(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Baker FBI Birds 2"

BIRDS. VOL. II. 



FRONTISPIECE. 




CYORN.S RU8ECUL0IDES RUBECUL0ID6S 
Th, Blu.- th.-o.Ud Flj-c.tch.r- 

' •*-■ W .if. .„.. ? b ., ow . 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BUllMA^. 



pi' hushed under the authority of the secretary of 
State for India in Council. 



EDITED BT SIR ARTHUR E. SHITLEV, Sc.D. Cantab., HON. D.So. Princeton, 
HON. LL.D. Michigan, F.K.8. 



BIRDS.-VOL. II. 

(Second Edition.) 

BY 

E. C. STUART BAKER, O.B.E., F.Z.S., Etc. 



b 98- 2 

I, NDON : 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

April, 11)24. 




"'W-^ 



['HINTED BV IAILOH AX1) fJIANCIS, 
KED HON' COUKT, FLEET STKKET. 



PREFACE. 



During the calendar year l'.)23 the folio winy volumes of 
the 'jjFauna of British India' appeared — Dii'teka, Vol. IN. 
J'ipunrulidtr, Si/rphida; (.'onopidtr, (Estr'uhr, by E. Bmnetti, 
and Oi.u;och.i:ta, liv Dr. J. Stephenson. 

In 1922 the first volume of the Aves ; » re-edited by 
Mr. K. (.'. Stuart Baker, was published. The present volume 
contains a further instalment of the Passe res including the 
("iiwlidd! (Dippers) ; Turdidir (Thrushes, Chat*, etc.) ; 
Musi'icap/d<e ( Flycatchers) : Lani'ulir (Shrikes) ; I >irrurid<r 
(I)ronyos) ; Si/lviidn ( Warblers), and IteyiiUdu; (( J-olderests, 
etc.). It is hoped that, a third volume will complete the 
I'usseres and possibly also include the Woodpeckers. Burbots 
and other birds contained in Volume III. of the first edition 
with lite exception of the Slriijidn and Palcouidii . 

Certain additions and alterations have been made in the 
form in which the first volume of this edition appeared. 
The-e it is hoped will he an improvement and will be of use 
to readers other than pure field-naturalists and observers. 
The first reference to each yen us and also this type of the 
yenus and the type-locality have been yiven. When the 
typical form of any yenus or species is " extra-limital '" to the 
area included in this work, similar references have ayain 
been yiven and also a brief note showiny how the nearest 
form in Indian limits differs from the typical one. 



IV PREFACE. 

Finally, separate keys to the subspecies have been given 
as well as keys to the species ; these it is hoped will 
facilitate identification. 

I may add that the present volume is in other respects 
fully up to the standard set by the author in his previous 
publication of eighteen months ago. 



Christ's College L.>d|>e, A. E. SHIPLEY. 

Cambriiliro. 

loth .March, 1924, 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



This second volume of the Avifauna contains a further 
instalment of the Passeres, including 473 species and sub- 
species, bringing the total number dealt with up to date to 
1*49. The second volume of the Avifauna has appeared 
within about 20 months of the first, although the prescribed 
period between the publication of each issue is supposed to 
be two years. This is due to the persistence of our Editor, 
Sir Arthur E. Shipley, and, it must be added, to the fact that 
the Authorities concerned fully appreciate the value of rapid 
production in a work of this nature. A still more important 
success gained by the Editor is sanction to a sixth volume to 
the Avifauna, which is to contain a full Synonymy of all first 
references in addition to corrigenda and addenda to the 
first five volumes. 

It is hoped that the third volume will be completed in 
another 18 months or less and that subsequent volumes will 
appear at even shorter intervals. Headers will, however, 
realize that, any work which entails the consideration of au/i- 
Sjiei'ies — a new factor in Tndian Zoology — also entails an 
enormous amount of Museum work, which cannot be hurried 
over. Nomenclature, also, is at present in such a state of 
flux that it is extremely difficult to follow the writings of 
those who make a special study of this subject, in addition 
to the original research work the Author himself has to get 
through. 



E. C. STUART BAKER. 



Upper Norwood, 

March 19:24. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

IX. Family Cinclidje 1 

107. Genus Cinclus BorkJiausen 1 

265. cinclus (Linn.) 1 

374. cinclus cashmiriensis Gould 2 

375. cinclus lcucogaster Bonaparte, 3 

266. pallasii Ttmm 4 

376. pallasii tenuirostris Bonaparte 4 

377. pallasii marila Swinhoe 5 

X. Family T u k d i d .r. 7 

Subfamily IiBiciiyriKHioiKJi 9 

108. Genus Brachyptcryx llorsf. 9 

267. major (Jerdon) 10 

378. major major (Jerdon) 10 

379. major albiventris (Fairbank) 11 

109. Genus Larvivora Jlodi/s 12 

268. cyane (Pull.) .' 12 

269. brnnnea llodys 14 

270. wiekliami (Stuart Baker) 15 

110. Genus Hetoroxenicus Sliarpe 16 

271. stellatus (Gould) 16 

272. hypervtlmis (Jerdon 4' Blyth) 17 

273. cruralis (Blyth) .......'. 17 

274. nipalensis (llodys.) 19 

380. nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgs.) 19 

275. sinensis (lticletl 4* La, Touche) 20 

111. Genus Hodgsonius Bonap 21 

"270. phaMiicurotdes (Hodgs.) 21 

381. plioenicuroides phaouicuroides (Hodgs.) . 21 
Subfamily S a x i c o 1. 1 n x 22 

S 112. Genus Saxicolu Beclist 23 

277. caprata ( Linn.) 24 

382. caprata burmanica Stuart Baker 24 

383. caprata atrata (Kelanrt) 25 

384. caprata bicolor (Sykes) 26 

278. torquata (Linn.) 27 

385. torquata indica (Blyth) 28 

386. torquata przewalskii (Pleske) 30 



Till SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

X. Family T v R d i d jk (cont.). 

112. Genua Saxicola (cont.). • Page 

1387. torquata stejnegeri (Parrot) 30 

388. torquata leucura (Blyth) 31 

279. mucrorhyncha (Stoliczku) 32 

280. insignis (llodyg.) , . 33 

113. Genus Oreieola Bonap 34 

28 1. jerdoni Blyth 35 

282. ferrea {Gray) 36 

389. ferrea ferrea {Gray) 3(5 

890. ferrea haringtoni tlurtert 38 

114. Genus (Enanthe Yicill 38 

283. mpnaelia (Temm.) 40 

284. alboniger (Hume) 40 

285. picata {Blyth ) • 42 

286. capistraia (Gould) 43 

287. opistholeuca (Strickland) 44 

288. leucomela ( I'all.) 45 

391. leucomela leucomela (Pall.) 45 

289. melanoleuca (Guide nut.) 47 

3i'2. mehinoleuea melanoleuca ( Guldens!.) .... 47 

290. cRiianthe cenanthe (Linn.) 48 

393. cenanthe cenanthe (Linn.) 48 

291. isabellina (Cretzschm.) 49 

292. deserti Temm 51 

3!»4. deserti atrojrularis (Blyth) 51 

395. deserti oreophila OI>erhol.ier 52 

293. xanthoprymna (Hemp. i!f Khrenh.) 53 

390. xanthoprymna ehrysopygia (I)e Filippi). . 53 

115. Genua Cercomela JJona/i Ti4 

294. fusea (JShjth) 54 

Subfamily Exjccuinj; 50 

116. Genus Enieurus Temm 5(J 

295. maculatus Vigors 57 

397. maculatus maculatus ( Vigors) 57 

398. maculatus guttatus (Gould) 58 

296. schistaceus JJodgs 59 

297. iraraaculatus Hodgg 01 

298. leschenaulti ( Vie'ill.) 01 

399. leschenaulti indicus J /art 02 

400. leschenaulti sinensis (Gould) 03 

117. Genus Hydrocichla tiharpe 63 

299. frontalis (Blyth) 04 

300. ruficapilla (Temm.) 04 

118. Genus Microcichla Shnrpe 05 

301 . seouleri ( Vigor*) 55 

401. seouleri seouleri (Vigors) 65 

Subfamily Phobsicurin* 67 

119. Genus Phcenicurus Forster 08 



SYSTEMATIC IHDEX. IX 

X. Family Tckdidx (cont.). 

119. Genus Phcenicurus (cont). Page 

302. frontalis Vigors 09 

303. scliisticeps (Ifodtjs.) 70 

304. auroreus (Pall.) 71 

305. erythronotus ( lum-mn.) 73 

300. hodgsoni (Moure ) 74 

307. ocbrurus (Gruel in) 75 

402. ochrurus phoenicuroides (Moore) 7*5 

403. ochrurus riiriyentris( Ft'etW.) 77 

308. erythrogastor ( Giildenstiidt.) 78 

404. erythrogaster grandis ( Gould) 78 

120. Genus Chaimarrhornis llodijs 79 

309. leucocephala ( Vigors) 79 

1 21. Genus lihysicorms Bhiuf 81 

310. i'uligiuosa (Vigors) 81 

4(>5. t'uliginosa iuliginosa (Vigors) 81 

122. Genus Cyanosylvia Brelnn 83 

311. suecioa(Lm».) 83 

400. suecica suecica (Ai;uO 83 

4(17. suecica pallidogularis (Sarudny) 85 

408. suecica robusta (Butarlin) 85 

312. cyanccula ( Wolf) 80 

409. cyanccula abbotti (Richmond) 86 

J ,3. Genus Luscinia Furster 87 

313. megiirhyiichn Brchm 87 

410. megarhyueha gokii (Cahanis) 87 

124. Genus (-Srandnla l/odi/.i 88 

314. ctulicolor l/odgs'. 89 

125. Genus Calliope Gould 90 

315. calliope {Full.) 91 

310. pectoralis Gould 92 

411. poet oralis pectoralis (Gould) 92 

412. pectoralis eont'usa (llarttrt) 93 

317. tschebaiewi Pr-findsfri 94 

120. Genus Tarsiger JLnlf/s 95 

318. cbrysaus I tody's 95 

413. chrysalis ulirysaens ( llodijs.') 95 

414. ebrysans wliistlcri Ticehurst 97 

127. Genus lanthia 'Moth 97 

319. cyanura ( Pail.) 98 

415. eye mint cyanura (Pall.) 98 

410. cyanura rurilata (Jlodgs.) 9i) 

417. cyan lira pallidiora, snbsp. nov 101 

320. indica ( Vieill.) 102 

418. indica indica ( Vieill.) 102 

321. hypervthra Ithith 103 

128. Genus Adelura Bonap 104 

322. cucruleocephala ( Vigors) 104 



X SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

X. Family Turdibj (cont.). Page 

129. Genus Notodela Less. .* 105 

323. leucura (Hodgs.) 106 

130. Genus Callene Blyth 107 

324. frontalis (Blyth) 107 

131. Genus Saxicoloides Lesson 108 

325. fulicata (Linn.) 100 

419. fulicata fulicata (Linn.) 109 

420. fulicata carubaiensis (Lath.) Ill 

132. Genus Copsychus Waaler Ill 

326. saularis (Linn.) 112 

421. saularis saularis (lAnn.) 113 

422. Baularis musicus (Baffles) 114 

423. saularis ceylonensis (Sclater) 115 

424. saularis andamanemns (Hume) 116 

133. Genus Kittacincla Gould 116 

327. raacroura (Ginel.) 117 

425. raacroura macroura (Gmel.) 117 

426. raacroura indica, nom. nov 118 

427. macroura albiventris (Blyth) 119 

Subfamily Tvkdis.t, 120 

134. Geiius Turdus Linn 121 

328. merula Linn 1 23 

428. merula maximus (Seebohm) 123 

429. merula simillimus (Jcrdon) 125 

430. merula kinmsii (Blyth) 126 

431. merula bourdilloni (Seebohm) 127 

432. merula nigropileus(Z'(/m.) 128 

433. merula albocinctus (Boyle) 129 

329. boulboul (Lath.) '. 130 

330. castaneus (Gould) 132 

434. castaneus castaneus (Gould) 132 

435. castaneus gouldi (Verr.) 133 

331. eunomus (Vemm.) 133 

332. kessleri 1'rzew 134 

333. pallidus Gmel 135 

334. ruiicollis 1'all 136 

335. atrogularis Temm 137 

336. unicolor Tick ell 138 

337. dissimilis Blyth 140 

338. obscurus Gmel 141 

436. obscurus obscurus (Gmel.) 141 

437. obscurus subobscurus (Salv.) 142 

339. fea: (Salv.) 143 

135. Genus Geocichla Kuhl. .... 144 

340. wardi (Jerdon) 145 

341. sibirica Pallas 146 

438. sibirica sibirica (Pall.) 146 

439. sibirica davisoni (Hume) 147 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. Xi 

X. Family T v k b r d m (cont.). 

135. Genus Geocichla (cont.). Page 

342. citrina (Lath.) 148 

440. citrina citrina (Lath.) 148 

441 . citrina cyanotis (Jard. 4' Sdby) 150 

442. citrina innotata (Blyth) . . . ' 151 

443. citrina andamanensis (Wald.) 152 

444. citrina albogularis (Bh/th) 153 

136. Genua Arceuthornis Kaup 153 

343. viscivorns (Linn.) 154 

445. viscivorus bonapartei (Verr.) 154 

344. pilaris (Linn.) 155 

345. musicus (Linn.) 15(5 

137. Genus Oreocincla Gould 157 

340. dauma (Lath.) 158 

446. dauma dauma (Lath.) 158 

447. dauma nilgiriensis (Blyth) 159 

448. dauma imbricata (Layard) 1G<> 

347. aurea (Holandre) 161 

449. aurea aurca (Holandre) 1(!1 

348. mollissima (Bh/th) 162 

450. inollissinia mollissima (Blyth) 162 

451. mollissima whiteheadi (Stuart Baker) . . 161.5 

452. mollissima simlaensis, subsp. nov 164 

349. spiloptera Blyth 165 

13S. Genus Zootbera Vigors 166 

350. monticolu Vigors 166 

351. marginata Blyth 168 

139. Genus Monticola Boie ]6!t 

352. ervthrogastra (Virion) 170 

353. cinelorlivncha ( Va/ors) 171 

354. solitaria' (/\ L. S.' Midler) 172 

4515. solitaria transe.ispica Hartert 173 

454. solitaria paudoo (Syhes) 174 

455. solitaria aftinis (Bh/th) 1 75 

456. solitaria pbilippensis (Ajiiller) 175 

355. gularis (iSwinh.) 176 

457. gularis gularis (HSivinh.) 176 

356. saxatilis (Liiui.) 177 

140. Genus Mvioplioneus Ternm 178 

357. horsiiekli Vigors 178 

358. temminckii Vigors 179 

458. temminckii ( Vigors) 180 

459. temminckii eugenoi (Hume) 181 

141. Genus Arrenga Less 182 

359. blighi Hohhworth 1S2 

142. Genus Cochoa Hodgs 183 

360. purpurea Hodgs 184 

361. viridis Hodgs 185 



Xli SYSTEMATIC INDKX. 

X. Family Tnttmai (cont.), 

142. Genus Cochoa (cont:). Page 
302. rotlischildi, sp. nov 186 

Subfamily l'KiiSKU.isJi 1 87 

143. Genus Laiscopus Gloyer 187 

363. collaris (Scop.) '. 1 88 

4 GO. collaris nipalensis (Bh/th) 1 88 

461. collaris rufilatus (Severt:.) 189 

462. collaris tibetanus (Bianchi) 190 

4(i3. collaris ripponi (Hartert) 191 

364. himalavamus (Bh/th) 191 

144. Genus Prunella VieMl 192 

365. immaculata (IJodys.) 193 

366. rubeculoides (Moore) 193 

367. atrogularis (Brandt) l!*4 

368. strophiata (Bh/th) 195 

464. strophiata strophiata (Bii/th) 196 

4(55. strophiata jerdoni (Brooks) 1!>7 

369. fulvescens (Severt-off) 397 

46(5. fulvescens fulvescens (Severtzoff) 198 

XI. Family Mcscicii'iii.t: 199 

145. Genus Muscicapa Linn 201 

370. striata Vmetj 202 

467. striata neumanni (Poche) 202 

146. Genus Hcmichelidou Hodgson 203 

371. sibirica Gmelin 204 

468. sibirica cacahata (l'enard) 204 

469. sibirica pulnierjji Stuart Baker ........ 205 

470. sibirica rotlischildi Stuart Baker 200 

372. cinereiceps IFody* 206 

147. Genus Siphia Hodi/s 207 

373. strophiata J/od,/s 208 

471. stropliiata strophiata //<»/</.< 208 

472. stropliiata fuscogularis Stuart Baker .... 209 

374. parva (Bedist.) 210 

473. parva parva (Bech.it.) 21 

474. parva albicilla (I'att.) 21 1 

475. parva hvpervthra (Uah.) 212 

1 48. Genus Cyornis Bh/th .'. 213 

375. cyanea (Hume) 215 

370. hodprsonii ( Vcrr.) 216 

377. hyperythra (Bh/th) 217 

476. hyperythra hyperythra (Bh/th) 217 

477. hvpervthra malayana (O.-Grant) 219 

378. tricolor (Hodgs.) 21 9 

478. tricolor tricolor (Hodgs.) 219 

479. tricolor cerviniventris (Sharpe) 220 

379. snpcrciliaris (Jerdon) 221 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. Xlii 

XI. Family IIvjsoicapidj! (cont.). 

148. Genus Cyornis (cont.). p a „ e 

480. superciliaris snperciliaris (Jerdon) ...... 221 

481. superciliaris astigma (Jlodgs.) 223 

380. melanoleuca (Ifodys.) 224 

482. melanoleuca melanoleuca (Ilodgs.) 224 

483. melanoleuca westenuanni (Sharpe) 224 

381. sapphira (Tickdl) 225 

382. vivida Swinh 226 

484. vivida oatesi (Salvadori) 220 

383. pallipes (Jerdon) 227 

485. pallipes pallipes (Jerdon) 228 

4SG. pallipes hainana (0. -(Irani) 229 

384. unicolor Blgth 22'J 

487. unicolor unicolor (Bb/Ui) 230 

488. unicolor infuscata (Midler) 231 

385. rubeculoides ( Vigors) 231 

489. rubeculoides rubeculoides ( Virjors) 231 

380. banyumas Von Martens 233 

400. banyumas cferulifrons (Stuart Baker). . . . 233 

491. banvunias dialilnema (Salvador')) 233 

387. lickelliif lilglh 234 

492. tiekelliuc tickeliire (Blgth) 234 

493. tiekellitc suwatrensis (Sharp*) 235 

494. tiekelliip mcsica Ohn-hoher 230 

388. magnirostris Blgth, 230 

149. (Joints Nitidula Jerd. t \- Blgth 237 

389. hodgsoni (Moore) . . .' 237 

150. Genius Stoparola Bh/th 238 

390. molanops ( Vigors) 232 

495. melanops melnno[is ( Vigors) 239 

490. melanops tbalassoides (Cah.) 241 

391. sordida ( Wald.) .' 241 

392. albicaudata (Jerd.) 242 

151. (Senna Anrhipos Blgth 243 

393. monileger (Uodgs.) 243 

497. monileger monileger (l/odgs.) 244 

49K. monileger sulmionilcgcr (Hume) 245 

499. monileger leucops (Sharpe) 245 

394. olivaceus (Hume) 246 

500. olivaceus olivaeeus (Hume) 240 

5t>l. olivaceus poliogenys (Brooks) 247 

152. Genus Alseonax Cahunis 248 

395. latirostris ( liaj/l.) 248 

502. latirostris latirostris (llqffi.) 248 

503. latirostris poonenais (Sgkes) 249 

390. rufieaudns (Swains.) 250 

397. muttui (Lngard) 251 

153. (Sonus Ochromela lib, th 252 



XIV SVSTKMA1IC INDEX. 

XI. Family Mdscioapi».i (eont.). 

153. Genus Ochromcla (cont.). Page 

398. nigrorufa (Jerd.) 253 

154. Genus Culicicapa Swiidwe 254 

399. ceylonensis (Swains.) 254 

504. ceylonensis ceylonensis (Swaing.) 254 

505. ceylonensis orientalis Stuart Baker 256 

500. ceylonensis meridionalis Stuart Baker . . 250 

1 55. Genus Niltava llodt/s 256 

400. grandis (/%///) 257 

507. grandis grandis (Bli/th) 257 

508. grandis deeipieus Uartert 258 

401. sundara Iloihjs 259 

509. sundara sundara (Ifodys.) 259 

402. macgrigoria> (Burton) 200 

150. Genus Philentoma Eijlon 26 L 

403. vehitum (Te»u,i.) 2(J2 

404. pyrrhopteruin (Ternm.) 203 

157. Genus Terpsiphone Oloi/er 264 

405. paradisi ( Linn.) 264 

5 HI. paradisi paradisi (Linn.) 204 

51 1 . paradisi atl'mis ( //a;/) 267 

512. paradisi leueogastcr {Swaiwt. i 2(iS 

513. paradisi nicobarica (Oat<s) 269 

158. Genus Hypothvinis liuie 26!) 

406. azuroa (Bodd.) 2ii9 

514. aziirea a/.urea (llotfd.) 27<> 

515. uzurea slyani (llartl.) 271 

516. a/.urca ceylonensis (Sharjie) 272 

517. a/.urea tytlcri (/haven) 273 

518. a/.urea nicobarica liianchi 273 

519. a/.urea idioeliroa Oherhoher 274 

52(1. a/.urea forreatia Qherhohtr 274 

159. Genus Ciielidorhynx //odi/s 274 

40 7. hvpoxanthum (Blt/th) 275 

160. Genus Khipiduru I'i'/'trs <$■ llorgf. 276 

40S. uurenla Less 276 

521. aureola aureola ('/,<'.«.«.) 277 

522. aureola burmanica (/fame) 278 

523. aureola compressirostris (Bh/th) 279 

409. albicollis ( Vie-ill) '. 28(1 

524. albicollis albicollis (Y<e'dl.) 280 

410. javnnica (Sparrm.) 281 

525. javaiiiea jiivaiiica (Sparrnt.) 281 

411. peeU>riiiis (Jerd.) 282 

XII. Family I.asiidj! 283 

1(?1 . Genus Lanius Linn 284 

412. excubitor Linn 285 



SYSTEMATIC INDES. XV 

XII. Family Lasiidje (conl.). 

1G1. Genus Lanius (cont.), l> age 

526. excubitor lahtora (Si/kes) 285 

527. excubitor pallidirostris (Cassin) 287 

528. excubitor aucheri Bonap 288 

52!). excubitor przewalskii liogd 289 

413. vittatus Valenc 289 

414. collurioides Less 291 

415. nigriceps (Frank.) 292 

5.'30. nigriceps nigrioeps (Frank.) 292 

531. nigriceps longieaudatus O. -Grant 294 

41G. schach Linn 294 

532. schach erytbronotus ( Vvjurs) 295 

533. schach caniceps (Bhjth) 296 

41 7. tophronotus ( Vigors) 297 

418. collurio Linn. '. 298 

419 senator Linn 299 

5134. senator nilolicus lionpte 299 

420. cristatus Linn 300 

535. cristatus cristatus (Linn.) 300 

536. cristatus lucionensis (Linn.) 302 

537. cristatus isabellinus (Hemp. 4" lihr.) .... 302 
53S. cristatus phoeuiciiroidcs (Hevertz.) 303 

421 . tigrinns lh-apirz 304 

162. Genus Hcmipus Hodijs ;305 

422. piciitus (S gkes) 305 

539. picatus picutus {Xi/fo's) ,"306 

540. picatus capitalis (McClelland) 307 

423. hirumlinaceus ( Tt-inni.) 308 

163. Genus Tephrodornis Sirainxun 3i»S 

424. pelvica (llodijs.) 309 

541. pelvica pelvica (Jfodr/x.) 309 

542. pelvica sylvieola (Jerdon) 311 

425. pondicet'iana (Gmtl.) 312 

543. pondicerianu pondiceriana (Giiul.) 312 

544. pondiceriana affinis (Bh/tli) 31 3 

545. pondiceriana pallida Ticehurst 314 

104. Genus I'latylophus Swaiimon 314 

426. galericulauis SirttinitOH 314 

546. galericulatus ardesiaeus (Cabaiiis) 314 

XIII. Family P t. h i c k o c o t i d .*: 317 

165. Genus Pericroeotus Bute 317 

-127. speciosus (Lath.) 318 

547. speciosus speciosus (Lath.) 319 

548. speciosus fraterculus (Swinhoe) 320 

549. speciosus flamtnifer (Hume) 321 

550. speciosus andamanensis^i/ffer) 322 

551. speciosus tlammeus (1'orst.) 322 



XVi SrSTKMATIC INDKX. 

XIII. Family Pericbocotidjs (cont.). 

165. Genus Pericrocotus (cont.). P»g« 

428. brevirostris ( Vigors) '2.3 

552. brovirostris brevirostris ( Vigors) 321} 

553. brevirostris affinis (McCUll.) 324 

554. brevirostris neglectus (Hume) 325 

429. igneus Blyth 325 

430. Solaris Blyth 326 

555. Solaris Solaris (lih/th) 326 

550. solaria ripponi. subsp. nov 327 

431. roseus ( Vieill.) 328 

557. roseus roseus ( Vieill.) 328 

432. peregriuus (Linn.) 329 

558. perigrinus peregriuus (Linn.) 329 

55!). peregriuus vividus Stuart linker 331 

560. pcregrinus nialabaricus (Grnel.) 331 

561. peregriuus pallidus Stuart Baker 332 

433. erytbropygius (Jerdon) 332 

434. albifrons (Jerdon) 334 

435. cinereus Lafresn 334 

430. cantonensis Sunnhoe 335 

166. Genus Lalage Boie 336 

437. melascbista (ffodi/n.) 33(! 

502. melaschista melaschista (Ilodtjs.) 337 

50;5. melaschista avensis (Blyth) 337 

438. fimbriata (Temm.) ! 33.S 

564. limbriata neglecta (Hume) 339 

439. sykesii Strickl 340 

440. nigra (Forster) 341 

505. nigra nigra (Furster) 341 

167. Genus (iraucakis C'avkr 342 

441. macei Lens 343 

506. macei macei (/>.»«.) 343 

507. macei nipalensis (Ilodgs.) 344 

508. macei layardi (lihjth) 345 

509. macei siamensis Stuart Baker 345 

442. dobsoni Ball 340 

XIY. Family Autaxid.k 348 

168. Genus Artamus Vieill 348 

443. f uscus Vieill 348 

444. leuc.orhynchos (Linn.) 350 • 

570. leucorbytichos humei (Streseman) 350 

XV. Family Diciu'Kin.t: 352 

160. Dicnirus Vieill 353 

445. aimectem (l/o</gx.) 353 

446. mncrocercus ( Vieill.) 355 

571. niacrocercus maerocercus (Vieill.) 350 



Systematic index. xvii 

XV. Family D i o k u b i d m (cont.). 

169. Genus Dicrurus (cont.). p age 

572. roucroeercus albirictus (Hodys.) 357 

573. macrocerais wiiior (Layard) 358 

574. mucrocercus cathcecun (Sicinh.) 358 

575. raucroccTCUs longus {Bonaparte) 359 

447. leucophoeus (Vieill.) 359 

57(5. leucophums disturbans Stuart Baler .... 360 

577. leucophecus nigrescens (Oates) 361 

578. luucopliseus liopwoodi Stuart Baker .... 361 

579. leucophxus stevensi Stuart Baker 362 

58(1. k'ucoplisens longieaudatus (A. Hav.) .... 362 

581. leucophoeus minimuH Stuurt Baker 364 

448. coerulescens (Linn.) 365 

582. coerulescens coerulescens {Linv.) 365 

583. coerulescens leucopygialis (Bh/th) 366 

449. Icucogenys ( Walden) 367 

584. Icucogenys leucogenys( TF«7ifcji) 367 

1 70. Genus Chaptia Hodys 368 

450. aenea (Vieill.) 368 

585. amea acuta ( Vieill.) '. 368 

5SH. tenea malayensis (A. Hay) 369 

171. Genus Chibia Hodys 370 

451 . hottentotta (Linn.) 370 

587. hottentotta hottentotta (Linn.) 370 

172. Genus Dissemuroides Hume . 371 

452. aiidamanensis (Tytler) 371 

588. aiidamanensis aiidamanensis (Tytler) .... 371 

589. aiidamanensis discruriformis (Hume) .... 372 

173. Genus lUssemimilus Oates 373 

453. lophorhinus ( Vieill.) 373 

174. Genus Bhringa Hodys 374 

454. remifer ( Temm.) 374 

590. remifer tectirostris^ocfys.) 375 

175. Genus Dissemurus Ologer 376 

455. paradiseus (Linn.) 377 

591. paradiseus paradiseus (Linn.) 377 

592. paradiseus rangoonensis (Gould) 378 

593. paradiseus grandis (Gould) 378 

594. paradiseus otiosus Richmond 380 

595. paradiseus mcobariensis Stuart Baker . . 380 

596. paradiseus malabaricus (Lath.) 381 

597. paradiseus ceylonensis (Sharpe) 381 

XVI. Family Syltiidj 382 

176. Genus Agrobates Swains 885 

456. galactodes (Temm.) 385 

598. galactodes familiaris (Menetr.) 386 

b 



xv Jii BTSTKHATIO INDEX. 

XVI. Family Srivni)* (eont.). P»ge 

177. Genus Acrocephalus Naum 387 

457. stentoreus (Heinpr. <$• Ehrenb.) 388 

599. stentoreua brunnescons (Jerd.) 389 

(500. stentoreus amyse Stuart Buktr 390 

458. arundinaceus (Linn.) 391 

001. arundinaceus orien talis (TVmm. i^Schleg.) . 391 

459. bistrigioeps Swinh 392 

460. dumetorum Blyth , 393 

461. agricolus (Jerdon) 394 

462. concinens {Swinh.) 395 

602. concinens concinens (Swinh.) 396 

603. concinens haringtoni ( Witherby) 396 

604. concinens stevensi Stuart Baker 397 

463. orinus Oberholser '. 398 

178. Genus Locustella Kauj> 399 

464. certhiola (l 3 all.) 399 

465. knceolata (Temm.) '. 401 

466. naevia Bodd 401 

605. naevia straminea (Seehohm) 402 

1 79. Genus Tribura llodtjs 403 

467. major (Brooks) 403 

468. taczanowskia (Sivinhoe) 404 

469. thoracica (Blyth) 405 

606. thoracica thoracica (Blyth) 405 

470. luteoventris Jfodgs 406 

ISO. Genus Elaphrornis Leqge 408 

471. palliseri (Blyth) ' *. 408 

181. Genus Orthotomus Horsfield 410 

472. sutorius (Font.) 410 

607. sutorius sutorius (Forst.) 410 

608. sutorius patia (Hodgs.) 412 

609. sutorius longicaudus (Gmelin) 412 

610. sutorius maculicollis (Moore) 413 

473. atrigularis Temm 414 

611. atrigularis atrigularis (Temm.) 414 

612. atrigularis nitidus (Hume) 415 

474. ruficeps (Less.) 415 

475. sepium Lafres 416 

613. sepium cinevaceus (Blyth) 416 

182. Genus Lusciniola Gray 417 

476. melanopogon (Temm.) 417 

614. melanopogon mimica (Madarasz) 418 

183. Genus Cisticola Kaup 419 

477. exilis ( Vig. 6; Horsf.) 419 

615. exilis erythrocephala (Blyth) 420 

616. exilis tytleri (Jerdon) 420 

617. exilis equicaudata (Stuart Baker) 422 

478. juncidis (Rafinetque) 422 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XIX 

XVI. Family StLviiDiE (cont.). 

183. Genus Cisticola (cont.). Page 

618. juncidis cursitans (Frankl.) 422 

619. juncidis oroalura (Blyth) 424 

184. Genus Franklinia Jerd 424 

479. gracilis (Frankl.) 425 

480. rufescens (Blyth) 420 

" 620. rufescens rufescens (Blyth) 427 

621. rufescens austeni (Stuart Baler) 427 

481. cinereocapilla (I/odys.) 428 

482. buchanani (Blyth) 429 

185. Genus Laticilla Blyth 430 

483. burnesi (Blyth) 43u 

484. cinerascens ( Wald ) 431 

186. Genus Graminicola Jerdon 432 

485. bengalensis Jerdon 432 

622. bengalensis bengalensis (Jerdon) 43M 

623. bengalensis striata (Slyan) 434 

187. Genus Megalurus Horsf. 434 

486. palustris Horsf. 435 

188. Genus Schcenicola Blyth 436 

487. platyura (Jerd.) 437 

189. Genus Cheetornis Gray 438 

488. locustelloides (Blyth) 438 

190. Genus Phragmaticola Jerdon 439 

489. aedon (Pall.) 440 

191. Genus Hippolais Brehm 441 

490. rama (Ayres) 442 

491. pallida (Hemp. <L- Ehr.) 443 

624. pallida eltcica Lindeniiayer 443 

492. scita (Eversm.) 444 

493. obsoleta (Severetz.) . 444 

494. languida (Hemp. $ Ehr.) 445 

192. Genus Sylvia Scop . 446 

495. communis Lath 446 

625. communis icterops (Mene.tr.) 447 

496. horteusis (Gmel.) 447 

626. hortcnsis crassiro8tris(C , re(r.) 448 

497. nana (Hemp. 4' Ehr.) 449 

627. nana nana (Hemp, if Ehr.) 449 

498. althaea flume 450 

499. currnca (Linn.) 451 

628. currnca affinis (Blyth) 451 

629. curruca minula (Hume) 451 

193. Genus Herbivocula Sivinhoe 452 

500. schwarzi (Radde) 452 

194. Genus Fhylloscopus Bote 453 

501. affinis (Tick.) 454 

502. tytleri Brooke 455 



XX SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

XVI. Family Stitiid* (cont.). 

191. Genus Phvlloscopua (cont). Page 

503. collyhitus (Vieill.) 456 

630. collybitus tristis (Blyth) 450 

(531. collybitus aindiamis (Brooks) 457 

504. neglectus Hume 458 

632. neglectui ncgleotua (Hume) 458 

63,'!. neglectus lorciizii (Lorenz.) . . . 459 

505. griseolus Blyth 450 

50(5. fuliginive;iter (Hodi/s.) : 460 

507. fuscatus (Blyth) .'. 461 

634. fuscatus i'uscatus (Blyth) 461 

635. fuscatus homeveri (Dyhow.) 462 

508. armanrlii (Mil-Kd.) '. '. 463 

509. maculipennia (Blyth) 463 

510. pulchcr Blyth .'...' 464 

63'i. (ml't-hcr puloher (Blt/th) 464 

637. puliiher kangre Tirehursf 465 

511. proreg'ilus Pallas 466 

63S. proregulus ncwtoni (Gatke) 46(5 

639. proregulus forresti Rothschild 467 

640. prorogulus simluensis 2'icehur.st 467 

512. snhviridis (Brooks) 468 

513. humii (Brooks) 469 

641. humii humii (Brooks) 469 

642. humii premium Matlutvs 4' Iredah .... 470 
195. Genus Acanthopmnistc 471 

514. borealis (Bias.) 471 

613. borealis borealis (Bias.) 472 

644. borealis xanthodryas (Sinnh.) 472 

515. nitidus (Blyth) " 473 

645. nitidus nitidus (Blt/th) 473 

646. nitidus viridauus (Blyth) 474 

647. nitidus plumbeitarsus (Swinh.) 474 

648. nitidus saturatua Stuart Baker 475 

516. magiiirostris Blyth 476 

517. tenellipes (Swinh.) 477 

518. lugubris (Blyth) 478 

519. occipitalis (Blyth) 479 

640. occipitalis occipitalis (Blyth) 479 

650. occipitalis coronata (Temm. <$• Schley.) . • 480 

520. trochiloides (Sundry.) '. 480 

651. trochiloides trochiloides (Sundev.) 481 

652. trochiloides harterti Stuart Baker 481 

653. trochiloides davisoni (Oattg) 482 

654. trochiloides claudiae La Toucht 483 

196. Genus Muscifcrea Blyth 483 

521. grisola (Blyth)' 484 

655. grisola grisola (Blyth) 484 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XXI 

XVI. Family Stlviidjb (cont.). Page 

197. Genua Seicercus Swainnon 485 

522. aftinis (Hod</s.) 486 

523. burkii (Burton) 487 

056. burkii burkii (Burton) 487 

657. burkii tephrocephala (Anderson) 488 

524. xanthosehistus (Hodgs.) 488 

658. xanthosehistus xanthosehistus (Hodgs. ) . . 480 

659. xanthoschistus albosuperciliaris (Jerdon) . 490 

525. poliogenys (BIyth) 491 

526. castaneocops (Gray) 492 

660. castaneoceps castaneoceps (Gray) 492 

527. eantator (Tick.) * 492 

198. Genus Abrornis flodi/s 493 

528. superciliaris Tichll 494 

061. superciliaris superciliaris {Tickell) 494 

662. Kuporciliaris sulwinensis Stuart Baker ■ ■ 495 

GO;?. Hujierciliiiris schwanuri (BIyth) 495 

52!). schisticeps (Hodyn.) 496 

664. schisticeps schisticeps (Hodgs.) 496 

665. schisticeps ripponi (Sharpe) 497 

060. schisticeps tluvimeritalis Stuart Baker. . . 497 

530. albogularis Moore 498 

007. albogularis albogularis (Moore) 498 

531. flavogularis (Sodw.-Anst 499 

199. Genus Tickellia Jerdon $ Bhjth 499 

532. hodgsoni Moore 500 

i-00. Genus Scotocen-a Sundry 501 

533. inquicta (Cretzschm.) 501 

008. inquieta striata (Brooks) 501 

201 . Genus Xeornis BIyth 502 

534. flavolivaceus '(BIyth) 502 

609. flavolivaceus flavolivaceus (BIyth) 502 

670. flavolivaceus intricatus llartert 503 

202. Genus Horomis Hodijs 504 

5:55. acanthizoides Verr 504 

671. acanthizoides acanthizoides ( Verr.) 504 

072. acanthizoides brunnescens (Hume) 505 

530. fortipes Hod-fs 506 

673. fortipes fortipes (Hodgs.) 506 

537. albiventris (Oodw.-Auxt.) 507 

538. pallidus (Brooks) -.507 

674. pallidus pallidus (Brooks) 507 

539. pallidipes (Blanf.) 508 

675. pallidipes pallidipes (Blanf.) 508 

076. pallidipes osraastoni (Hartert) 509 

540. major (Moore) 510 

541. can tans (Temm. <S( Schl.) 510 

677. cantans canturians (Swinh.) 511 



xxii systbiia.tio index. 

XVI. Family SriviiD* (cont). Page 

203. Genus Horeitea Hodgs 512 

542. brunnifrons ( tlodgx.) 512 

678. bruiinifroiifi brunnifrons (Hodgs.) 512 

079. brunnifrons whistleri Ticehurtst 513 

080. brunnifrons urabraticus Stuart Baker .... 51:5 

204. Genus Cettia Bonaparte 514 

513. cetti (Mann.) 514 

681. cetti ccttioides (Hume) 514 

205. Genus Urophlexis Stejneger 515 

544. squameiceps (Swinhoe) 515 

206. Genus Phyllergutes Sharpe 510 

545. coronatus Jerd. S[ Blyth 516 

207. Genus Suya Hodys 518 

546. crinigera Hodgs 518 

682. crinigera crinigera (Hodys.) 518 

083. crinigera striatuhi (Hume) 520 

684. crinigera ussamica Stuart Baker 520 

685. crinigera yunnanensis Harington 521 

680. crinigera cooki Harington 522 

547. atrogularis Moore 522 

687. atrogularis atrogularis (Moore) 523 

688. atrogularis khasiana (Oodw. -A unt.) 524 

548. superciliaris Anderson 524 

689. superciliaris superciliaris (Anderson) .... 524 

208. Genus Prinia IJorsf. 525 

549. gracilis (Licht.) 526 

690. gracilis lepida ( Blyth) 526 

691. gracilis stevensi Hartert 527 

550. flaviventris Deles* 528 

692. flaviventris flaviventris (DeUss.) 528 

693. flaviventris sindiana Tieehurst 529 

551. socialist Sykes 529 

694. socialis socialis (Sykes) 529 

695. socialis stowarti (Blyth) 531 

552. sylvatica Jerdon 531 

696. sylvatica sylvatica (Jerdon) 532 

697. sylvatica valida (Blyth) 533 

698. sylvatica rufescens (Hume) 533 

553. inornata Sykes 533 

699. inornata inornata (Sykes) 534 

700. iiiornata jerdoni (Blyth) 535 

701. inornata burmanica Harington 536 

702. inornata blanfordi (Wald.) 537 

XVII. Family Rbsui,id;b; 538 

209. Genus Regulus Koch 538 

554. regulus (Linn.) 538 

. 703. regulus bimalayensis (Jerdon) 539 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XX1U 

XVII. Family Kebulidje (com*.). 

209. Genus Kegulus (cont.). Page 

704. regulus yunnancnsis (Bippoii) 541 

705. regulus tristis Pleske. 541 

210. Genus Leptopnecile Severtz 542 

555. sophias Severtz 542 

700. sophioc sophise Severtz 542 

707. sophias obscura (Przew.) 543 

211. Genus Ccphulopyrns Bonap 544 

556. flaramiceps (Burton) 545 



Family CINCLID^E. 

The Dippers comprise a small group of birds which have under- 
gone special adaptation to suit them to a more or less aquatic life. 
They appear to be closely allied to the Troglodytkla, or Wrens, on 
the one hand, and to the Turdidce, or Thrushes, on the other. 

The nidificatioii of these birds is very peculiar — the nests 
are very large and domed, and the eggs are pure white — and is 
certainly more like that of the former than that of the latter 
family. 

In the Dippers the bill is very like that of the Wrens, it is 
almost as long as the head, narrow and straight, the tip slightly 
bent down and notched; the nostrils are covered by a large mem- 
brane and there are no riclal bristles ; the wing is short and 
rounded ; the tail exceedingly short and the tarsus long, smooth 
and very strong, with short, powerful claws. 

The sexes are alike and the plumage of the young is barred. 
A semi-adult plumage is acquired in the first autumn moult but 
the feathers of parts of the breast and throat are fringed with 
white, these fringes being lost by abrasiun in the succeeding 
season. The head is narrow in front and the feathers of the fore- 
head very short, lying close to the head. The plumage generally 
is very firm and dense. 

Genus CINCLUS Borkhausen, 1797. 
Type, C. cinclus Linu. Type-locality : restricted to Sweden. 
The characters of the genus are those of the family. 

Key to Species. 

A. Chin and breast white , . Cinclut cinclus, p. 1. 

B. Chin and breast brown Cinclut pallasii, p. 4. 

Cinclus cinclus. 

Sturnus ciiiclus Linn., S. N., i, p. 290, 1706. 
Type-locality : Sweden. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Chin, throat and breast white ; abdomen 

brown C. c. cashmeriensis, p. 2. 

B. Chin, throat, breast and abdomen all white. C. c. leucogaster, p. 3. 

The bird hitherto known as Cinclus sordidus, -which is only an 
aberrant form of cashmeriensis, has the lower parts all more or less 
brown, but the brown is much paler than ou the upper parts and 
not concolorous witli them as in pallasii. 

VOL. II, B 



2 CINCI/tDJE. 

(477) Cinclus cinclus cashmeriensis. 

The Kashmir Dipper or White-breasted Asiatic Dipper. 

Cinclus cashmeriensis Gould, P.Z. S., 1869, p. 494 (Kashmir). 
Cinclus kashmiriensi*. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. \6'2 (1890). 
Cinclus sordidus. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 105. 

Vernacular names. Daodui-di (Cacliari). 

Description. Forehead, lores, crown and tipper back chocolate- 
brown ; edges of eyelids with white feathers ; remainder of upper 
plumage slate-colour, each feather centred and edged with black ; 
on the back the slate and brown grade into one another ; wing- 
feathers brown, edged with slate and the secondaries edged with 
white ; tail slate-colour, faintly cross-rayed ; chin, throat, cheeks 
and breast pure white ; remainder of lower plumage chocolate- 
brown, darker than the head and deepening to dark chocolate on 
flanks, vent and under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright hazel ; bill black or blackish 
brown ; legs and feet dark brown, slaty-brown or almost black. 

Measurements. Total length about 190 to 200 mm.; wing 90 
to 100 mm.; tail 48 to 56 mm.; tarsus 27 to tii) mm.; culmen 
18 to 19 mm. 

Young birds after the first spring moult are like the adults but 
the feathers of the abdomen, vent, posterior flanks and under tail- 
coverts are streaked with white. 

Nestlings have the whole upper plumage slate-grey, the feathers 
edged with dark brown ; wing-coverts grey, with dark centres and 
broad white tips which form two wing-bars ; wing-quills dark 
brown with broad terminal edges of white and the outer webs 
broadly edged with grey ; the whole lower plumage is white, the 
dark bases of the feathers showing through here and there, with 
numerous narrow bars of black or blackisli brown. 

The birds hitherto known as Cinclus sordidus, which have the 
whole throat and breast brown like the head, are generally 
accepted as nothing more than aberrant specimens of the Kashmir 
Dipper. They occur over exactly the same area and intermediate 
forms are not very rare. The types of sordidus and cashmeriensis 
were both obtained at the Tso Morari Lake, Ladak. 

Distribution. Kashmir, Murree Hills, Garhwal, Nepal, Sikkim, 
Tibet East to Kanni. Northern Assam as far East as Tezpur, not 
East of the Dibong or Brahmaputra and not 8outh of that 
river. West to the Khagan Valley, and the whole N.AV. Frontier. 

Nidification. The Kashmir Dipper breeds in Kashmir from 
early April to the end of June at all heights from the lowest 
valleys up to 12,000 feet and possibly much higher, in the 
Khagan and Kurram Valleys on the extreme N.W. Frontier, 
Major C. 11. T. Whitehead took two nests in the end of June at 
12,000 feet. The nests are large domed structures, much the size 
and shape of a football and are built of moss, roots, grass and 



CINCLUS. . 3 

leaves well matted together and lined with soft moss and grass. 
They are generally placed on a rock, small island or stranded log 
in the middle of a stream, sometimes on rocks or between boulders 
on banks and often, wherever it may be placed, it is a most con- 
spicuous object, though in appearance it is so like a lump of 
rubbish, left by the flood, that it escapes detection. The eggs 
number four or five and are pure white with soft glossless texture 
and fragile shell. In shape they are normal or pointed ovals. 
Fifty eggs average 25-9x18-5 mm.: maxima 21 - lxl8 - 9 and 
2(>ii x 195 mm. ; minima 22-8 x? and ? X 1G4 mm. (Name). 

Habits. This Dipper is found both in summer and winter at 
very high levels and is one of- the hardiest of birds. It has been 
neen at 15,000 feet in midwinter and Walton recorded it as com- 
mon at. Cliumbi at 14,000 feet at that season. It spends all its 
time on fast-running streams, sometimes hunting the rocks and 
shallows for insects, etc., at other times pursuing its prey under 
water. It prefers rapids and turbulent waters to the more placid 
pools and is extraordinarily active under the most difficult of con- 
ditions whether above or below water. It flies with speed and 
directness, skimming along close to the surface, notifying both 
start and stop to its (light by its shrill whistle. 



(478) Cinclus cinclus leucogaster. 

Til!': WllITE-BELLI£D DlPPJSR. 

Cinclus leucogaster Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, p. 2o2 (18-iO) (West 
Siberia). 

Vernacular names. None recorde;!. 

Description. Similar to the Kashmir Dipper but the lower parts 
are all white, with the exception of the extreme posterior flanks 
and vent, which are brown and the under tail-coverts whic^i are 
slaty-grey ; even these parts, however, are also much marked and 
fringed with white; the head, neck and upper back are generally 
decidedly paler than in cathmeriensis. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements are the same as those 
of the last bird. 

Distribution. West Siberia. Turkestan, Altai, the region of 
Lake Baikal and straggler South to Gilgit, from which last-named 
place there is a typical specimen in. the British Museum. 

Nidiflcation. I can find nothing recorded. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

Both this race and the last, differ from typical Cinclus cinclus in. 
being much darker, less reddish above and by the brown extending 
further down the back into the slate-colour. C. c. cushmeriensis 
also differs in being less red on the abdomen next to the white 
breast. 

b2 



4 CIXCLIUvE. 

Cinclus pallasii. 

Cittclus pallusii Temm., Man. d'Orn., i, p. 177 (1815). 
Type-locality: Crimea. 

Keij to Subspecies. 

A. Chocolate of head etc. not very dark ; cul- 

men from front 18 to 19 mm C. p. tenmro.it m, p. 4. 

]3. Chocolate very dark ; oilmen 20 to 22-5 mm. 6'. ^>. wion/o, p. 5. 

(479) Cinclus pallasii tenuirostris. 
The Indian Brown Dipper. 
Cinclus icimircstri* Bonaparte, Consp. A v., i, p. I'M (1850) (Central 

Asia). 
Cinclus asiaticim. Hlanf. & Oates, ii, p. 103. 

Vernacular names. SoinboiKj-kurriat (Lopcba) ; C/ivtiu-naHu 
(Bhut.). 

Description. A ring of feathers on the eyelids white, often 
hardly showing : terminal edges of secondaries white and, in 
freshiv moulted birds, a narrow pale fringe to the greater coverts. 
With "these exceptions the whole plumage is chocolate-brown, the 
concealed portions of the wings and tail rather darker. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel-brown ; bill black or nearly so ; 
legs light to dark brown, sometimes tinged with plumbeous ; soles 
paler and yellowish. 

Measurements. Wing 915 to 101 mm.; tail 55 to GO nun.; 
tarsus about 28 mm. ; cuhnen 18 to 19 mm. 

Distribution. Turkestan, Himalayas from Nairn Tal and Mnrree, 
through Kashmir, Simla Hills, Garhual, Nepal and Sikkiin to 
East Assam, North of the Brahmaputra and not South of this 
river. 

Niiification. The Brown Dipper breeds throughout its habitat 

at all heights from the foot-hills up to 14,000 feet, generally 

nesting below 9,000 feet. In Eastern Assam Stevens found it 

breeding in the Subansiri Gorge, practically at the level of the 

plains, in December and January. Jn Sikkim, Garhwal and 

further North-West it appears to breed trom January and February 

on to April and even early May, but the later neists may be 

those of birds whose first broods have been destroyed by floods. 

The nests are placed in situations similar to those selected by the 

Kashmir Dipper, but they resort to boulders on banks of streams 

more often, perhaps, than to those in mid-stream. The nest is 

the same unwieldy ball of moss and grass, very compactly and 

Htoutly built, measuring externally anything up to a foot in 

diameter. The walls, however, are so massive that the internal 

egg-chamber is only some four to five inches in diameter, with an 

entrance between two and three inches across. The eggs are 

indistinguishable from those of other Dippers. Twenty eggs 



CINCLUS. o 

average 25-6 x 18*3 mm.: maxima 281 x 18-4 and 26-1 x 19*1 mm.; 
minima 24 - 4 X 18-1 mm. and 25-3 x 17"3 mm. 

Habits. Although this Dipper often wanders up to very great 
heights and even breeds at such when there are suitable streams 
available, it is essentially a bird of the lower levels from 5,000 or 
0,000 feet downwards. It breeds, as already mentioned, in the 
cold weather almost in the plains, but when the rivers get swollen 
and muddy in April and May it then seeks higher ranges where 
the streams rise and fall quickly and soon become clear again 
even after heavy rain. Stevens writes " one of the wariest of 
birds, its arrowy flights, as it skims a foot or so above the water, 
and the inaccessible nature of its haunts make it. a most difficult 
bird to procure specimens of." They have the same shrill cry 
which seems common to all the Dippers and which they utter at 
intervals when on the wing. 

(480) Cinclus pallasii marila. 
Tnn Fobmosax Brows Diitkr. 

Cinclus mania Swiuhoe, Ibis, I860, p. 187 (Formosa). 

Vernacular names. Di-dao-bui (Cachari). 

Description. Similar to the Indian Brown Dipper but darker 
everywhere. Both this and t lie last bird differ from C. p. pallasii 
in being less deep a chocolate in colour. This race is distinguish- 
able from C.p. soulei in being a trifle paler. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown ; bill black ; legs 
and feet horny-brown, plumbeous-brown or almost black ; soles 
always paler and yellowish or fleshy. 

Measurements. Wing 96 to 11(5 mm.; culmen 20 to 22-5 mm. 
The same measurements in C. p. soulei are 108 to LIT) and 23 to 
24 mm. respectively. I cannot divide Formosan birds from those 
of China, Burma and Assam. In the British Museum collection 
there is one Formosan, one Burmese and one Chinese bird, each 
with a wing of 111! mm. and several Assam specimens witli 
wings of only 96 and !)8 mm. 

The young bird differs from that of the Indian Brown Dipper 
in being much darker ; the grey above is replaced with brown and 
the dark centres to the feathers are larger ; the lower plumage is 
brown, each feather with broad white edges. 

Distribution. At present not well defined. Formosa, whence 
it was described by Swinhoe; Shan States (Harinyton) ; Chin 
Hills (Mackenzie) and the mountains South of the Brahmaputra 
River. Probably it will be found to be a small, low-level form of 
O. p. soulei extending all through the Burmese and Indo-Chinese 
Hill country. It has also been killed at Kuatun. 

Nidification. In the Khasia and North Cachar Hills the normal 
breeding season is December to February, before the streams 



CINCIIDX. 

begin to fill up, but many birds Jay in early April and even in May, 
though these latter place their nests in such positions that they 
are generally washed out in the first rains of June. I, however, 
took one nest with eggs as late as July, evidently the production 
of birds which had had their first attempts destroyed. The 
early nests are all placed on boulders, fallen trees or piles of 
debris lying in mid-stream or on rocks actually under waterfalls, 
through which the birds have to pass to the nest. The later 
nests are more often placed on the banks and cliffs above the 
rivers. They are huge affairs, often over a foot long by eight or 
ten inches wide and, when one knows what to look for, very con- 
spicuous. To the casual observer, however, they look only like 
masses of moss and leaves left by a falling flood. The eggs number 
four or five and are just like other Dippers' eggs. Thirty eggs 
average 2fi-7 x 18-9 mm.: maxima 28 - 5 X li) - 2 and 27'0 x 20 mm.; 
minima 243 x 18-H and 20-0 x 17-7 mm. 

Habits. This Dipper is very common in the Khnsia Hills 
although not so very often seen, lor it keeps very closely to streams 
which pass through woods, each pair apparently haunting its own 
stretch of water. Occasionally its sharp cry may attract one's 
attention on some open piece of river or stream as it flits hurriedly 
from one cover to another, especially in late autumn when the 
rivers and streams are running low. At this season and before 
nesting commences, it seems less secretive but it is always a 
shy, wild bird and most difficult to watch. It lives almost as 
much under water as above it and feeds on tiny fish, insects, tad- 
poles and water spiders, in catching •which it displays most 
extraordinary activity. 



TURDIDJE. 




Fig. 1. — Copsychtts s. sau/arh. 



Family TURDIDJE. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both innndibles smooth, or the 
upper one simply notched ; hinder aspect of tarsus bilaminated, 
the lamina; entire and smooth ; wing with ten primaries ; tongue 
non-tubular ; nostrils always clear of the line of forehead, the 
space between the nostril and the edge of the maudibles less than 
that between the nostril and the culuien ; plumage of the nestling 
mottled or squamated. There is only one moult in the year, in 
the autumn, but the fringes to the feathers of the winter plumage 
wear off in summer, causing a great alteration in colour in many 
species. Bectrices usually twelve, rarely fourteen. 

The Tubdim; includes the Short-wings, Chats, Forktails, Eobins, 
Thrushes and Accentors and forms a large family of the Passeres. 



6 TUEDIDJB. 

The only character which links all these species together is the 
squamated plumage of the young. The Dippers also have this 
characteristic but in other structural characters they show their 
affinity to the Wrens and therefore constitute a satisfactory family 
between the Troghdytidce, or Wrens, and the Twdidce. 

From the Muscicaputas, or Flycatchers, the young of which also 
have mottled or squamated plumage, the Thrushes are easily 
separated by their having no hairs over the nostrils and base of 
the bill and also by their long, strong tarsi. The only exception 
to this is the genus Zoothera, which has frontal hairs somewhat 
developed and overlying the nostrils. The exceptionally power- 
ful and long tarsi of this bird and its general Thrush-like 
appearance more than suffice, however, to show its proper position. 
In the Bruchypterygime and in some other genera, especially 
Phainicurus and Sa.vicola, the shafts of the feathers of the forehead 
are long and the webs somewhat disintegrated but these can- 
not be considered hairs, nor do they lie over the nostrils as is 
always the case with the Miiscicapida. 

I have divided the Turdidce into six Subfamilies, which form 
groups easily distinguishable from one another by the field- 
naturalist, although there are really no structural differences 
between the Chats, Redstarts and true Thrushes. 

As already noted, the Cinclitue have been raised to the status of 
a family, CinclicUe. The Short- wings, Bruchyptiryyina, have been 
brought from the Timaliidce, or Crateropodidw of Oates, to the 
present family, their position in which is determined by their 
squamated juvenile plumage and, finally, I have separated the 
Forktails from the Redstarts, the peculiar structure of the tails 
of the former clearly differentiating them from any other of the 
Turtlida. 

Key to Subfamilies. 

A. Wing very short and rounded ; tail very 

short Brachypteryginee, p. 9. 

B. Wing pointed and not very short ; tail not 

very short. 

a. Tarsus smooth. 

«'. Habits Muscicapine ; food principally 

captured by sallies from a perch Scuicolinee, p. 22. 

b'. Habits terrestrial ; insect-food sought for 
on the ground. 
a". Tail deeply forked ; middle pair of 
feathers shortest ; penultimate pair 

longest Enicurhue, p. 66. 

A". Tail normal; square or rounded. . . . Phasnkurinee, p. 67. 
c'. Habits terrestrial and arboreal; they are 

both insectivorous and frugivorous . . Turdirw, p. 120. 

b. Tarsus scutellated Prunellina, p. 186. 



BEACHTPTEBYX. 



Subfamily BRACHYPTERYGIN^E. 

This subfamily, which formerly Oates placed in his Crateropo- 
didce, is at once separated from that family by the fact that the 
young are allsquamated, though they show a certain superficial 
resemblance to it in their long legs and short tails. . 

Since Oates wrote the Avifauna we have learnt much about the 
young of many more species than was known in his time, a fact 
doubtless due to his own recognition of the importance of this point. 
B. major major (Cardew), B. major albiventris (Howard Campbell), 
Htteroxenkus nipalemis (Baker), Hodgsonitis, Larvivora (Osmaston) 
are all known to have young of true Thrush type and it is now 
possible to place them in a position to which their habits and 
nidification also entitle them. 

The bill is slender and about half the length of the head ; the 
rictal bristles vary from small and weak in Larvivora to well- 
developed in BracUypttryx. The wings are short and rounded, 
the tail short or very short ; the tarsi long, but more slender than 
in the Timaliiche. They are not gregarious. 

Key to Genera. 

A. Tail but little gradunted or nearly square, 

outer feathers tailing short of tip of tail by 
less than half the length of tarsus. 

a. Tail not less than twice the length of tarsus. 
a. Second primary much shorter than 

longest secondaries : Brachyptkjtvx, p. 9. 

/>'. Second primary equal to, or exceeding, 

secondaries Larvivora, p. 12. 

b. Tail much shorter than twice the length 

of tarsus IIetkroxenicus, p. 10. 

B. Tail greatly graduated, outer feathers falling 

short of tip of tail by as much as the length 

of tarsus Hodqsonius, p. 21. 



Genus BRACHYPTERYX. 

Horsf., Trans. L. S., xiii, p. 157 (1820). 

Type, B. montana. 

The genus Brachypteryx has the bill about equal in length to 
half the head, fairly strong and broad at the base, but slender from 
the centre to the tip; the nostrils are long ovals and are overhung 
by the lengthened shafts of the frontal feathers ; the rictal bristles 
are long. The wing is short and rounded ; the tarsus smooth, 
-long and strong and the tail is almost square. The sexes are alike 
and the young, like all the rest of the family, heavily squamated. 
There is only one species represented by two races, both confined 
to a comparatively small area. 



10 TVRD1DX. 

Brachypteryx major (Jerdon), 1844. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Sides of abdomen pale chestnut B. major major, p. 10. 

B. Sides of abdomen slat v-blue II. major albivtntru, 

[p. 11. 

(481) Brachypteryx major major*. 

Tile Kufous-bellij;i) Short-wing. 

Phunicura major Jerd., Madr. Jour. L. S., xiii, p. 170 (1844) 

(Nilgiris). 
Ilrachyptery.v rtificentris. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 1S5 (1889). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Lores and frontal line black ; above this faint 
traces only of a blue line on forehead and above eye ; upper 
plumage, wings and tail, sides of bead and neck dark slaty-blue; 




Fig. 2. — Head of //. m. Major. 

chin, throat and breast slaty-blue, nearly as dark as the back; centre 
of abdomen whitish ; remainder of lower plumage pale chestnut, 
suffused with brown below breast and on flanks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black ; legs and feet 
pale fleshy-brown, claws darker. 

Measurements. Total length about 170 to 180 mm. ; wing 78 to 
83 mm. ; tail 59 to 65 mm. ; tarsus 29 mm. ; culmen 16 mm. 

Distribution. Nilgiris ; Brainahagiris, Coonoor and adjacent 
hill-ranges. 

Nidiflcation. The Kufods-breasted Short-wing breeds in the 
Nilgiris in March, April and May from about 5,000 feet up to 
the highest levels. It makes a cup-shaped nest of green moss 
lined with roots and outwardly fitting the hollow, in tree or bank, 
in which it is placed. The tree selected, generally in preference 
to a bank, does not afford much concealment as, unlike H. crural'u, 
it does not choose one covered with moss or parasites. The eggs 
seem to be always two in number. In shape they are long, rather 

* This species cannot bear the name ntfiventris, Jerdon 1672, as he bad 
already given it the name of majw in 1844. 



BUACHIITKBYX. 11 

narrow ovals. The ground-colour is a greyish white, greenish 
white or yellow, but, this is so completely covered with minute 
freckles of reddish brown that the egg appears to be unicoloured 
olive-brown. In a few specimens the marks are confluent as a 
cap or ring and in some tliey are sufficiently sparse for the ground- 
colour to show through and they then appear to be an olive-green. 

•My e gg s > taken by Sir A. G. Cardew, Major Packard and others, 
average only 23-7 X ltJ'5 nun. but. Hume gives the length as up to 
25'9mm. and the breadth up to 175 mm. 

Habits. This Short-wing is common in the Nilgiris about Oota- 
camund, haunting the shohts, or copses, in the hollows between the 
grass-covered hills. Although they do not keep to very heavy 
cover they are shy retiring birds. The cock is said to have a very 
pretty little song, but so low that it is not often heard. 



(482) Brachypteryx major albiventris. 

The White-bellied Shokt-wixg. 

Valient albiventris Fairbank, lSlanf., P. Z. S., 1867, p. 8.'!3, pi. 39 

(pHlni Hills). 
Hrachypteryx albiventris. JJIunf. & Ontes, i, p. 18o. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Lores and a narrow frontal band velvety-black ; 
above this a band of bluish white. Remainder of plumage as in 
the last bird but the chestnut replaced with slaty-blue on the 
lower plumage. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris buff to red-buff; bill black; legs 
and feet dark horny-brown to plumbeous black. 

Measurements. Wing 78 to 83 mm.. J ; 73 to 78 mm., $ ; 
tail <>3 to 65 mm.: tarsus 29 mm.; culmeu 15 mm. 

Distribution. Palni Hills and Travancore only. 

A specimen obtained by Bourdillon at Mynal, Travancore, 
shows a considerable amount of rufous on the vent and flanks, 
proving this bird to be merely a race of rufirentris and probably 
specimens from the hills of North Travancore will be intermediate 
between the two. 

Nidiflcation. In every way like that of the Rufous-bellied 
Short-wing. The eggs, also, cannot be distinguished from those 
of that bird. The average of 12 eggs is 237 X 16-5 mm. : maxima 
255 x 170 and 23-6 x 173 mm. ; minima 21 X 16-0 mm. Eggs 
taken by the late Rev. Howard Campbell were found in April 
and May. 

Habits. Much the same as those of the last bird. It is found 
in shady cover, either singly or in pairs, and keeps entirely to the 
ground or to the lower bushes and scrub but, though so terres- 
trial in its habits, it flies well when forced to do so. 



12 TURBID.*. 

ileum LARVIVORA. 
Hodgs., J. A. S. 15., vi, p. 102 (1837). 

Type, L. Irunnea, 

The genus Larvivora contains three species, one resilient in 
India, one in Burma and the third found in the Eastern portion 
of the Empire in winter only. The first two are only locally 
migratory, whilst the third has a very wide range over Eastern 
Asia. 

In Larvivora the sexes are different in coloration and the 
young are barred and spotted. 

In this genus the bill is slender and about half the length of 
the head and the nostrils are long ovals. The wing is rather 
pointed, with the first primary of somewhat small size; the tarsus 
is slender and long and the tail is much shorter than the wing. 

Key to Species. 

A. Upper plumage blue. 

a. Lower plumage white /.. cyane, J , p. 12. 

b. Lower plumage brijrht chestnut L. hrnnnca, J , p. 14. 

c. Throat and breast light chestnut, abdomen 

white L. wickhami, £ , p. 15. 

B. Upper plumage olive-brown. 

d. Throat and breast pale fulvous, mottled 

with brown L. cyane, J , p. 12. 

e. Throat and breast bright fulvous, mottled 

with brown L. brunnea, 2 , P- 14- 

(483) Larvivora cyane. 
Tii£ Siberian Biak Chat. 

Mntacil/a cyane Pall., Iteis. Kuss. Heichs, iii, p. f!97 (177(i) (East 

Siberia). 
Larvivora cyanea. lilanf. & Oates, i, p. 181. 

Vernacular names. Xoue recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores and a line under the eye 
black ; cheeks, ear-coverts, sides of neck and whole upper plumage 
dark blue, the sides of the neck generally darker than elsewhere; 
tail and wing-quills brownish black, suffused with dark blue ; 
below white, the flanks washed with blue and the sides of the 
upper breast very deep indigo-blue. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black in the breeding 
season ; horny-brown above and fleshy-yellow or pale horny 
below in the non-breeding season ; feet, lega. and claws white to 
pale fleshy. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 to 150 mm.; wing 71 
to 81 mm. ; tail 47 to 50 mm. ; tarsus 26 mm. ; culinen about 
12 mm. 

Adult female. Lores, forehead and sides of the head fulvous- 



LAUVIVOKA. jy 

rufous, mottled with darker ; remainder of upper plumage olive- 
brown, tinged with russet on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; 
tail and wing-quills brown, edged with fulvous-rufous ; greater 
coverts brown, edged and tipped with rufous; below white, the 
breast-feathers edged with brown and tinged fulvous ; flanks 
fulvous-brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill above horny brown, 
mandible fleshy -yellow ; feet white to fleshy or fleshy-yellow. 

Measurements practically the same as the male. 

Young male is like the female, but acquires a certain amount 
of blue on the lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts and tail at 
the first autumn moult, sometimes, also, patches of blue on the 
wing-coverts. 

Nestlings are squamated on the lower plumage, spotted on the 
upper. 

Distribution. Breeding in Eastern Siberia and Japan and 
possibly also in Mongolia and North- Eastern China. In winter mi- 
grating South to .South China, the Indo-Chinese countries, Burma, 
Malay Peninsula, Borneo and probably most of the islands, 
Manipur and Assam. The label on the Pinwill specimen, "from 




Fig. 3. — Hend of L. c;inne. 

Simla," is undoubtedly wrong, nor is there any further evidence in 
support of Seebohm's statement that it winters iu North India. 

Nidification. This beautiful little Short-wing breeds abundantly 
iu Japan, making a cup-shaped nest of moss and leaves on the 
ground or in an old stump or a hole in a tree. The eggs number 
four or five and are in colour like rather deeply-coloured Hedge- 
Sparrow's eggs. The texture ia very smooth and the surface has 
a distinct gloss. Thirty eggs average 196 x 14-5 mm. 

The breeding season is from early May to early July. 

Oates considered it possible that this Blue Chat bred in Burma, 
as he obtained a specimen on the 21st May. It has never again 
been procured in the breeding season and his bird was certainly 
only a late visitor. 

Habits. The habits of the Blue Chats are the same as those of 
the other Short-wings. They are shy retiring birds, keeping much 
to forest and undergrowth, feeding entirely on the ground or 
close to it and are purely insectivorous. They all have a rather 
sweet but not very loud song, which they utter either on the 
ground or from some bush or low tree and in winter at all 
events, they have a habit of flirting their tails not unlike some 
of the true Chats. 



14 Tl'BDID.S. 

(484) Larvivora brunnea. 

Tjie Indian Blue Chat. 

Larvivora brunnea ITodjrs., J. A. S. B., vi, p. 101> (1837) (Sikkim) ; 
Hlnnf. & Gates, i, p. 182. 

Vernacular names. Manzil-pho (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, lores, ear-coverts nnd 
sides of neck black ; a long broad supercilium white ; remainder 
of upper plumage dark blue ; wing-quills brown edged with blue; 
point of chin and narrow line under the black cheeks white ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries blue ; throat, breast and lower 
plumage bright chestnut ; centre of abdomen, vent and under 
tail-coverts white. The amount of white on the abdomen varies 
considerably individually. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black in breeding season, 
horuv-brown above, fleshy below in winter ; legs and feet fleshy 
to dark yellowish fleshy ; " legs and feet blackish-grey " (Forrest). 

Measurements. Wing 70 to 78 mm.; tail 40 to 43 nun.; 
tarsus 27 mm. ; culmen 13 mm. 

Adult female. Above similar to the female of L. ryane but the 
whole breast, flanks, under wing-coverts and axillaries are dark, 
bright fulvous; in some birds the fulvous is much suffused with 
brown and in a few practically the whole of the lower parts are 
fulvous, leaving only the under tail-coverts white. 

Colonrs of soft parts and Measurements as in male. 

The young male is like the female but has the whole back 
darker, much suffused with blue, especially on the lower back to 
the tail arid also on the wing-coverts. 

Distribution. Breeding in the Himalayas, Kashmir and Garhwal 
to Sikkim and Bhutan. In winter throughout India and Ceylon, 
Assam, X. Burma and Yunnan. Specimens taken in Ceylon and 
the Nilgiris in April and May have black beaks and may possibly 
breed locally. 

NidiflcatioD. The Indian Blue Chat breeds during May, .Tune 
and early July from Kashmir to Sikkim and is very abundant all 
round Murree. The nest is almost invariably placed on the 
ground at the foot of a tree or bush, sometimes without anv 
vegetation to screen it from view, sometimes under a bush or on 
a bank covered with weeds and moss. It never, however, seems 
to select very thick cover. The nest itself is a large, loosely put 
together cup of dead leaves, lined with hair or fine roots and at a 
short distance looks like a little pile of rubbish drifted against tho 
trunk of the tree or blown up on the bank. The eggs number 
three or four and are pale spotless blue, just like dark Hedge- 
Sparrow's eggs. Twenty-four eggs average 194 x 145 mm. : 



LABVIYOIIA. 15 

maxima 204 x 150 mm.; minima 18 - 4 x 14-1 and 18-9 x 
14*0 mm. 

It has not yet been found to breed in the Nilgiris as was at 
one time supposed, and in ten years Sir A. J. Cardew, a very close 
observer, never saw it once during the breeding season. 

Habits. The Indian Blue Chat frequents forest, preferably 
sueh as is not very dense in undergrowth but at the same time is 
shady and cool. It keeps much to the ground and never ascends 
into the trees, though it may feed in the lower growth occasionally. 
It is an extremely shy bird, resenting observation but during the 
breeding season in Kashmir when the hens were sitting Davidson 
found that the males were very bold, singing their pleasant little 
song in almost every small patch of thick jungle. 

It breeds from about 5,000 feet upwards and Stevens obtained 
it rather lower down thau this in Nepal during the winter 
months. 



(485) Larvivora wickhami. 

The Chin-Hills Blue Chat. 

Larvivora wickhami Stuart Baker, Xov. Zool., xxiii, p. 298 (1910) 
(Chin Hills). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Upper plumage slaty-blue ; forehead and above 
the lores rufous ; lores, cheeks and ear-coverts pale dull buff, the 
edges blackish, making this part of the plumage mottled ; visible 
portions of the wing like the back ; primaries blackish brown 
edged with dull buff; tail, central feathers like the back, outer 
ones blackish suffused with slnty-blue on the outer webs; chin, 
throat, fore neck and breast light rusty chestnut, the centre of the, 
throat slightly paler ; an indefinite slaty-blue band, interrupted 
in the middle, across the breast ; abdomen, vent and under tail- 
coverts white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries dull rusty-buff. 

Colours of soft parts. " Bill bhwk ; legs very pale flesh-colour, 
almost white " (Wickham). 

The tail-feathers are only slightly acuminate, but would possibly 
be more so in a freshly-moulted bird. 

Measurements. Wing 72 mm.; fail 43 mm.; tarsus 24 mm. ; 
culmen 10-5 mm. 

Distribution. Chin Hills. 

Nidification. The nest of this Blue Chat appears to be very 
similar to that of the Indian Blui» Chat and has been taken on 
Mt. Victoria and other peaks in the Chin Hills, at about 7,000 
feet, by Messrs. Macdonald, Wickham and others. The eggs are 
indistinguishable from those of other species of this genus, and 
those in the possession of Mr. J. M. D. Mackenzie and myself 
average about 18*6 x 13*8 mm. 

Habits. Nothing recorded. 



16 vvnsiDM. 

Genus HETEROXENICUS. 

Sharpe, Bull. 13. 0. C, xii, p. 55 (1002). 
Type, II. cruralis. 

Gould's name Drymochares beiug preoccupied ns a name for a 
genus of Coleoptera, Sharpe's name Heteroxenicvs (' Hand-List of 
Birds,' iv, p. 56, 1903) must be used. 

The genus Hetei-oxenicus differs from Brachypteryx principally 
in having longer tarsi and a still shorter tail, in other respects it 
is very close to that genus. The bill is much as in that bird, 
rather more slender, with long oval nostrils and moderate rictal 
bristles. The wing is short and rounded ; the tail very short and 
the tarsi very long and slender. 

The young are not, as stated by Oates, like the female, but are 
squainated and spotted as in all the l'tirdidc. 

Key to Species. 

A. Upper plumage chestnut II. stellatus, p. 10. 

B. Upper plumage blue. 

«. Chin and throat chestnut . . 11. hyperythrns, d ,p. 17. 

b. ('hiii and throat indigo- blue It. nipalemis, cf , p. 19. 

c. Chin and throat white. 

«'. Abdomen barred with ashy 11. cruralis, J, p. 18. 

b'. Abdomen without any bars //. sinensis, J , p. 20. 

C. Upper plumage brown. 

d. Chin and throat chestnut //. hyperythrns, § ,p.l". 

e. Chin and throat ashy-brown //. cruralis, J , p. 18. 

f. Chin and throat dull white II. nipitleims, $ , p. 19. 

y. Chin and throat fulvous II. sinensis, j , p. 20. 

(486) Heteroxenicus stellatus. 

Gould's Suoet-wing. 

Brachypteryx [Drymochares) stellatus Gould, V. Z. S., 1868, p. 213 

(Sikkim). 
Drymochares stellatus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 187. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Lores and a narrow frontal line black ; crown to 
rump, upper tail-coverts, tail and wing-coverts bright chestnut ; 
a narrow superciiium, chin, throat and breast grey finely veruiicu- 
lated with narrow bars of black ; lower breast dark grey turning 
to rufescent brown on the vent and posterior flankB, each feather 
vermiculated as on the breast but with the addition of a triangular 
white spot ; under tail-coverts rufous-brown, barred with paler 
rufous and spotted with white ; rump like the veut. 

Colours of soft parts. Irides brown ; bill black ; legs horny 
fleshy. 

Measurements. Total length about 130 mm. ; wing 72 to 
77 mm.; tail 45 to 47 mm.; tarsus 30 mm.; cultnen 12 mm. 

Distribution. Sikkim only. 



HBTEEOIEIflCUS. 17 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits. Nothing is known about this very rare bird. Blanford 
obtained it iu Sikkim at 12,000 feet and there are two or three 
specimens in the Tring Museum obtained at still higher elevations, 
whilst Stevens procured it at about 7,000 feet in the Mai Khola 
Valley, East Nepal, in early April. He thinks it may breed in 
this valley or in its vicinity. 

(487) Heteroxenicus hyperythrus. 

Tub Edstt-bbllibd Siiobt-wing. 

Brachypteryx hyperythra Jerdon & Blyth, P. Z. S., 1861, p. 201 

(Sikkim). 
Drymochares hyperyth.ru*. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 187. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adnlt male. Lores and frontal line black; a 
short, rather broad supercilium white ; whole upper plumage, 
sides of head and ueck and exposed parts of wings and tail deep 
blue ; concealed parts of wings and tail brown; whole lower parts 
from chin to under tail-coverts bright chestnut. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black, more or less 
fleshy at the base and on the mandible during the non-breeding 
season ; legs fleshy to light horny brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 120 mm. ; wing 63 to 
64 mm. ; tail about 45 mm. ; tarsus 29 mm. ; culmen 11 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage olive-brown, the ear-covert* 
with pale shafts ; plumage below chestnut suffused with brown 
on the flanks and vent and albescent on the centre of the 
abdomen. The white eyebrow is absent or obsolete. 

Colours of soft parts as in the mae. 

Measurements. Wing about 62 mm. ; tail 38 mm. ; tarsus 
28 mm. ; culmen 11 mm. 

Distribution. Sikkim. "N. Lakhimpur and Margherita in 
Assam " (Stevens). 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits. Another very rare bird of which little is known. 
Stevens saw it at Tonglo, Sikkim, at 9,700 feet, in January, and 
he also obtained specimens in the plains of North Lakhimpur in 
winter. The Sikkim specimens were seen in dense bamboo 
growth. 

(488) Heteroxenicus cruralia. 

The Whitb-beowed Shobt-wing. 

Calliope cruralia Blyth, J. A. S. B., xii, p. 933 (1843) (Darjiling). 
Drymochares cruralia. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 188. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

VOL. II. o 



18 TVRSIDJB. 

Description. — Adnlt male. Lores, frontal band and over eye 
velvety black ; a supercilvum from the forehead to the back of the 
«ar-coverts white ; centre of abdomen with broad ashy margins 
to the feathers ; under tail-coverts with narrow ashy margins ; 
remainder of plumage deep indigo-blue. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill dark horny blackish, 
lower mandible a little paler; legs fleshy brown to "greyish 
brown " (Wardlmv Ramsay). 

Measurements. Total length about 140 mm.; wing 65 to 
71-5 mm. ; tail 42 to 44 mm. ; tarsus 31 mm. ; culmen 12 mm. 

Female. Lores, a ring round the eye and narrow frontal line 
golden ferruginous ; a silky-white supercilium ; upper plumage 
olive-brown, tinged with ferruginous, especially on the head; 
lower wing-coverts like the back ; visible portion of greater wing- 
coverts, wing-quills and tail chestnut-brown ; under plumage 
-ashy brown, paler and more fulvous on the abdomen and rufescent 
on the vent and under tail-coverts. 




Fig. 4.— Head of H. eruralis. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Simla and Qarhwal to Eastern 
Assam both North and South of the Brahmaputra. Chin Hills, 
Kachin Hills to Kareni. 

Nidiflcation. The White-browed Short-wing breeds from 5,000 
up to at least 10,000 feet, perhaps a good deal higher. Around 
Darjiling Osmaston found it breeding between 6,000 and 8,000 feet 
and in the Khasia, Naga and Cachar Hills it breeds from 5,000 feet 
up to 9,000 feet. The breeding season lasts from the end of May 
to the middle of July. The nest is a large oval affair made 
entirely of moss, lined with moss roots and placed in among the 
strands of living moss growing either on a rock face or, more 
often, on a tree. From its position it is very hard to find. The 
eggs number three or four and are pure white, fairly glossy and 
measure about 22-7 X 16-2 mm. 

The male often breeds in immature plumage. 

Habits. Like the other birds of this genus, this Chat is an 
inveterate skulker, keeping entirely to the ground or to the thick 
low cover in mossy humid forests. It frequents heavier under- 
growth than either of the preceding genera and is even harder to 
watch or shoot but it has a pretty little song which betrays its 
■whereabouts. 



HEXEBOXEiriCPS. 19 

(489) Heterozenicus nipalensis nipalensis. 

The Nepax Shokt-wikg. 

Brachypteryx nipalensis Hodgs., Moore, P. Z. S.,' 1864, p. 74 (Nepal). 
Drymochares nipalensis. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 188. 

Vernacular names, lnrui-piji (Kacha Naga). 

Description. — Adult male. Lores and an obsolete frontal band 
black ; a white eyebrow, often concealed by the feathers of the 
•crown ; sides of head and neck, whole upper plumage and visible 
portions of wings and tail deep slate-blue; chin, throat and centre 
of abdomen white ; sides of breast and flanks smoky-slate, shading 
•into the blue of the upper parts and generally forming a well- 
defined band across the breast. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel-brown to dark brown ; bill 
dark brown above, yellowish horny below and with yellow-white 
gape ; the bill is nearly black in the breeding season ; legs and 
feet fleshy white to dark purplish fleshy. 

Measurements. Total length about 130 mm.; wing 58 to 
€4 mm.; tail 27 to 32 in in. ; tarsus about 26 mm.; culmen 11*5 
to 13 mm. 

Female. Lores and feathers above the nostrils fulvous ; sides 
of head and neck and whole upper plumage ferruginous olive- 
brown ; a concealed white eyebrow ; below dull white ; sides of 
* breast, a band across it and flanks fulvous. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements the same as in the 
male but the bill is never black. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to Eastern Assam, 
North aud South of the Brahmaputra, Chin Hills, Hills of 
Arrakan, Tenasserim. 

Birds South of the Brahmaputra and in the extreme East of 
Assam only differ from those of the West in that the males are 
like the females and never put on the blue plumage except in 
very rare cases, and even then, as a rule, only partially. I can 
see no other difference in either coloration or size. 

Heteroxenicus n. Carolina! La Touehe, 1898, found in Fohkien, 
is a well-marked race with much brighter under plumage, more 
fulvous buff and much less brownish ; this race also occurs in 
Annam and will probably be found in the Shan States. 

H. i». harttrti Weigold, 1922, from Setchuan seems very doubt- 
fully distinct from Carolina. 

Nidification. In the Hills South of the Brahmaputra the Nepal 
Short-wing breeds from the end of April to June or the first few 
days of July, between 3,000 aud 6,000 feet. In Sikkim it breeds 
in June and July between 4,000 and 7,000 feet. The nest is 
globular, made of moss, roots, leaves and bracken, bound together 
with grass and moss and lined with skeleton leaves. It is 
generally placed against a tree or clump of shrubs, sometimes in 
amongst the branches low down or, rarely, on the ground itself. 

o2 



20 TtTBDIDJB. 

It may be placed in thin shrub or secondary growth or in dense 
evergreen forest and is generally well hidden. The bird Jays 
three to four eggs which are miniatures of those of Braehypteryx 
major but smaller and shorter in proportion. The ground-colour 
is some shade of olive-green or pale sea-green and usually this is 
almost entirely obliterated by innumerable freckles of light 
reddish. The eggs appear practically unicoloured, varying from 
olive-green to olive-brown. Sixty eggs average 19-5 X 14-5 mm. : 
maxima 223 X 150 mm. ; minima 185 X 14-2 and 19-0 x 14'0 mm. 
Habits. In the winter the Nepal Short-wing is found either 
singly or in pairs, never in flocks like the Timaliine birds. It is a 
very shy, retiring little bird, keeping entirely to undergrowth of 
evergreen forests, secondary growth in deserted cultivation or, 
less often, to low scrub-jungle. It is essentially a ground-bird 
in all its habits, seeking its insect-food almost entirely amongst 
the leaves and fallen rubbish but sometimes working through the 
low undergrowths and picking ants and Aphidaa off the lower 
stems and branches. It has a pretty little song of a few short 
jerky notes, which it is fond of repeating, perched on a low branch 
in the middle of a bush or cane-brake. According to Stevens it 
descends in winter to the foot-hills and even into the Plains, but 
South of the Brahmaputra we never obtained it much below 
3,000 feet. 

(490) Heteroxenicus sinensis. 

The Chinese Short- wing. 

Braehypteryx sinensis Itickett & LaTouche, Bull. B. O C, vi, p. 50- 
(1897) (Kuatuu, N. Fohkien). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores dusky black ; a snperciliunv 
from the nostrils behind the ear-coverts white ; remainder of upper 
plumage dark, dull blue; concealed parts of wings and tail dark 
brown ; below from chin to vent and under tail-coverts smoky- 
blue. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill above horny-brown, 
below yellowish; legs fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 65 to 66 mm. ; tail 47 to 51 mm.; tarsus 
29 mm.; culmen 11 mm. 

Adult female. Lores and a ring round the eye fulvous ; whole 
upper plumage fulvous-brown, tinged with rufous on wings and 
tail ; below pale dull fulvous, albescent on the belly, brighter on 
chin, throat and fore neck ; under tail-coverts ochre-yellow. 

Distribution. W. China. Dibrugarh in Assam {Dr. H. N. 
Coltart) aud Hungram, N. Cachar Hills. Probably it will be found 
to extend throughout the hills of extreme North Burma. 

Nidiflcation. Bicketts and La Touche found this Short-wing 
breeding in Kuatun in April and May. Eggs taken by them are- 



HODGSONIF8. 21 

pale, dull terra-cotta in colour and measure 21>0 x 15-3 mm.; a 
nest taken by one of my Naga collectors in N. Cachar at 6,000 ft,, 
and another brought to Dr. Coltart by Trans Dikku Nagas, in 
both cases the parent birds being caught on the nest, have eggs 
exactly similar in size, shape and texture, but in colour they are 
reddish olive-brown. The nests were said to be domed and to 
have been made of grass, leaves and moss with a lining of skeleton 
leaves. 

Habits. These do not appear to differ from the habits of the 
Nepal Babbler. 

Genus HODGSONIUS. 

Hodgsonitu Bonap., Consp. Av., i, p. 300, 1850. 
Type, II. plimnicuroides. 

The genus Hodgsoniu* is represented by a single Himalayan 
species very closely allied to Hetero.venicus and Brachypteryx. 
The sexes are differently coloured, as in the former; the wing is 
short and rounded and the bill is like that of Brachypteryx ; the 
rictal bristles are weak ; the tarsus is long. It differs from others 
of the subfamily in its comparatively long tail, thus showing an 
approach to the Sti.vicolince. 

The young are squamated as in all the nestlings of this family. 

(491) Hodgsonius phcenicuroides phoenicuroides. 

Hodgson's Sitokt-wing. 

Brachypterus phtr.nicuroidet llodga., Gray, Cat. M. & B. Nepal, 

App. iv, p. 15;i (1846) (Nepal). 
llodi/sonius phcenicuroides. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 100. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Plumage above and below dark, but 
fairly bright, slaty-blue ; the wing-quills brown, edged with the 
same blue ; bastard-wing black with broad white tips ; central 
pair of tail-feathers blue-black, the next pair light, bright 
chestnut on half .the outer web and obliquely to the base of 
the inner web, the four outer pairs chestnut on the basal halves, 
black on the terminal halves ; abdomen white, posterior flanks and 
vent suffused with brownish ochre; under tail-coverts slaty- 
brown -with broad white tips. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill horny-brown 
above, lower mandible light horny, gape yellow ; legs pale reddish 
brown to olive lead-colour. 

Measurements. Total length 180 to 190 mm.; wing 73 to 
77 mm. ; tail 75 to 82 mm. ; tarsus 30 mm.; culuien 15 mm. 

Adult female. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rufous 
on the margins of wing-quills and tail ; the bases of the rectrices 
tinged with chestnut where they are chestnut in the male ; sides 
of head and lower plumage ochraceous, suffused with brownish 



22 TUBDI1WE. 

on flanks and albescent on chin, throat and abdomen ; under tail- 
coverts dark ochraceous edged and centred paler. 

Young. Upper plumage dull rufescent brown, the feather* 
edged darker and with fulvous spots, most marked on head and 
nape; below dull fulvous, each feather edged with brown and 
with pale centres or shaft-stripes. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Kashmir to North-East Assam. 
Yunnan. 

The Yunnan bird is rather dark but agrees with the Hima- 
layan bird, rather than with the Chinese, in size. 

Nidiflcation. Hodgson's Short-wing breeds throughout its 
habitat at elevations between 6,000 and 12,000 feet during June, 
a few birds laying in July. The nest is a massive cup of leave* 
and grass lined with finer roots and grass and often with a 
little hair, fur or feathers. It is placed either actually on the 
ground or within a few inches of it in thick undergrowth and 
bushes. The birds generally lay three eggs, sometimes only two 
and very rarely four ; in colour these are a dark blue, darker than 
those of any other Indian bird except Garrulax albigularis but, 
unlike these latter, they have no gloss. In shape they are 
rather broad ovals and the texture is stout and smooth. Forty 
eggs average 2Wxl5 - 9 mm. and the extremes are: maxima 
24-1 x 16-3 and 22-1 x 170 mm. ; minima 200 x 15*3 mm. 

Habits. This Short-wing is much more of a true Chat in its 
habits than the other birds of the subfamily. Davidson says : 
"the male has the habits of a Robin, hopping about with its tail 
over its back and is very pugnacious to other birds trespassing 
in its vicinity. Both sexes, however, were partial to thick 
cover and, except in the neighbourhood of the nest, very shy." 
They have a sweet little song, which they utter from the tops of 
low bushes and they keep less to the ground and more to bushes 
in their search for food than do any of the other BrachypUryginai. 



Subfamily SAXICOLlNiK 

The Saxicolina or Chats form a natural section of the Thrushes 
and to some extent lead from the true Thrushes to the Flycatchers. 

They are well represented in the Indian Avifauna, though the 
greater number of species are migratory and very few are really 
permanent residents in the Plains. They have an autumn moult 
and a further seasonal spring change in coloration caused by the 
abrasion of the fringes of the feathers. The sexes are almost 
invariably dissimilar, sometimes strikingly, sometimes only 
slightly. 

In the Chats the bill in strong and the rictal bristles well 
developed, sometimes very numerous and strong; the wing is 
pointed and is nearly always longer than the tail, which is almost 
square or is graduated. The tarsus is fairly long and strong. 



saxicola. 23- 

Key to Genera. 

A. Bill broad at base ; rictal bristles numerous and 

strong. 
«. Tail decidedly shorter than wing and not 

noticeably graduated Saxicola, p. 23. 

6. Tail almost or quite as long as wing and very 

much graduated, the outermost feathers 

falling short of the longest by about half the 

length of tarsus Obeicola, p. 34. 

B. Bill narrow and not strikingly broad at base ; 

rictal bristles moderate or weak. 

c. Tail with a pattern of two colours GEnanthe, p. 38. 

d. Tail all of one colour Cercomela, p. 54. 

Genus SAXICOLA. 
Saxicola Bechst., Orn. Taschenb., p. 216, 1802. 
Type, Saxicola rubicola, by subsequent designation, Selby, 1825. 

The name Fralincoht has hitherto been used for the Stone- 
Chats but this is not available, having been previously used by 
Schrenk for the Pratincoles (1798). In 1825 Selby designated the 
Stone-Chat Sa.ricoht rubicola ns the type of the genus Saxicola of 
Bechstein. This name must therefore stand. As Saxicola cannot 




F15. 5. — Head of Saxicola caprata. 

therefore be used for the Wheatears the name (Enanihe Vieillot, 
1816, will have to be used for this genus, the type by tautonymy 
being QZnantlu cenatithe (Linn.). 

In Saxicola the bill is rather less than half the length of the 
head, broad at the base and well notched ; the rictal bristles are 
very strong; the wing is well pointed and the first primary is 
large, varying from half to one-third the length of the second ; 
the tail is decidedly shorter than the wing and is only slightly 
rounded ; the tarsus is moderate. The sexes are invariably dis- 
similar and the seasonal changes of plumage are very marked. 

, Key to Species. 

A. Plumage entirely black and white. S. caprata, tf , p. 24. 

B. Plumage not entirely black and white. 

a. Chin and throat black S. torquata, $ , p. 28. 

6. Chin and throat white or pale rufous. 

a'. Inner webs of tail-feathers white .... S. macrorhyncha, p. 32. 
6'. Inner webs of tail-feathers block or 
brown. 

a". Wing over 80 mm S. intignis, p. 33. 

b". Wing under 80 mm S. torquata, $ , p. 28. 

c Chin and tiiroat brown 5. caprata, $ , p. 24. 



24 XUBDUMS. 

Saxicola caprata. 

Motacilla caprata Linn., S. N., i, p. 835, 1766. 
Type-locality: Luzon. 

Key to Subsptcies. 

A. Below very rusty, the white ahsent or con- 

fined to a very small area on abdomen and 
under tail-coverts. 

a. Wing 67 to 72, generally under 70 mm. . . S. e. burmanica, p. 24. 

b. Wing 71 to 81, genernlly over 73 mm. . . S. c. atrata, p. 26. 

B. Below much paler, the white of the under 

tail-coverts extending to abdomen and 
posterior flanks and often right up to 
breast S. c. bicolor, p. 26 

(-192) Saxicola caprata burmanica. 

The BtrBMESE Stone-Chat. 

Saxicola caprata burmanica Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O. C, xliii, p. 9 
(1923) (Pegu). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male. Whole plumage black with the 
exception of the upper and lower taii-coverts and the feathers of 
the wing next the back which are white, the latter forming a 
very conspicuous patch. 

After the autumn moult the feathers of the back aod breast are 
fringed with rufous-brown, making these parts look quite brown 
rather than black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown, eyelids plumbeous; bill, 
legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 mm.; wing 67 to 
72 mm.; tail 44 to 50 mm. ; tarsus 22 to 23 mm. ; culnien 1 1 to 
ll - 5 mm. 

Female. Upper plumage greyish brown, with dark brown 
mesial streaks; the lower back tinged with rufous; upper tail- 
coverts ferruginous; tail dark brown, obsoletely edged paler; 
lores, forehead, chin and throat brownish grey, gradually dark- 
ening on breast and becoming more rusty, or fulvous, on abdomen 
and posterior flanks; the breast, upper abdomen and flanks 
streaked to a varyiug degree with dark brown, sometimes altogether 
absent; wing-coverts and quills dark brown edged with pale 
rufous ; under tail-coverts pale rufescent. 

In winter the grey margins are very broad and make the whole 
bird look more grey. 

Young male. Like the female but much darker and more richly 
coloured above, below darker and boldly streaked with very dark 
brown ; the white wing-patch well developed. 

ffestling very dark. brown above, each feather spotted with 



aixiooi*. 25 

fulvous; below dark brown spotted with dull fulvous rufesoent; 
the white wing-patch of the male is present to some extent from 
the very first. 

This form of eaprata is very close to the true S. caprata caprata 
but is distinctly bigger, the wing-measurements of the latter 
being 63 to 65 mm., in one instance, only, 67 mm. ; the culmen 
measures 10 to 11 mm. 

Distribution. The whole of Burma, Yunnan and Assam, 
South of the Brahmaputra. 

Nidiftcation. There is very little on record about the breeding 
of this race of 8. caprata. Messrs. Harington, Hopwood, and 
others found it breeding in the Chin and Kachin Hills in April 
and May. Mr. J. T. Mills and I found it breeding in the Hills 
of South Assam, and Oates took its nests in Pegu. The nest is 
the usual rough pad of grass and roots, generally lined with hair 
or fur of some kind, less often with feathers. It is placed in a 
hole in a bank, tree or wall or actually on the ground in a natural 
hollow under the shelter of a bush or tuft of grass. The eggs 
number three to live and are indistinguishable from those of the 
other subspecies. The few 1 have seen measure about 185 x 
13 - 7 mm. 

They breed from the level of the Plains up to at least 6,000 ft. 

Habits. The Pied Chat is extremely common in most parts of 
Burma in the hills and plains alike, up to some* 4,000 ft., above 
which it is less abundant. It frequents open country and is not 
found in heavily forested areas, but it may be seen in grass-lands 
and all kinds of thin bush, cultivated and semi-cultivated country. 
It lias the usual habits of the family, catching insects on the 
ground by making little sallies from some point of vantage. It 
constantly spreads and flirts its tail up and down like the rest of 
the genus. 

(493) Saxicola caprata atrata. 

The Southern Indian Stone-Chat. 

Pratincola atrata Kelaart, Blytb, J. A. S. B., xx, p. 177 (1851) 
(Ceylon) ; Blanford & Oates,"ii, p. (JO. 

Vernacular names. Katnpa nalunchi (Tel.). 
Description. Exactly like the Burmese Stone-Chat but much 
larger. 

Colours of soft parts as in the last bird. 

Measurements. Wing 70 to 81 mm., generally 75 to 77 mm.; 
tail 49 to 51 mm. ; tarsus 24 to 25 mm. ; culmen 13 mm. 

The females and young vary from those of £. c. burmanica in 
size only. 

Distribution. Ceylon, Travancore, Mysore in the extreme 
South, Nilgiris and Malabar. The Kanara birds appear to belong 
to the smaller Northern race. 



26 1URDIDJE. 

Hidiflcation. The Southern Indian Bush-Chat breeds from. 
March to June in the hills of Ceylon and Southern India from 
3,000 feet upwards. It is not a forest bird and is most common 
round about villages, cultivated land, grass and light scrub-jungle. 
The nest is a cup or shallow saucer of grass and roots, lined with 
fur, hair, wool or almost any other soft material, and it may be 
placed in any kind of hole or hollow whether in bank, building or 
drain. The eggs number three to five and only vary from those 
of the next bird in their somewhat larger size. Fifty eggs average 
19-5 x 15-2 mm.: maxima 21-0x15-2 and 200 x 16-2 mm.; 
minima 17 - 5x 140 and 177x 141 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

(494) Saxicola caprata tricolor. 

The Northern Ixdian Stone-Chat. 

Sa.ricola bicolor Sykes, P. Z. S., 18:52, p. 92 (Decci.n). 
Pratincola caprata (part.). Blnnf. & Oivtes, ii, p. ,09. 

Vernacular names. Pidha, Kala Pldha (Hind.); Kxunpa nalanehi 
(Tel.). 

Description. Similar to S. c. bnrmanica but intermediate in size 
between that bird and S. c. atrata and with the white of the 
under tail-coverts extending well on to the abdomen and pos- 
terior flanks, often quite up to the breast. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 67 to 77 mm. ; tail 44 to 48 mm.; tarsus 
22 to 24 mm.; culmen 11 to 12 mm., the latter measurement 
obtaining only in a few specimens in the extreme South of its 
range, adjoining the larger-billed S. c. atrata. 

The females and young are only distinguishable from atrata 
by their smaller bills and rather smaller size. 

I cannot separate Hartert's rotsorum from bicolor in so far as 
our Indian birds are concerned. There are very big series of both 
of these supposed races in the British Museum and the limits of 
measurement are the same in each for wing, tail, tarsus and bill, 
whilst the extent of white on the belly varies to exactly the same 
degree. Persian and Afghan birds do, however, differ somewhat 
and are separable. 

Distribution. North of the area occupied by the Southern form, 
to every portion of India, North-East to Bengal and Assam North 
of the Brahmaputra, North to the Himalayas from Assam to the 
extreme North- West, Oudb, Sind. 

Nidiflcation. The Northern Indian Stone-Chat breeds through- 
out its area both in the plains and in the hills up to 8,000 feet. The 
principal months of the breediitg-season are April and May in the 
plains and May and June in the hills, but in Sind it appears to 
breed in March and April and again in August, in which month 
Barnes took its eggs. The nest is a pad, shallow saucer or fairly 



SAXICOLA. 2/ 

deep cup of grass and roots lined with any soft material, such as 
hair, fur or wool, but feathers are not often used. It may be 
placed in a hole in practically any position and it has been taken 
from wells, houses, retaining walls, road-side banks and railway 
cuttings, old dead or fallen trees, or even from a hollow on the 
ground under a bush, tuft of grass or other shelter. Although 
the bird is so common the nests are not always easy to find as 
the parent birds are said to be \ery cautious in visiting them, 
whilst the hen slips away unnoticed or sits tight until danger has 
passed. The eggs number three to five, generally four. The 
normal ground-colour is a pale bluish white or less often a pale 
stone or pinkish white, whilst in a few eggs it may be a darker tint 
of blue. The markings consist of freckles, specks and small 
blotches of light reddish brown, generally rather indistinct and 
numerous everywhere, occasionally bolder and well defined. They 
are nearly always more numerous at the larger end where they 
often form a ring or cap. In shape they are short, broad ovals 
with a fine, smooth texture only slightly glossy. One hundred 
eggs average 17'0 x 13*9 mm.: maxima 19'2xl4 - 5 and 18 - 2x 
15'0 mm. ; minima 16'2 x lIi-4 and 17'0 x 12*9 mm. 

Habits. The Northern Indian Stone-Chat is a resident almost 
throughout its habitat but it seems to leave its highest ranges in 
winter and in some parts moves locally from the plains to the 
adjacent hills for breeding-purposes. It is not found in heavily- 
forested country but is common in grass-lands, thin scrub and 
mixed cultivation, and appears to prefer the vicinity of villages 
and gardens. It takes nearly all its food off the ground by little 
flights from some prominent stone, stump, fence or other place 
with a clear view all round. Less often it will make little sorties 
into the air and capture an insect on the wing, not, however, with 
the invariable success which follows its attempts on the ground. 
It is fond of spreading and jerking its tail about like all Chats, 
and during the breeding-season it also drops and quivers its wings, 
raising its scapulars to show the broad white patch on the coverts. 
At the same time it puffs out the feathers of the rump. Its notes 
are indistinguishable from those of the English Stone-Chat. 

Saxicola torquata. 

Mntcicapa torquata Linn., S. X., i, p. 328, 1700. 
Type-locality : West South Africa. 

Key to Subspecies. 
A. AVhite on base of tail straight across all 
feathers. 
a. Wing nearly always under 71 mm. ; culmen 
about 12 mm. 
a'. Paler; underparts pale rufous on flanks 

and abdomen Is. t. indica, p. 28. 

V . Darker; the orange-rufous of breast ex- 
tending to lower breast and flanks .... S. t. ttejntgeri, p. 30. 



28 TT7RDID.*. 

6. Win^ nearly always over 71 mm. ; culmen 

about 15 mm S.t. przeiouhkii, p. 80. 

B. White on tail most on inner web of second 
pair of tail-feathers, decreasing in extent 
outwardly S. t. lettcura, p. 31. 

The races are not easy to define by a key, though on actual 
comparison the differences are at once appreciable. The big bill 
of S. t. jrrzewalskii will, however, nearly always suffice to dis- 
tinguish that race, whilst S. t. stejnegt.fi will not be found over 
the greater part of the winter area of S. t. indica. 

(495) Saxicola torquata indica. 

The Indian Bush-Chat. 

Pratincola indica Blvth, J. A. S. B., xvi, p. 129 (1847) (India, 

Calcutta). 
Pratincola maura. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 61. 

Vernacular names. Adavi-campa-nalanchi, Ailavi-caniptt-ptUt 
<Tel.). 

Description. — Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, 
crown, nape, hind neck, back, scapulars and upper rump are black, 
with broad fulvous or rufous margins to the feathers ; the inner- 
most wing-coverts pure white ; the remaining upper wing-coverts 
black, edged with rufous ; primary -coverts and wiuglet black 
edged with whitish ; quills dark brown, the primaries narrowly, 
the secondaries broadly edged with rufous on the outer webs and 
tips ; lower rump and upper tail-coverts white, frequently suffused 
with orange-rufous ; tail black, narrowly edged with pale rufous ; 
the extreme bases generally white ; lores, sides of head, chin and 
throat black, most of the feathers edged with fulvous ; a patch ot 
white on each side of the neck; breast orange-rufous, remainder 
of the lower plumage paler rufous ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries black with narrow white tips. 

In summer plumage the fringes on the black plumage wear 
off and these parts become deep black ; the rufous on the upper 
tail-coverts disappears and these become pure white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet- 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 130 mm. ; wing 07 to 
71 mm.; tail about 50 mm.; tarsus 21 to 22 mm.; culmen 11 
to 12 mm. 

Female. Upper plumage and ear-coverts brown, the feathers 
broadly tinged with fulvous ; more rufescent on lower back ; 
upper tail-coverts pale rufous ; lores, a ring round the eye and 
ear-coverts dusky fulvous ; forehead, supercilium and chin pale 
fulvous, remainder of lower plumage still paler fulvous, the bases 
of the feathers showing through more rufescent, especially on the 
breast. 



BAXICOLA. . 20 

Nestling. Head black, with broad fulvous central lines ; mantle 
brown with golden-fulvous centres and fringes; rump and upper 
tail-coverts bright ferruginous ; lower parts dull fulvous ; the 
breast freely streaked with dark brown ; the wing-feathers are 
brown, broadly edged with ferruginous buff. 

The white wing-patch is very early developed in the male. 

The Indian Bush-Chat is very closely allied to the European 
Stone-Chat {iS. t. rubicola), from which it differs in having no 
streaks on the upper tail-coverts and in having the black axillariea 
and under wing-coverts tipped with white. 

Distribution. Breeds from extreme East to extreme West of 
Himalayas ami thence North to Western Siberia, Transcaspia, 
Turkestan and Persia. In winter throughout Northern India to- 
the hills in the North of Mysore and Travancore, Andaman* and, 
rare])', in North- West Burma. 

Nidification. The Indian Bush-Chat breeds during late May, 
June and early July in the hills and about a month earlier in the 
lower ranges and plains. Marshall has recorded it as breeding at 
Saharanpur but this must have been quite an abnormal occurrence,, 
for the district has had many good ornithologists working it since 
that date without any repetition of its nesting having been re- 
corded. It may have been a mistake. It does, however, breed 
occasionally at the foot of the Himalayas in the plains of 
North-West India, but typically it is a hill-breeder between ele- 
vations of 2,000 and 8,000 feet. It breeds in great numbers in 
Kashmir, theSimla and Garhwal Hills between 5,00(1 and 7,000 feet, 
in Sikkim certainly up to 9,000 feet, whilst in the Khagan and 
Kurram Valleys Whitehead and Harington found it breeding at 
even higher elevations. The nest is a cup of grass, leaves and 
roots, sometimes mixed with other materials and generally lined 
with hair or fur. It is placed in holes in walls, under rocks 
and boulders, occasionally in banks and still less often under 
bushes and tufts of grass but nearly always well concealed. The 
eggs number four to six and have the ground-colour a pale, rather 
dull blue with freckles of light reddish brown sometimes fairly 
numerous over the larger half of the egg, sometimes coalescing in 
a well-detined ring or cap and sometimes almost absent. Fifty 
eggs average 16i)xl3-5 mm.: maxima 18'5xH0 and lG-2x 
14-5 mm. ; minima 15 - 4 X 13"0 and 158 x 126. 

Habits. The Indian Bush-Chat differs little from its English 
cousin in its habits. Usually it is seen perched up on some rock 
or high stone, flicking and spreading its tail about and every now 
and then launching forth after some insect on the grouud below 
it and then returning to its seat to devour it. Its flight is strong 
and fairly direct but it is not good on its feet and seldom runs 
on the ground. It keeps entirely to open country and is most 
common on bare, rocky hillsides in summer and about villages and 
cultivation in winter, especially when they are interspersed with 
stony, bare wastes. 



30 TUBDID.K. 

(496) Saxicola torquata przewalskii. 

The Tpkkestax Bush-Chat. 

Fratincola mattra var. przewalskii Pleske, Wis. Res. Przewalski's 
Ri'is., Xog., i, p. -16 (1889).(KfMau). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. The darkest and largest race of S. torquata, both 
sexes showing this character distinctly, especially on the under 
plumage; the axillaries are black with only obsolete white tips. 
The orange-rufous of the underparts is much deeper and extends 
well on the flanks and even on to the centre of the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts as in the Indian Bush-Chat. 

Measurements. Wings 72 to 77 mm.; culmen 15 mm. 

Distribution. Breeding in Tibet, the higher ranges of the Kachin 
Hills, Shan States, Yunnan and Western Central China. In 
winter throughout Eastern India, Assam, Burma and Siam, 
straggling west into Kashmir. 

Nidification. The only nest taken within the limits of this work 
was found by Mr. J. P. Cook at Monywa, Chin Hills, on the 6th 
June and contained live eggs. These have the ground-colour 
pale yellowish white and they are well-marked with reddish brown, 
principally at the larger end. They measure about 17 - 2 x 13-8 mm. 

The nest was described as a shallow pad of grass and roots, 
lined with hair and feathers, and placed in a hole in a bank under 
a thick root. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

(497) Saxicola torquata stejnegeri. 

Tub Japanese Bcsh-Chat. 

Pratincola rubicola stejnegeri Parrot, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, viii, 
p. 124 (1908) (Iturup in N. Japan). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Both sexes are darker than indica, not quite so 
dark as przewalskii. 

Colours of soft parts as in S. t. indica. 

Measurements. Wing 65 to 71 mm. ; culmen 13-5 to 14-5 mm. 
Meinertzhagen says that the bill is wider and stouter than in 
either of the last two races, but the difference is not easy to see. 

Distribution. Breeds in Siberia, East of the Lena to Japan, and 
from Trans-Baikalia to North-Eastern China and Saghalien. In 
winter it is found throughout Southern China, the Indo-Chinese 
countries, Malaya, Burma, Assam and Eastern Bengal. 

Nidification. This bird breeds in great numbers about Mt. Fuji- 
yama in Japan, making a typical Bush-Chat's nest and laying eggs 



SAX1C0LA. 31 

like those of 8. t. torquata but generally less blue and more heavily 
anarked. Forty eggs average 1 7-8 x 13"7 mm; 
Habits. Those of the genus. 

(498) Saxicola torquata leucura. 

The Wuite-tailbu Bush-Chat. 

Pratincola leucura Blyth, J. A. S. B., xvi, p. 474 (1847) (Sind) ; 
Blauf. & Oates, ii, p. 63. 

Vernacular names. Khar-pidda (Hind, at Monghyr). 

Description. Like the Indian Bush-Chat but very much paler, 
the rufous below is confined to a patch on the breast and the upper 
parts in winter are also much paler in both sexes. The tail is 
quite different ; all other forms of the Stone-Chat or Bush-Chat have 
the white, if any, confined to the extreme base, straight across. 
In this bird the pair next the centre pair is typically all white on 
the inner web decreasing slightly in extent to the outermost pair ; 
on the outer web the white varies from a lioe at the base to about 
half the feather, also decreasing in extent to the outermost pair 
which is generally pale brown throughout. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in S. t. indica. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Assam to Sind and also in the 
foot-hills and plains adjoining them. It has also been found in 
the low hills of Northern and Eastern Burma through to Pahpoon 
in Tenasserim. 

Nidification. The White-tailed Bush-Chat breeds in the sub- 
Himalayan plains and foot-hills from Assam to Garhwal and 
Currie obtained them breeding at Multan* in considerable 
numbers. In Assam they breed in the tracts of thatching-grass 
land which run for many miles without a break except for .swamps 
and patches of coarse ekra and reeds. Of Garhwal, Whymper 
writes : " I never saw them in our parts except in the Terais and 
Bhabers, so that 1,500 or, at the outside, 2,000 feet is their limit, 
though, doubtless, if there was swampy ground and heavy grass 
I can imagine their following it up hill considerably higher. Their 
nests are very well concealed and a favourite site is a tangled mass 
of grass brought down by floods and stranded, and I have, seen a 
nest fully two feet inside one of these masses. The only way 
I could find nests was to go about until a female joined a male 
and then watch the former back on to her nest, a very difficult 
job in the long grass they frequented." Mr. P. W. Mackiunon 
said that he hnd found this Chat at Dehra Dun and, finally, 
Mr. Stevens obtained them breeding in the Mai Valley in East 
Nepal. The eggs, which number three to five, cannot be dis- 
tinguished from these of P. t. indica but taken as a whole are 

* An imperfect specimen was wrongly described by me In 1913 as Pratincola 
maura (= Saxicola torquata indica). 



32 TVBDIDJE. 

paler, less blue or blue-green in tint and rather more profusely 
freckled with reddish. Twenty-four eggs average 18-0 x 14-0 mm. : 
maxima 191x14-1 and 168 x 146 mm.; minima 164 x 14*4 
and ^"oxlS'B mm. They breed from the end of April to the 
end of May. ' 

Habits. This subspecies is merely a form of the Indian Bush- 
Chat breeding in the plains and low-levels but, curiously enough, 
instead of being darker and more richly coloured than its relations 
breeding in the mountains, reverses the usual rule and is paler 
and less richly coloured. It frequents grass-lands, reed-beds and 
stretches of elephant-grass but keeps to such as are in swampy 
land or in the vicinity of swamps. It is probably a much more 
common bird all along the Terai than is supposed but its haunts 
are seldom visited by Europeans except when shooting big game 
and they are easily overlooked or merely accepted as the common 
Chat on migration. 

(499) Saxicola macrorhyncha. 

Stoliczka's Brsu-CiiAT. 

PratincoUt macrorhyncha Stoliczka, J. A. S. B., xli, pt. ii, p. 238 
(1872) (Cinch) ; Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 63. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Upper plumage sandy-buff, broadly streaked with 
dark brown ; lores and a broad Bupercilium pale buff; ear-coverts 
rufous-bnff ; lores and ear-coverts marked with dark brown ; upper 
tail-coverts white or rufous-white; middle tail-feathers dark 
brown, edged with sandy-buff, the next pair white on about four- 
fifths of the inner web and about two-thirds of the outer webs, 
increasing gradually to the whole of the outer web on the outer- 
most pair; a broad patch of white on the wing-coverts next the 
back; other wing-coverts and quills black, edged with rufous- 
sandy; chin and throat pure white; remainder of lower plumage 
very pale buff, generally darker on the breast ; under wing-coverts 
white, with the black bases showing through ; axillaries white 
with black bases. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Wing 70 to 77 mm.; tail 50 to 54 mm.; 
tarsus 24 mm.; culmen 11 to 12 mm. 

Male in summer. Above, the pale margins are nearly worn off 
. and the bird appears to be a sooty-black ; the supercilium becomes 
white and the lower surface creamy-buff, the black bases often 
showing through. 

Female similar to male but with no white wing-patch and no 
white on the tail. 

Measurements practically the same as the male. 
Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill horny-black, paler at 
base of maxilla and on mandible. 



SAXICOLA. 33 

Young males are like the adult but have the white wing-patch 
very small and the white on the tail less in extent and strongly 
tinged with fulvous. 

Young. "Upper surface earthy brown, streaked and spotted 
with pale creamy buft'; upper tail-coverts pale creamy-buff; wings 
dark brown, all the feathers edged with rufous, the median coverts 
with triangular whitish tips ; tail dark brown, all the feathers 
edged on both webs and tipped with rufous ; the outer pair of 
feathers have the entire outer web and a small portion of the base 
of the inner web rufous ; sides of the head, lores aud ear-coverts 
dirty white mottled with brown; the lower surface dull huffish 
white, mottled with brown on the throat and breast." (Whistler, 
' Ibis,' 1922, p. 304.) 

Distribution. A resident species in the Punjab, Rajputana, 
Northern Gujarat, Cutch and Sind. 

Nidification. Unknown but Mr. H. Whistler obtained speci- 
mens in pairs, in the .Thang District, Punjab, in April and July, 
and obtained young birds in August and September. 

Habits. Mr. Whistler writing of this Chat in the Jliang District 
records : " Its favourite haunts are the wide plains of a hard, sandy 
soil, fertile when ploughed and irrigated, but normally of the con- 
sistency and appearance of a 'made-up' tennis court; they arc 
bare of grass for the most part, but are studded with the small 
desert plants of ' Uck ' and 'Karil' (wild Caper) and diversified 
with small sand-dunes and broken ground. 

"A few pairs also inhabit the somewhat different area of the 
Nurpar Canal escape, where the running-off of volumes of waste 
canal-water has produced great reed-beds, surrounded by jungles 
of Pampas-grass. 

" In habits Stoliczka's Chat resembles the other members of 
the genus, perching on the tops of bushes or stems, at times fairly 
tame, at others surprisingly wild. 1 never heard anv call-note 
uttered." 

(500) Saxicola insignis. 

lloDCf son's Bush-Chat. 

Pratincola insir/nis Hodga., I-.i.«t Mam. Birds B.M., App. p. 153 
(1847) (Nepal); Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 64. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male in winter. Lores and ear-coverts black ; 
head black with narrow fulvous fringes ; upper plumage black with 
broad fulvous edges ; upper tail-coverts white, more or less 
suffused with rufous ; tail blackish with narrow rufous edges and 
concealed white bases ; edge of shoulder of wing, a very big patch 
next the back and the greater primary coverts white ; remainder 
of wing black, the inner secondaries edged with fulvous ; point 
of ehin black ; chin and throat white, sometimes smeared with 

TOL. II. D 



„ , TUUVIDJB. 

Sri 

rufous; rest of lower plumage rusty ferruginous, deepest on the 
upper breast and palest on the abdomen ; otten a tew spots or 
black on the fore-neck and upper breast ; under tail-coverts f ulvous- 
wliite; axillaries and under wing-coverts white with black base*. 

In summer the pale fringes are worn off the upper parts which 
become wholly black ; the spots on the fore-neck and breast alio 
seem to disappear. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 162 to 166 mm.; wing 83 
to 92 mm.; tail 49 to 54 mm.; tarsus 27 mm.; culmen 13 mm. 

Female. Upper plumage and wings brown, edged with dull 
fulvous; upper tail-coverts dull ferruginous; tail brown, edged 
paler; forehead and faint supercilium fulvous; below pale rusty 
fulvous, darkest on the throat and breast which are sometimes 
lightly spotted ; sides of neck, throat and breast generally 
brownish. The greater coverts of the wing are not white, nor is 
there any white wing-patch as in the male, but the fulvous 
margins to the greater and median coverts form two broad wiug- 
bars. 

A young male has the upper plumage of the male and the 
lower that of the female. 

Distribution. Occurs in winter on the plains of Northern India 
from Cawnpore to the Bhutan Doars. Mandelli obtained this 
Chat in the lower hills of Sikkim and the Bhutan Doars in April 
but the breeding-grounds are still unknown. 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits. Beyond the fact that this Ghat is found in flat, open 
country thickly dotted with cane-fields nothing is recorded about 
it. 

Genus OREICOLA. 

Bonap., Comp. Rend., ixxviii, p. (1854). 

Type, 0. melanoleuca. 

This genus differs from Saxicula in having a longer and much 
more graduated tail. 

Key to Species. 

A. Whole upper plumage, wings and tail black. O. jerdoni, J , p. 35. 

B. Upper plumage ashy and black; wing-coverts 

largely white; tail margined white O.ferrea, cf , p. 36. 

C. Upper plumage rufous-brown or rufous-ashy. 

a. With no supercilium O. jerdoni, 9 , p. 36. 

b. With a supercilium O, ferrea, $ , p. 37. 

Oreieola ferrea has been divided into two races by Hartert 
and I think rightly, though his chief character for separating them, 
length of tail, is of no use. There are very fine series of both forms 



ORElCOr.A. 35 

in the British Museum aud these show that whilst the tails of O.f. 
ferrea range from 55 to 00 mm., those of O.f. haringtoni range from 
51 to &3 mm. On the other hand, when two rows are laid out, 
one of the Western form, ferrea, and one of the Eastern form, 
harinc/toni, the latter is obviously a much whiter bird below and 
4] dite easy to distinguish. The eggs laid by the two races contrast 
well with one another. 

(501) Oreicola jerdoni. 

JkKDON's Bl'SII-ChaT. 

Oreicola jerdoni Hlytli, Ibis, 1*07, p. 14 (India, Piivium) ; lihthf. & 
Gates, ii, p. (Mi. 

Vernacular names. Dim tisha-ywshim (Caclmri). 

Description — Adult male. Whole upper plumage, wings and 
tail glossy blue-back ; whole undi'r plumage white; under wing- 
coverts black sometimes tipped with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 to 155 mm.; wing 67 
to 69 mm.; tail 01 to 0!) mm.; tarsus 2'.i mm.; culmeu 11 mm. 

Female. "Whole upper plumage brown, tinged with rufous on 
the lower back and rump ; upper tail-coverts rufous ; wings brown 
edged with the colour of the back; chin and throat white; 
remainder of lower plumage pale fulvous, darkest on breast and 
flanks. 

Colours of soft parts as in male. 

Measurements a (rifle less than the male, wing 04 to 08 mm. 

A young male is like the female but darker anil broadly marked 
above and on the breast w ith dark edges to the feathers. 

Distribution. The sub-Himalayan Terai and adjoining plains 
from Eastern Behar and Eastern Bengal, through Assam and .1 
great part of the Chin, Kacliiu Hills and lower hills of Central 
Burma to Frome. 

Nidification. 1 found this Chat breeding in great numbers in 
the vast plains of sun-grass, or thatching-grass, on the North bank 
of the Brahmaputra in the Lakhimpnr District. (Stevens found 
them breeding right under (he foot-hills in the same district and 
they occur as far West as the grass-plains in the Northern parts 
of the Kamrup District but in much smaller numbers. They also 
breed in some of the upland grass-plains in the Chin Hills. The 
nest is very hard to find, being tucked away amongst the roots of 
the grass and quite invisible until these are torn apart. It is well 
built of roots and black fibrous materials, lined with fine grass and 
in .shape it is a compact, stout little cup. They lay from early 
April to the end of May, but principally in the last week in April. 
The eggs number three or four, sometimes two only being incu- 
bated. In colour they are a bright hedge-sparrow blue, only in 

i)2 



36 ICBDIDJt. 

rare instances with a very faintly freckled riDg at the larger end. 
The texture is close and fine with a slight gloss, and they are very 
stout little eggs for their size. Thirty eggs average 16*2 x 
13-2 mm. : maxima 180 x 136 mm.; minima 152 X 124 mm. 

Habits. Jerdon's Bnsh-Chat is just like the other Chats of the 
genus Sa.ricol<t in all its ways but is not, perhaps, quite so quick 
or lively in its movements on the wing whilst it is even more 
active on its legs when hunting for its insect-food. It takes most 
of its prey by short flights from some twig at the top of a bush or 
n tall reed, either descending to the ground or clinging to the 
lower parts of the reeds, etc. Sometimes, however, it regularly 
hunts amongst the bottoms of the reeds and grass for insects more 
like a Babbler than a Chat. It is a very silent little bird but the 
male sometimes utters a low "chit-churr, chit-cliurrr," accom- 
panying the note with n flirt of its expanded tail. Its flight, is 
direct and strong but under ordinary circumstances it seldom flies 
far. 

Oreicola ferrea. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Darker above and more prey below nt 

all seasons O. ferrea ferrea. p. lit!. 

B. Paler above and purer white in summer 

and less grey in winter below (). ferrea haringtoni, p. :'&. 

The females are not separable. 

(502) Oreicola ferrea ferrea. 

The Western Dauk-cjrey Bush-Chat. 

Stt.iicnlii ferrea Gray, Cat. M. & IJ. Nepal, pp. 71, ldJJ (ISI(i) 

(Nepal). 
Oreicola ferrea. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 6(1. 

Vernacular names. Sarrak-chuL-pho (Lu\>ch&). 

Description. — Adnlt male in winter. A narrow supercilium 
from the forehead (o the nape white ; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts and 
sides of neck black ; whole upper plumage ashy-grey ; the feathers 
of the bead to lower back with broad black centres ; some birds 
have rusty fringes to the feathers of these parts, some hardly any ; 
tail brownish black, the feathers increasingly edged with white, 
the outer webs of the outermost pair being entirely white ; wing- 
coverts and quills black, edged with grey, often nearly white on 
the inner secondaries; inner coverts next the back pure white; 
chin, throat and generally a line behind the black sides of the neck 
white; remainder of lower parts ashy-white, darkest across the 
breast and on Hanks. 

Male in summer loses the grey edges to the feathers of the 
upper plumage, these parts becoming nearly black ; the under- 
parts become purer while. 



OEBICOLA. 37 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black; legs brown 
to blackish brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 66 to 
69 mm.; tail 55 to GO mm.; tarsus 20 mm.; oilmen 11 mm. 

Female. The whole upper plumage rufous or rufous ashy, with 
dark centres which become more prominent as the feathers become 
abruded in summer ; upper tail-coverts dark bright chestnut ; tail 
brown, broadly edged with chestnut, the outermost feathers paler; 
a pale grey supercilium ; lores, sides of head, ear-coverts and sides 
of neck reddish brown, darkest in front of and under the eye ; 
chin and throat almost white : remainder of lower plumage ashy 
rufous, darkest on the breast and brightest and more rufous on 
the posterior abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in male. 

The young bird is rufous-brown above, the feathers of the head 
and nape with fulvous central streaks; those of the neck with 
pale centres and blackish edges. On the underparts, the lower 
throat, breast, and Hanks are edged with dark brown or blackish. 
As soon as the wing and tail (juilis appear the male can be dis- 
tinguished from the female, the former having these black and the 
latter brown, edged in both sexes with the same colours as the 
adult birds. 

Distribution. The Western Himalayas from Chitral and the 
borders of Afghanistan to Eastern Assam, North and South of 
the JJrahmaputra. 

Nidiflcation. The Dnrk-grey Hush-Chat breeds throughout its 
range at all heights between 4,000 and 9,000 feet, perhaps even 
1,000 feet higher than this. The nest is a fairly well-made cup 
of grass, roots, a few leaves and a little moss, lined with grass, fur 
or hair, sometimes with all three mixed, sometimes with fur or hair 
alone. They may be placed in almost any natural hollow in a 
hank, under a hush or thick tuft of grass, in among the roots of 
a tree, in a hole amongtthe stones and boulders of a retaining wall 
or even on the ground in open grass-land in a slight depression. 
They breed from early April to early July and, according to Hume, 
generally have two broods which they rear in the same nest. The 
eggs number four or five. In colour the ground varies from a 
bluish white to a blue as deep as that of a Thrush's egg: the 
markings in some are very sparse consisting of an ill-defined ring 
or cap of faint reddish specks, in others these caps and rings are 
well and strongly defined and in yet others the whole surface is 
faintly freckled with reddish, generally in addition to a well- 
marked ring and the whole aspect of the egg is more reddish than 
blue. The texture is stout aud fine but. not highly glossed and 
the shape is a broad oval. One hundred eggs average 17 - 9x 
14-2 mm.: maxima 19'3xl50 and 18-1 x 151 mm.; minima 
161 X 13-2 and 18-0 x 131 mm. 

Habits. There is little to note on this bird's habits which are 



38 TtniDiu.*:. 

quite typical of the sub-family. It is essentially a bird of open 
grass-lands, not, as a rule, frequenting even open bush and scrub 
jungle. It is plentiful in winter in the elephant and ekra reeds on 
the borders of all the waterways in Assam and Eastern Bengal 
ami in Behar may be found more often in cultivated country. In 
the non-breeding season it sometimes collects in considerable 
numbers but is not gregarious in the true sense oi the word. 

(.">03) Oreicola ferrea haringtoni. 

TllK EaSTEIIN I)AliK-(.KKV HlSH-Cll AT. 

Oreicola ferrea harhiytoni Ihirteit, Yog. l'al. Fauna, i, p. Til (l!>]Oj 
(Moupiu). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Only differs from the Western Dark-grey JJush- 
Chat in being whiter below at all seasons of the year, in summer 
the breast and abdomen are almost pure white. 

Measurements. Wing 04 to Gs mm.; tail ol to 63 mm. If the 
tail is measured from the base this adds four or five mm. to the 
length and makes them agree with Jlartert's for both species 
included. 

