambers of the cylinders, it is axiomatic 
that the power plant of a motor 
truck cannot have too much oil. 
In commercial service, the de- 
mands upon the lubricating sys- 
tem are quite as severe as they 
are upon the cooling system, and 
the failure of one usually involves 
the failure of the other in a short 
time. Hence, a greater amount 
of oil must be provided and every precaution taken to insure its 
reaching the bearings. Except for the increase in the quantity of 




Fig. 38. Spring Hangers Combined with 
Front Hanger Bracket 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



lubricant, this does not differ in any way from the requirements of 
the pleasure car. Consequently, the systems employed are practically 
the same in both cases. The White lubrication system shown in 
Fig. 39 illustrates a typical sight -feed system. 

Motor Governors 

Of the two chief evils that beset the motor truck in the hands 
of the untrained driver — speeding and overloading — the former is 
the more destructive, as the driver who will overload his truck will 
also run at excessive speeds, and, with a heavy load, this is severe 
punishment for the entire mechanism. The practice became so 
common in the early days of the motor truck — nearly all drivers 




€Z3_i) 




To Engine 



Fig. 39. Sight-Feed (Drop) Lubricating System as Used on White Trucks 

then being graduates from the pleasure-car field — that it has now 
become customary to govern the speed of the motor. The governor 
itself is usually sealed to prevent its being tampered with by the driver. 
General Characteristics. The most generally accepted type is 
that of the usual centrifugal governor attached directly to the motor 
and operating a butterfly valve in the intake manifold between the 
regular carburetor throttle and the valve ports. Owing to the high 
motor speeds and the slight amount of movement necessary, the gover- 
nor is very small and compact, so that it will frequently be found incor- 
porated in the crankcase at the end of the camshaft. A variation 
from this is a drive taken from an outside auxiliary, such as the mag- 
neto shaft or water-pump shaft. In either case, the speed of the 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 45 

governor is always directly proportional to that of the motor itself 
and bears no relation to that of the vehicle. This is a disadvantage 
at times, as in pulling through a heavy road on low speed when the 
maximum power of which the motor is capable is required. 

Controlling Car Speed. An improvement on this practice has 
been the adoption of a vehicle "speed controller" which, while acting 
on the motor itself in the same manner as the usual motor governor, 
is controlled directly by the speed of the car and bears no relation to 
that of the engine. With this type, the motor is free to run at any 
speed at which the hand-operated throttle will supply it with fuel, 
so long as the speed of travel does not exceed that for which the 
governor, or controller, is set. So far as the motor is concerned, it is 
not directly governed and may be speeded up to any extent necessary 
to pull the car through heavy going or out of a ditch, as the controller 
does not come into action while the car is moving slowly. Practically, 
the only disadvantage of this type is the fact that it does not prevent 
the motor from racing, as does the former, when the load is suddenly 
removed, with the throttle open. The vehicle speed controller is 
driven either from one of the front wheels or from a shaft of the 
transmission, as its operation depends entirely upon the speed of 
the car. In addition to the centrifugal method of speed control, the 
hydraulic principle is also employed. It will be apparent that as 
the motor speed increases the circulation of the water, as driven 
by the pump, does likewise, and there is a corresponding rise in 
pressure in the cooling circulation. This rise in pressure is utilized 
to act on a large diaphragm connected with a plunger attached 
to a butterfly valve. A description of some of the governors in use 
will make clear the method of taking advantage of the different 
principles of operation. 

Centrifugal Type. In Fig. 40 is illustrated a typical centrifugal 
governor designed for attachment to one of the auxiliary shafts, as 
will be noted by the driving gears at the bottom. As the revolving 
weights tend to spread against the compression of the helical spring 
surrounding the spindle on which they revolve, they push up a yoke 
to which a shaft directly connected with the throttle valve is attached. 
As in the case of the steam engine, this valve is entirely independent 
of the hand-operated valve which may thus be left all the way open. 
The details of construction of the Pierce governor are shown by 

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the sectional view, Fig. 41, in which the weights are at the right. 
As the triangular weights open under the centrifugal force generated, 
they push the rod forward, and, as this rod has a rack cut on it 




Section of Governor 
and Driving Gears 



r fronr< Carburetor 
Intake Manifold Section 



Valve Cjoeratina 
Mechanism 



Fig. 40. Sectional Diagrams of Centrifugal Type of Governor 

that meshes with a pinion on the butterfly valve, this action tends 
to close the valve. A spring keeps this rod pressed against the 
spindle on which the weights are mounted, but is not connected with 
the spindle in any way. As is true of all governors in this service, 



Fig. 41. Sectional View of Pierce Centrifugal Motor Governor 

a speed adjustment and a method of sealing it against tampering 
are provided. 

Hydraulic Type. An example of the hydraulic type of governor 
is shown in section in Fig. 42, while the application of this form of 
governor is illustrated by the Reo 2-ton truck motor, Fig. 43. As 



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47 



will be seen in the section, this type consists of a water chamber, 
diaphragm, spring, and operating lever; the operating mechanism 



Water Chomber 




Fig. 42. Hydraulic Type of Governor 



being combined with the 
governor proper results in 
a simple and compact 
unit which requires only 
one connection. This 
connection is led from the 
circulating system on the 
cold-water side, as will be 
noted in Fig. 43, in order 
to bring it close to the 
pump. As the speed of 
the pump increases, the 
pressure increases, and 
the diaphragm is forced 
down against the spring, 
carrying with it the lever 
operating the valve 



Fig. 43. 



Hydraulic Governor as Installed on Reo 2-Ton 
Truck Motor 



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48 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

through a rack and a pinion. As the pressure decreases, the spring 
returns the diaphragm, and with it the valve, to its normal position. 
The water chamber, operating-lever housing, and the spring-retaining 
plug are sealed so that the adjustment cannot be varied without 
disturbing one of these seals. In this, as well as in the centrifugal 
type where the adjustment is effected by altering the tension of a 
spring, it will be obvious that the spring could readily be screwed 
up so tightly that no speed of which the motor was capable would 
have any effect on the governor, thus practically cutting out its 
action altogether. 

POWER TRANSMISSION DETAILS 
Clutch and Transmission 

Clutches. Cone Type. A comparison of the specifications of a 
number of representative makes of trucks reveals a variation in 
clutch design about equivalent to what would be found on an equal 
number of pleasure cars, except that a greater number of instances of 
the leather-faced cone occur in the trucks. This is the oldest type 
employed on the automobile and is likewise the simplest in construc- 
tion, which probably accounts for its more general retention in the 
commercial field. What is termed the direct conical type, in which 
the leather-faced cone engages by moving forward into the corre- 
sponding wedge-shaped recess of the flywheel, is in more general use 
than the indirect, or internal, cone in which the male member moves 
backward into engagement. An example of the latter type is found 
on the Peerless trucks, while the Garford, Kelly, Vulcan, Mais, and 
Pierce are representative of the former. In the case of the Pierce, 
the cone operates in an oil bath, the others running dry, as is more 
often the case. 

Multiple-Disc Type. The Packard and Autocar in this country 
and the De Dion in France have long been fitted with a three-plate 
type, the Albion (British) having a single-plate form of clutch in the 
heavier sizes. Multiple-disc clutches are found on the Locomobile, 
the Mack, and the Reo, and other American makes. 

Transmission. Owing to the great reduction in speed necessary 
between the motor and the driving wheels, transmission plays a 
more important part on the commercial vehicle than it does on the 
pleasure car. On theJatter, its services can be dispensed with in an 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 49 

emergency, as the car can be started on the direct drive in case of 
accident to the intermediate speeds, but this would manifestly be 
impossible on a heavily loaded truck. In this connection, it is to be 
noted that the term "transmission" has come to signify the "change- 
speed gearset" alone, doubtless owing to the awkwardness of the latter 
appellation, and does not apply to the transmission of the power 
from the motor to the rear or front wheels or to all four, as the case 
may be. 

Sliding-Gear Type. In the majority of instances, the sliding-gear 
type of transmission is employed for commercial work, in which the 
gears are actually slid into engagement with each other to effect 
the various ratios of driving and driven members. This type is 



Fig. 44. Type of Transmission Employed on White Shaft-Driven Trucks 

practically universal on the pleasure car, so that only a brief reference 
to it is necessary here. On almost all except the lighter vehicles, it 
provides four forward speeds, the others having but three speeds and 
reverse. Fig. 44 shows the White transmission as employed with 
a shaft drive. Owing to the controlling connections being absent, 
this has been inadvertently photographed with both the first, or 
lowest speed, and the direct, or highest speed, engaged. The large 
gear at the left, shown in engagement with its corresponding gear on 
the layshaft, gives the first speed. By moving it forward until the 
gear just ahead, with which it is integral, meshes with the next gear 
tc the right on the layshaft, the second speed is obtained. Moving 
the single gear at the right back until it meshes with the right-hand 
gear of the pair on the layshaft gives third speed. For fourth speed, 



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50 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

or direct drive, this same gear is moved forward, its forward face 
being cut in the form of a dog clutch that engages a similar gear 
permanently attached to the clutchshaft. This is unusual, as the 
dog clutch is generally formed of a smaller diameter extension on 
the hub of the direct-drive gear. The two gears at the extreme right- 
hand end are permanently engaged and serve to drive the layshaft. 
By moving the largest gear to the extreme left, the reverse is engaged, 
this being effected through an intermediate pinion, or idler, part of 
which is just visible below the main shaft at that point. The moving 
members slide on splines cut on the main shaft, the sliding being 
sometimes effected by making the main shaft of square section. 



Fig. 45. Peerless Transmission and Countershaft 

A similar transmission, combined with a bevel drive and spur- 
gear differential on a jackshaft for side-chain final drive, is that of the 
Peerless, Fig. 45. This is shown engaged on the direct drive, so 
the dog clutch is not visible. The material used in the housing is 
usually aluminum, sometimes cast iron, and, in the case of the 
Locomobile, manganese bronze. Annular ball bearings are employed 
in many instances, the bearings themselves being apparent in the 
White transmission and their mountings in the Peerless. Taper 
roller bearings are also employed for the same purpose. Operation 
is almost invariably by the selective method, the gear lever being 
shifted across through a gate to pick up one or the other of the 
sliding members shown. The control lever of the White, which is 
mounted directly on the transmission housing, is shown in Fig. 46. 
This lever is more often mounted at the side in a fixture also carry- 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 51 

ing the emergency-brake lever, as on the Pierce. On this truck, 
only three forward speeds are provided. 

Mack Transmission. The Mack transmission, Fig. 47, is a 
selectively operated type in which the gears of the various speeds 
are always in mesh, small clutches being designed to slide in either 
direction on the squared main shaft, engaging the particular speed 
desired. These clutches are practically small gears which mesh 



Fig. 46. Completely Assembled White Transmission, Showing 
Control Lever 

with internal-gear members attached to the driving members. 
They will be noted lying between the driving gears on the main shaft, 
in the illustration. The gear housing in this case is of phosphor bronze. 
Use of "Dog" Clutches. A variation of the Mack type of trans- 
mission employs what are known as "dog" clutches, probably from 
the fact that they apparently bite into one another, being cut with 
a comparatively small number of heavy teeth on their end faces. 
These teeth, if they can be properly so-called, are of heavy section 



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52 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

and are cut with an easy angle which insures ready engagement. 
This will be noted in the direct-drive engagement of the White gear- 
set. The dog-clutch type of gearset has been employed more in 
Great Britain than in this country. Its great advantages are that 
the driving gears are constantly in mesh and that the dog clutches 
can be engaged without particular attention being paid to the speed 
at which the two shafts are revolving, as is necessary with the sliding- 
gear type. The details of a transmission of this kind, as well as 



Fig. 47. Mack Transmission Used on Manhattan Trucks 

of the method of operation, are clearly shown in Fig. 48, which is a 
Cotta transmission designed for use on worm-driven trucks. As 
shown in the illustration, the first, or low, speed is engaged, the 
clutch on the layshaft at the lower right-hand corner being in mesh 
with its counterpart on the large, or low-speed, gear. The clutch- 
shaft being at the right-hand end of the gear box, as shown, the drive 
is then through the pinion on it, the large gear below, with which 
it is in mesh, and then through the layshaft and the pair of gears 
at the left-hand end, these gears being fastened to +Vieir respective 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 53 

1 shafts. The other gears, with the exception of the clutchshaft 
pinion previously mentioned, are free to rotate on their shafts and 
are permanently in mesh. However, the male members of the 
individual clutches, while free to slide on the shafts, must turn with 
them, so that when engaged they "pick up" the various gears cor- 
responding to the different speeds. 

Silent-Chain Transmission. Another form of transmission, 
which has been used to a greater or less extent abroad, but which 
has found little favor here, is the silent-chain type. This is along 
similar lines to the Mack transmission illustrated, except that roller 
chains take the place of the permanently meshed gears, dog clutches 
being engaged to pick up the latter according to the speed desired. 

Final Drive 

Until a few years ago, there was a sharp line of demarcation 
between the pleasure car and the commercial vehicle where the 



Fig. 48. Cotta Individual (Dog) Clutch Transmission 
Designed for Worm-Driven Trucks 

important final drive was concerned. Practically all pleasure cars 
were shaft-driven, and, to the same extent, commercial cars were 
chain-driven. The tendency that has manifested itself in the interim 
makes it apparent that the history made in the development of the 
pleasure car is apt to repeat itself in commercial-car development. 
In other words, chain-driven trucks were largely in the majority 
a few years ago, but the recent advances made in live-axle construction 
have had a marked effect and their adoption has now reached such 
a scale that, barring something unforeseen, the chain on the truck 
will soon disappear as it has from the touring car. 



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54 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

Classification. As at present employed, there are four general 
classes of final drive on commercial cars. In the order of their age 
and present comparative importance, these are: first, the double 
side-chain from a centrally located countershaft carrying the differ- 
ential and the bevel drive, and usually combined with the gearset, or 
transmission, so called; second, the worm drive, which differs from 
the bevel-gear type only by the substitution of a worm and a worm 
wheel for the bevel gear and the pinion; third, the double-reduction 
live axle, in which a bevel-gear drive is employed in connection with 
a second reduction in speed through the spur gears; fourth, the so- 
called internal-drive rear axle, in which the first reduction is through 
the conventional bevel gear and the second is by means of a small 
spur pinion meshing with an internal gear cut on the inner face of a 
drum attached to the driving wheel. It may occasion some surprise 
to note in this connection that the worm drive is mentioned as being 
second in point of seniority, and further that no mention is made of 
the standard bevel-gear live axle. In the first place, the use of the 
worm on automobiles dates back to its employment on the Lan- 
chester pleasure cars in 1898 and its adoption on the Dennis busses 
in London in 1903, on which it has been regularly used ever since. 
No mention is made of the standard bevel-gear axle here, since the 
latter is only adapted for use on light cars. The higher speeds at 
which' these vehicles run do not necessitate the employment of 
extremely high reduction ratios, so that a live axle of this type may be 
employed without having to make the bevel gear of a size that would 
seriously reduce road clearance, on the one hand; or a bevel pinion 
that would exceed the mechanical limitations of this form of drive, 
on the other. It is rarely employed, however, on vehicles of more 
than 1J tons' capacity, and the ease with which the entire speed 
reduction necessary may be carried out in a single step by means of 
a worm gear will doubtless make the straight bevel type obsolete 
on commercial vehicles within the next few years. 

Side=Chain Drive. Until the introduction in this country, at a 
comparatively recent date, of the worm drive, some form of double- 
reduction gearing has been used on all heavy motor trucks. The 
form most commonly used has been the double side-chain final drive, 
in which the primary gear reduction is obtained by means of a bevel 
gear driving the jackshaft and a secondary reduction in the chains 



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55 



and sprockets. This type of drive, utilizing roller chains, has been 
used on nearly all heavy motor trucks since the inception of the com- 
mercial vehicle. With but one or two exceptions, on all these 
trucks of American manufacture no attempt has been made to house 
the chains in, and they run exposed to dirt, mud, and water. 

Standard Types. A typical American side-chain drive for trucks 
of medium capacity is shown in Fig. 49, which illustrates a Timken 
unit. Except for the provision of brakes and sprockets at its outer 
ends instead of wheels, the countershaft, or jackshaft, is practically 




Fig. 49. Timken Standard Jackshaft for Side-Chain Drive 

a bevel-gear live axle. The rear axle is what is known as a "dead" 
axle in that it has no moving parts other than the wheels which 
revolve on bearings mounted on it. The two wheels are kept at a 
predetermined distance apart, and their parallelism is preserved by 
two distance, or radius, rods. A little consideration will make it plain 
that the thrust of repulsion against the ground of the driving wheels 
must be taken up on the vehicle before the latter can move, other- 
wise the rear axle would tend to travel forward independently until 
checked by the springs, which would then take the driving effort. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



This is frequently done on pleasure cars, and makes a flexible power 
transmission which is easy on the mechansim and the tires, but which 
is not practical with the heavy loads handled on trucks. Hence, the 
radius rods are employed to transmit this strain to the frame of 
the car, but, at the same time, they must provide for a certain amount 
of relative movement in both a vertical as well as a horizontal plane, 
besides affording a certain amount of flexibility. 

Radius and Torque Rods. Fig. 50, which represents a well- 
worked-out radius-rod design, illustrates how these various require- 
ments are met. Starting at the right-hand end of the rod which is 
attached to the rear axle, it will be seen that this design consists of 
a connecting-rod type of bearing that permits movement in a vertical 
plane, as this bearing is held on a tubular section of the axle and 




ISI*J- 




Fig. 50. Flexible Universally Jointed Radius Rod for Double Side-Chain Drive , 

is kept well lubricated. Just forward of the bearing is a heavy spindle 
which pivots the rest of the rod on the rear bearing, so that ample 
provision is made for lateral movement. The rod proper is in two 
parts held together by the compression of a heavy helical spring, which 
relieves the mechanism and tires of the initial thrust of starting, and 
also prevents shocks to the rear axle reaching the frame via the 
radius rod. Further provision for movement in a vertical plane is 
made by the attachment of the forward end of the rod to the frame, 
which forms a pivoted yoke. The threaded portion and the locked 
collar, noticed at the forward end, allow for adjustment in the length 
of the rod, this adjustment being provided for in the spring rod 
by the nut shown inside the yoke at the forward end. On shaft- 
driven cars, a torque rod is employed to take this thrust and also 
to take up the twisting effort, or "torque," of the propeller shaft. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 57 

Speed Reduction. The rear axle proper is simply a drop forging 
of I-beam section representing the strongest and lightest cross- 
section for a beam. It is forged integral with the pads, or saddles, for 
attaching the springs and is machined to receive the wheel bearings 
and the bearings of the radius rods which complete its construction. 
The driving sprockets are bolted to the pressed-steel or cast-steel 
brake drums and the latter are in turn bolted to the wood artillery 
wheels. On trucks of two to seven tons' capacity, the speed reduc- 
tion between the motor and the rear wheels ranges all the way from 7 
to 1 to 14 or 15 to 1. The first step in the reduction is carried out in 



Fig. 51 . Rear of Packard 5-Ton Chassis, Showing Size of Driving Sprockets 

the bevel-gear drive of the countershaft and rarely exceeds 4 or 5 
to 1, as the use of a larger bevel would involve the use of a cumber- 
some and weighty housing. The remaining reduction is accom- 
plished by the difference in the driving and driven sprockets. How 
great this second reduction may be can be seen from Fig. 51, which 
is a rear view of a standard design of side-chain-driven heavy truck, 
the Packard. A study of this illustration will make clear several of 
the details of axle, spring, brake, and radius-rod construction 
described in previous paragraphs. 

Worm Drive. The worm gear was tried tentatively on steam 
traction engines in England as early as 1850, but it was not until 



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58 COMMERCIAL , VEHICLES 

1898, when it was applied to the driving of the Lancnester car, that 
it was seriously taken up for this purpose. The Lanchester worm is 
similar to the more familiar Hindley type except that it is placed 
under the wheel to insure proper lubrication. Both the worm and 
wheel are mounted on ball bearings as such a type of bearing is 
very satisfactory for this load. Worm gears of this tpye are imported 
from England for use on the Detroit electric cars. The first rear- 
axle motor-truck drive of the worm type was a 3J-ton Dennis bus 



Fig. 52. Phantom View of Pierce Worm-Driven Rear Axle 

running in London. This was first put in service in 1903, and, though 
its introduction met with considerable opposition, it proved a success, 
and quite a number of worm-driven Dennis busses have been in 
service in London for several years. Dennis was also the first to 
mount the worm over the wheel, producing the so-called "overhead" 
type, which feature also came in for much criticism owing to its 
alleged failure to provide lubrication. It will be perfectly obvious 
that with the worm-wheel housing only partly full of oil this criticism 
would be unfounded, as the wheel acts as an excellent conveyor 
to carry the oil up to the worm. Eight years' use in London without 
failure of lubrication bears out this statement. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 39 

Development The London General Omnibus Company was the 
first to design and manufacture on a large scale a new type of worm- 
gear axle in which the worm gear was mounted on a separate assem- 
bly. This design has superseded others until now, with some modi- 
fication, it is accepted practice. The worm and the wheel are 
mounted in a very rigid block and, with their bearings, housings, 
etc., form a, complete unenclosed transmission unit, as seen in 
Fig. 52, which is a phantom view of the worm gear employed on the 



Fig. 53. Chassis of Pierce 5-Ton Worm-Driven Truck 

Pierce trucks, the makers of the latter having been the pioneers 
in introducing this type into the United States. This unit is dropped 
into the bowl-shaped rear-axle housing and bolted in place. This 
mounting lends itself readily to accurate machining, every part 
being open and easily accessible. This is also true of the unit as 
a whole where inspection, adjustment, and repair are concerned. 
This housing is of heavy construction and, as it is rigid, prevents 
road shocks or stresses, other than those coming through the driving 



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60 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

axles, from disturbing the alignment of the worm gear. The housings 
of the driving shafts, or axles, are tubular, and the shafts themselves 
are assembled through the tubes into the squared sockets in the 
differential. This makes a very accessible assembly as, by pulling 
out the driving axles and disconnecting the universal joint, the worm 
unit can be lifted out of its housing. The socket, with several 
keyways in it extending forward from the worm proper, is for the 
reception of the splined end of the propeller shaft from the gearset. 
This keyed socket is the slip end of the rear universal joint in the 
shaft line and is designed to prevent relative movement of rear axle 
and of gear set from imposing excessive stresses on the propeller shaft. 

The driving thrust and the torque are taken on a short heavy 
torque rod, which will be noted extending forward from the rear- 
axle housing just below the universal joint. This is a heavy drop 
forging and, as will be clear, is mounted on a heavy spindle at the 
axle housing, allowing for movement in a horizontal plane; while at 
its forward end, which is made in the form of a yoke, it is carried 
on a horizontal pin permitting a vertical movement to compensate 
for variations in the vertical distance between the axle and frame 
caused by the compression and recoil of the springs. Its location 
is made clear in the chassis view, Fig. 53. 

Fig. 54 shows the form of mounting adopted by the Timken 
Company for the David Brown type of worm drive which they 
manufacture. This is the same as that employed on the Pierce 
trucks, but both the method of mounting and the bearings differ. 
The Timken Company use their own taper roller bearings, while the 
Pierce Company use annular ball bearings. The worm is of the 
so-called straight type, meaning that it is of uniform diameter 
throughout its length as distinguished from the "hourglass" type. 

Standard Types of Worm Gears. In the straight type, the worm 
is cylindrical through its entire length, and the worm wheel into 
which it meshes is concave. In the hourglass type, both worm and 
worm wheel are concave. The advantage claimed for the latter 
form is the greater area of engagement, thus spreading the driving 
strain over a greater number of teeth and reducing the pressure on 
the surface of both. On this type, however, there is only one position 
in which the worm and the worm wheel can be located with respect 
to each other in order to take advantage of this greater area of con- 



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tact, while on the straight type it is necessary only to locate the worm 
correctly, with respect to the worm wheel, in one direction, since the 
worm is cylindrical and uniform in diameter throughout its entire 
length. The straight type is therefore much less liable to damage 
through misalignment. With the hourglass type, a slight misplace- 
ment in any direction is liable to prove fatal, so that the chances of 
trouble in practical operation are greatly reduced in the straight type. 
Efficiency of Worm Gears. In an elaborate test of three differ- 
ent types of worm gears (by types in this connection being meant 



Fig. 54. David Brown Type of Worm Gear as Mounted on Timken Axle 

differences in tooth form and pitch) made at the Brown and Sharpe 
plant to determine which form was best adapted to automobile use, 
efficiencies ranging from 90.2 to 95.5 were obtained on the first speed, 
91.3 to 93.4 per cent on the second speed, and 90.1 to 97.6 per cent 
on the direct drive. The results obtained with a bevel-gear-drive 
test made for comparison were 91.4 to 96.6 per cent on first speed, 
94.5 to 99.3 on second, and 94.0 to 99.2 on direct drive. So far as 
the life of the worm is concerned, mileage records obtained on com- 
mercial cars range from 40,000 to 110,000 miles, the lower figure 



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62 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

being considered only fair for a well-made straight type of worm; 
while, on pleasure cars, three years of constant service was not 
thought at all unusual. 

Double-Reduction Live Axle. As sufficient drop in speed can- 
not be had with a bevel gear through a single reduction without 
making the driven bevel gear of impracticable proportions, thus 
involving excessive weight in the rear-axle housing and a dangerous 
lack of clearance between the latter and the ground, an intermediate 
spur reduction is introduced just forward of the bevel gears. One 
method of accomplishing this is illustrated by Fig. 55, which shows 
the extra speed reduction combined in the same housing as the 
differential and the bevel drive, an extra cover plate making it 
accessible. It will be noted that helical-cut gears are employed 



Fig. 55. White Differential, Showing Second-Reduction Gear 

instead of the straight-spur type, this form of tooth giving greater 
bearing surface, closer engagement, i.e., less backlash, or lost motion, 
between the gears and far less noise in running. Another form of 
double-reduction axle is the special type developed on the Autocar 
delivery wagon and illustrated in connection with the description of 
that vehicle. 

Internal Qear=Driven Axle. The internal gear-driven type of 
axle is another form of final drive that has been introduced in this 
country after a long and successful record abroad. Like the worm 
gear, it aspires to the honor of replacing the side chains and, like that 
form, also has already made considerable progress in this direction. 
In principle, this form of drive consists of making the driving axles in- 
dependent of, and external to, the rear axle proper, which, in this case, 



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is of the "dead" type, usually a solid section, such as a square or an 
I-beam forging. Its function is merely to carry the weight of the 
car, although it also is made to serve both as a support and as a rein- 
forcement for the live axle. In the case of the Mercedes (German) 
trucks, on which it has been used since 1900, the driving axle is 
placed forward of the dead axle. At their outer ends, the shafts of 
the former carry small spur pinions which mesh with large internal 
gears cut on rings attached to drums on the rear wheels. One of 
these wheels and the driving pinion on the end of the live shaft are 
illustrated in Fig. 56, which shows this construction as carried out 
on an American-built replica of the German truck in question. 

This same form of axle has been employed also for a number of 
years in Paris by the builders of the De Dion cars for their commer- 
cial types, chiefly busses. In this case, the live axle is carried above 



Fig. 56. Mercedes (German) Internal Gear Drive, Showing Principle of Action and 
Assembled Rear Wheel 



its support. More than a hundred of these busses have been in 
service in New York for several years and, as more are ordered 
from time to time to meet the increasing requirements, it must be 
concluded that they have been satisfactory. The builders of the Mais 
trucks were doubtless the pioneers in the commercial use of this form 
of axle in this country, and the Mais internal gear-driven rear axle is 
probably the form in which this type is most generally used. In this 
case, the driving axle is placed forward of the dead axle. Upon com- 
paring the size of the driving pinion at the rear wheel with the internal 
gear, it will be apparent that a very large gear reduction is conven- 
iently obtainable by this method without in any way interfering with 
the road clearance of the vehicle. The first reduction consists, of 
course, in every case, of the conventional bevel-gear drive, but, as will 
b.e noted from the part sectional views of the Torbensen and Garford 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



types of internal gear-driven axles, as shown in Figs. 57 and 58, there 
is very little reduction between the bevel pinion and its gear. This 
decreases the amount of leverage the pinion has to exert and conse- 




Fig. 57. Torbensen Internal Gear-Driven Rear Axle 

quently decreases the tooth pressure in proportion. In the Torben- 
sen axle, the live member, or countershaft, is placed to the rear of the 
I-beam supporting member, while in the Garford this is reversed. On 
the Jeffery "Quad", it is placed directly over the wheel support, as 



Fig. 58. Garford Internal Gear-Driven Rear Axle 

shown by Fig. 59, which illustrates the driving pinion and the wheel 
with its internal gear. As this truck steers, drives, and brakes on all 
four wheels, a universal joint is placed directly behind the pinion. 
Fig. 60 shows the wheel and its gear ready for mounting. A some- 



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what similar design is found on the Christie front-drive tractor for fire 
apparatus, with the added distinction that on this machine only the 
rim of the driving wheel revolves and is carried on a ball bearing' 
which is practically the size of the wheel itself. On the Jeffery, the 
wheel revolves on the two taper roller bearings shown. 

Differential Lock. The function of the differential, balance gear, 
or compensating gear, as it is variously called, is naturally the same 
on the commercial vehicle as it is on the pleasure car, i.e., that of 
permitting one wheel to run free in rounding a turn so that it may 
travel the greater distance represented by the outside circle in the 
same time that the inner 
takes to traverse its orbit ; 
but the differential has 
the unfortunate draw- 
back of not permitting 
any power to reach one 
of the driving wheels in 
case it is held while the 
other is free. This fre- 
quently occurs where the 
truck settles into a ditch 
or extra deep rut in a 
soft road, leaving the 
other wheel more or less 
in the air. Under such 
conditions the entire 

power goes tO the free Fig. 59. Jeffery Rear-Axle Driving Mechanism 

. . . . . , and Bearings 

wheel, making the prob- 
lem of extricating the machine from this predicament much more 
difficult. To overcome this disadvantage of the balance gear, it 
is customary to provide a differential lock. One form of this lock 
is illustrated in Fig. 61. On the right-hand side a four-jaw clutch is 
keyed to the drive shaft, but is left free to slide into mesh with its 
corresponding member on the differential housing to permit of lock- 
ing the differential gears. This clutch is operated through a suitable 
linkage from the driver's seat. By locking the differential, the sunken 
wheel will p'ull itself out if the truck is capable of exerting the 
necessary power. 



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Front Drives. Early Development. One of the earliest applica- 
tions of power proposed for road locomotion was the attachment of 
a self-contained power unit to existing horse-drawn vehicles, and a 
number of different types of such units wepe built in Europe in the 
early days of the industry. For some reason, none of them developed 
to the point of a commercial success. The front-wheel drive, which 
seems to have been discarded almost entirely for some years, has 
recently come to the fore again and has been developed very success- 
fully for fire apparatus, on which both mechanical and electrical 
methods of transmission have been utilized. 



Fig. 60. Jeffery Wheel with Internal Gear Ready for Mounting on Axle 

Electric Front Drive. The electric front drive has been utilized 
in numerous lines of business, more particularly for brewery and 
municipal service, for several years; the Couple-Gear type of electric 
motor wheel, previously described in the section on the transmission 
of power on electric cars, was employed for this purpose. In some 
instances, a single power wheel is used to haul a dump cart or similar 
slow-moving vehicle; or a unit, comprising a storage battery, con- 
troller, steering gear, axle, and two of these power wheels, is per- 
manently coupled to a truck in place of the axle and wheels used 
when drawn by horses. 



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The power to drive these motors may be supplied by the current 
from a storage battery or from a gasoline-electric generator. The 



Fig. 61. Bevel-Driven Commercial-Car Axle Fitted with Differential Lock 



Fig. 62. Electric Front Drive Using Couple-Gear Motor Wheels 

dynamo supplies the power directly to the wheel motors through a 
three-point controller, there being no other intermediate electric 



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68 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

member. This controller is fitted with two forward speeds and a 
single reverse, the speed and amount of power utilized being con- 
trolled chiefly by means of the spark lever and the throttle of the 
gasoline motor in the conventional manner. Fig. 62 illustrates a fire 
engine gasoline-electric tractor using Couple-Gear drive. 

Four-Wheel Drives. To meet the requirements of military 
service, a truck must be able to travel "wherever a team of mules can 
haul a load". Consequently, like that useful quadruped, it must 
be equipped with power-transmitting members at all four points of 
contact with the ground. While the conventional type of truck 
with one or the other of the standard forms of transmission driving 
only two rear wheels has proved eminently satisfactory for service 
wherever a solid roadbed or its equivalent is to be found, it is of 
little use off the beaten track. Ditches, soft ground, sand, and mud, 
which do not even embarrass the army mule or, for that matter, the 
average team of farm Horses, render the average motor truck abso- 
lutely helpless. To be able to extricate itself from bogs and ditches, 
it is necessary to be able to "git up and git" on all fours. 

To take advantage to the full extent of this form of transmission, 
the majority of four-wheel-driven cars both drive and steer through 
all the wheels. Accomplishing this presents no particular mechani- 
cal difficulties. Three forms of drive have been developed for this 
purpose; one in which the power is transmitted through bevel gears 
mounted on the steering knuckle,while a second employs the internal- 
gear type of drive using universal joints on the driving shafts just 
back of the wheels. The third type drives directly to the hubs 
of the wheels through hollow steering knuckles. This last type 
presents the simplest layout and was one of the first to be developed 
in this country on a commercial scale, having been built for several 
years by the Four Wheel Drive Automobile Company. 

This transmission is a simple modification of the three-speed 
individual-clutch type transmitting the power through a broad silent 
chain to a parallel shaft placed at the left to clear the engine. This 
can be seen more clearly in the photograph of the chassis, Fig. 63. 
This chain also serves as the first reduction in the speed, the second 
being through the conventional form of bevel gears at the rear and 
front axles. Each of these bevel-gear drives incorporates a differ- 
ential for balancing the tractive effort at the wheels, while a third 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 69 

differential centrally placed on the parallel driving shaft balances the 
amount of power transmitted to each pair of wheels. This third 
differential is built in the large sprocket of the silent-chain drive and 
is provided with a locking device controlled by the driver. A brake 



Fig. 63. Chassis of Four-Wheel Drive Truck 



drum is mounted on the parallel shaft on either side of the main 
differential. These transmission brakes are for regular service, the 
emergency brakes being mounted in drums on the rear wheels. 



Fig. 64. Chassis of Jeffery "Quad", Showing Four-Wheel Drive 

Owing to their location, the former retard all four wheels simul- 
taneously. There are, of course, four universal joints. Steering is 
accomplished by means of the front wheels only, so that the rear 
axle is of the conventional full-floating construction. 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



Jeffery "Quad". This truck is representative of the second 
class, or internal gear-driven type mentioned, and has been devel- 
oped particularly to meet the United States Army requirements. 
The motor is a four-cylinder block-cast type with L-head cylinders 
rated at 32 horsepower and is fitted with duplex ignition, i.e., using 



Spur Pinion 




Fig. 65. Sectional View of Jeffery Front- Wheel Drive 
Courtesy of Horseless Age 

two sets of spark plugs simultaneously. The motor is offset to the 
right side of the frame and mounted on a three-point suspension, 
as shown by the plan view of the chassis, Fig. 64. The drive is 
by shaft to a centrally placed four-speed selectively operated gearset 
of the sliding-gear type, but the latter differs from the conventional 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 71 

form of this type of gearset in that it has no direct drive. The pro- 
peller shafts are .gear driven from the layshaft of the transmission, 
this construction bringing the forward one sufficiently to one side to 
clear the motor. Three differentials are employed, one on each axle 
and one in the gear box, all being of the Wayne gearless type. Both 
axles are "dead" and are fitted with steering knuckles. The trans- 
verse driving shafts at either end are placed above the axles and 
springs and have universal joints just inside of the wheels and directly 
over their steering pivots, as shown by the sectional view, Fig. 65. 
The driving pinion is supported from the steering knuckles between 
two taper roller bearings and drives an internal gear mounted in the 
enlarged wheel hub. Bolted to this large hub and the wheel itself is 



Fig. 66. Chassis of Jeffery "Quad" 

a pressed-steel drum for an external brake, a dust-excluding felt 
packing being fitted between the drum and the gear ring. The 
ability of the four-wheel drive to extricate itself from heavy mud and 
sand with the same amount of power is due to^ the tendency of the 
front wheels to climb over obstacles arid, at the same time, assist in 
the propulsion of the weight. Enclosed wheels are employed to cut 
down the resistance, Fig. 66. 

Electric Transmission 
Advantages. The practice of utilizing electricity for power dis- 
tribution in manufacturing plants was already well established before 
the advent of the automobile on a commercial scale, and attempts 
were made at an early day to utilize its advantages for transmitting 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 



the power on the latter. Despite the numerous difficulties met with 
at the outset in the application of the sliding-gear transmission, the 
employment of electricity has never become as general as its advan- 
tages would appear to warrant. A great amount of experimental work, 
however, has been done, and numerous different systems evolved. 
Probably the only example of the consistent employment of electric 
transmission at the present date is to be found in its use tin gasoline- 
electric-railway motor cars, of which quite a number are in service. 
As the limitation of weight, one of the most important factors to be 
considered on the automobile, is lacking in this application, it can 

hardly be said to represent an 
exact parallel. 

One of the chief advan- 
tages of the employment of 
electric transmission is the 
possibility of running the 
gasoline motor constantly at 
its normal speed, at which it 
develops its rated output 
most economically and with a 
minimum wear. The sharp 
contrast between the speed 
variations required of the gas- 
oline motor employed with a 
mechanical transmission and 
with one of the electrical type 
is shown by the curves in 
Fig. 67. With the electric transmission, the gasoline motor speed 
remains constant from the time of starting right up to 50 miles 
an hour. 

Several Systems. To those familar with electric practice it 
will be plain that several methods of utilizing electricity for the 
transmission of the power on an automobile are available. In general, 
however, they may be divided roughly into three divisions. The 
first of these is simply a replica of that commonly employed in manu- 
facturing plants, i.e., mechanical energy as produced by an engine 
is converted into electrical power, transmitted to an electric motor 
at a distance, and there reconverted into mechanical energy. This 




eo 30 

Miles per Hour 

Fig. 67. Curves Showing Variations of Engine 
Speed for Gasoline-Electric Transmission 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 73 

double conversion naturally entails a loss of efficiency; but, in manu- 
facturing practice, this is considerably less than where the power is 
directly transmitted from the engine to the tool at which it is to be 
used, and the efficiency increases with an increase in the distance 
between the two. 

The second system involves the conversion of mechanical into 
chemical energy in the storage battery, from which the current is 
drawn to operate electric motors in the usual way, Fig. 68. This is 
really a self-contained electric in that it carries its own charging plant, 
with the further advantage, however, that the excess capacity of the 
generator is always available for driving the vehicle. Or, to put it 



Fig. 68. Couple-Gear Gasoline-Electric System 

the other way around, the greater part of the current from the gasoline 
. motor electric-generator unit is employed for running the car, and 
the excess current utilized for charging the storage battery, which 
is then said to be "floated on the line. ,, 

The third system is based on the principle employed in the cradle 
type of electric dynamometer, in which an electric generator is so 
mounted that its field may revolve in response to the drag exerted 
on it by the armature, this tendency being counteracted by a balance 
lever attached to the field. By means of weights placed on this 
lever, the effort exerted may be accurately weighed, and the power 
developed by the prime mover driving the generator may be calcu- 
lated within close limits. 



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74 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

DETAILS OF CHASSIS AND RUNNINQ QEAR 
S prings 
The problem of providing a form of spring suspension that will 
not be overstiff when the car is empty and still provide sufficient hold- 
ing powers to withstand rough road work with a full load, which the 
designer of the touring car has had to face, is aggravated a hundred- 
fold on heavy trucks. Between the "load" and "no load" points 
of the pleasure car, there is a comparatively small range. When a 
touring car weighing 4000 pounds, all on, has its full load of seven 
passengers averaging 150 pounds each, their combined weight 
represents only 25 per cent of the weight of the vehicle itself, but 
when a 5-ton truck, weighing slightly over five tons when empty — say 
11,000 pounds — receives its full load of five tons plus anywhere from 
10,000 to 14,000 pounds, the increase, instead of being from to 25 

per cent, is from to 100 
^ ' '% per cent plus. There is 

also the far greater tend- 
ency to side sway, owing 
to the height at which 
the load is ordinarily 
carried. 

Semi=Elliptic Usual 

Fig. 69. Principle of the Compensating Spring Tvru» Ac if normi^ 

Support Employed on Heavy Trucks * JV C * AS 1X - permilS 

keeping the center of 
gravity down, gives less recoil under heavy shock, and is less subject 
to lateral stresses, the flat semi-elliptic type of spring is almost 
universally employed on commercial vehicles, from a delivery wagon 
up to a 7-ton truck. By delivery wagon in this connection is meant 
the type specially designed for commercial service and not the con- 
verted touring-car type in which pleasure-car standards remain 
unaltered, and the high three-quarter elliptic spring at the rear 
is not uncommon. 

It will be apparent, however, that no form of spring suspension 
would be sufficient in itself to cover such an extended range of loading 
as that mentioned and still give even a fair approximation to efficiency 
at either extreme. Maximum carrying ability is the chief thing to 
be provided, and using springs that will do this alone would be an 
easy matter; but the problem is to guard against the maximum 




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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 75 

stresses to which the springs will be subjected under heavy loads and 
still have a suspension that will prevent the motor and driving 
mechanism of the truck from being pounded to pieces when the 
vehicle is running without a load. To achieve this, it is customary to 
employ rocking shackles at one end and some form of sliding, or com- 
pensating, support at the other, although in numerous instances the 
springs are shackled at both ends in the same manner. As the driving 
strain is practically always taken on radius, or distance, rods in the 
case of side-chain-driven cars, and on torque rods on cars of the shaft- 
driven type, there is ample altitude for variation in this respect. 

Principle of Compensating Support. The sketch, Fig. 69, illus- 
trates the principle upon which all compensating supports for the 
springs is based. Of course, this applies only to the rear-wheel springs, 
which are usually called upon to bear anywhere from 60 to 85 per 
cent of the useful load. The front springs are usually pinned to 
the dropped dumb ends of the frame forward and shackled to brackets 
at their rear ends. The front end of a rear spring is shown by the 
illustration. Given a suspension sufficiently stiff to withstand the 
maximum load of which the truck is capable, it will be apparent 
that when empty the body will be lifted and the sliding end of the 
spring will be against the right-hand end of the support. The spring 
is then under its minimum compression and will respond more readily 
to shock. 

Brakes 

Usual Types. In as much as the greater loads carried far more 
than offset the lower speeds at which commercial cars travel as com- 
pared with the pleasure type, there can be no comparison of the 
braking requirements of the two. This is particularly the case in as 
much as the greatest strain does not come on the brakes because of 
the infrequent necessity for stopping suddenly but on account of 
their continued use in holding the loaded truck back on long hills. 
Commercial-car brake design naturally varies with the type of vehicle 
and likewise with its carrying capacity. On light delivery wagons, 
the type employed is the same as used on touring cars, viz, internal- 
expanding and external-contracting asbestos-fabric-lined shoes in 
pressed-steel drums on the rear wheels. In some instances, the 
practice, usually confined to the higher-priced - pleasure cars, of placing 
the two sets of brak<^ ^de by side so that they contact on the same 



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76 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

drum and can be enclosed against the entry of dirt and water, is also 
found. An example of the first type mentioned is shown in Fig. 70, 
which illustrates a Timken worm-driven rear axle. The brakes on 
the Reo chassis are shown in Fig. 71. 

Braking All Wheels. Considerable discussion has arisen from 
time to time regarding the advisability of braking on all four wheels; 



Fig. 70. Timken Worm-Driven RearAxle, Showing Brakes 

but, prior to the advent of the four-wheel drive, this was tried in only 
a comparatively few instances. In addition to providing greater 
retarding power, the advantage of eliminating the tendency to skid 
has also been attributed to the front-wheel brake. When all four 



Fig. 71. Brake Detail, Reo 2-Ton Chassis 

wheels are driven, brakes are applied to all simultaneously, the brak- 
ing effort at each wheel being equalized by a compensating device. 
On the Jeifery "Quad", these brakes are applied directly to the 
wheels themselves and consist of a simple and well-worked-out 
internal-expanding cam-actuated type, as shown by Fig. 72. 



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77 



TRAILERS 
Utilizing Excess Power. Trucks, like all other motor vehicles, 
must necessarily be equipped with power plants capable of success- 
fully meeting exceptionally severe conditions imposed by heavy 
grades and by muddy, sandy, and snowy road surfaces, as well as 
the normally easy grade and road conditions encountered by the 
average truck during a very large proportion of its service. Hence, 
there is a large reserve power-plant capacity idle for a great part of 
the time. From the economic standpoint, it is a wasteful condition 
for a truck with sufficient power to handle a ten-ton load on smooth 




Fig. 72. Internal Expanding Cam-Actuated Type of Brake 
Employed on the Jeffery "Quad" 

level roads to be restricted to the five-ton load which its structural 
parts permit. This applies proportionately to all sizes of commercial 
vehicles, from the very lightest up, and it accounts for the widespread 
use to which trailers are being put. 

Two=Wheel Types. For light- and medium-capacity service, 
trailers can be made with only two wheels, thus keeping the wheel- 
base of the double unit down and permitting of much higher speeds. 
Trailers designed for use in connection with the lightest types of 
delivery wagons, such as the Ford, or for the thousands of ex-touring 
cars that are spending the second period of their existence in a com- 
mercial role, usually carry a load of about 400 pounds. They are 



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78 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 

made to fit any standard make of automobile, a special bracket 
being fitted to the rear of the frame of the car. Connection is made 
by means of a tongue fitted with a swiveling pin and locked with a 
thumb nut, so that the trailer may be attached or detached quickly 
without using tools; the pin in question, together with the fact that 
the trailer has only a single axle, allows for universal relative move- 
ment between it and the towing car. 

Four=Wheel Types. It is in the employment of what is prac- 
tically a second truck, where its carrying capacity is concerned, that 
the use of the trailer shows the greatest operating economy, and 



Fig. 73. Troy Trailer for Motor Trucks 

specially designed vehicles have been developed for this purpose. 
The builders of the Troy wagons have evolved a special type of 
trailer for the motor truck, as shown in Fig. 73. 

Troy Trailer. It will be noted upon referring to the illustra- 
tion, Fig. 73, previously mentioned, that the construction of the 
Troy trailer is along very similar lines to those generally followed in 
motor-truck construction. In fact, the trailer is practically a motor 
truck without power and, as it is subjected to even heavier loading 
and more severe strains than the latter, is built accordingly. 

Both sets of wheels are designed to steer and are controlled by 
the drawbars at each end of the trailer, the cross-connecting rod of 



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 79 

the steering gear being attached to the under side of the drawbar 
near its rear end. As the drawbar follows its towing truck around 
corners, it also serves to swerve the front wheels of the trailer in the 
same direction. 



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Introduction. The essentials of the electric automobile are 
few in number and simple in construction. They are, first, the 
storage battery, or source of power; second, the electric motor, 
forming the medium through which the current is transformed 
into mechanical energy; and, third, the drive, or means by which 
the power of the motor is in turn applied to the propulsion of the 
vehicle. There are, naturally, differences in design and in the 
details by which the power produced at the electrical end is 
applied to driving the machine. Where these differences are of 
sufficient importance, they are described in detail, and illustra- 
tions of the vehicles and their component parts are given, thus 
enabling the reader to very easily distinguish between these units 
and between their methods of operation. 

FUNDAMENTAL FEATURES OF THE ELECTRIC 
THE STORAGE BATTERY 

There is probably no other single electrical device in general 
use about which there is so much popular misconception as the 
storage battery, or accumulator, as it is more technically known. 
It does not in itself create a current of electricity — as does a primary 
battery, such as the familiar dry cell, in which chemical processes 
actually generate a current of electricity — and for this reason the 
storage cell is called a secondary battery. The word storage in con- 
nection with this type is really a misnomer, as the process by which 
it absorbs and re-delivers electricity is not one of storage in any sense 
of the word, but consists of chemical conversion and reconversion 
upon a reversal x)f the conditions. As is the case with electric 
vehicles, there are numerous different forms of storage batteries, for 
many of which special advantages are claimed; but in general all 
lead-plate batteries are alike in principle and are completely described 
in the Electrical Equipment section of this set of books. Theoreti- 
cally, the principle of the Edison battery is also the same, i.e., that 
of a chemical reaction upon the passage of the charging current. 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



THE MOTOR 



Quite in contrast with that of the gasoline car, the motor of an 
electric vehicle is probably responsible for less of the troubles encoun- 
tered than any other one of the essential components. While the 
relative amount of attention it requires at the hands of the owner 
of the vehicle is small, a knowledge of its construction and working 
will be found of value in the operation and maintenance of the car. 
It is here that the energy held in reserve in the storage battery is con- 
verted into the mechanical power necessary to move the vehicle. 
The reason for the small amount of attention required is apparent in 
the small number of parts as well as their great simplicity, though 
the great amount of attention that has been devoted to the develop- 
ment of the electric motor over a long period of years is largely 
responsible for the elimination of the numerous shortcomings of the 
earlier types. 

Essentials of Motor. The motor consists of a, field, an armature 
suitably mounted on bearings so that it may be revolved in that field, 
a frame, a commutator, and brushes. The term field is the generally 
accepted abbreviation for magnetic field, which is the zone of influ- 
ence exerted by a magnet, and is referred to in terms of its "lines of 
force , \ A common horseshoe magnet, technically known as a 
permanent magnet, will attract to its ends or poles particles of iron 
and steel placed within a certain distance of it. The space bounded 
by the poles of the magnet and the limits to which its attraction 
reaches, is known as its field. With reference to electric motors and 
generators, the word is employed to designate the magnets and pole 
pieces which serve to create this field, rather than the scope of mag- 
netic attraction itself, and it is used to embrace all of them, regard- 
less of their number. 

Principle of Rotation. The fundamental principle upon which 
the functioning of all apparatus of this type is based is to be found 
in the fact that when a current of electricity is passed through a coil 
of wire surrounding a bar or other form of iron or steel, the metal 
becomes magnetic in proportion to the number of turns in the coil 
of wire and the strength of the current employed. Every magnet 
consists of a north and a south pole, and like poles repel while unlike 
poles attract one another. In other words, if two small common mag- 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 3 

nets are placed on a table with their like poles, i.e., north to north 
and south to south, facing one another, the magnets as a whole will 
tend to repel one another, and were they sufficiently powerful, would 
actually recede from the common center until the limits of their field 
were reached. By reversing the polarity of the opposing ends of 
the magnets, they would then tend to be drawn to one another until 
the poles butted. This, in brief, sums up the philosophy of the 
electric motor. 

In order to amplify the power, a large number of magnets are 
employed; and in order that the energy thus developed may be 
utilized, one group of magnets is made stationary while the other 
group is free to revolve. In these two groups will be recognized 
respectively the field and the armature of the motor, and each magnet 
of the groups is of the type known as electromagnets, so termed be- 
cause they are magnetic only while a current is passing through their 
exciting coils. Those of the field may be distinguished as they take 
the form of short thick spokes radiating from the rim or frame toward 
the center. They thus surround the space in which the armature 
revolves, and are further provided with what are known as pole pieces 
in order to fill as much of the space with iron as is possible. As 
already mentioned, the field of a magnet is most powerful in close 
proximity to it and the armature will be seen to run as closely to the 
faces of the pole pieces as good design and construction will permit. 

Now it will be remembered that the direction in which the cur- 
rent of electricity is sent through the exciting coil determines the 
polarity of the resulting magnet. If, with the current traveling round 
the coil in one direction, the right-hand end of a bar becomes of north 
polarity and the left-hand end of south polarity, it will be evident 
that, by reversing the direction of current flow, there will be a cor- 
responding change in the location of the poles. Coming back to 
practice, in which one set of magnets — the field — is held stationary, 
while the other may revolve, it will be apparent that as each of the 
armature magnets approaches a field magnet by virtue of the attrac- 
tion between them, the motion will tend to accelerate up to the point 
where they are opposite, but when the moving magnet passes by, 
the attraction which still exists will tend to stop the rotation. It is 
clear, therefore, that, to bring about the desired rotation of the arma- 
ture some device must be used to reverse the direction of the current 



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4 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

in each electromagnet when it has reached a point opposite the field 
magnet which is attracting it so that the resulting opposite polarity 
may develop a repulsion which will carry the armature in the same 
direction. This is just where the function of the commutator and 
the brushes comes in. The brushes serve to lead the current to the 
circular group of copper bars which forms the commutator, without 
retarding the rotation of the armature. Each section of the com- 
mutator is insulated from its neighbors and as the brushes touch 
opposite sections simultaneously the rotation makes the current enter 
the armature coils first in one and then in the opposite direction, 
through successive sections of the commutator, the current being 
reversed and the polarity of the field magnets being changed for each 
new position. 

The Armature. The foundation of the armature consists of a 
cylinder built up of laminations of iron, or punchings, with recesses 
cut into their circumferences to receive the coils of wire, or windings, 
each one of which converts the particular section of the core that it 
surrounds into a powerful electrotnagnet when the current is passing. 
All the wire employed is strongly insulated, not only to protect neigh- 
boring turns from one another, but each winding is also well insulated 
from its foundation, whether this be the armature or a field core. 
If this precaution were not taken, short circuits or grounds would 
occur. The former term is really self-defining as it shows that the 
current instead of passing round the entire coil or circuit intended, 
would choose the shorter path thus accidentally provided. A ground, 
on the other hand, is caused where non-insulated portions of two 
different wires carrying a current come in contact with the same or 
a connecting piece of metal, or other conducting medium. This 
opens up a path of practically zero resistance for the current, thus 
diverting it entirely from the path it should follow if its energy were 
to be utilized. 

Both short circuits and grounds are things with which the owner 
of the electric vehicle will have to become familiar to a greater or 
less extent in caring for the battery of his car, as well as the remainder 
of its electrical equipment, so that their nature has been explained 
in detail. While both cause similar results, they are not interchange- 
able terms and are employed to convey the distinction mentioned. 
In other words, a ground may be a short circuit, but a short circuit 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 5 

is not always a ground, as the latter implies the diversion of the cur- 
rent through- some normally unused conducting medium, while the 
short-circuit signifies a breakdown of the insulation of the wiring 
or allied appurtenances that permits of the return of the current after 
having traversed but a fraction of the path intended for it. Either 
trouble naturally places the piece of apparatus in which the break 
occurs out of running order until the defect is remedied. In view 
of their nature, grounds are usually much more difficult to locate than 
shoit-circuits. Some of their further causes and results are men- 
tioned in the chapter devoted to the care of the batteries, also that on 
the wiring. 

Capacity for Overloads. It is this capacity of the motor to stand 
excessive overloads that fits in with the requirements of the road, 
for it must be borne in mind that the amount of power required to 
keep a vehicle rolling after it is once started is very small as com- 
pared with the pull necessary to start it, or to accelerate its speed. 
The total amount of energy required is in direct proportion to the total 
weight, and to the square of the velocity. 

Motor Stands 500 Per Cent Overload. The pull, or torque of the 
motor as it is called, must be very heavy at starting, particularly 
when on an upgrade, and also for mounting inclines. For this 
reason, the motor employed is of a type capable of standing for short 
periods as much as 500 per cent in excess of its normal rated capacity. 
It will be apparent that this converts the 2|-horsepower motor into 
one of 12| horsepower in cases of emergency, but it increases 
its current consumption under the ordinary conditions of load at 
which the greater part of its service is rendered, such as in running 
on the level or ascending ordinary inclines. The available amount 
of power being so closely restricted by the capacity of the battery, 
it will be manifest that this is a most important provision, and as the 
average layman talks in terms of horsepower without adequately 
comprehending the meaning of the latter, electric vehicle makers 
have found it expedient to omit any mention of this factor. The 
electric not only is not intended to be capable of the speeds of the 
gasoline car, but it does not require such an excessive amount of 
reserve power as it has become customary for the manufacturer to 
provide on the latter type. 

Under usual conditions of running, the average gasoline machine 



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6 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

does not employ more than a small fraction of the available power 
of its motor and, in consequence, is seldom being operated at 
what is technically termed its critical speed, that is, the speed at 
which it is most efficient, and therefore most economical. In the 
case of the majority of gasoline cars, this critical speed is from 25 to 
30 miles an hour, or even higher, while for the average electric car 
it is from 10 to 15 miles an hour, a speed which corresponds so 
nearly with the usual speed on the road that the economy of the 
electric is very great. Nevertheless the batteries used in the electric 
should be charged every night if the car has been used during the 
day, as it is always advisable to have the batteries fully charged. 
This keeps the cells in good condition. 

Motor Speeds. Types of Motor Windings. The speed of elec- 
tric vehicles is a most elusive quantity to the uninitiated, prin- 
cipally because the characteristics of the series-wound motor 
employed are not commonly understood by the layman. The series 
type of motor is one in which the windings of the armature and field 
are connected in series, i.e., so that the entire current which is fed 
to the motor passes through both of its elements consecutively, so 
to speak. 

In a shunt-wound motor the field is in multiple with the arma- 
ture and the entire current passes through the latter, the amount 
taken by the field being always proportioned to that required by 
the armature for the load it happens to be carrying. As this type 
of motor is designed for a constant speed, it is not an economical 
motor to use on the electric vehicle owing to the wide fluctua- 
tion of both speed and load imposed, so that its employment is 
comparatively rare in this field. A compound-wound motor is one 
having both series and shunt-coil windings on the fields. Since 
most commercial motors for driving machinery, elevators, and the 
like are of the constant-speed, compound-wound type, there is a 
general impression that the electric car should have a certain nearly 
constant speed for all road conditions. 

Advantages of Series-Wound Motor. But in the series-wound 
motor, the speed varies inversely as the power produced. In other 
words, its torque, or pulling power, is highest at low speeds, which 
is just the requirement demanded in starting or pulling through 
heavy roads. This type cannot be employed for ordinary com- 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 7 

mercial use, since it will instantly "run away" or race upon the load 
being released, but it can be employed to advantage on vehicles and 
in railway service because it is never disconnected from the load. 
"Load" in this case refers to the effort required to move the vehicles 
rather than the live load. Series motors are employed on the 
electric car because of their higher efficiency, which is of prime 
importance, since the object is to produce the greatest amount of 
useful energy from a given and limited amount of potential energy 
stored in the battery. Just the opposite of the gasoline engine, the 
chief characteristic of the series-type electric motor is the develop- 
ment of increased power with a decrease in the speed. Therefore, 
as the vehicle requires greater power for bad roads or grades, it 
slows down automatically and in a fixed relation to the power 
demanded. 

High-Speed Single Motor Present Practice. Opinion and prac- 
tice are divided on the subject of motor speeds. The higher-speed 
motors are more efficient, are better for grades and starting, but 
mechanical limitations frequently make them undesirable. Where 
formerly motor speeds ranged from 650 to 1100 r.p.m., modern 
practice favors higher r.p.m. rates, ranging from 1000 to 2000. 
Normal speeds under 1000 are not satisfactory for most conditions, 
the use of a low-speed type of motor being one of the causes of the 
low efficiency of the earlier electric cars. Another reason was the 
employment of two motors on comparatively light cars. This had 
a certain advantage in eliminating the differential, but its electrical 
efficiency was very low. Modern practice does not sanction the 
employment of more than one motor on even the heaviest of pleasure 
cars and on commercial vehicles up to 3- or 5-ton capacity. Beyond 
that point practice varies somewhat, some makers employing two 
driving units on the ground that no differential is needed, that 
starting torque is bettered by connecting the armature in series, 
and that damage to one motor will still permit the vehicle to travel. 
These advantages are more than offset by the higher efficiency 
possible in a single and larger electric motor, beside the benefits 
derived from the saving in weight of the motor and from the ability 
of the manufacturer to combine the two speed reductions necessary 
with two motors into one. This avoids some power loss in trans- 
mission from * Uo motor to the driving wheels. 



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& ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

THE TRANSMISSION 

Similarity to Gasoline Practice. The types of power trans- 
mission on the electric vehicle have been the same as on the gasoline 
car except that the order of their application has been chronologically 
reversed. The latter started in generally as a chain-driven machine, 
and quite a number of years elapsed before any other method of 
transmitting the power to the rear wheels was attempted. The 
electric, on the other hand, began as a gear-driven car, as the practice 
of direct-connecting electrical generators and power units, which 
first assumed a strong vogue shortly prior to the advent of the 
electric automobile, was taken as a precedent. From the point 
of view of operating conditions, there is considerable similarity 
between the gasoline and the electric machine as far as its power 
transmitting system is concerned. 

Usual Gear Reduction. Owing to weight and space limitations, 
the size of the motor is correspondingly limited, and it is accordingly 
necessary to employ high initial rotative speeds, i. e., a very high- 
speed motor is essential in both cases, while the starting torque or 
pull must likewise be very strong in order to enable the vehicle to get 
under way quickly and to start readily on grades. This necessitated 
gearing down to a very great extent, the usual ratio on the majority 
of the electric vehicles being 10 to 1, i.e., for every ten revolutions 
of the motor, the road wheels make but one turn. In order to accom- 
plish such a reduction without employing gear wheels of a prohibitive 
diameter, it was necessary to bring about this lowering of the motor 
speed by means of two steps, or a double train of gears. Spur, or 
plain straight-tooth, gears were employed at first, and proved to be 
not only noisy, but very wasteful of power. 

They were accordingly replaced by chains in many instances, 
and by gears of special types, such as the herringbone reducing gears 
of the Waverley. In some instances, such as the light Baker runabout 
placed on the market several years ago, it was found possible to drive 
directly from the motor to the rear axle through the medium of a 
single chain, but with this exception the custom of employing two 
distinct reductions of speed was generally followed up to a few 
years ago. While there were several variations in the manner 
of doing this, the general principle was practically the same 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 9 

in every instance, a single chain being taken from the end of the 
armature shaft of the motor to a countershaft extending clear across 
the car and having sprockets at each end. The reduction in speed 
from the motor to the countershaft was usually about five to one, and a 
similar second reduction was carried out by means of small sprockets 
on the ends of the countershaft, and large ones on the driving wheels. 
A third class of transmission consists of a combination of gearing and 
chain drive, such as were used on the earlier models of the Woods, 
and the Waverley electrics, the first reduction of which is a silent 
chain. 

Chain Drive. During the past few years, practice in the electric 
field has closely followed that of gasoline car transmission design, 



Fig. 20. Gear Type of Transmission 

where the final drive is concerned, and in some cases anticipated it. 
But for the advent of several low-priced electric cars, some of which 
have perpetuated the single-chain drive — using a roller-type chain 
and sprockets as the second step in the reduction — this form would 
have practically disappeared. It is efficient and reliable, but not 
as clean and sightly as the shaft type, though this objection may 
be readily overcome by enclosing the chain. Economy in initial 
cost is one of its chief advantages and, in the case of cars which are 
sold at a very low figure, this is naturally of paramount impor- 
tance. 



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10 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Gear Drive. The self-contained unit shown in Fig. 20 is an 
illustration of what might be termed an instance of reducing the 
power plant and final drive to the last degree of compactness. Refer- 
ing to the figure it will be noticed that the usual type of motor is 
mounted on a forward extension of the rear axle, the first step in 
the speed reduction being a pair of herringbone gears. Apart from 
this, it is practically a replica of gasoline car practice, as the axle is 
of the full floating type commonly employed on the latter, the second 



Fig. 21. Well-Designed Unit of the Shaft-Driven Type 
with Bevel-Gear Rear Axle 



speed consisting of the usual bevel drive, except that the propeller 
shaft is only a few inches long and consequently does not require 
any universal joints. A somewhat similar type' of transmis- 
sion is employed on the Broc electrics. A full floating type 
of axle with shaft drive is also a feature of the Borland, this 
form taking its name from the fact that the two driving shafts 
are not rigidly fastened at either end — either the differential or 
the driving-wheel end — the power being transmitted through a 
square-ended section of the shaft floating in the differential and a 
jaw or similar type of clutch at the wheel, the entire weight of the 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 11 

car being carried by the tubes or axle housing. An example of a 
single reduction-shaft drive is to be found in the Century, using a 
Timken bevel-gear rear axle. 

An equally compact form which gives a better weight distribu- 
tion is the drive illustrated in Fig. 21. This bears a very strong 
resemblance to the driving unit of a well-known light gasoline car. 
It is a type which affords great rigidity with a very simple con- 
struction. The propeller shaft is practically a continuation of the 
armature shaft, no universal joint being necessary. At its after 
end this shaft meshes with a bevel gear giving a reduction of 2 to 1, 
while a spur-pinion reduction lowers the ratio again 4 to 1, or a 
total of 8 to 1 between the high-speed motor and the driving wheels. 



Fig. 22. Combined Bevel and Spur Gear. Double Speed Reduction 
of the Axle Shown in Fig. 28. 

The arrangement of the two speed reductions in the axle is shown 
by Fig. 22. These bevels have an adjustment by means of a collar 
which can be loosened or tightened until a perfect adjustment is 
obtained. The larger bevel is mounted on a short jackshaft carried 
on ball bearings on both ends, and upon this shaft is mounted the 
small spur pinion. On each side of the jackshaft is a threaded 
collar which allows for the movement of this shaft either in or out, 
which, in conjunction with the adjustment of the bevel gears, permits 
of a perfect setting of both sets of gears. The housings consist of 
tapering swaged steel tubes which extend from each side of the 
differential housing through the brake housings and the wheels, 
while the driving effort is taken on the combined torsion and radius 
rods pivoted on saddles on the axle just inside the brake drums and 
on the rear end of the motor housing. 



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12 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

In this, as in all representative types of final drive on electric 
pleasure cars, annular ball bearings are used throughout. One of 
these bearings is shown just forward of the small bevel pinion in the 
two-speed reduction axle. This is an advanced type of bearing 
which the automobile has been largely responsible for developing. 
It is far more costly than even the very best of plain bearings, but it 
cuts friction down to a practically negligible factor, while it will also 
run with a very small supply of lubricant and requires a minimum 
of attention. Such bearings are now universally employed, not 
alone in the electric motors of these vehicles, but also for the coun- 
tershafts and wheels, and in similar locations. If the ball bearing 
is not employed, the taper roller type is substituted, the latter 
being very much favored for wheel bearings on both gasoline and 
electric cars, owing to their ability to withstand heavy thrust as 
well as radial loads. 

Worm Drive. Development. What would appear to be the 
ultimate development in electric car transmission, however, has been 
the adoption of the worm drive; and, in taking it up so generally, 
the electric vehicle manufacturers have anticipated what is bound 
to come on the gasoline pleasure car in the near future, as it already 
has in England to a great extent. In this adoption, the history of 
the electric self-starter on the gasoline car has been repeated, in that 
experiments were carried on for a number of years with little progress 
apparent to the world at large, and then, within a comparatively 
short time, the worm drive came into more or less general use. In 
this case, however, most of the research work was carried out in 
England, and a considerable proportion of the worm drives used on 
American electric cars are imported from that country. In itself, 
this form of drive is not a novelty, the Hindley worm drive, made in 
Philadelphia, having been employed on electric elevators for quite a 
number of years. Its successful application to the automobile 
represented far more of a problem than the bevel-gear type as, 
unless correctly designed and machined to the highest degree of 
accuracy, the friction and thrust are excessive and the resulting 
efficiency is low. 

Advantages of Worm-Gear Transmission. Consideration of the 
fundamentals of electric vehicle design, i.e., a light high-speed 
motor and a comparatively slow axle speed, will make apparent the 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 13 

great desirability of the worm drive in this connection. It repre- 
sents the most practical means of power transmission from a high- 
speed motor direct to the rear axle by means of a single reduction. 
This means saving in weight and the avoidance of the power loss 
entailed through the use of the second reduction in the gear ratio 
otherwise necessary. A further advantage is its silence in opera- 
tion, the worm and worm wheel representing the closest approach to 
this much-to-be-desired feature that is attainable in the transmission 

of power by direct metal con- 
tact. While its initial cost 
is as high, if not higher, than 
even the best forms of double 
reduction, it eliminates sev- 
eral parts, and accordingly 
affords a simpler form of con- 
struction with a more direct 
transmission of the power. 

Details of Worm Drive, 
Rear Axle, and Brake. The 
worm is of alloy steel while 
the worm wheel is bronze, a 
multiple thread of long pitch 
being cut on the former 
while the latter is made with 
a special form of tooth, as 
will be noted by the Rauch 
and Lang worm shown in Fig. 

Fig. 23. Rauch and Lang Worm and Gear 23. This is an American 

type developed by the mak- 
ers of the Rauch and Lang electrics especially for this purpose. In 
both this make and the Woods electric the worm meshes with the 
worm wheel on its upper side, the relation being shown by Fig. 24, 
which illustrates the Rauch and Lang motor and propeller shaft in 
addition. Two universal joints, one of them of the slip type to 
allow for relative longitudinal movement between the motor and 
rear axle, are employed. A brake is placed on the forward end of the 
armature shaft, this showing in the same illustration. Fig. 25 shows 
the complete Rauch and Lang motor and driving unit. A torsion 



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14 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

rod, parallel with and below the propeller shaft, also serves as a 
distance rod between the motor and rear axle and takes all torsional 
or twisting stresses to which the axle is subjected when under power. 
The forward end of this torsion rod is connected by means of a 



Fig. 24. Rauch and Lang Motor, Shaft, Universal Joints, and Worm and Gear 

flexible joint of the ball-and-socket type, with the top of the torsion 
rod link, which in turn swivels on the rear motor yoke. The rear 
end of the torsion rod is taper fitted into a nickel-steel forging, which 



Fig. 25. Rauch and Lang Motor and Rear Axle Unit 

sets into a vertical taper bearing in the front end of the axle housing. 
The method of hanging the torsion rod leaves the rear axle housing 
perfectly free to adjust itself to the relative movement of the axle 
and frame due to the compression of the springs. The latter are of 
the seven-eighths elliptic type, the upper and lower members of 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 15 



Fig. 26. Rear View of Rauch and Lang Worm Drive Chassis 

which are shackled at the rear ends so that they are flatter than 
usual, thus giving better riding qualities. They are held at three 
points, which decreases the tendency toward lateral movement or 
side sway, the driving strains being taken on the front ends of the 
lower leaves. The worm and worm wheels are adjusted in perfect 
alignment in assembling the unit, and the latter is housed in, so 
that no adjustments can be made from the outside. Contrary to 
the bevel-gear drive, which in course of time wears out of alignment, 
a worm gear continues in alignment regardless of wear, within prac- 



Fig. 27. Forward End Torsion Rod, Spring Suspension and Brake Details on Rauch and Lang Car 

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16 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

tical limits, and once properly adjusted can only be deranged by 
subsequent adjustments. A better idea of the various essentials 
of the drive will be obtained by reference to the rear view of the 
Rauch and Lang worm-driven chassis, Fig. 26. As mentioned 
previously, a brake is carried on the armature shaft on this car, the 
second set being of the internal expanding type operating against 
the drums shown attached to the driving wheels, Fig. 27. On the 
Argo and several other cars both sets of brakes are of the internal 
expanding type, the details of this type of brake construction being 
shown in Fig. 28. 

The Rauch and Lang worm drive consists of a combination 
radial and thrust annular ball bearing at each end of the worm 
and on each side of the worm wheel. Upon the correct alignment 
of mounting and proper provision for taking thrust, depends the 
success or failure of any worm drive. 

THE CONTROL 

Unlike the gasoline car, in which the control of its speed and 
climbing abilities is divided between a provision for changing the 
gear ratio existing between the motor and the driving wheels, and a 
means of increasing the speed and power output of the motor itself 
through the admission of more fuel and advancing the point of 
ignition, that of the electric vehicle is entirely electric. This is largely 
responsible for its great simplicity, all changes in either direction 
being effected through a single small lever, the manipulation of which 
calls for no more skill than the shifting of a trolley-car controller. 
But there is quite as much latitude of design to be found in the 
methods of control of electrical vehicles as there is in the method 
of transmitting the power to the rear wheels, though, as in the case 
of the power transmission, there is more or less similarity in the 
principles involved. 

Counter=E.M.F. Neither a steam engine nor a gasoline motor 
can be given "full throttle' ' to start it without danger of damaging 
it. This is due to the inertia of the moving parts, which must be 
set in motion gradually and allowed to attain a certain speed 
before full power is developed. As the electric motor has no 
reciprocating parts, and its revolving armature is carried on the 
finest type of anti-friction bearings, the factor of inertia is prac- 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 17 

tically negligible in so far as it affects starting. It has already 
been mentioned that the passage of too great an amount of cur- 
rent through a wire, i.e., too great for its carrying capacity, has 
a heating effect. The heating increases in proportion to the 
excess of current flow over the safe capacity of the wire until it is 
sufficient not only to burn off the insulation on the wire, but even 
to fuse the wire itself. 

Now the resistance of the motor armature windings is very low, 
but when the armature is revolving, the electrical resistance is 
increased by two factors — first, a counter-e.m.f., which is developed 
by virtue of the rotation of the armature, and second, the fact that 
the wire in the windings becomes warmer, it being a peculiar and 
inexplicable phenomenon that the resistance of a wire increases in 
proportion to its temperature. 

Controller. The inability of the motor to carry more than a 
fraction of its normal operating current when starting makes neces- 
sary the use of something equivalent to the throttle of the steam 
engine for accomplishing this necessary control. As not alone the 
character of the external source of power — in this case the battery 
— is capable of manipulation, but also the internal relations of the 
power-producing elements of the motor itself — the armature and 
the field — are susceptible of various changes, it will be evident that 
the speed range possible under the circumstances may be made as 
wide as the designer desires. Ordinarily, most electric vehicles are 
provided with a controller giving five speeds forward and two or 
three reverse. 

Drum Type. In the majority of cases, the controller employed 
on the electric automobile is of the drum type, and is practically a 
duplicate on a reduced scale of that employed on street railways, 
except that the automobile controller is what is known as a contin- 
uous torque type. That is, there are no dead spots or idle gaps between 
different speeds, the current always being on except when the con- 
troller handle is at the neutral position. This insures a continuous 
and gradual increase in the speeds without any jerking between 
the various steps, and prevents a sudden heavy load being placed 
on the motor, as would be the case where a pause was made in shifting 
the handle of the controller over a dead gap. The motor continues 
to run at the lower current value until the next set of contacts on the 



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18 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

controller is actually delivering a greater voltage or more current. 
The drum, or cylinder, is of insulating material and has mounted 
on it a number of copper segments of substantial thickness. These 
are so spaced that they make contact with corresponding fingers, 
also of heavy spring copper, that are held stationary alongside the 
drum. The copper bars on the drum are "grounded" to provide 
the continuous torgue, that is, they have a common return permitting 
the current to reach the motor constantly. 

The drum in this instance is seen to be but a section of a cylinder, 
on the curved surface of which the spacing of the bars will be ap- 
parent. It will also be seen that there is a corresponding finger 
making contact with each bar, or in a position to do so when the drum 
is turned to bring it around to that particular point. These fingers 
are held against the drum very firmly by springs. The open socket 
visible at the lower end of each finger is intended to receive the bared 
copper wire of which it represents the terminal connection and 
it will at once be evident that it is provided with a greater number 
of contacts than is the first controller shown. It should be mentioned 
here that the drum is spring controlled as well as the contact fingers, 
and is also provided with notched stops in order to hold the contacts 
on it directly under the ends of the fingers. In the present instance, 
which represents the type of controller employed on the Detroit 
car, the contact fingers themselves are directly attached to leaf 
springs, which are plainly in evidence. The terminals mentioned are 
also to be seen along the bottom, while at the left there is an exten- 
sion of the shaft on which the drum is mounted. This carries a 
lever by means of which the drum may be revolved in order to give 
the different speeds, forward and reverse. The latter is generally 
accomplished by means of a pole reversing switch, most frequently 
incorporated directly in the controller itself, and which always 
remains locked under normal running conditions. In order to 
bring the reverse into play, it is usually necessary to depress a 
small pedal or similar release, in order that the driver may not 
inadvertently start the car backward. 

Flat Radial Types. A good illustration of a totally different 
form of controller is found in the Rauch and Lang cars, and is known 
as the flat radial type. In the construction of the earlier models 
of the Rauch and Lang car, it was combined with the motor 



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ELECTEIC AUTOMOBILES 19 

and countershaft unit, but is now mounted independently and 
in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 34, it is shown separately. 
Instead of being mounted 
on a drum, the contacts are 
placed on a stationary seg- 
ment representing about 
one-fourth of the arc of a 
circle. A pivoted arm, held 
at what would be the cen- 
ter of the circle, is so 
mounted that it may be 
turned in order to make 
contact with the different 
blocks, these in turn being 
electrically connected to the 
terminals shown attached 
to the upright piece at the 

left of the controller. As a Fig> 34> Flat Rad[&l controller 

matter of fact, there are 

two separate series of contacts around the arc, and two movable 
levers arranged to be moved over them. In this case, the moving 



Fig. 35. Flush Type of Controller 



contacts are made of thin copper leaves assembled together and 
are held against the contacts by a spring. 



183 



20 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

Flush Types. Fig. 35 illustrates a type of controller which is 
designed to be countersunk in the seat of its surface so as to be flush 
with the latter. This is a plan view, showing the controller as seen 
from above, the pattern being one in which the drum is a complete 
cylinder. The left-hand panel of the controller holds the fingers 
and contacts for the forward speeds, while those at the right are 
the reverse speeds, there being four in each direction in this case. 
Further to the right is to be seen the operating lever, the pinion visi- 
ble on the end of the drum shaft constituting part of the mechanism 
for advancing or returning the drum. This consists of a rack in the 
shape of a quadrant which meshes with the pinion in question. At 
the extreme left is shown the spring-controlled stop which prevents 

the drum from being rotated 
more than one space at a 
time in either direction, and 
holds it with the fingers 
pressing directly on the con- 
tacts at each point of its rev- 
olution. The type of control- 
ler employed on the Baker 
cars is shown in Fig. 36. 
Magnetic Type. To fa- 
r.. o* t> , r* „ a ^ * r cilitate the handling of the 

Fig. 36. Baker Controller and Operating Lever # ° 

comparatively heavy cur- 
rent that is necessary in starting, changing speed in going up hill, 
and the like, without having to employ wiring of large size to a 
point near the hand-control lever, a modification of the multiple- 
unit system of control as used in electric railway service, and par- 
ticularly on elevated trains, has been applied to the electric auto- 
mobile. In this system only a current of small value is actually 
passed through the hand-controlling mechanism, which takes the 
form of a small "controller box", as shown in Fig. 37, which repre- 
sents part of the control of the Ohio. The controller of the Century 
is shown in Fig. 38. By setting this to the speed desired, current 
is passed through a magnet in the controller proper. The? arma- 
ture of the magnet is attracted, and in so doing it closes a switch or 
contact for the corresponding speed. There is a magnet or solenoid 
for each speed ahead and reverse, which are so connected that, in 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 21 

changing to a higher speed, the contact of the speed below is not 
broken until either the switch giving the higher current value is 
closed, or the current is shut off, thus releasing all the magnets and 



Fig. 37. Control Disk of the Ohio Magnetic Controller 
Courtesy of Ohio Electric Car Company, Toledo, Ohio 

obtaining the advantages of the continuous-torque type of hand 
controller. The arrangement effected by the opened and closed 
positions of the various magnets determines the direction and 



Fig. 38. Magnetic Controller of the Century Electric Car 

magnitude of the current in the motor circuit in a similar manner 
to that provided by the segments and fingers of the drum controller. 
The essential difference between the magnetic controller and the 



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22 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

ordinary type is that the former is electrically operated, while the 
latter is mechanically operated. Hence its location is not governed 
by the necessity of mechanically connecting it with the hand lever 
through rods, gears, or chains, and it may be placed in any con- 
venient location. In the Ohio it is placed under the seat. The 
various speeds are obtained by turning the disk on the end of the 
contactor box near the driver's hand. Turning to the right gives 



Fig. 39. Wiring Diagram for Primary Circuit of the Ohio Magnetic Controller 

the various forward speeds in consecutive order. The neutral 
position is as far to the left as the disk will go; by pushing the button 
on top the controller may be turned still further to the left to give 
the reverse speeds. When in the neutral position it may be locked 
there by pushing in the button at the back, and the controller cannot 
then be operated until unlocked with a key. Buttons are also pro- 
vided for ringing the bell and operating the magnetic brake. The 
contacts are made by spring-held carbon brushes pressing against 
the inner face of the disk. In this system of control there are two 
independent circuits — the primary circuit passing through the mag- 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



23 



netically-operated switches of the controller from the battery to the 
motor, and the secondary circuit, which handles the current of 
lesser value employed to operate the magnets, and which is controlled 
by the movement of the disk mentioned. The primary wiring 
diagram of the Ohio is shown in Fig. 39, and the secondary wiring 
diagram in Fig. 40. 

Duplex Control. To facilitate the handling of closed cars of 
the brougham and other large types of enclosed cars seating five or 
more passengers, duplicate-control wiring and duplicate-brake pedals 



s Broke Push Button 




Speed Switch Located on 
End of Contactor Box 



Open When 3 *& Contactor Comes Jh 
Fig. 40. Wiring Diagram for Secondary Circuit of the Ohio Magnetic Controller 

are provided at two positions; one forward, designed to be operated 
from a front seat, and the other similarly located with relation to 
the rear seat on the same side. Brake pedals and steering connec- 
tions are also duplicated, so that to shift the control of the car from 
one location to the other, it is only necessary to release the steering 
column at one place and insert and lock it in the socket provided 
for this purpose at the other. This enables the driver to keep the 
way clear ahead no matter how many passengers are carried and 
also drive from the rear seat when the load is light. 

Care of Controller. The contacts of the hand-operated type of 
controller should be inspected at intervals to note whether they are 



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24 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

making proper contact or not. In case the spring of one of the fingers 
loses its tension, a,n arc is apt to form between it and the segment 
on the drum and burn the metal. The presence of such an arc will 
be noted by a peculiar hissing sound which will be plainly audible if 
the cover of the controller box is removed and the car run in a com- 
paratively quiet place. This action will also take place to a certain 
extent if the controller is held between the notches in changing 
speed. The blistered surface of the metal thus resulting will make 
poor contact, and will continue to burn more and more unless this 
condition is remedied by sandpapering the finger and correcting 
the tension of the spring so that contact is made all over the surfaces 
that touch. If a finger has become badly burned, it should be 
replaced and the new one adjusted to an even, moderate tension. 
When necessary to face the fingers to the drum, the sandpapering 
should be done on the fingers themselves rather than on the seg- 
ments of the drum, as the latter are not so easy to replace. The 
drum segments should be kept bright and clean, and should be 
lubricated occasionally by wiping with a linen rag and some vaseline. 

Methods of Control. As it is equally important for the owner 
of an electric vehicle to familiarize himself with the manner in which 
the amount of current sent through the motor is controlled, quite 
as much as with the apparatus for effecting this, it has been thought 
advisable to devote a short section to this subject. Before taking 
up this matter, it will be well to return momentarily to a previously 
discussed subject of series and parallel connections. 

Series and Multiple Connections. Each cell of a storage bat- 
tery is a complete self-contained unit capable of delivering cur- 
rent of a certain amount according to its size and capacity, at an 
electrical pressure of slightly more than two volts when fully charged. 
For purposes of illustration, each individual cell may be likened to a 
pump, capable of exerting a pressure of two pounds. It will be quite 
apparent that if 24 such pumps, corresponding to the 24 cells of a 
48-volt storage battery, were connected together — the outlet of the 
first to the inlet of the second and so on throughout the entire 24 — 
the series of units would be capable of producing a pressure of 48 
pounds. The water delivered could accordingly be forced 24 times 
as far, or as high, as one pump could send it, but the quantity raised 
would only be that of which one unit was capable. This analogue 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 25 

affords a very clear idea of what is meant by a series connection, as 
the statement just made regarding the ability of pumps so connected 
applies literally to the storage cells under the same conditions. Again 
taking the 24-cell battery as an illustration, this being the former 
standard for light pleasure vehicle use, it will be seen that the 
output of the battery connected in series, i. e., the positive of one to 
the negative of the next and so on throughout the set, would be the 
ampere-hour capacity of one cell at 48 volts. The voltage is seldom 
constant, but ranges from 2.2 to 1.7 volts per cell, according to the 
state of charge that the cell is in at the time; but when a number of 
cells are connected in series, the voltage of the battery thus formed 
will always be that of the voltage of one cell multiplied by the num- 
ber in the battery. For purposes of reference, it is customary to 
consider the potential of the storage cell as 2 volts. 

To return to the analogue of the pumps, where the conditions 
are such that a greater quantity of water is required, but it is not 
necessary to raise it to more than half the height to which the 24 
pumps in series are capable of sending it, they may be arranged in 
two series of 12 each. Double the volume of liquid may then be 
raised to a height represented by the ability of the 24-pound pressure 
developed. The two groups of pumps are still in series, so far as 
they alone are concerned, and each group would have but the capacity 
of a single pump at twelve times its pressure. But when the inlets 
and the outlets of the two groups are brought together in the case of 
either pumps or storage cells, the volumetric capacity is increased to 
two units at a pressure of 24 pounds or volts. If, on the other hand, 
all the inlets were brought together into one connection and all the 
outlets into another, there would result a capacity of 12 pumps, at 
the pressure of but one. This last-named arrangement is termed 
a multiple connection, while that described above is a combination of 
the series and multiple connections, and is accordingly designated by 
the term series-multiple. 

Given 24 cells or more, the number of series-multiple combina- 
tions possible is quite extended, but it will be evident that those at 
either extreme of the range would be useless for all practical purposes 
in the running of an electrical vehicle. It is accordingly customary 
to assemble the cells in sets of six or eight connected in series, which 
cells are securely packed in oak cases, the number of the units 



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26 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

employed depending upon the voltage of the motor of the 
vehicle. 

