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Full text of "Aves Hawaiienses : the birds of the Sandwich Islands"

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» iVV w 




AYES HAWAIIENSES: 



THE BIRDS 



OE THE 



SANDWICH ISLANDS 



BY 

SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., 
» »♦ 

ASSISTED BY 

A. H. EVANS, M.A., F.Z.S. 



LONDON: 

L. H. PORTER, 7 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1890-99. 




PRINTED EI TAYLOR AND FBANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



/?9o 



TO 

PROFESSOR NEWTON, 

WHO FIRST SUGGESTED MY EXPEDITION TO THE ISLANDS, 

AND SUBSEQUENTLY ASSISTED ME IN THE KINDEST POSSIBLE WAY 

TO LAY THE RESULTS BEFORE MY READERS 

IN THEIR PRESENT FORM. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

TlTLEPAGE i 

Dedication iii 

Contents iii ct 

List oe Plates iii « 

Pbeeace v 

Introduction vii 

Table of Distribution oe Passeres xxiv 

List oe Additional Species xxv 

Eerata and Addenda xxvii 



Genera and Species * . Page 

corvus tropicus 1 

Drepanis pacieica 3 

Drepanis eunerea 7 

Vestiaria cocclnea 9 

Palmeeia dolii 15 

hlmatione sanguinea 19 

ClRIDOPS ANNA 23 

fHlMATIONE STEJNEGERI 25 

HlMATIONE CHLORIS, incl. H. CHLORIDOlDES \ 

(Chlorodrepanis) <( and H. kalaana J 

| HlMATIONE TIRENS ....... 29 

i hlmatione wilsoni 31 

(eothschildia) hlmatione parta 33 

yleidonia sagittirostbis 35 

Oeeomtza baiedi 37 

f LOXOPS ELAMMEA 39 

HlMATIONE NEWTONI 41 

(Oeeomtza) ■( Himatione maculata 43 

} HlMATIONE MONTANA 45 

I HlMATIONE MANA 47 

* For changes of nomenclature s«e Introduction. 





Date of 


Part 


Publication. 


IV. 


Jan. 1893. 


II. 


Sept. 1891. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


II. 


Sept. 1891. 


IV. 


Jan. 1893. 


III. 


May 1892. 



YI. 



July IS 



III. 


May 1892. 


VII. 


June 1899. 


II. 


Sept. 1891. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


VI. 


July 1896. 


VII. 


June 1899. 


III. 


May 1892. 


IV. 


Jan. 1893. 



iii b 



CONTENTS. 



Genera and Species * . Page 

Loxops COCCINEA 49 

Lc-XOPS RUPA 53 

Loxops aurea, vice Himatione aurea, cancelled .... 55 

ChRYSOMPPRIBOPS CiERULEIROSTRiS 59 

Hemignathus procerus 61 

Hemignathus lichtensteini 65 

Hemignathus OBSCURUS 67 

HeMIGNATHUS LA5TAIENSIS 71 

f Hemignathus lucpbus 73 

I Hemignathus olttaceus 75 

(Heterorhynchus) ■< „„ 

I Hemignathus abeinis <7 

^Hemignathus hanapepe 81 

pseubonestor xanthophrys 83 

psittacirostra psittacea 85 

LoXIOlBES BAILLEUI 89 

Bhobacanxhis palmeri 93 

Ehobacanthis plavigeps . 95 

Chloribops kona 97 

acrulocercus braccatus 99 

acrulocercus apicalis 103 

ackulocercus nobilis 105 

ACRULOCERCUS BISHOPI Ill 

chietoptila angustipluma 113 

phieornis myiabestiha 117 

Ph^ornis lanaiensis 119 

Ph^ornis obscura 121 

Ph^eornis palmeri 123 

Chasiempis sanbyicensis 125 

Chasiempis gati ]29 

Chasiempts sclateri 131 

Asio ACCIPITRINUS 133 

Sterna pumginosa 137 

Sterna lunata 139 

Anous stolibus 141 

Anous hawaiiensis 143 

Gygis alba 145 

Numenius tahitiensis 147 

totanus incanus 151 

Calibris arenaria 153 

hlmantopus knubsesti 155 

Strepsilas interpres 159 

Charabrius eulvus 161 

PULICA ALAI 163 

G-allinula sanbyicensis 165 

Pennula ecaubata 171 

Pennula sanbyicensis 175 

* For changes of nomenclature see Introduction. 





Date of 


Part 


Publication. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


71. 


July 1896. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


III. 


May 1892. 


Y. 


Apr. 1894. 


III. 


May 1892. 


VII. 


June 1899. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


III. 


May 1892. 


VI. 


July 1896. 


III. 


May 1892. 


VI. 


July 1896. 


II. 


Sept, 1891. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


VII. 


June 1899. 


IV. 


Jan. 1893. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


II. 


Sept. 1891. 


I. 


Dec. 1890. 


VI. 


July 1896. 



II. 

VII. 



III. 



Sept. 1891. 
June 1899. 



May 1892. 



IV. 


Jan. 1893. 


III. 


May 1892. 


IV. 


Jan. 1893. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


VII. 


June 1899. 



CONTENTS. 



Genera and Species * < Page 

Pexnula wilsoni 176 

buteo solttarius 179 

Circus hudsonius 185 

bernicla sandy1censis 187 

Anas wyvilliana . . 191 

Daeila acuta 193 

Spatula clypeata 195 

Plegadis guarauna 197 

Ardea sacra 199 

Nycticorax griseus 201 

Fregata aquila 203 

Phaethon ^thereus 205 

Phaethon rubricauda 207 

oceanodroma crypxoleucura 209 

BuiWERIA ANJINHO 211 

(EsTRELATA PHjEOPYGIA 213 

PUEEINUS CUNEAXUS 215 

DlOMEDEA IMMUTABILIS 217 

* For changes of nomenclature see Introduction. 





Date of 


Part 


Publication. 


VII. 


June 1899. 


II. 


Sept, 1891. 


IV. 


Jan. 1893. 



VII. 



June 1899. 



IV. 


Jan. 1893. 


VII. 


June 1899. 


V. 


Apr. 1894. 


IV. 


Jan. 1893. 


VII. 


June 1899. 



Bemarks on the Structure oe certain Hawaiian Birds, with reference to their 
Systematic Position, By Hans G-adow, M.A., Ph.D. 



Past I. 
Part II. 



Page 

219-241 

243-249 



Index 



251-257 



LIST OF PLATES. 



'? 



2 J 

2 ? 



if 



Map of the Hawaiian Islands. 

coeyus tropicus. 

Deepanis pacifica. 

Deepanis funeeea. 

Vestiaeia coccinea. (Two Plates.) 

Nest of Vestiaeia cocginea. 

Palmeeia dolii. 

himatione sanguinea. 

Nests of Himatione sanguinea and H. tieens. 

Eggs of Himatione, sp., and Chasiempis, sp. 

ClEIDOPS ANNA. 

Himatione stejnegebi. 

Himatione chlobis. 

Himatione tieens. 

Himatione wilsoni. 

Himatione paeta. 

vlbidonia sagittibostbis. 

Oeeomyza BAIEDI. 

Loxops coccinea and L. plammea. 

Himatione newtoni. 

Himatione maculata. 

Himatione Montana. 

Himatione mana. 

Loxops aueea and L. eufa. (Two Plates.) 

ChETSOMITEIDOPS CjEBULEIBOSTBIS. 

Hemignathus peoceeus. 
Hemignathus lichtensteini. 
Hemignathus obscueus. 
Hemignathus luoidus. 
Hemignathus olitaceus. 
Hemignathus affinis. 
Hemignathus hanapepe. 
pseudonestob xanthophbys. 



PSITTACIEOSTEA PSITTACEA. 1 ( 

LOXIOIDES BAILLEUI. J 3 

BHODACANTHIS PALMEBI. 3g 

Chloeidops KONA. 3 ° 

aceuloceecus beaocatus. 

aceuloceecus apicalis. ° 

aceuloceecus nobilis. 

aceuloceecus bishopi. v j 

Ch^etoptila angustipluma. ' 

Phjeobnis myiadestina and P. lanaiensis. V *~ 

Ph^eoenis obscuea. 

Ph^EOENIS PALMEBI. 

Chasiempis sandticensis. 
Nest of Chasiempis sandvicensis. 
Chasiempis gayi. 
Chasiempis sclateei. 
Anous hawaiiensis. 
numenius tahitiensis. ■*' 3 
totanus incanus. 
hlmantopus knudseni. 

FULICA ALAI. ^~i 

GrALLINULA SANDTICENSIS. 
Pennula ECAUDATA. 

pennula sandticensis. 

Pennula wilsoni. ^ ° 

Buteo solitaeies. (Three Plates.) £', ti, r 

BeENICLA SANDTICENSIS. 

Anas wytilliana. 
oceanodeoma cbyptoleucuea. 6 c 
cesteelata ph^opygia. 4 ^ 
puffinus cuneatus. 

Anatomical Steuctuee of geetain Hawaiian 
Birds. (Three Plates.) 



PREFACE. 



Now that this difficult and prolonged task has come to an end, I am glad to have the 
opportunity of putting on record my sincere thanks to all my kind friends in the 
Hawaiian Islands for the assistance that they have given me in various ways during 
my collecting-trips in the different island districts. Unfortunately, since the occasion 
of my first visit in 1887-88, some of them have died. His Majesty King Kalakaua is 
no more — a talented man and the author of several valuable works, who took the 
greatest interest in my researches and gave me (through his Chamberlain, the Hon. 
C. P. Jankea) letters to several prominent natives in Hawaii. Mr. H. N. Greenwell 
and Mr. Frank Spencer, of the same island, have also died, both of whom were residents 
of over 40 years' standing and rendered me most valuable aid. As regards Oahu, 
a most valued friend has been lost to Honolulu in the person of the late Judge R. F. 
Bickerton, a son-in-law of Mr. Spencer's ; while Mr. Jesse Morehead is no more to be 
seen on Lanai, and the news has just reached me of the sudden death on Maui of 
Mr. Randal von Tempsky, by whom I was entertained not only on that island but also 
on the adjacent and seldom visited one of Kahoolawe. 

To the Hon. C. R. Bishop, who has, since the occasion of my first visit, taken up his 
residence in San Francisco, but whose princely gifts to Honolulu are to be seen in the 
Bishop Museum and Schools, and who has taken the greatest interest in the researches 
of my friend Mr. R. C. L. Perkins, I must express my gratitude for many acts of 
kindness. To Mrs. Francis Sinclair — a member of the family of that name in Niihau 
and Kauai, who have been kindness itself to me — herself well known by reason of her 
beautifully illustrated book ' The Flora of the Hawaiian Islands '-—I must tender my 

b 



vi PEEFACE. 

sincerest thanks for having allowed my artist, Mr. Frohawk, in many instances to make 
use of portions of the plates in that work as backgrounds, thereby enabling me to 
reproduce the indigenous trees and plants at the same time as the birds. 

To enumerate by name all those from whom I met with, kindness in the islands 
would be a well-nigh endless task ; but I must refer, in conclusion, to a few friends 
in England whose untiring assistance has been of the most valuable description : to 
Professor Newton (to whom I have the very great pleasure of dedicating this work), 
to the Hon. Walter Eothschild, to Dr. Hans Gadow, to the late Mr. Osbert Salvin, 
and to Mr. K. C. L. Perkins. 

S. B. WILSON. 

Heatherbank, Weybridge, 
May 19th, 1899. 



Trti 



INTRODUCTION. 



So long as the English tongue is spoken by Britons, and so long as they hold in 
honour the deeds by which the maritime glory of this country was established, so long 
will the name of the Sandwich Islands, almost the last discovery of the great English 
navigator, remain a household word. The story of the death of Captain James Cook — 
the discoverer whose character secured for him during a fierce war immunity from the 
" ancient enemy " of England — has been for more than a century part of the history of 
this country, and thousands of English boys and girls have heard with the deepest 
emotion how that great chief was stricken down in a miserable quarrel on the shore of 
the " Island of Owhyhee " — one of the group which he had sighted but little more than 
a twelvemonth before, and appropriately named after the English statesman to whose 
influence and encouragement the undertaking of this last and fatal voyage was due. 
For many years past this name has been set aside by their inhabitants, and the 
designation of the " Hawaiian Islands " has been substituted ; but that bestowed by 
Cook — the Sandwich Islands — can never be erased from English memories. 

The group lies in the North Pacific, extending approximately from the 155th to 
the 161st degree of W. longitude and from the 19th to the 23rd degree of N. latitude, 
and the several islands, reckoning from the north-west, are Niihau (Oneehow), Kauai 
(Atooi), Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe, and Hawaii. The last-named is 
divided into eight districts, namely, North Kohala, South Kohala, Hamakua, North 
Kona, South Kona, Hilo, Kau, and Puna ; Oahu contains five — Honolulu, Ewa (with 
Waianao), Waialua, Koolauloa, and Koolaupoko ; Maui four — Lahaina, Wailuku, 
Hana, and Makawao ; Kauai four — Waimea, Lihue and Koloa, Kawaihau, and Hanalei. 
With the exception of Kahoolawe, which is almost entirely fiat, all of the above are 
more or less mountainous, though in parts at least of every member of the group 
stretches of level beach lie around the elevated central area. Lehua, Kaula, and 
Molokini are adjacent rocky islets, bare and uninteresting, while there are a few 
others that are still smaller. On the east of Hawaii the cliffs attain a height of some 
1600 feet, on the north-east of Oahu they rise to about 2000, while in some parts of 
Windward Molokai they are said to be as much as 4000, and descend as sheer 
precipices to the ocean. 

The mountains were in olden times densely clothed with tropical vegetation and 
trees of various kinds, and such is still the case to a considerable extent in most of the 

52 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

islands ; though in certain districts, especially of Lanai and Oahu, the primeval woods 
have been completely destroyed by the agency of animals or man. Goats are the chief 
offenders in Lanai, deer (introduced of course) in Molokai, and cattle in Hawaii, while 
in the last-named the ground is being extensively cleared to make room for coffee- 
plantations. At the present day there is no forest on Niihau or Kahoolawe, nor are 
there any resident land-birds on either; but that the former was at one time covered 
with trees, or at least bush, is indubitable, since the large land-mollusks of the genus 
Carelia, which are found there in a sub-fossil condition, can only exist in damp 
woodlands. 

Besides the lowland zones, well-defined upper and lower forest-zones 1 may be 
distinguished, which are characterized by the presence or comparative abundance of 
special kinds of trees : the former, which includes all the heights from 3000 feet 
upwards, being the chief natural habitat of the Koa (Acacia koa), the Mamane (Sophora 
chrysophylla), the Sandal-wood (Santalum album), the Naio or Bastard Sandal-wood 
(Myoporum santalinum), and the Lobeliacea? generally ; the lower, which extends from 
about 1100 to 3000 feet, furnishing Pandanus odoratissimus, the Kukui (Aleurites 
triloba), the parasitic Ieie (Freycinetia arborea), and above all the Ohia (Metrosideros 
po/ymorpha), though the two last-named are also met with on the higher slopes in a 
dwarfish form. The summit of Kauai consists of an extensive plateau, boggy and 
thickly wooded ; a like state of things occurs on the mountains of western Maui and 
on the Kohala range in northern Hawaii ; while Molokai and Lanai shew signs of 
having formerly been similar in this respect, though in these two cases the ground has 
now become comparatively dry. Towards the coast the trees ordinarily diminish in 
size, while nearer to the actual beach the prickly pear now covers considerable areas 
in several districts. The heights of the zones, of course, vary somewhat in different 
places. 

As will be seen in the description of the various species of birds, many of them are 
more or less restricted to the forests at particular altitudes ; but no safe deductions 

1 A more precise account of the zones may be found in the 'Mora of Hawaii' of Hillebrand. That 
author distinguishes : — 

1. A Lowland Zone, exhibiting Pandanus, Gossypium, and other plants in abundance. 

2. A Lower Forest Zone, extending up to 1000 or 2000 feet. This is of a tropical nature, with rather open 

woods. Aleurites is the characteristic tree, and Zingiber zerumbet covers the ground. Pandanus 
odoratissimus reaches it, but goes no higher ; Freycinetia occurs here and upwards. 

3. A Middle Forest Zone, attaining a height of 5000 or 6000 feet, and possessing many trees and shrubs 

common to the regions above and below it. It lies within the region of clouds, and is especially 
luxuriant in vegetation both as regards trees and jungle. The most representative forms are Dodoncea 
viscosa (the Alii), Pelea sp. (the Alani), Cheirodendron gaudichaudii (the Olapa), Acacia Jcoa, and 
Metrosideros poly rnorplia. The arborescent Lobeliacece are there very fine, but solitary. 

4. An Upper Forest Zone, extending up to 8000 or 9000 feet, with moderately heavy soil, covered with 

liverworts, mosses, and sedges. It is characterized by stunted trees of Sophora, Myoporum, and so forth, 
with shrubby Compositce and the Ohelo ( Yaccinium rcticidatum). 

5. Above the forests are found creeping forms of Metrosideros, CyatJiodes, and the like. 



INTRODUCTION. h 

can be made from observations of this description, since a large number of forms follow 
their food, as the fruits ripen successively from the lower to the higher elevations. 
Nor must it be assumed as certain that the regrettable extinction of certain of the rarer 
woodland birds is due to the absence of the trees which supply a large part of their 
diet ; for other causes have undoubtedly contributed to their loss, and it has been well 
remarked that, for all we know to the contrary, the destruction of some particular 
insect might result in the simultaneous disappearance of one or more members of the 
avifauna. Nevertheless to many species forests would seem to be a necessity, for 
though VesUaria coccinea and Himatione sanguined are found on Niihau, when blown 
across by strong winds from Kauai, they perish there in a very short time. 

A characteristic feature of the scenery of the islands is the constant occurrence of 
deep wooded valleys or gorges, descending from the knife-edged ridges above to the 
comparatively level districts below, these glens branching again laterally into other 
subordinate ravines : and herein to the ornithological collector lies one of his chief 
difficulties ; for many specimens, when shot, fall among the dense scrub or fern with 
which the banks are clothed, and are then, as will easily be understood by those 
conversant with such localities, practically irretrievable, unless by foresight or an unusual 
stroke of luck a good dog is at hand to secure them. 

The trees in these islands average from 60 to 100 feet at most, and do not 
attain to that stupendous height of which Ave read in still more tropical climates, 
where the feathered tribes occupy, as it were, a level of their own far above 
that of man ; nevertheless the nests, save of a few of the commoner species, are 
exceptionally difficult to procure, owing to the fact of their being usually built at the 
very extremity of the slenderest branches, whether they be horizontal or vertical. 
Strange though it may seem after the efforts of so many collectors, the only eggs 
absolutely identified at present are those of Chasiempis sandvicensis and Himatione 
virens. The favourite sites for nidification are the Koa and the Ohia trees. 

The equable climate and convenient geographical position of the islands lend 
themselves naturally to facilities for trade and commerce. The average temperature 
at the sea-level is 75° F., and there is no rainy season, though snow lies for at least two 
months on all the higher peaks. Roughly speaking, the group lies about 2100 miles 
from San Francisco, 3810 miles from Auckland in New Zealand, and 3440 miles from 
Yokohama ; so that its central position bestows upon it a great advantage as compared 
with many other countries. 

The visible mountain-peaks, moreover, being but the projecting summits of a vast 
and lofty submarine chain, the ocean surrounding them is as a matter of course of 
great depth, and consequently little difficulty is experienced in landing at any sheltered 
spot ; indeed from the Sandwich Islands to Japan the soundings only vary from 2500 
to 3100 fathoms. As might be expected, however, disembarkation is often dangerous 
on the windward coasts, where the trade-wind blows for some nine months in the year ; 
but this state of things is to a considerable extent remedied by the proximity of the 
islands to one another, as they are in certain cases only separated by comparatively 



X INTRODUCTION. 

narrow channels. In ascending the hills, the trade-wind is said to be no longer felt 
when an altitude of from 8000 to 10,000 feet is reached, a fact particularly observable 
in the uplands of Kona ; but it causes almost perpetual wet weather at the higher 
elevations on the windward sides. 

The whole archipelago consists of volcanic rocks of a basaltic nature \ with a few 
remnants of raised sea-beaches composed of consolidated coral sands of a white colour, 
especially noticeable on Hawaii ; in consequence of this the traveller finds, along with 
the thin layer of cultivated soil in various parts, large " flows " or stretches of hard 
bare lava, not uncommonly extending to the shore, though more frequently in evidence 
at the higher levels. Deep rich soils adapted to the growth of the sugar-cane form 
some fortieth part of the whole area, and occur chiefly where there is dense forest, or 
where such has been the case in former times ; while the valleys provide a heavy clay, 
suitable for the cultivation of rice and taro (Arum esculentum). Coral-reefs environ the 
islands to a great extent, and narrow strips of coral limestone are to be met with along 
some parts of the coasts ; the craters of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, in Hawaii, are still 
the outlets of active volcanoes, and others, such as Haleakala in Maui, or Hualalai in 
Hawaii, are but recently extinct. 

Taro is the staple food of the natives; but the chief industry is the cultivation 
of the sugar-cane, which is usually raised on the windward side of the mountains, 
in spots remarkable for their general humidity, and, at the greater elevations, for 
their heavy rainfall. On the leeward side this plant can only be grown by the aid 
of irrigation, for which the water is obtained from the hills or from wells sunk 
for the purpose. The practice has been greatly extended of late years in Oahu and 
Kauai. Coffee, the introduction of which has failed in Kauai, has, on the contrary, 
succeeded in Hawaii, and may be considered to occupy the second place among the 
exports. Oranges, lemons, limes, pine-apples, bananas, peaches, and other tropical or 
subtropical fruits are chiefly used for home consumption ; a few cocoanuts are to be 
found in places ; sweet potatoes are a well-known product ; while cotton, which has 
never been largely grown, is now wholly abandoned. Many districts lend themselves 
naturally to the cultivation of rice, that necessity of life to the Chinese and Japanese, 
of whom there are vast numbers in the archipelago. 

These islands, deeply interesting as they always must be to those engaged in the 
study of " Geographical Distribution," have unfortunately only been appraised at their 
true worth from a comparatively recent period. This is the more remarkable since not 
only does their avifauna contain many forms as extraordinary and highly specialized as 
are to be found in any quarter of the globe, but, unlike other more isolated and 
inaccessible regions, their shores have from time to time been visited by travellers who 
should have served to keep alive the expectation of new discoveries. It must, however, 
be admitted that the record was for long but a series of disappointments due to 
neglected opportunities, while the meagreness of the information obtained and the 

1 The assistance afforded to the authors in this connexion by Capt. C. E. Dutton's work on ' Hawaiian 
Volcanoes' (Washington, 1884) must be gratefully acknowledged. 



IOTKODUCTION. -Xl 

entire absence of any correct list of species in the accounts of the older writers are 
much to be deplored. By the early voyagers the importance of exact information was 
unfortunately little appreciated. 

The following account of the discovery of the islands, and of their visitors down to 
the year 1891, is from the pen of Professor Newton, who wrote in ' Nature ' 1 after the 
appearance of the second part of the present work, and has now most kindly allowed the 
authors not only to utilize the greater part as originally published, but has, moreover, 
furnished several further particulars, where information of a later date made modifica- 
tions or additions desirable : — 

" The Sandwich Isles have not been fortunate in their Natural Historians, though 
perhaps no worse off in this respect than many another group ' lying in dark purple 
spheres of sea.' Discovered in 1778 by Cook, during the last of his celebrated 
voyages, his ships communicated with one of the more western islands — Atooi, as 
its name sounded to him and his companions, but since, and doubtless more correctly, 
written, Kauai. The admiration of the visitors was excited by the cloaks and helmets 
of the natives, beautifully bedecked with feathers, the more or less moth-eaten remains 
of which may yet be seen in many a museum ; and the scarlet birds which furnished 
the most brilliant adornment of these ingenious works of art were duly mentioned by 
Cook in his journal as published. After less than a fortnight's stay, in the course of 
which the existence of five islands was made out, his ships stood off to the northward to 
prosecute their voyage of discovery. Towards the end of the year they returned, and Cook, 
having had experience of the hospitable treatment of the islanders, designed to make 
his winter-quarters in the Sandwich Isles, as he had named them, after the then 
First Lord of the Admiralty ; but, keeping more to windward, the first land he made 
was the most eastern of the group, one that he had not even seen on his first visit. 
This was the historic Owhyhee — nowadays written Hawaii — which, being the largest 
of them, and that which eventually produced the warrior-king and statesman who 
eventually subdued all the rest, has given its official name to the Archipelago. 

" Though Owhyhee was sighted on November 29, Cook's course along its eastern and 
southern coast was so deliberate that it was not till January 17, 1779, that he found a 
safe anchorage, and that in Kealeakakua Bay, on its western side. What passed there 
during the next three weeks need not be here recorded ; but those who know how to 
read his narrative and the accounts since divulged from native sources will admit that 
it throws an important and yet most lurid light on the history of superstition. To the 
unprejudiced it must be doubtful whether even now the whole truth is, or ever can be, 
known. The ships sailed on February 4 ; but in making her way to the northward 
the ' Eesolution ' sprung her mainmast, and within a week returned to her old 
anchorage. Three days later occurred the terrible tragedy which deprived the world 
of one of its greatest seamen. 

" A week after Cook's death the ships sailed to the westward, touching at some of 

1 Vol. xiv. pp. 465 et seqq. (March 17th, 1892). 



xil INTRODUCTION. 

the intermediate islands— Mowee (Maui), Lanai, and Morotai (Molokai)— making once 
more for Atooi (Kauai) and Oneehow (Niihau), the last famous for its yams. Then, 
on March 15, they bore away again to the northward and did not return. 

"Now the object of giving here these details is to shew that the natural-history 
specimens obtained by Cook's ships were procured only on the islands of Hawaii, 
Kauai, and Niihau. This is the more needful because the first descriptions of any 
of the birds of the Sandwich Isles were given, with two exceptions, by Latham in 
his < General Synopsis of Birds,' published in 1781-85, and most of the specimens 
so described no longer exist. Some were in the British Museum or the collection of 
Sir Joseph Banks, afterwards transferred thereto; the rest were in the Leverian 
Museum. In the former, as is well known, not one remains; but fortunately, at 
the breaking up of the last in 1806, a few were bought by the then Lord Stanley, who 
(dying in 1851, as thirteenth Earl of Derby and President of the Zoological Society) 
bequeathed his collection to the town of Liverpool, and there, thanks to the care 
that has been taken of them, they still exist in fair condition. A few more were 
bought for the private collection of the then Emperor of Austria, and are still 
carefully preserved in the Museum of Vienna 1 . Of several of the species it is not 
known that any other specimens were brought to Europe until some three years 
ago. On both of Cook's previous voyages qualified naturalists had been sent ; but 
the arrangements for publishing their discoveries were so imperfect that little 
credit followed to anyone concerned. On this, his third and last voyage, there 
was no expert, though Mr. William Ellis, who in an irregularly published narrative 
calls himself ' Assistant Surgeon to both vessels,' was somewhat of a draughtsman, 
and made a series of sketches, which, becoming the property of Banks, subsequently 
passed to the British Museum. The commoner species of Sandwich-Island birds are 
generally recognizable, but others are so unhappily limned that even the word 
caricature (which always implies some likeness) seems too strong to apply to them. 
Nevertheless Mr. G. B. Gray adventured to determine all of them. 

" More than a quarter of a century passed before any further progress was made in the 
knowledge of the zoology of the Sandwich Isles, though they were visited by numerous 
ships, and in 1794 were ceded to Britain under Vancouver. In 1814 an attempt was made 
to seize them for Bussia ; and Kotzebue, whose voyage has so much scientific interest, 
Was there in 1816-17, but the accomplished naturalists, Chamisso and Eschscholtz, who 
were with him, took little heed of the fauna of the islands 2 . 

" The year 1822 saw the arrival of the more celebrated William Ellis, whose missionary 
labours throughout the Pacific and in Madagascar are so widely known. The Sandwich 
Isles had by this time fallen under the sway of the conquering Kamehameha I., whose 
son and successoi-, desirous of seeing European civilization, arrived in England in 1824 
with his wife — both to die of measles within a few weeks. The British Government 
determined to send their remains for interment in Honolulu, by that time become the 

1 See Von Pelzeln, 'Ibis,' 1873, pp. 14-54; 1874, p. 462. 

2 " The same negative results attended his second -visit in 1824-25." 



INTRODUCTION, xiii 

capital of the islands ; and accordingly H.M.S. ' Blonde,' commanded by George Anson 
seventh Lord Byron (first cousin and successor to the poet), was commissioned to 
convey the dismal freight. The duty was performed, and the islands again were ceded 
to the British Crown, but again declined. On board the ' Blonde ' sailed as chaplain 
Mr. Rowland Bloxam, together Avith his brother Andrew, who was somewhat of 
a naturalist ; and it Avas intended that the published account of her voyage should 
contain a proper appendix on the natural history of the islands. An 'Appendix' 
there indeed is, but one utterly unworthy of its reputed author, for the book was 
edited by a lady x who had nothing but a few of his notes to guide her, and though 
assisted, as it is stated, by ' the gentlemen connected with that department in the 
British Museum,' the Appendix is a disgrace to all concerned, since, so far from 
advancing the knowledge of the subject, it introduced so much confusion as to mislead 
many subsequent writers." 

Professor Newton, as above stated, wrote in 1892 ; but since that date, thanks to 
Mr. A. Boby Bloxam, of Christchurch, New Zealand, son of the naturalist on the 
'Blonde,' the authors have been allowed access to his father's original notes, and 
find from them that he obtained in the Islands 25 specimens of 9 species of Land- 
birds — one of them bearing the MS. name l Turdus woahensis." This is just mentioned 
in the ' Appendix ' to the ' Voyage ' (p. 250) as a variety of ' Turdus sandwichensis 7 
(by which name Bloxam erroneously designated Phceornis obscura 2 ) found on Oahu, 
where no species of the genus has been before or since known to exist, and it 
has doubtless been long extinct. Bloxam's description of it is: — 'Length 1\ inch. 
Upper parts olive-brown, extremities of the feathers much lighter color ; tail and 
wings brown ; bill bristled at the base ' ; while the corresponding description of 
the species from Hawaii, P. obscura, is : — ' Length 8 inches. Belly light ash ; 
back, tail, and wings an ash-brown ; bill slender, f inch long, bristled at the base. A 
beautiful songster.' 

All the specimens obtained by Mr. Andrew Bloxam, properly prepared and labelled, 
were placed at the disposal of the Lords of the Admiralty, as shewn by a copy of the 
letter he wrote to their Secretary, and probably all were sent, as some certainly were, 
to the British Museum ; but no other trace of this unique specimen of a vanished 
species, which may be properly called Phceornis oahensis, is now forthcoming. 

1 " Mrs. Maria Graham, as we learn from Dr. Smiles's ' Memoir and Correspondence of the late John 
Murray ' (London : 1891), vol. i. pp. 319-321, and vol. ii. p. 293. She was the daughter of Rear-Admiral 
Dundas, and married, first, Captain Graham, R.N., nephew of James Graham, who wrote the ' Birds of 
Scotland,' and, secondly, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Augustus Callcott, Jt.A., and was the author of several 
works." 

2 It is not possible to say with certainty what the ' Sandwich Thrush ' of Latham (Gen. Syn. ii. 
p. 39), on which was founded the Turdus sandwichensis of Gmelin (Syst. Nat. i. p. 313), may have been; 
but its length, ' 5± inches' according to Latham's description, and its white forehead preclude its being 
Phceornis obscura, though Ellis's unpublished figure (no. 77), on which '■Turdus sandwichensis' is written, 
can hardly represent anything else. It seems just possible that the bird described by Latham may have been 
Oreomyza bairdi ; but the name Turdus sandwichensis has been purposely excluded from our synonymy. 

G 



xiv INTEODUCTION. 

Professor Newton continues: — "Some years later another great opportunity was 
missed, and this time by the American traveller Townsend, who, after crossing the 
Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, sailed, in company with Nuttall, the well- 
known naturalist, for the Sandwich Islands, where they arrived in January 1835, and 
stayed nearly three months, visiting Oahu and Kauai. Returning at the end of the 
year, Townsend found the Prussian naturalist Deppe at Honolulu, and with him passed 
some time in the pursuit of natural history, visiting most of the windward islands 
before he left in March 1837 \ Among the specimens obtained by Deppe for the 
Berlin Museum were some of two species for which Lichtenstein rightly established 
a new genus — the singular form Hemignathus — and, as it has since proved, both these 
species were new, though he had not unnaturally identified one of them with a species 
described by Latham. 

" Of Townsend's collection a considerable part was given to the Academy of Natural 
Sciences at Philadelphia 2 , where it still remains; but he sent several specimens 
to Audubon, at that time, I believe, in Edinburgh, and he parted with them to 
Carfrae, a dealer there, who sold them to the late Sir William Jardine, at the dispersal 
of whose collection I was so fortunate as to secure them — some of them bearinsr 
Townsend's label — for the Museum of the University. If Townsend had but published 
a list of his captures, he would indeed have rendered a very jgood service ; but of course 
the value of island-forms, to say nothing of the fact that many of them were threatened 
with extirpation by colonization and civilization, had not then been appreciated, if even 
entertained, by naturalists. 

" In the year of Townsend's departure the French frigate ' Venus,' in the course of 
her troublous career under Du Petit-Thouars, arrived in the Sandwich Islands, with two 

1 As Townsend's work is not commonly to be met with, the following extracts may be acceptable to the 
reader. The first (pp. 207-208) refers to the island of Kauai and to the month of February 1835; the 
second (p. 269) to Oahu and to the date of January 15th, 1836 :— 

" We made here several long excursions over the hills and through the deep valleys, without much success. 
The birds are the same as those we found and collected at Oahu, but are not so numerous. They are 
principally creepers {Gerthla) and honey-suckers (Nectarinia) ; feed chiefly upon flowers, and the sweet juice 
of the banana, and some species are very abuudant. The native boys here have adopted a singular mode of 
catching the honey sucking birds. They lay themselves flat upon their backs on the ground, and cover their 
whole bodies with bushes, and the campanulate flowers of which the birds are in search. One of these flowers 
is then held by the lower portion of the tube between the fingers and the thumb ; the little bird inserts his 
long, curved bill to the base of the flower, when it is immediately seized by the fingers of the boy, and the 
little flutterer disappears beneath the mass of bushes. In this way dozens of beautiful birds are taken, and 
they are brought to us living and uninjured." 

" Several days ago Mr. Deppe and myself visited Nuano valley, where wo hired a native house, in which we 
are now living. Our object has been to procure birds, plants, &c, and we have so far been very successful. 
I have already prepared about eighty birds which I procured here." 

2 " In mentioning these facts, I desire to record my deep gratitude to the authorities of both these 
museums — Berlin and Philadelphia — for their obliging readiness in allowing me to have some of these 
valuable specimens, one of them unique, for examination." 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

naturalists, Leclancher and Neboux, on board ; and some years later the atlas of plates 
illustrating the zoology of her voyage appeared, but the text was deferred for a long 
while, and, indeed, was not completed till 1856. Herein was figured and described, 
though not for the first time, a species of the curious Hemignathus. 

" In the meanwhile the celebrated expedition of Commodore Wilkes took place, and 
he, with some of his ships, wintered there. In the course of their six months' stay, the 
naturalists attached, Pickering and Peale, seem to have made large collections; but 
nearly all was lost in the wreck of the ' Peacock,' one of the ships of the squadron. 
By 1848 Peale had completed his report on the specimens of mammals and birds col- 
lected, and it was printed off. A few copies only had been distributed, when the rest 
were destroyed by fire. It was by no means a bad performance ; and I cannot under- 
stand why the late Mr. Cassin made so many changes in it when he, ten years later, 
brought out a new edition of it. Some of them (I speak only of those relating to the 
SandAvich Island fauna) were certainly not improvements. However, a distinctly 
forward step was made by the Peale-Cassin labours ; and since few can obtain access to 
the original work, I may mention that Dr. Hartlaub considerately published an abstract 
of it \ just as two years later he did 2 of the French ' Voyage au Pole Sud,' wherein, 
having sorted out the different species observed by various voyagers on the several 
Pacific groups, he gave a useful list of those found on each, and thus he assigned to the 
Sandwich Isles thirty species of birds, marking two of them as doubtful. One of them 
is now known to be rightly included, but the other must be struck out, as well as, for 
one reason or another, four more — leaving a total of twenty -five, only sixteen of which 
are Land-birds and only fourteen Passeres. 

"Hitherto no list of the birds of the Sandwich Isles had been published, so that 
Dr. Hartlaub's met a great want, though it had of course been possible, since 1814, for 
anyone to pick out for himself the species assigned to that group from the general list 
compiled by Tiedemann (' Anatomie und Naturgeschichte der Vogel,' ii. pp. 426-436), 
and in like manner, since 1859, from Mr. G. E. Gray's useful ' Catalogue of the Birds 
of the Tropical Islands of the Pacific Ocean,' printed by order of the Trustees of the 
British Museum; but the former was obsolete, and the latter, as we now know, very 
erroneous 3 . Mr. Gray's references shew him to have been as usual a model of accuracy, 
but his judgment as an ornithologist was frequently at fault. 

"It was therefore with great pleasure that, some time in the winter of 1870-71, 
I received a copy of a ' Synopsis of the Birds hitherto described from the Hawaiian 
Islands,' which had been communicated in February 1869 to the Boston Society of 
Natural History by Mr. Dole, a resident in those islands, and had been published 
in the Society's 'Proceedings' (xii. pp. 294-309); and Mr. Sclater, who I knew 

1 " Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, 1852, Heft i. pp. 93-138." 

2 "Journal fiir Oruithologie, 1854, pp. 160-171." 

3 " Many of its worst errors are doubtless due to the loss, before mentioned, of the type specimens, which had 
been suffered by the Museum long before Mr. G. R. Gray was connected with it. Latham, in 1821, had already 
lamented their decay." 

c2 



xvi INTEODTJCTIOK 

bad long taken an interest in the ornithology of the group, lost no time in noticing 
this very important publication (Ibis, 1871, pp. 356-362), adding thereto some 
valuable observations. This list has naturally proved a serviceable foundation for 
future work. Forty-eight species were included, the author stating that this number 
'probably comprises but little more than half the avifauna of the group.' That 
the list should be free from error was not to be expected, and a revised version 
of it, published in the ' Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1879 ' (pp. 41-58), 
corrected some of the mistakes ; but it was an honest piece of work, doing credit to 
its compiler. 

"In the meanwhile, however, the historic voyage of H.M.S. 'Challenger' had 
commenced, and one of the places at which she was to call was the Sandwich Islands. 
Of course the main object of her voyage was the exploration of the depths of the sea; 
nevertheless, the terrestrial zoology of the countries visited, though forming a very 
subordinate part of the original plan, was not to be wholly neglected — nor was it in 
this case, for during the three weeks she stayed in Hawaiian waters (July 27th to 
August 19th, 1875) her officers availed themselves to some extent of the opportunity 
of studying the ornithology of the islands, though it does not appear that they had 
received any special instruction in regard to our imperfect knowledge of it. Here, 
then, was another great chance lost ; for had those who drew up the directions for the 
scientific members of the Expedition taken the trouble to acquaint themselves with the 
particular points on which investigation was needed, so as to indicate the lines on which 
further research was desirable, no doubt some one of the ' Challenger's ' staff would have 
supplied, even in the short time of her stay, some of the missing facts, or at least would 
have thrown some light on the subject. As it was, the collection was reported as 
* small' (twenty-four bird-skins and no specimen in spirit), and 'containing nothing 
absolutely new except a single species of Anas,' afterwards named A. wyvilliana (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 350). The late Prof. Moseley, in his 'Notes of a Naturalist 
on the ' Challenger," stated (p. 514) that the last excursion on shore of his colleague, 
Von Willemos-Suhm, was at Hilo in Hawaii with a native guide, ' in pursuit of the 
interesting endemic birds,' and that 'almost the last notes he wrote were some on 
the Sandwich Islands, relating especially to the birds,' but these notes, which have been 
kindly entrusted to me by Sir John Murray, F.R.S., unfortunately prove to contain no 
information of any interest — for the writer had evidently never been informed as to the 
many points to which his attention might have been profitably directed." 
What next followed may also best be recorded in Prof. Newton's words : — 
" Having myself felt a good deal of interest in the avifauna of the Sandwich Isles — 
which, like that of many other islands throughout the world, was, as I had learnt, 
threatened with extirpation, chiefly in consequence of the destruction of the forests — 
I could not fail to be disappointed at the meagre results obtained by our people on this 
celebrated cruise, when it would have been so easy for them to have done better had 
their attention been duly called, and I cast about in several directions to find some 



INTKODUCTION. xvii 

suitable person to visit the islands with the view of investigating their ornithology in a 
thorough way. My young friend Mr. Scott Barchard AVilson (son of the well-known 
Mr. George Wilson, F.R.S.) — of whose taste for natural history I was well assured by 
his residence in my own College, by his journey to Portugal with Dr. Gadow, and by 
his subsequent sojourn in Switzerland (Ibis, 1887, pp. 130-150) — willingly took up 
the enterprise, and left Liverpool on February 24th, 1887, for Honolulu, where he 
arrived on April 8th, having on his way paid a visit to Washington to confer with 
Dr. Stejneger, whose name had already appeared in connexion with the birds of the 
Sandwich Isles. Mr. Wilson stayed in the islands until towards the close of the 
following year. He brought back such a collection as had never before been made 
there ; but, rich as it was in some respects, defects became apparent as it was gradually 
worked out, and some of these defects were so grave that, until they were remedied, 
no complete list of the avifauna could be formed. However, he had done a great deal 
more than anybody before him l : he had ascertained the precise localities of nearly all 
the birds hitherto known, and added to them not inconsiderably — -fourteen new species 
or local forms of Passeres, two of which required generic acknowledgment — all, it 
needs not to say, being peculiar to the islands, and mostly to one particular island 
only. 

" But Mr. Wilson was not content, as so many collectors in foreign countries are, with 
preserving only the skins of the birds he procured. He was careful to obtain specimens 
in spirit of all the important existing types ; and these, when properly subjected 
to examination by Dr. Gadow, led to some remarkable results. They are contained in 
a dissertation ' On the Structure of certain Hawaiian Birds, with reference to their 
Systematic Position,' contributed by Dr. Gadow to Mr. Wilsons work (Part II.). Most 
of the land-birds of the Sandwich Islands had been, at one time, thought to belong to the 
Melipliagidce, or Honey-suckers — a family very characteristic of the Australian region, 
and known to be very polymorphic. It was thought to be still more so; and the 
surmise had been acted upon, so that some Finch-looking birds, Psittacirostra and 
Loxioides, had been supposed to be Honey-suckers in disguise, and classed accordingly. 
Dr. Gadow shewed that this supposition was wholly erroneous, and at the date of his 
article considered, from the material in his hands, that these last, together with another 
form, Chloridops — one of Mr. Wilson's discoveries — were true Fringillidce; while, out 
of the whole Hawaiian avifauna, only two genera could be referred to the Meliphagidce, 
namely, Acrulocercus (Moho of some writers) and Chcetoptila, the last being presumably 

1 " I have no desire to overlook the services of Mr. Valdcmar Knudsen, of Kauai, who sent thence to the 
United States National Museum several collections, the most important of which was described by Dr. Stejneger 
in the ' Proceedings ' of that institution for 1887 (pp. 75-1.02), the year of Mr. Wilson's arrival in the islands. 
The Doctor's paper is of the exhaustive character to which one is accustomed in all his productions, and has 
been of considerable use in working out Mr. Wilson's collections, while these have enabled the latter to correct 
several mistakes — under the circumstances quite pardonable — made by the former, who subsequently described 
in the same ' Proceedings' (xii. pp. 377-386) another collection from the same quarter." 



xviii INTEODUCTION. 

extinct. All the other forms which had been accounted Meliphagine presented 
a peculiar structure of tongue forbidding that alliance, or any affinity to the 
Prionopidce, Dicceidcv, or Nectariniidce, but revealing a distinct relationship to 
the Ccerebidce— now known as a family characteristic of the Neotropical Region! 
Hereby a beam of light was thrown on the origin and derivation of the ornithic 
population of the Sandwich Islands. The distinct inference was that the first stock 
of their existing avifauna was received from America, in days when the range of the 
Ccerebidce extended further to the northward than it does at present, and that certain 
cognates or ancestors of the present Ccerebidce colonized the islands, there differentiating 
into the modern Drepanididce. The importance of this inference on views that are held 
as to the geographical distribution of birds in North America is a subject into which 
there is no need here to enter, for that would be a subject foreign to my present 
remarks ; but I doubt not it will receive due attention from American ornithologists, 
whom it most nearly concerns. 

" That these colonists, from what I have elsewhere ventured to term a ' Columbian ' 
fauna — since it cannot literally be called a Neotropical one, and is certainly not 'Nearctic' 
— were the earliest settlers which have left descendants one can hardly doubt, for they 
have existed in the Sandwich Islands long enough to undergo a great amount of 
change. Subsequently there has been a small infusion of blood from the ' Australian 
Region.' I say subsequently, because Dr. Gadow has shewn that this immigration has 
undergone comparatively little modification. We have (or had) the two Meliphagine 
genera Acrulocercus and Chcetojotila — the latter, indeed, beyond anatomical examination, 
but shewing no very great external deviation from well-known Australian types ; while 
the former undoubtedly retains the normal Meliphagine tongue. To these may be 
added Chasiempis, a well-marked genus ; but, without question, very nearly allied to 
the genus Rhipidura, so widely spread over the Australian Region, and found also in 
New Zealand. Thus three genera constitute, so far as I am able to see, the 'Australian ' 
element in the avifauna of the Sandwich Islands — and what are they among so many 
others % x 

" More recently than this Australian infusion has supervened an influx of Holarctic 
types, and especially of the Fringillidce. Whether these have arrived from America or 
Asia, I do not pretend to say ; but the long chain of islets running to the westward — 
one of which produces a remarkable form (Telespiza cantans), the knowledge of which 
we also owe to Mr. Wilson (Ibis, 1890, pp. 339-341, pi. ix.) — suggests the possibility 
of an Asiatic origin, a possibility confirmed by the consideration that his fine Chloridops 
Jcona may be the magnified descendant of the long-known Chloris kawarahiba, which 
has already an enterprising relative, C. Mttlitzi (Ibis, 1890, p. 101), established in the 
JBonin Islands. Still later must have been the appearance on the scene of members of 
the genera Corvus and JButeo, both of which are, so far as is yet known, confined to 

1 " In connexion herewith may be noticed the absence of Parrots, Kingfishers, and Doves — all families that 
are very characteristic of an ' Anstralian' fauna." 



INTRODUCTION, xix 

Hawaii, the most eastern of the islands, and therefore suggest an emigration from the 
Nearctic area. These have been settled long enough to assume recognizable specific 
characters ; but an apparently more modern colonist exists in Asio accipitrinus, the 
common Short-eared Owl of Asia, Europe, and North America, which extends its 
range over many islands in the Pacific Ocean, so far at least as the Galapagos, 
and has found a permanent home in the Sandwich Isles, breeding there, as it 
would seem, regularly— as it does in England, when permitted by the gamekeepers. 
More than this, there is an indication that the tendency to colonization from the 
Holarctic region still continues. Within an hour or two of his leaving the islands, 
there was sent to Mr. Wilson a freshly-killed example of Circus hudsonius — the 
American Hen-Harrier — a species which he had already ascertained to have before 
occurred in the group ; but, not being recognized by Judge Dole, it had been endowed 
with a new name, and figures in his second list as Accipiter hawaii. The existence in 
considerable numbers of a Californian species of Carpodacus is thought, and no 
doubt rightly, by Mr. Wilson to be due to human agency, and accordingly I do not 
attach any importance to that fact ; but there is one very puzzling species, of which 
only a few specimens seem to have been preserved, that needs particular attention. 
This was described by Judge Dole under the name of ' Fringilla anna,' but, of course, 
is no true Fringilla. Mr. Wilson brought home but a single specimen, which he 
owed to the kindness of the Hon. C. R. Bishop, it having been formerly in the Mills 
Collection, and subsequently established for it a new genus, Ciridops — so named 
because its bright coloration recalls the well-known Fmberiza ciris of Linngeus, the 
Painted Bunting of authors, or 'Nonpareil' of bird-dealers. It is supposed to be 
now almost if not quite extinct, but it was truly a native species. It probably belongs 
to the fauna which I have above called ' Columbian ' ; but I cannot suppose it to have 
been so early a settler as the Drepanididce, since it has changed so little. 

" There remains of land-birds the genus Fkceornis, which earlier systematists were 
inclined to put among the Flycatchers {Muscicapidce). The examples in spirit, placed 
by Mr. Wilson at Dr. Gadow's disposal, have enabled the latter to set aside that view, 
and to show that, of all the families to which this genus has been supposed to be 
allied, ' it differs least from the TurdidcB' and he would regard it ' as a generalized 
or rather primitive Thrush '" 1 . 

From the summer of 1889 Professor Newton had been urging Mr. Wilson to return 
to the Islands and complete their ornithological exploration ; for it was obvious that 
much remained to do, and what he had done gave promise of still more important 
results. Mr. Wilson being then unable to arrange for a second visit, Prof. Newton 
brought the subject before the British Association at the Leeds Meeting in September 
1890, and obtained the appointment of a Committee, with Prof, (now Sir William) 

] "A minute anatomical comparison with the New Zealand Turnagra would be desirable." 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

Flower as Chairman and Dr. David Sharp as Secretary, to investigate the Fauna of the 
Islands, the sum of £100 being voted to assist their labours. On this slender bene- 
faction a gentleman offered his services to proceed immediately to the Islands as an 
ornithological collector, and Prof. Newton was very anxious that they should be 
accepted 1 ; but the Committee thought it advisable to obtain further pecuniary help, 
especially from the Hawaiian Government, and through the delay entailed in negotia- 
tions to this end the grant was allowed to lapse, and thus a whole year was lost, though 
meanwhile, in 1891, the Government Grant Committee of the Royal Society had 
voted £200 for the same purpose. In August of that year the British Association 
re-appointed the Sandwich Islands Committee, renewing the grant and empowering it 
to co-operate with the Committee appointed by the Royal Society. The Joint 
Committee thus formed met and, from several candidates, selected Mr. R. C. L. Perkins, 
B.A., of Jesus College, Oxford, as their collector, and that gentleman accordingly left 
England for Honolulu, where he arrived in March 1892, and remained diligently 
exploring the various islands until the end of the summer of 1894, when he returned to 
England ; but, at the request of the Joint Committee, again departed early in the 
following year, reaching Honolulu in March 1895, and stayed in the Islands for two 
years longer, the expenses incurred during the later portion of his time being defrayed 
almost wholly by the Trustees of the Berniae Pauahi Bishop Museum. His collections 
in all branches of zoology are very large, and the results are being by degrees published ; 
but here it is only necessary to mention his ornithological achievements. The loss of 
the season of 1891 was unfortunate for the credit of the Joint Committee ; for many 
discoveries which its collector, had one been sent out in that year, could not have 
failed making fell to the lot of the persons employed by Mr. Rothschild in 1890-92, 
and the only new species of bird discovered by Mr. Perkins was the Drepanis funerea, 
which, thanks to the Joint Committee, was first figured in the present work ; but that 
gentleman brought back a very fine series of almost every other species now existing in 
the Islands, of which the first set has been deposited in the British Museum, the second 
and third in the Museums of Cambridge and Honolulu respectively. The specimens 
obtained by Mr. Rothschild's collectors are, naturally, at Tring. Mr. Perkins was most 
successful on his second visit in obtaining specimens of several species not found on his 
first expedition, owing to want of time. 

The " Further Remarks on the Relationships of the Drepanididse " with which 
Dr. Gadow has favoured this work contribute not a little to the difficulty of the 
Authors in determining the systematic position of many of the forms of Passeres 
described in the following pages. That these " Remarks " contain valuable considera- 
tions is obvious ; but it will be observed that the Doctor, in arriving at his latest 
conclusions, expresses himself with some caution, and the Authors would exercise a 

1 When it is mentioned that this gentleman was Mr, Lionel W. "Wiglesworth, who subsequently compiled 
the ' Aves Polynesise/ and has been, with Dr. A. B. Meyer of Dresden, joint author of ' The Birds of Celebes,' 
the wish to accept his offer may be thought justified. 



INTRODUCTION, xxt 

similar becoming reserve in accepting those conclusions as final. Still it seems on the 
whole best to follow them, based as they are on Mr. Perkins's experience in the field. 
It is a very old supposition that some of the Finch-like forms were Meliphagine, and 
though that is now proved to be erroneous, those who accepted that view may well be 
content to regard those forms as Drepanid ; while Mr. Sclater will be pleased to 
find his conclusions (Ibis, 1879, p. 91) as to their relationships to Drepanis and 
Hemignathus corroborated. On the other hand, looking to the unsatisfactory way 
in which the Passeres are unavoidably grouped at present, some systematists may 
demur to the removal of such a genus as Chloridops from the Finches, until a far more 
exhaustive study of the Fringillidce and their presumed allies shall have been made. 

Leaving this question for future solution, it must here be remarked that of the species 
attributed in the present work to the genus Himatione, H. sanguined, which is the type 
of that genus, should in Mr. Perkins's opinion alone remain in it \ while those with 
straight bill (II. maculata, II. montana, H. mana, and II. newtoni) — though not 
//. parva — together with Loxops flammea, should be referred to Oreomyza 2 , and 
those with a curved bill should be placed in a new genus Chlorodrepanis, which he thus 
characterizes : — 

" Primaries pointed and not truncate at the apex ; nasal opercula with bristles 
at the base and not overhung by antrorse feathers; brush tongue thin and 
tubular; second primary a little shorter than the third ; bill curved." 

Hence we have : — Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, C. chloris, C. chloridoides, C. kalaana, 
C. virens, C. wilsoni ; Oreomyza bairdi, 0. flammea, 0. maculata, 0. montana, 0. mana, 
0. newtoni. 

Himatione parva, though having a straight bill, Mr. Perkins now wishes to keep 
apart from Oreomyza, and to place it in a genus by itself as Eothschildia parva, while 
he would also recognize Heterorhynchus as a genus distinct from Hemignathus. On 
the other hand he would include Chrysomitridops with Loxops, as would Mr. Rothschild, 
and his idea of a natural arrangement of the Hrepanididceh in two groups as follows : — 

1. Drepanis, Vestiaria, Palmeria, Himatione, Ciridops. 

2. Chlorodrepanis, Eothschildia, Viridonia, Oreomyza, Loxops, Hemignathus, 

Heterorhynchus, Pseudonestor, Psittacirostra, Loxio'ides, Telespiza, Bhoda- 
canthis, Chloridops ; 

for reasons which he thus assigns : — 

" Chlorodrepanis in reality is much more closely allied to Viridonia and Hemignathus than to Himatione, 
the feathers of which, it may be observed, are in certain parts of very different structure. Oreomyza is at once 



1 H. freethi of the island of Laysan forming a second species. 

2 Mr. Rothschild, writing in 1893 (' Avifauna of Laysan '), and Mr. Perkins in 1895 (' Ibis *), for the most 
part agree as to the species to be placed in this genus ; so that although most of the experience of the latter 
dates from 1892, Mr. Eothschild was first to publish the facts. 

d 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

distinguished by the very different form of tongue, as well as external characters ; Hemignathus by the long 
beak, and absence of bristles at the base of the nasal opercula ; Loccops by the short thick beak and long forked 
tail. Viridonia is hardly more than a large stoutly built species of the genus, slightly more aberrant in one 
direction than H. parva is in the other, both retaining the characteristic song of the normal species but little 
modified. The truncate apices of the primaries throw together the genera Himatione, Vestiaria, Drepanis, and 
probably Ciridops— the latter not being available for examination ; and it is noteworthy that the young of all 
these birds are wholly or in part of black plumage, as also in Palmeria, which on that account, and for its 
evident relationship to Himatione, must be referred to the same section, although differing in the form of the 
primaries. All the other Drepanididce are green or greyish-green in the immature condition, and all have 
pointed primaries." 

A few words may here be added as to the progress of our knowledge of the Avifauna, 
and in particular of the Passerine Fauna, of the islands. When Mr. Wilson first 
visited them in 1887, the species of Passeres known to exist, or to have existed, were 
those marked in the Table on p. xxii by a cross prefixed to them — Himantopus Jcnudseni, 
Chasiempis sclateri, Phwornis myiadestina, Oreomyza bairdi, and 0. (Bothschildia) 
parva having been recently described by Mr. Eidgway and Dr. Stejneger. To these 
Mr. Wilson was enabled to add the following :—Ch loridops Jcona, Chrysomitridops 
casruleirostris, Chasiempis gayi, Oreomyza mana, 0. montana, Chlorodrepanis Jcalaana, 
C. chloridoides, C. stejnegeri ( = Himatione chloris, Stejneger, from Kauai), Hemignathus 
procerus, H lichtensteini, Heterorhynchus wilsoni 1 , H. hanapepe, Oreomyza fiammea, 
Phceornis lanaiensis. Two Petrels mentioned by Mr. Dole have proved to be Oceano- 
droma castro of Harcourt, and (Estrelata phceopygia of Salvin, and a Shearwater 
described by Dr. Stejneger to be Puffinus cuneatus of Salvin. 

Besides the above, Mr. Wilson had procured a specimen of another fine form (his 
Telespiza cantans) which had been captured in Laysan, whence T. flavissima was 
subsequently brought by Palmer; and had shot in Maui a young example of a 
bird, which he named at the time Himatione dolii, but which proved to be so distinct, 
when the adult was secured by Palmer, that Mr. Rothschild created for it the genus 
Palmeria. Clioetoptila angustipluma and Acrulocercus apicalis were not obtained by 
any of the explorers mentioned. 

Mr. Perkins, as already stated, was fortunate enough to discover another member 
of the genus Brepanis (D. funerea), and to procure many of the new species that 
Mr. Rothschild's collectors, Palmer and Munro, between them brought to light, 
namely, the marvellous Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Bhodacanthis palmeri, R. Jlaviceps, 
Oreomyza newtoni, Chlorodrepanis wilsoni, Hemignathus lanaiensis, Heterorhynchus 
affinis, Phceomis palmeri, Acrulocercus hishopi, and Viridonia sagittirostris. 

1 Described and figured in the present work as H. olivaceus, in the belief that it was the species so named 
by Lafresnaye ; but subsequently shewn by Mr. Rothschild to be distinct, and called by him H. wilsoni. 
Since the publication of Part V. (where, under the heading of H. lucidus, this matter is mentioned) 
Lafresnaye's type, which for a time was misplaced in the Boston Museum, has been discovered there 
with the rest of his collection, and in December 1896 was kindly submitted to our inspexion by 
Professor Hyatt. 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

The appended Table, shewing the Distribution in the principal Islands of the species 
of the Order Passeres, tells its own story ; but the fact must be emphasized that every 
one of them is peculiar to the group — that is to say, not found elsewhere. In addition 
to these (fifty-three in number), there is one peculiar species of Accipitres, two of 
Anseres, one of Limicolce, and apparently there were four of Rallidce — two being now 
extinct, — making the whole number of peculiar species of Birds amount to sixty. 
Indeed, setting aside the sea-birds, there seem to be but two breeding species — the 
Short-eared Owl (Asio accipitrinus) and the Night-Heron (Nycticorax griseus) — which are 
also inhabitants of other lands, and these two have possibly the widest range of their 
respective Families. This remarkable amount of peculiarity well deserves the attention 
of all interested in the problems of Geographical Distribution, and especially of those 
who study that subject in the light it casts on the history of the globe. Those students 
must also be reminded, as already briefly stated by Prof. Newton, that of the resident 
land-forms of the Sandwich Islands there is only one genus, Chasiempis, which is allied 
to any that are characteristic of the Islands of the Pacific Ocean in general, though 
there are two, Acrulocercus and Chwtoptila, not far removed from forms peculiar to the 
continent of Australia. These facts, combined with the absence of Parrots, Kingfishers, 
and Doves — all so characteristic of the South Sea Islands, — are very significant, and 
seem to indicate that the Hawaiian Archipelago should be no longer included in what 
most authors have called the " Australian Region." 

It remains to be stated that, as before announced to the Subscribers of this work, 
Mr. Wilson made a second visit to the Islands in 1896, but no new species were then 
discovered. 



Table showing the Distribution of Birds of the Order Passekes in the 
Sandwich Islands. 



CoKVID.E. 



X Corvus tropicus 



DEEPANIDIBiE. 



X Drepanis pacifica 

„ funerea 

X Vestiaria coccinea 

Palmeria dolii 

xHimatione sanguinea 1 , 

X Ciridops anna 

Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri . , 
X „ chloris . . . . 

„ chlorido'ides 

„ kalaana 

X „ virens 

„ wilsoni 

X Pothschildia parva 

Viridonia sagittirostris 

X Oreomyza bairdi 

„ flammea 

„ newtoni 

X ,, maculata 

„ montana 



„ mana 

X Loxops coccinea 

X „ rufa 

X „ aurea 

Chrysomitridops cseruleirostris 

Hemignathus procerus 

„ lichtensteini 

X „ obscurus 2 

„ lanaiensis 3 

X Heterorhynchus lucidus 

„ wilsoni 

„ affinis 

„ banapepe . . . . 

Pseudonestor xantbophrys . . . . 

X Psitfcacirostra psittacea 

X Loxio'ides bailleui 

Phodacanthis palmeri 

„ flaviceps 

Chloridops kona 



MBLIPHAGIDiE. 

X Acrulocercus braccatus 

X „ apicabs 



nobilis 



X Cbsetoptila angustipluma . . . . 
Tuedid^e (?). 

X Phseornis myiadestina 

„ lanaiensis 4 

X „ obscura , 

„ palmeri 

oahuensis , 



MlJSCICAPIDiE. 

xChasiempis sandvicensis 

gayi •; 

sclateri 



Maui. Hawaii 



* 
t 



Total for eacb island 



13 



10 



9 



20 



All tbe species above-named are peculiar to tbe group, i. e. not found elsewbere. A * indicates that tbe 
species inhabits the island whose name heads the column. A f shews that the species is believed to be 
extinct ; a X that the species was known before Mr. Wilson's visit in 1887. 

1 See text for Himatione freethi, Teleapiza cantans, and T . flavissima of Laysan. 

2 Mr. Dole, doubtless in error, adds Maui to the habitat. 

3 Mr. Rothschild states that he has strong presumptive evidence of the former occurrence of a species of 
Heterorhynchus on Lanai. 

4 A species which formerly abounded in Maui was probably identical with this. 



INTRODUCTION. 



SPECIES OF BIRDS. 



A. Obtained accidentally on the Sandwich Islands ; or found in the immediate neighbourhood, 
and especially on the Laysan group. 

Authorities. Locality. 



Species. 
Telespiza can tans . 

Telespiza jlavissim a 



Himatione freethi 

Acrocephalus familiaris . 

Larus, sp. indet 

Porzanula palmeri 



Bernicla nigricans . 
Bernicla minima . 



Chen hyperhoreus 
Anas laysanevisis 



Sulci leucogaster (sulci) 



Sulci piscator 

Sula cyanops 

(Estrelata hypoleuca 
Pujfinus nativitatis 



Diomeclea albatrus (chinensis) 
Diomeclea nigripes 



Mr. S.B.Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 341. \ ^ 
Hon. W.Rothschild (from Palmer). J 
Ditto (ditto), Ann. & Mag. N. H. x. 

1892, p. 110. J 

Ditto (ditto), torn. cit. p. 109. 

Kittlitz, Mus. Senckenb. i. p. 124. 
Hon. W. Rothschild (from Palmer), 

Ann. & Mag. N. H. ix. 1892, 

p. 247. 
Ditto (ditto), in litt. 

(Originally recorded as B. munroi, 

sp. n., Ann. & Mag. N. H. x. 1892, 

p. 108.) 
Hon. W. Rothschild (from Palmer), 

in litt. 
Ditto (ditto), Bull. Br. Orn. Club, i. 

1892, p. xvii. 

Ditto (ditto), Avif. Laysan, p. 29. 



p. 27. 
p. 25. 
p. 49. 
p. 45. 



? Kittlitz (from Isen- 
beck), Mus. Senckenb. 
i. p. 125. 



? Kittlitz (from Isen- 
beck),Mus. Senckenb. 
i. p. 124. 



p. 55. 



Described by Audubon in 1839 (Orn 
a specimen obtained by Townsend. 



Kittlitz (from Iseu- 

beck), Mus. Senckenb. 

i. p. 124. 
? Kittlitz (from Isen- 

beck),Mus. Senckenb. 

i. p. 123. 



Kittlitz (from Isen- 

beck),Mus. Senckenb. 

i. p. 124. 
Kittlitz (from Isen- 

beck), Mus. Senckenb. 

i. p. 120. 
. Biogr. v. p. 327) from 



Sterna bcrgii 



B. Recorded, but not yet corroborated. 
j Mr. Dole, Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 306. 



Laysan Island. 



Laysan group. 
Laysan Island 

a,nd(jide Kittlitz) 

Lisiansky. 

Kauai. 



Laysan Island 
and {fide Kittlitz) 
Lisiansky. 

Laysan group and 
off Niihau. 



Laysan group. 
Laysan Island. 



Laysan group and 
off Niihau. 

Lat. 30° 44' N., 
long. 146° W., in 
the Pacific. 



Sandwich Islands 



C. Apparently occurring, but of which the identity cannot be at present determined. 
Dr. Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 79. 



Charcidrms "like C. liiaticula." 
Gallinago " like G. scolopacina. v 



Maui, Sandwich 
Islands. 



I). Imported from other Countries. 



Passer domesticus. 
Carpoclacus frontalis. 
Acridotlieres tristis? 
Turtur chinensis. 
Tame Pigeons. 
Powls, &c, &c. 






ERRATA and ADDENDA. 



Acrulocerctjs nobilis, p. 6, 1. 2, add " under tail-coverts yellow." 

Ph^oenis obscttra, p. 1, 1. 14, add " Specimens were obtained by tbe ' Challenger ' Expedition.' 
For Chrysomitridops c^ruleorostris (on Plate) read " Chrtsohitridops cjeruieirostris." 
Psittaoirostra psittacea, p. 2, 1. 15, after " Verzeicbniss " add " der Doubletten." 

[The deduction is therefore erroneous.] 

AcRtrtocERCus apicalis, p. 2, 9 lines from bottom : " The striated appearance noticeable.' 

This should be transferred to A. bishopi. 







P'.W F!.'o]ia"wfc del. etTith.. 



C RVU S TROPICUS. 



West,Uewmaxn imp 



COKVUS TKOPICUS. 

ALALA. 



"Tropic Crow," Lath. Gen. Synops. i. p. 384 (1781). 

" Raven," King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. pp. 119, 161 (1784). 

Corvus tropicus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 372 (1788) ; Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 157 (1790) ; Domi- 

dorff, Orn. Beytr. i. p. 372 (1794) ; Shaw, Zool. vii. p. 355 (1809) ; Tiedemann, Anat. 

Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 432 (1814) ; Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde,' p. 250 (1826) ; Hartlaub, Arch. 

f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 133 ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 25 (1859). 
? Cracticus ater, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. v. p. 356 (1816). 
Corvus hawaiiensis, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 106, pi. xxviii* (1848) ; Hartlaub, ut 

supra, pp. 102, 133; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 119, pi. vi* (1858) ; 

G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 24 (1859) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 300 (1869) ; 

id. Hawaiian Alman. p. 48 (1879) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, pp. 359, 360; id. op. cit. 1879, p. 92 ; 

Sharpe, Cat.B. Br. Mus. iii. p. 13, note (1877). 
Corvus {Physocorax) hawaiiensis et tropicus, G. R. Gray, Hand-1. B. ii. p. 14 (1870). 



Figures notabiles. 



There can be no doubt that the " Ravens " mentioned by King in his account of 
Cook's last voyage as having been met with at Kakooa in Hawaii are to be referred to 
this bird, specimens of which must have reached England about that period, for Latham 
described his Tropic Crow in 1781 from an example brought from Hawaii in the collec- 
tion of Sir Joseph Banks, which from the details appears to have been a pied specimen. 
Peale's Corvus hawaiiensis is of course identical, since this is the only species in the 
island. 

Bloxam noticed this species in his account of the voyage of the ' Blonde,' and Peale 
procured several examples during the United States Exploring Expedition ; but as these 
were lost in the wreck of the 'Peacock,' the latter must be considered fortunate to have 
so readily obtained the loan of two others from Dr. J. K. Townsend, which were sent 
from Kaawaloa by Mr. Forbes, a missionary at Karakakoa Bay, and were afterwards 
deposited in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy. Cassin, however, while 
remarking upon the uniform cinereous tinge visible in Peale's examples, and upon their 
small dimensions, did not consider them to belong to Corvus tropicus of Gmelin, which 
is founded on Latham's Tropic Crow, but surmised that they might be the C. australis 
of the former author. 

This interesting bird, well known to the natives by its name of Alala — the strict 
signification of which is the cry made by any young animal — is fairly common in the 

u 



L , 



district of Kona on Hawaii, where it ranges from 1100 to 6000 feet and probably 
higher. As Peale observes, in his excellent account, " They frequent the woody district 
of the interior, seldom, if ever, visiting the coast." 

In the ohia forests, a few miles above Kaawaloa (celebrated as being the spot where 
Captain Cook fell), I found this bird numerous in the month of June, by which time 
the brood had already left the nest. A friend, extremely clever at imitating sounds, 
was able, by carefully concealing himself and then mimicking the cry of the young 
Alala, to collect round him in a short time many of the old birds ; he had found a 
nest at the end of April, which he informed me was a large loosely-fashioned structure 
of dead sticks, resembling that of a Pigeon, placed in a Pandanus. The Alala seems 
to feed principally on the fruit of the Ieie {Freycinetia arborea), but no doubt, when 
occasion serves, takes the young of the various forest birds. Peale remarks in this 
connection : — " We noticed that the smaller species of birds were kept in great terror 
by the presence of the Alala ; from this we infer that, like other crows, they will rob 
nests of their eggs, and when an opportunity offers eat the old birds also : such was 
their character given to us by the natives." 

I was assured by the islanders that they collect in large numbers and feed on the 
sheep occasionally found dead from natural causes or killed by wild dogs, which animals 
are said only to suck the blood, leaving the carcass otherwise intact. 

The Alala is a noisy species, and Peale remarks that " its voice closely resembles 
that of the North-American Fish-Crow, C. ossifragus." It is far from wild ; and I 
secured a specimen by a shot from my 28-bore when on the back of a steady-going 
mule, as we were riding through the forests. It seems to be restricted to two districts 
of Hawaii — Kona and Kau ; personally I only observed it in the former, but was 
assured, on the authority of a friend who resided in Kau, of its presence there as well. 
At Puuanahulu — a veritable oasis surrounded by lava-flows — I shot several examples ; 
but this spot, though many miles distant from Kaawaloa, is still in the district of Kona. 

Description. — Adult male. Entire plumage dusky brown, almost black on the head and 
neck, somewhat lighter on the tail and wings, the quills of the latter being of a rusty 
brown, with the shafts of the feathers white. Irides dark hazel ; bill bluish black, 
lighter at the tip ; nostrils covered with glossy black bristle-like feathers ; feet black, 
yellowish underneath. 

Dimensions. — Adult male. Total length 19 inches, wing from carpal joint 13-50, 
culmen 2-50, tarsus 2-50, tail 8-50. 

The total length of an adult female is 17*25 inches, while the other parts are 
proportionately smaller than in the male. In plumage the sexes do not differ. 

Immature specimens have the whole plumage of a more rusty shade, and the 
primaries light ochreous. 




F.WFroWwkdfil.etlith. 



DREPANIS PACIFIQA , 



DBEPANIS PACIFICA. 

MAMO. 



"Great Hook-billed Creeper," Latham, Gen. Synops. i. p. 703 (1782) ; id. Suppl. p. 126 (1787). 

" ? Hoohoo," King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119, par tim (1784). 

Certhia pacifica, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 470 (1788); Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 281 (1790); 

Donndorff, Orn. Beytr. i. p. 621 (1794) ; Shaw, Zool. viii. p. 227 (1812) ; Tiedemann, Anat. 

Naturgesch. Vog. iv. p. 431 (1814) ; Peale,U.S.Expl.Exped., Birds, p. 149 (1848); Hartlaub, 

Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 109; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Expecl., Mamm. & Orn. p. 171 

(1858). 
" Le Hoho," Vieillot, Ois. Dores, ii. p. 124, pi. lxiii * (1802) ; Lesson, Compl. Buffon, ix. p. 156 

(1837). 
u Grimpereau a long bee des iles Sandwich," parlim, Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xvii. 

p. 97 (1804, 5). 
"Le Merops jaunoir," Levaillant, Hist, des Prornerops et des Guepiers, p. 45, pi. xix.* (1807). 
Melithreptus pacificus, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xiv. p. 323 (1817) ; id. Encycl. Meth., 

Ornithol. p. 602 (1823) ; Cuvier, Regne Anim. e'd. 2, i. p. 433 (1829) ; J. E. Gray (Griffith), 

Anim. Kingd. vii. p. 358 (1829). 
Drepanis pacifica, Temminck, Man. d'Orn. i. p. lxxxvi (1820) ; G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 96 (1847) ; 

id. Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 7 (1859); id. Hand-list, i. p. 113 (1869) [" Friendly Islands " !] ; 

Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 403 (1850) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 131 ; 

Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 253, pi. 611. figs. 3828, 3829 * (1853) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. 

Soc. N. H. xii. p. 297 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 45 ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 368; 

id. op. cit. 1879, p. 92; Sundevall, Tentam. p. 48 (1872) ; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, 

p. 26; id. Ibis, 1873, p. 21; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 5 (1885); S. B. Wilson, Ibis, 

1890, p. 178. 
Vestiaria hoho, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 269. 



* Figurce notabiles. 

This species, the Great Hook-billed Creeper of Latham, was first described in the 
' General Synopsis ' from two examples in the Leverian Museum, said to be male and 
female, which are now, according to Herr von Pelzeln, in the Imperial Museum at 
Vienna. In the main text of Latham's work the bird is erroneously stated to inhabit 
the " Friendly Islands, in the South Seas," though this slip is rectified in the ' Supple- 
ment,' where it is said to be " common at Owhyhee and called by the natives Hoohoo." 
Vieillot, nevertheless, in the ' Oiseaux Dores ' makes a fresh blunder by giving the 
habitat as ' Owhihee, Iles des Amis," and G. R. Gray in his ' Hand-list ' repeats the 
mistake as far as the islands are concerned. The specimens thus brought to notice 
were no doubt derived from the spoils of the early explorers of the Pacific, and King 
mentions the " Hoohoo " in his account of Cook's last voyage ; but as this name appears 

L 



to have been used for Acrulocercus nobilis also, the yellow feathers of which were 
applied to the same purposes of cloak manufacture, it cannot be confidently averred 
which of the two was intended by the author ; yet, if it be true that Drepanis was 
common at Hawaii at that period, the voyagers can hardly have failed to meet with it 
there during their seven weeks' stay. 

The first scientific appellation was that of Certhia pacijica, bestowed by Gmelin in 
1788; while it is somewhat remarkable that no figure of so fine a bird should have 
been published before the time of Vieillot, who took his illustration from one of the 
examples described by Latham, a drawing of which, by Sydenham Edwards, was lent 
to him by Parkinson, then owner of the Leverian Museum. An earlier drawing by 
Ellis (No. 27) is, however, still to be found at the British Museum inscribed " W. 
W. Ellis vivum delin* et pinx* 1779." Temminck, thirty-eight years after the date 
of the ' General Synopsis,' separated the present species from Certhia under the new 
generic name of Drepanis, which is now generally recognized. 

Peale, in his account of the ornithology of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, asserts 
that it was found at Hanalei in Kauai, and mentions the yellow feathers and their 
use : but Cassin, in his later edition of the same work, considers that he confounded it 
with Acrulocercus braccatus ; and this is probably the case, as there are no tufts on 
the thighs in Drepanis, nor have we any other proof of its occurrence on the island 
of Kauai. Bloxam gives us no information in his account of the voyage of the 
' Blonde,' though the bird does not appear, as will be seen below, to have been extinct 
in 1859. A single example was purchased by Temminck at the dispersal of the 
Bullock Museum, when it was described in the catalogue of the 17th day of the sale 
as " Great Hook-billed Creeper, C. pacijica " ; while another is stated by Herr von 
Pelzeln (Ibis, 1873, p. 21) to have been in Levaillant's cabinet. 

Of this extremely rare and apparently extinct species I obtained two specimens from 
a collection which was formed by the late Mr. Mills x of Hilo in Hawaii, some thirty 
years or more ago. The fact of its native name " Mamo " being the same as that 
used for the war-cloaks mentioned below seems to imply that they received it from 
this bird, and that they were originally chiefly wrought of the beautiful golden yellow 
feathers from its back and vent, which are much deeper in colour, as they are larger 
and longer, than the axillary tufts of Acrulocercus nobilis. 