Distribution. Hills of China, Yunnan, Kachin, and Chin Hills. 
The birds from South Assam are 0. ferrea ferrea and they only breed 
occasionally on that side of the hrahmuputra, nearly all of them 
crossing the river to breed to the .North in Nepal and Sikkim etc. 

Nidification. Similar to that of Oreicola ferrea ferrea but the 
eggs, taken as a series, are very different. The ground-colour is a 
brighter, deeper blue and, whilst in many eggs the markings are 
entirely absent, in none are they numerous enough, or sufficiently 
well defined, to make the eggs look anything but bright blue. 
Forty egirs average 18 - 4xl4 - 4 mm.: maxima 19"8xl4-5 and 
19-1x15 mm.; minima 17*1 X 14-^ and ls-2x 14'0 mm. 

The principal bleeding months are April and .May. 

Habits. Those of the preceding race but the Eastern form seems 
to be found more often in scrub and thin bush cover than is the 
Western. 

Genus CENANTHE. 
(Enanthe Yieil!., Analyse, p. 40, ISlli. 

Type, Motacilln (enanthe Linn. 

As already explained, the name Sn.ricola cannot be used for the 
Whentears, as in 1827 Swainson designated Motacilln ruhicola as 
the genotype, thus anticipating Gray who did not give Motacilln 
(enanthe as tho type of Ha.cirola until 1841. The next oldest 
name is Vieillot's (Enanthe, 1816, type by tautonymy Motacilln 
ananthe Linn. 

The genus (Enanthe contains a lrtrge number of species which 
are essentially birds of deserts and waste lands, and I hey are most 
developed in the dry parts of South- Western Asia ami Northern 



(BXAHTHB. 39 

Africa. The majority of the species are migratory and only 
winter visitors to India but others are resident and breed within 
our area. The sexes are usually dissimilar and both sexes undergo 
a seasonal change of plumage which in some species causes a very 
great alteration in their appearance. 

In (Enanthe the bill is about half the length of the head, 
slender and not widened at the base ; the rictal bristles few and 
weak ; the wing is pointed, the first primary being about one-third 
the length of the second; the tail is shorter than the wing and 
nearly square ; the tarsus is rather long but slender. 

The young of (Eiuintlie are typically Saxicoline, having the 
plumage both above and below barred and spotted, giving a mottled 
appearance. This juvenile plumage is moulted in the first 
autumn into one similar to that of the adult. 



Key in Species. 

A, Tail white or huff nnd brown ; the 
lateral feathers immaculate or ob- 
liquely marked with black (]■'. vvjiiacha, p. 40. 

II. Tail white aud black ; the laterals with 

a broad band at the tip. 

«. Band on lateral tail-feathers not ei- 

cendiufr 25 mm. in breadth. 

«'. Second primary shorter than sixth. 

a". Sexes alike, plumage black and 

white (£.*. ulboniger, p. -10. 

//'. Sexes different ; males black 
nnd white, females brown. 
rt*. Abdomen white, crown black. (Ii. picata, cj,p. 42. 
b'. Abdomen and crown both 

white <!•'.. eapixtrata, <5, p. 4.'!. 

c'. Abdomen black (/','. npifthnhuca, £ , p. 44. 

d\ Throat and breast dark brown, 
contrasting with the pale 

abdomen (!■'. pictita, 2 ; P- 42. 

<■'. Throat aud breast bull, blend- 
ing into the paler bull 

abdomen (K. capinlrata, $ . p. 43. 

f\ Throat, breast and upper 

abdomen sooty-brown .... CE. ophlbuleuca, $ , p. 45. 
b'. Second primary between sixth and 
fifth ; sexes different ; chin and 
throat black. 
(", Back and scapulars of the same 

colour Qi. Imcomela, J . P- 45. 

tl' . Back buff, scapulars black .... IE. tiirhiioleuca, <$ , p. 47. 
c'. Second primary equal to or 
louger than fifth; chin and 

throat never black 

<•". Sexes different; bands on tail 

about 22 mm 

ff 3 . Under wing-coverts black 

edged with white '/•.'. (r»a>itbr, cj , p. 48. 



40 TUHOIDJE. 

A\ Under wing-coverts brown 

edged with rufous (E. cenanthe, 2 > P- 48. 

/''. Sexes alike; band on tail about 
26 mm. ; under wiug-coverts 

uniform fulvous (E. uabellina, p. 49. 

ft. Band on lateral tail-feathers more 

than 25 mm. broad (E. deserti, \>. 51. 

C. Tail chestnut and black ; the lateral 

feathers with a broad band at the tip. (E. xantlwprymna, p. 53. 

(504) (Enanthe monacha. 

The Hooded Chat. 

Saxicola monacha Temm., PI. Col., p. ,'$59, fi;r. 1 (1825) (Nuia) : 
Blanf. & Dates, ii, p. OR 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male in summer. Forehead, crown, nape, rump, 
upper tail-coverts, abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts pure 
white ; tail white, the terminal two-thirds of the central pair 
brown, the other pairs marked, in varying degree, with brown 
towards the tips ; remainder of plumage black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length 175 to 180 mm.; wing 101 to 
106 mm. ; tail 67 to 70 mm. ; tarsus about 24 mm. ; culmen 16 to 
17 mm. 

After the autumn moult the new black feathers of back, breast 
and wings are all fringed with white. 

Female. Upper plumage sandy-brown, sometimes tinged with 
buff; rump and upper tail-coverts creamy-fawn; tail like the 
male but the white replaced by buff and generally with more 
brown on the outer pairs ; lower plumage pale, dingy buff. 

Measurements. Rather smaller than the male. 

Distribution. From Nubia and Upper Egypt and coasts of lied 
Sea, through Palestine, Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan to the 
Mekran Coast and hills of Sind. The farthest East recorded is 
Brooks's specimen obtained in January in Sehwan. 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits. Practically nothing recorded. 

(505) (Enanthe alboniger. 

Hume's Chat. 

Saxicola alboniger Hume, S. F., i, p. 2 (1873) (Sind). 
Saxicola aUnnigra. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 70. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Head, back and scapulars, sides of breast, flanks, 
axillariea arid under wing-coverts black ; wings dark brown, the 



(KNANTIIE. 41 

coverts edged with black ; central tail-feathers white at the base, 
brownish black on the terminal three-quarters ; lateral tail- 
feathers white with broad brownish-black tips. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 175 to 180 mm.; wing 94 
to 106 mm.; tail 55 to 71 mm.; tarsus about 28 mm.; culmen 
about 16 mm. 

The tail seems to vary in an extraordinary way, several 
specimens in no way abraded or in moult having it under fSO mm. 

The nestling seems lo be barred with dark brown ; it moults 
the first autumn into the adult plumage, though the black is 
replaced by deep chocolate-brown. 

Distribution. Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan to Kashmir and 
Sind. 

Nidification. This fine Cliufc breeds in some numbers from 
Kermau Westwards to Shi raz, principally between 5,000 and (5,000 
feet but, possibly, also a good deal higher. It lays as early as 
.March but second broods are reared in I he end of May and June. 
The site generally selected is said, by Mr. A. J. Currie. to be a 
crevice or hole in a rock, sometimes hi^li up and inaccessible 
without ropes, at other times quite low down yet equally 
unobtainable, being placed at the end of deep clefts, too small and 
too deep for an arm to enter. At Kerman, however, Mr. Currie 
found it building in the rafter-holes in deserted mud-buildings. 
Wherever built the nest is always guarded by a fortification of 
small flat pebbles sloping gradually from the outside of the hole 
up to its highest, point just in front of the nest. In the cavity 
inside this a nest of stones is made with a rather poor lining of 
grass, feathers and hair. A large number of stones are often used 
in these ramparts and one such weighed 2 lb. 

The full clutch of eggs is five. In colour they are very pale 
skim-milk blue, some spotless or nearly so, others with a fairly 
well-defined ring of faint reddish-brown spots and freckles at the 
larger end. One egg in a clutch seems often to be darker and 
better marked than the rest. 

Twenty eggs average 225 x 16'S mm : maxima 25 X 17'1 mm. ; 
minima 203 X 16-5 and 223 x 161 mm. 

Habits. In Persia Hume's Chat seems to be found frequenting 
rocky hills, often of limestone, especially in the vicinity of culti- 
vation. It is quite the most common of all the Chats in Persia 
from Kerman and Shiraz extending right down through the hills 
to our jS'orth-West Frontier but decreasing rapidly in numbers 
from Shiraz southwards. It is said to have a loud melodious 
song, although not a very varied one. The call-note is described 
by Mr. Currie as " a short, sharp, high-pitched whistle, rapidly 
uttered three or four times and if its nest or young are threatened 
it gives a harsh grating note.*' 



42 TUHDID*. 

It is very bold and fearless ; tame with human beings' but 
resenting and at once driving away bird-intruders to its domain 
whether of its own or other species. 

(506) CBnanthe picata. 

The Piei> Chat. 

Sa.ricola picata Myth, J. A. -S. R, xvi, p. 131 (1847) (Sind) ; 
JUitnf. & Dates, ii, p. 71. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male. The whole head and neck nil round, 
back, scapulars and wings, under wing-cover! s nnd axillaries deep 
black ; remainder of lower plumage with the rump and upper tail- 
coverts white ; tail white, except the terminal half of thti middle 
pair of feathers and a broad baud at the tip of the others, black ; 
there is hardly any difference between the summer and winter 
plumage. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 170 mm.; wing* 89 to 
99mm.. but 73 per cent, are between 111 and 94 mm.; tail about. 
Go to 70 inni. ; tarsus about 25 mm. ; culmen about K5 mm. 

Female. Upper plumage brown; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white ; tail as in the male but the black replaced with brown ; 
wing brown, all the feathers broadly edged with rufous : chin, 
throat and breast dark ochraceous brown to dark brownish black ; 
remainder of the lower parts very pale buff or pinkish white. 

Measurements. "72 per cent, measure, Ming 87-89 mm." 
( Tieehurrt). 

The young resemble the female but have the feathers of the 
breast and flanks edged with dark brown ; the crown and back'are 
concolorous. 

Distribution. Breeding occurs throughout South-East Persia, 
Baluchistan, Afghanistan and the Afghan-N.W. Frontier of India 
boundaries as far North as Samana and possibly as far North as 
Chitral and Gilgit. In winter it is found abundantly over extreme 
South-East Persia, Baluchistan, Sind and Kajputana, less frequently 
but regularly and in some numbers in the West and South- West 
of the United Provinces; in the Punjab it is much less common, 
its place being taken by the next bird, though Whitehead records 
this as breeding there. In Kashmir proper apparently only picata 
breeds and not copistrata, though the latter is also found there 
occasionally. 

Nidiflcation. The Pied Chat breeds in considerable numbers in 
the Quetta district and both Whitehead and ltattray found it 
breeding in the Kurram Valley at about 5,000 feet, whilst 

* See Ticehurst, ' Ibis,' 1922, p. 1M. 



(KXANTHK. 43 

Lieut. Kinchin took its nest about 1,000 feet lower. Betham 
describes the nests as being made " of roots and bents and lined 
with hair, wool or any soft material that may be handy " and 
says that the favourite nesting-sites are holes in steep river- 
banks or under rocks and stones on the hills ; it also sometimes 
nests in old stone walls or in ruined and deserted mud and stone 
buildings. Barnes found its nest in Afghanistan built in a hole 
in a tree. The eggs number four or live and vary from almost 
white to a pale skim-milk blue sparsely marked with tiny freckles 
and a few small blotches of reddish brown. These are nearly 
always confined to tlie larger end whore they sometimes form a 
faint ring. The texture is line and close, fairly glossy but fragile 
and the shape is a broad blunt oval. Forty eggs average 20'0x 
15(5 mm.: maxima 215 x 164 mm.; minima 180x14-4 mm. 
They breed principally in late April and May and Betliam found 
no eggs after the third week in the latter month. 

To what extent this bird breeds in Persia I. do not know; 
Ticeburst says that it is " the breeding bird of Eastern Persia " 
but Currie in three seasons at Kerman and Shiraz never came 
across it, though he often obtained it during the cold weather 
at Bunder Abbas. 

Habits. This Chat is normally a bird of comparatively low 
levels, i.e. from 4,000 to 0,000 feet. In winter it is found 
throughout the plains of Hie North- West. They are typical 
Wheatears in their habits, keeping entirely to open desert country, 
preferably to areas that are particularly stony and rough. Where 
cultivated country adjoins waste lands the Pied Chat will resort to 
it for the sake of the ample insect-food it there obtains but it is 
apparently never found in thick scrub or heavily grassed lands. 
It has a \i.'vy sweet, but low, song. 

(»o7) (Enanthe capistrata. 

Tin: WiiiTK-iiK.vDKi) Chat. 

Sa.ricu/a rn/n'xtrnfa Gould, B. of Asia, iv, \>\. L'^ (180")) (.Sind) ; 
Hliuif. & Gates, ii. p. 7:.'. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male. Differs from picala in having the head 
and nape lsabelline-grev or French-grey wearing to pule grey or 
almost pure white in winter. 

Gould's birds probably came from Sind and this may therefore 
be designated the type-locality. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. On the average a larger bird than picata ; " wing 
00 to 09 mm., 80 per cent. 04 or more " (Ticehurst). The British 
Museum series bears out Ticehurst's figures. 

Female. Differs from that of the Pied Chat in never having 
the throat so dark, nearly always a fulvous with no brown or 



44 TrRMD.*:. 

black in it ; the upper plumage is a sandy brown rather than 
a dark brown. 

Measurements. "70 per cent, capiat rata measure wing 00 mm. 
and upwards " (Ticehumt). 

Distribution. Breeding in Turkestan, Afghanistan and the 
North-Wesfc Frontier of India, Gilgit. In winter it is fouud 
principally in the North-West Province and the Punjab wandering 
into Rajputana, Kashmir, and, very rarely, into Sind. 

Nidiflcation. Whitehead and Hat tray botli obtained this bird 
in the Karram Valley and at Parachinar both this and the last 
bird were breeding together. According to the former it breeds 
between 4,500 and (5,500 feet and rarely up to 9,000 feet. " The 
nest, a neat grass structure, is usually placed in a hole in the 
bank of a nullah or under a stone in the bed of the uullah, occa- 
sionally in a cairn of stones. The eggs are pale blue, varying a 
good deal in shade, marked with red spots also varying much 
in shade and distribution, and average 0-79 in. x 0'53 in. The full 




Fig. C. -Head of 'A', rapiftiatn. 

clutch is five. Two broods at least are reared in the season."' 
The spots I may add are always tew and sometimes very scanty. 
Twenty-five eggs, including Whitehead's, average L'0-Dx 15 - mm. ; 
Whitehead's eggs are nearly all in my possession and his breadth 
of 0'53 in. is probably a misprint for O'ort. Fulton found it 
breeding up to 11,000 feet in (Jhitral. The breeding month is 
early May. 

Habits. Quite indistinguishable from those of the last species. 

(508) (Enanthe opistholeuca. 

Strickland's Cjiat. 

Stuicola opisthokucn Strickland, Jardinc's Con. Orn. p. 00 (1819) 
(Northern India, Punjab) ; Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 73. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male. Hump, upper and lower tail-coverts 
white; central tail-feathers white at the base, black on the 
terminal four-fifths; lateral tail-feathers white with broad 
brownish-black tips; wing-quills dark brown; remainder of 
plumage black, hut not very glossy. 



(KNANTHE. 45 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 105 mm.; wing 90 to 
95 mm. ; tail 62 to 05 mm. ; tarsus 25 mm. ; culmen 14 mm. 

Female. Above, the black of the male is replaced by light 
brown. The ear-coverts are bright hair-brown ; the chin, throat 
and breast are brownish, often with a buft* tinge, changing to 
albescent on the abdomen. 

In the British Museum collection are many birds sexed female 
which differ from the adult female in being very dark brown 
above ; they are all probably young males. 

Distribution. Breeding in Turkestan, Afghanistan, Baltistan, 
probably Gilgit, and, • certainly, all along the North- West 
Frontier of India as far South as Thull. In winter it migrates 
to the lower bills and plains as far South as Sind, in Bombay to 
Khandesh and to Nagpur and the whole of the North-Vest 
Province. 

Nidincation. Fulton found this the most common of all the 
Chats in Chitral, breeding between (5,000 and 10,000 feet and 
botli Rattray and Kinchin took nests at Parachinar.Kurram Vallev, 
at about 4,500 feet. These they describe as grass cups lined 
with a few feathers, grass and hair, and placed well inside holes 
in rocks. 

The eggs, now in my collection, are like those of the two 
preceding Chats in shape, texture, size and colour. 

Habits. Quite similar to those of other Wheatears and Chats, 
which keep to stony wastes and deserts. 



(50!)) CEnanthe leucomela leucomela *. 

The Piki> Chat. 

Motacilla leucomela Tall., Nov. Comm. Petrop., xiv, p. ?>%\ (1770) 

( Samara, Uussia). 
Sn.riciila plezehanka. Blnnf. & Oates, ii, p. 7.'!. 
Sa.it't'ela vit/nla. Illanf. & Gates, ii, p. 75. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male in summer. Forehead to nape white, tinged 
with rufous to a varying extent, sometimes pure white; rump 
and upper tail-coverts pure white ; rest of head, throat and 
upper breast, back, scapulars and wing-coverts black ; quills dark 
brown edged black ; central tail-feathers black with white bases, 
lateral tail-feathers white, marked with blackish brown in a 
band, or in patches, at the tip, the outermost pair nearly always 



* Lepechin, whose name jJescliauka for this bird appears on p. f>03 of tin- 
name work ns tlmt in which J'lillfts' name, twomefa. occurs. w»j not a 
consistent, binominliat nnd therefore his names, fortunately but few in 
number, eminot in my opinion be accented. 



46 TURD1DJS, 

with a broad band of black ; below from breast to under tail- 
eoverts pure white. 

In winter, after the autumn moult, the feathers of the head 
are fringed witli dull rufous, obscuring the white ; the upper black 
parts are broadly fringed with rufous and the throat, breast and 
sides of neck very narrowly fringed with white or very pale 
rufous. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel or brown ; legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 100 to 170 mm.; wing i>2 
to i'O linn.; tail 5S to (51 mm.; tarsus 24 n>m.; eulmen 12-5 
to l;}'5 mm. 

Female in summer. Upper parts brown, slightly rufous, rump 
rind upper tail- coverts white; tail as in the male but brown 
instead of black, an indistinct pale rufous supereiliuni ; ear- 
coverts brown ; lower plumage dull greyish white, darker and 
rather buff on the chin, throat and breast. 

In winter the upper parts are more broadly fringed with 
rufous; the wing-feathers have broad rufous edges and the 
lower parts are paler, almost white on the abdomen. 

Distribution. South Russia, the Caucasus, Tnmscnspia, 
Turkestan, Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet, East Siberia, North China 
and into Gilgit and North Kashmir. 

Nidification. Biddulph took this Chat's nest at Astor on the 
26th June, Oates records it as breeding numerously in N. Kashmir 
and Ward states that it breeds in the "side valleys " of Kashmir. 
Beyond this there is nothing on record of its breeding within 
Indian limits and probably it is only a casual and not regular 
breeder in N. Kashmir and (iilgit. 

The nest is the usual cup of grass and roots, lined with grass 
often mixed with hair, fur or wool and sometimes wholly of one 
or more of these materials. It is placed in a hole in a wall or in 
amongst loose stones, more rarelv in a hole in a trunk of a tree 
and is generally well concealed. The eggs number four to six and 
differ from those of any of the preceding species of (Enanthe 
in being a much darker blue in ground-colour and also in 
being more boldly marked. The average size according to 
Dresser is 18'1 x 14'2 mm. but a series in my own collection from 
Eussia, Asia Minor and Transcaspia average a good deal bigger, 
i.r., 18-8 x 14-8 mm. 

They appear to breed in late May and June. 

Habits. This Chat is said to (litter from others in its habit of 
frequenting bushes and even small trees as well as perching on 
rucks and stones. It captures its insect-prey in the usual manner 
by making little dashes to the ground and then returning to its 
observation-point. Its song is sweet and low but not strong. 



(EtfANTHE. 47 

(510) (Enanthe melanoleuca melanoleuca. 

Barnes' Chat. 

Muscicapa melanoleuca Giildcnst., Nov. Coram. Petrop., xix, p. 408 

(177f>) ("fieorfrin). 
fiaxicota btirnesi Oatos, Avifauna, ii, p. 75 (Kandahar) (part.). 

Vernacular names. None recoiled. 

Description.— Male in summer. A narrow frontal line, lores, 
round the eve, checks, ear-coverts, sides of neck, chin and throat 
black; central tail-feathers white at the base, black elsewhere; 
the lateral tail- feathers white with broad black tips; remaining 
plumage white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black ; legs and feet 
dark brown or horny-black. 

Measurements. Total length about 175 mm.; wing 85 to 
!(2 nmi.; tail 53 to 58 mm.; tarsus 25 to 26 mm.; cuhnen 
13 to 14 tnin. 

Male in winter litis the whole upper parts so heavily fringed 
with grey-huff that they appear to be entirely of this colour, 
except on the pure white upper tail-coverts ; the black of the chin 
and throat is barred with narrow rufous fringes ; the wing-coverts 
and quills are edged with pale rufous. 

Female. Above sandy-brown, rump and upper tail-coverts 
white; tail as in the male; below sandy-white, the darker bases 
to the feathers showing through on throat and breast. 

Distribution. From Georgia and Transcaspia through to 
Afghanistan and Baluchistan and North-West Indian frontier. 
It also breeds in Persia. 

This bird is separated from (E. m. Jiimhi of Palestine and 
Asia Minor by not having the black of the throat and chin 
connected with the black axillaries but separated therefrom by a 
line of white. All the Indian birds are of this race with the one 
exception of the specimen selected by Gates as the type of barnesi 
and this one unfortunately seems to be much nearer finschi than 
to the typical form. It is probably merely an aberrant specimen 
but it might possibly be an individual which has wandered across 
out of its usual beat. It was killed at Kandahar. 

Nidiflcation. Barnes' Chat makes a typical Wheatear nest of 
grass and roots lined with hair, fur, wool or any other soft 
material available near the site. It may be placed in a hole in 
almost any position — bank, wall, heap of stones or even in a 
stone or mud building. Sometimes they are placed so far in 
that they cannot be got at at all, less often within a few inches 
of the entrance. They lay normally five eggs, sometimes four 
only and less often six. These are typical Wheatear's eggs but 
dark like those of the last species, from which they are not 
distinguishable. 



48 xunittDiC. 

i 

The average of 75 eggs (41 Hartert) is 19-3 x 15*2 mm. : 
maxima 20-8x15-2 and 20-0 x 16-9 mm.; minima 17-1x14-9 
and 18-5x13-5 mm. 

They breed from the end of April to early June, most eggs 
being laid during the first week in May. 

Habits. This Chat is said to frequent, by preference, the most 
arid and desolate of deserts and rocky hills, keeping aloof from all 
cultivation or any kind of vegetation. It is one of the most shy 
and retiring of the Chats. 

(511) (Enanthe cenanthe oenanthe. 

The Wheateab. 

Motacilla irnmithe Linn., S. N., i, p. 186 (1758) (Sweden). 
tiaxicola amanthr. Blanf. & Ontef, ii, p. 70. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Male in summer. Forehead and a broad stiper- 
cilium white ; crown, nape, back and scapulars pale slaty-grey ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts white ; central tail-feathers white on 
the basal third and black on the terminal two-thirds ; lateral 
feathers with two-thirds white and one-third black ; lores, cheeks 
and ear-coverts black; wings black ; chin, throat and upper breast 
bright buff paling to white on centre of abdomen ; under tail- 
coverts bright buff. 

In winter the grey upper parts are fringed with rufescent, 
the ear-coverts are mixed with rufous ; the wing-coverts and 
quills have broad rufous or whitish margins and the underparts 
are more buff'. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill black ; legs and feet dark 
horny-brown to almost or quite black, the soles paler and claws 
always black. 

Measurements. Total length about 105 mm. ; " wing 93 to 99, 
rarely to 104 mm ; culmen 16 to 19 mm.*' (Aleinertzhagen). 
Tarsus about 28 mm. 

Female. Above rufous-brown, forehead and faint supercilium 
pale rufous ; lores and upper parts of ear-coverts brown ; lower 
parts of ear-coverts rich buff; below buff, richer on throat and 
breast; rump and upper tail-coverts white; wings dark brown, 
all the feathers basally edged with rufous. 

Nestling above brown, the feathers pale-centred ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts yellowish white ; below dull buff, the feathers 
of breast and flanks edged with brown. 

Distribution. Practically the whole of Europe except Crete ; 
all "Western Asia to Turkestan, Persia and Mesopotamia, 
Afghanistan and Baluchistan, wandering across the boundaries' of 
the last two places into the extreme N.W. Provinces, Gilgit and 
Northern Kashmir. 



fflSTANTHB. 49 

Meinertahagen (* Ibis,' 1922, pp. 14-18) recently reviewed the 
races of (Enanthe cenanthe and has come to the conclusion that the 
supposed Eastern form argentea cannot be maintained. He seems 
to have based this conclusion on the material in the Tring 
Museum aud a very large number of Western species available 
from other sources. There are, however, a good series of Persian 
and Turkestan males in the British Museum which certainly 
confirm Lonnberg's description of argentea and vary from typical 
cenanthe in being somewhat larger but particularly in having the 
forehead very broadly white. In one or two specimens the 
white b md runs back as far as the back of the eyes and in several 
others it is nearly as broad. If there is a Turkestan and Persian 
breeding Wheatear which consistently shows this characteristic 
it would certainly have to be separated and bear LOnnberg's 
name of argentea (Saxicola ivnanlhe argentea, Arkiv f. Zool., v., 
p. 22, 1905) : Hum, South of Lake Baikal). 

As regards our Indian birds two from Quetta appear to belong 
to this Persian form, whereas the rest are nearer the true cenanthe 
from Europe and Western Asia. 

Nidiflcation. The breeding of the Common Wheatear is almost 
too well known to require description. Its nest of grass, roots 
and scraps of vegetable rubbish is placed inside a hollow in a rock, 
cliff or pile of stones, often inside a deserted rat or rabbit 
burrow, or even in the burrow of a Sand-Martiu. The lininjr is 
either of finer grass and roots or of fur, wool or hair. The eggs 
number four to six and, rarely, seven and are a very pale skim- 
milk blue in colour, occasionally with a few faint freckles of pale 
reddish at the larger end. The average of 100 eggs (Hartert) is 
20-7x15-5 mm.: maxima 230x101 and 22-0x16-5 mm.; 
minima 190 x 145 and 193 x 140 mm. 

The breeding-season is from the end of April to early June, 
varying according to locality. 

Habits. Like all the Wheatears this bird is a frequenter of open 
country, preferably such as is barren and stony but also that which 
is under cultivation. It captures all its food from some point of 
vantage on a rock or cliff, dashing from time to time on any 
unfortunate insect which may cross the ground within its sight 
and then returning to its original perch. Its flight is undulating 
but fairly strong and when frightened it flies fast and level until 
it finds itself in fancied safety. It runs quickly for a pace or two 
on the ground aud occasionally attempts to catch insects on the 
wing. Its song is sweet but short and rather feeble. 

(512) (Enanthe isabellina. 

The Isabelline Chat. 

Saxicola tmMlina Cretzschm., Atlas zu Rtipp. Reise, Yog. p. r>'2 
(1826) (Nubia) ; Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 77. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 
tol. n. E 



50 TUKMDJE. 

Description.-Male in summer. Head to back and scapulars 
sandy-brown ; warmer and slightly buff on lower back and sca- 
pulars; longest feathers of the rump and upper tad-covert* 
white; middle pair of tail-feathers white at the base tor about, 
one-third of their length, black on the terminal two-thirds ; 
lateral feathers white on two-thirds of their length, black on one- 
third onlv, all narrowly edged and tipped with white or pale 
fawn ; wings dark brown,' each feather narrowly edged with 
fulvous; a "narrow white supercilium from the nostrils to tho 
ear-coverts ; a line through the eye dark brow n or black ; ear- 
coierts fulvous, the colour extending down the sides of the neck ; 
chin and centre of throat whitish ; rest of lower plumage buff 
albescent on centre of abdomen, warmer and more fulvous on 
breast and flanks. 

In winter the edges to all the feathers are broader and affect the 
general colour to a greater extent. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown ; bill, legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm. ; wing 9'5 to 
100 mm. ; tail 53 to 5(5 mm. ; tarsus 30 to HI mm. ; culmeu about 
15 mm. 

Female like the male, but has the lores duller brown and the 
8Upercilium sometimes less distinct. 

Distribution. Breeding from the South litissian Steppes, Asia 
Minor, Palestine, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia and Tibet to 
East Siberia and N.W.China. It breeds in British Baluchistan, 
N.E. Kashmir and in Ladak, and winters in the plains of North- 
West India. 

Nidification. The Isabelline Chat breeds within our limits 
practically all along the Baluchistan and Afghanistan frontiers. 
Betham and Marshall found many nests round about Quetta, and 
Rattray obtained others near Thull at about 4,500 feet. The nests 
taken by Betham and Marshall were all in rat-holes in the ground, 
and the former describes the nest as " composed of wool, huir, 
roots, feathers, cotton, coir, rags, or any other soft material avail- 
able ; a conglomerate mass with a depression in the centre in 
which the eggs were deposited. Often toads and beetles share the 
burrow with the birds, though they may not occupy the nest- 
ohamber itself." Rattray found the nest in holes under stones. 

The eggs are four or live in number, and are generally a very 
pale spotless blue in colour, occasionally there are a few pale 
freckles at the larger end. In shape they are broad, rather blunt 
ovals. 

Seventy-five eggs (Hartert 55) average 219 x 16-4 mm. Indian 
eggs are rather small, averaging only 21'3xl0'l mm.: maxima 
251 X 173 mm. ; minima 19 5 x 150 and 200 x 15-2 mm. The 
breeding-season is from the beginning of April to the middle of 
June. 

Betham notes that " during the breeding-season the male makes 



(E.VANTHJE. . 51 

himself very conspicuous by his quaint antics. He jumps up into 
the air, uttering 1 a curious guttural note, and floats through it, 
with his tail spread and his rump arched showing up spotlessly 
white against the black. He gradually ascends some thirty or 
forty feet and then descends slantwise to the ground, but always 
on to some raised mound, never on to the flat ground."' 

Habits. Those of the genus. Buxton remarks on its partiality 
for salt desert with scanty u'getatio'n, which it shares with Sylvia 
nana. 

(Enanthe deserti. 

(EiKin'/ie dwrti Teuini. I'l. Co!, jil. ■','>'.), fig. 2 (1825). 
Type-locality : Egypt. 

Key to Suligprcies. 

A. Inner webs of wiu<r-quills with a little 

white only on the base (K. d. alrogulari*, p. ol. 

15. luner webs of wing-quills very kig-'ly 

white (11 </. oreo/ihila, p. 52. 

(5ia) (Enanthe deserti atrogularis. 

(ioi'l.ll's Dr.SEKT-C'HAT. 

Sitcivnlti iitrof/ulari* Hlytb, J. A. S. 1*., xvi, p. 131 (1847) (Agra). 
'Sauico'tt deter ti. Hlanf. iV. Oateo, ii, p. ~S. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male in summer. Frontal line and broad super- 
eilium buffv-white, forehead to rump buff, more grey on the head, 
richer and brighter buff on lower back and scapulars ; rump paler 
and upper tail-coverts creamy fulvous-white ; tail black with 
white base : wings brownish black edged with white, the inner- 
most secondaries with fulvous-white ; inner wing-coverts next the 
back so broadly edged with white as to form a large white wing- 
patch ; lores, cheeks, sides of head and neck, throat and upper 
breast black ; remainder of lower plumage pale buff, brightest on 
the breast; axillaries and under wing-coverts black, tipped with 
white ; bases of inner webs of wing-quills white, varying in extent 
from mere narrow margins to nearly half the web. 

In winter the black parts are fringed with white, the super- 
ciliuni is less distinct and the back is more dusky. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 170 mm. ; wing d'i to 
102 mm.; tail 55 to (53 mm.; tarsus 2G mm.; culmen 14 to 
15 mm. 

This form differs from typical (E. d. deserti in being darker and 
greyer above and more brown on the breast. It also has a much 
smaller bill, although it is a bigger bird. 

B2 



52 TTJBMD.*. 

Female. Upper parts like the male but greyer, wings and tail 
a lighter brown ; ear-coverts rufous-brown ; superciliuni very in- 
distinct ; below from chin to under tail-coverts whitish buff, the 
breast and flanks darker and brownish. 

Young like the female, but both upper and lower parts very 
dull and fringed with greyish, giving a mottled appearauee. 

Distribution. Breeding in Western Central Asia, Kirghis 
Steppes, South Caucasus to East Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan 
and N.E. Kashmir. A winter visitor to the plains of North-West 
India. 

Nidification. Gould's Chat does not breed within the limits of 
the area dealt with in this work, but nests both in Baluchistan 
and the hills of Eastern Mesopotamia. The nests are similar to 
those of other Wheat ears, and the eggs, which number four or 
five, vary from pale spotless blue to pale blue with a well-defined 
ring of small blotches of red at the larger end. Twenty-four eggs 
(7 Jourdain) average IWixlHnini.: maxima 20'6x 15-5 and 
20-0 x 161 mm. ; minima 190 x 15-0 and 19-5 x 147 mm. 

Habits. According to Ticehurst this Chat is partial to the 
vicinity of scrub and cover, often settling on small bushes. This 
probably only refers to its winter resorts, for during the breeding- 
season it is found, as a rule, in the most stony and bare deserts. 

(5U) (Enanthe deserti oreophila. 

The Tibetan Deskixt-Chat. 

QZnanthr dexrrti oreophila Oberholser, Pvoc. U.S. Nat. Mus xxii 

p. -2-Jl (IS)01> (S.W. Tibet). 
Siuieola mtmtana. lilanf. & Outes, ii, p. 78. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Both male and female differ from Gould's Desert- 
Chat in having more white on the inner webs of the secondaries 
and primaries. The white patch on the wing-coverts is larger. 

Colours of soft parts as in the last race. 

Measurements. This bird averages a trifle larger than the last ; 
wing 90 to 106 mm.; tail 67 to 71 mm.; culmen 15-5 to 17 mm. 

Distribution. Breeding in Kashmir, Ladakh and Tibet. In 
winter it occurs in Sikkim, and may breed there. It occurs in 
Assam, North of the Brahmaputra, where Coltart and I obtained 
it at Margherita, and in North Cot-liar South of the river. 

Nidification. The Tibetan Desert-Chat breeds from Ladakh 
throughout Tibet at heights between 12,000 and 14,000 feet 
during June and the last week of May. Usually it places its nest, 
in amongst the stones of the boundary- walls or in stone cairns 
and the broken walls of deserted buildings but, occasionally at all 
events, it also places it in the burrows of the Mouse-Hare. The 
nests seem to be made of almost any material, but the lining is 



tE.VANTHE. 53 

always of fur, hair or wool mixed with a few feathers. The eggs 
are five ia number and are exactly like those of the last race. 
Eleven eggs in my collection average 22-2 x 15-9 mm. In Kashmir 
it has been found breeding at 16,000 ft. 

Habits. In summer the Tibetan Desert-Chat occurs from 
10,000 to 17,000 feet and in winter wanders lower down to some 
3,000 or 4,000 feet in Sikkim, Bhutan and the hills of Northern 
Assam, rarely also straggling into the higher hills South of the 
Brahmaputra. 

In Tibet it inhabits country where there is a considerable 
amount of cultivation as well as stony deserts. It is also found 
in considerable numbers on the Gyantse plateau between 12,000 
and 14,000 feet, where there is a good deal of coarse short 
grass and an endless growth of a stubbly thorny bush, which the 
goats and sheep graze down to about a foot or eighteen inches 
high. Its actions, (light, food and voice are all typical of the 
genus. It has the fame display during the breeding-season as 
that of (E. isabellina already described. 

(Enanthe xanthoprymna. 

Sa.rico/a xanthnprifiiinn Hemp. & Ehrenb., Svuib. Plivs. A v., fol. dd 
(]K33). 

Type-locality : Xubia. 

(315) (Enanthe xanthoprymna chrysopygia. 

Thk Rkm-xait,kd Chat. 

Drtimolrra chrysopytjia ])n Filippi, Arch. Zool. Oeiiova, ii, p. 381 

(1803) ( Deniaven'd', Persia). 
Sa.ricola rhrysnpygia. Blauf. & Ontes, ii, p. 79. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Forehead to buck and scapulars pale grey-brown, 
more tinged with rufous or chestnut on lower back; rump chest- 
nut; upper tail-coverts very pale chestnut; tail bright chestnut, 
the middle pair of feathers black on the terminal halves, the lateral 
ones with a broad black subterniinnl band; wing-coverts brown 
edged with grey, very broadly so on the lesser coverts ; quills 
brown edged with rufous-grey ; supercilium dull greyish white ; 
lores dark grey-brown ; ear coverts hair-brown ; chin and throat 
nearly white, remainder of lower parts pale \ inaceous ashy, 
albescent on the centre of the abdomen, deeper on the breast and 
Hanks and huffy on the vent and under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris blackish brown ; bill, legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 170 mm.; wing 89 to 
!)7 mm.; tail 55 to 59 mm.; tarsus 20 to 27 mm.; culmen about 
13 mm. 



54 TCfiMD*. 

(Enanthe x. .rantJioprumna has the head ami the throat much 
darker blackish. 

Distribution. Breeding in South Turkestan, South and East 
Persia to Baluchistan. In winter in North- West .India, West o( 
the Jhelum River, Sind, Cutch, Northern Guzerat and Rajputaua 
as far East as Jodhpur. 

Nidiflcation. Affording to Mr. A. J. Currie this Chat breeds 
freely in South Persia at 0,000 feet upwards, and he found it com- 
paratively common both at Sheraz and at Kerman. It apparently 
nests twice, first in March and April and again in the end of 
May and June, as he found fully Hedged young in May and took 
fresh eggs in June. The nest Mr. Currie describes as like that of 
(E. alf'oniijer. lie writes : '"This Chat first fills the nest-hole to 
the required dimensions with sinnll pebbles and then behind this 
rampart and supported by it is the true nest, composed of twigs 
and grass and lined with finer grass. The nest takes 5 or (5 days 
to build." 

The eggs number five and are broad obtuse ovals ; pale sea-green 
or bluish white, either quite spotless or with a few faint brown 
specks about tbe larger end, Tliev measure about 19-0 22 4 x 
16-2-ltWI mm. 

Habits. The Red-tailed Chat frequents rocky gorges which run 
up into the higher hills and appears to be found between 5.0CO 
and 0,000 feet in summer, descending to the foot-hills and 
adjacent plains in winter. In the Kurnim and other valleys of 
tbe Xonh-W'est Frontier it is found even higher and certainly 
ascends as high as 11,000 feet or over. Jt is said to be a quiet 
unobtrusive bird, with a feeble song of poor quality. Its alarm- 
note is a long-drawn single pipe. 

Genus CERCOMELA. 
Bonap., Comp. Rend., xlii, p. 7f»t> (lHo(i). 
Type, (.'. melannra. 

The genus Cercomela is represented by one species within Indian 
limits, and is very closely allied to (Emtntha. 

In CWcomela the bill is like that of (Enanthe; the wing is rather 
blunter than in that bird, and the first primary is large, about 
equal to half the second ; the tail is much shorter than the wing 
and is of one colour ; the tarsus is rather short. 

(516) Cercomela fusca. 
The Biumvx Rock-Chat. 

Sa.ricola funca Blyth, J. A. S. I!., xx, p. .023 (]8ol) (Muttra). 
Cercomela fufca. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. SO. 

Vernacular names. Shama (Cen. Prov.). 

Description. Upper plumage- brown, fringed with rufous after 



CEECOMELA. 55 

the autumn moult ; upper tail-coverts darker and tail very dark 
brown ; wings dark brown, each feather edged with rufous iu 
fresh plumage ; sides of head and neck and lower plumage dull 
rufous. 

There is considerable individual variation in the colour of this 
Chat due to abrasion and bleaching ; in some the rufous tinge is 
quite absent and in a few birds the upper plumage is quite a 
dark brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 165 to 170 mm. ; wing 84 
to 93 mm.; tail 04 to 69 mm. tarsus about 20 mm.; cuhnen 
13 to 15 mm. 

Distribution. Resident in Central India. It is found practically 
throughout the United Provinces, the South of the Punjab, the 
extreme North-East of the Central Provinces, Kajputana East to 
Cutch. Whistler found it to be fairly common in the small hills 
round about Yakuwala in the Jhang district of the Punjab. 

Nidification. The Brown Hock-Chat breeds wherever found 
within the limits given above. The nest is a roughly made shallow 
cup, often little more than a pad, of grass, roots, wool, hair, etc., 
much mixed together but, generally, with the hitter materials as a 
lining. It may be placed in a hole in almost any position : a bank, 
cliff, stone wall, well or empty building and very often in houses 
which are occupied. In these they not only place their nests in 
holes but under the eaves, on the rafters or on any other con- 
venient ledge. The eggs generally number three only, sometimes 
four and very rarely live. They are typical Wheatears' in colour, 
shape and markings. The ground is a pale blue or bluish green, 
sometimes almost or quite spotless but in nine eggs out of ten 
with a fairly well-marked ring of reddish specks and small blotches 
at the larger end. In shape they are usually a broad obtuse oval, 
less often a longer oval with the small end well pointed. 

Fifty eggs average -'0'5 x 15-5 mm. : maxima 22 - 3 x 16"5 mm. ; 
minima 19*0x14*7 mm. 

The breeding-season lasts from April to July or even later; two 
broods are nearly always reared in the year, sometimes three, the 
birds using the same nest for both or all three broods. 

Habits. In its ways, flight, food and voice this bird is a quite 
typical W'lientear but, unlike practically all species of (Enanlhe, 
the Brown Hock-Chat is one of the tamest, boldest, and most con- 
fiding of birds. When breeding it seems to lose all fear of man 
and will build in rooms and ollices which are continually in use, 
passing in and out of them quite regardless of the numerous 
human beings within. It is found both round about and in 
villages and towns and also in arid stony wastes, rocky hills and 
cultivation. 



56 ttjbdid^:. 



Subfamily ENICUM1NLE. 

The members of this subfamily consist of three genera of birds 
with an extraordinary superficial resemblance to Wagtails, i. (., they 
are black and white birds with long tail?, which they are always 
wagging, and they run along in front of one in waterways and 
forest- paths. Structurally they are very different, having ten 
primaries well developed and a much stronger bill. 

Thev differ from the members of the Phanicitrince, with which 
Oates placed them, in the unusual shape of the tail, which is very 
deeply forked, yet has the outermost feathers shorter than the 
next pair. 

The sexes are alike and the young go through two colour-phases 
before they assume the adult plumage. 

The bill is strong and fairly stout, the lower mandible being 
bulged in the middle ; the rictal bristles are well developed, the 
wing is long and the first primary is about half the length of 
the second. 

Key to Gentru. 

A. Tail much longer than wing ; middle rec- 

trices one-third the length of longest .... Enicikts, p. 06. 

B. Tail about equal to wing ; middle rectrices 

about half the length of tail IIydbocii'iila, p. * 3. 

C. Tail shorter thnu wing ; middle rectrices 

reaching nearly to end of tail MicnociCHi.A, p. 65. 



Genus EHICURUS. 
Enicurus Temm. PI. Col. iii, pi. 113 (1824). 
Type, E. leschenaulii. 

Characteristics those of the subfamily. The tail is very long, 
much longer than the wing, and is very deeply forked, the central 
tail-feathers being rarely a third the length of the penultimate 
pair, which are longest. The outermost pair vary in length, even 
in the same species, but are always shorter than the next. Like 
all other genera in this subfamily the two outermost pairs of 
tail-feathers are always white. 

The bill is fairly stout and straight and the tarsi are long and 
slender and always very pale in colour. 

Key to Species. 

A. Back spotted E. maetdatm, p. 07. 

B. Back plain. 

a. Chin and throat black, breast white. 

a'. Back slate-coloured E. $chi»tacem, p. 09. 

V . Back almost or quite black '. . . . E. imtnaculatut, p. til. 

b. Chin, throat and breast black E. letchenaulii, p. 01. 



BNICUEUS. 57 

Enicurus maculatus. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Spots ou back large and lunate on lower 

back ; breast also marked with whito. ... E. m. maculatus, p. 57. 

B. Spots on back smaller and round ; breast 

unspotted black E. m. guttatus, p. "»8. 

(517) Enicurus maculatus maculatus. 

Tub Wkstkun Spotted Fokktail. 

Enicunis maculatu* Vigors, P. Z. S., 1K30, p. U (Himalaya, restricted 

to Simla). 
ILeiiicurtts maculatus. lilanf. <& Oates, ii, p. 83. 

Vernacular names. Khaujan (N.W. Fron.). 

Description. Forehead and anterior crown white ; whole head 
to neck and breast black, generally with a bronze sheen on the 
crown; back, breast and scapulars black with bold white spots so 
numerous on the hind-neck as to form a collar and on the lower 




Fig. 7. — Head of E. in. maculatu*. 

back reduced to broad fringes, lunate in shape ; rump and upper 
tail-covert.s white ; tail black, the bases and tips white and the two 
outermost pairs wholly white ; wings black, the greater coverts 
white-tipped forming a broad bar ; inner secondaries white at the 
base and with white spots at the tips ; lower plumage white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black, legs and 
feet white to pale fleshy-white, sometimes pinker and darker on 
the joints. 

Measurements. Total length about 270 to 230 mm.; wing 100 
to 1 12 mm. ; tail about 135 to 145 mm. ; tarsus 29 to 30 mm. ; 
culinen 19 to 21 mm. 

The young have the head, back and breast a dark rich brown, 
sometimes immaculate (probably the older birds) and sometimes 
with indistinct pale centres to the feathers above and strongly 
marked streaks on the breast. 

The nestling is dark grey above ; chin, throat and breast grey 
with broad white centres; wings and tail as in the adult but with 
very broad white edges and tips. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the extreme North-West 
Frontier to Nepal, at all heights between 2,000 ft. and 12,000 ft. 



58 TUBDID-E. 

Nidification. The Western Spotted Forktail breeds throughout 
its range between 3,000 and 0,000 i'eet, principally between 4,000 
and 7,000 ft. Jt makes a very neat eup-shaped nest o I' living 
green moss \ery tidily lined with skeleton leaves or, according to 
J [nine, with tine roots. It is always placed near water, generally 
on or in between boulders on the sid. s of hill-strenms. Occasion- 
ally it mar be built amongst the roots of trees on the banks of a 
stream and often it may be found on and under boulders in mid- 
stream. The egjrs number three or four and in shape are long 
ovals, often rather pointed. The ground-colour is pale greenish, 
dull pinkish or pale stone-colour and the markings consist of 
numerous small blotches, freckles and spots of reddish brown, 
sometimes scattered boldly all over the eggs, at other times feeble 
and indistinct though equally numerous. Thirty eggs average 
about i?.V3x 17-S mm. The breeding-season is from April lo early 
July, later in the higher hills, earlier in the lower ranges and 
valleys. 

Habits. (Superficially our Indian Forktails remind one very much 
of the Wagtails. When wandering along some sliadv forest-path, 
or scrambling along the bed of a half dried up stream one catches 
sight of a black and white bird running rapidly away, for a second 
or two it stops, j-'rks and wags its tail up and down, not sidnwavs, 
and then Hits away a hundred yards or so before again settling. 
This may be repeated three or four times and then the bird slips 
away on one side through the forest and emerges again just behind 
you. Their flight is fairly fast but dipping and singularly graceful, 
as indeed are all the actions of the Forktail. They are not shy 
and one can watch them indefinitely if remaining reasonably quiet. 
Like the Wagtails they scuttle about hither and thither after 
insects, their little white legs carrying them w ith great rapidity but, 
unlike the "Wagtails, they will sometimes submerge themselves 
entirely under water as they pursue their prey. Their note is 
a single shrill cry uttered both on the wing and when at rest. 

(51 s ) Enicurus maculatus guttatus. 

The Eastern Spotted Forktail. 

Enicurus t/vttatus Gould, P. Z. S.. 18Go, p. 004 (Sikkim). 
Henicurm guttatm. Uluuf. & Gates, ii, p. 84. 

Vernacular names. Ooiig-sam Ching-pho (Lepeha) ; Chuka-leka, 
(Bhut.J. 

Description. Differs from the Western form in having no white 
spots on the breast and in having those on the back smaller and 
rounder, with no terminal white bars on the lower back. 

Colours of soft parts as in' the last bird. 

Measurements. Decidedly smaller than the last ; wiug 96 to 
103 mm.; tail 118 to 132 mm. ; tarsus 28 to 30 mm.; culmen 
18 to 19 mm. 



ENICCRUB. 59 

The Young and Nestling: only differ from those of the 
Western Fork tail in being smaller. 

Distribution. Sikkim, through Assam, North and South of the 
Brahmaputra, to Siam, Shan States and Yunnan. The Chinese bird 
is a much bigger race, the wing measuring 10(5 to 117 mm. and 
has been named E. in. omissus by Rothschild, whilst the Annam 
bird is equally large but has very few and small spots on the 
upper plumage. This is my K. m. rohinsom (Bull. B. O.C., xliii, 
p. 10, 1922). Jiangs' Yunnan bird, Hmiciirux bacalus, is nothing 
but J'Jiiimrus m. gnttalits. 

Nidification. The Eastern Korktail breeds between 2,000 ft. and 
8,000 ft. during the months April to July and I have seen eggs in 
August. The nest is, like that of the Western bird, a very neat 
but massive cup of living green moss, nearly always very wet and 
mixed with roots and some mud which make it very heavy. The 
lining in nine nests out of ten consists entirely of several layers 
of skeleton leaves ; in the tenth it may be all roots or roots and 
a dead leaf or two mixed together. It is generally placed on a 
ledge of rock, or in between boulders on the brinks of streams but 
sometimes it may be built in amongst the roots of a tree or even 
in a hollow under the shelter of a bush. jN'or is it always on the 
banks of a stream, for more than once 1 have taken it from banks 
inside forest a little way, perhaps fifty yards, from a stream, 
though even ill these instances the site chosen was always a very 
damp one. 

The eggs number three or four in a full clutch and are like 
those of the last bird hut average decidedly smaller and, on the 
whole, are less boldly marked. A reddish egg with almost brick- 
red spots is not uncommon, u type 1 have not seen laid by the 
Western bird but which is very commonly laid by Lesehenault's 
Fork tail. One hundred eggs average 24-it x lT'^i mm. : maxima 
263xlS-l and 250x18-2 mm.; minima 235 X Kia and 25-8 x 
16*0 mm. 

Habits. The Knstern Spotted Korktail differs in no way from 
its Western brother. It is extremely common on the hills South 
of the Brahiiuiputm and its fascinating little black and white 
person may be seen flitting and heard calling on every stream and 
damp forest-path near water from one year's end to another. It 
is very sedentary and each pair seems to have a well-defined area 
for nesting and feeding purposes, which they keep to winter and 
summer alike except iti the highest portions of its range. 

(51 y) Enicurus schistaceus. 

Thk Slatx-backku, Forktui.. 

Enicuiiw schittacew) Ilodgs., As. lies., xi.v, p. 180 (18;ifl) (Xopal). 
llenirurus sclnn/iicttm. lttanf. & Ontes, ii, p. 84. 

Vernacular names. Inruidiha (Kacha Naga). 



60 TUBDJU.E. 

Description. A frontal line running back to the eye pure white, 
lores uiul next the nostril, chin, cheeks, upper throat and sides of 
neck black ; crown to lower back slaty blue-grey ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts white ; tail-feathers black with white tips and bases 
and the two outermost pairs pure white ; lesser wing-coverts black 
broadly edged with slate-colour; median and greater coverts black, 
the latter broadly tipped with white forming a wing-bar; quills 
black, all but the first two primaries with a white patch at the 
base of the outer web; innermost secondaries broadly tipped 
with white; below from lower throat to under tail-coverts pure 
white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to blackish brown ; bill black ; 
legs practically white to pale fleshy or livid fleshy ; claws 
whitish. 

Measurements. Total length about 250 mm. ; wing 89 to 
101 mm. ; tail 101 to 1L>8 mm. ; tarsus 27'5 to 28-5 mm. ; culmen 
IS to 19 mm. 

The young birds have the black upper parts replaced by rich 
brown, and the breast and flanks with rufous-brown edges and 
indefinite bars. 

The Nestlings have the upper parts from forehead to rump 
ashy-brown ; the chin, throat, breast and flanks smoky -brown 
with pale centres giving a mottled appearance. 

Distribution. From Kumaon (Hume) to Eastern Assam, both 
North and South of the Brahmaputra, practically the whole 
of Burma, Siam, Shan .States, Yunnan and the greater part of 
Southern China. 

Nidification. The nest of the Slaty-backed Fork tail is exactly 
like that of the Spotted Forktails, though it averages somewhat 
smaller and possibly has more leaves and roots worked into the 
body of the nest. The sites selected are also the same as those 
chosen by these birds. The eggs, which number three or four, are 
of two types : firstly, very much like small, washed out eggs of 
E, m, f/uttatut ; secondly, and more often, pure white eggs, or with 
only the faintest tinge of green or cream, quite boldly spotted and 
speckled with reddish brown, with others underlying them of violet 
and pale reddish lavender. Jn Eastern Assam, where the bird is 
very numerous, the eggs were nearly all of this type; ;n Sikkim, 
West, and South Assam, they are more often of the former tvpe. 
One hundred eggs average 21-4 x V'f.i mm. : maxima 24 X 
170 mm.; minima 200x160 and 211x15-3 mm. They are 
early breeders, commencing to lay in the second week in April and 
few laying after May. 

Habits. Those of the genus. The Slaty-backed Forklail is 
found principally between 1,000 and 5,000 feet ascending some 
two thousand feet higher, whilst in winter it is found right down 
to the foot-hills and plains adjacent to them. 



ENICUHl'S. 61 

(520) Enicurus immaculatus. 

The Black-backed Fouktaig. 

Enicurus immaculatus IIodf. r s., As. Ues., six, p. 190 (18-'!0j (Nepal). 
Hrnieurus immaculatus. JJIanf. & Oates, ii, p. 85. 

Vernacular names. Tnruitliba gajeba (Kaclui Naga). 

Description. Forehead, short supereilium and round the back of 
the eye white ; rest of head, chin, throat, back and wing-coverts 
black; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; tail black with broad 
white buses and tips, the two outer pairs pure white; tips of 
greater coverts and bases of quills white forming a broad wing- 
bar ; tips of secondaries white, broadly so on the innermost; 
below from lower throat to under tail-coverts white. 

In many specimens the head and upper back have a faint slaty 
tinge, but this appears to be purely individual and in no way a 
geographical variation. 

Colours of soft parts, iris dark brown ; bill black ; legs and 
feet white, fleshy white or yellowish white. 

Measurements. Wing 85 to 04 mm.; tail 100 to 118 mm.; 
tarsus 20 to 27 in in. ; oilmen 10 mm. 

Distribution. Sub-Himalayas from (Jarhwal to Assam, Chin 
Hills, Burma South to the Malay Peninsula. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the Slaty-hacked Forktail. It 
breeds at low elevations in April and May, making a nest quite 
typical of the genus but generally laying only three eggs. These 
vary much but are typically pale and rather sparsely marked with 
bright pale reddish brown. 1 have one clutch with a pale green 
ground and another which is densely marked all over with small 
specks of dark reddish brown. Twenty-five eggs average 
20'8xl">-8 mm.: maxima 21-6 X 10-0 and 212 x 163 mm.; 
minima 20'0x 15-5 and 20-3 x 15 - 1 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus. In Assam we found them 
principally on the larger hill-streams close to the Plains, but where 
the current was still rapid. They remain below 2,500 feet and are 
more common below 1,000 feet than above that level. 

Enicurus leschenaulti. 

THrrfuileschenaultiVwlW., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat, xx, p. 2(59 (1818). 
Type-locality : Java. 

Keij to Subspecies. 

A. Outermost pair of tail-feathers less than 

25 mm. shorter than the next pair E.l. iudicus, p. 62. 

B. Outermost pnir of tail-feathers much more 

than 2o mm. shorter than the next pair .... E. I. sinensis, p. (53. 



62 'lunulas. 

(521) Enicurus leschenaulti indicus. 

LkSL'IIKNAUI/t's INDIAN FoKKTAIL. 

Enieurit.i ItH'henaulti indicus Hart., Vug. Pal., i, p. 7<i0 (KK)9) 

(Assjiiii, Mar«herita). 
Jfenicunts leschenmrfti. lJlanf. &, Oates, ii, p. 80. 

Vernacular names. Jnmidiba ijadiba (Kacha Naga). 

Description. Forehead and anterior crown white ; rest of head, 
back and breast black ; lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts 
white; tail black with broad white bases, two outer tail-feathers 
white ; wing-coverts black, the greater tipped with white forming 
a broad wing-bar; quills black, the inner secondaries with white 
bases and tips ; below from breast to under tail-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black ; legs and 
feet fleshy white, rarely a livid white. 

Measurements. Total length about 280 mm. ; wing US to 
114 nun.; tail 138 to 150 nun.; tarsus about 30 to 32 nun.; 
culinen about 21 to 23 mm. 

The Young have no white forehead, and the head and hack 
varies from brown to chocolate-brown and the underparts from 
chin to abdomen are brown with central pale streaks. The younger 
the bird the more prominent the streaks. 

Nestling. The underparts are greyer and more mottled than 
streaked. 

Distribution. Sikkim to Eastern Assam, IJurma South to 
Tenasserim and East to the Kachin Hills. There is also one 
specimen of typical indicus from North-West China, and it is 
possible that this bird and Enicurug I. sinensis should rank as 
species rather than subspecies. 

The type-form from Java differs in having the white feathers of 
the crown elongated and covering nearly the whole crown. E. I. 
bomeerutis is a very closely allied race. 

Nidification. This Pork tail seems to breed in heavier forest 
and on smaller streams than do any of the preceding birds of this 
genus. It is very common in Eastern Assam and here nearly all 
the nests are built among rocks, roots of trees, etc., on the tiniest 
of streams, entirely covered overhead by the meeting boughs of 
trees. They commence to build the first week in May or hist week 
in April aud few eggs are laid after May. The nest is like that 
of the Spotted Forktails but bulkier and heavier with more 
leaves and roots in its composition and it is lined sometimes with 
skeleton leaves, sometimes with roots and sometimes with the 
two combined. 

The eggs, three or four in number, are more richly coloured 
than those of any other Forktail. The ground is generally a 
warm cream or reddish clay and they are freely and boldly 
speckled all over with reddish brown. Forty eggs average 24-6 x 



UVUBOCICHLA. 03 

19"7 mm.: maxima 26 - l X 17"4 arid 25-7 X 189 mm.; minima 
236 X 175 and 24-5 x 170 nun. 

They breed at all levels from a few hundred feet up to about 
2,000 feet. 

Habits. Lesehenault's Forktail is a bird of the lower levels and 
in winter extends well out into plains country wherever there are 
streams and waterways running at a fair pace through heavy 
forest. It seems to be a more shy bird than most Forktails and 
when put up it generally dives at once into the forest and does 
not settle again and again just in front of one as do the Spotted 
Forktails : l)r. Col tart and I both found it far more frequently oa 
narrow forest-paths than, on the streams. The feathers of the 
crown are semi-erectile, a feature 1 have noticed in no other 
Forktail. 

(522) Enicurus leschenaulti sinensis. 
Lkschexault's Chinese Foektail. 
Enicurus sinensis Gould, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 665 (Shanghai). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Differs from the Indian form only in having the 
outer tail-feathers much shorter, 40 to 05 mm., than the 
penultimate pair. J can see no other constant difference. The 
forehead and about half the crown are white and ou the average 
extending further back than in the Indian bird. 

The Young and Nestling as in the last form. 

Distribution. Practically the whole of South Central China, 
Yunnan and Shan States. 

Nidification. Breeds in Central Fohkien in May. La Touche 
and Kickett describe the nest as a " mere hollowed pad of dead 
and skeleton leaves, dry grass and roots with a few bamboo leaves." 
The eggs are exactly like those of the Indian form. 

Habits do not differ from those of E. I. itulicus. 

Genus HYDR0CICHLA. 
Sharps, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 318 (1883). 
Type, //. riijlcapilht. 

This genus only differs from the last, Enicurus, in having a 
much shorter tail, which is about equal to the wing in length; the 
middle tail-feathers are about half the length of the tail. 

There are two species of this genus found in India, in one of 
which the sexes are alike and in the other dissimilar. 

Key to Species. 

A. Crown of head white ; nape black II. frontalis, p. 64. 

B. Crown of head and nape chestnut H. rujicapilla, p. 64. 



64 ' TTTKDIDJS. 

(523) Hydrocichla frontalis. 

The White-crowned Forkta.il. 

Enicuru* frontalis Bljth, J. A. S. B., xvi, p. 156 (1817) (Sumatra). 
Hydrocichla frontalis. Blanf. & Dates, ii, p. 87. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description, Forehead, anterior crown, rump and upper tail- 
coverts, abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; wings black, tips of 
greater coverts and bases of secondaries white forming a wing- 
bar, inner secondaries also tipped with white ; tail-feathers black 
with broad white bases and white tips, the outer two pairs pure 
white; remainder of plumage black. 

Colonrs of soft parts. Iris brown to black ; bill black, legs and 
feet almost white. 

Measurements. Total length about 220 mm. ; wing 85 to 
93 mm.; tail 67 to 79 mm.; tarsus 28 mm.; cuhnen 20 to 
21 mm. 

Distribution. Sumatra and Borneo extending North through 
the Malay Peninsula lo Siatn and the extreme South of Tenas- 
serim. 

Nidiflcation. Nothing recorded. 

Habits. This is a bird of forests of the plains and lower hills 
but practically nothing has been recorded as to its habits or 
even in regard to the elevation to which it ascends. It appears 
to keep to rivers in evergreen forest and to have the voice, flight 
and action of the commoner Forktails. 

(524) Hydrocichla ruficapilla. 

The Chestnut-backkd Fouktail. 

Enicurus ruficapillu* Teinm., PI. Col., iii, pi. 5:54 (1832) (PttllAiu- 

b,uig, Sumatra). 
Hydrocichla rujicapillus. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 87. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead white, surrounded by 
black ; crown, nape and sides of neck chestnut ; rest of head, chin, 
throat, back and wings black; a broad white band formed by the 
tips of. the greater coverts and bases of secondaries ; the latter 
also tipped with white ; tail black with white tips and broad 
white base?, the outer two pairs pure white ; breast and flanks 
white, the feathers boldly fringed with black ; remainder of lower 
plumage white. 

Colonrs of soft parts. Iris brown to black ; bill black, legs and 
feet white to fleshy-white. In this bird as in all the other Fork- 
tails, the joints are often more pink or livid in colour than the 
rest of the leg. 



MiCHocicniiA. 65 

Measurements. Total length about 200 mm.; tail 85 to 93 mm.; 
tail 07 to 7U mm. ; tarsus 2S mm. ; culinen 20 to 21 mm. 

Female. The chestnut extends nearly all over the back and on 
to the wing-coverts, otherwise as in the male. 

The Young are like the female but duller and very heavily 
marked below. 

Nestling has the lower parts dull white, fringed with dull 
brown. 

Distribution. From Borneo, through the Malay Peninsula to 
South- West .Siam and Tenasserim to Mt. Nwalabo. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

Menus MICROCICHLA. 
Slmrpe, t'nt. H. "M. vii, p. .'il'l' <1S*:5). 
Tv])e, .)/. scouleri. 

This genus only differs from Ihfdr(>cicMd in having a very short 
tail, little more than half the length of the wing. It is also 
remarkable in not having the two outer feathers pure white ; the 
middle pair reach very nearly to the end of the tail. 

There is onlv one species known and the sexes are alike. 



(525) Microcichla scouleri scouleri. 

Tiik Little Forkt.vil. 

Enicuru* scouleri Vigors 1\ Z. S., 1831. p. 174 (Himalayas, Simla). 
Microcichla scouleri. lilanf. & Dates, ii, p. S&. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Forehead white, rump white with a broad band 
of black across it ; upper tail-coverts white ; wings black with a 
broad white baud formed by the tips of the greater coverts ami the 
bases of the secondaries ; bases of primaries and edges of outer 
webs of secondaries white ; below from lower breast to under tail- 
coverts white, marked on the tlanks and breast with blackish ; 
central tail-feathers black with white bases, lateral pairs more 
and more while until the outermost pair has only a small patch 
of dark brown or black at the tip ; remainder of plumage black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown or black ; bill black ; legs and 
feet white or fleshy-white. 

Measurements. Total length about 125 mm.; wing 7X to 
79 mm. ; tail 41 to 49 mm. ; tarsus about 24 to 26 mm. ; culmen 
12 mm. 

Young birds have the black replaced by dark brown ; there is 
no white forehead and the underparts are white, the feathers of 
the breast and flanks fringed with brown. 

VOL. H. F 



66 TBBD1DJE, 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chitral and Gilgit to 
Eastern Assam, Hills of Northern Burma and Shan States. 

Nidification. Breeds throughout its range between 3,500 ft. 
(Jtattrai/) and 8,000 ft. (Dodtworth). The nest is made of moss 
lined with skeleton leaves bat varies a good deal. Rattray 
describes it as loosely made and falling to pieces when handled, 
whilst Osinaston calls it a compact and massive little cup. The 
only nest I have seen was very well put together. This pretty 
little Forktail seems nearly always to place its nest actually 
under a waterfall, the one taken by myself being so close to the 
water that it was constantly wet from the mist of the spray. 
Three seems to be the full clutch. In appearance they are not 
unlike the spotted type of egg of Enicurus srhislaceu* but are 
nothing like the normal eggs of E. maailatii*. Mr. P. Dodsworth 
took a pure white clutch but normally they are white sparingly 
speckled and spotted at the larger "end" with pale reddish or 
brown. 

Fifteen eggs average 20-4 x 14-6 mm.: maxima 213 X 15-1 and 
203 x 153 mm. ; minima 194 X 144 mm. 

Habits. This little bird, in spite of its short tail, is a tvpical 
Forktail in every way, except that, perhaps, it moves verficallv 
with the seasons more than do the species of the genus Enicurvt. 
Stevens and Colrarfc both obtained it in Winter in the foot-hills 
of Assam whilst in Summer it is found up to 12,000 feet in Tibet 
and possibly breeds at this elevation. 

It haunts the fastest and most turbulent of small hill-streams 
and the cessation of rapids and falls when the streams reach the 
plains also marks the limits of its excursions to the Plains. It is 
an active little bird both on land and in the water and spends more 
time actually under water than any of the other Forktails. 



riUKKicunixjE. 67 

Subfamily PHCENICURINiB. 

This Subfamily differs from the last in having the tail square or 
rounded. With few exceptions its species are migratory, whereas 
the Korktails are invariably resident and whilst the Redstarts and 
Robins are essentially Pakearctic forms the Fork tails are essentially 
tropical or sub-tropical. Both subfamilies, however, have much 
the same form of bill and wings; they have their feet and tarsi 
formed for running on the ground and the plumage of the 
nestlings is somewhat similar. 

hey to Genera. 

A. Tail in both sex.es largely chestnut *. 

a. Tail considerably longer than twice tarsus. 

n. Tail marly square ; sexes different .... I'llCKNlcrnus, p. G8. 

b' . Tail much rounded : ^exes alike Ciiaimahiuiojinis, 

b. Tail about twin- tin- length of tarsus. ; p. 79. 
<■'. llictiil bri-tles verv long ami strong .... liHYAConxis, p. fl. 
'/'. liictal bristles weak or obsolete Cyaxosyi.via, p. 83. 

1$. Tail without anv chestnut. 

c. J'irst primarv shorter than one-third of 

second. 
<■'. Difference between wing and tail less 

than tarsus Ll'SCINM, p. <~7. 

/'. Difference between wing and tiiil twice 

tarsus Grandai.a, p. 8s. 

d. First primary longer than one-third of 

second. 
//'. Tail equal to or shorter than wing. 

«". ( Inter tail-feat hois short oftipbyless 
than half length of middle toe. 
a". Hill straight and Thrush-like ; rictnl 
bristles strong. 
a'. Tail about twice tarsus in length. 
a'. Throat of male brilliantly 

coloured Caluopi:, p. (H). 

b'. Throat of male like rest of 

underplots T.\nsn;KH. p. !}-">. 

b*. Tail considerably more than twice 
tarsus'. 
c\ Tail uniform in colour. 

n'\ Tips of tail-feathers mucronate ] antiiia. ]i. 97. 
b". Tips of tail-feathers rounded. Adki.vka, p. 104. 

il\ Tail largely white Notodkla, p. 105. 

fr\ J Si 12 slender and curved ; rictal fyi. 108. 

bristles obsolete Saxicoloidks, 

b". Outer tail-feathers short of tip by at 
least the length ot middle toe. 

c'. Tail of one colour Cai-I.knk, p. ]07. 

iP. Tail black and white Coi'svcius, p. 111. 

It. Tail much longer than wing Kittacincla,p. 116. 

* XUo only exception is the female of Ithyaeornk fuliqinota. 

"i?2 



68 TUBDID.l. 



Genus PHCENICURUS Forster, 1817. 

Forster's name Phceniaints for this genus dates from 1817 (Syn. 
Cat. Brit, Birds, 1817, p. 17), antedates llutkiUn (C. L. Brehm, 
Isis. 1828, p. 1280) and must therefore be u.«ed. 

The type of the genus is P. plurninmis Linn. S. N. i, p. «5iJ5 
(170U). 

The genus Phintieurwt contains the true Kedstarts, which may 
be recognized by their rather long tail, which is more than twice 
the length of the tarsus and nearly, or quite, square at the tip; 
the tail is largely chestnut and the sexes are not alike. 

The bill is short, slender and black and the rictal bristles 
moderate or short; tin' wing is sharply pointed and the first 
primary less than halt the second : the tarsus is rather long. 

Nestlings h:ue the plumage streaked above and squamated 
below but the tail-pattern is similar to that of the adult, 
rendering identification fairly easy. Like the Chat the seasonal 
change caused by the abrasion of the feathers in summer is 
very great. 



Ki>/ to Species. 

A. Tail-feathers, except middle pair, abruptly 

tipped with black P. frontalis, p. <>!'. 

B. None of the tail-feathers tipped. 

a. A large white patch on throat P. schist iceps, p. 70. 

b. No white patch on throat. 

a. .Middle tail-feathers dilferent to lateral. 
VViug under 100 nun. 
a". Secondaries with white on both 

webs P. aworeun, p. 7 1 . 

I". No white on inner webs of second- 
aries. 
«'. Terminal portion of shafts of all 

tail-feathers black P. erythraiwtus, p. 7.'5. 

V. Shafts of lateral tail-feathers 
entirely chestnut. 
«'. Throat and breast black. 

a\ Secondaries with broad white 

edges P. hodysoni, c ? ■ p. 7-1. 

//'. Secondaries with no white . . P. oc/irurus, J, p. 7o. 
6'. Throat and breast buff or ashy- 
brown. 
c'. Lower plumage chielly ashy- 
brown P. hodysoni, J , p. 7.1. 

d\ Lower plumage bull' or orange- 
buff P. nchrurua, $ , p. 7">. 

b' . Middle tail-leathers similar to lateral 

ones. Wing over 100 mm P. crythrogaeter, p. 78. 



MUENICORUS. 69 

(520) Phoenicurus frontalis. 

The Bmte-kjiontkd Eedstaiit. 

l'hanicura frontalis Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 171' (Himalayas) 

(restricted to Garhwal). 
RiUicilla frontalis. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 91. 

Vernacular names. Tulc-tirriri-pho (Lepcha). 

Description.— Male in Summer. Forehead and short, broad 
supereiliuin brilliant blue ; remainder of head, throat and extreme 
upper breast, back, lesser and median wins-coverts deep, rather 
dull blue; rump, upper tail-coverts and rest of lower plumage 
rufous-chestnut ; central tail-leathers blackish, chestnut at the 
extreme base, lateral feathers chestnut with broad black tips; 
wings brown, the greater coverts and quills edged with light 
rufous. 

After the Autumn moult the feathers of the blue parts are 
fringed with rufous and the wing-feathers are also broadly edged 
with the same. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 




Kif,'. K. —Head of ]'. frontalis. 

Measurements. Total length about lf>0 mm.; wing 8,'} to 
92 nun. ; tail 58 to OS nun. ; tarsus about :!4 mm. ; culmeu about 
10 mm. 

Female. Sides of bead and neck fulvous-brown : head, back 
and scapulars darker fulvous-brown; rump and tail as in the 
male ; wings brown, all the feathers edged with fulvous ; chin 
fulvous; throat and breast fulvous-brown, paler than the back, 
but shading into this on the neck and sides of breast and turning 
to orange-brown on the abdomen and orange on liie \eut and 
under tail -coverts. 

Young, liump, tail and wings as in the female ; head, back and 
breast blackish brown, each feather with broad, pointed fulvous 
marks, smallest on the hack and largest on the breast ; abdomen 
and posterior flanks rich fulvous. 

Distribution. Breeding in the Himalayas from Afghanistan and 
Gilgit to Eastern Assam North of the Brahmaputra, Tibet, Chin 
and Kachiu HilK N. Shan States to Western China. They 
winter in the sub-Himalayas, Dooars, Assam South of the Brahma- 
putra and lower Chin and Kachin Hills. 



70 TUKDID.E. 

Nidification. This Kedstart breeds from Afghanistan to W. 
China between 8,000 and 15,000 feet, making a moss and grass 
cup lined with hair which it places in a hole or crevice in a rock 
or under a stone. j\lr. S. J,. Whvinper says that it also builds in 
holes in banks and in low juniper-scrub. The eggs are three or 
tour in number, a pale dull grevisli pink, profusely but very 
finely stippled with very pale reddish. The majority of eggs 
unless closely examined appear to be a pale dull pinkish grey. 
Twenty-four eggs average l'J'.Sx 14 - <> mm. : maxima 2T4x 
14-ii ami 19-5 x 15*1 mm. ; minima 111 x 142. 

The breeding-season everywhere is from the end of .May to 
early July. 

Habits. In Winter the Blue-fronted Kedstart descends to some 
two thousand feet, in Assam South of the Hiahniaputia and 
right into the foot-hills North of it. In the "West it is found in 
the plains close to the bills hut apparently in unusually severe 
cold seasons only. Ft is a lively little bird generally tumid in 
pairs, haunting the banks and beds of hill-streams and feeding, like 
the "Wheafears, from some convenient rock or prominent stone, 
catching its prey both in the air and on the ground. 

(5-7) Phoenicurus schisticeps. 

Tue White-thkoatkd Hedstaiit. 

Ituticillrt sc/ii.itwe/m I Indus., Cut. Milium. & 15. Nep., ?>.(;<> (]kJ0) 
(Nej.nl.) ; Blunt". & Gates, ii. p. '.>:>. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male. Forehead and crown cobalt-blue, dark- 
ening on the nape ; a frontal line, head, throat, neck, back and 
scapulars black -. the longest scapulars tipped with chestnut; 
rump, upper tail-coverts and base of tail chestnut, rest of tail 
black ; inner wing-coverts pure white ; outer, coverts and quills 
brown, the inner secondaries broadly edged with w bite: a bold whit« 
patch surrounded with black on the lower throat; underjiarts 
rich chestnut fading to albescent on the centre of the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark to row n : bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 to 100 mm. ; wing 84 
to 87 mm.; tail 68 to 70 mm.; tarsus about 24 mm.; culinen 
about 12 nun. 

Hale in Winter has the; feathers of the head and back fringed 
with rufous, and the feathers of the breast very narrowlv edged 
with fulvous. 

Female. Above olive-brown tinged with rufous, rump and tail 
like that of the male but paler ; wings like the male but n paler 
brown ; below fulvous-ashy ; a white patch on the throat ; the 
abdomen and posterior flanks paler and tinged with rufous. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikkim, through Tibet and Eastern 



PH.02XICUEUS. 71 

Assam to Kansu. In winter is found in Assam South of the 
Brahmaputra, Eastern Bengal and Behar and parts of Burma. 

Nidiflcation. Pleske. found its nest in Kansu, a cup made of 
moss and lined with hair and feathers, on the 11th May. The 
four eggs he describes as reddish pink, spotted faintly with 
light brown. Ln length they measured 10-5 to 20 mm.; arid in 
breadth from 145 to 15-5 mm. 

Habits. This is a bird of high elevations, in summer between 
10,OOo and 15,000 feet wandering up to 17.000 feet, in the wintnr 
frequenting the lower hills and valleys between 2,000 and 5,0<>0 
feet. It is common in the hills of Assam South of the Brahma- 
putra in winter and Dr. Colturt and I obtained it several times in 
the foot-hills about Margherita at between 7"0 and l,00i> feet. 

It is generally seen in pairs and is a bird of forest and scrub 
rather than open streams, though it is often seen on such as well 
as on those which run through heavy jungle. In all its actions 
it is a typical Redstart. 

(52S) Phoenicurus auroreus. 

The Dauriajt Ukdstart. 

Molar ilia nitrorea Ball., Keis. Buss. Reichs,iii,p. 695 (1770) (Selenka, 

Lake Baikal). 
Iiuticilla aurorea. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 93. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Male in Summer. Forehead to mantle slaty-grey ; 
sides of head and neck, throat, upper breast and back black ; rump, 
upper tail-coverts and remainderof lower plumage chestnut; central 
tail-feathers black, chestnut at the base, .lateral tail-feathers all 
chestnut; median and innermost greater wing-coverts white. 

In Winter the gn*y parts are edged with dull rufous : the black 
parts are fringed with rufous above and rufous-grey below ; the 
wing-feat hers edged with pale fulvous. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black or, fide 
Hume, dark brownish yellow or yellowish at gape and sometimes 
on base of lower mandible ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 to 160 mm.; wing 70 
to 77 mm.; tail 5S to CO mm.; tarsus 23 mm.: culmen 10 to 
11 mm. 

Female. Above olive-brown ; lores and a ring of feathers round 
the eye almost white; rump, tail and wings as in the male but 
the black replaced by brown ; below fulvous-brown, paling to 
fulvous on the vent and under tail-coverts. 

Young male. Like the female but darker and browner above 
and tinged with chestnut on breast. 

Nestling. Above fulvous, each feather boldly edged with dark 
brown ; rump and toil as in the adult; below dull ashy-white, the 
breast and flank-feathers edged with brown. 



72 TFBDID.I. 

Distribution. Hartert accepts three races of this Kedstart, 
i. e. : — 

I'hoenieurus auroreus auroreus: type-locality, Lake Baikal. 

(—Phanicitrus rtevesii, 1851: Cantor [Grav's Zool. Misc. 

1831', China].) 
lVi,v)iinti'us auroreus filchiuri, 1007 : Kintscliai and Pinling, 

N.E. China. 
J'/iwnicurus auroreus Uueoptenu, 1843: Malacca. 

[ cannot separate these races. The breeding-area of the species 
auroreus, as far as is known at present, extends from Lake Baikal 
through East Siberia, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea to Japan and 
also to extreme North-Last China. In Winter they migrate South 
to South China, Formosa, some of the Islands of Malaysia and the 
Indo-Chinese countries as far West as Assam. The winter birds 
throughout the whole of this area are identical in size and coloration; 
thus in the huge series in the British Museum Collection we have 
the following wing-measurements : — Siberia, 70 to 70 mm. ; China, 
70 to 72 mm. ; Japan, 70 to 75 mm. : Corea, 71 to 75 mm. ; Assam, 
7"* to 70 mm. ; Sikkim (1 ), 76 mm. ; Yunnan (5), 76 mm. As regards 
colour there is a small series of five birds in non-breeding plum- 
age which are rather pale but these are matched by individuals from 
Assam to Chi-hli. Hartert says that there is a dark form found in 
winter from Malacca to Burma and Assam of which the breeding- 
haunts are not yet known. I can, however, see no difference 
between specimens from these countries and those from South 
China which are, presumably, migratory birds from Transbaikalia 
and Eastern Siberia etc. La Touche's breeding birds from North- 
East Chi-hli are identical with Assam birds taken in March and 
April, all of which are in full breeding-dress. Under the above 
circumstances I do not attempt to split P, avrortng into races. 

Nidification. La Toucbe says that this Kedstart is common in 
North-East Chi-hli breeding in the hills during May, June and 
July. He describes the nests as pads or rough shallow cups 
made of moss, soft grass-strips and feathers always placed in boles 
in walls and rocks. The eggs he took were of two different types, 
one '.vith a white to pink ground-colour, speckled, stippled or 
blotched with pale burnt sienna and with underlying spots of 
reddish violet. These markings generally form a ring or cap at 
the larger end and are sparse elsewhere. The other type has the 
ground-colour a pale green. Thirty-seven eggs average 19-0 x 
14*1 mm. 

Habits. There is little on record about the habits of this Red- 
start but they appear to be quite typical of the genus. It breeds 
in the Chinese mountains from 5,000 feet upwards and is common 
in South China, the Indo-Chinese countries and Assam in winter. 
According to Stevens it is a familiar bird frequenting compounds, 
gardens and cultivation rather than forest and jungle. 



fikxnicl'hus. 73 

(529) Phoenicurus erythronotus. 

Evehsm ann's Kkostakt. 

Sylvia m/thronuta Eversm., Add. ad Pall. Zoo£. Kosso-As., ii, p. 11 

(lb-U ('(Altai). 
JlutwMa en/t/mmuta. lilanf. it Gates, ii, p. 94. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male in Summer. A frontal line, lores, 
cheeks, point ol' chin and sides of neck black produced round the 
back of t he neck as :i not very distinct collar ; crown, nape and hind 
neck pale ashy-blue, the nape and hind neck almost always with the 
ashy -grey fringes of the winter plumage still obscuring the blue ; 
back, scapulars, throat, breast and flanks chestnut, to some extent 
fringed above with grey and below with white; rump chestnut, 
tail the same but with the central pair of feathers and the tips of 
the outermost pair dark brown ; wings dark brown, the quills 
edged with grey, the greater and median coverts broadly edged 
with pale fulvous ; the inner coverts pure white forming a very 
conspicuous wing-patch ; the primary-coverts are also broadly edged 
with white; abdomen and under tail-coverts fulvous-white to 
almost pure white. 

After the Autumn moult the blue of the head is completely 
conctaled bv ashv-grey fringes; the chestnut of the back and the 
black collar hardly show and the fringes on the black parts of the 
head and on the chestnut breast are broader and obscure the other 
colours. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown or blackish brown; bill 
and feet black, the mouth yellowish or flesh-colour. 

Measurements. Total length about 163 to 107 mm.; wing cS4 
lo S9 mm.: tail <if to T<> mm.; tarsus about 23 mm. (to 26", 
Whistler); oilmen about 10 to 12 mm. ("culinen from skull 14 to 
10") mm.," Whistler). 

Adult female. Upper parts, sides of head and neck and wings 
brown ; the wiuglet mostly white, the median coverts with broad 
fulvous edges and a white patch but much smaller than in the 
male and much mottled with brown : rump, upper tail-coverts and 
tail as in the male ; an indistinct ring of white feathers round the 
eye; lower plumage pale grey-brown, tinged here and there with 
rufous-orange and paler on abdomen and vent; lower tail-coverts 
pale fulvous. 

Measurements. The female is practically the same size as the 
male; wing 82 to i<8 mm. 

The Young have the dark feathers of the upper parts streaked 
■with fulvous and the breast mottled. 

Distribution. Breeding in Turkestan, Trans-Caspia and East 
Persia, and wandering in winter to South Persia, Afghanistan 
and Kashmir. Marshall found it common near Quetta, Whitehead 



I 4 TUBUID^. 

at Kohat and Kurrain. Kotokhai in the Himalayas still remains 
the most Eastern point at which it has heen obtained, hut to the 
South its previously recorded limit has been greatly extended by 
Mr. II. Whistler, who found it to be a common winter visitor to 
the Jhang District in the Punjab. 

Nidification. Eggs sent me from Turkestan and also some 
described by Xehrkorn are very like the eggs of Su.ricola tort/uitta 
imiiea in coloration, hut in shape are more narrow and pointed, 
and in texture harder and more glossy. The reddish markings are 
scattered all over the eggs and do not form definite rings as in the 
Bush-Chat's eggs. They measure about lir4 x l.'5i) mm. 

The nest was said to hove been built in an old wall and to have 
heen made of grass, moss and roots lined with wool 

Habits. Eversmann's Kedstart is said to frequent open spaces 
in well-wooded country, and to he a land-haunter rather than one 
of streams and rivers. Whitehead savs that its call sounds like a 
croaking " gre-e r " and Whistler says that its ordinary call-note is a 
softer edition of this sound. The latter also refers to its habit, 
common to both sexes, of flirting the tail up and down above the 
level of the back, whereas in the common Kedstart it is only 
shivered. 



(53<») Phcenicurus hodgsoni. 

IIodoson's Kedstakt. 

liutifillt hothjtoni Moore, P. Z. S., 1W54, p. 20, pi. lviii (Nopal); 
Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 05. 

Vernacular names. Thar-ca^ni (Nepal ). 

Description. — Adult male in Summer. Forehead, lores, sides of 
head and neck, chin, throat and upper breast black; crown, nape, 
back and scapulars ashy, the feathers next the forehead and above 
the lores and eyes paler, in some instances ulmost white ; lower 
rump, upper tail-coverts and tail chestnut, the central tail-feathers 
are only chestnut on the base and blackish brown elsewhere; 
wing-coverts black, broadly edged with ashy; quills brown, the 
innermost secondaries broadly edged with white on the basal 
halves of the outer webs, forming a visible patch of white ; lower 
plumage chestnut, darkest on the lower breast, palest on the vent 
and lower tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black, the gape 
fleshy-yellow ; legs and feet black or dark brown, the soles 
yellowish. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 to 155 mm.; wing 82 
to 87 mm.; tail 66 to 68 mm.; tarsus about 20 mm.; cuLmen 
about 11 mm. 

In Winter the feathers of the breast and fore-neck are fringed 
with grey, but these fringes soon wear ofl'. 



1'HffiMCUUUH. IO 

Female. Upper plumage and wings light brown tinged with 
ashy ; rump and tail as in the male ; wing-coverts and quills edged 
paler; a ring of pule feather* round the eye; under tail-coverts 
]>ale chestnut ; remainder of under plumage pale ashy-brown, 
albescent and tinged with rufous on abdomen, posterior Hunks and 
vent. 

Measurements. Kather smaller than the male; wing 79 to 
82 mm.; tail (>:.' to lit mm. 

Young are like the female, but. the chin, throat and whole 
breast ashy-grey with pale cent res and dark margins, the latter 
extending on to abdomen and posterior Hanks. 

Distribution. Breeds in South and Eastern Tibet, West China 
and possibly North Central China. In Winter it is found in the 
lower hills from Nepal to Assam, Manipur, Chin and Kachin Hills. 

Nidification. This Redstart breeds in great numbers in South- 
eastern Tibet, milking a nesr either just a flat pad or a shallow cup 
of grass, roots, moss, leaves, etc., lined with hair, fur or wool. In 
the majority of eases it is placed in holes under stones and 
boulders on hill-sides but it, may also be found in walls, 
buildings, banks and cliffs. They breed during May and June, 
odd nests still containing eggs in July and August are possibly 
second broods. They lay four or live eggs which are a skim-milk 
blue much paler than those of 1'. )ih<rnivtirvt but decidedly darker 
on the whole than those of /'. ofJirnrus. 

Fifty eggs average :.'»t-4xl4 - 7 mm.: maxima 22 - 3xl4 - 5 and 
21-2x16-0 mm. ; minima 191 x 1 4-;"> and '.M-(>xl40 mm. 

Habits. Hodgson's Redstart is found during the breeding-season 
from about lu.iioo to 17,U00 feet but breeds principally between 
12.INM) and 14,000, whilst in Winter it descends right into the 
Plains of Assam, Northern Bengal and Behar. though not nearly 
as commonly in the two latter as the former. In Summer it is 
found frequenting streams and stony hill-sides as well as grass and 
scrub-covered plateaux. In its winter haunts it keeps more 
exclusively to the stony beds of rivers but even at this season may 
occasionally be found in scrub and grass-land. It is a very 
tame and confiding bird and frequents at all times culthation and 
the open lands round villages and towns. 

Phoenicurus ochrurus. 

MotnciUu ochrurit (imelin, Reis. Russl., iii, p. 101 ( 1774). 
Type-locality ; Persia. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Crown always grey, paler P. ». p/nniicuroides, <$ , p. 7(>. 

15. Crown black in suumier, darker . . /'. o. ruftrrntri*. cf . P- 77. 

C. Above fulvous-brown, paler below. . 1'. v. pha-nwunwlvt, 2 i P- 70. 
I). Above darker brown tinged rufous, 

darker below P. o. rufirentris, $ , p. 77. 



76 TUKDID.TJ. 

(531) Phoenicums ochnirus phcenicuroides. 

TnE Kashmir Redstart. 

llutkillaplumictuoiihs Aluoiv, P. Z. $., xxii, p. !'•"> ( I Ww) (Shiktirpore, 

Sindh 
Jluticilla rufiventris. Hlanf. & Ontes, ii, p. !>•"> (part). 

Vernacular names. Thir-thira,Thirter-kampa (Hind.); I'hir-ora, 
Lal-ijinU (Beng.) ; Suiie-budi-ijadii (Tel.). 

Description. — Adult male in Winter. Forehead, fides of head 
and neck, eliin, throat and breast black, the feathers more or less 
fringed* with grey ; crown, nape, hind neck, back and scapulars 
ashy-grey often tinged with rufous ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
bright chestnut ; central tail-feathers brown with chestnut bases 
and very narrow chestnut edges; lateral tail-feathers chestnut; 
wing-coverts black edged with ashy ; the greater coverts and ipiills 
brown edged \\ ith rufous ; abdomen, thinks, vent and under tail- 
coverts deep orange-brown. 

Male in Summer. The broad grey edges to the feathers of the 
upper parts wear off leaving these parts a deep blackish grey, 
occasionally a pure black ; the fringes to the breast and throat 
entirely disappear and the rufous edges to the wing-feathers and 
central tail-feathers also nearly wear away. The crown is always 
more or less grey. 

Measurements. Total length about ].~>5inni.; wing 81 toSSmm.; 
tail ">8 to 60 mill.; tarsus 24 mm.: cnlmen 11 nun. 

Female. Whole upper plumage pale brown, tinged with fulvous ; 
the forehead generally rather paler; rump, upper tail-coverts and 
tail as in the male but paler; a ring of pale feathers round the 
eye; lower surface buft'y brown, darkest on the breast, palest on 
the abdomen and tinged with orange on the flanks and abdomen ; 
under tail-coverts pale orange-fulvous. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black; mouth 
yellowish; legs and feet very dark brown to black. 

Measurements. Wing 7S to sf'i mm. ; tail ."><! to 5K mm. ; tarsus 
24 mm. ; culmen 1 1 mm. 

Young. Have the upper parts barred with dark brown; the 
rufcus margins to the wing-feathers very broad ; rump and tail 
like the adult; the underparts are almost white, tinged with 
orange-rufous on breast and flanks and the feathers edged with 
blackish brown. 

Distribution. Breeding in Persia, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Balu- 
chistan, Kashmir and Ladak but not, apparently, South in the 
Simla States and Garhwal. In Winter it is found throughout the 
Western plains and hills of India to Travancore, the >iilgiris and 
Madras. In the East its place is taken by the next bird. 

Nidification. The Kashmir Redstart's nest has been taken 
often in Northern and North-Western Kashmir. It also breeds 
throughout the North- Western Frontier from Baluchistan to 



rii<KsiccKvs. 77 

Gilgit above 10,000 feet. The iioats are of the usual Redstart 
type, roughly put together shallow cups of roots and grasses, a 
little dry moss or a few leaves, with a lining of any fur, hair or 
wool, sometimes mixed with a few feathers. It is placed in a 
hole in almost any position, a hank or cliff, a roadside cutting or 
side of a stream, under a houlder or heap of stones, a mud or stone 
building or even a hole in a tree. The eggs number four to six 
and in colour range from almost; white to a pale, blue-green. They 
are as a whole the palest, yet tin.- most glossy of all the Redstarts' 
eggs. Thirtv eggs average 10-7 > 14-2 mm. : maxima 202 X 1-VO 
and 2t.fl x 15 1 nun.; minima 18-2x130 mm. 

Habits. The Kashmir Kedstart is a most familiar little bird in 
most parts of India during the cold-weather months frequenting 
gardens and the open surroundings of houses and cultivation just 
as much as bare stony hills and open wastes. Like the Chats it 
often perches on bushes and shrubs, flirting its tail and making 
little rallies to the ground afier insects and its funny little croaking 
cry, typical of the Hedstarts yet so unusual for a bird, is familar 
to everyone in India. It is one of the earliest birds to commence 
feeding in the morning and in the fast -settling dusk of the tropical 
evening it may often he seen, a Hitting shadow in the bed of some 
forest-stream, feeding on the insects which emerge in the twilight. 
Yet, in spite of its crepuscular habits it also feeds in the blazing 
midday sun, neivhed on some half-baked stone in the hottest of 
deserts. 

(~>'-'<2) Phoenicurus ochrurus rufiventris. 

Tut: Kastkun Indian Keustaiit. 

(Knantht nifimitris Vieill., Nouv. Diet, d'llist. Nat., Nouv. ed.. xxi, 

p. 4:11 ( l"iS 1 S ) ( Kenjrnb. 
Jtutirilla riijirfntrit. lilanf. & Oatcs, ii, p. U!i (part. I. 

Vernacular names. Phir-om, L«l-<iir<Ii (Beng.). 

Description. — Adult male in Winter, similar to the Western 
bird, hut richer chestnut below and darker grey above. 

In Summer the bead becomes wholly black, the grey crown not 
being retained as in P. o. jiliirnicusoides. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. Wing 8(> to 8!» mm. ; tail 58 to (52 mm. ; tarsus 
25 miu. ; culmeu 12 mm. 

Female much darker both above and below than the last bird ; 
the upper parts browner and with a stronger rufous tinge. 

Measurements. Wing 82 to 87 mm. 

Distribution. Tibet, very randy Sikkim and Nepal, East to the 
Mountains of Central and North China and South Mongolia. In 
Winter it is common in Assam, Manipur. Burma and South- West 
China. It occurs also, but is not common, in Bengal and Behar 
alid extends to Orissa but not to Madras. 



78 TUBDIDE. 

Nidiftcation. The Eastern Redstart breeds in very great 
numbers in South, Central and Eastern Tibet from 10,000 to 
1"),000 feet, making a nest similar to that of the Western bird 
and placing it in exactly the same kind of place. A curious nest 
found in a heap of stones just outside the town of Gyantse in 
Tiber was composed entirely of scraps of rice-paper with a lining 
of goat's hair. The eggs number four to six, most often five, and 
are indistinguishable from those of the last bird. One hundred 
egus average 20*0 x 14-6 mm.: maxima 22"0xl5-0 and L'bOx 
154 mm. ; minima 184 X 138 mm. 

The breeding-season lasts from May to August and probably 
many birds rear two broods. 

Habits. The Eastern Indian Redstart seems to be more a forest- 
bird than its Western cousin. In the Assam hills it may be found 
in any small open space, however hemmed in by forest, and it is 
very partial to bamboo-jungle bordering streams. This bird some- 
times jerks its tail right over its hack, semi-spreading it as it does 
so, at other times it " shivers" it or flirts it gently up and down. 
The first action is nearly always accompanied by movements ol the 
feet, but the second is not. From October to March it wanders 
out far into the plains of Assam and Burma, whilst in Summer ic 
is found up to 17,000 feet, and Wollaston records it at 20.000 feet 
when migrating past Mt. Everest. 

Phoenicurus erythrogaster- 

Motacilla erytlirvi/a»tra Guldenstiidt, Nov. Com. Petrop. xi.v, p. 100 
(1775). 

Type-locality : Caucasus. 

(533) PhoBnicurus erythrogaster grandis. 

(jCldexstadt's Redstart. 

Ituticilla grmulit Gould, F.Z.S, 1840, p. 112 (18.->0) (Afghanistan). 
ltuticilla erythrogatter. JJlanf. .t Oatee, ii, p. 97. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male in Summer. Crown, nape and hind 
neck pure white, the latter with a few ashy-grey margins ; fore- 
head, back, scapulars, wing-coverts, sides of head and neck, chin, 
throat and breast black ; quills brownish black, the primaries and 
outer secondaries with broad white bases ; remainder of plumage 
deep chestnut, the tips of the central tail-feathers brownish. 

In Winter the white feathers of the crown are fringed with grey 
and the black portions of the plumage, more especially the lower 
breast, are also fringed to some extent with ashy-grey. 

Thechestunt parts in this race are not nearly so rich or deep in 
colour as they are in true erythrogaster. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 
According to Hume the bill is yellow at the gape. 



CHAIMAIUtHOBNlS. 79 

Measurements. "Wing 102 to 111 mm. (in one case 97 mm.); 
tail 70 to 70 mm. ; tarsus about 26 mm. ; culmen about 13 mm. 

Female. Upper plumage ami wings light ashy-brown, some- 
times with an almost vinous tinge ; edges of wing-feathers dull 
fulvous-white; rump to tail as in the male, but duller and paler 
and the central tail-feathers more brown ; below fulvous-grey, 
sometimes alliescent on throat and more fulvous on abdomen and 
vent ; under tail-coverts pale fulvous-rufous. 

Measurements. Wing 95 to 99 mm.; tail 02 to 68 mm.; culmen 
12 to 13 mm. 

The young bird is like the female, but has the feathers of the 
head and back with dark edges and of the underparts with pale 
centres and dark margins. 

Distribution. Kashmir and the extreme N.E. Frontier to 
Sikkim, Tibet and Kansu. It is also found in East Turkestan, 
the Altai and the Trans- Baikal Country. 

Nidification, That of the genus. The eggs are pure blue and 
measure about 22*0 x 15-5 mm. The breeding-season is June. 
Whistler took its nest in Lnhul at 10,000 feet. 

Habits. In Summer this bird is found up to at least 16,000 feet 
frequenting the vicinity of water, both running and still, and also 
low, open hill-sides. In Winter it is found down as low as the 
foot-hills and adjoining Plains. 

Genus CHAIMARRHORNIS. 

lloilgs. in Gray's Zool. .Misc. p. 82 (18-14). 

Type, C. hucocfphala. 

The genus Cha'unarrhornis consists of one species, which is a true 
Redstart, but almost aquatic in its habits like the Forktails and 
lthuaeorni*. 

The sexes are alike, the nestlings mottled ; the tail is well 
rounded, the wing long but with large first primary, equal to half 
the length of the second ; the tarsus is long and strong. 

(534) Chaimarrhornis leucocephala. 
The "WmTE-CAiTEn Redstart. 

Phanicttra leucocephala Vigors, P. r L S., 1830, p. 35 (Himalayas). 
Chimarrhomis leucocep/ialus. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 89. 

Vernacular names. Gir-chaoiulia (Hind.); Kali-plwlia (Mohun 
Ghat) ; Mati-iap-pho (Lepcha) ; Chulia-mati (Bhut.). 

Description. Crown and nape white ; rest of head, back and 
■wings glossy blue-black; rump, upper tail-coverts and lower parts 
from breast rich chestnut ; tail, basal two-thirds chestnut, rest 
black. 



80 TURMDJE. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown or hazel ; bill black, gape 
fleshy ; legs anil feet dark brown, claws black. 

Measurements. Total length about 190 mm. ; wing 85 to 
102 mm. ; tail OS to 77 mm. ; tarsus 29 to 31 mm. ; culmen 13 - 5 
to l4 - ,j linn. 

Chinese birds seem rather large, wing 9:5 to 102 mm. as against 
extremes of 85 to 99 mm. in N.W. Indian birds. 

Young. Have the feathers of the crown edged with blackish 
brown ; the black parts of the adult more brownish, especially 
below ; the leathers of the upper parts ate spotted with fulvous- 
brown and below are friuged with rufous; the brown of the 
breast extends on to the abdomen, where it is much suffused with 
rufous, which blends into the chestnut of the under tail-coverts. 
Tail as in the adult. 

As the rufous margins wear off the plumage becomes much 
blacker, but does not seem to acquire the blue-black of the adult 
until after the first spring moult. 

Distribution. T'rom Afghanistan and Baluchistan, Gilgif and 
Cashmere to extreme Eastern Assam, North and South of the 
Brahmaputra, Tibet, Setchuan to the Yangtse. The Northern 
Burmese Hills, North Siam, Shan States and Yunnan. 

Nidification. The White-capped Redstart breeds from Afghan- 
istan to Western China at all heights between (5,000 and 
16,000 feet, but generally between S.000 and 14,000 feet. It 
makes a deep and rather massive cup-shaped nest, which it gene- 
rally places in a crevice, or on a ledge, of rock on the hanks of a 
river or hill-stream. At other times it may be placed under a 
stone or the roots of a tree on a bank and occasionally in a hole in 
a bank or even in tree-trunks. Most nests are placed beside or 
near water, but it may also be built at a considerable distance 
from it. It is made of moss, leaves, roots and grass lined with 
fur, wool or hair, or any one or more of these mixed with grass. 

The eggs number three or four, very rarely live. The ground- 
colour is a pale blue or blue-green, rarely with a pinkish tinge 
and the marks consist of specks and spots of reddish brown with 
others underlying them of grey and neutral tint. In the majority 
of eggs the markings are fairly numerous over the whole surface, 
in others they arc very small and sparse and in a very few bold 
and large, forming caps. 

Fiftv eggs average 24 , fixl6"8 mm.: maxima 252 x 167 and 
2:j-8x'l7 , 3 mm.; minima 22'2xl7-0 and 22-3x159 mm. 

The breeding-season is May and June, but nests have been 
taken in August, and many birds probably have a second brood. 

Habits. This Redstart is essentially a bird of rivers and streams, 
seldom being found away from them. They feed principally on 
insects which they catch on the shingle on river-banks or on 
islands in the river, and they are much more active on their legs 
than most Redstarts and not so prone to haunting one particular 



BBXACOBNI8. 81 

starting- or observation point. They extend down to the foot- 
hills and plains adjacent to them in winter and in summer wander 
up to nearly 18,000 feet. 

Genus RHYACORNIS. 
Blanf., J. A. S. B., xli, 2, p. 51 (1873). 
Type, 11. fuliginosa. 

The genus lihyacomis contains one species only, which extends 
from the Eastern Himalayas to Formosa and which is remarkably 
constant in coloration throughout nearly the whole of this area. 
It is closely allied to both Phcemeurut and Chaimarrhornis. From 
both of these, however, it differs in the shorter tail and in the 
strong rictal bristles ; from the latter also it differs in the sexes 
being totally different in colour, the female being practically all 
grey with no red on the tail. 

The Formosan form has been separated by Ogilvie-Grrant under 
the name of It. f. affinis. 

(535) Rhyacornis fuliginosa fuliginosa. 

The Plumbeous Redstart. 

I'hvetticura fuliffitiom Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 35, 
Rhyticorniis fulit/inoau&. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 98. 

Vernacular names. Saradum jiarbo-pho (Lepcha) ; ChubLia 
mikki (Bhutea). 

Description. — Adult male. "Whole plumage dull cyaueous the 
lores almost or quite black and the ear-coverts and sides of the 
neck often darker than the upper plumage ; wings black edged 
cyaneous and the greater coverts sometimes tipped with white 
specks : upper and lower tail-coverts, tail and vent bright 
chestnut. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black ; legs and 
feet dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length about, 140 mm.; wing 72 to 81 mm.; 
tail 46 to 52 mm. ; tarsus about 24 mm. ; cuhnen about 11 mm. 

Adult female. Whole upper plumage bluish ashy-brown ; wing- 
coverts and inner secondaries brown edged with fulvous-rufous 
and with a white spot at the tip ; greater coverts, primaries and 
outer secondaries brown with pale edges ; upper and lower tail- 
coverts white ; tail dark brown with broad white bases, the white 
increasing on the outer feathers until it covers all but the tip and 
edge of the outer web of the outermost ; whole lower plumage 
ashy-blue, each feather with a bold white bar; the chin and throat 
are generally tinged with rufous, the same colour extending to the 
cheek and round the eye. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male. 

VOIi. II. G 



82 TOBDIDJE. 

Measurements. Wing about 70 to 73 mm. ; tail about 45 to 
50 mtn. ., 

Nestlings are brown above, each feather with a fulvous central 
spot; below they are fulvous, the feathers edged with blackish; 
abdomen and vent whitish ; tail as in the female. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Afghanistan and Baluchistan to 
Eastern Assam and Tibet ; Northern Burma and the Burmese 
Hills to Tenasserim, Northern Siam, Yunnan, Central and South 
China and Hainan, but not Formosa where it is replaced by 
Ogilvie-Grant's It. f. affinig. 

Nidification. The Plumbeous Kedstart breeds from 4,000 to 
12,000 feet, and possibly up to 14,000 feet on the Tibetan 
plateaux, during April, May and the early part of June, sometimes 
having a second brood in the end of June and in July. Stoliezka 
found it breeding at 13,000 feet in the Spiti Valley, and Macdonald 
sent me nests from between 13,000 and 14,000 feet above 
Bhatntso. The nest is a lovely little cup made principally of 
living green moss, sometimes mixed with roots, a few leaves and 
fern-rachides. The lining is normally of fine roots and hair-like 
fibres, but occasionally hair or wool is employed. It is placed iti 
almost any kind of natural hollow beside a stream ; the site may 
be a hole amongst the roots or in the trunk of a tree, in amongst 
boulders and rocks or just in a sloping bank. Wherever placed it 
is almost always 'well concealed. 

The eggs vary from three to five, generally four. The ground- 
colour is a pale greenish or yellowish stone, sometimes almost a 
pure pale sea-green. The markings consist of specks mid small 
blotches of reddish brown, sometimes tiny and sparselv scattered 
all over the surface, sometimes larger and more numerous and 
then generally disposed in a ring or cap at the larger end. 

One hundred eggs average 18 7 x 14-5 mm. : the maxima are 
202x14-9 and 20-0xl5'5 mm.; minima 172 X 14 1 and 190x 
13*5 mm. 

Habits. The Plumbeous Kedstart is a typical Redstart in all its 
ways, but keeps practically entirely to the beds of streams and 
rivers. It is a most active energetic little bird, everlastingly 
flicking its tail as it perches on some convenient stone in the 
middle of the stream. From this it makes little sallies after 
insects, sometimes catching them on the wing like a Flycatcher, 
sometimes pursuing them with tiny, rapid steps, over stones and 
shallows. It will enter comparatively deep water after water- 
insects and occasionally disappears underneath altogether. 

It is probable that this little Kedstart does not always acquire 
adult plumage the first spring, for birds in female plumage always 
number several to every bird in male plumage and, at least twice, 
I have seen males actually breeding in female plumage. 

This little Kedstart often sings in winter, and two males will 
fight if they meet or will dance to one another as in the 
breeding-season, quivering a few inches over the rushing stream 



CYANOSYLVIA. 83 

of some* mountain torrent, wings and tail wide outspread, for two 
or three minutes at a time before returning to the stone from 
which they started. They are very crepuscular in their habits. 

» 

Genus CYANOSYLVIA. 
Brehm, Ixis, 1828, p. W20. 
Type, C. suecica Linn. 

The genus Cyanosylvia contains two species of Blue-throats 
found in India, birds which sire allied to the Kobin, though, like 
the Kedstarts, they have a good deal of red on the base of the 
tail. The males have the chin and throat a brilliant, blue, but the 
females are plain brown birds with less bright colouring. 

In Cyanosylvia the tail is short, only twice the length of the 
tarsus, the rictal bristles are not well developed though present 
and the bill is slender. 

The name Cyanecala, used by Oates in the ' Avifauna, ' cannot 
be used, as in the ' Isis' on an earlier page Brehm had already 
given this bird as the type of Cyanosylvia. 

Until recently the lied-spntted and White-spotted Blue-throats 
have generally been considered geographical races of the same 
species, but as Ludlow and Osmaston have obtained the two forms 
breeding in the same area they must either be given the status of 
species or rank merely as dimorphic forms of the same species. 

Key to Species. 

A. Thront blue with a chestnut spot in 

the centre C. ruedca, J , p. 84. 

B. Throat either wholly blue or with a 

white spot in the centre C. cyanecula, r? , p. 86. 

C. Throat, whitish or buff with a gorget of [p. *4. 

blsck spots V. cyanecula and suecica, $ , 

Cyanosylvia suecica. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Thront darker blue, red spot paler . . C. s. suecica, p. 83. 

B. Throat paler blue, red spot more 

rusty. 
a. Upper parts paler, red tinge wanting. C. x. pattulogulari*, p. 85. 
6. Upper parts darker, red tinge ob- 
vious C. s. robusta, p. So. 

(536) Cyanosylvia suecica suecica. 

Thb Wkstkrx Kkd-spottro Blue-throat. 

MoUeiUa suecica Linn., S. N., i, p. 187 (1758) (Sweden). 
Cyanecula suecica. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 09 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Ihmeni Pidda (Hind.); Kil-lunthe (II. 
in the N.) ; Qunpigera, Cfurpedra (Bengali) ; Dutnbak (Sind). 

g2 



84 TITRDID«. 

Description. — Adult male. Whole upper plumage brown, the 
feathers of the forehead and fore crown with dark centres, and the 
rump, upper tail-coverts and wing-coverts sometimes slightly 
tinged with rufous ; wing-quills, tail and longest tail r coverts 
blackish brown edged with rufescent ; outer tail-feather* rufous 
on the basal two-thirds ; chin and throat bright blue ; lower throat 
chestnut surrounded with blue; this is succeeded by a broad band 
of black and a still broader band of chestnut, the two more or less 
separated by a white band ; lores blackish ; a supercilium from the 
nostrils to the ear-coverts buff ; cheeks, ear-coverts and behind the 
eve mixed fulvous and dark brown ; front breast to vent fulvous, 
albescent on the centre of the belly ; under tail-coverts buff. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown, eyelids plumbeous; bill 
black, horny or lleslty at the base ; legs and feet fleshy brown, 
light brown or rather dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 nun. ; wing 7 1 to 78 mm. ; 
tail 54 to 58 mm.; tarsus about 27 to 28 mm.; oilmen 12 to 
KS mil). 

Female. Similar to the male above but duller and with a white 
instead of a buff supercilium. Below, the chin and throat is a 
buffy white ; a gorget of dull black spots extends from the corners 
of the lower mandible down the sides of tho neck and across the 
breast and occasionally a little rufous shows on the breast below 
and above this gorget ; the remainder of the plumage is dull buffy 
white darker on the flanks. 

Nestling. Above dark brown streaked with fulvous, below dull 
fulvous, each feather edged with black. 

Distribution. Breeding from Lapland and Sweden through the 
North-East of Europe and North- W est of Asia to the Yenissei, 
In AVinter it wanders South to North Africa, .South-East Europe 
and North-West India. As this race has always been confused 
with the Eastern form, palliilofjularis, it is impossible to say how 
far South and East the records refer to it. 

Nidification. The Western Bed-spotted Blue-throat breeds 
throughout its Northern habitat from the end of May (in the 
more Southern areas) to early July (in the roost Northern). It 
makes a nest of grass, leaves and roots, lined with grass and placed 
in among the roots of grass or bushes on a bank or piece of 
swampy ground. The eggs vary from four to six in number and 
are a light greenish or brownish olive, sometimes, according to 
Dresser, mottled or clouded with darker at the larger end. One 
hundred eggs average 18*5 x 14*0 mm. and the extremes are: 
maxima 207 X 14-0 and 19-3 x 150 mm. ; minima 17'0 X 14-2 and 
17-3x12-8 mm. 

Habits. This bird is said to be very like a Hedge- Accentor in 
its habits ; creeping quietly and unobtrusively about bushes and 
Ion.; grass, feeding on insects and, less often, on seeds. In the 
non-breeding season when it visits India it seems to lie less 



CYANOSYLVIA. b5 

secretive and may be often seen perched on some twig of a bush, 
flirting and expanding its tail like a Redstart. It has a short but 
rather fine song in the breeding-season which Whitehead 
syllabifies us, " Pray did he then " constantly repeated. With us 
it is seldom that anything but its rather loud metallic ''chic chic" 
is heard. It seems always to prefer damp or swampy ground, 
where it keeps low down in the reeds, sometimes feeding on the 
ground in the drier parts. 

(537) Cyanosylvia suecica pallidogularis. 

The Eastern Hed-sfottkd Bmje-thboat. 

Ct/unecula suecica pallidot/ulari* iSarudny, Mat. ■/.. Kennt. d. Fauna 

' & F. d. lWs. Keiclis, pp. 171 and 312 (1897) (Orenburg). 
Cyanenila suecica. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. i>9 (part.). 

Vernacular names. The same as for the last bird. 

Description. Similar to ('. »•. guecica but with the throat paler 
and the red spot, large and rusty-red; the upper parts are a trifle 
paler than in the typical form. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the last bird. 

Females taken by Osmaston breeding in Ladakh show a great 
deal of blue on the throat. 

Distribution. According to llartert this form breeds in West 
Turkestan to East Trans-Caspia and to the Southern Urals, 
wandering as far as North- West India etc. in Winter. The birds 
from the Altai and Eastern Turkestan he separates as disctssa 
(Mad.), said to be a slightly smaller and still paler form. From the 
material available in the British Museum 1 cannot distinguish 
between these forms and birds killed in India in Winter range 
from the smallest and palest to specimens equal to the darke>t 
Western European specimens. 

In India this Blue-throat is found practically all over India and 
Ceylon. 

Nidification. Ludlow (Journ. B. N. II. S. xxvii, p. 143) writes 
that he obtained a nest with four eggs of this Blue-throat at 
Mulbek in Ladak with four eggs measuring 19-7£>-2025x 14-75- 
15-0 mm. At Bhet Kharta, a day's march distant, he found two 
nests of the Eastern White-spotted Blue-throat. More recently 
Osmaston has found both species breeding together in the same 
country. 

Habits. Those of the preceding race. 

(538) Cyanosylvia suecica robusta. 

The Chinese Kkd-sfoxted Blub-theoat. 

Cyanccula suecica rohutti Buturlin, Psoveia i Guzh. Okhota (1907) 

(Kolyma Delta). 
Cyanrcula mtficu. Blauf. & Oates, ii, p. 99 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Gunpigera, Qurptdra (Beng.). 



86 TURDII>.£. 

Description. An altogether darker bird in every respect than 
the two preceding races and differs generally in having more of 
a red tinge on the rump and upper tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 68 to 79 mm., with tin* smallest and 
biggest birds occurring in China; culnien about V.i, rarely 15 mm. 

Distribution. Apparently breeding in Eastern Siberia and 
wintering in South China. Burma, Assam, and Eastern Bengal to 
Nepal and Sikkim. Two specimens from the Andamans arc ot 
this form. 

Nidification and Habits. Those of the species. .Stevens found 
this race common in the plains of North Lakliimpur in Winter, 
haunting the grass-lands and vast swampy reed-beds of that 
district. 

Cyanosylvia cyanecula. 

Vylria cyatieciila Wolf, Tuschenb. i, p. -240 (1810). 
Type-locality : Anhalt, Germany. 

The only race of this bird found in India is V. e. ahholti, which 
differs from the typical form in being darker and rather redder on 
the upper parts and in having a less distinct supercilium. 

(5:$9) Cyanosylvia cyanecula abbotti. 

Tuk Eastkun' Wimtb-si-ottki) Bi.ie-tiuio.it. 

Ci/atifcitfa abbot ti Richmond, Proc. U.S. X. Mas., xviii, p. JS4 

"(189o) (Nubra Valley, J,adak). 
Cyanecula wolfi. Blnnf. & Oates, ii, p. 100. 

Vernacular names. The same, where found, as for the White- 
spotted birds. 

Description. Differs from C. s. suecica and its geographical races 
in having a white spot, instead of a red on the centre of the throat ; 
occasionally the throat is wholly blue. 

Frequently there is a little red showing on the centre of the 
white spot and sometimes there is a small spot entirely red. 

Colours of soft parts is in the other forms of Cyanosylvia. 

Measurements. Wing 71 to 74 mm.; tail 53 to 55 mm. ; tarsus 
about 28 mm. ; eulinen 14 to 15 mm. (from edge of forehead 1(1-7 
to 17 - 5 mm., Hartert). 

Distribution. Pamirs, East Turkestan, Kashmir, Ladak and 
Western Tibet. I have received eggs of a Cyanoiylvia from Tibet 
taken near Gyantse, but the skins sent were too bad to enable the 
race to be determined. 

J n Winter it is found South in Kashmir and Oarhwal and 
occasionally in the plains of the North-West, Behar and even in 
Assam. 



lUSOIHIA. 87 

Nidiflcation. Ludlow found two nests at Bhot Karba on 24th 
June, 1919, the first of which contained four hard-set eggs and the 
second four young. The nests are described as cup-shaped, made 
of dry grass and placed on the ground among long grass and low 
bushes. The eggs were " saye-gretn guffased with reddish brown " 
and they " measured 19-75-20-L'5 x 14-75-150 mm." 

Habits. This bird is far less of a wanderer than the Bed-spotted 
Blue-throat nnd though it has not nearly so far to travel is never 
found far out in the plains as that bird is. It breeds between 
12,1)00 and 14,000 feet in Northern Kashmir and North-East 
Ladak, probably a good deal higher also and possibly down as low 
as 10,000 feet. In winter it comes down as low as 6,000 feet, but 
often stays throughout the winter at heights much above this. 
It is not rare in Assam at about 15,000 feet and is found thence all 
iilong the outer, lower ranges of the Himalayas between 2,000 
and 9,000 feet from September to April. It has been obtained in 
the plains of Cachar, Assam and Behar but such occurrences are 
very rare. 

In actions, food, voice, etc., it differs in no way from its 
White-spotted cousin and it is the same quiet skulker as that bird. 
It does not, however, seem to be so much addicted to swampy 
wet ground, though it is most common in the vicinity of rivers 
nnd lakes, such as the Shick, Tsomorari, etc. 

Genus LUSCINIA. 
Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. B., 1317, p. 14. 
Type, L. merjarhyncha. 

The genus Luscinia is very close both to the preceding genus 
Cyanosi/lvia and the next one Calliope but differs from both of 
these in having the two sexes alike. The first primary, though 
varying considerably in length, is always very short, measuring less 
than a third of the second primary which is iong. The tail is long 
and the tarsus rather long and stout. 

Luscinia megarhyncha. 

Luscinia meyarhynchos Brehm, Viig. Deutschl. p. 356 (1831). 

Type-locality : Germany. 

The only race of this species ever found in India is L. m. tjolzix, 
the Persian Nightingale, easily distinguished from all its Western 
cousins by its very long tail and longer bill. 

(540) Luscinia megarhyncha golzii. 

Tub Turkkstan Nightingale. 

Lunciola yotzii Cabauis, Jour. f. Orn., 1873, p. 79 (Turkestan). 
Dauluis yolzii. Blftnf. & Gates, ii, p. 101. 

Vernacular names. Sarulmis (Tartar) ; Sochak (Armenian). 



88 TURDIBiE* 

Description. The whole upper plumage and the margins of the 
wing-feathers russet-brown ; brighter on the upper tail-coverts 
and tail ; wings brown ; lores, cheeks and the whole lower 
plumage pale buff, palest and often almost white on the chin, 
throat and centre of the abdomen and rat her more buff on the 
under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel ; bill dark horny-brown, paler 
below; legs and feet light brown to rather dark horny-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 185 to 195 nun. ; wing 01 to 
97 mm.; tail 76 to 81 mm. ; tarsus about 28 mm. ; culiueu about 
14 mm. 

The Eastern or Turkestan .Nightingale can be separated at once 
from other races by it* long tail which in the European and West 
Asiatic birds only runs up to about (55 mm. (measured from external 
base of feathers). The first primary is about equal to the primary 
coverts in our form, whereas in the British bird it is much longer. 
Variations in these latter measurements are, however, somewhat 
uumerous. The true Persian Nightingale is a still larger, darker 
bird, L. m. africana (i\ & R.). 

Distribution. Breeding from Turkestan, the Kirghis .Steppes, 
Trans-Caspia to the Tian-Schan. In Winter it migrates to South 
Arabia and has wandered twice into India, two specimens having 
been obtained in Oudh. 

Nidiflcation. The Turkestan Nightingale breeds during May 
and June making a cup-shaped ne>t of grass, dead leaves, etc., 
which it places either on the ground or, preferably, in a tangle of 
rose-bush and briars, a foot or two above it. 

It lays four or five eggs of the same deep olive-brown as those 
of the European Nightingales, some more brown, some more green, 
which measure about 225 X 16"1 mm. 

Habits. The habits of all the Nightingales are much the same 
wherever found. They are shy, secretive birds, feeding much on 
the ground and amongst dense bushes and briars etc., but they also 
have the same beautiful song, even if the Eastern birds' notes are 
not quite so full and sweet as those of its European cousin. This 
race is much more a frequenter of gardens than our English bird 
is, perhaps because so many of the gardens are so much bigger and 
wilder. 

Genus GH AH DAL A. 

Grandala Hodgs., J. A. S. B., xii, p. 447 (1843). 

Type, Grandala ccelicolor. 

The genus Grandala contains one bird of remarkable 
form whose true affinities are not easy to determine. It was 
placed by Seebohm with the Thrushes, by Jerdon with the 
Saxicolinw, and by Oates with his Fhcmicuriru*. Its nearest 
relations are possibly JVotodela, differing from this genus principally 
in its very long wing and small first primary. This character, the 



fiUANDALA. 8!> 

long wing, is alone sufficient to separate it widely from the short- 
winged Brachypteryginw which Oates suggests as an alternative 
position. 

The plumage of the nestling is like that of the female which is 
streaked, but the streaks are larger, bolder and more numerous 
and may be considered quite typical of the Turdiwe. 

In Qrandala the bill is about half the length of the head and 
rather slender ; the nasal membrane is clothed with plumelets to 
its middle and the rictal bristles are rather long; the wing is 
very long, the first primary minute and the second reaches to the 
tip of the wing; the tail is square and rather longer than half the 
wing ; the tarsus is slender, smooth and fairly long. The sexes are 
differently coloured and the plumage is rather soft and copious. 

In general appearance, this bird is not unlike species of the 
genera Myio/>honet<s and Arrenga and eventually it may have to 
be removed to a position close to them among the Turdince. 



(541) Grandala ccelicolor. 

Hodgson's Gbandala. 

(irandala ccelicolor Hodfrs., J. A. S. 11, xii, p. -147 (184*5) (Nepal) ; 
lilnnf. & Gates, ii, p. 110. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male. ^Y - ing8, with the exception of the 
lesser and median wing-coverts, winglet and tail black, the feathers 




Kig. it. — Head of G. citlicolor. 

edged with deep bhie ; remainder of plumage bright purple-blue, 
brighter below and still brighter and more ultramarine on the 
upper tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet. 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 2*20 mm. ; wing 136 to 
143 mm. (W. China) ; 143 to 150 mm. (India) ; tail 82 to 87 mm. ; 
tarsus about 28 to 29 mm.; eulnten 16 to 17 nun. 

Female. Whole plumage brown, darker above and paler below, 
with a tinge of slaty-blue on scapulars, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts ; chin dull fulvous ; crown, nape, upper back, throat, breast 
and abdomen streaked with pale, dull fulvous or fulvous-white ; 
a patch of white on the outer web of the inner primaries connecting 



90 TURDIDJ2. 

with another similar patch on the lores of the secondaries, the 
innermost of which are also tipped with white. 

Young. Like the female but more broadly and profusely streaked 
with pale fulvous or white, the streaks on the throat and breast 
becoming broad, triangular spots*. 

Young males acquire the dark wings and tail of the adult at 
the first Autumn moult as well as a considerable amount of blue. 
The fully adult plumage is attained at the first Spring moult. 

Distribution. (Jarhwal, Nepal, Sikkim, Tihet and mountains of 
Western China. The Western Chinese birds are brighter and 
rather smaller and may eventually have to be separated. 

Nidification. Whymper found two nests in the middle of .July 
with well-grown young above the snow-line in (iarhwal at about 
10,700 feet and his collector took a nest with two eggs iu June 
at about the same place. A nest is described as " placed under a 
ledge of rock at the top of a snow-bank, neatly built of line moss 
with a lining of feathers, a rather large nest, 9 inches across, 
internally 3^ inches." 

The eggs are typical Thrushes' eggs, not unlike many of those 
of Oeocichla, the ground-colour is a pale greenish white and they 
are plentifully blotched and spotted all over with primary markings 
of reddish brown and secondary markings of neutral tii.t and 
purplish grey. They measure 26-S*x liO'5 and 28-4 x 18-0 mm. 

Habits. The Grandala is a bird of the very highest altitudes, 
apparently breeding above 16,000 feet only and certainly 
wandering up to 20,000, whilst, in Summer, it seems seldom to 
venture below 14,000 and even in Winter not below some 10.000 
feet. They consort in large flocks, Wollaston mentions flocks of 
50, which do not altogether disperse in the breeding months, the 
birds continuing to collect together when feeding. As far as is 
known, they are entirely insectivorous, feeding much on a small 
white moth. The flight is described by Wollaston as like that of 
a Starling but according to Whymper it is exactly like that of the 
faster-flvmg Thrushes. 

Genus CALLIOPE. 
Gould, li. of Europe, pi. 118 (li*S7). 
Type, Erithacut wlliojie. 

This genus is very doubtfully separable from C'yanosyluia and 
like that genus the males have brilliantly coloured throats, only 
scarlet instead of blue, whilst the females nre plain-coloured. 
The lirst primary is comparatively long, and the tarsus is also long 
and suited for the birds' terrestrial habits. All the species are 
migratory. 

Key to Species. 

A. No white on the tail-feathers C. calliope, p. 01. 

B. Base or tip of tail, or both, white. 

a. Hides of cheeks black C. pectoraiit, p. 92. 

b. A broad white moustachial streak C. tuchebaiewi, p. 94. 



CA I.f/IOPK. 91 

(542) Calliope calliope. 

The Common Ruby-throat. 

MoUicilki calliope Pall., Hcis.s Ituss. Ileicha, iii, p. 097 (1770) 

(Yeuesei). 
Calliope. camt*chatkrn*i*. Hlimf. & dates, ii, p. 102. 

Vernacular names, (iunp'u/ora (Iteng.); (Janyula (Nep.). 

Description. —Adult male. Whole upper plumage olive-brown, 
the feathers of the head faintly edged paler and centred darker, 
but as a rule the upper parts appear unicoloured ; tail brown 
edged with olive-brown ; wings brown, the feathers edged with 
rufous olive-brown ; a line from the forehead to the eye and a 
broad cheek-stripe while ; lores and under the eye blackish ; chin, 




Fig. 10. — Head of V. i-alliitpr. 

throat and fore-neck ruby -scarlet surrounded by a narrow black 
line; in fresh plumage the red feathers have a tiny white speck 
at the tip which soon becomes abraded ; upper breast brownish 
grey, shading to buff-grey on lower breast and flanks and to 
almost white on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; axillaries 
buff. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill light to dark brown, 
paler at the base and almost white at the gape; legs and feet 
pale plumbeous or horny brown ; claw? darker. 

Measurements. Total length about 1,5;") mm.; wing 70 to 
83 inn). ; tail about 55 to t>;*> mm. ; tarsus 30 to 32 mm. ; culinen 
13 to 10 mm. 

Female differs from the male in having no scarlet or black on 
the chin and throat; the former is white and the latter shades 
into the huffy brown of the breast; the lores and cheeks are 
dark brown and the nioustaihial streak dull. 