Resistance in Circuit. Another source of control is to be found 
in the motor itself. It will be recalled that the latter generates power 
by means of the alternating magnetic attraction and repulsion of 
the sections of the armature by the field magnets. The strength of 
the latter, as well as that of the electromagnets composing the arma- 
ture, is naturally dependent upon both the amount of current sent 
through them and its voltage. One of the simplest forms of con- 
trol is naturally that in which the entire battery is in series with 
the motor, and in which the relation of the two undergoes no change. 
In such a case, resistances of the type shown in Fig. 41 are employed 



Fig. 41. Controlling Rheostat 

to cut down the current sufficiently to give what are usually termed 
the starting speeds. In every case, the full energy of the battery is 
being drawn upon, but only a part is being utilized on these first 
speeds, the remainder being dissipated by the resistance in the form 
of heat. In view of the very short period during which they are em- 
ployed, the use of resistances in these starting speeds is not a detri- 
ment. This system of control is to be found on the Rauch and Lang 
cars, among others, and has the great advantage of discharging all 
the cells of the battery uniformly. All the speeds are obtained at 
the same voltage and the motor is working at every position of the 
controller handle, so that there are accordingly no dead spots and 
the circuit is never open, even momentarily. A similar system of 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 27 

control is employed on the Baker vehicles. This will be evident 
upon a little study of the accompanying diagram, Fig. 42, illustrating 
the wiring and all the connections. The large squares, marked plus 
and minus, represent the groups of cells into which the battery is 
divided. The individual cells in each group are connected in series 
and it will be seen by tracing the connections that the groups are like- 
wise in series, a positive being connected to a negative and so on 
throughout. 

Wiring Diagram. Wiring diagrams appear extremely intricate 
to the uninitiated at first sight, but in each instance the course taken 
by the current may easily be followed after a little study, and as 
familiarizing himself with all the wiring and connections of his car is a 



Fig. 42. Control Wiring Diagram 

part of the education that no electric vehicle owner should overlook, it 
should not be slighted. The diagram received from the manufacturer 
of his car will be a Wue print similar to the one from which the 
accompanying illustration was taken, so that it may be studied here 
as well as at first hand. Familiarity with one of these diagrams will 
prove an "open sesame" to all others, for, while they all differ to a 
greater or less extent, it will be easy to trace the different circuits, 
once the rudiments are known. 

The fact that all of the cells in the battery are in series has 
already been mentioned. It will be seen that there are 21 cells in 
the battery, giving a working potential of 42 to 60 volts according 
to the state of charge. The different points of the controller are 
represented by the group of parallel bars in the lower center of the 



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28 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

drawing, marked RA, JS-2, etc. In this case it will be noted that 
there are four connections of this nature, RA to RA, these represent- 
ing resistances to cut down the current for starting. They are accord- 
ingly known as starting speeds, and are only designed for getting the 
vehicle under way, an operation that calls for a heavy torque or pull 
on the part of the motor. This requires a large amount of current 
and, as already mentioned, it would be apt to burn out the motor 
windings if sent through the latter before it had attained sufficient 
speed to build up its counter-e. m. f . to a point where the full cur- 
rent may be safely handled. The external resistances themselves 
are represented by the bars marked in the same manner, seen diago- 
nally to the left and above the controller on the diagram, the connec- 
tions between the two being easily traceable. 

Further points on the controller are designated as FA and F-2, 
and FFA and FF-2, and refer to the connections for altering the rela- 
tion of the field and armature. Electric motors employed on auto- 
mobiles are generally of what is known as the series type in which 
the armature and fields are normally in series with one another. In 
other words, the entire current passes through the complete winding 
of the motor. By varying this relation in several ways, several steps 
in the speed control are possible without the intervention of any 
resistance. For instance, in the control, as illustrated, the first speed 
is obtained by placing the field in series with a resistance, giving a 
car speed of 8 miles an hour. By cutting out part of the resistance 
and still maintaining the same relation, the car speed is increased to 
10 miles an hour, corresponding to the second point on the controller. 
At the third point, the resistance is eliminated altogether, resulting 
in an increase to 12 miles an hour. A further increase to 14 miles 
an hour is obtained by shunting the fields, while the fifth speed of 16 
miles an hour results from placing the field in series-multiple. The 
last point on the controller shunts the series-multiple field and gives 
19 miles an hour. 

Office of the Shunt. The term shunt may be explained by 
turning again to the water analogy. Electricity, water, or any- 
thing else under pressure will naturally follow the path of least 
resistance. Take, for instance, a two-foot water main, with a one- 
inch outlet tapped into it. The amount of water that will flow 
through the one-inch pipe is not alone dependent upon the pressure 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 29 

in the main, but likewise upon the resistance offered by the one-inch 
pipe. This, by analogy, is practically an application of Ohm's law. 
Substitute for the water main an electric circuit. At a certain point, 
connect to it a by-path in the shape of another circuit of smaller 
wire, and in consequence, representing a greater resistance. The 
current can pass through these two circuits simultaneously and 
the amount of current in the second, or shunt circuit, will be 
smaller than that flowing in the main circuit. In fact, the current 
will divide itself inversely as the resistance; that is, if a shunt has ten 
times the resistance of the wire in the main circuit between the ter- 
minals of the shunt, this shunt circuit will carry only one-tenth of the 
total current. 

The best example of a shunt connection is to be found in the 
case of the volt-ammeter, as shown in Fig. 42. For convenience, the 
voltmeter and ammeter (ampere-meter) are combined in a single case 
as if they were one instrument, but it will be noted that the connec- 
tions are the same as if both were independent. As the voltmeter is 
always in circuit, whether the car is running or not, it is wound to a 
very high resistance so as to consume the minimum amount of current 
for its operation. The shunt marked on the lower part of the diagram, 
just under the position of the instrument, is really a part of the am- 
meter itself. Where only small quantities of current are to be meas- 
ured, the full strength is usually passed directly through the am- 
meter, but on an electric automobile, this would not be practicable 
in view of the wide range and the sudden variation of the storage- 
battery current, which in starting frequently takes the form of a 
heavy surge. The instrument is accordingly designed to employ but 
a fraction of the total current, this fraction bearing a direct relation 
to the total current passing, the scale reading of the ammeter being 
the same as if the full strength of the current passed through it. 

It will be evident that any circuit, such as the field winding 
of the motor, when placed in shunt with its supply circuit, will only 
take an amount of current depending upon the ratio between its 
resistance and that of the main circuit, and that economy in current 
consumption results. This explains its employment for two of the 
higher speeds of the car, the wiring diagram of which is illustrated in 
Fig. 42. It will be noted that this connection is only employed for 
the higher speeds; in one case, the field windings being in series them- 



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30 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

selves, and the whole in shunt with the main circuit, to give 14 miles 
an hour; and in the second, the field windings themselves being in 
series-multiple and in shunt with the main circuit to give a speed of 
19 miles an hour. This is due to the fact that at the higher speeds, 
only a relatively small amount of power is required to keep the ma- 
chine moving. Electric vehicles as a rule do not run at speeds high 
enough to make wind resistance a factor of great importance, and as 
a result operate under ideal power conditions when once under way. 
In other words, the drawbar pull, by which is meant the effort neces- 
sary to keep the vehicle moving, is very light. At starting, however, 
in common with other cars, it is heavy, so that it will be evident that 
the shunt comiection is not applicable to the starting speeds. Its 
r61e is that of economy, rather than power, and to obtain the latter 
the series connection is necessary. 

Fuses. The fuses are a part of the electrical equipment of the 
car, mention of which may be appropriately made in this connection, 
as their function is that of acting as a safety valve in the control. The 
varying resistances of different kinds of metals have been explained, as 
well as the heating effect incident to sending a current through a wire, 
particularly where the latter is of a size too small to carry the current. 
It is well known that lead and similar materials have a very low melt- 
ing point, and advantage has been taken of this in connection with 
the phenomenon just referred to, to make what are known as electric 
fuses. These are strips of lead alloy of accurately determined sizes, 
each size being designed to carry a certain amount of current at a 
certain voltage. This is khown as the capacity of the fuse, and be- 
tween it and the amount of current that the motor or other apparatus 
which the fuse is designed to protect can safely stand there is an 
ample margin of safety. In consequence, whenever there is a rush 
of current through the circuit, as when the controller lever is pushed 
sharply forward toward the full on point, and the brakes happen to 
be holding the car, the fuses will "blow out" or melt, and save the 
motor from destruction. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 31 

CARE AND OPERATION OF THE ELECTRIC 

CHARGING THE BATTERY 
SOURCES OF CHARGING CURRENT 

Sources of Direct Current, Small Generators. There are few 
towns, or even villages, in this country at the present day that cannot 
boast of electric-lighting facilities, so that the owner of an electric 
vehicle will find it possible to obtain charging current for the main- 
tenance of this type of automobile regardless of where he lives. 
In case he should reside too far outside the corporate limits of a village 
to find such service at his command, or in case he is of a sufficiently 
mechanical turn of mind to undertake it, he will find apparatus for 
generating the current on his own premises available for a com- 
paratively moderate outlay. Though not the simplest, a small direct- 
current dynamo driven by a gasoline engine requires but little attend- 
ance, and will prove by far the most economical method of charging. 
This is particularly the case where the generating set's chief employ- 
ment is that of lighting the house, although where an isolated plant 
may be installed, the owner of an electric vehicle will find it a great 
advantage for charging purposes alone. 

The coming of the small gas-electric farm lighting plants has 
brought into the industry a form of battery charging apparatus 
that is very compact, reliable and one that is inexpensive to operate. 
Most of these plants, however, operate on 32 volts and it is then 
necessary to qharge the batteries of the electric vehicle in parallel. 
When 110 volts are available from a small gas-electric plant, charg- 
ing may be accomplished in the ordinary method, using a bank of 
lights or a rheostat as a resistance to regulate the charging rate. 

This may be seen from the fact that in small towns and villages 
rates for electric current are usually high. The power unit, the watt, 
has already been explained. A kilowatt is 1000 watts, and electric 
current is sold by the kilowatt hour, which means the employment 
of one kilowatt of current for one hour. Where current is purchased 
in comparatively small quantities, the rate is seldom less than 10 cents 
per kilowatt hour, and sometimes 15 cents, or more. With an ordi- 
narily efficient generator and gasoline engine, current may be pro- 
duced in a small isolated plant for less than 5 cents per kilowatt hour. 

The average runabout battery requires 75 to 80 ampere hours 



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32 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

for a charge, while a surrey, phaeton, victoria, brougham, or simi- 
lar type will need 100 ampere hours. 

Service Mains. If the current be taken from the service mains 
at 115 volts, the charge for the runabout battery would be 75X115 
= 8625 watt hours, or more than 8£ kilowatt hours. The cost of 
this would be 86 cents at a 10-cent rate. Even where current is to 
be had at more favorable rates, such as 7 or 8 cents a kilowatt 
hour, a small engine and dynamo are very much more economical 
where no extra attendance has to be figured on. 

Sources of Alternating Current. Turning now to the usual 
source of electricity, the alternating current, one is confronted with 



Fig. 43. Motor-Generator Set. 115 A.C. to 12o D.C. 

the fact that the charging current must in all cases be "direct," never 
"alternating." 

Alternating current has been found much more practical for 
long-distance transmission and distribution, and its use is now very 
general throughout the country, so that where the owner of an 
electric vehicle decides to fit up his own garage for storing and 
charging the car, the first thing to be considered will usually be 
some means of rectifying the alternating current, that is, making it 
direct. This may take several different forms, such as the motor- 
generator set and the mercury arc rectifier, but for reasons which 
will be made plain the mercury arc rectifier will be found the most 
practical and economical apparatus for the purpose. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 33 

Motor Generator. Where there is a considerable amount of 
charging to be done, the motor-generator set is frequently employed. 



Fig. 44. Motor-Generator and Charging Panel for Charging Twelve Electric Trucks 
Courtesy of Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia 

This consists of an alternating-current motor and a direct-current 
generator combined in a single unit, both armatures being on the 
same shaft, the supply current simply being utilized to run the 
motor. A set of this kind is shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion, Fig. 43. The apparatus is designed to take alternating cur-* 
rent at 115 volts and generate a direct current at 125 volts. In 
Fig. 44 is shown a very well-arranged and complete motor-generator 
charging plant. 

Mercury Arc Rectifier. Owing to its simplicity, as well as to 
the fact that it is entirely automatic in action, the mercury arc 
rectifier has come into very general favor for storage-battery 
charging on a small scale. The apparatus itself is shown in 
Figs. 45 and 46, giving, respectively, a front and rear view; the 
connections are shown diagrammatically in Fig. 47. It will be 
seen that the panel board of the instrument incorporates every- 
thing necessary for regulating the charge, including a voltmeter, an 
ammeter, resistance, main switch, starting switch, circuit breaker, 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



34 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

and fuses. The circuit breaker is a device designed to protect the 
apparatus with which it is connected by opening the circuit when 
there is an excess of current, or when the current supply is acci- 
dentally cut off. By opening the circuit as soon as this occurs a 
rush of current through the apparatus is prevented when the serv- 
ice is resumed. Should it fail to act, the fuses represent the 
second step in the protective link, but naturally their only func- 



Fig. 45. Switchboard, Fig. 46. Switchboard, 

Front View Rear View 

tion is to rupture the circuit by melting under the heating effect of 
an excessive flow of current. 

The mercury arc rectifier consists of a glass vessel, Fig. 48, from 
which the air has been exhausted and a certain quantity of metallic 
mercury inserted. The tube also has fused into the glass the several 
connections necessary. The one negative terminal, called the cathode, 
is sealed into the bottom of the tube while two positive terminals, 
called anodes, are on opposite sides and a short distance above the 
cathode. The anodes are graphite and the cathode mercury. When 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



35 



at rest, there is no electrical connection between them. A starting 
anodes is accordingly provided. If the tube be rocked gently after 



.A v# otipply.^. 
HO or 220V. 

Auto 



0000000000"^ Tt ^f^ * OPmW K\ 




Fig. 47. 



Wiring Diagram for Mercury Arc 
Rectifier Circuit 



the switch has been closed, an 
arc is established between these 
two points. This liberates 
sufficient mecury vapor to 
start the main arc ; the starting 
switch is then opened. An 
automatic starting device for 
use when charging at night, 
takes the form of a shunt coil 
and a solenoid, in which a 
plunger operates. When the 
arc is broken, the current is 
shunted through this solenoid 
and the plunger shakes the tube 
gently, thus re-establishing the 
arc and continuing the charge. 

METHOD OF CHARGING 

Making Proper Connec- 
tions. Batteries are not usu- 
ally shipped with the vehicle 
itself, but are packed sepa- 
rately in a charged condition; 
as a freshening charge is re- 
quired before the battery is 
used, it will prove an advan- 
tage to carry this out before 
placing the battery in the car. 
The groups of cells must be 
connected in series — the plus 
terminal of one group to the 

minus terminal of the next, and F: ~ 48 " Mercury Arc Rectifier Tube 

so on, the final positive and negative terminals of the entire set being 
connected respectively to the positive and negative terminals of the 
source of the charging current. The charging current must flow into 
the battery at the positive pole; a wrong connection will not 



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36 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

only fail to charge it, but will do a great deal of damage and seriously 
impair the life of the battery. 

Determining Polarity. Where the polarity of the charging ter- 
minals is unknown, the simplest method of determining it is to take 
a glass of water into which fc, few drops of acid or a little salt has been 
put. Place the wires in it, taking care to keep them well separated. 
Bubbles of gas will form on both of the wires, but one will give off 
gas much more freely than the other. This is the negative pole and 
should be attached to the negative charging terminal of the battery. 
The other wire will give off comparatively little gas and will rapidly 
blacken. This k the positive pole. There are numerous other 
tests equally simple, but as this calls for apparatus easily obtained 
anywhere, it will be an advantage to memorize it, particularly 
as occasions will arise when the vehicle will have to be charged away 
from home in the absence of the usual facilities. The wire or con- 
nections to the battery from the charging side must be of ample 
size to carry the heaviest current used in charging without undue 
heating. The sizes used in the car itself form the best guide for this. 

Voltage After Charging. The operation of charging will be 
the same whether the battery is in or out of the vehicle, but as the 
battery was fully charged when shipped, this initial charge will be 
a short one. But the greatest care must be taken to charge the 
battery fully. The voltage per cell should reach 2.55 volts, with the 
current still on, when the cell is fully charged. This would mean 
60 to 62 volts for a 24-cell battery. 

These voltages, Table II, are approximate and are intended for 
guidance only. A battery when cold will show a higher voltage than 
one at a higher temperature, and the same thing is true of a new 
battery as compared with an old one. It is not safe to regard a fixed 
voltage as the end of the charge, but a maximum voltage for the 
battery in question. 

The rubber plugs should be removed from the cells during the 
operation, as the cells will be gassing very freely toward the end of 
the charge. This gas is hydrogen and, as it is not only highly 
inflammable, but likewise very explosive when mixed in certain pro- 
portions with oxygen, care must be taken not to bring a naked flame 
anywhere near the battery while in this condition. The plugs may 
be left out for a short time after the charge is finished to permit the 

200 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

TABLE II 
Charging Voltage for Lead Batteries* 



37 



1 — . - 


Volts At 


— ■—=* 

\ 


Number of Cells 










Start 


Finish 




12 


26 


31 




14 


30 


36 




16 


34 


41 




18 


39 


46 




20 


43 


51 




22 


47 


56 




24 


52 


61 




26 


56 


66 




28 


60 


71 




30 


. 64 


76 




32 


69 


81 




34 


73 


87 




36 


77 


92 




38 


82 


97 




40 


86 


102 




42. 


90 


107 




44 


95 


112 




46 


100 


117 




48 


105 


123 




50 


110 


128 





♦dishing and Smith, Electrical Vehicle Handbook. 

escape of the gas. The latter carries more or less of the acid elec- 
trolyte with it in the shape of a fine spray, and care should be taken 
to keep this spray from falling on the clothes or similar objects, as it 
causes ruinous stains, and only a comparatively small quantity is 
required to burn holes in cloth. 

Temperature of Battery. When the battery is out of the vehi- 
cle, as in the case under consideration, the matter of temperature is 
not so important, but when it is in the vehicle, precautions must be 
taken to provide all possible ventilation. The charging causes a rise 
in the temperature of the cells and this should never be allowed to 
exceed 110° F. under any circumstances. The lower it can be kept 
the better, and a battery which is never allowed to exceed 90° F. 
while under charge will last much longer and give better service. 
The reason for this is to be found in the fact that the heating causes 
the active material in the grids to expand. If this expansion be 
excessive, as where the temperature is allowed to get too high, 
the material is apt to bulge completely out of the retaining pockets, 
so that it does not return when cooled off again. This destroys its 



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38 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

connection with the lead grid, cutting down its conductivity and 
greatly lowering the efficiency of the cell. Furthermore, after this 
bulging of the paste has occurred, there is the possibility at any 
time that flakes of active material will drop down below the plates 
and cause a short-circuit. Even if it does not cause this trouble, 
the accumulation of the material in the bottom may soon be enough 
to short-circuit the whole cell unless it is of the type provided with 
an especially deep space below the plates. The temperature should 
accordingly be noted from time to time during the charge and, if it 
passes safe limits, the charging rate must either be reduced or discon- 
tinued altogether in order to give the cells an opportunity to cool off. 

Experience has shown that the best results are obtainable from 
a storage battery when its temperature is maintained between 70° 
and 90° F. during both the charge and discharge. A considerably 
lower temperature will materially reduce the available charge of the 
battery, but this does not tend to injure it in any way, as a return to 
normal temperature restores its capacity. This is not true of a 
higher temperature, however, for if it is kept above normal for any 
length of time the wear on the plates is excessive. 

Charging Rate. Every battery has a certain charging rate, and 
this should be taken from the chart sent with it by the manufacturer. 
It will be found that there are two rates — a starting rate and a 
finishing rate — and, as it is during the final part of a charge that the 
greatest wear falls on the battery plates, instructions regarding the 
strength of the current to be employed for starting and finishing the 
charge should be closely followed. The more slowly a battery can be 
charged within reasonable limits, the better will be its condition at 
all times, and the longer its life. It is not always convenient, how- 
ever, to give a battery as slow a charge as desirable in electric vehicle 
work. On the contrary, the car is often wanted at short notice not 
long after the battery has been discharged, and consequently it 
is abused by being charged at an injurious rate for a short period. 
Theoretically, 10 amperes for ten hours and 50 amperes for two 
hours are the same and should give a battery capacity of 100 ampere 
hours. Instructions furnished by the manufacturer as to rates of 
charge should be noted and carefully complied with by the owner. 

The manufacturer specifies that each type of cell shall be 
started at a certain charging rate, say, 10 amperes. The charging 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 39 

rheostat is manipulated until the ammeter shows that the amount 
of current in question is going into the batteries. Fig. 50 shows a 
typical form of a charging rheostat. This rate is maintained until 
the voltmeter indicates that a certain potential has been reached, 
which is usually a voltage of about 2.55 volts per cell, measured 
with current flowing. The 
charging rate should then be 
reduced to 4 amperes, which 
causes a considerable drop in 
the battery voltage. This re- 
duced charging rate is then 
maintained until the voltage 
again rises to the point at 
which the voltmeter stood 
when the current was reduced, 
i.e., until the voltage ceases to 
rise, which will generally be the 
same as the voltage at which 
the high rate of charge must be 
reduced. The total voltage of 
the battery is usually taken as 
an indication, and when this 
fails to reach the desired 
figure, it is usually a symptom 
that some of the individual 
cells have defaulted. The rem- 
edy for this is given later. 

Precautions. At the end of 
both the starting and finishing Fig - w ' Typical Charging Rheo8tat 

periods, the cells will be gassing freely, i.e., giving off large quantities 
of hydrogen, and for this reason the battery space of the vehicle 
should be open and the room in which the charging is done should 
be well ventilated. In addition to being highly inflammable and 
explosive, this gas is also very irritant to the throat and lungs and 
when present in any quantity causes constant coughing. Nothing 
but electric light should ever be employed in a private garage used 
for the charging of an electric car. 

There are a number of other precautions to be observed when 



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40 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

placing the battery on charge in the vehicle besides that of providing 
ample ventilation, as already mentioned. The controller handle 
should be locked in the off position, the lamps switched off, and the 
bell should not be rung during the progress of the charge. The 
reason for the first of these precautions is self-evident and for the 
latter two is found in the increased voltage during the charge, and 
particularly as it approaches completion. This would be sufficient 
to cause the lamps to burn out and to injure the bell. It is important 
that the manufacturer's directions with regard to the charging rate 
be closely observed. In order to be certain that this is done, the 
current should be measured by an accurate ammeter mounted on a 
panel board in the garage. The ammeter on the vehicle should never 
be employed for this purpose, as the vibration and road shocks to 
which it is subjected make this instrument inaccurate. 

Starting the Charge. To start charging, the rheostat handle 
should be turned so as to throw all the resistance in. The switch 
on the panel board should be open, and the charging plug should 
then be inserted in its receptacle on the car. These plugs are usually 
made so that they can be inserted only in the proper way, and there 
is no danger of reversing the polarity of the current in this manner. 
Where not thus designated, the terminals are properly marked and 
care must be taken to see that the plug is correctly inserted. When 
the plug is in, the switch may be thrown on. Battery manufacturers 
supply tables showing what the starting and finishing voltages of 
the battery should be, as well as its final voltage; but as this will be 
influenced by varying conditions, such as the temperature of the 
battery and the age of the plates, the figures given are only approxi- 
mate. Furthermore, a new battery will have a higher final voltage 
than an old one under the same temperature conditions, and both 
old and new cells will read higher with the temperature low than 
when it is comparatively high. In view of the foregoing, a fixed 
voltage cannot be considered as an accurate test in determining the 
completion of the charge. Instead, a maximum voltage will be 
found the only certain indication. 

Automatic Charge=Stopping Device. Where constant attend- 
ance during charging is neither practicable nor desirable — as in the 
case of the owner who takes care of his own car — an automatic 
charge-stopping device is a great convenience. This is an attach- 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



41 



ment to the Sangamo ampere-hour meter, and is much used on 
such installations. It consists of a solenoid-actuated trip-circuit 
breaker, Fig. 51, which is 
set in operation by the 
pointer of the meter when 
closing a circuit on arriv- 
ing at the point of full 
charge, a point which has 
been fixed by the operator 
in advance. However, as 
it is necessary to put more 
current into a storage 
battery than can be 
obtained from it, a 
certain amount of over- 
charge must be allowed 
for in every case. The 
amount necessary will 
naturally depend upon 
the condition of the bat- 
tery as influenced by its 
age and the treatment it 
has received, but it can 
be determined readily after a little experience. In the Sangamo 
differential shunt ampere-hour meter referred to, a sliding adjust- 
ment is provided for this purpose and, once set, it need not be 

disturbed for a consid- 
J\ /^T jT^X erable period unless 

made necessary by a 
"change in the condition 
of the battery. With 
this adjustment made, 
the charging can be done 
by any unskilled laborer, 
as it is only necessary to 
make the charging con- 
nection and leave it. 

Circuit Diagram of Charge-Stopping Device, . . , . , , 

Sangamo Amn^^Hour Meter Oince the CirCUlt Cannot 



Fig. 51. Solenoid- Actuated Trip Circuit Breaker 

Courtesy of Sangamo Electric Company, 

Springfield, Illinois 




Fig. 52. 



, I--. 



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42 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

TABLE III 
Temperature Correction for Specific Gravity of Electrolyte* 



30° F. 


40° F. 


60° F. 


60° F. 


70° F. 


-■/ _ 

80° F. 


90° F. 


100° F. 


1.317 


1.313 


1.310 


1.307 


1.303 


1.300 


1.297 


1.293 


.12 


.08 


.05 


.02 


1.298 


1.295 


.92 


.88 


.07 


.03 


.00 


1.297 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


.02 


1.298 


1.295 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


1.297 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.60 


.57 


.53 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.55 


.52 


.48 


.67 


.63 


.60 


.57 


.53 


.50 


.47 


.43 


.62 


.58 


.55 


.52 


.48 


.45 


.42 


.38 


.57 


.53 


.50 


.47 


.43 


.40 


.37 


.33 


.52 


.48 


.45 


.42 


.38 


.35 


.32 


.28 


.47 


.43 


.40 


.37 


.33 


.30 


.27 


.23 


.42 


.38 


.35 


.32 


.28 


.25 


.22 


.18 


.37 


.33 


.30 


.27 


.23 


.20 


.17 


.13 


.32 


.28 


.25 


.22 


.18 


.15 


.12 


.08 


.27 


.23 


.20 


.17 


.13 


.10 


.07 


1.203 


.22 


.18 


.15 


.12 


.08 


.05 


1.202 


.98 


.17 


.13 


.10 


.07 


1.203 


1.200 


.97 


.93 


.12 


.08 


.05 


1.202 


.98 


.95 


.92 


.88 


.07 


1.203 


1.200 


.97 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


1.202 


.98 


.95 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


.97 


.93 


.90 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.92 


.88 


.85 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.87 


.83 


.80 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.82 


.78 


.75 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.77 


.73 


.70 


.67 


.63 


.60 


.57 


.53 


.72 


.68 


.65 


.62 


.58 


.55 


.52 


.48 


1.167 


1.163 


1.160 


1.157 


1.153 


1.150 


1.147 


1.143 



*Cushing and Smith, Electric Vehicle Handbook. 

be broken until the predetermined number of ampere hours have 
been absorbed by the battery, the latter will remain connected to 
the mains until fully charged, so that there is no danger of either 
undercharging or overcharging, as may occur where the charge is 
simply limited by the time considered necessary. The circuit of 
this charge-stopping device is shown by the diagram, Fig. 52. The 
circuit breaker also opens the exciting circuit, so that it carries the 
current only for an instant. 

Rated specific gravity for various stages of charge is based on 
a temperature of 80° F. Corrections for temperatures above and 
below this point may be made from Table III. 

Testing Progress of Charge. Upon the completion of the charge, 
the rheostat handle should always be turned back before opening 



206 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 43 

the battery switch. It is essential that any voltage readings taken 
as a guide of the battery's condition should be noted only while the 
charging current is on. This applies likewise 
to readings during the discharge of the bat- 
tery, which should be taken while the vehicle 
is running, as the voltage with the battery 
standing idle is of no value as an indication 
of its condition. 

But the voltage alone must not be de- 
pended upon. The specific gravity of the elec- 
trolyte as well as the voltage will rise and 
reach a maximum as the end of the charge 
approaches. Specific gravity readings should 
therefore be taken with the hydrometer syringe 
provided for this purpose. This instrument 
consists of a glass syringe in which there is a 
hydrometer, Fig. 54. By inserting the point 
of the syringe in the venthole of a battery, 
it may be filled with the electrolyte, thus 
causing the hydrometer to float. The specific 
gravity of the solution may be noted and the 
latter replaced in the cell without any neces- 
sity for handling. Several cells in various Fig M Syringe Hydrom . 
parts of the battery should thus be tested as etereet 



Fig. 63. Acid Testing Set in Separate Parts 
207 



44 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

TABLE IV 
Baume Scale of Specific Gravities 



Baumb 


Specific Gravity 


Baumb 


Specific Gravity 





1.000 


18 


1.141 


1 


1.006 


19 


1.150 


2 


1.014 


20 


1.160 


3 


1.021 


21 


1.169 


4 


1.028 


22 


1.178 


5 


1.035 


23 


1.188 


6 


1.043 


24 


1.198 


7 


1.050 


25 


1.208 


8 


1.058 


26 


1.218 


9 


1.066 


27 


1.228 


10 


1.074 


28 


1.239 


11 


1.082 


29 


1.250 


12 


1.090 


30 


1.260 


13 


1.098 


31 


1.271 


14 


1.106 


32 


1.283 


15 


1.115 


33 


1.294 


16 


1.124 


34 


1.306 


17 


1.132 


35 


1.318 



a check of the voltage. An older form of testing set is shown in 
Fig. 53. When fully charged, the specific gravity of the electrolyte 
should be between 1.270 and 1.280. Because of the spraying 
through the ventholes when the cells are gassing freely, and the 
loss by stoppage and evaporation, there is a gradual lowering of 
the specific gravity. It may be permitted to run as low as 1.250 
when fully charged. It is not necessary to make both the voltage 
and specific gravity tests every time the battery is charged, but 
they should be carried out at least once a fortnight, when all the 
cells should be tested to determine if they are in uniform condition. 
Baumi Scale. Hydrometers are often graduated according to 
the Baum6 scale. The Baume scale for liquids heavier than water 
is based upon the following equation: 

S P- Gr - = 1^ P 'A at 60 ° R 

145 — Baume degrees 

Table IV gives the corresponding specific gravities and Baum6 
degrees. 

Should the specific gravity of some of the cells be lower than 
the remainder of the battery, the low cells should first be charged 
separately at a low rate. If the specific gravity increases, it is an 
indication that the cell had been discharged to a lower point than the 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 45 

others and simply needed additional charging. Should this not be 
the case, and if neither the specific gravity increases nor the tem- 
perature rises rapidly during the charge, it indicates that the gravity 
of the electrolyte has been lowered by the addition of water to com- 
pensate for loss due to leakage or similar cause. The cell should 
accordingly be examined for the cause of the loss by sawing through 
the connections or straps and removing the cell from the battery. 
If the jar is found to be broken or cracked, a new one should be 
substituted, new electrolyte of the same specific gravity as that of 
the remaining cells put in, and the cell fully charged. The specific 
gravity of the electrolyte should then correspond with that in the 
other cells. If the loss of electrolyte has been due merely to slopping 
over, electrolyte should be added and the whole tested for the right 
specific gravity. The outside of the jar and the tray beneath it should 
be thoroughly cleaned, and the cell put back and its connections 
burned into place, care of course being taken to have positive and 
negative plates connected as they were before removal. 

As the electrolyte of the Edison cell does not vary with its 
state of charge, the specific gravity test cannot be employed, the 
voltmeter affording an accurate indication of the condition of the 
cells. Electrolyte cannot be lost from the Edison cell as it is sealed 
in, but there is a certain amount of loss by evaporation which must 
be replaced with distilled water. 

Electrolyte. Manufacturers of storage batteries usually recom- 
mend that small users purchase their supplies of electrolyte from them 
in order to be certain of its purity and specific gravity. Where this 
is not convenient, the owner of the electric vehicle may mix his own 
solution. This should consist of distilled water and pure sulphuric 
acid in the proportion by volume of one part acid to four and three- 
quarter parts of water for electrolyte of 1.200 specific gravity, or one 
part acid to three of water for 1.275. A glass, porcelain, or earthen- 
ware vessel must be employed for mixing the solution, and the acid 
must be poured very slowly into the water. Never pour water into 
acid, for while the effect of slowly adding acid to water is negligible, 
the adding of water to concentrated acid is accompanied by violent 
chemical action and an evolution of heat will usually break the 
containing vessel and always cause a dangerous spattering of the 
acid. 



209 



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46 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

The sulphuric acid should be chemically pure, and, wherever 
possible, distilled water should be used. If this is not obtainable, 
the use of clean rain water is recommended as being likely to contain 
less impurities than any other. The keeping of the electrolyte free 
from impurities is a matter of the utmost importance and one that 
must ever be borne in mind. All dirt and foreign substances, both 
liquid and solid, must be rigidly excluded. A piece of iron in the 
shape of a stray tack, small nut, or wire may fall into a cell and ruin 
it before its presence is discovered. The presence of iron will be 
indicated by the electrolyte and the positive plate becoming a 
dirty yellow color. Some other impurities also make their presence 
readily known, for instance, chlorine will give off fumes that are 
easily recognizable by their disagreeable odor. 

Whenever such a condition is discovered, the only remedy is to 
dismantle the cell immediately, regardless of the state of charge or 
discharge it may be in. Discard the electrolyte and the wood separa- 
tors, and thoroughly rinse in running water all parts of the cell, 
such as the jar, rubber separators, and both of the elements; the 
latter should be washed separately. Reassemble with new electro- 
lyte of the same specific gravity as that discarded, and new wood 
separators. Charge the cell and discharge fully several times. 
After the last of these discharges and before recharging, take the 
cell apart a second time, again discarding the electrolyte, rinsing 
the parts of the cell in running water and soaking the wood separators 
in several changes of water. The cell may now be reassembled 
permanently with electrolyte of 1.200 specific gravity. It should 
be given a long charge before being put into service again. Care 
must be taken not to allow the negative elements to become dry 
at any time during this operation, in fact, it is better to keep both 
sets of plates under water until reassembled. 

Dangers of Overcharging. To revert to the subject of charging 
in general, too much cannot be said regarding the evils of giving an 
excessive overcharge, an abuse which may occur in two ways: charg- 
ing the battery for too long a time, and charging too frequently. 
The commoner of these — that of charging too long a time — is easy 
to avoid. The other is not so apparent, and is the result of a practice 
which is apt to be indulged in by the uninitiated owner of an 
electric car, being due to a desire to have it always ready to run 

210 

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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 47 

its available mileage. This is the custom of charging too frequently. 
For instance, if the capacity of the battery will run the car 40 miles 
on a charge, and but 5 miles are covered and a short charge given, 
then 10 miles are covered, and a second charge, followed by a second 
and third installment of 10 miles with a charge between each and 
after the last, it is obvious that but 35 miles have been covered 
altogether, but the battery has been charged four times. This is 
three times more than was necessary under the circumstances, 
besides which the available radius was not covered, so that the 
battery would really not have been discharged had the entire dis- 
tance in question been covered without recharging. The greatest 
wear on the plates of a battery occurs during the final part of a 
charge, so that the oftener the battery is charged the shorter its life 
will be. As stated at the outset, the life of the very best cell made 
is measured by a certain number of discharges, but this is on the 
assumption that it is not recharged until actually discharged each 
time. Where a vehicle is employed for short runs, such as those 
mentioned, the capacity of the battery will not give as great a 
mileage as if the entire distance were covered in one run. When 
covering but a few miles in daily service, it is not advisable to 
recharge until between 50 and 75 per cent of its capacity has been 
exhausted. 

Where it is desired to use the car within a comparatively short 
time after the battery has been exhausted, it is permissible to hurry 
the charge within certain limits by using a higher rate than normal. 
This should be employed only at the start of the charge and 
should be reduced immediately the cells begin to "gas." When the 
"finishing" voltage has been reached, the charge should be reduced 
to the normal starting charge, the remainder of the charge being 
carried out as if the battery had been started on the latter. Great 
injury may be done to the plates by "pounding" a nearly full battery 
at a high rate of charge. The foregoing precautions do not apply 
to the Edison cell. 

Time Required to Charge. The time required for charging will 
naturally depend upon the extent of the preceding discharge. If the 
latter has been two-thirds of the rated capacity of the battery, the 
usual pleasure car will require about three hours at the starting rate 
and one and a half to two hours at the finishing rate. In other words, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



48 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



about 10 to 15 per dent in excess of the amount discharged is usual. 
At least once a rOrtnight, a prolonged charge should be given by 
continuing the charge for one hour after the specific gravity of the 
electrolyte has ceased to rise. Where a vehicle is maintained by its 
owner in a small private garage, and is used more or less during the 
day, it will be found a great convenience to do most of the charging 
during the night, and for this purpose the mercury arc rectifier, 
described in the chapter on "Methods of Charging", will be found 
a great help. Where direct-current service is available at 110, 220, 
or 500 volts, such an adjunct will naturally not be necessary. In 
over-night charging, precautions must be observed to prevent an 
excessive overcharge. To do this, a careful estimate of the current 
' required to fully charge the battery must be made before putting it 
on charge, and the rate adjusted accordingly. If 12 hours be avail- 
able for charging and 84 ampere hours are necessary, the average 
rate of charge must be 7 amperes. Should the time be only 9 hours, 
as where a vehicle has been used in the evening and is wanted again 
early in the morning, the average rate would be slightly more than 
9 amperes. Where 72 ampere hours are required in 9 hours, the rate 
would be 8 amperes, and so on. The rate, however, will also depend 
to some extent on the voltage of the charging circuit, in charging 
from a source with constant voltage, the rate into the battery 
will fall as the charge progresses. This is also the case where the 
charging is done with the aid of a mercury arc rectifier. After the 
charge is ended, the voltage will drop immediately when the battery 
is disconnected. 

Charging an Edison Battery. The charging rates of Edison 
cells are based on a voltage of 1.85 volts per cell, so that the potential 
required to charge a battery of this type is as follows: 



Number of Cells 


Volts Across Cells 


10 


18.5 


20 


37.0 


30 


55.5 


40 


74.0 


50 


92.5 


60 


111.0 


70 


130.0 


80 


148.0 


90 


167.0 


100 


185.0 



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49 



These voltages are just sufficient to charge the number of cells 
in question at the normal rate during the end of the charge, as the 
alkaline cell increases its voltage during charge in the same manner 
as the lead cell, there being also a similar drop in voltage when the 
charging current is shut off. While a slight reduction in voltage 
from the potentials given will not materially affect the charge, 
allowance should be made for what is required in every case, if neces- 
sary, by charging the battery in series multiple. 

Owing to their construction the Edison cells are capable of being 

boosted at high rates when it is necessary to charge quickly, but the 

temperature must not be allowed to exceed 115° F. The following 

are the boosting rates recommended by the makers as the result of 

experience: 

5 minutes at 5 times the normal rate 
15 minutes at 4 times the normal rate 
30 minutes at 3 times the normal rate 
60 minutes at 2 times the normal rate 

The sizes, capacities, charge and discharge rates of the Edison 
cells are as follows: 



Type A-4 


A-5 


A-6 


A-8 


A-10 


A-12 


Capacity 150 ampere hours . 
Normal charge \ « 
Normal discharge J 


187.5 
37.5 


225 
45 


300 
60 


375 
75 


450 
90 



They are capable of discharge rates in excess of these figures in 
the same proportion as the boosting rates. 

BOOSTING 

Advantages of Boosting. The term "boosting" as applied to 
electric-vehicle batteries may be defined as "auxiliary charging", and 
must not be confused with its use in connection with the charging of 
large stationary batteries. As the lead-plate cell becomes com- 
pletely charged, its voltage rises to 2.5 volts per cell, which for the 
55 cells required to deliver current at 110 volts, would mean a poten- 
tial of 137.5 volts, or an increase of more than 20 per cent over that 
of the generator. The latter, not only being a constant potential 
dynamo, but also being called upon to deliver current for other 
service while charging the battery, it is necessary to raise the voltage 



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50 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

of the charging current in order that it may exceed that of the 
battery without, at the same time, altering the output of the gen- 
erator. For this purpose, what is known as a "booster" is 
employed, i.e., a motor-generator which imposes a higher voltage 
on the charging current than that at which it is produced by the 
main generator. 

In the case of a vehicle battery, it usually implies a partial 
charge given in a comparatively short time and at current rates 
considerably higher than normal, and it represents a practice 
which has had an important influence on the use of the electric 
vehicle for commercial purposes. For example, many of New 
York's several thousand electric trucks of three to five tons' 
capacity are now sent on trips that were considered beyond the 
range of the electric only a few years ago, as it is not unusual for 
five-ton brewery trucks to make a fifty-to-sixty-mile day's run in 
one round trip from the plant. How this is accomplished with 
batteries whose normal output only suffices to rim the car forty 
miles on a charge will be apparent from a consideration of the 
practice of "boosting" the battery, which is usually carried out 
during the noon hour. 

Regulation of Boosting Charge. Stress has already been laid 
on the fact that overcharging at high rates is injurious to the lead 
battery, and is the one thing to be most carefully avoided. How- 
eVer, the improved forms of vehicle batteries now in use have con- 
siderable ability to absorb current at high rates under proper 
conditions. The only factors which act injuriously in high-rate 
charging are gassing and heating, and these appear only when the 
battery is receiving more current than the plates can utilize. 
Therefore, any current rate which the cells will absorb without 
gassing is not injurious, and it is upon this principle that boosting 
is applied. 

Possible Safe Charging Rates. The more nearly discharged a 
battery is the higher charging rate it can take, and by starting the 
charge at a high rate and tapering to a low rate at the end, a 
large proportion of the discharge can be replaced in a very short 
time. Table V gives the additional battery capacity which can be 
obtained by constant potential boosts with the battery in different 
states of discharge. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

TABLE V 
Potential Boosts at Different States of Discharge 



51 



Battery Chabob 


20-MlNUTB 

Boost 
Increase 


40-MlNUTE 

Boost 
Increase 


60-MlNUTlJ 

Boost 
Incbbasb 


Battery fully discharged 


22% 
19% 
15% 
10% 


38% 
33% 
26% 
16% 


50% 
42% 
32% 
20% 


Battery three-quarters discharged 


Battery one-half discharged 


Battery one-quarter discharged 





Expressed in terms of mileage, this would mean that a car, 
after having given forty miles on a complete discharge, could have 
its battery boosted as follows: 

In 20 minutes so as to give 9 miles additional 
In 40 minutes so as to give 15 miles additional 
In 60 minutes so as to give 20 miles additional 

Thus, by charging during the noon hour, 140 per cent of the 
battery capacity is obtained in one day, bad weather conditions 
particularly representing conditions under which it is advantageous 
to be able to boost the battery. • 

Methods of Boosting. There are several methods by which 
boosting can be practically carried out, and the method chosen 
depends upon the available charging facilities. 

Constant-Potential Method. The ordinary incandescent lighting 
circuit is supplied by a constant-potential generator, i.e., the volt- 
age does not vary regardless of the current utilized within the 
limits of the capacity of the generator. Where conditions permit, 
this is the best method because it is entirely automatic and 
requires little attention. It is applicable wherever there is avail- 
able a voltage of about 2.3 volts per cell of battery — say 110 volts 
for 48 cells — and the charging equipment and wiring have sufficient 
capacity to carry current up to four or five times the usual charg- 
ing rate. A voltage higher than 2.3 volts per cell can be reduced 
by having a set of counter-e.m.f. cells figured at 3 volts per cell, 
which are always put in series with the battery when it is boosted. 
This is a special type of cell designed for this purpose. Thus-ifthe 
line voltage is 110 and the battery consists of 40 cells, a reduction 
of 18 volts will be necessary, and six of the counter-e.m.f. cells will 
be required. 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 



With the charging voltage thus fixed at 2.3 volts per cell, a 
battery in any state of discharge can be put on charge and will 
receive in a short time a large proportion of the discharge which 
has been utilized. The current input will taper automatically 
from a high rate at the start to a low rate at the finish, and no 
attention or adjustment is required. The cells will not reach the 
free gassing point or, under normal conditions, a high temperature 
and, therefore, no harm will result from their being inadvertently 
left on charge. 

Approximate Constant-Potential Method. This is employed 
with a fixed resistance in series with the battery; and when the 
time available for boosting is one hour or less, the following 
method is often the simplest. Connect a rheostat in series with 
the battery and adjust the resistance so that the voltage across 
the battery terminals corresponds to that given as follows for the 
approximate number of cells. 



Number of Cells 


Voltage at Battery 
Terminals 


48 
44 
42 
40 
38 


110 
98 
92 
86 
80 



The circuit can then be left without attention for an hour or 
so, and the current will taper off as the voltage of the battery 

rises. The table is figured for a line voltage of , and the volt- 

120 

ages given are too high for a boost of more than one hour's duration. 
Constant-Current Method. In some cases it is more convenient 
to boost at a constant rate of current, and, as there is usually a 
limited time available, it is desirable to know under any given condi- 
tions what rate is safe. This may easily be determined as follows: 

. ampere hours already discharged 

Charging current (amperes) = — — — - — — - 

1 + (hours available tor boosting) 

This gives the maximum current which can be employed for the 

time specified without the cells reaching the gassing point. The 

method is most conveniently employed where the car is equipped 

with an ampere-hour meter. For example, 100 ampere hours have 



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TABLE VI 
Boosting Rates* 



53 



' 














, 


Ampere 
Hours 






Time Available for Boosting 






H hour 


H hour 


% hour 


1 hour 


\\i hours 


1H hours 


\% hours 


2 hours 


Discharged 


















Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Ampere3 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


Amperes 


10 


8 


6 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


3 


20 


16 


13 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


30 


24 


20 


17 


15 


13 


12 


11 


10 


40 


32 


26 


23 


20 


18 


16 


14 


13 


50 


40 


33 


28 


25 


22 


20 


18 


16 


60 


48 


40 


34 


30 


26 


24 


22 


20 


70 


56 


46 


40 


35 


31 


28 


25 


23 


80 


64 


53 


45 


40 


35 


32 


29 


27 


90 


72 


60 


51 


45 


40 


36 


33 


30 


100 


80 


66 


57 


50 


44 


40 


36 


33 


110 


88 


73 


63 


55 


49 


44 


40 


37 


120 


96 


80 


68 


60 


53 


48 


43 


40 


130 


104 


87 


74 


65 


58 


52 


47 


43 


140 


112 


93 


80 * 


70 


62 


53 


51 


47 


150 


120 


100 


86 


75 


67 


69 


54 


50 


160 


128 


106 


91 


80 


71 


64 


58 


53 


170 


136 


113 


97 


85 


75 


68 


62 


57 


180 


144 


120 


103 


90 


80 


72 


65 


60 


190 


152 


127 


108 


95 


84 


76 


69 


63 


200 


160 


133 


114 


100 


89 


80 


73 


67 


210 


168 


140 


120 


105 


93 


84 


76 


70 


220 


176 


147 


126 


110 


98 


88 


80 


73 


230 


184 


153 


131 


115 


102 


92 


84 


77 


240 


192 


160 


137 


120 


106 


96 


87 


80 


250 


200 


167 


143 


125 


111 


100 


91 


83 



♦Courtesy of Electric Storage Battery Company. 

Explanation. In the left-hand column find the figure nearest to the 
ampere hours discharged from the battery; follow across to the column headed 
by the available time. The figure at this intersection is the current to be used. 

Example. Ampere-hour meter reading, 103 ampere hours discharged; 
time available for boosting, one hour. Start at 100 in the left-hand column; 
follow across to the column headed 1 hour and find 50, which is the current to be 
used. 

been discharged and there is one hour available for boosting. Then 

™ • 10 ° 

Charging current = ——=50 amperes 

In general, this method will not put in as much charge in a 
given time as the constant-potential method, and the current must 
not be continued beyond the time for which the rate is figured, as 
injurious gassing and heating will result. When a considerable 



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54 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

period is available for boosting, and it is convenient to regulate 
the current at intervals, a greater amount of charge is possible by 
dividing the time into several periods and regulating the amount 
of current for each period separately. It will usually be found 
that one of the methods outlined will be available, but to obtain 
the advantages of boosting without injury to the battery, gassing 
must be avoided and the temperature of the cells kept below 
110° F. 

Table VI is based upon the above formula and saves the 
necessity of making calculations. 

Importance of Careful Attention to Battery. The battery is 
naturally the chief factor in any electric automobile and, as its 
initial cost is no small fraction of the total cost of the vehicle, its 
proper maintenance is a matter of economy no less than of good 
service. More so than any other piece of electrical apparatus, a 
storage battery has a definitely determined life. Regardless of the 
care given it, the active period of service of which it is capable 
may be expressed as a certain number of discharges. By properly 
looking after it, this number may be realized, and a greater per- 
centage of the energy put into it taken advantage of. In other 
words, its life will not only be longer, but its efficiency much 
higher during that period as the result of proper care. 

SOME SOURCES OF POWER LOSS 

As the power of the electric vehicle is closely limited by the 
capacity of the battery it carries, it is absolutely essential that every 
part of the mechanism be kept in good running order so that none 
of the power may be wasted. Whether the machine is considered 
as a whole, or each component is treated separately, the electric 
vehicle is about as simple as it possibly could be. But the number 
of places at which power losses may occur will greatly surprise the 
uninitiated owner when he comes to look into the subject. It is 
nothing unusual for the purchaser of an electric vehicle to write the 
maker a year or so after he has bought it that while the car ran per- 
fectly satisfactory at first, its mileage has now been very much 
reduced. He has followed instructions implicitly, the battery has been 
well looked after, and, according to all indications, it is in as good 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 55 

condition as ever it was, but it is impossible to obtain anything like 
the rated mileage from a full charge of the battery. A little investi- 
gation will show that, in the majority of cases, the owner, who has 
not had the advantage of a mechanical training, has become so 
impressed with the great importance of properly maintaining the 
electrical end of the car that he has disregarded its mechanical 
efficiency entirely. 

Non-Alignment of Steering Wheels. One of the most prolific 
sources of power losses, and one of the last to be suspected, is non- 
alignment of the wheels. A chance blow in drawing up along- 
side a curb is sometimes sufficient to make one of the front wheels 
"toe in" slightly. The fault is not noticed and may be aggravated 
by subsequent blows at the same spot, or on the other wheel. This 
may cause the bearings to bind to a certain degree and also to impose 
a heavy load on the motor by the new angle which the tires make 
with the road surface. It is difficult for the average layman to 
appreciate how great an increase in the load such a seemingly trivial 
fault as this may create, and it can only be realized to a certainty by 
keeping a record of the ammeter readings at all of the speeds under 
normal conditions. Just how much current is required to start and 
to mount various grades should be noted. As the service of an 
electric vehicle is chiefly confined to urban travel and covers prac- 
tically the same routes day after day, it is possible to keep a close 
check on current consumption by noting how far the ammeter 
needle travels over the dial in running on the level and in mounting 
grades that have to be climbed frequently. Small increases in the 
current required to do the same work at different times would then 
be readily apparent, and as the malady is imposing an extra drain 
on the battery, which is simply a waste of energy, its cause should 
be looked for and remedied. 

The electric vehicle is a power-measuring machine without an 
equal, and the driver who has familiarized himself with the per- 
formance of his car under favorable conditions should be able readily 
to detect the presence of trouble by the increased current consump- 
tion and the correspondingly decreased mileage per charge. The 
causes may be electrical as well as mechanical, and where a car has 
not been properly looked after, it is more than likely that the falling 
off in the available radius on a single charge will be traceable to an 

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56 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

accumulation of causes small in themselves, but of considerable 
importance in the aggregate. Disalignment of the front wheels 
may sometimes be due to the steering gear — that is, the connecting 
rod which serves to keep these wheels parallel — working out of 
adjustment. Unless they are perfectly aligned, they not only make 
more current necessary to propel the vehicle, but they also serve to 
wear out the front tires more rapidly than would otherwise be the 
case. Sagging of the rear axle, which was not an uncommon fault 
in earlier years, but which is now rare, will produce similar conditions 
at the rear wheels and, as the entire power of the car is utilized at 
this point, the result is just that much worse. 

Worn Chains and Sprockets. Next in the order of importance- 
to badly aligned driving or steering wheels from a mechanical point 
of view, comes a worn driving chain. This naturally applies to the 
chains employed for either of the reductions in motor speed. It is 
likewise equally true of the sprockets, but a worn sprocket is prac- 
tically always the result of the continued use of an old chain. The 
latter is allowed to wear to a point where its pitch is greater than that 
of the teeth of the sprocket, and, in consequence, the chain shows a 
constant tendency to ride the teeth of the sprocket instead of fitting 
snugly between them, as should be the case. This tightens the chain 
and imposes a greatly added load upon it and the sprocket, with the 
result that the teeth of the latter are also soon worn out of pitch. 
When this occurs, the only remedy lies in the replacement of both 
chains and sprockets, as the fitting of a new chain on a worn sprocket 
aggravates the evil and causes the new chain to wear to a point of 
uselessness in a very short time. The best preventive is to watch 
the driving chains for such conditions and to replace a chain as soon 
as it gives any indication of mounting the teeth instead of running 
smoothly. 

These instructions apply only to pleasure models antedating 
1913-14, as practically all models are now made with the shaft drive 
using a bevel gear or worm; but there are thousands of the older 
chain-driven cars in service, the electric having a much longer 
effective life than the gasoline car. 

Non-Alignment of Axles. On all electric cars, whether they be 
of the chain- or shaft-driven variety, it will be found that some 
means are provided for aligning the rear axle. These take the form 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 57 

of distance or radius rods, attached through the medium of a hinge 
joint to the axle and some form of pivot joint at the countershaft, this 
construction having been referred to in connection with the descrip- 
tion of the transmission of a double chain-driven car. Although 
effective means of locking these rods are provided, they are sub- 
jected to constant vibration and jolting and sooner or later will 
require attention. It will be apparent that if one is adjusted so as 
to be somewhat shorter than the other, an excessive fraction of the 
load will be imposed on the driving chain on the short side. This 
will also place a very heavy strain on the differential or balance gear, 
and a greatly added amount of power will be required to drive the 
car. The importance of accurately adjusting the distance rods so 
that the rear axle will be at right angles with the frame anc of main- 
taining it in that condition may accordingly be appreciated. 

Dry Bearings. It would appear almost superfluous to mention 
lack of oil as a mechanical source of power loss, but many electric 
vehicle owners seldom attach sufficient importance to the necessity 
for oiling the moving parts. It is a popular fallacy, quite generally 
indulged in, that the anti-friction bearing is a mechanical device that 
requires no lubrication. Ball bearings do call for less attention 
in this direction than any other. They need very little oil, and at 
much longer intervals than a plain bearing, but they cannot render 
efficient service without some lubricant. In fact, it is this very abil- 
ity to stand an uncommon amount of abuse that seems to have earned 
for the ball bearing its popular reputation for ability to run quite as 
well whether it is dry or oiled. The lubricant not only serves the 
same end that it does in any bearing — that of reducing friction, but 
it also acts as a preventive of rust — the greatest enemy of the ball 
bearing; and as these bearings are rather expensive replacements, it 
pays to avoid this by regular oiling at least once a month. Only the 
best grade of light machine oil should be employed, or a thin-bodied 
and highly-refined vaseline with which the bearing may be packed. 
It is quite essential that the lubricant should be entirely free from 
acid, which would attack the highly polished surfaces of the balls 
and races and destroy the efficiency of the bearing. The electric- 
vehicle user's chief safeguard against this is to confine his purchases 
to brands recommended by the manufacturer of the car. Where 
the presence of acid is suspected, a simple test may be made by 



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58 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

dipping a small piece of cotton waste in the lubricant and then 
wrapping it around a piece of polished steel. This should be placed 
in the sun and examined at the end of & Keek or more. If the lub- 
ricant contains acid, there will be traces of its etching effect on the 
polished surfaces and it is useless. Oil that is entirely free from acid 
will not affect the most highly polished surface. 

Wheels and axles out of alignment, worn chains and sprockets, 
improperly adjusted brakes, which may be dragging, and neglected 
bearings sum up the chief mechanical sources of power loss. 

It is quite as important, however, that losses of electric power 
be guarded against, as they interfere with the efficient utilization of 
the energy stored in the batteries and decrease the available mileage 
on a charge, regardless of the condition of the mechanism. Vibra- 
tion will prove the undoing of almost anything in the course of time, 
and, while every precaution is taken by the manufacturer to provide 
durable and permanent connections, it seems practically impos- 
sible to provide a form of terminal that will be absolutely proof 
against this influence and still permit of being disconnected con- 
veniently when required. Air interposes a very high resistance 
in a circuit, and but a slight amount of looseness in a connection 
creates an air gap that must be bridged by the current in order to 
complete the circuit. This causes arcing, or a flashing of the current 
across the gap, which is destructive of the terminals and is not in- 
frequently responsible for the ignition of adjacent material. As will 
be apparent from the wiring diagram given, there are quite a number 
of such connections, and going over them systematically at regular in- 
tervals is the only way to guard against current losses from this source. 

Brushes and Commutator. The brushes and commutator are 
the only parts of the electric motor that are subject to wear, and 
the life of the commutator is naturally equivalent to that of severaT 
sets of brushes, so that the latter constitute practically the sole item 
to be looked after in connection with the motor. They are either 
plain blocks of carbon, or carbon with fine copper wire embedded 
in it, and are held against the commutator by springs. To examine 
their condition closely, the housing should be removed, the rear axle 
jacked up, and the motor run on the first speed. No attempt should 
be made to run it on any of the other speeds when in this condition, 
nor should it be run any longer than necessary. This does not 



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exactly simulate actual driving conditions as, with the wheels off 
the ground, practically no load is imposed on the motor and, while 
the latter may spark badly under load, it will frequently give little 
indication of this form of trouble when running light. 

If the brushes have been sparking badly in actual service there 
will be certain signs of this in the shape of the blackened commutator 
bars. They should be wiped clean and, if any oil has leaked on to 
them from the bearing, all traces of it should be removed. If this 
does not suffice to remove the blackened appearance, the sparking 
has been such as to burn the copper, and this blackened surface 
should be removed with the aid of a piece of very fine sandpaper 
held against the commutator while it is turning slowly. Never use 
emery cloth for this purpose, as the abrasive material employed in 
its manufacture is of a metallic nature, and not only tends to embed 
itself in the insulation between the bars, but, once there, serves as a 
conductor and may short-circuit some of the armature coils, result- 
ing in serious damage to the motor. If the brushes merely appear 
to be glazed but still make good contact all over the bearing surface, 
the latter may be rubbed with the sandpaper as well. If they have 
worn to a point where the contact is not good, new brushes should 
be substituted, and it would be well for the owner of the electric 
vehicle who is not familiar with the motor, to have an experienced 
person put them in for him the first time — every time, in fact, unless 
he is perfectly sure of his own ability in this line. A set of brushes 
will seldom, if ever, need replacement more than once during an 
entire season. 

For instructions covering seating of brushes, testing springs, 
and the like, refer to sections on these faults in the article on 
m Starting Motors and Lighting Generators. 

Armature Troubles. When the housing is off, the brush con- 
nections and other motor connections should be inspected for loose- 
ness or other faults. Instructions for locating grounds, short- 
circuits, or open circuits in the armature and field windings are 
given in connection with the articles on Starting and Lighting 
Systems. 

The armature is supported on annular ball bearings in the major- 
ity of cases, and while these bearings require little attention, they 
should be packed with vaseline as already directed, when needing 



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60 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

lubrication. Oil should not be used as it will flow out on to the 
commutator at one end or the armature windings at the other. 

Miscellaneous. In speaking of connections, those at the battery- 
are included and they should be inspected as well. The connections 
between the different cells are usually made by burning the lead- 
strap terminals together, though some have bolted connections, and 
these may jar loose; but the various groups are connected to one 
another and to the remaining apparatus, and these terminals are 
probably more apt to give trouble than some of the others, as it is 
nothing unusual to remove the battery at times and sufficient care 
is not always exercised to have the connections solidly fast. 

The loss of electrical energy, due to undercharged and short- 
circuited cells in the battery, has been treated in detail in connection 
with the care of the battery. 

Tires are, without doubt, one of the greatest sources of power 
loss on the electric vehicle, and it is one that mystifies the uninitiated 
exceedingly. This matter is gone into at length in connection with 
tire equipment. 

TIRES AND MILEAGE 

Relation of Tires to Mileage. It will appear odd and some- 
what inexplicable at first sight that these two headings should be 
included in the same chapter, for the average man thinks that the 
only thing which has any direct influence on the mileage of the car 
is the amount of energy the battery is capable of giving forth. As 
is pointed out under "Sources of Power Loss", there are many other 
factors that affect the available radius of the car more or less indi- 
rectly. Tires are not included among these indirect sources, as the tire 
equipment has a most direct and, therefore, a most important bearing 
on the distance the electric car is capable of traveling on a single 
charge of the battery. The gasoline machine is endowed with such 
a liberal surplus of driving power that the loss occasioned by tires 
represents but an insignificant fraction of the whole; in other words, 
is a totally negligible factor. Had it not been for extensive experi- 
ments carried out in connection with the electric automobile, the 
importance of these losses would not have been definitely known. 

When all the points which contribute to both the electrical and 
mechanical efficiency of the car have been carefully maintained in 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 61 

proper working order, and still both the speed and total capacity 
of the battery fail to respond, the cause of the trouble may be 
summed up in a single word — "tires." For tires constitute the 
most important element in the determination of mileage and, 
though that fact is seldom, if ever, mentioned in connection with 
accounts of phenomenal mileages made on a single charge, they 
are the chief controlling factor. The tires usually employed for 
such "stunts" are specially made for the purpose and are not 
adapted to ordinary service. They have extremely thin walls, 
with the thread of the fabric reinforcement running continuously 
round the tread of the tire in the same direction, and are not only 
very likely to puncture on slight provocation, but are far from 
durable. The expense of employing such tires regularly would be 
prohibitive, particularly as they are very difficult to repair when 
punctured. 

Kinds of Tires. Pneumatic. On the gasoline car, in view of 
the great weights and high speeds, it is solely a question of being 
able to make the pneumatic tire sufficiently strong to stand the 
unusually severe stresses to which it is subjected. To accomplish 
this end, the fabric structure forming the foundation of the shoe, 
or outer envelope of the tire, is made of various layers of heavy 
canvas placed at angles to one another and solidly vulcanized 
together. This construction makes an extremely stiff wall, as is 
evidenced by the difficulty in forcing a clincher type of tire on to 
the rim. Such a tire will yield to the minimum degree under the 
weight of the car or road obstacles when inflated to the proper 
pressure. In consequence, it absorbs considerable power. This 
loss is still further increased by the use of chains, studs, or similar 
anti-skid devices. Tests made on the recording dynamometer of 
the Automobile Club of America in New York City have shown 
that some forms of non-skid treads, particularly those employing 
heavy steel studs embedded in thick leather, absorbed as much as 
5 horsepower per wheel to drive them. Tests showing 2 to 2\ 
horsepower per wheel were not uncommon, and in but few instances 
did the loss drop below 1 horsepower per driving wheel, regardless 
of the type of tire employed. 

It would be manifestly out of the question to expect much in 
the way of mileage from an electric vehicle if handicapped in this 



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62 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

manner. Non-skid devices of any kind are rarely seen on electric 
automobiles for this reason, about the only occasion when they are 
in evidence being in winter, when they are actually required on ice 
or slushy pavements to afford sufficient traction. For electric 
service a structure is required in which the fabric foundation is so 
constituted as to be able to adapt itself most readily to the distor- 
tion caused by being pressed out flat on its contact area with the 
road. 

Solid. Viewed from one aspect, the electric has an advantage 
over the gasoline car. Owing to its greatly reduced speed, the 
owner of an electric finds the solid-rubber tire a practical option. 
Naturally, there can be no comparison between the riding qualities 
of a solid and a pneumatic tire, but as most electric-vehicle work 
is over smoothly paved streets, and the reasonable driver should 
never take obstructions except at a greatly reduced speed, the 
solid tire provides an amount of comfort out of proportion to its 
greatly reduced cost as compared with the pneumatic. The mile- 
age radius possible with a good solid tire is about the same as that 
possible with the standard fabric type of pneumatic usually 
referred to by the electric-vehicle manufacturer as a "gasoline" 
type of tire, with the advantage in favor of the former in that it 
is free from puncture. i 

Test Curves. An extensive investigation has been made of 
the subject of tires in the past few years and considerable data 
compiled. Herewith is given a series of curves prepared by the 
builders of the Rauch and Lang electrics which will suffice to 
reveal the great differences in tires where the question of mileage 
is concerned, Fig. 78. The curves show that of the solid types 
experimented with the Motz tire rendered the best performance. 
On referring to the chart, it will be apparent that the showing of 
the tire in question is somewhat more uniform than the Diamond 
pneumatic type. At the high limit of the range is to be found 
the Palmer cord tire, which is a single-tube type of pneumatic 
with thread fabric. Bearing in mind the fact that increasing 
speed means a corresponding reduction in the mileage, the applica- 
tion of the chart is simple. Taking the Palmer tire just referred 
to as an example, select in the vertical column at the left marked 
"miles per hour," the rate at which the car is to travel. Trace 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 63 

this along the horizontal line representing the speed, to the right 
until it intersects the characteristic curve of the tire in question. 
At that point, rise perpendicularly to the point where the vertical 
line meets the top of the chart, which is divided into sections giv- 
ing total mileage, by increments of 10 miles. For instance, sup- 
pose it be desired to run a car at 15 miles an hour on Palmer cord 
tires. Tracing the 15-mile line to the right, it will be found to 
intersect the Palmer-tire curve at the vertical line corresponding to 
100 miles. A striking example of the manner in which mileage 
increases with reduced speed may be seen by tracing the 12§-mile 



Fig. 78. Curves Showing Tests of Various Tires Made by Rauch and Lang Carriage Company 

line to the right until it intersects the Palmer curve. It gives a 
total mileage of 123, or an increase of 23 per cent in the distance 
covered for a decrease of but 2\ miles per hour in the speed. By 
making a further reduction to 10 miles an hour, 130 miles could 
be covered on a charge. This, of course, is not due to any charac- 
teristic of the tire, but to the fact that the lower the discharge 
rate the greater the capacity of the battery, the phenomenal mile- 
ages given being the result of employing a tire that presents the 
minimum of resistance to bending. 

New Tire Equipment. A little study of the foregoing will 
serve to reveal one of the most prolific causes of complaint on the 

227 



64 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 

part of uninitiated owners of electric vehicles. After wearing out 
one or two tires in service, they instruct the garagemen to put 
"new ones" in their place, or they renew the old ones by purchas- 
ing in the open market themselves. Unless informed as to the 
purpose for which the tires are needed, both the garagemen and 
the tire salesman are more than apt to supply a gasoline type of 
tire. A distinct falling off in the mileage radius of the car is at 
once noticeable, particularly if the owner has been in the habit of 
making use of the higher speeds. The cause is apparently inex- 
plicable, and the result is a complaint to the manufacturer that 
something has gone wrong or that the car is not fulfilling the 
promises made for it, when, as a matter of fact, greater care 
should have been taken to maintain the tire equipment the same 
throughout. 

Improper Inflation. Tires have been previously mentioned as 
one of the sources of power loss, and the foregoing serves to 
explain to a great degree why this is so. An item of considerable 
importance in the treatment of tires, which has not been referred 
to, is improper inflation. A soft tire naturally consumes more 
power to drive it because of the increased friction due to the 
greater area of the tire in contact with the ground. Such a condi- 
tion is detrimental to the tire itself as it increases the amount of 
wear and the danger of rim cuts. 

If the tire be too soft, the weight of the car will cause it to 
spread unduly at the point of contact with l^ie road and this con- 
dition will be immediately noticeable. On the other hand, when 
the tire is pumped up too hard, the tire will stand just as if it 
were bearing no load. Such a condition obviously places too 
great a strain on both the fabric and the rubber, and is frequently 
the cause of tire failures that are usually assigned to a totally 
different reason. With its ordinary load of passengers, the electric 
should only cause a slight flattening of the tires at the tread, 
experiment showing that the best results are obtained when the 
increase in the width of the tire is about 20 to 25 per cent, that is, 
a 3-inch tire when properly inflated should measure approximately 
3f inches across its horizontal diameter at the part in contact 
with the road. Of course, the surest method of avoiding improper 
inflation is a tire pressure gage. 

228 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 65 

ELECTRIC INDICATING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES 

Volt=Ammeter. With an electric, it is important to watch the 
volt-ammeter. An example of this type of combined instrument is 
shown by the accompanying illustration, Fig. 79. It will be noted 
that the indicating needle of the ammeter does not go to the end 
of its scale, but reads both ways, the scale to the left hand being 
for the charging current, and that to the right for the discharging 
current. These instruments are manufactured in various forms, 
one type very much in use having the voltmeter and ammeter 



Fig. 79. General Electric Volt-Ammeter 

scales parallel in a vertical plane. Some also have the voltmeter 
scale so divided that the reading of the individual cells may be 
taken. 

By becoming familiar with the readings of the instrument and 
by realizing their significance, the driver of an electric automobile 
is in a position not only to judge whether the battery is giving the 
proper service, but he also has an accurate gage on the condition 
of the running gear and transmission of the vehicle itself. The 
instrument is capable, therefore, of giving ample warning by its 
deflections of any weakness, electrical or mechanical. 

Ampere=Hour Meter. While the volt-ammeter affords a con- 
stant indication of the working of the^battery, as well as the effi- 



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66 



ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 




ciency of the transmission, and is accordingly indispensable, it does 
not permit of the direct reading of the state of charge nor indicate 
off-hand how much of the energy has been utilized and how much 
remains available at any given time. For this purpose the Sang- 
amo ampere-hour meter has been developed and generally adopted 
by the builders of both pleasure and commercial electric cars. 

Method of Use. To keep the battery plates in good working 
condition, it is necessary to give the battery a certain amount of 
charge, so that under normal conditions more ampere hours must 
be put into the battery than 
can be taken out of it. This 
difference is the overcharge, 
and it must be taken into 
account in figuring the num- 
ber of ampere hours in a 
battery available for useful 
work. Since the only infor- 
mation desired by the driver 
is how much energy can be 
taken from the battery, the 
Sangamo ampere-hour meter 
is designed to compensate for + 
the overcharge, and indicates m- 
at all times the current avail- 
able without the necessity of 
resetting the pointer every Fig. 
time the battery is charged. 
This is accomplished by means of a differential shunt, as shown by 
the diagram, Fig. 80. Two shunts are employed, and the relative 
value of their resistance is adjustable by means of the sliding con- 
nection G, so that the meter can be made to run slow on charge 
or fast on discharge, as desired. The usual method is to allow the 
meter to register less than the true amount on charge and the 
exact amount on discharge, the difference representing the loss in 
the battery, or overcharge. 

Readjusting the Meter. However, over long periods of use 
under varying conditions, the battery losses will vary and in time 
the meter and battery will get out of step. Therefore, it is good 



r* 



0000 



80. Circuit Diagram of Differential Shunt 
Type Sangamo Ampere-Hour Meter 



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ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES 67 

practice to give the battery an extra overcharge at stated intervals 
and reset the meter, a simple device being provided for this pur- 
pose. Moreover, in vehicle work the batteries are frequently 
subjected to excessively high discharge rates and, under such condi- 
tions, the battery suffers an actual loss of capacity, which requires 
further compensation, as otherwise the meter will give a false indi- 
cation of the number of ampere hours available. The variation in 
the capacity of the battery with its discharge rate is shown by the 
curves, Fig. 81. 

In the Edison battery, the transfer of active material does not 
take place between the electrolyte and the plates, but from one 






Fig. 81. Variation of Useful Ampere-Hour Capacity of Lead Battery with Discharge Hate 

plate to the other, as in the ordinary electrolytic cell, commonly 
known as a primary battery. Therefore, the specific gravity of 
the electrolyte does not change with the state of charge and, con- 
sequently, the only direct way to measure the state of charge is 
with an ampere-hour meter, the hydrometer being of no use. But 
the loss of capacity due to high discharge rates is not a character- 
istic of the alkaline cell as it is with the lead type, so that an 
Edison battery does not require a compensated meter as just 
described. However, the drop in voltage of the Edison cell under 
high discharge rates is such that, from the user's viewpoint, the 
result is practically the same as with the lead-plate cell. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND 
REPAIR 

PART I 



CONSTRUCTION OF PARTS 

Introduction. In preparing this treatise on the construction 
and repair of the Ford automobile, the writer has constantly laid 
special emphasis upon the principle of operation of the various 
units and the most practical methods of repair. There is no 
doubt that the automobile has become one of the most widely 
used machines today, and necessarily it has served as an educator 
in mechanics. At the same time it is only wisdom — and certainly 
economy of both time and effort — for one to acquire his knowledge 
of the automobile by profiting from the experience of those who 
have proved their right to lay down proper practice than it is to 
start to do repairing with little or no knowledge of the automobile. 

Familiarity with the parts and the principle of their operation 
makes it much easier for the mechanic or the owner to locate his 
troubles; if he is not acquainted with the right methods of opera- 
tion or the functions of the parts, he is usually at a loss to know 
where he must look for the seat of the trouble. 

In order to understand the operation of the different parts of 
the Ford car, a general description of and a detailed statement 
of the purpose of the various units will first be given, starting with 
the simple ones and progressing to the more complicated assem- 
blies. Complete instructions for these units are given in other 
parts of this text where each unit is taken up in detail. 

Additions to the electrical equipment on all Ford cars at the 
factory have opened up a hitherto unknown field to the mechanic 
— a field into which the Ford repair man must be equipped to 
enter from now on. . The subject of electrical equipment has been 
treated very thoroughly in this volume, special emphasis being 
given to the methods of locating grounds, shorts, opens, etc., in 
the various units. Diagrams and sketches of wiring connections 
are also given. 



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Fig. 1. Plan View of the Ford Chassis 

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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 3 

Frame. The purpose of the frame is to mount the various 
units in their respective order. These units are: motor, radiator, 
springs, steering mechanism, body, etc. The Ford frame is con- 
structed of pressed steel, of the U section, as this type of con- 



SPRING CLIP 



SPRING 



PRING SHACKLE 
SPINDLE 




Fig. 2. Front Axle Assembly 

struction gives the greatest strength for the smallest amount of 
steel. There are two cross members, one at each end of the 
frame. The purpose of these cross members is to hold the side 
members in place, and these members are securely fastened 
together with rivets. Fig. 1 is a plan view of the Ford chassis, 
showing the locations of the various units. 



SPRING CLIP, 



SPRING 



SPRING SHACKLE, 




DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING 



LIVE AXLE' 



Fig. 3. Rear Axle Assembly 



Front Axle. The function of the front axle, Fig. 2, is to sup- 
port the weight of the front of the car through the front springs, 
and this axle also holds the front wheels in place by means of 
spindle bolts. These spindle bolts act as turning pivots for the 



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4 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

wheels when turning a corner. The front axle is drop forged in 
an I-beam section. Nearly all cars use a drop-forged axle as this 



•a 
p 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 5 

construction greatly reduces the chance of flaws. It is not con- 
sidered safe to use a cast-steel or a cast-iron axle. 

Rear Axle. The rear-axle housing, Fig. 3, is of drawn-steel 
tubing. The parts are riveted together, thereby making a strong 
and rigid construction. These joints are also brazed to make them 
oil tight. The live-axle shafts and the differential gears are contained 
in this housing, together with suitable bearings which prevent undue 
wear. The driving wheels are mounted one on each rear-axle shaft. 
The differential equalizes the load between the two wheels. 

Power Plant The power plant, Fig. 4, is the most important 
unit as it transforms the gasoline into the power which drives the 
car. The Ford power plant 
is of the single-unit type as 
the transmission and the 
motor are made in one unit. 
A common oil case is used, 
although the transmission 
cover is a separate casting. 
The motor is supported on 
the frame at three points, 
this construction allowing 
great elasticity and pre- 
venting, to a large extent, 
breakage of the motor sup- 
ports. 

Power-Plant Accessor 
ries. There are several nec- 
essary auxiliary systems or _ ^ t 

Fig. 5. Kingston Carburetor 

units that must be used 

with every motor. These are the carburetion, ignition, lubrication, 

and cooling systems. 

Carburetor. The carburetor is an instrument that mixes gaso- 
line with air in the proper proportion. The mixture is fed to the 
motor in variable amounts, determined by the distance the 
throttle is opened by the driver. Fig. 5 is a view of a Kingston 
Ford model carburetor. 

Ignition System. The ignition system furnishes a hot electric 
spark in each cylinder at an exact predetermined time after the 



i 



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6 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

gas vapor has been compressed and is ready to be exploded. The 
resulting explosion creates a high pressure on the piston and 
drives it down, thereby turning the crankshaft. The Ford igni- 
tion system consists of a source of current — either magneto or 
battery — a timer, four coils, four spark plugs, and wires to make 
the necessary connections. A pictorial arrangement of the igni- 
tion system is shown in Fig. 6. 

Lubrication System. All moving parts in any mechanism 
must be lubricated in order to prolong their life. In a gasoline 



Fig. 6. View of the Ignition System 

motor the heat of the explosion must also be taken into con- 
sideration, which makes it a particularly difficult mechanism to 
lubricate. The lubrication system consists of a reservoir, means of 
lifting the oil to a higher level than the parts to be lubricated, and a 
pipe to carry the oil to the gear case in the front of the motor. 
Cooling System. The explosions produce a great amount of 
heat and cause the cylinders to become very hot. Some step 
must then be taken to radiate this heat; if the cylinder becomes 
too hot, the piston will tend to expand to a larger size than the 
cylinder. The piston will then stick, and there will be total fail- 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



ure of motor operation. The cooling system consists of a radiator 
and a water jacket surrounding the cylinders. The water cir- 
culates through its jacket, lowering the temperature of the cylin- 
ders to a point where proper lubrication is possible. The water 
then passes through the radiator, where it is cooled. The cir- 
culating systen* of the Ford motor operates on the thermo siphon 
principle. As hot water, by its physical properties, is lighter than 
cold water, the hot water goes to the top of the cooling system 
from the motor. It is cooled in the radiator and travels down by 
gravitation; then it enters the cylinder water jackets at the bot- 
tom. This action continues 
until the motor stops and 
the water is cold. Fig. 7 
shows the cooling system. 

Springs. There are 
two springs, of the semi- 
elliptic type; one mounted 
above the rear axle and 
fastened at each end to the 
axle housing by spring 
shackles and at the center to 
the frame by two springclips ; 
the other spring is mounted above the front axle and is fastened at 
each end to the axle by spring shackles and at the center to the 
frame cross member by two spring clips, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 

Steering Mechanism. The steering mechanism is mounted on 
the left side of the car. (The left side of any car is always the 
driver's left when sitting in the driver's position.) The steering 
column is supported at the center by the dash and is bolted to the 
frame at its lower extremity. The front steering knuckles are 
fastened together by a connecting rod, or tie bar, and the steering 
column is connected to this bar by a drag link. 

OPERATION OF PARTS 

Motor. Cycle. The motor is a four-cylinder, four-cycle, 
L-head type. A four-cycle motor should really be spoken of as 
a four-stroke-cycle motor, as this type requires four complete 
strokes of the piston to produce an explosion; the word "stroke" 




Cooling System 



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8 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



is generally omitted for brevity. In other words, one power stroke 
is produced from each cylinder every four strokes, or two revolu- 
tions of the crankshaft. As there are four cylinders in the Ford 



INTAKE 
VALVE 



INTAKE^ 




—CRANKSHAFT 
INTAKE STROKE 



CRANKSHAFT 

FIRIN6 STROKE 



»»»»>»»>»»»»»»>>>»J777777>>. 



INTAKE-*- 




fxmusT 

STROKE 



Fig. 8. Intake and Compression Strokes 



Fig. 9. Firing and Exhaust Strokes 



motor, a power stroke is produced every half-revolution of the 
crankshaft. The operation of the intake and the compression 
strokes of the cycle are shown in Fig. 8 while the firing and the 
exhaust strokes are shown in Fig. 9. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



9 




Intake Stroke. As the piston starts down, the inlet valve 
opens and a charge of gas vapor is drawn into the cylinder. 

Compression Stroke. The piston then moves upward, and 
as both valves are closed, the charge is compressed to a pressure 
of about 60 pounds per square inch. 

Power Stroke. An electric spark then explodes this charge, 
increasing the pressure about four times, or to 240 pounds per 
square inch. This pressure drives the piston down 
^ ■ " ^ with great force. 

Exhaust Stroke. The piston then moves up- 
ward — the exhaust valve opens before the piston 
reaches lower dead center — forcing the exhaust 
gases out of the cylinder, into the exhaust mani- 
fold, through the muffler, and into the atmosphere. 
This burnt gas must be expelled to make room for 
the fresh gas that is to be taken in at the next 
stroke. As both valves are on the same side of 
the motor, the cylinder and the combustion cham- 
ber have an inverted L shape. This is why it is 
called an L-head motor. 



Fig. 10. Valve and 
Push Rod Assembly 



Fig. 11. Relation of Cam to Push Rod 



Valve Mechanism. The valves are made of two pieces, a cast- 
iron head 1£ inches in diameter and a steel stem ^ inch in 
diameter and 5| inches long. The stem is welded to the head 
with electricity. The outer edge of the head forms the valve seat 
and is turned and ground to an angle of 45° to fit the valve seat 
in the cylinder. A small hole is drilled near the end of the valve 
stem to allow a pin to be inserted. This pin holds the valve 



241 



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10 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

spring and seat in place. Operating directly under the valve stem 
is a push rod which is driven upward at regular intervals by a 
cam on the camshaft. These parts are shown in Figs. 10 and 11. 
Camshaft The camshaft is made of vanadium steel, hardened 
and ground on all cam and bearing surfaces to eliminate wear. 
The eight cams on this shaft, four intake and four exhaust, are 
forged integral with the shaft as this construction prevents any 
chance of loose cams. The camshaft and the valve assembly are 
shown in Fig. 12. 



Pig. 12. Mechanism of Valves in Relative Position 

Timing Gears. There are two gears in the timing-gear case 
located at the front of the motor. The drive gear is mounted on 
the crankshaft, and has twenty-one teeth in mesh with a driven 
gear which is mounted on the camshaft. As the driven, or cam- 
shaft, gear has forty-two teeth, it runs one-half as fast as the 
motor. This speed reduction is necessary as it requires two com- 
plete revolutions to produce an explosion; therefore, the intake 
valve and the exhaust valve must function once in two revolu- 
tions. These parts are shown in Fig. 12. 

Piston. The piston is made of cast iron and is 3f inches in 
diameter. Its purpose is twofold. The piston rings are mounted 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 11 

on the piston so that the compression can be securely held; it 
also transmits the explosive force to the crankshaft through the 
connecting rod. The piston must be a perfect 
fit in the cylinder, although a clearance must be 
allowed between the piston and the cylinder, this 
fit being secured by turning the piston and rolling 
the cylinder. The wristpin is mounted in the 
piston at each end, and the connecting rod is 
fastened to the center of this pin, the pin bear- 
ings being at each end of the pin. Bronze bush- 
ings are mounted in the piston and form a bearing 
surface for the pin. The pin is made of hardened 
steel, ground to the exact size, and is in the form 
of a tube for the purpose of reducing the recipro- 
cating weight. 

Connecting Rod. As several severe strains 
must be withstood by the connecting rod, there- Fig. 13. Piston and Con- 
fore it is a vanadium-steel drop forging of the I nectin s Rod 

section. Some manufacturers have used tubular connecting rods, 
but the I construction has been found to be the most satisfactory 
for connecting-rod use. The piston and connecting-rod assembly 
is shown in Fig. 13. 

Crankshaft. The crankshaft has three main bearings and 
is of the four-throw type. The front and center main bearings are 
shorter than the rear main bearing, as the rear bearing has the 
greatest amount of strain. Nos. 1 and 4 crankpins are in the same 
plane, the pistons of these cylinders traveling together; 2 and 3 are 
likewise in the same plane. The crankshaft is also a vanadium- 
steel drop forging, all bearings and crankpins being accurately 




Fig. 14. Ford Crankshaft 



turned and ground. The crankshaft is shown in Fig. 14; the end 
thrust of the crankshaft is taken up by the rear main bearing. 

243 



12 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

Flywheel, The flywheel is bolted to a flange at the rear of 
the crankshaft. A flywheel must be used to store up energy 
between the high and the low peaks of the power strokes. This 
energy is given off when there is but little energy being produced, 
this time being between the opening of the exhaust valve of 
one cylinder and the starting of the power stroke in the next 
cylinder to fire. It would be impossible to run the motor very 
slowly unless the flywheel was used. 

Magnets. There are sixteen magnets mounted on the fly- 
wheel. These magnets are used in conjunction with sixteen coils 
to generate an electric current for ignition. In the early Ford 
models the lights were also supplied with current from this 
magneto. A complete description of this instrument will be found 
in the section on the "Electrical System/' Part II. 

Transmission. It is a generally known fact that transmis- 
sions are not used on steam cars or electric vehicles. The question 
then arises, why is a transmission — or change-speed gears — neces- 
sary in the gasoline automobile? To make this clear, it will be 
necessary to call to mind a few principles of the internalcombustion 
motor. 

The Why of Transmission. The steam engine is an external- 
combustion motor; in other words, the fuel is burned in the 
firebox of the boiler, outside the cylinder. The steam pressure 
is generated in the boiler, and the steam is conveyed to the 
cylinder through a pipe. When the throttle is opened, the steam 
pressure forces the piston down. If there is a heavy load on 
the engine, preventing it from turning, the pressure will still be 
maintained until the boiler pressure is exhausted, the hot steam 
from the boiler supplying the heat that is absorbed by the cylin- 
der. When the piston moves down a certain distance, the steam 
supply is shut off, this distance depending on the point of the 
valve cut-off. The steam contained in the cylinder then expands 
and forces the piston out the remainder of the stroke. 

The action in the gasoline engine is very different from that 
in the steam engine as the gasoline engine is an internal-combustion 
motor; that is, the fuel, in the form of a gas, is taken into the 
cylinder as the piston travels down on its intake stroke. The 
inlet valve then closes and the gas is compressed as the piston 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

travels toward the combustion chamber. An electric spark therr- 
ignites this gas and raises the temperature to about four times 
that of the compression temperature. As the pressure is in direct 
proportion to the temperature, it is also increased about four 
times. Now, suppose that the motor is connected to a heavy 
load, as in the steam engine. The explosion is not strong enough 
to move the piston and the heat is quickly absorbed by the 
cylinder. This loss of heat lowers the pressure in the same pro- 



Fig. 15. Section of the Ford Transmission 

portion that it was originally raised, and since no outside heat 
can be added as in the steam engine, the pressure continues to 
decrease until it reaches zero. 