I could obtain no certain information of examples having been observed since 
those in the Mills collection were procured — about 1859, though while staying at Olaa 
in the district of Puna in Hawaii, where Mr. Mills secured them, I was assured by 
the natives that the bird still existed, and at the time of my visit (October) had, 
together with the O-O, migrated to the mountains, which is barely possible. I saw 

1 To the late Mr. J. Mills of Hilo, Hawaii, science is indebted for the preservation not only of several 
specimens of Drepanis ■pacijica, but also of several more species now extinct. Mr. Mills died, I regret to say, 
some two months after I landed on the Islands. He was an ardent naturalist, and would shut up his store 
and disappear in the forest for weeks together, accompanied only by natives who aided him in collecting 
specimens. Mr. Mills was also an accomplished artist, some of his paintings possessing great merit. 






several fine wreaths, " leis," composed of its plumes in the possession of the Hon. 
C. R. Bishop, while since my return I have carefully examined the feather-robes in the 
Ethnological Collection in the British Museum, and find that in the three large war- 
cloaks it contains, chiefly made of the yellow feathers of Acrulocercus tioUUs, are 
interspersed here and there, usually in diamond-shaped patterns, the deeper yellow 
feathers of the present species. 

One cape only in this collection is made entirely of the plumage of the Mamo, 
and in that the upper margin, about one inch in width, is formed of its black 
feathers ; the dimensions are as follows : — 

feet in. 

3 6 following lower margin. 

1 ^ at middle. 

9 following top margin. 

Another cape, in which the plumes of this bird occur, may also be worth describ- 
ing : — It has the ground-colour red ( Vestiaria coccinea), the upper edge made of the 
black and gold feathers of Drepanis pacifica and red feathers of V. coccinea inter- 
mingled ; at the bottom is a broad band of the yellow feathers of Acrulocercus nobilis, 
while on the red ground of the cape are three angular patches of the same. Among 
the wreaths, " leis," in the collection, there is but one in which the golden plumage 
of Drepanis occurs. This " lei " is 15 inches in length, and the yellow feathers, of 
which there are six bunches, each one inch in length, are arranged alternately with 
bunches of red feathers of V. coccinea. The length and beauty of the former are very 
striking in this wreath, and I have only seen one other which perhaps surpasses it in 
beauty ; this is made entirely of Mamo feathers, and has been quite recently brought 
to this country by Mr. Herbert Purvis — the value it is impossible to estimate, nor can 
its beauty, at least in the eyes of an Hawaiian, be outshone. 

Sir Walter Buller, in his ' History of the Birds of New Zealand,' 2nd ed. p. 104, 
tells us of a gorgeous feather-robe which was largely ornamented with the canary- 
yellow feathers of the wing of the Hihi (Pogonornis cincta), and goes on to say : " one 
can only compare it in imagination with that gorgeous coronation-robe of costly yellow 
plumes worn by the kings and queens of Hawaii, of which mention is made by the 
early writers on Polynesia." As Sir Walter Buller speaks of the New Zealand feather- 
robe as "largely ornamented," we may conclude that the feathers of other species were 
intermingled with those of the Hihi, and on this account I think it could not have 
equalled the unbroken sheet of gold presented by the war-cloak of Kamehameha I. 
described in my article on Acrulocercus nobilis. The yellow feathers of Pogonornis 
are, however, of a richer tint than those of Acrulocercus, and more nearly approach 
those of Drepanis. 

One of the specimens which I brought home has been beautifully remounted by 
Mr. Cullingford, of Durham, and is now in the Museum of the University of Cambridge, 

l2 



the second is in the fine collection of the Hon. Walter Rothschild. I am not aware of 
the existence of other examples in this country. 

Description. — Glossy black, with the exception of the lower part of the body, the 
rump, the tail-coverts both above and below, the feathers of the tibia and those of* the 
anterior margin of the wing, which are of a fine crocus-yellow ; the larger primary 
wing-coverts and under wing-coverts white, the former mottled with blackish grey, 
and the latter tinged with yellow. Remiges brownish black, tipped with dull white on 
the external vane of the five outer primaries, and both vanes of the next four, as well 
as those proceeding from the olecranon. Four middle rectrices glossy black, the rest 
more or less brown, and showing a patch of dull white near the tip, which though 
indistinct on the inner feathers becomes very distinct on the extreme pair. Bill and 
legs apparently deep brown. 

Dimensions. — Total length about 8 inches, wing from the bend 412, tail 2-5, bill 
from forehead along the culmen 1-75, from gape in a straight line 1*5, tarsus 1-31, 
middle toe without claw -56, hind toe 43. 



fj.t-. 




B"WFro"hawt del.et Htb. 



We S"t, l^ewm stn imp . 



DREPANIS FUNEREA. 



DEEPANIS FUNEKEA. 



Drepanis funerea, A. Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1893, p. 690. 

To the Joint Committee appointed by the Royal Society and by the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science to carry on a Zoological Exploration of the Sandwich 
Islands, my sincere thanks are due for the privilege of including in this work, and of 
figuring for the first time, the remarkable and in many respects very interesting new 
species of Drepanis (as the genus is now limited) discovered by their agent, Mr. Eobert 
C. L. Perkins, B.A., of Jesus College in the University of Oxford, who is to be 
congratulated on this ornithological reward of his arduous labours — a reward that was 
wholly unexpected, since the island of Molokai, on which, by dint of perseverance, he 
found it, had been already and very recently ransacked by a collector who wanted 
neither skill nor experience. I have only to add my regrets to those expressed by the 
describer of Drepanis funerea that Mr. Perkins's modesty has hindered him from 
introducing his discovery to the scientific world. 

Of this species, which is somewhat smaller than D. pacifiea, Mr. Perkins obtained 
several examples in Molokai, at an altitude of about 5000 feet, in June 1893. He 
marks the long-billed specimens as males, the short-billed as females. 

The following is from Prof. Newton's paper (loc. cit.) describing the species: — 

" Diagn. — Atra, remigibus manualibus externe grisei-limbatis, rostro valde decurvato, 
maxilla mandibulam multo transeunte. 

"Long. tot. 8 ; alas 4; caud. 2*75 ; rostri culminis 2*5 ; tarsi 1*25 uncc. 

" Hab. in montibus sylvestribus insula? Molokai. 

" The sexes are outwardly alike. Mr. Perkins states that the nasal opercula and 
the base of the bill between the nostrils are yellow, especially in the young ; the irides 
' pale yellowish-brown.' 

" It would be easy to point out characters that in the eyes of some writers would 
justify the foundation of a new genus for this bird. At first sight the configuration of 
its bill naturally suggests the genus Hemignathus ; but closer inspection shows that in 
its breadth and height at the base it wholly agrees with Drepanis, as restricted by modern 
authors, only differing therefrom in its exaggerated maxilla. Some inequality in the 
length of the mandibles is, however, exhibited by D. pacifica, and the examples of the 
new species sent by Mr. Perkins show no little variability in this respect. For the 
rest it is distinct enough, its almost lustreless black plumage not being relieved by any 

2c 2 



yellow feathers, though the patch of that colour at the base of the maxilla must be a 
conspicuous feature in life." 

He adds that " Its sombre plumage and the sad fate that too probably awaits the 
species " induce him to propose the trivial name that he has bestowed upon it. 

Since the article on Drepanis pacijica was written, Mr. Rothschild's collectors have 
obtained an example in Hawaii, showing that the species was not entirely extinct at 
the time of my visit. 







FW.Frohawk, del. et.li.tK 



VESTIARIA COCCINEA. 




FW.Frohaw'k.del etlith 



VESTIARIA COCCINEA. 



West, Newman, imp 







VESTIARIA COCC1NEA. 



VESTIAEIA COCCINEA. 

OLOKELE * or IIWI. 
Immature : OLOKELE POPOLO, OLOKELE HOKII, IIWI POPOLO, IIWI POLENA. 



Certhia coccinea, G. Forster, Gotting. Mag. Wissensch. i. 6, p. 346 ("1780") [1781?] ; Gmelin, 

Syst. Nat. i. p. 470 (1788) ; Blumenbach, Naturgesch. ed. 2, p. 190 (1782) ; id. Abbild. naturhist. 

Gegenst. Heft ii. tab. 16* (1797) ; Shaw, Nat. Miscell. pi. 75* (1791) ; Donndorff, Handb. 

Tbiergesch. p. 251 (1793); id. Orn. Beytr. i. p. 621 (1794); Tiedemann, Anat. Naturgescb. 

Vog. ii. p. 430 (1814). 
" Hook-billed Red Creeper/' Latham, Gen. Synops. i. p. 704 (1782) ; id. Suppl. p. 127 (1787). 
" Polytmus . . . fiavo-aurantius/' &c. Marter, Physikal. Arbeit. Wien, I. i. p. 76, tab. 2 [ J & $ ] * 

(1783). 
Mellisuga coccinea, Merrem, Beytr. besond. Gesch. Vogel, Heft i. p. 16, tab. iv.* (1784). 
Merops sp. ?, Cook, [Last] Voy. Pacif. Ocean, ii. p. 207 (1784). 
" Scarlet bird/' id. t. c. p. 227 (1784). 
" Eee-eve/' King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119 (1784). 

Certhia vestiaria, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 282 (1790) ; Shaw, Zool. viii. p. 229 (1812). 
" L'Heoro-taire/' Vieillot, Ois. Dores, ii. p. 109, pi. Iii* (1802). 
" Le Soui-manga Cardinal a queue et ailes noires," Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xvii. 

p. 90 (1804-5). 
Nectarinia coccinea, Tiedemann, ut supra, p. 431 (1814) ; Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 247 (1826), 

" Hehivi." 
Melithreptus vestiarius, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xiv. p. 322 (1817) ; id. Encycl. Meth., 

Ornithol. p. 601 (1823) ; id. Galerie, pi. 181* (1825); Lesson, Tr. d'Orn. p. 300 (1831). 
Drepanis vestiaria, Temminck, Man. d'Orn. i. p. lxxxvi (1820) ; Hartlaub, Syst. Verz. Mus. 

[Bremen], p. 16 (1844) [ex " Otaheite " !]. 
"L'ei-evi," Lesson, Compl. Buffon, ix. p. 155 (1837). 
Vestiaria evi, id. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 268. 
" Le vestiaire," Lechlancher, t. c. p. 322. 
Drepanis coccinea, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 96, partim, pi. 33. fig. 1* (1847) ; Bonaparte, Consp. 

Av. i. p. 404 (1850) ; Cabanis, Mus. Hein. i. p. 99 (1850-51) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 

1852, i. p. 131 ; id. Journ. f. Orn. 1854, p. 170 ; Lichtenstein, Nomencl. p. 55 (1854) ; Cassin, 

U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 177 (1858) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 297 

(1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 44 ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 360 ; id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1878, p. 347; Sundevall, Tentam. p. 48 (1872) ; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, p. 26; 

Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 79. 
Melithreptes vestiaria, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 152 (1848). 
Vestiaria coccinea, Reichenbacb, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 254 (1853), tab. 562. figg. 3820-3832*; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 6 (1885) ; Scott Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 181. 

1 The only name by which it is known on Kauai, as I am informed by Mr. Francis Gay. 

E 






Drepanis (Vestiaria) coccinea, G. R. Gray-, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 8, par Urn, (1859) ; id. Hand-list;, L 

p. 113 (1869). 

„ rosea, Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 44. 
Loxops rosea, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 509 (1885). 

(In the above list of references, obvious misprints have been disregarded.) 



Figures notabiles. 



This species, like many others from the Sandwich Islands, was first obtained by Cook 
and his fellow-voyagers ; but, unlike them, did not come into Latham's hands before 
being made known elsewhere. The fortunate person in this case was Georg Forster, 
at the time Professor of Natural History at Cassel, who, with his father, had accom- 
panied the great navigator on a former voyage, and naturally took great interest in 
the further results of his explorations ; while he was also, possibly, not averse from 
stealing a march on other competitors, which was rendered possible by Barthold 
Lohman \ a man from the same town, who had sailed with Cook's last expedition, and 
immediately on its return brought Forster four examples of the present species, a 
description of which he promptly published in the Gottingen Magazine for 1780, 
under the title of Certhia coccinea. Latham, however, was not far behind, as in 1782 
he named it the " Hook-billed Red Creeper " — no doubt in ignorance of having been 
forestalled — while for the first figures of male and female we are indebted to Marter, 
who was quickly succeeded by Merrem and later by Blumenbach. 

It is not a matter of surprise that many naturalists should have hastened to describe 
and figure so remarkable and brilliant a bird directly it became known in civilized 
countries, while their independent action had the effect, as will be seen above, of 
complicating the synonymy ; but though it has been included in a vast number of 
works, we hear nothing absolutely fresh until the time of Peale, who, during the 
United States Exploring Expedition in the 'Vincennes' and 'Peacock,' found it 
not at all uncommon on most of the Hawaiian group of islands, and mentions, as 
former authors had done, the use of its feathers for capes and robes of chiefs, and 
especially for the ornamental figures thereon ; noticing also its habit of feeding on 
the honey of the gigantic lobelias. Cassin, in his account of the same expedition, 
merely quotes from Peale with a summary of the information he gives, and other 
writers have added little or nothing to our knowledge of the bird's habits, though many 
more examples must have been received by various museums and private collections, in 
which while by no means uncommon, they are yet more plentiful than, any other of the 
Sandwich-Island species. The generic name of Certhia being discarded as inapplicable, 
many substitutes have been proposed ; but the majority of writers on the subject 

1 This was probably the man spoken of by the anonymous author of the Journal of Captain Cook's last 
voyage, published in 1781 (pp. 197-208), under the name of Bartholomew Lorimer or Loreman, who in an 
extraordinary way was nearly lost on Christmas Island. 



have accepted Fleming's Vestiaria, taken from the specific name applied by Latham, 
and derived from the use of the feathers in forming the ornamental garments. 

This beautiful species, generally distributed throughout the entire Sandwich archi- 
pelago, is by far the most conspicuous of its birds, on account of the gorgeous scarlet 
of the plumage, which is greatly heightened in brilliancy by contrast with the deep 
black of the wings and tail. It is especially well known to every Hawaiian, less from 
the attractiveness of its colours than from the fact that its breast-feathers were largely 
used in the fabrication of the famous feather-robes l of ancient times — worn by the 
priesthood and chiefs alone ; and thus its various names occur in many an ancient 
tale of chivalry, and in the " meles " or songs, which every native loves so well 
to chant. 

The immature birds are not so familiar to the islanders as the adults and are 
often regarded by them as belonging to a distinct species, called in the Hawaiian 
tongue " Iiwi Popolo " or " Iiwi Polena," — an error which Judge Dole shares in his well- 
known " Catalogue of Hawaiian Birds," where he describes a specimen in the earlier 
state of plumage under the name of Drepanis rosea ; nor is it a matter of astonishment 
that he has gone astray, seeing that the spotted yellowish plumage of the young shown 
in the upper figure of the second Plate is so very unlike that of the older bird. 

The call-note of the " Iiwi " is peculiar, and is very powerful for so small a songster 
— ta-weet, ta-weet, ta-wee-ah, its flute-like clearness being unsurpassed by that of any 
other Sandwich-Island species. The bird has, in addition, a somewhat sweet and plain- 
tive song, which I heard on a few occasions, usually soon after sunrise ; the note first 
mentioned is, however, by far the most characteristic, and is that most frequently heard. 
I regret to say that I did not succeed in obtaining the eggs, but I found a nest about 
which there appears to be little doubt. Perhaps it will be well to quote from my notes 
made at the time: — 

" There are a number of stunted ohia trees (Metrosideros) growing right among the 
clinker-beds of a comparatively recent lava-flow, which is as yet destitute of any 
herbaceous vegetation, save for a few ferns growing here and there in the crevices of 

1 In the ethnological collection of the British Museum are three large mantles, two of which are mainly 
composed of the red feathers of the Iiwi and the yellow feathers of the 0-0 (Acrulocercus nobilis), while the 
third, of which the bulk is made of the black tail-feathers of the domestic cock, has a narrow margin of the 
plumage of the two above-named species interwoven in an angular pattern ; these mantles are each about 
5 feet long and 8 feet across the bottom. There is a fourth, somewhat shorter, though of the same width, 
made likewise of red and yellow feathers ; this is in by far the best state of preservation, the colours being of 
nearly as bright a tint as in freshly-killed birds. Besides these robes there are in the collection several 
"leis" or feather- wreaths, some fabricated entirely of the red feathers of the present species, others of red 
green, yellow, and black feathers arranged in rings in vailing order, which are accompanied by three gigantic 
masks formerly worn by the priesthood at their ceremonies, and also, I believe, by chiefs in time of war. 
These truly monstrous-looking objects consist of a framework of fibre, covered entirely with the red feathers 
of the Iiwi ; the mouth is set with fish-teeth, and for eyes they have a fragment of pearl-shell with a round 
knob of black wood in the centre. I noticed at the same time several smaller capes, in which the feathers of 
Vestiaria are used. 






the lava-blocks. These trees are a mass of crimson blossom, and among their branches 
the Iiwi was in great numbers, busily engaged in probing the flowers in search of nectar. 
We found a nest in one of the small trees, which probably belonged to this bird, as it 
was the only species observed in this vicinity, and this supposition is strengthened by 
the fact of our shooting two quite young birds soon afterwards " 1 . I may briefly 
describe the nest as a round and shallow cup, 4 inches in diameter, composed of mosses 
and dry bents, the inside being composed of slender rootlets. 

The food of the Iiwi consists chiefly of honey, which it finds in the blossoms of the 
ohia and of the arborescent Lobeliaceee 2 ; no doubt it also preys on the small insects 
found in the flowers ; but as honey will often drip from the bill of this bird, when shot, 
it probably constitutes its sustenance to a greater extent than that of other species, 
where such is not the case. 

I have met with the subject of this article at an elevation of 6000 feet in the district 
of Kona, in Hawaii, and I am informed that it is abundant at certain seasons of the 
year above Kalaieha — a sheep-station on the same island at a still higher level. This 
shows that it follows its food, and that when the ohia is over at 2000 feet, but in 
full flower at 5000, it migrates to a greater elevation. In the first Plate a flowering 
branch of a tall woody climber [Strongylodon lucidum) is shown, from a sketch from 
nature by myself, which festoons the forest-trees, and of which the scarlet sickle- 
shaped flowers mimic in a most perfect manner, both in colour and shape, the bill of 
the Iiwi; it is therefore known to the natives by the name of "Nukuiiwi" (bill of 
Iiwi) or " Kaiiwi " (the Iiwi). 

I must also note, with regard to its vertical range, that this bird is frequently to be 
observed on the sea-beach, to which uncongenial region it is driven by the high winds 
from its forest home, as is the case with the " Apapane " (Himatione scmguinea). I 
quote the following from a letter of my friend Randal von Tempsky, of Kula, Maui, 
received in March 1890, as interesting in this connection: — " This winter has killed off 
an extraordinary number of native birds in Kula, I am sorry to say ; there has been an 
exceptionally long spell of dry weather accompanied by a gale of wind. I found 
several mountain birds on the sand at the ' beach,' a place the most unpropitious you 

1 Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde,' App. p. 249, states that this species builds on the tops of trees. 

2 Cassin, TJ. S. Expl. Exped. p. 178, merely remarks about this species " that several specimens in ex- 
cellent plumage were obtained by the naturalists of the expedition," but he quotes some interesting details 
of Peale's which I think worth transcribing here : — " This curiously and highly coloured bird is found 
inhabiting most of the Hawaiian group of islands, where it is one of the most common species. At Oahu, we 
found them generally about the gigantic Lobelias which characterize the botany of that island. They extract 
their food from the flower of the Lobelia, for which the singularly formed bill is admirably adapted. The red 
feathers of this species were usually selected for the ornamental figures on the capes and robes of the ancient 
Hawaiians, but by reason of their abundance were not so highly valued as those of the O-O." 

Dr. Finsch (Ibis, 1880, pp. 79, 80) says that he observed many examples of Drepanis coccinea and D. san- 
guinea while collecting at Olinda on the island of Maui, at 5400 feet altitude, but that the stomach contained 
nothing more than small seeds ; I can only say that my observations, extending over a much longer period, 
lead to a different conclusiou. 



could imagine for a mountain bird ; natives caught plenty and so did cats. If we have 
another such winter I doubt whether we will have any native birds left in the Kula 
district." 

Mrs. Francis Sinclair informs me that after stormy weather she has seen numbers of 
these birds on the island of Niihau (where no forest now remains), to the uncongenial 
shores of which they had been driven by gales from the adjacent island of Kauai, 
separated by a channel 18 miles in width. 

The upper figure in my second Plate, in which no trace of scarlet is seen, and of 
which the plumage is bright yellow-buff, I obtained on the island of Maui ; other 
examples procured in the same locality seem to show a clearer tint of buff than those 
from the remaining islands ; the bills in those from Maui are also slightly shorter 
and stouter. Dr. Stejneger, however, states that a careful comparison of Mr. Knudsen's 
four birds with three in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, probably not from 
Kauai, shows no tangible difference in colour or dimensions ; and with the exception 
of these immature birds, I find this to be the case with my series, in which the islands 
of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Hawaii are represented l . 

A flowering branch of the uulei (Osteomeles antliy Hid i folia) is shown in my second 
Plate — a low shrub with hawthorn-like flowers, among the branches of which I have 
often seen the Iiwi disporting itself; the wood of this shrub is used by the natives in 
the manufacture of pipes. 

Description. — Adult male. General colour above and beneath vermilion ; wing-quills 
and tail black ; innermost secondaries white or ashy brown on the inner web ; wing- 
coverts black, edged outwardly with crimson ; wing-lining and edge of the wing of a 
whitish hue tinged with pinkish scarlet; iridesdark hazel; bill clear vermilion, darker 
on maxilla; feet vermilion. 

Adult female. May always be distinguished from the male by her deeper colour, 
especially below, where she is almost crimson. 

Immature bird. General colour greenish yellow, mottled with blackish spots at the 
tips of the feathers ; wing-quills and tail black; hides dark hazel; bill light brownish 
grey, maxilla yellow at margin. 

The colour of the feet and bill in a very young bird was brown-pink, the scales on 
the tarsi darker ; the soles of the feet yellow. 

1 Reichenbach (loc. cit.) seems to have clearly understood the changes of plumage in this species, which 
he fully describes ; while he figures, grouped together, an adult female, a young bird with no trace of scarlet, 
and a second with a few buff feathers about the head and neck. These drawings are accurate enough, but, 
from an artistic point of view, are caricatures of a most beautiful and elegant bird; nor is the transition state 
so completely illustrated as to make a new figure superfluous. Dr. Pinsch alone gives correctly the colour 
of the bill of the adult of this species, Latham and Merrem describing it as whitish : in Merrem's figure 
accordingly the bill is almost colourless ; this is probably due to the fact that in skins the colour of both bill 
and legs soon fades. 



6 

Dimensions. — Adult male. Total length 5*75 inches, wing from carpal joint 3*45, 
culmen 1, tarsus -95, tail 2 '40. 

Obs. — Four specimens in transition plumage are figured, showing more or less scarlet 
according to age. 




F.WFrohsLwk deLetKlh. 



"We s~t, l^evcoaaja it*g?. 



PALME RIA DO LIT. 



/vT 



PALMEEIA DOLII. 



Himatione dolei (err. typogr.), S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 166. 

Pahneria mirabilis, Bothschild, Ibis, 1893, p. 113; Bull. Br. Orn. Club, i. p. xvi (1893). 

Palmeria dolei, Bothschild, Bull. Br. Orn. Club, ii. p. ix (15 Nov., 1893). 



In the month of July 1888, while exploring the district of Kula in Maui, I shot, in 
company with an example of Himatione sanguinea, a bird — apparently of the same 
family — which was similar in its habits, but was much darker in plumage. It was 
obviously young, and for a long while I hesitated to describe it, hoping to get another 
and more mature specimen. As time, however, went on and none appeared, I ventured 
to specify it as Himatione dolii and so left it. But when, on visiting Cambridge on 
October 26th, 1893, I saw the series of specimens of Palmeria recently obtained in 
Molokai by Mr. Perkins, I at once recognized that the younger examples, though 
considerably larger, agreed essentially with my bird ; the absence of the crest, which is 
so remarkable a feature in the adult, and the fact that Mr. Rothschild referred his 
Palmeria to the family Meliphagidce, having combined to prevent my discovering 
the identity of the two birds sooner. That gentleman, I believe, made the discovery 
previously, when he obtained the loan of my specimen for comparison, but he did 
not inform me of the fact, leaving me to infer it from his note in the ' Bulletin ' of 
the British Ornithologists' Club, as follows : — 

"Mr. Scott Wilson, in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for 1891 (p. 166), 
described, under the name of Himatione dolei a bird from Mauai [sic] which has not 
since been identified *. Through the kindness of Mr. Wilson I have been enabled to 
examine his type ; and I found, to my astonishment, that it was a very young specimen 
of the bird which I had named Palmeria mirabilis, although no one could possibly 
have made this out from the description. As the type, therefore, proves beyond 
doubt that Wilson's bird is merely the young of my Palmeria, and as the latter 
genus is very distinct and has nothing to do with Himatione, being a genus of the 
Meliphagidce near Chcetoptila and not one of the Drepanididce, the name of this peculiar 
bird must stand henceforth as Palmeria dolei (Wils.)." 

In this note Mr. Rothschild lays great stress, as he had done in his original 
description, upon his new genus belonging to the Meliphagidas ; but herein I believe 
him to be wholly mistaken, for Dr. Gadow has favoured me with the following 
remarks : — 

1 I am unable to understand the meaning of this remark, unless Mr. Rothschild wished to suggest that I 
had described a species which did not exist. 

2b 



" The Hon. Walter Rothschild (' Ibis,' 1893, p. 113) remarks: ' This genus is nearest 
to Acrulocercus, but differs from it in the three following points : — 

"' (1) The tail is square and has no elongated central tail-feathers. 

" ' (2) There is a heavy crest of long curled feathers on the forehead, much like the 
crest of certain species of Stumopastor. 

" ' (3) The beak is straighter, much shorter, and more pointed than in Acrulocercus, 
and in this respect Palmeria more nearly approaches my genus Viridonia (Ann. N. H. 
ser. 6, vol. x. p. 112, 1892).' 

" Why Palmeria ' is nearest to Acrulocercus ' we are not told. From examination 
of a spirit-specimen, obtained by Mr. Perkins, I am enabled to state that Palmeria 
differs from the Meliphagidce, and agrees with the Drepanididw in at least the following- 
points, which, so far as these families are concerned, are of decisive importance : — 

" (1) Tongue, typically Drepanine, like that of Hemignathus, Drepanis, Himatione, 
not brush-like or multifid. 

" (2) Crop present. 

" (3) Tenth or terminal primary obsolete, not long and functional as in Acrulocercus. 

" (4) Edges of bill smooth, not serrated. 

" (5) The pattern of colour closely resembles that of Himatione sanguinea. 

" Although the formation of the oesophagus and of the tongue (1, 2) were possibly 
not available, and are, moreover, ' anatomical ' features, the other characters (3-5) at 
least would, I should have thought, obtained such consideration as to have enabled the 
new genus to be correctly referred from skins only." 

Description. — Adult male. Crown covered by a fiat crest of linear lanceolate feathers, 
which are blackish with distinct light shaft-streaks ; those nearer the nape are slightly 
tipped with brilliant orange-scarlet, while those of the nape itself have long tips of that 
colour and join a line of the same which extends across the neck on each side. A tuft 
of dirty white feathers springs from the forehead and bends forward so as to cover 
about half the culmen. The back, lesser wing- and tail-coverts are blackish, with 
duller orange-scarlet tips and slighter shaft-streaks ; the wings and tail are still darker, 
the secondaries and greater wing-coverts having greyish-white tips, and most of the 
primaries white margins. Scarlet is also present to some extent at the bend of the 
wing, the under surface of which is rather light grey. The throat, sides of head, and 
neck are silvery grey, the feathers being more or less lanceolate. An orange ring 
surrounds the eye. The underparts are similar to the back, the thighs reddish 
orange. The bill and feet are black. 

Dimensions. — Total length 7 inches, wing 375, tail 3, tarsus 1T2, culmen '75. 

Very young. — Crown of the head grey, shading into dull brown-pink, which is 
tinged on the sides with dull reel ; rest of the upper parts dusky brown mottled with 
greenish buff; beneath, the throat and breast grey, the tips of the feathers brown; 



>? 



belly greenish buff, shading off into white on the under tail-coverts ; wing-quills and 
tail black, the former edged outwardly with a narrow line of white ; wing-coverts and 
secondaries black, edged with brown-pink ; irides dark hazel ; bill and feet horn- 
colour. 

Dimensions. — Total length 5 - 20 inches, wing 3-10, tail 2*20, culmen -55, tarsus Vb. 

The figures are from an adult example obtained by Mr. Perkins and from my 
immature type specimen respectively. 



2 b 2 










F'WFrohawk aeLet-litl. 



West,Neovma.ii imp 



HIMATIONE SANGUINEA. 



HIMATIONE SANGUINEA. 

APAPANE. 



"Crimson Creeper," Latham, Gen. Synops. i. p. 739 (1782). 

"Bird of a deep crimson colour/-" Cook, [Last] Voy. Pacif. Ocean, ii. p. 227 (1784). 

Certhia sanguinea, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 479 (1788) ; Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 290 (1790) ; 

Donndorff, Orn. Beytr. i. p. 643 (1794) ■ Shaw, Zool. viii. p. 231 (1812) ; Tiedemann, Anat. 

Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 431 (1814). 
" L'Heoro-taire cramoisi/' Vieillot, Ois. Dores, ii. p. 128, pi. lxvi* (1802). 
"Le Soui-manga sanguinolent," Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xvii. p. 107 (1804-5). 
Nectarinia sanguinea, Cuvier, Regne Anim. i. p. 410 (1817). 
Petrodroma sanguinea, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi. p. 108 (1818) [" Tanna " !] ; id. 

Encycl. Meth., Ornithol. p. 621 (1823) ; J. E. Gray (Griffith), Anim. Kingd. vii. p. 353 

(1829). 
Nectarinia byronensis, Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 249 (1826). 

Drepanis byronensis, J. E. Gray, ut supra, pi. opp. p. 390 (1829) ; id. Zool. Miscell. p. 12 (1831). 
Myzomela ? sanguinea, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 118 (1846). 
Drepanis sanguinea, Hartlanb, Syst. Verz. Mus. [Bremen], p. 16 (1844) ; id. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 

1852, i. p. 131 ; G. R. Gray, ut supra, p. 96, partim (1847); Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 404, 

partim (1850) ; Lichtenstein, Nomencl. p. 55 (1854) ; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & 

Orn. p. 439 (1858) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 297 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 

1879, p. 44 ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 347 ; id. Ibis, 1879, p. 92. 
Himatione sanguinea, Cabanis, Mus. Hein. i. p. 99 (1850-51) ; Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 255, 

partim, pi. 612. fig. 3834* (1853) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 360; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 

1872, p. 27, partim; Sundevall, Tentam. p. 48 (1872) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 8 

(1885) ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 95 ; S. B. Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 183. 
Drepanis (Himatione) sanguinea, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 8, partim (1859) ; id. Hand-list, 

i. p. 113, partim (1869). 

* Figurce notabiles. 



The circumstances attending the discovery and description of this bird are almost 
identical with those in the case of several other Sandwich Island species : for in the 
account of Cook's last voyage it is mentioned as the " Bird of a deep crimson colour ;" 
Latham, in the ' General Synopsis,' gives it the English name of " Crimson Creeper ;" 
and Gmelin, whose only acquaintance with it was from Latham's work, bestowed upon 
it, in his ' Systema Naturae,' the Latin title of Certhia sanguinea ; while Peale does not 
mention it at all in the history of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, though Cassin gives 
it a place in the Catalogue at the end of his edition of the same. Latham, however, 
did not figure this species in his book, though Vieillot subsequently did so in his 
' Oiseaux Dores,' and still earlier W. W. Ellis, in 1779, had made a drawing of it 






(No. 30) which is still preserved in the British Museum. Later, Bloxam introduced a 
possible source of error by calling the bird Nectarinia byronensis, after the commander 
of H.M.S. 'Blonde,' under the impression that it was unknown; but, although 
J. E. Gray followed Bloxam in recognizing a second species, the misapprehension was 
soon rectified and the specific name sanguinea finally approved. The type was very 
fortunately kept, and was identified by G. R. Gray and later by Dr. Sharpe. With 
regard to the generic appellation, however, Professor Cabanis in 1850 rightly sepa- 
rated the subject of our notice from the genus Drepanis, making it the type of his 
Himatione, so called from the use of the feathers in the robes of chieftains. Helmets 
covered with its feathers may still be seen in some museums. 

This species, with Vestiaria, in company with which it is commonly seen, is distributed 
throughout the whole group, and its vertical range is practically identical. Its 
principal food is honey, obtained from the flowers of the ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha), 
while I have seen it in numbers among the mamane trees (Sophora chrysophylla) 
in the flowering season; and though I am uncertain whether their golden-yellow 
racemes or the small insects among their foliage were the attraction, still I have no 
doubt that it feeds partially on the latter, which abound in all the flowers visited, 
since I have often found insects in the stomach when dissecting specimens. Dr. Finsch, 
on the other hand (Ibis, 1880, p. 80), states that he only found small seeds; but 
Mr. Knudsen, whose field-knowledge of Hawaiian birds places him on an equality 
with Dr. Finsch, expresses his belief (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 96) " that the 
Apapane feeds exclusively on flower honey." I am, on the whole, of opinion that were 
Mr. Knudsen to have added "and on insects," his would be the right view of the matter. 
Although I did not find a nest of the Apapane, I shot a female on the 24th of May, 
1887, at Kaawaloa in the district of Kona, in the ovary of which was an egg almost 
ready for exclusion, a circumstance which enables me to fix approximately its breeding- 
time, which seems to be later than that of the Iiwi, for 1 had. shot several of the 
young of the latter before the above date. I never, however, obtained specimens of 
the Apapane so young as those of the Iiwi, although I have many immature examples 
in which not a trace of the crimson plumage is to be seen : in this stage, as will be 
seen by my Plate, they differ so much from the adult (as is also the case with Vestiaria) 
that it is not easy at first to believe that they are of the same species, and my natives 
were quite sure that I was wrong when I told them of it. The note of the Apapane 
is a feeble though clear tweet twice repeated, but it also has a pretty simple song 
generally heard soon after sunrise or towards sunset. In its flight the white under 
tail-coverts are very conspicuous and serve to easily determine it on the wing. 
The crimson feathers were not used to any great extent in the fabrication of the well- 
known native robes of olden times ; but there is in the Ethnological Collection 
in the British Museum a kind of waist-covering of the black tail-plumes of the 
domestic cock, of which the upper border — four inches in width — is composed of the 
crimson feathers of this bird, the dimensions of this very war-like and savage-looking 
ornament being — length 41 inches, width at the middle 18 inches. In the account of 



*l 



Captain Cook's last voyage, cited above, we find H. sanguined referred to as follows :— 
" The scarlet birds already described [Vestiaria coccinea] which were brought for sale, 
were never met with alive ; but we saw a single small one, about the size of a canary 
bird, of a deep crimson colour." These observations were made on the first visit to the 
island of Kauai — or Atooi, as it was termed by the early explorers. 

The Hawaiians in their old mythology frequently make mention of the Apapane and 
of its sweet song, and the following extract from the romantic story of Laieikawai 
(' Legends and Myths of Hawaii,' pp. 459, 460) may be of interest :— 

" The kahu [servant] of the king first met the princess and her companion, and, 
when requested by him to favour his royal master with a visit, the princess informed 
him that she might possibly comply with his request the night following. ' If I come,' 
she said, « I will give you warning.' ' Now, listen and heed,' she continued. ' If you 
hear the voice of the Ao [Procellaria alba X] I am not in its notes, and when you hear 
the caw of the Alala [Corvics hawdiiensis] I am not in its voice. When the notes of 
the Elepaio [Chasiempis sandvicensis] are heard, I am getting ready to descend. When 
you hear the song of the Apapane [Himatione sanguined] 1 shall have come out of my 
house. Listen, then, and if you hear the Iiwipolena [ Vestiaria coccinea'] singing, I am 
outside of your house. Come forth and meet me.' And so it came to pass. In the 
MM, or first watch of the evening, resounded the cry of the Ao, in the second watch the 
caw of the Alala, at midnight the chirruping of the Elepaio, in the pili of the morning 
the song of the Apapane, and at daybreak the voice of the Iiwipolena. Then a shadow 
fell on the door, ' and we were enveloped,' said the king, ' in a thick fog, and when it 
cleared away the princess was seen in her glorious beauty, borne on the wings of birds.' 
The name of the divine being, he said, was Laieikawai." 

Of this species I obtained examples on all the islands, which I am quite unable to 
distinguish one from another. Dr. Stejneger (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 95) states 
that he carefully compared five specimens procured by the U.S. Exploring Expedition 
and one by Dr. Townsend l with three sent by Mr. Knudsen, and goes on to say that 
neither in colour nor in dimensions can he discover any difference between them. It 
was formerly a pretty general belief that the red plumage of this species was peculiar 
to the male, and that the female was greenish. Thus Reichenbach, as above cited, 
described and figured (fig. 3833) one of the green species of Himatione as the female 
of this one, stating that it is "Above olive-green, shading into grass-green, below 
greenish yellow, wings and tail blackish brown, bill and feet brown." Herr von Pelzeln 
also, in his paper on the sexual difference of the Honey-suckers of the Sandwich Islands, 
to which reference is made in the synonymy above given, thought that Himatione virens 
was the young of this species, and sought to distinguish between the male and female as 
follows : — " In the female the under mandible with the exception of the point whitish, 

1 Thanks to the kindness of the authorities of the Museum of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia in 
forwarding many specimens of the birds collected by Dr. Townsend, I have been enabled to compare three 
of his examples of the present species with mine. Most of those from that excellent collector are in a capital 
state of preservation, though now over 50 years old. 






which is not the case with the others ; the bill also appears somewhat smaller and 
more slender; the tip of the bill, however, in both the male and female is somewhat 
damaged, so that this cannot with certainty be decided." Dr. Stejneger does not 
appear to have known whether the sexes differed, but he was right in concluding 
that the bird described by Dr. Sharpe as an adult female is really only in transition 
plumage : I am glad, therefore, to have been able to settle this point by saying that 
a careful comparison of males and females in my collection shows that the females 
can only be distinguished as stated below. 

Description. — Adult male. Entire upper surface of body crimson, brightest on the 
head ; underparts crimson as far as the abdomen, where it shades into white ; under 
tail-coverts white ; remiges and rectrices black, the former with a very narrow outer 
edge of crimson ; secondaries black, edged broadly with scarlet ; wing-lining and under 
wing-coverts ashy ; irides dark hazel ; bill and feet black. 

Adult female. Differs from the male in having the general crimson of the plumage 
of a distinctly lighter shade, while the crimson on the outer edge of the secondaries, is 
of the same shade as the rest of the plumage, whereas in the male it is of a much 
lighter tint. 

Immature. General colour above ashy brown ; orange-buff on head and neck ; beneath 
white tinged with buff, wing-coverts and secondaries broadly margined with buff; 
crimson feathers absent or interspersed among the plumage according to age. 

Dimensions. — Male. Total length 5'25 inches, wing from carpal joint 2-95, culmen 
•70, tarsus "95, tail 2-90. 

Female. Total length 4*85 inches, wing from carpal joint 2*85, culmen '60, tarsus "95, 
tail 1-85. 




? W FroWk del etlith 



CIRIDOPS ANNA 



West Newman imp. 






CIKIDOPS ANNA. 

ULAAIHAWANE. 



Fringilla anna, Dole, Hawaiian Almau. 1879,, p. 49, (reprinted) Ibis, 1880, p. 241. 
" Ciridops , Wilson," Nature, xlv. p. 469 (17 March, 1892). 



Judge Dole's original account of this species is as follows : — " Not previously described. 
5^ in. long. Bill short, straight. Toes 3 front, 1 back. Wing-coverts and breast red ; 
throat, primaries and tail black ; secondaries white ; head grey, merging into white on 
the upper part of the neck, and grey again on the back. Habitat Hawaii. Probably 
belongs to the genus Fringilla. This is a bird of remarkable beauty, its peculiar 
combination of colours producing a most harmonious and elegant effect." 

I procured a stuffed specimen from the Hon. C. E. Bishop, which had been obtained 
by the late Mr. Mills of Hilo. Mr. Bishop has a very much finer example remaining, 
with more grey about the head and neck, taken by the same gentleman. I used to hear 
repeatedly of the "Ulaaihawane," by which name it is well known to the natives, who 
told me that it feeds on the fruit of the Hawane palm, whence its name — Ula (red), 
ai (to eat), Hawane (the Hawane palm) ; and therefore I have little doubt that 
it will be found, perhaps in some numbers, in the upland region of the interior, 
which I was unable to explore. The present specimen — now in the collection of the 
Hon. Walter Bothschild — has not the sex marked; so it is impossible to say whether 
the male differs from the female or not. My friend Mr. Francis Spencer, writing to 
me quite recently, says that his natives had seen the bird in the swampy forest-region 
above Ookala on Hawaii, and his description leaves no doubt of its identity. 

CIRIDOPS l . 

Bill moderate, culmen slightly arched, mandible almost straight, gape deflected. 
Nostrils covered by a membrane, no rictal bristles, but a few bristly feathers on the chin. 
Wings with first primary shortest, second, third, and fourth nearly equal. 
Tail moderate, rectrices nearly equal. 
Feet fairly strong. 

Feathers of crown short and, with those of the throat, acuminate. Webs of all the 
feathers, especially on the belly, decomposed. 

Description. — Crown in front black, gradually shading into silvery grey and white on 

1 Emberizse Ciridis, Linncei, faciem habens. 



the nape, becoming tinged with brown on the back; rump, upper tail-coverts, lower breast, 
median and part of lesser coverts bright glossy scarlet ; sides of face grey, deepening 
into smoky black on the throat and breast, where it forms a distinct gorget ; vent, under 
tail-coverts, outer webs of last three secondaries, secondary and lesser coverts ochreous 
buff; primaries and greater part of secondaries and tail black. Irides dark hazel ; bill 
and feet pinkish brown. 

Dimensions. — Total length 4'25 inches, wing 3, bill -45, tarsus - 85, tail 1*80. 







■ Lawk del etliUi. 



WestHe-«man imp. 



HIMATIONE STE.JNEGERI. 






HIMATIONE STEJNEGEBI. 

AMAKIHI. 



Himatione chloris, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 96 (nee Cabanis). 
Himatione stejnegeri, S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 446. 



This species, first obtained by Mr. V. Knudsen in Kauai, I met witb shortly afterwards 
in the forests of the district of Kaholuamano — the mountain-ridge adjacent to that 
of Halemanu, where the original examples were procured. Dr. Stejneger, to whom 
they were sent, noticed them under the head of Himatione chloris in his account of 
Mr. Knudsen's collection, but it will be observed that he did not feel certain as to 
the identity of the form from Kauai with that from Oahu, whence came Professor 
Cabanis's types of H. chloris, and where I obtained others agreeing with them. I 
named it in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' as above, after my friend 
Dr. Stejneger, to whom, for his advice on several points, I am greatly indebted. 
It seems to be rather scarce, or at any rate was so at the time of my visit, and I shot 
but few specimens ; but I was able to observe that it showed a decided preference for 
the short underwood, and searched for its insect-food on the trunks and limbs of the 
small ohias and other low trees, to which its strong claws enabled it to cling with ease. 
It is at once distinguishable by its short stout build from any other member of the 
genus, while the curve of its powerful bill more nearly approaches that of V. coccinea 
than that of any other Sandwich Island species. 

Description. — Adult male. Upper surface, head, nape, mantle, and rump olive-green 
with a greyish tinge, shading into yellowish green on the tail-coverts ; forehead 
slightly brighter than the crown ; lores brownish black ; primaries, secondaries, and 
coverts smoky black, with the edges of outer webs bright olive-green ; throat and breast 
lemon-yellow, with a golden-green hue, blending into a whitish tint on the abdomen and 
under tail-coverts ; tail short, colouring same as wing ; bill strong and deep at the 
base and decurved. 

Dimensions. — Adult male. Total length 4'45 inches, wing 2'60, culmen -55, tarsus -70, 
tail 1-60. 

Female. Similar to the male. 

Ohs. — Closely resembling II chloris, but having the bill much higher at the base, 
more decurved, and with the maxilla perceptibly exceeding the mandible in length. 

E 







FWFroha.wk del. etlitiL. 



HIMATIONE CHLORIS. 






HIMATIONE CHLOEIS. 

AMAKIHI. 



Himatione chloris, Cabanis, Mus. Hein. i. p. 99, note (1850-51) ; Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 
xxxviii. p. 264 (1854) ; S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 447; id. Ibis, 1890, p. 185. 

Drepanis (Himatione) sanguined, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 9, partim (1859) ; id. Hand-list 
B. i. p. 113, partim (1869) {nee Gmelin). 

Himatione virens, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 9, partim (1885) (nee Gmelin). 



The synonymy of this species presenting few complications, and its habits being, so far 
as they are known, so similar to those of its congener, Himatione virens, little remains 
to be said beyond that it was originally described by Professor Cabanis from specimens 
obtained by Deppe in Oahu, to which island H. chloris is confined. I have been able 
to compare my specimens with one in the Museum of the University of Cambridge, 
procured by Townsend (Deppe's companion), which was submitted for determination 
to the Professor, and was marked by him as agreeiug with his type in the Museum of 
Berlin. 

On Oahu, in the district of Halemanu (house of the birds), this species seems to 
frequent more especially the depths of the steep and densely wooded ravines, and loves, 
above all trees, the gigantic Lobeliaceae — the strange foliage and great heads of the 
purple flowers of which plants are so striking a feature of a Sandwich Island forest, 
and one, I believe, only to be met with in these Pacific Isles. 

Description. — Adult male. Above uniform bright yellowish green, with very narrow 
black forehead and lores, and brownish-grey wings and tail, margined with the same 
colour as the remaining upper parts ; below golden yellow ; bill and feet blackish 
brown. 

Dimensions. — Total length 4*5 inches, wing 2'6, tail 1-9, tarsus "75, culmen -4. 

As I have elsewhere remarked (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, pp. 446, 447 ; Ibis, 1890, 
pp. 185, 186) the representative forms of Himatione chloris in the islands of Molokai 
and Lanai are easily distinguishable from each other and also from the type, and it 
had been my original intention to describe them as distinct species, the form from the 

2k 



i« 



latter as H. chloridoides, and that from the former as II. kalaana. It then appeared 

to me that some ornithologists would consider the differences too slight to be accounted 

specific, and I accordingly refrained from doing more than indicating their existence. 

I have since found that Mr. Perkins, who obtained a good series of examples of each, 

has in his manuscript lists kept them apart (though I am not aware of his having 

published his views on the subject), and I therefore consider it advisable to follow his 

example, without pledging myself to the opinion that they are more than local forms. 

I here repeat the characters which I then thought would serve to distinguish them : — 

Oahu. — A trace only of a yellow mark from the bill to the eye. Upper parts 

of a dark greyish buff tinged with a faint shade of olive. Underparts whitish buff 

tinged with yellow. Bill and legs dark brown. — True H. chloris. 

Lanai. — A distinct yellow mark from the base of the bill to the eye. Upper parts 
light greyish buff, distinctly tinged with olive. Beneath on the breast and throat 
light lemon-yellow, shading into buff on the flanks. Bill and legs lighter brown. 
The bill is more slender. — H. chloridoides. 

On the island of Lanai all the specimens which I obtained were shot in some fine 
guavas, quite 30 feet in height, which fringed the edge of the streamlet of the deeply- 
wooded Waiapaa ravine. The birds were so busily engaged in hunting for insects, 
which abounded in the guavas, that I had an excellent opportunity of observing their 
graceful movements ; here I saw the old birds feeding the young with small flies, larvae, 
and other insects. 

Molokai.— A distinct yellow mark from the bill to the eye, as in the Lanai form. 
Upper parts darker than in the Lanai form, but not so dark as in the type from 
Oahu. Underparts yellow, but not so bright as in the Lanai form. Bill and legs 
considerably stouter than in the preceding form. — //. kalaana. 

On Molokai I have often with delight watched this bird searching for its insect-food 
among the low shrubs of ohia which cover the sunny slopes of the ravines on that 
island, in my opinion the most lovely of the group, visited, however, but seldom by 
travellers, on account of the Leper settlement being situated on its shores. 










F.WFi-ohawkdfiletlith 



West,Nemm»ua imp 



HI MAT 1 ONE VI R ENS. 






HIMATIONE VIKENS. 

AMAK1HI 1 . 



" Olive-green Creeper/' Latham, Gen, Synops. i. p. 740 (1782). 

Certhia virens, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 475 (1788) ; Latham, Ind. Orn. p. 290 (1787) ; Donndorff, 

Orn. Beytr. i. p. 644 (1794) ; Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii. p 232 (1812) ; Tiedemann, Anat. 

und Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 431 (ex Insulis Amicis !) (1814). 
? " L'Heoro-taire vert-olive," male, Vieillot, Ois. Dores, ii. p. 129, pi. lxvii. (1802) \ 
"Le Soui-manga verdatre," Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xvii. p. 107 (1804-5). 
Melithreptus virens (partim?), Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xiv. p. 330 (1817); id. Encycl. 

Method, p. 607 (1823). 
"Crimson Honey-eater" ? , Latham, Gen. Hist. B. iv. p. 200 (1822). 
1 Nectarinia flava, Bloxam, Voy. 'Blonde/ p. 249 (1826), "'Amakee." 
? Drepanis flava, J. E. Gray, Zool. Miscell. p. 12 (1831) ; Hartlauh, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, 

i. p. 110 {partim) ; id. Joura. f. Orn. 1854, p. 170 ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 298 • 

id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 45. 
Phyllornis tonganensis, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 165 ! 

Phyllornis virens (Vieill.), G. R. Gray, Gen. B. p. 124 (1846) — erased id. op. cit. App. p. 6. 
Drepanis sanguinea (partim), G. R. Gray, Gen. B. p. 96 (1847). 
Drepanis (Himatione) sanguinea, ? , G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. IsL p. 8, partim (1859) ; id. Hand-1. 

B. i. p. 113, partim (1869). 
Himatione sanguinea, Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 255 {partim), pi. 562. fig. 3833 (1853). 
? Himatione flava, Reichenbach, ut supra, p. 255, partim (1853). 
Drepanis flava, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 348 {qu. Bloxam?); id. Voy. ' Challenger/ 

p. 95 (1881) {qu. Bloxam?). 
Himatione virens, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 9, partim (1885) ; Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 184 ; 

Perkins, Ibis, 1893, p. 105. 



This curve-billed species from the Island of Hawaii has, as may be seen from the 
above, a long list of synonyms; but little information was until lately forthcoming 
concerning it, as the majority of writers who mentioned it in their works took 
their facts from the original description of Latham, in which it was named the 
" Olive-green Creeper." Gmelin's Certhia virens is, of course, but the same in 
Latinized form, while the two specimens figured by Vieillot must be referred here 
with some hesitation. Forty years after he first described it, Latham in the ' General 
History of Birds ' gave it as the female of the Crimson Honey-eater ; G. R. Gray 
subscribing to the same error by placing it under Drepanis {Himatione) sanguinea at 
a still later date. There remains to be considered Bloxam's example, procured during 
the voyage of the ' Blonde.' What is said to be the type of Nectarinia flava of that 
writer, and of Drepanis flava of J. E. Gray, still exists at the British Museum, and 

1 The name applied to several other of the yeJlow-green species of Himatione. 

2 A very bad figure, questionable whether it refers to this species ; also whether the " femelle " described and 
figured, p. 130, pi. lxviii., is of the same species ; but the latter is most like H. virens. i 



certainly appears to be the form found in Hawaii and not that of Oatm ; otherwise 
the presumption would be that Bloxam's specimens were obtained in Oahu, in which 
case most of the references to Nectarinia, Drepanis, or Himatione flava would be more 
properly entered under E. clitoris. Two specimens in the Liverpool Museum were 
obtained from Townsend through Audubon, and a third is in the Museum of the 
Academy of Philadelphia, among the collections made by the United States Exploring 
Expedition, though Peale does not mention it in his work ; while Mr. Sclater records 
it in the < Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for 1878, as brought home by the 
naturalists of the ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

This little bird is peculiar to the Island of Hawaii, and ranges from the lowest 
forest zone to 5000 feet or higher. Very unobtrusive in its movements, it may con- 
stantly be seen among the undergrowth of the forest, diligently searching every limb 
and slender branch and tapping the bark for its prey ; and at Mana, in Hawaii (3500 
feet), I found it in great numbers in January on the mamane trees, which abound 
in that district, and are at that season in full bloom. As far as I have observed, this 
species lives almost entirely on insects and larvae, and finds its favourite hunting- 
grounds on the aaka or Bastard Sandalwood (Myoporum santalinum), the koa {Acacia 
koa), and the mamane {Sophora chrysophylla), though it also frequents the ohia. It 
may occasionally feed on honey, but I never observed it to do so, and at any rate it 
cannot be the case with it to such an extent as with its ally H. sanguinea. Moreover, 
it hunts rather among the lower foliage of a tree than in the flowering branches. 
The commonest note is a low " tweet," which is something like that of the European 
Goldcrest ; but it has, besides this, a sweet though short song. The birds are 
depicted on a branch of kauila (Alphitonia excelsa), of which I obtained specimens on 
Hawaii, where it is now extremely scarce. In olden times the war-spears of the 
islanders were made of the wood of this tree, which is extremely hard and of a very 
handsome dark reddish colour. 

Mr. Perkins says (Ibis, 1893, pp. 105, 106) that this species is very partial to the 
lehua flowers, and that he has seen the nest at different heights in various trees. It 
is lined with roots, and has many fruit-capsules of the poka, dry and more or less 
skeletonized, woven in the exterior. 

Description.— Adult male. Above yellowish orange, somewhat brighter on the rump, 
the forehead and sides of the head being yellow with an inclination to orange ; lores black 
and well defined; beneath, the entire surface of the body of a bright greenish yellow, 
inclining to lemon-yellow on the abdomen ; wing and tail-quills blackish brown, edged 
with olive-green ; under tail-coverts and wing-lining whitish ; irides dark hazel : bill 
and feet black. 

Adult female. Much duller than the male, the abdomen being almost primrose- 
yellow, while the greenish yellow of the upper parts in the male is replaced by ashy 
olive. Apparently the forehead is not yellow. 

Dimensions —Total length 4-5 inches, wing from carpal joint 2-63, culmen -65, 
tarsus -80, tail 1*85. 



-, 




- 



F.W.BVaha.wk Ael.etHth. 



West^Newmswi imp 



HIMAT10NE. WILSONI. 



HIMATIONE WILSONI. 



Himatione chloris, S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 447 ; id. Ibis, 1890, p. 185 (partim). 
Himatione wilsoni, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i. p. xlii (1893). 



Of this species, peculiar to Maui, the habits are at present undescribed, though they 
are doubtless similar to those of its congeners, for which special reference may be made 
to H. virens. 

Description. — Above yellowish green, below bright yellow with an inclination to 
orange ; the superciliary streak is of the same yellow tint, the lores and a very narrow 
frontal line being black. 

Dimensions. — Total length 4*6 inches, wing 2*45, tail 1*65, tarsus *8, culmen '55. 

The female is greyer above, and paler in the yellow portions. 

Mr. Rothschild says : — " Similar to H. stejnegeri of Kauai, but smaller, the beak 
considerably less and straighter, in this respect resembling H. virens of Hawaii." For 
my own part I have considered this bird indistinguishable from H. chloris. 



2i 





FW.Fraha.wk ckLetlith. 



"West.Newman. imj 



HI MAT I ONE PARVA. 






HIMATIONE PAEVA. 

ALAWI or ANAUANII. 



Himatione parva, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1837, p. 94. 

This species was first obtained in Kauai, to which island it is peculiar, while a good 
description of it was given by Dr. Stejneger as above cited. It is met with in small 
flocks, usually in company with Oreomyza bairdi, and at times also with Chrysomitridops 
cceruleirostris, from which it is hardly distinguishable at a short distance ; it has a low 
chirp, but no song that I heard. The range seems to extend throughout the forest- 
region, as it was found by Mr. Francis Gay towards the summit of Waialeale (4000 feet), 
the highest point on the island of Kauai. It feeds principally on insects 1 , as does 
Himatione virens, but no doubt also occasionally on honey. 

Dr. Stejneger, in his remarks on this bird, says : — 

" In general proportions the present species, which is the smallest of the slender- 
billed Hawaiian Dicceidce, agrees very well with Himatione sanguinea, except in its 
proportionately somewhat shorter bill, and cannot be separated from it generically, 
although in shape and size of bill somewhat intermediate between the latter species 
and Loxops. It is of about the same size as L. coccinea, consequently much smaller 
than II. sanguined, and easily separable from both by its coloration, except perhaps 
from the female Loxops coccinea, which, according to v. Pelzeln (Journ. f. Orn. 1872, 
p. 29), is green above and yellow below. The bare nasal fossae and longer bill of 
H. parvd will prevent its being confounded with Loxops, however. In regard to 
colour it approaches more closely Himatione chloris, but H. parva is brighter yellow 
both above and below, and has the under tail-coverts yellow, strongly contrasting with 
the white of the abdomen, while in H. chloris they are whitish washed with dull buff. 
They are very easily told apart by the quite different dimensions and proportions, 
H. chloris being much larger, with a much longer and more curved bill and a propor- 
tionately much shorter tail than II. parva. 

" From //. virens (Gm.) (which I take to be the same as Sharpe's and Sclater's bird 
of the same name and also the same as Bloxam's H.fiava, Mr. Sharpe having the type 
of the latter in the British Museum) our H. parva may be distinguished principally 
by its smaller size, and especially by its much shorter bill. 

1 Dr. Stejneger, on the authority of Mr. Knudsen, gives its native name as Kamao, which is incorrect; but 
that gentleman is doubtless right in stating that it " feeds on bugs, but also on the juices of flowers." 






" H. maculata, Cabanis, which is evidently quite distinct from both H. virens and 
H. chloris, is at once excluded from comparison with H. parva on account of the 
dimensions, and especially as having an entirely different wing-formula." 

Dr. Stejneger's description is as follows : — 

Description. — Adult male. Entire upper surface and sides of body, as well as the 
outer edges of quills and tail-feathers, bright yellowish olive-green, inclining to olive- 
yellow on forehead, region above the lores, supercilia, and rump ; trace of a dusky 
line between bill and eye ; under surface, including under tail-coverts, bright olive- 
yellow ; middle of abdomen, tibiae, axillaries, and under wing-coverts white, except 
those of the latter nearest to the edge of the wing, which are bright yellow ; quills 
blackish, edged in the outer web with yellowish olive, in the inner one with white. 
Bill horny, brownish grey, pale at base below the nostrils ; feet horny, brownish grey. 

The female is similar to the male. 

Dimensions (taken from a specimen in my collection). — Total length 4" 30 inches, 
wing from carpal joint 2'40, culmen -40, tarsus - 70, tail 1*40. 





J~\J vr ~ .. 





' - 




RWFrohawkdftl.etlith. 



VIRIDONIA SAGITTIROSTIS, a. ? . 



We at, Newman imp . 






VIKIDONIA SAGITTIROSTBIS. 



Viridonia sagittirostris, Rothschild, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, x. p. 112 (July 1892) ; id. 
Avif. Laysan, p. 109, pi. (1893). 



Me. Rothschild described this new species in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History' for 1892, in the following words : — 

" Fam. Meliphagidse. 

" Vieidonia, gen. nov. 

" Bill slightly curved, stout at the base, attenuating towards the tip, which is sharply 

pointed ; wing rather broad, the first quill slightly shorter than the sixth ; no bastard 

primary ; tail rather short, nearly even at the tip ; legs and feet stout ; culmen about 

equal in length to the tarsus. 

" Viridonia sagittirostris, sp. n. 

" Adult male. Upper parts bright olive-green, rather paler and brighter on the sides 
of the head and upper tail-coverts. Underparts bright yellowish green ; wings blackish 
brown, the primaries narrowly and the secondaries more broadly margined with 
yellowish green ; tail blackish brown, with yellowish-green margins ; under surface of 
the wings dark ashy, the quills margined with dull white on the basal half; margin 
of the wing tinged with yellow. Bill black ; legs black ; iris brownish grey. 

" Total length about 6 - 5 inches, culmen 0'9, wing 3 - 3, tail 2T, tarsus - 91. 

" Adult female. Resembles the male, but is rather duller in tinge of colour both on 
the upper and underparts. 

" Hab. Mauna Kea, Hawai, Sandwich group." 

This bird was discovered in 1892 by Palmer, when collecting for Mr. Rothschild, on 
the slopes of Mauna Kea, above Hilo ; it frequents high trees and masses of creepers 
in the densest forest, generally at an altitude of from 500 to 1500 feet, is shy and 
fairly active, and utters a high clear call-note, rather like that of the Mamo, varied by 
a regular whistling trill. The song is not unlike that of Chlorodrepanis, but has two 
or three loud notes at the end. Only four specimens were obtained in the first 
instance, but Mr. Perkins secured several on his visit to the islands in 1896, one of 
them at an altitude of 2000 feet. The stomachs of those he shot were filled with 
crickets of the genus Paratrigonidium. 



It will be seen that Mr. Rothschild originally referred this species to the family 
Meliphagidse ; but that he subsequently modified his opinion is clear from his statement, 
in the 'Avifauna of Laysan,' to the effect that the genus comes "nearest to Oreomyza." 
It undoubtedly belongs to the Drepanididae, as that group is now understood. In the 
work just mentioned a new version of the generic characters is given, which runs as 
follows : — 

" Bill straight or very slightly curved, high and stout at base, attenuating towards 
the tip, which is sharply pointed. Nostrils protected by an upper operculum, only at 
base a little overhung by short feathers. Wing rather broad ; first primary entirely 
rudimentary; fourth and fifth about equal and longest, gradually becoming shorter 
towards both sides; second slightly shorter than the seventh, and about equal to the 
eighth. Tail somewhat short, nearly even at tip. Legs and feet strong. Plumage 
rich and soft. 

' ; Sexes similar." 













PW.Frotsvc'kde] etlxfil 



OREOMYZA BAIRDI 



Yfest.'N'ewmaE imp 






OEEOMYZA BAIEDI. 

AKIKIKI. 



Oreomyza bairdi, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 99; id. op. cit. 1889, p. 385; S. B. 

Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 193. 
Oreomyza wilsoni, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1889, p. 386. 



This species was first obtained by Mr. Knudsen in Kauai, to which island it is peculiar, 
while an excellent description of it was given by Dr. Stejneger as above cited. It is 
usually met with in small flocks of from eight to twelve, and is a particularly active 
bird, continually running up and down the limbs and trunks of the high trees in search 
of insects ; it is, in fact, the most energetic bird of the Hawaiian forests. Its short 
tail, in Dr. Stejneger's opinion, indicates terrestrial habits, but I only observed it at 
some considerable height from the ground, in the lofty ohia and koa trees, for the 
dead branches of which it evinces a decided preference ; a flowering branch of the 
narrow-leaved variety of the latter, taken from a dried specimen, is well depicted in 
the Plate by Mr. Frohawk. The note is a simple twit, twit, twit, repeated constantly. 
Its range seems to reach an elevation of 3000 feet. Occasionally examples of this 
bird have the forehead white, and Dr. Stejneger upon them has founded a second 
species which he has done me the honour of distinguishing by my name. I do not 
think, however, that it is valid, as my examples were all obtained in one locality ; but 
at the same time the variation in plumage does not seem to be due to sex. 

Dr. Stejneger, in establishing a new genus for this bird says : — " This genus may be 
characterized as one of the nine-primaried Dicceidce (as defined by E. B. Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 2) distinguished (1) by having the nasal fossse partly hidden by 
antrorse feathers ; (2) by the absence of rictal bristles; (3) by the elongated, but other- 
wise Loxops-Yike bill ; (4) by the shortness of the first (ninth) primary, which is but 
slightly longer than the secondaries ; (5) by the shortness and stoutness of the feet, the 
tarsus being not more than twice the hind toe without claw. 

" In some respects the present form seems to agree with Pinarolowias, Sharpe, especi- 
ally in the profile of the bill. I can find no other structural character of consequence 
assigned to the latter species than ' the culmen flattened in front of the nostrils ' 
(Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 3), a peculiarity not at all shared by Oreomyza. 

" The most noteworthy peculiarity of the present genus is expressed by the wing- 
formula, which seems to be unique among the Hawaiian members of the Dicceidce, for 
all the other forms which I have been able to examine, viz. Hemignathus, Vestiaria, 
Himatione, Heterorhynchus (lucidus), Loxojps (coccinea), and Psittirostra, have the first 
(ninth) primary never shorter than the fifth, while in Oreomyza it is shorter than the 

M 






seventh, and only slightly longer than the secondaries, which in the other genera fall 
short of the tips of the exterior primary by more than the length of the hind toe 
without claw. I have examined carefully both specimens of Oreomyza bairdi and find 
they agree completely : I also find the quills are fully grown, so that there is no chance 
of their being undeveloped. 

" Another important feature is the partial covering of the nasal fossae by overhanging 
feathers, and the absence of real bristles. In the specimens of Loxops and Psittirostra 
before me, the nasal fossae are likewise covered by antrorse feathers (in the cuts of the 
bills of these genera in the tenth volume of Cat. B. Brit. Mus. pp. 49, 51, the nasal 
fossae are represented as entirely bare), and the bristles, if present, are slightly deve- 
loped, while in the other genera strong and black bristles are seen guarding the base 
of the upper mandible. 

" The hind toe is better developed, and the tarsus comparatively shorter than in the 
allied genera. Taken in connection with the rounded shape of the wing and the com- 
parative shortness of the tail, it seems likely that the habits of the present form are 
more terrestrial than those of the other Hawaiian Dicceidce." 

To Dr. Stejneger's account, part of which is here transcribed, I can add that in 
freshly-killed specimens the bill is light brown, tinged with pink, the feet light pink, 
the irides dark hazel, and that the female is similar to the male ; while the native 
name " Akakane" is incorrect, " Akikiki " being right. 

Description. — Adult male. Above clear olive-grey, tinged with pale olive-green on 
rump and margins of tail-feathers and secondaries ; beneath pale olive-buff, nearly 
white on chin, throat, and under wing-coverts, tinged with pale primrose-yellow on the 
fore neck, and suffused with olive-grey on the flanks ; lores whitish ; ear-coverts like 
the upper parts. 

Dimensions (taken from a specimen in my collection). — Total length 4'45 inches, 
wing from carpal joint 2*80, culmen -45, tarsus -65, tail 1-85. 




F.W.Frcka.wk dal.etlifti 



I .LOXOPS COCCINEA. 
2.L0X0PS FLAMMEA. 



LOXOPS FLAMMEA. 

KAKAWAHIE. 



Loxops flammea, Scott Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 445. 

The new species of Loxops, of which the discovery is related here, was originally 
described in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' as above. 

It is peculiar, as far as I can judge, to the island of Molokai, and I only procured 
three specimens during my stay, all at Kalae ; it may not, however, be safe to consider 
it rare, as my host easily obtained the native name for me, thus showing the bird 
to be known to the aborigines. I met with all three examples on the same day, 
killing a male and female at the same shot. It was in one of those penetrating mists, 
which fortunately we did not often experience in the Sandwich Islands, that I had 
started early in the morning from Mr. Meyer's residence, accompanied only by a 
native boy, and till noon the day was clear ; in the afternoon, however, the mist 
gathered and a cold rain began to fall ; soon we were completely enveloped, and my 
native, well acquainted with the forest as he was, lost the way. While we were 
wandering about and searching for the trail, I heard a curious sound, — a continued chip, 
chip, chip, not unlike the sound of chopping wood when heard at a distance — which 
at first I did not think could belong to a bird ; soon, however, I was undeceived, as a 
flash of brilliant orange colour passed us in the fog ; when, on trying to follow it up, 
the continuous metallic note enabled me to get within range and I fired, bringing down 
two birds, which proved to be male and female. Soon afterwards I shot another of the 
bright-coloured males. We had by this time hopelessly lost our way, and the conse- 
quences might have been serious ; so we were extremely glad to hear revolver shots at 
no great distance, which proved to be fired by Mr. Meyer's sons, who had come out in 
search of us. The name applied to this bird in the Hawaiian language means fire- 
wood ; but whether this is given to it from the note, which, as remarked above, resembles 
the sound of chopping wood, or from the brilliant flame-colour of its plumage, I am 
unable to say. 

Description. — Adult male. Front and sides of the head pure scarlet ; top of the head 
and back brownish scarlet, brightening into nearly pure scarlet on the rump ; chin, 
throat, and lower surface generally pure scarlet, but paler in hue, brightening, however, 
on the flanks ; remiges and rectrices blackish brown edged with brownish scarlet ; wing- 
lining pale scarlet. Bill and legs light pinkish brown. 

Adult female. Top of the head hair-brown, but each feather brownish scarlet at the 
base, and the shafts of those towards the back of the head grey ; back hair-brown 

c 



tinged with red ; rump distinctly russet ; upper tail-coverts brownish scarlet ; remiges 
and rectrices blackish brown edged with brownish scarlet, as also are the upper 
wing-coverts. Beneath, dull white tinged with pale scarlet ; sides of the body reddish 
brown, and wing-lining white tinged with scarlet. 

Dimensions. — Total length 5 inches, wing from carpal joint 2*5, culmen "5, tarsus "75, 
tail 2. 

Obs. — Differs from L. coccinea not only in its much larger size, but in the intense 
purity of its scarlet, which replaces the scarlet-orange of that bird. 







F.W.FrolWk ckUtlith. 



West,Newma.Ti irrrp. 



HIMATIONE NEWTONI 



¥/ 



HIMATIONE NEWTONI. 



Himatione newtoni, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i. p. xlii (1893). 
Oreornyza newtoni, Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 115 ; Perkins, Ibis, 1895, p. 122. 



As will be seen from the above, this straight-billed form was discovered in Maui by 
the collectors of Mr. Rothschild, who accordingly described it in 1893 and considered 
it to be closely allied to H. montana of Lanai. 

Mr. Perkins's remarks on the habits of the birds of this genus are of such interest 
that I think it advisable to reproduce them here, some of the species having already 
been treated in former parts of the present work. He says : — 

" They are pre-eminently insect-eaters, hunting for these on the trunks and branches 
of the trees. Their cry is a monotonous ' chip, chip,' which they utter very voci- 
ferously when their haunts are intruded upon. It is a little different — rather less 
sharp — in the species found on Hawaii and Kauai (0. mana and 0. bairdi). 

"The two Oreomyzce peculiar to Maui and Lanai (0. newtoni and 0. montana) have 
a distinct song, short, rather vigorous, but very rarely heard. Apparently they sing 
only when intensely excited, as, for instance, when one male has been successful in 
driving off another intruding upon his domain l . On such occasions 1 have seen the 
victor rise spirally upwards to a height of from twenty to fifty feet, pouring forth its 
little song while on the wing, then suddenly darting down again to the concealment of 
the brush. Very rarely indeed I detected the same species feeding on the nectar of 
the lehua flowers, and shot them with the beak dripping therewith. 0. mana of 
Hawaii generally frequented the tall koa trees, also coming down into the underbrush 
of bastard sandal ; 0. bairdi, of Kauai, was mostly seen in the lehuas ; the other 
species largely frequented the low brush, being frequently seen amongst the fern- 
fronds and even on the ground. They feed much on caterpillars and small moths, 
which they find on the trunks and branches, climbing along the undersides of the 
latter and up the largest of the former with equal ease. Large moths, when caught, 
they hold down with their claws, tearing off the wings before eating them. To Owls 
they have the greatest aversion, and when one flies overhead they become greatly 
excited, all those in the neighbourhood joining in the clamour. I have seen some 
twenty or thirty Oreomyzce gathered around one of these birds, which was sleeping on 
a dead branch, but they kept at a respectful distance, and did not venture out of the 
brush. It is highly probable that in past times they were largely preyed on by the 

1 " This refers more especially to Oreornyza montana. 0. newtoni I heard sing more frequently." 



Owls, the favourite food of which they possibly were, as they lack the objectionable 
odour of the other green birds, and the latter never seemed similarly frightened. As 
to the Owl (Asio accipitrimis) itself, it now preys mostly on the introduced mice, 
which abound, especially on the lower slopes and plains, but at times it may be seen 
hawking for small birds in parts of the forest where mice are quite absent. Moreover, 
it was probably much more abundant in past times, as it was never destroyed by the 
natives, who considered it a most powerful god. The old navigators speak of its 
great abundance and tameness; but since the settling of the country by white men it 
has been largely destroyed (though still abundant), since it is given to carrying off the 
newly-hatched chickens. To this day few natives will shoot at one of these birds. 

"To one species referred to this genus by Mr. Rothschild in his book ('The Birds 
of Laysan,' &c.) I have not alluded. This is the Himatione parva, of Kauai, which 
has neither the habits nor appearance of Oreomyza, but belongs rightly to the genus 
in which it was first placed. It is to a great extent a honey-sucker, like its congeners. 
The slight difference between it and them in the wing-formula is quite insufficient to 
detach it from its allies. It also has the nasal opercula bare, as in the other members, 
not overhung with antrorse feathers, like Oreomyza. But, apart from this, the 
formation of the tongue at once shows its proper place. In Himatione and Loxops 
this is elongated, very narrow, and terminates in a brush. The lateral margins are 
bent upwards, to meet in the middle line above, and form a tubular canal, for about 
half the length of the horny part of the tongue. In Oreomyza the tongue is very 
short and comparatively broad, the sides but slightly raised, and not nearly meeting 
above ; it is not terminated in a brush, but the apex is cleft in the middle for some 
considerable depth. Himatione and Loxops (including Clirysomitridojps) are at once 
distinguished from each other by the longer, thinner, more or less curved bill of the 
former, the beak of Loxops being short and thick with the apex of the mandible more 
or less deflected (either to the right or left), tending to cross the maxilla." 

Description. — Upper parts dark olive-green, with a band of yellow on the forehead 
and above the eyes, which varies in breadth, though usually the front portion of the head 
is mainly yellow, the cheeks and middle of the lower surface being similarly coloured. 
The sides of the body are greenish, the bill and feet dark brown. In life the latter are 
said to be silvery grey with a pinkish tinge 1 , 

Dimensions.— Total length 4/5 inches, wing 2-5, tail 2, tarsus -8, culmen -4. 

The female is greyer above and lighter yellow below, but does not differ from the 
male so much as is the case in many other species of the genus. 

1 Rothschild, Avif. Lajsau, p. 115. 



i. Vt 




FW.Yroka.-wk cLel.etlith. 



West Newman inxp. 



H I MAT IONE MA CUL AT A . $ Jvlv. 






HIMATIONE MACULATA. 

AMAKIHI. 



Himatione maculata, Cabanis, Mus. Hein. i. p. 100 (1850-51) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 
1852, i. p. 110 ; Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 256 (1853) ; Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 
xxxviii. p. 264 (1854); Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 94; S. B. Wilson, Ibis, 
1890, p. 186. 

Drepanis (Himatione) sanguinea,juv., G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 9 (1859). 

Himatione virens, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 9, partim (1885). 

Viridonia maculata, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i. p. Ivii (1893). 

Oreomyza maculata, Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 113, pi. (1893). 



This straight-billed bird, found only upon Oahu, was described by Prof. Cabanis, in 
the ' Museum Heineanum,' from a male and an immature female obtained in that 
island by Deppe when in company with Townsend in 1836-37. The validity of the 
new species seemed, however, more than doubtful to G. R. Gray, and afterwards to 
Dr. Sharpe when writing the tenth volume of the ' British Museum Catalogue of Birds '; 
for the first author considered it to be the young of Himatione sanguinea, while the 
last-named referred it to H. virens. Dr. Stejneger, nevertheless, reported it as certainly 
distinct from the latter in 1887, and the matter was practically settled by the specimens 
which I obtained in the same year, on my first visit to the Sandwich Islands. It is 
true that all of these examples were immature ; but, owing to the kindness of the 
authorities of the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, I was 
enabled to compare with them an adult male procured by Townsend, which is that 
described below. Mr. Rothschild, who at one time considered the bird to be a member 
of his new genus Viridonia, says : " Wilson remarks that Cabanis's name ' maculata ' is 
inappropriate." This, however, was not the word that I used ; I said that the name 
was " unfortunate " — which it certainly is, for the adult male exhibits no traces of 
spots, — and " unfortunate " has not the same meaning as " inappropriate." 

Himatione maculata is fairly common in the district of Halemann, where there are 
still some remains of the former forest ; and Palmer found it " not rare " in the upland 
region of Waialua at an altitude of 1500 feet and upwards, while Mr. Perkins obtained 
a considerable number of specimens at the same place and at Kawailoa in 1893, some 
of them at a rather lower elevation. Its habits resemble those of other members of 
the genus {Oreomyza) as limited in the Introduction. 



Description. — Adult male. Very similar to the adult male of II chloris, but with the 
olive upper plumage darker, though tinged with yellow ; forehead hardly brighter than 
the crown, but a distinct, though indefinitely marked, yellowish streak over the eye ; 
lores brownish black ; chin, cheeks, auriculars, and throat clear golden-yellow, which 
colour pervades the breast and belly, becoming very pale, almost white, on the 
abdomen ; lower tail-coverts pale yellow. Wing-coverts with distinct whitish marks 
of considerable size. 