Nestlings are mottled and moult into the plumage, of the adult 
female in the first autumn, many young males, however, obtaining 
a trac" of red on the throat. 

Distribution. Breeding practically throughout the whole of 
Northern and North Central Asia, from West Siberia to Behring 
Island, the Kuriles, North-East China, etc. In Winter it is found 
throughout Northern India, as far South as Bombay, Kaipur and 
Orissa, Burma South to Tenasserim, Siam, Shan States, Yunnan, 
South China, Hainan, Formosa and the Philippines. 

Nidification. The Ruby-throat breeds during June and July, 
making a domed nest of grass lined with finer bits of the same 



92 turdid;e. 

which it places on the ground under the shelter of a bush or 
tussock of grass in thick cover. The eggs are four or tive in 
number and are of a rather grey blue-green sometimes quite 
unspotted, at other times with a faint ring of reddish freckling 
about the larger end. In shape they are rather long ovals, often 
somewhat pointed. The surface is hard and slightly glossy and 
the texture very close. 

Sixteen eggs taken by Taczimowski measure 20"4-22xl5- 
16 mm. 

Habits. This bird, like the other Ruby-throats, keeps much to 
wooded or scrub-jungle localities, especially to such as have water 
near. It feeds on insects, principally on the ground but also 
amongst the grass and reeds and low bushes. When on the 
ground it has a habit of flicking its semi-expanded tail over its 
back, but otherwise moves about very quietly. It has a sweet 
but rather monotonous little song which it sings perched on the 
upper twigs of some low bush. 

Calliope pectoralis. 

Kiii to SuhspecHn. 

A. Upper parts dnrk slaty-grey, crown next 

forehead broadly blackish ." C. p. jxctomli*, p. l>2. 

B. Upper parts ashy slaty-grey, crown next 

forehead narrowiv blackish C. p. confutui, p. !••'!. 

(54:*) Calliope pectoralis pectoralis. 

Tub Himalayan Hlhv -thhoat. 

Valiiope pectoralis Gould, lcones Av., pt. ii, pi. iv (18. - S7) (West 
Himalayas); Blanf. & Ontes, ii, p. 103. 

Vernacular names. Ditwjuhtgitjao (Caelum). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead and short superciliuin 
white; whole upper surface slaty-grev, more or less tinged with 
ashy and darker next the white forehead : lores, sides of the head, 
chin and throat black ; ear coverts and behind them greyer ; wing- 
coverts like the back ; quills dark brown edged with olive-rufous ; 
tail dark brown, sometimes blackish, the lateral feathers white on 
rather more than the basal half and tipped white ; chin and 
throat bright crimson ; breast black, fringed with olive-brown or 
ashy -brown ; remainder of lower parts white, the flanks suffused 
with grey or, occasionally, with olive-brown. In breeding 
plumage the upper parts are more ashy and the breast is wholly 
black or almost so. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown or hazel; bill black, 
lighter at the tip ; legs and feet brown, fleshy-brown or plumbeous 
brown. 

^ Measurements. Total length about 155 mm.; wing t>8 to 
78 mm. ; tail HO to 64 mm. ; tarsus about 30 mm.; culmen about 
14 mm. 



CAXLIOPK. 93 

Female. Whole upper plumage olive-brown; wing-quills ed-ed 
wit, i fulvous ; tad-leathers dark brown, the lateral W he 3 t pped 

W V I ?Z l ?T d,, " wl ' ite ; si<1 - ««■ head, chin andthroa , 
breast and flanks tulvous-brown fudii. K to fulvous-white on the 
abdomen. 

Colours of 80ft parts. Lis brown; bill and feet as in the 
male. 

Measurements. A little smaller than the male, wine 68 to 
72 mm. b 

Nestling. Above brown, darker on the crown, each feather 
with a fulvous central streak; wing-coverts like the back; chin 
whitish ; breast and flanks fulvous, the feathers edged with dark 
brown : centre of abdomen and under tail-coverts buft'y-wbite. 

The male from the earliest age has the base of the tail white. 

The young male assumes the adult male plumage described 
above in the first autumn but does not attain the red and black 
breast until the following spring. A few individuals, however, 
retain the female upper plumage until the second autumn moult. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Afghanistan and Baluchistan, 
Kashmir, Ladak, Garhwal and the Simla States to Nepal. In 
winter it descends to the foot-hills and occasionally a short way 
into the adjacent plains of the North-West districts of India. 

Nidiftcation. The Himalayan Ruby-throat breeds on the 
N.W. Frontier of India between !l,000 and 14,000 feet during 
June: in Gilgit, Kashmir and N.W. Ladak in June and July 
between 11,000 and 14,000 feet. It. makes a domed nest of 
grass, lined witli the same, placed on the ground among thick 
t ussocks of grass, scrubby bushes, etc., often on the banks of small 
streams, at other times far from any water. Both Whitehead 
and Col. A. E. Ward describe the nest as a very roughly-made 
untidy affair. 

The eggs number from three to five, generally four, and are 
quite indistinguishable from those of the last bird. Thirty eggs 
average -'l';"ixl5-;j mm.: the maxima are 23'2 X 16'3 mm., and 
the minima 20 4 X 150 and 20-8x14*5 mm. 

Habits. Similar to those of Calliope callio/'f. 

On the North- West Frontier this bird seems to be a favourite 
foster-parent for the Cuckoo (C. camms ttlephomig). 

(544) Calliope pectoralis confusa. 

Thk Eastern Ruby-throat. 

Luti'tnia pectoralit cnnftim Hnrtert, Yog - . Pal. i. p. 741 (Sikkiui). 
Calliope pectoralis. lUunf. & Dates, ii, p. 10."5 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Jhuyului/ajao (Cachari). 

Description. Differs from C. p. pectoralis in being very much 



94 TUItDID.fi. 

deeper-coloured above and below ; the tail is nearly always a 
blackish brown and the upper parts a deeper slaty, whilst the fore 
crown is blackish over a wider area. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. Wing 68 to 75 mm. ; tail 57 to 02 mm. 

Distribution. Eastern Himalayas from ISikkim to the extreme 
East of Assam North of the Brahmaputra and South Tibet. In 
winter it is found throughout Assam, Manipur, Cachar and 
Sylhet. 

Nidification. Nest and eggs appear to be exactly like those of 
Calliope calliope. Eggs taken by Capt. Steen, 1. M.S., on the 22nd 
June near Chumbi Valley, Tibet, are larger, measuring 222 x 
15-4 mm. The nest was found on the ground in a hollow under 
the shelter of a bush. 

Habits. Those of the genus. This seems to be a bird of very 
high levels breeding from 10,000 ft. up to at least 14,000 ft. 
Jn winter it does not wander into the plains, though it is common 
in and adjacent to the foot-hills in the Cacharand Sylhet districts. 



(545) Calliope tschebaiewi. 

The Timet Ri'dy-thhoat. 

Calliope tschebaiewi Praewalski, Mongol i. Stran. Tang., ii, p. 14 
(187tf); Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 104. 

Vernacular names. Daotjuhtijajuo (Caohari). 

Description. Differs from all races of pectoralis in having a 
broad white moustachial streak ; the forehead is black or only 
narrowly white, and the white supercilium, though narrower, 
extends to the back of the ear-coverts; the white on the ba*e of 
the lateral tail-feathers is not so wide; the upper parts are 
generally more olive-brown, less slaty. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other species. 

Measurements. Total length about 100 mm.; wing 7 It to 
81 mm. ; tail 58 to 06 mm. : tarsus 3.'1 mm.; culmen 14 to 15 mm. 

Distribution. Breeding L-idakh, Tibet and Kansu ; Sikkim, 
Bhutan Dooars, Assam and North Burma. In Winter it extends 
throughout the Burmese Hills, Yunnan, Siam and into the plains 
of Bengal and Assam. 

Nidification. The nests of this Ruby-throat are the usual 
domed, grass structures placed iu hollows on the ground under 
shelter of tufts of grass or bushes. Eggs taken by Przewalski on 
the 17th May are like those of C. calliope and measure 20-5 x 
150 to 15-5 mm. Eggs taken at Phoulbiang, Ladak, for Col. 
Ward and sent to me with a skin are very pale blue and measure 
about 241 x 162 mm. These were taken on the 11th June at 
about 12,000 feet. 



BIRDS. VOL II. 




CALLIOPE TSCHEBAIEWI. 

The Tibet Ruby- throat. <S 

*S I if. »ii«. 



TARSIOBB. 95 

Habits. Tins bird appears to be less of a skulker than others 
of the genus. It is common in Assam in Winter and may then 
be seen much in the open and in Ihin scrub, hunting for its 
insect-prey quite as much amongst the grass and bushes as on 
the ground. It has the same funny little habit of running a few 
paces and then flicking its tail hard over its back. It has a 
sweet little song of four or live notes only, but may be heard 
singing this often before it leaves the plains in late Spring. 



Genus TARSIGER. 
Hodgs., P.Z.S., 1845, p. 28. 
Type, T. chrysixus. 

The genus Tarsvjer contains but one species which is very 
closely allied to the last genus Calliope, from which it differs 
principally in colour-pattern, having no brilliant colouring on the 
throat. The tail differs somewhat in bring mucronate, though the 
feathers are not so distinctly pointed as they are in the next 
genus, lantitia, between which and Calliope it seems to form a 
connecting-link. 



Tarsiger chrysaeus. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Marker above ; yellow below more golden- 

orange T.c. chrygaus, d > P- 'W. 

B. Pal»r above. ; yellow below paler and less 

or oige '/'. i: whUtlrri, (J , p. !•". 

C. Above ruddy olive-brown on taiI-co\erts ; 

below darker yellow T.c. cfirytuens, 9 , p. !*0. 

1). Above more greyish olive, more green, less 
ruddy on upper tail-coverts; below paler 
yellow T.c. whittkri, 2 , P- *'"• 

(54 «) Tarsiger chrysalis chrysaBus. 

The Gulden Bisb-Rouin. 

Tantiyrr chryserw Hodgs., l». Z. S., 1845, p. 28 (Nepal); Blanf. Jfc 
Oatox, ii, p. 104. 

Vernacular names. Muiuh'd-pho (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead to lower back olive-green ; 
lores, a line on the forehead, cheeks and ear-coverts black ; a 
narrow aupercilium, lesser wing-coverts, soapulars and sides of 
the back, rump,' upper tail-coverts and whole lower plumage 
bright orange, the feathers with very narrow edges of brown, 
sometimes obsolete or absent; central tail-feathers black occa- 
sionally with narrow orange edges, lateral feathers orange with 



96 TUBMDiK. 

broad black tips, greater coverts and inner secondaries black 
broadly edged with orange, other quills narrowly edged with the 
same. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown or black ; bill dark horny- 
brown, commissure and lower mandible yellow ; legs and feet pale 
fleshy, fleshy-yellow or olive-yellow. 

Measurements. Total length about 155 mm. ; wing 65 to 
69 mm.; tail -If* to 53 mm.; tarsus 29 to HO mm.; culmen 
11 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage and visible portions of wing 
olive-«reen ; median pair of tail-feathers olive-brown ; the lateral 
feathers golden-yellow tipped with brown and the outermost pair 
edged with brown on the outer web ; forehead, lores and a line 
round eye mixed olive-green and yellow ; cheeks and ear-coverts 
olive-brown with pale shafts; whole lower plumage yellow, 
orange and darker on breast, fore-neck and flanks. 

Colours of soft parts as in male. 

Measurements. Wing 62 to 68 mm. ; tail 46 to 50 mm. 

Nestling. Whole plumage dark olive-brown; abow, each 
feather has a narrow central streak of golden-fulvous; below, the 
brown is reduced to a marginal band and the golden-yellow 
occupies the whole of the centre of the feather; the abdomen, 
vent and under tail-coverts are almost wholly yellow. 

Distribution. Nepal, .Sikkim to Eastern Assam North of the 
Brahmaputra; Kbasia Hills and Cachar Hills South of that 
river, Manipur, Chin Hills, Yunnan, Annam and \V. China. 

Nidification. The (iolden Bush-Kobin breeds from May (Chin 
Hills) to the beginning of July (ISikkim) and on into August in 
Nepal. 'The nest is made principally of moss and moss-roots 
but at times a good deal of other material such as grass, leaves, 
etc., is incorporated with it. The lining is of fur, hair or wool. 
The nest may be placed in any kind of hollow, in a bank 
among overhanging moss, ferns or other cover, in a hole in rocky 
wall or between boulders or in among the roots of a tree. 
The eggs, four in number, are a beautiful skim-milk blue, the 
texture is fine and close but not hard or glossy and in shape they 
are broad pvals measuring about 20-5xl5 , l mm. The eggs are 
not in the least like in character or in colour those of the last 
genus. 

Habits. This is a quiet, retiring little bird so that in spite of 
its striking plumage it is very seldom seen. It keeps almost 
entirely to rather thick bush-jungle or evergreen forest, hopping 
quietly about on the ground occasionally uttering a soft little 
4i chic chic." It is said to have a short sweet song in the 
breeding-season which it utters from the upper twigs of some 
low bush. 



IANTHIA. 



97 



(547) Tarsiger chrysseus whistleri. 

The Simla. Golden Busk-Robin. 

Tnmit/er ehrystfiix whigtteri Ticehurst, Bull. li.O.C, xlii, p. 121 

(1922) (Simla). 
Taraiyer chryaceus. Maiif. &. Oates, ii, p. 104 (part.). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. —Adult male. "Differs from typical T. c. chry- 
sotus . . . not so dark above, paler olivaceous, with few or no black 
feathers to the mantle; golden colour everywhere paler." 
(Ticehurst.) 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
bird. 

Female. " Greener, almost with a greyish wash above ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail'* edge greener olive, less ruddy olive-brown ; 
underparts paler yellow." (Ticehurst.) 

Distribution. N-W. Himalayas to Garhwal. 

Nidification. Nests and eggs taken by Rattray, Buchanan and 
others differ in no way from those of the Golden Bush-Robin. 

Habits. The same as those of the preceding bird. 

Genus IANTHIA. 
Ianthia Blyth, .1. A. S. B., xvi, p. 132 (1847). 
Type, /. riifilatus. 

The genus Ianthia differs from Calliope and Tarsiyr in having 
much shorter, weaker IVet and tarsi, and in having a com- 
paratively longer tail. It also differs from both in having the 




Fig. 11. — Tail of Ianihia. 

tail-feathers more pointed at the tips, though this feature obtains 
to some extent in Tarriyrr. 

The genus contains four species of Indian birds, in which the 
males are very brightly coloured and the females are dull. 

Hartert includes Ianthia in the genus Tarsigtr, but the short 
tail of the latter and the weak feet of the former, together with 
their different habits, seem to divide them satisfactorily. 

VOL. II. H 



98 turbid*. 

Key to Speeits. 

A. Sides of body orange-chestnut contrasting 

with remainder of lower plumage I. cyanwa, p. 08. 

B. Sides of body of same colour as remainder of 

lower plumage. 

a. A white supercilium /. imllea, p. 102. 

b. No white supercilium 1. hyperythrtt, p. 103. 

Ianthia cyanura. 

Key to $ttt>sj>ecits. 

A. With a white supercilium I. c. cyimura, c? , p. 00. 

B. With a blue supercilium. 

o. l>arker above I. c. rujiltitii, ( J , p. 100. 

A. Paler above I.e. pallidiura, S , p. 101. 

C No distinct superciliuin. 

e. Rump lijrlit greyish blue 1. <•. cyanura, $? , p. 09. 

tf. Rump bluish jrreen. 

a'. Above rufous olive-brown 1. c. mjilata, $, p. 100. 

b'. Above pnler olive-brown I. v. pallidiura, $ , p. 101. 

Thayer and Bangs in H»14 described in the Hull. Mil*. Comp. 
Zool. (lviii, p. 21)1', Loukaochai) an Ianthia, Ironi Yunnan, us new 
and state that it differs from /. c. rujiluta in being darker, the 
shoulder-patch brighter and the bases of the superciliary .stripe 
white instead of dusky. This so-called new .species, Ianthia 
practica, so far as 1 can see, differs in no single respect from 
typical rujiluta from Nepal to Assam and it is possible that the 
authors compared their specimens with birds from farther west, 
which are obviously much paler, more especially the females. 
There are very large series of these birds in tin: British Museum 
from Nepal, Sikkim, Upper Burma and Yunnan, and though these 
vary inter se to a slight extent, I can see no constant differences 
in plumage correlated to any special area. The shoulder-patch 
varies considerably individually but Yunnan specimens certainly 
do not have it brighter than Nepal birds — indeed, Rothschild (Nov. 
Zool. xxviii, p. .'}',)) finds the reverse is the case. The bases of the 
superciliary feathers are dusky in some birds, white in others. 

In trying to find differences between Nepal, Burmese and 
Yunnan birds 1 have, however, confirmed an opinion already ex- 
pressed by Mr. N. Kinnear that the birds West of Nepal are much 
paler than the Eastern form, and I therefore here describe these 
birds as a new subspecies. 

(548) Ianthia cyanura cyanura. 

The Japanese Bush-Robin. 

Motacilla cyanurus Pall., Reise Huns. Reichs, ii, p. 709 (1773) 
(Yenesei). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



IANTHIA. 99 

Description. — Adult male. Sides of forehead and short broad 
supercilium white ; whole upper plumage aud wing-coverts pale 
slaty blue-grey, brighter and bluer above the supercilium and 
on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail dark brown, suffused 
with blue on the outer webs : wing-quills brown edged with fulvous ; 
lores and round the eye, cheeks and ear-coverts dark slaty-black ; 
chin and throat white ; Hanks orange ; under surface of body dull 
white tinged with creamy chestnut on breast and sides of abdomen. 
The black of the .sides of the neck often meets in a gorget across 
the lower throat. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black ; legs and feet 
reddish brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 76 to 
82 mm.; toil 5(5 to 57 mm.; tarsus about 23 mm.; cuhnen 
10 mm. 

Female. A ring of pale fulvous-white feathers round the eye ; 
lores fulvous; upper plumage and wings olive-brown; rump and 
upper tail-coverts strongly suffused with greyish blue; tail brown, 
the outer edges bluish ; Hanks orange; chin and throat fulvous- 
white : breast pale olive-brown lading into albescent on the 
centre of the abdomen ; under tail-coverts white or fulvous- 
white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill horny-brown; legs light 
brown. 

Measurements. Wing 73 to 80 mm. 

The nestling is rufous-brown above, the feathers tipped black 
and with central fulvous streaks ; below brownish white, the 
feathers edged with black, and those of the breast with pale 
centres. 

Distribution. From Urals East through Siberia and Northern 
China to Japan. In Winter it. moves South to South China, 
Yunnan, etc., and bus one* been found in the Indian Empire, a 
single bird, now in the Tring Museum, having been shot by me in 
North Cachar. 

Nidification. Smirnoff, in epislola. decribes nest and eggs as like 
those of 1. c. /nillidioi'a. 

Habits. This little Hush-Robin is said to be a bird of tame and 
confiding habits, frequenting the vicinity of gardens and orchards 
as well as woods and semi-wooded country. It has all the habits 
of a Robin, fee ling on the ground as well as on bushes and 
low trees. 

(54») Ianthia cyanura rufilata. 

Tue Reh-h.anked Bush-Robin. 

Nemura rujilatus llodgs., 1*. Z. 8., 1845, p. L'7 (>"epal). 
laiitliia rujilata. JJlanf. & Oates, ii, p. 1U0. 

Vernacular names. Mamjzlul-pho (Lepch.)j 

it 2 



100 XUKDID^. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores, a line next the bill and round 
the eye black; forehead, a short broad supereilium, rump, upper 
tail -coverts and lower wing-coverts bright ultramarine-blue ; 
upper plumage, sides of head, neck and breast deep purplish blue, 
almost black on breast and meeting across throat ; wings like the 
back; tail -feathers brown edged with deep blue; centre of chin, 
throat and upper breast white ; lower breast and abdomen ashy- 
white, purer on centre of abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts ; 
flanks orange-chestnut; tinder wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black ; legs and feet 
dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length about IS. 1 ) mm. ; wing 79 to 
St! ruin. ; tail 57 to t!l mm.; tarsus about -i> mm.; eiilmen 10 I" 
11 mui. 

Female. Upper plumage rufous olive-brown ; the wing-feathers 
edged with rufous ; lores and a faint ring round the eve paler and 
there are also faint truces of a bluish supercilium ; rump dull 
greenish blue; tail dark brown, the feathers edged with blue; 
chin and throat white ; sides of head and neck, breast and flanks 




Fig. 12. — Ilend of /. c. rnfihln, 

olive-brown, changing to albescent on centre ot abdomen, vent 
and under tail-coverts ; centre of flanks orange-chestnut. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill dark brown, lighter at 
the base ; legs pale brown to dark brown. 

The nestling is brown above, each feather tipped with black 
and with a pale cent rat streak ; below white, more or less suffused 
with fulvous and the feathers margined with black. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim, the Hills North and South of the 
Brahmaputra, C'hiu and Kachin Hills, Shan States, N. Siam and 
Yunnan. 

Nidification. The nest and egi^s of this bird have apparently 
ne\er been taken, but they are not likely to differ from those of 
the better-known race from the North-West of India. It is known 
to breed about Darjiling at 8,000 to 10,000 feet, and probably 
breeds throughout its range from the middle of May to the end of 
June up to some 14,000 feet. It does not, I think, ever breed in 
the hills South of the Brahmaputra, though it is a common winter 
visitor to them. 

Habits. The Red-flanked Bush-Robin is found in Summer be- 
tween 7,000 and 16,000 feet, and in winter down to 5,000, but 



IANTHIA. 101 

not often below this. The birds of this genus are forest-birds, 
haunting both pine and evergreen forests, providing they have 
sufficient undergrowth and the)' are especially fond <>f open spaces 
surrounded by cover. Here they flit about from ground to bush 
and from bush to ground very like the common Robin on the 
continent of Europe. They arc not shy birds and will hunt about 
in front of one for insects provided no noise or abrupt movement 
is made. Whitehead syllabifies the call-note as " prot " and 
answer as " tec," both notes being used by either sex. 

( ; ">5«>) Ianthia cyanura pallidiora, subsp. now 

Tnr. Kasiimiii Red-flankbu Bisn-Itoinx. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.- Adult male. Similar to /. /•. rniilutn, but not quite 
to deep in colour above, and the rump often more a turquoise- 
blue. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the Nepal 
lanlhht. 

Females arc very much paler than are birds from Nepal east- 
wards ; above they are more olive-brown than rufous- brown, and 
below a trifle paler; the difference in the upper plumage is 
strikingly obvious. 

Type-locality : Simla. 

Type Xo. 8(1.4.1.^144, British Museum, $ , Simla. 

Distribution. From the extreme North-West of India, Afghan- 
istan, Baluchistan — at all events, on the Indian Frontier — to 
Simla and Garhwal. 

Nidiflcation. The Kashmir Red-Hanked Bush-Robin breeds 
from the middle of May to the end of June between 8,000 and 
14,000 feet. The nest is made of grass and dead leaves, some- 
times mixed with a few roots, and is lined with fine soft grass or. 
more rarely. \\ i:h hair. It is cup-shaped, generally very roughly 
and loosely put together and is placed in a hole in a bank, in 
among the roots of some forest -tree, or in a hole low down in 
some dead stump. 

The eggs number three or four, though once Capt. 11. E. 
Skinner took seven eggs from one nest. These are, however, 
evidently the product of two birds. In colour they are either 
spotless white or with a few specks and spots of pale reddish brown 
at the larger end. The shell is fragile and the texture rather soft. 
Twentv-tive eggs average 18-0 x KHi mm., and the extremes are 
18*4x14-1 mm.; 16-6x140 and 17-4x130 mm. 

According to Davidson the nests are nearly always built in 
woods which are on the steepest of hill-sides. This Jaiithia con- 
stantly breeds in immature plumage, and it is possible the majority 
of males do not acquire their full dress until the end of the 
second vear. 



102 TDRDID.E. 

Habits. Although this Btish-liobin, like others of the genus, 
frequents woods and roumh country, they are not shy birds either 
during the breeding-season or at other times. They may be 
found either on the ground or on undergrowth and low trees. 
Like all the Robins they have a habit of flicking up their tails 
everv now and then as they move about, often expanding it at 
the same time. 

(551) Ianthia indica indica. 

TttK WlUTE-HROWEl) BUSII-KOBIN. 

Sylvia indicu Vie'tll., Nouv. l>ict. d'Hu-t. Nat. xi, |>. -Mi" (1817) 

(India, Dtujilinjr). 
Ianthia indica. Blanf. & Ontes, ii, p. 10". 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male. Feathers next the nostrils and lores 
black; forehead and broad supercilium to the nape white; whole 
upper plumage slaty-blue ; side* of head and neck blackish; witig- 
<|uills brown edged with golden-rufous ; inner coverts slaty-blue, 
outer coverts edged with golden-rufous; tail black Miff used wiih 
blue on the outer webs ; lower plumage orange-rufous, richest on 
ihe breast, albescent on the centre of the abdonx n, vent and 
under tail-eoverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black ; legs pale horny- 
brown to light reddish brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 155 mm. ; wing 79 t<> 
82 mm.; tail 64 to 72 mm.; tarsus 28 mm.; culmeii 12 nun. 

Female. Whole upper plumage dark olive-brown, the rump 
slightly fulvescent ; a partially concealed white superciliimi ; 
wings and tail brown edged with olive-brown ; a ring of pale 
fulvous feathers round the eye ; sides of head and lores mixed 
brown and ochre ; below dull rufous-ochre, paler on abdomen 
and vent. 

Distribution. Garhwal (/hmaston), Nepal, Sikkini and the hills 
of Assam, East to the Shan States and Amman. 

Nidification. 1 found this bird breeding in the Kliasia Hills at 
and ahove 5,000 ft. and took the nests in April, catching the birds 
ou tiie nest in both cases. These same pairs bred again in June 
quite close to their original nests. These latter were made of 
verv soft grass and dead moss, the; rather scantv lining being of 
grass and maiden-hair fern and roots. In addition to the grass 
one pair of birds made a foundation of leaves on which they 
placed the cup-shaped nest proper. Two nests were placed under 
stones and two amongst the roots of trees growing in a steep 
ravine running through pine-forest. The birds were extra- 
ordinarily tame and the male constantly displayed to the female 
as we uatched them. He commenced by perching on a high 
stone or the top twig of a low bush and then dropping his wings 



iAjmtiA. 103 

down to bis feet and a little spread, lie quivered them rapidly, at 
the same time expanding bis tail and flicking it up wiih rapid 
little jerks. The performance lasted a couple of minutes, after 
which he indulged in a little restorative fending. The female, as 
seems usual with all birds, treated his performance with the 
utmost contempt. The eggs, three or four in number, are not 
distinguishable from those of the Kashmir bird and measure about 
17-f>x I'.i-'S mm. 

Habits. The little I saw of these birds in the Khasia Hills proved 
them to possess tiie most confiding nature. When the nests 
were found nooses were set in the presence of the birds, who 
walked into them almost before we had time to hide, and even 
when released again after identification hardly seemed frightened. 
They kept exclusively to steep rocky ravines running through 
pine-forest, and though they selected ravines with bracken, bushes 
and other undergrowth, they kept quite as much to the open as to 
the cover. The only note utteivd was a rather sweet little, 
" Tuit-tuit " answered by a sharper note. The song, if one may 
call it so, was onlv a rapid repetition of this note on an ascending 
and descending scalp, hi (iarhwul Oamastoii fuund them common 
between 8.00U :md 1 1,000 ft. 

(•">-) Ianthia hyperythra. 

'I'm; Ki i'ors-isEu.ii:n 15isii-Koiii\. 

hni'ltia hiijH-riitl,,;, ISIvtli. J. A. S. 15., xvi, p. l.'W (1847) ( Darjilinjr) 
Miinf. '\ (tiitcs. ii, p. lOK 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead and supercilium to the 
nape, lesser wing covert s and upper tail-coverts bright ultra- 
marine ; ear-coverts, lores and cheeks black ; sides of neck and 
dead, upper plumage and exposed parts of Mings and tail deep 
purplish hlue ; quills brown; below bright, deep chestnut ; vent 
and under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts pale chestnut. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown or hazel-brown; bill 
black ; legs dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 70 to 
S'i mm.; tail 54 to r>(> mm.; tarsus about U5 mm.; culmen 
10 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage dark rufous olive-brown; rump 
and upper tail-coverts slaty-blue ; tail blackish edged with deep 
blue; sides of head, throat and neck olive-brown; below rich 
ochraceous, chin and centre of throat paler and the upper breast 
more brown ; centre of abdomen and under tail-coverts white. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill dark brow n ; legs dark 
brown. 

Measurements. AVing 75 to 79 mm.; tail about 52 to 55 mm. ; 
tarsus about 24 mm.; culmen 10 mm. 



104 



TUBD1DJE. 



Distribution. Stkkim Eastwards to Sadha and South to the 
Khasia and Cat-liar Hills. 

Nidification unknown. 

Habits. Similar to those of the other species of lanthia. In 
summer it is found between (5,000 and 10,000 feet, and in winter 
some 2,000 feet lower. It is certainly a forest-bird, but prac- 
tically nothing has been recorded about it. 

Genus ADELURA. 
Bonap., Comp. Rend., xxxviii, p. 8 (1854). 
Type, A. ccerultoeejihala. 

This bird is very closely allied to the Redstarts strucfurally, 
though it has weaker, shorter tarsi and has no red on its tail- 
feathers and Gates was right in placing it in a separate genus. 
In habits it is undoubtedly far move Robin- than Redstart-like, 
and in this respect is very like lanthia, from which it is at once 
easily separated by its rounded tail-feathers. 




Fig. 13. — Toil of A. ctrmleocrphala. 



(553) Adelura cceruleocephala. 

The Bi.iE-itEADED Rodin. 

Phoenicura aentleticephala Vigors, P. Z. 8., 1831, p. 35 (Himalayas). 
Adelura cceritleicephnla. I'lniif. & Outes, ii, p. 108. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male in summer. Crown to nape bright 
stnalt-blue ; the median and inner greater wing-coverts are white, 
and the inner secondaries are broadly margined with white; 
abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts white ; remainder of plumage 
black ; axillaries black tipped with white. 

In Winter the feathers of the crown, upper plumage and breast 
are all broadly margined with rufescent-brown, almost entirely 
concealing the blue : round the eye and on the lores the black 
remains almost immaculate. 



NOTODELA. 105 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill dark brown to jet- 
black ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 155 mm.; wing 81 to 
85 nun. ; tail 00 to 00 nun. ; tarsus 23 mm. ; culmen 11 mm. 

Female. A ring of pale feathers round the eye; head, neck and 
back brown, sometimes with faint rufous or fulvous tinge, lower 
rump and upper tail-coverts ferruginous ; tail darker brown edged 
with ferruginous ; wings brown, the median and greater coverts 
broadly edged with fulvous-white forming two bold wing-barsand 
the inner secondaries with fulvous edges ; below paler ashy-brown, 
more strongly tinged with fulvous; abdomen and vent almost 
pure white. 

Measurements. Wing 77 to so mm. ; tail 53 to 04 mm. ; tarsus 
22 mm.; culmen 11 nun. 

Nestling. Above fnivous-brown, each feather edged with dark 
brown; below dull ashy-brown with pronounced blackish edges; 
abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts white, upper tail-coverts 
ferruginous ; tail and wings in both sexes like the adult. 

Distribution. Turkestan to Afghanistan and Baluchistan and 
the Himalayas to Nikkim and Bhutan. 

Nidiflcation. The Blue-headed Robin breeds in May and June 
between 8,0(10 and 12.U0O feet and perhaps up to some 14,()U0 feet. 
The nest is cup-shaped, made of moss, mixed with twigs, leaves 
and roots and well-lined with hair or fur and a few feathers. It 
is placed in a hollow in a bank, amongst the roots of a tree, under 
a boulder or a fallen log but, wherever placed, is always well 
concealed. The egs;s number three or four and in colour are a 
pale stone-grey or grey-blue with a ring of the finest pale reddish 
specks at the larger end. As a rule, the frecklings are absent else- 
where, but occasionally are scattered all over the egg, giving it a 
reddish tinge, though the marks themselves are so tine they are hard 
to make out. I n shape the eggs are broad ovals, somewhat pointed 
at the smaller end. They measure about 18"Sx 14-0 mm. 

Habits. The Blue-headed Robin is far more a Robin than a 
.Redstart in its actions and habits. It certainly does feed on the 
ground sometimes, but it also haunts bushes and scrub and may 
not seldom be found hunting about for insects in the higher 
branches of trees. It has a sweet but rather feeble little song in 
the breeding-season. 

Genus N0T0DELA. 
Uss., Compl. JJiifl'.. viii, p. 4:i.'5 (1837). 
Type, xV. alliifrons (=difinn). 

The genus Xoto<hlfi contains one species which is widely 
distributed from the Simla Hills to Tenasserim. The sexes are 
very different, the male being blue and the female rufous, but both 
sexes have n large amount of white on the tail which is 
considerably longer than twice the tarsus. 



106 TXTKDID^:. 

The bill is fairly stout, the rietal bristles ample. The* tarsus is 
strong and well adapted both for perching and for ground work, 
though not very long. 

(554) Notodela leucura. 

Tub White-tailed Blue Kobix. 

Mtiacisi/liia leucura llodgs., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 17 (Nepal). 
Notodela leucura. Blunt*. & Outes, ii, p. 1 1"J. 

Vernacular names. Mtmgshia (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, eyebrow, and the smaller 
upper wing-coverts near the bend of the wing bright cobait-blue ; 
the whole upper plumage black sufficed with blue; lores, sides of 
the head and neck, and lower plumage deep black, with a few 
of the feathers of the abdomen sometimes (ringed with blue ; u 
concealed patch of white on each side of the neck ; wings black, the 
feathers edged with bluish ; tail black, all the feathers except the 
middle and outermost pairs with a large patch ot white on the 
outer web, increasing in size towards the midde of the tail ; under 
tail-coverts fringed with white. 




Fig. 14.— Hciul of -V. lifctmi. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about ISO nun.; wing 91 to 
100 mm. ; tail <>0 to H,> mm. ; tarsus 27 to ">> mm. ; ciilinen lit mm. 
A male from Perak is very small, wing only >>7 mm., smaller than 
any Indian, Burmese or Chinese females. 

Female. The whole plumage rufescent -brown, the feathers 
of the wings and tail edged with bright ferruginous and a ring ol 
this colour round the eye; on the tail the black of the male is 
replaced with brown ; lore*, chin, throat and sides of the head 
with pale "haft-stripes. 

Measurements a little smaller than the male, wing 8* to 01 mm. 

Young have the plumage reddish brown with bright shaft -streaks 
and rufous tips to the feathers. Tail like the adults in both sexes 
from the first. 

Distribution. Simla (l)o<U»orth) through Nepal and Sikkim to 
the extreme H;ist and .South of Assam, Manipur, the hills of 
Burma and Malay {States as far Mouth as Perak and East to 
Yunnan, Annaiii, .Shan .States and Northern Siani. 

Blyth's record from Mussoorie has never been confirmed. 



CAI.LENE. 107 

Nidification. This Robin breeds principally in May and June, 
but 1 have talitm eggs as early as April 4th and ugiiin as late as 
August. Lt is resident everywhere between 3,500 and 9,000 feet, 
■unking a nest of leaven imd roots, more or less mixed with fern- 
leaves, grass, etc., and always with a good deal of moss on the 
outer part. When placed in an exposed situation it is domed, but 
when built, as is more usual, under a ledge of rock or stone, a 
fallen tree or in a hollow of tree, etc., it is merely deep cup-shaped. 
The eggs are three or four in number, very rarely live, and vary 
from a tuint pinkish or clay white to a deep salmon-clav, or pinkish 
cafe-au-lait. Some eggs appear to he quite spotless, whilst others 
are profusely covered with innumerable tiny freckles of a shade 
of colour darker than the ground. Some e|_'gs are highly glossed, 
most are moderately so, but a few are ^lossless. The eggs cannot 
be separated from those of Xiltava </rait<lis. 

One hundred eggs average 'J'A-'Ax \7'l mm. and the extremes 
are : maxima 25-4 x 1 is- 1 and lM-1 x 184 mm. ; minima 201 x 17-4 
and 'J\ ■ t x 159 mm. 

Habits. The White-tailed Blue Robin is not migrator}", but. 
moves verticallv according to the seasons, being found in summer 
between .'5, olio and it.OOO feet, and in winter right down to the 
plains in Assam and to the foot-hills elsewhere, lt is not nearly 
such a skulker as ure most of the birds of the nearest genera, and 
though it feeds both on the ground and in bushes it also does so 
on the smaller trees, and when disturbed instead of skulking away 
into the undergrowth it flies up to the higher trees. It is fond of 
perching in the open on some twig or post, where it sits flirting 
its tail and. in summer, repeating its very sweet and powerful 
little song, lt is often found in bamboo-jungle, though it prefers 
.shadv evergreen forest. 



(ienus CALLENE. 
Myth, . I. A. S. IV. xvi. y. VMS (1pJ7i. 
Type, C. frontalis. 

The genus ('nlltnf differs from Xotwlehi in having a \ery much 
longer tail, of which the feathers are greatly graduated and 
without any white pattern. The tarsus also is much longer than 
in Xolmhht. It is represented in India by one species, of which 
very little is known. 

(555^ Callene frontalis. 

Thk Blue- i homed Cali.em:. 

Cinclitlium frontal,- Myth. J. A. S. IV. xi. y. 181 v l*42) (Sikkim) 
Calif ne frontalis. Hlanf. & Oates, ii. p. 1 VA. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



108 TORUID.K. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores mid feathers round the eye 
black ; lesser wing-coverts, forehead and short eyebrow cobalt- 
blue ; wing-quills and tail dark brown ; remainder of plumage 
deep slaty blue, suffused with deep blue, fading to brown on the 
abdomen and posterior flanks and to whitish in the centre of 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; the feathers of the breast have 
pale blue edges. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown : bill black ; legs dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length about H00 nun. ; wing NMtoSH mm.; 
tail 75 to SO mm. ; tarsus 37 to 158 mm. : cnlmen 14 to 15 mm. 

Female. Wholu plumage rufous-brown; the feathers of the 
chin and throat with white centres and a few black tips ; a pale 
ring round the eye; centre of abdomen paler, vent and thigh- 
coverts almost or quite white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black : legs brown. 

Measurements. Wing 81 to •■*:» mm.; tail 78 mm.; cnlmen 
13 mm. 

Young male is like the female, but acquires the dark throat, 
lores and cheeks and the blue forehead at the first moult. 

Nestling. Dark rufous-brown, striped above with fulvous and 
with large white spots on breast, flanks and abdomen. 

Distribution. Sikkim onlv, apparently between <i,0<>0 and 
10,000 feet. 

Nidirication and Habits. A forest-bird, but beyond this 
nothing is known. 

Genus SAXIC0L0IDES. 

•Siixicolitiilex Lesson, 1WS1. 

Type, ,S\ ram/iaienxis Lath. 

The genus Sti.riroloit/es contains hot one species which, divided 
into two very well-marked geographical races, extends over the 
whole of India, South of the Himalayas and Ceylon. 

Oates points out that this genus is somewhat aberrant from 
the true Tunliila in that the tarsi are scutellated, a character 
found in no other form except the Accentors. The Accentors 
are themselves, however, very clos.-ly connected with the Thrushes 
in many ways, and the genus Sa.rlcolovles, which is in all other 
respects a Robin, and nothing but a Kobin, seems to form a 
connecting-link. It is this connecting-link, indeed, which induces 
me to keep the Accentors, PruueUina-, a subfamily of the family 
Turtli/lof. 

The bill in Sa:vicohklts is slender and curved downwards and 
the rictal bristles are very small ; the tarsus is well developed and 
Thrush-like in shape, but is scutellated ; the wings are long and 
pointed. 

Our Indian birds are resident wherever found, though they may 
move vertically with the seasons in the higher hills. 



SAXICOLOIDES. 109 

The goneric name Thamnohia, by which these little Chats have 
been hitherto known in India, was unfortunately not published by 
Swainson until Feb. 18;?2, whilst Saxicoloides was published' 
by Lesson before September 18,'H. The latter name therefore 
has priority and must be used. 

Saxicoloides fulicata. 

Kiii to liithtptcies. 
A. With white on wing-coverts. 

«. Upper plumage black or sduU -black, fj. f. fulicata, tf , p. 109. 

b. Upper plumage brown H.f. cambaien*i», cj , p. 111. 

U. No white on \ving-co\eit-. 

c. Darker mill more brown above S.f. fulicata, Q , p. 109. 

d. Paler ami more grey above #./. cambaiensis, 2 , p. 111. 

<5"i<;) Saxicoloides fulicata fulicata. 

Tub Black-hacked Indian Robi>\ 

Mot ticilla fulicata Linn., Syst. Nat. i, p. ;53t5 (1760) (Philippines in 

errurc. Ceylon). 
Thamnohia fulicata. Hlanf. & Oates, ii, p. 115. 

Vernacular names. A'«/r7ieW(Hir)d.); XalancJti (Tel.): Waanati- 
knrari (Tain.). 




Pig. l.'i. — Head of .S. f. fulicata. 

Description. — Adult male in Winter. Lesser wing-coverts 
white; centre of abdomen and under tail-coverts deep chestnut: 
wing-uuills brownish ; remainder of plumage glossy black with a 
blue sheen. 

After the moult the gloss v edges to the feathers become abraded 
and the feathers themselves bleached so that by spring, or even 
earlier, the upper parts become a chocolate-brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to blackish brown; legs 
and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 1(50 mm.; wing 70 to 
80 mm.; rail C;! to (i7 mm.; tarsus about i!S mm culmen 12 
to 14 mm. 

Female. Lores, forehead, chin and ear-coverts rufous-ashy ; the 
latter with paler shafts ; above dark brow n, very slightly rtitescent, 
the tail almost black ; lower plumage ashy-brown ; the centre oi 
the abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts deep chestnut. 



110 TITBDID.E. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown ; bill dark horny- 
brown ; legs tan-brown to blackish brown. 

Measurements. Wing 68 to 72 mm. 

Nestling like the female but with the upper parts obsoletely 
barred with darker and the lower surface paler, more fulvous and 
less ashy, and with each feather edged with dark brown. 

Distribution. Ceylon. South India to Ahiuadnagar on the West 
and the Godnveri on the East, and grading into the next at 
these points. 

Nidification. Tins little Kobin breeds in Ceylon practically 
throughout theyear, probably often having two broods. In Southern 
India it breeds principally in April, May and June but very oftun 
both earlier and later and General Betham took Its eggs at 1'oona 
as early as March the 7th and as late as July the 21st. The 
nest may be placed in practically any kind of bole provided it is 
not too high from the ground. In the open and iiioim barren 
country a hole under a stone on the ground will suHiee, or the 
bird will use a bole in a bank, raiUvay-ctittingor tree. More often, 
however, this Robin breeds round towns and villages and then 
rtnds sites to its liking in mud and stone walls, the eaves of low 
houses ami similar places. It has little, or no tear of man during 
the breeding-season, often building its nest in walls or roofs 
of inhabited houses but it is said to shun actual observation 
whilst entering it and to desert it at ouco if it is handled. The 
nest is cup-shaped internally but externally generally tills the 
hollow in which it is built. The eggs number two or three onlv. 
In ground-colour they are white or are just tinged with yellow, 
cream or pink, less rarely with green. Over the whole surface 
there are spot-, specks and small blotches of reddish brown and 
vellowisb brown, sometimes more numerous ;it the larger end 
where they occasionally form a rough ring or cup. In shape they 
are round ovals and sixty eg<»s average 20-7x1 l\S mm. The 
extremes are: maxima 23*0 X 15*12 and 21\5 x 159 mm. ; minima 
185 x 14-5 and 20-6 x 140 mm. 

HabitB. This little Robin is one of the mosl familiar of birds 
in Ceylon and Southern India, much as is the Robin in England. 
It is found more in the drier areas than those w here there is heavy 
wet forest, hut wherever there are villages and towns and some 
open country it puts in an appearance. It ascends the bills to 
tj.000 feet at least, possibly a good deal higher in the. Nilgiris 
and some of the adjoining hills and it is equally common in all 
suitable localities in the plains. It feeds much on tin; ground, 
hunting the grass or freshly turned soil for insects just like the 
Robin does but it also searches the leaves and branches of bushes 
and bnver trees as well. It has a few cheerful little notes in the 
breeding-season which it fully believes to be a song and which it 
utters from the top of a bush, wall or stump. 



corstcHus. Ill 

(557) Saxicoloides fulicata cambaiensis. 

The Brown-backed Ixdian Robin. 

Sylvia cambaietuin Lath., Ind. Orn., ii, p. 554 (1790) (Guzerat). 
Thamnobia cambaiensis. Blnnf. & Gates, ii, p. 1 14. 

Vernacular names. Kalchuri (Hind.). 

Description. -Adult male. Differs from the Black-backed 
Indian Robin in never acquiring the black back at the autumn 
moult. After this the upper parts become a dark sandy-brown or 
in some rases an almost rufescent-brown. In spring and summer 
abrasion of the lighter edges makes t he general tint darker instead 
of paler us in T. f. fulicata. 

When freshly moulted the black iinderparts are more or less 
fringed with paler, which coon wears off. 

Colours of soft parts as in tin; last. bird. 

Measurements. Wing i>9 to 7b mm. ; tail G<> to 72 mm.; tarsus 
about 27 in tn . ; culinen about 12 to 14 mm. 

Female. .Similar to the female of the Black-backed Robin, but 
much paler and often very grey in general tint. 

Measurements. Ming 70 to 75 mm. 

Nestling like that of the Black-backed Robin but paler above 
and below. Above the burs are obsolete and below very faint. 

Distribution. The whole of Northern India from Sind and the 
Punjab to the drier, less wooded portions of Eastern Bengal, 
Midnapore, t.'hota Nagpur, Western Behar; South to the (iodaveri 
on the Kast and Ahmadnagar on the West. 

Nidification. This differs m no way from that of the last bird. 

It is equally confiding and fearless of man, but is also equally 
cautious in its movements and equally ready to desert nests 
and eggs. It selects similar sites to those beloved of the Southern 
form and builds a similar nest of grass and roots, lined with hair, 
grass, fur, or anything suitable, often a piece of cast snakeskin. It , 
however, la\s more e^gs. generally three or four, O.ites says six, 
which are not distinguishable from those of .'/'. f. fulicata. 

Fortv eggs average 2--5 x 15T mm. : maxima 23"0 X 15 - 7 mm. ; 
minima 204 X 148 mm. 

The principal breeding-months seem to be April, May and .Tune. 

Habits. Just the same as those of the preceding bird. It 
ascends the outer ranges of the Himalayas up to some 5,000 feet 
and is found all over the plains. 

(Jen us C0PSYCHUS. 

Witgler, Syst. Av. Note to Art. (iracttla (1827). 
Type, C. aaularis. 
The genus Copsycluts contains in India a single species of Robin 



112 TURBID*. 

which is one of our best-known birds over the widest of ranges, 
known to all Europeans as the Daynl or Magpie-Robin. 

The tarsus is stout and non-scutellated ; the bill stout and 
straight and equal to rather more than half the head in length ; the 
rietal bristles are well developed ; the tail is almost equal in length 
to the wing, a feature which distinguishes it from all other genera 
in this subfamily. 

The sexes have the same pattern in colour, but the black of the 
male is replaced by greys and browns in the females. 

Copsychus saularis. 

As might be expected in a species which extends from Ceylon 
and the extreme North- West of India to China and the Malay 
Islands, there are several geographical races all recognized as 
different by the older naturalists and named and later on suppressed 
when they were found not to constitutegood species. Now, however, 
we realize what subspecies are, once they are more recognized. 

It is curious that the females vary far more than do the males 
and it is principally through them that the forms are most easily 
recognizable. 

Kty to Subspecies. 

A. Plumage all black and white. 

a. Three outer pairs of tail-feathers 

white, fourth pair almost or 

entirely so: culmen about 18 mm. C*. tautari*, <J,\<. 113. 

b. Third pair of tail-feathers much 

marked with black, fourth pair 
almost or wholly black ; culmen 

19 to 20 nun C. «. tnimirng, cf , p. 114. 

c Third pair of tail-feathers white, 
fourth piiir heavily marked with 
black ; culmen 1 ti to 17 mm. . . C. t. ceylmientis, -f , p. 1 lo. 

d. Third pair of tail-feathers marked 

with black and fourth pair heavily 

marked; culmen 18 mm C. s. atidmnanensi*, cJ , p. llfl. 

B. Plumage grey, or brown, and white. 

e. Abdomen almost pure white. 

a'. Four outer pairs of tail-feathers 

while or nearly so ; culmen 

about 18 mm C. s. mularn, $> , p. 113. 

It. Third pairof tail-feathers marked 

with black, fourth pair almost 

or wholly black; culmen 19 

to 20 mm C. >. imuicut, 9 > P- 1 1 ■J . 

c. Third pair lightly, fourth pair of 

tail-feathers heavily marked 

with black ; culmen 1(5 to 

17 mm C. t. ceylotietuit, $ , p. 116. 

f. Abdomen heavily marked with 

rusty ; culmen 18 mm C. t. andamanentii, <j? , p. lift. 



copsYCHcrs. 113 

Size, except as regards the bill, does not help in any way to 
separate the species, as when large enough series are obtained the 
averages are much the same. Chinese and Ceylon birds average 
rather larger ; Assam, Burmese and Hainan birds a little smaller. 

(558) Copsychus saularis saularis, 

Tiik Inmax Magpik-Robiv. 

Oracula saularis Linn.. Svst. Nat., i, p. 105 (1766) (Bengal). 
CupnycJnis xuulari*. HJiinf. it Oates, ii, ]). 116. 

Vernacular names. Dityur or Dayal (Hind. & Beng.); Whil- 
Dayal (K. Bengal); I'eildti nalanclti, Scirdd-yadu (Tel.) ; Xannid- 
pho (Lepcha); Thaimtt-lway (Burin.); L'ckintw (Manipur) ; 
Dao-yophn-gngchinx (Cachari ). 

Description. — Adult male. Lesser, median and outer greater 
wing-coverts and eil^es to the middle secondaries white; the 
abdomen and under fail-coverls white; outer four pairs of tail- 
feathers white, the fourth pair, from outside, sometimes having a 




Fig. 16. — Head of C. s. suu/iirix. 

certain amount of black edging to the base ; rest of plumage 
glossy blue-black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright hazel to deep brown; bill 
black ; legs and feet dark horn-brown to plumbeous black. 

Measurements. Total length about 280 mm. ; wing 98 to 
100 mm. ; tail Ml to 102 nun. ; tarsus 2!) to 80 mm.; eulmen 17 
(rarely) to l.* mm. 

Female. White parts as in the male ; upper parts nshv-brown, 
darker on the rump and upper tail-coverts which are almost black ; 
lores and cheeks mottled grey and white ; sides of head, neck, chin, 
throat and breast grey. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill horny-black ; legs 
and feet horny-plumbeous. 

Measurements, only a mere trifle smaller than the male. 

Nestling. White as in the adult ; upper parts dark brown ; 
below 7 , the throat and breast, are fulvous-brown, the feathers edged 
with blatkish and with pale centres. 

Distribution. The whole of India except extreme South- West 
Travancore, Burma to South Tenasseriui, Shan States, Yunnan 
and China. 

TOL. II. I 



114 TUnDlDjE. 

The Yunnan .ind Chinese birds, in addition to averaging rather 
larger, have the females decidedly paler on the upper plumage 
and breasts and these may have eventually to be separated. 

Nidification The Indian Magpie-ltobin breeds from the Plains 
up to about ti,000 feet through April, May and Juno, and some- 
times in July and August. It prefers the vicinity of human 
habitations when selecting a site for its nest, often building under 
the eaves of houses, holes in walls, on the rafters of stables and 
outhouses, etc. At other times it places its nest, in holes in trees 
and banks, and occasionally builds a nest in bushes or on tree- 
stumps. I have seen one nest in a Cactus hedge, two or three in 
the tirst forks of trees like Mango trees and Banians, and frequently 
inside clumps of bamboos. The nest itself is made of grass, roots, 
leaves, dead moss and twigs, lined with grass and roots ; out- 
wardly it, is shapeless, filling up the hole in which it is placed. It. 
may be bulky or it may be of the llimsiest character, just a mere 
pad. hut it is always very roughly and loose.lv put together. 

The ecus are rather handsome, the jrround-colotir some shade 
of blue-green, whilst the markings consist of numerous blotches of 
different shades of reddish brown with a few underlying of neutral 
tint. In shape they are broad ovals. 

One hundred e^s average 21-9 x 17*1 mm. : maxima 25 - X 18*5 
mm. ; minima 18 - 1 X 15'3 mm. 

Habits. The Magpie-liobiu is one of the most familiar birds all 
over India: every garden, every cluster of village-huts and every 
patch of cultivation has its pair. Daily it will he seen hunting 
about for insects undisturbed by th« presence of man, now singing 
its beautiful song perched on the top of a post in a fence, anon 
flitting from one to another, sitting for a few minutes on each 
whilst it expands its tail into a fan and jerks it up until it. nearly 
meets its head. Then perhaps it will flv to a branch in a tree, 
high up, and again burst into song. It is one of our best songsters 
and sings almost through the entire year and morning, noon or 
evening are greeted alike. 

(550) Copsychus saularis musicus. 

The Malay Maupie-Kobin. 
Latrius musicus IJaffleH, Trans. Lin. Hoc, xii, p. 1-17 C1820) (Sumatra). 

Vernacular names. Thapate-lwuy (Burin.). 

Description.— Adult male. Differs from the Indian form in 
having the outer tail-feathers broadly marked with black and the 
fourth pair wholly black; the under wing-coverts wholly or 
largely black. Both male and female frequently have the posterior 
abdomen much infuscafed. 

Colours of soft parts as in the Indian Magpie-Robin. 

Measurements. Wing 93 to 104 mm. ; tail 85 to 92 ram. ; 
culmen 19 to 20 mm. 



C0P8Y0HCS. 115 

Distribution. The extreme South of Peninsular Burma, South 
of Siam, Malay Peninsula to Java, Sumatra and Borneo. 

The Tenasserhn bird is, as might be expected, somewhat 
intermediati- but many specimens from the extreme South seem 
nearer to the Sumatran than to the Indian form, so it seems 
necessary to accept this former race as occurring within the limits 
of this work. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the Indian bird. A series of 
eggs collected by Messrs. W. .T. C. AVilliamson and E. (x. Herbert 
are not distinguishable from those of that bird. Fifty average 
22 5 x 1G-7 mm. and the extremes are 29-1 X 181, 230 x 183 mm. 
and 19'5 x 15 - 9 mm. 

Two clutches taken by Mr. E. (r. Herbert are a brilliant pale 
blue in colour with sparse and tiny specks of dark brown. 

They breed in April, May ami June in Siam and the Malay 
Peninsula, but in Borneo Mr. J. C. Moulton took eggs in the 
middle of March. 

Habits. These differ in no way from those of the other sub- 
species. According to Davison this race does not ascend the 
hills to any height, and it is also more essentially a ground-bird 
than is the Indian form. 



(.")t;n) Copsychus saularis ceylonensis. 
Tick Cktlo.v M agpik -Kobix. 
Cnpti/cfiHx (eyloneiitis Sclater. P. Z. S., 1801, y>. 180 (Ceylon). 

Vernacular names. Pcdda-nalancfii, Sarela-ijadu (Tel.). 

Description. — Adult male. Only differs from the male of 
C. s. saularis in having much more black on the third and fourth 
outer pairs of tail-feathers and in having a shorter, more slender 
bill. 

Colours of soft parts as in the Indian Magpie-Robin. 

Measurements. Wing 97 to 105 nun.: tail Mi to SO mm.; 
tarsus about 2i> mm. ; culmen 10 to 17 mm. 

Female is much darker above and below than Indian or 
Burmese birds and has the black and white patterns on the tail- 
feathers the same as in the male. 

Distribution. Ceylon and possibly the extreme South of 
Travancore. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the other races, but this bird 
never lays more than four eggs and generally three only. They are 
indistinguishable from those of C. .«. saularis but average bigger. 
Fifty eggs taken by Messrs. W. E. Wait and \V. A. Phillips 
average 2:5-1 x 17'3 mm., with extremes of: maxima 25 - 4 X 16 - 3 mm. 
and 24-2 X 180 mm. ; minima 201 X 17" 1 and 21 -4 x 16-0 mm. 

Habits similar to those of the other races. 

i2 



116 tuiididjE. 

(561) Copsychus saularis andamanensis. 

Tue ANDAMAN MAUriE-EODIN. 

Copsychus andamanensis Flume, Str. Fcath., ii, ]>. 231 (1874) 
(Andamans). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. In this nice the third pair of tail- 
feathers have a great deal of black on them, sometimes only the tips 
of these feathers are white and the fourth pair also have a consider- 
able amount; the under wing-coverts are mottled dusky white and 
the uuderparts are much sullied with dull rufous. 

Colours of soft parts as in the Indian bird. 

Measurements. Wing 96 to 102 mm. ; tail 87 to 91 mm. : tarsus 
29 mm. ; eulmen about 18 mm. 

Female. The abdomen and vent strongly suffused with dull 
rufous-brown and the upper plumage and breast darker than in 
C. saularis saularis. As llutne points out, this bird is nearer 
C saularis mitrictis than it is to the Indian race but it is not as dark 
as the former bird and has the small bill of the latter. 

Distribution. Andamans only. 

Nidiflcation. Breeds in the Andamans in April and May. 
Nothing has been recorded so far about either nest or eggs. 

Habits. A very familiar bird in the Andamans as everywhere else 
and at Koss Island, the headquarters of the Islands, Davison says 
it shares with the Myna and the Crow the privilege of being the 
most common bird. It is said also to haunt open forest-, the 
banks of streams and semi-eultivated tracts. It is a line singer. 

Genus EITTACINCLA. 

(iould, P.Z.S., 183(S, p. 7. 

Type, K. tricolor Vieill. 

The genus Kittacinchi contains the Slmmas, of which one 
species is found in India, represented by several races in various 
areas. 

The names under which these races have hithvrto been known 
have been very much confused. Sbarpe ignored the name 
macroura altogether in the British Museum Catalogue though there 
can be no contention about the Tardus macrourus var. /} of (Jmelin 
(Nyst. Nat., i, p. 820, 1788: Pulo Condore) being the first and 
proper name for the Shama. Turdus tricolor of Vieillot (Ois. 
d'Afrique, iii, pi. 114, 1802: ? Islands of the South Sea) is also 
beyond doubt a true Shama, and Sundevall (Krit. Framst. Levail)., 
p. .'*") says : " This is Turdus macrourus ex Java and Malacca." 

Tardus macrourus tricolor is therefore the name for the Javati 
bird, and Hartert's omissa (Nov. ZooL, ix, p. 572, 1002 : Java) 
becomes a synonym. 



HITTAOINCXA. 117 

Gryllivora longicauda of Swainson is a synonym of tricolor. 

Kittacincla macroura suavig (Nclater, V. Z. S., 1801, p. 18(i : 
Borneo) is the name which must be used for the Bornean race, 
to winch the Sumatran race is closely allied. 

This leaves no name available for the Indian bird, and 1 have 
therefore now named it indica. 

The genus Kittacincla differs from t'opsychus in having a long, 
more strongly graduated tail which considerably exceeds ihe wing 
in length. Jt appears to be the forest-representative ot the 
civilization -loving Magpie-Robin. 

Key tu Sulisj>eeies. 

A. Abdomen chestnut or chestnut-rufous. , T . , . n- 

, . , , hi A. in. macroura, 6 >V- 1 ■» ' • 

ft. I pper plumage clossv black ,. ,• , Ho 

, ,- rl ', i i • i I A. 7/i. tunica, c? , p. 118. 

//. I pper plumage ilurk grey-brown. ' ' 

<?'. Jhuker both above nncl below . . A'. in. macrattra, $, p. 117. 

/>'. l'uhr both above and below .... A", m. indica, $, p. 118. 

13. Abdomen nearly all white A", m. /t/bicentrit, p. Hi*. 

(■">'>-') Kittacincla macroura macroura. 
The Matay Shama. 

Tunlit* macrourti* Uniel., Sys.t. Nat., i, p. 8-_»0 (1789) ( l'ulo 

t'niidore). 
Cittocincltt macmra. lilanf. & Gates, ii, p. 1 IX (part.). 

Vernacular names. Tai-thu-laih-Swe (Burm.V 

Description.- Adult male. Whole head, neck, breast, back and 
wings glossy bine-black ; rump and upper tail-coverts white; tail, 
four central feathers black, the others diagonally black at the base 
and white on the terminal halves; inner webe of wing quills and 
greater coverts dull blackish brown; abdomen, Hanks, vent and 
under tail-coverts rich chestnut ; thighs white or mixed chestnut 
and white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black; legs pale 
fleshy-white to Meshy-horny ; claws a little darker. 

Measurements. Wing J 90 to 97 mm.; $ So to 81) mm.; tail 
cJ 140 to]80 mm., 2 !»7 to 108 mm.; tarsus 25 to 27 mm.: 
culmen 1 mm. 

Female. The black in the male is replaced by slaty-brown, 
rather more ashy on the throat and sides of the neck; the under- 
pays are paler and duller, more rufous less bright chestnut. 

Two females collected by Mr. E. Q. Herbert at Tung Sung Pah 
and Klong Wahip, Siam, have curiously pale underparts with the 
belly almost albescent. 

Young male. Head brown, flecked with rufous; back black: 
rump ami tail as in adult ; below deep chestnut, the black showing 
through in patches on chin, throat and breast. 



118 TUBDID.fi. 

Nestling. Above dark brown with fulvous stripes and dark tips. 
Below rich rufous, oacb feather barred with blackish brown, more 
profusely on breast and Hanks than on abdomen. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, South Siam, Cochin China, Pulo 
Condore. Hainan. (1 cannot separate A', m. minor and the measure- 
ments of specimens in the British Museum are no smaller than 
many from Bengal and Burma.) 

Birds from Southern Tenasserim are undoubtedly nearer to 
this form than to the Indian bird. 

Nidification. The Malayan Shama breeds in March, April and 
May, placing its nest in holes in trees or in bamboo clumps. It is 
always very roughly built of twigs, leaves and grass, lined with grass, 
and fits into the hollow in which it is built. The eggs number three 
or four, and are very like those of the Dayal but usually much more 
densely spotted and therefore more brown in general tint. The 
few eggs in the British Museum average about 2'2C> x 17M mm. 

Habits. Tliis bird may be said to be the jungle representative 
of the Dayal and is an even liner songster though not so constant 
a singer. It is a bird of the plains and foot-hills not ascending 
much above 1,500 or 2,000 feet and keeps to jungle, preferring 
bamboo-jungle or secondary growth to evergreen forest though it 
is found throughout the latter. It feeds both on the ground, 
on low bushes and on trees but, perhaps, principally on the first 
and in its diet is exclusively insectivorous. Davison remarks on a 
habit all the races of this bird seem to have in common, a curious 
snapping of the wings together above the body as the bird Hies 
across from one patch of jungle to another ; it is made at all times 
of the day, but only, I think, in the breeding-season. 

<">63) Kittacincla macroura indica, nom. nov. 

The Indias Shama. 

L'ittocincla macrura. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 118 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Poda nulanc/ii; Tonka nalunchi (Tel).: 
Shama (Hind, and Beng.) ; S/iama-sorai (Assam); l>aolmlip-rajah 
(Cachari); Tai-tha-laik-noe (Burin.). 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from the Malayan Shama 
only in being generally a richer chestnut below and often in having 
rather more black on the lateral tail-feathers. 

Colours of soft parts as in A", m. macroura. 

Measurements. Much the same for c? and £ as in K. m. 
macroura. 

Female. Similar to the female of A". m. macroura hut paler both 
above and below ; the upper parts are more brown or less slaty. 

Nestling and young male as in the Malayan Shama. 

Distribution. Ceylon, practically the whole of India and Burma 
as far South as the North of Tenasserim : Siam, Yunnan and 
N. Cochin China. 



KITXACIKCXA. 119 

The type of this race is in the British .Museum, No. 86.10.1.829. 
Bhutan Duars, Dec. 1870, C J . 

Birds from N.W. China have the females rather pale but are 
hardly divisible from the Indian and Burma birds. 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of the last bird but in the Assam 
■Hills Dr. Coltart and J often found its nest built well inside 
bamboo-clumps among the rubbish which always collects there in 
masses. In these instances the nest was always flimsiest, just a 
little pad of grass on the dead bamboo-leaves and protected from 
above by the rubbish collected on the numerous twigs jutting 
over it. Occasionally the nest in these hills is made of moss but 
generally of dead leaves, bamboo and others, lined always with 
grass. The eggs number four or live and are just like those of the 
last bird. In shape they are not quite such broad ovals as those 
of the " Dayal "' nor are they quite so highlv glossed. Fifty-five 
eggs average 22'3xl7"2 mm. and the extremes are: maxima 
24-1 X 1 7- 1 and 22'0 x 18-0 mm. ; minima 20-2 X 167 mm. 

Habits. This charming bird is an inhabitant of jungles and 
forests wherever then; is broken ground or low hills up to some 
2,00<» feet and also the plains in their immediate vicinity. It is 
very partial to bamboo or mixed bamboo and tree forest, but 
may be found in almost any forest which is not too dense or which 
borders streams and open glades. Like the la^t bird it is a 
beautiful songster, with a fuller, more varied series of notes than 
the Magpie-Robin but it confines its singing almost entirely to the 
mornings and evenings. It is a verv late bird and may sometimes 
ln> heard singing its loudest and sweetest as the rapid dusk of the 
tropical evenings fades into night. 1 have seen this Shama at 
heights over 4.0<>0 feet but it is most common in Assam between 
the foot-hills and 2,."i00 fret. 

(">o4) Kittacincla macroura albiventris. 

The Andaman - Shama. 

Kittarinrhi n/hiren/n's l'.lvtli, .). A. S. B„ xxvii, p. 200 (1859) 

( Andaninus). 
Cittocinclu albiwntrif. Blnuf. & Oates, ii, p. 120. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from M. m. macroura in 
having the abdomen white; the under tail-coverts and extreme 
posterior flanks are chestnut, this colour iii a few instances 
encroaching on the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill black; legs and feet 
fleshy. 

Measurements. Total length about 230 mm. ; wing 90 to 94 mm. ; 
tail 108 to 113 mm.; tarsus 27 to 28 mm.; culmen 16 to 17 mm. 

Female similar to the male but the throat and breast are less 
glossy. 



120 TUB DID JB. 

Measurements. Wing 85 to 89 nun.; tuil 91 to 105 mm. 

Nestling. Dark brown above spotted with fulvous, below rich 
rusty, the feathers with broad black edges ; belly albescent, under 
tail-coverts ferruginous. 

Distribution. Andamans only. 

Nidification. Not recorded. 

Habits. The same as those of the other races. 



Subfamily TURDIN/E. 

The Turd'uur comprise the true Thrushes. These differ 
principally from the previous subfamilies in their larger size, in 
often being gregarious in the winter and in being both 
insectivorous and friigivorous in their diet, berries forming a 
considerable portion of their food. 

The Thrushes are mostly migratory and a few only are resident 
whilst, even in these instances, they move vertically with the 
seasons and generally covr-r a very wide extent of country. The 
majority of them undergo a seasonal change of plumage owing to 
the abrasion of the edges of their feathers but these changes are 
never very striking and frequently hardly appreciable. 

The Thrushes feed a great deal on the ground and their long tarsi 
enable them to hop with great speed and facility. 

In structure and often in superficial resemblance many of the 
Turdince resemble one another very closely and it is difficult to 
divide them into genera. 1 adhere to (Jutes' plan of refennc.e to 
the types of coloration in making the generic divisions, especially 
to the colour of the under wing coverts and axillaries. 

Since Oates wrote the first edition of the Passerine birds it has 
been proved that the genera Mi/to/i/toiteus and Arrewja are typical 
Thrushes in every way, the nextling being brown bird spotted 
and squamated in a completely Thrush-like manner. 

The genus Motiticola is the one in this group or subfamily of 
birds which comes nearest to the last subfamily and some of the 
members of it, such as Monticula rufoyrisea, are extraordinarily 
like some of the Redstarts, even in size, but in India we have no 
species in which the resemblances are so great. 

Many of the genera run info one another very closely and tho 
natural sequence of these would seem to be Turdun, Arceuthornis, 
Geocichla, Oreocincla, and Zoothera. 

The other genera are all well distinguished from one another 
and from those already mentioned. 

The genus Irena, which is in many ways rather like a Thrush, 
1 have thought better to place in a family by itself as suggested 
by Oberholser (Jouru. Wash. Acad. Sc, vii, No. 17, October 1917). 



TUHDU8. 121 

Key to Genera. 

A. Bill narrow, breadth at forehead not morn 
than hall' the length of culmen ; rictal 
bristles well developed. 

a. Sexes not alike. 

a'. Axillaries uud under wing-coverts in 

both sexes uniformly of one colour or 

very nearly so; pluinn^rn never blue 

nor chestnut combined with black and 

blue . Turdus, p. 121. 

//. Axillaries and under wing-coverts in 

both sexes of two stn.nglv contrasting • 

colours; arrangement of colours in 

axillaries reversed in under wiug- 

eoverts (iKoeinit.A, p. 144. 

c'. Axillaries and under wing-coverts in 

males of one colour, in females more 

or less barred with two colours ; 

plumage largely blue or bluish Monticola, p. 169. 

b. Sexes alike in coloration. 

<i'. Axillaries and under wing-coverts 
entirely of one colour. 
n" . l'luniage in no case with any blue. . Aneiu thornis, p. 153. 
//'. Plumage practically whollv blue- 
black. 
tr'. Second pritnary as lonsr as, or 
longer than, the longest secon- 
daries Myioimionkis, p. 178. 

V. Second primary much shorter than 

longest secondaries ArrKXOA, p. 182. 

r'. Axillaries and under wing-coverts of 
two colours ; arrainremetit of colours 
in axillaries reversed in under wing- 
coverts, 
i'". Lower plumage barred or spotted; 

rictal bristles few mid lateral .... OllKCK'l.NCl.A, p. 157. 
d". Lower plumage scjuamated ; rictal 
bristles numerous and anterior ones 

projecting over nostiils Zoothkra, p. 1(J6". 

H. Hill broad, breadth nt forehead more than 
half length of eulmeii ; rictal bristles 
obsolete Cochoa. p. 183. 

Genus TUEDUS. 

Linn., Sybt. Nat.. 10th ed., p. HS8 (1758). 

Type, Turdus merula Selbv, 1835. 
Type- locality : Sweden. 

The name Merula which litis been used for the Thrushes and 
.Blackbirds is pre-oouupied and therefore cannot be used, but. even 
it* it were not Linnaeus' name of Tardus would have priority. 
Linntetts included a number of birds in the genus but the typj 
was designated by Selby in 18;Ji> as Turdus merula. 



122 1VRDIDX. 

The genua contains those Thrushes of which the sexes are 
different in coloration ami in which the under wing-coverts and 
axillaries in both sexes are either uniformly of one colour or very 
nearly so. The lower plumage of the Thrushes of this genus is, 
moreover, never blue, nor chestnut combined with black or blue. 

In Turdus the bill is about half the length of the head ; the 
rictal bristles are moderate; the wing is long and pointed and the 
first primary small ; the tail is rather ahtplo but varies considerably 
in comparative length ; the tarsus is stout and long and the under 
side of the wing has no pattern. 



Key to Species. 

A. General character of plumage black or 
dark brownish black. 
«. Wings practically uniform blackish . . '/'. mtru/ti, p. I •_>.'!. 

b. Wings with bold patch of light grey or 

rufous-grey T, boulboul, p. 1 ."■(>. 

H. General colour of plumage neither black 
nor very dark brown. 

c. Hind neck of diHerent colour to hack. . T. casluneitt, p. l.'5i'. 

d. Hind neck of same colour as back. 

«'. Whole head, neck and breast black . T. kcuJcri. p. I'il. 
&'. Whole bead, neck and breast not black. 
a". Feather? of upp"i- plumage varie- 
gated with dark central stieal.s . '/'. tttnnmus, p. l.'!l!, 
b". Feathers of upper plumage not 
variegated . 
u\ Tail, throat and upper breast 

chiefly chestnut T. ni/icollit. p. l:>ti. 

b\ Tail, throat and upper breast 
not chestnut. 
a'. Under wing-coverts and axil- 
lanes wholly or in part 
chestnut or orange-brown. 
a'. Sides of breast and abdomen 
grey or brown, 
a*. Throat and breast uni- 
form. 
« 7 . Throat and breast black T. atroyularis, ./ , p. 137. 
A 7 . Throat and breastalaty- 

grey T. unicolor, rT . p. 138. 

b*. Throat and breast 
streaked. 
e T . Under wing-coverts 
orange-brown ; axil- 

laries rufous-grey . . T. atroyularit, $>, p. 138. 
<r. Under wing-coverts 
and axillaries uni- 
form chestnut-brown. T. unicolor, 9 > I>- ISO. 
b'. Sides of head and abdo- 
men orange-rufous T. dittimilii, p. 140. 

b*. Under wing-coverts and axil- 
laries slaty-grey. 



TLKDUS. 123 

c"\ Breast ami side* of abdo- 
men chestnut -brown .... T. obtcurus, p. 141. 
tt. Breast and abdomen slaty- 

!.'r<:y T. fea, p. 143. 

i*. Under winff-cnverts and uxil- 

laries pearl jrrcv T. pallidus, p. 130. 

Turdus merula. 

Uiim., Syst. Nat.. 10th ed., p. 170 (1758). 
Type-locality : Europe, restricted to Sweden. 

Key Id iSubspecies. 

A. Lcfis and feet dark brown T. m. vta.vimus, p. 123. 

B. Legs find feet yellow or orange-Yellow. 

a. No collar on lihul neck. 

a'. Mead rather blacker than back T. m. eimillmiue, p 125. 

b' . Head .saint- colour a* bark. 

a". Feathers of upper parts with broad 

blue-prey margin.- '/'. m. kinnitii, p. 120. 

Ii". Feathers of upper parts without any 

pale margins '/'. m. boiirililloni, p. 127. 

b. A distinct •_ r rey-brown collar on hind 

neck '/'. m. nir/ropilewt, p. 128. 

c. A bold, white collar on hind neck '/'. mi. albocinctus, p. 129. 

It. Seems necessary to treat all these forms as merely races of 
our Kuropean Blackbird. Tvrdas nuruht numJa; it is true that 
it the all black '/'. incrnlit mfnilii is compared with the white- 
necked ']'. in. olfioeinetiix the contrast is startling but the dif- 
ference is bridged o\er by siniillhiuis with its darker head but no 
collar and niip-opilais with its distinct, grey collar, lit no cases 
do the breeding ranges of any two of these birds overlap, although 
the habitats of the two extreme forms ma.vimiis and albocinctus 
approach nearest together. 

It would appear as if at some time there had been a migration 
movement of the Blackbird Southward, certain birds having 
become sedentary and acquired local differences ; then at some later 
period there had again been a migratory movement, this time 
Northward, resulting in another sedentary bird with a white collar. 

(565) Turdus merula maximus. 

The Ckxthaij Asian Blackmrd. 

Merula maxima Soebohm. ("at. B. M., v. p. 405 (1881) (Kashmir, 
restricted to Gulmerjj-, .lerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 137) ; Blnnf. & dates, 
ii, p. 123. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. All black, in fresh plumage deop 
and glossy but rather brownish in old bleached plumage, especially 
below. 



124 TUB DID.*. 

Colours of soft parts. " Iris dark brown; bill dull yellow, lip 
and nariul region dusky; legs and feet very dark brown 
(C. II. T. Whitehead). 

Measurements. Total length about 280 mm.; wing 150 to 
157 mm. ; tail 107 to l-'O mm. ; tarsus 38 mm. : culmen 20 mm. 
llarlert gives the wing as up to 100 mm. in the male. 

Female. Dark brown, the leathers of the upper part tinged 
with .slaty but not distinctly greyish as in some races ; the throat 
is coneolorous with the breast in the fully adult bird. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements similar to male but 
the bill is much duller. 

Nestling. Dark brown, the mantle streaked and the lower back, 
rump and upper tail-coverts barred with fulvous; centre of chin 
and throat mottled rufous and black: breast, head and sides of 
neck blackish ; lower breast, abdomen and Hanks barred rufous, 
fulvous and dark brown. 

Distribution. The only Indian birds in the British .Museum 
are the type, a young male, and another bird from Kashmir : the 
series obtained by Captain C. II. T. Whitehead on the .N.K. 
Frontier, two specimens obtained by the Mount Everest Expedition 
and one from Bhutan. It is also tound in .North and North-West 
Kashmir, whence it extends into t he highest ranges of ( iarhw al, and 
.Mr. IS. L. Why m per found it in the Xiti Valley in Kumaou. 

Nidification . Mr. Wbym]>er first found this bird breeding in 
some numbers on the (iarhwal Hills at an elevation between 
13,000 and 14,000 feet in the Xila Valley. Col. Buchanan took 
its nest in Kashmir at Apharwat, over 14,000 leet and just under 
the snow line, and finally ('apt. C. II. T. Whitehead found several 
nests in the Kohat and Kurrain country at ll.ooo (Vet upwards. 
The nest is described as a bulky cup of moss and grass, lined with 
mud and with an inner lining of grass. It is sometimes placed 
in a tree such as an ilex or Cyprus sometimes on a hank or ledge 
of rock or in a hole in n cliff. The eggs number three or four 
and are just like large specimens of the English Blackbird's. 
They measure 3l2-34v> x 24'2-2:M mm. The breeding-season 
seems to be June and July but some birds are very earlv 
breeders for Wbymper saw young birds from which lie calculated 
the eggs must have been laid by the 5th of May, when the whole 
valley was deep in snow and quite inaccessible. The male bird 
sometimes breeds in immature plumage. 

Habits. The Central Asian Blackbird should, perhaps, more 
properly be called the Himalayan Blackbird, for its range outside 
these mountains is not known with any certainty. It is doubtful 
if it is migratory iu the true sense of the word, probably only 
changing its elevation with the seasons and never descending far 
into the plains or low hills. In Mummer it is found up to 1 7,000 
feet, well above the snow line, and it is said to be a wild, wary 



TunDi-s. 125 

bird, generally going about singly or in pairs, less often in small 
parties of three or four. Its flight is similar to that of other 
Blackbirds but very powerful and swift. Whitehead, who found 
it fairly common near Ha/ara above 12,000 feet, says he never 
heard it utter the Mild alarm note of the English Blackbird but 
onlv the '"low chuckle characteristic of the genus." He adds 
that it was " usually found feeding on small white caterpillars, 
which were very common on the grassy slopes, or amongst rocks 
and sometimes in Juniper scrub." 

(o(i(i) Turdus merula simillimus. 

Tut: Miuinu Bl.vckmiu). 

Turdux suitil/imu.i Jertlcm, Madr. .1. L. S., x, p. 253 (1839) (Nilgivis). 
Merula nimilUmti. Blunt'. & Oates, ii, p. 124. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. -Adult male. Forehead, crown and nape black; 
whole upper plumage and exposed wings and tail dark ashy brown; 
the lower plumage, axiliaries and under wing-coverts dark brown, 
the feathers obsoletely edged paler. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill yellow to reddish orange ; 
legs orange-yellow. 

Measurements. Total length about 200 mm.; wing 122 to 
\M mm ; tail M to !»!» mm. ; tarsus about 35 mm ; cuhnen about 
24 mm. 

Female. Above dark ashy brown, below brownish grey, the chin 
and throat paler and streaked with dark brown ; in some specimens 
there are obsolete pale shaft-stripes on the feathers of the breast 
and abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts as in male but the bill paler and duller. 
Measurements. Wing 118 to 130 mm. 

Nestling. Dark brown above, the feathers of the mantle with 
pale centres and shafts, below fulvous, the feathers with pale 
centres and dark edges ; the summations boldest on breast, flanks, 
and sides of neck, wing-coverts streaked and tipped with fulvous. 
Distribution. The higher ranges of the Nilgiris, Brahmagiris 
and Palni Hills in South India. 

Nidiflcation. The Nilgiri Blackbird breeds from March right on 
to August, during which months Captain Packard found both 
incompleted nests and nests with eggs. The nests are massive but 
well-built cups made of moss, roots, grass and leaves, more or less 
plastered together with mud and with a neat lining of grass. 
They are placed as a rule in small trees from 5 to 20 feet 
from the ground, standing in the " sholas " and more open country, 
on the edges of nullahs and ravines or, more rarely, inside the 



126 TcarauiE. 

denser forests of the big valleys. The eggs vary from three to 
fire, tlio latter number very rare, and an- a sort of half-way typo 
between those of the English Blackbird and those of the English 
Thrush. The ground-colour is a pale to fairly strong blue-green 
and the markings consist of numerous spots and small blotches ot 
reddish brown, more numerous than in the Thrush but never 
confluent and smudgy as in the Blackbird. In shape they are 
broad obtuse ovals with a stout hard texture and fair gloss. The 
average of fifty eggs is 2!KJx21 - 3 mm. and the extremes are: 
maxima 332 X l'2\s and :KW> x 23-4 mm. ; minima 27 1 x 22-1 and 
272x19 8 mm. 

Habits. This tine Blackbird frequents alike forests mid open 
country, often entering gardens and orchards and, except in the 
breeding season, is comparatively tame and fearless. Its vocal 
powers have been much contested but General Bet ham and many 
others claim that it is a tine songster. It is principally a ground 
feeder but also frequents both high ami low trees lor this purpose. 
It is very active on its feet and also is a powerful tlier. 



(567) Tardus merula kinnisii. 

The L'kvi.ox Blackbird. 

Merula Jcinnmi Blyth, J. A. S. 1!., xx, p. 177 ( 1S11) (Ceylon). 
Merula kinniti. Itlanf. \" Oates, ii, p. \-i. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. "Whole upper plumage, wings and tail black with 
distinct, broad blue-grey margins; lower plumage brown, suffused 
with slaty and less broadly margined with paler brown. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris pale brown to dark brown; eyelids 
and bill orange-yellow ; logs and feet lemon-yellow to yellow- 
ochre. 

Measurements. Total length about 2-10 mm.; wing 107 to 
IK* mm.; tail 85 to 93 mm.; tarsus about 'S.i mm.; culmen 
about 22 mm. 

Female. Above dark brown, suffused with slaty on the mantle 
and margins of wings; below brown, palest on the abdomen, less 
strongly marked with purplish slaty and sometimes faintlv showing 
pale shafts in the feathers of the posterior flanks and abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male but paler and duller. 

Measurements. Wing 104 mm. ; tail 78 mm. ; tarsus 32 mm. 

Nestling. Above rich dark brown, feathers of mautle with pale 
shafts and those of back nnd coverts with dark edges ; below rich 
fulvous, the centre of the chin and throat immaculate, the 
remainder with lighter shafts and broad dark brown edges. 

Distribution. Ceylon only ; above 2,500 feet. 



TUBDUB. 127 

Nidification. The Ceylon Blackbird appears to breed in April, 
May find June, making a cup- shaped nest of moss, leaves, roots 
and grass, matted together internally and lined with mud, inside 
which is a further lining of line moss. According to Legge and 
his correspondents it may be placed in almost any position — out- 
house, a bush in a garden or in cultivated ground, or well inside 
dense forest in some small inn or sapling. Lfgge gives the 
normal full clutch of eggs as lour and savs they are like those of 
the English Blackbird. Eggs taken by Captain Aldworth on the 
Bopaf Range in April and .May are like those of the Nilgiri 
Blackbird but rather more richly coloured, certainly they are not 
like those of an English Blackbird. They measure about 23 - 8 X 
2(H) mil), and are short broad ovals in shape. 

Habits. The Ceylon Blackbird is found from about 2,500 feet 
to the tops of the highest, ranges. It has been found feeding on 
grains of rice left by pilgrims on the summit of Adam's Peak; it 
is very common on the llorton Plains and again at Nuwara Eliya. 
It is said to be a shv bird, keeping much to dense forest with 
ample undergrowth, feeding both on the ground and on the tops 
of the highest irees. It is a tine songster, the song being like that 
of its English relative but softer and lower. When singing it 
comes often into the more open parts and edges of the forest, 
especially in the mornings and evenings, when it sings most 
regularly. 

(-">()S) Turdus merula bourdilloni. 

liouium.Lox's Blackbird. 

Merula bounti/loiii iSecbohm, Oat. B. M., v, ]>. ~~>\ (1881) (Travan- 

core) ; Bhinf. A: Ontes. ii, p. 1 2o. 
Mmi/ii rn/t/iro/it. Bhuif. A: dates, ii. p. 120. 

Vernacular names. /W<i palixtt (Tel.). 

Description. — Adnlt male. DiHers from the Ceylon Blackbird 
in having no slate-grey or blue-grey edges to the feathers. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brow n ; bill, legs and feet bright 
orange-red. 

Measurements. Total length about 2.">0 mm.: wing 117 to 
124 nun. ; tail lid to 1)9 mm. ; tarsus about 134 mm. ; culmen about 
22 mm. 

Female differs from that of the Ceylon race in being browner 
above and much paler and browner below, the flanks and abdomen 
being marked with a very faint lilac tinge. 

Colours of soft parts similar to the male but duller. 

Measurements. The wings of the females measure from 110 to 
124 mm. 

Nestling similar to that of kiimisii but not quite so dark. 

Merula enjthroti* o£ Davison is nothing but a female 
bourdiUoni with some pigment on the head which has turned the 



128 TUHBIDJE. 

cheeks, throat, etc. very red. This pigment, as Grant has shown 
(Ibis, 1896), is removable with a piece of damp blotting-paper. 

Distribution. South-West India from South Travaneore to the 
Palni Hills. 

Nidiflcation. Bourdillon says that the breeding-season of this 
Thrush is from April to June, during which months it nests in the 
higher hills above .'i,o00 feet in Travaneore and as low down as 
3,000 feet in the Palni Hills. The nest is a very massive, deep cup 
of moss and moss roots lined with mud and sometimes with much 
mud in the body of the nest. The inner lining is of line grass and 
tine roots. In size it is anything from 5 to 8 inches externally 
both in diameter and depth, whilst the internal measurements are 
about 4 by 3 inches or rather less. 

The eggs seem to number only two or three, judging from the 
few clutches found but possibly these were not full clutches though 
on one occasion a single egg was taken parily incubated. They 
resemble the eggs of TnrJug m. sintillimtm, but are rather more 
richly and profusely marked. Five eggs sent me by .Mr. T. F. 
Bourdillon measure 27'S-30-l mm. x 20-1-22-9. 

Habits quite similar to those of T. ;«. k'mnitii, but more entirely 
a forest bird and confined to the evergreen forests with ample 
undergrowth. It is not a rare bird but though its tine song may 
often be heard throughout the breeding-season it is very shy and 
is seldom seen. 

(.".(59) Turdus merula nigropileus. 
The Black-capped Blackhiui). 

Turdus nvjropilem Lafres., Beless.. Voy. (If l'linle, pt. ii, p. 'J 7 

(1843) (India ; now restricted to Ootauamiutd, Nilgai.--). 
Merula nigrapiteut. Ulanf. & dates, ii, p. 12ti. 

Vernacular names. Kusturi (Hind.) : Poda jmlisa (Tel.). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead to nape and sides of head 
black; hind neck, interscapulars, sides of neck and whole lower 
plumage, brownish grey, more rusty on the breast and more grey 
on the flanks and the centre of the abdomen albescent ; remainder 
of upper parts, wings and tail dark ashy, the tail darker and 
browner than the back. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris reddish brown to dark brown ; bill 
dull pale orange to orange-yellow ; legs and feet dull pale yellow 
to lemon-yellow. 

Measurements. Total length about 260 mm.; wing 126 to 
132 mm. ; tail HCt to 95 mm. ; tarsus 33 mm. ; culineu 22 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage ashy brown, the cap slightly 
darker and browner, the rump greyer ; ear-coverts pale-shafted ; 
chin and throat grey, streaked with brown. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male but darker and duller. 



TUttDUS. 129 

Measurements. Wing 122 to 130 mm. ; tail <J2 mm. 
Young male like the female but more heavily streaked on chin 
nod throat. 

Distribution. Western India, North of the range of the last 
liird, i.e. North of Mysore and the Nilgiris, through the South 
Bombay Presidency as far North as Mount Abu and to Sambulpur 
and liaipur in the Central Provinces. A specimen from Travaucore 
in the British Museum seems to be this bird though labelled 
unicolor. 

Nidification. The Black-capped Blackbird breeds throughout 
the hills and broken country of the Southern and central parts of 
its range from June to September between the foot-hills and 3,000 
or 4,000 feet. In the extreme North and East it is prob.ibly only 
a non-breeding visitor during the Winter. The nrst is the usual 
mud and moss neat with a grass lining built by all these Thrushes 
but has less moss and more twigs and grass used in its construction. 
It is generally placed in a tail hush or sapling, sometimes in a 
comparatively low hush, on the outskirts of forest. It may 
occasionally he found in open country and, even less often, well 
inside forests. 

The eggs number three to live, anil fifty eggs average 
27"4 x 20-0 mm., the extremes being: maxima 294 x 221 mm. 
and minima 24 8 x 200 mm. 

It is worthy of note that our Southern Indian species of Turdus, 
which are so closely allied to the European Blackbird, all lay eggs 
nearer those of the Song-Thrush in colour, whereas our Northern 
Thrushes reverse the process and lay eggs more like those of the 
Blackbird. 

Habits. The Black-capped Blackbird is a rather more familiar 
bird in its habits than either of the last two races ; it inhabits 
both the lighter forests and open country and may even be found 
in the surroundings of villages and in gardens. In the Winter it 
wanders well into the plains hut shortly before the rains break, iu 
May, it moves into the more broken ground and ascends the hills 
to some 5,000 or 0,000 feet. It is a tine songster. 

(570) Turdus merula albocinctus. 

Tub WiHTK-coLL.vitBi) Black biki>. 

Turdtta albvcinctus Koyle, 111. Him. Bot. p. I.xxvii tl839) (Hima- 
layas). 
Merula albidnvta. Blauf. & Gates, ii, p. 127. 

Vernacular names. Kandoo Kastara (Hind.). 

Description. — Adult male. Neck and upper back, centre of chin 
and throat white; remainder of plumage deep chocolate-brown, 
glossed with black ; under tail-coverts with white central streaks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill bright yellow, more 
or less dusky at tip ; legs and feet yellow to buffy yellow. 

VOL. II. K 



130 TURDID.S. 

Measurements. Total length about 275 mm.; wing 142 to 
151 mm.; tail 101 to 109 mm. ; tarsus 35 mm. ; culmen 23 rain. 

Female. A collar as in the mala, but ashy white instead of pure 
white ; dark parts in the male replaced with rufous-brown, dark 
above and paler below, the feathers of these parts often fringed 
with still paler fulvous. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male. 

Measurements. Wing 131 to 143 mm.; tail 100 to 104 mm. ; 
tarsus ,'io mm. ; culmeu 22 mm. 

Nestling. Very dark brow n, the feathers of the head and mantle, 
hack and upper tail-coverts streaked with rufous: below rich 
fulvous-rufous barred with blackish. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Eastern Kashmir, Simla 
States, Garhwal, through to .Nepal, Sikkim and Assam and South to 
Manipur. It occurs in Winter in Cachar, Naga Hills and Khasia 
Hills, but is not resident there or in Manipur. 

Nidiflcation. They breed during May and June from 7,0(10 feet, 
upwards, making a massive nest of moss, roots and leaves, 
apparently sometimes, but not always, mixed with mud and lined 
with grass and roots. It is generally placed on a high bush or 
sapling in forests but occasionally in among the roots of a fallen 
tree or on a steep bank. The eggs number three or four and 
approach nearer the Blackbird type ol eg£ than do those of the 
Southern birds, though they are more richly and boldly blotched 
with various shades of reddish and reddish brown. The average 
of twenty-five eggs is ;<0 - 9 X 2l - l mm., and the extremes are: 
maxima 326 x 221 mm. ; minima 29 3 x 209 and 32-2 x 200 mm. 

Habits. Although the White-collared Blackbird breeds at very 
high elevations, certainly sometimes up to 12,<»00 feet, in Winter 
it descends to the foot-hills and even into the adjacent plains. 
Mr. S. L. Whymper obtained it in the foot-hills of the Garhwal 
Kanges and Mr. H. Stevens found it in the plains below the 
Dafla Hills. Coltart got it at Margherita practically in the plains 
but in the Cachar, Naga Hills, Jvhiisia and Manipur ranges it 
seldom descends below 3,000 feet. It feeds a great deal on high 
trees and is a bold, fearless bird in its habits. 

(571) Turdus boulboul. 

Tiik Gkey-wingbd Hl.uk hikd. 

Lantutboulbottl \*th.,lnd.()ra.,i,p.80 (1790) (India; now restricted 

to Dnrjeeling). 
Merula boulboul. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 130. 

Vernacular names. Kasturi(llmd.); / > (t(ariyamaf«tcAa(Beng.); 
Phoyiong-jiho (Lepcha) ; Ghtmarn (Bhut.). 

Description. — Adult male. Tips of median wing-coverts, outer 
webs of greater coverts and inner secondaries and edges of outer 
secondaries ashy grey ; remainder of upper plumage, wings and tail 



TDRDU8. 131 

black ; below from chin brownish black, paling towards the centre 
of the abdomen and vent and the feathers of these parts narrowly 
margined with pale silvery grey. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown, the eyelids orange-yellow ; 
bill coral-red to deep orange, possibly according to age, blackish 
at the tip ; legx and feet brownish yellow. 

Measurements. Total length about 280 mm. ; wing 141 to 
147 nun.; tail 107 to 112 mm.; tarsus 34 mm.; culmen 21 to 
22 mm. 




Kiff. 17. Head of 7\ IiouViohI. 

Female. Has the black of the male replaced by olive-brown and 
the marks on the wing are pale rufous, not contrasting much with 
the other part's. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male but the bill yellow to orange. 

Measurements. Wing l;jii to 146 mm. 

Nestlings. From the earliest stages the males seem darker than 
the females, being dark brown as against rufous-brown in the 
latter. The upper parts are streaked with fulvous and have darker 
edges to the feathers ; below they are broadly edged with brown. 
Young males seem to have a transition stage between this and the 
adult plumage, losing the bars on the lower plumage but retaining 
the narrow pale shaft-stripes. 

Distribution. Mtirree, East to the extreme East and South of 
Assam and Manipur. 

Nidiflcation. Breeds throughout its range from the end of 
April to June but occasional Iv much earlier, as Stevens found :\ 
nest with eggs on the 8th of March at Polpoti in Nepal at about 
5,000 feet. It breeds in great numbers about. Murree, up as high 
as 10,000 feet but more often between 7,<M)o and 8,000 feet. In 
the hills South of the Brahmaputra it is a rare resident, breeding 
as low as 4,500 feet. The nest is a large and rather massive cup 
of moss, roots and grasses with an internal lining of mud, not. 
alwnys, however, present, and an inner lining of grass and roots. 
It is placed either on the ground, among the roots of a tree, on a 
steep bank, on a ledge of rock or on a stout branch of a tree some 
10 to 20 feet from the ground. The eggs are rather of the 
Blackbird's type of egg but often much more richly coloured. The 
ground-colour varies from a pale dingy green to a rather bright. 

k2 



182 TUB0IDJE. 

yellowish or pinkish stone-colour, whilst the numerous, rather 
smudgy markings are of pale dull reddish brown. They are 
scattered fairly equally over the whole surface, seldom more 
numerous at the larger end. Forty eggs average 2i) - 4 x 21-8 mm. : 
maxima 339 x 23-3 mm. ; minima 265 x 20-1 and 272 x 199 mm. 
Habits. This Blackbird is a forest bird, though it frequents the 
outskirts and open glades rather than the interior*, except during 
the breeding months. It is very sedentary and does not appear to 
move much with the seasons, even vertically. It probably seldom 
wanders much above 9,000 feet and, on the other hand, even in 
Winter is equally seldom found below 3,000 feet. It is a quiet bird, 
feeding much on the ground and shunning observation. The song 
is a tine deep series of whistles, much like the early spring song of 
our English Blackbird but it sings very little except in the early 
mornings. 

(572) Turdus castaneus castaneus. 

The Grey-heaved Tunrsii. 

Merula rastanea Gould, P. Z. S., 18."S">, p. 185 (Sikkimj : Illanf. & 
Oates, ii, p. V2S. 

Vernacular names. Lai Kastwa (Hind.). 

Description; — Adult male. Head grey, paling to almost white 
on chin, throat and posterior neck; hack dark chest mil, lower 
back, rump and upper taiI-co\erts brighter chestnut; wings and 
tail very dark brown, the secondaries edged a little paler; Iwlow 
from neck chestnut, the centre of the abdomen whitish and 
sometimes marked with black : under tail-coverts black with 
central streaks and broad edges of fulvous-white or white. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, legs and feet and eyelids 
wax-yellow to dusky yellow. 

Measurements. — Hale and female. Wing 130 to 142 mm.; 
tall 95 to 98 mm. ; tarsus 33 mm. ; ctilnien 21 mm. 

Female. Much duller everywhere ; the head and neck darker 
and brownish, the chestnut everywhere paler and margined below 
with obsolete pale greyish edges ; wings and tail lighter brown. 
Colours of soft parts as in the male. 

Nestling. Upper parts dark brown streaked with fulvous and 
becoming chestnut-brown on rump und upper tail-coterts, which 
have bright edges ; below dull chestnut on sides of neck and breast, 
arid on flanks changing to white tinged with rufous on the centre 
of these parts, all heavily barred with dark brown. 

Distribution. From Kashmir to JSikkim and Bhutan. It i* 
found in Assam in winter to the extreme East and South but 
some of these records may possibly refer to the next race. 

Nidification. Breeds almost throughout Kashmir, Gurhwal and 
West. Nepal. How far it breeds to the Fast is very doubtful. 
Stevens does not think it breeds in Sikkim or, if it does, it does so 
at very high levels only and even in winter it is a rare bird. The 



TTTKDUS. 133 

nest is very like that of the Grey-winged Blackbird and is 
placed in similar positions. It, however, seldom, if ever, breeds 
below 6,000 feet and nearly always over 7,000 feet. The eggs are 
three or four in number, rarely five, long ovals in shape and are 
very like English Blackbird eggs, but generally mom boldly marked 
and redder in tint. Fiftv eggs average 30*6x21 '6 mm. : maxima 
35-0 XL'1'0 and 2!)-6 x 22 : 8 mm. ; minima 281 X 21-2 and 32-5 x 
20-6 mm. 

The principal breeding months are May and June, but Marshall 
found e<;gs at Murree '-just ready to hatch " on the 20th of April. 

Habits. The ( 5 re\ -headed Thrush is found in summer from 
7,000 feet up to 12,(K»0 feet, descending to the foot-hills in winter 
and a short way into the plains. During the breeding-season it 
keeps much to evergreen forest, often some distance inside, but in 
the winter months it comes far more into the open and at this 
time several birds may be seen together. 

(57:*) Turdu8 castaneus gouldi. 

(lorui'n (jREr-iiK.\MKi> Thrush. 

Slrrulu ijmildl Verr., Xouv. Arch. Mus. d'llist. Xat. vi, p. '-'A (1871) 
(W. Setohuan). 

Vernacular names. Daol-at <jn<j<w iala (Cachari). 

Description. -Adult male. Similar to the Grey-headed Thrush 
but much darker, the head and neck are dark brown-grey and 
less abruptly defined from the chestnut back. Chestnut above 
and below much richer and there is no central pale streak on 
the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts as in citxtiiiif'wt. 

Measurements. Wing 137 to 14Smni.: tail 104 to 106 mm.; 
tarsus 34 mm. : cidmen '2'A mm. 

Distribution. Eastern Tibet to Kansu and Tsinling. In winter 
this lorin is found as far West as Assam, a single specimen having 
been obtained by Mr. II. Nievensat, Dejoo in Lukhiinpur in March. 
Possibly some, if not all the South Assam and Burmese records of 
T. can I ant its castiuints refer to this bird. Two males shot by me 
in the Khasia Hills and one in North Cachar were certainly all 
(jould's Thrushes and 1 have a note recorded at the time referring 
to their exceptionally dark rich plumage. A specimen in the 
British Museum from Nepal is undoubtedly referable to this race. 
There are also two specimens from Yunnan. 

Nidification and Habits. Practically nothing recorded. 

(• r >74) Turdus eunomus. 

Thk DrsKY Thrush. 

Turdus fluiwmus Temm., PI. Col., ii, pi. 514 (l^ll) (Japan). 
Memla fttscatd . Hlaiif. & Dates, ii, p. I'M. 

Vernacular names. Daokat (Cachari). 



134 TUBDIDJS. 

Description.— Adult male in Winter. Forehead and crown black 
with narrow grey margins, the remainder of the upper plumage 
blackish brown, each feather with broad rufous-grey margins which 
become more and more rufous towards the tail ; tail dark brown ; 
winglet brown ; wing-coverts and quills dark brown, the former 
and the secondaries broadly and the primaries narrowly edged with 
pale chestnut; a broad supercilium greyish white; lores and 
posterior ear-coverts black; cheeks, sides of throat and neck white 
spotted with black ; chin, throat and fore-neck white tinged witli 
buff ; lower parts white tinged with buff on the breast and the 
feathers of the breast and flanks with broad black centres which 
form a gorget across the upper breast ; under tail-coverts pale 
chestnut with white edges. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris golden-brown to brown-, hill dusky 
brown, almost black on the culmen, yellowish at the base ; legs 
light brown to dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length 260 mm.; wings 124 to IMS mm. ; 
tail 83 to 90 mm. ; tarsus 34 mm. ; culmen 20 mm. 

Female. Above olive-brown to brown from forehead to tail, the 
rump and upper tail-coverts more rufous than elsewhere ; the chin 
and throat are generally much more spotted with dark brown than 
in the male and the breast less spotted ; the rufous on the wings 
is much paler and duller. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements practically us in the 
male. 

Distribution. Northern Asia from West to extreme East, in 
winter wandering South to Northern India. Assam, Burma 
and China. 

Nidification. This Thrush breeds during May and June as far 
North as the limits of tree-growth, making a rough and untidy nest 
of grass, twigs, moss, etc., lined with mud and with a further 
lining of fine grasses. The nest is generally placed on small 
isolated trees and often within a foot or two of the ground. The 
eggs number four or tive and are of the Blackbird type, though 
some are rather more definitely blotched and spotted. Forty -eight 
eggs average 278 x 20-ti mm.: maxima 306 x l!»-."> and 27"0 x 
222 mm. ; minima 241 X 19-2 mm. and 24-2 x 19*0 mm. 

Habits. The Dusky Thrush is an inhabitant of open, semi- 
wooded country and even when on migration in its winter 
quarters prefers open fields nnd grass-lands with thin forest 
rather than the denser woods. Its flight is swift and powerful 
and it is said to have a rough harsh note. 

(57"») Turdus kesslerL 
Przkwalski's Tiincstt. 
Turdtu kettleri Przew., Monfr. Stran. Tangut., p. 62 (187(f) (Kansu). 
Vernacular names. None recorded. 
Description. —Adult male. Whole head, neck and extreme 



tpbdits. 135 

upper breast black; interscapulars, back and breast dull rufous 
white changing into dull dark rufous on lower back, rump, upper 
tail-coverts, flanks and abdomen ; wings and tail black. 

Colours of 80ft parts. Iris brown ; bill yellow, dusky at tip ; 
legs and feet horny-brown 

Measurements. Total length about 275 mm.; wing 148 to 
155 nun. ; tail 109 to 118 mm.; tarsus 38 mm.; culmen 21 mm. 

Female. Head and neck, wings and tail dark brown ; remaining 
plumage ashy grey, more rufeseent below and darker and browner 
on upper tail-coverts. 

Measurements. AVing 14.'i to 148 mm.; tail 112 to 113 mm.; 
culmen 21 mm. 

Distribution. East Tibet, Setchuan, Koko-Nur to Kansu. 
A single specimen has been killed in Sikkim close to Darjeeling at 
about 9,000 feet and Mandelli also obtained it in Tibet close to the 
>Sikkim border. 

Nidification. Pleske describes two nests as made of grass roots 
etc. with hair and f fathers of 1'erdi.r sifttuica in the lining and 
says they were placed in hollows in rocks beside a stream. The 
eggs are said to lie like those of the Fieldfare and ten eggs 
average 31-5x22-7 mm. 

Habits. This is a bird of great altitudes, breeding at 12,000 feet 
amoTijr conifers or junipers on the great wooded plateaus of 
Eastern Tibet and West China. Even in "Winter it appears only 
to descend to about 5.0OO feet and never to the Plains. 

(57<i) Tardus pallidus. 
The Pale Tititisir. 
Tunlut pnlluiu* flmel., 8. X., i, p. 815 (1780) (Lake Baikal). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores black ; forehead and crown 
dark ashy-grey, with darker streaks, shading on the nape into the 
rufous brown of the back, wing-coverts, rump and upper tail- 
coverts; tail dark brown, the two outermost pairs broadly tipped 
with white, the white sometimes also visible on the third and even 
the fourth pair; wing-quills dark brown edged with pale grey; 
chin white, sides of the neck, throat and fore-neck ashy-grey, 
clianging to rufeseent vinous on the upper breast and flanks ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries pearl grey ; centre of breast, abdomen, 
vent and under tail-coverts white, the last named with broad 
brown edges. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, upper mandible brown, 
lower yellowish white; legs pale brown (Druser). 

Measurements. Wing 123 to 130 mm ; tail 95 to 98 mm. 
tarsus about 31 or 32 nun. ; culmen about 19o to 22 mm. 

Female similar to the male but with the throat and fore-neck 
white streaked with brown and the ear-coverts streaked with white. 



136 TURDID.E. 

Colours of soft parts and measurements as in the male. 

Young male similar to tlio female with broad white lips to the 
the greater coverts. < 

Nestling. Above dark rufous-brown with pale central streaks 
and darker edges; below white, more rufous on the breast and 
flanks and heavily spotted with black; wing-coverts edged with 
rufous. 

Distribution. Eastern Siberia to Japan and South in winter to 
Curea, South China, Formosa, etc. ; also obtained by Dr. C'oltart 
in Assam (llartert, Vog. Pal. i, p. 655). 

Nidiflcation. The Pale Thrush has been found breeding at the 
mouth of the Ussuri Itiver in E. Siberia. The nest is said to be a 
cup made of roots, grass, moss and pine-needles lined with grass, 
generally placed not very high up in a tree. The eggs, four or 
five in number, are pale greenish blue rather finely spotted with 
reddish brown. The few eggs known varv great Iv in size, measur- 
ing 25-yJx 19-5-20-4 mm. 

The breeding-season is June. 

Habits. This is said to be a very shy bird, haunting well-wooded 
localities. It has a very sweet song. 

(577) Turdus ruficollis. 

The Ked-thhoatki> Tnursii. 

Turilu* nijicollis Pall., Reis. Huss. Iteiehs, iii, p. t;i>4 (1 77U) ( 1 >aurin ). 
MeriiUt ru/icotti*. Itlanf. >t Dates, ii, p. l.'JO. 

Vernacular names. Uaokut yajao (Cachari). 

Description. — Adult male. Whole upper plumage and wing- 
coverts light nshv brown ; the centres of the feathers sometimes 
darker on the forehead and crown ; greater wing-coverts and 
quills dark brown edged with silvery ashy ; tail rufous, the central 
tail-feathers broadly, the lateral feathers successively more 
narrowly tipped with dark brown ; superciliuin, cheeks, chin, 
throat and breast chestnut, this colour mingling with the ashy 
ear-coverts and sides of the neck ; a few black specks down each 
side of the chin and throat ; lower plumage from breast white, 
the sides of the breast and flanks mottled with dark ashy and the 
bases of the under tail-coverts chestnut; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts orange-brown. In Winter the chestnut feathers are 
fringetl with whitish. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown: bill yellow, rather dull in 
tint and with the culmen and tip dark brown ; legs and feet grey 
to fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 133 to 14.') mm. ; tail 101 to 105 mm.; 
tarsus about Uf> nun.; culmen about l!S to li* mm. 

Female. Like the male but the chestnut of breast etc. paler, 
and much mottled with white and more or less heavily spotted 
with black. Very old females are hardly, distinguishable from males. 



Tunnus. 137 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements similar to the male 
but very slightly smaller. 

Young male like the female but with less rufous. 

Distribution. Eastern Siberia and possibly Northern China, in 
winter South to India from Kashmir to Assam, Northern 
Burma and South China. 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits. The Red-throated Tlirush is found in the Eastern 
Sub-Himalayas nod adjacent plains in very great numbers between 
Oetober and March. At this time they associate in very large 
flocks and Dr. Coltart and 1 have frequently seen flocks of two 
to three hundred at Marghenta. They are birds of the open 
country but prefer such as is surrounded by Forest or, at. least, 
plentifully furnished with large trees. They feed for the most 
part on the ground, eating grain, berries and insects, but when 
disturbed fly with great swiftness to the nearest tall tree, uttering 
a loud, but sweet, alarm-cry as they rise. They are also very 
active on foot and when pursuing termites show great energy and 
accuracy in seizing their winged prey, running along the ground 
and leaping in the air to catch them as they rise. 

I see no reason to consider atroi/tdaris to be a race of this bird. 
It is true they are often found together, for they are Winter visitors, 
coming in great numbers at about the same time and haunting 
the same kind of count rv but 1 have never seen an adult bird 
which could not be ascribed to one or the other species without 
dillicubv. Very old males occasionally have the red breast very 
deeply coloured and even with a little black on the lower breast, 
but i have never seen any specimen of the Hlack-throated Thrush 
with any signs of red upon its throat or breast. 

(57S) Turdus atrogularis. 

The Bi.acic-thkoateo TlIBUSH. 

Tui iliis ntriM/ulari* IVmiii., Man. d'Oru., i, p. 80 ( 171*0) (.rarely in 

Austria and Silesia). 
Meruit) tttrit/Hltiris. Ithiiif. & Dates, ii, p. 131. 

Vernacular names. Mach-rtytlui (Beng.); Ihwkat gashim 
(t'achari). 

Description. -- Adult male. Whole upper plumage, sides of head 
and neck, wing-coverts and edges of wing and tail-feathers light 
greyish brown ; the wings and tail-quills dark brown ; the feathers 
of the forehead and crown have dark brown centres; lores, an 
indistinct supercilinni, cheeks, chin, throat and breast black ; 
remainder of lower plumage white, the flanks lightly mottled with 
grey and the bases of the under tail-coverts brown : under wing- 
coverts dull orange-brown ; axillaries rufous grey. 

In Winter the black feathers are edged with pale grey. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill yellow, the tip and 
final quarter of the cultnen black ; legs pale yellowish brown. 



138 TUBDID.S. 

Measurements. Wing 130 to 140 mm.; tail 101 to 105 mm.; 
tarsus about 35 mm. ; culinen 18 to 19 win. 

Female. Above, similar to the male ; below, chin, throat and 
fore-neck white heavily spotted with black ; breast and flunks ashy, 
the upper breast boldly spotted with black and the lower breast and 
flanks streaked with dark brown; remainder of lower plumage 
white. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male. 

Measurements. A mere trifle smaller than in the male: wing 
129 to 130 mm. 

Distribution. Breeding in West Siberia and Central Asia to 
Chitrul, Kashmir and Ladak ; Murree (Rattray) and Sikkim 
{Captain Taylor). 

In Winter it wanders South to the Plains of Northern India 
from Karachi through the United Provinces to Behar and Bengal. 
In Western Europe it has straggled as far as England and Scotland. 

Nidification. Within our limits this Thrush appears to breed 
in May as it also does in the Altai but on the Yenisei Pophani 
found nest and eggs in June. The nest is made of twigs, moss 
and grass, sometimes with an inner lining of mud, sometimes 
without, and with a final lining of tine grnsse.-. It appears to 
always place its nest on small trees at no great height from the 
ground, though Rattray once took one from a pine 30 feet up. 
The eggs are said to \ary between two extremes, one like that of 
the Common Blaekbird, the oilier like that of the .Missel-Thrush. 
All the Indian and Altai eggs I have seen are like the former. 
Forty-one eggs average 29-6 x 21-0 and the extremes are: 
maxima 315 x 210 and 31-4x22-1 mm.; minima 274 x 210 
and 31-2x200 mm. 

Habits. Very similar to those of the last bird. It visits 
Northern India in very great numbers in Winter but very few- 
remain to breed in the Himalayas. In the ranges between 
Afghanistan and India a few breed at 9,000 feet, and over, mi. I 
again a few remain to breed at about 10, 000 fret Iti the CJalis 
about Murree. From Sikkim 1 received birds and eggs from 
Captain Taylor, taken at about 12,000 feet. It has a tine song, 
which may be heard in March and early April before the birds leave 
on migration to their breeding haunts. 

(579) Turdus unicolor, 

Tickell's Thrush. 

Turdun u,iicol»r Tickell, J. A. S. R, ii, p. 577 (18:s3) (Borablium, 

Bengal). 
Merula unicolor. Blaiif. & Oates, ii, p. 132. 

, Vernacular names. Dm pawai (Hind.); Mach-asah (Beng.); 
I'oda palita (Tel.). 



TUBDl'S. 139 

Description. — Adult male. Whole upper plumage and visible 
portions of wings and tail ashy grey; lower plumage pale slaty 
grey, the abdomen, vent and greater part of the under tail-coverts 
white ; the chin is generally rather paler grey than the throat and 
the feathers are black-shafted ; axillaries ashy grey, generally 
tipped with buff ; under wing-coverts chestnut on the outer webs 
and tip, and grey at the base of the inner web. 

Colours of soft parts, iris brown or reddish brown ; bill yellow, 
darker at the tip and base of etilmeii ; legs and feet orange-yellow 
to light brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 250 mm. ; wing 121 to 
12!) mm. ; tail 80 to 1*5 mm. : tarsus about 31 to .'52 mm. ; culinen 
1'J to 20 mm. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-brown ; lores dark brown with 
faint pule superciliary streak above ; sides of the head and ear- 
coverts mixed brown and fulvous, the latter also with pale 
shaft-stripes ; chin and throat white or fulvous-white, streaked 
with deep brown, the spots forming lines down the sides of the 
chin, throat and fore-neck; breast olive- grey, more or less suffused 
with ochre and spotted with dark brown; flanks still more ochreous; 
abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts white. Under wing-coverts 
and axillaries as in the males. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill yellow; legs and feet 
yellow to orange-yellow. 

Measurements. Wing 114 to 120 mm. 

Nestling. Above rufous brown with broad fulvous central 
streaks ; below fulvous with broad brown bars. 

Older birds are more like the females with profuse black spots 
or bars on the lower plumage ami narrow pale shaft-streaks on 
the upper. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chitral to Eastern Assam, 
Cachar and Manipur, [South to Khandala, Raipur, Orissa and 
"Western Bengal and Behar. The specimen referred to this 
species by .lenlon, said to have been takon in Permeade, Travan- 
core, is only a very discoloured specimen of Turdits in. ui(/ripiUt*s. 

NidifAcation. This Thrush breeds throughout the Himalayas 
from the extreme North and West as far East as Nepal and, more 
rarely, in Sikkitu but apparently does not breed in the hills North 
of Ascain. It will be found principally between l>,000 and 8,000 
feet hut wanders both higher and lower than this for nesting 
purposes, and the few birds which breed in Sikkim probably all 
breed at 9,000 to 10,000 feet. It makes a nest, deep cup-shaped, 
of green and dry moss, moss and other roots, grasses and an odd 
leaf or two, the lining being of fine roots only. Some nests are 
well and com pnctly built, whilst others are very rough, untidy affairs. 
Most are placed in trees at some height between 6 and 20 feet 
from the ground ; a few are placed in among the roots of fallen 
trees or in similar situations, whilst very rarely they may be 



140 TCRSIDX. 

placed actually on the ground. The eggs number three or four 
and occasionally Ave, and vary in colour from the true Blackbird 
type to others boldly and handsomely blotched with reddish brown 
on a cream ground. The general tint is normally reddish, eggs 
with a greenish ground being exceptional and even in these the 
blotches usually give the lone. Kilty eggs average 27 - :* X 1 i) - . r > mm. : 
maxima 300x 1!K$ and 27*1 x 203 nun. ; minima 24 8 x 1U-2 and 
25-;5 x 185 mm. The breeding-season lasts from early May to the 
end of J une. 

Habits. One of the most, if not the most, common Thrushes in 
Kashmir and the North- West llimnlavas. It abounds in the 
Valley of Kashmir, where one or more pairs niav be found in 
every grove and patcli of cover round about I lie villages, for it. 
perhaps haunts the vicinity of habitations and villages even more 
than forests, though it is found in these also. It has :i line Black- 
bird-like song and sings constantly during the breeding- season. 

(5S0) Turdus dissimilis. 

The Black ukeastkd Thiuish. 

Tur.lustli.<*ii»;ii* Blvth, J. A. S. B.,xvi.p. 144, Xo. 1l> (1S-17) (l.nwer 

Bengal: Himalayas). 
Mei ula protomeltcna. Blanf. & I fates, ii, p. 1!!.'!. 

Vernacular names. Ihmknt ijashim-gajtui (Cachari). 

Description. — Adult male. Whole head, nick and upper breast 
black, except extreme point of chin which is white ; remainder 
of upper plumage, wings and tail dark slate-grey, not sharply 
defined from the head; lower breast and Hanks, axillaries and 
wing-coverts bright orange ferruginous ; abdomen, sometimes 
also the centre of lower breast, vent and under tad-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown; eyelids pale yellow; 
bill orange-yellow in breeding-season, paler yellow in winter; legs 
and feet yellow to orange-yellow. 

Measurements. Total length about 21(0 mm.; wing 118 to 
125 mm. ; tail 72 to 78 mm.; tarsus about :i<»nini.; oilmen 
about 20 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage dark olive-bi ow n ; .-ides of 
head and ear-coverts ashy fulvous-brow n, the shafts of the latter 
paler; chin and throat white heavily streaked with brown, tin- 
spots forming almost continent lines at the sides ; upper breast 
olhaceous streaked with black; lower breast, Hanks, axdlaries 
and under tail-coverts orange-rufous: abdomen, \ent and under 
tail-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, legs and feet wax-yellow. 

Measurements. Wing 110 to 124 mm.; tail H4 to hO mm.; 
tarsus :W to 'M mm.; oilmen 21 to 22 mm. 

Nestling. Above, dark brown, the feathers with dark blackish 
edges and pale fulvous shaft-stripes; below, chin, throat and 



l'UHDCH. 141 

breast as in the female but more heavily spotted; remaining 
under part* orange-fulvous spotted and barred with black. 
The young male is like the female but more spotted below. 
Rothschild (Nov. Zool., xxviii, p. 31, 1S74) shows that 
distimili* of Blyth must be used for the name of this bird. It 
cannot he rejected merely because Blyth thought that Tuniux 
unicotor was the female and Tunlus t'limmilia the male of the 
same species. 

Distribution. Assam South of the Brahmaputra, Manipur, 
Chin and Ivaehin Hills, Slum Ntntes and Yuniiiin. 

Nidiflcation. The Blaek-breasted Thrush is resident throughout 
its habitat between 4,IMM) and O.oon feet, u.-imleringup to 7,'»u0 or 
8,0<»0 feet in the Naga HilU, thin Hills and Kaehm Hills and up 
to 10,* KM.) feet in Yunnan, where it was obtained by Forest on the 
Liehiaug Range. It is essentially a forest breeder and all the 
nests 1 have taken were built » ell inside dump, evergreen forests 
on small trees or high shrubs. In appearance they are like 
rather small, untidy Blackbirds' nests, made more of green moss 
than anything else, and are placed at no great height from the 
ground. The eges vary extraordinarily in colour, and in my 
own small series 1 have eggs exactly like Missel-Thrushes' eggs, 
others like Blackbirds' and others again very richly marked with 
bold blotches of dee]) reddish brown on pale green or pale cream 
grounds. Thev number three or four and are mostly laid in May 
and June but, 1 ha\e taken them in early April and again late in 
Julv. Fifty eegs average LWxIWnmi. : maxima 290x20-0 
and 27--! X 210 mm. ; minima 2M X 2<eu and L'6'0 x 183 mm. 

Habits. This is one uf the most shy and elusive of all the 
bigger Thrushes, shunning observation, and keeping almost 
entirely to the interior of lorests. It occasionally ventures into 
the pine-woods round about IShillong in the Kliasia Hills but 
prefers deep gloomv evergreen forests, which are always damp 
and shadv. It is common in the fern and rhododendron forest 
and one often hears its short, sharp alarm rattle, though one 
seldom gets even a glimpse of it as it flees. It has a .-'weet but not 
verv powerful song. Its food consists of insects and berries and 
it is n great snail and slug eater, rinding them in the mossy cracks 
between the boulders in the forests it frequents. 

(581) Turdus obscurus obscurus. 

Tiik Dark Timrsit. 

Tardus abtcwM Umel., S. X., i. )>. HKi (1789) (hake ttaikal). 
Mtrula ubtcurtt. Hlanf. & Gates, ii, p. \'M. 

Vernacular names. Daokat t/ashim (Caehari). 

Description.-- -Adult male. Whole upper plumage, sides of 
head and neck, wing-coverts and edges of tail ami wing-quills 
olive-brown, tinged 'with rufous; lores dark brown; a narrow 



142 ■ ivnmoM. 

8upercilium, a patch under the eye and chin white; throat and 
fore-neck ashy, sides of head, ear-coverts am) sides of neck slaty 
grey running on to the upper breast ; upper breast and flanks 
pale chestnut; centre of breast and abdomen white; under tail- 
coverts white, margined with brown ; axillaris* and under 
wing-coverts pale slaty grey. The ear-coverts are olteii pale- 
shafted. 

In old males the forehead, crown and nape are sometimes 
tinged with ashy. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris olive-brown or hazel-brown; bill 
horny-brown, the gape and all but tip of lower mandible yellow; 
legs yellowish homy or light brown to dark fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 115 to 130mm.; tail 90 to 91 mm.; 
tarsus 31 mm.; eulmen IS to 10 mm. Philippine birds are very 
small, wing 115 to 119 mm. and there are no specimens from 
flsewhere with a wing less than 120 mm. 

Female Similar to the male but with the throat and fore-neck 
white streaked with dark brown ; the bead seems to. be always 
concolorous with the back ; the lores and ear-coverts are paler and 
the latter more distinctly streaked with white. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Young male similar to the female. 

Distribution. Breeding in Siberia from the Yenisei to Amur, 
Kamschatka. In Winter South to China, Indo-Chinese countries', 
Yunnan, Siam, Burma and Assam. Less regularly it is found as 
far West as Stkkiui and Nepal and a wanderer to Belgaum has 
been recorded, the specimen now being in the Briti-h Museum. 
In Europe it has been found as far West as Heligoland and South 
France. 

Nidification. The Dark Thrush breeds in the Amur in April, 
May, and June, making a nest which is said to be very like the 
untidy nest of the Fieldfare, placed in small trees <»n branches 
18 to 20 feet up. The es/gs, four to six in number, are like richly- 
spotted small eggs of the Blackbird. Thirty-two egi;s average 
27'16xl9'62 mm.: the maxima and minima are respectively 
305 x 200 mm, ; 26-6 x 211 mm. and 235 x 175 mm. 

Habits. A bird of the open forest with a rich, short song and 
shy habits. As far as India and Assam is concerned, it se«m» to 
migrate in flocks, a few individuals accompanying flocks of Tunlu* 
rujicoUis and Tunlu* atrogularit but feeding apart from these 
birds and leaving them as they enter open, cultivated country. 

(582) Tardus obscurus subobscurus. 

Salvador's Thrusu. 

Mrrula mbobtmra Snlv., Ann. Mus. Civ. Oen., (2) vii, p. 413 (1889) 
(Karen Hills) ; Ulanf. k Oates, ii, p. 136. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



TUUDTJ8. 143 

Description.— Adult male. .Similar to T. o. obtains but larger 
with the white supereilmry baud less conspicuous, the sides of the 
body paler ochraceous and the proportions of the, primaries 
different. l 

Measurements Wing 153-8 mm. The 3rd and 4th primaries 
are subdual and longest, the 2nd between the 5th and (5th in 
length ; in 1 o. obscuru, the 3rd primary is longest, the 4th a little 
shorter and the 2nd between the 4th and 5th. 

Distribution. This very doubtful race rests entirely upon a 
single specimen procured by F wl a t Taho, in the Karen Hills, 
North-east of Taunghoo in March. Gates examined the type and 
was satisfied that it differed from the last bird. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing known. 

(5*3) Turdus feae. 

Fka's Tiiuvsh. 

Merula *j«c Salv., Aim. .Mas. Civ. Gen., (2) v, p. 514 (1887) 
(Mulevit Alt.) ; Ulanf. & Oates, n, p. l.'io. 

Vernacular names. Ikwk-ai jadi (Caehari). 

Description. Adult male. Whole upper plumage russet-brown ; 
■a narrow supereilium white ; lores iilaek : a patch under the eye 
and chin white; centre of lower breast, abdomen and under tail- 
coverts white, the last with broad (jrey-brown margins ; remainder 
i>f lower surface, under wing-coverts and axillaries grey, the sides 
of the head, neck and breast more or less suffused with the rusty 
hue of the upper parts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to deep chocolate ; bill dark 
brown, yellowish at the base and nape ; legs and feet pale vellow- 
brown. 

Measurements. Wing 124 to 131mm.; tail £0 to !••> min. ; 
tarsus 30 mm. ; ciilmen about 10 to 20 mm. 

Female. Above like the male; below, chin and throat white 
speckled with brown and the grey of the male replaced by fulvous- 
grey except in very old birds, w hich are almost as grey as the 
males. 

Distribution. Assam, South of the Brahmaputra, Manipur and 
the hills of (kmtral Burma to Mulevit Mountain in Tenasserim. 

Nidification. Fea's Thrush is probably resident throughout its 
range, and in the hills South ol the Brahmaputra it certainly 
breeds at all heights over 4,000 feet, though not often below 
5,000 feet. It makes a typical Blackbird's nest of twigs, leaves, 
grass and a great deal of moss, both dry and green ; the lining 
is of grass but under this there is always a layer of moss, roots and 
mud and often there is a considerable amount of earth mixed 
with the materials in the body of the nest. It is a rather massive 
cup, fairly well put together and is generally placed in a small 



144 titbdid*:. 

tree or sapling between 8 and 20 feet from the. ground but 
sometimes it is placed low down in Azalea mid Rhododendron 
bushes. It is not well concealed and as the bird always leaves it 
with a loud alarin-fry it is not easy to miss it. All those ] have 
seen were placed on trees and bushes well inside heavy wet 
forest growing on steep hillsides, broken with rocks and stony 
ravines. They breed from the end of May to the middle of July. 

1'our seems to be the full complement of eggs laid and these 
vary extraordinarily in colour. Some are just like very small eggs 
of the Missel-Thrush, others have a bright pale blue ground-colour 
with a ring or cap of reddish blotches at the larger end and most 
are pale greenish in ground-colour, richly blotched all over with 
bright reddish marks of some size. In shape they are broad ovals 
but little compressed at the smaller et'd. Sixteen eggs average 
27-3 x 19-8 mm.: the maxima are 292 x -00 and 2^7 x 208 mm.; 
the minima are 25 - 7 X 190 mm. 