All this heat which has been absorbed by the cylinders is 
wasted heat, or energy — all combustion motors are heat engines — 
and additional heat must be supplied in order to furnish constant 
pressure on the piston and produce a constant turning force, or 
turning torque, on the crankshaft. As this heat cannot be con- 



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14 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



tinuously supplied, it is necessary to use transmission reducing 
gears. This allows the motor to turn faster than the drive shaft, 
thus increasing the number of explosions per revolution of the 
drive shaft. This gives a greater turning torque to the motor 
and enables it to start the car under a heavy load and to climb 
steep hills when loaded. The transmission thus transforms the 
internal-combustion motor into a power plant which has an 
elasticity nearly approaching that of the steam engine. 

Ford Transmission. The Ford has a planetary-type transmis- 
sion which is entirely different from the transmission used on 
other pleasure cars. Fig. 15 shows the assembly of the Ford 

transmission, while 
Fig. 16 is a simple dia- 
grammatic sketch show- 
ing the principle of its 
operation. The gear C, 
however, is eliminated in 
the Ford car and a small 
external gear is used in- 
stead. This does not 
alter the principle of 
operation. Let us sup- 
pose that the gear B, 
which is continually in 
mesh with the gears A, 
is mounted on the crank- 
shaft of the motor. This gear will revolve in a clockwise direc- 
tion as indicated by the arrow. The three gears A are mounted 
on the common spider D, and they are continually in mesh 
with the external gear B and the internal gear C. In order to 
obtain low speed, the gear C must be locked. The drive shaft 
is connected to the spider D, and this spider will revolve in a 
clockwise direction. As B is turning A in a clockwise direction, 
and as C is locked, the gears A will travel within C in a 
clockwise direction, or in other words, the spider D will revolve 
clockwise. When it becomes necessary to reverse the direction of 
the car, the gear C is released and connected to the drive shaft 
and D is locked. B will then cause the gears A to revolve on 




Fig. 16. Principle of the Ford Transmission 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 15 

their spindles in an anti-clockwise direction, and as D is locked, 
the internal gear C will revolve in an anti-clockwise direction. 
When high speed is used, a separate disc clutch is operated which 
connects the motor crankshaft to the drive shaft. The entire 
arrangement then revolves as a unit, which has the effect of a 
flywheel. 

Clutch. It is necessary to have some means of connecting 
and disconnecting the power of the motor from the rear wheels in 
order that the motor may be started and that the car may be put 
in motion without stalling the motor or causing the car to jerk. 



Fig. 17. Construction of the Rear Axle 

Fig. 35 shows the clutch parts. The clutch performing this 
function is of the disc type. 

The clutch consists of a number of steel discs, half of them 
being fastened to the motor and the other half fastened to the 
drive shaft. The motor discs are set alternately between the 
drive-shaft discs. These discs are normally held together by a 
coil spring, thus causing the drive shaft and the motor to turn as 
a single unit. When the driver wishes to disconnect the power of 
the motor from the drive shaft, it is only necessary to release the 
tension of this spring to allow the discs to slip between each 
other. This is accomplished by the driver's pressing on the 



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16 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

clutch pedal with his left foot part way or by drawing up the con- 
trol lever. 

Rear=Axle Assembly. The drive shaft connects the clutch to 
the rear axle. As the shafts are mounted at right angles, it is 
necessary to transmit the power through a set of bevel gears. 
The standard ratio between these units is 3tt to 1. There are 
two axle shafts connected at the center by the differential frame; 
the differential-gear arrangement, Fig. 17, shows the construction 
of the rear axle. 

Differential. One of the most important mechanisms of any 
automobile is the differential, but as this unit causes very little 
trouble, few laymen are aware of its presence or realize its impor- 



Fig. 18. Principle of the Differential 

tance. It would be difficult to control the car without a differential 
when driving around corners since, when turning a corner, the 
outer wheel must turn faster than the inner one as the outer wheel 
is describing a larger circle. 

The differential gear is used so that either wheel will be 
allowed to turn faster than the other and at the same time equal- 
ize the power transmitted to each wheel when driving straight- 
away. Fig; 18 shows the principle of the differential. Here it 
will be seen that the axle is divided into two distinct axle shafts. 
A bevel gear is carried at the inner end of each shaft, and these 
gears are keyed to the axles so that they revolve with them. 
Intermediate bevel gears are mounted on a spider and these 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



17 



gears mesh continually with the axle gears. The ring gear is 
bolted to the housing, this housing turning as a unit with the 
intermediate gear spindles. The intermediate gears are free to 
turn on their spindles and do so when the resistance of one rear 
wheel is greater than that of the other. This resistance tends to 
hold the inner gear and prevent it from turning as rapidly as the 
other axle gear. The intermediate, or differential, gears then turn 
on their spindles, thus equalizing the power on the rear wheels. 
Now let us assume that all gears are in mesh, that power is 
being applied to the ring gear, and that the resistance is the same 
at both rear wheels. Then the entire assembly — comprising ring 
gear, differential, intermediate, or pinion, gears, and axle-shaft gears 
— revolves. If both wheels are turning forward at the same speed, 



•\DraKe Drurw 




SMDPort J>olt 



Fig. 19. Emergency Brake 

the differential pinions remain stationary and merely act as a 
lock, forming a driving connection between the driving gears. 
This will cause both wheels to turn in the same direction as long 
as the load is uniformly distributed. 

Brakes. The braking system forms a very important unit 
in the control of the car. If the motive power is disconnected by 
the clutch, the car will continue to move on account of its 
momentum, and it is therefore imperative that some means of 
stopping the car be provided. 

There are two braking systems on the Ford car, one operated 
by a foot pedal, the other by the hand lever. The foot, or service, 
brake consists of a brake band operated on a brake drum in the 
transmission unit. When the foot pedal is depressed, this band 
is tightened, causing the speed of the transmission brake drum to 



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18 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

be checked. As this brake drum revolves at the same speed as 
the drive shaft, the speed of the car is materially lessened. This 
brake is the one to use when driving the car and is operated by 
the right-hand foot pedal. 

The emergency brake is of the type shown in Fig. 19, where 
there is a brake for each wheel operating on the inside of the 
brake drum. The brakes used on the Ford models of a few years 
ago were of cast iron made in the form of two semicircular shoes. 
The brakes now used are made of cast iron in the form of a 

T 



Fig. 20. Steering Column and Wheel 

circular shoe. But the center portion of the shoe at the back is 
made very thin, so that there is considerable give without break- 
ing. The shoe is split at the front to allow a flat cam to be 
placed between the ends of the brake shoe. Two coil springs are 
fastened between the brake shoes to hold them in the released 
position when the cam is flat. If, however, the cam is rocked, so 
that instead of lying flat it is moved to such an angle as to 
cause the brake shoe to spread, it will grip the internal surface of 
the brake drum and retard the movement of the wheels or 

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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



19 



entirely stop the movement of the car. The braking effect 
depends on the distance the brake arm is moved by the driver. 
This brake is intended to be used only when the car is standing 
or it is necessary to lock the rear wheels when on a hill. 

Steering Gear. Every car must have some suitable means of 
steering. The steering mechanism, however, must be so con- 
structed as to give unfailing service without undue strain on the 
driver. 

The steering, or wheel, post is a metal rod carried inside the 
steering column which is capable of being turned a certain number 
of degrees so that the steering arm connected to the drag link 
may be moved. This drag link is connected to the connecting 




Gears in Steering Column: A, Spark Lever; B, Throttle Lever; C, Pinion 
on End of Steering Wheel Shaft; D, E, Quadrants; F, Spider Pinion 
Gears; G, Internal Gear. 

Fig. 21. Steering Reduction Gears 

rod which joins the steering knuckles. The turning of the steer- 
ing wheel is thus transmitted to the front wheels in such a man- 
ner that the car may be satisfactorily steered. The limit of 
movement is determined by the distance the front wheels can be 
moved. Fig. 20 shows the construction of the steering column. 
The steering post is housed in a metal tube of sufficient size to 
carry the spark and the throttle control rods. These rods are 
worked by levers placed below the steering wheel and convenient 
to the driver's reach. The steering column is set at such an 
angle that the steering wheel is in a convenient position to the 
driver. The steering wheel consists of a metal spider having four 
arms terminating at the oval wooden rim; the intersection of these 



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2a FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

arms at the center forms a boss. A hole is machined to allow 
the end of the steering post to enter and form a tight fit. A key 
prevents the wheel from turning on the steering post, and a nut 
screwed on the end of the steering post holds the wheel in place. 

Ford Steering Gear. The Ford steering gear differs radically 
from the form used on the conventional car. The spider pinion 
gears, which permit a greater movement of the hand than of the 
steering arm, are located at the top of the steering post instead of 
at the bottom as in other cars. Instead of using the worm gear — 
the form most used in the average car — a planetary-gear arrange- 
ment is employed. These gears are in a compartment below the 
steering wheel and are packed with a lubricant to ensure perfect 
operation. The construction of this mechanism is shown in 
Fig. 21. This case contains four spur gears, one in the center, 
with three surrounding it. These three gears F are each mounted 
on individual studs, or spindles, the spindles being attached to a 
common triangular plate (or spider) H connected to the top of the 
steering post. 

The casing G is provided with teeth on its inner periphery, and 
the three spur gears are in continual mesh with this internal gear. 
When the steering wheel is turned, the center spur gear C, con- 
nected to the steering wheel, turns the three gears, forcing them 
to travel around the inner periphery of the housing. This turns 
the triangular plate in the same direction but much slower. The 
driver is then enabled to handle the car very readily, even on 
unfavorable roads. 

OVERHAULING THE CAR 

Cleaning Car. One of the first steps in the actual work of 
overhauling the power plant is to clean the car very thoroughly. 
Any dirt or grit allowed to get into the bearings is likely to cause 
trouble by cutting the bearings when the car is again assembled. 
The gaskets must also be kept clean, although this is very hard to 
do if the adjacent surfaces are covered with dirt and grit. If 
particles of dirt get on any of the gaskets, it will be difficult to 
make a compression-tight joint. It is generally advisable to use 
new ones. 

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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 21 

Identification of Parts. While the skilled mechanic is sup- 
posed to know where each and every part of the Ford car belongs, 
still the individual car owner or the apprentice mechanic is not 
usually so proficient, and a great deal of trouble will be avoided 
by marking the parts as they are removed from the car. 

One method of marking is by small tags or by pieces of 
paper through which the bolts are forced. Particular care should 
be taken in marking those parts the use of which is not obvious. 
Another good method of identification is to number the parts with 
the same numbers that they carry in the Ford parts list. Such 
parts as the eight valves can be marked with a center punch, 
beginning at the front of the motor with one dot and proceeding 
toward the rear of the motor; the last valve will be marked with 
eight dots. 

In using a center punch for marking the valves, the valves 
should be marked before removing to prevent bending the valve 
stem. Such parts as the gaskets for the radiator and the two 
screws holding the cylinder-outlet water-hose connection to the 
cylinder head can be tied on the radiator with a string. This 
method of tying the gaskets and other small parts to the larger 
parts to which they belong is a great time saver when the car is 
assembled. The use of cigar boxes, or boxes of miscellaneous 
sizes, in which to keep the parts of the different elements of the 
car is also helpful. For instance, all motor parts should be placed 
in one box, while the transmission cover bolts and other small 
parts belonging to the transmission should be placed in another box. 

Removing Radiator. The radiator should be drained pre- 
paratory to removing it from the car. Removing the radiator 
makes it easier to get at the engine, commutator, and other parts. 
In order to drain the radiator, it is usually necessary to clean out 
the radiator drain cock after the cock has been opened, as mud 
and sediment usually accumulate in the bottom of the radiator. 
Fig. 7 shows the radiator and the hose connections. 

The radiator is supported by a bracket at each side and by 
the water inlet manifold, with a truss rod between the dash and 
the radiator. This bracket is bolted to the side members of the 
chassis frame. The inlet manifold of the radiator is located in 
the center of the base of the radiator header tank, and the outlet 



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22 . FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

manifold i§ offset at an angle from the left side of the bottom 
tank, or base of the radiator. The inlet manifold is connected by 
a rubber hose and a flanged fitting bolted to the outlet of the 
water jacket at the forward end of the cylinder head. The outlet 
manifold is bolted to the intake of the water jacket at the left 
side of the cylinder block near the base of the water jacket. The 
radiator outlet manifold consists of a metal tube and a hose at 
each end; there is also a flanged fitting fastened to the cylinder 
block and connecting with this manifold. Two cap screws secure 
the flanges of the fitting at the outlet and at the inlet on the 
cylinder head. 



PLUG 

Fig. 22. Bottom of the Crankcase Showing Drain Plug 

While the radiator is removed from the car, the radiator hose 
connections should be taken off and inspected. No doubt it will 
be advisable to put on three new hose connections at this time 
since this will tend to eliminate water leaks or clogged water hose 
at some future time. Sometimes new hose clamps are also needed. 
It is also a good plan to adjust the fan belt at this time, and if it 
is badly worn, it should be replaced with a new one. For regular 
use, either the leather or the fabric belt gives good results, and 
a belt with a coupling can also be carried in the car for emergencies. 

Draining Oil. We are now ready to drain the old oil from 
the crankcase. After some use, the oil becomes black and dirty 
and is filled with metallic particles that have been worn from the 
bearings and other parts. Also, after the oil has been used for 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 23 

some time it is much thinned out, since the kerosene condensed in 
the combustion chamber works down past the piston rings and 
destroys the lubricating qualities of the oil. Much wear and tear 
will be saved if the oil is changed about every thousand miles. 

After removing the crankcase drain plug, located below the 
flywheel, and draining out the old oil, about 2 quarts of kerosene 
should be poured into the crankcase at the filler spout. The posi- 
tion of the drain plug is shown in Fig. 22. Then the motor 
should be turned by hand for several revolutions, splashing the 
kerosene around in the crankcase to clean out the old oil. If the 
front end of the car is jacked up about 6 inches, the kerosene will 
run back into the oil reservoir and drain out more completely. 
The drain plug should then be replaced. The old oil drained 
from the motor should not be used again in the crankcase; it is, 
however, satisfactory for spring lubrication and other minor 
places on the chassis. 

OVERHAULING MOTOR 

Preliminary Operations. The first part to be removed is the 
cylinder head; but before doing this, it is advisable to remove the 
four spark plugs to prevent them from being broken. Fig. 23 is a 
view of the motor showing the head detached. 

The fifteen cylinder-head bolts should be removed with the 
socket end of the spark-plug wrench or a socket speed wrench, 
which can be purchased from any supply house. Less time is 
required when using the speed wrench. 

Before removing the rear cylinder bolts, it is necessary to 
take off the small metal plate on the dash under the coil box. 

If the valves are to be ground, it is advisable to remove the 
exhaust manifold, and the carburetor and intake manifold in one 
unit; this will permit easy access to the valves. 

Before removing the carburetor, it is first necessary to dis- 
connect the gasoline pipe. The gasoline supply should be shut 
off at the sediment bulb under the gasoline tank. It will also be 
necessary to lift the carburetor adjusting rod located on the dash. 

In removing the exhaust manifold, it is easier to take out the 
exhaust pipe and manifold in a single unit by a straight pull for- 
ward. When removing the manifolds, be careful not to injure the 



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24 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

gaskets, as these gaskets ensure a gas-tight joint between the 
manifolds and the cylinder block. 

Removing Valves. The first step when removing the valves 
is to remove the valve-chamber cover plates, after which the 
valve springs may be compressed by means of a suitable valve- 
lifting tool and the valve pins pulled out. These pins should be 
placed where they will not be lost. Two of the valves are always 
in the raised position, and it will be necessary to turn the crank 
until these valves go down, when the springs can be compressed 
and the valve pins removed. 



Fig. 23. Motor Showing the Head Removed 

Crankcase Repairs. We are now ready to remove the lower 
cover door of the crankcase. To do this, it is necessary to get 
under the car and remove the fourteen ^-inch cap screws. A 
special speed wrench is made for spinning out these cap screws. 
This wrench, Fig. 24, is very short so that it can be used in the 
limited space. In removing the lower crankcase door, the gasket 
generally sticks and should be renewed. There is always some oil 
left in the connecting-rod dip pans on this cover, consequently 
one should not be directly under the pan when it is removed. 

Adjusting Connecting Rods. We are now ready to tighten 
the connecting-rod bearings, which is best done one at a, time. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



25 




Begin at the front connecting-rod bearing and examine the bearing 
cap to be sure that it is marked. There is a file mark on this 
cap on the side toward the camshaft, and if this 
bearing cap is not so marked, this should be 
done before the cap is removed. After remov- 
ing the connecting-rod cap, file off a small amount 
of metal or remove -one or more shims, if there 
are any. Then replace the cap and tighten the 
bolts, but do not replace the cotter pins at this 
time. 

Now try the tightness of the front connecting- 
rod cap by turning the starting crank. It should 
be possible to turn the crank, since the bearing 
should be a snug fit only. 

After tightening the front connecting-rod 
cap, loQsen the nuts on the bolts a couple of 
turns, then proceed in the same manner with 
the second connecting rod. If the cap is too 
tight when the bolts are securely tightened, place 
one or more shims between the connecting rod and 
the cap so that the engine will not be too hard to 
crank when all four bearings have been tightened. 

The fourth connecting-rod bearing is generally about 
as hard to tighten as the other three put together for 
it is in a rather inaccessible location and requires the 
use of a special wrench, Fig. 25. A special universal 
socket speed-wrench can be secured from the Ford 
Motor Company. 

After fitting [the fourth con- 
necting-rod bearing, the bolts on 
all four caps should be tightened. 



Fig. 24 



Speed Wrench 
:or Inspection Plate 




Fig. 25. Fourth Connecting-rod Wrench 

Then the cotter pins should be put in and the ends of the cotter 
pins spread to keep them from dropping out. 



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26 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

Caution. Care should be taken not to get any broken ends 
of the cotter pins in the crankcase. Such bits of metal might be 
carried by the oil onto the magneto coils and cause a short 
circuit which might result in total failure of motor operation. 
A rag should be placed between the coil support and the crank- 
case. 

Piston Slap. If there has been piston slap in the motor, new 
and oversize pistons should be installed at this time. It is some- 
times advisable to rebore the cylinders when they are badly worn. 
This can be done in almost any good machine shop at small 
expense, or the small garage can do the job with a reboring tool 
made especially for that purpose. There are several of these 

reboring tools on the 
market, and they may 
be purchased at a sup- 
ply house. If the orig- 
inal pistons which 
came with the car are 
still in the engine, 
then the new pistons 
should be 0.025 inch 
oversize. However, if 
the cylinder block has 
been rebored and is 

Fig. 26. Removing the Carbon g^j ^^ Q 03125 . 

inch oversize pistons, then pistons .033-inch oversize should be 
installed. 

Adjusting Main Bearings. Where there have been main- 
bearing knocks — they usually cause a deep heavy thud when the 
throttle is open and the motor is pulling hard — it will probably be 
necessary to remove the engine from the car and tighten the main 
bearings. This is best done when the motor is removed from the 
frame, thus making all of the bearings accessible. 

While it is not difficult to tighten the middle main bearing 
through the crankcase-cover lower door without removing the 
motor from the frame, still the middle main bearing does not give 
trouble very often. It is the rear main bearing which is the most 
frequent offender. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 27 

The rear main bearing carries the load of the flywheel and 
magnets and the fore part of the transmission, in addition to the 
load due to the force from the connecting rods. So, in spite of 
the fact that this main bearing is made longer than the others, it 
has so much additional work to perform that it wears more 
rapidly and is generally the first of the three main bearings to 
give trouble. The front main bearing can be tightened without 
taking the motor out of the car if there happen to be some 
shims between the bearing cap and the cylinder block. It is only 
necessary to loosen the bolts, holding the front bearing cap in 
place, and pull out one or more shims and then tighten the bolts. 



Fig. 27. Compressing the Valve Spring 

Grinding Valves. In overhauling the motor, grinding the 
valves and removing the carbon are generally two of the most 
important details that must be undertaken. The carbon is easily 
scraped off the piston tops and the cylinder block by a putty 
knife or other flexible flat-bladed tool, Fig. 26. A steel scratch 
brush,, such as is used to scrape sand from steel castings, is also 
useful for removing the carbon from the Ford cylinder head. 

Before grinding the valves, it will be necessary to remove all 
the valve springs. This is best done by the use of some good 
valve lifter, several of which are on the market. The lifter holds 
the spring compressed, Fig. 27, while the pin is removed from the 
end of the valve stem. 



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28 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

The work of grinding the valves will be made much easier if 
the valves are refaced with a valve-refacing tool; if the valve seat 
is reamed with a valve tool, then a still better job can be had in 
much less time. These operations are shown in Figs. 28 and 29. 
After the carbon has been removed from the valves, a small 
amount of grinding compound should be placed on the edge of the 
valve where the seat is formed. A light push spring about 2 
inches long and f inch in diameter should then be placed on the 
valve stem, so that, when grinding, the valve will be lifted from 
its seat by this spring when the pressure is removed. This 
action is necessary to change the position of the cutting compound 



Fig. 28. Refacing the Valves 

and to prevent the valve seat from being grooved. The valve should 
be turned with a forked tool, Fig. 30; do not turn the valve in 
one direction only as this will groove the seat. The spring should 
then be allowed to lift the valve, and when it is lifted, it should be 
turned so that the position of the grinding compound will be 
changed. This compound is sold in a box with two compart- 
ments, one containing the coarse and one the fine compound. 
The fine compound is generally satisfactory for the intake 
valves. 

After grinding the valves, great care should be taken to clean 
out all the grinding compound. Do not allow the compound to 

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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 29 

get on the pistons or the cylinder walls as it will cause a great 
deal of wear if left on these parts. 

Inlet Valves. In grinding the valves, it will be noticed that 
the inlet valves are not usually pitted and scored as much as the 
exhaust valves. The reason is that the exhaust valves are sub- 
jected to the hot flame of the exhaust gases, while the inlet 
valves are cooled by the fresh incoming gases from the car- 
buretor. For this reason the exhaust valves become much hotter 



Fig. 29. Refacing the Valve Seats 

than the intake valves. This heat usually burns the carbon from 
the exhaust valves, while the tops of the intake valves are covered 
with carbon. As the inlet valves are generally in fair condition, 
it is not necessary to reface them to the same extent as the 
exhaust valves. 

If the motor has been in use for several years, it sometimes 
happens that there is sufficient wear around the stems of the 
inlet valves to cause air leaks at these points, Fig. 31. This air 

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30 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

leak will sometimes allow enough air to pass into the intake mani- 
fold to cause the motor to miss at low throttle openings; it will 
also make starting difficult. Replacing the valves will reduce this 
leakage to a certain extent, but sometimes the valve guides are 
worn and replacing the valves is not sufficient. Then it will be 
necessary to install valves having ^-inch oversize stems. When 
valves having oversize stems are used, ream put the valve-stem 
guides with a ^r-inch oversize valve-guide reamer. 

Adjusting Valves. After replacing the valves, it is necessary 
to adjust the valve-tappet clearance, which should be between ^ 



Fig. 30. Grinding the Valves 

and -fa inch. For passenger-car use, where one desires to obtain 
a quiet-running motor, less clearance than -it inch can sometimes 
be given. This tends to eliminate valve-tappet noises and clicks, 
but it will also cut down the power of the motor to some extent. 
Not less than 0.008 inch or 0.010 inch clearance for the inlet 
valves and not less than 0.015 inch clearance for the exhaust 
valves should be allowed. No adjustment has been provided by 
the Ford Motor Company, so if it is desired to make this adjust- 
ment a set of valve-adjusting discs should be purchased. If the 
stems are too long, they may be shortened by filing. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



31 



It sometimes happens, after the reground valves have been 
run in the engine for a short time, that the valves seat themselves 
more deeply into the cylinder block, thus reducing the clearance 
between the ends of the valve stems and the tappets. For this 
reason, it is better not to replace the covers of the valve chambers 
but to measure the valve-tappet clearance and adjust the valves 




'A//? LEAKS 

Fig. 31. Air Leaks around the Valve Stems 

again after the engine has been running for fifteen or twenty 
minutes. 

The clearance should be checked with a thickness, or feeler, 
gage, consisting of a number of thin strips of steel. If this tool is 
not at hand, an approximate valve-tappet clearance adjustment 
can be secured by using a postal card as a thickness gage. Such a 
card is about 0.010 inch in thickness. 

Assembling Motor. After cleaning off the carbon and grind- 
ing the valves, the cylinder head should be replaced. But before 
doing this, the cylinder-head gasket should be carefully cleaned. 
It is not necessary to buy a new gasket if the old one has been 
removed with reasonable care and is not torn or broken. 



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32 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

When replacing the cylinder head, turn the starting crank so 
that the first and fourth pistons are in the extreme raised position 
— on upper dead center — and are projecting above the cylinder 
block. The pistons will hold the gasket and keep it from slipping 
when in this position. Smearing both sides of the cylinder head 
with heavy grease not only helps to keep the gasket in position, 
but it will also assist in making a compression-tight joint, as the 
grease allows the gasket to work to the correct position and fit 
smoothly between the cylinder head and the cylinder block. 

It is also a good plan before replacing the cylinder head to 
clean the carbon and dirt out of the cylinder bolt holes, using a 
twist drill about f inch in diameter. If this dirt is not cleaned 
out of the bottom of these holes, it will be impossible to tighten 
the bolts enough to make a compression-tight joint between the 
cylinder head and the motor block. The bolts are also likejy to 



©15 




<§>ll 


<§>6 


<§>3 


13 ®\ 


w { 


®I2 


7® <§)& ®I0 


<2> 2 / 


®.4 J 



Fig. 32. Tightening Cylinder Head Bolts 

be twisted off when they are being tightened. After replacing the 
cylinder-head bolts, spin them down with a speed wrench and 
then tighten them with the cylinder-head and spark-plug wrench. 
It is not necessary to tighten these bolts with excessive force, as 
they may be broken if this is done. There is a certain knack in 
tightening these bolts. The center bolts should first be tightened 
and then the bolts on each side, working toward the ends of the 
cylinder heads, until all the bolts have been tightened. They 
should then be gone over for a final tightening. The bolts should 
be tightened in the order shown in Fig. 32; if they are first 
tightened at one side or at one end of the cylinder head, a 
compression-tight joint is hard to make and leaks may occur. 

Inspecting Spark Plugs. We are now ready to inspect the 
spark plugs, which should be taken apart and cleaned before 
being replaced in the cylinder head. Emery cloth should not be 
used to clean the porcelains as it will remove the glaze and allow 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



33 



oil to soak into the porcelain; then the spark plug will short- 
circuit very easily. 

After assembling the porcelain and the body of the plug, care 
should be taken not to make the nut too tight, as the heat of the 
engine may crack the porcelain. 

Adjust the gap between the spark-plug points to 3^ inch and 
bend the grounded point of the electrode upward; then, if oil 
collects on the points, it will not bridge the gap but will run off 
to the side where it can do no harm. This adjust- 
ment is shown in Fig. 33. 

Wiring. The timer wires should be replaced 
if they are oil soaked and badly worn or if the 
insulation is broken near the commutator. When 
examining the timer wires, stray ends should be 
carefully looked for, as these fine ends may touch 
the motor when the spark lever is moved and cause j 
the motor to miss. The commutator wires require 
much more attention than the high tension cables 
that lead to the spark plugs. The color of the 
wires indicates the terminal to which they should 
be attached. 

Timer. The timer should be taken apart and 
well cleaned, and if the raceway on the inside 
of the timer shell is worn or rough, this shell 
should be replaced. A worn timer shell will cause 
the roller to bounce and this, in turn, may cause 
misfiring of the engine at speeds of 25 m.p.h. or 
over. The timer roller assembly is another small part which some- 
times causes much trouble. If the timer roller is worn, or the 
timer spring weak or broken, it is advisable to replace the entire 
roller-brush assembly. 

Coil Adjustments. Another part of the ignition system upon 
which much of the smooth running of the motor depends is the 
adjustment of the vibrator points of the spark coils. These coil 
points should be ground smooth and true, so that they make good 
contact. After the coil points have been worn down about half- 
way, it is usually necessary to replace them with new ones in 
order to get an effective coil-point adjustment. 




Fig. 33. Spark Plug 
Adjustment 



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34 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



If possible, the coils should be taken to the nearest Ford 
agency where there is a coil-testing machine and adjusted until 
each unit consumes from 1.2 to 1.4 amperes as indicated by the 
ammeter of the coil-testing machine. The coil points should 
separate about ^ inch when the vibrator is pressed down against 
the core of the coil unit. Fig. 34 shows the adjustment of this 
unit. 

Preparing Motor to Run. After having made sure that the 
crankcase drain plug has been tightened and the crankcase lower 
door replaced, a gallon of clean oil should be poured into the 
crankcase. 

We are now ready to replace the radiator and to fill it with 
water. After filling the radiator, the joints around the radiator 

hose connections and 



VIBRATOR ARM 
VIBRATOR 



AIR GAP ADJUSTMENT^ 
GAP, 




* VIBRATOR CONTACT POINTS 

Fig. 34. Adjustment of the Spark Coils 



between the cylinder 
head and the cylinder 
block should be examined 
to see whether there are 
any leaks. 

The engine can now 
be run as slowly as pos- 
sible for five or ten min- 
utes until the oil is 
worked into all the mov- 
ing parts and the parts 
which have been replaced have had a chance to adjust them- 
selves to each other. If new piston rings have been installed or 
if the connecting-rod bearings have been tightened, the engine 
should be run for an hour or so at a slow speed but with plenty 
of oil to give these parts a chance to work into good running 
condition. 

OVERHAULING TRANSMISSION 

Noisy Transmission. After a car has been run for several 
thousand miles, especially in hilly country, the transmission 
becomes very noisy and will grind when either the low-speed or 
the reverse-speed brake bands are operated. As there is no power 
transmitted through the gears when the car is running in high 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 35 

speed, little trouble will be had with the gears when the car is 
being driven in high. The discs in the clutch assembly may be 
roughened or worn enough so that they cannot be adjusted any 
further by means of the clutch-adjusting screws. When the power 
plant is out of the chassis, it is advisable to examine the trans- 
mission gearing if unusual noises have been present. The gears 
should not wear very much, although the bushings in these gears 
are subjected to considerable wear. 

Tearing Down Transmission. Clutch-Disc Assembly. In tak- 
ing the transmission apart, it is first necessary to drive out the 
clutch spring and the thrust ring support pin, which makes it 
possible to remove the clutch shift collar, Group 5, Fig. 35. The 
driving plate can be removed after the screws bolted to the brake 
drum are taken out. The clutch-disc assembly is then exposed 
as shown in Group 4. The clutch discs are carried by the disc 
drum as shown in Group 1. A set screw holds this member 
securely to the rear end of the crankshaft. After this set screw 
is loosened, the disc drum may be removed and the assembly will 
then appear as in Group S. 

Drum Assembly. The remaining part of the assembly, con- 
sisting of reverse drum, low-speed drum, brake drum, and triple 
gears, may be easily withdrawn from the flywheel and the crank- 
shaft extension known as the transmission shaft. The assem- 
bly is then as shown in Group 2. In order to take down the 
remainder of the assembly, the driven gear must be removed 
from the brake-shaft extension, allowing the three drums to be 
pulled apart. The bushings in the triple-gear assembly must be 
examined after the transmission has been taken apart. It is also 
necessary to examine the pins attached to the flywheel that support 
the triple gears. If either the bushings or the pins are worn, there 
will be considerable play and the transmission will be very noisy 
when operating in low or reverse speed. If the bushings are worn, 
they should be removed and new ones installed, special care being 
taken to see that the new bushings are reamed concentric so that 
the gears will revolve true. The pins mounted on the flywheel 
should also be replaced if worn. The bushings in the reverse 
drum and gear and in the interior of the low-speed drum and 
gear should be carefully examined to make sure that the low- 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 37 

speed drum is a good fit on the sleeve of the brake drum; the 
reverse drum should also fit properly on the extension of the low- 
speed drum. If these bushings are worn so that it is considered 
advisable to install new ones, they should be removed and new 
ones forced in place by means of an arbor press or a vise. 

Before reassembling the brake-drum unit, the bushings should 
be fitted to turn freely on the members by which they are sup- 
ported. The surfaces of the brake, the low-speed, and the reverse 
drums should not be cut or scored. This scoring often happens 
when transmission bands are riveted in place with iron or steel 
rivets. Soft copper or brass rivets should always be used for this 
purpose, and the rivets should be properly countersunk. 

Clutch Dwcs. The clutch discs should be removed, thoroughly 
cleaned, and inspected to see if there are any rough surfaces. 
If there are ridges on the plates which come together — a result 
of the operator continually slipping the clutch — the ridges should 
be removed with a file; if this thins down the plates too much, new 
plates should be used. It is advisable to install new plates if they 
are rough, as this also indicates that the plates are soft. 

Assembly of Transmission. The first parts to be assembled 
are the reverse drum and gear, driven gear, low-speed drum and 
gear, and brake drum, as shown in Group 1, Fig. 35. These parts 
form Group 2. The brake drum should be placed on a bench with the 
hub extending upward and the low-speed drum should be placed 
over this hub with the gears on top. The reverse drum is then 
placed over the low-speed drum with its gear member up. The 
two Woodruff keys that connect the driven gear to the brake- 
drum hub are then put in place as shown in Group 1. The 
driven gear is then placed with the teeth downward so that it will 
be next to the low-speed gear; the triple gears are then meshed 
with the driven gear, making sure that the punch marks on the 
teeth correspond with one another. The reverse gear — the small- 
est one of the three comprising the assembly — should be on the 
bottom, or down. When the triple gears have been properly 
meshed, they should be securely tightened in place with a spring 
or wire; the assembly will then be as in Group 2. 

Group 2 should then be assembled on the flywheel. The fly- 
wheel is placed on the bench with its face downward, the trans- 



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38 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

mission shaft projecting upward. The Group 2 assembly is turned 
over so that the triple-gear assembly will face the flywheel. Then 
the group is so placed on the transmission shaft that the triple- 
gear pins will pass through the bushings in the triple gears. The 
assembly will then have the appearance of Group 8. The assembly 
should slip readily in place. If it is necessary to use force, the 
pins may be bent, or the gears not properly meshed, or the bushings 
not reamed. 

The clutch-drum key should then be fitted in the transmission 
and the clutch-disc carrier drum placed on the shaft, locking it 
in place with a set screw provided for that purpose. A heavier 
disc than the disc plates is put on the clutch drum first; then a 
small clutch disc, and then a large one. This heavy disc, or dis- 
tance plate, is not used on the later Ford models. The small and 
large discs are then added alternately until all the discs are in posi- 
tion. A large disc having keyways on its outer periphery should be 
on top when the set is assembled. If a small disc having keyways 
in. the inner periphery is left on top, it is likely to drop over the 
clutch drum. 

When changing from high to low speed, it is impossible for 
the high-speed clutch to be engaged. With the clutch-disc drum 
and the clutch discs in place, the transmission would have the 
appearance of Group 4- It is then necessary to put the clutch- 
disc ring over the clutch drum and the clutch push-ring over the 
clutch drum and on top of the disc ring, with the three pins pro- 
jecting upward as in Group 5. The remaining parts are then 
assembled in the order shown in Group 5. The driving plate 
should be bolted in position on the brake drum so that the adjust- 
ing screws of the clutch fingers will bear against the clutch push-ring 
pins. It is then advisable to test the transmission by removing 
the drums and plates with the hand. If properly assembled, the 
flywheel will revolve freely while any of the drums are being held, 
or vice versa. 

Assembling Clutch. The clutch parts may be assembled on the 
driving-plate hub by slipping the clutch shifter on the hub so that 
the small end rests on the ends of the clutch fingers. The clutch 
spring should then be replaced with the clutch support inside so 
that the flange of that member will rest on the upper coil of the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 39 

spring. Next place the clutch spring and the thrust ring with the 
notch end down on the driving-plate hub and press the spring 
into place, inserting the pin in the driving-plate hub through the 
hole on the side of the spring support. One of the best methods 
of compressing the spring sufficiently to insert this pin is to loosen 
the clutch-finger tension by backing out the adjusting screw. 
When these screws are again tightened, the springs should be 
compressed to a length of 2 or 2^ inches to ensure against clutch 
slippage. Care should be taken that these screws are uniformly 
adjusted so that the even compression of the clutch spring is 
obtained. 

Another method is to assemble the spring on the drive plate 
before installing it on the transmission. A vise or arbor press 
may then be used to compress the spring. To relieve the pres- 
sure on the fingers, a cap screw should be placed between the 
plate and the shifter. 

OVERHAULING FRONT-AXLE SYSTEM 

Inspection of Parts. In overhauling the front-axle system, 
one should first take off the two front wheels and clean the grease 
from the ball bearings and from the hubs of the wheels. After 
removing the ball bearings, the steel balls should be carefully 
inspected for any flaws, pits, or cracks; even a tiny defect is 
sufficient reason for throwing them away. The surface of a ball 
is the important part, and a small crack or flaw will cause the 
cutting of the cone and ruin the entire ball bearing. A cross- 
section of the front spindle is shown in Fig. 36. 

The cones and cups of the front-wheel bearings should be 
carefully examined for signs of wear. As a rule, it is advisable to 
replace the old cups and cones with new ones, as worn cones will 
make it impossible to obtain a satisfactory adjustment of the 
front-wheel bearings. When the hardened surface of the cone is 
worn away, the cones will then wear away rapidly. 

Turning the cones upsid,e down is sometimes suggested, thus 
bringing the wear on the opposite side of the bearing. This 
practice, however, is not to be recommended as it is almost 
impossible to obtain a satisfactory adjustment, one which will be 
easy running and not wobble, when the cones are worn to this 



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40 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



condition. These cups and cones are shown at J and N and 
also at and E in Fig. 36. 

While the front wheels are off the spindles is a good time to 
examine and replace the spindle-body bushings and the spindle- 
arm bushing. In order to remove the spindle-body bushings, it is 
usually necessary to use one of the special drifts, or punches, 
which are made for this purpose by some of the accessory manu- 
facturers. If one of these drifts cannot be obtained, the bushings 




Sectional View of Front Wheel Spindle. A, Spoke; B, Bolt; C, Oil Re- 
taining Wick; D, Hub Flange; E, Outer Ball Race; F, Spindle; G, Hub; 
H, Grease Space; J, O, Inner Races or Cones; K, Lock Nut; L, Hub 
Cap; M, Cotter; N, Outer Race; P, Large Ball Bearing; Q, Ball Retaining 
Ring; R, Spindle Oiler; S, Spindle Bolt; T, Fro.it Axle; 0, Spindle 
Bushing; W, Spindle Bolt Nut; X, Cotter Pin. 

Fig. 36. Cross-Section of Front Wheel Spindle 

can be driven out by tapping a j^-inch eighteen-thread tap into a 
spindle-body bushing and then using an old spindle-body bolt to 
drive out both the tap and the bushing. 

As a rule, it is advisable to replace the spindle-body bolts 
when the bushings are replaced, especially if the bolts show any 
sign of wear. After the new bushings have been driven into the 
spindle body, it is necessary to ream them out, for which purpose 
special reamers are made and can be purchased at accessory houses. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 41 

While working at the front-axle system, the nuts on the end 
of the front radius rod should be securely tightened and then 
cotter pinned. If the slots for the cotter pin in the nut do not 
come into alignment with the holes at the ends of the front 
radius rod, the nut should be removed and a small amount of 
metal ground or filed from the face of the nut, after which the 
nut should be again tightened up. With a little practice, the nut 
can be adjusted to turn to the correct position by filing off metal 
in this manner. 

The late Fords are being equipped with radius rods fastened 
to a perch under the axle. 

If the nuts on the end of the front radius rods are not kept 
tight, the vibration on the end of these rods will cause fatigue of 
the metal and eventual breakage, thus possibly causing an acci- 
dent. Also, if the nutsr on the front ends of the radius rods are 
not kept tight, the front axle will not be held at the proper slant 
to give easy and steady steering. 

Adjusting Front Axle. Correct Slant. The adjustment of the 
slant of the Ford front axle is of great importance in making the 
car easy to steer and in saving wear on the tires. If a line is 
drawn through the axis of the front-spindle bolt, Fig. 37, this line 
should strike the ground about 1| inches in front of a vertical 
line dropped through the center of the axle. By inclining the 
front axle in this manner, the front wheels are given a trailer, or 
caster, action, which tends to make them come to a straight- 
ahead position, just as the front wheel of a bicycle does when the 
bicycle is held upright and pushed ahead. This steering action of 
the Ford front-axle system relieves the driver of much strain and 
fatigue. 

Another method of adjusting a front axle to the proper 
inclination is by tying a weight on the end of a string and using 
it as a plumb bob. Allow the string to touch the lower side of 
the front-axle yoke in front of the car, Fig. 38. Under this con- 
dition, the string should be about f inch, or about the thickness 
of a lead pencil, from the top arm of the front axle. 

Still another way to test this front-axle alignment is by the 
test method. In using this method, it is necessary to drive the 
car and see whether the front wheels swing quickly into the 



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42 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



,— 1 



*>- 



I 

-H 



<— /j AT FLOOR LINE 



Fig. 37. Checking Adjustment of Front Axle 
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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



43 



straight-ahead position after 
being turned to one side or the 
other. Of course, this test 
is made on a smooth level 
road. 

If the front axle is given 
too much slant, there will be 
too much tendency for the 
wheels to come to a straight- 
ahead position, and the driver 
will have to exert undue strain 
and force when turning a 
corner. For straightaway rac- 
ing, at high speed on board 
tracks, it is the custom of 
some Ford racing drivers to 
give the front-spindle bolts as 
much slant as two or three 
inches, as racing on large 
tracks does not involve any 
short or sudden turns. 

In order to get the cor- 
rect slant on the front axle, 
a large monkey wrench — say 
a 30-inch size — or a special 
front-axle tool made for this 
purpose, Fig. 39, can be 
gripped at one end of the 
front axle and used to bend 
one side of the radius rod, or 
"wishbone." After bending 
one side in this manner, the 
monkey wrench or special tool 
is shifted to the other side of 
the front axle, near the other 
wheel, and then the other side 
of the axle is given the same 
slant. The Ford Motor Com- 




* 



PLUMB 
BOB 



Tig. 38. Checking Front Axle with Plumb Bob 



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44 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

pany recommends that when the radius rods- are badly bent they 
should be replaced with new ones. 

Ball Socket. It is usually found that the front-radius-rod 
ball socket wears loose in time, even though springs are provided 
under the nuts of the front-radius-rod studs to take up the wear. 
After a year or so of use, it will be found that these studs are 
badly worn; as they only cost a few cencs each, it is advisable to 
replace them in order to get smooth steady action in the front 
radius ball socket. 

While the studs are out is a good time to file a little metal 
from the face of the ball socket on the base of the crankcase. It 
might be thought that removing metal from the face of the ball- 
socket cap would be sufficient to eliminate such wear as might be 
present, still the socket in the crankcase also wears and it is best 
to file it too. 






Fig. 39. Wishbone Straightening Tool 

As the bolt holes in the front-radius-rod ball caps are usually 
badly worn, it is suggested that the ball caps be replaced rather 
than an attempt made to file the metal off their faces. Of course, 
if the car has been in use for only a short time, filing some metal 
from the face of the ball cap will make this joint tight enough for 
all practical purposes. Much of the rattle is often due to a loose 
joint in the front-radius-rod ball socket and it is worth while to 
take particular care in adjusting this socket. 

Adjusting Front=Wheel Bearings. After examining the cups 
of the bearings in the front wheels and replacing such cups as 
may be worn, we are now ready to replace the wheels on the 
spindles. If any one of these bearings is not a drive fit into the front 
hub, several shims may be placed between the bearing cup and 
the sides of the hub. This is to prevent the bearing cup from 
turning inside the hub, as all the turning should be done on the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



45 



ball bearings. The shims used should not be thick or heavy, for 
if the cup is too tight a drive fit into the hub, the bearing cup 
may be slightly distorted — out of round — when driven into the 
hub. It is better to use several thin shims equally spaced around 
the hub and thus center the ball cup in the middle of the hub 
than to use a single thick shim at one side. This practice, how- 
ever, is not recommended. 

The adjustment of the front-wheel bearings should be made 
so that the weight of the valve stem is sufficient to start the 
wheel in motion and to make the wheel roll to and fro. Yet the 
bearings should be carefully adjusted so that there is no percepti- 




V— 



Fig. 40. Adjustment of Front Wheels 



ble shake or play when the spokes are gripped and the wheel is 
shaken. 

Before leaving the front wheels they should be checked up for 
alignment. These wheels should be 3 inches closer together at the 
bottom than at the top, Fig. 40. The purpose is to bring the 
point of contact between the tire and the ground more nearly 
under the point of rotation of the spindle-body bolt. This makes 
it easier to steer the car and, by having the point of contact 
between the wheel and the ground come more nearly in the same 
straight line as the spindle-body bolt, there is less chance of 
rocks or stones swinging the wheels to one side. This makes it 
easier to drive the car on uneven rocky roads. 

We all know that when a rolling hoop is tilted to one side or 



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46 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

the other, it tends to turn a corner or roll to one side in the 
direction in which it is slanted. The same action takes place in 
the case of the Ford front wheels, and as the front wheels are 
slanted outward at the top, they tend to run outward. This 
tendency would cause undue friction and tire wear if it were not 
corrected by giving the front wheels a little "gather" to make 
them I inch closer together in front at a point about 16 inches 
above the ground. 

EQUIPPING FORD FRONT HUBS WITH TIMKEN BEARINGS 

Sets of Bearings. Ford closed models and 1-ton trucks have 
for some time past been fitted with special Timken roller bearings 
on the front wheels. The same bearings can also be installed in 
other models to replace the old cup-and-cone bearings, as these 
sets are interchangeable. The Ford Motor Company supplies the 
bearings in separate packages or cartons; a complete set of bear- 
ings for one wheel is in each package. As the Ford spindles have 
right- and left-hand threads, it is, of course, necessary to supply 
adjusting cones for the outside bearings with corresponding 
threads. The packages containing the complete sets of bearings 
are plainly marked "right wheel" or "left wheel," according to the 
set each package contains. 

Removing Old Bearings. When installing Timken bearings in 
the Ford front wheels in place of the old bearings, the first step is 
to remove the old bearings from the wheel hubs and clean out the 
hub thoroughly so that no grit or metal chips will be left to 
damage the new bearings The shoulders of the recesses from 
which the ball cups were removed should be inspected carefully 
for high spots, which might cause the cups of the Timken bearings 
to set high on one side. 

The stationary cone is also removed from the inner end of 
the spindle as it is to be replaced with a special cone. Be careful 
not to leave rough or high spots on the part of the spindle on 
which the cone seats, as the Timken inner cone is not pressed 
onto the spindle, but is a floating slip fit. It has a clearance on 
the spindle of 0.001 inch. 

Installing Cups. Both the inner and the outer cups of the 
Timken bearings, corresponding to the inner and the outer ball 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 47 

races, or cups, of the old bearings, are press fits in the hub of the 
wheel. The best way to install them is to draw them both into 
place at once with a special puller, similar to that shown in 
Fig. 41. The large or square end of this device is held in a vise 
or with a wrench while the special handle nut on the other end 
is turned, forcing the races in position. 

Tools of this type can be purchased from the Ford Motor 
Company, or they can be made in the repair shop from cold rolled 
steel and a simple forging. 



Fig. 41. Tool for Installing Bearing Races 

If no special puller is available, the cups can be driven into 
the hubs, but care must be exercised to drive them evenly all 
the way around their circumference. A special driver or arbor, 
Fig. 42, is very useful for this purpose. One end of this driver 
is used on the large, or inner, cup and the other end ou the 
small, or outer, one. The inside cone faces of the cups must 



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48 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

not be struck or marred in any way when pressing the cups into 
the hub. 

Securing Press Fits. As with the cup-and-cone bearings, the 
Timken cups must be press fits in the hub. It is advisable to 
try both cups by hand to make sure they will not fit too loosely 
before attempting to press either one into place. Sometimes a 
hub will be damaged and the recess for one of the cups expanded 
somewhat as a result of some of the balls being broken in the 
old bearing. 

If either bearing cup of the Timken set is a loose fit in 
the hub, it is safest to install a new hub, as there is no satisfac- 
tory method of making a bearing cup a tight fit in a hub too 
large for it. Some repair men attempt to make a cup a tight 
fit by putting strips of paper or emery cloth between the cup and 



5H0ULDER TOR DRIVING IN* LARGE CUP 

SHOULDER FOR DRIVING IN SMALL CUP — j 





ROUND 5ECTI0N THROUGHOUT 
HEAD FOR DRIVING HAMMER AGAtNST- 

Fig. 42. Special Bearing Replacer 

the hub recess; with either material there is a grave danger of 
getting the cup out of true. If paper is used, it soon becomes 
soaked with grease and pounds or works out of place, leaving 
the cup loose. On the other hand, emery cloth cannot be used 
at all unless the cup is entirely too loose and sloppy a fit in the 
hub recess. To put it another way, if the hub is so large that 
it is possible to use emery paper to make the cup a tight fit, it 
is not safe to use the hub. The emery is also liable to get into 
the bearing and hasten the wear. 

The depth of the outer race recess in the latest front hubs 
is f inch, but in older hubs it is if inch. Some variation may 
occur, therefore, in the depth to which the outer, or smaller, 
cups of the Timken bearing sets can be pressed in the front hubs 
of various cars. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 49 

The principal thing to look out for in connection with the 
outer cups is to see that they are pressed into place evenly and 
are not high at any spot. It is unimportant if some cups pro- 
ject slightly beyond the end of the hub, are flush with it, or set 
in slightly, provided they have been pressed in all of the way 
and run true. 

To test the fit of the inner, or large, cup, be sure the dis- 
tance from the outer face of the cup to the edge of the hub at 
several different points around the cup is even, Fig. 43. A fine 
scale should be used, preferably one divided into 64ths, as a very, 
slight difference in the depth of the cup at any one point would 
cause it to run out of true. 

In removing the races used 
for the ball bearings, the hub sur- 
face is sometimes burred. This 
burr may seem very small and of 
no consequence, but at the same 
time it is in a position to cause 
excessive wear. Care should there- 
fore be taken to prevent these 
burrs when the old races are being 
removed. 

If burrs are present they may 
be removed with a fine chisel and 
emery cloth. A little sand or grit 
will cause the same trouble and 

. , ., » ., Fig. 43. Checking Evenness of Bearing Cup 

to avoid the presence ol grit, 

the races and hubs should be thoroughly cleaned with gasoline or 

kerosene and a stiff brush. 

Cones and Rollers. A plentiful supply of a good cup grease 
should be packed into the hub as well as into the inner and the 
outer cones and roller sets, the spaces around and between the 
individual rollers also being filled. The larger inner cone with its 
rollers is then placed in the inner cup, and the dust ring and the 
felt washer are driven into the large end of the hub so that the 
dust cap is flush with the end of the hub. 

It will be noticed that the rollers of the Timken bearings are 
assembled with the cones instead of with the cups, or races, as 



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50 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

are the cup-and-cone bearings. For this reason, the large inner 
cone must be a floating slip fit on the inner end of the spindle 
body. 

The wheel, with the inner bearing complete and the dust ring 
in place, is nfext mounted on the spindle. It is never necessary 
to force the large cone onto the spindle. The outer, or threaded, 
cone for that side, with its rollers assembled and properly packed 
with grease, is then screwed onto the outer end of the spindle. A 
right-hand threaded cone is used on the left spindle and a left- 
hand threaded cone on the right spindle, as with the old cup-and- 
cone bearings. 

The adjusting cone should be run up on the spindle until the 
wheel seems to bind slightly. The wheel should then be turned 
a few times to make sure that all working parts are in good con- 
tact, then the adjusting cone should be backed off about one-fourth 
to one-half turn. This will be sufficient to allow the wheel to 
revolve freely but without end play. 

Sometimes looseness in the spindle-body bushings may be 
mistaken for end play in the wheel bearings. To avoid any such 
mistake, insert a cold chisel or a screw driver between the jaw 
of the axle and the spindle to take up any play that might exist 
in the spindle bushings, and test the wheel for end play by work- 
ing the wheel back and forth. 

When the proper adjustment has been reached, the spindle 
washer and the nut should be replaced, the nut being drawn up 
tight and then cotter keyed as with the cup-and-cone bearings. 
Make sure that tightening the nut to the proper notch for 
the cotter key does not cause the bearings to bind; turning the 
wheel a few times just before the cotter key is inserted will 
determine this. The hub cap can then be filled with grease and 
reolaced. 

Periodic Inspection. Every three or four months^ the hub 
bearings should be cleaned out, repacked with fresh grease, and 
readjusted. The old grease should be thoroughly removed with 
kerosene or gasoline to make sure that no grit or metal particles 
remain in the hub to damage the bearings later. The rollers, 
cones, and cups should be carefully examined for pitting or other 
signs of wear. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 51 

SPRINGS 

Replacing Center Bolts. We are now ready to inspect the 
front and rear springs. The first point is to make sure that the 
springs are correctly centered in the middle of the chassis frame. 
Sometimes the center bolts, which hold the leaves of the spring 
together and keep the spring from slipping from one side to the 
other, are broken. In such case, the spring leaves or the entire 
spring is likely to slide a little to one side and cause a slight tilt 
of the car. These springs are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 

If a center bolt is broken, it should be replaced with a new 
one. To do this work, it will be necessary for the mechanic to 
remove the entire spring assembly from the car. While the spring 
leaves are off the car, the surfaces of the springs should be sand- 
papered and covered with grease and graphite. The spring leaves 
will then slide freely over each other, thus making the car easy 
riding and reducing the likelihood of spring breakage. 

Tightening Spring Clips. After replacing the springs on the 
car, the spring clips which hold the spring in place should be 
securely tightened, and then cotter pinned. After the car has 
been in use for some time, the leather pad between the top of 
the spring and the cross member of the chassis is squeezed down 
a little thinner. This loosens the springs, and it is therefore advis- 
able to tighten the spring clips again after the car has been run 
from 500 to 1000 miles. Practically all cases of spring breakage 
through the middle of the spring are because the nuts on the 
spring clips have not been kept sufficiently tight. If this is done, 
the middle of the spring is kept as solid as one piece of metal 
with the cross member of the chassis and there is practically no 
bend or flexing at this point. It is then almost impossible to 
break the spring. 

Shackles and Bushings. As the shackles at the ends of the 
springs come in contact with so much mud and grit, they, and also 
the bushings in the ends of the springs, are subjected to rapid 
wear. This wear will go on at an increasing rate if the worn parts 
are not replaced. It is a comparatively easy matter to drive out 
the old bushings from the ends of the springs and to drive in 
new ones; and about the only advisable repair on the spring 
shackles is to replace them with new ones. A very handy method 



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52 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

of replacing the spring bushings is shown in Fig. 44. A tube 
larger and longer than the bushing is placed on one side of the 
spring opposite the bushing to be removed. The new bushing is 
placed against the one to come out and the three parts are then 
caught between the jaws of a vise. As the jaws are screwed 
together, the new bushing forces the old one out of the spring; 
then the new bushing is reamed to size. A reamer is not expen- 
sive and should be included in the Ford mechanic's tool equip- 
ment to secure the best results. The late Fords are equipped 
with steel bushings in the springs, which require no reaming. 



NEW 



C/ FF1/F 



j<ig. 44. uepiacing spring iiusnings 

OVERHAULING REAR-AXLE ASSEMBLY 

Removing Rear=Axle Assembly. With the car jacked up at 
the frame, the rear-axle assembly is taken out as a unit. The 
two bolts and the cap screws holding the universal joint should 
be removed, the brake rods disconnected at the front end, and 
the spring shackles removed. The nuts on the front end of the 
radius rods near the universal joints, Fig. 45, are then removed, 
and after the nuts, Fig. 46, at the rear of the drive shaft holding 
the drive shaft in place are removed, the drive-shaft assembly can 
be moved toward the front. The wheels are then taken off. The 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 53 

differential housing is held together by seven bolts, and, after 
removing the axle assembly from the car, these seven bolts should 
be removed. Put the nuts on the bolts and keep them together 
so that they can be found when needed again — in fact, this should 
be done with all the removed bolts and nuts. Whenever it is 
practical to put the nuts and bolts back in place after disassem- 
bling, it should be done, as much time will be saved. When the 
seven bolts have been removed, the two main parts of the housing 




Fig. 45. Sectional View of Universal Joint 

can be separated, disclosing the differential assembly and the 
bevel-gear driving system. 

Bearings. The inner and the outer shaft bearings are in the 
housing. The sleeves forming the outer parts of these roller 
bearings are forced tightly into place, and if an attempt is made 
to remove them, they will be spoiled. They are split and are 
inserted at the factory with the split edges lapped; these sleeves 
may be installed with the use of a hammer. In removing these 
sleeves, they will be bent or sprung so much that they cannot be 



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54 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

restored to their original accuracy if a special puller mad* /oi 
this purpose is not used. If there is wear, the spoiling of the 
sleeves does not matter as it will be necessary to install new 
ones. There is no way to compensate for the wear in these 
bearings. 

The rollers, however, come out easily. Because of the ample 
length and the extreme hardness of the rollers, they are likely to 
show less wear than the sleeves or the live axle shafts. The 
rollers bear directly on the live shafts, and as the shafts are neces- 
sarily rather soft, there will be no tendency toward brittleness. 



• Fig. 46. Sectional View of Rear Axle 

The shafts may therefore be expected to show more wear than the 
other bearing parts. This naturally means new shafts. 

The rear-axle bearings should then be inspected. If there is 
play in the parts of the inner roller bearings, the axle shafts may 
not stay exactly in the center of the axle housings. The amount 
of play should then be adjusted so that it is the same in one 
direction as in the other. 

After getting the axle shafts centered in the middle of the 
axle housings, the rear nuts on the radius rods should be adjusted 
against the shoulders of the drive-shaft housing as shown in 
Fig. 45 near the universal joint. After having this adjustment 
correctly made, the nuts on the front end of the radius rod 
should then be tightened up securely. If these nuts are not kept 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 55 

very tight, the radius rods will rattle and pound at this point. 
The hammering of metal against metal will also tend to cause 
crystallization and fatigue of the steel — a frequent cause of the 
breakage of Ford radius rods. 

There is little use in half doing a replacement job of this 
kind. If there is looseness in the bearings and the sleeves and 
shafts show wear, both should be replaced. If only the sleeves are 
replaced, there will still be looseness caused by the wear of the 
shafts, which will quickly develop into more looseness. In short, 
it will not pay. While at it, put in whatever new parts are 
needed and make the job right. If this is done, there will be 
practically a new outfit. 

The inner bearings next to the differential are the same size 
as the outer bearing but they will show less wear, as the outer 
bearing carries the weight of the car. However, the same prin- 
ciples apply to [replacement of these bearings to compensate for 
the wear. 

Wear of Thrust Rings. The thrust of the bevel driving gears 
creates a tendency for the large driving gears and the drive pinion 
to move apart. In other words, there is end thrust. This thrust 
operates against the thrust rings placed between the differential 
case and the rear-axle housing. The rings are of bronze or bab- 
bitt and are grooved to distribute the lubricant. The wear on the 
rings varies considerably, depending on the kind of roads on 
which the car is run, its load, the way it is driven, etc. If there 
is wear, the rings should be replaced with new ones. 

This ring wear allows the bevel driving gear and its pinion to 
separate, consequently the teeth do not mesh as deeply as they 
should and there is a reduction of tooth surface in contact, wear 
of the teeth, inefficient operation, and noise. The bronze or the 
babbitt rings are placed between steel rings pinned to the differen- 
tial cage and to the housing. Thus there are six rings: two float- 
ing rings, two rings on the differential cage (one on each side), 
and two rings on opposite sides of the axle housing. 

Differential Gears. The differential gears are in a cage 
which carries the large bevel driving gear. The cage is made in 
two halves, and it can be taken apart readily. It is held by 
three studs and nuts, and once the nuts are removed, the spider 



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56 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

carrying the three small differential pinions is released, as the spider 
is held in place by the two castings that form the differential cage. 
This assembly is shown in Fig. 17. The pinion bearings should be 
examined for wear as more or less wear is likely to be found. The 
pinions themselves are of hardened steel and as a rule do not 
wear much; ordinarily they are found in good condition. Look 
at the bearings, however, and replace them if worn. 

The live shafts and the large gears of the differential can be 
removed from the differential cage when the cage has been 
separated, which is done by pulling the shafts through the inside 
of the cage halves. The gears can be removed from the shafts 
after the shafts have been taken out by first forcing the gears 
farther on the shafts, permitting the removal of the split rings, 
and then sliding the gears off and leaving the keys in their 
keyway. 

Ring Gear. The large driving, or master, gear is bolted to 
the differential spider, so that it can be replaced when it becomes 
worn. A new gear should be used if the teeth of the old one are 
chipped, burred, or worn. 

Pinion Gear. The bevel driving pinion, Fig. 47, on the rear 
end of the propeller shaft is subject to greater wear than the ring 
gear because it has a smaller number of teeth and therefore a 
smaller surface over which the wear is distributed. So it is rea- 
sonable to look for some wear in the pinion even if the ring gear 
is in good condition. Do not use a pinion that shows signs of 
wear or is chipped, as it deteriorates quickly when once it starts 
to chip. Removing the pinion is accomplished by taking out the 
locking cotter pin that holds the castellated nut, after which the 
gear may be taken off with a gear puller. 

Removing Drive Shaft from Housing. To remove the drive 
shaft from the housing, it is first necessary to remove the uni- 
versal joint from the front end of the shaft. This universal joint 
is held on the shaft by a pin. The shaft end and the socket are 
square thus preventing turning. To remove the pin, two plugs — 
one on the top and one on the bottom of the shaft housing, near 
the universal joint — must first be removed. The bottom plug is 
shown in Fig. 48. The pin can then be driven out with a punch, 
after which the universal joint will come off when tapped slightly 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 57 

with a hammer. The drive shaft can then be removed at the gear 
end of the shaft housing. 

Drive=Pinion Bearings. Perhaps the most important bearings in 
the rear-axle assembly are 
those back of the drive pin- 
ion. There is a ball-thrust 
bearing and a roller bear- 
ing, and these should be 
thoroughly inspected to 
see that there is no lost 
motion; if there is, put in 
new bearings as the align- 
ment of the gears depends 

On the fit here.^ Even if ^ 47> Driving Pinion and Ring Gear 

everything else is in per- 
fect condition, looseness of these bearings will cause grinding and 
rapid wear when running. 

Caution. If any of the gears have been broken or the teeth 
chipped, some of the pieces may have lodged between other 
teeth, and they will do a great deal of damage in this position. 



LE 

Fig. 48. Universal Joint and Housing 

The gears should therefore be carefully inspected and any chips 
removed. 

Models Differ. In the late bearing models the seats in the 
central section of the axle housing carrying the inner bearings are 
of pressed steel fitted into the castings and held in place by the 
same rivets that hold the tubes to the housing castings. In the 



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58 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

early models these seats are formed directly in the castings by 
machining. This makes no difference in the disassembling or the 
assembling of the rear axle, but it is a point that is well to men- 
tion to avoid any confusion. 

Adjustments. In overhauling a Ford rear axle, it should be 
borne in mind that while no means of adjusting the mesh of the 
gears is provided, all parts subject to wear are removable and 
renewable. The non-replaceable parts are not subject to wear. 
Therefore, if a rear axle is fitted with a new set of wearing parts, 
it will be in as good running condition as when it left the factory, 
providing the rear-axle housing has not been sprung or deformed 
by accident. All the parts are so easily obtained and installed 
that there is no reason for not making the necessary renewals. 
Saving money by not installing or renewing worn parts is very 
expensive economy, for it will lead not only to excessive wear of 
the parts in question but to the imposition of extra strains on 
other parts, causing them to wear more rapidly than they should. 

For example, consider the thrust collars. If these collars are 
loose and other parts fit properly, there will be end play. This 
end play will allow the gears to work away from each other, 
placing extra wear on the teeth and increasing the thrust on the 
already worn collars and on the important bearings back of the 
driving pinion on the rear end of the propeller shaft. 

Referring again to the bevel pinion, do not try to remove 
it by driving unless the propeller shaft is removed and stripped; 
trouble may follow. Use a wood block to drive the shaft out 
of the pinion so that the shaft end will not be damaged. The 
pinion is mounted on a taper shaft, and once it is started, it drops 
off. Do not use the Woodruff key — which will prevent the pinion 
from turning on the shaft — until it is examined to make sure 
that it is not battered or worn so that the pinion can move 
on the shaft. Be very sure that the key is in place when the 
pinion is put back; if not, there can be but one result — the car 
will not run. 

Clean every individual part thoroughly and scrupulously. 
Do not leave a trace of old oil or dirt anywhere. When putting 
the parts together again, oil them, so there will be no danger 
of rusting the surface of the parts that are out of reach of the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 59 

oil in the housing. See that the spiral rollers of the roller bear- 
ings are thoroughly cleaned inside. 

Reassembling. In reassembling the axle, make sure that 
all parts go together as they originally belonged. If anything 
binds or sticks or will not go in as it should, there is a reason. 
Find the reason and remove it instead of trying to use brute 
force. Make sure that every nut, every screw, and every bolt is 
properly tightened. At the same time, do not make the mistake 
of tightening nuts with so much force that the threads are partly 
stripped. Be sure that all cotter pins are replaced and that no 
passages designed for lubrication are blocked. Finally, see that 
this system is given a plentiful supply of the right lubricants. 
The Ford rear axle needs plenty of lubrication, and the owner 
should see that it gets it. 

LUBRICATION SYSTEM 

Importance of Lubrication. Lubrication was the subject of 
a very thorough investigation when the Ford unit power plant 
was designed because, while the main purpose was to obtain 
extreme manufacturing and operating simplicity, sufficient lubrica- 
tion at all times had to be provided. From the viewpoint of 
an engineer, excessive lubrication of an internal-combustion engine 
will not have destructive influence, although accumulations of 
oil in the cylinders will coat the spark plugs and will impair, if 
not totally prevent, ignition. The unconsumed lubricant will col- 
lect upon the piston heads and the combustion chamber and will, 
with dust and foreign matters drawn through the carburetor air 
intake, become burnt and hardened by the heat and form carbon. 
While such a condition will lessen the efficiency of the motor, no 
actual damage will result unless the motor misfires in which event 
extra strains will be placed on the rear axle and the engine. 

But if the oil supplied is insufficient, damage will certainly 
result, the most probable effect being the heating and scoring 
or even the melting of the babbitt-metal bearings of the crank- 
shaft and the big ends of the connecting rods. Far more serious 
consequences may happen, such as a piston seizing in a cylinder, 
which may possibly buckle the crankshaft, bend or break a con- 



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60 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

necting rod, break a piston, or even puncture a hole in the crank- 
case, in the event that a connecting rod is broken. 

When a bearing is not properly lubricated and it heats until 
the babbitt metal is softened or flows from the cage to the rod 
end retaining it, it is referred to as a burnt-out bearing. In other 
words, because of lack of oil, the friction so heats the metal that 
it becomes plastic and no longer supports the load upon it, 
taking a new shape and so enlarging that the shaft or rod has 
side or end play, which causes a noise of a peculiar and notice- 
able character. Obviously the only remedy in such a case is- 
the replacement of the bearings — not a matter of great cost for 
parts, but quite an expense for labor and loss of service until 
the replacement is made. The standard labor price for this opera- 
tion is $4.50. 

Continuous Lubrication. Attention has been directed to the 
consequences of excessive and inefficient lubrication as adequate 
lubricity is imperative, and this cannot be obtained unless decided 
care is taken, despite the simplicity of the Ford system. In theory 
and in practice, the best results can always be obtained with 
machinery by feeding the lubricant in small quantities, constantly, 
and by having a supply which can be drawn upon for a considera- 
ble period of time. In motor-vehicle practice, the last-mentioned 
requirement is very important, for frequent renewals would demand 
an amount of care that would be objectionable to the drivers. 
The purpose of the design of the Ford engine was to have a sys- 
tem which would feed oil continuously and which could be operated 
for a considerable time or distance with one supply, the replenish- 
ments depending largely upon the use made of the car. 

Simplicity and economy demand that the system have the 
fewest parts practicable, and efficiency requires that the engine be 
fully lubricated, especially as many of the owners have little or 
no knowledge of mechanics and might, because of ignorance, 
neglect conditions that would receive attention from those more 
experienced. 

Parts of Lubrication System. A sectional view of the Ford 
motor, Fig. 49, shows the lubrication system. As previously 
stated, the engine block and the head are cast separately, the 
cylinder block forming the upper portion of the crankcase, while 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 61 

the lower half of the crankcase is of pressed steel, about ^ inch 
thick, extended back of the engine to form the bottom section 
of the flywheel and gear-set case. " In this pressed-steel section 
is an opening extending from a point just forward of the front 
wall of No. 1 cylinder to a point directly beneath the wall between 
cylinders 3 and 4. This opening is 13f inches long and 5 J inches 
wide and is surrounded by a raised edge, and a ring that is f inch 
high and f inch wide. 

Oil Troughs. The opening is closed by a pressed-steel plate, 
or cover, 15^ inches long and 6| inches wide, bolted on with 
a gasket between it and the case, thus making an oil-tight joint, 
the lap being about f inch. The plate is slightly curved to con- 
form with the general shape of the crankcase, and in the plate 
are three transverse troughs yq i ncn deep that are, when the 
cover is in place, directly under the caps of the connecting rods 
of the first three pistons of the engine. These can be noted in 
Fig. 49. 

Oil Reservoir. From a point just back of the rear portion 
of the ring about the opening, the crankcase is sharply bellied, 
or enlarged, to form a housing for the flywheel, and directly under 
the flywheel there is a cone-shaped pocket. From this the crank- 
case bottom rises to a point slightly above the level of the 
connecting-rod caps. From the ring rearward the bell housing 
of the flywheel forms the reservoir in which the oil is carried. 

Correct Level of Oil. There are two drain cocks located in 
the rear of this oil reservoir, so that the amount of oil contained 
in the tank can be ascertained. The motor must never be run 
until the oil is below the level of the bottom cock. When starting 
on a trip, the reservoir should be filled so that the oil will run 
out of the top cock. Be sure that dirt has not obstructed the 
openings in these cocks, as they are subjected to a great deal of 
road dirt. To secure the best results, the oil level should be 
about halfway between the two gage cocks. Were there exact 
knowledge of the quantity of oil required to fill the crankcase 
between the two drain cocks and were half of this oil placed in 
the engine base, perhaps the proper level would be reached, but 
there is no way of determining the consumption of the lubricant 
other than to learn if there is a flow from the lower cock. 



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X 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



63 



It should be remembered that the crankcase of the engine 
is not obstructed below the level of the main bearings from end 
to end and that the flywheel edge as it revolves is about \ inch 
above the inclined bottom of the case behind it. The engine 
case when full will contain about 4 quarts of oil, the lubricant 
being ££ inch deep in the troughs behind the three front con- 
necting rods in the bottom cover plate and slightly below the level 
of the cover plate. The troughs are supposed to contain sufficient 
oil to permit the connecting rods to dip into it as they revolve. 
When the machine is ascending or descending grades, the flow of 
the lubricant in the troughs must be either backward or forward, 
and in volume depending upon the angle of the grade. 

Circulation of Oil. Assuming that the machine is being 
driven on a level surface, the condition of the oil in the crankcase 



Cjlipder Walls 180 to 550 Ta^r 

V V Explo6iopHeai2006to300°Or^r 






^PLstop Head 

JSOOtp 1000Tal?r 




Crapk£earir^ 140to250Ti 



OIL LEVEL 



Fig. 50. Motor Temperature and Lubrication 



is similar to that shown in Fig. 50. About \ of the diameter 
of the flywheel is submerged in the oil; and the lower part of the 
three contracting bands that encircle the revolving planetary-gear 
set, the peripheries of the high- and the low-speed drums, and the 
surface brake drum are sprayed with oil from the flywheel. At 
every revolution of the crankshaft, the caps of the three forward 
connecting rods strike the lubricant in the troughs, while the cap 
of the rear connecting rod strikes a heavy spray of oil in the 
reservoir ahead of the flywheel. The approximate temperature 
of the various motor parts is also shown in Fig. 50. 



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64 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

As the. engine turns, the sweep of the connecting rods into 
the oil creates a splash that throws the lubricant from the left 
to the right side of the crankcase, and as the ends of the rods are 
swung through the space beneath the cylinders, the greater part 
of the oil is thrown off in the form of a spray. This is the result 
anticipated in all splash systems. The revolution of the gear set 
does nothing more than plentifully lubricate the pinions and the 
gears, and the degree of the lubrication is greatly in excess of the 
actual needs, but this is not a condition that can be criticized as 
it is insurance against wear. 

As the flywheel revolves in the oil, it carries upward consider- 
able lubricant, which is thrown off against the right side of the 
crankcase and the top of the flywheel housing. A small funnel is 
attached to the inside of the crankcase, Fig. 49. This funnel is 
directly in the line of the movement of the flywheel assembly, and 
the legs of the sixteen magneto magnets, clamped to the flywheel, 
serve as paddles and throw the oil up in considerable quantity 
when they rise above the surface of the lubricant; part of this 
flows into the funnel. The funnel is connected with a brass tube 
that leads along the inside of the crankcase and all the oil col- 
lected is carried forward to the gears at the front of the motor in 
the timing-gear case. When the crankcase is filled to the level 
of the highest drain cock, the volume of the oil circulated will be 
the greatest, and with the engine running at 1500 r.p.m., the 
circulation will be at the rate of about 2 quarts per minute. As 
the oil is consumed and the level is lowered, the volume of the 
oil circulated will decrease — probably to less than half the maxi- 
mum of 2 quarts, and when below the lower drain cock, the cir- 
culation lessens rapidly. Of course, there are other conditions 
that influence the oil circulation, the character of the oil — for a 
heavier lubricant will not be as thoroughly distributed, and a 
lighter oil will be carried in a larger volume — the heat of the 
engine, temperature of the air, all are factors that must be con- 
sidered. 

Filling the Troughs. As the oil is carried forward in the tube, 
it floods the timing gears and then flows into the bottom of 
the crankcase and over the forward end pan, filling the pool 
beneath the connecting rods. The connecting rods dip into the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 65 

oil about \ inch when the piston is on lower dead center. In 
recently built chassis, openings are made in the sides of the oil 
troughs, varying from ?% to | inch, to reduce the depth of the 
oil beneath the connecting rods, but obviously the flow is greatly 
dependent upon the heat of the engine, the grade and viscosity 
of the oil, and the volume supplied. As the openings are not 
uniform in width, one cannot determine what will be the actual 
oil depth in the troughs in any given operating condition. The 
oil thrown off by the big ends of the connecting rods lubricates 
the center and the rear main bearings, the wristpins, cylinders, 
pistons, cams, and valve tappets. 

Viscosity of Oils, The oil used for lubricating purposes is 
intended to form a film between two moving surfaces, and by 
preventing actual contact of the parts it minimizes friction. The 
fluidity of oil is spoken of as its viscosity and is measured by the 
time required for a given volume at a given pressure to pass 
through a standard aperture. The time is expressed in seconds 
and the reading is usually taken at 200 to 212°F. The range of 
the test of oils used in internal-combustion motors is from 180 
seconds for a light or medium oil to 2300 seconds for an extremely 
heavy oil. Oils of less than 180 have insufficient body to lubri- 
cate satisfactorily and those of more than 800 are unsatisfactory 
because the fuel consumption is increased. It has been found by 
laboratory tests that maximum results can be obtained in the 
cylinder with oil having a viscosity of 180. This affords the 
greatest horsepower for the amount of fuel consumed. 

Formation of Carbon. Oil from the lubrication of the pistons 
and the cylinders is splashed on the lower cylinder walls and is 
carried upward and spread over the cylinder walls to the height 
of the piston stroke by the pistons and the piston rings. A 
certain quantity is thrown off the pistons by the upward strokes 
and is projected onto the walls of the combustion chambers. If 
the quantity thrown off is small and the mixture is "lean" and 
is consumed rapidly, the oil will be practically all burned by the 
explosion and there will be no appreciable deposit of carbon. But 
when the quantity is large and the heat of the explosion does not 
consume it as readily, the vaporized portion is exhausted with the 
gases as smoke and the remainder is left on the walls as the heavy 



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66 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

end-products of destructive distillation. These are reduced by 
the intense heat into a cumulative incrustation that is generally 
referred to as carbon deposits. 

Effects of Carbon. The deposits of carbon in the combustion 
chamber, on the valves and seats, the spark plugs, and the piston 
heads decrease the efficiency of the motor; and while burning a 
mixture of fuel that will as far as possible secure complete com- 
bustion and thorough scavenging of the cylinders will undoubtedly 
have some influence, carbonization will eventually result. Yet 
the use of a good oil will greatly lengthen the period of service 
between removals of carbon. Sooted spark plugs, necessitating 
frequent cleaning and causing faulty ignition and loss of power; 
carbonized valves and valve ports, followed by leakage, loss of 
compression, dilution of fuel, and excessive fuel consumption; 
preignition from the points of carbon becoming incandescent — all 
these are among the certain results of carbonization. 

Cylinder Oil Film. The cylinders of the engine are usually 
bored to have the same diameter the entire length. The pistons 
are generally turned to have a slightly smaller diameter at the 
top, or head, to allow for expansion. The cylinder walls will be 
kept reasonably cool by the circulation of the water, but the 
pistons are cooled only by the admission of cool fuel and by the 
splash of oil into the cylinders. The clearance — the space allowed 
between the walls of the pistons and the cylinder — is filled by 
the piston rings, which are formed to be slightly larger than the 
cylinders and are compressed into the ring grooves. If the cylin- 
ders are true and the piston rings fit perfectly, the latter will 
prevent the escape of the gas during the compression and the 
explosion strokes, the film of oil between the rings and the cylin- 
der walls forming an oil seal. The lubricant that best serves is 
that which affords the most perfect seal and the greatest degree 
of lubricity. 

CARBURETION SYSTEM 

Importance of Correct Mixture. Many mechanics do not 
realize the importance of a perfect carburetor adjustment. Dif- 
ferent adjustments should be used when the car is driven under 
certain conditions. For instance, a certain amount of gasoline can 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 67 

be saved if the mixture is thinned down when the car is being 
driven between towns and a regular speed can be maintained. 
The pick-up will not be quite so good, but this sacrifice can be 
made in view of the saving in gasoline. 

The experienced driver can tell from the sound of the motor 
whether it is laboring with an over-rich gas mixture or whether it 
is "starving" for want of a mixture sufficiently rich to give the 
motor full power and to obtain gasoline efficiency. 

Troubles Misleading. Many ignition troubles have symptoms 
similar to those of carburetor troubles, and it sometimes takes a 
little time to determine which is at fault, the carburetor or the 
ignition system. For example, a poorly adjusted carburetor and 
a weak magneto have similar symptoms, as a weak magneto will 
not satisfactorily fire a charge that is either too rich or too lean. 

If the car is taken out on the road and run at about 15 
m.p.h., the carburetor can be adjusted so closely that the car 
will run perfectly at that speed. As soon as the car is stopped 
and again started, the same trouble may recur, and the motor 
may misfire a great deal. 

Back Fire in Intake Manifold. Too thin a mixture will make 
the motor spit-back or back-fire in the intake manifold and into 
the carburetor. The layman and even the mechanic will often 
wonder how the gas in the intake manifold and in the carburetor 
can be burned as the explosion takes place in the cylinder long 
after the intake valve has closed. It must be remembered that 
a thin mixture burns much slower than either the proper mixture 
or the rich one. 

There is a lapse in time of only a small fraction of a second 
between one explosion and the opening of the intake valve at 
the beginning of the next cycle when the motor is running at 1200 
revolutions per minute, or 20 revolutions per second. As there is 
one explosion in each cylinder in every two revolutions, 10 explo- 
sions will occur in that cylinder in 1 second; in other words, t^ 
second will be the time allowed for the completion of the four 
strokes of the cycle. This allows ■£$ second for each stroke of 
the piston. When the spark occurs, the thin mixture continues 
to burn through the power and the exhaust strokes, and it is 
still aflame when the intake valve opens at the beginning of the 



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68 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

next cycle. This gas has then been burning through two strokes 
of the cycle, or ■£$ second, if the motor is running at 1200 revolu- 
tions per minute. The gas in the intake manifold is ignited by 
this flame. 

Carburetor Adjustments. There are but two parts that can 
be adjusted on the Ford carburetor, the float, which needs very 
little adjustment, and the needle valve. In order to adjust the 
float, it is necessary to take the carburetor apart. The float, 




Fig. 51. Carburetor Float 

Fig. 51, is made of cork and is well shellacked so that the gasoline 
will not be absorbed and cause the float to be heavy, or water- 
logged. The float closes the valve that allows the gasoline to 
enter the carburetor from the gasoline tank, and if the float is 
waterlogged, the valve will not close when the gasoline has 
reached its proper level. This will cause the carburetor to leak 
when the car is standing and permit a rich mixture when the 
motor is running. To remedy this trouble, the float must be 
thoroughly dried and a fresh ( oat of shellac applied; or a new 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



69 



float may be installed. The float arm must be bent if the gasoline 
level in the float is not at the proper point. Fig. 52 is a sectional 
view of the Kingston carburetor, while the Holley carburetor is 
shown in Fig. 53. The gasoline level must be high enough to 
allow the gasoline to come just below the top end of the spray 
nozzle. If this level is low, the motor will start hard. If the 
float valve C, Fig. 52, does not seat properly, or leaks from any 
cause, the carburetor will leak just as though the float was water- 
logged. The pin B holds. the float and the float lever in proper 
relation to the float valve C. The gasoline, or needle-valve, 
adjustment is made by 

turning the needle J, the *-*JT ^ 

adjustment rod extending 
to the dash of the car. If 
the needle is turned to the 
right, or clockwise, the 
mixture will be made thin- 
ner; if turned to the left, 
or anti-clockwise, a richer 
mixture will result. 

Care of Gasoline Line. 
The gasoline line is a very 
important part of the car- 
buretion system. It is 
sometimes clogged or 
obstructed with foreign material, thus preventing the gasoline 
from flowing properly to the carburetor. Lack of gasoline will 
cause the motor to spit-back in the intake manifold just as it 
would if the nozzle was set for too thin a mixture. If the gasoline 
line is obstructed, the motor will generally run without missing at 
low speeds, but when speeded up, it will start to miss. This is 
due to the fact that there is not enough gasoline flowing to the 
carburetor to replace the gasoline that the motor has consumed. 

Care of Spray Nozzle. The carburetor spray nozzle has a 
very small opening and therefore a particle of some foreign sub- 
stance can easily clog up this opening. This will cause the motor 
to misfire and slow up when the throttle is opened, the motor 
acting much as if there was a clogged-up gasoline line. This 




Fig. 52. Sectional View of Kingston Carburetor 



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70 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



occurs because the motor requires a great deal more gasoline 
when running fast than when idling. The obstruction can gen- 
erally be removed by opening the needle valve a few turns and 
then opening the throttle several times in rapid succession; this 
draws the dirt or other foreign matter through the Spray nozzle. 
The needle must then be turned back to the original position. If 
this does not remove the obstruction, it will be necessary to drain 





ite=^ 



T0RAI5E LEVEL BEND 
LEVER OOWN, 



v^"--- 






Section of Holley Carburetor: A, Needle Valve; B, Choker Rod; C, 
Auxiliary Air Intake; D, Float; E, Throttle Lever; F, Slow Speed Sup- 
ply Tube; G, Float Chamber; H, Supply Holes to Needle Valve; I, Drain. 

Fig. 53. Sectional View of Holley Carburetor 

the carburetor, which, after it is removed from the car, should be 
thoroughly cleaned. 

Hot=Air Pipe. The hot-air pipe furnishes a supply of warm 
air to the carburetor and vaporizes the fuel. It is advisable to 
remove the hot-air tube during the summer months, but this tube 
must be on the car during the winter months. 

Throttle Adjustment. If the motor runs too fast when the 
throttle is fully closed, it is necessary to adjust the throttle stop 
screw. The lock screw that keeps the throttle-adjusting screw 
from turning, Fig. 52, should first be loosened. The throttle 
screw is then turned out — anti-clockwise — until the motor slows 
up to the desired speed. The lock screw is then tightened so 
that the adjustment will be permanent. 



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71 



Setting Carburetor for Heavy Fuels. The old Holley carbu- 
retors were fitted with a strangling tube ^f inch in diameter at 
the throat. This strangler, or mixing 
tube, was satisfactory for the high- 
grade fuels of a few years ago, but it 
does not handle the present fuel as it 
should. This mixing tube, Fig. 54, 
can be replaced with a tube ff inch 
in diameter at the throat for the 
proper mixing of the present heavy ** M - Carburetor Mixing Tube 
fuels. The'smaller tube causes a greater velocity of the gases through 
the mixing chamber, and therefore there is a better mixture when the 
gas enters the cylinders, which results in greater mileage and power. 




TROUBLE SHOOTING 

KNOCKS IN MOTOR 
Q. If the motor has a rather sharp slap or knock, when the 
throttle is quickly opened, what may be the trouble? 

A. This symptom is indicative of piston slap, fuel knock, or 
carbon formation. If the car has not run many thousands of 
miles, it would be advisable to eliminate the possibilities of the 
piston slap. One of the spark plugs should then be removed and 
inspected and the combustion chamber examined through the 
spark-plug hole to find out what condition the combustion chamber 
is in. If there is a heavy coating of carbon, the cylinder head 
should be removed and the carbon scraped off, or it may be 
removed by the oxygen process. 

Q. If a dull heavy knock is heard when pulling through sand 
or up a hill, what does this indicate? 

A. This knock generally indicates that the main bearings are 
loose, and they should be inspected as soon as possible, as opera- 
ting the motor with loose main bearings will cause the crankshaft 
pins to wear considerably and there is also a possibility of the 
crankshaft being sprung or broken. 