Adult female. Very unlike the male above described. Streak over the eye and 
under parts white, tinged with yellow ; sides of the body and flank-region greyish ; 
upper parts olive-grey, showing whitish marks, which are much less distinct than in 
the male. Bill and feet rather dark brown. " Soles flesh colour and orange ; iris dark 
brown " {Rothschild). 

The male characterized above is not, however, the form usually found, even when 
the birds are breeding. No doubt its colour is such as would be expected, judging 
from the other species most nearly related to it; but the tints seem to be quite 
abnormal, as both sexes are usually coloured much alike, though the male has more 
distinct and rounder white wing-spots. 

Dimensions. — Total length about 5 inches, culmen about '6, wing 2*6— 2'8, tail 
nearly 2, tarsus 8. 




RW.Froha.wk Aeletlith. 



West.llewman imp 



HIM.ATI0NE MONTANA. 






HIMATIONE MONTANA. 



Himatione montana, S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 446. 

This hitherto undescribed species I obtained in the mountain-region of Lanai, at a 
spot called Lanaihale (the house of Lanai), at a height of about 3000 feet, the 
brilliant yellow of the underparts in the freshly killed male and its nearly straight 
bill clearly showing it to be distinct from any other member of the genus. I only met 
with four specimens, of which I secured an adult male and female on the same day in 
the locality mentioned above, and subsequently two immature examples in a gulch at 
a much lower elevation. As, perhaps, an account of our mountain trip on the day on 
which I shot the former may be of interest, I here transcribe from my Journal 
some notes, taken on the spot : — ■ 

" 1st June, 1888. — To-day we took two natives, one of them armed with an axe with 
which to clear the path for us. The day was fine, and the trail by which one ascends 
to the plateau was consequently in good order, so we arrived there without accident. 
Here we tied up our horses, and then all of us started down a narrow forest-path, the 
same which we had followed the day before. For a few hundred yards it is thickly 
overhung with ferns (Gleichenia) and the climbing Ieie (Freycinetia arbor ea), and we 
had almost to take to our knees, which was intensely tiring work. After this thick bit it 
becomes more open, owing to the presence of wild pigs; and here F. and I, with one of the 
natives, waited, as it was at this spot that Mr. Gibson had shot some birds the previous 
day. I was very unlucky in not finding several specimens which I killed ; Mr. Gibson 
soon returned with a few birds, but of the same species that I had already obtained 
in Hawaii. From here we started about 12 o'clock, following the path, to try to make 
the summit of the mountain. Before long the path emerges from the thick scrub and 
comparatively tall trees on to a plateau, where the scrub only reaches to one's knees. 
From this open plateau we had a magnificent view of the west side of the island, with 
Molokai and Maui in the far distance, surrounded by a bright blue sea. The path then 
ascends gradually till we reach a point overlooking Palawai Valley, which looks a mere 
dot in the landscape, so far is it below us. We followed the path a little higher ; 
here it becomes decidedly steep, and the rich light yellow soil is very slippery as 
far as the top of the mountain ; the ohia and other trees are of considerable size, but 
we could neither hear nor see any birds. However, at a point called Lanaihale, on 
our return journey, I caught sight of a bright yellow bird in an ohia bush, a few yards 
down the side of the gulch ; I put my gun instantly to my shoulder and fired, and 
down came the bird ; F. and I scrambled down the gulch and fortunately found it. 






Its breast was of a brilliant yellow, far brighter in tint than the plumage of any other 
species I had previously obtained ; its legs and bill were a light pink : in dissecting it 
I found some small larvse." 

No words of mine can convey an idea of the difficulty and danger of collecting in 
the mountains of Lanai ; this is due to the almost impenetrable bush which covers the 
upland plateau, to the fogs which render riding extremely dangerous, and to the rains 
which make the nearly perpendicular mountain-trails treacherous even to a sure-footed 
Lanai horse ; indeed, inured as I was to " steep bits " in my island travels, I must 
confess that the first trip we made into these solitudes surprised me. I must here 
mention that the discovery of this interesting species is due to the kindness of my friend 
Mr. Henry Gibson, in kindly acting as our guide on our explorations, and also to 
the late Mr. Jesse Morehead's invariable kindness to me during a stay of some weeks' 
duration under Mr. F. H. Hayselden's hospitable roof. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, sides of the face, and throat deep lemon-yellow, 
shading into a lighter tint of yellow on the breast and abdomen, the lower part of 
which is white ; under tail-coverts deep lemon-yellow ; upper parts, with the exception 
of the rump, which is yellow, are dull greenish yellow ; primaries (of which the second 
is much shorter than the fourth and fifth, which are equal) ashy brown, edged with dull 
yellow ; wing-lining white, tinged with clear yellow ; tail-quills ashy brown edged with 
dull yellow ; bill light pinkish ; feet slender, of the same colour as the bill. 

Adult female. Similar in general colour to the male, though the underparts are of a 
very light shade of lemon-yellow instead of the deep yellow of the male. 

Dimensions. — Total length 4 inches, wing from carpal joint 2-25, culmen -35, tarsus 
•70, tail 2-75. 

Obs. — The bill in curve approaches nearest to Oreomyza and in size to Himatione 
parva, Stejn. 



Vf 




F.77 Frolu-Lv/k liel.et'liili. 



H I MAT I ONE "M ANA. 



HIMATIONE MANA. 



Himatione mana, S. B. Wilson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6,vii. p. 460 (1891). 

Of this new species I only obtained three specimens ; and I must confess that I 
did not recognize its distinctness from Himatione virens, inhabiting as it does the 
same localities in Hawaii, until I examined my examples with Professor Newton; 
while Count T. Salvadori, on looking over the birds in my collection, remarked its 
similarity to Oreomyza bairdi in the nearly straight bill and the plumage of the 
underparts, especially in the female. 

Description. — Adult male. Head ashy olive, shading into dull olive-green on the 
back ; beneath dull greenish buff, except the chin and throat, which are whitish ; 
wings and tail brown, edged outwardly with olive-green. 

Female. Duller on the upper parts, while the chin and throat beneath are nearly 
white, the rest of the underparts more buff than in the male. 

Dimensions. — Total length 4-45 inches, wing 2-50, culmen -45, tarsus -70, tail 1-40. 






LOXOPS COCCINEA, 

AKEPEUIE. 

I "2 0, 



" Scarlet Finch," Latham, Gen. Synops. ii. p. 270 (1783). 

Fringilla coccinea, Grnelin, Syst.'Nat. i. p. 921 (1788); Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 444 (1790); 

Donndorff, Orn. Beytr. ii. p. 541 (1795) ; Tiedemann, Anat. Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 433 

(1814) ; Stephens, Shaw's Zool. ix. p. 454 (1815) ; Cuvier, Regne Anim. i. p. 387 (1817) ; 

Vieillot, N. Diet, delist. Nat. xii. p. 167 (1817) ; id. Encycl. Method., Ornithol. p. 983 (1823) ; 

J. E. Gray & Griffith, An. Kingd. Aves, ii. p. 140 (1829) ; G. R. Gray, Gen. B. ii. p. 371 

(1849). 
" Le Moineau des lies Sandwich," Sonnini, Hist. Nat. Buflon, Ois. xii. p. 251 (1802). 
" Chardonneret ecarlate," Vieill. Ois. Chant, pi. 31* (1805). 

Fringilla rufa, Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 250 (1826) ; J. E. Gray, Zool. Miscell. p. 11 (1831). 
Carduelis coccinea, Lesson, Compl. Buffon, viii. p. 281 (1837). 
Linaria ? coccinea, Gould, Zool. Voy. ' Sulphur,' p. 41, Birds, pi. 22* (1843). 
Drepanis rufa, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 96 (1847). 
Loxops coccinea, Cahanis, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1847, i. p. 330 ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. 

p. 28 (1859) ; id. Hand-1. B. i. p. 114 (1869) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 360, 1879, p. 92 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. pp. 49, 50 (1885). 
Hypoloxias coccinea, Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 518 (1850) ; Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. p. 48 

(1854) ; Hartlaub, Arch, f . Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 133 ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, 

p. 301 ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 49. 
Loxops coccineus, Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, p. 29. 
" Byrseus coccineus, Reichenbach," Bonaparte ut supra [Byrseus, Reichenbach, Natiirl. Syst. Vog. 

tab. lxxv. (1850)]. 
Drepanis aurea, Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 45. 
Loxops aurea, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 50, partim (1885) . 



* Figurce notabiles. 

This is one of the birds of which examples have always been so rare in museums that 
few persons have had opportunities of examining them, and in consequence we have an 
involved synonymy. Brought home by Cook's people, and originally described by 
Latham from the Leverian Museum, it was named Fringilla coccinea by Gmelin, but 
unfortunately received the new appellation of F. rufa from Bloxam ; while G. E. Gray, 
having the ' Blonde ' specimens before him, referred them in 1847 to the genus 
Drepanis, retaining also, in 1849, the original F. coccinea as a distinct species ; Gould, 
moreover, in the Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. ' Sulphur,' failed to perceive that 
the so-called two species were identical. Further confusion has been caused by Judge 
Dole, who, while including F. coccinea in his list, redescribed it there as Drepanis aurea 

3 



from an example in Mills's collection, which has been examined by myself. The 
curved and slender bill makes its reference to Drepanis, as that name has been some- 
times used, excusable; but Dr. Finsch unfortunately referred (Ibis, 1880, p. 80) to 
the so-called " D. aurea " — the type of which came from Hawaii — the birds which he 
obtained in Maui, belonging to a wholly different species, as is elsewhere shown in the 
present work. 

This bright-coloured species is confined to the Island of Hawaii, where it is so un- 
common that during eight months' collecting I obtained but five specimens. It may 
be of interest to state the localities and give some details of the capture, as this is one 
of the rarest of Hawaiian birds, and cannot, I think, be far from extinct. The first 
example that I procured was on June 15th, 1887, at a ranche called Puulehua, in the 
district of Kona, at an elevation of 5000 feet, and, soon after, I got another in the same 
locality, while a third was shot by my friend Mr. Horswill in September, about three 
miles from the Volcano House, on the Keauhou road. I had seen this bird the day 
previous, sitting on an old stump of an ohia tree, and had fired at it but missed ; yet 
the next day on our return to the spot we found it not thirty yards from where we 
had seen it before, and Mr. Horswill shot it. It is a curious fact that the natives at 
the house insisted it was the far-famed Mamo {Drepanis pacified) ; and this ignorance 
tends to show that that species cannot have been seen of late years, as here were 
natives living within fifteen miles of Olaa — formerly a famous bird-catching resort, 
and supposed to be the home of the Mamo, — confounding it with a bird totally unlike 
it in form and colour. Again, in January 1 888, when shooting in the forest on Puukapu 
near Waimea, in company with Mr. Frank Spencer, jun., I saw an example of this 
species in the flower-covered branches of an ohia tree, and called to my friend to fire ; 
he killed it and brought down an Amakihi [Himatione virens) with the same barrel. 
My fifth bird was shot within a few miles of Mana, the Hon. Samuel Parker's residence. 
These five specimens were all obtained at altitudes ranging from 3000 to 5000 feet, so 
that the habitat may be said to be the middle and upper forest-zones ; and there seems 
to have been less difficulty in obtaining them in former times, as more than one of the 
old explorers procured several during comparatively brief stays on the island. A good 
figure of the male was given by Gould in his account of the birds of the Voyage of the 
' Sulphur.' That ship appears to have made Honolulu its headquarters, which the 
explorers reached on July the 17th, 1837 ; there they remained till the 27th, much of 
the interval, as the narrative tells us, being very agreeably spent among the lovely 
valleys of Oahu. It is probable, therefore, that most of their collecting was done on 
that island, but as they revisited the Islands in June 1839, they very possibly landed 
on and explored Hawaii, to which this species is, so far as I know, peculiar. Bloxam, 
Voy. ' Blonde,' App. p. 250, gives a brief description of it from specimens obtained 
by the expedition ; he mentions AJcepaJcepa as its Hawaiian name, which has some 
resemblance to its proper title of Akepeuie. No reference to the island which is its 
home is made by any of the authors who have hitherto noticed it, except by Judge Dole 
(Hawaiian Almanack, p. 45, 1879), who, after describing an example belonging to the 



late Mr. Mills, goes on to say that M. Bailleu had observed a brown variety which might 
be the female. As I have elsewhere remarked, M. Bailleu made his collections in Kona 
(the place where my first two specimens were obtained), while those in the Mills 
cabinets were probably procured in the vicinity of Olaa. I have examined the birds 
in the British Museum of Natural History, obtained by Bloxam, and that described by 
Gould in the Voyage of the ' Sulphur,' and find that they are identical with mine, 
though the brilliant orange has faded to a great extent. 

Description. — Adult male. General colour of the whole of the upper surface scarlet- 
orange, inclining to a brownish tint on the back ; lower surface also scarlet-orange 
but of brighter hue, especially towards the abdomen ; wing-quills and tail dusky 
brown edged with brownish orange ; wing-lining whitish washed with light scarlet- 
orange ; irides dark hazel ; bill bluish black ; feet black. 

Dimensions. — Adult male. Total length 4'5 inches, wing from carpal joint 2-45, 
culmen - 35, tarsus - 85, tail 1-65. 

Obs— Of my five specimens none were females, so I am unable to say whether the 
sexes differ. 



D2 



/>'**v 





F.WFrohawk del etlith . 



West^ewmsm imp. 



1 . L OXO P S AU RE A c? r^ /&r^. 
2.LOXOPS RUFA. 



' 



LOXOPS EUFA, 



Fringilla rufa, Bloxam, Voy. 'Blonde/ p. 250 (1826); J. E. Gray, Zool. Miscell. p. 11 (1831). 
Linaria ? coccinea, Gould, Voy. 'Sulphur/ p. 41, Birds, pi. 22 (1843) (see Fringilla coccinea, Gmel.) . 
Drepanis rufa, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 96 (1847). 
Loxops coccinea (pt.), G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Id. p. 28 (1859) ; id. Hand-1. B. i. p. 114 (1869) ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. pp. 49, 50 (1885) ; Wilson, B. Sandw. Isl. pt. i. (1890). 
Loxops wolstenholmei, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 21 June, 1893, p. lvi. 



Following the example of the late Mr. G. R. Gray in 1859, of Dr. Sharpe in 1885, 
and others, I was led in my account of Loxops coccinea to suppose that the Fringilla 
rufa of Bloxam, the types of which (obtained during the visit of the ' Blonde ' to the 
Sandwich Islands) still exist in the British Museum, was identical with the F. coccinea 
of Gmelin. This belief was strengthened by the fact that a specimen of the same 
species from Gould's collection (probably that figured in the ' Voyage of the Sulphur '), 
and also in the same museum, had also been referred by him to F. coccinea. It is true 
that these examples possessed little of the vivid colouring displayed by my own recently 
obtained examples of the latter ; but this was attributed to the former having been for 
so many years exposed to the effects of the London atmosphere, which seemed 
sufficiently to account for their faded appearance, on which I duly remarked at the 
time. Knowing, however, that most of Bloxam's specimens must have been procured 
in Oahu, where I was not so fortunate as to meet with a Loxops, and finding that 
Mr. Rothschild had described a species of that genus from that island, I was induced to 
look again into the matter, and then it was evident that Bloxam's birds were perfectly 
distinct from the Hawaiian L. coccinea, and must be recognized under the name of 
L. rufa, of which Mr. Rothschild's L. wolstenholmei is a synonym, as he has since 
admitted. 

Mr. Perkins, who was with Wolstenholme in Oahu when he shot an example for 
Mr. Rothschild, has also examined the specimens in the British Museum and agrees to 
their identity. 

As J. E. Gray and Gould had the opportunity of examining the bird when the 
colours were comparatively fresh, I here subjoin their descriptions, in preference to 
re-describing it in the present faded condition. 

The former says : — " Body red-foxy ; lores blackish ; wing and tail olive-brown ; 
wing-coverts, quills, and tail red-edged, inner edge of quills and under wing-covert 
white ; bill short, triangular, conic, tip straight, acute, whitish ; feet brown ; tarsus 



9 lines. Mr. Bloxam describes 'the tongue as short, tubular, and divided [into] 
filaments at the end ! ' " 

Gould says: — "The whole of the plumage rich rusty-red, deepening into brownish- 
red on the back ; wings and tail brown, margined with rusty-red ; bill horn colour ; 
feet black. 

" Total length 4 inches, bill -j^-, wing 2J, tail If, tarsi f ." 




YW.Fi26h.avrk- del etlitfci. 



"We s t /Newuxaxi inrp . 



HIMATIONE AUREA. 






LOXOPS AUREA. 



Hypoloxias aurea, Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 80 (nee Drepanis aurea, Dole, 1879). 

Loxops aurea, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 50 (1885) ; Perkins, Ibis, 1895, p. 121. 

Loxops ochracea, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 21 Dec., 1892, p. xvi (clescr. null.) ; id. Ibis, 

1893, pp. 112, 281. 
Himatione aurea, Wilson, B. Sandw. Isl. part iv. (1893) (cancelled). 



I have very much to regret that in a former part of the present work I erroneously 
referred this species to the genus Himatione, and in extenuation of my mistake can 
only urge that the type specimens obtained by Dr. Finsch, and obligingly forwarded by 
the authorities of the Berlin Museum for the use of this work, were unavoidably in my 
hands but for a very short time. I was of course unwilling to detain them any longer 
than was necessary, and the greater part of their brief sojourn in England was passed 
with Mr. Frohawk, who has carefully depicted them. One advantage has, however, 
followed from this mischance : I am now able to avail myself of the extremely 
interesting observations of Mr. Perkins, which show that this species, of which so 
little had been known before, is dimorphic — an uncertain number of the cock birds 
assuming a red plumage ; and by favour of the Joint Committee of the Royal Society 
and the British Association I am allowed to figure one of the beautiful examples 
obtained by that gentleman, in addition to the types of Dr. Finsch's Hypoloxias 
aurea. 

Mr. Perkins's remarks are : — 

" In the genus Loxops, which contains the smallest of the native birds, the different 
species have much the same habits, and the song, which is short and simple, though 
sweet, is nearly the same in all. Their call is a plain ' keewit,' uttered once or 
repeated, and is constantly to be heard. They seek their food amongst the leaves, 
especially at the ends of the branches, more rarely on the limbs themselves. It 
consists largely of caterpillars and the smaller spiders. They also suck the nectar of 
the ohia flowers (Metrosideros) ; this I saw them do but rarely, and only two of the 
species, L. aurea and L. [Chrysomitridops] c&ruleirostris. Most often, when seen 
amongst the blossoms, they were merely seeking insects, thereby attracted ; but several 
times I shot specimens with the beak dripping, and on tasting the fluid found it to 
be, beyond doubt, the nectar of these flowers. 

" From the other green birds, their green young and females are readily distin- 

2g2 



guished, at any height, by their more forked tails, which, combined with their short 
thick beaks, give them a very Finch-like aspect. 

" The young generally follow the parents (some going with the male, and some with 
the female), who feed them most assiduously even after they appear well able to shift 
for themselves. 

" The difference in colour of the sexes is very marked, while the male of L. aurea 
is dimorphic (yellow or red), though with occasional intermediate forms. L. ccerulei- 
rostris of Kauai, so far as colour is concerned, has claim to be considered the primitive 
form, both sexes largely retaining the green plumage, which only appears in the female 
and young of the red species on the more southern islands. 

" On one occasion I saw a pair of L. aurea building, high up in a tall ohia tree, 
toward the end of a branch. They came down to the ground for material, stripping 
off the brown down that covered the young fronds of some stunted ' pulu ' ferns. On 
another occasion I watched a' pair sporting on the wing, now ascending, now descending, 
but gradually rising upwards till they became mere specks in the sky. It must have 
been several minutes before they finally alighted at no great distance from their 
starting-point. Both were splendid males." 

Dv. Finsch thus describes his types : — 

" Uniform orange ; quills blackish brown, margined externally with the same colour, 
but more sordid ; covers of primaries and secondaries on the outer webs broadly 
margined with dull orange. Bill hornish-blue, tip blackish ; iris dark brown. 
Stomach containing nests of insects (caterpillars). First and third primaries longest, 
first scarcely shorter. 

"Young (just able to fly, and fed by the former). — Upper parts dull olive-green, the 
outer margin of the dark brown quills and tail-feathers more vivid, the same as the 
tips of the secondaries, which form a pale cross band on the wing; lower parts pale 
olive-yellow, chin passing into whitish ; bill horn-blackish, tip darker ; feet black ; 
third and fourth primaries longest, second equal to fifth, somewhat shorter, first a little 
shorter ; tail twelve feathers. Tongue ordinary, bifurcated at tip." 

The red form, which is here figured on the same Plate as the orange, only differs in 
the brighter coloration; but it should be observed that the lower figure (from Dr. Finsch's 
type) shows a somewhat intermediate bird, not so yellow as in some cases. 

The question of the trivial name which this species should bear is one that may 
interest those fond of nomenclatural puzzles. It is beyond all doubt the Hypoloxias 
aurea of Dr. Finsch, admirably described by him in 1880. But he, by a very pardon- 
able mistake, wherein he was followed in 1885 by Dr. Sharpe, referred it to the 
Drepanis aurea of Judge Dole, which, as I have already mentioned, I had ascertained 
(from examining the type while I was in Honolulu) to have been founded on an 
immature specimen of the Hawaiian species, Loxops coccinea. It is therefore open 
for some to urge that the term aurea is precluded to any other species of Loxops ; 
but, on the other hand, it is to be observed that this term originally appearing in 
connexion with Drejpanis was a wholly inaccurate generic assignment, while as used by 






HIMATIONE AUEEA. 



Hypoloxias aurea, Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 80 (nee Drepanis aurea, Dole) . 

In 'The Ibis' for 1880 Dr. Finsch described two examples of this species, which he 
procured at Olinda in Maui, and referred them to the genus Hypoloxias. On exami- 
nation, however, I find that they undoubtedly belong to Himatione, while care must 
be taken not to confound the bird, as the above author has done, with Drepanis aurea 
of Dole (Hawaiian Alman., 1879, p. 45), by which may possibly be intended Loxops 
coccinea from Hawaii. 

1 regret that during a short stay on Maui I did not procure specimens, not having 
collected at Olinda or having met with the species when exploring at similar elevations; 
but I am enabled to give a figure, thanks to the kindness of the authorities of the Berlin 
Museum, who forwarded the two examples obtained by Dr. Finsch for my inspection. 

The adult is very dull orange above and below — the colour somewhat that of the 
breast of the young in Yestiaria coccinea, but more dingy : it appeared, however, 
much faded, and would probably be a bright golden yellow in a freshly killed 
bird. 

Dr. Finsch's description of the type specimens is as follows : — 

" Uniform orange ; quills blackish brown, margined externally with the same colour, 
but more sordid ; covers of primaries and secondaries on the outer webs broadly 
margined with dull orange. Bill hornish-blue, tip blackish ; iris dark brown. Stomach 
containing nests of insects (caterpillars). First and third primaries longest, first 
scarcely shorter. 

" Young (just able to fly, and fed by the former). Upper parts dull olive-green, the 
outer margin of the dark brown quills and tail-feathers more vivid, the same as the tips 
of the secondaries, which form a pale cross band on the wing ; lower parts pale olive- 
yellow, chin passing into whitish ; bill horn-blackish, tip darker ; feet black ; third and 
fourth primaries longest, second equal to fifth, somewhat shorter, first a little shorter ; 
tail twelve feathers. Tongue ordinary, bifurcated at tip." 



Dr. Finsch it was correctly referred {Hypoloxias being merely an equivalent of Loxops), 
and, accordingly, it may be reasonably contended that justice to the perspicuity of this 
distinguished ornithologist demands that his name should not be set aside. So far 
as practice is concerned no confusion is likely to follow from maintaining the term 
aurea in Dr. Finsch's sense ; and, as Mr. Eothschild was neither the discoverer nor the 
first describer of the species, and could not have known except from my work what 
the " Drepanis aurea " really was, there seems no need to treat his name for the Maui 
bird otherwise than according to the strictest law, which to me does not appear to 
require the adoption of his subsequently conferred designation of ochracea. 

Dimensions. — Total length 4*5 inches, wing 2-6, tail 1-9, tarsus -75, culmen *38. 




F W Frohawk, del . et lith . 



CHRYSOMITRIDOPS C7ERU LEOROSTR1S. 



CHEYSOMITEIDOPS CiEETJLEIEOSTKIS. 

O-U HOLOWAI. 



Chrysomitridops caruleirostris, Scott Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 445. 

This interesting novelty 1 obtained in the district of Waimea, in Kauai, during 
October 1888, at an elevation of about 3000 feet, and, as far as can be determined, 
it is confined to that island. The Siskin-like song serves to distinguish it from Himatione 
parva, with its low plaintive " tweet," in company with which it is generally found, 
the two birds frequenting in common the lower branches of the ohia trees (Metrosideros 
polymorpha). The first specimen which I shot, whilst flitting about a flower-covered 
ohia at a considerable height from the ground, I took for II. parva ; and great was my 
delight, on picking it up, to find I had secured a variety quite unknown to me. The 
general colour of the two species is much alike, but the bright prussian blue of the 
bill of Chrysomitridops is most striking in a freshly-killed example and has no other 
counterpart in the Sandwich Islands. Mr. Francis Gay — whose knowledge of the 
birds of the group is very considerable — had not previously met with it, nor, as far as 
I am aware, had Mr. Knudsen, whose labours in regard to the Hawaiian Avifauna 
are so well known to science ; so that it seems that I was fortunate to come across 
it, with two such good observers already in the field. It cannot be common, as during 
a stay of some days in the mountains I seldom saw it, and never in the lower forest- 
zone. On my return to Makaweli, Mr. Gay showed my new bird to a large number of 
natives in the employ of the Sinclair family, and but one, at the time, gave it a name — 
O-u holowai ; subsequently another old native, who seemed to recognize it, applied 
to it the same name ; O-u is the local name of Psittirostra psittacea, holo means 
" to fetch " and wai " water " in the Hawaiian language. 

At first it seemed doubtful whether this generic form should be assigned to the 
Finches or to the Honey-eaters ; the slightly-covered nostrils indicated the latter, but 
the mucronate tips of the secondary quills appeared to point to a Fringilline affinity. 
The first part of the name " O-u holowai " tends to show that the islanders recognize 
a likeness to the O-u (Psittirostra psittacea), which is undoubtedly allied to the 
Finches. I brought home specimens of Chrysomitridops in alcohol with the idea of 
settling this point, but unfortunately the box containing them and several other species 
was lost during my journey to England; however, I may mention here that since my 
return a specimen of this species has been sent to me in alcohol, which, as will be seen 
in another portion of this work, has enabled Dr. Gadow to determine its relations with 
the Brepanididce. 



Description. — Adult male. Bill light prussian blue, darker on maxilla. Lores black, 
meeting below the chin and in front, where the black passes into olive and is succeeded 
by an ill-defined coronal patch of gamboge-yellow, gradually shading into yellowish 
olive, which extends over the whole surface of the sides of the head, neck, mantle, 
back, and rump, but is rather brighter on the last ; lower surface gamboge-yellow, 
brightest on the throat, and shading into olive on the flanks. Wing-lining primrose- 
yellow, passing into white. Wing- and tail-quills blackish brown, margined outwardly 
by olive and the former inwardly by greyish white, while the middle pair of the latter 
have most of the inner web dusky olive ; irides dark hazel ; feet bluish black. 

Dimensions. — Total length 4"5 inches, wing 2-5, tail 2, culmen '4, tarsus -75. 




F.W.Frohawk, del. et Eta. 



West, Newman, imp. 



HEM1GNATHUS PROCERUS. 



Li 



HEMIGNATHUS PEOGEEtJS. 
iiwi i . 



Hemignathus obscurus, Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 298 (exx. ex Kauai) (1869) ; id. 

Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 45 (partim) • Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 93 (nee 

Gmelin ; nee Lichtenstein) . 
Hemignathus procerus, Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn. 1889, p. 331 2 . 
Hemignathus stejnegeri, S. B. Wilson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 6, iv. p. 400 (1 November, 1889) ; 

id. Ibis, 1890, p. 190, pi. vi. fig. 2; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xii. p. 384 (1889). 



This bird, according to our present information, is peculiar to Kauai, and examples from 
that island had been examined — though not recognized as different from H. obscurus — 
by Judge Dole, when he wrote his article on the Birds of the Hawaiian Islands in the 
'Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History' for 1869; finding, however, 
that the birds from Kauai and Hawaii were perfectly distinct, I suggested, on my return 
to England in 1888, that the former should be separated as R. stejnegeri. As the result 
of inquiry regarding the various species of the genus in the Berlin Museum, informa- 
tion was received through Professor Mobius that Professor Cabanis had come to a 
similar conclusion on inspection of the specimens there, and had forestalled my proposed 
title by a few weeks ; so that I must at once acknowledge his activity in securing priority 
for his name H. procerus. 

Of this well-marked species, which I was enabled to figure for the first time in ' The 
Ibis' for April 1890, Mr. V. Knudsen sent specimens in 1887 to Dr. Stejneger, who 
showed them to me in Washington, and described them, though with some doubt, as 
belonging to II. obscurus. At the time of my visit to the Island of Kauai in the month 
of September it appeared to be rather scarce ; hence 1 obtained but few examples, 
and was able to make but scanty notes on its habits ; of these, however, I am fortu- 
nately in a position to give a good description, owing to the excellent observations made 
by Mr. G. G Munro, assistant to Mr. Palmer, a collector in the interest of the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild, who, since my return, has spent many months on the Island of 
Kauai and has met with the bird in fair numbers. He has kindly sent me a most 

1 Hx. Francis Gay has informed me that this species is known by the name of Iiwi on Kauai, and not by that 
of Akialoa, which name is applied to U. obscurus and, I think, also to II. ottvaceus, the two species found on 
Hawaii. 

2 The species is said to have been described at the Meeting of the Allgemeine Ornithologische Gesellschaft 
held on the 9th September, 1889, of which a report was published in ' Vossische Zeitung,' ~No. 429, of the 
14th September. 






interesting account, which his long stay on the island has enabled him to make much 
more complete than my own. I subjoin it verbatim here : — 

" This bird is much more common and enjoys a wider range than the Nukupuu, 
which bird it much resembles in habits. It seems to inhabit the whole forest-region 
of Kauai ; its food consists of insects, their eggs and larvse, and we have also seen them 
sucking honey from the Lehua flowers. Above Makaweli in January and February we 
found it less common than at other places we visited : there they were mostly on the 
koa trees (being the most suitable hunting-ground for them in this locality). Usually 
there was a pair in the same vicinity, but not keeping very close together, so that when 
one was shot we would usually get another. 

" At Kaholuamano in the latter end of February and beginning of March they were 
more common, generally, in company with the Akikiki, feeding on the Lehua trees, the 
pairs keeping more together. In one instance I shot a female, and the male stopped in 
the top of the tree calling desperately. I fired at him without effect, and so intent was 
he in looking for his mate that he immediately returned and was brought down by 
another shot. At Halemanu towards the end of March we found them as plentiful as 
at the latter place, but the Akikiki not being so common the Akialoa were more often 
found apart from them ; here we first heard the Akialoa sing, although it was some 
time before we knew for certain it was the bird whose sweet note we heard every day ; 
once I heard one sing whilst flying from one tree to another. Near Hanalei in April 
we found these birds not uncommon, generally in pairs chasing each other about, or 
singing in the tops of the trees. Their chirp seemed different here ; Mr. Palmer likens 
both the chirp and song to that of the canary. We watched a pair singing together 
one day; the smaller and duller bird (probably the female) seemed to have fewer 
notes than the other. 

" Females that I dissected here had the ovaries enlarged, which with before-mentioned 
notes on the subject would denote the approach of the breeding-season. I have seen 
these birds from the branches in the tops to the roots of the trees, probing into holes 
and under the bark, where they find a harvest of cockroaches' eggs, beetles, and grubs ; 
on one occasion I saw one alight on the ground and insert its bill amongst mats of 
dead leaves and bits of wood ; have also seen them collecting insects from the bases of the 
leaves of the halapipi tree ; have not often seen them feeding on honey. In feeding they 
do not seem to depend much on sight ; have never noticed them to look into a crevice, 
as the A- A, before inserting their bill. I saw one send its bill at full length into a hole 
in a tree ; have seen them work about one spot for some minutes, but have not noticed 
them break off any portions of bark or wood. Like the Nukupuu, it is an active bird 
but can be easily approached within gunshot with ordinary caution. Have also a 
strong smell when killed ; and some, shot at Makaweli, had sores on their feet like the 
other birds in that locality at that time," 

The range, as I stated in ' The Ibis,' is from the lowest forest-zone to 3000 feet or 
perhaps higher, the highest ground on Kauai (Waialeale) being but 4000 feet. This 



view seems to be borne out by Mr. Palmer's account ; he also met with it at Hanalei, 
on the other side of the island, a district which I did not explore. 

Description. — Adult male. Front and top of the head dark ashy olive, shading into 
olive on the back, which becomes brighter on the rump ; sides of the face olive, with 
an indistinct olive line over the eye ; body beneath sulphur-yellow, light primrose on 
abdomen, the flanks washed with olive ; under tail-coverts olive-yellow ; wing- and 
tail-quills ashy brown, edged outwardly with olive ; secondaries and wing-coverts ashy 
brown, very broadly edged with olive ; irides dark hazel ; bill black ; feet bluish 
black. 

Adult female. Above dingy yellowish buff, the feathers on the head being yellowish 
olive with black centres ; the yellow mark over the eye more distinct, owing to the 
blacker lores ; beneath uniform olive-buff. 

In both male and female the edge of wing and wing-lining is white, slightly tinged 
with primrose-yellow. 

Dimensions. — Adult male. Total length 7*50 inches, wing from carpal joint 3-75, 
tarsus 1, tail 2, hind toe with claw - 75, middle toe with claw - 95, maxilla following 
the curve 2-80, chord subtending the curve T75, difference between maxilla and 
mandible - 30. 

Adult female. Maxilla following the curve 2 - 55 inches, difference between maxilla 
and mandible - 25. 

-Obs. — Generally resembling H.obscurus (Gm.), but much exceeding it in size and of 
brighter tint, especially beneath, the abdomen being of a light primrose-yellow. 







IM 



F.W.Frohawkdel.etlifh. 



West.MewnaTi imp. 



HEMIGNATHUS LICHTENSTETNI. 



£<T 



HEMIGNATHUS LICHTENSTEINI. 

JIBI. 



Hemignathus obscurus, Lichtenstein, Abhandl. k. Akad. Berlin, 1838, p. 449, tab. v. fig. 1* (nee 
Certhia obscura, Gmelin) ; id. Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol. p. 55 (1854) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H. xii. p. 298 (partim) (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1875, p. 45 (partim). 

Hemignathus lichtensteini, S. B. Wilson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) iv. p. 401 (Nov. 1889) ; id. Ibis, 
1890, p. 190. 

Hemignathus ellisianus, Rothschild, Avifaun. Laysan, p. 87 (1893) {nee Gray). 



Figura notabilis. 



This very distinct species, peculiar, so far as we know, to Oahu, had, as I pointed 
out in the paper above cited, been hitherto confounded with its Hawaiian congener 
H. obscurus. Examples of the former were obtained in 1837 by Deppe, and one of 
them was figured in the following year by Lichtenstein, who doubtless had not seen a 
specimen of the latter or he could scarcely have failed to perceive the difference between 
them. On my return from the Sandwich Islands in 1889, I was fortunately able, 
through the kindness of Prof. Mobius of Berlin, to compare the very subject of his 
illustrious predecessor's figure with my own specimens of II obscurus, and thus to 
justify the suspicion of their distinctness that had been already aroused. I accordingly 
bestowed on the present species the name of the celebrated zoologist who first published 
an indication of its existence, and I have to thank my good fortune for being the first 
to elucidate this matter. 

Mr. Rothschild (loc. cit.) has referred this species to the " Drepanis (Hemignathus) 
ellisiana " of Gray (Cat. B. Trop. Isl. Pacif. p. 9), which I have already correctly quoted 
as a synonym of H. obscurus. It is pretty clear that Mr. Gray never saw a specimen 
of either, and it is absolutely certain that three out of the four authorities cited by him 
refer to H. obscurus. Vieillot, the first of them, as I have already shown, figured (Ois. 
Dor. pi. 53) the very specimen, now at Liverpool, which was formerly in the Leverian 
Museum, and actually the type of Latham's description, on which was founded the 
Certhia obscura of Gmelin, and hence the H. obscurus of modern ornithologists. 
Similarly the bird figured in Ellis's unpublished drawings (no. 28), which from the name 
used by Gray is doubtless to be regarded as the type of his supposed species, is most 
unquestionably H. obscurus, as anyone who examines the drawing in the British Museum 



may satisfy himself l . The last of the authorities cited by Mr. Gray is Cassia, and he 
quotes Peale as saying that the species he speaks of was obtained in " Hawaii only," 
and that according to his observations it did " not inhabit Oahu ; " it was accordingly 
also H. obscurus ; and the mere fact of Mr. Gray's mistakingly referring Lichtenstein's 
figure, and assigning Lichtenstein's locality, to the so-called " Drepanis (Hemignathus) 
ellisiana " cannot remove the incontestable objection that his other references show it 
to be but a synonym of H. obscurus. The error probably originated in his adopting 
the view of Lesson that this last was the female of Vestiaria coccinea ; but even that 
error was pardonable, as so little was known of the ornithology of the Hawaiian 
Islands, and indeed when I arrived there I was, on the strength of the information 
then existing, quite prepared to find that the brilliant scarlet bird had a green partner. 
Although I believe that the bird still exists in diminished numbers on one of the 
mountain-ranges which I was unable to explore — a belief strengthened by the accurate 
description of it given to me by a native of Oahu in 1888, who said that he had seen it 
during that year near Waialua, — I am bound to admit that my failure to meet with it 
in the course of my explorations there, and the similar issue of the careful examination 
of the heights by Mr. Perkins and Mr. Eotbschild's collectors, point to its possible 
extinction. Though Deppe is said to have obtained several examples in the interior 
of Oahu, where it was called " Jibi," the only specimen I have seen is that so kindly 
placed at my disposal by the authorities of the Museum of Berlin, and the species 
must be regarded as one of the rarest in the world. 

Description, condensed from Lichtenstein (ut supra, p. 450). — " Uniform olive-green 
above and on the wing-feathers, though the inner and concealed parts of the latter are 
dull brown. Beneath paler though as little brilliant. The chin, middle of the belly, 
and the lower tail-coverts pale cream-colour. A pale yellow stripe over the eye is 
enlivened by a dark brown streak running immediately beneath it from there to the 
bill. The lower mandible is 3 lines shorter than the upper. The whole length of the 
bird is 7 inches, of which the bill and tail measure each If; the tarsus 11 lines; the 
middle toe with its claw 9 lines ; the outer toe one half and the inner a whole line 
shorter than the middle toe." 



1 To any one acquainted with the movements of Cook's ships, on each of which Ellis in turn served, it 
is obvious that he never had an opportunity of collecting specimens in Oahu, at which island they touched but 
for one single day (27 February, 1779), when the captains only seem to have gone ashore. It is not very 
likely that they would bring off a live bird of this species for Ellis to draw, and we have the inscription on the 
sketch in his own writing : " W. W. Ellis delin. <$f pinxt. ad viv. 1779." 




- 



FW.Frohawk, del etlith. 



HEMIGNATHUS OBSCURUS. 



We st, Newman , imp . 






HEMIGNATHUS OBSCUEUS. 

AKIALOA. 



"Hook-billed Green Creeper," Latham, Gen. Synops. i. p. 703, pi. xxxiii.fig. 1 (1782) ; id. Suppl. 
p. 126 (1787). 

? " Akaiearooa," King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119 (1784). 

Certhia obscura, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 470 (1788); Latham, Ind. Orn. p. 281 (1790); 
Donndorff, Orn. Beytr. i. p. 621 (1794) ; Shaw, Zool. viii. p. 227 (1812) ; Tiedemann, Anat. 
Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 430 (1814) ; J. E. Gray & Griffith, An. Kingd., Aves, vii. p. 358 
(1829). 

" L'Akaiearoa/' Vieillot, Ois. Dores, ii. p. Ill, pi. liii. (1802) ; Lesson, Compl. Buffon, ix p 155 
(1837). 

" Grimpereau a long bee des iles Sandwich," partim, Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois xvii 
p. 98 (1804-5). 

Melithreptus obscurus, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xiv. p. 322 (1817) ; id. Encycl. Meth., 
Ornithol. p. 601 (1823) ; Cuvier, Regne Anim. ed. 2, i. p. 433 (1829). 

Drepanis obscura, Temminck, Man. d'Orn. i. p. lxxxvi (1820). 

" Hook-billed Green Honey-Eater," Latham, Gen. Hist. B. iv. p. 192, pi. 71. fig. 1 (1822). 

Melithreptus vestiarius, ?, Lesson, Tr. d'Orn. p. 300 (1831). 

Vestiaria akaroa, Lesson, Eev. Zool. 1840, p. 268. 

Drepanis coccinea {partim), G. R. Gray, Gen. B. p. 96 (1847). 

Hemignathus obscurus, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 153 (1848) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Natur- 
gesch. 1852, ii. p. 110; Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn., Tenuirostres, p. 312, pi. 591. fig. 4009 
(1853) ; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 178 (1858) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H. xii. p. 298 (partim) (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 45 ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 360; id. op. cit. 1879, p. 92; Sundevall, Tentam. p. 48 (1872) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus' 
x. p. 4 (1885) ; S. B. Wilson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, iv. p. 400 (1889) ; id. Ibis, 1890 
p. 189. 

Drepanis {Vestiaria) coccinea, ? , G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 8 (1859); id. Hand-1. B. i. 
p. 114 (1869). 

Drepanis (Hemignathus) ellisiana, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 9 (1859) ; id. Hand-1. B. i 
p. 114 (1869). 



Nature has shown great symmetry with regard to the species of this genus to be found 
in the Sandwich Archipelago, three of the main islands having each a long-billed and 
a short-billed form, in the latter of which, moreover, the mandible is only about half 
the length of the maxilla. The subject of our present notice is the long-billed form 
from Hawaii, which was called by Latham the " Hook-billed Green Creeper " in his 
'General Synopsis' of 1782, and the "Hook-billed Green Honey-eater" in his later 

p 



work, the ' General History of Birds,' being figured on both occasions ; he should have 
had before him a specimen from the Museum of Sir Ashton Lever, procured during 
Cook's last voyage, and still preserved in the Derby Museum at Liverpool, which is 
unquestionably that delineated in Yiellot's 'Oiseaux Dores,' being copied from a 
drawing sent to the author by Parkinson, then owner of the Leverian Museum. 

The specific title ohscurus dates from Gmelin's Certhia obscura of 1788, and has only 
since been altered in error, as by G. K. Gray in the case mentioned below ; while it 
will be seen that both Vieillot and Lesson identified King's " Akaiearooa " with our 
species. The generic appellation, on the other hand, has experienced similar vicissi- 
tudes to those of allied forms from the same region, alternating between Certhia, 
Melithreptus, Vestiaria, Drepanis, and Hemignathus ; but when once it became evident 
that Temminck's Drepanis included within itself several distinctly separable genera, it 
followed that the only one of the above names applicable to the present group of 
birds was the last, originally bestowed by Lichtenstein on examples obtained by 
Deppe in Oahu, and considered by him to be identical with those from Hawaii, 
though they now prove to belong to a different species which I have named H. lichten- 
steini. G. B,. Gray, who in more than one case erroneously considered the green 
birds to be the females of the red, referred II. ohscurus partly to the female of 
Vestiaria coccinea, partly to his Drepanis ellisiana, which, therefore, must rank as a 
synonym. 

This species — peculiar, so far as my observations go, to the Island of Hawaii — 
occupies the lower forest-zone from about 1100 to 2500 feet, and is most plentiful 
among the tall ohia trees. Like its larger relative — II stejnegeri on Kauai, — it prefers 
decayed timber in which to search for its food, and invariably chooses a rotten or half- 
dead tree for its hunting-ground, no doubt on account of its slender bill, which requires 
soft material to work upon. It is also very partial to the great tree-ferns which in the 
forests of Hawaii reach a height of more than 30 feet, and, as the sombre colour of its 
plumage is very nearly that of their foliage, it is most difficult to observe, and is at 
the same time more quiet and unobtrusive in its habits than any other member of the 
genus ; in fact, had it not been for its clear and characteristic call-note, I doubt whether 
I should have noticed it at all. It must — at least in the several localities I visited 
and at the time of year I saw them — be considered a scarce bird : and whilst I was at 
Olaa in the district of Puna — a place renowned in ancient times for its bird-catchers — 
an old native, Hawelu, an excellent observer and well skilled in the almost forgotten 
art, told me that it was extremely rare. During a long stay in the higher forest- 
region in Kona, I did not notice it, and believe, as I remarked above, that it is con- 
fined to the lower forest-zone. 

Description. — Adult male. Head and upper parts generally uniform dull greenish 
olive, rather brighter on the rump ; lores dusky, with a yellow mark over the eye ; 
throat, sides of face, and breast dull olive-green, lighter on abdomen and under tail- 



coverts ; wing- and tail-quills ashy brown, edged with dull olive ; frides dark hazel ; 
bill and feet dark brown. 

Adult female. Nearly similar to the male, but perhaps rather duller in plumage. 

Dimensions. — Adult male. Total length 5-50 inches, wing from carpal joint 3-5, 
maxilla following the curve 1*85, chord subtending the curve T50, difference between 
maxilla and mandible "15, tarsus '85, middle toe with claw -80, hind toe with claw -75, 
tail 1-60. 

Adult female. Total length 515 inches, wing from carpal joint 3, maxilla following 
the curve 1*45, chord subtending the curve 1*30. 



7/ 



HEMIGNATHUS LANAIENSIS. 



Hemignathus lanaiensis, Kothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i. p. xxiv (1893) ; id. Avi£. Laysan, p. 89, 
pi. (1893). 

At the January meeting of the above Club in 1893, the following communication was 
read from Mr. Eothschild, on a new species from the island of Lanai in the Sandwich 
group, for which he proposed the name of 

" Hemignathus lanaiensis. 

'• H. similis II. obscuro, sed rostro valde longiore et crassiore, pileo cinerascente, notaeo 
sordidiore olivascenti-viridi, pectore sordide flavo, hypochondriis sordide olivas- 
centibus, et subcaudalibus albicantibus, distinguendus. Long, alae 3-l-3 - 3 poll., 
culm. 2-9-3-1. 

" Hah. in insula Sandwichensi ' Lanai ' dicta. 

" Mr. Eothschild's communication contained the following remarks on this new 
bird : — 

" ' This species belongs to the typical section of Hemignathus, which, in my opinion, 
includes two different species from the island of Kauai, one from Hawai, and one 
from Oahu, in addition to the new species. They all have the upper and lower 
mandible of about the same length, while the aberrant Reterorhynclius-section, which 
now contains four species, has the upper inaudible nearly twice the length of the 
lower. 

" 'The male differs from the same sex of H. obscurus (its nearest ally) from Hawai 
in its much longer and very stout bill, ashy-greyish tint of the crown, and much duller 
olivaceous green of the back, neck, and rump. Breast dirty yellow, gradually passing 
into dull olive on the flanks, instead of bright yellowish olive as in H. obscurus. 
Under tail-coverts creamy white, instead of olive green. 

" ' Female. Everywhere dull greyish olive, becoming more yellowish on the abdomen 
and under tail-coverts. Throat and cheeks dull greyish. 

" ' Young male. Similar to the adult male, but all the colours strongly suffused with 
an ochraceous tinge. 

" ' Iris dark brown ; bill blackish brown, greyish at the base ; feet and legs bright 
slaty blue, soles of the feet yellowish. Wing 3"1 to 3 - 3 inches, culmen 2'9 to 3*1 
(much longer than that of II. obscurus)! " 

Mr. Perkins believes that he saw an adult male in Lanai, but he was unable to 
procure it. 

2m 2 



3/- 





F:WFroliawk del.et litk. 



HEMIGNATHUS LUCID US. 



West.Newmsun imp 






HEMIGNATHUS LUCIDUS. 



Hemignathus lucidus, Lichtenstein, Abhandl. k. Akad. Berlin, 1838, p. 451, t. v. figg. 2,3*; id. 

Nomencl. Av. Mtis. Berol. p. 55 (1854) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgescli. 1852, i. p. 110 

(partim) ; Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn., Tenuirostres, p. 313 (1853) ; Cassin, U.S. Expl. 

Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 180 (1858) ; Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. xii. p. 298 (1869) ; 

id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 45 ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 360 ; id. op. cit. 1879, p. 92; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 5 (1885) ; S. B. Wilson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 6, iv. p. 401 (1889); 

id. Ibis, 1890, p. 192; Hartert, Katal. Vogelsamml. Mus. Senckenb. p. 28 (1891). 
Heterorhynchus lucidus, Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn., Tenuirostres, p. 223 (1853), Taf. dxci. figg. 

4012, 4013*; Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 105 (1893). 
Brepanis {Hemignathus) lucida, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 96 (1847) [partim) ; id. Cat. B. Trop. Isl. 

p. 9 (1859) ; id. Hand-1. B. i. p. 113 (1869). 



* Figuroe notabiles. 



Ouk knowledge of this species, as of H. lichtensteini, is due to the Prussian collector 
Deppe, who sent specimens of it which he obtained in Oahu to the Museum of Berlin, 
where they were described and figured by its Director, the celebrated Lichtenstein, as 
above stated. While Deppe was in the Sandwich Islands he was joined by the still 
better-known American naturalist Townsend, who (with Nuttall) accompanied Captain 
Wyeth's expedition across the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, and thence 
proceeded to Honolulu. In his work 1 Townsend states that he and Deppe, in January 
1837, hired a house in the Nuano Valley, five miles from that town, with the object of 
collecting birds and plants, and we may well suppose that this species (and II. lichten- 
steini also) was found by them in that district. On Townsend's return he sent several 
specimens of birds collected by him to Audubon, then in this country, and among them 
two of the present species, which were acquired by the late Sir William Jarcliue, at the 
sale of whose collection, in 1886, they were bought for the Museum of the University 
of Cambridge. On one of them being submitted, at my request, to Professor Cabanis 
for comparison with the type at Berlin, that eminent authority declared the two to be 
specifically identical. This result was the more satisfactory since I myself was unable 
to meet with the species, and later explorers have been no more fortunate, so that 
there is reason to fear that it has become extinct. It was undoubtedly peculiar to the 
island of Oahu, where Deppe informed Lichtenstein that it frequented the plaintain- 
blossoms in considerable numbers. 

Mr. Rothschild holds me much to blame for having referred, the short-billed 

1 Narrative of a journey across the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, and a visit to the Sandwich 
Islands, Chili, &c, with a Scientific Appendix. Philadelphia : 1839. 8vo. 

It is much to be regretted that Townsend's ' Appendix ' is limited to the Mammals and Birds of the Oregon 
Territory. The observations of a naturalist so well informed as he was on the zoology of the Hawaiian Islands 
at that time would be invaluable. 



Hawaiian species to the Heterorhynchus olivaceus of Lafresnaye, stating that he has 
carefully examined the type of the latter in the Paris Museum, and that it is no doubt 
identical with the Hemignathus lucidus of Lichtenstein from Oahu. This assertion I 
am unable to contradict, for I long ago expressly said that, not having seen Lafresnaye's 
type 1 , I could only judge of his species by the figure, which I still think that few 
persons will be able to reconcile with the figures given by Lichtenstein, not, however, 
for the reason assigned by Reichenbach, since the difference in the tail noticed by him, 
though admittedly shown in the plates, does not exist in the birds. The differences 
offered by actual comparison of specimens was unquestionably first mentioned by Cassin, 
who wrote in 1858 : — " It is probably very nearly impossible to determine or reconcile 
with each other the synonyms of these two species, or the instances in which they have 
been mistaken for each other ; but we have given them as they appear to us, and as 
represented in the plates cited." This difference has been recognized by all subsequent 
writers (including Judge Dole and Mr. Sclater) except Mr. G. E. Gray in the following 
year, and he really had no materials on which to form an opinion, the genus being 
represented in the British Museum by only a single specimen (apparently a female) of 
H. lucidus, which was presented by Sir Edward Belcher, and was therefore probably 
obtained during the voyage of the ' Sulphur ' between 1838 and 1842. 

If Mr. Rothschild's views be correct, it would seem that it was my good fortune to 
be the first to meet with and make known the Hawaiian species, and it is therefore not 
without some sense of retributive justice, for which I thank him, that, as though to 
make amends for the severity of his remarks, he has proposed to honour me by calling 
it H. wilsoni, though he thereby commemorates the error with which he charges me. 

Description (from a specimen at Cambridge, no doubt immature). — Upper parts dull 
olive-green with a brown tinge, the whole of the wing- and tail-feathers being brown 
with yellowish -green margins to the outer webs. A thin line of yellow nearly surrounds 
the eye, and may almost be called a streak above it. Lores brown ; throat yellow ; 
underparts generally huffish white, the decided buff tint being varied by a yellow tone 
in parts. Sides of the body brownish ; under tail-coverts and flanks buff. A little 
bright yellow is present at the bend of the wing, the under surface of which is grey 
and huffish white. The curved bill is dusky, the feet of the same colour. 

Dimensions.— Total length 5 - 62 inches, wing 3, tail 2, tarsus "87, culmen just over 1, 
the mandible being almost exactly two-thirds of the maxilla. 

Another specimen, also at Cambridge, entirely lacks the yellow tints, and is probably 
still younger than the last. 

Mr. Rothschild says that the bill is longest in the male. 

1 How Lafresnaye's type (which is included as no. 5677, bis, in the lithographed catalogue of his collection, 
drawn up after his death by the late M. Jules Verreaux) found its way to Paris is not apparent. The collec- 
tion is supposed to have been sold in its entirety to the Natural History Society of Boston, and there this 
specimen should be expected to exist ; but I have learned through the courtesy of Professor Hyatt that it 
cannot be recognized there. This fact strengthens the assertion that it is at Paris, but still the authenticity 
of the specimen seems to need verification. 







F. WFrohawk, del etlith. 



HEMIGNATHUS OLIVACEUS. 



"We st , Newman , imp . 



HEMIGNATHUS OLIVACEUS. 

AKIALOA. 



Heterorhynchus olivaceus, Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool. 1839, Ois. pi. x. ; id. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 321; 

Florent-Prevost, Voy. Venus, Ois. pi. i. figs. 1, 2 (18— ?). 
Vestiaria heterorhynchus, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 269; id. op. cit. 1842, p. 209. 
Drepanis olivacea, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. p. 96 (1847). 
Hemignathus lucidus, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 153 (1848) ; Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. 

p. 404 (1850) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 110 (partim) ; Florent-Prevost & 

O. DesMurs, Voy. Venus, Zool. p. 191 (185-) (nee Liechtenstein) . 
Hemignathus olivaceus, Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn., Tenuirostres, pp. 223, 313 (1853), pi. 591. 

figg. 4010,4011; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 179 (1858); Dole, Proc. 

Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 298 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 45; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, 

p. 360; id. op. cit. 1879, p. 92 ; Sharpe, Cat.B. Br. Mus. x. p. 4 (1885) ; S. B. Wilson, Ann. 

& Mag. N. H. ser. 6, iv. p. 400 (1889) ; id. Ibis, 1890, p. 191. 
Drepanis (Hemignathus) lucida, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 9 (1859) ; id. Hand-1. B. i. 

p. 112 (1869), partim. 



This short-billed Hawaiian species was brought to the knowledge of ornithologists at 
a much later date than many others from the Sandwich Islands, having been unknown 
to the earliest writers on the group. Lafresnaye, who was the first to specify the bird, 
described and figured it as forming a subgenus of " Heorotaire " (i. e. Drepanis), under 
the name of Heterorhynchus olivaceus, in the ' Magasin de Zoologie ' for 1839, from 
an example bought (for 25 francs) of Dupont, a dealer in Paris. In 1848, in his 
account of the United States Exploring Expedition, Peale mistook it for H. lucidus, 
the corresponding form of Oahu, and thereby led astray various authors down to 
G. R. Gray in 1869, who combined the two species under one heading ; the error, 
however, had no serious consequences, as Cassin, in his revision of Peale's work, put 
the matter on a proper footing, and has been followed by Judge Dole and more 
recent authorities. Meanwhile MM. Florent-Prevost and DesMurs had given another 
description and figure in the Zoology of the Voyage of the ' Venus,' a French frigate 
sent round the world for purposes of exploration : they named the bird correctly on 
the plate, though assigning the specific name to " Lichtenstein " — a mistake followed 
by many writers ; but in the letterpress, having possibly seen Peale's book meanwhile, 
they referred it to H. lucidus. Lesson, considering it congeneric with Vestiaria, 
changed the appellation to V. heterorhynchus, and G. R. Gray placed it under Drepanis ; 
but the distinctness of the genus Hemignathus of 1838 being finally settled, that term 
takes precedence over Heterorhynchus of 1839 ; moreover, it is clear that while in any 
case the latter can only be applied to the short-billed forms, the former will cover those 



ik 



with a long bill also, as Lichtenstein figured an example of each when founding his 
genus in the year first mentioned. 

In the Island of Hawaii, to which, as far as we know at present, it is peculiar, 
this bird is decidedly rare, and I obtained only three specimens during a stay of some 
five weeks in June in Kona, where it frequents the koa trees alone, running up their 
great smooth trunks and along their limbs in search of insects. In the mamane 
woods near Mana, I subsequently found it in considerable numbers in the month of 
January, when these trees are in full flower, resembling laburnums with their 
golden clusters. Its movements are very rapid, and the quickness with which it 
slips from one side of a limb to the other is surprising : I never could detect it in the 
act of sucking honey from flowers, nor, indeed, have I seen any of its congeners so 
engaged ; Mr. Palmer, however, has seen II. stejnegeri sucking the Lehua flowers. 
I noticed that many of the branches of the mamane were dead, or sometimes half the 
tree, while the bark of large examples was easily detached and well suited to the 
penetrating bill of this bird ; so that, although I was unable to approach near enough 
to watch the precise mode of procedure, the bill is probably thrust into cracks and 
crannies in the decayed wood, where grubs and insects are found, or it may loosen the 
bark and then capture the insects beneath with its long tongue. 

Its vertical range seems to be from 3500 to 5000 feet, as I never met with it in the 
lower forest-zone. 

Description. — Adult male. Head dull olive-yellow, passing into greenish olive, which 
covers the entire upper surface ; throat and breast deep gamboge-yellow, shading into 
dull white on abdomen ; under tail-coverts ashy olive ; wing- and tail-quills greyish 
brown edged with olive ; bill and feet slaty black. 

Adult female. Head, sides of face, and entire upper surface ashy olive ; throat and 
upper part of breast light gamboge-yellow, passing into dull ashy washed with lemon- 
yellow ; wing- and tail-quills greyish brown, edged with a duller shade of olive than 
in the male. 

Immature. Upper surface uniform ashy, slightly tinged with olive on mantle and 
rump ; chin and throat dull white, passing into ashy brown on flanks, while the breast 
and abdomen are ashy tinged with primrose-yellow. 

Dimensions. — Male. Total length 5'75 inches, wing from carpal joint 3 - 35, maxilla 
following the curve 1*]5, chord subtending the curve '85, mandible "65, difference 
between maxilla and mandible - 40, tarsus - 95 5 tail 2-15. 

Female. Total length 5'10 inches, wing from carpal joint 3, maxilla following the 
curve '95, chord subtending the curve *70, mandible -60, tarsus '85, tail 1-65. 

















F.WFrck a.wk del.et Uth. . 



"West,M"e-v/ms,Ti imp. 



HBMIGNATHUS AFFINTS. 






HEMIGNATHUS AFFINIS. 



Hemignathus affinis, Rothschild, Ibis, 1893, p. 112. 

Heterorhynchus affinis, Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, pp. 103, 104; Perkins, Ibis, 1895, p. 119. 



Mr. Perkins's observations, recorded on the spot, give an excellent idea of the pecu- 
liarities of the genus as a whole. He says that since writing on the Hawaiian species 
he had had the opportunity of observing the habits of the present species on Maui, 
and H. hanapepe on Kauai : — " Both of them are found in the upper forest, though 
stragglers may occur at times at lower elevations. Their habits seem to' me quite 
identical ; and going straight from the haunts of the one to those of the other, 
I failed to detect any difference in their songs. At the same time, besides the 
ordinary song (which resembles that of H. wilsoni, the Hawaii species, but is less 
loud), the Maui bird has a second distinct one, much like that of an introduced 
Carpodacus, which abounds in the same locality and nests there. This is no doubt 
imitated, as some of the native birds not infrequently sing like some other (native) 
species, the song of which is quite unlike their own proper one. Their call-note is a 
sharp ' keewit ' once or twice repeated and louder than that of other birds in which it 
is very similar. This the sexes are repeatedly uttering, pausing in their feeding 
at short intervals for this purpose. Their food consists mainly of various insects, 
which they procure much in the same way as does E. wilsoni, but they are altogether 
quieter and less vigorous in their movements. In their stomachs I usually found 
spiders, wood-feeding larva? of Tinseidse and Geometridag, and wood-boring beetles, 
especially the endemic brassy weevils of the genus Oodemas. Sometimes, too, they 
contained small pieces of lava, no doubt to aid in breaking up the hard shells of the 
beetles mentioned. That H. affinis also sucks honey I obtained decisive evidence, 
though I never saw it myself ; probably all the species do so at times except H. wilsoni, 
which has become more entirely specialized for a Woodpecker's mode of life. 

" In life, apart from their very distinct song and call-notes, these birds and the 
Hemignathi can readily be distinguished from all the other native species by the 
extremely short tail in proportion to their total length, — a distinction which the eye 
can appreciate at distances at which neither the form of the beak nor the colour of 
the plumage is any longer to be made out. Moreover the Heterorhynchi differ iu 
another respect from all the other green birds, for the latter, even in feeding on the 
limbs of trees, advance by more or less distinct hops, whereas the former regularly 
creep over the surface of the trunks and branches." 

2 ii 2 



2 

To complete my account of the two species from Hawaii, already treated in this work, 
I here append Mr. Perkins's observations upon them, published in 'The Ibis' for 1893 
(pp. 106-108) :— 

" But of all the birds of Kona the most interesting in habits is the shorter-billed 
Hemignathus [H. wihoni]. The mere sight of so extraordinary a form could hardly fail 
to awaken in any one a keen desire to witness the manner of its feeding, and this I 
have many times been able to accomplish. It is a common bird from rather below 
4000 feet to some hundreds of feet above that altitude, and most probably much higher 
still. It is most partial to the larger acacias, running up and down the limbs and 
trunks with equal ease, and also both on the upper and lower surfaces of the branches. 
It was on the 11th of July, soon after my arrival at a sufficient altitude for this bird, 
that I first saw one, a fine bright male, feeding. When I first caught sight of it it was 
some ten yards off; but I easily got closer without scaring it in the slightest. Being 
bare-footed and bare-legged at the time, and the ground being overgrown with a very 
prickly introduced thistle, after following it for half an hour I found my feet somewhat 
painful. Meanwhile the bird kept straying over the fallen trunks, turning its head, 
now right, now left, in its desire for food. In this manner it searched both sides of the 
tree in one journey without retracing its steps. And this is how it uses its bill: — The 
upper mandible it plunges into the small holes or cracks in the wood, while the lower 
presses on the surface of the bark. By this means, I imagine, it gets a considerable 
leverage to help it in opening out the burrows of the insects. In the same way it 
thrusts its upper bill under the loose bark, resting the lower one on the surface, and in 
this way strips the bark off. The upper mandible, though so thin, is very strong and 
somewhat flexible ; while the curve of the bill follows the curve of the burrow, for 
insects nearly always burrow more or less in a curve. Should the curve of the burrow 
not agree with the curve of the bill, the difficulty is overcome both by the slight 
flexibility of the beak and by the wonderful flexibility of the bird's neck, which it 
twists round so as to bring the curve of the bill to follow that of the burrow. In this 
manner it gets out its prey, being largely aided by the long tongue, which is as long as 
the upper beak. Every now and then it gives several blows to the trunk, the sound of 
which may be heard at a considerable distance, sometimes, I think, to frighten out its 
prey to the entrance of the burrow, sometimes for the purpose of actually breaking the 
wood. 

" I had several other opportunities of observing this bird when feeding, afterwards ; 
the blows that it gives to the trunk and branches are dealt with great vigour and with 
the beak wide agape, so that the points of both mandibles come in contact with the 
surface. One hot morning, shortly before I left Kona, I watched one of these birds for 
some time lying on a branch of the ma mane and basking in the sun. Now and then 
it would lazily turn and peck at the bark without changing its position. Suddenly it 
started up and commenced to feed in earnest, dealing blows with savage energy. Into 
these blows it throws its whole weight, swinging backwards from the thighs to renew 
each stroke. In some cases at least these blows are for the purpose of driving out 
insects, or at any rate have that result ; for several times I saw the bird after a stroke 



make a sudden dart, sometimes even taking an insect on the wing, and, after swallowing 
it with evident satisfaction, return again to its labour. Its song is short but rather 
pleasing, and, as one would expect from its habits, full of life and energy. 

"The long-billed species [H. obscurus] is also an interesting bird, as in its habits it 
is intermediate between Himatione and its short-billed relative. Himatione mainly 
feeds on insects amongst the leaves and flowers of the forest trees, but not infrequently 
pecks at the bark in true Woodpecker style. In the long-billed Hemignathus this 
mode of feeding becomes much more usual, and its tapping may often be heard in 
acacia and other trees ; still it feeds largely on insects amongst the leaves of the lehuas, 
&c, while the short-billed species has almost entirely assumed a Woodpecker's habits. 
This bird is by no means confined to the lower forest, but extends its range right up 
into the haunts of the short-billed bird, where they may be seen even in the same tree. 
I rarely heard it sing. Its song reminded me somewhat of that of the yellow Himatione, 
but was distinct enough." 

Mr. Rothschild's original description of this species is as follows : — 
" This bird is very closely allied to H. hanapepe, of Kauai, but differs in having the 
head, throat, and upper breast more golden yellow, and the back, rump, and upper 
wing-Coverts dull olive colour instead of greenish yellow. Moreover, in H. affinis the 
yellow of the head terminates abruptly at the occiput, while it gradually passes into 
the colour of the back in H. hanapepe. The anal region and under tail-coverts are 
yellowish green, whilst in H. hanapepe they are white. Total length about 5 inches, 
wing o'OS, tail 2, tarsus - 85, culmen 1-2." 

The female is greyish above, with pale yellow lower parts and superciliary streak. 




F.W.Frohawk del etlith. 



West, Newman, imp . 



HEMIGNATHUS HANAPEPE. 



HEMIGNATHUS HANAPEPE, 

NUKUPUU. 



Hemignathus hanape-pe, S. B. Wilson, Ann. &Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, iv. p. 401 (1 Nov. 1889) ; id. 
Ibis, 1890, p. 192, pi. vi. fig. 1. 



This interesting bird, which in colour and size much resembles H. olivaceus of Hawaii, 
I described as new in my paper on " Three undescribed Species of the Genus Hemi- 
gnathus" in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History' for November 1889, while I 
subsequently figured it in ' The Ibis.' 

I discovered the Nukupuu whilst staying at a little mountain-cottage belonging to 
the Sinclair family in the higher forest-region of Kauai, at an altitude of some 3000 
feet, to which excellent collecting-ground Mr. Aubrey Eobinson most kindly accom- 
panied me. Here I stayed with my native — Keawe — for ten days, and as the cottage is 
some five hours' ride from any other habitation, and is completely surrounded by forest 
on three sides — the fourth having a fine outlook to the sea, across a stupendous and 
thickly-wooded ravine, which separates it from the next plateau — one could not well 
imagine a better camping-ground. That this bird is very scarce is pretty clear, for my 
friend Mr. Francis Gay, who for some years past has paid great attention to birds, 
had never seen any specimens, and, furthermore, I only obtained five during a stay of 
nine days. Mr. Palmer — the collector sent to the islands by the Hon. Walter Koth- 
schild — only secured eight during a visit of some duration, and but two additional 
examples in seven weeks' collecting in the wooded mountain-slopes above Makaweli 
(2000 feet), the latter in different months. The fact of Mr. Palmer's procuring speci- 
mens near Makaweli is of interest, as showing that the bird is not entirely confined to 
the higher forest-zone. The first I shot, a fine male which was in a lofty ohia tree, I 
took to be Himatione parva, the brilliant yellow of the breast in both species being 
very noticeable, and I was therefore greatly delighted to find, on picking it up, that I 
had secured a form quite new to me. Mr. Palmer says that he found difficulty in 
distinguishing the females and young males of the Nukupuu from the Amakihi 
(Himatione stejnegeri), as the two birds have so great a resemblance to each other. 
For my own part — as I remarked in my paper in ' The Ibis ' for 1890 — I found that 
the slaty colour of the upper surface of the former enabled me to determine them 
easily enough, even when engaged in hunting for insects at a great height from the 
ground. With regard to the exact manner in which the curiously formed bill is used, 
I regret that neither Mr. Palmer nor I have been able to throw any light on the subject, 
for the bird is so active in its movements, and the maxilla so slender, that it is most 

a 9, 



fri 



difficult to discern the latter at all, even at a short distance, while the extreme rarity of 
the species made me unwilling to risk the loss of a specimen by too close observation. 
I agree with Mr. Palmer in believing that the bird merely inserts its long hooked 
beak into crevices and holes in decayed wood, extracting by that means the grubs and 
insects which abound under the bark ; its habit of keeping along the upper surface of 
a branch and examining the'sides within its reach we both noted. The food doubtless 
consists for the most part of insects, larvae, small beetles, &c, but I am assured by my 
native — Keawe — that the Nukupuu also feeds on bananas and oranges, and I have 
every confidence in the assertion. In the district of Waimea, especially near the 
renowned Hanapepe Falls, after which I named my discovery, orange-trees are 
numerous, and though I did not actually see the Nukupuu there, Mr. Palmer's speci- 
mens from the vicinity of Makaweli make it very probable that the bird may occur 
in that locality. 

Description. — Adult male. Front and top of the head dull gamboge-yellow, passing 
into bright olive, which extends over all the upper surface of the back, wing-coverts, 
and tail ; lores black, joined by a narrow black line just above the bill ; throat, cheeks, 
and breast deep gamboge-yellow, passing into dusky white on abdomen and tail-coverts ; 
wing- and tail-quills greyish brown, edged outwardly with olive; hides dark hazel; bill 
and feet slaty black. 

Adult female. Tinged with olive on the forehead, an indistinct line passing over the 
eye ; wing- and tail-quills margined with olive ; breast primrose-yellow, changing into 
dull white on the abdomen ; lower tail-coverts tinged with buff. 

Dimensions. — Adult male. Total length 5-60 inches, wing from carpal joint 3-25, 
maxilla following the curve 1*20, chord subtending the curve -80, difference between 
maxilla and mandible "50, tarsus -90, middle toe with claw -70, hind toe with claw - 75, 
tail 1-85. 

Obs. — Generally resembling H. olivaceus, but differing remarkably in the shape of the 
mandible, which follows the curve of the maxilla as in H. lucidus, and is not straight 
as in the former bird ; the rather brighter tinge of yellow that pervades most of 
the plumage and the white abdomen are other distinguishing marks. 







FWFrolia.wk del etlith. 



PSEUD ONE ST OR XANTHOPHRYS. 



Westlewman imp. 



PSEUDONESTOR XANTHOPHRYS. 



Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i. p. xxxv (1893) ; Perkins, Ibis, 
1895, p. 118. 

Op this very curious stoutly-built form, peculiar to Maui, especially noticeable for its 
abnormally large hooked bill, Mr. Perkins writes as follows : — 

" Of the Fringillidse (nearly all of which are peculiar to the Island of Hawaii) I 
have already given some account of the habits; but there remains one, — Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys, — peculiar to the Island of Maui, which is perhaps the most remarkable 
form of all. It is local and rare, and seems to be confined to the highest forest on 
Haleakala, at an elevation of some 5000 feet above sea-level. Being very tame and 
apparently unwilling to fly far, I had on several occasions excellent opportunities to 
learn something of its habits, and especially of the use of its curiously formed and 
exceedingly powerful beak. The bird has an evident predilection for the koa trees 
{Acacia falcata), and it is from these that it mainly gets its food. This consists 
of the larva? of a highly peculiar endemic genus of Lougicorn beetles (Clytarlus), of 
which there are in the islands a considerable number of species, nearly all of them 
attached to the different species of native acacias. The larger ones usually burrow in 
the main trunks, the smaller in the limbs and twigs above. It is on the larvse of the 
latter that Pseudonestor feeds and in procuring them has developed the large hooked 
beak, the powerful jaw-muscles, and heavy skull, which constitute its chief peculiarities. 
It may be observed that the twigs in which the (Jlytarli have their burrows are not 
generally rotten, but dry, and of excessive hardness, often surpassing in this respect 
the still living and unaffected branches. The bird is sluggish, in its movements 
parrot-like in the extreme, especially in the varied hanging attitudes that it assumes, 
while the similarity is still further increased by the shape of its beak. 

" Those that I saw in the act of feeding were generally clinging to the under sides 
of the thin branches or twigs, the head raised above the upper surface ; the point of 
the curved maxilla was thrust into the burrow, the short mandible opposed thereto, 
and pressed against the side or under surface of the twig, and the burrow opened out 
by sheer strength. All that I shot contained larvse of these beetles, as many as 20 
or 30 being found in the stomach of a single bird. No less than four species of 
Clytarlus were found on the acacias in the actual haunts of Pseudonestor ; these too, 
like the bird, are all of species peculiar to the same island. When alarmed the bird 
gave frequent utterance to a short squeaking cry; it has besides a decided song, 

2 h 



2 

which reminded me much of that of the green Himatione. Once I heard it sing on 
the wing, as it crossed a gulch l . 

"The unpleasant scent of Pseudonestor, like that of many Drepanididae and other 
Hawaiian Finches, is very noticeable. 

" Looking at the Hawaiian Finches as a whole, it may be noticed how wonderfully 
the structure of each of them has been specially developed according to the nature of 
its own particular and most important article of food. Thus, Pseudonestor, as above 
mentioned, has an enormous development of beak and skull and muscles attached 
thereto, for splitting the koa twigs ; Chloridops has a huge beak and still heavier skull 
and muscles, which enable it to crack the hard nuts of the bastard sandal (Myoporum) ; 
then there is the strong cutting-beak of BhodacantJiis for dividing up the koa beans, 
and a large development of the abdominal portion of the body, in accordance with 
the large fragments that it swallows ; the shorter bill of Loxioides, which deftly cuts 
off the bean of the mamane acacia [Sophora), while the bird holding it in position 
with its foot opens the pod and devours the seeds ; and, lastly, the hooked bill of 
Psittacirostra, with which it digs out the separate components of the fleshy in- 
florescence of the ' ieie ' (Freycinetia), for this is certainly its natural food, though it 
has now come to feed largely on various introduced fruits — guavas, oranges, and the 
like. Besides their special foods, all the Finches vary their diet at times with the 
larva? of Lepidoptera." 

Description. — Upper parts greenish grey, greener towards the rump and head, a 
canary-yellow superciliary streak reaching nearly to the nape on each side ; lower parts 
of the same yellow colour, which extends upwards to the bottom of the sides of the 
neck ; wings and tail browner with greenish margins ; maxilla blackish, mandible 
nearly white ; feet slaty black. 

Dimensions. — Total length 5 - 5 inches, wing o, tail 1*9, tarsus '9, culmen 1. 

The female is duller grey above, and less bright below, being smaller in all her 
dimensions. 

1 " See Ibis, 1893, p. 108." 




F W Frohawk del.et ktk 



PSITTIROSTRA PSITTACEA. 






PSITTACIKOSTKA PSITTACEA. 

ou 1 . 



" Parrot-billed Grosbeak/' Latham, Gen. Synops. ii. p. 108, pi. xlii* (1783). 

"Bird with a yellow head/' King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119 (1784). 

Loxia psittacea, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 844 (1788) ; Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 371 (1790); Donn- 
dorff, Orn. Beytr. ii. p. 343 (1795) ; Tiedemann, Anat. Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 433 (1814) ; 
Stephens, Shaw, Zool. ix. p. 268 (1816) ; Bloxam, Voy. 'Blonde/ p. 249 (1826). 

" Le Gros-bec Perroquet," Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xi. p. 81 (1803-4). 

Strobilophaga psittacea, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. ix. p. 609 (1817); id. Encycl. Meth., 
Ornithol. p. 1021 (1823). 

Psittirostra psittacea, Temminck, Man. d'Orn. i. p. lxxi (1820) ; Swains. Classif. B. ii. p. 295 
(1837) ; G. B. Gray, Gen. B. ii. p. 389, pi. 94. fig. 2 * (1845) ; Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 492 
(1850); Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 133; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & 
Orn. p. 432 (1858) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 301 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 
1879, p. 49; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 360; id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 347; id. Ibis, 1879, 
p. 92; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, p. 30; id. Ibis, 1873, p. 21; Finsch, op. cit. 1880, 
p. 81 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 51 (1885) ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1889, 
p. 386 ; S. B. Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 194. 

" Raonhi," Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. 'Uranie' et ' Physicienne/ Zool. ii. p. 36 (1824). 