Habits. 1 found this bild to be a frequenter of the interiors of 
dark, wet forests above 4,000 feet, keeping to the densest parts, 
especially in the vicinity of small mountain-streams. It is 
apparently more of a tree- than a ground-feeder but was several 
times noticed hunting huge moss-covered boulders and rocks in 
the Ehododendron-forests above Shillong. Once or twice 1 saw it 
perched high up on a Rhododendron, uttering its short and jerky 
but rather sweet song but it was very shy and all one usually saw 
of it was a hurried glimpse as it shot across the stream or from 
one tree to another. The stomach of one bird contained a mass 
of small black spiders and wild strawberries, both insects and 
fruit being exceedingly common on and round the rocks in the 
Khnsia Hills forests. Its flight is very rapid but never seems to 
be prolonged. As far as is known at present l'Va's Thrush is not 
migratory and in Assam it did not even move vertically with the 
seasons. 

(5! en us GE0CICHLA. 
Oeocichla Kuhl, ? Dutch periodical, 18if*S. 
Type, Geocichhi interpret. 

The genus Geocichhi contains some Thrushes very closely allied 
to the genus Turdvs, but the axilfaries and under wing-coverts 
instead of being unicoloured are of two contrasting colours 
transposed in position on the two. It also differs from 
Tardus in having both the wing and tail comparatively shorter 
and, as we should ox|>ect from the former, the birds of this genus 
are normally resident and not migratory, though some of them 
wander in the Winter a good deal and nil move to some extent 
vertically with the seasons. 

They are ground-birds in their habits and their song is crude 
and quite unlike that of the Tree-Thrushes and Blackbirds. 

The sexes are dissimilar. 



GKOCIC1ILA. 145 

Key to Species. 

A. No chestnut on lower pluimige. 

a. Upper tail-coverts margined with white .... G. tcardi, p. 1-15. 

b. No white on upper tail-coverts G. sibirica, p. 140. 

B. Lower plumage almost entirely chestnut G. cilrina, p. 148. 

The species G. cilriim is divided into many local races w Inch 
have hitherto been given 1 lie status of species, but they all grade 
the one into the oilier and are no more sharply differentiated 
from one another than the races of many species which have 
hitherto been ignored altogether. 

(•VH> Geocichla wardi. 

Tin: Pieu (ihol'nii-Tiihl'sii. 

Turdii* irrtrdi Jerdon, .1 . A . S. 1!., xi, p. .'-•~J ( ISA2) ( Mysore). 
Genrif/dfi irardi. Blunt'. & Oali-s, ii, ]i. U>7. 

Vernacular names. Daokat uieberumj (Cachari). 

Description.- Adult male. Whole head, neck, breast and upper 
plumage black, tin' rump and upper tail-covcrts with creseentic 
Mack tips; tail black, the centre leathers tipped with white, the 
white increasing laterally until on the outermost a hroad tip and 
the whole of the inner web is white ; a broad white supercilium ; 
wings black, the lesser and median coverts most iy white; - the 
greaier lipped with white, the primaries are edged with white on 
tlie centre of the feathers and the secondaries are tipped with 
white ; rest of plumage white, the thinks boldly barred with black 
and the under tail-coverts with concealed black bases. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill bright yellow or yellow - 
ochre, tipped with black ; legs and feet fleshy ochre. 

Measurements. Total length about 223 mm. ; wing 1 1 G to 
lilt mm. ; tail *>'■> to 7b mm. ; tarsus 2'J mm. ; oilmen U^ mm. 

Female. Above olive-brown ; the longer feathers of the rump 
tipped with white bars ; tail dark olive-brown tipped with white 
in the same way as, but to a less extent than, in the male ; wings 
dark o!i\e, the coverts tipped with fulvous; a narrow fulvous and 
white siiperciliuin ; lores blackish, sides of head ami throat mixed 
buff and blackish; chin while; throat and upper breast fulvous- 
white haired with blackish ; remainder of lower plumage white, 
heavily barred on all but abdomen and vent with dark brown and 
sometimes more or less suffused with ochre on the flanks and 
breast. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill horny yellow; legs and 
feet yellow. 

Measurements. Wing 113 to 117 mm. 

Nestling. Dark brown above with pale shafts; below like the 
female but even more heavily barred ; wings as in the female. 

Distribution. From the Sutlej Valley in the Himalayas to the 

VOL. II. L 



146 TUBDIDJE. 

extreme East of Assam North of the Brahmaputra and, excep- 
tionally, on the higher ranges of the Niiga and Cachar Hills to the 
South of this river. East of Sikkim ibis comparatively rare hut. 
I have seen specimens from the Hills North of Darning and 
above Sadiya. In Winter it wanders to the extreme South of India 
and Ceylon, hut it passes over the lower-lying country without 
stopping until it arrives at the Nilgiris and higher hills of 
Southern India. 

Nidiflcation. Breeds (luring May and June, its eggs having 
been taken as late as the 17th July by Mr. S. L. Whymper. 
The nest is a broad cup made of moss, roots, grass and leaves lined 
with the latter, and often a considerable amount of mud is used in 
the base and inner lining of the nest. It is built at some <> to 
UO feet, from the ground in small trees either on the outskirts 
of forest, in fairlv thin jungle or even in gardens and compounds. 
The eggs, which number three or four, urt> just like those of 
G. c. cilrina but are generally paler. The (.'round-colour is a 
very pale sea-green or blue-green and the markings consist of 
fairly profusely -scattered blotches of pale reddish brown. They 
measure about 2li , l)x li>'4 mm. 

Both parents take part in incubation. 

Habits. This very striking-looking little Thrush breeds between 
4,000 and 7,000 feet but more ottcn under 0,000 feet than over 
except in the hills .South of the Brahmaputra. Although a 
conspicuous bird except in deep forest, it does not shun nh«er- 
\atioti and frequents the vicinity of houses rattier than the deeper 
forests. It has no song apparently and is a very quiet though 
restless bird. Like all the species of this genus, it keeps almost 
entirely to the ground when feeding. 

Geocichla sibirica Pallas. 

Key to iSul/sjiecieg. 

A. Much paler, uh lonun partly white (i. .«. m'ltirica, p. 140. 

J5. Much ilarker, abdomtn wholly nlatf-jrrei .... (,'. s. darisonl, p. 147. 

(."■S5) Geocichla sibirica sibirica. 

Tllfc SlBKKIAX GltOL'.MJ-TllltUtSH. 

Turiliu ni/jiricim I'all., Iteise Kuss. Keichs, iii, p. 094 (1776) 

(Unarm). 
Geocichla sibirica. Blanf. & Gate*, ii, p. lo8. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male. Whole plumage deep slaty-blue 
black, the margins of the feathers a pale slaty blue and the outer 
three pairs of tail-feathers tipped with white; lores velvety 
black and a broad sup-reiliutn while ; the centre of the abdomen, 
vent and thigh-coverts white or mixed white and slaty «rev ; 
under tail-coverts broadly edged and tipped with white ; axillaries 



OBOCicur.A. 147 

white tipped with blackish and under wing-coverts ashy black 
tipped with while. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black; legs and 
feet greenish yellow to pale yellow or yellow-horny. 

Measurements. Total length about 2:50 mm.; wing 114 to 
124 mm.; tail 7S to 85 nun. ; tarsus about liOimu.; culmen 
about 2<» mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage rich ruf'eseent olive-brown, 
more rufous on the tail and edires of primaries : wing-coverts 
tipped with bull'; a narrow supereilium, sides of head and ear- 
coverts mottled buff and dark brown ; lores and a streak from the 
gonvs dark brown; chin and throat buff; breast bright pale 
rufous-buff tipped and edjjed with brown; lower breast white, 
similarly marked ; centre of abdomen more or less white ; Hanks 
olive-brown barred faintly with darker brown; under tail coverts 
white with broad brown murks on either side of the bases ; tail- 
feathers 1 ipped with white on the three outer pairs ; avillaries white 
tipped with brown and under wing-coverts olive-brown tipped 
wit h white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill dark horny-brown, 
the base of the lower mandible pale yellow; legs and feet orange- 
yellow. 

Measurements as in the male. 

Young male like the female but upper plumage as in male and 
the edges to th" feathers below more slate-grey than brown. 

Nestling. Brown ;ibo\e, tipped and centred on each feather 
with pale rufous-buff; below rufous broadly barred with black. 

Distribution. Breeding in Central Siberia and wandering South 
in winter to India, Burma and Western China and there is a 
tvpical specimen in the British Museum collection from Sumatra. 
This race and the next very widely overlap in their winter 
quarters and there are many places in which both birds have 
been taken almost at the same time. as. for instance, Xwalaho in 
Southern Burma. There is seldom, however, any difficulty in 
assigning any individual to its proper subspecies. It has occurred 
as far west as Great Britain and France. 

Nidiflcation. l>oes not differ from that of the better known 
Japanese form, the next bird. In Central Siberia it breeds late 
in June between latitudes North (>(!° and (>b\ 

Habits. Similar to those of Davison's Ground-Thrush. 



("»*6) Geocicbla sibirica davisoni. 

Davison's Guoi'ND-Tmiraii. 

Turiliilm dtwisimi Hume, S. 1\, v, p. 03 (1S77) (Muleyit). 

Vernacular names. Slamit-jira, Torat nitjumi (Japan.). 

l2 



148 TUKDIDiE. 

Description. — Adult male. Similar to the Siberian Ground- 
Thrush but blacker mid without any white tips to the under 
tail-coven s or with these tips very narrow nnd the abdomen all 
slaty grey- 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. About the same as in the preceding bird ; wing 
119 to 128 mm. ; tail 87 to 90 inni. 

Distribution, lireediug in Japan and migrating South in winter 
to China, the Indo-Chinese countries, Burma and Assam. 

Nidiflcation. Davison's Ground-Thrush breeds in great numbers 
in Japan, where the late Alan Owston obtained many nests and 
eggs, it lays in 51 ay and June, making a rather massive, untidy 
nest of grass, dead leaves and roots, lined with mud and with mi 
inner lining of coarse grass and roots. As a rule the nest is placed 
in a low tree, often a fruit-tree in nn orchard, between f> and 
20 feet from the ground. The eggs, which number lour or 
five, are very pale in ground-colour, varying from bluish white to 
pale cream or stone-colour, the latter quite exceptional. The 
markings consist of specks and speckles rather sparsely scattered 
all over the surface of the .egg like those of a weakly-marked 
15laekbird's egg. .Krythristiu eggs are rare, and equally rare are 
those like washed-out specimens of eggs of the .Missel-Thrush. 
Sixty cirgs average 29' "> x 20W unit. : maxima 33*0x21*2 and 
28*4 x 23*0 mm. ; minima 26*3 x 2<>V and 2S x 19*3 mm. 

Habits. Apparently very much the same as tho-e of our Indian 
Ground-Thrushes. They seek their food almost entirely on the 
ground and keep to well-wooded country and forest, but Mr. 
Owston informed me that they are not particularly shy or secretive 
birds antl also that, unlike our Georiclilan, they ha\e a sweet, lull- 
toned song. 

Geocichla citrina Lath., 1790. 

Key to Subnjtt<:i(x. 

A. Median wing-coverts broadly tipped 
with white. 
a. ('bin and throat chestnut like the 

breast .... (i.e. rili inn, p. 14H. 

I). Chin ami tlirnut white ... (i.e. vynnuti*. ]>. lot). 

H. Median wing-covert* without white tips. 

r. Chili and throat chestnut (i.e. in not at a, p. 161. 

d. Chin iinil throat white G. c. alltoguloru, p. I-*V>. 

r . Chin white, throat chestnut G. r. iiiiilutiiiiiien.iit, p. ITyJ. 

(587) Geocichla citrina citrina. 

The Oua.vgk-iikadei) GnocND-Tmtrsii. 

Turdu* citriniix Lath., Ind. Orn., i, p. 3o0 (1700) (Cat-hurl. 
Geocichla rilrina. IManf. & Ofttes, li, p. 140. 

Vernacular names. Dao&nt-gajauwba (Cachari). 



OBOCICHLA. 140 

Description. — Adult male. Whole head and lower parts to vent 
orange-chestnut, darkest on the head and paler below, the centre 
of the abdomen sometimes almost albescent; upper plumage and 
wing-coverts dark bluish grey, each feather edged paler, n 
conspicuous wing-spot of white formed by the broad white tips 
ot the median wing-coverts : primaries and outer secondaries 
blackish brown, edged externally with pale blue-grey ; tail dark 
biown, faintly cross-rayed and with the central feathers tinged 
with blue-grey ; vent and under Uil-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to deep brown; bill dark 
horny brown ; legs and feet creamy yellow to fleshy pink. 

Measurements. Total length about 22.~) mm.; wing U)'.i(ont) 
and lUtMo 121 mm.; tail 67 to (ill mm. ; tarsus about S3 mm.; 
culmen about 19 to 20 nun. 

Female. Like the male but with the upper plumage (wings and 
tail) olive-brown instead of blue-grey, the feathers faintly edged 
with olive-yellow. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male. 

Measurements. Wing 100 to 10(5 mm. 

Nestling. Above dark brown, the feathers with pile central 
stria;, the head and mantle orange-brown with darker edges and 
pale centres, the lower plumage dull pale orange-white heavily 
barred with black. Young males acquire the blue upper plumage 
direct from the nestling plumage and have no intermediate plumage 
like that of the female. The median wing-coverts are tipped with 
buff instead of white. It is interesting to note that young birds 
show signs of the two black cheek-bars so conspicuous in adult 
G. c. ci/aiioti*. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree, Simla, and Garhwal 
to Assam, verv rare in the West and getting more and more 
common to Hie Hast, almost the whole of Burma to the 
extreme South of Tenasserim. East to the Shan States, Siam, 
Langbian IV.tk in Amiain {Robinson <$' Klogs) and Yunnan. 
In India in winter it moves to the foot-hills of the Himalayas 
anil adjacent plains, and individuals often wander far afield. Thus 
in tin; Museum there arc typical specimens from Mirzapur, Kaipur, 
Madras and one from Ceylon and three others from this island are 
in the Colombo Museum. Recently Eobinsou find Kloss have also 
recorded it from Sumatra. In Bengal they are not very rare in 
December and January and they come well into the Behar 
Plains. Birds from Szeehuan are nearer to (}. c auriniaculatti 
from Hainan, but much bigger with wings measuring 108 to 
1 13 mm. 

Nidiflcation. The Orange-headed Ground-Thrush breeds through- 
out its range between 1,000 or 2,000 and 5,000 feet, occasionally 
a little higher than this. It, lays principally in May and Juno but 
frequently also in July, whilst I found fresh eggs as late as the end 
of August. The nest varies considerably. It is cup-shaped and 



150 TURDIDiE. 

rather shallow, the materials consisting of fine twigs, grass, 
dead leaves, scraps of bracken and invariably ti considerable 
amount of green moss outside and a lining of line roots and fern 
rachitics. Sometimes it is neat and compact and sometimes very 
loosely put together and untidy. It is placed in high bushes or 
small trees at any height from the ground between 3 and 
15 feet. The eggs number three or four, rarely five. In 
colour they vary from pale green-blue, pinkish stone, or cream, 
whilst the markings vary from freckles of reddish brown profusely 
distributed all over the egg as in a Blackbird's to quite bold blotches 
and spots of rich reddish purple with the pale ground showing up 
well between them. They are in fact like many other Indian 
Thrushes' eggs such as Turd us dissintilix but differ from all these 
in their glossy surface and hard, close texture. One hundred 
eggs average 2;V6xl9"^ mm.: maxima 27"7 X 20-0 and - J 5'5 x 
21-3 mm. ; minima 210 x 18-5 and 27'.'5 X 17 - 1 mm. 

Habits. This Ground-Thrush is essentially a bird of deep forest, 
though it is sometimes found in the thin cover on recently deserted 
patches of cultivation or in bamboo-jungle. It prefers deep, shad}' 
forests of evergreen character with an undergrow th of hushes, ferns 
and luxuriant wet green growths, where it potters about on the 
ground in its search for berries and insects. The crev ices between 
the ino>s-eo\ered boulders it hunts for beetles and spiders, and the 
fallen leaves and rubbish it turns over and over for the same 
purpose. It has a few sweet notes in ihe breeding-season, hardly 
rising to a song and it has also some quite harsh notes as well. 
It is a tropical Thrush and is only found in hot forests from 0,000 
feet almost to the foot-hills in Summer and well into the adjacent 
Plains in Winter. At the same time it is not iriigiatoty in the 
true sense of the word, though individuals may wander very far 
from their usual haunts. 



Geocichla citrina cyanotis. 

Thk White-tiiboated Ground-Thrush. 

Turdus cyanotis Jard. & Selby, 111. Oru., i, pi. xlvi (l*2ti) ( Xilgiris). 
Geocic/ila eyauonotut. Blant'. & Oates, ii, p. lJil). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Chin, throat, lores and lore-neck 
white; cheeks and centre of ear-coverta white; u broad brown 
line running from above the eye obliquely through the cheeks and 
turning to orange on the sides of the fore-neck ; anterior ear- 
coverts dark blackish-brown, tipped with uhite. 

Remainder of plumage like that of (J. c. citrina, but the orange 
darker and duller and suffused with olive on the crown. 

Colour* of soft parts as in (J. c. citrina. 

Measurements. Wing 10fJ to 112 mm.; tuil f»i' to 69 mm.; 
tarsus 29 mm.; culmeu 19 to 20 mm. 



OEOCICHLA.. 151 

Female differs from the male in the same respects as does tlie 
female of the Orange headed Ground-Thrush. Wing 104 to 
109 mm. 

Nestling similar to those of the other races but with the white 
throat and brown cheek-bars well defined. 

Distribution. Gates gives this Thrush's distribution as India 
South of latitude 24°, but it seems to be confined almost entirely 
to Western India, whew it is common from the South of Travan- 
core to North Kanara and thence to Nasik and Kliandesh. Its 
Eastern limits still require working out. 

Nidification. This Thrush breeds in Travancore in May and June. 
Davidson in Kanara found eggs from M.-iy to July; Vidnl took 
them in the Southern Konkan in June, July and August and Mr. 
Morgan as late as August and September. The nest only differs 
from that of (I. c. citrinn in having a certain amount of mud used in 
its construction and the eggs only vary from those of that bird in 
being, on the whole, much less richlv marked. Three eggs seem 
often to form a full clutch and two only are sometimes laid. 
Forty eggs average 25 , iixlH'") mm.: maxima 270 x 194 and 
25-1 xl92 mm.; minima 220 x H-l and 2.T5 x 18 0. 

They breed between about l.ono and f>,00<> feet. 

Manv observers have remarked the pluck of these birds in 
defending their nests against marauders \\ he! her human, mammals 
or other birds. 

Habits. Similar to those of the Orange-beaded Ground-Thrush 
but it appears to he a much more familiar bird, haunting and even 
breeding in gardens and orchards as well as in deep forest. They 
are very crepuscular in their habits as are all G'eocichhis and seem 
to rest through all the hotter hours of the day. 



('•sit) Geocichla citrina innotata. 

Tub Malay (J tioirxn-THUUsn. 

flfociihl'i innotatn lilytli, J. A. S. 15., xv, p. J570 (1840) (Malay 
Peninsula); ISiant & Gates, ii, p. 141. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Similar to the Orange-headed 
Ground-Thrush hut with the orange-rufous deeper and richer 
everywhere and with no white wing-spot. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown ; hill horny-black, 
sometimes tinged with plumbeous, the base of the lower mandible 
fleshy yellow ; legs and feet fleshy yellow. 

Measurements. Wing 110 to 1:22 mm.; tail (ill to 71 nun.; 
tarsus :<2 mm. ; culmen 20 to 21 mm. 

Pdmale differs from the male in t\w same way as it does in the 
other races but averages a trifle smaller. 



152 TCBDIM. 

Distribution. The distribution of this race is not easy to work 
out owing to so many individuals being indeterminate over so 
great an extent of country. Thus individuals of 0. c. citrina and 
O. e. innotata have both been obtained from Langbian Peak, 
Anna in (Robinson tj- Kloss), Bankasoon, Thoungvah, Klong- 
haug-lai and other places in the central portions of its range, 
lioughly speaking it is found Soutli of Tavov down the Malay 
Peninsula as far Soutli as Malacca. Birds from Koh Kul Is., 
South-East Statu seem to be typical innoUtta. 

Nidification. Not recorded. 

Habits. Similar to those of the Orange-headed Ground- 
Thrush. 



(nitO) Geocichla citrina andamanensis. 

Tiik Andamax Gkou.ni> Thucsh. 

(Jeocichki andamanentis Wald., A. M. X. II.. (\) xiv, p. lab' (1871) 
(Andaman*) ; lilnnf. & Oittes, ii, ji. 14:.'. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.- Adult male. Differs from (1. c. citrina in having 
tin- chestnut * very where much richer and deeper and in ha\ui>; 
the chin white or whitish and the centre of the throat inclined to 
be albescent. There are nearly always distinct signs of two cheek- 
bars representing the blackish liars on ci/anotix. 

Colours of soft parts as in C.c. iitri,«i. The base of the bill 
according to Davison is sometimes pale plumbeous. 

Measurements. Wing 100 to 107 mm.; tail 7" to 71 mm.; 
tarsus Hi) to HI mm. ; culuien about 20 mm. 

Female has the blue-grey of the upper parts replaced bv olive- 
green as in the other races. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male. 

Measurements practically the same as in the mule. 

Nestling as in the Orange - headed Ground - Thrush but- 
darker. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands only. 

Nidification. Breed commonly in the Andamans during May 
and June, during which month many nests were found by Messrx. 
B. B. Osmaston, P. Wickhani and A. Anderson. The nest and 
eg«s are not distinguishable from those of the Indian bird but 
perhaps the latter are not quite so richly coloured. .Fiftv eggs 
average 25 2 x 18-7 mm.: maxima 27 Ox 18-0 and 257 X 19 3 mm.; 
minima 230 x 18« and 2(H) x 176 mm. 

Habits. Similar to those of the other races. 



AECMJTHOaSIS. 158 

(591) Geocichla citrina albogularis. 

The Nicobar Ground-Thrush. 

Geocichla albogularu Myth, J. A. S. B., xvi, p. 146 (1847) (Nicobars). 
Geocichla albiijularix. lJlanf. & Gates, ii, p. 142. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male and female differ respectively from 
the same sexes of the pnveding bird in having the chin, throat and 
fore-nock w late and in having the chestnut even richer and deeper 
than in tliiit bird ; the dark cheek-stripes are just noticeable and 
the intermediary area sometimes whitish, though never white as 
in cytiiiolit. 

Colours of soft parts as in G. c. citriim. 

Measurements. Wing 10n to 1<K> mm.; tail 06 to 72 ram.; 
tarsus lil nun.; culim-ii about 120 mm. 

Distribution. Nicobars only. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

Genus ARCEUTHORNIS. 

Kaup, SKizz. Kntw. (iescli. Nut. Syst., p. !t:J (1829). 
Type, Ai'ct'ulhoriiis pilaris. 

The Thrushes of this genus ( Tun.hus auet .) are very closely allied 
both to Tvnhis and Geneichln. They contain three birds which 
are found in India in which the sexes are alike— the under wing- 
coverts and axillaries are of one colour and there is no pattern on 
the underside of the wing. The wing and tail are both long, 
though their comparative lengths vary slight lv. and the latter is 
slightly graduated. The bill is smaller than in Tui-Jus: the tarsi 
equally strong and well developed. 

The* Indian race of the Missel-Thrush is more or less sedentary ; 
the other two species (the Fieldfare and Kedwiug) are very widely 
distributed and are migratory. They seek their food both on the 
ground and on trees. 

As alreadv shown, the name Tardus refers to the Thrushes of 
the liicrulit type and therefore cannot, be used for the Missel- 
Thrushes except by those ornithologists who unite all these genera 
in one. The next earliest name is Aretuthornis oi Kaup, which 
will therefore have lo be used. 

Key lo Species. 

A. Under wiug-coverts and axillaries white. 

n. Crown and mantle brown ■ • A. risciiaru*, p. 154. 

b. Crown slaty-grey, mantlw rufous i. pilaris, p. 155. 

IV Under wingAwort* «nd axilUries rufous 4. tunticiu, p. 156 



154 TUKDIIUE. 

Arceuthornis viscivorus Linn., 1758. 
Type-locality : Europe, restricted to Sweden. 

(5ii2) Arceuthornis viscivorus bonapartei. 

TllE HlMALAVAN' MlSHEI.-TllKUSU. 

Tardus bonaptirtei Wit., Xihiv. Arch. 31 us. Paris, vi, Hull. p. 154 

f (1870) (Mupiii). 

Turdu.i vifcirarufi. Blanf. & Oates. ii, p. 148. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Whole upper plumage pale gre\ ish brown, with a 
very faint tinge of ochraceous, sometimes absent and nearly always 
rather more pronounced on the rump and upper tnil-co\ei ts ; tail 
brown, the feathers, unless abraded, narrowly edged with whitish 
and the outer tail-feather* tipped with white, this extending well 
down the inner web ; wings brown, the median and greater 




nayartei. 



coverts and all the (jiiills edged with sandy-white; lores and 
round the eyes sandy-white; ear-coverts brown streaked with 
sand}'; lower plumage pale buff, the chin and the middle of the 
throat nearly white and spotless, the remainder boldly spotted 
with dark brown, the spots triangular on the upper breast and 
sides of the ht ad and neck, round elsewhere. Axillaries and under 
wing-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill above dark horny- 
brown, sometimes ;i little paler at the base, below yellowish at the 
base, dark brown on the terminal third ; legs and feet, pale yellowish 
brown, the claws darker. 

Measurements. Total length about IJtiO mm.; wing 1(10 to 
175 mm.; tail 110 to 125 mm.; tarsus 2!J to 25 mm.; culnien 
about 22 to 24 mm. 

This form of Missel-Thrush differs from true A. v. vitcivorvs in 
being larger and much paler, especially above. The European 
Missel-Thrush is an almost rufous-brown above and the ochre is 
much more distinct. 



AKCKUTHonXIS. 155 

The Young bird has this feathers of the upper parts tipped 
with black and with white centres, dull on the head, boldlv 
marked elsewhere. 

Distribution. From Transc-aspia through Central Asia, South 
to the Himalayas as far East as Nepal and North-East as far as 
Lake Baikal. 

Nidification. This Missel-Thrush breeds throughout its range 
in May and June and commonly in the Western Himalayas from 
Chitra! to (iarhwal be! ween 0,000 to 1 0,000 feet but not. often below 
b,000 feet. The nest is made of leaves, grass, bracken mid fern- 
fronds, and is lined with mud and an inner lining of roots and 
grass. It is a big, heavy affair some S or 10 inches in diameter 
and is placed on trees generally some 4 to 10 feel, from the 
ground. The eggs are just like I hose of the Common Missel-Thrush 
and fifty egns average 31-:5 x -!:M mm.: maxima 340x'23-0 and 
:i0<ix23-6 mm.; minima 274xL'l-l and 28-5 x 207 mm. 

Habits. The Himalayan Missel -Thrush is "ot migratorv and 
even in Winter is never found \erv low down in the hills and 
never wanders into the Plains. Its habits are those of its 
European cousin, rat Iter shy yet haunting groves and orchards in 
the vicinity of buildings as well as u ilder country. It is a tine 
songster, iIioul'Ii it al-o has many harsh call-notes. Its food 
consists of insects of all kinds, and snails, slugs, worms and 
berries. 

(3W) Arcenthornis pilaris. 

TlIK KlELlil'AKK. 

Turtlus pilaris I.iun., S. X., i, p. 108 (17.")8) (Sweden); Blanf. & 
Oates, ii, p. 150. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Head, neck, extreme upper back, rump and upper 
tail-coverts slaty-grey, the feathers of the forehead and crown 
with black centres and tlie rump with white shafts; hack and 
scapulars dark chestnut-brown, mottled, more or less, with 
blackish and dull white; tail dark brown, the outer feathers 
narrowly edged with white at the tips; wing-eo\erts dull 
chestnut-brown with pale edges; winglet. greater coverts and 
quills dark brown with pale edges ; the innermost secondaries all 
grey on the outer web; lores and cheeks dark brown or black; 
ear-coverts like the crown ; a very faint, trace of a superciliura ; 
chin, throat and breast rufous-butt', darkest on the breast, the 
chin unspotted, the rest boldly streaked with black ; remainder of 
lower plumage white, the flanks and sometimes the lower breast 
with bold black crescentic bars or spots of black. In some 
specimens a certain amount of rufous or buff also extends to these 
parts. Axillaris and under wing-coverts white, occasionally with 
brown centres. 



156 TURDID.E. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to deep brown; bill yellow 
with a black tip ; legs and feet idack. 

Measurements. Total length about 2S0 mm.; wing 140 to 
153 mm. ; tail 1 10 to 1 18 nun. ; tarsus about I.J3 to 35 nun. ; 
culinen 20 to 22 mm. 

The Young bird is like the adult but lias the centre of the 
back, coverts and scapulars streaked with fulvous and with black 
edges to the feathers. 

Distribution. Breeding in Northern Europe from the Faroes, 
Norway and Sweden, North Kussia, rarely North Germany and 
Central Russia, Siberia East to the Yenesei and, less commonly, 
further East to Dauria. In Winter it migrates south to Northern 
Africa and South-West Asia to Kashmir and North-West India. 

Nidification. This Thrush breeds in scattered colonies, making 
a very large untidy nest of leaves, grass, twigs, etc., mud and grass 
lined, which it places on a tree or bush often in a most conspicuous 
position. The eggs number four to six and are like richly- 
coloured and boldly-marked Blackbird egg--. Hartert gives the 
average of lifty-nine eggs as 2b - 4 x 21 -o mm. : maxima 33'5 x 234 
mm. ; minima 26'3 X 20'f> and 28'U x 19'5 mm. 

They breed from the last few days of May to late in June. 

Habits. This bird, which is only found as a very rare straggler 
within Indian limits (Simla, ,/enlon ; Kashmir, Adams and 
Saharanpttr. .hune&m), is a bird of well-wooded and cultivated 
localities. Its song is a very poor one and its call-notes loud and 
harsh. It feeds, like others of the genus, on both berries and 
insects. 

(594) Arceuthornis musicus. 

Thk liKinvrxi;. 

Tiirdut mmifus Linn., S. X., i, j>. 100 (I7".8) (Sweden). 
Tardus ilitifiiK. Hlanf. \ Oatc, li, \>. lot). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Whole upper plumage and tail olive-brown, darkest 
on the head, palest on the upper tail-eoverts ; a broad snperciliutn 
buff; wings dark brown, the feathers edged with pule rufescent 
olive-brown ; lores and ear-co\erts deep brown, the latter with 
faint pale central *tria- ; Hanks, under wing-coverts and axillaries 
chestnut : under surface white suffused with buff on the breast 
and sides and streaked with brown, which is almost black on the 
throat and sides of the neck. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; upper mandible dark 
brown, lewer mandible dark at the tip, fleshy horny at the base ; 
legs fleshy grey-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about i'.'JO to 240 mm. ; wing 110 



ORROCIXCLA.. 157 

to 120 mm. ; tail 70 to 84 mm. ; tarsus about 30 mm. ; eultnen 18 
to 20 mm. 

The Young bird has the feathers of the upper parts, the 
wing-coverts and inner secondaries streaked with fulvous and 
those of the back and scapulars also tipped with black ; the under- 
pays are dull white haired and spotted with blackish. 

Distribution. Iceland, Northern Europe as far South as North 
Germany and Central Kussia East to the Pacific but getting less 
common East of the Yencsei. In Winter it migrates South to the 
Canaries, Northern Africa, Palestine, Persia and Turkestan. A 
doubtful straggler into India. Jerdun recorded it as having been 
obtained in th« N.W. lliiiialayas'and also that Lieur. Trotter had 
informed him that it was a regular visitor at Kohat. Magrath, 
Whitehead, llariugtou and others have quite failed to confirm 
this latter statement. 

Nidiflcation. The Redwing makes a nest which is a small, near 
replica of the Fieldfare's, but it does not nest in colonies and 
selects as a site some low hush or shrub where the nest is very 
inconspicuous and, at times, it even builds it on the ground. The 
eggs are like small Blackbird's and do not vary nearly as much 
as the Fieldfare's do. llarlert gives 1 he average ol fifty eggs as 
25-sx 1.^-7 mm.: maxima 27-8x19-8 and 20-2x200 mm.: 
minima 235 x 1U() mm. and 20-0xl7"5 mm. 

They lay four to six eggs and breed principally in June. 

Habits. The Redwing is a frequenter of more heavily-wooded 
areas than the Fieldfare and is seldom seen in open, treeless 
country. Its song is sweet hut not very powerful. 



Genus 0RE0CINCLA. 
(iould. 1\Z. S., 18:57, p. 1 ■«.">. 
Tvpe, (he'>cinclu mav-holland'ur ( = hinu 7 at<i). 

In the ^eiius Offociiicla ihe sexes are alike; the under wing- 
coverts and axillaries are. eiicb of two colours, those on the axillaries 
lieing transposed or reversed on the under \ving-co\erts : the 
lower plumage is spotted or marked with straight or somewhat 
crescent ic bars; the rictal bristles are few and confined to the 
gape. The tail is short and the under tail-coverts ample. There 
is a distinct colour-pattern in the underside of the wing. 

The majority of the members of this genus are sedentary but 
«u»-«rt is migratory with resident geographical races. 

The bill varies very greatly in size and shape, in some being 
small and shaped much as in Tardus, whilst in some, as in 
O. imhrUata and 0. nilfjtriciiri*, it is very long and heavy, very like 
the bill in the Thrushes of the genus Zootkera. 



158 TUBDID.fi. 

Key to Species. 

A. Feathers of upper plumage boldly tipped with 

crescent ic black bars. 

a. T«il of 1- feathers (). dauma, p. 168. 

b. Tiiil of 14 feathers O. aurea, p. J 01. 

B. Feathers of upper plunmuf without dark tips. 

o. Lower plumage with black cresceniic tips . . 0. 7tw/lissima,^. 16U. 
d. Lower plumage with black fan-shaped spots. O. spiloplera, p. HW>. 

Oreocincla dauma. 

Key to tSuhsperitg. 

A ( i round -colour of lower plumaire almost 
white. 
a. 1'pper parts much paler and fulvous spots 

dominant ().</. dauma. p. ]o>\ 

l>. Upper parts much darker mid fulvuiis sputs 

obsolete ().(/. iii/i/irie>i.iig, p. 1/59. 

13. Ground-colour of lnwei plnnmire nchra- 

ceous-bulT O. d. iii.hricata, p. ItiO. 

(595) Oreocincla dauma dauma. 

TJIK SMAU.-UlMiEII AJkcntain-Tiiucsu. 

Turdu* dauma Lath., 1ml. Orn., i. p. .'iiy (1~!)0) (India). 
Oreocincla dauma. bhinl. & Oates, ii, p. 1'yJ. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. In Winter the vv 'hole upper plumage is oohraceous- 
brown. each feather with a terminal crescent ic black bar and a 
subterminal golden-fulvous spot ; lesser wing-eoverts dark brown 
with bold fulvous tips, median coverts with fulvous tips and edges 
and greater coverts with the central portion of the outer webs 
fulvous ; quills brown edged with fulvous and the inner seeondarien 
narrowly tipped with the same; tail, lateral feathers dark brown 
fading to whitey-brown on the outermost and tipped with while, 
central four feathers olive-brown ; sides of the head fulvous spotted 
with black and with a black patch formed by the tips of the ear- 
coverts; below white tinged with fulvous, especially on the breast, 
in varying degree and barred on sides of neck, the breast, Hanks 
and all but the centre of the abdomen with crescent it* tips of 
black ; axillaries white and black, reversed on the under wing- 
coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown; bill, upper 
mandible dark homy-brown, lower mandible pale horny-brown, 
dark at the tip; legs and feet pale fleshy to horny white. 

Measurements. Total length about 200 mm. ; wing 130 to 
14» mm. ; tail !'3 to 103 mm.; tarsus 33 to 34 mm. ; cultuen 29 
to 30 mm. 

Young birds are very like the adults, but the black markings 



oKKocmcxA. 159 

are more in the nature of bars than c-rescentic squamations and 
the general rufous tinge is deeper. 

J n Summer the colour is much duller and the marks less 
prominent. 

Distribution. In Mummer it frequents the Himalayas from 
Hazara to Assam above S.OOO feet; the mountains of Central 
Burma to Tenasserim and Xorth-Rist Burma. In Winter ir. 
straggles into various parts of the Plains of North- West India, but 
for the most part keeps to the foot-hills and the country immedi- 
ately adjacent . Possibly Jerdon's record from the Wynaad should 
refer to the next bird. 

Nidification. This Mountain-Thrush breeds, during May and 
June, in the Himalayas I rom the extreme West at least, as far 
East as the Mishmi Hills ai heights betwe-n 7,000 and lu.UOO feet. 
The nest is made chiefly of gre"ii moss mixed with leaves, roots 
anil grass, and lined with fine roots and in shape is a wide, rather 
shallow .cup. As ti ride it is placed Home 5 to lt» feet up in a 
den-elv-fohaged tree such as a rhododendron. The eggs number 
three or lour, mo-t often the former, in colour thevare a pale clay 
or vellowish green, but in most eases they are so closely freckled 
over with pah: reddish that the general effect is an almost uni- 
coloured dark clay or reddish egg. In a few specimens the 
blotches are more distinct and larger and in these the ground- 
colour shows up more. Twenty i-giis average :!ll , Jxl ) -"J mm.: 
maxima 330 x I'lM and 31:5 x 23 6 mm. ; minima 290x2.V4 and 
:.'!)■:'. x 20-8 mm. 

Habits. The Small-billed Mountain-Thrush is a bird of deep 
forests, especially haunting such as have much broken ground and 
large moss-covered boulders and rocks, amongst which they 
quietly hunt for insects ami berries. They are almost entirely 
ground-feeders, slinking about, under the bushes and among the 
rocks in a shv, retiring manner, though they do not seem to shun 
observation in the cold weather. In the breeding-season liattray 
describes them as very shy. They are said to have a fine song, 
but no recent observer seems to have heard this song and birds 
obsoned by myself were always extraordinarily quiet. 

(f>iM>) Oreocincla dauma nilgiriensis. 

Tin; Nn.fam Thrush. 

Orrovinrla nil</irien$i* Myth, J. A. S. B., xvi, p. 141 (1847) 
(Nilgiris); iilnnf. & Oates, ii, p. lf>.'5. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to 0. d. dauma but much darker above, the 
golden-fulvous spots hardly apparent and the black bars iu less 
contrast. Below, the fulvous tinge is less iti evidence. 

Colours of soft parts as in the Small-billed Mountain-Thrush. 
The lega and feet are said to be more lleshy iu colour. 



160 TURDID.S. 

Measurements. Total length about 250 mm. ; wing 124 to 
186 mm.; tail 81 to 92 mm.; tarsus 28 to 29 mm. ; culmen 27 to 
29 mm. 

Distribution. The Hill ranges of Southern India from the 
Nilgiris to Central Travaneore between 2,000 feet and the highest 
hills. 

Nidification. The Nilgiri Thrush breeds in the Nilgiris in May 
and June, making a very compact well-built nest of moss, roots, 
leaves and grass, lined with line roots and placed on trees any 
height between o and 25 feet from the ground. The site 
selected is always one in a well-wooded "shola." The eggs number 
two only and are indistinguishable from those of the last bird. 

Habits. .Similar to those of the (Small-hilled .Mountain-Thrush. 
Its reported musical abilities seem to have been given to it by 
mistake, for Cardew. who knew this bird very well, says that, during 
a Ions; residence in Ooty, in a house adjoining a shola in which I hey 
bred, he never heard it sing once. It seems to be an even more 
quiet, shy and retiring bird than the last. 



(5D7) Oreocincla dauma imbricata. 

Tub Ceylon Thhuph. 

Xoothfrtt imhrirata Layard, A. M. X. 11., (2) xiii, p. 212 (180-1) 

(Ceylon). 
Oreocineta imhrirata. Ulanf. & Gates, ii, p. 16-1. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to 0. d. iiilyirienxis but still darker above 
and with the lower parts rufous-buff, instead of white and with the 
crescentic black edges narrower. The tail is practically without 
any white tip or edging. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill dark brown, paler 
on the base of the lower mandible ; legs and feet fleshy or bluish 
brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 240 mm.; wing 110 to 
127 mm.: tail 75 to 78 mm.; tarsus about 27 mm.; culmen 26' to 
27 ram. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidification. Captain Aldworth found a nest and egg of this 
Thrush on the IJhopal Range on the 14th ot April, 1911, and 
Mr. Tunnard has again found a nest on the 9th of August, 1922, 
the same birds building a second nest in September. The nests are 
big, bulky cups made of moss and fern-leaves, lined with fine 
black roots without nny mud. Apparently they are placed either 
in forest or in trees in tea cultivation some 10 to 20 feet from the 
ground. They lay one or two eggs only of the same type as 
others of this gwnua but paler and greener and with a few more 



OBKOCINCLA. 161 

definite specks of reddish brown. An egg given me by Captain 
Aldworth measures 35-2 x 22'0 nun. 

Habits. The Ceylon Thrush is found from 3,000 to the highest 
peaks, frequenting both heavy forest and more open country, and 
it seems to be especially fond of strips of forest in and about 
tea gardens and coffee plantations. It is a shy, retiring bird, 
feeding principally on the ground and it lias a comparatively 
feeble flight, 

(508) Oreocincla aurea aurea. 

White's Thrush. 

Turtlux aureus Ilolandre, 1'. de M. Arm. lie la .Moselle, 18l'5, p. 60 

(Metz). 
Orrudiirla rm in. Hlauf. & Oates, ii, p. 153, footnote. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Exactly like Oreocincla dauma dauma but larger 
and with 14 tail-feathers. 

Colours of soft parts as in that bird. 

Measurements. Total length about 300 mm.; wing 150 to 
107 mm.; tail 112 to 118 mm. ; tarsus about 35 to 37 mm.; 
culmen 25 to 28 mm. 

Distribution. East Siberia from Lake Baikal to the Pacific 
Ocean, Japan and Northern China. In Winter it migrates South 
to Formosa, South China, Burma and Assam. 

1 have kept anna as a full species distinct from dauma, for the 
14 tail-feathers are found constant in local races in Annain 
(aniiustirotlris) and .lava (Iwrx/ieldi), which differ from aurea aurea 
in much the same wav as imbricuta and nihjiriensis differ from 
dauma dauma. In both these races the pale spots are wanting 
above and the bills differ in size. I cannot distinguish the 
so-called hiusii (Formosa) from the typical race. 

Nidification. White's Thrush breeds in considerable numbers in 
Japan on the mountains between 2,000 feet and 4,000 feet during 
May and June. The nest is described as a big, compact cup of 
grass, moss and leaves lined with roots but with no mud. It is 
placed on low trees in thin forest some 10 or 15 feet from the 
ground. The eggs usually number four, rarely three or five. The 
ground-colour varies from very pale sea-green to a pale clay- 
colour and the markings consist of freckles of reddish so numerous. 
and tiny that the eggs seem unieoloured as are the eggs of 
O. dauma. Generally in each clutch there is one egg with fewer, 
bolder blotches contrasting well with the others. Fifty eggs 
average 33 - 5 x -40 mm : .maxima 36 x 24-8 and 33 4 x 250 mm. ; 
minima 310 x 24-1 and 34- 1 x 22-9 mm. 

Habits. This Thrush is said to be a very shy, retiring bird but 
it is found both in forest and in semi-open country and orchards. 

VOL. II. m 



162 TVKDID.*. 

It feeds almost entirely on the ground and both on insects and 
berries. Its flight is strong and sustained and very swift, its 
note lias been described us loud and sibilant, and (iodlewski says 
that it utters a melancholy whistle, difficult to describe. 



Oreocincla mollissima. 

Hitherto this species has l>een divided into tw o so-called species, 
0. nwllisxiiifi and (). dl.cuni, the hitler being said to differ in having 
a longer tail and more conspicuously barred wing-coverts. 1 have 
shown in the Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, xxxi, 
p. >1. that these alleged differences are not specific or even 
xubspecifie ; the two supposed forms are tound throughout the 
same range, i.e. from Chamba in the extreme North-East of India, 
to i he South- Kust Shan States and Central Burmese Hills, at the 
same elevation. 

A subspecies of this Oreocincla had, however, been overlooked 
until discovered by Captain C. 11. T. Whitehead on the extreme 
North-East Afghan- Indian frontier. 

Kty to i^idispeclts. 

A. Upper parts rich olive-brown, tinged with 

i ulous (). tit. >>tt>lli**<mti, y \C)'2. 

IV V pp*r pans olive-^rev with no rufous 

tinge O. lit. irhilrhi'iidi, p. 1 (!■'•. 

C Upjif-r parts olive-brown, paler than in A 

and with golden tinge (). iit.ximlii-'wtix. p. 104. 



(50 ( j) Oreocincla mollissima mollissima. 

THE Pl.AlN-HACKKU Mol'.NTAIN TllKlsll. 

TurduK mollifjim'i* Bl\th, .1. V. S. ]!., xi, p. Iff* I 1-4:.') ( llarjveling). 
Ore-icincla mtillinsima. Jilanl'. \' Dales, n, ]j. J - j 4 . 
Oreuciiicla dlxuiii Seebohm ; Blauf. it Dale.-, ii, p. loo. 

Vernacular names. J'hii,>nlok-kloL-jdn> (Lepeha); Tdin h.inrim 
(Bbutea). 

Description. Whole upper plumage rich olive-brown with a 
strung rufescent tinge in most specimens; wing-feathers dark 
brown edged olive-brow u ; the median and greater coverts tipped 
in varying degree with fulvous ; two central pairs of feathers olive- 
brown, outermost pair olive-brown with a black base and white tip, 
intermediate feathers blackish with very narrow white tips; a 
ring of fulvous feathers round the eye ; cheeks aud ear-coverts 
mixed fulvous and black ; below ocliraceous changing to pure 
white on the abdomen, each feather with a terminal crescentie 
black band; under tail-coverts fulvous-white and brown ; axillaries 
white broadly lipped with black; under wing-coverts black tipped 
with white. 



OBEOCINCLA. 163 

Colours of soft parts. Lris brown ; bill horny-brown or blackish, 
the b.ise of the lower mandible paler ; legs and feet fleshy yellow 
or light yellowish brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 270 mm.; wing 130 to 
IIS mm.; tail 100 to 1-iO mm.; tarsus about '.i\ mm.; culmen 
from true base 24 to 27 mm., from leathers of forehead 21 to 
2-1 mm. 

As 1 have already noted in the Bulletin, specimens from West 
of Nepal are a more golden olive-brown than a rufous olive-brown 
and in must cases ibis distinction suffices to separate them, but 
many individuals overlap. 

The Young bird has the head and mantle streaked with fulvous, 
the underparts more heavily barred and the wing-coverts more 
broadly edged and tipped with fulvous. 

Distribution. Nepal, Eastern Assam in the Himalayas, Chin 
and Kachiu Hills, Hills of Central J5urma to Northern Tenas- 
sorim, North and .South Shan States, Annam, iSiam and Yunnan. 

Nidification. At present unknown with any certainty, but it is 
u n doubted I v a forest-breeding bird, probablv at elevations between 
b,<.»0U and 1 1 ,hiii) feet and possibly up to the extreme limit of 
the forest-line some l,0i>0 feet higher. A nest and eg;js sent 
to me, said to b 'long to this species, are certainly those of a Thrush 
of some kind. The nest is a deep, massive cup of green moss 
lined with black roots. The e^'gs are in ground-colour a dead 
white, marked densely at the large end and profuselv elsewhere 
with specks, ^pots and blotches of reddish. These eggs average 
:i-t-:f x 21'."i in u, .Mop' information is required before these eggs, 
taken in Silikiui, can be accepted as correctly identified. 

Habits. The I'lain hacked Mountain-Thrush is found in winter 
down to 4,000 feet in the Himalayas and the hills of South Assam 
hul in Summer not below S.OIIU feet and it probablv does not breed 
even as low as this, ll is a shy, wild bird, haunting both deiw 
and thin forest and does not feed nearly so much on the ground 
as do the birds of the (Iiikuki group. It is, however, a much 
stronger flier and in all its ways is much more typicallv Thrush- 
like than they are. 

t<>ud) Oreocincla mollissima whiteheadi. 

Whitehead's Mahntun-Tiuu-sh. 

Oreo -inch/ irhitrfim <7 Stmirt linker, Hull. 15. 0. U., wxi. p. 70 
(litl3) (_K hamuli Valley*. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Differs from the preceding bird in having the 
whole upper plumage olive-grey instead of rich olive rufescent 
brown; the underparts have no bright rufous tint, though one 
specimen lias traces of ochre on the breast ; the feathers of the 
crown also have well-marked pale shaft-stripes. 

m2 



164 TUBDID.E. 

Colours of soft parts as in O. m. molisslma. 

Measurements. Wing 1425 to 150 mm. ; tail 954 to 98 mm. ; 
culmen 21 '0 mm. ; tarsus 30-4 mm. 

Young birds show the same comparative differences as do the 
adult*, that is to fay they are less rufous both above and below ; 
thev are also more strongly striated and have the dark margins to 
the feathers of the upper parts more conspicuous. 

Distribution. At preseut only known from the extreme North- 
East of India on the Afghan Frontier at very high levels. 

Nidification. Captain Whitehead found this bird breeding on 
eliffs tibove the forest level. Thev must be very early breeders, as 
voung were flying in June. An addled ei;g, presumably of this 
species, taken from a nest with young in tlie first week of May, 
measures :52'4x2r5 mm. It is pale yellow-cream in ground- 
colour and is rather richly spotted and speckled with bright 
reddish brown. It will probably prove lo be an abnormally 
coloured egg. 

The nest was like that of a Blackbird but was placed on a ledge 
of rock on a cliff. 

Habits. Whitehead writes that this Thrush " differs entirely in 
its habits from 0. mollissima, which bird is an inhabitant of dense 
forests growing at a much lower elevation. This bird, on the 
contrary, frequents bare precipitous slopes above the limits of tree- 
growth at an elevation of 12,500 to 14,5no feet, where it nests 
in clefts in the rocks on cliffs. The notes 1 heard it utter were 
similar to the rattling alarm-notes (like a policeman's rattle) made 
by M&rttla maxima, which occurs on the same ground; also the 
single call-note, but I was too late in the season to hear its song. 
It was quite common in this one valley ( Khagun ), hut verv wild 
and difficult to approach once the young ones could shift for 
themselves. As far as 1 could judge by observing (through 
glasses), the male and female differed in no way from one another. 
In life the white bar bordered with black under the wing seemed 
to me very conspicuous." 

(601) Oreocincla mollissima simlaeusis, subsp. nov. 

The Simla Plain-back kd Tiiiush. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to O.m. mollissima but paler, less rufescent 
above and with a more golden-rufous tinge. The difference in 
depth of colour between the threo geographical races is very 
constant. 

Colours of soft parts and measurements as in O. m. mollissima. 

Type, rf No. 8«. 7.8.2317, Hume Col). (British Museum). 

Type-locality : Simla, Punjab. 

Distribution. North- West Himalayas from Garbwal and the 
Simla Hills to Ghamba below 14,000 feet. 



OEEOClNCI>A. 165 

Nidification. Mr. S. L. Whymper and later Caj)tain R. E. 
Skinner found this bird breeding in Garhwal in the Dmndar and 
Nila Valleys at 13,000 feet, almost at the limit of the forest-line. 
The nests were typical .Blackbirds' nests, but without any mud in 
their construction, placed on willows broken down by the stiows. 
The eggs, always three only in number, are not the least like those 
of Oreocincla iluutna but more like w ell-marked Blackbirds' eggs, 
though darker and more richly marked. Two clutches in my 
collection, with both of which the parent bird was obtained, 
measure only 29*3 x 21*3 mm. The nests were taken in the end 
of June. 

Habits. Similar to those of 0. in. mollis*! ma but ascending 
the hills to a much greater elevation and not descending nearly so 
low even in midwinter. Like 0. m. mollwsima it is a forest bird 
and is not found in the bare uplands where "Whitehead's Thrush 
is alwavs found. 



(002) Oreocincla spiloptera. 

The Spottki>-win«eu Thrush. 

Oreorincla s/iiloptera Blytli, J. A. S. B„ x\i, p. 142 (1*47) (Ceylon) ; 
Hlnuf. it Oaten, ii, ]>. 1 ;>.">. 

Vernacular names. Val-arrtthia (t'ing.). 

Description. Upper plumage, lesser wing-coverts and quills 
russet-broun, the latter edged with olive-brown: median and 




Fig. 10. —Head of (>. fpiinptera. 

greater coverts blackish with bold white tips ; tail-feathers russet- 
brown, the outer two or three pairs with small white tips ; lores 
and a ring round the eye white ; sides of head mixed black and 
white; lower plumage white, tinged with grey on the flanks and 
sides of breast and boldly spotted with fan-shaped black spots on 
thejbreost, upper abdomen, flanks and sides of throat. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill horny-black, paler at the 
base of the lower mandible ; legs and feet " dusky bluish grey or 
greyish fleshy " ( Ltytje). 



166 TUBDISiK. 

Measurements. Total length about 230 mm. ; wing 93 to 
108 mm.; tail 74 to 78 mm. ; tarsus about 34 mm. ; culinen 21 
to 22 mm. 

The Young bird has the upper parts streaked with fulvous and 
the lower surface, except the chin, fulvous ochreous instead of 
white. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidiflcation. According to Legge the breeding season extends 
from January to June and the nest is said to be made of twigs, 
roots, moss and grass, lined with line roots. It is placed on small 
trees and saplings at no great height from the ground in forest. 
The eggs apparently number two only and are very much like the 
eggs of Geoeiehla citrina but rather bigger ; two eggs taken by 
Legge measuring 28'1 x 19*0 mm. Two eggs in my collection, 
sent me by Col. H. H. Harington, are similar but smaller. 

Habits. This is a forest bird, being found from the level of the 
Plains up to some 4,000 feet. It is a shy, retiring bird and spends 
most of its time feeding on insects on the ground. Legge says it 
has a sweet whistle. 

Genus Z00THERA. 
Vigors, P. A. S. 1S31, j». 172. 
Type, Z. monticola. * 

The genus Zoothera contains two Indian species of Thrush which 
differ from all others of the Subfamily in having supplementary 
bristles extending over the nostrils, whilst the usual rictal bristles 
are numerous and long. 

The sexes are alike and the under wing-coverts and axillaries of 
two colours, the colours of the former reversed in the latter. The 
bill is very long, powerful and strongly curved near the tip. The 
edges of the bill, though originally even, often become worn and 
serrated, probably from breaking the tiny snails, etc. on which 
these birds largely feed. 

In many ways the Ave genera Turdtts, Arcettthornis, G'focichla, 
Oreocincla, and Zootliera lead into one another, but each has a 
quite recognizable character by which it can be divided from 
the other groups or genera and such division should help 
students to work out their specimens. 

Key to Siiecleii. 

A. Tpper plumage d«rk slatv-brown Z. monticola, p. U><>. 

B, Upper plumage rufous olive-brown '/'. tnaryinutu, |>. 108. 

(603) Zoothera monticola. 

The Laboe ilnowv Tiibvsh. 

Zoothera monticola Vigors, V.Z.H., 1831, p. 172 (Himalayas, 
Sikkim) ; Jilanf. & Gates, ii, p. 157. 

Vernacular names. Daokat tndn-loubi (Cachari). 



ZOOTHEUA. 167 

Description. Whole upper plumage dark slaty-brown, each 
feather narrowly edged with black ; forehead and crown tinged 
with rufous ; wings dark brown edged paler on the wings and 
tipped with fulvous on some of the median and greater coverts; 
sides of the head brown with small fulvous spots and the ear- 
coverts streaked with the same; chin and middle of the throat 
white, narrowly haired with dark brown ; breast and sides of the 
throat fulvous very heavily marked with olive-brown and tipped 
black ; lower breast and abdomen white, the feathers boldly tipped 
with blackish brown ; under tail-coverts dark olive-brown with 
broad white tips; axillaries white tipped with black; under wing- 
coverts black with white tips. 

Colours of soft parts. Jris dark brown; bill dark brown to 
almost black ; legs and feet light horny-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 285 mm.; wing 134 to 
145 mm.; tail Nl to b!J mm.; tarsus about 3(i mm.; cuhnen 34 
to 38 mm. 




Kig. -0. — Ifcnd of 'A. hxonthvla. 

The Young bird, is darker than the adult : the tipper parts are 
streaked with fulvous : the lower parts are more tulvous and more 
heavily barred nml spotted with blackish. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Stitlej Valley to Assam, 
Manipur, Chin Hills. 

Nidification. The l„*irge Brown Thrush breeds in May and June 
and occasionally in early July from 4.000 feet up to 9,000 or 
10,000 feet. The nest is a deep, well-made cup of living green 
moss, well matted together and lined with fine roots. It is usually 
placed some 10 to 20 feet up in a small tree or a moss-covered 
stump growing in dense forest, in the Khasia Hills the favourite 
site being a Rhododendron. The eggs number three or four and 
are typical Thrushes' of the boldly-marked Blnckbird type. The 
ground-colour varies from bright pale sea-green to a pale yellowish 
green or cream, whilst the markings consist of numerous small 
blotches of reddish to deep brown profusely scattered over the 
whole surface. Some eggs are very handsome. Fifty eggs average 



168 tubdidjK. 

30-0x21-3 mm.: maxima 330x21-2 and 30-7x23-0 mm.; 
minima 265 x 20-2 and 30-0 x 192 mm. 

Habits. This Thrush is sedentary in its> habits, only moving a 
little lower to some 2,000 or 3,000* feet in the winter! It is one 
of the most shy of all the Thrushes, haunting damp evergreen forest 
with ample undergrowth, where it skulks on the ground, feeding 
upon ground-berries and fruits, or on insects which it hunts lor in 
the fallen rubbish. Its flight is strong and fast but it is dillicult 
to flush, generally escaping by hopping into denser undergrowth. 
It is a silent bird but has some quite sweet notes as well as a 
long-drawn rather wailing whistle. 

(004) Zoothera marginata. 

The Lessee Browx Tiutisn. 

Zoothera mivyinata Blytli, J. A.S. 15., xvi, p. 141 (1817) (Anikan) ; 
Blauf. & Oates, ii, p." 107. 

Vernacular names. Daokat-buku-lowia (Cachari). 

Description. Whole upper plumage and tail rufous olive-brown, 
the feathers very faintly margined darker; wing-quills, primary- 
coverts and greater coverts edged paler, rather a brick-red; tips 
of the median and greater coverts tipped to a vnrying extent 
with the same : the tail is cross-rayed and the outer feathers are 
a little paler than the central ones: sides of the head and ear- 
coverts mixed fulvous and dark brown; chin and centre of 
throat white, irregularly barred with dark brown; breast, flanks 
and sides of- throat dark olive-brown, the pale centres obsolete, 
but increasing on the lower breast and on the centre of the 
abdomen, taking up all but a narrow fringe of light olive-brown. 
Axillaries and under wing-coverts as in the Large Brown Thrush. 

Colours of soft parts as in Z. monticoli. 

Measurements. Wing 121 to 120 mm.; tail 75 to 70 mm.; 
tarsus 29 to 30 mm. ; cultnen 2W to 20 mm. 

The Young bird has the upper parts darker and streaked with 
fulvous and the under parts more definitely barred. 

Distribution. Sikkim to Eastern Assam, Chin and Kachin 
Hills, the whole of the hills of Burma to Tenasserim, Slum, 
Yunnan and An nam. 

Nidification. The Lesser Brown Thrush breeds between 3,000 
and 9,u0u but, perhaps, more often below than above 0,000 feet. 
In the hills South of the Brahmaputra it is almost common, 
breeding during May, June and July in the densest and most 
humid forests and nearly always placing its nest on a tall hush or 
email tree neur water. The nest is like that of the Brown 
Thrush but often has a few twigs, scraps of dead moss or roots 
woven in with the lining moss. The eggs are small replicas of 
those of the Large Brown Thrush but are often even brighter 



3tO>TICOI<A. 169 

and bolder in coloration. These eggs would be difficult to 
distinguish from tiiose of Oeoeiehla citrina but for their texture 
which is soft and almost glossless, never with the hard shiny 
texture of tiiose of that bird. Thev number three or four, and 
fifty average 27'0x 20-0 mm. : maxima 30"lx20-l and 2S"0x 
21-3 mm. ; minima 24*8 x 190 mm. 

Habits. Those of the last bird, but this Thrush inhabits lower 
levels and in the Winter descends almost to the foot-hills under 
1,000 feet. Both tiie Brown Thrushes are very crepuscular in 
their habits. 

Genus M0NTIC0LA. 
Boie, Isis, 182:-, p. .V>2. 
Type, M. na.vntilis. 

The genus Monlirohi as shown by Hartert ( Vo*. Pal. i, p. 671 ) 
cannot be separated from I'ttruphlla of Swainson. (Dates' 
distinguishing feature, the comparative difference in the length 
of wing and tail, is oulv one of degree and there is n far greater 
proportionate difference between his l'ttrophila enjthrocjaster and 
P. rindnrhyncha than there is between the latter and Monticola 
su.rtttilis. I can lind no distinctive feature to take the place of 
thisVutenable one and unite the two genera. 

In the genus us now accepted there are five Indian species, all 
of which have a considerable amount of blue in their coloration, 
often combined with some chestnut. The sexes ditl'er consider- 
ably ; the tail is shorter than the wing and the tarsus is long: 
though not a* stout as in some other Thrushes. 

The males have the axillaries and under wing-coverts uni- 
coloured, whilst the females have these parts barred. 

Key to Sjiffifs. 

A. Upper tnil-covort* mid tail never 
chestnut. 

a. Ixiwer plumage of two colours. 

black or blue with chestnut. 
a'. Wing over 100 mui. 

a". Chin and throat black -V. rrythrugaslm, <3 , p. 170. 

b". Chili and throst blue. 

a*. Large white patches on wing. At . cinchrhyncha, <J, p. 171. 
A*. No white patch on wing .... At. solilaria. tf , p. 172. 
6'. Wing not exceeding 100 mm At. yu/aris, a . p. 170. 

b. Lower plumage almost uniformly of 

one colour, barred or squamuted 
with dark brown. 
a'. Wing over 100 mm. 

c''. Upper plumage not bluish but 
olive-brown. 

c 5 . Back and rump barred .V. erythroyaslra, J, p. 170. 

ei\ Back plain, rump barred .... At. cinclor/iyncAa, j , p. 172. 



170 TURDIDjE. 

d". Upper plumage bluish not olive- 
brown M. tolitaria, $ , p. 173. 

b'. Wing under 100 mm M. yularis, $ , p. 170. 

B. Upper tail-coverts and base of tail 

chestnut M. taxutilis, p. 177. 

(G05) Monticola erythrogastra. 

The Chestnut-bellied Hock-Thrush. 

Turdus erythroy aster Vigors, P. Z.S., IS.'H, p. 171 (Himalayas). 
Petrophihi erythroyaatra. Blunt'. & Gates, ii, p. 14;>. 

Vernacular names. Niitgri-pho (Lepeha) : Daohnnyttr (Ciichari). 

Description. — Adult male. Whole upper plumage brilliant 
cobalt-blue, the mantle blackish : lores, sides of head and neck 
black; chin and throat black suffused with blue; lesser and 
median wing-coverts like the back; quill* blackish, the greater 
coverts, innermost secondaries and edges of quills dark cobalt 
blue; tail dark cobalt-blue, the feathers narrowly edged with 
brilliant blue ; remainder of lower plumage, axillaries and under 
wing-coverts chestnut-maroon. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to deep brown ; bill black : legs 
and feet plumbeous black to black. 

Measurements. Total length about 220 to 2.'J" mm. ; wing 1:20 
to 130 mm. ; tail 100 to 104 mm.: tarsus about illmiii.; culmen 
21 to '22 mm. 

In Winter for a short time after the Autumn moult the feathers 
of the mantle, sides of neck and lower throat are edged with 
whitish or pale fulvous, the inner secondaries and some of the 
coverts with white. 

Female. Whole upper plumage, wings and tail olive-brown, the 
mantle obsoletely marked with dark erescentie bars becoming 
better defined towards the upper tail-coverts, where they are bold 
and black; a ring round the eye fulvous; lores mixed fulvous 
and olive-brown ; ear-coverts blackish ; a patch behind them, an 
ill-defined moustaehial streak and centre of chin and throat buff ; 
remainder of lower plumage buff, barred with black and with pale 
edges, often worn away. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill dark horny-brown; 
legs aud feet dark brown. 

Measurements. Wing 111) to 124mm. 

The Nestling is fulvous above, each feather boldly edged with 
black ; below fulvous-white, barred nnd edged with blackish. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Chamba to Eastern Assam, 
Manipur, the mountains of Burma, Cochin China to Western 
China and there are specimens from Fokhien. Chinese female 
birds are very dark and lack the fulvons-golden tinge on the 
lower plumage. 



MONTICOLA. 171 

Nidification. This Rock-Thrush breeds between 4,000 and 
8,000 feet throughout its habitat but principally under 0,000 feet. 
It makes a nest, roughly cup-shaped, of moss, twigs, roots, grass 
and other odds and ends, lined with fine roots or grass, which it 
places in a hole in a rock or cliff, in between stones or, more 
rarely, in a hollow in a bank or under a boulder or uead tree on 
the ground. Hume found a nest placed at the roots of a tree in 
forest but this situation must be exceptional. 

The eggs vary from three to six in number. In ground-colour 
they range from creamy- white to pale reddish fawn, speckled all 
over, though more numerously at the larger end, with pale to 
fairly dark reddish brown. Most eggs look almost unicoloured 
but in a few the markings show fairly well. Jn shape they are 
broad ovals with a fine close texture, often highly glossed. 
Seventy-five eggs average L'fWx 19-Onmi. : maxima 29'5 X 20-0 
and 27-4 x 21*1 mm. ; minima 24/3 x 10-<! and 20-0 x 190 mm. 

The breeding-season is May and June. 

Habits. In summer this is a wild shy bird, haunting the 
roughest of forest country, broken by cliffs and deep ravines, but 
in winter it becomes excessively tame and takes to the vicinity of 
villages and other human habitations, often perching on house- 
tops and hunting for fond iu gardens and orchards. It will eat 
almost anything from tin- tiniest insects to the largest snails, worms, 
small lizards, frogs, etc. They will also eat small iish and water 
insects. In its actions generally it reminds one much of some 
of the Redstarts and these Thrushes show many connecting-links 
between the Plmniiitrind- and Ttirdhuf. Like the former birds 
they often capture insect prey from a tised post, and they con 
stantly jerk their tails backwards and forwards over their back. 



(6o«) Monticola cinclorhyncha. 

The Hi.ik-ijk.vdei) ]{ock-Thhi"sh. 

Petrocintla cinclorhynchii Vigors, F.Z.S., lt-31, p. 17:2 (Himalayas. 

Simla). 
Petrnphihi linclorhynclm. Want'. X Oates, ii, p. 144. 

Vernacular names. Krishtn - patti (Nepal); lhiohamjar, 
(Cachari) ; Vohi'njU ( Mikir) ; JIti«jmvraini- ( Kacha Naga). 

Description. — Adult male. Crown, nape, chin, throat ami 
lesser wing-coverts bright cobalt-blue; a narrow line abo\e the 
eye, lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, sides of neck, back and scapulars 
black; greater wing-coverts and uinglets black edged with blue; 
primaries black, all but the first two edged with blue ; secondaries 
black, all but the innermost with a broad white band on the 
base of the outer webs ; tail blackish edged narrowly with 
blue ; rump, upper tail-coverts, whole lower surface, axillaries 
and under wing-coverts chestnut. 

Colour* of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; the gape yellow and in 



172 TURDIM. 

the non-breeding season the base o£ the lower mandible also 
yellowish ; legs and feet plumbeous or plumbeous horny, the 
claws blacker. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 to I'.iO mm.; wing 
100 to 104 mm.; tail 65 to GS mm.; tarsus 24 to 25 mm.; 
cuhnen 18 to 19 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage, wings and tail olive-brown, 
tinged with ochraceous on the rump and upper tail-coverts, which 
are barred with dull black ; the tail is faintly cross-rayed and the 
feathers of the wings edged paler: below white tinged with 
fulvous on breast and flanks, the chin and throat nearly immacu- 
late, the remainder barred « itli dark brown; under wing-coverts 
and auxiliaries pale fulvous barred with blackish ; under tail-coverts 
white with black lines following the contour of the feathers. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill dark horny-brown, 
paler at the base ; legs horny-brown or slaty-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 93 to 105 mm. ; tail 05 to (59 mm. 

The male in Winter has the feathers of the black parts broadly 
fringed with fulvous. 

Nestling. Like the female but with the whole upper plumage 
golden fulvous, each feather edged with blackish. 

Young males are like females but from a very early age show 
the blue on wings and tail. 

Distribution. From the Afghan and Baluchistan frontiers 
throughout tin* Himalayas to Kast and South Assam, the Chin 
Hills and Kachin Hills. In winter it .spreads practically 
throughout India and West and Central Burma. 

Nidification. The Blue-headed Hock-Thrush breeds throughout 
its Northern range between 4,000 and 9,000 feet, most often 
between 4,00o and (5,0o0 feet. Nest and eggs are exactly similar 
to those of the preceding bird except in sizs. Fifty eggs average 
23-7 X 17 - 9 mm. : maxima 271 x 1S-IJ and 2,'H! x 200 mm. ; minima 
21"3xl9-9 and 23-0xl6'9 mm. They commence to breed in 
early April and throughout May to the middle of June, but 1 have 
seen odd nests with eggs in July and August, probably second 
broods. 

Habits just the same as those of M. erythrogastra. 

Monticola solitaria. 

Turdiu iolitariu* P.L.8. M idler, S. N. Anliang, p. 142 (1770) (Italy). 

The Rock-Thrush has been split up into many subspecies, some 
of which are differentiated by characters which are hardly dis- 
cernible and others by such as are verv well murked. The extreme 
Eastern bird from China to the Philippines is marked by the 
whole red under parts from breast to under tail-coverts, whilst the 
extreme Western bird is all blue. Both of these have been split 



MOSTICOfcA. 173 

up into various races based on a very small degree in depth of 
colour etc., Iml the intermediate race, which contains the characters 
of the two extremes, has been ignored since the time of Birth. 
The area of this form embraces all Burma, Siam and the Indo- 
Chinese countries and it would be silly to imagine that we have 
hybrids extending over so vast an area and, even though the 
individuals vary much in details of coloration, it seems wiser to 
accept them as a race intermediate in coloration, as in country, 
between the two extremes. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. All blue both above and below. 

a. I'nler above nml below M. s. tranfcat/iira, p. 173. 

h. Darker above and below .1/. s. paiidoo, p. 171. 

H. I'mler tail-covorts and often the 
abdomen ami flanks marked with 

chestnut .1/. «. affinis, p. 17o. 

(.. From breast to under tail-coverts 

uniform chestnut M. >. pftilippeusi/, p. 17. r >. 

((;u7) Monticola solitaria transcaspica. 

JIautkki's Bi.uk Kock-Tukush. 

Muiitimla Milittiritt triinicarju'cti llartert, Hull. B. O, C, xxiii, p. 4.'! 

(1'JOIM (Askii bad). 
Vetropliila eyanua. lilauf. & Oates, ii. p. 140 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Xha>na (Hind, in H.) ; Pandn (Mahr.). 

Description. -Adult male. Whole plumage bright blue ; the 
fore-crown, cheeks, chin and throat brightest; tail dark brown, 
the feathers edged with bluish; lesser wing-coverts bluish; 
remaining coverts and quills brown, the greater coverts with 
white tips. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to deep brown ; bill black with 
a yellow gape ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 230 mm.: wing 110 to 
122 nun. ; tail 60 to 84 nun. ; tarsus about 2U to 30 mm. ; cuhneu 
23 to 24 mm. 

Female. Above grey-brown, the feathers, more especially of the 
head, with rather dark central marks ; the upper tail-coverts with 
distinct bars of blackish and obsolete bars on the rump; wings and 
tail light brown with paler edges and a white wing-bar formed by 
the tips of the greater coverts; below dull fulvous-white cross- 
barred with dark brown, more streaky ou the chin, throat and 
neck. Some females have a certain amount of bluish tinge both 
above and below. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill dark horny-brown ; legs 
aud feet black. 

Measurements. Wing 112 to 120 mm. 



174 TUBD1D*. 

Nestling. Like the female but duller and darker, each feather 
above with a broad white rip and subterminal dark bar ; the 
under parts from chin to vent closely barred with blackish brown. 

Hartert's Blue Bock-Thrush differs from the European bird in 
its paler plumage. 

Distribution. From Transcaspia through Persia to the Iudo- 
Afghan and Baluchistan boundaries. It is common and resident 
on the Kurram and Khagau Hills. 

Nidification. Col. If. H. Harington took a nest with three eggs 
on the 10th of June at about, 8,000 feet on the Khagan ridge. It 
was built under an overhanging bank in a rocky hillside. All 
three eggs are pigmies unfortunately and the measurements are 
valueless. 

Habits differ in no way from those of the common Indian form 
next described. 

(608) Monticola solitaria pandoo. 

The Isuia.v Blue Bock-Thrush. 

Tetrocincla jxtndoo Syke*. P. 'A -"v, liWJ, p. s 7 ( 'Western Ghats). 
Petrophila cyanu*. lilanf. <& Ontes, ii, p. 1 Hi (pint. J. 

Vernacular names. «S7j«m/»(Hind. in S.'); I'untlu (Mahr.); I'orta- 
kachi pitta (Tel.); yingri-p/io (Lepeh.); Jinohitngar (Caelum) ; 
Jleyigtiieruine (Kacha Naga) ; Vohtigh'- (Mikir). 

Description. Both male and female differ from the same sexes 
of Hartert's Blue Bock-Thrush iu being very much darker, darker 
even than the European bird. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. Wing 115 to 125 mm. 

Distribution. Kashmir East to Tibet, Sikkini, the lulls North 
of Assam and possibly Chin Hills. In Winter it is found over 
the whole of India and Assam and possibly a few individuals 
wander into Northern Burma, but all those I have examined from 
East of Assam belong to the next race. 

Nidification. The Indian Blue Bock-Thrush freely breeds in 
Kashmir, Simla States, Garhwal, Sikkini and Tibet from 0,000 
feet upwards but in most cases over 8,000 feet. They comment* 
to lay in the end of April and eggs may be found up to the 
middle of June. The nest is a rather rough cup of moss, twigs, 
grass and leaves lined with roots <>r grass and is nearly always 
placed in between stones and boulders in old walls or cliffs, more 
rarely iu a hole in n bank and occasionally, according to Dresser, 
even in a bush. The eggs number three to five and are pale blue 
in colour, sometimes with a few specks of reddish at the larger 
end. Twenty eggs average 27-4 x 19-8 mm. : maxima 28 0X200 
and 277 x 201 mm. ; minima 24*3 x 18'3 mm. 

Habits. This Thrush is a bird of open country, especially such 



S'. VOL. II. 




MONTICOLA SOLITAHIA AfFINIS 

Th« Burma** Blu« Rock- Thi-uth 

I bataw. >/J IWW tit*. 



• *bova. 



MOMTIOOLA. 175 

as is precipitous and rocky and in Winter, like the other Rock- 
Thrushes, it often frequents the vicinity of villages and houses, 
perching on the roofs and railings, it has a habit, mucli like that 
of the Chats, of perching on ii stump or rock, from which it makes 
little sallies after insects on the ground or passing by, or it sits, 
flicking its tail up and uttering a quaint little croak at intervals, 
much like that of a frog hut very low and soft. It has a rather 
pleasant whistle and is said to have a " melodious but plaintive '' 
song during the breeding-season. It eats berries and fruit as well 
as insects, snails, etc. and will swallow animals as big as small 
lizards, snakes and frogs. 

(009) Monticola solitaria affinis. 

Tuk Buumksb Blue Hock-Thrush. 

Fetrocincla affinis Blyth, J. A. S. R., xii, p. L'77 (1843) (Ten- 
asserim). 

Vernacular names. Same as for the preceding bird. 

Description.— Adult male. Similar to the Indian Blue Rock- 
Thrush but always with .some chestnut on the under tail-coverts 
and nearly aluavs with splashes of this colour on the vent, 
abdomen and flunks. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 

bird; wing 1 Ki to 12;Sinm. 

Distribution. Breeding in Western China. Northern Burma, 
Yunnan an<< probably the higher Kachin and Bhamo Hills, where 
Hamilton obtained it during the breeding-season. In Winter it 
is found South through Assam .South of the Brahmaputra, the 
whole of Burma, Malay Peninsula, Siam, Yunnan and Western 
China. 

Nidification. Not recorded. 

Habits. Those of the species. 

(<no) Monticola solitaria philippensis. 
Tiik Japanese Blue Rwk-Thecsu. 

Turtln* philip/ieiuit M tiller, S. N., Anhang, p. 142 (177G) (Philip- 
pines). 

Vernacular names, ho pio dari (Jap.). 

Description. The male differs from our other Indian forms in 
having the whole of the under parts from breast to under tail- 
coverts bright chestnut. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 4-47 (La Toiiche) to 4-76 mm. Speci- 
mens in the British Museum have wings which measure from 112 
to 126 mm. 



176 TUBBtD*. 

Distribution. Breeding in North-East China and Japan and in 
winter South to South China, Formosa, Pescadores, Philippines, etc. 
There is one specimen in the British Museum from Tenasserim. 

Nidiflcation. In Japan these birds breed during May and 
June. The eggs seem rather large, tho few I have seen averaging 
about 29-1 x20-7 nun. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

(611) Monticola gularis gularis. 
Swinhok's Kock-Thrcsh. 
Orocetes yularis Swiuh., P. Z. S., 1802. p. 318 (Pekin). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. "Whole crown, nape and lesser wing- 
coverts brilliant cobalt-blue; a narrow line next 1 lie beak running 
back over the eye and ear-coverts black, the latter streaked with 
rufous ; back, scapulars and greater wing-coverts black, the two 
latter always edged with fulvous or fulvous-white; rump and 
upper tail-coverts chestnut ; tail grey-brown with a bluish tinge; 
wing-quills brown, edged blue-grey and with a broad patch of 
white on the base of the outer secondaries; a circular patch of 
white on the fore-neck, extending in a narrow line up the throat 
to the chin ; lores and remainder of under parts chestnut, darkest 
on the throat and breast, paling to fulvous on the under tail- 
coverts, centre of abdomen, axillaries and under wing-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill nearly black ; legs and 
feet fleshy brown to dark plumbeous brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm.; wing 95 to '.)!» 
mm.; tail 74 to 7'J mm. ; tarsus about 222 mm. ; euhnen about 
11 to 112 mm. 

Female. Head, nape and hind-neck olive-brown ; upper parts 
olive-brown barred with black and with fulvous edges; tail 
reddish brown with pale tips; greater coverts dark brown, edges 
reddish and with broad fulvous tips ; quills and primary-coverts 
dark brown edged with reddish; inner secondaries with broad 
fulvous tips and subterminal black bars ; a ring of white feathers 
round the t-ye ; a throat-patch as in the male ; below bright, pale 
fulvous ; barred everywhere except on the centre of the abdomen, 
vent and under tail-coverts with crescentic black bars. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements. Bill horny-brown, pale 
at the tip ; otherwise as in the male. 

The male in Winter has the black feathers broadly edged with 
fulvous and the chestnut feathers narrowly edged with the same. 

Distribution. East Siberia, Manchuria and North China. In 
Winter it wanders South into Southern China and the Indo- 
Chinese countries, straggling occasionally into Tenaseerim and 
South-East Burma. 



MOKTICOLA. 177 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits- This is said to be more of a forest bird than the other 
species of this genus. Ax-cording to Dresser it haunts " dense 
forests where there are old trees." Its song is said to be sweet 
and powerful. 

(612) Monticola sazatilis. 
The Bock-Thbush. 

'J urdua saxatili* Linn., S. N. (12th ed.), p. 294 (17(50) (Greece). 
Monticola sa.ialilis. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 147. 

Vernacular names. Daokat gatang-UU (Cachari). 

Description.- Adult male. Whole head, neck, extreme upper 
back, throat and tore-neck bright lavender-blue; remainder of 
upper back to rump dark slaty-blue, the centre of the back white, 
generally more or lees smeared with bluish ; longer tail-coverts 
chestnut ; central tail-feathers brown, outer tail-feathers chestnut, 
marked in varying degree with brown ; lesser wing-coverts like 
the back ; greater wing-coverts, primary-coverts and quills brown, 
all but the primaries tipped with fulvous-white and the greater 
coverts tinged with deep blue ; lower plumage pale, bright chestnut. 
After the Autumn moult the feathers of the upper parts are slightly 
fringed with white and black and the underparts with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black in breeding- 
season, paler at the base in winter ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 100 mm. ; wing 116 to 125 
nun.; tail 60 to 65 mm.; tarsus about 29 mm.; culmen about 
13 to 14 mill. 

Female. Upper plumage and wings light grey-brown, each 
feather with a white terminal bar and a faint dark subterminal 
bar and shaft-stripe; upper tail-coverts chestnut with similar bars 
and streaks ; tail like the male ; below dull white, irregularly 
suffused with chestnut and barred with black except on the centre 
of the chin and throat ; under tail-coverts, axillaries and under 
wing-coverts bright pule chestnut with pale tips to the tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Bill paler than that of the male. 

Measurements. Wing 112 to 118 mm. 

Distribution. South and Central Europe, North-West Africa, 
Western Asia, through Palestine, Persia, Mongolia, South Siberia 
and North China. It Winters throughout Central Africa, both 
West and East, Northern India and Burma, Yunnan, the Indo- 
Chinese countries and South China. 

Nidification. Breeds during May and early June, making a cup- 
shaped nest of roots and grass lined with fine roots and sometimes 
with huir, fur or feathers. It is placed in old walls, ruins, cliffs 
or among stones and is generally well hidden. The eggs number 
four or five and are pale blue, occasionally with a few reddish 

TOL. II. N 



178 TCBBIBJS. 

freckles at the larger end. One hundred eggs average 25*9 x 
19-5 mm. (Jourdain, Bey, etc.) and the extremes are: maxima 
30-0 X 20-8 and 29-0 x 21-0 mm. ; minima 23-2 X 169 mm. 

Habits. A very familiar bird, frequenting open, stony country 
and often found in the immediate vicinity of house* and gardens. 
Like the other species of this genus it is very Chat-like in its 
habits and actions ; its song is sweet and strong and its diet as 
varied as those of its nearest relations. 

* 
Genus MYI0PHONEUS. 
Myiophoneus Temm., PI. Col., ii, p. 29 (18:>3). 
Type, Mtjiophoneus Jlavirostrh. 

This genus, which Oates placed among the Cratero/>odid(r 
(Timiditda), is a true Thrush in every respect and the nestling 
shows distinct bars and streaks. They are large birds of black 
plumage glossed with blue and are very handsome. The bill is 
stout and rather less than the bead in length ; it is compressed 
laterally and hooked at the tip. Tlie nostrils are round 
and broad ovals. The wing is rather rounded for a Thrush's 
but the legs and feet are typically Thrush-like, long and strong. 
The sexes are alike. 

There are only two species in India, and some ornithologists 
might even place all our races in one species. The blue forehead 
and blue patch on the wing-coverts, neither of which is ever 
even indicated in any of the other forms, seem, however, sufficient 
to specifically distinguish hortfieldii from any of the other forms. 

Key to Species. 

A. A brijrht blue forehead and a brilliant patch 

of cobalt-blue on the lesser wing-coverts. . J/, hortjieldii, p. 178. 

B. No definite blue forehead or blue patch on 

wing-coverts '/. ttmmiuekii, p. lfO. 

(613) Myiophoneus horsfieldii. 

Tub Malabar Whisti,ixg-Thri:sH. 

Mtfiophmum hoiifieldii Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 30 (Malabar); 
Blanf. A Oatt-3, i, p. 180. 

Vernacular names. Gunta-vkkee (Canarese); Singala Karewe 
(Tel.). 

Description. Lores and forehead deep velvety black; anterior 
crown bright cobalt-blue ; « hole head, neck and mantle black, 
shading into deep blue on upper back, tail-coverts and tail ; lesser 
wing-coverts bright cobalt-blue ; wing-feathers black edged with 
blue except on the terminal halves of the outer primaries ; chin, 
throat, fore-neck and breast black ; lower breast, flanks and abdomen 
black with deep glistening blue ; under tail-coverts blue-black. 



MYIOPHONEOS. 179 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 300 mm. ; wing 140 to 
160 mm. ; tail 112 to 114 mm. ; tarsus 41 to 43 mm.; culmen 
30 to 31 mm. 

Young birds are like the adult but much duller. 

Nestling has not yet been described. 

Distribution. South-West India, North to Bombay, Mount Abu, 
Sirguja and Sambalpur, but not anywhere on the Eastern coast*. 
Home birds brought up by a Nilgiri planter and released in the 
Jetingu Valley, Cachar, lived and bred for many years but 
eventually died out or lost their distinguishing features in pairing 
with M. I. temminckii. 

Nidiflcation. The Malabar Whistling Thrush breeds during 
February and March in South Travancore, in May and .June 
further North in the Nilgiris and adjoining hills and as late as 
August in the North of its range. Normally it places its nest in 
among boulders beside a stream but not infrequently in buildings 
old or new, and in Khandala General Betham found a nest, or 
rather a series built one on the top of another, placed on the 
inside ledge of a window of the church. The nest is made prin- 
cipally of living moss mixed with roots and, rarely, a little grass 
or a few leaves. The lining, which is thick and compact, is of black 
roots, very tightly wound round. The eggs usually number three, 
occasionally either two or four. They are typical Thrushes' eggs 
and rather like those of Orncola daumu but much longer in shape. 
The ground-colour is a pale clay, cream, greyish stone or greenish 
and the markings consist of dull indefinite freckles and blotches 
of pale reddish brown with secondary markings of pale neutral 
tint and lavender. Some eggs look almost unicoloured and very 
few are at all well or boldly blotched. Forty eggs average 513-1 x 
L'3!) mm.: maxima 36-2x24-1 and 355-2x25-3 mm.; minima 
302 X 23-4 and 34 X 232 mm. 

Habits. The Whistling Schoolboy, as this fine Thrush is called 
on the Nilgiris, is a familiar object on every stream, small or large, 
whether running through forest, through grass-land or just outside 
a village or town. Its fine whistle, very full and sweet and 
distinctly Blackbird-like in tone, is uttered often throughout the 
day, though perhaps more frequently in the mornings ami evenings. 
It feeds entirely on the ground or in the shallow water at the 
edges of streams and will devour almost any living thing small 
enough to swallow. It is a bold bird, in no way shunning 
observation, and often enters gardens and compounds. 

Myiophoneus temminckii. 

Key to Suli€}>ecits. 

A. White tips to wing-coverts M. t. temminckii, p. 180. 

H. No white tips to wing-coverts M . t. tugenei, p. 1H1. 

N2 



180 TUKDIDA. 

(614) Myiophoneus temminckii temminckii. 
The Himalayan "Whistusg-Tubush. 

Muiophoneu* lemminckii Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 171 (Himalayas) ; 
Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 178. 

Vernacular names. Kartura (N.W. Provinces); Kaljit (Doon); 
Chamong-pho (Lepcha); Tetiman (Bhutea); Simtung (Khasia) ; 
Di-Daokat gashim (Cachari). 

Description. Lores, chin nn<l upper tlu-oaf black ; forehead 
bright deep blue ; whole head, back, wing-coverts, breast and 
flanks deep blue-black, each feather with a terminal spot of 
glistening blue ; the spots on the head, neck and throat elongate 
and gradually widening to broad, circular drops on lower breast 
and back; tail deep prussian blue; wings deep blue, the median 
coverts with bold white tips ; abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts 
blackish brown. 




Fig. 21.— Head of J/. /. ttur.ainckii. 

Colours of soft parts, fris brown or black : bill yellow, the 
culmen and base of upper mandible blackish ; le^s and feet black. 

Measurements. Wing 158 to 180 nun.; t;iil 110 to 122 mm.: 
tarsus 50 mm. ; culmen 28 to ;J0 nun. 

Young birds are like the adult but duller and without the 
glistening spots. 

Distribution. Himalayas from the Afghan Frontier to the 
extreme East of Assam, North and .South of the Brahmaputra, 
Chin Hills, Arakan and the Kachin Hills between the Chindwiu 
and the Irrawaddy. A few birds from the Chindwiu are rather 
like the next race, and here and there on the othor hand 
individuals are found across the East of the irrawaddy nearer 
this form than ewjmn. 

Nidification. The Himalayan Whistling-Thrush breeds from 
the level of the foot-hills up to some 9,000 feet and occasionally 
up as high as 12,000 f<>et in Tibet. The nest is a very massive 
cup, made of living moss with the muddy roots still adhering to 
the moss and mixed up with it, whilst the lining is of Hue dry 



MYJOPHOSBXJS. 181 

maidenhair fern and moss-roots. Tbe internal cup may be some 
4 to 5 inches across nnd rather more than half as deep, but the 
size of the nest from one outer edge to the other is often over a 
foot and the weight runs up to 6 or 7 pounds. It is nearly 
always placed near running water : in among boulders or roots on 
the bank, under an overhanging clod of earth, in or under some 
stump of dead tree, high up in rock or cliff or actually in the 
stream itself. A very favourite position is under a waterfall, and 
I have found more than one, to enter which the birds had actually 
to pass through the edge of the fall to get to their young. In 
these cases the nest, young birds and the sitting old ones were 
always more or less wet from the spray. 

They lay three or four eggs and but rarely live. They are just 
like those of the Malabar Whistling-Thrush but rather larger and 
more unieoloured, the freckles and blotches being still more ill- 
defined than they are in these eggs. Two hundred eggs average 
:$f>-8 x 24-8 mm. : maxima 403 X 26-0 and M5*l x 271 mm. ; 
minima 340 x 26-4 ami 3S--J x 244 mm. 

They breed from April to August, often rearing two broods. 
Habits. An extremely common bird throughout the greater 
part of its range this tine Thrush is found on every stream, flitting 
hither and thither up and down them and constantly uttering 
its loud, sweet notes so like the human whistle, but much 
clearer and more resonant. Thev feed both on the streams and in 
wet bush-forest, working the leaxes and moss just like our 
English Thrush, turning them over and then listening with head 
on one side for the movements of a hoped-for worm or other prey. 
Their alarm-note is like that of the Blackbird and when disturbed 
they fly far and fast but they are very confiding birds ami do not 
resent being watched. At the same time, they do not frequent the 
vicinity of buildings as the Malabar bird does. 



(6ir>) Myiophoneus temminckii eugenei. 

TltK Ik'HMESK WniSILlNO-TllRUSH. 

Myiphonru* rut/inci Hume, S. I*'., i. )>. 17.1 (1873) (lV>ru) ; Ulnnl'. A 
Oates, i, p. 17!». 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to the Himalayan Whistling-Thrush but 
with no white tips to the wing-eoverts and the hill almost 
entirely yellow. 

Distribution. Eastern Burma, East of the Irravvaddy, Karenni ; 
Pegu and Tenasserim, Siam, Shan States, Yunnan and Cochin 
China. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the Himalayan Whistling- 
Thrush. Thirty eggs average 367 x 25-4 mm. and are indis- 
tinguishable from those of that bird. 



182 TCRMD.* - . 

In Tenasserim they appear to breed from February to April 
but in the North from April to May. 

Habits. This, like the last bird, is an inhabitant of the hill- 
country, being found in summer from the foot-bills io the highest 
hilltops, and in winter spreading into the Plains >vhere»er there 
is fast-running, clear streams but never venturing on to slow- 
running, muddy rivers. In voice, Might and food there is nothing 
to remark differing from the Himalayan Whistling-Thrush, but it 
seems to be a wilder bird and less toleranr of humanity. 

Genus ARRENGA. 
Arrenya Less., Traitti d'Orn., p. aSH (1S.11). 

Type, Arrenya cyanta Horsf. 

The genus Arrenya is represented within our limits by one 
species, an inhabitant of Ceylon. It is verv closely allied to the 
Briicliiiftterjiyina, having a very short, rounded wing with the ;">th, 
fitli and 7th primaries longest and snbetpial and it also has very 
long tarsi. Its position is possibly between the true Shortwings 
such as Hodysonius and Lurrivom and the true Thrushes repre- 
sented by Myiophoneus but is nearer on the whole to the latter 
than the former. 

The bill is stout and shaped like that of Myioi>hunevs though 
rather shorter, being only about half as long as the head ; the 
ricial bristles are well developed and the nostrils are rounded. 
The tail is rather short and very slightly graduated. 

(616) Arrenga blighi. 
The Ceti.ox Whistmxi; Tmursii. 

Arrentja blighi lloldsworth. P. Z. S., ]S7!.'. p. 4-1-1. pi. I!» (Oyluit) : 
Bla'nf. & Uate.o, i, p. 1*".. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. -Hale. Whole plumage dark brown ; the head and 
neck are almost black; rump, vent and tail paler and the latter 




Fig. 22. -Head of A. I.lighi. 

obsoletely edged with reddish ; lesser wing-coverts bright cobalt- 
blue ; neck, breast, hack and wing-coverts suffused with deep blue. 
Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown : bill black ; legs and 
feet dark horny-brown to blackish. 



COCHOA. 183 

Measurements. Total length nbout 200 mm.; wing 113 mm.; 
tail 75 nun. ; tarsus 35 mm. ; culmen 21 mm. 

Female. Whole plumage ferruginous brown, lighter below, 
especially on the fore-neck; the lesstsr wing-coverts are the same 
as in the male and there is just a faint indication of the blue 
suffusion on the back and uings. 

Colours of soft parts are similar to those of the male. 

Measurements. Wing 100 to 110 mm.; tail 69 to 71 mm.; 
tarsus 35 mm.; culmen 10 nun. 

The British Museum has only three specimens of this bird, one 
male and t wo females. ( )ates' supposed young male is undoubtedly 
a female. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidification. The Ceylon Whistling-Thrush breeds in March 
(Tunnanl) and in April, during which latter month Captain T. 
Aldworth took several nests. They are very massive structures, 
much like those of Mi/ioplioneits, made almost entirely of green 
moss and lined with black roots. They are placed on ledges and 
in crevices of rocks either in or beside streams and owing to its 
position the outside is nearly always wet though the inside may 
be warm and dry enough. The normal full clutch of eggs is two, 
or occasionally only one. They are small replicas of the eggs of 
the Himalayan Whistling-Thrush and range through the same 
variations in markings. One pair of eggs taken by Captain 
Aldworth is \ery well marked, better than in any of the many 
hundred eggs 1 have seen of the other Whistling- Thrushes. 
The six eggs in my collection vary from 29*3 x 2W to 34-2 x 20-3 
mm. and in breadth from that of the latter egg to 31*6 x 22 - 2 mm. 

Habits. This seems to be entirely a forest bird, frequenting 
stream* running through well-wooded and rocky country between 
3,000 and 0,00(1 feet. In its actions, voice and food it very closely 
resembles the bird* of the genus Afiiiophonru* but its flight is slower 
and less well sustained. It is a shy bird and difficult to flush 
except in the breeding-season. 



Genus COCHOA. 
Coehua Hodjrs., .1. A. S.I!., v. p. 35!) (183(5). 

Type, Cochna nridis. 

The genus Cochoa contains, in India, two species of Thrush 
which are in many ways somewhat aberrant, especially in their 
type of coloration, which rather reminds one of the birds of the 
genus PternOiiw*, and in the short, very broad bill. The nostrils 
are large and oval, the rictal bristles obsolete and the tarsi 
powerful but short. The wing is long and pointed with a minute 
Brut primary and the tail is of moderate length very slightly 
graduated. 

The young are boldly squamated above and barred below, as in 



184 TURDIU.E. 

many other of tbe genera in this family. The nidification and 
the eggs are typically Thrush-like. 

Kty to Species, 

A. Crown of head lavender-blue C. purpurea, p. 184. 

B. Crown of head deep cobalt-blue. 

a. Cheeks, ear-coverts and sides of head black. V. viridu, p. 186. 

b. Cheeks, ear-coverts and sides of head white. (.'. rothschtldi, p. 186. 

(017) Cochoa purpurea. 
The Pcrplb Thrush. 

Cochoa purpurea Hodgs., J. A. S. li., v, p. ar>!> (1&S6) (Nepal); 
Hlanf. & Oates, ii,p. 159. 

Vernacular names. Cocho (Nepal); Lo-mjum -pho (Lopcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Lores, a narrow line next the bill, 
supercilium, sides of head and a narrow line round the crown 
black ; crown lavender-blue ; wing-coverts and bars of secondaries 
lavender-purple ; primary-coverts black ; first two primaries all 
black ; other primaries with a patch of lavender-grey on the base 
of the outer webs ; tips of secondaries black ; tail lavender-purple 
with a black tip; remainder of plumage brownish purple, darkest 
on the throat and breast. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris crimson-brown or red-brown; bill 
black ; legs and feet slaty-black. 

Measurements. Total length about 300 mm.; wing 140 to 
144 mm.; tail 9;"> to 105 aim.; tarsus about 28 mm. ; culmen 
about 14 to 15 mm. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the purple parts 
replaced by reddish brown. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in male. 

The Nestling is similar to the female but has the blue crown 
replaced by white feathers edged with blackish ; the feathers of 
the upper parts have fulvous shafts terminating in a fulvous spot; 
below the plumage is dull fulvous barred with dusky. 

The young male is like the adult but has the crown white 
barred with purple-black and the underparts brown barred with 
dull black. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Simla to Eastern Assam, North 
and South of the Brahmaputra ; Manipur, Chin and Kachin Hills, 
Hills of Central and South Burma to Tenasserim. 

Nidification. This beautiful Thrush breeds in Mav, June and 
July at heights between 3,500 and 6,000 feet and possibly up to 
8,000 feet. It makes a rather loosely put together, shallow cup- 
shaped nest of living green moss lined with black fern and moss- 
roots and rachides. It is very untidy outwardly, scraps of moss 
sticking out in every direction but' the inner cup of roots is more 
firm and compact. It is usually placed on a small tree, 6 to 20 feet 



COCHOA. 185 

from the ground, standing in evergreen forest but it sometimes 
breeds in pine-forests. The eggs number two or three, very 
rarely four, and are typically Thrush-like in character but very 
handsome and richly coloured. They range from eggs like those 
of the English Blackbird, though brighter and redder, to eggs with 
a bright pale sea-green ground richly blotched with reddish. The 
texture is tine and close but not glossy as in C'Urina eggs, and 
ninny are practically indistinguishable from the eggs of Zootliera, 
though generally longer ovals in shape. Fifty eggs average 
31-3x210 mm.: maxima 351 x 215 and 31 -2x23*0 mm.; 
minima 292 X 20*5 and 81*2 X 203 mm. 

Habits. This Thrush is essentially a forest bird and prefers 
forests which are dense, humid and evergreen but about Shillong 
I found it breeding in the pine-forests where there was under- 
growth and a mixture of other trees in the ravines. It is a shy 
bird and in spite of its brilliant colouring by no means conspicuous 
until it strikes a patch of sunlight, when it is transformed at once 
into a most, beautiful object. It is a very quiet bird and beyond a 
low chuckle I have heard no note. It feeds largely on fruit and 
berries and to a less extent on insects. 



(018) Cochoa viridis. 

The (Ireen Thrush. 

0*:hoa viridit Ilodgs., J. A. S. IS., v, p. 359 (1836) (Nepal) ; Hlanf. & 
Ontes, ii, p. ltiO. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Crown, nape and hind-neck brilliant 
cobalt-blue ; lores :iud short supercilium black ; ear-coverts 




Fig. •».- in ii of e. t>irirfi«. 

indigo-blue; upper plumage deep rich green, often suffused with 
bronze; central tail-feathers blue, tipped with black, next four 
pairs black on the inner web, blue on all but the tip of the outer 
web, the outermost pair all black ; lesser wing-coverts green with 
broad black tips ; other coverts pale blue with broad black tips ; 
quills black with a broad baud of pale blue on the bases of the 
outer webs of all but the first two ; whole lower plumage green ; 
bluish on the abdomen and often much suffused with bronze. 



186 TURDIIKX. 

The amount of the bronze shown varies greatly, both above and 
below. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brownish orange to deep crimson 
or maroon-brown ; bill black, the gape and orbital skin pink ; legs 
fleshy-brown to horny-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 2!M) to 300 nun.: wing 135 
to 14.5 mm.: tail f»S to 117 mm.; tarsus 25 to 2(> mm.: culmen 
12 - 5 to 13n> mm. 

Female differs from the male only in having the greater coverts 
and secondaries marked with yellowish brown instead of blue, 
the colour being confined to the edges of the coverts and tips of 
the secondaries. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male but 
the iris duller. 

Young birds have the wings and tail like the adults from 
the first; the crown appears to be bluish white with dark bars; 
the sides of the head much marked with white; the upper and 
lower plumage buff, the feathers above with broad black borders 
all round, those below with terminal black bars, broadest on the 
breast. 

The Nestling is barred and squamated all over, black bars on 
buff ground. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Kuiimon and Garhwal to Eastern 
Assam, Manipur and the hills of Burma to Teiinsseriin. It 
extends through the Indo-Chinese countries into Western China. 

Nidification. Exactly the same as in the Purple Thrush in 
every respect, nest, eggs, breeding-season and site but it breeds a 
little earlier, from the end of April to the beginning of June, rarely 
in the end of that month. Whymper, however, found it breeding 
in July near Naini-Tal and he describes the lining of the nest as 
being composed chiefly of lieben. Thirty eggs average 32-3 x 
21 5 mm. : maxima 33*1 x21-2 and 321 x 22 5 mm. ; minima 292 
X2l - 1 and 32-1 x 20'9 mm. A clutch of very small eggs taken 
by llopwood in Taunghoo measure only 27'3 x 20-O mm. 

Habits. Those of the preceding bird. 



(019) Cochoa rothschildi, sp. nov. 

The White-chkekei) Grekn Thrush. 

Description. Differs from the Green Thrush in having the whole 
of the lower parts almost entirely orange-brown from the breast 
to the under tail-coverts. The sides of the hend, ear-coverts and 
cheeks are white, produced in a demi-collar on to the sides of the 
neck. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in Cochoa viridi*. 
Distribution. Of the two specimens known, one was taken in 
Sikkim and the other at Matchi in Manipur. 



i.Aiscorus. 187 

Lord ltothseliild has examined the British Museum series with 
me as well as his own series at Tring, and we can find no trace 
of connection between the two forms, which must therefore, rank 
as species. 

Nidiftcation and Habits not recorded. 



Subfamily PRUNELLIN.E. 

It is unfortunate that the widely-known name Accentor cannot 
he used for any of the Hedge-Sparrows, and therefore Laitcnpu* 
Gloger, Handl. u. Hilfsb. p. 267 (1841), must be used in its place 
for the bigger I ledge-Sparrows and Prunella instead of T/turrhaleiix, 
as the former name dates from l.Slfi (Vieill. Analyse nouv. Orn. 
p. 43) and the latter only from 1829 (Kaup). As the name 
Accentor cannot be applied to these birds, the subfamily must be 
known by the name of the oldest genus and hence becomes 
I'runeUintz as above, of which l*rtmella colhtru cdUaris may be 
accepted as the type. For the same reason I have reverted to the 
trivial name Hedge-Sparrow, even though such a term may be 
technically incorrect. 

The Prunelliiur are sometimes accepted as a separate family on 
account of the scutellation of the tarsus, and 1 should follow this 
practice but for the fact, already commented on, of some of the 
Chats when young having similar seutellations, persist inf.' in a few 
individuals until the second year. 

The plumage of the young is essentially Thrush-like, and there 
can be no doubt of their proper place either with or next to the 
Turdidif. 

The Hedge-Sparrows are comparatively small birds, Pala>:irctie 
and sub-tropical in their habitat. The sexes are alike; the bill is 
iinely pointed and slightly notched, wide at the base and com- 
pressed towards the middle; the nostrils are large, diagonal and 
covered by a membrane; th« Metal bristles are few and weak ; the 
feathers of the forehead slightly disintegrated and the tail is either 
square or a little forked. 

There is a seasonal, but not very conspicuous, change of 
plumage owing to the abrasion of the feathers in Winter, and the 
young moult into the adult plumage the first Autumn. 

Key to Genera. 

A. Wing loiip ami pointed, over 8S mm Laiscopi's, j>. lis". 

U. Wing short and rounded, always less than 

86 mm Pui'KEr.i.A, p. 19'J. 

Genus LAISCOPOS. 
Laitcopus Ologer, Handl. u. Hilfsb., p. 207 (1841). 
Type, Accentor alpinns. 
The genuB tMiscopm contains those Hedge-Sparrowa with a long 



188 TURDIDJ5. 

pointed wing. They are considerably larger than the birds of the 
other genus and generally more extensively migratory. 

The wing is longer than v he tail by more than the length of the 
tarsus, the secondaries are only equal to the 7th or 8th primary. 

Key to Species. 

A. Breast uniformly greyish brown L. collaris, p. 188. 

B. Breast rufous, the feathers edged with white. L. himalayanus, p. 191. 

Laiscopus collaris. 

•Sturtms collaris Scop., Aim. I. Hist. Nat., p, 131 (17<>9). 
Type-locality : Karntheu. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Flanks chestnut without any white streaks. 

a. Darker and more brown L. c nipulensis, p. Irt8. 

b. Paler and more grey L. c. nifilatus, p. 189. 

B. Flanks chestnut broadly edged with white. L. c. tibetanus, p. 190. 

C. Flanks chestnut narrowly fringed with white. L. c. ripponi, p. 191. 

(620) Laiscopus collaris nipalensis. 

The E aster x Ai-pine Hedoe-Sfabrow. 

Accentor nipalensi* Blyth, J.A..S. B., xii, p. 0.18 (1843) (Nepal) 
Blanf. & Oates. ii, p. H50. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Forehead to hind-neck greyish brown, obsoletely 




l'i£. 21.-— Head of L. c. ui/ta/eitfii. 

centred darker; back more rufous-brown with the centres darker 
and. broader; rump and upper tail -coverts pale rufous with faint, 
dark shaft-streaks ; tail dark brown, tipped rufous on the outer 
webs, white on the inner webs : lesser wing-coverts like the hind- 
neck ; other coverts very dark brown with white spots at their 
tips ; scapulars and inner secondaries black with broad rufous 
edges paling at the tips; other quills dark brown narrowly edged 
and tipped with paler ; centre of chin and throat white barred with 
black ; sides of head and neck and the whole breast greyish brown, 
speckled with white round the eye ; middle of the abdomen rufous 
grey, barred with blackish in young birds ; flanks and sides of the 



LAISCOPirS. 189 

abdomen chostnut ; under tail-coverts chestnut broadly edged with 
white. 

Colours of soft parts, iris dark brown ; bill black, the base and 
gape bright yellow ; legs and feet fleshy -brown or light browu. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 90 to 
102 mm.; tail 65 to 78 nun.; tarsus about 23 mm.; culinen 10 to 
11 mm. 

Young birds have the whole lower plumage rufous-grey, 
streaked with blackish. The gape is a very conspicuous orange-red. 

Birds collected by Mr. \V hyiuper in Garhwal were described 
by me as a new race under the name of L. c. whymj>eri (Bull. 
B. ().(.'., xxxv, p. 00, 1915) on account, of their very small size, 
wing 85 to i)2 mm., and the red colour of the breast and underparts, 
the rufous also extending to the back. Mr. N. Kinnear has 
pointed out to me that tins red colour appears to be artificial, 
probably due to the preservative used: more material therefore 
seems necessary before we accept this as a good race. 

Distribution. Sikkim, S.W.Tibet, Nepal, Garhwal. Kuniaou and 
South-East Kashmir. To the East it probably extends through 
the hills of Assam, a specimen from the Dafla Hills being referable 
to this race. 

Nidification. Mr. Why m per found this bird breeding in some 
numliers in the Garhwal Hills at a height of about 15,000 feet. 
The nests he describes as cups made entirely of moss and placed 
well under the shelter of a stone. They apparently often lav only 
two eggs and never more than three, as lie saw manv nests 
containing only two young ones. Two eggs taken bv him measure 
23-0 x KM and 221 x 1(5-0 mm. Thev were taken on the 
27th of May. 

Habits. The Eastern Alpine Hedge-Sparrow is a bird of very 
high elevations, being found from 12,000 to 1(>,0<IO feet in the 
breeding-season nnd wandering down to about S,0o<» feet in Winter 
and occasionally down to about 5,00(1 feet, at which height it has 
been found below Darjeeling and again in the Dafla Hills. On the 
other hand, the Mt. Everest Expedition saw this bird at 21,000 feet 
and actually procured a specimen at IS, 500 feet. In habits it 
resembles its British cousin, being a quiet, skulking little bird, 
haunting undergrowth and scrub, slipping quietly about and 
uttering a regular little Hedge- Sparrow song. Its (light is strong 
and direct. 

('''21) Laiscopus collaris rufilatus. 

The Turkestan Heihik-SSi>ahhow. 

Accentor rujiliitu* Severtz., Snpisti <l. Turk., p. 4o (l)*7i>) 
(Turkestan). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to the Eastern Alpine Accentor but much 



190 rVRDlDM. 

paler both above and below ; more grey and less brown and with 
the rufous flanks much less rich. 

Colours of soft parts. Similar to the same in L. c, nipahivsis. 

Measurements. Wing 88 to 102, generally well over 90 mm. ; 
culmen 12 to 13 mm. 

Distribution. North- West Frontier mountains from Baluchistan 
to Gilgit and North- West Kashmir. Simla, probably a straggler 
only. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the last bird. Four eggs 
collected by Mr. Crump for Col. A. E. Ward measure 240 x 
14-3 mm. Captain C. H. T. AVhitehead found them breeding 
freely on the Sated Koh above 12,0u0 feet, placing their nests in 
crevices of, or under, rocks. These, the nests, were neatly made 
of grass and roots, lined with fur and hair. The eggs or young 
numberod two or three only and the former measured 2 1*5 x 
14-5 mm. They were taken on the 1st of July. 

Habits. Those of the species. This race seems to frequent 
lower levels than the last one, breeding between 10,000 and 
14,000 feet and being sometimes found as low as S,000 feet even 
in Summer, whilst Whitehead found it down to 0,000 feet in the 
Samaua in Winter. 



(622) Laiscopus collaris tibetanus. 

The Tibet Hedge-Sparrow. 

Accentor collaris tibetanu»V\«ac\\\, Ann. Mus. Zoo I. Acad. IVtPrsb., 
ix, p. lL>,S(liKM)(K. Tibet). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Katber darker than L, c. rujil<aun but decidedly 
paler than L. c. nipaUiuis and differing from all the other races 
found within the limits of this work in having the feathers of the 
deep chestnut flanks broadly fringed with white and the tail very 
boldly tipped with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill yellow at base and 
black at the tip; legs pale fleshy horn-colour. 

Measurements. Wing 00 to 104 mm.; culmen 12 to 13-5 mm. 

Distribution. Gobi, Kansu, East Tibet to Huanche, Koko Nur 
and ? South-East Tibet to the plateaus above Gyantse. 

Nidification. Fragments of skins sent me with nests and eggs 
from South-East Tibet appear from the deep chestnut flanks to 
be of this race and not of the last. The nests are described as 
l>«iiig built in crevices of rocks or under stones on rocky hillsides. 
Judging from the remains they were originally deep cups made of 
grass, roots and twigs, mixed with moss and lichen and lined 
with wool or hair. They were taken in June and July, with the 
exception of one found in May, at elevations of 12,000 to 



LAISCOPUS. 191 

15,000 feet. The eggs are not distinguishable from those of other 
rnces of this species. 

Habits. Nothing recorded. 

(023) Laiscopus collaris ripponi. 

Kippon'h HfiiMic-SPAimow. 

I'mnellti collaris ripponi Hai-tert,Vog. Pal., i, p. 70<> (1913) (Gvi-dzu- 
Slmn). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. A very dark bird both above and below, the tail 
tipped with rufesient and the chestnut flanks with narrow 
rufescent edges to the feathers, not always present. 

Colours of soft parts. " Iris brown ; bill black with pale base ; 
leg* lleshy " (Rippon). 

Measurements. Wing ^S to 1)8 mm. ; culmen 12 to 12-5 mm. 

Distribution. N. .Shan States, Yunnan, Szechuan and NAY r . 
China, S.E. Tibet. 

Nidiflcation and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

(024) Laiscopus himalayanus. 

Tnv: Altai Hedge-Sparrow. 

. ■Icceiitor himalayanus Itlyth, J. A. 8. 13., xi, p. 18" (1MJ2/ (Hima- 
layas) ; Uhuif. & Oates, h, p. lliK 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Foivhend, crown, nape and hind-neck grevish 
brown with darker central streaks; back, scapulars and inner 
secondaries black, broadly uiargineJ with rufous and the latter 
with whitish tips; rump and central tail-coverts pale grevish 
brown, faintly streaked darker; outer tad-coverts black edged 
with pale rufous ; tail dark brown edged ami tipped pale rufous ; 
wing-coverts blackish, edged with rufous and tipped white; 
primaries and outer secondaries brown, narrowly edged with pale 
rufous ; a narrow pale grey supercilium ; feathers under the eve 
blackish, speckled with white; ear-coverts rufous, pale-shafted: 
chin, throat and fore-neck white, the sides bunded with black and 
an indefinite collar next the breast ; remainder of lower plumage 
rufous, the feat-bora edged with white and a few feathers in llie 
centre of the breast sometimes sub edged with a narrow black 
line : cent re of abdomen and vent almost vt hite ; under tail coverts 
blackish with broad white .margins. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brick-red to carmine; bill black, the 
gape and bane of lower mandible fleshy ; legs and feet fleshy-brown, 
claws nearly black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm. ; wing 38 to 



192 tubihd.*;. 

98 mm. ; tail 90 to 95 mm. ; tarsus about 21 mm. ; culnien 
11 to 12 mm. 

Distribution. Prom the Altai to Turkestan, Afghanistan, 
Baluchistan, Kashmir in the extreme North, West and East 
through Nepal and Sikkim to the Miri Hills. Probably through- 
out Tibet, for I have had skins sent ine from Yatuug, Phari and 
Rhamtso. 

Nidiflcation. The Altai Hedge-Sparrow certainly breeds in 
Gilgit, Ladak, Sikkim and S.E. Tibet and probably throughout 
its range at elevations above 10,000 feet. In Tibet it does not 
seem to breed below 12,000 and more often above 15,000 feet. 
The nest is like that of the common Hedge-Sparrow, as are the 
eggs, though these latter are a good deal smaller, measuring about 
23-2x150 nun. 

Nests with eggs have been taken in the Altai in May and in 
Gilgit, Ladnk and Til>et iu May, June and July. 

Habits. The Altai Hedge-Sparrow is only locally migratory, 
though Ward speaks of large flocks passing through Kashmir in 
Winter. Probably these were birds merely migrating from 
higher to lower levels. In Summer they may be found any- 
where between 12,000 and 17,000 feet, but in Winter descend to 
6000 feet, at which height Whitehead found them common in the 
Saraana from December to April feeding iu large flocks among 
stones near the fort. They appear to prefer wild, bleak country 
with little but scrub and grass vegetation and much broken by 
rocky outcrops and stony wastes. 

Genus PRUNELLA. 
Prunella Vieill., Analyse houv. Ornith., p. 4-'S (181(5). 
Type, Accentor moilularis. 

The genus Prunella contains those Hedge-Sparrows which differ 
from the last in being smaller, with shorter and more rounded 
wings only slightly longer than the tail, and the secondaries fall 
short of the primaries by a distance equal to about half the 
length of the tarsus. 

The birds of this genus are sedentary or only locally migratory. 

Key to Species. 

A. Upper plumage unstreaked P. immaculata, p. 1SW. 

li. Upper plumage streaked. 

a. So supercilium P. rubecttloiden, p. 19.'l. 

b. A distinct supercilium. 

a'. Chin and throat black P. atrogularis, p. 191. 

V . Chin and throat white or fulvous. 
«''. Breast of same colour as rest of 

lower plumage /'. futee»cetu, p. 197. 

A". Breast ferruginous and not the 

samo as rest of lower plumage . . /', $trophiata, p. 196. 



PEUNELLA. 193 

(625) Prunella immaculate. 

The Mauoon-backkd Hedge-Spabrow. 

Accentor tmmaculatus Ilodgs., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 34 (Nepal). 
Tharrhttleus immaculatut. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 109. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Lores dusky black ; crown and nape dark ashy- 
grey, the feathers of the forehead and sides of the crown edged 
with white; interscapular* and back grey tinged with golden 
rufous ; scapulars and lower back chestnut-maroon, shading into 
golden grey on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail dark grey- 
brown, obsoletely rayed darker ; primary-coverts black ; other 
coverts blue-grey ; primaries and outer secondaries dark brown, 
all but the two outermost edged with light grey; innermost 
secondary all maroon and those next it maroon on the outer web ; 
chin, throat, sides of head and the breast ashy-grey, tinged with 
olive on the last-named ; vent, extreme posterior flanks and under 
tail-coverts dark rufous-chestnut. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris pearl-white or yellowish white; bill 
black ; leg* and feet dark brown or horny-brown to pale fleshy- 
brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 160 mm. ; wing 74 to 
S4 mm. ; tail £i0 to ~>7 mm. ; tarsus about 21 mm. ; culmeu about 
1 1 mm. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkini, Tibet, Hills North of Assam, to 
Yunnan and Western China. 

Nidification. This .Hedge-Sparrow breeds in some numbers in 
Sikkini and South Tibet 'from 10,()0o to 15,U(»0 feet, making a 
coarsely built rough nest of varying amounts of grass, leaves, 
twigs, moss, etc. generally well lined witli wool or hair, sometimes 
only with soft grass. The nests are placed either on the ground 
or close to it in some dense bush or mass of brambles. The eggs 
are of the usual Hedge-Sparrow blue and number from three to 
live in a full set. Thirty eggs average 19 - 5 x 1.44 mm. : maxima 
20 6 X 140 and !$»•."> x 15-3 mm.; minima 175 X 140 mm. 

The breeding-season is from the end of May to the end of July 

Habits. Those of the family. 

(6i.'f>) Prunella rubeculoides. 

Tiik Roniv Hkdgk-Spakrow. 

Aremtar nthfculci'lrs Moore. P. Z. S., 18.">4, p. US ( N'epsl). 
T/iarrhaleu* rubrcuhitlts. Blanf. Jt Oales, ii, p. 1<>9. 

Vernacular names, l'hoo-chhig-jrfto (Lepclm). 
Description. Forehead, crown, nape and aides of head brown ; 
back, scapulars and rump rufous-brown with broad black centres ; 
VOL. II. o 



194 TUR1HIMB. 

upper tail-coverts olive-brown ; tail brown with pole edges ; lesser 
and median wing-coverts ashy-brown, tipped white and with dark 
centres ; greater coverts brown, centred dark, edges rufescent and 
tipped with rufescent white ; quills dark brown edged paler and 
the innermost secondaries broadly edged with rufescent; chin, 
throat and fore-neck ashy-brown ; breast dark ferruginous ; lower 
breast, abdomen and flanks pale fulvous or almost white, the sides, 
vent and under tail-coverts streaked with rufous-brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris whitey-brown to clear pale brown; 
bill black ; legs and feet fleshy-brown to homy reddish brown ; 
claws darker. 

Measurements. Total length about 165 to 170 mm.; wing 75 
to 81 nun.; tail 52 to 59 mm.; tarsus about 21 mm. ; culmeu 
about 11 mm. 

The Young bird has no red on the breast, these parts being 
streaked with black on a buflfy-brown ground : the black bases of 
the feathers of the throat and neck are very obvious, giving a 
mottled appearance ; the feathers of the head are also more 
streaky in character. 

Distribution. Himalayas from the Afghan Frontier to Tibet and 
the Hills North of the Brahmaputra to Szechuan ami kun.su. 

Nidification. This is a very common Hedge-Sparrow from 
Lotlak to Eastern Tibet, breeding between 10,000 and 15,000 feet 
during June and July and sometimes in May. The nest is a typical, 
untidy Hedge-Sparrow nest, placed in the low thorn-bushes which 
grow over so great an extent of these plateaus. .Most often three 
eggs only are laid, sometimes four, which are quite indistinguish- 
able from other Hedge-Sparrows' eggs. Forty ecgs average 1 9-S x 
147 mm.: maxima 210 x 15-0 and 201x153 mm.; minima 
186 X 142 mm. 

Habits. Those of the family. It is said to Ik- a great skulker 
and its sweet little song is mote often heard than the bird itself 
is seen. 

(027) Prunella atrogularis. 

This B^acx-throated Heixje-Sj'arrow. 

Accentor ntrttgular'u Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. 1'eterab., p. 140 (l'*44) 

( Semi-Palatine). 
Tharrhaleiu alriyularit. Blanf. k Oates, ii, p. 170. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Lores, ear-coverts, sides of the head, chin and 
throat black ; a very narrow broken moustachial streak buff ; 
forehead and crown dark brown, darker at the sides iibove a 
broad buff superciltum, the feathers all centred darker; back and 
scapulars fulvous-brown, often ashy on the nape, with broad 
brown central streaks ; rump and upper tail-coverts brown ; tail 



ravsELU. 195 

brown with very narrow paler edges ; breast, sides of the neck 
and flanks ochraceous buff with concealed black bases to the 
feathers and the flanks with brown streaks ; abdomen, vent and 
under tail-coverts white to pale buff, the last-named with broad, 
dark brown centres. Wings brownish black ; the visible portions 
of the outer webs of all the feathers rufous-fulvous ; the median 
and greater coverts with faint white tips to the outer webs : in the 
innermost secondaries the deep brown centres show conspicuously. 
After the Autumn moult the pale margins to the feathers of the 
upper plumage are broader and the general tinge paler; the 
throat i-< fringed with whitish and the black parts therefore duller 
and less conspicuous. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris hazel-brown ; bill dark horny-brown, 
the base fleshy or yellowish horny ; legs and feet fleshy or hornv- 
brown, the claws darker. 

Measurements. Total length about 155 mm.; wing ~-± to 
70 mm.; tail 58 to <>4 mm.: tardus about -J1 mm. ; culmen about 
1 1 mm. 

Distribution. Turkestan and the Tian Schan ; Himalayas from 
Afghanistan and ltaluchistan through Kashmir, (iarhwal. Nepal 
and SiUkim to Tibet. It has been obtained in winter a* tar South 
as the Salt Range. 

Nidification. This is not an uncommon breeding bird in Tibet 
above l2,O0tt feet, perhaps more often over 14,000 fee:, in June 
and .lulv and, prohahlv, also in the end of Mav. The nest is 
typical of that of the family, all those 1 have received having 
been built in among the roots and lowest branches of a prickly 
little thorn-bush. The eggs, three or four in number in Tibet, as 
many as six in Turkestan, are not distinguishable from those of 
other species of this subfamily. Thirty eggs average l'.i-l x 
14'1 mm. and the extremes are : maxima 20"2 x \',i-'> and liH.'x 
14"7 mm.; minima 17"4xl3 - 4 mm. 

Habits. Those of the subfamilv. 



Prunella strophiata. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Abovo rufous-biown : breast deep ferru- 
ginous /'. f. ftrop/iiafa, p. 196. 

15. Above grey-brown ; breast pale rufous. ... 1'. ». jerdoni, p. 197. 

/'. *. nmltistriala, a race somewhat intermediate which is found 
in I'unnau and W. China, is sure to be obtained before long in the 
Shan States. Its deep rufous supercilium will suffice to separate 
it. from /'. s. jertloni and its more grey upper parts from V. s. 



196 TVBDIB/E. 

(ti:>8) Prunella strophiata strophiata. 

THE Rl'I'OUS-BKBASTEl) HeOGE-SpaRKOW. 

Accentor stiophiatu* Blyth, J. A. S. B., xii, p. !»5!> ( 1SU!) (Nep.il). 
Tharrhaleu* stropkititus. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 171. 

Vernacular names. PhoocMmj-pho (Lepcha). 

Description. Whole upper plumage rufescent brown, each 
feather with broad blackish-brown central streaks; tail brown 
with obsolete pale edges ; a broad rufous supercilium bordered 
with black and almost white over the lores; lores, cheeks and ear- 
coverts, dark brown; chin and throat white, with black spots at 
the sides and base : sides of the neck ashy with broad blackish 
strsaks; wings brown, the feathers edged with nitons and the 
coverts with white tips; breast deep ferruginous: thinks dull 
ferruginous, changing to white on the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts, all these parts boldly streaked with black. 

After the Autumn moult the upper parts are more widely 
fringed with rufous and look paler. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill blackish brown, the 
base horny yellowish; legs and feet tleshy or reddish brown: 
claws darker. 

Measurements. Total length about l">0 mm.; wing frj to 
72 nun.; tail ~>\ to 02 mm.; tarsus about 2i> nun. ; culinen about 
11 mm. 

The Young birjl is a richer rufous above and lias practically the 
whole of the underparts bright fulvous, much streaked with dark 
brown ; birds of the year retain the brown streaks on the rufous 
breast. 

Distribution. Nepal, Garhwal, Sikkim, Mountains North of 
Assam, South and Western Tibet. 

Nidification. Breeds throughout its range above l'_',<»i)U feet 
right up to the snow-line, from the l*giuuiug of June to the end 
of July. The nest is tlio usual untidy cup, but is finished off 
better than most Hedge-Sparrows' nests are and is well and neatly 
lined with moss. They are placed, according to Mr. S. Why in per, 
always in willows in (tarhwal but, in Tibet tiiev build both in the 
willows and in any kind of scrub. The eg»s generally number 
three, rarely four, are of the usual blue and fifty eggs average 
ItHIx 14 1* mm. : maxima 209 x 144 and 20 1x150 mm.; 
minima 181 X 14-4 and l!J-Sxl3-5 mm. 

Habits. Frequents the higher plateaus between 12, Dun and 
16.000 feet, but in Winter is found in Sikkim and the Assam Hills 
as low as 6,000 feet or even lower. Its habits, food, flight and 
voice are similar to those of the other species of the genus but 
it docs not seem to be »o inveterate a skulker. 



. pbunej.la. 197 

(6^9) Prunella strophiata jerdoni. 

J kudon'b Hkdgk-Spabkow. 

Afccntor jerdoni Brooks, J.A.S. 11., xli, pt. 2, p. >'i-~ ll^Tl') 

(Kashmir). 
Tharrhaleut jtrdmii. Itlauf. it Gates, ii, p. 172. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to P. a. atrophia tn but generally paler and 
more grey, less rufous : the crown and nape are less boldly 
streaked ; the supercilium is much paler, the dark bands above, it 
are more pronounced and wider and the breast is pale rufous 
instead of deep ferruginous. 

Colours of soft parts as in the liufous-hreasted Hedge-Sparrow. 

Measurements. Wing <>2 to 09 mm. ; tail 5:5 to 57 nun. ; tarsus 
about 19 mm. ; culinen about 1 ) mm. 

Young differ from the adult, as do those of the preceding bird. 

Distribution. Afghanistan, Baluchistan and Gilgit to Kashmir, 
Simla and Northern Garhwal. 

Nidification. Jerdon's Hedge-Sparrow breeds throughout its 
range at 9,000 feet upwards during .June and July. It builds a 
rather neater nest than usual, generally of grass and moss lined 
with fur or wool, but sometimes mixed with other materials such as 
leaves and bracken. The eggs vary from three to six. most often 
four or live, and are similar to those of other birds of the genus. 
Forty eggs average lO'Oox \'.\s mm.: maxima 21"1 x VM.i and 
19-1) x 14-6 mm. ; minima 17 3x KM* and 21-1 x 130 mm. 

The birds nearly always place their nest in the. juniper-scrub, 
sometimes in pines or other small trees. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

Prunella fulvescens (Severtzoff). 
Type-locality : Turkestan. 