Q. If a knock is present when the throttle is closed or when 
the car is pulling the motor, such as going down a hill, what does 
this indicate? 



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72 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

A. When a knock is produced under these conditions, it 
generally is caused by a loose connecting rod. The particular rod 
that is loose can be located by shorting the spark plugs with a 
hammer or a screw driver. The motor should be running idle 
when this test is made. When a double knock is heard, the con- 
necting rod in that particular cylinder is loose. This is very 
easily detected after a little practice. 

Q. If a sharp knock is present when the throttle is quickly 
opened; the pistons fit perfectly; there is no carbon deposit; and 
all bearings are tight — what then should be inspected? 

A. About the only other condition that would cause the 
motor to knock is a spark advanced too far or an overheated 
motor. Either of these will cause the explosion to occur early, 
and this early explosion will drive the skirt of the piston against 
the cylinder with great force, producing a knock similar to the 
piston slap. If this trouble is due to the spark lever being advanced 
too far, the knock will usually die out when the lever is retarded. 

GENERAL REPAIRS 

Q. How often should the Timken wheel bearings be removed 
from a Ford to be greased and cleaned? 

A. The Ford manual gives the instruction to remove the 
front wheel bearings every 500 miles so that the bearings may be 
cleaned and repacked with grease. This, however, applies to the 
ball-bearing type, which is the regular equipment on all open cars. 
For the closed cars, which are Timken equipped, however, it is 
necessary to remove the front wheel bearings only about every 
2000 miles, washing out the bearings thoroughly with kerosene 
and repacking with fresh grease. 

Q. When a grinding noise is present, seemingly in the 
transmission, what is the cause? 

A. This trouble is generally due to worn triple-gear bush- 
ings in the transmission. These worn bushings cause the gears to 
grind considerably as the teeth do not mesh as they should, 
especially when the low-speed or the reverse pedal is depressed. 

Q. If a continual thumping noise is heard and it seems to 
come from the rear axle, what parts should be inspected to locate 
this trouble? 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 73 

A. The cause of this thump is undoubtedly a chipped tooth 
on the ring gear. The chip may have lodged between two teeth, 
in which case it will cause a thump every time it passes by the 
pinion. This chip should be removed at once, as it is sure to 
spring the differential housing and cause much damage if allowed 
to remain in this position. 

Q. What causes the motor to miss on two cylinders and at 
the same time back=fire into the intake manifold? 

A. If the timer has been replaced, it is quite likely that the 
wires have not been connected properly to the timer terminals. 
If this is the case, the spark will occur in two cylinders just as the 
piston starts down on the intake stroke instead of when the piston 
is just starting down on the power stroke, thus giving a back-fire 
in the intake manifold. When these pistons again come up on the 
compression stroke and are ready to fire, no spark will occur in 
the cylinders as the spark has already taken place one revolution 
earlier; therefore, the two cylinders will miss. - 

Q. What is the trouble when the motor will not idle down 
or pull when operating in low speed? 

A. This trouble is undoubtedly due to either the float level 
being too low; air leaks around the valve stem, Fig. 31; or air 
leaks in the intake manifold. In order to locate leaks in the man- 
ifold, a rag moistened with gasoline should be laid over the con- 
nections between the manifold and the cylinder block, or gasoline 
may be poured sparingly on the manifold. If the motor increases 
in speed, it is a sign that the manifold leaks at the place where 
the rag was held when the speed of the motor increased. 

Q. Is it possible to remove one or two tubes from the Ford 
radiator and replace them with new ones? 

A. It is possible to remove these tubes, although the pro- 
cess necessitates a great deal of work. The head, or tank, must 
be unsoldered at the back, removing the rear section so that the 
upper ends of the tubes may be unsoldered. The tank at the bottom 
of the radiator must also be opened up so that the old tubes can be 
unsoldered and the new tubes inserted. If possible, the old tubes 
should be repaired; this will generally eliminate considerable work. 

Q. How tight should the crankshaft bearings of a motor 
be adjusted? 



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74 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

A. Bearings should never be adjusted on any motor so 
that the average man cannot crank it with ease. Suppose the 
bearings are tightly placed; it will then be necessary for them to 
wear a certain amount before a film of oil on a bearing can be 
properly formed. After the car is run a few thousand miles, the 
bearings are worn to fit more correctly than they could be 
scraped by a first-class mechanic. A very tight bearing will also 
loosen quicker than a snug bearing and will naturally cause more 
trouble. If the bearings are adjusted so that the piston will 
drop by its own weight — if the crankshaft and the rod are on 
the bench — you will have no trouble with bearing knocks and 
the motor can be immediately operated without fear of burning 
out the bearings. 

Q. How should you proceed to reline the Ford transmission 
bands? 

A. To reline the transmission bands, it is necessary to 
remove the cover of the transmission and flywheel case. The 
bands are then moved back, turned around, and lifted out. The 
new lining is then riveted in place on each band, preferably with 
split rivets. In replacing the bands, it is necessary to wire the 
ends together after they have been placed on the transmission 
drums so that the pedal bars will engage the ends of these bands 
when the cover is set in place. After the transmission cover is 
tightly turned in place, the pedals should be adjusted by means 
of the adjusting nuts on the pedal bars and on the transmission 
case, this adjustment being made through the opening made by 
removing the inspection cover on the transmission. These bands 
can be exchanged at small cost for new bands. 

Q. How is the ring gear adjusted? 

A. While there is no adjustment of the ring, or bevel, gear 
on the Ford car, if the thrust bearings are in good condition and 
not worn, the gears will mesh properly; if, however, these thrust 
bearings are worn, they should be replaced as the gears will wear 
out rapidly if the car is operated when they are improperly meshed. 

Q. How Qiuch clearance should be allowed between the 
ends of the piston rings? 

A. A clearance of 0.003 inch to each inch of piston diameter 
should be allowed between the ends of the piston rings. As the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 75 

Ford motor has a bore of 3f inches, a clearance of from 0.012 
to 0.015 should be allowed. This, however, is a general rule and 
the Ford Motor Company recommends a clearance of 0.012 between 
the ends of the upper ring, 0.008 between the ends of the second 
ring, and from 0.004 to 0.006 between the ends of the third, or 
bottom, ring. 

Q. How much clearance should be allowed between the 
piston and cylinder when new pistons are being fitted? 

A. A clearance of 0.00075 to 0.001 inch for each inch of 
piston diameter should be allowed at the top of the piston, using 
cast iron as the material for the pistons. When aluminum is 
used, 0.0025 to 0.003 inch should be allowed as this metal expands 
much more than cast iron. 



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.1 



o 

H 

•J 

w 
o 
o 

a 



o 

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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND 
REPAIR 

PART II 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 

Elementary Electrical Principles. All Ford cars are now 
equipped with an electric starting and lighting system at the fac- 
tory. The mounting of the starter and generator is shown in 
Fig. 55. In order to understand this system, a few characteristics 
of an electric current will first be taken up. 

There are three qualities in an electrical current that must be 
understood, as the actions of these qualities determine to a great 
extent the trouble in the system: 

The volt is the unit of electrical pressure, which may be likened 
to the pressure in a water-supply system that forces the water 
through a pipe. 

The ampere is the amount of current that flows through a cir- 
cuit, which may be compared to the amount of water that flows 
through a pipe. 

The ohm is the unit of electrical resistance which tends to 
hold back the amperes flowing through a circuit and which may 
be compared to the resistance in the water pipe that tends to 
hold back the water. 

It is therefore evident that if the voltage of a circuit is 
increased, there will be more amperes flowing through the circuit, 
just as when the pressure in the water-supply system is increased, 
there is a greater amount of water flowing through the pipes. If 
the size of a wire is increased, a greater amount of current will 
flow, just as more water will flow through a 2-inch pipe than 
through a 1-inch pipe, the pressure being the same in "both cases. 
It is therefore necessary to use wires of different sizes for different 
circuits in the electrical system according to the number of amperes 
necessary to operate the particular instrument to which the wires 
connect. For instance, the starter cable is No. 0, while the cable 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

for the horn is No. 18; the pressure, or voltage, on the cir- 
does not exactly determine the size of wire necessary. The 



Fig. 55. Ford Motor Showing Mounting of Starter and Generator 

greater the voltage, the smaller must be the wire to handle a 
given current, as a high voltage would force a greater amount of 

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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



79 



current through a given resistance. On the other hand, if a 
higher amperage is needed, the wire must be larger. If the wire 
is too small for a certain current discharge, it will sometimes 
become so hot that it will burn or fuse and cause an open circuit. 
Insulation. All cables and wires running from the battery to 
the various instruments and from the magneto must be covered 
with a suitable form of insulation to prevent short-circuits. 
Wires carrying low-voltage current, such as used in the Ford car 
on the starting and lighting system, do not need so heavy an 
insulation as is necessary on the spark-plug cables. The high- 
tension, or spark-plug, cables carry a very high voltage, ranging 




Lighting Cable 





Starting 
Cable 

Fig. 56. Types of Cables Employed in Automobile Electrical Equipment 

from 6000 to 18,000, and it is therefore necessary to use a heavy 
insulating material of good grade on these wires. Fig. 56 shows the 
insulation on the various wires. A water pipe carrying a pressure 
of 100 pounds per square inch would necessarily need to be 
stronger than one carrying 10 pounds per square inch. This is 
equally true of the electrical system, using the voltage carried, as 
the determining factor when the thickness of the insulation is to 
be ascertained. 

Magnetism. When current flows through a conductor, mag- 
netism, or magnetic lines of force, flows around this conductor, 
Fig. 57. If this conductor, which is generally a wire, is wrapped 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



around a soft-iron core, Fig. 58, and a current is allowed to flow 
through this conductor, this core becomes a strong electromagnet. 
^^-----^---^ The strength of this elec- 

tromagnet depends entirely 
upon the ampere turns in 
the coil. An ampere turn 
is 1 turn of wire through 
which 1 ampere is flowing. 
If there are 100 turns and 
4 amperes flow through 
the circuit, there are 400 
ampere turns in the coil, 
and the magnet is four times as strong as if only one ampere 
were flowing. If this soft-iron core was replaced with a piece 
_ _ ^ of steel, the magnet would 




Fig. 57. Magnetism Around the Conductor 



>-N> 







Fig. 58. Construction of Electromagnet 



be permanent after it was 
once magnetized by the 
current flowing through the 
coil. When the soft-iron 
core is used, the magnet- 
ism is retained only as 
long as the current flows. 
The electromagnet is used 
in the Ford coils to oper- 
ate the ignition, in the starter and the generator fields, and in 
charging magnets in the shop or on the car. 

IGNITION SYSTEM 

The ignition system consists of a magneto or a battery as a 
source of current supply; spark, or induction, coils; a timer; and a 
set of spark plugs. 

Induction Coils. The Ford induction, or ignition, coils are 
located in the coil box on the dash of the car. On the earlier 
models — which were not equipped with the starting system at the 
factory — an ignition switch was placed on the outside of this box. 
On the late models the ignition switch is located on the cowl and 
forms a part of the lighting switch. There are four coils in this 



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•FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 81 

box, Fig. 59 showing the box in cross section. Each coil furnishes 
a spark to each cylinder of the motor. 

If the electromagnet is wound with a number of turns of fine 
wire over the primary winding, Fig. 59, a transformer is produced. 
A spark of very high voltage will be induced in this winding 



Fig. 59. Cross-Section of Coil-Box Unit 

when the circuit in the primary winding is broken. The current 
induced in this secondary winding is as many times stronger than 
that flowing in the primary winding as the number of turns of 
wire in the secondary is greater than the number of turns in the 
primary. For instance, if there are 100 turns in the primary 
winding and 100,000 turns in the secondary winding, the voltage 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 




of this secondary current will be 1000 times the voltage of the primary 
current, if the resistance in the external circuit of the secondary 

is not changed. 

In the case of an ignition 
coil, the change in voltage is very 
great as the current from the 
secondary winding must have 
sufficient pressure, or voltage, to 
jump the gap at the spark plug. 
This current has a very low 
amperage, however, for it never 
exceeds ttf ampere and generally 
it is about tot ampere. The volt- 
age finally depends on the com- 
pression and the spark-plug gap. 
Vibrator. The vibrator is 
used to cause frequent continuous 
breaking of the primary circuit, 
as a strong current is induced in 
the secondary winding when the 
circuit of the primary is broken. By referring to Figs. 59 and 60, 
it will be noted that the vibrator is directly above the end of the 
core. When the core becomes a magnet, it will attract the vibrator 
A, pulling it down and opening the circuit at the point B. The 
opening of this primary circuit causes the core to lose its magnet- 
ism, and the vibrator is then 
drawn up by a spring, again 
closing the circuit at the 
points B, and the core again 
becomes magnetized. This 
series of events continues at 
the rate of many times a sec- 
ond with the result that the 
core of the coil alternately 
becomes a magnet and then 
an ordinary unmagnetized piece of iron. When the primary circuit 
is broken the magnetism instantly disappears causing a secondary 
current to be induced in the secondary winding, and each impulse 



Fig. 60. Connection of Condenser in the Coil 




Fig. 61. Construction of the Condenser 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



83 



gives a current of sufficient strength to jump the gap between the 
points of the spark plug. 

Condenser. The condenser, Figs. 60 and 61, acts as a reser- 
voir in storing up, or absorbing, a certain portion of the current 
at the time the points separate. It may be likened to a surge 
tank or diaphragm, Fig. 62, which allows the water in a water 
system to move into a by-pass when the main outlet is quickly 
shut, thereby preventing the breakage of the water pipe. The 
condenser is contained in the coil unit and is composed of sheets 
of tin foil and paraffin paper in alternate layers; every other sheet 
of tin foil is connected to one of the vibrator points; the remain- 
ing sheets are connected to the other vibrator point. The con- 




Surgc Tonk. 



Fig. 62. Diagram Showing Hydraulic Analogy of Ignition System 

denser prevents the vibrator points from burning rapidly and at 
the same time causes the magnetism to disappear quickly. A 
certain amount of current is induced in the primary winding at 
the time the circuit is broken, and this eddy current tends to 
again magnetize the core. This continuous action, if unremedied, 
would prevent the quick demagnetization of the core and cause a 
very inefficient secondary current. The condenser absorbs the 
eddy currents ; thereby allowing a strong spark to be produced at 
the spark plug. It is almost a sure sign that the condenser is 
defective when the vibrator points start to burn and a white 
spark appears at these points. If, after examining the points and 
replacing them with a new set, the spark still continues, it is evi- 



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84 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

dent that the condenser has broken down. It will then be neces- 
sary to install a new coil as the condenser cannot be repaired. 



S MAGNET { 




( N 



Fig. 63. Principle of Induced Current 



Ford Magneto. If magnetic lines of force are cut by a coil, 
a current is induced in the coil. By referring to Fig. 63 it will be 
noted that the coil is being moved backward and forward on 



Fig. 64. Magneto Coils and Magnets 

the end of a permanent magnet. This action induces a current 
in the coil in the reverse manner that a soft-iron core was made 
an electromagnet by allowing a current to flow through the coil. 

A Ford magneto utilizes this same prin- 

y''^~S~-ZZZZ\ -^; . s ciple in generating a current for ignition 

'>''>'''''* "^Cx\\ — for ignition and lights on early models. 

^ N 2 ' 1 ^r T Fig. 64 shows the magneto coils and their 

N XSr;~ -v^'VV relation to the magnets. There are six- 

^" \::~---- ^-'' teen stationary coils and sixteen magnets 

Fig. 65. Path of Magnetic Lines that are fastened on the flywheel and 

of Force revolve at a distance of ^ inch from the 

cores of these coils. The rapid cutting of these magnetic lines of 

force by the coils — the magnets moving — induces a current in the 

coils of variable voltage, the voltage depending upon the speed at 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

TABLE I 
Output of Early Ford Magneto at Various Speeds 



85 



R.P.M. 


Volts 


Amperes 


R.P.M. 


Volts 


Amperes 


200 


8.0 


3 


800 


20.0 





300 


9.2 


— 


900 


22.8 


— 


400 


12.2 


— 


1000 


24.3 


— 


500 


14.2 


— 


1200 


27.0 


— 


600 


16.4 


— 


1500 


30.0 


5 


700 


18.8 











which the motor is operating. The amperage also varies with the 
speed of the motor but does not vary as much as the voltage. 
The magneto will generate sufficient current to operate the igni- 
tion satisfactorily at all motor speeds. 



Fig. 66. Mounting of the Magnets 

Magnetic lines of force pass from the north pole to the south 
pole of a magnet, Fig. 65. When these lines of force travel 
through a coil in a certain direction, the current will flow from 
that coil from a certain terminal in one direction only. If the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 




Fig. 67. Current Induced in One Direction 



direction of these lines of force is changed, the direction of the 
induced flow of current will also be changed. The horseshoe mag- 
nets form a magnetic cir- 
cuit between their poles; 
they are mounted with like 
poles together, Fig. 66. 
Small steel plates [are 
mounted at the ends of the 
magnets so that the lines 
of force will pass through 
the cores of the coils a 
greater length of time than 
if the ends of the magnets were bare. Alternate coils are wound in 
opposite directions so that a current of the same polarity will be 
induced in all sixteen coils at the same time. When the south 
poles of the magnets are opposite a coil that is wound in one 
direction, Fig. 67, the current will flow in the direction indicated 
by the arrows. North lines of force are then flowing through the 
core of the adjacent coil, and as this coil is wound in the opposite 
direction to that of the first coil, the current will flow in the same 
direction. When the magnets are turned one-sixteenth of a 
revolution, north magnetic lines of force will be flowing through 
the first coil and south magnetic lines through the second coil. 
The direction of the induced current will then be changed, this 

reversal taking place six- 
teen times in every revolu-* 
tion. This position is 
shown in Fig. 68. 

Table I shows the out- 
put in volts and amperes 
of the early Ford magneto 
at various speeds. 

Timer. The timer is 
used to distribute the pri- 
mary ignition current to the proper coil at the time a spark is 
desired to explode a gas charge in a cylinder. 

By referring to Fig. 69, it will be noted that there are four 
contacts around the inner part of the timer equidistantly spaced. 




Fig. 68. Current Induced in Opposite Direction 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 87 

A roller is mounted on the front end of the camshaft which 
makes contact with these segments, thereby completing the pri- 
mary circuit through the spark coil, causing the vibrator to operate, 
and producing a secondary spark at the spark plug. A diagram 
of the ignition circuit is shown in Fig. 70. The coil box on all 
Ford cars is provided with a battery terminal so that a battery 
can be utilized for ignition purposes if desired. On the cars 
equipped with a starting system at the factory, the starting 
battery is connected to this terminal. The Ford Motor Company 
recommends that the car be started with the ignition switch in 
the battery position and run on the battery until the engine 
warms up. The magneto should then be used for ignition as it 



Fig. 69. Ford Timer 

is designed to meet this service. The battery connection is made 
through the lighting and ignition switch. 

Path of Ignition Current. By referring to Fig. 70, it will 
be seen that when the switch is on BATTERY, the current leaves 
the positive pole of the battery, passes to the starter switch, to 
the second terminal on the terminal block, and through the 
ammeter to the battery terminal on the back of the switch. The 
current then travels to the busbar in the bottom of the coil box, 
through the primary winding of coil No. 1 — the timer contact is 
on segment No. 1 — through the vibrator points to terminal No. 1 
on the timer, to the timer roller, and to the ground, and returns 
to the negative post of the battery. As the current flows through 



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88 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

the primary winding of the coil, the vibrator starts to operate and 
a current of high voltage is induced in the secondary winding 
every time the vibrator points open. Tbis high-tension current 
flows to the spark plugs and returns to the other end of the sec- 
ondary winding through the timer and the timer wires. 



Fig. 70. Ignition Wiring Diagram 

When the switch is turned to MAQ, the current is taken 
from the terminal of the magneto and flows to the first terminal 
of the terminal block, to the magneto terminal on the back of the 
switch, and across the switch and to the busbar in the coil box. 
The remainder of the magneto circuit is the same as the battery 
circuit except that the magneto current returns to the grounded 
end of the magneto coils instead of to the battery. 



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89 



CRACK 



Testing Dash Coils. If it is thought that the ignition coils 
are out of adjustment when the motor misses or is hard to start, 
they can be easily tested from the front seat. The cylinders that 
are missing can also be located by this method. 

Remove the coil-box cover and speed up the motor to a car 
speed of about 12 m.p.h. Then- press down on vibrators Nos. 1 
and 2 and note the action of the motor. If two explosions are 
distinctly heard at the exhaust, it is a sign that Nos. 3 and 4 
are operating all right. If, however, there is just one explosion, 
it is a sign that one of these cylinders is not working properly. 
This fault can be located by the process of elimination. Release 
No. 1 vibrator and hold down No. 3 instead; if only one cylinder 
is then firing, it is a sign that either No. 4 or 
No. 1 is defective. Either one can be eliminated 
by holding down its vibrator. If the motor stops, 
it should be tried again with the throttle open 
a little more. If vibrator No. 4 is then depressed 
and the motor stops firing, it is a sure sign that 
No. 1 cylinder is missing; this, however, may not 
be coil trouble. To eliminate any possibility 
of coil trouble, one of the properly working coils 
should be lifted out and exchanged with the sup- 
posedly defective coil. If the cylinder still misses, 
the spark plug should be examined; if the spark 
plug is all right, the motor should be examined 
for loss of compression, valve trouble, dirty commutators, loose con- 
nections, or broken wires. 

Spark Plugs. In Fig. 71 is shown a partial section of a spark 
plug. The center electrode is made of heat-resisting metal so 
that it will not fuse and melt away. The porcelain or electrode 
insulator is made of material that will not crack with either heat 
or cold. It must also withstand any sudden change in tempera- 
ture without cracking. If the porcelain does crack or become 
porous, as in Fig. 71, it is useless to try to use it as the spark will 
pass through the pores instead of jumping the gap at the points. 
The current always takes the path of least resistance and the 
resistance of a spark gap under pressure is much greater than that 
of the path through the porous porcelain. 




Fig. 71. Damaged 
Spark Plug 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



Care of Ignition System. The timer should be removed at 
regular intervals and inspected. Any old grease containing a 
great deal of grit and cuttings should be carefully removed. The 
contacts should be inspected to make sure that there are no 
uneven or worn places such as shown in Fig. 72. If the timer 
is in this condition, the motor is likely to miss when running at 
a fair rate of speed. The timer roller will enter the low places 
and bounce over the contact. The roller spring should be care- 
fully examined as the end of this 
spring may be worn almost in 
two, and if it is replaced in this 
condition, it is sure to cause 
trouble. 

Timer Wires. The timer 
wires are enclosed in a loom to 
prevent them from being dam- 
aged mechanically and to keep 
them free from oil. They should 
be carefully examined to see that 
there are no bare wires exposed, 
especially where they connect to 
the timer. If there is an acci- 
dental ground in these wires, the 
motor will miss, backfire, or 
Fig. 72. worn Timer "kick" when it is cranked. 




STARTING AND GENERATING SYSTEM 
GENERATORS 

Function. The generator produces an electric current that 
replaces current used from the storage battery. When the starter 
is used, current is discharged from the storage battery, and this 
current must be replaced as the battery would be exhausted if 
this were not done. The lights also take current from the bat- 
tery when they are in use if the generator is not generating 
sufficient current to supply them. Fig. 73 shows the assembly of 
the starter drive and an outside view of the generator. 

It has been stated that if an electric current is passed through 
a conductor, which may be in the form of a coil, a magnetic field 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



91 



I 



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92 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



is produced about the conductor. The introduction of an iron 
bar in the coil greatly increases the magnetic effect because it 
is much easier for the magnetism to travel through the iron than 
through the air inside the coil of wire. For this reason, the iron 
core is always used in the electromagnet. 

It is also true that if a conductor is passed between the poles 
of a magnet through the magnetic field, an electric pressure is 
generated, or induced, in the conductor which will cause current 
to flow. The greater the number of magnetic lines of force cut 
per second by this conductor, the greater will be the amount of 

current flowing through it. These 
magnetic lines of force can be 
increased by winding the field 
coils with a greater number of 




Fig. 74. Simple Generator 



Fig. 75. Windings of Modern Armature 



ampere turns; by using a higher voltage on the fields; or by increas- 
ing the speed of the generator. 

A simple generator is shown in Fig. 74, in which a loop of 
wire is revolving between the poles of a magnet. In order to 
carry the current that is induced in the loop of wire into the 
external circuit, a commutator is provided. This consists of two 
segments, each being connected to an end of the wire loop. Two 
brushes B run on this commutator to collect the current. In all 
modern generators a number of loops or coils of wire are mounted 
in a rigid manner on a laminated iron core, forming the armature, 
Fig. 75. The brushes are so placed on the commutator that the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



93 



current collected by them flows from one brush through the exter- 
nal circuit and back to the other brush. 

Regulation. Since the voltage generated in the armature of 
a generator is proportional to the number of magnetic lines cut 
per second, it is evident that by regulating the speed at which 
the armature travels, we can regulate the voltage generated. It 
is also evident that by regulating the field strength, and thus 
changing the magnetic lines flow- 
ing through the armature, we can 
regulate the voltage generated. 
The latter method is used in the 
Ford generator. If this voltage 
were not held within certain 
limits, the lights on the car would 
be burned out as the high voltage 
would force enough current 
through the lamp filaments to 
melt them and cause an open 
circuit. 

Third Brush. The Ford gen- 
erator decreases the field strength 
by the use of the third brush. 
The field winding is connected 
between the grounded main brush 
and the small third brush which 
bears on the upper side of the 
commutator, Fig. 76. The posi- 
tion of this brush may be changed 
so that it is nearer to or farther 

from the grounded main brush. Fig - 76 - Generator Field Connections 

The distance between these two brushes determines the maximum 
strength of the current delivered at the generator. 

The action of the third brush is as follows: When the genera- 
tor is operating at a low rate of speed, the magnetic lines of force 
pass in a straight line from the north field pole to the south field 
pole, Fig. 77. It will be noted that the third brush is bearing on 
the commutator segments that are in the direct path of these 
magnetic lines of force. When the speed of the generator is 




INSULATED 
BRUSH 




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94 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



increased these magnetic lines are distorted, Fig. 78. This causes 
the coils that are connected to the commutator bars on which 
the third brush bears to be out of the direct path of the magnetic 
lines. The voltage generated at the bar on which this third brush 
bears will then be decreased, and as decreasing the strength of 
the field coils decreases the total number of magnetic lines cut 
by the armature, the output of the generator will be reduced. 




Fig. 77. Path of Lines of Force 

To regulate the output of the Ford generator, all lights should 
be turned off and the motor should be run on the magneto. The 
generator should be warm when the change is made. Remove 
the cover that closes the opening in the rear end of the generator 
housing. This is done by taking out two round-headed screws 
that hold this cover in place. The hexagonal nut holding in 
place the bolt that clamps the third-brush holder to the brush 
ring is reached through the opening in the rear-end housing. It 
is at the right of the generator terminal when facing the rear end 
of the generator. A small, thin, open-end wrench is the best 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



95 



one to use in turning this nut. Loosen it and then tap the 
third-brush holder so as to move it in the slot in the desired 
direction. Moving the third brush in the same direction as the 
armature is rotating increases the charging rate; moving it in 
the opposite direction decreases the charging rate, Fig. 79. The 
engine should be running at about 800 r.p.m. and when 
the desired output is obtained, the nut should be tightened. The 
engine should then be run at different speeds to make sure that 




Fig. 78. Distorted Lines of Force 

the current does not reach a value greater than that indicated 
before the nut was tightened. The brush should be set so that 
the highest reading is between 10 and 12 amperes. It is good 
practice to sand-in the third brush after it has been set in its 
new position until all points of the brush touch the commutator. 
The method of sanding-in the brush is shown in Fig. 80. 

Shunt=Wound Generator. The Ford generator is shunt 
wound, which is to say, only a portion of the current generated 
passes through the field coils, or the shunt, of the generator. The 



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96 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



connections of the shunt fields are shown in Fig. 76. On each of 
the four field poles is wound a single field coil, and these coils are 
connected in series with each other. The joints between the coils 
are made by soldering the wires together and covering the joint 
with tape. The resistance of the four field coils when cold is 
about 2.45 ohms. 

Proper Generator Operation. The cutout should close when 
the generator is running at about 600 r.p.m., or at a car speed of 

10 m.p.h. At this speed the volt- 
age of the generator should be a 
little higher than that of the bat- 
/HCfi£A$£/^y^ "N/\ tery so that the generator can 

charge the battery just as soon as 
the points close. As the speed of 
the engine increases, the output of 
the generator will continue to 
increase until the generator is run- 
ning at 1200 r.p.m. or a car speed 
of 20 m.p.h. At this speed the 
current reaches its maximum value; 
0£CR£-asi at higher speeds the charging rate 
decreases. This decrease is caused 
by the almost complete distortion 
of the magnetic lines of force, which 
distortion decreases the voltage at 
the third brush. 

A charging rate of 10 amperes 
is the best for average driving 
conditions. The cutout will not 
open and disconnect the generator from the battery until the voltage 
of the generator has dropped slightly below that of the battery, 
when the battery will begin to discharge into the generator. This 
will be indicated by the pointer of the ammeter coming to the O 
line and moving on the discharge position to 1 or 2 amperes. This 
discharge current should not exceed a few amperes and should flow 
for only an instant before the cutout points open. 

Cutout. The purpose of the cutout is to automatically con- 
nect the battery to the generator when the voltage of the gen- 




Fig. 79. Regulation of Third Brush 



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97 



BRUSH 




Fig. 80. Method of Sanding-In a Brush 



erator is greater than that of the battery, and to disconnect the 
battery from the generator when the voltage of the battery is 
greater than that of the 
generator. This action 
is necessary to prevent 
the battery from dis- 
charging into the gener- 
ator when the motor is 
not running. 

To accomplish this 
automatic action, two 
windings are placed on 
the cutout core, Fig. 81. 
One is of heavy wire and 
carries all the current 
generated by the gener- 
ator, and the other is of 
small wire connected so 
that it will receive the full voltage of the generator. The small 
wire, or voltage coil, performs the duty of closing the contact 
points when the generator voltage 
is slightly greater than that of the T0 GENERATOR 
battery. The small amount of cur- 
rent generated at low speeds flows 
through this fine winding and mag- 
netizes the core so that it is strong 
enough to overcome the tension of 
the spring that holds the points 
apart. The points then close, and 
as long as the generator is charg- 
ing the battery, the points remain 
in this position. The charging cur- 
rent flows through the heavy wind- 
ing and holds the points together. 
When the voltage of the generator 
falls below that of the battery, the 
current begins to discharge into the generator, and therefore the 
current through the heavy winding is reversed. Before the reverse 




Fig. 81. Simple Cutout 



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98 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

current starts to flow, the core loses its magnetism as no current 
is flowing in either direction. The spring will then open the con- 
tact points, breaking the circuit between the battery and the 
generator and preventing the battery from discharging into the 
generator. 

Cutout Mounting. On many cars, the cutout is mounted 
under the engine hood on the right side of the dash, and the base 



*'ig. 82. (Jutout Mounted on Dash 

of the cutout is grounded to an iron arm projecting upward from 
the frame of the car. On later cars, the cutout is on top of the 
generator, and its frame is grounded directly to the generator. 

Cutout on Dash There are three terminals on the base of 
the cutout, Fig. 82. The two outside terminals are marked 
BATT and GEN: the one marked BATT is connected to the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 99 

ammeter, and the one marked GEN is connected to the generator 
terminal. The two outside terminals are insulated from the base 
of the cutout, while the middle one, which is not marked, is 
grounded to the base. A movable arm carries one of the con- 
tacts, and a flat spring tends to hold the two contact points apart. 
Passing through an opening on this arm is a brass arm stop, and 
by bending or straightening this piece, the distance between the 
two contact points may be changed. The correct distance is 
about ra inch. 

The stationary contact point is carried on an arm that is 
insulated from the upright piece to which it is mounted. The 
distance between the points 



CUTOUT COVEk 



INSULATOR 
h\\\\\\\l\\\\\\\\\\\\\* . CONTACT 
'POINTS 



INSULATED 
y PLATE 



may also be changed by 
moving this arm up or 
down. 

Cutout on Generator. 
The internal connections of 
the cutout when mounted 
directly on top of the gen- 
erator are shown in Fig. 83. 
The part A is bolted to the 
generator terminal and is 
connected to B by a round- 
headed machine screw which 
may be seen by looking at 
the bottom of the cutout; 
A and B are both insu- 
lated from the base of the cutout, which is fastened to the 
base of the generator. The arm C is mounted on and electrically 
connected with B, and at one end of the arm C is one of the con- 
tact points. The other contact point is fastened to D, which is 
insulated from B and C. A brass hook E, which is an extension 
of D, acts as a stop for the arm C. This hook can be bent, when 
the motor is not running, to change the air gap between the 
points so as to secure proper operation of the cutout when the 
generator is running. The spring F tends to hold the contact 
points away from each other; and the tension of this spring may 
be increased or decreased by bending it to secure proper action of 




Fig. 83. Cutout Mounted on Generator 



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100 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

the cutout both in opening and in closing the circuit between the 
generator and the battery. 

Voltage-Coil Circuit. The circuit through the voltage coil is 
as follows: from the ungrounded main brush to the generator 
terminal, through A to B, through the voltage coil to the base J, 
through the generator frame, thence to the grounded main genera- 
tor brush, and back to the armature. 

Current Through Cutout Current from the generator enters 
the cutout at A and travels into B and C, through the contact 
points into Z), thence through the outside winding, which is 
heavy wire, and into G which is insulated from all parts except . 
the coil. The current then passes through the screw H into the 
insulated plate. This screw passes through the cutout cover but 
is insulated from it. The current then goes to the battery along 
the wire fastened to this plate under the screw I. The screw 
H is sealed to the cover and should always be turned down tight 
as the charging circuit is broken if this screw is removed. 

The base of the cutout, which is screwed down to the genera- 
tor frame, is connected to one end of the voltage coil but is 
insulated from all other parts except the cover which fits over it; 
the other end of the voltage coil is connected to B. 

Care of Cutout. The contact points should at all times be 
clean and smooth, and when they are touching each other they 
should make contact at all points of their surfaces. They may 
be cleaned by drawing a rag moistened with gasoline between 
them; to make them smooth, a piece of fine sandpaper or a fine 
file may be used, drawing the emery cloth or the file between the 
contacts while the movable contact is pressed down. 

The movable arm which carries one of the points is insulated 
from the base of the cutout; care must be taken to see that it 
does not become grounded to the base. 

Adjusting Cutout. To adjust the cutout, be sure that the 
generator is generating about 10 amperes. The specific gravity 
of each of the battery cells should not be less than 1.250. Turn 
off all the lamps and run the motor on the magneto. With the 
motor running slowly, close the throttle until the points open. 
The points may be watched to see when they separate, or the 
ammeter pointer may be observed. The pointer will swing past 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 101 

the O on the ammeter just before the points open, and will then 
come back to the O line and remain in that position. Now grad- 
ually increase the speed of the engine, carefully watching the 
ammeter. When the motor is running at 600 r.p.m., or at a car 
speed of 10 m.p.h., the cutout points should close. There should 
be a slight movement of the ammeter pointer when the cutout 
closes, indicating a charge of 2 or 3 amperes. With a further 
increase in speed, the ammeter pointer should gradually go to 
10 amperes, and this should be the maximum charging rate. 

When the cutout closes and the ammeter reads reversed, 
thus indicating that the battery starts to discharge into the genera- 
tor, the cutout is closing before the voltage of the generator is 
equal to or greater than that of the battery. This is remedied 
by bending the spring on the movable arm of the cutout so that 
the spring will hold up this arm with greater force. It will then 
require a higher generator voltage to close the cutout circuit. 
Another way is to increase the distance between the points by 
straightening the hook, or the bent-over piece, a little. 

If the ammeter pointer does not move when the cutout points 
close, it indicates that the generator and the battery voltage are 
equal at this instant. The spring on the movable arm should 
then be made stronger by bending, or the distance between the 
points should be increased. 

If the ammeter indicates 10 amperes charge when the points 
close, the cutout does not close soon enough. To remedy this, 
the spring on the arm should be weakened, or the distance between 
the points decreased. 

Checking Cutout Action. To check the action of the cutout 
in disconnecting the generator from the battery, gradually decrease 
the speed of the generator and watch the ammeter pointer. The 
pointer should not move past the O line more than 2 or 3 amperes. 
Should this pointer indicate a discharge of more than 3 amperes 
or should it remain below the O line for more than an instant, 
then the points are not opening soon enough, and the spring on 
the movable arm should be straightened, or weakened. 

Removing Generator. When it is necessary to take out the 
generator, the three cap screws that fasten to the front end of 
ihe cylinder block should be removed. Then place the point of 

333 



102 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

a screw driver between the generator and the front end cover 
and gradually force out the generator. Always start prying at 
the top of the generator and force it backward and downward 
at the same time. If it is desired to run the car while the genera- 
tor is removed, the timing-gear-case opening where the generator 
was removed should be covered with a plate. This plate can be 
secured from any Ford dealer or service station. 

Remove the cover that closes up the opening in the rear-end 
housing by taking out two screws B that hold it in place, Fig. 84. 




Fig. 84. Rear End View of Generator 

Grasp the pigtails on each brush with a pair of long-nosed pliers 
and pull the brushes up until the brush springs snap from the 
top of the brushes and bear against their sides. This will hold 
the brush clear of the commutator. Then take out the six flat- 
headed screws, A, Fig. 85, and insert the point of a screw driver 
between the front-end cap and the frame and pry the cap loose. 
Next take hold of the generator and pull out the armature. Remove 
the rear-end housing by taking out the four screws C, Fig. 84, and 
pry the housing loose with a screw driver. When do this, be 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



103 



careful not to damage the insulation around the generator termi- 
nal. When the rear-end housing is loose, it may be pulled back 
as far as the wires fastened to the brushes will allow. These 
wires should then be disconnected, or they may be disconnected 
first, care being taken to note the connections so that they may 
be correctly replaced. Fig. 76 shows the proper connections. 

To remove the brush ring, take out the four screws shown 
at C in Fig. 84. The main brush-holders are riveted to the ring 




Fig. 85. Front End View of Generator 

and cannot be removed from it, while the third ^brush-holder is 
removable. 

Armature. The generator armature is shown in Fig. 86. It 
has twenty-one slots and twenty-one segments on the commutator, 
and the wires are enameled and cotton covered. The only part 
of the commutator that requires attention is that on which the 
brushes bear, and this should be kept clean and smooth and 
free from oil. There will be no trouble caused by a greasy com- 



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104 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

mutator, if the rear-end bearing on the generator is not given 
too much oil and the oil-retaining washer at the front end of the 
generator is in good condition. To clean a greasy commutator 
hold first a dry rag against it, then a rag moistened with ker- 
osene when the generator is running. Do not use too much 
kerosene on the rag and always run the generator for a few min- 
utes after the rag is removed so that any surplus kerosene may be 
dried up. The space between the commutator segments should 
be kept free from oil, grease, bits of carbon, and copper. These 
spaces may be cleaned with a sharp-pointed tool, scraping out 
the dirt until the clean mica shows the entire length of the com- 
mutator. The mica should be cut down until it is about -fa inch 
below the surface of the commutator. If the commutator is 



Fig. 86. Generator Armature 

rough, it may be smoothed by holding a piece of fine sandpaper 
against it. Never use emery cloth! If there are grooves around 
the commutator, it should be turned in the lathe until the surface 
is smooth and of the same diameter at all points. 

Wiring Diagrams. A wiring diagram of the complete elec- 
trical system of the Ford is shown in Fig. 87. This system is for 
all cars having the cutout mounted on the dash. A diagram for 
all cars having the cutout mounted on the generator is shown in 
Fig. 88. 

Generator Troubles. Generator Reversed. To test the genera- 
tor for reversal, a voltmeter should be used, Fig. 89. Hold one 
test point on the ground on any clean metallic spot of the genera- 
tor frame and the other test point on the generator terminal. The 
voltmeter should show a voltage of about 7 to 7J. If the needle 
moves backward the polarity of the generator is reversed. 



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a 

i 

s 

to 

I 



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107 



This generally happens when the battery is run down. To 
remedy this trouble, put in a fully charged battery and hold the cut- 
out points closed, by hand, for an instant. Then look at the amme- 
ter to see if the generator is charging the battery. If the battery 
is still discharging, reverse the field connections in the generator. 



/REAR BEARING 
OILER 



GENERATOR 
TERMINAL 




VOLTMETER 



Fig. 89. Testing Generator for Reversal 

To do this, the field wires that are connected to the third brush 
and the grounded main brush are exchanged. 

Shorts and Grounds. The generator field takes about 2.5 
amperes when it is connected to a 6-volt battery if the fields are 
not shorted or grounded. When the generator runs as a motor, 
it takes 9 amperes from a 6-volt battery if there are no shorts 
or grounds in the armature or fields. If there is an indication of 
a short or a ground, remove the housing cover and inspect the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 




HOLD SANDPAPER THIS WAY 



Fig. 90. Correct Way to Sand-In Brushes 



wire leading from the terminal on the generator to the ungrounded 
main brush and the wires leading from the field coils to the third 
brush and the grounded main brush. The insulation on these 

wires should not be cut or torn, 
and the pigtails should not touch 
the end housing or the brush ring, 
although no damage will be done 
if they touch the brush-holders. 

Sparking at Brushes. Exces- 
sive sparking at the brushes should 
be prevented. If the brushes are 
of poor material or are the wrong 
size or type of brush, they are 
likely to spark. A spark will also 
take place if the brushes are not set 
in proper relation to the windings. If the armature is loose or the 
commutator is not running true on the armature shaft, sparks will 
also develop at the brushes. If some of the armature coils are short, 
or open-circuited, the sparking will occur only when the commutator 
segments to which the coils are connected pass under the brushes. 
If two adjacent segments are blackened or burned, it is plain that 
there is a short-circuit present between the windings connected 

to these segments. 

Brush Trouble. For inspection 
the brushes may be removed by 
the use of long-nosed pliers; pulling 
on the brush pigtails removes the 
brushes from their slots. Of 
course, the dust cover must be 
removed in order to get at the 
brushes. After they are removed, 
they should be examined for dirty, 
pitted, or insufficient contact sur- 

Fig.91. Incorrect Way to Sand-In Brushes f ace> The parts of the brush Surf ace 

that make contact with the commutator will be smooth and polished, 
while the other parts will be dull and rather rough. If the brush 
contact surface is not perfect, cut a piece of fine sandpaper and insert 
it between the brush and the commutator with the sanded side 




00 NOT HOLD SANDPAPER 
IN THIS WAY 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 109 

toward the brush, as in A, Fig. 90. In Fig. 91, B shows the 
incorrect way of sanding-in the brush. The sandpaper should be 
drawn back and forth under the brush until all imperfections in 
the brush surface have been removed when the brush will fit 
the curvature of the commutator properly. When the brushes 
are too short, they will give unsatisfactory service, as the spring 
tension is greatly reduced. Brushes in these conditions should 
be replaced, by brushes secured from the manufacturer of that 
particular instrument. As a rule, it is not good policy to use 
any brushes other than those manufactured by a reliable con- 
cern and for that particular instrument only. 

Improper Spring Tension. If the brush springs are broken, 
total failure of the instrument may result, or if the brush-holder 
becomes gummy so that the brush sticks, a great deal of sparking 
at the brushes will be present. Sparking is sometimes the result 
of loose brush springs also. 

Defective Insulation. If the insulating washers are broken or 
in any way damaged, they should be replaced with new ones. 
Any grease or any gummy substance should be removed from the 
brushes and the brush-holders cleaned with a stiff hairbrush and 
gasoline. 

TESTING 

Testing Armature and Commutator. A single dry cell is best 
to use in testing the armature windings for opens or shorts. The 
cell should be connected in series with an ammeter, Fig. 92. One 
post of the cell is connected to one terminal of the ammeter and a 
wire having a testing point at one end is connected to the other 
post. If desired, this testing point may be eliminated and the 
bare wire used instead. A wire is connected on the other ter- 
minal of the ammeter and the free ends of the two wires are used 
to make contact on the various segments of the commutator, 
Fig. 93. Before making the test, the brushes may be raised from the 
commutator, or, better still, the armature may be removed from the 
generator where it will be much more accessible. The test should 
be started on any point of the armature, the two leads touching 
the two adjoining segments. Note the reading on the ammeter 
and then proceed to the next segments. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



For example, the wire should be placed on segments Nos. 1 
and 2 and then on Nos. 2 and 3, etc. The readings of all seg- 
ments should be compared, as any great difference is indicative of 
trouble on those coils which have different readings. It must be 
remembered that when the wires are on contact, a circuit is com- 
pleted through the armature, the ammeter, and the dry cell 
which will fully discharge the cell if contact is held for any 
length of time; just enough con- 
tact to allow the operator to read 
the ammeter should be made. 

If the commutator and the 
armature are free from short or 



AMMETER- 



BATTERY 




BATTERY- 




AMMETER 



HOLD TEST POINTS 
ON SEGMENTS 
I AND 2, 2 AND 3^ 
3 AND 4, ETC. 



Fig. 92. Armature Testing Set Fig. 93. Testing Armature Coils 

open circuits, the ammeter readings between the various pairs of 
segments will be about equal. In case the reading becomes much 
higher with the test points resting on any pair of segments, this 
condition indicates that either the armature coil attached to these 
segments or the segments themselves are short-circuited. If the 
reading becomes much less, this indicates that a broken, burnt- 
out, or otherwise open-circuited armature coil is present between 
the two segments where the test points are then touching. 



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111 



Open Circuit. If an open circuit exists, make sure that the 
wires soldered to the segments are making perfect contact and 
that they are not broken as far as they can be traced. If no 
trouble can be detected on the surface, it will then be necessary 
for the armature coil to be unwound until the trouble is found, 
when repairs can then be made and the armature rewound. 

Short-Circuit If the test indicates that a short-circuit is 
present, the mica slots should first be thoroughly cleaned, remov- 
ing any bits of metal or carbon that may have lodged in them. 
If any of the commutator bars have been damaged so that the 




Fig. 94. Locating a Short in the Armature 



copper touches another bar, the metal should be cut away until 
they do not touch. If this does not eliminate the trouble as 
shown by a record test, the short-circuit is in the armature wind- 
ing. This short-circuit can generally be located by using a 6- or a 
12-volt battery, connecting No. leads to the battery terminals 
and touching the other ends of these wires to the segments that 
indicate a short, Fig. 94. In the majority of cases, smoke will be 
produced at some point on the armature, thus showing where the 
short exists, and it can often be repaired without removing the 
winding. It is sometimes possible to burn out this short with a 



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112 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



6-volt battery, although some manner of insulation such as shellac 
or tape should be made after this kind of repair has been made. 

Testing Fields. Open Circuit In making this test, all 
brushes should be insulated from the commutator by inserting a 
piece of paper between each brush and the commutator bars. A 
6-volt battery should be used to make the test, having a 6-volt 
bulb in series, Fig. 95. Disconnect the wire from the main brush- 
holder and touch this wire with one test point while the other test 
point is placed on the third brush. The lamp should light; if it 



DRYBKPER 
WIDER BRUSHtt- 




Fig. 95. Testing Field for Open Circuit 

does not, this is a certain indication of an open in the shunt 
winding. The joints between the field coils should then be care- 
fully inspected as the soldering sometimes becomes loosened, 
causing a poor connection or an open circuit. If the solder on 
these connections proves to be firm, each coil should be tested by 
placing the test points on the soldered connections between coils 
Nos. 1 and 2 and Nos. 3 and 4, etc., Fig. 96. If the lamp does 
not burn when any coil is tested in this manner, the coil is open- 
circuited. In order to repair the open, it will be necessary to 
remove the coil. To do this, take out the screw that holds the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



113 



pole piece in place and disconnect the coil from the adjoining coil. 
If the broken circuit is not visible, the coil must be carefully 
unwound until the break is located. It will then be necessary to 
make suitable repairs, taking special care to see that each coil is 
properly insulated. 

Ground. To make tests for a ground in the fields, the tester 
should be used according to the method shown in Fig. 97. With 
the brushes still insulated from the commutator, one test point 
should be placed on the third brush and the other point on any 



t)RY PAPER 
UNDER BRUSHES 




Fig. 96. Testing Each Coil for Open Circuit 

part of the generator frame. If the lamp lights, there is a ground 
in the field coil or the third brush-holder. If the lamp does not 
light, hold the test point that was on the generator frame on the 
end housing, this part being removed and not touching the 
generator. If the lamp now lights, the third brush-holder or 
the insulated brush-holder mounted on the brush ring in the end 
housing is shorted. The brush ring must then be removed and 
the insulation under the brush-holders carefully inspected to 
locate the ground. If the lamp lights when one test point is held 
on the third brush and the other test point on the generator 



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114 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



frame, there is a ground in the field coils. Connection between 
the field coils should be carefully inspected for damaged insulation 
or places where the bare wires are touching the frame. If these 
connections are in good condition, it will be necessary to discon- 
nect the field coils from each other by unsoldering the joints 
between them. Each coil should then be tested separately by 
holding one test point on the generator frame and the other point 
on a coil terminal. When the lamp lights, the grounded coil has 
been located. The coil should then be removed as previously 



HOLD THIS TEST POINT 
ON MAIN fRAME OF 
~~ .GENERATOR BUT 
,NOT ON END 
ROUSING IN 
k WHlCH 
.BRUSHES 
ARE 
MOUNTED 



UNDER BR05HC S 




v STORAGE 
BATTERY 6 VOLT 

Fig. 97. Testing for Grounds in Fields 

described and the ground repaired. The ground in a field coil is 
much easier to locate than a short, as the ground will generally be 
present at a point where it touches the field cores, and then it is 
usually only necessary to retape the coils. This test is shown in 
Fig. 97. 

Short-Circuit. In order to test the coils for a short-circuit in 
their windings, the tester should be used as shown in Fig. 98. 
Note the amount of current flowing through the ammeter when the 
coil is being tested. With a 6-volt battery, a current of about 10 
amperes should flow. If any coil takes more than 10 amperes, it 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



115 



indicates that this coil is shorted, and it should be removed and 
inspected. The field should be repaired, if possible, and care- 
fully reinsulated before replacing. 

Reversed Fields. To test the polarity of the fields it will be 
necessary to use a small compass as in the method shown in 
Fig. 99. Alternate fields should show opposite polarity. The 
compass should be held about 1 foot from the generator frame and 
gradually moved toward one of the screws that hold the field 




Fig. 98. Testing Coils for Short-Circuit in Fields 

poles in place. The compass should then be moved toward 
another screw and brought nearer, when it should indicate the 
opposite polarity. If three successive poles attract the same end 
of the compass needle, the coil on the middle pole is wrongly con- 
nected, and its connections should be reversed for proper operation. 
Generator Terminal Grounded. Sometimes the insulation 
around the generator terminal becomes cracked and the terminal 
loosens. If it is left in this condition, a ground sometimes results. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



This insulation should be carefully inspected; if it is broken or 
cracked so that the terminal might touch the frame, new insula- 
tion should be put on. 



STORAGE BATTERY 




COMPASS 





COMPASS 



COMPASS 

® 



COMPASS 

® 



Fig. 99. Testing Coils for Polarity 



ELECTRIC STARTER 



Construction. The only function of the starting motor is to 
crank the engine so that it may start under its own power. This 
motor does not generate any current and is entirely disconnected 
from the system at all times except when the engine is being 
started. The starting motor is a four-pole series-wound instru- 
ment located on the left side of the engine in front of the fly- 
wheel and is fastened to the transmission cover by four j^-inch 
bolts. The drive is of the Bendix type, which threads the pinion 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



117 



into mesh with the teeth on the flywheel when the starting circuit 
is complete by the depression of the starting button. When the 
engine starts, the flywheel, running at a higher speed than that of 
the pinion, threads the pinion out of mesh with the flywheel gear, 
thereby preventing any damage to the starter. The motor pinion 
has 10 teeth and there are 120 teeth cut on the periphery of the 
flywheel. The gear ratio is, therefore, 12 to 1, the motor turning 
12 times to the engine turning once. The starting armature is 
mounted on plain bearings, and as the starter is used but little, it 
is not necessary to supply it with much lubrication. The bearing 
next to the flywheel is lubricated 
from the flywheel, while the bear- 
ing at the commutator end should 
not be supplied with any lubri- 
cant. The front bushing is made 
of bronze, the rear is of soft 
bearing metal, Fig. 113. 

Principle of Operation. The 
principle of the starting motor is 
similar to that of the generator, 
except that the operation of the 
starting motor is reversed. It 
has been previously stated that 
when magnetic lines of force are 
cut by a coil, a current is induced 
in this coil; also that an elec- 
tromagnet has a strength depend- 
ent upon the amount of current passed through the coil. It may 
also be remembered that like poles repel each other and unlike 
poles attract each other. For instance, a north pole will attract a 
south pole of another magnet while it will repel a north pole of 
another magnet. Keeping these facts in mind, let us examine the 
illustration, Fig. 100. The current flows from the battery into one 
side of the loop, causing south magnetic lines of force to be set up 
in the upper part of this loop. The upper motor field, which is a 
north pole, will then attract the south pole of the coil, and the 
lower field pole, which has a south polarity, will also attract the 
north magnetic field that was set up in the lower side of the coil. 




Fig. 100. A Simple Starter 



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118 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

TABLE II 
Current Consumption of Ford Starter 



Condition op Motor 


Amperes 


Volts 


Watts 


Horsepower 
Developed 


Running without load 
Cranking new engine at 

75 r.p.m. 
Cranking used engine 

at 185 r.p.m. 


65 to 80 

275 to 300 

140 


5.75 

4.5 

5.0 


373 

1350 

700 


0.5 
1.8 
0.93 



At the same time that this attraction is taking place, there is also 
a repelling force acting between the upper part of the coil and the 
south field, and the lower, or north, polarity of the coil and the 
upper north field. The modern electric motor is composed of a 
series of loops of wire rigidly mounted and is capable of allowing a 
large amount of current to flow through its windings. This sets 
up a strong magnetic pull which produces great turning torque 
when the starter button is depressed. 

Fields. The starting motor is a series-wound machine as 
shown in Fig. 101. A series winding is used as this type of instru- 
ment produces great turning torque at low speeds, which is the 
result desired from any starting motor. The current consumption 
of the Ford starter under various conditions is given in Table II. 

Brushes. There are four brushes on the starter, one being 
connected to one end of the series winding and the opposite brush 
to the other end of the series winding. The two opposite brushes 
remaining are grounded. The starting current enters the instru- 
ment at a connection in the fields shown in Fig. 101. The brushes 
are of copper composition, and each brush has two heavy, 
uninsulated, copper pigtails. The free ends of these pigtails are 
soldered into the copper terminals that are fastened to the 
brush-holder by a machine screw. The brushes are f'Xf'Xf". 
The brush-holders are made of aluminum and are riveted to the 
brush ring. The main brushes are insulated from the brush ring 
by fiber strips, while the grounded brushes are riveted directly to 
the metal of the brush ring, having no wires except the pigtails. 
The brush ring is riveted to the housing and therefore cannot be 
removed. The same care that is given to the brushes and the 



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119 



commutator of the generator is also applicable to those of the 
starter. 

Removing Starting Motor. In order to remove the starting 
motor from the car, the pan on the left side of the engine must 
first be taken off. The four small screws which hold the shaft 
cover to the transmission cover at the back of the flywheel hous- 




;$<" GROUNDED 
%NX BRUSH 

Fig. 101. Series- Winding of Starter 



ing should then be removed. Then turn the Bendix drive shaft, 
Figs. 73 and 113, around so that the set screw on the end of 
this shaft is in a horizontal position with the head of the set 
screw pointing toward the left, the operator facing the rear of the 
flywheel. There is a split spring-lock washer having sharp points at 
the joint between the two halves on opposite sides of the washer, and 



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120 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

this washer is located under the set screw to prevent it from 
becoming loose. One of these points is turned against the Bendix 
collar and the other is turned against the screw head. The point 
turned up against the screw should be bent back and the set 
screw removed. The washer is generally broken when removed, 
so it will be necessary to use a new one when replacing the starter. 
After the set screw has been taken out, the Bendix pinion spring 
and sleeve can be slipped off at the end of the starter. The four 
screws that hold the starter housing to the transmission cover are 
taken out, and then the motor can be pulled out at the front; 
lower the motor through the opening in the chassis made by 
removing the engine pan. If the car is to be used while the 
starting motor is removed, the hole in the transmission case 
should be covered with a plate which can be secured at any Ford 
parts house. When the starting motor is replaced, make sure 
that the terminal mounted near the rear end of the starter frame 
is on top. 

Dismantling Starter. As the Bendix drive was removed 
before the starter was taken out of the car, it is now necessary to 
remove the cover from the rear-end housing. Force this cover off 
with a screw driver, grasp the pigtails of each brush with a pair of 
long-nosed pliers, and pull up until the brush spring snaps from 
the top of the brush and bears against the side of the brush; this 
action will hold the brush away from the commutator. The six 
screws in the drive-end cap should be removed and the cap pried 
off with a screw driver. The armature can then be removed, and 
it becomes necessary as well to remove the rear-end housing by 
taking out the four screws that hold it in place. The two leads 
from the ungrounded brush-holders are next disconnected and the 
brushes removed by unscrewing the proper pigtails and then lift- 
ing the brushes out. The brush-holders, however, cannot be 
removed. The relative positions of these parts are plainly shown in 
Fig. 73. 

Starter Troubles. The starter may be tested for shorts, 
grounds, and opens in the same way as the generator. If a test for 
ground is made and the lamp does not light, the instrument is in 
satisfactory condition. If the lamp lights, there is a ground in the 
field. Then the next procedure is to disconnect, one at a time, 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 121 

the two large insulated field wires from the two insulated brush- 
holders. Repeat the test as each of these is removed. If the 
lamp goes out after one of these wires is removed, the brush- 
' holder to which that wire is attached is grounded to the brush 
ring and mufet be reinsulated. If the lamp still burns after both 
wires are removed from the brushes, the ground is in the field 
coils of the motor. It is then necessary to disconnect each field 
coil and test it. If the lamp lights when a certain field coil is 
tested, that field coil is grounded. The coils should be removed 
and repaired as described on page 113. 

Open Circuit. While the field coils are not likely to become 
open-circuited, still the soldered joints between the coils should be 
inspected carefully to see that they are well soldered. In making 
a test for open circuit in the field coils, the connection between 
any two coils should be opened. The test lamp, Fig. 96, should be 
used in testing each coil by holding the test points on the bare 
ends of that coil. If the lamp does not light, the coil is open- 
circuited and should be removed and repaired as described on 
page 112. 

Bendix-Drive Trouble. Sometimes the starter armature will 
only spin when the starting button is depressed. This indicates 
that the spring connecting the pinion sleeve to the armature shaft 
is broken. This break is sometimes caused by attempting to 
crank a very cold stiff motor with the starter, or the starter 
may not be lined up properly. Therefore, it is advisable to loosen 
up the motor with a hand crank if it is stiff or cold. 

Starting Switch. The starting switch is operated by the 
driver's foot and enables him to complete the circuit between the 
battery and the starting motor so that the engine may be cranked. 
A spring in the starter button automatically opens the circuit 
when the driver's foot is removed, thereby disconnecting the bat- 
tery from the motor. The switch is located under the floor boards 
on the left side of the car. 

LIGHTING SYSTEM 

Bulbs. The headlights contain two bulbs, a 6-8 volt 17 
candle-power, and a 6-8 volt 2 candle-power dimmer bulb. The 
tail lamp has a 6-8 volt 2 candle-power bulb. 



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122 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



A 



^ 



mmm. 



. IMI1 'J 




TAIL 



MAG. 
DIM 



It is important to use lamps of the proper voltage as a bulb 
designed for a lower voltage than 6-8 would be easily burnt out 
and one with a higher voltage would not give sufficient light. 

Bulb Troubles. If the lamps burn out when they are turned 
on while the engine is running at a car speed of about 20 m.p.h., 
there is probably a loose connection between the battery and the 
lighting switch or the generator may be charging at too high a 
rate; generally the trouble is an open circuit due to some loose or 
broken connection. If the battery is overcharged, run the starter 

a few minutes with the ignition 
switch off or burn the lights 
over night. 

Lighting and Ignition Switch- 
es. The Ford sometimes uses a 
combination lighting and igni- 
tion switch, thus enabling the 
driver to turn the lights on or 
off and to connect the ignition 
coils to either the battery or 
the magneto. This switch is 
located on the instrument panel 
in front of the driver. Several 
types of switches are used. On 
some of the early models, there 
is a push-and-pull button for 
controlling the head lamps, while 
on the later models, the round- 
type switch, Fig. 102, is used. 
On the latest models, the round-type switch shown in Fig. 103 is 
used. Round-type switches have a handle extending downward 
from the center of the switch that controls the lamps. The ignition 
is switched on or off by turning the key inserted in the keyhole 
in the center of the switch. 

Switch Troubles. Some troubles found in the early type of 
the round switches were generally due to short circuits between 
the wires connected at the back of the switch. The connections 
on the back of both switches are shown in Fig. 104. It sometimes 
happens that it is impossible to turn off the ignition, and in this 




GROUND 
BATTERY 

Fig. 102. Early Type of Round Switch 



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123 



event the engine will continue to run after the switch is turned to 
the OFF position. If the ignition key is then turned to MAG 
position, the battery will discharge into the magneto at a rate of 
about 20 amperes, while the engine is not running. This indicates 
that the COIL terminal on the back of the switch is shorted with 
the BATT terminal. If when the lamps burn out the ignition key 
is turned to the MAG position with the engine running, the 



AUX.- 




GROUND 



HEAD 



SECTION A-A 
Fig. 103. Late Type of Round Switch 



HEAD terminal is short-circuited with the coil terminal. If the 
battery is used for ignition with this short-circuit present, the 
head lamps will burn even if the lighting switch is turned off. If 
the small bulbs in the head lamps burn out, it indicates that the 
MAG terminal is short-circuited with the DIM terminal. 

With a later type of round switch, these short-circuits do not 
occur as this switch has two movable round discs, one for the 



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124 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



ignition and one for the lights. When the ignition key is turned 
to the BATT position, the battery furnishes the ignition current. 
When running and when the generator is charging, this current 
will be furnished by the generator. When the ignition key is 
turned to the MAG position, the ignition current is furnished by 
the Ford magneto. When the handle controlling the light switch 
is turned to the DIM or the AUX position, the tail lamp and the 



r 



LIGHT AND IGNITION 
SWITCH. OLD TYPE 



5ATTERY 




TO STARTING SWITCH 
TO CUTOUT 

Fig. 104. Wire Connections on Round-Type Switches 

small bulbs in the headlights will burn. With the handle in the 
ON position, the tail light and the large headlight bulbs will burn. 
The late cars are equipped with Tulite or double filament bulbs. 
If switch troubles occur, the entire panel on which the 
ammeter and the switch are mounted may be removed from the 
front by taking out the four screws in the panel. The entire rear 
cover may be removed from the switch in order to look for shorts 
in this instrument; it will also be well to examine all wires lead- 



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\ 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 125 

ing to the instrument board to see that there are no shorts or 
grounds present. 

HORN 

Operation. The Ford horn is operated from the magneto and 
works on the vibrating principle. Its action is similar to that of 
the vibrator on the ignition coils, but the vibrator strikes the pin 
in the center of the horn diaphragm and causes the sound. 

OPERATION OF FORD CAR 

Introduction. The mechanical and electrical principles and 
troubles of the Ford car having been considered, the reader should 
now be able to understand more thoroughly this car's operation. 

Operation does not mean the mere pressing of pedals and 
pulling of levers; it means ^lso the why and wherefore of these 
actions and a knowledge of what is taking place inside the motor, 
the transmission, the rear axle, etc., when the various pedals and 
levers are moved. Then, and then only, can the driver hope to 
become proficient in the operation of his car. 

Preliminary Inspections. Cooling System. Before trying to 
start the engine, the radiator should be examined to see that it 
is full of clean water. If perfectly clean water is not obtainable, 
it is advisable to strain the available water through muslin or 
other similar material so that foreign matter will not get into the 
circulating system and obstruct the small passages in the radiator. 

The cooling system holds approximately 3 gallons of liquid. 
It is very important that the cooling system be filled before the 
motor is operated as the motor will become too hot if this is 
not done. When the cooling system is completely filled, water 
will run out of the overflow pipe. 

The motor will naturally use more water during the first 
few days of its operation — because it is a new motor — as during 
this time the parts are fitting themselves to each other and more 
heat is naturally developed. If it is possible to secure rain 
water, by all means do so, for rain water does not contain alka- 
lies or minerals which tend to deposit sediment and start cor- 
rosion in the cooling system. A phantom view of the cooling 
system is shown in Fig. 105. 



357 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

'Gasoline Supply, The gasoline tank should next be examined 
"see that there is a sufficient supply of fuel. In filling the tank, 
the gasoline should always be strained, preferably through chamois 
skin, as this prevents water and other substances from getting 
into the tank. Dirt or water in the gasoline is sure to cause 



s 






> 



trouble. The small vent hole in the gasoline-tank cap should 
not be allowed to get plugged up as this would prevent the proper 
flow of the gasoline to the carburetor. There is a drain cock at 
the bottom of the tank which may be opened to allow the removal 
of sediment or foreign substances which collect in a dirt trap 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 127 

above the drain cock. The capacity of the gasoline tank when 
full is about 10 gallons. A sectional view of the fuel system is 
shown in Fig. 106. 

Oil Supply. The supply of oil should next be inspected. 
There are two pet cocks underneath the car in front of the fly- 
wheel housing which are used as gages to show the supply of oil 
in the reservoir. The upper cock should be opened and a medium 
grade of good oil poured into the breather pipe until the oil flows 
out of this cock. After the engine has been limbered up, best 
results will be obtained by carrying the oil level midway between 
the two cocks, but it should be borne in mind at all times that, 
under no circumstances, should the oil be allowed to get below 
the lower cock. 

Control Levers. The next move is to examine the control 
levers, which are located underneath the steering wheel. 

The right-hand lever controls the throttle and is used to 
regulate the amount of gas vapor allowed to pass into the cylin- 
der. When the engine is in operation, the farther this lever is 
moved down, the faster the engine will run and the greater will 
be the power developed. The throttle lever should be opened 
about five or six notches. This position varies according to the 
setting of the carburetor and the condition of the motor; a little 
experience will rightly determine the best position for each indi- 
vidual car. 

The left-hand lever controls the time that the spark occurs 
in the cylinder in relation to the position of the piston. By 
pulling this lever down, the spark is advanced and by moving 
the lever up, the spark is retarded. In setting the levers before 
starting the motor, the spark should be put in about the third 
or fourth notch of the quadrant. 

The hand lever which comes through the floor boards at the 
driver's left should be inspected to see that it is pulled all the 
way back as it holds out the clutch when in this position, thereby 
disconnecting the motor from the rear axle; at the same time it 
applies the emergency brake at the rear wheels.. 

Starting the Motor. Car with Starter. The ignition-switch 
key should then be inserted in the switch and turned to the 
battery position (if the car is equipped with a starting and light- 



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128 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



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.9 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 129 

ing system at the factory). The choker should be pulled out if 
the motor is cold and held in this position while the starter button 
is depressed. 



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a 
W 

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Q 

£ 

6 



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The storage battery then furnishes energy to the starter, 
thereby cranking the motor at a rate of speed sufficient to start 



361 



130 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

its operation. If the motor does not start at once, do not hold 
out the choker, as this will flood the combustion chambers with 
too rich a mixture; if the motor starts and then stops, this is 
an indication that the motor has either been starved or flooded. 
A cloud of heavy black smoke having a gassy smell will come out 
of the muffler if the motor has been given too rich a mixture. 

Car without Starter. If the car is not equipped with an elec- 
tric starter, it will be necessary to hold out the choke rod which 
projects through the front of the radiator while the motor is 
being cranked. It is also advisable to open the needle valve, 
say \ turn, until the motor is warmed up. This is especially 



Fig. 108. Dash View of Cars Equipped with Self-Starter 

true during cold weather. If the motor as a rule is very hard to 
start during the winter months, a good method to use is to crank 
the motor several times with the ignition switch off, holding out 
the choke rod while so doing. Then turn on the ignition switch to 
the MAG position and crank the motor. When stopping the 
motor, it is common practice, especially in cold weather, to pull 
out the choke at the front of the radiator instead of turning off the 
ignition switch. This operation leaves a rich deposit of fuel in 
the combustion chamber which will cause the motor to start 
much easier. The various control devices are shown in Fig. 107, 
while Fig. 108 shows the arrangement of the controls and instru- 
ments on the late models. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 131 

SPEED CONTROL 

Clutch Pedal. There are three foot pedals that largely 
control the operation of the Ford Car. Of course, the throttle 
and the spark have a great deal to do with the speed of the car, 
but the foot pedals change the relation of the speed of the motor 
to that of the rear axle. The first pedal at the driver's left is 
for low and high speed, generally called the clutch pedal. When 
pressed forward, the clutch pedal engages the low-speed gears, 
causing the car to move very slowly but with great force, as the 
gear reduction is also great. This gear is also used when the car 
is traveling up a steep grade. When the clutch pedal is halfway 
forward, all gears are in neutral, being disconnected from the drive 
to the rear wheels, and when the hand lever is pulled halfway 
back, the clutch pedal will be held in the center, or neutral, posi- 
tion. When the clutch pedal is allowed to come all the way back 
— toward the driver — by pushing the hand lever forward, the 
clutch is thrown in, which causes the drive shaft to turn at the 
same speed as the motor. This is generally spoken of as direct 
drive, or high gear. 

Reverse-Speed Pedal. The second, or center, pedal is used 
for reversing the motion of the car. When this pedal is depressed, 
the hand lever should be in the neutral position or, what amounts 
to the same thing, the clutch pedal should be held in the central 
position with the driver's left foot. The reverse pedal may then 
be depressed, which operation will cause the car to back up. 

Brake Pedal. The right-hand pedal is used as a service 
brake, this brake being operated on the transmission drum; 
depressing the pedal causes the brakes to be applied. 

Hand Lever. The purpose of the hand lever is to hold the 
clutch in the neutral position. If it were not for this lever, the 
driver would be compelled to stop the motor whenever he left 
the car. This lever also applies the emergency brakes at the 
brake drums on the rear wheels, thereby preventing the car 
from creeping forward when it is being cranked. The emergency 
brakes also hold the car when it is going up hill or standing at a 
curb or on an incline and are employed when it is desired to 
stop the car suddenly, etc. The brakes, however, are not operated 
until the lever is pulled back the entire distance. When the lever 

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132 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

is in a halfway position, or almost vertical, the clutch is thrown 
out, and when it is placed all of the way forward the clutch is 
engaged, driving the drive shaft direct. When the car is to be 
reversed, this lever should be placed in a central position as this 
will prevent the clutch from dropping into high gear. See Fig. 107 
for the position of these pedals. 

Starting the Car. After the motor is started and it is intended 
to make the car move, the driver should gradually depress the 
clutch, or low-speed, pedal, thus bringing the low-speed gears into 
operation. It is best to throw the hand lever all the way forward, 
at the same time holding the low-speed pedal in the neutral 
position, before the low-speed pedal is depressed, as this opera- 
tion will then eliminate any further movement of the hand lever 
until the car is stopped. 

After the car has gained sufficient headway, say 20 or 30 
feet, the throttle should be slightly closed and the foot removed 
from the clutch pedal, allowing it to come all the way back and 
engaging the clutch, thus causing the car to be operated in direct 
drive. The speed of the car is now controlled by opening or 
closing the throttle. The low-speed gear should never be used 
except when necessary, although it is not advisable to cause undue 
strain on the motor in order to prevent the low-speed gears from 
being used. 

Stopping the Car. When the driver desires to stop the car, 
the high-speed clutch is released by pressing the clutch pedal for- 
ward to the neutral position. The foot brakes should then be 
slowly applied until the car comes to a dead stop. It is necessary 
to pull the hand lever in the neutral position before the driver 
removes his foot from the clutch pedal. If this is not done, the 
high-speed clutch will be engaged and the motor will stall. 

Before stopping the motor, the throttle should be opened a 
little and then the ignition switch should be turned off. This 
allows the motor to stop with the cylinders full of fresh gas, 
thus enabling it to start very easily. 

Spark lever. The spark lever is controlled by the left hand 
and should be placed in such a position that the engine will not 
knock; this position should be as far advanced as possible. If 
the spark is too far advanced, a dull knock will be heard in the 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 133 

motor. This knock is caused by the explosion occurring before 
the piston of the engine has completed its compression stroke. 
The very best results are obtained when the spark occurs at a 
position as far advanced as possible without knocking. The 
spark should be retarded only when the engine slows down on a 
heavy road or a steep grade. Care should be exercised not to 
retard the spark too far, since when the spark is late, a slow 
burning of the gas with excessive heat will result instead of 
getting the full power from the explosion. 

The greatest economy in operation is obtained by driving 
with the spark advanced sufficiently to obtain the maximum 
speed with a given throttle opening. After a little experience, the 
driver will become accustomed to manipulating the spark auto- 
matically with excellent results. 

Throttle. The throttle is controlled by the right hand and 
is used to increase the speed of the car to meet the various 
road and speed conditions. It is seldom necessary to use low 
gear except to give the car momentum in starting; therefore, 
practically all the running speeds needed for ordinary travel may 
be obtained on high gear. The speed of the car may be tem- 
porarily slackened when driving through crowded streets and high- 
ways by slipping the clutch. This slipping is accomplished by 
partially depressing the high speed or the clutch pedal. This 
operation, however, should be used as little as possible as it 
causes excessive wear on the clutch plates. 

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS 

Cooling System. The Ford motor is cooled by the thermo- 
siphon system as explained on page 6, Part I. In cold weather 
it is very important to prevent the cooling system from freezing, 
as this will cause a great deal of damage by bursting the radiator 
tubes and possibly cracking the cylinders or the water jackets. 
To guard against freezing, a solution of denatured alcohol may be 
used to good advantage. Table III gives the different mixtures of 
alcohol and water and the freezing points of each. 

A solution of 30 per cent alcohol, 60 per cent water, and 10 
per cent glycerine is commonly used, its freezing point being the 
same as No. 2 solution, 8 degrees below zero. The alcohol in the 



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134 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

TABLE III 
Anti-Freezing Solutions 



Solution 


Freezing Points 


Alcohol 


Water 


20% 
30% 
50% 


80% 
70% 
50% 


15° above zero 

8° below zero 

34° below zero 



alcohol-water solution tends to vaporize, and it is therefore neces- 
sary to take due caution to see that the solution is up to its 

proper strength. 

An instrument is now on the market 
known as the Radiatometer, Fig. 109, 
which tests the gravity of the cooling 
fluid in much the same way as the grav- 
ity of the electrolyte in a storage cell is 
tested. The percentage of the mixture 
is easily ascertained when the gravity is 
known. 

Charging System. When the car has 
attained a speed of about 10. miles per 
hour in high gear, the ammeter on the dash 
should show CH ARQ E. This ammeter indi- 
cation will increase until the car has reached 
a speed of about 20 miles per hour. At 
higher speeds this charge will taper off, 
this being a characteristic of the third- 
brush generator, as described on page 93. 
When the speed of the car has reached 
approximately 15 miles per hour, the 
generator should show a charge of from 
10 to 12 amperes with all the lights 
off. When the lights are turned on, the 
charging rate as indicated by the ammeter 
will drop to about 5 or 6 amperes as the generator is furnishing 
current to the lights. 



Fig. 109. Radiatometer 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 



135 



Care of Battery. The storage battery is a very important 
instrument in any car and it should be carefully examined and a 
hydrometer reading taken every week, as this reading indicates the 
condition of the charge. A hydrometer reading is shown in 
Fig. 110. A battery charged the same amount will have different 




Fig. 110. Hydrometer Readings of a Half and a Fully Charged Cell 

readings in tropical climates where water never freezes than it has 
in other localities. Table IV shows the relation of the readings to 
the amount of charge in the battery. 

The hydrometer test should not be taken immediately after 
the battery is filled with water, as this procedure will not give an 



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136 



FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

TABLE IV 
State of Charge of Battery 



Gravity 


Amount of 
Charge 


Tropical Climate 


Cool Climate 


1.200 
1.175 
1.150 
1.125 
1.100 


1.275 
1.250 
1.225 
1.200 
1.150 


full 

three-quarter 
one-half 
one-quarter 
full discharge 



accurate reading. It is necessary for the battery to charge some 
little time after water is supplied before the reading is taken so 
that the acid will be thoroughly mixed. The battery should not 
be discharged below one-half charge. When it is in this condition, 
it should be taken to a battery station and recharged. In case of 
emergency, it is possible to allow the battery to fall to three- 
fourths discharge, but this is not good practice and the battery 
should be placed on charge as soon as possible. If the motor is 
operated without using the starter, the gravity of the cells will be 
raised. 

If a battery goes dead, the cause of this condition should be 
located before the recharged battery is installed, as it is quite pos- 
sible that a short or ground is present in the system; also make 
sure that the generator is charging properly. When the reading of 
one particular cell is more than fifty points different from the 
others, it indicates that this cell is not in good order and the bat- 
tery should then be taken to a service station for attention. 

Distilled water should be added at least once a week if the 
electrolyte is not covering the plates. During cold weather this 
water should be added only before the car is to be operated as it 
is likely to freeze if put in at any other time. 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

Cooling System. The cooling system of the Ford motor has a 
capacity of 14 quarts. The inlet hose is If inches in diameter and 
2 J inches long; while the outlet hose is 2 inches in diameter and 3f 
inches long. The hose clamps for the inlet hose are 2| inches in 
inside diameter, and the outlet hose is 2| inches inside diameter. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 137 

Transmission Band Linings. The transmission and brake 
lining is Ye i ncn thick, If inches wide and 23 inches long. Three 
of these strips are required, making a total of 69 inches. 

Transmission Repairs. Dismantle and clean all parts. See 
that all magnet clamps are tight and that magnets are parallel. 
Try the triple gear shafts for looseness in the flywheel; if loose, 
replace them with oversized shafts. Examine the triple gears for 
worn or loose rivets; if the rivets are not tight, peen them; if very 
loose, they should be replaced. 

Rebushing. Try the triple gears on the shafts; if there is over 
.005 inch play in the bushings, they should be rebushed. When 
rebushed, the flange face of the new bushings should not project 
over .005 inch to .007 inch from the side of the triple gears. 
Examine the lugs on the inside of the brake drum; if they are 
worn or cut over ^V inch deep on both contact sides, the drum 
should be scraped. If the driven-gear sleeve flange-bushing face is 
badly worn or too thin, it should be replaced. 

Bushing Clearance. The gear shaft should be fitted to the 
driven-sleeve bushings to a clearance of .003 inch on a new job 
and on a repair job, a clearance of .005 inch. Examine the rivets 
on the slow-speed drum, making sure that they are tight. Also 
inspect the gears for worn or chipped teeth and test the clearance 
of the slow-speed drum on the driven-gear sleeve. There should 
be a clearance of .003 inch on a new job and .005 inch on a repair 
job. 

Reverse Drum Clearance. Examine the rivets and the gear 
teeth on the reverse drum. Try the fit between the drum teeth 
and the low-speed gear as there should be a clearance of .003 inch 
on a new job and .005 inch on a repair job. Examine the driven 
gear to see if it is in good condition and try the keys in the key- 
ways on the gear sleeve and the driven gear. Place and drive the 
driven gear on the driven-gear sleeve — the outer face on the driven 
gear should be about .010 inch below the end of the driven-gear 
sleeve. After assembling, see that all of the gears revolve freely. 
Assemble the gear shaft to the flywheel; then place the drum 
assembly, driven gear up, on the bench. 

Triple Gear Assembly. Note the punch marks on the triple 
gears. Assemble the triple gears to the drum gear assembly with 

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138 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

the punch marks registering on the triple gears. Assemble the 
triple gears to the drum-gear assembly, taking note that the punch 
marks on the triple gears are facing toward the driven gear. 

Setting Triple Gears. The setting of the gears may start at 
any point on the driven gear. The other two triple gears are now 
spaced by the punch marks, 9 teeth apart, or at 120 degrees from 
each other. After the triple gears are assembled to the drum 
assembly, tie a small cord around them so that they will be held 
in their relative position. 

Placing Gear Unit. Pick up the complete gear unit and 
place the gears down and over the gear shafts and the triple-gear 
pins. Place the Woodruff keys that hold the disc drum in the 
gear shaft; the disc drum should then be driven on securely. 
Place and spread the cotter key so that the set screw does not 
loosen up and see that the drums are free and that there is not 
over -£$ inch end play in the brake drum. This is very important. 

Clutch Assembly. The clutch discs should then be assembled. 
Place a large disc on first, then a small one until 25 are used, end- 
ing with a large one. Replace the push ring and try the fit of the 
drive plate bushing on the gear shaft; there should be .003 inch 
clearance on a new job and .007 inch on a repair job. 

Fastening Drive Plate. Release the tension on the clutch 
fingers by compressing the clutch spring and placing the drive- 
plate cap screw under the clutch shift. The drive plate is then 
placed in position and fastened down; now remove the temporary 
drive-plate screw under the clutch shift, also the wire from one 
drive-plate screw to another. When the clutch is properly 
adjusted, there should be yf inch space between the lower side of 
the clutch and the drive plate. Fig. Ill is a sectional view of the 
assembled transmission. 

Timing Gears. There are 42 teeth on the cam gear, this gear 
having a diameter of 5| inches; while the crankshaft gear has 21 teeth 
and is 2| inches in diameter. The ratio of these gears is 2 to 1. 

Rear Axle Gears. The bevel gear in the rear axle has 40 
teeth and the pinion has 11 teeth. The gear ratio is 3 T 7 T to 1. 
When the car is being operated in low speed, the gear ratio 
between the motor and the rear wheels is 10 to 1; and when 
reverse speed is used, the ratio is 14.5 to 1. 



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4 

< FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 139 



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be % inch closer together at the front than at the back. If a 
plumb line is dropped through the spindle bolt it should touch the 
ground 2^ inches from the center of the tire. 

Clutch. The clutch has 12 small discs and 13 large discs. A 
large disc should always be on top when the clutch is assembled. 



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140 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

TABLE V 
Magneto Output 



R.P.M. 


Miles per Hour 


Volts 


Amperes 


Cycles per 
Second 


Car 


Truck 


200 
400 
600 
800 
1000 
1200 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


2.63 

5.26 

7.89 

10.52 

13.15 

15.80 


0.5 

9.8 

14.4 

18.8 
22.8 
26.2 


6.1 
7.9 
8.5 
8.8 
8.9 
9.0 


26.4 

52.8 

80.0 

106.4 

146.4 

160 



Valves. The valves are \\ inches in diameter at the head, 
having a seat at an angle of 45 degrees to the stem. The valve 
stem is ^ inch in diameter and 5| inches long. There is a pin- 
hole | inch from the end of the valve stem, this hole being -fa 
inch in diameter. The exhaust and the inlet valves are of the 
same size and they are interchangeable. 

Valve Timing. The valves should be timed by the position of 
the piston. The measurements for the different models are as fol- 
lows: 

Models previous to 1913 

Exhaust opens f inch before lower dead center 
Exhaust closes ^ inch past upper dead center 
Intake opens ^ inch past upper dead center 
Intake closes f inch past lower dead center 

Models later than 1913 

Exhaust opens & inch before lower dead center 
Exhaust closes upper dead center 
Intake opens ^ inch past upper dead center 
Intake closes ys inch past lower dea^d center 

Magneto. In table V is given the output of the late type of 
Ford magneto at various motor speeds. 

TROUBLE SHOOTING 

WHEN MOTOR FAILS TO START 

Q. When the engine fails to start, what parts should be 
examined? 

A. The first thing to do is to make sure that a sufficient 
supply of gasoline is at hand; also that there is no water mixed 
with the gasoline. If water is present, it may freeze at the outlet 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 141 

of the tank and prevent the gasoline from flowing to the carbure- 
tor. If the temperature is not cold enough to freeze, the water 
will pass into the carburetor and the combustion chamber and pos- 
sibly short the spark plugs. 

Q. If the gasoline supply is in good condition, what should 
then be examined? 

A. The ignition system should be examined to see that suf- 
ficient spark is present at the spark plugs at the proper time. If 
the car is equipped with a starter, the ignition switch should be 
turned on and the starter button depressed, shorting the spark 
plugs with a screw driver or a hammer. The fact that the vibra- 
tor coils are operating does not necessarily indicate that a spark is 
present of sufficie"* 
strength to prope 
ignite the mixture. WI 
the plugs are shorted 
this method, a spj 
should jump at leasi 
inch to the screw dri 
or hammer. 

Q. If no spark c 
very weak spark is pr 
ent, what should be 
spected? 

A. During coiu 

A , ., , ,, Fig. 112. Oiling the Timer 

weather, the timer should 

be examined as congealed oil or water may have collected in the 
timer, preventing suitable contact from being made with the seg- 
ments and the roller. The timer is easily removed by loosening 
up the cap screw on the timing-gear case, and after it has been 
thoroughly cleaned, it should be supplied with a little oil by the 
method shown in Fig. 112. The spring on the timer roller may also 
be broken; and this will prevent a contact from being made. The 
timer should be carefully inspected as well as the surface of the 
commutator, as a rough commutator is likely to prevent the motor 
from starting and it is sure to cause the motor to miss after it is 
started. More detailed information on the timer can be found on 
page 86. 



373 



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142 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

Q. If the timer is in good condition, what should then be 
examined? 

A. Examine the vibrator points on the coils for they may be 
adjusted too closely. If the car is equipped with a battery supply 
for the ignition system, the switch should be turned to the battery 
position and the motor turned over until a coil starts to vibrate. 
The vibrator adjustment should then be changed until a strong 
spark is produced at the secondary terminal. Of course, if the 
battery is weak, it will be impossible to make this adjustment. 

Q. After adjusting the coils and the motor does not start, 
what should be examined? 

A. The compression of each cylinder should then be care- 
fully tested, using the crank for this operation. Try each cylinder 
by placing the crank on each quarter of the shaft and rocking the 
motor, thus ascertaining the relative compression of the various 
cylinders. If the compression is poor, the cylinders may be full of 
carbon; this may cause the valves to remain open, thus losing the 
compression through them. 