Psittirostra sandvicensis , Stephens, ut supra, xiv. p. 91 (1826). 

Psittacirostra icterocephala, Temminck & Laugier, Nouv. Bee. PL Col. 457 *, livr. 77 (1828) ; 
Cuvier, Regne Anim. ed. 2, i. p. 415 (1829). 

Sittacodes, Gloger, Gemeinn. Hand- u. Hilfsbuch, p. 249 (1842) . 

Psittacopis psittacea, " Nitzsch," Cabanis (Ersch & Gruber), Allgem. Encycl. sect. i. 1, p. 219 
(1849) ; Sundevall, Tentam. p. 32 (1872). 

Psittacina olivacea, Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. p. 48 (1854). 

Psittirostra icterocephala, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 28 (1859). 



* Figures notabiles. 

This is one of the birds originally made known by Latham, who described and 
figured as the " Parrot-billed Grosbeak " in the ' General Synopsis ' an example of 
each sex from the collection of Sir Ashton Lever ; of these the male is now in the 
Imperial Museum at Vienna, while both were doubtless obtained during Cook's last 
voyage, in the account of which King refers to this species as the " Bird with a yellow 
head." Cassin, by merely mentioning it as from the Sandwich Islands, in the ' Catalogue 
of Birds ' at the end of his account of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, would seem to 

1 Mr. F. Gay informs me that on Kauai the male is sometimes called " Ou poolapalapa" (Ou with the yellow 
head), while the female goes by the name of " Oulaevo " (the green Ou). Bloxam also called the bird " Ohu." 




imply a wide and general range, while Peale omitted it entirely, though his party 
obtained the examples vouched for by Cassin. Gmelin called the bird Loxia psittacea, 
and, as will be seen from Dr. Gadow's ' Remarks ' in this work, it is truly Fringilline 
and is near Loxioides, though belonging to a different genus, which Temminck rightly 
felt justified in separating in 1820 under the title of Psittirostra : I agree, however, 
with that author's later opinion that the more correct form is Psittacirostra, which 
was accepted at a subsequent date by Cuvier. In his ' Manuel,' Temminck made the 
mistake of considering the female, of which he had only a drawing, to be a distinct 
species ; but when figuring it in the ' Planches Coloriees ' he corrected the error *, 
Latham in his ' General History of Birds ' having meanwhile drawn attention to it. 

In the former author's own copy of the catalogue of the sale of the Bullock Collection 
(23rd day), a single specimen of this bird is marked " £1 Is. — genre nouveau : " in 
another copy, with annotations supposed to be in Latham's handwriting, the same 
example is marked " Lichtenstein ; " but this is probably a mistake, as the genus does 
not occur in Lichtenstein's " Verzeichniss," and therefore presumably was not in the 
Berlin Museum in 1823. Temminck, moreover, in the 'Planches Coloriees,' remarks: 
" Le Musee des Pays-Bas possede les sujets achetes a la vente du Bullockian Museum, 
a Londres," where " sujets " is in the plural. This would indicate that the Museum of 
the Netherlands contained more examples than one, though whether they all came 
from Bullock's collection must remain somewhat doubtful. A male and female are 
also in the Derby Museum at Liverpool (marked 1829 and 1829 a in Lord Derby's old 
catalogue), while W. W. Ellis has a drawing of the bird among those preserved in 
the British Museum (No. 79, " 1779 "). 

This well-known species is distributed throughout the Sandwich group, and I obtained 
specimens from every island save Oahu and Maui, on the former of which I have good 
reason to believe it has become extinct or else extremely scarce. I cannot detect 
any appreciable difference between examples from the various islands, although I think 
those I obtained on Lanai are brightest in plumage. The size and shape of the 
curiously formed bill varies considerably, especially in the males : the two woodcuts 
on the next page will serve to show the variation referred to. 

Next to Vestiaria coccinea, it is perhaps the most noticeable of the forest-birds of 
the islands, the bright yellow head and neck of the adult males rendering them very 
conspicuous in their straight dashing flight from tree to tree. The immature males 
and females, which lack this distinctive feature, might easily be mistaken for the 
sombre-coloured Phwomis obscura ; but the constant twittering which the Ou almost 
invariably makes while feeding at once betrays its identity. Freshly killed examples 
possess a peculiar scent, which I did not observe in any other forest-dwelling species ; 
it is probably due to their extremely varied fruit-diet. 

Though Psittacirostra, as remarked above, is generally distributed throughout the 
group, in no locality does it seem to be abundant ; but I am told by Mr. Francis Gay 

1 The figure in the PL Col. is absurdly overcoloured, being of a bright grass-green, whereas the true colour 
is decidedly tinged with olive. 






that at the time of year that the guava is ripe it may be seen in great numbers feeding 
on its yellow fruits. I think that I found it most plentiful among the trees which 
clothe the abrupt sides of the deep ravine running down to the leper settlement on 
the island of Molokai; and very lovely these little birds looked, flying continually 
to and fro, up and down this stupendous gorge — their yellow necks flashing in the 
bright sunlight, as they darted out from among the dark green ohias or from the 
silvery foliage of the kukui (Aleurites triloba). The food of Psittacirostra consists 
entirely of fruits, and chiefly of that of the ieie (Freycinetia arborea), the ripe seeds 
of which I found in most cases in the stomach when dissecting specimens ; I noticed 
also, particularly in one place on the outskirts of a forest in the district of Kona, 
that a very large proportion of the fruits of the climber were eaten away at the apex, 
and here I shot a good number of examples. I killed others as they were busily 
engaged in feeding on the small crimson fruit of the wild mulberry (Morus papyrifera), 
the juice of which had dyed their throats a deep crimson. 

Necklaces, " leis," used sometimes to be made from the bright green plumage of the 
back and underparts of this bird, but they were commonly used in combination with 
the black feathers of Acrulocercus nobilis and the scarlet feathers of Vestiaria coccinea. 
I saw a wreath thus made at Olaa in the district of Puna, which I attempted to 
purchase, but the native woman wanted a higher price than I was inclined to give. 

Description. — Adult male. Head and neck gamboge-yellow, all the rest of the upper 
parts olive-green inclining to yellow on the rump ; whole of the under surface greenish 
yellow with the exception of the breast, which is grey ; remiges and rectrices dusky 
brown margined with olive-green ; irides dark hazel ; bill and feet pinkish. 

Adult female. Head and neck olive-green above and grey beneath ; the rest of the 
under surface greyish white ; under tail-coverts pure white. 

Dimensions. — Adult. Total length 6"30 inches, wing 3*85, culmen -70, tarsus -95, 
tail 2-20. 

Woodcuts are here given of the heads of two examples to show the difference in size 
and shape of the bill ; in the first figure it is of an abnormal size and extraordinarily 
decurved. Other specimens vary between the two extreme types figured. 





Obs. — An immature female from Kauai has the upper wing-coverts tipped with light 
olive-yellow. This specimen has also more yellow on the underparts than have others 
of that sex in my collection. Dr. Stejneger, in a paper entitled " Notes on Psittirostra 
psittacea from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands " (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, pp. 389, 390), 

k2 



discusses the possibility of there being two species, and in conclusion asks : "Are there 
two different species of Psittirostra on the Sandwich Islands, or are the differences 
pointed out above perhaps only due to age % " Since the publication of this paper 
Dr. Stejneger has been kind enough to send me one of the specimens described in it — 
an adult male — for comparison. I have carefully compared it with others from Hawaii 
and cannot detect any marked difference, though it has the head rather brighter than 
the average from that island ; while I imagine that the discrepancy which the author found 
between it and Latham's description may have been due to the latter having had only 
poor examples before him. I did not, however, obtain specimens from Oahu, and Herr 
von Pelzeln may be right when he remarks (Ibis, 1873, p. 22), with regard to two 
examples procured on Oahu as compared with Latham's type, " even the older one 
[ s ] differs from Latham's male bird [then before him], the middle of the breast and 
belly and the thighs being whitish ; " the latter in all probability came from Hawaii. 
I may here remark that an immature male from Lanai has the under surface clear 
primrose-yellow, with bright olive-green flanks, while the olive-green of the upper 
parts is also brighter than in any other specimen which I possess. These variations are, 
I imagine, due to age, as a female from the same island does not differ from one 
from Hawaii. Examples from Molokai do not present any definite points of difference, 
though perhaps they are somewhat duller beneath. I did not, as already remarked, 
obtain a single bird from Maui 1 . 



1 Dr. Finsch (Ibis, 1880, p. 80) says " when collecting at Olinda, Maui, Psittirostra psittacea I saw repeatedly ; 
but I lost those I shot, from their falling into the ferns." My friend Mr. Randal von Tempsky informs me 
that he saw several specimens of this bird during a visit made to the Ukumehame Gulch in 1890. 





F W.Frohawk, del et lith. 



LOXIOIDES BAILLEUI 



West, Newman, imp. 



LOXIOIDES BAILLEUI. 

PALILA. 



Loxioides bailleui, Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris, ser. 7, i. p. 100 (1877) ; Ibis, 1878, 
p. 376; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 49 (1885). 

baiUeni (err.), Sclater, Ibis, 1879, pp. 90, 92, pi. ii* 



* Figura notahilis. 

The literary history of this bird is of the simplest nature. Described by M. Oustalet 
in 1877, as a new species of a new genus, undoubtedly Fringilline, and similar to 
Psittirostra, while easily distinguishable from it, the only dissentients of authority seem 
to be Messrs. Sclater and Sharpe, who have considered both to belong to the Family 
Dicceidce, or at least to approach it very nearly. The two original examples were sent 
by M. Bailleu 1 from the Sandwich Islands in 1876 ; and though M. Oustalet did not 
state the exact locality from which they came in the first instance, he afterwards 
informed Mr. Sclater that the habitat was Hawaii, where the author also obtained his 
specimens. 

A good coloured figure is given in ' The Ibis,' as above, from the pencil of Mr. Keu- 
lemans, to illustrate Dr. Sclater's paper " On recent Additions to our Knowledge of 
the Avifauna of the Sandwich Islands." In this paper the author makes some most 
valuable observations on this " very remarkable type " as he terms it, which I here 
transcribe : — " It will be at once observed that Loxioides in general appearance is 
closely allied to Psittirostra. The form, size, and distribution of colours are similar. 
When we come to a closer comparison of the skins, the result arrived at is the same. 
The wing-formula is nearly the same in each. There are nine fully formed 
primaries, of which the first is about equal to the fifth, and the intermediate ones 
are the longest in the wing. In Psittirostra these three primaries are nearly equal 
in length ; in Loxioides the second is rather more elongated beyond its fellows. 
The structure of the feet in the two forms is also nearly similar, those of Psittirostra 
being, however, shorter and stouter. The tarsi in both cases are unmistakably 
Oscinine, and the divisions of the scutes are quite obsolete. In the shape of the bill 
only, as will be seen by the outlines (a of the bill of Loxioides, and b of that of Psitti- 
rostra) given on the plate, there is considerable divergence, that of the newly discovered 
form being considerably shorter and much more swollen laterally than that of Psitti- 

1 The late M. Bailleu was an enthusiastic naturalist, and spent some months at Dr. Trousseau's mountain- 
cottage in the district of Kona on Hawaii, engaged in forming a collection of birds which he forwarded to the 
Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, with a second collection consisting of fishes. 






rostra. This, and the differences in the feet, may justify the separation of the two 
forms into two genera ; but there cannot be the slightest doubt that they are very 
nearly allied, and must be placed next to one another in the system. M. Oustalet 
places Loxioides near the Finches and Paradoxomis. But Paradoxomis has, I be- 
lieve, no near relationship to the Finches. And I adhere to my previously expressed 
sentiment \ that in all probability Psittirostra, and with it Loxioides, are not really 
Fringilline genera, but merely abnormal forms of the same type as Drepanis and 
Hemignathus, either belonging to or closely allied to the Dicseidae 2 . This question, 
however, can only be satisfactorily determined by an examination of the structure of 
the tongue and other soft parts." I am happy to say that the valuable investigations of 
Dr. Gadow, the result of which will be found in the present work, have pretty well 
decided this question. 

That Loxioides is closely allied to Psittirostra there can be little doubt, and 
their striking general resemblance often causes the natives to mistake the former 
for the latter; the two species, however, are, to my knowledge, scarcely ever met 
with in the same forest-zone — Loxioides being confined to the middle and upper, 
while Psittirostra is seldom seen except in the lower region. The Palila — to call it 
by its liquid and euphonic native name — is, as far as I absolutely know, confined to the 
island of Hawaii, and even there is singularly local, being found, I believe, only in 
the upland districts of Kona and Hamakua. Few natives recognize it, but as I 
remarked above — deceived by its general resemblance to Psittirostra — confound the 
two species. Its chief food, according to my observations, consists of the seeds of the 
mamane 3 {Sophora chrysophylla), the golden laburnum-like racemes of which tree 
make such a striking feature of the upper forest-zone during the months of January 
and February. The upper figure in the Plate represents a bird which I watched 
at close quarters splitting a mamane pod, as the following extract from my journal 
will show : — " I shot a Palila to-day, as it was in the act of extracting the seeds from 
a mamane pod; the bird's method of procedure was to cut the pod off with its 
beak, and then to lay it on a horizontal branch, holding it firmly with its claws, and 
pecking out the seeds one after the other. I was a few yards off, partially concealed 
by a tree." 

As the sandalwood {Santalum album) and the bastard sandalwood (Myoporum 
santalinum) occur in fair quantity in the region in which Loxioides is found, I think 
that it very probably feeds on them; however, I have generally observed it in 

1 " Of. Ibis, 1871, p. 360." 

2 " Molwa seems to be a Meliphagine form; but Drepanis, Hemignathus, and the other genera (except 
perhaps Ohaitoptila) in the list given, Ibis, 1871, p. 360, having only nine primaries, should probably be 
referred to the Dicseidae." 

3 I observed the mamane also on the island of Maui, and it is reported, perhaps erroneously, from Kauai ; 
so I think that Loxioides may inhabit the former island; and I am the more inclined to this belief, from the 
fact that a man but lately arrived in Hawaii from the highlands of Maui seemed at once to recognize the 
bird, and told me it was abundant where he had been living. 






the mamane, and have found the seeds of that tree alone in its crop. My friend 
Mr. Francis Sinclair tells me that the Sophora of New Zealand (S. grandifiora, the 
Kowhai of the natives), which bears a strong resemblance to the Sandwich Island 
species, is a great favourite with the Tui (Prosthemadera novce-zealandice) and other 
birds ; and Sir W. Buller, in his ' History of the Birds of New Zealand ' (2nd ed.), 
informs us that the Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) feeds on the pollen of the same plant, 
and figures the Tui on a branch of it. 

The Palila, as far as I know, has no song, but merely a very clear whistle-like note, 
which, when often repeated, is held by the natives to be a sign of approaching rain. 
While at Waimea, a specimen of Loxioides was brought to me alive though injured ; 
it lived a few days, during which it constantly uttered the clear whistle without giving 
evidence of any further powers. On June 14th I found a nest from which I 
saw the bird fly ; it was placed in the topmost branches of a Naio tree (Myoporum 
santalinum), about 35 feet from the ground, but contained no eggs, and when we 
subsequently revisited it we found it deserted. It may be briefly described as cup- 
shaped, 4 inches in diameter, and very loosely constructed of dry grass, among which 
is interwoven a considerable quantity of grey lichen ; the inside being composed of the 
same lichen, with a few slender rootlets added. 

Description. — Adult male. Entire head and neck deep gamboge-yellow, the remainder 
of the upper surface ashy grey, slightly inclining to whitish on the rump ; wing-coverts, 
wing-quills, and tail-feathers dusky black, edged externally with olive-yellow ; throat and 
upper part of breast gamboge-yellow, the rest of the under surface dusky white ; irides 
dark hazel ; bill and feet slaty-purple. 

Adult female. Differs from the male in having the yellow of the head and neck 
washed with brown, which gives it a very dusky appearance, while the yellow on the 
under surface has a distinctly greenish tinge. 

Dimensions. — Total length 6*5 inches, wing from carpal joint 3*55, culmen '5, 
tarsus -95, tail 2-65. 







F.WFrdhawk daL.etEth . 



"We st ; 'Newmm.imp . 



RHODO CAN THUS PALMERI. 



KHODACANTHIS 1 PALM EEL 



Rhodacanthis palmeri, Rothschild, Ajm. & Mag. N. H. (6) x. p. Ill (July 1892) ; Perkins, Ibis, 
1893, p. 103. 

In the paper here cited Mr. Eothschild describes the above as a species of a new 
genus from Kona in Hawaii, and in 1892 I received two examples from that district, 
while about the same time Mr. Perkins obtained many others from the forests at an 
altitude of 4000 feet. 

He writes (' Ibis,' 1893, pp. 103-104) of them as follows :— 

"The Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri) is the largest and most beautiful of all the 
Hawaian Finches. It frequents the tallest and most leafy acacias, both when growing 
on the roughest lava-flows and in the grassy openings in the forest. It belongs 
entirely to the upper forest, and is probably most numerous at about 4000 feet. Its 
peculiar whistle, though not very loud, is very clear, and can be heard for a consider- 
able distance. If imitated closely it will readily answer, and sometimes, after fruitless 
hunting for hours without even hearing a sound from this bird, a whistle has been 
immediately responded to. At other times a distant bird has been drawn close by the 
imitation of its whistle and easily secured. It devours the beans of the acacia, and 
these it swallows in very large pieces. I think that the enormous development of the 
abdominal portion of the body must be connected with this habit. I have seen both 
male and female feeding the full-grown young, and as I could find nothing but the 
large pieces of koa bean in the latter, I conclude that the young are fed on pieces 
similar to those swallowed by the parents, without mastication. The young male soon 
acquires the peculiar whistle, for I have shot one in almost perfect song in quite 
immature plumage and with the skull still cartilaginous. It does not restrict itself 
to the koa bean, but varies its diet by feeding on lepidopterous larvae, just as the 
Psittacirostra does ; for this purpose it generally descends into the aaka or bastard 
sandal-wood trees, and, as was the case with that bird, I have found in the crop of 
Rhodacanthis larvae with conspicuous ' warning ' colours. When it has been feeding 
on the koa beans its bill is often much stained with their green juice and green frag- 
ments. The female I have heard to utter a rather deep single note when alarmed. 
On one occasion when I had shot a male I heard his mate repeatedly utter this note, 
and she continued to do so for some five minutes, but seemingly possessed some 

1 To prevent misapprehension it should be noticed that the genus is not closely allied to the bird called 
Acanthis by classical writers, or to the supposed genus (see ' Ibis,' 1892, p. 556) of that name, nor is it rose- 
coloured. 

2c 






ventriloquial power — the sound seeming now in front, now behind, now near, now far ; 
yet it was utterly impossible that the bird could have flown without my being aware 
of it. At last the bird became silent, and I never caught sight of it at all." 

Description. — Adult male. Head, throat, and underparts rich scarlet-orange, becoming 
slightly more yellow on the chest and gradually merging into the mere orange of the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; upper back and wing-coverts brown, washed with 
yellowish olive ; remiges and rectrices blackish brown, with a narrow margin of dull 
orange on the outer web ; lower back with rump and tail-coverts dull orange ; under 
surface of wings and tail whitish grey, with a little orange on the axillaries. The 
outer wing-coverts and bend of wing are tinged with orange. Bill bluish grey, legs 
almost black. 

Dimensions. — Total length 8'87 inches, wing 4-62, tail 2-87, tarsus 1, culmen -75. 

Adult female. Above brownish, washed with fairly bright olive-green, which is still 
brighter on the crown, forehead, sides of face, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; throat 
and chest much as the rump, but more white-looking ; rest of underparts greyish 
white with a slight green wash ; axillaries tinged with green. The wings and tail are 
similarly coloured to those of the male, but with green margins instead of orange. 
The hook of the maxilla is less prolonged than in the male. The dimensions are 
smaller, except as regards the tarsus and culmen. 

Young male, No. 1. The scarlet-orange is beginning to show on the forehead and, 
slightly, on the crown ; the under surface is dull orange, with indications of green on 
the breast; the region of the rump is duller than in the adult ; the maxilla is whitish 
at the sides. 

Young male, No. 2. Entirely olive-green above ; throat yellower ; breast mottled 
with green and yellow, owing to the feathers having green centres and broad buffish- 
yellow margins ; abdomen pure buffish yellow ; maxilla similar to that of the female. 

Mr. Rothschild considers some examples from Kona to be specifically distinct, and 
calls them B.Jlaviceps (Ann. Mag. N. H. ser. 6, x. p. 111). In these the head, neck, and 
underparts are yellow, greener below ; the upper parts are ashy-green, brighter towards 
the rump ; the iris is brown. Only the forehead is yellow in the female. The dimen- 
sions are respectively smaller than in the last species. 



KHODACANTHIS FLAVICEPS. 



Rhodacanthis flaviceps, Rothschild, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, x. p. Ill (July 1892). 

When treating of Mr. Kothschild's species Rhodacanthis palmeri, from Kona in 
Hawaii, we carefully abstained from expressing any decided opinion upon the exact 
status of B. flaviceps, of which we had not then examined a specimen, quoting 
nevertheless the describer's opinion as to its validity, and stating the main points of 
difference. Two birds, obtained by Palmer at the same locality as B. palmeri, have, 
however, now been submitted to us, with the result that we unhesitatingly agree to 
the perfect validity of the species, which is undoubtedly distinct from its larger and 
more orange congener. The original description is consequently given below, as it 
appeared in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' : — 

" Bhodacanthis flaviceps, sp. n. 

" Adult male. Head, neck, and underparts generally apple-yellow, brighter and 
richer on the head and neck and greener on the underparts. Upper parts ashy green, 
becoming bright green on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; wings 
and tail dull blackish brown, the feathers externally margined with green. Bill 
blue-brown ; legs grey ; iris brown. 

"Total length about 7 - 5 inches, culmen 0-72, wing 3*8, tail 2*5, tarsus TO. 

" Adult female. Differs from the male in being much greener and duller in colour, 
only the forehead being yellow ; the crown similarly coloured to the back. Underparts 
dull yellowish green." 






- 





KW.'F'roJiscwk. olel. etlith. 



CHL OR LOOPS RONA. 



7Veet,Newmaii imp 






CHLOBIDOPS KONA. 

PAL1LA. 



Chloridops kona, S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1888, p. 218; Perkins, Ibis, 1893, p. 104. 

I shot a single example of this species on June 21st, 1887, when collecting at an 
elevation of about 5000 feet in the district of Kona on the west coast of Hawaii, in a 
great tract of forest, consisting principally of koa-trees (Acacia Jcoa) ; but there were 
also the mamane (Sophora chrysophylla), the alii (Dodoncea viscosa), the sandalwood 
(Santalum album), and the bastard sandalwood (Myoporum santalinum). I think that 
as Loxioides bailleui, so far as I know 7 , feeds only on the seeds of the Sophora, it is most 
probable that this big Finch eats them also. During my stay of four weeks I only 
saw three examples of it. The specimen shot was on a tall Myoporum. The bird 
must be extremely rare, as I have since collected at almost similar elevations, where 
there are the same species of trees, but failed to obtain either of these Finches again, 
nor do the natives know them, whence I conclude that they are peculiar to the 
Kona district. 

The general appearance of this bird is that of an exaggerated Greenfinch (Fringilla 
chloris, Linn.). 

Description. — Adult female. Bill dull flesh-colour ; lores dusky black. General 
colour above bright olive-green, passing into golden-green on the throat and belly ; 
abdomen whitish ; quill-feathers dusky black, edged outwardly with olive-green. 

Dimensions. — Total length 5*75 inches; wing from carpal joint 3-25; tail 2 ; bill — 
from gape to tip "8, height from chin to forehead - 73 ; maxilla, width at base -52 ; 
mandible, width at base *59. 

Mr. Eobert Perkins has recently published the following notes on the habits of this 
species in ' The Ibis ' : — 

" The Palila (Chloridops kona), though an interesting bird on account of its peculiar 
structure, is a singularly uninteresting one in its habits. It is a dull, sluggish, solitary 
bird, and very silent — its whole existence may be summed up in the words ' to eat.' 
Its food consists of the seeds of the fruit of the aaJca (bastard sandal-tree, and pro- 
bably at other seasons of those of the sandal-wood tree), and as these are very minute, 
its whole time seems to be taken up in cracking the extremely hard shells of this fruit, 

u2 



7* 



for which its extraordinarily powerful beak and heavy head have been developed. I 
think there must have been hundreds of the small white kernels in those that 1 
examined. The incessant cracking of the fruits when one of these birds is feeding, the 
noise of which can be heard for a considerable distance, renders the bird much easier 
to get than it otherwise would be. It is mostly found on the roughest lava, but also 
wanders into the open spaces in the forest. I never heard it sing (I once mistook the 
young Rhodacanthis song for that of the Chloridops), but my boy informed me that he 
had heard it once, and that its song was not like that of Rhodacanthis. Only once did 
I see it display any real activity, when a male and female were in active pursuit of one 
another amongst the sandal-trees. Its beak is nearly always very dirty, with a brown 
substance adherent to it, which must be derived from the sandal-nuts." 




F."W.Krota.wk del efcllth- 



ACRULOCERCUS BRACCATUS. 



7? 



ACEULOCEECtfS BKACCATUS. 

0-0 A-A. 



"Yellow-tufted Bee-eater, var. B.," Latham, Gen. Synops. Suppl. 2, p. 149 (1802). 

" Certhia pacifica, Latham/-' Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 149 (1848) (nee Gmelin, Latham). 

Mohoa fasciculata $, Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 333 (1853), tab. 614. fig. 4099* (nee 

Lath.) . 
„ braccata, Cassin, Proc. Acad. N. S. Philad. 1855, p. 440; id. U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & 

Orn. p. 172 (1858); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, pp. 358, 360, 1879, p. 92; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. 

Orn. 1872, p. 26. 
Moho braccata, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped,, Mamm. & Orn. p. 172 (1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. 

Trop. Isl. p. 9 (1859) ; id. Hand-1. i. p. 114 (1869) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 296 ; 

id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 46 ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 100. 
Moho nobilis, Gadow, Cat. B. Br. Mus. ix. p. 284, partim (1884). 



* Figura notabilis. 

At least one example of this undoubtedly good species was received in England in 
comparatively early days, but was regarded by Latham as a variety of A. nobilis ; and 
that it should have been obtained even by Cook's people is only natural, since his ships 
more than once visited Kauai (then known by the name of A-tooi), to which island it 
is peculiar. But the real merit of its discovery is due to Cassin, who in 1855 first 
defined it, as above, from a single specimen — marked as a male — previously brought by 
Townsend to the Museum of the Academy of Philadelphia, where it had been ascribed 
in error to Certhia pacifica. The same mistake was made by Peale, who writes that 
" another bird is called Oo by the natives ; it is Certhia pacifica of Latham, and is 
found on the island of Kauai, one of the same group. It also has tufts of yellow 
feathers which have been collected for the same purpose in former days ; theirs are 
on the thighs, not on the sides as in the genuine Oo; the feathers are smaller, 
much inferior in beautiful texture, and are no longer collected ; both species are black. 
We killed specimens at Hanalei, a department of the Island of Kauai, where they are 
found in the woody districts on the mountains." The United States Exploring 
Expedition, however, does not appear to have brought back any examples ; but Cassin 
as we have seen, clearly perceived the error and, in pointing it out, properly described 
the present bird as a distinct, but allied, member of the genus Mohoa, as he called it : he 
moreover observed that Reichenbach figured it as the female of M. fasciculata [=A. 
nobilis], whereas Judge Dole has since stated that the subject of that figure must have 
been a male. The original of the drawing is at Dresden, but otherwise no specimens 
are known to have reached Europe except those brought . by myself ; while I have 



had the great advantage of comparing my examples with Townsend's, through the 
kindness of the authorities of the Museum at Philadelphia, who with great courtesy 
forwarded it, together with examples of other varieties procured by the same traveller, 
for my inspection. Except for the fact that Dr. Gadow, in the Catalogue of the 
Birds in the collection of the British Museum, combined this species with A. nobilis, 
little more need be added to its history. 

This bird is confined to the island of Kauai, where it seems to be found at all 
elevations throughout the forests, and is called 0-0 A-A — the dwarf 0-0— by the 
natives, who therefore recognize its resemblance to the 0-0 of Hawaii {Acrulocercus 
nobilis), while distinguishing it by its inferiority in size. The general appearance of 
the two species, especially at a distance, is black, so that it is hardly a matter for 
astonishment that mistakes occur even among the islanders ; but in that under 
discussion the yellow axillary tufts are wanting, being replaced by others of a pale 
buffish grey which are far less developed ; the colour, however, which is absent from 
the wing, is here found on the lower part of the tibiae. 

Dr. Stejneger (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, pp. 100-103) has tabulated very fully 
the differences between Acrulocercus nobilis and A. braccatus, while he gives a key 
by which the three members of the genus may be very easily distinguished, which I 
here reproduce : — 

"a 1 . Tail-feathers uniform blackish, without any trace of white M. braccata. 

a 2 . Tail-feathers blackish, four or more tipped with white. 

b 1 . Only two outer tail-feathers on each side tipped with white M. nobilis. 

b 2 . All the tail-feathers, except the middle pair, tipped with white M . apicalis." 

So far back as 1871, Dr. Sclater also (Ibis, 1871, p. 358) recognized these three as 
undoubtedly good species ; and I trust that the coloured figures to be found in the 
present volume will prevent the possibility of any further confusion. With regard 
to the call-note — a kind of chuck — it is noteworthy that it is somewhat similar to that 
of the larger 0-0, though in a higher key ; the bird has also a sweet song, some of its 
notes possessing a bell-like clearness. It is common in the woods by which Makaweli, 
the lovely mountain residence of the Sinclair family, is surrounded, where in the 
early morning its dulcet tones may be heard to perfection, blended with those of its 
forest companions; here its home is a natural plateau open towards the west, with a 
magnificent view of the Pacific — the island of Niihau alone breaking the broad expanse 
of ocean. Mr. V. Knudsen says that in districts of Kauai where the banana l grows 
wild the dwarf 0-0 feeds on the fruit, hollowing it out before it is ripe. Its chief food, 
however, appears to consist of nectar, which it extracts from the ohia, the arborescent 
Lobeliacece, and other plants, in the same way as its large relative the O-O of Hawaii ; 

1 This information seems to be corroborated by the following extract from Townsend's ' Narrative of a 
Journey across the Rocky Mountains and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands ' (Philadelphia, 1839, p. 207) : — 

" The Birds are the same here (Kauai) as we found and collected on Oahu, but are not so numerous. 
They are principally Creepers (Oerthia) and Honey-suckers (Nectarinia) : feed chiefly upon flowers and 
the sweet juice of the Banana, and some species are very abundant." 



at all events, the specimens of A. braccatus which I obtained were invariably feeding 
in flower-covered ohia trees. This bird is not nearly so wary as A. noUlis, but is very 
clever in concealing itself among the thick foliage, thereby rendering observation 
difficult. I did not succeed in finding its nest, my visit to Kauai being made in 
October. 

Description.— Adult male. Head black, streaked with a few longitudinal lines of 
white; rest of the upper surface slaty brown, brightening into russet on the rump 
and flanks ; throat and breast black, each feather barred with white ; rest of the under 
surface dull slaty brown, while the centres of the feathers being grey give it a streaked 
appearance ; wings and tail black, the central pair of feathers of the latter much 
exceeding the rest in length ; axillary tufts (little developed) of a pale greyish buff; 
edge of the wing pure white ; tibiae rich golden yellow ; irides light yellow ; bill and 
feet black. 

Adult female. Similar to the male, but with the feathers on the throat much more 
extensively barred with white, which gives the bird the appearance of having a well- 
defined whitish patch on the throat and upper part of the breast. 

Dimensions. — Total length 7*75 inches, wing from carpal joint 3-90, culmen 1*5, 
tarsus 1*5, tail 3*5. 







F.W.Fiokawk del.etlitk. 



"We st Newman imp 



ACRULOCERCUS APICALIS. 



' 



ACKULOCEKCUS APICALIS. 



" Yellow-tufted Bee-eater/' Dixon, Voy.pl. to face p. 381 * (figure only) (1798) [nee Latham, Gen. 

Synops. i. p. 683). 
"Yellow-tufted Bee-eater, var. A," Latham, Gen. Synops. Suppl. 2, p. 149 (1802). 
Moho nobilis, var., G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. Pacific Ocean, p. 9 (1859). 
Moho apicalis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 381 j Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 297 

(nee Hawaiian Alman. p. 46, quse = Drepanis pacifica !); G. R. Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 114 (1869) ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. Br. Mus. ix. p. 285. 
Mohoa apicalis, Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 360, 1879, p. 92; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, p. 26. 



Figura notabilis. 



This species, figured as the " Yellow-tufted Bee-eater " in Captain George Dixon's 
' Voyage round the World,' was described as " Variety A " of the same by Latham 
(Log. cit.), and was properly distinguished specifically from Acrulocercus nobilis by 
Gould in 1860, on the strength of two examples — supposed to be one of either sex — 
which are now in the British Museum. 

Gould stated that " Dixon's bird was obtained at Owhyhee," and believed that his 
own " two specimens were brought from the same island," but produced no evidence 
in support either of his statement or of his belief, while we are now in a position to show 
that each was almost certainly unfounded ; and there cannot be a doubt that the present 
species inhabited Oahu, where, in January 1837, a male and female were procured by 
Deppe, now preserved at Vienna, as recorded by Von Pelzeln (ut supra). An examina- 
tion of Dixon's work shows that his ship, the ' Queen Charlotte,' anchored but once, and 
then for little more than twenty-four hours, off Owhyhee (Hawaii), and that in the 
historic bay of Karakakooa 1 1 the very district at that time and still inhabited by the 
kindred species A. nobilis, alongside of which the present is hardly likely to have 

1 There is a discrepancy (which should be noticed) between the account of Dixon's voyage (pp. 50, 52), as 
told by William Beresford the narrator (cf. Portlock's ' Voyage,' p. 6, note), and the ship's log, as printed by 
her Commander (Dixon, Voyage, App. ii. p. 10), in regard to the precise day (whether the 26th or 27th May, 
1786) on which the ' Queen Charlotte ' and her consort the ' King George ' (under Capt. Portlock) anchored in 
this bay ; but that is of no importance, and there is none as to the duration of the ships' stay, confirmed as it 
is by Portlock (op. cit. pp. 62, 65). The crews were in want, among other things, of water, which their 
commanders (both of whom, it may be observed, had served on Cook's voyage and knew the place) expected 
to get there, but to their disappointment the sources were " tabooed," and the ships had to be off as soon as 
they could. Though on two occasions subsequently coasting along the shores of Hawaii, near enough to 
communicate with and receive supplies from the natives, but more than once interrupted by bad weather, the 
ships never brought up, and it can hardly be supposed that, when fresh meat and vegetables were the sole 
object of the intercourse, anything so unimportant as a small bird would be thought of in the way of traffic. 






existed. On the other hand, we know that Dixon's ship anchored on three occasions, 
and for a considerable time, in King George's Bay, on the south side of Oahu (Woahoo 
or Whahoo as it is spelt in his book). The ' Queen Charlotte ' lay there from the 1st 
to the 5th of June, and from the 30th of November to the 20th December, 1786, and 
again from the 10th to the 13th of September, 1787, so that the chance is greatly in 
favour of that being the locality where this species was procured. He could hardly 
have got it in Attoui (Kauai) or Oneehow (Niihau), for the former is the home of the 
allied A. braccatus ; nor in Eanai (Lanai) or Morotai (Molokai), for there the species 
would in all probability be A. bishopi. Accordingly the inference that Oahu was the 
real habitat of A. apicalis is so strong as, accompanied by the positive evidence of 
Deppe, to be irresistible ; and since it is known that the ' Blonde ' also made a long 
stay at Honolulu, the specimen brought home by Byron, and now in the British 
Museum — being the third now there, — may well have been obtained thence. 

Though no success attended the indefatigable explorations of Mr. Rothschild's 
collectors, and Mr. Perkins has not yet been more fortunate, I am of opinion that the 
bird still exists, and will be rediscovered hereafter ; but the disappearance of several 
other species from Oahu tells, I confess, against this hopeful view. If the bird be 
extinct, the cause is probably the destruction of so much of the ancient forest on that 
island. According to Judge Dole, the subject of the present notice shares with the 
other members of the genus the name O-o, and the habits and food are similar ; but 
the " Moho apicalis " of his last paper is not this bird, but Drepanis pacifica, and 
should have been cited in the synonymy of that species. 

Description (from Gould). — "General plumage sooty-black; tail brown, all but the 
two middle feathers largely tipped with white ; the two central feathers somewhat 
narrower than the others, and gradually diminishing in the apical third of their length 
into fine hair-like or filamentous upturned points; axillae or under surface of the 
shoulder white ; flanks and under tail-coverts bright yellow ; bill and legs black. 

"Total length 12 inches, bill 1±, wing 4f, tail 6f, tarsi 1\. 

" The plumage of the female is in every respect similar to that of the male; but, as 
in the Honey-eaters of Australia generally, particularly amongst the members of the 
genus Ptilotis, the body is fully a fourth less in size." 

The striated appearance of the breast of A. apicalis, a character found in so many 
of the Meliphagidce, though hardly perceptible in its congener A. nobilis, is especially 
noticeable. 

Von Pelzeln remarked that the edges of the mandibles in both male and female 
were partially serrated, as Eeichenbach stated to be the case in M. nobilis ; and that the 
end of the tongue was clearly brush-shaped in the female. 

The figure is from one of the specimens in the British Museum. 

The species of Acrolocercus, if one there was, inhabiting Maui has yet to be ascer- 
tained (Feb. 1894). 




K~W.Frolia.wk del.etlith . 



ACRULOCERCUS NOBILIS. 






ACKULOCERCUS NOBILIS. 

0-0. 



" Yellow-tufted Bee-eater," Latham, Gen. Synops. i. p. 683 (1782) ; Suppl. p. 120 (1787) ; Suppl. 2, 

p. 149 (1802). 
? "Moho/' Ellis, Narrat. Voy. Cook & Clerke, ii. p. 156 (1782). 
?"Hoohoo," King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119, partim (1784). 
Gracula nobilis, Merrem, Beytr. besond. Gesch. Vogel, Heft i. p. 8, pi. ii.* (1784). 

„ longirostra, var. ft, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 398 (1788). 
Merops niger, Gmelin, torn. cit. p. 465 (1788) ; Tiedemann, Anat. trad Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 431 

(1814). 
„ fasciculalus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 275 (1790). 
"Le Moho," Sonnini, Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xviii. p. 286 (1802). 
Philemon fasciculatus, Vieillot, Encycl. Method., Ornithol. p. 613 (1823). 
? Nectarina [sic] niger, Bloxam, Voy. 'Blonde/ p. 249 (1826). 

Meliphaga fasciculata, Temminck & Laugier, Bee. d'Ois. livr. 79, PL Col. 471* (1829). 
"Philedon moho, Merops fasciculatus, Lath./' Lesson, Tr. d'Orn. p. 302 (1831) ; id. Compl. Buffon, 

ix. p. 149 (1837). 
Acrulocercus niger, Cabanis, Arch. f. Naturgesch. xiii. p. 327 (1847) ; Sundevall, Tentam. p. 50 

(1872). 
Moho niger, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 96 (1847) ; Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 394 (1850) ; Hartlaub, 

Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 131; Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 296. 
Ptiloturus fasciculatus, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 148 (1848). 

Mohoa fasciculata, Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 333, partim (1853), tab. 614. fig. 4098*. 
„ nobilis, Cassin, Proc. Acad. N. S. Philad. 1855, p. 439; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, pp. 358, 360; 

id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 347; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, p. 25. 
Moho nobilis, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 170 (1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. 

Isl. p. 9 (1859); Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 46; Gadow, Cat. B. Br. Mus. ix. p. 284, 
partim (1884); Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 101. 
Acrulocercus nobilis, Scott Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 177. 



* Figurce notabiles. 

This bird, with its decidedly Meliphagine affinities, was first described by Latham from 
the Leverian Museum, under the name of the " Yellow-tufted Bee-eater," which led to 
its inclusion by Gmelin in the genus Merops. The original specimens were received 
from the companions of Cook on his third voyage, when the Sandwich Islands were 
discovered and twice visited ; but the number of these and the circumstances of their 
capture are quite unknown. From the outset the native name was entirely misappre- 
hended by the unrefined ears of the early travellers, who wrote it variously Mo-ho, 

b2 






Hoohoo, Uho, and so forth, according to their fancy, a mistake 1 which has been 
perpetuated by later writers, not only in the specific, but even in the generic designa- 
tion ; Lesson, however, did not, as is often supposed, employ Moho as a strictly generic 
term, George Eobert Gray being the first to do so. 

But though Latham was the original describer of the species, Blasius Merrem two 
years later had the good fortune to bestow upon it the earliest scientific appellation, 
Gracula nobilis, and to figure it without reference to that author's work — while placing 
it in an entirely distinct genus — in his ' Beytrage zur besondern Geschichte der Vogel,' 
published in 1784 at Gottingen, where he was at the time a Professor. He states that 
an example had been sent to the museum there by King George III., who, as Elector 
of Hanover, seems to have taken great interest in the University founded by his 
predecessor : but, in referring it to the genus Gracula, he was misled by its apparent 
resemblance to the G. longirostra of Pallas ; while Gmelin, with the usual perspicacity 
of a compiler, failed to see that Merrem's bird was identical with that of Latham, and 
so made two species out of one : later writers, again, bestowed upon it various names, 
which were set aside for several reasons by Professor Cabanis in favour of Acrulocercus 2 
in 1847, the same year that Gray adopted Lesson's barbarous Moho. 

It does not appear that after the days of Cook any additional information concerning 
the subject of our notice reached the scientific world for many years. It is briefly 
mentioned in the meagre list by Bloxam appended to the narrative of Lord Byron's 
voyage in H.M.S. ' Blonde,' — the vessel which, in 1825, conveyed home the corpses of 
the King and Queen of the Sandwich Islands, who had died in England, — but merely 
as " the bird whose yellow feathers are so highly prized," showing that the writer did 
not discriminate between it and Drepanis pacifica. Very different is the case with the 
naturalists attached to the celebrated United States Exploring Expedition under 
Commodore Wilkes in the ' Vincennes ' and ' Peacock ' ; for its ornithologist, Titian R, 
Peale, in a work of which nearly all the copies were unfortunately destroyed, gives a 
very good description of the bird from Hawaii, mentioning not only its note, its love of 
the loftiest forest-trees, and its habits in general, but also the use of its feathers and 
the method of capture — all agreeing well with my own experience ; as does the fact of 
his writing the native name O-O. Cassin, in the ' Proceedings ' of the Academy of 
Philadelphia for 1855, compared the specimens then obtained, which he considered to 
represent examples of both sexes, with those presented to its Museum by the well-known 

1 The mistake (for such it undoubtedly was) in regard to Moho originated with W. Ellis, describing himself 
as " assistant^surgeon to both vessels" in Cook's Expedition, wbo also executed the series of drawings now in 
the British Museum (Natural History). In a passage in his ' Narrative ' of the voyage (vol. ii. p. 156), he 
writes : — " They have also a kind of fly-flap made of a bunch of feathers fixed to the end of a thin piece of 
smooth and polished wood : they are generally made of the tail-feathers of the cock, but the better sort of 
people have them of the tropick birds feathers, or those belonging to a black and yellow bird called mo-ho." 
0-0 is the correct name of this species, Mo-ho is that of Rallus ecaudatus, King. 

1 Acrulocercus, signifying a tail that is curly at the tip, though apt enough for the present species, is unfor- 
tunate as regards its two congeners, where the tail presents no such peculiarity. 






traveller Townsend, who, after crossing the Rocky Mountains, made more than one visit 
to the Sandwich Islands. 

Additional examples have since occasionally found their way to Europe or America. 
The Liverpool Museum contains two specimens, a male and female, obtained by the 
late Mr. J. Heywood ; and the Hepburn collection, presented in 1870 to the Museum of 
the University of Cambridge, included another : but the distinction between the 
different members of the genus having been made sufficiently clear, there is no necessity 
for further details. 

This is, perhaps, the best known species both to natives and denizens of the 
Sandwich Islands ; for it was principally from the yellow feathers that grow beneath its 
wings, together with the still more beautiful and similarly coloured upper tail-coverts of 
the now extinct Drepanis pacifica, that the state robes of the princes * were fabricated. 
It was the privilege of those classes alone to wear them ; nor can it be denied that they 
formed a becoming and magnificent garb, as beautiful as anything that the triumphs of 
civilized art can now produce. The fine statue of Kamehameha I., which stands in 
front of the Government House in Honolulu, represents the great conqueror who first 
consolidated his sovereignty over the various islands, draped in his Mamo, as this 
feather cloak is called in the Hawaiian language, the texture of which is wonderfully 
represented by the sculptor's chisel. Gazing on this and recalling the fact that the 
princes of Hawaii-Nei were a race of giants, most of them being over six feet in height, 
we can well understand what an imposing effect must have been produced. The great 
yellow war-cloak of Kamehameha I. had been gradually growing in size through the 
reigns of eight preceding monarchs. The groundwork is of coarse netting, to which, 
with skill now impossible to emulate, are attached the delicate feathers, those on the 
border being reversed : the length is four feet, while there is a spread of eleven feet 
and a half at the bottom, the whole having the appearance of a mantle of gold. The 
cloaks and capes which I examined in Honolulu were all of the lighter shade of 
yellow, which belongs to the feathers of the present species ; but on carefully going 
through those in the Ethnological Collection of the British Museum, I find that in 
most of the robes made of the wing-tufts of Acrulocercus the more beautiful plumage 
of Drepanis pacifica is introduced, though in small quantities only. The ancient 
kings had a regular staff of bird-catchers, who were very expert in their vocation, and 
made use of the sticky juice of the bread-fruit (called in Hawaiian " Pilali "), or of the 
tenacious gum of the fragrant olapa (Cheirodendron gaudichaudii), smearing it over the 
branches of a ohia tree, and often fastening there an example of the scarlet Iiwi 
(Vestiaria coccinea), of which more in another place, as an additional attraction to 
the Eoyal bird, well known for his pugnacity, who, in his eagerness to attack his 

1 It appears from the following extract from the Hon. E. M. Dagget's able Introduction to ' The Legends 
and Myths of Hawaii ' by his Hawaiian Majesty Kalakaua (p. 32), that in olden times certain classes were 
privileged to wear robes made of feathers of certain colours : — " Yellow was the ' tabu ' colour of royalty, 
and red that of the priesthood, and mantles of feathers of the Oo and Mamo could be worn only by kings and 
princes. Feather capes of mingled red and yellow distinguished the lesser nobility." 






brilliant rival, would fall an unsuspicious victim to this ingenious device. That 
large numbers of the 0-0 must have been taken in former days is clear from the 
quantities of "leis" or wreaths of feathers that now remain in the possession of the 
natives, who still set so great store by them that it is but rarely that a traveller is able 
to purchase so interesting a relic of a past age ; but I was fortunate enough to obtain 
a small example, for the construction of which it is reckoned that two hundred 1 
birds must have been sacrificed. The Hon. C. E. Bishop possesses some very fine 
specimens, and the contents of a small tin box of them I estimated as being worth 
ten thousand dollars. What the value of a cloak or cape may be it is impossible to 
say. At the ceremony of opening the Hawaiian Legislature in 1888 capes were 
donned by two of the native officials, and very imposing they looked, though the effect 
could not be compared with that produced by the flowing war-cloak. 

This bird is preeminently a honey-sucker, extracting the nectar with its long tubular 
tongue from the flowers of the ohia or from those of the great tree-lobelia, the hollow 
curving corolla of which is perfectly adapted in shape to the 0-0's bill ; and though I 
have on several occasions observed it feeding on the fruit of the banana, I believe this 
to be only a secondary article of diet : in a state of captivity it has been kept with 
success on the juice of the sugar-cane. 

It has a very peculiar call, whence its native name is derived ; and here I may 
insert some extracts from notes taken in the district of Kona, where it is still fairly 
common : — 

" We shot two O-Os to-day, but these birds are extremely difficult to obtain, as they 
are constantly on the move from tree to tree, hardly ever at a less height than 90 feet 
from the ground. Their cry is somewhat harsh, and resembles the sound of the letter O 
repeated twice, with a well-marked pause between ; it is, however, extremely difficult 
of imitation by the human voice. The yellow axillary tufts are very conspicuous when 
this bird is on the wing, and its dipping mode of flight somewhat resembles that of the 
Magpie, while its long tail still further suggests a resemblance to that bird. The 0-0 
exhibits a decided preference for the extreme top of any tree, on which it alights, and 
when thus perched may be seen continually jerking its long plume-like tail up and 
down at a right angle to its body, all the while uttering its harsh cry." As mentioned 
above, it is an extremely wary bird and most difficult of approach when met with 

1 It may be interesting to compare with the above the numbers of the Kaka {Nestor meridionalis) still 
annually captured by the Maories ; I therefore quote the following paragraph from Sir Walter Buller's ' History 
of the Birds of New Zealand,' (2nd ed. vol. i. p. 163) : — " The Kaka is particularly abundant in the Urewera 
country, and during the short season the rata is in bloom the whole Maori population, old and young, are out 
Kaka-hunting. An expert bird-catcher will sometimes bag as many as 300 in the course of a day ; and at 
Euatahuna and Mangopohatu alone it is said that from 10,000 to 12,000 of these birds are killed during a good 
rata season, which occurs about every three years." 

I may mention that the rata of New Zealand, of which an excellent representation is given in Sir 
Walter's plate, is Metrosideros robusta, the crimson flowers of which are doubtless as attractive to the Kaka as 
are to the 0-0 the larger but very similar blossoms of the ohia {Metrosideros polymorpha), of which a branch, 
though not the flower, is shown in my Plate. 



in the ohia-forest, so that the only occasions on which I was enabled to watch it at close 
quarters were amongst the foliage of the lobelias. 

The 0-0 is esteemed a great delicacy by the natives, and used formerly to be eaten 
by them, fried in its own fat. I can vouch personally for its excellence, as one day, 
after bringing in a fine specimen from a collecting-expedition, I placed it carefully on 
a shelf to await my convenience ; but at dinner the Chinese cook, Ah Lung, set down 
in front of me a small dish, containing my lovely prize ! On remonstrances being 
addressed to him in no measured terms, he only smiled and said " Me thinkee all 
same Kolea (Plover)." However my host, Mr. Spencer, and I tasted it, and found it 
excellent. 

I never obtained a specimen in immature plumage, nor did I find a nest, but from 
the bird's evident preference in the breeding-season (May and June) for the topmost 
branches of the lofty ohia-trees, 90 to 100 feet from the ground, I conclude that it 
chooses a site amongst them, and venture to say that it will be long before its eggs are 
taken, as not even a Hawaiian — bold, skilful, and withal utterly reckless climber as he 
is — would be able to span that giant girth. The ordinary vertical range of this bird, 
which I only observed on the island of Hawaii, is from 1200 to 4000 feet; but I am 
told by my friend Mr. Ashford Spencer that he has observed it, at certain seasons of 
the year, in the forest around the sheep-station of Kalaieha, of which the altitude is 
above 6000 feet. It is probable that the O-O, like other Hawaiian birds, follows its 
food, migrating to this high mountain-region as soon as the ohia-tree is out of flower 
in the lower forest-zone. 

Peale, quoted by Cassin (U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 171), says: — "The Oo is found in most 
of the woody districts of the Island of Hawaii ; it frequents the thick foliage of the 
loftiest trees ; in voice and manners it has some resemblance to the Oriole of North 
America [Icterus Baltimore). The natives capture it by means of bird-lime, and after 
plucking out the yellow feathers from beneath the wings, restore it to liberty, until 
again wanted to assist in paying the royal tax." I never could ascertain with certainty 
whether the natives really set the bird at liberty after plucking out its yellow tufts ; 
but doubtless at the time of Peale's visit in 1840 many of the old bird-catchers were 
alive, from whom he could get the information ; yet I hardly fancy these birds were 
taken as late as 1840 for the purpose of paying the poll-tax. 

Dr. Pickering, also attached to the Expedition, states that the flight was high, some- 
what after the manner of the Boat-tailed Grakle of the United States. The note was a 
loud chuck, repeated two or three times, and the habits reminded him of the Poi- 
bird of New Zealand. Cassin goes out of his way to warn us that native names 
are not entitled to much consideration — a warning which, in the case of the Hawaiians 
(a people with a most accurate ear for sounds), is utterly uncalled for. He then pro- 
ceeds to observe that the name of this bird must sound quite different to different 
persons, and certainly — Mo-h6, Hoohoo, Uho — are strangely at variance ; however 
we must ascribe this to the defects of ear of the individual explorers, since the 
Hawaiian gives to it but one name, O-O. 



Description,— Adult male. General colour black, inclining to dull umber on the 
abdomen ; axillary tufts bright yellow ; terminal half of the two outer pairs of tail- 
quills white ; middle pair of tail-quills greatly elongated and spirally twisted ; irides 
dark hazel ; bill and feet black. 

Adult female. Similar in colour to the male, but with the middle pair of tail-feathers 
not nearly so much elongated or twisted. 

Dimensions.— Adult male. Total length 12-5 inches, wing from carpal joint 5-95, 
culmen 1'25, tarsus 1*5, tail 7*5. 

Adult female. Total length 9-5, wing from carpal joint 4, culmen -95, tarsus 1-25, 
tail 5-95. 



' 3 . 




tf.'W&oha.wk del.etliCh. 



Vest, Newman imp . 



ACRULOCEBCUS BISHOPI. 






ACBULOCEECUS BISHOPI. 



Acrulocercus bishopi, Rothschild, Bull. Br. Orn. Club, no. viii. p. xli (1893). 

Specimens of this lately-described species were obtained in Molokai by Mr. Perkins in 
the summer of 1893, and I am indebted to the Joint Committee appointed by the 
Royal Society and the British Association for the opportunity of figuring one of them ; 
but as yet nothing has been published respecting its habits, though these may be 
presumed to resemble those of its allies which I have already described. So far as I 
am aware, the bird is peculiar to the Island of Molokai, though I should not be 
surprised to learn that it also inhabited Maui. 

Description. — Adult male. Upper parts black, with a brownish tinge on the back ; 
underparts brownish black, the feathers of the latter and of the hind neck being lanceo- 
late and having whitish shaft-streaks. A tuft of feathers with long golden-yellow tips 
springs from near the ear-coverts and is directed backwards ; the under tail-coverts are 
of the same colour, as are the axillary tufts, which are similar to those of A. nobilis, 
but smaller. A little white shows itself on the lower surface of the wing near the bend, 
while the plumage of the crown is slightly curled. The beak is slighter than that of 
A. nobilis, but is a little longer ; while the shape of the tail, which Mr. Rothschild 
describes as more pointed, seems much the same. Bill and feet black. 

The above author states that the female is similar to the male, but considerably 
smaller. 

Dimensions (of the specimen figured). — Total length 8'62 inches, wing about 4, 
tail 4-25, tarsus 1-37, culmen 1*12. 




,%--, 



FWFrohawk deUtkth. 



TfesUfewmsa imp 



:H^ TOP TIL A ANGUSTIPLUMA 






CHJ1T0PTILA ANGIISTIPLtJMA. 



Entomiza? angustipluma, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 147, pi. xl. fig. 2* (1848). 
Anthochara ? angustipluma, Hartlaub, Arch, f . Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 131 ; Gr. R. Gray, Cat. B. 

Trop. Isl. p. 13 (1859). 
Mohoa angustipluma, Cassin, Proc. Acad. Sc. Pliilad. 1855, p. 440. 
Moho angustipluma, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 168, pi. xi. fig. 1 * (1858) ; 

Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 296 ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 47. 
Chcetoptila angustipluma, " Sclater, 1868/' Gr. R. Gray, Hand-list, i. p. 159 (1869); Sclater, Ibis, 

1871, pp. 358, 360; id. op. tit. 1879, p. 92. 



* Figurce notabiles. 

In his ' Catalogue of the Birds of the Tropical Islands,' Gray doubtfully cites Moho 
atriceps of Lesson [Traite d'Orn. p. 646 (1831)] as identical with this species, but the 
description shows that this is unlikely, for the flanks are not " vert-olive," nor is the 
breast black. However this may be, Peale during the Exploring Expedition in the 
' Vincennes ' and ' Peacock ' certainly met with the bird ; and, failing Lesson, to him all 
credit is due for the original description as well as for the discovery. Peale found it in 
the wooded districts of the island of Hawaii, where he obtained a single specimen, 
and, while premising that its habits were those of a Melvphaga, he included it doubt- 
fully in Swainson's genus Entomiza, pending further investigation ; moreover, he 
bestowed upon it the specific name of angustipluma, derived from the peculiar nature 
of the feathers, and gave a figure in his account of the above expedition. Cassin trans- 
ferred it to the genus Mohoa or Moho, where it remained until 1869, when the name 
Chcetojotila, suggested by Mr. Sclater, was accepted by G. E. Gray in his ' Hand-list ' ; 
and now Dr. Gadow's examination of my specimen — the first brought to Europe — 
indicates that the accepted view of its relationship to the Meliphagidce is perfectly 
correct. Judge Dole gives Molokai as an additional habitat of this species, a 
statement which I am unable to corroborate at present. It may be of interest 
to quote here Peale's original remarks, as follows : — " This rare species was 
obtained at the Island of Hawaii. It is very active and graceful in its motions, 
frequents the woody districts, and is disposed to be musical, having most of the 
habits of a Meliphaga; they are generally found about those trees which are in 
flower." 

" We have placed this . . . species in Mr. Swainson's genus Entomiza, with a doubt 

m2 






of the propriety of doing so, but trusting that our figure will prove sufficiently correct 
to supply the means of a more systematic arrangement." 

Cassin, in his edition of the account of the Exploring Expedition, says of it : — 

" Hab. Island of Hawaii. Specimen in Nat. Mus. Washington. 

" Though we suspect that the bird above described is not in mature plumage, it 
appears to be a distinct species of the genus Moho, Lesson, of which the only species 
heretofore known are Moho nobilis (Merrem), and probably the bird described as 
Certhia pacifica, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 470 (Vieill. and Aud. Ois. Bor. pi. lxiii.), and 
Moho braccata, Cassin. It does not appear to belong to the genus Strigiceps, Less. 
Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 266, though evidently related to it. 

"The feathers on the head and breast in this bird present a remarkable character on 
account of the filaments composing the webs of the feathers being unusually few in 
number, and at such a distance from each other as not to touch, or become adherent. 
This structure of the feathers gives to the plumage of the parts mentioned a somewhat 
hairy appearance, and prevails also, in some measure, on the abdomen and other 
underparts of the body. Many of the feathers on the throat and neck in front 
terminate in bristles curved outwardly, and readily discernible on viewing the specimen 
in profile." 

After quoting part of Peale's remarks, already given above, Cassin continues : — 
" Dr. Pickering mentions having seen this species ' alighting in the tops of the trees 
and uttering a loud chuck.' 

"We regard this bird as one of the most interesting of the ornithological discoveries 
of the Expedition, and much regret to find a single specimen only in the collection. It 
is represented in our plate above cited of the size of life." 

I obtained an example of this curious-looking bird from the collection of the late 
Mr. Mills, through the generosity of the present owner, the Hon. C. R. Bishop, of 
Honolulu, and it is now in the Museum of the University of Cambridge. It was pro- 
bably procured by Mr. Mills in the district of Hilo near Olaa, that having been his 
favourite hunting-ground. Why this bird should have become extinct seems in- 
explicable, as its feathers were not used for ornaments ; yet the natives of the present 
day do not know it even by tradition, moreover the local name Kiowea given to it by 
Judge Dole is certainly that applied to the Whimbrel (Numenius femoralis). The 
specimen obtained by Peale during his visit I had the advantage of examining while 
at Washington on my way to the Islands. 

Description. — Top of the head and neck blackish brown, each feather with a greyish- 
white shaft-streak, which is strongly tinged with yellow on the nape and sides of the 
neck. A greyish-white stripe over the eyes. Wing-coverts and back hair-brown, 
tinged with ochreous on the rump, the feathers of the mantle with a white shaft-streak 
widening into a tear-shaped spot towards the tip. Remiges and rectrices deep brown, 
their outer margin yellow, giving a greenish effect to the whole. A greyish-white 



stripe over the eye. Lores, sides of the head, and ear-coverts dull black, the feathers 
immediately under the eye mottled with greyish white. Chin and throat dull white, 
tinged with yellow, the shafts and the hairs with which this part is beset black. 
Breast and abdomen dull white, striped longitudinally with darkish brown, flanks 
strongly tinged with ochreous. Bill and legs very dark brown, almost black. 

Dimensions. — Total length about 13 inches, wing 5-5, tail 6, bill (allowing for a 
slight injury at th,e tip) from forehead 1*31, from gape l - 5, tarsus 1-75, middle toe 
without claw '93, hind toe '56. 



' 





KW.Froliawk cLel.etlith. 



West, Newman imp 



PH/EORNIS MYIADESTINA 
PH/EORNIS LANAIIENSIS 






PH.EOKNIS MYIADESTINA. 

KAMAO. 



? Tcenioptera obscura, ? , Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 155 (1858). 

Phceornis myadestina [sic], Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 90; id. op. cit. 1889, p. 383 ; 

S. B. Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 195. 

„ myiadestina, Sclater, Ibis, 1888, p. 143. 



This species, which inhabits Kauai, has been lately described as new by Dr. Stejneger 
(as above cited). I obtained specimens on that island from nearly the same locality 
as he did, several being in immature plumage. Dr. Stejneger gives as native names 
Ou or Uapauau, neither of which is, as far as I know, applied to this bird, Kamao being 
that by which it is generally known. 

In a letter received lately from my friend Mr. F. Gay, he raises the question of 
there being another species of Phceornis found on Kauai, and his remarks on a skin 
recently obtained by a collector are as follows : — " It appeared to me to be a species 
of Kamao, the only difference being a narrower bill, lighter coloured feet, and a 
smaller body, and, according to the collector, lighter coloured feathers about the head. 
Our natives always said there was a different variety called the Puaiohi, which they 
said had a different note from the common Kamao. I never believed much in what 
the natives said about it, as the Kamao varies so much in colour and spots. This bird 
may be more common on the windward side of the island, as the name of Puaiohi is 
more commonly used there than here." Mr. Gay adds : " the single skin I saw was a 
poor one, having been partly eaten by rats." 



PH^OENIS LANAIENSIS. 

OLOMAO. 



Phmornis lanaiensis, S. B. "Wilson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. vii. p. 460 (1891). 

I obtained several specimens of this bird on the island of Lanai, which from its much 
smaller size and the whiteness of the underparts is deserving of separation from either 
Phceornis obscura of Hawaii or P. myiadestina of Kauai. It appears to be identical 
with the species inhabiting Molokai, — as was to be expected, seeing that the two 
islands are separated only by a narrow channel, some ten miles in width — and is 
known by the name of Olomao there : on Lanai, where I first obtained it, and after which 
island it is named, I met with no natives who knew the names of birds ; indeed, in a 
few years there will not be many natives remaining. 

It closely resembles P. obscura and P. myiadestina, but is smaller in dimensions 
than either ; while the bill is distinctly intermediate in size between those of the two 
species. The outer pair of tail-feathers alone have very slight white markings at the 
tip, while the abdomen and under tail-coverts are nearly pure white. 

The length of the wing from the carpal joint is only 3-65 inches, as against 4 in 
P. obscura. 







F. W. Kr dha-wk del . et lith. . 



West, Newman imp. 



PH7E0RNIS OBSCURA. 






PH^OENIS OBSCUKA. 

OMAU, OLOMAU, KAMAU. 



w Dusty Flycatcher," Latham, Gen. Synops. ii. p. 344 (1783). 

Muscicapa obscura, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 945 (1788); Latham, Lid. Om. p. 479 (1790); 

Stephens, Shaw's Zool. x. p. 405 (1817) ; Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. nat. xxi. p. 465 (1818); 

id. Encycl. Method., Oroithol. p. 809 (1823). 
" Gobe-monche brun des iles Sandwich" (sp. 2), Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xiv. p. 172 

(1802). 
Tyrannula obscura, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 310 (1848). 
Chasiempsis obscura, Hartlanb, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 133. 
Tcenioptera obscura, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 155, pi. ix. fig. 3* (1858) ; Dole, 

Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 300; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 48. 
Phceornis obscura, Sclater, Ibis, 1859, p. 327, 1871, p. 360; id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 347; Von 

Pelzeln, Ibis, 1874, p. 462; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. iv. p. 5 (1879); Scott Wilson, Ibis, 

1890, p. 195. 
Eopsaltria {Chasiempsis) obscura, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 22 (1859). 

„ {Phceornis) obscura, G. R. Gray, Hand-1. i. p. 390 (1869) . 



* Figura notabiUs. 

As was the case with so many other Sandwich-Island species, this was first described by 
Latham from examples in the Leverian Museum, brought home by Cook's companions 
on his third and fatal voyage ; and, from Herr von Pelzeln's note in ' The Ibis ' for 1874, 
it appears that the type specimen still exists in the Museum of Vienna \ Gmelin, in 
1788, gave it the name of Muscicapa obscura, nor has it since received a different 
specific title ; but Peale, who obtained, additional specimens during the United States 
Exploring Expedition in the ' Vincennes ' and ' Peacock,' placed it in the genus 
Tyrannula, the remarkable distinctness of the Family to which that belongs not being 
then fully appreciated. Cassin, in his account of this Expedition, redescribed and 
figured it under the designation of Tcenioptera obscura, with notes taken mainly from 
Peale ; while, unless the variety of Turdus sandwichensis, from Oahu, be meant for the 
same bird in Bloxam's list in the narrative of the voyage of the 'Blonde ' (p. 250), it does 
not seem to have been observed by the naturalists on board that ship. No later visitors 
to the Islands appear to have procured examples until I did so in 1887, but the dingy 

1 The difficulty as to its habitat, noticed by Herr von Pelzeln, seems explicable on the supposition that 
" Christian's Isle under the Line " is a transcriber's mistake for Christmas Island, which was discovered and so 
named by Cook a few days before he found the Sandwich Islands; but even then another mistake has probably 
been made, for there is no evidence that the species inhabits that lonely spot, which is also called Turtle 
Island. 






appearance of the bird is of itself almost sufficient explanation of the slight interest 
taken in it, except by ornithologists such as Mr. Sclater, with whom considerations of 
science outweigh those of beauty of plumage. That distinguished naturalist was the 
first to propose for it the new generic name of Phceomis in 1859. 

This sombre-coloured bird is still fairly common in most districts of Hawaii, and in 
some is perhaps the species most frequently met with ; yet this may be due to its 
familiar habits, for the Omau, to use its most common native name, is a very tame 
bird, and while not absolutely courting man's society, shows little fear of his presence. 
Indeed, it was no uncommon occurrence for one of them to alight within a few yards 
of me and begin its melodious strain, which somewhat resembles that of our Common 
Thrush, though inferior in volume, and is so varied and sweet that the bird is fairly 
entitled to be called the HaAvaiian Nightingale. Mr. D. H. Hitchcock, of Hilo, told 
me that many years ago the people used to bring him the young, which he caged for 
the sake of their song ; and this is the only instance I know of a native forest-bird 
being successfully kept for any length of time in captivity. The Lark-like habit of 
singing on the wing, characteristic of P. myiadestina of Kauai, mentioned by Dr. 
Stejneger on Mr. Knudsen's authority, I observed also in this species. The call-note 
of P. obscura is a particularly clear tweet, easily recognized; but it utters a very 
remarkable hissing sound when approached closely. Its flight is slow, and it may be 
shot without difficulty while flying from tree to tree ; while it possesses a very 
peculiar habit (not noticed by Mr. Knudsen with regard to P. myiadestina) of quivering 
with its wings when perched on a branch, as if shivering with cold or seized with an 
attack of ague. The chief food consists of berries, particularly those of the kopiko 
(Straussia hawaiiensis), a tree which is very common in forests throughout the group. 
The vertical range extends from the lowest forest-zone up to 5000 feet, and probably 
higher. The branch shown in the Plate is that of the lama [Mala sandvicensis), a 
very conspicuous shrub in some districts of Hawaii, particularly between Waimea and 
Puuanahulu ; its shining red berries have a slight resemblance to those of the coffee, 
and are habitually eaten by the inhabitants. 

Description. — Adult male. Entire upper surface dull hair-brown, except the fore- 
head, which is grey ; lower parts ashy grey, shading into white on the abdomen ; under 
tail-coverts buff; flanks dull russet; wing-quills dull brown, russet at the base, and 
edged on the outer web with the same colour ; tail brown ; irides dark hazel ; bill 
and feet dark brown, the soles yellow. 

Adult female. Differs from the male in having the ashy grey of the underparts 
somewhat lighter and more uniform in tint. 

Dimensions. — Total length 6'75 inches, wing from carpal joint 4, culmen '62, tarsus 
1-35, tail 3. 







-cSns 



FWrohawk del.etlitk. 



WestKewmaJi imp. 



PH^ORNIS PALMERI7J. 






PHJ10ENIS PALMEEL 

PUAIOHL 



Pheeomis palmeri, Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 67. 

Under the heading of Phceo^nis myiadestina, I have already mentioned in this work that 
Mr. Gay believed that a second species of the present genus existed in Kauai, of which 
he had seen a skin, subsequently destroyed by rats. That gentleman stated that it 
was smaller than its congener, with lighter-tinted feet, light colour about the head, 
and narrower bill, thereby giving a very good idea of the points wherein P. palmeri 
differs from P. myiadestina. This species Mr. Eothschild's collectors, from one 
of whom it takes its specific title, thereafter procured. For a knowledge of the habits 
I am indebted to Mr. Perkins, the following being an epitome of his notes taken from 
a letter to Mr. Evans. 

It has the appearance of a diminutive Kamao (P. myiadestina), but it is difficult to 
obtain a good view of the bird on account of its excessive shyness. The favourite spots 
are those where koas grow amongst the brushwood, and the ground is covered with 
dead leaves and fallen twigs ; here it flits about the lower branches in a restless 
manner, and at times descends to the ground in search of food, consisting of lepi- 
dopterous larvae, beetles, spiders, and, exceptionally, of small molluscs. The flight is 
generally low, rapid, and direct, recalling that of the Kingfisher, while the song is 
usually uttered from the top of a tree, though occasionally when on the wing, as 
is the case with its congeners. The notes, which are very strong and constantly 
repeated, resemble those of the Nukupuu (Heterorhynchus hanapejpe), but are louder 
and shorter ; a squeaking noise is also produced when in company with the female, and 
the alarm-note is of a grating nature. This species is found up to an altitude of at 
least 4000 feet. 

llescription. — Adult male. Above dull brown, with darker head and almost uniform 
wings and tail, the latter when expanded showing buff on the inner web of the external 
pair of feathers and in the centre of the next pair. A white ring surrounds the eye. 
Beneath greyish, becoming nearly white on the abdomen and buff on the lower tail- 
coverts, while a distinct whitish patch marks the under sm face of the wing-quills. 
Iris brown, bill blackish, feet pearly white. 

Dimensions. — Total length 6 - 75 inches, wing 3-87, tail 2"5, tarsus 1*37, culmen -62. 



/ty 



Adult female. Apparently similar to the male. 

Young male. Some spots of buff on the upper parts ; lower parts with blackish- 
brown crescentic markings, caused by the dark margins of the feathers. 

As compared with the present species, P. myiadestina is somewhat more rufous 
above, and has whitish tips to a few of the lateral tail-feathers, the patches under the 
wings are buff rather than white, and the white feathers of the lower parts show slight 
grey margins. The young have similar dark crescentic markings, but the feathers 
incline to buff in the central portion, and the plumage generally is more plentifully 
marked than in P. palmeri. 




F/W.FroWwlt olel.etKUi. 



Westje-wman imp. 



CHASIEMPIS SANDVICENSIS. 



Sir 



CHASIEMPIS SANDVICENSIS. 

ELEPAIO. 



"Sandwich Flycatcher/' Latham, Gen. Synops. iii. p. 344 (1783). 

?" A small bird of the flycatcher kind," King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119 (1784). 

Muscicapa sandwichensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 945 (1788) ; Donndorff, Orn. Beytr. ii. p. 591 

(1795) ; Tiedemann, Anat. und Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 429 (1814) ; Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. 

Nat. xxi. p. 472 (1818) ; id. Encycl. Method, p. 814 (1823) ; G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 263 

(1846). 
Muscicapa sanduicensis , Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 479 (1790). 
" Gobe-mouche brun des iles Sandwich" (sp. 1), Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xiv. p. 171 

(1802). 
Muscicapa sandvicensis, Stephens, Shaw's Zool. x. p. 394 (1817). 
Chasiempis sandvicensis, Cabanis, Arch. f. Naturgesch. xiii. p. 208 (1847) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, 

p. 360; id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 346; id. Voy. ' Challenger/ p. 94 (1881) ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 232 (1879). 
Chasiempsis sandwichensis, Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 327 (1850) ; Finsch & Hartlaub, Faun. 

Centralpolyn. p. xxxv (1867). 
Chasiempsis sandvicensis, Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 133; id. Journ. f. Orn. 1854, 

p. 170. 
Cnipolegus, sp. ?, Sclater, Cat. Am. B. p. 203 (1862) {cf. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p. 555). 
Eopsaltria sandvicensis, Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 300; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 48. 
Chasiempis sandwichensis, Sclater, Ibis, 1885, p. 18 (partim), pi. i.; Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 71, 

pi. — . figs. 1, 2, 3, and pi. — . fig. 1 (1893) ; Perkins, Ibis, 1893, p. 109. 
Chasiempis ridgwayi, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 89; S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1891, p. 166; Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i. p. Ivi (1893). 
Chasiempis ibidis, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 89; S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1891, p. 166. 



Soon after my return to England at the end of the year 1888 I proceeded to sort out 
and examine the large series of specimens of birds of the genus Chasiempis that I had 
procured from each of the three islands of the group on which it occurs, namely, 
Hawaii, Oahu, and Kauai. Owing to the change of plumage which its members 
undergo in their progress to maturity, and also to the fact that they occasionally pair 
and, to all appearance, breed before assuming the fully adult dress, this was no easy 
task; but I presently arrived at the conclusion that there were three species, each of 
them peculiar to one or the other of the three islands named, and then the difficulty 
was to assign to them proper names out of the many that had been conferred, for I 
hardly ventured to suppose that I had to bestow a new one. My conclusion I now find 
to have been right; but, unfortunately, I was induced subsequently to abandon that 
opinion, to which I now recur. 

2f 2 






Before doing anything else it was necessary to ascertain, if possible, which was the 
species originally described by Latham as the " Sandwich Flycatcher," from a specimen 
in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks. Though this specimen had, of course, long ago 
perished, it must have been obtained during Cook's voyage, and therefore either on 
Kauai or Hawaii — but the latter preferably, since his ships made the longest stay there, 
and we know that most of the birds they brought home were procured there, while 
Latham's description, on which was founded the Muscicapa sandwichensis of Gmelin, 
does not ill accord with the younger stage of the Hawaiian bird. But Latham also 
described, as belonging to a second species, which he called the " Spotted-winged 
Flycatcher," a specimen in the Leverian Museum " Supposed to inhabit the Sandwich 
Islands" and now wholly lost to sight, for I have failed to find any mention of it, by 
which it could be traced, in the sale-catalogue of that collection. This, being the 
foundation of Gmelin's Muscicapa maculata, has been generally regarded as specifically 
identical with the other, and I am certainly not in a position to urge a contrary view ; 
but since it may possibly have been a Kauaian example, I think it better to exclude 
from the already complicated synonymy of Chasiempis sandvicensis any reference to 
this second species, which after all may have been something very different, since its 
having come from the Sandwich Islands was only a matter of supposition ; and, even if 
its locality could be proved, the name given to it by Gmelin is forestalled. 

Pursuing my investigation I found little help obtainable from collections or books. 
The meagre list of Bloxam included Muscicapa sandwichensis, the specific name being 
wrongly assigned, as was the fashion in those days, to Linnaeus instead of Gmelin, but 
rightly identified with the " Elepaio " (or TLrepeio as the word was then written) of the 
natives. Nothing more, however, was said of it, though Bloxam obtained specimens of 
at least one of the species, which were in the British Museum so lately as 1868 ; but 
none seem to have been procured by the naturalists of the French or the United States' 
expeditions, and evidence is wanting that any ornithological author, the late Mr. G. B,. 
Gray excepted, had examined an example until, in 1847, Prof. Cabanis founded upon 
Latham's species the genus Chasiempis, though he, as has since been shown by 
Mr. Sclater, had not specimens of the true sandvicensis to examine, but only those, 
collected by Deppe, of the species which inhabits Oahu. In 1850 Beichenbach (Natiirl. 
System der Vogel, p. lxvii) gave an outline of the head, wing, and foot of the new 
genus, but these figures are not particularly discriminative. The rarity of this form in 
collections and the little that was known of it is shown by the fact that, in 1862, so 
skilful an ornithologist as Mr. Sclater referred (though with doubt) a specimen of it 
which had passed under the practised eye of Verreaux to a genus of a wholly different 
family. In 1882 Mr. Pudgway, on receiving specimens of Chasiempis from Kauai, 
rightly described them as belonging to a distinct species, C. sclateri ; but three years 
after Mr. Sclater was loth to admit its validity. He, however, in ' The Ibis ' for 1885, 
rendered the great service of giving, for the first time, two coloured figures of the true 
C. sandvicensis, though it must be said that these figures were temporarily the cause 
of confusion, for on one of them Dr. Stejneger in 1887 founded his C. ridgwayi, and 
on the other his C. ibidis. Moreover, the remarks of the latter were the means of 






leading me astray, as I saw in them what appeared to be a solution of my difficulties, 
which had been rather increased by the contribution to the subject of HH. von 
Berlepsch and Leverkiihn in 1890 ; but I found that the Oahu bird was without a 
name, and in 1891 I gave it one, C. gayi. So matters remained until the following 
year, when Mr. Perkins was despatched by the Joint Committee of the Eoyal Society 
and the British Association, and his attention was particularly drawn to the desirability 
of clearing up the question. This he has most effectually done, with the result, to me 
satisfactory, of confirming my original conclusion as to the existence in the islands of 
three species, neither more nor fewer. It is also gratifying to find that in this point 
Mr. Eothschild agrees with me. 