Prunella /ulvtsceus has been divided into five races:--/'. /. 
fvlveso-ns, Turkestan; P./. drewri Hartert, East Turkestan; 
/'. /. djihuricus Taczanowski, E. Siberia ; /'. /. ocularis iiad.de, 
Kus-jurdi, Caucasian Mt. and P.f.fti<iani O. Grant, Arabia. 

Of these the first two are supposed to come within the limits of 
this work, 7'. /. fulrexwns being found in Tibet and Sikkim and 
/'.;'. drfjsstri in Gilgit, Kashmir, etc. The former is supposed to 
he a darker race, the latter a paler one, but they are extremely 
difficult to divide and among the specimens retained in the 
British Museum under the name of P. f. /m/wwiw there are two 
collected by Przewalsky on the borders of Tibet which are paler 
than 9 out of 10 of those in the series of P. /. dresseri. A third 
bird collected by the same naturalist from the Dytschu Hiver is 
us dark as any of those from Turkestan and Kashmir. 

Individuals of this Hedge-Sparrow evidently vary greatly and 



]i)3 TUHWIDT, 

1 fail to find anr tJistin^uisltiiig feature in colour or *i*e between 
f. t/rfswi and /' fulrtsftn*. I therefore place all our Indian birds 

under tin' latter name. 

i two Pnmelk fuirescens (ulvescena. 

THE IJltOtt'.if HrDGK-NpAHROW. 

4lw/ ,, */,v«v«* *wt«.. Turk. Jevutn.,p. t*< ! IW.'I} (TurfceMnn). 
/»»/v/S«/i'/w/»/'v.««-«.v. JlJ„nf. A (hite-. «i, J>. I. '• 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. A supereilium from the nostrils to the nape white 
or hurty white, fort 1 head to nape umber-brown, darkest next the 
supereilium; back and scapulars ashy-brown streaked with dark 
brown and varying much in tint in .specimens from the same 
locality; in some these parts are almost grey, in others fulvous- 
brown or even tinged with rufous, though I win see no constant 
geographical variation : tail-coverls and rump pale brown nn- 
streaked, tail brown with pale edges ; wings brow n, the feathers 
edged with the pale colour of the hack and the median and greater 
coverts with pale tips; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts and a patch 
behind them blackish brown ; lower plumage pale buffy white to 
ochraceous buff, generally paler on the chin, throat and centre of 
the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris yellow to dark brown: bill dark 
horny-brow ii, paler at the base; legs and feet fleshy or yellowish 
brow n, claws darker. 

Measurements. Wing 71 to 80 mm. ; tail ">7 to 00 mm. ; tarsus 
about 20 mm.; eulmen about 1 1 mm. 

Distribution. Turkestan West to Ka*t. Kansu, South Mongolia, 
fiilgit, Kashmir, Ladak, Tibet, Sikkim and Hills North of the 
Brahmaputra, above 10,000 feet. 

Nidification. This J ledge-Sparrow breeds from Turkestan to 
Ladak and Tibet and possibly in extreme North-West Kashmir, 
making the usual untidy cup-shaped nest of grass, moss, etc., 
placed in some low bush. The eggs, four m" five in number, are. 
of the UMial 1 ledge-Sparrow character and sixty average IO-.">y 
14;i mm.: maxima 206x141 and 19 - 4xl51 mm.; minima 
18 3x140 and 10-1 x 13'3 mm. 

The breeding-season extends well into the end of August, lew 
birds laying before the middle of June. 

Habits. Those of the genus. This species is supposed to he 
migratory in the true sense of the term, leaving its summer haunts 
altogether in the winter, ft certainly, however, is resident in 
parts of Tibet throughout the year though moving vertically with 
the seasons and it may well prove to be a constant resident in 
(rilgit and Ladak under similar conditions. Both Walton and 
Steen found this bird breeding between 12.000 and 14,000 feet 
round about Qvantse, and the Everest Expedition (Kinneur) 
records it from 12,000 to 1:5,500 feet in July. 



UVtClCABWJB. 



190 




Kig. -i>. — ler/ti-ij'Juwc />, jwrttdi.-i. 



Family MUSCICAPID-i:. 

The intrinsic museles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; tin; edges of both mandibles smooth, the 
upper one simply notched; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, 
composed of two entire longitudinal lamina? : wing with ten 
primaries; tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the line of the 
forehead, the lower edge of the nostril nearer to the commissure 
than tliu upper edge is to the ctilmen ; plumage of the nestling 
spotted or sqiinuinted ; nostrils more or less covered by long curly 
hairs; reel rices twelve ; tarsi short and rather weak ; an Autumn 
moult only. 

The Miiscirapiiltr, or Flycatchers, constitute a, very large family 
of birds found all over the world and very well represented in 
India. Some are resilient but many are migratory to a greater 
or less extent. 

The Flycatchers may be known by the mottled or squamated 
plumage of the young and by the presence of numerous hairs 
stretching from the forehead over the nostrils. These hairs lie 



200 Mt'SCICVPIlXS. 

horizontally and in till easeR reach beyond the nostrils, in some 
genera reaching almost to the end of the bill. They must not be 
confounded with the rictal bristles, which are stiff and strong and 
lie laterally, nor should they be confounded with the lengthened 
shafts of the frontal feathers, which in some Thrushes resemble 
hairs. These latter, moreover, are never horizontal, nor do they 
extend over the nostrils except in cases where this is brought 
about by accident, such as careless preparation of the preserved 
specimen. 

The amount of mottling or squaniation in the plumage of 
the nestling varies considerably, but is present to some extent 
in every species. It is, perhaps, least developed in the genus 
Terpsiphone, the woet typical of Flycatchers in other respects ; 
even in this genus, however, the mottled breast and spotted wing 
coverts are unmistakable. 

The Flycatchers may further be recognized by their very feeble 
tarsi and feet, which incapacitate them from walking freely on the 
ground. This character is in itself sufficient to separate them 
from the Thrushes, in which the feet and tarsi are long and 
strong. 

Young Flycatchers moult into adult or semi-adult plumage the 
first Autumn but many take two years or more to acquire 
the fully adult plumage and breed freely in immature garb. 

In working out a key to the genera. Gates' resource to colour in 
addition to structural and other characteristics has been adhered 
to and it is noteworthy that science as it advances is finding that 
colour, more especially colour-pattern, is an older, more permanent 
character than many others hitherto so considered. 

Of the genera included by Oates in the first edition of the 
'Avifauna', one genus, Mwscitrea, has had to be removed, as 
Mr. B. B. Osmaston has shown that the young are not mottled 
or squamated but pale replicas of the adult. Their proper place 
seems to be with the Warblers, Si/lviiiUf. 

Key to Genera. 

A. Tail decidedly shorter than wing. 

a. Second primary equal to fifth. 

a'. Bill about twice as long as broad at 

forehead Muscicax'a, p. 201. 

b'. Bill about equal in length and breadth 

at forehead 1Ibmichki.ii>on, p. iXW. 

b. Second primary much shorter than (iftb. 
c\ Frontal teachers normal and not con- 
cealing nostrils. 

«". Kictal bristles short and few in 
number. 
a". Sexes different. 

a*. Upper plumage brown or rufes- 
cent with black upper tail- 
coverts and white on base of 
tail SlPHU,p. 'J07. 



ML'SCICAPA. 201 

6'. Mules above blue or black, 

females brown or rufoscent, 

but tail-coverts never black 

ami uo white on tail. 

«''. Hill strong and wide at 

base CYOBN1H, p. 218. 

b\ Bill narrow and feeble .... Nitisula, p. 'Z'H . 
<-'. Both sexes blue throughout . . Stoparola, p. 23*. 
'/'. Sexes alike ; plumage plain 
brown or rufeseent through- 
out. 
(/'. First primary never less than 

half second * Antiiii'ES, p. 243. 

<■'. First primary much less than 

half second \i,skonax, p. 24H. 

It". Bictal bristles very long and 
numerous. 
<•■'. Tail rounded ; first primary 

longer than half second Ochromei.a, p. 2")2. 

<f . Tail even ; tirst primary less than 

half second Cclicicapa, p. 254. 

»/'. Frontal feathers dense and long, con- 
cealing nostrils. 
<". Bill carinated and narrow; a bril- 
liant blue neck-spot Xii.tava, p. 2~A>. 

<!'. Bill broad and tint ; no Iieck- 
spot PlllI.K.NTOMA, p. •J61. 

B. Tail as long us, or lunger than, wing. 

<: J lead crested TKlirsil'HONK, p. 2t>4. 

d. Head not crested. 

t . Tail iibout equal to wing. 

e'\ Bill about twice as long as broad 

at base Hyi'OTHYMIs. p. 2bH. 

/". Length of bill about equal to 

breadth at base Cuklidoriiynx, p. 274. 

/'. Tail considerably longer than wing . . Uhipidura, p. 2"o". 



(ienus MUSCICAPA. 
MuncieajHi Linn., S. N., i, p. 394 (1700). 
Type, Altwcicapa striata. 

The genus Muscirajta contains the Spotted Flycatchers, the 
Eastern race of which is found in India, whilst the Western race 
is a common Summer visitor to England and Europe. 

In this genus the sexes are alike ; the bill in length is about 
twice its breadth nearest the forehead ; the rictal bristles are few 
and moderate in length ; the wing is long and pointed, the first 
primary being very small and the second very long and equal to 
the fifth ; the tail is square and the plumage is streaked. Our 
Indian race is to some extent migratory. This form cannot be 
known as sibirica, which is preoccupied by Gmelin, and must 
therefore be known as Musckapa striata netimanitt of Poche. 



202 MrsciCAPin.*:. 

Muscicapa striata. 

Vrocg, Catalogue, 1760. 
Type-locality : Holland. 




Fig. 20.— Bill of it. s/riufn tiritiiiiititii. 

A/, s. iieumanni differs from typical M. is. striata in being much 
paler, more grey, or fulvous grey, than brown. 

(6:51) Muscicapa striata neumanni. 

Tub Eastern .Spotted Flvcatcukk. 

Mit'ciea/vi yrhola ncttmaiiiti I'ocbe. Orn. Mouatsb., p. -•' (l'.*04) 

(Siberia). 
Mwteicapa yritota. ISlanf. & < totes, ii, p. I. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Upper parts greyish brown, tbe forehead, crown, 
and nape with brownish-black central streaks and the rump and 
upper tail-coverts more fulvous ; tail brown edged with pule 
rufescent ; wing-feathers brown, the primaries narrowly, the 
coverts and secondaries broadly edged with pale fulvous or white ; 
lores greyish white; a buffy-wbite ring round the eye ; ear-coverts 
pale brown; sides of head and neck grey faintly streaked with 
brown and with a brown nioustachial streak ; remainder of lower 
plumage white, sometimes bullish on the flanks and streaked with 
brown on the breast and Hanks ; under wing-coverts and axillaris 
rich cream. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris brown : bill blackish brown, fleshy 
on the basal half of the lower mandible ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 85 to 91 mm.; 
tail f>.'J to 70 mm.; tarsus about 15 to 17 mm.; culmen about 
15 to 17 mm. 

Young have the upper plumage lighter and more fulvous with 
dark brown edges to tbe feathers ; wing-feathers broadly edged 
and tipped with buff and lower plumage much marked with dark 
brown. 

Distribution. Eastern Siberia, Turkestan, to Afghanistan aud 
Baluchistan and in India, Mind, liajputana, N.W. Frontier 
Province, and Khatiawar. The Persian breeding-bird probably al*o 
belongs to this form, though the skins I havo received with eggs 
are too battered to allow of certain diagnosis. It has also been 



HEMIOKEUBON. 203 

procured in Palestine, Arabia, South Persia, and South Meso- 
potamia, whence there are specimens in the British Museum. 
The Palestine breeding-birds an; possibly of this race. 

Hidification. Scully found this bird breeding in the pine- 
forests in (J ilgit, Wardlaw Hauisay took two nests in Afghanistan, 
Whitehead in Chitral, and more recently it has been taken near 
Sheraz in Persia. The breeding-season seems to be May and 
June and the nest is just like that of its European cousin, a cup 
of roots, grass, moss, shreds of bark, etc., lined with roots, grass, 
and feathers, placed either on a branch next the trunk or in 
a crevice or hole in a tree or a building. The eggs are four or 
live in number and vary from a very pale sea-green, rather 
profusely marked with light reddish brown, to a pale stone or 
cream colour, the whole surface of which is nearly covered with 
blotches aud freckles of light red. Forty-eight eggs average 
18'JJx 14'^ mm. and the extremes ate: maxima 21 - 0xl4'2 and 
19-1 xl5 mm. ; minima 160 X 1'vO and 17 - 9xl2-9 mm. 

Habits. Practically nothing on record, but, according to Scully. 
it. is a bird of the wilds and not a domestic, village-haunting bird 
like the European form. In Persia, however, when breeding, it 
appears to frequent the vicinity of human habitations, orchards 
and gardens. The South Palestine breeding-bird is also found 
frequenting the orange groves and orchards round town* and 
\ illages and seems as tamo a bird as the European one. It is only 
a very rare straggler to India in winter. 



(Jenus HEMICHELIDON. 
Ilrmiehrlitiun llmiirso'i, P. '/.. S.. \tii~>. p. ;»l'. 
Type. MuxricKjtti #il>iricit ((imclin). 

The genus lit iiiichduiDit contain* two species of Flycatchers 
which are permanent resilient s in the Himalayas, a considerable 
number descending to the lower ranges and plains in winter. 

In Ifrmichilifkni the bill viewed from above is almost ;m equi- 
lateral triangle, sharp-pointed, pinched in at the tip and very 
depressed; the rietal bristles are moderate; the wing is long, 
reaching nearly to the end of the tail, the first primary ver\ 
minute and the second equal to the fifth : the tail is square. In 
this genus the sexes are alike and the plumage is brown or ferru- 
ginous. 

It is unfortunate that both the names by which our Indian 
birds have hitherto been known have to he changed. The true 
II. tibirica of (jinelin is a larger and much greyer bird than any of 
the Indian forms and the namc-/ir7ir;i;)0«<t (llodgson). by which the 
principal of these has hitherto been known, is twice preoccupied — 
by Sparrman, Mus. Carls., p. 117 (17S7), and by (iinelin, S. N., 
i, p. 1*32 (178!)). In the same way ferrwrinrtt is preoccupied by 
Atwtcicapa- ferrtniinett (tmelin, p. 847. 



204 mvscicamda-. 

Key to Species. 

A. General colour of plumule some shailo of 

brown II. sibirica, p. U04. 

1». General colour of plumajre ferruginous JI. vinrreicqis, p. iX)0. 

Hemichelidou sibirica. 

Muscietipa sibirica Giuelin, S. N., i, p. 5)36 (17^) (Luke Baikal). 

Key to Sufts/iecifS. 

A. General plumage sooty-brown 11. n. earnbttla, p. '-'04. 

If. General plumage jrrey-brown II. f. ijulmerr/i, p. "JOS. 

0. General plumage deep blackish brown . . //. *. rutlischiMi, p. LtKi. 

(632) Hemichelidon sibirica cacabata. 

Tub Sootv Fi.ycatchek. 

}futcieapa xibirica cacabata IVniml. l'roc. N. 1". Zool. Club, \ii,p. ill 

(15)10) (Nepal). 
Hemichelidon sibirica. Ulanf. & Gates, i, p. 5 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Ihmg-ch'm-jia-pho (Lepdia). 

Description. Above sooty-brown, the feathers of the head with 
obsolete dark centres and the wing- coverts mid secondaries mar- 
gined pale rufescent or whitish ; a ring of huff or white round the 




Fig. 27.— Bill of //. fiOirirn cn'almt n . 

eye ; lores and sides of the head mottled white or brown ; centre 
of throat and a patch on lower throat white ; sides of chin and 
throat, breast and flanks smoky-brown, marked on the two latter 
with white to a varying degree; abdomen and vent white; under 
tail-coverts white often centred with brown. The colour of the 
upper parts varies considerably individually, possibly with ago but, 
as far as 1 can see, independent of habitat, lu some it is more 
brown, in other.s almost slaty-brown and a few birds, probably 
young, are rufous-brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; upper mandible dark brown ; 
lower mandible yellowish ; legs and feet brownish black or black. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 to 145 nun.; wing 
70 to 75, iu ono specimen 7<> mm. ; tail 50 to 55 mm. ; tarsus 
about 13 mm. ; culmen about 8 to i) mm. 

Young are dark brown, well streaked above with rufescent and 



HSVllfUYaAYftYS. 



s&r, 



the whig-feathers broadly edged with the name; the lower 
plumage is mottled and streak«d with blackish brown and dull 
white or fulvous-white. 

Distribution. Nepal to KaVtcm Assam ; Tibet to Knnsu ; 
Manipur, Luslini Hills and hills of X.K. Burma down to the 
Malay Peninsula and Siam. 

Nidification. Hodgson figures the nest as a massive, rather 
shallow pad with a cup-shaped cavity composed of moss and 
lichens, lined with black moss-roots, [t was said to have been 
placed on the stump end of a broad broken branch. The egg 
is described as similar to the better-known eggs of the next sub- 
species. 

Habits. This Sooty Flycatcher seems to be more migratory than 
the Kashmir Sooty Flycatcher, coming well into the plains of 
Assam in Winter and also visiting the Terai below the Sikkim 
Jlills. In Summer it is apparently found between 0,000 and 
14,001) feel, and, in Tibet, may wander occasionally higher even 
than 1 his. 

(.t>;w) Hemichelidon sibirica gulmergi. 

Thk Kashmir Sooty Flycatcher. 

llciiiichrliilon 'iliirini yulmeryi Slunrt linker. Hull. li. ( >. (,'., xliii, 

p. 1 *m ( 1 Hi! J ) ((inlinetv, Kashmir i. 
Himichcliilun n'birirn. lthuii. & Oates. ii, ]t. ;"> (pan.). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to the preceding race, but decidedly paler 
and more grey both above and below but, at the same time, not 
liearlv so pure a grev as in //. *. sibirica. 

Colours of soft parts as in //. .«. cutalmta. 

Measurements a.* in //. .<. racal-ata. Wing 70 to Td mm. 

Distribution. N'.W. Himalayas from Afghanistan and Balu- 
chistan to Kashmir and (iarhwal. 

Nidification. The Kashmir Sooty Flycatcher breeds throughout 
its range between >.ooo and 1 1,000 feet from the middle of May 
to the middle of July. The nest is a bulky but fairly compact 
and well- made cup of moss, both dry and given, lichens and roots, 
lined with the latter or with grass and sometimes a few feathers. 
It is generally placed on the horizontal branch of a spruce or other 
Conifer at a considerable height from the ground, at other times 
quite low down and occasionally against a stump of dead tree. 
Davidson found that frequently in Kashmir several pairs bred 
close together. The eggs number three or four, very rarely five. 
They are pale stone, yellowish, or greenish-grey in ground-colour 
but so profusely covered with almost invisible specks of light red 
that they look unicoloured olive at a little distance. Fifty egg* 
average 15-t) x 12' 1 nun.: maxima 17*1 x 12*8 mm. ; minima 15'0 
X 11"6 mm. 



206 MCSCICA1MD.E. 

Habits. This little Flycatcher is found between 8,000 and 
12,000 feet in Summer, descending to the foot-hills above ],000 
feet in Winter, rarely venturing actually into the plains. It is it 
forest-bird but prefers the outskirts of such as are not very 
dense and it seems especially fond of spruce. It is a typical little 
Flycatcher in every respect; a rather quiet bird but with a sweet, 
although weak, song. It is extremely common over the greater 
ymrt of Kashmir in summer over 8,000 feet. 

(o;j4) Hemichelidon sibirica rothschildi. 

The Yunnan Sooty Flycatchek. 

Htfiitichrluhn nibirica rothschildi Stuurt linker, Bull. 1!. ( >. ('., xliii, 
p. lot; (1 (»_>:{) (Vununu). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Very much darker than any of the other races, 
almost sooty-black. 

Colours Of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements as in the other race-*. 

The young in all three races vary from one another as d.> the 
adults, though the differences are accentuated in this race l>v t lu- 
dark buff colour of the spotting. 

Distribution. Yunnan. A bird from the Shan States seems t> 
belong to this race. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

(6a») Hemichelidon cinereiceps. 

The Feiuujcsinous Flycatciikh. 

HemichelidtM cinereuvpt fiodgs., P. '/.. S.. 1*1"), p. :V2 (Nepal). 
llemichelidn ferruyinea. Jtlunl*. «!c Oatee, ii, p. <!. 

Vernacular names. Dang-chim-iM-pho (l*epcha). 

Description. Forehead and crown dark ashv-hrown, paler on 
the hind neck and shading into reddish brown on the back, scapu- 
lars and lesser wing-coverts and, again, into chestnut on the rump 
and upper tail-coverts ; tail reddish brown, darker at the tips and 
with the terminal halves of the outer webs brownish ; median and 
greater coverts brown, edged and tipped with chestnut ; quills 
and primary -covert s very dark brown, the secondaries broadly 
edged with chestnut ; a white or fulvous-whita ring round tin- 
eye ; lores and ear-coverts mixed fulvous and brown; a large 
patch of white on throat and fore-neck often extending in a line 
to the chin; breast rufous with brown centres to the feathers; 
flanks and under tail-coverts chestnut, paling to white on the 
centre of the abdomen and vent. 

Colours of soft parts, iris blue-brown to almost black; bill 
black, the commissure and base of the lower mandible yellowish ; 
legs fleshy-brown. 



8IPHI.V. 207 

Measurements. Total length about 145 to 150 mm.; wing 68 
to 75 nun.; tail 4:$ to 50 mm.; culmeu 8 to y mm.; tarsus 12 
to l.'i mm. 

Young bird. Feathers of the head boldly centred with buffy 
white to fulvous, the upper plumage chestnut streaked with 
blackish: wing coverts broadly edged with chestnut and whole 
lower parts dull pale chestnut. 

Distribution. Himalayas, Gaihwal to Eastern Assam, Manipur, 
anil higher hills of Northern Burma and Western China. In 
Winter extending to all Burma, Malay Peninsula, South China, 
Formosa, Hainan and the Indo-Chinese countries to Borneo, 
Palawan, etc. 

Nidiflcation. Tin- Ferruginous Flycatcher breeds throughout 
its area above 4,no0 feet, more often above 0,000 and up to 
8,<><>U or 9 ,(«.«» feet, but there is very Utile on record about it. 

Nests found by .Mr. B. B. Osmastou near Darjeeling were cups 
made of mw lined uith a mixture of white lichen and black 
rhi/.omorph. Two were placed 40 or 50 feet up in lofty oak-trees 
on projections made by broken branches but t lie third was on a 
small iiiii and about in feet from the ground. 

The i'ggs taken by -Mr. Osma»tou and the few others I have 
wen are pale sea-green in ground-colour, practically the whole, 
surface covered with very line pinkish-red f recklings, denser and 
forming a eap or zone at the larger end. They measure about 
1 fyll x 1 4-Ii mm. 

The breeding-season is May or J urn?. 

Habits. This Flycatcher appears sometimes to he a permanent 
resident, between 4,<M0 and ii.000 feet, being found summer 
and winter haunting \ery restricted areas, generally in open oak- 
forest. Other birds, probably Hummer residents of higher altitudes, 
scatter far and wide during the \\ inter to very great distances. 
They seem to 1k» rare over most of the Himalayas so far as is 
known at present and are shy retiring little birds, very silent 
and quiet in all their habits. Mr. Osmaston, how ever, says they 
are very common near Darjeeling. 

Genus SIPHIA. 

Siphia Hodgs., hid. liev., i, p. <>"il (1KJ7). 
Type, .S'. slrophiahi. 

The genus Sipliia contains two species which occur in India and 
which have been placed in various genera, but which apjwar to 
constitute a perfectly good genus, differing from Aluscicapa, 
Cyoniia, etc., in many obvious characteristics. 

In Siphin the sexes are differently coloured, the base of the tail 
in both sexes is white, th« upper tail-coverts black and the back 
brown or rufous. The bill is small and the rictal bristles mode- 
rate ; the wing is of moderate length, sharply pointed and the first 
primary is shorter than half the second ; the tail is square. 



208 MtrsciCAriDA*. 

Key to Species. 

A. Breast chestnut, not extending to the chin or 

throat S. strophiata, p. 208. 

B. Chin and throat chestnut S. parva, cS > P- 210. 

C. No chestnut on lower plumage S. parva, 2 > 1>- 210. 

Siphia strophiata. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Throat black <V. .«. strophiata, p. 208. 

B. Throat dark grey >V. *. fwcwjularis, p. "JOO. 

(636) Siphia strophiata strophiata. 

The Orakok-goboeted Flycatcher. 

Sipliia strophiata Hodgs., Ind. Review, i, p. 051 (lS.'JT) (Nepal); 
Blanf. & Oates, ii p. H. 

Vernacular names. Siphin (Nepal): Ph<itt-tao>-aL-pho (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged 

with fulvous on the rump and upper tail-coverts; tail black, all 




Fig. 28.— Bill of S. f .',-o),fiiat». 

but the central red rices with white bases; a narrow line across 
the forehead black; forehead to eye while; feathers above eye, 
ear-coverts and cheeks deep slaty changing to black on chin and 
throat; lesser wing-coverts slate-grey; other coverts and quills 
brown, edited with fulvous ; breast and flanks slaty-grey changing 
to white on abdomen and under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black in the 
breeding-season, paler below and on base of lower mandible at 
other times ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 100 mm.; wing M> to 
80" mm. ; tail 52 to 50 rain. : tarsus about 21 mm. ; culmeii about 
11 mm. 

Female. Similar to the male, but without the black and with 
very little white on the forehead ; the rufous gular patch small 
and pale and the dark parts of the chin, throat, etc., replaced 
with ashy. 

Young. Above brown, streaked and mottled with fulvous ; below 
fulvous, squamated with black edges to the feathers ; tail as in the 
adult. 



siPiiiA. 209 

Distribution. Breeding throughout the Himalayas from Kashmir 
to Eastern Assam, North Borneo and Western China. Winter 
South to Tenasserim and extreme Eastern Bengal. 

Nidiflcatioil. Tim Orange-gorgeted Flycatcher breeds between 
8,000 and 12,000 feet in the end of April, May, and occasionally in 
early June. The nest, first described by Mr. B. B. Osmaston 
from the Tons River in Tehri, Garhwal, is a cup-shaped affair " of 
moss and maiden-hair rachides, lined with the latter chiefly but also 
with a few feathers and some yellow papery substance resembling 
birch bark." It is apparently invariably placed in a small natural 
hollow in a tree five to ten feet from the ground. The eggs, 
three in number, are unlike those of any other Indian Flycatchers, 
being pure white, rather glossy long ovals, measuring about 
lSKtx 115-4 mm. I saw these little Flycatchers in May and Juna 
at about 6,000 feet both in N. Cachar and in the Khasia Hills, 
and they may possibly have bred there. 

Habits. In Hummer, when breeding, a very shy little bird ; in 
Winter it is one of the boldest and is found in gardens and coin- 
pounds as well as in clearings of forests. It has a sweet little 
song, which is seldom sung, and also a very low, rather croaky, 
little chui-r. uttered both when sitting and dying. It likes to take 
its perch on some low stump or garden-fence in the open, whence 
it sallies after insects, generally seizing them in the air but some- 
times taking them on the ground. When not busy feeding it 
constant I v flits and expands its tail, the white and black showing 
up very conspicuously as it does so. It is curiously constant to 
its perch, often occupying the same day after day for month-, 
together, and returning to it again the following season. 

(<>:i7) Siphia strophiata fuscogularis. 

Tub Assam Oiiangk-<;ou<;ktki> Fi,ycatuikr. 
Siphia ttiofi/iiatt' fiuroqularis Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O. C. xliii. p. 1 1 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.--- Adult male. Differs from S. .«. strophiata in having 
the throat, and sides of the neck grey and the head the same colour 
as the back. 

Colours of soft parts. " Iris dark brown ; bill black ; legs black, 
feet brown, soles yellow" (Robinson). 

Measurements. Wing <>s to 74 mm. 

Distribution. At. present Annum but it has been recorded from 
N. Shan States. 

Type <3, 1919.1 12.20. lt>:i, Langbian Peak, S. Annum. 

Nidiiication. Robinson says that a nest and eggs taken by him 
in Annain are exactly like those of the preceding bird described 
by Mr. B. B. Osmnatou in the Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Journal. 
Mr. Robinson's eggs were taken from a shallow hollow in a large 

VOL. II. v 



210 muscicapidjE. 

tree five feet from the ground. The three white eggs measured 
H)-0xl3-5 mm. 

Habits. Nothing recorded. 

Siphia parva 

Key to S'lhsjiecies. 

A. Chin, throat and breast chestnut, crown 

of different colour to back <V. /). parva, <? , p. ilO. 

15. Chin and throat chestnut, breast ashy, 

crown and back of the same colour . . . S. p. albicilhi, rj , p. ill. 
C. Chin, throat, breast and upper abdomen 

chestnut, bordered on either side by 

a black band a. p. Iiyperythru, J , p. 1'12. 

1). No chestnut on lower plumage. 

t> i u I #• P- )»trm, 2 , p. 21 0. 

a. Paler above { . ,' ' „ • ... + n ., 1 1 

b. Darker above >V. p. hyperythra, 2 , p. L'li'. 



(638) Siphia parva parva. 

Tub Eukopk.w linn- hueasted Flycatcher. 

Mtisckapa paroa Bechst., (ietrue Abbild., (2) p. I'lj (1793) (East 

Holland). 
Siphia parva. liiauf. & Gates, ii, p. !). 

Vernacular names. Tun-a (Hindi). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, crown and nape ashy- 
grey, becoming paler on the latter and changing to fulvous-brown 
on the back, scapulars and wing-coverts ; upper tail-coverts and tail 
blade, the lateral tail-feathers with the basal two-thirds white ; 
wing-quills brown, the primaries narrowly, the secondaries in- 
creasingly widely edged with fulvous-brown ; a ring of white 
feathers round the eye; lores mixed white and slate; a patch 
under the eye-ring almost black ; sides of head and neck bluish 
ashy ; chin, throat and breast bright chestnut ; remainder of 
lower plumage white, tinged with grey and huff on the flanks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep bright brown ; bill dark horny 
above, fleshy-brown below and at the base, black in the breediug- 
.season ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 125 mm.; wing 04 to <>9 
mm.; tail 48 to 50 num.; tarsus 17 to 18 mm.; culmen about 
mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage fulvous-brown; sides of head 
the same, paling to almost white on the chin and throat ; breast 
fulvous-white ; otherwise as in the male. 

The Nestling is spotted on the upper plumage with fulvous 
and mottled on the breast; the wing-coverts are conspicuously 
tipped with bright dark fulvous. 



IOCS. Vt>l..*ll. 



i»v*te M» 




SIPHIA PARVA ALBICILLA. 

The Eastern R«d - breaatiid Flycatcher. 

<? above */3 life s ia«. o balow. 



SIPII1A. • 211 

The young male is like the female, but assumes more chestnut 
on the chin and throat at the Autumn moult, even whilst still 
retaining the fulvous edgings to the wing-feathers. The fully 
adult plumage is attained at the second mouit. 

Distribution. Breeding from North-East and Central Europe to 
West Russian Siberia, and wandering into Indi.i in Winter as far 
►South as Malabar, Travancore, and the Nilgiris and as far East as 
Behar and Singbhum in Bengal. Many ot the young birds and 
females of this and the next rare arc indistinguishable, so thai 
wine of the records from West Bengal, Behar, etc. may well be 
that of either subspecies. 

Nidification. This little Flycatcher breeds in Europe during 
May and early June, making a cup, or half-cup shaped nest of 
moss, roots and lichen, lined thickly with grass or hair, which is 
placed either against a tree-trunk or a stone wall, or in some 
natural hollow in a stum]). The eggs number three to five and 
the ground-colour varies from pah* sea-green to a pale pink-stone, 
more or less profusely covered with pinkish brown. Filtv-two 
eggs average 10*7 X ]2*7 mm. : maxima 17'6 X KV- and 17:5 x 13'4 
mm.; minima 15'8 X 120 mm. 

Habits. A quiet but active little bird, very crepuscular in its 
habits and often it may he seen making lil tie sallies from its perch 
when the dusk is fast, settling down. It has a sweet little song. 
though it is hut seldom heard, its most usual note being the soft 
low chur-r-r common to all the genus. Jt is found both in the 
wilder parts of the country and in the immediate vicinity of houses 
and villages. In India it dues not usually arrive until late October, 
leaving again in April or the first i'cw days of May. 

(.(130) Siphia parva albicilla. 

Till; E.VSTKllN Kkd-HHB.ISTKU FlACATC'HKK. 

Mimcira/xi itlliicilla Pall., Zocgr. liosso-Asiat., i, p. 4('c' (lSl'T) 

(Dam-in). 
Sijihia albicilla. Bliinf. & Oiitcs, ii, ]>. 10. 

Vernacular names. Turra (Hindi); Clmtl-i (Beng.). 

Description. — Adult male. Dili'ers from the male of IS. />. parva 
in having the breast ashy instead of chestnut ; the crown is 
fulvous-brown like the back ; the ear-coverts are brown, instead 
of bluish ashy. 

Colours of soft parts as in S. p. parva. 

Measurements. Wing <>8 to 7'.i mm. 

Female and Young not distinguishable from those of <S. p. parva. 

Distribution. Eastern Siberia, from the Yenesei to Kainschatka, 
Traus-Baikalia and Ussuri, South to Tibet, North- Eastern India, 
Burma, and China. 

Nidification. Only two certain nests of this little Flycatcher 

p2 * 



212 ' uuscit'APiD.e. 

liave been taken ; the first of these was one taken for Col. A. K. 
Ward on the 30th May in Ladak, both male and female being shot 
off the ne»t. This latter was a tiny cup of green andtlry moss lined 
with soft hair and fur, and had been placed beside a stone, halt 
hidden in a shallow hollow in one of the high stone boundary- walls. 
The second, taken in Tibet, north of Khamtso, was similar to the 
last but had been built against a stunted willow and half hidden 
in a hollow near the crown. The eggs are indistinguishable from 
those of the Inst bird und measure about 17'5x 12\S mm. 

Habits. Similar to those of the preceding bird. Both this bird 
and the next seem very partial to bamboo-jungle. 

((MO) Siphia parva byperythra. 

Tub Inii.vn- IU:d-brk.vsit.i> Fi.ycatuii:k. 

Si/i/nti hiifirrytlua Cab., J. !'. (>.. IPlili. p. Wl (Ceylon); llhmf. k 
Dates, ii, \\ 10. 

Vernacular names. Tumi (Hindi); C'hutLi or Kala Chutki 
(Beng.). 

Description.— Adult male. Above a much darker brown than in 
S. p. alhie'dla; the chestnut of the chin and throat much deeper 
and richer and extending on to the whole of the breast and Hanks ; 
abdomen pure white in the centre suffused with chestnut on the 
flanks and vent ; under tail-coverts pale chestnut ; a broad black 
line runs down either side of the chestnut throat and breast, and 
is often produced as a broken pectoral band. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 07 to 74 mm. 

Female and Young both differ from those of S. } >. tdhhiUa only 
in being much darker and browner. 

Distribution. Breeding from the Afghan boundary and Gilgit 
to Garhwal and probably Western Nepal. It winters in Ceylon, 
and, curiously enough, there are practically no records of its 
occurrence between that island and the Punjab and North-West 
Frontier Province. 

Nidification. The Indian Red-breasted Flycatcher breeds in 
some numbers in Kashmir during May and June between 6,000 and 
8,000 feet and also, though less commonly, in the Simla States and 
Garhwal. The nest is cup-shaped and is made of moss and dead 
leaves, mixed, more or less, with scraps of grass, chips of leaves 
and dead wood, hairs and feathers with a lining of the two 
last articles. It seems to be invariably placed in holes in trees 
at any height between and 40 feet from the ground. The eggs 
number four or live and are like those of .S. p. parva, though 
decidedly paler as a rule in the ground-colour and less profusely 
marked. Thirty eggs average 16-1 x 12(5 mm.: maxima 173 X 12-;j 
and 1 (>-8 x 131 mm. ; minima 149 x 12-4 mm. and 15-0 x 12-0 mm. 



CYORMS. 213 

Habits. Tliis Flycatcher is found in Summer between 5,000 
and 9,000 feet, migrating in Winter to the plains of India as 
far Mouth as Ceylon. Kecords of its occurrence between the 
foot-hills of the Himalayas and Ceylon are rare, but I have notes 
of its being observed in the Xeliampatliy Hills and Travaneore, 
once at Poona. and once in Hyderabad, Decean. It does not 
differ in habits, flight, voice, or diet from the other species of this 
germs. 

Genus CYORNIS. 
Cyornis Blyth, .1. A. S. B., xii, p. 9il (]84i>). 
Type, Phmnicnrii rubeculoides, Vigors. 

The genus Cyornis contains a very large number of species of 
Flycatchers in which the sexes are always different in colour, and 
which appear to be congeneric in structure, habits and in type of 
coloration. They are birds which are often very difficult to dis- 
criminate from one another, and with soma of the females it is 
impossible to do so. The difficulty is greatly added to by the fact 
that frequently species are separated from one another by 
characters which, in the majority of Passerine genera, would only 
infer geographical or subspecih'e variation. Species of this genus 
are found all over India, Burma and China, and .South into Malaya 
and the Islands. 

.In Cyornis the bill is about half the length of the head, 
depressed and rather broad at the base; the rictal bristles are 
moderate; the first, primary is generally small but, varies con- 
siderably and the wing is pointed ; the tail is square or nearly so. 

In this genus all the males are blue or black on the upper 
plumage, whilst the females are of various shades of brown or 
rufous. 

Bv some ornithologists the genus (Jyornisis split up into several 
genera, whilst by others it is lumped into the all-embracing genus 
AltiseicajMi. Oates' arrangement seems to be a convenient one, 
retaining a group of birds which, to most observers, would seem 
very closely allied, yet differentiated from other groups by certain 
characters by which they can be obviously and easily distinguished. 

JCt >/ to S'j>ecles. 

Malts. 
A , Base of tail white. 

«. White on tail extending nearly to tip 

of 3rd pair ! C. cyanea, p. 21"). 

b. White on tail confined to base. 
a'. Upper plumage blue. 
a". Breast orange-chestnut. 

iv'. No white supercilium C hodgsonii, p. 21t>. 

6". A white supercilium C. hyperythm, p. 217. 

b" . Breast white to buff or fulvous- 
groy. 



214 Ml.St'U APiD*. 

<■'. Hreast and abdomen greyish .,. 

whit,-, tinpcd tulvoiw < • ''•'"''•"; P- " ' • ,„„ 

rf\ Breast and abdomen pun- whit.-, f . «,;»-/v»/w/ «. p. --' - 

,, -.t i 11 ,i- C iiuinn' find, \). -.*. 

b . Upper plumage black ' • "'""" ' i 

H. No white mi tail. 
c. I"|>per plumage blue. 

c'. Crown ami rump different blue to 
back. 
<•". Axillaries and under winy-coverls 

whiff .' ('■ *t>p)> l ">'"' V -'-"• 

il". Axillaris and under winir-eoverts 

chestnut ('. ririt/ti, p. --»>■ 

il'. .Crown, rump and back same colour. 
i'". Chin, tlnoiit and breast dark blue ; 

abdomen white C. prilliprs. p. 227. 

f". Chin and throat blue C. niheciiltnile*. p. 2-')l. 

//". l'oint of chin black, breast and 

flanks rufous ('. fj(i)ii/unms,y. 2.'i.'S. 

/>''. Whole lower plumage blue .... ('. vnic>b>r, ]>. 22!*. 
i". Point of'<chin black, breast bright 
ferruginous. 

e\ Oilmen under 1'! nun (', tickcllite. p. 2:it. 

/'. Culmen over 13 mm ('. inriz/iiirox/ri*, p. 2.'iti. 

FenKih x. 

A. Upper plumage brown or rufeseent. 

ii. Base ut' tail white C. ci/rniru. p. 215. 

h. No white on tail. 

a" . Breast chestnut or ferruginous. 

a. First primary not less than 

half second C pullipr*. p. 227. 

&'. First primary less than half 

second. 

, „, , , 1 C. rubeculnide*. p. 2.". I. 

«'. Culmen under 13 mm - ( ( , lmw/lnmi ^ ,,'.,;;:. 

A 1 . Culmen over l.'S mm ('. mmjiiiriistriii, p. 2Ii7. 

4". No chestnut on breast. 

r\ Whole lower plumage eartliv- 

browu C unicolur, p. 22!*. 

d\ Lower plumage never brown. 

r'. Wing always over f*0 mm .. . (.'. vivirfa, p. 22f>. 
iV. Win}.' always under 85 mm. 
«'. Second primary equal to 

SHIi ; tail under 15 mm. . . C. hi/pcrythrft, p. -'17. 
i\ Second primary shorter than 
1st secondary : tail over 

45 mm ('. tricolor, p. "-'Ii). 

c 5 . Second primary between 
Oth and 7 th. 
«". bower plumage ashy- 
brown, white on abdo- 
men C. hodjfuonii, p. 210. 

b'\ Chin, throat and breast 

buff C. meltmoteura, p. 224. 

<:''. Chin, throat and breast 

chestnut C. tajrphira, p. 225. 



cyornis. 21 5 

B. Upper plumage with some blue. 

c. IJlue confined to rump, upper tail- 

coverts and tail C. superciliari*, p. 221 . 

d. Whole ujmer plumage dull blue C. tickellice, p. 234. 

(041) Cyomis cyanea. 

The \Vhite-taii,ki> Bi.uk Fiacatcheii. 

Mtmcilrea cyanea Hume, IS. F., v, )>. 101 (1877) (Muleyit). 
Ci/oriiis vijtineun. Itlnnf. iV Gates, ii, p. 1:5. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores and narrow frontal line black, 
remainder of forehead, crown, nape and lesser wing-coverts cobalt- 
blue, brightest over the eye; remaining wing-coverts and upper 
plumage deep blue ; wing-quills dark brown edged with blue : 
tail, four central feathers dull blue, the third pair broadly white 
on both webs almost to the. tip, the white decreasing in extent on 
each pair, and confined to a broad line on the edge of the base of 
the inner web of the outermost pair; sides of bead, chin, throat 




Fig. 20. Bill of ('. ri/anra. 

and breast dull blue fading to grey on the flanks and lower breast, 
and to white on the abdomen, vent and lower tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black; legs and 
feet fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 175 mm.; wing 91 to 
!K5 nun. ; tail 6(5 to 7- mm. ; tarsus about 'S,i to 24 mm. ; eulmen 
about IS to 19 mm. 

Female. Lores and forehead next the bill mottled white and 
fulvous; upper plumage olive- brown tinged with rufous, mostly 
>o on the rump and least so on the crown ; wing-feathers dark 
brown edged wit ti bright rufous; tail like that of the male, but 
brow ii, not blue ; ear-coverts olive-brown pale-shafted, a bold 
patch of white on the throat ; remainder of lower plumage dull 
rufous-brown paling to white on the abdomen, vent and under 
tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts as in male. 

measurements rather smaller than male ; wing 89 mm. 

Young are probably brown, richer in colour than the female, 
spotted above with fulvous and squaniated below. Not quite 



216 MUSL'IOAPIDJE. 

adult specimens show traces of this plumage, but there appear to 
he no reallv juvenile specimens in any museum. 

Distribution. The mountains of Tenasserini down the Malay 
Peninsula as far as Perak. A single specimen was also obtained 
by Dr. H. N. Coltart through the Nagas from the higher ranges 
of hills, over 5,000 feet, above Margherita. 

Nidification. Nothing on record except that a nest was brought 
to Dr. Coltart, with the bird above referred to, containing a single 
egg. The remains of the nest were those of a deep cup made 
almost entirely of moss, winch had, according to the Nagas, been 
placed in a hollow in a rocky bank in deep forest. These Nagas 
came from a range well over 5,000 feet. The single egg is a pale 
yellow-grey stone-colour, freckled all over with innumerable tiny 
specks of reddish brown. It measures 2tt - 9xl8*0 mm., and was 
taken on the 25th June. Other eggs subsequently obtained, and 
believed by Dr. Coltart to be those of this Flycatcher, are, I find, 
referable to Cyornis unicolor. 

Habits. According to Davison this is a bird of deep forests, 
never descending to the ground, but catching its prey on the wing 
like most other Flycatchers. When resting it has a habit of ex- 
panding its tail to show the white pattern just as Siphia does. 

(642) Cyornis hodgsonii. 
The RisTr-MREASTEi) Burn Fj.ycatchek. 

Siphia hodgsonii Veir., Nouv. Arch. Mus., vi, p. .'!4 ( 1 870 ( Moupin ). 
Cyornis hodgsoni. Ulanf. & Oates, ii, p. 14. 

Vernacular names. Paon-pali (Tibet). 

Description. — Adult male. Whole uppper plumage and wing- 
coverts slaty-blue, the npper tail-coverts almost black ; loreB and 
cheeks velvety-black ; tail black, the lateral feathers navrowly 
edged with blue and the base of all but the central pair white ; 
chin to breast and flanks bright orange-chestnut, posterior flanks, 
vent and under tail-coverts pale ferruginous olive ; wing-quills 
brown edged with olive-rufous. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown; bill all black in the 
breeding season, the base horny-brown in the non-breeding season ; 
legs and feet dark reddish brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 mm. ; wing 69 to 74 
mm.; tail 50 to 53 mm.; tarsus about 17 mm.; culmen about 
9 mm. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-brown tinged with fulvous on the 
upper tail-coverts ; lores and a pale ring round the eye whitish ; 
lower plumage asby-brown fading to almost white on the vent and 
abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male, but the 
bill is never wholly black. 



cvoilnjs. 217 

Young birds are dark brown above, spotted and streaked with 
fulvous and with broad fulvous tips to the wing-coverts. The 
under plumage is much deeper and richer fulvous than the female, 
and the breast and flanks are squamated with deep brown. 

Distribution. Sikkim, Bhutan, the Hills North and South of the 
Brahmaputra in Assam, Lushai, and Mauipur, Chin Hills, the 
Salween, Karen Hills and Muleyit in Tenasserim, Yunnan and 
Kansu in Western China. 

Nidiflcation. This Flycatcher is probably resident and breeds 
throughout its area above 4,<J00 feet. It lays from the middle of 
April to the end of June, making a beautiful nest of living green 
moss lined with line moss- and maiden-hair roots, which it places 
in some natural hollow in a rocky bank or, very rarely, in a hole 
in a stump of a tree. In the Khasia Hills it breeds above 5,000 
feet and Col. Tytler found it breeding in the Naga Hills at about 
0,000 feet. 

The eggs vary n good deal in colour. The ground is very pale 
yellowish or greenish stone, sometimes tinged with reddish. The 
marks consist of fine reddish stippling, sometimes numerous every- 
where, but generally confined to the larger end, where they coalesce 
to form a ring or cap. Forty eggs average 17 - 8xl-'5-4 mm. and 
the extremes are 192 x 1 4-0,'] 9-0 x 14" 1, and 16 2 x 130 mm. 

Habits. The Kusty-breasted Blue Flycatcher is a forest-bird, but 
is found both in pine-forest and in dense humid forests of oak, 
rhododendrons, etc. It is a quiet little bird but has a very sweet 
little song in the breeding-season, which it utters perched high up 
on a tree-top. It catches its insect-prey almost entirely on the 
wing but does occasionally descend to the ground for this purpose. 
I,ike so many other birds which live principally in lofty trees, they 
in great part desert these during the breeding-season and resort 
to ihe scrub and lower growths. 

Cyomis hyperythra. 

Key to Suhttpeciex. 

A. Above ymler, umlerpnrts less richly coloured. ('. h. hyperythra, p. 217. 
15. Above darker, tuiderparts more richly 

coloured C. h. malayana, p. 210. 

(<>43) Cyomis hyperythra hyperythra. 

The Rufous- bkb asted Buje Flycatcher. 

Muteicapa hyperythra Blytb, J. A. S.B., xi, p. 88.5 (1842) (India). 
Cyomis hyperythru*. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. lo. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. A narrow supercilium from the fore- 
head to the eye white ; forehead, lores, chin and cheeks black ; 
whole upper plumage and wing-coverts slaty-blue ; wing-quills 



218 Mi'sciCAPin.u. 

brown, edged with pale dull rufous; tail brown, suffused with blue 
and with all but the two central pairs of feathers with white bases ; 
throat and breast bright orange-chestnut, duller and darker on the 
lower breast and Hanks, and paler on the abdomen and lower 
tail-twerts. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black ; legs and feet 
silvery-white to pale fleshy-brown or fleshy-pink, the claws a little 
darker and browner. 

Measurements. Total length about 110 mm.: wing 55 to 
63 mm.: tail I5S to 40 mm. ; tarsus about 10 mm.; culmen about 
i) mm. 

Female. Whole, upper plumage, wings and tail olive-brown, 
tinged with fulvous on the rump; primary coverts dark brown; 
wing-quills brown edged with ferruginous ; lower plumage, 
ochraeeous, darkest on breast and thinks, palest on chin and 
abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male, but 
the base of the bill is .sometimes paler and rather horny in 
colour. 

Nestling. Dark brown above, streaked with rufescent fulvous; 
below dark fulvous, mottled and sqiiamated with dark brown. 

Distribution. (Jarhwal to Nepal, Sikkim and hills of Assam, 
Chiu Hills. The bird from Annam has been separated as C. h. 
annamentris by Robinson and Kloss (' (bis,' 1019, p. 447). 

Nidiftcation. This little Flycatcher breeds throughout its range 
between 4,000 and 8,000 feet during April, May and .f line, making a 
neal. little cup of green moss lined with tine moss and tern roots. 
The internal cup is a tiny hemisphere about "><> mm. in diameter 
by 25 mm. deep, but outwardly the nest tits the hollow in which it 
is placed. This may he either in a hank, among stones and boulders 
in the side of a ravine or stream, or in a hole in some old stum]) or 
dead tree. The eggs number four or five and vary in ground- 
colour from pale yellowish grey to a fairlv deep pinkish red. The 
markings consist of innumerable freckles of reddish brow n scattered 
all over the egg or, less often, confined to a cap or ring at, the larger 
end. Forty eggs average 17'~> X 13-8 mm., and the extremes 
are: maxima 18*9x14*0 mm.; minima 16*3xi;5*9 and 17-1 x 
134 mm. 

Habits. The Bilious-breasted Blue Flycatcher is locally migra- 
tory, being found above 4,000 feet in Summer but descending to t he 
foot-hills and adjacent plains in Winter. It is extremely common 
in Lakhimpur in the latter season and, as odd birds occur in 
Summer, it possibly breeds in the adjacent hills at some 2,000 
feet. It is a lively, cheerful, little bird in the non-breeding season, 
feeding alike in high trees, low scrub and frequently descending 
to the ground. In the breeding-season it is shy and skulking, 
keeping much to low scrub. 



Cl'ORKIS. 21!) 

(044) Cyornis hyperythra malayana. 

Tin; Malay Kui'oi's-ukkastkd Bi,ik I'j.ttcatcjieu. 

MiiKicapvIn mnlaynwi Ojrilvit-(irnnt. Hull. 15. 0. C, xix, p. 10 
(1900) ((.iunori^ 'I'nhnii, Mnlnv Peninsula ). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Both male and female differ from the Indian 
Rufous-breasted Flycatcher in being rather darker above but, move 
especially, in being more richly coloured below. The difference 
between the females is more marked than in the males. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
race. Wing 58 to 01 mm., Hornetm birds 52 to 5(J mm. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, including the extreme 
South -west of JSiain and • IVijasstrim, Sumatra. Borneo and 
Formosa. Birds from Java, which are very close indeed to those 
from Sumatra, have been separated by liohinson as ('. h. viilcuni. 

Nidification. Xot known. 

Habits. The same as tliose of the Indian race. 

Cyornis tricolor. 

AV)/ to Subspecies. 

A. 1 noVrpm'ts while or white merely 

washed with lulesceiit CI. tricolor, p. 21!>. 

B. ( : nderpnrts strongly .-utilised rufous or 

Unite rufous ('. /. rervinircntn's, p. 220. 

((<45) Cyornis tricolor tricolor. 
'I'm: Slaty-hud Fi.ycatc ni:n. 

Dii/vtmi tricolor IIod«r . 1*. Z. S., 1840, p. 20 (Nepal). 
Ci/nmis Iriiromchoiiirits. Blunt'. & Onles, ii, ]>. Hi (part.). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. I'pper plumage, edges of Ming- 
coverts and inner secondaries dark dull slaty-blue, the forehead 
and sides of the crown a paler brighter grey-blue ; lores and sides 
of the bead black ; upper rail-coverts and tail black, the liases of 
the rectrices white on a quarter to half their length; wing-quills 
brown edged with rufous; lower plumage greyish white, often 
tinged with fulvous, especially on the Hanks and breast. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black ; feet and legs 
pale horny-brow n to dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 115 to 120 mm.; wing 
57 Io 72 nun. ; tail 48 to 50 mm. ; tarsus about 19 to 20 mm. : 
culnien about D mm. 

Female. Whole upper parts olive-brown, tinged with rufous on 
the rump; upper tail-coverts and tail ferruginous; a fulvous ring 



220 MliSClCAPinji. 

round the eye; lores and sides of the head mixed fulvous and 
brown ; lower plumage fulvous-white, more fulvous on the breast. 
and flanks and often pure white on the chin and belly. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Young birds are brown above, the feathers with bright fulvous 
centres and black margins ; below the plumage is dull ferruginous, 
the breast squamated with dark brown. The adult plumage is 
attained by degrees, and many young males breed in a halfway 
plumage between that of male aud female. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Kashmir to the extreme East of 
Assam North of the Brahmaputra and also in the Khasia Hills 
South of that river. Birds from the Khasia Hills are rather darker 
below , oil an average, than are those from the North, but they 
overlap and vary too greatly inter se to permit their being 
definitely described as another race. ' 

Nidiflcation. The Sluty-blue Flycatcher breeds between 4,000 
and 10,000 feet throughout its range, occasionally higher, as a nest 
sent me from the Chiimbi Valley, Tibet, was taken at over 10,0<J0 
feet. The nest is made of moss, with an inner lining of roots or 
liner moss, over which there is placed a thick pad of fur, bail- 
or wool. It is placed in any convenient hollow in bank, wall 
or tree but most often in the latter and is sometimes very 
conspicuous. The eggs number three or four and in colour appear 
superficially to be a pale pink or yellowish pink but really are very 
pale pink finely freckled with pale reddish, sometimes all over, 
sometimes principally in a ring or cap at the larger end. 

One hundred eggs average lo'Sx 12"1 mm. : maxima 17'1 X 12-0 
and I.r5xl2"5 mm.; minima 149 x 12-0 and lo-IJxll'S nun. 

Habits. This little Flycatcher is resident, between 8,000 feet 
and 12,000 feet in the Himalayas, having been obtained by the 
Everest Expedition at Kama at the latter elevation. In the 
Khasia Hills it is obtained occasionally in Summer as low as 
4,000 feet. Jt is found throughout the plains adjacent to the hills 
in Winter, and at that time of the year is given to frequenting heavy 
reed-beds and elephant-grass land as well as forest. They are 
very sociable little birds, a couple of pairs often hunting in 
company. The song is sweet, though feeble. 

(64f>) Cyornis tricolor cerviniventris. 

The Eastern Slaty-blue Flycatcher. 

Dii/enea eervinivenlris Sharpe, Cat. B.M., iv, p. 4(S0 (1670) (ltemta, 

Manipiir). 
Cyornis IcucomeJanurm. Blauf. & Oates, ii, p. 10 (part.). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from C. t. tricolor in being 
a much darker fulvous below, almost rufous-fulvous and in being 
slightly darker above. 



CYORNIS. 221 

Colours and Measurements as in tbe preceding bird. 

Female differs from 0. t. tricolor in being much darker fulvous 
below and in being darker mid browner, less fulvous above. 

Distribution. North Cachar, Manipur, Chin Hills to Yunnan, 
Shan States, Northern ttiam and ilie hills of Central Burma to 
Karenni, Yunnan. It is common throughout the plains of 
South Assam in Winter and in Cachar, Svlhet, Tippera and 
Chittagong. 

Nidification. Two nests of this race taken by Mr. C. Hopwood 
in the Chin Hills are said to have been just like those of the last 
bird and the eggs also ate indistinguishable. They measure about 
IfvitxlKS mm. and were taken at ;">,<I00 feet on the 29th April 
and 1st May, 1014. 

Habits. Those of the preceding bird. 

Cyornis superciliaris. 

Key tj rUihspeiifx. 

A. A broad coa.-piciu'iu.* superciliuiii fVuin 

eye to napo V. x auperciltnrix, ]>. I'lil. 

1?. No white eyebrow, or uievelv nn obsolete 

trace of it C. s.'astiginn. p. --■'!. 

(tif7) Cyornis superciliaris superciliaris. 

TlIK WlIITK-HBOWKII 15 UK FlACATCHKU. 

Mturicapa sttperciliuris Jerdon, Madr. Join-. L. S.. xi, ]>. lo' (1810) 

(N. Indian (ihal-O. 
Cifontin sHperctli'iris. Blanf. \- dates, ii. p. 17. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Whole upper plumage and wing- 
coverts rather dull, but not verv dark blue; lores and edges of 




I'ig. 30. — -Bill of ('. 5. si'/ierciliaris. 

forehead black; a broad white supercilium from the front of the 
eye lo the nape ; tail blackish brown, edged with blue and with 
white bases to all but the central pair of feathers; wing-quills 
blackish brown edged with blue; sides of head, neck, and breast 
blue, a little darker than the back, sometimes extending as a collar 
across the breast but generally broken in the centre; remainder 
of lower plumnge white, 



222 .MLSt'jCAiUD.K. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black; legs and 
feet deep brown or '• purplish black" (Hums). 

Measurements. Total length about 110 mm.; wing fil to 
<>4 nun.: tail 43 to 45 nun.; tarsus 10 to 17 nun.; eulineu about 
10 mm. 

Female. Above olive-grey, more or less tinged with brown ; 
forehead fulvous and lores mixed fulvous and white ; rump just 
showing a tinge of blue and upper tail-eoverts quite blue ; tail 
blackish edged witli blue ; lower plumage dull bull", tinged with 
brown on the breast and albescent on the centre of the abdomen, 
vent and under tail-eoverts. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in male. 

Nestling. Above ash} -brown, the leathers centred with fulvous 
and with black edges; tail and upper tail-eoverts showing a good 
deal ol blue; below fulvous-white squanmted with black. The 
white marks on the tail of the male are present from the earliest 
stage. 

The young male breeds in a plumage rather like that, of the 
female, but with much more blue above. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Afghan frontier to 
(Jarhwal and Western Nepal. 

Nidificatioil. hi the Himalayas this Flycatcher does not breed 
much below 7,500 feet though, in the hills South of the 
Brahmaputra, 1 found C. s. astiyiiiu breeding in small numbers at 
about 5,0OD feet. It commences breeding at the end of April 
and continues until the middle of June, making a nest of moss, 
lined with roots or tibres and placed in some small hole in a tree 
between ten and thirty feet from the ground. -Mr. J. l)a\idson 
took a nest from a Woodpecker's nest-hole in Kashmir and 
Mr. B. B. Osmaston found it appropriating tie- des Tied nest of a 
Wren. The eggs number four or five and in colour are a very pale 
olive-yellow or olive-green dusted over with tine reddish freckles, 
sometimes over the whole surface, sometimes over the larger end 
only where they form a ring or cap. In the former case they 
look almost unicoloured reddish bull', in the latter olive-green with 
a reddish cap or ring. One hundred eggs average l'e() x 1-- mm. : 
maxima 17-2x1 2*2 and 17'1 xl30 mm.; minima 14-2 X 1 1-0 ami 
145x 115 mm. 

Habits. The White-browed Blue Flycatcher is found up to at 
least 10,000 feet in Summer, wandering in Winter as far South as 
the Central Provinces and to Khandesh in the Bombay Presidency. 
They are typical little Flycatchers in all their ways. In Summer 
rather shy and retiring, frequenting forests, in Winter they 
come far more into the open and even into gardens when thev 
are very fearless and confiding. The song is sweet and like that 
of the Slaty-blue Flycatcher but stronger and better sustained. 



ci'onsiu. 223 

(<J48) Cyornis superciliaris astigma. 

Tin; Little Buje-a>d- White Flycatcher. 

Miucicaptt ustii/ma llodgs., in Cray's Zool. Misc., p. 81 (1814) 

(Nepal). 
Ci/oniis astiyma. lilauf. & Oates, ii, p. li). 

Vernacular names. Tani-li-ii (Lepeha). 

Description. Adult male. This race is a little less deep a blue 
in colour tlmii the preceding race but, differs principally in having 
no white superciliuiu. In a few specimens from Nepal and 
Sikliim there is just a trace visible of white above ;uid behind the 
eye, bill there is never a broad conspicuous white streak as in 
(!. k. superciliaris. Birds from Assam and farther East never 
shoiv anv white. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the White-browed 
Blue Flycatcher but with a smaller bill. Wing about (i'2 to 
08 nun.; culineii about '•> nun. 

Female. Very similar to that of the preceding race but usually 
has tin- upper tail-coverts more tinned with fulvous and h-ss with 
blue. 

The young male, like that of the preceding bird, acquires a 
semi-adult plumage at the first moult, retaining the brown head 
of the female, which grades into the blue of the male on the lower 
hack and wings. The rusty throat and breast of the \ounger 
nestling is also retained as well as the broad pale margins to the 
wing-feathers. At this stage the two races are quite indistin- 
guishable. 

Nestling similar to that of C. a. sxpirciliaris. 

Distribution. Nepal and Nikkim to the East of Assiin : bills 
of I South Assam, Maui pur and Lushai : Chin and Kachin Hills, 
Karenni, Yunnan. A nestling in Col. Stevenson Clarke's coll. 
from Yunnan labelled Muscicapa hhjthi{ = mehnohth-u) is obviously 
not that bird but is probably this. 

Nidiflcation. This little Flycatcher breeds at much lower, 
elevations than this preceding bird; in the Khasia Hills ] found 
it breeding at .">,00(> feet, whilst in North Cachar 1 took a few nests 
even lower than this. Neither nests nor eggs can be distin- 
guished from tlioso of the last race. 

The breeding-season seems to be from the end of April to earlv 
.Tune. In North Cachar (he males were all breeding in the semi- 
adult plumage and in the Khasia Hills there were very few birds 
in the full blue plumage of the old male. 

Habits. Those of the last bird. 



224 MtscicAriD.n. 

Cyornis melanoleuca. 

Key to Stcbspecies. 

A. Females above olive-brown, tinged with [p. 224. 

fulvous C. in. inelunoleucu, 

B. Females above blue-grey with no fulvous [p. 2'2i. 

tinge C. m. irestermawni, 

(649) Cyornis melanoleuca melanoleuca. 

The Indian Little Piku Flycatciikk. 

MuKcicajnUa mehmuleucux Hodgs., IHyth, J. A.S. Ii.,xii, p. 940(184.'!) 

(Nepal). 
Cyornis melanoleiicm. Blnnf. & Dates, ii, p. 18 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Tuni-ti-H (Lepclia). 

Description. — Adult male. A broad supereiliuin, the inner 
greater wing-coverts and edges of inner secondaries white ; basal 
half of lateral tail-feathers und whole lower plumage white ; 
remaining plumnge velvety-black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 110 mm.: wing 50 to 
59 nun. ; tail 40 to -4IJ mm. ; tarsus about 15 to 16 nun.; eulmen 
about 9 mm. 

Female. Abo\e olive-brown, more fulvous on the rump; upper 
tail-coverts bright ferruginous ; tail brown edged with the same ; 
wing-coverts like the back, the greater coverts and innermost 
secondaries edged with fulvous-white; below smoky-white. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Distribution. (Jarhwal, Nepal, Sikkim to the extreme East of 
Assam North of the Brahmaputra. 

Nidiflcation. Nothing recorded. 

Habits. Ln Summer the Little Pied Flycatcher is found between 
3,000 and 8,000 feet in forest. There is practically nothing on 
record in regard to it* habits, but these will not be found to differ 
from those of its Eastern race. 

(650) Cyornis melanoleuca westermanni. 

The Burmese Little Pied Flycatcheu. 

Mutcicapula westermanni Sharpe, P. Z. S., 1888, p. 270 (Guuong 

Ulu, Batang, Padang, Perak, Malay Pen.). 
Cjforni* melunoleucui. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 18 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Dao-pvt-ti-ti (Cachari). 

Description. — Adult male. Indistinguishable from the Indian 
bird. 

Female. Above grey, with a slaty-blue tinge and with no 
fulvous except a very slight tinge on the extreme rump. 



CYOKNIS. 225 

Distribution. Assam South of the Brahmaputra, the hills of 
Burma and the Malay Peninsula, Shan States, Yunnan, Siam. 

Nidiflcation. In the hills South of the Brahmaputra this 
Flycatcher breeds during April, May and June at elevations 
between 8,000 and 7,000 feet but generally between 5,000 and 
7,000. The nest is a tiny cup of moss, in most cases very compact 
and well put together but sometimes rather rough and flimsy. 
The lining is of soft shreds of grass or of fine hair-like roots 
(?r:ichides). Most nests are placed in holes in high rocky banks or 
in hollows of the rocks themselves but a few are placed in holes 
and hollows in trees. The eggs, three or four in number, appear 
at first sight to be almost uniform olive-brown but are really a 
pale yellow stone-colour or yellowish green covered all over with 
tiny freckles of reddish brown. In shape they are broad blunt 
ovals and thirty eggs average 15*1 x 11 5 mm.: maxima 16'1 X 
12-2 and 159 x 123 mm.; minima 14-1 X 11-5 and 15-0 x 112 mm. 

Habits. In Winter the Little Pied Flycatcher is found all over 
the plains of Assam and Eastern Bengal and throughout neatly 
all Burma. It is a very cheerful lively little bird often ussociating 
in flocks and ever on the move from one vantage spot to another, 
catching most of its insect -prey on the wing but also chasing it 
along the branches or snatching it from the bark of a tree. It has 
a sweet but very short little song, which it often utters even in 
winter. It is a very fearless little bird, entering gardens and 
orchards and hawking for flies within a few feet of the watcher. 



(051) Cyornis sapphira. 

The Sapphibe-headed Flycatcher. 

Musricapula napphifa Tickell, Blyth, J. A.S. B., xii, p. 939 (1843) 

(Durjiling-). 
Cyornis sapphira. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 20. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, crown and nape brilliant 
ultramarine-blue ; sides of head, neck, back, rump and wing-coverts 
deep purplish blue; upper tail-coverts bright blue; tail black, 
edged with bright blue ; wing-quills and primary-coverts black, 
edged with deep blue; iores and a line through the eye black; 
chin, throat and upper breast light chestnut ; an interrupted band 
below the chestnut deep blue; remainder of lower parts a very 
pale blue-grey ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown or hazel ; bill black ; legs 
and feet light horny-brown to dark ashy-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 00 to 63 mm. ; tail 40 to 46 mm.; tarsus 
about 16 mm. ; culmen about 8-5 to 9 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage rufous-olive, more rufous on the 
forehead ; upper tail-coverts bright ferruginous ; tail dark brown 

VOL. II. Q 



226 MU8CICAPIDJE. 

tinged strongly with ferruginous ; lores and edge of forehead 
mixed fulvous and brown ; a ring oE bright fulvous round the eye; 
chin, throat and breast pale, bright orange-chestnut ; remainder of 
lower plumage dull white, the flanks and under tail-coverts suffused 
with brown. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male. 

Measurements. A little smaller than the male, wing 58 to 
61 mm. 

Nestling. Similar to that of C. superciliuris, but a deeper fulvous 
on the throat and breast. 

Distribution. Sikkim to Eastern Bengal, Chin aud Kachin 
Hills. 

Nidiflcation. 1 found this bird breeding in North Cachar 
between 3,500 and 6,000 feet mid Dr. H. N. Coltart obtained 
nests, eggs and birds from the Trans-Dikhu Nagas at Margherita, 
probably taken at about 6,000 feet. The nest is the usual moss 
cup, lined with fine hair-like roots and placed either in a hollow 
in the face of a steep bank or in a hole in a tree or dead stump. 

The eggs, three or four in number, are just like those of 
C. superciliaris. I found all those I obtained myself in nests in 
forest, either dense evergreen or of oak, but the latter were covered 
all the year round with masses of orchids, ferns and moss aud the 
undergrowth was always green. 

This Flycatcher breeds throughout May and June. 

Habits. The' birds seen by me in North Cachnr were all either 
in pairs or single, frequenting high undergrou th or small trees, 
from the tops of which they k made their sallies after insects. 
I never heard their song.' 

Cyorni8 vivida. 

Cyornis vivida Swinh., Ibis, 1864, p. 4(33 (Formosa). 




Fig. 31. — Bill of C. vivida oatesi. 

(652) Cyornis vivida oatesi. 
The Hdfous-bbi/Libd Blue Flycatcheb, 

Niitava oategi Salvador!, Ann. Mu». Civ. Gen., 2, v, p. 614 (1887) 

(Pegu). 
Cyornis oatesi. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 20. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, lores and sides of head 



croBNie. 227 

deep black; crown, nape, rump, upper tail-coverts, lesser and 
median wing-coverts glistening cobalt-blue ; tail black, the central 
pair of feathers and outer webs of lateral suffused with bright dark 
blue ; back, sides of neck, wing-coverts and edges of quill-feathers 
deep blue ; chin, throat, and sides of neck deep blue ; remainder 
of lower plumage, axillaries and under wing-coverts chestnut, 
deepest on the breast. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown to reddish chocolate 
{Hume) ; bill black ; legs and feet dark horny-brown to blackish 
brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm. ; wing 92 to 
102 mm.; tail 70 to 95 mm.; tarsus about 18 to 19 mm.; culraen 
10 to 11 mm. 

This bird differs from vivida from Formosa only in having a 
darker, more blackish back, in being slightly less brilliant blue on 
the upper tail-coverts and also in being larger. The Formosan bird 
has a wing measuring from 82 to 90 mm. and other measure- 
ments in proportion. 

Female. Forehead, lores, sides of head, chin and upper throat 
rufous, speckled and barred with brown; crown, nape and sides 
of neck ashy-brown, becoming more and more fulvous-olive towards 
the upper tail-coverts whicli are fulvous-brown ; a large patch 
below the throat, axillaries, under wing-coverts and under tail- 
coverts pale buff : remainder of low»>r plumage ashy tinged with 
buff on the breast and purer and paler on the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Young birds are dark brown above speckled with fulvous; below 
rufous, the breast, mottled and barred with dark brown. 

Distribution. Hills of Assam South of the Brahmiiputra, Chin 
and Kachin Hills, Shan States and mountains of Central Burma, 
South to Tenasaerim, Siani. 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits. Davison found this bird always single, haunting both 
tree-tops and low bushes. Those seen by m y self in Assam and 
by Hume in Manipur were in pairs and invariably skulking in 
brushwood, from which they sallied after insects which they 
captured in the usual Flycatcher manner. They keep to hills 
above 4,000 feet in Assam and to greater heights than this in 
Burma. 

Cyornis pallipes. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Upper plumage blue. 

a. Aoove duller, supercilium not very bright. O. p. pallipet, cS • P- 228. 

b. Above brighter, stipercilium very bright . V. />. hainana, g , p.229. 
13. Upper plumage olive-brown. 

c. Above paler; tail strongly chestnut .... C. p. pallipes, $,p.228. 

d. Above darker ; tail only tinged chestnut. 0. p. hainana, $,p. 229. 

<*2 



228 MUSOlOAFIDjE. 

(653) Cyornis pallipes pallipes. 

The White-bellied Blue Flycatcueb. 

Mweieapa imllipes Jerdon, Madr. Journ. L. S., xi, p. 15 (1840) 

(Cuouoov Ghat). 
Cyornis paltidi/iea. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 22. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead and supercilium ultra- 
marine-blue ; lores black fading to bluish black on ear-coverts and 
sides of head ; whole upper plumage and exposed parts of wings 
and tail indigo-blue ; concealed portions of wing dark brown, t lie 
first few primaries edged paler and not blue ; chin blackish, throat 
and breast indigo-blue, changing to blue-grey on the lower breast 
and flanks and to white on the abdomen, under tail-coverts, 
axillaries and under wing-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet 
fleshy-white, pale horny-white or fleshy tinged with purple. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 to 160 mm.; wing 73 
to 79 mm.; tail 56 to 60 mm.; tarsus about 18 nun. : culinen 
13-0 to 13-5 mm. 

Female. Lores, forehead and point of chin white ; a very 
indistinct supercilium and feathers under the eye pale grey ; 
upper plumage rufescent olive-brown, more grey on the head; 
upper tail-coverts and exposed parts of tail chestnut ; wings 
dark brown, all the feathers edged with fulvous-rufous; throat 
and breast orange-chestnut ; remainder of lower plumage white 
tinged with grey on the flanks and next the breast. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

The Nestling is dark brown above, the feathers boldly spotted 
with fulvous and narrowly margined with black ; below white, 
chestnut on the breast, squamated with dark brown and with 
large fulvous spots. 

Distribution. South-West India on the Western Ghats from 
Belgaum to the extreme South of Travancore. 

Nidiflcation. First taken by Messrs. J. Davidson and T. R. 
Bell in Kanara, IS. Bombay, the nests have since been taken in 
great numbers by Mr. J. Stewart in Travancore. He describes 
them as roughly made of moss and placed either on a ledge of 
rock or in a hole of a tree-stump a few feet from the ground. 
They are always built in damp forest at elevations between 1,000 
and 4,000 feet, most often under 2,000 feet. The usual breeding- 
season is March to April, but Mr. Stewart has taken nests from 
February to September. 

The number of eggs laid is nearly always three, and in 
appearance they are not unlike boldly marked eggs of the Common 
Spotted Flycatcher. The ground-colour is a pale yellow or 
reddish stone, sometimes distinctly green, and the markings 



otoewis. 229 

consist of small blotches of rather bright reddish, numerous 
everywhere and generally forming a ring or cap at the larger end. 
They are nowhere so numerous as to make the eggs appear 
unicoloured as in the eggs of Cyornis rubeculoides, etc. 

Forty eggs average 20 - 2xlo-5 mm.: maxima 22 - 0xt6 , 
and 20-9 x 165 mm. ; minima 194 x 150 and 201 x 146 mm. 

Habits. This Flycatcher keeps almost entirely to dense forest 
from the foot-hills up to some 6,000 feet. Its song is said to be 
sweet but melancholy and it sings very early in the morning and 
late in the evening. Mr. Stewart notes that tins bird and Myio- 
phoneus Tiorsfieldii may be heard singing, on the same stream, 
before other birds have started and again after all the others have 
ceased. 

(654) Cyornis pallipes hainana. 

Gkant's Blujj Flycatcher. 
fiiphm hainana O .-Grant, Bull. B.O.C., x, p. 30 (1899) (Hainan). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Similar to C. p. pallipes, but with 
the upper parts a brighter blue and with the supercilium and 
forehead much more highly developed. 

Measurements. Wing 67 to 72 mm. ; tail 50 to 55 mm. ; 
tarsus about 16 mm.; culmen 10-5 (Hainan) to 11\"> mm. 
(S. China). 

The female differs from the female of the preceding bird 
in being much darker and greyer above, in having the tail 
almost concolorous with the back, and in being a much paler 
weaker chestnut on the throat. One or two individuals have the 
lores and feathers round the eye tinged with rust. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Nestling. Like that of the preceding race. 

Distribution. Hainan, Annam, South China, Siain and Penin- 
sular Burma. 

Nidiftcation and Habits. Practically nothing recorded. 
Cyornis unicolor. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Above light blue. 

a. Above and bolow brighter Cm. unicolor, <$ , p. 230. 

b. Above and below much darker C. u. infmcata, cJ , 

B. Above olive-brown. [p. 231. 

c. Above paler and more fulvous olive- 

brown Cm. unicolor, J , p. 230. 

il. Above darker, more a rufescent olive- 
brown : C. u. infuscata, 2 , 

[p. 231. 



230 musoioapidA:. 

(655) Cyornis unicolor unicolor. 

The Palk Blue Flycaxoheb. 

Ct/orni* unicolor Illytb, J. A. S. B., xii, p. 1007 (1843) (Darjeeling) ; 
'iJlanf. & Oates, ii, p. 22. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, front nnd sides of the 
crown, a narrow ring round the eye and lesser wing-coverts 
ultramarine-blue ; whole upper plumage, exposed portions of 
wings and tail light blue, deeper on the upper tail-coverts and 
edges of the tail-feathers; lores black; lower plumage very pale 
dull blue, becoming greyish albescent on abdomen, flanks and 
under tail-coverts, the latter broadly edged with white ; axillaries 
and under wing-coverts fulvous-white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel ; bill black ; legs and feet 
dark purplish fleshy or fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 105 to 170 mm. ; wing 78 to 
85 mm. ; tail 6S to 75 mm. ; tarsus about 17 to 1* mm. ; culmen 
14 to 15 mm. 

Female. The whole upper plumage fulvous olive-brown ; tail- 
feathers ferruginous and wing-quills brown edged with ferru- 
ginous ; lores and a ring round the eye pale fulvescent ; whole 
lower plumage pale earthy-brown, often tinged with ochraceous on 
the sides of the head, chin and throat. 

Colours of soft parts. Bill horny-brown, darker on culmen and 
tip ; legs horny-brown. 

Measurements as in the male. 

Nestling. Above dark brown with bold black edges to each 
feather and large bright fulvous spots ; below fulvous-white with 
darker fulvous mottlings and black squaniations. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Sikkiin to Eastern Assam, Chin 
Hills. 

Nidification. Two nests and eggs brought to Dr. U. X. C'oltait 
and myself by Trans-Dikhu Nagas were taken in the first week 
of April and second week of June respectively, from the higher 
ranges of hills, probably well above 5,000 feet, behind Margherita. 
The nests were bulky affairs of moss mixed with moss and fern- 
roots and lined with the latter and had, according to the Nagas, 
been wedged into holes, one in a tree-stump near water and 
one in a bank between stones. Six eggs vary from 21*5 X 17 - 3 
to 23'1 X 17 - 1 mm. in length, whilst in breadth they vary between 
23 - xl68 and 21*5 x 17*3 mm. In appearance they are like 
large eggs of Cyomit pallipes, though in one clutch the markings 
are rather pale and small. 

Habits. This was a very common Flycatcher in the South 
Assam Hills, in summer being found from 3,000 feet upwards 
and in winter wandering down below 1000 ft. It has a magni- 



croEiris. 231 

ficent song, richer than that of any other Cyornis ; it sings 
early and late from March onwards. It keeps entirely to wet 
humid forest where the ground is much broken on the steeper hill- 
sides and where there is an ample growth of underwood always 
more or less green. We found it hawking insects both from high 
up in big trees and from low down in bushes and we noticed that 
it used regular perches for this purpose much less than most of 
the family. It is by no means shy but has a wild rapid flight. 

(056) Cyornis unicolor infuscata. 
Bltth'b Pale Blue Flycatcher. 
Muscicapa infuscata Muller, Blyth, Ibis, 1870, p. IGo (Java). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Sex for sex like the last race, but very much 
darker both above and below. 

Colours of soft parts as in the last bird. 
Measurements. Wing 77 to 82 mm. 

Distribution. From Tenasseriin and Siam throughout the 
Malay Peninsula, Java and ? Sumatra. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

(<k)7) Cyornis rubeculoides rubeculoides. 

The Blue-throated Flycatcher. 

Pheenicura rubeculoides Yi<rurs>, 1*. Z. S., 1831, p. 35 (Himalayas, 

Daijeelin^). 
Cyornis rubeculoides. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 23. 

Vernacular names. Ghatki (Beng.) ; Manzil plw (Lepcha). 
Description. — Adult male. Forehead and a streak over the eye 
glistening azure-blue ; lores, feathers at the base of the bill, in 




Fig. 32.— Bill of C. r. rtttieciiloidcs. 

front of and behind the eye black ; lesser wing-coverts bright 
blue ; whole upper plumage and exposed portions of wings and 
tail dark blue; inner webs of lateral tail-feathers and concealed 
portions of wing-feathers brown ; chin, throat, sides of neck 
and breast deep blue ; breast bright ferruginous, paler on flanks 
and lower breast and pure white on abdomen and under tail- 
coverts ; axillaries and under wing-coverts fulvous- white. 



232 MUSCICAPID.S. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel ; bill black, flesh-coloured at 
the gape ; legs and feet pale fleshy to pale fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 145 mm. ; wing 65 to 75 mm., 
two birds from Siam and China have wings of 78 mm. ; tail 53 to 
60 mm. ; tarsus about 20 mm. ; culmen about 11*5 to 12-5 mm. 

Female. Lores and a ring round the eye pale fulvous ; upper 
plumage olive-brown tinged with rufous on the forehead and 
rump und more ashy on the posterior crown and nape ; wing and 
tail feathers brown edged with ferruginous ; chin and throat 
fulvous-ferruginous ; breast bright ferruginous, abdomen and 
vent white ; sides of breast and flauks washed with olive-brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel-brown ; bill black, horny nt 
the base; legs mid feet pale horny-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 69 to 74 mm. ; tail 49 to 52 mm. ; tarsus 
about 19 nun. ; culmen about 11 to 12 mm. 

Young. Above brown streaked and spotted with fulvous and 
the wing-coverts broadly tipped with fulvous ; throat and breast 
fulvous squamated with brown. The young male moults direct 
from the spotted into the blue plumage. 

Distribution. In Summer the Blue-throated Flycatcher is found 
throughout the Himalayas from Kashmir to Burma ; the hills of 
Burma South to Tenasserim. East it is found in Yunnan, 
Assam, Siam and Cochin China. In Winter it occurs throughout 
Eastern and North-Eastern India, Burma, etc. 

Nidification. This Flycatcher breeds throughout the hill-por- 
tions of its habitat between 2,000 and 7,000 teet, but principally 
between 3,000 and 5,0o0 feet,- in the months of April, May and 
June. It makes a cup-shaped nest of moss and moss-roots, often 
with a few leaves or scraps of grass in the base, lined with fine 
roots. It is placed in any convenient hollow in bank, rock or 
tree but. preferably in natural holes in old stumps which are well 
concealed by moss or creepers. The eggs vary from three to five. 
In ground-colour they are a pale clay, sometimes with a pink or 
greenish tinge but they are so covered with microscopic specks of 
reddish brown that they appear to be unicoloured clay-brown or 
olive-brown eggs. Forty eggs average 18*3 x 14*0 mm.: maxima 
19*4 X 15'1 nun. ; minima 17'5 X 14-3 and 18-4 x 13'6 mm. 

Habits. Like most other Flycatchers of the genus Cyornis this 
species is a bird of the forest throughout the breeding-season, 
but when migrating may be found in almost any kind of well- 
wooded country, cultivated or wild, and is very frequently found 
in open bamboo-jungle. Many individuals are undoubtedly 
resident all the year round between 2,000 and 5,000 feet, but 
others wander a great distance into the plains. They are cheerful 
lively little birds and will be found principally haunting the 
lower growths of bush and scrub, seldom mounting big trees to 
any height. Tbey have a very sweet little song but are silent 
birds seldom uttering any note but a soft, deep chur-r-r-r. 



cxoBins. 233 

Cyornis banyumas. 

Cyornis banyumas Von Martens, J. f. O., 1866 p. 11 (Java). 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Whole lower surface rufous or strongly 

washed with rufous C. b. banyumas. 

B. Breast and flunks rufous, abdomen and 

under tail-coverts white or almost white. 

a. Above a deeper blue ; below, abdomen 

purer white C. b. cwrulifrons,ij>. 233. 

b. Above a duller blue : below, abdomen 

more strongly washed with rufous .... C. b. dialilcema, p. 233. 

(658) Cyornis banyumas ccerulifrons. 
The Southern Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis maynirostris ccerulifrons Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O. C, xxxix, 
p. 8 (1918) (Klong-bong-lai, South Siam). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Very like C. rubecuhides, but has 
only tlio front and sides cf the chin black, instead of the whole 
chin and upper throat deep blue; the upper parts are also a 
duller and darker blue with a more indigo shade in it. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black ; legs and feet 
grey to neutral tint. The bill is pale at the base of the lower 
mandible in winter. 

Measurements. Wing 68 to 73 mm. ; tail 54 mm. ; tarsus 
20 mm.; culmen 12 mm. 

Female. Lores and ring round eye pale fulvous ; whole upper 
plumage fulvous olive-brown, rut'esctmt on the upper tail-coverts ; 
wing-quills and rectrices brown edged with rufous : chin, throat, 
breast and flanks orange-chestnut ; abdomen and under tail- 
coverts white suffused with rufous. It cannot be distinguished 
from many foinale specimens of V. rubecidoidcs but has possibly 
;i stronger fulvous tinge. 

Distribution. North Malay Peninsula and Peninsular Burma 
and Siam. 

Nidiflcation. Not recorded. 

Habits. Apparently the same as those of Cyornis maynirosiris, 
from which this bird hardly differs except, in size and its small 
bill — both forms, however, occurring together over a considerable 
area. 

(059) Cyornis banyumas dialilsema. 

Salyadoiu's Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis dialiltetna Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xxvii, p. 38" 
(1889) (Taho, Karenni). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



234 muscicapidjS. 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from the Southern Blue 
Flycatcher only in being a duller blue and in having the abdomen 
and under tail-coverts much more suffused with rufous. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
bird. Wing 71 to 74 and one specimen 79 mm. 

Female. Only differs from that of Cyomis rubeciUoides in being 
darker below. 

Young. Above rufous-brown, with pale central streaks to the 
feathers of the back, head and scapulars ; the wing-coverts with 
fulvous spots and the breast bright orange-rufous mottled with 
brown. 

Distribution. Hills of Central Burma, North to Shan States 
and Yunnan and the Kachin Hills East of the Irrawaddy. It is 
quite impossible to distinguish between Cyomis whitei (Har- 
ington), Cyomis glaucicomans (Oberholser) and Cyomis dialilatna 
(Salvadori), the last of these names has priority- Gyldenstolpe 
says it is the most common form of Blue Flycatcher in Northern 
Siam. 

Nidiflcation. Harington and Grant both found this bird 
breeding in the Bbamo Hills and Shan States. Nests obtained 
with eggs differed in no way from those of Cyomis tickeUkr and 
C. rubeculoides. Twenty egjjs average 18-t> x 14-2: maxima 
20-5x14-5 and 18-5x15-2 mm.; minima i6-9xl4-0 and 
17-4x13-5 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus hut it seems to be more entirely a 
forest-bird, summer and winter, than most. The extent to which 
it is migratory is not at present known. 

Cyornis tickellise. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Abdomen and flanks decidedly washed with 

pale rufous and not conspicuously sepa- 
rated from rufous breast. 

o. Above both males and females paler .... C. t. tickellitf, p. 234. 

b. Above darker C. i. menaa, p. 230. 

B. Abdomen sharply divided from rufous breast 

and very white ; above a richer blue than 

either of above C'.t. mtnuitretisis, p. 235. 

(660) Cyomis tickellise tickellise. 

Tickeli/s Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis tickellia Blyth, J. A.S. 13., xii, p. 941 (1843) (Central 

India). 
Cyorui* tickeliii. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 25. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores, feathers round the eye and 



CTO»tfT8. 



235 



a narrow line next the bill black ; forehead, supercilium and 
lesser wing-coverts glistening azure-blue ; whole upper surface 
blue, less deep than in C. rubeculoides ; point of chin black ; sides 
of head and neck deep blue-black ; throat and breast bright ferru- 
ginous fading into white on the abdomen, vent and under tail- 
coverts ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white or very pale buff. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black or dark horny- 
brown, paler at the base ; legs and feet bluish brown, dusky bluish, 
or bluish grey. 

Measurements. Total length about 155 mm.: wing 72 to 
77 mm. ; tail 54 to 59 mm. ; tarsus 18 to 19 mm. ; cultnen 11 to 
12 mm. 

Female. Similar to the male but duller and paler ; the 
supercilium very pale ; lores and round the eye grey and white ; 
whole chin very pale rufous and breast paler than in the male. 

Colours of soft parts as in the mule. 

Measurements. Wing 6'9 to 72 nun. 

Young. Above brown with bold fulvous spots, below dull fulvous- 
white, the breast rusty with dark brown margins to the feathers. 

Distribution. Practically the whole of India, except Sind and 
the extreme X.W. Province ; Assam, Manipur, # .Xorth and 
Central Burma as far South as Karenni where it. meets the next 
race ; Yunnan, Shan States, Northern Siam and Amwui. 

Nidification. Tii-keH's Blue Flycatcher breeds from all levels 
up to about 5,000 feet but invariably in hilly or broken country. 
The nest is always placed in a hole of some kind, in a tree, bank 
or wall, possibly in most cases in hollows in trees and is built of 
grass, roots, dried moss and leaves and lined with roots ; rather 
untidy and rather large for the bird. The eggs number three to 
five and are not distinguishable from those of Ci/ornis rubeculoides, 
but perhaps averai/e a rather brighter brown. Eighty eggs average 
18-4x14-2 mm.: maxima 19-6x143 and 185 x 153 mm.; 
minima 168 x l-'i - 6 and 18;{ x 134 mm. 

The breeding-season is April, May and June, but General 
Betham found them breeding at Poona as late as August and, on 
the other hand, in Monghyr, Bebar and Burma the}" breed as 
early as February and March. 

Habits. This is a Flycatcher of small woods and nftoJas and of 
well-wooded cultivated country. It is an active lively little bird 
with a sweet but rather metallic little song which it utters far 
more freely than most of its relations. It is not shy and does not 
mind being watched. 

(«6l) Cyornis tickelliae sumatrensis. 

Sha.rpk'3 Blue Flycatcher. 

Siphia sumatremin feharpe, Cat. H.M., iv, p. 451 (1879) (Sumatra 
in err ore). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



236 mpsoioamdjE. 

Description. Similar to C. t. ticlellia but a much richer blue 
above and with the white abdomeu contrasting more strongly with 
the rufous breast. 

Colours of Boft parts as in C. I. tickellm. 

Measurements. Wing 67 to 73 mm. 

Female. Similar to that of Tickell's Blue Flycatcher but whiter 
below ; individuals vary greatly in the colour of the upper parts 
but newly moulted birds in full plumage are a deeper brighter 
blue than any specimens of Tickell's Flycatcher. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula and hills of Southern and 
Central Burma to Thounghoo and Karenni ; South Siain, Annam. 

Nidification and Habits differ in no way from those of 
Tickell's Blue Flycatcher. It is a resident bird wherever found 
and breeds from the level of the plains to son;e 4,000 or 5,000 
feet. In winter it wanders about a good deal in the open and is 
therefore more conspicuous but it is nowhere more than locally 
migratory. 

(662) Cyornis tickellise messea. 

Obekholser's Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis tickellice mesaa Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Sue. Washington, 
xxxiii, p. m (1920) (Ceylon). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Differs from the Indian form in being decidedly 
darker above both in the mule and female. It is not, however, as 
dark or richly coloured as V. t. sumatreiigis and not nearly so white 
below. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the other forms. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidification. Very little known, but Legge obtained young in 
nestling-plumage in June and the middle of July, so presumably 
they lay in May and early June. They breed up to at least 4,000 
feet and possibly higher than this, as 1 have had specimens 
procured at Newara Eliya in June. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

(663) Cyornis magnirostris. 
Thk Large-billed Blub Flycatchbr. 

Cyornis magnirogtru Blyth, J. A. S. B., xviii, p. 814 (1849) (Dar- 
jiling) ; Blanf & Oates, ii, p. 26. 

Vernacular names. Daogatang (Cachari). 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from Cyornis rubeculoides in 
having the whole chin and throat chestnut. The blue of the 
upper parts is deeper but the chestnut below is paler and extends 
on to the lower breast and flanks. 



NITIDULA. 237 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown ; bill black ; legs 
and feet very pale fleshy-white to light horny-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 76 to 88 mm. ; tail 55 to 61 mm. ; tarsus 
18*5 to 19'0 mm.; culinen 15 ram. 

Female. Like that of V. rubeculoides but paler below. 

Colours of soft parts like the male. 

Measurements as in the male. 

Nestling. Above brown, each feather with a pale fulvous centre 
and dark margin ; tail rul'ous as in the adult female ; below earthy- 
fulvous, the breast mottled with fulvous and brown. The males 
moult direct from the spotted plumage itito the blue of the adult. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim, the whole of Assam, North and 
South of the Brahmaputra. 

Nidiflcation. Very similar to that of Cyornis rubeculoides but 
the nest is generally placed in a hole in a bank or rock and is 
larger and more untidy than it is in that species. The eggs, three 
to live in number, are rather larger, decidedly darker and duller 
and more definitely spotted. Fortv eggs average 1!M x 14*6 mm. : 
maxima 20'4 X 14"H and 20-1 x 152 mm. ; minima 17-1 X 14-1 and 
18-0 x 13 p 5 mm. The breeding-season is May, June and July and 
they breed from 8,000 to about 7.000 feet. 

Habits. Those of the genus but this is essentially a bird of 
evergreen, humid forests. 

Crenus NITIDULA. 

Nitidula Jerd. & Blyth, 1\ Z. S., 1*61, p. 201. 

Type, Nitidula hodijsoni. 

The genus Nitidula consists of a single species, u very small 
Blue Flycatcher distinguishable at once by its narrow slender bill 
with well-developed hairs over the nostril. 

(664) Nitidula hodgsoni. 

The Pigmt Blck Flycatcher. 

Nemura hodgsoni Moore, P. Z. S., 1854, p. 76 (Nepal). 
Nitidula hodymni. Blnnf. & Gates, ii, p. 27. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, lores and sides of head 
black, tinged with blue in certain lights; whole upper plumage 
bright dark blue, brightest and more ultramarine on crown ; 
wings and tail black edged with deep blue ; whole lower plumage 
pale orange-yellow, almost white on the centre of the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris black or deep brown ; bill horny - 
brown, paler and more yellow at the base and on lower mandible ; 



238 MUSOIOAPIDiE. 

all black in breeding-season ; legs pale reddish brown ; " pinkish 
plumbeous horny " (Stevens). 

Measurements. Total length about 105 mm.; wing 45 to 
50mm.; tail 30 to 35 mm. ; tarsus about 13 mm.; culmen about 
6 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage olive-brown, morerufous on the 
lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail and wing-feathers 
brown edged with rufous-brown ; lores and cheeks fulvous-yellow 
mottled with brown ; whole lower plumage pale saffron-yellow, 
albescent on centre of abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male but bill never black. 

Measurements. Wing 43 to 4G mm. 

Distribution. Sikkim, Bhutan and the hills of Assam, North 
and South of the Brahmaputra between 3,000 feet and the highest 
peaks of 9,000 feet or over. 

Nidiflcation. Unknown. 






Fig. 33.— Bill of N. hoJgsom. 

Habits. The few birds seen by me in North Cacliar were 
always in deep forest, though preferably on the edge of some 
glade or open f orest-stream . On each occasion three or four were 
seen together feeding on the bushes and lower trees and taking 
insects off the leaves and twigs just as often as in the air. They 
were very silent except for a sharp, sibilant, little tsij), uttered 
when the companions got separated. When catching insects on 
the wing in the flickering shade and sunlight they looked more 
like brilliant butterflies than birds. They are resident birds but 
move vertically 'with the seasons and Stevens records them as 
descending to the foot-hills in winter in North Lakhimpur. 



Genus ST0PAR0LA. 
Stoparola Blyth, J. A. S. K, xvi, p. 125 (1845). 
Type, Stoparola melanops. 

The genus Stoparola differs from Gyornis in having a shorter, 
very depressed bill which, viewed from above, forms an equilateral 
triangle. Both sexes have a certain amount of blue-green almost 
throughout their plumage but at the same time the sexes vary 
considerably in colour. 

One of the three species found in the Indian Empire has a very 
widely extended range, the other two are confined to comparatively 



stopauola. 239 

small areas. S. sordida and S. albicaudata are good species in 
no way linked with S. melanops. 

Key to Species. 

A. With no white to the base of the tail. 

a. Under tail-coverts blue or green with 

broad white edges S. melanops, p. 239. 

6. Under tail-coverts white or almost so . . S. sordida, p. 241. 
JJ. Base of tail white 8. albicaudata, p. 242. 

Stoparola melanops. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. No black spot on chin ; line of black 

across forehead very narrow or 

obsolete <V. m. melanops, p. 239. 

B. A black spot at point of chin ; black 

line on forehead better defined S. m. thalassoides, p. 241. 

(665) Stoparola melanops melanops. 

The Veuditkh. Flycatchkk. 

Mutcicapa melanops Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 171 (Himalayas, now 

restricted to Siklrim). 
Stoparola melanops. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 28. 

Vernacular names. Nil-kat-katia (Beng.) ; Sibyell-pho (Lepcha) ; 
Dao-tisha I Hi gudeba (Cachari). 




Fig. 34. — Bill of S. m. melanops. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores to base of bill black, produced 
back under the eye ; whole plumage verditer-blue, palest and 
brightest on forehead, sides of head, chin, throat, breast and 
upper tail-coverts ; concealed portions of wing-feathers aud edge 
of lateral tail-feathers brown, visible portions bright green-blue, 
still brighter and more blue on the outer edges ; under tail-coverts 
edged with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel-brown ; bill black, the corner 
of gape and mouth flesh-colour ; legs, feet and claws black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 79 to 
89 mm. ; tail 60 to 74 ram. ; tarsus about 18 mm. ; culmen about 
11 mm. 



240 MUSCICAMi)*. 

Female. Generally similar to the male but much duller and 
greyer in tint ; lores dull brown ; cliin and sides of throat 
mottled with brown and white. 

Young hirds are a grey-brown, more or less tinged with 
green; spotted above with small and below with large fulvous 
spots, the edge? of the feathers being darker ; on the head and 
nape the spots are often almost white. 

Distribution, The whole Empire North of the Nilgiris and 
• Travancore except Sind, the Andaman* and Nicobars. In Burma 
it extends as far South as Tenasserim where it is replaced by 
the next nice, birds from the extreme South of Burma being 
intermediate in size and in the extent of black on the forehead, 
lores and chin. 

Nidiflcation. The Verditer Flycatcher breeds throughout the 
Himalayas above 4,000 feet, Assam, the Burmese Hills, Yunnan, 
Shan States, Siain, Annam and Western China. It may also 
sometimes breed in the Hills of Southern India as Mr. Kinlock 
reports it as being extremely common in the Neliampathy Hills 
until March at comparatively low heights. It. nests in April, 
May and early June, often having second broods in June and 
early July. The nest is cup-shaped, made principally of living 
green moss but sometimes mixed with tiny roots, scraps of bracken 
or grass, lichen, etc., the lining being always of the finest moss and 
fern-roots. It is most often placed among boulders on a mossy 
bank, in a crevice or niche in or between the stones or rocks, 
but it may also be built in holes in trees, walls or banks. The 
eggs number four almost invariably, very seldom three or five. 
In ground-colour they vary from almost pure white to a pale 
pink, generally profusely but minutely freckled or stippled with a 
darker shade of the same, a more pronounced ring circling the 
larger end. Two hundred eggs average 19v$x 14 - G mm. and the 
extremes are : maxima 22'0xl5 - 2 and 20'3 x 16*0 mm. ; minima 
170 X 140 and 190 x 13 8 mm. 

Habits. In Summer this Flycatcher is found between 4,000 and 
8,000 feet wandering up to 9,000 feet in the Himalayas and 
higher still in the Burmese and Chinese Hills. In winter it 
descends to the plains and spreads all over North and Central 
India, though it keeps more to the hilly and broken portions. It 
is very sociable and in the Khasia Hills 1 have often seen several 
pairs hunting quite amicably together for insects on some 
flowering shrub in my garden. It searches the leaves and twigs 
for insects in a very Tit-like manner in addition to the usual 
Flycatcher sallies after those on the wing. It has a very sweet 
song uttered in the mornings and evenings and, as it is very 
confiding and tame, will often sing within a few feet of the 
watcher. It keeps much to cultivated country, thin forests and 
pine-woods and is seldom found far inside dense evergreen 
forest. 



8TOPABOLA. 241 

(666) Stoparola melanops thalassoides. 

The Malay Verditer Flycatcher. 
Glaucomyias thalassoides Cab., Mus. IIein.,i,p. 53(1850) (Sumatra) 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male. Similar to S. m. melanops but 
having the black lores extending in a line across forehead and 
also to the angle of the chin. On the whole, it is perhaps a 
rather deeper-coloured bird. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. A smaller bird than S. m. melanops-. wing'73to 
78 mm.; tail 02 to 04 mm. ; tarsus about 17 mm. ; culmen about 
1 1 mm. 

The female and young are inseparable from those of the 
Common Verditer Flycatcher except in size. 

Distribution. Peninsular Siam and Burma, the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra and Borneo. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the preceding bird. 

Habits. Like the Indian Verditer Flycatcher it is found in the 
hills in Summer, descending to the plains in Winter but it seems 
to be a much lews common bird and to keep to heavier forest. 
It is, however, .sometimes seen in gardens and the open country 
round villages. 

(007) Stoparola sordida. 

Tub Dusky Blue Flycatcher. 

Glaucomyias sordida Wftld., A. M. X. II., (4) v, p. 218 (1870) 

(Ceylon). 
Stoparola sordida. JJlauf. & Oates, ii, p. 2i>. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores, line across tl;> tort-bead and 
point of chin black ; forehead, short supercilium and chin bright 
cobalt-blue; general plumage ashy-grey tinged with blue, darker 
and more blue on the head; vent almost white and abdomen 
pale; under tail-coverts almost or quite white; wings and tail 
brown, the wing-coverts broadly and quills very narrowly edged 
with blue. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel-brown to reddish brown; legs 
and feet dark plumbeous, the latter sometimes blackish and 
darker than the tarsus. 

Measurements. Wing 73 to 78 mm. ; tail 57 to 61 mm. ; tarsus 
about 19*0 mm. ; culinen about 11 mm. 

Female. Duller and with less blue on forehead, clmi and head. 

Young. Brown above, boldly spotted with fulvous and with 
dark edges to each feather ; below fulvous, paler and whitish on 

VOL. II. II 



242 MCSCICAMU.E. 

the centre of the abdomen, each feather edged and tipped dark 
brown. 

Distribution. Ceylon only above 2,000 feet. 

Nidification. The Dusky Blue Flycatcher breeds in the moun- 
tains and lower hills of Ceylon in February, March and April. 
The nest is like that of the Verditer Flycatcher and the eggs are 
quite indistinguishable from those of that bird but only two or 
three are laid. They average about 204 x 14-4 mm., and a small 
series vary in length between 20*0x14-2 and 21-0x15-0 mm. 
and in breadth between 20-*ix 14-1 and 21-0 x 15-0 mm. 

Habits. The Dusky Blue Flycatcher breeds only above 2,000 
feet and seems seldom to wander much below this even in non- 
b reeding months. Like the Verditer Flycatcher it often 
associates in small flocks and lias a similar sweet little song and 
the same soft low call-note sounding like chip chip. It is said to 
be very bold in the presence of man and to prefer the vicinity of 
villages and open country to deep forest. 

(668) Stoparola albicaudata. 

The Nii<aiKi Blue Flycatcher. 

Mntcicapa albicaudata Jerd., Madr. J. L. S., xi, p. 1(5 (1840) 

(Nilgiris). 
Stoparola albicaudata. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 30. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male. Whole plumage indigo-blue, the 
forehead, a short supercilium, chin and edge of shoulder of wing 
bright blue, the blue extending to the fore crown and blending 
into the dull colour of the nape; concealed portions of the wing- 
feathers dark brown; median tail-feathers like the back, lateral 
tail-feathers dark brown edged with indigo-blue and white at the 
extreme base : abdomen paler and tail-coverts edged with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Wing 71 to 82 mm. ; tail 60 to 65 mm. ; tarsus 
about 19 mm. ; culineu about 11 mm. 

Female. Dull grey-brown ; the upper tail-coverts blue; whole 
lower parts paler grey-brown washed with green-blue ; tail and 
wings brown, the former with white bases to all but the median 
pair. 

Measurements. In this species, unlike the others, the female 
seems to be rather smaller than the male : wing only 72 to 
77 mm. 

Young. Above dark brown with bold fulvous spots and dark 
edges to each feather; below pale grey-brown with broad pale 
fulvous spots and dark edges, the spots and edgings most definite 
on throat and breast 



ANTHIPSS. '243 

Distribution. The hills of .Southern India from 2.000 feet 
upwards. Mr. J. Stewart found it common in Travancore in 
suitable places and I have records of its occurrence in the 
Wynaad, Palghat and Southern Malabar. 

Nidiflcation. Breeds in March, April and May at all elevations 
from 2,500 feet upwards but more frequently above 4,000 feet 
than below this height. The nest is qup-shaped, made of moss 
and moss-roots, lined with the latter. Very rarely (C. Williams) 
there are a few feathers in the lining. Most nests are placed 
in holes in banks but others are placed in holes in walls, 
rotteu trees or under bridges and culverts. The eggs number 
three, sometimes two only, and are like those of the othor species of 
Stojiarola. Sixty eggs average 199 x 148 mm. ; the extremes 
are : maxima 22 - x 15-5 and 20-5 x 16'0 mm. ; minima 18'4 X 15"0 
and 18-8x14-0 nun. 

Habits similar to those of other species of this genus. This 
species does not appear to visit the plains in the winter. 

Genus ANTHIPES. 
Anthills Blyth, J. A. S. It., xvi, p. 122 (1847). 
Type, AntJiipes monileger. 

The genus Anlhipes contains two Indian species of Flycatcher 
bo different in habits and nidilicatiou that many naturalists 
might consider these, combined with a certain amount of 
differentiation in colour-characters, sufficient to split them into 
two genera. 

In this genus the sexes are alike, the plumage brown or rufous 
but relieved in the monileger group by a bold white patch on the 
throat. The hill is Hat but longer than wide at the base; the 
lower mandible is dark; the rii-tal bristles are long but few in 
number ; the first primary is large and the tail square and rather 
shorter than the wing. 

Key to Species. 

A. Chin and throat white, contrasting with the 

surrounding parts 4 . moniltytr, p. 243. 

B. Cliin and throat buff or bully-white, not 

contrasting with, but blending into, the 

surrounding parts A. oliraceus, p. 240. 

Anthipes monileger. 

Keif to Suhspecies. 

A. White of chin and throat surrounded 

bv a black line. 

a. forehead and eyebrow fulvous A. m. moniletfer, p. 244. 

6. Forehead and eyebrow jroUlen rufous. A. m. leucopt, p. 245. 

B. White of chiu and throat not surrounded 

by a black line A. m. submom'ler/er, p. 246. 

u2 



244 muscicapid*. 

(669) Anthipes monileger monileger. 

Hodgson's "White-gorgetjsd Flycatcher. 

Dimorpha monileger flodjjs., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 20 (Sikkim). 
Antfiijics monilifftrr. Hlanf. & Oates, ii, p. 8*2. 

Vernacular names. Phatt-tayrak-plw (Lepcha). 

Description. Short broad supereilin almost meeting on the 
forehead, bright fulvous; crown 1o rump olive-brown, tinged 
with rufous on the latter ; upper tail-coverts and tail dull 
ferruginous ; wings brown, all the feathers except the primary 
coverts edged with rufous ; sides of head olive-brown ; lores, 
ear-coverts and under the eye grey-brown ; chin and throat white 
surrounded with black, lower plumage fulvous-olive, albescent on 
the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill dark homy-brown, 
paler at base but all black in breeding-season : legs and feet 
fleshy-white. 

Measurements. Total length about 125 mm. ; wing GO to 
65 mm. ; tail 45 lo 50 mm. ; tarsus about 23 mm. ; oilmen about 
10 mm. 




Fig. 35. — Bill of A. m. monile/jer. 

Nestling olive-brown, with an ill-defined white throat and 
with fulvous streaks on the upper plumage and fulvous edges 
to the wing-feathers. 

Distribution. Sikkim and hills of Northern Assam. 

Nidification. Two nests of this species were taken by Mandelli 
at Lebong at an elevation of 5,S0O feet in May and June. The 
nests were made of grass mixed with dried moss and in one case 
coated with skeleton-leaves. They were cup-shaped and placed in 
depressions in a bank amongst grass. Eggs taken by Mandelli 
on the 3rd April have the ground-colour almost pure white and 
they are speckled with brownish red, principally in a zone about 
the larger end and less profusely over the rest of the surface. 
In shape they are broad ovals and they measure about 18'8x 
13-7 mm. 

Habits. Hodgson's White-gorgeted Flycatcher appears to be 
resident between 4,500 and 8,000 feet, descending to 3,000 or 
even 2,000 feet in the Winter. It frequents light forest intersected 
with open grass and bracken-covered patches and does not as 
a rule enter very deep forest. 



ANTHIPES. 24.7 

(670) Anthipes monileger submonileger. 
Hume's Wuite-gokgeted Flycatcher. 

Anthipes subtiwNilii/er Hume, S. F., v., p. 105 (1877) (.Mulevet Mt.) •, 
Hlaiif. & Gates, ii, p. :53. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to the preceding bird hut paler both above 
and below and either entirely wanting the black round the white 
throat or having this less strongly marked. The forehead, lores 
and short supereilia are rich golden-rufous. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in A. m. moniler/er 
hut the bill larger and longer, 11 to 12 mm. 

Distribution. Peninsular Burma and Siam. A fine series 
collected by Air. E. (I. Herbert in Southern Siam have the rufous 
of the head very rich, somewhat approaching A. m. malayana of 
the S. Malay Peninsula in this respect. 

Nidification. Not recorded. 

Habits. Hume's White-gorgeted Flycatcher is found from the 
level of the plains up to some 4,000 feet and is not migratory. 
Apparently it is found most often in light open forest but at 
other times in the deepest and most humid forests. 

(671) Anthipes monileger leucops. 

SiIAHPk's WlIlTK-GOltGKTEI) Ff.YCATCIIEIl. 

JHt/nma leucops Sliarpe, P. /.. S., ll<S8, p. l'40 (Shillong). 
Anthipes leimipt. Blanf. iV Oates, ii, j>. •'53. 

Vernacular names. Inrephttli (Kucha Xaga). 

Description. Differs from A. m. monVcgtr in having the 
forehead and eyebrow white, the lores mixed white and brcwn 
and the sides of the head more grey. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris very dark brown; bill black; legs 
and feet fleshy- white, the claws paler still. 

Measurements. As \\\A. m.inoniUgei-; culmen 11 to 12 mm. 

The Young bird is dark brown on the upper plumage streaked 
with fulvous ; below dull fulvous, the breast mottled with dark 
brown. 

Distribution. Mountains of Assam South of the Brahmaputra, 
Manipur, Lushai, Chin Hills and hills of Central Burma to 
Karenni. 

Nidification. This little Flycatcher breeds in the hills south 
of Assam from the end of April to early June, most eggs being 
laid during the first fortnight of May. The nests are globular, 
roughly put together affairs of grass, bamboo- leaves and a few 
other dead leaves, thickly lined with the finest grass-stems. 



240 MUSCICAPID^E. 

Outwardly the nests average about 6| by 5 inches and inwardly 
about 3| by 21 inches. Most nests are placed actually on the 
ground on a bank, among grass or scrub, but occasionally they are 
placed in bushes two or three feet above it. In these latter cases, 
however, the scrub is always very dense and the nest well hidden. 
The eggs number three or four, rarely live, and are quite unlike 
those of any closely allied genera. The ground-colour varies 
from pure white to pale pink, and they are sparsely speckled 
everywhere and rather more numerously at the larger end with 
pinkish red and reddish brown. In shape they are broad-ovals 
and the texture is fine and close, though they have little gloss. 
Twentv eggs average 18-0 x 13 - mm. and the extremes are 
19-7 X 140, 19-1 x 14 1, 172 X 13-0 and 17-3 x 132 mm. 

The birds breed between 3,000 and 6,000 feet. 

Habits. This is nowhere a very common bird and is so shy 
and retiring in its habits that one sees little of it. It is found 
quite as often in light as in the heavier evergreen forest but it 
is partial to thick scrub or grass undergrowth and feeds close to 
the ground. Its usual perch is one some two to three feet high 
from which it makes little sallies after insects, usually capturing 
these in the air but occasionally taking them on the ground. 
During the breeding-season it has a weak but pleasant little song 
and at the commencement of that season it is rather more 
conspicuous than usual from its courting antics, flying into t lie 
air and then sailing down to its perch with its feathers all fluffed 
out, its head thrown back and its pure white throat with its black 
border visible from a considerable distance. It has a habit, 
like Siphia, of spreading and jerking its tail up and down when 
perched. It is not migratory, though it may move vertically to 
some extent with the seasons. 

Anthipes olivaceus. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. General colour of lower plumage white, more 

or less tinged with buff on breast and flanks. A. u. oliraceim, p. 24ti. 

B. General colour of lower plumage orange- 

buff' A. o. jtofiopent/t, p. 247. 

(672) Anthipes olivaceus olivaceus. 

Hume's IYtoatohkr. 

C'yornis olivaceu Flume, S. I''., v, p. 333 (1877) (extreme S. of 

'.Teimsserim ). 
Anthipet olimceiit. Hlanf. & Gates, ii, p. 34. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Upper plumage greyish brown, tinged with 
fulvous on the back and rump ; lores and sides of the head 
ashy-grey, the shafts of the ear-coverts paler ; tail reddish brown 
tinged with ferruginous; wing-coverts and quills brown edged 



AXTHIPES. 247 

with rufescent olive-brown ; lower plumage whitish, the breast 
and flanks suffused with grey and oehraeeous in varying degree. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill black in summer, dark 
horny-brown in winter in the male; always brown, paler at the 
base, in the female ; legs and feet fleshy-white. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 to 145 mm.; wing 
08 to 75mm. ; tail 58 to CO mm.; tarsus about 18mm.; culmeu 
about 13 mm. 

Distribution. Peninsular Burma and Siam and Malay Peninsula. 
Nidiflcation. Not recorded. 

Habits. Like the better-known ISrooks' Flycatcher, this bird is 
a frequenter of the outskirts or open glades of dense forests, 
feeding much from perches high up in trees and never descending 
to the ground, though sometimes working through scrub and brush- 
wood, ft is found from the level of the plains up to some 4,000 
or 5,000 feet and wherever found is resident. 

(673) Anthipes olivaceus poliogenys. 

Brooks' Fi.ycatcukr. 

Cyornis i»ilu!genya Brooks, S. 1'"., viii, p. 40!) (1870) (Salbaii, Sikkim 

Terni). 
Ant/ii/>es /I'./inf/fiii/s. liliuif. & Oates, ii, p. ;!."!. 

Vernacular names. Ddo-jmtti (Caohari). 

Description. Above similar to Hume's Flycatcher, but generally 
rather duiker; below orange-buff, paler and albescent on the chin 
and pale buff on t he centre of the abdomen, vent and under tail- 
coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. As in Hume's Flycatcher. 

Measurements. Wing 09 to 77 mm. ; eulmen 11-5 to 12-5 mm. 

YounSf. Dark brown striated with pale fulvous above, below- 
deep, dull fulvous, the feathers margined with dark brown. 

Distribution. Sikkim Terai and Bhutan Dooars through the 
lower bills of botli North and Mouth Assam, Manipur, Lushai, 
Chin Hills as far East as Jrrawnddy. 

Nidiflcation. This Flycatcher breeds freely throughout the 
hills of Assam from tho foot-hills of a thousand feet or so up to 
some 5,o00 feet, during the months of April, May and June. 
The nest is cup-shnped atid is made of moss, often mixed with 
grass and leaves, sometime* with no real lining but the moss itself, 
nt others with quite a well-made lining of roots. It is placed 
either on a bank in a hollow or between boulders, or in a hollow 
of a stump or dead tree, but is always well concealed. The eggs 
vary from three to five in number and bear no resemblance to 
those of Brooks' Flycatcher, but are typical Ci/omis eggs in 
appearance. The ground-colour is pale sea-green, pale buff or 
stone-colour, and the markings consist of tiny but profuse freckles 
of reddish brown which sometimes cover practically the whole 



248 MTTSCICAPIM. 

surface, whilst at other times they are somewhat less numerous at 
the smaller end, though they never form rings and very seldom 
caps. The average of 40 eggs is 18-f>xi4-<> mm.: maxima 
204 x 15-3 and 19-3 X 160 mm. ; minima 168 x 13*4 mm. 

Habits. This Flycatcher is resident from the foot-hills and plains 
in their immediate vicinity to about 3,000 feet and less often up 
to some i,000 feet higher. They keep much to forest in the breeding- 
season, though they prefer the more open parts of these, feeding 
from some height up in trees and also visiting scrub and 
lower bushes when there is anythiug special to tempt them. In 
the Winter they frequent more opeu country and will uvtin enter 
compounds or scrub in the vicinity of villages. The song is sweet, 
though rather weak and broken. 

Genus ALSEONAX. 
Alseonax Cabauis, Mus. Hein., Tli. i, p. 52 (1830). 
Type, A. adusta (Boie). South Africa. 

The genus Alseonax is very closely allied to Anth'ipex, but has a. 
very small first primary. The sexes are alike and both are dull- 
coloured rufous or brown birds. 

Oberholser, I'roc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxviii, p. »10, 190.5, divides 
Alteonax into two genera, placing latirostris in a genus which he 
calls Arizelomyin. In so small a genus the division seems to be 
unnecessary and I retain all our Indian birds under Alseonax. 

Some of the Indian species are migratory and one {latirostris) 
resident or only locally migratory. 

Key to Species. 

A. Whole upper plumage, including upper tail- 

coverls, ashy-brown A. latirostris, p. 248. 

B. Upper plumage olive-brown, the upper tnil- 

coverts chestnut-brown A. ruficaudus, p. 250. 

C. Upper plumage ruddy-brown, upper tail- 

coverts ferruginous; tail brown, suffused 
with rufous on the outer edges of the tail- 
feathers only A. muttui, p. 251. 

Alseonax latirostris. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Brown ; ashy tinge very slight A. I. latirostris, p. 248. 

B. Ashy-grey, the grey tinge very pronounced. A. I. )k>onemis, p. 249. 

(674) Alseonax latirostris latirostris. 

The Scmatuan Brown Flycatcukr. 

Muscicapa latirostris Raffl., Trans. L. S., xiii, p. #12 (1821)(Sum:itra). 
Alseonax latirostris. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. .'35. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



AL8EONAX. 249 

Description. Above brown, in some cases with a slightly ashy 
tinge; feathers or! crown centred darker; tail, wing-quills and 
greater coverts dark brown edged with rufescent or rufescent- 
wliite ; lores and a ring round the eye dull white ; sides of the head 
brown; lower plumage dull white; the breast, throat and flanks 
streaked and mottled with ashy-brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; bill black, the base paler, 
more conspicuously so in winter, mouth orange ; legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Length about 1H0 mm.; wing 05 to 70 mm.; 
tail 47 to 52 mm. ; tarsus about, l."> mm.; ciilmen about 11 mm. 

Young. Crown dark brown streaked with fulvous ; upper 
plumage and wing-feathers with bold fulvous spots ; lower 
plumage more distinctly mottled with dark brown. The bill is 



v 



ellowish horny. 




Fig. 36.- Bill of A. I. latirostris. 

Distribution. Borneo, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Burma, 
Siam and Annum. Probably also extending into Yunnan and 
Western China, but not Assam, where the birds are all of the next, 
form. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded, but they probably 
do not differ from those of the next and better-knowu race. 

(675) Alseonax latirostris poonensis. 

The Indian Brown Flycatcher. 

Muicicnpa jmimenxin Sykes, 1'. '/.. S., 1S.S2. p. K r > (Poomt). 
Alseoiiu.r latirtmtri*. lilanf. .t Outes, ii, p. :55 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Zal-h-i (Hindi). 

Description. Similar to the preceding bird but very much more 
grey both above and below. This is the "ashy-grey" bird as 
described by Oates. 

Colours of soft parts as in A. 1. latirostris. 

Measurements. Wing 69 to 80 mm. C Japan to Himalayas), 
6(i to 72 mm. (birds from the plains of India). 

Distribution. Breeding from Japan to Lake Baikal and through- 
out the sub-JItmabiyas and Himalayas and also in the plains of the 
Central Provinces, United Provinces and the Western Ghats to 
South Travancore and probably in Ceylon, where it has been 
recorded in June. 



250 muscicamd*:. 

Nidification. This bird is probably resident: and breeds, when- 
ever found, from Japan, Northern China, the Himalayas to the 
plains of India. Nests were taken in Dagsliai by Capt. K. A. 
Skinner, in Kanaro by Mr. J. Davidson, in Mliow and the 
adjacent Ghats by Mr. U. Shelley, Air. F. E. Kemp, (Sent. K. 
Bethaui and others. The nest is a rather large compact cup made 
of moss and lichen and lined with roots, fibres and feathers. It 
is generally placed on a horizontal bough at its junction with the 
trunk but, also, often well away from the latter. The height 
selected may be anything from five to thirty feet from the ground. 

The breeding-season everywhere seems to be May and June. 

The eggs are like small Cgornis eggs; the ground-colour is a 
pale stone, sometimes tinged with red, sometimes with green and 
the markings consist, of the finest freckles of reddish, generally 
covering practically the whole surface of the egg, at other times 
leaving part of the smaller end visible. Fifty eggs average 
F7-0 x l.'* - :.' mm.: maxima 19-2xl4 - mm.; minima 15 - 0xl^ - 4 
and 16-itxl2-3 mm. 

Habits. This Flycatcher is a bird of the more secluded well- 
wooded country, especially where it is broken and rugged and is 
apparently not found in the more open level country. It is a very 
quiet little bird, singing an insignificant Utile song and more often 
uttering a >oft vibrant chvrt: It feeds entirely on the wing and 
does not venture on to the ground to capture its insect-food. 
According to Scully, it is a sociable bird in winter, consorting with, 
but also lighting with, others of its kind. 



(ft~(>) Alseonax ruficaudus. 
The Rufous-tailed Fltcatchku. 

Mwtcicapa rvjicauda Swains., Nat. Lib., x, p. iiol (1S.'}8) (Tndia, 

restricted to Kashmir). 
Aheona.v ritjicaitdux. Blanf. & Oh teg, ii, p. -Hi. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Whole upper plumage, sides of neck and wing- 
coverts dull olive-brown ; greater coverts, primary coverts and 
wine-quills dark brown edged with rufescent olive-yellow : tail- 
coverts and tail chestnut, browner at the end ; lores and a ring 
round the eye white; ear-coverts ashy-brown with pale shaft- 
stripes; below pale ashy-brown ; almost white on vent, centre of 
abdomen and under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; upper mandible pale 
brown, lower mandible fleshy ; legs and feet purplish brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 130 mm. ; wing 72 to 
81 mm,; tail 58 to 64 mm. ; tarsus about 15 nun. ; culmen 11 to 
12 mm. 

Young. Brown above spotted with fulvous, more streaky on the 



ALSEONAX. 251 

head ; below pale ashy-brown mottled with dark brown. The 
feathers of the back have dark margins. 

Distribution. N. W. Himalay w from Baluchistan, Afghanistan 
and Gilgit To the Simla Hills and Garhwai. In "Winter it wanders 
far and is found all over North-West and Western India to 
Travaneore. To the East it has been recorded from Baipur, and 
I twice obtained specimens of this species, both males, in the 
North Cachar Hills. 

Nidiftcation. The Bufous-tailed Flycatcher breeds very com- 
monly between 7.0U0 and 10,000 ft. in Kashmir during the end of 
May and June, making a compact, well-built, cup-shaped nest, of 
moss and lichen, lined with hair or feathers, or with both, placed on 
a branch of a pine or other tree some the to fifteen feet from the 
ground. The 'eggs number three or tour and in colour are a very 
pale sea-green or olive-green profusely freckled all over with 
reddish ; many eggs appear to be a uniform reddish olive or olive- 
green but in some the freckles form a cap at the larger eyd. 
Forty eggs average 17"2xl2' s mm.: maxima 19'lxl3o and 
18-0 x 13-6 mm. ; minima 156 x \'J-U and 15-7 x 12-1 mm. 

Habits. This is a shy retiring Flycatcher, keeping almost 
entirely to forested country. It seems to have no song worthy of 
the name, its principal note being a call-note of a single syllable 
followed by a low vibratory sound. Jt is very restless and active 
and keeps rather high up in the trees when feeding, making its 
sallies from n branch at some height and seldom, if ever, descending 
to the ground. According to Mr. Osmuston, it lias a Chat-like 
habit ot flicking its wings and bobbing forward. 



(677) Alseonax muttui. 

Lay urn's Flycatcher. 

Butali* muttui Layard, A.M.N. II., (!') xiii, p. 127 (1851) (Ceylon). 
Alteona.r muttui. Hlanf. & Oatts, ii, p. .'50. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Crown dark olive-brow n shading into ruddy-brown 
on the back and upper plumage, the feathers of the head faintly 
centred darker; upper tail-coverts and tail ferruginous; quills 
dark brown, the inner secondaries edged with ferruginous ; lores 
and ring round the eye white; a line from the corner of the bill 
to under the eye dark brown and often a trace of a .second line 
from below the bill ; between these two lines, chin and throat 
white; ear-coverts olive- brown ; breast and flanks olive-brown 
with a chestnut tinge; abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts white 
suffused with chestnut; under wing-coverts pinkish grey. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black with a tiny pale 
tip and the lower mandible yellowish ; legs and feet fleshy-yellow 
or wax-yellow. 



252 musoicapidjE. 

Measurements. Wing 70 to 75 mm. ; tail 54 to 04 mm. ; tarsus 
about 13 to 13-5 mm. ; eulmen about 13 to 14 mm. 

Young. Above brown, spotted with fulvoifs and with obscure 
dark margins to the feathers of the back and innermost second- 
aries ; below the breast is rufous, the feathers boldly edged with 
black. 

Distribution. Resident above 4,000 feet in Sikkim, Bhutan and 
the hills of Assam, both North and South of the Brahmaputra. It, 
is found both Summer and Winter between 4,000 and 6,000 feet 
but in the latter season some birds migrate south to Travancore 
and Ceylon. Brooks observed it at, Madhapur in Bengal and it is 
not rare in Winter in that Province and in the plains of Assam 
but its Winter movements are still very imperfectly known. It 
■will most probably be found to be resident and to breed overmuch 
of its supposed Winter habitat, where there are mountains of 
sufficient height. 

Nidification. Layard's Flycatcher breeds in Sikkim and the 
Assam Hills in May and Juno, making a very compact and beauti- 
fully put together small cup nest of green moss lined with roots 
and hair. This it places either iu a hollow in n tree, or bank, or 
in a tangle of creepers, raspberry-vines, or similar thick cover. 
The eggs three to five in number are typical little Cyornis eggs, 
the general shade of colour being perhaps rather more grey-green 
than olive-green. They measure about 17 - 0x 13 - l2 mm. 

Habits. Except that it is a much more ratiring and secretive 
bird than any of those of the genus Siphin, it greatly reminds one 
of them iu its ways. As a rule, it selects a perch on one ol 
the lower branches of a tree in heavy forest, where it sits motion- 
less, every now and then launching itself into the air after some 
passing insect, often capturing those of considerable size. In the 
breeding-season it ofteu gives vent to a soft low note, at the same 
time puffing out its feathers and rapidly vibrating its half-opened 
wings. At the same season it has a pleasant, but rather feeble, 
little song, very seldom uttered, [r does not seem to mind 
observation and I have often watched one, half an hour at a time, 
from a distance of not more than four or live yards. 

Genus 0CHR0MELA. 
. Ochromela Blyth, J. A.S. B., xvi, p. 128 (1S47). 
Type, 0. nigrorufa Jerdon. Nilgiris. 

The genus Ochromtila contains a single species of Flycatcher 
remarkable for its coloration. 