WHEN ENGINE LACKS POWER AND RUNS IRREGULARLY 

LOW SPEED 

Q. If the engine misses at low speeds and does not develop 
much power, what should be examined first? 

A. The compression of the motor should be examined by the 
method described under "When Engine Fails to Start. ,, 

Q. If the compression is in good condition, what then? 

A. The carburetor may not be properly adjusted; the adjust- 
ment of this instrument determines to a great extent the power 
produced by the motor. If the carburetor is set too rich, the 
mixture will burn very slowly, developing less power than it 
should; and if the carburetor is set too thin, the mixture will burn 
still more slowly than the rich mixture, and this will also greatly 
decrease the power. 

Q. If the carburetor adjustment is correct, what part of the 
motor should then be examined? 

A. The spark plugs should then be examined as it is quite 
possible that they are partially or completely shorted. 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 143 

Q. After the spark plugs are clean and the motor still 
misses, what parts should be inspected? 

A. The vibrator points on the spark coils should then be 
examined as it is possible that they have become pitted, causing a 
high resistance in the path of the current, thus decreasing the 
strength of the spark in the secondary winding. 

Q. After the ignition has been carefully looked over and 
everything found in good condition, what should be examined? 

A. The clearance between the valve stem and the push rod 
may be insufficient to allow the valves to seat properly, thus hold- 
ing them open and allowing the motor to miss intermittently. 

HIGH SPEEDS 

Q. When the motor lacks power and runs irregularly at 
high speeds, what should be examined? 

A. The spark plugs should first be examined, as it is quite 
possible that the spark gap is too wide; perhaps the plugs may be 
partially fouled, either on account of a porous or a cracked porce- 
lain or because of oil and carbon on the porcelain. 

Q. With spark plugs in good condition and the motor still 
missing, what should be examined next? 

A. The commutator should be carefully inspected as the 
timer may be worn, thus causing the roller to jump over some 
segments and to strike others. Missing the segments will natur- 
ally prevent a spark from occurring in the cylinder. 

Q. If the commutator is in good condition, what other part 
should be examined? 

A. It is quite possible that some of the valve springs may be 
so weak that they will prevent the valves from properly seating; 
or the valve stems may be coated with a gummy carbon, causing 
the valves to stick and thus lose compression. 

Q. If the valves, commutator, and spark plugs are in good 
condition, what else would be likely to cause an irregular miss at 
high speeds? 

A. If the carburetor is improperly adjusted or the gas line is 
clogged so that the gasoline is supplied in an insufficient quantity 
to furnish a perfect mixture, the motor will have a tendency to 
miss at high speeds. The vibrator points should also be examined. 



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144 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

WHEN ENGINE STOPS SUDDENLY 
Q. When the engine stops suddenly after back-firing in the 
intake manifold, what is the first thing to do? 

A. The gasoline tank should be examined as it is likely that 
the supply has become exhausted. 

Q. If there is sufficient gasoline, what should be done? 

A. The drain cock at the bottom of the gas tank should be 
opened and any sediment in the dirt trap removed. The drain 
cock on the carburetor should also be opened, allowing any dirt 
that has accumulated in the float chamber to drain out, as water 
or any foreign substance is likely to clog up the spray nozzles, 
foul the spark plugs, and stop the motor. 

Q. If gasoline is running out of the carburetor when the 
motor stops, what does this indicate? 

A. This condition indicates that the float has stuck, thus 
allowing the float valve to remain open. The gasoline then flows 
into the float chamber unobstructed, and this condition will cause 
the motor to stop by choking it with too rich a mixture. A leaky 
float valve may also be responsible for this trouble. 

Q. After the carburetion system has been carefully examined 
and everything found to be in good condition, what should then 
be inspected? 

A. The ignition wires leading to the switch, the magneto, 
the coils, and the timer should then be carefully examined, as a 
loose or broken wire will easily prevent the motor from operating. 
It is less likely to be in the timer connections than at the other 
places mentioned, as it would be less likely for all the timer wires 
to be broken or shorted, which would prevent the motor from 
starting. The spring on the timer roller should also be examined 
to see if it is broken. 

Q. When the car stops because the motor is very hot, what 
should be examined? 

A. The supply of oil and water should first be examined as 
it is quite possible that either one has been exhausted. 

IF ENGINE OVERHEATS 
Q. If the engine continually overheats, what may cause this 
trouble? 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 145 

A. If there is lack of water in the radiator or of oil in the 
crankcase, the motor is bound to overheat; also the fan belt may 



> 
Q 



I 



be slipping or loose, which would prevent the fan from being 
driven at its proper rate of speed. 



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146 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

Q. Will carbon cause the motor to overheat? 

A. Yes; the formation of carbon in the combustion chambers 
prevents the heat from being properly distributed, and this will 
naturally raise the temperature of the motor to a certain extent. 
If carbon is present in the combustion chambers, it should be 
removed either by taking off the head and scraping the carbon 
from the parts or by using the oxygen-burning method. 

Q. If there is a good supply of oil and water, if the fan belt 
is in good condition, and if there is absence of carbon in the 
cylinders, what then would be likely to cause the motor to over- 
heat? 

A. If the spark is too far retarded, the explosion will occur 
too late in the cylinders, thus causing more heat to be developed, 
as the gas does not burn so fast when exploded after the proper 
time. If the carburetor is set too rich, a great deal of extra heat 
will also be developed which will have a tendency to overheat 
the entire motor. Then again, the water-circulation system may 
be clogged up on account of sediment in the radiator. 

GENERAL TROUBLES 

Q. What is the trouble when the starter button is depressed 
and the starter armature merely spins but does not engage the 
starter pinion with the flywheel? 

A. This trouble is undoubtedly due to a broken drive spring, 
this spring being shown in Fig. 113. When this spring is broken, 
the armature shaft will turn inside the screw shaft, but as the 
armature shaft is connected to the screw shaft through the drive 
spring, the drive pinion will naturally be unable to turn. 

Q. What causes the motor to fail to start after being stopped 
for a short time when the carburetor seems to work well and 
there is a hot spark? Why will the motor start at once if the 
needle valve is turned off and the motor is spun after it has been 
standing for a time? 

A. Most of the trouble is due to a rich carburetor mixture. 
By opening the pet cocks more air is let into the cylinder and a 
thinner mixture obtained for starting. The adjustment of the 
carburetor should be changed to obtain a thinner mixture, and 



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FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 147 

if the float level is too high it should be adjusted. The spark- 
plug points should also be set to make a gap -£$ inch wide. 

Q. Is there any way to adjust the generator of a 1919 
Ford to make it charge the battery at a higher rate? 

A. The charging rate of this generator can be adjusted by 
shifting the position of the third brush. If this brush is moved 
in the same direction as the armature rotates, the charging rate 
will be increased; if it is moved in the opposite direction, the rate 
will be decreased. Never charge above 12 amperes. 

Q. If the ammeter shows a charge of 8 amperes when the 
car is traveling at 25 m.p.h. with the lights off, and when the 
headlights are turned on, it shows a discharge of 10 amperes, 
what is the trouble? 

A. A 10-ampere discharge rate when the headlights are 
turned on is entirely too much. It indicates that there is a short- 
circuit in the lighting system. When the engine is not running 
and all the lights are burning, the ammeter should show 5.4 
amperes discharge, or with the dimmer and tail lamps burning, 
there should be a discharge of 1.25 amperes. 

Q. What is the trouble with a Ford car when it misses on 
all four cylinders when a steep grade is encountered? 

A. The trouble is undoubtedly due to weak magnets which 
cause the coils to give a weak current whenever the car slows 
down under a load. Examine the coil vibrators as the points may 
be badly pitted; the spark-plug points should also be inspected 
as too wide a gap will cause this trouble. There may also be 
too wide a gap between the magnets and coils. 

Q. What is meant by spark advance and spark retard? 

A. Advancing and retarding the spark affect the time the 
spark takes place in the cylinder in relation to the position of 
the piston. If a spark occurs when the piston is at or past upper 
dead center, it is said to be retarded. If it occurs before dead 
center, the spark is advanced. 

When cranking the motor very slowly with the ignition 
switch on BATT, the spark must be retarded to prevent an explo- 
sion from taking place in the cylinder before the piston has 
reached upper dead center. This explosion would reverse the 
motion of the motor and cause a kick. The amount of advance 



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148 FORD CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

to the spark when driving depends upon the speed of the motor. 
If the motor is pulling hard or turning over slowly, the spark can 
be advanced but very little. If, however, the motor is turning 
fast with a comparatively light load, then a full advance is 
advisable. 

Q. How are the magnets of a Ford magneto recharged 
without removing them from the car? 

A. To charge a Ford magneto without removing the magnets 
from the motor, it is first necessary to place the flywheel in the 
correct position. To do this, hold a compass near the magneto 
terminal 1 inch to the left of the terminal and 6 inches to the 
rear; that is, the center line of the engine should be 1 inch to 
the right of the center line of the compass, and the compass should 
be 6 inches back of the terminal plug. Turn the motor until 
the north pole of the compass points directly toward the front 
end of the car. Much of the success of the magnet charging 
depends on this setting, so it should be done carefully. The next 
step is to disconnect the terminal wire from the magneto plug. 
Connect the positive battery terminal to the magneto post and 
make several flash connections to the ground with the other bat- 
tery terminal. 

Q. What is the trouble when a Ford heats up after the car 
is run about a mile and when after running 5 miles the motor 
becomes so hot that the water boils and a great deal of power 
is lost? 

A. The roller-brush assembly of the timer is probably worn 
to such an extent that the ignition is late or the advance lever 
is disconnected or broken so that the spark cannot be advanced. 
Although there is sufficient oil in the motor, the oil pipe may be 
clogged up and cause considerable heating trouble, as the oil will 
not properly circulate. The cooling system may be clogged, the 
radiator core painted with a high finish paint. The compression 
may be weak or there may be a carbon formation in the cylinders. 



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GLOSSARY 



THE following glossary of automobile terms is not intended in any sense 
as a dictionary and only words used in the articles themselves have been 
denned. The definitions have been made as simple as possible, but if 
other terms unfamiliar to the reader are used, these should be looked up in order 
to obtain the complete definition. 



A. A. A.: Abbreviation for American Auto- 
mobile Association. 

Abrasive: Any hard substance used for 
grinding or wearing away other substances. 

Absorber, Shock: See "Shock Absorber". 

Accelerate: To increase the speed. 

Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity 
of a moving body. In automobiles, the ability 
of the car to increase in speed. Pickup. 

Accelerator: Device for rapid control of the 
speed for quick opening and closing of the 
throttle. Usually in the form of a pedal, 
spring returned, the minimum throttle open- 
ing being controlled by the setting of the 
hand throttle. 

Accessory: A subordinate machine that 
accompanies or aids a more important 
machine; as, a horn is an accessory of an 
automobile. 

Accumulator: A secondary battery or 
storage battery. It usually consists of 
chemically prepared lead plates combined 
with an acid solution. Upon being charged 
with an electric current from a primary 
source, a chemical change takes place which 
enables the plates in their turn to give a 
current of electricity when used as a source 
of power, the plates at the same time return- 
ing to their original chemical state. 

Acetone: A liquid obtained as a by-product 
in the distillation of wood alcohol, and used 
in connection with reservoirs for storing 
acetylene for automobile lights, as it dis- 
solves many times its own volume of acety- 
lene gas. 

Acetylated Alcohol : Alcohol which has been 
denatured by the addition ol acetylene, 
which also increases its fuel value. See 
"Alcohol, Denatured". 

Acetylene: A gaseous hydrocarbide used as 
an illuminant; is usually generated for that 
purpose by the action of water on calcium 
carbide. 

Acetylene Generator. A closed vessel in 
which acetylene gas may be produced by the 
action of water on calcium carbide and which 
supplies the gas under uniform pressure. 

Acetylene Lamp: A lamp which burns 
acetylene gas. 

Acetyl! te: Calcium carbide which has been 
treated with glucose. It is used to obtain 
a more uniform and slower production of 
acetylene gas than can be obtained with the 
untreated calcium carbide. 



Acid: In connection with automobiles the 
term usually means the liquid or electrolyte 
used in the storage battery. See "Electro* 
lyte". 

Acid Cure. Method of rapid vulcanization 
of rubber without heat. Used in tire repairs. 
The agent is sulphur chloride. 

Acidimeter. An instrument for determining 
the purity of an acid. 

Active Material: Composition in grids that 
forms plates of a storage battery. It is this 
material in which the chemical changes occur 
in charging and discharging. 

Adapter: Device by which one type of lamp 
burner may be used instead of the one for 
which the lamp was designed. Usually a 
fitting by which a gas or oil lamp may be 
converted into an electric lamp. ' 

Adhesion: That property of surfaces in con- 
tact by virtue of which one of them tends 
to stick to the other. It is used as synony- 
mous with friction. The adhesion of wheels 
acts to prevent slipping. 

Adjustment: The slackening or tightening 
up of parts to .compensate for wear, reduce 
friction, or secure better contact. 

Admission: In a steam engine, the letting 
in of the steam to the cylinder; in gas engine, 
the letting in of mixture of gas and air to the 
cylinder. 

Advanced Ignition: Usually called advanc- 
ing the spark. Setting the spark of an inter- 
nal-combustion motor so that it will ignite 
the charge at an earlier part of the stroke. 

Advance Sparking: A method by which the 
time of occurrence of the ignition spark may 
be regulated, by completing the electric 
circuit at the earlier period. 

Advancing the Spark: See "Advanced Ig- 
nition". 

Aerodynamics: The science of atmospheric 
laws, i.e., the effects produced by air in 
motion. 

After-Burning: Continued burning of the 
charge in an internal-combustion engine 
after the explosion. 

After-Firing: An explosion in the muffler or 
exhaust passages. 

A-h: Abbreviation for ampere hour. 

Air Bottle: A portable container holding 

compressed air or carbon dioxide for tire 
inflation. 

Air-Bound : See "Air Lock". 



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GLOSSARY 



Air Compressor: A machine for supplying 
air under pressure for inflating tires, starting 
the motor, etc. 

Air Cooled: Cooled by air direct. Usually 
referring to the cylinder of an engine, whose 
heat caused by the combustion within it 
is carried away by air convection and radia- 
tion. 

Air Cooling: A system of dispersing by air 
convection the heat generated in the cylinder 
of an internal-combustion motor. 

Air Intake: An opening in a carbureter to 
admit air. 

Air Leak: Entrance of air into the mixture 

between carbureter and cylinder. 
Air Lock: Stoppage of circulation in the 

water or gasoline system caused by a bubble 

of air lodging in the top of a bend in the 

pipe. 
Air Pump: A pump operated by the engine 

or by hand to supply air pressure to the oil 

tank or gasoline tank; sometimes called 

pressure pump. 

Air-Pump Governor: A device to regulate 
the speed of the air pump so as to give a' 
uniform air pressure. 

Air Resistance: The resistance encountered 
by a surface in motion. This resistance in- 
creases as the square of the speed, which 
makes it necessary to employ four times as 
much power in order to double a given speed. 

Air Tube: See "Pneumatic Tire". 

Airless Tire: Name of special make of non- 
puncturable resilient tire. 

A. L. A.M.: Abbreviation for Association 
of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, now 
out of existence. 

A. L. A. M . Horsepower Rating : The horse- 
power rating of an automobile found by the 
standard horsepower formula approved by 
the Association of Licensed Automobile 
Manufacturers. Since the dismemberment 
of this organization, the formula is usually 
called the S.A.E. rating. This formula is 
h.p. =bore of cylinder (in inches) squared X 
No. of cylinders -§-2.5, at a piston speed of 
1000 feet per minute. 

Alarm, Low- Water: See "Low- Water 

Alarm". 

Alcohol: A colorless, volatile, inflammable 
liquid which may be used as fuel for internal- 
combustion engines. 

Alcohol, Denatured: Alcohol rendered unfit 
for drinking purposes by the addition of 
wood alcohol, acetylene, and other sub- 
stances. 

Alignment: The state of being exactly in 
line. Applied to crankshafts &ud transmis- 
sion shafts and to the parallel conditions of 
the front and rear wheels on either side. 

Alternating Current: Electric current 
which alternates in direction periodically. 

Ammeter: An instrument to measure the 
values of current in an electric circuit directly 
in amperes. Also called ampere meter. 

Amperage: The number of amperes, or cur- 
rent strength, in an electric circuit. 

Ampere: The practical unit of rate of flow 
of electric current, measuring the current 
intensity. 

Ampere Hour: A term used to denote the 
capacity of a storage battery or closed-circuit 
primary battery. A battery that will deliver 



three amperes for six hours is said to have an 

eighteen-ampere-hour capacity. 
Ampere Meter: See "Ammeter". 
Angle-Iron Underframe: An underframe 

constructed of steel bars whose cross section 

is a right angle. 
Anneal : To make a metal soft by heating and 

cooling. To draw the temper of a metal. 
Annular Gear: A toothed wheel upon which 

the teeth are formed on the inner circum- 
ference. 

Annular Valve: A circular valve having a 
hole in the center. 

Annunciator: An installation of electric 
signals or a speaking tube to allow the pas- 
sengers in an enclosed car to communicate 
with the driver. 

Anti-Freezing Solution: A solution to be 
used in the cooling system to prevent freezing 
in cold weather ; any harmless solution whose 
freezing point is somewhat below that of 
water may be used. 

Anti-Friction Metal: Various alloys of tin 
and lead used to line bearings, such as Babbitt 
metal, white metal, etc. 

Anti-Skid Device: Any device which may 
be applied to the wheels of a motorcar to 
prevent their skidding, such as tire coverings 
with metal rivets in them, chains, etc. 

Apron: Extensions of the fenders to prevent 
splashing by mud or road dirt. 

Armature: In dynamo-electric machines, 
the portion of a generator in which the 
current is developed, or in a motor, the por- 
tion in which the current produces rotation. 
In most generators in automobile work, the 
armature is the rotating portion. In mag- 
netic or electromagnetic machines the arma- 
ture is the movable portion which is attached 
to the magnetic poles. 

Armature Core: The iron portion of the 
armature which carries the windings and 
serves as part of the path for the magnetic 
flux. 

Armature Shaft: The shaft upon and with 
which the armature rotates. 

Armature Winding: Electrical conductors, 
usually copper, in an armature, and in which 
the current is generated, in case of a gen- 
erator, or in which they produce rotation in 
a motor. 

Artillery Wheel : A wheel having heavy wood 
spokes. 

Aspirating Nozzle: An atomizing nozzle to 
make the liquid passing through it pass from 
it in the form of a spray. 

Assembled Car: A car whose chief parts, 
such as engine, gearset axles, body, etc., are 
manufactured by different parts makers, 
only the final process of putting them to- 
gether being carried out in the car-making 
plant. 

Atmospheric Line: A line drawn on an in- 
dicator diagram at a point corresponding 
with the pressure of the atmosphere. 

Atmospheric Valve: See "Suction Valve". 

Atomizer: A device by which a liquid fuel, 
such as gasoline, is reduced to small particles 
or to a spray; usually incorporated in the 
carbureter. 

Auto: (1) Popular abbreviation for auto- 
mobile. (2) A Greek prefix meaning self. 



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Auto-Bus: An enclosed motor-driven publio 
conveyance, seating six or more people; 
usually has a regular route of travel. 

Autocar: A motorcar or automobile; a trade 
name for a particular make of automobile. 

Auto-Cycle: See "Motorcycle". 

Autodrome: A track especially prepared for 
automobile driving, particularly for races. 

Autogenous Welding: See "Welding, Autog- 
enous". 

Auto-Igniter: A small magneto generator 
or dynamo for igniting gasoline engines, the 
armature of which is connected with the 
flywheel by gears or by friction wheels, so 
that electric current is supplied as long as 
the engine revolves. 

Autolst: One who uses an automobile. 

Automatic Carbureter: A vaporizer or car- 
bureter for gasoline engines whose action is 
entirely automatic. 

Automatic Cut-Out: See "Cut-Out, Auto- 
matic". 

Automatic Spark Advance: Automatic 
variation of the instant of spark occurrence 
in the cylinder. Mechanical advancing and 
retarding of the spark to correspond with and 
controlled by variations in crankshaft speed. 

Auto-Meter: Trade name for special make 
of combined speedometer and odometer. 

Automobile: A motor-driven vehicle having 
four or more wheels. Some three-wheeled 
vehicles are properly automobiles, but are 
usually called tricars. 

Automobilist : The driver or user of an auto- 
mobile. 

.Auto Truck: A motor-driven vehicle for 
transporting heavy loads; a heavy com- 
mercial car. 

Auxiliary Air Valve: Valve controlling the 
admission of air through the auxiliary air 
intake of a carbureter. 

Auxiliary Air Intake: Opening through 
which additional air is admitted to the car- 
bureter at high speeds. 

Auxiliary Exhaust: Ports cut through cyl- 
inder walls to permit exhaust gases to be 
released from the cylinder when uncovered 
by the piston. These are sometimes used 
as an additional scavenging means for the 
regular exhaust valves. 

Auxiliary Fuel Tank: See "Fuel Tank, 
Auxiliary". 

Auxiliary Spark Gap: See "Spark Gap, 
Outside". 

Axle : The spindle with which a wheel revolves 
or upon which it revolves. 

Axle, Cambered: An axle whose ends are 

slanted downwards to camber the wheels. 
Axle, Channel: An axle which is U-shaped 

in cross section. 
Axle, Dead: Solid, fixed, stationary axle. 

An axle upon which the wheels revolve but 

which itself does not revolve. 
Axle, Dropped : An axle in which the central 

portion is on a lower level than the ends. 
Axle, Floating: A full-floating axle. A live 

axle in which the shafts support none of the 

car weight, but serve only to turn the wheels. 
Axle, I -Beam: An axle whose cross section 

is in the shape of the letter I. 
Axle, Live: An axle in which are comprised 



the driving shafts that carry the power of the 
motor to the driving wheels. 
Axle, Semi-Floating: A live axle in which 
the driving shafts carry all of the car 
weight as well as transmitting the driving 
torque. 

Axle, Three-Quarters Floating: A live 
axle in which the shafts carry a part of the 
weight of the car, while the housing car- 
ries the balance of the weight. It is inter- 
mediated by a floating axle and the semi- 
floating axle. 

Axle, Trussed: An axle in which downward 
bending is prevented by a truss. 

Axle, Tubular: An axle formed of steel tub- 
ing. Usually applied to the front axles, but 
sometimes used in referring to tubular shafts 
of rear axles. 

Axle Casing: That part of a live axle that 
encloses the driving shafts and differential 
and driving gears. Axle housing. 

Axle Housing: See "Axle Casing". 

Axle Shaft: The member transmitting the 
driving torque from the differential to the 
rear wheels. 



Babbitt: A soft metal alloy used for lining 
the bearings of shafts. 

Back-Firing: An explosion of the mixture 
in the intake manifold or carbureter caused 
by the communication of the flame of ex- 
plosion in the cylinders. Usually due to too 
weak a mixture. Popping. 

Back Kick: The reversal of direction of the 
starting, caused by back-firing. 

Backlash : The play between a screw and nut 
or between the teeth of a pair of gear wheels. 

Back Pressure: Pressure of the exhaust 
gases due to improper design or operation of 
the exhaust system. 

Baffle Plate: A plate used to prevent too 
free movement of a liquid in the container. 
In a gas engine cylinder, a plate covering the 
lower end of the cylinder to prevent too 
much oil being splashed into it. The plate 
has a slot through which the connecting rod 
may work. 

Balance Gear: See "Differential Gear". 

Balancing of Gasoline Engines: Insuring 
the equilibrium of moving parts to redi ze 
the vibration and shocks. 

Ball-and -Socket Joint: A joint in wb ha 
ball is placed within a socket recessed o fit 
it, permitting free motion in any dir ction 
within limits. 

Ball Bearing: A bearing in which the rotat- 
ing shaft or axle is carried upon a number of 
small steel balls which are free to turn in 
annular paths, called races. 

Balladeur Train: A French name for a slid- 
ing change-speed gear. 

Barking: The sound made by the explosions 
caused by after-firing. 

Base Bearing: See "Main Bearing". 

Base Explosion: See "Crankcase Explosion". 

Battery: A combination of primary or 
secondary cells, as dry cells or storage cells. 

Battery, Dry: See "Dry Battery". 

Battery, Storage: See "Accumulator". 

Battery Acid: The electrolyte in a storage 
battery. 



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Battery-Charging Plug: Power terminals 
to which the leads of a storage battery may 
be connected for charging the battery. 

Battery Gage: (1) Voltmeter or ammeter 
or voltammeter for testing the specific 
gravity of the electrolyte in a secondary 
battery. 

Battery Syringe: A syringe used to draw out 
a part of the electrolyte or solution from a 
storage battery cell to test its density and 
specino gravity. 

Baume: A scale indicating the specific 
gravity or density of liquids and having 
degrees as units. Gasoline of a specific 

e-avity of .736 has a gravity of 61 degrees 
aume. 

Bearing: A support of a shaft upon which it 
may rotate. 

Bearing, Annular Ball: A ball bearing con- 
sisting of two concentrio rings, between 
which are steel balls. 

Bearing, Ball: A bearing in which the 
rotating shaft and the stationary portion of 
the bearings are separated from sliding con- 
tact by steel balls. A steel collar fitted to 
the shaft rolls upon the balls, which in turn 
roll upon steel collar attached to the station- 
ary portion of the bearing. 

Bearing, Gup and Gone: A ball bearing in 
which the balls roll in a race, which is formed 
between a cone-shaped fixed collar and a 
cup-shaped shaft collar. 

Bearing, Main: The bearing in which 
rotates the crankshaft of an engine. 

Bearing, Plain: A bearing in which the 
rotating shaft is in sliding contact with the 
bearing supporting it. 

Bearing, Radial: A bearing designed to 
resist loads from a direction at right angles 
to the axis of the shaft. 

Bearing. Roller: A bearing in which the 

Journal rests upon, and is surrounded by, 
tardened steel rollers which revolve in a 
channel or race surrounding the shaft. 

Bearing, Thrust: A bearing designed to 
resist loads or pressures parallel with the 
axis of the shaft. 

Bearing Gap: That portion of a plain bear- 
ing detachable from the stationary portion, 
and which holds the bearing bushing and 
shaft. 

Bearing Surface: The projected area of a 
bearing in a perpendicular plane to the 
direction of pressure.. 

Beau de Rochas Cycle: The four-stroke 
cycle used in most internal-combustion 
engines. This cycle was proposed by M. 
Beau de Rochas and put into practical form 
by Dr. Otto. See "Four-Cycle". 

Belt and Clutch Dressing: A composition 
to be applied to belts and clutches to prevent 
them from slipping. 

Belt Drive: A method of transmitting power 
from the engine to the countershaft or jack 
shaft by means of belts. 

Benzine: A petroleum product having a 
specific gravity between that of kerosene and 
gasoline. Its specific gravity is between 60 
degrees and 65 degrees Baum£. 

Benzol: A product of the distillation of coal 
tar. Coal tar benzine. Used as a rubber, 
solvent and in Europe as a motor fuel. 

Berline Body: A limousine automobile body 
having more than two seats in the back part. 



Bevel-Gear: Gears the faces of whose teeth 
are not parallel with the shaft, but are on a 
beveled edge of the gear wheel. 

Bevel-Gear Drive: Method of driving one 
shaft from another at an angle to the first. 
The chief method of transmitting the drive 
from the propeller shaft to the rear axle 
shafts. 

B. H. P.: An abbreviation for brake horse- 
power. 

Bicycle: A two-wheeled vehicle propelled by 
the pedaling of the rider. 

Binding Poets: See "Terminals". 

Bleeder: A by-pass in the sight-feed of a 
mechanical oiling system by which the oil 
delivered through that feed is allowed . to 
pass out instead of going to the bearings. 

Blister: A defect in tires caused by the 
separation of the tread from the fabric. 

Block Chain: A chain used in automobiles, 
bicycles, etc., of which each alternate link 
is a steel block. 

Blow-Back: The backward rushing of the 
fuel gas through the inlet valve into the 
carbureter. 

Blower Cooled: A gas engine cooled by 
positive circulation of air maintained by a 
blower. 

Blow-Off : A blow-out caused by the edge of 
the bead of tire becoming free from the rim 
and allowing the tube to protrude through 
the space thus formed. 

Blow-Out: The rupture of both the inner 
tube and outer casing of a pneumatic tire. 

Blow-Out Patch: See "Patch, Tire Repair". 

Body: (1) The superstructure of an auto- 
mobile; the part that resembles and repre- 
sents the body of a horse-drawn vehicle. 
(2) In oils, the degree of viscosity. The 
tendency of drops of oils to hang together. 

Body Hangers: Attachments to or exten- 
sions of the frame for holding the body of the 
vehicle. They should be properly called 
frame hangers. 

Boiler: A vessel in which water is evaporated 
into steam for the generation of power. 

Boiler, Fire-Tube: A tubular steam boiler 
in which the end plates are connected by a 
number of open ended thin tubes, the spaces 
around which are filled with water, the hot 
gases passing through the tubes. 

Boiler, Flash : A steam boiler in which steam 
is generated practically instantaneously. 
There is practically no water or steam stored 
in the boiler. A flash generator. 

Boiler, Water-Tube: A steam boiler in 
which the water is carried in metal tubes, 
around which the hot gases circulate. 

Boiler Alarm: See "Low- Water Alarm". 

Boiler Covering: A non-conducting sub- 
stance used as a covering for boilers to pre- 
vent loss of heat by radiation. 

Boiler-Feed Pump: An automatic and self- 
regulating pump for supplying a boiler with 
feed water. 

Boiler-Feed Regulator: A device to make 
the feed-water supply of the boiler auto- 
matic. 

Bonnet: (1) The hood or metallic cover 
over the front end of an automobile. See 
"Hood". (2) The cover over a pump- 
valve box, or a slide-valve casing. (3) A 
cover to enclose and guide the tail end of a 



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steam-engine-valve spindle or the cover of a 
piston-valve casing. (4) The pan under- 
neath the engine in an automobile. 

Boot: A covering to protect joints from dirt 
and water or to prevent the leakage of grease. 
(2) Space provided for baggage at the rear 
of a car. 

Bore: The inside diameter of the cylinder. 

Boss: An enlarged portion of a part to give 
a point for attachment of another part. 

Bottom: The meshing of gears without 
clearance. 

Bow Separator: A part to prevent chafing 
of the bows of a top when folded. 

Boyle's Law of Gases: A law defining the 
volume and pressure of gases at constantly 
maintained temperatures. It states that 
the volume of a gas varies inversely as the 
pressure so long as the temperature remains 
the same ; or, the pressure of a gas is propor- 
tional to its density. 

Brake: An apparatus for the absorption of 
power by friction, and by clamping some por- 
tion of the driving mechanism to retard or 
stop the forward motion of the car. 

Brake, Air-Cooled : A brake whose parts are 
ridged to present a large surface for trans- 
ferring to the air the f rictional heat generated 
in them. 

Brake, Band: A brake which contracts 
upon the outside of a drum attached to some 
part of the driving mechanism. 

Brake, Constricting Band : A form of brake 
applied by tightening a band around a pulley 
or drum. 

Brake, Differential: A brake acting upon 
the differential gear. 

Brake, Double- Acting: A brake which will 
hold when the drum is rotating in either 
direction. 

Brake, Drum, and Band: See "Brake, 
Band". 

Brake, Emergency: A brake intended to be 
used in case the service brake does not act 
to a sufficient extent. 

Brake, Expanding-Band : A drum brake in 
which the braking force is exerted by a band 
forced outward against the inner rim of a 
pulley. 

Brake, External-Contracting: A brake 
consisting of a drum affixed to a rotating 
part, the outer surface of whieh is encircled 
by a contracting band. 

Brake, Foot: A 'brake designed to be oper- 
ated by the driver's foot. A pedal brake. 
Usually the service brake. 

Brake, Front-Wheel: A brake designed to 
operate on the front wheels of the car. 

Brake, Gearset: A brake designed to act on 
the transmission shaft and attached to the 
gearbox. 

Brake, Hand: A brake designed to be oper- 
ated by means of a hand lever. Usually the 
emergency brake. 

Brake, Hub: A brake consisting of a drum 
secured to one of the wheels. This is the 
usual type. 

Brake, Internal: A brake in which an ex- 
panding mechanism is contained within a 
rotating drum, the expansion bringing pres- 
sure to Dear on the drum. 

Brake, Internal-Expanding: A brake con- 
sisting of a drum, against the inside of which 
may be expanded a band or a shoe. 



Brake, Motor: A brake in an electric vehicle 
which acts upon the armature shaft of the 
motor. 

Brake, Service: A brake designed to be used 
in ordinary driving. It is usually operated 
by the driver's foot. 

Brake, Shoe: A brake in which a metal shoe 
is clamped against a revolving wheel. 

Brake, Transmission: A brake designed to 
act upon the transmission shaft. 

Brake, Water -Cooled : A brake through 
which water may be circulated to carry off 
the frictional heat. 

Brake Equalizer: A mechanism applied to a 
system of brakes operated in pairs to assure 
that each brake shall be applied with equal 
force. 

Brake Horsepower: The horsepower sup- 
plied by an engine as shown by the applica- 
tion of a brake or absorption dynamometer. 

Brake Housing: A casing enclosing the 
brake mechanism. 

Brake Lever: The lever by which the brake 
is applied tc the wheel. 

Brake Lining: The wearing surface of a 
brake ; usually arranged to be easily replaced 
when worn. 

Brake Pedal: Pedal by which the brake is 
applied. 

Brake Pull Rod: A rod transmitting the 
tension from the lever or pedal to the mova- 
ble portion of the brake proper. 

Brake Ratchet: A device by which the brake 
lever or brake pedal can be set in position and 
retained there; usually consists of a notched 
quadrant with which a movable tongue on 
the lever head or pedal engages. 

Brake Rod: The rod connecting the brake 
lever with the brake. 

Brake Test : A test of a motor by means of a 
dynamometer to determine its power output 
at different speeds. 

Braking Surface: The surface of contact 
between the rotating and stationary parts of 
a brake. 

Braze: To join by brazing. 

Brazing: The process of permanently joining 
metal parts by intense heat. 

Breaker Strip: A strip of canvas placed 
between the tread and body of an outer tire 
casing to increase the wearing qualities. 

Breather: An opening in the crankcase of a 
gas engine to permit pressure therein to 
remain equal during the movement of the 
pistons. 

British Thermal Unit. The ordinary unit of 
heat. It is that quantity of heat required to 
raise the temperature of one pound of pure 
water one degree Fahrenheit at the tempera- 
ture of greatest density of water. 

Brougham Body: A closed-in automobile 
body having windows at the side doors, and 
in front, but with no extension of the roof 
over the front seat. 

Brush Holder: In electrical machinery, an 
arrangement to hold one end of a connection 
flexible in contact with a moving part of the 
circuit. 

B. T. U.: Abbreviation for British Thermal 

Unit. 
Buckboard : A four-wheeled vehicle in which 

the body and springs are replaced by an 

elastic board or frame 



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6 



GLOSSARY 



Buckling: Irregularities in the shape of the 
plates of storage cells following a too rapid 
discharge. 

Bumper: (1) A contrivance at the front of 
the car to minimize shock of collision; it con- 
sists of plungers working in tubes and gain- 
ing elasticity from springs. (2) A bar placed 
across the end of a car, usually the front 
end, to take the shock of collision and thus 
prevent damage to the car itself. A rubber 
or leather pad interposed between the axle 
and frame of a car. 

Burner, "Torch** Igniter: A movable auxil- 
iary vaporizer for starting the fire in steam 
automobile burners. 

Bushing: A bearing lining. Usually made 
of anti-friction metal and capable of adjust- 
ment or renewal. 

Bus-Pipe: A manifold pipe. 

Butterfly Valve: A valve inserted in a pipe, 
usually circular and of nearly the same 
diameter as the pipe, designed to turn upon 
a spindle through its diameter and thus shut 
off or permit flow through the pipe. Usually 
employed for throttle valves and carbureter 
air valverj. 

Buzzer: (1) A name sometimes applied to 
the vibrator or trembler of a jump-spark 
ignition coil. (2) A device used in place 
of a horn, and consisting of a diaphragm 
which is made to vibrate rapidly by an 
electromagnet. 

By-Pass: A small valve to provide a second- 
ary passage for fluids passing through a 
system of piping. 



G: Abbreviation for a centigrade degree of 
temperature. 

Calcium Carbide: A compound of calcium 
and carbon used for the generation of acety- 
lene by the application of water. 

Calcium Chloride: A salt which dissolved 
in water is used as an anti-freezing solution. 

Cam: A revolving disk, irregular in shape, 
fixed on a revolving shaft so as to impart to 
a rod or lever in contact with it an intermit- 
tent or variable motion. 

Cam, Exhaust: A cam designed to operate 
the exhaust of an engine. 

Cam, Ignition: A cam designed to operate 
the ignition mechanism. In magnetos it 
operates the make-and-break device. 

Cam, Inlet: A cam designed to operate the 
inlet valve of an engine. 

Camber: (1) The greatest depth of curva- 
ture of a surface. (2) The amount of 
bend in an axle designed to incline the 
wheels. 

Camber of Spring: The maximum distance 
between the upper and lower parts of a 
spring under a given load. 

Cambered Frame: A narrowing of the front 
of a motor car to permit of easier turning. 

Cam Gear: The gear driving the camshaft 
of a gas engine. In a four-cycle engine this 
is the same as the two-speed gear. 

Camshaft: A shaft by which the valve cams 
are rotated; also known as the secondary shaft. 

Camshaft, Overhead : The camshaft carried 
along or above the cylinder heads, to operate 
overhead valves. 

Camshaft Gears: The gears or train of 
gears by which the camshaft is driven from 



the crankshaft. Half-time gears, timing 
gears, distribution gears. 

Canopy: An automobile top that can not be 
folded up. 

Capacity of a Condenser: The quality of 
electricity or electrostatic charge. Of a 
storage battery, the amount of electricity 
which may be obtained by the discharge of 
a fully charged battery. Usually expressed 
in ampere hours. 

Cape Hood: An automobile top which is 
capable of either being folded up or extended. 

Car: A wheeled vehicle. 

Carbide: See "Calcium Carbide". 

Carbide Feed : A type of acetylene generator 
in which the calcium carbide is fed into the 
water. 

Carbon Bridge: Formation of soot between 
points of spark plug. 

Carbon Deposit: A deposit upon the inte- 
rior of the combustion chamber of a gasoline 
engine composed of carbonaceous particles 
from the lubricating oil, too rich fuel mix- 
ture, or road dust. 

Carbon Remover: A tool or solution for 
removing carbon deposits from the cylinder, 
piston, or spark plug of a gasoline engine. 

Carbonization: The deposit of carbon. 

Carbureter: An appliance for mixing an 
inflammable vapor with air. It allows air 
to be passed through or over a liquid fuel 
and to carry off a portion of its vapor mixed 
with the air, forming an explosive mixture. 

Carbureter, Automatic: A carbureter so 
designed that either the air supply alone or 
both the air and gasoline supplies are regu- 
lated automatically. 

Carbureter, Constant-Level: A carbureter 
the level of the gasoline in which is main- 
tained automatically at a constant height. 
A float-feed carbureter. 

Carbureter, Exhaust- Jacketed : A carbu- 
reter whose mixing chamber is heated by the 
circulation of exhaust gas. 

Carbureter, Multiple- Jet: A carbureter 
having more that one spray nozzle or jet. 

Carbureter, Water- Jacketed: A carbureter 
whose mixing chamber is heated by the cir- 
culation of water from the cooling system. 

Carbureter Float: A buoyant part of the 
carbureter designed to float in the gasoline 
and connected to a valve controlling the 
flow from the fuel tank, designed to main- 
tain automatically a constant level of the 
gasoline in the flow chamber. 

Carbureter Float Chamber: A reservoir 
containing the float and in which a con- 
stant level of fuel is maintained. 

Carbureter Jet: The opening through which 
liquid fuel is ejected in a spray from the 
standpipe of a carbureter nozzle. 

Carbureter Needle Valve: A valve control- 
ling the flow of fuel from the flow chamber 
to the standpipe. 

Carbureter Nozzle: See "Carbureter Jet". 

Carbureter Standpipe: A vertical pipe 
carrying the nozzle. 

Carburetion: The process of mixing hydro- 
carbon particles with the air. The action in 
a carbureter. 

Cardan Joint: A universal joint or Hooke's 
coupling. 



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6L0SSARY 



Cardan Shaft: A shaft provided with a 
Cardan joint at each end. 

Casing: The shoe or outer covering of a 
double-tube automobile tire. 

Catalytic Ignition: See "Ignition.Catalytic". 

Cell: One of the units of a voltaic battery. 

Cell, Dry: See "Dry Cell". 

Cell, Storage: See "Accumulator". 

Cellular Radiator: A radiator in which the 
openings between the tubes are in the form 
of small cells. The same as a honeycomb 
radiator. 

Cellular Tire : A cushion tire which is divided 
into compartments or cells. 

Center of Gravity: That point in a body, 
which, if the body were suspended freely in 
equilibrium, would be the point of applica- 
tion of the resultant forces of gravity acting 
upon the body. 

Center Control: The location of the gear- 
shift and emergency brake levers of a car in 
the center of a line parallel to the front of 
the front seat. 

Centigrade Scale: The thermometer scale 
invented by Celsius. Used universally in 
scientific work. 

Century. In automobiling, a hundred-mile 
run. 

C. G. S. System: Abbreviation for centi- 
meter-gram-second system of measurement; 
the standard system in scientific work. 

Chain, Drive: A heavy chain by which the 
power from the motor may be transmitted 
to the rear wheels of an automobile. 

Chain, Roller: A sprocket chain, the cross 
bars of whose links are rollers. 

Chain, Silent: See "Silent Chain". 

Chain, Tire: A small chain fastened about 
the tire to increase traction and prevent 
skidding. 

Chain Wheel: A sprocket wheel for the 
transmission chains of a motor-driven 
vehicle. 

Change-Speed Gear: See "Gear, Change- 
Speed". 

Change-Speed Lever: See "Lever, Change- 
Speed". 

Charge: The fuel mixture introduced into 
the cylinder of a gas engine. The act of 
storing up electric energy in an accumulator. 

Charging: The passing of a current of elec- 
tricity through a storage cell. 

Charles' Law of Gases: See "Gases, Gay 
Lussac's Law of". 

Chassis. The mechanical features of a motor 
car assembled, but without body, fenders, or 
other superstructure not essential to the 
operation of the car. 

Chauffeur: In America this term means the 

{>aid driver or operator of a motor car. The 
iteral translation from the French means 
stoker or fireman of a boiler. 
Check. Steering: See "Steering Check". 
Check Valve: An automatic or non-return 
valve used to control the admission of feed 
water in the boiler, etc. 

Choke: The missing of explosions or poor 

explosions due to too rich mixture. 
Circuit, Primary: See "Primary Circuit". 

Circuit, Secondary: See "Secondary Cir» 
©uit". 



Circuit Breaker: A^device installed in an 
electric circuit and intended to open the 
circuit automatically under predetermined 
conditions of current flow. 

Circulating Pump: A pump which keeps a 
liquid flowing through a series of pipes which 
provides a return circuit. In a motor car, 
water and oil circulation is maintained by 
circulating pump. 

Circulation Pump: A mechanically oper- 
ated pump by which the circulation of water 
in the cooling system is maintained. 

Circulating System: The method or series 
of pipes through which a continuous flow of 
water or oil is maintained and in which the 
liquid is sent through the system over and 
over. 

Clash Gear: A sliding change-speed gear. 

Clearance: (1) The distance between the 
road surface and the lowest part of the 
under-body of an automobile. (2) The 
space between the piston of an engine when 
at the extremity of its stroke, and the head 
of the cylinder. 

Clearance, Valve: See "Valve Clearance''. 

Clearance Space: The space left between 
the end of the cylinder and the piston plus 
the volume of the ports between the valves 
and the cylinder. 

Clevis: The fork on the end of a rod. 

Clevis Pin: The pin passing through the 
ends of a clevis and through the rod to which 
the clevis is joined. 

Clincher Rim : A wheel rim having a turned- 
in edge on each side, forming channels. Into 
this the edge or flange of the tire fits, the air 
pressure within locking the tire and rim 
together. 

Clincher Tire: A pneumatic tire design to 
fit on a clincher rim. 

Clutch: A device for engaging or discon- 
necting two pieces of shafting so that they 
revolve together or run free as desired. 

Clutch Cone: A clutch whose engaging sur- 
faces consist of the outer surface of the 
frustrum of one cone and the inner surface 
of the frustrum of another. 

Clutch, Contracting-Band: A clutch con- 
sisting of a drum and band, the latter con- 
tracting upon the former. 

Clutch, Dry-Plate: A clutch whose friction 
Surfaces are metal plates, not lubricated. 

Clutch, Expanding- Band: A clutch consist- 
ing of a drum and band, the latter expanding 
within the former. 

Clutch, Jaw: A clutch whose members lock 
end to end by projections or jaws in one 
entering corresponding depressions in the 
other. 

Clutch, Multiple-Disk: A clutch whose 
friction surfaces are metal plates or disks, 
alternate disks being attached to one mem- 
ber and the rest to the other member of the 
drive. 

Clutch Brake: A device designed to stop 
automatically the rotation of the driven 
member of a clutch after disengagement 
from the driving member. 

Clutch Lining: The wearing surface of a 
clutch. This may be easily removed and 
replaced when worn. 

Clutch Pedal: The pedal by which the 
clutch may be disengaged, engagement being 
sbtaiiicd automatically by means of a spring. 



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GLOSSARY 



dutch Spring: A spring arranged to either 
hold a clutch out of gear or throw it into 
gear. 

Coasting: The movement of the car without 
constant applications of the motive power, 
as in running downhill with the aid of grav- 
ity or on the level, through the momentum 
obtained by previous power applications. 

Cock, Priming: A small cock, usually 
operated by a lever, for admitting gasoline 
to the carbureter to start its action. 

Coil, Induction: See "Spark Coil". 

Coil, Non -Vibrator: A coil so designed that 
it will supply a sufficient spark for the igni- 
tion with one make and break of the primary 
circuit. 

Coil, Primary: See "Primary Coil". 

Coil, Secondary: See "Secondary Spark 
Coil". 

Coil, Spark: See "Spark Coil". 

Coil, Vibrator: A spark coil with which is 
incorporated an electromagnetic vibrator to 
make and break the primary circuit. 

Coil Vaporizer: An auxiliary vaporizer to 
assist in starting a steam boiler.' It is a coil 
of tubing into which liquid gasoline is ad- 
mitted and burned to start the generation of 
gas in the main burner. 

Of>ld Test: The temperature in degrees 
Fahrenheit at which a lubricant passes from 
the fluid to the solid state. 

Combustion Chamber: That part of an 
explosive motor in which the gases are com- 
pressed and then fired, usually by an electric 
spark. 

Combustion Space: See "Clearance" and 
"Clearance Space". 

Commercial Car: A motor-driven vehicle 
for commercial use, such as transporting 
passengers or freight. 

Commutator: In the ignition system of an 
explosive motor, the commutator is a device 
to automatically complete the circuit of 
each of a number of cylinders in succession. 

Commutator of Dynamo or Motor: That 
part of a dynamo which is designed to cause 
the alternating current produced in the 
armature to flow in one direction in the 
external circuit; in a motor, to change the 
direct current in the external circuit into 
alternating current. 

Compensating Carbureter: An automatic 
attachment to a carbureter controlling 
either air or fuel admission, or both, so that 
the proportion of one to the other is always 
maintained under any vibration of power 
required. 

Compensating Gear: See "Differential 
Gear". 

Compensating Joint: See "Universal 
Joint". 

Compound Engine: A multiple-expansion 
steam engine in which the steam is expanded 
in two stages, first in the high-pressure cyl- 
inder and then in the low-pressure cylinder. 

Compression: (1) That part of the cycle 
of a gas engine in which the charge is com- 
pressed before ignition; in a steam engine it 
is the phase of the cycle in which the pres- 
sure is increased, due to compression of the 
exhaust steam behind the piston. (2) The 
greatest pressure exerted on the gas in the 
compression chamber. 



Compression Chamber: The clearance vol- 
ume above the piston in a gas engine; also 
called "Compression Space". 

Compression Cock: See "Compression-Re- 
lief Cock". 

Compression Line: The line on an indi- 
cator diagram corresponding to the phase of 
the cycle in which the gas is compressed. 

Compression-Relief Cock: A small cock by 
which the compression chamber of an inter- 
nal-combustion motor may be opened to the 
air and thus allow the compression in the 
cylinder to be relieved to facilitate turning 
by hand, or cranking. 

Compression Space: See "Compression 
Chamber". 

Compression Tester: A small pressure gage 
by which the degree of compression of the 
mixture in a gas-engine cylinder may be 
tested. 

Compressor, Air: See "Air Compressor". 

Condenser: (1) In a steam motor,, an 
apparatus in which the exhaust steam is 
converted back into water. (2) A device 
for increasing the electric capacity of a 
circuit. Used in an ignition circuit to 
increase the strength of the spark. 

Cone Bearing: A shaft bearing in which the 
shaft is turned to a taper and the journal 
turned to a conical or taper form. 

Cone Clutch: A friction clutch in which 
there are two cones, one fitting within the 
other. 

Connecting Rods: The part of an engine 
connecting the piston to the crank, and by 
means of which a reciprocating motion of 
the piston is converted into the rotary 
motion of the crank. 

Constricting Band Brake: See "Brake, 
Constricting Band". 

Constricting Clutch: A friction clutch in 
which a band is tightened around a drum to 
engage it. 

Contact Breaker: A device on some forms 
of gasoline motors having an induction coil 
of the single jump^spark type, to open and 
close the electric circuit of the battery and 
coil at the proper time for the passage of the 
arc or spark at the points of the spark plug. 

Contact Maker: See "Contact Breaker". 

Continental Drive: Double-chain drive. 

Control: The levers, pedals, etc., in general 
with the speed and direction of a car is regu- 
lated by the driver. In speaking of right, 
left, or center control, the gearshift and 
emergency brake levers only are meant. 

Control, Spark: Method of controlling the 
power of an engine by varying the point in 
the stroke at which ignition takes place. 

Control, Throttle: Method of governing 
the pcwer of the engine by altering the area 
of the passage leading to the admission 
valve so that the amount of the fuel intro- 
duced into the cylinder is varied. 

Controller, Electric: Appaiatus for secur- 
ing various combinations of storage cells and 
of motors so as to vary the speed of the car 
at will. 

Converter: A device for changing alternat- 
ing current into direct current for charging 
storage batteries, etc. Converters may be 
any of three kinds: rotary, electrolytic, or 
mefcury-vapor. The mercury-vapor con- 
verter is most widely used. 



390 



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GLOSSARY 



Convertible Body: An automobile body 
which may be used in two or more ways, 
usually as an open or closed carriage, or in 
which several seats may be concealed, and 
raised to increase the seating capacity. 

Cooling Fan: Fan used in automobiles to 
increase the current of air circulating around 
the cylinders, or through the radiator. 

Cooling System: The parts of a gas engine 
or motor car by which the heat is generated in 
the cylinder by the combustion of the fuel 
mixture. See "Water Cooling" and "Air 
Cooling". 

Cork Inserts: Pieces of cork inserted in 
friction surfaces of clutches or brakes to 
give softer action. 

Cotter Pin: A split metal pin designed to 
pass through holes in a bolt and nut to hold 
the former in place. 

Coulomb: The unit of measure of electrical 
quantity. Sometimes called "Ampere Sec- 
ond". It is equivalent to the product of 
the current in amperes by the number of 
seconds current has been flowing. 

Counterbalance: Weights attached to a 
moving part to balance that part. 

Countershaft : An intermediate or secondary 
shaft in the power-transmission system. 

Coupe: An enclosed body seating one or two 
passengers and the driver, all within. 

Coupling, Flexible: See "Universal Joint". 

Cowl: That portion of the body of the car 
which forms a hood over the instrument 
board or dash. 

Cowl Tank: A fuel tank carried under the 
cowl and immediately in front of the dash. 

Crank: A lever designed to convert recipro- 
cating motion into rotating motion or vice 
versa; usually in the form of a lever formed 
at an angle with the shaft, and connected 
with piston by means of connecting rod. 

Crank, Starting: A handle made to fit the 
projecting end of the crankshaft of a gas 
engine, so that the engine may be started 
revolving by hand. 

Crankcase: The casing surrounding the 
crank end of the engine. 

Crankcase Explosion: Explosion of un- 
burned gases in the crankcase. 

Crank Chamber: The enclosed space of 
small engines in which the crank works. 

Cranking: The act of rotating the motor by 
means of a handle in order to start it. Turn- 
ing the flywheel over a few times causes the 
engine to take up its cycle, and after an 
explosion it continues to operate. 

Crankpin : The pin by which the connecting 
rod is attached to the crank. 

Crankshaft: The main shaft of an engine. 

Crankshaft, Offset: A crankshaft whose 
center line is not in the same plane as the 
axis of its cylinders. 

Creeping of Pneumatic Tires: The tend- 
ency of pneumatic tires to push forward 
from the ground, and thus around the rim, in 
the effort to relieve and distribute the 
pressure. 

Cross Member: A structural member of the 
frame uniting the side members. 

Crypto Gear: See "Planetary Gear". 

Crystallization. The rearrangement of the 
molecules of metal into a crystalline form 
under continued shocks. This is often the 



cause of the breaking of the axles and 3prings 
of a motor car. 

Cup, Priming: A small cup-shaped device 
provided with a cock, by which a small 
quantity of gasoline can be introduced into 
the cylinder of a gasoline engine. 

Current: The rate of flow of electricity; the 
quantity of electricity which passes per 
second through a conductor or circuit. 

Current Breaker: See "Contact Breaker". 
Current Indicator: A device to indicate 

the direction of current flow in a circuit; a 

polarity indicator. 

Current Rectifier: A device for converting 
alternating current into direct current. See 
"Converter". 

Cushion Tire: See "Tire, Cushion". 

Cut-Off, Gas Engine: That point in the 
cycle of an internal-combustion engine at 
which the admission of the mixture is dis- 
continued by the closing of the admission 
valve. 

Cut-Off, Steam Engine: That point in the 
cycle of a steam engine, or that point on an 
indicator diagram, at which the admission 
of steam is discontinued by the closing of the 
admission valve. 

Cut-Out, Automatic: A device in a bat- 
tery charging circuit designed to disconnect 
the battery from the circuit when the cur- 
rent is not of the proper voltage. 

Cut-Out, Muffler: A device by which the 
engine is made to exhaust into the air 
instead of into the muffler. 

Cut-Out Pedal: Pedal by means of which 
the engine is made to exhaust into the air 
instead of into the muffler. 

Cycle: A complete series of operations 
beginning with the drawing in of the work- 
ing gas, and ending after the discharge of 
the spent gas. 

Cycle, Beau de Rochas: See "Beau de 
Rochas Cycle". 

Cylinder: A part of a reciprocating engine 
consisting of a cylindrical chamber in which 
a gas is allowed to expand and move a 
piston connected to a crank. 

Cylinder Bore: See "Bore". 

Cylinder Cock: A small cock used to allow 
the condensed water to be drained away 
from the cylinder of a steam engine, usually 
called a drain cock. 

Cylinder Head: That portion of a cylinder 
which closes one end. 

Cylinder Jacket: See "Jacket, Water". 

Cylinder Oil: Lubricant particularly adapt- 
ed to the lubrication of cylinder walls and 
pistons of engines. 

D 

Dash: The upright partition of a car in front 
of the front seat and just behind the bonnet, 

Dash Adjustment: Connections by which 
a motor auxiliary may be adjusted by a 
handle on the dash. Usually applied to 
carbureter adjustments. 

Dash Coil: An induction coil for jump- 
spark ignition, having an element for each 
cylinder, with dash connections to the com- 
mutator on the engine or camshaft. 

Dash Gage: A steam, water, oil, or electrio 
gage placed upon the dash of the car. 



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10 



GLOSSARY 



Day Type of Engine: The two-cycle inter- 
nal-combustion engine with an air-tight 
crankcase. 

Dead Axle: See "Axle, Dead". 

Dead Center: The position of the crank and 
connecting rod in which they are in the same 
straight line. There are two positions, and 
in these positions no rotation of the crank- 
shaft is caused by pressure on the piston. 

Decarbonizer: See "Carbon Remover". 

Deflate: Reduction of pressure of air in a 
pneumatic tire. 

Deflector: In a two-cycle engine, the curved 
plate on the piston head designed to cause 
the incoming charge to force out the exhaust 
gases and thus assist in scavenging. 

Deflocculated Graphite: Graphite so finely 
. divided that it remains in suspension in a 
liquid. 

Demountable Rim: A rim upon which a 
spare tire may be mounted and carried, and 
so arranged that it may be easily and quickly 
taken off or put on the wheel. 

Denatured Alcohol: See "Alcohol, De- 
natured". 

Densimeter: See "Hydrometer". 

Depolarizer: Material surrounding the nega- 
tive element of a primary cell to absorb the 
gas which would otherwise cause polarizing. 

Detachable Body: A body which may be 
detached from and placed upon the chassis. 

Detachable Rim: See "Demountable Rim". 

Diagram Indicator: See "Indicator Card". 

Diagram, Jeantaud: A diagrammatic rep- 
resentation of the running gear of an auto- 
mobile, showing it turning corners of various 
radii for the purpose of determining the 
front-axle and steering connections. 

Diesel Gas Engine: Four-cycle internal- 
combustion engine in which the explosion of 
the charge is accomplished entirely by the 
temperature produced by the high com- 
pression of the mixture. 

Differential, Bevel-Gear: A balance gear in 
which the equalizing action is obtained by 
means of bevel gears. 

Differential, Spur-Gear: A differential gear 
in which the equalizing action is obtained by 
spur gears. 

Differential Brake: See "Brake, Differen- 
tial". 

Differential Case: See "Differential Hous- 
ing". 

Differential Gear: A mechanism to permit 
driving the wheels and yet allow them to 
turn a corner without slipping. An arrange- 
ment such that the driving wheels may turn 
independently of each other on a divided 
axle, both wheels being under the control 
of the driving mechanism. Sometimes 
called balance, compensating, or equalizing 
gear. 

Differential Housing: The case that en- 
closes the differential gear. 

Differential Lock: A device which prevents 
the operation of the differential gear, so that 
the wheels turn as if they were on a solid 
shaft. 

Dimmer: An arrangement for lowering the 
intensity of, or reducing the glare from 
headlights. 

Direct Current: A current which does not 
change its direction of flow, as the current 



from a battery or a direct-current generator. 
Distinguished from an alternating current, 
which reverses its direction many times a 
minute. 

Direct Drive: Transmission of power from 
engine to the final driving mechanism at 
crankshaft speed. 

Discharge: In a storage battery, the passage 
of a current of electricity stored therein. In 
the ignition circuit, the flow of high-tension 
current at the spark gap. 

Disk Clutch: A clutch in which the power 
is transmitted by a number of thin plates 
pressed face to face. 

Distance Rod: See "Radius Rod". 

Distribution Shaft: See "Camshaft". 

Distributor: That part of the ignition sys- 
tem which directs the high-tension current, 
to the respective spark plugs in the proper 
firing order. 

Double Ignition: A method of ignition 
which comprises two separate systems, 
either of which may be used independently 
of the other, or both together as desired. 
Usually distinguished by two current 
sources and two sets of plugs. 

Drag: That action of a clutch or brake 
which does not completely release. 

Drag Link: That rod in a steering gear 
which forms the connection between the 
mechanism mounted on the frame and the 
axle stub, and transmits the movements of 
steering from steering post to wheels. 

Drive Shaft: The shaft transmitting the 
motion from the change gears to the driving 
axle; the torsion rod. 

Driving Axle: The axle of a motor car 
through which the power is transmitted to 
the wheels. 

Driving Wheel: The wheel to which or by 
which the motion is transmitted. 

Dry Battery: A battery of one or more dry 
cells. 

Dry Cell: A primary voltaic cell in which a 
moist material is used in place of the ordi- 
nary fluid electrolyte. 

Dual Ignition: An ignition system compris- 
ing two sources of current and one set of 
spark plugs. 

Dust Cap: A metal cap to be screwed over 
a tire valve to protect the latter from dust 
and water. 

Dynamo: The name frequently applied to a 
dynamo-electric machine used as a gener- 
ator. Strictly, the term dynamo should be 
applied to both motor and generator. 

Dynamometer: The form of equalizing gear 
attached to a source of power or a piece of 
machinery to ascertain the power necessary 
to operate the machinery at a given rate of 
speed and under a given load. 

E 

Earth: See "Ground". 

Economizer, Gas : An appliance to be 
attached to a float-feed carbureter to im- 
prove the mixture by automatically govern- 
ing the amount of air in the float chamber. 

Eccentric: A disk mounted off-center on a 
shaft to convert rotary into reciprocating 
motion. 

Economy, Fuel : The fuel economy of a 
motor is the relation between the heat units 



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n 



in the fuel used in the motor and the woik 
or energy given out by the motor. 

Efficiency: The proportion of power ob- 
tained from a mechanism as compared with 
that put into it. 

Efficiency of a Motor: The efficiency of a 
gasoline motor is the relation between the 
heat units consumed by the motor and the 
work of energy in foot-pounds given out by 
it. Electrical efficiency of a motor is the 
relation between the electrical energy put 
into the motor and the mechanical energy 
given out by it. 

Ejector: An apparatus by which a jet of 
steam propels a stream of water in almost 
the same way as an injector, except that the 
ejector delivers it into a vessel having but 
little pressure in it. 

Electric Generator: A dynamo-electric ma- 
chine in which mechanical energy is trans- 
formed into electrical energy; usually called 
dynamo. 

Electric Horn: An automobile horn elec- 
trically operated. 

Electric Motor: A dynamo-electric machine 
in which electrical energy is transformed into 
mechanical energy. 

Electric Vehicle: An automobile propelled 
by an electric motor, for which current is 
supplied by a storage battery carried in the 
vehicle. 

Electrolyte: A compound which can be 
decomposed by electric current. In refer- 
ring to storage batteries, the term electro- 
lyte means the solution of sulphuric acid in 
water in which the positive and negative 
plates are immersed. 

Electromagnet: A temporary magnet which 
obtains its magnetic properties by the action 
of an electric current around it and which 
is a magnet only as long as such current is 
flowing. 

Electromotive Force: A tendency to cause a 
current of electricity to flow; usually syn- 
onymous with potential, difference of poten- 
tial, voltage, etc. 

Element: The dissimilar substances in a 
battery between which an electromotive 
force is set up, as the plates of a storage 
battery. 

Emergency Brake: A brake to be applied 
when a quick stop is necessary; usually 
operated by a pedal or lever. 

£n Bloc: That metlod of casting the cylin- 
ders of a gasoline engine in which all the 
cylinders are made as a single casting. 
Block casting; monoblock casting. 

End Flay; Motion of a shaft along its axis. 

Engine, Alcohol: An internal-combustion 
engine in which a mixture of alcohol and air 
is used as fuel. 

Engine, Gasoline: An internal-combustion 
motor in which a mixture of gasoline and air 
is used as fuel. 

Engine, Kerosene: An internal-combustion 
engine in which a mixture of kerosene and 
air is used as fuel. 

Engine, Steam: An engine in which the 
energy in steam is u»ec to do work by 
moving the piston in a cylinder. 

Engine Primer: A small pump to force fuel 
into the carbureter. 

Engine Starter: An apparatus by which a 
gasoline engine may be started in its cycle of 
operation without use of the starting crank. 



It belongs usually to one of four classes: (1) 
Mechanical or spring actuated, such as a 
coil spring wound up by the running of the 
engine or a strap around the flywheel; (2) 
fluid pressure, > such as compressed air or 
exhaust gases induced into the cylinder to 
drive the piston through one cycle; (3) the 
electric system, in which a small motor is 
used to turn the engine over; (4) combina- 
tions of these. 

Epicyclic Gear: See "Planetary Gear". 

Equalizing Gear: See "Differential Gear". 

Exhaust: The gases emitted from a cylinder 
after they have expanded and given up their 
energy to the piston; the emission of the 
exhaust gases. 

Exhaust, Auxiliary: See "Auxiliary Ex- 
haust". 

Exhaust Horn: An automobile horn in 
which the sound is produced by the exhaust 



Exhaust Lap: The extension of the inside 
edges of a slide valve to give earlier closing 
of the exhaust. Also called inside lap. 

Exhaust Manifold : A large pipe into which the 
exhaust passages from all the cylinders open. 

Exhaust Port: The opening through which 
the exhaust gases are permitted to escape 
from the cylinder. 

Exhaust Steam: Steam which has given up 
its energy in the cylinder and is allowed to 
escape. 

Exhaust Stroke: The stroke of an internal- 
combustion motor during which the burned 
gases are expelled from the cylinder. 

Exhaust Valve: A valve in the cylinder of 
an engine through which the exhaust gases 
are expelled. 

Expanding Clutch: A clutch in which a 
split pulley is expanded to press on the inner 
circumference of a ring which surrounds it, 
and thus transmits motion to the ring. 

Expansion, Gas Engine: That part of the 
cycle of # a gas engine immediately after 
ignition, in which the gas expands and drives 
the piston forward. 

Expansion, Steam Engine: That portion 
of the stroke of the steair engine in which 
the steam is cut off by the valves and con- 
tinues to perform work on the piston, increas- 
ing in volume and decreasing in pressure. 

Explosive Motor : See ' ' Internal-Combustion 
Motor". 

F 

Fan, Cooling: A mechanically operated fan 
for producing a current of air for cooling the 
radiator or cylinder of a gas engine. 

Fan, Radiator: A mechanically operated 
rotary fan used to induce the flow of air 
through the radiator to facilitate the cooling 
of the water. 

Fan Belt: The belt which drives the cooling 
fan. 

Fan Pulley : A pulley permanently attached 
to the fan and over which the fan belt runs 
to drive it. 

Fat Spark: A short, thick, ignition spark. 
Feed Pump: A pump by which water is 

delivered from the tank to the boiler of a 

steam car. 
Feed Regulator: A device to maintain a 

uniform water level in a steam boiler by 

controlling the speed of the feed pump. 



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12 



GLOSSARY 



Feed -Water Heater: An apparatus for 
heating the boiler-feed water, either by 
means of a jet of steam or steam-heated 
coils. 

Fender: A mud guard or shield over the 
wheels of a car. 

Field, Magnetic: Space in the neighborhood 
of the poles of a magnet in which the mag- 
netism exerts influence. Field also refers to 
the coils which produce the magnetism in an 
electromagnet. 

Fierce Clutch: A clutch which cannot be 
engaged easily. A grabbing clutch. 

Filler Board: Woodwork shaped to fill the 
space between the lower edge of the wind- 
shield and the dash. 

Fin: Projections cast on the cylinders of a 
gas engine to assist in cooling. 

Final Drive: That part of a car by which the 
driving effort is transmitted from the parts 
of the transmission carried on the frame to 
the transmission parts on the rear axle. 
The propeller shaft in a shaft-drive car. 

Fire Test: A test of a lubricant to determine 
the temperature at which it will burn. 

Firing: (1) Ignition of the charge in a gas 
engine. (2) The act of furnishing fuel 
under the boiler of a steam engine. 

First Speed: That combination of transmis- 
sion gears which gives the lowest gear ration 
forward. Slow speed; low speed. 

Flash Boiler: A boiler arranged to generate 
highly superheated steam almost instan- 
taneously, by allowing water to come in 
contact with very hot metal surfaces. 

Flash Generator: See "Flash Boiler". 

Flash Point: The temperature at which an 
oil will give off a vapor that will ignite when 
a flame comes in contact with it. 

Flash Test: A test to determine the flash 
point of oils. 

Flexibility: In an engine the ability to do 
useful work through a range of speeds. 

Flexible Coupling: See "Universal Joint". 

Flexible Shaft: A pliant shaft which will 
transmit considerable power when revolving. 

Flexible Tubing: A tube for the conduction 
of liquids or gases, which may be bent at a 
small radius without leaking. 

Float Carbureter: A carbureter for gasoline 
engines in which a float of cork or hollow 
metal controls the height of the liquid in the 
atomizing nozzle. Sometimes called float- 
feed carbureter. 

Float Valve: An automatic valve by which 
the admission of a liquid into a tank is con- 
trolled through a lever attached to a hollow 
sphere which floats on the surface of the 
liquid and opens or closes the valve accord- 
ing as it is high or low. 

Floating Axle: See "Axle, Floating". 

Floating the Battery on the Line: Charg- 
ing the battery while it is giving out current. 

Flooding: Excessive escape of fuel in a 
carbureter from the spraying nozzle. 

Flushing Pin: In a float-feed carbureter, a 
pin arranged to depress the float in priming. 
Also called primer and tickler. 

Flywheel: A wheel upon the shaft of an 
engine which, by virtue of its moving mass, 
stores up the energy of the gas transmitted 
to the flywheel during the impulse stroke 
and delivers it during the rest of the cycle, 
thus producing a fairly constant torque. 



Flywheel Marking: Marks on the face or a 
flywheel to indicate the time of valve open- 
ing and closing and thus assist in valve 
setting. 

Foaming: See "Priming". 

Fore Carriage: A self-propelled vehicle in 
which the motor is carried on the forward 
trucks, and propelling and steering is done 
with the forward trucks. 

Fore-Door Body: An automobile body hav- 
ing doors in the forward compartment. 

Four-Cycle or Four-Stroke Cycle: The 
cycle of operations in gas engines occupying 
two complete revolutions or four strokes. 

Four-Wheel Drive: Transmission of driving 
effort to all four wheels. 

Fourth Speed: That combination of trans- 
mission gears which gives the fourth from 
the lowest gear ratio forward. Usually the 
highest speed. 

Frame: The main structural part of a chas- 
sis. It is carried upon the axles by the 
springs and carries the different elements of 
the car. 

Frame Hangers: See "Body Hangers'*. 
Free Wheel: A wheel so arranged that it 

can rotate more rapidly than the mechanism 

which drives it. 

Friction :^ The resistance existing between 

two bodies in contact which tends to prevent 

their motion on each other. 
Friction Clutch: A device for coupling and 

disengaging two pieces of shafting while in 

motion, by the friction of cones or plates on 

one another. 
Friction Disk: The thin plate used in a disk 

or friction clutch. See ''Disk Clutch". 
Friction Drive: A method of transmitting 

power or motion by frictional contact. 

Fuel: A combustible substance by whose 
combustion power is produced. Gasoline 
and kerosene are the chief automobile fuels. 

Fuel Economy. See "Economy, Fuel". 

Fuel Feed, Gravity: See "Gravity Fuel 
Feed". 

Fuel Feed, Pressure: See "Lubrication, 
Force-Feed." 

Fuel Feed, Vacuum. See "Vacuum Fuel 
Feed". 

Fuel-Feed Regulator: A device in the fuel 
system of steam motor by which the rate of 
flow of fuel to the burner is automatically 
regulated. 

Fuel Level: The heigh 1 of the top of the fuel 
in the float chamber of a carbureter. 

Fuel-Level Indicator: An instrument either 
permanently connected to the fuel tank or 
which may be inserted thereon to indicate 
the quantity of fuel in the tank. 

Fuel Tank, Auxiliary: A tank designed to 
hold a supply of fuel in addition to that 
carried in the main shaft. 

Fuse: A length of wire in an electric circuit 
designed to melt and open the circuit when 
excess current flows through it and thus pre- 
vent damage to other portions of the circuit. 

Fusible Plug: A hollow plug filled with an 
alloy which melts at a point slightly above 
the temperature of the steam in a boiler, as 
when the water runs low, thus putting out 
the fire and preventing the burning out of 
the boiler. 



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GLOSSARY 



13 



Gage: (1) Strictly speaking, a measure of, or 
instrument for determining dimensions or 
capacity. Practically, the term refers to an 
instrument for indicating the pressure or 
level of liquids, etc. (2) The distance be- 
tween the forward or rear wheels measured 
at the points of contact of the tires on the 
road. Tread; track. 

Gage Cock: A small cock by which a pipe 

leading to a gage may be opened or closed. 
Gage Lamp: Lamp, usually electric, placed 

above or near the gages to enable them to be 

read at night. 
Gage, Oil: See "Oil Gage". 
Gage, Tire: See "Tire-Pressure Gage". 
Gap: In automobiles, the spark gap. 
Garage: A building for storing and caring 

for automobiles. 
Garage, Portable: A garage which may be 

moved from one place to another either as a 

whole or in sections. 
Gas: Matter in a fluid form which is elastic 

and has a tendency to expand indefinitely 

with reduction in pressure. 
Gas Economizer: See "Economizer". 
Gas Engine: An internal-combustion motor 

in which a mixture of gas and air is used as 

fuel. The term is also applied to the gaso- 
line engine. 
Gas Engine, Otto: A four-stroke cycle 

engine developed by Otto and using the 

hot-tube method of ignition. 
Gas Generator: An apparatus in which a 

gas is generated for any use. 
Gas Lamp: See "Acetylene Lamp". 
Gases, Boyle's Law of: See "Boyle's Law 

of Gases". 

Gases, Gay Lussac's Law of: Called 
Charles's Law and the Second Law of Gases. 
Law defining the physical properties of 

fases at constantly maintained pressure, 
t states that at constant pressure the vol- 
ume of gas varies with the temperature, the 
increase being in proportion to the change of 
temperature and volume of the gas. 

Gasket: A thin sheet of packing material or 
metal used in making joints, piping, etc. 

Gasoline: A highly volatile fluid petroleum 
distillate; a mixture of fluid hydrocarbons. 

Gasoline-Electric Transmission: A sys- 
tem of propulsion in which a gasoline engine 
drives an # electric generator, and the power 
is transmitted electrically to motors which 
drive the wheels. 

Gasoline Engine: An internal-combustion 
motor in which a mixture of gasoline and air 
is used as a fuel. 

Gasoline Primer: The valve on the car- 
bureter of a gasoline engine by which the 
action of the engine can be started. 

Gasoline-Tank Gage: A fuel-lever indicator 
for gasoline. 

Gasoline Tester: A hydrometer graduated 
to indicate the specific gravity of gasoline, 
usually in degrees Baume\ 

Gate: A plate which guides the gearshift 
lever in making speed changes. 

Gather: Convergence of the forward por- 
tions of the front wheels. Toeing in. 

Gay Lussac's Law of Gases: See "Gases, 
Gay Lussac's Law of". 



Gear, Balance: See "Differential Gear". 

Gear, Bevel: See "Bevel Gear". 

Gear, Change-Speed: An arrangement of 
gear wheels which transmits the power of 
the motor to the differential gear at variable 
speeds independently of the motor speed. 

Gear, Differential: See "Differential". 

Gear, Fiber: A gear cut from a vulcanized 
fiber blank* 

Gear, Helical: A gear whose teeth are not 
parallel to the axis of the cylinders. 

Gear, Internal: A gear whose teeth project 
inward toward the center from the circum- 
ference of gear wheel. 

Gear, Planetary: See "Planetary Gears". 

Gear, Progressive : See ' 'Progressive Change- 
Speed Gears". 

Gear, Rawhide: A gear cut from a blank 
made up of compressed rawhide. 

Gear, Selective: See "Selective Change- 
Speed Gears". 

Gear, Timing: See "Timing Gears". 

Gear, Worm: A helical gear designed for 
transmitting motion at angles, usually at 
right angles and with a comparatively great 
speed reduction. 

Gearbox : The case covering the change-speed 
gears. 

Gear Shifting: Varying the speed ration 
between motor and rear wheels by operating 
the change-speed gears. 

Gear-Shift Lever: A lever by which the 
change-speed gears are shifted. 

Geared-Up Speed: A speed obtained by an 
arrangement of gears in the gearset such that 
the propeller shaft rotates more rapidly than 
the crankshaft. 

Gearset: See "Gear, Change-Speed". 

Generator, Acetylene: See "Acetylene Gen- 
erator". 

Generator, Electric: See "Electric Gener- 
ator". 

Generator, Steam: A steam boiler. 

Generator Tubing: Tubing by which acety- 
lene is conducted from the generator to the 
lamp. 

Gimbal Joint: A form of universal joint. 

Gong: A loud, clear sounding bell, usually 
operated either electrically or by foot power. 

Governor: A device for automatically regu- 
lating the speed of an engine. 

Governor, Dynamo: A method of auto- 
matic control of the generator (usually an 
ignition generator, in automobile work) by 
which its speed is maintained approximately 
constant. 

Governor, Hydraulic: A governor applied 
to engines cooled by a pump circulation of 
water in such a way that the throttle opening 
is controlled by the pressure of the water. 

Governor, Spark: A method of automati- 
cally controlling the speed of the engine by 
varying the time of ignition. See "Gov- 
ernor". 

Grabbing Clutch: See "Fierce Clutch". 

Gradometer: An instrument for indicating 
the degree of the gradient or the per cent of 
the grade. It consists of a level with a 
graduated scale. 

Graphite: One of the forms in which carbon 
occurs in matter. Also known as black lead 



395 



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,14 



GLOSSARY 



and plumbago. Used as a lubricant in pow- 
dered or flake form in the cylinders of 
explosive engines. 

Gravity-Feed Oiling System: See "Lubri- 
cation, Gravity". 

Gravity Fuel Feed: Supply of fuel to the 
carbureter from the tank by force of gravity. 

Grease and Oil Gun: A syringe by means 
of which grease or oil may be introduced 
into the bearings of the machinery. 

Grease Gup: A device designed to feed 
grease to a bearing by the compression of a 
hand screw. 

Grid: A lead plate formed in the shape of a 
gridiron to sustain and act as a conductor of 
electricity for the active material in a 
storage battery. 

Grinding Valves: See "Valve Grinding". 

Gripping Clutch: See "Fierce Clutch". 

Ground: An electric connection with the 
earth, or to the framework of a machine. 

H 

Half -Motion Shaft : See "Half-Time Shaft". 

Half -Time Gear: See "Timing Gears". 

Half -Time Shaft: The cam shaft of a four- 
cycle gas engine. It revolves at one-half 
the speed of the crankshaft. 

Hammer Break: A make-and-break ignition 
system in which the spark is produced when 
the moving terminal strikes the stationary 
terminal like a hammer. 

Header: A pipe from which two or more 
pipes branch. Manifold. 

Heater, Automobile: A device for warming 
the interior of an automobile, usually electric, 
or by means of exhaust gases or jacket 
water. 

High Gear: That combination of change- 
speed gears which gives the highest speed. 

High-Tension Current: A current of high 
voltage, as the current induced in the second- 
ary circuit of a spark coil. 

High-Tenslon Ignition: Ignition by means 
of high-tension current. 

High-Tenslon Magneto: A magneto which 
delivers high-tension current. 

Honeycomb Radiator: A radiator consist- 
ing of many very thin tubes, giving it a 
cellular appearance. 

Hood: (1) ^That part of the automobile 

body which covers the frame in front of the 

, dash. The engine is usually under the hood. 

(2) The removable covering for the motor. 

Hooke'8 Coupler: See "Universal Joint". 

Horizontal Motor: a A motor the center line 
of whose cylinder lies in a horizontal plane. 

Horn, Automobile: A whistle or horn for 
giving warning of the approach of the 
automobile. 

Horsepower: The rate of work or energy 
expended in a given time by a motor. One 
horsepower is the rate or energy expended 
in raising a weight of 350 pounds one foot 
in one second, or raising 33,000 pounds one 
foot in one minute. 

Horsepower, Brake: The power delivered at 
the flywheel of an internal combustion 
engine as ascertained by a brake test. 

Horsepower, Rated: The calculated power 
which may be expected to be delivered by a 
motor. In America the term usually refers 



to the horsepower as calculated by the 
S.A.E. formula. 

Hot- Air Intake: The pipe or opening con- 
veying heated air to the carburetor. 

Hot-Head Ignition: The method of igniting 
the charge in a gas-engine cylinder by main- 
taining the head of the combustion chamber 
at a high temperature from the internal heat 
of combustion, as in the Diesel engine. 

Hot-Tube Ignition: An ignition device 
formerly used for gas engines in which a 
closed metal tube is heated red-hot by a 
Bunsen flame. When the compressed gases 
in the cylinder are allowed to come in con- 
tact with this, ignition takes place. 

Housing: A metallic covering for moving 
parts. 

H.P.: (1) Abbreviation for horsepower. (2) 
Abbreviation for high pressure. 

Hub Cap: A metal cap placed over the outer 
end of a wheel hub. 

Hydrocarbons: Chemical combinations of 
carbon and hydroger in varied proportions, 
usually distillates of petroleum, such as 
gasoline, kerosene, etc. 

Hydrometer: An instrument by which the 
specific gravity or density of liquids may be 
ascertained. 

Hydrometer Scale, Baume's: An arbitrary 
measure of specific gravity. 



I-Beam: Sometimes called I-Section. A struc- 
tural piece having a cross section resembling 
the letter I. I-Beam front axle. 

Igniter: An insulated contact plug without 
sparking points, used in make-and-break 
ignition with low-tension magneto. 

Igniter, High-Speed: An igniter having a 
short spark coil for high-speed engines. 

Igniter, Jump-Spark: A system of ignition 
in which is used a current of high pressure, 
which will jump across a gap in the high- 
pressure circuit, causing a spark at the gap. 

Igniter, Lead of: Amount by which the igni- 
tion is advanced. See "Advanced Ignition". 

Igniter, Primary: The apparatus in a pri- 
mary circuit for making and breaking the 
circuit. 

Igniter Spring: A spring to quickly break 
the circuit of a primary igniter. 

Ignition, Advancing: See "Advanced Ig- 
nition". 

Ignition, Battery: A system which gets its 
supply of current from a storage battery or 
dry cells. This system usually consists of a 
battery, a step-up coil, and a distributor for 
sending the current to the different spark 
plugs. 

Ignition, Catalytic: Method of ignition for 
explosive motors based on the property of 
some metals, particularly spongy platinum, 
of becoming incandescent when in contact 
with coal gas or carbonized air. 

Ignition, Double: See "Double Ignition". 

Ignition, Dual: See "Dual Ignition". 

Ignition, Fixed: Ignition in which the 
spark occurs at a given point in the cycle 
and cannot be changed from that point at 
the will of the operator except by retiming 
the ignition system. Fixed spark. 

Ignition, Generator: Ignition current which 
is furnished by a combination lighting 
generator and magneto. The generator is 



396 



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GLOSSARY 



15 



fitted with an Interrupter and distributor. 
Sometimes refers to system in which a gener- 
ator charges a battery and the latter fur- 
nishes the ignition current in connection 
with a coil and distributor. 

Ignition, High-Tension: Sometimes called 
jump-spark. Ignition which is effected by 
means of a high-tension or high-voltage 
current which is necessary to jump a gap in 
the spark plug. 

Ignition, Hot-Head: See "Hot-Head Igni- 
tion". 

Ignition, Jump-Spark: See "Ignition, 
High-Tension". 

Ignition, Low-Tension: See "Ignition, 
Make-and-Break' ' . 

Ignition, Make-and-Break: A system in 
which the spark is produced by the breaking 
or interruption of a circuit, the break 
occurring in the combustion space of the 
cylinder. The current used is of low-volt- . 
age, hence foe synonym, low-tension ignition. 

Ignition, Magneto: Ignition produced by 
an electric generator, called a magneto, which 
is operated by the gas engine for which it 
furnishes current. Dynamo ignition. Gen- 
erator ignition. 

Igni tion, Master Vibrator : A system which 
uses as many non-vibrator coils as there 
are cylinders, and one additional coil, called 
the mast** vibrator, for interrupting the 
primary circuit for all coils. The master 
vibrator also is used with vibrator coils in 
which the vibrators are short-circuited. 

Ignition, Premature: Ignition occurring so 
+ar before the top dead center mark that the 
explosion occurs beiare the piston has reached 
upper dead center. 

Ignition, Primary: An ignition system in 
which a low-tensior current flows through a 
primary coil, the eiicuit being mechanically 
opened, allowing a idgh-tension spark to 
jump across the gap. See "Primary Coil". 

Ignition, Retarding. Setting the spark of 
an internal-combustion motor so that the 
ignition will occur ai a later part of the 
stroke. 

Ignition, Self: jixplosijn of the combusti- 
ble charge by heat other than that produced 
by the spark. Incandescent carbon will 
cause this. Motor overheating because of 
lack of water is another cause. 

Ignition, Single: A system using but one 
source of current. 

Ignition, Synchronized: Igmtion by means 
of which the timing in each cylinder of a 
multicylinder engine is the same. In syn- 
chronized ignition the spark occurs at the 
same point in the cycle in each cylinder. 
This type of ignition is obtained with a 
magneto and i3 lacking in a multi-coil sys- 
tem using vibrator coils. 

Ignition, Timing of: The adjustment of the 
ignition system so that ignition will take 
place at the desired part of the cycle. 

Ignition, Two-Independent: See "Igni- 
tion, Double". 

Ignition, Two-Point: A system comprising 
two ignition sources, or a double-distributor 
magneto, and two sets of spark plugs, both 
ox whici- spark at the same time. 

Ignition Distributor: See "Distributor." 

Ignition Switvh: A control or switch for 
turning the ignition current on and off volun- 
tarily 



I. H. P.: Abbreviation for indicated horse* 
power. 

Indicated Horsepower: (1) The horse- 
power developed by the fuel on the pistons, 
m contradistinction to brake horsepower. 
See "Horsepower, Brake". (2) The horse- 
power of an engine as ascertained from an , 
indicator diagram. 

Indicator: An instrument by which the 
working gas in an engine records its working 
pressure. 

Indicator Card: A figure drawn by means 
of an indicator by the working gas in an 
engine. Also called indicator diagram. 

Induction Stroke: The downstroke of a 
piston which causes a charge of mixture to 
be drawn into the cylinder. 

Inflammation: The act or period of com- 
bustion of the mixture in the cylinder. 

Inflate: To increase the pressure within a 
tire by forcing air into it. 

Inflator, Mechanical Tire: A small power- 
driven air-pump for inflating the tire; either 
driven by gearing, chain, or belt from the 
engine shaft, or by friction from the flywheel. 

Inherent Regulation: Expression applied 
to electric generators which use no outside 
means of regulating the output, the regula- 
tion being affected by various windings of 
the armature and fields. 

Initial Air Inlet: See "Primary Air Inlet". 

Initial Pressure: Pressure in a cylinder 
after the charge has been drawn in but not 
compressed. 