This small Flycatcher is extremely common on Hawaii, and by far the tamest and most 
familiar bird of any I met with in the islands. Its call very much resembles a man's 
sharp whistle, which may be expressed almost exactly as " twee-ou" and is uttered 
repeatedly and with piercing shrillness ; besides this, its general note, it has a great 
variety of others — at times giving vent to a gurgling sound like that of our Whitethroat, 
while at others its note may be readily mistaken for that of the Quail. 

We found a nest in an alii tree (Dodoncea viscosa) in Kona on the 11th of June, the 
two old birds being close by ; unfortunately it contained no eggs, but from the anxious 
way in which the birds were hopping about and watching us, there could be no doubt 
of the ownership. A few days later I found another nest, composed almost entirely of 
the bleached seed-vessels of the cape gooseberry — in Hawaiian parlance poha or 
pahina — -an introduced plant which has taken firm hold in many upland regions of 
Hawaii ; it was attached on three sides to the slender branches of a small sandalwood 
tree (Santalum album), somewhat after the manner in which the Sedge-Warbler 
attaches its nest to the stems of plants : unfortunately this nest, too, was empty. 

Mr. Perkins remarks: — " Of Chasiem/pis I have several times found the nest (without 
eggs, unfortunately). It is small, very neat and compact, placed from 10 to 30 feet 
from the ground, and generally well concealed." 

On the 31st of May, 1887, in the ohia forests above Kaawaloa in Kona, we met 
with an entire family of this species: the young were being fed by the parents, 
and I was loth to shoot them ; but as young birds had, so far as I knew, never before 
been obtained, I secured two, which show no trace whatever of the white on the smaller 
wing-coverts seen in the mature birds. One very charming habit, possessed by the 
Elepaio, is that of spreading its tail in the shape of a fan on alighting on a branch, 
reminding one much of the Fan-tailed Warbler. 

I have often seen this species catch small moths on the wing, and, as Mr. Perkins 
remarks in his notes (Ibis, 1893, p. 110) : — " These birds live chiefly on insects and 
their larva?. The insects they often take on the wing, their beaks closing with a very 
audible snap, often nearly as loud as the ' cracking ' of Chloridops. They frequently 
descend to the ground or on to fallen trees, where they get wood-boring larvse or small 
myriapods." The writer then goes on to relate the following anecdote which he had 
from a native woman in Kona, and which was told me several times while living 
on Hawaii : — " « Of all the birds the most celebrated in ancient times was the Elepaio, 



;l$ 



and for this reason : When the old natives used to go up into the forest to get wood 
for their canoes, when they had felled their tree the Mepaio would come down to 
it. If it began to peck it was a bad sign, as the wood was no good, being unsound ; 
if, on the contrary, without pecking, it called out ' Ono ka ia,' ' Sweet the fish,' the 
timber was sound.' The names Mepaio and Ono ka ia (pronounced bnbkaia) are 
both creditable word-imitations of the cry of Chasiempis under various emotions, here 
presumably of disgust." 

The range of the Chasiempis found on Hawaii is from the lower forest-region at 
about 1400 feet to over 5000, and prohably a good deal higher, as Mr. Perkins says 
" to the limits of proper forest on Mauna Loa and also high up Hualalai." 

The members of this genus occasionally breed before assuming the adult plumage. 

Description. — Adult male. Above brown with a tinge of rufous, the forehead and 
superciliary streak decidedly redder. A few of the inner secondaries have white inner 
margins, the lateral rectrices have broad white tips ; the rump is white, as are the tips 
of many of the wing-coverts, giving an appearance of spots. The throat is black, 
with white tips to the feathers of the lower portion, which extend to the sides of the 
neck; the breast is rich yellowish-brown, the middle of the abdomen white. The bill, 
which is much larger than in the other species, is black, as are the feet. 

Adult female. The forehead, superciliary stripe, and throat are nearly white, with 
very little black on the latter, below which is a brown crescent. The whole plumage 
is browner than in the male. 

The young, which vary considerably, have rufous rump and wing-spots, being almost 
uniform dingy white below. 

Dimensions. — Total length 5 - 5 inches, wing 3, tail 2-75, tarsus 1, culmen -44. 



The synonyms of the supposed species Chasiempis maculata are as follows : — 

" Spotted- winged Flycatcher/' Latham, Gen. Synops. hi. p. 345 (1783). 

Muscicapa maculata, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 945 (1788) ' ; Latham, Ind. On. ii. p. 480 (1790) ; 

DonndorfF, Orn. Beytr. ii. p. 593 (1795) ; Tiedemann, Anat. und Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 429 

(1814) ; Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. x. p. 390 (1817); Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxi. 

p. 473 (1818) ; id. Encycl. Method, p. 815 (1823) ; G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 263 (1846) ; 

Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 299; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 48; Sclater, Ibis, 

1871, p. 359. 
" Gobe-mouche brun des iles Sandwich" (sp. 3), Virey (Sonnini), Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xiv. 

p. 173 (1802). 
? Eopsaltria (Chasiempsis) maculata, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 22 (1859) 2 . 
? Eopsaltria {Chasiempis) maculata, G. R. Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 390 (1869) 2 . 

1 Nee Muscicapa maculata, P. L. S. Midler, Natursyst. Anhang, p. 169 (1776). 

- For the reasons assigned under the heading of ft gayi these references must be considered doubtful. 




FW.WTaha.vrk. del etlitk. 



We st,~Ne wnan imp 



CHAS1EMPIS GAXI.Acl-J CLruLJuv: 



CHASIEMPIS GAIL 

ELEPAIO. 



?Muscicapa sandwichensis, Bloxam, Voy. 'Blonde/ p. 250 (1826) \ 

Chasiempis sandvicensis, Cabanis in Lichtenstein's Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol. p. 19 (1854) (nee 

Cabanis, 1847). 
? Eopsaltria (Chasiempsis) sandwichensis, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 21 (1859) '. 
? Eopsaltrla {Chasiempis) sandwichensis, G. B. Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 390 (1869) \ 
Chasiempis sandwichensis, Sclater, Ibis, 1885, p. 18 {partim) ; Von Pelzeln, Ibis, 1874, p. 462; 

Von Berlepsch & Leverkiihn, Ornis, 1890, p. 2 {partim), tab. i. fig. 3; Rothschild, Bull. Brit. 

Orn. Club, i. p. lvi (1893). 
Chasiempis gay i, S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 165 ; Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 75, pi. — . 

figs. 2, 3 (1893). 

This species, confined to the island of Oahu, had long been confounded with C. sand- 
vicensis of Hawaii, until my paper in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for 
1891 appeared; but the whole matter may now be considered finally settled, owing 
to the exertions of Mr. R. C. L. Perkins, who obtained both young and old of all the 
three members of the genus, and proved conclusively that the former had the rump 
tawny and the latter white. 

The habits of this bird are apparently identical with those of the forms from the 
other islands. The nest, according to Mr. Rothschild, is placed in a fork about ten to 
thirty feet high, and .is composed of fine roots and moss, with a lining of the former and 
herbage, being decorated externally with lichens. The eggs are white, with small spots 
and blotches of brick -red. 

Description. — Adult male. Above much as in C. sandvicensis, but the spots on the 
wing-coverts have the appearance of bars. The throat is more conspicuously marked 
with white, and the breast is almost entirely white. 

Adult female and young differ from the male as do those of C. sclateri. 

Dimensions. — Total length 5*4 inches, wing 275, tail 2-76, tarsus 1, culmen -4. 

1 These references must be regarded with doubt, though Bloxam's specimens were most likely obtained in 
Oahu. Two of them were in the British Museum so lately as 1868, as stated by Mr. G. B. Gray in a letter 
written by him in that year, and shown to me by Prof. Newton. They are not, however, included by 
Dr. Sharpe in his ' Catalogue ' (iv. p. 232) as existing in 1879, any more than is a specimen of the " Muscicapa 
rnaculata" of Gmelin, which Mr. Gray in the same letter mentions as being in the Museum, and then thought 
to be the young of C. sandvicensis. 

2g 










Jvw. 



FWFroka-wk.litli. 



West.Nevmian imp 



CHASIEMPIS SCLATERI. 






CHASIEMPIS SCLATEEI. 



Chasiempis sclateri, Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. iv. p. 337 (1882) ; S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. 1891, p. 166; Rothschild, Bull Brit. Orn. Club, i. p. lvi (1893) ; id. Avif. Laysan, p. 77, 

pi. — . figs. 1, 2 (1893). 
Chasiempis sandwichensis, Sclater, Ibis, 1885, p. 19 {partim) ■ Von Berlepsch & Leverkiihn, Ornis, 

1890, p. 2 {partim). 

Chasiempis dolei, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 90; S. B. Wilson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1891, p. 166. 

Mr. Ridgway was perfectly justified when, in 1882, he differentiated this form (found 
only in Kauai) from those of the neighbouring islands ; but, unfortunately, Mr. Sclater, 
in his article on the genus in the 'Ibis' for 1885, suggested that it was the female of 
G. sandvicensis, at the same time rightly determining the latter, of which he figured 
the male and female. Dr. Stejneger, in 1887, separated the birds from Kauai as two 
species, giving the name of C. dolei to that which he considered undescribed ; but 
Mr. Perkins, to whom we owe the elucidation of so many knotty questions, has now 
been able to ascertain that one form only inhabits the above-mentioned island. The 
habits cannot be said to differ from those of the other members of the genus, the nest 
and eggs resembling those of C. gayi. 

Description. — Adult male. Nearly uniform greyish above, with white rump and an 
indistinct rufous nuchal collar. The wing and tail much as in C. sandvicensis. The 
throat is orange-rufous, with no black markings, the colour gradually merging into the 
white of the central abdomen. The chin is whitish, and there is very little rufous on 
the forehead or above the eye. 

Adult female. The throat and forehead are much whiter. 

The young are very rufous above and chiefly orange-rufous below. 

Dimensions. — Total length 5*5 inches, wing 2 - 75, tail 2 - 78, tarsus 1, culmen -38. 



ASIO ACCIPITKINUS. 

PUEO. 



Stryx accipitrina, Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russischen Rcichs, i. p. 455 (1771). 

Strix brachyotus, J. R. Forster, Phil. Trans, lxii. p. 384 (1772). 

" Owl," Cook, [Last] Voy. Pacif. Ocean, ii. p. 227 (1784). 

" Short-eared Owl/' Latham, Gen. Synops. Suppl. ii. p. 56 (1802). 

Strix sandwichensis , Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 250 (1826). 

Otus galapagoensis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 10 ; Darwin, Zool. Voy. ' Beagle/ Birds, p. 32, 

pi. iii. (1841) ; Cassin, Cat. Strigidse Coll. Acad. N. S. Philad. subfam. 1, gen. 3, sp. 6 

(1851?). 
Otus brachyotus, Nuttall, Man. Orn. i. ed. 2, p. 141 (1840) ; D'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid. iv. 

pt. 3, Oiseaux, p. 134 (1835-44) ; Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 75 (1848) ; Sclater, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 348. 
Otus palustris, Darwin, Zool. Voy. 'Beagle/ Birds, p. 33 (1841). 
Asio brachyotus, Strickland, Orn. Synon. i. p. 209 (1855) ; Sclater, Voy. ' Challenger/ Birds, p. 96 

(1881). 
Brachyotus galapagoensis, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 107 (1858) ; Dole, Proc. 

Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 296 ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 43. 
Otus brachyotus, var., G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 3 (1859). 
Asio sandvicensis, Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 27. 
Asio accipitrinus, Gurney, in YarrelPs Br. B. ed. 4, i. p. 167 (1872) ; Dresser, B. Eur. v. p. 257, 

pi. 304 (1876) j Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 85. 

[Except as regards the first two citations the above refer to this widely-ranging species 
only in relation to the Sandwich Islands or other localities in the Pacific Ocean.] 

The modern view that the Sandwich Island, species is identical with the widely-distributed 
Short-eared Owl of the Old and New Worlds, of which the races are usually deemed 
barely separable, coincides with that of the earlier writers. It is mentioned by the 
author of the account of Cook's last voyage as the " Owl," by Latham as the " Short- 
eared Owl," and by Peale as Otus brachyotus ; Bloxam, however, preferred to call it 
Strix sandwichensis, and Cassin, considering it to be identical with the bird from the 
Galapagos Islands, included it under the heading of Otus galapagoensis, instead of 
giving both these names as synonyms of the common species. Messrs. Strickland, 
G. R. Gray, Sclater, and the late J. H. Gurney, on the other hand, have at various times 
given it as their opinion that the original view is correct. Peale states that examples 
were observed on all the islands of the Sandwich group, as well as in Oregon and Cali- 
fornia, while as Cassin includes the name in his list of the collection of the Expedition, 
some of these were doubtless procured at that time. 






Dr. Stejneger (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 85) remarks :— " The four specimens 
of Short-eared Owls from the Hawaiian Islands before me do not justify the retention 
of Asio sandwichensis as a separable race ;" while the late Mr. J. H. Gurney, who 
examined a specimen in my collection, was of the same opinion. Dr. Stejneger also 
suggests that Owls on the Hawaiian Islands are in part migratory, but I do not think 
they are so. 

The subject of this article was held in great awe by the ancient Sandwich Islanders, 
as it was believed by them to be an " Akua " or Spirit ; and to this day it is considered 
that death will be the fate in the course of the same year of any one who is rash enough 
to kill a Pueo. It was a bird held sacred to the gods, and therefore the natives 
believed that if one were killed, not only would its slayer die within the year, but some 
great calamity would fall on the nation. In a most interesting legend entitled " The 
Sacred Spear-point" ('Legends and Myths of Hawaii,' pp. 219-225), the Pueo plays 
a prominent part ; but in this story an evil spirit seems to have taken its form and to 
have for many years visited different districts of Oahu, killing children, pigs, and fowls ; 
the priests, moreover, declared it to be a Pueo, sacred to the gods, and therefore not 
to be molested with safety, even if harm were possible from human hands. 

The following abbreviation of the latter part of the legend may be of interest to my 
readers: — 

At last a prince bearing the name of Kaulalaau, who suspected it was an evil spirit, 
followed the bird and was by supernatural agency impelled to hurl his javelin in its 
direction. In twenty paces the point did not droop; in forty it did not fall to the 
ground ; in a hundred a new energy seized it, and like a flash of light it sped out of 
sight. A moment later the prince saw the bird sink and disappear down a precipice. 
He and his companion hastened to the base, where they found it dead with the 
javelin buried in its breast. They carried it to the temple, but the high priest 
declared that they should be sacrificed to the gods to avert their wrath. An appeal 
was made to the king, and on the bird being examined in the presence of the Court, 
it was found that its head was not that of a Pueo ; nor did it bear a resemblance in 
form to that of any bird known. It was narrow between the eyes, which in colour 
were like those of a shark, and its long pointed mandibles, both of the upper and 
under jaws, turned sharply upward. The priests were severely reprimanded by the 
king for their mistake, and the prince — the slayer of the monster — was asked to 
explain what he knew about it. To this appeal he replied : " If I may rely upon what 
seemed to be a dream last night, the bird was possessed by the spirit of Hilo-a-Lakapu, 
one of the chiefs of Hawaii who invaded Oahu during the reign of your royal father. 
He was slain at Waimano, and his head was placed upon a pole near Honouliuli for 
the birds to feed upon. He was of " Akua " blood, and through a bird-god relative his 
spirit was given possession of the monster which the gods enabled me to slay." The 
spirit of Hilo had come in with the head of the dead bird, and with the utterance of 
these words by the prince the eyes rolled, the ponderous jaws opened and closed, and 
with a noise like the scream of an " Alae " the malignant spirit took its departure. 



/ 



The shark-god was another "Akua," which, together with the Owl, was held in 
great reverence by the ancient Hawaiians, and even now the natives will sometimes 
tell you their " Akua " or " protecting spirit " is the Mano (shark). 

I did not succeed in obtaining the eggs, but while on the island of Lanai in 1888, 
my young companion, Mr. Frederick Bickerton, found two half-fledged birds and took 
one alive to Honolulu with him, where it lived for some time in confinement. On the 
"Waimea plains in Hawaii one often sees these Owls wheeling about in the daytime in 
search of mice, and on the waste land round the great extinct crater, Diamond Head, 
near Honolulu, they are also very common, while they are generally distributed 
over the islands of the whole group. One point more must be noticed with 
regard to them, and that is the presence of a large black parasite, about the size of 
a small blue-bottle fly, which swarms among the feathers. I noticed this particularly 
in the case of a specimen shot in Kona, and my friend Mr. F. Burchardt, who is well 
acquainted with these birds in Kohala, assures me they are seldom free from them. I 
secured specimens at the time, but unfortunately the glass tube in which they were 
preserved has been lost. 



,3, 



STEKNA FULIGINOSA. 



Sterna fuliginosa, Gmelin, S. N. i. p. 605 (1788) ; G. R. Gray, List B. Br. Mus. iii. p. 177 (1844) ; 

Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xii. p. 379 (1889) ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 106 

(1896). 
Sterna oahuensis, Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 251 (1826). 
Sterna [Onychoprion) seirata, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Is. p. 59 (1859). 
? Sterna panaya, Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 306; id. Haw. Alrnan. 1879, p. 56. 
Ony chop-ion fuliginosus, Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 75 (1891). 
Haliplana fuliginosa, Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 39 (1893). 

[Except in a few cases the above citations refer to the Sandwich Islands and some other 
localities in the Pacific Ocean. The list could be easily extended.] 



This bird was noticed in the Sandwich Islands by Bloxam, who recorded it in his 
Voyage of the ' Blonde ' by the name of Sterna oahuensis, under the impression that 
he had discovered a new species. Two specimens from Oahu, an adult and a young 
bird presented by Sir Edward Belcher, are still in the British Museum, as may be seen 
from Mr. H. Saunders's Catalogue of the Gulls and Terns. Mr. Dole apparently 
included this species in his lists under the name of Sterna panaya, while Dr. Stejneger 
received an adult from Mr. Knudsen, procured on Kauai, where it appears to be 
common ; others were contained in the collection which I made in 1887, and Palmer 
found large breeding colonies in the Laysan group in 1891. The bird is very widely 
distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical seas, while it is even found outside 
these limits. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Sooty black, with white forehead, superciliary 
stripes, sides of the neck, and under surface ; the lores, crown, and nape still blacker, 
while the two lateral tail-feathers shew white on their outer webs. Bill and feet 
black. 

Dimensions. — "Total length about 17 inches, culmen 2T, wing 11'75, tail about 7*5, 
tarsus - 9, middle toe with claw l'l " (Saunders). 



2p 



/3 



STEENA LUNATA. 



Sterna lunata, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 277 (1848) ; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 382 (1858) ; 

G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Is. p. 59 (1859) ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xii. p. 379 

(1889) ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 100 (1896). 
Onychoprion lunatus, Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 76 (1891). 
Haliplana lunata, Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 37, pi. (1893). 



It is quite possible that this Pacific species passed through the hands of Mr. Dole 
before 1879, though he does not include it in either of his lists ; but, if so, he did not 
distinguish it from the much more widely spread S. fuliginosa. In 1887 I obtained 
specimens when in the Sandwich Islands, and in 1889 Dr. Stejneger received others 
from Kauai (sent by Mr. Knudsen). Palmer afterwards met with the bird in the 
Laysan group in abundance. 

This bird is smaller than S. fuliginosa, and has the mantle dark grey, the nearly 
allied S. ancestheta having it brownish slate-coloured. 



2p2 



' 



ANOUS STOLIDUS. 



Sterna stolida, Lnmueus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 227 (1766). 

Anous niger, Stephens, Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 140 (1825). 

Anous stolidus, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 391 (1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Is. p, 59 

(1859) ; Einsch & Hartlaub, Faun. Centralpolyn. p. 234 (1867); Dole 1 , Proc. Boston Soc. 

N. H. 1869, p. 307 ■ id. Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 57 : Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 76 (1892) ; 

Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 41, pi. (1893) ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 136 (1896). 

[All the above citations, except the first two and the last (in part), refer to the Sandwich Islands 
and some other localities in the Pacific Ocean. The list could be easily extended.] 



The Noddy Tern, widely distributed as it is in many parts of the world, is not to be 
found in such abundance in the neighbourhood of the Sandwich Islands as it is 
elsewhere. It is true that Palmer found it breeding on Laysan and on French Frigate 
Island, to the north-west of the above group, but its numbers were considerably less 
than those of Anous hawaiiensis, which was met with at the same time, while it must 
for the present remain doubtful whether it ever visits the main archipelago, though it 
probably does so. Mr. Dole quotes from Dr. Elliott Coues a tabulated form of the 
differences existing between specimens from the Pacific and from America ; and, 
although he refers his specimen to A. stolidus, it seems that he intended to describe 
the bird now known as A. hawaiiensis. No certain record, therefore, exists of the 
occurrence of the typical Noddy in the Sandwich Islands. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Sooty brown with whitish forehead, grey 
crown, and often black lores and throat ; wings and tail blacker. Bill black ; feet 
reddish brown with yellowish webs. 

Dimensions. — " Total length about 16 inches, culmen 2*1, wing 10*25-11, tail 6-7, 
tarsus 1, middle toe with claw 1-55" (Saunders). 

1 The two citations from Mr. Dole very possibly refer iu part, if not entirely, to Anous haivaiiensis. 




co 

CO 

Z 

i — i 

i 

< 

H 
CO 



ANOUS HAWAIIENSIS. 

NOIO. 



" Sterna owhyhaensis," Bloxam, MS. (1825) (specimen in Br. Mus. from Owhyhee). 

Anous tenuiroslris, G. R. Gray, List B. Br. Mus. iii. p. 180 (1844), partim {nee Temminck) ; 

Licbtenstein, Nomencl. Avium, p. 97 (1854). 
Anous melanogenys, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xi. p. 94 (1888) {nee Gray, Gen. B. iii. pi. 182, 

fide Saunders, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxv. p. 148). 
Anous hawaiiensis, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. i. p. lvii (1893) ; id. Avif. Laysan, p. 43, pi. 

(1893). 
Micranous hawaiiensis, Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 148 (1896). 

This northern form of the smaller Noddy, A. melanogenys, was recognized as distinct 
from its larger congener by Bloxam, the naturalist of H.M.S. ' Blonde,' so long ago as 
1825. It was described in his manuscripts, which, by favour of his son, Mr. A. Boby 
Bloxam, of Christ Church, New Zealand, have recently been examined by the writers, 
under the name of " Sterna owhyhaensis " ; but, through the mischance or mismanage- 
ment which attended their publication, the name has never found its way into print. 
There can be no doubt of the identity of Bloxam's examples, for one which was 
obtained by the ' Blonde ' expedition under Lord Byron has escaped destruction and 
still exists in the British Museum, as testified by Mr. H. Saunders. 

Dr. Stejneger, however, who received four specimens from Mr. Knudsen of Kauai, 
which had been obtained in Niihau, did not in 1888 distinguish this species from 
A. melanogenys; and it was therefore left to Mr. Rothschild to give it the above 
specific name, which luckily agrees, except in spelling, with that originally proposed 
by Bloxam. 

Mr. Dole asserts that in the Sandwich Islands this Noddy breeds on cliffs, but such 
seems very unlikely to be the case ; and Palmer, who met with colonies in Laysan, 
Lisiansky, and Midway Islands, tells us that its habits are in general those of the 
typical form, and that it lays its eggs upon the sand. He also observed the bird on 
Kauai, whence Knudsen reported it to Dr. Stejneger as living " on the rocks about the 
coast." Mr. Perkins says that it is quite common throughout the group. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Forehead and crown greyish white ; lores 
black ; cheeks and throat dark lead-grey ; nape, shoulders, mantle, and tail lavender- 
grey ; lower parts black : bill black ; feet brown, with yellowish webs. 

Dimensions. — "Total length 13-5 inches, culmen 1-8, wing 8-65, tail 5, tarsus - 75, 
middle toe with claw 1*25 " [Saunders). 

2q 






GYGIS ALBA. 



"White Tern," Latham, Gen. Synops. iii. p. 363 (1785); Portlock, Voyage round the World, 

p. 312, pi. (1789). 
Sterna alba, Sparrman, Mus. Caiisonianum, no. 11 (1786); Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 607 (1788). 
Sterna Candida, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 607 (1788). 

Gygis Candida, Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 1223; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 149 (1896). 
Gygis alba, Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. p. 97 (1854) ; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 389 (1858) 

(fig. of egg, p. 390) ; Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 306; id. Haw. Alman. 1879, 

p. 56 ; Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 78 (1891) ; Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 35, pis. (bird 

and eggs) (1893). 

[Several of the above citations refer to the Sandwich Islands and some other localities in the 
Pacific Ocean. The list could easily be extended.] 

As will be seen from the synonymy, Mr. Dole included this species in both of his lists 
of the birds of the Sandwich Islands, but in 1879 he was still uncertain as to whether it 
was really found there. Since, however, Palmer subsequently met with it in abundance 
on Laysan and Lisiansky Islands, where it was breeding on the rocks and among the 
scrub, there can be little doubt that it visits the group first mentioned, at least 
occasionally. The habits recorded by Palmer differ considerably, as Mr. Rothschild 
tells us in his ' Avifauna of Laysan,' from those commonly observed in more southern 
climes, where the bird habitually lays its egg on the branch of a tree. 

It should be mentioned that King (Voy. iii. p. 120, 1784) says that he observed a 
" large White Pigeon" ; and this statement may possibly refer to the present species, as 
what he saw certainly could not have been a Pigeon. 

Description. — Adult male and female. White, with a black ring round the eye ; bill 
black ; feet dark brown, with yellow webs. 

Dimensions. — " Total length about 12 inches, culmen 1*8, wing 9-5, tail 4*25 to 5, 
tarsus - 6, middle toe with claw 1*1 " (Saunders). 



P 7 . r- 




FWFVohawk cleLethth. 



NUMENIUS TAHITIB'NSIS. 



West.NewrrLan. imp 



/ 



NUMENIUS TAHITIENSIS. 

KIOEA. 



"Otaheite Curlew/-' Latham, Gen. Synops. iii. p. 122 (1785). 

Scolopax tahitiensis, Grnelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 656 (1788). 

Numenius tahitiensis, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 711 (1790) ; Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. viii. 
p. 308 (1817) ; id. Encycl. Meth. p. 1157 (1823) ; Stephens, Shaw's Zool. xii. pt. 1, p. 32 
(1824) ; G. R. Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 569 (1847) ; id. Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 49 (1859) ; Ridgway, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1880, p. 201 ; Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, Water-B. N. Am. i. p. 324 
(1884) ; Turner, Contr. N. H. Alaska, p. 190 (1886) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadriidje, 
p. 333 (1887) ; Nelson (& Henshaw), Rep. N. H. Coll. Alaska, p. 121, pi. (1887) ; Wigles- 
worth, Aves Polynesise, p. 66 (1891). 

" Le Tevrea," Sonnini, Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xxii. p. 280 (1803-4) . 

Scolopax phesopus ?, Forster, Descr. Anim. (Lichtenstein), pp. 156, 242 (1844). 

Numenius femoralis, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. Birds, p. 233, pi. 64. fig. 1 (1848) ; Hartlaub, Arch. 
f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 120; id. Journ. f. Orn. 1854, p. 170; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., 
Mamm.&Om. p. 316, pi. xxxvii. (1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 50 (1859) ; Finsch 
& Hartlaub, Beitr. Fauna Centralpolyn. p. 175 (1867) ; Ridgway, Am. Nat. 1874, p. 435 ; 
Finsch, Ibis, 1880, pp. 220, 432; Tristram, Ibis, 1881, p. 251 ; id. op. cit. 1883, p. 47; Layard, 
Ibis, 1882, p. 533 \ 

Numenius phceopus {partim), Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 93 (1864). 

Numenius australis, Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 303 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, 
p. 51 (nee Gould). 

Numenius taitensis, Coues, Check-List, ed. 2, p. 105 (1882) ; id. Key N. Am. B. ed. 2, p. 646 
(1884) . 



Great credit is due to Peale, the chief ornithologist of the United States Exploring 
Expedition under Commander Wilkes, for detecting what is unquestionably the most 
remarkable character of the present species, namely, that afforded by the shafts of some 
of the flank-feathers, which are elongated nnd devoid of barbs near the tip. At the same 
time he seems to have been mistaken in supposing that the bird had not been described 
before, even though this peculiarity escaped the observation of Forster and of Latham, 
as it may well have done. There can be scarcely any doubt that it was the bird found 
on Otaheiti and the adjacent islands, and taken by the former authority to be the 
Scolopax phceopus of Linnaeus, while the latter more properly recognized it as a new 
species of Curlew. The specimen he described from Sir Joseph Banks's collection has 
of course long since perished, and it is certainly true that no other is known to have 
been since brought from Tahiti, where it was called by the natives " Tevrea " or 

By an error in a second passage on this page, and also in a footnote of the page following, the epithet 
femoralis appears as tibialis. 






"Teweh," and where it inhabited marshy places, being sometimes found also on the 
hills ; but there is nothing in Latham's description of his " Otaheite Curlew " incon- 
sistent with its being specifically identical with that subsequently described by Peale 
from Vincennes Island, one of the Paumotu archipelago ; while the latter, according to 
Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub, was obtained also by Dr. Graffe on the Phoenix group, as 
well as by Dr. Finsch himself on the Marshall and Kingsmill Islands, and Canon 
Tristram's collection contains specimens from the Marquesas and from Fanning Island. 
Moreover, the claims of no other species to the title of Numenius tahitiensis have been 
established, for that described and figured by Cassin under the name in the Ornitho- 
logical Appendix to Commodore Perry's Expedition to Japan (p. 228, plate) is 
assuredly a very different bird, not at all agreeing with Latham's diagnosis. It is 
probable that Schlegel in assigning the Numenius femoralis of Peale and Cassin to 
N. phceopus had no specimens of the former before him, or he would hardly have 
declared them to be merely " individus a plumes des jambes usees et depourvus de 
barbules." Indeed there is no evidence to show that the present species, whatever be 
the trivial name assigned to it, frequents the western part of the Pacific Ocean. Its 
first appearance in North America was recorded by Mr. Bidgway in 1874, an example 
having been taken by Mr. Bischoff at Fort Kenai on Kadiak Island in May 1869. 
The authors of ' The Water-Birds of North America ' were, in 1884, under the 
impression that the occurrence of this specimen at a distance of some 5000 miles from 
its presumed habitat, "in a locality so remote and so unlike its natural haunt, can 
only be regarded as being something purely accidental." They did not then know 
that four years before Mr. Nelson had procured one of a pair of " Bristle-thighed 
Curlews " (as the species has now been called) in Alaska. That gentleman writes 
{op. cit. p. 121) : — " On May 24, 1880, while I was shooting Black Brant, a pair of 
these birds settled near by on a rising stretch of land covered with large tussocks. 
They uttered a loud whistling call-note very much like that of hudsonicus,h\xt some- 
thing in their general appearance led me to stalk and secure one of the birds. To my 
gratification it was a Bristle-thighed Curlew, and I made great efforts to secure the 
mate, which had stopped a hundred yards or so beyond. As she raised on my approach 
I fired at long range and the bird fell mortally hurt on a distant hill-side, where it was 
lost amid a host of large tussocks. 

" The specimen secured was a male in fine plumage, and this is the second known 
instance of the bird's occurrence on our shores, the former record resting on the capture 
of a specimen at Kadiak Island by Bischoff, as announced by Mr. Eiclgway in the 
' American Naturalist ' for July 1874, under the name of Numenius femoralis, Peale. 
Nothing is known of its habits in America, but the presence of the pair at the date 
mentioned in the vicinity of St. Michael's would indicate that it nests, at least occasion- 
ally, in Alaska Dr. Streets also found them very abundant on Palmyra Island, 

but only a few were seen on the other islands of the Fanning group." 

That Mr. Nelson's opinion will be proved correct there can scarcely be a doubt. 
Numenius tahitiensis may be regarded as having its home in Alaska, and migrating 



/'.- ■ 



southward in autumn to the Sandwich Islands and other groups in the Eastern half of 
the Pacific Ocean. As a species it is probably not very numerous, though Peale 
writes that the birds were abundant on Vincennes Island " in the month of September, 
when they had become exceedingly fat by feeding on the berries of a species of 
Canthiumfi), then very plenty. The birds were rather tame, and uttered a clear 
plaintive whistle when flushed." 

Judge Dole, in his Catalogue, only remarks of this species, referring it to JV. australis : 
" Curlew. Not very common." Dr. Stejneger (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, pp. 83, 84) 
gives a short account of some specimens sent him by Mr. Knudsen from Kauai, in 
which he says : — 

" The bristly thigh-feathers of N. femoralis are quite characteristic, and are not due 
to abrasion, as has been supposed by some authors, for they are certainly present in a 
quite young bird collected by Mr. Charles H. Townsend in Alaska during the summer 
of 1885." 

Dr. Stejneger also states, in another contribution (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888, 
p. 97) : — " Four additional specimens from Niihau show that this bird, originally added 
to the Hawaiian avifauna by Mr. Knudsen, was by no means an accidental stranger to 
the islands. In his letter to me he remarks, however, that the " Kioea " is a rare bird 
there, though almost always to be found in the localities affected by it, but he does not 
believe it to nest in the islands." 

" The bristly elongation of the shafts of thigh-feathers are well developed in all four 
specimens. I may add that all four specimens are molting their inner primaries." 

The Kioea 1 is, I believe, generally distributed throughout the Hawaiian group, but 
in no locality is it plentiful. I myself obtained specimens on Molokai and Oahu, and 
heard of it on Hawaii and Maui, while Dr. Stejneger, as will be seen above, received 
others from Kauai and Niihau. Near Kaunakakai, on Molokai, I obtained examples 
out of a flock of a dozen birds, my kind host Mr. E. W. Meyer having driven me 
down to the beach at a spot which he knew to be frequented by them. I could 
not ascertain that the Kioea nests in the Islands ; some natives, however, assured me 
that it does. 

Description. — Adult. The crown is clear brown, with a pale streak down the centre 
and another over the eye. The upper parts are dark brown, mottled with cinnamon- 
brown and ochreous ; upper tail-coverts cinnamon ; tail slightly darker, inclining to 
tawny and barred with dark brown ; neck, breast, and abdomen pale buff; fore part of 
breast and flanks tinged with cinnamon and finely streaked and barred with brown ; 
under tail-coverts pale cinnamon ; primaries brown, shafts white. 

The feathers on the flanks have the shafts (which are white) much elongated, in some 
cases projecting fully an inch beyond the barbs. 

1 Judge Dole applies the name spelt Kiowea to Chcetoptila angustipluma, whereas Mr. Knudsen gives Kioea as 
the name of this bird— this latter heing, I believe, the correct orthography. 



fS-6 



Dimensions. — Total length 16-50 inches, wing from carpal joint 9, culmen 3 - 25, 
tarsus 2-25, middle toe with claw 1-75, tail 3-50. 

Another example measures 17'75 and has the bill 0'40 inch longer, wing and tarsus 
also slightly longer ; primaries black, shafts white. In other respects the specimens are 
similar. 



-H< O 



■ - 



H &, 




F.WFroli^wk Aei.etlitlx. 



TOTANUS INCANUS 



We st, Newmsm. -aacrp 



TOTANUS INCANUS. 

ULILI. 



" Ash-coloured Snipe," Latham, Gen. Synops. iii. p. 154 (1785). 

Scolopax incana, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 658 (1788); Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 724 (1790). 

"Le Chevalier crndre/' Sonniui, Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xxii. p. 101 (1803-4). 

Totanus incanus, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vi. p. 400 (1816) ; id. Encycl. Meth. p. 1098 

(1823) ; Stephens, Shaw, Zool. xii. pt. 1, p. 156 (1824) ; SchlegehMus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, 

p. 74 (partim) (1864) ■ Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 351; id. Rep. Voy. 'Challenger,' 

Birds, p. 99 (1881) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadriida;, p. 360 (1887) ; Ramsay, Tab. List 

Austral. B. ed. 2, p. 20 (1888). 
Scolopax solitaris, Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 252 (1826). 
Totanus pedestris, Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 552, partim (1831). 
Totanus fuliginosus, Gould, Voy. 'Beagle/ Birds, p. 130 (1841) ; Gray & Mitchell, Gen. B. p. 573, 

pi. 154, partim (1846). 
Scolopax undulata, Forster, Descr. Anim. (ed. Lichtenstein), p. 173 (1844). 
Totanus pohjnesice, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 237, pi. 65. fig. 1 ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Natur- 

gesch. 1852, i. p. 120; id. Journ. f. Orn. 1854, p. 169. 
Totanus oceanicus, Lesson, Compl. Buffon, p. 244 (1847) ; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & 

Orn. p. 318 (1858). 
Totanus solita?ius, Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn. 1854, p. 170. 

Gambetta fuliginosa and G. oceanica, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, xliii. p. 597 (1856). 
Heteroscelus brevipes, Baird, Expl. & Surv. R. R. Route Pacif. ix. pt. ii. pp. 728 and 734 (1858) ; 

id. B. N. Am. pi. 88 (1860) ; Dall & Bannister, Tr. Chicago Acad. 1869, p. 293 {nee Vieillot). 
Totanus (Gambetta) incanus, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 50 (1859). 
Totanus undulatus, Verreaux, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1860, p. 437. 
Totanus brevipes, Sclater & Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 323 {nee Vieillot). 
Heteroscelus incanus, Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 503 (1876) ; Elliott, Monogr. Seal Isl. Alaska, 

p. 130 (1882) ; Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, Water-B. N. Am. i. p. 290 (partim) (1884) . 
Heteractitis incanus, Stejneger, Auk, 1884, p. 236 ; id. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 29, p. 132 (1885) ; 

id. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 133; Turner, Auk, 1885, p. 157; id. Contr. N. H. Alaska, 

p. 148 (1886); Nelson (& Henshaw), Rep. N. H. Coll. Alaska, p. 118 (1887). 

[N.B. — The above list of synonyms and references is based on that given by Dr. Stejneger in his 
'Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander Islands and in Kamtschatka ' (Bull. 
U.S. Nat. Mus, no. 29), as he seems to be the first author who clearly shewed the distinction 
between this species and the nearly allied Totanus brevipes of Vieillot. It might yet be extended.] 



This species, first made known by Latham from specimens in the Banksian collection 
obtained at Eimeo and Palmerston Island, has been the cause of much perplexity to 
ornithologists, as the above long list of synonyms will show. According to Forster it 



was also met with at Otaheite, Uliatea, and Tonga Tabu, and he seems to have discri- 
minated between it and the ally with which it has often been confounded, as both are 
said by him to have occurred at the island last named. It has, however, been made 
pretty clear, chiefly by the labours of Dr. Stejneger, that the present species prevails 
over the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean, breeding in Alaska ; while the true 
Totanus brevipes has its home in Asia, and during the winter months overruns the 
more westerly shores and islands of the same ocean. There is no doubt that T. incanus 
visits the Sandwich Islands, and as yet there is no authority for believing that T. brevipes 
occurs there. I met with the former on several parts of the Kona coast on Hawaii, 
where it is usually seen in pairs. 

The main points of distinction, according to Dr. Stejneger, are as follows : — In the 
larger H. incana the nasal groove extends to one third of the exposed part of the 
culmen, in H. brevipes only to half. In the barred stage of the former (presumably 
the breeding-plumage) the back is greyish, the middle of the abdomen and the under 
tail-coverts distinctly and uniformly barred with blackish grey ; in the same state of the 
latter the back is browner and the other parts mentioned pure white. In the unbarred 
stage the grey and brown tints similarly prevail. 

A new genus, Heteroscelus, was proposed by Baird for these forms ; but this being 
preoccupied in entomology, Dr. Stejneger suggested in its place Heteractitis. I prefer, 
however, still to include them under Totanus. 

Judge Dole's note on T. incanus is : — "Frequent the shores singly or in pairs. Are 
called Ulili by the natives, from their note, which is a clear utterance of that word." 
Mr. Nelson, who gives a good account of it in his ' Report upon Natural History 
Collections made in Alaska ' (p. 118), describes it as an unsuspicious bird with a flute- 
like note, found solitary or three or four together on rocky parts of the coast ; in fact 
its habits appear to be very much what those of the Common Eedshank would be in 
an equally desolate region. 

The figure in the background is that of a bird which has not completed the first 
year and shews signs of immaturity : the wings are not fully grown. 






CALIDRIS AKENAKIA. 

HUNAKAI. 



Tringa arenaria, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 251 (1766) ; Gay, Hist. Chile, Zoologia, i. 

p. 425 (1847) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Scolopaces, p. 57 (1865) ; Philippi, An. Univ. Chile, 

xxxi. p. 276 (1868) ; Wiglesworth, Aves Polynesia;, p. 64 (1891). 
Calidris arenaria, Cassin, U.S. Nav. Astron. Exped. S. Hemisph. ii. p. 194 (1855) ; Baird, Proc. 

Acad. N. S. Philad. 1859, p. 306 ; Suekley, Rep. Expl. Railr. Mississ, xii. Bk. ii. p. 741 (1860) ; 

Sclater & Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 176 ; iid. op. cit. 1870, p. 323 ; Dall & Bannister, 

Trans. Chicago Acad. Sc. i. p. 292 (1869) ; Finsch, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, iii. p. 65 

(1872) ; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii. p. 308 (1874) ; Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. 

p. 503 (1876) ; Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 331; id. Mitth. Orn. Ver. Wien, 1884, p. 127; Sharpe, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 16; Nelson, Cruise ' Corwin/ p. 88 (1883) ; id. (& Henshaw), Rep. 

N. H. Coll. Alaska, p. 115 (1887) ; James, List Chil. Birds, p. 13 (1885) ; Turner, Contr. 

N. H. Alaska, p. 189 (1886) ; Taczanowski, Orn. Perou, iii. p. 353 (1886) ; Stejneger, Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 82; Oustalet, Miss. Sc. du Cap Horn, Oiseaux, p. B. 296 (1891). 

[Except the first, the above citations refer mainly to the West Coast of America, the Sandwich 
Islands, and the Galapagos.] 



To Mr. Knudsen we are indebted for the transmission of the first specimens of the 
Sanderling from the Hawaiian Islands. They were taken, as recorded by Dr. Stejneger 
(loc. supra cit.), on the island of Kauai, probably in the winter months. It does not 
seem to be a common bird in that region, and I was only able to procure one example, 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Francis Gay, who shot it on the island of Niihau. It 
is worthy of notice that though met with on the coasts of Japan and China, and 
occasionally on the Commander Islands and at Sitka, whence it becomes more common 
to the eastward, this species did not come under the observation of Mr. Nelson in the 
southern part of Alaska during his stay there between 1877 and 1881. It was, how- 
ever, observed in numbers by Mr. Dall at the mouth of the Yukon, both in spring and 
autumn. It passes down the whole western coast of America to Cape Horn, and has 
been found in the Galapagos, but the only unquestionable record of its occurrence in 
Polynesia seems to be that of Dr. Finsch. The statement of Temminck (Man. d'Orn. 
iv, p. 349) that it had been found in the Sunda Islands and in New Guinea, though 
widely copied by authors, and by some extended generally to " the islands of the 
Malay Archipelago " (Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadriidse, p. 432), is not borne out 



by recent experience. Specimens exist in the Leyden Museum from Java, but there 
is no proper evidence that the species appears on other islands in the Indo-Malay 
or Papuan areas. Two examples, however, from New South Wales, a locality hitherto 
unrecorded, are contained in the Derby Museum at Liverpool. 






OT.Fr-oiis.wk del. ftt lith 



"West.KevmiECD. imp, 



HIMANTOPUS KNUDSENI. ? i. 






HIMANTOPUS KNTJDSENI. 

AEO 1 . 



Himantopus niffricollis?, Pelzeln, Verh. z.-b. Gesellsch. Wien, 1873, p. 159 (nee Vieillot). 
Himantopus candidus, Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 52 (nee Bonnaterre). 

Himantopus knudseni, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 81, pi. vi. fig. 2 (errore kandseni 
in plate) ; id. op. cit. 1888, p. 96 ; id. op. cit. 1889, p. 381. 



As cited above, Dr. Stejneger, to whom Mr. Knudsen sent specimens from Kauai, 
described this bird as new in 1887, giving woodcuts by which it may be easily sepa- 
rated from II. mexicanus ; his remarks, diagnosis, and table of relative measurements I 
here quote, giving a figure from an example in my collection. He says : — 

" This species is most nearly related to the two American species, II. brasiliensis and 
H. mexicanus, and differs from the last one in about the same degree as do the species 
mentioned inter se, H. mexicanus being in a measure intermediate as far as the relative 
amount of black and white in the coloration of the plumage is concerned. 

" H. knudseni, which I take great pleasure of naming in honor of Mr. Valdemar 
Knudsen, who made the interesting collections upon which the present paper is based, 
needs only comparison with H. mexicanus, and the most salient differences have already 
been pointed out in the diagnosis 2 . I may add that I have before me 17 specimens 
of the latter species, representing very fairly the individual and seasonal variation, as 
well as that due to age and sex. The type of H. knudseni is evidently an old male. 

" The accompanying cuts (see Plate vi.) explain at a glance the different distribution 
of black and white in the two species, and make a more detailed comparison super- 
fluous. Suffice it to say, that in the whole series of H. mexicanus I have not found a 
single individual that even approaches H. knudseni, and in none of them, old or young, 
is the black mottling on the fore neck even indicated, the border-line between the 
black of the hind neck and the white of the sides being quite abrupt. 

" The coloration of the tail is very peculiar, as already described in the diagnosis. 
Only in a single specimen of H. mexicanus (No. 84669, from Florida) is there any 
approach to the pattern exhibited by the type of H. knudseni, but the dusky markings 
are not so large, nor so dark and well-defined. It may be, therefore, that these marks 
have no diagnostic value. 

1 The natives on Molokai and Oahu gave me the name as " Kukuluaia," but I expect that " Aeo, ; ' given by 
Mr. Knudsen, is more correct. 

2 Infra, p. 4. 






" In regard to the dimensions, it will be seen from the subjoined table of measure- 
ments of adult H. mexicanus compared with those of II. knudseni, as given above, that 
in the latter the bill is 4 mm. longer than maximum of the former, the tarsus 7 mm. 
longer, and the tail-feathers 13 mm. longer, while the wing is slightly shorter than that 
of the largest H. mexicanus. The extraordinary length of the tail in the Hawaiian 
bird is especially remarkable, it being more than 25 per centum longer than the 
average of five adult males of the North American species. 

"The occurrence of a Stilt in the Hawaiian Islands was first recorded by Dr. A. v. 
Pelzeln (I. «?.), who named the bird H. nigricollis, with a query. The specimen was 
a female, collected at Honolulu, February 21, 1870, by Mr. H. Kraus, who noted 
the colour of the iris as 'reel.' Dr. O. Finsch (I. c), during his recent visit to the 
islands, observed the Stilt on Maui, and now we have it, thanks to the liberality of 
Mr. Knudsen, from Kauai. This gentleman states that the name by which it is known 
to the natives is ' Aeo.' 



'•'•Measurements of Himantopus mexicanus. 

















a 




J3 


TJ. S. Nat. 




Sex 
and 
age. 








£' 


s 




£ 


Mus., No. 


Collector. 


Locality. 


Date. 




■3 


% 




ii 












60 


*v 


o 


3 
















& 




* T! 












£ 


H 


W 


H 


a 


84669.... 


Maynard. 


d" ad. 


Mori da. 




222 


68 


66 




30332 .... 


Marsh. 


6 ad. 


Jamaica. 


Apr.— 1863. 


200 


64 


66 


114 


45 


59754.... 


Sumichr. 


d 1 ad. 


Tehuantepec, Mexico. 


Aug. 4, 1869. 


227 


69 


68 


114 


46 


17274.... 


Xantus. 


cJ ad. 


Sierra de Santiago, 
Lower California. 


Jan. — 1860. 


228 


74 


66 


112 




79839.... 


Hcnshaw. 


d 1 ad. 


Colorado. 


June 21, — . 


234 


70 


71 


113 


46 


17272.... 


Xantus. 


? ad. 


Sierra de Santiago, 
Lower California. 


Jan. — , 1860. 


220 


74 


63 


102 


42 


80998.. . 


Ober. 


$ ad. 


St. Thomas, West 
Indies. 




214 


70 


66 


107 


43 


1154.... 


Baird. 


$ ad. 


Cape May, X. J. 


July 21, 1813. 


215 


68 


65 


107 


43" 



The same author, in a second paper, refers to this bird as follows :— 
"Two specimens from Niihau confirm the validity of this species. The peculiar 
coloration of the tail alluded to in the original description is also found in these, though 
less pronounced in No. 113463. The additional specimens, however, present another 
very strongly marked character which I did not mention in describing the type speci- 
men, because most of the feathers in question were wanting, viz., that the longest upper 
tail-coverts have the inner webs entirely black, and that the down surrounding the 
uropygial gland is blackish. In some of the specimens of //. mexicanus the upper 






tail-coverts are more or less suffused with light grey, but I have found nothing like the 
broad median black stripe covering the base of the tail in II. knudseni. 

"The type specimen, having a greenish black back, is undoubtedly a male, while the 
two Niihau birds appear to be females, having the back brownish. 

"The appended table of dimensions corroborates the deduction previously made as to 
the relative proportions of the two species. Their wings and toes are of the same 
length, but H. knudseni has longer bill, tarsus, and tail. 

" Measurements. 



IT. S. Nat. 
Mub., No. 


Collector. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


1 




I 
1 


H 


1| 


110024 .. 

113463 .. 

113464 .. 


Knudsen *. 
do. 
do. 


(cJ) ad. 

(S)ad. 
($)ad. 


Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 
Niihau, Hawaiian Islands, 
do. 




232 
227 
221 


87 
81 

80 


75 
80 
74 


121 
117 
113 


47 
46 
45" 



: Type. 



Dr. Stejneger, to whom I sent all my specimens for inspection, has recently written 
to me as follows : — " I have carefully compared them with the type, with which they 
agree in all essential points. The coloration seems to be most reliable, especially the 
relative amount of black and white on head and neck, clearly shown in the figure 
accompanying my first paper. The dimensions of bill and feet give less definite results, 
as might be expected in birds of this kind, since the individual variation in these exag- 
gerated parts is so enormous ; but you will find that the length of the tail (middle tail- 
feathers to base between them) is constantly larger in the Hawaiian birds. Although 
most of the specimens of the latter are females, the measurements of the tail-feathers 
average considerably over 80 mm., while in the American birds the average of about 
an equal number of <? and ? is about 66 mm., with a maximum in the <s not 
reaching the minimum of the ? of H. knudseni. There is therefore not the slightest 
doubt in my mind as to the specific distinctness of the latter." 

Judge Dole says : — " Legs very long, and bright pink in colour. Common in ponds 
and swamps all over the group. Generally wades, but is able to swim. Is not very 
shy, and often troubles sportsmen by keeping just out of gunshot, and warning other 
birds away by its peculiar cry of defiance. It carries its legs straight out behind when 
it flies." 

I obtained specimens near Koko Head, some few miles from Honolulu, also near 
Kaunakakai on Molokai ; at the latter place in June I found young in the down, of 



|S* 



whose presence I was made aware by the noisy cries and behaviour of the parent birds, 
who swept to and fro quite near me in their anxiety. I heard that it was fairly 
abundant at some lagoons near Kekaha on Kauai, and as Dr. Finsch observed it on 
Maui 1 , it is doubtless distributed throughout the entire group, as might have been 
expected. 

" Diagnosis. — Similar to Himantopus mexicanus (Mull.), from North America, but 
with the black of the head extending further down on the forehead and occupying the 
proximal half of the lores ; black on neck extending to the sides and the front of the 
neck, except the middle line, mottled with black, the feathers being narrowly 
tipped with black ; tail-feathers broadly and abruptly tipped with greenish black, 
nearly the entire outer web of the outer pair being of the same colour ; tail-feathers, 
with the outer webs, light smoky gray, and the inner ones white, except the middle 
pair, which has both webs light smoky gray ; bill, tarsus, and tail considerably longer 
than in H. mexicanus. 

"Dimensions of type specimen. — Wing 232 mm., tail-feathers 87 mm., exposed 
culmen 75 mm. ; tarsus 121 mm., middle toe with claw, 47 mm." 



1 Dr. 0. Finsch (' Ibis,' 1880, p. 79) says : — " Here [at the lagoon of "Kahalui on Maui] I also observed 
Actitis incana, a Charadrius (like 0. Maticula), a Himantopus, -which Mr. Dole designates H. candidus, but 
which seems to be identical with the American species, and a Snipe like our Gallinago scohjoacina." 






STEEPSILAS INTEEPEES. 

AKEKEKE. 



Tringa interpres, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 248 (1766). 

Strepsilas interpres, Illiger, Prodr. p. 263 (1811) ; Darwin, Voy. 'Beagle/ Birds, p. 132 (1841) ; 
Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 238 (1848) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 135 ; 
id. Journ. f. Orn. 1854, p. 170; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 44 (1865); VonPelzeln, 
Reise ' Novara/ Vogel, p. 117 (1865) ; Finsch & Hartlaub, Beitr. Orn. Centralpolyn. p. 197 
(1867) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 304 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 51 ; 
Salvin, Tr. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 502 (1876) ; Wiglesworth, Aves Polynesia, p. 63 (1891). 

Tringa oahuensis, Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 251 (1826). 

Cinclus interpres, Gr. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 48 (1859). 

Arenaria interpres, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xii. p. 380 (1889). 

[Except as regards the first two citations the above refer to this widely-ranging species only in 
relation to the Sandwich Islands and some other localities in the Pacific Ocean. The list could 
be easily extended.] 



The first occurrence of this well-known and almost cosmopolitan species in the Sandwich 
Islands is that noted by Mr. Bloxam, to whom, however, it must have been unfamiliar, 
for he described and named it, as if new, Tringa oahuensis — no doubt from having 
met with it on the island on which Honolulu stands. Yet, beyond stating that the 
natives called the birds " Korea," and that they are " gregarious," he added nothing. 
Judge Dole described an example shot at Kapaa on the island of Kauai, and says : — 
" They frequent the shores, but are often found on grass-lands." From the same island 
Mr. Knudsen sent two specimens to Dr. Stejneger with the native name of " Akekeke" ; 
but in a former paper (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 82) that name is also applied to 
the Sanderling (Calidris arenaria), which rejoices in the more poetical and yet very 
apposite name of Hunakai, signifying " Sea-foam." 

I shot three examples when in the Sandwich Islands— two on the island of Oahu, 
one on Molokai. The dates varied from April to June. 



></ 



CHAKADKIUS FULVUS. 

KOLEA. 



u Plover, nearly the same as our whistling plover/' Ellis, Narrat. Voy. Cook & Clerke, ii. p. 143 
(1782). 

"Plover . . . very like the whistling plover of Europe," King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 120 (1784). 

"Fulvous Plover/' Latham, Gen. Synops. iii. p. 211 (1785). 

" Golden Plover," Latham, Gen. Synops. iii. p. 194 (partim) (1785). 

Charadrius fulvus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 687 (1788) ; Latham, Ind. Orn. p. 747 (1790) ; 
Donndorff, Orn. Beytr. i. p. 1092 (1794) ; Tiedemann, Anat. Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 434 
(1814) ; Wagler, Syst. Av. (Charadrius, sp. 37) (1827) ; G. B. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 47 
(1859) ; id. Hand-1. iii. p. 14 (1869) ; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 304 (1869) ; 
id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 50; Streets, Contr. Nat. Hist. Hawaiian and Panning Isl. p. 16 
(1877) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadriidae, p. 99 (1887) ; Wiglesworth, Aves Polynesian, 
p. 63 (1891). 

Charadrius pluvialis {partim), Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 688 (1788) ; Latham, Ind. Orn. p. 740 (1790) ; 
Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 239 (1848) ; Von Kittlitz, Denkwiird. Reise, ii. pp. 141, 187 
(1858) ; Coinde, Bev. Zool. 1860, p. 400; Von Pelzeln, Beise 'Novara/ Vogel, p. 115 (1865). 

Charadrius xanthocheilus , Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 325 (1858) (qu. Wagler ?). 

Charadrius taitensis, Lesson, Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 321 (1828). 

Charadrius glaucopus, J. B. Forster, Descr. Anim. p. 176 (1844). 

Charadrius auratus orientalis, Temminck & Schlegel, Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 104, pi. lxii. (18 ?). 

Charadrius virginianus, Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 121 (partim). 

Pluvialis longipes, " Temm./' P. xanthocheilos, et P. fulvus, Bonaparte, Comptes Bendus, xliii. 
p. 417 (1856). 

Pluvialis fulvus, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 50 (1865). 

Charadrius dominicus fulvus, Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1880, p. 198; Nelson, Cruise 'Corwin/ 
1881, p. 84 (1883) ; Stejneger, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 29, p. 104 (1885) ; id. Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. 1887, pp. 80, 126; id. op. cit. xii. p. 380 (1889). 

[The foregoing references chiefly relate to localities in the North Pacific Ocean.] 

Since the Sandwich Islands were first discovered it has been well known to ornitho- 
logists that one of the forms of the Golden Plover frequented their shores at certain 
seasons. Ellis and King both mention having met with the bird, and most subsequent 
voyagers in that part of the Pacific have also observed it ; while of late years the exact 
species has been ascertained, and proves to be not the ordinary American C. virginicus, 
but the Asiatic form (C. fulvus), the breeding-range of which just crosses the American 
boundary-line into Alaska. Specimens sent by Mr. Knudsen from Kauai, and those 
in the United States National Museum, agree with Asiatic and Alaskan examples, as 
do mine. 

e2 



Judge Dole states that the plovers appear at the end of August and leave again early in 
May, and that the flocks "always assemble at the eastern or north-eastern shore of the 
Islands preparatory to starting." These flocks have often been encountered on the 
high seas, and considerable interest attaches to Professor Forbes's account of one such 
instance recorded by Professor Newton in a communication to ' Nature ' for 1879 (vol. xix. 
p. 580). The latter says, speaking of the Sandwich Islands : — " Prof. George Forbes 
.... informs me that when there, on the occasion of the transit of Venus, he shot 
scores of these birds, and that his friend Capt. Cator, E.N., of H.M.S. Scout, having 
sailed thence, was overtaken in mid-ocean by them, flying in a direct line for Vancouver's 
Island, on arriving at which he found they had already reached it." This would imply 
that these migrants are birds which breed in or near Alaska, and have nothing in 
common with the bands that pour down by another route from Asia to the South 
Pacific, reaching far within the confines of Australasia. 

In April, shortly before their departure, plovers are in the best condition, and 
indeed become so fat that they frequently burst on falling to the ground when shot : 
I met with them, however, in the greatest numbers in December on the plains of 
Waimea, where they may be seen in thousands, and their clear musical note may be 
heard on every side. During a tour along the sea-coast of Hawaii — from Kawaihae to 
Kiholo — made in the same month with my friend Mr. F. Spencer we had excellent 
plover-shooting, waiting for the birds as evening fell and shooting them as they came 
down to the shore to feed. I think the Golden Plover is the finest bird for the table 
of all those found in the Hawaiian Islands, and resident sportsmen there agree with 
me : in December, when the plains are covered with large grubs called by the natives 
" poko," the birds feed largely on them and fatten amain. 

In olden times the islanders were very expert in snaring them, but like other of 
their former arts the method has been forgotten, or the present generation is too 
lazy to practice it. I am indebted to Mr. F. Spencer for one of the " Kolea stones " 
used for the capture, which is a piece of smooth lava, grooved to receive a hair-noose. 
The natives used to set many hundreds of these snares, and on the authority of 
Mr. Spencer enormous numbers were caught, the women and girls being quite as 
expert as the men at the practice — a remark which also applies to the capture of the 
various forest-birds described in this work. 



-M' 





F.WFuoha.w-k. del.et litK. 



Tfes^lUmaivimp 



FULICA ALAI. 



HZ 



FULICA ALAI. 

ALAI KEOKEO. 



Fulica atra, Bloxam, Voy. 'Blonde/ p. 251 (1826) (nee Linnaeus). 

Fulica alai, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 224, pi. lxiii. fig. 2* (1848) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. 

Natnrgesch. 1852, i. pp. 119, 137 ; id. J. f. 0. 1853, Ber. vii. JahresversammL deutscli. Orn. Ges. 

pp. 75, 89; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 306, pi. xxxvi* (1858) ; id. Proc. 

Acad. Philad. 1862, p. 322; G. B. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 54 (1859) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, 

p. 361 ; id. P. Z. S. ] 878, p. 351 ; id. Eep. Voy. < Challenger/ Birds, p. 99 ; Pelzeln, Verh. z.-b. 

Gesellsch. Wien, 1873, p. 159; Streets, Contr. N. H. Haw. & Panning Isl. p. 21 (1877); 

Einsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 78 ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 80 ; id. op. cit. 1888, p. 95. 
Fulica alae, Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. xii. p. 302 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 54. 



* Figurce notabiles. 

Bloxam appears to have been the first ornithologist to notice a Coot on the Sandwich 
Islands, though he imagined it to belong to the common European species. The 
credit of distinguishing it from the other members of the genus belongs to Peale, 
who, while he was somewhat doubtful of his own correctness, named it Fulica alai, 
from the native appellation of " Alai " or " Alae," which is also applied to the 
Hawaiian Water-Hen, and is evidently used indiscriminately for birds of this description. 
The chief points of distinction relied on are the smaller size and more slender beak ; 
but Dr. Finsch, who observed both Coots and Water-Hens at Waike, Kahalui in 
Maui, and Waimanalo in Oahu, states that the pale greyish colour of the feet, without 
any greenish band on the joint of the knee, constitutes a further mark of differentiation ; 
adding that the cry is not so loud or harsh as in the European bird, nor are the eggs 
so large. 

Peale found this species not uncommon on marshy creeks and in the taro patches, 
Dr. Finsch on the lagoons. The latter author and Judge Dole agree in saying that 
the habits are similar to those of its congeners ; while the Judge further states that 
" the frontal knob " is " ivory-white, instead of pale blue, as Peale gives it." 

It was also obtained by Stimpson, of the N. Pacific Surveying and Exploring 
Expedition of the United States, at Hilo, in Hawaii, in 1856, and by H. Kraus 
during the Austrian Mission to E. Asia and America in 1870. 

I regret to say that I did not obtain examples when in the Sandwich Islands ; 
Dr. Stejneger, however, received two from Mr. Knudsen, procured in Kauai, and, was 
thus able to corroborate his statement already made in 1887, that the bird, which is 

z2 



2 

abundant on the southern islands, occurs also on the northernmost. With regard to 
it being a distinct species, Dr. Stejneger wrote to me quite recently : — " In regard to 
Fulica alai I would say that the difference between it and the American species is 
very much greater than between the Gallinules. I consider it an offspring of the 
American, of course, but now quite specifically distinct." 

Peale describes the bird as follows : — 

" Closely allied to Fulica americana, but smaller, and having a more slender bill; 
head and neck black; body dark cinereous, tinged with brown on the back: wings brown, 
margined with white ; second primary longest, third nearly equal to the second, first 
and sixth equal ; shafts brown : tail very short, brown, the lower coverts white : bill 
reddish white ; the frontal knob pale blue : legs bluish green. 

"Total length, l^y^ inches ; wing, from the carpal joint, 7-^- 6 inches; bill to the 
frontal knob 1^- inch, including the knob, 2-j^ inches; to the corner of the mouth, 
1 x -y inch ; tarsi, 2 inches ; middle toe, including the nail, 3- x - - inches, nail, - x % inch ; 
hind toe, ly^ inch ; nail, - 2 \ inch." 








Jb 



F.WFrotaw-k del.efclith. 



West,Newma3i xmp. 



GALL INULA SANLVICENS1S. 






GALLINULA SANDVICENSIS. 

ALAE or ALAI. 



" Common Water or darker [qu. daker?] hen/' King, Voy. Paeif. Ocean, iii. p. 120 (1784). 

Fulica chloropus, Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde/ p. 250 (1826) (nee Linn.). 

Gallinula chloropus, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 220 (1848) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgescli. 

1852, i. pp. 118, 137 ; Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. xii. p. 302 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 

1879, p. 53. 

Gallinula ?, G. B. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 53 (1859). 

Gallinula galeata, G. R. Gray, Hand-1. B. iii. p. 66 (partim) (1871). 

Gallinula sandvicensis, Streets, Ibis, 1877, p. 25 (fig. of forehead) ■ id. Contr. N. H. Haw. & Fanning 

Isl. p. 19 (1877) ■ Fins'ch, Ibis, 1880, p. 78. 
"Gallinula galeata sandvicensis," Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 78; id. op. cit. xii. 

p. 380 (1889). 

Although King, Bloxam, and Peale all met with this Water-Hen, they did not 
distinguish it from the American form of G. chlorojms, since called G. galeata; but 
in 1877 Dr. Streets endeavoured to show, by means of a full description and figure- of 
the forehead in 'The Ibis,' that it should be separated as G. sandvicensis. The points 
of distinction, however, on which he relied are by no means constant, and, if it were 
not for the colour of the front of the tarsi, the bird could hardly claim even sub- 
specific rank. This colouring is said by Peale to be " pale crimson blush ; " by 
Dr. Streets to be " decided crimson blush ; " and though Dr. Stejneger was at first in- 
clined to doubt whether such was invariably the case, Judge Dole has informed me that in 
the freshly-killed bird the legs are " salmon-colour ; " while a specimen in my collection 
shows unmistakable signs of red coloration on the same parts. In 1890 Dr. Stejneger 
received further examples with decidedly red tarsi. Whether, however, the bird is to 
be considered a species or subspecies, I have thought it best to figure it under the 
above title as an island form of considerable interest, leaving it to those who prefer 
doing so to denominate it G. galeata sandvicensis. The habits do not seem to differ 
from those of the American or the European Water-Hen. 

Dr. Stejneger's full account is here reproduced ; while I may add that there is an 
unfinished sketch by W. Ellis among his drawings preserved in the British Museum, 
evidently meant to represent this species. The former says (P. U.S. Nat. Mus. 188? 
p. 78):- 

" Mr. Knudsen sends two specimens of this representative form of the American 
G. galeata, Licht., which, compared with Streets' type and typical specimens of 



G. galeata, show that the differences between the alleged two species are much 
smaller than supposed by the original describer of G. sandvicensis. 

"Dr. Streets (11. cc.) sums up the distinctive characters as follows : — ' [1] The greater 
extent of the frontal plate, [2] the shorter wing, [3] the absence of white on the 
abdomen and [4] on the under surface of the wing, as well as its reduction to a mere 
trace on the margin of the latter, [5] the more robust and different form of the 
tarsus, being broader and more rounded in front, [6] as well as the great difference in 
the colour of the tarsus, are characters which separate it immediately from G. galeata, 
and render its identification easy.' 

" (1) There are numerous American specimens in the collection before me which have 
just as large frontal shields as the Hawaiian birds, and some have it even larger. 

" (2) It will be seen from the table of measurements given below that there is no 
difference whatsoever in regard to dimensions or proportions, No. 84683, from Florida, 
being, in fact, nearly identical with the type of G. sandvicensis in these respects. I 
should remark that the American specimens were picked up at random for measuring, 
except the last one, a young male, which was selected as being the largest of the 
whole series before me, and the only one with the wing longer than the second 
Hawaiian specimen. 

" (3) The absence or presence of white on the abdomen is simply due to season, 
the type of G. sandvicensis being without white markings, while both the birds 
collected by Mr. Knudsen have them. Both styles are well matched by American 
birds. 

" (4) Also in regard to the scarcity of white on the lining of the wing the Hawaiian 
specimens are completely matched. 

"(5) The tarsus is of the same length in both forms, as shown by the table below. 
As to robustness and different form, I can only state that I am unable to discover any 
tangible difference. 

" (6) There remains only the difference in the colour of the tarsus, which is said to 
be, in the Hawaiian bird, of ' a decided crimson blush on the front ; ' while in the 
American form the tarsus is uniformly ' yellowish green.' I am, however, somewhat 
doubtful as to the stability and value of this character; for in No. 110026 there is 
every indication of the tarsus having been green like the toes, and not red like the 
lower end of the tibia. 

" A very careful comparison with numerous American specimens fails to reveal any 
other differences, except, possibly, a somewhat deeper shade of plumbeous on the 
lower parts. 

" It seems, therefore, that there are no characters upon which to base a specific sepa- 
ration ; and were it not that the difference in regard to the color of the tarsus may 
hold good in the majority of specimens, I should be disinclined to regard the Hawaiian 
bird as even subspecifically distinct. 

" The Gallinule is probably a comparatively recent immigrant to the islands from the 
American continent, as shown by the very small amount of differentiation, for the 



3 

close resemblance to the original stock can hardly be accounted for by any other 
supposition. 

" Bloxham, in 1826, mentions ' Fulica chloropus ' as a Hawaiian bird ; but he appa- 
rently obtained no specimen. Peale, during the United States Exploring Expedition, 
obtained a specimen from Oahu, but lost it, and Streets' specimen was from the 
same island. Dr. Finsch (I. c), during the summer of 1879, observed the Gallinule in 
the lagoons near Waike and Kahalui, Maui, and near Waimanalo (Oahu). Knudsen's 
specimens show that it also occurs on. Kauai. This completes, so far as I know, the 
published record of this bird on the islands. 

" Mr. Knudsen writes that this species is called by the natives ' Alai ula,' Eed Alai, 
as distinguished from ' Alai Jceokeo,' the coot with the white frontal shield [Fulica 
alai). He says that the latter also occurs in Kauai. 



Comparative Table of Measurements, 
a. Gallintjla sandvicensis. 



TJ. S.Nat. 
Mus., No. 


Collector. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


1 

mm. 

174 

178 
168 


1 

mm. 

68 

65 
63 


to 

\% 2 

ii 

3 P 
O 

mm. 

46 

44 

45 


| 

si 
ft 

mm. 

26 

29 

27 


H 


'S 

II 

mm. 

72 
70 

75 


110025 .. 

110026 .. 
67361* .. 


Knudsen. 

Ditto. 
Streets. 


ad. 
ad. 
ad. 


Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Ditto. 
Honolulu, Oahu. 




56 
59 
55 


* Type. 

b. Gallintjla galeata. 


80912 .... 

84683 .... 
60317 .... 

84684 .... 


Ober. 
Maynard. 
Latimer. 
Nelson. 


d ad. 

2 ad. 

ad. 

d jun. 


Montserrat, W. I. 

Florida. 

Porto Eico, W. I. 

Illinois. 


Jan. 3, 1872. 
Aug. 25, 1874. 


169 
174 
165 

195 


63 

70 
63 

83 


48 
43 
44 
40 


27 
26 
27 
28 


58 
£5 
53 
56 


78 
79 
71 
81" 



I regret to say that I obtained but a single specimen, shot near Kiholo, on the 
Island of Hawaii ; while I failed to note the colour of the tarsus, upon which so much 
stress is laid in the foregoing account. The Alae is common in the swampy taro 
patches throughout Hawaii, Oahu, Maui, and Kauai, on all of which islands I 
personally observed it, though I neglected to secure more examples. Mr. Dole, in his 
* List,' briefly refers to the derivation of its native name a-lae — burnt forehead— 
from a tradition of the Hawaiians of its being the discoverer of fire. This legend is— 






so quaint that I quote a translation of it (I believe from the able pen of the Hon. 
F. D. Alexander, F.R.G.S.) which appeared some few years back in the ' Hawaiian 
Almanack ' : — 

" Origin of Fire. — Maui and Hina dwelt together, and to them were born four sons, 
whose names were Maui-mua, Maui-hope, Maui-kiikii, and Maui-o-kalana. These four 
were fishermen. One morning, just as the edge of the dawn lifted itself up, Maui-mua 
roused his brethren to go fishing. So they launched their canoe from the beach at 
Kaupo, on the Island of Maui, where they were dwelling, and proceeded to the fishing- 
ground. Having arrived there, they were beginning to fish, when Maui-o-kalana saw 
the light of a fire on the shore they had left, and said to his elder brethren : ' Behold, 
there is a fire burning ; whose can this fire be ' % And they answered, ' Whose 
indeed ! Let us return to the shore that we may get our food cooked ; but first let us 
get some fish.' So, after they had obtained some fish, they turned toward the shore, 
and when the canoes touched the beach Maui-mua leaped ashore and ran toward the 
spot where the fire was burning. Now, the curly-tailed Alae (mud-hen) were the 
keepers of the fire, and when they saw him coming, they scratched the fire out and 
flew away. Maui-mua was defeated, and returned to the house to his brethren. Then 
said they to him, ' How about the fire ' 1 ' How, indeed,' he answered ; ' when I got 
there, behold there was no fire, it was out. I supposed some man had the fire, and 
behold it was not so ; the Alae are the proprietors of the fire, and our bananas are all 
stolen.' 

" When they heard this they were filled with wrath, and decided not to go fishing 
again, but to wait for the next appearance of the fire. But after many days had 
passed without their seeing the fire, they went fishing again, and behold, there was the 
fire ! And so they were continually tantalized. Only when they were out fishing 
would the fire appear, and when they returned they could not find it. 

" This was the way of it : The curly-tailed Alae knew that Maui and Hina had only 
these four sons, and if any of them staid on shore to watch the fire while the others 
were out in the canoes, the Alae knew it by counting those in the canoes, and would 
not light the fire. Only when they could count the four men in the canoes would 
they light the fire. So Maui-mua thought it over, and said to his brethren, ' To-morrow 
morning do you go fishing, and I will stay ashore. But do you take the tall calabash 
and dress it in kapa, and put it in my place in the canoe, and then go out to fish.' 

" They did so, and when they went out to fish the next morning, the Alae counted 
and saw the four figures in the canoe, and then they lit the fire and put the bananas 
on to roast. Before they were fully cooked, one of the Alae cried out, ' Our dish is 
cooked! Behold, Hina has a smart son.' And with that Maui-mua, who had stolen 
close to them unperceived, leaped forward, seized the curly-tailed Alae, and exclaimed, 
' Now I will kill you, you scamp of an Alae ! Behold it is you who are keeping the 
fire from us. I'll be your death for this ! ' Then answered the Alae, ' If you kill me 
the secret dies with me, you won't get the fire.' Then Maui-mua began to wring its 
neck. But the Alae again spoke and said, ' Let me live and you shall have the fire.' 



So Maui-mua said, ' Tell me, where is the fire ' \ The Alae replied, ' It is in the leaf- 
stalk of the ape plant.' So, by the direction of the Alae, Maui-mua began to rub the 
leaf-stalk of the ape with a piece of stick, but the fire would not come. Again ho 
asked, ' Where is the fire ' % And the Alae said, ' In the leaf-stalk of the halo' And 
he tried that also without success. And that is the reason why there is a long hollow 
on the leaf-stalk of the ape and Jcalo to this day. Again he asked, ' Where is the fire 
that you are hiding from me"? The Alae answered, ' In a green stick.' And he 
rubbed a green stick, but got no fire. So it went on, until finally the Alae told him 
he would find it in a dry stick. And so indeed he did. But Maui-mua, in revenue 
for the conduct of the Alae, after he had got the fire from the dry stick, said ' Now 
there is one more thing to try : ' and he rubbed the top of the Alae's head till it was 
red with blood, and the red spot remains there to this day." 




Frontal shield of Oallinula sandvicensis. ('Ibis,' 1877, p. 25.) 




jitgr mm ^^,t'- 



i f ' % 



F W; BVohs-wt del.etlith 



West,lTev.-jB.xn imp. 



PENNULA ECAUDATA. 






PENNULA ECAUDATA. 

MOHO. 