In this genus the sexes are slightly dissimilar, though both 
preserve the characteristic black and orange plumage. The bill is 
blunt and thick, and the rictal bristles are numerous and very long ; 
the wing is rounded, the first primary being longer than half the 
second ; the tail is considerably rounded. 



OCHROMELA. 263 

(678) Ochromela nigrorufa. 
The Black-axu-Ouakgb Fltcatcheb. 

Saxieotunigrorufa Jerd., Mailr. Jour. L. S., x, p. 286 (1839) (Nilgiris). 
Ochromela nigrorufa. IMiinf. & Oates, ii, j>. .'!7. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Whole of the upper parts of the head and the 
wings black, the lesser coverts and innermost secondaries edged 
with orange ; remainder of plumage rich orange, paler on the 
abdomen, richest on the upper breast. 

Colours of the soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black: legs 
fleshy -plumbeous. 

Measurements. Total length about 125 mm.; wing 57 to 
65 nun. ; tail 50 to 55 mm. ; tarsus about 20 to 21 mm. ; culmen 
about 9'5 to 10 inn>. 

Female. Similar to the male, but the black of the head replaced 
by dark olive-brown and the black of the wings with dark brown. 

Measurements. Winy; 55 to 59 mm. 




Fig. 37.— Bill of O. nigrorufa. 

Distribution. The hill-ranges of South India from Cape 
Cormorin to the Wvnaad al 2,500 feet upwards. Neither Col. 
McMaster's record of its occurrence in the Berars or Mr. Mitfortl's 
in regard to Ceylon have ever been confirmed. It is very common 
in the Nilgiri, 1'alni and Travancore Hill>. 

Nidiftcatiou. This strikingly Coloured little .Flycatcher makes a 
nest not unlike that of Antliqies monilegtr, a hall of leaves and 
fern-fronds with no lining, except sometimes a little grass, which 
it places low down in some dense bush, cluster of reeds, femis or 
cane. Sometimes it is built on a bank actually on the ground and 
occasionally in a thick mass of twigs growing from a tree-stump. 
The site selected is always deep forest, generally in the \ alleys or 
ravines covered with evergreen forest through which a stream 
of some, kind finds its way. The eggs, almost always two only in 
number, lire rather like those of Afseonaj?, Cyornis, etc., and not 
like the eggs of Anthipes monileger. The ground-colour is greyish 
or greenish white, and the markings consist of freckles and tinv 
specks of reddish, generally most numerous at the larger end, 
where they coalesce to form a cap. In shape the eggs are unusually 
long ovals. 20 eggs average 18-1 x 131 mm. and the extremes are 



254 mijscicapidjs. 

19-2 x 13-2, 1 8-9 x 13-4 and 178 x 130 mm. The breeding-season 
is during April and May. 

Habits. In Summer this Flycatcher is found from about 3,000 
feet to the tons of the Nilgiris and other hills, wherever there is 
sufficient tree-forest deep and shady enough to satisfy its require- 
ments. It feeds from a branch at no great height from the 
ground and is said to descend to it sometimes for the purpose of 
capturing insects. Its note or song does not appear to have been 
described. 



Genus CULICICAPA. 

Culicicapa Swinhoe, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 381. 
Type, ('. ceylonensis. 

The genus Culicicapa contains one species of Flycatcher with a 
very wide distribution, from Ceylon to West China and Borneo 
etc. Probably resident throughout this area in the hills and 
wandoring into the plains locally in India. 

In this genus the sexeN are alike and the plumage is grey and 
yellow. The bill is very much depressed and when viewed from 
above is almost an equilateral triangle, the sides being but little 
longer than the base ; the rietal bristles aro very numerous and 
long, the first primary is short and the tail is square. 

Key to Suhspecies. 

A. Above blight yellowish green, with well- 

marked brighter and more yellow upper 

tail-coverts C. c. ceylonensis, p. 2o4. 

B. Above rather darker yellowish green, with 

no marked increase of yellow on the 

tail-coverts C. c. orientalis, p. 2o6. 

C. Above much dBrker, more green, less 

yellow ; back and upper tail-coverts 

practically concolorous C. c. meridional is, p. 250. 

(679) Culicicapa ceylonensis ceylonensis. 

The Ghey-headed Flycatcher. 

Flatyrhynchus ceylonensis Swains., Zool. 111., i, p. 13 (1820-1) 

(Ceylon). 
Culicicapa ceylonensis, Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 38. 

Vernacular names. Zird-phutki (Beng.). 

Description. Whole head, neck and breast ashy-grey, darker 
and centred with brown on the crown, paler in the centre of 
throat and breast; above bright yellowish green, the rump 
brighter and almost pure yellow ; wing-coverts like the back ; 
quills dark brown, all but the first two primaries narrowly, the 



CUX1CICAPA. 255 

secondaries broadly edged with yellow ; tail brown, the rectrices 
edged with greenish yellow ; under plumage bright yellow. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown ; bill above black, 
below horny-brown, paler still at gape and base ; legs yellowish 
brown or fleshy. 

Measurements. Wing 58 to 07 mm.; tail 41 to 52 mm.; tarsus 
about 13 to 14 mm. ; culmen about 7-5 to 8 mm. 

Young. Not yet described. 

Distribution. Ceylon, the whole of India (except Sind, the 
Punjab and Kajputana), North Burma, Central Burma and 
Northern SSiain. 

Nidiflcation. The Grey-headed Flycatcher breeds during the 
months of April, May and June between 3,000 and 8,000 feet over 
the whole ot its range but generally, more especially in Southern, 
Western and North-Western India between 3,500 and 0,000 feet. 
In Assam it breeds freely at about 1,000 feet in the northern 
foot-hills and down to 2,500 feet in the southern hills and 
Manipur. It makes a charming little nest of bright green moss 




Fig. 38. — I3ill of C. etylonensis. 

and lichen, shaped like half a cone or half a hemisphere, and placed 
against a mow-covered trunk of tree or rock, in among the living 
moss and lichen, from which it is practically impossible to 
discriminate it. The eggs number three or four and are tiny, 
broad, blunt, little ovals with a ground-colour varying from dead 
white to a pale dull yellowish or, rarely, greenish white ; the 
markings consist, of grey and yellowish-grey blotches and- spots, 
generally disposed in a dense ring round the larger end and sparse 
elsewhere. One hundred eggs average 15*1x11*96 mm.; and 
the maxima and minima are 17*5 X 121 and 15*1 x 12*6 nun.; 
13-9x11*8 and 148 x 11*4 mm. 

Habits. The Grey-headed Flycatcher is a resident bird in the 
hill-country, ascending a lift le higher in the Summer and descending 
lower in the Winter, when it spreads to the adjacent plains. It. is 
a forest -bird, though preferring open to deep forest and is a 
lively cheerful little bird flitting backwards and forwards after 
insects, sometimes descending to the ground for this purpose and 
often hunting among the leaves and moss for spiders etc., much 
after the manner of a Titmouse. It has a sweet little song and is 
less silent than the birds of the genera AUeonax, Hemiohelidon 
and Siphla. 



256- MU8CI0AP1D.B, 

(680) Culicicapa ceylonensis orientalis. 

The Ciusesk Grey-headed Flycatcher. 

Culicicapa cciilonensis orieutalis Stuart Baker, Bull. B. 0. C, xliv. 

p. 11 (1923) (Saechtian). 
Culicicapa ceylonensis (part.). Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 38. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Decidedly darker above than in 0. c. cei/lonensis, 
with a darker grey head and less yellow on the rump and upper 
tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. About the same as in the preceding bird. 

Distribution. The hills of South and Cent ml AVestern China, 
Yunnan, Shan States, Northern Siam and North Cochin China. 

Nidincation. Not recorded. 

Habits. According to La Touche, the habits of this race do not 
differ from those of the Indian bird. 

(6S1) Culicicapa ceylonensis meridionalis. 

The Malayan Grey-headed Fi.ycatohek. 

Culicicapa cei/lonensis meridionalis Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O C xliv 
p. 12 (182:5) (Keotung Song, Siam). ' '' 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. A much darker bird than either of the preceding 
races, the rump and upper tail-coverts practically concolorous with 
the darker green back; the throat and breast a decidedly darker grey. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding races. 

Measurements. Wing 55 to 04 mm. 

Distribution. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Malay IVniriMilu Penin- 
sular Burma and Siam : South Annain, and South Cochin' China. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

Genus NILTAVA. 
Niltara Hodg*., [nd. Rev., i, p. 050 (183/). 
Type, Siltava gundura Jlodgs. 

The genus Sit lava contains three species of Flycatcher remarkable 
for the brilliant plumage of the males. The sexes differ in colour, 
but both may be recognized by the presence of a brilliant blue' 
spot on either side of the neck. Cyornti oateti and ('. sumatmisig, 
though rather similarly coloured as regards the males, have females 
without any blue neck-spot. 

In Siltava the bill is rather narrow and somewhat compressed 
laterally and the base is covered by numerous dense plumelets 
almost concealing the nostrils ; the rictal bristles are moderate in 
length and number; the first primary is large, being at least half 
the length of the second ; the toil is slightly rounded. 



NIDXAVA. 257 

Key to Specie*. 

A. Wing always over 05 mm N. grandis, p. 267. 

B. Wing always under 90 mm. 

a. Under wing-coverts and axillaries chest- 
nut or buff ; wing over 75 mm N. sundara, p. 259. 

/>. Under wing-coverts and axillaris white 

or ashy-white ; wing under 70 nun. . . 2V. macgrigorim, p. 260. 

Niltava grandis. 

Keg to Subspecies. 

A. Heads of females indistinctly washed with 

bluish grey N. g. grandis, p. 257. 

H. lleitd.s of females distinctly washed with blue N. g. decipiens, p. 258. 

(OS^) Niltava grandis grandis. 

The L/VTJOe Niltava. 

ChaUaris grandis Myth, J. A. S. U., xi, p. 189 (1842) (Darjiling). 
Niltava grandis. Hlanf. & Oates, ii, p. 40. 

Vernacular names. Margong (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Crown ; rump, upper tail-coverts, 
lesser and median wing-coverts and a patch on either side of the 




Fig. y'J. — Bill of N. grandis. 

neck brilliant cobalt-blue; back and scapulars dark purplish blue; 
tail black, the centra! feathers and edges of the lateral feathers 
purple-blue, brighter than the back ; greater coverts and wing- 
quills black, edged with the same blue as the buck ; lores, forehead 
and sides of the head, chin, throat and upper breast black changing 
to blue-black on lower breast and flanks and to bluish-ashy on the 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts, the latter edged with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel lo deep brown; bill black; legs 
and feet deep horny-brown to black. 

Measurements. Total length about 205 to 215 mm. ; wing 99 
to 106 mm. ; tail 155 to 70 mm. ; tarsus about 23 to 24 mm. : 
oilmen about 15 mm. 

Young male moults from the nestling- plumage into that of the 
adult but is at first duller and less blue. 

vol. it. s 



268 MUBOICATIDvE. 

Female. Lores, forehead and round the eye, ear-coverts and 
cheeks fulvous with pale shafts; on the crown this grades into 
olive-brown and on the posterior crown and nape into bluish ashy- 
brown ; back, rump and upper tail-coverts fulvous-brown ; tail 
and wing-quills brown, the centrnl tail-feathers and edges of 
lateral ones and of the wing-quills deep rufous ; a patch of bright 
blue on either side of the neck ; middle of chin, throat and upper 
breast, clear pale buff; remainder of lower plumage rich olive- 
brown, the sides of the chin mottled with darker and pale-shafted ; 
axillaries and under wing-coverts huff. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill dark horny-brown ; legs 
and feet fleshy-pink to light brown. 

Measurements. Wing 97 to 10<S mm. 

Nestling. Above dark brown with fulvous spots, becoming 
almost chestnut on the back, and with black edges to the feathers ; 
below chestnut-brown, richest on the breast and squamated with 
black. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Manipur, Chin 
Hills. 

Nidification. The Large Niltava breeds during the last week in 
April, in May, June and early July between 3,000 and 7,000 feet, 
making a cup-shaped nest of moss lined with very fine roots. 
Inwardly the cup measures about 3\ to 4 inches in diameter by 
about half that in depth, outwardly it generally fits the hollow in 
which it is placed, often being very bulky. It may be placed in 
almost any kind of hollow in bank, rock or old tree. The eggs 
are in ground-colour a cream or yellow clay, but they are so densely 
covered with fine freckles of pinkish brown that they look 
unicoloured buffy or pinky brown; more obviously spotted eggs 
are not, however, rare and some eggs are very pale. Four are 
nearly always laid. One hundred eggs average 24-3x 17'3 mm., 
and the extremes are : maxima 26*1 x 18 - and 123-0 x 190 mm. ; 
minima 204 x 170 and 210x 16 mm. 

Habits. This beautiful Flycatcher is very common between 
3,000 and 5,000 feet in the bills of South Assam, less so in the 
Northern Himalayas. It is resident wherever found but wanders 
into the foot-hills in Winter. It is not shy hut keeps much to 
undergrowth and the lower trees in thick forest and feeds quite a 
lot on the ground. It is said to eat berries as well as insects but 
the numbers I have examined had fed entirely on insects, except 
for some tiny berries evidently eaten with the insects infesting 
them. 

(6&3) Niltava grandis decipiens. 

The Malay Laeob Niltava. 

Niltava t/randit decipiens Ilartert, Nov. Zool., ix, p. ~>~>l (1002) 
(Sumatra). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



NILTAVA. 259 

Description. — Adult mile. Almost indistinguishable from N. <j. 
grandis but is smaller with the blue of the head and rump rather 
brighter. 

Colours of soft parts as in the last bird. 

Measurements. Wing 94 to 103 nun., generally under 98 mm. 

Female similar to that of JS T . </. grandis, but with the crown and 
nape strongly washed with blue, though never bright blue as in 
iV. g. decorata of Robinson and Kloss (Annam). 

Young and Nestling. Similar to those of the Indian Large 
Niltava. 

Distribution. Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. 

With some hesitation 1 place two females from Muleyit 
with this race. In colour, as ilortert points out, they agree with 
the Humatrau birds hut they have wings of 09 and 101 mm. 
respectively, rather large for this race, though one male from 
Sumatra has a wing of no less than 103 mm. 

Habits and Nidification. Nothing recorded. 

(084) Niltava sundara sundara. 

Tub In in ak Rufous-tikllied Niltava. 

Xiltaca xumbira Hod-js., Iml. Hov., i, p. 6">0 (1837) (Nepal) ; Blanf. 
&Oates, ii, p. 41. 

Vernacular names. Niltava (Nep.); Margowj (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male, frown, nape, rump, upper tail- 
coverts and lesser and median wing-coterts bright cobalt-blue: 
a patch on the side of the neck a paler, even brighter blue ; tail 
black, the central feathers and edges of lateral tail-feathers like 
the rump ; back, scapulars and edges of greater wing-coverts and 
<|iiills deep purplish blue ; forehead, lores, sides of head, chin and 
throat black with deep blue reflections ; remainder of lower 
plumage and under wing-coverts bright orange-chestnut. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill black ; legs dark horny- 
brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 1 00 to 170 mm.; wing 
SO to SO mm. ; tail 0;"> to 75 mm. ; tarsus about 20 mm. ; eulmen 
about 10 to 11 mm. (the feathers of the forehead are very thick 
and well cover the base of the eulmen). 

Female. Forehead, lores and a ring round the eye fulvous : 
whole upper plumage fulvous olive-brown, greyish on the crown, 
more fulvous on the rum]) and chestnut on the longest 
tail-feathers; tail chestnut; wing-feathers brown edged with 
chestnut- rufous ; a brilliant patch of blue on either side of the neck ; 
a large round patch of white or fulvous- white below the throat; 
point of chin and sides of chin fulvous; centre of chin and 
remainder of lower plumage rich olive-brown, paler and tinged 
with buff on the abdomen and under tail-coverts. 

8 2 



, 260 lincickBiox. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male but bill a bony-black. 
Measurements. Wing 7(5 to 81 mm. 

Nestling. Brown above with fulvous-rufous spots; below 
ochraceous- brown, squamated with blackish brown. 

Xillava mndnni davidi from Fohki'en is a larger bird, wing 88 
to 93 mm.; At. a. denotata from S.E. I'minan is easily separable 
from the other races by its pale under plumage. 

Distribution. Himalayas from Simla to the extreme East of 
Assam, South to Manipiir, Lushai, Chin and Kaehiu Hills, hills 
of Central Burma to Tenasserim ; IVninsular Siam, Northern 
Siam, probably Shan States and Szeelman in Western China. 

Nidification. Quite similar in all respects to that of JV. r/iuitdis 
grandis, though the nest is smaller and is generally placed in 
clefts in rocks or in between boulders. It breeds from the end of 
April to early .Inly and I have taken nests, probably second broods, 
in August. The eggs only differ from these of A', ijrundis in 
being smaller and in being more often definitely speckled or 
blotched. One hundred eggs average 2l - Ixl.V8 mm.: maxima 
22-lxlfi-O and 21-9x16-1 mm.; minima 19-7x15-1 and 
200x1-46 mm. 

Habits. Very common in the Kbasia Hills, much less so in 
the other ranges South and North of the Brahmaputra. It is 
found principally between 3,500 and 6,000 feet, wandering 
higher in Summer and right into the foot-bills in Winter. Like 
the preceding bird, it keeps much to low jungle and shuns 
observation, though it is not really shy. It is a beautiful singer, 
as are all the Niltavas. 



(685) Niltava macgrigoriae. 

Tub Small Niltava. 

Phamicura macijriyoria: Burton, P. '/.. S., 183o, p. 1.12 (Himalayas). 
Niltava macgritfuria. lilanf. »t Oates, ii, p. 42. 

Vernacular names. Pfiat-tugral--i>hi> (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, lores and around the eye 
black ; posterior forehead, sides of crown, rump and upper tail- 
coverts and a patch on either side of the neck brilliant cobalt -blue ; 
remainder of upper plumage and exposed parts of wings and tail 
deep but bright, purple-blue ; quills and greater wing-coverts 
brown narrowly edged with purple-blue; chin, throat, sides of 
neck and upper breast deep purple-blue, shading to ashy-grey on 
the lower breast and to pale ashy on the abdomen, Hanks and 
under tail-coverts ; asillaries and under wing-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright hazel to deep brown ; bill 
black ; legs and feet horny-brown to reddish black (Jerdon). 

Measurements. Total length about 125 to 130 mm.; wing 03 to 



PlIII.EK'fOMl. 261 

67 mm. ; tail 54 to 58 mm. ; tarsus about 15 intn. ; oilmen about 
8-5 to K mm. 

Female. Upper plumage fulvous olive-brown, tinged with 
rufous on the back and more strongly so on rump and upper tail- 
coverts ; wings and tail brown, edged with rufous and the central 
rectrices wholly of this colour; a spot of brilliant blue on either 
side of the neck ; lower plumage ochraceous ashy, paling on 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; chin paler and more rufous ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries pure white. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male but bill more horny-black. 

Measurements. Wing 00 to (i5 mm. 

Nestling. Above dark brown, each feather with abroad central 
streak of rufous ; below dull rufous-brown, the feathers of the 
breast edged dark brown. 

Distribution. Himalayas, Mussoorieto Eastern Assam, Manipur, 
Chin and Kachin Hills, hills of Central Burma to Tenasserim ; 
Shan States, Siam. 

Nidiftcation. The Small Xiltava breeds between 4,000 and 7,000 
feet, rarely down to ;5,000 feet, in April, May and June. The 
nest is a small replica of those of A", i/randis and A r . sundara, and 
is generally placed in hollows between rocks and boulders so 
common in all the broken forest-land in the hills. Occasionally 
it is placed in a bank or in a hole in tree or stump and the site 
selected is frequently near a tiny stream. The eggs are nearly 
always four in number, as with all Niltavas, but they are not so 
unicoloured or so pink or red in general tone as those of the. 
others. Most egys are well blotched over the whole surface 
with dull reddish, but in many specimens the markings form a 
ring or cap at the larger end and in others the ground-colour 
is very pale and shows up well everywhere. One hundred eggs 
average ISlxKiO mm.: maxima 191xl4-l and 1S-0x14 - 2; 
minima 160 X 131 and 190x12-9 mm. 

Habits. This is a much more sprightly, active little bird than 
either of the other species of A'i7?<o</, feeding almost entirely on 
the wing, not venturing on to the ground and frequenting open 
places such as rivers and forest -glades. Its sweet little jerky 
song is often uttered, especially in the mornings and evenings 
and it is vorv crepuscular in its habits. It wanders some distance 
into the plains in Winter. 

Henna PHILENT0MA. 

JViitetdoma Kyton, Ami. N. 11., xvi, p. 229 (1845). 
Type, /'. i>!frrhoj)terum Teinm. 

The genus Philentoma is represented within our limits by two 
species, birds of very peculiar coloration, chiefly indigo-blue with 
certain amount of maroon or chestnut. 

In this genus the sexes are dissimilar, the bill is very large and 



262 Mi'scic.iPiD.*. 

coarse with the base concealed by dense frontal plumelets ; the 
wing is rouuded mid tin* first primary is much longer than half 
the -second ; the tail is square. 

Key to Species. 

A. Wings and tail blue /'• relatum, p. 2(\2. 

R \Yin<i* and tail chestnut /*. /yrrlmptenim, p. -V..'J 

(686) philentoma velatum. 

The Maroo.v-bkkasted Fr.YCATCHKii. 

Unjmopliila velata Temni., PI. Col., No. JM4 ( 1*28) (Timor, Java). 
Philrntoma velatum. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. l.'i. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, a short .superciliuin, 
lores, cheeks and chin black ; throat and breast deep maroon ; 
remainder of plumage including exposed portion of wings and 




Fii». 40. — Bill of /'. velni,,.,,. 

tail indigo-blue; concealed part ol \ving-i|uills and inner uebs of 
reetrices dark brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris lake to crimson; hill black; legs 
and leet bluish or purplish black (Utitue mid Davison). 

Measurements. Total length about 175 mm.; wing l)',i to 
lOOmin. ; tail 74 to 84 mm.; tarsus about IS nun,; ciilmen 14 
to 16 mm. 

Female. All indigo-blue, the sides of the head, chin, throat, 
and upper breast blackish and the white bases and feathers of the 
vent and abdomen showing through. 

Colours of soft parts as in male hut bill horny brown and feet, 
usually paler than in the male. 

Measurements. Wing 87 to 97 mm. 

Toung bird. The only young bird in the British Museum 
collection is in a transition-stage from an almost entirely chestnut 
to a blue adult plumage. There are indications of barring on 
the upper plumage and the wing-feathers appear to have been 
brown boldly tipped or barred with chestnut. 



FH1LESTOMV. , 263 

Distribution. Peninsular Burma and Siam, from Tenasserim 
South to Sumatra, Java and Borneo. 

Nidiflcation. Unknown. 

Habits. This Flycatcher is quite typical in all its ways, only 
catching its prey on the wing anil never descending to the ground. 
It keeps entirely to the interior of evergreen forest and is 
generally found in pairs. According to Davison, they are neither 
shy nor warv and ha\e a very harsh call similar to that of the 
genu* Ih/polJiymis. 

(«S7) Philentoma pyrrhopterum. 

The Chestnut-winged Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa pyrrhoptera Ti'inm. l'l. Col., No. o9G (1823) (Borneo). 
l'hilentomn pyrrhnptcrttm. Want'. & Otites, ii, p. 43. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Whole head, neck, upper back and 
lesser wing-coverts indigo-blue, shading into rut'ous-grey on the 
lower hack and rump ; upper tail-coverts, outer parts of scapulars, 
greatpr coverts and \isible portions of secondaries chestnut; 
primary coverts blackish edged with blue; primaries dark browD, 
all hut the two outermost edged with chestnut-brown; lower 
plumage from breast pale buff, almost white on the abdomen 
and suffused with grey on the lower breast and flanks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris crimson : bill black ; legs and feet 
purplish blue. 

Measurements. Total length about 175 mm. ; wing 71' to 
86 mm.; tail <!S to 78 mm.; tarsus 15 mm.; culmen 14*5 
to 15\ r > nun. 

Female. The blue of the upper parts replaced by earthy-brown, 
shaded with bluish on the crown ; below the blue is replaced by 
rufous-buff, darkest on the breast anil albescent on the abdomen 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dull red; upper mandible pale horny- 
brown, lower mandible flesh-colour ; legs and feet plumbeous- 
olive. 

Nestling mid Young unknown. 

Distribution. Peninsular Burma and Siam, throughout the 
Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. Also Cochin China. 

Birds from Siam and Burma are, on the whole, paler below than 
are those from Borneo and Sumatra but there is no other 
difference in colour or measurement* and they hardly constitute 
a separable race. 

Nidiflcation unknown, 

Habits. Similar to those of the preceding bird. They are 
resident birds wherever found and are restricted to the plains or 
the foot-hills of the higher ranges. 



264 muscic.vpidj:. 

Genus TERPSIPHONE. 

Terpsiphone Gloger, in Froiiep's Notiz., xvi, p. 278 (1827). 
Typo, T. parodist. 

In the genus Terpsiphone the young are less definitely barred 
or spotted than those of most Flycatchers, otherwise the typical 
characteristics are developed to a greater extent than in any 
other genus. 

The bill is very large, depressed and swollen at the base, whilst 
the rictal bristles are long, coarse and numerous. The tarsus is 
short but fairly stout, the head is crested and the tail long and 
graduated, with the central pair of rectrices greatly lengthened. 
The sexes are alike at first but are very dissimilar in fully adult 
plumage. 

There is only one species which occurs over the whole of Ceylon, 
India, Burma, Malaya and the Indo-Chinese countries, varying 
considerably in the females and young males, though but slightly 
in the adult males, in different parts of its habitat. 

Terpsiphone paradisi. 

Key to Subspecieg. 

A. Plumage all black and white. 

(i. Crest long and pointed, reaching to 
upper part of back. Black adges to 
feathers and black shaft-lines all very I '/'. p. paradisi, p. 204. 

faint or obsolete I T. p. leucoyasler , p. 268. 

I rf, adult plumage. 

b. Crest short and rounded. Black lines more I T. p. a finis, p. 2(17. 

developed < T. p. nicobarka, p. 209. 

j S , adult plumage. 

B. Plumage nearly all black and chestnut. 

c. Crest long and pointed. 

c'. Chestnut parts rich and dark T. p. paradisi, p. 265. 

<^9 in chestnut stage. 
d'. Chestnut parts paler T, p. leucof/astrr, p. 208. 

(f 2 in chestnut stage. 
tl. Crest short and rounded. 

e'. Chestnut parts rich and dark T. p. afftnix, p. 267. 

3 5 in chestnut stage. 
f. Chestnut upper parts more ashy-brown. T. p. nicobarka, p. 209. 

cf $ in chestnut stage. 

(688) Terpsiphone paradisi paradisi. 

Thb Indian Paradise Flycatcher. 

Mtucicapa paradisi Linn., S. N., 12th ed. p. .'{24 (1700) (India). 
Terpsiphone paradisi. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 40. 

Vernacular names. Shah Bulbul, Hosseini Bulbul, Sultana 
Bulbul, Taklah, Doodhraj (Hind.) ; Tonka pigli pitta (Tel.) ; Wat 
Bunda-lati (Tam.). 



TURFBIPHOKE. 265 

Description.— Adult male. Whole head and neck metallic-blue 
black ; remainder of plumage pure white ; the feathers of the 
back and scapulars have very line black shafts ; the wing-quills 
are black, the primaries and outer secondaries edged on the outer 
webs with white, the inner secondaries nearly all white with 
broad black mesial lines and narrow black edges ; the shafts of 
the tail-feathers are black and there are also black edges 
to the lateral leathers ; the long central tail feathers have 
generally only the basal half of the shaft, black, but the extent of 
the black varies greatly. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright hazel to dark brown ; bill pale 
blue, the tip almost black ; legs and feet dull leaden-blue to 
bright mauve-blue. 

Measurements. Wing 89 to !)9mm.; tail, outer feathers 
lUO to 115 nun.; the long central feathers anything from 350 to 
500 nun. ; tarsus about 16 mm. ; culnieu about 16 to 17 mm. 




Vifi. 41. — Hill of T. p. fxiradifi. 

Male in third year. Head as in adult, the breast grey shading 
into white on the abdomen ; upper plumage, wings and tail rich 
chestnut, the shafts, including those of the long tail-feathers, also 
chestnut. Males breed freely both in this plumage and in the 
next. 

Male in second year. Forehead, crown with rather short crest 
and nape glossy blue-black; hind neck, chin, throat and upper 
breast dark ashy changing to white on the abdomen. The long 
tail-feathers are not fully a>sumed until the second autumn 
moult, though they are generally prolonged some 20 to 60 mm. 
beyond the latpral ones. 

The changes noted above are approximate only. Some 
individuals moult into full adult male plumage at the second 
autumn moult, but this is very exceptional. Most males, even 
after the third moult, retain signs of immaturity such as a red 
feather or two or a suffusion of chestnnt on some of the wiug- or 
tail-feathers. The wholly white plumage is assumed most 
irregularly but the black head sharply defined from the white 
breast is always fully attained at the third moult. 

Female. Similar to the male in its first and second year. The 
female often acquires lengthened central tail-feathers, though 



266 MUSCICAP1D.K. 

these seldom exceed 250 mm. ; the breast, chin and throat are 
always grey. 

Colours of soft parts as in the male but much duller. 

measurements. Wing 82 to 90 mm. ; central tail-feathers 
normally about 10 to 30 mm. longer than the next pair. 

Nestling. Above chestnut, the head darker and brownish ; wing- 
feathers brown edged chestnut; chin, throat and breast brownish 
tinged with chestnut fading to white on belly and posterior 
flanks. The breast shows obsolete pale centres and dark fringes 
to the feathers, as would be expected in a young Flycatcher, but 
there is no spotting to the upper plumage, though there are often 
obsolete dark tips to the leathers, especially on the wing-coverts. 

Distribution. Ceylon and the whole of India including the 
foot-hills of the Himalayas but not the higher hills. The birds 
from Mahabaleshwar are very pale and must, for the present, be 
referred to lexu-ogaster. East this form extends to the Bay of 
Bengal but is replaced in Assam, South of the Brahmaputra, by 
the Burmese form. 1 include Ceylon and Sou'h Travancore in the 
typical race, though specimens from these localities are all very 
richly coloured in the chestnut stages. 

The type-locality as given by Linnams ex Brisson is Cape of 
Good Hope; this is corrected by Stephens in Shaw's 'Zoology,' 
pt. ii, vol. xiii, p. 1 1 1 (1826), to India. This may now be restricted 
to Madras. 

Nidiflcation. The Paradise Flycatcher breeds in Ceylon and 
Travancore in February and March, in South India in March and 
April, and in Northern India in Mav and June. The nest is a 
very neat cup of soft grass, scraps of leaf and moss, all very firmly 
and compactly wound together and bound with spiders' webs 
and often decorated outside with spiders' "es»g-bags," scraps of 
moss and lichen, etc. The lining consists merely of the finest, 
grasses, sometimes mixed with hair. In shape the nest varies 
from a shallow to a very deep cup and it is placed in a vertical 
or upright fork in a small branch of almost any kind of tree, 
generally within six to ten feet from the ground. When, 
however, it is placed in Mango-trees, which form very favourite 
sites in Bengal, the nest may be thirty or even forty feet from 
the ground. It is not very well concealed and the cock-bird, 
which shares in the duties of incubation, is a very conspicuous 
object when sitting. The eggs number threw to five, most often 
four. In ground-colour they vary from the palest cream to a 
fairly rich salmon-pink and they are rather sparsely speckled and 
blotched with bright reddish brown, the markings sometimes 
forming a ring or cap at the. larger end. 

One hundred eggs average 20-2x15-1 mm.: and the extremes 
are: maxima 82-2x15-6 and 21*9 x 160 mm.; minima 190 X 
150 and 20-7x14-2 mm. 

Habits. There is no more beautiful avian sight in India than a 
graceful, long-tailed, white, male Paradise Flycatcher, as it flits 



TfclU'SIPHONE. 267 

backwards unci forwards in the deep green shade of the Mango- 
orchard* it so often haunts. They are tame confiding birds, 
frequenting gardens, open country and the vicinity of villages but 
they are also found in forest-lard, especially deciduous light forests 
such as Sal etc. They feed entirely on the wing, never descending 
to the ground and never searching the foliage for insects as some 
Flycatchers do. Their ordinary flight is rather slow, the long tail 
undulating behind as the bird Hies but they are capable of very 
quick movement when hawking for insects. Their notes are 
normally very harsh and shrill but they sometimes copy the softer 
notes of other birds not unsuccessfully. It is a common bird 
in plains and low hills alike; hut above 3,000 feet its place seems 
to be always taken by the Himalayan Paradise Flycatcher. The 
Paradise Flycatcher is a resident bird wherever found, but moves 
about locally in parts of its habitat, probably on account of food- 
conditions. 

(oii!)) Terpsiphone paradisi affinis. 

Tub Buumksk Paraui.se Flycatcher. 

Tr/titrni nffiiiig Hay, Ulytli, .T.A.S. 1'.., xv, p. 2(»'_' (1S4«) (Malay 

Peninsula and Temisserim). 
Terpsiphone afjiiii*. ltlanf. & Outes, ii, p. 47. 

Vernacular names. l.)ao-ritjah->joplm (C'achari). 

Description. In the fully adult plumage the Burmese Paradise 
Flycatcher differs from the Indian bird only in having a shorter 
more rounded crest, and in having the black shaft-lines and edges 
to the wing- and tail-feathers more developed. 

The young male in the third year appears to moult direct from 
the grey-throated stage into the complete black and white plumage, 
but more material may possibly disprove this theory. Certainly, 
birds in South Assam, which are much nearer affinis than jutradisi, 
go through the same stages as the latter. 

Females and young males have considerably more grey on the 
lower parts, the under lail-eo\erts are nearly always, and the 
abdomen generally, suffused with chestnut. 

The chestnut of the upper parts is also, on the whole, duller. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in T. p. paradisi. 

Nestling rax her more definitely barred above than in T. p. 
paradisi. 

Distribution. Assam, South of the Brahmaputra, the whole of 
Burma, West Siam, Annam, Cochin China, Yunnan. 

Nidiflcation. Differs in no way from that of the Indian 
Paradise Flycatcher, but — in Assam, at all events — thin bamboo- 
jungle forms a very favourite nesting-site. In Burma three eggs 
appear to be laid more often than four, and Mr. .1. M. D. 
Mackenzie has taken two hard-set. The eggs do not differ either 
in size or appearance from those of its Indian cousin. 



268 muscicapiojE. 

One hundred eggs average 20-0 x 14'!) mm. : maxima 21 4 X 15'0 
and 21-2 x 159 mm. ; minima 186 X 14-4 and 20-2 x 143 mm. 

The female of this form seems to acquire lengthened tail-feathers 
more frequently than the Indian birds and J. have seen a pair 
with both birds in exactly the same plumage with equally long 
tails. The breeding-season is May and June. 

Habits. Similar to those of the preceding bird. It is found both 
throughout the plains and in the lower hills up to 3,000 feet, and 
occasionally higher. In the Chindwin and the Bhamo Hills it is 
found np to at least <>,000 feet but the few specimens [ have 
been able to examine from these hills are very pale and more 
material may prove that in Burma there is a pale form of ajjiiiits 
inhabiting the higher elevations, just as in India leucoyaster takes 
the place of true paradisi. 

The Burmese Flycatcher is perhaps more partial to thin 
secondary growth and bamboo- jungle than the Indian bird is but 
otherwise there is nothing to remark about it. It is very easily 
tamed and makes a charming pet. 



(t;i>0) Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster. 

The Himalayan Pabadisi: Flycatcher. 

Miucipeta lencoijaMer Swains., Nat. Lib., xiii, p. 2(V> (June 18W) 
(from Lady Dalhousie's Coll.). 

Vernacular names. Sh<di Jiullnd (Hind.). 

Description. Birds of both sexes in the chestnut plumage are 
pale and can be distinguished from all other races of T. paradisi 
by this character. 

Young males which have assumed the wholly black head whilst 
still in chestnut plumage have the breast pqre white, strongly 
contrasting with the black and with no intermediate area of ashy- 
grey as in typical paradisi. , 

Distribution. Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Kashmir and the 
Himalayas, East to Assam, .North of the Brahmaputra. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the other races in every respect. 
Fifty eggs average 20" 1 x 141) mm.: maxima 210x14-4 and 
20-4x152 mm.; minima 193x1 49 and 19-7x140 mm. The 
usual breeding-season is May and June, though a few birds breed 
in April. 

Habits. The present race of Paradise Flycatcher is found 
between 3,000 and 0,000 feet and less often up to 8,000 ft. It is 
probably locally migratory, to the extent that it moves from the 
higher to the lower hills in winter. 



irvi-OTiinns. 269 

(091) Terpsiphone paradisi nicobarica. 

TlIU NlCOMAIt PaKAMHK Fl.YCATCITKIt. 

Te/psi phone iiicobaricu ( lutes, Fauna IV I., Birds, ii, p. 48 (1890) 
(Nicobars). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. This form differs, both male and female, when in 
the chestnut stage, in having the chestnut much duller and 
browner, and in having the underparts from below the breast 
strongly suffused with chestnut throughout. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the other raves. 
Distribution. Andamans and .Nicobars. 
Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 



Uenus HYPOTHYMIS. 

Ily/mtfii/iiiix lioie, [si-, 1 *:_>(>, p. ;i7.'!. 
Type. 11. 'iccqiitdUs. 

In llijitntliiimis the bill is like that of Terps-iphone but smaller 
and is covered at the base with dense plumules; the rictal bristles 
are numerous and long ; trie tail slightly rounded but without 
lengthened central ruct rices. The sexes are dissimilar. 

The genus Jfi/potJn/mis is represented by one species in India 
which extends over the whole of Ceylon, India, Burma, the Indo- 
Chinese countries to Hainan, the Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra and 
Java. 

Moth Stresemann and Oherholser have recently reviewed this 
species and have created numerous subspecies, specimens of some 
of which, including ntoilniricii (=c<f/oc«m) and idiocliroa, are 
unfortunately not in the British .Museum. 

Hypothymis azurea. 

Miisriaijid azurea Bodd., Tabl. I'l. Mill., p. 4] (J7K;1) (Philippines). 

A"if»/ to iSuhi/M'ctex. 

A. Lower parts from breast almost pure 

white ; under wing-coverts white. 

a. Nuchal patch and collar across nock 

conspicuous. 

a', l'aler H. '<■ *ifke»i, p. 270. 

b'. Darker and richer in colour H. a. ttyani, p. '271. 

b. Neck-patch and collar inconspicuous .... 11. a.ceyhneniiix, p. 272. 

B. Whole of lower parts from breast blue . . //. a. tytleri, p. 2, 11. 
(.!. Lower parts from breast pale blue; under 

wiiitf-coverta blue. 

e. Smaller, wing Oo to 09 mm H. a. nicolmiira, p. 273. 

(I. Larger, wing fit)' 5 to 75 mm If. a. idiochron, p. 271. 



270 MUSCKJAMD.*. 

B. Lower parts from breast practically white, 
merely washed with blue ; under wing- 
coverts bluish white II. a. forrettia, p. 274. 

(692) Hypothymig azurea sykesi. 

Tiik Madras Black-naped Flycatcher. 

HypathymU azurea tykegi Stuart Baker, Bull. B. 0. 0., xl, p. ( 1 020) 

(Deccan). 
Hyjiothymis azurea. Blanf. St Ontes, ii, p. 49. 

Vernacular names. Kal<t Kat-latut (Beng.). 

Description. — Adult male. A line across the forehead, point of 
chin, a large patch on the nape and a creseentie bar across the lore- 
neck black ; crown and sides of black patch on the nape brilliant 
azure-blue ; upper plumage and edges of wing- and tail-feathers a 
rather duller, darker blue ; throat and breast the same blue but a 
little blighter, gradually becoming pine whit • on abdomen, \ent 




Fig. 42.— Bill of //. n : urea. 

and under tail-coverts; flanks suffused with grey-blue; edge of 
wing underneath blue; axillaries and remaining under wing- 
coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark blown; eyelids 
plumbeous-blue, more brilliant blue in the breeding-season ; bill 
blue, the edges and tip black ; the bill also is a brighter blue in the 
breeding-season ; legs and feet pale plumbeous to dark slaty-blue. 

Measurements. Total length about. Kioto 170 mm. ; wing ti" to 
73 mm. ; tail 70 to 82 mm. ; tarsu.s about 18 mm. ; culinen about 
1 1 to 12 mm. 

Female. Forehead and point of chin black ; crown of head 
azure-blue, changing to brown on back and upper plumage ; tail- 
feathers washed with blue on their outer webs, and wing-coverts 
and quills edged with the same; chin, throat and upper breast 
ashy-blue fading to white on the abdomen and under tail-coverts, 

Colours of soft parts the same as those of the male in wiuter. 

Measurements. Same as those of the male. 

Distribution. India, South of hit. 22° on the West and lat. 18° 
on the East. Birds from K handcsh and the Berars on the Vi est 
of India should bo placed with this race, but material from 



, HTWjTHTJttS. 271 

"Ruttem India is very scanty aud it is difficult to define the 
limits. 

Nidificatioil. This Flycatcher breeds in Southern India princi- 
pally in July and August but also a good deal earlier than this, as 
Mr. J. Davidson found nests with big young on the 12th July 
and others from which they had already flown. Mr. Howard 
Campliell also took eggs as i*arly as April in Gooty. The nests 
are tiny deep cups, beautifully made ol strips of fine grass, thin 
bark and odds and ends of moss etc. all welded together with many 
spider-web*. The walls are very thin, not more than 5 mm. thick. 
The nests are placed either in a vertical or horizontal fork or on 
a small horizontal branch without any side-supports. The site 
chosen may lie deep jungle or forest, open country or even a tree 
in cultivated land or in n garden and it mav be at any height from 
the ground b -t ween four and forty feet. The eggs are of ihe f-ame 
type as those of Ttrjisiphone but vary from this to one more 
approaching the e^gs of Sloparnla. The ground varie* from pale 
cream or yellowish pink to a warm salmon and the markings 
consist of specks and small blotches of red-brown or liver-brown, 
gent-ralW spars! ]y scattered over tlie larger end, sometimes 
forming a definite riot;. Twenty eggs average 17'OX V-i'5 mm. 

Habits. This Ulack-naped Flycatcher is found both in the 
plains and in the hills up to about 3.000 feet wandering some 
2,000 feet higher than this on rare occasions in JSuinnier. It is an 
active little bird on the wing, but does not descend to the ground, 
nor does it move about in the branches after insects. It is 
resident w herever found. 

(twit) Hypothymis azurea styani. 

The Nortiikun lsnivs Hi.uk-n vpi.d Fi.icvtciiek. 

Sif>hia fti/mii Haiti., \bh. Nat. Vcv. ltreiueii, x\i, ]>, p. :>48 (18!<>) 

(llorkow, Hainan). 
fli/pvthi/tnis azurea. JHanf. ,t Oates, li, p. 4!>. 

Vernacular names. Kala Kat-katia (Beng.). 

Description.- Adult male. Differs from II. <t. xykesi in having 
the crown a still brighter blue and the. blue of the upper parts 
deeper and richer. The blue of the breast below the black bar is 
also rather riehe'- and often further produced on to the lower 
breast and Hanks. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in //. a. syl-e^i. 
Wing OS to 73 mm. 

Distribution. All India north of the preceding bird; Assam, all 
Burma, Siam, Cochin China, Yunnan and Shan States, Annam, 
Hainan. 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of the Southern Blaek-naped 
Flycatcher but it is exceptionally fond of bamboos in w bich it builds 
its nest. It lavs three or four eggs, which cannot be distinguished 



272 MirsciCAPiD*. 

from any of those of the other races of Ihivothtjmis. Fifty eggs 
average 17-1 xKH mm.: maxima 18-0x141 nun.; minima 15-9 
X 121 linn. 
The breeding-season is April, 3Jay and June. 
Habits. This is an extremely common Flycatcher throughout 
the io^cr hills of Assam and Burma as well as in the plains in 
their vicinity. It may he found in almost any kind of well-wooded 
country and I have seen it, though not commonly, in the interior 
of the densest evergreen forest and in quite njien cultivated 
districts. Undoubtedly, however, its favourite resorts are thin 
scrub and the secondary growth which springs up in deserted 
cultivation or bamboo-jungle. If these have running water near 
by, so much the better. 

The voice of this Flycatcher is very harsh, hut it is on the whole 
a silent bird arid seldom indulges in its call. They are found 
almost invariably in pairs and never in Hocks, though, where they 
are particularly common, two p;iirs mav he seen hawking insects 
from the same tree. 



<t>94) Hypothymis azurea ceylonensis. 
Thk Ceylon Hlack-naped Fj.yo.vtciikr. 

Ilyptithymi* ceylonnm* Sharpe, Cat. 15. M., iv, p. 277 (I8"!») 

(Ceylon). ' « 

Uypothymit azurta. lttanf. & Oates, ii, p. 4',>. 

Vernacular names. 3/«r«t«/«(Cinghalese). 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from all the other races of 
Hyi>othymit in having the band across the neck and the spot on 
the nape either obsolete or much smaller. 

Females. Except when they vary in size the females of the 
various races are not distinguishable from one another. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
races. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidification. Similar to that of the other races. According to 
Legge, it breeds during April and July from the plains up to about 
4,000 feet. It appears, like so ninny other southern birds, to liiy 
but two eggs in Ceylon instead of three or four as its more 
northern relations do. They are quite inseparable from any other 
HypoihijmiH eggs and measure about 16'7x 187. 

Habits. Found over all but the driest portions of Ceylon in 
well-wooded or forest country, keeping much to the lower cover 
during the breeding-season but resorting in flocks to the higher 
trees in the non-breeding season. It feeds entirely on the wing 
but not as a rule from a single sallying-point, constantly moving 
from one tree or branch to another. 



HYPOXHIMIS. 273 

(695) Hypothymis azurea tytleri. 

The Andaman Black-napej) F&TCATCiiEn. 

Myiagra tytleri Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 324 (Andamnns). 
Jlypothytnis tytleri, Blauf. & Oates, ii, p. 50. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Similar to II. a. styani but with 
the whole of the underparts blue, only slightly paler on the centre 
of the abdomen. The upper parts average brighter and lighter 
than in that race but there is much overlapping in this respect. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 68 to 76 mm. 

Female differs from the preceding races in having the lower 
parts from breast, to under tail-coverts dull grey-blue. 

Distribution. Andamnns only. 

Nidification. Xests taken by Messrs. Osmaston, Wickham and 
others in the Andamnns are described as being exactly similar in 
all respects to those of //. a. styani except that they are invariably 
decorated with spiders' egg-cases. The breeding-season is April, 
May and early June. The eggs are not separable from those of 
the other Klack-naped Flycatchers, but on the whole seem to be 
more distinctly spotted and less deep a cream in their ground- 
colour. Thirty-two eggs measure on an average 17 - 9 x 13 - 9 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

i«9G) Hypothymis azurea nicobarica. 

TlIK XlCOBAB Bf'.VCK-NAPED FLYCATCHER. 

Hypnthymii azurea nicobarica Bianchi, Ann. Mus. Zool.St. Petersb. 
xii (ij, ]>. 7(i (1907) (Nicobars). 

Vernacular names. Xone recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Similar to //. a. sykexi but smaller 
and with the underparts faintly blue ; under wing-coverts light 
blue, not white. 

Colours of soft parts au in //. a. sylesi. 

Measurements. Wing 65 to 69 mm. 

Distribution. Nicobars excluding Car Nicobar. 

Nidification and Habits. Davison records it as tolerably abun- 
dant on the Nicobars, and remarks that its habits do not differ 
from those of the Indian bird. He failed to find a nest, though 
the birds were breeding. 



VOL. II. 



274 



MU8CICAPID*. 



(697) Hypothymis aznrea idiocbroa. 

The Car-Nicobar Black-naped Fltcatouer. 

Hypothymis azurea iditKhroa Oberliolser, l'roc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
xxxix, p. 696 (1911) (Cur Nieolars). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to II. a. nieobarica but larger. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 69*5 to 75-0 mm. 

Distribution. Car Nicobar. 

Modification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

(69S) Hypothymis azurea forrestia. 
The Mekuui Islaxds Black-nafkh Flycatcher. 

Hypothymis azurea formtia Oberliolser, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
xxxix, p. 601 (1911) (Mergui Archipelago). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Differs from If. a. styani in having more blue and 
less white below. It is, in fact, intermediate in colour between 
that form and the true //. azurea azurea of the Philippines, which 
has a strong dash of blue over the abdomen with the under tail- 
coverts also bluish. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 72-5 to 77 mm. 

Female differs from the female of //. a. styani in being darker 
and more blue-grey on the lower breast. 

Distribution. Mergui Archipelago. 

Nidification and Habits. Beyond the fact that this Flycatcher 
is found in thick forest, nothing has been recorded about it. 



Genus CHELIDORHYNX 

Chelidorhynx Ilodgs., F. Z. S., 1846, p. 32. 

Type, 0. hypoxanthvm. 

The genus Chelidorhynx contains only one species of Flycatcher 
remarkable for the shape of its bill, which, like that of Stoparola, 
when viewed from above, forms a perfect equilateral triangle; it is 
smaller, however, both actually and in proportion to the size of 
the bird. The rictal bristles are very numerous and long ; the tail 
is long and well rounded with the shafts thickened and white. 
The sexes are practically alike. 



CHEL1DOBHYNX: 275 

(699) Chelidorhynx hypoxanthum. 

Thk Yellow-tj^llibu Flycatcher. 

Uhijiidwa hypoxantha Klyth, J. A. S. B., xii, p. 935 (1843) 

(Darjiling). 
Chelidorhyn.v hypoxanthum. Blanf. & Gates, ii, p. 51. 

Vernacular names. Situ Idoom (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Lores and a line round and through 
the eye black ; forehead and broad superciliuin and whole lower 
plumage bright yellow ; ear-coverts blackish with pale shafts ; 
upper plnmnge and wing-coverts dark olive-brown, the greater 
coverts tipped pale yellow ; tail brown, all but the central pair 
broadly tipped white and all with conspicuous white shafts; 
wing-quills brown edged with olive. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black above, 
vellowish fleshy to horny-brown on the lower mandible and more 
\ellow at the gape ; legs and^feet pale horny-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 120 mm. ; wing 54 to 57 mm. ; 
tail 50 to (i-'J mm.; tarsus about 15 mm.; culinen S to 9 mm. 




Via,. 43.— Head of ('. hypoxanthum. 

Female differs from the male only in having the lores and parts 
round tiie eye brown mixed with olive-green. 

Distribution. Himalayas, from the Simla States to Eastern 
Assam, the hills of North and Central Burma to Tenasserim. 

Nidification. The breeding area of this beautiful little Fly- 
catcher is rather remarkable. Thompson found it breeding in the 
Kumaon Jihaber at an elevation of about 1,000 feet ; in North 
Cachar 1 obtained it at about 5,000 feet, whilst Messrs. Osmaston 
and Whymper took nests between 9,000 and 14,000 feet in the 
Tons Valley and the Nila Valley in Garhwal. The nest is a 
beautiful little deep straight-sided cup made of fine moss well 
welded together, sometimes mixed with hair, lichen and wool 
and often decorated outside with lichen. The lining is of moss 
fruits with the steins attached, hair, or the very finest moss-roots 
and it is generally placed on a small vertical branch of a tree not 
very high from the ground. All the eggs recorded have been 
taken in June. They are like tiny eggs of Stoparola or NUtava 
but with a finer softer texture; pale creamy-white to a fairly 
warm cream with rings at the larger end of tiny indefinite 
freckles of a darker reddish. In shape they are broad blunt ovals. 
Twenty eggs average 14*0x1 1*1 mm.: maxima 14*7 X 11*6 and 

t2 



376 MirsciCAi'iD*. 

14-0 x 11 7 mm. ; minima 13-2 x 107 and 141 x 106 nun. The 
breeding-season is from the end of May to earl)' July. 

Habits. The Yellow-bellied Flycatcher is found between 5,000 
and 15,000 feet in the summer, rarely at lower elevation, whilst 
in winter it occurs throughout the foot-hills and plains adjacent 
to them. It is an extraordinarily vivacious, cheerful little bird, 
constantly on the move, sallying into the air in the manner of all 
Flycatchers, bustling about the branches high up in tall trees, 
quivering its wings and flirting its widely spread tail. It haunts 
bushes and lofty trees alike and, though as a ride it is found in 
deep forest and generally near running streams, 1 have seen it in 
reed-beds hunting the reed-stalks for insects and twice I have 
noticed it in bamboo-jungle. It has a very sweet but very 
feeble, little song. 



Genus RHIPIDURA. 
Khijiidura Vigors & IForsf., Tr. L. S., xv, p. L'47 (lS'.'^i). 
Type, It. alliiseapa. Australia. 

The genus lihipidura is one containing many species which are 
found over a very great extent of country in the Oriental and 
Australasian Regions. It is represented in India by four species. 

In this genus the bill is very large and about twice as long as 
it is broad at the base ; the rictal bristles are very numerous and 
long; the tail is longer than the wing, the rect rices broad and 
graduated ; the sexes are alike or practically so. 

Key to S)>ec>es. 

A. Forehead and sides of the crown broad lv 

white l{. rutnii/ii, p. L'77. 

15. Forehead black ; white supeicilium small. 

a. Abdomen black , . . It. alhicollis, p. 'JT'.K 

b. Abdomen white or nearly so. 

a'. Outer tail-feathers conspicuously and 

abruptly tipped with white li.jaurtnica, p. 2ML 

b'. Outer tail-feathers with inconspicuous 

pale tips It. jcctnialh, p. '2H-J. 

Rhipidura aureola. 

Key to Subiprciex. 

A. Wing-coverts boldly tipped with 
white. 
a. Central tail-feathers tipped with 

white It. a. aureola, p. 27". 

h. Central tail-feathers not tipped with 

white It. a. comprrstiroxt rin , p. '.'70. 

R Winjj-coverts with no white tips or 

with very little R. a. btirmanica, p. 278. 



HHIP1JJURA. 277 

(Too) Rhipidura aureola aureola. 

Tub White buowed Fastail Wabblek. 

Ithipidma uureola Less., Traito, p. H90 (1830 or Jan. 18:51) (Bengal). 
lihijndura nlbifnmlatti. Blanf. & Ontes, ii, p. - r yJ. 

Vernacular names. Marchart/a (Hindi in the south) ; Manati 
(Mai.) ; Uarari-pitta (Tel.) ; Vhuh d'd (United Provinces). 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead and a broad supereilium 
to the nape white ; lores, sides of face, ear-coverts and anterior 
crown black, posterior crown brownish black, changing to brown, 
.slightly tinged with ashy on tlie back and wings; wing-coverts 
boidly tipped with white; tail dark brown, the central pair of 
feathers either immaculate or very narrowly tipped with white, 
the next pair more broadly tipped and the white increasing in 
extent until the outermost pair has only a patch at, the base brown ; 
chin and throat, black, the chin and upper part of the throat with 
broad white fringes to the feathers, these fringes obsolete or 
absent on the lower throat leaving this as a black band between 
the upper throat and the \\ hite of the rest of the lower parts ; 
sides of the breast and axillaries dark brown ; under wing-coverts 
brown and white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill, legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 175 to 180 mm : wing 
80 to Sit mm. ; tail HO to lt.it) mm. ; tarsus about 19 to 20 mm. ; 
eulmen about It* nun. 

Female only differs from the male in being slightly paler and 
browner on the head. 

Nestling. Supereilium white; upper plumage brown fringed 
with rufous ; the white fringes of the chin and throat barely 
noticeable; breast brownish with obsolete rufous bars; wing- 
coverts broadly tipped with rufous. 

Distribution. The whole of India with the exception of South 
Travancore and Assam South of the Brahmaputra. 

Nidification. Breeds throughout its range up to about 5,000 feet 
and occasionally 1 ,O0O feet higher. Its breeding- season is very 
protracted and oggs may be found any time from Mareh to August, 
most birds apparently breeding at least twice. The nest, is a 
beautifully made little cup of line shreds of grass-blades, sometimes 
mixed with a few of the finer grass-stems, shreds of bamboo or 
other leaves ; these are, however, never very conspicuous and, as a 
whole, the nest looks as if made of dry grey grass well coated with 
cobwebs and sometimes decorated with spiders' egg-bags. Often 
the bottom of the nest is prolonged into a cone and sometimes 
furnished with a long thin tail of loose scraps of grass. It. is 
placed either ou a small horizontal branch or in a small vertical or 
horizontal fork and may be at any height from four to forty feet 



278 mcscicapid^:. 

from the ground, though, as a rule, a site under fifteen feet is 
selected. 

The eggs are generally three in number, sometimes two or four ; 
in colour they are pale yellowish white or pale fawn, occasionally 
almost pure white and rarely tinged with pink ; the markings 
consist of small blotches of yellowish brown with secondary 
markings of neutral tint and pale grey, nearly always distributed 
in a ring about the larger end and sparse elsewhere. One hundred 
eggs average 16*S x lli"2 mm. 

Habits. This Fantail Flycatcher, like others of the genus, is a bird 
of open but well-wooded country and is not found inside heavy 
forest either conifer or evergreen. It is a very lively, cheerful and 
energetic little bird, constantly on the move and constantly 
spreading and flirting its long fan-like tail so as to display the 
white tips. It feeds, as far as 1 have seen, entirely on t he witig 
and never on the ground, though it will occasionally descend 
to the ground during the breeding-season and display there. It 
feeds largely on gnats, mosquitoes, and ephemera, often so tiny 
as to be invisible to the human eye, though the bird may be 
seen snapping here and there and obviously feeding. 

It has a sweet song and a beautiful call-whistie, very like that 
of a human beins ascending the scale for several notes. 



(7oi) Rhipidura aureola burmanica. 

The Burmese Wiiite-bhowed Fantail Fiacatchku. 

Leucocerca burmanica Hume, S. l<\, ix, p. 175 (18^1) (Thoun^ryau). 
Rhipidura albifrontata. Jtlanf. & Gates, ii, p. 52 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Dao phari (Caelum). 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from 11. a. aureola in being 
very much paler above and more ashy in tint. The two central pairs 
of tail-feathers are generally all brown and the white on the lateral 
tail-feathers is not so extensive ; the spots on 1\m wing-coverts are 
absent or obsolete. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. Wing 77 to 86 mm. 

Female and Young differ from those of R. a. aweola in the 
same way as the male does. 

Distribution. Assam, South of the Brahmaputra, Burma, Shan 
States and South- West Siatn. 

Nidiflcation. Differs in no way from that of the last bird hut 
this race is perhaps less exclusively an open-country bird. In 
North Cachar it was not rare in the wide expanses of park-Ike 
country to the north and wherever similar open country is found 
it occurs and breeds in the months April to July. The nest 
and eggs cannot be distinguished from those of It. a. aureola. 
One hundred eggs average 172 x 128 mm.: maxima 18 - 7 x 



BHIPIDUHA. 279 

13-0 and 17*4 x 13-5 mm. ; minima 16-0 X 11*6 mm. I obtained 
it breeding up to 5,000 feet in the Khasia Hills. 
Habits. Similar to those of the Indian birds. 

(702) Rhipidura aureola compressirostris. 

The Cbylon White-browed Fantail Flycatcher. 

Leucocerca compressirostris Blytb, J. A. S. B., xviii, p. 815 (1849) 

(Ceylon). 
Rhipidura albifroutata. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 52 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Manati (Malabar). 

Description. Differs from Ii. a. aureola in being much darker and 
in having the two central pairs of tail-feathers not tipped with 
white. The black on the sides of the breast is better defined and 
is sometimes produced to form a broken band across the breast. 
The bill is often more compressed. 

Colours Of Soft parts as in 11. a. aureola. 

Measurements. Wing 78 to 87 mm. 

Distribution. Ceylon and South Travancore. Mr. W. E. Wait 
gives the following note on its distribution in Ceylon, which is 
worth quoting : — "It lias a peculiar distribution. It occurs in the 
low country in the south of the Island, eastwards from Matara to 
Wingaru Bay ; inland it is found as far as the Uva basin and in 
the Park country east of the main range as far north as Palonawara 
and has a range; from the sea-level to 5,000 feet. In the south- 
west of the Island and in the North Central Province it seems 
to be absent.'' 

Nidiflcation. There is but little on record, but the nidiflcation 
does not s»eem to differ in any way from that of the other races. 
The only three eggs in my own collection measure about 16 - 3 x 
12*3 mm., and may be unusually small. 

Habits. Those of the genus. Legge refers to the male during 
the breeding-season displaying both on the ground and on branches 
of trees, making little runs as it puffs itself out and flirts its widely 
spread tail. It haunts open country, cultivation, gardens, and 
village surroundings but is also sometimes to be seen in more 
open parts. 

(703) Rhipidura albicollis albicollis. 

The White-throated Fantail Flycatcher. 

llatyrhynchia albicollis Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'His,t. Nat., xxvii, p. 13 

(1818) (Bengal). 
Rhipidura albicollis. Blanf. & Oates, ii. p. 53. 

Vernacular names. Chok-dayal (Beng.); Chuk-dil (N.W. 
Provinces); Nam-dit-nom (Lepcha). 



280 musoicapii>jE. 

Description. Forehead, fore crown, lores, over and under the 
eye, ear-coverts and trout of chin black ; a short supercilium 
white ; the* crown of the head changes gradually into the sooty- 
brown of the rest of the plumage, slightly lighter and more ashy 
below; throat white, the feathers with black bases, the white 
produced as a semi-collar up the sides of the neck; all but the 
central pair of tail-feat hers are tipped with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown ; the eyelids grey ; bill, 
legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 185 to 105 mm.; wing 73 
to 87 mm. ; tail 95 to 115 mm. ; tarsus about 175 to 185 mm. ; 
culmen about 10 mm. 

Young. Dark brown above and below, the feathers edged and 
barred above with rufous and edged below with the same ; the 
wing-coverts are edged with rufous; the white chin is absent in 
the very young aud the white supercilium is small and broken. 




Fig. 44. -Bill of /.'. a. <i!hi<-ulli*. 

Young birds in otherwise adult plumage are generally rather pale 
and rusty below. 

Birds from the Southern Punjab, Central Provinces and Chota 
??agpur are very pale and very rusty below, probably because they 
are all young birds. My It. a. »lanle;/i from the Abor Hills cannot 
be maintained, the supposed differences in its plumuge being due 
partly to make up and partly to individual variation. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Eastern Assam, 
Burma, Shan States, Yunnan, Aiinam, Siam, Cochin Chin, Hainan 
and Malay States. Birds from Sumatra have been separated as 
It. a. atrata and Bornean birds seem to agree with these. 

Nidiftcation. Differs in no way from that of the species 
E. aureola. The nest is the same beautiful little compact cone or 
cup of fine, cobweb-covered grass placed in similar positions but 
perhaps more often found in open forest or on the extreme outskirts 
of evergreen forest. In the Khasia Hills and Chin Hills it also 
breeds in the lowest ranges of pine-forests between 4,000 and 
5,000 feet. Eggs are laid from March to July, but the greatest 
number in May. They number three or four and are quite 
indistinguishable from those of the other species. One hundred 



KUJFIDUKA. -81 

eggs average 17 - 3 x 13-0 mm. : maxima 18"2 x 13*5 mm. ; minima 
16-1 x 130 and 16-9 x 120 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus, but it ascends the Himalayas to a 
greater height than does It. aureola. It is found near Murree, 
Simla States and in Garhwal constantly up to 7,00<> feet and 
more rarely up to 9,000 feet. 



(704) Rhipidura javanica javanica. 
The Jayan Fantail Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa javanica Sparrm., Mus. Carls., iii, pi. 7."i (1788) (Java). 
Ithipidura javanica. Kltmf. & Oatcs, ii, p. 54. 

Vernacular names. Sok-i-peri, JS r oL-]>en, Sok-pi (Siam). 

Description.— Adult male. A shorty nearly concealed super- 
ciliuni white ; crown, point of chin and a band across the breast, 
sides of neck and head sooty-black ; whole upper plumage brown, 
the tail darker, all but the two central pair tipped with white; 
throat white ; lower plumage from breast to under tail-coverts 
white suffused with buff ; in quite fresh plumage the wing-coverts 
are very narrowly tipped with rufous. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 nun.: wing 73 to 
82 mm. : tail W) to 100 mm. ; tarsus about \'J to 2o mm. ; oilmen 
about 12 mm. 

Female like the male, but rather more buff below. 

Young barred above with rufous and breast mottled with rufous 
and brown. 

Distribution. Cochin China, Siam, Burma south through the 
Malay States. 

Nidiflcation. Quite similar to that of the two preceding 
species. The nest, like that of those birds, is cone-shaped with 
a tail pendent below it and may be placed either on a small 
branch or from a small bamboo-twig in open country, guldens or 
compounds. The eggs, two in number and very rarely three, are 
like those of the other species of this geuus. fifty eggs average 
7'4xl30 mm : maxima 191 X 131' and 17-4xi26 mm.: 
minima 16'3x 13-0 and 17oxl24 mm. 

This bird breeds in Siam and Tenasserim from March to 
August, certainly having two broods as a rule and possibly 
sometimes three. 

Habits. According to Messrs. Williamson and Herbert this 
Fantail Warbler is essentially a bird of the open country, especially 
affecting gardens and the vicinity of villages and cultivation. 
Shady trees seem to be equally a necessity and it is not found 
often in scrub nnd bush jungle. In flight, voice, food, etc., it 
differs in no way from its relations. 



282 MUSCICAFID-E. 

(705) Rhipidura pectoralis. 
The White-spotted Fantail Flycatcher. 

Leueocerea pectovalu Jerd., 111. Ind. Orn., text to j>1. ii (1847) 

(Nilgiris). 
ffltipidiira pectoralis. Blanf. & Dates, ii, p. 55. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to It. j.javanica, but with the lateral tail- 
feathers shading from dark brown at the base to pale whity-brown 
at the tip. The black of the breast-collar is produced lower down 
on the flanks and lower breast and is heavily spotted with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 170 to 175 mm. ; wing 
69 to 79 mm. ; tail 84 to 93 mm. ; tarsus about 20 mm. ; culmen 
10 mm. 

Young have the upper parts brown, the feathers edged with 
rufous; the wing-coverts broadly edged with rufous; the lower 
parts more rufous than the adult and squamated on the breast 
with dark brown. 

Distribution. From the extreme south of India, North through 
Travancore, Mysore, Bombay, the Aravalli Hills in Kiijputana, 
East to-Kaipur, Chikalda, Goona and Chanda. It is very common 
in the Nilgiris and other hills of the (South- West, but does not 
extend into the true plains to the East. 

Nidification. This Flycatcher breeds from March to July, 
having two or more broods, nt all heights from the foot-bills and 
broken country adjacent up to at least 6,000 feet. They 
frequent gardens, orchards and open country round about 
villages, building their nests either in big trees low down, in 
bushes and small fruit-trees or even in shrubs in verandahs of 
houses. Three is the normal number of eggs laid, occasionally 
four and sometimes two only. Neither nest nor eggs are in any 
way distinguishable from those of other birds of this genus. 
Forty eggs average 16'2x 12 - 7 mm. : maxima 17'2xl2 - 2 and 
16-7 X 13-0 mm. ; minima 150 X Ho' mm. and 1G-2 x 118 mm. 

Habits. The White-spotted Fantail Flycatcher is only found 
in quite open country and more especially in gardens and 
cultivated areas. In its habits there is nothing differing in any 
way from those of other species of the genus lihipklura. 



laniida:. 



283 




Fi". 45. — Li'iiins e. laltUmi. 



Family LANIIDJK. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth, or the 
upper one simply notched or toothed, or both ; hinder aspect of 
tarsus smooth, composed of two entire longitudinal lamina; ; wing 
with ten primaries ; tongue non-tubular ; nostrils clear of the 
line of forehead, the lower edge of the nostril nearer to the 
commissure than the upper edge is to the culmcn ; plumage of 
the nestling cross-barred ; rectrices twelve : nostrils more or less 
overhung by bristles and hairs. An Autumn moult only. 

The LanHdir are in many respects very closely allied to the 
Flycatchers both in habits and in structure, the genus Hemipm 
even approaching the Muscicupldfr in the shape and character of 
the bill. The Shrikes are now generally admitted to be conveniently 
divided into three families: (1) the true Laniidce, with normal 



284 LAJUIDJE. 

feathering to the rump ; (2) the Pericrocotidae, with the feathers 
of the rump spinous ; (3) the Artamidte, which differ entirely in 
their legs and wings from either of the other two families. Jerdon 
included the Drongos or Drongo Shrikes in the Laniida, but Oates 
kept them in a separate family, Dieruridct, which arrangement 
seems most convenient. Close to the Flycatchers also come the 
Warblers, Sylviidce, but these are more definitely separated by the 
plumage of the young, which is never barred. 

In the Laniida?, especially in Lanius, the bill is very strong and 
is both notched and hooked. Therictal bristles are always present 
and often highly developed ; the tarsus is scutellated nnd the tail 
has twelve rectrices. The nestling is strongly barred, generally 
both above and below and this barring is retained throughout 
the first winter, though they gradually lessen in degree throughout 
these months. Some species, however, retain the barring to some 
extent for two or more years, whilst females retain it longer than 
males. 



Key to (Jeoerti. 

A. Head not crested. 

a. Tail-feathers strongly graduated. 

a'. Bill strong, deep and laterally 

compressed ; margin of upper mandible 

near tip strongly notched ami toothed. Kami's, p. l?8t. 
b'. Bill depressed and broad : margin of 

upper mandible near tip merely 

notched Hkmii>us, \>. 3(V>. 

b. Tail square and not graduated Tki'IIUoijoiinis, p. 308. 

B. Head with long crest I'latvi.oi'HI's, p. .')14. 



Genus LANIUS. 
Lanius Linn., S. N., ed. x, p. !.'•'! (17">*). 

Type, Lanius e.rcuhilor. 

The genus Lanius comprises a very extensive group of birds 
found over the whole of Europe, Asia, and Africa and parts of 
North America. The genus has been split into several genera by 
some scientists but the characteristics employed in separating 
them seem trivial and the divisions quite unnecessary and, possibly, 
misleading. The genus is very well represented in India botli by 
residents and by migratory species and subspecies. 

In Lanius the sexes are alike ; the bill is very strong and 
laterally compressed, with a large tooth and a deep notch near the 
tip of the upper mandible, which is bent down and hooked. The 
nostrils are nearly round and are almost hidden by numerous 
hairs and bristles. The wings are strong and pointed ; the tail 
is either equal to or longer than the wing and is strongly gradu- 
ated ; the plumage is firm but not spinous. 



LANIUS. 285 

Key to Species. 

A. Upper tail-coverts and central tail-feathers 

of totally different colours. 

a, A white patch on primaries. 

«'. Tail all Muck and white, the colours 

sharply defined. 

a 1 '. Back grey L, excubitor, p. 285. 

b" . Back chestnut. 

a*. Upper tail-coverts pale grey .... L. vittatus, p. 289. 

V. Upper tail-coverts chestnut L. collurioides, p. 291. 

c". Back black L. senator, p. 299. 

b' . Tail black or brown and rufous, the 

colours blending. 

d". down of head black /,. yiii/rice/is, p. 292. 

e". Crown of head gre\ L. siliach, p. 294. 

b. No white patch on primaries. 

e'. Head and hack grey L. teplironotus, p. 29r. 

<!'. Head grey, back chestnut L. colturio, p. 298. 

B. Upper tail-coverts and central tail-feathers 

fame colour. 

c, Colour of crown and back nearly the same 

rufous or brown L. crinltdus, p. 309. 

d. Crown prey : back chestnut, barred with 

black L. tiyrinu*, p. 304. 

Lanius excubitor. 

Lanius e.xvvbitur Linnrcus, S. X., ed. x, p. 91 (1758). 
Type-locality: Europe; restricted to Sweden. 

Key to Suhtpecies. 

A. Middle pair of tail-feathers all black. 

a. Lesser wing-coverts black with or 

without grey tips •/,. e. In Morn, p. 285. 

b. Lesser wing -co verts entirely prey. 

a'. Inner webs of secondaries chiefly 

white X. p. jHillidirostrif, p. 287. 

/('. Inner webs of secondaries chiefly 

black L. e. uucheri, p. 288. 

B. Middle pair of tail-feathers with white 

bases L. e. przeira/tkii, p. 289. 

(70(5) Lanius excubitor lahtora. 

The Indian (Jbey Shrike. 

Collurio la/dura Sykes, P. Z.S., 1832, p. 80 (Deccan). 
Lanius lahtora. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 409. 

Vernacular names. Dudiya htora (Hind.); Safedlatora (Hind, 
in the U.P. and N.W.); Kach-kacha-latora (Beng.) ; Chinl-a- 
bilinchi, 1'edda-kiriti-yadu (Tel.). 

Description. Forehead, lures, a band passing round the eye. 
ear-coverts, down the Bide of the neck and often turning down 



286 " laotid..*. 

towards the breast as a semi-collar black ; upper plumage bluish 
grey, palest on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; two middle 
pairs of tail-feathers black with very small white tips, the next 
two pairs with increasingly broader tips and also white bases ; outer 
pairs white with only the shafts and a small portion of the inner 
webs black; scapulars white; wing-coverts black, the innermost 
lesser coverts more or less tipped with grey; primaries black, 
with broad white bases and the innermost with narrow white 
edges to the tips ; secondaries with the outer webs black with 
white tips and most of the inner webs white except the innermost 
secondaries which are black with white tips only ; whole lower 
plumage pure white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 2o0 mm. ; wing 104 to 
116 mm. ; tail 100 to 115 mm.; tarsus 31 to 32 mm.; culmen 
18 to 20 mm. 




Fig. 4(i. — J! etui of L. c. lahturn. 

Young have the feathers of the uuderparts, except on the 
abdomen, faintly barred and edged with brown and the wing-coverts 
edged with fulvous. 

Nestling is heavily barred above and below with dark brown 
and .the edges of the wing-coverts are broadly edged with fulvous. 
There are no nestling specimens of this extremely common bird 
in the British Museum collection. 

Distribution. Throughout the plains of India as far South as 
Belgauin and throughout the Deccan and Central Provinces as 
far East as Calcutta, where it is rare and probably not resident. 
North it is found from Sind all along the bases of the Himalayas 
as far Ea«t as Behar, Chota Nagpore and the drier districts of 
Western Bengal. 

Nidification. The Indian Grey Shrike is resident aud breeds 
wherever found except in the wetter, more heavily forested 
portions of Eastern Bengal and possibly the Western Ghats, into 
which it only wanders in the dry season. It breeds throughout 
the plains, in the Deccan tableland up to 2,000 feet and in the 
Himalayas to about the same height. It makes a deep bulky 
nest of grass, roots, bark or almost any vegetable material, mixing 



lanius. 287 

it with oddments of cloth, wool, hair, feathers, etc., lining it 
with any soft material such as hai-, wool or grass but not feathers. 
It places it low down in any bush or tree but prefers such as are 
in the open, especially if they are thorny and dense, and it never 
breeds in forest or in damp shady cover. The eggs number three 
to six, generally four or five and are typical Shrikes' eggs but of 
the duller type. The ground-colour varies from the palest sea- 
green, huffy or white to a fairly warm buff or dull grey-green, 
whilst the markings consist of small specks and larger blotches of 
brown or reddish brown, with secondary markings of neutral tint 
and dark grey. As a rule, the blotches are most numerous at the 
larger end and rather sparse elsewhere but in a few eggs they are 
numerous everywhere. The creamy or pink type of egg is very 
rare in this species. 

Habits. The Indian Grey Shrike is a bird of open country and 
prefers plains with thin scrub, thorny bushes or small trees and, 
though it is also often found in cultivated country or in the vicinity 
of towns and villages, it certainly keeps for choice to the wilder 
less frequented parts. It watches for its prey from the top of a 
tall bush or low tree, generally seizing it on the ground or taking it 
from a branch or twig though occasionally it will seize a passing 
grasshopper on the wing, often, also, catching termites in this 
manner. It feeds on all kinds of insects and also on young or 
weak birds, mice and small reptiles and is not above robbing a 
nest when unguarded. It does sometimes fix its captures on 
thorns, though it does not seem to keep a larder so regularly as does 
the Red-backed Shrike. Most of its notes are very harsh and 
grating, but during the breeding-season it has a sweet song. In 
the North-west it is said to have been formerly trained to catch 
small birds like a Falcon but, this form of native sport seems 
now to have died out. 



(707) Lanius excubitor pallidirostris. 

Tub Allied Grey Suiuke. 

Liuims pallidirostris Cassin, l'roc. Acad. Philad., v. p. 244 (1852) 

(K.Africa). 
Lmiiut aaimilit. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 4(>0. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to L. e. lahtora but has no black on the 
forehead and the black does not extend beyond the ear-coverts 
on the neck ; the white above the eye is more distinct, forming a 
faint 8upercilium ; the lesser wing-coverts are all grey ; the 
secondaries have more black and less white and the under surface 
of the body is often suffused with pink. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill pale horny ; legs 
and feet dark horny to blackish. 



2S8 bJimiDX. 

Measurements. Total length about 250 mm. ; wing 105 to 
111 mm. ; tail 95 to 111 mm.; tarsus about 'A1 mm.; eulmen 18 
to 19 mm. 

Distribution. Traus-Caspia to Syr Darya, through Persia to 
Persian Baluchistan, Central Asia to Lob Nor and Tian-Slian. 
In Winter to Nubia and Somaliland and as a straggler into North- 
west. India where it has been obtained once only in the Punjab. 

Nidification and Habits. There is practically nothing on 
record, though probably neither will be found to differ in any way 
from that of the preceding bird. 

(70S) Lanius excubitor aucheri. 

Bonaparte's Grey Shuikk. 

La>uti$ aucheri Bonpte., llev. Zool., 1853, p. 204 (Persia). 
Lunius fallur. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 4(>0. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Very like pallitlirostris, but with a very narrow 
black forehead, rather grey breast and abdomen, and more black 
and less white on the secondaries. 

Colours Of soft parts as in pallidirostris but with the bill Hark. 

Measurements. Wing 104 to 110 mm., " 107 to 111!" (I/artert). 

Distribution. Persia, Mesopotamia and Palestine toN.E. Africa 
in Winter; Afghanistan, Baluchistan and N.W. Frontier of India 
and very rarely into the Plains of the Punjab and N.W. Frontier 
Province. 

The series of birds with black bills assigned by Oates in the 
first volume of the Avifauna to Lanius (issimilis ( = L. c /uiUidi- 
rosti-its) are typical in all respects with this form. Its occurrence 
therefore within our limits is more frequent than has hitherto 
been considered to be the case, whereas the occurrence of 
pallidirostris is extremely rare. 

Nidification. This Shrike breeds in considerable numbers in 
Palestine, making a bulky nest of thorny twigs, grasses and roofs, 
lined with wool only, verv similar to that of our Indian Grev 
.Shrike. This it places in bushes and low trees, preferably such 
as are thorny and dense, standing in open country, occasionally 
in thickets or orchards. The eggs number four to six and are 
quite indistinguishable from those of Lanius t. lahtora. Eighty 
eggs average 202 x 194 ram,: maxima 292xli)-2 and 275 x 
20 6 mm. ; minima 2401 X 8'3 mm. The breeding-season is from 
early March to early May. 

Habits. To what extent this Shrike is migratory is not well 
known. Even in its most Northern habitat many birds are 
resident throughout the year and probably its appearance in 
Winter in its most Southern latitudes is due more to individual 
wanderings rather than to any true migration. In its habits 
generally it differs in no way from its nearest allies. 



LAHIUS. 280 

(709) Lanius excubitor przewalskii. 

Bogdanow's Gkby Shrike. 

Lanius przewalskii Boyd., "War. der Russ. Faun., p. 147 (1881) 

(Tashkent). 
Lanius homeyeri. Blanf. &, Oates, i, p. 401. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to pallidirostris, but generally paler ; the 
forehead, rump and upper tail-coverts much whiter and the bases 
of all tlie tail-feathers white. The secondaries generally have more 
black and less white than in the Allied Grey Shrike, but this 
character is very unreliable and some individuals have the greater 
part of these feathers white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill dark horny, paler on the 
mandible and base of maxilla, specimens killed in the breeding- 
season all have the bill black ; legs and feet dark horny-brown to 
black. 

Measurements. Wing 108 to 122 mm. ; tail 106 to 118 mm. ; 
tarsus about 30 mm.; culinen 18 to 19 mm. 

Distribution. Turkestan to Samarkand and Ferghana, Kuldja, 
Tian Shan, East Turkestan to the Gobi Desert. In Winter to 
South Russia and to Gilgit. 

Nidification. The only clutch of eggs I have seen of this Shrike 
are like those o£ L. e. excubitor and measure about 26-0 x 19-4. 

Habits. Those of the species. 

(710) Lanius vittatus. 

The Bay-backed Shrike. 

Lanius vittatus Valenc, Diet. Sci. Nat, xi, p. 227 (1826) 
(I'oudicherry) ; Blanf. & Dates, i, p. 462. 

Vernacular names. PachanaJc (Hind.); CJwto kilatora (Beng.) ; 
Chenna bilinki, Venne-dtga (Tel.); Kichang-kuravi (Tam.). 

Description. Lores, forehead, anterior crown and a broad band 
including and behind the ear-coverts black ; posterior crown white 
or pale gray shading into grey on the nape and hind neck ; back 
and scapulars deep chestnut to maroon ; rump white fading into 
grey on the upper tail-coverts ; central tail-feathers all black, the 
next pair with white bases and tips, the white increasing in extent 
on each succeeding pair until the outermost is nearly all white ; 
\vin"8 black, the coverts narrowly edged with maroon, the 
primaries with a broad patch of white at the base and the 
secondaries narrowly edged with whitish ; chin, throat and centre 
of the abdomen white ; breast and upper abdomen fulvous ; flanks 
ferruginous ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. The colour 
of the plumage of this little Shrike varies very greatly individually, 

vol. n. v 



290 r-ANiiD^. 

but without any relation to habitat. Some birds have the crown 
practically pure white, others show no white at all ; some speci- 
mens have the chestnut of the back very dull, with the grey 
of the nape running into it. Probably the oldest birds have the 
maroon back deepest in colour and the posterior crown the purest 
white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black in adults, 
dark hornv-brown in the young ; legs and feet dusky slate to 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm.; wing 81 to 
88 mm. ; tail 80 to 94 mm. ; tarsus 23 to 24 mm. ; culmen about 
14 mm. 

Nestling. Upper parts grey tinged with rufous and barred with 
brown ; wing-coverts grey, greyish brown or light dull chestnut 
edged with dark brown ; quills dark brown edged with white or 
pale chestnut ; below white with faint narrow bars on breast 
and flanks. 

The young appear to go through a transition- stage between this 
and the adult plumage ; the upper parts become grey with a 
more or less pronounced chestnut back ; a line through the eye 
and ear-coverts brownish black ; breast and underparts white 
suffused with buff and retaining faint brown bars on the upper 
breast. 

Distribution. The whole of India, South to Mysore, Nilgiris, 
Palni Hills and North Travancore ; North to the Himalayas up to 
6,000 ft. ; East to Behar and the drier districts of Western 
Bengal, Chota Nagpore, etc. 

Nidification. The Bay-backed Shrike breeds throughout the 
Plains of India and in the Himalayas up to at least 6,000 feet, at 
which elevation Dodsworth took its nest in the Simla States. The 
nest is a small replica of that of Lanius e. lahtora, a deep cup 
made of grass mixed with almost any kind of soft material, but 
with the inner part of grass alone. Usually it has more cobweb 
used in its construction than is used by the Grey Shrike. It 
builds its nest in trees or high bushes in gardens, by road-sides, 
in thin scrub or deciduous jungle but never in heavy forest. The 
eggs are like those of Lanius e. lahtora and go through the same 
variations, the pink type being equally or even more rare. One 
hundred eggs average 20*8 x 15 - 7 mm.: maxima 23-1x16-2 and 
22-1x17-1 mm.; minima 107 x 15-1 and 20-3x14-1 mm. The 
breeding-season lasts from early April to the end of July, and 
they lay four or five eggs, often only three, sometimes, fide Hume, 
as many as six. 

Habits. This little Shrike is a bird of the open drier country 
frequenting gardens, cultivated and barren tracts but not entering 
into the more heavily forested areas. It is very tame and confiding 
in its ways, has a sweet song of its own and is an admirable mimic 
of other birds. 



LANIUS. 291 

(711) Lanius collurioides. 

TnE Buemesh Shrike. 

Lanius collurioides Less., Voy. Bellang., p. 250 (1834) (Pegu) ; 
Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 462. 

Vernacular names. ITnet-hdoo (Burmese). 

Description- Loves, forehead and ear-coverts black ; the black 
of the forehead changes to dark grey on the crown and then to 
paler grey on the nape ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts and 
scapulars deep chestnut ; central tail-feathers black with very 
narrow white tips ; the next threw pairs with rather broader tips, 
the penultimate pair white, with the inner web broadly black ; 
the outermost pair all white with black shafts ; wing-coverts 
nearly black with chestnut edges ; primary-coverts and quiils black, 
the latter with a broad white patch at the base ; secondaries black 
edged with chestnut; under plumage white, sometimes almost 
pure with the faintest fulvous tinge and, sometimes, with a strong 
fulvous-chestnut wash. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris pale reddish brown to dark red; 
bill horny-brown, black at the tip and on the culmen, fleshy at 
the base and on the gonys ; legs and feet slate-grey to almost 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about - 220 mm. ; wing 82 to 
90 mm. ; tail 8(5 to 95 mm. ; tarsus about 23 mm. ; culmen 13 to 
14 mm. 

Nestling. Above fulvous-grey washed with chestnut on the back 
and barred with dull black ; the lower plumage is dull white with 
narrow bars of dull brown on breast, flanks aud abdomen ; the 
ear-coverts are brown. 

Young birds are grey above changing to dull pale chestnut on 
the back and rump ; below fulvous-white washed with chestnut 
on the flanks. 

Distribution. Cachar, Manipur and Hills South of the Brahma- 
putra to Tenasserim in the South, Annam, 8iam and there is 
also a specimen from South-West China in the British Museum 
collection. 

Nidiflcation. The Burmese Shrike breeds in the hills of South 
Assam, Burma and Siam etc., between 3,000 and 0,000 feet in 
the months of April to June, a few birds laying in the end of 
March. Hariugton describes the nest as " neatly made of leaves, 
lichen and feathers etc., covered with cobwebs, and lined with 
fine grass. The size of the nest varies a good deal, if placed in 
between branches it is much smaller aud matches the tree-trunk, 
if concealed by leaves it is much larger." Other nests found by 
him later in the Bhamo Hills were made principally of grass. The 
eggs are of many types, the ground being white, cream, pink-buff 
or pale greenish aud the marks consist of blotches, spots and 

u2 



292 LAUIID.S. 

specks of reddish brown or grey-brown with secondary markings 
of neutral tint or pale lavender ; generally they are distributed in 
a dense ring at the larger end and are sparse elsewhere but the 
distribution varies greatly. One hundred eggs average 21-1 X 
16-4 mm.: maxima 250x17-0 and 221x180 nun.; niimima 
18-3 X 15-3 and 19-8 x 150 mm. 

Habits. This handsome Shrike is resident throughout its range, 
but in the winter wanders lower down the hills almost to the foot- 
hills and in summer is found up to 8,000 feet. Except during 
the early part of the breeding-season they are bold birds not 
shunning observation but at this particular time they are very 
shy and secretive. They keep to open country or thin forest and 
are common in the vicinity of villages and in the cultivation round 
them. Their song is sweet and full and they have a large variety 
of other notes, both harsh and musical. 

Lanius nigriceps. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Chestnut above less rich ; baso of tail 

with less white L. n. mgriceps, p. 2J)i. 

B. Chestnut above much richer ; base of 

tail more broadly white L.n. longicaudaius, p. 294. 

(712) Lanius nigriceps nigriceps. 

The Indian Black-headed Shrike. 

Collurio nigriceps Frank., P. Z. S., 1831, p. 117 (Ganges, Calcutta, 

Benares). 
Laniiu nigricep». Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 463. 

Vernacular names. Sakrik-pho (Lepcha). 

Description. Whole upper part of bead, cheeks and neck black ; 
upper back, shading from the black, ashy, this again merging 
into the light chestnut of the back, rump, scapulars and upper 
tail-coverts : tail tipped with pale dull chestnut, the two outer- 
most pairs nearly all of this colour with black shafts and more or 
less black shading on the inner webs ; wing-coverts blackish brown, 
with narrow rufous edges when quite fresh ; primaries black with 
a rather small white patch at their bases; inner secondaries 
brown with broad chestnut edges ; chin, throat and breast white 
grading into fulvous-chestnut on the flanks, vent and under tail- 
coverts ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white with black 
bases. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black in the 
breeding-season, but with horny-coloured base in winter; legs and 
feet dark slaty-black or dark brown. 
Measurements. Wing 88 to 99(1 specimen, Yunnan, 108)mm. ; 



LANIUS. 293 

tail 108 to 126 mm., rarely up to 1 JO mm. ; tarsus about 28 mm. ; 
culmen about 16 mm. (Sikkim) to 18 mm. (Yunnan). 

Young. Above fulvous-chestnut or chestnut-grey, each feather 
barred and edged with brown or black ; below white washed with 
fulvous, well barred on the flanks with brown and less strongly 
barred on the breast. Some birds are almost unmarked below, 
whilst others are barred throughout distinctly. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal East to Assam, 
N. Chin Hills, Kaeliin Hills, N. Siam and Yunnan. 

Nidification. The Indian Black-headed Shrike breeds in great 
numbers in the Hills of South Assam between 4,000 and 6,000 feet. 
In the Hills North of the Brahmaputra it is not nearly so common 
but ascends them up to 7,000 feet or perhaps even higher. Jt 
lays during April, May aud June, sometimes having two broods. 
The nest is a very large compact cup made entirely of grass with 
the white feathery ends attached and so placed t hat all these are 
on the outside, making the nest look like a huge white powder- 
puff. It is placed in any kind of bush or small tree but, generally, 
more or less in the open or on the outskirts of forest, never far 
inside heavy forest. The eggs number four to six and range 
through an even greater variation than the Red-backed Shrike. 
The ground-colour may be pink, cream, yellowish, buff, greyish 
or greyish green or clear pale green ; the markings consist of 
blotches and spots of reddish brown or light reddish on the 
pinker eggs or of grey-brown, greenish brown or purplish brown 
on the prey and green types, in each there being also a certain 
number of secondary markings of pale grey and neutral tint. In 
most eggs the markings form a ring at the larger end and are 
sparse elsewhere, but in some they are scattered all over the 
surface. Two hundred eggs average 23 - Gxl7'0 mm.: maxima 
262 X 10-0 and 240 x 192 mm. ; minima 21-0 X 170 and 23-0 x 
165 mm. 

Habits. This fine Shrike is very common in the greater part of 
Assam wherever the country is at all open or wherever there is a 
certain amount of cultivation, even if this only means a few 
scattered fields of hill rice in among heavy foresr. It is a bold 
fearless bird, in no way shunning observation and even breeding 
close to human habitations. It is, perhaps, the finest of all Indian 
songsterB and, when the hen is sitting, the cock-bird will sing for 
a quarter of an hour at a stretch from some adjacent branch or 
post. The notes are very rich and full, wonderfully modulated, 
and the song itself varied and sustained. 

It feeds principally on insects, especially grasshoppers, but does 
not disdain small birds and other prey, making a larder just as 
the English butcher-bird does but always at some distance from 
the nest. 

In Winter it is found all over the foot-hills and also in the 
plains for some distance from them. 



264 LANIID.S. 

(713) Lanius nigriceps longicaudatns. 

The Siam Black-headed Shrike. 

Lanius niyrivepz subsp. lotu/icaudatus O. -Grant, Nov. Zool., ix, 
p. 480 (1902) (Bangkok, Siam). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Chestnut of the upper parts much richer than in 
the preceding bird ; the patch of white at the base of the tail 
much larger and the tail itself generally longer. Otherwise 
similar to the typical form. 

Colours of soft parts as in the Iudian Black-headed Shrike. 

Measurements. Wing 93 to 99 mm. ; tail 130 to 155 mm. ; 
tarsus about 29 mm. ; culmen about 18 mm. 

Distribution. Central South Siam, Tenasserini and Peninsular 
Siam and Burma. Two specimens sent me taken near Amherst 
with the nest and eggs were both of this race with tails measuring 
140 and 144 mm. respectively. 

Nidification. Mr. E. G. Hartert took several nests of this 
Shrike in Siam. lie says, "The usual nesting-site is a small tree 
or bush in scrub-jungle or, not infrequently, a solitary 'Makam- 
tate' tree (Pithecolobium thtlce) out among the paddy-fields. The 
nest is built at 10 to 20 feet from the ground and is a deep cup- 
shaped structure, composed of grass-stems and fine creepers 
firmly packed together, with a neat lining of roots and grasses. 
May and June is the nesting-season." The eggs, three to five in 
number, are indistinguishable from those of the last bird. Twenty- 
four eggs average 24-1 x 18-3 mm.: maxima 27"5xl9 - mm.; 
minima 20-3 x 17'0 mm. 

Habits. Similar to those of the Indian Black-headed Shrike, 
but it is found in the plains and low hills during the breeding- 
season as well as in Winter and appears to be resident. According 
to Herbert and Williamson it is very common round about 
Bangkok. 

Lanius schach. 

Lanius schach Linn., S. N., ed. x, p. 94 (1758). 
Ty pe-locality : Ch i na . 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Upper back more or less suffused with 

rufous L. $. erythronotus, p. 295. 

B. Upper back with no tinge of rufous .... L. s. canicept, p. 290". 

I retain Lanius teplironotus as a species. It has no white wing- 
speculum and has the tail always brown, not black. These two 
features are constantly present throughout all the races of gcfiach 
from Europe to Formosa, and the absence of them in tephronotut 
seems to me of sufficient importance to warrant its specific 
separation. 



iANitis. 295 

(714) Lanius scbach erythronotus. 

Tue Rufous-backed Shbike. 

Collurio ei-ythronotus Vigors, I\ Z. S., 1831, p. 42 (Himalayas, 

Luckuow). 
Lanius erythronotus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 464. 

Vernacular names. Maltiya lalora, Kagala latora (Hind.) ; 
Yerra Ulinchi (Tel.). 

Description. Forehead, lores and a broad band through the eyes 
and ear-coverts black ; crown, nape, neck, back and a few lesser 
wing-coverts clear light grey merging into rufous on the lower 
back, rump, upper tail-coverts and scapulars ; central two or thre* 
pairs of tail-feathers black tipped with rufous, outermost pair pale 
rufous-brown with broad rufous tips, remaining pairs intermediate 
in colour ; wing-coverts black, the greater very narrowly edged 
with rufous; quills black; the outer primaries narrowly edged 
with rufous and all but the first three with a broad white patch 
at the base ; inner secondaries broadly edged with rufous ; below 
white, the flanks, vent and under tail-coverts rufous ; the lower 
breast and sides of the abdomen are generally more or less washed 
with rufous. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill black; young birds 
and males in Winter have the base of the bill horny-brown ; legs 
and feet brownish black. 

Measurements. Total length about 250 to 260 mm. ; wing 
91 to 97 mm.; tail 100 to 113 mm.; tarsus 28 to 30 mm.; 
culmen about 18 to 19 mm. 

Young. More rufescent throughout than the adults ; the whole 
of the tipper parts bavnid with black or dark brown ; the under- 
pays fulvous, the breast and flauks with narrow wavy bars of 
black ; the wing-feathers are very bpldly edged with rufous and 
the black line through the eye is only faintly indicated. 

Nestling like the young bird but with no black eye-line and a 
faint whitish supercilium. 

The extent of rufous on the back varies considerably, and in 
specimens from the extreme North of India the whole of the 
back to the nape is sometimes strongly suffused with this colour. 
Birds from Central India, South Bombay and the Deccan are 
intermediate between this and the next race but, on the whole, 
nearer the Northern form. 

Distribution. From the extreme North of India as far South, 
about, as Surat on the West and thence in almost a semicircular 
line to the mouths of the Godavary River on the East. The birds 
in the Southern parts of the Central Provinces are of the next race, 
but those from the Northern Central Province are quite typical 
of this one, those in between being, as we should expect, inter- 
mediate in their characteristics. It occurs commonly throughout 
Sind in the West and as far East as Eastern Bengal, where, 



296 laviisje. 

however, it is rare. It ascends the Himalayas up to at least 
8,000 feet. 

Nidification. The Rufous-backed Shrike breeds and is resident 
throughout the area recorded above from the Plains up to about 
8,000 feet, its nest having been taken at this elevation near 
Gulmerg. The nest is a deep cup generally very compactly put 
together, but sometimes, for a Shrike's nest, it is very loose and 
untidy. The materials used are twigs, roots, grass, scraps of wool 
and all sorts of oddments, the lining being of grass alone and it is 
placed in a high bush or in a tree between four feet and twenty feet 
from the ground. The eggs are like those of Lanius e. lalitora, but 
9 out of 10 have a clearer brighter ground-colour, whilst they are 
normally rather smaller. Eggs with a cream or pink ground, 
though not as rare as are red eggs of L. e. lalitora, are not 
common. Two hundred eggs average 23 - 7xl8'l mm.: maxima 
27-4x18-0 and 250x19-5 mm.; minima 213 X 180 and 240 x 
170 mm. 

The principal breeding months are April, May and June, but 
nests and eggs may be found any time from March to September, 
and many birds must rear two or even three broods. 

Habits. The Rufous-backed Shrike is not migratory in the true 
sense of the word, though it moves locally under stress of weather 
and food-conditions and, to some extent, vertically with the seasons. 
In its habits it is much like the Indian Grey Shrike but it is a 
much bolder bird, often having been known to attack small birds in 
cages as well as small birds and reptiles in a state of nature. Like 
all Shrikes, however, its principal food consists of large insects, 
such as beetles, locusts, grasshoppers, etc. It is said to have a 
harsh voice with no song worth the name but to be a good 
mimic. 

(715) Lanius schach caniceps. 
The Southern Ghey-backed Sheike. 

Lanius eaniceps Blyth, J. A. 8. B., xv, p. 302 (1846) (South India). 
Laniut erythronotug. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 464 (part,.). 

Vernacular names. (Same as for the last bird.) 

Description. Differs from the Northern Rufous-backed Shrike 
in having no trace of rufous on the upper back. 

Measurements. Wing 87 to 95 mm.; tail 110 to 119 mm.; 
tarsus 28 to '29 mm. ; culmen 18 to 19 mm. 

Young birds and Nestlings are not separable from those of 
the last bird but are generally less rufous. 

Distribution. Ceylon and South India as far North as Bombay 
and Foona in the West and the mouths of the Godavary River 
on the East. Over a very large area in Central India the birds 
are intermediate between the two races, varying very much 
individually. 



LANIUB. 297 

Nidification. Similar to that of the last bird. The breeding- 
season in Ceylon seems to be February and March, in Travancore 
March and April, and in the Deccan May, June and July, but eggB 
may also be found in many other months. The eggs are in no 
way distinguishable from those of the Northern form, though red 
eggs seem to be most exceptional and I have seen none such. 
One hundred eggs average 22-6 x 18'0 mm. : maxima 24'9 x 
18-2 mm. ; minima 20'0 X 18-1 and 206 x 16-8. 

Habits differ in no way from those of the preceding bird. 

(716) Lanius tephronotus. 

The Grey-backed Siikike. 

Collurio tephronotus Vigors, P. Z. S., 18ol, p. 43 (Himalayas, 

Gyantse, Tibet). 
Lanius tephronotus. Blnnf. & Oatea, i, p. 405. 

Vernacular names. Bhadrciya (Nep. Hills) ; Bufjaha-tentha 
(Nep. Plains); Salcrik-plio (Lepcha) ", Totem (iihut.) ; Dre-dre 
(Tibet). 

Description. Similar to L. s. caniceps but a very much darker 
grey, this colour extending on to the rump and lesser wing-coverts ; 
the central tail-feathers are chestnut-brown, not black, slightly 
darker only than the lateral ones; there is no wing-speculum 
of white and the rufous edges to coverts and quills are more 
pronounced ; below there is generally much more rufous. 

Colours of soft parts. The same as in Lanius schach. 

Measurements. Wing 96 to 106mm.; tail 100 to 117 mm.; 
tarsus about 28 to 29 mm. ; culmen about 17 mm. 

Nestling not distinguishable from that of L. schach. 

Young like that of the Rufous-backed Shrike but with no wing- 
speculum and a chestnut-brown tail. 

Distribution. Gilgit, Northern Kashmir, Laduk and the 
greater part of Tibet to Western China ; in Winter extending in 
India into the Punjab, United Provinces, Beliar, Bengal and over 
the greater part of Burma as far South as Pakjan. 

Nidification. The Grey-backed Shrike breeds in very great 
numbers in all the higlier plateaus in Tibet from 10,000 to 
15,000 feet. It makes a typical Shrike-like nest, a massive cup 
of fine twigs, grass, leaves and roots, nearly always mixed with 
wool and hair. It is generally lined with grass only but 
sometimes with wool or with wool and hair mixed. Almost any 
kind of site seems to satisfy this Shrike provided it is not too high. 
Some nests are placed low down in small thorny bushes within a 
foot of the ground, others in willows or small trees up to 20 feet 
high. The eggs number three to six, the number varying according 
to the year and possibly according to the food-supply. In some 
seasons three or four seems the normal clutch and the birds 



298 LA3mD.£. 

themselves are comparatively scarce, in other years the birds 
swarm and clutches of six are quite common. The eggs are like 
those of Lanius schach but, as a whole, very dull-coloured, and I 
have only seen one egg of the pink type. Two hundred eggs 
average 24-9x18-7 mm.: maxima 27'3xl9-3 mm.; minima 
22-0 x 185 and 26-0 X 171 mm. The breeding-season lasts from 
May into August. 

Habits. The Grey-backed Shrike is a bird of very great 
altitudes wandering up to 16,000 feet in Summer, whilst even in 
"Winter many birds remain at 9,000 and 10,000 feet, though the 
great majority migrate down to the lower and foot hills or into 
the Plains themselves. As usual, the young migrate farthest 
afield and those found far South are nearly always immature. 
In their general habits they are like the rest of the genus but 
there is nothing on record about their song. 

(717) Lanius collurio. 

The Red-backed Shrikk 

Lanius collurio Linn., S. N., ed. x, p. D4 (1758) (Europe, Sweden) ; 
Ulanf. & Oates, i, p. 406. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Forehead, lores and a line through the eve and 
ear-coverts black ; above the back a faint line of white ; crown, 
nape and neck clear grey ; back, scapulars and wing-coverts dull 
chestnut to dull maroon ; rump and upper tail-coverts grey, 
sometimes slightly tinged with rufous ; central tail-feathers dark 
reddish brown to black, the lateral feathers white with a large 
patch of brown near the tip ; concealed portions of wing-coverts 
brown ; quills brown, the primaries narrowly, the secondaries 
broadly edged with rufous; lower plumage rosy-white, the chin, 
throat and under tail-coverts white and often without any rosy 
tint. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. "Wing 89 to 98 mm. ; tail 74 to 80 mm. ; 
tarsus 23 to 25 mm. ; culnien 14 to 17 mm. 

Nestling. Above grey or rufous-grey barred with black ; below 
dull fulvous, mottled or squamated with dark brown. 

Young bird like the adult but the breast and flanks squamated 
with narrow black crescentic bars. 

Distribution. Practically the whole of Europe and Western 
Asia to Trans-Caspia and Persia and in Winter South to North 
Africa, Arabia and North-West India. 

Nidiflcation. Breeds during June and the last few days of 
May, second broods being found in July. The Iied-backed 
Shrike makes a deep compact cup-shaped nest of grass, roots, 
small twigs etc., which it places in bushes, hedges or thorn-trees 



LANIUS. 299 

at any height, from three to twenty feet from the ground. The 
eggs number four to six or, rarely, eight and vary greatly in 
colour. The ground is white, pink, cream or some shade of 
yellow, buff or green and the markings consist of spots or 
blotches of various shades of red or brown, the ground-colour 
dominating their general tint. Three hundred and sixty eggs 
average 22-1 x 164 mm. : maxima 25-0 x J 60 and 22-6 x 18'3 mm.; 
minima 18-3 x 15-0 and 22-2 x 140 mm. (Hartert). 

Habits. This Shrike only wanders into Indian limits as the 
rarest of stragglers. Col. Butler obtained in at Deesa in Guzerat 
and Scully recorded it as occurring in Gilgit during migration. 
Since then Ticehurst has recorded several specimens from Sind, 
and he seems to think it is a regular visitor on the autumn 
migrations. 

Lanius senator. 

Lanitu senator Linn., S. N., ed. x, p. 94 (17.58). 
Type-locality : lihine. 

(718) Lanius senator niloticus. 

The Eastern Woodciiat-Shrike. 

Enncuctomis niloticus ISonpte., l«ev. Zool., 1853, p. 430 (the White 
Nile). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Lores and feathers next the nostrils white; broad 
forehead and a line through the eyes and ear-coverts, extending 
down the sides of the neck, black ; anterior crown, nape and 
hind neck bright chestnut ; back black shading into grey on the 
rump ; upper tail-coverts white ; tail black with white bases and 
tips to each feather, the white increasing laterally until the 
outermost feather is all white with a black patch on the inner 
web; scapulars white; wing-feathers black with a broad white 
patch at the base of all the primaries ; inner secondaries edged with 
whitish ; below white, sometimes washed with fulvous but never 
strongly. This form differs from the "Western Woodchat in 
having the white bases to the feathers much broader. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; legs and feet horny- 
brown to blackish. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm. ; wing 96 to 
104 mm. ; tail 71 to 83 mm. ; tarsus about 25 mm. ; culnien 14 to 
15 mm. 

Young. Pale grey above, barred throughout with dark brown '■> 
below white, very faintly barred on breast and flanks with wavy 
lines of brown ; wing-feathers broadly edged with rufous-white ; 
inner secondaries and scapulars mottled and barred with pale 
rufous and white ; tail like that of the adult. 



300 lanhdjE. 

Nestling like the young bird but more definitely barred below. 
Distribution. Breeding in Persia and Palestine and in "Winter 
South to N.E. Africa, Arabia and very doubtfully to India. 
Ticehurst . has recorded that the specimen said by Murray to have 
come from Daolutpur, in Sind, was really sent him by Cumming 
from Fao. It is, however, certain to be obtained at odd times on 
the Afghan- Baluchistan frontier and a specimen sent to me from 
Quetta for identification was undoubtedly this bird. 

Nidification. The Eastern "Woodehat breeds in some numbers 
in the hills of Palestine during May and June and in Meso- 
potamia and Persia in April and May. In the first-named country 
it builds in olive-groves, placing its nest in these trees between three 
feet and twenty feet from the ground. The nest is a compact 
massive cup made almost entirely of flowering weeds, the flowering 
ends placed outside so that the nest is very conspicuous. The 
eggs number four to six and are replicas of those of the Red- 
backed Shrike but average rattier duller, whilst the pink or cream 
type is exceptional. Fortv eggs average 22-#x 168 mm. : maxima 
250x1.8-0 and 24-8 x 181 mm. ; minima 21-3x10-1 and 22-8 x 
15*5 mm. 

Habits. This Shrike seems to prefer very open country without 
forest but with a sufficiency of bushes and orchards. It frequents 
the more barren and stony hill-sides in the Judsean Hills and 
similar country in Persia and Mesopotamia, not being found, 
except as a Winter visitor, in the open plains of the latter country. 
It is not shy and is said to have a rather sweet song, though its 
ordinary notes are harsh and discordant. 

Lanius cristatus. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. No white patch on the primaries. 

a. Crown of head practically the same 

colour as the back. 
«'. A white supercilium and forehead. L. c. crietatus, p. 300. 
b'. No supercihum or if present very 

slight and fulvous L.e. i*abellinu», p. 302. 

b. Crown of head grey L.e. tucionensit, p. 302. 

B. A small white patch at the base of the 

primaries L. c. phaniciiroidtt, p. 303. 

(719) Lanius cristatus cristatus. 

The Bkown Sheike. 

1mwu» crulattts Linn., S. N., cd. x, p. 03 (1758) (Bengal); Blanf. 
& Oat«js, i, p. 408. 

Vernacular names. Kdhhdte (Beng.); Ker-khelta (Hind.); 
Batle-yuda, Batte-kiriti-rjada (Tel.); Unet-beloo (Burm.). 



LAXICS. 301 

Description. Forehead and a well-defined supercilium white ; 
lores and a line through the ear-coverts black ; upper plumage 
and wing-coverts brown, strongly tinged throughout with Indian 
red and still purer red on the crown ; upper tail-coverts tinged 
with rufous; tail rufous-brown, obsoletely cross-barred with, 
brown and tipped paler ; wing-coverts and quills brownish black 
margined with rufous-fulvous ; chin, throat and cheeks white ; 
remainder of lower plumage bright pale fulvous, richest on the 
flanks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill bluish horny, 
browner on the terminal half and dark at the tip ; legs slaty- 
brown, claws black. 

Measurements. Total length about 190 mm. ; wing 83 to 
91 mm. ; tail 75 to 87 mm. ; tarsus about 25 mm.; culuien about 
15 mm. 

Young birds are barred with black on the upper parts ; the 
rufous margins to the wing-feathers are very broad ; the sides 
of the neck, the flanks and breast are also squainated with 
narrow black crescentic bars. 

Nestling like the young bird but even more boldly barred with 
black. 

Distribution. In Summer throughout Siberia from Lake Baikal 
to Kamchatka and possibly the Hills of Northern China. In 
winter it is found practically throughout Northern India as far 
South as Mt. Abu on the West and Orissa on the East. It is 
found over all the Indo-Chinese countries and South China. A 
few birds are resident in the Eastern Himalayas. 

Nidiflcation. Taczanowski describes the nest and eggs taken 
by him as similar to those of L. colhtrio. 1 took a good many nests 
in the North Cachar Hills and those were all massive but not 
very deep cups of grass, roots and weed-stems, lined with grass.. 
In nearly every instance they were placed in small trees on the 
outskirts of forest and not on trees and bushes in the open. The 
eggs are exactly like those of Laniits n. nigricejps but considerably 
smaller, though the nests of the two species are so unlike one 
another. Fifty eggs average 21*8 x 16*9 mm. : maxima 238 x 
17-1 and 23-6 x 180 mm.; minima 20-0 X 17*0 and 22-0 x 
15'2 mm. The breeding-season is from the end of April to the 
end of June. 

Habits. The Brown Shrike is much more a bird of well-wooded 
tracts thau are most species of this genus and is often found in 
light forest and thtj outskirts of evergreen forest wheu in India. 
In its Northern habitat it is said to frequent marshes aud bush- 
covered plains near water but not to enter the surrounding 
forests. It is an active, quicker Shrike in its movements than its 
larger relations and will occasionally seize an insect on the wing 
as a Flycatcher does. 



302 LANIIDJB. 

(720) Lanius cristatus lucionensis. 

The Philippine Shrike. 

Lanius lucionensis Linn., S. N., ed. xii, p. 135 (1766'/ (Luzon); 
Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 460. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Differs from the Brown Shrike in having the 
whole anterior crown grey and the posterior crown grey shading 
into the red of the back ; the under surface is generally a darker 
fulvous, though this varies greatly. 

Colonrs of soft parts as in the Brown Shrike. 

Measurements. Wing 87 to 92 mm.; tail 77 to 89 mm.; 
tarsus about 24 to 25 mm. ; culmen about 1;"> mm. 

Young and Nestlings may at all stages be separated from 
L. c. cristatus by the greyer head. 

Distribution. Summer, Eastern Siberia and Eastern China, 
Corea and Manchuria. Winter, South China, Burma, Indo- 
Chinese countries, Philippines, Malay Peninsula, Andamaus, 
Nicobars, etc. 

Nidiflcation. Mr. J. D. La Touche took many nests of this 
Shrike both at Chinkiang and in N.E. Chihli. He describes 
them as " large 9tout cups composed of downy grass tops, feathers, 
twigs, grass-stems and, in two cases, to a great extent, of 
pheasants' feathers, said to have been all placed in trees at some 
distance from the ground." The breeding-season is June and 
July. Four seems to be the maximum number laid, and generally 
only three. They are like small, pale and rather grey types of 
eggs of the Ked-backed Shrike but. show much less variation in 
tint of ground-colour than is usual in Shrikes' eggs, this being 
almost invariably a very pale yellowish or greenish white. Fifty 
eggs average 20-0 x 16-4 : maxima 236 X 178 mm. ; minima 208 x 
17-2 and 224 x 16 - mm. 

Habits. They are, according to La Touche, very voracious birds 
and he says he has seen them with a locust held in each foot 
and one in the bill. He succeeded in rearing young birds in 
captivity, the young male uttering a very sweet song before it 
was a year old. 

("21) Lanius cristatus isabellinus. 

The Pale Brows Shrike. 

Lanius isabellinus Hempr. & Ehr., Symb. Phya., Aves, foL e, note 
(1829) (Kampada, Arabia) ; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 467. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Above like L. c. criitatut, but much paler ; no grey 
on forehead and supercilium absent or, if present, very small and 



LAN1US. 303 

fulvous in colour ; below rosy-buff from chin to under tail-coverts, 
albescent on the middle of the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill black in the 
breeding-season, dark horny with paler, more fleshy, base and 
gonys in the winter ; legs and feet horny- to slaty-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 86 to 94 ram. ; tail 64 to 79 mm.., 82 
in one specimen ; tarsus about 25 mm. ; culmen 14 to 15 mm. 

NeBtling and Young like those of the Brown Shrike but much 
paler, the rosy tint of the lower parts is not visible in the young. 
Distribution. Mongolian and Daurian Steppes to East 
Turkestan. In Winter South to Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, 
North- West India, Arabia and North -East Africa. 

Nidiflcation. The Pale Brown Shrike breeds in the mountains 
of Turkestan and Russian collectors have taken numerous nests. 
These are described as typical Shrikes' nests, deep cups made of 
grass and twigs and lined with grass or vegetable down. The 
nests are usually placed in bushes and often quite low down. 
The eggs, which number four to six, are like those of the Red- 
backed Shrike, but smaller and the pink or cream type seems to 
predominate. Forty eggs average 23-5x16-8 mm.: maxima 
241x17-2 and 24-0x17-3 mm.; minima 210x16-9 and 
22-4x160 mm. 

Habits. This is a Shrike of sandy and stony desert places with 
scanty grass and scrub cover. Its habits generally are those of 
the genus and call for no special remark. 

(722) Lanius cristatus phoenicuroides. 

The Rufous Shrike. 

La?iiu* phwnicttroides Severtz., J. f. O., 1873, p. 347 (Tashkent); 
Want. & Gates, i, p. 468. 

Vernacular names. Lai lahtora (Quetta). 

Description. Similar to the Pale Brown Shrike but darker 
above, with more black on the lores and ear-coverts and with 
some signs always of a white supercilium often extending on to 
the forehead ; below it has the same rosy tinge as in the Pale- 
brown Shrike but is much more white ; there is always a small 
patch of white at the base of the primaries. 

Colours of soft parts as L. c. isabellinus. 

Measurements. Wiug 90 to 96 mm.; tail 72 to 82 mm.; 
tarsus about 25 mm. ; culmen about 15 mm. 

Nestlings and Young not separable from those of the preceding 
race. 

Distribution. Breeding in Trans - Caspia, West Turkestan, 
South-West and East Persia, Baluchistan and Afghanistan. In 
Winter it wanders South and is possibly more often found in 



304 TAX11BM. 

ludia than is recognised at present. I have seen specimens from 
Bind, Punjab and one fronTCachar. 

Nidification. General Betbam found this Shrike breeding in 
considerable numbers round about Quetta, between 5,000 and 
7,000 feet in May and June. The nests are said to be " massive 
cup-like structures of the usual Shrike-type built of grass and all 
sorts of oddments, generally lined with some soft material, such 
as seed-down or wool and the bird has a penchant for adding 
scraps of cloth whenever these are available. They are nearly 
always placed in low thorny hushes and, though easily found, are 
bard to get at. Sometimes they are placed in road-side trees 
between six and fourteen feet." The eggs number four to six and 
are like those of Laniu* collurio but smaller. They are bright 
olean-coloured eggs and the cream and pink types greatly 
predominate. Sixty eggs average 22*1 x 17*4 mm.: maxima 
24-0 X 17-0 and 23-2 x 172 mm. ; minima 21 x 170 and 21-3 x 
15*9 mm. 

Habits. The Eufous Shrike frequents open stony ground 
where there are scattered thorn-bushes. General Betham says 
that its habits are quite typical of the genus .- it is generally seen 
perched up on some high thorn-bush, whence it pounces down 
on passing insects. It feeds principally on grasshoppers and 
locusts but eats any kind of insect aud also small birds, lizards, 
etc. Its ordinary notes are harsh and unpleasant but its song 
very sweet and full. 



(723) Lanius tigrinus. 
The Thick-billed Sheike. 

Lanius tigrinus Drapiez, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., xii, p. 523 (1828) 
(Java) ; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 470. 

Vernacular names. Mozu (Japan). 

Description. Forehead, lores, round the eyes and ear-coverts 
black ; crown, nape, neck and upper back dark grey ; lower back, 
scapulars, wing-coverts, rump and upper tail-coverts chestnut 
barred with black ; tail reddish brown, obsoletely barred with 
darker and all but the central feathers tipped with white, preceded 
by a narrow irregular mark of blackish ; below white ; the 
posterior flanks barred brown and dull chestnut ; the thighs barred 
black and white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; edges of eyelids black ; more 
or less of both mandibles pale plumbeous or pale dull blue ; legs 
and feet pale plumbeous blue, lavender-blue, sometimes almost 
smalt-blue {Hume and Davison). 

Measurements. Total length about 175 mm. ; wing 81 to 
85 mm. ; tail 65 to 71 mm. ; tarsus about 24 mm. ; culmen about 
15 mm. 



HEMIPUS. 305 

Young. "Whole upper surface dull chestnut barred throughout 
with black ; eye-streak absent or very small ; below white, the 
breast and flanks squamated narrowly with blackish and tinged 
with cream. 

Distribution. From Ussuri to Korea, Northern China, Japan. 
In Winter to South China, the Indo-Chinese countries and Siam, 
Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 

Nidiftcation. The Thick-billed Shrike breeds in some numbers 
in Japan, where Alan Owston's collectors found their nests both on 
Mfc. Fuji and also in Shensu. The nests are described as the 
usual deep cups made of very miscellaneous articles but chiefly 
of grass and small twigs and they appear to be most often placed 
in low cherry and other fruit-trees in gardens and orchards. The 
eggs number four to six and are like those of Lanius collurio, the 
pink type being more numerous than the others. As a series they 
are bright, richly coloured eggs with bold markings. Fifty eggs 
average 22-2 x 1 6 - 7 mm. : maxima 24" 1 X 17 - 2 and 220 x 178 mm. ; 
minima 21*2 X 10*7 and '22-\ x 15-3 mm. 

They breed during May and June. 

Habits. Those of the genus but this Shrike prefers well-wooded 
though open country and is not a frequenter of the deserts and 
more arid stony hills. It is often found round about villages and 
cultivation. Alan Owston recorded it as very rarely breeding in 
Japan except in certain years, when it was, on the contrary, very 
numerous during the Summer, especially frequenting orchards. It 
has a sweet, and powerful song. 

Genus HEMIPUS. 
Hemipus Hodgs., 1'. Z. S., 1845, p. 32. 
Type, 11. capitaJis. 

The genus llemiims contains two Tndo-Malayan species which 
are found within the area of this work. , 

In Hemipus the sexes differ in colour. The bill is about half 
the length of the head, very much depressed and rather wide and 
the nostrils are nearly hidden by hairs; the wing is fairly long 
and pointed and the tail-feathers graduated. 

Ke;i to Species. 
\. Tail Mack with white tips to lateral fea- 
thers mid n white winjf-bar 11. pieittut, p. 305. 

H. Tail and wings with no white tips or bars. 11. hirimtliniieeus, p. 308. 

Hemipus picatus. 

Key to Stihepccies. 

A. Head black 

a. Hack blnck like the head 11. p. picatus, $ , p. 300. 

!>. Back brown, contrasting with head. ... If- p. enpitalis, <J , p. 307. 

R. Head brown j H p l,, /nV „ /iX g » p 30r _ 

TOL. II. X 



306 LAMIDJR. 

(724) Hemipus picatus picatus. 

The Black-hack KD Pied Shiiikk. 

.Vnscicapa picata Svkes, P. Z. S., IS-'tl', p. Wi (Deccnn). 
Jlemipus picatu*. lllanf. & Dates, i, p. 471. 

Vernacular names. 6V/o<o Ma Latora (Hind.). 
Description. — Adult male. Whole upper plumage glossy black, 
the feathers of the lower back narrowly and those of the rump 
broad/y edged with white, milking a white band above (he tail- 
coverts ; the lateral tail-feathers tipped with white, this increasing 
in width to the outermost ; wing-feathers black, the median covert* 
and the inner secondaries broadly edged with white and the 
innermost greater coverts white also on the inner webs ; chin, 
cheeks aud sides of neck, running up in a semi-collar, white; 
remainder of lower plumage dull vinaceous brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown ; bill black ; legs 
and feet plumbeous brown, the claws almost black. 




l"'ig. 47.— Hend of II. p. picatus. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 nun.; win" 50 to 
64 mm. ; tail 51 to 57 mm. ; tarsus about KJ mm. ; eulmeii about 
1 1 mm. 

Female. Whole upper plumage dark brown instead of black ; 
tail as in the male. 

Nestling brown above, barred with rufous and black ; below 
fulvous equamated with brown. 

Distribution. Ceylon, South - Western India from Cape 
Comoriu to Bombay; Nilgiris and bills of Mysore, Dei-can, 
Bengal, Bebar, Tippera, Chittagong, practically" the' whole of 
Burma except the extreme North, Malay States, Borneo, Jav:i 
and Sumatra. Of the Annam birds some are of this and some of 
• the next race. 

Nidification. The Black-backed Pied Shrike breeds in March, 
April and May in the Western Ghats, where nests were obtained' 
by Messrs. J. Davidson and T. It. Bell, some of which have been 
sent to me. The nests are small shallow saucers made of roots 
tine twigs and perhaps a scrap or two of grass, lichen or moss all 
neatly and strongly fastened together with cobwebs. Nearly all 
the nests are built in cotton-trees, generally about ten or twelve 
feet from the ground but sometimes as high as :i() feet up and 
though the trees are leafless, they are very hard to spot as the * 



v 



HEMIPUS. 307 

are built on the upper surface of one of the outer branches. 
Even when found they are sometimes almost impossible to get at. 
The eggs number two or three only ; the ground-colour is a pale 
greenish white and they are thickly and boldly blotched with inky- 
black and with underlying marks of grey. They measure about 
15-0x 12-5 mm. 

Habits. This little Shrike is curiously like a Flycatcher in its 
ways, catching insects on the wing in little sallies from a branch 
or post but occasionally seizing them on the ground in the usual 
Shrike-like manner. It frequents both tall tree-forest and mixed 
scrub and small tree-cover, often little more than thin bush- 
jungle. In the non-breeding season it is found in quite open 
country and even in gardens and village cultivation. 

(725) Hemipus picatus capitalis. 

The Brown-hacked Pieu Shiuke. 

Mitscicttpa capitalis McClelland, 1\ Z. S., 1838, p. 157 (Assam); 
Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 47^. 

Vernacular names. Vii/nm-pho (Lepcha). 

Description. — Adult male. Similar to //. p. picatus, but with 
the back, rump and scapulars brown instead of black. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. Wing 60 to 67 mm.; tail 52 to CO mm.; 
tarsus 13 to 14 mm. ; culmen about 11 mm. 

Female, Young and Nestling not distinguishable from 
//. p. picatus. 

Distribution. Himalayas, Kuroami to East At' sam, North anil 
South of the Brahmaputra, Mumpur and .Northern Chin Hills, 
North Knchin Hills, North and South Shau States, Yunnan, 
Annam, Cochin China and Yuen Chang in China. 

Although the very great majority of //. p. picatus and H. p. 
capitalis are confined to the localities noted against their respective 
distributions, there are curious occurrences <>f each in the other's 
habitat. Thus there are perfectly typical specimens of picatus 
from Uarjeeling and Mount Victoria in the Chin Hills and an 
equally typical specimen of capitalis from Malabar.- These may 
be wanderers from thtir own areas but are more likely to be 
aberrant specimens. 

Nidiflcation. Breeds in the Himalayas between 3,000 and 
7,000 feet in I ores t, making a nest exactly like that of the Black- 
backed Pied Shrike. The eggs two or three in number, generally 
the latter, are ot two types, one pale greenish white marked with 
blackish like the eggs of the last bird, the second pinkish white 
marked in ihe same manner but with primary markings of brick- 
red and with m cumin ry blotches of lavender and neutral tint. 
Occasionally the eggs are but sparsely marked or the normal 

12 



308 M.NIIDJE. 

blotches are reduced to fine specks. They measure about. 
16-3 x 13-0 mm.: maxima 17'2xl3-3 and 159 x 137 mm.; 
minima 150x 13-0 and 16-0 x 124 mm. The breeding-season is 
from April to June. 

Habits. Those of the last bird, but this race keeps more ex- 
clusively to fairly heavy forest during the breeding-season. In 
winter it is found in the foot-hills of Assam as well as in the 
plains in their immediate vicinity. 

(726) Hemipus hirundinaceus. 

The Malay Pied Shrike. 

yfiiscicapa hirundinaceus Teram., VI. Cnl., iii, p. 51 (18J4) (Java). 
Hemipus obscnrus. Nlanf. & Outes, i, p. 473. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Whole upper plumage, wings and 
tail glossy black ; the feathers of the rump with broad pure white 
edges, making a broad band across this part ; below white, the 
breast and flanks vinous grey ; the outermost tail-leather is edged 
with white all round ; shoulder of wing, axillariesand under wing- 
coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown : bill and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm. ; wing 02 to 
fi7 mm.; tail 50 to 53 mm.; tarsus 13 mm.; oilmen 13 to 
14 mm. 

Female. Black of upper plumage replaced by dark brown, 
otherwise as in the male. 

Distribution. The extreme South of the Malay Peninsula to 
Peninsular Burma and Siam. Once in the North Cachar Hills in 
Assam. 

Nidification. A nest brought to me by a Nag.i in Laisang in 
1888 was a typical Hemipus nest, a shallow cup of fine grasses 
bound together with cobwebs and placed in a small branch of a 
tree in evergreen forest about six feet from the ground. The eggs 
were not Hemipus eggs and I do not therefore describe them, 
though the male bird was brought in still hanging from the noose 
set on the nest and the female was caught immediately after, 
both specimens being now in the Museum in Sophia. 

Habits apparently differing in no way from those of others of 
the genus. 

Genus TEPHR0DORNIS. 

TephrodornisHvrainHOu, Faun. Hor.-Amer., Hirds, App. p. 482 (1881). 

Type, T. vinjata. 

In the genus Tephrodortiis the bill is very strong and about 
three-quarters the length of the head, strongly hooked and 



TKPIIKODOItSie. 30& 

notched; the nasal bristles or hairs are very numerous and 
entirely conceal the nostrils ; the wing is rather rounded and the 
tail is short and square ; the feet are much more feeble than in 
Lanius; the feathers of the rump are exceedingly ample, but 
they are soft and not spinous as in the Perlcroeo'tidce. In our 
two Tndiau species one has the sexes alike and in the other they 
differ slightly. 

Key to Species. 

A. Outer tail-feathers brown tipped with 

rufous ; wing over 100 mm 7'. pelvica, p. 309. 

J{. Outer tail-feathers largely white ; wing 

under 100 mm T. pondkeriana, p. 312: 

Tephrodornis pelvica. 