Injector: A boiler-feeding device in which 
the momentum of a steam jet, directed by a 
series of conical nozzles, carries a stream of 
water into the boiler, the steam condensing 
within and heating the water which it forces 
along. 

Inlet, Valve: The valve which controls the 
inlet port and so allows or prevents mixture 
from passing to the cylinder. 

Inlet Port: Passage or entrance in the cylin- 
der wall through which the fuel mixture is 
taken. Sometimes called intake port. 

Inlet Manifold: Sometimes called intake 
manifold or header. A branched pipe con- 
nected to the mixing chamber at one end 
and at the branch ends to the cylinders so as 
to communicate with the inlet ports. 

Inlet Manifold, Integral: A manifold or 
header cast integral with the cylinder. 

Inner-Tire Shoe: A piece of leather or 
rubber placed within the tire to protect the 
inner tube. 

Inner Tube: A soft air-tight tube of nearly 
pure rubber, which fits within a felloe upou 
the casing. 

Inside Lap: See "Exhaust Lap". 

Intake Manifold: The large pipe which 
supplies the smaller intake pipes from each 
cylinder of a gas engine. 

Intake Pipe: Sometimes made synonymous 
with inlet manifold. Correctly, the pipe 
from the carbureter to the inlet manifold. 

Intake Stroke: See "Induction Stroke". 

Intensifies See "Outside Spark Gap". 

Intermediate Gear: A gear in a change- 
speed set between high and low. In a 
three-speed set it would be second speed. 
In a four, either second or third. 



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GLOSSARY 



Intermediate Shaft: See "Shaft, Inter- 
mediate". 

Internal-Combustion Motor: Any prime 
mover in which the energy is obtained by 
the combustion of the fuel within the 
cylinder. 

Internal Gear: See "Gear, Internal'*. 
Interrupter: See "Vibrator". 



Keyway: Slot in a rotating member used to 

hold the key 
Kick Switch: Ignition switch mounted so 

that the driver can operate it with the foot. 
Kilowatt: "An electrical unit equal to 1000 

watts. 

Knuckle Joint: See "Swivel Joint". 



Jack: A mechanism by which a small force 
exerted over a comparatively large distance 
is enabled to raise a heavy body. Used for 
raising the automobile axle to remove the 
weight from the wheels. 

Jacket, Water: A portion of the cylinder 
casting through which water flows to cool 
the cylinder. 

Jacket Water: The cooling water circulating 
in a water-cooling system. 

Jackshaft: Shaft used in double-chain drive 
vehicles. Shaft placed transversely in the 
frame and driving from its ends chains which 
turn the rear wheels mounted on a dead 
axle. 

Jeantaud Diagram: See "Diagram, Jean- 
taud". 

Joint Knuckle: See "Swivel Joint." 

Joule's Law of Gases: See "Gases, Joule's 
Law of". 

Jump Spark: A spark produced by a sec- 
ondary jump-spark coil. 

Jump Spark, Circuit Maker: A mechani- 
cally operated switch by which the circuit in 
a jump-spark ignition system is opened and 
closed. 

Jump-Spark Coil: An electrical transformer 
and interrupter, consisting of a primary 
winding of a few turns o ( coarse wire sur- 
rounding an- iron core, and a secondary 
winding consisting of a great number of 
turns of very fine wire. m The condenser is 
usually combined with this. Also known as 
secondary spark coil. 

Jump-Spark Igniter: See "Igniter, Jump- 
Spark". 

Jump-Spark Plug: See "Spark Plug". 

Junction Box: A portion of an electric- 
lighting system to which all wires are carried 
for the making of proper connections. 

Junk Ring: A packing ring used in sleeve- 
valve motors. It has the same functions as 
a piston ring. See "Piston Ring". 



Kerosene: A petroleum product having a 
specific gravity between 58° and 40° Baume\ 
It is used as a fuel in internal-combustion 
engines and can often be used in gasoline 
engines by starting the engine on gasoline, 
then switching to kerosene. 

Kerosene Burner: A burner especially 
adapted to use kerosene as a fuel. 

Kerosene Engine: An engine using kero- 
sene as fuel. 

Key: A semicircular or oblong piece of 
metal used to hold a member firmly on a 
revolving shaft so as to prevent the member 
from rotating. 

Key, Baldwin : A key with an oblong section. 

Key, Woodruff: A key with a semicircular 
section. 



Labor: The jerky operation of an engine. 
The engine is said to labor when it cannot 
pull its load without misfiring or jerking. 

Lag, Combustion: The time between the 
instant of the spark occurrence and the 
explosion. 

Lag, Ignition : The time between the instant 
of spark occurrence and the time at which 
the spark mechanism producing it begins 
to act. 

Lamp, Trouble: Sometimes called inspec- 
tion lamp. A small electric bulb carried in 
a suitable housing, and attached to a long 
piece of lamp cord. Used for inspecting 
parts of the car. 

Lamp Bulb: The incandescent bulb used in 
a lamp. 

Lamp Bracket: A support for a lamp. 

Lamp Lighter: An apparatus for lighting 
gas lamps by electricity. The lamps are 
usually so arranged that by pushing the 
button the gas is turned on and the spark 
made at the same time. 

Landaulet: A type of car which may be 
used as an open or closed car. The rear por- 
tLn of the body may be folded down like a 
top. 

Landaulet Body: An automobile body 
resembling a limousine body, but having a 
cover fitted to the back, which may be let 
down, leaving the back open. The top 
generally extends over the driver. 

Lap: To make parts fit perfectly by operat- 
ing them with an abrasive, such as ground 
tlass, between the rubbing surfaces. To 
nish. 

Lap of Steam Valves: In the slide valve of 
a steam engine, the amount by which the 
admission edges overlap the steam port when 
the valve is central with the cylinder case. 

Layshaft: A countershaft or secondary shaft 
of a gearset operated by the main or shifter 
shaft. 

Lead, or Lead Wire: Any wire carrying 
electricity. 

Lead: In a steam engine the amount by 
which the steam port is opened when the 
piston is at the start of its stroke. 

Lead Battery: See "Accumulator". 

Lead of Igniter: See "Igniter, Lead of". 

Lead of Valve: In an engine the amount by 
which the admission port is opened when the 
piston is at the beginning of the stroke; 
according as this is greater or less, the admis- 
sion of working fluid is varied through 
sever°' fractions of the stroke. 

Lean Mixture: Fuel after leaving the car- 
bureter, which contains too much air in pro 
portion to the gasoline. Sometimes called 
thin mixture, rare mixture, or weak mixture. 

Lever, Brake: See "Brake Lever." 

Lever, Change-Speed: Lever by which the 
different combinations of change gears are 
made so as to vary the speed of the driving 



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GLOSSARY 



17 



wheels in relation to the speed of the engine; 
also called gearshift lever. 
Lever, Spark: Lever by which the speed and 
power of the engine are controlled by adjust- 
ing the time of ignition. 
Lever, Steering: See "Steering Lever". 
Lever, Throttle: A lever by which the speed 
and power of the engine are controlled by 
adjusting the amount of mixture admitted 
to the cylinder. 
Lever Lock: An arrangement for locking the 
gearshift lever in free position so that with 
the engine running the driving axle will not 
be driven. 

Lift: The distance through which a poppet 
valve is moved in opening from fully-closed 
to fully-open position. 

Lifting Jack: See "Jack". 

Lighting Outfit, Electric: An outfit for 
electrically lighting an automobile. This 
usually consists of a dynamo, storage bat- 
tery, and lamps and switchboard, with the 
necessary wiring and cut-outs. 

Limousine Body: An enclosed automobile 
body having the front and sides with side 
doors. The top extends over the seat of the 
driver. 

Liner: One or more pieces of metal placed 
between two parts so they may be adjusted 
by varying the thickness of the liner. Some- 
times called a shim. Also refers to a tool 
used for lining up parts. 

Liner, Laminated : A liner or shim made in 
a number of parts, the thickness being 
varied by removing or adding parts. 

Lines of Force: See "Field, Magnetic". 

Link Motion: In a steam engine, the name 
for the arrangement of eccentric rods, links, 
hangers, and rocking shafts by which the 
relative motion and position of the slide 
valves are changed at will, providing for 
varying rates of expansion of the steam and 
thus varying the speed for either forward or 
backward motion. 

Live Axle: See "Axle, Live". 

Lock, Auto Safety: A device arranged so 
that it is impossible to start the motor car 
except by the proper combination or key. 

Lock Nut: A nut placed on a bolt immedi- 
ately behind the main nut to keep the main 
nut from turning. 

Lock Switch: A switch in the ignition cir- 
cuit so arranged that it can not be thrown on 
except by the use of a key. 

Lock Valve: A valve capable of being secured 
with lock and key. 

Long-Stroke: A gas engine whose stroke is 
considerably greater than its bore. 

Lost Motion: Sometimes called play or 
backlash. Looseness of space between two 
moving parts. 

Louver: A slit or opening in the side of a 
hood or bonnet of a motor car. Used to 
allow air from the draft to escape. A venti- 
lator. 

Low Gear: The lowest speed gear. First 
speed in a change-speed set. 

Low-Speed Adjustment: A carbureter ad- 
justment which regulates the mixture when 
the motor is operating slowly, with little 
throttle opening. 

Low-Speed Band: The brake or friction 
band which controls the low speed of a plan- 
etary change-speed set. 



Low-Tension Current: A current of low 
voltage or pressure, such as is generated by 
dry cells, storage battery, or low-tension 
magneto. 

Low-Tension Ignition: See "Ignition, 
Make-and-Break". 

Low -Tension Magneto: A magneto which 
initially generates a current of low voltage. 

Low-Tension Winding: The winding of a 
transformer or induction coil through which 
the primary or low-tension current flows. 

Low Test: Gasoline which has a high den- 
sity, thus giving a low reading on the Baume* 
scale. Low-grade gasoline. 

Low- Water Alarm: An automatic arrange- 
ment by which notice is given that the 
water in the boiler is becoming too low for 
safety. 

Lubricant: An oil or grease used to dimin- 
ish friction in the working parts of machin- 
ery. 

Lubrication: To supply to moving parts 
and their bearings grease, oil, or other lubri- 
cant for the purpose of lessening friction. 

Lubrication, Circulating: A system in 
which the same oil is used over and over. 

Lubrication, Constant-Level: A system 
in which the level in the crankcase is kept to 
a predetermined level by means of a pump. 

Lubrication, Force-Feed: Method of lubri- 
cating the moving parts of an engine by 
forcing the oil to the points of application by 
means of a pump. 

Lubrication, Gravity : Method of supplying 
oil to moving parts of an engine by having a 
reservoir at a certain height above the highest 
point to be lubricated and allowing the oil 
to flow to the points of application by 
gravity. 

Lubrication, Non-Circulating: A system 
in which the same oil is used but once. 

Lubrication, Pressure-Feed: See "Lubri 
cation, Force-Feed". 

Lubrication, Sight-Feed: System of lubri- 
cation in which the oil pipe to different 
points of application is led through a glass 
tube in plain sight; usually at a point on the 
dashboard. 

Lubrication, Splash: Method of lubricat- 
ing an engine by feeding oil to the crank- 
case and allowing the lower edge of the 
connecting rod to splash into it. 

Lubricator: A device containing and supply- 
ing oil or grease in regular amounts to the 
working parts of the machine. 

Lubricator, Force-Feed: A pump-like de- 
vice which automatically forces oil to the 
moving parts. 

M 

Magnet: A piece of iron or steel which has 
the characteristic properties of being able to 
attract other pieces of iron and steel. 

Magnet, Horseshoe: A magnet shaped like 
the letter U. 

Magnet, Permanent: A magnet which 
when once charged retains its magnetism. 

Magnetic Field: See "Field, Magnetic". 

Magnetic Spark Plug: A spark plug used 
in a make-and-break system of ignition in 
which contact is obtained by means of a 
magnet. 

Magneto: See "Ignition, Magneto". 



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GLOSSARY 



Magneto: See "Magneto-Electric Gener- 
ator". 

Magneto, Double-Distributor: A magneto 
with two distributors feeding two sets of 
spark plugs, two in each cylinder and both 
sparking at once. See "Ignition, Two- 
Point." 

Magneto, High-Tension: A magneto has 
two armature windings and requires no out- 
side coil for the generation of high-tension 
current. 

Magneto, Induction : A type of magneto in 
which the armature and fields are stationary 
and a rotator or spool-shaped piece of metal 
is used to break the lines of force. 

Magneto, Low-Tension : See * ' Low-Tension 
Magneto". 

Magneto, Rotating Armature: A magneto 
in which the armature winding revolves. 

Magneto Bracket: A shelf or portion of the 
crankcase web used to support the magneto. 

Magneto Coupling: A flexible joint which 
connects the magneto with a revolving 
motor shaft. 

Magneto Distributor: See "Distributor". 

Magneto-Electric Generator: A machine 
in which there are no field magnet coils, the 
magnetic field of the machine being due to 
the action of permanent steel magnets. 
Usually contracted to magneto. 

Main Bearing: A bearing used for support- 
ing the crankshaft. 

Manifold: A main pipe or chamber into 
which or from which a number of smaller 
pipes lead to other chambers. See "Intake 
Manifold", "Exhaust Manifold", and "Inlet 
Manifold". 

Manometer: A device for indicating either 
the velocity or the pressure of the water in 
the cooling system of a gasoline motor. 

Master Vibrator: A single vibrator which 
interrupts the current to each of a set of 
several spark coils in order. 

Mean Effective Pressure: The average 
pressure exerted upon a piston throughout 
its stroke. 

M.E. P.: Abbreviation for mean effective 
pressure. 

Mercury Arc Rectifier: A mercury vapor con- 
verter. See "Mercury Vapor Converter''. 

Merrury Vapor Converter: An apparatus 
for converting alternating current into direct 
current by means of a bubble of mercury in 
a vacuum. The vapor of mercury possesses 
the property of allowing the flow of current 
in one direction only*. Its principal use is 
for charging storage batteries. 

Mesh: Two gears whose teeth are so posi- 
tioned that one gear will drive the othei are 
said to be in mesh. 

Misfire: Failure of the mixture to ignite in 
the cylinder; usually due to poor ignition or 
poor mixtures. 

Miss: The failure of a gas engine to exp ode 
in one or more cylinders. Sometimes a lied 
misfiring. 

Mixing Chamber: A pipe or chamber 
placed between the carbureter and inlet 
manifold. Sometimes integral with the car- 
bureter or manifold. 

Mixing Tube: A tubular carbureter for a 
gas or gasoline engine. 

Mixing Valve: A device through which air 
and gas are admitted to form an explosive 



mixture. The carbureter of a gasoline 
engine combines the mixing valve and 
vaporizer. 

Mixture: The fuel of a gas engine, consisting 
of sprayed gasoline mixed with air. 

Monobloc: Cast en bloc or in one piece. 
Refers usually to cylinders, which are cast 
two or more at once. 

Motocycle: A trade name for a special make 
of motorcycle. 

Motor, Electric: See "Electric Motor". 

Motor, Gasoline: See "Gasoline Motor". 

Motor, High-Speed: A gas engine whose 
rotative speed is very high and whose power 
output goes up with the speed to an unusual 
degree. 

Motor, Horizontal: A gas engine whose cyl- 
inder axis lies in a horizontal plane. 

Motor, I-head : A gas engine which has 
cylinders, a section of which resembles the 
letter I. This type has the valves in the 
head. 

Motor, L-Head: A gas engine in which a 
section of cylinders resembles the letter L. 
The valves in this type are all on one side. 

Motor, Long-Stroke: See "Long-Stroke 
Motor". 

Motor, Non-Poppet: A gas engine whose 
valves are not of the poppet type. In this 
class is the Knight sleeve valve, the rotary 
valve, and the piston valve. 

Motor, Overhead Valve: A motor with cyl- 
inders whose valves are in the head. 

Motor, Piston Valve: A gas engine using 
valves which are in the form of pistons. 

Motor, Poppet: A gas engine using poppet- 
type valves. See "Poppet Valve". 

Motor, Revolving Cylinder: A motor whose 
cylinders revolve as a unit. 

Motor, Rotary Valve: One in which the 
valves consist of slots cut out along cylin- 
drical rods which rotate in the cylinder 
casting. 

Motor, Sliding Sleeve: The Knight type 
motor in which thin sleeves slide up and 
down in the cylinder, the sleeves having 
ports which register with the inlet and 
exhaust manifolds. 

Motor, T-Head : A gas engine with the 
valves on opposite sides of the cylinders, a 
section of which resembles the letter T. 

Motor, V-Type: A motor whose cylinders 
are set on the crankcase so as to form an 
angle of 45 to 90 degrees between them. 

Motor, Vertical: A motor with the cylinder 
axis in a vertical plane. 

Motorcycle: A bicycle propelled by a gaso- 
line engine. 

Mud Guard : Metal or leather strips placed 
over the wheels to catch the flying mud and 
to prevent the clothing from coming in con- 
tact with the wheels when entering and 
leaving the car. 

Muffler Cut-Out: See "Cut-Out, Mufiler". 

Muffler Cut-Out Pedal: See "Cut-Out 
Pedal". 

Muffler Exhaust: A vessel containing par- 
titions, usually perforated with small holes 
and designed to reduce the noise occasioned 
by the exhaust gases of an engine, by forcing 
the gases to expand gradually. 



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GLOSSARY 



19 



Muffler Explosion: Explosion of unburned 
gases in exhaust passages of the muffler, 
usually due to poor ignition or poor mixture. 

Multiple Circuit: A compound circuit in 
which a number of separate sources or 
electrically operated devices, or both, have 
all their positive poles connected to a single 
positive conductor and all their negative 
poles to a single negative conductor. 

N 

N.A.A.M.: Abbreviation for National Asso- 
ciation of Automobile Manufacturers. 

Naphtha: A product of the distillation of 
petroleum used to some extent for marine 
engines. 

Needle Valve: A valve in a carbureter used 
for regulating the amount of gasoline to flow 
in with the mixture. 

Negative Plate: Plate of a storage battery to 
which current returns from the outside 
circuit. 

Negative Pole: That pole of an electric 
source through which the current is assumed 
to enter or flow back into the source after 
having passed through the circuit external 
to the source. 

Neutral Position: The position of the 
change-speed lever which so places the gears 
that the motor may run idle, the car remain- 
ing still. 

Non-Deflatable Tire: See "Tire, Non- 
Puncturable". 

Non -Freezing Solution: A solution placed 
into the radiator of a motor car to prevent 
the water therein from freezing. Alcohol 
and glycerine are the usual anti-freezing 
agents. See "Anti-Freezing Solution". 

Non-Puncturable Tire: See "Tire, Non- 
Puncturable". 

Non-Skid Device: See "Anti-Skid Device". 



Odometer: (1) The mileage-recording mech- 
anism of a speedometer. (2) An instrument 
to be attached to an automobile wheel to 
automatically indicate the distance traveled. 

Odometer, Hub: A speed-recording device 
which is placed on the nub cap of a wheel. 

Offset: Off center, as a crankshaft in which 
a line vertically through the crankpins does 
not coincide with a line vertically through 
the center of the cylinder. 

Ohm : (1) Unit of electrical resistance. (2) 
Amount of electrical resistance. Such resist- 
ance as would limit the flow of electricity 
under an electromotive force of one volt to 
a current of one ampere. 

Ohm's Law: The law which gives the rela- 
tion between voltage, resistance, and current 
flow in any circuit. Expressed algebraically, 

C=— where C is the current flowing in am- 

XV 

peres, I the voltage and R the ohmic resist- 
ance. 

Oil Burner: A burner equipped with an 
atomizer for breaking up liquid fuel into a 
spray. 

Oil Engine: An internal-combustion motor 
using kerosene or other oil as fuel. 

Oil Gage: (1) A gage to indicate the flow 
of oil in the lubricating system. (2) Used 
to show the level of oil in a compartment in 
the base of a gas engine. 



Oil Gun : A cylinder with a long point and a 
spring plunger for squirting oil or grease 
into inaccessible parts of a machine. 

Oil Pump: A small force pump providing a 
constant positive supply of oil under pres- 
sure; usually considered to be more reliable 
than a lubricator. 

Oiler: An automobile device for oiling 
machinery. 

Opposed Motor: A gasoline engine whose 
cylinders are arranged in pairs on opposite 
sides of the crankshaft, both connecting 
rods of each pair being connected to the 
same crank, eo that the shock of the explo- 
sion in one will be balanced by the cushion- 
ing effect of the compression in the other. 
In general these motors are two-cylinder, 
horizontal. 

Otto Cycle: See "Four-Stroke Cycle". 

Outside Spark Gap: See "Spark Gap, Out- 
side". 

Overcharged: The state of the storage bat- 
tery when it has been charged at too high a 
rate or for too great a length of time. 

Overhead Camshaft: A camshaft which is 
placed above the cylinder of a gas engine. 

Overhead Valves: See "Motor, Overhead 
Valve". 

Overheating: The act of allowing the motor 
to reach an excessively high temperature 
due to the heat of combustion being not 
carried away rapidly enough by the cooling 
devices, or to insufficient lubrication. Over- 
heating of a bearing is due to insufficient 
lubrication. 



Packing: The material introduced between 
the parts of couplings, joints, or valves, to 
prevent the leakage of gas or liquids to or 
from them. 

Panel, Charging: A small switchboard for 
charging a storage battery. 

Parallel Circuit: See "Multiple Circuit". 

Patch, Tire-Repair: Rubber strips for mak- 
ing repairs in punctured or ruptured tires. 

Petcock: A control cock which when open 
allows gas or liquid to escape from the cham- 
ber to which it is attached. 

Petrol: Word used in England for gasoline. 

Picric Acid: Acid which may be added to 
gasoline to increase the motor efficiency. 
Gasoline will absorb about five per cent of 
its weight of picric acid. 

Pin, Taper: A conically shaped pin. 

Pinch: A cut in an inner tube caused by the 
tube being caught or pinched between the 
outer casing and the rim. 

Pinion: (1) The smaller of any pair of 
gears. (2) A small gear made to run with 
a larger gear. 

Piston: The hollow, cylindrical portion 
attached to the connecting rod of a motor. 
The reciprocating part which takes the 
strain caused by the explosion. 

Piston Air Valve: A secondary air valve in 
the piston of earlier types of gas engines to 
compensate the imperfect operation of sur- 
face carbureters used with those engines 
and to secure the injection of a sufficient 
quantity of air to insure the combustion of 
the charge. 

Piston Head: The top of the piston. 



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GLOSSARY 



Piston Pin: A pin which holds the connect- 
ing rod to the piston. 

Piston Ring: (1) A metal ring inserted in a 
groove cut into a piston assisting in making 
the latter tight in the cylinder. There are 
usually three rings on each piston. (2) 
Rings about the circumference of a piston, 
whose diameter is slightly greater than that 
of the piston. These are to insure closer fit 
and prevent wearing of the piston, as the 
wear is taken up by the rings which may 
be easily removed. 

Piston Rod: Usually called connecting rod- 
The rod which connects the piston with 
the crankshaft. 

Piston Skirt: The portion of a piston below 

. the piston pin. 

Piston Speed : The rate at which the piston 
travels m its cylinder. 

Piston Stroke: The complete distance a 
piston travels in its cylinder. 

Pitted : Condition of a working surface which 
has become covered with carbon particles 
which have been imbedded in the metal. 

Planetary Gear: An arrangement of spur 
and annular gears in which the smaller gears 
revolve around the main shaft as planets 
revolve around the sun. 

Planetary Transmission: A transmission 
system in which the speed changes are ob- 
tained by a set of planetary gears. 

Plate: Part of a storage battery which holds 
active material. See "Negative Plate". 

Pneumatic Tire: A tire fitted to the wheels 
of automobiles, consisting usually of two 
tubes, the outer of India rubber, canvas, and 
other resilient wear-resisting material, and 
the inner composed of nearly pure rubber 
which is inflated with compressed air to 
maintain the outer tube in its proper form 
under load. 

Polarizing: Formation of gas at the negative 
element of a cell so as to prevent the action 
of the battery. _ This formation of gas is 
caused by the violent reaction taking place 
in a circuit of low resistance. 

Pole Piece: A piece of iron attached to the 
pole of a magneto used in an electric gener- 
ator. 

Poppet Valve: A disk or droD valve usually 
seating itself through gravitation or by 
means of springs, and frequently opening by 
suction or cams. 

Port: An opening for the passage of the 
working fluid in an engine. 

Portable Garage: See "Garage, Portable". 

Positive Connection: A connection by 
which positive motion is transmitted by 
means of a crank, bolt, or key, or other 
method by which slipping is eliminated. 

Positive Motion: Motion transmitted by 
cranks or other methods in which slipping 
is eliminated. 

Positive Plate: Plate in a storage battery, 
from which the current flows to the outside 
circuit. 

Positive Pole: The source from which elec- 
tricity is assumed to flow; the opposite of 
negative pole. In a magnet the positive pole 
is the end of the magnet from which the 
magnetic flux is assumed to emanate. 

Pounding in Engine: Pounding noise at 
each revolution, usually caused by either 



carbon deposit, loose or tight piston, loo** 
bearing or other part, or pre-ignition. 

Power Stroke: The piston stroke in a gas 
engine in which the exploded gases are 
expanding, thus pushing the piston down- 
ward. 

Power Tire Pump: A pump which is oper- 
ated by a gas engine and is used to innate 
the tires of a motor car. 

Power Unit: The engine with fuel, cooling, 
lubrication, and igmtion systems, without 
the transmission or running gears. Some- 
times the gearset and driving shaft are 
included by the term. 

Pre-ignition: See "Premature Ignition". 

Premature Ignition: Ignition of fuel before 
the proper point in the cycle. 

Pressure-Feed: See "Lubrication, Force- 
Feed". 

Pressure Gage: A gage for indicating the 
pressure of a fluid confined in a chamber, 
such as steam in a boiler, etc. 

Pressure Lubricator: A lubricating device 
in which the oil is forced to the bearings by 
means of a pump or other device for main- 
taining pressure. 

Pressure Regulator: A device for main- 
taining the pressure of the steam in the 
principal pipe at a constant point irrespective 
of the fluctuations of pressure in the boiler. 

Primary Air Inlet: The main or fixed air 
intake of a carbureter. 

Primary Circuit: The circuit which carries 
low-tension current. 

Primary Coil: A self-induction coil consist- 
ing of several turns of wire about an iron 
core. 

Primary Spark Coil: An induction coil 
which has only a single winding composed 
of a few layers of insulated copper wire 
wound on a bundle of soft iron wires, known 
as the core, also as a wipe, or touch, spark coil. 

Primer: A pin in a float-feed valve so 
arranged that it may depress the float in 
priming a gasoline engme. Also called 
tickler and flushing pin. 

Priming: (1) The carrying of water over 
with the steam from the boiler to* the 
engine, due to dirty water, irregular evapo- 
ration, or forced steaming. (2) Injecting a 
small amount of gasoline into the cylinder 
of a gasoline engine to assist in starting. 

Priming Cock: A control cock screwed into 
the cylinder and which when open com- 
municates with the combustion chamber 
allowing gasoline to be poured into the 
cylinder. 

Progressive Change-Speed Gears: Change- 
speed gears so arranged that higher speeds 
are obtained by passing through all the 
intermediate steps and vice versa. 

Prony Brake: A dynamometer to indicate 
the horsepower of an engine. A band 
encircles the flywheel of the engine and is 
secured to a lever, at the other end of which 
is a scale to measure the pull. 

Propeller Shaft: The shaft which turns the 
rear axle of a motor car. The drive shaft. 

Pump, Centrifugal: A pump with a hollow 
hub and curved blades which by centrifugal 
force throw water or oil into the system 
requiring it. 

Pump, Circulation: See "Circulation 
Pump". 



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21 



Pump, Fuel-Feed: A mechanically oper- 
ated pump for insuring positive feed of fuel 
to the burner of a steam engine or carbureter 
of a gas engine. 

Pump, Oil: See "Oil Pump". 

Pump, Plunger: Sometimes called piston 
pump. One containing a piston which 
forces a liquid to a system. 

Pump, Power Tire: See "Tire Pump". 

Pump, Steam Boiler-Feed: See "Boiler- 
Feed Pump". 

Pump, Water Circulating: See "Circula- 
tion Pump". 

Pump Gear: A pump composed of two 
gears in mesh placed in a housing. When 
the gears revolve they carry oil or water, as 
the case may be, on their teeth, which deliver 
it to an outlet. 

Puncture: The perforation of an inflated 
rubber automobile tire by some sharp sub- 
stance on the roadbed. 

Puncture-Closing Compound: A viscous 
compound placed within the inner tire tube 
to close the hole caused by a puncture. 

Push Rod: A rod which operates the valves 
of a poppet-valve motor. A rod which 
imparts a pushing motion. 



Race: (1) The parts upon which the balls 
of a ball bearing roll. (2) When referring 
to a gas engine, to operate at high speed 
without a load. 

Racing Body: A low, light automobile body, 
having two seats with backs as low as possi- 
ble; designed for large fuel capacity and 
very high speed. 

Radiator: A device consisting of a large 
number of small tubes, through which the 
heated water from the jacket of the engine 
passes to be cooled, the heat being carried 
away from the metal of the radiator by air. 

Radiator, Cellular: See "Honeycomb 
Radiator". 

Radiator, Tubular: A radiator consisting 
of many tubes, through which water passes 
to be cooled. 

Radiator Protector: See "Bumper". 

Radius Rod : A bar in the frame of an auto- 
mobile to assist in maintaining the proper 
distance between centers. Also called 
distance rod. 

Rawhide Gear: Tooth gears, built up of 
compressed rawhide, used for high-speed 
drive. Sometimes a metal gear is merely 
faced with rawhide for the purpose of reduc- 
ing noise. 

Reach Rod: See "Radius Rod". 

Reciprocating Parts: The parts such as 
pistons and connecting rods which have a 
reciprocating motion. 

Rectifier, Alternating-Current: See "Cur- 
rent Rectifier". 

Relief Cock : See "Compression-Relief Cock". 

Removable Rim: See "Demountable Rim". 

Resiliency: That property of a material 
by virtue of which it springs back or recoils 
on removal of pressure, as a spring. 

Resistance, Electrical: (1) A part of an 
electric circuit for the purpose of opposing 
the flow of the current in the circuit. (2) 
The electrical resistance of a conductor is 



that quality of a conductor by virtue of 
which the conductor opposes the passage of 
electricity through its mass. Its unit is 
the ohm. 

Retard: With reference to the ignition sys- 
tem, causing the spark to occur while the 
piston is retarding or moving downward on 
the working stroke. 

Retarding Ignition: See "Ignition, Retard- 
ing". 

Retarding the Spark: See "Ignition, Re- 
tarding". 

Retread: To replace the tread of a pneu- 
matic tire with a new one. 

Reverse Cam: On a gasoline engine a cam 
so arranged that by reversing its motion or 
shifting it along its shaft it will operate the 
valves and cause the engine to reverse. 

Reverse Gear: In a steam engine, a device 
by which the valves may be set to effect 
motion of the car in either direction. In a 
gasoline automobile, the reversing gear is 
usually incorporated with the change-speed 
gears. 

Reverse Lever: A lever by which the direc- 
tion of movement of the driving wheels may 
be reversed without reversing the engine. 
This is usually combined with the change- 
speed levers. 

Rheostat: A device for regulating the flow 
of current in a closed electrical circuit by 
introducing a series of graduated resistances 
into the circuit. 

Rim : The portion of a wheel to which a solid 
or pneumatic tire is fitted. A circular, 
channel-shaped portion attached to the 
wheel felloe. 

Rim, Demountable: A rim which may be 
removed from the wheel easily in order that 
another with an inflated tire may take its 
place. 

Rim, Quick-Detachable: A rim made of 
two or more parts so that the tire may be 
detached and attached quickly. 

Rim, Removable: See "Demountable Rim". 

Road Map: A map of a section or locality 
showing the best roads for motor-car travel, 
and usually the best stopping places and 
repair stations. 

Roadster: A small motor car designed to be 
fairly speedy; usually has carrying capacity 
for an extra large quantity of fuel and sup- 
plies; generally seats two persons, with pro- 
vision for one or two more, by the attach- 
ment of a rumble seat in the rear. 

Rocker Arm: A pivoted lever used to oper- 
ate overhead valves in a T-head motor- 
Rod, Radius: See "Radius Rod". 

Rod, Steering: See "Steering Rod". 

Roller Bearings: See "Bearing, Roller". 

Roller Chain: A chain whose links are pro- 
vided with small rollers to decrease the fric- 
tion and the noise. 

Rotary Valve: A type of valve somewhat 
similar to the Corliss engine valve used on 
automobile motors. 

Rumble: A small single seat to provide for 
an extra passenger on a two-seated vehicle. 
Usually detachable. 

Runabout: A small two-seated vehicle, usu- 
ally of a lower power and lower speed, as 
well as lower operating radius, than a road- 
ster. 



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GLOSSARY 



Running Board: A horizontal step placed 
below the frame and used to assist passen- 
gers in leaving and entering a motor car. 

Running Gear: The frame, springs, motor, 
wheels, speed-change gears, axles, and 
machinery of an automobile, without the 
body; used synonymously with chassis. 



Safety Plug: See "Fusible Plug". 

Safety Valve: A valve seated on the top of a 
steam boiler, and loaded so that when the 
pressure of the steam exceeds a certain point 
the valve is lifted from the seat and allows 
the steam to escape. 

Saturated Steam: The quality of the 
steam when no more steam can be made in 
the closed vessel without raising the tempera- 
ture or lowering the pressure. 

Scavenging: The action of clearing the cyl- 
inder of an internal-combustion motor of 
the burned-out gases. 

Score: To burn, or abrade a moving part 
with another moving part. 

Screw: An inclined plane wrapped around a 
cylinder; a cylinder having a helical groove 
cut in its surface. 

Searchlight: A headlight designed to throw 
a very bright light on the road. Electricity 
or acetylene is usually used as an illuminant, 
and the lamp has a parabolic reflector and 
may be turned to throw the light in any 
direction. 

Secondary Battery: See "Accumulator". 

Secondary Current: A current in which the 
electromotive force is generated by induc- 
tion from a primary circuit in which a varia- 
ble current is flowing. The high-tension 
current of a jump-spark ignition system. 

Secondary Circuit: The circuit which carries 
high-tension current. 

Secondary Spark Coil: An induction coil 
having a double winding upon its core. 
The inner winding is composed of a few 
layers of insulated wire of large size, and 
the outer winding consists of a great many 
layers of very small insulated copper wire. 
Also known as & jump-spark coil. 

Seize: Refers to moving parts which adhere 
because of operation without a* film of oil 
between the 'working surfaces. 

Selective Change-Speed Gears: Change- 
speed gears so arranged that any desired 
speed combination can be obtained without 
going through the intermediate steps. 

Self -Firing: Ignition of the mixture in a 
gas engine due to the walls of the cylinder or 

E articles attached to them becoming over- 
eated and incandescent. 

Self-Starter: See "Engine Starter". 

Separator, Steam: A device attached to 
steam pipes to separate entrained water 
from live steam before it enters the engine, 
or to separate the oily particles from exhaust 
steam on its way to the condenser. 

Series Circuit: A compound circuit in which 
the separate sources or the separate elec- 
trical receiving devices, or both, are so 
placed that the current supplied by each, or 
passed through each, passes successively 
through the other circuits from the first to 
the last. 

Set Screw: A small screw with a pointed 
end used for locking a part in a fixed position 
to prevent it from turning. 



Setting Valves: See "Valve Setting". 

Shaft, Intermediate: The shaft placed 
between the first and third motion gearing 
and acting as a carrier of motion between 
the two. 

Shaft Drive: System of power transmission 
by means of a shaft. 

Shim: See "Liner". 

Shock Absorber: A device attached to the 
springs or hangers of motor cars to decrease 
the jars due to rough roads, instead of 
allowing them to be transmitted to the 
frame of the carriage. 

Short Circuit: A shunt or by-path of com- 
paratively small resistance around a portion 
of an electric circuit, by which enough cur- 
rent passes through the new path to virtu- 
ally cut out the part of the circuit around 
which it is passed, and prevent it from 
receiving any appreciable current. 

Sight Feed: An indicator covered with glass 
which shows that oil is flowing in a system. 
A telltale sight. A check on the oiling 
system. 

Side-Bar Steering: See "Steering, Side- 
Bar". 

Side-Slipping: See "Skidding". 

Silencer: See "Muffler, Exhaust". 

Silent Chain: A form of driving chain in 
which the links are comprised of sections 
which so move over the sprocket that prac- 
tically all noise is eliminated. Silent chains 
are used specially for driving timing gears, 
gearsets, etc. 

Skidding: The tendency of the rear wheels 
to slide sideways to the direction of travel, 
owing to the slight adhesion between tires 
and the surface of the roadbed, also called 
side-slipping. 

Skip: See "Miss". 

Sleeve Valve: A form of valve consisting of 
cylindrical shells moving up and down in 
the cylinders of such a motor as the Silent 
Knight. 

Sliding Gears: A change-speed set in which 
various gears are placed into mesh by the 
sliding on a shaft of one or more gears. 

Sliding Sleeve: See "Motor, Sleeve- Valve". 

Slip Cover: A fabric covering for the top 
when down or for the upholstery of a motor 
vehicle. 

Smoke In Exhaust: Smoky appearance in 
the exhaust due to too much oil, too # rich 
mixture, low grade of fuel, or faulty ignition. 

Solid Tire: See "Tire, Solid". 

Sooting of Spark Plug: Fouling of the 
spark plug with soot, due to poor mixture, 
impure fuel, or improper lubrication. 

Spare Wheel: An extra wheel complete 
with inflated tire, carried on the car for quick 
replacement of wheel with damaged tire. 

Spark, Advancing: See "Advanced Igni- 
tion". 

Spark Coil: A coil or coils of wire for pro- 
ducing a spark at the spark plug. It may 
be either a secondary or primary spark coil. 

Spark Gap: A break in the circuit of a 
jump-spark ignition system for producing a 
spark within the cylinder to ignite the 
charge. The spark gap is at the end of a 
small plug called the spark plug. 

Spark Gap, Extra: See "Spark Gap, Out- 
side". 



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L3 



Spark Gap, Outside: A device to overcome 
the short circuiting in the spark gap due to 
fouling and carbon deposits between the 
points of the high-tension spark plug. It is 
a form of condenser, or capacity in which 
the air acts as the dielectric between two 
surfaces at the terminals of a gap in a high- 
tension circuit. 

Spark Intensifier: See "Spark Gap, Out- 
side". 

Spark Lever: See "Timing Lever". 

Spark Plug: The terminals of the secondary 
circuit of a jump-spark t ignition system 
mounted to leave a spark 'gap between the 
terminals projecting inside the cylinder for 
the purpose of igniting the fuel in the cylin- 
der by means of a spark crossing the gap 
between them. 

Spark Plug, Pocketing: Mounting the 
spark plug in a recess of the cylinder head to 
reduce the sooting of the sparking points. 

Spark Plug, Sooting of: See "Sooting of 
Spark Plug". 

Spark Regulator: A mechanism by which 
the time of ignition of the charge is varied 
by a small handle on or near the steering 
wheel. 

Soark, Retarding: See "Ignition, Retard- 
ing". 

Spark Timer: See "Timer, Ignition". 

Speaking Tube: See "Annunciator". 

Specific Gravity: The weight of a given 
substance relative to that of an equal bulk 
of some other substance which is taken as a 
standard of comparison. Air or hydrogen 
is the standard for gases, and water is the 
standard for liquids and solids. 

Specific Heat: The capacity of a substance 
for removing heat as compared with that of 
another which is taken as a standard. The 
standard is generally water. 

Speed-Change Gear: A device whereby the 
speed ratio of the engine and driving wheels 
of the car is varied. 

Speed Indicator: An instrument for show- 
ing the velocity of the car. 

Speedometer: A device used on motor cars 
for recording the miles traveled and for 
indicating the speed at all times. 

Speedometer Gears: Gears used to drive a 
shaft which operates the speedometer. 

Speedometer Shaft: A flexible shaft which 
operates a speedometer. 

Spiral Gear: A gear with helically-cut 
teeth. 

Splash Lubrication: See "Lubrication, 

Splash". 
Spline: A key. 

Spontaneous Ignition: See "Self-Firing". 
Sprag: A device to be let down (usually at 

the rear of the car) to prevent its slipping 

back when climbing a hill. 

Spray Nozzle: That portion of a carbureter 
which sprays the gasoline. 

Spring: An elastic body, as a steel rod, 
plate, 6r coil, used to receive and impart 
power, regulate motion, or diminish con- 
cussion. 

Spring, Cantilever: A type of spring which 
appears like a semi-elliptic reversed; and 
which is flexibly attached in the center, 
rigidly at one end, and by a shackle at the 
other. 



Spring, Elliptic : A spring, elliptic in shape, 
and consisting of two half-elliptic members 
attached together. 

Spring Semi-Elliptic: A spring made up ot 
a number of leaves, the whole resembling a 
portion of an ellipse. 

Spring, Supplementary: See "Shock Ab- 
sorber". 

Spring, Underslung: A spring which is 
fastened under the axle instead of over it. 

Spring Hangers: See "Body Hangers". 

Spring Shackle: A link attached to one end 
of a spring which allows for flattening of the 
spring. 

Sprocket: A wheel with teeth around the 
circumference, so shaped that the teeth will 
fit into the links of a chain which drives or 
is driven by the sprocket. 

Starboard : The right-hand side of a ship or 

vessel. 

Starter, Engine: See "Engine Starter". 

Starting, Gas Engine: The operation neces- 
sary to make the engine automatically con- 
tinue its cycle of events. It usually consists 
of opening the throttle, retarding the spark, 
closing the ignition circuit, and cranking the 
engine. 

Starting Crank: A crank by which the 
engine may be given several revolutions by 
hand in order to start it. 

Starting Device: See "Engine Starter". 

Starting on Spark: In engines having four 
or more cylinders with well-fitting pistons, 
it is often possible to start the motor after it 
has stood idle for some time by simply clos- 
ing the ignition circuit, provided that the 
Ere vious stopping of the engine was done 
y opening the ignition circuit before the 
throttle was closed, leaving an unexploded 
charge under compression in one of the 
cylinders. 

Steam: The vapor of water; the hot invisible 
vapor given off by water at its boiling point. 

Steam Boiler: See "Boiler". 

Steam Condenser: See "Condenser". 

Steam, Cycle of: A series of operations of 
steam forming a closed circuit, a fresh series 
beginning where another ends; that, is, 
steam is generated in the boilers, passes 
through the pipes of the engine, doing work 
successively in its various cylinders, escap- 
ing at exhaust pressure to the condenser, 
where it is converted into water and returned 
to the boiler, to go through the same opera- 
tions once more. 

Steam Engine: A motor depending for its 
operation on the latent energy in steam. 

Steam Gage: See "Pressure Gage". 

Steam Port: See "Admission". 

Steering, Side-Bar: Method of guiding the 
car by means of an upright bar at the side 
of the seat. 

Steering Angle for Front Wheels: Maxi- 
mum angle of front wheels to the axle when 
making a turn; should be about 35°. 

Steering Check: A device for locking the 
steering gear so that the direction will 
not be changed unless desired. 

Steering Column: See "Steering Post". 

Steering Gear: The mechanism by which 
motion is communicated to the front axle of 
the vehicle, by which the wheels may be 
turned to guide the car as desired. 



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24 



GLOSSARY 



Steering Knuckle: A knuckle connecting 
the steering rods with the front axle of the 
motor. 

Steering Lever: A lever or handle by which 
the car is guided. 

Steering Neck: The vertical spindle carried 
by the steering yoke. It is the pivot of the 
bell crank by which the wheel is turned. 

Steering Pillar: See "Steering Post". 

Steering Post: The member through which 
the twist of the steering wheel is trans- 
mitted to the steering knuckle. The steering 
post often carries the spark and throttle 
levers also. 

Steering Rod: The rod which connects the 
steering gear with the bell cranks or pivot 
arms, by means of which the motor car is 
guided. 

Steering Wheel: The wheel by which the 
driver of a motor car guides it. 

Steering Yoke: The Y-shaped piece in 
which the front axle terminates. The yoke 
carries the vertical steering spindle or 
steering neck. 

Stephenson Link Motion: A reversing gear 
in which the ends of the two eccentric rods 
are connected by a link or quadrant sliding 
over a block at the end of the valve spindle. 

Step-Up Coil: A coil used to transform low- 
into high-tension current. 

Storage Battery: See "Accumulator". 

Stroke: See "Piston Stroke". 

Strainer, Gasoline: A wire netting for pre- 
venting impurities entering the gasoline feed 
system. 

Strangle Tube: The narrowing of the 
throat of the carbureter just above the air 
inlets in order to increase the speed of the 
air, and thus increase the proportion of gas 
which will be picked up. 

Stroke: The distance of travel of a piston 
from its point of farthest travel at one end 
of the cylinder to its point of farthest travel 
at the other end. Two strokes of the piston 
take place to every revolution of the crank- 
shaft. 

Stud Plate: The plate or frame in a planet- 
ary transmission system carrying studs upon 
which the central pinions revolve. 

Suction Valve: The type of admission valve 
on an internal combustion engine which is 
opened by the suction of the piston within 
the cylinder and admits the mixture. The 
valve is normally held to its seat by a spring. 

Sulpha ting of Battery: The formation of 
an inactive coating of lead sulphate on the 
surface of the plates of a storage battery. 
It is a source of loss in the battery. 

Superheated Steam : Steam which has been 
still further heated after reaching the point 
of saturation. 

Supplementary Air Valve: See "Auxiliary 
Air Valve". 

Swivel Joint: The joint for connecting the 
steering arm of the wheel or lever-steering 
mechanism to the arms on the steering 
wheel. Also called knuckle joint. 



Tachometer: An instrument for indicating 
the number of revolutions made by a machine 
in a unit of time. 

Tandem Engine: A compound engine hav- 
ing two or more cylinders in a line, one 



behind the other, and with pistons attach* i 
to the same piston rod. 

Tank Gage: See "Fuel-Level Indicator". 

Tappet Rod: See "Push Rod". 

Taxicab: A public motor-driven vehicle in 
which the fare is automatically registered by 
the taximeter. 

Taximeter: An instrument in a public 
vehicle for mechanically indicating the fare 
charged. 

Terminals: The connecting posts of elec- 
trical devices, as batteries or coils. 

Thermal Unit:* Usually called the British 
Thermal Unit, or B. t. u. A measure of 
mechanical work equal to the energy re- 

3uired to raise one pound of water one 
egree Fahrenheit. 

Thermostat: An instrument to automati- 
cally regulate the temperature. 

Thermo8lphon Cooling: A method of cool- 
ing the cylinder of a gas engine. The water 
rises from the jackets and siphons into a 
radiator from whence it returns to the 
supply tank, doing away with the necessity 
for a circulating pump. 

Three-Point Suspension: A method used 
for suspending motor car units, such as the 
motor, on three points. 

Throttle: A valve placed in the admission 
pipe between the carbureter and the admis- 
sion valve of the motor to control the speed 
and power of the motor by varying the 
supply of the mixture. 

Throttle, Foot: See "Accelerator". 

Throttle, Lever: A lever on the steering 
wheel which operates the carbureter throttle. 
See "Throttle". 

Throttling: The act of closing the admission 
pipe of the engine so that the gas or steam is 
admitted to the cylinder less rapidly, thus 
cutting down the speed and power of the 
engine. 

Thrust Bearing: A bearing which takes 
loads parallel with the axis of rotation of the 
shaft upon which it is fitted. 

Tickler: A pin in a carbureter arranged to 
hold down the float in priming, also called 
flushing pin and primer. 

Timer, Ignition: An ignition commutator. 

Timing Gears: The gears which operate the 
camshaft and magneto shaft. The camshaft 
gear is twice as large as the crankshaft gear. 

Timing Lever: A lever fitted to gas engines 
by means of which the time of ignition is 
changed. Also called spark lever. 

Timing Valve: In a gas engine using float- 
tube ignition, a valve controlling the opening 
between the combustion space and the 
igniter. 

Tip, Burner: A small earthen, aluminum, or 
platinum cover for the end of the burner 
tube of an acetylene lamp. It is usually 
provided with two holes, so placed that the 
jets from them meet and spread out in a 
fan shape. 

Tire, Airless: See "Airless Tire". 

Tire, Clincher: A type of pneumatic tire 
which is held to a clincher. 

Tire, Cushion: Vehicle tire having a very 
thick rubber casing and very small air space. 
It is non-puncturable and does not have to 
be inflated, but is not as resilient as a pneu- 
matic tire. 



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GLOSSARY 



26 



Tire, Non-Defla table: See "Tire, Non- 
Puncturable". 

Tire, Non Puncturable: A tire so construct- 
ed that it cannot be easily punctured or will 
not become deflated when punctured. 

Tire, Punctures in: Holes or leaks in pneu- 
matic tires caused by foreign substances 
penetrating the inner tube and allowing the 
air to escape. 

Tire, Single-Tube: A pneumatic tire in 
which the inner and outer tubes are com- 
bined. 

Tire, Solid: A tire made of solid, or nearly 
solid rubber. 

Tire Band: A band to protect or repair a 
damaged pneumatic tire. See "Tire Pro- 
tector". 

Tire Bead: Lower edges of a pneumatic tire 
which grip the curved portion of a rim. 

Tire Case: (1) A leather or metal case for 
carrying spare tire; same as tire holder. 
(2) The outer tube. 

Tire Chain: See "Anti-Skid Device". 

Tire Filling: Material to be introduced into 
the tire to take the place of air and do away 
with puncture troubles 

Tire Gage: Gage used for measuring the air 
pressure in a pneumatic tire. 

Tire Holder: A metal or leather case for 
carrying spare tires. 

Tire-Inflating Tank: A tank containing 
compressed air or gas for inflating the tires. 

Tire Inflater, Mechanical : A small mechan- 
ical pump for inflating pneumatic tires. 

Tire Patch: See "Patch, Tire Repair". 

Tire-Pressure Gage: A pressure gage to 
indicate the pressure of air in the tire. 

Tire Protector: The sleeve or band placed 
over a tire to protect it from road wear. 

Tire Pump: A pump for furnishing air under 
pressure to the tire, may be either hand- or 
power-operated. 

Tire Sleeve: A sleeve to protect the injured 
part of a pneumatic tire. It is a tire pro- 
tector which covers more of the circumfer- 
ence of the wheel than a tire band. See 
"Tire Protector". 

Tire Tape: Adhesive tape used to bind the 

outer tube to the rim in repairing tires. 
Tire Tool:. Tool used to apply and remove a 

tire. 
Tire Valve: A small valve in the inner tube 

to allow air to be pumped into the tube 

without permitting it to escape. 
Tires, Creeping of: See "Creeping of Tires". 
Tonneau: The rear seats of a motor car. 

Literally, the word means a round tank or 

water barrel. 
Torque: Turning effort, or twisting effort of 

a rotating part. 
Torque Rod: A rod attached at one end to 

the rear axle and at the other to the frame; 

used to prevent twisting of the rear-axle 

housing. 
Torsion Rod: Th'i shaft that transmits the 

turning impulse from the change gears to 

the rear axle. Usually spoken of as the 

shaft. 
Touch Spark: See "Wipe Spark". 
Tourabout: A light type of touring car. 
Touring Car: A car with no removable rear 



seats, and a carrying capacity of four to 
seven persons. 

Town Car: A car having the rear seats 
enclosed but the driver exposed. 

Traction: The act of drawing or state of 
being drawn. The pull (or push) of wheels. 

Tractor: A self propelled vehicle for hauling 
other vehicles or implements; a traction 
engine. 

Transmission, Individual Clutch: A 
transmission consisting of a set of spur gears 
on parallel shafts which are always in mesh, 
different trains being picked up with a 
separate clutch for each set. 

Transmission, Planetary: A transmission 
system in which a number of pinions revolve 
about a central pinion in a manner similar to 
the revolution of the planets about the sun; 
usual type consists of a central pinion sur- 
rounded by three or more pinions and an 
internal gear. 

Transmission, Sliding Gear: A trans- 
mission system in which sliding change-speed 
gears are used. 

Transmission Brake: Brake operating on 
the gearset shaft or end of the propeller shaft. 

Transmission Gears: A set of gears by 
which power is transmitted. In automo- 
biles, usually called change-speed gears. 

Transmission Ratio: The ratio of the speed 
of the crankshaft to the speed of the trans- 
mission shaft or driving shaft. 

Tread : That part of a wheel which comes in 
contact with the road. 

Tread, Detachable: A tire covering to pro- 
tect the outer tube, which may be taken off 
or replaced. 

Trembler: The vibrating spring actuated by 
the induction coil magnet which rapidly 
connects and disconnects the primary circuit 
in connection with jump-spark ignition. 

Truck: (1) A strong, comparatively slow- 
speed vehicle, designed for transporting 
heavy loads. (2) A swiveling carriage 
having small wheels, which may be placed 
under the wheels of a car. 

Try Cock: A faucet or valve which may be 
opened by hand to ascertain the height of 
water in the boiler. 

Tube Case: See "Tire Case". 
Tube Ignition: See "Hot-Tube Ignition". 
Tubing, Flexible: See "Flexible Tubing". 
Tubular Radiator: An automobile radiator 

in which the jacket water circulates in a 

series of tubes. 

Tungsten Lamp: Incandescent bulb with 
the filament made of tungsten wire. 

Turning Moment: See "Torque". 

Turning Radius: The radius of a circle 
which the wheels of a car describe in making 
its shortest turn. 

Turntable: Device installed in the floor of a 
garage and used for turning motor cars 
around. 

Two-Cycle or Two-Stroke Cycle Engine: 

An internal-combustion engine in which an 
impulse occurs at the beginning of every 
revolution, that is, at the beginning of every 
downward stroke of the piston. 

Two-to-One Gear: The system of gearing in 
a four-cycle gas engine for driving the cam- 
shaft, which must revolve once to every two 
revolutions of the crankshaft. 



407 



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26 



GLOSSARY 



Under Frame: The main frame of the 
chassis or running gear of a motor vehicle. 

Unit-Power Plant: A power system consist- 
ing of a motor, gearset, and clutch which 
may be removed from the motor car as a 
unit. 

Universal Joint: A mechanism for endwise 
connection of two shafts so that rotary 
motion may be transmitted when one shaft 
is at an angle with the other. Also called 
universal coupling, flexible coupling, Cardan 
joint and Hooke's joint: 

Upkeep: The expenditure for maintenance 
or expenditure required to keep a vehicle in 
good condition and repair. 



Vacuum Fuel Feed : A system of feeding the 
gasoline from a tank at the rear of an auto- 
mobile by maintaining a partial vacuum at 
some point in the system, usually at the dash, 
the fuel flowing from this point by gravity to 
the carbureter. 

Vacuum Line: In an indicator diagram, the 
line of absolute vacuum. It is at a distance 
corresponding to 14.7 pounds below the 
atmospheric line. 

Valve: A device in a passage by which the 
flow of liquids or gases may be permitted or 
stopped. 

Valve, Admission: The valve in the admis- 
sion pipe of the engine leading from the car- 
bureter to the cylinder by which the supply 
of fuel may be cut off. 

Valve, Automatic: See "Automatic Valve". 

Valve, Inlet: See "Inlet Valve". 

Valve, Mixing: See "Mixing Valve". 

Valve, Muffler Cut-Out: See "Cut-Out, 
Muffler". 

Valve, Overhead: See "Overhead Valve". 

Valve, Poppet: See "Poppet Valve". 

Valve, Rotary: See "Motor, Rotary Valve"* 

Valve, Suction: An admission valve which 
is opened by the difference between the pres- 
sures in the atmosphere and in the cylinder. 

Valve Gage: A valve-retaining pocket which 
is attached to the cylinder. 

Valve Clearance: The clearance of play 
between the valve stem and the tappet. 

Valve Gear: The mechanism by which the 
motion of the admission or exhaust valve is 
controlled. 

Valve Grinding: The act of removing marks 
of corrosion, pitting, etc., from the seats and 
faces of poppet or disk valves. The surfaces 
to be ground are rotated in contact with each 
other, an abrasive having been supplied. 

Valve Lift: See "Lift". 

Valve Lifter: A device for raising a poppet 
valve from its seat. 

Valve Seat: (1) That portion of the engine 
upon which the valve rests when it is closed. 
(2) The portion upon which the face of a 
valve is in contact when closed. 

Valve Setting: The operation of adjusting 
the valves of an engine so that the events of 
the cycle occur at the proper time. Also 
called valve timing. 

Valve Spring: The spring which is around 
the valve stem and is used to return the 



valve to closed position after it has been 
opened by the cam: 

Valve Stem : The rod-like portion of a poppet 
valve. 

Valve Timing: See "Valve Setting". 

Vaporizer: A device to vaporize the fuel for 
an oil engine. In starting it is necessary to 
heat the vaporizer, but the exhaust gases 
afterwards keep it at the proper tempera- 
ture. The carbureter of the gas engine 
properly belongs under the general head of 
vaporizer, but the term has become restricted 
to the vaporizer for oil engines. 

Variable-Speed Device: See "Gear, Change- 
Speed". 

Vertical Motor: An upright engine whose 
piston travel is in a vertical plane. 

Vibrator: The part of the primary circuit of 
a jump-spark ignition system by which the 
circuit is rapidly interrupted to give a trans- 
former effect in the coil. 

Vibrator, Master: See "Master Vibrator". 

Volatile: Passing easily from a liquid to a 
gaseous state, in opposition to fixed. 

Volatilization: Evaporation of liquids upon 
exposure to the air at ordinary temperatures. 

Volt: Practical unit of electromotive force; 
such an electromotive force as would cause 
a current of one ampere to flow through a 
resistance of one ohm. 

Voltammeter: A voltmeter and an ammeter 
combined; sometimes refers to wattmeter. 

Voltmeter: An instrument for measuring 
the difference of electric potential between 
the terminals of an electric circuit. It 
registers the electric pressure in volts. 

Vulcanization: The operation of combining 
sulphur with rubber at a high temperature, 
either to make it soft, pliable, and elastic, oi 
to harden it. 

Vulcanizer: A furnace for the vulcanization 
of rubber. 

W 

Walking Beam: See "Rocker Arm". 

Water Cooling: Method of removing the 
heat of an internal-combustion motor fiom 
the cylinders by means of a circulation of 
water between the cylinders and the outer 
casing. 

Water Gage: An instrument used to indicate 
the height of water within a boiler or other 
water system. It consists of a glass tube 
connected at its upper and lower ends with 
the water system. 

Water Jacket: A casing placed about the 
cylinder of an internal-combustion engine to 
permit a current of water to flow around it 
tor cooling purposes. 

Watt: The unit of electric power. It is the 
product of the current in amperes flowing in 

a circuit by the pressure in volts. It is =7^ 

of a horsepower. 

Watt Hour: The unit of electrical energy. 
The given watt-hour capacity of a battery, 
for instance, means the ability of a battery 
to furnish one watt for the given number of 
hours or the given number of watts for one 
hour, or a number of watts for a number of 
hours such that their product will be the 
given watt hours. 

Welding, Autogeneous: A method of joining 
two pieces of metal by melting by means of a 



408 



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GLOSSARY 



27 



blow torch burning acetylene in an atmos- 
phere of oxygen. This melts the ends of the 
parts and these are then run together. 

Wheel, Artillery: A wood-spoked wheel 
whose spokes are in line with a line drawn 
vertically through the hub. 

Wheel, Dished: A wheel made concave or 
convex so that the hub is inside or outside as 
compared with the rim. This is to counter- 
act the outward inclination of the wheel due 
to the fact that the spindle is tapered and 
that its outward center is lower than its 
inner center. 

Wheel, Double-Interacting: The mecha- 
nism by which two wheels are hung on one 
hub or axle, the outer being shod with an 
ordinary solid tire and the inner with a 
pneumatic tire, so that the weight of the 
vehic'e bears against the lowest point of the 
pneumatic tire of the inner wheel to give the 
durability and tractive properties ota solid 
tire with the resiliency of a pneumatic. 

Wheel, Spare: See "Spare Wheel". 

Wheel Steering: See "Steering Wheel". 

Wheel, Wire: A wheel with spokes made of 
wire. 

Wheel Puller: A device used for pulling 

automobile wheels from their axles. 
Wheel Steer: A method of guiding a car by 

means of a hand wheel. 
Wheel, Steering Angle for: The angle 

which the steering column makes with the 

horizontal. It varies from 90° to 30° or less. 
Wheelbase: The distance between the road 

contact of one rear wheel. with the point of 

road contact of the front wheel on the same 

side. 
Wheels, Driving on All Four: The method 

of using all four wheels of an automobile as 

the driving wheels. 
Wheels, Driving on Front: The method of 

using the two front wheels as the drivers. 
Wheels, Steering on Rear: Method of 

guiding the vehicle by turning the rear 

wheels. 



Whistle: An automobile accessory consisting 
of a signalling apparatus giving a loud or 
harsh sound. Also called a horn. 

Wind Guard: See "Wind Shield*. 

Wind Shield: A glass front placed upright 

on the dash to protect the occupants of the 

car from the wind. 

Wipe Spark: Form of primary sparking 
device in which a spark is produced by a 
moving terminal sliding over another ter- 
minal, the break thus made causing a spark. 
Also called touch spark. 

Wipe-Spark Coil: A primary spark coil 
with which the spark is made by wiping 
contact. 

Wire Drawing: The effect of steam passing 
through a partially closed valve or other 
constricted opening; so called from the thin- 
ness of the indicator diagram. 

Working Pressure: The safe working pres- 
sure of a boiler, usually estimated as J of 
the pressure at which a boiler will burst. 

Worm: A helical screw thread. 

Worm and Sector: A worm gear in which 
the worm wheel is not complete but is only 
a sector. Used especially in steering 
devices. 

Worm Drive: A form of drive using worm 
gears. See "Gears, Worm". 

Worm Gear: The spiral gear *n which a 

worm or screw is used to rotate a wheel 
Worm Wheel: A wheel rotated by a worm. 
Wrist Pin : See- "Piston Pin". 

X 

X Spring? A vehicle spring composed of two 
laminated springs so placed one upon the 
other that they form the letter X. 

Y 

Yorke, Steering: See "Steering Yoke". 



409 



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V 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



INDEX OF WIRING DIAGRAMS 



Diagrams with Plate Numbers Are Blueprints Placed in Numerical Order throughout 
Volumes III and IV; Numbers Opposite Remaining Diagrams Refer to Bottom Folios in 
the Volumes Noted. 

A 

Abbott-Detroit 1916-17— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 42 

Abbott-Detroit 1916-17, Model 6-44— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 1 

Ahrens-Fox Fire Engine — Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 2 

Allen 1916, Roadster, Model 37— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Page 148 

Ammeter, Method of Connecting to Shunt Vol. Ill, Page 266 

Ammeter Principle Vol. II, Page 365 

Anderson 1920, Series 20— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 3 

Apperson — Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 293 

Apperson 1916-17-18— Remy Ignition System Vol. IV, Page 41 

Apperson 1919-20, Anniversary Model — Bijur System Vol. Ill, Plate 4 

Apperson, Model 8-1 8- A — Remy Systems Vol. Ill, Plate 5 

Apperson, Models 6-16, 8^16, 6-17, 8-17 — Remy Ignition and 

Bijur Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. Ill, Page 302 

Armature Testing . . .Vol. VI, Pages 342, 343 

Atlas Three-Quarter-Ton Truck— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 6 

Atterbury 1920, U.S.A. Class B Military Truck— Delco Sys- 
tem Vol. Ill, Plate 7 

Atwater-Kent Ignition System — Hollier Eight Vol. IV, Page 93 

Atwater-Kent Ignition System— Maxwell 1920. ....... Vol. IV, Plates 104, 105 

Atwater-Kent Ignition System — Paige 1920, Models 6-42 and 

5-55. Vol. IV Plate 146 

Atwater-Kent ignition System— Velie 1920, Model 34. . . . . Vol', iv', Page 186 

Atwater-Kent Ignition System— Velie 1920, Model 48 Vol. IV, Plate 185 

Atwater-Kent Ignition System, Closed-Circuit Type Vol. IV, Page 324 

Atwater-Kent System— Packard 1920 Single Six Vol. IV, Plate 144 

Auburn 1916, Models 4-38, 6-38, 6-40— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 40 

Auburn 1917, Model 6-39— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 39 

Auburn, Models 4-40, 4-41, 6-45, 6-46— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 8 

Auburn, Model 6-40— Delco Single-Unit System Vol. Ill, Page 254 

Auburn, Model 6-44— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 321 

Austin Twelve— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 322 

Auto-Lite Four-Pole Generator Vol. Ill, Page 270 

Auto-Lite System— Briscoe 1917 Vol. Ill, Page 268 

Auto-Lite System— Briscoe 1920, Model 4-34 Vol. Ill, Plate 10 

Auto-Lite System— Case 1917, Model T-17 Vol. Ill, Plate 24 

Auto-Lite System— Chevrolet 1917-18-19, Model D Vol. Ill, Plate 30 

Auto-Lite System— Chevrolet 1918-19, Model FA Vol. Ill, Plate 32 

Auto-Lite System— Chevrolet 1920, Model FB Vol. Ill, Plate 33 

Auto-Lite System— Chevrolet, Model F Vol. Ill, Page 272 

Auto-Lite System— Chevrolet, Model 490 Vol. Ill, Page 269 

Auto-Lite System — Chevrolet, Royal Mail and Baby Grand 

Models Vol. Ill, Page 256 

Auto-Lite System— Columbia 1920, Series 7R Vol. Ill, Plate 43 

Auto-Lite System— Maxwell 1917 Truck Vol. IV, Plate 103 

Auto-Lite System— Olympian 1917 Vol. IV, Plate 138 

Auto-Lite System— Overland Vol. Ill, Page 279 

Auto-Lite System— Overland 1920 Four Vol. IV, Plate 139 

Auto-Lite System— Overland, Light Four, Model 90-4 Vol. Ill, Page 277 

Auto-Lite System— Overland, Models 85 and 85-B Vol. Ill, Page 276 

Auto-Lite System— Peerless 1917, Series 2 and 3 Vol. IV, Plate 154 



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2 INDEX 

Auto-Lite System— Willys-Knight, Model 88-4 Vol. Ill, Page 282 

Auto-Lite System— Willys-Knight, Model 88-8 Vol. Ill, Page 283 

Auto-Lite System— Wolverine, Model 349 Vol. Ill, Page 273 

Automatic Electromagnetic Pinion Shift Vol. IV, Page 146 

B 

Battery Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 113 

Berling Ignition System— Locomobile 1919-20, Model 48 Vol. IV, Plate 100 

Bijur Starting-Motor Installation — Hupmobile Vol. Ill, Page 288 

Bijur System — Apperson Vol. Ill, Page 293 

Bijur System — Apperson 1919-20, Anniversary Model Vol. Ill, Plate 4 

Bijur System— Apperson, Models 6-16, 8-16, 6-17, 8-17 Vol. Ill, Page 302 

Bijur System— Hupmobile Vol. Ill, Page 292 

Bijur System— Jeffery 1916, Chesterfield Six Vol. Ill, Page 257 

Bijur System— Jeffery, Chesterfield Six Vol. Ill, Page 290 

Bijur System— Jeffery Six, Model 671 Vol. Ill, Page 298 

Bijur System— Jordan Sixty Vol. Ill, Page 287 

Bijur System— King 1917-18, Models EE and F Vol. IV, Plate 86 

Bijur System— King Eight, Model EE Vol. Ill, Page 286 

Bijur System — National Highway Twelve Vol. Ill, Page 299 

Bijur System— Packard 1915, Models 3-38,and 5-48 Vol. IV, Plate 140 

Bijur System— Packard 1916 Six Vol. Ill, Page 208 

Bijur System— Packard 1916 Twin Six Vol. IV, Plate 141 

Bijur System— Packard 1920, Models 3-25 and 3-35 Vol. IV, Plate 143 

Bijur Svstem— Packard Twelve Vol. Ill, Page 308 

Bijur System— Scripps-Booth Vol. Ill, Pages 294, 295 

Bijur System— Velie 1920, Model 48 Vol. IV, Plate 185 

Bijur Svstem— Winton Vol. Ill, Page 289 

Bijur System— Winton, Limousine Six, Model 22-A Vol. Ill, Page 306 

Bijur System— Winton, Touring Six, Model 22-A Vol. Ill, Page 303 

Bijur Vibrator Voltage Regulator Vol. Ill, Page 285 

Bosch DU Type Magneto Vol. IV, Pages 341, 342 

Bosch Duplex Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 53 

Bosch Ignition System— Locomobile 1913, Models 38 and 48 Vol. IV, Plate 98 

Bosch Ignition System — Mercer, Series 22-70 Vol. Ill, Page 315 

Bosch Ignition System — Pierce-Arrow, Series Four, Models 

38, 48, and 66 Vol. IV, Page 129 

Bosch Ignition System, Two-Spark Magneto Vol. IV, Pages 345, 346 

Bosch Ignition System, Vibrating Duplex Type Vol. IV, Page 343 

Bosch Switch Pedal Vol. Ill, Page 311 

Bosch-Rushmore Generator Vol. Ill, Page 215 

Bosch-Rushmore System— Locomobile 1911-12 Vol. IV, Plate 97 

Bosch-Rushmore System — Marmon, Model 34 Vol. Ill, Page 314 

Bosch-Rushmore System — Mercer Vol. Ill, Page 312 

Briggs-Detroit Eight— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 9 

Briscoe 1917— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Page 268 

Briscoe 1920, Model 4-34 — Connecticut Ignition and Auto- 
Lite Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. Ill, Plate 10 

Buick 1914, Model B-54-55— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plates 11, 12 

Buick 1916— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 342 

Buick 1916, Model D-54-55— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 13 

Buick 1918, Models E-4-34-35 and E-4 Truck— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 14 

Buick 1919, Model 44-50, Four and Six— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 15 

Buick 1920, Export Model, KX-44, 45, 49— Delco System. . . Vol. Ill, Plate 16 

Buick 1921 Six— Delco Svstem Vol. Ill, Plate 17 

Buick, Models D-34-35— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 343 

C 

C & C Welding System Vol. V, Page 23 

Cadillac 1912— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 336 

Cadillac 1914— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 338 



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INDEX ' 3 

Cadillac 1915— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 339 

Cadillac 1919, Model 57— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 18 

Cadillac 1920, Model 59— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plates 19, 20 

Cadillac, Model 53— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 347 

Cadillac, Model 55— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 348 

Cartercar 1914, Model 7— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 21 

Cartercar 1915, Model 9— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 22 

Case 1915, Model 30— Westinghouse System Vol. Ill, Plate 23 

Case 1917, Model T-l 7— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Plate 24 

Case 1920, Enclosed Cars, Model V — Delco Ignition and 

Westinghouse Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. Ill, Plate 26 

Case 1920, Model V, Serial Nos. 34860-36860 and Serial No. 

36961 and Up— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 25 

Chalmers 1915, Model 29— Westinghouse System Vol. Ill, Plate 27 

Chalmers 1916-17 — Remy Ignition and Westinghouse Start- 
ing and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 43 

Chalmers 1917-18, Model 6-30— Westinghouse System Vol. Ill, Plate 28 

Chalmers 1918 — Remy Ignition and Westinghouse Starting 

and Lighting System Vol. IV, Page 44 

Chandler 1917, Light-Weight Six, Serial Nos. 35001-60000, 

Gray and Davis System Vol. Ill, Page 412 

Chandler 1917, Light-Weight Six, Regular Series — Gray and 

Davis System Vol. Ill, Page 411 

Chandler 1920, New Series Model— Westinghouse System. . . Vol. Ill, Plate 29 

Chevrolet 1917-18-19, Model D— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Plate 30 

Chevrolet 1918, Models D-4 and D-5— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 31 

Chevrolet 1920, Model FB — Remy Ignition and Auto-Lite 

Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. Ill, Plate 33 

Chevrolet, Model F— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Page 272 

Chevrolet, Model 490— Auto-Lite Single- Wire System Vol. Ill, Page 269 

Chevrolet Royal Mail and Baby Grand Models — Auto-Lite 

Two-Wire System Vol. Ill, Page 256 

Cole 1913, Model 4-40— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 35 

Cole 1913, Models 4-40, 4-56, and 6-60— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 34 

Cole 1914, Series 9, Four and Six Vol. Ill, Plate 36 

Cole 1914, Series 9, Six— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 37 

Cole 1915, Model 4-40— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 38 

Cole 1915, Model 6-50— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 39 

Cole 1918, Model 870— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 40 

Cole 1919, Model 870, Serial Nos. 34000-51001— Delco Sys- 
tem Vol. Ill, Plate 41 

Cole 1920, Model 870, Serial No. 57200 and Up— Delco Sys- 
tem Vol. Ill, Plate 42 

Cole, Model 860— Delco Svstem Vol. Ill, Page 325 

Cole, Model 870— Delco Svstem Vol. Ill, Page 326 

Columbia 1920, Series 7R— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Plate 43 

Commerce, Model E — Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 44 

Compound- Wound Generator Vol. II, Page 394 

Connecticut Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 111 

Connecticut Ignition System — Briscoe 1920, Model 4-34. . . . Vol. Ill, Plate 10 

Connecticut Ignition System— Dort 1916-17 Vol. IV, Pages 144, 147 

Connecticut Ignition System — Lexington 1920, Model S. . . . Vol. IV, Plate 95 
Connecticut Ignition System — Lexington, Series 6-0-17 and 

6-00-17 Vol. IV, Page 134 

Connecticut Ignition System— Metz 1920, Master Six Vol. IV, Plate 108 

Connection of Condenser in the Coil Vol. VI, Page 314 

Control Wiring Diagram Vol. VI, Page 191 

Crow Elkhart 1916, Model 30— Dvneto Svstem Vol. Ill, Plate 45 

Crow Elkhart 1916-17, Model C 23— Dyneto System Vol. Ill, Plate 46 

.Cunningham 1913, Model M, Hearses and Ambulances — 

North East System Vol. Ill, Plate 48 



413 



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4 INDEX 

Cunningham 1913-14, Model M— North East System Vol. Ill, Plate 47 

Cunningham 1918-19, Model V-3— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 49 

Cunningham, Model V — Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Page 143 

Cutout Vol. VI, Page 329 

Cutout on Dash Vol. VI, Pages 330, 337 

Cutout on Generator Vol. VI, Pages 331, 338 

D 



414 



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INDEX 



66 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 



80 
81 
82 
83 



Delco System— Cole 1920, Model 870, Serial No. 57200 and 

Up. .-. Vol. Ill, Plate 42 

Delco System— Cole, Model 860 Vol. Ill, Page 325 

Delco System— Cole, Model 870 Vol. Ill, Page 326 

Delco System— Cunningham 1918-19, Model V-3 Vol. Ill, Plate 49 

Delco System— Daniels 1920, Model D-19 Vol. Ill, Plate 50 

Delco System— Davis, Models 6-H, 6-1, 6-K Vol. Ill, Page 329 

Delco System— Davis, Model 6-J Vol. Ill, Page 330 

Delco System— Elcar 1920 Vol. Ill, Plate 58 

Delco System— Elgin, Model 6-E-16 Vol. Ill, Page 333 

Delco Svstem— Elkhart, 1917 Model Vol. Ill, Page 334 

Delco System— Elkhart, Models G-H-K, Serial No. 15000 

and Up Vol. Ill, Plate 59 

Delco System— Essex 1919, Model A Vol. Ill, Plate 63 

Delco System— Essex 1920, Model A Vol. Ill, Plate 64 

Delco System— G.M.C. 1919-20, Truck Models 16, 25, 26, 30, 

and 31 Vol. Ill, Plate 

Dyneto System— Holmes 1918-19-20 Vol. Ill, Plate 

Delco Svstem— Hudson 1914, Model 6-40 Vol. Ill, Plate 

Delco System— Hudson 1914, Model 6-54 : . . . . Vol. Ill, Plate 

Delco System— Hudson 1915, Model 6-40 Vol. Ill, Plate 

Delco System— Hudson 1915, Model 6-54 Vol. Ill, Plate 

Delco System— Hudson 1916, Model 6-40 Vol. Ill, Plate 

Delco System— Hudson 1917, Super-Six Vol. Ill, Page 354 

Delco System— Hudson 1919-20, Super-Six, Model O Vol. Ill, Plate 77 

Delco System— Jackson 1915, Model 6-48 Vol. Ill, Plate 

Delco System— Jordan 1920, Model F Vol. IV, Plate 

Delco System— Jordan 1920, Model F, Series 2 Vol. IV, Plate 

Delco System— Jordan 1920, Model M Vol. IV, Plate 

Delco Svstem— Kissel 1917 Twelve Vol. Ill, Page 357 

Delco System— LaFayette 1920 Eight Vol. IV, Plate 94 

Delco System— Liberty 1917 Vol. Ill, Page 358 

Delco System— Marmon 1920, Model 34-B Vol. IV, Plate 102 

Delco System— Moon 1914, Model 42 Vol. IV, Plates 113, 114 

Delco System— Moon 1914, Model 6-50 Vol. IV, Plate 115 

Delco System— Moon 1915, Model 4-38 Vol. IV, Plate 116 

Delco System— Moon 1916. Models 6-30 and 6-40 Vol. IV, Plate 117 

Delco System— Moon, Model 6-43 Vol. Ill, Page 397 

Delco System— Moon, Model 6-66 Vol. Ill, Page 366 

Delco System— Nash 1919. Models 681 and 682 Vol. IV, Plate 118 

Delco System— Nash, Model 681 Vol. Ill, Page 369 

Delco System— Nash Truck Model Vol. IV, Plate 120 

Delco System— National 1918, Model AF-3 Vol. IV, Plate 121 

Delco Svstem— Oakland 1914, Model 36 Vol. IV, Plate 123 

Delco System— Oakland 1914, Models 48-62 Vol. IV, Plate 124 

Delco System— Oakland 1914, Models 48-62-43 Vol. IV, Plates 125, 126 

Delco System— Oakland 1915, Model 37 Vol. IV, Plate 127 

Delco System— Oakland 1915, Model 49 Vol. IV, Plate 128 

Delco System— Oakland 1917, Model 32-B Vol. Ill, Page 373 

Delco System— Oakland 1920, Model 34-C Vol. IV, Plate 129 

Delco System— Oakland Model 34 Vol. Ill, Page 374 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1913, Model 53 Vol. IV, Plate 130 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1914, Model 54 Vol. IV, Plate 131 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1915, Model 42 Vol. IV, Plate 132 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1915, Model 55 Vol. IV, Plate 133 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1917, Model 45 Vol. Ill, Page 377 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1917, Model 45-A Vol. Ill, Page 378 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1919, Model 45-A Vol. IV, Plate 135 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1919, Model 45-B Vol. IV, Plate 136 

Delco System— Oldsmobile 1920. Model 45-B Vol. IV, Plate 137 

Delco System— Packard 1919-20, Models 3-25 and 3-35 Vol. IV, Plate 142 



415 



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6 INDEX 

Delco System— Paterson 1914, Models 32 and 33 Vol. IV, Plate 148 

Delco System— Paterson 1915, Models 4-32 and 6-48 Vol. IV, Plate 149 

Delco System— Paterson 1916, Model 6-42 Vol. IV, Plate 150 

Delco System— Paterson 1917, Models 6-45 and 6-45 R. : . . . Vol. IV, Plate 151 
Delco System— Paterson 1920, Models 6-46 and 6-46 R 

(Using 7-W Continental Engine) Vol. IV, Plate 153 

Delco System— Paterson 1920, Model 6-47 (Using 7-R Con- 
tinental Engine) Vol. IV, Plate 152 

Delco System— Pathfinder 1917 Twelve Vol. Ill, Page 383 

Delco System— Pierce- Arrow 1919-20, Models 38 and 48 Vol. IV, Plate 15& 

Delco System— Pilot 1917, Model 6-45 Vol. Ill, Page 384 

Delco System— Premier 1917, Model 6-B Vol. Ill, Page 389 

Delco System— Premier 1919, Models 6-B and 6-C Vol. IV, Plate 159 

Delco System— Premier 1920, Model 6-D Vol. IV, Plate 160 

Delco Svstem— Stephens 1917 Vol. Ill, Page 390 

Delco System— Stephens 1919, Models 70 and 75 Vol. IV, Plate 172 

Delco System— Stevens-Duryea 1915, Model D-6 Vol. IV, Plates 173, 174 

Delco System— Stutz 1918, Series S Vol. IV, Plate 180 

Delco System— Westcott Vol. Ill, Page 350 

Delco System— Westcott 1915, Models U-6 and 0-35 Vol. IV, Plate 187 

Delco System— Westcott 1920, Models A-38 and C-38. . .Vol. IV, Plates 189, 190 
Delco System— Westcott 1920, Model C-48 (Using 9-N Con- 
tinental Engine) Vol. IV, Plates 191, 192 

Delco System— Westcott, Series 19 Vol. IV, Plate 188 

Delco System, Method of Locating Grounds Vol. Ill, Page 360 

Delco System, Method of Locating Open Circuits Vol. Ill, Page 363 

Delco System, Method of Locating Short-Circuits Vol. Ill, Page 361 

Delco Third-Brush Regulator Vol. Ill, Page 328 

Delco Two-Unit System .Vol. Ill, Pages 346, 351 

Dixie Magneto Vol. Ill, Pages 43, 44, 45 

Dodge— North East System Vol. IV, Page 24 

Dodge 1915— North East System Vol. Ill, Plate 51 

Dodge 1917— North East Single- Wire System •. Vol. IV, Page 29 

Dort 1915, Models 4 and 5— Splitdorf-Apelco System Vol. Ill, Plate 53 

Dort 1 916-1 7— Connecticut Ignition and Wcstinghouse Start- 
ing Systems Vol. IV, Page 144 

Dort 1916-17— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Page 147 

Dort 1917, Model M-9T— Westinghouse System Vol. Ill, Plate 54 

Dry Cells in Series Multiple for Ignition Circuit Vol. II, Page 364 

Dual Ignition System Vol. Ill, Pages 48, 52 

Duplex Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 53 

Dyneto Generator Circuit Vol. Ill, Page 396 

Dyneto One-Wire System Vol. Ill, Page 397 

Dvneto Regulator Cutout Vol. Ill, Pages 392, 395 

Dyneto Starting-Motor Circuit Vol. Ill, Page 396 

Dyneto System— Crow Elkhart 1916, Model 30 Vol. Ill, Plate 45 

Dyneto System— Crow Elkhart 1916-17, Models CE-30, 33.. Vol. Ill, Plate 46 
Dyneto System— Elcar 1917-18-19, Models D, E, G 4 and 

D, E, G 6 Vol. Ill, Plate 55 

Dyneto System— Franklin 1920, Series 9-B, Serial No. 17200 

and Up Vol. Ill, Plate 65 

Dvneto System— Franklin, Series 8 Vol. Ill, Page 393 

Dyneto System— Franklin, Series 9 Vol. Ill, Page 394 

Dyneto Two-Wire System Vol. Ill, Page 397 

E 

Eisemann Dual Magneto Vol. IV, Page 332 

Elcar 1917-18-19, Models D, E, G 4 andD, E, G 6— Dyneto 

System Vol. Ill, Plate 55 

Elcar 1920— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 58 

Elgin 1917, Model 17— Wagner System Vol. Ill, Plate 57 



416 



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INDEX 7 

Elgin 1917 Six— Wagner System Vol. IV, Page 117 

Elgin 1918— Wagner System Vol. IV, Page 118 

Elgin 1920, Model K— Wagner System Vol. Ill, Plate 56 

Elgin, Model 6-E-16— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 333 

Elkhart, 1917 Model— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 334 

Elkhart, Models G-H-K, Serial No. 15000 and Up— Delco 

System Vol. Ill, Plate 59 

Empire 1915, Model 31— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 60 

Empire 1916, Model 33— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 61 

Enger 1916-17 Twelve— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 62 

Essex 1919, Model A— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 63 

Essex 1920 Model A— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 64 

F 

Firing Order of Four-Cylinder Motor Vol. Ill, Page 74 

Firing Order of Six-Cylinder Winton Motor Vol. Ill, Page 75 

Flywheel Drive with Double-Gear Reduction, Connections 

of Motor and Switch Vol. Ill, Page 234 

Ford— Gray & Davis System Vol. IV, Pages 166, 167, 168 

Ford Ignition Coil, Internal View Vol. VL Page 313 

Ford Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 57; Vol. VI, Page 320 

Ford Sedans and Coupes Vol. IV, Page 155 

Ford Standard System, Cutout on Dash Vol. VI, Page 337 

Ford Standard System, Cutout on Generator Vol. VI, Page 338 

Franklin 1920, Series 9-B, Serial No. 17200 and Up— Dyneto 

System Vol. Ill, Plate 65 

Franklin, Series 8 — Dyneto System Vol. Ill, Page 393 

Franklin, Series 9 — Dyneto System Vol. Ill, Page 394 

G 
G.M.C. 1919-20, Truck Models 16, 25, 26, 30, and 31— Delco 

System Vol. Ill, Plate 66 

Generator Field Connections Vol. VI, Page 325 

Generator Test Stand Switchboard. Vol. IV, Page 367 

Grant 1916-17 ? Model K — Remy Ignition and Wagner Start- 
ing and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 45 

Grant 1918 Six— Wagner System Vol. IV, Page 124 

Grant 1919, Model G— Wagner System Vol. Ill, Plate 67 

Gray and Davis Dynamo and Regulator Vol. Ill, Page 416 

Gray and Davis Lighting Switch Vol. Ill, Page 407 

Gray and Davis Single- Wire System with Grounded Motor. . Vol. Ill, Page 406 
Gray and Davis Single- Wire System with Grounded Switch . Vol. Ill, Page 408 
Gray and Davis System — Chandler 1917, Light- Weight Six, 