Rallus ecaudatus, James King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119 (1784) ; S. B. Wilson, hujus operis, 

pt. i. art. Acrulocercus nobilis, p. 2, note (December, 1890). 
"Dusky Rail," Latham, Synops. iii. p. 237 (1785). 
Rallus obscurus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 718 (1788) ■ Latham, Ind. Orn. p. 759 (1790) ; 

Donndorff, Orn. Beitr. i. p. 1151 (1794) ; A. Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 5. 
Rallus obscurus et R. acaudatus, Tiedemann, Anat. und Naturgesch. Vog. ii. p. 434 (1814). 
Corethrura obscura, G. B,. Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 5 (1846). 
Porzana obscura, Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, pt. i. p. 137 ; id. Journ. fur Orn. 1854, 

p. 170. 
Ortygometra obscura, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 53 (1859). 
Ortygometra^ sandwichensis (partim), id. torn. cit. p. 52 (1859). 
" Wingless bird . . . which the natives call f Moho/ " Pease (fide J. E. Gray), Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1862, p. 145 (cf. Sclater, Ibis, 1880, p. 241). 
Ortygometra obscura, Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H.xii. p. 302 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, 

p. 53. 
Pennula millsi (errore typogr. " millei "), Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 54 ; (reprint) Ibis, 1880, 

p. 241 ; A. Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 5. 
Pennula ecaudata, Hartlaub, Abhandl. naturwissensch. Vereins Bremen, xii. p. 396 (1892). 
Pennula sandwichensis, Sharpe, Bull. Br. Orn. Club, no. iv. p. xx (21 Dec. 1892) (nee Rallus sand- 

vichensis, Gmel.j cf. Hartlaub, op. cit. no. v. p. xxiv ; Sharpe, op. cit. no. viii. p. xlii). 

I think there can be no doubt that the species of which a figure is here for the first 
time published is that mentioned by Captain James King 1 (loc. cit.) among the birds 
met with on Cook's expedition, to the command of which he ultimately succeeded, as 
a "a rail, with very short wings and no tail, which on that account we named rallus 
ecaudatus" It seems to be just as certain that this species is also the " Dusky Rail " 
of Latham (ut supra), described by him from a specimen in the Leverian Museum, the 
fate of which I have been unable to trace. On this last was founded, as shown by the 
synonymy above given, the Ballus obscurus of Gmelin, while the B. ecaudatus of King 
was wrongly referred by Mr. G. E. Gray to the " Sandwich Rail " of Latham (Synops. 
iii. p. 236), a wholly different bird. Since the disappearance of Latham's type of the 
former, it is probable that no example of it had been seen in Europe until the specimen 
here figured was brought home by me in 1888. This was exhibited at a meeting of 

1 Of course not to he confounded with the Captain Philip Parker King, who some fifty years later surveyed 
the coasts of Australia and South America. 






the Zoological Society on the 15th January, 1889 by Professor Newton (ut supra), who 
then referred it to Latham's " Dusky Rail," which had not since been recognized, but 
soon after informed me that he believed it to be identical with the previously designated 
Rallus ecaudatus of King. I obtained the specimen, which I subsequently presented 
to the Museum of my University, through the kindness of Mr. Bishop, it being one of 
five, procured nearly thirty years before by the late Mr. Mills and preserved in his 
collection, where they were described by Judge Dole (locc. citt.) as belonging to a new 
species, which in his second paper on Hawaiian ornithology he ascribed to a new genus 
in the following terms : — 

" Pennula millei 1 . Moho. Not previously described. 6^ in. long. Bill f in. 
long, black, straight, sides compressed, curved at tip. Tail not visible. Wings rudi- 
mentary, hidden in the long, loose, hairy feathers. Plumage dark, dull brown, ashy 
under the throat ; feathers loose, hairy, long. Lower part of tibia naked. Legs long, 
set far back. Toes 3 front, 1 back. Habitat, uplands of Hawaii. Nearly extinct. 
Specimen in Mills' Coll. 

" I feel confident that this remarkable bird belongs to the Rallidoe, but am unable 
to fix its place more definitely. It is the only bird which the natives call Moho, which 
word is nearly synonymous with the New Zealand word Moa, which is their name for 
the gigantic wingless bird of that country. Regarding it as a new genus I have taken 
the liberty of naming as above, gladly thereby recognizing Mr. Mills' valuable services 
in preserving specimens of this bird, and giving others opportunities of studying it." 

Mr. Sclater (loc. tit.), in remarking on the above passages, pointed out that this was 
the bird " with rudimentary wings " mentioned in a letter from Mr. W. H. Pease, the 
well-known authority on the conchology of the Hawaiian and other Pacific-Island 
groups, an extract from which the late Dr. J. E. Gray had communicated to the 
Zoological Society in 1862 (ut supra) as follows : — "There is a wingless bird of small 
size living in the Island of Hawaii, which the natives call ' Moho,' which is now 
nearly extinct, having been killed off by the wild cats and dogs within late years ; 
I have seen but a single specimen." 

Though the bird is not " wingless," Mr. Sclater's identification is doubtless correct, 
and it is quite likely that Mr. Pease's information may have been based upon one of 
Mr. Mills's specimens. If so, it may indicate the time about which they were procured, 
and that, should the species be (as is supposed) really extinct, would be a matter of 
some interest. The inference would seem to be that at the date of Mr. Pease's letter 
(20th November, 1861) Mr. Mills possessed only one specimen, and that the other four 
which I myself saw were obtained subsequently. Two of them have since passed into 
Mr. Rothschild's collection, and the remaining two are still in that of Mr. Bishop. 
No further examples have been secured, though it is doubtful whether any extended 
search has been made. In the month of November 1887 I visited Olaa, where I 
resided some ten days at ' The Halfway House,' Mr. L. Severance (an old resident 

1 A printer's error for millsi. 






in Hilo) having told me that in that neighbourhood Mr. Mills had procured the 
birds. Mr. Severance, moreover, had kindly given me a letter to Hawelu, the landlord 
of ' The Halfway House ' — the man who actually shot the original specimens; this 
house is halfway between Hilo and the Volcano of Kilauea, and is very finely 
situated on the outskirts of the forest, commanding a splendid outlook over the 
sea, while a fine clump of tall Eucalyptus trees close at hand adds greatly to its 
picturesqueness. 

The weather was very wet at the time of my visit ; nevertheless I went out shooting 
every day, and when I visited the forest, HaAvelu and other natives, encouraged by the 
promise of a large reward, scoured the country round for the Moho, but to no purpose. 
However, owing to the fact of my having no dog, and Hawelu but a poor one, our 
chances of success were not great ; and in my opinion the bird may, nay probably does, 
still exist on the scrub-covered plains between Olaa and Kilauea. Moreover, Hawelu 
told me that the mail-carrier had seen the bird cross his path within the last three 
years ; on the same authority, the Moho outruns any dog possessed by the natives, and 
it is possible to track it by its cry — a whirring sound resembling the rising of a bevy of 
Quail, while its nest is made on the ground. 

The five specimens were all procured by Hawelu in the scrub-covered lava-flats 
about five miles south of the Volcano House, but more information than this I could 
not obtain, and my intelligent informant is now a leper on Molokai. The aspect of 
the region where the Moho was found much resembles a Scotch moor, with a short 
densely-growing Vaccinium in the place of heather ; this is intermingled with a species 
of Carex and the Ukiuki x (Dianella ensifolia), a bright silver-leaved plant bearing 
a blue berry — the whole forming the thickest of cover. The only trees in this 
region are scrubby stunted Ohias, though here and there are thickets of fern inter- 
spersed with small bushes. 

I may add that the late King Kalakaua was most anxious to procure specimens 
of the subject of the present notice, and had for some years before my visit offered 
the natives a large reward for them. Olaa used to be a noted locality in olden times 
for bird-catching, and his late Majesty, through his Chamberlain, Mr. C. P. Jaukea, 
gave me a written permission to shoot specimens of the Mamo (Drepanis pacifica) 
and O-o (Acrulocercus nohilis) there, believing that I should meet with both of them 
as well as the Moho ; he afterwards expressed great disappointment at my failing in 
my object. 

Description (taken from the specimen at Cambridge).— Upper parts rufous brown, 
somewhat lighter upon the forehead, the outer primary being marked with reddish buff 
on the outer web ; sides of the face, chin, and throat whitish ; the rest of the under- 
pays rufous or ruddy buff, becoming much browner around the thighs ; the feathers, 
near the vent, which meet beneath the place where the tail should be, with subterminal 
buff cross-bars. Beak brown ; feet now almost white. 



1 My father has flowered this (since my return) from seeds I brought home. 



9. 



E 



The wings have a very thin appearance and are short and rounded, each feather 
being also rounded at the tip and rather broad ; tail absent, its place supplied by the 
coverts ; all the feathers soft and lax. 

Dimensions. — Total length about 13 inches, wing 6, tarsus 3 J, middle toe with claw 
just under 3, culmen # 75. 



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PENNULA WILS'ONI. 






PENNULA SANDVICENSIS. 



" Sandwich Rail/' Latham, Syn. iii. p. 236 (1785). 

Rallus sandwichensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 717 (1788) ; Tiedemann, Anat. und Naturgesch. 

Vog. ii. p. 434 (1814) ; Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. ed. 2, xxii. p. 564 (1817) ; id. Tabl. 

Encyclop., Oru. p. 1069 (1823). 
Rallus sanduicensis, Latham, Ind. Orn. p. 759 (1790). 

Zapornia sandwichensis, Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn., Rasores, tab. cix. figg. 1184, 1185 (1846). 
Corethrura sandwichensis, Gr. R. Gray, Gen. B. iii. p. 595 (1846). 
Porzana sandvicensis, Hartlaub, Arch, fiir Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 137. 
Ortygometra? sandwichensis, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 52 (1859) (partim). 
Ortygornetra sandvicensis, Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. xii. p. 302 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 

1879, p. 53 {partim) \ 
Rallus sandvichensis, Hartlaub, Abhandl. naturw. Vereins zu Bremen, xii. p. 397 (1892) (partim). 
Pennula ecaudata, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mns. xxiii. p. 114 (partim, sed minime P. sandwichensis, 

ejusd. torn. cit. p. 336) (1894). 
Pennula sandwichensis, Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Philad. 1894, p. 147. 



Relying on the statement of Schlegel (Museum des Pays-Bas, JRalli, pp. 25, 26) that 
the Ley den Museum possessed a specimen of the Rallus sandwichensis of Gmelin, 
which had been procured on Cook's voyage, I went to Holland, being anxious to 
examine the alleged unique example of an extinct species, and to obtain a drawing of 
it by Mr. Frohawk, who accompanied me for that purpose. Arrived at Leyden we 
were most kindly received by Dr. Finsch ; but it immediately became evident that the 
specimen did not correspond with the "Sandwich Rail" of Latham, on which Gmelin's 
name was based, and Dr. Finsch, considering it to belong to an undescribed species, 
gave shortly after an account of it (Notes from the Leyden Museum, xx. pp. 77-80), 
and did me the honour of calling it Pennula wilsoni. 

No living example of the Sandwich Rail has apparently been met with within human 
memory, and it may be safely asserted that no specimen exists in any Museum. I 
have therefore thought it advisable to give a facsimile copy by Mr. Frohawk of the 
drawing of it (no. 70) by W. W. Ellis in the British Museum (Natural History). This 
drawing, it will be seen, is signed by the artist and dated 1779, besides having the 
words " Sandwich Isles " written on the back, apparently by him. The bird is 

1 The description of the species given by Mr. Dole is that of 0. quadristrigata, copied from Finsch and 
Hartlaub (Orn. Centralpolynesiens, p. 165). 






obviously a Pennula, and its colouring fairly corresponds with Latham's description of 
it, which is as follows : — 

" Size small. Bill dusky ash-colour ; general colour of the plumage pale ferruginous ; 
the feathers on the upper parts darkest in the middle ; tail short, hid by the upper 
coverts ; legs dusky flesh-colour. 

" Inhabits Sandwich Isles. Was also found on the island of Tanna ; but the 
plumage is darker on the upper parts ; and the bill and legs yellowish. — Sir Joseph 
Banks." 

Latham was no doubt in error when he imagined that a bird like this could also 
inhabit Tanna, which is one of the New Hebrides, and, indeed, Mr. Wiglesworth 
(Aves Polyn. p. 61) identifies the latter with Ortygometra cinerea (Vieillot). 

Where Eeichenbach saw the specimens which he professes to figure it is impossible 
to say. They do not now exist in the Dresden Museum, as we are obligingly informed 
by Professor A. B. Meyer. Indeed, the whole ornithological collection there was burnt 
in the disturbances of 1849. 



PENNULA WILSONI. 



Mr. Prohawk having executed a plate from Schlegel's wrongly-called " Crex 
sandwichensis" I here present an impression of it to my readers, together with extracts 
from Dr. Pinsch's remarks upon the species, which they will perceive has no claim as 
yet to be included in the 'Aves Hawaiienses,' nor can the Leyden specimen possibly be 
the type of Latham's species as asserted by Dr. Sharpe. 

" On the so-called ' Sandwich Bail ' in the Leyden Museum. By Dr. O. Finsch. 
" Crex sandwichensis, Schleg. (nee Rallus sandwichensis, Gml.), Mus. P.-B., Ralli, 1865, p. 25. 
" Rallus sandwichensis, Hartl. (nee Grml.), Abhandl. naturw. Vereins in Bremen, xii. (1892), p. 397 

(syn. part.) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1893, p. 443. 
" Pennula sandwichensis, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxiii. (1894), p. 336 (syn. part.). 

" Pennula wilsoni, Finsch. 

" Schlegel's type in the Leyden Museum : 

" Upper parts dark ruddy brown with blackish centres to the feathers of the back 
and wings, producing on these parts well marked blackish longitudinal stripes; head 
and neck somewhat lighter and uniform ruddy brown, like the sides of head and neck ; 
underparts uniform rusty brown, shading into vinous red, a little darker on the flanks ; 
middle of chin somewhat lighter ; anal region and lower tail-coverts dark vinous-red, 
forming a well marked darker patch ; primaries blackish, very narrowly margined with 
brown on the outer web ; broad and lax upper tail-coverts with very narrow light 
rusty-brown apical margins, showing as lighter undulations. — Bill and feet light homy- 
brown (as far as can be judged greenish in life). — Sex and Habitat unknown. 






: Measurements taken from the above type : 



Finsch. 



(French) 8-2 inch. 10 lin. 12 Jin. 4 lin. 13 lin. 1^, 

= m mill. 85 mm. 26 mm. 2/ mm. 11 mm. d0 mm. J 

150 mm. 73 mm. 20 mm. 29 mm. 34 mm. Hartlaub. 

(English) 5-3 inch. 2-8 inch. 08 lin. 1-3 inch. 1-35 inch. ] „, 

= 135 mm. 68 mm. 19 mm. 34 mm. 37 mm. } onai P e - 

"The wing is round; the primaries nearly hidden under the long and soft coverts; 
the first primary is 40 mm. long and 15 mm. shorter than the 3rd and 4th, which are 
the longest, though only a little longer than the 2nd and 5th ; the exact number of 
primaries is difficult to ascertain without injuring the specimen. For the same reason 
I am able to find only two tail-feathers (dark-coloured, soft, narrow, and 20 mm. long), 
as they are hidden under the extremely thick, long, and soft upper tail-coverts, and are 
difficult to distinguish from the latter. So this species may be called ' ecaudatus ' as 
truly as Pennula ecaudata, King, and, as seen by the structure of the wings, is no doubt 
a flightless form. The feet are feeble ; the nails short and small. 

" The type specimen in the Leyden Museum is stuifed and not too well; the stuffing, 
however, is apparently not of very old date, as may be judged from the artificial eyes 
(with red irides), which seem to be of enamelled glass, or — at any rate — of a kind 
which was unknown in the beginning of this century. The wire used for stuffing is of 
brass, as commonly used by the taxidermists of the Leyden Museum. 

"On the underside of the stand of the specimen is written, undoubtedly by the hand 
of Temminck, ' Rallus — Latham,' and perhaps also by Temminck ' Mall, obscura ' ; to 
this is added ' Crex sandwichensis, Cat. No. 1,' no doubt written by Schlegel, as possibly 
also are the words ' Sandwich. Cook.' In the ' Catalogue of the Ealli ' Schlegel says 
unhesitatingly ' observe dans les iles Sandwich ; voyage de Cook,' but this statement 
does not seem to rest on any reliable foundation, for there does not exist any notice 
when and from whom Temminck acquired the specimen ! This fact must be mentioned, 
as Dr. Hartlaub assures us that Temminck bought this Eail at the auction of Bullock's 
collection (3 June, 1819) for £1 15s., which may have been the case; but it cannot 
be proved that it was the specimen in question. 

" Latham's ' Dusky Rail ' (Rallus obscurus, GmL), said to come also from the 
Sandwich Islands, is, according to his description, a quite different and much larger 
bird ('legs two inches ' = 50 mm.; 'legs red-brown'; 'bill scarcely one inch' — our 
specimen has the bill only 7^ lines long!), and is most likely not a 'Pennula ' at all. 
Evidently Latham would have mentioned the rudimentary tail 3 , as he did not overlook 
this prominent character in the description of his ' Sandwich Rail.' The type of 

1 " The measurements of the wings and culmen given here are not exact." 

2 " The identity with Pennula ecaudata (King) seems therefore rather doubtful, as already mentioned by 
Dr. Hartlaub." 






Latham's ' Dusky Eail ' was in the Leverian Museum, but unfortunately appears to 
have been also lost. 

" Schlegel's ' Crex sandwichensis ' is only known from the specimen in the Leyden 
Museum and is no doubt one of the rarest of birds, being most certainly not the same 
as ' Eallus sandwichensis ' or ' Hallus obscurus ' of Gmelin ; it must therefore be 
renamed. I have the pleasure to name it after Mr. Scott B. Wilson l , to whom 
science is so highly indebted, and whom we have to thank for figuring this rare type 
through the skill of Mr. Frohawk. 

" Although not referable at present to the Avifauna of the Hawaiian Islands, and 
probably one of the species ' nearly or quite extinct,' perhaps we still may hope for 
the rediscovery of Pennula wilsoni in one of the neighbouring small islands as yet 
unsatisfactorily explored." 

" Leyden Museum, February 1898." 

1 "This gentleman, in company of the artist, came over from England only for describing and figuring the 
bird in question." 




'r 



■ F.W.Froka.wk del. etlith. 



BUTEO SOLITARIUS. 







F WFrohawk del.etli&L. 



West. Newman imp 



SUTEO SOLITARIUS. 



* 




F WFroWA del . et litk . 



JUTEO SOLITARIUS. 



West,Newma.n :mp. 






BUTEO SOLITAKIUS, 
10. 



"Brown Hawks or Kites," Cook, [Last] Voy. Pacif. Ocean, ii. p. 227 (1784). 

Buteo solitarius, Peale,U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 62, pi. xvi* (1848) ; Hartlaub, Arch. f. Natur- 

gesch. 1852, i. p. 131 ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 348 ; id. Ibis, 1879, p. 92 ; id. Rep. 

Voy. ' Challenger/ Birds, p. 96, pi. xxi* (1881) ; Gurney, List Diurn. B. Prey, p. 64 (1884). 
Pandion solitarius, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 97, pi. iv* (1858) ; Dole, Proc. 

Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 295 ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 42. 
Pandion (Polioaetus) solitarius, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 1 (1859) ; id. Hand-list, i. p. 15 

(1869). 
Onychotes gruberi, Bidgway, Proc. Acad. N. S. Philad. 1870, p. 149; id. Rep. U.S. Geol. & Geogr. 

Surv, 1876, p. 135; Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, Hist. N. Amer. B. iii. p. 254 (1874) ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 158 (1874) ; Gurney, Ibis, 1876, p. 476 ; id. op. cit. 1881, p. 396 

pi. xii.*; id. List Diurn. B. Prey, p. 71 (1884). 
Polioaetus solitarius, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. i. p. 452 (1874) . 
Onychotes solitarius, Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1885, p. 38. 
Buteo {Onychotes) solitarius, Gurney, Ibis, 1891, p. 21 (posthum.). 



* Figurce notabiles. 

When Captain Cook discovered the Sandwich Islands on his last voyage, " Brown Hawks 
or Kites " are said to have been observed, though apparently no specimen of them was 
then procured ; they were therefore not brought to the notice of scientific men until 
Peale returned from the U.S. Exploring Expedition in the ' Vincennes' and ' Peacock.' 
He only observed the bird on the island of Hawaii, but he gives a brief account of its 
habit of sitting " solitary on dead trees patiently watching small birds, which constitute 
its principal food." No examples were contained in the collection of the Expedition, 
most of the birds from Hawaii being lost in the wreck of the 'Peacock'; but Peale 
described and figured as Buteo solitarius a specimen of which he says it was " obtained 
near Karakakoa Bay by the Rev. Mr. Forbes, Presbyterian missionary on that station ; 
he transmitted it to Mr. J. K. Townsend, who kindly loaned it to be drawn." 
Judge Dole, however, in the ' Proceedings of the Boston Society' for 1869, states that 
this species is not confined to Hawaii, but is found also on Niihau and Molokai. 
Though Cassin, in 1858, by some misconception referred it to the genus Pandion, 
and as late as 1870 Mr. Ridgway redescribed it in one of its phases under the title of 
Onychotes gruberi, these errors were not allowed to remain long uncorrected ; while the 
late Mr. Gurney 's notes written for this work effectually settle the whole question. 



This is the only member of the Hawk tribe peculiar to the Hawaiian group, and, so 
far as I absolutely know, it is confined to the large island of Hawaii. The first example 
I obtained in the forest of Kona, at an elevation of about 5000 feet, in June 1887. 
The bird was perched motionless in a mamane tree (Sophora chrysophylla) and seemed 
to be on the watch for its prey — consisting of the brilliant- plum aged Iiwi ( Vestiaria 
coccinea) or some other small forest bird. I have found in the stomach, in two instances, 
remains of Vestiaria, so the fact that this Buzzard feeds at least occasionally on small 
birds is clearly proved. On the 23rd of June, 1888, I was so fortunate as to find in 
the same locality a nest of this species, containing a single young bird in the down; 
it was placed in a koa tree [Acacia Jcoa) about 50 feet from the ground, in a fork 
between two thick branches, and was a large structure of nearly circular form, 
being a foot and a half deep, and a foot in diameter, composed of dead koa branches 
and twigs. I subsequently obtained several more specimens in Kona, and others in 
the hills above Puuiki near Waimea. The bird does not seem to be confined to a single 
district of the island as is the case with the Crow (Corvus hawaiiensis), but it must at 
the same time be considered rare, as during a long stay on Hawaii I procured but seven 
examples. The naturalists of the ' Challenger ' Expedition in 1875 secured two near 
Hilo ; while there are two others in the Mills collection from the same neighbourhood. 
All the specimens preserved have therefore been obtained on the island of Hawaii, 
though certainly the koa forests in the district of Kula, on the island of Maui, seem 
eminently suited to this species ; but I did not make a stay of sufficient duration on 
that island to be able to say whether it is found there, though I heard reports from 
natives of a large Hawk to be found " in the mountains," which was probably this bird. 
Judge Dole, as above cited, narrates an incident which occurred to his brother, Mr. 
G. H. Dole, on the island of Kauai, relating to a Hawk which I imagine to have been 
of this species, which surmise, if correct, proves that it is to be found on Kauai. It is 
true that Judge Dole puts the story under the heading of Accipiter hawaii, which is 
Circus hudsonius, but I do not think it is likely that it was that bird. The incident was 
as follows : — " Mr. G. H. Dole while riding one day in Koloa, Island of Kauai, accom- 
panied by a Scotch terrier, noticed one of these birds and was led by his peculiar 
movements to watch him carefully. The bird appeared much disturbed by the presence 
of the dog, and after circling about him a few times flew to a pile of stones and took 
one in his claws and flew back with it to his old position over the dog and balanced 
himself in the air as if intending to drop it on to the dog's back, but after some 
apparent hesitation he gave up whatever he was intending to accomplish with the 
stone, and carrying it back, he placed it on the pile whence he had taken it." 

There are three distinct phases of this species, differing strikingly from one another 
in regard to coloration, as my series of specimens shows, and therefore I have thought 
it well to have a figure drawn of each. Three of my examples, which were acquired 
by the late Mr. Gurney, are now to be seen in the Norwich Museum, and four 
others in that of the University of Cambridge ; and Mr. Gurney, in response to a 



request of mine that he would send me some notes upon them, was kind enough to 
furnish me with the following for publication in this work 1 . 

" Notes on Buteo (Onychotes) solitarius. 

" Butfio solitarius of Peale was originally described under that name in the first 
edition of the Zoology of the United States Exploring Expedition (Birds, p. 62), 
published in 1848, from a specimen obtained near Karakakoa Bay, in the island of 
Hawaii, by the Bev. Mr. Forbes, and sent by him to Dr. J. K. Townsend, who pre- 
sented it to the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

" In the second edition of the above work, edited by the late Mr. Cassin, and 
published in 1858, this specimen was described at p. 97, and figured on pi. 4 of the 
accompanying atlas. In the letterpress of this article the specimen is stated to be 
* adult,' but the accompanying plate shows it to be in the paler stage of plumage, 
which appears to me to be indicative of immaturity. 

" Mr. Cassin inserted this specimen in his work under the title of 6 Panclioti solitarius,' 
but in 1874 it was again (and certainly more correctly) referred to the genus Buteo in 
Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's ' History of North-American Land-Birds,' vol. iii. 
p. 255; and Mr. Ridgway's views as to the Buteonine character of the species were 
quoted by me in ' The Ibis,' 1876, p. 231. The preceding page of the same volume of 
the ' North-American Birds ' contained a description and woodcut of a melanistic speci- 
men of the same species under the name of ' Onychotes gruberi,' by which it had 
previously been described by Mr. Bidgway in the ' Proceedings ' of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Sciences for December 1870, p. 149. 

" It was only at a later period that, through the acute discrimination of Mr. Bidgway, 
the identity of Onychotes gruberi with Buteo solitarius was demonstrated, the specimen 
originally described under the former name having been sent to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution from San Francisco, and having been supposed (as it is now thought, erroneously) 
to have been obtained in California. 

"The Smithsonian Institution subsequently obtained an additional specimen in the 
plumage which I now consider to be the normal adult dress, but without any reliable 
information as to the locality where it was originally obtained. Both the above 
specimens were described by Mr. Bidgway under the name of Onychotes gruberi in his 
' Studies of American Falconidse,' published in 1876, p. 135, and they were referred to 
by myself under the same title in ' The Ibis' for 1876, p. 476, and for 1881, p. 396, the 
latter notice being accompanied by coloured figures (on pi. 12) of both the specimens 
in question. 

" H.M.S. ' Challenger ' visited the island of Hawaii in August 1875, and brought 
home amongst other specimens two examples of Buteo solitarius. One of these was 
for a time accidentally mislaid, but the other, a normal adult female, was recorded in 

1 The younger Mr. Gurney finding the draught of this treatise among his father's papers, and not knowing 
the purpose for which it had been intended, forwarded it for publication to the Editor of ' The Ibis,' in which 
journal it was accordingly printed (Ibis, 1891, pp. 21 et seqq.). 



a paper on the collection of birds brought home by the ' Challenger,' contributed by- 
Mr. P. L. Sclater to the ' Proceedings ' of the Zool, Soc. for 1878, which included a de- 
scription of this specimen drawn up by myself, and subsequently reprinted in the Official 
Scientific Report of the Voyage of the ' Challenger,' Zoology, vol. ii. pt. 8, p. 96. This 
description was in both cases rendered inaccurate by an unfortunate printer's error, 
owing to which the occiput and hinder part of the neck were misprinted as beinc 
' white-coloured ' instead of ' whole-coloured ; ' this error was, however, rendered less 
important by an accurate coloured figure of the specimen, which formed plate 21 of 
the ornithological volume of the 'Challenger's' Report. The missing specimen subse- 
quently came to light, and proved not to be very different in plumage to the female 
which had been figured, though probably a somewhat younger bird. This specimen 
was described by me at p. 141 of my ' List of Diurnal Birds of Prey,' published in 1884. 
"Both the specimens brought home by the ' Challenger' are now preserved in the 
British Museum. 

" The figure of Buteo solitarius published in the Report of the ' Challenger' Expedi- 
tion struck Mr. Ridgway as so closely resembling the second example of Onychotes 
gruheri which had been acquired by the Smithsonian Institution that he was led to a 
further investigation of the subject, which resulted in his being convinced that these 
two names had in fact been assigned to one and the same species. 

" Mr. Ridgway published the conclusion at which he arrived, and the data which led 
to it, in the 'Proceedings' of the United States National Museum for 18S5, p. 36. 

" The Editors of ' The Ibis,' at p. 450 of the volume for 1885, announced and 
accepted the conclusion at which Mr. Ridgway had arrived, and as to the correctness 
of which there can, I think, be no possible doubt. 

" Mr. Ridgway, in his paper above referred to, expresses the opinion that ' the genus 
or subgenus Onychotes .... is tenable ' for the present species, and gives a diagnosis 
in support of that view ; but my own feeling is that the Hawaiian Buzzard does not 
differ sufficiently from other members of the genus Buteo to make it needful to refer it 
to a distinct subgenus. It is of very similar dimensions to Buteo pennsijlvanicus, and 
their proportions, though different, do not differ very greatly, as may be seen by the 
annexed comparative measurements (in inches and decimals) of an adult of each of 
these two species; but I ought to add that I believe the sexes of the specimens 
measured are different, B. solitarius being probably a male, and B. j^nnsylvanicus a 
female. 





Culm en 








Middle toe 


Claw of 


Hind toe 


Claw of 


ere. 


without 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus, 


without 


middle 


without 


hind 




cere. 








claw. 


toe. 


claw. 


toe. 


■30 


•95 


10-75 


6-20 


2-80 


1-70 


•80 


•70 


1-30 


25 


•75 


11-30 


6-40 


2-50 


1-35 


•65 


•70 


1-10 



B. solitarius 

B. pennsylvanieus . . 

" If I am correct in my view as to the normal immature and adult plumages of 
Buteo solitarius, the following list will enumerate the specimens now existing in 
different English and American collections so far as I am acquainted with them : — 






" Ned Ling in down. 
"One specimen collected by and in the possession of Mr. Scott B. Wilson l . 

'■'■First years plumage (normal). 

" Type specimen of Buteo solitarius in the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, figured in the second edition of the Zoology of the United 
States Exploring Expedition, Ornithology, pi. 4. 

" One obtained by Mr. Wilson, and placed in the Norwich Museum. 

" One retained in Mr. Wilson's collection l . 

" Adult or nearly adult plumage (normal). 

"■ One in the United States National Museum, Washington, figured in ' The Ibis,' 
1881, p. 396 (right-hand figure), under the name of Onychotes gruberi. 

'" Two in the British Museum, brought home by the * Challenger,' one of which is 
figured in the Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Challenger,' Birds, pi. 21. 

" One obtained by Mr. Wilson, and placed in the Norwich Museum. 

" One retained in Mr. Wilson's collection 1 . 

" Melanistic specimens. 

" Type of Onychotes gruberi in the United States National Museum, Washington, 
figured at p. 254 of vol. iii. of Baird, Brewer, and Bidgway's ' North-American Land- 
Birds,' also in ' The Ibis,' 1881, p. 396 (left-hand figure). 

" One obtained by Mr. Wilson, and placed in the Norwich Museum. 

" One retained in Mr. Wilson's collection l . 

" Summary of Specimens referred to. 

In Philadelphian Museum 1 

In Washington Museum 2 

In British Museum ... 2 

In Norwich Museum 3 

In Mr. Wilson's collection x 4 

Total 12" 

Description. — (Fig. 1.) Adult male. Above dark brownish black, the feathers all 
more or less edged with rusty brown ; wing-quills darker, with white on inner webs of 
primaries ; tail bluish black above, narrowly but very distinctly barred with dark 
brown ; beneath, throat white, rest of the under surface white variously mottled with 
brown. Legs light yellow, bill black. 

Dimensions. — (Fig. 1.) Total length 15*70 inches, wing 11, culmen 1-30, tarsus 3, 
tail 6-60. 

Ohs. This bird was shot at the nest. 

1 Now in the Museum of the University of Cambridge. 

n2 



6 

(Fig. 2.) This specimen is of nearly the same colour above as fig. 1, but has no white 
on the under surface, which is brown edged with dark rusty brown, approaching rusty 
red on tibise and abdomen. 

Total length 15 inches, wing 10-90, tarsus 3, tail 6-25. 

(Fig. 3.) This very light variety has the head buff with a few dark streaks of brown, 
while the rest of the under surface is also buff with a few faint streaks of brown on the 
sides. The tail is light brownish white, very indistinctly barred. 

Total length 15-50 inches, wing 11-20, tarsus 3, tail 6-30. 






OIKCUS HUDSONIUS. 



Falco hudsonius, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 128 (1766). 

? Stria delicatula, Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 295 • Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 358 [nee 

Gould). 
Accipiter hawaii, Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 43 ; Ibis, 1880, p. 241. 
Circus cyaneus hudsonius, auctt. American, recentiorr. 

This Harrier, possibly a mere straggler to the Sandwich Islands, is undoubtedly identical 
with that so abundant in North America, and had it not been that Judge Dole in the 
' Hawaiian Almanack ' renamed it Accipiter hawaii, no certain synonyms would exist so 
far as our group is concerned. The mistake is the more important as it was reproduced 
in 'The Ibis' for 1880. 

Of the subject of our notice I obtained a single specimen in November 1888 — on the 
morning of my final departure from the Islands — which had been shot near Honolulu, 
while Judge Dole was also kind enough to present me with a skin obtained by a friend of 
his some years since during a shooting expedition to one of the mountain ranges of Oahu. 
Though I made several excursions on that island and camped out for a considerable 
time in a particularly favourable locality, I did not meet with the bird. The natives 
have no name for it— To (Buteo solitarius) being the only species of Hawk recognized 
by them ; and such being the case, I am of opinion that it is confined, as far as 
the Sandwich Islands are concerned, to Oahu, an island which has never been famed 
for its bird-catchers, and where, therefore, it would be more likely to have been 
overlooked by the residents. Even there it may be of comparatively recent introduc- 
tion and so may not as yet have spread to the other islands of the group. 

The habits of this species, so well known in North America as the " Marsh Hawk," 
require no notice here. It is recorded as occurring all over that continent to the 
Isthmus of Panama, as well as in Cuba and in the Bahamas ; but the present is the 
first publication of the fact that its range extends to the Sandwich Islands. 







FIW.Efcahaadc del.etKtk. 



West, Newman irtxp 



BERN1CLA SANDVICENSI; 



BEENICLA SANDVICENSIS. 

NENE. 



1 " Geese ... not unlike the Chinese Geese/' Ellis, Narrat. Voy. ii. p. 143 (1782). 

Anser sandvicensis, Vigors, List of Anim. in the Gardens of the Zool. Soc. ed. 11, p. 4 (for June 

1833). 
Bernicla sandvicensis, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 65; id. op. cit. 1834, p. 43; Stanley, torn. 

cit. p. 41 ; Jardine and Selby, Ulust. Orn. ser. 2, pi. viii.* [no pagination] ; Hartlaub, 

Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 137; Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p.. 305 (1869); id. 

Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 54 ; Pelzeln, Verh. z.-b. Gesellsch. Wien, 1873, p. 159. 
Anser hawaiiensis, Eydoux & Souleyet, Voy. ' Bonite,' Zool. i. p. 104, pi. 10 * (1841). 
Anser hauaiensis, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 249, pi. lix * (1848). 
Anser hawaiensis, Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 122. 
Bernicla sandwich ensis, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 338 (1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. 

B. Trop. Isl. p. 54 (1859) . 
Branta (Leucopareia) sandwicliensis, G. R. Gray, Hand-1. B. iii. p. 76 (1871). 



* Figures notabiles. 



Vigoes, as cited above, was apparently the first author to give a specific name to the 
Sandwich Island Goose, a pair of which were presented to the Zoological Society of 
London by Lady Glengall in 1833 ; but the birds had been noticed before that time 
both by Ellis and Bloxam. The former author writes : — " Upon our first arrival at 
Karacacooah Bay, the natives brought off several Geese, which were quite tame ; they 
were not unlike the Chinese Geese ; they called them Na-na." To this account Latham 
also refers, as noted below 1 , under the account of Anser cygnoides. Bloxam merely 
mentions " wild geese and ducks of a small size " during the voyage of the ' Blonde,' 
and did not apparently obtain specimens ; but Eydoux and Souleyet, while cruising in 
the ' Bonite,' were more successful, and, thinking that they had made a new dis- 
covery, figured it and named it Anser hawaiiensis. Peale, who repeatedly observed the 
bird, also called it after the island on which he found it, in ignorance of the previous 
accounts ; but Cassin, when editing that author's work, seems to have been aware of 
the prior claims of A. sandvicensis. Herr Kraus, as stated by von Pelzeln, also noticed 
it during the Austrian Mission to Eastern Asia and America in 1870,. 

An interesting account is given by the then Lord Stanley, in the ' Proceedings ' of the 
Zoological Society of London for 1834, of the breeding of some of these birds at 

i Of. Latham, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 448 ; id. Gen. Hist. B. x. p. 238. 

X2 






Knowsley, which were received at about the same time as Lady Glengali's, four eggs 
being laid and three young birds hatched. 

The figure given by Jardine and Selby was taken from an example in Lord Derby's 
possession. 

This Goose shows extreme docility in captivity, instances of which I adduce below. 
Judge Dole states that it builds its nest in grass on the high lava-fields (5000-7000 feet), 
and lays two or three white eggs, about the size of those of the Common Goose. 

This interesting species, almost entirely confined as it is to one district of the island 
of Hawaii, is clearly doomed to extinction before many years are past. At present, 
however, it exists in fair numbers in Kona on Hawaii, where its favourite breeding- 
haunts are, strangely enough, the old lava-flows, than which nothing more unsuited 
to a goose can be imagined. I heard that it nested in the crater of Haleakala, on Maui, 
but I did not visit that place. A pair bred near Kiholo, and a native who saw the 
place assured me there was little or no nest. Dr. O. Finsch (Ibis, 1880, p. 81) says : — 
" Just as unsuccessful was our trip to the spot where Bemicla sandvicensis breeds in 
the gigantic crater of Haleakala, as, on account of the exhausted condition of our 
horses, we could not get into the crater, but were forced to be satisfied with a look into 
it — a sight never to be forgotten." It has been observed occasionally on Kauai and 
Niihau, on neither of which, however, does it breed. 

In July 1887 I forwarded a pair to England, where they were deposited in the 
Gardens of the Zoological Society, and were kept for some three years in perfect health 
in company with another of the same species. My birds did not breed, to my great 
disappointment ; but Mr. A. D. Bartlett assures me that some years ago he was 
successful in rearing a considerable number, while my friend Judge R. F. Bickerton 
was equally fortunate in Honolulu. The Nene, in June and July, is to be found at an 
elevation of some 5000 feet, showing a preference for the clinker-beds of the old 
lava-flows, and its food consists principally of fruits of plants, such as the ohelo L 

1 Peale, as quoted by Cassin, says :- — " We observed them on the volcanic mountains of the Island of Hawaii ; 
they were generally in pairs at the season of our visit in the month of November, rarely four or five were seen 
together feeding on the berries of a veiy abundant species of Vaccinium growing on the old beds of lava ; 
on these they became very fat, and were delicious eating ; grass appeared, however, to be their ordinary 
food. We never saw them near water, which is scarce in those regions, our party being obliged to carry the 
necessary supply for the journey in calabashes ; but they are said to breed near shallow ponds, some few such 
occurring between the mountains. What is most remarkable is the story related to us by natives, and which 
we have every reason to believe is a fact, that this Goose, which has the powers of flight which would enable 
it to move to as great distances as any others of the genus, is limited to the single Island of Hawaii ; rarely 
visiting any other islands of the group, although several are in sight. It bears confinement well, is hardy, and 
soon becomes domesticated. Its voice resembles that of the Snow Goose, Anser Jiyperhoveus." 

Cassin (U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 339) says that " Dr. Pickering, in his Journal, now in our 
possession, mentions having seen this Goose in the mountains, especially numerous at a height which 
he estimates as having been about seven thousand feet above the level of the sea. He states that it appeared to 
be much less suspicious than other species with which he was acquainted, and when disturbed, flies off, 
near the surface of the ground, without rising in the air, like the species of North America. Dr. Pickering 
mentions having seen this bird feeding on berries." 



(Vaccinium reticulatum), the strawberry (Fragaria chiliensis), and a black berry called 
by the natives " popolo " : possibly Sonchus asper, as given by Mr. Dole, may be also 
a food-plant of this goose. The weird cry of the Nene, according to Peale resembling 
that of the Snow Goose {A. hyperloreus), is very distinct from that of any other species 
that I know ; and in olden times the bird was kept in captivity by the natives, acting 
as a sentinel by giving loud warning of the advent of a stranger. It is easy of approach, 
and I am told that when one of a flock is wounded the remainder will not leave their 
companion, so that the collector, if heartless enough, may kill the entire number. 

As an instance of its tameness and attachment, I may mention a bird which would 
follow its mistress for a distance of fifteen miles ; and this not once, but on many 
occasions — indeed, it was in the habit of accompanying her on her rides as a dog 
would do. 

The flesh of this goose is good eating l , and from it may be made the most excellent 
soup, which I remember to have formed the most delicious item amongst many other 
delicacies — as roasted goat, golden plover on toast, quail, bananas, bread-fruit, pine- 
apples, custard apples, mangos — of my Christmas dinner at Kiholo on Hawaii. 

One point remaining to be noticed is the peculiar sweet musky scent found in the 
neck of the Nene — a fact well known to Hawaiians, but not, I believe, recorded in 
print hitherto. My birds in the Zoological Society's Gardens were caught one day for 
my friend Captain F. H. Salvin's inspection ; and that gentleman confirms the statement 
made above. 

Description. — Adult male. Head, neck, and throat black, which colour extends a little 
below the eye and for about two inches down the back of the neck ; sides of neck tawny 
buff, becoming lighter towards the lower part, the feathers blackish at their bases, 
giving the neck a peculiarly mottled appearance ; breast and belly pale greyish brown, 
feathers darker on flanks, barred with umber, and almost white at the tips ; abdomen 
and under tail-coverts pure white ; upper surface dark umber, the feathers variously 
barred with brown ; rump and tail dusky black. Irides dark hazel ; bill and feet black. 

Adult female. The black extending further down the throat and occupying a greater 
space below the eye ; feathers on flanks paler than in the adult male ; lower breast not 
so pale, but uniform in colour with the flanks. 

The young male is similar in colour to the adult female. 

Dimensions. — Total length 22-50 inches, wing from carpal joint 16 "30, culmen 1-6, 
tarsus 2-80, tail 6-75. 

1 In ' Pearls of the Pacific,' the author, Mr. J. ~W. Boddam-Whetham, agrees with me ; for he says 
(p. 100) : — " On returning to the house I found a very tempting repast ready, and amongst other luxuries 
was a strawberry-fed goose, which had been enveloped in leaves and baked in a hole in the earth." This was 
during his stay at the Yoleano House at Kilauea on Hawaii. 








F.W.Ti'roTia.wl: M.etHtk 



Wes^KewmaJT. imp. 



ANAS WYVILLIANA. 



m 



ANAS WYVILLIANA, 

KOLOA MAOLI. 



Anas superciliosa, var. a, sandwichensis, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, xliii. p. 649 (1856). 

Anas superciliosa, var., G-. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 54 (partim) (1859) . 

Anasboschas? " (Mus. Berol.) Oahu," Hartlaub, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1852, i. p. 137; Cassia, 

Proc. Acad. Philad. 1862, p. 322. 
Anas superciliosa, Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 305 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, 

p. 55 (nee Gmelin). 
Anas wyvilliana, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 350; id. Voy. ' Challenger/ Birds, p. 98 

pi. xxii* (1881) ; Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1878, p. 251 ; Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 79 ; 

Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888, p. 98. 
? Anas superciliosa et boschas, Hartlaub & Finsch, Beitr. Faun. Polynes. p. xxxix (1867). 



* Figura notabilis. 



Doubtless it will be the opinion of some ornithologists that this bird should be 
denominated Anas sandvicensis, in accordance with the subspecific name bestowed in 
1856 by Bonaparte ; but as that author seems to have considered it a mere variety of 
A. superciliosa, and gives no description, I follow Dr. Sclater in calling it A. wyvilliana, 
a name based upon two examples obtained in 1875 at Hilo, in Hawaii, during the 
voyage of the ' Challenger.' There is no longer any doubt of its specific distinctness 
from either A. superciliosa or A. boscas, though its superficial resemblance to the former 
and to the female of the latter has no doubt been the cause of its being often passed over. 
It will be seen, however, in the article on Bernicla sandvicensis, that Bloxam noticed 
"ducks" when at the Sandwich Islands ; while the specimens from " Oahu" mentioned by 
Hartlaub were no doubt obtained by Deppe, and Cassin records the fact that Stimpson 
noticed " A. boschas " during the United States North Pacific Surveying and Exploring 
Expedition in 1856. Dr. Stejneger, as above cited, considers our species very closely 
related to A. aberti, Ridgw.. of N.W. Mexico ; but it rather resembles A. obscura. 

I shot specimens in November near Waialua, on the island of Oahu, and observed 
others on the island of Hawaii near Hilo ; while Mr. W. H. Purvis told me he used 
to kill them at small ponds which occur in the forest near Kukuihaele, in the district 
of Hamakua. Dr. O. Finsch remarks ('Ibis,' 1880, p. 79):— "Of the latter (Anas 
wyvilliana, Sclater) I saw flocks in the swamps near Waimanalo (Oahu)." Dr. Stejneger 
also received four specimens, obtained by Mr. Knudsen on Kauai, of which he gives an 
exhaustive account (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888, p. 99). Judge Dole's statement that 
it inhabits the whole group is therefore probably correct. 



Il'l 



My specimens agree in measurements with those of Dr. Sclater, except that the total 
length is about 2^ inches more and the wing rather shorter. 

Diagnosis of the male (translated from that of Dr. Sclater). — Above black, the feathers 
bordered with dusky ; crown black, minutely dotted with dusky ; beneath pale dusky, 
rather redder on throat and breast, more ochraceous on belly, feathers dotted and 
blotched with black ; wings exteriorly brownish grey ; speculum broad, purple, enhanced 
by a white edge above and below, followed by black ; axillaries white ; beak black 
above, flesh-coloured below; feet orange. Total length 15"0 inches, of wing 9*3, of 
tail 3-0, of beak from gape 2'0, its breadth under the nostril 07, length of tarsus 15. 

Mr. Bidgway describes the female at length in the * Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum ' for 1878 ; but as he considers it " to differ but little in 
coloration " from the male, it is not necessary to reproduce his account here. It may 
be added that the " A. freycineti, Bp.," of Gray's ' Hand-list,' which Mr. Eidgway 
thought might possibly be A. wyvilliana, is, according to the original describer, an 
European species. 



in 



DAFIL-A ACUTA. 

KOLOA MAPU. 



Anas acuta, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 202 (1766) ; Schlegel, Cat. Mus. P.-B. Anseres, p. 38 

(1866). 
Dafila caudacuta, Stephens (Shaw), Zool. xii. pt. 1, p. 127 (1824). 
Dafila acuta, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 341 (1858) ; Sclater & Salvin, Ibis, 

1859, p. 231 ; iid. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 391 ; Baird, Brewer, & Ridgway, Water-B. N. Am. 

i. p. 511 (1884) ; Stejneger, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 29, p. 153 (1885) ; id. Proc. U.S. Nat. 

Mus. 1887, p. 136. 

[The above references are almost limited to the appearance of this well-known Holarctic 
species in the countries bordering on the North-Pacific Ocean.] 



The well-known Pintail Duck is only a winter visitor to the Sandwich Islands, in this 
respect resembling the Shoveller. The first record of its occurrence there is that by 
Dr. Stejneger, in the ' Proceedings of the United States National Museum' for 1888, a 
male having been procured for him in Kauai by Mr. Knudsen, who gave its native name 
as " Koloa mapu." I also observed several on the sea-coast near Kiholo, in Hawaii, in 
the month of December. Drs. Townsend and Pickering are stated by Cassin to have 
noticed it in Oregon ; but no specimens were brought home by the United States 
Exploring Expedition. 

According to Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, the furthest locality to the southward in 
which the bird has been observed is the Isthmus of Panama, where McLeannan found 
it. Northwards its distribution is, of course, general throughout the Arctic Eegions ; 
while it has been found in California, and commonly during winter in Guatemala, Cuba, 
and Jamaica. As regards the other side of the Pacific, Messrs. Dresser and Sharpe, in 
their ' Birds of Europe,' record it from the whole of Siberia to Japan and China. 



SPATULA CLYPEATA. 

KOLOA MOHA \ 



Anas clypeata, LinnEeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 200 (1766) ; Schlegel, Cat. Mus. P.-B. Anseres, 
p. 34 (1866) ; Dole, Proc. Post. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 305 (1869) ; id. Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 55. 

Spatula clypeata, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 564; Sclater & Salvia, Ibis, 1859, p. 231 ; iid. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1876, p. 396; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soe. N. H. ii. p. 314 (1874); Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., 
Birds, p. 251 (1818); Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 343 (1858) ; G. R. Gray, 
Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 55 (1859) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austral, ii. p. 370 (1865); Baird, Brewer, 
& Ridgway, Water-B. N. Am. p. 526 (1884) ; Stejneger, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 29, p. 159 
(1885) ; id. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 137. 

Rhynchaspis clypeata, Hartlaub, Arcli. f. Naturgescli. xviii. Heft 1, p. 136 (1852). 

[Nearly all the above references indicate the occurrence of this widely-ranging Holarctic 
species on the shores or islands of the Pacific Ocean only.] 



I observed this species in some brackish lagoons on the sea-coast near Kiawaiiki, in 
Hawaii, during December 1887, but failed to procure specimens. Peale, in his 
account of the United States Exploring Expedition, says : — " Good specimens of this 
beautiful Duck were obtained at the islands of Hawaii and Oahu ; they appear to be 
identical with the Americans, and in this respect are worthy of attention, as but few 
of the birds found on that group of islands have analogues on either of the shores of 
the Pacific Ocean opposite to them." 

Dr. Stejneger, in the ' Proceedings of the United States National Museum ' for 
1888, records a male specimen received through Mr. Knudsen from Kauai in winter 
plumage, apparently a bird of the year ; and on the authority of that gentleman gives 
the native name as " Koloa moha." He remarks that at that season it seems a com- 
paratively common bird. 

The Shoveller ranges throughout the Arctic Regions, and thence to Australia ; and 
Mr. Gould's account in his ' Handbook ' of the birds of that country may be found 
interesting. He says : — ' : When I visited New South Wales during the rainy season 
of 1839, all the depressed parts of the land were filled with water, and the lagoons 
here, there, and everywhere were tenanted by hundreds of Ducks of various species, 
and every now and then one, two, or more beautifully plumaged Shovellers were seen 
among them ; but I did not succeed in shooting one of them, and must have left the 

1 Mr. Dole gives the native name as " Moha," and proceeds to say : — " They spend the winter months at 
the Islands, and migrate in the spring to the North-west coast of America, returning late in the fall. Frequent 
fresh water." 



matter in doubt as to the particular species, if the late Mr. Coxen, of Yarrundi, had 
not had the skin of a splendid old male in his possession, which he had himself shot, 
and which, after a careful examination, I found to be identical with the Spatula 
clypeata of Britain and the European continent." 

Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, as cited above, state that the bird is common in winter 
on the Lake of Duenas, in Guatemala, occurring also in Cuba, Jamaica, and Mexico ; 
while Messrs. Dresser and Sharpe, in their ' Birds of Europe,' trace it from the north- 
west of Asia to Ceylon, China, and Japan. 



) 1 J 



PLEGADIS GUARAUNA. 



Scolopax guarauna, Linnaeus, S. N. ed. 12, i. p. 242 (1766). 

Plegadis guarauna, Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. i. p. 163 (1878) ; id. Water-B. N. Am. i. p. 97 
(1884) ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 84. 

[The list of references to this American species might, of course, be easily extended.] 

A single immature bird was sent by Mr. Knudsen from Kauai in 1872, which 
Mr. Ridgway referred somewhat doubtfully to this species of Glossy Ibis. It appears 
to be a mere straggler to the Sandwich Islands, as it does not appear to have been 
observed by anyone else. 



2o2 






ABDEA SACEA. 

ALKU. 



" Sacred Heron," Latham, Gen. Synops. iii. p. 92 ; " Blue Heron," var. B, id. torn. cit. p. 78. 

1 Ardea ccerulea, var. y, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 631 (1788). 

Ardea sacra, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 640 (1788) ; Finsch. & Hartlaub, Orn. Centralpolyn. p. 201 

(1867) j Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 303 (partim) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, 

p. 52 (partim) ; Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 79 (partim). 
Ardea (Herodias) sacra, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 48 (1859). 
Demiegretta sacra, "Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 67 (1891) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 137 

(1898). 

[This list of references could, of course, easily be extended.] 



Evidence as to the occurrence in the Sandwich Islands of this widely ranging species 
rests only on the observations of Mr. Dole and Dr. Finsch \ each of whom records the 
appearance of a white Heron, which may very likely have been an example of the 
white form of Ardea sacra, though neither of them obtained a specimen, and it is 
pretty clear that the others named by them were Night-Herons (Nycticorax) — the only 
species of the family Ardeidce there commonly met with. None of the more recent 
ornithological explorers (not even Mr. Perkins, who passed so long a time in the 
islands) observed or much less procured an example which could have belonged to 
either the blue or the white form of Ardea sacra, and we know from specimens which 
that gentleman obtained that the young of Nycticorax griseus are not white, but have 
the same plumage there as elsewhere. 

That Ardea sacra should occasionally stray to the Sandwich group is quite probable, 
since it appears on almost every cluster of islands in the Pacific Ocean ; but it is 
certain that Mr. Dole's information as to its being " common all over the group," and 
laying " two eggs, which are mottled," must be incorrect, while the fine specimen shot 
near Honolulu, and described by him from memory, was doubtless an adult JSycticorax. 
Dr. Finsch's evidence is simply : " The white form I observed once at Kahalui." 

Description. — Adult male and female. " Saturate cinereo-caerulescens, abdomine 
subfuscescente, linea a mento per mediam gulam decurrente lata nivea ; cristas, tergi et 

1 It is true that Mr. G. E. Gray (he. cit.) assigned the Sandwich Islands as a locality for this species, and 
even gave " Otoo " (probahly an old way of writing Auku) as the native name it there bore, but on what 
authority he made either statement is unknown. 



pectoris plumis elongatis, apice ligulatis ; rostro supra fusco, infra et apice flavescente ; 
pedibu flavidis ; iride flavo. 

" Jun. Tota alba." (Finnrh & Hartlaub.) 

Dimensions.—" Long. c. 171'; rostr. 3" 2'"; al. lO^" ; caud. 4£"; tars. 2" 5'"" 
(Finsch & Hartlaub). 



NYCTICORAX GEISEUS. 

AUKU KOHILI. 



Ardea nycticorax, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 235 (1766) ; A. grisea, id. torn. cit. p. 239. 

Ardea neevia, Boddaert, Tab!. PI. Enl. p. 56. 

Ardea exilis, Peale, U.S. Exp]. Exped. p. 216 (1848) ; Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 303; 

id. Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 53 (nee Gmelin). 
Botaurus exilis, Cassia, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 300 (1858) (ex Peale, nee Gmelin). 
Ardea sacra, Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 303 (partim) ; id. Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 52 

(partim) ; Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 79 (partim) (nee Gmel.). 
Nycticorax nycticorax ncevius, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mns. 1887, p. 84 ; 1888, p. 102. 
Nycticorax griseus, Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 69 (1891). 
Nycticorax nycticorax, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 146 (1898). 

[Except with regard to a few cases, the above citations refer to the Sandwich Islands, 
or at least to the Pacific Ocean.] 



De. Stejnegee was the first to determine the Night-Heron as a bird of these islands, 
though it had doubtless been seen there previously by Mr. Dole and Dr. Finsch — the 
former of whom described what must have been an adult of this species under the 
name of Ardea sacra, while he referred other specimens (as the above synonymy will 
shew) to A. exilis — a species which there is no reason to believe occurs in the group 1 . 
Dr. Stejneger was at first troubled with doubts as to whether the specimens sent to him 
by Mr. Knudsen from Kauai belonged to the New or Old World form of Nycticorax, 
and finally came to the conclusion that they agreed in every respect with American 
examples. Fortunately these doubts need not trouble us, since it is now generally 
allowed that no specific distinction between the two alleged forms can be maintained. 

I observed many individuals in the neighbourhood of Waikiki, in Oahu, during my 
visit to the islands in 1887, while I obtained some immature specimens on Kauai ; 
but I never met with an instance of this species breeding. Mr. Perkins, however, says 
that the bird is very abundant throughout the islands, at fish-ponds near the sea, on 
mud-fiats, and on mountain streams. It breeds together in numbers at low elevations 
on the mountains, generally on kukui trees. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Crown, nape, and back glossy greenish black, 

1 Mr. GL E. Gray, however (Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 49), has under the name of A. exilis " Society Islands 
(Oahu) " ! 

20 



with two long, narrow, white nuchal feathers ; wings, lower scapulars, tail, and. back of 
the neck puce-grey, as are the sides of the body, rump, and upper tail-coverts. Base 
of the forehead, sides of the head, and entire lower parts white ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries very pale grey ; bill black, lighter below ; feet yellowish. 

Juv. Upper parts with buff spots on the wing-coverts and longer rufous lines else- 
where ; tips of wing- and tail-feathers whitish. Lower parts streaked with dark brown, 
light brown, and creamy white ; throat whiter. 

Dimensions. — " Total length 18 inches, culmen 3, wing 10"5, tail 4, tarsus 2'8 " 
(Sharpe). 






FEEGATA AQUILA. 

IWA. 



Pelecanus aquilus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, i. p. 216 (1766). 

Tachypetes aquila, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xii. p. 143 (1817). 

Tachypetes aquilus, Kittlitz, Kupfertafeln zur Naturgesch. der Vogel, p. 15, pi. xx. (1833) ; id. 

Mus. Senckenb. i. p. 121 (1834 ?) ; Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 358 (1858) ; Dole, Proc. 

Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 308. 
Attagen aquilus, G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. p. 61 (1859). 
Tachypetes palmerstoni, Dole, Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 58. 
Fregata aquila, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888, p. 102; Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 71 

(1891); Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 21 (1893) ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 443 (1898). 

[The above citations refer chiefly to the Sandwich Islands and some other localities in the 
Pacific Ocean. This list could easily be extended.] 



As there was at one time some misunderstanding with regard to the species of Frigate- 
Bird found in the Sandwich Islands, it may be of interest to our readers to peruse the 
remarks of Dr. Stejneger, which are quoted below. Palmer met with large colonies 
nesting on bushes both in Laysan and the neighbouring islands from May to July; 
Mr. Perkins observed it on Oahu ; and Mr. Dole quotes from Kittlitz the statement 
that it " breeds on Nihoa," while the last-named also found it in the Laysan group. 

Dr. Stejneger says : — 

" In his first edition of his 'Synopsis' (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, xii.) Mr. Dole 
enumerated the Frigate-Bird under the above specific name [Tachypetes aquilus], but 
in 1879 ('Hawaiian Almanac') he corrected the identification as erroneous, and substi- 
tuted for it the name Tachypetes palmerstoni, without stating his reasons for so doing. 
It seems, however, as if he made the change under the impression that ' Tachypetes 
aguila, a similar but much larger bird of the Atlantic Ocean,' is confined to the latter, 
and that no other species than the small one (the correct name of which is Fregata 
minor) occurs in the ' tropical belt of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.' This is not quite 
exact, for while F. minor is restricted to the Pacific, and particularly its southern part, 
F. aquila is found^ in both oceans, especially north of the Equator, and the specimen 
from Kauai, sent by Mr. Knudsen, belongs to the large form. As Dr. Streets has 
found F. minor on the Fanning Islands (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 7, p. 25), it is quite 
likely that it may also occur, at least occasionally, in the Hawaiian Archipelago. 
Knudsen's specimen is a female, with the head, neck, lower breast, and belly 






blackish ; upper fore neck grayish ; chest whitish, strongly suffused in the middle 
with ochraceous buff; smaller upper wing-coverts grayish brown with darker centers 
and paler margins. 

" The measurements of this specimen are as follows : — 



U.S. Nat. 
Mus. No. 


Collector. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail- 
feathers. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 

toe with 

claw. 


113446 


Knudsen. 


5 


Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 




595 


345 


120 


25 


73" 



Description. — Adult male. Blackish brown with reflexions of green and purple. Bill 
bluish white in the middle ; feet more or less red ; orbits, lores, and pouch scarlet. 

Adult female. Browner, with white underparts and pinkish feet. Little or no 
pouch. 



Dimensions. — "Total length about 40 inches, culmen from feathers on forehead 
3-6-5-2, wing 20-5-26 7, tail 14-19, tarsus -7-1" (Ogilvie Grant). 



loS 



PHAETHON KUBBICAUDA. 



Phaeton rubricauda, Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl. p. 57 (1783); Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 395 
(1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Id. p. 60 (1859) ; Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, 
p. 308 j id. Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 58 ; Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. p. 73 (1891) ; Rothschild, 
Avif. Laysan, p. 33 (1893) ; Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 451 (1898). 

Phaeton phosni cur us, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. p. 583 (1788). 

Phaeton cethereus, Bloxam, Yoy. 'Blonde/ p. 251 (1826) (nee Linn.). 

Phaethon phosnicurus, Brandt, Mem. Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. ser. 6, p. 252, tab. i. (1839). 

[The above citations refer chiefly to the Sandwich Islands and some localities in the 
Pacific Ocean. The list could easily be extended.] 



Owing to Bloxam's error, noticed by Mr. Rothschild, of recording this Tropic-Bird 
under the name of P. cethereus, no writer previous to Mr. Dole appears to have 
mentioned it as an inhabitant of the Sandwich Islands. The first-named remarked, 
however, upon the great value that the red tail-feathers possessed in the eyes of the 
natives, and thereby made it clear that P. rubricauda was the species which he intended. 
It breeds in several places in the group, especially on Kauai and Niihau, and chooses 
holes in almost inaccessible cliffs wherein to deposit its eggs, though in Laysan they 
are laid in hollows scraped in the soil under bushes. When in the Sandwich Islands 
I shot several specimens from the high rock-walls surrounding the caldera of Kilauea, 
which are in most parts particularly steep. Mr. Perkins considers this species much 
more uncommon in the group than P. cethereus. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Satiny white, often tinged with pink ; the 
upper parts marked with blackish bars or patches, and shewing black marks near 
the eyes. Bill red; feet yellowish, with black toes. The long median tail-feathers 
dull red, with black shafts and very narrow webs. 

Dimensions. — " Total length about 36 inches, culmen from feathers on forehead 
2-55-2-65, wing 12-3-13-4, tail 17-18-5, tarsus 1*2 " (Ogilvie Grant). 



2n 






PHAETHON J1THEBEUS. 



Phaeton athereus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 219 (1766). 

? Phaeton (an candidus?), Kittlitz, Mus. Senckenb. i. p. 123 (1834?). 

Phaethon cethereus, Brandt, Mem. Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. ser. 6, v. p. 257, tab. ii. (1839) ; Cassin, 

U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 394 (1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Is. p. 60 (1859) ; Dole, Proc. 

Boston Soc. N. H. 1869, p. 308 ; id. Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 58 • Wiglesworth, Aves Polyn. 

p. 73 (1891) j Grant, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvi. p. 457 



[The above citations refer chiefly to the Sandwich Islands and some other localities 
in the Pacific Ocean. The list could easily be extended.] 



Little need be said of this well-known inhabitant of the tropics, which appears to be 
common on all the Sandwich Islands. Mr. Dole records it in both of his lists, though 
he furnishes no information as to where it was noticed, while Cassin does not give 
it as occurring in the group in his account of the U.S. Exploring Expedition ; but 
Mr. Rothschild has kindly sent a note in which he says that it was obtained by 
Palmer, and Mr. Perkins states that he met with it on the cliffs round Honolulu and 
elsewhere, breeding not uncommonly on the rocky ledges. It may also be found on 
one or more of the outlying islands to the north-west. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Similar to P. rubricauda, but with white 
median tail-feathers. 

Dimensions. — " Total length about 40 inches, culmen from feathers on forehead 
2-4-2-6, wing 11-5-13, tail about 26, tarsus 1-15-1-2 " {Ogilvie Grant). 



2n2 







FWFYohawk deLetlith. 



OCEAJNTODTtOMA CRYPTOLEUCUEA. 



West, Newman imp 



io<* 



OCEANODROMA CRYPT OLE (J CUR A. 



? Thalassidroma , Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 308 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian. Alman. 1879, 

p. 55. 
Cymochorea cryptoleucura, Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. iv. p. 337 (1882) ; Baird, Brewer, 

& Bidgway, Water-B. N. Am. p. 406 (1884). 
Oceanodroma cryptoleucura, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 78. 



Op this Petrel I was fortunate enough to procure examples from my friend Mr. Francis 
Gay, procured on the Island of Niihau. 

Dr. Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 78, thus refers to it: — "Mr. R. 
Ridgway in 1882 described this species as new, from two specimens collected by 
Mr. Knudsen (Nos. 41949 and 41950). It is easily distinguished from all its allies 
by having the upper tail-coverts white, the larger ones broadly tipped with black, and 
by having the concealed bases of the tail-feathers, except middle pair, white. 

" This is probably the unnamed ' Thalassidroma ' to which Mr. Dole refers (Proc. 
Boston Soc. N. H. xii. 1869, p. 308, Extr. p. 15; and 'Hawaiian Almanac,' 1879, 
p. 55)." 

Mr. Ridgway's description is as follows :■ — 

" Description. — Uniform fuliginous, the head and upper surface more slaty, the 
greater wing-coverts and outer webs of tertials paler, inclining to dull ash-grey; remiges 
and rectrices dull black, the latter (except middle pair) white at the base ; upper tail- 
coverts white, the longer feathers broadly tipped with blackish (as in Procellaria 
pelagica) ; anal region mixed with white, and white of the upper coverts extending 
laterally to the sides of the crissum. Tail only slightly forked or emarginated, the 
outer feathers being only about '20 to -30 of an inch longer than the middle pair. 
Bill, legs, and feet (including webs) deep black. Wing 5-80-6-30 inches ; tail 3-0-3-15 ; 
bill (measured in straight line from base of culmen to point of the maxilla) -60 ; tarsus 
•85--90 ; middle toe, with claw, -85--90." 

Nothing certain is known respecting the range of this species. 



ll(, 



BULWERIA ANJINHO. 



Procellaria anjinho, Heineken, (Brewster's) Edinb. Journ. Sc. n. ser. i. p. 231 (1829). 
Procellaria bulweri, Jardine & Selby, 111. Orn. ii. pi. 65 ; Jardine, Edinb. Journ. Nat. & Geogr. 

Sc. i. p. 245 (1830). 
Thalassidroma bulweri, Gould, B. Eur. v. pi. 449 (1837). 

Puffinus columbinus, Webb & Berthelot, Hist. Nat. lies Canariennes, ii. p. 44, pi. iv. fig. 2 (1841). 
Bulweria bulweri, Bonaparte, Catal. Metod. Uccelli Eur. p. 81 (1842) ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. 

Mus. xii. p. 378 (1889); id. op. cit. xvi. p. 620 (1893); Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, p. 51 

(1893) ; Salvin, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 420 (1896). 
Bulweria columbina, C. L. Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 296. 
Procellaria macgillivrayi, Tristram, Ibis, 1881, p. 252 {nee Gr. R. Gray). 
(Estrelata bulweri, Coues, Check List N. Am. B. 1882, p. 126. 

[This list of citations could obviously be much extended.] 



Though Mr. Rothschild's collector Palmer found this species breeding commonly under 
some old turtle-shells on French Frigate Islands, and also met with it on Laysan, the 
only evidence of its occurrence in the Sandwich Islands is that furnished by Dr. Stejneger 
in 1889, whose information is as follows : — 

" I have but little doubt that the two birds received from Mr. Knudsen since the 
rest of this paper was submitted to the printer really belong to this species. They 
make a very unexpected addition to the Hawaiian fauna. 

" As far as coloration is concerned they agree minutely with B. bulweri, the greater 
wing-coverts being lighter than the rest of the wing, in this respect differing from the 
original description \ and, so far as 1 know, the only one, of B. macgillivrayi. Nor 
are the bills larger; on the contrary, they are somewhat slenderer; nor do the 
dimensions or proportions differ, as the appended measurements show. The only doubt 
is caused by the difference in shape of the nasal tube, which in the single specimen of 
undoubted B. luhueri at my command is swollen almost to the base, while in Knudsen's 
two specimens it is compressed from about the middle backwards. This difference 
may be entirely unessential, however. 

" The occurrence at the Hawaiian Islands of this species, which has hitherto been 

1 " ' Like T. bulweri, but with the bill rather larger ; and it is without the sooty brown on the wings,' Gray, 
Cat. Birds Trop. Isl. Pac. Oc. p. 56 (1859). This diagnosis, with slight additions and measurements, is 
reproduced in Finsch & Hartlaub, Beitr. Faun. Centralpolynes. p. 242 (1867)." 



M V , 



recorded only from the Eastern Atlantic, and as occasionally occurring in Greenland 
and the Bermudas, is very interesting, especially as we might have expected to find 
B. macgilliwayi there, and raises the question whether the latter, of which I think 
only one specimen is known, may not simply be an abnormal individual of B. bulweri. 

" Measurements. 



U.S. Nat. 
Mus. No. 


Collector. 


Sex and 
age. 


Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail- 
feathers. 


Exp. 
culmen. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 

toe with 

claw. 


Graduation 
of tail. 


116945 

116946 

32519 


Knudsen. 
do. 


Ad. 
Ad. 


Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

do. 
Canary Islands. 


199 
196 
199 


110 
113 

109 


21 
21 

22 


27 
28 
25 


30 

28 
28 


47 
42 

43" 



Description. — Adult male and female. Almost uniform sooty brown, rather lighter 
below and on the greater wing-coverts ; bill black ; feet yellow, with darker webs. 



Dimensions. — "Total length about 11 inches; wing 7 - 7; tail, central feathers 4'1, 
lateral 3 ; culmen about 1*2 ; tarsus 1'05, middle toe 1*2 " (Salvin). 








T.W.EVoliswk del. etlith. 



Weal, Newman imp . 



CESTRELATA P1LEOPYGIA. 






(ESTRELATA PHJEOPYGIA. 

UUAU. 



? Procellaria alba, Dole, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. xii. p. 308 (1869) ; id. Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 55 

(nee Gmelirt). 
(Estrelata phceopygia, Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 507, pi. 88. fig. 1 (1876) ; Ridgway, Manual 

N.-A. Birds, p. 65 (1887). 
(Estrelata sandwichensis , Ridgway, Water-B. N. Am. ii. p. 395 (1884). 

JEst?'elata sandwichensis, Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. ix. p. 95 (1886) ; id. op. cit. xi. p. 104 
) ; Stejneger, op. cit. x. p. 77 (1887). 



In the ' Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum ' for 1887 Dr. Stejneger writes 
as follows : — 

" In the great work on the Water-Birds of North America Mr. R. Ridgway writes as 
follows (ii. pp. 394-395) : — ' A specimen from the Sandwich Islands (No. 61259, 
V. Knudsen coll.), labelled " Puffinus meridionalis" differs from the above diagnosis 
[of (E. hcesitata'] in several particulars, and may possibly be distinct. The entire upper 
parts, except forehead, are continuously uniform dusky, nearly black on the head, the 
nape, the back, and scapulars more greyish brown ; this dark colour even covers 
uniformly the entire side of the head and neck, except that portion of the former 
before the eye, and thence downward and backward across the malar region. The 
feathers of the nape and side of the neck, however, are white immediately beneath the 
surface, this colour showing conspicuously wherever the feathers may be disturbed. 
There is, likewise, no exposed white on the upper tail-coverts or base of the tail ; the 
former are, however, very abruptly white beneath the surface, but the latter is white 
only at the extreme base, and the outer rectrices have a considerable amount of white 
on their inner webs. The lower parts are almost entirely white, there being merely a 
few plumbeous irregular bars on the flanks. The measurements are as follows: — 
wing 11-80 inches (less than the average of (E. hcesitata as given by Dr. Coues) ; tail 
5*75, its graduation 2*40 ; culmen 1-22 ; depth of bill at base 0*99 ; tarsus 1*40, middle 
toe (without claw) 1*55. In view of the differences of coloration, much more graduated 
tail, and smaller dimensions — and especially in view of its different habitat, no speci- 
mens of (E. hcesitata having to our knowledge been reported from any part of the 
Pacific Ocean — the specimen in question may be really distinct. Should such prove 
to be the case, the name (E. sandwichensis is proposed as a suitable designation. 5 And 
in a footnote he adds : — ' In pattern of coloration this specimen agrees exactly with an 
example of (E. cookii, but has the back, scapulars, rump, and tail decidedly less ashy.' 
After having had an opportunity to compare Knudsen's bird with examples of true 

2d 






2 

(E. hwsitata, and also with the type of Lawrence's (E. meridionalis, the same author 
afterwards (Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. ix. 1886, p. 96) pronounces the opinion that they are 
entirely distinct from CE. sandwichensis, but has ' a suspicion that the latter is the same 
as (E. phceopygia, Salv. (Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. vol. ix. pt. ix. May 1876, p. 507, pi. 88. 
fig. 1), from the Galapagos.' 

" This point, however, can only be determined by direct comparison of the types, and 
until then we prefer to retain the name which belongs strictly to the Hawaiian speci- 
mens. Latham's ' White-breasted Petrel ' (Gen. Syn. iii. 2, p. 400), ' from Turtle and 
Christmas Islands,' upon which Gmelin based his Procellaria alba, scarcely belongs 
here, as from the description of the former it seems to have the whole head and neck 
blackish with a white patch on the throat (' the head, neck, and upper parts of the 
body dusky brown, nearly black ; on the throat a whitish patch ; breast, belly, and vent 
white'). I do not know Mr. Dole's reasons for including P. alba in the list, unless it 
be Bloxham's very uncertain statement (Voy. 'Blonde,' p. 252), and I think it most 
probable that (E. sandwichensis is the bird he intended by that name." 

Mr. Bidgway afterwards wrote (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xi. p. 104): — "In volume ix. 
of these 'Proceedings' [1888], p. 96, in an additional note to an article on this bird, 
I expressed a suspicion that it might be the same as (E. phwopygia, Salv. (Trans. Zool. 
Soc. Lond. vol. ix. pt. ix. May 1876, p. 507, pi. 88. fig. 1), and in my more recently 
published ' Manual of North- American Birds ' (p. 65) relinquished any doubt to the 
question by giving the Sandwich Island bird as (E. phceopygia. In the meantime the 
type had been sent to Mr. Salvin for comparison with the types of his species, and his 
letter, dated December 11, 1887, confirms the views which I had adopted, as the 
following quotation from his letter will show : — ' I have compared it [i. e. the type of 
(E. sandwichensis] with the two types in the British Museum of (E. phceopygia, and 
done my best to make them different, but they are as like as any three specimens of 
the same species of Petrel that I ever examined. The bill is a trifle small in all its 
dimensions, and outer rectrices a little more freely mottled with white, but the 
Galapagos birds vary just as much inter se.' " 

I obtained a young bird — said to be of this species — in the down from a native, 
whilst staying at Kilauea in the month of September 1887, and was told that a 
considerable number had their nests in holes in the ground in the vicinity, more 
particularly on the slopes of Mauna Loa. At Kilauea we used to hear at evening-time 
the peculiarly harsh cry of a bird flying over our heads, and the natives told me it was 
the Uuau. The flesh is esteemed a great delicacy by the Hawaiians. 







K WrVolL«.v/K id er.ln.h. 



Wr st, 1) wama imp . 



PUFFINUS CUNEATUS. 



zitr 



PUFFINUS CUNEATUS. 

UAU KANE. 



Puffinus cuneatus, Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 353; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xii. p. 377 (1890). 
Puffinus knudseni, Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888, p. 93. 

In 'The Ibis' for July 1888 Mr. Salvin described this bird from the Krusenstern 
Islands (Marshall group) as Puffinus cuneatus, while in November of the same year 
Dr. Stejneger redescribed it as P. knudseni from Kauai, Sandwich Islands ; the latter 
author, however, on comparison of further specimens, readily admitted that the first 
name took precedence. 

Mr. Salvin writes as follows : — 

" In general coloration this species resembles P. creatopus, Coues, but it may be 
readily distinguished by its smaller darker bill, smaller feet, and especially by its longer 
more cuneate tail, the latter character placing it along with P. chlororlvynclius and 
P. bulleri, described below, in Gloger's supposed genus or section ' Thiellus ' (see Coues, 
Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1864, p. 122) h 

" I have two specimens of this bird before me, both obtained in the spring of 1883 
by Mr. H. J. Snow, of Yokohama 2 . 

" In several respects this bird conforms to Latham's description of his White-breasted 
Petrel 3 , said to inhabit Turtle and Christmas Islands ; but there are differences which 
make it undesirable to make another, and probably fruitless, attempt to identify this 
name, which has already been applied to (Estrelata neglecta of the Kermadec Islands. 
Turtle Island is probably Vatoa or Turtle I., one of the Fiji group; and Christmas I. 
the island of that name south of the Sandwich Islands." 

Dr. Stejneger, after giving a diagnosis and discussing the bird's affinities, says : — 

" Mr. Knudsen writes me in regard to the present species, which according to his 
label is called ' Uau kane ' by the natives, that it was formerly found plentiful every 

1 "The name ' Thyellus' was proposed by Gloger in Proriep's ' Notizen,' xvi. (1827) p. 279, simply as a 
substitute for Puffinus. Bonaparte (Consp. At. ii. p. 200) altered the spelling, and restricted it to this section 
of Puffinus, and in so doing he was followed by Coues." 