Key to Subspecies, 

A. Crown and nape ashy-grey; upper back 

nsliy-brown T. p. peliica, p. 309. 

15. Crown and nape dark bluish-ashy, not 

differing markedly from the upper back . . T. p. sylokola, p. 31 J. 

(727) Tephrodornis pelvica pelvica. 

Tiik Nepal Wood-Shkike. 

Tentheca pelvica llodgs., Ind. ltev., i, p. 477 (1837) (Nepal). 
Tephrwlvrnis pelvicn*. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 473. 

Vernacular names. Vohpvjli (Mikir); Ramnun-pho or Babnion- 
pho (Lepcha). 




Kig. 48 -Head of 7'. p. pelvica. 

Description. Lores and a line through the eye to behind thfr 
ear -coverts black ; crown and nape ashy-grey, changing to ashy- 
brown on the buck, wings and tail: rump whitish, barred with 
black and ashy-brown ; the shorter tail-coverts white, the longer 
ashy-brown barred with black; tail ashy -brown, tipped narrowly, 
with pale rufous and subtipped blackish ; most of the coverts and 
inner wing-quills tipped paler; chin, throat and breast pale ashy- 
fawn, fading to white on the centre of the abdomen - and ear- 
coverts. 



310 l/AXIIUA'. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright golden-yellow; edge of the 
eyelids plumbeous-blue; bill black; legs and feet bluish plumbeous 
to dark plumbeous-brown. 

•Measurements. Total length about 230 mm.; wing 110 to 120 
mm.; tail 82 to 90 mm.; tarsus about 20 to 21 mm.; culmen 
about 2!) mm. 

Female. Like the male, but with the head the same colour as 
the back and the eye-band brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris glaucous blue to yellowish brown; 
bill brown, the base and gonys pale yellowish horny ; feet dull 
plumbeous. Very old females sometimes attain a wholly black 
bill. 

Young like the female but barred everywhere above with 
blackish, the wing-feathers edged with fulvous and the inner 
quills barred with dark brown ; the head and neck are spotted 
with white and there are a few similar white spots on the 
back. 
The iris is a dull grey-blue. 

Distribution- Himalayas from Nepal to Eastern Assam, 
practically the whole of Burma in suitable localities ; the Northern 
parts of the Malay Peninsula; Shan States, Yunnan, Siam and 
Cochin China. In the South of the Malay States it is replaced by 
T. p. ffularis, a race very closely allied to T. p. si/lvicola. 

Nidification. In the Hills South of the Brahmaputra this 
Shrike breeds in April and May in dense forests of evergreen. 
The nest is a shallow cradle of roots, tine twigs and tendrils 
fastened together with cobwebs and decorated with lichen and 
scraps of moss; the lining consists of a few fine roots only. Jt 
is not in the least like that described in ' Xests and Kggs,' which 
was assuredly a Shrike's nest, but is like that of 1 1 em i pus or 
Te/>hrodornit pondiccriana. The site selected heems to be always 
one close to some tiny stream and the nest is placed in a horizontal 
fork or on the upper surface of a branch five to ten feet from the 
ground. The eggs number two or three and in character are like 
large Minivets', though of two types. One has the ground-colour 
white, faintly tinged with green or huff, the markings consisting 
of numerous large spots and small blotches of vaudyke-brown 
with secondary spots of neutral tint. The second type has the 
markings more longitudinal and so numerous as to run into 
one another as in the eggs of Pericrocotus enjtfu'apyfiiu*. In 
shape they are broad ovals and they measure about 22-0 x 
17*8 mm. 

Habits. In the non-breeding season the Wood-Shrike keeps in 
small flocks consisting of the parent birds and their last brood, 
two families sometimes joining forces. They are excessively 
noisy birds, constantly calling and chattering to one another 
«xactly as do- birds of the genus Gampsorhynchus and they have, 



TBPIIBODOBHIS. 311 

also, the habit of playing at follow-ray-leader from one branch to 
another in the bamboo or other thin jungle which they frequent, by 
preference, at this season. Theyfeedboth on treesand bushes, and 
occasionally on the ground but they never perch like Shrikes on a 
look-out point of vantage and seize passing insects, always hunting 
for them among the living foliage or fallen leaves. In Winter they 
are most common from the foot-hills up to about 2,000 feet, in 
Summer ascending some 2,000 feet higher and breeding only in 
the deepest forests. 1 have never heard them utter anything one 
could call a song. 



(TriS) Tephrodornis pelvica sylvicola. 
Tub Malabab Wood-Shrike. 

'J'i/>lirtnloruU xt/lnicola Jerdon, Mudr. Journ. L. S., x, p. 236 (1830) 
(Miilubnr Coast.) ; Hlanf. & Gates, i, p. 474. 

Vernacular names. Pluiri. latom (Hind.). 

Description. — Adult male. Differs from the male T. p. pelvica 
in being dark bluish ashy on the crown, changing to dark ashy- 
brown on 1 lie other upper parts ; below it is also much darker 
vinous ashy on the breast and flanks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris oil-yellow to bright golden-yellow ; 
hill black; legs and feet dark plumbeous or bluish plumbeous. 

Measurements. Wing 111 to 119 mm.; tail 76 to 85 mm.; 
tarsus about 20 nun.; culnien about 20 mm. 

Female. Upper parts dark brown, the head and back con- 
colorous; the eye-band brown and the breast fulvous ashy or 
brownish ashy. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dull pale blue-grey ; bill brown ; 
legs and feet dark plumbeous. 

Distribution. The West Coast of India from the extreme South 
almost to Bombay City, Nilgiris and adjoining Hills, Xelliainpathy 
Hills etc. up to nearly 0,000 feet. 

Nidification. The .Malabar Wood-Shrike breeds from March to 
June, during which months nests with eggs have been found by 
Messrs. Bell and Davidson (Bombay Pres.), Kinloeh (Nelliampathv 
Hills), and Mr. J. Stewart (Travancore). The neat is exactly like 
that of T. p. pelvica and is apparently always placed in a tree in 
thick forest, often in one growing in a densely wooded ravine 
running through lighter forest. The eggs seem invariably to be 
two only, and are like the first type described as those of the 
preceding race. They measure about 22 - 0xl8 - l mm. 

Habits. Much the same as those of the Nepal Wood-Shrike, 
but unlike that bird they prefer dense forest to bambco-jungle and 
light scrub, even in Winter. 



312 LASIIBJK. 

Tephrodomis pondiceriana. 

Kmj to Sithspecits. 

A. Upper plumage ashy-brown. 

a. Darker, lores and eye -streak dark 

bi-o-wn T. )>. pondteeriana. p. ol£. 

b. Paler, loresand eye-streak pale blown. 7". /'. pallida, p. SI 4. 

B. Upper plumage ashy-grey T. p. riffim*, P- 3I& 

(729) Tephrodornis pondiceriana pondiceriana. 

The Ixdiax Common Wood-Shbike. 

Mtaeicapa pondiceriana Gmel., S. N., i, p. 930 (1780) (l'oiidieherry, 

Coroinandel Uoat-t) 
Tephrodornis pondicerianus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 4~;"> (part.). 

Vernacular names. Tarti tuyu (U.P.); Chu-duk-l-a (Beng.). 

Description. — Adult male. A supereilium from the front of the 
eye, very broad posteriorly, white: lores, cheeks and ear-coverts 
blackish brown ; upper plumage and visible portions of wings asliy- 
brown ; a white band across the rump formed by the tips of the 
feathers of this part ; upper tail-coverts black ; tail dark brown, 
the two outermost pairs of feathers white except for a patch of 
brown at the extreme base and a similar small one near the tip, the 
remaining lateral feathers edged with white ; lower plumage ashy- 
grey, almost white on the chin, throat, abdomen and vent and quite 
so on the lower tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris yellowish brown, dull olive-green or 
light greenish brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; bill horny-brown to 
dark horny-brown, month and corner of commissure fleshy-yellow ; 
legs and feet dark plumbeous-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 160 to 170 mm. ; wing 83 
to 91 mm.; tail 61 to 67 mm.; tarsus about 20 mm.; culmen 
about 17 mm. 

Female similar to the male but with the eye-streak paler. 

Nestling brown, spotted above with fulvous-white, with 
edges faintly darker than the surrounding brown ; wing-coverts 
boldly tipped with white, the greater coverts and innermost 
secondaries with longitudinal black submargins and streaks ; 
below fulvous-white with brown spots, most numerous on the 
breast. 

Distribution. All India, except the parts inhabited by the next 
two races ; Burma, South to Tenasserim, where it is rare, iiiani, 
Annam. 

Nidiflcat'on. The Common Wood-Shrike breeds on the AVest 
Coast of Jiidia from March to June and in the North-East 
portion of its habitat from May to July but in those parts of the 
country where it is very common, as in Poona, nests may be found 
in almost any month from February to September. It makes a 



TEPHBODOBN1S. 313 

small very compact cup-shaped nest, sometimes rather flat and 
shallow, of fine stems of weeds, grasses and roots, well bound 
together with cobwebs and placed in a fork of a tree in open 
country, hedges, gardens and orchards but never, apparently, in 
heavy forest. The eggs number three or four and in ground- 
colour vary from white to very pale buff or pale green ; the 
markings in the paler eggs consist of specks and spots of almost 
black and in the darker eggs of blotches and smudges of various 
shades of brown ; in both types there are secondary or underlying 
blotches of pale neutral tint. Fifty eggs average 1 9-3 X 15*3 mm. : 
maxima 21-0x13-8 and 19-3x16-2 mm. ; minima 17-7x15-3 and 
21-0x13-8 mm. 

Habits. The Common Wood-Shrike is a bird of open country, 
thin scrub, bamboo-jungles or deciduous forest and is seldom, if 
ever, found in dense, humid, evergreen forest. It is found in small 
family-parties of four to half a dozen. In Behar it haunts quite 
open fields and plains but on the West Coast seems to keep to 
better-wooded tracts. It does not descend to the ground, nor 
does it ever catch insects on the wing as the birds of the genus 
//emi/nts do but bunts the leaves and branches of bushes and 
trees for its insect-prey. It has a pretty, but not powerful, little 
song, which it sings in the breeding-season perched on some branch 
high up in a tree. 

(730) Tephrodornis pondiceriana affinis. 

The Cktlox Wood-Shkike. 

Tejthiodnrnu affinis Myth, J. A. S. B.,xvi, p. 473 (1847) (Ceylon). 
Tephronvrnis jMvtlicrriatitu. Manf. it Oates, i, p. 47o (part.). 

Vernacular names. Ula pitta (Tel.) 

Description. Differs from the Indian form in being much more 
grey and in having the white supercilium smaller. The tail is 
very short. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 84 to 87 turn. ; tail 49 to 56 mm. ; tarsus 
about 18 mm.; culmeu It! to 19 mm. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidification. Very similar to that of the preceding race. 
Messrs. W. E. Waite and W. A. A. Phillips describe the nest as 
a shallow cup of fibres decorated outside with chips of bark and 
lichen, and well hound with cobwebs to the fork of the tree in 
which it is placed. The eggs are quite indistinguishable from those 
of the other races, but only number two or three. Fifty egg* 
average 19*0 X 15-1 mm. : maxima 210x160 mm. ; minima 
181x150 and 18 5x14*3 mm. 

The breeding-season lasts from January to July. 

Habits. This Wood-Shrike is found from the level of the 
Plains up to 5,000 feet and occasionally up to 6,000 feet. 



314 TjANIIDS. 

According to Legge, its habits are very different to those of its 
more northern cousins. It is less gregarious, being generally 
found in pairs and it often sallies after insects, catching them on 
the wing as Flycatchers do. It is said to have a pretty song 
■constantly indulged in and to be very tame and confiding. 

(7:51) Tephrodornis pondiceriana pallida. 

Tne Sind Wood-Shiuke. 

Trphrmloniis )Htn<licr.riunus pa/lidus Ticelmrst, Hull. It. <'.('., xh, 
p. oti (Hd'O) (Link liana, Sind). 

Vernacular names. Kn-ouhi (Hind.). 

Description. Differs from T. p. pondiceriana in its generally 
paler coloration and the lighter brown lores, eye-streak and ear- 
coverts. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements the same as in the 
Common Wood-Shrike. 

Distribution. Sind, Punjab, Simla Hills, Rajputana and the 
Western part of the United Provinces and Centra! Provinces. 
Specimens from the two latter Provinces are intermediate and 
could be placed with either race. 

Nidification. This differs in no way from that of the Common 
Wood-Shrikt; and the nest and eggs are quite indistinguishable 
from those of that bird. The breeding-season seems to last from 
February to June. 

Habits. Those of the species. 

Genus PLATYLOPHUS. 

t'lati/loji/tus Swainson in Faun. lior.-Ani., p. 48li (18.'il). 

Type, I', rjahriculatus. 

The genus Platt/lo-phus is characterized by a remarkable long 
crest of broad feathers. The bill is about equal to three-quarters 
of the head in length and is strongly curved, notched, laterally 
compressed and deep ; the nostrils are concealed by numerous 
closely set hairs ; the wing is comparatively short and very 
rounded; the tail is ample and well graduated and the tarsus 
is short and stout. The sexes are alike. Only one species is 
found within our limits. 

(73-!) Platylophus galericnlatus ardesiacus. 

Tub Tkxasberim Jav-Shhike. 

Lojihocitta ardetiaca Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, p. 219 (1850) (Malay 

Peninsula). 
I'lntyluphm ardcsiacut. Ulanf. & Oates, i, p. 477. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



PJ/ATYI/OPHUS. 



315 



Description. Head, crest and neck almost black with a large 
white neck-patch and a small white spot abovi; and below the 
back of the eye ; the crest is nbsoletelv cross-rayed with black ; 
upper plumage, wings and tail very dark brown, the wing-quills 
edced with rather more rufous-brown; below smoky-brown to 
dark slaty-brown. 



Fig. 4i).-Hcud of /'. y. itrdctincus. 



Colours of soft parts. Iris reddish brown, " rhubarb-brown to 
litharge-red " (Hume and Dav.); eyelids dark brownish black; 
bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 280 mm. ; wing 132 to 
145 mm. ; tail 112 to 127 mm. ; tarsus about 34 mm. ; culmen 29 
to 30 mm. ; crest 87 to 99 mm. 



316 



1.ANIIB.E. 



Young. Above much browner and lighter than in the adult, the 
wing-coverts tipped with fulvous ; below barred white and dark 
brown from chin to under tail-coverts. 

Nestling. Above chestnut, wings spotted with fulvous ; below 
mottled chestnut and blackish. 

Distribution. South Tenasseriin and South-East Siam, down 
tl\e Malay Peninsula. 

Nidiflcation. Unknown. 

Habits. According to Davison this extraordinary bird is only 
found in evergreen forests. He writes, " It is a very restless hird 
flying about from tree to tree and branch to branch incessantly, 
sumetiines close to the ground, sometimes high up. Even when 
seated, it seems unable to keep its body quiet, but keeps bobbing 
and bowing. It always keeps its crest lullv erected. Its note is 
a sharp clicking metallic rattle." 



PKBICUOCOTID/E. 317 



Family PERICROCOTLDiE. 

The name of the genus Citmpepltaga being unfortunately pre- 
occupied, it is impossible for the family to be called after it. The 
next oldest genus is Pericrocotug, and the family will therefore 
have to be known by the above name. The characteristics are 
those of the Laniidas but the feathers of the rump have stiffened 
apiny shafts. As a whole, also, the wings are proportionately 
longer and more pointed and the legs and feet are comparatively 
weaker. 



Key to Genera. 

A. Tail long anil strongly graduated, outermost Tp. 31". 

feathers less than half tiie length of tail .... Pkwcuocotl's, 
1$. Tail not very long, less graduated, the outer- 
most feathers more than three-quarters the 
length of tail. 
«. Secondaries shorter than longest primary by 

about length of tarsus Lalaoe, p. 336. 

I>. Secondaries shorter than longest primary by 

about twice the length of tarsus Gkaucat.us, p. 342. 



Genus PERICROCOTUS. 

Pericrocntut Boie, Isis, lf<23, p. 972. 
Type, /'. uiiniitttis. 

This gen uk contains a large number of species, extending over 
practically the whole Oriental Hegion, which are remarkable for 
their brilliant plumage, in which red or yellow is the dominant 
colour. . 

The bill is about half the length of the head, strong, hooked 
and notched ; the nostrils ore concealed by plumes ; the wing is 
long and pointed ; the tail is long and much graduated, and the 
feet are weak. 

Key 1o Species. 

A. Tail black and red ; upper tail-coverts red. 

a. Crown and back glossy black. [p. 318. 

a'. Innermost secondaries with oval red drops. P. syeeiomt, <S, 
b'. Innermost secondaries with no oval red 
drops. 
a". Under wing-coverts and axillaries [p. 323. 

crimson P. breiirostris, tf , 



318 PBBICEOCOIID^i. 

b". Under wing-coverts and axillaries 

yellow P. iyneut, J , p. 325. 

6. Crown and back ashy or grey, never black. 
c'. Wing over 80 mm. 

e". Lower plumage bright scarlet P. Solaris, 3 , p. •'526. 

it". Lower plumage rosy-red P. rosette, J , p. 328. 

if. Wing under 75 mm. [p. 329. 

<•". Throat grey to black ; breast scarlet. . P. jieret/ritms, <$ • 

[p. 330. 

/". Lower plumage all pale yellow P. peregrin us, 2 , 

;/". Lower plumage all bright yellow .... P. igneus, 2, p. 320. 

B. Tail black and yellow ; upper tail-coverts 

yellow. [p. .'518. 

e. Innermost secondaries with oval yellow spots. P. speciosus, $, 

d. Innermost secondaries with no oval yellow 

spots. 
e. Upper back and lower back not con- 

colorous P. Solaris, 2 < P- •'-*»• 

/'. Upper back and lower back concolnrous. 

h". Hump and. upper tail-coverts all deep [p 323. 

yellow P. brevirostris, 2 , 

t". Rump and upper tail-coverts margined 

with yellow P. rosetis, 2 , p. 328. 

C. Tail black and white ; upper tail-coverts grey, 

brown or black. 

e. Rump red, or white marked with red. 

«'. Dark parts of upper plumage glossv 

black. * [p. 332. 

-/". Forehead and chin black P. erythropy;iin*, rf , 

k". Forehead and chin white P. albifnms, J , 

h'. Dark parts of upper plumage smoky- Ip. 334. 

brown. [p. 333. 

/". Rump uniform orange-red P. ertiHropi/gius, 2 , 

m". Rump white streaked with red P. albifnms, 2> 

f. Rump with no trace of red. [p. •'5154. 
i. Back and rump the same colour P. cinirriis, p. ."534. 

;'. Rump much paler than back P. cantoneiisis, 

[p. 335. 

Fericrocotus speciosus. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Underpurts deep scarlet. 

a. First two primaries with no red on the 

outer webs. 

«'. Bigger, wing 9fi mm. or over P.s. speciosus, p. 31 9. 

b'. Smaller, wing 90 to 90mm P. t.Jraterculus, 

b. First thret- primaries with no red on the [p. 320. 

outer webs. [p. 321. 

c. Bases of tail-fentliers nearly all red .... P. a. flummifer, 
d'. Bases of tail-feathers with a considerable [p. 322. 

amount of black P. s. andanmnensis, 

1». Underparts more orange, less scarlet P.s. flammeus, p. 322. 



PKlliCROCOTUS. 311)" 

(733) Pericrocotus speciosus speciosus. 

The Indian Scahlkt Mimvut. 

Turdus speciosus Lntb., Ind. Orn., i, p. 30,'i (1790) (Darjiling). 
l'ericrucotus speciosus. Blanf. & Oatea, i, p. 479. 

Vernacular names. Dao-r iU (Cachari); Ingorui (Kacha Naga); 
Vohshener (Mikir). 

Description. — Adult male. Whole bead, neck, back, scapulars 
and lesser wing-coverts glossy black; rump, upper tail-coverts. and 
whole lower plumage scarlet, the abdomen and under tail-coverts 
more or less tinged with orange ; greater wing-coverts scarlet ; 
primary-coverts black : primaries black with a broad baud of 
scarlet across the base ot all but the first two or, occasionally, 
first three; secondaries black, the innermost with oval scarlet 
drops on the outer webs ; tail scarlet, the central feathers either 
all black or with scarlet patches on the edge of the outer web or, 
sometimes, with a scarlet streak at the tip. 




t'ij;. 50. — Head of V. s. sjwhisu*. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 230 mm.; wing 06 to- 
106 mm.; tail 80 to 100 mm. ; tarsus about 18 mm.; culmen 
about 14 to 15 mm. 

Female. Forehead and short narrow supen-jlium orange-yellow, 
paler posteriorly and changing to grey on the posterior crown,, 
back, scapulars and lesser coverts, the latter often tinged with 
olive-yellow ; rump and upper tail-coverts rich yellow tinged 
with green ; greater coverts black tipped with yellow ; primaries 
black with a broad yellow patch at the base of all but the first two- 
or, rarelv, three; secondaries black with yellow bases and the 
innermost with the oval spots, sometimes spreading into yellow 
borders, on the outer webs ; lores blackish grey, whole lower 
plumage bright yellow ; tail, central pair of feathers black 
generally without any yellow marking, next pair black tipped 
with yellow and with yellow on the outer web in varying degree ; 
remaining feathers yellow with dark bases of varying width and 
shape ; in a few cases the yellow is somewhat orange towards- 
the base. 

Colours of soft parts ns in the male. 
Measurements. Wing 92 to 101 mm. 



320 PERicnocoribJE. 

Young males are like the female. The change of plumage from 
yellow to red in all the Minivets is very interesting, as specimens 
are numerous which show signs of attaining an increase of red in 
the old feathers prior to the moult. Birds in this stage show no 
signs of the barring on the upper surface and are obviously under- 
going, or about to undergo, the second moult. 

Nestling. Upper parts olive-brown, the leathers very narrowly 
lipped with yellowish and with subtermifoal dark bars. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej Valley to Eastern 
Assam North of the Brahmaputra. Birds from the Khasia Hills 
are certainly referable to this race, but those from the adjoining 
North Cachar Hills are nearer fraterculns. The fauna of the 
Khasia Hills is more like that of the Northern Hills than that of 
the Southern and at one time these hills were undoubtedly bisected 
by the Brahmaputra. This species extends across the Northern 
Kachin Hills into Yunnan (Rothschild). 

Nidification. This Minivet. breeds from the end of April to 
early June, making a lovely, shallow saucer-shaped nest of fine 
pliant twigs, grass-stems and fine roots well matted together with 
spiders' webs nnd invariably decorated with lichen, scraps of bark 
or moss to make it resemble the tree on which it is placed. The 
site selected is apparently always in forest and generally in such 
as is very heavy and humid and the nest is placed on some small tree, 
alive or dead, between ten and twenty feet from the ground. The 
eggs probably number two to four, though I have never seen more 
than three myself. The ground-colour is a pale sea-green, spotted 
and blotched uithdnrk brown and wit h secondary blotches of dark 
lavender. Thev measure between 20-3x1 6-0 mm. and 23-0 X 
J6-9 mm. The" birds breed between 3,000 and 0,000 feet and 
possibly a good deal higher. 

Habits. Differ in no way from those of the next race. 

(734) Pericrocotus speciosus fraterculus. 

The Burmese Scarlet Minivet. 

1'ericrocotu* fraterculus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1870, p. 244 (Hainan) ; 
Blauf. & Ofltes, i, p. 481. 

Vernacular names, llnet-minlha (Burmese) ; Doorihi gadeba 
•(Cachari) ; Ingorui (Kacha Naga) ; Vohsheucr (Mikir). 

Description. This race only differs, constantly, in being smaller 
than tpeciosus and in the lower plumage being a somewhat, 
deeper red in the males and a rather richer yellow in the females. 
In most individuals there is more red on the central tail-feathers, 
the whole outer web being often of this colour. 

Colours of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. Wing 90 to 96 mm. (one, 97); tail 78 to 
81 mm. ; tarsus about 18 mm. ; culmeii 13 to 14 mm. 



BIRDS. VOL II. 



PLATE IV, 




PERICROCOTUS SPECIOSUS FRATERCULUS. 
Th* Burmoao Scarlet Minivat. &• 

'/i i;r* ai». 



PBBICBOCOTUS. 321 

Distribution. Assam South of the Brahmaputra except the 
Khaaia Hills, all Burma except in the South of Tenasserim ; 
Siam, Annam and the Iudo-Chiuese countries to "West China and 
Hainan. 

Nidiflcation. In Assam this Mini vet breeds between 1,000 and 
6,000 feet in fairly thick or dense forest. The nest is exactly 
like that of the preceding race nor are the few eggs I have seen 
in any way different. A pair taken by myself are very pale sea- 
green with tiny specks and streaks of light reddish, hardly visible 
at a short distance; two other pairs, one taken by Dr. H. N. 
Coltart at Margherita and one brought to me by Nagas with the 
bird, are also very pale with a few brownish spots, but have a 
buff instead of greenish ground. They measure 23-0 X 14*3 mm. 
to 23 , 0xl5'8 mm. The breeding-season is May and June. 

Habits. The Burmese Minivet is found from the level of the 
Plains up to at least 6,000 feet. In the breeding-season, when it 
is only found in pairs, it keeps almost entirely to forest, but 
in the cold weather, when it collects in flocks of twenty or more 
individuals, it is often found in the open country as long as 
there are lots of trees. It keeps entirely to trees of some height, 
seldom coming much below 20 feet and there are few prettier 
sights than a flock of these little red and yellow flashes of light as 
they Hit, in follow-my-leader fashion, from one point of vantage 
to auother. They are restless active birds, never still for many 
minutes, hunting actively among the branches for insects or 
actually seizing them in the air us Flycatchers do. They have a 
shrill but pleasant little call which they utter as they fly, but 
they have no song worthy of the name. 

(735) Pericrocotus speciosus flammifer. 

Davison's Scarlet Minivet. 

Pericrocotus flammifer Hume, S. F., iii, p. 321 (1875) (Pakchai), 
S. Burma) ; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 482. 

Vernacular names. Hnei-mintha (Burmese). 

Description, Differs from the preceding races in having the 
first three primaries wholly black ; the female differs in having 
the first four primaries without any yellow instead of the first 
three only. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 81 to 94 mm. but nearly all below 
90 mm. ; tail 71 to 81 mm. ; tarsus about 18 mm. ; culmen 13 to 
14mm. 

Distribution. South of Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula and 
East Siam. 

Nidiflcation. Unknown. 

Habits. Those o£ the genus, but there is very little on record 
about this Minivet. 

VOL. II. v 



322 PBBICBOOOTIDJE. 

(736) Pericrocotua speciosns andamanensis. 

The Akdamakbsx Scabubt Minivbt. 

Perierocofu* audamanensU Tytlor. Beavan, Ibis, 1807, p. 322 (Anda- 
man*) ; Rlanf. & Oates, i, p. 481. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Only differs from the preceding bird in colour in 
having a great denl of black at the base of the lateral tnil-feuthers 
instead of having them wholly red or almost so. It averages a 
good deal larger also. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 89 to 95 mm. ; tail 75 to 89 mm. ; tarsus 
about 18 mm. ; cultnen 13 to 14 mm. 

Distribution. Andamans only. 

Nidiflcation and Habits. iS'othing recorded. 

(737) Pericrocotus speciosus flammeus. 

Thb Orange Mikivet. 

Mutcicapa Jlammea Foret, Ind. Zool., p. 2~> (1781) (Travancore). 
Pericrocotus Jlammeus. Blanf. & Outei, i, p. 482. 

Vernacular names. Phari-balal chasm (llmd.) ; Suli-sanyam, 
cS , Atan-buradi, $> (of the Halopvks, Jerd.) ; Gene-hurula 
(Ceylon). 

Description. Differs from all the other races of tpeciomt in 
having the lower parts orange-red, whilst the females difl'er from 
the others in having the lower parts a much paler yellow and in 
having the forehead narrower and a paler yellow. In the male 
the first three, often the first four, primaries are unmarked with 
red, whilst the female has no yellow on the first four. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing 90 to 95 mm. ; one Ceylon bird has it 
only 87mm.; tail 83 to 95mm.; tarsus about 18 mm.; cultnen 
about 14 to 15 mm. 

listribution. South-Western India from Khandala to Cape 
Cormorin, Mysore, Nilgiris, Palniand adjacent hills; Ceylon. 

Nidiflcation. The Orange Minivet breeds in the Nilgiris and 
Palni Hills in July and in Ceylon in February. The nest is 
quite typical of the genus and two eggs are described as pale 
greenish, sparingly blotched with pale yellowish brown in one 
egg and in the second with brown and lilac spots and specks. 
The two eggs measured 25-1x170 mm. and 22-3x17-2 mm. 
Two other eggs sent me from Ceylon are pale sea-gre«»n profusely 
maiked with reddish brown. They measure 19"2xl3 - 6 and 
19-0x13-0 mm., possibly unusually small. 



pericrocotfs. 323 

Habits. The Orange Minivet is found from the level of the sea 
up to about 6,000 feet, but only in well-wooded country, and 
during the breeding-season it keeps entirely to forest. In 
Winter it collects in flocks and haunts the upper branches' of high 
trees, catching insects on the wing and also hunting for them both 
on the branches and the moss-covered trunks themselves. Legge 
says that it has a " weak, though cheerful little warble," which it 
constantly utters. It assembles in small flocks and, as the young 
birds resemble the adult female, the natives give the one or two 
full-grown cock-birds with the flock the credit of running a 
harem. 

Pericrocotus brevirostris. 

Key to tiubsjtecies . 

A. Wing over 80 mm. 

a. I'luniaire black and crimson-red. 

a. RdIow paler crimson P. h. brevirostris, <S , p. 323. 

b. Below deeper crimson P. b. affinis, o > P- 324. 

b. Plumage grey and yellow. 

c. Above grey with a distinct preen 

tinge P. b. brevirostris, V , P- 323. 

d. Above darker grey with no green 

tinge P. b. rtffinis, 2 , p- 324. 

15. Wing under 8(3 mm P. b. neglectua, p. 325. 

(738) Pericrocotus brevirostris brevirostris. 

TllK INDIAN SHORT-BILLED MlNIYET. 

Mu.*cii>et<i breviroxtris Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 43 (Mussoorie). 
Pericrocotnn breviiostri*. JSlanf. & Oates, i. p. 483. 

Vernacular names. Chota Phari-balal-chasm (Hind.). 

Description. — Adult male. Whole head, back, scapulars, lesser 
wing-coverts, outer median and greater coverts black ; entire lower 
surface, rump and upper tail-coverts scarlet-crimson, rather pale 
below ; quills black with the bases of all but the outer four with 
crimson bases ; tips to greater coverts and bases of secondaries 
crimson, the crimson extending as an edge to two or three of the 
middle secondaries ; tail, central feathers black, the next pair red 
on the outer web, black on the inner, the black decreasing in 
extent on each succeeding pair. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill and legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm. ; wing 88 to 
96 mm. ; tail 93 to 115 mm. ; tarsus about 16 mm. ; culmen 11 
to 12 mm. 

Female. Forehead greenish yellow, eyelids feathered yellow 
above and below lemon-yellow ; upper part of the head, back, 
scapulars and lower wing-coverts light grey, tinged with olive ; 
rump olive-yellow ; upper tail-coverts brighter, more orange- yellow ; 
wing-feathers black, marked as in the male but with yellow, 

y2 



324 pebicrocotiim:. 

not red; tail as in the mule but yellow and black ; lower surface 
yellow, slightly deeper on the breast. 

Young. Above olive-green, the leathers edged paler and barred 
with blackish : below yellow, mottled with brownish green on 
the breast and flanks. 

Distribution. Northern India from the plains adjacent to the 
foot-hills of the Himalayas up to 10,000 feet in the mountains 
themselves, from Gilgit and Murree to Nepal, extending as 
far South as the Central Provinces and Lower Bengal in 
Winter. 

Nidification. The Short-billed Minivet breeds in April, May, 
June and July in the Himalayas from 3,000 up to about S,000 
feet and at "this time completely deserts the Plains and lower 
hills. The nests are just like those of other birds of this genus, 
shallow saucers made of line twigs, bents and roots, matted 
with cobwebs and covered outside with lichen or hark to resemble 
the bough on which they are placed. The eggs number two 
to four and are short broad ovals in shape and in colour are white 
just tinged with cream, buff or green, profusely covered witli 
blotches, spots and longitudinal marks of brownish red with 
secondary markings of grey or neutral tint. Fifty eggs average 
19-8xl5-l mm.: maxima 210x 15-0 and tiO-JxlS'd mm.; minima 
18 6x 15-1 and 196x130 mm. 

Habits. This Minivet most undoubtedly moves vertically with 
the seasons, though it is not migratory in the true sense of 
the word. It is not rare in the foot-hills and adjoining plains 
in Winter but is seldom seen below 3,000 feet once the breeding- 
season commences. It has the usual gregarious and cheerful 
habits of the genus and often several family parties will join 
together to form a flock of thirty to forty birds. The members 
scatter a good deal when feeding, though they keep up :i 
constant twittering call to one another the whole 'time and 
the flight of any one bird to a distant, tree is the signal to 
one and all to follow up at short intervals. It is a tame 
bird and does not shun observation unless too closely pressed. 

(739) Pericrocotus brevirostris aflinis. 

The Assam Short-billed Minivet. 
Pericrocotus affinis McClell., P. Z. S., 1839, p. lCfi (Assam). 

Vernacular names. LaK-rajuh-sorai (Assamese); Duo-ril>i- 
kashiba (Cachari). 

Description. Similar to P. brevirostris, but deeper crimson 
below. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
birds. Wing 94 to 112 mm. ; tail 97 to 120 mm. 

Female. Above a darker grey than in P. b. brevirostris and 
with no green tinge ; the throat is lemon-yellow instead of whitish 



PEEICKOCOXUS. 325 

yellow, and the rest of the lower plumage is a bright deep yellow 
frequently tinged with orange. 

Distribution. Assam, North Burma, Shan States, Kachin Hills. 

Sikkim birds are typical afflnis, whilst Nepal birds are 
intermediate between this and the last form. 

McClelland in describing his ajjinis from Assam obviously 
compares it with a Western Himalayan bird, and well defines the 
differences between the two forms. His name must therefore 
stand for the Eastern form, whilst the type-locality must be 
somewhere in the AVestern Himalayas. 

Nidification unknown. 

Habits. Those of the species. In Assam and Burma it is purely 
a forest-bird, and even in winter is not often found in the open 
as is its Indian cousin. 

(740) Pericrocotus brevirostris neglectus. 

Ht.me's MunvET. 

Pericrocotus nvgketti* Hume, S. F., v. p. 171 (1877) (Tenasserim); 
Blanf. & Oates, i. p. 484. 

Vernacular names. Jlnel-mintha (Burmese). 

Description. A small deeply coloured race of P. b. hrtvirostris 
with a comparatively short tail. In the only specimen of a male 
in the British Museum there are no red edges to the central 
secondaries. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Measurements. Wing S3 to 85 mm. ; tail 81 to 84 mm. ; culmen 
barely 11 mm. 

Distribution. Muleyit Mountains and Meetan in Tenasserim. 

Nidification unknown. 

Habits. Similar to those of the other races. 

(741) Pericrocotus igneus. 

The Fieux Minivet. 

Pericrocotus ignetit Myth, J. A. S. B., xv, p. 309 (1846) (Malacca); 
Hlanf. & Oates, i, p." 484. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description.— Adult male. Whole head, back, scapulars and 
wing-coverts black ; the greater coverts edged with scarlet ; quills 
black, all but the first four primaries with a patch of scarlet- 
crimson ; rump, upper tail-coverts and lower plumage crimson, the 
bases of the feathers yellow and showing through in places ; two 
middle pair of tail-feathers black, the second generally with a little 
red at the tip ; the lateral tail-feathers red with a varying amount 
of black at the base. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 



326 PEBICB0COT1D.E. 

Measurements. Total length about 160 mm. ; wing 70 to 76 mm. ; 
tail 62 to 68 mm. ; tarsus about 15 mm. ; culmen 10 toll mm. 

Female. Forehead, round the eye, whole lower plumage, 
axillaries and under wing-coverts bright golden yellow ; upper 
parts of the head, back and wing-coverts ashy-grey ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts scarlet ; wings as in the male but with orange 
markings; tail as in the male but the scarlet markings more 
orange. 

Young. Above grey-brown, barred with whitish and dark brown ; 
below yellowish white mottled with brown on the breast. 

Distribution. From Tenasserim, through the whole of the Malay 
Peninsula to Sumatra, Borneo and Palawan ; Sium. 

Nidiflcation. A nest and eggs with bird obtained near Perak 
were sent to me by Mr. W. A. T. Kellow. The nest is like that 
of Pericrocotus peregrimu but rather larger. It is made of fine 
twigs and roots matted together as usual with cobwebs and 
covered outside with lichen. From the indentations under the 
nest it appears to have been built resting on a branch of a tree 
where it divided out into three smaller branches. It was taken on 
the 7th of May. The two eggs measure 20*5 in length and 15- 1 
and 15-2 in breadth and are pale yellowish in ground-colour, 
profusely marked with brown and grey all over. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 

Pericrocotus Solaris. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Rump and upper tail-coverts scarlet-crimsou. 1'. *. Solaris, p. 32l>. 

B. Rump and upper tail-coverts brick-red P. s. ripponi, p. .'i27. 

(742) Pericrocotus Solaris Solaris. 

The Yellow- tiiroate d Mm vet. 

Pericrocotus Solaris Blyth, J. A. S. I}., xv, p. .".10 (1840) (I)arjiling) ; 
Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 485. 

Vernacular names. Dao titha raja yahtrba, Dao ribi gaherbu 
(Cachari). 

Description. — Adult male. The upper part of the head, back, 
scapulars and wing-coverts slaty-black; rump and upper tail- 
coverts scarlet-crimson ; outer webs of 5th and 6th primaries 
nearly all scarlet and bases of all quills except first four primaries 
scarlet-crimson; central rectrices wholly black, next pair black 
with broad red tips and more or less of tbe outer webs black ; 
lateral tail-feathers more and more red and less and less black; sides 
of head and neck grey ; chin greyish white ; throat orange-yellow ; 
remainder of lower plumage scarlet, not quite so deep as the rump. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright hazel to deep brown ; bill, legs 
and feet black. 



KERICROCOTirS. 327 

Measurements. Total length about 175 mm.; wing 80 to 90 mm. • 
tail 83 to 97 mm. ; tarsus about 15 mm. ; culmen about 10 mm. 

Female. Head, neck and upper back ashy-grey, changing 
to olive-green on the lower back, scapulars and wing-coverts and 
1o yellow on the upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail as in the male 
but the yellow replaced by red ; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts and 
chin grey ; remainder of lower plumage bright yellow. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Nestling brown-grey above narrowly barred with pale fulvous 
and dark brown. 

Distribution. Nepal to Eastern Assam, both North and South of 
the Brahmaputra, Manipur, Burma, Chin and Kachin Hills to 
Tenasserim. 

Nidification. The Yellow-throated Minivet breeds in the hills 
South of the Brahmaputra in May and June up to at least 7,000 
feet, being found up to 10,000 in the Himalayas in Sikkim, etc. 

It makes the usual Minivet nest, a shallow cup about 3x1 inches 
externally by about 2*75 X -75 inches internally, only differing 
from others of the genus in having less lichen used externally. It 
breeds in dense evergreen-forest and also in the stunted oak-forest 
growing at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Three eggs in my collection are 
a very pale sen-green, thinly marked with pale rufous-red ; they 
measure about 19-2x14*2 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus. These Miuivets are generally 
found in Summer at a considerable elevation but in Winter they 
descend to the foot-hills and in Pegu Oates found it at sea-level. 
It consorts in Hocks of six to a dozen birds and though, like 
other Minivets, it keeps much to the tops of trees it is most 
common on the stunted oaks growing in thin forest to a height of 
only 25 or 30 feet. It has the usual pleasant trilling call of the 
genus. 

(743) Pericrocotus Solaris ripponi, subsp. nov. 
The Shan Minivet. 

Description. — Adult male. Similar to P. s. Solaris ; the grey of 
the upper parts paler and the red much darker, less scarlet more 
brick-red; the forehead is also strongly tinged with red and the 
throat is washed with the same colour. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
form. 

Female like that of the Yellow-throated Minivet but perhaps 
rather paler and greener above. 

Type. British Mus. Coll. No. 1900, 12. 20. 67. E. of Fort 
Stedman, S. Shan States. Named after Colonel G. Rippon, the 
collector. 

Distribution. At present only known from the Shan StateB. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 



328 pbeicbocotid^:. 

(744) Pericrocotus roseus roseus. 

The Kosy Minivbc. 

Muscicapa rosea Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxi, p. 480 (1818) 

( Bengal). 
Pericrocotus roseus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 486. 

Vernacular names. Daoribi (Cachari). 

Description. — Adult male. Lores dusky brown above and 
feathers next the bill and round the eye whitish; crown, neck, 
back, scapulars and wing-coverts ashy-brown, the crown generally 
darkest ; ruuip and upper tail-coverts scarlet ; greater wing- 
coverts broadly edged with scarlet ; quills brown, all but the first 
three or four with a broad scarlet patch at the base; inner 
secondaries also edged with scarlet; central tail-feathers dark 
brown, next pair red on the outer, black on the inner web, 
remaining feathers red with a black band at the base ; ear-coverts 
and sides of head pale grey; chin and throat almost white; 
remainder of lower plumage bright pale rosy-red ; aiillaries and 
under wing-coverts deeper rose-red. 

The amount of red in this species varies very greatly, possibly 
due to a great extent to age but partly individually. In very few 
birds is the rump wholly red ; in many only the upper tail-coverts 
and a few of the rump feathers are tipped with this colour, and 
in many more these parts are pale brown flushed with rosy-pink. 
The under surface varies from pale rosy to, in rare instances only, 
a deep rosy-red. The depth of the grey also varies considerably, 
but this seems to be entirely individual, and 1 can trace no 
geographical correlation with the variation, either in the red or 
grey colours, within the limits of this work. 

Colours Of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown : bill, legs and 
feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm.; wing 8'S to 
92 miu.; tail 75 to 87 mm.; tarsus about 16 mm.; culmen 
11 to 12 mm. 

Female. Above grey-brown, the back suffused with olive-green; 
rump and upper tail-coverts olive-yellow; wings and tail as in the 
male but yellow instead of red ; chin and throat yellowish white, 
remaining lower parts pale yellow ; a* Maries and under wing- 
coverts brighter. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Nestling. Above greyish brown, the feathers narrowly edged 
with yellow and subtippedwith bars of dark brown ; wing-feathers 
and inner secondaries all boldly edged with yellow and with 
crescentic black subterminal bars; below pale yellowish white, 
the breast and flanks faintly barred. 

Young males are like the female but retain the pale tips and 
bars of the upper plumage until after the first moult. 

The adult plumage of the male is acquired in the most irregular 



PKBICROCOTCS. 329 

manner and, as is usual with Minivets, old feathers seem to become 
to some extent pigmented with red prior to and during the moult. 
Distribution. Malabar, Travancore and Southern hills of the 
Bombay Presidency, N.W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, the Hima- 
layas from Afghanistan to Eastern Assam, Burma from the Chin 
and Kaehin llills to Tenasserim, Peninsular Siam, Yunnan, 
Shan States and 8.W. China. 

Nidiflcation. The Rosy Minivet breeds throughout the Hima- 
layas and Burmese Hills between 1 ,000 and 0,000 feet, in May and 
June, making the ordinary shallow cup-shaped nest covered with 
lichen. It is perhaps rather more bulky and substantial than 
most but is made of the same materials. It breeds in dense forest 
but usually on the outskirts or in more open places such as river- 
hanks, open glades round water etc. The eggs number two to four. 
In colour they are white with the faintest cream or buff tinge, in 
one clutch with an olive tint ; the markings consisting of small 
blotches of brown, fairly numerous at the larger end and sparse 
elsewhere. There are also a few secondary blotches of pale neutral 
grey. Twenty-two eggs average 19 - 5xl4 - f> mm.: maxima 
21-0 x 14-8 and 18-7 x 152 mm. ; minima 178 X 14'7 and 194 x 
14 - mm. 

Habits. In Summer found only over 1,000 feet, in Winter the 
Rosy Minivet wanders some distance into the Plains and has been 
obtained in Bengal as far Smith as Muldah and Purnea, from both 
of which districts I have seen skins of birds obtained in December 
and January. 

Pericrocotus peregrinus. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Throat dark grey or blackish grey; upper 
parts dark. 
a. Above more grey, less brownish grey ; 

abdomen very white P.p. peregrinus. p. 329 

I). Above darker and browner ; abdomen 

much suffused with scarlet P. p. vivid u*. y. 331. 

li. Throat black P.p. tnalaharicws, p. 331. 

C. Throat grey ; upper parts much paler .... P. p. pallidas, p. 332. 

(745) Pericrocotus peregrinus peregrinus. 

The Small Minivet. 

Pants peregrinus Linn., S. N., i, p. 342 (1706) (Umbala). 
l'ericrocotut peregrinus. Ulanf. & Gates, i, p. 487. 

Vernacular names. Bulal-chasm (Hind.); Sath-sayili, Chotar- 
salh-safo'-Lapi (Betig.); Kunhtmpu-jitta (Tel.). 

Description. — Adult male. Upper head, neck, back, scapulars 
and lower wing-coverts grey ; rump and upper tail-coverts bright 
scarlet ; median and greater coverts black ; quills dark brown, all 



330 PHRICHOCOTID*. 

but the first four or five primaries with a diagonal patch of cream 
or pale scarlet at the base ; outer secondaries with the patch more 
scarlet ; the middle pair of tail-feathers black, lateral feathers 
with broad scarlet-cream tips and black bases; lores, chin, throat 
and sides of head dark grey or darkish grey ; breast and flanks 
scarlet, the yellow bases to the feathers showing up as orange 
through the red ; abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts white, 
more or less suffused with yellow. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 66 to 
72 ram.; tail 65 to 72 mm. ; tarsus about 15 mm.; culmen'about 
9 mm. 

Female. Above similar to the male but a paler, browner grey, 
with the red on the wings replaced by orange-yellow and the 
scarlet-cream of the tail-feathers paler ; the upper tail-coverts are 
always more or less scarlet and the rump is tinged with yellow ; 
chin, throat and underparts greyish white very faintly suffused 
with yellow. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Young birds are like the female and seem to lose the barring of 
the nestling stage quicker than most Minivets. 

Nestling. Barred above with dark brown and with terminal 
yellow tips. 

Distribution. North-West and Western India, South to about 
Belgaum, Central India, East to Western Bengal, Chota Nagpore, 
Oudh and Behar. 

Nidification. The Indian Small Minivet breeds in Behar, Oudh 
and the North-West from March to May and in Central India, 
Bombay, etc., after the rains break from June to September. 
The nest is a tiny cup seldom exceeding two inches in diameter 
by one inch in depth and, as it is usually placed very high up in 
some big tree such as a Mango and Tamarind, it is very hard to 
find. It is the usual lichen-coated nest built by all Minivets and 
calls for no special description. The eggs number two or three, 
very rarely four, and vary very greatly in coloration. The 
ground is a pearly white, often tinted with sea-green, sometimes 
with pale buff or cream. The markings are some shade of 
reddish brown, sometimes very pale and confined to the large en<l 
where they form a ring or cup, sometimes dark and bold and 
numerous over the whole surface. Every intermediate type may 
also be met with. Fifty eggs average 16*4 x 13*2 mm. : maxima 
180 x 14-0 mm. ; minima 150 X 130 and 16-0 x 127 mm. 

Habits. The Small Minivet is a bird of well-wooded tracts but 
not of dense forests and frequents cultivation and the vicinity of 
houses and villages, quite commonly entering and even breeding 
in gardens. It is a very cheerful active little bird associating in 
small or large flocks during the non-breeding season. It is a bird of 
the Plains and does not ascend the mountains above tho foot-hills. 



PEttlCEOCOTUS. 331 

(746) Pericrocotus peregrinus vividus. 

The Bukmebe Smaja Minivbt. 

Pericrocotut peregrinu* vividus Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O. C, xl, 
p. 114 (1920) (Atturan Hiver, Burma). 

Vernacular names. Chota-sath saki-kapi (Beng.); Dao ribi 
gajao-i-aba (Cachari); Nok-si-champay-pilkty (Siam) ; Ingorui 
(Kacha Naga). 

Description. — Adult male. Darker and browner above than 
P. p. jaeregrinut, the throat rather a blacker grey and the lower 
parts much brighter yellow with the red of the breast extending 
further down. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
bird. 

Female differs in degree from the Indian bird as does the male. 
It is darker and a little browner above and has much more yellow 
below. 

Distribution. Eastern Bengal and Assam, Burma, Siam, Cochin 
China, Yunnan and Annum. 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of the last race, but this form 
breeds also in forested area as well as in open country and gardens, 
etc. Mr. E. G. Herbert, to whom I am indebted for a series of 
the eggs, says that Durian and Tamarind trees are the favourite 
but tiiat they also sometimes breed on the Betal Palms. The 
nests are generally placed between 30 and 40 feet from the 
ground. Twenty-two eggs average K>-5xl3-4 mm.: maxima 
18-8 x 147 mm.; minima 15 - 3xl3-:3 and 15-5x130 mm. In 
colour, of course, they cannot be distinguished from those of the 
other races. The breeding-season is March and April running into 
June. 

Habits. Similar to those of P. p. peregrinus but they ascend 
the hills to at least 4,000 feet and Mr. C. Hopwood records that 
they bred in the gardens at Maymyio at 3,500 feet, placing their 
nests in pines, oaks, etc. 

(747) Pericrocotus peregrinus malabaricus. 

The Malabar Small Mjniyet. 
Parus malabaricus Gmel., S. N., i, p. 1012 (1789) (Malabar). 

Vernacular names. Ktmlcumpu-jilta (Tel.); Batugene-kurula, 
Kos-kurula (Ceylon). 

Description. — Adult male. This is the darkest of all the races 
of peregrinus; the chin and throat are a glossy black ; the scarlet 
of the breast deeper and more extensive and the abdomen yellow 
with no white. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the other races. 



332 psnicHocoTiDj:. 

Females. Hardly distinguishable from P. p. peregrinus but 
generally darker above with more yellow below. 

Distribution. Southern India, South of a line drawn diagonally 
across from and including Belgaum on the West to Madras, or a 
little North of the City of Madras on the East; Ceylon. 

Nidiflcation like that of the other races, but the nest is not 
seldom placed quite low down, five to twenty feet from the 
ground. The breeding-season is March to July. Twenty-four 
eggs average 16-5x13-5 mm.: maxima 17'6xl3-3 and 17 - X 
140 mm. ; minima 15-3 X 13 4 and 16-5 x 130 mm. 

Habits. Those of the species. It is confined to the Plains and 
low hills but apparently breeds in Travancore up to some 2,000 
feet. 

(748) Pericrocotus peregrinus pallidus. 

The Sini) Small Miniyet. 

Pericrocotm peregrimtt pallidus Stuart Jiaker, Hull. B. O. C, xl, 
p. 115 (1920) (Larkhaua, Siud). 

Vernacular names. Bulal-chasm (Hind.). 

Description. — Adult male. Above very pale grey, the throat 
darker but never blackish ; below the scarlet is confined to the 
upper breast ; the greater part of the abdomen, vent and under tail- 
coverts are pure white; the lateral tail-feathers are pale brick-pink. 

The female is even paler with the lower parts devoid of all 
yellow ; the wing patch is the palest cream and the lateral tail- 
feathers still paler. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the other races. 

Distribution. Sind and the extreme JSorth-West of India. 
Birds from Mt. Aboo are very pale and should probably be 
assigned to this race rather than to typical peregrinus. 

Nidiflcation. Nothing recorded. 
Habits. Those of the species. 

(74») Pericrocotus erythropygius. 

The Whitb-bellied Mixivet. 

Mxudcapa erythropygia Jerdon, Madr. Journ. L. S., xi, p. 17 (1840). 
1'erieroeottu erythropygiu*. lilauf, & Oates, i, p. 488, 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Whole head, back, scapulars, lesser, 
median and primary coverts and upper tail-coverts black ; inner 
greater wing-coverts white ; quills black, all but the first pair with 
a patch of white near the base ; inner secondaries white on the 
outer webs and tips of inner webs ; tail,, four central rectrices 
black, the lateral feathers white and diagonally black at the base ; 



PBEIOROCOTUS. 333 

rump and breast crimson orange-red divided from the black throat 
by a white band, extending to the sides of the neck ; lower breast, 
flanks and abdomen white ; axillaries and under wing-coverts 
black and white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel or golden-har.el ; bill, legs and 
feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 6(5 to 
71 mm.; tail (if? to 74 mm. ; tarsus about 13 to 14 mm.; culmen 
9 to 10 mm. 

Female. Lores dark brown ; forehead and traces of a super- 
cilium white; rump white and orange; remaining upper plumage 
brown, rather darker on the head ; tail as in the male ; wing as in 
the male but dark brown instead of black ; lower plumage white, 
the breast washed with grey-brown. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the male. 

Distribution. Central India, practically the whole of the Bombay 
Presidency, South to Truvancore (Stewart), Nilgiri and Palni 
Hills, North- West to Sind ami North-East to Oudh, Behar and 
Lohardagga. 

There seem to be two well-marked forms of this Minivet, one 
with a crimson breast and one with an orange-red breast. Birds 
from iSambhur East and North and North-East all have the orange- 
red breast very well marked whilst birds from the South and South- 
West all have crimson breasts. On the other hand, a few birds 
from round about Samblmr, i. e. Ajmere, Cfurgaon etc., have 
orange-red breasts. It would appear that the two forms meet 
here but more material is necessary before any safe division can be 
made. 

Nidiflcation. Mr. .T. Davidson found this bird breeding in some 
numbers in Khaudesh and Kanara and Mr. Stewart has eggs 
from Truvancore. The nests nre little cups made of grass-stems 
ornamented outside with greyish-white vegetable fibre and not 
with lichen and bark as are those of most Minivets. Again, 
instead of being placed high up in trees they are built in thorny 
scrub, growing in extra thick patches of jungle where there are 
ample trees to build on if so desired. The eggs are greyish white 
marked all over with longitudinal streaks of dark brown with a 
few underlying pale streaks of lavender-grey. Twenty eggs 
average 17-4 x 13-4 mm. : maxima 190 x 13-3 and 18-0 x 144 mm. ; 
minima 16*5 X 130 mm. They breed during March and April and 
again in July, August and September, laying two or three eggs 
only. 

Habits. The White-bellied Minivet is a frequenter of forest 
both thin and dense and is especially fond of rather thick scrubby 
undergrowth in ravines and broken country. Except that they 
hunt for their insect prey in among bushes and low trees rather 
than among the higher trees, their habits are those of the other 
Minivets. 



334 PERI0ROCOTID.fi. 

(750) Pericrocotus albifrons. 
Jerdon's Minivet. 

Pfricrocotus albifrons Jerdon, Ibis, 1802, p. 20 (Upper Burma, 
Thayetmyo) ; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 489. 

Vernacular names. Hnct-mintha (Burmese). 

Description. Similar to the White-bellied Minivet but has the 
forehead, a broad supercilium, chin and throat pure white; the 
rump has the red less extensive and the white more so. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the preceding 
bird. 

Female differs from that of P. erythropyyius in having less red 
on the rump. 

Distribution. Practically the whole of Burma from the Chin, 
Kachtn and Shan States to Tenasserim. 

Nidification. Jerdon's Minivet breeds in the Chin Hills and in 
the broken country in Pakokku in May and June, making a nest 
just like that of the White-bellied Minivet, built sometimes in low- 
bushes or cane brakes and sometimes quite high up in trees. 
Eggs taken by Captain Venning and Mr. P. MacDonald are like 
those of the White-bellied Minivet but average decidedly paler. 
They measure about 17 - J3x 13-7 mm. 

Habits. Similar to those of the preceding species. 

(751) Pericrocotus cinereus. 

The Ashy Minivet. 

Pericrocotus cinerai* Lafresn., Rev. Zool., viii, p. 94 (1845) (Luzon, 
Philippines) ; Blanf. <fe Oates, i, p. 4S9. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Lores, a line across the forehead 
next the bill, posterior cro*n, nape and part of the ear-coverts 
black; forehead and anterior crown, chin, cheeks, part of the ear- 
coverts and whole lower plumage white, washed with ashy on the 
flanks and breast ; upper plumage dark ashy -grey ; wing-coverts 
dark brown, edged with ashy ; primaries dark brown, all but 
the first four edged with grey and with a concealed white 
speculum ; inner secondaries grey on the outer webs, blackish on 
the inner ; four central tail- feathers black, the lateral feathers 
white with a diagonal black base. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown ; bill and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 200 mm. ; wing 95 to 
101 mm. ; tail 86 to 94 mm. ; tarsus about 17 mm. ; culmen about 
16 mm. 

Female. Paler than the male, no black on the head and the 
white forehead reduced to a mere trace ; the lores and frontal 



PEBICEOCOTUS. 335 

line are dark brown ; greater wing-coverts and inner secondaries 
tipped with white. 

Distribution. Breeding in Japan, Amur and possibly Northern 
China, and in Winter extending to South China, the Indo-Chinese 
countries, Philippines, Sumatra, Borneo, Malay Peninsula.entering 
South Burma as a very rare straggler only. 

Nidificatkm. Owston found this Minivet breeding in great 
numbers about Mount Fuji at and over 2,000 feet. The nest he 
describes as a " broad shallow cup of fine twigs, lined with grass 
and placed on boughs of trees between 15 and 30 feet from the 
ground." The eggs number four or five and in colour they seem 
to run through all the variations found in the eggs of Perierocotus 
peregrinus. They measure about 21 - 5 x 15-6 mm. The breeding- 
season appears to be May to June. 

Habits. This is the most migratory of all the Minivets and 
there is no reason to think that they breed anywhere in the 
South, though Herbert found them paired before leaving Siam in 
April. La Touche records their passing through Chinkiang in 
April and May and says that none stay there to breed. 

(752) Pericrocotus cantonensis. 

Swishob's Minivet. 

Pericrocotu* cantotietuis Swinkoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 42 (Canton, China) ; 
lilanf. & Oates, i, p. 490. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Forehead, anterior crown, chin, 
cheeks, throat and a semi-collar on the neck white ; hinder part 
of crown, nape, back, scapulars and wing-coverts very dark ashy- 
brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts pale brown ; greater coverts 
sometimes ohsoletely tipped grey ; quills dark brown, an almost 
concealed white patch at the base of the inner primaries and outer 
secondaries ; four central tail-feathers dark brown ; lateral tail- 
feathers white with broad brown diagonal bases; lower plumage 
pale smoky-brown, darkest on the breast. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel ; bill black, iuside of mouth 
flesh-colour ; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 200 mm. ; wing 82 to 
02 mm. ; tail 83 to 90 mm. ; tarsus about 15 to 16 mm. ; cultnen 
about 13 mm. 

Female. Above like the male but with very little white on the 
forehead and the crown and back a little paler ; wings and tail aa 
in the male. 

Distribution. Breeding in East and North-East China. In 
Winter to South China, Malay States, Indo-Chinese countries 
and occasionally into South Burma. 

Nidiflcation. Messrs. La Toucbe and Rickett found this bird 



336 pbrichocotidjE. 

breeding during May and June in Foochow and Chinkiang. The 
nests are described as beautifully neat little cups made of fine 
grass, moss, fibre, roots and pine-needles plastered over with 
cobwebs outside and decorated with lichen and a little moss. 
They are placed high up in pine and other trees on the upper 
surface of a branch and not in a fork. The eggs number two 
to four and only differ from those of the preceding species in 
being smaller. Thirty-six eggs average 19-8 x 153 nun. : maxima 
218 x 16-2 mm. ; minima 186 x 15-1 and 20-3 x 149 mm. 

Habits. This Minivet is a frequenter both of woods and open 
country, breeding either in trees in cultivated land, orchards, etc., 
or in pine and other forests. It is migratory certainly to 
some extent but at present we do not know to what extent it is 
resident in South and South- West China. It associates in flocks 
and has similar voice, flight, diet, etc., to other species of Minivets. 

Genus LALAGE. 
Lahuje Boie, Isis, 18:20, p. 973. 
Type, Lalage lerat ( = niyra). 

The name Campepihaga being preoccupied, the above name 
must be used for this genus. 

The genus Lalagt contains a number of species the predomi- 
nating colour of which is grey. The bill is comparatively weak, 
the tip being but slightly bent down and notched ; the nostrils 
are nearly concealed by plumes, the wing is pointed and the tail- 
feathers graduated. 

The sexes differ slightly in some, more strongly in others. 



Key to Specie*. 

A. Wing over 106 mm L. melaschista, \\ 330. 

B. Wing 106 or under, generally under 102 mm. 

a. Supercilium absent or only faintly indicated. 
a'. Throat and abdomen uniform grey in the 

adult L.Jimbriafa, p. 389. 

6'. Throat black in the adult, abdomen grey. L. sykesii, c? , p. 340. 
c'. Throat and abdomen white, croiss-barred 

with brown L. sykesii, $ , p. 340. 

b. A conspicuous white supercilium at all ages. L. nigra, p. 341. 



Lalage melaschista. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Grey of plumage dark bluish ; under tail- 

coverts dark grey L. tn.melaschista, p. 337. 

B. Grey of plumage paler ; under tail-covert* 

whiter L. m. avtnsit, p. 388. 



LALAGE. 337 

(753) Lalage melaschista melaschista. 

Tub Dark G-rev Cuckoo-Shiukb. 

Volvocivora meliischittosllodgs,., Ind. Rev., i, p. 328 (1837) (Nepal). 
Campophaya melanoichiata. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 491. 

Vernacular names. Kabatri (Beng.), 

Description. — Adult male. Lores and feathers round the eye 
biaek ; wings black ; tail black, the central tail-feathers immaculate 
or narrowly tipped with white and the lateral feathers with broader 
white tips. The remainder of the plumage dark bluish grey. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to dark brown ; bill black ; 
legs and feet dark slaty to almost block. 

Measurements. Total length about 220 to 230 ram. ; wing 
114 to 123 mm. ; tail 98 to 118 mm. ; tarsus about 10 to 20 mm. ; 
culmen about 17 mm. 

Female similar in all respects to the male but rather paler. 
Many females retain traces of the juvenile barring on the 
nnderparts. 




Fig. 51. — Head of L. m. melaschitfa. 

Young. Paler grey below, barred from chin to under tail-coverts 
with dusky brown and each feather with a whitish fringe ; tail- 
feathers cross-rayed with blackish and with the broad white tips 
more or less barred with brown ; the wing-coverts and quills are 
narrowly edged with white. In a still younger stage the upper 
parts are faintly burred with darker and the ear-coverts are 
streaked with white ; the inner webs of the primaries and outer 
secondaries are marked with white and the under wing-coverts 
barred black and white. 

Nestling like the young, but the whole of the upper surface 
barred with black and white, or fulvous, and with the wing- 
coverts very broadly edged with buff or whitish. 

Distribution. Himalayas, Muree to Eastern Assam both North 
and South of the Brahmaputra, Manipirr, Lushai Hills, Tippera, 
Chittagong, the plains of India from latitude 16° northwards. 

Nidincation. The Dark Grey Cuckoo-Shrike breeds from May 
to July at all elevations up to about 7,500 feet and down to the 
foot-hills. The nest is a shallow frail-looking saucer of fine twigs, 
roots, etc., very compactly interlaced and strongly bound together 
with cobwebs. Sometimes there is no lining and sometimes a 

"vol. n. a 



388 raKicKOCorrax. 

slight lining of grass-stems ; outside there are always a few 
decorative scraps of lichen, moss or bark, and occasionally the 
whole nest is covered with these. It is generally placed in a 
horizontal fork or on the upper surface of a bough high up in a 
forest-tree. The eggs number two or three, and are pale green to 
pale grey-green in colour profusely marked with longitudinal 
blotches of brown with a few others underlying of neutral tint. 
Thirty eggs average 245 x 17 - 5 mm. : maxima 26 - 5xl8'0 and 
262 x 18 8 mm. ; minima 225 x 17-0 and 23-0 x 163 mm. 

Habits. This Cuckoo-Shrike is a Summer visitor to the hills, 
being found in Winter in the plains and in the foot-hills at about 
2,000 feet, a few birds remaining as high as 4,000 feet. They 
are found both singly and in pairs and sometimes in small flocks 
during the Winter, frequenting well- wooded country, light forest 
and orchards, though in the breeding-season they keep entirely to 
forest. They are quiet birds and 1 have heard no song, but they 
call to one another with a single plaintive note and have also a 
few low and rather harsh conversational notes. Their food is 
entirely insectivorous and consists chiefly of soft food, such as 
caterpillars and soft-winged insects, which they hunt for in among 
the branches of low and moderate-sized trees. They never 
descend to the ground. 

(754) Lalage melaschista avensis. 

The Pale Geet Cuckoo-Sheike. 

Campepkaya avensis Blyth, Cat. B. A.S., p. 327 (1847) (Arakan) 

(description in J. A. S. B., xv, p. :i07, 1841S). 
Campophaga melanujtlera. Blnnf. & Dates, i, p. 492. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. A decidedly paler bird both above and below than 
melaschista. The female is generally paler than tlie male and 
retains faint markings resembling those of the immature bird. 

Young bird like that of the preceding race but much paler. 

I find that with the immense series now available for exami- 
nation, about 200 skins, it is quite impossible to distinguish 
between avtnsis ( = melanoptera), intermedia and Icoratensis. The 
principal characters depended upon for separation have been (1) 
depth of colour, (2) size and (b*) amount of white on the abdomen 
and under tail-coverts. In each case these characters are purely 
individual and, when series from various geographical ranges are 
laid out side by side, each area will be found to contain 
individuals which agree exactly with others from elsewhere and, 
so much is this the case, that even the averages are much the 
same. 

As regards size the following are the measurements 1 have 
been able to obtain : — 



LALAGE. 339 

Northern birds, Chiu Hills to Wing 112 to 122 mm. 

Shan States etc. Tail 86 to 94 „ 

Central Burmese and Siam birds. . Wing 111 to 129 ,, 

Tail 89 to 100 ,, 

South Tenasserim and Siam birds. . Wing 107 to 129 ,, 

Tail 88 to 95 „ 

Chinese birds Wing 115 to 129 „ 

Tail 89 to 100 ,, 

Distribution. Burma from extreme North to South, the whole 
of Shun States, Siam, Yunnan and South China. 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of the Dark Grey Cuckoo-Shrike. 
The few eggs I have seen were collected for me in Tenasserim 
and sent to me with nests and parent-birds. They were taken in 
May and the eggs measure from 20 - 2 to 24'0 mm. in length and 
from 17'1 to 18*2 mm. in breadth. 

Habits. Those of the preceding race. 

Lalage fimbriata. 

UcblepyrUfonbriata Teuim., PI. Col., iii, 249 250 (1825;. 
Type-locality : Java. 

(755) Lalage fimbriata neglecta. 

The Small Cuckoo-Siibikk. 

T'alvocivora neglecta Hume, S. F., v, p. 203 (1877) (S. Tenasserim). 
Campophaga neglecta. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 493. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Like L. m. melaxhista but very 
much smaller and with a shorter, less graduated tail ; the abdomen 
is generally darker, but the under tail-coverts vary from white to 
pale grey as in that, bird and the amount of white on the inner 
webs of the primaries varies to the same extent. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to crimson ; bill and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 220 mm.; wing 95 to 
100 mm. ; tail 75 to 83 mm. ; tarsus about 21 to 22 mm. ; culmen 
about 14 to 15 mm. 

Female when fully adult similar to the male and no paler, but 
young birds retain the barring on the under plumage for some 
time. 

Young;. Paler grey above and below and barred throughout 
the lower plumage with black. 

Nestling;. Barred above with black and with white fringes to the 
feathers ; below barred black and white or black and fulvous. 

Distribution. Peninsular Burma and Siam to N. Malay States ; 
birds from South Malay seem to agree with culminata (Hay) in 
always having the under tail-coverts dark grey and the white spots 

2 2 



340 PBnicBQConiDM, 

on the (ail rerr small The trmfonbriota from J«»a is very dark 
and Sharps' s jwlioptem from Cochin China very pale — of this Jast- 
raentioned race there are only three specimens in the British 
Museum collection, all very young birds, and more material will 
probably show them to be, as Sharpe himself finally thought, 
merely neglecta. 

Nidflcation. Nothing recorded. 

Habits. Similar to those of other Cuckoo-Shrikes. 

(75C) Lalage sykcsii. 

Thb Black-headed Oickoo-Siiiiike. 

Lalage sykerii Strickl., A. M. N. 11., (1) xiii, p. ,'50 (1814) (Calcutta). 
Campophaga si/kesi. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 493. 

Vernacular names. Jam/U Kasi/a (Hind.i; ('hinmt <d-ura>/i 
(Tel.). 

Description.— Adult male. Whole head, neck, upper breast 
and upper back black; back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, 
rump and upper tail-coverts grey, the last paler; median and 
greater wing-coverts black broadly edged and tipped with grey; 
primary-coverts very narrowly edged with grey ; quill-feathers 
black, the primaries narrowly, the secondaries broadly tipped and 
edged with greyish white ; a large patch of white on the bases of 
all but the first primary and on most of the secondaries; this varies 
very greatly in extent and in some specimens is small and appears 
on the secondaries as a mottling only ; central tail-feathers grey, 
outer feathers black with a white tip, increasing in width to the 
outermost; lower breast and flanks grey, paling to white on the 
abdomen, vent, under tail-coverts, wing-coverts and nxiilaries. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to crimson ; bill, legs and 
feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 190 mm. ; wing 98 to 
110 mm. (Ceylon birds 92 to 101 mm. only) ; tail t>2 to 70 mm. ; 
tarsus about 21 mm. ; culmen about 14 to 15 mm. 

Female. Above grey, paler on the rump and upper tail-coverts 
which are faintly barred with black and fringed with very pale 
grey ; wings and tail as in the male but dark brown instead of 
. black and the former more marked with grey ; below from chin to 
vent often tinted with fulvous, barred throughout with black ; 
centre of abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts white. 

Young. Feathers of the upper plumage tipped pale and barred 
with black ; below like the female but more closely barred and 
generally much more fulvous. 

Distribution. Ceylon and the whole of India as far North as 
Bengal on the East and Bombay on the West, a diagonal line 
from Bombay to Chota Nagpore representing its limits fairly 
correctly. It has been recorded from Assam, bat in 30 years' 



I.ALAOE. 341 

residence in that Province I never heard of its occurrence North 
of the Brahmaputra, though I obtained it thrice in 15 years in the 
Cachar District on the South. 

Nidiflcation. The Black-headed Cuckoo-Shrike breeds in Ceylon 
during March and April and in South India and the Deccan from 
June to August. The nests are small replicas of those of 
L. m. mehtschista measuring under 3 inches in diameter by 1 inch 
or less in depth. They are made of fine roots and slender twigs 
fastened together with cobwebs and placed in a fork of a tree some 
five to fifteen feet from the ground. In Ceylon the eggs seem to 
always number two but in India three is the normal clutch. 
They only differ from those of L. m. melaschigta in size, thirty 
eggs averaging 222 x 101 mm. The extremes are 23-8x16-8, . 
22-8 x 170 and 199 X 151 mm. 

Habits. This little Cuckoo-Shrike is far more a frequenter of 1 
open but well-wooded country than are any of the preceding birds 
of this genus. It is found round about villages and in cultivated 
tracts and, according to Davidson, is also common during the 
breeding-season in scrub-jungle and Anjan forest in the South of 
the Bombay Presidency. It is a silent bird but Blewitt says that 
in the breeding-season it constantly utters an attempt at a song, a 
mere repetition of one plaintive note. It seeks its insect-prey 
high up in tall trees, often descending to the smaller trees and 
bush-jungle, but never actually to the ground itself. 

(7o7) Lalage nigra nigra. 
The Piku Cuckoo-Shbike. 

Tunlux niyer Forster, Ind. Zool., p. 41 (1781) (India, now restricted 

to Nieobars). 
Vamjwphaya ti'rat. Blanf. & Gates, i, p. -195. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. Base of the forehead and superciliuin 
white ; lores, a line through the eye, crown, neck, back, scapulars 
and leaser wing-coverts glossy black ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts grey ; median and greater coverts black, broadly edged 
with white ; primary-coverts black narrowly edged with white ; 
quills black, the primaries and outer secondaries with a broad 
patch of white at the base of the inner coverts, the latter also 
edged white ; tail black, the central narrowly, the others more 
broadly tipped with white ; under plumage white suffused with 
grey on the breast and flanks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to lake-red ; bill, legs and 
feet black, the scales of the tarsi edged with slate. 

Measurements. Total length about 175 mm.; wing 86 to 
89 mm. ; tail 57 to 64 mm.; tarsus about 20 mm.; culmen about 
14 mm. 



342 mbiceocotjd.*. 

Female. Upper plumage grey ; in the wings and tail the block 
is replaced by brown ; the white on the wing is less developed 
and bold ; the breast and flanks are faintly barred with dusky. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the wale. 

Young male like the female but browner above. 

Nestling. Upper plumage barred with fulvous and black and 
much browner than in the femnle ; below the breast and flanks 
are marked with narrow black shaft-lines. 

Distribution. Nicobnrs only in India, Malay Peninsula and 
S.W. Siam, Borneo, Sumatra. 

Nidification. A nest and eggs sent roe by Mr. \Y. A. T. Kellow 
was found on 17th May and the nest is described by him as "a 
slight structure made of fine sticks fastened to a small branch 
with cobwebs, and covered with lichens externally. Taken in 
very dense forest in the foot-hills."' The eggs two in number are 
like those of the Black-headed Cuckoo-Shrike, but rather brown. 
They measure 21-8 x 16-0 and 221 x 15-0 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus. Apparently restricted to forest- 
land and not found in the open or round about villages and 
cultivation. 



Genus QRA.UCA1US. 

Graucalut Cuvier, Regne Anim., p. 341 (1817). 

Type, Graucalut papv.ensis. 

The genus Graucalut is very like Lahnjt, in many respects, but 
has a comparatively longer and more pointed wing and a much 
larger, more massive bill. 

Key to £>j>ecie$. 

A. Tail broadly tipped with white G. macei, p. Z42. 

B. Tail very narrowly tipped with paler brown or 

whitish G. liol/mm, p. 346. 

Graucalus macei. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Adult female with chin, throat and upper 

breast barred. 

a. Medium size, wing average 157 mm. . , G. m. macei. p. 343. 

b. Large size, wing average 1785 mm G.tn. nipalemit, p. 844. 

c. Small size, wing average 1450 mm G. tit. layardi, p. 345. 

B. Adult female with no bars present on chin, 

throat or upper breast. Wing average 

about 168-0 mm G.tn. aiatnetuis, p. 340. 



ORAVOJLLVB. 343 

(758) Graucalus macei macei. 

The Lahge Indian Cpckoo-Shkikb. 

Graucalus macei Less., TraittS, p. 349 (1831) (Bengal); Blanf. & 
Oates, i, p. 496. 

Vernacular names. Kasya (Hind.); Kabasi (Beng.); Pedda 
akurai (Tel.). 

Description. — Adult male. Lores, enr-coverts and cheeks black 
or dark blackish grey ; whole upper plumage grey, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts paler as a rule; wing-coverts like the back; 
primary-coverts black very narrowly edged with grey ; quills 
black, the primaries narrowly, the secondaries broadly edged with 
grey; middle tail-feathers ashy -brown tipped paler, lateral tail- 
feathers black, tipped brownish white, the breadth increasing in 
extent outwardly and also edging the outer webs of the outermost 
feather; chiu and throat like the back, paling gradually until the 
abdomen is very pale grey and the under tail-coverts pure white. 




V'ig. 52.— Head of G. m. maeei. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to blood-red or crimson in 
old males ; eyelids plumbeous ; bill black, the inside of the mouth 
flesh-colour; legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 280 mm.; wing 151 to 
17.'5 mm., average 157 mm.; tail 92 to 128 mm.; tarsus about 
25 mm.; culmen about HO mm. 

Female. Similar to the male, but with the eye-streak not so 
black a grey ; the whole lower surface from the throat to the 
vent is narrowly barred grey and white and the upper tall- 
coverts are fringed with white, with very faint subterminal dark 
bars. 

Measurements. Wing 149 to 166 mm. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris always brown ; otherwise as in the 
male. 

Young. Like the female but barred from chin to vent with 
black and white ; the marks on the upper tail-coverts and rump 
are more pronounced. 



344 PEIUOBOCOXIDiE. 

Nestling like the young, but with the upper surface and wings 
tipped and margined with pale ferruginous. 

Distribution. The whole of Continental Iodia South of the Hima- 
layas from Garhwal to West Assam, excluding the country at then- 
bases. In the North-West this race wanders iuto the Himalayas 
to some height, possibly 4,000 feet or more. The Eastern Bengal 
bird is very large aud must be included in the next race, as must 
those from Northern Behar. It extends South to Travancore. 

Nidiflcation. The Large Cuckoo-Shrike builds a nest very like 
that of the genus Lalaye though larger but it is nearly always 
placed in an outermost branch of a lofty tree — often it is quite 
conspicuous and even more inaccessible. The eggs, which 
number two or three, have almost invariably to be taken out with 
a small butterfly-net or some similar contrivance. When fresh 
the eggs are green in ground-colour, varying from very pale to 
rather deep olive-green or grey-green but they speedily lose their 
green tint unless kept very carefully from the light and then 
become buff or yellow-tan, the colour of some eggs even when 
fresh. The markings consist of bold but rather scanty blotches 
of dark brown with more numerous secondary markings of pale 
inky-purple. In some eggs the markings are smaller, more 
numerous and paler. Twenty-two eggs average 31*0 x 22'4 mm. : 
maxima 332 x 232 mm. ; minima 28-8 X 22-5 and 30-2 x 213 mm. 

Habits. This Shrike is found in flocks of four or five in the 
Winter, sometimes two families joining forces. They are noisy 
birds and, as they fly one after another from tree to tree, utter 
constantly a very harsh grating dissyllabic call. They are not 
active birds either when feeding or when on the wing, though 
they will sometimes go through contortions when flying rather 
similar to those indulged in by the Hollers. They limit almost 
entirely on the higher trees and feed principally on insects but 
also partly on seeds and fruit, whilst birds in captivity will greedily 
eat plantains. 

(759) Graucalus macei nipalensis. 

The L.UIGB Himalavan Cuckoo-Sukike. 

Graucalu* nipaletuis Hodgs., Ind. Kev., i, p. 327 (1837) (N T epnI). 
Qraucalui macei. Blanf. & Oales, i, p. 490 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Talling-pho (Lepcha). 

Description. Similar to G. macei macei, but larger, with a wing 
averaging 178*5 mm. and for males between 170 and 191 mm. and 
for females between 163 and 185 mm. The throat and fore-neck 
of the adult female are barred. 

Distribution. The lower hills of the Himalayas from Garhwal 
and Western Nepal, through Sikkim, Bhutan and the hills of 
Western Assam ; South to Northern Behar and North-east Bengal 
West of the Brahmaputra. 



URAUCALUS. 345 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of the last bird, but the few eggs 
I have seen are very big, averaging about 33*6 x 23 - 4 mm. 

Habits. This race is found almost entirely in the broken foot- 
hills and lower mountains up to some 4,000 feet during the 
breeding-season, probably wandering up to about 6,000 feet on rare 
occasions. A few birds, however, undoubtedly remain in the 
plains during the Summer and I have such records from Jalpaiguri, 
Darrang in Assam, Calcutta, Northern Behar, etc. Like the last 
bird it is only found in well-wooded country, and prefers forest 
to open plains and cultivated tracts. 



(700) Graucalus macei layardi. 
The Ceyi.o* Large Cuckoo-Sheike. 
Graucalus layardi Blytb, Ibis, 18GC, p. 368 (Ceylon). 

Vernacular names. Pedda akurai (Tel.). 

Description. Differs from the preceding races of this genus 
only in its very small size, the wing being on an average 145 mm. : 
the males vary from 145 to 150 nun. and the females from 140 
to 145 mm. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. Birds from the extreme South of 
Travancore do not, as would seem likely, belong to this race. 

Nidiflcation. Nothing recorded beyond the fact that it is 
supposed to breed in June. 

Habits. Those of the species. Legge says that it is found on 
high forest-trees near rivers, tanks or other natural openings in 
the forest. It seems to be a more shy, wild bird than its cousins 
in India and Burma. 



(7<>i) Graucalus macei siamensis. 
The Siamese Large Ccckoo-Shbike. 

Graucalus macei siaineiisi* Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O. ('., xxxvii, 
p. (JO (1918) (Miuaui-Kraben, Siam). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Male similar to that of G. mi. nijxilensis, but 
the adult female differs from all the preceding races in having 
no bars on the chin, throat and upper breast. The Hainan form 
differ* in being smaller and in having a darker chin and throat 
(larvatu* Hartert). 

Measurements. The following are the wing-measurements for 
the various areas inhabited by this subspecies: — 



346 MSBICBOCOTIDJE. 

North Burma . rf. Wing 169 to 179 aim. 10 specimens. 

and Assam. " 

Central Burma d- .> 157 to 174 „ 14 

$. „ loltol74 „ l. r > 

South Burma <?• », 168 to 180 „ 9 

$. „ 103 to 174 „ "> 

Siam d. „ 156 to 192 „ 8 

$ . „ 1W to 160 „ 7 „ 

Numerous unsexed birds come in all cases in between the 
extremes given for the two sexes and substantiate the above. 

Distribution. .Eastern and South Assam, Burma, Chin, Kachin 
Hills, Shan States, Siam and Indo-Chinese countries. 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of G. m. nipalensis. Hopwood 
found a nest with eggs, near Akyab, in March and in this month 
Anderson also took eggs in the Andamans. In Assam it breeds 
in May and June, rarely in April. The eggs, which are generally 
two only, seldom three, average, for ten, 32-0 x 22-5 mm. 

Habits. Those of the species. This is a common bird in the 
Assam Hills South of the Brahmaputra below 3,000 feet, though 
it is found up to at least 4,000 feet. Those I examined had fed 
on insects of all kinds, many large species of Coleoptera, larvae of 
the same, fruit of several kinds, berries and, once only, millet. 
This latter may have been swallowed with tlie Aphidas, which 
were then infesting the ripe grain. It extends into the plains 
throughout the. area in which it is found. 



(.762) Graucalus dobsoni. 

Dobsos's Cuckoo-Shrike. 

Graucalus dobsoni Ball, J. A. S. 15., xli, pt. 2, p. 281 (1872) 
(Andamaus) ; Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 197. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. — Adult male. A line from tlie nostrils, lores, 
cheeks, ear-coverts and sides of neck black ; upper plumage and 
lesser wing-coverts dark iron-grey ; median and greater coverts and 
quills black, very narrowly edged with pale grey ; tail black, the 
outer feathers faintly lipped white, the tip more apparent on 
the outermost ; chin, throat and breast paler iron-grey ; under 
surface, axillaris, under wing-coverts and edge of wing greyish 
white, narrowly barred with black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris crimson ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 260 mm.; wing 153 to 
166 mm.; tail 112 to 135 mm.; tarsus about 24 mm.; culmen 
about 26 to 28 mm. 

Female similar to the male, but barred throughout below with 
black and white; the lores are mottled with white and grey. 

Measurements. "Wing 151 to 160 mm. 



GBACCALHS. 347 

Young. Upper plumage rufous or rufous-white barred with 
black; greater coverts with broad rufous edges; inner secondaries 
and scapulars barred with black and edged with rufous ; chin to 
breast rufous and thence to under tail-coverts white, the whole 
narrowly barred with black. 

Distribution. Andamans. 

Nidiflcation. All that is known of this species is that a nest and 
one egg were taken in the end of April. The finder took it for 
granted that the bird was Graucalus macei but, years after, sent to 
me nest, egg and bird to identify, when it proved to be the Andaman 
Bpecies. The nest was the usual shallow, frail-looking but really 
strongly-built structure made by this species and was. placed high 
up in a big tree on the outskirts of dense forest. The egg is like 
a weakly but numerously spotted egg of the Indian Large 
Cuckoo-Shrike and measures ^40x22-1 miu. 

Habits. Those of the genus but according to Davisou this is 
more entirely a forest-bird, never venturing into open spaces. He 
remarks that it is always seen in pairs and that its slow, rather 
dipping flight is weaker than that of the Indian bird. 



348 ABTAMID.S. 



Family ART AMID.*:. 

The Artamitke, or Swallow-Shrikes, resemble the Shrikes in 
having the young barred both above and below and also in their 
strong bill, which, however, is neither notched nor hooked, though 
it is gently curved. Their principal characteristics are their very 
long powerful wings and their very short tarsi. The wings have 
the first primary very small and the second and third sub-equal 
and longest. The tail is short and square. The sexes are alike 
in plumage. 

In India there is but the one genus, Artamtts. 

Genus ARTAMUS. 

Artamus Vieill., Analyse, p. 41 (1810). 

Type, A. leucoijaster. 

A. leucoga»ter =. A. leucorhynehm (jme!.. S. N., i, p. 'M~> (178*) 
(Philippines). 

Characters those of the family. 

Key to Species. 

A. Rump of the same colour «8 the back .... A. / 'uncus, p. 348. 

B. Uump white, different from the back -1. leucorhynchot, p,:JoO. 

(763) Artanros fuscus. 
The Asnr Swallow-Shrike. 

Artamiufugcu* Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'llist. Nat., xvii, p. 297 (JS17) 
(Bengal) ; Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 498. 

Vernacular names. Tari ababil (Hind.); Tal-chatak (Beng.); 
Tati-pittorh (Tel.) ; Mura-sing (Mussal. in Beng.); SiUiangehi-pho 
(Lepcha). 

Description. Lores, feathers next the culinen and under the 
eye black; head and neck dark slaty-grey shading into dark 
vinous-brown on the back, rump, scapulars and shorter tail- 
coverts ; longer upper tail-coverts white ; tail slaty-black, tipped 
with white ; wings dark grey, the inner quills very finely edged 
with white ; lower plumage pale vinous-brown, paler on the vent 
and middle of the abdomen ; under tail-coverts white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris blood-red ; bill bright mauve-blue in 
the male, grey-blue in the female, tipped with black ; the younger 
the bird the less and the duller the blue; legs slate-colour or 



ARTAMUS. 349 

bluish-slate, more blue in the breeding-season than at other 
times. 

Measurements. Total length about 180 mm. ; wing 126 to 
138 mm.; tail 53 to 64 mm.; tarsus 17 to 18 mm.; culmen 
18 to 19 mm. 

Young. Above brown, the feathers edged with pale rufous and 
with dark subterminal bars ; below pale rufescent narrowly barred 
with faint brown. The iris is dull glaucous-brown ; the bill is 
blackish brown with a yellow gape ; legs brownish livid or dull 
slate. 

Nestling. More freely and strongly barred than the fully fledged 
young and with the wing-coverts broadly edged with rufous and 
with subterminal dark bars. 

Distribution. Throughout the Empire from Ceylon to the 
Himalayas East of a line drawn from Oodra in the Paneh Mahals 
to Naini-tal in ICumaon ; resident, throughout the Plains and foot- 
hills up to 2,000 feet, and ascending the mountains up to 
5,000 feet in Summer. It extends throughout Burma, Shan 
States, Siam, Cochin China, Yunnan and Western China. 




Head of A. fiunif. 



Nidification. Throughout its habitat this Swallow-Shrike breeds 
during April, May and June, constructing a rather shallow flimsy 
nest of roots, iibre from eocoanut and date palms, or trom palm- 
ferns and other odds and ends of various kinds, such as feathers, 
scraps of grass, etc., which have caught on the trees and bushes, for 
this bird never takes its nest-material from the ground. There is 
no lining as a rule but sometimes a few feathers are used for this 
purpose. The nest may be placed in any hole in a tree-stump or, 
more often, on a ledge or projecting stump or broken bough. A 
verv favourite site is at the base of the leaves of palms or palm- 
ferns or on the rough projections from which the leaves have 
fallen. The eggs number two or three, very rarely four, and are 
rather Shrike-like in appearance. The ground-colour varies 
from almost white to a rich yellowish-cream or buffy-cream ; 
the primary markings cousist of blotches of reddish brown 
to deep purple-brown and there are always secondary, or sub- 
surface, markings of lavender and purplish grey. The markings 
are generally sparsely scattered about over the greater part of 
the egg, though more numerous at the larger end, where they 
sometimes form a ring or cap. Fifty eggs average 23-4X1 7*1 mm.. 



350 ABTAMXDJE. 

and the extremes are: maxima 25*3x17-2 and 251x180 mm.; 
minima 220x1 6-6 and 23-0 x 163 mm. 

Habits. The Swallow-Shrikes are essentially gregarious birds, 
the males collecting in flocks even during the breeding-season and 
they often, especially in Siara, build their nests in small colonies or 
in very close proximity to one another. They are not really 
migratory, though birds which are resident near the hills forsake 
the plains to breed and, where monsoons are very heavy, they seek 
drier haunts during the heaviest rains. They are most elegant birds 
when on the wing and, but for their constant harsh cry and their 
comparative slow sailing through the air, might be taken for a 
a bevy of large Grey Swallows on the wing. They are very 
erepuscularduring the hotter months of the year, feeding principally 
before 10 a.m. and again after the sun gets low down. They catch 
all their food on the wing, sailing from some lofty perch in wide 
circles all together and then once more collecting on one branch, 
30 or 40 birds huddled close up in the smallest space possible. A 
few minutes of shuffling about and getting comfortable and, for 
no apparent reason, a further launching into the air again. This 
may go on for an hour before darkness descends and they finally 
settle down to sleep. 

Artamus leucorhynchos. 

Lanius leucorhyuchtu Linn., Mantissa, p. 524 (1771). 
Type-locality : Manila. 

(704) Artamus leucorhynchos humei. 

Hume's White-bumped Swali.ow-Shkikk. 

Artamus leucorhynchos humei Htresemann, Nov. Zool., xx, p. 2!>1 

(1913) (Andamans). 
Artamus leucagatter. Riant'. & Oales, p. 490. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Head and neck slaty-grey, changing to purplish 
grey-brown on back, scapulars and lesser wing-coverts; rump, 
upper tail-coverts and whole under surface from breast, pure 
white; tail blackish brown with very narrow pale tips. 
'»' Colours of soft parts. Iris pale blue, dark blue, to deep brown ; 
bill pale blue, tipped with black ; legs and feet dark slaty to 
practically black. 

Measurements. Wing 127 to 134 mm.; tail 55 to 60 mm.; 
tarsus about 15 to 10 mm. ; culmen 16 to 17 mm. 

Young. Barred above with rufescent and with dark blackish 
bars ; wing-coverts narrowly tipped with pale rufous. 

Distribution. Andamans and the Great and Little Cocos 
Islands. This form differs from typical leucorhynchos, as pointed 



ABTAMXTS. 351 

out by Hume, in being a far purer slaty, less sooty colour on the 
head and back. 

Nidification and Habits differ in no way from those of the 
preceding species. Twenty-six eggs average 23*1 xl7"0 mm.: 
maxima 236 X 168 and 23-2 x 172 mm. ; minima 22*3 X 17-1 and 
23-0 x 16 5 mm. Mr. B. B. Osmaston says that they breed in 
March, April and May, almost invariably placing their nests 
on the broken-off stump of some stout branch of a tree. 



352 DioauftiD.f;. 



Family DICRURID^. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth, with a 
single notch in the upper one ; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth and 
biluiuinated ; wing with ten primaries ; tongue non-tubular ; 
nostrils clear of the line of forehead ; the lower edge of the 
nostril nearer to the commissure than the upper edge is to the 
culmen ; plumage of the nestling much barred with white ; nostrils 
overhung by hairs or plumelets ; rictal bristles two ; sexes alike. 
An Autumn moult only. 

The Dicruridce, Drongo-Shrikes or Drongos, form one of the 
mosteasily defined families of the Passeres, their black plumage and 
long forked tail of ten feathers sufficing to distinguish them readily. 
They appear to be more closely allied to the Shrikes than to any 
other Indian family and a very natural sequence seems to be .Fly- 
catchers, Shrikes, Drongos, though these end, so far a.s India is 
concerned, in a cul-de-sac ; if we work eastwards, however, 
through Malaya to Australia they would appear to approacli very 
closely to the Paradiseidce. 

A great deal still remains to be worked out in regard to the 
local movements of the Drongos, although they are among the 
most common of our Indian birds. They are not migratory in the 
true sense, yet many of the species move considerably during the 
rains and the dry-weather periods, movements of which we as yet 
know very little, either in regard to cause or extent. 

In all the Dicruridce the wing is pointed and long ; the tarsus is 
short but fairly stout and the tail is long. In this family energy 
seems to be expressed in various forms of head-adornment, in 
remarkable development of the tail or in both ways. 

Kty to Genera. 

A. Outer tail-feathersnot greatly lengthened ; 
no portion of shaft bare. 

a. Foreheud not tufted. 

«'. Bill deep; width and depth at nostrils 

equal Dicnraus, p. 3/>3. 

//. Bill depressed ; width greater than 

depth at nostrils Chaftia, p. 368. 

b. Forehead tufted. 

&. Tuft composed of a few hairs several 

inches Ion)? Chibia, p. 370. 

d '. Tuft composed of few hair-like 

feathers, half-an-inch long Dissemuroilkh, p. 371. 

«•'. Tuft composed of ordinary feathers 

half-an-inch long Dissemurclus, p. 373. 



DioBcratrs. 353 

li. Outer tail-feathers greatly lengthened and 
part of shafts bare, 
c;. Terminal portion of outermost tail- 
feathers equally webbed on both sides. Bhbinga, p. 374. 
d. Terminal portion of outermost tail- 
feathers much more broadly webbed 
on the outer than on the inner side . . DissBMrmtrs, p. 376. 

Genus DICRURUS. 
Dicrunu Vieill., Nouv. Diet, d'llist. Nat., ix, p. 6M (1817). 
Type, D. balicasahts. 

In the genus Dicrunis the bill is stout, sharply carinated and 
covered at the base by dense short feathers, which partially 
conceal the nostrils. There is no crest or tuft on the head. 
The tail is well-forked, the outermost feather exceeding the 
middle pair by a distance of from once to over twice the length of 
the tarsus ; the outer tail-feathers have a curve upwards, sometimes 
so slight us to be hardly noticeable. 

This genus is one which has hitherto been very unsatisfactorily 
dealt with ; the greater number of the species contained in it 
range over a very wide area and are therfore subject, as we should 
expect, to geographical variations, sometimes slight, sometimes 
very pronounced : Gates treated some of these variations as full 
species and some he ignored altogether, a position almost certain 
to arise when subspecies are not recognized but much easier to- 
deal with when the trinomial system is accepted. Under the 
latter system we can recognize tive easily distinguished species, 
these being again divided into more or less numerous geographical 
races. 

Key to Specie*. 

A. Upper plumage deep flossy black. 
a. Outermost tail - feathers exceeding 
central ones by about length of 

tarsus and distinctly curved I), annecttns, p. 353. 

I). Outermost feathers exceeding central 
pair by more than twice length of 

tarsus and only faintly curved I), macracercus, p. ;15.~>. 

R Upper plumnsre grey. 

c. Lores and sides of head grey. 

a'. Lower plumage uniform grey D. Irucouhana, p. 359. 

6'. Lower plumage partly white J), ccerule$ceiis, p. 365. 

d. lx>res and sides of head white D. leucogtnyi, p. 3b7. 

(765) Dicrurus annectens. 

TUE CROW-Bir,LED DliOJfGO. 

Buchani/a anneettns Ilodgs., Ind. Itev., i, p. 320 (1837) (Nepal). 
Dicrunu annecten*. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 312. 

Vernacular names. Kak-raja-torai (Assamese). 

YOU II. 2 A 



354 diceubiba:. 

Description. AVhole plumage black, glossed with steel-blue 
•except on the lores, ear-coverts, inner webs of wing-quills and 
inner webs of rectrices ; the tips of a few of the under wing- 
coverts and axillaries are nearly always tipped with tiny white dots. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright haael to deep brown ; bill and 
legs black. 

Measurements. Total length about 200 to 270 mm.; wing 
139 to 152 mm.; tail 116 to 130 mm.; tarsus 19 to 20 mm.; 
l)ill, measured for the sake of accuracy from the anterior edge of 
nostril to tip, 17 to 20 mm.; width at nostrils 8o to ll - 5 mm. 

Kloss has ('Ibis,' 1918, p. 22(5) separated the Siam bird as a 
new race, under the name of I), a. siamensin, the supposed 
distinguishing feature being the small bill. A very exhaustive 
examination of the immense amount of material in the British 
Museum and in the Tring Museum shows that this form cannot 
be maintained, as birds with bills as small in all respects as thf 
smallest in Siam have been obtained in Assam, Nepal and Burma, 
whilst other specimens from Siam have bills as large as, if not 
larger than, have any individuals from these parts. 

Young birds have bold white tips to the axillaries and under 
wing-coverts and the lower plumage from breast to under tail- 
coverts more or less barred with white. 

Nestling. Deep brown, barred more heavily on the lower 
plumage with white and the under tail-coverts nearly all smoky- 
-white. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim, Oudh, Assam, North and South 
of the Brahmaputra, Chin and Kachin Hills, Shan States, Karen 
Hills, Tenasserim, Siam and Malay Peninsula. 

Nidification. The Crow-billed Drongo breeds during April, 
May and June in the foot-hills of the Himalayas and up to some 
2,000 feet throughout its range. The ne-st is a typical Drongo's 
nest, very much the same as those of the J'ericrocotkla', shallow 
saucers made of roots, weed-stems, bents and a few chips of leaves 
and grass-blades, well-intertwined and bound round the supporting 
branches and further strengthened with innumerable cobwebs and 
decorated with a little lichen, bits of hark or spiders' egg-bags, etc. 
They are always built in a horizontal fork of one of the outer 
branches of a tree, often at a great height, sometimes almost or 
quite within reach of one's hand, invariably, however, in a swaying 
slender branch, so that at every swing in a high wind it looks as 
if the contents must fall out. The site selected is one in thin or 
scattered forest, or in mixed bamboo and tree forest. The eg<;s 
number three or four and are very handsome. The ground- 
colour varies from a creatny-whito to a warm salmon, and the 
primary markings consist of longitudinal streaks and blotches of 
reddish or chostnut-brown with similar secondary markings 
of neutral tint and grey. In many eggs the marks are most 
numerous and often more or less confluent at the larger end. 



dicuukus. 355 

Aherrant eggs are speckled or spotted rather than streaked. One 
hundred eggs average 2(WixlW - 4 mm. : maxima 29 - 5x2O0 and 
2t>5 x 20-2 mm. ; minima 24-1 x 18-4 and 270 x 18*3 mm. 

Habits. Although the Crow-billed Drongo is not really 
migratory, it is a curious wanderer in the non-breeding season 
backwards and forwards within a small area. It is a breeder 
ouly in the lower hills and the plains immediately in their vicinity 
but from September to February or early March it may be found 
all over Assam and in many parts of Burma at a distance of 50 
to 100 miles from its breeding--haunts. They are not gregarious 
birds and are not found in flocks, but they are very sociable and 
several individuals are often to be seen feeding amicably together. 
They are as plucky and pugnacious as the other members of their 
family, and will tackle any hawk, eagle or four-footed adversary 
that enters their domain, assisting one another against their 
common enemy. They have an immense variety of notes, both 
pleasant and the reverse. Their (light is like that of the common 
Black Drongo, but rather heavier and slower, though they display 
great activity in the pursuit of termites and flying insect-prey. 
Their diet is entirely insectivorous. 

Dicrurus macrocercus. 

MnM'ictt)m atru Hermann, Obs. Zool.,p. 208 (1S04) iTranquebaricu) 
is unfortunately preoccupied by Mtiscicapa atru of'(imeli:i, 1789. 
The next earliest name is that of Vieillot, Dicrurus macrocercut, 
which must therefore be used. 

The Common Black Drongo is found over an area extending 
from Western India to a great part of China in the East, and from 
the Himalayas in the North to Ceylon and Java in the South. 
As might be expected, there is a certain amount of variation 
coincident with geographical area but these variations are almost 
entirely those of size and of comparative length of wings and tails, 
which makes it very difficult to define the various subspecies. 
I have already dealt with the Dicrurida- at length in ' Novitates 
Zoologicie,' xxv, p. 296 el ffj., and here only summarize my remarks. 

Keif to Suligpeciis. 

A. Medium m/,b ; wing average 140 mm. ; 

tail 154 mm. ; cuhnen about 225 nun. 1). m. titncrocnru*, p. 350. 

B. Large >ue ; win^r average 14!) mm.: 

tail lt>0 mm.; culmon about 23 "o mm. 1). «i. uioirirtim, p. 357. 
■C. Very small size; wing average l:i.'!mm.; 

tail lf>3 nini.; ciilmen about 20 mm. I), m. minor, p. 358. 
J). Medium size with short tail ; wing 

average 148 mm. : tail 147 mm. ; 

culmen abaut 22 mm I), in. < n'Jiwrur, p. 3oS. 

R Size u>ry small with long tail ; wing 

average 120 mm.; tail 1415 vam. : 

culmen about 21 mm 1). »>. htiii/ns, p. 35:1. 



366 mcRUBiox. 

(766) Dicrurus macrocercus macrocercus. 

The Black Deongo. 

Dierurtu tiiacroeerrus Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., ix, p. 58ft 

(1817) (India, restricted to Orissa). 
Dicrurus (iter. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 312 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Kolsa, Bvthanf/a, Bojanga (Hind.) ; Finga 
(Beng.) : Japal Knlchit (Puuj.); Kunick, Kal Kotachi (Sind.); 
Thampal (in the N.W. Provinces); Kotwal (in the Deccan); 
Yeti-hxta, Baradwu-jnm, Passula-poli-gadu (Tel.) ; Karri- Karrv- 
mah (Tarn.). 

Description. Whole plumage deep bliiek, everywhere glossed 
with steel-blue; a small white spot almost invariably present 
close to the angle of the gape. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris red to crimson ; bill, legs and feet 
black. 




Fig. i)t. — Head uf D. m. war rvctrcur. 

Measurements. Wing 128 to 150 mm., average 1-10-4 mm.; 
tail 143 to 168, average 1537 mm.; tarsus about 21 mm.; 
culmen 22*0 to 23'0 mm. 

The largest measurements seem to be invariably of "Winter 
birds, probably wanderers from the North, whilst the smallest, also 
Winter birds, are equally probably wanderers from the extreme 
South. If we could restrict our measurements to breeding birds 
only, these would probably be eliminated. 



DI0BDBU8. 357 

occasionally with horse or buffalo hair ; the outside is nearly 
always decorated with pieces oF lichen, moss, bark, spiders' egg- 
bags, etc., but never in such profusion as are the nests of the 
Pericrocoti. Most nests are placed high up in tall trees, but I 
have seen them within reach of tlie hand. Almost without 
exception, however, they are placed in a fork of one of the outer 
and most slender branches, frequently in what appear to be such 
perilous positions that the contents must be lost, in a high wind. 
The eggs generally number four in the more northern districts, 
three or even two only in the southern ones. They vary in 
colour from pure spotless white to rich warm cream or salmon, 
and the marks vary from a few black specks and dots to rather 
profuse markings of rich purple-red, reddish brown or pale pinky- 
brown ; most eggs have underlying marks of neutral tint and 
lavender-pink. 1 hough these are sometimes missing. Two hundred 
eggs average 25-5 xl!H) mm.: maxima 28'3 x 20-0 and 25- 1 x 
20 - l mil).; minima 23 - 0xl8-5 mm. and 25-2 x 17*1 mm. 

Habits. The " King-Crow " is one of the best known and most 
familiar of our Indian birds ; its glossy black shape and undulating 
flight are to be seen in every garden and roadside, whilst its cheery 
loud notes sound from all sides of every village, town or patch of 
cultivation. It. is one of the bravest of our birds, dashing head- 
long at every unwanted intruder and driving it with wild shrieks 
from the vicinity of its nest or young. Harmless birds it 
tolerates without protest and many birds, such as Orioles, Fly- 
catchers and others, build their nests close to that of a King-Crow's, 
so as to enjoy the protection of pluck greater than their own. 
Its ordinary flight is dipping and slow but it is capable of great 
speed in pursuit of its purely insect-diet, when its motions are no 
kiss graceful than rapid. It is a great mimic. 

(7<)7) Dicrurus macrocercus albirictus. 
Tuk Himalayan Black Dbongo. 

J)i<rnrnt albirictus Ilodg*., Ind. I!ev,, i, p. 32(3 (1837) (Nepal). 
JUrrunut liter. Jllanf. & Oates, i, p. 312 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Jiojanga, BucJutw/u (Iliad.); Fhuja (Beng.) ; 
T/iamj>al(S.\V.'P.): Charoi, Cheira (Manipur). 

Description. Differs from I), m. macrocercus in being larger. 
Wing 140 to 155 mm., average 1491 mm.; tail 140 to 184 mm., 
average 159*5 nmi. ; tarsus about 22 mm. ; culmen 23 to 24 mm. 
and distinctly heavier than in I), hi. mucrocercti*. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas to East Assam, 
Manipur, Chittagong, Northern Bengal, North Chin Hills, North 
Kachin Hills and North Shan States. 

Nidiflcation. The Himalayan King-Crow breeds from the plains 
along the edge of the Himalayas up to 7,000 feet, at which height 
.Mr. P. Dodsworth found it breeding near Simla. The breeding- 



358 DIC11TJRID.S. 

season is a little later than that of the last, few birds breeding 
before May. The nest is exactly like that of the Common Drongo,. 
and the e'igs only differ from those of that bird in being rather 
larger. Fifty eggs average 27*1 X 19-8 nun.: maxima 294 x 
21'1 mm. ; minima 236 X 180 mm. 
Habits those of the species. 

(768) Dicrurus macrocercus minor. 

TlIK CBYLON BjLACK DltOXGO. 

Dicrurus minor Layard, A. M /N. II., (2) xiii, p. H1>(1>«4) (Ceylon). 
Dicrurus ater. Blaiif. & Oates, i, p. 312 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Kuri-kuravi (Tain, in Ceylon). 

Description. A much smaller bird than either of the preceding 
races with a smaller weaker bill but with an equally long tail. 
Wing 125 to 143 nun., average 133 mm.; tail 13") to ]('>."> nun., 
average 153'3 mm. : bill about 20 mm. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. If a sufficient number of breeding- 
birds only could be examined, it is probable that the South 
Travancore birds would be found to be of this race and, on t lu- 
other hand, a few individuals which have occurred there of 
exceptionally large size and with heavy bills would possibly prove 
to be non-breeding visitors. 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of the other races of this species, 
but at present not much is known as to its breeding-habits and as 
to how high it is found at this season. The eggs are like those of 
the Common King-Crow, though I have as yet seen no pure white 
ones either from Ceylon or South Travancore. They arc, of course, 
very small. Twenty-one eggs average 242 x 18-1 .mm. : maxima 
27"0xliM> mm. and 261xl92 mm.; minima 22 8xlS!» and 
24 - 4x 17'2 mm. The breeding-season is March to the end of 
April, and only two or three eggs are laid. 

Habits those of the species. 

(7<>9) Dicrurus macrocercus cathcecus. 
The Chinese Black Diioxko. 
Ifkrurtm cnthcecm Swinli., 1'. Z. S., 1871 , p. 377 (China). 

Vernacular names. Lin mi-sue (Burmese). 

Description. This form is very close to D. m. macrocercus but 
is a rather larger bird with a comparatively shorter tail. The 
rictal white spot is often wanting. Wing 185 to 155 mm., 
average 148-4 mm.; tail 125 to 165 mm., average 148. mm.; 
tarsus about 21 mm.; culmen about 22 mm. 

Distribution. Burma South of the area mentioned for the last 
species. South China, Siam and the Indo-Chinese countries and" 
Hainan. In Burma it is found at least as far South as Amherst 



DICRUEUS. 3f)9> 

and Mergui, whence we have birds with wings measuring 143 and 
144 mm. respectively ; but about here it must grade into the next 
race and Kloss is probably right in assigning to the latter specimens 
from the extreme South-west of Peninsular Siain. 

Nidification that of the species. Mr. Hopwood has found it 
breeding in Maymyio, .South Chin Hills and in Tenasserim. 
Messrs. La Touclie, Styan and Ricketts all found it breeding in 
great numbers in China. A small series of eggs, which 1 owe to 
these gentlemen, measures as follows : — Average 20 eggs 25*8 x 
18-6 mm.: maxima 27-0xl9-0 and 2(!-8xl9-l mm.; minima 
23'1 X 18-2 and i>:$-7 x 180 mm. 

Habits, 'those of the species. 

(770) Dicrurus macrocercus longus. 

The Javan J5i,ack Dkoxuo. 

JJicrurtix louyiiK Bonaparte, Cuusp. (itii, A v., i, p. 3-">2 (18.">0) (Ja\a). 

Vernacular names. Not recorded. 

Description. A .small bird with small bill but comparatively very- 
long tail ; there is no rietal spot. Wing 121 to lUtf mm., averairo 
129 mm.; tail K>0 to 1(3") mm., average 14o' - 4 mm.: bill about 
20 to 21 mm. 

Distribution. Java, Malay Peninsula and extreme South-west 
and South Burma. 

Nidification. Nothing recorded. A nest and two eggs sent me 
from the extreme south of Tenasserhu should probably be referred 
to this race. Hot h nest and eggs are very small, the latter 
measuring only 2:54x27 - !t mm. They were taken on the 
14th Feb., li»0S, from a small tree just outside a village in the 
plains. 

Habits. Those of the species. The detailed distribution of 
this bird and its movements, both in the breeding and non-breeding 
season, still require a great deal of working out. 

Dicrurus leucophseus. 

Vieillot, Nouv. Diet, d* ( list. Nat., mm v. ed\, ix, p. .W (1817). ex. 
Levnillnnt, l.e I)ongri,Ois. d'Afriiiue, pi. 170, Java; Stuart Baker, 
Xovitates Zod., xxv, p. 2i»l (HHh). 

I have dealt with this species in great detail in lor. cit., and space 
is not available here to repeat my remarks The great difficulty 
in determining the races is due not only to the extreme individual 
variation but, also, to the fact that the species is a continued 
wanderer in the non-breeding season and we therefore cannot 
w ith certainty say what Museum specimens are breeding-birds and 
what local visitors only. If we could eliminate all but breeding- 
birds, we should almost certainly find the differences greatly 
accentuated. If the contrary was found to be the case, some of 



360' DICRUKID^. 

the forms now accepted would have to be suppressed. Of the 
races I accepted in 1918 as fairly well recognisable, the following 
are found within the limits of this work : — 

AV»/ to Subspecies. 

A. Wing average 127 mm. ; tail 131 mm. 

General colour a bluish grey, not very 

dark 1). 1. dintwlmrm, p. 300. 

B. Wiug average 13i nun. ; tail 138 mm. 

General colour much darker, more 

indigo-grey I). I. iiii/retcrn*, p. 3(51. 

<J. Wing average 140 mm. ; tail 150 mm. 

General colourniueh the same as in R 1). I. hopu-ooili, p. IV\\. 

D. Wing average 141 mm. ; tail 15^ nun. 

General colour decidedly paler, more 

grey, less indigo J). I. xteveimi, p. 'M-. 

E. Wing average 134 mm. ; tail 148 mm. 

General colour «.iinl) J). I. lon</icaiid<itu», }>. 362. 

F. Wing average 131 mm.: tail 13'.* mm. 

Geueral colour rather darker than in 

1) and K J). I. miiiimux, p. 3tV4. 

("71) Dicrurus leucophseus disturbans. 

The South Bujimkse Drongo. 

JHcrurus leucophaus duturbam Stuart Baker, Xov. Zool., xxv, p. 293 

(1918) (Amherst). 
Diet-unit nigretcen*. Jilanf. & Gates, i, p. 310. 

Vernacular names. Lon-mi-gxt (Burmese). 

Description. Whole plumage steel-grey, a little paler on the 
rump and paling slightly from the breast to the under tuil-coveris, 
the steel sheen also gradually fading away on these parts; lores 
and a line over the forehead dull black ; wing-quill* blackish 
brown ; rectrices brownish at the tip. In abraded plumage 
obsolete dark centres to the feathers of the head and wing-coverts 
show up fairly plainly. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris red to deep crimson; bill, legs and 
feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 250 to 200 mm. ; wing 1 23 
to 146 mm., average 127 mm.; tail 122 to 15.5 mm., average 
131 mm.; eulmen 21 to 22 mm.; tarsus about 18-5 to 19*5 mm. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, except in the extreme 
Peninsular Burma and Siam as far North as Bangkok. 

Nidification. Mr. Hopwood found this King-Crow breeding 
during April near Tavoy in Tenasserim, and Mr. W. A. T. 
Kellow sent me birds, nests and eggs procured in May near 
Sim pang. Nests and eggs are indistinguishable from those of the 
well-known form D. I. longicamlatitt, which are fully described 
later on. Fifteen eggs average 24*1 x 18*2 mm.: extremes, 



• DIOKUBUS. 301 

maxima 285 X 18-3 and 24-5 x 186 mm. ; minima 215 X 18-1 and 
24-0 X 18-0 mm. 

Habits those of the species. This is perhaps more of a forest- 
bird than some of the geographical races of the Grey Drongo, and 
haunts thin deciduous forest and light scrub as well as well- 
wooded open lands. It is found alike on plains and up to 3,000 
or 4,000 feet in the Burmese Hills. 

(772) Dicrurus leucophaeus nigrescens. 

The Bukmksk a bey Dbokgu. 

Dicrurus niyrescenh Gates, Hume's Nests and Eggs, '2nd ed. i, p. 208 
(1889) (Rangoon) ; Blunt'. & Gates, i, p. 315. 

Vernacular names. Lon-mi-sue (Burmese). 

Description. Generally speaking, a darker bird than IJ. I. 
■dis t ufbans and decidedly bigger. 

Colours of soft parts. The same in all the races. 

Measurements. Wing (123) 128 to 143 mm., average 132 ; tail 
124 to 1.54 mm., average J 38 mm. 

Distribution. All Central Burma and Siam from about the 
latitude of Bangkok, North to the South Chin and Kaehiu Hills; 
South Shan States and South Yunnan. 

Nidification. There is nothing on record about the nidification 
of this Drongo, although common enough in many parts of Burma. 
A clutch of eggs taken by Mr. J. C. Hopwood are like the pink 
typo of eggs of I). 1. lonyicawlttttts, and were taken at Maymyio in 
May. They measure about 24 - 5x 18 - 3 mm. 

Habits the same as those of other races. This is a bird of 
rather higher elevations during the breeding-season, April to June, 
but spreads over a great part of Burma during the cold weather. 
Much still remains to be learnt about its local movements and 
migrations. 

(773) Dicrurus leucophaeus hopwoodi. 

The Assam Giiky Dboxgo. 

Dicrurvs li-Hcophaiu hopxooodi Stuart Baker, Nov. Zoo]., xxv, p. 294 

(1S)18) (Dacca). 
Dicrurus cineraceu*. Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 318. 

Vernacular names. Lon-misue (Burmese). 

Description. This is the darkest of all the Eastern forms of 
Dicrurus huco/'lurus and also the biggest. 

Measurements. Wing 130 to 153 mm., average 140 mm. ; tail 
130 to 167 mm., average 149 mm. ; culmeu 23 mm. 

Distribution. Assam and Bengal, South and East of the 
Brahmaputra, Mampur, Lushai, Chittagong Hill-Tracts and the 



362 MCBtTBID*. 

Northern parts of the Chiu and Kachin Hills, Slum States anct 
Yunnan. 

Nidiflcation. This Grey Drongo breeds in great numbers in 
Assam between 4,000 and 5,000 feet and less freely up to 0,000 or 
7,000 feet and right down to the plains. They breed in April and 
May, inaiiy birds having second broods in June and July. The 
nest, is just like that of the Common Indian (J rev Drongo but is 
more often placed in trees actually in or on the outskirts of forest. 
One hundred and fifty eggs average 24 - (>xlS , 5 mm.: maxima 
275 X 19-3 and 253x200 mm. ; minima 21-9 X 173 mm. 

Habits. Those of the species. It is resident and breeds at all 
ranges from the foot-hills to about 4,000 feet, but above that 
elevation most birds come merely for the breeding- season and 
leave again for lower elevations after August. In tl e plains a 
certain number are resident but the majority leave these and visit 
the hills for breeding-purposes. 

(774) Dicrurus leucophaus stevensi. 

The Himalayan Grky Dkumjd. 

Dicrurus leucopluru* xteeeixi Stuart Balc<)i\ Nov. Zool., xxv, p. 214 

(1<J18) (Darjeelin^i. 
Dicriiius lonyicauthitu*. Uianf. & Oates, i, j>. :!1-1. 

Vernacular names. Unhim or Sahim-ph<> (Lepcha); C/ie-r/ium 
(Hhut.); N>t-Jin<ja (lietig.). 

Description. This is the large-it and darkest form West of the 
Brahmaputra, though neither so large or dark as I). I. ho/noiodi 
on ihe East; the tail is comparathely very long. 

Measurements. Wing 127 to 152 mm., average 141 mm.; tail 
12JS to 175 mm., average 152 mm. ; culmen 22 to 23 mm. 

Distribution. West Nepal to Eastern Assam, West and North 
of the Brahmaputra, the foot-hills and plains immediately adjacent 
thereto. 

Nidiflcation. Breeds commonly during April, May and June 
from the foot-hills up to (5,000 feet or rather higher, but princi- 
pally between 3,000 and 5,000 feet. Nest and eggs only differ 
trom those of the Common Grey Drongo in being larger. The 
few I have seen average 25-'J x 1!>0 mm. ; a larger serit-s might 
reduce this. 

Habits. Those of the species. 

(775) Dicrurus leucophseus longicaudatus. 

Thk Indian Gjbey Drongo. 

Utemrut Itmgicaudatu* A. Hav, Jerd., Madr. Jour. L. S., .vii, pt. ii,. 
p. 121 (1845) (Nilghiria) ; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 314. 

Vernacular names. Nil Jinga (Beng.); Eralu-valanhuravi 
(Tarn.). 



oicuuitus. 363 

Description. Similar to I). I. steveusi but smaller. 

Measurements. Wing 124 to 145 mm., average 134 mm.; 
tail 127 to 170 mm., average 148 mm. ; culiuen 21 '5 to 22'5 
mm. 

Distribution. Tlie whole of India West and Soutli of the 
distribution of the preceding bird and perhaps the extreme South 
of Travaneore. It appears, however, not to be found on the 
South-Eastern and East Central part of India, though Jerdon 
records it from Bastar in the Central Provinces. The biggest 
birds included in the above measurements are all Winter birds, as 
are the smallest birds in the preceding race and measurements 
of Summer birds only increases decidedly the difference in ihe 
average measurements. 

Nidification. The Grey Drongo breeds throughout its habitat 
from the level of the Plains up to at least 7,<J00 feet, at which 
elevation its nests have been found by Mr. A. E. Jones and the 
late Mr. P. Dods worth. The greater number of plains' birds 
seem, however, to mote to the nearest plateaus and hills to nest. 
The breeding-season is during May and June, a few birds laying 
both earlier and later. The nest of this, as of all the other races 
of Grey Drongo, is a shallow saucer measuring externally about 
4 inches in diameter by about 1 £ or 2 inches deep, w hilst internally 
the cup is about $ nicti less each way. It is made of grass-stems, 
roots and, less often, ot fine twigs, weed-stems, strips of bamboo- 
leaf and other materials. They are very well put together, 
though the materials are often rather scauty, being strongly 
reinforced with ample spiders' webs. Occasionally they are 
decorated outside with a few scraps of moss, lichen or spiders' 
egg- bags but never to so great an extent as are the nests of 
I'eiicriA-otus. The situation selected for the nest is practically 
alwavs one on a slender branch on the top or outside of a tree. 
It may be placed either on a horizontal fork or on the top of one 
or more small branches and is very rarely to be seen in an 
upright fork or on a stout bough. The height at which it is 
placed varies greatly ; L have taken the eggs from a nest standing 
within a couple of feet of the ground, whilst other nests I have 
seen were titty feet from it and quite unobtainable. The eggs, 
three or four in number, are very handsome. They range from 
pure spotless white to deep salmon or buffy-pink and the markings- 
range from *» few black pin-points to profuse chestnut, reddish 
brown, purple-brow n or yellow-brown blotches. As a rule, they 
are more numerous and more of the character of blotches rather 
than spots as in the Black Drongos' eggs. The shape is normally 
a broad oval, very little depressed at the smaller end. The texture 
is smooth and fairly line but not glossy. Two hundred eggs 
average 23-6 x 182 uiiu.: maxima 25"5 x 18* 1 aud 25-2 x 192 mm. - r 
minima 21*2 X 17-4 and 23-0 x 17-3 mm. 

Habits. Although found often in the true Plains the Grey 
Drongo prefers well-wooded hills and broken country with 



364 



1>ICHDIUJ>£. 



plenty of open spaces and is common in gardens and all round 
towns and villages. Except in a few places it does not care 
about forests, though occasionally found in thin deciduous tree- 
forest, or in secondary scrub or other growth. It is not gregarious 
but is very sociable, several birds often being seen hawking for 
insects in close proximity to one another. They feed entirely on 
insects, catching most of these in the air but often descending 
to the ground to seize some fat grasshopper or other tempting 
morsel. It is a very bold bird, like its black cousin, attacking 
any kite, crow or other objectionable bird which may invade 
its territory, not desisting until it has driven it away. It has 
a very large vocabulary of notes, some harsh and some sweet, 
and it has a very pleasant musical song uttered almost throughout 
the year. In addition to this it is an excellent mimic, whilst 
some of its notes seem to be ventriloquistic. 



(776) Dicrurus leucophseus minimus. 

The Ceylon Grky Duoxgo. 

Dicrurui leucophaws minimus Stuart Maker, Nov. Znnl.. xxv, 

p. 290(1918) (Ceylon). 
Dicrurm lonyicaudatus. Hlunf. & Oatei, i, p. .'{14 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Krntu-valan-knmvi (Tain.). 

Description. A small, rather dark bird with a comparatively 
short tail. 

Measurements. Wing 120 to 13.5 mm., average 131-0 mm. ; 
tail 133 to 147 mm., average 139 mm. ; culmeu 21 to 22 mm. 

Distribution. Ceylon and South of Travancore. 

The Javan race, the true D. leueophaiu lextco/Jufiis, is a small 
very pale form with a comparatively very short -tail. Wing 
average 127 mm.; tail average 123 mm. 

Nidification. Not recorded. This bird probably does not breed 
in Ceylon, and both Messrs. Waite and Phillips assure me that 
Legge was quite correct in saying that it is a non-breeding migrant 
only. On the other hand, there is a very small dark Drongo 
which does breed in the extreme South of Travancore, smaller 
and darker than specimens from N. Travancore and Malabar. 
This bird is exactly the same as the Ceylon one and has the same 
short tail. For the present therefore I retain minimus as a 
subspecies, pending further material for comparison. 

Two eggs sent me from Travancore measure 21*7 X 17-8 mm. 

Habits. Those of the species but it is more of a forest-bird than 
any of the Northern forms. Legge speaks of it as almost entirely 
a forest-haunting King-Crow, and Mr. J. Stewart says that his own 
experience corroborates this in South Travancore. 



DICttUBUS. 365 

Dicrurus coerulescens. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Whole abdomen, posterior flanks, vent 

and under tail-coverts while; larger, 

wing average about 130 mm 1). c. cteruleseens, p. 365. 

B. Abdomen nearly always datk, only vent 

and under tail-covens white ; smaller, 

wing average about 112 mm D. c. leucopt/gialis, p. 366. 

Those two races merge into one another in a remarkable manner 
and ir would almost seem as if there were two species — one, 
candescent, a white-bellied Indian bird with a small race 
inhabiting North-West Ceylon, and a second species, leucopygialis, 
with a dark belly, inhabiting Ceylon only. 

The Indian bird throughout its area has a white abdomen, 
though this varies considerably in extent individually and some- 
what decreases as one works farther South. Specimens exactly 
similar to .Southern Indian birds in coloration are found over 
a great part of Ceylon but in size all these ngree with the smallest 
Ceylon birds measuring in the icing only 104 to 111 mm. The 
majority also have the browner breast of the Ceylon birds, though 
tliis brown or grey tint varies somewhat throughout the whole 
area of this species. 

For the present I retain the whole of the Ceylon birds under 
the name of 1). c. Imcojiyr/icdis. 

(777) Dicrurus coerulescens coerulescens. 

Tiik White-bellied Dro*uo. 

Laiiiiis candwens Linn., S. N., i, p. 134 (17W) (Bangalu). 
Dicrurus candescent. Blauf. & Oates, i, p. 310. 

Vernacular names. Phari hucJuiHtja, Vhnpri (Hind.) ; D'houli 
(Beug.) ; NeUa or Kenda passala jiolitjadu (Tel.). 

Description. Whole upper plumage deep glossy indigo with 
greenish reflections in certain lights ; wing-quills and inner webs 
of rectrices blackish brown ; chin, throat, breast and upper flanks 
brownish grey; belly, posterior flanks, vent and under tail- 
coverts white; lores and a line at the base of the upper 
mandible black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris red to lake ; bill, legs and feet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 mm.: wing 120 to 
138 mm. ; tail 110 to 138 mm.; culmen (measured from anterior 
front of nostril to tip) 15 to 17 mm. ; tarsus about 19 mm. 

Young are very brown, retaining traces of the nestling- 
plumage on the breast, flanks, axillaries and under wing-coverts. 

Nestling. Dull brown, the breast and flanks barred with white 
and the wing-coverts edged with pale rufescent white. 



366 DlCBURIDvE. 

Distribution. India from the extreme South to Cutch on the 
West and thence North to Grarhwal, but not. West and North of 
this. On the East it extends to Western Bengal and Behar and 
it ascends the Himalayas between these points to about 6,000 feet. 

Nidification. The White-bellied Drongo breeds from the foot- 
hills and broken ground adjoining them up to at least 6,000 feet 
and perhaps 1,000 feet higher. It keeps to heavily wooded 
country and to forest, laying in April, May and June, making the 
usual Drongo's nest, though, perhaps, rather larger and stronger 
in proportion to its size. The materials consist principally of 
roots and grasses and the nests are attached to the outer branches 
of small or medium-sized trees. The eggs number two or three and 
are typical small Drongo-eggs, varying in ground from the palest 
cream or yellowish-salmon to a warm salmon, the markings 
varying almost -as much as in the Black Drongos. Thirty eggs 
averagH 23-2 x 17'omin. : maxima 24 p l x 18'0 mm. ; minima 19"1 
X15-2 mm. 

Habits. This Drongo is far more of a forest-bird than either 
the Black or Grey Drongos, though it, is found about plantations 
and cultivation as well, where there are lots of trees. h\ 
its manners, Wight, diet, etc. it differs little from these birds and it 
is equally courageous and pugnacious. It is said to have a sweeter 
song than any of the other Drongos of this genus. 

(778) Dicrurus coerulescens leucopygialis. 

The White-vexted Dnusciv. 

Dicrurus leucopytjialis Blvth, J. A. S. JV, xv, p. 198 (1840) (Ceylon); 
IStaiif. & Dates, i, p. 310. 

Vernacular names. Kowda or Kawuda I'unikn ((Vvl.). 

Description. Similar to the preceding race but, generally, with 
the white restricted to the vent and under tail-coverts and 
posterior flanks In some birds the abdomen is also nearlv all 
white but very seldom to anything like the extent it is in true 
candescent. The breast is generally a browner grey than it is in 
that bird and it is also a good deal smaller. 

Colour of soft parts as in the preceding bird. 