Serial Nos. 35001-60000 Vol. Ill, Page 412 

Gray and Davis System — Chandler 1917, Light- Weight Six, 

Regular Series Vol. Ill, Page 411 

Gray and Davis System— Ford Vol. IV, Pages 166, 167, 168 

Gray and Davis System— Lexington 1920, Model S Vol. IV, Plate 95 

Gray and Davis System— Metz 1918 Vol. IV, Plate 107 

Gray and Davis System— Paige 1920, Models 6-42 and 6-55 .Vol. IV, Plate 146 

Gray and Davis System — Peerless, Model 56 Vol. Ill, Pages 403, 404 

Gray and Davis System— Steams-Knight 1913, Model 28-9 . Vol. IV, Plate 170 

Grounds, Locating Vol. Ill, Pages 360, 376, 379, 385 

Growler for Testing Armature Vol. IV, Page 356 

H 

HAL Twelve — Remy Ignition and Westinghouse Starting 

and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 49 

HAL Twelve, Model 21 — Remy Ignition and Westinghouse 

Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 133 

Hall Double Headlight Vol. Ill, Page 247 



417 



8 INDEX 

Harroun 1918, Model A-A-l— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 68 

Harroun, Model A-A-l — Remy System Vol. IV, Page 50 

Haynes 1915-16, Models 33, 34, 35, 36, 37— Remy System. . Vol. Ill, Plate 69 

Haynes 1916-17— Remy Ignition System Vol. IV, Page 46 

Haynes 1917, Light Six— Leece-Neville System Vol. IV, Page 17 

Haynes 1920, Model 46, Twelve— Leece-Neville System Vol. Ill, Plate 70 

Haynes Light Six — Leece-Neville System Vol. IV, Page 14 

Haynes, Models 40, 40-R, 41— Delco Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 353 

Headlight, Double Vol. Ill, Page 247 

Heinze-Springfield Current Regulator and Battery Cutout . . Vol. Ill, Page 422 

Heinze-Springfield System — Regal Vol. Ill, Page 421 

Heinze-Springfield System— Regal 1917 Vol. IV, Plate 161 

High-Tension Ignition System Vol. Ill, Pages 15, 22, 37 

High-tension Magneto System Vol. Ill, Page 37 

Hollier Eight — Atwater-Kent Ignition and Splitdorf Starting 

and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 93 

Holmes 1918-19-20— Dyneto System Vol. Ill, Plate 71 

Hudson 1914, Model 6-40— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 72 

Hudson 1914, Model 6-54— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 73 

Hudson 1915, Model 6-40— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 74 

Hudson 1915, Model 6-54— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 75 

Hudson 1916, Model 6-40— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 76 

Hudson 1917, Super-Six— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 354 

Hudson 1919-20, Super-Six, Model O— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 77 

Hupmobile — Bijur Starting Motor Installation Vol. Ill, Page 288 

Hupmobile— Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 292 

Hupmobile — Westinghouse Single-Unit System Vol. IV, Page 135 

Hupmobile 1916-17, Series N, Serial No. 60000 and Up— Vol. IV, Page 137 

I 

Ignition Distributor, Relation to Engine Crankshaft Vol. Ill, Page 72 

Ignition Switchboard Vol. IV, Page 369 

Ignition Systems Vol. Ill, Pages 12, 13, 15, 22, 37; 

Vol. V, Pages 410, 413, 416, 427 

Induction Coil, Testing Vol. IV, Page 318 

Interstate 1916-17— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 53 

Interstate, Model TF— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 78 

Interstate, Model TR— Remy System Vol. Ill, Plate 79 

J 

Jackson 1915, Model 6-48— Delco System Vol. Ill, Plate 80 

Jackson 1917, Wolverine. Model 349— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Page 273 

Jeffery 1916, Chesterfield Six— Bijur Two- Wire System Vol. Ill, Page 257 

Jeffery, Chesterfield Six— Bijur Two- Wire System Vol. Ill, Page 290 

Jeffery Six, Model 671— Bijur System. Vol. Ill, Page 298 

Jordan 1920, Model F— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 81 

Jordan 1920, Model F, Series 2— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 82 

Jordan 1920, Model M— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 83 

Jordan Sixty— Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 287 

K 

K-W Magneto Circuits Vol. Ill, Page 42 

King 1915, Models C and D— Ward Leonard System Vol. IV, Plate 84 

King 1916, Models D and E— Ward Leonard System Vol. IV, Plate 85 

King 1917-18, Models EE and F— Bijur System Vol. IV, Plate 86 

King 1920, Model H— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 87 

King Eight, Model EE— Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 286 

Kissel 1915, Model 4-36— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 88 

Kissel 1915, Model 6-42— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 89 

Kissel 1916, Models 4-32 and 4-36— Westinghouse System. . . Vol. IV, Plate 90 
Kissel 1916, One Hundred Point Six — Remy Ignition and 

Kissel Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 54 



418 



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INDEX 9 

Kissel 1917, One Hundred Point Six— Westinghouse System. Vol. IV, Plate 91 

Kissel 1917 Twelve— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 357 

Kissel 1918, One Hundred Point Six— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 92 

Kline 1916, Model 6-36— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 93 

Krit 1915— North East System Vol. IV, Page 25 

L 

LaFayette 1920 Eight— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 94 

Leece-Neville System— Haynes 1917, Light Six Vol. IV, Page 17 

Leece-Neville System— Haynes 1920, Model 46, Twelve Vol. Ill, Plate 70 

Leece-Neville System — Havnes Light Six Vol. IV, Page 14 

Leece-Neville System — White Vol. IV, Page 15 

Leece-Neville System— White, Model GM Vol. IV, Page 18 

Leece-Neville System, Generator and Circuit-Breaker Cir- 
cuits Vol. IV, Page 15 

Lexington 1920, Model S— Connecticut Ignition and Gray 

and Davis Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Plate 95 

Lexington, Series 6-0-17 and 6-00-17— Connecticut Ignition 

and Westinghouse Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 134 

Liberty 1919-20, Models 10-B and 10-(>-Wagner System. . . Vol. IV, Plate 96 

Lighting Circuit Vol. II, Page 362 

Locomobile 1911-12— Bosch-Rushmore System Vol. IV, Plate 97 

Locomobile 1913, Models 38 and 48 — Bosch Dual Ignition 

System Vol. IV, Plate 98 

Locomobile 1915, Closed Car — Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 99 

Locomobile 1919-20, Model 48 — Berling Ignition and West- 
inghouse Starting and Lighting Systems ; Vol. IV, Plate 100 

Locomobile Six, Series Two, Models 38 and 48 — Westing- 
house System Vol. IV, Page 132 

Low-Tension Ignition System Vol. Ill, Pages 12, 13 

M 

McLaughlin — Remy System Vol. IV, Page 63 

Madison 1918— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 101 

Magnet Charger Vol. IV, Page 321 

Magnet Recharger Vol. Ill, Page 132 

Magneto Vol. II, Page 390 

Magneto Coils Vol. IV, Pages 310, 311 

Magneto Details Vol. Ill, Pages 42, 43 

Magneto System, High Tension Vol. Ill, Page 37 

Make and Break Ignition System Vol. Ill, Pages 12, 13 

Marion-Handley 1917 Six — Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Page 150 

Marmon 1920, Model 34-B— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 102 

Marmon, Model 34 — Bosch-Rushmore System Vol. Ill, Page 314 

Maxwell 1916-17— Simms-Huff System Vol. IV, Pages 80, 81 

Maxwell 1917 Truck— Auto-Lite System Vol. IV, Plate 103 

Maxwell 1918— Simms-Huff System Vol. IV, Pages 83, 84 

Maxwell 1920 — Atwater-Kent Ignition and Simms-Huff 

Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Plates 104, 105 

Mea Ignition System, Magneto Type Vol. IV, Page 348 

Mercer — Bosch-Rushmore System Vol. Ill, Page 312 

Mercer 1917— U.S.L. System Vol. IV, Page 106 

Mercer 1918-19-20— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 106 

Mercer, Series 22-70 — Bosch Ignition and U.S.L. Starting 

and Lighting Systems Vol. Ill, Page 315 

Mercury Arc Rectifier Circuit Vol. VI, Page 199 

Metz 1918— Gray and Davis System Vol. IV, Plate 107 

Metz 1920, Master Six — Connecticut Ignition and Westing- 
house Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Plate 108 

Midco System on Motorcvcle Vol. V, Page 267 

Midco Third-Brush Regulation on Motorcycle Vol. V, Page 266 



419 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



10 INDEX 

Mitchell 1916-17, Model C-42— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 111 

Mitchell 1920, Model F-40— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 112 

Mitchell— Lewis 1914-15— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 109 

Mitchell-Splitdorf System— Mitchell 1917, Model D-40 Vol. IV, Page 94 

Moline Tractor, Model D — Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 110 

Moon 1914, Model 42— Delco System Vol. IV, Plates 113, 114 

Moon 1914, Model 6-50— Delco Vol. IV, Plate 115 

Moon 1915, Model 4-38— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 116 

Moon 1916, Models 6-30 and 6-40— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 117 

Moon, Model 6-43— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 365 

Moon, Model 6-66— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 366 

N 

Nash 1919, Models 681 and 682— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 118 

Nash 1920, Models 681 and 682— Wagner System Vol. IV, Plate 119 

Nash, Model 681— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 369 

Nash Truck— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 120 

National 1917-18, Highway Six — Delco Ignition and West- 

inghouse Starting Systems Vol. IV, Page 149 

National 1918, Model AF-3— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 121 

National 1920, Series BB, Serial No. 60000 and Up— West- 

inghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 122 

National, Highway Twelve — Delco Ignition and Bijur Start- 
ing and Lighting Systems Vol. Ill, Page 299 

National Six — Remy Double-Deck Unit Vol. IV, Page 71 

National Twelve, Series A-K — Delco Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 370 

Non- Vibrator High-Tension System Vol. Ill, Page 22 

North East Dynamotor Vol. IV, Page 23 

North East Ignition System Vol. IV, Page 328 

North East Model "B" Starter-Generator Vol. IV, Page 32 

North East Model "D" Starter-Generator Vol. IV, Page 31 

North East System Vol. IV, Pages 26, 27, 30 

North East System — Cunningham 1913, Model M, Hearses 

and Ambulances Vol. Ill, Plate 48 

North East System— Cunningham 1913-14, Model M Vol. Ill, Plate 47 

North East System— Dodge Vol. IV, Page 24 

North East System— Dodge 1915 Vol. Ill, Plate 51 

North East System— Dodge 1917 Vol. IV, Page 29 

North East System— Krit 1915 Vol. IV, Page 25 

O 

Oakland 1914, Model 36— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 123 

Oakland 1914, Models 48-62— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 124 

Oakland 1914, Models 48-62-43— Delco System Vol. IV, Plates 125, 126 

Oakland 1915, Model 37— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 127 

Oakland 1915, Model 49— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 128 

Oakland 1917, Model 32-B— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 373 

Oakland 1917, Model 34-B— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 64 

Oakland 1920, Model 34-C— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 129 

Oakland, Model 32— Remy System Vol. IV, Pages 63, 65 

Oakland, Model 34— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 374 

Ohio Magnetic Controller, Primary Circuit Vol. VI, Page 186 

Ohio Magnetic Controller, Secondary Circuit Vol. VI, Page 187 

Oldsmobile 1913, Model 53— Delco Svstem Vol. IV, Plate 130 

Oldsmobile 1914, Model 54— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 131 

Oldsmobile 1915, Model 42— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 132 

Oldsmobile 1915, Model 55— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 133 

Oldsmobile 1917, Model 37— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 134 

Oldsmobile 1917, Model 45— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 377 

Oldsmobile 1917, Model 45-A— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 378 

Oldsmobile 1919, Model 45-A— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 135 



420 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



INDEX 11 

Oldsmobile 1919, Model 45-B— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 136 

Oldsmobile 1920, Model 45-B— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 137 

Olympian 1917— Auto-Lite System Vol. IV, Plate 13S 

Open-Circuits, Locating Vol. Ill, Pages 363, 380, 381, 385, 386 

Overland — Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Page 279 

Overland 1920 Four— Auto-Lite System Vol. IV, Plate 139 

Overland Light Four, Model 90-4— Auto-Lite Svstem Vol. Ill, Page 277 

Overland, Models 85 and 85-B— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Page 276 

P 

Packard Fuelizer Vol. I, Page 321 

Packard 1915, Models 3-38 and 5-48— Bijur System Vol. IV, Plate 140 

Packard 1916 Six— Bijur Two-Unit Two- Wire System Vol. Ill, Page 208 

Packard 1916 Twin Six— Bijur System Vol. IV, Plate 141 

Packard 1919-20, Models 3-25 and 3-35— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 142 

Packard 1920, Models 3-25 and 3-35— Bijur System Vol. IV, Plate 143 

Packard 1920, Single Six — Delco Ignition and Atwater-Kent 

Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Plate 144 

Packard Twelve— Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 308 

Packard Twin Six, Models 2-25 and 2-35 Vol. Ill, Page 307 

Paige 1916-17, Model 6-39— Remy Ignition System Vol. IV, Page 57 

Paige 1920, Models 6-42 and 6-55— Atwater-Kent Ignition 

and Gray and Davis Starting and Lighting Systems. . . . Vol. IV, Plate 146 

Paige, Model 6-55 — Remy System Vol. IV, Page 58 

Paige-Detroit, Model 6-40— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 145 

Pan, Model 250— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 147 

Parallel Control for Dimming Headlights Vol. Ill, Page 246 

Paterson 1914, Models 32 and 33— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 148 

Paterson 1915, Models 4-32 and 6-48— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 149 

Paterson 1916, Model 6-42— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 150 

Paterson 1917, Models 6-45 and 6-45 R— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 151 

Paterson 1920, Models 6-46 and 6-46 R (Using 7-W Con- 
tinental Engine) — Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 153 

Paterson 1920, Model 6-47 (Using 7-R Continental Engine) 

—Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 152 

Pathfinder 1917 Twelve— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 383 

Peerless 1917, Series 2 and 3— Auto-Lite System Vol.' IV, Plate 154 

Pierce- Arrow — Westinghouse Voltage Regulator Vol. IV, Page 352 

Pierce-Arrow 1919-20, Models 38 and 48— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 155 

Pierce-Arrow, Series Four, Models 38, 48, and 66 — Bosch 

Ignition System Vol. IV, Page 129 

Pierce-Arrow, Series Four, Models 38, 48, and 66 — Westing- 
house System Vol. IV, Pages 130, 131 

Pilot 1917, Model 6-45— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 384 

Premier 1914, Model A— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 156 

Premier 1915, Model 6-50— Remy System Vol. IV, Plates 157, 158 

Premier 1917, Model 6-B— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 389 

Premier 1919, Models 6-B and 6-C— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 159 

Premier 1920, Model 6-D— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 160 

R 

Regal — Heinze-Springfield System Vol. Ill, Page 421 

Regal 1917— Heinze-Springfield System Vol. IV, Plate 161 

Remy Dual Ignition System Vol. Ill, Page 52 

Remy Ignition System— Apperson 1916-17-18 Vol. IV, Page 41 

Remy Ignition System — Apperson, Models 6-16, 8-16, 6-17, 

8-17 Vol. Ill, Page 302 

Remy Ignition System— Chalmers 1916-17 Vol. IV, Page 43 

Remy Ignition System — Chalmers 1918 Vol. IV, Page 44 

Remy Ignition System— Chevrolet 1920, Model FB Vol. Ill, Plate 33 

Remy Ignition System— Grant 1916-17, Model K Vol. IV, Page 45 



421 



12 



INDEX 



Remy Ignition System — H A L Twelve Vol. 

Remy Ignition— H A L Twelve, Model 21 Vol. 

Remy Ignition System — Haynes 1916-17 Vol. 

Remy Ignition System — Kissel 1916, Hundred Point Six Vol. 

Remy Ignition System— Paige 1916-17, Model 6-39 Vol. 

Remy Ignition System— Stearns 1916-17-18 Vol. 

Remy Ignition System — Stearns-Knight 1916-17, Model 

SKL 4 Vol. 

Remy Ignition System — Studebaker 1916-17 Vol. 

Remy Ignition System— Studebaker 1920, Series 20 Vol. IV ; 

Remy Ignition System — Studebaker Four and Six Vol. IV 

Remy System— Abbott-Detroit 1917 Vol. IV 

Remy System— Abbott-Detroit 1917, Model 6-44 Vol. Ill, 

Remy System— Anderson 1920, Series 20 Vol. Ill 

Remy System — Apperson, Model 8-18-A Vol. Ill 

Remy System — Altas Three-Quarter-Ton Truck Vol. III. 

Remy System— Auburn 1916, Models 4-38, 6-38, 6-40 Vol. IV 

Remy System— Auburn 1917, Model 6-39 Vol. IV 

Remy System— Auburn, Models 4-40, 4-41, 6-45, 6-46 Vol. Ill 

Remy System — Briggs-Detroit Eight Vol. Ill 

Remy System— Chevrolet 1918, Models D-4 and D-5 Vol. Ill 

Remy System — Commerce, Model E Vol. Ill 

Remy System— Empire 1915, Model 31 Vol. Ill 

Remy System— Empire 1916, Model 33 Vol. Ill 

Remy System— Enger 1916-17, Twelve Vol. III. 

Remy System— Harroun 1918, Model A-A-l Vol. Ill 

Remy System — Harroun, Model A-A-l Vol. IV 

Remy System— Haynes 1915-16, Models 33, 34, 35, 36, 37. . Vol. Ill 

Remy System— Interstate 1916-17 Vol. IV ; 

Remy System— Interstate, Model TF Vol. Ill 

Remy System— Interstate, Model TR Vol. Ill 

Remy System— Kissel 1918, One Hundred Point Six Vol. IV 

Remy System — McLaughlin Vol. 

Remy System — Madison 1918 Vol. 

Remv System— Mitchell 1916-17, Model 042 Vol. 

Remy System— Mitchell 1920, Model F-40 Vol. 

Remy System — Mitchell-Lewis 1914-15 Vol. 

Remy System — Moline Tractor, Model D Vol. 

Remy System — National Six Vol. IV, 

Remy System— Oakland 1917, Model 34-B Vol. IV, 

Remy System— Oakland, Model 32 .Vol. IV 

Remy System— Oldsmobile 1917, Model 37 Vol. IV ; 

Remy System— Paige, Model 6-55 Vol. IV 

Remy System— Pan, Model 250 Vol. IV ; 

Remy System— Premier 1914, Model A Vol. IV 

Remy System— Premier 1915, Model 6-50 Vol. IV, ] 

Remy System— Reo 1914-15 Vol. 

Remy System— Reo 1916 Vol. 

Remy System — Reo 1917, Four and Six Vol. 

Remy System— Reo the Fifth Vol. 

Remy System— Reo, Model F, 1500-Pound Truck Vol. IV 

Remy System— Reo, Models T and U Vol. IV 

Remy System— Saxon 1917, Model S-4 Vol. IV 

Remy System— Scripps-Booth 1919, Models 6-39 and 6-40. . Vol. IV 

Remy System— Scripps-Booth 1920, Series B Vol. IV 

Remy System— Scripps-Booth, Model G Vol. IV 

Remy System— Stearns-Knight, Model SKL 4 Vol. IV 

Remy System— Studebaker 1914-15, Grounded Battery Vol. IV 

Remy System— Studebaker 1914-15, Insulated Battery Vol. IV, 

Remy System— Studebaker 1918, Models SH, EH, and EG. Vol. IV : 
Remy System— Stutz 1914-15 Vol. IV ; 



Plates 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Page ^49 
Page 133 
Page 46 
Page 54 
Page 57 
Page 74 



Plate 171 
Page 75 
Plate 179 
Page 123 
Page 42 
Plate 1 
Plate 3 
Plate 5 
Plate 6 
Page 40 
Page 39 
Plate 8 
Plate 9 
Plate 31 
Plate 44 
Plate 60 
Plate 61 
Plate 62 
Plate 68 
Page 50 
Plate 69 
Page 53 
Plate 78 
Plate 79 
Plate 92 
Page 63 
Plate 101 
Plate 111 
Plate 112 
Plate 109 
Plate 110 
Page 71 
Page 64 
63,65 
Plate 134 
Page 58 
Plate 147 
Plate 156 
157, 158 
Page 67 
Page 68 
Page 69 
Page 66 
Page 163 
Plate 162 
Plate 166 
Plate 167 
Plate 168 
Page 70 
Page 73 
Plate 175 
Plate 176 
Plate 178 
Plate 177 



422 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



INDEX 13 

Remy System— Stutz 1916-17 Vol. IV, Page 76 

Remy System— Sun, Light Six, Model 17 Vol. IV, Plate 182 

Remy System— Templar 1918-19-20, Model A-445 Vol. IV, Plate 183 

Remy Svstem— Velie 1916, Model 22 Vol. IV, Page 61 

Remy System— Velie 1918-19, Models 38, 39-7, and 39, 

Sport Vol. IV, Plate 184 

Remy Svstem— Velie, Model 22 Vol. IV, Page 59 

Remy System— Velie, Model 28. ... . Vol. IV, Page 62 

Remy Thermostatic Switch Vol. IV, Pages 51, 52 

Reo 1914-15— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 67 

Reo 1916— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 68 

Reo 1917 Four and Six— Remy System ... Vol. IV, Page 69 

Reo the Fifth— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 66 

Reo, Model F, 1500-Pound Truck— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 163 

Reo, Models T and U— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 162 

Root & Vandervoort 1920, Models J and R— Wagner System Vol. IV, Plate 164 
Round-Type Switches, Wire Connections Vol. VI, Page 356 



Sangamo Ampere-Hour Meter, Charge-Stopping Device Vol. VI, Page 205 

Sangamo Ampere-Hour Meter, Differential Shunt Type Vol. VI, Page 230 

Saxon 1916, Model 14— Wagner System Vol. IV, Plate 165 

Saxon 1917, Models B-5-R and B-6-R— Wagner System Vol. IV, Page 109 

Saxon 1917, Models S-3-T, S-4-T, and S-4-R Vol. IV, Page 110 

Saxon 1917, Model S-4— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 166 

Scripps-Booth— Bijur System Vol. Ill, Pages 294, 295 

Scripps-Booth 1919, Models 6-39 and 6-40— Remy System. . Vol. IV, Plate 167 

Scripps-Booth 1920, Series B— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 168 

Scripps-Booth Four and Eight — Wagner Two-Unit System. . Vol. IV, Page 126 

Scripps-Booth, Model G — Remy System Vol. IV, Page 70 

Section of Coil-Box Unit Vol. VI, Page 313 

Series Control for Dimming Headlights Vol. Ill, Page 246 

Series Generator Vol. II, Page 393 

Series Winding of Starter Vol. VI, Page 351 

Short-Circuits, Locating Vol. Ill, Pages 361, 379, 380, 381, 386, 387 

Shunt-Wound Generator Vol. II, Page 393 

Simms-Huff Svstem Vol. IV, Page 79 

Simms-Huff System— Maxwell 1916-17 Vol. IV, Pages 80, 81 

Simms-Huff System— Maxwell 1918 Vol. IV, Pages 83, 84 

Simms-Huff System— Maxwell 1920 Vol. IV, Plates 104, 105 

Splitdorf-Apelco System Vol. IV, Page 88 

Splitdorf-Apelco System— Dort 1915, Models 4 and 5 Vol. Ill, Plate 53 

Splitdorf Lighting Generator and VR Regulator Vol. IV, Page 90 

Splitdorf System— Hollier Eight Vol. IV, Page 93 

Standard 1917 Eight, Model F— Westinghouse System Vol. IV, Plate 169 

Starting-Motor Circuit Vol. II, Page 362 

Stearns 1916-17-18— Remy Ignition System Vol. IV, Page 74 

Stearns-Knight 1913, Model 28-9— Gray and Davis System. Vol. IV, Plate 170 
Stearns-Knight 1916-17, Model SKL 4 — Remy Ignition and 

Westinghouse Lighting and Starting Systems Vol. IV, Plate 171 

Stearns-Knight, Model SKL 4— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 73 

Stephens 1917— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 390 

Stephens 1919, Models 70 and 75— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 172 

Stevens-Duryea 1915, Model D-6— Delco System Vol. IV, Plates 173, 174 

Storage Battery, Charging from Lighting Circuit Vol. IV, Page 303 

Storage Battery, Methods of Discharging Vol. IV, Page 209 

Storage Battery, Testing Rate of Discharge Vol. IV, Page 228 

Storage Battery, Two- Voltage Connections Vol. IV, Pages 233, 234 

Storage Battery, Voltage Testing Vol. IV, Page 236 

Studebaker 1914-15, Grounded Battery — Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 175 

Studebaker 1914-15. Insulated Battery — Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 176 



423 



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14 INDEX 

Studebaker 1916-17— Remy Ignition System Vol. IV, Page 75 

Studebaker 1918, Models SH, EH, and EG— Remy System. Vol. IV, Plate 178 
Studebaker 1920, Series 20— Remy Ignition and Wagner 

Starting and Lighting System Vol. IV, Plate 179 

Studebaker Four and Six, Models SF and ED — Remy Igni- 
tion and Wagner Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Page 123 

Stutz 1914-15— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 177 

Stutz 1916-17— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 76 

Stutz 1918, Model 4-S— Delco Ignition System Vol. IV, Plate 181 

Stutz 1918, Series S— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 180 

Sun, Light Six, ModeJ 17— Remy System. Vol. IV, Plate 182 

T 

Templar 1918-19-20, Model A-445— Remy System Vol. IV, Plate 183 

Testing Generator Armature Vol. VI, Pages 342, 343 

Testing Generator Fields for Grounds Vol. VI, Page 346 

Testing Generator Fields for Open Circuits Vol. VI, Pages 344, 345 

Testing Generator Fields for Short-Circuits Vol. VI, Page 347 

Testing Generator For Reversal Vol. VI, Page 339 

Testing Set Vol. Ill, Page 261 

U 

U.S.L. 12— 6-Volt External-Regulator System Vol. IV, Page 100 

U.S.L. 24— 12-Volt External-Regulator System Vol. IV, Page 99 

U.S.L. 24— 12-Volt Inherently Regulated System Vol. IV, Page 101 

U.S.L. System— Mercer 1917 Vol. IV, Page 106 

U.S.L. System— Mercer, Series 22-70 Vol. Ill, Page 315 

V 

Variable Dimming Resistance Vol. Ill, Page 247 

Velie 1916, Model 22— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 61 

Velie 1918-19, Models 38, 39-7, and 39, Sport— Remy System. Vol. IV, Plate 184 
Velie 1920, Model 34 — Atwater-Kent Ignition and Westing- 
house Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Plate 186 

Velie 1920, Model 48 — Atwater-Kent Ignition and Bijur 

Starting and Lighting Systems Vol. IV, Plate 185 

Velie, Model 22— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 59 

Velie, Model 28— Remy System Vol. IV, Page 62 

Voltmeter, Method of Connecting to Circuit Vol. Ill, Pages 264, 265 

Voltmeter, Method of Shunting in Circuit Vol. II, Page 364 

Voltmeter Principle . . . Vol. II, Page 365 

W 

Wagner System— Elgin 1917, Model 17 Vol. Ill, Plate 57 

Wagner System— Elgin 1917 Six Vol. IV, Page 117 

Wagner System— Elgin 1918 Vol. IV, Page 118 

Wagner System— Elgin 1920 Vol. Ill, Plate 56 

Wagner System— Grant 1916-17, Model K . Vol. IV, Page 45 

Wagner System— Grant 1918 Six Vol. IV, Page 124 

Wagner System— Grant 1919, Model G Vol. Ill, Plate 67 

Wagner System— Nash 1920, Models 681 and 682 Vol. IV, Plate 119 

Wagner System— Root & Vandervoort 1920, Models J and R. . Vol. IV, Plate 164 

Wagner System— Saxon 1916, Model 14 Vol. IV, Plate 165 

Wagner System— Saxon 1917, Models B-5-R and B-6-R Vol. IV, Page 109 

WagnerSystem— Saxon 1917, Models S-3-T,S-4-T, and S-4-R. Vol. IV, Page 110 

Wagner System — Scripps-Booth Four and Eight Vol. IV, Page 126 

Wagner System— Studebaker 1920, Series 20 Vol. IV, Plate 179 

WagnerSystem— Studebaker Four and Six, Models SF and ED. Vol. IV, Page 123 

Wagner System (Early Model) Vol. IV, Page 112 

Ward Leonard System— King 1915, Models C and D Vol. IV, Plate 84 

Ward Leonard System— King 1916, Models D and E Vol. IV, Plate 85 

Westcott 1915 U-6 and 0-35— Delco System Vol. IV, Plate 187 



424 



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INDEX 15 

Westcott 1917-18— Delco System Vol. Ill, Page 350 

Westcott 1920, Models A-38 and C-38— Delco System. .Vol. IV, Plates 189, 190 
Westcott 1920, Model C-48 (Using 9-N Continental Engine) 

Delco System Vol. IV, Plates 191, 192 

Westcott, Series 19— Delco System. Vol. IV, Plate 188 

Westinghouse Cutout Switch Vol. VI, Page 140 

Westinghouse External-Regulator System Vol. IV, Page 141 

Westinghouse Generator with Self-Contained Regulator Vol. IV, Pages 140, 351 

Westinghouse Ignition System, Horizontal Type Vol. IV, Page 330 

Westinghouse Ignition System, Vertical Type 

Vol. Ill, Page 106; Vol. IV, Page 331 

Westinghouse Lighting System — Pierce-Arrow, Series Four, 

Models 38, 48, and 66 Vol. IV, Page JL30 

Westinghouse Starting System — Pierce-Arrow, Series Four, 

Models 38, 48, and 66 Vol. IV, Page 131 

Westinghouse System— Allen 1916, Roadster, Model 37 Vol. IV, Page 148 

Westinghouse System— Case 1915, Model 30 Vol. Ill, Plate 23 

Westinghouse System— Case 1920 Enclosed Cars, Model V. . Vol. Ill, Plate 26 

Westinghouse System— Chalmers 1915, Model 29 Vol. Ill, Plate 27 

Westinghouse System— Chalmers 1916-17 Vol. IV, Page 43 

Westinghouse System— Chalmers 1917-18, Model 6-30 Vol. Ill, Plate 28 

Westinghouse System — Chalmers 1918 Vol. IV, Page 44 

Westinghouse System— Chandler 1920, New Series Model. . . Vol. Ill, Plate 29 

Westinghouse System — Cunningham, Model V Vol. IV, Page 143 

Westinghouse System— Daniels 1917 Eight Vol. IV, Page 138 

Westinghouse System— Dort 1916-17 Vol. IV, Pages 144, 147 

Westinghouse System— Dort 1917, Model M-9T Vol. Ill, Plate 54 

Westinghouse System — H A L Twelve Vol. IV, Page 49 

Westinghouse System— H A L Twelve, Model 21 Vol. IV, Page 133 

Westinghouse System — Hupmobile Vol. IV, Page 135 

Westinghouse System — Hupmobile 1916-17, Series N, Serial 

No. 60000 and Up Vol. IV, Page 137 

Westinghouse System— King 1920, Model H Vol. IV, Plate 87 

Westinghouse System— Kissel 1915, Model 4-36 Vol. IV, Plate 88 

Westinghouse System— Kissel 1915, Model 6-42 Vol. IV, Plate 89 

Westinghouse System— Kissel 1916, Models 4-32, 4-36 Vol. IV, Plate 90 

Westinghouse System— Kissel 1917, One Hundred Point Six. Vol. IV, Plate 91 

Westinghouse System— Kline 1916, Model 6-36 Vol. IV, Plate 93 

Westinghouse System — Lexington, Series 6-0-17 and 6-00-17 Vol. IV, Page 134 

Westinghouse System— Locomobile 1919-20, Model 48 Vol. IV, Plate 100 

Westinghouse System — Locomobile Six, Series Two, Models 

38 and 48 Vol. IV, Page 132 

Westinghouse System — Marion-Handley 1917 Six Vol. IV, Page 150 

Westinghouse System— Mercer 1918-19-20 Vol. IV, Plate 106 

Westinghouse System— Metz 1920, Master Six Vol. IV, Plate 108 

Westinghouse System — National 1917-18, Highway Six Vol. IV, Page 149 

Westinghouse System — National 1920, Series BB, Serial No. 

60000 and Up Vol. IV, Plate 122 

Westinghouse System— Standard 1917 Eight, Model F Vol. IV, Plate 169 

Westinghouse System — Stearns-Knight 1916-17, 

Model SKL-4 Vol. IV, Plate 171 

Westinghouse System— Velie 1920, Model 34 Vol. IV, Plate 186 

Westinghouse System with Separately Mounted Regulator . . Vol. IV, Page 145 

Westinghouse Voltage Regulator Vol. IV, Pages 350, 352 

White — Leece-Neville System Vol; IV, Page 15 

White, Model G-M— Leece-Neville System Vol. IV, Page 18 

Willys-Knight, Model 88-4— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Page 282 

Willys-Knight, Model 88-8— Auto-Lite System Vol. Ill, Page 283 

Winton— Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 289 

Winton, Limousine Six, Model 22-A — Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 306 

Winton, Touring Six, Model 22-A— Bijur System Vol. Ill, Page 303 



425 



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Digitized byLjOOQlC 



GENERAL INDEX 



In this Index the Volume Number appears in Roman numerals — thus: I, 
II, III, IV, etc., and the Page Number in Arabic numerals — thus: 1, 2, 3, 4, 
etc. For example: Volume IV, Page 327, is written, IV, 327. 

The page numbers of this volume unU be found at the bottom of the pages; 
the numbers at the top refer only to the section. 



iV, 


42 


I, 


66 


v, 


295 


v, 


294 



Vol. Page 
A 

ABC aviation motor I, 94 

A.L.A.M. horsepower for- 
mula I, 132, 142 

A.L.A.M. (S.A.E.) spark 

plug V, 270 

Abbott-Detroit-Remy in- 
stallation 

Absolute pressures 

Absolute zero 

Absorption of heat 

Accumulator (see Storage 
battery) 

Acetylene (see also Oxy- 
acetylene welding, 
Index, Vol. V) 

Ackerman steering con- 
struction 

Acme torsion spring 

Active material 

Adiabatic compression 

Admission stroke I, 14, 66, 70, 

155; V, 244, 245, 352; VI, 241 

Admission in two-cycle 

motor I, 

After-treatment (see Oxy- 
acetylene weld- 
ing, Index, Vol. V) 

Advance of spark 

III, 59, 65, 73, 77; VI, 

Air cleaners V, 

Air cooling (see also Avia- 
tion motors, In- 
dex, Vol. I) 
I, 150, 443; V, 248; VI, 125 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



V, 14, 112 

II, 92, 93 

II, 195 

IV, 175, 179 

I, 68, 70, 73 



83 



364 
389 



Vol. 


Page 


II, 


198 


VI, 


261 


I, 


357 



V, 215 



I, 22, 86 



IV, 
V, 



148 
375 



Air cushion 

Air leaks at inlet valves 

Air-pressure feed 

Air-supply system for gar- 
ages 

Airplane motors (see also 
Aviation motors, 
Index, Vol. I) 

Alcohol as fuel 

I, 111, 113, 114, 115, 118 

Alignment of front wheels, 

Ford VI, 273, 277, 371 

Allen car III, 77 

Allen- Westinghouse instal- 
lation 

Allis-Chalmers tractor 

Alternating current, sources 
of 

Aluminum 
cleaning 

specific resistance of 
welding 

American Die and Tool 
Company trans- 
mission interlocks 

American motors, valve 
timing 

American Power Boat As- 
sociation horse- 
power formulas 

American wire gage 

Ames equalizing spring 

Ammeter III, 240, 266; IV, 77, 

85, 97, 105; VI, 366 

Amperage V, 414; VI, 314, 317 



VI, 196 



IV, 
II, 
V, 



241 
359 

78 



II, 50 
I, 379, 380 



I, 133, 134 
II, 367 
II, 198 



427 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Ampere II, 355; V, 409; VI, 309 

Ampere-hour capacity of 

battery IV, 175, 179 

Ampere-hour meter VI, 103, 229 

Ampere turn VI, 312 

Angular brushes IV, 103 

Annular bearings II, 72, 148; VI, 176 
Anti-freezing solutions 

I, 114, 442, 446; VI, 365 
Apelco-Splitdorf installa- 
tion IV, 88 
Apollo horn III, 240 
Apperson car III, 77 
Apperson-Bijur installation 

III, 291, 293, 301, 302 
Apperson-Remy installa- 
tion IV, 41 
Approximate - constant - po- 
tential boosting VI, 216 
Arbor press V, 173 
Arc welder V, 22 
Arcing VI, 222 
Armatures III, 375; VI, 166, 168, 223 
cores II, 389; IV, 313, 314, 316 
of Ford generator VI, 324, 335, 341 
magneto IV, 313, 314, 316, 335 
testing III, 281, 375; IV, 316, 353 
winding II, 388; IV, 347 
Assembling 

motor VI, 263 

rear axle VI, 291 

transmission VI, 269 

Astatic gap IV, 314, 316, 318 

Atlas tractor V, 411 

Atmospheric pressure I, 66; V, 352 
Atoms I, 121 

Atwater-Kent distributor III, 22 
Atwater-Kent ignition sys- 
tem III, 106; IV, 321 
Atwater-Kent interrupter 

III, 19, 106, 108 
Auburn car III, 77 

Auburn-Delco system 

III, 254, 255, 321 
Auburn-Remy installation IV, 39, 40 
Aultman-Taylor lubrication V, 399 
Austin car III, 78 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 

Austin-Delco installation III, 322 

Autocar delivery wagon VI, 115 

Autocar engine I, 18 
Auto-Lite starting and 
lighting system 
(see also Index, 
Vol. Ill) III, 255, 267 

Automatic advance device III, 104 
Automatic Atwater-Kent 

ignition system IV, 324 

Automatic battery cutout III, 218 
Automatic charge-stopping 

device VI, 204 

Automatic engagement III, 230 
Automatic governor, Eise- 

mann IV, 334 

Automatic inlet valve V, 249 

Automatic spark plug III, 28 
Automatic switch 

III, 110, 112; IV, 325; V, 264 
Automatic valve V, 338 
Automatically timed igni- 
tion systems III, 68 
Automobile* 1,116,145; 

V, 341, 387, 391,395,406 
Automobile motors (see also 

Motors) I, 18, 86; V, 292, 309 
Automobile repairs (see also 
Trouble shooting) 

V, 86, 97, 328 

Auto-Ped V, 235 
Auxiliary air valve I, 249; V, 374 

Auxiliary charging VI, 213 

Auxiliary-type governors VI, 13 

Avery horizontal motor V, 438 

Avery transmission VI, 29, 31 
Aviation motors (see also 

Index, Vol. I) I, 22, 86 

B.R. 1 and 2 I, 96 

Basse-Selve I, 97 

Curtiss V type I, 101 

Duesenberg I, 106 

Frederickson I, 91 

Hall-Scott I, 100 

Jupiter I, 95 

King-Bugatti I, 99 

Liberty V type I, 104 



428 



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INDEX 





Vol 


Page 


viation motors (continued) 






Marlin-Rockwell 




93 


Mercury 




96 


Napier Lion 




109 


Sunbeam-Coatalen 




109 


Wasp 




94 


xle bearings 


II 


147 


xles II, 137, 215, 247; V, 


103; 


VI, 220, 235, 237, 248, 271,284 



B 

B.R. 1 and 2 aviation mo- 
tors I, 96 
B.&S.wire gage II, 367 
Back-firing I, 77, 83, 85, 347; 

V, 33, 34, 90, 372; VI, 299, 301 
Back-kick releases III, 233 

Backlash II, 115 

Baggage trucks VI, 109 

Baker controller VI, 184 

Baker delivery wagon VI; 103 

Baker truck VI, 92 

Balance gear VI, 149 

Balanced drive, delivery 

wagon VI, 100 

Ball and Ball carburetor I, 289 

Ball bearings 

I, 477, 478, II, 147, 148; VI, 271, 289 
Ball governor on magneto III, 70 
Ballast coil IV, 324, 330 

Ballast resistor III, 106 

Bass6-Selve aviation motor I, 97 
Bates tractor V, 412 

Battery (see Storage bat- 
teries) 
Battery breaker IV, 331, 339 

Battery circuit III, 252 

Battery cutout III, 218, 

392, 395, 402; V, 266; VI, 328 
Auto-Lite system III, 275, 284 

Delco system III, 331, 362 

Heinze-Springfield sys- 
tem III, 426 
Leece-Neville system IV, 12 
North East system IV, 22, 28 
Remy system IV, 47 
Simms-Huff system IV, 82, 85 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Battery cutout (continued) 

summary of instructions IV, 273 
Wagner system IV, 111 
Westinghouse system IV, 135 
Battery equipment, deliv- 
ery wagon VI, 102 

Battery ignition systems 
(see also Index, 
Vol. Ill) III, 103; IV, 321 
Battery terminal VI, 319 

Baume scale I, 111; VI, 208 

Bearing bushing3, remov- 
ing V, 175 
Bearing puller IV, 371 
Bearing scrapers V, 132 
Bearings I, 150, 204, 211, 217, 
468, 473; II, 27, 54, 72, 147, 
240; V, 126, 243, 336; VI, 48, 

221, 271, 276, 278, 284, 292 
Belt drive II, 56; V, 230, 257 

Belt work, demands on 

tractor VI, 11 

Bench work V, 115, 172 

Bendix drive III, 230, 271, 425; 

IV, 55, 60, 146; VI, 348, 353, 377 
Bennett air washer I, 333 

Bennett carburetor I, 329 

Benzol I, 115, 118, 325 

Best tractor VI, 30, 31, 38, 39 

Bethlehem tractor V, 376 

Bevel differential II, 236 

Bevel friction drive VI, 24 

Bevel-gear live axle, truck VI, 138 
Bevel gears II, 222; VI, 145 

Biddle car III, 78 

Bijur ignition system III, 307 

Bijur starting and lighting 
system (see also 
Index, Vol. Ill) 

III, 207, 258, 284 
Blacksmith welding V, 11 

Blowing down boiler V, 331 

Blowouts II, 331 

Blowpipe (see also Oxy- 
acetylene welding, 
Index, Vol. V) V, 88, 89, 93 
Boiler V, 301, 317, 333 



429 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 

Boiling points 

I, 111, 113, 114, 115; V, 301 

Boosting VI, 213 

Bore of motor (see also Avi- 
ation motors, In- 
dex, Vol. I) I, 79, 182 

Borg & Beck clutch II, 22; VI, 19, 20 

Boring operations V, 188 

Bosch ignition system 

III, 48, 53, 75, 315; IV, 129, 339 

Bosch impulse starter V, 433 

Bosch lamps III, 242 

Bosch magneto III, 33, 66, 318 

Bosch spark plug III, 26 

Bosch switch-pedal opera- 
tion III, 311 

Bosch voltmeter and switches III, 240 

Bosch-Rushmore starting 
and lighting sys- 
tem (see also In- 
dex, Vol. Ill) 

III, 215, 230, 309 
Bottleneck frame II, 157 
Bour-Davis car III, 78 
Boyle's law V, 296 
Brake drum VI, 267, 269 
Brake horsepower I, 12, 125, 126, 128 
Brake linings, riveting V, 158 
Brake pedal VI, 363 
Brakes (see also Index, Vol. 

II) II, 215, 250, 256; 
V, 256; VI, 107, 159, 249, 363 
Brass welding V, 84 

Brazing V, 11, 78, 163 

Breaker 
Bosch magneto IV, 339 

Eisemann magneto 

IV, 331, 335, 337 
Mea magneto IV, 349 
North East system IV, 327 
testing with IV, 318 
Westinghouse system IV, 329 

Brewster car III, 78 

Briscoe car III, 78 

Briscoe-Auto-Lite installa- 
tion III, 268 
British thermal unit V, 298 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Bronze welding V, 84 

Brown-Lipe-Chapin M&S 

differential II, 238 

Brown & Sharpe taper V, 156 

Brush frame II, 164 

Brush-holders VI, 341, 350 

Brushes II, 396; III, 280, 323, 

368; IV, 21, 102, 111; V, 288; 

VI, 168, 222, 324, 340, 350 
Bucking coil 

II, 396; III, 271; VI, 22, 121; 139 
Buckling IV, 198 

Buda motor VI, 14, 16 

Buick car III, 78 

Buick-Delco installation III, 251, 

252, 338, 340, 341, 342, 343, 

344, 349 
Built-in governors VI, 13, 15, 16 

Bulbs, lamp VI, 353 

Bull gears VI, 30, 37 

Bullock tractor VI, 14 

Burner in steam automo- 
bile V, 314, 337 
Bushings VI, 283, 369 
Butt-contact switches III, 236 
Butt weld V, 79 
Butterfly valve I, 245 



Cable III, 95, 99 

Cable drives II, 56 

Cadillac cam mechanism I, 396 

Cadillac car III, 76, 78, 118 

Cadillac carburetor I, 321 

Cadillac clutch II, 19, 26 

Cadillac connecting rods I, 205 

Cadillac cylinder chassis I, 431 

Cadillac lubrication I, 451, 457 

Cadillac motor I, 44, 156, 378, 428 
Cadillac thermostatic device I, 439 
Cadillac transmission and 

housing II, 40 

Cadillac valve mechanism I, 389 

Cadillac-Delco installation 

III, 335, 336, 338, 339, 347, 348 
Calorie V, 298 

Cam I, 378, 384, 388 



430 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Camless engine I, 415 

Camshaft I, 378, 389, 414, 415; 

V, 361; VI, 242 
Canfield patent III, 26 

Cantilever spring II, 174, 178, 180 
Capacity 

II, 379; III, 24; IV, 175, 179, 307 
Capacity of battery, deliv- 
ery wagon VI, 102 
Carbon deposits I, 114, 159, 175; 

V, 95, 271, 272, 281; VI, 259, 297 
Carbonizing flame V, 18, 36 

Carburetion system VI, 237, 298 

Carburetors (see also Index, 

Vol.1) I, 147, 241; V, 
273, 278, 370; VI, 59, 124, 255 
Ball and Ball I, 289 

Bennett I, 329 

Bennett air washer I, 333 

Cadillac I, 321 

Carter I, 308 

Depp6 gas generator I, 334 

Ensign I, 336 

Ensign fuel converter I, 337 

Essex I, 271 

Ford types 

I, 265, 279, 299, 308; VI, 300 
Holley I, 266, 272, 325, 326; 

V, 388; VI, 301, 303 
Hudson I, 271 

Johnson I, 305 

kerosene types I, 325 

Kingston I, 265, 274; VI, 237, 301 
Marvel I, 296 

Master I, 277, 329 

Maybach I, 245, 247 

Miller I, 279, 329 

Newcomb I, 292 

Packard I, 316 

Packard fuelizer I, 318 

Parrett air cleaner I, 334 

Pierce-Arrow I, 314 

Rayfield I, 285 

Schebler I, 299 

Stewart I, 302 

Stromberg I, 244, 254 

Tillotson I, 313 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 

Carburetors (continued) 

Webber I, 281 

Zenith I, 251, 260 

Carpentier manograph I, 55 

Carter carburetor I, 308 

Case car III, 78 

Case lubrication V, 397 

Casing of tire II, 311, 319, 330 

Cast-aluminum welding V, '81 

Cast axles II, 143 

Cast iron 

cleaning IV, 241 

scale on V, 173 

welding V, 69 

Cast-steel wheels II, 283 

Caster action of front wheels VI, 273 

Castings, welding V, 67 

Caterpillar tractor 

VI, 31, 35, 36, 38, 39 
Cell, storage battery 

IV, 174, 175, 177, 206 
Center bolts of springs VI, 283 

Centigrade scale V, 295 

Centrifugal governors VI, 12, 128, 129 
Century magnetic controller VI, 184 
Chadwick car III, 78 

Chain drive II, 223, 252; III, 

280; V, 231, 258; VI, 91, 94, 173 
Chain four-wheel drive II, 131 

Chains, worn VI, 220 

Chalmers car III, 78 

Chalmers-Gray and Davis 

. installation III, 405 

Chalmers-Remy installation IV, 43, 44 
Chandler car III, 79 

Chandler-Gray and Davis 

installation III, 405, 411, 412 
Charge, fuel proportions of 

I, 74, 112, 119, 341 
Charge-stopping device VI, 204 

Charging battery III, 313; IV, 
135, 175, 177, 188, 221, 231; 

VI, 195, 199 
Charging rate VI, 202 

Charging rheostat VI, 203 

Charging system VI, 366 

Chassis, Ford, VI, 234, 235 



431 



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INDEX 





Vol. 


Page 


Chassis group 


II, 


154 


Check valves 


v, 


319 


Chemical compound 


I, 


120 


Chemical rectifiers 


IV, 


223 


Chevrolet car 


III, 


79 



Chevrolet cylinder assembly I, 173 
Chevrolet- Auto-Lite instal- 
lation III, 255, 256, 269, 272 
Chicago car III, 79 

Chipping V, 117, 119, 156 

Chisels V, 117, 156 

Chrome-steel magnets IV, 319 

Circuit, electric (see also 

Index, Vol. II) II, 353 

Circuit breaker III, 219, 258, 

367; IV, 13, 15, 16, 272; VI, 

105, 106 
Circulating-splash lubrica- 
tion system V, 397 
Circulation of cooling water 

I, 436, 446; V, 404 
Cleaning battery IV, 201, 239 

Cleaning car VI, 252 

Cleaning electrical equip- 
ment IV, 239 
Clearance I, 74, 393, 405; V, 153, 

279, 306 
Cleveland tractor V, 377 

Clincher rims II, 292 

Clincher tires II, 286, 297 

Clutch (see also Index, Vol. 

II) II, 11, 70, 79; III, 
231; V, 259, 285; VI, 17, 81, 

132, 247, 270, 370 
Clutch-disc assembly VI, 267, 269, 270 
Clutch facings II, 18, 19; V, 159 

Clutch leathers V, 159 

Clutch pedal VI, 363 

Coefficient of expansion V, 46 

Coefficient of friction of 

clutch discs II, 18 

Coey car III, 79 

Coil springs II, 195 

Coil testing machine ' VI, 266 

Cold weather, effect on 
storage battery 

IV, 193, 195, 225, 233 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Cole car III, 79, 102, 117 

Cole-Delco installation 

III, 325, 326, 345 
Combination drive VI, 94 

Combination switch 

III, 332, 351; VI, 354 
Combustion, analysis of 

process I, 121 

Combustion mixture 

I, 74, 112, 119, 341 
Commercial delivery wagon 

VI, 94, 95, 103 
Commercial truck VI, 97, 98 

Commercial vehicles (see 
also Electric com- 
mercial vehicles, 
Gasoline commer- 
cial vehicles, and 
Trucks) VI, 85 

Commutator II, 385; III, 280, 
372; IV, 115, 356; V, 288; VI, 

168, 222, 324, 335, 341, 351 
Commutator wires VI, 265 

Compensating gear VI, 91, 149 

Compensating spring sup- 
port VI, 159 
Compound distributor III, 45 
Compound engines V, 308 
Compound-wound genera- 
tor II, 394 
Compound-wound motor 

II, 400; VI, 170 
Compression gage I, 178 

Compression line I, 83 

Compression in motor 

I, 73, 81, 93, 122, 123, 160 
Compression stroke I, 14, 68, 

72, 155; V, 244, 245, 353, 355; 

VI, 241 
Condenser (electrical) II, 379; 
III, 24, 30, 251; IV, 32; V, 

418; VI, 315 
Condenser (steam engine) V, 310 
Conditioning charge 

IV, 190, 194, 195, 196, 207, 221 
Conduction V, 294 

Conductivity V, 44 



432 



Digitized by LjOOQiC 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Conductors II, 358, 366; V, 409 

Cone clutches 

II, 11, 13; VI, 18, 22, 132 
Cone-and-cup bearings VI, 271, 276 
Cone puller IV, 377 

Connecticut automatic 

switch III, 110; IV, 325 
Connecticut ignition sys- 
tem 

II, 109, 111; IV, 134, 144, 147 
Connecticut interrupter III, 109 

Connecting rods I, 147, 202, 220; 
V, 129, 243, 248, 249, 251, 

281; VI, 243, 256 
Connections VI, 199, 222, 224 

Constant-current boosting VI, 216 
Constant-current generator III, 211 
Constant- voltage boosting VI, 215 
Constant-voltage generators III, 216 
Constant-voltage regula- 
tion IV, 47, 89 
Contact breaker 

III, 128; V, 426, 429 
Contact maker III, 19, 23 

Contact points IV, 276 

Continental cylinder I, 171 

Continuous holding ring 

rim II, 298, 305 

Continuous-torque control- 
ler VI, 114, 181 
Contracting-band clutch 

VI, 18, 22, 33 
Contraction of metals (see 
Oxy-acetylene 
welding, Index, 
Vol. V) 
Control 
of electric car VI, 180 

of tractor VI, 11, 47 

Control levers VI, 359 

Controllers 

. Ill, 215; VI, 102, 181, 187 
Convection V, 294 

Cooling systems (see also 
Index, Vol. I) 
1, 29, 31, 149, 430; V, 248, 402; 

VI, 63, 125, 238, 365, 368 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Copper 
cleaning IV, 241 

specific resistance II, 359 

welding V, 82 

Copper conductors II, 358 

Cord tires II, 291 

Corner weld V, 60, 64 

Cost 
of operating tractor V, 346 

of oxy-acetylene cutting V, 110 
of welding V, 110 

Cotta transmission V, 31, 136 

Coulomb II, 355 

Counter e.m.f. II, 400 

Countershaft VI, 91 

Couple-Gear drive mechan- 
ism II, 136, 137; VI, 

98, 99, 107, 150, 157 
"Cracked" oils V, 370 

Cranes I, 162, 164 

Crank arrangement I, 34 

Crankcase I, 30, 103, 226, 472; 

V, 107, 243; VI, 256 
Crankcase drain plug VI, 255 

Crankshafts I, 147, 166, 214; 

V, 243, 282; VI, 243 
Crecium points IV, 336 

Creeper I, 212 

Creeping-grip tractor VI, 15, 16 

Critical speed of motor VI, 170 

Crosby indicator I, 54 

Cross-connecting rods II, 124 

Crude oil 1,111,113 

Cunningham- Westinghouse 

installation IV, 143 

Cup-and-cone bearing3 VI, 271, 276 
Current II, 353, 368, 381; III, 

16, 29, 32, 127; V, 408; VI, 309 
Current, ignition VI, 314, 317, 319 
Current control, delivery 

wagon VI, 102 

Curtiss V-type aviation 

motor I, 101 

Cushion tires II, 278 

Cut-off V, 305, 307, 337 

Cutout (see Battery cutout) 
Cutout switch VI, 105, 201 



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8 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Cutters V, 177, 178, 193 

Cutting, oxy-acetylene V, 86 

Cutting-in bearing V, 130 

Cycle of motor VI, 239 

Cyclemotor V, 235 

Cylinder I, 30, 103, 147, 166; 

V, 105, 141, 242; VI, 258 
Cylinder head VI, 255, 263 

Cylinder-head bolts, tight- 
ening VI, 264 
Cylinder oil film VI, 298 



D 



Daniels- Westinghouse in- 
stallation IV, 138 
Dash, cutout mounted on VI, 330 
Dash coils, testing VI, 321 
David Brown worm gear VI, 144 
Davis-Delco installation 

III, 329, 330 
Dayton Airless tire II, 288 

Dayton motor bicycle 

V, 234, 249, 260, 261 
.Dead axle VI, 139 

Dead center I, 42; V, 185 

Dead center indicator I, 184 

Dean knife starting switch III, 236 
De Dion car II, 231; III, 76, 79 

Deflector, piston V, 247, 248 

Delco distributor 

III, 118, 119; IV, 306 
Delco ignition relay 

III, 121, 124, 125 
Delco ignition system II, 403; 
III, 102, 115, 117, 122, 123, 

299, 353, 370; IV, 149 
Delco interrupter III, 115, 116, 122 
Delco starting and lighting 
system (see also 
Index, Vol. Ill) 
III, 206, 208, 214, 227, 319 
Delco timer III, 116, 120 

Delivered horsepower I, 125 

Delivery wagons VI, 89, 115 

Demountable rim II, 298, 309 

Demountable-rim tires II, 287 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Dendy - Marshall horse- 
power formula I, 133 
Deppe* gas generator I, 334 
Detroit lubrication I, 460; V, 399 
Diagrams I, 51, 66, 70, 79, 83, 

84; V, 306, 309 
Diametral-pitch method of 

designing gears V, 169, 170 
Diaphragm regulator V, 322 

Diehl electric dynamometer I, 130 
Dielectric stress III, 98 

Dies V, 148, 150 

Differential I, 34, 153; II, 215, 

236; VI, 30, 91, 248 
Differential gears VI, 287 

Differential lock, truck VI, 149 

Differential winding 

III, 271; IV, 22 
Dimming devices III, 246 

Direct cone clutch II, 12, 13, 14 

Direct current, sources of VI, 195 
Direct drive VI, 363 

Disc clutch II, 11, 13; VI, 247 

Discharging battery 

IV, 60, 175, 178, 180, 228, 233 
Disco system III, 391 

Distance rods VI, 140, 221 

Distillate, carburetor for I, 277 

Distilled water IV, 176, 182; VI, 368 
Distributor III, 22, 23, 45, 51, 
114, 118, 119; IV, 329, 346, 

347, 348; V, 428 
Distributor disc IV, 335 

Distributor leakage III, 129 

Dixie car III, 80 

Dixie interrupter III, 44 

Dixie magneto III, 42 

Dodge car III, 80, 117, 118 

Dodge-North-East installa- 
tion IV, 22, 24, 29 
Dog clutch VI, 33, 134, 135, 137 
" Dolly " for handling truck 

wheels II, 285 

Dorris car I, 172; II, 25; III, 80 
Dort car III, 80 

Dort-Westinghouse instal- 
lation IV, 144, 147 



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9 



Vol. Page 
Double-acting motor I, 12, 15 

Double carburetors I, 253 

Double-chain drive II, 223 

Double-deck Remy system IV, 60 
Dpuble-drop frame II, 157 

Double-nozzle carburetor I, 251 

Double-opposed motor I, 18 

Double reduction live axle, 

truck VI, 146 

Double shackle II, 188 

Double-spark ignition III, 27, 54 

Double-spoke wheel II, 281 

Double-tube tires II, 285 

Douglas motorcycle V, 253 

Down stroke of two-cycle 

motor I, 17, 155 

Dual carburetor I, 253, 275 

Duesenberg aviation motor 

I, 106, 279 
Drag link II, 120 

Drain cock VI, 358 

Draw filing V, 124 

Drill presses V, 143, 180, 221 

Drill sizes for standard 

threads V, 148 

Drilling 

V, 144, 164, 173, 179, 181, 188 
Drive V, 257; VI, 132, 137, 172 

balanced drive VI, 100 

chain drive II, 223, 252; III, 

280; V, 231, 258; VI, 91, 94, 173 
Couple-Gear 

II, 136; VI, 98, 107, 150, 157 

electric II, 38, 56, 135; VI, 150, 155 

shaft and chain drive VI, 96 

shaft drive II, 220; VI, 92 

unit-wheel drives VI, 97 

worm gear VI, 94, 138, 141, 176 

Drive-pinion bearings VI, 289 

Drive plate VI, 370 

Drive shaft, removing from 

housing VI, 288 

Driving fit V, 189, 190 

Driving shaft II, 215, 220 

Driving wheels, small VI, 28 

Drop-forged axle II, 144; VI, 4 
Drop-forged connecting rod VI, 243 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Drop-forged crankshaft VI, 243 

Dropped rear axle II, 230 

Drum assembly ' VI, 267 

Drum controller VI, 181 

Dry cell II, 403; III, 16; V, 262 

Dry-crankcase lubrication V, 400 
Dry-disc clutches II, 17, 70 

Dry-plate clutch VI, 20 

Dry storage of batteries IV, 218 

Dual ignition system III, 48, 75 

Dual magnetos IV, 331, 339, 346, 349 
Dual type timer III, 119 

Dummy brake drum II, 262 

Dummy valve seat V, 281 

Dunlop tire II, 285 

Duplex control VI, 187 

Duplex ignition system III, 53 

Duplex system IV, 344 

Duplex vibrator IV, 344 

Dynamo (see Generator) 
Dynamo-electric machines II, 397 
Dynamometer I, 127 

Dynamotor (see also Gen- 
erator and Start- 
ing motor) 11,401; III, 
206, 319, 391; IV, 22, 77, 87, 

95, 111, 135 
Dyneto system (see also 
Index, Vol. Ill) 

III, 206, 391 



E 



Eagle horizontal motor V, 437, 438 
Eddy currents II, 389; VI, 315 

Edge weld V, 59, 60 

Edison battery III, 17; IV, 22, 182 
Edison cell VI, 209, 212, 213, 231 

Efficiency 

I, 15, 69, 126; IV, 179; VI, 89 
Eight-cylinder lifters IV, 323 

Eight-cylinder motors I, 41, 101, 

157, 217, 253, 350, 388; III, 45 
Eighteen-cylinder motors I, 110 

Eisemann ignition 

III, 36, 69; IV, 331 
Eisemann impulse starter V, 434 



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10 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Electric automobiles (see 
Electric commer- 
cial vehicles and 
Electric pleasure 
cars) 
Electric brakes II, 251, 259 

Electric car springs II, 185 

Electric circuit (see also In- 
dex, Vol. II) II, 353 
Electric clutch II, 24 
Electric commercial vehicles VI, 87 

advantages VI, 88 

ampere-hour meter VI, 103 

baggage trucks VI, 109 

Baker delivery wagon VI, 103 

Baker trucks VI, 92 

balanced drive, delivery 

wagon VI, 100 

battery equipment, de- 
livery wagon VI, 102 

brakes, delivery wagon VI, 107 

capacity of battery, de- 
livery wagon VI, 102 

care of VI, 88 

chain drive, delivery 

wagon VI, 91, 94 

circuit-breaker, delivery 

wagon VI, 105, 106 

combination drive VI, 94 

Commercial delivery 

wagon VI, 94, 95, 103 

Commercial truck VI, 97, 98 

compensating gear VI, 91 

continuous-torque con- 
troller VI, 114 

controller on delivery 

wagons VI, 102 

countershaft VI, 91 

Couple-Gear drive VI, 98, 99, 107 

current control, delivery 

wagon VI, 102 

cutout switch, delivery 

wagon VI, 105 

delivery wagon VI, 89 

differential gear VI, 91 

drive 
balanced drive VI, 100 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Electric commercial vehicles 
(continued) 
drive 

chain drive VI, 91 
Couple-Gear VI, 98 
shaft drive VI, 92 
shaft and chain drive VI, 96 
unit- wheel drives VI, 97 
worm gear VI, 94 
efficiency VI, 89 
emergency-brake lock VI, 106 
freight truck VI, 109 
G.E. motor VI, 212, 214 
G.M.C. delivery wagon VI, 103 
G.M.C. electric wagon VI, 95, 96 
G.V. delivery wagon VI, 93, 94, 104 
G.V. electric truck VI, 111 
G.V. industrial truck VI, 109 
G.V. tractor VI, 107 
industrial truck VI, 109 
mileage, trucks VI, 111 
motor VI, 91 
motor suspension, deliv- 
ery wagon VI, 91 
overcharging battery VI, 106 
pneumatic tires VI, 107 
rear axle VI, 92 
safety devices, delivery 

wagon VI, 105 
shaft and chain drive, 

delivery wagon VI, 96 
shaft drive, delivery 

wagon VI, 92 

side-chain drive VI, 94 

silent chain VI, 91 

solid tires VI, 107 
speed of motors, delivery 

wagon VI, 91 
speed reduction (see 

Drive and Trans- 
mission) 
tires, delivery wagon VI, 107 
tractors VI, 107 
trucks VI, 111 
underslung battery VI, 102 
unit-wheel drives, deliv- 
ery wagon VI, 97 



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11 



Vol. Page 
Electric commercial vehicles 
(continued) 
Urban delivery wagon VI, 103 
useful load capacity VI, 90 

voltage required, deliv- 
ery wagon VI, 102 
Walker electric wheel 

drive VI, 100, 101 

Waverly truck VI, 96, 97 

worm gear drive, delivery 

wagon VI, 94 

Electric current (see Cur- 
rent) 
Electric drive 

II, 38, 56, 135; VI, 150, 155 

Electric furnace V, 164 

Electric gear-shift IV, 286 

Electric pleasure cars VI, 165 

accumulator VI, 165 

alternating current, 

sources of VI, 196 

ampere-hour meter VI, 229 

annular ball bearings VI, 176 

anodes of mercury arc 

rectifier VI, 198 

arcing VI, 222 

armature of motor VI, 166, 168, 223 
axles, non-alignment of VI, 220 
Baker controller VI, 184 

battery, charging (see 
charging battery) 
battery connections VI, 224 

bearings, dry VI, 221 

brushes of motor VI, 168, 222 

care of VI, 195, 218 

cathode of mercury arc 

rectifier VI, 198 

Century magnetic con- 
troller VI, 184 
chain drive VI, 173 
chains, worn VI, 220 
charging battery VI, 195, 199 
approximate-constant- 
potential boosting VI, 216 
automatic charge-stop- 
ping device VI, 204 
auxiliary charging VI, 213 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Electric pleasure cars (con- 
tinued) 
charging battery 
Baum6 scale VI, 208 

boosting VI, 213 

boosting formula . VI, 216 

charge-stopping device VI, 204 
charging rate VI, 202 

charging rheostat VI, 203 

connections, proper VI, 199 

constant-current boost- 
ing VI, 216 
constant- p o t e n t i a 1 

boosting VI, 215 

Edison cell VI, 209, 212, 213 

electrolyte VI, 207, 209 

fire hazard of battery 

VI, 200, 203 
formula for constant- 
current boosting VI, 216 
gassing of battery VI, 200, 203 
hydrometer readings VI, 207 
low cells VI, 208 

mercury-arc rectifier VI, 212 
overcharging, dangers of VI, 210 
" pounding" a battery VI, 211 
Sangamo ampere-hour 

meter VI, 205 

service mains VI, 212 

short-circuits, battery VI, 202 
starting charge VI, 204 

temperature of battery 

VI, 201, 218 
temperature correction 
for specific gravity 
of electrolyte VI, 206 

testing charge VI, 200, 204, 206 
time required VI, 211 

voltage VI, 200, 204 

commutator of motor VI, 168, 222 
compound-wound motor VI, 170 
connections VI, 222, 224 

continuous torque con- 
troller VI, 181 
control VI, 180 
controllers VI, 181, 187 
critical speed VI, 170 



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12 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Electric pleasure cars (con- 
tinued) 
direct current, sources of VI, 195 
distance rods, adjustment 

of VI, 221 

drive VI, 172 

drum controller VI, 181 

duplex control VI, 187 

Edison cell VI, 231 

electromagnets VI, 167 

field of motor VI, 166 

final drive VI, 173 

flat radial controller VI, 182 

flush type controller VI, 183, 184 
full floating axle VI, 174 

fuses VI, 194 

G.E. volt-ammeter VI, 229 

gas-electric lighting plant VI, 195 
gassing VI, 200, 233, 216 

gear drive * VI, 174 

gear reduction VI, 172 

grounds VI, 168 

indicating instruments VI, 229 
inflation of tires VI, 228 

loose connections VI, 222, 224 

lubrication of bearings VI, 221 
magnetic controller VI, 184 

mercury arc rectifier VI, 197 

mileage • VI, 224 

motor VI, 166, 171 

motor generator VI, 197 

multiple connections VI, 188 

non-alignment of axles VI, 220 
non-alignment of wheels VI, 219 
non-skid tires VI, 225 

Ohio magnetic controller 

VI, 184, 186, 187 
operation of VI, 195 

overloads, capacity of 

motor for VI, 169 

pneumatic tires VI, 225 

polarity of charging ter- 
minals VI, 200 
power losses VI, 218, 224 
radius rods, adjustment of VI, 221 
Rauch and Lang car 

VI, 177-180, 182 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Electric pleasure cars (con- 
tinued) 
Raulang electric coach VI, 164 
rectifying alternating cur- 
rent VI, 197 
resistance in circuit VI, 190 
rheostat VI, 190 
sanding-in brushes VI, 223 
Sangamo ampere - hour 

meter VI, 230 
series connections VI, 188 
series - multiple connec- 
tions VI, 189 
series-wound motor VI, 170, 192 
service mains, charging 

current from VI, 196 
short-circuits VI, 168 
shunt VI, 192 
shunt-wound motor VI, 170 
solid tires VI, 226 
specific gravity of electro- 
lyte, temperature 
correction for VI, 206 
speed of motor VI, 171 
speed reduction VI, 172 
steering gear, poor ad- 
justment VI, 220 
storage battery VI, 165 
tables 

approximate-constant- 
potential boosting 

rates VI, 216 
boosting rates VI, 213, 215-217 
charging voltage for 

lead batteries VI, 201 
constant-current boost- 
ing rates VI, 217 
Edison cell data VI, 212, 213 
temperature correction 
for specific gravity 
of electrolyte VI, 206 
taper roller bearings VI, 176 
temperature of battery VI, 201 
tires VI, 224 
transmission VI, 172 
volt-ammeter VI, 193, 229 
wheels, non-alignment of VI, 219 



438 



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INDEX 



13 



Vol. Page 
Electric pleasure cars (con- 
tinued) 
wiring diagram VI, 191 

worm drive VI, 176 

Electric principles 

II, 352, 404; VI, 309 
Electric starting and light- 
ing (see Starting 
and lighting) 
Electric Storage Battery 
Company lead- 
burning outfits IV, 211, 213 
Electric thermostat IV, 51 

Electric transmission 

II, 38, 56, 135; VI, 150, 155 
Electric welding V, 21 

Electrical equipment II, 351; 

III, 11; IV, 11; V, 262; VI, 309 
Ford car VI, 309 

ignition (see Ignition) 
repairs (see Trouble 

shooting) 
starting and lighting 

III, 205; IV, 11 
storage batteries (see 
Storage' batteries) 
Electrical lag IV, 345 

Electrical troubles V, 288 

Electrically operated gears II, 51 
Electrically operated 

switches III, 237 

Electrine I, 115 

Electrode of spark plug III, 26 

Electrolyte IV, 175, 186, 188; 

V, 270; VI, 207, 209 
Electromagnet II, 372; VI, 167, 312 
Electromagnetic switch IV, 151 

Electromotive force II, 357 

Elgin-Delco system III, 333 

Elgin- Wagner installation IV, 117, 118 
Elkhart car III, 80 

Elkhart-Delco installation III, 334 
Elliott front axle II, 137, 138, 146 
Elliott reversed front axle 

II, 137, 138, 146 
Emergency brake VI, 250, 363 

Emergency-brake lock VI, 106 

No'e. — For jpage numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Emerson-Brantigham trac- 
tor VI, 16, 17, 37 
Emery paste V, 143 
Emery wheel V, 221 
Empire car III, 80 
En bloc cylinders I, 167, 169 
End thrust in rear-axle as- 
sembly VI, 287 
Enger car III, 80 
Engine (see Motor) 
Engine governors VI, 11, 81, 128 
Engine stands V, 218 
English Standard thread V, 148 
Ensign I, 336, 337 
Entz electric drive II, 57 
Epicyclic gear II, 38, 54; V, 260 
Equalizing charge 

IV, 190, 194, 207, 221 
Erie car III, 81 

Essex carburetor I, 271 

Evaporation points V, 369 

Excelsior motorcycle 

V, 248, 254, 256, 257, 264, 268 
Excelsior twin motor I, 22 

Exhaust cam I, 378 

Exhaust-gas jacket I, 344 

Exhaust lap V, 307 

Exhaust manifold 

I, 149, 424; VI, 255 
Exhaust pipe I, 78 

Exhaust-pressure feed I, 357 

Exhaust stroke I, 15, 69, 77, 155; 

V, 245, 246, 354; VI, 341 
Exhaust system I, 149, 423, 486 

Exhaust temperature I, 150 

Exhaust in two-cycle motor I, 83 
Exhaust valves I, 78, 149, 380; 

V, 249; VI, 261, 372 
Expanding-band clutch VI, 18, 21 
Expansion (see Oxy-acety- 
lene welding, In- 
dex, Vol. V) 
Expansion line I, 69, 77, 83 

Expansion reamer V, 152 

Explosion line I, 74, 83 

Explosion motors 

I, 11; V, 244; VI, 244, 246 



439 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



14 



INDEX 





Vol. Page 




Vol. Page 


Explosion pressure 


I, 


76 


Firing order and ignition advance 




Explosion stroke 


I, 


69 


(continued) 






Explosion temperature 


I, 


150 


Chad wick 


III, 


78 


Explosive mixture 






Chalmers 


III, 


78 


I, 74, 110, 


112, 119, 


341 


Chandler 


HI, 


79 


External-combustion en- 




Chevrolet 


III, 


79 


gines V, 


244; VI, 


244 


Chicago 


HI, 


79 


External lubrication 


I, 448, 


461 


Coey 


HI, 


79 


External regulation 


III, 215; 




Cole 


HI, 


79 


IV, 89, 96, 98, 


, 102, 141, 


,145 


De Dion 


HI, 


79 


External thread 


v, 


148 


Dixie 


III, 


80 








Dodge 


III, 


80 


F 






Dorris 


III, 


80 


F.R.P. car 


III, 


81 


Dort 


III, 


80 


Fahrenheit scale 


v, 


295 


Elkhart 


HI, 


80 


Fan I, 441, 444, 


445; VI, 


126 


Empire 


III, 


80 


Fan motors 


1,89, 


109 


Enger 


HI, 


80 


Farquhar tractor 


v, 


343 


Erie 


HI, 


81 


Female clutch member 


II, 


12 


Fiat 


III, 


81 


Fergus car I, 


464; II, 


162 


Ford 


III, 


81 


Fiat I, : 


106; III, 


81 


Franklin 


III, 


81 


Field II, 373; III, 


281, 382; 




F. R. P. 


III, 


81 


IV, 16 


; VI, 166, 


350 


Glide 


III, 


81 


Field magnets 


II, 


390 


Grant 


III, 


81 


Field testing 


VI, 


344 


Hollier 


III, 


81 


Fifth-wheel front axle 


II, 


137 


Homer-Laughlin 


III, 


82 


Filing V, 


119, 136, 


157 


Hudson 


HI, 


82 


Final drive (see also Index, 




Hupp 


III, 


83 


Vol. II) 






Interstate 


III, 


83 


II, 215; VI, 37, 137, 


173 


Jackson 


III, 


83 


Final gear reduction 


II, 


215 


Jeffery 


III, 


83 


Fire hazard of battery 


VI, 200, 


203 


King 


HI, 


84 


Fire prevention 


IV, 


136 


Kisselkar 


HI, 


84 


Fire-tube boilers 


v, 


317 


Kline 


III, 


84 


Firing order and ignition advance 




Lexington-Howard 


III, 


84 


I, 34; III, 73; V, 


428 


Liberty 


III, 


84 


Allen 


III, 


77 


Locomobile 


III, 


84 


Apperson 


III, 


77 


McFarlan 


HI, 


85 


Auburn 


III, 


77 


Madison 


III, 


85 


Austin 


III, 


78 


Marion-Handley 


HI, 


85 


Biddle 


III, 


78 


Marmon 


III, 


85 


Bour-Davis 


III, 


78 


Maxwell 


HI, 


86 


Brewster 


III, 


78 


Mercer 


III, 


86 


Briscoe 


III, 


78 


Militaire 


III, 


86 


Buick 


III, 


78 


Mitchell 


HI, 


86 


Cadillac 


III, 


78 


Moline 


HI, 


86 


Case 


III, 


78 


Monroe 


HI, 


86 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



440 



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INDEX 



15 



Vol. Page 
Firing order and ignition advance 
(continued) 
Moon III, 86 
Murray III, 86 
National III, 86 
Oakland III, 87 
Oldsmobile III, 87 
Packard III, 87 
Paige-Detroit III, 87 
Pathfinder III, 88 
Patterson III, 88 
Peerless III, 88 
Pierce- Arrow III, 88 
Pilot III, 89 
Premier III, 89 
Princess III, 89 
Pullman III, 89 
Regal III, 89 
Reo III, 90 
Ross III, 90 
Saxon III, 90 
Scripps-Booth III, 90 
Simplex III, 90 
Singer III, 90 
Spaulding III, 90 
Sphinx III, 90 
Standard III, 91 
Stearns III, 91 
Studebaker III, 91 
Stutz III, 91 
Sun III, 91 
Thomas III, 91 
Trumbull III, 91 
Velie III, 92 
Westcott III, 92 
Willys-Overland III, 92 
Winton III, 92 
Firing position, finding I, 176 
Firing stroke VI, 240, 241 
Firing up steam automobile V, 330 
Five-cylinder motors I, 91 
Fixed-pitch method of de- 
signing gears V, 169, 170 
Fixed-spark ignition sys- 
tems III, 68 
Fixed-timing-point ignition 

systems III, 68 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Flame (see Oxy-acetylene 
welding, Index, 
Vol. V) 
Flame, speed of propaga- 
tion I, 119; IV, 345 
Flame travel IV, 345 
Flame welding processes V, 11 
Flange weld V, 59, 60, 79 
Flashing point I, 112, 115 
Flat radial controller VI, 182 
Flexible frame II, 161 
Flexible joints II, 216, 217, 218, 219 
Flexible mounting II, 156 
Float I, 242, 247, 263, 339, 346; 

VI, 300 
Float-feed carburetor I, 243 

Floating discs II, 20 

Fidating-ring clutch VI, 116 

Flooding of carburetor V, 278 

Flush type controller VI, 183, 184 
Flux (see also Oxy-acety- 
lene welding, In- 
dex, Vol. V) 
Fly-ball governor VI, 12 

Flywheel I, 151, 480, 492; 

V, 243, 248, 249; VI, 244 
Flywheel drive III, 234 

Flywheel-gear starter in- 
stallations III, 229, 233, 237 
Flywheel markings I, 391 

Folding steering wheels II, 119 

Foot brake VI, 249 

Foot-operated switches III, 237 

Foot-pound V, 299 

Force, definition V, 298 

Force-feed splash system V, 398 

Forced circulation of water V, 404 
Forced fit V, 189, 190 

Forced induction I, 243 

Forced lubrication I, 464 

Ford construction and re- 
pair VI, 233 
admission stroke VI, 241 
alignment of front wheels 

VI, 273, 371 
armature of generator VI, 335, 341 
assembling motor VI, 263 



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Vol. Page 
Ford construction and re- 
pair (continued) 
axles 

II, 249; VI, 235, 237, 248, 271, 284 
back fire in intake mani- 
fold VI, 299 
bearings VI, 276, 278, 284 
Bendix-drive trouble VI, 353 
brake lining VI, 369 
brake pedal VI, 363 
brakes VI, 249 
brushes VI, 340, 350 
bulbs VI, 353 
bushings VI, 283, 369 
camshaft VI, 242 
carbon formation VI, 297 
carburetion system 

I, 265, 279, 299, 308; VI, 237, 298 
center bolts of springs VI, 283 
charging magnets IV, 308; VI, 380 
charging system VI, 366 

cleaning car VI, 252 

clutch II, 32; VI, 247, 270, 370, 371 
clutch-disc assembly VI, 267, 269 
clutch pedal VI, 363 

commutator testing VI, 341 

compression stroke VI, 241 

condenser VI, 315 

connecting rod VI, 243, 256 

control levers VI, 359- 

cooling system 

VI, 238, 357, 365, 368 
crankcase I, 228; VI, 256 

crankshaft VI, 243 

cutout VI, 328 

cycle of motor VI, 239 

cylinder oil film VI, 298 

dash coils, testing VI, 321 

differential VI, 248 

differential gears VI, 287 

drive-pinion bearings VI, 289 

drive plate VI, 370 

drive shaft, removing 

from housing VI, 288 

drum assembly VI, 267 

electrical system 

IV, 152, 158; VI, 309 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Ford construction and re- 
pair (continued) 
engine (see motor) 
exhaust stroke VI, 241 

field testing VI, 344 

fields of starter VI, 350 

final drive II, 222 

firing stroke VI, 240, 241 

flywheel VI, 244 

four-cycle motor VI, 239 

frame VI, 235 

front axle VI, 235, 271 

front hubs, equipping 
with Timken bear- 
ings VI, 278 
front wheels, alignment 

of VI, 371 

gasoline line, care of VI, 301 

gasoline supply VI, 358 

gear unit VI, 370 

generators VI, 322 

grinding valves VI, 259 

grounds VI, 339, 345, 347, 352 

hand lever VI, 363 

heavy fuels, setting car- 
buretor for VI, 303 
horn VI, 357 
hot-air pipe VI, 302 
ignition current, path of VI, 319 
ignition system III, 54, 56, 

57, 134, 187; VI, 237, 312 
induction coils VI, 312 

inlet valves VI, 261 

insulation VI, 311, 341 

intake manifold, back 

fire in VI, 299 

intake stroke VI, 241 

knocks in motor, trouble 

shooting VI, 303 

L-head motor VI, 241 

lighting and ignition 

switches VI, 354 

lighting system VI, 353 

lubrication system VI, 238, 291 

magnetism VI, 311 

magneto III, 54, 134; IV, 307; 

VI, 244, 316, 372 



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17 



Vol. Page 



Ford construction and re- 






pair (continued) 






magnetometer 


III 


134 


magnets 


VI 


244 


charging in car IV, 308 


;VI 


38D 


charging out of car 


IV 


310 


charging on flywheel 


IV 


310 


main bearings, adjusting 


VI 


.258 


motor 


I 


171 


fails to start 


VI 


372 


knocks in 


VI 


303 


lacks power 


VI 


374 


operation of 


VI 


239 


overhauling 


VI 


255 


overheats 


VI 


376 


preparing to run 


VI 


266 


runs irregularly 


VI 


374 


starting 


VI 


359 


stopping 


VI 


364 


stops suddenly 


VI 


376 


oil 






circulation of 


VI 


295 


correct level of 


VI 


293 


draining 


VI 


254 


supply 


VI 


359 


viscosity of 


VI 


297 


oil reservoir 


VI 


293 


oil troughs VI, 29 


3,296 


open circuit VI, 343, 34 


4,353 


operation of car 


VI 


357 


charging system 


VI 


366 


control levers 


VI 


359 


cooling system 


VI 


365 


preliminary inspections 


VI 


, 357 


speed control 


VI 


, 363 


starting the motor 


VI 


, 359 


overhauling the car 


VI 


, 252 


cleaning car 


VI 


, 252 


draining oil 


VI 


, 254 


identification of parts 


VI 


, 253 


overhauling front-axle 






system 


VI 


, 271 


overhauling motor 


VI 


, 255 


overhauling rear-axle 






assembly 


VI 


, 284 


overhauling transmis- 






sion 


VI 


, 266 



Vol. Page 
Ford construction and re- 
pair (continued) 
overhauling the car 

removing radiator VI, 253 

pinion gear VI, 288 

piston VI, 242 

piston slap VI, 258 

planetary gear II, 55; VI, 246, 252 
power plant VI, 237 

power stroke VI, 240, 241 

radiator, removing VI, 253 

radius-rod ball socket VI, 276 

rear axle I, 475; VI, 237, 248, 284 
rear axle gears VI, 370 

rebushing VI, 369 

recharging magnets 

IV, 308; VI, 380 
regulation of generator VI, 325 
reversal of generator VI, 336, 347 
reverse drum clearance VI, 369 
reverse-speed pedal VI, 363 

ring gear VI, 288 

shackles VI, 283 

short-circuit VI, 339, 343, 346, 352 
shunt-wound generator VI, 327 
slant of front axle VI, 273, 371 

spark coil adjustments VI, 265 
spark lever VI, 364 

spark plugs VI, 264, 321 

sparking at brushes VI, 340 

speed control VI, 363 

spray nozzle, care of VI, 301 

spring clips, tightening VI, 283 
springs II, 184; VI, 239, 283, 341 
starting and generating 

system VI, 322 

starting motor VI, 348 

starting switch VI, 353 

steering mechanism 

II, 111; VI, 239, 251, 252 
storage battery, care of VI, 367 
suction stroke VI, 241 

switches VI, 354 

tables 
anti-freezing solutions VI, 366 
battery, state of charge 

of VI, 368 



Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Ford construction and re- 
pair (continued) 
tables 
current consumption of 

Ford starter VI, 350 

magneto output VI, 372 

output of early Ford 
magneto at vari- 
ous speeds VI, 317 
testing generator VI, 341 
third brush VI, 325 
throttle VI, 302, 365 
thrust rings, wear of VI, 287 
timer VI, 265, 318 
timer wires VI, 322 
timing gears VI, 242, 370 
Timken bearings, equip- 
ping front hub3 
with VI, 278 
transmission VI, 244, 246, 266 
transmission lining VI, 369 
transmission repairs VI, 266, 369 
triple gear assembly VI, 369 
trouble shooting VI, 303, 372 
valve timing VI, 372 
valves VI, 241, 372 
adjusting VI, 262 
grinding VI, 259 
inlet valves VI, 261 
removing VI, 256 
vibrator VI, 314 
viscosity of oils VI, 297 
wiring diagrams VI, 336 
wiring of motor VI, 265 
working stroke VI, 240, 241 
Ford-Gray and Davis start- 
ing and lighting 
system IV, 158 
Ford - Heinze - Springfield 

installation III, 424 

Ford-North-East installa- 
tion IV, 26 
Fordson tractor 

V, 362, 385, 388, 392, 403 
Forged axles II, 144 

Forges V, 11, 163 

Forgings, welding V, 67 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 

Form-wound armature II, 389 

Formed plates IV, 175, 177 

Formulas 

A.L.A.M. (S.A.E.) I, 132, 142 

brake horsepower I, 126, 128 

cables, size of III, 95 

constant-current boosting VI, 216 

Dendy-Marshall I, 133 

electric dynamometer I, 128 

finding specific gravity 

from degrees Baume* I, 111 
gasoline I, 121 

horsepower 

I, 123, 132, 143; II, 357 
indicated horsepower I, 124, 127 
mechanical efficiency I, 126 

Ohm's law II, 355 

power formula II, 357 

pressure ratio . I, 76 

Prony brake I, 126 

R.A.C. I, 132, 142 

racing-boat I, 133 

relation between pressure 

and volume of air I, 68 

Roberts I, 133, 134 

S.A.E. I, 132, 142 

two-cycle I, 127, 134 

White and Poppe I, 133 

Four-cycle diagram I, 83 

Four-cycle motor I, 13, 14, 25, 

48, 155; V, 244, 248, 249, 352; 

VI, 239 
compared with two-cycle 

I, 86, 134 
Four-cylinder crankshaft 

I, 215, 216 
Four-cylinder motors I, 38, 40, 

101, 157; V, 231, 237, 240, 251 
carburetors I, 349 

valve timing I, 391, 392 

Four-Drive tractor VI, 31 

Four-speed gear boxes II, 41 

Four-terminal starter-gen- 
erator IV, 28 
Four valves per cylinder I, 243, 385 
Four-wheel brake VI, 160 



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19 



Vol. Page 
Four-wheel driving, steer- 
ing, and braking 

II, 128; VI, 152 
Four-wheel tractors 

V, 343, 344, 375, 376 
Four-wheel trailers VI, 162 

Fourteen-cylinder motors I, 96 

Fourth - connecting - rod 

wrench VI, 257 

Fractional distillates of pe- 
troleum I, HI, 121 
Frames (see also Index, Vol. 