2 " The Krusenstern Islands here referred to are apparently the small cluster of islands so named by 
Kotzebue, which form part of the Marshall Group, and are situated in about lat. 10° 17' N., long. 190° W. 
Tbe islands extend over an area of 15 miles long by 5 wide. The native name of the largest is Ailuk. Tbere 
is a Krusenstern Rock lying to the westward of the Sandwich Islands ; but this can hardly be the place 
whence these Petrels were obtained, as the sea is described as only breaking in one spot." 

3 " White-breasted Petrel, Lath. Gen. Syn. vi. p. 400. 
Procellaria alba, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 56-5 ; Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 822." 



l\L 



summer at the top of the mountains as high up as 5000 feet, where they had their 
nests in long burrows, but that in the last ten years they have become rare, as the 
foreign rats kill them in their nests." 

If Dr. Finsch is correct as to the genus, the subjoined account ('Ibis,' 1880, p. 81) 
may also refer to this species; but only future investigations can determine this with 
certainty. He says : — " I also got information of a very curious bird, which the natives 
call ' JJ-au' According to the description it breeds in holes underground on the 
mountains, resorting to its nesting-place only at night. I do not doubt that the bird is 
a species of Puffinus, as similar habits are known of allied species in the Fijis, Navigators' 
Islands, Tahiti, &c. To obtain information of this species, which Mr. Dole enumerates 
as ' Procellaria alba, Gm.,' I made a day's trip to a part of the Northern Haleakala 
ranges [in Maui], where the birds were said to be breeding. Although I took the best 
guide I could get, we found nothing but a few old holes under the ferns and an old 
dried-up white egg. The species remains, therefore, still uncertain ; but I have no 
doubt that it is the same which I saw soaring in evening-time on the rocky coast near 
Lahama. The bird looked black, white below, and reminded me of Puffinus obscurus." 

Description (translated from that of Mr. Salvin). — Above sooty ; crown, lower back, 
lesser wing-coverts, and remiges darker, feathers of the upper back bordered with sooty 
colour of a pale tint, greater wing-coverts tinged with grey at the tips : beneath — 
whitish in the middle part ; sides of the throat and neck grey, breast and flanks also of 
this colour, entire lower belly and vent darker ; under wing-coverts whitish, very slightly 
marked with grey ; tail wedge-shaped, black : beak dull lead-colour ; feet yellow, 
darker on the outer part. Total length 17*0 inches, of wing 11-8, of middle tail- 
feathers 5'3, of lateral 3 - 65, of beak from gape 2 - 2, from nostrils 1*2, of exposed culmen 
1*6, of tarsus T85, of middle toe with claw 2 - 32. 






*'?, 



DIOMEDEA IMMUTABXLIS. 



Diomedea (an exulans?), Kittlitz, Mus. Senckenb. i. p. 120 (1834?) (nee Linn.). 

Diomedea brachyura, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. pp. 290, 337 (1848) ; Cassin (partim), U.S. Expl. 

Exped. p. 398 (1858) ; Dole, Haw. Alman. 1879, p. 57 {nee Temminck). 
Diomedea melanophrys, Bean, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. v. pp. 170, 173 (1882) ? (nee Boie, apud 

Temminck) . 
Diomedea immulabilis, Rothschild, Bull. Br. Orn. Club, i. p. xlviii (1893) ; id. Ibis, 1893, p. 448, 

and 1894, p. 548; id. Avif. Laysan, p. 57, pis. (1893); Salvm, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. 

p. 446. 



As will be seen from the synonymy, Mr. Rothschild was the first author to distinguish 
this species from Diomedea exulans and D. brachyura. He received specimens from 
his collector Palmer, who found it in immense numbers on Laysan, and in fair quantity 
on Lisiansky, while he observed a few individuals on French Frigate Shoals and near 
Niihau. Mr. Dole had previously recorded it, under the name of D. brachyura, as 
" common about the Hawaiian Islands," and a specimen killed by Bailleu on Hawaii 
is, according to Mr. Rothschild, in the Paris Museum. No evidence of its breeding in 
the group is as yet forthcoming. Numerous specimens were collected by the United 
States Exploring Expedition, and in the accounts of that voyage the bird was stated to 
be " particularly abundant at sea north of the Sandwich Islands." 

Description. — Adult male and female. " Head, neck, lower rump, and entire under 
surface pure white ; space in front of the eye sooty black ; wings and wing-coverts 
blackish brown ; interscapular region, back, and upper part of rump paler and more 
smoky brown ; tail black, fading into white at base ; under wing-coverts mixed blackish 
brown and white." 

" The first plumage of the young (which is dark in most Albatrosses) is similar to 
that of the adult bird ; the breast and entire underparts pure white." 

" The nestling is covered with brown down ; its bill is blackish brown, and its iris 
brown also." (Rothschild.) 

Dimensions. — "Total length about 32 inches, wing 18-6-19. bill 4, tarsus 3-2, 
middle toe with claw 4/3 " (Rothschild). 



2q2 



Birds of the Sandwich Jslands 



Plate I, 




H.Gadow.del 



liffiJlnst. Julius IClmkliardt.Leipzig. 



Birds of the Sandwich Islands. 




MadowAel 



Life. AnstMas K i 




3 



Eii.: 



EEMAEKS 



STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN HAWAIIAN BIEDS, 

WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR SYSTEMATIC POSITION. 



BY 

HANS GADOW, M.A., Ph.D., 

STEICKLAND CTTBATOB AND LECTURER ON THE ADVANCED MOBPHOLOQY OP VERTEBRATES IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OE CAMBBIDGE. 



Mr. Wilson has handed over to me for examination a considerable number of well- 
preserved spirit-specimens of Hawaiian birds 1 , requesting me to ascertain their 
systematic position and to give an account of the more important parts of the 
structure of the species constituting this almost unique material. All these birds are 
Oscines, truly aero- and polymyodean. I have not described their skeletons because 
these are now preserved in the Cambridge Museum, and consequently will be accessible 
at any future time, should they be considered worth the trouble of describing and 
figuring. In the following pages I have restricted myself to the description of those 
parts which are either more perishable than the bones, or which I found to be of 
greater taxonomic value. In order to investigate the affinities of the birds in question, 
it was necessary to compare them with many other forms, of which, however, the 
selection was sadly restricted and determined by the scanty material at my disposal. 

To complete this account, the stuffed specimens of Drepanis pacifica and of Chceto- 
ptila angustipluma have likewise been examined. 

1 Phaeornis obscura. Himatione sanguinea. 
Chasiempis sandvicensis. „ virens. 

Loxioides bailleui. Loxops coccinea. 

Psittacirostra psittacea. Oreomyza bairdi. 

Acrulocercus braccatus Chrysomitridops caeruleirostris. 

„ nobilis. Hemignathus procerus. 

Yestiaria coccinea. „ olivaceus. 

G 



PtLEORNIS OBSCURA.. (PI. I. figs. 1-5.) 

Bill with a tooth-like notch near the tip of the premaxilla, and with a corresponding 
emargination near the tip of the mandible ; the rest of the cutting-edge sharp and 
unbroken. The bill is considerably flattened, being much broader than it is high at 
the base, with a prominent culmen. The nostrils are oval and open, situated at the 
anterior ventral corner of a large and soft coriaceous groove, nearer the tip of the bill 
than the base. The neighbourbood of the nostrils is bare of feathers ; the rest of 
the coriaceous groove is covered with feathers, and there are a few upper rictal 
bristles. 

The hones of the palate exhibit distinctly Turdine features, and differ considerably 
in their arrangement from that which exists either in Muscicapidae (e. g. Muscicapa, 
Petrceca) or in PachycephalinEe. The vomer is forked anteriorly and posteriorly, and 
is, as in the Thrushes, not accompanied laterally by septo-maxillary splints, which 
are well developed in Flycatchers and in Pachycephalias. The palatine bones articulate 
posteriorly with the pterygoids and are well separated from each other, so that the 
sphenoid remains visible between them. The interpalatine spurs are long and almost 
touch the long and uniformly slender maxillo-palatines, while the ends of the latter 
are widely separated from the interpalatine spurs in Shrikes, Flycatchers, and Pachy- 
cephalias, but not in Thrushes. Moreover, the slender distal halves of the maxillo- 
palatines of Phceornis are scooped out ventrally for the reception of certain air-sacs, 
while these bones in the Flycatchers are distally swollen to a considerable extent, 
and in Pachycephala are triangular, broadest at the base. 

Tongue thin, smooth, much shorter than the bill, elongated, slightly arrow-shaped, 
and slightly bifurcated at the tip. 

Pterylosis. — There are ten primary remiges, of which the tenth or terminal is 
functional and well developed, being nearly half the size of the ninth, and two and a 
half times larger than its covert. The tip of the wing is formed by the seventh, sixth, 
and fifth quills. The number of secondaries is nine, that of the rectrices twelve, of 
which the outer pairs are slightly shorter than the rest. The feather-tracts are much 
generalized (resembling, for instance, those of Psittaoirostra), but numerous hair-like 
feathers are interspersed between the contour-feathers of all the tracts, and the spaces 
between the dorsal and ventral cervical tracts are sprinkled with small downy 
contour-feathers. The shape of the saddle differs much from that of the Pachy- 
cephalinae, but in the Muscicapidae and Turdidas this varies too much to permit of safe 
comparisons. 

The metatarsus is covered by three long and unbroken laminae — one in front, one on 
the median, and one on the lateral side. The possession of three long laminae is rather a 
Turdine feature, while the metatarsus of the Pachycephalias, except in the subgenus 
Pachycephalopsis, is entirely covered with transverse scales ; the same transverse 
scutellation exists still more markedly in the Muscicapidae. 

Alimentary canal. — The oesophagus showed no trace of a crop. The stomach was 






round, strongly muscular, lined internally with dark cuticle, and contained no insects 
whatever, but only hard seeds and pulpy masses. This indicates that Phceornis lives 
on stony fruit and soft berries, especially since the stones or hard kernels are 
also found in the gut, and are consequently passed out through the vent, a habit 
common among Thrushes. The whole gut is correspondingly wide, especially the 
sacculated duodenum and the rectum, which again is characteristic of frugivorous 
birds. The caeca are narrow non-functional tubes 0*8 centim. long. The total length 
of the gut is only 21 centim., the relative length only 3'5. This shortness, again, 
indicates soft and easily digestible food. The intestinal convolutions are very simple, 
as in most Oscines with short guts. The right lobe of the liver is three times as 
large as the left. 

Summary. — Phceornis has no resemblance either to the Muscicapidae or with the 
Pachycephalinae, as these groups are limited in the Catalogue of Birds in the British 
Museum ; its supposed affinity with Eopsaltria can be disregarded, because that genus 
is intermediate between the two groups. There remains the question of its being- 
related to the Prionopidae, as suggested by Mr. Sharpe. Of the genera which he (Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus. vols. iii. and iv.) has made to constitute the Prionopidae, only those of 
Australian and Malayan origin can be taken into consideration for comparison. Of these 
Grallina is out of the question ; there remain consequently Pedes, Collyriocincla, and 
Pinarolestes. According to the key (vol. iii. pp. 270, 271), Phceornis would coincide 
with Collyriocincla, a genus which Gray associated with the Pachycephalinae, and of 
which the questionable species " sandwicliensis " (Hand-list of Birds, no. 5832) is pro- 
bably our Phceornis ohscura. Unfortunately only skins and skeletons of Collyriocincla, 
with none of the soft parts, could be examined owing to want of material. However, 
Collyriocincla is not a Pachycephaline bird, and it also differs considerably from 
Phceornis in its strong transverse scales on the front of the metatarsus, in shape of bill, 
formation of the tip of the wing, and above all in the bones of the palate, which 
bear no resemblance to those of that species. Moreover, the three Prionopine genera 
in question agree with each other and differ from Phceornis in the much more basal, 
round, and almost concealed nostrils. Lastly, according to Gould, Collyriocincla 
" feeds upon insects of various kinds, caterpillars and their larvae," while Phceornis is 
essentially a vegetable eater, a frugivorous bird. 

"Which of the still-existing birds form the link between Turdidae, Muscicapidae, and 
the ill-defined Prionopidae we do not know, owing to the want of well-preserved spirit- 
specimens. Phceornis agrees fully with none of these families, but it differs least from 
the Turdidse. Its frugivorous habits are much in. favour of its affinity to the Thrushes, 
although many of these birds vary their diet with snails and other soft-bodied inverte- 
brates. There are many instances known in which birds that originally fed on vegetables 
have changed into insect eaters ; but the reverse, the change from essentially animal to 
vegetable food, implies much more serious changes of the alimentary system. The 
apparent scarcity of Hawaiian insects, or rather the extremely hidden life which many of 
them seem to lead, has forced the more indigenous insectivorous birds, the Drepanididee, 

g2 



to develop the most specialized features. Other insectivorous birds, especially those 
which are much larger than most of the Drepanididse, would, as more recent arrivals, find 
competition very difficult under the prevailing circumstances. However, the small 
Chasiempis does manage to coexist with the Drepanididae. A berry-eating bird, such as 
a generalized or rather primitive Thrush, would, on the other hand, find the field free, 
and would therefore not be forced to become so intensely Turdine as the members of 
the genera Geocichla, Turdus, and Merula are now. Lastly, if in the future far more 
extensive and really exhaustive investigations should after all reveal the Prionopine 
ancestry of Phasomis, we should have one more instance of the affinities of the 
Hawaiian to the Australian fauna. 

Chasiempis sandvicensis. (PI. I. figs. 6-10.) 

Bill like that of Muscicapine birds, broadened and flattened towards the base, 
with a distinct notch near the tip of the premaxilla. 

Nostrils with round openings, situated near the middle of the bill and in front of a 
coriaceous groove which is covered with feathers. Posterior margin of this groove soft, 
anterior margin hard, without any opercular flap, but partly concealed by feathers. 
Long and strong upper rictal bristles are present. 

Tongue flat, slightly bifid and broken up near the tip. 

Pterylosis. — Primary remiges ten in number, the tenth or distal feather being two 
thirds the length of the ninth. Tip of wing formed by the seventh to fifth primaries, 
the ninth being shorter than the rest. Secondaries nine in number. Tail square and 
long, consisting of twelve feathers. The spinal feather-tract forms a rhombic saddle, 
in the middle of which is a faint indication of a featherless space. The posterior 
continuation of the saddle is narrow, but broadens out again towards the oil-gland. 
The pectoral tract has a distinct lateral hook. 

The metatarsus is covered in front by about five scales, which are distinct in front 
only, but fused with each other towards the sides. The lateral and the median sides of 
the metatarsus are each protected by one long scute, and on the posterior or plantar 
side the scutes are separated by soft skin and do not form prominent ridges. 

Alimentary canal. — (Esophagus without crop. Stomach large and round, of moderate 
strength ; it contained a large smooth caterpillar, together with the eggs, legs, and other 
remains of moths. The eggs were probably not swallowed separately, but together with 
the female insect. The gut is wide throughout ; it is short, and stowed away in simple 
typically Oscine convolutions; the middle loop is the longest and is slightly spirally 
twisted ; the last loop, partly overlapped by the first or duodenal loop, is almost closed. 
Two very small, non-functional cseca are inserted 2-3 centim. from the anus. The 
total length of the gut is 18 centim., the relative length about 4 - 5. 

Summary. — Chasiempis is an insectivorous Oscine bird, which in some of its essential 
points agrees with the Muscicapidse, while it differs considerably from the Pachy- 
cephalinse, and therefore from the Laniidae. I cannot find any resemblance between 
Chasiempis and Miro, which have been placed near each other (Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. 






vol. iv.). Of the last I have been able to examine specimens owing to the kindness of 
Sir Walter Buller. Lastly, the supposed affinity of Chasiempsis to Phceomis cannot 
be supported, because of the different nostrils, metatarsal scales, spinal and pectoral 
feather-tracts, food, and bones of the palate. 

LOXIOIDES BAILLEUL (PI. I. figs. 11-16.) 

Bill like that of typical Conirostres and clearly Fringilline, without notches. 

Nostrils almost round, open, impervious; dorsal and posterior margins soft, not 
forming a protecting flap or operculum ; the ventral or outer margin almost entirely 
formed by the horny sheath of the bill. 

Tongue thick and fleshy, much shorter than the bill, very slightly protractile ; tip 
rounded off and ending in a neat horny scoop, which is formed by the lower horny 
covering of the tongue projecting a little ; the brim of this scoop is slightly frayed out, 
as is the case in many Fringillidse. Each side of the tongue is accompanied by a 
high longitudinal fold of soft tissue, which arises sidewards from the epiglottal region, 
extends forwards, and ultimately meets its fellow from the other side below the free 
end of the tongue, passing into the frenum linguae. Such guiding folds or projections 
of the lingual floor are frequently met with in birds which eat uncrushed seeds, and 
likewise in the Drepanididge. 

Pterylosis. — Spinal tract with an unbroken rhombic saddle, which is continued to the 
oil-gland. Pectoral tracts uniformly broad, without distinct lateral corners. Primary 
quills ten in number, the last of which is very slender and short, not functional, 
completely hidden by the upper covert. The tip of the wing is formed by the eighth 
and seventh primaries, the ninth being equal in length to the sixth, while the fifth is 
still shorter. The number of secondaries is nine, as in most Passerine birds. The 
twelve tail-feathers are nearly equal in length, but the median are slightly shorter. 

The metatarsus is covered in front by six transverse scales, which decrease in length 
from the ankle-joint downwards. The median and the lateral side are each covered 
by one long scute, which is followed near the toes by several small scales. 

Alimentary canal. — The oesophagus forms a capacious elongated dilatation, without, 
however, assuming the shape of a distinct crop. The stomach is square in shape and 
strongly muscular : that of one specimen contained, besides two soft hairless cater- 
pillars, several hard seeds and some large unhusked seeds of another kind of plant ; 
that of the second specimen contained small, very hard seeds, and small bits of rough 
red lava, which, of course, had been swallowed to assist in the trituration of the hard 
food. The gut is very narrow and longhand shows somewhat complicated convolutions, 
there being present an extra, closed, and rather long loop (3, 4, in fig. 16), which is 
stowed away dorsally from the usual central coil (5, 6, 7, 8). Both the absolute and 
the relative lengths of the gut vary individually ; the female, the smaller specimen, 
possessing the longer gut : — 

§ , absolute length of gut 49 centim., relative length 9. 
6 , „ „ 46 „ 8. 



Such a considerable relative length of gut occurs also in Loxia and Coccothraustes, 
and is even surpassed by Pinicola. About 2 centim. from the anus are two very small 
rudimentary cseca. The proportion of the right to the left lobe of the liver is 
2 :1. 

The palatine region of the skull exhibits the features usual in the Fringillidse ; the 
various subfamilies and even genera of these birds show, however, so many considerable 
differences from each other, that the examination of a given type cannot reveal any 
binding characters. According to the late Professor W. K. Parker, who is the 
authority " on the skull of the segithognathous birds," the palatine bones are not 
united with each other in the medio-ventral line in the Emberizine section of the 
Fringillidas (e. g. Emberiza, Phrygilus, Plectrophanes lapponicus) nor in Icterus. On 
the other hand, in the true Fringillinae (e. g. Linaria, Estrilda, Coccothraustes) the 
two palatine bones are broadened above the sphenoid bone into one continuous bony 
plate, which being also fused with the posterior end of the vomer, forms a single 
interpalatine plate. This is the case in Psittacirostra and in Loxioides, the latter of 
which much resembles Pyrrhula in the configuration of its palatine region ; anteriorly 
the jugal bones are quite fused with the palatines ; the maxillo-palatines are hollow, 
as in many Fringiilidas, and (as a special feature) posteriorly almost touch the 
interpalatine spurs. 

Summary. — Loxioides bailleui is a member of the Fringillidae, and approaches the 
genera Loxia, Coccothraustes, and Pyrrhula. 

PSITTACIEOSTEA PSITTACEA. (PI. I. %S. 17-20.) 

Pill like that of Loxioides. 

Nostrils oval or kidney-shaped, surrounded by soft coriaceous tissue, which is naked 
and forms a small swollen flap, partly overhanging them from above. The internasal 
septum is complete, although cartilaginous only, as in Loxioides. This character, 
however, is of no importance owing to the variable condition of the septum in different 
genera ; in Coccothraustes, for instance, the septum is thick and completely ossified. 
Considerable variations occur also in the lacrymal region, rendering futile in this 
respect any attempt to compare Psittacirostra with other birds which are not Fringilline. 

Tongue shorter than the bill, very slightly protractile, rather thick, hard, and horny, 
tapering out towards the tip, and while differing considerably from the tongue of 
Loxioides, nevertheless truly Fringilline. 

Pterylosis almost entirely like that of Loxioides. Primary remiges ten in number ; 
the tenth or terminal quill is, however, very slender and short, and completely covered 
by the upper covert. The tip of the wing is formed by the eighth and seventh quills, 
the ninth equals the sixth in length. The secondaries and the tail-feathers are like 
those of Loxioides. 

Metatarsus covered in front by six or seven transverse scales, laterally and medially 
with one long scute. 



Z^C 



Alimentary canal. — The oesophagus forms a very distinct pouch-like crop, which 
rests on the right side between the two clavicles. Such a typical crop occurs in many 
truly granivorous Fringillidee — for instance, in Pyrrhula, Loxia, and Vidua, less 
developed in Fringilla, Loxioides (q. v.), Emberiza, also in Ampelis and Panurus. 
The stomach is square, strongly muscular, internally lined with a strong corrugated 
brown cuticle ; it contained seeds and particles of flowers. The whole gut is rather 
wide, consequently shorter and more regularly convoluted than that of Loxioides ; its 
absolute length is 30-5 centim., its relative length 5*5, agreeing in this respect with 
Fringilla ccelebs, Passer domesticus, and many other Passerine birds. The two cseca 
are inserted about 2 centim. from the anus, and are comparatively long (0-8 centim. 
and 1 centim. in length) and functional, which is a very exceptional feature among 
Passeres. The right lobe of the liver is in bulk about double that of the left. 

Summary. — There are no features in Psittacirostra which disagree with its being placed 
among the Fringillidee ; on the other hand, its nostrils, crop, and intestinal convolutions 
show clearly that it well deserves generic distinction from Loxioides. Lastly, no 
characters remove these birds from the Fringillidse and connect them with either the 
Diceeidae or the Meliphagidse. 

Aceuloceecus beaccatus. (Pis. II. and III. figs. 21-35.) 
Bill. — The distal third of the edges of the upper and lower jaws is finely serrated, the 
points of the indentations being very sharp and directed forwards. There is no notch 
near the tip. 

Nostrils large, somewhat removed from the base of the bill, with a large coriaceous 
upper operculum, and with a somewhat smaller lower one which is partly overlapped 
by the upper. The nostrils are bare, not covered by feathers, but there are a few 
soft rictal bristles. 

Tongue as long as the bill, considerably protractile. The yellowish horny sheath of 
the tongue constitutes its greater portion. The lateral margins of the horny sheath 
are sharp and quite thin ; they curve upwards and inwards, and, by approaching each 
other in the dorsal middle line, form two nearly closed tubes, each of which breaks 
up into two, and is frayed out on its lateral margin. The distal third of the tongue 
presents, therefore, the aspect of a quadruple brush. The hyoid bones extend back- 
wards and upwards round the occiput, and end at the level of the middle of the orbit. 
The principal protractor muscle of the tongue is the M. genio-hyoideus. This consists 
of two parts, each of which arises as a narrow band from the inner margin of the 
middle of the mandible. This band passes backwards and splits into two. The 
median portion attaches itself to the upper half of the cerato-branchial or " hyoid 
horn," by surrounding or enveloping this bone in a slightly spiral direction, while 
only loosely fastened to it by connective tissue. The outer portion accompanies the 
cerato-branchial throughout its length on the anterior or dorsal surface and is 
attached to its tip. Both these portions, which form the genio-hyoid muscle, are 
surrounded by a common slippery sheath which compels them to act exclusively in the 



direction of the hyoid horn. The muscle has its punctum fixum at its origin at the 
mandible, and consequently by its contraction protrudes the tongue. The right and 
left horns of the tongue, each surrounded by its genio-hyoid muscle, may be compared 
to a flexible rod surrounded by an elastic steel spiral, which is fastened to one end of 
the rod ; it will then be understood that the force with which, and the extent to 
which, the tongue can be propelled depends directly upon the length of the hyoid 
horns. Thus we see that in Woodpeckers and in Humming-birds, which can protrude 
their tongues very far, the hyoid horns are so long that they are carried quite round 
the skull, and with their tips reach the neighbourhood of the nostrils. The retractors 
of the tongue are the right and left stylo-hyoid muscles, each of which arises as a broad 
band from the lateral and posterior surface of the occiput, a little in front of and 
sidewards from the hyoid horn, crossing the two bands of the genio-hyoid of its side, 
and being inserted on the sides of the base of the tongue, laterally and dorsally from 
the base of the hyoid horn. These muscles, each having its punctum fixum at 
the occiput, act as the chief retractors of the tongue. Various other muscles move 
the tongue sidewards, lift it up towards the palate, or depress it in order to assist 
in the act of swallowing food. Two such depressor muscles are figured in Nectarinia, 
where they are seen to extend from the base of the tongue down the side of the 
trachea. 

Remiges. — There are nine cubital quills or secondaries and ten primaries. The 
terminal distal or tenth quill is well developed, being nearly two thirds the length 
of the ninth ; its upper covert is only 1 centim. long. As is frequently the case in 
birds in which the tenth primary is distinctly functional or of fair size, there is present 
an extremely small eleventh primary quill, together with an equally tiny upper covert. 
The tip of the wing is formed by the eighth to sixth primaries ; the ninth equals the 
fourth in length. 

The rectrices are twelve in number and soft — the middle pair being the longest, the 
outermost pair the shortest. 

The spinal tract forms a distinct rhombic saddle, and is continued as an unbroken 
tract down to the base of the oil-gland, where it is slightly broader than at the hinder 
corner of the saddle. The feathers of the latter are fluffy. Between the contour- 
feathers of the spinal tract are interspersed numerous filoplumes or hair-like feathers, 
Together with little black downs, some of which also occur on the apteria or bare 
spaces, especially sidewards from the saddle. 

The well-defined pectoral tracts exhibit nothing remarkable. The so-called pectoral 
or axillary yellow tufts consist of about twelve very thin soft feathers on each side, 
which are about 4 centim. in length, are black at the basal quarter, and arise in one 
row from the anterior margin of the wing-membrane near the shoulder. According 
to this position they belong to the inferior marginal contour-feathers, but they are 
modified into downs. Each feather consists of one long and feeble shaft with numerous 
almost equally long, but still feebler, rami or barbs. Each ramus, again, carries an 
anterior and a posterior series of radii or barbules. These barbules are at their basal 



9 

portion flattened out into thin blades, but further towards the tip they become extremely 
thin and flexible. None of these barbules carry barbicels like those which in typical 
contour-feathers are transformed into cilia and hamuli or hooklets, but these barbules 
show at regular intervals a great number of peculiarly shaped and pointed nodules. 
The absence of such hooks prevents the barbules from forming a coherent vane, and 
renders the whole feather extremely soft and fluffy. The barbules of the more distal 
or marginal parts of the long barbs are shorter and thicker, and their nodules are 
less prominent. 

The metatarsus is covered in front with five or six irregularly shaped transverse 
scales, which have a tendency to fuse with each other. All these scales overlap the 
lateral side of the metatarsus, and by complete fusion form one long continuous scute. 
The median side is covered by one similar scute, which is separated from the front row 
by a soft furrow. On the back of the metatarsus the median scales project as a 
prominent but somewhat soft ridge, which is connected with the lateral sheathing by 
soft skin. 

Alimentary canal. — The oesophagus has no crop. The stomach is comparatively 
small, oval, and furnished with strong muscles : in the specimens examined it contained 
Lepidopterous larvae, hard pupa-cases, and other remnants of insects. The gut is of 
uniform width and soft ; 1*5 centim. from the anus are two rudimentary caeca of 
0-4 centim. in length. The total length of the gut from the stomach to the anus is 
14-5 centim., its relative length only 3*5 ; in accordance with this very short relative 
length, the intestinal convolutions are very simple, forming only three short alternating 
loops, of which the second or middle loop shows no indication of a spiral twist. The 
proportions of the right and left lobes of the liver are 3:2. 

Summary. — Acrulocercus nobilis and A. braccatus belong to the group Cinnyrimorphse, 
judging from the serrated bill, the strongly developed nasal operculum, the principal 
features of the pterylosis (especially the functional tenth primary and the presence of 
axillary tufts), the scutellation of the tarsus, and the simplicity of the intestinal canal. 
They further belong to the family Meliphagidse, owing to the quadruple brush-like 
tongue; they approach the subfamilies Myzomelinse and Meliphaginse proper, and of 
the latter the genera Meliphaga, Meliornis, Acanthorhynchus, and Acanthochcera ; in 
other words, they are more nearly related to the Australian than to either the Malayan 
or to the Pacific members of the group. Acrulocercus differs from them all, however, 
in its pattern of colour (bearing in this respect a striking resemblance to Drepanis 
pacified), although black, yellow, and white are favourite colours among the Melipha- 
ginse (e. g. Meliphaga, Meliornis, and above all Pogonornis). The long and much 
graduated tail of Acrulocercus can scarcely be looked upon as an important deviation 
from the generally square or only slightly rounded tail of the Meliphaginse, since it 
occurs also in the genus Acanthoclicera of South Australia. The peculiarly pointed 
tail-feathers of Acrulocercus occur again in Drepanis pacifica, and in the New Zealand 
genus Pogonornis. 



10 



Ch^etoptila angustipluma. 

The following remarks refer to the stuffed specimen, which, owing to the liberality 
of Mr. Wilson, now forms one of the treasures of the Cambridge Museum of Zoology. 
Unfortunately the horny sheath of the tip of the bill, perhaps to the extent of 
- 5 centim., is broken off. The mandibular sheath is, however,,, nearly intact. The 
edges of the mandible are slightly overlapped by those of the premaxilla and appear 
to be quite smooth and not at all serrated. The premaxillary edges seem likewise to 
be smooth. Whether there was a notch near the tip, can no longer be made out. The 
nostrils are basal, situated within a large and bare coriaceous groove, and have a large 
upper operculum ; they agree in every respect with those of other strong-billed 
Meliphaginae. 

Pterylosis. — The tenth primary is 5 centim. long and slightly curved inwards. The 
tip of the wing is formed by the seventh to fourth primaries ; the eighth equals the 
third in length, the ninth is, with the exception of the tenth, the shortest of all. The 
feathers of the lower back are fluffy,, those of the axillary region only slightly so. The 
twelve rectrices form a long and much graduated tail ; the single feathers are obliquely 
pointed at their tips. Most o£ the feathers on the upper throat, near the base of the 
nostrils — and even those of the forehead; — end in hair-like bristles. 

Metatarsus- covered in front with six to seven transverse scales,, of which those in the 
middle are the longest ; all these front scales are partly fused with each other and 
with the long scute which covers the lateral side. On the median side is one long 
scute, with a few small scales near the toes. The latter closely resemble those of 
Acanthochmra; especially in the length of the hallux and its very strong and large 
claw. 

Chwtoptila' angustiplumw is certainly a member of the Meliphagidee, and probably 
belongs to> those Meliphaginae which possess a multiple brush-tongue. In many of 
these birds the fine serration of the cutting-edges of the bill is replaced by larger and 
irregular dents,, which are sometimes almost obsolete;, and are then frequently associated 
with or rather supplanted by a tooth-like notch near the tip' of the premaxilla. This is, 
for instance^ the case in- several species- of Ptilotis and in Acanthochmra. With the 
latter South Australian and Tasmanian genus. Chaitoptila agrees in most of the parti- 
culars mentioned above. The pattern, and coloration of the plumage, with the light 
striated marks on the feathers, the shape of the tail, the feet, and even the hair-like 
curved tips of the feathers of the upper throat, closely resemble those of Acanthochcera 
carunculata ; but there is no trace of those peculiar wattles which are so conspicuous 
in many Meliphagine genera. 

Deepanis pacifica.. 
The following observations refer to the stuffed specimen of this now extinct bird, 
which Mr. Wilson was fortunate enough to procure. The structure of its tongue, 
the distribution of the feather-tracts, and the whole of its internal anatomical features 






11 

remain therefore unknown, and can only be supposed to have resembled those of other 
Drepanididse. The external features, except the coloration of the plumage, are entirely 
like those of the other Drepanididse. The shape of the non-serrated bill, the opercu- 
lated nostrils, their shape and size, agree in every detail with the corresponding parts 
of Hemignathus procerus and Vestiaria. The tenth primary is occult; the tip of the 
wing is formed by the eighth, seventh, and sixth primaries, the ninth equals the 
fifth in length. Some of the marginal axillary feathers are fluffy and elongated. The 
rich yellow feathers of the lower back are extremely fluffy and long. The twelve tail- 
feathers have obliquely pointed tips, but the tail, when spread out, is slightly rounded. 
The metatarsus is covered in front with a row of five or six transverse scales, which are 
partly fused with each other ; the lateral side is protected by one long scute, and 
distally by several small scales, and the same applies to the median side. Whether 
there was a prominent ridge on the posterior side of the metatarsus cannot be 
determined with certainty. The second toe is the shortest, the middle one the 
longest, the hallux the strongest. The claw of the hallux is by far the longest and 
strongest. 

There remains the question, whether the resemblance in shape and coloration of the 
whole bird to Acrulocercus is accidental or a case of mimicry ; and if it is mimicry, 
which of the two birds is the original and which is the copy? The fundamental differ- 
ence, at first sight almost imperceptible, between the serrated bill of the Meliphagine 
Acrulocercus and the smooth bill of Drepanis adds to the interest of the case. Of 
course the question cannot be settled conclusively, but the following arguments may 
help to a solution. 

Both birds are aberrantly coloured, differing from their respective relations. All the 
Drepanididse, except D. pacijlca, are either of a uniform dull green, or a beautiful red, 
or red mottled with black, or, lastly, indifferently grey and brown like Oreomyza. 
Vivid yellow, combined with black and varied by a few white patches, which is the 
colour of Drepanis pacifica, appears abnormal in this family. D. pacifica differs 
likewise from its allies in being by far the largest and strongest. 

Acrulocercus, a truly Meliphagine bird, on the other hand exhibits colours which 
occur also in many other Meliphagidas, although none of these, except Pogonomis, are 
chiefly black with yellow and white ornaments. Moreover, yellow tufts in the axillary 
region are a favourite ornament among the Nectariniidse, which are undoubtedly allied 
to the Meliphagidas. Lastly, there are three species of Acrulocercus, all greatly 
resembling each other and distributed over most of the Hawaiian Islands, while there 
was apparently only one black-and -yellow Drepanis. 

These arguments seem to vouch for the probability of Acrulocercus being the original, 
Drepanis pacifica the imitating form. However, it must not be forgotten that the 
Meliphagidas are, in the Hawaiian Islands, represented only by Acrulocercus and 
Chcetoptila, and that consequently the four species may be looked upon as strangers 
and intruders, while the Drepanididas are present in considerable numbers as species 
and genera, and may therefore be regarded as more indigenous. 

h 2 



12 

Certainly the curious resemblance between the two forms proved equally fatal to 
both, since both attracted their greatest enemy, Man, by their beautiful yellow plumes. 

Vestiaeia coccinea. (PL III. figs. 36-39.) 

Bill. — The sharp cutting-edges of the bill are smooth, without the slightest indica- 
tion of any serration. The edges of the premaxillary sheath fit closely over those of 
the mandible ; the tip of the premaxilla projects a little, less than 5 millim., over 
those of the mandibles. 

Nostrils bare, basal, only the posterior corner bordered by short feathers ; bristles 
entirely absent. Nostrils shut by a complete upper operculum, which itself overlaps a 
similar but smaller flap arising from the ventral margin of the nasal opening. 

Tongue. — The sharp dorso-lateral margins of the horny sheath of the tongue are 
raised upwards, and gradually meet each other in the middle line, without fusing with 
each other, but transforming the dorsal surface of the tapering tongue into a single 
semicanal. The distal halves of these raised margins are frayed out into numerous 
horny bristles or lacinise, which become longer towards the tip of the tongue, cross each 
other, or are even interlaced, and thus turn the end of the tongue into a brush. The 
whole tongue is as long as the bill, and, when the latter is shut, completely fills 
the space between the two mandibles. The tongue cannot be protruded far, because 
the hyoid horns do not project above or beyond the level of the eye : they are 
shorter than in Nectarinia, but resemble those of Acrulocercus. 

Pterylosis. — The spinal feather-tracts form a broad unbroken saddle, the sides of 
which are not sharply marked, while it is continued as a wide band to the base of 
the oil-gland. The feathers of the saddle, especially those of its anterior and lateral 
portions, are fluffy. The pectoral tracts resemble those of Hemignathus in their breadth 
and lateral expansion. There are elongated, fluffy axillary feather-tufts, which, 
however, are not conspicuously coloured. The tenth or most distal primary is very 
slender and short, and is concealed by its larger covert. The tip of the wing is formed 
by the eighth, seventh, and sixth quills, the ninth being equal to the fifth in length. 
Of the nine secondary or cubital remiges, the ninth or most proximal is by far the 
shortest, and in the male is entirely white, thus differing from the rest in colour as 
well as in size. The twelve rectrices are all obliquely pointed and form a nearly 
square tail, which resembles that of Lowps, and is slightly forked when closed. 

Metatarsus covered in front with four or five transverse scales, which are partly 
fused with each other. The lateral side is covered by one long scute, which is followed 
by two or three smaller scales ; the median side is protected by one long scute, which 
forms posteriorly a sharp projecting ridge. Of the toes, the first, second, and fourth 
are about equal in length, the second, which at its base is closely joined to the third, 
is perhaps the shortest. The first or hallux is, however, the strongest, and carries the 
thickest and longest claw. 

Alimentary canal. — The oesophagus forms a distinct ventral crop, which is lodged 



Z 21 



13 

between the arms of the furcula; its width is nearly 1 centim., its length 1-5 centim. ; 
while its walls are thin and smooth internally. The stomach is decidedly small, of oval, 
almost globular shape, and rather weak : contents, chitinous remains of insects and a 
smooth caterpillar in one specimen, smooth caterpillars and small spiders in another. 
The gut is short, as in most strictly insectivorous birds. The duodenum is by far the 
widest portion ; the rest of the canal is much narrower, especially that portion which 
forms the spiral. The convolutions of the gut are peculiar and rather unlike those of 
most other Passeres, owing to the irregular way in which the second principal or 
middle of the three loops is twisted into a spiral. The caeca are inserted only 
1 centim. from the anus, and are very small, quite rudimentary sacs without function. 
Both the absolute and the relative length of the intestinal canal, from the stomach to 
the anus, varied somewhat in the adult specimens examined : 

V. coccinea 6 , absolute length 14 centim., relative length 3-5. 
V. coccinea d , „ 15 „ „ 4-2. 

H. virens, „ 13-5 „ „ 4-0. 

The proportion of the right to the left lobe of the liver is 3 : 2. 

HlMATIONE SANGUINEA. (PI. III. figs. 40-41.) 

Bill not serrated. 

Nostrils basal, posterior lower corner partly concealed by short and somewhat bristly 
feathers ; with a distinct dorsal operculum, which again overlaps a smaller lower flap 
near the basal and posterior corner of the nasal opening. 

Tongue almost exactly like that of Vestiaria coccinea. 

Pterylosis. — Tenth primary very small and slender, but stiff, hidden by the stiffer and 
longer upper covert. The tip of the wing is formed by the eighth and seventh 
primaries, the ninth equals the sixth. Tail and feet like those of Vestiaria. The 
feather-tracts also much resemble those of Vestiaria, and there are likewise present 
axillary tufts, which, however, are not yellow or otherwise conspicuously coloured. 

Alimentary canal. — The oesophagus forms a very distinct ventral crop. The rest of 
the canal and its convolutions closely resemble those of Vestiaria : but the stomach is 
comparatively larger and stronger ; in the specimens examined it was full of 
comminuted parts of soft insect larvae. Absolute length of gut 13 centim., relative 
length 4. 

LOXOPS COCCINEA. 

Bill short, almost straight, conical and pointed, not serrated. 

Nostrils basal, small, oval, open, with a dorsal coriaceous opercular flap, which 
resembles that of Hemignathus, but is bulged out laterally and does not close the 
nostril, which is partly concealed by short and bristly postnarial feathers. 

Tongue short, in conformity with the bill, but ending in a frayed-out single brush, 
which, like the whole organ, is formed exactly like that of the other Drepanididee. 



14 

The pterylosis presents the same features as in Hemignathus. The feathers of the 
sides of the saddle are long and fluffy. The axillaries, or rather one row of the 
marginal feathers near the shoulder, are elongated and somewhat fluffy. The tenth 
primary is only - 5 centim. long, and is concealed by its slightly larger and stiffer covert. 
The tip of the wing is formed by the eighth and seventh quills, the ninth equals the 
sixth in length. The tail is very Fringilline in appearance, the middle pair of the 
soft rectrices being the shortest, the outer pair the longest. 

The metatarsus is covered laterally by one scute and by four or five transverse 
scales in its distal half; the front is protected by four or five scales, which are partly 
fused with each other ; the median side is covered by one long scute, which forms a 
prominent ridge behind. 

Alimentary canal. — The oesophagus formed no crop, but a distinctly marked long oval 
dilatation, which was full of small soft insects. The stomach was small, oval, and 
muscular, full of the remains of soft insects. The total length of the gut is 12 centim., 
its relative length 4*3. The convolutions were torn by shot. 

Oeeomyza bairdi. (PL III. figs. 49-54.) 

Bill short, slightly curved, not serrated, pointed. Mandible slightly overlapped by, 
and a little shorter than, the premaxilla. 

Nostrils resembling those of Himatione, Loxops, and Hemignathus. They are pro- 
tected, but only partly closed, by an upper operculum, and at the posterior ventral 
corner by a smaller, internal flap like that of Vestiaria described and figured. 

Tongue a little shorter than the bill, thin and horny, but at first sight apparently 
different from that of the Drepanididse. However, the lateral horny margins are raised 
up dorsally and frayed out. The distal fourth of the horny part of the tongue is 
slightly split into a right and a left half, but far less than in Ccereha. This broader, 
shorter, and less decidedly tubular tongue is in conformity with the slightly broader 
bill. 

Pterylosis like that of Loxops, but the feathers on the central portion of the saddle 
and on its continuation towards the oil-gland are a little more scanty and weaker. 
The axillaries are elongated and fluffy. 

Metatarsus covered in front with five or six strongly marked scales, and laterally 
with five or six scales which decrease in size towards the toes ; the median side is 
covered with one scute near the ankle-joint, distally with three small scales. 

Alimentary canal. — -The oesophagus has, as in Loxops, an oval dilatation, which con- 
tained the same sort of soft yellow caterpillar speckled with brown as seems to be the 
food of so many Hawaiian birds. The stomach was oval and comparatively large, but 
not strong, 1 centim. broad and 1*5 long, and contained caterpillars. The gut is long 
for a bird which lives on soft larvae, namely 19 centim., with a relative length of 5. 
The convolutions of the gut much resemble those of other Drepanididae. 



15 

Cheysomiteidops <leruleirosteis. 
This little bird agrees in most of its important features either with Loxops or with 
Oreomyza. 

Bemignathus peoceeus. (PI. III. figs. 42-46.) 

Bill enormously elongated and curved, not serrated. The cutting margins of the 
mandibles are sharply curved inwards and are therefore partly overlapped by those of 
the premaxilla, which projects nearly 1 centim. beyond the tip of the mandibles. 

Tongue as long as the mandible, forming nearly throughout its length an almost 
complete tubular brush. Otherwise the tongue is formed exactly like that of the other 
Drepanididse. 

Pterylosis also like that of the other Drepanididae. The tenth primary is very slender 
and 07 centim, long,, like its covert. The tip of the wing is formed by the eighth, 
seventh, and sixth primaries ; but the ninth is slightly shorter than the sixth and 
a little longer than the fifth. The tail is soft, nearly square, and short. 

The scutellation of the metatarsus is intermediate between those of Oreomyza and 
Acrwlocercus, owing to the tendency of the four anterior scales to- fuse with each 
other and with, the lateral row, which, however, is composed of one long proximal 
scute and several very small distal scales. The median side is protected by one long 
unbroken scute, which forms a rounded-off and not a prominent ridge. 

Alimentary canal.— The oesophagus is thin-walled and has an elongated but not 
pouch-like dilatation, which internally is furnished with nearly twenty longitudinal 
ridges, apparently permanent ; it contained one smooth caterpillar. The stomach is 
quadrangular and extremely muscular ; it was crammed full of comminuted remains of 
caterpillars and spiders. Digestion was assisted by several angular bits of lava. In 
another specimen it contained, besides insects and bits of lava, several peculiarly shaped 
seeds, very hard and smooth. Whether these seeds were likewise swallowed in order 
to help in the trituration of the food appears doubtful, because of their smooth surfaces. 
The absolute length of the gut, which forms a typical central spiral, though with a 
peculiarly twisted returning branch (marked 6, 7 in fig. 45), is 20-5 centim., giving the 
relative length- of 4"5. 

Hemignathus olivacbus: (PI. III. figs. 47, 48.) 
This species differs from the long-billed form chiefly in the formation of its short 
mandible. The tongue is consequently short and less tubular, being intermediate in 
structure and appearance between those of Him-atione and Vestiaria. The stomach 
is, as in H. procerus, quadrangular and strong ; it contained, however, only spiders 
and a huge caterpillar, with no stones or other triturating matter. The convolutions 
of the intestinal canal are like those of the other species ; but the central spiral has 
one twist more, owing to the greater length of the gut, the total length being as 
much as 25*5 centim., giving the relative length- of 6; 



16 





















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2 3r 



THE AFFINITIES OF THE DREPANIDID.F:. 

The genera Drepanis, Vestiaria, Himatione, Loxops, Ckrysomitridops, Oreomyza, and 
Hemignathus resemble each other so much, and differ at the same time so considerably 
from other birds, that they may well be distinguished as Drepanididge. There remains 
the question to which other groups or families these Drepanididse are most nearly allied. 
Certainly not to the Dicseidse, because these can at once be distinguished, first by the 
tongue, which ends in four equally-sized semitubular projections without the slightest 
indication of laciniated or frayed-out margins, secondly by the distally forked spinal 
saddle, both being characters which occur in no Cinnyrimorphse. The shape of the tongue 
of Dicceum is unique, and the forked saddle bears the closest resemblance to that of the 
Hirundinidse. Nor are the Drepanididse allied to the Zosteropidse, birds of which 
the deeply forked and smooth tongues, the pterylosis, and various other characters make 
it very doubtful whether they are rightly included among the Meliphagidse. 

If we assume that all the Oscines with tubular or with brush-shaped tongues are 
comparatively more nearly allied to each other than to the rest of the Oscines, we can 
arrange them as follows, using the condition of the edges of the bill and the length 
of the tenth or terminal primary as further differentiating characters : — 

f tongue bifid, each half frayed out 

medio-ventrally Nectarinild/e. 



Tenth primary functional. | 
about half the length of < 
the ninth ; 



bill serrated ; 



tongue quadruple or multiple, 
[_ frayed out latero-dorsally MeliphagidjE. 



bill smooth, but with a notch ; tongue one semi- 
canal with dorso-laterally frayed edges Promerops. 

f bill serrated ; tongue quadruple, not frayed out . . . DioeidjE. 



Tenth primary obsolete j 



bill smooth, \ 



f without a notch ; tongue single, 

dorsally frayed Drepanididge. 



with a notch ; tongue double, dor- 
[_ sally frayed Ccerebid^e. 



It is to be observed that if split in the middle line the tongue of the Drepanididse 
would assume the characters of that of the Ccerebidse, while the multiple brush-tongue 
of many of the Meliphagidee can be derived directly from the quadruple brush. It is 
also probable that the absence or presence of serrated edges stands in correlation to 
the structure of the tongue. The following arrangement may therefore be preferable : — 



r 



r 



single or bifid; 



Tongue frayed out, < 



f 



bill smooth ; < 



tenth primary obsolete 



I 



bill serrated ; 



C Drepanididse. 

(_CffiREBID,£. 

long Promerops. 

,, Nectariniid/e. 

„ MeLIPHAGIDjE. 



quadruple or bill mostly „ „ „ 

L multiple ; serrated ; 

Tongue not frayed, quadruple j bill serrated j tenth primary obsolete ~~ DicjEid^e. 

I 



While the Dicseidse will always assume a separate position, to whichever characters 
we give preference, the Drepanididae can, on the other hand, be separated from the 
Coerebidse only by the notch in the premaxilla. 

The whole assembly of birds with tubular or brush-shaped tongues appears rather 
heterogeneous, but not so hopelessly divergent as the so-called Oscines novem-pennatae, 
which correspond with the Tanagroid Passeres of Wallace, and with the section 
Fringilliformes of the Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. The families of 
nine-quilled Passeres are * : — 

1. DiceiDjE (eoccl. Drepanididae). 6. Drepanididae. 

2. HlRUNDlNID<E. 7. CcEREBlD<E. 

3. Ampelid^e. 8. TaNAGRID^E. 

4. Mniotiltid^. 9. Icterld^. 

5. MotacillidjE. 10. Fringillidje. 

To these should be added Zosteropidse, on account of their terminal or tenth primary, 
which is extremely short and sometimes even suppressed altogether ; these birds 
certainly are more deserving of being called nine-quilled than many Hirundinidae and 
Ictericlae. 

Now we see that if we attribute more taxonomic value to the tenth primary than to 
the tongue, the Drepanididae are completely removed from the Cinnyrimorphae, with the 
Meliphagine family of which they have undoubtedly many important features in 
common, besides the structure of their tongues. 1 have already (p. 11) given some 
of the principal reasons why the Dicaeidse (exclusive of the Drepanididae) cannot be 
nearly related to the Drepanididae, while on the other hand their associations with the 
Hirundinidse are strong. If we want to retain the section Fringilliformes, then the 
Dicaeidae, together with the Hirundinidse, should form one, let us say, Hirundinine 
subsection ; while the third, fourth, and fifth families enumerated above are like- 
wise widely different from the rest, to which the appellation Fringilliformes might 
advantageously be restricted. Whether the Drepanididae are to be included in this 
Fringilliform assembly or in that of the Meliphagidae cannot be settled until we have 
examined the taxonomic value of their characters with reference to the Cinnyri- 
morphae, or rather Meliphagidae, and to the Fringilliformes. 

The formation of the tongue agrees with that of the Coerebidae (Fringilliformes) 
and with that of the Australian Myzomeline genus Acanthorhynchus. The possession 
of such a latero-dorsally frayed-out semitubular tongue does not consequently settle 
the question, and, if anything, indicates that the Drepanididae, through the Ccerebidse, 
form a link between Fringilliformes and Meliphagidae, unless we assume that such 
tongues have been developed independently in the groups in question. Such an 
assumption is perfectly possible. On a former occasion 2 I have shown that the 

1 In a paper entitled " Remarks on the Numbers and on the Phylogenetic Development of the llemiges of 
Birds," Proc. Zool. Soc. 1888, pp. 655-667, I have drawn attention to the variability in length of this tenth 
primary, which is supposed to be absent, but nevertheless occasionally 3 centim. long, in the Fringilliformes. 

a " On the Suctorial Apparatus of the Tenuirostres," Proc. Zool, Soc. 1883, pp. 62-69, pi. xvi. 






19 

tubular and brush-like portions of such tongues are formed entirely by the elonga- 
tion, enlargement, and splitting of the ventral half of the horny sheath, while the 
dorsal half or covering does not partake of this formation, but tapers out and 
gradually disappears where the body or fleshy portion of the tongue ends. Indica- 
tions of an elongation, with a frayed-out margin, of the ventral sheath occur in the 
tongues of many Fringillidae, e. g. in Loxioides. Morphologically, we can derive a 
brush-tongue from a Fringilline, but not from either a Sylviine, Laniinae, or Turdine 
tongue. 

The smooth, not serrated, edges of the bill are a feature of the Coerebidse, while 
those Meliphagidae which like them possess no serrated edges also differ in the formation 
of their whole bill from others of their family. It is therefore not advisable to 
compare the Drepanididae with the smooth-billed Meliphagidae. The general shape of 
the bill differs so greatly in the various Drepanididae, and is subject to such alterations 
in the numerous Fringilli formes, that no valid conclusions can be drawn from it. We 
know for certain that the bill is a most adaptive organ, and the arguments concerning 
the tongue apply still more forcibly to the bill. 

The nostrils, with their strongly developed opercula, seem to be decidedly Cinnyri- 
morphous, and in the special description of the various Drepanididae this feature has 
been laid stress upon in order to differentiate them from Loxioides and Psittacirostra, 
which are Fringillidas. But here again the Drepanididae are intermediate, their 
nostrils possessing both the upper and the lower flap, although the upper one is 
never so complete as in most Meliphagidae. The completeness of the operculum is 
correlated to the length and shape of the bill and to the use of the latter : hence 
the variability. 

The condition of the primary quills of the Dicaeidae strongly favours their Fringilli- 
form affinity, not merely because of the obsolete nature of the tenth quill, but also 
on account of the entire absence of an eleventh quill. An eleventh quill does not 
seem to occur in the Fringilliformes, although some of them have the tenth quill 
not more reduced than many Alaudidae and Ploceidae. In many species of the latter 
two families, and even in some Icteridae, the tenth primary is distinctly functional, and 
comparatively of the same size as it is in many Meliphagidae and Nectariniidae ; but 
these latter two groups have an extra quill, the eleventh. Hence it is not so much the 
mere size of the tenth quill as its non-association with an eleventh quill that gives 
it its taxonomic value in the Drepanididae. 

The rest of the pterylosis, the feather-tracts, affords us no help, because the Meli- 
phagidae and the Fringilliformes seem to differ less from each other in these respects 
than do the Cinnyrimorphae among themselves, notably Arachnothera and Promerops. 
However, the fluffy nature of the feathers of the back, flanks, and axillaries in the 
Drepanididae reminds us of the Meliphagidae and not of the Fringilliformes. The pattern 
of colour affords no clue at all, because the red of Vestiaria and of Himatione, although 
remarkable for its absence in all the Meliphaginae, is a favourite colour of the Myzo- 
melinae, and the Fringilliformes, like the Psittaci, exhibit all conceivable colours. 

i 2 



20 

The shape of the tail can scarcely be considered in earnest, although its Fringilliform 
appearance in the Drepanididae is obvious. 

The scutellation of the tarsus likewise permits of no safe generalization applicable 
to families and not to genera only. 

Concerning the alimentary canal, the possession of a distinct ventral crop, or at least 
an obvious dilatation of the oesophagus, by the Drepanididae is unquestionably a Fringil- 
liform character, because of all the Oscines only some Fringillidae have hitherto been 
known to possess a crop. The crop of the apparently strictly-insectivorous Drepanididae 
is therefore all the more remarkable, although the Trochilidae have it likewise well- 
developed. 

The peculiar intestinal convolutions of the Drepanididae cannot unfortunately be 
brought into comparison, owing to want of material in other groups, notably Ccerebidae. 
The latter are insectivorous, to judge from their tongues strictly so ; many FringillidcB 
are granivorous or have a mixed diet : hence the resemblance between several of 
the Drepanididae and Meliphagidae is not decisive. The bones of the palate of the 
Drepanididse, especially of Hemignathus, and in a less degree of Vestiaria, are most 
peculiar. The vomer is posteriorly completely fused w 7 ith the palatines, and the 
lanceolate space between the two halves of the basal or dorsal parts of the palatines 
is closed by a transparent plate of bone, which covers, and rests upon, the sphenoid. 
Such a truly interpalatine plate occurs in many Fringillidae. The ventral palatine spurs 
(Parker's interpalatine spurs) are very high and slender, and posteriorly extended 
to such an extent that they project far beyond the level of the articulation of the 
pterygoids. The latter articulate with the palatines, and not with the sphenoid at all, 
by distinct cartilaginous feet, resembling in this respect again certain Fringillidae, 
e. g. Coccothraustes, although in the latter these feet are bony and liable to fuse with the 
palatines. The transpalatine or posterior lateral spurs are long and very slender. The 
maxillo-palatines are long and slender, passing ventrally over and past the anterior 
fork of the vomer and touching with their tips the anterior interpalatine spur; they 
rather resemble the same parts of Loxioides and of Coccothraustes : we must, however, 
bear in mind how much these little bones vary in shape, size, and position even in 
the various Fringillidae, as a glance at the numerous illustrations in Parker's work 
on the vEgithognathous skull will show. The whole arrangement of the bones of the 
palate of the Drepanididae is totally different from that of the Meliphagidae and other 
Cinnyrimorphae, and can only be compared with that which is indicated to a small 
extent in some Fringillidae (Coccothraustes, Cardinalis, Estrilda). The configuration 
of these bones in the Drepanididae looks as if it were derived from Fringilline conditions 
by reduction of the width (not length) of the palatine expansions, not vice versa. This 
may well be the case considering the lesser strength of the masticatory muscles in the 
Drepanididae in comparison with that of typical Conirostres, and considering that the 
elongated bill of the Drepanididae is undoubtedly not a primary feature but a secondary 
specialization. That Loxioides and Psittacirostra differ so much in the configuration of 






21 

their palatines from the Drepanididse is another weighty argument against their 
affinity to that family. 

Now to sum up : although these remarks are scanty, necessarily incomplete, and 
consequently premature, on account of the want of anything like a sufficient amount of 
suitable material, I consider that the Drepanididse form a separate family of the Fringil- 
liformes rather than of Meliphagine birds or even of the Cinnyrimorphse, and that of the 
Fringilliformes they are nearest allied to the Coerebidse, i. e. to the Neotropical and 
Central-American families. Thence to the Fringillidse is a long way, but we can 
imagine the intermediate stages. Loxioides and Psittacirostra I judge to be Fringillidse, 
while I consider that there is no direct connection between these two genera and the 
Drepanididse. None of these forms can be included among the Dicseidse, which are 
an essentially Old-World family. 

If the numerous resemblances between the Drepanididse and the Meliphagidse are 
not all merely coincidental — and they cannot be explained away at all satisfactorily — - 
then the large group of the Cinnyrimorphse (through the Meliphagidse and possibly 
through the genus Zosterops, unless these birds connect the Nectariniidse in another 
direction) and that of the Fringilliformes (through the Drepanididse and Coerebidse) 
converge to form a still larger group. How many other families will ultimately be 
found to gravitate towards the same centre must be left to him who may be favoured 
with an exhaustive supply of spirit-specimens, and will not shrink from devoting much 
time and labour to their examination. Whenever we endeavour to study seriously even 
a few different Oscines, the attempt is apt to assume enormous dimensions. The 
examination of a small twig of the Passerine branch of the Avine tree shakes and 
disturbs the whole branch, if not the whole top of the famous ideal tree. At any rate 
we seem in our case to get a glimpse of one of the bigger ramifications of the Oscine 
portion ; and although, at first sight, the idea of a Fringilli-Cinnyrimorphous branch 
appears rather appalling, it is after all not more diversified than another branch, which 
is composed of the Corvidse, Laniidse, and Muscicapidse. A Raven and a Flycatcher 
do not seem to have much in common, but with the help of the Austrocoraces and 
other tropical forms the differences fade away and vanish. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Plates L-IIL). 

Figs. 1-5. Ph^ornis obscura. 

1. Dorsal, 2. Lateral view of nostrils and bill. Nat. size. 

3. Tongue, dorsal view. Nat. size. 

4. Ventral view of the bones of the palate ; enlarged, pt. — pterygoids ; max.pl. — maxillo- 

palatines; a.int.pl. — anterior or interpalatine spur or process. 

5. Right-sided view of the intestinal convolutions, beginning with one near the pylorus and 

ending with eight at the anus, 



22 

Figs. 6-10. Chasiemtis sandvicensis. 

6. Dorsal view of the bill, nostrils, and feather-tracts. Nat. size. 

7. Side view of bill and nostrils. Nat. size. 

8. Dorsal view of tongue. Nat. size. 

9. Ventral view of bones of palate ; enlarged. v. = vomer; macc.pl. = left maxillo-palatine ; 

£?•./>/. = transpalatine portion of left palatine. 

10. Right-sided view of the intestinal convolutions. 

FigS. 11-16. LOXIOIDES BAILLEUI. 

11. Side view of bill and nostrils. Nat. size. 

12 a. Dorsal view of the tongue, situated within the under jaw. Nat. size. 
12 b. Dorsal view of the tongue proper. Nat. size. 

13. Bones of the palate. 

14. Scutellation of metatarsus, seen from the lateral side. Nat. size. 

15. Dorsal feather-tracts. Nat. size. 

16. Convolutions of the intestinal canal. 

Figs. 17-20. Psittacibostba psittacea. Nat. size. 

Figs. 21-35. Acrulocercus braccattts. 

21 a. Bill, nostrils, and principal muscles of the tongue, after removal of the skin. Nat. size. 
For comparison, in order to understand the mechanism, see fig. 21 b, Nectarinia 
splendida. g.hy. = geniohyoid muscle; st.hy. = stylohyoid muscle ; tr. = trachea. 

22. Transverse section through the bill, across the nostrils, to show position of upper and 

lower opereula (u.o. and l.o.) : if = tongue; m = mandible. 

23, 24. Dorsal and ventral views of pterylosis. 

25. Transverse section through metatarsus, to show position of scales ; enlarged. 

26, 27. Ventral and dorsal views of the tongue ; enlarged. 

28. Diagrammatic representation of mode of splitting and fraying out of the sheath of the 

tongue. 

29. Ventral view of the bones of the palate ; enlarged. 

30. One entire feather of the axillary tufts ; enlarged and diagrammatic. 

31. One barb of the same feather, from its basal half; considerably magnified, to show- 

absence of hooklets. 

32. The same, from the tip of the feather; seen under the same power as fig. 31. 

33. The tip of a barbule of the barb represented by fig. 32 ; strongly magnified. 

34. The tip of a barbule of the more fluffy or basal barbs ; strongly magnified. 

35. Diagram of the intestinal convolutions. 

Figs. 36-39. Vestiaria coccinea. 

36. Side view of bill and nostrils. Nat. size. 

37. Transverse section across the nostrils. Same as fig. 22. 

38. Side view of the tongue ; enlarged. 

39. Intestinal convolutions. 

Fig. 40. Himatione sanguinea. Dorsal view of the tongue ; enlarged. 

Fig. 41. Himatione virens. The intestinal convolutions, seen from the right side. 



23 

Figs. 42-46. Hemignathus procerus. 

42. Right nostril and base of bill ; enlarged. 

43. Right view of tongue ; enlarged. 

44. The dorsal or spinal feather-tract. 

45. The intestinal convolutions. 

46. Ventral view of the bones of the palate; enlarged. f\ = vomer; tr.pl. = transpalatine 

expansion of palatine; p. int. pi. = posterior interpalatine spur of palatine; /tf.— pterygoid, 

Figs. 47, 48. Hemignathus olivaceus. 

47. The pectoral feather-tracts. 

48. The intestinal convolutions. 

Figs. 49-54. Oreomyza bairdi. 

49. Side view of bill and nostril ; enlarged. 

50. Dorsal view of tongue; enlarged. 

51. Lateral view of left metatarsus. 

52. The spinal feather-tract. 

53. The intestinal convolutions in situ, seen from the right side. 

54. Diagram of the convolutions. 

Fig. 55. Dictum pectorals. Dorsal feather-tracts, after Nitzsch. 
Fig. 56. DfCEUM trigonostigma. Dorsal view of the tongue ; enlarged. 

FigS. 57, 58. CtEREBA longirostris. 

57, Dorsal view of the tongue ; enlarged. 

58. Ventral view of the tip of the same tongue ; still more enlarged. 






FURTHER REMARKS 



EELATIONSHIPS OF THE DKEPANIDIDjE. 

BY 
HANS GADOW, M.A, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



In my first paper on the anatomy of the Birds of the Sandwich Islands (' Aves 
Hawaiienses,' Pt. II. pp. 1-23, Pis. I.-III.) I had come to the conclusion that the genera 
Psittacirostra and Loxioides were FringillidEe, and not to be included among the 
Drepanidida?. This view has never met with favour from Mr. Perkins, who has 
persistently and consistently maintained, first, that the two genera in question are not 
"Finches"; secondly, that they belong to the same group as do the Drepanididse, 
whatever the relationship of the latter may be. The same applies to the more recently 
discovered genera CMoridops, Mhodacanthis, and Pseudonestor. Mr. Perkins has arrived 
at this notion from the study of the habits, the voice, and the peculiarly strong and 
disagreeable scent of the birds. 

I promised Mr. Perkins to reconsider the whole question on the strength of more 
extensive anatomical material 1 , and I now have much pleasure in declaring that most 
likely his view is the right one. By using the words " most likely," I do not want to 
hedge, but once for all draAv attention to the fact that such questions as the present 
one cannot be proved, although they may be reasoned out. 

1 The material submitted to anatomical examination is numerous enough (Drepanis, Viridonia, Palmeria, 
Himatione, Loxops, Oreomyza, Pseudonestor, Psittacirostra, some of them in several specimens either complete 
or in parts), but it is sadly deficient in so far that as regards Rhodacanthis and CJiloridops there is only one 
single tongue of the former ! Of course this whole investigation is thereby rendered incomplete. Rhodacanthis 
and CJiloridops are both extreme forms. It seems reasonable to connect them with Loxioides, Psittacirostra, 
and Pseudonestor. Nothing would be gained by trying to exclude the first two genera from the Drepanididae 
after once the other three have been admitted. The same applies to Oiridops anna, of which hearsay report 
tells that it has or had a split and somewhat frayed-out tongue. 

2l 



' 



Although it is, as a rule, not an agreeable task to acknowledge one's self in the 
wrong, I have in this case derived a good deal of pleasure from my renewed and more 
extensive investigations, since — if our conjoint conclusions are correct — they have 
revealed one of the most remarkable instances of convergent analogies between what 
are generally called Fringillidse and some of the Drepanididse. 

Nobody has as yet been able to diagnose any family of the Fringilliformes. Certainly 
the Drepanididse, after the addition of the thick-billed genera, defy any real diagnosis, 
except perhaps that they are nine-quilled Oscines, which are confined to the Sandwich 
Islands. This is perhaps a step in advance. 

I firmly believe that in time to come we shall more and more frequently have to 
admit geographical distribution as a diagnostic character not only of species and genera 
but even of larger groups. 

I am inclined to accept the central portion of Dr. Sharpe's scheme of nine-quilled 
Passeres {cf. Cat. Birds, x. p. 2), but modify it slightly as follows: — 

Ccerebidae Tanagridse. 



Drepanididse. Fringillidse. 

Which, translated into the apparently very exact, but really mystical and still all-in-the- 
clouds parlance of the phylogenist, means that there was once an undefined stock of 
generalized Ccerebine and Tanagrine birds, whence have sprung as two independent 
offshoots the Drepanididse and Fringillidse. The more numerous of these " families " 
has specialized more in the direction of seed-eaters, while the other very small family 
underwent the necessity of adapting itself to peculiar insular conditions, and either 
specialized as insect-eaters (probing the insects out of cracks, not catching them on the 
wing), or in a roundabout way became as much graminivorous and thick-billed as 
many of the Fringillidse and Tanagridse. 

In talking of these " families " we are apt to forget, or rather we never appreciate, 
the solemn fact that, strictly speaking, all the Oscines together are of the rank of one 
family only ! The greatest differences between the so-called families of Oscines are in 
reality of very small value ; and when we are discussing, as in the present case, the 
morphological difference between what should be termed subsections of subfamilies, 
we have about arrived at the end of our tether, or rather perceptive insight. Of 
course there are differences between them, larger and more stable than those between, 
for instance, various species of Paroaria, which are " striking " enough, but we do not 
know them ! In fact we have to be grateful for small mercies. 

We cannot, as said before, define either Drepanididse or Fringillidse, Coerebidse or 
Tanagridse — that means to say, we have no single character, nor a combination of 
features, which apply to all the species of each family. This concerns the pterylosis, 
namely distribution of feathers, fluffy nature of the feathers of the lower back, relative 
length and shape of the primaries and of the tail, the pattern of colour ; it applies 



3 

also to the feet, the shape of the bill, and the structure of the tongue, the modifica- 
tions of the palatal framework, and to the intestinal tract inclusive of its convolutions. 
The smell of the Drepanididae is different from anything else I know ; but are we 
prepared to admit this as a diagnostic character, until we know that it does not depend 
upon the food, although Acrulocercus is devoid of that sort of scent 1 

Additional Data concerning the Melationship of the thick-billed Hawaiian Birds. 

In my former paper, p. 6, and fig. 18, I described the tongue of Psittacirostra as 
" rather thick, hard, and homy, tapering out towards the tip, and while differing 
considerably from the tongue of Loxioides, nevertheless truly Fringilline." Several 
well-preserved specimens of Psittacirostra, brought home by Mr. Perkins, show a 
different condition. The tongue is fleshy in its basal three-quarters, while the distal 
quarter is thin and horny, slightly split in the middle, and with the thin lateral echoes 
turned up and inwards, forming a very imperfect half-tube, and slightly frayed out 
distally, i. e. at the anterior free end. It is consequently far less " Fringilline" than 
the tongue of Loxioides. On the other hand it resembles, or approaches, that of 
Pseudonestor, which is far less fleshy, more slender, more deeply split in the middle ; 
the distal third of the horny sheath becomes gradually transparent towards the tip, 
is very slightly frayed out towards the tip and on the lateral edges, but shows no 
indication of curling up of the free margins. 

The tongue of Bhodacanthis, of which Mr. Perkins has brought home one single 
specimen but well preserved, is the most compact of all. Its upper surface is slightly 
scooped out, while the whole under surface is covered with the usual thick and hard 
horny sheath, the thin lateral edges of which curl over upon the dorso-lateral sides, 
and are very slightly frayed out at the distal sixth only, where alone they form slightly 
sharp edges of the tongue, the tip of which is scarcely split at all. 

The shape and structure of the tongue is primarily referable not so much to the 
nature of the food itself (if soft insects, as spiders, larvae, or hard seeds) as to the way 
in which these various kinds of food are to be procured. The long- and slender-billed 
birds probe flowers, or cracks of bark or lava, for insects, which they then coax 
and brush out with their slender and flexible tongue; the thick-billed birds break 
open the pods or worm-eaten trees, and then scoop out or simply nip the insects 
or seeds. 

When arranged according to the tongue, Oreomyza and Psittacirostra assume a 
somewhat central position, leading on the one side to Pseudonestor and ending with 
Loxioides as an extreme ; while on the other side Oreomyza leads to the more complete 
tubular brush-tongue of Chrysomitridops, Loxops, Himatione, and Palmeria, to the 
extreme as represented by Vestiaria, Drepanis, Viridonia, and Hemignathus. 

A similar divergent development is traceable in the modifications of the operculum 
and the nostrils. Himatione, Loxops, and Oreomyza assume a central, more indifferent 

2l2 






position, whence the most perfectly operculated Palmeria, Vestiaria, Drepanis, and 
Hemignathus can be traced. On the other hand, Psittacirostra has still a small but 
distinct opercular flap, then follows Loxioides, and lastly Pseudonestor, with no operculum 
whatever and with round nostrils embedded in soft surroundings. Bhodacanthis and 
Chloridops make a side departure from the last two genera ; there is no operculum, 
but the nostrils are long-oval, embedded in soft surroundings ; the soft portion bordering 
the lower margin of the nostrils lies in a deeper level than the dorsal border of the 
nostril, and seems to be the remnant of the inner lower flap which is so common 
in many of the Drepanididae, see Part II., PI. III. fig. 37. Anyhow there is no detailed 
resemblance of the narial arrangement of other birds with any of the Fringillidae, while 
Phodacanthis and Chloridops run surprisingly close to the Tanagrine Pitylus (not to 
the Fringilline Pheucticus, Paroaria, or Chloris), and still greater is the resemblance 
between Psittacirostra and Tanagra, e. g. bonariensis. An absolute distinction 
between any of the thick-billed Hawaiian birds and the Fringillidae seems to be 
that in the latter the generally open and roundish nostril is blocked, so to speak, 
from the inside by the anterior little concha naris, which projects into the fundus of 
the nostril. 

We have here remarkable cases of collateral or convergent development, as exhibited 
by the numerous members of the Drepanididse. The long- and slender-billed forms 
have developed features which make them very similar to certain Meliphagidae 
(cf. Arachnothera and Hemignathus), and in the case of Drepanis pacifica and Acrulo- 
cercus the resemblance has become startling. Equally near or puzzling has become the 
approach to various Fringiilidae and Tanagridae by the thick-billed Hawaiian birds. 

The analogies with Fringiilidae extend even to some unexpected details of structure 
as well as habits. Mr. Perkins says (' Aves Hawaiienses,' Part VI.) that Pseudonestor 
is " in its movements Parrot-like in the extreme, especially in the varied hanging 
attitudes that it assumes, while the similarity is still further increased by the shape of 

its beak generally clinging to the under sides of the thin branches or twigs, the 

head raised above the upper surface." Does all this not remind us at once of Loxia 
pityopsittacus % 

Curiously enough, there exists another still more striking analogy between the 
Crossbills and some Hawaiian birds, namely with Loxops inch Chrysomitridops. As 
already known to Cabanis, when he established the genus Loxops, the under jaws of 
these little birds are not symmetrical — the distal half of the under jaw is twisted either 
to the right or to the left. It is interesting to note that the amount of twisting varies 
individually, right- and left-billed specimens occurring in equal numbers, and that it 
is smallest in young birds. There is not the slightest doubt that this asymmetry is 
acquired individually by their twisting open husks or seeds, or cracks of bark, in search 
of their food. 

It would be a case of great rashness to look upon the twisted bills of Loxops and 
the pendulous attitudes of Pseudonestor as confirmatory indications of their Fringilline 
affinities. Now it so happens that Loxops and Chrysomitridops combine with their 



Finch- or rather Siskin-like appearance other characters which reveal these birds as 
typical Drepanididse : — (1) The tongue, which, of the length of the bill, forms a typical 
brush-tube ; it is as typically developed as in the most intensified Drepanididse. 
(2) The arrangement of the bones of the palate conforms with that of the more slender- 
billed forms, namely, the maxillo-palatines are rather long and slender, the inter- 
palatine spurs form a pair of narrow vertical plates, the transpalatines are very little 
broadened, but the right and left halves are fused in the middle into one plate, together 
with the vomer. (3) The nostrils have a small but distinct soft operculum, which, 
however, does not close the narial opening, which is long-oval; the general configu- 
ration closely resembles that of Oreomyza, while the differences from Fringillidse, if 
examined side by side, are obvious. 

We have to consider the following hypotheses : — 

I. All the Sandwich Island birds in question are Drepanididge. The most central, 

or least modified, are the small-sized genera Oreomyza, Loxops and Chryso- 
mitridops, and Himatione. Thence have sprung in two divergent lines — 

1. The long- and slender-billed ultra-Drepanine forms with long tubular 

brush-tongues : Hemignathus, Viridonia, Vestiaria, Drepanis. 

2. The thick-billed Fringilloid genera with short, more fleshy, reduced 

tongues: Psittacirostra, Pseudonestor, Loxioides, Bhodacanthis, Chlo- 
ridops. 

II. The majority of the birds are Drepanididse, while the thick-billed forms without 

tubular tongues are Fringillidge. The relationship of these thick-billed genera 
does, however, not lie with the palsearctic Clitoris, e. g. kawarahiba, nor with 
any of the Coccothraustinre, least so with the genus Geospiza from the Galapagos 
Islands. The very thick-billed Fringillidse indicate a terminal, not an indifferent, 
stage of development. Such forms as Geospiza, Loxigilla, Coccothraustes, and 
Pyrrhula are undoubtedly instances of convergent analogies. 

III. All the Drepanididae have started from Fringillidee, some of which have 
developed further in essentially Fringilloid lines, leading to Chloridops and 
Bhodacanthis as extremes. We should have to assume that Loxops and 
Chrysomitridops are least removed from the hypothetical starting-point; but it 
so happens that these two genera are closely allied to Oreomyza, while by 
their tongue, nostrils, and palatal arrangement they are far removed from 
moderate, not exaggerated, true Fringillidse, e. g. Chrysomitris. We should 
further have to assume that, by the development of a more slender bill — in fact, 
by departing from typical Fringilline features, — some of the birds in the Sandwich 
Islands have produced the tubular brush-tongue, have weakened and lengthened 
the palatal arrangement (although retaining the fused palatines), have elongated 
the trans- and interpalatine portions, and last, but not least, have developed 
operculated nostrils. Anatomically, at least, the development of the nasal 






6 

operculum of the typical Drepanididse from Fringillid conditions is absolutely 
impossible. 
IV. All the birds in question are related to each other as one group, Drepanididse ; 
but out of them have sprung the Fringillidse. Morphologically this assumption 
is possible from a general point of view, but it does not at all work satisfactorily 
in detail. First, we cannot assume that a family like the Fringillidaj has 
spread from a volcanic group of oceanic islands all over the world, with the 
very exception of the bulk of the Pacific islands and of the Australian region. 
Secondly, Pseudonestor, ChLoridojps, Loxioides, and Bhodacanthis have by their 
bills, reached a stage more exaggerated than that of most of the typical thick- 
billed true Fringillidse, while they differ from the geographically nearest rather 
thick-billed Clitoris in the pattern of colour, general moulding of the beak, and, 
above all, in the configuration of the narial region. It is equally futile, as said 
before, to connect them with Coccothraustina. 