Measurements. Wing 104 to 12:} mm.; tail 104 to 120 mm.; 
tarsus about IS mm. ; culmen 15 to 16 mm. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidification. This Drongo breeds during March, April and 
May in the plains and foot-hill* of Ceylon but, apparently, not up 
to any great height in the hills, It occurs in Kandy and up to 
2,000 feet but there are only records of stragglers above this 
height. The nest is a shallow cup placed in the outer branches 
• of trees in forests or plantations at heights between 10 and 30 



D1CKUHU8. 3('i7 

feet from the ground. It is made of roots and grasses, sometimes 
of one of these only and is generally ornamented on the outside 
with scraps of bark, lichen or moss, the whole structure being 
strengthened with many cobwebs. Since rubber lias been planted 
in Ceylon the rubber-trees seem to be very favourite sites. The 
eggs are like those of the last bird and a beautiful series of 
fifty egg* collected by Messrs. K. Waite and "W. AV. A. Phillips 
average 220 x 17-1 mm. : max ima 25-0 X 18'Oand 23-y x 18*2 mm. ; 
minima 18'0xl5°l mm. 

Habits. Those of the preceding bird. 



(779) Dicrurus leucogenys leucogenys. 

The White-cheeked Dkoxgo. 

liuchanga 1euc<njeny* Walden, A. M. X. H., (4) v, p. 219 (1870) 

(China). 
Dierurm Iruciyenyx. Bliinf. & Oates, i, p. 317. 

Vernacular names. Not recorded. 

Description. Forehead black, grading into blue-grey on crown ; 
lores, ear-coverts and round the eye white ; shafts of tail-feathers 
black and outer webs of outermost pair of tail-feathers blackish ; 
terminal portions of wing-(|uills blackish ; remainder of upper 
plumage pale bluish grey with a distinct sheen; below the same 
with no sheen and paler on the abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris red to deep crimson ; bill, legs and 
feet black. 

Measurements. Wing 132 to 140 mm.; tail 125 to 138 mm.: 
tarsus about 17 to US mm.; bill from anterior point of nostril to 
tip about Hi to 17 mm. 

Birds from Hainan and Cochin China are rather darker and 
smaller, wing 129 to 135 nun., whilst birds from Sumatra are 
decidedly darker below and much smaller with a short tail; wing 
12i» to 124 mm. ; tail 98 to 120 mm. 

Distribution. Peninsular Burma to Singapore, the Indo-Chinese 
countries (excepting perhaps Cochin China and Hainan), Siam, 
Yunnan, China and Japan. 

Nidiflcation. La Touche found this bird breeding in large 
numbers during May and June at Foot-how, building a typical 
I)rongo : s nest either on a Pine or other tree, generally at a good 
height from the ground. Eighty-t wo eggs average 24-4 x 18-Smni : 
maxima 264x 193 mm. ; minima 21'8xl7"3. They vary in the 
same manner as do those of the more common Drongos in 
India. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 



368 mckubidjE. 

Genus CHAPTIA. 

Chaptia Hodgs., Ind. Rev., i, p. 326 (1837). 

Type, Chnptiu cenea Vieill. 

The genus Clmptia links Diwurus with Ohibia. It is more 
glossy than the former and has the feathers of the crown and 
hind ueck longer and more pointed but not becoming long hackles- 
as in the neek-feathers of Chibia. It differs from both genera in 
its very depressed and flattened bill. The tail is much forked, 
the middle pair of feathers reaching little beyond the middle of 
the tail. 

Chaptia eenea. 

Key to Subsji'tcies. 

A. Larger. Wing average about 124 mm.; 

rump generally lighter ; abdomen gene- 
rally more grey C. a>. anea, p. 8b'8. 

B. Smaller. Wing average about 118 mm.; 

rump generally darker; abdomen gene- 
rally less grey C. te. malayensix, p. 3(j0. 

(780) Chaptia senea senea. 

The Xobtherx Bronzed Dbonuo. 

Dkrumt aneus Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., ix, p. ">8G (1817) 

(Bengal, restricted to Dacca). 
Chaptia etmen. Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 318. 

Vernacular names. Chota Bwhaw/a (Beng.) ; Chaptia (Nep.). 

Description. Whole plumage black glossed with bronze, 
showing green or lilac reflections in certain lights ; lower 
abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts browner and without gloss ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries tipped with white in all but 
the oldest birds ; rump often grey and without gloss. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris reddish brown to crimson-lake ; bill, 
legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 240 mm.; wing 115 to 
132nui>.-; tail 105 to 130 mm.; tarsus about 14 mm.; culmeii 
21 mm. 

Young birds have the axillaries and under wing-coverts heavily 
spotted with white. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Mussoorie in the West to 
Eastern Assam and North-East Bengal, Manipur, Chin and 
Kachin Hills, Yunnan to Hainan. A single specimen in the 
British Museum from Saigon has as a wing of 1132 mm. and may 
possibly be of this same race. 

Nidiflcation. This Bronzed Drongo breeds in April, May and 
early June, building a nest quite typical of the family but, as one 



CHAPTIA. 369 

would expect, much smaller than that of Dicrurus. It is built in 
similar positions in slender branches on the outside or at the top 
of trees standing either in forest or well-wooded country at any 
height between ten and forty feet from the ground. The eggs 
number two to four, the most common type being one with a 
rather deep salmon-pink ground, faintly marked in a ring or cap 
with deeper reddish pink. A few eggs are more boldly blotched 
and spotted with reddish brown, like small replicas of those of 
Dicrurus macrocercus, One hundred eggs average 21*1 x 16-1 mm. : 
maxima 241 X 100 and 222x17-2 mm.; minima 19-9x15*9 mm. 
and 200x150 mm. 

Habits. This Northern Bronzed Drougo is found from the 
plains up to at least 7,000 feet, and seems to be resident 
throughout, the year except iu the highest parts. It is essentially 
a forest Drongo, though also found to some extent where there 
are many orchards and well-wooded tracts. It keeps much to 
the higher trees when hawking for insects and is singularly 
graceful and quick in its movements. Although like the rest of 
the family it has many discordant cries, it has a sweet song and 
many pleasant call -notes as well. It is as plucky in defence of 
territory, nests or young as are all the other genera of this 
family. 

(781) Ghaptia aenea malayensis. 

Thk Soi'tiiekn Bronzed Drongo. 

Chaptia ma/tn/eiisis A. Hay, Blyth, J. A. S. B., xv, p. ->94 (1846 
(Malacca). 

Vernacular names. Chotn Kesraj (Gorakpur) : Chimin Karl 
Kuravi (Telegu, Travancore). 

Description. Similar to the preceding bird but, rather smaller ; 
the rump is generally darker, though unglossed and the abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts are generally darker, though individual 
variation in these characters is very great. 

Measurements. Wing 107 to 124 mm., average 118-4 mm.; 
tail 97 to 104 mm. 

Distribution. The whole of Western India from South 
Travancore to Bombay; Orissa, Western Bengal to Calcutta, 
thence to the Sunderhands, Chittagong South of the Hill Tracts, 
Central and South Burma, Siam and the Malay Peninsula. 

Nidiflcation. Similar to that of the preceding bird, but the few- 
eggs 1 have seen average smaller. 

Habits. Those of* the genus. The Southern Bronzed Drongo is 
found from sea-level to th« top of the highest hills, but never 
except in forested or well-wooded country which is broken by 
ravines, small hills or rough ground or in the immediate vicinity 
of such country. In night, voice, diet, etc. it differs in no way 
from the Noithem form. 

yol. n. 2 B 



370 DICBCBID-E. 

Genus CHIBIA. 

Chibia Hodgs., Ind. Rev., i, p. 324 (1837). 

Type, Chibia hottentotta Linn. 

In Chibia the bill is long, pointed and curved downwards. The 
plumage is very glossy and the feathers of the sides of the neck 
greatly lengthened and lanceolate. About half-a-dozen long hairH 
spring from the posterior crown lying over the neck and back ; 
the tail is nearly square and the tips of the outermost feathers 
curved upwards. 

(782) Chibia hottentotta hottentotta. 

The Indian Haih-ckested Dkongo. 

Corvus hottentuliuK Linn., S. N., i, p. loo (1766) (Sikkim). 
Chibia hottentotta. Blanf. it Gates, i, p. 320. 

Vernacular names. Krishna-raj, Kishen-raj, Kesraj (Bong, 
and Hind.) ; Kesya, Jobraj (Nep.) ; Povonj-pho (Lepcha) ; 
Yentika passala poligadu (Tel.). 

Description. Whole plumage black ; the head, neck, wings, tail 
and breast with metallic-blue gloss, inclining to bronze on the 
wings and tail in certain lights. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris red-brown to dark brown ; bill, legs 
and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 300 mm.; wing 155 to 
180 mm. ; tail about 145 to 160 mm. ; tarsus about 22 to 24 mm. ; 
culmen 26 to 32 mm. Southern birds average a great deal 
smaller than Northern ones, thus birds from Bombay have a wing 
measuring 158 mm., whilst those from North- West India average 
over 175 mm. At the same time there is great overlapping and 
at present very little material available from Southern India for 
comparison, so, for the present, I retain all but the small-billed 
Chinese birds under the one name. 

Young birds are browner with less gloss and the axillaries and 
under wing-coverts tipped with white ; the neck-hackles, which in 
the adult run up to as much as 30 mm., are short and the long 
hairs which spring from the head not more than 50 mm. as against 
nearly 100 mm. in the adult. 

Nestling. Brown with obsolete white bars to the abdomen, 
flanks and breast; bold white tips to the axillaries and under 
wing-coverts and pale edges to the wing-coverts. 

Distribution. Travancore, Malabar and Bombay Presidency; 
Central Provinces and Chota Nagpore; the Himalayas from 
Murree to Eastern Assam ; Burma South to Tenasserim ; Shan 
States, Northern Siam and Yunnan. 

Nidification. The Hair-crested Drongo breeds from February 
and March to June in Western India and during April, May and 



DISSEMUBOIDES. 371 

-June in Northern India and Burma. The nest is merely a large 
edition of the Common Drongo's nest but is nearly always placed 
high up in a tree standing in forest. The eggs number three or 
four, rarely five or, equally seldom, two only. They are longer 
and more pointed in shape than other Drongos' eggs, in ground- 
colour varying from pure white to deep salmon, pale creamy eggs 
being the most common. The markings consist of rather pale 
reddish blotches, somewhat longitudinal in character and fairly 
profuse everywhere. A few eggs are marked with scanty specks 
or spots of purple-brown or blackish. Two hundred eggs average 
29-2x21-2 mm.: maxima 34-5x22-0 and 31-0x22*8 mm.; 
minima 25*0x20-5 and 27-5x19-8 mm. 

Habits. This Drongo is essentially a forest-bird and frequents 
broken ground, low hills and the bigger mountains up to some 
3,000 feet, wandering occasionally 1,000 feet higher than this. 
It is not gregarious and does not assemble in flocks but an 
unusually ample supply of food will attract many individuals and 
pairs which feed quite amicably together. Thus a flight of 
termites or a Bonibax in full bloom, with its great red flowers full 
of insects, will attract among other birds many of this species. 
They feed largely by searching flowers and leaves for insects but 
also catch these on the wing when they have the opportunity. 
Their ordinary flight is more powerful and less dipping than that 
of most Drongos whilst their calls are even louder and more 
diversified than an}' but those of Dissemurus. 

Genus DISSEMUROIDES. 

Dissemuroides Hume, Str. Feath., i, p. 408 (1873). 

Type, D. dicmriformis Hume. 

The genus Dissemuroides differs from Dicrurus in possessing a 
tuft of hair-like leathers about half an inch long springing from 
the forehead. 

Dissemuroides andamanensis. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Smaller, wiiiff always under 140 ram.. . I), a. andamanensit, p. 371. 

B. Larger, wing awiiys over 140 mm D. a. dicruriformis, p. 372. 

(783) Dissemuroides andamanensis andamanensis. 

The Small Axdamahkse Drongo. 

Dicrurus andamanensis Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1807, p. 323 

(Andainans, 1'ort Blair). 
Dissemuroides andamanensis. Blnnf. & Oates, i, p. 321. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Whole plumage black, glossed with blue-green 

2b2 



372 McmiBias. 

everywhere except on the primaries and outer secondaries, which 
are brownish, and on the abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts 
which are velvety-black ; axillaries and under wing-coverts tipped 
with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris deep brown, sometimes almost 
black ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length about 280 to 290 mm. ; wing 126 
to 138 mm.; tail 118 to 161 mm. ; tarsus about 20 mm. : culmen, 
measured from anterior point of nostril to tip, lit to 20 mm. 

Young birds are browner with move conspicuous white tips to 
the axillaries and under wing-coverts. 




Head of J), a. amlnnmne 



Distribution. Port Blair and Macplierson Straits and '.'possibly 
other parts of the Andaman Islands. 

Nidification. According to Mr. B. B. Osmaston this Drongo 
breeds round about Port Blair from April to the middle of May, 
building a typical Drongo's nest on some dry or leafless tree in 
forest. The eggs appear to van' in colour almost as much as 
those of the Common Black Drongos, though pure white eggs have 
not been found. Thirty-three eggs average 25-4xl8 - 3 mm.: 
maxima 26 - 6xl9 - 3 mm.; minima 22 - 3xl6 - 5 mm. 

Habits those of the family. It is apparently entirely a forest, 
bird. 

(784) Dissemuroides andamanensis dicruriformis. 

The Large Andamanese Drongo. 

Dissemuroides dicrurifofmi* Hume, Str. Featb., p. 408 (]87.'i) 
(Cocos Is., Andamans); Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 322. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Only differs from the preceding bird in being much 
bigger. 

Measurements. Wing 142 to 156 mm. ; tail 150 to 182 mm. ; 
tarsus about 24 mm. ; culmen 22 to 23 nun. 



D18SBMtBUL08. 373 

Distribution. The Great Coco and Table Islands in the 
Andaman*. 

Nidification. Unknown. 

Habits. The same as those of the preceding bird. 

Genus DISSEMURULUS. 

Dissemurulus Oates, Avifauna B. I., i, p. 322 (1889). 

Type, J), lopliorlunus Vieill. 

This genus is characterized by the possession of a tuft of 
ordinary feathers on the forehead measuring about half an inch 
in length. The tail is deeply forked, but the outer tail-feathers 
are not prolonged as the genera Bhringa and Dissemurus. 

(785) Dissemurulus lophorhinus. 

The Ceylon Black Drosgo. 

Ukrurux loj/hor/iinux Vieill., Xouv. Diet, d'lliat. Nat. ix, p. 087 

(1817) (Ueylon). 
Dissemurulus lop/wrhinns. Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 322. 

Vernacular names. Koirda, Kujmtu baya (Ceylon) ; Veil, Kari 
JKuruvi (Tel., Travancore). 

Description. Whole plumage black, glossed with steel-blue 
above, on exposed portions of wings and tail and also on the 
breast ; forehead and tuft deep velvety-black ; abdomen dull 
black ; axillaries and under wing-coverts tipped with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dull brownish red or dark yellowish 
red ; bill, legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Wing 130 to 146 mm.; tail 150 to 182 mm.; 
tarsus 24 to 25 mm. ; culmen from nostril 20 to 21 mm. 

Young birds are duller ; greyer on the abdomen and with much 
larger white tips to the axillaries and under wing-coverts. One 
young bird has a few white specks on the flanks, indicating that 
these and the abdomen are possibly more or less barred with white 
in the nestling. 

Distribution. Ceylon and South Travancore. 

Nidiflcation. This fine Drongo breeds in Ceylon and Travancore 
during March and April between the foot-hills and damp forests 
of the plains up to about 3,000 feet. The nest is described by 
Mr. Stewart as a shallow cup or cradle just like that of Dissemurus 
and is placed in quite similar positions in high trees in forest. 

The eggs number two to feur and are very like those of 
Dissemurus 2^aradiseus but the ground-colour never seems to be as 
rich a salmon as it sometimes is in those of the Hacket-tailed 
Drongo. The ground varies from almost white to a pale salmon 



374 DICBUBIDjE. 

often with a tint of lilac or mauve in it. The markings consist of 
blotches and spots of reddish brown with secondary ones of pale 
neutral tint and lavender. These are usually distributed rather 
sparingly over the whole surface but rather more numerously 
towards the larger end. Fifty eggs average 27 - 8x20-l mm.:, 
maxima 30-2x20-7 and 291 x22"0 mm. : minima 260 X 210 and. 
27-2x200 mm. 




Fig. 06. — Head of D. lophvrliini'.*. 

Habits. This Drongo keeps entirely to the interior of damp 
dense forest otherwise having much the same habits as the 
common species of Drongos. It seizes most of its prey on the 
wing and has a very fine vocabulary of notes both of its own and 
in mimicry of other birds. Although not gregarious it is very 
sociable in its habits, several pairs often feeding together in close 
propinquity. Like all the family it is very plucky and leads the 
small birds in their pursuit of owls, kites or other birds of prey. 

Genus BHRINGA. 

Bhringa Hodgs., Ind. llev., i, p. ?>2~> (1*:{7). 

Type, B. remifer Temm. 

The genus Bhringa is one of two genera of Drongos which have 
the outer pairs of tail-feathers greatly lengthened, the middle 
portion of the shaft being webless. In Bhringa the terminal 
portions or rackets of these feathers is Hat and the shaft equally 
webbed on both sides, whereas in Dissemitrus the web of the inner 
tide of the racket is very narrow. There is no true crest, but the 
feathers of the forehead are dense and long, lying over nearly 
the whole length of the bill. 

Bhringa remifer. 

Mdolius remifer Temm., PI. Col., 17* (185}.'!). 
Type-locality : Java. 



BHBIN6A. 375 

(786) Bhringa remifer tectirostris. 

The Indian Lessee Racket-tailed Drongo. 

Bhringa tectirostri* Hodjfs., Iud. Rev., i, p. 325 (1837) (E. Nepal). 
Bhringa remifer. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 324. 

Vernacular names. Bhimraj (Beng. and Assam.); Nambong 
punnong (Lepcha) ; Poyadi yapo (Bhut.) ; Dao-raja kashiba 
(Cachari). 




Fig. .">7. — Head of 13. r. tectiros/ri-s. 

Description. Forehead, lores, chin and cheeks vel ret y- black ; 
upper plumage, exposed parts of wings and tail, throat, neck and 
breast black glossed with blue-green, the sheen on the head and 
breast showing violet in certain lights ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries with small white tips. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris blood-red ; eyelids plumbeous; bill, 
legs and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length excluding long tail-feathers about 
275 mm.; wing 129 to 146 mm., average 130mni.; tail up to 
350 and 400 mm. with rackets generally between 70 and 80 mm. 
in length ; tarsus about 22 mm. ; culmen about 21 to 23 mm. 

The Javan bird, the true B. r. remifer, is smaller, wing 128 to 
137 nun. with much shorter outer tail-feathers, these seldom 
exceeding 280 mm. The rackets are smaller aud shorter, measuring 
about 50 mm. 

Young are greyer on the abdomen and have larger white tips to 
the axillaries and under wing-coverts. 

Distribution. Northern India from Eastern Nepal to East 
Assam both North and South of the Brahmaputra, Manipur, 
Lushai. Chittagong Hill-Tracts, the whole of Burma to Tavoy 
( Hopwood) ; the Chin, Kachin and Shan States, Yunnan, and 
Northern Siam. 

Nidiflcation. The Small Racket-tailed Drongo breeds during 
April, May and June between the foot-hills and 6,000 feet, 
most often between 1,500 and 2,500 feet, but it is common in 
the Dibrugarh District of Assam in the foot-hills and broken plains 



376 MCEUBID.«. 

adjacent thereto. The nest is quite typical of the family and 
calls for no remark. The eggs, either three or four in number, 
are very broad in shape with the small end but little compressed, 
and in colour are like richly tinted eggs of Dicrurus m. hopwoodi. 
but more blotched than spotted. One hundred eggs average 
25-5 x 18-6 mm. : maxima 27-3 X 19-0 mm. and 25-6 x 19-7 mm. ; 
minima 23-2 x 18'7 mm. and 24-2 x 179 mm. 

Habits. This is a bird of forests, though it is very partial to 
cultivation-clearings in the centre of heavy woods and also to 
openings on river-banks and swampy glades. It keeps much to the 
tops of trees whence it sallies forth after beetles, butterflies and 
other insects. Its normal flight is slow and dipping, the long tail- 
feathers undulating through the air as it flies ; it is, however, also 
capable of great speed and activity, especially in pursuit of termites 
on the wing. It has many and most varied notes, very full and 
melodious, and it is an excellent mimic, though not so good as the 
next species. 



Genus DISSEMURUS. 

Dissemurus Gloger, Handb. Naturg., p. 347 (18-12). 

Type, D . paradisew Linn. 

The genus Dissemurus differs from Bhringa in having the 
feathers of the forehead prolonged into a handsome crest, curling 
back over the crown and also in having the rackets of the long 
outer tail-feathers webbed broadly on the outer side but only 
very narrowly on the inner. Within our limits there is but one 
species, but this varies greatly in different parts, both in size 
and in quality of crest and tail, forming several well-marked 
geographical races or subspecies. 

Dissemurus paradiseus. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Size medium ; wing 138 to 163 mm.; 

tail up to 420 mm. ; crest small, 

reaching only over anterior crown . . D. p. paradiseus, p. 377. 
15. Larger, wing 147 to 170 mm. ; tail up 

to 435 mm. ; crest longer, reaching 

centre of crown D.p. ranyooriensis, p. 378. 

C. The largest form ; wing 150 to 

182 mm. ; tail up to 560 mm. ; crest 

very full, covering whole crown .... D. p. yrandis, p. 378. 

D. Size large, wing 152 to 167 mm. ; tail 

up to 450 mm. ; crest absent or 

obsolete ; culmen average 32 mm. . . D. p. otiosus, p. 380. 

E. Size medium, wing 146 to 153 mm. ; no 

crest ; culmen 28 mm J), p. nicobariemis, p. 380. 



DISSBMtJBTJS. 'Sil 

F. Size medium, wing 142 to 167 mm. ; 

tail up to 415 uim. ; crest up to centre 

or anterior crown t). p. malabaricm, p. 381. 

O. Size small, wing 139 to lfili mm. ; 

tail up to 340 mm. ; crest very small. J J. p. c.eylonetms, p. 381. 

("s") Dissemurus paradisens paradisens. 

Thk Siam Laeue Racket-tailed Dboxgo. 

Cucutus parudUeu* Linn., S. N., ed. xii, p. 172 (1701!) (.Siam). 
Diwemurus paradiseus. Ulanf. & Oates, i, p. 32o. 

Vernacular names. JVok-seiig-sao-hang-bnang (Siam) ; Lia-mi- 
nii-anii-ni-yua (Tenasserim). 

Description. Whole plumage black, glossed with blue, except 
on the inner webs of the wing-quills, throat, abdomen and vent ; 
the axillaries and under tail-coverts are tipped with white in all 
but very old birds. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris red to crimson-lake ; bill, feet and 
claws black. 

Measurements. Wing 138 to 163 mm.; tail up to about 420 
mm., generally about 400 mm. ; tarsus about lib mm. ; culmen 27 
to 30 mm. 

Young are browner, less glossed and have the white under 
wing-spots more pronounced. 

Distribution. Central and South Siam and Peninsular Burma. 
Birds from the West run rather larger than birds from the East, 
North of the Malay Peninsula. Thus a series of specimens from 
Tavoy and Mvrgut have a wing-average of 153 mm., as against 143 
for Siam birds. On the other hand, the crests and bills are small 
as in that bird and the tail also is somewhat shorter with smaller 
rackets. 

Nidificatioil. Mr. E. G. Herbert says that this Drongo breeds 
in May, building its nest in mango-trees, in gardens and the 
outskirts of villages, making a flimsy nest, "cup-shaped, but very 
shallow, of tiny creepers, roots and stems of grasses, often so 
thinly put together that one can see from below if there is any- 
thing in it. The materials are bound round the sides of a 
horizontal fork at the end of a branch, so that the nest hangs in 
the fork like a cradle." 

"The position of the nest is on the very fringe of the tree at 
about 20 feet from the ground, so it is quite inaccessible from the 
tree itself." 

The eggs, which number two or three only, are long ovals ; 
ground-colour white or cream to warm pink with blotches, few at 
the smaller end, numerous at the larger, of reddish brown, purple 
or claret and secondary markings of lavender or pale grey. 
Twenty eggs average 2y*6x20 - mm. : maxima 33'2x20*2 and 
30-2 x 220 mm. ; minima 26-9 x 200 mm. and 30-0 x 19-5 mm. 



378 DICBCKIDJE. 

Habits. The Siam Large Racket-tailed Drongo is a bird both 
of the forests and of the open country round about villages and 
houses and may often be found in gardens. Where the food-supply 
is sufficient two or three pairs may often be seen feeding together, 
for, though a very bold bird against all vermin and raptores, it is 
far from quarrelsome or a bully. It feeds entirely on the wing, 
generally selecting a post of observation on some high branch, from 
which it swoops in graceful flight after passing insects, returning, 
like a Shrike, to its perch to devour them. Like a Shrike it 
also sometimes holds its prey, if large enough, in its claws 
when feeding. Birds of this species have been known to seize 
and eat small lizards and tiny frogs but it keeps principally to 
insects, grasshoppers and locusts forming a large proportion of 
its diet. Its calls are very sweet and full and it has a strong, 
though short, melodious song. It is, like all the races of this 
species, an excellent mimic. 

(788) Dissemurus paradiseus rangoonensis. 

The Burmese Large Racket-tailed Duonoo. 

Edoliu* ranyoonensis Gould, P. Z. S., 1836, p. 5 (Ranjjooii). 
Disseviurus paradiseus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 325 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Hnet-dau (Burmese). 

Description. A rather larger bird than 7). 2>- paradiseus with a 
longer fuller crest and longer tail with wider longer rackets. 

Colours of soft parts. The same in all races. 

Measurements. Wing 147 to 170 mm. ; tail up to 435 mm. ; 
culuien 28 to 32 mm. 

Distribution. Central and South Central Burma, South Chin 
and Kachin Hills ; South Shan States and Northern Siam. 

Nidification. Very little on record, but apparently not differing 
from that of the last bird, though it is more of a forest and less 
of a cultivated-country bird than that race. Messrs. Uopwood and 
Mackenzie took most of their nests on pynkado trees (Xylol 
dolabriformis) standing in open bamboo-jungle on the edge of 
roads. The few eggs I have seen measured about 29-0 x 21*0 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus. This race is found from the foot- 
hills up lo 5,000 feet during the breeding-season and throughout 
the plains in Winter, haunting both forest and more or less 
cultivated land as long as it is well wooded. 

(780) Dissemurus paradiseus grandis. 

The Assam Large Racket-tailku Droxoo. 

Edolius grandis Gould, P. Z. S., 1836, p. 5 (Assam). 
Dissemurus paradiseus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 325 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Bhimraj, Bhringraj (Hind.) ; Kaljiu (Nep.) ; 
Parvak or Parvalc-pho (Lepcha) ; Dao-rujah gaschim (Cachari). 



BISSEMUKC8. 379- 

Description. This is the largest of all the races of this species, 
with a magnificent crest reaching over the whole crown and a 
very long tail with large rackets. 

Measurements. Wing 155 to 182 mm.; tail up to 560 mm. and 
often exceeding 500 nun. ; culnien 32 to 35 nun. and stout in 
proportion. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Mussoorie to Eastern 
Assam ; South to Sambalpur, Itaipur and the Northern reaches of 
the G-odavnri River; North Chin and Kachin Hills ; Northern 
Shan States and Yunnan. 

Nidification. This fine Drongo breeds during April and May 
from the level of the plains up to about -1,500 feet, but not often, 
above 3,000 feet. The nest is the usual cradle swung in the fork 




Fijr. .""i>\ --He^u! of IK p. r/nrtidi*. 

of some small branch at the top of. or outside, some tree standing 
in forest, deep or open, or in well-wooded open country. It is 
fragile-looking, but strong in fact, being composed of very line 
twigs, weed-stems, roots and grasses well interlaced and very 
firmly attached to the supporting fork, round which the materials 
are wound and then strengthened with cobwebs. The lining 
consists of a scanty amount of grass-stems and the outside is 
often more or less decorated with lichen, scraps of moss, bark, etc. 
It measures anything between 5| and (U inches in diameter by less 
than half its width in depth. Most nests are placed high up in 
big trees and are very difficult to get at but a few are built within 
15 or 20 feet of the ground. The eggs number three or four and 
vary rather less than do those of most Drongos. In shape they 
are rather long and pointed ; in colour they vary from pure white, 
which is rare, to a rich cream, marked with primary blotches or 
spots and specks of some shade of reddish, brown or purple and 



-380 



DIOBUBID^. 



with secondary marks of lavender and pale neutral tint. In most 
eggs the markings are fairly numerous at the larger end and sparse 
elsewhere but they vary greatly in this respect. Forty-eight 
eggs average 30-4x^1 6 mm. : maxima 32'4x.22"5 mm. ; minima 
26-0 x 20-8 and 27-0 x 20-0 mm. 

Habits. Preferably this Drongo frequents dense damp forests 
but it is also found in all well-wooded country and is especially 
partial to bamboo- jungle, in which grow scattered big trees. In a 
natural state they are entirely insectivorous, though they may 
swallow a great deal of honey together with the insects they 
extract from flowers, but in a state of captivity they will eat 
plantains greedily. Bees are swallowed by them in great numbers 
and without any injury and they also devour every kind of beetle, 
their larvae and butterflies. Their notes are all most musical, and, 
though they have no really connected song, one mellow whistle 
follows another in such rapid succession that it is much the same 
in effect. They mimic many other sounds as well as those of 
other birds and a fine male bird, for many years the unconfined 
pet of the Sepoys in one of the N. Cacliar stockades, sounded 
the reveille every morning with absolute correctness and 
punctuality. 

(790) Dissemurus paradiseus otiosus. 
The Andaman Backet-tailed Drongo. 

Uittemurvs -pttradiseti* otiosus ltichmond, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxv, 
p. 291 (1902) (Andamans). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. A large bird with no crest, a long and very- 
powerful bill and a long tail with broad rackets up to 70 mm. in 
length. 

Measurements. Wing 152 to 167 mm., average 102 mm. ; tail 
up to 450 mm. ; culmen 29 to 34 and averaging over 32 mm. 
Distribution. Andamans. 
Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 



(791) Dissemurus paradiseus nicobariensis. 
The Nicobak Labge Kacket-tailed Duongo. 

Dissemurus paradiseus nicobariensis Stuart Baker, Nov. Zool., xxv, 
p. 302 (1918) (Rondel, Nicobars). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Differs from D. p. otiosus in being decidedly 
smaller, in havinga shorter tail with small rackets only measuring 
up to 54 nzni. and a smaller weaker bill. 



DIS8KMUEU8. 381 

Measurements. Wing 146 to 153 mm., average 149 mm. ; tail 
up to 425 mm. ; culmeu 27 to 29 mm. 
Distribution. Mcobars only. 
Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

(792) Dissemurus paradiseus malabaricus. 

The Mai.abab Laeof. Racket-tailed Dkongo. 

Lanius malabaricus Lath., Ind. Orn., i, p. 66 (1790) (Malabaria). 
Dissemurus paradiseus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 325 (part.). 

Vernacular names. BJiimraj, Bhringraj (Hind.) ; Tinka passala 
poligada (Tel.) ; Hati (Gond.) ; Kate-owjal (Mahr.). 

Description. Very close to D. p. rangoonensis, but smaller and 
with a smaller crest and smaller weaker bill. 

Measurements. Wing 142 to 167 mm., average 152 mm. ; tail 
up to 415 mm. ; eulmen 26 to 29 mm. 

Distribution. The whole of India South of the range given for 
D. p. grandis, birds at the meeting-places of the two races being, 
of course, intermediate between them. 

Nidification. The Malabar Backet-tailed Drongo breeds in the 
months of March, April and May from Travancore to Khandalla, 
Nassic and Thana etc. in the Bombay Presidency. The nest is 
like that of the other races and is usually built very high up in a 
forest-tree. The eggs number two or three, very rarely four, and 
forty-eight eggs average 28*1 X21-1 mm. : maxima 32-2x21-5 and 
27-0x22-8 mm. ; minima 26-6x20-0 and 27-0x20-0 mm. 

Habits. Those of the species. 

(7S>;{) Dissemurus paradiseus ceylonensis. 

Tiik, Ceixo.v Large Ka.cket-tail.ed Dbongo. 

Dissemurus ceylonensis Sharpe, Cat. B. M., iii, p. 264 (1877) (Ceylon ). 

Vernacular names. Maha Kaivuda, Emtta valem Kwavi (Tarn, 
in Ceylon). 

Description. The smallest of all the subspecies with a compara- 
tively still shorter tail, smaller crest, and smaller bill. 

Measurements. Wing 139 to 156 mm., average 146 mm. ; tail. 
up to 340 mm. ; eulmen 27 to 28 mm. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidification. That of the species. Eggs taken by Mr. J. St ewart 
average 26-3x21-0 mm. and were taken in April. 
Habits. Those of the species. 



382 



8YI.V1ID.1C. 




Fig. 51). — AiTorrphnltif t/nttoreiis tirii/nirxreiis 



Family SYLVIIDjE. 

The Wahblebs. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth or the 
upper one with a single simple notch; hinder aspect of tarsus 
smooth, composed of two entire longitudinal laminae ; wing with 
ten primaries ; tongue non-tubular ; nostrils always clear of the line 
of forehead, the space between the nostril and the edge of the 
mandible less than the space between the nostril and the oilmen ; 
the plumage of the young is like that of the adult female but 
brighter, in many cases more yellow or rufous; tail-feathers ten 
or twelve, sexes generally alike; a partial or complete Spring 
moult in addition to the complete Autumn moult. 

The Sylviidte, or Warblers, comprise a large number of birds of 
small size and, with few exceptions, plain plumage. Hartert 



sylviidjE. 383 

includes them in his Muicicapida-, or Flycatchers, but these birds 
have the nestlings spotted or squamated, a perfectly sufficient 
reason for dividing them from this family. The SylvikUn have a 
complete or partial Spring moult, which not only generally causes 
a change in the colour of the plumage but in some also changes 
the length and shape of the tail. In some Warblers this moult 
affects only the quills of the wings and tails. 

In the Sylvikltx, though the young are often more highly 
coloured than the adults, they have the same colour-pattern. 
Some young Warblers appear to have no moult in the first Autumn, 
whilst in a few this moult, as in Lonmtella, appears to form a 
transition-stage between the nestling plumage and that of the 
adult. Others of the Sylvlidai change direct into the adult 
plumage at their first Spring moult and others again do not obtain 
the adult plumage until their second Autumn moult. 

Many species of Warblers are migratory, others are resident 
and in a few there are both resident and migratory subspecies of 
the same species. 

The Sylviirfas found within the limits of this work comprise 
about 150 species and subspecies referable to 33 genera. I follow 
Gates in the main features of his key and divide them in two 
classes, the first of which includes all Warblers with twelve 
tail-feathers and the second those with ten. 



Key to Genera. 

A. Tail ot twelve feathers. 

a. Feathers of the forehead short, rounded, 
their shafts not elongate ; no hairs or 
bristles on the margin of the forehead, 
except the ordinary rictal ones near the 
gape. 
a'. Itictal bristles arranged in a horizontal 
row. 
a". Feathers of head and neck soft, not 
spinous. 
<j\ First primary less than a third of 
the length of the second. 
a\ Wing longer than tail by about 

the length of tarsus AcnoBArKs, p. .'585. 

A*. Wing and tail about equal in 
length. 
a s . Itictal bristles well developed; 
tail-feathers less graduated, 
the outermost more than J fp. 387_ 

length of tail Achoi Kl'UAl.cs, 

b s . Itictal bristles very small ; tail 
much graduated, outermost 
feathers less than J length of 

tail Locusteli.a, p. 399. 

4". First primary longer than a third 
of the second. 



384 svlviid^. 

i' 4 . Rictal bristles extremely short. 
c". First primary not more thau 

half second Tiubura, p. 403. 

</'. First primary equal to } second. Elaphrornis, 
</*. Rictal bristles well developed. [p. 408. 

e s . Hill as long as, or longer than, 

the head Orthotonus, p. 410. 

/"'. Bill decidedly shorter than the 
head. 
n 8 . First primary shorter than 
half second. 

«'. Wing pointed Luscixiola, p. 41". 

ft 7 . Wing rounded Cisticoi.a. p. 410. 

ft". First primary longer than 
half second. 
c 7 . Third primary not longest 
nor equal to longest. 
a". Two rictal bristles .... Fhanki.ini a, p. 424. 
'A More than two rictal 
bristles, 
a". Tail more than 1-J- 

tinies length of wing. Laticiixa, p. 430. 
ft". Tail less than 1£ times [p. 4:52. 

length of wing Ghaminicoi.a, 

(F. Third primary reaching to 
tip of wing. 
c*. Tail much longer than 

wing Mmalviius, p. 434. 

<7\ Tail about equal to wing. Schcenicoi.a, p.43(>. 

ft'. Rictal bristles arranged vertically Cii*;tobnis, p. 43H. 

b. Feathers of the forehead disintegrated, the 
shafts lengthened ; supplementary bristles 

in front of rictal bristles. [p. 439. 

c . Tail greatly graduated and rounded .... I'iibaomaticola, 
d' . Tail nearly even or slightly forked. 

ft". Supplementary bristles short, no frontal 
hairs over nostrils. 
r\ Bill from gape to tip longer than 

middle toe with claw IIippolain, p. 441. 

<P. Bill from gape to tip shorter than 

middle toe with claw Syi.vja, p. 440. 

c". Supplementary bristles very strong 

and numerous, no frontal hairs ; bill [p. 452. 

stout IIkhbivocui.a, 

el". Supplementary bristles numerous but 

not strong, no frontal hairs; bill [p. 45,'j. 

slender 1'm'LLoscorus, 

e". Supplementary bristles very strong and 
numerous, extending over nostrils up 
to centre of culmen ; bill large and [p. 471. 

wide; first primary small Acanthopnkustk, 

/". Supplementry bristles similar but ex- 
tending up to tip of bill ; first primary 

small Skickucus, p. 485. 

</''. Supplementary bristles reaching to 
middle of bill ; first primary large, 
exceeding half second MiiscrntKA, p. 483. 



AUKOHATK.S. 385 

B. Tail of ten feathers. 
v. Tail no longer iu Winter than Summer ; not 
cross-rayed or only obsoletely so ; graduated 
slightly or not at all. 
e'. Wing and tail about equal in length. 
A". Nostrils overhung by long hairs. 
e'. Tail very slightly rounded. 

e'. Kictal bristles of great length; 
wing longer than tail. 

.</'. liill short and pointed Abroiinis, p. 493. 

/»'. Bill long and blunt Tickki.lia, p. 499. 

Jl . llictal bristles moderate ; wing 

shorter than tail Scotockiica, p. 501. 

/'. Tail considerably rounded Neoknis, p. 502. 

/". Nostrils not overhung by hair. 

</'. Supplementary bristles in front of 
rictal bristles ; leathers of fore- 
head with shafts prolonged IIorobms, p. 504. 

/<'. No supplementary bristles ; feathers 
of forehead with shafts not pro- 
longed, [p. 510. 

</'. Hill broad, blunt and long PiiYiXKltfiATEH, 

/i 1 . Bill sharp and slender. 

i '. Outur tail-feathers much shorter 

than central Horkites, p. 512. 

j'. Outer tail-feathers very little 

shorter than central Ckttia, p. 514. 

/'. Wing about twice as long as tail Urophlkxis, p. 515. 

d. Tail longer in Winter than in Summer, 
cro^B-raved and greatly graduated. 

</. Tail twice as loiur as wing Suya, p. 518. 

A'. Tail one and a half times as long as wing. Prinia, p. 525. 

Genus AGROBATES. 

Aijtohutefs Swains., Clues. Birds, ii, p. 241 (1(S.'!7). 

Type, Agrobates galactodes. 

The genus Agrohates is represented iu India by one species, which 
is a somewhat rare winter visitor to the drier parts of the North- 
West, occasionally struggling as far East as Assam. The bill is 
about half the length of the head, slender and similar in shape to 
that of Loc ustdla ( lig. G3). The forehead is clothed with short 
thick-set feathers and there are no supplementary bristles ; this 
character and the longer foot and wing suffice to separate Agrobates 
from Sylvia with which See boh m placed it. The tail is anipleand 
well rounded. The first primary is short and the second equal to 
the fourth. 

Agrobates galactodes. 

Sylvia yalactixles Teiuin.. Man. d'Orn., i, p. 182 (1820). 
Type-locality : South Spain. 
VOL. ii. 2 c 



:3S6 



SYIAJID.T. 



(7»4) Agrobates galactodes familiaris. 



Tllli GltKY-li.U'KK!) W.V liUIJ-:]). 



Si/lr!tifamili(trWSleMt\:, Oat. liais. t'nuc, p. • 
Action fawliari*. Blunt'. & Dates, i, p. #>1. 



!(lH3L»)(S.('niicn«us). 



Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Whole upper plumage fulvous-brown, darker on 
the forehead and sides of the crown, changing to bright rufescent 
on the rump and upper tail-coverts; centre pair of tail- feathers 
brown, more or less suffused with rufescent, obsoletely cross-rayed 
and broadly tipped with dark brown, the next two pairs chestnut 
with broad subterininal band of black, the extreme edges and tips 
being pale rufous sometimes showing a speck of white, outer 
three pairs the same, bat with broad white tips ; wing-quills and 




l''ig. 61. — Foot of A. i). familiaris. 

coverts edged with pale fulvous-white; siipercilia white or butty- 
wiiite; lores and a line through the eyes brown ; a line under the 
anterior ear-coverts brown ; ear coverts and entire lower plumage 
pale, dull vinaceous-white, a little darker on breast and flanks. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown or dark brown; bill brown 
above, the lower mandible whitish or yi'llow ish white, the mouth 
Yellow; li'gs and feet pale brown, fleshy-brown, pale yellowish 
white or dirty straw-colour. 

Measurements. Total length 17") to 185 mm.; wing 85 to 
00 mm.; tail 65 to 70 mm.; culmen 18-0 to 195 mm. ; tarsus 
about 26 mm. 

Typical A. rj. <jalaclodes differs from this race in being much 
more rufous above. 

Distribution. From Southern Caucasia to Persia, Mesopotamia, 
Transcaspia, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Baluchistan stud N.W. 
India, straggling into the plains of the Punjab, N.W. Provinces, 



ACKOCUIM1AI.US. 13^7 

Sind and Itajputana. 1 have, killed a specimen in Cachar and 
have received another from Behar. 

Nidification. The Grey-backed Warbler probably breeds 
practically wherever found, but in Bind and N.W. India Tieehurst 
says that it is only found as an Autumn migrant on passage. He 
does not, however, say from where to where and it may well be a 
resident here as atMultan, where Major Lindsay Smith took many 
nests. He records that about Multau " the Grey-backed AVarbler 
breeds in the most inhospitable deserts breeding in low stunted 
bushes that do not average 20 leet high ; the nest is usually under 
5 feet from the ground, always on thickish branches. 1 strongly 
suspect that this bird frequently makes use of deserted nests of 
Anji/a cawlata and Molpatites leiieotix, as 1 have found three types 
of nest. The one which I ascribe to the bird irself is a large, 
loosely put together cup of grass-stems, always found in Jal bushes 
(£>'. ahoulex); the liulbul type is built in the J band (/ J . s/ncir/t'ia) 
and the Habbler type in the Karil or Wild Caper (C. aphi/Ila). It 
may be, however, that the Warbler suits its nest to the type of 
t ree selected for a site." 

Nests, eggs and birds were sent to me by Major Lindsay Smith. 
The clutches numbered three to four eggs each and were indistin- 
guishable in anywav from those taken by Tomlinson in Basra 
or by Currie in Persia. The ground-colour is white, greyish or 
yellowish white and very rarely pinkish white, the whole surface 
being profusely marked with small rather longitudinal freckles and 
blotches of brown or reddish brown, the general aspect of the egg 
varying from grey to reddish brown. In shape the eggs are 
rather long, well-pointed ovals. Fifty eggs average 20-9 x 15-4 mm. : 
the maxima are 23"5 X 16 3 mm. and the minima 19*2 x 15*4 and 
20-1 xl40 mm. 

At Multan the breeding-season is from the end of February to 
early April, at Kerman and Sheraz Currie found them laying in 
May, whiist Tomlinson took eggs from the middle of May to the 
end of June. 

Habits. The Grey-backed Warbler is a bird of arid plains 
covered with scanty scrub and date-gardens etc. in dry situations, 
though within irrigated areas. It is by no means aquatic in its 
habits and, though like the Reed- Warblers, it feeds in amongst 
scrub- jungle and thorny bushes it seems never, li!;e these birds, 
to frequent reed-beds and marshv swamps. It has a loud and 
rather discordant note and is entirely insectivorous in its diet. 

Genus ACROCEPHALUS. 

AeiwphulM Xuum., Nat. Lund- u. Wuss.-Viig. Nord-Deutsohl., iv, 
].. 14!) (1*1 I). 
Type, ylcroccjihalus tnrdoides=artmdi>unr«s. 

The genus Acroce.phalux contains Indian species which are 



388 svlviidjE. 

common in Winter over a very wide area but of which the greater 
number seek the higher ranges for nidilication. 

The Reed-Warblers are birds of plain plumage with very few 
obviously distinctive features and are therefore difficult to identify 
without a careful examination of the wings. 

The Winter and Summer plumage only vary in that the rufoua 
or fulvous tint, especially in the lower plumage, is greatly 
intensified during the winter or non-breeding season. The sexes 
are alike and they undergo a complete moult both in Autumn and 
Spring. 

In this genus the bill is rather slender and generally nearly 
as long as the head ; the forehead is smooth and there are 
three well-developed, strong, rictal bristles on each side of the 
head. The first primary is small and the second varies consider- 
ably in comparative length, foriniug an excellent guide to the 
\arious species. The tail is long and well graduated, the feathers 
rather narrow and pointed. 

Key to Species. 

A. Of large size, wing above 75 mm. 

a. Second primary shorter than tilth .... A. stentoreux, p. 388. 
6. Second primary equal to or longer than 

fourth A. arundinmtii,*, p. 391. 

Ji. Of small size, wing under (55 mm. 

c. "With a distinct black stripe over the 

supercilium A. bistrigicejw, p. 392. 

i?. With no black stripe over the super- 
cilium. 
«'. Culmen from front under 15 mm. 

a". Upper plumage olivaceous A. dumttorum, p. 393. 

//'. Upper plumage rufous. 

ri'. Second primary equals sixth to 

seventh A. agricolus, p. 394. 

b 3 . Second primary equals eighth to 

tenth A. concinens, p. 395. 

//. Culmen from front over 15 mm A. orintis, p. 398. 

In consulting the above key it must be remembered that the 
culmen is measured from the feathers of the forehead ; if measured 
from the base of the skull, another 2 mm. must be added to the 
measurements given. 

Acrocephalus stentoreus. 

('arnica ttentorea Ilempr. & Ehrenb., Symb. Pliys., Aves, fol. hb. 
(1833). 

Type-locality : Damietta, Egypt. 

Key to Subspecies. 

.\ . Paler and move rufous A. s. brunnescens, p. 389.. 

11. Darker and less rufous A. s. amya, p. 390. 



A OTOCEPHALUS. 389 

(795) Acrocephalus stentoreus brannescens. 
Tub Indian Gueat Ree.d-Wahbl£r. 

Ai/robates bnumescen* Jerd., Madr. Jour. L. S., x, p. 2G9 (1830) 

(Trichinopoly). 
Acrocepkalux Uentorew. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 8!>P\ 

Vernacular names. Bom-jitti (Tel.). 

Description. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rufeseent 
fulvous on rump arid upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail olive- 
brown edged with fulvous ; a narrow superciliuin from the 
forehead to the eye pale buff ; lores and small patch behind the 
eye brown ; ear-coverts and sides of neck like the back but paler; 
below fulvous, brighter on flanks, vent and under tail -co verts, 
albescent on centre of abdomen and almost white on chin, throat 
and fore-neck ; the breast is sometimes a little darker and faintly 
streaked with blown. This Eastern form differs from typical 
stentoreus in being darker above and in having a somewhat stouter 
bill. 




Fig. l>2. - llfiiil of .1. a. bi-muirnrii*. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris yellowish brown or light hazel; 
eyelids plumbeous ; mouth orange-yellow ; legs plumbeous or 
plumbeous-horny ; upper mandible dark brown, lower pale 
yellowish or duskv flesh-colour. 

Measurements. Total length about 100 to 200 mm. ; wing S3 
to !M.) m in. ; tail about 75 to 80 nun. ; tarsus 30 mm. ; culmen 
17""> to li)-5 mm. 

Distribution. Breeding from Trauscaspia, Persia to Kashmir 
and Uarhwal. In Winter wandering into the plains of India as 
far South as Ceylon and East to Bengal and Behar. The smaller, 
darker birds from Burma probably all belong to the next form. 

Nidification. This Reed-Warbler breeds in some numbers in 
the Kashmir lakes during June, making a typical Heed- Warbler's 
nest of coarse shreds of rushes bound to three, four or more reeds 
and lined with finer shreds and bits of grass. The eggs generally 
number three, sometimes four. In ground-colour they vary from 
pure white to a yellowish or greyish white, sometimes very 
strongly tinged with green and they are marked with good-si/.ed 
irregular blotches of deep blackish brown and sienna-brown ; the 
green eggs iilso have underlying or secondary marks of lavender 
and neutral tint. The surface is glossless and rather course and 



300 sivniux. 

the shape a rather Jong oval. Sixty eggs average 22-7 X 1 o» mm.: 

maxima 243 x H>1 and 22-1 X 16-7 mm.; minima 213x l.>-.< and 

2.'j-2xl50mm. 

It is probable that (Lie bird which is resident and breeds m 

§imt is the next race and not this. 

Habits. This form of stentorens is a true migrant, leaving the 
plains of India in the end of April and breeding in the Himalayas 
in the lakes and swamps between 0,000 and 10,000 feet. Though 
not gregarious, many pairs mav be found breeding within a 
comparatively small area, each, however, keeping strictly to its 
own particular patch of feeding-ground. They are extremely 
noisy birds, their loud harsh song being continually repeated 
from the tops of high reeds in the vicinity of the nest. 



(796) Acrocephalus stentoreus amyae. 
AIns. Stevens's Kkkd- W.uusleh. 

At -rneephttlii* gtenloreu* row/tr Stuart linker, Bull. B. O. ('.. xliii, 
p. 17 (18'_'2j. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Differs from the Indian Great. Heed-Warbler in 
being much darker above and below and in being a. trifle smaller. 
The colour of this bird even in its breeding-plumage is more 
ochraceoiis-brown below than is A. s. bnnim scans in its brightest 
winter-dress. 

Colours of soft parts. " Iris olive-brown : bill horny-black above, 
paler on edges of commissure ; lower mandible pinkish, darker at 
tip; tarsus bluish-horn." (Sterenx.) 

Measurements. Wing about SO to Si! mm. ; tail t>7 nun. ; tarsus 
28 mm. ; culmen 21 mm. 

Distribution. Breeding in the sub-Himalayan plains and Terai 
from Assam to Garhwal. In Winter it is apparently numerous in 
Burma as far South as Pegu ; in Bengal and probably over much of 
the Indian continent. 

Nidiflcation. Mr. N. L. Whymper (Journal B. N.H.S., xviii, 
p. 495, 1907) first recorded the breeding of this Reed- Warbler in 
the Bahraieh district in August and he then remarked on the 
email size both of the bird itself and of its nest. Mr. !•'. Field 
took numerous nests in Gonda, U.P., in July and August, and 
finally Mr. II. Stevens found it breeding in Assam in April and 
Mav and secured birds on their nests. The latter are like small. 
neat specimens of those of A. s. Ijrumtescens and are placed rather 
low down in (dumps of reed in dense, reed-beds. The eggs also are 
small facsimiles of those of that bird but on the whole are browner 
and less green and differ in being shorter blunter ovals. Twenty- 
one eggs average 19-6 x 15-0 mm. : maxima 21 - 4 X 15*0 and 19-9 x 
16-0 mm. ; minima 18*3x15-3 and 19-2x14-1 mm. 



AOKOCEPIIAtUS. 391 

Habits. Similar to those of the last bird but remaining in. the* 
plains to breed. J t is an equally noisy, conspicuous bird wherever 
found but Mr. Stevens informs me that it is an inveterate skulker 
and very hard to shoot, except in the eavly mornings and evenings 
when it sings its raucous little song from the reed-tops. Even 
when killed it is hard to find for, in Assam, it haunted the densest 
cover of Elephant-grass and the coarsest, rankest reeds. 

This most interesting bird is as yet but little known and, not 
having hitherto been distinguished from its mountain-breeding 
cousin, it is not easy t;o define its habitat. The majority of the 
Great Reed-AVarblers East of Bengal procured in the winter and 
all those procured from May onwards appear to be of this race, 
so that it is possible that its breeding-range will have to be very 
widely extended. It is even possible that it will prove to be a more 
or less resident form, merely moving locally under varying 
conditions of drought and tlood. Afore specimens of breeding- 
birds are urgently required, to enable its proper status to be defined. 

Acrocephalus arundinaceus. 

'1'urdn* iirntiilitiin-ritx I. inn.. S. X., rd. x. i, p. 170 (17-Vi. 
Tvpo-ioeality : Danzig. 

(7D7) Acrocephalus arundinaceus orien talis. 

Tin: Easti:iis Giu:\t Hkkd-Wajmiuw. 

Stilicuritt turdinn iiricntulis Tenia). & Schle<r., Fauna Jap.. Aves, 

p. /"><) ( 18-1") (.fapun). 
Acroa'ji/iulii.i tirifiitdti*. ISlanf. \- Oates, i, p. 3-">7. 

Vernacular names. Xone recorded. 

Description. Differs from A. x. hrtinnesctns in having the 
second primary equal to. or longer than, the fourth. It is also 
slight.lv browner below and nearly always more heavily streaked 
on the breast. 

From typical arnndiiHu-etts it differs in being darker above, much 
less fulvous below and in having the breast darker and more freely 
s! leaked. 

Colours of soft parts. Jris brown; bill horny-brown or nearly 
black above, pale yellowish-horny below ; legs yellowish brown, 
dark fleshy- brown or plumbeous-horn v. 

Measurements. Wing 7U to 8:$ mm.; tail 72 to 7S mm. ; culmen 
17""> to l'.i"f> mm. ; tarsus about 30 mm. 

Distribution. This Heed- Warbler breeds in Japan, Eastern 
Siberia and Northern China and in Winter is found throughout 
Southern China, the Indo-Chinese countries, Annam, Siatn,. 
practically the whole of Burma to Assam. 

Nidiflcation. So far the Eastern Great Reed-AVarbler has never 



392 axvmDJB. 

been found breeding within our limits, nor is it likely that it 
ever will be. It is said by McGregor to be resident and breeding 
in the Philippines but this bird is a smaller form than the 
Northern migratory bird and will have to be separated. It breeds 
freely in Japan aiid Rieketts, La Touche and others have taken 
nests and eggs in various parts of Northern China. These are not 
distinguishable from those of A. s. stentoreus. One hundred eggs 
arerage 21 -8 X 15-7 mm. : the maxima are 234 X 15-1 and 20 - S X 
170 nun. ; the minima are 194X 154 and l!»-!i x 143 mm. 

According to La Touche eggs are to be found in C'binkiang iroin 
the middle of May to the middle of June and the number of eggs 
in a full clutch varies from three to five. In Japan they lay in 
May and June and the eggs number four to six. 

Habits. Those of the genus. 



(70S) Acrocephalus bistrigiceps. 

SCHREXCKS IyKED-AVaKW-EII. 

Arrocephaht* bi*trir/ice/is Swinb., Jbis, 1800, p. ."il (China) ; Want". & 
Oates, i, y. y.58. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rufous, 
especially on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail 
brown, edged with pale olive-brown ; a broad supercilium from 
nostril to nape pale fulvous and above this a short broad streak of 
bbick ; lores and a line through the eve dark brown ; ear-coverts 
and sides of the neck like the back but paler and brighter : a ring 
of pale fulvous feathers round the eye ; below pale butt", darkest 
on flanks, vent and under tail-coverts, albescent on centre of 
abdomen, chin and throat. 

Colours of soft parts. Irides yellow-brown to dark brown; bill 
above horny-brown to blackish brown, commissure and lower 
mandible yellowish ; feet fleshy-yellow to horny-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 52 to 50 mm. ; tail 50 to 55 mm. ; tarsus 
21 to 22 mm. ; culmen 11*5 to 12 mm. 

The first primary is comparatively large, measuring about 
15 mm. The second primary is equal to the sixth or between 
sixth and seventh. 

After the Autumn moult the upper plumage is a bright russet- 
brown and the lower plumage a deeper buff. 

Distribution. Schrenck's Keed-Warbler breeds in Japan and 
Eastern (Siberia, possibly also in the North of China ; in Winter 
it is found throughout the South of China and is common as far 
West as Siam, the Chin and Kachin Hills and South Burma, 
straggling very rarely into South Assam. 

Nidification. This little Keed-Warbler breeds in great numbers 
in Japan, making a typical, deep, cup-shaped nest of grass, 



ACK0CEPHALU8. 393 

attached to reed or grass stems in swampy land or on the edges of 
lakes, waterways, etc. It lays tour or five eggs. The ground- 
colour is a pale yellowish, greyish or greenisii white but this is 
almost obliterated by innumerable freckles and small blotches of 
light brown with others underlying of pale grey and neutral tint. 
In many eggs the marks are practically confluent and appear 
to he wholly a light greenish brown. A few eggs have a hair-line 
at the larger end in addition to the other markings. In shape they 
are a short blunt oval. Fifty eggs average .16-2x12-6 mm.: 
the maxima are 17-4 X 127 and 17-0x13-4 mm.; minima 
14-6x12-2 mm. 

Habits. Those of the genus. According to La Touche and 
Styan, it has a rather pretty little song as well as the usual harsh 
notes of all Reed- Warblers. Alan Owston in a letter tome writes 
that it is such a noisy little bird and "sings so continuously close 
to its nest that the latter is very easy to find. Directly the bird 
sees it is observed it drops down low amongst the reeds but if one 
is silent and motionless it soon creeps up again to the tops of the 
reeds and reiterates its jarring little notes." 



(7 ( .»U) Acrocephalus dumetorum. 

HiATifs Reed-Wakulek. 

At-nicfjiiuilus dinnetui inn lilvth, J. A. S. H., xviii, p. S].1 (18-19); 
JUiiuf. *V Outes, i, p. ;)")!). 

Vernacular names. J'oduM (Hind.); Tik-tikhi (Mahomedan); 
lilrii (lieng.) ; Kumjxi-jitta (Tel.). 

Description. Above olive-brown tinged with fulvous and with a 
very faint tinge of russet on the upper tail-coverts; wings and 
tail brown, the feathers edged with olive-brown; lores dusky; 
feathers round eyelid buff; a very faint supercilium buff; ear- 
coverts and sides of neck like the back but paler ; lower plumage 
pale butt", darker on the flanks, vent and breast. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris yellow-brown to dark brown; bill 
dark horny-brown above, yellow below ; legs and feet yellowish 
horny or fleshy-horny to pale brown. 

measurements. Wing 5!) to <>4 mm.; tail 55 to Cu mm. ; tarsus 
21-5 to '22-5 mm.; eulmen 12 to liJ-5 mm. 

The second primary is equal to the eighth or a little shorter. 
The first primary is very small, about 10 lo 11 mm. 

In Summer plumage the lower parts are almost white. 

Distribution. Eastern Russia and West Siberia to the Himalayas 
as far East as Nepal, wintering throughout the plains of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. 

Nidiftcation. iilyth's Reed-Warbler breeds from Russia 
practically throughout Western and Central Western Asia to the 
Himalayas, in Europe and the Altai it makes a typical deep 



3!>4 SiLVtl D.-K. 

cup-shaped uest which it places in low bushes, brambles and 
nettles but in the Himalayas it is said to make a ball-shaped nest 
low down in rose-bushes on hill-sides well u» ay from water. The 
eggs are of three definite varieties : pule rose-coloured, marked 
with violet-grey and reddish brown and with a few black spots; 
milky-white spotted with olive-brown and dirty-white almost 
completely covered with olive-brown. Dresser gives the average 
size as 17"Sx l-'M mm. 

It breeds in May and June and lays four or five e;»gs in a 
clutch. 

Habits. Blytb's Heed- Warbler is said to be far more like the 
Marsh- Warbler in its habits than the Keed- Warbler. Although 
olten found in marshy and swampy tracts, it also frequents low 
bush and scrub-jungle as well as small trees at a considerable 
distance from water. Its ordinary note is a loud tcliik tchil; a 
sound like flint and steel beini; struck together; besides this call 
it has a tine song, which, according to Professor Lilljeborg, is as 
rich and varied as that of the Song-Thrush. 



(*oo) Acrocephalus agricolus. 
Tun l\u)i>v-i'ii;u> Wakhi.ek. 

•Si/lrto (Acrnerj)fiftlus) ni/riciilu Jerdoj], Madr. Join'. I.. S., xiii, jit. ii. 

"p. l.'Jl (H44) (Xellore). 
.Icrrnepludiix tiyrictilu. lihmf. & Oates, i. |>. .'!.">!•. 

Vernacular names. )~evi-a-kuinfiii-jitt<t (Tel.). 

Description. Above olive-brown with a tinge of rufous, more 
pronounced on rump and upper tail-coverts ami darker on crown ; 
leathers of wings with obsolete pale edges; an almost white 
supeivihuin from the nostrils to behind the ear-coverts: sides of 
neck and ear-coverts pah? whitish brown; below pale butfv-w bite, 
the flanks and abdomen more huff and the chin and throat almost 
pure white. 

In May to July the underpaid s are almost pure white but in 
Winter they are still more buff and the whole upper plumage is 
suffused with rufous. 

Colotirs Of soft parts. Iris pale yellow, hazel or light brown; 
upper mandible dark horny-brown, lower mandible fleshy or 
yellowish-fleshy ; tarsus and feet pinkish brown. 

Measurements. Total length about I'M t<> Mir> mm.; wing 
o.VO to <»0 - 5 mm.; tail 60 to 05 run,.; tarsus about 21 mm.; 
eulinen about 11 to 12 mm. The second primary is equal to the 
sixth, or more rarely between the sixth and seventh. The first 
primary is small, about '.) to 10 mm., and very narrow. 

Distribution. Breeding in Central Asia to the Himalayas, in 
Winter throughout India as far East as Bengal and, more rarely, 
Assam. 



aciioukihialcs. 395 

Nidiftcation. The Paddy-field Wat jier breeds during June in 
Kashmir, but probably neither farther South nor East, whilst to 
the West the breeding-bird seems to be some form of A. cuiiciitmis. 
Col. Ilattray, amongst many others, has taken its nest in the lakes 
from (.underbill to Sambul, He describes them as " beautifully 
m:id(.' and very deep cradles of line grasses woven round two or 
more stems of a weed or rush, about 18 inches high above the 
ground or water, lined with still liner grasses. The weeds to 
which the nests are attached grow on the large floating islands 
ol decayed vegetation. These islands form very dangerous 
walking-places as they are not strong and often break up after a 
storm. The nests are seldom in thick growth of weeds but on the 
outskirts and they are ir-sver built in colonies. The birds are very 
noisy when one approaches the nest." The ejrgs number three or 
four. In ground-colour they vary from a pure white to a pale 
green and they are spotted and blotched with dark and pale sienna- 
brow ii and secondary markings of grev, lavender and neutral tint. 
The blotches are nearly aiwavs more numerous at the larger end, 
where they lonn a cap or ring. In shape they vary from short 
broad ovais to rather long ovals. Forty eggs average HI'S x 
l-!-'.» mm: the maxima are 190xl-!'T and 17'0xl4 - l mm.: the 
minium 144 x !-■- and 17 - Oxl21 mm. 

Habits. The l'addv-lield Warbler is in all its ways very much 
like t he Common Huropean Keed- Warbler. A noisy active little 
bird, frequenting reed-beds, weeds and rushes by the water-side, 
it creeps in ami out of the stems constantly uttering its little note 
of (7(//'-<7k7.-, whilst the male every now and then mounts to the 
top of some high reed and pours forth his jerky, grating, iittle 
song. They resent being watched and hide in the lower parts of 
the thickest reeds u hen disturbed but within a few minutes of 
being left resume their activities, both choral and physical. They 
leave their breedin»-haunts for the plains in early October, 
returning in the end of April and early May. 

Acrocephalus coucinens. 

A. ctmccHdts appears to be a different species to -J. iti/ricoltts, 
differing from that species in having a rather larger, broader first 
primary and in having a second primary equal in length to the 
eighth or between the eighth and tenth, whilst A. agricoliis has the 
second equal to the sixth or between the sixth and seventh. 

Moreover, in Kashmir, and possibly in other parts of the 
Himalayas, we have both birds breeding in the same area, although, 
differing considerably in their habits and mode of nidilicatiou. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. First primary about 11 mm., narrow. 
Upper plumage olive-brown ; flanks dull 
fulvous A. t: rnmiiu-iut, p. ;196. 



396 sviAiiu.t:. 

B. First primary nbout 11-12 luin., broader. 

Upper plumage darker, flunks more butt . A. c. hnrini/ttmi, p. 39(5. 

C. Upper plumage still darker and lower 

plumage more brown, less buff A. v. ttevensi, p. !597. 

(801) Acrocephalus concinens concinens. 

The Cuinjsse PAnm-jnan "Wakhleis. 
Valanwlierpe concinens Swinli., P. Z. S., 1870, p. 4-">- (.IVkin). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Similar to A. uyricohm in colour but, season for 
•eason, rather darker and browner above and considerably darker 
and much more fulvous below. The wing-formula is always 
sufficient to separate it from that bird. 

Like all subspecies of agricolus and concinens the plumage is 
much paler and whiter below in the Winter than when breeding. 

The second primary is generally equal to the ninth, often to the 
tenth. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris olive-brown to hazel-brown ; upper 
mandible brownish black, lower mandible pale horny flesh-colour 
with dark tip; legs and feet light brown or fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about Jtto turn.; wing 52 to 
-57 nun.; tail 54 to 5>S mm.; tarsus about 2U mm.; rulmen about 
11 to 12 mm. 

Distribution. Breeding in the hills of North and Central China 
to the Himalayas as far West as Gilgit. In Winter to South 
China, Indo-Chinese countries, Burma and Eastern India. 

Nidification. The Chinese Paddy-field Warbler breeds in 
Kashmir in some numbers, but hitherto very few nests have been 
taken, as it has been sought for in reed-beds and swampy places, 
whereas it actually breeds in rose-bushes on hill-sides far from 
water. The nest is the usual deep cup and the only eggs 1 have 
seen were like those of the Paddy-field Warbler. They were laid 
in June. 

Habits. This is said to be a noisy, cheerful little bird, much like 
other small lieed- Warblers. Rickett, Stvan and La Touche all 
describe it as haunting reed-beds and marshy places in China as 
well as hill-sides covered with scrub and bush-jungle. In India 
during the Winter it is found in the former kind of country, but 
in the Summer forsakes them for hill-sides far from water. 

(so2) Acrocephalus concinens haringtoni. 

WlTIIKRBV's PaDDY-KIKLI) WakHLEK. 

Awocephalwt at/rico/a haringtoni Witherbv, Bull. B. (). C, xli, p. 2(i 
(IfWO) (Kliagan Valley). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



ACBOCEPHAJAS. 397 

Description. Differs from A. e. eoncinens in being a trifle darker. 
It is not any smaller. 

Colours of soft parts as in the last bird. 

Measurements. Wing 54 to 58 mm. ; tail 54 to 58 mm. ; tarsus 
about 20 niiu. ; culmen about; 10 to 12 mm., "from skull <$ 14- 
14-5 11111)., $ 12-5-14-5." (Witherby.) 

Distribution, breeding in the North-West Frontier of India 
and in Winter wandering into the plains of the North-West. 

Nidiflcation. Whitehead and Harington both found this bird 
breeding in the Kiirram and Khagan Valleys on the N.W. 
Frontier between 8,000 and 10,000 feet. The nest is described 
as like very neat and well-finished miniatures of A. stentvreus 
placed either in low bushes or fixed to a few nettle-stems and 
weeds on hill-sides far from water. The eggs seem to number 
three only in the full clutch and are like lightly marked bright 
specimens of A. (ir/ficolus. Twelve eggs average 17'7x \'2S mm. 

The breeding-season appears to be July. 

Habits. In the Winter this lteod-AVarbler haunts marshes, 
reedy banks of streams and similar places, but during the 
breeding-season takes to high hills well away from all water. 
Whitehead says that it is an energetic little bird, not a skulker 
mid that it has a loud song which it constantly utters. 

(*<»:<) Acrocephalus eoncinens stevensi. 

Tin: 1'iiAixs Paddy-field Waiiislek. 

Aawcphtihi* continent! stevensi Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O. C, xlhi, 
p. Hi (1922) (llessarcura, N. Lakhiiiipur, Assam). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. A verv much darker bird than either A. c. eoncinens 
or A. e. harinytoni. The brightest Winter plumage is as dark as 
the darkest breeding-plumage of either of these races. Both 
xtrve.mi and hiu-inxjioni seem to have a rather broader first 
primary than true eoncinens. 

Colours of soft parts. "Iris olive-brown; bill, upper mandible 
horny-black, paler on edge of commissure, lower mandible horny > 
darker at. tip; tarsus fleshy-brown." (//. Stevens.) 

Measurements. Wing 49 lo 53 mm. ; tail 4ti to 50 mm. ; tarsus 
about 20 mm.; culmen 11 to 12 mm.; "culmen from true base 
15 nun." (//. Stevens.) 

The second primary is equal to the ninth or tenth, and the 
first primary measures about 1 1 mm. 

Distribution. This Heed- Warbler, which was discovered breeding 
by Mr. and Mrs. 11. Stevens in Lakhimpnr appears to be a 
resident Plains-breeding form of continent. Godwiu-Austeu 
obtained three breeding-specimens in May on the ehurs close to 



■ 398 svIiViiua:. 

Lakhimpur in early May which agree exactly with Mr. Stevens s 
specimens. Many Pegu specimens appear referable to this race, 
and birds obtained by myself in Cat-liar and Svlhet were also the, 
same. 

Nidification. It is probable that the Plains Paddy-field Warbler 
breeds wherever it is found from Assam to Lower Burma. 
Stevens describes the nest as a very neat, deep little cup of grass 
and shreds of reed-leaves, very well finished off and lined with 
still finer grasses. It is placed two or t.liree feet from the ground 
in grass-covered plains and sand-hanks and is fastened to three or 
four stems of the growing grass. 

The full clutch of eggs numbers three, possibly tour on rate 
occasions. They differ in colour from the mountain-breeding races 
much as do the eggs of Mrs. Stevens's plains-breeding Iteed- 
Warbler from the Indian Great Heed- Warbler. In colour they 
are very brown-looking eggs with n light sienna ground boldly 
and heavily blotched with brown and pale olive-brown. Fifteen 
eggs average lfi-1 x 12-0 mm.: maxima 17"i?xl2-0 and l.rlix 
12 - 2 mm.; minima 15 - 9xl21 ami 15-Sxll'8 mm. The birds 
breed in April and May. 

Habits. According to Mr. Stevens this is a bird of the dry grass- 
lands, though it frequents those which are close to rivers and 
swamps. 

(804) Acrocephalus orinus. 

The Large- billed Keeu-Wahulku. 

Acrocephalus orinu.i Oberholser, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., viii, p. S'Jo 

(L!)0i3) (Kampiir). 
Acrocephalus macrorhipicltus. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 0(50. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Upper plumage, closed wings and tail olive-brown ; 
lower plumage pale ochraceous, the flanks rather darker; under 
wing coverts and axillaries pale ochraceous, lighter than the breast. 

Colours of soft parts. Not recorded. 

Measurements. Total length about KiOinni.; wing 61-f> mm.; 
tail 37 mm.; tarsus about 20 mm.; eulmen !(!•") mm. 

The first primary measures about Id nun. and the second 
primary is between the ninth and tenth in length. 

Distribution. Sutlej Valley, where the only specimen known 
was obtained. 

Nidification and Habits. Nothing recorded. 

Oberholser has shown that macrorJiynchus is preoccupied and 
cannot be used for this bird and has therefore renamed it ns 
above. 



I.OL'USTKLLA. H99 

Genus LOCUSTELLA. 
Locustetia Kaup, Natiirl. Syst., p. 115 (1829). 
Type, Locust dl a locustellu Lath. 

The genus Locustellu is represented in India by three species of 
somewhat similar appearance and size and of plain colours. They 
are found in reed-beds, swamps and wet cover of all sorts, and 
occur in India only in the Winter. Their Summer-quarters are 
the Northern parts of Asia, none of them breeding within the 
limits of this work. The Summer and Winter plumages only differ 
in the latter being a little paler and brighter; the young differ 
from the adults in being much more yellow and, perhaps, in being 
rather more heavily streaked. The sexes are alike. 

The birds of this genus have a slender bill, about half as long as 
the li-nid ; the rictal bristles are very weak and hardly noticeable 
and the forehead is very smooth and free from all hairs; the 
plumage is soft but not fluffy in appearance; the first primary is 
very small and the second primary long, reaching almost to the 
tip of the wing; the tail is considerably graduated, the feathers 
being slightly pointed; the under tail-coverts are very long. 

Key to Species. 

A. Tail-feathers broadly tipped witli white .... I., certhiola, p. i{!)9. 
]{. Tail-feathers without broad white tips. 

a. Lower plumage streaked L. lanceolata, p. 401. 

/>. Lower plumage not streaked L. nccvia p. 401. 

(sor>) Locustella certhiola. 

l'vi.LAS's (rHASSnOPI'KK-WAUIJLEB. 

Motm-ilh certhiola Tall., Zoult. Uosso-Asiat, i, p. o09 (1*11) (Lake 

I'.aikal). 
Locuxtellu certhiola. lilanf. & Gates, i, p. o-5l>. 

Vernacular names. Sun-l>atta-sorai (Assamese). 

Description. Forehead and anterior crown olive-brown ; crown 
and nape reddish brown ; the latter often almost white, boldly 
st reaked with black ; back, scapulars and lesser wing-coverts 
reddish brown with broad central streaks of black, sometimes 
wanting on the hind neck in very old birds ; greater coverts and 
innermost secondaries black with narrow whitish fringes; quills 
<>rov-brown edged paler; lower back and rump reddish brown, 
almost, or quite, unmarked ; upper tail-coverts reddish brown with 
broad black centres; tail reddish brown, suffused with black on 
the terminal half, with black shaft-stripes and cross-rayed, the 
outermost leathers almost entirely black except for broad white 
tips; supercilium white or pale huffy-white; lores brown with a 
white line below to the eye; ear-coverts brown with white shafts; 
sides of neck rufous-brown ; below white or buffy-white, the flanks 
and sometimes the breast suffused with reddish brown ; under 
tail-coverts bright buff. 



400 SYLV11D.K. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown or hazel-brown; upper 
mandible dark horny-brown, lower mandible fleshy-yellow or 
" ochraceous" {Eneriit); legs and feet white to pule fleshy. 

Measurements. Length about 130 mm.: wing 62 to 68 mm. ; 
tail 58 to 63 mm.; tarsus about 20 mm.; culmen ll\ r ) to 
\2'f> mm. 

The Nestling is like the male above but more profusely marked 
with black on the rump and lower back ; below it is a bright 
yellow-buff, the sides of the throat, neck and breast boldly streaked 
with black and the sides of the head and flanks brownish; the 
under taiI-eo\erts are pale rufous-brown : the supereilium is 
bright yellow-buff. 

In the Autumn the nestling moults into a stage halfway 
between the adult and nestling plumage, retaining the buff lower 
plumage but losing most of the streaks. 

The Summer plumage is a little brighter above than in Winter 
and is a clearer white below. 

Distribution. Pallas's Grasshopper- Warbler breeds in Eastern 
Siberia as far AVest as the Yenesei. In Winter it is found 




Fig. f>3. — Head of/., crriliiola. 

throughout South China, Burma, Assam and Bengal, straggling 
thence into Central and South-Central India as far as Orissa. 

Nidification. Breeds in damp grassy meadows, generally placing 
its nest low down in the grass growing on small hummocks. The 
nest is deep cup-shnped and made of grasses lined with grass- 
stems. The eggs are said to number four to six in a full clutch 
and are of two types — pale rose-pink dotted with reddish brown 
over the whole surface or deep lilac or rose-pink with a few tiny 
specks of brownish black and minutely freckled all over with 
reddish. A few eggs also have one or two hair-lines at the larger 
end. Sixteen eggs average 18-cSxl3 - 7 mm., and in general 
appearance are very like deep-coloured eggs of some of our Indian 
Triburas. The birds lay in late June to July. 

Habits. fSeebohm remarks that he " found it a very shy, 
skulking bird, frequenting the marshes and swampy copses on the 
great meadows by I he river side." In the beginning of the 
breeding-season the male sings constantly, every now and then 
rising into the air, fluttering stationary for a few seconds and then 
dropping down again into cover. 

Both this bird and the Ntreaked Grasshopper- Warbler were 
very common in Assam and E. Bengal in Winter, frequenting the 



LOOCSTEIXA. 401 

ricefield8 as well as reeds and water-plants in swamps. At this 
time of year they have, of course, no song but utter an occasional 
note sounding like chir-chirrr. 

(806) Locustella lanceolata. 

'Cue Streaked Grasshopper-Warbler. 

Sylvia lanceolata Temm., Man. d'Orn., ed. 2, iv, p. 614 (1840) 

(Mainz, Irtuni). 
Locustella lanceolata, Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 363. 

Vernacular names. Sun-batta-sorai (Assam). 

Description. Whole upper plumage russet olive-brown with 
broad, black, central streaks to the feathers ; tail brown with 
narrow edges and tips of paler brown ; under aspect of tail-quills 
whitish ; wing-coverts like the back ; quill-feathers brown, edged 
with russet-brown on the outer webs and on both webs on the 
inner secondaries ; a very indefinite buff supercilium ; lores 
dusky ; ear-coverts and sides of neck dull brownish, the former 
with pale shaft-streaks; below white, tinged with oehraceous; sides 
of breast and flanks vinaceous-brown ; the fore-neck, breast and 
flanks streaked with black ; under tail-coverts sometimes 
immaculate, at other times boldly streaked with black ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries pale vinaceous-ochre. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel or yellowish brown ; bill dark 
brown above, lower mandible fleshy-yellow at base, with a dark 
tip ; legs fleshy-white, the claws pale horny. 

Measurements. Length about 125 mm. ; wing 52 to 57 mm.; 
tail 48 to 51 mm.; tarsus about 16 mm. ; culmen 10 to 11 mm. 

In very old birds the streaks on the lower surface tend to 
disappear but are always present to some extent. 

Distribution. In Summer this Warbler is found from Eastern 
Siberia to North-East Russia and in Winter it wanders South 
through China, the Indo-Chinese countries, Burma and Eastern 
Bengal as far West as Etawali but is rare beyond Bengal and 
East Orissa. 

Nidiftcation. Similar to that of the last species. The eggs, 
which are said to number four to six, are described by Jourdain 
as " thickly marked with reddish brown on a rosy ground, with 
grey shell-markings." A clutch in my own collection is pale dull 
pink with numerous freckles of light red, forming a thicker cap at 
the larger end. Twelve eggs average 17 - 5xl3 - 4 mm.: maxima 
18-0 X 138 ; minima 17-0 X 13-0 and 17-4 x 12-8 mm. 

They breed from early June to the middle of July. 

Habits. The same as those of Pallas's Grasshopper- Warbler. 

Locustella nsevia. 

Locustella net via Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 351, no. 581 (1778). 
Type-locality : Italy. 

VOL. II. 2 u 



402 SYlVIIDvE. 

(807) Locustella nsevia straminea. 

The Eastebu Gbasshoppeb-Wabbler. 

Locustella straminea Seebohm, Cat. B. M., v, p. 117 (187.">) 
(Turkestan) ; Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 354. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Whole upper plumage and wing-coverts olive- 
brown, each feather broadly centred dark brown ; wing-quills 
brown, eilged with olive-brown, sometimes slightly tinged with 
russet ; tail brown, tipped and edsjed with paler olive-brown and 
obsoletely cross-rayed ; lores and short narrow supovciliuiu white ; 
ear-coverts brown, with an occasional black spot or two ; below 
pale buffy-brown; the chin, throat, and centre of abdomen almost 
white; under tail-coverts broadly centred with black. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris light brown; upper mandible dark 
brown, lower mandible yellowish white or fleshy ; legs and feet 
fleshy-white to pale fleshy. 

Measurements. Total length about 140 mm. ; wing 56 to 60 
mm. ; tail 49 to 53 mm. ; tarsus about 15-5 mm. ; culmen 11 mm. 
Young birds are bright yellow-ochre below and are more olive, 
less brown in tint above. 

The Eastern or Turkestan Grasshopper- Warbler differs from 
the Western form in being much darker and browner below, and 
in being decidedly smaller, the latter having a wing of 62 to 
67 mm. 

Distribution. From the Urals East through Transcaspia, the 
Caucasus, Turkestan, E. Persian mountains, to the Himalayas 
as far East as Sikkim. In Winter it is found practically all over 
Northern India, South to Coimbatore. It is rare in Eastern 
Bengal and has not yet been obtained in Assam. Ticehurst 
obtained it in Sind. 

Nidification. Very little is known of the nesting of this bird, 
but it appears to be very similar to that of L. n. naivia, breeding 
either in the weeds and reeds in or on the edge of water, or in 
thick grass, weeds and scrub on hill-sides. Two clutches, each of 
three eggs, taken on the lower Amur and at Kamka-su, Turkestan, 
have the ground-colour a pale pink, profusely covered with reddish- 
brown specks and small blotches, in one clutch these being almost 
confluent every where. They measure about 17 - 5x 13-6 mm. One 
nest was taken on the 26th of May, the other on the 5th of June. 
This bird has been found at an elevation of 15,000 feet in 
Summer. 

Habits. Though nowhere so common in Winter in India as 
Pallas 'a and the Streaked Grasshopper- Warblers are in Assam and 
Burma, where one constantly puts them up when Snipe-shooting, 
this Warbler visits Western and Northern India in great numbers, 
arriving about September and leaving again in March and April. 
In habits it differs in no way from other birds of this genus. 



ijrenus imsu 
Tribura llodgs., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 30. 
Vpe, T. luteoventris. 



THIBUEA. 403 

Genus TRIBURA. 



Type, 

The genus Tribura contains four species, all of which breed in 
the mountains, only visiting the plains of India and Burma in 
the cold weather. 

These Warblers are birds of plain plumage and the feathers are 
very soft, and silky in their texture. The sexes are alike but the 
young differ from the adults in being much more yellow. The 
second or Spring moult is complete or nearly so. 

The four Indian species of Tribura are not perfectly congeneric, 
one differing from the others in its extremely large bill, whilst a 
«econd species is distinguished from the other three by the shape 
of the wing. These differences are, however, paralleled in the 
genus Acrocephalus, to which Tribura is very closely allied and do 
not seem to necessitate any further division of genera. 

In T. major the bill is nearly as long as the head, in the other 
-spHcifs about half the length of the head ; in all four it is slender 
and straight. The rictal bristles are minute and invisible without 
a lens ; the forehead is smooth and free from all hairs etc. ; the 
wing is fairly long ; the tail much rounded and the feathers rather 
pointed ; the tarsus is rather long, though slight. 

Key to Species. 

A. First primary much less than half the 

second. 

a. Bill at front 15 mm. or over T. major, p. 403. 

b. Bill at front 13 mm. or under T. taczanowskia, p. 404. 

B. L (, irst primary about half the length of 

the second 

c. Throat ashy, spotted with black T. thoracira, p. 405. 

'/. Throat unspotted white '/'. luteoventris, p. 406. 

(S08) Tribura major. 

Tim Lakge-isilled Busn- Wabbled. 

Dumeticola major Brooks, J. A. S. B., xli, p. 77 (1872) (Kashmir). 
Tribura major. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 362. 

Vernacular names. Chighehi (Turki). 

Description. Whole upper plumage and visible portions of 
•wings and tail dull olive-brown ; concealed portions of wings and 
tail brown ; a white or creamy-white supercilium, often indistinct ; 
lores and upper ear-coverts brownish; lower ear-coverts white, 
tipped with brown ; chin white ; throat and upper breast, white 
spotted with dark brown ; breast and flanks ochraceous-brown, 
paling to white on the centre of the abdomen ; under tail-coverts 
■ochraceous tipped with white. 

2d2 



404 sylyiume. 

The amount of spotting on the throat and of the brown on 
the breast and flanks varies very greatly and, in a few birds, 
practically the whole of the lower parts are pure white, merely 
tinged with brown on the flanks. In other specimens the throat, 
is lightly spotted with brown and the Hanks only are ochre-brown. 
The spotting probably decreases with age. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill dark horny-brown 
to black above, lower mandible fleshy or pale horny ; mouth and 
edges of gape yellow; tarsus pale wax-yellow or fleshy-yellow ; 
toes darker and claws horny-brown. 

Measurements. Total length about 150 mm.; wing 50 to 05 
mm., the female rather smaller than the male ; tail 59 to 63 nun. ; 
tarsus 21 to 22 mm.; culinen 15 to 16 mm. ; "culinen 17 - 5 to 
18-5 from base of skull " (Hartert). 

Central Asian birds seem to average a little larger than those 
from Kashmir, but are otherwise inseparable. 

Distribution. In Smnmer breeds between 0,000 and 10,000 feet 
in Kashmir, Ladak and Eastern Turkestan, descending in Winter 
to between 4,000 and 7,000 feet. Whitehead found it breeding 
in the Khagan Valley at 9,000 feet. 

Nidification. This Bush-Warbler breeds from early June to 
the end of July at heights over (5,000 feet, generally over 8,00U 
feet. It makes a deep cup-shaped nest of grass, lined with down, 
hair, fur or, rarely, with a few feathers, which it places either 
actually on the ground or low down in tufts of grass, a low bush 
or tangle of vines and creepers. The eggs number three or four 
and are typically rather broad blunt ovals, the ground-colour a 
pale pink, covered all over with dense freckling of pale lilac-red. 
In a few eggs the lilac tint is wanting and the eggs are darker 
and redder and, in still fewer, the markings are sparse enough to 
allow the ground-colour to show through. In many eggs the 
markings are more numerous at the larger end, where they form 
an indefinite ring or cap. Twenty-five eggs average 18-2 x 14'2 
mm.: maxima 19*1x14-3 and 18 2x150; minima 17'5xH5- 
and 18-2 x 14 mm. 

Habits. The Large-billed Bush- Warbler is very common in parts 
of Kashmir, keeping almost entirely to the fringe of forests and 
low scrub-jungle, long grasB, bracken or similar cover. Davidson 
says that it is a very shy bird, unwilling to rise unless almost 
trodden on and, even then, only flying a few yards before again 
dropping into the grass. The call-note is a constant tic-tic-tic. 

(809) Tribura taczanowskia. 

The Chinese Bush-Wabblek. 

LocuglelUi taczenowtkui Swinhoe, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 356 (Trans-Baikal). 
Tribura intermedia. Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 303. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



TBIBUBA. 405 

Description. "Whole upper plumage and visible portions of closed 
■wings and tail russet-brown, the shafts of the tail-feathers white 
underneath and tail above obsoletely cross-rayed; lores and a short 
narrow superciliuin white ; ei.r-coverts hair-brown, with white 
shafts ; lower plumage white, suffused with brownish buff on 
flanks and breast; under tail-coverts brown edged with white. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel-brown; upper mandible and 
tip of lower dark brown, remainder of bill white to horny-white ; 
legs whity flesh-colour, claws pale horn. 

Measurements. Total length about 135 mm. ; wing 52 to 56 
mm. ; tail 53 to 58 nun.; tarsus 17 to 18 mm.; cultnen about 
12 mm. 

The young bird is bright yellowish buff below and above is 
rather hrighter than the adult. 

Distribution. In Summer this Bush-Warbler is found in Central 
Asia from Lake Haikal to the Ussuri and in Winter in South China, 
Burma and the intervening countries. A specimen of Seebohm's, 
labelled Bhutan Doars, seems to be of this species. 

Nidification. Dybowski describes the nest and eggs as similar 
to those of the (rrasshopper- Warbler, and five eggs taken by him 
vary in size between 17'4xl4-0 and 18-5x14-0 mm. 

Habits. In Winter this bird is very common in Lower Burma, 
where Gates found it frequenting paddy-fields, stubble and grass. 
He describes it as a great skulker, very loth to fly and seldom 
showing itself. He states that it appears to feed a great deal on 
the ground. 

(810) Tribura thoracica thoracica. 

The Spotted Bush- Warbler. 

Dumelkula thoracica Blyth, J. A. S. 13.,-xiv, p. 584 (1840) (Nepal). 
Tribura thoracica. Klaut. & Oates, i, p. 303. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Above, including closed wings and tail, rufous- 
brown; lores dusky; a superciliuin from the nostrils to the nape 
white anteriorly, grey behind the eye ; a small blackish or dark 
brown line under the eye ; sides of head and ear-coverts ashy- 
brown, the latter with pale shafts ; chin and upper throat buffy- 
white to white ; fore-neck and upper breast ashy-brown with 
numerous bold spots of dark brown; lower breast ashy ; flanks, 
vent and under tail-coverts dull rufous-brown, the last with white 
edges. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris ha/.el ; legs pale fleshy ; according to 
Cockburn the bill is black in summer, brown in winter. 

measurements. Wing 53 to 60 mm. ; tail 46 to 53 mm. ; tarsus 
18 to 19 mm. ; culmen 10 toll mm. 



406 SYLVIIDiB. 

In Winter plumage the underparts are less ashy and mom 
ochraceoua-brown and apparently less spotted. 

The young bird is yellow below, suffused with brown on breast 
and flanks and with darker centres to the feathers of the breast 
and throat. 

Distribution. Breeding in Central Asia and in the Himalaya* 
from Kashmir to Nepal, Sikkini and Bhutan and possibly in the 
mountains of North Assam. Winters lower down in the valleys 
and very occasionally wanders into the plains. 

Nidiflcation. The Spotted Bush- Warbler breeds almost 
throughout the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan at elevations 
between 7,000 and 10,000 feet or higher. The breeding-season 
lasts from early June to the end of July and in Sikkim some 
eggs are laid as early as the middle of May. The nest is a deep 
little cup of grass and scraps of reed-leaves, lined with coarse and 
fine grass-stems. It is not placed on the ground, though some- 
times close to it, but at two to four feet up in some low bush, 
matted weeds, grass or similar cover. 

The eggs, which number three to four, are pale pink in ground- 
colour speckled and flecked with reddish brown, lilac-brown or 
pinky-brown, generally less profusely than the eggs of other 
species of this genus. Forty eggs average lS'IJxKVV mm. : 
maxima 190x14-5 and 18-8x151 mm.; minima 17-0x12-8 mm. 
Habits. This Bush-Warbler is probably not migratory in its 
habits, merely moving vertically under stress of heat and cold. 
At the same time a specimen has been obtained in Sylhet, some 
hundreds of miles from its nearest known breeding-place. It is a 
lively, cheerful little bird, always on the move, but, very quiet and 
secretive in its movements. Its rather loud Uhik-Uhik may 
often be heard in thick weeds, long grnss or scrub-jungle, though 
the bird itself may remain invisible. It bus been found as high 
as 14,000 feet, but does not appear to breed at these elevations. 

(811) Tribura luteoventris. 

TUE BROWN BuSU-WARliLBB. 

Tribura htttoventri* Hodgs., I\ Z. S., 1810, p. ">0 (Nepal) ; Blnnf. & 

Oates, i, p. 364. 
Tribura mandettii. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 30"i. 

Vernacular names. Dao-tiaha tehik (Cachari). 

Description. Whole upper plumage, wings and tail rufous- 
brown, the last a little darker and faintly cross-rayed : a dusky 
spot on lores ; above this and running into a narrow supercilium 
pale buff ; feathers of eyelids buff, forming a very distinct ring in 
some specimens ; ear-coverts, sides of head and neck rufous, the 
first with faint white shaft-stripes : chin, throat, middle of lower 
breast and abdomen white ; upper breast, flanks, vent and under 



TEIBURA. 407 

tail-coverts rufous, the last more or less edged with white. 
Id some specimens the chin, throat and extreme upper breast are 
marked with small spots of black (T. mandtllii) and the colours 
of the upper parts vary greatly in the depth of the rufous tinge, 
Home specimens being almost olive-brown ; these characteristics 
appear to be individual. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris yellow-brown to bright hazel ; bill 
above dark horny-brown or blackish, lower mandible and 
commissure fleshy-yellow or light horny, more yellow at the 
mouth ; legs flesh-colour, fleshy-yellow to " dark fleshy-brown " 
{Cockburn). 

Measurements. Wing 52 to 58 mm. ; tail 55 to 66 mm. ; 
tarsus 19 to 20 mm. ; culmen 10 to 11 mm. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and the hills of Assam 
both N. and S. of the Brahmaputra ; Chin Hills, Annam. 




Fig. 64. — Wing of I . Iuttoventi-is. 

Nidification. The Brown Bush-Warbler breeds in great 
numbers in the K basin Hills above 4,500 feet, making a deep 
cup-shaped nest of grasses with an odd leaf or two in the base, 
and sometimes a weed-stem or tendril in the body of the nest. 
The lining, which is very thick, is of grass and grass-stems. 
Roughly the nests measure externally about 5 inches deep by less 
than 3 broad, the inner cup being about 2| inches deep by 2 inches 
or less in width. The number of eggs laid is nearly always four, 
very rarely five, and rather more often three only. In shape they 
are broad, blunt, ovals ; the ground-colour is white to pale pink 
or palo lilac and they sire freely marked all over with freckles of 
various shades of reddish or pinkish brown. Most eggs are about 
the same in depth of colouring as the eggs of the Grasshopper- 
Warbler, others are as deep a brown-pink as the darkest eggs of 
Pallas's Grasshopper- Warbler, whilst others, again, are as pale as 
the palest eggs of the Spotted Bush- Warbler. 

Two hundred eggs average 18-2xl4'3 mm.: maxima 19"9.X 
14-!) and 19'0xl5-2 mm.; minima 16 9 X 14-5 and 18-0 x 135 mm. 

The nest is generally placed in a low bush or tangle of weeds, 
creepers and raspberry or blackberry vines and another favourite 
site is a Daphne bush. It is never placed actually on the ground, 
but may be at any height from a few inches up to 3, or even 
4 feet. The breeding-season commences in the end of April and 
lasts until late July. 

Habits. This Bush- Warbler inhabits and breeds at lower 



408 STLYIIDjE. 

elevations than any of its relations. In Summer it is found up 
to 9,000 or 10,000 feet but, far more often, between 5,000 and 
7,000 feet, whilst in Winter it descends to the foot-hills and even 
into the adjacent plains. It is one of the few birds -which are 
found in great numbers in the pine-forests of the Khasia Hills, 
haunting in preference those which have an undergrowth of low 
Daphne bushes. It is not a particularly shy bird and does not 
resent being watched, though it is naturally a skulker and lover of 
thick cover, where it is difficult to see it. One notices a little 
russet bird flitting about inside the bushes from one twig to 
another, very restless and very energetic but very stealthy and 
quiet in all its ways. Every now and then a soft single " chik " 
is uttered and this is all one hears, except in the breeding-season 
when it utters a complete little song from the top of a piece of 
grass or Daphne bush, much like that of the common Heed- 
Warbler, but much softer and lower. Like the rest of the genus 
and those closely allied to it, it lives entirely on the smallest 
insects and is very fond of ants and the smaller spiders. 1 once 
watched it in the Government House Garden in Shillong feeding 
on a blight which infested the rose-trees and so deeply engaged 
was it on its feast that it allowed me to watch it for some 
minutes from a distance of a few feet. 



Genus ELAPHRORNIS. 
Elaphrornis Legge, B. of Ceylon, p. 514 (1870). 
Type, Elaphrornis palliseri Blyth. 

This genus is very difficult to place but on the whole its 
affinities seem to be more Sylviine than anything else. In general 
appearance it is very like the Shortwings but the plumage of the 
young is like that of the adult, though paler, a character which 
suffices to eliminate it at once from the Thrushes. The bill is 
straight and slender as in Tribura and, like that bird, it has the 
rictal bristles very minute and the forehead very fully feathered. 
The tarsi are long and fairly strong, as in Tribura, but the wing 
is quite different. The first primary is equal to three-fourths of 
the second, and the fifth and sixth are subequal and longest. 
The tail is greatly graduated, the outermost feathers being equal 
to about half the longest. 

(812) Elaphrornis palliseri. 

Palmsbe'b Ant-Wabbleb. 

Brachypieryx pallineri Blyth, J. A. S. B., xx, p. 178 (18fil) (Ueylon). 
Elaphrornu paUiseri. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 191. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. A grey supercilium from the bill to the anterior 



ELAFHEOBNIS. 409 

ear-coverts dull grey ; a ring round the eye rather paler grey ; 
lores and a patch under the eye deep brown, paling to grey on the 
posterior ear-coverts, which have white shafts; remainder of 
upper plumage and exposed parts of wings and tail rufous olive- 
brown, most rufous on the tail and upper tail-coverts ; chin 
fulvous-white ; throat rusty-fulvous ; lower plumage slaty-olive, 
the centre of the abdomen paler and more yellow, and the posterior 
flanks, vent and under tail-coverts rufous-brown. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris red-brown to bright red ; bill horny- 
black, the lower mandible paler and more slaty at the base ; legs 
and feet deep neutral brown or purplish brown, claws paler. 

The female lias the iris buff. 

Measurements. Total length about 120 mm. ; wing 60 to 
64 mm. ; tail 55 to 06 mm. ; tarsus about 27 mm. ; bill 
about 14 mm. 

Young are like the adult, but want the rufous throat and chin, 
these parts being whitish with slaty-olive tips to the feathers. 
The underparts generally are more yellow as in the young of 
Tribura. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Nidiflcation. Palliser's Ant- Warbler breeds in Ceylon during 
February, March and April, at elevations of about 5,000 feet 
upwards. Bligh took its nest with young in 1870 and nearly 
forty years later eggs were sent me as of this species but without 
a parent bird. Finally in 1911 Capt. T. P. Aldworth took a nest 
with two eggs. The nests are made of moss, twigs and grass- 
stalks, lined with skeleton leaves and fibre. In shape they are 
very deep cups and they are placed low down iu dense low bushes, 
generally in glades in deep forest and close to water. 

The eggs are either two or three (Let/ge) in number, and are 
very like dull finely freckled eggs of some Bulbuls, but the 
texture is coarser and is glossless. The ground-colour is a pale 
dull cream and they are freckled all over with dull pinkish brown 
generally coalescing to form a ring or cap at the larger end, where 
there are one or two hair-streaks of dark brown. They measure 
about 22*0 x 16-1 mm. 

Habits. This curious little bird frequents dense forests, and 
especially such as have undergrowth of " nilloo-scrub ? ' or " ele- 
phant-grass," and is of such shy retiring habits that it is most 
dilficult to find or observe. It has a sharp single little note which 
it utters constantly, as it hunts through the lower bushes and 
grass, every now and then descending to the ground in its search 
for insects, lloldsworth says that when on the ground it has a 
habit of flicking its tail like a Robin. Legge syllabifies its note as 
(juitze. It is not found below 4,000 feet and is most common on 
the Horton Plains above 5,000 feet, where it is resident all the 
year round. 



410 



SYLVIIDjE. 



Genus ORTHOT0HUS. 

Ortiiotomus Horsfield, Trans. L. S., xiii, p. 165 (1820). 
Type, 0. septum Lafres. 

The genus Orthotomus has been divided into two genera, Ortho- 
tonus and Sutoria, the former containing those species which never 
attain a long tail in Summer, and the latter those which do. The 
acquisition of long tail-feathers is, however, a feature of little 
importance and is bridged over by maculicollis which seldom 
acquires a long tail and then only to a degree of length much less 
than in sutorius. North- Western birds have the longest tails and 
Eastern birds the shortest. In this genus the bill is as long as the 
head, broad and rather flat ; there are a few rictal bristles but no 
supplementary hairs and the forehead is very smooth and flat. 
There are long soft hairs springing from the nape ; the wing is 
very short and rounded, the first primary large and the fourth and 
fifth longest and subequal ; the tail of twelve feathers is much 
graduated ; the tarsi are strong and long. 

Keif to Species. 

A. Upper plumage suffused with green. 

a. Under wing-coverts, axillaris and under 

tail-coverts yellowish white (). sutorius, p. 410. 

b. Under wing-coverts, axillaris and under 

tail-coverts bright yellow (). ittrii/ulari*,y>. 414. 

B. Upper plumage ashy-grey. 

c. Tail chestnut (). rttficeps, p. 41T>. 

d. Tail brown O. se)n'um, p. 410. 

Orthotomus sutorius. 

Key to Stibspeciex. 

A. Upper plumage grass-green, anterior 

crown chestnut (). s. sutorius, p. 410. 

B. Upper plumage darker, less yellow-green. 

a. Cheeks and ear-coverts rufescent- 

white. 

a . Crown dark chestnut, nape olive- 
green O.s. jmtia, p. 4U». 

V . (! rally still darker, nape very 

d_.k <). s. loni/icuudux, p. 412. 

b. Cheeks and ear-coverts marbled brown 

and white O. t. maeulicollin, p. 413. 

(>>13) Orthotomus sutorius autorius. 
The Indian Tailok-Bikd. 

AfotacUia sutoria Forst., Ind. Zool., i, p. 7 (17(39) (Ceylon). 
Orthotomus sutorius. Hlanf. & Dates, l, p. 300. 

Vernacular names. Likka-jitta (Tel.); Tavik (Cing.). 



0RTU0T0MU8. 41 C 

Description. Lores and a faint supercilium white ; forehead and 
crown rufous changing to ashy on the nape ; ear-coverts very pale 
rufescent-white ; back, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts and 
central tail-feathers yellowish gieen ; lateral tail-feathers greenish 
brown, tipped whitish and sub-tipped darker brown, sometimes a 
second darker bar also showing, though more faintly ; wings light 
brown, the feathers edged with greenish ; cheeks and lower 
plumage almost white, tinged with fulvous-yellow; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries pale fulvous. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris tan, yellowish red or buff; eyelids 
reddish grey ; upper mandible dnrk horny, the tip quite dark, 
lower mandible pale fleshy ; legs and feet straw-colour to pale 
fleshy- red. 

Measurements. Wing 48 to 54 mm.; tail 28 to 112 mm. 
(Summer) ; tarsus 21 to 22 nun. : culmen 13 to 15 mm. 

Distribution. Ceylon, South, Central and N.-West India. To 
the Kast it extends as far as Behar and Chota Nagpore, but the 
birds of Alluvial Bengal belong to the next race. 

In my ' Catalogue of the Birds of the Indian Empire,' I unfor- 
tunately gave the type-locality of sntorins as Calcutta. As nearly 
all Forster's birds were named from Ceylon, Calcutta ciinnot be 
allowed to stand and Ceylon must be substituted therefore. 

Nidiflcation. This Tailor- Bird breeds throughout the plains and 
hills of India up to at least 5,000 feet everywhere and, occasionally, 
considerably higher than this in the North-West Himalayas. The 
breeding-months are principally May, June and July but in many 
parts they breed both earlier and later. The nest is sewn into 
one or more leaves of a weed, bush or tree. If in one leaf the 
outer edges are drawn together with vegetable-down or grass seed- 
down and inside the cavity so formed the true little cup-nest is 
made; first of strong gniss-stems or fibre which is stiff enough to 
retain its shape and then a lining of softer material. The nest 
may be placed within a few inches of the ground or as much as 
HO or even 40 feet above it but, most often, it, is within four or five 
feet. It builds in gardens and verandahs of houses and in the 
vicinity of villages and towns and also in cultivated open country 
hut never, 1 believe, in forest. The eggs number three to five, 
very rarely six, and vary very greatly in colour. The ground may 
be white, pale pink, a fairly warm cream, skim-milk blue or pale 
blue or blue-green ; the markings vary to the same extent and may 
consist of blotches, spots, specks or freckles of red, reddish brown, 
brown, black or purplish black. In most cases they are sparse 
everywhere, but have a tendency to be more numerous at the 
larger end where they may form an ill-defined cap or zone. They 
are never as freckly or as numerous as they are in the eggs of the 
genus Fntnklinw. One hundred eggs average l(i-4xll - 6 mm.: 
maxima 17-6 X 120 and 161 x 122 mm. ; minima 15-1 x 107 and 
152 x 10-6 mm. 

Habits, lew birds are so well known as the confiding little 



412 sylviidjE. 

Tailor-Bird, whose shrill cry is to be heard in every garden. His 
active little figure is constantly on view as he creeps, climbs or 
flits from one branch to another in his never-ending search for 
insects, in pursuit of which he will, without hesitation, enter 
rooms and verandahs where people are sitting and talking. His 
flight alone is enough to attract attention, for, when he really 
launches out for a flight of more than a few feet, he flicks his long 
tail so energetically and so far over hi6 back that lie always looks 
as if he would knock his own brains out and hurl himself to the 
ground. The male bird when sitting is a comical sight, for his 
beak and his tail almost meet together over his back ; in spite, 
however, of his physical disabilities he is a good husband and takes 
his fair share of the duties of incubation. 

(S14) Orthotomus sutorius patia. 

The Burmese Tailok-Bird. 

Orthotomus patia Ilodgs., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 29 (Nepal.). 
Orthotomus sutorius. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. .'!(f0 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Tuniuni (Beng.); Putin (Xep.) ; Tee-lee 
Sorai (Assam.); Noni Dao-tee-tee (Cachari). 

Description. A very much darker bird than the preceding race, 
the upper parts being olive-green ; the forehead and crown a much 
deeper rufous and the nape also darker ; the underparts are tinged 
with buff. 

Colours of soft parts as in 0. s. sutorius. 

Measurements. Wing 48 to 50 mm.; tail 35 to 00 mm. 
(Summer); tarsus 20 to iil mm. ; culmeii 12 to 14 mm. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Eastern Bengal and the 
whole of Burma to Tenasserim. 

Nidiflcation. In every respect like that of the last bird. T have 
taken its nest up to 0,000 feet in both the Khasia and N. Cacuar 
Hills and it is a very common breeder up to 5,000 ft. The eggs 
of the various races of Orthotomus sutorius are absolutely indis- 
tinguishable from one another. Two hundred eggs average 
15*9x11*3 mm.: maxima 17*5x12*4 mm.; minima 13*3 X 11*0 
and 14*3xl0 - mm. 

Habits. Those of the species. This bird ascends to at least 
0,000 feet in the Assam Hills and to 5,000 feet in the Burmese 
Hills and is also found throughout the foot-hills and in the 
greater portion of the Plains. 

(815) Orthotomus sutorius longicaudus. 

The Chinese Tailob-Bihd. 

Motacilla longicauda Omelin, S. N., i, p. 954 (1788) (Ohinn). 
Orthotomus sutorius. lilanf. & Oates, i, p. 366 (part.). 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 



OBTHOTOMUS. 413 

Description. The darkest of all forms of Orthotonus sutorius, 
with the underside strongly suffused with buff and the anterior 
crown deep rufous with a very dark nape. 

Colours of soft parts as in 0. s. sutorius. 

Measurements. Wing 44 to 50 mm. ; tail 35 to GO mm. ; 
tarsus 20 to 21 mm. ; culmen 13 to 14 mm. 

Distribution. Yunnan and China (Fokhien, Focehow). Speci- 
mens obtained by Harington in the Northern Shan States appear 
to be of this species. 1 cannot separate La Touche's inexpectatus 
(Yunnan) from the Fokhieu birds, though they differ from 
Swinhoe's phillarraphcnis from Amoy in being darker and duller. 

Kidiflcation. Not distinguishable from that of any other race of 
Tailor- Bird. 

Habits. Those of the species. 

(810) Orthotomus sutorius maculicollis. 

Tht. Siam Tailor-Bird. 
Orthotomus maculicolliii Moore, 1\Z. S., 1854, p. '!09 (Malacca). 

Vernacular names. Xok-a-clup (Siam). 

Description. Differs from all the preceding races of sutorius in 
having the ear-coverts and sides of the neck white mottled or 
streaked with blackish ; the throat and upper breast invariably 
marked with black, cving to the black bases to the feathers 
showing through ; the underparts are otherwise silky-white, very 
slightly suffused with buff. 

Colours of soft parts as in the other races of sutorius. 

Measurements. Wing 43 to 48 mm. ; tail 35 to 56 mm. ; tarsus 
21 mm.; culmen 13 mm. 

Distribution. South Siam, Malay States ; there is one specimen 
in the British Museum from Cambodia and several Tenasserini 
specimens are referable to this race, though the great majority are 
2i<iti«. 

Nidiflcation. Messrs. Williamson and Herbert collected fine 
series of nests and eggs of this Tailor- Bird in the vicinity of 
Bangkok. Mr. E. (i. Herbert gives the nesting-season as from 
early May to August and says that it breeds in the gardens, 
making nests quite similar to those of the Common Tailor-Bird, 
sewing them into one, two, or more leaves and placing them some- 
times within a few feet of the ground but, on the other hand, 
often in wild almonds and prickly palms as high up as 20 feet. 
The average of fifty eggs is 15f> X 11-4 mm. : maxima 167 X 12-2 
mm.; minima 13"6xl0-7 and 140 x 10"6 mm. In appearance 
they cannot be distinguished from those of O. s. sutorius but one 
clutch taken by Mr. E. G. Herbert is practically pure blue. 

Habits. Those of the species. 



414 sxi/vniWB. 

Orthotomus atrigularis. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Darker, more olive-green above 0. a. atrigidarit, T>. .414. 

B. Brighter, more yellow-green above O. a. nitidus, p. 416. 

(Si 7) Orthotomus atrigularis atrigularis. 

The Blaok-necked Taiix>b-Bird. 

Orthotomus atriijularis Temiii., PI. Col., livr. 101 (18,'S6) (Malacca) ; 
Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 368. 

Vernacular names. Nok-a-chip khor dum (Siam). 

Description. Lores, forehead to nape chestnut ; upper plumage 
and exposed parts of wings and tail olive-green, mora or less tinged 
with yellow ; tail tipped faintly paler and sub-tipped with a dark 
band ; ear-coverts, cheeks and chin white, the dark bases of the 
feathers showing through ; throat and fore- neck black ; breast and 
Hanks ashy, the latter tinged with green posteriorly ; thighs 




Fig. 06. — Bill of 0. a. atrigularis. 

rufous; under wing-coverts, axillaries and under tail-coverts 
bright yellow. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris tan-brown, tan-yellow to orange; 
upper mandible light horny-brown, lower mandible pale fleshy- 
brown ; legs pale flesh-colour. 

Measurements. Wing 42 to 48 mm. ; tail 31 to M mm. ; tarsus 
about li> to 20 mm. ; culmen 14 to 15 mm. 

Female differs from the male in having the lower parts whiter 
and in having no black patch on the throat and fore-neck. 

Young like the female. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, Borneo, South of Siam and the 
extreme South of Tenasserim. 

Nidiflcation. Mr. Herbert found this Tailor-Bird breeding in 
the dense undergrowth in fruit-gardens round about Bangkok. 
The nests and eggs he describes as indistinguishable from those 
of O. s. maeulicollis, though the latter average rather brighter in 
their coloration. The breeding-season is June and July. The 
twenty-one eggs I have seen average 15 - 6xll-6 mm.: maxima 
16-8x121 and 160x12-3 mm.; minima 14-5x11-0 and 
15-2x10-9 mm. 



OBTHOT0MU8. 415 

Habits. Mr. Herbert writes in the Journal of the Siam Nat. 
Hist. Soc, "its haunts are confined to fruit-gardens where it prefers 
the quiet and shade of the thick undergrowth to parading itself in 
the compounds like the Malay Tailor-Bird. This natural shyness 
keeps it very much out of evidence. Its note is a sweet-sounding 
trill, kri-ri-i, and contrasts with the shrill too-wit of its noisy 
cousin. When once this note has been recognized, it may be 
regularly heard in the fruit-gardens." 

(Si 8) Orthotomus atrigularis nitidus. 

The Burmese Black-necked Tailob-Bibd. 

Orthotomus nitidus Hume;, Str. I'eath., ii, p. 007 (1874) (Tenasserim). 
Orthotomus atriyxdaris. Blanf. & Gates, l, p. 308 (part.). 

Vernacular names. Nol-n-chip Ichor dum (Siam). Jun/jla Tee- 
tee Sorai (Assam) ; Hcujra Dao-lee-lee (Cachari). 

Description. Similar to the preceding bird, but a much 
brighter, more yellow green above and whiter, less ashy below. 

Colours of soft parts and Measurements as in the last bird. 

Distribution. Sikkim to Eastern Asssm, Hills of Central Burma 
to Tenasserim, North .Siam. 

Nidification. This Tailor-Bird breeds from the foot-hills up to 
at least 6,000 feet, but more commonly below 4,000 feet than 
above it. It is common in the Khasia Hills in dense wet forest, 
during the breeding-season near villages and cultivated land, but 
builds its nest on the fringe: of the forest and never in gardens like 
the common Tailor-Bird. Most of the nests I found myself were 
either iu the bushes and bracken on the outskirts of thick jungle 
or in open glades just inside. The nest and eggs cannot be 
distinguished irom those of O. sutorius, though it apparently does 
not build on trees or bushes at any height from the grouud. One 
hundred eggs average 15'4xll-4 mm.: maxima 162 X 11*2 and 
16-0 x 125 mm. ; minima 146 x 1 1 and 15-6 x 108 mm. 

The breeding-months are April, May, June and July. 

Habits. This Tailor-Bird takes the place of O. sutorim in forests 
and jungles and is much more wild and shy than that bird. Like 
the Malay race its shrill note is heard much more often than 
the bird itself is seen, as it. keeps closely to undergrowth and 
thick cover. 

(819) Orthotomus ruficeps. 

The Keu-hbaded Tailob-Bird. 

IMela rvfieeft* Less., Traill d'Orn., p. 309 (18.'{0) (Singapore). 
Orthotonus ruficeps. Blanf. & Gates, i, p. 368. 

Vernacular names. Nok-a-cJiip (Siom). 



416 8YLYIIDJE. 

Description. Upper part of bead from lores to nape chestnut ; 
back, scapulars, rump and exposed parts of wing dark ashy- 
brown ; edge of inner webs of primaries and secondaries pinkish 
rufous ; upper tail-coverts rufous-ashy ; tail chestnut, the bases 
blackish ; lower half of head white ; remainder of lower plumage 
white tinged with buff, deepest on the under tail-coverts. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown to salmon or yellow-tan ; 
bill above horny-brown, below fleshy or yellowish horny ; legs and 
feet fleshy-white to fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 47 to 54 mm. ; tail 36 to 43 mm. ; tarsus 
about 21 mm. ; culmen 16 to 17 mm. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the black on the tail 
extended over nearly the whole length next the shaft, with a 
broad bar at the sub-tip. 

Young are much more grey below. 

Distribution. Peninsular Burma and Siam, through the Malay 
Peninsula to Borneo, Palawan and Sumatra. Othotunuis eihla of 
Tenim., generally given as a synonym of this species, is a totally 
different bird, being merely a local race of 0. mtinrius. Lesson's 
type-locality for O. rxcficeps, New Holland, is also of course wrong, 
and I now designate the type-locality as Singapore. 

Nidification. A series of the nests and eggs of this Tailor- Bird, 
taken by Mr. W. A. T. Kellow during the months February to 
May, in the vicinity of Taiping in the Fed. Malay Stntes, are not 
distinguishable from those of the Common Tailor-Birds but the 
nests seem to be more stoutly built, with more material in the 
nest itself and with a denser lining of vegetable down. Tliev 
were all placed low down in weeds and bushes in scrub-jungle on 
the outskirts of forest. The eggs go through the came range of 
variations as the Common Tailor-Birds' do but they seem to 
average brighter with bolder markings. Thirty egj;s average 
154xll'4 mm.: maxima 16 3x115 and 10-2 x 120 mm.: 
minima 150 x 112 and 15-1 xll mm. 

Habits. Nothing recorded. This Tailor-Bird seems to be a 
frequenter of the outskirts of forests and low scrub-jungle, and 
not of villages and gardens like the Common Tailor-Birds. 

Orthotomus sepium. 

Lafres., Mag. do Zool., 1836, pi. li. 
Type-locality: Java. 

(820) Orthotomus sepium cineraceus. 

Tub Ashy Taiix>h-Bird. 
Orthotomus eineraceut Blyth, J. A . S. B., xiv, p. 589 (1845) (Malacca). 
Vernacular names. Nbk-a-chip (Siam). 



LU8CINIO!,A. 417 

Description. Forehead, anterior crown, lores, sides of head, 
chin, sides of throat and supercilium bright cinnamon-rufous; 
posterior crown and upper plumage ashy-grey ; tail brown, tipped 
pale fulvous-white and sub-tipped dark brown ; wing-quills brown 
edged with rufescent ; below ashy-grey, deepest on throat and 
upper breast, albescent on the centre of the belly ; under tail- 
coverts pale buff. 

This race differs from typical 0. s. sepiwii in having the 
abdomen whitish instead of tinged with greenish and in having no 
iireen on the upper pairs. From bomeone-iisis of .Salvadori it is 
distinguished by its rather lighter plumage and less deep rufous 
on the head. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris Naples-yellow ; bill light horny-brown 
above, pale yellowish below ; feet and legs tan-brown, or " pale 
warm brown" (Eucritt). 

Measurements. Total length about 100 mm. ; wing 40 to ">2 mm. ; 
tail .'54 to 4(> mm.; tarsus about 19 mm.; oilmen 14 to 16 mm. 

Female. Much paler below and with the rufous bead-markings 
very pale and weak. 

Young, lake the female but more olive above and dull yellowish 
white below. 

Distribution. South Tenasserim and Siani to Singapore and 
Sumatra. There is also one specimen from Cochin China in the 
British Museum collection. 

Nidification and Habits. 1 can find nothing recorded. 

Genus LUSCINIOLA. 

Luxciuiola Cray, List (Jen. 11, p. 28 (1841). 
Type, L. nulanofioijmi Temin. 

The genus Lusciniolit contains only one species of Indian bird 
which is frequently included in other genera by modern ornitho- 
logists. It, however, differs from Trifmra in having fairly strong 
rictal bristles and from Arundiniuc in having no supplementary 
hairs in front of the rictal bristles. From other genera it differs 
still more widely in \arions respects. 

Lusciniolu has a slender bill about two-thirds the length of the 
head; there are two rictal bristles but no supplementary hairs in 
front, of them, the forehead being smooth and sharply defined ; 
the wing is fairly long, the first primary less than half the length 
of the second which reaches almost to the end of the wing; the 
tail is well graduated and the tarsus long. 

This genus has a complete Spring moult without, however, any 
change in plumage. 

Lusciniola melanopogon. 

Sylvia melann/joffon Temm., PI. Col., pi. 215, fig. 2 (1823). 

Type-locality : Home. 
vol. ii. 2e 



418 sviiViiu.*. 

tS2t) Lusciniola melanopogon mimica. 

This Eastejix Moustaciiej) Ski)ge-\Vai!Ulkk. 

Liwriiiiola mimica Madarasz, Yerlauf. ub. ein. neu. Holes (190IJ) 

(Transeaspia). 
Lnsciniola melanopogon. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 369. 

Vernacular names. None recorded. 

Description. Forehead, crown and nape black edged with rufous- 
brown ; hind neck, buck and scapulars rufous-brown, streaked 
with .dark brown; rump and upper tail-coverts plain rufous- 
brown ; wings and tail brown, edged with rufous-brown ; lores 
and a streak through the eye dark brown ; a bold white supereiliuin 
'from the nostrils to the nape; ear-coverts mixed rufous and 
white; lower parts white suffused with buff from breast to under 
tail-coverts and more strongly so on Hanks. 

L. m. mimica is a much (lacker bird both above and below and 
is much more boldly marked on the back and scapulars than 
L. m. mflannpoi/nn. 




I'ig. ti.'i. -HiMil of /.. iii'/aiiiiiHii/iHi itiiniim. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris brown ; bill deep greenish brown 
above, below lighter and fleshy at the base; legs, feet and claws 
greenish brown (Biiti/lutm). 

Measurements. Total length about 140 to 152 mm. ; wing 01 to 
06 mm.; tail 47 to 52 mm.; tarsus about 20 mm.; culmen about 
11 to 12 mm. 

Distribution. In India this bird has been found in .Sind, 
Kashmir, the Punjab and X.W. Provinces, the majority of the 
specimens in the British Museum coming from Ktawah and Sind. 
Outside India it is found from the delta of the Volga, Ivirghis 
Steppes, Transcaspia, West Turkestan, Persia. 

Nidification. It has been obtained breeding in Issuk Kul. The 
nest is like that of the Moustached Sedge- Warbler, a cup of 
grasses and roots lined with fine grasses placed low down in reeds 
in swampy ground. The only clutches of eggs I have seen were 
quite indistinguishable from those of the Western birds ; in 
ground-colour they are pale greenish grey, stippled all over, with 
a darker shade of the same forming a ring at the larger end ; there 
are also a few black hair-lines. The eggs in my collection vary 
from 16-1 x 12-9 to 19-0 x 13-5 ram. 

The full number of eggs appears to be four and the breeding- 
months April and May. 



CISTICOLA. 419 

Habits. A shy skulking little bird creeping actively but 
unobtrusively in and out of reeds, tamarisk and other bushes 
standing in water or other swampy ground. In Sind during 
heavy floods, when most of its normal cover is flooded out, 
Tieehurst says that it is much more conspicuous and by no means 
wild. He describes its note as a curious scolding chuckle. 



Genus CISTICOLA. 
Cisticola Kaup, (Ski/.z. Nat. Syst. Eur. Thierw., p. 119 (1829). 
Type, Cisticola cisticola (Teinm.) (— juncidis). 

The genus Citlicola contains two Indian species of Warbler 
which have two moults yearly, in one species the alteration in the 
plumage being very great, in the second negligible. The tail is 
generally decidedly longer in Winter than in Summer, but the 
degree of difference varies greatly and in some races there is 
none. 

The first primary is very small and the bill is slender anil 
pointed ; there are two short rictal bristles, no supplementary 
haiis and the forehead is smooth. 

Key to Species. 

A. Tips to all tail-fenthers indistinct, dull rufous- 
white (■. e.vilis, p. 410. 

li. Tips to the lateral tail-feathers broad and pure 

white C. jtotridis. p. 422' 

Cisticola exilis. 

Malurus f.rilis Yig. & Horsf., Trans. L. S., sv, p. 223 (1827, ex 
Lath., MS.). 

Type-locality: New Holland. 

Key to Subspecies. 

A. Crown plain, not streaked like the 

back. [p. 420. 

a. Head deep rufous ('. t. erythrocephala, cj , test., 

b. Head golden-yellow ('. t. tytliri, $ , rest., p. 420. 

v. Head very pale yellowish white . ('. e. ei/m'caiuluta, d , a?st., 

11. Crown streaked like, the buck. [p. 422. 

d. Upper parts strongly suit used with 
rufous. 
a'. Kufous more prominent than [ $ hyem., p. 420. 

black on crown C. e. erythroeephaUt, J , p. 420. 

b'. Black more prominent thau 

rufous on crown C. e. tytleri, § , d hyem., p. 420. 

-«\ Upper parts ashy with hardly any I p. 422. 

rufous tinge C. t; er/tiicaudtita, £ , c? hyem., 

2 i: 2 



420 SYLVIIDJS. 

(822) Cisticola exilis erythrocephala. 

THE ltKD-HEAUKl) Faxtaii.- Wahbi.ru. 

Vixticola erythrocephala Blvth, J. A. S. It, xx, p. (VJ3 (lrtol> 
(Nilgiris)"; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 871. 

Vernacular names. Yedru-jitta (Tel.). 

Description. — Male in Summer. Forehead and crown chestnut 
shading into dull rufous on the nape arid hind neck ; back and 
scapulars rufous boldly streaked with black ; wing-feathers blackish 
edged with rnt'ous-f ulvoua ; rump and upper tail-coverts rufous- 
brown ; tail black with whitish tips and very narrow rufescent 
edges, soon wearing off; underparts bright light ferruginous, 
paler on centre of throat and abdomen. 

Colours of soft parts. Iris tan or light brown ; bill above horny- 
brown, below pale yellowish brown ; legs and feet fleshy-white to 
fleshy-brown. 

Measurements. Wing 45 to SI mm. ; tail 'A2 mm. in Summer. 
44 to 40 mm. in Winter; tarsus about IS mm.; culinen 1«» 
to 11 mm. 

Female and Male in Winter. Head rufous, broadly streaked 
with black; tail with broad olive-brown edges; below rather less 
rufous. 

Young are like the female but paler and less boldly marked and 
with the underparts yellow, the flanks dusky. 

Distribution. The Hills of Mysore and Travancore, North to 
Sangur in the Central Provinces. It is also common on the 
Hralimagiris in Coorg and I have had it reported from the 
Western Cihats in Kanara but have not seen any skins from 
thence. 

Nidification. Nothing recorded. 

Habits. The Red headed Fantail- Warbler is only found where 
there are wide stretches of grass-land and is not found in forest 
or scrub unless it is in patches of the latter standing in grass. 
Mr. Howard Campbell found it common in small colonies in the 
Palni Hills but has recorded nothing about, its habits. 

(823) Cisticola exilis tytleri. 

The Ykhow-headki) Fantah.-WarbijEr. 

Cutieola tytleri Jerdon, U. of I., ii, p. 17ti (187. - {) (Dacca); ithinf. & 
( )ates, i, p. 372. 

Vernacular names. y'«7i'-</«i)/w/ia(Cachari); Lai *ir-phaiki(\l.). 

Description. Differs from C. c. er ■i/thrnce phala in Summer in 
having tne crown a mnch paler yellow and at all seasons in having 
the nuchal rufous collar much more pronounced and the upper 
parts darker, the black centres being broader and bolder and the 
rufous edges less wide. 



BiSOS. VOL. 'I • 



PL.ATE V. 




CISTICOLA E. TYTLERI, i. 

Th« Yellow - ho»ded Fantail - Warbler 

%» lift sue. 



II8TK0I.A. 42! 

Colours of »oft parts as in the Inst bird. 

Measurements. Wing 44 to 47 mm. ; tail 25 to 28 mm. in 
Summer, 46 to 48 mm. in Winter; tarsus IS mm.; culmen about 
10 mm. 

Distribution. Bhutan Donara to E. Assam, Bengal, Manipur. 
Lushai, Chin and Kachin Hilln, Yunnan. 

Nidification. The Yellow - headed lantail - Warbler breeds 
throughout the Assam Hills wherever there are suitable grass- 
covered hills between 2,000 and >i,oW feet, rarely in the Jvhnsia 
Hills a little higher than this. The nests are of two sorts : one a 
little egg-shaped nest of fine grasses very lightly and casually 
interwoven but otherwise just like the usual nest of the Common 
Fantail-Warbler. The other kind, which numbers at least fom- 
ent of five, is about the most fragile nest made ; a mere Himsv 
little half-cup of fine grasses and cotton-down sewn against 
the lace of a leaf of some weed or lowly plant standing in grass- 
land. It is never sewn inside the leaf like that of Orthotonus and 
Fra iiklinia, but the threads are passed through the unfolded leaf 
and knotted at the hack, retaining the nest in its place against the 
leaf. The breeding-mouths are April and May when the male 
birds lmve bright golden heads but many eggs are laid again in 
June t