II) II, 154, 155; V, 97; 

VI, 235 
Franklin car 

I, 19, 88, 150, 444; III, 81 
Franklin-Dyneto installa- 
tion 111,393,394 
Franklin governor IV, 334 
Fredericks on aviation " 

motor I, 90, 91 

Freight truck VI, 1,09 

Fresh-oil lubrication V, 401 

Friction clutch VI, 17 

Friction-disc transmission II, 127 
Friction drive VI, 23 

Front axles II, 137; VI, 235, 271 

Front drives VI, 150 

Front hubs, equipping with 

Timken bearings VI, 278 
Front main bearing VI, 259 

Front springs VI, 159 

Front-wheel drive II, 126 

Front wheels, alignment of VI, 371 
Fuel, kinds of I, 110; V, 313, 368 

Fuel automatic relief V, 321 

Fuel converter, Ensign I, 337 

Fuel feeding I, 356 

Fuel gages I, 361 

Fuel injection I, 242 

Fuel knock I, 120 

Fuel pump I, 358 

Fuel spray I, 248 

Fuel system I, 356; V, 205, 211, 

213, 319, 367; VI, 358 
Fuelizer, Packard I, 318 

Full-elliptic springs II, 174, 176 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Full floating axle 

II, 228, 229, 233; VI, 174 
Fuses II, 369; III, 238, 260, 316; 

V, 269; VI, 194 
Leece-Neville system IV, 13, 16 
North East system IV, 22 

Remy system IV, 56 

summary of instructions IV, 271 
U.S.L. system IV, 97, 107 

Fusible plug V, 318, 332 

G 

G.E. motor VI, 212, 214 

G.E. volt-ammeter VI, 229 

G.M.C. delivery wagon* VI, 103 

G.M.C. electric wagon VI, 95, 96 

G.R.C. wheel II, 275 

G.V. delivery wagon VI, 93, 94, 104 
G.V. electric truck VI, 111 

G.V. industrial truck VI, 109 

G.V. tractor VI, 107 

Gage pressures I, 66 

Gap, spark-plug VI, 265 

Garage, public (see also In- 
dex, Vol. V) V, 197 
Garford internal gear drive VI, 147 
Gas-electric transmission VI, 155 
Gas-electric trucks VI, 99 
Gas forge V, 163 
Gas furnace V, 164 
Gas friction I, 78, 83 
Gas generator I, 334 
Gas oil I, 111 
Gas speeds I, 90, 384 
Gasses, laws of V, 296 
Gasket punch IV, 376 
Gasoline I, 12, 110, 111 
formula I, 121 
fuel knock I, 110, 120 
grade of I, 110, 111,258,347 
solid I, 116 
supply of I, 116, 117, 248, 298 
Gasoline commercial ve- 
hicles (see also 
Electric commer- 
cial vehicles and 
trucks) VI, 115 



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20 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Gasoline commercial ve- 
hicles (continued) 

air cooling, truck VI, 125 

Autocar delivery wagon VI, 115 

balance gear ^ VI, 149 
bevel-gear live axle, 

truck VI, 138 

brakes VI, 159 

carburetor, truck VI, 124 
centrifugal governor, 

truck VI, 128, 129 
clutch, truck VI, 132 
compensating gear VI, 149 
compensating spring sup- 
port VI, 159 
cone clutch, truck VI, 132 
cooling systems, truck VI, 125 
cotta transmission VI, 136 
Couple-Gear wheel VI, 150, 157 
David Brown worm gear VI, 144 
dead axle VI, 139 
delivery wagons VI, 115 
differential lock, truck VI, 149 
distance rods, truck VI, 140 
dog clutch, truck VI, 134, 135, 137 
double reduction live 

axle, truck VI, 146 
drive VI, 132, 137 

electric front drive VI, 150 

electric transmission VI, 155 

fans, truck VI, 126 

final drive, truck VI, 137 

floating-ring clutch VI, 116 

four-wheel brake VI, 160 
four-wheel drives, army 

truck VI, 152 

four-wheel trailers VI, 162 

front drive3 VI, 150 

front springs VI, 159 
Garford internal gear 

drive VI, 147 
gasoline-electric trans- 
mission VI, 155 
gear set, truck VI, 132 
gilled - tube radiators, 

truck VI, 125 

governors, truck VI, 128 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Gasoline commercial ve- 
hicles (continued) 
horsepower ratings VI, 122 

hourglass worm gear VI, 144 

hydraulic governor, truck 

VI, 129, 130 
ignition, truck VI, 124 

internal cone clutch, 

truck VI, 132 

internal-gear drive VI, 138, 146, 154 
Jeffery "Quad" VI, 153, 154, 160 
Jeffery rear axle VI, 148 

live axle, truck VI, 138, 146 

lubrication, truck VI, 127 

Mack transmission VI, 135 

Mack internal-gear driv- 
en axle, truck VI, 147 
Manhattan truck VI, 136 
Mercedes internal - gear 

drive VI, 147 

motor, truck VI, 121 

motor governors, truck VI, 128 
multiple - disc clutch, 

truck VI, 132 

oil VI, 127 

Packard truck VI, 141 

Peerless truck VI, 122, 124, 134 
Pierce governor VI, 129, 130 

Pierce- Arrow truck 

VI, 123, 124, 142, 143 
pumps, truck VI, 127 

radiator construction, 

truck VI, 125 

radius rods, truck VI, 140 

rear-wheel springs VI, 159 

Reo truck VI, 125, 126, 130, 160 
S.A.E. horsepower for- 
mula % VI, 122 
semi-elliptic springs on 

trucks VI, 158 

shackles VI, 159 

side-chain drive, truck VI, 138 
silent-chain transmission, 

truck VI, 137 

sliding-gear transmission, 

truck VI, 133 

springs VI, 158 



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21 



Vol. Page 
Gasoline commercial ve- 
hicles (continued) 
straight worm gear VI, 144 

stroke of motor VI, 121 

Timken brakes • VI, 160 

Timken mounting for 

worm gear VI, 144 

Timken side-chain drive VI, 139 
Torbensen internal-gear 

drive VI, 148 

torque rods, truck VI, 140 

trailers VI, 161 

transmission, truck VI, 132 

Troy trailer VI, 162 

trucks VI, 120 

two-wheel trailers VI, 161 

useful load VI, 115, 120, 158 

vehicle speed controller, 

truck VI, 129 

water cooling, truck - VI, 125 
White delivery wagon VI, 119 

White differential VI, 146 

White lubricating system VI, 128 
White motor VI, 123, 124 

White radiator mounting VI, 127 
White transmission VI, 133-135 
worm drive, truck VI, 138, 141 

worm-driven trucks, 

transmission VI, 136 

Gasoline drainage V, 211 

Gasoline line I, 347; VI, 301 

Gasoline pressure V, 332, 334 

Gasoline pump V, 336 

Gasoline-strainer trouble I, 339 

Gasoline tanks 

I, 347, 356, 360; V, 205, 213 
Gassing of battery 

VI, 191, 200, 203, 216 

" Gather " of front wheels VI, 278 

Gear II, 73 

cutting V, 168 

faces II, 78 

meshing III, 317 

pitch II, 78 

troubles I, 406; II, 78; IV, 119 

types II, 73 

Gear covers I, 229, 232 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Gear drive VI, 174 

Gear pullers II, 63; V, 176 

Gear pumps I, 437, 455, 456 

Gear-reduction (see Drive 
and Transmission) 
Gear release III, 274 

Gear sets 
automobile 

I, 33, 151; II, 38, 215; III, 226 
motorcycles V, 260 

trucks VI, 132 

Gear-shift IV, 286 

Gear unit VI, 370 

Gearless differential II, 239 

General Electric rectifier - IV, 223 
Generator (see also Dyna- 

motor) II, 384; III, 

102, 103, 250, 391; V, 15, 263, 264 
Auto-Lite system 

III, 267, 270, 271, 281 
Bijur system III, 284 

Bosch-Rushmore system 

III, 215, 309 
connections III, 215 

Delco system III, 345 

Dyneto system III, 392, 396 

Ford system 

IV, 152, 159, 171; VI, 322 
Gray and Davis system 

III, 398, 399, 400; IV, 159, 171 
Heinze-Springfield system III, 420 
inspection of IV, 16 

Leece-Neville system 

IV, 11, 13, 15, 16, 21 
regulation (see Regula- 
tion of generator) 
Remy system 

III, 103, 104, 204; IV, 47 
Simms-Huff system IV, 85 

Splitdorf system IV, 90 

summary of instructions IV, 243 
test chart III, 414 

tests of IV, 85 

troubles III, 425 

Wagner system IV, 121 

Westinghouse system 

III, 103, 105, 213; IV, 139 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Generator connections III, 215 

Generator terminal grounded VI, 347 
Generator test chart III, 414 

Generator test stand IV, 363 

Generator troubles III, 425; VI, 336 
Gilled-tube radiators, truck VI, 125 
Glare III, 245 

Glide car III, 81 

Globular worm gear II, 100 

Governors I, 51; IV, 334; V, 

357; VI, 11,81, 128 
Grabbing clutch II, 32 

Grant car III, 81 

Grant-Lee three-speed gear 

box II, 43 

Grant-Lee transmission in- 
terlock II, 53 
Grant-Remy installation IV, 45 
Grant- Wagner installation IV, 124 
Graphite as lubricant I, 465 
Graphite welding process V, 23 
Gravity feed I, 356, 361 
Gravity lubrication I, 460 
Gravity-return layout II, 323 
Gray and Davis starting 
and lighting sys- 
tem (see also In- 
dex, Vol. Ill) 

III, 212, 229, 236, 398 
Gray and Davis-Ford start- 
ing and lighting 
system IV, 158 

Grease I, 465, 466; V, 211 

Grease cups I, 462, 473 

Grids IV, 175 

Grinders V, 177, 221, 223 

Grinding compound V, 128; VI, 260 
Grinding operations 

I, 183, 390, 403; V, 272 
Grinding valves VI, 259 

Ground II, 365, 383; III, 113, 
126, 250, 259, 281, 359; IV, 
35, 85, 125, 136, 354; VI, 168, 

339, 345, 347, 352 
Ground-return circuit II, 361 

Growler armature tester IV, 353 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. 



H 



H A L=Remy installation 

IV, 49, 133 
H A L=Westinghouse in- 
stallation IV, 133 
Hack saws V, 182, 221 
Hackett car, gear box in II, 43 
Half-time shafts I, 376 
Hall double headlight III, 247 
Hall-Scott aviation motor I, 100, 104 
Hammering V, 19, 56, 69 
Hand grinding V, 177 
Hand lapping of cylinders V, 141 
Hand lever VI, 359, 363 
Hand tools V, 148, 163, 219 
Hand wheels, different 

forms of II, 116 

Hardening steel V, 166, 167 

Harley - Davidson motor- 
cycle 
V, 226, 238, 249, 254, 256, 261, 262 
" Harpoon' ' switch, Ward- 
Leonard III, 237 
Harris steam-cylinder oil V, 328 
Harroun-Remy installation IV, 50 
Hart-Parr tractor VI, 33, 344, 401 
Hartford brake II, 259 
Hartford shock absorber II, 195 
Hartford starter III, 234 
Haynes car 

I, 382; III, 118, 119, 233, 353 
Haynes-Leece-Neville sys- 
tem IV, 13, 14, 17 
Haynes-Remy installation IV, 46 
Haywood vulcanizer II, 317 
Headlight reflectors III, 244 
Headlights VI, 353 
Heat efficiency of motor V, 402 
Heat transformation V, 298 
Heat transmission V, 293 
Heat treatment of metals V, 165, 175 
Heat units of fuels 

I, 112, 114, 115, 117; V, 298 
Heating the charge 

I, 242, 245, 342, 351; V, 380 
Heating effect of current II, 368 

Heating of motor I, 446 



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23 



Vol. Page 
Heating system of garage V, 210 
Heavier fuels 

1, 113, 117, 241, 249, 253; VI, 303 
carburetors for I, 275, 277, 325 

hot-spot manifold I, 352 

Heavy-type transmissions VI, 26, 30 
Heider cooling system V, 405 

Heider tractor VI, 21, 23 

Heinze-Springfield starting 
and lighting sys- 
tem (see also In- 
dex, Vol. Ill) HI, 420 
Hele-Shaw clutch II, 21 
Helical gear differential II, 238 
Helicoidal worm gear II, 100 
Henderson motorcycle 

V, 239, 240, 251, 257, 258 
Herz automatic coupling III, 70 
Herz magneto HI, 70, 71 

Herz spark plug III, 29 

Heussler alloys II, 372 

High gear VI, 363, 365 

High-speed motors 

III, 120; V, 230, 253; VI, 27 
High-speed steel, hardening V, 167 
High - tension armatures, 
testing (see Arma- 
tures, testing) 
High-tension cables 

II, 361; III, 92, 97; VI, 265, 311 
High-tension coils, testing IV, 316 
High-tension currents 

V, 415; VI, 311 
High-tension ignition III, 11, 14, 

15, 22, 37, 137; V, 417, 424 
High-tension magnetos 

III, 33, 35, 39; IV, 312; V, 262 
High-tension spark plug III, 26 
Hindley worm gear II, 100 

Hinkley truck hot-spot 

manifold I, 353 

Hoadley four-wheel drive II, 131 
Hoists I, 162 

Holley carburetor I, 266, 272, 

325, 326; V, 388; VI, 301, 303 
Hollier car III, 81 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Hollier-Atwater-Kent in- 
stallation IV, 93 
Hollier-Splitdorf installa- 
tion IV, 93 
Holmes car I, 19, 88 
Holt motor V, 439, 441 
Holt tractor VI, 20, 22, 33, 38, 39 
Homer Laughlin car II, 126; III, 82 
Hoover shock absorber II, 196 
Horizontal carburetors 

I, 252, 265, 352 
Horizontal ignition, West- 

inghoiise IV, 329 

Horizontal motors I, 18; V, 437 

Horns III, 240; VI, 357 

Horsepower and rating cal- 
culations (see also 
Index, Vol. I) I, 123; 
II, 356; V, 230, 299; VI, 66, 122 
Hot-air pipe VI, 302 

Hot riveting V, 160 

Hot-spot manifold I, 352 

Hotchkiss drive II, 180, 227 . 

Hourglass worm gear VI, 144 

Housings II, 236 

Hoyt magnetometer III, 134 

Hoyt testing volt-ammeter III, 128 
Huber tractor VI, 36, 37 

Hudson car I, 271, 395; III, 82 
Hudson-Delco installation III, 354 
Hudson Super-Six engine III, 227 
Hunting of governor VI, 16 

Hupp car HI, 83 

Hupp-Bijur installation 

III, 291, 292, 300 
Hupp-Westinghouse instal- 
lation IV, 135, 137 
Hyatt roller bearings I, 476 
Hydraulic brakes II, 251, 260 
Hydraulic clutch II, 22 
Hydraulic governor VI, 129, 130 
Hydraulic shock absorbers II, 201 
Hydraulic transmission II, 56 
Hydrometer 

IV, 183, 200, 237; VI, 207, 367 



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INDEX 



Vol. Page 
I 
I-beam frame II, 156 

I-beam section of front axle II, 145 
I-head cylinder I, 167, 174 

Idling adjustment of car- 
buretors I, 258, 264, 307, 327 
Ignition (see also Index, 
Vol. Ill, and sep- 
arate Index of 
Wiring Diagrams, 
Vol. VI) I, 28, 31, 49, 
75, 149; III, 11; IV, 72, 321; 

V, 264, 273, 407; VI, 124 
Atwater-Kent system 

III, 106; IV, 321 
Bijur system III, 307 

Bosch system 

III, 48, 53, 75, 315; IV, 129, 339 
Connecticut system 

III, 109, 111; IV, 134, 144, 147 
Delco system II, 403; III, 102, 
115, 117, 122, 123, 299, 353, 

370; IV, 149 
Ford system III, 54, 56, 57, 

134, 187; VI, 237, 312 
Remy system 

III, 50, 52, 112, 302; IV, 242 

repairs IV, 321 

Ignition coils VI, 312, 321 

Ignition current 

amperage of VI, 314, 317 

path of - VI, 319 

voltage of VI, 311, 314, 316 

Ignition distributor and 

engine crankshaft III, 72 
Ignition and lighting switch VI, 354 
Ignition relay III, 119, 121 

Ignition switch III, 114 

Ignition switchboard IV, 368 

Ignition timing III, 59, 65, 71, 

73, 77; V, 421; VI, 364 
Ignition troubles, similarity 
to carburetor 
troubles VI, 299 

Illinois tractor VI, 18, 20 

Impeller I, 438 

Impulse starter IV, 338, 342; V, 432 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Incandescent lamps III, 242 

Independent regulation III, 215 

Indian motorcycle 

V, 255, 256, 258, 263, 264 
Indicated horsepower 

I, 83, 123, 124, 127 
Indicating battery cutout IV, 12 
Indicating instruments VI, 229 

Indicator I, 51; IV, 12, 55, 77, 97 

Indicator cards (see also In- 
dex; Vol. I) 
1, 51, 66, 70, 79, 83, 84; V, 306, 309 
Individual clutch II, 38 

Induction II, 377, 411; III, 32 

Induction coil III, 11, 20, 31, 

38, 60, 178, 190, 251, 253; IV, 
316; V, 264, 417; VI, 312, 321 
Inductor magneto III, 39; V, 424 
Industrial truck VI, 109 

Inflation of tires VI, 228 

Inherent regulation III, 213; 

IV, 96, 97, 98, 102, 103, 121 
Initial compression V, 353 

Inlet cam I, 378 

Inlet manifold (see Intake 

manifold) 
Inlet manifold of radiator VI, 253 
Inlet-pipe trouble I, 340 

Inlet valves and ports I, 78, 81, 
149, 380, 406; V, 244, 249; 

VI, 261, 372 
Inner tube II, 291, 327 

Inside casing forms II, 321 

Inside method of repairing 

blowout II, 332 

Inside and outside method 
of repairing blow- 
out II, 333 
Inspection 
of generator IV, 16 
of motor I, 338 
Installing new battery IV, 217 
Insulation II, 360, 377; III, 98; 

V, 410; VI, 311, 341 
Kerite III, 99 

Intake manifold 

I, 147, 242, 347; V, 279 



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25 



Vol. Page 
Intake manifold (continued) 
backfire in VI, 299, 301 

removing VI, 255 

Intake stroke I, 14, 66, 70, 155; 

V, 244, 245, 352; VI, 241 
Internal - combustion en- 
gines 

I, 11; V, 244; VI, 244, 246 
Internal cone clutch, truck VI, 132 
Internal cooling and scav- 
enging I, 444 
Internal-expanding brakes II, 251, 252 
Internal-gear drive 

II, 232; VI, 138, 146, 154 
Internal-gear driven axle VI, 146 
Internal lubrication I, 448 

Internal short-circuit 

IV, 176, 186, 187, 196, 197, 198 
Internal thread V, 148 

Interrupter III, 19, 44, 106, 108, 

109, 114, 120, 122, 174 
Interstate car III, 83 

Interstate-Remy installation IV, 53 
Inverted Lemoine front axle II, 141 
Iron, specific resistance II, 359 

Ironclad field magnets II, 396 

Isothermal compression I, 73 



K 



Vol. Page 



J-D spark plugs 


in, 


25 


J.H.S. shock absorber 


n, 


197 


Jack 


n, 


241 


Jackson car 


in, 


83 


Janney- Williams gear 


n, 


56 


Jarno taper 


v, 


156 



Jeffery car II, 131, 202; III, 83, 207 
Jeffery-Bijur system 

III, 257, 288, 290, 297, 298 
Jeffery "Quad" VI, 153, 154, 160 

Jeffery rear axle VI, 148 

Johnson carburetor I, 305 

Joints, types of V, 59, 64, 79 

Jordan-Bijur system III, 287 

Joule's law II, 368 

Jumper IV, 19 

Jupiter aviation motor I> 94, 95 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



K-W interrupter III, 41 

K-W magneto III, 39, 40, 42; V, 424 
K-W road smoother II, 196 

Keeper of magnet IV, 319, 321 

Kempshall tire tread II, 287 

Kerite insulation III, 99 

Kerosene I, 110, 111, 113 

carburetors for 

I, 325; V, 381, 384, 385 
fuel knock I, 121 

Keyseating, hand V, 156 

Kick-up frame II, 154, 157 

Kick starter V, 256 

Kilowatt-hour II, 357 

King car I, 377; II, 178; III, 76, 84 
King-Bijur installation III, 286 

King-Bugatti aviation 

motor I, 99, 279 

Kingston carburetor 

I, 265, 274; VI, 237, 301 
Kissel automobile III, 84 

Kissel starting and lighting 

system IV, 54 

Kissel-Delco installation III, 357 
Klaxon horn III, 240 

Kline car III, 84 

Knife switches III, 236 

Knight motor I, 157, 375, 378, 416 
Knocking I, 120, 159, 160, 446; 

V, 271; VI, 80, 303, 364 
Knox tractor II, 182, 260 

Krit - North - East instal- 
lation IV, 25, 26 



L-head cylinder 

I, 167, 172, 395; VI, 241 
LaFayette car I, 372; II, 70 

Lag of valve V, 364 

Laminated contact switch III, 237 
Lamp testing outfit 

III, 261, 360, 361, 363 
Lamps II, 369; III, 242, 402; IV, 222 
Lap weld V, 59, 64 

Lapping operations 

1, 183, 214, 225; V, 136, 141 



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26 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Late spark 1", 81; III, 60, 71; VI, 365 
Latent heat V, 300 

Lathe V, 183, 220, 223 

Laughlin joint II, 127 

Lead burning IV, 211; V, 91 

Lead-plate storage battery 

IV, 22, 174 
Lead sulphate IV, 178 

Lead of valve V, 308, 364 

Lean mixture I, 119, 346, 347 

Leece-Neville starting and 

lighting system 

(see also Index, 

Vol. IV) 

III, 233; IV, 13, 14, 17 
Lemoine front axle II, 137, 138, 140 
Lens-type reflector III, 244 

Lever control V, 276 

Lever-operated braking sys- 
tem II, 256 
Lexington-Howard car III, 84 
Lexington - Westinghouse 

installation IV, 134 

Leyland steam truck V, 293 

Liberty car III, 84 

Liberty-Delco installation III, 358 
Liberty fuel I, 117 

Liberty motor I, 103, 104, 106 

Lighting 
of cars 

III, 242; IV, 72, 279; VI, 353 
of garages V, 207 

Lighting and ignition 

switches VI, 354 

Lighting switches III, 234, 407 

Limiting relay IV, 22 

Lines of force II, 375 

Linkages V, 311 

Litharge IV, 175 

Live axle VI, 37, 138, 146 

Local wedge demountable 

rim II, 298 

Locomobile brake drum II, 259 

Locomobile car III, 84, 229 

Locomobile clutch II, 20 

Locomobile connecting rods I, 203 
Locomobile cylinder I, 167, 168 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Locomobile lubrication I, 463 

Locomobile pistons I, 191 

Locomobile springs II, 185 

Locomobile transmission II, 45 

Locomobile valves # I, 19, 382 

Locomobile - Westinghouse 

installation IV, 132 

Loose connections 

IV, 15, 16, 60; VI, 222, 224 
Low cells IV, 188; VI, 208 

Low gear VI, 25, 364, 365 

Low-speed drum VI, 267, 269 

Low-speed motor VI, 27 

Low-tension currents V, 415 

Low-tension ignition sys- 
tem 
III, 11, 13, 20, 135; V, 416, 420 
Low-tension magneto III, 33 

Low-tension wires, insulat- 
ing VI, 311 
Low-water automatic valve V, 326 
Lubrication (see also Index, 

Vol. I) I, 150, 448; VI, 
43, 127, 221, 238, 291, 349 
brakes II, 259 

clutches II, 18, 27 

drills V, 147, 182 

Ford VI, 238, 291 

general I, 464; VI, 291 

motor I, 448; VI, 291 

motorcycles V, 249, 254, 274, 288 
rear axles II, 241 

springs II, 189, 190 

steam automobiles 

V, 313, 332, 334 
steering-gear assembly II, 126 

tractors V, 391 

transmissions II, 53, 72 

M 



M&S differential 


II, 


238 


McFarlan car 


III, 


85 


McLaughlin - Remy in- 




stallation 


IV, 


63 


Machine processes 


v, 


173 


Machine tools 


V, 


220 


Mack transmission 


VI, 


135 



452 



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INDEX 



27 



Vol. Page 
Madison car III, 85 

Magnet 
charging III, 132; IV, 321 

Ford magneto III, 54, 134; 

IV, 307, 308; VI, 244, 316, 372 

keeper IV, 319, 321 

materials IV, 319 

strength, loss in IV, 319 

testing IV, 320 

Magnetic break IV, 314, 316 

Magnetic clutch II, 24 

Magnetic controller VI, 184 

Magnetic meridian II, 371 

Magnetic permeability II, 377 

Magnetic spark plugs III, 27 

Magnetic substances II, 372 

Magnetically operated 

switches III, 237 

Magnetism (see also Index, 

Vol.11) II, 370; VI, 311 
Magneto (see also Index, 

Vol. Ill) II, 390; HI, 
16, 32; V, 262, 274, 414, 416, 

420, 424 

Ford (see Ford magneto) 

polarization of IV, 312 

repairs IV, 331 

test stand for IV, 361 

Magneto breaker IV, 331, 339 

Magneto generator V, 264 

Magneto ignition systems, 

repairs IV, 331 

Magneto terminal VI, 320 

Magneto-type interrupter 

III, 109, 115 
Magnetometer III, 134 

Main bearings, adjusting VI, 258 
Mais internal-gear driven 

axle VI, 147 

"Make-and-break" igniter I, 49 
Make-and-break plugs 

III, 16, 421, 423 
Male clutch member II, 12, 33 

Malleable-iron welding V, 77 

Manhattan truck VI, 136 

Manifold 
exhaust I, 149, 424; VI, 255 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Manifold (continued) 

intake I, 147, 242, 347; V, 279; 

VI, 255, 299, 301 
Manly truck, shackle on II, 188 

Manograph I, 54 

Manograph cards I, 79 

Marion-Handley car III, 85 

Marion- Handley- Westing- 
house installation IV, 150 
Marlin-Rockwell aviation 

motor I, 92, 93 

Marmon car 

II, 141, 162, 181; III, 85 
Marmon 1920 chassis I, 148 
Marmon crankcase I, 228 
Marmon cylinders I, 174 
Marmon lubrication I, 455, 457 
Marmon manifold I, 351 
Marmon 1920 motor I, 144 
Marmon piston I, 189, 190 
Marmon - Bosch- Rushmore 

installation III, 314 

Marvel carburetor I, 296 

Master camshaft I, 390 

Master carburetor I, 277, 329 

Master relay IV, 22, 31, 32 

Master vibrator III, 21; IV, 317 
Maxwell car III, 86 

Maxwell-Gray and Davis 

installation III, 405 

Maxwell-Simms-Huff in- 
stallation IV, 80, 81, 83, 84 
Mazda lamps III, 242 

Mea magneto 

III, 65, 67, 68; IV, 347, 349 
Mean effective pressure I, 124, 127 
Mechanical efficiency I, 124, 126 
Mechanical equivalent of 

heat V, 299 

Mechanical lag III, 12 

Mechanical stress III, 98 

Mechanically operated 

spark plug III, 12 

Melting point • V, 44 

Mercedes internal - gear 

drive VI, 147 

Mercer car III, 86 



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28 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Mercer - Bosch - Rushmore 

installation III, 312, 313 

Mercer-U.S.L. installation 

III, 315; IV, 106, 107 
Mercury-arc rectifiers 

IV, 223; VI, 197, 212 
Mercury aviation motor I, 95, 96 
Merkel motor bicycle V, 235 
Metallic welding process V, 23 
Metals 

properties of V, 44 

welding V, 53, 69, 77, 78, 82, 84 
Meters VI, 231 

Metric plugs III, 29 

Metz final drive II, 224 

Mica undercutting machine IV, 356 
Micrometer V, 139 

Micrometer fit, filing to V, 124 

Midco electrical system 

V, 264, 266, 268 
Middle main bearing VI, 258 

Midgley indicator I, 59 

Mileage of vehicles VI, 90, 111, 224 
Militaire car III, 86 

Militaire motorcycle V, 240 

Miller carburetor I, 279, 329 

Milling V, 193, 223 

Milling cutters V, 193 

Misfiring I, 345; III, 58; IV, 312 
Mitchell car III, 86 

Mitchell-Splitdorf installa- 
tion IV, 94 
Mixing chamber I, 250 
Mixture, explosive 

I, 74, 110, 112, 119, 341; V, 372 
Molecule I, 120 

Molinecar III, 86 

Moline tractor 

V, 398, 441, 442; VI, 19, 20 
Moline-Knight motor 

I, 375, 419; III, 227 
Monroe car I, 388; III, 86 

Moon car N III, 86 

Moon-Deteo installation 

III, 365, 366 
Morse tapers V, 146 

Motor, electric VI, 166, 171 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Motor, gasoline I, 11, 147, 155, 
159, 283; II, 397; III, 220, 

250; VI, 91, 121 

. automobile I, 18, 86; V, 292, 309 

explosion motors I, 11' 

failure of IV, 21; VI, 372 

knocks in I, 120, 159, 160, 446; 

V, 271; VI, 80, 303, 364 
lacks power VI, 374 

lubrication I, 448; VI, 43, 291 

motorcycle I, 20; V, 227, 230, 

237, 244, 248, 271 
noises in VI, 80 

operation of VI, 239 

overhauling VI, 255 

overheats VI, 376 

parts of VI, 48 

preparing to run VI, 266 

runs irregularly VI, 374 

speed vs. weight VI, 25 

starting VI, 359 

stops suddenly VI, 364, 376 

temperature VI, 245, 295 

tractor V, 351, 357, 435 

troubles VI, 67 

Motor fuels 1,110,116 

Motor-generator 

II, 401; IV, 223; VI, 197 
Motor governors VI, 11, 81, 128 

Motor suspension, delivery 

wagon VI, 91 

Motorboat horsepower 

formulas I, 133 

Motorcycles (see also In- 
dex, Vol. V.) V, 227 
Muffler V, 287 
Multi-cylinder motors 

I, 156, 253, 388, 454 
Multiple circuit II, 363 

Multiple connections VI, 188 

Multiple disc clutch 

II, 13, 16, 70; VI, 20, 132 
Multiple gap IV, 314,318 

Multiple-nozzle carbure- 
tors I, 254, 277, 279 
Multiple valves I, 243, 385; V 366 
Multipolar field magnets II, 396 



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INDEX 



29 



Multi-vibrator 
Murray car 



N 



Vol. Page 
III, 21 
III, 86 



Naphtha I, 111 

Naphthalene I, 110, 111, 115 

Napier Lion aviation motor I, 109 
Nash-Delco system III, 369 

National bus V, 293 

National car 

I, 158, 350, 424; III, 86, 370 
National-Bijur installation III, 299 
National-Remy installation IV, 60, 71 
National-Westinghouse in- 
stallation IV, 149 
Needle assembly of under- 
cutting machine IV, 359 
Needle valve I, 246, 272, 339, 346, 

347; V, 371; VI, 301 
Negative storage-battery 
plate 

IV, 175, 177, 178, 179, 197 
Nelson-U. S. installation IV, 111 

Neutral flame V, 18, 35, 54 

Newcomb carburetor I, 292 

Nilmelior magneto III, 66 

Nilson tractor VI, 33 

Nine-cylinder motors I, 95, 96 

Non-alignment of axles VI, 220 

Non-alignment of wheels VI, 219 

Nonconductors (see also In- 
sulation) II, 360 
Non-magnetic materials II, 372, 377 
Non-return layout of tire 

repair equipment II, 323 
Non-skid tires II, 287; VI, 225 

Non-vibrator coil III, 22, 37 

Non-vibrator high-tension 

ignition system III, 22 
North East starting and 
Ugh ting system 
(see also Index, 
Vol. IV) 

III, 228, 233, 234; IV, 22, 327 
Northway cone clutch II, 43 

North way motor II, 43 

Northway three-speed 

transmission II, 43 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
O 
Oakland car II, 43; III, 87, 119, 214 
Oakland-Delco installation 

III, 345, 373, 374 
Oakland-Remy installation 

IV, 60, 63, 65 
Ofeldt fuel feed V, 328 

Ohio magnetic controller 

VI, 184, 186, 187 
Ohm II, 355; V, 409; VI, 309 

Ohm's law II, 355 

Oil I, 465, 466, 469; V, 254, 275, 

328, 398 

circulation of VI, 295 

correct level of VI, 293 

draining VI, 254 

viscosity of VI, 297 

Oil cups I, 462 

Oil drainage V, 211, 213 

Oil film in cylinder VI, 298 

Oil furnace V, 165 

Oil-Pull tractor 

V, 400, 420, 436, 437; VI, 32 
Oil pumps I, 150, 455; V, 214, 254, 327 
Oil reservoir VI, 293 

Oil troughs VI, 293, 296 

Oilless bearings I, 475 

Oilzum steam- cylinder oil V, 328 
Olds-Delco installation III, 377, 378 
Oldsmobile car III, 87, 102 

One-cylinder motor I, 39 

One-wire systems V, 268 

Open circuit II, 362; III, 127, 362; 
IV, 15, 354; V, 288; VI, 341, 

343, 344, 353 
Open-circuit readings 

valueless IV, 199, 236 

Open-circuited armature 

coils III, 380 

Open-circuited field coils III, 382, 386 
Operation of Ford VI, 357 

charging system VI, 366 

control levers VI, 359 

cooling system VI, 365 

prehminary inspections VI, 357 
speed control VI, 363 

starting the motor VI, 359 



455 



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30 



INDEX 



Vol. 

Orem air cleaner V, 395 

Oscillograph diagrams III, 64 

Otto four-stroke cycle I, 12, 66, 70 
Ours car (French) , 

clutch on II, 20 

Outlet manifold of radiator VI, 253 

Outside lap V, 307 

Over-rich mixture III, 25 

Overcharging battery VI, 106, 210 

Overhauling battery IV, 205 

Overhauling the car VI, 252 

cleaning car VI, 252 

draining oil VI, 254 

identification of parts VI, 253 

overhauling front-axle 

system VI, 271 

overhauling motor VI, 255 

overhauling rear-axle 

assembly VI, 284 

overhauling transmission VI, 266 

removing radiator VI, 253 

Overhauling motorcycle V, 280 

Overhead valve I, 409; V, 244 

Overhead welding V, 41 

Overhead worm VI, 142 

Overland car I, 391, 438, 449, 457; 

II, 141, 183, 202; III, 92, 229, 

237, 271 
Overloads VI, 66, 169 

Oversize pistons VI, 258 

Oversize tires, use of II, 289 

Oversize valves VI, 262 

Owen Magnetic car II, 57, 252 

Oxidation (see Oxy-acety- 
lene welding, In-* 
dex, Vol. V) 
Oxidizing flame V, 18, 36 

Oxy-acetylene cutting V, 86 

Oxy-acetylene lead burning V, 91 
Oxy-acetylene welding (see 

also Index, Vol. V) V, 11 
Oxygen V, 13, 109 

Oxygen-adding devices I, 324 

Oxygen process of removing 

carbon I, 175; V, 95 

Oxygen volumes, factors 

for correcting V, 110 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
P 
Packard car I, 408, 440; III, 87, 

207, 237, 238 
Packard carburetor I, 240, 316 

Packard fuelizer I, 318 

Packard motor I, 45, 104, 106, 227, 228 
Packard truck VI, 141 

Packard- Bijur installation 

III, 208, 305, 307, 308; IV, 172 
Packard-Delco installation IV, 172 
Paige-Detroit car III, 87 

Paige-Gray and Davis in- 
stallation III, 405 
Paige-Remy installation IV, 57, 58 
Parabolic reflector III, 244 
Parallel circuit II, 363 
Parker pressed-steel wheels II, 279 
Parker rim-locking device II, 310 
Parrett air cleaner I, 334; V, 390 
Parrett motor V, 440, 442 
Pasted plates IV, 175 
Patches on tires II, 319, 327 
Pathfinder car III, 88 
Pathfinder-Delco installa- 
tion III, 383 
Patterson car III, 88 
Pedals, clutch II, 25, 36 
Peening V, 172 
Peerless car I, 426; II, 45, 231, 253; 

III, 88, 229 
Peerless truck VI, 122, 124, 134 

Peerless-Gray and Davis 

installation III, 403, 404, 405 
Perlman rim patents II, 306 

Permanent magnets II, 373, 390 

Peroxide of lead IV, 175, 177, 178 
Petrol-electric drive II, 56 

Petroleum, number of bar- 
rels produced I, 116 
Petroleum products 

I, 111, 117, 121, 277; V, 369 
Peugeot cam mechanism I, 389 

Philadelphia storage-bat- 
tery grid IV, 175 
Pierce governor VI, 13, 129, 130 
Pierce- Arrow car I, 19, 314, 449; 

II, 259; III, 88, 100, 207 



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INDEX 



31 



Vol. Page 
Pierce-Arrow truck VI, 123, 124, 

142, 143 
Pierce- Arrow- Westinghouse 

installation IV, 130, 131, 353 
Pilot car III, 89 

Pilot-Delco installation III, 384 

Pilot light V, 315, 322, 330 

Pinion gear VI, 288 

Piston and accessories I, 45, 75, 81, 
147, 190; V, 135, 243, 248, 

281; VI, 56, 242 
Piston rings I, 81, 147, 191, 195, 

201; V, 135; VI, 242 
Piston slap I, 122, 179; VI, 258 

Piston travel I, 66; III, 60 

Pitottube I, 302 

Pittsfield multi-vibrator 

coil III, 21 

Plain bearings I, 474; II, 147 

Plain cables III, 99 

Plain rims II, 292 

Plain-tube carburetors I, 254 

Planer V, 194 

Planetary gear II, 38, 54; III, 227; 

IV, 114; V, 260; VI, 246 
Planetary steering gear VI, 252 

Planimeter I, 124 

Plante storage battery IV, 177 

Plate clutch II, 11; VI, 18, 20 

Platform springs II, 174, 177 

Pleasure-car steering wheels II, 117 
Pleasure-car wheels II, 266, 268 

Plowing, demands on trac- 
tor VI, 11 
Plug (see Spark plug) 
Plunger pumps I, 438, 455, 456 
Pneumatic brakes II, 251 
Pneumatic shifting system II, 53 
Pneumatic tires II, 285; VI, 107, 225 
Polarity of charging term- 
inals VI, 200 
Polarity of magnet II, 373 
Polarization of high-tension 

magnetos IV, 312 

Poppet valves I, 373, 378 

Porcelain of spark plug VI, 321 

Port Huron tractor VI, 28, 30 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Portable voltammeter III, 264 

Ports of motor I, 78, 81; V, 246 

Positive plate of battery 

IV, 175, 177, 178, 179, 197 
Potential II, 354 

"Pounding" a battery VI, 211 

Power II, 382 

Power-driven tools V, 220 

Power formula II, 357 

Power losses VI, 218, 224 

Power output I, 86, 89; VI, 25, 26, 27 
Power plant VI, 237 

Power-plant accessories VI, 237 

Power stroke I, 14, 69, 77, 155; 

V, 244, 245, 354, 355; VI, 240, 241 
Power transmitted by 

clutch, increasing II, 20 
Pratt & Whitney taper V, 155 

Pre-compression I, 84 

Preheating air I, 342, 344 

Preheating in welding V, 50 

Preignition I, 73, 120, 332 

Premier car II, 188; III, 89 

Premier-Delco installation III, 389 
Press fits V, 175, 189, 190 

Pressed-steel axles II, 145 

Pressed-steel frame II, 156, 158, 161 
Pressed-steel wheels II, 279 

Pressure V, 297, 301 

in gas engine 

I, 68, 73, 77; V, 355; VI, 245 

in steam engine V, 307 

Pressure-circulated lubrica- 

cation I, 451, 460; V, 400 
Pressure feed I, 357 

Pressure ratio I, 76 

Pressure-time synchronizer I, 63 
Pressure-volume sychron- 

izer I, 64 

Primary batteries III, 16 

Primary circuit V, 425 

Primary current III, 11 

Primary winding VI, 313, 315 

Princess car III, 89 

Progressive gears II, 39 

Prony brake I, 125 

formula I, 126 



457 



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32 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Protective devices 

111,218,258,311,331 
Public garage (see Garage, 
public, Index, 
Vol. V) 
Pullman car III, 89 

Pumps I, 437, 446; VI, 127 

Punctures II, 327 

Push rods and guides 

I, 394, 410; IV, 373 



Q.D. tire and rim II, 287, 292 

Quenching V, 56 

Quick-detachable rims II, 287, 292 

R 

R.A.C. horsepower formula I, 132, 142 
R.P.M. of motors (see Avia- 
tion motors, In- 
dex, Vol. I) 
Racing-boat horsepower 

formulas I, 133 

Racing-type carburetor I, 279 

Radial brushes IV, 103 

Radial-load bearings II, 147 

Radial motors I, 43, 88, 89, 94, 95, 96 
Radiation V, 294 

Radiatometer VI, 366 

Radiators I, 150, 423, 445, 446; 

V, 405; VI, 125, 253 
Radius rod II, 226; VI, 140, 221, 

273, 275, 276, 286 
Radius-rod ball socket VI, 276 

Railway car transmissions II, 53 
Railway-type brake II, 251 

Rain water for cooling sys- 
tem VI, 357 
Rainer car, shackle on II, 188 
Ratchet reversing switch IV, 56 
Rating of motors 1, 123, 132, VI, 66 
Rauch and Lang car VI, 177, 182 
Raulang electric coach VI, 164 
Rayfield carburetor I>15, 285 
Reading-Standard cone 

clutch V, 259, 260 

Reamer grinder V, 178 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Reaming V, 151 

Rear axles (see also Index, 

Vol. II) II, 215; VI, 92, 

237, 248, 284 
Rear axle gears VI, 370 

Rear-end construction II, 167 

Rear main bearing VI, 259 

Rear-wheel springs VI, 159 

Reassembling (see Assem- 
bling) V, 126 
Rebabbitting bearings V, 126 
Reboring the cylinders VI, 258 
Rebushing VI, 369 
Recharging magnets III, 131; IV, 308 
Rectifiers VI, 223 
Rectifying alternating cur- 
rent VI, 197 
Red lead IV, 175 
Reducing flame V, 18, 36 
Refacing valves VI, 260 
Reflectors III, 244 
Regal car III, 72, 89 
Regal - Heinze - Springfield 

installation III, 421 

Regulation of generator III, 211, 

226, 395; V, 266; VI, 325 
Auto-Lite system III, 270 

Bijur system III, 284 

Bosch-Rushmore system III, 309 
constant-current gen- 
erator III, 211 
constant voltage gen- 
erator III, 216 
Delco system III, 213, 214, 324, 

328, 346, 355 
Dyneto system III, 392 

Gray and Davis system III, 399, 402 
Heinze-Springfield sys- 
tem III, 422, 426 
independent controllers III, 215 
inherently controlled 

generator III, 213 

Leece-Neville system IV, 11 

North East system IV, 22, 28 

Remy system IV, 47, 56 

reverse-current relays III, 218 

Simms-Huff system IV, 77, 82, 85 



458 



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INDEX 



33 



Vol. Page 
Regulation of generator 
(continued) 
Splitdorf system IV, 88 

summary of instructions IV, 247 
third-brush method III, 213, 

214, 328, 355; V, 266; VI, 325 
U.S.L. system IV, 96 

voltage regulator III, 285, 324 

Wagner system IV, 111, 121 

Westinghouse system IV, 135, 139 
Westinghouse voltage 

regulators IV, 349; V, 29, 

31, 89, 93, 111 
Regulator 

III, 420; V, 29, 31, 89, 93, 111 
Regulator-cutout III, 392, 395, 402, 426 
Relay, ignition III, 119, 121 

Reliance spark plug III, 25 

Remy generator III, 103, 104, 204 
Remy ignition system 

III, 50, 52, 112, 302; IV, 242 
Remy magneto III, 49, 50, 52, 54 

Remy magneto contact 

breaker III, 33 

Remy non- vibrator coil III, 23 
Remy reverse-current relay III, 219 
Remy starting and lighting 
system (see also 
Index, Vol. IV) III, 204, 

236; IV, 47, 133 
Renault radiator I, 436 

Reo car I, 36, 213, 437; II, 169, 

253; III, 90, 231 
Reo truck VI, 125, 126, 130, 160 

Reo-Remy installation 

IV, 60, 67, 68, 69 
Repairs (see Trouble shoot- 
ing) 
Resistance, electrical II, 355, 358, 

366, 368, 381; III, 250; VI, 190 
Resistance unit III, 117 

Retard of spark 

III, 59, 73, 77; VI, 365 
Retarded spark 

I, 81; III, 60, 71; VI, 365 
Retreading II, 334 

Retreading vulcanizers II, 322 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Reversal of generator VI, 336, 347 
Reversal of magnetism 

IV, 313, 314, 316 
Reverse-current relays III, 218 

Reverse drum VI, 267, 269, 369 

Reverse series-field winding IV, 139 
Reverse-speed pedal VI, 363 

Reversed Elliott front axle 

II, 137, 138, 146 
Rheostat VI, 190 

Rich mixture I, 119, 345; V, 372 
Rim-cut repair II, 333 

Rim-locking device II, 310 

Rims of tires (see also In- 
dex, Vol. II) II, 292, 347 
Ring armature winding II, 389 
Ring gear I, 34; V, 161; VI, 288 
Riveting V, 158 
Rivets and steel plates, 

proportions V, 160 

Roberts horsepower formu- 
las I, 133, 134 
Roberts motor with rotary 

valve I, 423 

Roller bearings 1, 475, 478; II, 147, 

148; VI, 278, 285, 289 
Roller-chain drive II, 224 

Roller clutch III, 233 

Roller contact timer III, 19 

Rope drives II, 56 

Ross car III, 90 

Rotary motors I, 88, 90, 92, 96 

Rotating valves I, 376, 422 

Round-type switches VI, 354 

Royal Automobile Club 
(England), report 
on Knight engine I, 418 
Rumely transmission VI, 33 

"Running in" motors I, 134 

S 

S.A.E. horsepower formula 

I, 132, 142; VI, 122 
S.A.E. keyseat sizes V, 156, 157 

S.A.E. spark plug III. 29; V, 270 
S.A.E. standard oversizes I, 183 

S.A.E. standard thread V, 148 



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34 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Safety devices, delivery 

wagons VI, 105 

Safety gap III, 37, 130 

Safety spark gap V, 419 

Safety valve V, 326 

Sand blisters II, 331 

Sanding-in brushes 

IV, 103, 111; VI, 223, 327, 340 
Sandusky tractor VI, 36 

Sangamo ampere-hour 

meter VI, 205, 230, 232 

Saturated steam V, 302 

Saxon car III, 90 

Saxon- Wagner installation 

IV, 109, 110 
Scale method of testing 

magnets IV, 320 

Scale prevention V, 333 

Scavenging I, 71, 85 

Schebler carburetor I, 299 

Schwartz wheel II, 270 

Scissors-action brake II, 251 

Scripps-Booth car I, 457; III, 90, 114 
Scripps-Booth-Bijur instal- 
lation III, 291, 294, 295, 304 
Scripps»Booth-Remy instal- 
lation IV, 70 
Scripps-Booth- Wagner in- 
stallation IV, 126 
Secondary circuit V, 426 
Secondary current III, 12; VI, 313 
Secondary flame V, 34 
Selective sliding gears 

II, 39, 41; VI, 36 
Self-excited fields II, 393 

Self-hardening steel V, 167 

Self-induction II, 378; III, 20 

Semi-elliptic springs 

II, 174, 175, 182; VI, 158 
Semi-floating axle II, 228, 229 

Semi-reversible steering 

gear II, 113 

Semi-socket wrench I, 221, 222 

Sensitive drill V, 181 

Separators, battery IV, 176, 205, 207 
Series charging of battery IV, 222 
Series circuit II, 362; V, 413; VI, 188 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Series control for dimming 

headlights III, 246 

Series generator II, 393 

Series-multiple circuit II, 363; VI, 189 
Series plugs III, 27 

Series-wound motor 

II, 400; III, 224; VI, 170, 192 
Service brake VI, 107, 249, 363 

Service mains, charging 

current from VI, 196, 212 
Service stations, equipment III, 413 
Setting of cars (see Valve 

timing) 
Seven-cylinder motors I, 94 

Seven-eighths floating axle II, 228 
Shackles II, 188; VI, 159, 283 

Shaft brakes II, 251 

Shaft and chain drive, de- 
livery wagon VI, 96 
Shaft drive II, 220; VI, 92 
Shaler vulcanizer II, 317 
Shaper V, 190 
Sharp Spark spark plug III, 28 
Sheet-aluminum welding V, 79 
Sheet-steel welding V, 56, 61 
Sheet-steel wheels ' II, 276 
Sheffield Simplex engine, 

mount in g of 

starter III, 232 

Shock absorbers II, 155, 194, 210 

Shoe of tire . II, 311 

Short-circuit II, 365, 383; III, 126, 

359, 379, 385, 388, 410; IV, 16, 

21, 85, 127, 174, 176, 181, 183, 

312; V, 288," VI, 168, 339, 341, 

343, 346, 352, 354 
* storage battery 

IV, 174, 176, 181, 183; VI, 202 
tests for IV, 312 

Short-circuited generator 

armature coils III, 380 

Short-circuiting generators IV, 13 
Shrink fit V, 190 

Shunt II, 364; VI, 192 

Shunt circuit II, 363 

Shunt-wound generator 

II, 394; VI, 327 



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35 



Vol. Page 
Shunt-wound motor II, 400; VI, 170 
Siddeley-Deasy car, canti- 
lever spring on II, 178 
Side-by-side internal brakes II, 252 
• Side-chain drive VI, 94, 138 
Side cutters V, 193 
Side-wall vulcanizer II, 321 
Sight feed I, 150 
Silent chain ,1, 377, 408; II, 224; 
III, 228, 280; IV, 22, 38; 

VI, 91, 137 
Silicon steel, use in magneto 

armature core IV, 316 

Silver, electrical resistance 

of II, 358 

Simms magneto III, 63 

Simms-Huff starting and 
lighting system 
(see also Index, 
Vol. IV) IV, 77 

Simplex car III, 90 

Simplex governor VI, 12, 13 

Singer car III, 90 

Single-acting external-con- 
tracting brakes II, 251 
Single-acting motors I, 16 
Single-break interrupter, 

testing with IV, 318 

Single-cylinder motor 

V, 238, 248, 285 
Single-drop frame construc- 
tion II, 157 
Single-spark interrupter III, 106, 109 
Single-unit starting and 

lighting systems III, 206 
Bijur system III, 284 

Delco system III, 251, 319 

Disco system III, 391 

Dyneto system III, 391 

North East system IV, 22 

Remy system IV, 56, 60 

Simms-Huff system IV, 77 

Splitdorf system IV, 87 

U.S.L. system IV, 95 

Wagner system IV, 111 

t Westinghouse system IV, 135 

Note. — For page number* 9W foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 

Single-wire starting and 
lighting systems 

II, 359, 361; III, 207, 267 
Auto-Lite system III, 267 

Bijur system III, 284, 288, 291 

Bosch-Rushmore system III, 309 
Delco system III, 251, 319, 345 

Dyneto system III, 391 

Ford system IV, 152 

Gray and Davis system III, 398 
Heinze-Springfield sys- 
tem III, 420 
motorcycle installation V, 268 
North East system IV, 22, 24, 29 
Remy system IV, 47 
Simms-Huff system IV, 77 
Wagner system IV, 122 
Westinghouse system IV, 135, 139 

Six-cylinder crankshaft I, 215 

Six-cylinder motor 

I, 40, 96, 97, 100, 157 
manifolds for I, 349 

valve timing I, 392, 394 

Six-stroke cycle I, 17 

Six-volt starting and light- 
ing systems 
Auto-Lite system III, 267 

Bijur system III, 284, 288, 291 

Delco system III, 319, 345 

Disco system III, 391 

Dyneto system III, 392 

Ford system IV, 152 

Gray and Davis system III, 398 
Heinze-Springfield sys- 
tem III, 420 
Leece-Neville system IV, 11 
Remy system IV, 47 
Splitdorf system IV, 87, 88 
U.S.L. system IV, 95, 100 
Wagner system IV, 121 
Westinghouse system IV, 139 

Sixteen-cylinder motors 

I, 43, 99, 101, 106, 159 

Sixteen-valve engine 

I, 243, 385; V, 366 

Sixteen-volt systems IV, 22, 26 

Slant of front axle VI, 273, 277, 371 



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36 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Sleeve-valves I, 20, 91, 157, 375, 415 
Sliding fit V, 175 

Sliding gear II, 38, 39, 41; VI, 36, 133 
Sliding sleeve I, 20, 91, 157 

Sliding valves I, 375 

Slip joints ' II, 218 

Slipping clutch 

II, 28; III, 212; VI, 18, 365 
Slow-burning mixture V, 372 

Smalley motor I, 16, 47 

Smith motor wheel V, 232, 249, 250 
Soft-iron core of electro- 
magnet VI, 312 
Soils, resistance of V, 351 
Soldering V, 133 
Solenoids II, 375 
Solid tires II, 278; VI, 107, 226 
Spark 
effect of compression on III, 129 
length of IV, 330, 331, 334, 335 
retarded I, 81; III, 60, 71; VI, 365 
speed of propagation IV, 345 
timing 

III, 59, 65, 73, 77; V, 421; VI, 364 
Spark coil 

III, 20, 178; V, 416; VI, 565 

Spark control devices III, 18 

1 Spark gap IV, 314, 318 

Spark lever 1, 153; II, 120; VI, 359, 364 

Spark plug III, 12, 25; V, 270, 274, 

419, 429; VI, 264, 321 
summary of instructions III, 167 
threads of III, 28 

troubles III, 129 

wires (see High-tension 
cables) 
Sparking at brushes VI, 340 

Spaulding car III, 90 

Specific gravity I, 111, 113, 115, 
117; IV, 177, 179, 184, 186, 

188, 197; VI, 206 
Specific heat I, 76; V, 46, 298 

Specific resistance of metals II, 359 
Speed control VI, 363 

Speed of motor (electric) VI, 91, 171 
Speed of motor (gas) VI, 25, 27, 91 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Speed reduction (see Drive 
and Transmission) 
Speed wrench VI, 256 

Sphinx car III, 9C 

Spindles, front-wheel VI, 272 

Spinning of clutch II, 33 

Spiral bevel gears for final 

reduction II, 223 

Spit back in intake mani- 
fold VI, 299, 301 
Splash lubrication 

I, 461; V, 394; VI, 296 
Splash-pressure lubrication I, 449 
Splitdorf ammeter V, 268 

Splitdorf controller III, 215 

Splitdorf distributor III, 45 

Splitdorf generator III, 217 

• Splitdorf magneto III, 62 

Splitdorf magneto gen- 
erator V, 263, 264 
Splitdorf starting and light- 
ing system (see 
also Index, Vol. IV) IV, 87 
Spongy metallic lead IV, 175, 177, 178 
Spot-welder V, 21 
Sprague electric dynamo- 
meter I, 128 
Spray nozzles (see Needle 

valves) 
Spring clips II, 246; VI, 283 

Spring drive II, 227 

Spring pressure in clutches II, 16 
Springs (see also Index, 

Vol. II) II, 31, 155; VI, 158, 

239, 283, 341 
Spur and bevel steering 

gear II, 100 

Spur differential II, 236 

Spur gears for final reduc- 
tion II, 222 
Square Turn tractor VI, 22, 24 
Staggered spokes II, 270 
Standard car III, 91 
Standardization III, 219, 223 
Stanley steam car V, 290, 292, 

310, 312, 315, 317, 320 
Starter-generator IV, 28, 31 32 



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INDEX 



37 



Starting 

in cold weather 

failure of 

speeds 
Starting charge 



Vol. Page 
VI, 359, 364 
IV, 226 
IV, 72, 92 
III, 223 
VI, 204 



Starting and generating 

system VI, 322 

Starting and lighting (see 
also Indexes, Vols. 
Ill and IV) 

III, 205; IV, 11 
Auto-Lite system III, 255, 267 

Bijur system III, 207, 258, 284 

Bosch-Rushmore system III, 309 
Delco system 

III, 206, 208, 214, 227, 319 
Disco system III, 391 

Dyneto system III, 206, 391 

Ford system IV, 152; VI, 322 

Gray and Davis Ford 

system IV, 158 

Gray and Davis system 

111,212,229,236, 398 
Heinze - Springfield sys- 
tem III, 420 
Leece-Neville system IV, 11 
North East system IV, 22 
Remy system IV, 47 
Simms-Huff system IV, 77 
Splitdorf system IV, 87 
U.S.L. system IV, 95 
Wagner system IV, 111 
Westinghouse system IV, 135 
Starting motor (see also 
Dynamotor) 

III, 220, 252; VI, 348 
Auto-Lite system III, 229, 271, 274 
Bijur system III, 288 ' 

Bosch-Rushmore system 

III, 225, 231, 309, 318 
Delco system III, 337, 346, 349 

design peculiarities III, 224 

Dyneto system III, 396 

Ford system IV, 152, 157; VI, 348 
Gray and Davis system 

III, 229, 399, 401 
heat generated in II, 368 

Note. — For -page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Starting motor (continued) 
Heinze - Springfield sys- 
tem III, 420, 424 
Leece-Neville system IV, 12 
motor windings and poles III, 224 
motorcycle V, 256 
Remy system III, 204; IV, 55 
Splitdorf system IV, 91, 92 
starting speeds III, 223 
summary of instructions IV, 261 
test chart III, 418 
voltage III, 224 
Wagner system 

III, 226, 227; IV, 121 
Ward-Leonard model 

III, 227, 228, 229 
Westinghouse system 

III, 225, 226, 228; IV, 146 
Starting switch 

Auto-Lite system III, 274 

Delco system III, 235, 349 

Ford system VI, 353 

Gray and Davis system 

III, 236, 402 
North-East system IV, 34, 35 

ftemy system III, 236 

Simms-Huff system IV, 81 

Splitdorf system IV, 88 

U.S.L. system IV, 102, 107 

Westinghouse system III, 235 

"Starving" the motor 

I, 341; VI, 299 
Static point IV, 317 

Stationary vs. automobile 

engines I, 46; V, 222, 309 
Steam automobiles (see also 

Index, Vol. V) V, 291 

Steam-cylinder oil V, 328 

Steam cut-off V, 305 

Steam-engine-type indica- 
tor I, 51 
Steam gage V, 326 
Steam lap V, 307 
Steam system V, 323 
Stearns car I, 215; III, 91 
Stearns-Gray and Davis 

installation III, 405 



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38 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 
Steams-Knight car 

I, 20, 157, 453, 457; II, 46 
Stearns-Remy installation IV, 73, 74 
Steel 
cleaning IV, 240 
cutting V, 87 
hardening V, 166, 167 
specific resistance II, 359 
tempering V, 165 
Steel plates and rivets, pro- 
portions V, 160 
Steel welding V, 53 
Steel wheels II, 283 
Steering mechanism (see 
also Index, Vol. 
II) I, 147, 153, 473; 
II, 91; VI, 220, 239, 251, 252 
Stephens-Delco installation III, 390 
Stephenson link V, 311 
Stethoscope, locating noises 

by I, 179 

Stewart carburetor I, 302 

Stewart vacuum feed I, 357 

Stopping the car VI, 364 

Stopping the motor VI, 364 
Storage batteries (see also 

Index, Vol. IV) II, 404; 
III, 17, 222; IV, 22, 90, 135, 
173; V, 263, 269, 273, 288, 

414; VI, 165, 195, 199, 224, 367 

Storing battery IV, 217 

Straight-side tires II, 298 

Straight split rim II, 304 

Straight worm gear VI, 144 

Stranded cables II, 361 

Strength of magnet, loss in V, 319 
Stroke of motors (see also 
Aviation motors, 

Index, Vol. 1) VI, 121 

Stromberg carburetor I, 244, 254 

Stromberg fuel pump I, 358 

Structural frame II, 156 
Studebaker car 

II, 12, 47, 232; III, 91 

Studebaker cylinders I, 169 

Studebaker lubrication I, 450 

Studebaker manifold I, 348 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Studebaker radiator I, 433 

Studebaker-Remy installa- 
tion IV, 75, 123 
Studebaker- Wagner instal- 
lation IV, 123 
Stutz car I, 19, 387; II, 47; III, 91 
Stutz-Remy installation IV, 76 
Sub-frames II, 159 
Suction inlet valve, mano- 

graph card I, 82 

Suction pressure I, 72 

Suction stroke I, 14, 66, 70, 155; 

V, 244, 245, 352; VI, 241 
Sulphating IV, 187, 193, 194 

Sulphuric acid 

IV, 176, 177, 179, 183, 189 
Sun car III, 91 

Sunbeam-Coatalen aviation 

motor I, 109 

Superheated steam V, 302, 308 

Superior spark plug III, 27 

Surging of governor VI, 16 

Sweating V, 135 

Switch for ignition switch- 
board IV, 370 
Switch-pedal operation III, 311 
Switchboards 

generator test stand IV, 366 

ignition IV, 368 

Switches (see also Starting 

ing switch) III, 114, 177, 
234,320,407;IV,278;VI, 354 
Symbols, significance of III, 248 

Syringe hydrometer IV, 184 



T-head cylinder I, 167, 172, 396 

Tables 

American wire gage II, 367 

approximate - constant - 
potential boosting 
rates VI, 216 

aviation motors I, 89 

B.& S wire gage II, 367 

battery, state of charge 

of VI, 368 



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INDEX 



39 



Vol. Page 
Tables (continued) 
boosting rates VI, 213, 215, 216, 217 
carrying capacity of wires II, 370 
characteristics of North 

East starting and 

lighting apparatus IV, 36 
charging voltage for lead 

batteries VI, 201 

clearance, effects of I, 74 

comparative strength of 

steel channel and 

laminated wood 

frames II, 162 

constant-current boost- 
ing rates VI, 217 
current consumption of 

Ford starter VI, 350 

cutting costs V, 110 

drill sizes for standard 

threads V, 148 

Edison cell data VI, 212, 213 

fuels for motors I, 112 

keyseat sizes V, 157 

Knight engine, report on I, 418 
magneto output VI, 372 

Morse tapers V, 146 

output of early Ford 

magneto at vari- 
ous speeds VI, 317 
Oxygen volumes, factors 

for correcting V, 110 

properties of metals V, 45 

proportioning of weights 

in building up 

tread II, 335 

rivets and steel plates, 

proportions V, 160 

soils, resistance of V, 351 

soldering fluxes V, 133 

steel, color at various 

temperatures V, 166 

steel plates and rivets, 

proportions V, 160 

temperature of battery VI, 201 
temperature correction 

for specific gravity 

of electrolyte VI, 206 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of page*. 



Vol. Page 
Tables (continued) 
test chart for Gray and 

Davis generators III, 415 
test chart for Gray and 
Davis starting mo- 
tor ~ III, 417 
valve timing of American 

cars I, 379 

welding costs V, 110 

Tacking V, 57, 60 

Tail lamp VI, 353 

Tailings I, 113 

Tanks, welding V, 60, 65 

Taper pins V, .155 

Taper roller bearings VI, 176 

Tappet clearances V, 279 

Tapping V, 147 

Telltale IV, 55 

Temperature V, 297, 355 

effect on battery IV, 187, 193, 

225, 233, 237; VI, 201, 218 
effect on hydrometer 

tests IV, 188, 190; VI, 206 
effect on oil IV, 227 

effect on explosive mix- 
ture IV, 227 
in motor cylinder 

1,70,72,73, 150; VI, 245, 295 
effect on spark IV, 227 

effect on voltage tests IV, 200 

Temperature coefficient II, 359 

Temperature correction for 
specific gravity of 
electrolyte VI, 206* 

Temperature regulator I, 273 

Tempering steel V, 165 

Templar power plant II, 26 

Ten-cylinder motors I, 93 

Terminal pressure V, 356 

Test charts III, 415, 417 

Test lamp VI, 344, 352, 353 

Test stands 
generator IV, 363 

magneto IV, 361 

Testers, magnet IV, 320 

Testing 
armatures IV, 316, 354 



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40 



INDEX 



Vol. Page 

Testing (continued) 
charge of battery 

VI, 200, 204, 206 
field winding IV, 16 

Ford magnetos IV, 308, 312 

generators IV, 85; VI, 341 

Gray and Davis system III, 413 
grounds IV, 35, 85, 125, 136 

high-tension coils IV, 316 

• ignition systems III, 126 

magneto V, 424 

magnets IV, 320 

motors I, 125, 127, 129, 134 

open circuits IV, 354 

rate of battery charge IV, 208, 231 
rate of battery discharge 

IV, 209, 228, 233 
short-circuit IV, 16, 21, 85, 127, 312 
switch IV, 35 
voltage regulator IV, 151 

Testing devices III, 258, 261 

Thermal conductivity V, 44 

Thermal efficiency I, 69; V, 402 

Thermodynamics 
of explosion motors I, 51 

of steam V, » 300 

Thermoid-Hardy universal 

joint II, 217 

Thermometers V, 295 

Thermosiphon circulation 

I, 29, 439; V, 404; VI, 239, 365 
Thermostatic devices 

I, 439, 464; IV, 48, 326 
Thickness gage VI, 263 

Thin mixture V, 372 

Third brush III, 213, 328, 355; 

V, 266; VI, 325 
Delco system III, 213, 328, 355 
Leece-Neville system IV, 11, 20 
Remy system IV, 47, 48, 52 
Westinghouse system IV, 135, 142 

Thomas car III, 91 

Thor light-weight motor- 
cycle V, 237 

Threads 

spark plug III, 28 

standard V, 147, 148 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Three-plate clutch II, 15, 16 

Three-point suspension II, 159, 183 
Three-port two-cycle 

engine V, 246 

Three-quarter elliptic 

springs II, 174, 176 

Three-quarter floating axle 

II, 228, 229, 235 
Three-speed gear 

II, 40, 71; V, 238, 261 
Three-wheel tractors V, 411 

Throttle V, 338; VI, 302, 365 

Throttle lever 

I, 153; II, 120; VI, 359 
Throttle valves I, 245; V, 293 

Throttling I, 85 

Throttling governor I, 51 

Thrust bearings II, 27, 147 

Thrust collars VI, 290 

Thrust rings, wear of VI, 287 

Tie rods II, 124 

Tillotson carburetor I, 313 

Time factor of induction coil III, 60 
Timer III, 19, 23, 116, 117, 119, 

120, 174, 188; VI, 265, 318, 322 
Timer wiring VI, 265, 322 

Timing 

Dixie magneto III, 44 

ignition system III, 59, 65, 

73, 77; V, 421; VI, 364 
K-W inductor magneto III, 40 
valves I, 84, 379, 380, 381, 

391, 420. 482; V, 283, 293, 

363; VI, 372 
Timing allowance III, 60 

Timing gears I, 406; V, 282, 283, 

361; VI, 242, 370 
Timken bearings I, 476; VI, 278 

Timken brake II, 253 

Timken front axle II, 138 

Timken mounting for worm 

gear VI, 144 

Timken rear axle VI, 160 

Timken side-chain drive VI, 139 

Tires (see also Index, Vol. 

II) II, 215, 285; V, 275; 

VI, 107, 224 



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INDEX 



41 



Vol. Page 
Toe-in of front wheels VI, 371 

Toggle-action brake II, 251, 253 

Tool grinding V, 177, 178 

Tools II, 325; V, 164, 185, 219 

Torbensen internal gear 

drive VI, 148 

Torque, securing in gasoline 

engine VI, 246 

Torque rod II, 215, 224; VI, 140 
Torque tube II, 227 

Total heat of steam V, 301 

Touring switch IV, 98, 193 

Track-laying tractor V, 377, 378, 

412; VI, 31, 35, 36, 38, 39 
Tracklayer motor V, 439, 441 

Tractors (see also Index, 

Vol.V) ' V, 341; VI, 11 
automobile practice 

VI, 17, 23, 25, 26, 31, 33, 40 
auxiliary-type governors VI, 13 
Avery transmission VI, 29, 31 

bearings VI, 48 

belt work, demands of VI, 11 
Best tractor VI, 30, 31, 38, 39 

bevel friction drive VI, 24 

Borg and Beck clutch VI, 19, 20 
Buda motor VI, 14, 16 

built-in governors VI, 13, 15, 16 
bull gears VI, 30, 37 

Bullock tractor VI, 14 

carburetor VI, 59 

care of VI, 39 

bearings VI, 48 

carburetor VI, 59 

control system lubrica- 
tion VI, 47 
clutch VI, 81 
cooling system VI, 63 
engine (see motor) 
governor VI, 81 
horsepower ratings VI, 66 
housing for VI, 82 
knocks VI, 80 
lubrication VI, 43 
motor VI, 43, 48, 67, 80 
overload of tractor VI, 66 
pistons VI, 56 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Tractors (continued) 
care of 

ratings, horsepower VI, 66 

transmission VI, 81 

valves VI, 51 
caterpillar tractor 

VI, 31, 35, 36, 38, 39 

centrifugal governors VI, 12 

clutch VI, 17, 81 

cone clutch VI, 18, 22 
contracting-band clutch 

VI, 18, 22, 33 

control system VI, 11, 47 

cooling system VI, 63 

Cotta transmission VI, 31 

creeping-grip tractor VI, 15, 16 

differential VI, 30 

dog clutch VI, 33 

driving wheels, small ,VI, 28 

dry-plate clutch VI, 20 
Emerson-Brantingham 

tractor VI, 16, 17, 37 

engine (see motor) 

engine governors VI, 11 

expanding-band clutch VI, 18, 21 

final drive VI, 37 

fly-ball governor VI, 12 

Four-Drive tractor , VI, 31 

friction clutch VI, 17 

friction drive VI, 23 

gear-reduction VI, 25 

governors, engine VI, 11, 81 

hammer VI, 80 

Hart-Parr tractor VI, 33 

heavy-type transmissions VI, 26, 30 

Heider tractor VI, 21, 23 

high speed motor VI, 27 

Holt tractor VI, 20, 22, 33, 38, 39 

horsepower ratings VI, 66 

housing for VI, 82 

Huber tractor VI, 36, 37 

hunting of governor VI, 16 

Illinois tractor VI, 18, 20 

knocks VI, 80 

live axle VI, 37 
low-gear, speed reduction 

on VI, 25 



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Vol. Page 


Vol.] 


Page 


Tractors (continued) 






Transformer (see Induction 




low-speed motor 


VI, 


27 


coil) 




lubrication 


VI, 


43 


Transformer principle 




Moline tractor 


VI, 19 


,20 


II, 377; VI, 


313 


motor 






Transmission (see also In- 




lubrication 


VI, 


43 


dex, Vol. II) I, 33, 151; 




noises in 


VI, 


80 


II, 38, 215; III, 226; VI, 25, 




parts of 


VI, 


48 


81, 132, 172, 244, 246, 


266 


speed vs. weight 


VI, 


25 


Transversely split rim II, 


300 


troubles 


VI, 


67 


Triple gears VI, 267, 269, 


,369 


multiple-disc clutch 


VI, 


20 


Trouble finding outfit I, 


130 


Nilson tractor 


VI, 


33 


Trouble shooting VI, 256, 303, 


,372 


Oil-Pull tractor 


VI, 


32 


automobile V, 86, 97, 


,328 


operation 


VI, 


39 


axles II, 


151 


overload of tractor 


VI, 


66 


Bendix drive III, 


425 


Pierce governor 


VI, 


13 


brakes II, 


261 


pistons 


VI, 


56 


carburetor I, 338; VI, 


299 


plate clutch 


VI, 18 


,20 


clutch II, 28, 37 


plowing, demands of 


VI, 


11 


connecting rods I, 


207 


Port Huron tractor 


VI, 28 


,30 


cooling system I, 


445 


pound 


VI, 


80 


crank case I, 230; VI, 


256 


power of motor 


VI, 25 ; 


,27 


crankshaft I, 


218 


ratings, horsepower 


VI, 


66 


cylinder I, 


175 


repairs 


VI, 40, 43 


electrical III, 126, 410, 424; 




Rumely transmission 


VI, 


33 


IV, 307, 425; V, 288, 423, 


429 


Sandusky tractor 


VI, 


36 


equipment for IV, 


353 


selective sliding-gear 






Ford magneto IV, 


307 


transmission 


VI, 


36 


frame II, 


169 


Simplex governor 


VI, 12 


,13 


front axle II, 


149 


slap 


VI, 


80 


gears I, 406; II, 78; IV, 


119 


sliding-gear transmission 


VI, 


36 


generator III, 


425 


slipping of clutch 


VI, 


18 


ignition systems III, 126; IV, 




Spare parts needed 


VI, 


41 


307, 312, 321; V, 423, 




speed of motor 


VI, 25 ; 


,27 


429; VI, 


299 


Square Turn tractor 


VI, 22 ; 


,24 


inlet manifold I, 


355 


surging of governor 


VI, 


16 


knuckle bolt II, 


153 


track-laying tractor 






lubrication I, 


469 


VI, 31, 35 


, 36, 38 


,39 


magneto 




transmission 


VI, 25 


,81 


IV, 307, 312; 321; V, 423, 


,429 


troubles and repairs VI 


, 40, 43 


,67 


motor I, 159, 160, 


,402 


Turner tractor 


VI, 


32 


motorcycles V, 


271 


Twin City tractor 


IV, 


33 


muffler I, 


430 


valves 


VI, 


51 


pistons I, 


195 


Yuba tractor VI 


, 33, 38 


,39 


polarization of high-ten- 




Trailer action of front 






sion magnetos IV, 


312 


wheels 


VI, 


273 


rear axle II, 


241 


Trailers 


VI, 


161 


spark plug III, 129; V, 


430 



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Vol. Page 
Trouble shooting (continued) 
spindle II, 153 

springs II, 190 

starting motor III, 410, 424 

steam automobiles V, 328 

steering-gear assembly II, 115 

tires II, 315, 348 

tractor VI, 40, 43, 67 

transmission II, 61, 72; VI, 266, 369 
valves I, 397 

welding V, 40 

Westinghouse voltage 

regulators IV, 349 

Troy trailer VI, 162 

Trucks (see also Electric 
commercial ve- 
hicles and Gaso- 
line commercial 
vehicles) VI, 111, 120 

carburetor I, 311 

frames II, 167 

internal-gear drive II, 232 

springs II, 182 

steering gear II, 106, 113 

steering wheels II, 117 

wheels II, 280 

Trumbull car III, 91 

Trundaar tractor V, 378 

Truss rods II, 244 

Tubular axles II, 145 

Tungar rectifiers IV, 223 

Tungsten magnets IV, 319 

Tungsten lamps III, 242 

Turner tractor VI, 32 

Turntable V, 212 

Twelve-cylinder motor 

I, 42, 101, 104, 106, 109, 158 
crankshaft I, 217 

double carburetors I, 253 

magneto III, 45 

manifolds I, 350 

valves I, 388 

Twelve-cylinder valve re- 
mover I, 400 
Twelve — six- volt system IV, 87 
Twelve-volt systems 

Bijur system III, 284, 291 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Twelve-volt systems (con- 
tinued) 
Bosch-Rushmore system III, 309 
Disco system III, 391 

Dyneto system III, 391 

Leece-Neville system IV, 12 

North East system IV, 22, 24, 25 
Simms-Huff system IV, 77 

Splitdorf system IV, 87 

U.S.L. system 

IV, 95, 99, 100, 101, 107 

Wagner system IV, 111 

Westinghouse system IV, 135 

Twenty-four-volt systems 

Leece-Neville system IV, 12 

North East system IV, 22, 27 

U.S.L. system IV, 95, 99, 101 

Twin City tractor V, 367; VI, 33 

Twin-cylinder motor 

V, 227, 230, 237, 249, 285 
Two-cycle diagram I, 83 

Two-cycle motor I, 14, 16, 46, 

83, 91, 155; V, 244, 246, 248 
vs. four-cycle motors I, 134 

indicated horsepower for- 
mula I, 127 
motorboat horsepower 

formulas I, 133 

Two-cylinder motors 

I, 34, 39, 93, 101 
Two-port two-cycle engine 

V, 247, 248 
Two-spark magneto, Bosch IV, 345 
Two-speed axle II, 41 

Two-speed gear V, 237, 260, 261 

Two-stage carburetor I, 289 

Two-unit systems III, 206 

Auto-Lite system III, 267 

Bijur system III, 284 

Bosch-Rushmore system III, 309 
Delco system III, 345 

Disco system III, 391 

Dyneto system III, 392 

Ford system IV, 152 

Gray and Davis system III, 398 
Heinze-Springfield sys- 
tem III, 420 



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Vol. Page 
Two-unit systems (continued) 
Leece-Neville system IV, 11 

Remy system IV, 47 

Splitdorf system IV, 88 

Wagner system IV, 121, 122 

Westinghouse system IV, 139 

Two-voltage batteries, con- 
nections for IV, 234 
Two-wheel trailers VI, 161 
Two-wire systems III, 207, 255 
Bijur system III, 284, 288, 291 
Chevrolet -Auto -Lite in- 
stallation III, 255 
Jeffrey-Bijur installation 

III, 258, 288 
Leece-Neville system IV, 11 

motorcycle installation V, 268 

North East system 

IV, 22, 25, 27, 30 
Remy system IV, 60 

Splitdorf system IV, 87 

U.S.L. system IV, 95, 111 

U 

U.S.L. system (see also 
Index, Vol. IV) 

III, 232, 315; IV, 95 
U.S.S. thread V, 147, 148 

Undercharging IV, 187, 193, 194 

Undercutting machine IV, 356 

Underpans II, 165 

Underslinging II, 187 

Underslung battery VI, 102 

Underslung suspension II, 154 

Undergrounded-circuit sys- 
tem V, 268 
Unisparker III, 19, 107 
Unit power plant I, 25, 154, 157; 

II, 38, 43, 156, 251; VI, 236, 237 
Unit-type sub-frame II, 159 

Unit-wheel drives, delivery 

wagon VI, 97 

Universal joint I, 152; II, 215, 216 
Universal-joint housings II, 243 

Universal Q.D. rim II, 295 

Up stroke of two-cycle mo- 
tor I, 17, 156 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Upper dead center, finding III, 73 
Urban delivery wagon VI, 103 

Useful load VI, 90, 115, 120, 158 



V-Ray spark plugs III, 25 

V thread V, 147, 148 

V-type motor 

I, 18, 43, 89, 101, 109, 157, 159 
connecting-rod bearings I, 205 

manifolds I, 350 

motorcycle installation 

V, 227, 237, 249 
valves I, 388, 396 

Vacuum feeds I, 253, 357 

Valve gears V, 311 

Valve-in-head motor I, 173, 174 

Valve lifter VI, 259 

Valve-tappet clearance VI, 262 

Valves (see also Index, 

Vol. I) I, 18, 30, 149, 373, 409 
Ford car VI, 241, 256, 259, 372 
motorcycles' 

V, 243, 249, 272, 279, 281, 283 
timing I, 84, 379, 381, 391, 420, 

482; V, 283, 293, 363; VI, 372 
tire II, 290, 313 

tractors V, 360; VI, 51 

Vehicle speed controller VI, 129 

Velie car III, 92 

Velie tractor manifold I, 355 

Velie-Remy installation 

IV, 56, 59, 61, 62 
Vent, hole in gasoline-tank 

cap VI, 358 

Ventilation of garage V, 210, 211 

Venturi-tube mixing chamber I, 250 
Vertical ignition unit III, 106; IV, 330 
Vertical motors 

I, 48, 89, 97, 99, 100, 157; V, 441 
Vertical welding V, 41 

Vibrator III, 20, 190; IV, 317, 340,^ 

344; V, 418; VI, 314 
Vibrator coils III, 20 

Vibrating duplex system ) IV, 344 
Vibrating-type horn III, 240, 241 

Vibrating-type regulator IV, 56, 88, 89 



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Vol. Page 
Viscosity of oils VI, 297 

Vises V, 116, 220 

Volt II, 355; V, 409; VI, 309 

Volt-ammeter VI, 193, 229 

Voltage II, 354, 380; V, 414; 

VI, 102, 200, 204 

of battery cell IV, 177, 179 

change of IV, 79 

determining IV, 22 

of ignition current VI, 311, 314, 316 

of lamps III, 243 

of starting systems III, 224 

Voltage coil VI, 329, 332 

Voltage control devices III, 18 

Voltage drop II, 359, 380; III, 94, 95 

Voltage regulation IV, 56 

Voltage regulator III, 285, 324, 422; 

IV, 89, 90, 139, 151 
Pierce-Arrow IV, 353 

Westinghouse IV, 349 

Voltage standards III, 219 

Voltage tests III, 265; IV, 320 

Voltammeter III, 264 

Voltmeter tests III, 386; IV, 

198, 200, 208, 210, 235, 237 

Volume of gases V, 297 

Volumetric efficiency I, 79, 387 

Vulcanization of tires II, 315 

patches II, 328 

types of outfits II, 317, 320 

W 

W-type aviation motor I, 89, 109, 110 

Wagner starting and light- 
ing system (see 
also Index, Vol. 
IV) 

III, 226, 227; IV, 45, 111 

Walker electric wheel drive 

VI, 100, 101 

Ward-Leonard automatic 

cutout III, 218 

Ward-Leonard controller III, 215 

Ward-Leonard current con- 
troller III, 216 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Ward-Leonard ' ' harpoon ' ' 

switch III, 237 

Ward-Leonard starting 

motor III, 227, 228, 229 

Warner clutches II, 13, 15 

Wash rack IV, 376 

Wasp aviation motor I, 93, 94 

Water cooling (see also 

Aviation motors, 

Index, Vol. I) I, 29, 

31, 150, 430; V, 248, 252; VI, 125 
Water 
for cooling system VI, 357 

for electrolyte IV, 176 

Water jackets I, 150, 185, 242, 
248, 342, 344, 352, 431, 445; 

V, 380 
Water-level indicator V, 324, 331 

Water pump V, 335 

Water supply of garage V, 210 

Water system V, 323 

Water-tube boilers V, 318 

Waterproof magneto, Eise- 

mann IV, 331, 335 

Waterproof spark plugs III, 28 

Watt II, 356; V, 409 

Watt's diagram of work I, 52 

Waukesha motor V, 396 

Waverly truck; VI, 96, 97 

Webber carburetor I, 281 

Weight of motor (see also 

Aviation Motors, 

Index, Vol. I) VI, 25, 27 

Weld, building up V, 40 

Welding (see also Oxy- 

acetylene welding, 

Index, Vol. V) 
I, 185, 226; II, 170, 236; V, 11 
Welding flame V, 18, 35, 54 

Westcott car III, 92 

Westcott-Delco installation 

III, 345, 350 
Westinghouse air spring II, 198 

Westinghouse contact 

breaker III, 104 

Westinghouse fuse block III, 239 



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Vol. Page 
Westinghouse generator 

III, 103, 105, 213 
Westinghouse ignition unit 

III, 105, 107; IV, 329, 330 
Westinghouse starting and 
lighting system 
(see also Index, 
Vol. IV) 
III, 225, 227, 228, 235; IV, 135 
Westinghouse voltage reg- 
ulators IV, 349 
Wet storage of batteries IV, 218 
Wheel post VI, 251 
Wheel pullers II, 283 
Wheels (see also Index, 

Vol. II) II, 93, 266, 

307, 309, 345; VI, 219 
White delivery wagon VI, 119 

White differential VI, 146 

White lubricating system VI, 128 
White motor VI, 123, 124 

White radiator mounting VI, 127 
White transmission VI, 133, 134, 135 
White-Leece-Neville instal- 
lation IV, 13, 15, 18 
White and Poppe horse- 
power formula I, 133 
White steam car V, 292 
Whitworth thread • V, 148 
Wilcox-Bennett air cleaner 

V, 393, 394 
Wilcox-Bennett kerosene 

carburetor V, 381 

Willard battery 

IV, 180, 181; V, 269 
Willys-Knight motor I, 417, 420 

Willys - Knight - Auto - 
Lite installation 

III, 282, 283 
Willys-Overland car III, 92 

Winter weather, effect on 
storage battery 

IV, 193, 195, 225, 233 
Winton car II, 43, 45, 107, 183, 

190; III, 75, 92 

Note. — For page numbers see foot of pages. 



Vol. Page 
Winton-Bijur installation 

III, 288, 289, 294, 303, 306 
Winton-Gray and Davis 

installation III, 405 

Wire wheels II, 272, 309 

Wiring III, 92, 127, 359; V, 432; 

VI, 265, 322 
Wiring diagrams (see also 
separate Index of 
Wiring Diagrams, 
Vol. VI) 

III, 248; IV, 264; VI, 191, 336 
Wisconsin motor I, 385 

"Wishbone" VI, 275 

Wolverine-Auto-Lite in- 
stallation III, 273 
Wood frames II, 161 
Wood wheels II, 268, 281 
Woodruff keys V, 158 
Woodworth adjustable tire 

tread II, 288 

Work, definition V, 299 

Workbench IV, 375; V, 216 

Working fit V, 189 

Working stroke I, 14, 69, 77, 

155; V, 244, 245, 354, 355; 

VI, 240, 241 
Workstand equipment II, 242 

Worm drive VI, 94, 138, 141, 176 

Worm-driven trucks, trans- 
mission VI, 136 
Worm gear vs. bevel gears VI, 145 
Worm gear for final reduction II, 222 
Worm-gear steering gear II, 101 
Wristpin VI, 243 
Wrought iron, cutting V, 87 

X 

X-type aviation motors I, 89 

Y 
Yale and Towne hoist I, 162 

Yuba tractor VI, 33, 38, 39 

Z 

Zenith carburetor I, 251, 260 



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