Lastly, the remarks concerning Chrysomitridops and Loxojps militate against this 
assumption (No. IV.). 

Consequently there remains only assumption No. I., namely, that the thick-billed 
birds of the Sandwich Islands are modified Drepanidid-se, which by convergence, by 
adaptation to similar habits, have developed features which we are accustomed to 
associate with typical Fringillidse. 

Although we have now disposed of the Fringillidse, the whole question of the 
affinities of the thick-billed genera cannot be considered as threshed out until we have 
substituted the Tanagridse for Fringillidse in the four hypotheses examined above. 

Terminal forms of the Tanagridse are Orchesticus, Saltator, Tcmagra. Comparison 
between them and the Sandwich Island genera is rather favourable. The resemblance 
in the whole narial configuration and the build of the bill is striking. The stout-billed 
Tanagridse have, in fact, modified their bills and nostrils in exactly such a way as, 
anatomically speaking, we expect these parts to be modified when starting from a 
condition like that which is represented by Coerebidse and the slender and short-billed 
Drepanididse. This is one of the very points which excludes any direct relationship 
of the thick-billed islanders with Fringillidse. 

In the general build and in the pattern of colour Loxio'ides and Bhodacanthis 
resemble certain Tanagridse — say, for instance, Saltator, Orchesticus, and Pitylus — much 
more than they do any of the Fringillidse. The Tanagridse seem to be devoid of a 
pronounced crop, they possess only a slight dilatation ; but the same applies also to 
Embernagra among the Fringillidse, and thus this once cherished character is weakened. 
On the other hand, the Tanagridse differ strongly from the Sandwich Island birds in 
the structure of the palate (especially their broad maxillo-palatine processes and the 
partly separated palatines) and the tongue, which is fleshy, rather bifid, and ends in 
two cone-shaped horny caps. 

However, the Tanagridse are in all probability related to the Coerebidse, the latter 






representing the lower, older stage, but having specialized in bill and tongue. In my 
former paper I pointed to these same Ccerebidse as the possible ancestral relations 
of the typical Drepanididae. It is, I think, significant that I should now, in a round- 
about way, again be led towards this same family of birds. It was my fault that I did 
not take the Tanagridse into our confidence ; it would have been a small step only 
from the Ccerebidse, but I was biased by the watchword "Finches" or not Finches. 

Let us now sum up. Concerning the Tanagridse, they are neither the descendants 
nor are they the direct ancestors of the thick-billed Sandwich Island birds, but they 
come very near them. The origin of the Drepanididae we do not know ; in my former 
paper I hinted at the Ccerebidae. I still fail to see any valid reasons against such a 
descent : on the contrary, it seems now a little more probable. 

The Sandwich Islands have received their characteristic bird population from the 
south-east, as an offshoot of the Columbian fauna (Drepanididae sensu latiore), and 
from the south-west — Australian Meliphagida?, namely, Acrulocercus and Chcdoptila, 
whose near relation, Leptomis, lives in the Fiji Islands; the Flycatcher [Chasiempis 
sandvicensis) has its nearest relation, Ch. dimidiata, in Rarotonga, and the Thrush-like 
Phasornis points also towards the south-west. 



INDEX. 



Acanthis, 93. 

Acanthochcera, 227, 228, 234. 

carunculata, 228. 

Acanthorhynchus, 227, 236. 

Accipiter hawaii, xix, 180, 185. 

Accipitees, xxiii. 

Acridotheres tristis '?, xxv. 

Acroceplialus familiaris, xxv. 

Aerulocercus, xvii, xviii, xxiii, 5, 16, 104, 106, 107, 

229, 230, 233, 234, 245, 246, 249. 

apicalis, xxii, xxir, xxvii, 103, 104. 

bishopi, xxii, xxiv, 104, 111. 

braccatus, xxiv, 4, 99, 100, 101, 104, 219, 

225, 227, 240. 

■ niger, 105. 

nobilis, xxiv, xxvii, 4, 5, 11, 87, 99, 100, 

101, 103-105, 111, 171, 173, 219, 227. 
Actitis incana, 158. 
-JSstrelata sandwichensis, 213. 
Alajjdim:, 237. 
AmpeliDjE, 236. 
Ampelis, 225. 
Anas_ aberti, 191. 

acuta, 193. 

boscas, 191. 

bosclias'?, 191. 

dypeata, 195. 

freycineti, 192. 

laysanensis, xxv. 

obscura, 191. 

sandvicensis, 191. 

superciliosa, 191. 

superciliosa, var., 191. 

superciliosa, var. a, sandwichensis, 191. 

wyvilliana, xvi, 191, 192. 

_4wows hawaiiensis, 141, 143. 

melanoyenys, 143. 

niger, 141. 



Anous stolidus, 141. 

■ tenuirostris, 143. 

Anser cygnoides, 187. 

hauaiensis, 187. 

haivaiensis, 187. 

■ hawaiiensis, 187. 

hyperboreus, 188, 189. 

sandvicensis, 187. 

Anseres, xxiii. 

AntJiochcera? angustipluma, 113. 
Arachnothera, 237, 246. 
-4rcfea ? ccerulea, var. y, 199. 

ea?SKs, 201. 

grisea, 201. 

ncevia, 201. 

nycticorax, 201. 

sacra, 199, 201. 

{Herodias) sacra, 199. 

Aedeid^;, 199. 

Arenaria interpres, 159. 

-4sio acc.ipitrinus, xix, xxiii, 42, 133. 

brachyotus, 133. 

sandvicensis, 133. 

■ sandwichensis, 134. 

Attagen aquilus, 203. 
Austrocoraces, 239. 

Bernicla minima, xxv. 

munroi, xxv. 

nigricans, xxv. 

sandvicensis, 187, 188, 191. 

sandwichensis, 187. 

Botaurus exilis, 201. 
Brachyotus galapagoensis, 133. 
Branta (Leucopareia) sandwichensis, 

187. 
Bulweria anjinho, 211. 
bulweri, 211. 



INDEX. 



Bulwerici colunibina, 211. 

macgillivrayi, 211, 212. 

Buteo, xviii. 

— pennsylvanicus, 182. 

solitarius, 179, 181-183, 185. 

{Onychites) solitarius, 179, 181. 

Byrseus coccineus, 49. 

Calidris arenaria, 153, 159. 
Cardinalis, 238. 
Carduelis coccinea, 49. 
Carpodacus, xix, 77. 

■ frontalis, xxv. 

Certhia, xiv, 4, 10, 68, 100. 

coccinea, 9, 10. 

ohscura, 65, 67, 68. 

pacijica, 3, 4, 99, 114. 

sanguined, 19. 

vestiaria, 9. 

virens, 29. 

Clicetoptilct, xvii, xviii, xxiii, 15, 90, 113, 229, 234, 

249. 
angustipluma, xxii, xxiv, 113, 149, 219, 

228. 
Oharadrius auratus orientalis, 161. 

dominicus fulvus, 161. 

■ /wZi'MS, 161. 

■ glaucopus, 161. 

" like C. hiaticula," xxv, 158. 

pluvialis, 161. 

taitensis, 161. 

virginianus, 161. 

xantlioclieilus, 161. 

Chadempis, xviii, xxiii, 125-128, 222, 249. 

dimidiata, 249. 

■ dolei, 131. 

■ <?«?/*') xxii, xxiv, 127, 129, 131. 

Mis, 125, 126. 

riclgwayi, 125, 126. 

sandvicensis, ix, xxiv, 21, 125, 126, 129, 131, 

219, 222, 240, 249. 

■ sandivicliensis, 125, 129, 131. 

scZateri, xxii, xxiv, 126, 129, 131. 

Cliasiempsis, 223. 

ohscura, 121. 

sandvicensis, 125. 

sandivicliensis, 125. 

C%«« liyperhoreus, xxv. 

Chloridops, xvii, xxi, 84, 98, 127, 243, 246-248. 

7i;ona, xviii, xxii, xxiv, 97. 



CWo™?, 246, 248. 

Ixtwaraliiha, xviii, 247. 

Icittlitzi, xviii. 

Ohlorodrepanis, xxi, 35. 

■ cliloridoides, xxi, xxii, xxiv. 

■ cldoris, xxi, xxiv. 

Icalaana, xxi, xxii, xxiv. 

stejnegeri, xxi, xxii, xxiv. 

virens, xxi, xxiv. 

ivilsoni, xxi, xxii, xxiv. 

Chrysomitridops xxi, 42, 59, 235, 245-248. 

ca;rideirostris, xxii, xxiv, xxvii, 33, 59, 219 

233. 
Clirysomitris, 247. 
Oinclus interpres, 159. 
CinxteimoepuvE, 227, 235-239. 
Circus cyaneus liudsonius, 185. 

liudsonius, xix, 180, 185. 

Ciridops, xix, xxi, xxii, 23, 243. 

anna, xxiv, 23. 

sp., 23. 

Onipolegus, sp. ?, 125. 
Coccotliraustcs, 224, 238, 247. 
Coccothkaustin^;, 247, 248. 
Ctere&a, 232. 

longirostris, 241. 

CcEEEBiDiE, xviii, 235-239, 244, 248, 249. 
CoUyriocincla, 221. 
sandivicliensis, 221. 

COKTKOSTRES, 238. 

Corethrura ohscura, 171. 
— — sandivicliensis, 175. 
Coevidje, xxiv, 239. 
Oorvus, xviii. 

■ ■ liawaiiensis, 1, 21, 180. 

ossifragus, 2. 

■ tropicus, xxiv, 1. 

(Pliysocorax) liawaiiensis et tropicus, 1. 

? Gracticus ater, 1. 

Crex sandivicliensis, 176-178. 

Qymocliorea cryptoleucura, 209. 



Dafila acutd, 193. 

caudacuta, 193. 

Bemiegretta sacra, 199. 
DiciEiDiE, xviii, 33, 37, 38, ! 

239. 
Bicceum, 235. 
pectorale, 241. 

trigonostigma, 241. 



, 90, 225, 235- 



INDEX. 



Diomedea albatrus (chinensis), xxv. 

brachyura, 217. 

■ , an exulansl, 217. 

■ immutabilis, 217. 

melanophrys, 217. 

■ nigripes, xxv. 

Drepanidid,e, xviii-xxii, xxiv, 15, 16, 59, 84, 222, 

223, 229-239, 244-249. 
Drepanis, xxi, xxii, 4, 5, 7, 16, 20, 49, 56, 68, 90, 

229, 235, 243, 245-247. 

aurea, 49, 50, 55-57. 

byronensis, 19. 

coccinea, 9, 12, 67. 

, ellisiana, 68. 

? fava,29, 30. 

funereu, xx, xxii, xxiv, 7. 

obscura, 67. 

olivacea, 75. 

pacifica, xxiv, 3-8, 50, 103, 104, 106, 107, 

173,219,227-229,234,246. 

rosea, 10, 11. 

rufa, 49, 53. 

sangainea, 12, 19, 29. 

vestiaria, 9. 

(Semignathus) ellisiana, 65—67. 

( ) lucida, 73, 75. 

(Himatione) sanguined, 19, 27, 29, 43. 

( Vestiaria) coccinea, 10, 67. 

Emberiza, 224, 225. 

ciris, xix. 

Embemagra, 248. 
Entomiza, 113. 

? angustipluma, 113. 

Eopsaltria sandvicensis, 125. 

• (CJiasiempis) maculata, 128. 

? (Chasiempis) sandwichensis, 129. 

(Chasiempsis) maculata, 128. 

(Chasiempsis) obscura, 121. 

?- ■ (Chasiempsis) sandwichensis, 129. 

(Phceomis) obscura, 121. 

Estrilda, 224, 238. 



Falco hudsonius, 185. 
Fregata aquila, 203. 

minor, 203. 

Fringilla, xix, 225. 

anna, xix, 23. 

chloris, 97. 

coccinea, 49, 53. 






Fringilla coelebs, 225. 

ra/a, 49, 53. 

Feixgiilidj!:, xvii, xviii, xxi, 223-225, 236-239, 

243-248. 
Fkixgillifoembs, 236, 237, 239, 244. 
Fidica alae, 163. 

• aZai, 163, 164, 167. 

ortra, 163. 

chloropus, 165, 167. 

Gallinago "like ff. scolopacina" xxv, 158. 
Gallinula chloropus, 165. 

galeata, 165-167. 

galeata sandvicensis, 165. 

sandvicensis, 165-167, 169. 

sp. ?, 165. 

Gambetta fuliginosa, 151. 

oceanica, 151. 

Geocichla, 222. 
Geospiza, 247. 
Gracula longirostra, 105,' 106. 

n.o6i&, 105, 106. 

Grallina, 221. 
Cryr/is aZ6a, 145. 
Candida, 145. 

Haliplana fuliginosa, 137. 

lunata, 139. 

Hemignathv.s, xiv, xv, xxi, xxii, 7, 16, 37, 68, 71, 

75, 77, 79, 81, 90, 230-232, 234, 235, 238, 

245-247. 

■ affinis, 77, 79. 

ellisianus, 65. 

hanapepe, 77, 79, 81. 

lanaiensis, xxii, xxiv, 71. 

■ lichtensteini, xxii, xxiv, 65, 68, 73. 

■ lucidus, 73-75, 82. 

obscurus, xxiv, 61, 63, 65-68, 71, 79. 

— — olivaceus, 61, 75, 81, 82, 219, 233, 241. 

procerus, xxii, xxiv, 61, 219, 229, 233, 241. 

— • stejnegeri, 61, 68, 76. 

ivilsoni, 74, 77, 78. 

Ileteractitis, 152. 

■ ■ brevipes, 152. 

incana, 152. 

incanus, 151. 

Heterorhijnchus, xxi, xxiv, 37, 71, 75, 77. 

affinis, xxii, xxiv, 77. 

hanapepe, xxii, xxiv, 123. 

lucidus, xxii, xxiv, 37, 73. 

ft 



254 



INDEX. 



Beterorhynclius olivaeeus, xxii, 74, 75. 

wilsoni, xxii, xxiv. 

JJeteroscelus, 152. 

brevipes, 151. 

incanus, 151. 

Himantopus brasiliensis, 155. 

candidus, 155, 158. 

Jcandseni, 155. 

— - — hnudseni, xxii, 155-157. 

• mexicanus, 155, 156, 158. 

nigricollis?, 155, 156. 

Himatione, xxi, xxii, 15, 16, 20, 21, 37, 42, 55, 
79, 84, 232-235, 237, 243, 245, 247. 

aurea, 55. 

cJiloriddides, 28. 

cftZoru, xxii, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 44. 

dolei, 15. 

dolii, xxii, 15. 

tflava, 29, 30, 33. 

freeihi, xxiv, xxv. 

TcaZaana, 28. 

maculata, xxi, 34, 43. . 

mana, xxi, 47. 

• montana, xxi, 41, 45. 

neivtoni, xxi, 41. 

parva, xxi, xxii, 33, 34, 42, 46, 59, 81. 

■ sanguinea, ix, xxi, xxiv, 12, 15, 16, 19-21, 

29, 30, 33, 43, 219, 231, 240. 

stejnegeri, 25, 31, 81. 

virens, ix, 21, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 43, 47, 50, 

219, 231, 240. 
wilsoni, 31. 

HlEUNDIXIDJE, 236. 

Hypoloxias, 57. 

■ ■ aurea, 55, 56. 

coccinea, 49. 

ICTEBIDiE, 236. 

Icterus, 224. 

Baltimore, 109. 

Lanum, 239. 
Laxiin^:, 237. 
Larus sp. indet., xxv. 
Leptornis, 249. 
XiMicoiiE, xxiii. 
Linaria, 224. 

? coccinea, 49, 53. 

Loxia, 224, 225. 

pityopsittacus, 24Q. 



Loxia psittacea, 85. 

Loxigilla, 247. 

Loxidides, xvii, xxi, 84, 89-91, 224, 225, 234, 237- 

239, 243, 245-248. 

bailleni, 89. 

■ ■ bailleui, xxiv, 89, 97, 219, 223, 224, 240. 

Loxops, xxi, xxii, 33, 37-39, 42, 53, 55, 56, 230, 

232-235, 243, 245-248. 

aurea, xxiv, 49, 55, 56. 

• cceruleirostris, 56. 

coccinea, xxiv, 33, 37, 40, 49, 53, 56, 219, 

231. 

coccineus, 49. 

flammea, xxi, 39. 

ochracea, 55, 57. 

rosea, 10. 

rufa, xxiv, 53. 

wohtenholmei, 53. 

(G7i?-ysomiiridops) cceruleirostris, 55. 

Meliornis, 227. 
Meliphaga, 113, 227, 234. 

fasciculata, 105. 

MELrPHAGiDJ?, xvii, xxiv, 15, 16, 35, 36, 104, 113, 

225-229, 235-239. 
Helipbtagiioe, 237. 
Melitlirtptes vestiaria, 9. 
Melithreptus, 68. 

obscurus, 67. 

pacificus, 3. 

• vestiarius, 9, 67. 

virens, 29. 

Mellisuga coccinea, 9. 
Merops, 105. 

fasciculatus, 105. 

niger, 105. 

sp.?, 9. 

Merula, 222. 

Micranous haivaiiensis, 143. 
Miro, 222. 
Mniotiltim:, 236. 
Moho, 106, 113, 114. 

angustipluma, 113. 

apicalis, 103, 104. 

- — — atriceps, 113. 

braccata, 99, 114. 

niger, 105. 

■ nobilis, 99, 103-105, 114. 

Mohoa, 99, 113. 

angustipluma, 113. 



. INDEX. 



255 



Molioa apicalis, 100, 103. 

braccata, 99, 100. 

fasciculata, 99, 105. 

nobilis, 100, 105. 

Motacillid^:, 236. 

Muscicapa maculata, 126, 128, 129. 

obscura, 121. 

sanduicensis, 125. 

sandvicensis, 125. 

sanclwichensis, 125, 126, 129. 

MusciCAPiDiE, xix, xxiv, 220-224, 239. 
Myzomela, 234. 

? sanguinea, 19. 

MrzoMEiiN^;, 237. 

Nectarinia, xiv, 100, 226, 230. 

byronensis, 19, 20. 

coccinea, 9. 

? jftwa, 29, 30. 

? niger, 105. 

sanguinea, 19. 

Nectakintid^!, xviii, 235, 237. 
Nestor meridionalis, 91, 108. 
Nurnenius australis, 147, 149. 

femoralis, 114, 147-149. 

hudsonius, 148. 

phceopus, 147, 148. 

tahitiensis, 147, 148. 

taitensis, 147. 

Nycticorax griseus, xxiii, 199, 201. 

nycticorax, 201. 

nycticorax ncevius, 201. 



Oceanodroma castro, xxii. 

cryptoleucura, 209. 

(Estrelata bulweri, 211. 

coolcii, 213. 

licesitata, 213. 

liypoleuca, xxv. 

meridionalis, 214. 

neglecta, 215. 

phceopygia, xxii, 213, 214. 

sandwichensis, 213, 214. 

Onychoprion fuliginosus, 137. 

lunatus, 139. 

Onycliotes gruberi, 179, 181-183. 

■ solitarius, 179. 

Orchesticus, 248. 

Oreomyza, xxi, 36, 37, 42, 43, 46, 233-235, 243, 
245, 247. 



Orcomyza bairdi, xiii, xxi, xxii, xxiv, 33, 37, 38, 
41, 47, 219, 232, 241. 

flammea, xxi, xxii, xxiv. 

maculata, xxi, xxiv, 43. 

mana, xxi, xxii, xxiv, 41. 

montana, xxi, xxii, xxiv, 41. 

newtoni, xxi, xxii, xxiv, 41. 

wilsoni, 37. 

(liothseliildia) parva, xxii. 

Ortygometra cinerea, 176. 

■ obscure, 171. 

— sandvicensis, 175. 

? sandivichensis, 171, 175. 

Oscines, 235, 238, 239, 244. 
0<«s brachyotus, 133. 

■ brachyotus, var., 133. 

galapagoensis, 133. 

palustris, 133. 

Pacliycephala, 220. 

Pachycephalinje, 220, 221. 

Pacliycephalopsis, 220. 

Palmeria, xxi, xxii, 15, 16, 243, 245, 246. 

fM«, 15. 

■ rfoZw, xxiv, 15. 

mirabilis, 15. 

Pandion solitarius, 179, 181. 

{Polioaetus) solitarius, 179. 

Panurus, 225. 

Paradoxornis, 90. 

Paroaria, 244, 246. 

Passer domesticus, xxv, 225. 

Passeees, xv, xvii, xx-xxiii, 231, 238, 244. 

Pelecanus aquilus, 203. 

Pennula ecaudata, 171, 175, 177. 

wwZZa, 171, 172. 

wnZfoi, 171. 

sandvicensis, 175. 

sandivichensis, 171, 175, 176. 

wilsoni, 175, 176-178. 

Petrodroma sanguinea, 19. 

Phceomis, xix, 117, 122, 220, 221, 223, 249. 

lanaiensis, xxii, xxiv, 119. 

myaclestina, 117. 

myiadestina, xxii, xxiv, 117, 119, 122-124. 

oahensis, xiii. 

oahuensis, xxiv. 

obscura, xiii, xxiv, xxvii, 86, 119, 121, 122, 

219-221, 239. 
pcdmeri, xxii, xxiv, 123, 124. 



256 



INDEX. 



Phaethon cethereus, 205, 207. 

phoenicurus, 207. 

rubricauda, 205, 207. 

Phaeton ceihereus, 205, 207. 

, an candidus ?, 205. 

phoenicurus, 207. 

rubricauda, 207. 

Pheucticus, 246. 
Philemon fasciculatus, 105. 
Phrygilus, 224. 
Phyllornis tonganensis, 29>. 

virens, 29. 

Pinarolestes, 221. 
Pinarolo.vias, 37. 
Pinicola, 224. 
Pi'tyZws, 246, 248. 
Plectrojphanes lapp&nicus, 224. 
Plegadis guarauna, 197. 

PlOCEIDiE, 237. 

Pluvialis fulvus, 161. 

longipes, 161. 

xanthocheilos, 161. 

Pogonomis, 227, 

cincta, 5. 

Polioaetus solitarius, 179. 
Porzana sandvicensis, 175. 
Porzanula palmeri, xxv. 
Prionopid2e, xviii, 221. 
Procellaria alba, 21, 213-216. 

anjinho, 211. 

bulweri, 211. 

macgillivrayi, 211. 

Promerops, 235. 

Prosthemadera novce-zealandice, 91. 

Pseudonestor, xxi, 83, 84, 243, 245-248. 

xanthophrys, xxii, xxiv, 83. 

Psittaci, 237. 
Psittacina olivacea, 85. 

Psittacirostra, xvii, xxii, 37, 38,84, 86, 87, 93, 220, 
224, 225, 234, 237-239, 243, 245-247. 

icterocepliala, 85. 

psittacea, xxiv, xxvii, 59, 85, 219, 224, 240. 

Psittacopis psittacea, 85. 
Psittirostra, 86, 88-90. 

icterocepliala, 85. 

psittacea, 85, 87, 88. 

sandvicensis, 85. 

P^o/m, 228, 234. 
Ptiloturus fasciculatus, 105. 
Puffinus, 215, 216. 



Puffinus bulleri, 215. 

chlororhynchus, 215. 

columbinus, 211. 

creatopus, 215. 

cuneatus, xxii, 215. 

Tcnudseni, 215. 

tneridionalis, 213. 

nativitatis, xxv. 

obscurus, 216. 

Pgrrhula, 224, 225, 247. 

Eallid^:, xxiii, 172. 

llallus acaudatus, 171. 

ecaudatus, 106, 171, 172. 

obscura, 111. 

- obscurus, 171, 177, 178. 

sanduicensis, 175. 

sandvichensis, 171, 175. 

■ sandwichensis, 175, 176. 

Pecto, 221. 

Phipidura, xviii. 

Bhodacanthis, xxi, 84, 93, 98, 243, 245-248. 

flaviceps, xxii, xxiv, 94, 95. 

palmeri, xxii, xxiv, 93, 95. 

Phynchaspis clypeata, 195. 
Pothschildia, xxi. 
parva, xxi, xxiv. 

Saltatar, 248. 

Scolopax guarauna, 197. 

incana, 151. 

phceopusl, 147. 

solitaris, 151. 

tahitiensis, 147. 

• ■ undulata, 151. 

Sittacodes, 85. 

Spatula clypeata, 195, 196. 

Sterna alba, 145. 

anwstheta, 139. 

bergii, xxv. 

Candida, 145. 

fuliginosa, 137, 139. 

■ lunata, 139. 

■ oahuensis, 137. 

owhyhaensis, 143. 

? panayana, 137. 

stolida, 141. 

(Onychoprion) serrata, 137. 

Strepsilas interpres, 159. 
Strigiceps, 114. 



INDEX. 



257 



Strix brachyotus, 133. 

? delicatula, 185. 

sandwicliensis, 133. 

Strobilophaga psittacea, 85. 
Stryx accipitrina, 133. 
Sturnopastor, 16. 
Sula cyanops, xxv. 

leucogaster (sula), xxv. 

piscator, xxv. 

Sylvunze, 237. 

TacJiypetes aquila, 203. 

aquilus, 203. 

palmerstoni, 203. 

? Tcenioptera obscura, 117, 121. 
Tanagra, 248. 

■ bonariensis, 246. 

Tanagrid2e, 236, 244, 248, 249. 
Telespiza, xxi. 

■ ■ cantans, xviii, xxii, xxiv, xxv. 

Jiavissima, xxii, xxiv, xxv. 

Tenuirostres, 236. 
Thalasddroma bulweri, 211. 

sp. ?, 209. 

Thyellus, 215. 
Totanus, 152. 

brevipes, 151, 152. 

fidiginosus, 151. 

incanus, 151, 152. 

oceanicus, 151. 

pedestris, 151. 

polynesice, 151. 



Totanus solitarius, 151. 

undulatm, 151. 

(Gambetta) incanus, 151. 

Tringa arenaria, 153. 

interpres, 159. 

oahuensis, 159. 

Trochilid^;, 238. 

Turdidje, xix, xxiv, 220, 221. 

IWws, 222. 

sandivicJiensis, xiii, 121. 

tvoahensis, xiii, 

Turnagra, xix. 
Turtur chinensis, xxv. 
Tyrannula, 121. 

obscura, 121. 

Vestiaria, xxi, xxii, 11, 20, 37, 68, 75, 229, 231, 

233-235, 237, 238, 245-247. 

aJcaroa, 67. 

coccinea, ix, xxiv, 5, 9, 21, 66, 68, 86, 87, 107, 

180, 219, 230, 231, 240. 

m, 9. 

Jieterorhynchus, 75. 

7io7to, 3. 

ra«a, 225. 

Viridonia, xxi, xxii, 35, 43, 243, 245, 247. 

maculata, 43. 

sagittirostris, xxii, xxiv, 35. 

Zapornia sandwicliensis, 175. 
ZosxERopiDiE, 235, 236. 
Zosterops, 239. 



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,d 







Fig. I. 







Fig. II. 

Fig. I. HlMATIONE SANGUINEA. 
Fig. EI. HlMATIONE VIRENS. 



m 



m* 






■ ■^k-i 





/■ ' 



F.'W Itdhawi del. et.Tith. 



1-6. HTMATIO..N.E, sp. 
7-9. CHASIEMPIS, sp. 



"West, Newman imp'. 



'. V- 






















■■*■<•/.« 



1 






Chasiempis sandvicensis. 




PART I.] 



[DECEMBER 1890. 



AVES HAWAIIENSES: 




THE BIRDS 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., 

ASSISTED BY 

A. H. EVANS, M.A., F.Z.S. 



CONTENTS. 



PlLEORNIS OBSCURA. 
ACRULOCERCUS BRACCATUS. 
ACRULOCERCUS NOBILIS. 
LOXOPS COCCINEA. 



LOXOPS FLAMMEA. 

ChRYSOMITRIDOPS CJSRULEIROSTRIS. 
LOXIOIDES BAILLEUI. 
VESTIARIA COCCINEA. 




LONDON: 

R. H. PORTER, 18 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1890. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOB AND 1RAACIS, RED HOS COURT, FLEET STREET. 



%* Part II. will contain an Illustrated Dissertation on the 



STRUCTURE 

OF SOME 

BIKDS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 

IN REFERENCE TO THEIR SYSTEMATIC POSITION. 
BY 

Dr. HANS GADOW, M.A., Ph.D., 

STRICKLAND CURATOR AND LECTURER ON THE ADVANCED MORPHOLOGY OF VERTEBRATES IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. 



The Birds of the Sandwich Islands, 



SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES ALREADY RECEIVED. 



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CHAMBERLAIN, Walter, Esq. 
CHASE, R. W., Esq. 
CLARKE, W. Eagle, Esq., F.L.S. 
CORY, C. B„ Esq., E.Z.S. 
CROWLEY, P., Esq., F.Z.S. 

DIXON, Abraham, Esq. 
DOGGETT, Mr. F. 
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LILFORD, The Rt. Hon. Lord, F.Z.S. 

LUCAS, F. W., Esq. 

MACINTOSH, James, Esq. 



MANGER, W. T., Esq. 
MILLAIS, J. G., Esq., F.Z.S. 
MILNER, Edward, Esq. 
MORTLOCK, W., Esq. 

NEWTON, Sir Edward, M.A., K.C.M.G., F.L.S. 
NEWTON, Prof., M.A., F.R.S. 
NOBLE, W., Esq. 

OXLEY, Mrs. E. 

PARKER, Captain R. Townley. 
PURYIS, Herbert, Esq. 

ROBINSON, Aubrey, Esq. 

ROOKE, P. H., Esq. 

ROTHSCHILD, The Hon. Walter, F.Z.S. 

ROYAL College of Surgeons. 

RUSSELL, S. G. C, Esq. 

SALVADORI, Count T. 
SALYIN, Capt. F. H. 
SALYIN, Osbert, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
SCLATER, P. L., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
SEEBOHM, H., Esq., F.Z.S. 
SINCLAIR, Francis, Esq. 
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ZOOLOGICAL Society of London. 






To be completed in 5 Parts, price 21s. each. 




AVES HAWAIIENSES: 





[SEPTEMBER 1891 



THE BIRDS 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., F.E.G.S., 

ASSISTED BY 

A. H. EVANS, M.A., RZ.S. 
CONTENTS. 

Remarks on the Structure of certain Hawaiian Birds, with reference to their Systematic 
Position. By Hans Gadow, M.A., Ph.D., Strickland Curator and Lecturer on 
the Advanced Morphology of Vertebrates in the University of Cambridge. 



PsiTTACIROSTRA PSITTACEA. 

Peleornis lanaiensis. 
Peleornis myiadestina. 
Drepanis pacifica. 
hlmatione sanguinea. 



Oreomyza BAIRDI. 

CbLETOPTILA ANGUSTIPLTJMA. 

Bbteo solitarius. 
Circus hudsonius. 
asio accipitrinus. 



LONDON: 
R. H. PORTER, 18 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1891. 




u 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FIEET STREET. 



The Birds of the Sandwich Islands, 



SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES ALREADY RECEIVED. 



RESIDENTS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 
H.R.H. THE PRINCESS VICTORIA KAIULANI. 



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ZOOLOGICAL Society of London. 



To "be completed in 5 Parts, price 21s. each. 



n 




PAET III.] 



AVES HAWAIIENSES: 



THE BIRDS 



OF THE 



SANDWICH ISLANDS, 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., F.E.G.S., 



ASSISTED BY 

A. II. EVANS, M.A., F.Z.S. 



CONTENTS. 



Hemignathus obscurus. 

'' Hemignathus olivaceus. 

Hemignathus procerus. 

Hemignathus hanapepe. 

HlMATIONE PARVA. 
HlMATIONE MONTANA. 




hlmatione stejnegeri. 
Charadrius fulvus. 
Strepsilas INTERPRES. 
numemus tahitiens1s. 
totanus incanus. 
Calidris arenaria. 




LONDON: 

R. II. PORTER, 18 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W 

1892. 



- 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND I'RANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STEEET. 




The Birds of the Sandwich Islands, 



SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES ALREADY RECEIVED. 



KESIDENTS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 
H.R.H. THE PRINCESS VICTORIA KAIULANI. 



BISHOP, Charles R., The Hon. (2 copies.) 
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GAY, Francis, Esq. 
HAWAIIAN News Co., The. 
KNUDSEN, Mrs. Y. 



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HARVARD College. 
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JAMES, H. Berkeley, Esq., F.Z.S. 



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ZOOLOGICAL Society of London. 



A FEW OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 



'THE BIRDS OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.' 



- > m 4 » <- 



THE IBIS. 

"We are much pleased to welcome the first part of Mr. Scott Wilson's promised volume on the avifauna of the 
Hawaiian Islands, and trust he will be able, with the assistance of Mr. Evans, to bring it to a satisfactory conclusion. 
It will be very convenient to have the great advances which Mr. Wilson has undoubtedly made in our knowledge of 
this most interesting subject incorporated with all that was previously known of it. 

" Mr. Frokawk's plates will give pleasure to all who study them." 

THE AUK. 

" The progress of Ornithology of late years is well exemplified by the work before us. Twenty years ago a small 
octavo pamphlet held all we knew about the birds of one of the most interesting and peculiar zoogeograpbical 
provinces ; while to-day it requires a handsome quarto volume with numerous coloured plates to fully represent our 
knowledge of the subject. Twenty years ago the number of species known to inhabit the Hawaiian Islands was con- 
sidered to be about forty by the best authority, Sclater (' Ibis/ 1871, p. 361). To-day the number is scarcely less than 
seventy ; and the most astonishing fact is that this increase of our knowledge of one of the most accessible and most 
civilized archipelagoes in the Pacific Ocean has taken place during the last five years. To Mr. Scott B. Wilson, who 
spent eighteen months on the islands in order to study their ornithology, much credit is due for this increase, and it is 
with great pleasure that we extend our welcome to the work which he is now publishing ; and we wish especially to 
call the attention of our American Ornithologists to it, as, from the situation of the Hawaiian Archipelago in relation to 
our own continent, we ought to take more interest in its avifauna than has been done hitherto. 

" Thework is uniform in appearance with most of the more ambitious ornithological monographs which have been 
published in England of late years, and is issued in Five Parts, two of which have already been published. These two 
Parts treat of eighteen species, and are accompanied by twenty Plates, some of them representing species now extinct or 
nearly so. The second Part contains a very valuable and interesting treatise by Dr. Hans Gadow, 'On the Structure 
of certain Hawaiian Birds, with reference to their Systematic Position,' to the illustration of which three of the Plates 
are devoted. Many unexpected conclusions are the result of his investigation, and the ornithological public is under 
great obligations to Mr. Scott B. Wilson for not having spared any expense in. order to have this side of the ornithology 
of the group as well taken care of as that devoted to the outside of the birds alone. For details and information we 
refer the reader to the book itself, and we advise all who can afford it to subscribe for it. 

" The author has had heavy expenses in order to bring it out, and the- work is well worth encouragement. — L. S." 



THE FIELD. 

"The avi-fauna of the Sandwich Islands has been but imperfectly investigated by the various naturalists and 

■ knowledge of it has been imperfect. The 
the depths of the sea), stayed in Hawaiian 



exploring expeditions that have visited those islands, and, consequently, our knowledge of it has been imperfect. The 
' Challenger,' in its historic voyage (which, however, was chiefly to explore th 



investigate their ornithology thoroughly. Mr. Wilson remained in the islands for nearly two' years, and brought back 
a much more complete collection than had been previously made. According to Professor Newton, Mr. Wilson has 
done a great deal more than anyone before him ; for he has not only brought back a considerable number of new species, 
but, in addition, several specimens of birds that are now extinct. One of the most beautiful of the latter is the mamo, 
whose rich yellow feathers were formerly used to decorate the state robss of the chiefs. Of this bjautiful bird not 
half-a-dozen skins exist in the whole world ; two are known at Vienna, and Mr. Wilson succeeded in obtaining two 
other specimens from the collection of an ornithologist long resident in the islands. These are now the only ones 
known in England. One Mr. Wilson has presented to* the Museum at Cambridge, and the other is in the possession of 
Mr. "Walter Botkschild. In the Ethnological collection of the British Museum is a cape formed entirely of the plumage 
of the mamo. Its dimensions are 3 feet 6 inches wide at the lower margin. Such a cape muat have required the 
plumage of some thousands of these birds. 

" The inevitable extinction of many birds from the destruction of the forests in the tropical islands is deeply to be 
regretted, and ornithologists are greatly indebted to Mr. Wilson for publishing the results of his investigations' in, the 
very beautiful monograph under notice. It contains representations, admirably drawn and coloured by Frohawk, of 
the species described, several of which have already been exterminated. The text accompanying these plates is most 
interesting, not only from an ornithological, but from an ethnological point of view. Two parts of the five of which 
the volume is to consist have already been published, and the third, which will shortly appear, will contain, an account 
of the wingless bird of Hawaii, which has now also become extinct." 

DAILY PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER. 
(HONOLULU.) 

"The first two numbers of the 'Aves Hawaiienses ' have reached Honolulu, It will be- remembered that 
Mr. Scott B, Wilson, F.Z.S., came out here five years ago and spent a couple of years making a thorough investigation 
into Hawaiian birds, and collecting specimens of all the varieties on the different islands* The results of his labours 
are now taking shape in ' The Birds of the Sandwich [it should be Hawaiian] Islands,' a truly magniticent work, to be 
completed in Five Parts and published by P.. H. Porter, 18 Princes Street, Cavendish Square', London. The two first 
numbers contain eighteen very handsome full-page coloured plates representing ea:th species described, and the work, 
when completed, will thus present a finished representation of each kind of bird known to these islands. Most persons 
will be surprised to learn that there are so many handsome birds found here. 

" The letterpress accompanying the plates gives, besides the scientific name and classification, a concise description 
of the bird and its habits, and other nutter of a popular kind, which will make the book intelii-rible and valuable to the 
I public as well SS to those whose interests are specifically scientific. This work, while possessing a general 
scientific value, will naturally be of especial value to sesidente ot rllis kingdom. " 




To be completed in 5 Parts, price 21s. each. 




[JANUARY 1893. 



AVES HAWAIIENSES: 



THE BIRDS 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., 



ASSISTED BY 



A. H. EVANS, M.A., F.Z.S. 



CONTENTS. 



CoRVUS TROPICUS. 
ClILORIDOPS KONA. 

ClRIDOPS ANNA. 
HlMATIONE AUREA. 
HlMATIONE MANA. 

Bernicla sandvicensis. 
Anas wyvilliana. 




DaFILA ACUTA. 

Spatula clypeata. 
Gallinula sandvicensis. 
fulica alai. 
hlmantopus knudseni. 
oceanodroma cryptoleucura 
pupfinus cuneatus. 



LONDON: 

R. H. PORTER, 18 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1893. 



FEINTED BY TAYLOR AND FEANCIS, EED LION COUET, FLEET STREET. 





SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES ALREADY RECEIVED, 



EESIDENTS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 
H.R.H. THE PRINCESS YICTORIA KAIULANI. 



BISHOP, Charles R., The Hon. (2 copies.) 
CARTER, Mrs. Sybil A. (2 copies.) 
CLEGHORN, A. S., The Hon. 
GAY, Francis, Esq. 
HAWAIIAN News Co., The. 
KNUDSEN, Mrs. Y. 



ROBINSON, Aubrey, Esq. 
SINCLAIR, Francis, Esq. 
SMITH, Armstrong, Esq., F.R.G.S. 
SPENCER, Francis, Esq. 
TERRELL, F., Esq. 
YAN TEMPSKY, Randal, Esq. 



ARGYLL, His Grace the Duke of, E.G. 
ASHER & Co., Messrs. (3 copies.) 

BAIN, Mr. J. 

BALSTON, R. J., Esq., F.Z.S. 
BEALE, Lionel S., Prof., M.B.* F.R.S. 
BICKERTON, Mr. R. T. 
BREWSTER, William, Esq. 
BROWN, J., Esq. 
BUCKLEY, T. E., Esq. 
BURTON, Mr. H. T. 

CAMPBELL, Lord Archibald. 
CARPENTER, J. H., Esq. 
CARSON, John, Esq. 
CHAMBERLAIN, Walter, Esq. 
CHASE, R. W., Esq. 
CLARKE, W. Eagle, Esq., F.L.S. 
COBBETT, A., Esq. 
COOPER, E. H., Colonel, F.Z.S. 
CORY, C. B., Esq., F.L.S. 
CROWLEY, P., Esq., F.Z.S. 

DAYIES, T. H., Esq. 
DEACON, W. S., Esq. 
DIXON, Abraham, Esq. 
DOGGETT, Mr. F. 
DOWSETT, A., Esq. 
DOWSON, Edward Morris, Esq. 
DRESSER, H. E., Esq. 
DULAU & Co., Messrs. (4 copies.) 

EDINBURGH Museum of Science and Art. 
ELLIOTT, Ernest A., Esq. 

FRIEDLANDER u. Sohn. (3 copies.) 
FROHAAVK, F. W., Esq., F.E.S. 

GAGE GARDINER, Mrs. 
GODMAN, F. Du Cane, Esq., F.R.S. 
GREYEL & Co., Messrs. H. 

HARCOURT, E. W., Esq., M.P. 
HARRISON, Mrs. W. F. 
HARY ARD College. 
HARYIE BROWN, J. A„ Esq. 
HOFFNUNG, A., Esq. 
HOPE, T., Esq. 
HORNE, Edward, Esq., J.P. 

JAMES, H. Berkeley, Esq., F.Z.S. (the late). 
JENTINK, Dr. F. A. 



EEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, & Co., Messrs. 
KEMPEN, Prof. Ch. van. 
KIRBERGER & KESPER, Messrs. 

LEES, Edward B., Esq. 
LEVERKUHN, Herr Paul. 
LILFORD, The Rt. Hon. Lord, F.Z.S. 
LORENT, J. R., Esq. 
LOTHIAN, The Marquess of, F.L.S. 
LUCAS, F. W., Esq. 

MACINTOSH, James, Esq. 
MANGER, W. T., Esq. 
MIDLAND Educational Co., The. 
MILLAIS, J. G., Esq., F.Z.S. 
MILNER, Edward, Esq. 

NEWTON, Sir Edward, M.A., E.C.M.G., F.L.S. 
NEWTON, Prof., M.A., F.R.S. 
NOBLE, W., Esq. 

OGILYIE, Menteith, Esq. 
OXLEY, Mrs. E. 

PARKER, Captain R. Townley. 
PLUES, Miss. 
PURYIS, Herbert, Esq. 

REGEL, Dr. E. 

ROOKE, P. H., Esq. 

ROTHSCHILD, The Hon. Walter, F.Z.S. (2 copies.) 

ROYAL College of Surgeons. 

RUCKER, H., Esq. 

RUSSELL, S. G. C, Esq. 

SALYADORI, Count T. 

SALYIN, Capt. F. H. 

SALYIN, Osbert, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

SCLATER, P. L., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

SEEBOHM, H., Esq., F.Z.S. 

SHARPE, Dr. R. Bowdler. 

SMITH, Armstrong, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

SOTHERAN & Co., Messrs. H. 

STEJNEGER, Dr. L. 

TRISTRAM, The Rev. Canon, D.D., F.R.S. 
TULK, J. A., Esq. 

WESLEY & Son, Messrs. (2 copies.) 

WILSON, Bernard, Esq. 

WILSON, G.F.,Esq.,F.R.S.,F.L.S.,F.C.S. (3 copies.) 

WILSON, Herman G., Esq. 

WILSON, Robert, Esq. 

ZOOLOGICAL Society of London. 



A FEW OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 

ON 

'THE BIRDS OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.' 

> «♦» <. 



THE IBIS. 

"We are much pleased to welcome the first part of Mr. Scott Wilson's promised volume on the avifauna of the 
Hawaiian Islands, and trust he will be able, with the assistance of Mr. Evans, to bring it to a satisfactory conclusion. 
It will be very convenient to have the great advances which Mr. Wilson has undoubtedly made in our knowledge of 
this most interesting subject incorporated with all that was previously known of it. 

" Mr. Frohawk's plates will give pleasure to all who study them." 

THE AUK. 

" The progress of Ornithology of late years is well exemplified by the work before us. Twenty years ago a small 
octavo pamphlet held all we knew about the birds of one of the most interesting and peculiar zoogeograpkical 
provinces ; while to-day it requires a handsome quarto volume with numerous coloured plates to fully represent our 
knowledge of the subject. Twenty years ago the number of species known to inhabit the Hawaiian Islands was con- 
sidered to be about forty by the best authority, Selater ('Ibis,' 1871, p. 361). To-day the number is scarcely less than 
seventy ; and the most astonishing fact is that this increase of our knowledge of one of the most accessible and most 
civilized archipelagoes in the Pacific Ocean has taken place during the last five years. To Mr. Scott B. Wilson, who 
spent eighteen months on the islands in order to study their ornithology, much credit is due for this increase, and it is 
with great pleasure that we extend our welcome to the work which he is now publishing ; and we wish especially to 
call the attention of our American Ornithologists to it, as, from the situation of the Hawaiian Archipelago in relation to 
our own continent, we ought to take more interest in its avifauna than has been done hitherto. 

" The work is uniform in appearance with most of the more ambitious ornithological monographs which have been 
published in England of late years, and is issued in Eive Parts, two of which have already been published. These two 
Parts treat of eighteen species, and are accompanied by twenty Plates, some of them representing species now extinct or 
nearly so. The second Part contains a very valuable and interesting treatise by Dr. Hans Gadow, ' On the Structure 
of certain Hawaiian Birds, with reference to their Systematic Position,' to the illustration of which three of the Plates 
are devoted. _ Many unexpected conclusions are the* result of his investigation, and the ornithological public is under 
great obligations to Mr. Scott B. Wilson for not having spared any expense in order to have this side of the ornithology 
of the group as well taken care of as that devoted to the outside of the birds alone. For details and information we 
refer the reader to the book itself, and we advise all who can afford it to subscribe for it. 

" The author has had heavy expenses in order to bring it out, and the. work is well worth encouragement. — L. S." 

THE FIELD. 

"The avi-fauna of the Sandwich Islands has been but imperfectly investigated by the various naturalists and 
exploring expeditions that have visited those islands, and, consequently, our knowledge of it has been imperfect. The 
' Challenger,' in its historic voyage (which, however, was chiefly to explore the depths of the sea), stayed in Hawaiian 
waters for some three weeks in 1875, but the collection of birds made by the officers included only one new species. 
Some of the birds of these islands have been exterminated since the time of Capt. Cook, and others are likely to follow 
in their course. Under these circumstances, Professor Newton induced Mr. S. B. Wilson to visit the islands, and to 
investigate their ornithology thoroughly. Mr. Wilson remained in the islands for nearly two years, and brought back 
a much more complete collection than had been previously made. According to Professor Newton, Mr. Wilson has 
done a great deal more than anyone before him ; for he has not only brought back a considerable number of new species, 
but, in addition, several specimens of birds that are now extinct. One of the most beautiful of the latter is the mamo, 
whose rich yellow feathers were formerly used to decorate the state robes of the chiefs. Of this beautiful bird not 
half-a-dozen skins exist in the whole world ; two are known at Vienna, and Mr. Wilson succeeded in obtaining two 
other specimens from the collection of an ornithologist long resident in the islands. These are now the only ones 
known in England. One Mr. Wilson has presented to the Museum at Cambridge, and the other is in the possession of 
Mr. Walter Rothschild. In the Ethnological collection of the British Museum is a cape formed entirely of the plumage 
of the mamo. Its dimensions are 3 feet 6 inches wide at the lower margin. Such a cape must have required the 
plumage of some thousands of these birds. 

" The inevitable extinction of many birds from the destruction of the forests in the tropical islands is deeply to be 
regretted, and ornithologists are greatly indebted to Mr. Wilson for publishing the results of his investigations in the 
very beautiful monograph under notice. It contains representations, admirably drawn and coloured by Erohawk, of 
the species described, several of which have already been exterminated. The text accompanying these plates is most 
interesting, not only from an ornithological, but from an ethnological point of view. Two parts of the five of which 
the volume is to consist have already been published, and the third, which will shortly appear, will contain an account 
of the wingless bird of Hawaii, which has now also become extinct." 

DAILY PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER. 
(HONOLULU.) 

"The first two numbers of the 'Aves Hawaiienses ' have reached Honolulu. It will be remembered that 
Mr. Scott B. Wilson, E.Z.S., came out here five years ago and spent a couple of years making a thorough investigation 
into Hawaiian birds, and collecting specimens of all the varieties on the different islands. The results of his labours 
are now taking shape in ' The Birds of the Sandwich [it should be Hawaiian] Islands,' a truly magnificent work, to be 
completed in Eive Parts and published by P. H. Porter, 18 Princes Street, Cavendish Square, London. The two first 
numbers contain eighteen very handsome full-page coloured plates representing ea^h species described, and the work, 
when completed, will thus present a finished representation of each kind of bird known to these islands. Most persons 
will be surprised to learn that there are so many handsome birds found here. 

" The ietteipress accompanying the plates gives, besides the scientific name and classification, a concise description 
of the bird and its habits, and other matter of a popular kind, which will make the book intelligible and valuable to the 
general public as well as to those whose interests are specifically scientific. This work, while possessing a general 
scientific value, will naturally be of especial value to residents of this kingdom.'' 




To be completed in 6 Farts, price 21s. each. 






1 




[APEIL 1894. 



AVES HAWAIIENSES: 



THE BIRDS 



OF THE 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., 

ASSISTED BY 

A. II. EVANS, M.A., F.Z.S. 



CONTENTS. 



Palmeria dolii. 
Hemignathus lichtensteini. 
Hemignathus lucidus. 
Ehodacanthis palmeri. 

Drepanis funerea. 




acrulocercus bishopi. 
j acrulocercus apicalis. 
cestrelata pileopygia. 
Pennula ecaudata. 
Numenius tahitiensis. (Plate only.) 



LONDON: 

R. H. PORTER, 18 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1894. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




N.B.— Owing to the recent discoveries of Mr. Perkins and of Mr. Rothschild's collectors, the number 
of existing Sandwich Island birds proves to be so much larger than was formerly supposed that the 
issue of a sixth Part is unavoidable. 



The Birds of the Sandwich Islands, 



SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES ALREADY RECEIVED. 



RESIDENTS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

H.R.H. THE PRINCESS VICTORIA KAIULANI. 



BISHOP, Charles R., The Hon. (2 copies.) 
CARTER, Mrs. Sybil A. (2 copies.) 
CLEGHORN, A. S., The Hon. 
GAY, Erancis, Esq. 
HAWAIIAN News Co., The. 
KNUDSEN, Mrs. V. 



ROBINSON, Aubrey, Esq. 
SINCLAIR, Erancis, Esq. 
SMITH, Armstrong, Esq., F.R.G.S. 
SPENCER, Erancis, Esq. 
TERRILL, E., Esq. 
VAN TEMPSKY, Randal, Esq. 



ARGYLL, His Grace the Duke of, E.G. 
ASHER & Co., Messrs. (3 copies.) 

BAIN, Mr. J. 

BAL8TON, R. J., Esq., E.Z.S. 
BEALE, Lionel S., Prof., M.B., E.R.S. 
BICKERTON, Mr. R. T. 
BREWSTER, William, Esq. 
BROWN, J., Esq. 
BUCKLEY, T. E., Esq. 
BURTON, Mr. H. T. 

CAMPBELL, Lord Archibald. 
CARPENTER, J. H., Esq. 
CARSON, John. Esq. 
CHAMBERLAIN, Walter, Esq. 
CHASE, R. W., Esq. 
CLARKE, W. Eagle, Esq., E.L.S. 
COBBETT, A., Esq. 
COOPER, E. H., Colonel, E.Z.S. 
CORY, C. B., Esq., E.L.S. 
CROMPTON, Sidney, Esq. 
CROWLEY, P., Esq. ; F.Z.S. 

DAVIES, T. H., Esq. 

DEACON, W. S., Esq. 

DIXON, Abraham, Esq. 

DOGGETT, Mr. F. 

DOWSETT, A., Esq. 

DOWSON, Edward Morris, Esq. 

DRESSER, H. E., Esq. 

DULAU & Co., Messrs. (4 copies.) 

EDINBURGH Museum of Science and Art. 
ELLIOTT, Ernest A., Esq. 

FRIEDLANDER u. Sohn. (3 copies.) 
EROHAWK, F. W., Esq., F.E.S. 

GAGE GARDINER, Mrs. 
GODMAN, F. Du Cane, Esq., F.R.S. 
GREYEL & Co., Messrs. H. 

HARCOURT, E. W., Esq., M.P. 
HARRISON, Mrs. W. E. 
HARVARD College. 
HARVIE BROWN, J. A., Esq. 
HOEFNUNG, A., Esq. 
HOPE, T., Esq. 
HORNE, Edward, Esq., LP. 

INDIAN Museum, Calcutta. 

JAMES, H. Berkeley, Esq., F.Z.S. (the late). 
JENTINK, Dr. F. A. 



KEG AN PAUL, TRENCH, & Co., Messrs. (2 copies.) 
KEMPEN, Prof. Ch. van. 
KIRBERGER & KESPER, Messrs. 

LEES, Edward B., Esq. 
LEYERKUHN, Herr Paul. 
LILFORD, The Rt. Hon. Lord, E.Z.S. 
LORENT, J. R., Esq. 
LOTHIAN, The Marquess of, F.L.S. 
LUCAS, F. W., Esq. 

MACINTOSH, James, Esq. 
MANGER, W. T., Esq. 
MIDLAND Educational Co., The. 
MILLAIS, J. G., Esq., F.Z.S. 
MILNER, Edward, Esq. 

NEWTON, Sir Edward, M.A., K.C.M.G., F.L.S. 
NEWTON, Prof., M.A., F.R.S. 
NOBLE, W., Esq. 

OGILVIE, Menteith, Esq. 
OXLEY, Mrs. E. 

PARKER, Captain R. Townley, 
PLUES, Miss. 
PURVIS, Herbert, Esq. 

REGEL, Dr. E. 

ROBB, Mrs. 

ROOKE, P. H., Esq. 

ROTHSCHILD, The Hon. Walter, F.Z.S. (2 copies.) 

ROYAL College of Surgeons. 

RUCKER, H., Esq. 

RUSSELL, S. G. C, Esq. 

SALVADORI, Count T. 

SALVIN, Capt. F. H. 

SALVIN, Osbert, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

SCLATER, P. L., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

SEEBOHM, H., Esq., F.Z.S. 

SHARPE, Dr. R. Bowdler. 

SMITH, Armstrong, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

SOTHERAN & Co., Messrs. H. 

STECHERT, Mr. G. E. 

STEJNEGER, Dr. L. 

TRISTRAM, The Rev. Canon, D.D., F.R.S. 
TULK, J. A., Esq. 

WESLEY & Son, Messrs. (2 copies.) 

WILSON, Bernard, Esq. 

WILSON, G.F., Esq. ,F.R.S.,F.L.S.,F.C.S. (3 copies.) 

WILSON, Herman G., Esq. 

WILSON, Robert, Esq. 

ZOOLOGICAL Society of London. 



A FEW OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 



'THE BIRDS OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.' 



THE IBIS. 

"We are much pleased to welcome the first part of Mr. Scott Wilson's promised volume on the avifauna of the 
Hawaiian Islands, and trust he will be able, with the assistance of Mr. Evans, to bring it to a satisfactory conclusion. 
It will be very convenient to have the great advances which Mr. Wilson has undoubtedly made in our knowledge of 
this most interesting subject incorporated with all that was previously known of it. 

" Mr. Frohawk's plates will give pleasure to all who study them." 

THE AUK. 

" The progress of Ornithology of late years is well exemplified by the work before us. Twenty years ago a small 
octavo pamphlet held all we knew about the birds of one of the most interesting and peculiar zoogeographical 
provinces; while to-day it requires a handsome quarto volume with numerous coloured plates to fully represent our 
knowledge of the subject. Twenty years ago the number of species known to inhabit the Hawaiian Islands was con- 
sidered to be about forty by the be3t authority, Sclater (' Ibis,' 1871, p. 361). To-day the number is scarcely less than 
seventy; and the most astonishing fact is that this increase of our knowledge of one of the most accessible and most 
civilized archipelagoes in the Pacific Ocean has taken place during the last five years. To Mr. Scott B. Wilson, who 
spent eighteen months on the islands in order to study their ornithology, much credit is due for this increase, and it is 
with great pleasure that we extend our welcome to the work which he is now publishing ; and we wish especially to 
call the attention of our American Ornithologists to it, as, from the situation of the Hawaiian Archipelago in relation to 
our own continent, we ought to take more interest in its avifauna than has been done hitherto. 

" Thework is uniform in appearance with most of the more ambitious ornithological monographs which have been 
published in England of late years, and is issued in Five Parts, two of which have already been published. These two 
Parts treat of eighteen species, and are accompanied by twenty Plates, some of them representing species now extinct or 
nearly so. The second Part contains a very valuable and interesting treatise by Dr. Hans Gadow, 'On the Structure 
of certain Hawaiian Birds, with reference to their Systematic Position/ to the illustration of which three of the Plates 
are devoted. _ Many unexpected conclusions are the' result of his investigation, and the ornithological public is under 
great obligations to Mr. Scott B. Wilson for not having spared any expense in order to have this side of the ornithology 
of the group as well taken care of as that devoted to the outside of the birds alone. For details and information we 
refer the reader to the book itself, and we advise all who can afford it to subscribe for it. 

" The author has had heavy expenses in order to bring it out, and the work is well worth encouragement. — L. S." 

THE FIELD. 

"The avi-fauna of the Sandwich Islands has been but imperfectly investigated by the various naturalists and 

,s been ' 
sa), sta; 

only c 

Some of the birds of these islands have been exterminated since the time of Gapt. Cook, and others are likely to follow 
in their course. Under these circumstances, Professor Newton induced Mr. S. B. Wilson to visit the islands, and to 
investigate their ornithology thoroughly. Mr. Wilson remained in the islands for nearly two years, and brought baek 
a much more complete collection than had been previously made. According to Professor Newton, Mr. Wilson has 
donea great deal more than anyone before him ; for he has not only brought back a considerable number of new species, 
but, in addition, several specimens of birds that are now extinct. One of the most beautiful of the latter is the i 
whose rich yellow feathers were formerly used to decorate the state robes of the chiefs. Of this beautiful bird not 
half-a-dozen skills^ exist in the whole world; two are known at Vienna, and Mr. Wilson succeeded in obtaining two 

ilands. These are now the only ones 
, and the other is in the possession of 
. x cape formed entirely of the plumage 
of the mam'o. Its dimensions are 3 feet ti inches wide at the lower margin. Such a cape must have required the 
plumage of some thousands of these birds. 

" The inevitable extinction of many birds from the destruction of the forests in the tropical islands is deeply to be 
regretted, and ornithologists are greatly indebted to Mr. Wilson for publishing the results of his investigations "in the 
very beautiful monograph under notice. It contains representations, admirably drawn and coloured by Frohawk, of 
the species described, several of which have already been exterminated. The text accompanying these plates is most 
interesting, not only from an ornithological, but from an ethnological point of view. Two parts of the five of which 
the volume is to consist have already been published, and the third, which will shortly appear, will contain an account 
of the wingless bird of Hawaii, which has now also become extinct." 

DAILY PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER. 
(HONOLULU.) 

''The first two numbers of the ' Aves Hawaiienses ' have reached Honolulu. It will be remembered that 
Mr. Scott B. Wilson, F.Z.S., came out here five years ago and spent a couple of years making a thorough investigation 
into Hawaiian birds, and collecting specimens oi all the varieties on the different islands. The results of his labours 
are now taking shape in ' The Birds of the Sandwich [it should be Hawaiian] islands,' a truly magnificent work-, to be 
completed in Five Parts and published by K. H. Porter, Id Princes Street, Cavendish Square, London. The two first 
numbers contain eighteen very handsome full-page coloured plates representing each species described, and the woi 1;, 
when completed, will thus present a finished representation of each kind of bird known to these islands. Most persons 
will be surprised to learn that there are so many handsome birds found here. 

" The letterpress accompanying the plates gives, besides the scientific name and classification, a concise description 
of the bird and its habits, and other matter of a popular kind, widen will make the book intelligible and valuable to the 
general public as well as to those whose interests are specifically soientitie. This work, wmle possessing- a general 
scientific value, will naturally be of especial value to residents of uiis kingdom'." 



Price 21s. 




AVES HAWAIIENSES: 




[JULY 1896. 



THE BIRDS 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



BY 



SCOTT B, WILSON, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., 

ASSISTED BY 

A. H. EVANS, MA., F.Z.S. 



CONTENTS. 



Peleoenis palmeei. 
Chasiempis sandvicensis. 
Chasiempis sclateei. 
Chasiempis gayi. 
loxops aukea. 
loxops ruea. 
pseudonestoe xanthopheys. 



Hemignathus AFPINIS. 

HlMATIONE NEWTONI. 
HlMATIONE WILSONI. 
HlMATIONE VIEENS. 
HlMATIONE CHLOEIS. 

Fulica alai. (Plate only.) 



LONDON: 

R. H. PORTER, 7 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1896. 



/ — — —^ 

FEINTED BY TAYLOE AND EEANCIS, BED LION COUET, FLEET 8TEEET. 




A FEW OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 



'THE BIRDS OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.' 



- ) «* » 



THE IBIS. 

"We are much pleased to welcome the first part of Mi-. Scott Wilson's promised volume on the avifauna of the 
Hawaiian Islands, and trust he will be able, with the assistance of Mr. Evans, to bring it to a satisfactory conclusion. 
It will be very convenient to have the great advances which Mr. Wilson has undoubtedly made in our knowledge of 
this most interesting subject incorporated with all that was previously known of it. 

" Mr. Frohawk's plates will give pleasure to all who study them." 

THE AUK. 

" The progress of Ornithology of late years is well exemplified by the work before us. Twenty years ago a small 
octavo pamphlet held all we knew about the birds of one of the most interesting and peculiar zoogeographical 
provinces ; while to-day it requires a handsome quarto volume with numerous coloured plates to fully represent our 
knowledge of the subject. Twenty years ago the number of species known to inhabit the Hawaiian Islands was con- 
sidered to be about forty by the best authority, Sclater (' Ibis/ 1871, p. 361). To-day the number is scarcely less than 
seventy ; and the most astonishing fact is that this increase of our knowledge of one of the most accessible and most 
civilized archipelagoes in the Pacific Ocean has taken place during the last five years. To Mr. Scott B. Wilson, who 
spent eighteen months on the islands in order to study their ornithology, much credit is due for this increase, and it is 
with great pleasure that we extend our welcome to the work which he is now publishing ; and we wish especially to 
call the attention of our American Ornithologists to it, as, from the situation of the Hawaiian Archipelago in relation to 
our own continent, we ought to take more interest in its avifauna than has been done hitherto. 

" The work is uniform in appearance with most of the more ambitious ornithological monographs which have been 
published in England of late years, and is issued in Five Parts, two of which have already been published. These two 
Parts treat of eighteen species, and are accompanied by twenty Plates, some of them representing species now extinct or 
nearly so. The second Part contains a very valuable and interesting treatise by Dr. Hans Gadow, ' On the Structure 
of certain Hawaiian Birds, with reference to their Systematic Position,' to the illustration of which three of the Plates 
are devoted. _ Many unexpected conclusions are the' result of his investigation, and the ornithological public is under 
great obligations to Mr. Scott B. Wilson for not having spared any expense in order to have this side of the ornithology 
of the group as well taken care of as that devoted to the outside of the birds alone. For details and information we 
refer the reader to the book itself, and we advise all who can afford it to subscribe for it. 

" The author has had heavy expenses in order to bring it out, and the work is well worth encouragement. — -L. S." 



THE FIELD. 

" The avi-fauna of the Sandwich Islands has been but imperfectly investigated by the various naturalists and 
exploring expeditions that have visited those islands, and, consequently, our knowledge of it has been imperfect. The 
' Challenger,' in its historic voyage (which, however, was chiefly to explore the depths of the sea), stayed in Hawaiian 
waters for some three weeks in 1875, but the collection of birds made by the officers included only one new species. 
Some of the birds of these islands have been exterminated since the time of Capt. Cook, and others are likely to follow 
in their course.^ Under these circumstances, Professor Newton induced Mr. S. B. Wilson to visit the islands, and to 
investigate their ornithology thoroughly. Mr. Wilson remained in the islands for nearly two years, and brought back 
a much more complete collection than had been previously made. According to Professor Newton, Mr. Wilson has 
donea great deal more than anyone before him ; for he has not only brought back a considerable number of new species, 
but, in addition, several specimens of birds that are now extinct. One of the most beautiful of the latter is the mamo, 
whose rich yellow feathers were formerly used to decorate the state robes of the chiefs. Of this beautiful bird not 
half-a-dozen skins exist in the whole world ; two are known at Vienna, and Mr. Wilson succeeded in obtaining two 
other specimens from the collection of an ornithologist long resident in the islands. These are now the only ones 
known in England. _ One Mi'. Wilson has presented to the Museum at Cambridge, and the other is in the possession of 
Mr. Walter KotksclrM. In the Ethnological collection of the British Museum is a cape formed entirely of the plumage 
of the mamo. Its dimensions are 3 feet 6 inches wide at the lower margin. Such a cape must have required the 
plumage of some thousands of these birds. 

" The inevitable extinction of many birds from the destruction of the forests in the tropical islands is deeply to be 
regretted, and ornithologists are greatly indebted to Mr. Wilson for publishing the results of his investigations in the 
very beautiful monograph under notice. It contains representations, admirably drawn and coloured by Frohawk, of 
the species described, several of which have already been exterminated. The text accompanying these plates is most 
interesting, not only from an ornithological, but from an ethnological point of view. Two parts of the five of which 
the volume is to consist have already been published, and the third, which will shortly appear, will contain an account 
of the wingless bird of Hawaii, which has now also become extinct." 

DAILY PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER. 
(HONOLULU.) 

"The first two numbers of the 'Aves liawaiienses ' have reached Honolulu. It will be remembered that 
Mr. Scott B. Wilson, F.Z.S., came out here five years ago and spent a couple of years making a thorough investigation 
into Hawaiian birds, and collecting specimens of all the varieties on the different islands. The results of his labours 
are now taking shape in ' The Birds of the Sandwich [it should be Hawaiian] Islands,' a truly magnificent work, to be 
completed in FiveParts and published by li. H. Porter, 18 Princes Street, Cavendish Square, London. The two first 
numbers contain eighteen very handsome full-page coloured plates representing each species described, and the work, 
when completed, will thus present a finished representation of each kind of bird known to these islands. Most persons 
will be surprised to learn that there are so many handsome birds found here. 

" The letterpress accompanying the plates gives, besides the scientific name and classification, a concise description 
of the bird and its habits, and other matter of a popular kind, which will make the book intelligible and valuable to the 
general public as well as to those whose interests are specifically scientific. This work, while possessing a general 
scientific value, will naturally be of especial value to residents of this kingdom." 




Price 21s. net. 



[JUNE 1899 



AVES HAWAIIENSES 



THE BIRDS 




SANDWICH ISLANDS, 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., E.R.G.S., 

ASSISTED BY 

A. H. EVANS, M.A., F.Z.S. 



Title. 

Dedication. 

Preface. 

Introduction. 

Errata and Addenda. 



CEsTRElATA PH.EOPYGIA. (Plate only.) 

Himantoptjs knudseni. (Plate only.) 

Map. 

Vestiaeia coccinea. (Plate only.) 

Chasiehpis sandvicensis. (Plate only.) 



CONTENTS, 

HlMATIONE SANGUINEA. | ,p, , 
HlMATIONE VIEENS. > ( ' 



only.) 



Eggs Of HlMATIONE, sp. 

Eggs of Chasiempis, sp. _ 
" Further Remarks," &c. 
Rhodacanthis elaviceps. 
Hemignathus lanaiensis. 
vleidonia sagittibosteis. 
hlmatione macui.ata. 
Phaethon eubeicauda. - 

PhAETHON JETHEEETTS. 
Feegata AQUILA. 



(Plate 



Ardea sacra. 
Nycttcoeax griseus. 
Plegadis guarauna. 
Pennula sandvicensis. 

PeNNULA WILSONI. 

Sterna fuliginosa. 
Sterna eunata. 
Gtgis alba. 
Anous stolidus. 
Anous hawaiiexsis. 
Diomedea immutabilis. 
Bulweeia anjinho. 




NOTE. 

The Table of Contents, List of Plates, and Index, to complete work, 

will be issued shortly. 



*£$6 



LONDON : 
R. H. PORTER, 7 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W 

1899. 



PBINTED BT XATLOE AND JEANCIS, BED LION COUBT, FLEET STEEBT. 




PAET VIII.] 




[JULY 1899. 



AVES HAWAIIENSES: 




THE BIRDS 



OF THE 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., 



ASSISTED BY 



A. H. EVANS, M.A., F.Z.S. 

CONTENTS. 
Table of Contents, List of Plates, and Index. 




LONDON : 

R. H. PORTER, 7 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W 

1899. 



FEINTED BY TATLOE AND FBANCI8, BED LION COUET, FLEET STBEET. 




In Preparation. Boyal Ato. Price to Subscribers, £A 4s. 



AVES HAWAIIENSES: 



THE BIRDS 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



BY 



SCOTT B. WILSON, F.Z.S. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH ABOUT 40 COLOURED PLATES. 



LONDON: 

R. H. PORTER, 18 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1890. 



PROSPECTUS. 



The Author was induced to visit the Sandwich Islands in the belief that he would be 
able to throw some light on the Geographical Distribution of the species which con- 
stitute the very peculiar Avifauna of this Archipelago. In the course of the eighteen 
months that he passed on the beautiful islands which compose it, he was so fortunate 
as to find that his success had been beyond his most sanguine expectation, and that he 
was not only in a position to solve several problems which had hitherto puzzled 
ornithologists, but that he had added largely to the list of the indigenous species — of 
which all the land-birds and several of the water-birds are absolutely peculiar to the 
Hawaiian group. 

Another consideration which prompted the Author was the opinion expressed by 
many competent judges that several of the native species of birds were in process of 
extirpation, through the destruction of the forests and the introduction of foreign rivals— 
if, indeed, this process had not in some instances been completed. His subsequent 
investigations have shown that this opinion was only too well-founded, and that a few 
species had certainly become extinct, while the fate of a good many more is to all 
appearance decided. Most fortunately there existed in Honolulu an ornithological 
collection begun many years ago, and from that he was enabled to acquire specimens 
of several species which by all report have not been seen alive for more than a quarter 
of a century. 

Though the Sandwich Islands were discovered in January, 1778, by Captain Cook, 
who, it will be remembered, met his death on one of them in the following year, and 
specimens of about a dozen species of their birds were soon after described by Latham 
in his ' General Synopsis,' examples of even the most common species have always been 
rare in collections, and there are now some important Museums which seem not to 
possess a single specimen from the Hawaiian group. Moreover, the descriptions and 
figures of those which have since been published have been scattered throughout many 
works, most of them not easy of access, whether in the accounts of Voyages performed 
by private adventurers or by the ships of various Governments — as, for instance, that of 
the French frigate Venus, the Vincennes and the Peacock of the United States' Exploring 
Expedition, and of H.M.SS. Blonde and Challenger — or, again, in the publications of 
various learned Societies. 

In 1869, a most laudable and in some respects successful attempt to compile a 
List of the Birds of the Hawaiian Islands was made by Mr. Sanford B. Dole — now 



( "i ) 

His Honour, Mr. Justice Dole — in the ' Proceedings ' of the Boston Society of Natural 
History ; but, owing to the want of opportunity of comparing specimens and consulting 
original descriptions, this otherwise useful list contains several errors, while considered 
at its best it is little more than a catalogue. Some years after its appearance, 
Mr. Sclater, who had long taken an interest in the Avifauna of the Sandwich Islands, 
endeavoured to compile from it an improved list, but, for want of sufficient materials, 
combined with the fact that the habitat of some of the originally described species was 
unknown or overlooked, this list, accurate at the time, is now misleading, while the 
Author believes that his own investigations have added nearly a dozen new species to 
it. Mr. Sclater, however, made more evident than it had before appeared the great 
peculiarity of the Hawaiian Avifauna, and all that has been done since tends to prove 
that the peculiarity is even greater than he had thought. Comparisons of this kind are 
not easily made, but the peculiarity would really seem to be in its way as great as that 
of Madagascar or New Zealand ; while as an expiring population it must be regarded 
as of equal interest with that of the latter country. 

The beauty of many of the birds of the Sandwich Islands has long been known, 
chiefly from the marvellous helmets and robes of feather-work, some of which are still 
to be seen, though too often moth-eaten and disfigured, in various Museums. To form 
one of these mantles thousands of birds must have been sacrificed, and it is apparently 
in consequence of this that one of the finest species — Drepanis pacifica — has become 
extinct. Of this beautiful bird a single specimen, brought back by the Author, and 
now in the Museum of the University of Cambridge, seems to be the only one now in 
Great Britain ; while the number of examples on the continent of Europe must be very 
limited. This, moreover, is by no means a singular instance. The Author succeeded in 
obtaining specimens of two other species, wholly unrepresented in European Museums, 
though one was met with by Cook's companions, and the other — for a long time 
believed to be unique — was obtained by the United States' Expedition. 

Thus the Author hopes that a work on the Birds of the Sandwich Islands 
will, for some or all of the reasons above stated, be acceptable to the Ornithological 
public, and he proposes to issue it of the size and on the plan of the first edition of 
Sir Walter Buller's ' Birds of New Zealand,' with plates giving a figure or figures of 
each of the species peculiar to the group, which cannot be fewer than forty in number. 
The plates will be executed by Mr. Feohawk and carefully coloured by hand. The 
Subscription price will be £4 4s. for the complete work. 



Intending Subscribers will please send their names direct to the Publisher, 

R. H. PORTER, 

18 Princes Street, Cavendish Square, London, W. 



Specimen Page.] 



ACBULOCEBCUS NOBILIS, 

0-0. 



" Yellow-tufted Bee-eater/' Latham, Gen. Synops. i. p. 683 (1782) ; Suppl. p. 120 (1787) ; Suppl. 2, 

p. 149 (1802). 
? "Moho," Ellis, Narrat. Voy. Cook & Clerke, ii. p. 156 (1782). 
?" Hoohoo/' King, Voy. Pacif. Ocean, iii. p. 119, partim (1784). 
Gracula nobilis, Merrem, Beytr. besond. Gesch. Vogel, Heft i. p. 8, pi. ii. (1784). 

„ longirostra, var. /3, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 398 (1788). 
Merops niger, Gmelin, torn. cit. p. 465 (1788). 

„ fasciculatus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 275 (1790). 
"Le Moho," Sonnini, Hist. Nat. Buffon, Ois. xviii. p. 286 (1802). 
Philemon fasciculatus, Vieillot, Encyel. Method. Ornithol. p. 613 (1823). 
?Nectarina [sic] niger, Bloxam, Voy. ' Blonde, 5 p. 249 (1826). 

Meliphaga fasciculata, Temminck & Laugier, Rec. d'Ois. Livr. 79, PL Col. 471 (1829). 
"Philedon moho, Merops fasciculatus, Lath/'; Lesson, Tr. d'Orn. p. 302 (1831); Compl. Buff., Ois. 

iii. p. 49 (1837). 
Acrulocercus niger, Cabanis, Arch. f. Naturgesch. xiii. p. 327 (1847) ; Sundevall, Tentam. p. 50 

(1872). 
Moho niger, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 96 (1847) ; Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. p. 394 (1850). 
Ptiloiurus fasciculatus, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped., Birds, p. 148 (1848). 
Mohoa fasciculata, Reichenbach, Handb. sp. Orn. p. 333, partim (1853), tab. 614. fig. 4098. 

„ nobilis, Cassin, Proc. Acad. N. S. Philad. 1855, p. 439; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, pp. 358, 360; 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 347; Von Pelzeln, Journ. f. Orn. 1872, p. 25. 
Moho nobilis, Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exped., Mamm. & Orn. p. 170 (1858) ; G. R. Gray, Cat. B. Trop. 

Id. p. 9 (1859) ; Dole, Proc. Boston N. H. Soc. 1869, p. 296 ; Hawaiian Alman. 1879, p. 46 ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. Br. Mus. ix. p. 284, partim (1884) ; Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 101. 
Acrulocercus nobilis, Scott Wilson, Ibis, 1890, p. 177. 



This, the Royal Bird of modern times, is perhaps the best known of any species to 
both the natives and foreign residents in the islands. It is doubtful whether in ancient 
days it was from the yellow feathers that grow beneath its wings, or from the still 
more beautiful yellow upper tail-coverts of the now extinct Drepanis pacifica, that 
the state robes of kings and chiefs were wrought. It was the privilege of those 
classes alone to wear them ; and it cannot be denied that they formed a becoming 
apparel, as magnificent and beautiful as anything that the triumphs of civilized art can 
now produce. The fine statue of King Kamehameha I., which stands in front of the 
Government House in Honolulu, represents the great conqueror who first consolidated 



to 
3nt 
till 



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